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VOL 




/ 



Expediting Mail 



The War Department announced 
on December 18 that transmission o£ 
letter mail to and from American 
prisoners of war in Germany and 
Japan will be expedited as a result of 
the cooperative assistance rendered 
the American government in this re- 
gard by the governments of Sweden, 
Switzerland, and the Soviet Union. 

In the case of American prisoners 
of war in Germany, arrangements 
have been completed with the Swedish 
and Swiss governments whereby pris- 
oner of war mail destined for Ameri- 
can soldiers in German prison camps 
will be dispatched by air on alternate 
routes via Sweden and Switzerland. 
This two-way shuttle service over 
these two alternate routes will con- 
siderably reduce the transit time for 
these mails, which will be dispatched 
from the United States to Europe di- 
rect by air on a daily schedule. 



A portion of the prisoner of war 
mail addressed to American prisoners 
in Japan will, effective at once, be 
carried on Soviet ships leaving west 
coast ports, as a result of instructions 
issued to Soviet ship captains by the 
Soviet government advising them to 
accept prisoner of war mail from 
American postal authorities for dis- 
patch to American prisoners of war 
held by Japan. This mail will be 
transported across the Pacific to 
Soviet ports, and thereafter trans- 
ferred to the Japanese for delivery 
to prisoner of war camps. This serv- 
ice supplements that already in effect 
whereby prisoner of war mail to 
Japan is transported by air to Iran, 
and transshipped from that country 
to Japan. 

No postage is necessary on the 
foregoing mail. 



TWENTY-MILLIONTH 
PACKAGE 

On December 7, the anniver. 
sary of Pearl Harbor, the 
twenty-millionth prisoner f 
war package came off the as. 
sembly line at one of the R et J 
Gross Packaging Centers i n 
Philadelphia, New York City 
St. Louis, or Brooklyn, N. V 
Packaging Center operations 
began early in 1943. All four as- 
sembly lines are operated by 
women volunteers. 



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fbV 



[IISONERS OF WAR BULLETIN 

led by the American National Red Cross for the Relatives of American Prisoners of War and Civilian Internees 



NO. 2 



WASHINGTON, D. C. 



FEBRUARY 1945 



A Report to Relatives of Prisoners 

By Maurice Pate 



j rapidly changing military picture of 
miner and fall brought numerous new 



ADDRESSING NEWLY CAP- 
TTTRED PRISONERS 

%pments in the prisoner of war relief 
_, . T , ,nAA • i l0ns - To coordinate the work at vari- 

Ihe November 1944 issue of the ;jints ' our director > Mr - Pate, left here 
Bulletin reported that mail for new^AS'^i^X ?&^ % 
ly reported prisoners of war in GfrJ^oj^W 2$% toftTof %Z e - 



Record Shipment Leaves Philadelphia 



The M/S Saivo, the latest Swedish 
vessel to enter the service of the In- 
ternational Red Cross, left Phila- 
delphia on December 2 with a record 
cargo of food, clothing, athletic 
equipment, and other supplies from 
the American and Canadian Red 
Cross societies for prisoners in Ger- 
many. The supplies shipped 
amounted to nearly 6,000 tons, and 
included over 650,000 American Red 
Cross standard food packages, and 
a large consignment of clothing for 
French prisoners. 



This was the Saivo's second trip 
across the Atlantic. On her maiden 
voyage in October she brought 
Christmas gifts from the German 
Red Cross for German prisoners of 
war in Canada and the United States. 

The outgoing cargo from Phila- 
delphia was discharged at Goteborg, 
Sweden, whence arrangements were 
made to transship it to Lubeck, the 
north German port. International 
Red Cross Delegates take charge of 
the relief supplies at Lubeck and 
handle their distribution to the 
camps in Germany. 



many could be addressed in care of " 
the International Red Cross Direr. 'i 






J8 'on liui-raj 
*0 *Q 'uo^SuiiisbjVV 


cava 


seovxsoj s n 


•a # i -a 29S -»s 



nd Toulon, twice (for a total of three 
f-, h in Switzerland. Then, on the return 

L^rOSS Direci he stopped in Barcelona and Lisbon, 

tory Service at Geneva, Switzerland,;^o?t^fc. bee " two ° r ° ur inter ~ 
pending receipt of the prisoner's'. • . , ' 

permanent camp address. iis 1S an informal report on my 

■ A t _, c , lit trip to Europe to each of the 

At the time of the announcement^ f; f milies o£ American prison- 
it was decided that the prisoner^ and an expression ^ cer . 
serial number should not be mad^ ims which the American Red 
part of the address. In the mea %in the field of wa r pris0 ner re- 
time, however, the International Re<V k is endeavoring to fulfill. 
Cross has advised that the inclusion | e August 1944 wave of op- 
of the serial number would aid iden- m was not shared by the Am eri- 
tifkation and not cause confusion Red Cross. At that time we in 
with the POW number when the, ; f to Prisoners of War decided 
latter is reported to Geneva by the e prepared for at least another 
German authorities. The serial num- f operations in Europe. If the 
ber may therefore be included after [ame earlier, we could only be 
the prisoner's name and rank, but it[f ld . With a substantial capital 
should be clearly indicated as thejy f rom R e d Cross funds, a 
serial number, and its use discon-h packaging center was opened 
tinued as soon as the POW number ooklyn early in September 1944. 
becomes available. m plant has already turned out 

.over one million standard food 

■Pges for prisoners of war. 

Med Americans repatriated on 

■paaim!iEn8siq3mMicqa8Eiiod(; n -^ ; m last September were 

'i*££ WHOI no lapuas Ajiiou 'UAiom, s; snippy, { t { d f Red c 

M.3II puE P3AOUJ3J SUIT 33SS3ipp B IT - J3JSBUUS0.I I V "1LCIV1CWCU Uy JVCU VuTOSS 

Jentatives in order to find out 
f means of better serving Ameri- 
lisoners in Europe during 1945. 

Vation Between Governments 

P Allied invasion of France 

Bit great changes in our war 

ler relief operation. At any time 

'^livery of a single parcel to a 

prisoner in Europe is not as 

k as it may seem to the parents 

ler relatives on this side. The 

D a f £I uojSuttjsBAl 'Jry requires the active and al- 

ssoj^ pa^j; p^uotjejsj UEDijauiy 3t lX helpful cooperation of many 

tCq V 9its m nJ Intents of our own government. 

5fQI Arenuef 

aij9ljng jb^ jo sjauosiJj 



paajuEJBnQ dSbjsoj njnj3"jj 



All kinds of arrangements, with the 
support of our government, have to 
be worked out involving London, 
Geneva, Berlin, Stockholm, and even 
Moscow, because sailings of neutral 
ships now entering the Baltic Sea 
on their relief missions must be noti- 
fied to all Powers concerned with 
that area in order that these ships 
may proceed without interference. 

The Northern Route 

Few Americans perhaps realize 
that the main life line for food to 
their prisoner kin in Germany is 
now through Sweden. Back of this 
is a sequence of events. 

A year ago the American Red 
Cross, backed by the United States 
government and military authorities, 
sent large reserves of supplies via 
Marseille to Switzerland. That is 
why, though Switzerland was cut 
off from France for five months last 
summer and fall, we were able to 
serve the camps in Germany out of 
reserves accumulated in Switzerland 
during the previous winter and 
spring. 

But two roads of relief are always 
better than one. Therefore, with the 
aid of both Swiss and Swedes, we 
started planning as far back as June 
1944 the new path via Goteborg, 
Sweden, and north German ports 
to the camps in Germany. This has 
borne results. So far we have shipped 
40,000 tons of war prisoner relief 
supplies to Goteborg. Up to Feb- 
ruary 1945, nearly 3,000,000 stand- 
ard food packages shipped on from 
Goteborg have reached American 
and Allied camps in Germany. 

The Baltic Sea between Goteborg 
and Lubeck, Germany, is sown with 
anchored mines. So, when goods are 
sent over this route, both we and the 
Swedish shipowners who provide the 



vessels are running constant risks. 
Twenty voyages by Swedish ships 
have so far been safely made between 
Goteborg and Lubeck, though any 
day we know a ship may strike a 
mine. German minesweepers cleared 
a path for our Swedish relief ships to 
Germany, and, at Lubeck, German 
freight cars steadily move the food 
packages to the camps. 

