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Full text of "Proceedings of 1981 International Conference of Energy Education"

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Office of Energy Education 
and 
College of Continuing Education 
The University of Rhode Island 









CONFERENCE CHAIRMAN 

Donald F. Kirwan 



ORGANIZING COMMITTEE 

Paul J. Black, University of London, UK 

Melvyn L Dutton, California State College, USA 

John M. Fowler, National Science Teachers Assoc, USA 

Hanna Goldring, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel 

Frederich Herrman, University of Karlsruhe, West Germany 

Lila M. Hexner, Northeast Solar Energy Center, USA 

Sarah E. Klein, Roton Middle School, USA 

Edward Lallor, New York State Department of Education, USA 

John L Lewis, Malvern College, UK 

James R. Mahoney, American Assoc, of Comm. and Jr. Colleges, USA 

George Marx, Roland Eotvos University, Hungary 

Eustace Mendis, Ontario Science Center, Canada 

Peter E. Richmond, The University, Southampton, UK 

John Shacter, American Assoc, of Engineering Societies, USA 

Jerome Skapof, Northeast Solar Energy Center, USA 

Ethel Simon-Mcjpiianjs, Northwest Regional Educational Lab, USA 

Vivien Talisayon.'jbMyersijy of Philippines, Philippines 

Paul B. Vitta, University of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania 

Jack Willis, University of ; Rhode Island, USA 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 

for Proceedings of 1981 International Energy Education Conference 

I General Energy Education 

1 . Educational Programs for Energy Literacy 

2. Arizona Energy Education '."„' "*"■' "i'u-i-* ' ' 

3. Energy Education and Conservation Programs Provided by a the Electric Utility 

Industry - ' ' 

4. Education in Alternate Energy Sources ] » 

5. Energy Education Assessment - Maine K-12 23 

6. A Curriculum Strategy in Energy Education for the Secondary School .25 

7. Energy Educaton: A View From the NSTA ■ • • 27 

8. Collaboration in Energy Education: Pitfalls and Promises 28 

9. The Forgotten Fundamentals of the Energy Crisis 28 

10. Energy Activism in Secondary Education 28 

II Solar Energy Education 

1 Solar Energy: Curriculum Development and Teacher Training 29 

2. Fun and Frustration - Physics Experiments in Passive Solar Design 32 

3. The National Solar Water Heater Workshop " ' * o 7 

4. A University Level Interdisciplinary Solar Energy Use Course • J' 

5. Solar Energy Education for the Consumer 38 

6. Educating, the Public Through a Design Course • • • • • "ju 

7. An Information and Education Program at New Mexico Solar Energy Institute 42 

8. An Interdisciplinary Course on Solar Home Design 44 

9. Solar Cells in School ■ ■ ■ ■ • • '.'■'*'"', '« 'ill 

10. A Closed-Loop-lteratively-lnteracting Process for Mass-Communication of boiar 

Energy AQ 

11. Solar Energy Education Throught Research Participation ....*» 

Ill Issues for Curriculum Development 

1 A Curriculum Development Model for Energy Education ■.;... . • • • • • • - • • • • ■ -50 

2 Nuclear Power in the Classroom: A Union of Science and Social Studies Education. 53 
3. Using Issues Related to the Energy Source Natural Gas as Enrichment for ^ 

Secondary Mathematics ■ • ■ • ■ ■ • ■ • • ■ ,.„ 

4 Energy and Society: The Role the Humanities in Energy Education. . ... ■■■■•■■■ - bb 
5. The Need of a New Design of Educational Knowledge for Coping with the Study of ^ 

Energy and Environment • 

IV General Interdisciplinary Courses 

1 . Energy Perspectives in College Education ■ • ■ 

2 Developing and Teaching a University Course on Energy Management. . . . . . bb 

3. Technical Energy Education for the Non-Technical Student. . "70 

4. A Graduate Interdisciplinary Curriculum in Energy Studies. ^ 

5. An Interdisciplinary Program on Energy Policy • • 



V Instruction Units - Elementary 

1. A Resource Unit for Teaching Energy to Elementary School Students 73 

2. Energy Day: An Elementary Level Energy Curriculum 81 

3. Solar Energy in the Elementary School 82 

VI Instruction Units - Secondary 

1 . An Introduction to the Concept of Energy for 1 5 year-old Pupils in France 85 

2. Energy Education Project in a Developing Country. 86 

3. A Short Course in Energy 89 

4. Low Cost Teaching of Energy Conversion 90 

5. Y.E.S. - Students Educate Youth 91 

6. Appropriate Energy Education and Technology 93 

VII Energy Education in Secondary Science 

1 . Our Cosmic Energy Budget 94 

2. The Role of the Second Law of Thermodynamics in Energy Education 97 

3. Home Heating: Computer Assisted Learning Applied to Energy Education 99 

4. Energy and Thermodynamics in the High School Classroom 101 

5. Classroom Construction of Apparatuses Using Renewable Energy Sources 104 

6. A Physical Science Course Focused on Energy 105 

7. Energy Supply by Nuclear Power Stations r 107 

8. Experiments in the Teaching of Energy in the Romanian Secondary School 108 

VIII Curricula - Undergraduate 

1. The Energy and Its Carriers: A Unified Approach to the Physical Sciences 109 

2. Curriculum of a Three Year Technology Program in Energy Conversion 113 

3. A Participatory Approach to Undergraduate Energy Education: the Cape of Clark 
University 114 

4. Energy Management Curricula: What Should Be Their Content? 118 

5. The Energy Curriculum at Ramapo College 120 

IX Curricula - Community College 

1. The Community College Concept in International Energy Education 122 

2. A Two Year Degree Program in Solar Energy Technology 124 

3. Wyoming Post Secondary Energy Education Consortium 125 

4. A Model Curriculum Format and Pogram for Energy Education 127 

5. Self Reliant House: A Muiti-Desciplinary Resource Center 129 

X Postgraduate and Continuing Education Programs 

1. Some Thoughts on the Need for an Energy Enriched Curriculum 132 

2. Continuing Education for the Consulting Engineer. 134 

XI Vocational Energy Education General Issues 

1. Vocational Education: A Key to Solar Commericialization 137 

2. Vocational Education and the Solar Transition 138 

3. Conservation: The Overlooked Component of Energy Education for Vocational 
Education Students 140 



2. Certificates in Energy Education: What do We Want it to Mean? 

3. Developing a Curriculum for Community Energy Advisors 288 

4. Establishing an Energy Training Showcase: the Energy Conservation/Solar 

Training Institution 289 

XXIII Special Programs 

1. Seminar on Solar Energy Technology for Gifted and Talented 

Junior High School Students 290 

2. Energy Awareness and Education in an Independent Boarding School 292 

3. Triple E: Energy, Education and Employment 294 

XXIV Advanced Technical Subjects 

1 . Energy: Success and Failures 296 

2. Energy Education within an Environmental Resources Engineering Program 300 

3. Curriculum Development for and Instruction of a Graduate Level Solar Energy Course304 

4. Can We Still Win the "Energy War"? 

5. A Technical Course Series in Applied Solar Energy at the Senior/Graduate Level. .307 

6. Chemical Energy Storage - a Graduate Course in Physical Chemistry 307 

XXV Targeted Programs in Energy Awareness, Design and Training 

1 . Design of Passive Solar Systems 308 

2. "Toward a Sustainable Future" 310 

3. Energy Awareness in Florida 312 

XXVI Outreach and Technology Transfer Programs 

1 . Used Crankcase Oil Disposal Practices: 

Implications to Recycling Programs .313 

2. Tech Transfer in Georgia Tech's Energy Programs 319 

3. Impacting Energy Policy Through Technology Transfer 321 

4. Comparative Aopproaches to Energy Education for Three Different Audiences 323 

5. Community Energy Policy Project 325 

XXVII Science and Technology 

1 . Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion as a Vehicle for the Teaching of 
Thermodynamics 330 

2. Integrated Energy Education in General Chemistry 331 

3. Teaching Energy 333 

4. The Use of a Self-Instructional Scientific Literancy Module for Energy Education. .336 

5. Alternative Energy and Electronics 340 

6. University General Educaton Course on Energy 342 

7. Energy: Focal Topic for an Interdisciplinary Core Science Course 344 

8. Creative Delivery Patterns for an Energy Course 346 

XXVIII Economics, Ethics and Theory 

1. Ethics in the Classroom-Morality and the Laws of Thermodynamics ; 347 



2. The Economic Issues of the Energy Crisis 349 

3. The Reagan Administration Energy Program: A Study in Economics and Policy. . .351 

4. Teaching Energy Ethics in a College Liberal Learning Program 354 

5. Cosmological and Global Perspectives in Energy Education 356 

XXIX Curriculum and Assessment II 

■1. Energy Education in High School-Savings and Resources, A Plagetian Way 361 

2. The Solar Energy Curriculum Project ;362 

3. "Energy: A Local Curriculum Development "364 

4. Construction of an Instrument to Assess Effectiveness of Energy Education 365 

5. A Solar Observatory as Backbone for a High School Energy Education 

Program ■ • 365 

XXX Issues in Energy Education 

1 .Issues in Energy Education 366 



INTRODUCTION 

Providence, Rhode Island, USA was the site for the 1981 International Conference of Energy 
Education. Statistical data for the Conference shows that there were 352 participants from 
43 different countries (1 02 non-U SA attendees). There were 1 68 presentations and 1 2 workshops 
by 212 authors and workshop leaders. There were 45 different sessions of which 32 were con- 
tributed session, 5 were plenary and 8 were discussion sessions. Educators from all levels, 
representatives from various professional associations, research scientists, government agency 
representatives, and industrial, business, and political leaders presented papers on a wide 
variety of energy education topics. 

This Conference provided the vehicle for the information exhange/dissemination and discus- 
sions on matters relating to the energy perspective in education. There were many presenta- 
tions of new and innovative policies and approaches to energy education, and several reports 
on successful programs at a variety of educational levels. The conference atmosphere was 
exciting and stimulating for those in attendance. The active participation by the educators, scien- 
tists, and others interested in the formal and/or non-formal modes of energy education enabled 
close working relationships to be established. As these relationships develop, they will substan- 
tially increase the effectiveness of concept and information dissemination and the awareness 
and utilization of existing educational resources and matierials. The formal and informal discus- 
sions during the conference enchanced international understanding and cooperation. Networking 
in this area of education has begun on the National and International levels. 

Special thanks go the Organizing Committee and the local host Committee for their efforts 
to insure that the conference was a success. A furture conference will be held within the next 
few years, preferably after the International Council of Scientific Unions' Committee on the 
Teaching of Science Conference in 1985 on Science and Technology Education and Future 
Human Needs. This conference will contain and energy component. 

Donald F. Kirwan and Peter K. Glanz 

Editors 



VII 



SESSION 1: GENERAL ENERGY EDUCATION 

1.1 INVITED 

EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS FOR ENERGY LITERACY 



Ed. Dalton, President 

Energy and Man's Environment 

Salt Lake City, Utah 



OUTLINE 

1. Rationale for energy education 

2. Considerations for implementing energy education programs 

A. Establishing a Point of View 

B. Developing a strategy 

3. Components of an effective energy education program 

A. Training/professional programs 

B. Curriculum resources and processes 

4. EME as an example of energy education 

A. Purpose 

8. Point of view 

C. Background 

D. Organization 

E. Organizational principles 

F. Organizational goals 

G. State operations 

H. Sponsors, contracts, and contributors 

5. Evaluation studies 

6. Summary 

A RATIONALE FOR ENERGY EDUCATION 

Since the oil embargo of 1 973, people throughout the world have felt the rising costs of energy and the decreasing availability of some 

energy resources. Individuals have asked the question; "Why did this occur?" Are we really running out of energy?" "What will our energy 

future be?" 

A national poll {Cambridge Reports, Inc. 1978) confirmed earlier conclusions that many Americans (40%) do not believe a shortage of 

energy exists. A survey of adults, (National Assessment of Educational Progress, 1978) ages 26-35, showed that while young adults 

apparently lack the knowledge to make well-informed decisions on energy issues, they do believe energy-related problems are very 

serious, 

Americans must face the fact that, because of the availability of abundant, cheap energy during the 1950's and 1 960's, America produced 

an enormous stock of capital goods, homes, cars, factories, equipment, and commercial buildings most of which are extremely inefficient 

users of energy. As the country enters an era of scarce and costly energy fuels, a logical implication of past activities is that one may 

expect economic and social changes in ail facets of society. 

As in past crises, society has turned toward education for help in changing attitudes, in preparing students for new roles in the work force, 
and in adapting to new ethics and behaviors consistent with changing social goals and policies. It is now imperative that energy be 
considered a basic educational theme in all appropriate disciplines and within all grade levels. The following comments illustrate some of 
the concern being expressed for this objective to be attacines. In February 1978. John Ryor, President of the National Education 
Association, said in a quest editorial (Energy and Education, February 1978), dealing with energy: 



In a crisis of this proportion, I believe schools ought to be part of a general information program to clarify the problem, explain the 
government program, and identify the impact both on schools, students, and teachers. 

In another reference to energy education, (Energy and Education, April 1978) Edward P. Ortleb, Past President of the National Science 
Teachers Association, said: 

Students have perhaps been made awareof the energy crisis and some of the technological aspects of it, but we have not helped give 
them an in-depth feeling for the humanistic factors involved. Each of us must make an effort to become informed. We need the 
opportunities for students to interpret the world around them and to help them learn to make intelligent decisions. 

Furthermore. James C. Kellett, former Director of The Educational Program Division of the U.S. Department of Energy has stated 
(Energy and Education, December 1979); 

No longer is it sufficient to master the basics of physical science to "understand" energy (although it is still necessary). One must 

master a group of other complex systems of thought involving social science and thearcanescienceofgovernment.lt is tempting to 
say that grappling with our current energy situation requires wisdom and knowledge tempered and strengthened by experience. 

In the document entitled, Policy issues in K-12 En&rgy Education by the Education Commission of the States, August 1 979 this position 
was taken: 

Schools have an urgent responsibility to include energy-related topics at all levels and in all appropriate disciplines, preferably as a 
part of an integrated, comprehensive energy education/conservation program, and that other public and private agencies should be 
called upon to provide technical and other forms of assistance in support of this effort. People need an understanding of the energy 
■'facts of life" and an awareness of the severity of the energy-related problems in order to intelligently decide questions of energy 
consumption \n a way that is consistent with the requirements of the new energy era. 

It is evident that we stand on the edge of selecting between energy and environmental alternatives, many of which will limit substantial 
numbers of options available to future generations of our shared biosphere. As a consequence, the resource decisions which we make or 
don't make individually and collectively in this generation will substantially influence life on planet Earth for every generation to come. 

The role of education in this situation should be an obvious one. Unfortunately, there is only minimal evidence that educators are 
approaching the energy crisis with appropriate concern, care, or dispatch. Education carries a burden in this society for creating a high 
level of public competency, This implies an educational experience that produces citizens who can intelligently particpate in determining 
the standard of- living and quality of life for the benefit of human kind, and accept the responsibility for the consequences of their 
decisions. The alternative, of course, is governmental decree - perhaps the ultimate hallmark of failure in a participatory social-political 
system. To prevent retreat to ecological disaster and political anarchy, education must accept responsibility for teaching those concepts 
necessary for survival. Clearly, most educational experiences provided in the formal educational setting are not presently desiqned to 
help or instruct students in gaining knowledge or developing the skills and attitudes necessary to cope with energy issues and concerns 
Our society has not only failed to instill an "energy-ethic" but also encouraged by example the consumption-ethic. What then will renew 
our educational capital and bring us through this critical crossroads with a legacy of accountability for future. generations? 

Former HEW Secretary John Gardner has said: 

We are all faced with a series of great opportunities - brilliantly disguised as insoluble problems. Educators can realize the potential 
of this opportunity in many ways: to help students explore their personal perceptions of energy in their environment; to develop a 
personal consumption ethic based on problem seeking and solution invention - an eco-ethic; to explore as alternatives the 
satisfaction and rewards that come from caring - for ourselves, for other living things and for the planet we all share. 

As students explore personal perceptions of energy in their environment, and their own values related to those perceptions they can 
develop an awareness of their own capabilities, and how they can accept or reject what they perceive. 

In order for educators to provide the experiences that will allow their students to gain the knowledge of, and changeattitudes toward the 
complex energy picture, well organized and comprehensive energy education programs must be implemented throughout the country 
The following sections of this talk will address one process of establishing and implementing an effective energy education program. 

CONSIDERATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTING ENERGY EDUCATION PROGRAMS 
Establishing a Point of View 

It is readily apparent that educators (and everyone else) will differ widely in their understanding of energy and their commitment to 
devising programs for its study. Even today many persons will question the reality of an energy crisis. Thus, establishing a positive 
environment for developing energy-centered learning experiences requires considerable skill and remarkable diplomacy. The task is 
rnade even more difficult by a whole array of inter-related problems, principle among which are: (1) an unfavorable economic situation 
limiting i the availability of money todo the job, (2) competition Wf/?otter*v/fa/"programsforattentlonand inclusion inthecurricula (3) a 
general feeling among teachers that they already have more to teach than they can or should manage, and (4) a militant attitude 
concerning continuing education or growth experiences without appropriate incentives. Yet, when an accurate view of the energy 
dilemma is presented, these and other attendant problems can be overcome. 

In most instances, the essential ingredient in successful curriculum activities seems to be FLEXIBILITY. A quick inspection of the rich 
variety of language and approaches to curriculum construction itself speaks eloquently in favor of avoiding the itinerant security of using 
single sources, a limited resource base, or adopting a single limiting point of view. Consider drawing a circle of inquiry within which all 
concerns, ideas and opinions may be fairly examined. There is a profusion of potentially valuable energy resource and instructional 
materials i spread in incredible disorder over the broadest possible spectrum. A potential problem may beremainingsufficiently organized 
to take advantage of the opportunity. y 



Developing a Strategy 

The following recommendations we consider useful In initiating any energy education effort. It may be helpful to consider these in a 
closer perspective. Energy and Man's Environment considers these strategies as its key program des.gn components. 
A trust relationship with persons in key positions of influence and decision-making should be established. The success of any new 
endeavor f often TcSquence of the acceptance and encouragement of the persons who have a'^dy assembled a power base n the 
geographic or intellectual area in which you work. The best resources may, therefore, res,de among those persons -.who »™ ^"°V 
Respected and well-established. Effort should be taken to convince them that Energy Education .s worth the,r time and expenditure of 



effort. 



A successful Energy Education Program should make every attempt to compliment rather than compete with existing effor s. No 
™rehens ve energy education program exists at any level. There are, however, many organizations, agenc.es, and individuals that 
have devfsed insuuc^onal units, and materials that serve specific needs. Every effort should be made to support and comphment these 
Sing prog ams rather than subvert or limit their effectiveness. Whenever possible, the innovative persons mvolved in other etforts 
should be invited to aid their knowledge and skills to your project. This not only brings proven expert.se and exper.ence to the effort, but 
will accrue the influence of these successful individuals on the Energy Education Program. 

Change occurs best when it is initiated at both the top and bottom simultaneously. Change in curriculum and i"Struc tion al | practice 
occurs very slowly and only with great effort. Short of a crisis that lasts for an extended period of time, curriculum mod.ficatons occur 
most success urwhen they are initiated at both instructor and administrative levels. The administrator, without the support of his/her 
cTrrcu^rspec^ts and teachers, will probably fail. An individual teacher may do an outstanding job behind his/her closed classroom 
door bui TwShout administrative support it is unlikely that even excellent ideas implemented in the individual room will receive 
system-wide attention or adoption. 

include everyone in - exclude no one. Many persons and organizations will be able to contribute substantially to ^e success ^of your 
program Don't overlook any sector. Principal groups might include, environmental organizations Resource 1"™^"^^^ 
and local educational specialists, universities, industries, utilities, business, professional associations, resea rch groups etc It w II come 
as no s prts » that some of the groups with the greatest potential for assistance don't recognize the.rcapaci y ortheneed for their help A 
well°organ ized positive presenmtion will pay surprising dividends. The resources can take many forms -all of which «;"*V™^* n "° 
The success of energy education programs. These include technical-professional expertise, finances, information, planning nonage 
ment evasion research and many others. Remember, however, that team members should take part, not take over. Each part.apan 
mus : b* q ven an opportunity to contribute his/her special talent or resources, not to use the energy education program as a platform (or 
aTocalinc I a ^specific poini-of-view. The essence of the organizing task is to include everyone in, rather than one that excludes anyone 
out. 

The efficiency (ease) with which energy education program tasks are accomplished is directly related to the preliminary planning and 
f^^^S^Mmer the methods and strategies used in the specific situation, there should be little ,f anything left to chance. 

Consider the interactions and sensitivities of the people within the institutions with which the energy education program will ^notion. 

However certain the knowledge is of how the system works, update and refine your understanding by making a status check on the 

situation frequently. Problems are. generally people problems. 

Only performance ultimately counts. A workable timeline with status and performance check points ultimately is what gives everyone 

confidence and security. 

Learn from the participants. Participants should know that they can influence the process and content of the program. Each mustknow 

what kind and in what form contributions are to be positively acknowledged. If innovative ideas and approaches are known to be aprime 

commodity, there will be an enthusiasm and productivity absent from a narrowly defined, single-track effort. 

Annmnriate evaluation should be incorporated into all activities of any energy education program. Evaluation is an assessment of the 

schedule, determining progress, and doing the constant fine adjustments necessary to keep a program on time and on track. 

Remember Murphy's Law: "If anything can go wrong, it will." If the energy education program has been planned meticulously, when the 

Sable problem arises, it will occur as a single managable situation rather than a difficult or unsolvable cns.s. 

COMPONENTS OF AN EFFECTIVE ENERGY EDUCATION PROGRAM 

An effective energy education program consists of two basic components. Comprehensive in-service program and material and 

curriculum resources. 

In-Service Programs 

In-service programs should be designed to accomplish two basic objectives: (1) to create an awareness of the nature and scope ,of the 

energy dMemml and its educational implications; (2) to encourage and support the infusion of energy curricula mtoschool instructional 

programs. 

Each in-service program should meet the special needs and interests of the participants, The planning process is an important 

responsibility that should involve the local community as well as expert guidance by trained professionals. 

Several types of programs may be presented to address that above stated objectives: 



Administrator/Key Educator Awareness Conferences 

Administrators and key educators from all school districts within a region would be invited to participate in this type of conference. The 
purpose of administrative/key educational awareness conference is to provide the participants with: (1) current data regarding our local, 
national and regional energy problems, (2) methods to incorporate energy concepts into the curriculum, (3) instructional resource 
materials available to teach energy concepts, (4) an opportunity for educational leaders to share ideas about energy education and (5) 
how local school districts can provide inservice program for theirstaffs, A typical conference would run a full day with one or two keynote 
speakers and several curriculum sessions. 

Implementation Workshops 

These workshops usually are a follow-up to administrative/key educator conference. A single school district or school might request an 
energy education program to meet its specific needs. They should be planned in cooperation with representatives of the local school 
districts. In this way the district/school gains ownership in the program. These programs usually focus on providing the teachers with 
some basic energy content, making them aware of instructional resources, and the techniques to use these resources in their classrooms. 
These programs run two to eight hours and are often done in two or three sessions. 

Make and Take Workshops 

These workshops are basically for the purposes of constructing energy learning aids for use in the classroom. Several learning aids are 
discussed and demonstrated, then participants select two or three and construct them. The materials are provided and the teachers have 
a devise which may be used with their students the next day. These programs usually run about three or four hours. The example of 
learning aids are electric motors, thermostats, simulations, and other energy games, learning centers, solar dryers, tetrahedron kite, 
ovens, etc. 

Specific Discipline/Content Programs 

These programs are provided on a regional basis (several school districts). A specific discipline program might be for home economics 
teachers and provide background on basic energy concepts that would be useful to these teachers. Curriculum materials and resources 
specific to this discipline would be made available and teachers would be shown how each may be used. Specific content programs would 
focus on an energy source or issue. For example, a program might be designed around coal as an energy resource. Both the specific 
disciplines/content programs usually run about four to six hours. 

Summer Projects 

Summer projects are often a great help to educators. Common examples of projects are curriculum development activities focusing on a 
specific topic or discipline, developing slide/tape presentations for use in programs, developing a media/curriculum resources guide for 
use by JocaJ teachers and developing promotional materials to explain programs to other school districts/teachers. 

Summer Workshops 

These workshops typically last three to five days and involve twenty to forty participants. They may be specific (industrial art teachers) or 
general (K-12 teachers). They may be held at college/universities and may offer college credit or inservice hours to the participants. The 
format of the workshop would consist of basic content presentations and techniques for using various instructional materials. Partici- 
pants would be involved in a curriculum project and would have opportunities to review media materials for classroom use. 

A thorough knowledge of program planning and available resources should be brought to all these programs, However, all program 
planning efforts should be undertaken as a cooperative responsibility of the teachers and the local educational community for whom the 
program is being developed. In this way, the appropriateness of the program is insured and "ownership" is encouraged on the part of the 
educational community. 

Curriculum Resources 

An on-going curriculum development process should be conducted to produce instructional materials for all grade levels and disciplines. 
The use of many other curriculum resources that are acceptable and appropriate should be encouraged no matter what basic program is 
being used. 

The following sixteen criteria should be used when preparing and/or analyzing curriculum resources; 

1. Objectives should be stated. 

2. Objectives should be met through suggested activities. 

3. The curriculum should be activity oriented. 

4. Student assessment methods should be included. 

5. The materiai must be readable. 

6. The style and activities are interesting to students. 
■7. The material educates rather than indoctrinates. 

8. Affective as well as cognitive outcomes are sought. 

9. The material should be multi-disciplinary. 

10. Various levels of difficulty to meet student individual differences should be apparent in the material. 

11. Affirmative action should be stressed in pictures and in the text materials, 

12. Other resource should be identified. 

13. Suggestions to the teachers should be incorporated in the materials, 

14. The written text should be factual and accurate. 

15. Concepts are not trivial but are really significant. 

16. It should be convenient for student and teacher use. 



T* ««,op,nen, o. „n» success,.,, Wtr. c.lor. I 'SiSrwtr^—Sr—tSS.S 

the current energy situation. 

Themagnitudeoftheprobiemofmakinginstructionals^ 
The common interest and personal impact of energy P™^ 8 f»ro f es ^ Q U ™ 

critically needed renewal. As energy scarcity and costs increasingly i™"*™* ™*^™™*?- By creatin g inquiry centered learning 
he parent as well as the child, and by doing so sUeng hen , * ^ooneap °J ^S^^^^^^^^ton* 

Organization . • a n f^r 

EME deve.o P es a wide range of energy-focused --«^S 

use in grades K-12. and are intended to be, n used, nto a s^ specialists. Lesson plans and 

^rafac^ra^ 

needs of an individual students or classroom group. 

AN EME curriculum materials are based upon a carefully conceived conceptual framework of goals, concepts, and objects, The 

concept areas include: t 

1 SOURCES - It is essential that people understand that there are many souces of energy. EME believes that c.assroom .nstruct.on 

r c u ^ from one r m ; another EME be1ieves that an 

"/FUTURE It is essential that people understand that our energy future may be different from that of the past or present, EME believes 
[hat energy education can heip'l earners understand our responsibility for future generates. 
Materials developed related to this structure are: 

Lesson Plan Notebooks 
Grades K-3 
Grades 4-6 
Grades 7-9 Folder 

Math Packet 

Vocational Education 

Industrial Arts 

Science Packet 

Social Science 

Language Arts 
Grades 10-23 Folders 

Science Packet 

Language Arts 

Math 

Social Science 

Industrial Arts 

Vocational Education 

Economics 
Activity Guide (6 part) 
EME Conceptual Framework Guide 

TeZTo^^r^SXns (Complete Kit for 30 students I 1 teacher) 

Energy E.Q. Test 

Teem Brochure 

Bibliography 

Glossary 

Calendar 

Eye Chart Poster 

Conservation Strips 

Energist Newsletter 

Captain Energy Kits 



EME AS AN EXAMPLE OF AN ENERGY EDUCATION PROGRAM 

Energy & Man's Environment (EME) is a nonprofit educational corporation supported by business, industry, government, educational 
agencies, and civic organizations. 

Purpose 

The purpose of Energy & Man's Environment is to help educators understand the nature and extent of the world and national energy 
dilemma, and its educational implications. To accomplish this purpose, EME develops and supports educational programs designed to 
achieve energy literacy, lathe belief that "the art of teaching is the art of assisting discovery," EME provides teachers with training, as well 
as instructional and resource materials. These experiences and tools allow them to assist students to take an active part in making wise 
choices regarding energy and energy-related issues. 

Point of View 

EME advocates no particular point of view, As an organization, its primary goal is to ensure that energy facts and issues are presented with 
balance and objectivity, EME actively supports the work of other organizations in the field of energy education, and welcomes the 
participation of groups and individuals with similar concern for energy literacy. 

Background 

Energy and Man's Environment was initiated in 1972 asa curriculm project of state education agencies and energy industries. The limited 
scope of the initial effort was expanded as the 1973 OPEC oil embargo and educator interest combined to punctuate national vulnerability 
and emphasize the need for energy literacy. 

In 1974. EME initiated two program components which remain central elements of the organization — curriculum development and 
professional in-service training. Conferences, workshops, and seminars were held through-out the United States, using materials 
prepared by EME curriculum specialists and energy experts. In 1974, EME became a nonprofit educational corporation. 

EME is the nation's leading energy education in-service organization. In 1980, 1,184 instructional programs (conferences, workshops, 
seminars, and special activities) were conducted for over 69,000 participants. As of August 1981 , eighteen states/areas were consortium 
members. 

Organization 

The Energy & Man's Environment organization is designed for results. The Board of Directors is composed of members from education, 
industry, and government. Policy is implemented by the President, who also directs the work of the three divisions of the corporation. The 
Director of Corporate Development is responsible for identifying and securing new program relationships, fund raising and long range 
planning. The Director of Curriculum & Materials Development and Evaluation is a specialist in curriculum and instruction. This division 
is responsible for the development of new instructional resources and the evaluation and revision of existing materials. The Director of 
Program Operations provides direct and continuing technical assistance and training to EME coordinators and Program Planning and 
Implementation Committees. 

Organizational Principles 

The foflowing principles are the foundation upon which the organization was established, and represent the standard against which we 
judge ourselves and are judged by those we serve; 

EME maintains a neutral position on all issues. The organization strives to work with individuals and groups representing all points of 
view, 

EME cooperates with and encourages others engaged in responsible energy education efforts. The need for energy literacy requires an 
active effort by all those who can contribute. 

EME acknowledges change as essential to the accomplishment of its purpose, goals, and objectives. EME programs and materials are in a 
constant state of evolution and improvement. Each member can contribute to the growth and development of the organization's efforts 
and resources through positive criticism and ideas, 

EME conducts its affairs as a "family." Corporate decisions are made with a view to the support and success of each member in the 
organization. 

EME maintains a consistently positive position, The organization believes that constructive effort is the only path to acceptable issue 
resolution. 

EME conducts its program with academic integrity and objectivity, in essense, EME is a vehicle and forum for the open analysis and 
scrutiny of energy-focused information, ideas and opionions. 

Organizational Goals 

Energy & Man's Environment conducts its work within a framework of goals. These goals can be interpreted in a manner which is sensitive 
to the needs of specific geographic areas and audiences served. 

Energy & Man's Environment prepares and assists educators in the implementation of energy concepts in all disciplines and at all grade 

levels. 



Energy & Man's Environment develops instructional and reference materials for use by the groups it serves, 

Energy & Man's Environment provides information, resources, and assistance to educators, students, college and university facilities. 
and the general public. 

Energy & Man's Environment provides a channel of communication among the energy industry, education community, government 
agencies, and the general public, 

EME STATE/AREA PROGRAMS AND OPERATIONS 

Each member state/area is directed by a coordinator selected from among the educational leadership of the respective state. Supporting 
each coordinator is a State Program Planning & Implementation Committee. Committee members represent business, industry, 
government, education and civic organizations. Each state/area organization is responsible for planning and implementing an effective 
energy education program for its own area. In fulfilling this responsibility, the state/area organization works closely with the local school 
districts to design in-service training programs and other special projects for teachers and students. 

As a result, no state EME area operation is quite like any other. Individual and group creativity, local resources, and local interests 
combine to develop a unique program in each area, EME national staff provides support, guidance, and assists each state/area 
organization to find its own best way. 

Each state/area coordinator selects and directs with Program Planning and Implementation Committee. 

Sponsors & Contributors 

EME policy encourages active participation by all groups interested in balanced and objective energy education programs. Educational 
grants and endorsements have been received from state educational agencies, government organizations, local school authorities and 
other organizations and groups concerned about our energy and environmental future. In addition to funding, many groups contribute 
their time, facilities, and other resources in support of EME programs. 

EVALUATION STUDIES OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EME 

Once an energy education program has been developed, the program then should begin considering whether it is meeting the goals that 
it set out to achieve. Evaluation should be continuous. Efforts to improve should be the highest priority, if energy education programs 
such as Energy and Man's Environment are to continue, it is essential that the impact on students' energy literacy and whether the 
program is meeting its goafs be determined. One study which examined the effect and impact of EME was conducted In 1980. Specifically, 
this study determined the "second round effects" of EME students. {The EME program deals primarily with educators as participants in 
workshops and conferences. As those educators in turn teach their students, what impacts are carried over into the classroom?) 

The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of EME on fifth grade students in two geographical areas. Students were 
assessed to determine their level of energy knowledge and the level of their attitude towards energy. 

The research design used in this study was a casual-comparative design with four groups involved. These were divided into the treatment 
(EME) group and the nontreatment (control) group. The treatment group included subjects from both Wyoming and Oregon who were 
students of teachers who had previously participated in an EMEM inservice program. Fifth-grade students in Riverton, Wyoming, and 
Beaverton, Oregon, made up the treatment group while the nontreatment group was represented by fifth-grade students from Lander, 
Wyoming, and Salem, Oregon. 

A secondary purpose of this study was to compare the results achieved by female and male elementary students on a test of energy 
literacy. Previous studies had only determined the difference in attitudes of female and male subjects at the secondary and the adult 
levels. The study by Kuhn of North Carolina determined that secondary school females seemed to exhibit a slightly higher but somewhat 
inconsistent awareness of the need for energy. Males seemed to be more favorable toward the development of new energy resources, 

A total of 301 students, 110 in Wyoming and 191 students in Oregon, took the test for energy literacy. One-hundred seventy-eight were in 
the treatment group and 123 in the nontreatment group. One-hundred forty-seven students were female while 154 were male. 

The "treatment" included the following efforts: Riverton, Wyoming, teachers participated in a 1977 summer EME sponsored university 
credit course on energy education and this was followed by another similar inservice in 1978. The Oregon teachers began their 
involvement in Energy and Man's Environment in 1973-74. They piloted and field tested many of the activities now included in the EME 
curriculum materials. Since then teachers from Beaverton have participated as training leaders for many Energy & Man's Environment 
inservice efforts in other parts of the state of Oregon. Follow-up activities in Beaverton included the EME Energy Conservaton Corps 
program and materials and a recent inclusion of energy management practice. Several schools in Beaverton have received follow-up 
since 1977. 

To provide controls for the treatment groups two similar nontreatment cities were chosen. Lander was chosen as the control for Riverton. 
Teachers in Lander had not participated in an EME program. Both cities are located in the same valley 24 miles apart in central Wyoming. 
The communities are similar in their socio-economic status, size, and backgrounds. Both Lander and Riverton had had energy related 
development impacts and similar external impacts. Likewise, teachers in Salem, Oregon, a community 50 miles away, similar in 
demographic characteristics to Beaverton, had not participated in an EME program. Salem was, therefore, chosen as a control 
community for the Beaverton program. 

The instrument used to asses the goals of energy literacy was developed by Dr. Mike Coffey of Denver, Colorado (1 980), The instrument 
was designed with the purpose of measuring both energy knowledge and attitudes toward energy. Thus, the instrument was ameasureof 



energy literacy. The instrument was validated with fifth-grade students in an extensive project conducted for that purpose. Items were 
developed to assess each of the curriculum goals identified for consideration. The items were randomly ordered and arranged into two 
separate forms of the instrument. Two forms were created for the purpose of conducting a pre-post test assessment in the process of 
establishing reliability, Preliminary validation included administering the instrument to students in Denver. Colorado Springs, and Salt 
Lake City Finally reliability of the instrument was established in 1979 in a 9-week pre-post test quasi-experimental study conducted in 
Fort Collins. Colorado. Efforts in Fort Collins included determining the education impacts of EME in a controlled teaching situation with 
559 fifth-grade students, 

The results obtained were positive in nature and achieved the purpose set forth. Energy & Man"s Environment does have a statistically 
significant positive influence on the energy literacy of students and this occurs in geographically different areas. Students in the EME 
treatment cities performed higher on a test of energy literacy than students in otherwise simitar cities where no EME programs have been 
conducted previously. In addition, students in the treatment groups scored higher on both energy attitude and energy knowledge 
subtests There was a statistically significant difference in the scores of the treatment subjects and the nontreatment subjects on a test of 
energy literacy for total score, attitude, and cognitive subtest scores. No significant differences were measured for the responses by the 
two different states on a test of energy literacy. It was concluded that although the state programs do have differences, both were 
achieving energy literacy with their students, The Oregon and Wyoming programs have differences in the style in which they are 
presented but, in essence, they bothachieved the EMEpurpose and goal of energy literacy. It was alsoshown in this study that females do 
achieve significantly higher total scores on an instrument measuring energy literacy although it cannot be concluded that this difference 
is attributable to EME. 

The overall results of this study indiciate that EME is achieving its purpose of promoting energy literacy. Students from a community 
where EME programs have been conducted to achieve higher scores on a test of energy literacy than students residing in a similar 
non-EME community. 

Another study, by Dr. Ed Dalton (1979), was to determine if educational impacts had occurred on educators, mainly teachers and 
administrators! as a consequence of their participation in an EME workshop between 1974 and 1977. An effort was also made to determine 

the value of EME services, the nature of EME materials, limiting factors in energy concept incorporation and changes in education caused 

by energy problems. 

It was found that numerous impacts had occurred on teachers, administrators, and students as a result of EME efforts. EME materials 
were also described and found to be highly valued, widely accepted, and used. Limiting factors were identified and changes in education 
caused by energy problems predicted. 

The study indicated that Energy & Man's Environment's efforts are justified and successful. The combination of quality materials and 
inservice training will result in implementation and incorporation of energy concepts into a teacher's program of instruction or an 
administrator's program of work. 

Another study conducted by Dr. Daniel Grimes (1981), obtained data by constructing and administering a survey questionaire. The 
instrument was developed with the assistance from eleven educators. A total of 2,141 K-12 classroom teachers from a population of 
20.000 within twelve state regions were selected to participate in the survey. Surveyees were selected from EME's workshop registration 
list. Of those contacted 824 (38.4%) returned a questionaire. The responses were reported according to elementary and secondary grade 
level groups and the subject matter area most often taught. A small return was obtained from administrators, curriculum specialists and 
various secondary subject matter teachers which were categorized as "other." States in which the respondents lived were also reported. 
The data were evaluated by grade level groupings to determine the educational impact of the EME elementary and secondary K-12 core 
materials in relationship to their usefulness and effectiveness as instructional tools. All data were evaluated collectively without regard to 
state-to-state differences. 

As a result of obtaining evaluative input from educators through the use of a survey questionaire the following findings and answers to 
research questions were made; 

1. How useful did teachers find EME's core instructional materials in providing a variety of pedagogy and content with which to meet 
individual differences, such as learner interest, ability, attitude and background of experience? 

From the data, it was found that reading level difficulty of material content, the amount of background information provided, and 
instructional strategies were adequate and appropriate for meeting individual differences of students. Findings also revealed that 
teachers believed students had a positive attitude about their energy education activity experiences. 

It was ascertained that elementary teachers preferred the use of audio visual aide resources, teacher demonstrations and questioning 
techniques the most, as instructional methods and techniques when teaching about energy whereas secondary teachers preferred 
lecturing, questioning techniques and teacher demonstration. It was also found that elementary teachers preferred providing independ- 
ent study activities for students, lecturing, reading and answering questions and concept building activities the least while secondary 
teachers preferred the student independent practice and role playing the least. However, math teachers preferred lecturing the least as 
compared to other secondary subject matter teachers. Social science teachers had the least preference for teacher demonstrations and 
had the highest preference for simulation gaming activities and the use of audio visual aides, 

It was found that an important percentage of teachers were not sure as to the reading level difficulty of the instructional activities. 

2. To what extent had teachers found the subject matter content within the EME core energy education materials relevant, accurate and 
free from bias 9 

Findings revealed that elementary and secondary educators believed the EME instructional activities were relevant to their geographical 
and respective teaching areas, as well as easily infused into existing curricula. It was also found tht educators perceived the concepts to 
be valid and the content information to be accurate and objective. Special attention was given to the fact that a notable number of 



elementary teachers in grades K-6 believed their personal energy knowledge was a limiting factor in preparing for EM Eenergy education 
activity instruction. 

3, What were the opinion of teachers concerning overall design and organization of EME's core instructional materials? 

As a result of the research, it was found that educators in all grades preferred and liked the fact that the materials were packaged in a 
three-ring binder, it was also revealed that teachers believed the materials were well organized for easy entry and exit, that the lesson plan 
format design was useful and the artwork effective. The findings revealed that secondary educators preferred three-ring binders but 
would like to have energy education instructional materials organized by energy topics within discipline and subject matter specialty 
areas. Also, elementary teachers preferred kit-box style packaging in addition to three-ring binders. All teachers perferred book form, 
folders and packet type packaging design the least, 

4. Did teachers believe EME's curriculum framework of goals, concepts and learning objectives were designed and engineered in an 
educationally logical sequential manner? 

Data revealed that grades K-1 2 respondents perceived the concepts and learning objectives to cover the study of energy and that they 
were logically and sequentially engineered. It was also found that teachers believed the concepts, lesson objectives and learning 
activities to be adequate in congruency, clarity and conciseness. Differences between subject matter area teachers were not outstanding. 

5, Did teachers find the suggested post assessment procedures prepared for each instructional activity effective when measuring student 
attainment of the lesson/unit objectives? 

Even though educators believed that their students achieved an appreciable amount of awareness and understanding of the energy 
situation in the United States as a result of the EME learning experiences it was found they perceived the EME assessment procedures to 
be somewhat or limited in usefulness in helping to make this discovery. However, it was found that an important number of elementary 
and secondary educators indicated they were not sure as to the usefulness of the assessment procedures and test item bank provided and 
identified within the materials. 

6. To what extent were teachers constrained from implementing EME's core instructional activities because of material and equipment 
requirments? . 

As a result of the study it was found that elementary and secondary educators believed that material and equipment required to 
successfully conduct EME energy activities were often available and seldom a hindering factor. However, a notable difference was found 
with secondary teachers other than science and social science in that, material and equipment requirements posed problems when 
implementing EME activities. 

SUMMARY 

It is evident that... Energy Education needs are real and tasting. Designing programs to meet these needs can be costly, complicated, time 
consuming, difficult tasks. Curriculum development and implementation require expertise and involvement of many sectors and an 
adequate funding base. Educators will respond when appropriate programs are provided, EME is an example of an approach to meeting 
energy education needs. The EME program has bee proven successful. 

EME provides all materials at a wholesale rate. 

EME materials are economically priced because of large volume printing. 

EME is a non-profit educational organization. 

EME maintains a close "family" relationship, 

EME is cost effective. 

EME has extensive expertise in establishing, maintaining, strengthening energy education programs. 

EME can organize and implement a program quickly. 

EME provides accurate fiscal and program reporting. 

EME membership means benefits and financial increase from contributors and large contracts the organization obtains. 

EME provides unification and an organized, logical approach. 

EME programs have proven effective in many locations. 

EME is a partnership between education, government, business and community in behalf of educators and students. 

EME utilizes many energy materials from throughout the country. 

EME maintains an on-going advisory committee which allows everyone to participate. 

EME is teacher/educator developed and operated. 

EME has been extensively field tested. 

EME maintains a program of on-going revision and evaluation. 

EME provides new products and programs that are developed. 

EME maintains on-going training programs for coordinators and committees. 

EME programs are implemented by colleagues from the same grade levels and disciplines. 

EME expects representation on industry and education advisory committees from sponsors, 

EME guarantees involvement in curriculum development revisions and projects. 

EME people are hard working, have integrity and are easy to work with. 

INVITED 1.2 

Arizona Energy Education. Bill W, Tillery, Arizona State U. — During the pastfive years, 2,000 Arizona Teachers have completed a course 
in energy education. The course was made possible through a "multiplier program" called the Portal Program. The operation of the 
program has revealed additional needs in energy education. Among these is the need forconceptually-based information about energy in 
the State of Arizona. A monthly publication, Arizona Energy Education, was initiated to meet this need. The maiiing list grew from 600 in 



1978 to about 4,000 in 1981. Arizona Energy Education is not a newsletter, but a publication of background concepts, up-to-date 
information, and teaching activities concerning various science topics as they relate to energy. Individual 1 2-page issues, for example, 
have been devoted to such topics as passive solar design, oil shale, wind, fusion, and nucfear waste. Other issues have considered how 
electric power is produced in Arizona — hydro, petroleum, coal and nuclear. Future issues will consider such topics as solar cooling, 
hydrogen, utility grid systems, and photovoltaics. The cost of publishing and mailing Arizona Energy Education is provided by Arizona 
Public Service Co.. It is mailed free to the community of Arizona educators, 

AUTHOR: Bill W. Tillery 

TITLE: Arizona Energy Education 

ARIZONA ENERGY EDUCATION 

There are at least four ways "to causea change in energyutillzaitlon. One is to declare martial law and dictate such changes. This is only 
permissible in times of dire, imminent danger. Second, ordinances and laws can be enacted which require compliance, such as 
thermostat setting. This is not popular, Third, laws and ordinances can be enacted which require such things as high appliance efficiency 
and insulation in home construction. These tend to be the least painful because individuals do not have to consciously think about them. 
However, such requirements are usually implemented at the community level and this is cumbersome. Fourth, understandings can be 
establ ish'ed at an early age, when mi nds are receptive and patterns of life are least engrained. This last tactic is the pathway of the Arizona 
energy education programs. 

The department of physics. Arizona State University, has conducted a number of energy education programs for the past six years. All of 
these programs evolved from, or are part of, a unique interdisciplinary academic-year inservice program in energy education for 
teachers, It is therefore appropriate that we discuss this program, the portal school program, before discussing one of the "spin-offs," a 
monthly publication, titled Arizona Energy Education. 

The Portal School. The Portal school program is a cooperative venture between school districts and Arizona State University. "Portal" 
means opening. The opening provides a mechanism for school districts to communicate their needs to the university. It provides a means 
for the university to meet these needs by disseminating knowledge to the schools. We utilize the portal school delivery system since it is a 
proven, cost-effective-means of conducting inservice training. As a general explanation, the portal school system operates as follows: 

a. Portai Leader Selection. School districts are contacted to discuss their needs in energy education. Potential portal leaders are 
nominated by school officials, The leaders must be recognized as "master teachers," have a Master's Degree, be open-minded, and have 
the confidence of their fellow teachers and administrators, The nominated ieaders are carefully screened by university faculty. 

b. Summer institutes. Potential portal leaders attend an intensive three-week summer institute designed to teach them the concepts of the 
course and to train them to be a teaching assistant during the academic year. After successful completion of the institute, the leader is 
certified to conduct activities and assist with local school district inservice courses. Leaders are not charged tuition and they receive three 
semester hours of graduate credit for completing the program. Their travel, room and board, and other costs are reimbursed. 

c. Fail and Spring Courses, Upon returning to their school district in thefall, the certified portal leaders work with school officials to attract 
teachers to the course. The energy course is thus advertised at the "grass-roots" level, within each school. The leaders then conduct the 
planned activities of the course with the assistance and supervision of univeristy faculty. This supervision ensures that a high level 
program is maintained. The university requires 16 weekly meetings of two and one-half hours duration for three semester hours of credit. 
These meetings are generally held in the evenings or directly after school is dismissed in the afternoon. Uniform final examinations are 
given to all participants. Participants are not charged tuition and portal leaders receive remuneration. Funding for the summer and 
academic year courses has been from three seperate NSF grants, numerous grants from Arizona Public Service Co. (an investor owned 
utility), and from university budgets. 

Impact. A typical year of operation of the portal school will make the following impact: School administrators wili nominate 40 or so portal 
ieaders for the summer institute. About 30 will successfully complete the institute, which is taught by two university professors. An 
average of 20 teachers will take each of the fall semester courses from portal leaders for a total of 600 teachers. Each teacher teaches 
about 30 pupils (see Figure below). The pupils, then, are reached with a structured, monitored, and up-to-date energy program forabout 
S3 each. 

