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598                              POLITICAL SCIENCE.
Another consideration in favor of Christian lands that
have accumulated large amounts of capital, is that insti-
tutions of humanity and enlightenment are to be found there
in abundance. From age to age men have been foundina*
hospitals for the sick and the diseased ; the necessitous are
sure of help from private or public sources ; the children of
the poor can find access to schools of various kinds ; churches
arc open to them at a low cost of pew-rent or without rent.
We must place the condition of the poor, therefore, in Chris-
tian lands which have long been settled, far above what it is
in most other countries, where neither public nor private
charity flows forth from the rock of selfishness*
This again ought to be taken into account: that as long as
the world contains room for new colonies, the countries which
send out such colonies are those where there is constantly
new capital ready to undertake new enterprises-subsidiary to
national prosperity, and that the class looking for better cir-
cumstances abroad, consisting in part of laborers, will leave
room for others at home. The colonies also, as customers,
will greatly aid production and labor in the mother country.
It is, however, we admit, in such old countries with abun-
dant capital, that crises in the world, panics arising out of
political causes, are apt to be felt most. It may be that
great industries employing vast numbers of laborers are
prostrate, and the workmen at a loss how to sustain their
families. Yet even in such countries, whose extensive con-
nections with the rest of the world are like nerves carrying
pain through the body, it is probable that in hard times the
distress is not so great as it is in countries cut off from .con-
nections with other lands, where there is no capital laid up
whatever, where every season suffices only for the wants of
the next, and suffering from famine finds no help or alleviation.
It is an old remark that in thinly settled, isolated countries,
failure of crops is more disastrous than elsewhere, and famine
was one of the motives of the vcr sacrum in Italy.
We may say then, I think, that great accumulations of
capital in a country are no cause of distress in the- laboring