INDEX. 61$ new constitution on legislative power ii. no, in ; limitations of municipal and county power, 374, 377. IMPERIAL despotism in Rome and France, 504; founded on sovereignty of the people, 504, 505 ; principate of Augustus, -ibid.; laws conferring au- thority on the emperors, 506, 507 ; pow- er of senate in early empire, ibid.; later empire, 508, 509; in France, 509, 510. IMPRISONMENT as a penalty little used by the ancients, 363 ; common in mod- ern times, ibid. ; its possible evils, 364. INDIA, government of British, ii. 164,165. INDIANS, or redmen of North America, their totems, 445 ; clans and marriage, 445 ; confederacies, 446. INFLUENCES of different politics on na- tional character, ji. 519-538. Montes- quieu on nature and principle of poli- ties, 519, 520. INSTITUTIONS, early, 434-461. Summary in regard to them, 461-463. Institutions, political or religious, ii. 348-365. Spe- cial sense of this term, 348, 349; their political importance, 350 ; growth, 350, 351; institutional nations, 351, eras, ibid.; polities, 352. Religious I., 352, 353; two types of I., Lieber's and Ar- nold's definitions, 353,354; effects of I- • 355 '• permanence of bad as well as good I., ibid.; illustrations, ephors of Sparta, 355; tribunes of Rome, 356 ; the major domus, 357-359 \ French par- liament, 360-363'; pensionaries, as in Holland, 363-365 ; benefits of I., 365. Institutions, municipal. See Municipal. INTERNATIONAL law implied in the ex- istence of states, 199; but separated as a distinct branch of study by its posi- tive character, 200. INTERNATIONAL association, the, 319. ISOCRATBS, on two kinds of equality, 28. ISRAELITES, land-tenure among the, 309; tribal and other institutions of, 453-455 ; theocratic institutions, 497-499 ; church and state among, ii. 441; humanity of their laws, 432, 433. JUDICIAL department, ii. 327-346. Na- ture of a judge's office, 327; early judges united other offices with this, ibid.; judicial systems in certain na- tions, 328, 329; judges not representa- tives of Icings or people, 330; thrir office highly moral, 330, 331; must be without biases, 331; protect public order against the executive find legis- lative departments, 331, 332; protect a country against unconstitutional laws, 332,333 ; apply old principles to new cases, 334 ; advantage of this, 334,335; can apply rules of equity, 335, Grada- tions in a judicial system, 336. The jury, 337-341. See Jury, Appointment of the judge, 341; should not be by popular election, 342; his term of office, 343 ; superannuation, ibhL; salary, 344; short terms of office, 345 ; evils of short terms, ibid. The advocate, as a part of the judicial system, 346. JURY. Dikasts of Athens, their office, ij. 337; jury a check on tbe judge in our system, 339; advantages of juries in educating a people, 338 ; is to judge of facts, 339; evils in requiring una- nimity, 340; unwilling to serve on ju- ries, ibid.; size of juries, 341* Jus, jural, what and how related to mor- als, 4, 7, 14-21. Comp. Rights, Obliga- tion. Jural science progressive, 26. JUSTICE and rights, 32. Nature of, ac- cording to Plato, 120; Aristotle, 121; the Stoics, 124; Cicero, ibid. / the Roman lawyers, 125 ; German and Christian views of, 126; view of Grotius, 127; Hobbes, ibid.; Pufendorf, ibht.; Tho masius, ibid.; Locke, Kant, Ho#cl, 128; English utilitarians, especially Mr. Austin, 129-131 ; Mr. J, F. Ste- phen, on their view, 129. KAFFRBS, their form of government, 449. KALMUKS, their form of government, 443- KANT, E., on rights, 23; on justice, 128 ; on departments of state, 292; on penalties, and especially the lex talh- »/j, 346 ; on the right of revolution, 417. KINGS in early societies, 441; as judges, ibid. KROOMEN, their forms of government, 448.