Spin-offs. The operation and evaluation of the portal school program and informal needs assessments have revealed additional needs in 
energy education. New programs and projects have been developed to meet these needs. Some of these projects are: 

a. Administrator's Conferences. The initial contact with school districts is with the superintendent and his staff. We found that many 
superintendents were thinking of energy as a topic for their business manager. They were interested in saving energy costs for their 
district, but had not seriously considered energy education as belonging in the curriculum. We therefore started a series of two-day 
conferences for teams of administrators (superintendent, curriculum coordinators, and two principals). Such a conference has three 
parts: 1 ) establishing the need; what is the energy problem: 2) communication about what energy education resources are available; and, 
3) asking each team to design an"actionplan"fortheir district. This year, the administrators havesuggesteda"foilow-up" conference for 
teams of principles and lead teachers from each district. Funding for the administrators' conferences is provided by Arizona Public 
Service. 

b. Activity Packets. We found that there was no room in the public school curriculum for an energy education course, but that energy 
education activities could be included with other subject areas — science, social studies, mathematics, and so forth. Furthermore, we 
found that most available material did not fill local needs. There were no classroom activities, for example, that applied to the State of 
Arizona. A team of classroom teachers (former portai leaders) was organized to produce a multi-packeted supplement to fill this need. 

Supported by grants from Arizona Public Service, the multi-packeted supplement has been produced and is now in its second year of field 
testing, The supplemental packets are titled Arizona Energy Education Activities, and are for elementary teachers (K-8). 



10 



Z±L. iP 



c Student Projects In an effort to encourage more pupi! involvement in energy education a state-wide energy fair was initiated. The fair 
ronsists of a "poster contest" for the primary grades and "science-fair type activities" for the upper grades. The fair is held in a different 
shoDOina mall each year. It is supported by two utilities, Arizona Public Service and the Salt River Project, along with the shopping malL 
Several thousand projects were entered last year and the fair received extensive media coverage. Prizes are awarded to winners and 



certificates to all who enter. 



d Monthly Publication. Informal needs assessments of teachers revealed that teachers lacked information on alternative sources of 
enercv both in general and as applied to the State of Arizona. They also lacked detailed information on Arizona's present-day energy 
sources Since such information may change frequently, we started a monthly publication titled, "Arizona Energy Education. The 
publication provided an opportunity to maintain contact with former portal class participants, and to provide them with an on-going, 
current source of information. We will now discuss the publication in more detail. 

The Arizona Energy Education. The first issue of Arizona Energy Education ( AEE) was published In 1 978. About 600 copies were mailed 
to the membership of the Arizona Science Teachers Association. Coupons were provided in each issue so that otherteachers could add 
their names to the mailing list if they were interested. Today, about 4000 teachers subscribe to the publication. 

AEE is not a newsletter It is not concerned with announcing educator's conferences and priting short editorials. Other publications meet 
this need A EE provides background concepts, up-to-date information, and teaching activities concerning various topics. Two years ago. 
for example some of the topics considered were solar energy, oil shale, fusion, wind, conservation, geothermal, and passivesolar. As an 
PxamDle of how AEE provides background and up-to-date information, we will consider the passive solar issue. The meaning of passive 
solar as an alternative energy source was first discussed in this issue. Concepts of energy flow were then presented in an understandable 
manner but assuming no background on the part of the reader. These concepts were then applied to the three basic passive solar 
desians The application of each design was considered for the State of Arizona. The issue concluded with a discuss.on of unique passive 
solar homes in Arizona. Classroom teaching activities were concerned with separate lessons on conduction, convection, and radiation. 

In addition to the science concepts of various energy topics, AEE has presented social studies and economic articles as they relate to 
energy. Energy boom towns, environmental issues, the socioeconomic benefits of geothermal, and energy vs. food production are some 



of these topics. 



Energy related cartoons and classroom teaching activities are regular features that held the interest of teachers They provide 
educationally sound means for the teacher to use in the classroom. Some cartoons are political commentary (e.g.. a nuc ear fue 
reprocessing plant with a"waste not-want not" sign), some are puns (e.g., "you can fuel some of the people someof the time .but you i can t 
Cel all the people all the time"), and some are just fun (e.g.. "Your car has a hangover - have you been using gasohol?). Teach ng 
SvUies range from projects that younger students can do (e.g., which color absorbs more radiant energy) to more complicated 
activities for secondary students (e.g.. calculating if a solar water heater is economically feasible for their home). 
Teachers have commented that AEE provides them with i nformation they did not have access to or that they did not know how to find. Last 
year fo example A^E had a four part series on present-day energy sources in Arizona - petroleum, coal hydropower, and nuc laaO We 
wm consider how AEE met teachers needs by looking at the coal issue. The coal issue discussed how coal is formed, he composit on of 
coal where coaTis found in Arizona, and how it is used. It included a map of coal mines, how the coal a transported, and where the 
watflred^we Plants are located (80%of Arizona's electricity isfrom coal-fired plants).Theissueals-oincludedad^cuss.onofsynfuels 
from coat aTa d«u«ton of the future of coal; how long Arizona's coal supply will last. Thus, teachers were provided with background 
concepts information about Arizona's coal energy supply, information on how coal is and will be utilized, maps and drawings related to 
A°!zonacoal production and consumption, and teaching activities. This issue also provided a coupon that teachers could usetoobtain a 
free sample of coal from Arizona Public Service. 

The cost of orintina and mailing AEE is provided by a grant from Arizona Public Service Company. The cost for preparing camera-ready 
Jopv paperTd !prffg and bulk mailing 4000 1 2-page issues nine times a year is about $1 8.000 a year, or $2000 per .ssue. This breaks 
down to 50$ per copy, including mailing. 

We have not conducted a formal evaluation of the impact of AEE. Judging from the letters we ^^^^^^^^^fjll 
form the way the mailing list has grown, we feel that AEE is meeting a need in Arizona energy education. Arizona teachers and their 
students Xa'nmg about energ?. The utility company that provides the grant for publishing AEE is pleased bee ause ."^r consumers 
are learning about energy and about their problems In providing electrical energy. Perhaps there is a need for sim.lar publications ,n other 



states as well as Arizona. 



ENERGY EDUCATION AND CONSERVATION PROGRAMS 
PROVIDED BY THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY 

F.D. Wieden, Vice President 

Portland General Electric Company 

Portland, Oregon 



ABSTRACT 



As part of a nationwide effort shared by many electric utilities, Portland General Electric Company is providing var ' n ^ 
program^ 



11 



educators for classroom materials, PGE, and the electric utility industry in general, have developed specific programs and activities 
geared for students from kindergarten through college. These include classroom presentations, facility tours, printed materials and kits, 
film libraries, and exhibits and displays for special purposes. Recently, our Company has focused special attention on working with 
groups of "talented and gifted" students. A creative problem-solving, decision-making process is used to assist these students in better 
understanding the energy issues they will face. PGE sponsors Energy and Man's Environment — a program of energy curriculum 
development and teacher workshops — in our service area. This program has expanded from the Pacific Northwest to include 1 4 states. 
including your neighbor, New Hampshire. We also participate in educational activities of the Northwest Electric Light and Power 
Association, the Edison Electric Institute, and the Atomic industrial Forum's Task Force on Visitor Information Centers, among others. 
We cooperate with local utilities in sponsoring a summer Energy Institute for teachers at Portland State University and have cooperated 
with Portland Community College in sponsoring energy programs and activities. Our Conservation Department has developed conserva- 
tion and consumer education programs for schools and adult education classes. This department also initiated one of the first and most 
comprehensive home weatherization programs in the nation, solar water heating applications, cogeneration programs, and other 
conservation measures, 

I. INTRODUCTION 

Thank you for inviting me to appear at the 1981 International Conference on Energy Education. As a representative of Portland General 

Electric Company — a Pacific Northwest investor-owned utility— it's not often I have the opportunity to travel to the East Coast. 

Most natives look upon our region with envy — and with good reason, We have beautiful scenery and the lowest electric rates in the 

country. We're fortunate, and we know it 

During the 1 950s and '60s, electricity i n the Pacific Northwest was in plentiful supply. Low-cost hydroelectric power provided virtually 1 00 

percent of our requirements, But as our needs grew and availability of usable dam sites diminished, we began to develop generating 

projects using thermal energy. 

Even though some of the early projects came on line in or close to schedule, by the mid-70s construction program began to slip. It 

affected coal as well as nuclear, in turn affecting the region's power outlook in ways that didn't concern us before. Today we find 

desperately needed projects running years behind schedule. 

Where we entered the 70s confident of our power supply future, we find ourselves in the '80s with potential shortages each and every year 

of the decade, By 1990, the Pacific Northwest will be short about 1,500 megawatts — some four-and-a-half conventional coal plants. 

Educating our customers and their children about the wise and efficient use of electricity is more important now than ever before. But it 

can't stop there, and at Portland General Electric it doesn't. 

In 1976, Trojan — Oregon's first and this country's largest nuclear generating plant — went into commercial operation. PGE owns 67- '^ 

percent and operates the plant. People don*t let us forget it. Nuclear power education is something we inherited when we decided to bu iid 

the plant. It takes a good percentage of our time, 

In addition to Trojan, PGE generates electricity using coal, oil, natural gas, and hydro dams. We have been involved in research and 

development programs dealing with solar, wind, geothermal, and small-scale hydro. We feel that we have as aggressive a conservation- 

/weatherization program for our residential customers as any utility in the U.S. The same goes for our cogeneration program whereby if a 

residential customer builds his own wind generator or small-scale hydroelectric power plant for example, we buy back from him any 

surplus power he generates at current rates. 

To concentrate our energy education program on any one issue would befalling a very important and necessary responsibility. We are 

proud of our program and its diversity. Our customers tell us they appreciate our efforts. 

II BODY 

A, What Our Energy Problems Are 

Electricity was nearly banned! 

If you were to research the newspaper head) ines of 1 890, you would find that a massive campaign was mounted to prevent electricity from 

being transmitted into homes or businesses. 

This campaign was based on fears of electrocution, explosions of ozone In the air, fire, etc. 

Only by the successful electric lighting of the Chicago World's Fair of 1893 was it proved that such fears were unfounded, 

However, the publicity generated by this campaign of fear caused doubts to finger in the public mind regarding the safety of electricity. 

Indeed, even into the 1920's, some electric companies had crews of men whose job was to go around changing light bulbs for 

homeowners who were afraid to get that close to electric current! 

I doubt that any of you have called your local electric company lately to ask for someone to come to your home to change a light bulb! 

It would certainly be interesting to record the response you might get to such a request. 

if you did initiate communcation with the electric company in 1981, indeed, it would probably be to request a service we offer — a water 

heater wrap, energy audit, weatherization assistance, etc. 

Then again, I suppose it is remotely possible that you might also call to complain about your high electric bill!! 

Which leads me into a point I hope to impress upon you, 

America runs on an energy-based economy. Yet, few topics are so beset with public misconception as the economics of our energy 

problem. 

Changes in the way we view the world around us and our relationship to that world creates conflicts in values; 

— Bigger is better, 

— Small is beautiful. 

— High tech versus low tech. 

— A limitless future of abundance versus limits to growth, 

— Productivity versus leisure, appreciation of aesthetics, the quality of life. 

— A single determined future versus an unplanned, uncontrollable future. 

Or. put another way: 

— Choice of single-family housing versus compulsory clustered housing. 

' — Choice of private transportation versus mandatory public transportation. 

— Choice of energy-intensive industrial and economic growth versus energy-reduced growth. 

— Choice of where you work versus compulsory location, etc. 

12 



Tn.n, is no doubt .ba. .be U.S. has n..n, en.,gy pfcbl.™. Y« « ffi. same lime, we American .bio, be.«, bea,,b, b«.er .ood. b.uer 

ss^sst:rs=j" esses,™- «» „*. - ... no, « M -. 



3 f f luence 

The same is true of the so-called "third world' 1 countries 



S"X> the more eflectiv. managemeb, ol energy we h... now - plus cons.rv.lion! 

breeder reactor and fusion, be pursued vigorously? 

The achieved o, general affluence »«^ h £^ 

decisions regarding our nat.on's energy future. T ^ ,8 J^" e h 'J* B M™ | r " e eds into the 21st Century - if it takes that long. 

development of coal and nuclear power - en ough to P^ide our e ^^^VSJal-flred electric generating plant than our entire 

TonlwX I TZ gr^rSng about a nuclear power plant bei ng planned for his community will be outof college by the time the 
ffu^rhXr^singleconven^ 

rpsrndmrrbuii'i 

g?es - 3 occur before the first real commercial applications can occur. 

Why is this happening? And why is it happening now - in the 1980s? _ 

I really do not know. 

SrThTevSofces concerning energy are made (whether by politicians, iudges. educator, or just "us folks"), we can be sure the 
choices will have a great impact on the direction our society heads. 

Thedecadeof the '80s islikeiy to be seen asa"ho,ding pattern" period of transition between the era of cheap and abundant energy and a 
new era of unknown energy supply and use. .., nn . raaardina ur future life-style and society -hammered out in the energy 

^„to1B11!X^^»••<»™ B •" d « hnM,, ^ ^ •'™"' ™' JO,llVUn ' , "^ ,, h , 

The basic connection should seem obvious. The sense o, promise and hope, the feeling of growth and opportunity that stimu.ates 

creativity in one area, has the same effect in others. 

The arts science, and persona, wel.-being flourish as one - made possible by the prosperity and growth that provided the educat.o, 
the stimulation, and the hope which fueled playwrights P ni '^°P h v e ^ r ^^ nt s ° t r u S dent3 snou , d re alize that man's greatest moments 
^^^^^^^^^^^ SSK ~"^ -retofore cheap and abundant energy. 

C. What Industry is Currently Doing In Energy Education and Conservation 

PGE has been involved in energy education for about 20 vea " n ° w> ||rnrnaram wasS0 me tours of our small hydroelectric projects 

During the early stages of our program development, the major extent of our program wassome 

near Portland for school classes and an occaslonallecture when r^es^d , , utj|it indust ry. 

Today we have developed one of the most comprehensive energy education programs in the electric y 



13 



Our program includes: 

1. Classroom presentations on the following topics: 

a. Basic generation and distribution principles of electricity; 

b. Conservation; 

c. Alternate energy sources; 

d. Electrical safety; 

e. Careers; 

f. Nuclear power, etc. 

We still have tours of our damsand also our othergenerating plants, Also wehave tours of ourSystem Control Center, certain areas of our 
headquarters complex, and our solar demonstration homes, etc. 

3. Film Loan Library ' 

We maintain a free loan film library for teachers and sponsor the Screen News Digest film program for teacners. 

4. Printed Materials , , .. . 

We have developed printed materials for students and teachers. I have brought a few samples of these materials with me if any of you are 

interested in having them. 

5. Exhibits 

We have also developed materials — exhibits and displays and bulletin board materials - for use on special occasions such as an energy 

fair or science fair, energy day or week, conservation day or week, safety day, or career day. These exhibits and displays are also used for 

participation at professional educational conferences such as National Science Teachers Association, Oregon Science Teachers 

Association, Oregon Education Association, Oregon School Boards Association, conferences, etc. 

In response to specific requests from students and teachers, we have developed educational materials on specific topics such as 

conservation, consumer information, and careers. I have brought along a few samples of these materials if any of you are interested in 

having them. 

The above programs are sponsored by our Corporate Educational Services Program. In 1980 these programs and activities reached a 

total audience of some 32,000 students and teachers. 

In addition, we have a Visitors Information Center at ourTrojan nuclear plant- a real tourist and educational attraction in our region with 

World's Fair-class exhibits and displays, 

in 1980 some 107,000 people visited our center. Of these visitors, 17,000 took guided tours of the Trojan nuclear plant. 

In addition, a staff of professional educators presented programs both at thecenter's auditorium and to schools in Oregon and southwest 

Washington. In 1980 the staff presented programs on topics such as conservation, alternate energy sources, and nuclear power to an 

audience of some 35,000 students and teachers in the schools. 

In addition to classroom programs, the Trojan Visitors Information Center offers a free loan film library for teachers; a free loan nuclear 

science laboratory program for teachers; a mini-library program for school libraries; and exhibits and displays for special occasions and 

conducts workshops for teachers on topic such as nuclear science, energy audits for homes and schools, and general conservation. In 

1980, these materials reached a total audience of some 314.000 students and teachers. 

Late in 1980 we also opened a smaller visitors center at our Boardman coal plant 

This visitors information center handles plant tours at Boardman and has exhibits and displays which describe plant operations and the 

general use of coal to produce electricity. 

We feel our industry in general and our Company in particular are more involved in conservation practices than any other segment or 

society. 

Besides the educational services I have already mentioned, our Conservation Services Department also offers for teachers some 

classroom programs and materials directly related to conservation and consumer education. 

These programs are offered to adult groups as well as schools. 

Our Company offers one of the nation's leading home conservation/weatherization programs which is also administered by the 

Conservation Services Department. At the end of April 1981, this department had completed energy audits of almost 30,000 of our 

residential customers' homes and had completed 16,000 weatherization jobs. 

In addition, this department has a staff of professional energy educators who specialize in conservation and consumer education 

programs in the schools. In 1980, these programs reached a total audience of some 13,000 in the schools. 

The Renewable Resources section of this department is active in coordinating parallel or cogeneration projects with our customers. 
Under this service, we provide support for customers wishing to build a wind generator or small-scale hydro project and sell any surplus 
power they generate back to us. We buy back from these customers their surpJus power at our current residential rates, in 1980, eight wind 

generators and three smalt-scale hydro projects were completed by our customers. 

Also at the end of 1980 we had over 200 passive solar space heating installations on our system, 150 active solar space heating or water 

heating installations, and over 700 solar water heating only applications installed on our system. 

This section of the Conservation Services Department also presents programs in the schools on renewable resources, in 1980. they 

reached a school audience of some 2,000. 

In addition to the above figures, PGE plans to construct 188 MW of power from renewable resources by the year 2000 — 80 MW from 
geothermal, 73 MW from wind, and 35 MW from wood waste cogeneration. 

I believe that these figures indicate as great a commitment to conservation and use of renewable resources as any company or indeed any 
other industry in the U.S. 

In addition to these services, we are a joint sponsorof the Energy and Man's Environment program. Someof you are probably aware of the 

EME program — I see that they are conducting a workshop on this conference's program. 

For those of you not familiar with the program, EME was initiated in the Pacific Northwest as a cooperative energy education program 



14 



funded by private busines and was developed and implemented by educators. 

We are ^ery proud of the success achieved by this fine program. It has exceeded our greatest expectations. In 1980, in Oregon, EME 
conducted Energy Awareness Workshops for some 1 5,000 classroom teachers, In addition, EME conducted conservation workshops for 
about 3,000 school building maintenance people, cooks, and bus drivers. The program also involved some 8,000 students in an Energy 
Conservation Corps activity. 

In our view at least, the greatest accomplishment of EME is the fact that it has proved that private business can unite in a cooperative effort 
with the educational system in a joint effort to improve the energy literacy of our customers. Private enterprise and educators have 
developed a mutual understanding of each other's viewpoint because of this program. We don't always agree with each other, but we have 
developed a tolerance for, and even respect of, each system's position because of EME. 

In addition, we participate with other utilities of theNELPA organization in their EducationalService Committee's efforts. This committee, 
made up of members of NELPA companies, is producing energy educational materials related to our specific region of the country. We 
have electric energy characteristics in the Pacific Northwest unique in that we stifl have a large base of hydro power, plus we have new 
regional legisiation that provides new direction in energy policy for our region. 

We also participate in the national energy education program via the EEI Educational Services Committee. I will describe that committee 
and its functions more in detail in Section F of this paper, 

D. What Industry Needs to Do in Energy Education 

As you can probably surmise by now, we feel that a major problem facing the efeetric utility industry is the lack of public understanding 

and appreciation of the complex nature of the energy situation and the role that the electric industry must play in providing an adequate 

and reliable supply of electricity. 

That is why the educational service programs I just described have become such an integral part of our entire public information program. 

We feel that we must increase public awareness of present and future electric energy needs. 

We feef we must increase public awareness of the necessity of the wise and efficient use of electricity and the need to conserve as much as 

possible! 

We feel we must make the public aware of the effect of delays caused by conflicting government regulations on the price and reliability of 

electricity! 

And, we feel that the public should be aware that the careful use of electricity can control, but may not reduce their electric bills. 

Today's students are tomorrow's consumers and citizens. The attitudes they form during the school years will be carried over into their 
adult lives. These attitudes will be reflected in the political, economic, and social decisions which they must make. These decisions will 
affect the future of the electric utility business also. 4 

Profound alterations in our traditional energy patterns and trends are taking place. Rates of energy use, sources of supply, cost 
relationships, environmental considerations, and energy technologies are all involved in significant changes. 
If the freedom to choose the way we live is to continue, all citizens, youths and adults alike, must understand the basic issues and be 
prepared to make informed, rational decisions. 

We are convinced that energy education in the nation's schools and colleges is essential to provide the basis for informed decision- 
making by sizable segments of youth and aduit populations. 

We strongly urge that today's students and aduJts alike need to know something about; 

1. The sources of energy; 

2. The uses of energy; 

3. The conservation of energy; 

4. The environmental impacts of energy; 

5. The role of energy in the improvement of the environment; 

6. The economics of energy; and 
7 The limits of energy. 

Besides knowing the above-mentioned factors about energy, students and adults need to develop skills in the application of these factors 

and the determination of their values to arrive at decisions regarding the energy trade-offs that are necessary. 

The cost, supplies, and benefits questions regarding our energy decisions must ultimately be answered by the public. 

The tools necessary to do the job can be developed through cooperative efforts of the educational system and the business world! 

E. What the Education System Needs to Do 

When an educator asks me what ought to be taught regarding the energy situation, I implore him to stress economics. 
Explaining the financial problems affecting the electric utility industry, the cost of construction, operations, and providing service is a 
pressing need. 

In order for the freedom to choose the way we live to continue — all citizens, students and aduits alike, must understand the basic issues 
and be prepared to make informed, rational decisions. For decisions made about energy today — its supply, social costs, and the 
tradeoffs necessary — will determine the quality of our life and that of our children for the next several decades. 
All the students in school now must be concerned about the energy supply because their future ability to obtain employment will depend 
on how much energy there is. 

Therefore, energy education in the nation's schools should be considered essential in order to provide the basis for informed decision- 
making citizens of tomorrow. 

Since education is a process by which students learn to think, energy education should not seek to impose beliefs, attitudes, or actions on 

students — even on issues such as energy conservation! 

Rather, education should be directed at increasing public understanding of energy choices in the broadest context — by placing factual 

information within the economic, social, political, and environmental framework of the issue. 

An energy education program should attend to all major technical and policy options, including study and evaluation of all technologies. 



15 



Only if such an energy education process occurs can future energy decisions be made on an informed basis. 

The cost, supplies, benefit, and questions regarding our energy decisions must ultimately be answered by the public. 

This puts the responsibility of teaching energy facts and teaching skills in decision-making processes squarely in the laps of the 

educational system. 

1 am afraid, however, that many educators I meet and associate with have little understanding of the American economic system or do not 

believe that they are in the mainstream of that system, 

Perhaps it is because few teachers are required to take college courses in business administration or economics, etc. 

Or perhaps it is because the educational system is a nonprofit government institution and the competitive economic nature of business is 

a system within which most teachers have never had to exist, 

Or, it often seems to us, at least, that teachers fail to make the connection between business and industry making profits to pay the taxes 

which run the schools and pay teachers' salaries in every city and town, in the U.S. 

F. What Business and Education Need to Do Together 

This is where the electric industry can help. In fact, our Company and many other investor-owned utilities have established an 

educational service program to assist the educational system in better understanding the technical and economic factors of our business. 

Although we may be beset by energy problems, our modern society has increased our perceptions of those problems. 

Technology has brought to the American public information in' such breadth and detail that today's students have the abundance of 

information formerly reserved for the scholar of yore. 5 

We should not forget, however, that like the grade school graduate facing high school, many of our current problems result from our 

accomplishments of the past. 

Indeed, when compared to most of the rest of the world, our past accomplishments have provided this time for contemplation of our 

problems and for a reassessment of our society. 

However, even the U.S. cannot afford to pause indefinitely during this decade of transition. 

The solution to today's problems is not to return to the problems of the past It is rather a return to the progress of the past and using 

technology to overcome today's problems and move on to the problems of the future. 

Few Americans recognize the role that abundant, low-cost energy has played in their choice of life-styles. 

An education is as intrinsic to human existence as energy is essential to human progress. Without them, our perception and our 

enjoyment of the world would be greatly restricted. Both are the cornerstones of personal and economic growth necessary to vitalize 

today's generations and to ensure a solid base for the next one. 6 

Education is succeeding. 

Today, people look at a degree as a process not just an objective. 

They are realizing that education has a continuous and growing productive value, not just a one-time door opener. 

The utility industry must try to make people see thatour product, electricity, can not be taken for granted — that its real economic value is 

substantially greater than its historical price; and, ultimately, that it is the key to the comfort, productivity, and progress of our modern 

So, from a self-interest point of view, energy education is needed so that the energy industry may, over the long run, continue to provide 
the products and services customers need and want. 

The improved knowledge about energy; the improved understanding of the complex relationships within the economy, environment, 

society, and technology; and informed decision-making by students, teachers, and adults are needed if we are to provide secure supplies 

and readily useable energy now in this transitional decade and beyond the year 2000, 

Besides knowing the previously mentioned factors about energy, students and adults need to develop skills in the application of these 

factors and the determination of their values to arrive at decisions regarding the energy trade-offs that are necessary 

The tools necessary to do the job can be developed through cooperative efforts of the educational system and the business world! 

As I am sure you are only too painfully aware, educators of today have been overwhelmed with social responsibilities. Society in the 1 960s 
and 1970s decided that teachers should no longer concentrate on the basic "3 Rs". The society saddled you with the concepts of 
progressive education .Consequently, we have overwhelmed theschools with responsibility for education to reduce cavities; education 
to increase understanding of reproductive organs and contraceptive techniques, education to reduce drag addiction; education to 
increase skills in appreciation of aesthetics. 

We have overwhelmed you. How much time do you have to spend on energy education'? 

I know that m Oregon, at least, several school districts have found it important enough to mandate. And, indeed, our State Department of 
Education is considering mandating energy education statewide. 

So I Know there is a need for energy education. For one thing, I know that the average textbooks you use are at least 5 years old and 
probably older. Therefore, whatever information they contain - and this is extremely crucial to the fast-changing world of energy 
statistics - may be 7-9 years old. Textbooks copyrighted in 1970 would contain nothing about the OPEC Oil Embargo, shortages of oil 
and natural gas, issuescaused by National Environmental Protection Act, the Clean Air Act, the Federal Coal Strip Mining Act .issues over 
the use of uranium, etc. 

Also, we know about the shortage causes great difficulties for schools to purchase new textbooks, A-V equipment and materials library 

reference and resource materials on energy, curriculum guides and study guides on energy education, subscriptions to magazines and 

periodicals that contain timely and accurate energy statistics, etc. 

We suffer from the same financial constraints you do — maybe more so. 

But we are determined that it is in our best interest to operate as efficiently and economically as possible in order to provide as much 

material and cooperation to explain our business to the American public as we can. 

In fact, we are bound by law to operate as economically as possible. Our charter to operate as a business, granted by the State of Oreqon 
nas basically two provisions - that we must provide all the electricity that all the 1 ,200,000 people in our service area demand at any one 
time, and at the cheapest possible cost! /<■"«* 

I doubt that there are very many other businesses or educational systems that operate under such a mandate. 



16 



And so to improve the energy literacy of today's students and teachers, we are willing to embark upon major programs such as EME. 
SI' Sing'^mSrpersonnel to guide tours through our facilities to make real, for students, some of theabstract concepts they 
SewSingl^oJIde resource materials which provide accurate and timely statistics regarding the function and operations of our 
Sewilling to provide film, other A-V materials, teaching kits, etc., through our National Trade Association, EEI- that will fill some of 

the existina void for such materials. , ... 

We are wilMnq to provide speakers for classroom programs on topics related to our industry. . . 

We are willTngTo encourage and motivate our employees to participate in community orgramzations. such as Scouts. 4-H. Junior 
Achievement, church-relatec I youth groups etc. materials, advise us on our programs, etc.. by 

Many of us are wUhng to have^ you '^.^"^ re P a | i2e s its responsibility not to use the education system • 

offer if these materials and services are educationally sound. 

There are some 145 investor-owned utilities in the U.S. with an educational services program. 

a ro'a<! accurate objective, and balanced as possible in an imperfect world. 

Students do noi hate to advocate our views, but we just hope that they will come to understand our views. 

The EEI Educational Services Committee has developed six goals to achieve in its cooperative efforts with the educational system. I have 

use in preparing materials for students and teachers. 

to produce high-quality educational materials. 
111. CONCLUSION 

WecoVtEel; ; a n d eXanty e^yees educated by you - both technica, and nontechnical, managerial and nonmanagenal. 

therefore, to our customers in the years ahead. 

APPENDIX t 
PGE Educational Services Program 

and displays. ^ x , . . . A 

PGE maintains a free-loan film library from which teachers may borrow films for their classes. Currently, more than 30 titles are mcluded 

in the Film Library. 

area. 

The Company has also developed bulletin board materials for teachers' use on topics of conservation and electrical safety. 

,n response to teacher requests, the department has developed educational materials on specific topics, such as conservation, consumer 

education, careers, and others. 

PGE sponsors the Screen Ne*s Digest, a current events film program. Each month of the school year, a different film on a vital current 

events topic is distributed to schools in the Company's service area. 

The Company aisosponsorstheEE.Library GrantProgramforaOhighschoo.librariesinourservicearea.Currentinformation on energy 

topics is sent to these libraries monthly on a national level from EEI. 



17 



PGE sponsors the Energy and Man's Environment (EME) program in our service area. EME has becomea nationally recognized program 
of excellence in the field of energy education, EME is a program of energy curriculum materials development, conferences, and teacher 
workshops on energy education. 

The Company has developed or purchased various educational displays and exhibits for schools to use for special occasions. Such 
exhibits may be used for a science fair or for Energy Day {or Week), Safety Day (or Week), Career Day, or Conservation Day (or Week) 
activities. These are also used for exhibiting at professional educational conferences, such as National Science Teachers Association 
(NSTA), National Council for Social Studies (NCSS), Oregon Education Association (OEA), Oregon Science Teachers Association 
(OSTA), etc. 

PGE also participates in and sponsors such youth service activities as Explorer Scouts, Junior Achievement Project Business, 4-H, and 
others. 

The Educational Services Supervisor participates in local, state, regional, and national energy education organizations. These include 
the Institute for Public Affairs Research ((PAR), Energy and Man's Environment (EME), and NELPA and EEI educational services 
committees, to name a few. 

APPENDIX II 

Goals of the Edison Electric Institute 

Educational Services Committee 

1. To assist in establishing the electric utility industry as a reliable, responsive source of educationally sound classroom materials 
pertaining to various aspects of electric energy. 

2. To actively promote and encourage cooperation and trust between individual member companies and educators in the development 
and dissemination of energy-related educational materials. 

3. To promote understanding of the American free enterprise system among students. 

4. To develop, in cooperation with members of the educaitonaf community, programs and services relating to energy education for 
provision to member companies. 

5. To seek participation in the development of energy curriculum by national and state educational organizations. 

6. To seek active participation in educational forums to spotlight the work of the industry in energy education 

APPENDIX III 

Edison Electric Institute 

Educational Services Committee 

Guidelines for the Production, Distribution, and Use 
of School Materials, Programs, and Activities 

In order that programs, materials, and activities produced for schools by community agencies be of the highest quality and maximum 
effectiveness, we endorse the following guidelines and further urge their adoption by all EEI member companies. 

General Considerations 

Worthwhile and effective energy education programs, activities and materials: 

— have clearly stated goals and objectives stated in terms of expected student behavior 

— treat controversial issues fairly and honestly and do not advocate any one particular point of view 

— are concerned with helping students learn how to think, not what to think 

— clearly identify opinion and company or agency policy if included 

— are not used to sell products, age ncy policies or political p oints of view 

— are sensitive to human values and avoid racial, sexual, occupational, regional, handicapped and other stereotypes 

Design and Production of Materials 

Better, more usable educational programs and materials result when: 

— clearly stated and measurable goals and objectives are establsihed early in the development process 

— those who will be using the materials — students, teachers, administrators — are involved in the process 

— they are designed to mesh with ongoing educational activities and are compatible with adopted courses of study and state frameworks 

— provision is made for student-teacher creativity and innovation | 

— they are targeted to specific grade levels and subject matter areas |: 

— consideration is given to the physical design and package of materials so that they are attractive and convenient to use 

Program Implementation 

An effective implementation plan is needed if educational programs and materials are to be of maxiumum effectiveness A qood 
implementation plan: 

— makes use of the services available through professional associations, teacher training institutions, staff development centers county 
offices of education, the. State Department of Education and othe related agencies 

— includes provision for the instruction for those who will be using the materials 



Evaluation 

The value of all programs and materials is determined by their effectiveness with students. Evaluation is thereforea key program element 
and should provide for: 

— field testing and evaluation of all programs and materials in terms of stated goals and objectives by students and teachers prior to 
widescale implementation 

— provision for continuous feedback and modification as needed once a program is underway 

— test instruments and evaluation suggestions for classroom use 

FOOTNOTES 

' Bertram Wolfe, General Electric Company, 'Technology an the Welfare of Mankind, "presented at the American NuclearSociety Winter 
Meeting, San Francisco, California, November 12, 1979, 

2 Dr. William H, Dresher, Dean, College of Mines, University of Arizona, and Director, State of Arizona, Bureau of Geology and Mineral 
Technology, "Pressure Points — Conflict Between Federal Policies and National Energy Needs," presented at the Public Utilities 
Communications Association, Region 6 Workshop/Conference, Phoenix, Arizona, July 13, 1978. 

3 Dr. John H. Francis, Vice President, Florida Power & Light Company, "Utilities in the Classroom: Why Not?", presented at the Atomic 
Industrial Forum Conference, Houston. Texas, September 12, 1978. 

J Dr. Richard Scheetz, Manager, Educational Services, Edison Electric I nstitute (retired), "Energy Education and the Schools," presented 
at the Education Confronts the Energy Dilemma National Conference, Washington, D.C., June 22, 1977, 

5 Bill Perkins, Director, Committee for Energy Awareness, "The Dying of the Light," St. Louis, Missouri, June 18, 1980. 

6 Paul D. Ziemer, President and Chief Executive Officer, Wisconson Public Service Corporation, "EEI's Communications Policy and the 
Educational Community," presented at the EEI Second National Conference of Electric Utility Educators, Dallas, Texas, June 13, 1979, 

1.4 

EDUCATION IN ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES 

E.F. Curd., M. Phil, C. Eng.M.lnst.E., MCIBS. 
Education in Energy Topics: 

From numerous visits to schools, involving discussions with teachers and students, and from introductory lectures to students in Higher 

National and Degree Courses at Liverpool Polytechnic, it has become evident to the author in all cases, that the very important topic of the 

world's energy resources, and the methods of energy generation are by no means receiving an adequate and sound treatment in the 

school curriculum. In general it can be said, that many teachers are lacking in information, hence the students are ignorant and 

misinformed on the elements of all energy matters. 

The various science disciplines, such as physics, chemistry, and biology all have different approaches to energy. Examples being 

physics, relating energy to potential and kinetic energy, while the biologist relates energy to photo synthysis, and metabolism. One 

cannot dispute that these are important subjects in their respective fields, and as such are rightly an essential part of any school 

curriculum. What is lacking however is an introduction to the basis of "Energy Technology" in an unbiased manner. 

The study should include, fossil fuels and their burning with the resulting energy production, this should be related to the replenishable 

sources of energy, and their respective merits. 

It is only when these fundamentals are understood that the student can be said to be obtaining a fair rational education. I have used the 
word 'fair' as in many discussions it was evident that a large proportion of the ideas im parted, either by teachers, visiting lecturers or by the 
popular press or media are unrealistic and biased condemning out of hand the need for nuclear power, or any research in this field. The 
argument being, it is too dangerous to use. The general postulations are that our only salvation from the energy gap is by the use of 
aerogenerators, wave power, geothermal, and solar; etc. This approach cannot be called education. 

It must be realized that all sources have a role to play, and as such, each case must be looked at In a scientific reality, and not in a brain 
washing, or unscientific manner. 

As the world energy scene becomes more uncertain, and the uneven distribution of energy throughout the world become more critical, 

we will be unable to escape the political and economical troubles created by theensuring demands on theavailability of fossil fuels, which 

we rely on for our standard of living. Education in this field will assist us in overcoming many of the problems of the future. 

There are no shortages of possibilities of alternative energy sources in any given area, and we should not rely only on one form of energy, 

The economics of using the various forms must however be considered. 

Only when students understand the basis of energy production, will the conservation programmes on which Western Governments are 

spending vast sums of money on, will become meaningful. With understanding indiscriminate energy use must become a thing of the 

past, resulting in an extension in the life of fossil fuels and savings in the balance of payments. 

With adequate tutoring in this field, the students may be inspired to continue studies in the energy field by becoming engineers. 

We will now consider a suggested approach to teaching energy subjects. This being based on the authors paper given at the ICASE 
Conference at Monte Carlo 1981 . 

Teaching Energy Subjects: 

On introducing energy subjects in the school curriculum, an organising committee should be formed with a variety of expertise to 
formulate the course. These studies must be inter-discipiinery, and will require a broadening of the education of many teachers. Being a 
new topic considerable time will have to be spent in corse preparation, and in obtaining essential data. It will be appreciated that unlike 
many conventional subjects, energy topics are in a complete state of continual flux, requiring constant updating. 



19 



A possibility exists that knowledge will be passed on to the student in the way it was acquired, this is unsatisfactory. To overcome these 
problems, consideration should be made in approaching the EEC to finance common in-course teacher training in the whole range of 
alternative energy topics- 
Industry and the public utilities can also assist, by opening their doors to teacher and student, and introduce them to the present methods 
of energy generation. 

Courses should be designed that the students appreciate the following: 

i) Fossil fuels are a finite source 

ii) The political and economic factors involved in energy generation 

iii) The various alternative energy forms available 

iv) The limitations of these possible sources 

v) The make up of the design team and the role of the engineer 

The nature and the degree to which these elements are covered will obviously depend on the students age and the teachers training. In 

covering these items, the following should be considered: topic relevence, meaning and feasibility, 

The scope of the subjects to give a basic understanding is wide and should include in balanced proportion the following: 

TOPIC 

i) Origins & Nature of Fossil Fuels 

ii) Methods of Heat and Power Generation 

iii) Energy Economics 

iv) Socio-Political Implications 

SUBJECTS TO BE STUDIED 

Geology, Geography, Physics, Chemistry, etc. 

Heat Transfer, Combustion, Thermodynamics, Mechanics, Fluid-Mechanics, Eiectrical Engineering, Maths, etc. 

Pricing Policies, Evaluation, Energy Costs (Significance), Energy Accounting, 

Energy Politics, International & Domestic Implications, Relationship between the State and the Energy Market, Transport Problems. 

The wide range of topics that can be considered in energy studies is shown in Figure 1. For the purpose of this conference we will only 
consider solar energy as this subject lends itself to a whole range of simple and cheap experiments. The other subjects however must not 
be ignored and similar syllabi are available. 

Teaching Syllabus: 

Before attempting to cover the numerous forms of alternative energy available, it is essential to consider a basic core study including:— 

1) Origin and source of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels 

2) Energy science {Energy Conversion) 

3) The Energy Gap 

4) The role of alternative energy sources. 

Complete syllabi for the above four items are not included due to space reasons, it is hoped however, the following brief syllabi will 
provide a suitable approach. 

1) Origin & Source of Solid, Liquid & Gaseous Fuels: 

(For space reasons only liquid fuels will be considered) 

Aim: To enable the student to appreciate the problems associated in obtaining and burnng these fuels, and to understand that fossils fuels 

are a finine resource. 

Definition: Liquid fuel can be conveniently divided into the following classftcations: 

1) Light oil or spirits (used in internal combustion and jet engines). 

2) Heavy oils (used for burning in heat generating plant) 

Subjects that can be studied in this topic: 

1) Geology (formation of oil deposits) 

2) Geography (location of these deposits) 

3) Engineering (methods of detection and recovery) 

4) Fuel technology (methods of storing, burning and testing) 

5) The petro - chemical industry (products obtained) 

6) Pollution (air, land and water) 

7) Political and economic implications 

2. Energy Science (Energy Conversion) 

Aim: To introduce the students to the basic ideas of burning fuels, pollution problems, heat transfer and energy conversion methods. 
During the course it is essential that the student appreciates the implications of the 1 st & 2nd. Law of Thermodynamics and the possible 
efficiency of plant in practice. 

3. The Energy Gap: 

Aim: To understand the relationship between the limited supply of fossil fuels, and the general trend per capita for increasing fuel 
consumption, and the resulting energy gap, and how this gap can be filled by alternative sources. It is essential at this stage to emphasise, 
many years are necessary to develop new schemes from initial stage to the completed project. 

20 



Origin: Derived from animal and vegetable debris that have accumulated over millions of years, in sea basins or estuaries, and buried 

there by sand and silt The decomposition of these debris may have taken place by: 

1} Anaeobic bacteris under reducing conditions or 

2) Heat generated by earth movement or depth of burial 

The finaf result being a dark viscous product of the following approximate composition: Carbon 80-89%, Hydrogen 12-14%, Nitrogen 
0.3-1%, Sulphur 0.3-3%, Oxygen 2.0-3%, 

Oil may also be produced by cataytic processes carried out on coal. 

World Recoverable Oil Reserves: Uncertainty is always associated with the estimation of the life of fossil fuels due to many factors (vis) 

political, geological, economical, industrial, etc. 

Estimates range from 18-40 years, 

Shale oil and tar oil sands will extend these estimates, however, recovery by these methods is expensive. 

It is of interest to note that in 1744 B. Franklin invented a fire place to conserve fuel for indentical reasons as we are considering today. 

Having considered the previous three topics, a study of the various alternative energy schemes will now become meaningful. 

4, Role of Alternative Energy Sources: 

Aim: To enable the student to appreciate the various forms of alternative energy, and self sufficiency available, and the limitation, 
advantages and disadvantages of each in filling the energy gap. 

Typical Topics to be Covered:So\ac t Wind, Wave, Tidal, OTEC, Geothermat, Hydro-Electric Schemes, Hydrogen Energy, Heat Pumps. 

At this conference only solar-energy is considered, a syllabus for this is given in Appendix 1, 

APPENDIX 1. 

Teaching Syllabus: "Alternative Energy Sources" 

Subject: Solar Energy 

Aim: This syllabus is designed to enable the student to grasp the fundamental theory necessary to appreciate solar energy utilisation and 

applications covering: 

i) The star that controls our existance. 

ii) Its effects on the world climate. 

iii) How its radiant energy can be utilized to a greater extent than at present. 

iv) The implications of solar energy usage on a national and world front, and its effect on the energy gap. 

The subject can be conveniently divided into the following groups: 
i) Thermal conversion, 
ii) Electrial conversion. 
iii) Chemical conversion. 

Each of these can be furt her subdiv ided. In the case of thermal conversion, to cover the factors related to flat plate collectors, parabolic 
collectors, direct and indirect passive buildings, etc. 

For this syllabus only flat plat collectors will be considered. However many of the items covered are common to the other topics. If 
necessary the three conversion methods could be united to produce a broader syllabus. 

A.1 Nature of the Sun 

1.1 Explains the reactions assumed to take'place in the sun. 

1.2 Knows the mean distance of the sun from the earth. 

1.3 Knows the mean diameter of the sun, 

1.4 Knows the mean surface temperature of the sun. 

1.5 Knows the power output of the sun. 

1.6 Defines extraterrestial solar energy intensity. 

1.7 Knows the distribution of solar energy intensity. 

1.8 Defines the term solar constant. 

1.9 Understands the pat of the earth round the sun, 

1.10 Knows how radiation passes from the sun to the earth. 

B. 2 Nature of the Earths Climate 

2.1 Understands the basic factors that effect the earths climate. 

2.2 Knows the general patterns of winds (local and world wide), 

2.3 Understands the term diurnal temperature variations. 

2.4 Describes how meteorological measurements are made. 

2.5 Appreciates surface solar energy intensity and distribution. 

2.6 Defines direct, diffuse and ground radiation. 

2.7 Defines air mass. 

2.8 Defines Albedo, 

2.9 Define the term 'greenhouse' effect, 

2.10 Defines insolation. 

2.11 Defines turbidity. 

2.12 Knows how solar intensity varies with solar altitude, angle and station height. 

21 



C.3 Solar Geometry 

3.1 Defines declination angle. 

3.2 Defines hour angle. 

3.3 Defines altitude angle. 

3.4 Defines azimuth angle. 

3.5 Defines incident angle. 

3.6 Defines latitude angle. 
37 Defines orientation angle. 

3.8 Defines orientation angle. 

3.9 Derives solar and surface angle. 

3.10 Calculates intensity of solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces. 

3.11 Constructs a sun chart. 

D.4 Heat Transfer 

4.1 Defines temperature and knows the fixed points on the thermometer scale. 

4.2 Differentiates between temperature and heat. 

4.3 Defines conduction and gives examples. 

4.4 Knows the Fourier rate equation for conduction. 

4.5 Defines conductivity and knows the factors that effect it. 

4.6 Defines resistance and surface resistance. 

4.7 Defines thermal transmittance. 

4.8 Calculates rate of heat flow through a composite structure. 

4.9 Defines thermal radiation and gives examples. 

4.10 Knows the nature of thermal radiation. 

4.11 Defines reflectivity, absorptivity and transmissivity. 

4.12 Defines total emissive power. 

4.13 Defines a black and grey body. 

4.14 Defines Monochromatic Power. 

4.15 Knows the Stefan — Boitzmann law. 

4.16 Describes how radiant heat transfer takes place between black bokies. 

4.17 Solves simple radiation problems using (4.15) 

4.18 Defines natural and forced convection and gives examples of each 

4.19 Applies simple formula In each case of (4.18) to solve problems. 

4.20 Defines specific heat capacity. 

4.21 Defines mass flow rate. 

4.22 Solves problems associated with mass, specific heat and temperature difference. 

4.23 Differentiates between latent and sensible heat 

4.24 Defines enthalpy, 

4.25 Defines thermal expansion. 

4.26 Appreciates importance of thermal expansion. 

4.27 Solves simple problems involving linear expansion. 

E5 Panel Collecting Devices 

5.1 Understands the construction of a plate collector, 

5.2 Knows the effect of surface colour. 

5.3 Knows the difference between the various heat transfer fluids used in plate collectors. 

5.4 Understands the relationship between the flow rate and water temperature on a panel. 

5.5 Appreciates the positioning of a panel and its optimum inclination for summer and winter use, 

5.6 Knows the difference between a thermo-syphonic systems and accelerated systems. 

5.7 From local meterological data, calculate the collector size for a given duty. 

5.8 Determines the efficiency of a panel. 

5.9 Describes the effect of nocturnal radiation. 

5.10 Describes the difference between a water storage and rock bed storage system. 

5.11 Calculates the storage required for a given duty. 

5.12 Describes the control necessary. 

5.13 Describes typical applications of plate collectors. 

5.14 Knows how plate collectors can be included in building design. 

5.15 Understands how corrosion attacks collectors. 

F.6 Design Team 

6.1 Knows the role of the engineer. 

6.2 Knows the role of the structural engineer. 

6.3 Knows the rule of the architect 

6.4 Knows the role of the quantity surveyor. 

6.5 Knows the rote of the builder. 

6.6 Knows the role of the meterologist. 



G.7 Owning & Operating Costs 

7.1 Knows the cost of energy input to manufacture a panel. 

7.2 Compare (7.1) with the useful energy output over the life of the panel, 

7.3 Knows the cost of installing & operating a panel. 



22 



7.4 Relates the cost of energy achieved by solar collector with conventional fossil fuels. 

7.5 Determine economic viability of the solar plate collector in your district. 

7.6 Comment on (7.5) with projected fossil fuel increases over the next 10 years. 

7.7 Relates national savings on fossil fuels should solar application become viable. 

Note: This subject lends itself to numerous easy and cheap experimental topics. 

