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Latest Information from Europe 

(By cable from Geneva) 

The American Red Cross representa- 
tive at SHAEF cabled from Paris on 
April 5 that assembly camps for liberated 
British and American prisoners of war 
had been opened at Namur in Belgium and 
at Thaon and Sedan in France. Each of 
the three camps can accommodate 5,000 
men. An evacuation transit camp, large 
enough for 75,000 men, has been opened 
at the French port of Le Havre. Liberated 
American prisoners are now moving 
through one of the three assembly camps 
to Le Havre, whence they are being re- 
patriated direct to the United States. Lib- 
erated British prisoners go directly from 
Le Havre to the United Kingdom. The 
Red Cross has stocked these assembly 
camps with release kits and food packages. 

The Dulag Luft transit camp for airmen 
at Wetzlar, overrun early in April, was 
found to be amply stocked with food, 
clothing, and comfort articles. Four car- 
loads of supplies shipped by the Interna- 
tional Red Cross from Geneva reached 
Dulag Luft on February 12. 

The Belgian and French governments 
agreed at the end of March to contribute 
175 and 300 railroad cars, respectively, 
to the International Red Cross pool of 
freight cars for use in getting relief sup- 
plies to prisoners of war and deportees. 
By April 5, 200 of these cars were ready 
for use. The fleet of Red Cross motor 
trucks, which now leave Switzerland 
daily with relief supplies for prisoners of 
war in Germany, numbered over 200 on 
April 15. Of these, 50 Swedish trucks pur- 
chased in Stockholm have been reserved 
for use in Northern Germany. As railroad 
communications deteriorate further, it is 
planned to build up the number of trucks 
to 400. These trucks are being furnished 
by the American, British, Canadian, and 
other Red Cross societies and also by 
SHAEF, Ten trucks belonging to War 

Prisoners' Aid of the YMCA are also be- 
ing used. 

Supplies are moved from Switzerland 
in trainload lots and by truck convoys. 
The trucks then operate on a shuttle serv- 
ice inside Germany — from Moosburg in 
the south and Liibeck in the north. Addi- 
tional distribution centers, including one 
at Stalag III A (Luckenwalde), have been 
set up. Besides truck convoys and solid 
trains, 393 loaded freight cars left Swit- 
zerland for Germany during March, near- 
ly all of which, the International Red 
Cross has reported by cable, had reached 
their destinations by April 5. 

"While some prisoners from camps in 
western Germany have been moved to the 
interior, there has been no wholesale evac- 
uation of camps comparable to that which 
occurred east of the Oder last January 
and February, and large numbers of pris. 
oners have been liberated from camps in 
the west which have been overrun by Al- 
lied armies since the crossing of the Rhine. 
Most of the prisoners evacuated from 
camps east of the Oder are still widely 
scattered in north, central, and south Ger- 
many. Now that the Red Cross truck 
service is in operation, it is expected that 
increasing amounts of food and medicines 
are reaching American prisoners. The 
German medical authorities have held 
meetings with British and American pris- 
oner of war medical officers from all the 
principal camps for the purpose of coordi- 
nating medical needs and establishing a 
common program to be worked out be- 
tween the German and prisoner of war 

In the middle of April the American 
Red Cross had 10,000,000 standard food 
packages for prisoners of war in or en 
route to Europe. 

Prisoners of War Bulletin 

MAY 1945 

Published by 

The American National Red Cross 
Washington 13, D. C. 

Return Postage Guaranteed 

Postmaster— If addressee has removed and new 
address is known, notify sender ori FORM 3547, 

postage for which is guaranteed. 



JUNE 1945 

VOL. 3 m 


A Stalag (abbreviation for Sta 
lager) is a permanent camp £ or 
corns or enlisted men—other 

Air Forces personnel— or a tj T C f\ TVT TT TJ d 
camp from which labor detachJV L k5„\_J 1 1 Hi XV k5 
are sent out. 

A Dulag (abbreviation for t>%hed by the American National Red Cross for the Relatives of American Prisoners of War and Civilian Internees 

gangslager) is a transit camp to W j [ : 

newly captured prisoners of war-'^" ' " ~*" 

sent for assignment to their p 4 3, NO. 6 WASHINGTON, D. C. 

nent camp. A Dulag maintains, 1*-- ~~ 

ever, a small permanent staff 
camp upkeep and administration 

Frequently of late, in the case 
American prisoners captured on 
western front, the Germans h 
been using Stalags as Dulags, % 

separate compounds for. handle Allied forces swept victori- 
transit prisoners. For instance, an through Germany and the 
might be sent to a recently est occupied by its forces, many 
hshed Dulag at Stalag XI M allds of prisoners of war were 
then, after processing, assigned from German camps. American 
Stalag XI B as his permanent cat jubilant with freedom, knew 

In the first quarter of 1945. twm.,„i„ c™ , 1T ™,m k« ™*>n ™-,.- 

Liberated Prisoners of War from Germany 

By Col. George F. Herbert, AGD Chief, Casualty Branch 

quarter ot 1945, follicle Sam would be well pi- 
the largest transit camps for Am Uo care for them. The War De- 
cans captured on the western & ient and the thea ter command- 
were Stalag IV B at Muhlbog ^ ized this fact long beforc 
Stalag XI B at Falhngbostel. 1 * s were iiberated , an d made 
American strength at IV B on | ons for the welfare Q f these 
ruary 28 was reported to be 4,500 dlo had been prisoners o£ war . 

SEAMAN RALPH R.HANSP 0St immediately after being 
s , ,. c . . , jted, many were flown to large 

A letter from a prisoner in thfcj ■ ^ European Theater of 
^, W1C ^ntioned the ?Ktions especially set up to re- 
flf? w , Hansen Sl/c fromi.^ At F these i sem bly centers 
USS Houston, went through ce4 h h ical examination is 
ship some months ago, according, | t [ 1G \ est f ood the Army 

™TwT 1V M^ £ earaa \ Han % offer is served them. New uni- 
mother Since Mrs Hansen has n| distributed and partial 

wn?Mh anyWOr f fiT^^'ints are made from the pay 
would .b | very grateful if the reap! accumulated while they 
ol the letter mentioning her s, - f , M , i> „«.„., 
would write her. The address is: M bcen P™oners , of war. Recrea- 
C. J. Hansen, 74 Idaho Street, L 1S provided whde they awai re- 
coil! Heights, Tacoma 5, Washing the United States. But they 
° ft lot wait long, for these men have 
; -lity in returning to the United 

3 over all other military per- 
•d with the exception of the sick 
bounded. In fact, many of them 

I-V2C PAID returned by air whenever air 
Philadelphia, Pa. Ration is available 
-i» • fKie trie meantime, the families at 

Permit No. 1515 g are passing arou nd the tele- 

— % received from the Adjutant 

eral informing them of their 
■'or husband's return to military 
trol. These telegrams are dis- 
ced to families immediately 

4 receipt of such information in 
'War Department, and a second 

-|Vam is sent giving the news of 

■cted arrival in the United States 

Serials Acquisition U° n as it: is l earned tnat certain 

The University of Texas Library F o£ men are r 5 turnin S- The 

Austin 12 tIZb Wy ^emselves «* given an oppor- 

tunity, through the Red Cross, to 
send a message home prior to their 
departure from overseas, wherever 
communication facilities permit. 

The Journey Home 

Aboard ship these men are served 
the best of meals. When the ship ar- 
rives at its destination in the United 
States the liberated prisoners are im- 
mediately debarked and transported 
to the staging area connected with 
the port of debarkation. The com- 
mander of the port welcomes the 
men personally on behalf of the 
Chief of Staff of the Army, Gen. 

George C. Marshall, and shortly 
thereafter dispatches a safe-arrival 
message to the next of kin of the 
men who arrived. A band usually 
strikes up a military air. At a recent 
docking, the strains of "God Bless 
America" brou g h t accompanying 
words from the men, sung with a 
fervor and heartfelt emphasis that 
would be hard to match. After termi- 
nation of the welcoming ceremonies 
the men are given a physical screen- 
ing examination and assigned bar- 
racks in which freshly made beds 
await them. 

(Continued on page 12) 


Liberated American prisoners, after receiving release kits at an assembly center in France, 

tell their experiences to a Red Cross worker. Names as given, left to right: Pvt. Wallace 

Butterfield, Pfc. William M. Smith, Pvt. Blair A. Colby, Pfc. Aubrey Rogers, Pfc. Harry 

R. Shaw, Jr., and Miss Rosanne Coyle. 

•■-"- mil 11 


Naval Personnel Reported Missing in Action 

Casualties are the heavy price the 
nation is paying, and must continue 
to pay, for victory. As never before, 
the impact of increasing casualty 
lists is being felt by the poor and the 
rich, by the humble and the great. 
Officers and men representing every 
section of our country man the might- 
iest battle fleet the world has ever 
known. Many of their families have 
borne with fortitude the news that 
loved ones are "missing in action." 
Unfortunately, before final victory is 
won, many other navy families will 
have received a "missing in action" 

The. fortitude of such families is 
the more commendable because the 
great majority of our officers and 
men now fighting were, not so long 
ago, civilians following peaceful oc- 
cupations, with no thought of war. 
Unexpectedly catapulted into the 
fray, they have become the most ef- 
ficient fighters in history. Only a 
small percentage were trained for 
war and schooled to the vicissitudes 

Every family to whom the sad 
word is sent that a husband, a son, 
a father, or a brother is "missing in 
action" will naturally want to know 
what this term means; what the 
chances are that he will be found 
alive and well, that he will be a 
prisoner of war, or that he has lost 
his life. The family will also be eager 
to know how soon more information 
may be expected. 

