colonies, 36, 37; pentarchies of Aris-
totle, nothing known of them, 38. See
CASUISTRY, political, or special questions
of political ethics examined, 382-430.
Can the individual give up his allegi-
ance ? 383-385. Extent of obedience to
law and magistrate, 386, 387. Obliga-
tion to vote, 388. Relations of individ-
uals to parties, 389-393. Collisions of
law and conscience, 394-396. How
ought the state to deal with bad institu-
tions ? 396-402. Right of resistance to
law, or right of revolution, 402-406.
Opinions on this right—Plato's, 406;
Aristotle's, 407; among the Jews, 408;
in the middle ages, 408 ; right to resist
the suzerain under the feud. syst. ibid. ;
theories after the reformation, 409; Mil-
ton on this right, 411-413 ; opinions in
England in 1688, 413; Locke's, 414;
Burke's. 415; French theory of the
right, 416; opinion in the United States,
416, 417. Kant on resistance to politi-
cal authorities, 417, 418 ; Stahl, 419;
Fichte, 420 ; R. Rothe, 421, 422. Teach-
ings of the New Testament, 423-425.
The private individual has no right of
revolution, but only the people, 426.
Practical consideration alone can justify
in any given case, 426, 427. A people
has this right, 428, 429. The right and
its exercise for the good of the world,
CHANGES, political, causes of. See Polit-
CHARACTER of candidates for office not
enough considered, 391; effect of with-
holding votes on account of bad charac-
CHARITY. See Poor, Public Charity.
CHINESE monarchy, 501 ; absolute patri-
archal, ibid.; checked by the opinion of
the wise, ibid. / a certain right of revolu-
tion acknowledged, 502.
CHRISTIANITY, its relation to personal
rights, 30, 31.
CHURCH, mediaeval, its theory of the
state, 148; revived in recent times, 149.
See Relations of Church and State, and
CICERO, on justice, 124; on the state,
CIKCASSIA, institutions of, 4431 especially
brotherhoods, 444; mutual responsi-
CITIES, rise 0^463-465; city-stattts, thHr
early kingly government, 487-492; as
aristocracies, $$ 178, 179; as democra-
cies, ii. 103-107. See Athens, Govern-
ment of cities, 374-383. See Municipal,
CITIZEN, is he bound to vote ? 388 ; or tu
hold an office, if elected ? tiiM,
CLISTHENES begins the extreme democ-
racy at Athens, ii. 126, 127.
COLLISIONS of law and conscience, 394-
397; rules of action in such cases, 395 ;
over-scrupulosity possible, 396. C, of
COLONIES, Greek, ii. 160; Roman, 151-
153; Spanish, 160-163; English, 163.
Motives in colonizing, Roman, iGo ;
Spanish, 161; English, ibid.
COMBINATION enhances crime, 358.
COMMONS, house of, in England, its rise
and growth, 565 et scq. ; weakness at
first, 566; annual parliaments, 567:
neglect of this rule, 567, 568 ; power of
granting supplies and of petitions first
sources of power, 568 et JYV/, / employed
in political measures, 571, 579; inde-
pendence, 572; jealousy of churchmen >
573; acts as an extraordinary court,
574; privileges of parliament, 574-576;
boroughs often sent non-resident repre-
sentatives, 576; controlled by neigh-
boring land-owners, 577; rotten bor-
oughs, 577, 578; reforms of 1832, 1867,
578 ; great powers of parliament, 579.
COMMUNISM and socialism, what, 313,314.
Babeufs plan of communism, 316;
other plans, 318, 319; evils of, 320-322.
COMMUNITIES early, family and village,
51-60; writers on early c., 52, 53 ; no-
tices of in Greek and Roman writers,
S3* 54; German c., 54; Scandinavian,
55; Slavonic c., 56; survival of old Cel-
tic, 56; in India, 57; in Java, 58; in
Mexico, ibid. / Sir H. S. Maine on the
kinds of, 59; property of two communi-
ties as distinct as of two persons, 60,
COMPOSITE governments, ii, 146 et