The French Ports 

It is difficult to visualize the de- 
gree of destruction I found both in 
Marseille and Toulon, the main 
French ports on the Mediterranean. 
What Allied aviators had not done in 
destroying the ports while the Ger- 
mans were still there, the Germans 
did at the time of their withdrawal. 
Then the Americans and French per- 
formed a miracle in quickly getting 
these ports into usable condition. 

As there was at the time (in No- 
vember) a great military movement 
through Marseille, it was decided to 
make use of Toulon, about 40 miles 
away, as the main port of entry for 
Red Cross prisoner of war supplies 
on the southern route. Allied military 
authorities have given us unstinted 
cooperation in handling shipments 
through Toulon, and the heavy-duty 
trucks which were shipped by the 
American and Canadian Red Cross 
societies last summer have proved 
invaluable in getting the goods from 
shipside to the nearest railhead. 
With the help of army engineers, it 
was a matter of only a few hours to 
lift the trucks ashore and get them 
rolling. French workers unload sup- 
plies from Red Cross ships at Toulon. 

For several months, therefore, pris- 
oner of war shipments (British as 
well as American) have been moving 
simultaneously from Toulon and 



Marseille to Geneva. On one day 
(November 30) over 1,000 tons of 
goods left the two ports for Switzer- 
land, but the average has run about 
400 tons a day. The combined op- 
eration of the northern and south- 
ern routes makes it possible to move 
—assuming the necessary rolling 
stock is available— approximately 
20,000 tons of relief supplies per 
month. As a matter of fact, the com- 
bined British, Canadian, and Ameri- 
can Red Cross programs normally 
call for the movement of about 
15,000 tons a month, but for the 
present winter the schedule was 
raised to 20,000 tons because excep- 
tionally large amounts of clothing 
needed to be moved. 

How U. S. Army Helps 

The greatest single factor which 
gives us strength in getting relief and 
maintaining regular communication 
with your prisoner kin is the scrup- 
ulous attitude of the American Army 
in fulfilling the Treaty of Geneva to- 
ward enemy prisoners. Some have 
lightly called this policy of our Army 
"mollycoddling." The truth is that 
the Army has maintained the high- 
est discipline in handling enemy 
prisoners. It treats these men strictly 
but fairly, and has obtained from 
them millions of valuable man-work 
hours. In France, I saw tens of thou- 
sands of German prisoners— fed, yes, 
but always working intensively. 

The U. S. Army has in its custody 
in the United States over 300,000 
German prisoners. The control of 
these men is a tremendous job. To 
those who have been disturbed over 
an occasional sensational report of an 
escape, or minor abuse, it may be 
interesting to know that while I was 
in Switzerland I was reminded by 
Swiss inspectors of the International 
Red Cross fresh out of Germany 
that: 

(1) The control of thousands of 
American prisoners in German camps 
is no easy matter either. Some Ameri- 
cans have escaped from their camps, 
and afterwards been retaken, as 
many as eight and nine times. 

(2) The American prisoners re- 
ceiving regular Red Cross food pack- 
ages eat better, and have more to- 
bacco, than the Germans guarding 
them. Thus far, too, the American 
prisoner with his Red Cross and pri- 
vate parcels eats as well as, or better 
than, the average German civilian. 

So there are public relations prob- 
lems regarding the American prison- 
er in Germany which are just as great 
as the problems with which our Armv 



VOL. 3, Mq^ONERS OF WAR BULLETIN 



3 



has struggled here. We should back 
up our Army in its correct fulfill- 
ment of the Geneva Treaty. This is 
a vital and exemplary part in the 
chain of helping your own husband 
or son in an enemy camp. 

Question o£ Camp Reserves 

In August 1944, we had peak 
stocks in all American prison camps 
in Germany, sufficient, for their 
strength at that time, for anywhere 
from two to four months. 

In this same month of August, 
while optimism ran high on this 
side, Germany underwent a period of 
nervous tension. One result was that 
the German authorities feared 
trouble from their many Allied 
war prisoners, and thought our camp 
reserves might facilitate escape. So a 
German order was given that supplies 
must be promptly consumed by pris- 
oners, or reserve stocks moved to 
depots outside the camps. Also, Gen- 
eva was told by the German authori- 
ties to cease or reduce shipments 
until reserves were consumed. 

During my first visit to Switzer- 
land in early November, I talked 
with International Red Cross inspec- 
tors going into and out of Germany. 
IRCC officials in Geneva talked daily 
by telephone with their Swiss dele- 
gate in Berlin to straighten out the 
reserve problem. Shipments on a 
more normal scale were then grad- 
ually revived. 

The plan worked out, and as it 
now operates, permits reserves of one 
to two months— when railroad cars 
are available, and when the goods 
can be gotten safely through— but the 
Germans have prescribed that re- 
serves must be stored in depots ad- 
jacent to the camps. These depots are 
under double locks— one controlled 
by the German Commander, the 
other by the American camp spokes- 
man. Stocks are then brought peri- 
odically into the camps and the 
goods distributed by the American 
spokesman to his fellow Americans. 

An Intricate Business 

If an American prisoner in a Ger- 
man prison camp writes home that 
stocks are getting low, or that they 
are temporarily exhausted, you may 
be sure that we, and our office in 
Geneva, already know this, and that 
we are bending every effort to main- 
tain a continuous flow of supplies. 

This is an intricate operation, and 
actually only the first step in it is 
directly under our control. The chain 
of organization, which begins with 
the American Red Cross, runs 



through the International jyj percent of the goods shipped 
Cross, the German Red Cross \i Switzerland to our American 
German railroads, the German JA>ners was safely received and de- 
administration, the American ojLed to our men. 
spokesman, and ends only when * 

supplies reach the individual Am 

can prisoner. ei fhe Far Eastern situation is quite 

The American Red Cross h il erent from the Euro P ean - With 
percent responsible for the fir st So^eri^n^BHtrsla "Tnd' 
™tt i^fro SateT WC S** ^Far^a'st, wfshould^e 
%^Vte£££g& ? A™ -d Allied prison- 
goods well ahead of re^^^^^^^ 
Through the neutral Swiss delemt rr v *\. -, 

of the International Red CtA dfort! ' Ti^T ^ Y 
can talk with the Germans, ^P ercen £ of thl j ^ UTe ' ( t • t A 

every influence constantly to aci From ^ eVldenCC of . re P atriated 
vate^ll the further links m ^ e v s caped prisoners however we 
chain. And we consider ou? S* be ^ n able ? eStabl f h ^ the 
is never done until the relief go^ ^J* T h T PU f ?*%' 

are in the prisoners' hands. S ^ bands bave thus far actua11 ? 
r . . m delivered to our prisoners. But 

Here are some of the problems i e average amounts per person are 
supply: tQO jj tt j e f or their needs. From the 

(1) Due to changes in the /ror P partment of State, and from the 
a camp may be suddenly moved fas. Army and Navy, the Red Cross 
ther inland in Germany. As a Ms every possible support, in money, 
of military strategy, the German a d s , and any other facility. 
thorities may sometimes notify Gfhere is a small group in the Japa- 
neva of such movement only aft % Red Cross and in the Japanese 
a certain delay. Thus a tempom ve ig n Office who look forward to 
shortage of supplies may result. e future. This group realizes that 

(2) When sudden movements litay life of a prisoner needlessly 
those of last December occur at {& will cause more bitterness for 
front, large numbers of new Ame% future than one hundred Ameri- 
can prisoners may unexpectedly c & me n lost in combat. Whether 
rive in certain camps, increash ltSG more intelligent Japanese, who 
many-fold the existing America [ n a small minority, will prevail 
strength. Then stocks of goods fa the provincial-minded staff of 
down rapidly, and there may be t Japanese Army, who have had 
temporary gap until Geneva c%i e previous contact with the west- 
rush new and larger amounts of % world, remains to be seen. Our 
plies to the camp. forts, and the efforts of the Swiss 

(3) There is a continuous strug^m I saw working day and night 
for sufficient railroad cars, whit] Geneva and Berne to achieve a 
by arrangements between the Satisfactory solution, will never cease. 
and Germans, are furnished by t Meanwhile, the people of the 
German railroads. United States and the British Com- 