"Missing in action" means simply 
that the officer or man cannot be 
accounted for after combat with the 
enemy. As yet no information is avail- 
able to indicate his fate. So far as is 
known, he has not been found. There 
is no evidence that he has survived 
or that he has been taken prisoner, 
nor is there proof that he has given 
his life for his country. 

So far as naval personnel are con- 
cerned, the term "missing in action" 
has distinctive significance. Due to 
the nature of naval warfare it is 
oftentimes extremely difficult to de- 
termine accurately what has hap- 
pened to officers and men following 
an engagement. The oceans swallow 
up so rapidly all evidence of engage- 
ments fought upon them. 

By Capt. Albert C. Jacobs, USNR 
Director, Dependents Welfare Divi- 
sion, Bureau of Naval Personnel 

"Missing in action," it is easy to 
see, is a very broad and general term. 
It includes, unfortunately, many who 
are probably dead, but concerning 
whom proof of death is lacking. It 
also includes personnel unaccounted 
for after combat, but who happily 
will prove to be survivors. To illus- 
trate: A ship is lost during the black 
of a Pacific night— the fate of some 
of our officers and men is unknown— 
they must be listed as "missing in ac- 
tion." A submarine on a combat mis- 
sion is long overdue— what has hap- 
pened to it is unknown— the officers 
and men can only be placed in the 
status of "missing in action." A plane 
vfrom one of our carriers does not re- 
turn after a combat mission— the pi-, 
lot may be safe on some isolated 
atoll; he may have been captured 
by the Japanese; he may have crashed 
and died at sea— there is nothing to 
do but place him in the status of 
"missing in action." 

A question frequently asked is how 
long will an officer or man be carried 
in the "missing" status. The answer 
is dependent on many factors. In the 
absence of a report that he is a sur- 
vivor or a prisoner of war, or of clear < 
evidence that he is dead, he will be 
carried in such status for at least 12 
months. During the year all available 
evidence concerning his status will 
be considered to determine whether 
it definitely establishes his death. 

An officer or man will be contin- 
ued in the status of "missing" beyond 
the year when the circumstances in- 
dicate that he may be an unreported 
prisoner of war, or alive in some iso- 
lated community. Such a decision, 
which is communicated to the next 
of kin by the Bureau of Naval Per- 
sonnel, means that on the basis of 
all available evidence the Navy still 
has some doubt as to his status. 

Experience has proved that in 
many cases 12 months are not suf- 
ficient to clarify the status of "miss- 
ing" naval personnel. We have 
learned to our sorrow that the Japa- 
nese have been neither prompt nor 
accurate in releasing the names of 
prisoners of war to the International 
Committee of the Red Cross. The re- 
ports concerning approximately 44 
percent of the naval prisoners held 

by the Japanese have been 
more than 12 months after 
"missing" status began. Two 

1941, to ihe summer of 1914. 
Presumption of Death 

[ finding of death is made when 
jit vey of all the available sources 
jcates beyond doubt that the pre- 
ption of continuance of life has 
overcome. There is no chance 
lis being an unreported prisoner 
tyar or being alive in some isolated 
JSfc. If a finding of death is made, 
and more have not infrequenjpay accounts are closed as of the 
elapsed before word has been ini%mptive date of death, that is, 
ly received that "missing" persons a day following the expiration of 
prisoners of war in the hands of til 2 months' absence, and the va- 
Japanese. An enlisted man "missin lS benefits, such as the six months' 
from the USS Houston during tth gratuity, become payable, 
battle of the Java Sea (February; findi o£ presum p ti ve death 
to March 1, 942) was first repining an £ ccr or F man of the 
a prisoner of war on tebruary L, meam siml that as of thc 
194o. For nearly three years his fai' th ereof he is for the purpose of 
ily had received no word from hiy administration no longer alive. 
Some naval personnel have evenbe^ not mean that death occurred 
rescued and have returned who ha ;hat or on other certain datc . 

never been reported as prisoners purposes otner than naval ad _ 

^ a i; . " , ■ , jistration, the law does not make 

Not only have the Japanese be, findm bindm or conclusivc , 
slow m releasing the names of pr. comme £ ial msurance companic , s 
oners of war, but they Irequea, almost wkhout exceptio 1 ri! ac . 
have failed to report deaths Oc % , d them as evidence of the fact 
ring in their camps, Families ha (leathj and have id insurance 
been notified that a report has J%s Qn ^ basis ^ hereof Thdr 
been received that their loved fflfc rstanding sett l e ment of claims 
are prisoners of war; it has then bey on the deaths o£ naval n _ 

the sad duty of the Navy to infor^ been most praisewort L 
the families of a subsequent repo hro h March 31, 1945, 5,867 of- 
that death occurred many months L and men of the N had bcm 
lore the announcement that \ nued in a » missil w' ; status be _ 
were prisoners of war. ^ the 12 months > & eriod while 

The decision that naval person^ gs o£ prcsumpth r e death had 
h made in regard to 8,132 officers 




months has frequently been H men. In 5,867 cases the Navv 
simply on the possibility that % not? Qn ^ bagis q£ ^ ^ 
may be unreported prisoners of w, e available? make findings of 
of the Japanese. 1 he officers and m< th and request the payment of 
of an overdue submarine have ott^ bene g ts 
been continued in the "missing" sti. ,. ' 

us after 12 months because of tf dm § s of presumptive death are 
complete lack of data concerning if mad< ; when the , "J 18511 ^ 7 stat " 
submarine. f ! bs I P t continued for at least 

The Germans, on the other half °^f Ha persons status is 
have reported prisoners of war J&ed from missing to dead 
reasonable promptness. Experiei/ to / he expiration of 12 months 
has established that naval personW only on the basis of clear and 
"missing" as a result of action ^ftakable evidence of death, 
the Germans, and concerning whof ] «f , subsequent to the expira 
no word is received for 12 W* c 
are in fact dead. 

In Guam and the Philippin 
navy personnel hid from the 
and were never captured. Thi 
helped by natives and often 
ized guerrilla bands. The story 
Radio Electrician George R. Twe 
U. S. Navy, is known by the en^ 
country. He had been carried J 
"missing in action" from Deceit 

lative or 
!?r evidence establishes beyond 
bt that a "missing" person is no 
|>er alive, a prompt finding of pre- 
ptive death will be made. Also, 
e will be such a finding whenever 
ified by lapse .of time without 
fie information being received. 
s been the policy of the Navy to 
w, at the end of the second 12 
ths, the cases of all personnel 
? [ inued "missing" at the end of 12 

months when no new evidence has 
been received in the interim. 

Because of the peculiar circum- 
stances involved, 4,220 officers and 
men of the Navy have been contin- 
ued in a "missing" status beyond 24 
months. Most of these were "missing" 
following the battle of the Java Sea, 
the loss of Wake, and the loss of the 
Philippines. Their fate being un- 
known—they could have been cap- 
tured, could have escaped, could have 
died— it has been necessary to con- 
tinue their "missing" status. On the 
basis of available information such 
status could not be terminated. 
Dependency Support 

During this period of uncertainty— 
and the Navy fully appreciates the 
heartaches caused by the "missing" 
telegrams it must send— when fami- 
lies are suffering deep anguish and 
sorrow, provision must be made for 
the support of dependents of "miss- 
ing" naval personnel. The various 
benefits contingent on death, such as 
pensions, insurance, and the death 
gratuity, cannot be paid during thc 
"missing" status. The law, however, 
provides that the total pay and al- 
lowances of the "missing" person will 
be credited to his account during the 
continuance of such status. The law 
further provides that allotments from* 
his pay made by the "missing" per- 
son will continue to be paid there- 
from, particularly those for the sup- 
port of dependents and for the pay- 
ment of insurance premiums. These 
allotments may be increased or new 
ones registered by the director of the 
Dependents' Welfare Division of the 
Bureau of Naval Personnel upon 
proof of the need therefor. It is not 
the practice to allot 100 percent of 
a "missing" person's pay, because it 
is deemed advisable to leave some, 
on the books for the officer or man 
to draw upon his return. Also, fam- 
ily allowance benefits are available 
for the eligible dependents of "miss- 
ing" enlisted personnel. 

Once a person is placed in a "miss- 
ing" status, pay and allowances con- 
tinue to be credited to his account 
until evidence of death is received in 
the Navy Department, or until, after 
an absence of 12 or more months, a 
finding of presumptive death is made. 
If his status is changed to deceased, 
his heirs become entitled to the ac- 
cumulated pay and allowances. 
The Navy's Growth 

It is a matter of common knowl- 
edge that since the early days of the 
war our Navy has grown tremend- 

ously. Many ships of all sizes are now 
available for an engagement. For this 
reason, personnel not actually killed 
in an action have a much greater 
chance of rescue than in the days of 
the Java Sea, the Coral Sea, Midway, 
or Guadalcanal. Because of the size 
and strength of our fleet, units can be 
left behind to search for "missing" 
personnel even though the action is 
of a continuing nature. In the early 
days of the war, our ships had of ne- 
cessity to leave battle areas without 
delay in order to utilize to the ut- 
most our slim and diminished naval 
power and to protect the ships still 
afloat. Even under such conditions, 
when our weakened fleet performed 
miracles against great odds, the res- 
cue operations, implemented by such 
ingenious inventions as the inflated 
rubber boat, and so forth, are now 
a matter of record. In July of 1943, 
when our fleet was growing "stronger, 
several weeks elapsed before a com- 
plete survivor list of the USS Helena 
could be sent from the South Pacific, 
and during this period 167 officers 
and men were rescued from two is- 
lands under Japanese domination. 
Outstanding also were the rescues 
of our aviation personnel shot down 
in the actions against the Jap strong- 
hold at Truk. In short, the -chances 
of rescue at the outset have become 
greater, but there is also, unfortu- 
nately, an increased likelihood that 
those not rescued in the early days 
of an operation have made the su- 
preme sacrifice. 

