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59O                               POLITICAL SCIENCE.
redemption. We can say, then, that such ideas are due to
Christianity as their causa sine qua nony just as free thinking
is due to it, but this notwithstanding, they can consist with
deadly hatred to Christianity and with deadly selfishness.
We can conceive of a Christian as fighting under the flag of
fraternity, but not as taking it to represent the spirit of the
The forms of government least exposed to revolutions are
Governments least representative democracies,  and constitutional
exposed to rcvolu-
tions.                   governments where an enlightened public opii>
ion prevails, t Despotisms are safe from it, owing to the want
of a public opinion, to the difficulty of combination and the
inexperience of those who are oppressed. But under such
governments, court-revolutions, if we may call them so, may
prevail, for the despot is powerless against a faction of his
principal servants. In a democracy with a constitution con-
taining the rules for correcting its own deficiencies, the way
of revolt is generally so unreasonable and wasteful as to carry
condemnation on its face against those who resort to it. In
governments like England, where public affairs are adminis-
tered, unHer an enlightened but somewhat fluctuating public
opinion, for the good of the whole, the apprehension of future
evils prevents them, and the demand for reforms is discussed
in the country before it comes into parliament. There is in
such a country scarcely any room for the revolutionary spirit
to act. Accordingly, while agitation and armed strife have
convulsed the continent, England has been quiet, reforms of
the most important character have been there carried on, one
by one, through the last forty years, and the country has such
political experience, that revolutions, unless caused by the
miseries of the poor in adverse times, seem hardly possible.
As in most other nations of Europe a large part of the
* Paul Janet, in a small work entitled Philosophic de la r6v. Fran-
ise, has examined Buchez's views from another point, p. 60 and
f Comp. Arist, Pol., viii. or v., i,  9, already cited near the be-
ginning of this chapter*