(4) Up to now, the Germans Hnwealth should know that, while 
given first priority after their o%i S tant endeavors are being made 
military shipments to war prison] Wor ] c out a larger program of ma- 
relief goods. However, these retrial relief, these governments are 
shipments are sometimes delayed uming over to the Swiss hundreds 
route by military movements and { thousands of dollars monthly. 
Allied bombing of railyards. 1'hile these funds serve to buy little 

In spite of the above factors, fccause of low exchange rates and 
relief goods in general have been gfe shortage of goods to be bought, 
ting through, and we-with the wy do bring some measure of relief . 
operation of the Swiss and the othhe only effective solution, however 
links in the chain-will do our ;* a constant flow of actual relief 
to keep them moving. It is periods, and to this end the American 
to recall here that every pounced Cross and the American govern- 
supplies received by an Ameri«ient are steadfastly working, 
camp spokesman is listed and ^ Wffl Prisoner Mail 

ceipted. IRCC inspectors WJ If pr i SO ners held by 

camps , personally _ verify tins ^ e haye b ^ n disturbed by 

mg with the spokesmen Fo^^j Y ^ ^ 

vear 1948. it has been establishe ^ y 






mmm 



*S6|||l«Pilii 








Discharging prisoner of war supplies from IRCC skips to Red Cross trucks at Toulon, 
France, in November 1944. 



(1) The Allied occupation of 
France has practically cut off German 
planes that used to fly daily between 
Germany and Lisbon carrying air 
mail. 

(2) Surface mail, and next-of-kin 
parcels, which Red Cross ships for- 
merly carried to Marseille, were 
stalled from June to October. Sev- 
eral months of warfare along the 
Marseille-Switzerland line made it al- 
most impossible to move mail into 
or out of Switzerland. 

(3) German censorship has been 
swamped by letters from the hun- 
dreds of thousands of new German 
prisoners and their families, whose 
correspondence feeds through the 
same channels as your letters to and 
from American prisoners. And 
American prisoners have tripled in 
number since last June. 

From now on, and until further 
changes, mail should go better be- 
cause: 

(1) Last August the American Red 
Cross, cooperating with the U. S. 
Post Office, moved all accumulated 
parcels and land mail to Sweden. 
Two solid freight trains carried this 
American mail by land and ferry 
from Sweden to Germany in Sep- 
tember. 

(2) The U. S. Army Post Office, 
since September, has steadily been 
moving next-of-kin parcels to Mar- 
seille by Armv transport. From there 



they now go regularly, via Switzer- 
land, to Germany. 

(3) All letter mail is now flown to 
Switzerland or Sweden, whence it 
goes directly on to Germany. 

The situation inside Germany is 
spotty. Some German camp com- 
manders facilitate the flow of mail, 
others are slower. But on the Ameri- 
can side everything is done to keep 
your mail moving at high speed. 

The Office of Censorship in New 
York, with a staff of 1,600 in its pris- 
oner of war department, works long 
hours to speed the mail for you in 
both directions. 

The International Red Cross 

Should the war in Europe last 
through 1945, over $100,000,000 in 
relief goods during the year will 
move from this country through the 
IRCC to our prisoners. Another 
$100,000,000 worth will flow from 
England, Canada, France, and from 
other countries all over the world. 
These goods will bring supplemen- 
tary aid to 1,500,000 Allied prisoners. 

The International Committee has 
become a vast organization, embrac- 
ing several thousand full time work- 
ers in Switzerland and throughout 
the world. At the age of 70, and after 
many years of devoted service, Mr. 
Max Huber, the President, passed 
on the leadership of the organiza- 



tion to Mr. Carl J. Burckhardt on 
January 1, 1945. While in Geneva, 
accompanied by our American Red 
Cross delegate there, I had long and 
intimate visits with both Mr. Huber 
and Mr. Burckhardt to lay plans 
for our future work. 

The Swiss people themselves con- 
tribute generously both in money 
and services to this work. The IRCC 
personnel in Germany, including a 
valiant worker and his wife living 
in a temporary wooden barracks at 
the key port of Liibeck, take bomb- 
ing and the discomforts of a fuelless 
winter without a word of complaint. 

Switzerland's Part in Relief 

• Switzerland is a country of 4,200,- 
000 people. Over 500,000 of its men 
are trained in military service; about 
half that number have been con- 
stantly on a military footing, with the 
other half on instant call, to defend 
any invasion of their soil. 

This small country is sheltering 
over 100,000 refugees, military in- 
ternees, and military escapees, who 
have poured into Switzerland from 
all over Europe. What this burden 
in food and shelter means can best 
be understood if we visualize the 
relative pressure of 3,000,000 people 
from other lands suddenly pouring 
into our own country. 

The people of Switzerland feel 
very keenly the misery of the victims 
of war in all the countries so close 
to them. In goods from their own 
country, and in services, they have 
spent hundreds of millions of francs 
in relief to their less fortunate Euro- 
pean neighbors. Last month, the 
Swiss government voted a further 
100,000,000 francs ($25,000,000) for 
relief work in Europe. 

The Future 

I had many talks in Switzerland 
with IRCC delegates who had come 
to Geneva from Germany and Hun- 
gary. The morale of our Ameri- 
can prisoners, they reported, was gen- 
erally good in spite of their long 
separation in many cases from the 
outside world. Most of the men do 
their best to improve the long hours 
by study, hobbies, and sports. Last 
fall, the hope of liberation in 1944 
was strong, but by November our 
men were philosophically reconciled 
to sticking it out for another winter. 

The camps generally still remain 
under the administration of more 
mature German professional military 
commanders. Conditions in the 
camps did not appreciably alter dur- 
ing the year, except that there was 



more crowding as the number of 
prisoners increased. There was the 
flurry over relief reserves, which 
caused anxiety to the men, but which 
as already mentioned, we have rea- 
son to believe has been ironed out. 
There was shortage of fuel in the 
camps, as there was for German 
civilians. However, health in general 
among American prisoners was good. 

This shortage of fuel is common 
to all Europe. Our Red Cross staffs 
in Paris, Toulon, and Marseille live 
and work in totally unheated quar- 
ters. In fact, Germany is possibly 
better off than France in this respect. 

What 1945 holds, no one can fore- 
see. I consulted in France with offi- 
cers at Supreme Allied Headquar- 
ters, where my former assistant in 
Washington is now permanently at- 
tached. Our Army has drawn up the 
most detailed plans for the postwar 
care, and earliest possible postwar 
repatriation, of our prisoners. Un- 
til that time, the American Red 
Cross, with the help of the IRCC, 
will continue to do its utmost to 
maintain the flow of supplies through 
Switzerland and Sweden to the 
camps in Germany. 



USE OF LETTER FORMS 
Recent communications from 
American prisoners of war in Ger- 
many have stressed the importance 
of using the special letter forms 
(Form No. Ill), which are obtain- 
able at post offices and Red Cross 
chapters throughout the United 
States, and which are now dis- 
patched regularly, postage free, by 
air to Europe. Letter forms are 
used almost exclusively by the rel- 
atives of British prisoners of war, 
who have learned from experience 
that letter forms go through much 
faster than long letters mailed in 
envelopes. 

The German authorities, more- 
over, in an official communication 
have again pointed out that the 
sending "of 10, 16, and even 24 
page letters," from the United 
States results in "such letters, dur- 
ing heavy work, being placed aside 
by censors for later examination." 
German regulations do not for- 
bid the sending of letters of any 
length in envelopes, nor is restric- 
tion placed on the number of let- 
ters that may be sent to individual 
prisoners. The authorities, as well 
as the prisoners themselves, merely 
urge the use of letter forms be- 
cause they are easier than long let- 
ters for the censors to handle. 




PRISONERS OF WAR BULLETIN 



RELEASE PARCELS 



In January the American R , 
Cross packed release kits to k 
given to American prisoners wh 
they are released by Germany ?S 
whenever they are liberated in !r 
Far East. A shipment has alrea? 
gone to the Philippines. a ^ 

The release kit is being packed h 
women volunteers at the New Yn I 
Packaging Center. The number i 
sufficient for each prisoner to r 
ceive one, and every effort will h 
made to get them to the men promm 
ly upon their liberation. ^ 

Each kit contains a razor, razor 
blades, shaving cream, a toothbrush 
toothpaste, a pencil, a comb, socks' 
cigarettes, handkerchiefs, playi ne 
cards, stationery, a book, hard candy 
chewing gum, a face cloth, and a 
cigarette case with the American Red 
Cross emblem imprinted on it. The 
kit bag was made by Red Cross 
Production Corps volunteers, and is 
of olive drab cloth similar to the 
kits, also made by the Production 
Corps, given to the men goin° 
overseas. 