1.5 

ENERGY EDUCATION ASSESSMENT 
K-12 Maine Teachers 

Christina Rule 

Energy Education Consultant 

Office of Energy Resources 

Augusta, Maine 04330 

and 

Lloyd H. Barrow, Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of Science Education 

University of Maine at Orono 

Orono, Maine 04469 

For several years, educators interested in teaching about energy have been contacting the Maine State Office of Energy Resources (OER) 
and the Maine State Department of Educational and Cultural Services (DECS) for assistance. Several groups in addition to the OER and 
DECS, have responded to the energy education needs of Maine teachers in a variety of ways. Although considerable effort had already 
occurred in relation to assisting teachers, this effort was not effectively coordinated. Inadvertently, approaches to energy education 
varied and duplication of effort was inevitable. Requests to the OER and DECS as well as other groups, for information have been 
increasing steadily. The diversity and numbers of requests has resulted in the somewhat haphazard manner in which energy education 
was addressed in Maine. 

It became apparent to the OER and DECS that a state-wide, comprehensive energy education program should be initiated. This approach 
was considered to be far more efficient than to deal with energy education on a case by case basis. 

In order to develop a program which would be based on the actual, expressed needs of Maine teachers, a Task Force was formed. This 
Task Force comprised of educational professjonafs was formed to identify and document energy and education-related activities, 
resources and opportunities which exist in the state today; to conduct a state-wide needs assessment of Maine teachers; and to make 
recommendations based upon the results of the survey to OER and DECS to meet the identified needs. 

The decision to conduct an energy education needs assessment of Maine teachers was made in the fall of 1 979. It was felt that surveying 
the teachers to determine their energy education needs would provide OER with specific direction in its school energy education efforts. 
It was felt that gaining teacher input would be positive for three reasons. First, it would provide valuable data which would be useful 
information for educators interested in developing energy education materials. Secondly, it would ensure that any materials developed as 
a result of the survey would be based upon theexpressed needs of teachers. And finally, teachers would feel more ownership in materials 
which were based upon teacher input, and thus be more apt to use those materials. 

Once the decision was made to conduct an energy education needs assessment of Maine teachers, a state-wide Energy Education Task 
Force (EETF) was formulated. Since the OER and DECS are only two of several agencies in Maine concerned with energy education, 
groups such as Maine Audubon, the University of Maine at Orono, and other groups and individuals were invited to join our efforts. 
The first and foremost concern was that this Task Force be sponsored jointly by the Director of the OER and the Commissioner of DECS. 
It was a highest priority to involve individuals interested in energy education, It was felt that a successful, quality energy education 
program couid best be developed as the result of cooperative efforts between the State offices of energy and education as well as other 
interested agencies. 

The primary goals of the Task Force were as follows: to identify and document energy and education related activities, resources and 
opportunities which already exist in the State of maine; to conduct and document a needs assessment to determine theenergy education 

needs of Maine students and teachers; and to develop a strategy and make recommendations to the OER and DECS, making optimum use 
of existing resources to meet identified needs. 

It was decided the survey should be distributed directly through teachers and principals by contacting three different groups: Title IV 
schoofs, minigrants recipients and geographically selected schools. A different letter was sent to each of the three groups. 

Title IV C is a federal grants program through the U.S. Department of Education which provides funding to schools interested in 
developing innovative curriculum projects. This group was chosen to besurveyed based upon their apparent openness to new ideas. The 
Title IV C Group does not necessarily represent teachers who are involved in energy education projects. Only one school out of 
thirty-four in this group has been involved in an energy education project. Several Title IV C school districts were contacted and asked to 
participate in the survey. Theschool administrator was responsible for distribution of the survey to aH teachers {K-12, all subject areas) in 
his/her district, 

The OER sponsors a small grants program for teachers who wish to develop energy activities for their students. All teachers who have 
participated in this program were contacted and asked to distribute five (5) questionnaires to other teachers (K-12, all subject areas) in 
their school system. The minigrants teacher could choose to respond in which case four other teachers responses were sought In 
general, it was felt that this group would be favorably disposed toward energy education since the effort to distribute the questionnaire 
within the school was initiated by a known energy educator. However, it was requested that the surveys be distributed as randomly as 
possible. 7 



23 



After the first two groups were identified, the geographic location of those schools was plotted on a map of Maine. It was then apparent 

that several geographic areas were not represented in our survey. It also appeared that there was a disproportionate balance in the 

representation from rural versus urban schools. Superintendents of the school districts in focations missing from our survey were 

randomly selected and invited to participate in the survey, it was their responsibility to distribute the survey to teachers (K-12, all subject 

areas) in their districts. 

For a population of 10,000 (the approximate number of teachers in Maine) the sample should yield a minimum of 370 responses for the 

study to bestatistically valid and within reasonable confidence intervals (1 ). It was expected that overall response of about twenty percent 

would be received. 

A total of 1.761 questionnaires were sent to fifty-two schools and school districts throughout the State. The survey distribution and 

response are found in Table 1. 

Table I 
Survey Distribution and Return Rates 

Group ^Surveys Dist. #Surveys Rtn. % Survey Rtn. 

f. Title IV C Schools 929 339 36% 

II. Minigrants School 195 60 31% 

III. Geographically 637 119 igo/ 

Selected 

TOTAL: 1761 51d 2 9% 

Considering the limited time frame for distribution and return of the survey, the overall return rate of 29% was considered by the EETF to 
be an excellent response/ 

A further breakdown of those surveyed indicated a reasonable proportioned response from elementary, junior high and hiqh school 
teachers in Table II, 

Table II 
Number and Percent of Responses for Each Group 

Grade Level Surveyed IV C MG Sei Total 

K-6 129 (62%) 27 (12%) 54 210 (40 5%) 

7-8 32(76%) 11(10%) 16 109(21%) 

9-12 125 (68%) 26 (12%) 38 189 (36.5%) 

Question #1 -What energy topics should be taught?: All topics mentioned in the survey were ranked as important for teachers to infuse 
into their teaching. The range was from "energy effects on careers" receiving amedia rating of 3,345 to "energy conservation" with a hiqh 
of 4.704 on a 5 point scale. 3 

Question #2 —At what grade level do you feel the following energy topics should be taught? (There were ten choices to the question )■ 
The data was looked at in terms of what percentage of the respondents indicated their preference for teaching each of the five energy 
topics at a given grade level. The percentage of responses ranged from 0% to 47.1%, 

a. "Energy concepts." Thirty-two percent of the teachers surveyed thought that energy concepts should be taught K-1 2. This percentage 
is twice the response for any of the other ninth grade level options. Thesecond highest response was 15,5% forgrade level 3-12 while 14% 
felt.it should be taught in grades K-2. Therefore the EETC concludes that energy concepts can and should be taught at all grade levels 
with a focus in elementary schools, 

b. 'Energy conservation." Almost half (47.1%) of the teachers surveyed thought energy conservation should be taughtatall grade levels 
The next two highest percentages went for grade levels K-2 (13.5%) and 3-5 (14,1%) indicating that teaching about conservation must 
begin in the elementary grades and focus there. 

c. "Alternative energies." The grade level focus for teaching about alternative energy which received the most support (27 2%) was 6-1 2 
Support from17 ; 1%wasglventogradelevel 3-12. andaclow 

respondents felt that alternative energy instruction can be taught at all grade levels, it should be focused in the secondary grades. 

n«H« « y io /o*'™ ? n/L! 8 *" 68 ''' The , QreateSt perCent of teachers fe!t tha * "energy problems and issues" should be taught in the upper 
y-8 (1 ^.Q A), A significant number also felt that "problems and issues" could be taught K-1 2 (15.7%), although only 2.1 3% felt it should be 
focused or nn K-2 .whereas a total of 22% felt It should be taught in either grades 3-5 or3-12, We conclude from these figures that while 
many teachers feel that energy problems and issues should begin to be covered in third grade that the primary focus should be grades 

e. ''Energy effects on careers." Clearly the respondents felt that the place for studying energy as it relates to career education was in hiqh 
school. A large percentage (44.9%), indicated that the focus should be grades 9-1 2, However a significant number also felt that it could 
begin in junior high school (37.7% for 7-8, 6-12 combined), 

Question #3 - What is the energy competencies of students?: The respondents indicated that students' knowledge of all of the enerav 
>T£ are ?K 8X . Ce f * ; ca 1 reefsM ( 1 ' 693 > to Concepts" (2.629). While "energy conservation" was ranked as the most important topic to be 
eaching, the students knowledge of this concept was ranged as good (3.045). It was the conclusion of the EETF that the teachers feel 
that, although there is room for improvement, their students understand conservation better relative to the other topics mentioned 



24 



Question #4 — How important is it for students to be aware of social aspects of energy?: This question supplements question #3 by 
emphasizing the importance teachers place on having their students understand how their own personal values and lifestyles, and the 
decisions they make, ultimately affect overall energy use and availability. The range from 3.861 for "future job choices will be affected by 
energy availability" to 4,554 for "one's life style affects energy consumption" reinforce the need for teaching both values clarification and 
energy conservation. 

Question #5 — How would you recommend that energy be taught in the curriculum? coufd be answered with ayes or no and the choices 
were: (1) "Taught as a separate course" or (2) "Integrated into various subject areas," Some respondents checked both choices with a 
■•y as." Although twice as many respondents though it should be integrated rather than taught separately, a sizeable portion felt that it was 
viable to teach it as a separate course, particularly In the upper grades. An analysis of this data substantiates the idea that energy is an 
interdisciplinary subject that should by no means be restricted to the science classroom. If one compares the responses to question #1 
from teachers representing all subject areas (science, special education, math, social studies, art, physical education, etc.) it becomes 
clear that there is a strong interest in energy education for all subject areas. 

Question #6 — What resources do you need to teach energy?: media resources are clearly needed by Maine's teachers. This question 
asked about classroom resources that teachers need to assist them in their energy education efforts. "Movies" were ranked as most 
important (4.214) "fiimstrips" (4.034) and "slides" (4,000) followed close behind. Ranked lowest were "textbooks for students" (3.081). 

Question #7 — What are the most important teacher resouces needed? In response to the need for "teacher resources" there was not a 
significant variation to provide the EETF with a clear delineation of priorities for developing resources. Rather, there was a strong interest 
in many teacher resources ranging from "workshop/in-service training" (3.881) to "background information" (4.054) and "community 
resources" (4,059). These figures indicate a real desire on the part of teachers to become knowledgeable about energy. 

Question #8 — What resources have been helpful?: As a result of tabulating the responses generically, it was found that four types of 
resources received considerably more support than the others listed by the teachers: Media: This includes primarily newspapers, TV, 
films, slides, and journals. Instruction: This includes in-service workshop, teacher training institutes, university level courses and other 
educational programs. Agencies: This includes government and private, non-profit agencies such as Officeof Energy Resources (OER), 
Maine Audubon Society, Community Assistance Programs, Co-operative Extension Programs, U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE). 
Materials: This includes miscellaneous mated alssuppleld by USDOE, OER. National Science Teachers Association. Maine Audubon and 
local utilities. 

According to the survey, student knowledge of energy topics were less than satisfactory. Since teachers expressed astrong interest and 
desire to be teaching about energy, the EETF concluded there exists a real need for a school energy education program. 

The following are the recommendations hereby submitted by the EETF for the development of such a program. 

1. The Office of Energy Resources (OER), the Department of Educational and Cultural Services (DECS) and the University of 
Maine-Orono (UMO) should establish a comprehensive school energy education program for the State of Maine. 

2. A Planning Committee should be formed, jointly chaired by OER, DECS and UMO, for the purpose of developing this State- wide energy 
education program. 

3. The Planning Committee should also include and represent school administrators, teachers, educational groups and other interested 
individuals and organization with close relation to educational programs in our schools. 

4. The specific tasks of this planning committee should include the following: 

a. Evaluation of existing curriculum resources available in energy education. 

b. Develop a framework for Maine schools K-12 curriculum into which energy concepts may be infused. 

c. Adopt and or develop an interdisciplinary, K-12 energy education curriculum for Maine's schools. 

5. The survey data of this needs assessment should be used as guidelines for the selection, adaptation or development of curriculum 
materials for Maine's schools. 

6. Teacher pre- and in-service training should be a primary focus for the resultant energy education program, 

7. Efforts to acquire funding for developing or adapting curriculum materials should begin immediately. 

Bibliography 

Krejcie, R.V. and D.W. Margan. Determining sample size for research activities, Educational and Psychological Measurements, 30: 
607-610, 1970. 

■1.6 

A CURRICULUM STRATEGY IN ENERGY EDUCATION 
FOR THE SECONDARY SCHOOL 

AJ. Atkins 

Professor of Science Education and 

Department Head, Secondary Education 

Auburn University, Alabama 36847 

A Curriculum Strategy in Energy Education 
for the Secondary School 



25 



Abstract 

During the last twenty-five years numerous efforts have been made to effect curriculum changes in the science courses of the secondary 
schools. The first major effort was associated with the Sputnik era when considerable sums of money were made available through the 
National Science Foundation, Since the end of that era, and particularly during the past decade, we have witnessed numerous efforts to 
have such topics as ecology, sex, alcohol abuse, drugs, scientific creationism, environmental education, career education, and others 
taught in the science curriculum. Few efforts of this latter era have met with notable success for numerous reasons. The current topic of 
energy education is but another such topic. 

There are ways in which energy education can be incorporated into all science courses with no great expenditure of timeor money. These 
are (1) to teach science within a framework of a concept of that energy which is a natural and concomitant part of the science being 
taught; and (2) pi ace emphasis on teaching for the transfer of what is learned about energy to everyday practical situations. This proposal 
is not offered as a panacea but as a natural and practiacl way to begin a program of energy education in secondary schools. 

A quarter century ago the Russians launced the first man-made earth satelite, and a virtual wave of hysteriaswept the nation, Something 
had to be done immediately in order for the United States to attain space superiority, In secondary schools the study of science and 
mathematics suddenly moved to the forefront at the expense of social studies and English. The National Science Foundation was created, 
and monies were appropriated for numerous purposes. The efforts which were undertaken to upgrade science instruction took two 
principle forms. One of these was to improve teacher competence in the subject matter of their teaching field, This was accomplished, 
primarily, through teachers education institutes which were funded for inservice science teachers. The second method resulted in what 
later became known as the national science curriculum revision movement. This cuJminated in such curricula as Chem-study chemistry, 
PSSC physics, BSCS biology, ESCP earth science, and numerous others. It should be noted that the once popular science fair owes its 
origin to this era of change in science and science education. 

This period of activity lasted for more than a decade and resulted in many science programs, some instruction-oriented and others 
curriculum-oriented. Also, millions of dollars were appropriated for these science programs which involved thousands of teachers. This 
ambitious and expensive undertaking was conducted essentially for two purposes: (1) to upgrade science instruction in general, and (2) 
to have certain science topics or science-related topics taught in the science subjects of secondary schools. 

Beginning with and lasting through the 1970's, science teachers were confronted with an array of new topics which various interest and 
pressure groups deemed to be of importance and which could be taught through the science curriculum. Ecology became important. We 
became pollution-conscious. These and other related concerns resulted in proposed environmental education programs. Ecology thus 
became an important phase of lifesciencein grade seven, earth science in grade nine, and biology in grade ten. Other areas of concern 
were also included in the science curriculum, among them drug education, alcohol abuse, sex education, and career education. The 
latest topic to emerge is scientific creationism (whatever that is) to be taught on an equal basis with evolution in biology classes. 

Regardless of what the nature of the topic may be, if it is to be incorporated into science subjects, three questions must be answered: ( 1 ) 
How does one get the topic into the curriculum of the schools? (2) What resources are available to teachers for teaching the topic? (3) 
How do you motivate teachers to teach a certain topic? The answers to all three of these questions are not only difficult, but the discovery 
of some answers usually necessitates the spending of considerable sums of money. This is why many proponents of having this or that 
topic taught through existing science courses have met with very little success. In addition, the syllabus of the typical teacher is still the 
adopted textbook. The content of textbooks changes very slowly and is subject to the whimsand fancies of the authors and publishers as 
they view curriculum content needs. 

What does all of this have to do with energy education? Viewed historically and in retrospect, the current topic of energy education is but 
one in a long list of studies advocated by many individuals and groups for inclusion in the science curriculum of the secondary schools. 

As a supporter of energy education, I would like to offer the following proposal for initiating the study of energy education as an integral 
part of the science courses of secondary schoofs. This proposal does not require special institutes for teacher preparation nor the 
production of expensive instructional materials. It has two components. The first is one of a new orientation for the science teacher — that 
is, the use of a different frame of reference and emphais in the teaching of science. The second is one of placing more emphasis on the 
relevance of energy education to the students' everyday world, 

In the matter of orientation, it Es obvious that the subject of energy pervades all of science. To teach science is to teach energy. Without 
energy there is no science, For example, a typical course in physics consists of a study of five areas — mechanics, heat, light, sound, and 
electricity, Four of these areas are a study of a specific form of energy. 8ut how many students, as well as teachers, view these as four 
separate topics to be studied rather than the study of four forms of energy? 

One of the criticisms of the study of biology has been that too much emphasis is placed on the what of biology rather than the how of 
biology, Such areas of study as DNA, mitosis, and photosynthesis, are usually learned through memorization with the aid of charts and 
diagrams. But what is biology— the study of life, plant or animal — without energy? The basic unit of life itself, the cell, is a study in the 
production and use of energy. What is a plant or animal, other than a mass of cells working in unison within a framework of energy 
production and use, The source of all food, of all life, is the sun, a producer of the electromagnetic spectrum, a spectrum of energy from 
the process of nuclear fusion. 

And what about chemistry? Chemistry is energy; energy is chemistry. Surely, there are basic definitions to be learned such as molar 
solutions, acids, bases, and salts. But these are the tools of communcation. Why should laboratory manuals, and teachers as well, instruct 
students to "heat the contents of a flask" w ien they could more correctly tell students to "energize the contents of the flask." 

Earth science — geology, meterology, and astronomy — are all a study of energy in action or the results of energy in action from the past, 

I believe that the typical teachers of science know the subject matter of science, i also believe that teachers know the energy component 
of what is taught. The first step then in energy education should be a matter of change in the orientation of these science teachers. In 
teaching science, the teachers must relate the interdependence of the study of science to energy. They must teach science and energy in 
concert. They must inject the energy ingredient into cause and effect relationships, and they must emphasize the how of science rather 
than the what of science. One might ask how we ever arrived at the teaching of any science, be it physics, chemistry, biology, or other, in 
isolation to its essential energy component. 



26 



The second component in energy education in this proposal is one of relating the sciences and their energy constitutents to the practical 
world of reality and to the problems of energy which we face today. The psychologists call this the principle of transfer of learning. 
Research shows if you expect transfer to occur, you must teach for it. Teaching for transfer should be nothing new for good teachers. 
However teachers might be made more aware of how much they might accomplish in the realm of energy education if they gave more 
attention to the matter of transfer of (earning. We can also take a cue from our metric education friends who have coined a very 
appropriate phrase, the resulting action of which is essential if we are to become a metric society. The phrase Is'Think Metric." Weneed 
to "think energy," and science teachers should think energy in teaching science, 

This proposal for an energy education program through the science courses of the secondary school is not a panacea. Instead it is 
recommended as a viable and inexpensive way to begin. As indicated previously, it is a matter of teaching for the understanding of 
science in conjunction with energy-related components and teaching for transfer at every opportunity, 

By way of implementing this proposal, much of what is suggested here can be communicated to teachers by several already existing 
means, and with minimal or no expense. One of these is through appropriate articles published in the professional journals which are read 
by most dedicated science teachers. A second would be by communicating this concept of energy education to teachers through 
instructional supervisors at local and state levels. Another might be to have this concept of energy education appear as a program item at 
state and local meetings of science teachers. Finally, it could be a topic for inservice meetings of science teachers. 

If we are serious about energy education through science instruction in secondary schools, the suggestions made here coufd be a 
practical and inexpensive way to begin. In the event that considerable sums of money and other resources should become available, 
additional avenues should be sought. 

References 

Atkins, A. J., and Gwynn, J.M. Teaching Alcohol Education in the Schools. New York: The Macmlllan Co, 1960. 

Atkins, A J. 'The Junior High School Science Program: Its Problems and Needs. ,} The B ulletin: Alabama Asociation of Secondary School 
Principals. 2 (Winter 1966): 2-7, 

Higgins, J.L., Editor. A Metric Handbook for Teachers. Reston, Va.: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. 1975, 

Hoyt, K.B., et al. Career Education; What It Is and How to Do It Salt Lake City: Olympus Publishing Co. 1974. 

National Science Teachers Association. Environmental Education Materials. Washington, D.C.: National Science Teachers Association. 
1973-74. 

State of Alabama Department of Education. Environmental Education in Alabama — A Comprehensive Approach. Bulletin No. 17, 
Montgomery, Alabama: 1973. 

Sund, R.B., and Trowbridge, L.W. Teaching Science by inquiry In the Secondary School. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill Co. 1973, 



INVITED 1.7 

Energy Education: A View from the NSTA 

John M. Fowler 



Abstract 

The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) has been involved in energy education since 1974. In 1976, we began a curriculum 
effort — the Project for an Energy-Enriched C urricuium (PEEC) first with support from the Energy Research Development Administration 
(ERDA) and then from the Department of Energy (DO E). During these past five years, we have seen energy education grow strong in the 
grassroots, There are several national projects developing curriculum materials and many, many state and local groups producing their 
own. There have been three Practitioners Conferences on Energy Education, National Energy Education Day has been celebrated for two 
years in a row and in 1981 there will be, in addition to this International Conference on Energy Education, a National Conference on 
Energy Education in Detroit, Michigan on November 22nd. 

1981 is a year of high visibility for energy education, but is also a year of problems. Since energy education is not a discipline, it does not 
have the cohesiveness of other educational efforts and, therefore, it does not have the cohesiveness of other educational efforts and, 
therefore, it does not have political clout commensurate with its importance. The change in administration has seen a change in federal 
policy toward energy education which is resulting in a ten-fold or more reduction in federal support. Whether and how energy education 
can survive these changes, the role of the private sector, and the questions of who will evalute materials, who will provide support for and 
run the necessary workshops, whether there be a network and clearinghouse, etc. are now all urgently awaiting answers. These changes 
and questions are discussed in the paper. 

What remains unchanged is the fact that the nation is going through a momentous transition in its energy production and use and that the 
students who will direct and be affected by this transition are now in our schools. Energy education remains a most important priority for 
the nation's educators. 



27 



INVITED 1-8 

Collaboration in Energy 
Education: Pitfalls and Promises 

Dr. Wilton Anderson, Director 
Energy and Education Action Center 
Abstract U,S " De P artment of Education 

Collaboration in the planning and implementation stages of energy education initiatives is as important to the success of these programs 
and their incorporation into a given educational setting as interdisciplinary subject matter content is to the relevance of curriculum and 
resultant learning opportunities provided for students. 

However, as energy education begins to receive greater focus in American schools and colleges, there is a compelling need for both 
theorists and practitioners to avoid over emphasizing the importance of interdisciplinary subject matter content while neglecting almost 
entirely the vital interactive processes of collaboration. 

All too often the temptation to "do one's own thing" undermines well-intentioned efforts by educators who, in the rush to beon the cutting 
edge of change in education, fail to recognize that integrated and systemic planning require more than just a new array of zealous 
specialists, innovators, and reformers working in Isolation or at best with minimal contact with others. The entire basis for this 
counter-productive behavior cannot be placed at the feet of educators alone, however; the lack of policy direction emanating from 
educational agencies and institutions as well as the Federal sector must be regarded equally as a contributing factor. Needless to say, 
some attempts at collaboration in energy-related education undertakings among the various hierarchies of education {administrators! 
college faculties, and elementary and secondary teachers) as well asbetween Federal andState education agencies and offices appears, 
on the surface, to have proliferated since the major oil embargo of 1973. This article defines the essential elements of collaboration! 
juxtaposes these against the prerequisites of energy and education, and recommends new approaches which will maximize the 
probability of true collaborative energy education planning, resource allocation, implementation, and evaluation. Specifically treated are 
the types of policy actions, resource distribution and technical assistance roles required of Federal, State, and local agencies and offices. 
The theories of leading scholars of organizational behavior are applied extensively throughout the article. 

INVITED 1.9 

"The Forgotten Fundamentals of the Energy Crisis" 

Albert A, Bartlett 

Department of Physics, Box 390 

University of Colorado 

Boulder, Colorado 80309 

Abstract 

The forgotten fundamental of theenergy crisis is the elementary arithmetic of growth. The arithmetic is examined and is then applied to 
answer the question, "What is the life expectancy of known or estimated reserves of several fossil fuels for various reasonable rates of 
steady growth of consumption of these fuels?" The answers from the arithmetic are enormously more pessimistic than are the typical 
pronouncments in the public press. A large organized sample of these pronouncments is presented so that students can compare them 
with the facts and can thus see how essentiaf it is that they make quantitative evaluations of the optimistically erroneous material that 
dominates much of the public discussion of energy. This paper is well summarized by the quotation from Aldous Huxley, "Facts do not 
cease to exist because they are ignored." 

INVITED 1.10 

Energy Activism in Secondary Education 

James G. Richmond 
32822 Saginaw West Road 
Abstract Cottage Grove, OR 97424 

The author 'is a vocational construction teacher in a small high school in Creswell, Oregon, whose program has attracted over $35 000 in 
state and federal grant monies to "Improve the Quality of Vocational Education in Oregon." Entitled "Energy EfficientConstruction " the 
program has several timely features including a high enrollment of women in non-traditional roles, utilization of multi-media teaching 
approaches to serve disadvantaged and handicapped students and employment of energy efficient projects. Students have built sold 
and installed domestic hot water solar collectors and systems, Students have builta targepassive-hybridsolar greenhouse which may be 
the only one of its kind built by regular high school construction students anywhere in the country. Students have also been active in 
presenting their "Energy Road Show" at fairs, special "Energy" days, and at Solwest '80 n Vancouver. B.C. Besides telling of these 
activities in more detail the paper would deal specifically with: 

• sources and approaches for funding energy related projects 

• utilizing energy oriented projects as teaching vehicles 

• analysis of useful commercial energy media programs 

• creating an "energy advocate" in the school district 

• design and construction of sofar greenhouses for use by horticulture classes and as a heat producer 

• involving the community in energy education through adult education classes in solar energy and appropriate technology 



28 



Abstract: 



SESSION 2: SOLAR ENERGY EDUCATION 

2.1 INVITED 

SOLAR ENERGY, CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AND TEACHER TRAINING 

P,E. Richmond 
University of Southampton, England 



The study of solar energy is edging its way into school curricula Experience with Curriculum Development Projects over the last fifteen 
years has shown that new materials and approaches are most acceptable if they are grafted on to existing syllabuses and more 
compatible with familiar teaching styles. Locally inspired work seems more likely to be adopted than centrally produced materials. The 
teachers training process provides a route by which teaching materials can be devised, built and tried out in neighborhood schools. This 
is true at initial-training level and also at in-service courses, 

in Southampton a dozen graduate students training to be teachers in secondary schools were asked to take a lead in developing materials 
for the introduction of a study of solar energy into the school curricula. Each one was asked to design a piece of apparatus which could be 
used to investigate aspects of solar energy, A quantitative study was to be preferred where possible. They built 

(1) a spherical mirror of mylar 

(2) a cylindrical mirror of polished aluminium 

(3) a solar still 

(4) a survivor's still 

(5) a solar oven 

(6) a battery of reflectors to compare thermal properties of liquids 

(7) 'solar cushions' to illustrate different absorbing powers 

(8) an electronic thermometer 

(9) a panel of surfaces to display different absorbing powers 

(10) a camper's flate plate heater 

(11 ) a fresnel lens collector 

(12) experiments to investigate the output of solar cells 

Each student then worked with a small group (5 or 6) of below average ability classes. They tried out the apparatus (some worked, some 
didn't) and they tested their own teaching abilities with unfamiliar children and unfamiliar materials. Each student prepared 'back-up' 
activities if the sun did not shine. 

The following year a series of in-service courses for practising teachers was arranged, The place of solar energy in the science curriculum 
was discussed and suitable apparatus was designed and built. The teachers extended the students' work and built simple trickle heaters 
and thermosyphon models. In every case we wished to investigate what happened - by trying no glazing, single glazing, double glazing, 
varying rate of flow and insulation, etc., Six sets of solar apparatus were then constructed and are now out in ordinary schools for 
evaluation. 

This paper is presented as an example of a way in which students, university staff, teachers and children can work happily together and 
contribute to the design and choice of effective teaching materials. 

Introduction: 

The study of solar energy is slowly edging its way into the school curriculum. Experience with curriculum development projects overthe 
last fifteen years has shown that new materials and approaches are most acceptable if they can be grafted on to existing syllabuses and if 
they are compatible with familiar teaching styles. Locally inspired work is as likely to be adopted as centrally produced materials. The 
teacher training process provides a route by which teaching programmes can be devised and tried out in neighborhood schools. This is 
true for both initial and in-service courses. The need for curriculum materials based on solar energy offers an opportunity for this idea to 
be put into practice. 

1. In-Service and Initial Training of Teachers 

In Britain and many other countries the day of the big Project is over. Teacher educators no longer have an easy source of novel materials 
to present to practitioners. Nevertheless in-service education is needed. Changes in the future are likely to come about in less spectacular 
fashion than in the '60s and 70s but the science curriculum must surely change in response to new scientific knowledge, new social 
demands and improved understanding of effective educational practices. To meet the challenge of these changes teacher training 
courses will need to change from merely presenting project materials to a more creative style. In the absenceof well-defined innovations 
launched nationally through well orchestrated press releases and TV and radio interviews, interest must be generated locally and 
personal decisions about courses will need to be made. For these decisions to lead to popular courses and effective thcnage in classroom 
and laboratory practice, course organisers will have to be well informed, They will need to know about changes in science itself, about the 
climate of opinion in school and the community and they must also be ready to create rather than present teaching materials. 

When lecturers responsible for initial training courses are preparing science teachers to enter school laboratories for the first timr they 
too have for a decade been able to capture interest by extensive use of project materials. But this is becoming less easy since many 
students will have followed modern O-level and A-level courses in school and they know much of contemporary apparatus and materials 
from their own experience. Even so, in terms of developing the interest of students in unfamiliar subject matter and teaching styles, 
organisers of initial training programmes have an easier job than organisers of in-service work. Much that is familiar to an experienced 
teacher is new and intriguing to a newcomer - and hopes are high on initial training courses. A productive way of capitalising on the 
optimism and up-to-date knowledge of newcomers and at the same time using the wisdom of more experienced teachers is to bring the 
two together. No better way exists than to ask them to devise something new which is an improvement on existing practice. 



29 



A lecturer in a College or Department of Education now has the chance to influence teaching in three ways; 

i) by recognizing the need for curriculum change and facilitating curriculum development at a local level 

ii) by arranging meetings of experienced teachers 

iii) by stimulating intending teachers to create new materials and approaches. 

Many teacher trainers do attempt all three of these tasks but it is not usual for the three to be tackled simultaneously, as part of a 
coordinated curriculum development-teacher training programme. And yet some of the mistrust which teachers have of lecturers 
working in their colleges away from the realities of school would be reduced if a working partnership were developed between lecturer, 
students and teachers. At the present time good relationships exist between many colleges and their neighbouring schools. It is usually 
focussed on students undergoing initial training but an opportunity is often lost. The students practise teaching in school, they prepare 
their lessons, learn to handle apparatus, computers and audio-visual materials. Much of what thestudents do is emphemeral; they do not 
make a long-lasting input either to the educational system as a whole or to their practice school. What is lacking is an expectation by 
experienced teachers that students (supported by their lecturers) can provide curriculum materials which improve and expand existing 
resources and which are worth retaining. The lecturers too are reluctantto suggest to teachers betterwaysof tackling themes in science. 
They fear that they will be accused of interference or of making unrealistic proposals. If the latter accusation is thought to be valid then it 
needs to be put to the test, 

2. Energy and the Science Curriculum 

Questions of the supply, conversion and use of energy in the last quarter of the twentieth centu ry offer great opportunities for curriculum 
development. Energy can be studied in very many ways, not only in physics courses but in other science courses, in science and society 
options and in history, geography, economics, politics and a whole range of school subjects. Historically however the study of energy has 
rested firmly in thesciences and nowheremore securely than in physics. An economist or.geographerwillspeak more convincingly if he 
understands the laws of thermodynamics and the nature of energy changes and losses, On the other hand it is becoming clear that a 
physrcs programme which concentrates on an academic study of the laws of pure physics is an inadequate preparation for decision- 
making m the real world. The study of energy can be enriched by illustrating physical principles by reference to energy conservation and 
the many ways in which energy can be manipulated to reduce the effects of shortages of fossil fuels. Biology too can be enriched by 
studying the productron of fuel from the bio-mass. In this paper however the emphasis will be on improving physics teaching schemes 

IVnrl^ 6 >L n9 h° m h! he ?f w S ? rCe L y b6 9 Si ?,? le secondar y sch001 w "hout Its 'energy conversion kit'. Many still have copper 
«o«. I I T Wh ' Ch t0 StUdV heat ex ° han ? es ' Al1 inc,ude electricity in their courses. There is a wealth of apparatus in schools and a 
:" chin 9 experience connected with energy. This is an excellent foundation on which to build and the fact that students in 
college or university themselves learned about energy using apparatus which is still in use in school means that student and teacher have 
much in common and that innovations can be made from a basis of common knowledge and experience Theother S 
nowledge that a shared Is the knowledge of the problems of energy supply and distribution whic art bound *%toto£"™ar 
h .I" 38 ' 7 th w a ia°7i PnC ^ b ^ an . { °< ? ° 0t UP ' A l00k at energ y su PP'y and consumption statistics (1,2) revea a Si con'inum^ fn 
all in the most convenient and appropriate form has suddenly become a problem and even the certainties of regular 'growth and decay 
have been eroded. These factors combined to provide an almost perfect basis for curriculum innovation Ther ^raneerfor material 
which will help children to become aware of energy issues. There is apparatus available fo the ^ «ud™t«nd 

lecturers alike understand the laws of energy conversion. The innovation can be an extension of exliltln^ 

SS t be .° rga h niZ f tn P r 6m f ° rm and anSWers c- be 9 oK^ 

*hT» *h Im resource ma * er, f* Tn e rest of this article is built around a teacher training programme which qrew from an awareness 

3. Solar Energy 

efllcl.ncy studies. II Cm ™S™S*".S i S enclY„?™ ^ C °"*Z ■* ??" vM ° *"*• " ™» ""—O" » 
conventional physics lessons but feci no a alTsiton ilkTthi. 5™ m .^sequence. Or is ,1? Discussion Is not ess, to provoke In 

etticiency, cost-ilt.cltenU s„c "nvirlnrnM.i "pact '"""" """'■ " "* ™ d ,hw wl " "» ™ cn "*•' <"»»" 

frS^^dSteSSfflS .^p^Sn'lctrolv'.S'' ""'i? ™, h ""=" te ™ ■»■ "»< <*««<« ™* «cn 
me recommended procedures. We ateofeellna^^^ 

grasp physical concepts. T^iSStSSSSS^S^T" ".1" ! a cula,i ^ M «™»n '- « *» « W? , ability to 
teachers. Each »as Invited to ohoosS an :™perffiX?n™sol." energy to diK^ta'ilf tSSSS."? "i""-"*" """ ,h " *""""' 



30 



of popular articles drawn from newspapers and magazines and even on a bad day there was much for the school classes to do. But we 
were fortunate and on the ten days we were in school we were never driven indoors. 

The reason for the production and testing of curricular materials in solar energy are many and can be summarised as follows. Sunlight is 
available almost everywhere, solar energy is in the public eye at present and is a potential contributor to local and national energy 
supplies. Its study raises scientific, technical and social questions. These can be considered at an elementary descriptive level at an early 
stage of the study of physics and right up to advanced and graduate levels. At any stage personal investigations can be undertaken and 
they can proceed to a level of theory and analysis appropriate to the abilities of the investigators. The sun is a source of radiant energy 
across a broad spectrum, it is a sourceof heat and light which can substitute for conventional sources allowing syllabuses to be extended 
and enriched without suffering radical change. Numerical measurements can be made with solar apparatus and quite easy algebraic 
manipulation enables heat transfer equations to be used to calculate constants and parameters of the equipment. Solar energy isa theme 
par excellence with which to encourage student teachers to develop their ideas and to makea positive offering to the educational system, 

4. Theory into Practice 

Student teachers need pupils to practice on and ours needed to try out their ideas with classes or ordinary children in an ordinary school 
We approached a secondary comprehensive school in which a physics teacher was known to be an alternative technology enthusiast. 
Two classes totalling fifty children were allocated to us for one afternoon a week for ten weeks. They were aged about fourteen and were 
of average and below average ability and motivation, Many of them were looking forward to dropping physics for good at the end of the 
term. Such a class is not an easy one to handle and the boys and girls were taught in small groups so that no student ever had more than 
half a dozen children to work with. A small group enables a student to explore relationships and to try out different approaches without 
risking serious class control problems. It also allowed time for them to assess their success and failures with the experiments and with 
their teaching. In the main a student stayed with his own piece of equipment throughout the term. He was able to refine his presentation 
continuously as different groups came to him each week. On the few occasions when all fifty boys and girls were addressed at the same 
time it was the writer who did so, 

The students were asked to choose and develop an experiment and to prepare a lesson along lines which will be famHiar to teacher 
trainers. They considered what particular benefits the work offers (the aims) in terms of the processes of science (definition of problem 
skills developed, design, choice, reporting, etc.), In terms of the learning of subject matter (absorption of radiation, optics etc.) and in 
terms of social relevance (contribution to energy in the home, awareness of economic significance etc). They prepared introductions 
presentations and questions. It was pointed out that solar experiments often take a long time and that the boys and girls must be kept 
occupied whilst the experiment proceeded. We are not keen on stereotyped worksheets which need only a few words to be written or 
deleted so a variety of activity was called for. Wherever possible frequent involvement with the apparatus was arranged The best 
experiments were those where adjustments had to be made frequently or where a series of readings (usually of temperature and time) 
were called for. Otherwise boys and girls were asked to draw the apparatus, label a diagram, refer to books or offprints, make notes on the 
experiment or to discuss with a teacher what was happening. Table 1 is a list of the experiments attempted. 

Most of the experiments worked. One or two did not. The "camper's water heater" — a concoction of hosepipe, polythene and a plastic 
bucket — resolutely refused to thermosyphon but the level of involvement of the chifdren in constructing and adapting the system fully 
justified its inclusion. At the outset I was sure that the solar oven was badly designed and would never cook anything. Again its very 
inadequacies challenged many members of the group to improve it The level of invention on the part of the children was remarkably high 
and the feeling of success when an egg was finally cooked justified the time that had been taken. The vacuum creating a large concave 
mirror from a washing-up bowl and reflective mylar film leaked away and the radius of curvature of thesurfaceslowly increased. But this 
was turned to good effect. As the focal length changed so the children had to increase the distance between the mirror and the can that 
was being heated. They learned in an active way that the curvature and focal length are intimately connected. We still have not soived the 

sealing problem but the mirror is so good that it is oneofourgreatest successes — and the vacuum holds long enough for the mirror to be 
used throughout a double period. 

Overall the attempt to introduce a practical study of solar energy into a school curriculum was entirely successful. The attitudes of the 
University students were changed and many of them have continued to work with solar energy in their own schools. The children enjoyed 
working in the sunshine at problems which had a practical application. School staff from many different disciplines stopped to have a 
word about progress and we even picked up one very enthusiastic girl who should have been at lessons elsewhere. One big problem 
which arose was storage of apparatus. Space is not plentiful in school laboratories. The apparatus could not be left outside overnight for 
fear of damage and the temporary storage in the school hall was unsatisfactory as a long-term measure. As our apparatus has developed 
so it has got smaller. There is no need to have many square metres of surface and many litres of water. Effects are often observed more 
quickly on a smaller scale and the storage problem is eased. The children we worked with were not examination candidates in physics so 
we were free to use time as we wished unrestricted by demands to get through a syllabus. Even so we felt that the work related so well to 
O-level and CSE examination syllabuses that time in the sunshine for even these candidates would be well spent, 

A futher problem was pointed out by the students. Working with four or five children is easy, The organization of a whole class in the 
hands of one teacher would be much more difficult, Thedistribution and erection of apparatus would need to be very carefully controlled 
and the scheduling of work would need to depend far less on the continuous presence of a teacher. Perhaps more detailed worksheets 
would have to be written or the variety of activities would need to be curtailed, Experienced teachers working with whole classes were 
needed to look into this. 

5. Extension to in-service Education 

The experiment with student teachers demonstrated that a study of solar energy in school is worthwhile but that practical problems 
remained. Prototype apparatus had been built which needed refinement and production in larger quantities. Laboratory suppliers are 
now supplying some solar apparatus but it Is much cheaper to build it oneself and a teacher's own preferences can be incorporated into 
home-made apparatus. Three different needs of experienced teachers were recognised. They need to know more about the whole energy 
supply question and the economic and technical issues behind it. They need apparatus with which to work and they need help in 
organising lessons outdoors. Two evening courses were arranged for teachers each lasting for ten weeks. The first was a series of 



31 



lecture-demonstrations covering not only the theory and practice of small-scale energy provision, mainly solar and wind, but also 
discussion of the ways in which the study of energy in school can be incorporated into and extended from existing work. The second 
course was entitled "Build Your Own Solar Collector" and a group of teachers attended a purely practical course in which materials and 
tools were provided so that teachers could take collectors back to their schools. At the same time they were introduced to other solar 
devices. 

The original work had shown that more quantitative investigations could be carried out if there were an instrument which could measure 
solar radiation density, A commercial solar pyranometer was purchased as a standard and a much cheaper version was designed and 
built, The ability to measure incident radiation in watts per square metre made a whole range of new calculations possible. The 
calculation of efficiencies was now easy. We also needed a cheap, robust thermometer. Mercury in glass thermometers are becoming too 
expensive for schools to provide and they proved too fragile for the outdoor environment. As their price falls so electronic thermometers 
are becoming a better buy for class use. To keep costs down we have designed and built our own electronic thermometer for use 
outdoors. We also realised that if children were to make the most of their energy studies they needed more data. A collection of data 
sheets was therefore prepared (4). The facts, figures and graphs contained therein were sufficient to permit advanced study and 
calculations to be performed and enough information was given to help in the design and construction of working installations. There is 
still much to be doneand we haveonly started on a widespread dissemination of our ideas. Atthetimeof writing six sets of solar apparatus 
are in schools for evaluation by teachers, occasional meetings of teachers are being arranged and visits are being made to schools. The 
apparatus and teaching materials are likely to be adapted and developed continuously and we are confident that the interaction of 
University staff, experienced teachers and students-in-training will continue into the foreseeable future and that a study of energy 
covering far more than the physics of the 1 6th to 19th centuries will slowly come to be looked u pon as an essential component of science 
courses. 

Apparatus Illustrating Physical Principles 

Coloured aluminum plates Absorbing power of coloured surfaces 

Solar cushions Absorbing power of coloured surfaces 

Steam engine Energy conversion 

Solar still Evaporation 

Survivor's still Evaporation 

Fresnel lens Converging light and heat 

Washbowl mirror Focussing by concave mirror 

Bicycle wheel mirror Focussing by concave mirror 

Headlamp reflector array Heating t effect of colours, insulation 

Camper's water heater Convection 

Flat plate heater Heating, convection, efficiency 
(t) thermosyphon 
(ii) pumped 

Solar oven Heating, efficiency 

Solar cells Internal resistance, impedance-matching, 

efficiency 

Table 1. Apparatus and Experiments 

Brief descriptions of the apparatus and outlines of possible experiments are available from the author at the Department of Education 
University of Southampton, Southampton, S09 5NH. 

References 

1. Availability of World Energy Resources 
D.C. Ion 1981 Graham and Trotman 

2. Energy. Readings from Scientific American 
S. Fred Singer 1979 Freeman and Co. 

3. The Limits to Growth 

Dennis L. Meadows 1972 New York, Universe Books 

4. Energy Data Sheets 

Cliff Day 1981 Southern Science and Technology Forum, Southampton University 

2,2 

FUN AND FRUSTRATION - PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS IN PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN 

Thomas M. Holzberlein 
Department of Physics, Principia College, Elsah, Illinois 62028 

Abstract: 

wfn?Ir 9 t'™ i ^^ e - envi /f A nm 5 nt * Posies experiments measuring passive solar parameters are described, They are; a) Site evaluation, b) 
hnn« r!r?»nf«I ? rt 9f a ^ transmission factors - e > Surface c °'or - Ught-to-heat conversion, f) Temperature-cycle phasing by 
house orientation, and g) Measured solar gain for multiglazed windows. The instruments, constructed at home from largely recycled or 



32 



renewable materials, received excellent student ratings. Information sharing between lab groups, fostered by the laboratory manual, 
expands the pool of relevant data for analysis and for recording in design notebooks, Manuals, in preparation, for apparatus construction 
and for student experiments are mentioned. 

Fun and Frustration 

Six original, out-in-the-environment experiments measuring passive solar parameters have been developed by the author for his physics 
class. Energy Efficient Living, Each measurement and Its analysis suggests methods for optimizing passive solar design under local 
conditions. Although the experiments and the laboratory manual were developed at a liberal arts college, the environmental information 
gained can serve students from technical school levels right up to university graduates in architecture. As an aid to others in setting up 
similar experiments, an equipment construction manual and a student laboratory manual are being prepared this summer.' 

The "frustration" aspects of these six experiments lie in their weather dependent scheduling, a familiar phenomenon among solar 
professionals. The laboratory manual includesseveral indoor experiments, not discussed here, as foul weather alternatives. But the M fun" 
aspects of these experiments is sparked by their out-in-the-field character, And secretly, the instructor gains valuable solar design 
information — from student efforts! 

Two experiments pertain to site evaluation: one studies winter tree shading, the other, skyline analysis. A second pair of experiments 
measures design parameters: light-to-heat conversion by surface colors, and light transmission throug windows. The last two experi- 
ments use working models to study passive home dynamics: home orientation and temperature-cycle phasing, and thermal gain-loss 
factors as a function of glazing multiplicity. 

The lab manual engenders a cooperative philosophy — each group's experiment differs slightly from that of any other group. All 
information is finaliy pooled for individual analysis. This data exchange serves several useful purposes. First, it inspires accuracy — 
everyone will see and be affected by each group's results. Second, it yields a wider perspective for analysis than one group could possibly 
obtain. And last, it provides more complete reference material to record in solar design notebooks. 

Let us now view the experiments individually, 

A. Winter shading by deciduous trees (requires clear weather) 

Fig. 1 illustrates an instrument for tree shadeanalysis which consists of a 1.06m 2 white screen scattering an integrated light sampleonto a 
photovoltaic cell. By comparing light intensities measured in the shade zone with those measured in direct sunlight, the percent of light 
penetration can be readily evaluated. A measurement cycle includes: direct sunlight from each side of the tree, three samples from the 
tree crown shadow, and five samples through the broadest shadow zone, Shared data from different trees consist of averages from three 
of these measurment cycles on a single tree. Fig, 2 is a representative sample cut from the shared-data-table in the iab manual. 

B. Solar-site skyline analysis (can be done on an overcast day) 

Sketches from Mazria's Passive Solar Energy Book 2 inspired the skyline analyzer. Bennet Sun Angle Charts 3 provided primary data for 
preparing the sun position graph which was adapted to the cylindrical geometry of this skyline tracing screen. A special feature of this 
sighting device is its single "quadrant" design, Since our summer sun at 39° north latitude runs through 240° of azimuth, a Mazria-like 
screen would give the viewer a 240° embrace. The tracing unit spans only the 120° eastern "quadrant," and then after reorientation (and 
changing tracing color) a west "quadrant" trace completes the skyline, With these double tracings overlaying the sun position graph 
mentioned above, sunrise and sunset times can be estimated for each month of the year. The surface level built into the "horizon plane" 
guarantees horizontal alignment. North-south alignment employs Polaris, the north star, to identify "true north," Young couples relish 
this prelab exercise! In fact, students rate this experiment "the most enjoyable" and the u best-information-for-time-spenr experiment of 
afl. 

C. Window analysis (clear day — adaptable to indoors) 

Fig. 4 illustrates a glazing goniometer for measuring light transmission efficiencies for various glazing materials at incident angles from 
0° to 75° in 15° intervals. A photovoltaic cell reads relative intensity between direct illumination (with glazing material removed) and 
transmitted intensity (with the glazing material in place) clearly demonstrating obliquity effects. A second part of this experiment 
demonstrates the effective-area cosine law. This is accomplished by measuring areas of light beams transmitted through cardboard 
"windows" of various shapes: rectangles, circles, triangles, etc. for all goniometer angles mentioned above. Different groups analyze 
different shapes to demonstrate the general validity of the cosine law. With six data points between 0° to 75°, accurate cosine curves and 
glazing attenuation graphs can be easily sketched, 

D. Surface colors — light to heat conversion (clear day exp.) 

An inexpensive apparatus for studying relative light-to-heat conversion efficiencies employs a corner-reflector to multiply the sun by 
three or four. The corner frame was made of double strength corrugated cardboard to which aluminum foil reflectors were n glued" using 
paint remnants from home. Thegluing operation was carried out prior to painting the back surfacesince "glue" solvents must dry through 
the cardboard — foil is impervious to solvents. Once the foil-to-cardboard bond was dry, the back of the frame was painted to reduce 
warping. Because the foil bond was weak, duct tape was used as edge binding, The tape both seals the edges and enriches the 
appearance, a feature worth considering when collecting lab fees. 

