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to exist little developed, 145; Roman,
147; under the Christianized empire,
148; Catholic theory of the state, 149 ;
revived by Bonald and Le Maistrc, 149,
150; Machiavelli's idea of the state,
150-152; theory of Grotius, 152-154 ;
of Hooker, ISS-W J of Hobbes, 157-
161; ' of Spinoza, 161-165 ; of Filmcr,
166; of Locke, 168 ; of Montesquieu,
169-172; of Rousseau's central social,
172-182; Burke's view of the state, 182-
185 ; little of a theorist, 184. Influence
of French revolution on theories of the
state, 185-188. Criticism of the princi-
pal theories on the origin, 189-198. Sov-
ereignty and territory, 200-205. Peo-
ple, political meaning of the word, 205-
207. Sphere and ends of state, 208-243.
Limits of state-power according to
W. Humboldt and J. S. Mill, 243-261;
remarks on these opinions, 261, 264 ; 
limits of exercise of individual rights.,
264. Liberties and securities of indi-
viduals in the state, 266 ; seeming ex-
ceptions to, 268, 269. Rights in the
state or political rights : right of peti-
tion, 270; freedom of speech and the
press, 272; equal taxation, 275; lib-
erty of association., 277, Relations of
the state to morals, education, religion.
See Moral Legislation, Public Charity,
Education, Religion. Organization of
states, 282-302, A constitution what ?
283-285; Judge Cooley and Hurlbut
on, 285, n. Does the consent of the
people alone give validity to a consti-
tution ? 286-288. No form of polity in-
dicated by theory, 288-290. Depart-
ments of government See Department.
Representative system, 293, 294 ; rela-
tions and duty of a representative, 295,
296. Rights of suffrage and of holding
office, do they belong in any sense to
all citizens ? 299-302. State's punishing
power, 324-381. How ought the state
to deal with bad institutions, 396-402.
Relations of states to physical causes,
ii. 514-519- Montesquieu on the spirit
of government, on honor as cultivated
by them, 519-526. Influence of differ-
ent polities on individual character,
VOL. II.40,

526-537. Relations of different politics
to art and learning, 538-541. Political
changes, causes of, 568-575 ; revolu-
tions in states, 576-595. Decline anrl
fall of states, 595-606.
STKIN, L. von, on communism and so-
cialism, 312-317, and part ii- ch. 7,
STOICS on justice, 124.
STRABO on ancient communities, 53 I o11
the Lycian confederation, ii. 193.
STUBBS, Prof. W., often cited, as on the
early land-tenure of the GermanSi 55 ;
on the English township, ii. 383 ; on the
English constitution, i. 549, 550. 55*
554, 56*. 563-
SUFFRAGE, is there a natural right of?
299-302; restrictions on, ii. in, **^ i
especially in ancient states, 112, 113.
SWEDEN, her four estates lately reduced
to two, ii. 303.
Swiss Confederations. Rise and growth
of the league, ii. 208-210; constitutions
in the French revolution, 210-212 ; now
constitution of 1815, 213 ; revisions of
cantonal constitutions, 214; constitu-
tion of 1848, 214-220; projects to revise
this, 220, 22i; constitution of 1874,
222 ; remarks on Swiss constitutions,
TACITUS on mixed governments, 472,
TALTO among the Hebrews, 369; per-
haps only a measure of amount of
penalty, 372; among the Hindoos mid
other races, 369; approved by Greek
poets and Plato, 370 ; by some modern
philosophers, 346, 351 ; defended by
Philo the Jew, 371, n.; by Cicero,
ibid.; a very imperfect equivalent or
measure for crime, 371.
TAXATION a right of the state, 240.
TENURE of land in early times, 437.
TESTAMENTARY disposition, a right re-
stricted by family relations, 105-109 ;
general sentiment and usage favors de-
scent of property in the family, 106;
originally no law of descent, 107, n.,
much property not transmissible by will
in feudal and other countries, 107 ; rea-
sons why wills should not be permitted,