LUFT III PICTURE 

Numerous inquiries have been re- 
ceived by the Bulletin for the names 
of the American airmen at Stalag 
Luft III, whose group picture (from 
Lt. Rayford Deal) was published on 
page 7 of the October 1944 issue. 
The men have now been identified, 
by First Lt. Donald A. Stine, as fol- 
lows (left to right) : Miller, Thomas, 
Copeland, Deal, Wigger, Lazzaro, 
Morgan, Beacham, Coffey, Reichart, 
Lamberson, Adamina, Shaljran, 
Smith, Stine, Fergon, McCormick, 
McGinniss, and Effros. One man in 
the group still remains unidentified. 

HANDICRAFTS EXHIBITION 

The International Red Cross Com- 
mittee has organized a Prisoners of 
War Handicrafts Exhibition which 
will be opened at Geneva in April 
and later make a tour of Swiss cities. 

Prisoners of war of all nationalities 
have sent camp-made articles to the 
exhibition. The articles will remain 
the property of the men who made 
them. 

A first shipment of ten cases of 
articles, comprising 145 different 
items, made by German prisoners of 
war in the United States, went for- 
ward to Geneva in December. Other 
shipments, all made on Red Cross 
vessels, have left since December. 



American Prisoners of War at Oflag 64 

(Taken in July 1944 by a Delegate of the International Committee of the Red Cross.) 




w m 



Playing ball. 



On the sports ground, with barracks in background 
and greenhouse on right. 



IM 



f* 




:-L. 



iJfcifP 

lilt 



- 



Above: (left to right) Colonel Drake, Senior Officer; Mr. Eric 
Mayer, International Committee Delegate; Lt. Col. Schaefer, 
Second Officer; Lt. Col. Waters; Ma). Merle A. Meacham. Colonel 
Drake was repatriated in September 1944. (Right) On the sports 
ground. 



■*!.';■■ '"list 









ill 





msmmxm 




ill 



Colonel Drake in conversation with Capt. Francis M. Smith, Lt. 
William E. Fabian, and Lt. Joseph R. Green. 



..._„„.,...... v :s^W9^Bi^§i^mr%* .... ,,,„. 

lilt; ■■•• m.-* Ji- ' i:y^f'^;^^^^^^^mmii'^^^^m-:>m:^m 




mm 



%:mmmm 
Pitching horseshoes outside barracks. 



cation of German Camps and Hos- 
als Where American Prisoners of 
ir and Civilian Internees Are Held 
iiased on information received to 
December 31, 1944). 

PRISONER OF WAR CAMPS 



vIP 



MAP 
NEAREST TOWN SQUARE 



Neubrandenburg 
Hammerstein 
Luckenwalde 
Fiirstenburg/Qder 
Altdrewitz 
Berlin-Steglitz 
Hohnstein 
Miihlberg 
Wistritz 
Torgau 
Annaburg 
Hartmannsdorf 
Oschatz 
Ludwigsburg 
Villingen 
Bergisch-Neustadi 
Krefeld 
Moosburg 
Memmingen 
Teschen 
Lamsdorf 
Sagan 
Bad Orb 
Bad Suiza 
Bremervorde 
Nienburg 
Altengrabow 
FallingbosteJ 
Limburg 
Wahbreitbach 
Freinsheim 
Hammelburg 
Nurnberg-Langwasser 
Hohenfels 
Kaisersteinbruch 
Pupping 
Wolfsberg 
XVIII C(S17) Markt-Pongau 
357 Oerbke 

XX A Torun 

XX B Marienburg 

-BAB 21 Blechhammer 

CAMPS FOR AIRMEN 
Earth 
I Sagan 

Grosstychow 
Bankau 

Krems/Gneixendorf 
Wetzlar 



igHA 
igUB 
igUIA 
ig III B 
glUC 
ig III D 
glVA 
iglVB 

give 

glVD 
gIVD/Z 
gIVF 
gIVG 

g VA 
gVB 
?VIG 
?VIJ 
?VIIA 
* VII B 
; VIII B 
j 344 

i vin c 
rixB 

;IXC 
;XB 
;XC 
;XIA 

XIB 

XII A 

XII D 

xhf 
xinc 
xniD 

383 

XVII A 
398 
XVHIA 



ri 

XVII B 

Luft 



IWnburg, 

Stalag X C 
Lazarett VI C Of lag X B 



• Bielefeld 








Y 



*> 



,*&£&** y^Cuxhrnvn J .LUbeek • Wismar 

^ f^-'n.^-n* B ™^ Hamburg E ^i^— 

(_ Vj > "l Stalag XBj M) 

t/\ / . i ^■^ v ~\ 'V s "" 1 




J^E AST 



Gumbii 

V 



dW r p Russian 



• .Siindbo*lfI 

V + La^aret^X B 
Stalag 357 a ]8 Mqrlag and Milag 

*** Oerbke • Walsrode]. • Fallingbostel 

Stalag XIB 



• Stargunl 

+#es. Laz. II 



% 






tfrewi^/Lu.ul.berg 

a^ff^Stalag III C 

■ stegnfe v 

.- ch„eig {Brunswick) Stahg IB |"iFra„kf U rt 1 

\^ •Altengrabow • £ '^~C«^C I 



. £u/f IV 

^•Neuslellini 

• Hammerstein 

"5te/a^ U B 

(' 

f' (Brombergy 

f ® Of lag 64 

„_• • Allburguud 

+ WSllslein 

Res. Lag. Wollstein 



• Marienburg 

I Stalag XX B 



JkuStalagXIA'i 



La Z7lll v . G \suvi9g ^^r tha \ v 

£^g^_ § P/7a# JA ,4/ff w„: "bermassfel.l 



^""""X. ^X^^Stalag Luft VII 



-Roteniiurtf- 

> Oflag IX A/Z 



"S&b 



m Stalag XII A BadJ>rb ^A^arett 1 

Fr^kfur^J^ StafyjXB *"-»*»>* 

SalmEnster 



iTTM: 



# Meiningen 

^Lazarett /A C 

/AC 

1&\ Sta'fagJXi 

Bad Soden. SalmEnster a Stalag XIII C 

Lazarett 




Hartmannsdorf. me IV A' \ ""k 

Stalag IV F** ^wW- Elsterhorst —r^ 



■ Lamsdorf 

r-v^ Stalag 344 
\ "♦» ,- 



+ fles. L<«;. Ebelsbach 






Niirnbnrg-Langw 

a Stofo^ Z/// 
+ Lazarett XIII 

• Hohenfels 



wasser % 

D *V» \ 



s I 




L AND MERCHANT MARINE CAMPS 

-Milag Tarmstedt A-B 2 

tOUND FORCE OFFICERS' CAMPS 
V C Colditz B 2 

II B Eichstatt B3 

K A/H Spangenburg B 2 

E A/Z Rotenburg B 2.3 



Freiburg ' ' iB ^ n *Lasarett V B$ lla 8 R} ber ? 