Colored water containers of this experiment were 3.78 liter plastic milk jugs with screw caps. The miniscule cost of these throw-away 
contai ners was fully compensated by their abhorance of paint. My best paint strategy has been to undercoat with alkaiyd base followed by 
what-suits-your-fancy. Even so, peeling persists. Coatings of lacquer, urethane, latex, and oii base paints all peel like cabbage leaves 
from ployethylene jugs. The alkaiyd base coat peels more like ripe tomatoe skins — a considerable improvement but hardly justifying a 
lifetime warrenty unless it be for the lifetime of the paint. Readers discovering better options are requested to communicate with the 
author. 

33 



These intimate construction details are shared here because this system can demonstrate solar benefits that all can afford At Cam D 
Cedars. Missouri (August 1979) I heated 7.56 liters of water in a two-gailon jug using a corner reflector. The water jug cocooned in a 
steeping bag, was too hot for shaving the next morning! ' u 

Returning to the experiment-. Two aspects of light-to-heat conversion are measured with this apparatus. First the light-heat conversion 
rate can be measured when water and ambient temperatures are equal. At that instant thermal conduction arid thermal radiation are in 
near balance with their environment and energy transfer, measured in the water, is from light-to-heat conversion alone The second 
measurement o interest is | the steady-state temperature for each surfacecolor. In thefuture this partof the experiment will use containers 
with larger surface-to-volume ratios They need to reach steady state before either changing sun angles or cloud cover on the 
slow-heaters destroy the validity of the comparisons. 

E. Passive home response time as a function of orientation, and F. Solar gain-loss parameters as a function of window glazing multiplicity 
(preferably clear weather exp.) a a K ' 

These experiments were run concurrently for 48 hours during which the air and water temperatures were measured almost hourly on six 
miniature passive solar homes. Individual couples "volunteer"forscheduledtimesduringthisnight-and-dayvigil Each model was an ice 
chest with: two added layers of foil-backed urethane insulation 1 .8 cm thick, 3.5 liters of water in identical black jugs, and glazed with rigid 
plastic. In experiment E. three .dentical homes" were oriented east, south, and west. Measured indoor temperature transitions phased 
progressively ram east-facing to west-facing units as expected. But to the surprise of the novice, peak temperatures always occurred 
near the end of the direct solar input period, not at the peak power time as common sense suggests. These homes were so well insulated 
hat the loss-gain balance i.e. the temperature peak, occurs after direct solar gain has dropped quite low. Such revelations turn students 
from design by feel to design by physics — most acceptable in our department. 

L h no^° n , d T £ erim ? n < ana,vze ,f "jf/ ? ains , for single-, double- and triple-glazed south facing windows. It is the most sophistiated 
experiment of the set. First each units loss factor must be computed using nightime data. After establishing the loss factor daytime 
hermal osses can be calculated. Then daytime losses added to the water gains give the measured solar input. For nonscience students 
this analysis requires careful guidance from the mstructor. But through it the student reviews: thermal conduction formulas, the mass 
SogTcTogic! ' npU, ~° UtpUt contmult y equation, and the instructor's patience. With all its difficulty, this experiment still rates tops in 

SEfnlEI '° f V* W > CI h«k 9 co f mr T ,s ' Witchcraft of exotic instrumentation has long masked the innate simplicity of solar design - a 
fZ Zl I It ^ bV ° ats ' n j he su , n * n t b f' s ln \ cave - ln tnis ^stance simple homemade instruments break this modern tradition. 
Each device has been constructed six-fold, by the author - at home - from simple materials: wood, cardboard boxes, food cans milk 
d2?nn ? ITn^l 8 - T? ""?»""£ a,umlnum / «- P aint etc - A " d /«, each produces necessary local information for meMegent solar 
design In a quarter century o teaching, my most rewarding student evaluations have come from these experiments. Student praise of the 
apparatus has been uniformly excellent. Simplicity of design belies the rigorous thought being provoked and I the "value of the data 
Ji fno ff,7,ti P9ra m9 both t solar h kn ° wled f a"** »n»lytlc skills. I present these ideas not to sell manuals but to join woMd educators n 
chaZjS 

Kf!^ 

2 E. Mazria, Passive Solar Energy Book, (Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA, 1979), pp. 267-287. 

SnowS Sl^ Qmr * M ^ "** M * M * f ™ Robert Bennett ^*« and Engineer. 6 

2.3 

NATIONAL SOLAR WATER HEATER WORKSHOP PROGRAM 

Stanley A. Mumma, Ph.D., P.E. 

Professor, Director of Environmental Research 

and 

Principal Investigator 

and 

Michael Brenne n^j^trucJ^onal Resourc es Manager 

National Solar Water Heater Workshop 

College of Architecture 

Arizona State University 

Tempe, Arizona 85287 

ABSTRACT 

L^rhS^ H h ater ^ rk fA 0p CUrrently s P° nsored b V th * U.S. Department of Energy started with an idea that the principal 

mnlri th«M?h« * h * e , bU ' * h,$ .° Wn S0 ' ar Waler heater The sim P ,icit y and effectiveness of the solar water heating system 

«mf pL7i h ' f S,9n "I" StUd6nt pr ° jeCt in the FaH 0f 1 977 ' the development and selection of suitable hardware components Th* 
w^k S hoLirZTh. WaS "t bm ' tted t0 H th , 6 U ?" De P artm ent of Energy Office of Small Scale Technology, to assist in starting the loca 
ZT^I tr ?h u ^ he 9 L an ? aS aWarded( and C,asses were started in the Fatl of 1 978 at Ariz °na State Un Iverslty. The classes since that 
ZIJ *l ■ tK ^ rOU 9 hc ? ut ma * ? art of the southwestern United States. The Office of Small Scale Technology was pleased with the 
ba^ r 9ram ' an J? su PP° r1ed the author's suggestion that the local program could be replicated on a national 



34 



The specific goal of the workshop program is to start 91 classes over the next two-year period with at least one class in each state of the 
union, and one class per population center of one million persons. At the end of the second full year of thegrant program, it is anticipated 
that over 50,000 students will have participated in the workshop and will have completed the fabrication and installation of a personal 
solar water heating system. An additional goal isto have a pre-tax first cost not to exceed $500 for the open system and$800forthe closed 
system. 

M h <f ? h !^!° phy ?' ' h ,f P™^*™ js to . u f, e the mone y as seed m °n«y to trigger a ripple effect emanating from the 91 classsites to the entire 
U.S. A. I f the r.pple > effect is only partially as successful in other parts of the Un Ited States as it has been in Arizona, the program will spread 
to the entire U.S.A. A central thrust of the program will be to assist small businesses, with at least one per state, gear up to profitably 
supply hardware directly to the workshop class participants. The government money will be used to prepare the training materials for 
personnel training, and for component and system certification testing as required to obtain building permits and to exercise the right to 
collect tax creoits. 

The ^implementation plan ^yvill be a cooperative one between Arizona State Universityand each oftheState Energy Offices throughoutthe 
United States.The State EnergyOfficeswill provide theNational Workshop team with thenames of prospective workshop class sponsors 
as well as prospective hardware suppliers. Members of theArizona State Universityteam will meet with theState Energy Offices as well as 
the organizations interested in either sponsoring the workshop classes of supplying hardware. The purpose of the meeting wiil be to 
clearly 'illustrate the benefits to society, to theindividuaJ homeowner, tothehardwaresupplier, and theworkshopsponsortocontinuethe 
workshops so long as interest remains. The workshop sponsor will also receive recommended selection criteria forworkshop instructors 
and samples of successful news releases publicizing their upcoming workshops. When the first workshop class has been filled and the 
instructors selected by the sponsor, a team from Arizona State University will go to the class site and train the workshop instructors. 

Through this ambitious program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, a significant reduction in our dependence on non- 
renewable energy resources is expected. 

1. Introduction 

The use of solar energy for domestic solar water heating is generally believed to be the first universal application of solarenergy Despite 
a long-standing knowledge of these basic principles, widespread use of solar energy has not yet resulted despite ever-increasing utility 
costs and dependence on foreign sources of energy, The major reason for this situation is believed to be an educational qap between this 
technology and its universal application. 

2. History 

When the principal investigator moved to Arizona in 1975, he was shocked that there was virtually no solar activity despite the abundance 
{if not over-abundance) of solar energy. Practicing what he taught, the author fabricated solar collectors out of wood and sheet metal for 
his own home and knew firsthand that solar water heating could be simply accomplished, that it was practical, and was extremely cost 
effective. Design for a warm climate was finalized (1, 2) and workshops were started in the spring of 1978 at the ASU College of 
Architecture aided by an $11,000 grant from the Department of Energy Office of Small Scale Technology 

Four graduate stduents assisted for several semesters in refining the concepts and development or selection of improved components for 
the solar water heater system. 

Since the major problem inhibiting application of solar energy was perceived to be educational, a means was sought to directly resolve 
this problem. The concept of a workshop (3) evolved — not to just discuss solar as so many workshops at that time did — but to'achieve 
actual meaningful results. Three pilot sessions were accomplished which demonstrated that the concept was valid and that homeowners 
could, in fact, understand and accomplish fabrication, installation, operation and maintenance of theirsoiarwater heaters, Now men and 
women of all ages have participated in the workshops. 

Due to the demonstrated success of this program, DOE approved a one-million dollar two-year national program with funding at $600 000 
for the first year and to be funded at $400,000 for the second year, 

3. The National Sofar Water Heater Workshop 

The NSWHW (4) involves a government-educational institution-private sector partnership. Government, through this grant, provides the 
seed money over a two-year period to demonstrate that such workshops can resuit in the installation of solar waterheaters, most of which 
would otherwise not have been installed. The success should stimulate educational institutions and the private sector to continue to 
expand the effort. The educational institutions hav e the opportunity, ,as part of their outreach to their communities, to apply their effective 
training skills in pursuing an important national goal, "AndlrTe'prlvate sector, mainly hardware suppliers, sells the equipment which the 
homeowners need. 

The specific goal of the workshops program is to start 91 classes over a two-year period with at least one class in each state and one class 
per population center of one million persons. An additional goal is to have a pre-tax first cost not to exceed $500 for a warm climate and 
$800 for a cold climate system. 

The philosophy of the program is to use the funds as seed money to trigger a ripple effect emanating from the 91 workshop locations to 
the entire country. If the ripple effect is only partially as successful in other parts of the United States as it has been in Arizona, the 
program will rapidly spread. A central thrust of the program will be to assist small businesses, with at least one per state, to gear up to 
profitably supply hardware directly to the workshop students. The government funds are also used to prepare the training materials and 
for component and system certification testing as required to obtain building permits and to enable tax credits. 

4. Educational Materials 

Every participant in the NSWHW program; educational sponsors, hardware suppliers and homeonwers, have specialized educational 
requirements. To assure that these requirements are met, a number of educational packages have been developed. 



35 



(a) Media Package (5), A media package has been developed to help educational sponsors promote the workshop in their area. 
Experience with the Phoenix workshop suggests that an effective media is newspaper coverage as a public service, Sample news reieases 
and examples of successfully-placed media stories are included. Also included is a twelve minute fiim which explains the interaction of 
the workshop participants. 

(b) Hardware Supplier Handbook (6 t 7). Two Hardware Supplier Handbooks have been prepared for hardware suppliers — a "pumped 
recirculation" freeze protection and an "anti-freeze" freeze protection. These handbooks outline the responsibilities of the hardware 
suppliers and include a complete list of materials, specifications, sources, description and illustrations of each component in the system, 

(c) Tape/Slide Narrative (S), A Tape/Slide Narrative in conjunction with a Student Handbook (9, 1 0) will be used to explain fully each step 
of installation, operation, maintenance and trouble-shooting of each system. The tape/slide format was chosen to assure complete 
coverage of all essential details and consists of 180 slides, requiring three hours for presentation. The slides are carefully designed to give 
the students a visual picture of each step or component and how it fits into the system, 

(d) Student Handbook (9, 10). The Student Handbook is designed to follow along with the tape/slide narration, and includes a detailed 
explanation of each step and component. It is the student's permanent record of the installation, operation, maintenance and trouble- 
shooting steps and is invaluable to the student's success in the, workshop. 

(e) Educational Sponsor Handbook (11), The Educational Sponsor Handbook includes information pertaining to the instructional 
program, a description of the required tools and equipment, discussion of thermal performance and hardware systems, suggested 
criteria for instructor selection and legal liabilities white the students are on their premises. 

5. Workshop Implementation 

The 91 locations have been placed in an order of probability of success as measured by population, tax credits, thermal performance, and 
cost effectiveness utilizing the University of Wisconsin 'T Chart Analysis Program for thermal and economic analysis. Educational 
institutions are desired as workshop sponsors: mainly universities, colleges and community colleges. They are now, and will continue to 
be, integral parts of their communities; have strong reputations; and already have many educational and training activities for the adult 
populations. 

The implementation plan is a cooperative one between ASU and each of the State Energy Offices throughout the United States. The 
SEO's provide the NWSHW team with potential workshop class sponsors as well as potential hardware suppliers. Members of the ASU 
team meet with SEO's and the organizations interested in either sponsoring the workshop classes or supplying hardware. The purpose of 
this meeting is to clear ry illustrate the benefits to society, to the individual homeowners, to the hardware supplier, and the workshop 
sponsor to continue that workshps. The workshop sponsor is also given recommended criteria for workshop instructors and samples of 
successful news releases which can be used to publicize their upcoming workshops. When the first workshop class if filled, and 
instructors selected by the sponsor, a NSWHW Field Representative trains the workshop instructor(s) and critiques and evaluates the 
conduct of the workshop. 

6. The Workshop 

The actual conduct of the workshop is an intensive program requiring of the student about 1 1 hours during two days. It consists of two 
elements; a classroom session, usually Friday evening, of 3 hours to receive the tape/slide presentation in addition to a free intechange 
between the instructor and students. A Saturday laboratory session of eight hours is devoted to students fabricating their collectors and 
plumbing components with thorough instruction and close observation by the workshop instructor. The instructor also conducts a 
quality control inspection of each assembly as it is completed. 

7. The Solar Hardware 

Nationally, the solar hardware consists of two systems; 1) "Pumped Recirculation" freeze protection and 2) "Anti-Freeze" freeze 
protection. The choice depends on a location's climate. In a warm area such as Phoenix and at other locations with about the same 
number of days when temperatures reach freezing, the pumped recirculation system is the most cost effective. All methods of freeze 
protections for the colder regions have been evaluated. A system utilizing a closed "double loop" fail-safe heat exchanger (12) and 
ethylene glycol as the heat transfer fluid has been selected for the cold climate system (Fig. 2). 

8. Conclusions 

Through this ambitious program, sponsored by the U,S, Department of Energy, the current gap between solar technology and its 
application will be narrowed. A significant reduction in our dependence on non-renewable energy resources is expected. United States 
citizens, in a measure, can avoid the burden of ever-increasing utility costs and this program can directly contribute to their peace and 
tranquility. 

9. Acknowledgements 

The work described in this paper was performed by Arizona State University under Department of Energy Grant No, DE-FG-03- 
80SF11444. The program manager is Jim Aanstoos. 

10. References 

(1) Mumma, S.A., Ashland, M., and Marinello, M. A Hardware Package and Workshop Curriculum for Homeowners Solar Water Heater 
Fabrication and Installation, Al AA Tech. Paper (1978), 18 pp. 

(2) Mumma, S.A. and Hansen, D., Experimental Analysis of Thermal Conducting Materials Used in Solar Heating Devices, ASHRAE 
Transactions 1979, 12 pp. 

(3) Mumma, S.A.. Major Public Solar Hot Water Heater Technology Transfer Program, ASME Publication #78-DET-77, 8 pp. 

(4) National Solar Water Heater Workshop, A National Program ot Assist the Homeowner with the Fabrication and installation of a 
Personal Solar Water Heater, Management Plan, submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy in Fulfillment of Task 1, Grant No. 
DE-FG-03-80SF11444, November, 1980. 

(5) Media Package. 



36 



(6} "Pumped Recirculation" Freeze Protection Hardware Supplier Handbook. 

(7) "Anti-Freeze" Freeze Protection Hardware Supplier Handbook. 

(8) Instructor Tape/Slide Narratives. 

(9) "Pumped Recirculation" Freeze Protection Student Handbook, 

(10) "Anti-Freeze" Freeze Protection Student Handbook. 

(11) The Sponsor Package, 

(12) Mumma, S.A., Innovate Double Walled Heat Exchanger for Use in Sofar Water Heating Systems, ASMETech. Paper, winter annual 
meeting, December 1978, 

(13) Mumma. S.A., Ashland, M, The National Solar Water Heater Workshop, presented at 1981 AS/ISES Annual Conference, Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania. 

2.4 

A UNIVERSITY LEVEL INTERDISCIPLINARY SOLAR ENERGY USE COURSE 

Geoffrey C. Bell 

Abstract 

The format is presented in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at The University of New Mexico with emphasis upon architecture 
and energy conservation resulting in a three point synergism. The course, ME-385, is presented in five parts; and overview of solar 
technologies, building heat loss methods, the solar resource, active solar systems, and passive solar systems. Grading is judged upon 
performance in vocabulary testing and paper presnetations which include calculations and written portions. Basic goals are three fold; to 
inspire further study in solar technologies, to organize and clarify fragmented private study, and to create an aware consumer group. The 
accomplishments of the course have yet to be fully realized. The class has grown from 50 to over 80 students. Student surveys have shown 
a high level of excitement for the credible, in-depth overview presented in the course. Teaching the course had identified the need for 
more detailed courses in the Mechanical Engineering Department and School of Architecture at UNM. Other colleges on campus also 
require mvididual lectures on solar technologies. Needs and improvements to the course include extensive visual medfa material, product 
examples, tours of installations and visiting lecturers. 

A. Introduction 

The Department of Mechanical Engineering atThe University of New Mexico offers an interdisciplinary course on sofar energy use for the 
layperson. The prerequisites are basic algebra and a sophomore or higher class standing. Students from nurses to business majors enroll 
for the course. Occasional iy, people are allowed to enroll from the community at large, without other university involvements. The course 
is structured as a forum for the promotion of solar energy use in conjunction with a three point convergence, or synergism, of mechanical 
engineering, architecture and energy conservation, 

B. Presentation 

The course presentation is in five parts or sections. Section I is an overview of solar technologies at large, regardless of its scale in 
application. Sophisticated solar technologies such as Central Receiver Systems, Ocean Thermal Gradient Systems and photovoltaics are 
reviewed. The more immediately commercially viable solar technologies of wind power, biomass conversion and desalination are 
presented. Also discussed in Section i are the concepts of Net Energy Analysis as a decision-making tool and the inevitability of a 
hydrogen solar-based economy in the future. Section II is referred to as the "nuts and bolts' 1 section of the course. A review of standard 
building heat toss methods is covered per ASHRAE, et. al. Stressed is the idea of energy conservation in building design before solar 
augmentation is employed, Good building design isemphasized throughout the remainder of the course to bring a practical, human scale 
to the subject of solar energy use. 

Section III reviews the solar resource, i.e., where the sun is, when and how much energy is acutally available, Also discussed is a basic 
understanding of the electromagnetic spectrum for a layperson's interpretation of "short wave" energy vs. "long wave" energy. This 
concept is important for understanding the so-called "greenhouse effect" of a solar collection device, 

Section IV overviews active soiar systems utilizing off-site energy to operate the system. Collection devices, storage systems and 
distribution and control methods are presented. Teh most economically viable active solar systems producing domestic hot water are 
reviewed in great detail. 

The final section is a layperson's study of passive solar tehcnologies. These systems are users of on-site energies, utilize natural energy 
flows and can require some owner participation. These passive systems include direct gain, mass-storage wall and sunspace or 
greenhouse systems. 

C- Grading 

Since the course is desinged for non-engineering majors, a slight shift in grading emphasis is necessary. The key factors of organization, 
clarity of presentation, and logical thought processes are emphasized. Six vocabulary quizzes are given during the semester constituting 
40% of the final grade. Two papers are also required. The first paper, stressing organization and heat loss calculations is due at the 
mid-term. The final paper, in lieu of a final exam, stresses composition and building design utiiizingsoiar augmentation. These papers are 
worth 40% of the final grade. The remaining 20% is judged by class attendance, 10% and class participation, the final 10%. 

D. Goals 

The goals of the solar energy use course are three fold. The first is to provide a forum to organize and clarify fragmented private study of 
solar energy. All too often, people can become confused and dismayed at the pfethoraof sometimes conflicting information available on 
solar energy use. The second goai is to stimulate demand for further courses in solar technologies. The solar technologies and their 
implementation cross many disciplines in the university environment This emerging industry needs particular detailed study in al! 
disciplines to have a significant impact upon our energy problem. The final and perhaps the most important goat is to create an aware 
consumer group, We are living in a time when there are many "snake oil artists" barking the benefits of solar devices and systems. An 
educated consumer is the best defense against these charlatans. 



37 



£. Needs 

A single but far-reaching need has been identified as a resuft of teaching the solar use course. Due to growing interest in the subject, as 
reflected in increased enrollments of 60% in less than a year, a comprehensive solar/energy/environmental engineering/architectural 
degree must be considered, Institutions of higher learning must always lead and stimulate new disciplines for tomorrow's employment 
and humanitarian needs worldwide, 

F. Improvements 

Improvements in the course are necessary in five areas, One, the class size of 80 students is too large to devote individual attention at all 
times. Second, visual medial material is desired with money to afford these materials being more scarce than materials. Third, a cross 
section of solar products and devices for a hands-on understanding is very desirable. Fourth, tours of ail types of solar installations and 
companies would be very informative. Fifth, an occasional visiting lecturer could relay other experiences and understandings of solar 
technologies. 

G. Conclusion 

Througout the semester, the mechanics of solar energy use are discussed in detail for the layperson. Before long, and sometimes 
immediately, the logic of extensive solar energy utilization becomes apparent to the student. The student's next question is "Why isn't 
solar being utilized more?" Anyone studying solar energy use comprehensively will be forced to this question and the inevitable answer. 
The question of more utilization of -humankind's most abundant energy resource is a political question discussed in the last class of the 
semester. The politics of a nation determine its values, attitudes and judgements of worthwhileness. These United States of America, the 
one time technological innovator of the world, lacks the political courage and strength to capitalize upon the most marketable industry 
humnakind has ever known, due to the control of vested political interests. This is why the study of solar energy use and its utilization is 
not more comprehensive. 

2.5 

SOLAR ENERGY EDUCATION FOR THE CONSUMER* 

Gerard G. Ventre and Douglass E. Root 

Florida Solar Energy Center 

Cape Canaveral, Florida 

and 

William M, Denny 

Southern Solar Energy Center 

Atlanta, Georgia 

1.0 Introduction 

Because of abundant sunshine, rapid population growth, dependence upon imported liquid fuels, and a history of solar utilization, 
Florida was chosen as a pilot state for a special solar energy promotion campaign for industry and a corresponding education program 
for consumers. The program was entitled "Project Sunshine," 

The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), under contract with the Southern Solar Energy Center (SSEC), was given specific responsibility 
for informing the solar industry of the proper methods of sizing and installing solarwater heaters, and of increasing the level of consumer 
information and confidence in solar equipment, 

To meet these objectives, the following activities were undertaken between October 1979 and October 1980. 

Thousands of information brochures and consumer guides were distributed; several installation short courses wereoffered regionally to 
the solar industry; approximately twenty consumer seminars were conducted throughout the state; six newspaper columns were 
prepared and distributed to over 60 Florida newspapers; appearances were made on a number of radio talk shows; and two special 
programs for representatives of the news media were offered, 

Populous southeastern Florida, including Dade, Broward and Palm Beach counties, was chosen as the initial target area for Project 
Sunshine, and activities were conducted there during the last quarter of 1979, These efforts were followed by Project Sunshine II in 
Central Florida (Orlando to Tampa Bay) and Project Sunshine III in North Florida (Jacksonville) during the first three quarters of 1980. 

2.0 Solar Information Brochures 

A Florida Solar Energy Center information brochure entitled "Solar Water Heating; A Question and Answer Primer" was printed in large 
quantities for distribution as part of this program, The document addressed the most commonly asked questions about solar water 
heating and had received widespread public acceptance in previous FSEC information dissemination efforts. 

Approximately 25,000 of the brochures were distributed as follows: 

Distribution Mechanism 

Individual Mailings 

Source of Request and Number: 

Phone (response to mailings) 

Utility Mailers 

Bank Coupons 
Southern Solar Energy Center 
Project Sunshine Workshops/ 

Consumer Seminars 
Other Workshops 
Industry Members/Vendors 
County Consumer Affairs Offices 
Energy Fairs/Exhibits 
Educational Institutions 
Utility Companies 



38 



Aprox 


mate Number 




3,800 


100 




3.600 




100 






1.000 




2.000 




2.000 




2,000 




1.500 




8.200 




3,500 




1.000 


Total 25.000 





...,> iMkm 



2.1 Solar Information Brochure — Conclusions 

1. The use of utility bill mailers was by far the most effective mechanism for soliciting requests for solar information through individual 
mailings. 

2. The bank coupons and other advertising methods resulted in a relatively insignificant demand for the brochure. 

3. The total distribution of approximately 25,000 brochures and the consistently favorable response far exceed expectations. 

4. The overwhelming majority of the brochures were distributed through workshops, seminars, the solar industry, county offices, energy 
fairs, educational institutions, utility companies and grassroots organizations, rather than in response to individual mailings. 

3.0 Consumer Guide 

A larger booklet entitled "Turning on the Sun: a Comprehensive Consumer Guide to Solar Water Heating," was developed by FSECfor 
the more serious prospective buyer and was an important handout for the consumer seminars in Central and North Florida. It contained 
much more detailed information on comparison shopping, warranties, the solar contract, and troubleshooting. Approximately 2,000 
copies of the document were distributed. Written requests for this booklet are still received on a daily basis. 

3.1 Consumer Guide — Conclusions 

The consumer guide improved Project Sunshine and helped satisfy the needs of many serious prospective buyers of solar equipment. 

4.0 Solar Installation Short Courses 

FSEC conducted three one-day solar installation short courses, which were shortened versions of the very successful three-day 
programs offered by the Center. In addition to the shorter length, these workshops differed from the typical training programs in that 
invitations were sent only to the solar industry, and there was no registration fee. Instructors from FSEC and industry presented both 
lectures and hardware demonstration, and course content paralleled that of the three-day program, Attendance at the short courses was 
14 (at Ft. Lauderdale), 19 (at West Palm Beach), and 24 (at Homestead, near Miami), for a total attendance of 57. 

4.1 Solar Installation Short Courses — Conclusions 

1. The short courses received very high evaluations by the attendees, but required great effort to transport and setup the instructional 
hardware. 

2. Future efforts should be directed at a far broader target group. The larger group should include solar installation, plumbing, sheet 
metal, air conditioning, roofing, swimming pool and building contractors, and building inspectors. 

5.0 Consumer Seminars 

FSEC conducted eighteen consumer seminars a part of the Project Sunshine series. Total attendance was approximately 2,000 for'these 
programs which were offered free of charge, The primary purpose of these seminars was to tell the interested public how a solar water 
heater works, what it costs, how to shop wisely for one, and generally to convince them solar can be a good investment. Additionally, the 
topics of solar swimming pool heating, residential conservation, and passive building design in hot humid climates were discussed. 

Promotion of the consumer seminars was accomplished by news releases, radio announcements, brochures, flyers, notices in the leisure 
sections of newspapers, and paid advertisements in newspapers. Considerable cooperation in these endeavors was received from county 
extension offices, educational insitutions, local governments, and local radio stations. The seminars were usually offered in the evening 
at conveniently located community colleges and high schools. Attendance at the first offering approached 1 50, but attendance at the next 
five was much lower (ranging from 50 to 6), A change in promotional methods corrected the low attendance problem when the seminars 
were subsequently conducted in Central Florida and in Jack sonville. For these semin ars, the public was invited using two-column by 
six-inch paid newspaper announcements. Except for Lakeland, which attracted only 50 people, attendance in Central Florida varied 
between 150 and 250. Attendance for the two Jacksonville seminars was 300 (August 1980) and 150 (September 1980). 

The format for the 90-minute to 2-hour programs included a slide presentation, questions and answers, and exhibits by members of the 
solar industry. Attendees registered by zip code so that potential market areas could be identified. They were also asked to fill out short, 
4-question evaluation sheets at the end of the programs. 

5.1 Consumer Seminars — Conclusions 

1 . Attendees overwhelmingly felt that they were in a better position to shop wisely for a soiar system (96 percent of respondents) after 
attending the seminar. 

2. Attendees overwhelmingly said they would inquire further about a solar system for their family's use (85 percent of respondents) after 
attending the seminar. 

3. Overwhelmingly, the attendees were convinced that solar devices make good good sense for Floridians (97 percent of respondents) 
after attending the seminar. 

4. The best attended seminars were promoted primarily by attractive newspaper advertisements, which listed the speaker's name, 
credentials, and specific topic areas. 

5. The poorly attended seminars relied primarily on news releases and radio announcements. (The radio announcements were 
sometimes incomplete and sometimes inaccurate). 

6. Insufficient lead time for advanced planning and promotion were responsible for the poor attendance at several of the South Florida 
seminars. 

7. Seminar locations in South Florida could have been arranged to better serve the three major cities (West Palm Beach, Ft. Lauderdale, 
and Miami). Dates for these seminars should also have been better spaced, rather than concentrated into about a two-week time period, 

8. Cooperative extension agents can be extremely helpful in promoting local seminars and workshops. 

9. Industry exhibits added greatly to the value of the seminars by complementing the slide presentation with hardware and the expertise of 
the exhibitors. 

10. Effective advertising and aggressive promotion are the keys to successful attendance figures for public seminars. 

6.0 Newspaper Articles 

Six articles on soiar domestic hot water and pool heating systems were prepared by FSEC and distributed to 64 Florida newspapers. 
These articles were prepared in a news release format with attached illustrations. The fact that a total of four articles were published by 
only two newspapers was discouraging. 

39 



6 1 Newspaper Articles — Conclusions 

1 Efforts to get broad spectrum information about solar energy to the public through the six newspaper articles were unsuccessful; 

2. Publication of the articles might have been more widespread if more illustrations had been used. (It should be noted, however, that the 

illustrations that were distributed were of excellent quality.) 

3 Publication of the articles might have been more widespread if they had been delivered to the newspaper in camera-ready format. 

rather than in a news release format. (Variation in format from one newspaper to another was the reason for choosing the news release 

format.) 

Four radio talk*shows were arranged by FSEC for SSEC with stations WINZ (Miami), WPBR (West Palm Beach), WEAT {West Palm 
Beach) and WKAT (Miami Beach). Because of good broadcast times, total audience size was estimated in the tens of thousands. 

A seminar specifically designed for members of the news media was presented on October 15, 1979, from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m. in Ft. 
Lauderdale Only a few members of the news media were also invited to be luncheon guests of FSEC at a November 8, 1979, U.S. 
Department of Energy sponsored workshop for the financial community at Singer Island (near West Palm Beach). The luncheon 
presentation described Project Sunshine, Once again, only a few members of the news media responded to the invitation. However, 
media coverage of the financial workshop was excellent. 

7.1 Other Media Efforts — Conclusions 

The radio talk shows were a successful part of the powerful campaign, but, because of poor attendance, the media seminars were 

evaluated as unsuccessful, 



8.0 Summary . * , ,u 

The consumer sem j nars W ere well attended, informative and received excellent evaluations. The dissemination of information, using the 
solar information brochures and the more detailed consumer guides, exceeded expectations, both in terms of the number distributed and 
the favorable response. The three installation short courses involved much effort and received high marks from the industry participants. 
The six newspaper articles, which were offered to over 60 Florida newspapers, were not published as anticipated, possibly due to the 
news release format which was used. Of all other efforts to utilize the mass media, the radio talk shows appeared to be the most 
successful. 

In summary, Project Sunshine was a unique educational program, both in terms of the scope of techniques utilized, and the various 
organizations involved. Hopefully, the information presented here will prove useful to others involved with the important responsibility for 
energy education. ~ ^ 

EDUCATING THE PUBLIC THROUGH A DESIGN COURSE 

'James srEng'lund 
Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 

Abstract 

The course in Solar Design at Washington State University provides an opportunity to educate persons outside, as well as inside, the 
classroom. The course meets three needs: (1) a course in design is required of graduating seniors, (2) engineering students wish to 
design "real world' 1 objects, and (3) the general public needs specific energy-saving information. The course objectives include for the 
student an integration of learning, work on a practical project, and communication. 

Following an initial contact with the building owner by the instructor, an assigned team of two students visits the building and obtains 
from the owner physical data on the building and on itsseveral energy consumptions, The team then designs a solar energy system which 
could be retrofitted to the building and which would be as cost-effective and as energy savings-effective as possible. A project display 
board showing a perspective drawing of the building and performance data of the solar system is also produced by the team, in a three 
year period, residential, commercial, and institutional buildings have been treated. 

The building owner learns from his involvement. He furnishesdata on his building, receives progress reports from the team, and often 
discusses various questions about his buHding with them, He also receives a copy of the team's final report with its recommendations. All 
owners are invited to attend the final presentation at which all of thestudent teams describe their work and answer questions. The project 
display boards which contain perspective drawings of the buildings and show performance data of thesoiar systems are placed on public 
display. This means of publicizing solar energy usage has been provided by the local electric utility company, which has displayed the 
boards in their main and branch offices in this region. 

Introduction 

As a result of the general concern about energy, university students, and the general public, have become increasingly interested in 
methods of energy conservation. This includes the use of alternate sources. At Washington State University a design course in solar 
energy has been developed. Its aim is to educate the public as well as the students through the use of solar projects using existing 
buildings. The purpose of this paper is to describe this design course and how it educates both the public and students. 

The Initial Situation 

Senior mechanical engineering students must take a design course as a requirement for graduation. The course usually involves 
decision-making actions and a determination of the performance of the device that is designed, Concering the public, our contacts 
indicate a genuine interest in saving energy and a large ingnorance of the technical factors involved in energy conservation. Thesoiar 
resource in eastern Washington may be classed as poor. The available annual global sunshine in the Pullman area is approximately 50% 
of that in the prime areas of the United States. 

40 



Objectives 

The three principal objectives of the course are: (1) To integrate in the senioryear the student's learning experiences from other courses. 
(2) To provide the student with an opportunity to work on. and complete a "real world" project of some length. (3) To communicate the 
results of the study to people outside of the cfassroom. 

Methodology 

A guided design experience is provided forthe students in thfs one-semester, three-credit course. The students are assigned the problem 
of designing a suitable energy-saving solar heating system for a building and reporting the work in verbal, written, and poster form. 

Local buildings are used as study subjects because they are structurally simple, easily accessible/and real (not merely drawings or 
models). Residential, commercial, and institutional building types provide a wide variety of heating requirements and heating systems. 

Each student team, two persons, is responsible forgathering is own data on building dimensions and energy usage. This necessitates one 
or more contacts with the owner or manager. Such contacts serve to acquaint the owner/manager with important energy saving 
concepts, and to develop a cooperative attitude between him/her and the team. 

Action by the Instructor 

Before the course begins, the instructor arranges for the use of the buildings. The offer is for a project to learn the energy-saving and 
dollar-saving potential of a solar heating system, at no cost to the owner. For institutional and commercial buildings the building manager 
is contacted. Residential buildings are found from responses to an advertisement in the local newspaper. The instructor visits each 
building to determine its adequacy of solar exposure. With all types of buildings a foNowing letter confirms the selection and lists the 
types of information the students may need. 

During a class meeting the instructor introduces the project, states the course objectives, forms theteams, and gives written instructions 
on certain items of form and procedure. Also, the students are given letters of introduction to the building owners for identification 
purposes, 

In regular weekly class sessions the instructor lectures on appropriate methods of analysis and design techniques, receives verbal 
progress reports and questions from each team, and makes announcements of new solar developments and current items in the solar 
industry. 

Student Work 

The class also meets twice a week for three-hour lab sessions. Each team is responsible fonts own design and results as it works through 

the steps outlined below. 

Each team calculates the heat load and determines the heat requirements of its own building. To date, the degree-day method described 
by ASHRAE (1) has been used. These are compared with records of metered usage or fuel billings when available, The next step is to 
produce the conceptual design of a solar heating system for the building. This takes into account the heat load, owner preferences, 
appearance, and cost. Recommendations for futher weather-proofing of the building are made at this stage due to its greater cost 
effectiveness than the purchase of new heating equipment. 

Each team determines the sizing of solar components. The goal at this step is the definition of a maximum sized solar system and its 
interface with the existing heating system. Component locations are made considering solar exposure, appearance, and service 
accessibility. 

The student teams estimate the cost of the solar system using the current Means Construction Cost Data (2) and manufacturers' 
literature. Thermal and financial performance of the designed system are determined by the FCHART (3) computer program for active 
systems and by the Passive Solar Design Handbook (4) for passive systems. 

As the semester draws toward a close the teams complete their preparations of the three required reports. Verbal presentations with 
visuals are made at a public meeting attended by building owners, utility representatives, contractors, and city government personnel. 
Written reports of an "engineer-to-client" type are prepared fordistribution to building owners, the instructor, the Engineering Extension 
office, and the local utility company. Each team also produces a large poster which describes its solar design. The poster presents a 
sketch showing the solar collector on the building in perspective view, a system schematic diagram, and an energy and financial 
performance summary. 

Educational Results 

This course fulfills the objectives. The students find many practical applications of the principles they learned in previous courses, 
primarily thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer. This single project, requiring early decisions which affect later results, 
involves analysis of energy needs, synthesis of system design, and prediction of system performance on a real building. The project 
results are communicated to several components of the public. A summary of student enrollment and project completion is shown in 
Table 1. 

TABLE I TALLY OF ENROLLMENT AND PROJECTS 

YEAR No. of STUDENTS No. of PROJECTS 

1978 17 6 

1979 17 7 

1980 {two semesters) 48 23 

1981 20 10 

1 02 46 



41 



The enrolled students are. of course, the primary recipients of public education through this course. They go out into the business world 
with a first-hand experience in designing a solar heating system for a real building. 

The building onwers/managers also receive some education, With their personal or business interest in the building they are keenly 
aware that project information can directly affect their future operating costs. Following the instructor's Initial letter the owners receive 
several visits by the team to acquire building energy data, three written progress reports, a verbal description of the work at the public 
meeting, and a copy of the team's final written report which includes recommendations. Thus, the owners learn from their involvement 
with the project at various stages. 

Personnel from the commercial and city government sectors of the public learn from the projects in two ways. First by contacts with the 
students as they seek information and suggestions on certain details of their designs, Electrical and plumbing code regulations, zoning 
ordinances, and general construction practices are frequent subjects of student inquiries to the utility company, to contractors, and to 
city government officials. These outside persons are invited to attend the public presentation of the projects. This is asecond opportunity 
for them to learn about the utilization of solar energy from this design course. 

The general public sees applications of solar energy to real buildings pictured on the student-made display boards, These are regularly 
shown in the numerous local offices of the utility company, at energy fairs, and at university open house events. 
Many positive responses to the course have been received, 

References 

1. A.S.H.R.A.E. (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers), Handbook of Fundamentals, 1977, 
Chapters 23 and 24. 

2. Building Construction Cost Data, Robert S. Means Company, lnc„ 1980. 

3. FCHART Computer Program Version 3.0, University of Wisconsin. 

4. J. Douglas Balcomb, Dennis Barley, Robert McFarland, Joseph Perry, .Jr., William Wray, Scott Noll, Passive Solar Design Handbook, 
Volume Two of Two Volumes: Passive Solar Design Analysis, U.S. Department of Energy, 1980. 

Acknowledgements 

The solar design course described in this paper was partially supported by the Washington Water Power Company through its grant to the 
Sofar Energy Program at Washington State University. 

2.7 

INFORMATION AND EDUCATION PROGRAM AT 

NEW MEXICO SOLAR ENERGY INSTITUTE 

by 

Roger Farrer 

New Mexico Solar Energy Institute 

Box 3SOL 

Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 

Abstract 

The information and Education (l&E) Division of the New Mexico Solar Energy Institute (NMSEI) conducts outreach programs on a wide 
variety of fronts. Technical and non-technical workshops, seminars and training courses are conducted; publications (including 
brochures, fact sheets, technical and non-technical reports) are produced and distributed; exhibits and displays are staged at major 
functions within and outside the state; audio-visual materials are produced (including slide-tape and video programs); and a variety of 
in-house services are provided for the technical staff of NMSEI. 

Recent and current l&E projects of interest include the Solar Upgrading of Low-Income Housing Demonstrations Project, during which 
many people were trained and educated in soiar retrofitting techniques and over 230 solar retrofits were installed; the production (in 
conjunction with other university departments) of five basic video programs (each half an hour long) describing the uses of solar energy 
for space and hot water heating, which have been aired on over 100 TV stations across the nation and in Canada; the equipping of three 
visitor centers (at large photovoltaic installations) with audio-visual and graphic materials and publications: and the conduction of 
numerous technical and non-technical workshops and training courses. 

In this paper, the above activities are discussed in detail, and the problems and experiences of an education and outreach program which 
is partly state-supported will be discussed, Future plans (bearing in mind the expected cut-backs in federal funding levels) are outlined. 

Introduction 

In July 1977. the New Mexico Solar Energy Institute (NMSEI) was founded at New Mexico State University (NMSU), with legislative 
directives aimed at promoting the use of soiar energy in the state of New Mexico. While NMSEI pursues research, development, and 
demonstration work in the fields of solar heating and cooling, photovoitaics, wind, and bioenergy, one of the legislative mandates of 
NMSEI concerns the dissemination of information about solar energy to New Mexico citizens and to industry in thestate. In keeping with 
this mandate, a division of Information and Education (l&E) was established as one of the three original divisions of NMSEI. The l&E 
activities of NMSEI are described in detail below, 

Workshops and Training Courses 

Workshops and training courses are conducted on an average rate of two to three per month. One of the most popular workshops, which 
is conducted about six to eight times per year, is a general overview of Residential Uses of Solar Energy. This one-day workshop is aimed 
at the general public, and gives basic information on the ways in which different systems work, and their advantages and disadvantages, 
The following topics are covered: Energy Conscious Design. Passive Heating and Cooling Systems, Active Heating and Cooling 



42 



Systems. Passive and Active Hot Water Systems, Photovoltaics, Wind Energy, Economics of Solar Systems, andTax Incentives. Average 
attendance at this workshop is usually about 75 to 100 people in larger towns and cities and about 30 to 50 in the less populated areas, 

A one-day workshop on Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems has also proven extremely popular. Under a contract received from Western 
SUN, a 218 page manual was developed and three initial workshops were conducted; an additional five workshops have subsequently 
been staged. Attendance has exceeded 70 people at six of these workshops. Despite the fact that the workshop was originally aimed at 
contractors and installers, many members of the general public have attended, 

NMSEI has also conducted a number of "hands-on" construction workshops and training courses. Workshops have been conducted at 
which members of the general public have assembled collectors (from a kit supplied by a local manufacturer) and purchased the 
necessary hardware to install a draindown solar hot water heater on their house. I nstruction is given during the workshop in the operation 
of installation of the system, and various plumbing and electrical techniques are demonstrated. "Hands-on" training courses in the 
construction of batch water heaters have also been conducted. 

Technical workshops on the design of passive systems are presented from time to time for architects, designers, contractors, and 
owner-builders. Other target audiences for whom workshops have been staged include realtors, appraisers, teachers, agriculturalists, 
and financiers. One-day workshops on the use of wind energy and photovoltaics have also been conducted. 

Publications 

The l&E Division of NMSEI produces two basic series of publications. Brochures in theSolar Educational Series are aimed at providing a 
fundamental explanation of how various solar systems work. There are currently four titles available in this series: Passive Solar Space 
Heating Systems, Passive Domestic Hot Water Systems, Active Solar Space Heating and Cooling Systems, and Active Domestic Hot 
Water Systems. Additional titles currently being developed include Photovoltaics, Wind Energy, and Bioenergy. 

A series of low-cost fact sheets is also produced, to give more detailed information on particular systems and applications, e.g.. Breadbox 

Hot Water Heaters, Draindown Hot Water Systems, Themosypohon Hot Water Systems, various passive applications, Alcohoi Fuels, etc. 

In addition, fact sheets are produ ced on non-tec hni cal issu es — Solar Ri ghts, Econom ics, Tax Credits, etc. 

Other publications"which"areproducedlnc1udea"Directory 

Report. Manuals have been produced for use in workshops, and various technical reports arising out of contract and other work have 

been produced. 

Information Services 

NMSEI employs two Information Specialists who respond to requests for information by telephone, letter, and in person. These staff 
members also coordinate and arrange all workshop activities. An average of about 300 requests for information are received each month; 
technical inquiries are referred to staff members in the technical divisions, NMSEI also maintains a reading/resource room, which is open 
to the general public, and which is continuously updated with the latest books, periodicals, and reports. 

Exhibits are set up and manned at various fairs, conventions, and exhibitions throughout theyear,Thelargestofthese is theNew Mexico 
State Fair at which over 5,000 people annually visit the NMSEI exhibit. Working displays include active and passive solar hot water 
systems, photovoltaic-operated pumps, models of passive houses, and wind machines. 

Solar Upgrading of Low-Income Housing Demonstration Project 

In September 1978, the Southwest Border Regional Commission contracted with NMSEI to administer a $400,000 demonstration 
program on the solar upgrading of low-income housing in the border regions of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. The major 
aim of this program was to develop and demonstrate solar technologies applicable to residences of low-income people in the border 
areas. Other aims were to train local people in design, installation and maintenance of appropriate solar applications and technologies 
and to stimulate economic development and business activity in solar fields. 

This project has demonstrated a variety of appropriate low-cost solar appfications and provided prototypes for regional low-income 
inhabitants. Space heating and cooling systems and water heating systems have been combined with weatherization and conservation 
techniques, A total of 237 retrofits were installed, including 180 solar hot water systems of different kinds — 59 of the simple "batch" or 
"breadbox" type, 81 thermosiphon systems, 35 active liquid systems, and 2 active air systems. Solar space heating systems completed 
include 12 Trombe walls, 5 convective loop window units, and 3 thermal storage walls using drums of water for storage. Retrofits to help 
coot houses in the hot summer months included 30 attic venting systems {both active and passive) and the creation of 7 vine canopies to 
shade the walls and roofs of the houses. 

'Basic Solar Energy" TV Series 

A five-part television series on basic uses of solar energy for space and water heating has been produced in conjunction with two other 
departments at NMSU — the department of Educational Management and Development and the local public television station on campus 
(KRWG-TV). This series consists of half-hour units on Energy Conscious Design, Passive Solar Systems, Active Air Systems, Active 
Liquid Systems, and Retrofitting Solar to Existing Buildings. NMSEI staff serves as consultants, organized on-location taping, scripted 
the units, provided technical continuity, and narrated the series. 

The series has now aired on over 100 PBS stations across the USA and in Canada. The programs have been accepted for satellite 
distribution by the Pacific Mountain Network regional subdivision of the Public Broadcasting Service, All PBS stations in the U.S. now 
have access to the programs. Copies of the tapes have been ordered by the International Communication Agency for use in South 
America, 

Other Contract Activities 

Other contract activities include the equipping of four visitor centers with informational material and displays. Three of these centers are 
located at large photovoltaic facilities which have been (or are being) installed under federal contract; the other is at the site of a 
concentrating collector array to generate steam for use at an oil refinery in New Mexico. Material being prepared includes automated 
slide-tape shows, informational brochures, and pamphlets, and graphic displays. 

43 



Work has recently commenced on three contracts funded by Western SUN, Arising out of these contracts, three publications will be 
produced and distributed in New Mexico. An easy-to-use Access Guide to Renewable Energy in New Mexico will be produced, to aid the 
media in coverge of New Mexico renewable energy activities. A survey of Institutional Hot Water Applications in New Mexico will 
document non-residential solar hot water systems in the state, and describe the successes and problems encountered. A Solar Housing 
Catalog is also being produced to provide information on appropriate solar applications for local housing projects, housing development 
corporations, and individuals involved in public and federally subsidized housing. 