There has again been a definite 
trend on the part of commanding of- 
ficers to report personnel as "killed" 
much oftener than was the case in 
the early days of the war. If the evi- 
dence clearly establishes death, offi- 
cers and men are so listed in the ini- 
tial report, even though their bodies 
may not have been recovered. In 
other cases, even though originally 
listed in the initial report as "miss- 
ing," where the evidence is unmis- 
takable, commanding officers will in 
amplifying reports change the status 
to "dead." In this respect command- 
ing officers were often overcautious 
in the early days of the war; on the 
basis of experience they now treat 
such cases more realistically. If no 
hope for survival remains, the initial 
report is of death. 

It has, furthermore, become the 
practice to order the commanding 
officer or the senior surviving officer 
of a ship that has been lost to the 
Bureau of Naval Personnel in order 




to clarify the casualty status of the 
ship's company. On the basis of such 
first-hand factual information the 
status of many "missing" personnel 
has been changed to "dead," but only 
where the evidence is clear. 
Aviation Personnel 

Changes have taken place also in 
regard to "missing" aviation person- 
nel. It was factually demonstrated 
during recent operations in the Phil- 
ippines that many of our fliers who 
were shot down, or otherwise forced 
down, landed in the islands and were 
befriended by the guerrillas. In many 
instances they ultimately returned to 
naval jurisdiction. In other cases re- 
ports have been received from guer- 
rilla forces that our fliers were cap- 
tured or killed by the Japanese after 
landing. In short, when air action 
takes place over enemy-occupied ter- 
ritory in which there are also friendly 
forces, factual information concern- 
ing "missing" personnel has been re- 
ceived much more quickly than in 
the past. Because of this factor the 
"missing" status has often been clari- 
fied within the year. 

There have been many instances 
of "missing" naval personnel return- 
ing under the most extraordinary 
circumstances. The day of miracles 
is not past. The stories of adventure, 
of hardship, of ingenuity, of mirac- 
ulous stamina exhibited by the sur- 
vivors of sunken ships and plane 
crashes make fiction pale into insig- 

Miraculous Escapes 

Going through the records, one is 
surprised to note the number of 
"missing" officers and men who have 
been eventually located and returned 
to safety. From the hundreds of tiny 
islands and atolls in the Pacific, 
where natives often rescue them and 
assist them in the return to their 
bases, and from the frozen wastes of 
Greenland and the Aleutians, where 
our ships carry on a tireless search, 
"missing" persons have returned un- 
der miraculous circumstances. Some- 
times, long after reasonable hope 
has gone, they have found their way 
back through the jungles of the vast 
area of the Pacific, or from the 
treacherous, creviced glaciers of the 
far north. Unfortunately, however, 
such miraculous rescues are the ex- 
ception rather than the rule. 

On July 2, 1944, 600 miles from 

Columbo, Ceylon, the 55 Jean Ni- 

colet was torpedoed by a Japanese 

submarine. The officers and men, the 

(Continued on page 15) 

no suitable facilities or time or 
to devote the proper care or 
ment. At the same time, I was 
ley to be with a group that got 
good treatment as I did— which 
pretty poor at best— so that I 
e suffered very little as compared 
others who were taken at the 
i time, but who went various and 
rse ways. Darling, as for the de- 
ls of the four months, wait until 
[can talk— save this letter and we'll 
ver it and I can give you a full 
unt of P. W, life. For the rest of 
letter, I'll try to account for the 
week with reference to the past, 
ent, and future, so hold on. 
week ago today, at about this 
in the afternoon, I had the 
\ue experience of watching the 
Army spearhead assault a town 
than a mile distant from us. We 
been ordered to march from a 
Wounded Americans liberated from a German Lazarett, Names as given, left to n/ . Vllla & e > where we had been 
S/Sgt. Paul O. Bergman, T/Sgt. Don V. Sage, Sgt. John L. Donalson, S/Sgt. JohnZ m a barn f° r ten da ys, to an- 
Holzermer, Put. Ralph Ford, Sgt. James E. Coalter, and Pvt. George W, Mandevtf town seven kilometres distant. 
Note Red Cross cartons stuffed in broken windows, m approached the town we could 

T j.m * n r tne German 88's firing from its 

Letter from r railCe |* kirts on a ridge some distance to 

right. When we were within 

The 'following letter from an American 
prisoner of war from Stalag XII A at 
Limburg was written from an assembly 
center for recovered American military 
personnel in France on April 19 to his wife 
in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. 


I hardly know where to begin, 
and my mind is spinning with things 
to tell you. But, first, I'm very safe 
and quite well and supremely happy 
to be free again. I'm dying to see 
you, dearest, and Wendy and all, but 
it is wisest to follow the Army's orders 
and take hospitalization until I am 
in perfect health again. 

I hope that you were promptly 
notified that I was a P.W., and that 
you did not have to sweat out the 
"missing in action" telegram long. I 
worried about that. 

Right now, I am in a field hospital 
with a mild touch of dysentery and 
malnutrition. It is nothing serious. I 
am up and about all day, in the best 
of spirits, and so glad to be back 
in the arms of the U. S. Army and 
the Red Cross that tears come to 
my eyes when I think of it, and how 
lucky we are. We are getting the best 
of treatment and food. I'm on a regu- 
lar diet, so you see my malnutrition 
isn't too serious. 

You'd hardly know me right now. 
My face is O.K., a little pale, I guess, 
but still the "laughing gray eyes," etc. 
My head has been shorn, clipped but 

not shaved, because we found seethe 'Jo'™ (letTc^l h ^ eggs in it yesterday Lice! Lc uadron of us ^ AFs p . 4?s ™J' 
yes, I was quite lousy for awhi 1 ^ j ^ j- ■ , 11C 

we all were. And we tried to kee '^V' h l ° ^^T mt ° f% 
down as best we could, but it l*"* L?T '" ^ ^f^ 
•ut i ■ • t. iney floated around awhile and 

impossible, sleeping m barns as.,,,. T ' ,^j <> QQ . <* W1 ^ 1C *"" 

had been for six weeks. I'm very t L^ p- fl'T^l **£ 

and have lost about 25 or 30 poV 1 ™ 1 **? 11 - First the ^vy bomb 
I guess, chiefly in the arms and 1, ca ^ plane carries-dive-bomb- 
but it won't take long to regain l and the ack - ack °P ei l ed U P> but 
of it here and soon. We lost aS me , a S er and wa y oft its mark, 
weight on the march-15 to 20 k n ea ^ P lane ^leased its rockets 
metres a day on very little food-a :™ a the tar S ets " ^ ^ft, they 
very nourishing soup for breakf d A * town and ' thank GocL 
and a cup of weak "coffee" anc US - Whe " the s q u adron got 
fifth of a loaf of bread with a fef^ another repeated the per- 
"butter" or cheese or meat for s m ^ e ' Y ° u 5^ imagine how it 
per. That diet was varied somewh/ , have the Yanks so clo ;f • When 
sometimes a bit more, more usw , lanes ™ er e done, artillery and 
less-for all of my four months' c j rom the u rid S e acrc f the way 
tivity, and, darling, that was a ™ d "JJP on the f™ and ' although 
more than some pfw.'s got in otl 0uldn * spot them, we could sure 
parts of hell's corners, that is g S ood } ? ok at their fire-and 
graphically called Germany. ' ™ d ? Smce the P lanes 

t-T , ' , . t ro i v^ one ^ the Ger nian noncom m 
For about a total of 8 weeks, k of us (a decent as 

ever, Red Cross No. 10 food p^ tUrned U V S around | nd mnrched 
or small portions of them, were aY fek We werg sweati h 

able, and they were a Godsend-*^ { ^ wou Id£t fire at 
lieve me! I doubt if as many <*i ecaus r e we were on a rid our _ 
would have survived were it not ? ^ over three hundred | w 
what little Red Cross the to% must have tted us for what 
would let us get. They withheld^ ^^ w ^ 

from us, or we were never a V cycle five hundre ; d ds dis . 
proper place for us to receiw ^ after Qur coIumn ^ umed ff 
When I say us I refer chiefly from ^ gcene q£ j 

P.W.s who were taken m ^J f e lt like crying when we had 

months, as I was, for whom the doi j ° 

to march away from the Yanks— so 
near and yet so far. We marched 'til 
way after dark but didn't cover much 
ground, because we walked in circles. 
Some managed to escape, and those 
that tried and failed had rifle butt 
bruises to prove it. We were put in a 
barn that night and were so surprised 
to find that we could sleep till -late 
in the morning, so we knew some- 
thing was up. It seems most of the 
guards had taken off in the night. 
This was Friday, the 13th, and a day 
that I'll never forget, although there 
were lots of older P.W.'s who had 
dreamed of this day for longer than 
I. The old German noncom told us 
that we would be liberated that day— 
the Yanks were way past us by then— 
and he and a handful of guards 
stayed there to maintain order. Sure 
enough, along about 3 P.M., a lieu- 
tenant colonel and a small column 
that were out looking for us rode 
into the village and we were free 
men again. 