I StalpgVB^ •iuemmingen i C 

„, ,»J "• "wc'"",.^ ^-v V fflag Liebenauf ^ J V'* 

> .Zurieh ' J. ;•* >.--' ft 5/ 




Krems Cneixendorf ( 

j^StalagXVIIB '^ 



fSW ITZERLA 

* SGeneve {Geneva) "» r f 



ReS* Laz. II * Kaiserstenrbruch 

• Stalag XVII A 



*^> 



4 £ / 



-""\ l . 



fejjjH .Wolfsberg irRea.Laz. Grog 
% 7 ■ Stalag XVIII A^ K 
I XVIII Ajpf-<r*S~ ' \ 



o 




Budapest 



A R 




+ 



Oflag X B Nienburg 

Oflag XI (79) Brunswick 

Oflag 64 Altburgund 



A2 
B2 

C2 



LAZARETTS (Hospitals) 

MAP 
NEAREST TOWN SQUARE 
Res. Laz. Elsterhorst 
(Hohnstein) C 3 

Leipzig B 2 

Rottenmunster A 4 

Res. Laz. Lingen A 2 

Res. Laz. Gerresheim A 2 
Ereising B 2-3 



Bad Soden/Salmiinstei A 3 

Obermassfeld 

Meiningen 

Hildburghausen 

Res. Laz. II, Schleswig 

Sandbostel 

Nurnberg-Langwasser 

Spittal/Drau 



IV A 

IV G 

VB 

VIC 

VI G 

VII A 
IX B 
IXC 
IXC 
IXC 
XA 
XB 

xniD 

XVIII A/Z 

Marine Lazarett Cuxhaven 

Luftwaffen Lazarett 4/11 Wismar 

Res. Laz. II Vienna 

Res. Laz. Graz 

Res. Laz. Bilin 

Res. Laz. Wollstein 

Res. Laz. II Stargard 

Res. Laz. Schmorkau 

Res. Laz, Konigswartha 

Res. Laz. Ebelsbach 

CIVILIAN INTERNEE CAMPS 

Hag Biberach 
Hag Liebenau 
( Hag VII/H Laufen 



Key 

■■ Prisoner of War Camps 

(^ Camps for Airmen 
\m\ Officer's Camps 

Sp Civilian Internee Camps 
"J- Hospitals (Lazaretts) 
1^>J Marlag and Milag 
Scale: 72 miles per inch. 



Published by 

THE AMERICAN 

NATIONAL RED CROSS 



B2-3 

B3 

B3 

Bl 

A-B 2 

B3 

B-C4 

Al 

Bl 

C3-4 

C4 

B-C3 

C2 

C2 

C2 

C2 



VOL. 3, JNO. -l 



RED CROSS DIRECTORY 
SERVICE 

The International Red Cross 
Committee at Geneva recently es- 
tablished a Directory Service 
whereby letters could be addressed 
to newly captured prisoners of war 
as soon as they were officially re- 
ported to be prisoners of war and 
without waiting for the "perma- 
nent" camp address. Information 
about the Directory Service was 
given in the November 1944, and 
January 1945 issues of Prisoners 
of War Bulletin. 

Since the announcement was 
first made, a large number of in- 
dividual inquiries from the 
United States about soldiers miss- 
ing in action and others who are 
not officially known to be prison- 
ers of war, have been addressed to 
the Directory Service. So many, in 
fact, have been received, according 
to a cable from Geneva, that the 
service has been overwhelmed. 

The work it was set up to per- 
form has therefore been greatly 
hampered, and the International 
Committee insists that letters 
should be sent in care of the 
Directory Service only when a sol- 
dier has been officially reported to 
be a prisoner of war and whose 
camp address has not yet been re- 
ceived. 



p 



ISONERS OF WAR BULLETIN 



FAR EASTERN CABLES 

On January 29, the first batch of 
collect cablegrams from American 
prisoners of war in the Far East 
reached Washington, D. C. There 
were 41 messages, and all came from 
prisoners in the Tokyo group of 
camps. Information about the ar- 
rangements made for sending these 
collect cables was given in Prisoners 
of War Bulletin last October. 



NEW GAMPS 

Since the material was col- 
lected for the map of German 
camps and hospitals published 
in this issue, it has become 
known that the following camps 
also contain American prison- 
ers of war, and should therefore 
be added: 

Stalag V G at Offenburg 
southeast of Strasbourg, Prov- 
ince of Bavaria (A 3) . 

Stalag VI G at Osnabriick, in 
the province of Hannover (A 2) . 

Stalag XIII B at Weiden, 
northeast of Niirnberg, in the 
province of Franconia (B 3). 




Far Eastern 

"Quite strong and healthy now consider- 
ing weight— 175," wrote a marine corporal 
at Osaka to his family in Crete, Illinois. His 
letter, dated September 14, went on to say, 
"We certainly appreciate our rest days. We 
read books, sew, wash clothes, and rest up 
for the next ten days. Reveille is at 5:30, 
taps at 9. We eat mostly rice and soybeans. 
We do stevedore work and it's quite pleasant, 
if heavy." 

A lieutenant at Zentsuji wrote to his fam- 
ily in York, Pa., in October, "Your letters 
are coming through. I am well. This is my 
155th Sunday without a funny paper. Keep 
the home fires burning." 

A letter dated September 25, 1944, from 
Hakodate, received in Wilkesboro, N. C, in 
December, said in part, "I am still in ex- 
cellent health and spirits. I hope to see all 
of you 'ere long." 

A short wave broadcast last December, 
from an American prisoner of war at Osaka 
said, "I am in good health and excellent 
spirits. I have received considerable mail, 
including up to July 1944. I also received a 
cablegram of last April. I have received a 
personal parcel you sent me, and greatly en- 
joy the many photographs of you and the 
children. Will you please inform Pitt that 
Arnold Prober's two brothers are here in 
good health (from Salt Lake City). Emmet 
Stoleman, of Cleveland, is also here and well. 
Please inform Mrs. Warren A. Mitts, of 219 
West Nevada St., El Paso, Texas, that War 
ren Peers is with them." 

European 

"We went swimming the other day," wrote 
an officer at Stalag Luft I to his family in 



Lorain, Ohio, last July. He added, '"We gave 
our parole that we wouldn't attempt to 
escape while on the swimming party, and 
one guard took 100 of us down to the river. 
The water is pretty salty from the Baltic. 
We refer to this place as our little summer 
resort at Barth on the Baltic." 

From an American airman in the South 
Compound, Stalag Luft III, dated July 4 
last: "Paul Revere rode his gunny sack horse 
through Nazi prison blocks for the second 
time early this morning, proclaiming to the 
world that the last and greatest American 
Fourth of July behind barbed wire was un- 
der way. Our Paul Revere of last year, Lt. 
Harold Spires, of Los Angeles, carried the 
first cry again this Independence Day, 
mounted on a thoroughbred steed composed, 
front and rear, respectively, of Lt. Ellis 
Porter, of Providence, R. I., and Capt. Alex- 
ander Kisselburgh, of Los Angeles." 

"We got an issue of Red Cross clothes last 
week," wrote a prisoner attached to Kdo. 
3989 working out of Stalag VII A, "and they 
sure were great. We get a food parcel every 
week from the Red Cross." 

In Albany, N. Y., the wife of a captain ar 
Luft III received the following from her hus- 
band: "It is a good healthy life and there 
are many sports to participate in, as well as 
classes in languages, math., dramatics, musk, 
and even philosophy. Our food is sufficient 
but not fancy." The letter was received De- 
cember 4 last. 

From Stalag II B, a letter received De- 
cember 16 in Oroville, Calif., said in part: 
"You don't know how I would like to see 
you, and I don't think it will be too long be- 
fore I can see you. I can talk for a week 
when I do see you." 



Repatriates from Germany 



This work detachment from Stalag HI B has its o<wn theater. The stage ivas made 

from Red Cross boxes, the props from cardboard. Picture sent by S/Sgt. Charles B. 

Vandermark, second row, extreme right. No other names given. 

£xJbiaciA. pwm. <&dhJidu 



The Swedish ship Gripsholm, 
fcich is under charter to the Ameri- 
[n government, left New York on 
nuary 6 with a large complement 

seriously sick and seriously 
unded German prisoners of war 

ble for repatriation. She also 
Ked civilian internees. 
On the return voyage, the Grips- 
lm is bringing back seriously sick 
d seriously wounded American 
isoners of war from Germany, as 
1 as civilians who had been in- 
ned. On the exchange which took 
ace last fall, 234 American prisoners 
war were returned to the United 
tes. The number of Americans in 

present exchange is somewhat 
er. 
Fifteen of the more seriously 
unded, brought back by air from 
arseille, reached the Walter Reed 
neral Hospital in Washington, 
C, on January 23. 
The Gripsholm is due back in New 
rk about mid-February, and ar- 



rangements were made by the Ameri- 
can government and the. American 
Red Cross to give all possible aid 
and comfort to the repatriates. Three 
Red Cross workers from national 
headquarters went on the Gripsholm 
to assist the returning Americans. 

This is the fourth exchange 
with Germany carried out by the 
Gripsholm. The first took place in 
March 1944. The War Department 
announced last October, after the 
completion of the third exchange, 
that further repatriations were con- 
templated under a policy of seeking 
to make exchanges of seriously sick 
and seriously wounded prisoners of 
war as continuous a process as pos- 
sible. 