In-House Services 

The l&E Division provides a variety of in-house services to the other technical divisions and to the director's office. These include the 
provision of graphic services {illustrations, displays, original art for publications, posters, maps, charts, etc.) and audio-visual materials 
(e.g., slides, photographs, transparencies, tape recordings, slide-tape shows). Assistance is given in the preparation of technical notes, 
publications, and reports with regard to design and layout, paste-up, and production. Statewide surveys are conducted to identify 
prospective partners for proposals or projects, and mailing lists are compiled and updated In conjunction with the secretarial staff of 
NMSEI, Literature searches and services on information retrieval are provided for technical personnel of NMSEI. Publicity for all NMSEi 
projects is handled by the l&E Division, and a quarterly newsletter describing the activites of NMSEI is published. 

Since the inception of NMSEI, the provision of in-house services has gradually taken more and more time and effort. This is due mainly to 
the increased level of activity in most of the technical divisions, and to the fact that adequate funds for publicity, photographic, and 
graphic services are sometimes not written into propsals. In order to continue a reasonable level of activity in the field of Information and 
Education, in-house services in some of the areas described above have had to be limited. 

Future Activities 

Since the majority of the l&E division's work is state-funded^cutbacks in federal funding are not expected to have a marked effect. An 
increased level of fundTng"fcTin~stale ouFeach 'woilTwTlT be sought and the" workshop, publication, and information services programs 
will be expanded if this increase is obtained, Technical workshops in photovoltaics and wind energy are planned (in conjunction with 
technical divisions of NMSEI) — these should be at least self-supporting. NMSEI work in low-cost appropriate solar technologies is 
becoming known, and self-supporting training courses and workshops in these areas are being planned, both inside and outside New 
Mexico. Audio-visual training materials (e.g. slide-tape shows) are being prepated for sale. Based on the wide experience which has been 
obtained in the past few years, NMSEI intends to actively and aggressively expand its activities in out-of-state and overseas contract 
work. 

2.8 

AN INTERDISCIPLINARY COURSE ON SOLAR HOME DESIGN 

Laurent Hodges, Physics Department, Iowa State University, 

Ames, Iowa 50011, and 

David A, Block, Architecture Department, Iowa State University, 

Ames, Iowa 50011 

Abstract 

An experimental one-quarter interdisciplinary course in energy-efficient home design has been developed and taught at Iowa State 
University. The course is cross-listed between the Departments of Architecture and of Physics, with different requirements of the 
students receiving each type of credit. The instructors are a practicing architectect with a distinguished record in residential solar 
architecture and a research physicist in the field of solar energy who lives in an award-winning passive solar home on which the two 
instructors collaborated. 

Background. 

In Iowa and nearby states, space heating accounts for a majority of the total energy used in homes. Conventional Iowa homes for which 
no energy conservation improvements have been made can easily require two to four times as much energy for space heating as for all 
other energy uses combined. 

With the use of good energy conservation techniques (such as insulation, weatherstripping, and so forth) and passive solar heating 
concepts, the energy consumption for space heating can be reduced by a factor of 2 or 3 for existing homes and 10 or more for new 
homes. This leads to large energy and economic savings and can make the cost of space heating negligible in cold climates. 

As an example, the first author moved into an older home in 1970 that req ui red about 7400 m 3 (2600 CCF) of natural gas to heat in the fairly 
average winter of 1970-71. By 1978-79, this had been reduced to 4800 m J (1700 CCF) in a much colder winter (4368 C° -days) through a 
variety of energy conservation techniques. In 1980-81, his family required only 360 m a (128 CCF) of natural gas for space heating in a new 
energy-efficient passive solar home, an impressively small amount (about $45 worth) even for a mild winter (3285 C° -days). 

The Hodges Residence, Iowa's first scientifically-designed earth-sheltered passive solar home and a winner in the 1978 National Passive 
Solar Residential Design Competition sponsored by the U.S. Departments of Housing and Urban Development and of Energy, was 
designed by the second author with assistance in the solar design from the first author. Our collaboration on this project and on several 
passive solar energy articles and research projects led naturally to the consideration of developing a university course on energy-efficient 
home design, 

Architecture/Physics 351X 

Iowa State University has always operated on a quarter system, so the new experimental course needed to be a course lasting one quarter. 
We wanted to reach students sufficiently advanced to be able to produce fairly sophisticated designs, so we limited enrollment to 
upper-class students with adequate preparation. 



44 



Since our previous collaborative efforts had been aided by the matching of our comptementary experiences as an architect and a 
physicist, we felt the course would prove most beneficial to students if they could be similarly matched. 

For that reason, we proposed to the relevant curriculum committees a course that would be cross-listed between the Architecture and 
Physics departments, with the same course number, but with different types of students. The course number. 351X. denoted a 300 
(junior-level) course of an experimental (X) nature. Students taking Architecture 351X were required to have a background in design 
equivalent to about two years as an architecture major Students taking Physics 351 X were required to have taken the introductory 
three-quarter sequence in classical physics with calculus, 

The students were paired into teams of one Architecture and one Physicsstudent. Each team was expected to design an energy-efficient 
home for an assigned hypothetical client on an assigned real site, and carry out energy performance calcula-for the home in the climate of 
central Iowa, Although both team members attended the same lectures, worked many of the same assigned numerical problems, and 
collaborated on the design of the home, the Architecture student had primary responsibility for the architectural design and drawings, 
while the Physics student had primary responsibility for the calculations and solar system details. This justified giving one student 
Architecture credit and the other Physics credit. 

Organization of the Course 

As a quarter has only 10 weeks of teaching, time was really too short for what we wanted to accomplish. We gave the students 3 hours 
credit but met twice a week for two consecutive hours. 

In the first six weeks we had lectues taught by one or the other of the instructors. The topics covered by the Architecture instructor 
included; 

Procedures to use in designing a house for known clients on a known site 

The design and operation of active solar systems (in which he had previous experience) 

Examples of several real projects (including the Hodges Residence) 

The topics covered by the Physics instructor included: 
Principles of energy conservation and solar energy 
Heat loss calculations for buildings 
Thermal performance of buildings, including solar performance 

In addition, considerable time was spent on joint lectures dealing with passive solar heating and natural cooling concepts and their 
incorporation into residential design. 

The seventh week each time the course was taught coincided with a National Solar Design Workshop held on the Iowa State University 
campus under the direction of Professor Eino Kainlauri of Architecture Extension. The course did not meet that week, but students were 
urged to listen to as many of the speakers as possible and to assist in the individual design workshops held at the conference. 

The eighth and ninth weeks were devoted to studio time. The instructors met with the student teams to answer questions and suggest 
improvements in the designs. 

The tenth week of the course and part of Final Exam Week were devoted to the team presentations and critiques. Each team typically took 
about 15 minuted to present an analysis of its clients and assigned site, the design of the home, and the energy performance of the 
structure, and another 15 minutes or so were devoted to critique by the instructors and by the other students in the course. 

The presentation requirements included; (1 ) a site plan showing the house, driveways, landscaping, and so forth; (2) floor plans showing 
rooms, furniture, major appliances, stairs, walls, window locations, and so forth; (3) north, east, south and west elevations of the house; 
(4) one or more sections of the house showing the operation of the solar and natural cooling systems; (5) an exterior perspective of the 
house (with interior perspective optional); (6) heat loss calculations for the house; (7) solar thermaf performance calculations. 

As no suitable textbook exists for such a course, we required none. We listed some valuable reference books which we urged the students 
to purchase for their personal libraries. Among the recommended books which many students found useful were Bruce Anderson's The 
Solar Home Book. Edward Mazria's The Passive Solar Energy Book, David Wright's Natural Solar Architecture, James McCullagh's The 
Solar Greenhouse Book, Don Watson's Designing and Building a Solar House, and the University of Minnesota Underground Space 
Center's Earth Sheltered Housing Design. 

Numerous other materials in the instructors' libraries were made available for students to use. These included, most notably, the 
Proceedings of the annual National Passive Solar Conferences, published by the American Section of the International Solar Energy 
Society at the University of Delaware. 

In addition, many locally-prepared materials were distributed in the forms of notes and workbooks. These covered such topics as 

The relation between clock time and solar time 

Determination of the sun's altitude and azimuth at arbitrary times at any location 

Meteorological and climatological information such as temperatures, insolation, wind speed and direction 

Methods to predict solar radiation falling on surfaces at any arbitrary tiftand orientation, based on meausred insolation on horizontal 
surfaces 

Heat loss calculations for buildings 

Rules of thumb for passive solar systems 

Solar performance calculations for buildings 

Simple economic calculation methods 

Numerical problems dealing with all the topics above, some assigned to all students and some only to Physics students 



45 



In addition, several useful computer programs developed by the first author were made available to interested students. 

Results 

This course was taught three times, in the Spring Quarters of 1979, 1980 and 1 981 . Despite minimal "advertising" of this experimental 

course, many students asked to enroll in it. We decided to restrict enrollment to ten to twelve teams and had no dffficulty reaching this 

number with qualified students. Most of the Architecture students were junior- or senior-level architecture majors but a few had other 

design majors. Most of the Physics students were engineering majors, with a few physics majors. Several graduate students in 

Architecture were admitted as one-person teams and given graduate-feve credit in the Architecture department. 

The students generally emjoyed the course, attending regularly, working hard on theirdesigns, doing extra work in somecases and often 
consulting with the instructors outside of regular class hours. Several students commented on the value of having architects collaborate 
with engineers or physicists, apparently because it helped the students appreciate the ideals and techniques of the other profession. 

A few teams were formed by the students themselves, but most were assigned randomly at the beginning of the course In general this 
worked out satisfactorily. The contributions of each team member were very clear because of the considerable personal interaction 
between instructors and students. As a result, the members of a team sometimes received the same grade but generally did not- in one 
extreme case, one team member received an A while his partner received a D. 

One problem that occurred with a few teams resulted from the pairing of an architecture major accustomed to doing most of his or her 
work just before a deadline with an engineer who p'referred a more steady'pace of work. In two instances this led to serious difficulties 
requiring the instructors help. 

A major problem with the experimental course was the brevity of the quarter. Ten weeks is not adequate time to teach the prinicplies of 
energy-efficient design and yet permit thestudent teams to design a home. The teams had to begin working on their designs before ail the 
principles had been adequately taught. y 

Future Changes 

Fortunately, Iowa State University will begin using the semester system in the 1981-82 academic year. The Architecture and Physics 
departments have approved the listing of this course, with the title "Energy Analysis of Residential Structures." in the 1981-83 catalog of 
university courses Because oi junior-level reqrequisites for Architecture students and the previous reqrequisites for Physics students 
the course is listed as Architecture 468 and Physics 351. 

The course will be substantially improved as a semester course. With 1 5 weeks, it will be possible to have 10 weeks of lectures and cover 
the subject more thoroughly, while allowing the students to have much more timeon their projects. More problems will be assigned anda 
comprehensive workbook developed. There will be a firmer schedule with some intermediate deadlines on various aspects of the home 
designs, tc > speed up -the procrast.nators. Every student will be expected to learntousesomecomputer programs prepared forthe course, 
and the Physics students will be assigned some programming problems. 

Conclusion 

ni S ™?h5.H K 063 00nt]nUe l ° "f and the PU ^ C beC ° meS motB aware of the value of energy-efficient building design, courses such as 
ours should become increasingly important While we stressed newsingle-famify residential construction, the principles and calculation 
^ In fn " S f ar ?K° ^ pp ' ,cab ' e f° ™lti-famlly dwellings, small commercial buildings, and the retrofit of existing buildings. We have 
found this course to be hard work, but the efforts are very rewarding to us as teachers, and the students who have taken the course seem 
quite pleased to find themselves at the frontier of knowledge, using information that has not yet found its way into textbooks. 

2.9 

SOLAR CELLS IN SCHOOL 

R.W. Buckley, Director of Science, Frank Wheldon School, Nottingham, U.K. 

1. introduction 

LTn? tho TL ! he h in H Cre , asing d6 !™u d ',° r ' he terrestriai use of solar cel| s for power generation a reduction of cell cost is required from 
^l^wr^?! ™ 1 ^' l h ?/°" mater . ia ,' rec * uirements - both in quantity and quality of the Cadmium Sulphide - Copper 
Sulphide (CdS - Cu 2S) cell, and the ability to deposit large areas of film make it an obvious contender in the race to mass produce cells at a 

cost of &up per watt. 

I^°,? eS H for , ,abricati "9 a li9Wwelght CdS - CuaS solar cell was developed by workers at the Clevite Corporation in the U.S.A. and is 
summarised as follows. A metallized plasticacts as a substrate for the vacuum deposition of thermally evaporated CdS layer approxi- 

aoueous sol.^inn n "^ r, S Th u ,t "'*"" ^ ^ " lhen COnV6rted t0 cop P er sulphide ' nomina "y Cu2S b V immersion in an 
Kro^asr^ca^ CU2S a ^ °«* * — <™< «o«-c«on. followed by a 

to h £r s 

2. The CdS Layer 

mdlSor?^^ ««^ h* SP L 3y pyro L ysis - Despite ths 9reat potential of this method for producing cheap cells for terrestrial 
applications very few attempts have been made by other workders to make cells in this way. 

Tin n!Sf n C f. l ^ r8 i m °' the spraying a PPa'atus is shown in fig. 2 and is a modified paint spray available from most laboratory suppliers 
Ld^n nrri^n il 9 f *? 7 "f SU f rate as this forms an ohmic con,act t0 cadmium sulphide. Thesubstrate was floated on molten 
lead in order to increase its temperature. This improved the adhesion and structural quality of the films. Thespray solution was a mixture 

46 



of thiourea (which provides suiphur ions) and cadmium chloride {providing cadmium ions) in equal proportion by weight and dissolved in 
distilled water. These compunds react on the substrate to form cadmium sulphide. The spraying was carried out in 5-10 second intervals 
to allow the substrate to recover the temperature loss and re-attain its desired spraying temperature of 340°C. After spraying the films 
were baked in an inert atmosphere at 400° C for 30 minutes in order to increase the grain size. 

Evaluation 

The current-voltage characteristic of a typical film before plating is shown in fig, 3. The dark resistivity of such films was found to be 200 
"m falling to 1 .39 "m under standard illumination. These films were then examined under a microscope and found to have no obvious 
pin-holes. Film thickness (typically 20 "m) was estimated by comparing the optical transmission of a given film against several of known 
thickness grown by the authors at the University of Durham and measured using interference microscopy techniques. 

All films sprayed using the described method were found to exhibit green photoluminesce when excited with U-V light at 77K. 

3. The Cu2S Layer 

In order to form the p-type Cu2S on these layers a plating solution was prepared as follows: 

(a) 750 ml of distilled water was heated and stirred in a closed reaction vessel while oxygen'free nitrogen was continuously bubbled 
through to displace oxygen. 

(b) 100 ml of hydrazine hydrate was added. 

(c) a pH meter was used to measure the acidity of the solution which was accurately adjusted to pH 2.5 by adding drops of hydrochloric 
acid or hydrazine hydrate. (The nitrogen and hydrazine hydrate prevent the formation of Cu++ ions.) 

(d) Next 10g of CuCI was added and the liquid volume made up to 1 litre by adding distilled water. 

(e) The bath was heated to 90° C and the CdS layers etched in IN potassium iodide solution for 1 seconds before a similar period of 
plating. On removal from the bath the dark Cu2S layer was clearly visible. This reaction is governed by the equation- 

2CuCl + CdS CdCl2 = Cu2S 

After plating, the cell was baked for 2 minutes in air at 200*0. This baking causes Cu+ ions to diffuse into the n-type CdS thus 
compensating it and creating an insulating, protoconductive layer. 

4. Cell Performance 

The cell was illuminated through the glass, as this yielded higher efficiencies and precluded the need for a grid contact to the Cu2S/a 
simple piaint contact sufficed. The current-voltage characteristic of the final eel! is shown in fig, 4. The cell gave an open current voltage 
of 390 mvandashort circuit current of0.8mA. This corresponds to an overall efficiency of2%.Thecell showed nosignificantdegradation 
when operated for a two hour period and six such cells feeding an hystersis motor were used to drive a model round-a-bout. 

5. Plating bath kinetics 

The transformation of CdS to CuaS takes place epitaxial ly and Singer and Faeth in 1970 and Cook etal in 1970 have reported the complete 
conversion of a single crystal of cadium sulphide to a cracked but single crystal of copper sulphide. The cracks are a direct result of the 
strain which is introduced by the mismatch between the lattices of the two sulphides. 

In preparation of the solar cell the CdS film is dipped in the plating bath for a very short time (in the order of 10seconds). However, in order 
to study the transformation process it is necessary to immerse the layer of cadmium sulphide in the plating bath for several hours. This 
was done and the formation of Cu 2S monitored by the increase in weight of the sample, A graph of the increase in weight of the sample 
against time is shown in fig, 5. Previous studies on the conversion process have produced conflicting results. Lindquist and Bube ( 1 970) 
found that the thickness of the cuprous sulphide layer increased linearly with immersion time whereas Singer and Faeth (1971) and 
Sreedhar et ai (1 970) found that the rate of growth of the copper sulphide layer followed a parabolic law. The shape of fig. 5 indicated a 
linear relationship between the increase in mass of the sample and the square root of the plating time. 

i.e. m t'£ 

This parabolic law is in agreement with some of the previous workers described on the previous page. 

When the reaction 

CdS + 2Cu+ CuzS + Cd++ 

is taken to the limit in the plating bath all the CdS is converted to Cu2S. Since the molecular weight of CdS is 144 46 and CuaS 159 14 a 
complete conversion would lead to an increase in weight of 10.1%. The increase in weight of the sample shown in fig. 6 corresponds to 
56% conversion of CdS to CusS in 4 hours i.e. a Cu2S layer 280 "m thick. It is well known thatthe growth of oxide layers on metals follows 
a parabolic law (Pilling + Bedworth 1923) and this is taken as evidence that the rate of formation of the oxide layer is diffusion limited In 
our case, this would imply that the rate-limiting step is the diffusion of cuprous ions through the cuprous sulphide, if the process was 
limited by a reaction at the CdS-Cu2S interface a linear growth law should be observed. 

6. Copper Sulphide Stochiometry 

One of the difficulties with the CdS - CuaS celt in its present state of development is that thereis a degradation of the power output when it 
is operated for long periods in poor vacuum at temperature in excess of 60° C. This effect has been attributed by Bogus and Mattes (1972) 
to the photoassisted oxidation of Cu2$ Cu2 - **S. 

It is implicit in this argument that a non-stoichometric deficit of copper in the copper sulphide will lead to a decrease in the efficiency of 
the cell. Further Palz et al (1972) suggested that the slow deterioration could be overcome by ensuring good initial stochiometry of the 
Cu S However we are not aware of any attempts to achieve this end in any controllable manner. 

Rickert and Mathieu (1970) in a theoretical investigation of the Cu - S system, showed that it should be possible to vary the stochiometric 
composition of a compound CuxS by changing its efectropotential during chemi-plating. We have therefore studied a system in which it 
is possible to measure and control the potential at the reaction interface when the copper fulphide layer is formed on the CdS. 

Cells were fabricated using the same plating both described in Section 3, Two electrodes were used to measure the potentials developed 
in the plating bath. 



47 



Pure copper was placed in thesolution to act as a reference electrode whilea platinum electrode was measured using a pH meter as a high 
resistance voltmeter. In the absence of an applied voltage, a potential of 21 mV (Cu2S positive with respect to copper) was recorded. A 
variety of cells was then prepared by applying external potentials ranging from -1 50 to +500 mV to the platinum electrode. In all other ways 
the fabrication process was identical to that described in Section 3. 

Figure 6 shows the variation in open circuit voltage of the cells against the applied potential. Optimum results were achieved with a platinq 
potential of +100 mV. 

Discussion 

It is important to recall that copper sulphide exists in three different phases, namely chalocite (CusS). djurleite (Cir-Si and 
digenite (Clp ^S). 

Now Palz et al (1972) using a destructive method of coulometric titration have been able to measure the stochiometry of films of Cu*S 
formed on sofar cells. They were abJe to show a plot of OCV of a solar cell as a function of the copper content of the sulphide layer i.e. as a 
function of x. If we compare the magnitudes of the open circuit voltages shown in fig. 6 with those of Pafz et al (fig. 7) we conclude that x 
increases from 1.97 to 1.98 when the bias in the plating bath is increased from zero to +100 mV. 

7. Conclusions and future work 

Our preliminary studies lead us to believe that spray pyrolysisisaviablemethodforthe fabrication of CdSSolar Cells. In order to develop 
the device further and increase our understanding of its underlying principles future work is planned along the following lines: 

(1) To examine the variation of resistivity of CdS films with spraying time to determine if prolonged spraying increases the sulphur 
content of the films. 

(2) To develop a method for measuring Hall voltages in CdS films to determine the source of any change in film resistivity. 

(3) To develop an accurate method of measuring film thickness. 

(4) To measure the short circuit current of ceils as a function of temperature in an attempt to relate this to phase changes in the copper 
sulphide. 

(5) To investigate the viability of organic solar cells as cheap photovoftaic converters. This work will be undertaken in co-operation with 
Sheli Research Ltd. 

References 

Bogus + Mattes Proc. 9h I.E.E.E. Conf. 1972 

Cook et al J. App. Phys. 41 3058 1970 

Lindquist + Bube J, Electrochem. Soc. 119 936 1972 

Pilling + Bedworth J. Inst. Met. 29 592 ' 1923 

Palz et al Proc. 9n I.E.E.E. Conf. 1972 

Rickert + Mathieu E.S.R.O, Contract CR-14 1970 

Singer + Faeth App. Phys. Lett 11 130 1971 

Sreedhar et al Radiation Effects 103 ig 70 

2.10 

A CLOSE-LOOP-ITERATIVELY-INTERACTING 
PROCESS FOR MASS-COMMUNICATION OF SOLAR ENERGY 

Ashok K. Vaseashta 

(Solar Energy Group) 

Centre for Applied Research in Electronics, 

Indian Institute of Technology 

New Dethi-110 016 

Abstract 

It has widely been accepted that our pianet offers us a limited quantity of fossil-fuels and also that the present global resources are 
depleting at a rapid rate due to the persistent enhanced rate of energy consumption of the modern society to maintain a bare minimum 
level of standard. 

There has been several projections as to how long these fossil-fuels can last us. An average of various estimates predicts 2200 A D as the 
upper Inrmt for the petroleum and 2700 A.D. for the coal; the two major resources of energy at present Once consumed there is no way of 
replenishing these reserves and there are no viable means in sight which could synthesize them back to use. This dictates an inevitable 
energy transition. 

In the present investigation an estimate of the period of existence of various present energy sources is drawn according to present 
available extensive survey. The potential alternatives of energy sources and hierarchy of their effective utilization is described On the 
basis of feasibility analysis of these alternative sources of energy, a case of solar - as a solution to presen t energy crisis is discussed next 
Near term prospects of solar energy, hierarchy of effective utilization, economic feasibility analysis etc. arepresented tosupplementthe 

Such a transition would not be cheap or easy rightaway. but its benefits would far outweigh the cost and difficulties in the long run To 
bring the above kind of transition, a reality, a closeHoop-iteratively-interactive processes like adult-education-programme and 
technology-transfer for an unspeciafized sector through a highly specialised sector: programmes such as teacher-training and 
vocatfonal-technical from a highly specialized sector to a specilized sector and so on. Such a close-loop-iteractively-interactive process 
is expected to enchance the mass awareness into the field of energy andcould meet the total spectrum of future requirement of energy in 



48 



2.11 

SOLAR ENERGY EDUCATION THROUGH RESEARCH PARTICIPATION 

Stanley R, Bull and Joan A. Miller 

Solar Energy Research Institute 

Golden, Colorado 

The Solar Energy Research Institute has been established and designed by the Department of Energy as the lead center for research in 
solar as an alternative energy resource, As such, it has undertaken many areas of work, including several nontraditional educational (or 
research participation) activities, with the objective to provide professional and educational opportunities and stimulation for well 
qualified students and for established and promising faculty in solar energy. In all programs, the research participant is assigned to a 
SERI project and works under the supervision of a SERI staff member. 

The Undergraduate Intern Program, in its third year, is conducted to expose college level junior and senior students to the broad 
problems associated with the practical widespread utilization of solar energy, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and 
social aspects, 

The Graduate Intern Program, initiated in 1978, is conducted to provide students who have completed at least one full year of graduate 
study the chance to apply to work at the Institute in such areas as policy development and analysis, legal issues and planning, information 
provision, and other socio-economic areas. 

The Visiting Faculty Programs, Summer and Sabbatical appointments, provide the opportunity for university and college faculty to 
engage in research, development, analysis, and applications; establish continuing relations with SERI staff; and develop a basis for 
continued solar related work at their own institution. 

This paper will describe the educational philosophy underlying the development and implementation of these programs, and will look at 
the construct and conduct of each effort. It will also address the evaluation phases of the program, compare the resufts of each, and 
suggest several methods for program improvement. 



49 



SESSION 3: ISSUES FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT 

3-1 

A CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT MODEL 
FOR ENERGY EDUCATION 

William E. Searfes, 

Department of Secondary Education, 

Faculty of Education, 

McGill University. 

Abstract 

Over the years, a variety of different curriculum development models have been used in science education that emanated from the beliefs 
and interests of the developers. The values inherent in such models have seldom been clearly delineated and this omission has created 
problems for those educators involved in the implementation of a curriculum. This paper examines three curriculumdevelopment models 
that have been identified in the literature. These models have been substantiated by conceptualizations of curriculum scholars, an 
historical perspective of the literature, in science curriculum studies, and in an empirical study undertaken by this author. From this 
information a curriculum development model is constructed which is suitable for energy education. 
Text 

The special function of curriculum development is to select and to organize the content so that the desired goals of the curriculum are 
most effectively achieved. It is during the developmental activities that the problem of translating the aims of the curriculum into content 
occurs when developers are required to make judgmentsabout content priorities. Such problems haveexisted since education becamea 
deliberate process, and due to the values and perspectives of the developer, have resulted in content and a curriculum design that is 
pecufiar to the influence and beliefs of the developer. These differences in curriculum design have been recognized by Macdonaid/ 
Hyman, 2 Eisner and Vallance, 3 and others. 

Knowledge of the values inherent in a particular curriculum development model is important to educators. This kind of information 
enables the curriculum developers to use a model whose values are best suited to matching the subject matter with the needs and 
interests of the students. Similarly, it permits an educator to select a curriculum suitable for particular students. 

The purpose of this paper is to examine curriculum development models that have been substantiated from: 

(a) Conceptualizations of curriculum scholars. 

(b) An historical perspective of science curriculum development. 

(c) Evidence in science curriculum studies, and 

(d) The findings obtained in an empirical study by this author* 

From this information, a curriculum development model for energy education will then be constructed. 

Macdonaid believes that it is not possible for developers to deal with the curriculum as a purely objective phenomenon and identifies 
three curriculum development models from evidence in the literature, in research studies, and from the field. His three "ideal types'* of 
curriculum development model are known as: (1) Linear-Expert, (2) Circular-Consensus, and (3) Dialogical, which are related to the 
cognitive human interests of control, consensus, and emancipation* These human interests are reflected in the following outlines of his 
models: 

1. The Linear-Expert model is based on the basic human interest of control. The developmental procedures in this model are dominated 
by experts who attempt to maximize control by the discipline. The whole process therefore is controlled and monitored with specific 
goals in mind, and it is the experts who make the Initial and final decisions about the validity of the content and organization of the 
curriculum. The nationally developed science curricula produced in the U.S.A. during the 1960's are examples of discipline-controlled 
curriculum development. These projects were initiated by discipline scholars at the university level who prepared the materials and tried 
them out in the classroom; then rewrote, piloted, and finally revised the curriculum materials for broad distribution. In this manner, the 
discipline scholar controlled the development of the curriculum, and thereby maintained the integrity of the discipline. 

2. The Circular-Consensus model is based upon the basic human interests of consensus. This model is commonly referred to as the 
"grass roots" approach to curriculum development since it involves teachers, school administrators, laymen representative of the 
community, with experts on call if needed. All members of this group are regarded as being of equal rank in the deliberation process. In 
this model, there is a conviction that teachers must participate in the process of curriculum development, particularly if the materials 
which emanate from this process are to be properly used in the classroom. It is recognized that there is some rhetoric of control in the 
developmental processes of this model but consensus and communication should result in a worthwhile curriculum. 

3. The Dialogical model is based upon the emerging needs of the student. Initially, teachers enter into dialogue with students to identify 
and determine the needs of the student population for whom the curriculum is intended. The adults then attempt to match the known 
cultural resources with the expressed needs and interests of the students. In this manner, the model actively involves the student in 
curriculum development, with the needs and interests of the students being given priority over the social and discipline content of the 
curriculum. 

The description of Macdonald's threecurriculum development models clearly indicate the value position and orientation inherent in each 
model. These orientations are supported by the following conceptualizations of curriculum scholars. 

1, Support for the Linear-Expert model can be found in the work of Phenix, 5 and King and Brownell, 6 whose propositions for curriculum 
development consider only the knowledge found in the disciplines is suitable for a school's curriculum. Their argument is that since the 
discipline shcolars have an intimate knowledge of the discipJines they should control the process of curriculum development. Phenix 
viewed the discipline as a h, conceptual system whoseoffice is to gather a large number of cognitive elements into a common framework of 



50 



ideas." 7 The systematic categorization found in the discipline renders the profusion of cognitive ideas intelligible, and thereby serves as a 
valuable resource of materials for curriculum development. An understanding of the categorization of knowledge found in the disciplines 
allows the scholars to make intelligent decisions in the selection and organization of the content that: 

(a) Is drawn entirely from the fields of disciplined Knowledge. 

(b) Is particularly representative of the field as a whole. 

(c) Exemplifies the methods of inquiry and modes of understanding, 

(d) Arouses the imagination. 

These principles reveal Phenix's concern that only authenticated discipline knowledge should be in a curriculum. 

The second discipline-oriented proposition is by Kind and Brownell. These curriculum conceptuaiists are in agreement with Phenix 
regarding the academic competence of an educator required to select content for a curriculum. Furthermore, they consider that the 
discipline in its responsibility for passing on such knowledge to the young. To maintain the true nature of the discipline the curriculum 
must be an epitome of the discipline in every respect. 

The human interests reflected in both of these conceptions of a curriculum are discipline oriented. This orientation considers that the 
most powerful products of man's intelligence are to be found In the academic disciplines, and the school's curriculum is the medium 
through which students can acquire this knowledge. It is, therefore, necessary that discipline scholars control the development of a 
curriculum. 

2. Support for the Circular-Consensus model can be seen in the propositions made by Schwab, 8 and Walker. 9 Schwab considers that 
although the knowledge of the disciplines possessed by the scholars makes them indispensable for the task of curriculu mdevefopment. 
their lack of knowledge in four other areas prevents them from being the sole arbiter. The other areas are concerned with knowledge of 
the learner, the milieu, the teachers, and the curriculum. These four areas must be represented and the curriculum developed in 
collaboration. Each member of the group should recognize the concerns, values, and operations of the others, and seek agreement 
among themselves in the judgmental factors in curriculum development 

Walker is in agreement with Schwab, and considers the group processes will ultimately arrive at a body of educational alternatives from 
which choices must be made. Such choices will not entirely satisfy the consensus and values of any one participant but will satisfy the 
collective group more than does any other constellation of educational means. 

3. Support for the Dialogical model can be found in thehumanisticconceptions of curriculumdevelopment proposed by Sergiovanni and 
Starratt 10 The main focus of their conception is with the selection of content which encourages man's personal and interpersonal 
development. They consider that curricularprogramsshould be developed so that studentscan grapple with contemporary problems in a 
personally meaningful way. Activities of this nature should enable students to continually seek for the human significance of what he 
learns in the realm of knowledge. It is therefore necessary to develop a curriculum which incorporates the pressing problems of the day, 
and which is committed to the individual's personal development. 

Similarly, Weinstein and Fantini" constructed a model for developing a curriculum of affect. The content of their curriculum would be 
personally meaningful and relate cognition to the learner's concerns for himself and for others. In this respect, the curriculum would 
enable the student to live harmonisouly within the biosphere, 

An historical perspective of science curriculum development reveals that over the years many factors have influenced the selection and 
organization of content for a school's curriculum. During the latter half of the nineteenth century, colleges such as Harvard became a 
major influence over the selection and organization of content for high school science curricula which simply became college 
preparatory courses, 12 However, according to Underhill, 13 the changing socio-economic condition was the major influence. Develop- 
ments in the fields of science and technology also made an impact on the steady growth of natural science curricula offered by the 
schools. These "new" curricula attempted to meet the social needs of a growing technological society thus emphasis was placed on 
content that was useful in the marketplace. Also, when concern was expressed at the turn of the century that many students could not 
benefit from the school's curricula a general science course was developed that would: appeal to students' interests, needs, and 
environmental experiences. 

As the influence of the colleges over high school science curricula waned the teachers assumed a greater responsibility for developing 
courses which was maintained until the late 1950's when discipline scholars again undertook a dominant role in curriculum develop- 
ment. 14 A study undertaken by this author to examine the changes occurring in science curricula during the past one-hundred years 
revealed alterations in content that were in line with the expressed concerns of the times. Thus, curricula were developed which were 
utilitarian in nature for the benefit of society, or patterned after college science courses for those students who were college bound. Other 
courses of a general nature were provided to meet the needs of those students who did not wish to continue in higher studies but who 
were interested in learning science. 

Science curriculum research undertaken during this period reflects a similar pattern to the changing socio-economic and science- 
technological developments. Many of these studies surveyed the needs and interests of the students in science in order to construct a 
suitable curriculum. In this manner, the studies provide credibility for the Dialogical model. Other studies were concerned with the 
relevancy of curriculum content for particular environmental regions thereby supporting the societal concerns of the Circular- 
Consensus model. A number of science curriculum studies were concerned solely with the involvement of disciplinescholars to produce 
an authenticated science curriculum, and in so doing, gave credence to the Linear-Expert model. It may be assumed that when laymen, 
teachers, university professors, or high school students were involved in the studies it was in response to expressed needs. These needs 
were usually stated by professional organizations for functional science in society, general science for the individual's development, or 
discipline content to prepare students for higher learning, The numerous studies in science curriculum development that dealt with 
discipline, societal, or humanistic concerns give support to Macdonald's three curriculum development models. 

An empirical study undertaken by this author was based on Macdonald's description of model typology, and utilized junior high school 
physical-science curricula to answer the question: Do the different value positions suggested by Macdonald to be inherent in each of his 
curriculum development models result in different content or content organization? 



51 



p 



To obtain information regarding the selection and organization of content in science curricula a sample of ninety teachers was randomly 
chosen from the English-speaking high schools in the Province of Quebec, Canada, These teachers examined physical-science curricula 
being used in the schools of Ontario and Quebec, then completed a questionnaire based on established criteria for the selection and 
organization of content for a science curriculum. A multivariate analysis of variance of the data for model indicated the presence of 
significant differences in the content associated with the three curriculum development models. 

A discriminate analysis undertaken to determine how the models differed in terms of the criterion variables utilized in the questionnaire, 
resulted in two canonical vanates that were significant. From the results obtained in this study it was concluded that: 

1. Signigicant differences do exist in the content and its organization in curricula representative of Macdonald's three curriculum 
development models. 

2. Content associated with contemporary, inquiry, utility, appropriateness, student's interests, student's needs, social and cultural, and 
social and cultural norms, was responsible for differentiation among the models. 

3. Content representative of specific groups of selection criteria such as discipline-oriented, societal needs, and student needs was also 
responsible for differentiation in the content among the models. 

4. From conclusion 3, there are different value positions in Macdonald's models which result in the selectionand organization of different 
content depending on the model used. 

Knowledge of curriculum development models which have been substantiated both theoretically and empirically is useful to educators 
involved in the development of a science curriculum. The educator is now able to make use of this information as a guideline during 
developmental procedures. Therefore, to the extent that the Circular-Consensus model is concerned with societal issues and the 
Dialogical has humanistic concerns, then a combination of these two models is suitable for an energy education development model. 
This model will involve administrators, teachers, laymen and discipline scholars concurring on the content and its organization in a 
curriculum from an assessment of students needs, interests, and abilities. The role of each of these persons operating within the rules of 
consensus is as follows: 

(a) The administrator with expertise in curriculum development wilt instigate and administer the translation of scholarly materials into a 
defensible curriculum within the larger societal context. This person will also have knowledge of the teachers and be able to judge the 
various aspects of instructional strategies. 

(b) The teacher will have an acceptable level of knowledge of the curriculum materials and of the learner for whom they are intended. A 
primary concern of the teacher will be matching curriculum materials with the students' needs, interests, and abilities. 

(c) As representatives of the milieu, the laymen will have knowledge of societal issues, particularly those concerned with energy. A 
primary concern of the laymen will be that the curriculum materials are relevant to the student's understanding of energy as an important 
resource in contemporary society. 

(d) The discipline scholar will have an intimate knowledge of the various aspects of energy. This person will ensure the authenticity of 
content and its organization in the energy curriculum. 

(e) The student input will result from their response to a survey-type questionnaire for energy education. 

The critical pathway to be used in the development of an energy education curriculum is as follows: 

1 . Discussion with school administrators regarding need for the energy education cirriculum, descri ption of the development model to be 
used, and substantiation of procedure to be followed, 

2. Establishment of an energy education curriculum development committee consisting of administrators, teachers, laymen, and 
discipline scholars. 

3. Election of a chairman to this committee to ensure that the developers operate within the requirements of the model, particu larly as they 
relate to the consensus of the group. 

4. Preliminary consideration by theenergy curriculum development committee for the determination of thestudents' needs and interests. 
The following is a list of possible topics for consideration: 

(a) Curriculum aims (or objectives). 

(b) Adolescent input. 

(c) Main features of survey. 

(d) Suitable energy questions, 

(e) Student selection procedure, 

(f) Explanation of project to students. 

5. Students complete the energy education curriculum questionare. 

6. Evaluation and discussion of the results obtained from the questionnaire. 

7. Development of the energy education curriculum with the selection and organization of its content, 

8. Implementation and Evaluation of energy education curriculum in the classroom, 

9. From the results obtained in 8, possible revision and rewriting of curriculum materials prior to broad distribution, 

10. Implementation of energy education curriculum with arrangements for ongoing evaluation and revision. 

References 

1 James B.Macdonald, "Curriculum and Human Interests" inCURRICULUM THEORIZING: THERECONCEPTUALISTS.Wm.PinarEd., 
(McCutchan, Berkeley, Cal, 1975,) pp. 284-293. 

J Ronald T. Hyman, Ed., APPROACHES IN CURRICULUM, (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. Jersey, 1973.) pp. 5, 14-18. 

3 Elliot W. Eisner, and Eliz. Vallance, Eds., CONFLICTING CONCEPTIONS OF CURRICULUM, (McCutchan, Berkeley, Cal. 1975,) pp. 
1-12. 

4 William E. Searles, "The Effect of Different Curriculum Development Models On Content And Its Organization In Junior High School 
Science Curricula," in WORLD TRENDS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION, Charles P. McFadden, Ed., (Atlantic Institute of Education, Halifax, 
Canada, 1980.) pp, 90-100. 

5 Philip H. Phenix, "The Disciplines As Curriculum Content," in CURRICULUM CROSSROADS, H. Passow, Ed., (Teachers College, New 
York, 1962.) pp, 57-74. 



52 



5 A. R. King, and J, A. Browne!!, THE CURRICULUM AND THE DISCIPLINES OF KNOWLEDGE, (Wiley, New York, 1966.) pp. 1-221. 
■ Philip H. Phenix, REALMS OF MEANING, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964,) pp. 10-12. 
* J.J. Schwab, School Review, 81, 4, 1973. 
9 D.F. Walker, School Review, 80, 1, 1971. 

,fl T. Sergiovanni, and R. Starratt. Eds.. EMERGING PATTERNS OF SUPERVISION: HUMAN PERSPECTIVES, (McGraw-Hill New York 
1971.) pp. 237, 261-264. . . . 

11 G. Weinstein, and M. Fantini, Eds., TOWARD HUMANISTIC EDUCATION, A CURRICULUM OF EFFECT, (Praeqer New York 1970 ) 
pp. 3-223. ' • w 

12 O.E. Underhill, THE ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SCIENCE. (Scott Foresman, Chicago. 1941 ) op 
i-xxi, 1-347. 

n C.W. Gatewood, and E.S. Obourn, J. Research Science Teaching, 1, 3, 1963. 

u Nelson B. Henry, Ed., RETHINKING SCIENCE EDUCATION, (N.S.S.E., Chicago. 1960.) p. 156. 

3.2 

NUCLEAR POWER IN THE CLASSROOM: A UNION OF SCIENCE AND SOCIAL STUDIES EDUCATION 

James K. Shillenn 

Nuclear Engineering Department 

The Pennsylvania State University 

University Park, PA 16802 

John R. Vincent! 

State College Area School District 

State College, PA 16801 

ABSTRACT 

Science and technology, which once brought the United States and other industrialized countries of the world unprecen dented energy 
resources and financial rewards, have begun to realize that politics and not the scientific method will determine the quality of life in the 
21st century. Educators find it difficult to. present nuclear power in a way that will allow students to make informed decisions and 
judgementson this issue.There is aneed for unity in the science andsocial science fields, and presentatfon of material in an objective way 
incorporating both scientific and sociological aspects. Students need to make critical thinking and logic a standard in dealing with 
conflicting information. Major issues and arguments on nuclear power are presented, with possible classroom activities and resources 
cited. 

A Need for Unity in a Changing World 

Science and technology, which once brought the United States and other industrialized countries of the world unprecendented energy 
resources and financial rewards, have begun to realize that politics and not the scientific method will determine the quality of life in the 
21st century. Nuclear power, as one source of energy for the past 25 years since the development of the first commercial reactor at 
Shippingport, Pennsylvania, has become a volatile issue in the United States and worldwide, 

What responsibility do educators have in presenting energy issues such as nuclear power in the classroom? This paper will focus on 
nuclear power, the challenges it presents to educators at all levels in the field in preparing and presenting information in the classroom. 
This paper will cover two specific disciplines — science and social studies. 

N uclear power in the classroom has had a relatively short history in the ann als of education and has been traditionally considered a part of 
the science curriculum for decades. 

Historically, science educators, according to the results of a five year study by the National Science Foundation (NSF)\ have reacted to 
the task of teaching science and technology from a "purist" point of view. This view as NSF reported caused students to "not tearn the 
relationships between science and technology, hence as future citizens they were unaware of the roles that research and development 
play in an industrial nation and trade-offs an d side effects that would affect them individually and collectively." 2 This was evident with the 
curriculum projects of the 1 960s, The interest during that decade was to train youngsters to become sophisticated professional scientists 
who could advance technologies related to nuclear energy, space exploration, and oceanography that would enhance defense systems 
and national security. 

in the social studies, however, nuclear power has not been given much space in its curriculum until recently. College and high school 

textbooks spent most of their space on nuclear power's relationship to weaponry, submarine and warship utilization, and other defense or 
military history including the devastation of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. 

Historically, the social studies field found itself also responding to "governmental intervention and the pressure to make the public 
education system an instrument of social reform../' 3 Besides governmental pressures dictating curriculum, other forces were at work in 
our school curricula such as "currents and cou ntercurrents including liberal and conservative ideologies, innovators, and traditionalists, 
accountability adherents, promoters of management by objectives, elitist versus populist philosophies, and advocates of technolgoical 
applications to education." 4 What then has this done to educators in terms of bringing controversial issues into the classroom? 



53 



Social studies educators reported in the NSF study that dealing with controversial issues in the classroom is a particularly significant 
problem. This problem has been based on their sensitivity to local feelings and values - a sense that communities expected their 
teachers would pass on knowledge accumulated by others, rather than encouraging students to raise creative challenges or think 
critically. This sensitivity to controversial issues has important ramifications to the role of "socialization" in our schools A problem 
exists when a controversy surfaces in identifying whose norms or goals in respect to nuclear energy would be presented If social studies 
has been identified as "perhaps the closest thing to Value education' which exists in the regular curriculum of the public schools today "« 
then the role and responsibility of the educator in presenting the nuclear power information in an objective manner is paramount 

The task then of presenting materials in an objective a manner as possible and making science more social oriented seems enormous 
The key, however, to enacting objectivity through increased cognitive skill devleopment and becoming more socially oriented involvinq 
he affective domain of learning may be found in greater articulation of programs encouraging team teaching, and inservice training 
throughout elementary and secondary education.' Through an articulated program and a network of educators at all levels curriculum 
infusion of energy education programs such as nuclear power, can make the "interconnection" possible. 

Dealing with Conflicting Information 

When educators are confronted with conflicting information on nuclear issues, the task of designing a class or series of classes that will 
increase students understanding of the nuclear issues may appear to be impossible. When designing a class on controverisal issues the 
educator must be aware that accuracy of informational content needs to be considered from two perspectives. These perspectives are the 
correctness of the information and the intellectual honesty with which this information is presented." The correctness of information is 
rela .vely easy to verify through experts from the relative disciplines. For example, the average background dose rate to an individual in 
f ,V i ,S ,\ . millirams per year, and this information can be confirmed easily from many sources. However, the perspective of 
intellectual honesty of informational content is more subtle. Students must be made aware of the fact that some of the information 
presented is tentative, incomplete or based upon certain assumptions which are unproved. An example of this is the area of low level 
rad.at.on. The student hears from one "expert" that low level radiation is not hazardous and hears from another "expert" that low level 
raaiatjon is hazardous. 

!™!ff Ct 9 U f» y h K neSt ?? Wer ^ ^* uestio J of ,he healtn hazard s o' low level radiation is that the information available in this area is 
incomplete." After being informed of this, students should then be allowed to evaluate the evidence and premises that lead to the 
conclusion that low level radiation is either hazardous or not. At this point students must apply critical thinking guidelines and the use of 
log.c. For example, they can be asked, Have arguments presented on either side of the nuclear issue contained information fallacies of 
relevance or ambiguity such as appeal to pity, hasty generalization, begging the question, or fallacy of accent?"' 
Major Issues and Arguments 

ntZ e JX' n9 h Cl3SS ° f T rieS ° f da . SSeS ° n 2 Ucleaf iSSUes the c,assroom ^acher should know the major issues surrounding the 
S .™ f n fh, mB ° f l he ,- ar £l ime t n , tS ° n b0,h Sid u? ° f the issues so that inf ° r ™tion and activities can focus on these major points. 
S world as well " ""* " ^^ "" ^ ' requen,ly debated in the United states but ^ rel «*ant to the rest of 

Issue #1 : Nuclear Safety'* 

in^S r t«°r,™» l t n h ,tie fis . s J on P rocess lar 9 eamou ( ntsofra dioactive fission productsareproduced.Safetysystemshavebeen designed 
in order to prevent the accidental escape of these fission products into the environment. The public concern is whether or not these 
systems will work and protect the public from significant radiation exposure due to a serious commercial reactor accident 

Even w[t^ reC t ° rd0f ' he nUClear P ° Wer react0rs ,0 da,e demonstrates the safety of nuclear power. 

kZ, n Mill k . f . ' ( m ? St Sen0US commercial nuclear reactor accident) no member of the public has ever been 

t Z fStZZ ™° ° f a nUClear t p0we : plant accident Improvements in safety designs over the years, with redundant backuj 

^mlln^* WA^?40?« COnC9P m rea ° t0r Saf6ty SyStemS ' mak6S the Pr0babi "' ly ° f a ma i° raocidant "xtremely small as 

nniv« ™h»? £*-? B l hT * EV6n th ,°.l! 9h ,her !.l ,a8 n0t been a oatastr °P n!c ™«™ P' a "t accident, there have been many closecalls and its 
■nH™2™f™. ™ »< T ° ne ,°J th6Se P l M b ' er ? S r6S ^ in a singlenuclear accident that could result in thousands of deaths and injuries 
and contaminating a land area the size of Maryland. Small deficiencies in many areas of a nuclear plant combine to make the system 

by^a facIor^fTo •« " ^ by WASH - 1400 ,or lon 9 term latent cance ' s and genetic defectsfora particularacddent w^retJ^tlmSa 

Issue #2: Health Impact 

Su^TC^^ operations in the production of electricity from nuclear power that can result in radiation 

£5 »n£h m TT b , ?,°L the PUb " a ThlS Senes 0f °P eratlons is ^'erred to as the Uranium Fuel Cyclewhich includes mining and milling, 
fuel enrichment, fuel fabncation, power production, and radioactive waste disposal. a«'u......mg, 

n^f h^n? a , te H Say ;, » ad t n l XP ? t t Ur f. t0 the Public from nudear power Production is small when compared to exposure from 
natural background radiation. The health effects of nuclear power are less than the health effects of other energy alternatives such as 

f^nn^lf^ff : I!" 3 "! iS ?°f fe '?",?' ° f radiati0n e *P° surs - The health comparisons between nuclear and coal-fired generators 
focus on emissions from the stack of coal-fired generators ignoring hazardous radiation releases from other parts of the fuel cycle 

Issue #3: Nuclear Waste Management 

rSiSlv C ^ D ^HJ^™'^r 8 . te IS th H S i t n ? vrt ^ b,e ^'Product of the generation of electricity by nuclear reactors. The intensity of the 
?n™-£w P f ■ *. .2 lmmedlate| y at reactor shutdown, a ton of spent fuel contains about 300 million curies of activity 
generated ' S preSent ' y bem 9 stored as spent fuel assemblies, most of it in water-cooled facilities at thereactorsites where it was 

«» U t h! a / Ad t V0Cat , es Say: There ar eseveral adequate technical alternatives for storageofnuclearwaste. If thespentfuel now beingstored 
at the reactor sites were reprocessed, the more troublesome and longer lived radioactive species could besepearated and reused for 



54 



energy production, while the volume of the radioactive waste material to be stored would be reduced considerably. The most suitable 
repository for long term radioactive waste storage is in stable geologic formations which are known to have been unchanged for 
thousands or millions of years. 

