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360, 361. Its powers, 361; other par-
liaments added, ibid.; quasi-political
power of P. of Paris, 361; refusal to
register ordinances, ibid.; bed of jus-
tice, 362.

PARTIES, duties of private citizens to-
wards, 390-393. Nature of parties, ii.
542-558; no proper parties in despot-
isms, 543; none, where force is used
instead of argument, ibid.; depend
on constitutional freedom, 544; slow
progress of parties in countries where
the court has the power in its hands,
545; parties with a number of princi-
ples, ibid.; with one principle, 546;
power of religious differences in con-
stituting parties, 547; third parties
and independent members in legisla-
tures, 548; open questions, how far
ought they to be allowed within a
party ? 549; doctrine and practice of,
inconsistent, 550 ; duration of parties,
ibid.; names of parties last after their
extinction, 551; parties within parties,
553; what are and what arc not party
questions, 554 ; influence of historical
events on parties, 555 ; parties in de-
mocracies, 556, 557; violence of parties,
557; allegiance to parties, ibid.

PARTIES in the United States, ii. 558-567.
They pervade the country, 558; but
may be opposed by local parties, ibid, ;
sketch of parties since the constitution
was formed, 558, 559 ; narrowness of
party lines, 559; the weaker party may
have the administration in its hands,
ibid.; personal power of the presi-
dent and his relations to the senate,
559. 5601 power of senate in refusing
to confirm nominations leads to com-
promises, 561 ; removals from office on
party grounds unknown at first, 561,
562; political organization of the coun-
try, 562; management through subor-
dinate leaders, especially of naturalized
citizens, 562, 563 ; means of selecting
candidates for office, 563, 564; self-
nomination, 564; universal suffrage,
565; politics in large towns, 566; are
third parties of use ? 566, 567 ; results
from the refusal of the best men to vote

for bad men nominalrl by third parih'S*
567; benefits from soll-iio«mMti»mt
PA.sSYtIl.,un S\visrtcon-»iitution:,, 11, 210 '
Swiss and Dutch republics compart1 as
to permanence 236.
PATENT right and law, 43 ; ii. .jo,j,
PAY of dikuhts at Athens, aiul of ciii
zons in the ccdusi;i, ii. 133, 131; >tr*
effects, 134; of mi'mbiTs of Knj;iii»h h.
of commons at firbt, i* 576, 577; nu\v
no pay givun to them, nor in l*'rjmr«
nor the German empire, ii. 333; J. S,
Mill and Lorimcr on such p;iy, 31:4.
PENAL colonies, 364; labor, ibid.; m the
galleys, in France, 364.
PENNSYLVANIA, restrictions in the new
constitution of, on special laws, ii, 374,
on power of municipalities to burrow,
PENSIONARIES and the grand P.; ac-
count of thib institution, ii. 363, 364.
PKOPU-; of a state, meaning of the word,
PKRSIAN policy in governing its provinces,
ii. 148-150.
PERUVIAN monarchy, 503 ; its extreme;
absolutism, ibid.
PiiALK.Ah, his plan of equali/ing proper-
ties, 311.
PHYSICAL causes affecting governments,
ii. 514-519; Montesquieu's merits
in that department of enquiry, 514;
climate, 5*5-517 ; soil, 517; situation,
SI7.SI3; race, 5x8, 519.
PLATO, on justice, 120; on slavery, 133 ;
on the aim of the state, 145; on tins
evils of slavery, 306; his communism,
311; on penalty, 339-34°; on political
changes, 406; his kinds of states, 467;
on mixed forms, 470; on the Spartan
cphorate, 541, n.; on two kinds of equali-
ty, 28 ; on revolutions and their causes,
406; on the effect of paying the Athe-
nians fordoing political duties, ii. 134;
on public religion and penalties for ir-
religion, 470, 471 ; on the decay of
states, 595.
POLAND, under hereditary kings, 520;
power of nobility under the piasts, 523 ;
under the jagellons almost a republic,
ibid, / an elective monarchy established,