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Full text of "Political Science Of The State"

594                              POLITICAL SCIENCE.
or two ago, for the literature and journals continually place
them before the public eye.
Everything will prevent revolutions which impresses a
people with the conviction that the government aims at jus-
tice and the public welfare, and which places the people in a
condition to form judgments on public measures. All educa-
tion, if it embraces instruction in moral and political duties,
all practice and political experience in local and municipal af-
fairs, all historical knowledge, and other means by which
national feeling is increased, are sources of the spirit of order.
And when, from a people educated by the institutions of the
country, a voice comes demanding reform, such a voice will be
heeded; the opinion of an enlightened people has a power
that governments dare not resist. Thus mature, wise public
opinion is a great safeguard against revolutions.
What effect on the prevention of revolutions is to proceed
from the  modern practice of training up the young men for
a certain time to the use of arms ?    A standing army has a
natural antagonism to the ordinary people.    Being a pro-
fession, it will have a professional feeling separating it from the
general interests of the country.    But they who are in train-
ing, and especially they who have served out their time and
have returned to peaceful occupations, are not thus divided
off by a line from the rest of the nation.    It is to be sup-
posed that they will better comprehend what war means than
others, and will act on the side of existing order, if not of re-
form—not as soldiers, but as citizens who have had a little of a
soldier's experience.    On the other hand, a faction or a gov-
ernment can be less sure than formerly of the fidelity of the
soldiers of the line, if it is plotting the overthrow of a con-
stitution, than formerly ; for the soldier has been trained up,
under modern ideas, to feel himself a citizen also.    Yet there
is a danger, on the other side, that an administration, in con-
cert with officers of the army, will make use of the soldiery
in coups d'etat by which a constitution will be overthrown, or
so much of it as the government dislikes.    This would be one
of the worst kinds of revolution—a revolution in which the