new constitution on legislative power
ii. no, in ; limitations of municipal
and county power, 374, 377.
IMPERIAL despotism in Rome and
France, 504; founded on sovereignty
of the people, 504, 505 ; principate of
Augustus, -ibid.; laws conferring au-
thority on the emperors, 506, 507 ; pow-
er of senate in early empire, ibid.; later
empire, 508, 509; in France, 509, 510.
IMPRISONMENT as a penalty little used
by the ancients, 363 ; common in mod-
ern times, ibid. ; its possible evils, 364.
INDIA, government of British, ii. 164,165.
INDIANS, or redmen of North America,
their totems, 445 ; clans and marriage,
445 ; confederacies, 446.
INFLUENCES of different politics on na-
tional character, ji. 519-538. Montes-
quieu on nature and principle of poli-
ties, 519, 520.
INSTITUTIONS, early, 434-461. Summary
in regard to them, 461-463. Institutions,
political or religious, ii. 348-365. Spe-
cial sense of this term, 348, 349; their
political importance, 350 ; growth, 350,
351; institutional nations, 351, eras,
ibid.; polities, 352. Religious I., 352,
353; two types of I., Lieber's and Ar-
nold's definitions, 353,354; effects of
I- • 355 '• permanence of bad as well as
good I., ibid.; illustrations, ephors of
Sparta, 355; tribunes of Rome, 356 ;
the major domus, 357-359 \ French par-
liament, 360-363'; pensionaries, as in
Holland, 363-365 ; benefits of I., 365.
Institutions, municipal. See Municipal.
INTERNATIONAL law implied in the ex-
istence of states, 199; but separated as
a distinct branch of study by its posi-
tive character, 200.
INTERNATIONAL association, the, 319.
ISOCRATBS, on two kinds of equality, 28.
ISRAELITES, land-tenure among the, 309;
tribal and other institutions of, 453-455 ;
theocratic institutions, 497-499 ; church
and state among, ii. 441; humanity of
their laws, 432, 433.
JUDICIAL department, ii. 327-346. Na-
ture of a judge's office, 327; early
judges united other offices with this,
ibid.; judicial systems in certain na-
tions, 328, 329; judges not representa-
tives of Icings or people, 330; thrir
office highly moral, 330, 331; must be
without biases, 331; protect public
order against the executive find legis-
lative departments, 331, 332; protect a
country against unconstitutional laws,
332,333 ; apply old principles to new
cases, 334 ; advantage of this, 334,335;
can apply rules of equity, 335, Grada-
tions in a judicial system, 336. The
jury, 337-341. See Jury, Appointment
of the judge, 341; should not be by
popular election, 342; his term of office,
343 ; superannuation, ibhL; salary, 344;
short terms of office, 345 ; evils of short
terms, ibid. The advocate, as a part
of the judicial system, 346.
JURY. Dikasts of Athens, their office,
ij. 337; jury a check on tbe judge in
our system, 339; advantages of juries
in educating a people, 338 ; is to judge
of facts, 339; evils in requiring una-
nimity, 340; unwilling to serve on ju-
ries, ibid.; size of juries, 341*
Jus, jural, what and how related to mor-
als, 4, 7, 14-21. Comp. Rights, Obliga-
tion. Jural science progressive, 26.
JUSTICE and rights, 32. Nature of, ac-
cording to Plato, 120; Aristotle, 121; the
Stoics, 124; Cicero, ibid. / the Roman
lawyers, 125 ; German and Christian
views of, 126; view of Grotius, 127;
Hobbes, ibid.; Pufendorf, ibht.; Tho
masius, ibid.; Locke, Kant, Ho#cl,
128; English utilitarians, especially
Mr. Austin, 129-131 ; Mr. J, F. Ste-
phen, on their view, 129.
KAFFRBS, their form of government, 449.
KALMUKS, their form of government,
KANT, E., on rights, 23; on justice,
128 ; on departments of state, 292; on
penalties, and especially the lex talh-
»/j, 346 ; on the right of revolution, 417.
KINGS in early societies, 441; as judges,
KROOMEN, their forms of government,