You'll never know what a kick that 
was. I didn't think the Colonel would 
appreciate an embrace, so I kissed 
his jeep instead. That evening we 
had our first G. I. food— K rations— 
and no Christmas dinner ever tasted 

We were billeted in another Ger- 
man town for the night— the civilians 
were chased out of their homes— and 
on the 14 th we were taken by quar- 
termaster trucks back to a supply and 
evacuation base, where I lived until 
the 17th— when planes carried us 
back to this camp in France. Believe 
me, there is nothing so highly organ- 
ized and so well organized' as the 
good old U. S. Army— that it can 
evacuate its recaptured personnel at 
the rate it is doing. The morning of 
the 18th I was sent to the hospital 
and tomorrow I move to the con- 
valescent hospital across the road, 
where I hope to be for just a short 

That, in a nutshell, is what I've 
done in the past week. Yesterday, I 
had my first hot shower since Decem- 
ber 6-my birthday— and I hated to 
get out of it. Today, I got a new cloth- 
ing issue and a PX ration of ciga- 
rettes, gum, fruit juice, etc., plus 
a Red Cross ditty bag with ciga- 
rettes, toilet articles, cards, a book 
and gum-little stuff that means so 
much to us now. But the most im- 
portant item I've spent very little 
time on— food. That's all a P.W. 
thinks and talks about— and, for the 
most part, lives for. He dreams of 

it, and discusses it daily and by the 
hour— varied dishes, and ways of 
cooking different foods. . The chief 
trouble is that since we've been re- 
patriated we've been fed so well on 
such good food that it has taken the 
edge off all our appetites for the food 
we discussed as P.W.'s. One thing I 
know, though— I'm never going to be 
hungry again. In the hospital here, 
I've eaten more in one meal than I 
usually eat in three. At the evacua- 
tion base, the Red Cross served coffee 
and doughnuts— nectar and ambro- 
sia. I've had fresh oranges and apples 
at the airport mess when we arrived 
in France— and bread pudding— pan- 
cakes, French toast and oatmeal 
this morning, and eggnog. Wonder- 
ful steak for dinner. Peanut butter 
and jelly and white bread galore. I 
never dreamed a G. I. kitchen could 
serve so much good food, and I'm 
afraid I'm gorging myself on it. Also, 
I'm getting plenty of vitamin pills 
and paregoric between meals— which 
speaks for itself. 

Well, darling, I'm sure I've written 
more than anyone wants to censor, 
but then I haven't imposed that job 
on anyone for a long time. I'll write 
tomorrow. It's funny writing to you 
again— but I hope I won't be writing 
for long. 


It was announced on April 29 that 
American officers and enlisted men 
who have been liberated from enemy 
prison camps will be assigned to 
guard camps for German prisoners. 
The announcement stated that these' 
men, "who have experienced cap- 
tivity and detention by the enemy, 
are considered to be eminently quali- 
fied for these duties." 

It is planned to use returned 
Americans both in administrative 
capacities and as guards. 

The announcement was made by 
Maj. Gen. Thomas A. Terry, com- 
manding general of the Army Second 
Service Command, whose headquar- 
ters are on Governors Island, New 

For officers, administrative duties 
would include command of camps 
and command staff work, such as ar- 
ranging menus for prisoners, it was 
stated. Enlisted men would perform 
office routine, checking prisoners in 
and out, supervision of prisoners in 
work camps, preparing job lists, and 
similar functions. 























Early in May the War Department 
is informed that 73 American pris- 
jers o£ war had been liberated in 
capture of Rangoon, Burma, by 
litish forces. Most of the men had 
ver been reported as prisoners, and 
Ire still listed by the War Depart- 
ent as missing in action. The Japa- 
se had never even reported this as 
camp where American prisoners 
ere detained, and, therefore, no 
^d Cross supplies could be sent 

The War Department stated at the 
ae of the announcement that as 
p as a complete list of the names 
the liberated prisoners was avail- 
le their next of kin would be noti- 




Vn agreement made early in May 
iween the War Department and 
; American Red Cross provided 
t the Red Cross may notify fami- 
i of liberated American prisoners 
var of their liberation, when the 
a request this service. The re- 
msibility of caring for liberated 
soners and arranging transporta- 
ji home for them, together with 
many other military duties, made 
lifficult for the Army to notify 
t of kin as promptly as they 
ild have liked of the liberation 

tabled and telegraphed lists of 
ics of liberated prisoners are now 
\g sent by Red Cross field di- 
ors overseas to national head- 
Irters in Washington. From here 
h are sent with all dispatch to 
pi chapters, whose representatives 
rsonally deliver the news to the 
it of kin. 

In addition to this service the Red 
oss will, if the situation warrants 
send a cable inquiring about a 
erated prisoner's family, when it is 
parent that the prisoner expects 
■ be in Europe long enough to re- 
re the reply. A similar service is 
nned for liberated Allied prison- 
of war who have relatives in the 
ited States. 

Prisoners of War Bulletin in- 
'ites reprinting of its articles in 
uhole or in part. Its contents are 
wt copyrighted. 


With stock piles in Europe, or en 
route thereto, totaling about 10,000,000 
American Red Cross standard food pack- 
ages, production in the Philadelphia, 
New York, St. Louis, and Brooklyn Pack- 
aging Centers was reduced early in April 
to about 200,000 a week. By the end of 
May, by which time 28,000,000 packages 
had been shipped abroad, operations were 

Besides supplying, throughout April 
and May, food packages to all American 
and other Allied prisoners of war who 
could be reached anywhere in Germany, 
large numbers were furnished to liber- 
ated American prisoners on their home- 
ward journey through assembly centers 
and evacuation points, in addition to the 
supplies they received from the U. S. 
Army. Arrangements were made some 
time ago whereby, on the cessation of 
hostilities in Europe, all stock piles of 
American Red Cross food packages would 
be placed at the disposal of SHAEF, and 
these reserves filled a very vital need. 

A substantial supply of special Far 
Eastern packages has been built up and 
is being held in the United States for 
possible future shipment to American 
and other Allied prisoners still in Japa- 
nese hands. 

The women volunteers who so faithful- 
ly manned the packaging center assembly 
lines since this operation began in March 
1943 have made a most important con- 
tribution to the national effort. Their 
readiness at all times and under all 
sorts of conditions to perform this serv- 
ice has earned the heartfelt gratitude 
of all prisoners of war who have re- 
ceived packages. 


A Russian ship carrying additional 
relief supplies for American and Al- 
lied prisoners in the Far East left 
a West Coast port in the latter part 
of April for Vladivostok. 

This latest shipment, consisting of 
1,500 tons, included 115,000 Ameri- 
can Red Cross food packages, 1 12,000 
Canadian Red Cross food packages, 
3,000 Indian food packages packed 
by the Canadian Red Cross, 184 tons 
of medical supplies, and 15 tons of 
YMCA and National Catholic Wel- 
fare Conference goods. 

At the time of this shipment there 
were still in Vladivostok about 700 
tons of relief supplies, and negotia- 
tions were in progress with the Japa- 
nese to pick up the supplies for dis- 
tribution to Allied prisoners and 
civilian internees in the Far East. 


Mr. Carl J. Burckhardt, President 
of the International Red Cross Com- 
mittee, recently announced in Ge- 
neva that a white book would soon 
be published containing correspond- 
ence exchanged with the Germans on 
the matter of atrocities in concentra- 
tion camps. 

Mr. Burckhardt also disclosed that, 
but for the persistent efforts of the 
IRCC, the Germans would have de- 
nounced the Geneva Convention at 
the end of 1943. This, he stated, 
would have left millions of Allied 
prisoners virtually unprotected. 

Swedish trucks leaving Goteborg for Liibeck, Germany. These trucks, plainly marked in 

German, International Committee of the Red Cross, were used for delivering relief 

supplies to camps and marching columns in northern Germany. 

■ »■ — 

VOL. 3, 





(Continued from page 1) 
Their first meal in the United 
States consists of a steak dinner with 
milk and ice cream— all they can 
eat. Their clothing is then checked 
and any missing items are supplied. 
They arc given- another partial pay- 
ment and moved on, usually within 
24 hours, to the reception station 
nearest their homes. At this point 
they are interrogated regarding other 
American prisoners or persons re- 
ported missing at the same time as 
they were. Decorations and awards 
are presented those who had earned 
them but who had had no oppor- 
tunity to receive them with appro- 
priate ceremony. By sending the men 
to a reception station the Army bear's 
the cost of transportation, which 
would not be done were they placed 
on leave or furlough at the staging 

At the reception station, back pay 
accounts are fully settled and orders 
issued for leaves or furloughs of 60 
days. Twenty-four hours after their 
arrival at the reception station the 
men are en route home for a well- 
deserved vacation. 

Upon liberation from prison camps 
some men naturally are suffering 
from wounds and illnesses requiring 
hospitalization. These men are re- 
turned to the United States as soon 
as possible, and after arrival are 
processed in the same manner as their 
buddies. They are then sent to the 
army hospital nearest their home, if 
they desire, so their families may 
have ample opportunity to visit 
them. When they have fully recov- 
ered they are then placed oh leave 
or furlough. 