Besides clothing and other sup- 
plies sent by the Red Cross for the 
American repatriates, the Junior Red 
Cross provided toys for the children 
of the civilian internees now being 
repatriated on the Gripsholm. 



DELAYED MAILING 

For reasons beyond the control of 

American Red Cross, there was 

siderable delay in mailing to some 

t of kin of prisoners of war the 

vember, December, and January 

es of the Bulletin. Many relatives 

ve written expressing anxiety 

ut their prisoner kin because the 

lletin was late in reaching them, 

it nonreceipt, or delayed receipt, is 

) cause for apprehension. 

A new addressing system has now 

ten put into effect, and it is hoped 

J at, from February onward, all 

f pies of the Bulletin will have been 

ailed to regular readers by the mid- 

1 e of the month of issue. 



LETTERS FROM CAMPS 

Because of extreme pressure on space, 
letters from American prisoners of war 
la Europe and the Far East had to be 
■ Knitted entirely from this issue of the 
\hlletin. Through the kindness of rela- 
tives, many had been received. 

It is hoped that space will be available 
J the March issue for a wide selection 
f letters, and relatives are requested to 
Jtontinue sending them to the editor, 
prisoners of War Bulletin, American 
' ted Cross, Washington 13, D. C, either 
*j'rect or through local Red Cross chap- 
es. When copies are sent, they should 
|ve the prisoner's name and camp ad- 
'ess. It is also helpful to state the date 
e letter was received. 



SENDING PHOTOGRAPHS TO 
PRISONERS 

The December Bulletin, in an 
answer to a question, stated that 
photographs sent to prisoners of war 
could be stitched to letter form No. 
111. 

It has since transpired that, accord- 
ing to postal regulations, no en- 
closures may be sent in letter forms. 
The forms at present in use, more- 
over, are hardly stout enough to 
stand the stitching on of enclosures. 

Notwithstanding regulations to 
the contrary, the postal authorities 
in many instances have allowed 
photographs to go forward in letter 
forms, but henceforth it would be 
preferable to send photographs in a 
separate envelope without a letter, 
but with the name, number, and 
camp address of the prisoner written 
on the back of the photograph. No 
postage is necessary. 

THE THE A TER AT L UFT III 

The December issue of the Ameri- 
can magazine, Theatre Arts Monthly, 
contained an interesting article by 
Lt. Joe Klaas, an American airman 
who has taken an active part in the- 
atrical activities at Stalag Luft III, 
and who is still there. The article 
was entitled "Barbed Wire Theatre." 



STALAG VII A AT MOOSBURG 

The American strength at Stalag 
VII A increased during last October 
by about 1,300, and by nearly 2,000 
in November, the number at the end 
of that month being over 5,500. This 
figure included officers, noncoms, 
and enlisted men captured in Italy. 
Sgt. B. M. Belman was the Ameri- 
can spokesman. At the end of Octo- 
ber, Stalag VII A also contained 
about 9,000 British prisoners of war, 
as well as prisoners of other nation- 
alities. About one-half of the Brit- 
ish and one-third of the American 
prisoners were assigned to work de- 
tachments, most of the Americans 
being employed on farms. 

There have been frequent com- 
plaints of overcrowding and inade- 
quate facilities in the Stalag, and it 
is likely that the strain on the base 
camp is being relieved by assigning 
more men to work detachments out- 
side. 

'BABY STATISTICS" 

The following communication has 
been received by the American Red 
Cross from Miss Strahler, head of the 
American Service at the Central 
Agency for Prisoners of War of the 
International Committee of the Red 
Cross at Geneva: 

Apart from notifications of cap- 
ture or decease, which are regularly 
communicated to it, the Agency from 
time to time has occasion also to give 
more comforting news. Every day 
now the American Service is called 
upon to convey to prisoners of war 
messages informing them of the birth 
of a son or a daughter. "Baby sta- 
tistics" show that, during 1944, the 
arrival of more than 400 youngsters 
was announced to prisoners through 
the Agency. The Service entrusted 
with the transmission of these mes- 
sages has recently established a spe- 
cial register whose contents recall, 
even more than a Birth Registrar's 
file, a veritable Nursery Home. 

Many anxious prisoners ask the 
Agency to telegraph to their wives to 
find out whether the expected baby 
has been born. By consulting the 
birth register in the American Serv- 
ice, it is often possible to reassure 
the inquirer at once, and to inform 
him that the announcement of the 
baby's birth had arrived and had 
been communicated to him by letter. 

Contrary to the theory that during 

wartime birth statistics show a large 

majority of boys, it has been observed 

that in the U. S. A. there are more 

(Continued on page 11) 




VOL. 3, NO. jLjSONERS OF WAR BULLETIN 



American prisoners of war at Zentsuji, Japan. Sent by Lt. Thomas F. Burkhart, second 
from left. Other names not given. 



Recent Cards from the Far East 



Early in January, some 20,000 
cards were received in this country 
from the Far East. Although many 
of the cards were undated, they ap- 
peared to have been written between 
April and August 1944. Among them 
were some from civilian internees in 
the Philippines, and from prisoners 
of war in the Philippines, Shanghai, 
Formosa, and Japan. 

Most of the cards from civilian in- 
ternees in the Philippines were 
marked Philippine Internment Camp 
No. 1, No. 2, or No. 3. These are 
Santo Tomas, Los Banos, and Baguio, 
respectively. 

Several cards were received from 
civilians formerly interned at Davao 



which substantiate reports that the 
Davao internment camp was closed, 
and the civilian population moved 
to Manila, about a year ago. 

Cards from the Los Banos camp 
(No. 2) indicated that it had been 
enlarged; that more internees, in- 
cluding some women, had been trans- 
ferred from Santo Tomas; and that 
shacks had been built around the 
grounds by the internees. 

A card from Harold W. Graybeal, 
American Red Cross field director 
who is interned in Philippine Mili- 
tary Prison Camp No. 11, stated, 
"Christmas boxes this year much 
superior to those of last year. Butter 
and chocolate especially good." 



"HE DID NOT FAIL" 

The following passage is quoted 
from a speech made recently in 
Washington, D. C, by a repatriated 
prisoner of war, before a relatives' 
meeting: 

I know that you wonder what 
caused the capture of your loved 
ones. The prisoners of war worry 
about that. They are afraid their 
relatives and friends will not under- 
stand why they were captured. Those 
men are captives because of being 
wounded and left on the battlefield, 
or having held positions while their 
comrades withdrew for defense po- 
sitions, and those of the air corps 
who have been shot down. Those 
soldiers are entitled to, and, of course, 
do have the sympathy and under- 
standing of all of their fellow coun- 
trymen. We try to put that over to 
the newly captured man. It is a ter- 
rible depression that strikes him. He 
thinks he is *a failure. He not only 
did not fail; he carried out his mis- 
sion. 



WOUNDED FROM WESTERN 
FRONT 

During November and December 
last, the number of American pris- 
oners of war in Stalag XI B at Fall- 
ingbostel, near Hanover, increased 
from about 50 to over seven hundred. 
These men had been captured on 
the western front. Last December, 
Stalag XI B was being used as a tran- 
sit camp. 

A substantial number of wounded 
prisoners from the western front have 
been sent to Lager Lazarett XI B at 
Fallingbostel. When visited by a dele- 
gate of the International Red Cross 
on November 9, the Lazarett con- 
tained 610 patients, including 26 
Americans. The accommodations 
were reported to be satisfactory, and 
the medical treatment excellent. Cer- 
tain drugs and supplies for dressings 
which were lacking had been or- 
dered from Geneva. The Lazarett, at 
the time of the visit, was large enough 
to accommodate the 610 patients, 
but, the report added, "the constant 
flow of new arrivals will soon render 
it inadequate." 




following a delegate's visit to 
|ag 64 on October 11, the Inter- 
ional Red Cross cabled that the 
trolled German rations per man 
week figured out to: 



Rations at Oflag 64 



RED CROSS PUBLICATK 
REACHES JAPAN 

Copies of the earlier issues] 
The Red Cross News, the moi^«| 
publication for American prison, 
of war, were distributed throuoj 
the Japanese official bureau to t ; 
men in about ten camps, accordi, 
to a recent cable from the Intern 
tional Red Cross. 