Nuclear Adversaries Say: There is no agreed upon safe way to isolate radioactive materials from the environment for thousands of years a 

time span longer than human civilization. Nuclearstoragefacilities have had a hard time protecting wastes from the environment for even 
a decade. Radioactive wastes are a dangerous end to the fuel cycle, they are toxic. Once released into the environment they contaminate 
land and water virtually "forever." 

Issue #4: Economics of Nuclear Power 

Basis for Concern: The consumer is experiencing increases in the costs of nuclear power plant construction and electricity produced by 

nuclear power plants. 

Nuclear Advocates Say: The cost of all forms of energy is growing and nuclear power is still the best bargain for producing electricity in 
most parts of the country when all factors are considered. Costs for nuclear power could be reduced if regulatory delays were reduced 
and if the Nuclear Regulatory Commission would streamline the licensing process for nuclear power plants. 

Nuclear Adversaries Say: The cost of nuclear power is growing at a faster rate than other energy alternatives due to the rising cost of 
construction and operation, and low capacity factors. The nuclear industry would not have developed without enormous government 
subsidies. 

Issue #5: Need for Nuclear Power 

Basis for Concern: Conservation and other energy sources such as solar, geothermal, fusion, etc. may be able to replace nuclear power. 
Presently it is unclear whether or not these sources will be able to provide enough energy to satisfy energy needs in the face of 
diminishing fossil fuel resources. 

Nuclear Advocates Say: Although conservation will help reduce energy growth there still will be a need to futher develop existing energy 
technologies such as nuclear power to provide energy needs while other energy technologies are being developed. Even with a large 
national committment to new energy technology research it will take 20-30 years for successful development and commercialization. 

Nuclear Adversaries Say: There is no need for nuclear power. With immediate changes in America's energy wasteful lifestyles enough 
energy can be saved to make nuclear power unnecessary, If nuclear power development were curtailed or stopped entirely and the same 
fu nding applied to development of alternatives, such as solar energy, these energy alternatives could beg in producing a significant part of 
the U.S. energy supply in a very short period of time. 

Issue #6: Nuclear Proliferation 

Basis for Concern: Nuclear reactors use fissionable uranium and produce plutonium. If properly processed, these materials can be used 

to produce nuclear weapons. 

Nuclear Advocates Say: In today's world any country that wants to develop a nuclear weapon can do so with or without a commercial 
n uclear power industry. Thus far, nations who have developed nuclear weapons have done so by easier and faster means than processing 

fuei from a commercial reactor. Participation in international agreements and having adequate amounts of energy available for economic 
growth are the only ways of reducing the spread of nuclear weapons, 

Nuclear Adversaries Say: The spread of commercial nuclear power technology can only lead to more countries developing nuclear 
weapons. Due to the proliferation of atomic reactors, about 30 countries have plutonium that could be used in bombs. Half of those 
countries have refused to sign the 1970 International Treaty on Non-Proliferation, thus exempting them from even the limited oversiqht of 
the IAEA. 17 

In addition to the major issues, some other issues that energy educators should be aware of which often become part of the nuctear 
debate include nuclear reactor siting, Price-Anderson Act,' 6 terrorism, decommissioning of nuclear reactors, availability of uranium 
supplies, transportation of nuclear materials, breeder reactors, licensing and regulation of nuclear power plants and other nuclear 
facilities, morality of nuclear power, "hard" versus "soft" energy technologies and issues of importance to the local community. 

Classroom Resources 

In developing a strategy for presenting these nuclear issues in the classroom there are a variety of available resource that the classroom 
teacher can use. These resources vary from a one year course on nuclear science 19 to classes designed by other teachers, such as 
debates, 20 simulations, 21 creative dramatics, 22 and others. 23 This points to the important role the teacher must play in this entire process, 
including other people who impact on him or her at different stages of that role such as, teacher-educators, administration, support 
supervisory people, print and non-print producers/publishers of resource materials, inservice training personnel, teacher-peers, parents 
and the students. It is the teacher who will really make the difference in students, "who are for any one year most dependent on what that 
teacher believes, knows, and does — and doesn't believe, doesn't know, and doesn't do. For essentially all... .learned in the school, the 
teacher is the enabler, the inspiration, and the constraint, " 24 

1 What are the Needs the PreCollege Science, Math, and Social Science? Views from the Field, National Science Foundation: Office of 
Program Integration, Washington, D.C., Vol, 8, SE 80-9, 1980. 

2 Reference 1, p. 68. 

3 Reference 1, p. 59. 

4 Reference 1, p. 66. 

5 Reference 1, p. 8. 

fi Reference 1, p. 128. 



55 



' Reference 1, pp. 68, 69, 130. 

3 Audrey Champagne and Leo E. Klopfer, In Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Conference, Council for Educational Development and 
Research (U.S. Dept. of Energy, Technical Information Office, 1977) p. 182-183, 

9 The Effects on Populations of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation; 7900 (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1980), p. 
1. 

<n a review of logical fallacies contained in an introductory text on logic will be extremely helpful in analyzing arguments on the nuclear 
issues, such as, I.M. Copi, Introduction to Logic, 3rd ed„ (Macmiilan, New York, 1969). 

" Nuciear Power Issues and Choices, Report of the Nuclear Energy Policy Study Group {Ballinger, Cambridge, 1977) p. 1. 

12 For purposes of this discussion in this paper, a format of a statement of the issue followed by advocates' arguments and then 
adversaries' arguments has been arbitrarily established with no intent to make either set of arguments more favorable by its order in the 
paper. 

,a Nuclear advocate arguments can be found in a variety of books and articles, for example, F, Hoyle and G. Hoyle, Common sense in 
Nuclear Energy (Freeman, San Francisco, 1980). 

u "Reactor Safety Study: An Assessment of Accident Risks in U.S. Commercial Nuciear Power Plants," 9 Vols., U.S. NRC Report, 
WASH-1400, NUREG-75/014, October, 1975. 

,s Nuclear adversary arguments can be found in a variety of books and articles, for example, A. Gyorgy, No Nukes: Everyone's Guide to 
Nuclear Power (South End Press, Boston, 1979). 

,s Reference 15, p, 115. 

,r International Atomic Energy Agency, 

18 When nuclear power began to emerge in the U.S., Congress was concerned with providing insurance protection to the public and 
limiting the liability of the nuclear industry in the event of a major nuclear accident To accomplish these purposes, the Price-Anderson 
Act was enacted in 1957 and renewed for the second time in 1976. 

19 See, for example, Nuclear Science (Pennsylvania Department of Education, 1977). 

20 See, forexample, P.B. Hounshell and G.M.Madrazo, Jr., "Debates: Verbal Encounters in the ScienceClassroom," School Sci and Math 
79 (8), 690-94 (1979). 

21 See, for example, P, Maxey f "Teaching About Nuclear Power: A Simulation" Soc Stud Rev 19 (2), 43-46 (1980). 

» See, for example, I. Blair-Clough and B. Wheeler, "in the Shadow of Three Mile Island." Instructor 89 (2), 115-16, 118, 120 (1979). 
23 See for example, R.Parker, "Radiation and the Environment: A Relevant Course on a Topical Subject," J. Chem. Ed, 54 (7) 435 (1977). 
w Reference 1, p. 63. g q 

USING ISSUES RELATED TO THE ENERGY SOURCE NATURAL GAS 
AS ENRICHMENT FOR SECONDARY MATHEMATICS 

Joseph Fishman 

Professor of Education 

College of Staten Island 

395 Riverside Drive 

Abstract NY, NY 10025 

The following discussion and set of problems are apart of an extensive study of natural gas —from the well to the consumer. Even this 
section is necessarily greatly reduced, but it should provide the reader with a sense of the genera) approach. Each aspect of the 
investigation is introduced with a brief description of the relevant issues and controversies, followed by a sequence of mathematical 
problems which should lead to some analytic conclusions. 

Controversy Over the Danger of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) 

There is a national debate over the potential dangers of LNG which parallels (although on a much smaller scale) the controversy over the 
hazards of atomic power generation, industry proponents don't deny that LNG, if not handled properly, can cause a catastrophic 
accident, but they express confidence that they can deal with any problems that might lead to such an accident. People living near LNG 
tanks and shipping terminals have nevertheless expressed great fear of the potential dangers of these facilites and, in some communities, 
have engaged fn resistance to their continued presence. Two accidents have heightened the apprehensions of an increasing number of 
people who live close to LNG storage and processing plants. 

An accident in the liquefaction, storage and regasification plant of the East Ohio Gas Co. occurred on October 20, 1 944. The fires and 
explosions of this disaster killed 130 persons and injured 222 more. The repercussions were so great that it was not until the mid 1960's 
that utilities again began using LNG. Another tragic accident occurred many years later, on February 10, 1973, when an LNG tank on 
Staten Island, New York, blew up, killing 40 workmen on a repair crew. 

The Cleveland accident has been described in a comprehensive study of the many serious technical problems realted to the LNG 
industry: the Report to the Congress, Liquefied Energy Gases Safety, by the Comptroller General of the United States and the General 
Accounting Office (GAO) (July 1978). This three volume analysis concludes that LNG used as an energy souce is potentially so 
dangerous that its storage and transportation should be restricted, if possible, to remote, unpopulated areas. Asserting that a liquefied 
gas spill in a densely populated area would be acatastrophe, the GAO urged new federal policies that would ban the expansion of current 
liquefied gas facilities in urban areas, 

56 



Gas utility engineers, in response to the GAO report, claim that the Cleveland accident could not recur with current technology. They 
assert that LNG had an excellent worldwide safety record. Over one hundred LN G installations are operating throughout the world. More 
than eighty-five are operating safely in the United States. This safety record is maintained, they claim, by taking every precaution against 
any possible danger to the public, The GAO report has been attacked by Federal agencies (e.g. Department of Commerce and 
Department of Energy), as well as by the gas industry, as being misleading and a highly imaginative and alarmist compendium of potential 
disasters, rather than a dispassionate review of their actual probability or occurrence, 

The GAO's response to the utility engineers is that although LNG technology has changed since 1944, it has not changed radically. The 
report asserts that the people who planned, built, and operated the Cleveland facility were trained, experienced, and reputable. They 
believed their plant was safe enough to be located in populated areas. In response to other Federal agency criticisms the GAO contends 
that they have approved LNG development without adequately assessing the hazards of LNG shipping and storage. Safety issues, the 
GAO claims, have often been overshadowed by economic considerations. 

In an attempt to bring to market some of the large amounts of natural gas now flared and wasted in the Middle East and elsewhere, 
increasing use of tankers that transport gas in liquefield form is likely, These sophisticated tankers are cryogenic — or low temperature — 
containers. They are sturdy enough to resist impact, double-bottomed, and protected by several layers of linings around the hull. Fourto 
six separate tanks insulated by special materials sit on top of the hull, forming an elaborate system of tanks, barriers, and linings which 
ideally are protected from possible leaks. 

A great deal of research has been done to minimize the danger. Nevertheless, LNG tankers create much concern when they approach 

their ports. A New York Times reporter describes the great precaution taken at one port: 

Every few weeks an unusual ritual takes place in Boston Harbor. As Coast Guard craft scuttle about like sheep dogs, herding other harbor 

traffic aside, a tank ship from Algeria moves slowly up the channel to a pier at Everett. Other vessels are kept clear of her course for two 

miles ahead and a mile astern, as if the ship were laden with explosives. (1) 

If utility companies have their way, the cautious docking procedures found only in Boston in 1976 wit! be regularly emulated at many 

United States ports, including New York. 



Problems 

1. Once released from its frigid storage (-260° F), LNG would quickly revert to a highly volatile gaseous form. LNG is so much colder than 
the surrounding air or earth or water that it immediately begins to vaporize, and, at an extraordinarily rapid rate, all the liquid will be gone. 
The resulting LNG cloud will hug the ground and roll out horizontally in all directions, far too cold and too dense to rise away into the 
atmosphere, as gas will do at normal temperatures. The gas cloud will continue to expand in size as it gradually warms up, mixes with air 
and blows downwind, lengthening out into a plume. It is one of the strange yet dangerous paradoxes of LNG that the initial freezing cold 
gas cloud is not flammable -it is too "rich" to burn, Only when the vapor has mixed with the air around it at proportions of 5 to 15 percent 
gas to air will it leap into flames If ingited. Any materials in its path are vulnerable. 

Due to its slow evaporation rate, LNG does not suddenly ignite or explode. If the plume catches fire, it instead becomes a "lazy flame," 
slowly working its way back to the ignition source — e,g„ the burning ship. 

Industry spokesmen and some authorities, including experts at the Environmental Protection Agency, contend that such an occurrence 
is extremely remote. Other scientists, however, warn that LNG has the potential for causing massive holocausts, threatening in particular 
the densely populated areas surrounding ports. 

a. One cubic meter of LNG makes approximately 420,000 cubic feet of a highly combustible mixture of gas and air. Show the calculations 
for this equivalence. (Three ratios are involved here: 1) the volume of LNG to the volume of natural gas; 1/600; 2) cubic meters to cubic 
feet: 1/35.314; 3) volume of gas to air in a flammable cloud: 5 to 15/100) 

b. Forty cubic meters of LNG vaporized and mixed with air in flammable proportions could fill 110 miles of a6-foot diameter sewer line, or 
15 miles of a 16-foot diameter subway system. Check the calculations and discuss the statement, 

c. For a 25,000 cubic meter spill, a staggering number of cubic feet of flammable gas mixture would be formed. 

d. What about a really big LNG spill? Suppose, for example, that 100,000 cubic meters of liquefied gas (four fifths the amount carried on 
today's LNG supertankers) should spill into water? Discuss the volume of combustible mixture of gas and air and the potential disaster. 
(Such spills are highly unlikely but estimates like this underline the exceptional dangers which may be presented by the ever-larger LNG 
ships). 

e. Find out if your community is in the danger zone of the "downing plume" which could emanate from the LNG tank or tanker, Invite 
speakers from industry and environmental organizations to discuss the major issues related to LNG. 

2. LNG ships are built up to a thousand feet long, with cargo tanks over one hundred feet tall. They are fine-tuned, down to the tiniest 
detail, like a spaceship. Cargo tank sections are precision made, deviating from one another by the smallest of margins; all parts and 
instruments must be delicately designed and constructed so that they can expand and contract without jamming, splitting, or cracking, as 
the ship is unloaded and loaded. 

LNG ship owners and operators are fully aware how vulnerable these ships can be in an accident, and a great deal of research has been 
done to minimize the problem. Nevertheless, danger still remains: a large spill could result if an LNG ships was struck by a sufficiently 
large vessel; or if there was sabotage; or if in the process of loading and unloading the liquefied gas an accident occurred as a result of 
human error. What would follow could be devastating. 

a. The diameter of one of the aluminum spherical containers in an LNG tanker is 1 20 feet. How many cubic meters can be contained in 
each container? If a tanker carries 5 such containers, what is the total cubic meters of LNG contained in this tanker? This is equivalent to 
how many cubic feet of natural gas? This LNG tanker is carrying energy equivalent to 600 similar sized ships carrying natural gas!) 

b. A typical ship with a capacity of 1 25,000 cubic meters of LNG is.approximately 930 feet long (approximately the length of three football 
fields), with a beam (width) of 1 40 feet, a draft (under water) of 36 feet, an d a freeboard (above water) of 50 feet. Calculate the difference 
between the tanker's total capacity and capacity for LNG. 

c. A ship carrying natural gas with the equivalent energy carried by the ship discussed in the previous problem, would have to have the 
following dimensions: 109 miles tong, 1514 miles in the beam and a draft of 4 miles, Calculate the capacity of this fictitious natural gas 
tanker and compare it with the actual LNG tanker, 

d. At least one supertanker will have a capacity of 165,000 cubic meters— enough liquid to cover a football field to a depth of over 120 feet 
(some 12 stories high). Show the calculations for this equivalence. 



57 



3. in the past decade LNG carriers have mushroomed in both number and size. As late as mid-1 969. only three LNG shiDs were in world 
service. Now there are isomeSOships in service. Throughoutthesixties and the early seventies, the averaesizeLNGshiDcouldholdabout 
30.000cubic meters of Mquified gas; by the lateseventies this figure almost trippled. with the standardsize SngtaiKCtoa^go 

capacity of 125 - 130,000 cubic meters. * y we,ua ' y u 

a. For the years 1964 to 1979, find the rate of growth fn the number of LNG ships in worfd service 

b. Find the rate of growth in the total capacity of these ships. 

c. Assuming a continuation of this rate of growth, what will be the number of LNG ships in service in 1985? What will be the potential total 

d. In the light of the previous discussion and problems, discuss the implications of such growth. 

Footnotes: 

(1) The New York Times, October 7, 1976, p. 1 

(2) Lee Niedringhaus Davis, Frozen Fire, (Friends of the Earth, San Francisco, 1979), p. 29 

(3) Frozen Fire, p. 48 

3.4 ^ - 

ENERGY AND SOCIETY: 
_ THE ROLE OF THE HUMANITIES 

IN ENERGY EDUCATION 

Gregory C. Watson 

The New Alchemy Institute 

237 Hatchville Road 

East Falmouth, Massachusetts 02536 

We have two means of bringing energy to use: by living things (plants, animals, our own bodies) and by tools (machines enerav- 

^ifw^ 

—Wendell Berry 

Background: 
• The New Alchemy Institute is a small non-profit organization dedicated to research and education. Our goal is to develop ecoloaical 
approaches to food, energy shelter, and community design. The strategies we research emphasize , m ISmal reHance on foss° fuels 
operate on a scale accessible to families and small enterprises, and do not disrupt natural ecosytems 

For more than a decade now New Alchemists have been designing, building, and testing food, energy, and shelter systems that deoend 
™: y °" l r ne Earth f renewable e ™W ""roes tor their functioning. We are working in the anSotag^ZT^^^i 
systems, solar design, tree crops, and computer modelling. Whenever possible, we try to integrate our designs into SnomST'eMHv 
™X b i e J° rmS ; We h assume that throu 9 h a sensi °'a carriage of some modern technologies and a 9 n Ecological S' f new 
generatbns * "^ ^ * dW,Md that "'" p6rmit a " ° f US t0 live comfort*ry today wUhoui ^KdSg'future 

^Ti^'^r h S appr ° acn t0 . design adopts a conceptual framework different from that used in traditional science Traditional science 

Means of biological productivity and ecoystem structure and function can provide a model applicable to technoloqical develoo- 
hZ L S J k T "T 3re , ° Und Within or 9 anelles ' cel '«. organs, organisms, ecosystems, and the b owXre ^ These sy^ 

f?fS r port°t d hat Zend" Zn toUSZZT. ^T^ ^ Way " ' nStead they are based 0n hi ^ centralized ™« inflexible systems of 
oSIr KnSton continuous input and consumption of large amounts of the Earth's nonrenewable energy "capital" in 

^^t^toZ^^l^^T Pl n nni ?, iS ° Ur PerCeiVed ener9V " Crisis -" When human institutions are faced with events its 

veTcalfyTt^ 

mS^Stt^^X^^^r' dl f ibu , tes ' and markets a truly prodigious amount of food each year. However £e 

aSnTs^n^^ 

^^^^^M^ToT^a^T^ bV > the "V!™? eC ° n0my iS US6d bV ^"culture.' In addition. American agriculture 
into Bgri™tonb\n&^rt£j^W, * . ^ ^'^J* f °° d energy il P roduces - Furthermore, a great deal of the energy pumped 
environment pose a JreaUo t^lZlll ^ pe f stlcides ' and herbicides. The repeated introduction of these chemicals into the 
n pose a tt1reat to ,he health of our ecosystems and to all the organisms supported by them. 



58 



Ecology instructs us to pay attention to structure. Adopting an ecological perspective helps us discover natural cycles and patterns of 
energy flow. When energy issues are addressed from within this conceptual framework, we are guided by a new set of values toward 
strategies that impound, conserve, and recycle renewable forms of energy and to the creation of energy systems and societies that are 
sustainable — that endure because their designs are based on adaptive biological principles of co-evolution and seff organization. This 
approach to problem solving suggests that it is possible to design environments that are sensitive to the needs of both the biosphere and 
society. 

New Alchemy's bioshetters embody these ecological design principles. Bioshelters are solar heated buildings that link a variety of 
biological components in new, food producing ecosystems. Inside our Cape Cod bioshelter called the "Ark" we use fourteen fiberglass 
cylinders called solar algae ponds to collect, store, and release most of the heat required by the 1,950 square-foot green house/fish farm, 
Each solar algae pond measures five feet in height and diameter and is filled with about 650 gallons of water. The heat released over the 
Cape's 150-day heating season by each pond is equivalent to the heat released by burning 30 gallons of home heating oil. Moreover, each 
pond also functions as an aquatic ecosystem, Their design for optimizing the entry of solar energy also maximizes their potential for 
biological production. 4 Fish production inside each pond ranges from between 35 to 50 pounds per pond per year, The fish [Tilapia) are 
raised as a source of protein for human consumption, 

Our bioshelters link agriculture, aquaculture, and passive solar design in a way that optimizes their relationships. Our attempt is to 
replicate natural ecosystems as best we can. The fish systems provide i rrigation water and nutrients to the crops. The w eeds, cuttings and 
other agricultural by-products are in turn fed to the fish. 

As users we can preserve energy in cycles of use, passing it again and again through the same series of forms or we can waste it by using it 
once in a way that makes it irrecoverable. 5 

All this suggests that the decisions that society must make with regard to energy use are not all of a purely technical nature. Our energy 

policies will also reflect our values. We should be clear as to just what those values are. The manner in which we choose to approach 

energy issues will say a lot about how we choose to relate to one another and to our environment. Therefore, energy education programs 

must stress more than just the scientific side of the energy question. 

We must integrate the humanities into our energy curricula so that individuals will be ex posed to the ideas and philosophies that will help 

prepare them to deal with the difficult social and ethical questions related to energy use. 

....before we choose our tools and techniques we must choose our dreams and values, for some technologies serve them, while others 

make them unobtainable, 6 

If our goal is to discover educational strategies and programs that will enable members of society to make intelligent decisions about 
personal and global energy matters, we must begin by acknowledging the need for a more holistic understanding of the dynamic 
interplay between the ethosphere and biosphere, 

There is, however, a genuine crisis within our institutions of learning that threatens to make this goal more difficult to achieve than one 
might expect. Recent attacks (by parents, teachers, and civic leaders) against the teaching of "secu lar humanism" in our public schools is 
at the crux of this matter. 

Humanism is a philosophy of teaching that encourages free thought and scientific inquiry without deference to a supreme being or any 
absolute standard of ethics. 

Humanism acknowleges no sacred cows, It calls everything to question — God, law, country, tradition — nothing is exempt, When 
undertaken in a responsible way, this kind of teaching can be extremely creative and constructive. However, a growing number of 
individuals throughout the country believe that the teaching of secular humanism is the source of most of society's current woes. They 
see humanism breeding irreverence, disloyalty, and sacrilege, Theseopponents of humanism are demanding that its books and curricula 
be purged from their school systems, They are specifically aksing for u history texts that emphasize the positive side of America's past, 
economics courses that stress the strengths of capitalism and literature that avoids divorce, suicide, drug addiction, and other harsh 
realities of life." (N.Y. Times/May 17, 1981), 

We cannot ignore the connections between the "harsh realities of life" (which also includes war, racism, sexism, and other forms of 
oppression) and the technologies that play a major role in determining the structure of society. Nor can we as educators eliminate these 
painful realities from our curricula until they are first eliminated from society. If we become censors it will be at the expense of our 
integrity. 

Science is not value free. Since there is no empirical test for values, science teachers must look to the humanities for help in grappling with 
all of the implications (social, political, philosophical, ecological) of our technological responses to society's energy problems. 
The New Alchemists have accepted these educational challenges and are addressing them in a number of ways. We offer guided tours of 
our twelve-acre research facility, courses, workshops, day-long public education programs and a variety of publications. Our two most 
ambitious educational projects to date are our high schools Design Science Curriculum an dour involvement in The Cape and Islands Self 
Reliance Corporation. 

The Curriculum 

We are in the process of developing a high school curriculum that describes the philosphy and principles of the Design Science approach 
to problem solving. Design Science recognizes that it is possible to meet the needs of human society and at the same time remain 
sensitivie to the needs of the biosphere that supports us. The goal of this project is to introduce students to the values and techniques 
inherent in the pursuit of ecologically derived forms of food, energy, and housing, and to develop confidence in their own problem solving 
skills. 

New Alchemy's Design Science Curriculum will be both interdisciplinary (bringing together a number of sciences to stress the 
importance of discovering the relationships between energy use, food production, architecture, ecology and social organization), and 
multidisciplinary (drawing on such disciplines as history, political science, anthropology and literature to create cultural and social 
contexts for teachers and students) in its approach. In addition to a lesson pian and course outline, it will suggest ideas for activities and 
projects that will help teachers and students discover how their individual and collective actions can effectively and humanely address 
global concerns such as energy and pollution. The format for each section of the curriculum will be designed to encourage students to 
"think globally" and "act locally." | 



59 



The curriculum will consist of four interrelated units: Systemsof Knowledge; TheEvolution of World Views: Principles of Design Science- 
and Appropriate Technology. The first two units rely heavily on the humanities to create theconceptual framework for the final two units' 
A more detailed description of each section follows. 

1 . Systems of Knowledge. What do we really know about the Universe, an d how do we know it? This unit will examine the different systems 
human cultures have devised for looking at and describing the world around them. The relationship between science philosophy and 
religion wilj be discussed in some detail, important epistemological concepts such as Gregory Bateson's "ecology of ideas" will be 
introduced. The objective of this unit is to demonstrate that although science provides the basis for Western civilization's world view 
other "ways of knowing" exist and should be respected. 

2. The Evolution of World Views. How do your students perceive the world? What influences these perceptions'? What do your students 
feei are the most important issues facing humanity today? Are these problems solvable or not? This unit will help students understand 
and express how they think the world works. It will also point out how humanity's world views have evolved over the centuries and how 
changing world views affect the way that we see and approach problems, 

3. Principfes of Design Science, This unit will begin with a brief history of science and the development of the scientific method It will 
contrast the differences between the ecological and mechanistic world views. It will conclude with a thorough discussion of Desian 
Science's holistic problem solving techniques. 

4. Appropriate Technology, The principles of design science are made manifest in their applications as appropriate technologies 
Appropriate technology is a small-scale local approach to a global problem. In this unit students will explore the strategies developed at 
New Alchemy and other appropriate technology organizations around the world that attempt to address the global problems food 
energy, and shelter. Particular attention will be paid to the relationships between society's various support systems. 

The curriculum package wilf be designed so that teachers will be able to integrate it into their existing lesson plans (by pullinq out 
individual units or sub-units), or use it as the basis for a semester long course. The entire package will consist of lesson plans teachers' 
guide (including evaluative tools/techniques), student hand-outs, and an annotated bibliography. Throughout the curriculum suooes- 
tions will be made on how some sections might be team-taught. ' y 

The Cape & Islands Self Reliance Corporation 

During thewinter of 1979, theNew Alchemists were contacted by the Community Action Committee (C.A.C ) of CapeCod and the Islands 
and asked to take part in the planning and implementation of a regional food and energy assistance agency for Cape Cod - The CaDe & 
Islands Self Reliance Corporation, K 

C.A C. is the Cape's local anti-poverty agency. Since its formation in 1965, it has consistently committed itself to organizing efforts 
centered around the needs and concerns of the Cape's low income residents. During the past ten years C.A.C. has been instrumental in 

helpingtobringaboutmaiorchangesintheareasofhousingandhealthcarefortheCape'spoor.Throughitswork.thestaffofCAC was 
made well aware of the heavy burden rising food and fuel costs were placing on the Cape's already beleagured elderly unemployed and 
underemployed. K 7 

Cape Cod and the Islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket rank at the top of Massachusetts' charts in both energy and food costs In 
many cases, famihes with annual incomes of less than $7,000 must spend as much as a quarter of those funds just to heat their homes in 
winter. Thousands of Cape residents are forced to apply for fuel assistance to meet their energy needs. 

While many government programs such as fuel assistance and food stamps help many families meet their fuel and foodexpenses they do 
virtually nothing to lessen the receipent's dependence of fossil fuels, agribusiness or future assistance. On the other hand the Self 
Reliance Corporation is designed to offer individuals and families opportunities to achieve some measure of self sufficiency in food and 

energy. 

t T h f l e ^fl°V he * Ca r & J slands S f ? elia ? ce Cor P° rati °n (hereafter referred to as Self Reliance) is to reduce the net export of funds from 
off* S« U™l«nt ^^T Jf ' n9in9 economical ' alternative food and fuel resources into every member's home. Self Reliance 
n lllJt ■ knowled9e ' and hardware necessary to premanentiy increase members' control over their food and energy supplies, while 
guaranteeing a measure of independence from escalating costs. 

fh» p 9 a en Jfu in a " have P°° led their expertise and resources to help make this happen. JoiningNewAlchemyandC.A.C. in thiseffortare 
SToun'r^ (KAC) = ^ Ener9y R6S0UrCe G ™> < ERG > * Martha ' s Vi ^ard; and the Wampanoag 

Membership in Self Reliance is open to all Cape residents, although our focus is on the needs of low-income consumers Self Reliance 
members: ' " '° Ski " S ^ ' ab ° r ' '" addi,i ° n ' When fU " y Sta " ed ' Se,f Reliance wi " 0,fer the ,0,l ™'5 »rvic« to £ 

a) A comprehensive home food and energy audit that will show: 
"where energy can be saved 

"how energy can be saved and what materials are needed 
"how and where food can be grown 
*how much each improvement will cost 

The audits provide the basis for members to begin their own home food and energy improvements. 

ft™!^^ and l0Cat ,oan/ 9^nt programs with money available for weatherization and other home energy 

improvements. Staff, will also provide assistance in preparing loan or grant applications. 

gardening, and construction and installation of low-cost solar devices. y 

SateriaTa^ *£T w ° rehou " or store throu 3 h which "embers will be able to purchase weatherization and building 

materials, gardening tools and supplies, and energy-saving products at reduced rates. 



60 



Members of the Cape and Island Self Reliance Corporation feel that the solutions to the Cape and Island's food an d energy problems will 
be found when we discover how to make the best use of our own human and renewable resources. 

Humanity is about to discover 
That whatever it needs to do 
And knows how to do 
It can always afford to do 
And that that in fact is only 
And all it can afford to do 

•— R, Buckminster Fuller 

Footnotes 

1. John Todd and Nancy Jack Todd, TOMORROW IS OUR PERMANENT ADDRESS (Harper Colophon, New York, 1980) p. 47 

2. Ronald D, Zweig, "Research Priorities To Integrate the NSF Appropriate Technology Program Into Mainstream Development" (Paper 
submitted to NSF sponsored workshop: Status of Research and Methods of Evaluation of Appropriate Technology of Environmental 
Interaction). 

3. Joan Melcher, CONNECTIONS: A CURRICULUM IN APPROPRIATETECHNOLOGY FOR FIFTH &SIXTH GRADES (National Center 
for Appropriate Technology, Butte, Montana, 1980) p. 66. 

4. Ronald D. Zweig, THE JOURNAL OF THE NEW ALCHEMISTS #6 (Stephen Greene Press, Brattleboro, Vermont 1980) p. 93. 

5. Wendell Berry, THE UNSETTLING OF AMERICA: CULTURE AND AGRICULTURE (Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, 1977) p. 81. 

6. Editors of RAIN, THE RAINBOOK (Schocken, New York, 1977) p. 1. 

3.5 

THE NEED OF A NEW DESIGN OF STRUCTURE OF EDUCATIONAL KNOWLEDGE FOR COPING WITH THE STUDY OF ENERGY 

AND ENVIRONMENT, 

Paolo Manzelli 
Chemical-Physics Institut-University of Florence. 

Consequently the general task of education is the compliance of culture with historical exigences. Culture means essentially the process 
of adaptation of thought to reality. 

Since the improvement of culture is easy measured by the ability to utilize energy for human needs of production, it is possible to find a 
direct relationship among the amount of 'energy' per capita (E), technological means (T) t and production of goods and services (P), and 
culture (C). In schematic'formula: 

E x T oc P + C 
(see: LA Withe-Energy and the evolution of culture-in: American Anthropologist 45 (3), 335-356, (1943). ) 

This schematic representation of interrelationships between energy sources and technology, in relation to the historical period of the 
industrial society, gives particular forms to the structure of production and culture, 

The reach of the maximum of productivity in correspondence with the possibility of increasing the energy input, generate particular types 
of social division of labour. 

The father of modern economy, Adam Smith, regarded improved division of social labour as the main cause of Increased productivity. 
Referring to a description of a needle's factory A. Smith describes the growing agility of the hands when the manual labour is dissociated 
from the mental one and subdivided into different types of simple manual actions, (see: Adam Smith - The wealth of nations- 
Harmandsworth-Perguin ( 1970) p. 110 ). 

In fact, with respect to the method of production of the handicraft, the historical tendence of the development of the factory system is 
towards a progressive "deskilling" of manual work, which becomes then, easily replaciable. 

To comply with this system of production and for ruling society and controlling production, became a need the grow of schoolingsystem 
that has two main functions: on the one side, to obtain an ideological acculturation of the people (general education), and, on the other 
side, training few people to take decision about production. 

Changes in technology of production (for instance, automation, electronic processing etc..) which produce different work exigences, 
increase the need of differentiation of intellectual competencies and therefore schooling must translate such requirements in terms of 
education and training. 

Since a functional schooling sistem reproduces, in term of instruction, the culture of the epoch, hence the cultural structure of this 
historical period in subdivided in specialisms that are necessary to follow the dynamical evolution of the factory system of production. 

Production, culture and technology, as a whole, grow through an unilinear type of developmental process that is associated with the 

necessity of a constant increase of energy input, mostly from not-renewable resources. 

The present energy crisis puts in clear evidence that this unilinear development has a physical limit of growth. 

When a specific mode of production reaches the limit of its development, a period of transition through a new modeof production begins. 

Since human thought is the guideline of human praxis, we note that in this period of transition between modes of production a cultural 

revolution occurs. 

As a matter of fact, before the crisis, culture, in general, follows the need of the evolution process; after, during the crisis, culture must be 

oriented to solve new problems of the transition society. 

Therefore the culture is no more only related to the old system of production but, instead, to the creative forecast of future developmental 

processes, (see: -No limits to learning- by: The club of Rome-Pergamon Press Ldt. Oxford- (1979).) 

Appropriate education is the precondition for being able to work and live in the society. In consequence inthe present transition period 
towards different modes of production, the. conservative educational system is no longer adequate and a revolutionary theory of 

61 



education, oriented to understand and solve problems characteristic of a post-industrial society is mandatory. 
To day we are urged to solve simultaneously serious problems, as the utilizatfon of renewable resources of energy an d the production of 
new appropriate technologies, various social and economic problems, e.g. unemployment, tnfiaction, and other environmental effects. 
It is easy to understand that all those problems, which deserve an alternative mode of production for solution, are global-problems. 
The traditional science organized on the basis of various fragmented disciplines, generally does not give a coherent vision on topics of 
contemporary relevance and utility, therefore for obtaining an educational finalization of knowledge, for understanding and solving 
global problems, it is necessary to propose an alternative structure of educational knowledge. 

From the last observation it is emerging that one of the basic difficulties that arises against the innovation of a new education, aimed to 
give the cognitive precondition for understanding global problems, is due to the historical structure and organization of knowledge. 
As a matter of fact this is subdivided into academic disciplines and organized in a solid framework of social institutions of traditional 
culture (schooling and research system), which, due to their deep specialization, are not able to face global problems. 

Another very big question is correlated with the successive need of solving (and not only understanding) contemporary problems, like 

energy, raw materials, alimentation, pollution and so on. 

For solving those problems at first it is necessary to grow up a new mentality that correspond to reverse the historical tendencey of 

"deskilling" manual work. .,_,... «, ,. 

In this case is needed a very deep changeof the social function of schooling that up to now acted to reproduce the social division of labour 

into study and work. t 

Hence an integration of disciplines finalzed to understand global problems, and a process of growing a permanent educational system 

for workers are the fundamental needs of schooling transformation. 

In this general perspective a change in the curriculum so to obtain an appropriated understanding of energy problems (with the aim to 
help in solving the global problem connected with the energy crisis) is presently very hard. 

In spite of this difficulties, reaching a new link between the structure of educational knowledge and contemporary developmental 
environment, is a theme of vital importance. 



62 



SESSION 4: GENERAL INTERDISCIPLINARY COURSES 

4.1 

ENERGY PERSPECTIVES IN COLLEGE EDUCATION 

R.D. Bowman 
Department of Natural Sciences, University of North Florida, 
Jacksonville, Florida, 32216, USA 
Abstract 

The relatively new field of energy ed ucation presents balanced perspectives of major energy issues and in so doing, prepares students for 
making informed decisions on personal and societal energy matters. A one quarter course at the University of North Florida emphasizes 
the principles of thermodynamics and net energy, the economic and energy efficiencies of food production technologies, present energy 
problems, conservation philosophies and future energy scenarios. Classroom discussions include controversial subjects such as nuclear 
safety, environmental effects of energy production, public energy policy and lifestyle versus standard of living adjustments. Students 
complete research projects oriented toward a local or regional energy matter of current or imminent significance. 

As part of an innovative science education program for liberal arts students, the Department of Natural Science at the University of North 
Florida offers a one quarter course entitled, "Energy: Past, Present and Future," The course is designed to satisfy a science requirement 
for nonscience majors working toward a Bachelor of Arts degree. The objectives of the course are; 

* to familiarize students with essential facts and scientific principles which are relevant to the production, conversion and utilization of 
energy, 

* to convey balanced perspectives of major energy issues, 

* to provide a background of information on which students can base decisions on personal and societal energy matters, 

* and to stimulate students to read energy related resource material. 

This course begins with a presentation of the evolution of the universe from its fiery beginning as a single "cosmic egg" with an energy 
density over 40 billion times that of water' to its present mass and gravitational energy dominated system of galaxies, interstellar material 
and space. Discussions of mass and energy interconversion, conservation of angular momentum, mass recycling and unidirectional 
energy flows provide a context for the examination of mathematical relationships between energy and other physical quantities such as 
light frequency, mass, velocity, etc, Thediscussionsalso put the Arab oil embargo, escalating gasoline prices and high electric bills into 
the background (temporarily) in comparison with the power and grandeur of worlds developing and dying. 

The laws of thermodynamics are introduced without recourse to mathematical formalism in order that their meaning can be explored in 
the context of common experience. Later, at an appropriate time, fundamental equations are presented to show the relations between 
energy, heat, work, enthalpy, entropy and free energy. Some convenient introductory statements of the first and second thermodynamic 
laws are: 2 

First Law 

* The quantity of mass/energy in the universe is constant. 

* Energy is neither created nor destroyed in a nonnuclear process. 

* Perpetual motion machines of the first kind are impossible. 

Second Law 

* Energy generally degrades from a "high" form to a "low" form spontaneously but not the reverse. (For a hierarchy of energy forms, see 
reference 3,) 

" Perpetual motion machines of the second kind are impossible, 

* The entropy of the universe increases in a spontaneous process. 

A description of perpetual motion machines of the second kind requires the definition of energy conversion efficiency and offers an 
opportunity to compare the efficiencies of various natural and man-made conversion systems. 

Armed with these fundamental concepts of energy conservation and conversion, the course turns to the subject of human energy 
consumption. Using the energy language developed by H.T. Odum, 4 energy flows of the major energy producing technologies are 
compared including their developmental and feedback energy costs. This perspective emphasizes the net energy return from each 
technology or system. 

An historical perspective of food production in the modem world is developed by tracing man's agricultural history from hunting- 
gathering days to the present 5 - 7 and by comparing natural ecosystems with modern agriculture (Table 1). Trends in relations between 
energy inputs to U.S. agriculture and output parameters suggest no more major production jumps for the U.S., and hard times for energy 
poor third world countries. 6 ~ a Analysis of energy inputs to the American food system shows that primary food production energy costs 
are a small part of U.S. energy expenditure (3-4%), 9 - ,Q but that food processing, packaging, distributing, marketing and preparing energy 
costs are four to five times larger. 9 The proposal that Americans eat lower on the food chain is presented in the context of saving energy, 
saving money, and perhaps improving diet quality." 

A fundamental service which energy educators can provide is to construct for their students a realistic perspective of their energy future. 
Although the popular media now recognize the reality of present U.S. energy problems, they usually fail to provide a balanced view of 
what the energy situation will be like for the next 30 years, As a result, students often ask questions of the type, ,l lf we can go to the moon, 
why can't we have a solar economy by theyear 2000?" There are a variety of publications which gtvegood summaries of 20th century and 
early 21st century energy supply and demand patterns 13 - 16 and of the breadth of options available to the United States for the next 30 
years. 14 -™ Some of the important conclusions to draw from such material are: 

(1) Although the long term energy supply situation looks quite favorable, in the short term there are likely to be economic and 
social shocks stimulated by energy problems. 

(2) While the development of coal and nuclear power will dominate the U.S. national energy picture in the near future, other low 



63 



technology energy sources can make highly significant impacts at personal levels. 

(3) Estimates of finite resources lifetimes should be made using roughly bell-shaped resource production curves "V : V ! -' rather 
than straight lines or exponential curves.' 3 

(4) The length of time required for a new technology to make a significant economic impact (much less play a dominant role) is 
30-40 years. 20 

(5) We live in a transitory time, the Epoch of Fossil Fuels, which even by human time scales is quite short. 

(6) The fact that the earth now offers a large amount of energy in a readily useable form (fossil fuels) can be viewed as an 
opportunity for human industrial and technical evolution to the age of sustainable energy resources (breeder reactors, solar 
power, geothermal energy and nuclear fusion), 

(7) A good argument for the maintenance of highly industrialized and moderately energy intensive societies is that only they can 
develop the technical expertise required to provide mankind with an energy rich future. 



Because our energy course is designed to satisfy a science requirement for liberal arts students, a substantial portion of the term dwells 
on the technologies of producing and consuming energy. 22 , SA - 26 Included in the discussionsare topics such as the chemistry of fossil fuel 
combustion, the physical and chemical processes of crude oil refinement, the chemical processes of coal gasification, radioactivity, 
nuclear fission and nuclear power plant design. The latter is examined closely in a discussion of the Three Mile Island accident. 27 

As appropriate* the environmental effects of each technology are discussed VVV 9 including thermal pollution, air pollution from 
fossil-fuel utilization, nuclear waste generation and disposal alternatives, and local and global climate alterations. 

Perhaps the most popular section of our course deals with the technologies and the economics of renewable energy sources, Even 
though most students are convinced by the foregoing discussions that these inherently appealing sources of energy will havea relatively 
small national impact in their lifetimes (the average student age at UNF is 30 years), they are nevertheless enthusiastic about personal 
scale applications and large scale research and development for the benefit of future generations. 

The discussion begins with an examination of the total energy flux to the earth 30 of which, only solar and tidal energies are renewable. 
Geothermal or terrestrial energy is included in the discussion since its expected lifetime is so long. The treatment of solar energy is 
divided into two sections: 

A. Direct radiation capture by human technology: space heating and cooling, water heating, thermal conversion to electricity and 
photovoltaics, 

B. Capture of solar radiation by natural systems followed by human conversion: wind power, hydroelectricity, ocean thermal 
gradients and biomass. 



The magnitude and characteristics of the solar resource and the design features of passive and active systems 3 \ 32 are presented in 
consideration of their suitability to Florida's lattitude and climate. The economics of solar applications are an important part of the 
discussions and are explored in depth by later presentations (below). 

In the post oil embargo years, American quickly realized the immense potential for energy conservation through eliminating wasteful 
habits, replacing inefficient machines and processes with more efficient ones, incorporating energy saving technologies and manage- 
ment systems and shifting from energy-intensive activities to iess energy-consuming ones. Phrases such as, "Six per cent of the world's 
population uses thirty per cent of the world's energy" and, "Americans waste more energy than they use" must be tempered by the 
perspective that until recently, energy was inexpensive and getting more so. Now that this trend has reversed, a discussion of the price 
elasticity of energy demand 33 helps students learn how flexible the U.S. economy is in the short and long terms. Short term estimates of 
the total potential for conservation are around 10% t while long term estimates are more in the neighborhood of 40-50%, 35 , 36 Some useful 
conclusions to draw from energy conservation discussions are: 

* Many energy conservation techniques use simple, low technological methods 37 

* Three inputs to the economy which can be substituted for one another are energy, capital, and labor. Their relative costs help 
determine their optimal distribution. 

* There are no firm correlations between national energy consumption and gross national product 39 

* A reduction in personal energy consumption does not necessarily require a reduction in living standards. 40 

Toward the end of the term, students present summaries of individual research projects to the rest of the class, The topics focus on energy 
matters of current or imminent significance. Examples of project titles selected by students are: 

The Economics of Gasohol 

Floating Nuclear Power Plants 

The Energy Cost of Pollution 

Sofar Home Economics 

Energy Efficient Building Construction Techniques 

The Third World and the Energy Crunch 

The Geopolitics of Energy 

Personal Energy Independence 

Our course has been favorably received by students and usually fills early in the registration period. A typical students reaction toward the 
end of the term is "Why didn't somebody teil me thisbefore? M Onestudent remarked that she thought such acourse should be required of 
all B,A. graduates. While her opinion may be extreme, other Florida educators also reported enthusiastic student responses at recent 
energy education conferences in Orlando and Tampa. 



64 



Table t 
Attributes of Natural Ecosystems, and Modern Agriculture 



Natural Ecosystems 



Modern Agriculture 



Large diversity of organisms 
Large genetic diversity for any 

single species 
Stable communities 
Active competition for 

nutrients and energy 
Natural energy inputs only 
Slow growth rates 
Low yield 



Low diversity of organisms 
Low genetic diversity for any 

single species 
Unstable communities 
Suppressed competition for 

nutrients and energy 
Energy inputs supplemented 

by human activity 
Fast growth rates 
High yield 



Acknowledgements 

Dr. EA Healy provided valuable assistance in the development of this course and made helpful suggestions on the manuscript Dean 

W.O. Ash is responsible for creating an academic environment in which innovative science courses such as this one could be offered at 

UNF. 

Footnotes 

' S. Weinberg, THE FIRST THREE MINUTES, A MODERN VIEW OF THE ORIGIN OF THE UNIVERSE (Basic Books, New York, 1977). 

2 G.C. Pimental, UNDERSTANDING CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS (Holden-Day, San Francisco, 1970). 

3 F.J. Dyson, in ENERGY AND POWER (Freeman, San Francisco, 1972), p. 19. 

4 H.T. and E.G. Odum, ENERGY BASIS FOR MAN AND NATURE, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1981). 

5 E. Cook f reference 3 1 p. 83. 

« C,E. and J.S. Steinhart, ENERGY: SOURCES, USE AND ROLE IN HUMAN AFFAIRS (Duxbury, North Scituate, MA, 1974). 
7 J. Payen, HISTORY OF ENERGY trans, by J.White (Leisure Arts Ltd., London, 1966). 
a G. Borgstrom, THE FOOD AND PEOPLE DILEMMA (Duxbury, North Scituate, MA, 1973). 