Working Day and Night 

The system that has been set up 
to care for liberated personnel, both 
overseas and in the United States, 
is functioning to such a high degree 
of efficiency that in a great majority 
of instances men are home before one 
month has elapsed from the time they 
were freed from imprisonment. Be- 
hind the scenes in the Casualty 
Branch of the Adjutant General's 
office, in Washington, is a section es- 
pecially organized to send to the 
families concerned the joyous news 
of these men's liberation and return 
to military control, and their even- 
tual return to the United States. This 
section, appropriately called the re- 
patriation section, also acts as a clear- 
inghouse for all matters pertaining 
to such personnel. 

It has been visited by numerous 
returnees from liberated camps, and 
they are impressed by the interest 
which is evidenced in them and by 
the fact that the section often works 
day and night to speed the notifica- 
tion messages home. The employees, 
however, know the history of these 
men; when they were captured, lib- 
erated, and returned to military con- 
trol. They have read and answered 
letters from their wives and mothers 
seeking more information or thank- 
ing them for the messages they have 
received. To see the end result of 
their work, when liberated service- 
men visit the repatriation section 
and express their thanks to the per- 
sonnel who have plaved a small part 
in their return, is more than sufficient 
incentive to this group of War 
Department employees to keep on 
the job at top speed for long hours 
to insure that the news of liberation 
and early return home is speeded to 
those anxiously awaiting such news. 

Relief Supplies Shipped 

to Europe 

The following table shows, by 
value, what the American Red Cross 
has shipped from the United States 
to Europe for American and other 
Allied prisoners of war: 

Year 1941 1 million dollars 

Year 1942 7 million dollars 

Year 1943 39 million dollars 

Year 1944 ■_ 81 million dollars 

Year 1945 (firsts months) 21 million dollars 

Of this total of $149,000,000 of re- 
lief supplies, approximately ninety 
million dollars' worth had actually 
been delivered to American and other 
Allied prisoners of war by April 30, 
1945. The balance of approximately 
$59,000,000 in food packages, cloth- 
ing,, medicines, and other supplies 
was in Europe at the beginning of 
May, with every effort being made to 
push the maximum possible amount 
into Germany day by day. 

Most of the supplies shipped for 
American prisoners of war and civil- 
ian internees were paid for by the 
United States government. The 
American Red Cross supplied the 
capture parcels, medicines, medical 
equipment, medical parcels, ortho- 
pedic equipment, and release kits. 
The American Red Cross, moreover, 
sustained the whole apparatus for 
procurement and shipping of the 
goods moved abroad, and has con- 
tributed substantially to defray Euro- 
pean overhead of the operation. 




Educational assistance is now avail 
able to certain dependents ot Aa| 
personnel through the scholarship 
fund of the National Association 
Air Forces Women. This associa; 
has established a student 1 
fund which advances money wit 
interest or collateral to deserving 
dents in order that they n 
their educational goal. These 
dents must be the children 
Air Forces military personnel 

The awarding of these scholar! 
will be on a noncompetitive 
First consideration, however, w 
given to the children of d 
prisoners of war. Application 
assistance should be made at 
six weeks before the beginnin 
the semester for which funds 

/// B "Pirates." Picture taken at Fiirstenburgl Oder in June 1944. Names as given, 
Article V in the constitution of tit to ri sht: (sitting) Cronin, Bennett, Terris, Workman, Harmon; (standing) Taylor, 

Easterbraok, Vincich, Gaskin, Basse, Ray, and Denton. 

association defines the purpose ( 

this fund. It reads: 

The Association will establish, fo 

ter, and develop a fund to assist i 

furthering the education of deservin r . , , r v ■ ™ i 

7 - 7 , f 1 t ■ r t-x -;i>>t October 16, an American Red 

children of Army Air Forces mihtai r i i i- a i ^ 

personnel who have died while P rif fidd t'T^ ol fr , 
oners of war, by making gifts or L f S .' attadied to the 94th In£an " 
, I i -i l 4 77*7 Division in France, was 2iven an 

to such children fo enable them i , . ' & , , 

, ,, . , ,, isual assignment. He was asked 

meet the necessary expenses of the, ^, - P c ^ „- ,. , . , 

education and by establishing schi\ Chiet °* St f ° the 9 / th 1° 
arships for such children and ft what ^ onld b \ done £or 53 
other deserving children of AAF ^! ca ™ known ^ be prisoners on 
sonnet Croix in the Bay of Biscav. 

A scholarship fund committee h$ Africans were in dire need of 
been appointed which includes Mf 1 ' clothing, and medical supplies. 
Howard C. Davidson, chairman, wi tod § es wrote to the German com- 
of Maj. Gen. Davidson; Mrs. 01ive lder of the garrison on the Isle 
P. Echols, wife of Maj. Gen. Olivf roix and > while awaiting a reply, 
P. Echols; Mrs. Laurence S. Kute rne y ed to Rennes to pick up sup- 
wife of Maj. Gen. Laurence S. Kut s - In the meantime 25 more 
Mrs. William Crom, wife of Of lcans were taken prisoner. 
Crom, and Mrs. Arthur Vanamaifter days of negotiation, Hodges 
wife of Brig. Gen. Vanaman, who willy received word on October 28 
a prisoner of war in Europe- I g the German officials were wait- 
The members of this commitjto see him on the German side of 
have made a study of the questio'Etel River. Hodges crossed the 
naires and methods of several scholal on an auxiliary sailboat manned 
ship funds and foundations. Forrfrench civilians and was received 
stating regulations and restrictioitwo German officers, who told 
which will govern this fund ha 1 , that it would not be possible for 
been drawn up. J to distribute the supplies person- 

Several thousand dollars have/: The Germans, however, gave 
ready been donated to the f# r word that the supplies would 
by generous individuals and A> the Americans, and set October 
women's clubs throughout the Unitljs the date for Hodges to return 
States. On inactivated posts many ' supplies. 

the disbanded clubs have voted tlfhen Hodges brought the sup- 
the balance in their treasuries ! ts he remarked jokingly that it 
sent Lo the scholarship fund "id be easier to return the Ameri- 
NAAFW, 1702 K Street, N.W., Wa«s to their own lines to feed them, 
ington 6, D. C. | c ' German officer immediately 

Exchanges of Prisoners in France 

stated that his side would be willing 
to exchange men. The American Red 
Cross field director asked whether the 
Germans would abide by the Geneva 
Convention in such an exchange. 
The Germans agreed and Hodges re- 
turned to the American lines, after 
arranging for frequent trips to the 
German lines to bring supplies to the 

Feeling that events had gone be- 
vond his authority, Hodges went to 
Paris to discuss arrangements with 
International Red Cross representa- 
tives. The International Red Cross 
favored the exchange, provided the 
stipulations of the Geneva Conven- 
tion were adhered to. Hodges re- 
turned to the 94th Division head- 
quarters and found that the Chief 
of Staff had obtained permission 
from his superior, Maj. Gen. Harry 
T. Maloney, for the exchange on a 
man for man basis. 

Two more trips to the German 
lines completed arrangements, and 
the exchange, set for November 15, 
came off with a maximum of effici- 
ency. Seventy-five Americans were 
exchanged for a like number of Ger- 

Pleased at the smooth conduct of 
the exchange, the Division Chief of 
Staff requested the Red Cross field 
director to see about an exchange in 
the St. Nazaire sector. 

Hodges, without anv advance no- 


Camp Jersey, in the Channel Is- 
lands, was visited on February 15, 
1945, by a Delegate of the Interna- 
tional Red Cross. At that time there 
were 19 American prisoners of war 
in the camp, of whom 3 were offi- 
cers, but the number has since risen 
to 36. The American representative 
was Colonel Reybold. 

The prisoners lived in heated, well- 
ventilated barracks, according to the 
report, and had beds with mattresses 
and sufficient blankets. Medical at- 
tention and rations were satisfac- 
tory. The prisoners had books and 
a sports ground, and were permitted 
walks outside of camp. 

In February and March the SS 
Vega made two trips from Lisbon to 
the Channel Islands with supplies of 
Red Cross food packages, which were 
distributed under the control of Brit- 
ish Red Cross representatives who 
frequently visited Camp Jersey., A 
further shipment of food packages 
and clothing was made in April 


Readers are urged to send to the 
Editor, Prisoners of War Bulletin, 
American Red Cross, Washington 
13, D. C, copies of letters and pic- 
tures received from American pris- 
oners of war and civilian internees 
held by Japan. They will then be 
used, as far as possible, in the Far 
Eastern edition of the Bulletin, 
the first issue of which will appear 
in August. 

tice to the Germans that he was com- 
ing, got into his jeep and drove to 
the German lines. His daring got him 
through. The Germans blindfolded 
him for the three-hour journey into 
their lines, part of it by torpedo boat 
across the Loire River. 

The arrangements were made, and 
Hodges completed his second ex- 
change near Pontic, across the river 
from St. Nazaire, on November 29. 

By Christmas, Hodges arranged 
for a third exchange in the Lorient 
sector, where the first exchange was 

On January 1 the 94th Division 
Chief of Staff paid tribute to Hodges 
for his 13 trips into the German 
lines by awarding him the Bronze 



After Germany's Collapse | gMCStions and Amswc j 

All American prisoners of war held 
by Germany have been liberated and 
are now home or on their way. 
Throughout April and May a steady 
stream of liberated men reached 
American shores, and the military 
authorities are returning the men to 
their homes as expeditiously as the 
seriously disorganized condition of 
Europe permits. 