Publication of The Red Cros$ ^ 
News began in September 19 
and up to December 1944, cop 
of Nos. 2, 3, 4, and 7 had reach 
the Japanese authorities. Suffici 
copies are sent every month to the 
International Red Cross at Geneva 
so that there is one for every thirty 
American prisoners held by Germany 
or Japan. As distribution is made 
from Geneva, copies reach German 
camps much more quickly than they 
reach camps in the Far East. 

The Red Cross News contains a 
monthly compilation of news from 
home, which must, however, be care- 
fully screened to meet censorship re- 

quirements here and abroad. i-«j,„. .* ., rt » -\, « 

H American officers at Oflag 64. Sent by First Lt. James R. Shoaf, 

PICTURES N ° ° tker names Siven. 

Identification claims based on p 
tures published in Prisoners of W 
Bulletin continue to reach the C 
fice of the Provost Marshal Genei 
and the American Red Cross in ve 
large numbers. 

Most of these claims are untenata 

because the same man is so frequent-^ sli ha Qver 5 ^ 

ly identified by several di&ermktoes jji/ ihc 

families, all identifying him as a dif-i, t^^u • * • 7~ 

ferent person. * * Wfi, fresh, inferior quality 

Even in the best and clearest group , about 9 oz. 

pictures, a mistake in the identifies!™^ f resh an & dried, 

tion of an individual member d[ lar S el y cabbage 9i/ 2 lbs. 

the group is not uncommon. Bul-^ (burnt grain substitute) 

letin pictures, which are taken in less than ]/ 2 oz. 

German and Japanese prison camps 'garine . about 8 oz. 

usually by a local photographer in- CSe _ &o ^ ^ 

doors, or outside in cloudy weatnei , . '* 

are generally "foggy" in the negative W and sweetening^about 12 oz. 
and still more "foggy" when repro- he heakh _ f the Amerkan offi _ 
duced on the printed page, at Oflag 64 at the time of the 

It is therefore not to be wonder© Was reported to be d 
at that anxious relatives believe tl > . . . 

recognize in such pictures faces the : e .. America ? se ™ or officer at 
are looking for, even though the p « 64 re P or ted to Geneva that the 
ture may have come from, say, Stall { s re f rve of standard food pack- 
Ill B in Germany while the soldi *f£ 4 > 550 J n October 1. During 
identified may have been reporl 7 ber . /? d 0c jober no ship- 
missing in action in the Far East, [ c cou r ld be r made to this camp 
a flier missing in action in Eurl 7 <* confusion oyer the Ger- 

10 would, if taken prisoner, < .^gulation regarding reserves. 
■' in November was it possible 
"tone shipments of food packages, 
m that month, 6,292 were sent 
Switzerland to Oflag 64. In De- 
)er . 13,032 food packages were 
d to this camp. On December 



extreme right. 



who would, if taken prisoner, 
dinarily be assigned to a Luftw 
camp for Americans (Stalag Luf 
III, or IV, or Stalag XVII B) . 
The War Department has ac 
(Continued on page 12* 



17, 1,524 American Red Cross Christ- 
mas parcels arrived at Oflag 64. 

In addition, clothing and toilet ar- 
ticles sufficient for 1,500 men were 
shipped to the camp during the 
fourth quarter of 1944. 

According to a statement made by 
Colonel Drake, senior officer at Oflag 
64, who was repatriated last Septem- 
ber, every American prisoner of war 
there had received a Red Cross 
standard food package weekly for 
over a year. An American medical 
officer repatriated on the same ex- 
change has stated that, during the 
time he was at Oflag 64, he examined 
all the men and found not a single 
case of malnutrition. 

BABY STATISTICS 

(Continued from page 9) 

girl babies than boys. The babies 
reported during 1944, whose weight 
varied between 6 and 9 lbs., had 
such romantic names as Carol, 
Lynn, Diana, Karen, and Joan. The 
boys, as a rule, appear to receive the 
Christian name of their absent father. 
The pride and joy of a prisoner re- 
ceiving the following message may 
easily be imagined: "Alexander HI 
arrived stop weighs 8 lbs. stop ador- 
able like you." 



REPATRIATES' TOUR 

American repatriated prisoners ol 
war from Germany and escapees 
from Japanese prison camps are 
touring the United States in a group 
for the first time in order to give 
prisoners' relatives throughout the 
nation a comprehensive picture of 
conditions in enemy camps and hos- 
pitals where the men were held. 
Thirty key cities are to be visited in a 
two-month period beginning Febru- 
ary 1 by a group of ten officers and 
enlisted men of the Army Air Forces, 
in cooperation with the Red Cross! 
The group will travel around the 
country by air. The tour opened in 
New York City on the night of Feb- 
ruary I, and will end in Washington, 
D. C. April 4. The primary purpose 
of the flymg visits is for the men to 
address Red Cross relatives' meetings 
tf °e held in large auditoriums. 
Whenever possible, next of kin, rela- 
tives, and dependents will receive 
special invitations from the Red 
Cross to attend the meetings, which 
also will be open to friends and 
other interested persons. 
The itinerary follows: 
February 1, New York City; Feb- 
ruary 4, Boston, Mass.; February 7, 
Buffalo, N. Y.; February 9, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa.; February 11, Columbus, 
Ohio; February 13, Detroit, Mich.; 
February 15, Chicago, III.; February 
17, St. Paul, Minn.; February 19, 
Rapid City, S. D.; February 21, Salt 
Lake City, Utah; February 23, 
Spokane, Wash.; February 25, Seattle, 
Wash.; February 28, San Francisco, 
Calif. 

March 4, Los Angeles, Calif.; 
March 6, Denver, Colo.; March 8, 
Omaha, Nebr.; March 9, Kansas City, 
Mo.; March 12, Tulsa, Okla.; March 
14, Dallas, Texas; March 16, San An- 
tonio, Texas; March 18, Houston, 
Texas; March 20, New Orleans, La.; 
March 22, Memphis, Tenn.; March 
23, St. Louis, Mo.; March 25, Louis- 
ville, Ky.; March- 27, Atlanta, Ga.; 
March 29, Tampa, Fla.; April 1, 
Miami, Fla.; April 2, Charleston, 
S. C; April 3, Charlotte, N. C; April 
4, Washington, D. C. 

Personnel is headed by First Lieu- 
tenant Ragnar Barhaug, of Casper, 
Wyoming, chief of the Prisoners of 
War Section, Personal Affairs Divi- 
sion of the AAF, who was repatriated 
after eight and a half months in Ger- 
man camps. On each program will 
be a Red Cross speaker, as well as a 
representative of the American sec- 
tion of Prisoners of War Informa- 
tion Bureau, Provost Marshal Gen- 
eral's Office. 



VOL. 3, NO 



Camp Movements 



This issue of the Bulletin contains a revised map showing the location of 
German camps and hospitals where American prisoners of war are held. The map is 
based on information received here to December 31, 1944, but the Russian advances 
in January will have brought many changes. ... 

During December, word was received that Stalag 357, near Torun, had been 
moved. Stalag XX A was also probably moved from Torun. These camps contained 
mainly British prisoners. The men at Quag 64, the principal camp for American 
ground force officers, at Szubin (Altburgund), which was in the general vicinity of 
Stalag XX A and Stalag 357, were presumably moved to the interior of Germany in 
January, although they were still at Szubin on January 5. Hammerstein, the town 
nearest to Stalag II B, one of the largest camps for Americans, appeared to be in 
Russian hands when this was written on January 27. 

It must be expected that some, if not all, of the prisoners of war at Stalag Vlil B, 
Stalag 344, B.A.B. 20, B.A.B. 21, Stalag Luft VII, and at other camps in and around 
Silesia, were moved. These, also, were largely British camps, but some of them con- 
tained Americans. There were other camps and work detachments scattered through- 
out eastern Europe containing Allied prisoners of various nationalities. Grosstychow, 
in Pomerania, where Stalag Luft IV with its large complement of British and Amer- 
ican airmen was located, was close to the combat zone in late January. 