9 E. Hirst, Science 184, 134 (1974). 

10 G.H. Heichel, Technology Review 76, 18 (1974). 

11 F.M. Lappe DIET FOR A SMALL PLANET (Balfentine, New York, 1971). 

12 Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, U NDERSTANDING THE NATIONAL M ENERGY DILEMMA" {U.S. Government, Washington, D.C.. 
1973). 

13 National Research Council Committee on Mineral Resources and the Environment, MINERAL RESOURCES AND THE ENVIRON- 
MENT. (Nat. Acad, of Sci M Washington, D.C., 1975). 

14 National Academy of Sciences Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems, ENERGY IN TRANSITION 1985-2010 
(Freeman, San Francisco, 1980). 

15 A. Schmalz, editor, ENERGY: TODAY'S CHOICES, TOMORROW'S OPPORTUNITIES (World Future Society, Washington, D.C., 1974). 
16 R,C. Dorf. ENERGY, RESOURCES, AND POLICY (Adison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1978). 

17 Ford Foundation, A TIME TO CHOOSE AMERICA'S ENERGY FUTURE. {Ballinger, Cambridge, MA 1974). 

,a W. Sassin, Sci. Am. 242, 119 (1980). 

' 9 Exxon Co., ENERGY OUTLOOK 1979-1990 (1978). Available from Exxon Public Affairs Department, P.O. Box 2180, Houston, TX 77001. 

20 Electric Power Research Institute, OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY, 1981-85 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM PLAN, 
Executive Summary (1980). Available from EPRI, 3412 Hitlview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94303. 

21 M.K. Hubbert, in RESOURCES AND MAN {Freeman, San Francisco, 1969), p. 157. 



65 



J; J.H. Krenz, ENERGY CONVERSION AND UTILIZATION (Allyn and Bacon, Boston, 1976). 

» A.A. Bartlett, Am. J. Phys. 46, 876 (1978). 

M J. Priest, ENERGY FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1975). 

" A.L. Hammond, W.D. Metz, and T.H. Maugh, ENERGY AND THE FUTURE (Am. Assn. Adv. Scr., Washington, D.C., 1973). 

36 H.S. Stoker. S.L. Seager, and R.L. Capener, ENERGY FROM SOURCE TO USE (Scott Foresman, Glenview, IL, 1975). 

i7 J.G, Kemeny, REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT'S COMMfSSlON ON THE ACCIDENT AT THREE MILE ISLAND (US. Government, 

Washington, D.C., 1979). 

2B R. Wilson and W.J. Jones, ENERGY, ECOLOGY, AND THE ENVIRONMENT (Academic Press, New York, 1974). 

29 G.T. Miller, Jr., ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT, 2nd ed. (Wadsworth, Belmont, CA, 1980). 

30 M.K. Hubbert, reference 3, p, 32. 

31 A.B. and M.P, MeineJ. APPLIED SOLAR ENERGY - AN INTRODUCTION (Addison-Wesley r Reading, MA, 1976). 

32 D.K. McDaniels, THE SUN: OUR FUTURE ENERGY SOURCE (Wiley, New York, 1979), 

33 R.S. Pindyck, in EN ERGY CONSERVATION AN D PUBLIC POLICY, edited by J.C. Sawhill (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 1 979), 
p. 22. 

34 J.M. Griffin and H.B. Steele, ENERGY ECONOMICS AND POLICY (Academic Press, New York, 1980). 

35 P.H, Abelson, editor, ENERGY: USE, CONSERVATION AND SUPPLY (Am. Assn. Adv. Sci., Washington, D.C.. 1974). 

36 Office of Emergency Preparedness, Executive Office of the President, THE POTENTIAL FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION (U.S. 
Government, Washington, D.C., 1972), 

38 W.W. Hogan, reference 33, p, 9. 

39 L. Schipper, reference 33, p. 46. 

40 L. Schipper and AJ. Lichtenberg, Science 194, 1001 (1976). 

4.2 

DEVELOPING AND TEACHING A UNIVERSITY COURSE 
ON ENERGY MANAGEMENT 

Dr. Harold W. Henry 

Professor of Management 

The University of Tennessee 

Knoxville.TN 37916 

Trigger Factors and Course Justification 

The embargo by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries on crude oil shipments to the United States in the fall of 1973. and the 
unilateral price hike which exceeded 100% on January 1, 1974, were historic events. The immediate results were gas shortages, higher 
prices, and long waiting lines, as well as shock, anger, resentment, and impulsive but unrealistic vows to become energy independent. 
The delayed results were the gradual realization that (1 ) the United States had become very dependent on imported crude oil and highly 
vulnerable, (2) the practices and policies of consumers, firms, and governmental units resulted in wasteful consumption of energy, and 
(3) the days of cheap energy were gone forever. 

In September, 1973, Or. John H. Gibbons left our campus to work on energy plans in Washington, D.C. and subsequently served as 
Director of the Office of Energy Conservation in the Federal Energy Administration. He returned to The University of Tennessee a year 
later to resume direction of environmental and energy research. 

In 1974, The Energy Research and Development Administration was created and given broad research and development responsibilities 
for all types of energy production and utilization. Dr. Melvin H. Chiojiogi was the Assistant Director for System Analysis in ERDA's 
Division of Buildings and Community Systems in the mid-1 970's, and he recognized the importance of energy conservation in all types of 
operating facilities. He also felt that future managers must be better educated to manage energy efficiently and believed that a 
university-level course on energy with a management orientation rather than an engineering design focus was sorely needed. 

After the interest of ERDA in university-level energy conservation education was recognized, Dr. Gibbons contacted several interested 
faculty members about participation and submitted a proposal to ERDA. In February, 1976. The University of Tennessee Environment 
Center received a contract from ERDA to develop, teach, evaluate and disseminate a university course entitled Energy Management — 
Theory and Practice. The objective of ERDA was to obtain a pilot course which could be made available to educational institutions 
everywhere. The basic justification was that the United States must manage energy resources much more carefully in the future than in 
the past, and in order to do so, persons in management positions must have better training for making energy-related decisions. 

Thus, me three factors which triggered our efforts were (1 ) the OPEC-imposed embargo and price hikes on crude oil (2) the interest and 
experience of Dr. Gibbons related to energy conservation, and (3.) the interest and vision of Dr. Chiojiogi and his associates in ER DA. 



66 



Course Design By Interdisciplinary Team 

In order to develop and teach a comprehensive course on energy management, faculty members were needed from many academic 
disciplines. The team which developed the course discussed herein included J.H. Gibbons (Physics), F.W. Sympnds (Electrical 
Engineering), W.T. Snyder (Engineering Science and Mechanics), R.A. Bohm (Finance), J.R. Moore (Economics), and H.W. Henry 
(industrial Management), This group was divided equally between physical and social science disciplines. We met many times to select 
topics for inclusion in the course and often disagreed, but a spirit of cooperation prevailed. 

The first consideration in designing the course was to provide an overview of the past, present, and projected future supply and utilization 
of various types of energy in the United States and in the world. Next, basic concepts of physics and engineering, economics, 
management, and finance were included so that students could understand specific energy issues and ways to deal with them. 

The third focal point and the dominant theme of the course was on energy management in operating facilities such as industrial plants, 
commercial buildings, and homes, Heavy emphasis was given to methods for conducting an energy audit and for identifying, evaluating, 
and selecting for implementation various energy conservation "opportunities. Investment analysis methods were included for analyzing 
capital spending proposals. Also, the steps in introducing a formal energy management program were included. 

In order to provide personal experience in managing energy, the team decided early in the planning stages to require each student to 
participate with two or three other students in an energy audit of a factory or building in the community.This type of hands-on experience 
was considered more valuable than anything which might be done in the classroom. 

Another area of emphasis was the types of responses made by business corporations to cope with the higher prices and energy shortages 
after the embargo in 1973. Also, the policies of the U.S, Government before and after the embargo were included, and so were new 
legislative acts and programs since the embargo. 

Finally, energy supply and utilization technologies and environmental impacts were included. The primary emphasis was on current and 
developing energy sources. 

Content of Course and Teaching Approaches 

To start the course, a U.S. Department of Commerce film entitled "A TimeTo Choose" is shown. It depicts the energy supply and dem and 
imbalance which is likely to occur in the United Statestn the next two decades. This movie causes the students to recognize the 
seriousness, the uncertainty and the complexity of our energy situation. Viewgraphs are then projected to show various statistical data 
about energy supply and utilization. 

In the next session, energy and power are defined and u nits of measure and conversion factors are reviewed, Various forms of energy are 
discussed, as well as methods of converting from one form to another. Examples of energy conversion systems, the laws of thermody- 
namics, and methods for measuring conversion efficiency are presented. 

Economic concepts of supply, demand, markets, prices, elasticity, and equilibrium are reviewed in the third session. Viewgraphs are used 
to illustrate simple economic systems and the impacts of energy-related decisions by consumers, producers and government policy 
makers. 

Basic concepts of management and organization theory such as objectives, resource flows, planning, execution, control, decision- 
making systems and processes, authority hierarchies and organization structures are reviewed in the fourth session. A distinction is 
drawn between operational and strategic plans to conserve energy, and investment analysis methods are reviewed. 

In sessions 5, 6 and 7, the focus shifts to energy management in operating facilities. Detailed procedures for conducting an energy audit, 
included the billing audit and field audit phases, are reviewed. This involves the establishment of historical monthly energy consumption 
and cost patterns for each type of energy. Then current consumption rates are determined for each type of energy in each application 
from nameplate data or equipment ratings. Operating schedules are estimated for each energy-consuming apparatus and monthly usage 
levels and costs are calculated. Total energy consumption is subdivided by applications such as process equipment, space conditioning, 
and lighting, to determine areas of greatest potential savings. 

Every idea for energy conservation is expanded and evaluated to determine its potential for energy savings as well as its implementation 
costs. The ideas which yield benefits greater than costs and which meet capital investment acceptance criteria are recommended for 
implementation. Student teams of three or four persons each are assigned to conduct a complete energy audit in a local factory, 
supermarket, school, church, or home. A formal report is prepared and an oral summary of the project is presented in class nearthe end of 
the term. 

In order to recognize practical impacts of the changing energy situation and the subsequent responses to various groups, the types of 
decisons and actions taken by business corporations and governmental units in the 1970s are reviewed in the next two sessions. 
Newspaper clippings, annual reports, and other company publications are used to identify specific responses of corporations to more 
expensive, less reliable energy supplies. A wide range of actions has been taken by business firms, including extensive energy 
conservation programs, product design and product mix changes, plant relocations, diversification moves, vertical integration to obtain 
energy sources and others. 

Government responses have included reorganizations, new policies, procedures, and regulations, as well as new programs passed by the 
U.S. Congress which pertained to energy research, utilization, taxation, pricing, and conservation. These changes are reviewed, using 
government publications and newspaper accounts as sources. Also, new state and local government initiatives are discussed, as well as 
the responses of consumers and other institutions to the energy situation. 

Finally, the status of current energy sources and developing energy supply technologies is discussed in terms of projected production || 

rates, demand rates, and price outlook. Factors which will affect the production and utilization rates of various types of energy in future || 

years are also discussed. These include social, political, economic, technological, and physical considerations. The environment ;J 

impacts of energy production and utilization are given special emphasis, Also, new technologies and products are cited which will affect j I 

energy demand, such as computer-controlled process and building operations equipment, microwave ovens, new home and building ; j' 

materials and designs, new vehicles, other home appliances, and industrial equipment. |l 



67 



Among the energy supply technologies, coal conversion methods, nuclear fusion, nuclear fission, and solar systems are discussed in 
more detail than wind, geothermal, biomass, and tidal energy. systems are aiscussea in 

In addition totheteaching methods mentioned thus far, guestspeakers from industrial firms, other university departments governmental 
agencies, and o her operating facilities have been invited to talk to the students, and field trips have been taken to solar research "houses 
and industrial plants with effective energy management programs. At times, panel discussions have been arranged and some demonstra! 
ions of equipment for use in energy audits have been made. Students are encouraged to monitor current newspapers m^gazTnesTnd 
television programs and to report current energy news in class. ™=w<», magazines ana 

Student Evaluations of the Course 

In the eight classes taught to date, the enrollment has averaged 17 students, mostly graduates, with approximately half from the Collece 
of Business Administration, one fourth from Engineering and the others from Liberal Arts, Education. Home Economics UrrTan Plann ina 
and Law The response of students has generally been favorable to the content and teaching method ; used i Hhe TcouVseThev like the 
practical orientation of. the course and the timeliness of the topics. Few courses offer such an opportunity o dfecuss fast!Leak ng 
national and international developments almost every week. The broad scope of the course provided -a good I perspective of acom D lex 
multifaceted sub,ect and this type of overview was appreciated, The variety of activities and speakers were welcome and students 
hfn P hn h V ??r 6d ^ v, g° rous , ar 9 , r ents betw ^ members of the faculty when we taught as a team. The energy audK«a was tlS 
highlight of the course and most students considered it invaluable for providing a real feel for managing energy and tors^En^hem 
to the important energy variables in operating systems, a 'ur&ensmzinginem 

On the other hand, some felt the wide variety of topics were discussed too superficially, and many felt their background knowledae was 
too limited in either engineerings financial analysis. The team teaching effort resulted in some lack of continuity aSteSnTnd 
produced a disjointed, spliced course at times, However, one person has been responsible for tohtoQttoMfad^^MiZl 
instructor lacks the depth of knowledge on many subjects which the team provided. andasingle 

Overall, the students thought the course was very worthwhile and they gained new knowledge, analytical skills, a broader oersoective 

1%*? reat "T spect T ar,0US ^ 

. to!^!%fiS!£F" mana9mem 1 ° r6dUCe ener9y C0nSUmptf0n and the need <°r researchst'udies to provide "sounder basis 
Resulting Educational Materials and Activities 

Asa result of the grant from ERDA to develop, teach, evaluate, and disseminate auniversity course on energy management several thinas 
have been accomplished. They are explained briefly in the following paragraphs. management, several things 

Approximately 150 students have been trained to date and the course has been established as a permanent graduate offerina 

zs^stxz" l x^xr e ,ex,book en,med *»•» Mana °™ nt - ™°°" MSSfirsSh was 

Additional grants were obtained from the Department of Energy to conduct workshops on energy education for high school teachers in 
Srams " ^ "" W ° rkSh ° P h "" be °° me reS ° Urce perSOns ° n •«"W to he.p others -W TSSSSI^g 

An energy film was produced on campus and in the community which was entitled "Aggressive Energy Management " It used humor 
ene'rgy'udr' *' "" C ° mmentarieS ' and ,ac ^ scenes t0 »**«* the need for energy consfrvSn and ways tc ^conducTan 

a p pro e ach y es COnferenCe *" ^ '" 1976 '" ^^ °' ener 9V relatad «>"«"» >" several U.S. universities to share ideas and teaching 

e^oVe^SS 

studies. StUd6ntS haV6 b6en emPl ° yed in Sner9y mana 9 ement i° bs ™* fo«r doctoral students have conducted energy-related research 

pSsiol meetfngT^ "*" ^°^ "" C ° UrS6 have SP ° ken ° n °™™ ,0pios at numerous »* stings and at some 
All in all, it has been an interesting and challenging endeavor and one that I think should be repeated in other schools and nations. 

4.3 

TECHNICAL ENERGY EDUCATION FOR THE 
NON-TECHNICAL STUDENT 

E.R, Hosier, R.N. Miller, J. P. Hartman 

College of Engineering 

University of Central Florida 

Abstract 

need^'omelnoilZ^ Tj^TJT^ r ^ T ^ C ° me *°™*W more important to the general population. All people 
S^^tlte^\^^^Jf?- m ° U fU6t P roduc,ion ' ener 9y conversion, pollution control new energy source 
UnivSw o 'cimrir F S h/ n « w PeC,atI ° nS and t0 make a PP'oprlate decisions concerning energy use. Since ?973 The 
nS^The^S! fs car, o, th. ni!f V?"'?* Ene I 9y and Man ' which introduces non-technical students to energy generation 
sTvemfcouJseSd': o P f the° 'XlFX"Z! ^ ^ ^^ M '^ M da """ ^^ St ^ S t0 take 



68 



Energy and Man is generally populated by undergraduate students seeking degrees in Business, Education, Health. Humanities, Natural 
Sciences and Social Sciences and by part-time students {usuaily employed full-time) who may not be degree seeking. The course has 
been developed to meet the needs of both groups of students, 

This paper addresses the problems in presenting very technical material to non-technically oriented audiences and the methods which 
have been developed to successfully transmit this important information to this type of student body. 

Introduction 

The College of Engineering at the University of Central Florida offers a series of courses designed to be elective courses for under- 
graduate students majoring in non-technical disciplines. One of the major purposes of these courses is to provide knowledge that will 
enable UCF graduates with non-technical careers to more fully function and contribute in our technological society. A secondary 
purpose of these courses is to make students majoring in non-technical disciplines aware of engineering approaches to, and techniques 
for, problem solving so that communications between technical and non-technical people involved in decision-making processes will be 
facilitated. One of the major courses is these offerings is EGN 4824, Energy and Man, which has enrolled approximately 5,000 students 
since it was initially offered in 1973. The course is currently a University-wide elective offering having no prerequisites other than upper 
division standing; the University has the current capability of enrolling approximately 1,000 per year in Energy and Man in various 
sections on its main campus and at its satellite campuses. 

Student Body 

The University has a main campus in Orlando which is essentially traditional with the majority of students entering either from high 
school or from community colleges. There are also several satel lite cam puses which offer primarily evening cou rses and the students are 
typically older and pursuing or continuing education on a part-time basts. Energy and Man is offered in both environments and therefore 
has two distinctly different types of student body. 

Regular Undergraduate 

On the main campus the course is typically taught in large auditorium-type classrooms and has had enrollments as large as 300 students 
per section, The students are a cross-section of the University with students from the Colleges of Arts & Sciences, Business, Education, 
and Health with about 40% from Arts and Science, 40% from Business, 10% from Education and 5% from Health. 
The course is intended to be upper level, that is, for Juniors and Seniors. However, a small number of freshmen and sophomores also 
enroll in the course. 

The majority of the students do not have a strong background in mathematics and many are frightened of any numerical problem. 

Continuing Education and Part-Time Students 

Although almost all of the students enrolled in Energy and Man at the UCF satellite campuses are degree-seeking students also, they form 
a much more diversified group than those at the main campus. Some are recent high school graduates who are full-time students 
pursuing degrees at the satellite campuses because of the proximity to their families homes, Most, however, are part-time students who 
attend classes in addition to holding full-time jobs. This second group is divided into three distinct subgroups: 1) those not holding a 
degree, but progressing toward a degree to enhance their positions in the job market, 2) those already holding a degree, but pursuing a 
second degree in order to change career fields, and 3) those non-degree seeking students who wish to broaden their knowledge of the 
subject of energy. 

The first sub-group comprises by far the majority of students enrolled in Energy and Man at the satellite campuses. Many of them own 
their own home, or have plans to, and want specific information on energy use in the home so that they can make decisions on materials to 
use, appliances to buy, etc., so that future perturbation in energy supply and pricing will have minimum impact on their iifestyies. Almost 
all of the students at the satellite campuses expect Energy and Man to provide them with an understanding of what isrea//y happening on 
the energy scene in light of the many conflicting incomplete presentations in the media. As the main campus, most satellite students do 
no have a sufficient background in mathematics to permit the traditional engineering approach to such a course, but many are willing to 
endure mathematics if it will provide them with understandable answers to personal energy problems. 

Development of Course 

There are several imposed boundary conditions which have dictated how the course is generally taught. These conditions include: large 
section sizes, diversity of student backgrounds and general apprehension of mathematics. 

With these constraints in mind, it is necessary to determine the goals for the course. For example, do we want to teach the first and second 
laws of Thermodynamics, or do we want to understand that any energy conversion device obeys rational laws and that "you can't get 
something for nothing...". The major goals for Energy and Man are fostering a greater understanding of energy resources production, 
distribution, use and conservation. These major goals are broken down into smaller ones: such as showing how the students own energy 
use patterns contribute to the over-all national energy situation, explaining energy measurement in kilowatt-hours so that the student's 
home electric meter reading has meaning, discussing home energy conversation measures, discussing economics and environmental 
impact. of various methods of energy conversion, etc. 

Course Topics 

The topics that are generally included in the course typically include: 
Energy and Power: Definition and Units 

Uses of Energy: Domestic, Commercial Industrial, Agricultural, Transporation 
Depletable Sources of Energy: Coal, Oil, Gas, Uranium 
Non-Depletable Sources: Solar, Nuclear Breeding, Nuclear Fusion, 
Thermodynamics Laws: First and Second Laws, Efficiency. 

Generation of Electric Power: Hydroelectric, Fossil Steam, Nuclear Steam, Miscellaneous Sources. 
Future Power Sources: 
Calculation of Energy Costs: 
Energy and the Home: Insulation and R Values, Solar Considerations, Electric Meters, Conservation Measures. 

Not all faculty will cover the same topics or cover them in the same detail but the list is fairly representative. 



69 



Depth of Coverage 

Since Energy and Man is a survey course and deals with a large number of topics, it is not possible to cover any topic in great detail. 

For a typical energy conversion process the student is expected to know the major pieces of hardware that are required, the types of 
energy conversion that occur, the limitations on the conversions imposed by the 1st and 2nd law of thermodynamics, the approximate 
cost of the conversion process, the availability of the fuel resource to supply the process, and the advantages and disadvantages of the 
process compared to other processes. For example, consider a fossil-fueled electric generating station. The student would be expected 
to know that the major facilities required include a furnace, turbine-generator, condenser and pump. He would be expected to know that 
the stored interant energy of the fuel input is converted to heat in the furnace, the heat converted to internal energy of the steam, the 
internal energy of the steam converted to electrical energy output of the generator; that the efficiency of these conversion processes is 
limited by the Carnot thermodynamic efficiency and to calculate the Carnot efficiency given maximum and minimum temperatures. He 
should be able to determine how much fuel is required to generate a KWH of electricity and the fuel requirements for full operation of the 
plant. He should have a rough idea of the size of a power plant and the present construction costs per kilowatt of capacity. 

Texts 

It is important to have a textbook that is acceptable to all faculty and Is understandable to the non-technical student. For the past several 
years we have used "Energy and Society" by Timothy Healy (Boyd and Fraser, 1976). For the 1980-81 academic year a compilation of 
handouts, articles and other information which supplements the text was assembled together in a course syllabus which was sold in the 
University bookstore at a modest price, 

Overjhe past decade, there have been many other books published which might be considered as course texts and a general listing is 
given in Table I, Some of these texts are "soft" (i.e., little or no arithmetic or quantitative concepts) while others are "hard." 

Presentation Methods 

The principal presentation has been Instructors lectures utilizing as visual aids either prepared 35 mm slides or overhead projector 
transparencies. Since the subject of energy is quite technical and engineering faculty are prone to be highly mathematical in their 
lectures, it is very important to be conscious of the background of the students and to develop lectures and visual aids which are 
understandable. 

Numerical analogies are important, comparing dimensions with familiar quantities such as football fields, widths of roads, heights of 
buildings, etc. Comparisons of growth parameters can be made with biological examples (most students have had some biology) and 
also with other daily examples such as the number of hamburgers sold by McDonalds, etc. A sense of humor is an important teaching 
quality for this type of course. In addition, comparisons of energy and resources to income, assets, and expenses is also successful. For 
example, the first law of thermodynamics may be explained by a financial analog where the various forms of stored energy (internal, 
potential, kinetic, etc) are like the balance in savings and checking accounts and the transient energies (heat and work) are like deposits 
and/or withdrawals. Energy transformations can then be compared with financial transactions which change the balances in the various 
accounts. Similarly the second law of thermodynamics can be explained by an analogy to brokerage or commission charges which can 
never be eliminated completely. Sometimes one can personalize the discussions such as figuring thestudent's own light bill, gas mileage. 
water use, etc. There is no fixed formula and faculty develop their own style and techniques for introducing mathematical manipulation, 
most with gratifying^ results. 

Encouraged by this approach to communicating important information to a concerned audience, participating faculty members have 
also prepared carefully formulated examples that expose the students to the thought processes involved in engineering analysis, 
including how mathematics and the principles of science are used as tools, 

To enhance student interest, increase their ability to understand the material, and expose them to a broader spectrum of informed 
opinion, it is frequently desireable to use presentation techniques beyond the text and the instructor's lectures. Such supplemental 
presentations include motion pictures, invited guest lecturers, and demonstrations. Students are generally held responsible for material 
contained in these supplemental presentations. Term papers, article abstracts and student panels can be used in smaller classes and 
shared with the entire class. 

Many excellent motion pictures have been obtained which provide exposure and insights into subjects and processes that are highly 
technical but are explained in non-technical terms and using mathematical comparisons that are generally understandable to a 
non-technical oriented audience. Since students are held responsible for the material it is helpful to provide them with an outline and 
study questions before showing a film on which they can make notes while the film is showing. It is also desireable to have some method 
to allow students who miss a film to view it on their own time. 

Guest speakers heip broaden the perspective of the students, Guest speakers have included representatives from energy industries (oil 
companies, nuclear development), utilities and government agencies. Other faculty who have particular expertise in areas as energy 
conservation, oil and gas production, economics and regulation, etc, have also been used as guest speakers. 

Demonstrations can give the students a better mental image than photographs. Effective demonstrations have ranged from a pill that is 
the approximate size of a nuclear fuel pellet, toasoiarcollector system oran analog computersimulation of the total energy situation and 
strategies to match supply and demand. 

Course Evaluation 

Several methods have been used to evaluate the effectiveness of the course and the students perception of its value to them. 

An "attitudinal survey" has been developed and administered at the beginning and end of the term to evaluate how students attitudes 
toward energy issues have changed as a result of taking the course. The results of this survey have indicated that the students have 
attained a generally more realistic appreciation of the technological limitations and problems in energy use and development. On the 
other hand, the opinion on what could be considered the moral and ethical aspects of energy were not significantly changed. For 
example, at the start of the course 56% feft that oil shale would solve ourcrude oil problems while at the end of the courseonly 24% felt this 
to be true. At the beginning of the course 58% felt the U.S. should militarily protect its foreign oil interests and 13% feft we should not. At 
the end of the course 55% felt we should and 16% felt we should not, 



70 



The University has a formal system of instructor evaluation by students which also allows the students the opportunity to comment 
positively and negatively about the course, In this system student reactions have ranged from highly favorable to highly unfavorable. The 
majority of students seem to react favorably to the material presented in the course but many dislike the use of any arithmetic. 

The favorable responses from students indicate they consider the course material important, and that it will enable them to use energy 
wisely and allow them to participate in discussions or debates as well as vote on energy matters more intelligently. Some have even staed 
that the material is so important that the course should be required, not just elective. 

The more typical responses indicate that the students feel they have learned something of value, that they will try to be wise consumers, 
and that they can now follow discussions on energy policy and energy developments with some discernment. The negative responses 
usually indicate they were overwhelmed by the arithmetic and they felt the course was too technical for non-engineering majors. Another 
general negative response is that the students dislike the very large class (up to 300 students) and feel they don't have adequate 
opporunity to ask questions or participate. 

Students generally like the inclusion of outside guest speakers, Thestudents then realize that some of the topics discussed are important 
in the "real world" outside the classroom. Students thus gain an appreciation that the energy crisis is real, energy concerns are important, 
and decisions about nuclear power and alternative energy sources, for instance, cannot be made without considering the entire energy 
question. They learn that personal conservation can help, but. that there are no simple solutions to the problem, technical, social, 
economic or political. 

Additional evaluation of students perception of the course is obtained informally from one-on-one discussions with students. Comments 
are generally favorable, probably reflecting a 4, be nice to the instructor" syndrome rather than what the student may acutalfy feel. 

Evaluation (Grading) 

For the larger sections, most grading is done by computer-graded, multiple-choice objective examinations. Students can be given study 
questions to assist them in reviewing the topics of importance. Smaller sections might employ essay questions, along with the multiple 
choice. In smaller sections it is also possible to assign a variety of homework topics such as short papers, article abstracts, student panels, 
or other similar assignments. In assigning papers or article abstracts, it is important to indicate to the students the national publications 
and other sources with which they might not be familiar. Afthough most are familiar with national newspapers and newsmagazines 
(although they had perhaps rarely looked at the Science/Technology sections), many are not as familiar with Scientific American. 
Technology Review. Science 80, and other more technically oriented sources. Some faculty give very specific guidance to thestudents, 
and also exclude the various "gee-whiz" magazines which tend to tee somewhat superficial and non-technical in energy-related articles. 

Student evaluation is always a sensitive subject It is of primary importance that whatever the techniques used the testing or evaluation be 
fair and equitable, with a minimum of ambiguity. This imposes another challenge for the instructor. 

FACULTY 

Faculty Reactions 

The general reaction of the faculty instructors is positive, most viewing it as an opportunity to expose an important audience to the 
technical problems and important energy issues confronting civilization. In spite of course sections containing large enrollments, 
spirited discussions often begin in class and continue after class in hallways and faculty offices/Such positive exchanges result in much 
enthusiasm by faculty and students. 

Faculty generally used to teaching technical material to a mathematically inclined audience are frequently dismayed and frustrated by 
students who consider algebra as "advanced mathematics," Successful faculty accept this aspect as a challenge: to present the material 
quantitatively enough to satisfy the instructor's sensibilities, but not so mathematically that for the students this kernal message sinks in a 
sea of numbers. As discussed earlier, this challenge is most successfully met by using analogies which are familiar to the student's 
experience. 

Administrative Support 

It is extremely important that there be administrative and institutional support for these courses. Faculty soon realize that preparing for 
this type of course (whether the enrollment is 40 or 200) is different than for more quantitative engineering courses. The visual aids, 
previously mentioned, are very important. The internal reward structure with regard to promotion, tenure, and annual evaluations must 
not penalize faculty interested in teaching this course or others simNarto it. If there is no administrative support, morally and physically, 
then dynamic young faculty will not get involved. 

It is also important that faculty not be imposed upon by being repeatedly assigned to courses of this type without other avenues for 
professional development, research and growth. Currently the College of Engineering tries to schedule an individual faculty member to 
this course no more than 2 out of 4 quarters per year, although some will teach a section almost every quarter. 

Conclusions 

Energy and Man, a course offered by the College of Engineering at the University of Central Florida, has provided a vehicle for students 
majoring in non-technical disciplines to be exposed to engineering methods of problem solving while learning about the broad issues of 
energy. Student enrollment in and reaction to the course indicate that Energy and Man meets a generally perceived need in the student 
body. These students are thus better prepared for meaningful participation in a technological society. 

TABLE I 
Suggested Texts for University Level General Energy Course 

1. Clark, Wilson, ENERGY FOR SURVIVAL: THE ALTERNATIVE TO EXTINCTION, Anchor press, Garden City, NY, 1975. 

2. Dooiittle, J.S., ENERGY: A CRISIS-A DILEMMA OR JUST ANOTHER PROBLEM?, Matrix Publishing, Inc.. Champaign, IL, 1977, 

3. Fowler, John M. f ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1975. 

4. Healy, Timothy J. , ENERGY AND SOCIETY, Boyd and Fraser, San Francisco, 1976, 

5. Kranzberg, M„ T.A. Hall, and J.L. Scheiber, Editors, ENERGY AND THE WAY WE LIVE, Boyd and Fraser, San Francisco. 1980. 



71 



6. Ruedisili, LC, and Firebaugh, M.W., Editors, PERSPECTIVES ON ENERGY: ISSUES, IDEAS, AND ENVIRONMENTAL DILEMMAS 
Oxiord University Press, London, 1975. 

7. Schurr. S.H.. et al„ ENERGY IN AMERICA'S FUTURE: THE CHOICES BEFORE US, Resources for the Future Johns Hopkins Press 
Baltimore, MD, 1979. y 

8. Stoker. H.S., Seager, S.L., and Capener, R.L., "ENERGY FROM SOURCE TO USE, Scott Foresman andCompany Glenview IL 1975 

9. Priest, Joseph, ENERGY FOR A TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Reading MA 1975 ' 

10. Odum, H.T.. and Odum, E.C., ENERGY BASIS FOR MAN AN NATURE, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1981. ' 

References 

1. Evans, Ronald D., 8.W, Patz, and J. Paul Hartman, "Engineering Awareness for Non-Engineers," Proceedings Frontiers forEducation 
Conference, IEEE and ASEE, Tucson, Arizona, April 1972. 

2. Hartman, J. Paul, " 'Pet Courses' and the Non-Engineering Student/' EPNE Notes, Engineering Education May 1974 

3. Hartman, J. Paul, and Gerald G. Ventre, "EngineeringSeminarsfor Non-Engineers," ASEE Annual Conference! Ames Iowa June 1973 

4. Hartman, J. Paul, and Robert D, Kersten, "Engineering Coursework for Non-Engineers: A Decade of Experience" Enaineerino 
Education, December 1980 (Annals), ' y y 

5. Hartman, J. Paul, R.D. Kersten, and B.E, Mathews, "Engineering and Non-Engineers-11 Years and 20,000 Students " Proceedinas 
Frontiers in Education Conference, IEEE and ASEE, October 1979, ' * 

6. Hartman. J. Paul and Roger A. Messenger, "Environmental Considerations in Energy Education," Proceedings ASEE Annual 
Conference, June 1980. 

7 Hartman, J. Paul, MP Wanleljsta. Y.A. Yousef, and W.M. McLellon, "Engineering and the Environment Courses for Engineers and 
Non-Engineers, Proceedings, ASEE Annual Conference, June 1979. 

8 Hartman, J. Paul .ER- Hosier, R.N. Milter, and J^ 

Miami International Conference on Alternative Energy Sources, December 1980, 

4.4 

A GRADUATE INTERDISCIPLINARY CURRICULUM IN ENERGY STUDIES * 



Alexander J. Casella, Coordinator, Energy Studies 
Sangamon State University, Springfield, Illinois 62708 



Abstract 



A Masters level curriculum i called Energy Studies has been developed utilizing a broad interdisciplinary approach which is under 
admimstrativesuperv.s.on of theSangamon State University's Innovative andExperimentalStudiesCluster.liisagraduatelevel program 
designed to supplement and expand upon a i discipline-based bachelor's degree. Students may pursue a graduate degree in this field of 
study through either the Individual Option Program or the Environmental Studies Program. 

The goal of Energy Studies is to synthesize technical knowledge and spcial considerations. The complexities of the energy problems 
which face out society demand that the student develop this wide spectrum of knowledge. The Energy studies Program thereof 
utilizes resources from several disciplines, including: Administration, Economics. Environmental Studfes. Legal S ud L Sociology 
Education, and the Natural Sc.ences in addition to courses specifically designed for Energy Studies. Faculty from these discipTes are 
brought together to aid the student in developing a full understanding of this complex subject. ""Y Tromineseaisc.pnnesare 

Serav S e 1f S R e rnreTol V s r fr3i C i , H Pr0ieCtS '" T^ ^T may participate for ac ^mic credit. These projects include: Community 
SiLp! £™« p ! P o n9fiel D d: Van ° US o t t0piCS In S0lar ene W' le 9 al issues of nuc| ear power: Midwest Community Energy 
Newsletter. Sangamon River Basin Program. Students are also encouraged to initiate their own research topics. 

In h r e n iimp P n t n , S c e hinh h T h f '^ T' initi£ " ed ? 1™* a9 °' h3S been Very positive - Currently, about 25 courses are offered and student 
enrollment is high. The problems associated with such a program will also be discussed. 

4.5 

AN INTERDISCIPLINARY PROGRAM ON ENERGY POLICY 

John J. Russell, Physics Department, 
Southeastern Massachusetts University, North Dartmouth, MA 02747 
Abstract 

As an outgrowth of several years experience in teaching a course on the science and technology of enerqy we have initiated at SMU an 
r„S« "■ l,narV h| C0Urs , e entitled "Energy and Public Policy." A colleague from our Political Science Department t JXS wfi is a 
specialist in public policy, and I plan to offer the course during the 1981-82 academic year. Meiansonj. wno isa 

sclen^SlfS a ™™f»MM* background in both physical and political 

maintenancri, ^ " '1'!?^ baCk9round l«*"«»and "»dlngs on the physical principles which underlie the development and 
™™wa%^m^?j£lX£ energy technologies. Similar presentations on the history and practice of public policy in 
non energy areas w.ll also be offered. These background-building efforts will occupy the first third of the semester. 

looTcs will°S d miS^-n ^.'* 8 TThV" ,hr6e ° r f ° Ur StUd6ntS Wi " Prepare Seminar topics for Presentation to the entire group. These 

protection SaKStKn ^ P ° ° V ^'J? 9 ^ BtBBa SUCh aS SOCial '9 aniza < io " ™* energy use. environmental 
protection policy, and the role of government incentives and subsides in energy development. 

rm^lc^ttonrfh^V^lHi^n 1 ' 11 ? " urse t student teams will investigate and prepare reports on energy policy issues having local 
adSnfsSon ^S^SS^**™*'** """ *"*"**' ^'^ Stat6 ' aDd re9i ° na ' ° ff ' CialS inVOlVed in «»d««topmem and 



72 



■iMiBSP* 



SESSION 5: 

5-1 

A RESOURCE UNIT FOR TEACHING ENERGY 
TO ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS 

Catherine C. Cleare 

Assistant Professor 

School of Education 

University of North Carolina at Wilmington 

Wilmington, North Carolina 28406 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

I. Abstract 

II. Theories That Form the Theoretical Basis for this Curriculum 

Gagne's Theory of Instructional Design 
The Processes of Science 
— Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development 

III. Using Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development to Analyze: 

Nature of the Concepts 
Processes of Science 
Type of Learning 

IV. Applying This Rationale to Energy Topics 

V. Summary 

VI. Procedure That Was Followed in Developing This Curriculum. 

VII. List of References 

VIII. Appendices: 

A. Outline of Unit Energy 

B. List of Energy Topics and Concepts with the Variety of 
Learning 

Appropriate for Teaching the Concepts to Elementary 
School Children 

C. List of Energy Topics with the Process of Science 
That Couid be Used to Teach the Concepts to 
Elementary School Children. 

D. A List of Behaviors Classified by Variety of Learning 

That a Student Could Be Expected to Attain upon 

Completing the Curriculum on Energy. 

41 _ A A E, Examples of Objectives 

Abstract r * 

This paper outlines the content for an energy curriculum. Concepts related to the energy topics in the outline and processof of science 

appropriate for elementary activities are included, I n addition, a rationale for selecting the grade levels at which children are capable of 

learning specific concepts and conducting specific processes is provided. 

Text 

Strands from three theories were brought to focus on energy concepts in the development of this resource unit on energy forteachers of 

grades K~§. These theories are: Gagne's Theory on the Varieties of Learning, The Processes of Science formulated by the American 

Association for the Advancement of Science Commission on Science Education, and Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development. 

First, I will briefly discuss Gagne's Varieties of Learning. Gagne proposes that learning can be classified as: Verbal Information, Cognitive 
Strategies, Attitudes, Motor Skills, and Intellectual Skills. The latter type of learning can be subdivided into five categories which are 
hierarchical: beginning with Discriminations, proceeding to Concrete Concepts, Defined Concepts, Rules, and finally, Problem Solving.' 
Gagne's theory provides a two-pronged attack on the problem of instruction. Frequently teachers initiate their instruction on a topic by 
selecting tasks for the students. Using Gagne's theory a learning task can be analyzed to determine which type of learning is required for 
the student to complete the task. This helps make the teacher more aware of the degree of difficulty of the task. A second way to approach 
instruction on a topic is for the teacher to decide the type of learning he wants students to attain. Then he selects tasks and provides the 
conditions that facilitate the particular variety of learning selected. ? 

In the development of this unit of energy, Gagne's Theory was applied after the list of concepts had been generated, Each concept was 
analyzed to determine the types of tasks that elementary students couid perform to learn the topic. For some topics it was decided that 
elementary students could distinguish between objects or events related to the topic, that is, they could make Discriminations. For other 
topics it was believed that elementary students could learn the concept as a concept, either a Concrete or Defined Concept, could 
understand the relationship of the concepts toother concepts in a Rule, and perhaps couid even apply theRules in an unfamiliar setting, 
that is, Problem Solving. In the case of these topics the children would be using Intellectual Skills. In the case of other topics it was 
believed that elementary students could only memorize facts or definitions. These topics would be learned as Verbal Information. The 
children would not be able to process this information or use the information to reason or to apply it in new situations. For the list of 
concepts and the varieties of learning each concept requires, see Appendix B, 



73 



The second strand that was used in developing the curriculum was the Processes of Science. The processes that scientists engage in 
when investigating natural phenomena have been described by the American Association for the Advancement of Science Commission 
on Science Education as consisting of eight Basic and five Integrated Processes. The eight Basic Processes of Science are: Observing, 
Using Space/Time Relationships, Classifying, Measuring, Using Numbers, Communicating, Inferring, and Predicting. The five Inte- 
grated Processes combine two or more of the Basic Processes. These processes are; Controlling Variables, Interpreting Data. Defining 
Operationally, Formulating Hypotheses, and Ex perimenting. 3 These processes are the focus of an el ementaryscienc program developed 
by the American Association forthe Advancement of Science and published by Ginn and Company.' In this program activities intended 
for the primary grades use only the Basic Processes, Gradually, as children in the middle grades become accustomed to using the basic 
processes, the integrated processes are introduced. By the time the child has completed five to six years using the basic and integrated 
processes he is ready for the culminating Integrated Process, the process that includes all the other processes — Experimenting, 

The third theory that underlies the rationale for this curriculum is Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development. This theory states that 
intellectual development can be divided into four major periods: Sensorimotor (birth to 2 years), Preoperational (2 to 7 years) Concrete 
Operational (7 to 11 years), and Formal Operational (1 1 years and above). Each period is characterized by certain ways of thinking 5 As 
children progress through each stage they exhibit patterns of reasoning characteristic of that stage. Most children in elementary schools 
are in the concrete stage of cognitive development. Children in this period of cognitive development demonstrate the ability to conserve, 
to serial order, to do simple classifications, to take the role of others, to reverse their thinking, and to think logically about familiar 
concrete phenomena wrth which they have direct experience.* Children in this period of intellectual development need sensory 
experiences and should be encouraged to follow their natural curiousity in observing the world around them. 

When selecting concepts to be studied at a particular grade level, consideration should be given to* 

1. The concept that is the focus of the learning. 

2. The Processes of Science that will be used in the instructional activity. 

3. The Type of Learning that the teacher expects the child to acquire on the topic. 

4. The Stage of Cognitive Development of the child. 

The product of the first three areas of consideration enumerated above is the instructional material, that is, the lesson plan The fourth 
area enumerated above allows one to decide an appropriate grade level for implementing the lesson 

Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development provides a rationale for analyzing the nature of the concepts- 

op C eratSa^ ^ ^ reaS ° n ' ng pattemS ° r are P atte ™ <* -zoning characteristic of the forma. 

* If the concept is abstract, is it possible for a person to learn something about the concept using concrete means'? ( For examoie 

SSHSS.' 'SSZSS^SSSSS 1 •" ™ d,,s Be usod " a " ulre " -S£SB3£ 2Z2SZ 

• Is the student required to identify concrete examples of the concept? ' 
s the student required to understand a definition of the concept* 

; =;r,r a zsxxxxszz ^xsr* - «■» - - ■ - 

™ . l l X k J nd 0f reasonin 9 skills will the student have to use to solve a particular orohiPm? 

appropriate. If concepts that can only be ea me! us ng moS an^orTJ^TrT ' ■* "" h *f 'f amed USin9 Concrete media are als ° 
reasoning will cope by memorizing. While 1 7s useful t^ haTe oh Idrpn ta«r„ .), f f?"l!l? ar * StUdied ' ChMdren at the concre,e sta 9« of 

S0m6 ?$£££££ 0X^3^^^ Wh ° 3re fn »• C —te Stage of Cognitive Development. For example: 
'. i?, 6 " 11 ^ 1 ." 9 the Forms of Enef gy being demonstrated. 

• nlm^. y ' t n9 .. eXam , pleS 0f ener9y accord inS t° the Form of Energy 
Demonstrating the transfer of stored energy to energy of motion 

eSrSeT^^^^ 

inappropriate for children in the Concrete st^^ he understanding of models, such as atomic theory, are 

only at the Verba, Information level. They ^ul d*cS^ K " 6 C ° uld lea " ab °" *™* energy 



74 



When using these guidelines one must remember that these are intended for the "average" child, Children vary greatly as to the age they 
acquire an ability to reason concretely or abstractly, The child's prior experience with thetopicgreatly influences his ability to understand 
the concept. If a concrete concept exists for a topic it Is helpful to provide experiences to help the child acquire a concept for the same 
phenomenon. The dividing line between Stages is not abrupt. Children go through a Transitionai Stage as they progress from one stage 
to the next. In a Transitional Stage a child exhibits patterns of reasoning characteristic of both the stage he is leaving and the stage he is 
entering. 

The following procedure was followed when developing this curriculum, 

1. An outline of the major topics and sub-topics was developed. See Appendix A, 

2. Concepts relating to each topic were generated. See Appendix B. 

3. The Type of Learning at which elementary school aged children would be capable of learning each concept was determined. See 
Appendix B. 

4. The Processes of Science that could be used in activities to facilitate the learning of each concept were identified. See Appendix C. 

5. A list of behaviors that a student could be expected to demonstrate after completing the unit was generated and classified using 
Gagne's Types of Learning. See Appendix D. 

6. For each sub-topic the following procedure will be followed: 

a. Performance Objectives will be formulated. 

b. The test item or activity that will be used to assess the student's performance of the task specified in the objective will be 
constructed. 

c. Activities that could be used to facilitate student's learning the concept will be developed or selected from existing curriculum 
programs. 

d. A list of resource materials will be generated. 

NOTE: This part of the curriculum is still under development. See Appendix E. 

List of References 

' R.M. Gagne and L.J. Briggs, PRINCIPLES OF INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN 2nd ed. (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1979), pp. 
60-94. 

* R.M. Gagne. THE CONDITIONS OF LEARNING 3rd ed„ (Holt. Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1977). 

1 J.R. Mayor and A.H. Livermore, School Science & Mathematics, 411-16 (1969). 

4 Commission on Science Education, American Association for the Advancement of Science, SCIENCE— A PROCESS APPROACH II, 
(Ginn and Company, Lexington, Mass., 1975). 

* H. Ginsburg and S. Opper, PIAGET'S THEORY OF INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT: AN INTRODUCTION, (Prentice-Hall. inc.. 
Englewood Cliffs, N.J„ 1969). 

fi R. Karplus et aL SCIENCE TEACHING AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF REASONING, (Lawrence Hall of Science, Berkeley. CA, 1977), 
part 2, 

: A.L. Hammond, W.D. Metz, andT.H. Maugh II, ENERGY AND THE FUTURE, (American Association for the Advancement of Science. 
Washington, D.C., 1973). 

Appendix A - Outline of Unit: Energy r 

t. What is Energy 

A. Definition 

B. Types of Energy 

1. Stored (Potential) 

2. Moving (Kinetic) 

C. Forms of Energy 

1. Sound 

2. Heat 

3. Light 

4. Mechanical 

5. Chemical 

6. Electrical 

7. Atomic 

D. Transfer of Energy 

E. (Interconversion of Matter and Energy) 

II. Sources of Energy 

A. Renewable 

1. Solar 

2. Wind 

3. Hydropower 

4. Biomass 

B. Non-Renewable 

1. Fossil Fuels 

2. Nuclear 

3. Geothermal 



75 



Mf. Uses of Energy 

A. Natural 

1. Biological 

2, Physical 

B. Technological 

1. Factors That Affect Energy Usage 

a. Social 

b. Economical 

2. Consequence of Energy Usage 

a. Social 

b, Economical 

a Environmental 

IV, Problems Related to Energy 

A. Social 

B. Economical 

C. Environmental 

V. Conservation of Energy 

A. Distribution 

B. Demand 

C. Alternative Energy Sources 



Topic 

I. What is Energy: 

A. Definition: 

B. Types of Energy: 



C. Forms of Energy 



D. Transfer of 
Energy 



E, Interconversion 
of Matter and 
Energy 

II. Sources of Energy: 
A. Renewable: 



1. Solar 



2, Wind 



3, Hydropower 



Appendix B — List of Energy Topics and Concepts and the 

Variety of Learning Appropriate for Teaching Concepts to 

Elementary School Children 

Concepts 



Energy is the ability to do work. 
Energy can be stored or moving. 



Energy exists in many forms: 
sound, heat, light, mechanical, 
chemical, electrical, and atomic. 

Energy can be converted from one 

form to another. 

No energy is lost or gained in 

ordinary reactions, 

With each change some energy 

become unavailable for use, 

Energy can be changed into matter 

and matter into energy (E=mc a ). 