Since the American Red Cross be- 
gan publishing Prisoners of War 
Bulletin in June 1943, one of our 
main objectives has been to let our 
prisoners of war tell their own story 
of conditions, Red Cross services, and 
general camp activities through its 
columns-in letters from the prison- 
ers themselves, in interviews with 
repatriates, in reproductions from 
camp newssheets, and in factual re- 
ports from neutral inspectors who 
had visited the camps and talked with 
the men. 

We have had several opportuni- 
ties recently to talk with returned 
prisoners, some of whom were frank 
enough to state that, while in Ger- 
many, they had the feeling that their 
relatives at home were being given 
a distorted picture of life in German 
prisoner of war camps, but that 
when they had carefully read a com- 
plete file -f Prisoners of War Bul- 
letin after their return they were 
satisfied the American Red Cross had 
given their families a fair and bal- 
anced picture in words that avoided 
adding to the heavy load of anxietv 
which the relatives of the men had 
borne so patiently. Among 100,000 
men there must inevitably be some 
who will feel that we have erred on 
the side of giving the families too 
much comfort and consolation, and 
perhaps as many others who will con- 
sider that we have unnecessarily dis- 
turbed their relatives by reporting 
that conditions in a certain camp 
were bad at the same time that the 
men there were writing home "every- 
thing here is fine, so don't worry 
about me." 

This will be the last issue of 
Prisoners of War Bulletin devoted 
mainly to activities in Europe, but 
beginning in August, the American 
Red Cross will publish a bulletin de- 
voted entirely to the Far East, where 
some 15,000 American prisoners of 
war and civilian internees are still 
held by Japan. 

All next of kin of prisoners of war 

in the Far East, whose names are 
carried on the rolls of the Office of 
the Provost Marshal General, will 
automatically receive copies of the 
Far Eastern edition as they are pub- 
lished from time to time, just as they 
have received their copies of Prison- 
ers of War Bulletin. Other readers 
who are interested in the Far East 
and who desire to receive the Far 
Eastern edition are requested to fill 
out the blank form on page 15 of this 
issue and return it to the Editor, 
Prisoners of War Bulletin, Ameri- 
can Red Cross, Washington 13, D. C. 
Their names will then be added to a 
special Far Eastern mailing list which 
will be prepared by the Red Cross 
and will be independent of the next- 
of-kin list maintained by the Office 
of the Provost Marshal General. 

The American Red Cross staff, 
and especially those concerned with 
the publication and distribution of 
Prisoners of War Bulletin, have 
regarded it as a high privilege to 
render this service to the families and 
friends of our prisoners of war and 
civilian internees. To the many hun- 
dreds who have written us about the 
help and guidance which the Bul- 
letin has brought to them in their 
anxious days of waiting, our sincere 
thanks are now expressed. 

Gilbert Redfern 

<&dki)i jbo iPis. £diioA 

748 Page Street 
San Francisco 17, California 

Dear Sir: 

I have just returned from the Philip- 
pines after 1,135 days* internment under the 
Japs. They took care of us in Camp John 
Hay and Camp Holmes (Baguio), and also 
at Bilibid prison in Manila. 

It's wonderful to be home again and I wish 
to express my sincere thanks to the Ameri- 
can Red Cross for all you have done for my- 
self and other Americans interned in the 
Philippines during these past three night- 
marish years. 

One of my most wonderful remembrances 
is that of December 25, 1943-Christmas 
Day!— when we in the Baguio camp received 
the wonderful food packages and medical 
supplies. Needless to say, it was really a 
grand Christmas and one I will always re- 

The Red Cross has assisted us immeas- 
urably since our liberation also, and-well- 
I just can't tell you how thankful I am. 
We are all looking forward to the libera- 
tion of Americans in other war areas, par- 
ticularly those in Hong Kong and Singapore. 
Many, many thanks again, and you may 
rest assured that the American Red Cross 

Q. Do all wounded AAF priso-i 
repatriated during the war 
disability discharges from 

A. Every effort is made to reass: 
a repatriated AAF member (j 
noncombatant capacity) 


Missing in Action 

(Continued from page 6) 

med guard crew, and the passen- 
:rs all safely abandoned ship. The 
bmarine surfaced and compelled 
1 except five to go aboard. Lined up 
a the deck of the submarine, their 
ands tied behind with rope or wire, 
panese sailors beat the survivors 

iiujicumuatani capacity) unir 1 . • Jclx±KJXO u^ai. mc su, 

he specificially indicates his jnmercifully with bayonets, 
sire for a certificate of disabiff ld iron P^pes, causing some to die 
for discharge. jlutright. Late the same night, while 

Q. What becomes of the pers<£ ine , thir ^ surviv °rs of the SS Jean 
effects of a flier reported rniss& lC ° let W " X StlU ° n deckj the Sub " 
in action? Marine submerged; they were thrown 

A. Before preparing them for s h^° tbe T water ™ ith f neir hands tied 
ment, ifis^ustomary^o a ^ nd demand without hte jackets. 
manding officer in an over?^ "T" ^T- ? ne ,° f the men 
theater to retain the per ^ a ^ d ^ free his hands and to un- 
effects of an individual fo? e ^ of the others Nearly two 
"holding period," which may/f ^ after bavm S been m the 
tend oversome months after H ±0r b ° UrS before hfe ra£ts could 
has been reported missing in ? dro P.P ed by planes, 18 of the group 
tion, on the chance that the f ^ m iraculous y rescued, 
dividual will find his way back J Throu S hou t the war the Navy has 
his base. After the "holdif 1G t0 a11 P osslble lengths to effect 
period" has elapsed, the effec, rescue of "missing" personnel, 
are made ready for shipping an y the continuan ce of rescue 

are brought back to this T count?™ 10118 would needlessly imperil 
when transportation is availabf - ? many otllers are the Y dis " 
and, in the case of an army fli e }1 "l tmued " Marches for the pilots 
delivered to the Effects Quarte crews of nav y P lan es have been 
master, Army Effects Bureai e . quent * Ex perience has proved that 
jiation personnel are rescued more 

Missour ten than an y othe r. 

Rescue Operations 

Kansas City Quartermastf 
Depot, Kansas City, Missour" 
Personal effects of navy fliers ai 
forwarded to next of kin in tL, 71 
Pacific Area from Personal i Whenever planes take off from or 
fects Distribution Center, U. : lld on a carrier, destroyers stand by 
Naval Supply Depot, Clearfielc P ick U P the personnel from any 
Utah, and to those in the A lanes tnat ma y crash or . that may 
lantic Area from Personal Effec £orc ed to make a water landing. 
Distribution Center, U. S. Nav; cortin g destroyers closely watch all 
Supply Depot, Scotia, New Yorl anes taking off or landing, and, in 
The effects of Marine Corf event of a crash, proceed at once 
personnel are handled from tf tne scene and attempt to recover 
same centers as those of navy pe: 1 personnel as quickly as possible, 
sonnel. iiese destroyers seldom take time 

Coast Guard personnel's effec! lower a boat for the rescue work; 
are distributed from U. S. Coa^erally an expert swimmer dives 
Guard Headquarters', Militarer the side to aid those in the 
Morale Division, Washingtctfter. In this way many precious 
D. C. es have been saved. 

There is no way of determiflin Whenever a plane is seen to crash 
the length of time that mai making a water landing some dis- 
elapse between the report of misace from the carrier, planes in the 
ing in action and the receipt beinity circle the spot and at once 
the next of kin of these effectport the position of the crash to 
but it usually requires at least sicue units. The circling planes drop 
months and may take as much ae rafts to those who do not have 
a y ear - ? m. Whenever possible, the planes 

~— — — ttiain in the area until a rescue ship 

will always hold a warm spot in my fcear^ Qr ^^ Qther § ^.^F 

Most sincerely, m The actual f h 

A ril 1945 WALTER M ' M ' ter iS S enerall y madG b y ^ ^ 

pn J °yer or by a seaplane. Outstand- 

ing heroism has resulted in many 
such rescues, often within the very 
range of enemy guns. 

One example will illustrate how 
far the Navy has gone to rescue per- 
sonnel. In September of last year, the 
Navy risked scores of costly planes 
and two PT boats and expended 
thousands of pounds erf bombs and 
hundreds of thousands of rounds of 
ammunition during a nine-hour bat- 
tle in order to save one naval aviator. 
In one of the most heroic rescues 
of the entire war, two patrol torpedo 
boats snaked through Halmahera Is- 
land's heavily mined Wasile Bay, 
while covering planes held back the 
Japanese and saved the pilot from 
almost certain capture. The pilot's 
plane had been caught by a burst of 
ack-ack fire. Bailing out, his para- 
chute dropped him in the center of 
Wasile Bay. The pilot in the Japa- 
nese front yard climbed on a rubber 
raft dropped by a Hellcat. Circling 
Navy, planes watched the tiny yellow 
raft drift toward the shore lined 
with Japanese PT boats headed for 
the Bay, planes dropped smoke 
bombs to hide the pilot; Hellcats 
circled in relays in spite of heavy 
ack-ack fire. The PT's, under con- 
stant fire, with Avengers laving a 
smoke screen for them while Hell- 
cats dove on the Japanese guns, final- 
ly made the rescue. 