While under reasonably quiet conditions it is easy for the German authorities to 
move an Oflag or a Stalag Luft, where all the prisoners are behind barbed wire, the 
orderly transfer of scores of thousands of nien from Stalags with far flung work 
detachments would need much advance preparation. A camp like 344 at Lamsdorf, 
for instance, had about 30,000 men (principally British) on work detachments over a 
large area. So, too, had Stalag II B. Before these men could be moved in anything 
like orderly fashion, they would first have to be assembled at the base camp. 

It will probably be some weeks yet before a full report is received on camp 
changes which have taken place during January, but, as authoritative information 
comes through, it will be promptly released to the public. Every effort is being made 
by the American authorities and the Red Cross to obtain this information. Arrange- 
ments were made well ahead so that the needs of any Allied prisoners falling into 
Russian hands during the present advance would be met . 

Until next of kin are advised by the Office of the Provost Marshal General of 
a change of address, they should continue sending mail to the old address. 

Up to late January, the German authorities had given no indication of the 
camps to which American prisoners captured on the western front in the second 
half of December had been assigned, but seriously wounded Americans who were 
repatriated by air in the latter part of January stated that several hundred officers 
had reached Oflag 64 early in the month, and that about 1,500 additional enlisted men 
had reached Stalag II B. Several thousand newly captured Americans also reached 
Stalag IV B at Miihlberg in January. Large shipments of Red Cross supplies were 
made last November and December to German camps and hospitals containing 
Americans, so that the needs of the men captured in the December action on the 
western front had been in large part anticipated. If some of these men now show up 
at camps not already serviced, the International Committee of the Red Cross at 
Geneva has standing instructions to forward supplies instantly word is received ot 
new camps for Americans. There is also a pooling arrangement, which has worked 
admirably, between the American and British Commonwealth Red Cross societies 
whereby our prisoners receive British food and clothing when American supplies 
are not immediately available, and vice versa. 



+ 






THE UNIVER8I 

OF TEXAS 



Sports at Luft III 

A report by cable received on D e 
cember 18 from Mr. Hugo Cedeg ren 
of the YMCA stated that footbaj ^t^ ^ t*t T^ "T* ^ 

was the main sports activity at StijO I W I ■ l\ |H KT ^ 

lag Luft III during October and ft ■*- ^ " i 1 J-J J-V ^ 

November, and that, in December r ,» r j /->• -v t„*^^o C 

the men were waiting for frost l, hed by the American National Red Cross for the Relatives of American Prisoners of War and Civilian Internees 

begin the ice hockey season. Ad$ . — 



OF WAR BULLETIN 



NO. 3 



the ice 
quate sports materials were on 
to meet the camp's requirements 
til next summer, if necessary 

A new American compound 
an adjoining camp known as Belana, 
was expected to open shortly. 

Permission had been obtained tot 
Mr. Soederberg of War Prisoners 
Aid to visit Luft III on Christmas 
Eve and Christmas Day as the guesjfor American and Allied prison- 
of General Vanaman, senior Amer| held by Germany, the American 
can officer, and Col. Delmar T. Spid Cross at the end of February 
vey, at the center compound. Christy $40,000,000 in supplies in 
mas decorations sent by the YMClitzerland or in various European 
had reached the camp early in m rts . British Commonwealth Red 
cember. American morale was i| oss societies also had adjacent to 
ported to be "good and hopeful." , irma ny similar supplies lepresent- 
,|j a total of many millions of dol 
PICTURES 



WASHINGTON, D. C. 



MARCH 1945 



Transportation Crisis in Germany 



(Continued from page 10) 

ingly ruled that it cannot a 
claims of identification based 
group pictures taken in enemy? 
ritory. 

Whenever the individuals in j" 



. While these goods are available 
immediate shipment to German 
ips, hundreds of thousands of 
erican -and Allied prisoners have 
n or are now being moved on 
t across Germany. We are con- 
nted with a real problem to get 



«ief supplies to our men now caught 
group picture are identified by th this rr unpre cedented westward 
prisoner who sends the picture horn k Qur ^ tQ relief 

the Bulletin always publishes d. moved tQ • * cam and 
names as given. In the case of p (o thg hands J Qur risonerSj de _ 



prisoners. 



tures of Americans ^^ ^J" ds solely on whethe r the German 

ti^Lrt* ithorities move to the camps the 
of the Red Cross, or by repreji ^ and ^ Interna . 

tives of War Prisoners Aid :<M Committee of the Red Cross 

YMCA every effort is now made ^^ hands ^ ^ Ger . 

obtain the names of the mdividu^ ^^ ^ indkation o£ the 
avity of the transportation crisis 
as the report some days ago that the 
erman railroads had evacuated 
erman women and children from 
f>wns in the east in open coal cars 
ring sub-zero weather. 



•paajuB-nmS si ipiqAv xoj 
'lf$S J\fH(M u0 -lapuas Ajrjou 'umoid[ st 

M3U pUB p3AOra3J ST3TJ 33SS3J[ppE JI 






paajuKren^ aScjsoj umja^i 



^8 *°N JP-«««I 
D XL *uoj§mqsuyV\ 

aivd 3%t 

aovxsoa s a 




D a '£! tlojSmqsB,w 
ssox"j pa^t p3uotte>i urouauiy aqX 

iq p9i[si]qnj 

injuria J^/W J° SJ9U0 ' 



Packages at Lubeck 

The American Red Cross has gone 
the limit in laying down relief 
pplies, not simply at the frontiers 
Germany* but in Germany itself 
the port of Lubeck. Over 1,000,- 
' food packages, shipped through 
ternational Red Cross channels 
ia Sweden, are today in Lubeck, 
here we have constantly main- 
lined stocks since last October. An- 
ther 2,000,000 packages are in the 
Vdish port of Goteborg, whence 



they could be moved on to Lubeck 
in two days' time. In Switzerland 
and in southern European ports we 
have 4,000,000 packages, and this 
total of 7,000,000 food packages 
amply foresees the needs of our own 
prisoners, as well as those of our Al- 
lies. 

The work of relief to prisoners 
of war in German camps is today 
confronted by grave transportation 
difficulties. Progressively through 
the months of December, January, 
and February there has been a tre- 
mendous movement of populations, 
of goods, and of military supplies on 
a railroad system that, day and night, 
is being bombarded. In consequence, 
shipments that formerly went to 
prison camps from Switzerland or 
Lubeck in a few days now require 
weeks. 

In December 1944, 330,248 Red 
Cross food packages, including the 
special Christmas parcels, were 
moved to German camps and hos- 
pitals for American prisoners. But 
there was a serious falling off in de- 
liveries to camps during January, 
and late dispatches from Geneva 
state that the situation was equally 
grave in February. 

Prelude to Victory 

The plain fact we must face is that 
the better the war goes for the Allies 
in Germany, the more difficult it 
will be to continue to serve prisoners 
of war with Red Cross supplies. The 
men themselves in the prison camps 
are fully aware of this. They know 
that the progressive disorganization 
and ultimate breakdown of the Ger- 
man state will probably precede the 
Allied victory, and that this disor- 
ganization will mean additional 
privations for them. 



For four years the Germans main- 
tained a rather unusual record in 
delivering punctiliously the relief 
supplies for war prisoners in Ger- 
many. Whether the particular Ger- 
man officials who established this 
record will have the strength to 
prevail over present less organized 
conditions remains to be seen. 

The greater the difficulties, how- 
ever, the greater will be our efforts 
to overcome them. The fact that 
over 1,000,000 food packages have 
been placed in German hands at 
Lubeck by the American Red Cross 
and the International Red Cross is 
but one instance of the steps that are 
being taken, even at some risk, to 
maintain the supply line. Interna- 
tional Red Cross representatives in 
Geneva, in Berlin, and at the port of 
Lubeck are struggling continuously 
to get a sufficient number of German 
railroad cars in order to keep goods 
moving to the camps. 

Use of Trucks 

In addition to moving goods on 
railroad cars, the American Red 
Cross and other Allied Red Cross so- 
cieties are placing a number of trucks 
at the disposal of the International 
Red Cross for use in Germany. The 
American Army is furnishing gaso- 
line in order that the trucks may con- 
stantly operate in Germany. 

Both the Swiss and Swedish gov- 
ernments and people are giving un- 
stinted cooperation in meeting the 
present transportation crisis. No pos- 
sibility, including the use of planes, 
has been overlooked, but the great 
volume of supplies needed for over a 
million American and Allied prison- 
ers cannot be moved otherwise than 
by rail and auto trucks.