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erty and community systems, 51-60:
common property still property, $ 27 ;
right of property does not imply pos-
session of property, $ 28; obligations
correlative to property, $ 29', right to
use   property,   62;   H.   Spencer   on
property in land, 63-68 ;   Buchez  on
ditto, 68-70; summary, 71.
PROTECTION of industry, by security of
property, ii. 403; by laws facilitating
association, ibid,; by patent laws, 4°4 J
but a protective tariff unequal, ibid.
PROVINCES, government of, by the Per-
sians,   ii. 148-150;  Romans, 151-158 ;
Spaniards, 160-163 ; English, 163-165.
PUBLIC charity, ii. 414-422; support of
the poor a duty, not a right of theirs;
414, 420 ; deducible from humane feel-
ings, 414, 415; relief to poor among
the Hebrews, 415 ; at Athens, ibid. ; at
Rome, 415, 416 ; spirit of Christianity
in this respect, 416, 417; false views of
some early Christian writers, 417 ; prac-
tice in Middle Ages, Ibid. ; suppression
of monasteries no real evil to the pour
in England, ibid.; English poor laws,
418,  419;  Poor Law Act of 43 KHz.,
of 1662, of 1795, ibid.: reform of 1834,
419; support of poor in United States,
420;  rules for aid to poor: must be
given as a favor, not as a right, ilnd, /
the worthy poor must be   separated
from the unworthy, and have better
treatment,  420,  421;   private   charity
should not be superseded, 421,   The
state may provide hospitals for various
maladies, etc., 422.
PUPENDORF, on justice, 127.
PUNISHMENT, how differing from repara-
tion, 324;  the same act may call for
both, 325 ; its incidence variously esti-
mated, 325 ; negligence may call for
it, 327; not the same as chastisement,
328.   Theories   of    state's   punishing
power, 328-337; several ends named in
the   Scripture, 338;   Plato's   opinion,
339; Aristotle's, 340, 341; Beccaria's,
342-344;   that  of Grotius, 344,  345;
Kant's, 346; Hegel's, 346; Herbart's
and Hartenstein's, 347, 348;  Stahl's,
349; Rothe's, 351;  Bentham's, in his

rationale of punfohim'iit, 35?, 353-

RAWUNSON, Prof.»«n the Persian mlnrin
istration, ii* 149, 150,
S,    Is there ;m oi»h";j;*ti<m u> re
others' wrongs.* lib.
REIN, on Roman criminal Kiw, 353,
and elsewhere.-
RELIGION and the Suite, liwir n
A state can rightfully establish a reli
gion, 223-236. The relation pr.H-tic
considered, ii. 439~5*3 I thtlkultifs in
adjusting the relations, aiuucul ,uvi
modern opinion, 439; impuidmru ui'
the subject, ibid.,* three classu* of re-
ligions, 440 ; the monotheistic religions,
their peculiarities, 441 ; coiiiplicaluil
relations of Christianity to th« stttU4,
and greater difficulty of adjusting ihriiu
442 ; pagan religions having slight
connection with the slate, their IKM-II-
liarities, 444-450; religions with insti-
tutions, as, 451 ; tin* Kijyp-
titin, ibid. • the Cdtii; or UnmiitMl, 43^ ;
monotliL'istic religions : Judaism, iK
relations to the st;itu, 453 ; y*it ;ihlc to
subsist elsewhere, //>/</.; rcligitm ol'
Mohammed, clost; connect i<m v\iih thi1
state, 454; Christianity, it;, iirst n;l,i-
tions to the state, 455 ; its growth ami
development when disconnected, M«/.;
its power of adaptation to any rt'latinn»
456; its treatment by the Christian em-
perors, tbirf. ; took the same nttituda
which the pagan religions had before
towarrls the state, 457 ; several furmsof
relation of church to state subsequent-
ly, 457, 458 ; church in the States of the
Church, 459 ; Papal theory of the rela-
tion, 460, 461 ; high claims of Innocent
III. and Boniface VIIL, Mitf* ; dedttes
over the state and the private coh*
science, but some Protestant churches
are equally independent, 463 ; church
dependent on the state, as most Protes*
tant established churches, 463-465 }
English Church, its attitude towards
state, and acts of state towards dissent-
ers, 463, 464 ; the Jus reformamtt in
Protestant countries belonged to the