The possibilities of rescue are gov- 
erned by many factors. If the sea is 
rough, the chances of rescue are re- 
duced because of the difficultv in 
ascertaining the exact location. Much 
also depends on the area. For in- 
stance, a plane shot down over enemy 
territory occupied by friendly natives 
has a better chance of rescue than a 
plane shot down over areas occupied 
entirely by the enemy. Experience 
has proved that a pilot shot down in 
combat in the Philippines had an 

even chance of rescue. Within re- 
cent months guerrillas there have 
saved the lives of many naval per- 

The type of action being carried 
on at the time a pilot is shot down 
also has a direct bearing on his 
chances of rescue. If a plane crashes 
during a naval engagement, when 
enemy submarines are in the vicinity, 
rescue is more difficult, but it has 
been effected even under the most 
trying circumstances. Everything is 
done so long as it does not need-. 
lessly endanger the lives of too many 
other persons. 

Failure of Planes To Return 

The most difficult cases involving 
the rescue of aviation personnel are 
those in which the planes are not 
seen to be shot down or to crash but 
fail to rendezvous after an attack 
has been completed. In such cases, 
because it is not known where or 
under what circumstances the plane 
was lost, search is difficult. Every 
possible effort, however, is made. 
Planes search the area where the 
plane is estimated to have gone down. 
Ships and planes within that area 
are notified. The search may con- 
tinue for several days. The percent- 
age of rescues in this type of case is, 
however, much lower. 

Some twenty-five planes from one 
of our carriers which participated in 
the attack on the Japanese fleet at 
Guam in June of 1944 failed to re- 
turn, due mostly to fuel shortage. 
Practically all of the planes were 
forced to land in the water. Destroy- 
ers and PBY's rescued the crews of all 
except one plane. 

As the fighting draws closer to 
Japan, the chances of rescue may very 
well become diminished. Efforts will, 
of course, be increased. The rescues 

Editor, Prisoners of War Bulletin 
American Red Cross 
17th and D Sts., N. W. 
Washington 13, D. C. 

Will vou please send me the Far Eastern edition 
of PRISONERS OF WAR BULLETIN. I am not listed 
as next of kin of an American prisoner o£ war. 


Please print 


Please print 

will be more difficult, more spectacu- 
lar, but they will still be made. 
Chances o£ Survival 

What are the chances that a "miss- 
ing" person- will prove to be a sur- 
vivor? A general answer is impossible 
because the circumstances vary in 
every case. It is unfortunately true 
that of the naval personnel reported 
"missing" since Pearl Harbor con- 
siderably more have been determined 
to be dead than have proved to be 
alive. This is likely to continue. 
When a man loses his life on land, 
his sacrifice is usually disclosed rather 
rapidly by the finding of his body. At 
sea, however, a man may lose his life 
and leave no evidence of that fact. 
Therefore, many naval personnel, in 
fact dead, must be listed as "miss- 
ing." Nearly 17,000 officers and men 
of the Navy carried at one time as 
"missing" are now listed as "killed." 

From the standpoint of percent- 
ages it is expected that fewer naval 
personnel will be placed in the "miss- 
ing" status than formerly, because of 
basic facLors already discussed. 

Machines, the marvels of modern 
inventive ingenuity, cannot take the 
place of human beings. In the final 
analysis, manpower will win the war, 
and, for victory, precious personnel 
will continue to be lost. The Navy 
is keenly aware of the fact that noth- 
ing can compensate for the loss of 
those dear to us. The countless bil- 
lions the war is costing in materiel 
seem infinitesimal when we learn of 
a loved one's death. The American 
people are facing the sacrifices war 
entails with braverv and fortitude. 



Volume I 

June-December, 1943 

Published Monthly by the American Red Cross, Washington, D. C, 
for the Relatives of American Prisoners of War and Civilian Internees 

For use on the journey h 

Red Cross release kits are distributed to America 

Release Kits itiifc Liberated Americans 

An urgent request for an addition- 
al 50,000 release kits came by cable 
late in April from Henry W. Dun- 
ning, the American Red Cross rep- 
resentative at SHAEF. The cable 
stated that "the kits are filling a 
great need." They are distributed to 
liberated American prisoners of war 
when they reach the assembly cen- 
ters preparatory to repatriation, or at 
ports of call on the journey home. 

About 100.000 release kits, packed 

ddress, American and British air- 
men, VI 3 
change of, for next of kin, I 12, 

VII 12 
Italian camps, II 7 

Adoption, of prisoners, II 11 
Agriculture, Dept. of, and supplies 
procurement, II 2 

by women volu^eers at the Ne Airmen in Germany, address for, 

York Packaging Center, were shippe VI 3 

from the United States in February. f orce s. German camp for, I 7 

and March. Of this total, 71,400 wer„ _ , r ,r TT T1 

, . , , ^ in aaA * t Allen, Larry, letter from, VII 11 

shipped to France, 10,000 to tl ' 

Soviet Union, 9,500 to Italy and 5,0(A41ied prisoners, number supplied 

to Egypt for American prisoners r by ARC, II 2 

turning via Russia, and 4,000 to u"4rnerican field Service, volunteer 

Philippines. The additional 50,0C ambulance organization, II 7 

requested by cable were put into pn 
duction immediately. 

Prisoners of War Bulletin 

JUNE 1945 

Published by 

The American National Red Cross 
Washington 13, D. C. 

Return Postage Guaranteed 

Postmaster— If addressee has removed and new 
address is known, notify sender on FORM 3547, 
postage for which is guaranteed. 

\ngst, Mr., IRCC Asst. Delegate to 

Japan, IV 5 
Arbeitskommando, I 12, VII 4-5 

see also Work detachments 
Armed Forces Institute, IV 1 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Permit No. 1513 

Serials ^ CQ ^f°? ela8 library 
The UnWarsity oi m 
Austin 12 *e*a s 

U. S. POSTAGE ^ny an d Navy supplies for POWs, 

ly 2 cPAID I5 

Artificial limbs supplied, II 3, III 11 
Assembly line, in packaging centers, 

I 6 
Aviators, American, picture of in 

Stalagluft III, I 7, IV 4, VI 11 
Axis prisoners in U. S., conditions 

of work, II 9 

Baden-Baden, Americans at, III 9 
Books, mailing of, VI 4, VII 9 
second-hand for German camps, 
I 11 

sent to camps in Taiwan, IV 3 

special ordering of, 15-6 
Booth, Colonel Mary, letter from, 

IV 10 
British Red Cross, reciprocity with, 

I 11, III 3, VI 3 
British POWs, deliveries to, IV 3 

on Taiwan, IV 2 
British relief, pilferage of, IV 3 
Bucharest, Rumania, letter from, 

VII 8 
Bulk supplies, I 9 
Bulletin, cannot be sent to prison 

camps, II 11 
Burgess, C. S., letter from, VII 11 

Cable message, transmission time, 

III 11 
Camp designations, Italian, II 7 
Camp leader, distributes supplies, 

II 7 

information from, III 11 

Can openers for food parcels, VI 1 1 
Capture parcel, III 2 
Cards, for POWs in Italy, III 3 
Car has I, ownership, I 1 1, II 3 

second voyage, I 9 
Categories of prisoners, II 4 
Central Agency, IRCC, I 2 

picture of, I 3 
Change of address, for next of kin, 

I 12, VII 12 
China, occupied, relief activities in, 

I 4 

Christmas packages, plans for, I 9 

contents, VII 1 

number sent, VII 1 

to German POWs in U. S„ VII 3 
Civilian internees in Shanghai, 

III 3 

exchange of, via Gripsholm, VI 5 
Clark, Lieut. Col., letter from, I 10 

senior American officer, I 8 
Clothing, in capture parcel, III 2 

in next-of-kin parcels, II 6 

picture in IRCC warehouse, III 3 

provided by Detaining Power, I 3 
Clubs, sports, in German camps, IV 5 
Collective relief section, IRCC, II 3 
Communications, see also mail, 

VII 8 

with Far East, VII 5 
Convention, Geneva, Prisoners of 

War, I 2, VII 7, 9 
Corregidor, POWs from, 111 
Courses of study in German camps, 

IV 1 
Crutches, provision of, III 11 
Currency, special German, VII 7 

picture of, VI 6 
Current Export Bulletin No. 100 

BEW, II 6 

DAR aid to RC, VII 3 
Davis, Norman, foreword to Bul- 
letin, I 1 
Day, Flight Sergeant, I 7 
de Blonay, I 12 

Delegates, IRCC, see IRCC, Dele- 

Dental requisites supplied, II 3 

Devereux, Major, VI 2 

Diplomatic exchange ships, relief 

supplies carried by, I 4, II 4 
Diphtheria in Taiwan camps, IV 2 
Distribution of POW supplies, II 2 

of relief cargoes in Far East, VI 5 

of relief supplies in Germany, 
VII 7 
Dulag, meaning of, I 12 
Dulagluft, see POW camps, German 

meaning of, I 12 
Dutch POWs on Taiwan, IV 2 

Educational activities of POW, IV 1 
Educational Books Section, Oxford, 

IV 1 
Egle, Mr. E., IRCC Delegate, VI 2 
Escape, from Italian camps, VII 3 
Europe, map of POW camps in, 

IV 6-7 
European Student Relief Fund, I 12 

Sec'y General of, I 12 

Exchange, American and Japanese 
nationals, IV 3 
of civilian internees, Far East, 

II 4, III 11 
of POWs, II 4, VII 6 
ships, relief to Far East, I 4 

Far East, exchange, supplies for, II 4 

financial aid to, III 3 

funds for POWs in, I 4 

mail, I 9 

mail, Philippines, I 11 

mail, photographs in, III 9 

mail route to, II 4 

map of prison camps in, III 6-7 

missing in, I 11 

movement of POWs in, II 11 

relief to POWS in, I 4 

repatriation of civilian internees, 
III 11 

supplies for, on Gripsholm, IV 3 
Federal Radio Monitoring system, 

I 11 

Film of POWs in German camps, 
VII 5 

Financial aid for Shanghai internees, 

III 3 
Fleet, RC for POW shipments, II 2 

Food, provided by Detaining Power, 
I 3 

items for next-of-kin parcels re- 
stricted, II 6 

Food parcels, aboard Foz do Douro, 
I 8 

addition to, VI 11 
for British POWs from U. S., 

II 11 
invalid's, III 1 

invalid's, picture of contents, III 1 
number packaged at centers, I 6-7 
standard (No. 10) , contents of, I 9 
standard, packaging centers for, 

I 6, II 9 
standard, receipts for, I 6-7 
for working detachments, 111 

Foreword, purpose of Bulletin I 1 

Foz do Douro, II 3 
picture of, I 8 

French state railways, II 2 

Fruit cake, to Italy not permitted, 
III 11 

Geneva Convention of 1929, VII 7, 9 

rights provided by, I 2 
German camp terms, meaning of, I 12 
Glenn, Peter, II 7 
Goodrich, Colonel C. C, USAAF, 

VI 3 
Goudrey, Father, I 8 
Gray, Sergeant, letter from, VII 11 
Greeting cards, VI 3 

Gripsholm, IV 3, VI 5 
cargo, VI 7 
exchange via, II 4 
map of voyage of, VI 6-7 
Mormagao, exchange at, IV 3 
relief supplies on, IV 3 
supplies from, II 1 
supplies unloaded, VII 1 
transfer, VI 1 

Hamaker, Lt. Leonard E., letter 
from, VII 8 

Hongkong, IRCC Delegate to, VI 5 
POWs from, in Taiwan, IV 2 

Hotel Metropole, IRCC Relief Dept., 
II 3 

Hours, working, for POWs in Ger- 
many, HI 2 

House, letter from, I 10 

Hag, meaning of, I 12 I letter- writing privileges, II 2, VI 

see POW camps, German 2, 8, 10 

Individual relief section, IRCC, If j reception of delayed, VI 9 
Information bureau, PMGO, I m Mail to POWs, see also Communi- 

IRCC, Central Agency for POVVs 
USA section, picture, II 8 

IRCC, consignee for supplies, II 3 
asst. delegate to Japan, IV 5 
delegate at Hongkong, VI 5 
delegate to Japan, IV 5 
delegate at Shanghai, VI 2, 5 
delegate at Taiwan, IV 2 
delegates of, I 3, IV 5 

cations and letters, VII 4, 5, 
address for airmen, VI 3 
censorship of, VII 4 
German word for, III 11 
in Far East, VII 9 
letters from friends, VI 9 
letters from servicemen, VI 
not to transit camps, III 11 
parcels, individual, II 5 
parcels to Far East, VII 9 

9, 10 

delegates' visits to camps in Worlc^ au route, new, to Far East, II 4 
War I, III 4, in present war, M Malaria in Heito, IV 2 
IV 5, VI 1, 2, 3, VII 4, 5 BMalaya, POWs from, in Taiwan, IV 2 

warehouse, picture, II 6, III 3 Map q£ pQW campSj in Europe? 
Italy, repatriates from, II 7 j IV 6-7 

| in Far East, III 6-7 
Japan, mail for, VII 5 j notes on > m 3 > IV 5 

Japanese camps, see POW camj><| Ma P o£ Gripsholm voyage, VI 6-7 
Japanese list of American POW, Marlag, meaning of, I 12 
1 4j VI 9 ] Marseille, port for POW supplies, 

Japanese Red Cross, VI 5 II 2 

vice president of, VI 5 picture of supplies discharged at, 

Java, POWs from, in Taiwan, Iff! II 7 

Massey, Group Captain, I 7 
Medical commission, neutral, II 4 
Medicine kit, III 1 > 
picture of, III 2 

Kanangoora, relief ship, I 4 
Kriegsgefangenenpost, meaning 

III 11 

Kriegsgefangenen-Lagergeld, see Cur- Mediterranean route, II 2 
rency; special I Milag, meaning of, I 12 

Missing in action, VII 3 

letter from, before official notice, 
Labels, mailing dates, III 11 III 11 

parcel, for next of kin, I 5 presumed POW in Far East, I 1 1 

Labor regulations for POWs in G^r- Monotony in cam ps, IV 5 
many, III 2 

Lager, meaning of, I 12 

Letters, frequency and transmission 

time, II 1 1 | National Service Life Insurance, II 3 

pen-pal, not forwarded, II llvf f Nayy and Army supp ii es f or POWs, 

Morale, VII 7 

Life insurance for POWs, II 

I 5 

Lisbon-Marseille service for supplies, Newspapers, in prison camps, II 2, 

II 2 IV 4 

Luftlager, meaning of, I 12 I News letter, see Red Cross News 

11 Next-of-kin packages, I 5 
Is carried by Gripsholm, VI 5 
Mail, carried by Gripsholm, VI 5 . f * *A T o 

' t t n n cartons tor, VI 12 

Far East, I 9, 11 c ^, TT A 

T, ■ -T. , 1 • TTT A S1Ze Ot' Vli " 

Far East, photographs in. Ill 9 . r TT & 

from home. Ill 8 suggestions for, II 6 

Mail from POWs, II 11, VII 11 I "<>** ° f im F isonment ' del ^ ° f ' 
in Far East, VII 9 IIT U 

Officers, pay of POW, in U. S., II 9 
Oflag, see POW camps, German 

meaning of, I 12 
Orthopedists, committee of, III 11 

Packages, invalid food, III 1, see also 

parcels and food parcels 

next-of-kin, I 5, VI 12, II 6, VII 6 

picture of shipment, II 6 

standard food, I 9 
Packaging centers, for ARC standard 

food parcels, I 6 

Chicago, Wrigley Co., II 9 

No. 1, Philadelphia, II 5 

No. 3, III 1 

output of, IV 1 1 

part in POW supplies, II 2 

picture of conveyor line, I 6 

Parcels, see also Packages 
capture, III 2 
for United Nations POWs from 

U. S., II 5 
individual, II 5 
labels, mailing dates, III 11 
regulations for ordering, II 5 

Pay, of Axis POWs in U. S., II 9 

Geneva Convention on, VII 9 

rate in Germany, VII 7 

rate in Taiwan, IV 3 

rate in Zentsuji, II 1 
Pen-pal letters not sent, II 11 
Pestalozzi, Mr., IV 5 
Peter, Dr. Marc, picture, III 4 
Philippines, messages from, VII 5 

POWs from, in Taiwan, IV 2, II 1 1 

relief to, I 4 

mail to and from, I 11 
Photographs, in POW mail, II 11, 

III 9 * 

receipt of, VI 1 1 

Pilferage of British relief, IV 3 
Ploesti raid, captured airmen from, 

VII 8 
Points system in prison camps, 

III 9 

POW camps, German 

Dulagluft, VII 7, letters from, 

II 12, III 10 
Hag VII, letter from, I 10 
Hag VII, letter from leader, IV 11 
Hag VIII, letter from leader, IV 11 

general conditions, VII 7 

in World War I, VII 1 

names, meaning of, I 12 

Oflag VII B, VI 3, letters from, 

II 12, IV 11 
Oflag LX A/H, VI 3 

Oflag IX A/Z, VI 3, letters from, 

III 12, II 10, 12, IV 8, 11, the- 
atricals, III 9 

Oflag XXI B (now designated 
Oflag 64) , VI 3, 8, letter from, 
II 10, library, VI 8 . 
Oflag 64 (see Oflag XXI B) , VI 3 
clothing, VI 3, food, VI 3, letter 
from, VII 12 
Stalag II B, VI 3 
Stalag III B, VI 11, 12 
Stalag V B, VI 3 
Stalag VII A, VI 2, letters from, 

VII 8, VI 8, 11 
Stalag VII B, letter from, II 10 
Stalag VIII B, III 10, VII 4, letter 

from, III 10 
Stalag XX B, letter from, VII 11 
Stalag 383, letter from, VII 11 
Stalag Luft I, VII 4 
Stalag Luft III, I 7, VI 2, 3, 9, 11, 
VII 4, letters from, I 10, II 10, 
IV 8, 10, 11, VI 8, VII 8, picture 
of aviators in, I 7, IV 4 

POW camps, Italian 
designations, II 7 
P. G. 21, letters from, I 10, II 10, 

III 10, VI 8, VII 8, 11 
Camp 59, III 3 
P. G. 65, letters from, II 12, 

VII 11 
Camp 66, letter from, VII 11 

POW camps, Japanese 
Fukuoka, VII 5 
Hakodate, VII 5 
Heito, IV 2 

Higashi Shinagawa, IV 5, VII 5 
Hiraoka, IV 5 
Hirohata Divisional Labor Camp, 

VI 10 
Jinsen, IV 5 
Karenko, IV 2 
Kawasaki, IV 5 
Keijo, IV 5 

Kobe Divisional Camp, VI 10 
Luzon prison camps, VI 8 
Mukden Camp, letter from, VII 1 1 
Osaka, VI 1, letter from, VI 11 


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