" Some energy sources are es- 
sentially limitiess. 



* The sun is the primary source 
of energy on earth. 

The sun provides us with heat 

and light, 

The sun causes winds and tides. 

Light from the sun is necessary 

to produce the energy in food. 

Light can be used to produce electricity. 

" Wind is caused by the sun heating 

the air, 

* Wind can be used to generate 
electrical and mechanical 
energy. 

* Hydropower results from the effect 
of the sun's heat on water. 



Type of Learning 



Information 

Defined concept 

Information 

Discrimination 

Concrete Concept 

Information 

Discrimination 

Concrete Concept 

Defined concept 

Information 

Discrimination 

Concrete Concept 

Defined Concept 

Rule 

Problem Solving 

Information 



Information 

Discrimination 

Concrete Concept 

Defined concept 

Rule 

Problem Solving 

Information 
Concrete concept 
Defined concept 



Information 

Concrete Concept 

Defined Concept 

Rule 

Problem Solving 

Information 

Defined Concept 

Rule 



76 



4. Biomass 



B, Non-Renewable: 



1. Fossil Fuels 



2. Nuclear 



3. Geothermaf 



III, Uses of Energy: 

A, Natural. 

1. Biological 

2. Physical 

B. Technological. 

1. Factors That Affect 
Energy Usage 



2. Consequences 



IV Problems Related to Energy 
A. Social. 
B Economical. 

C. Environment. 



V Conservation of Energy 



A. Distribution. 



* Hydropower can be used to generate 
electricity and mechanical power. 

* Energy stored in plants is a po- 
tential supplemental fuel. 

* Biomass is any form of plant material. 

* Biomass has about w ? the stored energy 
of coal, 

* Some energy sources can not be re- 
placed, 



* Peat, coal, oil, and natural gas 
are fossil fuels. 

* Fossil fuels were formed million 
of years ago from decaying plants 
and animals. 

* People depend on burning fossil 
fuel to heat their homes and to 
run machinery. 

* Coal is often used to produce electricity. 

* The supply of fossil fuels is limited. 

* A by-product of burning fossil fuels is 
environmental pollution, 

" Nuclear Energy is produced by the 
conversion of matter into energy. 

* Two types of Nuclear Energy are: 
Fusion or putting small molecules 
together and Fission or breaking 

apart large molecules with the release of energy, 
" The earth's heat is a po- 
tentially valuable source of 
energy. 

* Geothermai Resources include steam, 
hot water, and hot rock. 

" Heat from the earth could be used to 
generate electricity. 



* Energy is required for growth, 
movement, and change. 

* Energy is needed to move a force 
through a distance. 



* Energy usages vary according to a 
person's philosophy and life style, 
social customs, and the economy. 

* Energy conversions involve social 
and environmental costs. 

* Personal and Social choices affect 
the short and long term conse- 
quences of energy use. 

" Changes in energy usage alter 
life style. 

* New energy technology is being 
developed. 

" Society is dependent upon energy 

* Energy is a major factor in our 
economy. 

' Energy source have different impact 
on the environment. 
' Burning Fossit Fuel causes environ- 
mental pollution. 
" Nuclear reactions produce radio activity 

* Each individual/group has a respon- 
sibility to practice energy conser- 
vation. 

* Energy resources are limited and are 



Problem Solving 

Information 
Concrete Concept 
Defined Concept 



Information 
Discrimination 
Concrete Concept 
Defined Concept 

Information 

Information 
Defined Concept 

Information 
Concrete Concept 

Defined Concept 

Information 

Information 

Information 

Concrete Concept 

Information 

Information 



Information 
Concrete concept 



Information 
Defined Concept 
Information 
Concrete Concept 



Information 
Discrimination 
Defined concepts 
Attitudes 



Information 
Concrete Concept 
Defined Concept 



Attitude 



Information 



77 



8 Demand. 



C Alternative 
Energy Resources. 



unevenly distributed around the earth 
' There is a growing imbalance be- 
tween the availability of and the de- 
mand for energy. 

" The imbalance between availability 
and the demand for energy necessitates 
the development of alternate energy 
resources 



Concrete Concept 
Information 



Information 
Attitude 



Outline 

I. What Is Energy? 
A. Definition. 



B. Types. 

C. Forms. 

D. Transfer of Energy. 



Problem Solving 

Appendix C — List of Energy Topics with the Processes of Science that 
Could Be Used to Teach the Concepts to Elementary School Children 

Processes of Science 

Observing, Using Space/Time Rela- 
tionships 

Observing, Using Space/Time Rela- 
tionships, Classifying 

Observing, Using Space/Time Rela- 
tionships, Classifying 

Observing, Using Space/Time Rela- 
tionships, Classifying, Measuring, 
Using Numbers, Communicating, In- 
ferring, Predicting, Controlling 
Variabfes 



E. {Interconversion of Matter 
and Energy). 

II. Sources of Energy. 
A, Renewable. 

1. Solar. 

2. Wind. 

3. Hydropower. 

4. Biomass. 

8 Non-Renewable. 

1. Fossil Fuels. 

2. Nuclear. 

3. Geothermal, 

III. Uses of Energy. 

A. Natural. 

1. Biological. 

2. Physical. 

B. Technological, 

1. Factors that Affect 
Energy Usage. 

2, Consequences. 

IV. Problems Related to Energy. 

A. Social 

B. Economical. 

C. Environmental. 



Observing 

Using Space/Time Relationships 

Classifying 

Measuring 

Using Numbers 

Communicating 

Inferring 

Predicting 

Controlling Variables 

Interpreting Data 

Defining Operationally 

Formulating Hypotheses 

Experimenting 



Observing 

Using Space/Time Relationships 

Classifying 

Measuring 

Using Numbers. 

Communicating 

Inferring 

Predicting 

Controlling Variables 

Interpreting Data 

Defining Operationally 

Formulating Hypotheses 

Experimenting 

Observing 

Using Space/Time Relationships 

Classifying 

Measuring 

Using Numbers 

Communicating 

Inferring 

Predicting 

Controlling Variables 

Interpreting Data 

Defining Operationally 

Formulating Hypotheses 

Experimenting 



78 



V. Conservation of Energy. 

A. Distribution. 

B. Demand, 

C. Alternative Energy Resources. 



Observing 

Using Space/Time Relationships 

Classifying 

Measuring 

Using Numbers 

Communicating 

Inferring 

Predicting 

Controlling Variables 

Interpreting Data 

Defining Operationally 

Formulating Hypotheses 

Experimenting 



Appendix D — List of Behaviors Classified by Variety of Learning 

that a Student Could be Expected to Attain Upon Completing the 

Curriculum on Energy. 

Intellectual Skiff: Discrimination 
The student will: 

' discriminate between instances when objects posses stored energy (potential) and when objects possess moving energy (kinetic). 

* discriminate between forms of energy. 

* distinguish situations in which energy is being transferred from one form to another from those in which there is no transfer of energy. 

Intellectual Skill: Concrete Concepts 
The student will: 

* identify objects that possess stored or moving energy. 

* identify the form of energy demonstrated. 

' identify situations in which energy transfer is occurring. 

* point our illustrations of renewable and non-renewable energy resources. 

* identify pictures that illustrate the sun, wind, or water as an energy source. 

* point out pictures from magazines that illustrate how a person's life style affects the amount of energy he uses. 

* identify illustrations that show a high dependance on energy, 

* point out on a globe or map showing the distribution of natural resources geographical areas that have a large supply of coal or oil. 

Intellectual Skill: Defined Concepts 
The student will: 

* classify examples of energy according to its form, 
' demonstrate the definition of energy. 

* classify sources of energy as renewable or non-renewable. 

* explain the transformation of the chemical energy stored in food to heat and motion in the body, 

* categorize pictures into groups having a high or low energy requirement on the basis of the life style represented in the picture. 

* categorize pictures into groups having a high or low energy requirement on the basis of the level of technology of the society that is 
pictured. 

Intellectual Skill: Rules 
The student will: 

' demonstrate the transfer of stored energy to energy of motion. 

* demonstrate the transfer of energy of motion to stored energy. 

* demonstrate a situation involving the transfer of energy such as the transfer of: 

wind energy to mechanical energy. 
water energy to mechanical energy, 
mechanical energy to electrical energy, 
chemical energy to heat energy, 
heat energy to water energy, 
heat energy to wind energy, 
electrical energy to heat energy, 
electrical energy to light energy. 

Intellectual Skill: Problem Sofving 
The student will: 

* generate a solution to a problem situation involving selection of an energy source, energy usage, and energy conservation. 

* design a working model of a house heated by solar energy. 

* create a device for converting the energy from a renewable source to mechanical energy. 



79 



Cognitive Strategies 

The student wilf: 

* draw upon his prior learnings, as well as the concepts and skills learned in this unit, to develop a plan for solving one of the followinq 
problems: 

* Create a device for converting a renewable energy resource to mechanical energy. 

4 Design a working model of a house heated by solar energy. 
' outline his strategy for generating a solution to an environmental probfem that requires for solution the selection of an energy source, 
energy usage, and energy conservation. 

Verbal Information 

The student will: 

' state the definition for energy, 
name the two main classes energy can take - stored energy and moving energy, 

* list seven forms of energy. 

* state that energy can be transferred from one form of energy to another. 
' state the rule for the interconversion of matter and energy (E=mc 2 ). 

1 define the terms renewable and non-renewable energy resources, 

* list examples of renewable and non-renewable energy resources. 

* list three reasons why the sun is the primary source of energy on earth. 

* state the cause of wind. 

' list two uses of wind power 

* state the cause of hydropower. 

* list two uses of hydropower. 

* define the term biomass. 

* name three types of fossil fuels. 

* state how fossil fuels were formed. 

* list three examples of uses of fossil fuels. 

* state how nuclear energy is formed. 

* list two processes that release nuclear energy. 

* define the term geothermat energy, 

* list three types of geothermal resources. 

" list three processes in living things that require energy. 

" state the relationship between energy, a force, and a distance. 

* list factors that affect energy usage. 

* name one energy related problem in each of the following three areas of concern: social, economical, and environmental. 

* name the geographic area in which specific energy resources are located. 

* list alternative energy resources. 

* list countries that have the greatest energy demands, 

Attitudes 

The student will: 

* accept a change in his life style to reflect a decreased energy consumption. 

* accept responsibility for conserving energy in his own life and sphere of activity, 

* be willing to use alternative energy resources. 
" choose to conserve electricity 

by turning off unnecessary electricl lights and by decreasing the amount of television watched. 

* choose to walk rather than ride in a car when possible. 

* choose to wear sweaters in the house and school when it is cold outside so that the thermostat can be lowered. 

* choose to save aluminum cans and other items for recycling. 

* organize friends to save items that can be recycled, 

* organize an energy conservation group. 

Appendix E - Examples of Objectives 

1. Classes of Energy. 

When presented with a moving pinwheel and examples of both moving (kinetic) and stored (potential) energy such as: a moving paddle 
wheel on a toy boat, an electric motor, a wind-up toy, a flashlight battery, a log, and a bar of chocolate, the student will discriminate the 
objects that have energy of motion from those that do not have energy of motion by pointing to the objects which are like the moving 
pinwheef when asked by the teacher, 

2. Forms of Energy. 

a. VW en presented with the sound of a bell ringing, a fight beam from a flashlight, a cup of hot water, a moving electric motor, and a log. 
and the terms for the following forms of energy: sound, heat, light, mechanical, chemical, electrical, the student will identify the form of 
energy each object has by pointing to the appropriate object as the teacher names each form of energy, 

b. When presented with the sound of a bell ringing, a light beam from a flashlight, a cup of hot water, a moving electric motor, and a log, 
and the characteristics of the following forms of energy: sound, heat, light, mechanical, chemical and electrical, the student will classify 
each object or event by naming and defining the forms of energy being illustrated. 

3. Transfer of Energy 

Using a toy paddle boat and a rubber band, the student will demonstrate the transfer of stored energy in the rubber band to energy of 
motion in the paddle wheel by winding up the rubber band-paddle wheel mechanism and placing the toy boat in a tub of water when 
requested by the teacher. 

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5.2 

ENERGY DAY: AN ELEMENTARY LEVEL ENERGY CURRICULUM 

by Selma Sleven and Mimi S, Baer 
Abstract . 

Energy can be characterized as a "push or a pull that makes things move;* Beginning with this simple qualitative definition of energy, 
students and teachers at the St. Augustine School in Santa Monica, California designed a truly comprehensive elementary level energy 
program, Classes at each grade level selected a different form of energy to explore. All the children participated in an ENERGY DAY 
which was a culumination of the information they had collected about energy and energy alternatives. The major group projects that 
students at each level created to illustrate science ideas will be described, and the manner in which these ideas were intergrated into the 
general curriculum will be noted 

First Grade — Wind Energy 

7"op/c selected 

The demonstration of a milk carton water wheel led students to realize that a wheel moved by water could also be moved mechanically oy 
hand and even by blowing across the wheel. Wind energy was selected for study. Since winds are the motion of molecules in gasses, two 
science ideas were developed: (1) the particulate nature of matter and (2) molecular condition and changes in the states of matter. A study 

of winds and weather culminated in group construction of a climb into thundercloud. 

Projects for Presentation 

Using a refrigerator carton and 2 washing machine cartons, the high hat shape of a cumulo-nimbus cloud was simulated. The cartons 
were then covered with painted paper to achieve the appropriate coloration. Traffic was routed through the cloud via a small doorway 
entrance and exit. Inside the black paper lined cloud, an ultraviolet light highlighted styrofoam hailstones, plastic wrap rain and 
flourescent paper lightening. Child-produced thunder was recorded and- used, which integrated even the music department into teh 
energy day project. 

Classroom Activities 

The abstract idea that matter is made of molecules can be introduced on a first grade level by having each child tear a piece of paper tnto 
the smallest piece possible, and noting that this tiny section stil! contains hundreds of thousands of paper molecules. The interrelation- 
ship between the molecules determines the states of matter, Molecules in a solid can be said to be locked together giving the solid its 
definite shape. In liquids, molecules take on the shape of the container because they slip and slide over each other. 

In gases, molecuies bounce around like trillions of miniscule ping pong balls. Changes in state, therefore, can be characterized as the 
locking and unlocking of molecules, can be related to the water cycle, and can be illustrated by making candles. Since the rate of 
molecular movement varied, each child made a model of an anemometer to understand measurement of wind speed. In addition, each 
student buiit an energy converter, a simple windmill that uses wind energy to raise an object. This illustrated the concept of the 
conversion of wind energy to mechanical energy. 

Curriculum Integration 

Ideas about energy in the wind and the production of weather predicting instruments was connected to work on myths, legends, story 

telling and poems about weather and winds. 

Second Grade — Sound Energy 

Topic selected , ' . 

A general classroom study of animal communication was tied to the ENERGY theme through an investigation of sound energy. Sound is 
produced by vibrations and the mechanisms animals use to cause vibrations were studied. Contrasts between communities of animal 
with and without vocal cords were illustrated in an exhibit that included a hollow tree with a bee hive, a woodland scene and a pond. Sound 
energy as moving molecules and its production and function in communication was highlighted. 

Project for Presentation 

Students climbed into a refrigerator carton which they designed as a hollow tree. Inside, they hung egg carton honey combs and models 
of bees to create the impression of a bee hive. This carton was connected to two more refrigerator cartons which became a diorama of a 
woods scene, the bottom carton simulating an underground passageway. 

Classroom activities 

The nature of sound, the variations in method of producing vibrations, and animal communication were unified in the study of sound as a 
form of energy. Whatever vibrates causes molecules to move and the character of their movement determines the specific sound that is 
created. Activities that contrast and specify the character of sounds are effective in teaching sound energy. 

Third Grade — Electrical Energy 

Topic selected . 

The use and conservation of electricity was studied through the production by each student of a mini cardboard room in which a simple 

circuit operated. 

Project for Presentation 

Students mini rooms were coordinated into a large three dimensional bulletin board hotel aptly named "The Plug Inn by the students. 

Classroom Activities 

At the third grade level, understanding of the vocabulary of electricity grew when body movement was incorporated into the description 
of current, voltage and resistance. Five children standing in a row, hands on hips, illustrated a current or the flow of electrons domino style 
from elbow to elbow. Voltage was illustrated by the intensity of the push that started the current flowing, and resistence by the rigidity of 
the next elbow. The path of an electric current was demonstrated via a circle of students who enabled the current to flow around. 

81 



Numbers of circuits encountered in everyday use were observed and conservation possibilities and ideas were disseminated on Energy 
Day. 

Curriculum Integration 

A classroom study of community was enhanced by observation of local energy practices and needs. Construction of mini rooms 
necessitated a focus of attention on detail by each student. Coordination of all rooms into a larger structure highlighted the need for 
common services. 

Fourth Grade — Chemical Energy 

7"op/c selected 

Because the fourth graders were involved in weaving and dying fibers, they explored the chemical energy which is produced when 

molecules change partners, 

Project for Presentation 

To understand the nature of chemicai changes and chemical energy, students investigated the structure of atoms and constructed 

marshmallow molecules, In addition, styrofoam squiggles were painted and grouped into a 3 dimensional model showing chemical 

changes, Students took turns using actual indicators, acids and bases to demonstrate chemical reactions to those who attended Energy 

Day. 

Curriculum integration 

The study of chemical energy from a molecular standpoint made it possible for students to realize that similar reactions happen with 
different chemicals and that sometimes reactions can be violent. Similarly, chemicals can co-exist and only react when energy is applied. 
The concepts of grouping materials by their properties and differentiating by observation definitely can be extended into the general 
curriculum in many areas, 

Fifth and Sixth Grades 
Measuring Energy and Energy Alternatives 

7"op/c Selected 

Comparisons of various kinds of pushes and pulls or alternative forms of energy ied to questions of quantity and methods of 
measurement. Electric meters were constructed of cardboard and instructions for their use were compiled. Alternative forms of energy 
were sought imaginatively. The need for conservation of currently available supplies so as to permit time for development of new forms 
became clear. The problems and benefits of each form of energy were investigated and listed. 

Projects for Presentation 

Paper models of electric meters were constructed in quantity by the students for distribution to parents on Energy Day. Large charts 

listing the problems and benefits of various forms of energy were constructed and used by the students to describe these alternatives to 

visitors, 

To demonstrate solar energy, each student constructed a cardboard and foil Solar Hot Dog Cooker. The limitations of solar power 
became obvious on Energy Day because the fog in Santa Monica left the hot dogs very raw. 

Students measured the food energy in a peanut by constructing a calorimeter. Awareness of the complexity of the energy picture was 
recognized. 

Curricuium Integration 

Factors that must be considered in dealing with our energy problems in the future led to the development of a booklet that was compiled 
and distributed by the fifth and sixth graders, for the purpose of educating those less aware of our needs. The skills and concepts 
incorporated in an effort of this nature necessarily were drawn from many areas of the curriculum. 

Conclusion 

Armed with a more complete picture of our energy needs and problems, elementary level students can face the challenges of the future 
with a firmer footing on which to build. Conservation alone is not a complete answer, but neither is total reliance on systems which as yet 
are limited. We need a populace in our technological world that is scientifically literate, and the place where this literacy must begin is at 
the elementary level. It can be done. 

5.3 

SOLAR ENERGY IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 
Varda Bar 

Abstract 

An experiment in active learning of solar energy and its uses in an elementary school is described. The aim of the experiment was to 
influence the attitudes of the pupils by demonstrating to them the possibility of substituting solar energy for fossil fuel. 
The change in the pupils' attitudes was expressed in their essays. 

Introduction 

Teaching this subject in the fifth grade of an elementary school in Israel was motivated by pupils' questions about the ability to continue 
technological development in a country which does not have fossil fuel resources. These questions reflected uncertainties the pupils had 
about the possibility of continuing the way of life they were used to. 

In order to deal rationally with these uncertainties we decided to presentsolar energy as an alternative energy source for the many uses of 
oil. The reasons for preferring solar energy to other possible alternative energy sources were the following; 



82 



Solar energy is free from pollution and does not change the heat ecology of the globe. 

The physical knowledge needed to begin to investigate solar energy appliances is minimal and it is within the reach of ten year old 
pupils. The pupils have only to know that the sun is a source of light and heat 

Through their investigations the children can learn about the following physical occurrences: The daily and yearly motion of the sun. 
heat conduction, heat absorption and the concentration of het by tenses and mirrors. These have also relevance to other subjects of 
interest: household economy, optics, geography and astronomy. 

The subject of solar energy is suitable for active learning: knowledge can be gathered from many sources, pu pils can build models and 
improve them, they can perform observations and experiments, and they can work individually or in a group. 

By carrying out this program we were investigating two questions: 

A, Will the attitudes of the pupils change from uncertainty or disbelief in technological development to more confident ones? 

B. Is this subject suitable for active learning? 

The experiment was carried out in three parallel fifth grade classes of an elementary school in Jerusalem containing one hundred and 
twenty pupils. 

Order of Activities 

The following activities were performed through the learning units; 

1 . The "passive 1 ' solar house: This acitivity consisted of building a model of a house warmed by the sun, that could keep its warmth 
through the night. During this activity the problem of heat conduction was investigated, and the many uses of good and poor heat 
conductors were discussed. 

2. Warming water by the sun: The household water heater, the solar pool and similar appliances were studied. Their models were bu ilt; 
through these activities the pupils learned about the absorption of heat in various materials. 

3. Heat collecting: The problem of concentrating the heat into a small area to enable its use for industrial purposes was presented. 
Methods of collecting solar heat by lenses and mirrors were demonstrated. In order to improve these collectors, the daily and yearly 
motions of the sun were studied, 

4. Electricity manufacturing: The solar battery was demonstrated as well as other ways to transfer solar energy into electric power. The 
other alternatives were the solar pool, the wind and falling water power. 

Knowledge about other uses of solar energy was gathered also from reading, thus the pupils learned about the solar car and the use of 

solar energy in space. 

Throughout these activities original Israeli inventions were stressed; this made the subject even more relevant for the pupils. 

Method of Teaching 

The subject was presented by the method of "Learning by doing." The pupils defined a problem that could be solved by using energy: 
heating the house, moving a car, heating water, manufacturing electricity and so on. They tried to suggest asolution to the problem using 
solar energy. In some cases a model was built demonstrating this solution, This first solution was not usually good enough, it needed 
improvements. A new model was built and this process was repeated until some optimal model was found. At this stage the modei was 
compared to real existing equipment: a household water heater, a solar pool, etc, This comparison was done by observing theappliance, 
by reading about it. or by hearing about it from people of the University who volunteered for this purpose. 

This method will be exemplified in the activity of the "passive solar house." The first solution suggested was similar to a greenhouse, 
suggesting a transparent house. Of course a house cannot be transparent and thus one transparent wall was made In the model. In order 
to define the direction of this wall observations were made to locate the sun in the sky, Further improvement of the model were 
constructing an absorbent wail behind the transparent one and modifying this wall in a way that would allow for air circulation in the 
"house." Similarly the modification of the solar collector (a lens) was moving this collector in order to follow the motion of the sun in the 
sky. 

Before and After Attitudes .,.._, ^ Th 

As was described in the introduction we decided to carry out this subject because we realized that the pupils lacked confidence. They 
expressed their doubts in the future development of our country, and even asked if all the civilization as they knew it would stop (cars, 
electricity, etc.). Those questions were expressed in discussions as well as in essays they wrote. Our main purpose in presenting solar 
energy was to show that another alternative exists. 

Following this purpose we did not make any formal evaluation of achievements. We assumed that performing the activities contributed 
both to their knowledge and the improvement of the skills. But we were not mainly interested in the amount of knowledge that the pupils 
acquired nor in the extent of the improvement of their skills. We were, on the other hand, concerned in the possible changes in the 
attitudes. In order to follow a change in the attitude we asked them to write essays at the end of the course. In those essays the pupils 
described their views about solar energy and its possible uses. 

In contrast to the views that the pupils had before the beginning of the course, at the end of it they expressed more confidence in the 
future. They wrote that solar energy can substitute other forms of energy in many ways. I n the pupils' language: "Solar energy can be used 
to move everything in the same way it moves today" or "If we could really use the sun's jnergy, maybe in space, we would not have 
anything to worry ....". 
This pronounced change in attitude showed we had achieved our purpose. 

Concluding Remarks „*,«-,«« 

In carrying out this experiment to teach about solar energy in the fifth grade of an elementary school we wanted to find if the performance 
of the activities would affect the attitudes of the pupils, and if the active learning was a suitable way for teaching this subject. 
The change of attitude was demonstrated in the change of views that were expressed by the pupils, before the course and after it. The 

83 



views expressed after the course were more optimistic due to the encounter with the uses of solar energy. 

The success of the active learning was stressed by the fact the pupils themselves were responsible for the process of learning: they 
defined the problems, suggested solutions to them, gradually improved those solutions and searched for more knowledge from many 
available sources. Their motivation in doing so proved that they were realty interested in this subject. 



84 



SESSION 6: INSTRUCTION UNITS — SECONDARY 

6.1 INVITED 

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE CONCEPT OF ENERGY 

FOR 15-YEAR-OLD PUPILS 

IN FRANCE 

By G. Lemeignan and G. Delacote 

Introduction 

The curriculum that shall be described and which deals basical ly with the notion of energy ,is part (1 /3) of a longer curriculum centered on 

physics and chemistry for 15-year-old French pupils. 

Indeed, since 1977, there has been a new physics and chemistry curriculum in France designed and implemented for the French middle 

school (11-15 year-old pupils). This compulsory curriculum requires 1.5 periods a week (each period lasting 55 minutes) during the four 

years of the French "college." (There is also another 1.5 period a week devoted to biology and geology). The part devoted to energy is 

therefore only 1.12th of the.total time spent on physics and chemistry notions by any young French pupil; furthermore, it comes only at 

the end of the fourth year curriculum, trying to build on previous learning experiences of the pupil. 

The other two parts of the physics and chemistry curriculum in the iast year of middle school are, roughly speaking based on mechanics 

(force, motion, interaction) and molecular chemistry (notion of molecules, writing of chemical equations, excluding the notion of mole). 

A short history 

The usual way of reforming the science curriculum in France is to establish, after a short period of experimentation in a very limited 
number of schools, new programs {or syllabus in American terminology), based, whenever possible, on empirical criticism made by the 
teachers and to implement them nation-wide at once. The educative system, of course, reacts slowly and it sometimes takes at least 5 
years until the program is stabilized. After 10 years, the program is considered more or less obsolete and the time therefore ripe for a new 

reform. 

In the present case, physics and chemistry haoj not previously been taught in France at this level except for what was called a "technology 
slot" which was a mixture of the study of mass, weight, and the functioning of simple technological objects like the rail-curtain or the door 
lock (the simplest one, of course). The idea was good, but the teaching bored a lot of teachers and pupils alike during the 1960's. 

This time, in order to decide on the content of the new syllabus, a working party was set up which decided to rely upon the experimental 
and national work done by a group of scientists and middle school teachers based in one of the thirteen universities in Paris, It is 
interesting to note that since 1971, when this working party was created, it has evolved into a laboratory, recognizd by the National 
Research Council of France for research done in science education. This laboratory is unique in France, a country which likes 
singularities and has also developed a training program for young researchers, similar to the Sesame Program for PhD's in science 
education developed at the University of Berkeley. 

This working group decided to experiment with a certain number of units called "modules," (There were 1 of these modules developed 

over 6 years.) Among these was one of "Energy." 

The aims of the experimentation was to try to work with "objectives in mind," to watch the reactions, motivations.and learning 

achievements of the pupils (14-15 years olds) as well as the teachers. This is more or less the canonical approach to what Americans 

usually refer to as a "project." 

The end product turned out to be- rather unexpectedly - a student book and a teacher guide which were sold for the first time in 1980 in 

the free market (10% of total sales). 

There were, therefore, two phases in this project. The first was the experiment done with the teachers {over 2 years in duration), the 
reports written, the conclusions reached. The second phase was the writing of a commercial textbook. It turned out that the second phase 
was much harder-and of shorter duration!'- than the first, but very useful for an in-depth scrutiny of all the ideas which had been launched 
and tested in the previous experiments. 

Furthermore, the knowledge acquired when teaching this energy "module' 1 (approximately 20 hours of teaching) had to be cast into the 
general non-conventional (at least in France) structure we had adopted for the student's book and the teacher's guide {there was one 
student book and one teacher guide per college year). Thus, instead of allowing for chapters in sequence- as is usually the caes- the book 
is based on a certain number of homogeneous parts, roughly grouped under three main headings; Documents, Activities, Encyclopedia. 
The aim of the documents is to provide starting points for problems arising from everyday life situations, or further readings, etc. The aims 
of activities are to provide problems to be solved, and research to be carried out, etc. The aim of the encyclopedia is to provide the basic 
knowledge in a frame which may be used later by adults using encyclopedia at home. This structure was inspired by a reflection of what 
could be the role printed materials when learning science and also by the basic intention of leaving the teacher free to organize his/her 
own teaching. The title of the series is eloquent in itself. The books are entitle, "The Free Path Series." ^ 

Description of the curriculum 

Content 

According to what has been said, it is not possible to describe a sequence of teaching to introduce energy. Rather, we may quote some 
objectives of importance. Indeed, the approach has to be somewhat experimental and be able to facilitate a process whereby the pupil 
may gain some evidence about the notion of energy by many means, among which are logical reasoning the the verdict of experience. 
Therefore, we won't stress any further the so-called "objectives of method" but rather focus on knowledge and "know-how" objectives. 
The following is a list of the main objectives of knowledge. 

* to be able to identify the different energy forms and to discriminate betwen stocked energy and transfered energy (heat work, 
radiation); 

* to be able to analyze and represent an energetic chain by an ad hoc formalism; 

* to be able to tndentify in a chain, energy output which is not useful (or used = energy losses). This is a prerequisite for the notion of 
yield; 



85 



* to be able to state the energy conservation principle and use it in a chain* 

0Mh?mach?n2 e ""* "" ^ ""* ^ t6mperatUr8S ° UrCeS in a ,herma ' en 9 ine ' and 'modify them in ordertovarytheefficiency 

oHhefach?ne: enli,ythehi9hand ^ 

* to be able to quote energy sources and forms of stocked energy* 

;his?n,foduc b e y S TenSn 5 K"" COndm ° nS °' '" 6ner9etiC ^ <° imPr0Ve the ™™ °^ for < he •«"• "-W W 

nSo b no a f b powerr 0difyin9 ^ "° W °' """^ a '° n9 * ^ '" ° rder *° ^ ^ ° UtpUt ef,6Ct ° r its duration - This introduces tf1e 

* to be able to approach the notion of energetic cost. 

Calculations and measurements have been included in the list of "know-how" objectives. These include: 

* the measurement of a quantity of energy by using the electric counter, or by applying the product V (voltage xl (current) xt (time) 
£ pSS ng measurement, or by weighing a gas contained by 'applying M (mS^rSSeSii 

aiJSi , on , nic matlon " of ener9y " ow of ener9y (power) and yield values in different situations borrowed ,rom evef y da y life 

Equipment 

In order to foster an experimental approach which, at the same time, would not strav too far awav fmm r«i iif a e if, ia « rt „ u 

designed pieces of equipment which may be useful for the pupils to perform ex :perimenS situations, we have 

One of the guidelines when designing these pieces of equipment was to provide in some cases a replica of everyday 

The foilowing is a list of pieces we propose to the teacher: everyday me energy cnains. 

* Different kinds of batteries (dry or not) to build yourself; 

* A thermal power plant (using a pressure cooker, a simple'home-made turbine wheel, a shaft two pulleys a belt a small mann^t 
motor working as a dynamo, and an efectric bulb); ' puneys, a c-eit, a small magnet 

;A wind-operated electric power plant (you use the water from the tap falling on the turbine)- 
A car operated by solar cells, or by batteries, or by a rotating inertia! wheel* 

* A solar pump; 

* A small home-made refrigerator (operated by a bicycle pump); 

* A solar water-heater (the mirror is in atuminized nyton); 

* Thermal engines: 

drinking duck 

thermal helix (operated by a candle) 

thermal ship (operated by a candle) 

thermal merry-go-round (operated by burning alcohol) 

thermal tube ship (operated by a candle) 

* An experimental flash (which delivers a light flash). 
Controls 

A typical question would be the following: 

Conclusion 

Th?« w«Mf , r hiCh haS .,! >een described here is rathe r ™w for French teachers and their pupils. 

For further details, the reader may wish to consult the following books: 
Sciences Physiques 3e livre de I'eieve 

iivre du professeur 

Collection Libre Parcours, HACHETTE, Paris 1980 

6.2 

ENERGY EDUCATION PROJECT IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY - PHILIPPINES" 

By: Dr. Juanita A. Manalo* 
Introduction 

£* o h dSSL\ a T r L°,!!)f,n OUntry ' ! S faC6d T the Pr0blems of lack of fossil fuels - P° ssible environmental damage, and the high 
Srarn^&aSl uS^^rr?" ^^ Th6 Phi ' iPPine 9 0v6mment nas thus embarked on an ambitious energy development 
Smo^^^ -T^ 8 ' H ° W6Ver ' While the 9°™nment is focusing its resources™ indigenous 

^n^tfmwnl^J^n? f " ' S em9 dSVOted t0 ,he P rom <*ion of, within the various sectors of soceity, a greater 
understand^ o^rnC a ' ertness , ° "? ™ st efflc| ent uses, a recognition of its relation to contemporary and future lifestyles and an 
SSK^w^ "! Sh ° rt ;. ener9y education is underutilized as a mode for creating among the citizen^ a greater 
awareness of. and capability of effectively dealing with, the problems raised as a result of the end of the cheap fossil fuel era 

86 



Cognizant of both the need to educate the Fihp.no people and the inadequacies of the government to provide all the necessary energy 
education, Ph.llipines Women s Un.vers.ty volunteered to complement the existing energy education programs of the government with 
its own energy education proposal. The .goal of theprojectis to develop desirablevalues and attitudes towards efficientenergy utilization 
and conservation. The proposal was submitted to Asia Foundation in March, 1 980. as an answer to the challenge. This was an offshoot of 
the environmental education seminars being conducted since 1977, where energy was always one of the issues discussed because of its 
significance. Collaboration was then sought with the Ministries of Education and Energy and the Science Foundation of the Philippines 
as early as possible for coordination and better implementation of the project, should it be approved. 

It was originally conceived to be an information-dissemination project to reach as many scienceteachers at theshortesttimepossibleas 
n?H e i^ t °h ne ? ♦ T C > ha H ged 1° t r t S earch -° riented f ormat in the pre-planning session. In the two-day session organized to 

crystallize the project activities to be undertaken, representatives of the Ministries of Education and Energy, science professors from 
various universities, and leading energy experts from government and non-governmental centers were invited to share their expertise 
and experiences in streamlining the project. The result was a research oriented plan utilizing a few pilot schools to test the energy 
teaching packages to be prepared by a group of teachers within a set period of time. The planners also agreed that the energy topics 
would be integrated into the non-science courses like Social Sciences, Math, and the Humanities to strengthen the energy concepts 
taken up in their science subjects. It was also believed that the objective of developing attitudes and values of energy could better be 
achieved in these non-science courses. 

The project was finally launched on October 1, 1980. 

Phases of the Project — - 

A. ENERGY EDUCATION SURVEY 

After manning the project and organizing the consultative team, the project started with a two-month survey to assess availability of 
energy education resources; both human and material.in the Philippines. A questionnaire was prepared to elicit information on who were 
involved in energy education and the nature of their involvement. It also asked the kind and quantity of education materials available in 
their institutions. Letters were sent to institutions and agencies believed to be interested and involved in energy education. Follow-ups 
and personal visits were made to agencies and institutions with voluminous materials that required classifying and recording Results 
were analyzed and collated. Copies of the directory are now available containing analysis of the survey results, listings of human and 
material resources, and where they are available in the Philippines. 

Results of the survey showed a very limited number of organizations and human resources are involved In energy education. Emphasis of 
this education is on non-conventional sources of energy, particularly on biogasandsolarenergy. Integration into theexisting curriculum 
is also negligible. Energy education activities are irregular because of lack of definite programs. The scanty materials available are 95% 
foreign in origin and the local ones are limited in content and availability for distribution. 

B. PLANNING SESSION 

For better coordination and evaluation of the project, the planners recommended the limitation of the number of pilot schools who will 
test the energy teaching packages. The consesus was that only after the materials had been proven successful should they be used in a 
wider scale by a bigger number of teachers. The project was therefore limited to the teachers of the Philippine Women's University at its 
vanous branches situated in the different geographical locations througout the Philippines. Involved in the project now are the secondary 
and college teachers of the main campus in Taft Avenue; the elementary and secondary teachers at its branches in Quezon City 
Manveles, Bataan in Northern Luzon and at Davao City in Mindanao. To generate greater interest among these teachers they were 
involved as early as possible in the planning session. They were given sufficient energy background through formal lectures on the 
vanous energy concepts and at the workshops that followed, they identified the entry points in their respective curriculum for energy 
concept integration. Energy concepts suggested in the US National Science Teachers' Association energy education program were 
integrated into the Sociai Sciences, Math, and Humanities subjects at the three levels of education. They also pinpointed the grade levels 
where best integration could be achieved, Better results were expected with the grade three pupils because of their earlier grades and 
first year students of the secondary and tertiary ievels. Integration at any higher level would be too late for them. Energy concepts would 
be integrated in Science and Social Scienes at the elementary level. Forthefirst year secondary students, energy integration will bedone 
in Math, Sociai Science, Science, and the Practical Arts, while forthe first year college students, it will be done in English, Social Sciences 
Math, and Science. 

Teachers who would write the modules were selected and they divided the work among themselves. Each writer chose the topic she felt 
she was most competent in. 

Each energy teaching package will include guides for the teachers and students and would have the objectives, a brief discussion of the 
concept, teaching strategies, materials, time allotment and references. 

Writing the Modules 

To avoid duplicating previously prepared materials, those developed earlier by the Ministry of Education Center for Appropriate 
Technology, and Science Education Center of the Philippines were obtained for supplementing study. These, together with the 
curriculum materials brought home from the Staes by Mrs. Leticia Zerda, an Asia Foundation grantee on Energy Education were used as 
base materials for the preparation of our own. More materials were requested from the United Staes Department of Energy and the 
National Science Teachers' Association who had pioneered in the subject. Early arrival of these materials enabled teachers working on 
the project to use them as examples. The materials were truly helpful and we could not have progressed as fast had they not been 
available. The format and the concepts were adopted but were modified to suit the needs of the local students. 

TEACHING MATERIALS DEVELOPED 

1. SLIDES - ENERGY: TODAY AND TOMORROW 

Slides to develop an energy story were prepared and these, together with the background material, were given to each pilotschoof for its 
own use. ■ 

2, TEACHING PACKAGES 

Teaching packages for each educational level were prepared to include the six major energy concepts we adopted from the Project for an 
Energy Enriched Curriculum (PEEC). (1) They are: 



87 



1. Energy is a Basic Need. 

2. Energy Usefulness if Finite. 

3. Energy Use Affects Society. 

4. Energy and Environment are Interrelated, 

5. Energy and Politics are Closely Linked. 

6. What is in the Future for Energy? 

Each teaching package contains several lessons developed around an energy concept. Each lesson includes teachers' guides students' 
activities, background information on the concept, objectives, teaching strategies, materials, time allocation and target audience Some 
extra exercises for pupils, Pre and post tests were also included. 

Lessons on What is Energy? Energy is All Around; Sources of Energy (Fossil Fuels, Sun, Wind,, Water, Food); Energy Conversions and 
Consumption - were developed to illustrate the first two major energy concepts and are intended for integration into both Science and 
Social Science courses at all levels of education. 

Teaching packages in English and Plfjpino on community workers whose jobs are directly affected by energy or are dependent on its 
continuous supply were prepared for integration into both Science and Social Science courses at all levels of education. 

Teaching packages in English and Pilipino on community workers whose jobs are directly affected by energy or are dependent on its 
continuous supply were prepared for integration in Social Studies in the elementary grade. Lessons on Energy Users and Consumption 
of the Various Sectors of Society were prepared for integration in the Social Studies and Mathematics courses of both thesecondary and 
tertiary students. J 

Environmental effects of extraction, production, transportation and utilization of energy resources are included in the science teaching 
modules for all levels to illustrate interrelationships between energy and environment. 

Energy policies of the government are integrated in History and Government courses while the concept of What's the Future for Enerqv 
are included in the science modules on future sources of energy. 

Reinforcements of these concepts are made in the energy packages intended for use in Mathematics. Practical Arts, and English classes 

Reading materials on energy are utilized to improve vocabulary and comprehension in English, and Mathematical skills in Algebra for the 
secondary and tertiarly levels. Improved energy utilization and conservation practices are envisioned in the lessons prepared for the 
Practical Arts students in the secondary level. 

Orientation Session 

Even before the teaching materials were finalized, orientation sessions were conducted in each of the pilot schools before opening of 
classes to familiarize the teachers on their use. At each session, an overview of the Energy Education Project and slide presentation of 
nT 9 ,l 2 V Tom . orrow were inducted. Lectures on Nature of Energy, Energy Resources, Environmental Impacts and the 
Z !JT,!? ,T P° llcles H we ; e 9 ! ven *° the teacners ,0 P rovide sufficient background on the energy concepts. Then, a workshop on 
the evaluation, utilization and adoption of the teaching packages followed. Teachers acquainted themselves with the various lessons 
available, screened hern and decided which of these materials they would want to use in their own classes. At the end of the workshop 
each teacher submitted a report on: 

1. lessons they want to integrate and why 

2. where they would integrate such and when 

3. changes in the materials they want to make, if any, to suit the local needs of their students. 

These written reports served as their commitment and thus facilitated monitoring of the project 

Lv fhf^h^Kfl T P K P " S and th ? f ' rS y ' ar StUdentS at the seconda ry ^d tertiarly levels of these pilot schools. Findings obtained 
by the other volunteer teachers are not included in the results of the project. 

Evaluation 

™^i«^ °/ h 6 ? r0i -,? 'J S eva,uated / To evaluate effectlvity of the teaching materials, results of the pre-survey on the attitudes of the 
55 Sf o?,h t W " , bG 'I"?*?* t th the r6SUitS ° f the P0st surve y ,0 be conducted at the end of the school-year. Changes m the 
attitudes of he participating students will also be compared with a control group whenever possible. Some classes are so small that all 

n «n Jf.h- .,"? . pa ? C '^? m pr Tu t- T ° determine an increase in energy information, preand post tests for every concept will be 
given to the students. Any difference will be attributed to the effect of the teaching activity 

Implementation and revision 

^ni.fnHhf Z'f l a R arS H PreS r", y "I" 9 '. ried in the Vari0US pilot sch00,s - Teacners and students are bein 9 monitored to evaluate the 
results of the project Based on the teachers comments, and results of the evaluation, these modules will be revised and improved Once 
revised, they will be tried on a regional scale where more teachers in these four regions will be involved. 

Future of the project 

2K™ inTJT' 8 ° n the c utili , zat ( ion of .fl™ modules wi " a a*in be conducted to involve the private and public teachers at all levels of 
nn^P nf PMPRrt *nnrl™ a ^ ™ wlM f be continued and if successful, more and more seminars will be conducted to spread the 

w^hang^d^^ud^bSenergy 6 theref ° re ^ *« "^ materia ' S *'" h6 ' P the ,6aCherS aChieV6 the ^ ° f M °™ students 

References; 

(1) Carey, Helen A. Energy Education Workshop Handbook. Natural Science Teachers* Association, Washington, D.C. 1978 

ilor^ Materials in Energy ' the Environment, and the Economy, National Science Teachers' 

Association. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. (1978). 

(3) Kushler, Martin G., and Davidson W. An Experimental Examination of Alternative Strategies to Promote Energy Conservation in High 



88 



School Youth. Paper presented in a symposium entitled "ENERGY CONSERVATION" at the 87th Annual Convention of the American 
Psychological Association, New York, [1979). 

(4) Stevens, W., Kushler, M, et at. Youth Energy Education Strategies: A Statistical Evaluation, Michigan Energy Extension Science 
Technical Report No. 4. Lansing, Michigan (Feb. 1979). 

(5) Stevens, William. A Review of Energy Education Recommendations by University Faculty from 32 University Graduate Schools 
(August 1979) 

(6) Stevens, William. An Evaluation Plan for Determining the I mpact of Energy Conservation Education on Student Attitudes and Actions. 
Michigan Energy Extension Service. Technical Report No. 2, Lansing, Michigan (1979) 

(7) Stevens, W., Emshoff, M. t et al. Youth Energy Survey National Pilot Final Report. Michigan Energy Extension Service. Michigan. 
{March 1979). 

(8) Five-Year Energy Program 1981-85. Ministry of Energy, Manila, Philippines. 

* AVP, The Philippine Women's University, Manila, Philippines 
"* Funded by a grant from Asia Foundation 

6-3 

A SHORT COURSE IN ENERGY 

Ouida E. Thomas 
Lamar Consolidated Independent School District 
Abstract Rosenberg, Texas 

This course was developed for use in grades 7-12 by teachers in many subject areas. Information was gathered from companies in the 
energy field, books, magazines, the local electric company, publications of universities, the U.S. Department of Energy and The Texas 
Governor's Office of Energy Resources. The course has been used to make students aware of energy resources, their uses, impact on the 
environment and economy, and conservation. The result has been an increased awareness in the community of the complexities of an 
energy-dependent society. 
Text 

This one-week mini-course was developed to introduce students to many facets of the study of energy. A lesson plan was provided to 
detail the work for each day. A study guide was given which describes the program, its educational objectives, background material for 
discussions, and answers for students worksheets. The packet given to each teacher also contains worksheets to be reproduced for each 
student and overhead transparencies, Wall charts and maps of energy resources are obtained from the science department chairman. 

On the first day, energy is defined, and units used to measure types of energy are presented. A chart showing types of energy and 
materials produced from coal, petroleum and natural gas is used to answer questions on the first worksheet. A second sheet shows 
conversions of one type of energy to another. Maps are used to show locations of energy resources. (In this program a world map and a 
map of Texas are used.) Alternate sources of energy {solar, tidal, geothermal, nuclear, etc.) to conventional sources are defined and 
discussed. 

The second day's activities are centered on technology and ecology. Since Texas is a center of the petrochemical industry, the high 
points of petrochemistry are given. There is a wail chart showing scientists and their contributions, which is used for discussion. The 
question put is whether the use of petrochemicals is of lesser, equal or greater value than the use of petroleum products for energy. 
Students are given a list of products to take home and discuss with their parents to see which products were available when their parents 
and grandparents were teenagers. Students explore uses of energy resources that result in the least damage to the environment There 
are books, magazines, pamphlets, etc., available in the department for reference. Good discussions, not to say arguments, have been 
generated at this point. 

On day three, students return sheets they took home, and the class discusses results of family discussions on petrochemical products 
that were not available just a few years ago. Another "family" assignment is given: to name the rooms of their homes and list all 
energy-using devices in each room, and, if possible, how much energy each uses. Also, they are asked to check which of these appliances 
their parents had 25 years ago and which their grandparents had 50 years ago. Several overhead transparencies are used which show 
energy resources around the world, and the proportion of each that is used by the United States. This leads to a discussion of why we 
should conserve energy. 

The returned lists of appliances are used on day four to stimulte questioning about which of them are luxuries, conveniences or 
necessities and how families can conserve energy. Overhead transparencies showing proportions of U.S. energy used for transportation, 
industry, agriculture, commerce, residences, etc., are used to help students see other areas where conservation can be practiced! 
Worksheets are given out to be used in teaching students how to read their electric meters, They take these home and record the reading 
on their own meters. They are asked to note the last reading on their electric bill to calculate cost per kilowatt hour. They can also 
determine how much power they have used since the meter was last read and to make practicable plans for reducing the amount they use. 
Overhead transparencies are again used to compare the advantage and disadvantages of several energy sources (petroleum, natural gas. 
nuclear, coal, solar, hydroelectric, tidal, geothermal, wind and synthetic fuels), 

Day five begins with a teacher-led discussion of the causes of the energy crisis. This leads into a discussion of future energy sources, 
conservation of energy and protecting the environment, and the economy. This means maintaining a rather delicate balance and 
demands critical thinking from the students (and teachers), a bonus to the program, The results of the meter-reading activity are put on 
the board. These are compared and concrete ideas for conserving electrical energy are written on the board. 

A summary of the important things learned and plans for conservation are put on the board. A list of projects for the near future may be 
added, particularly ones that involve parents and/or the community. The more people are made energy-conscious, the better. If time 
permits, students are encouraged to work in groups to develop their own national energy program. 

89 



This mini-course is updated annually. This year The National Geographic Society generously gave its permission to use materials from 
■ ( A Special Report in the Public Interest: Energy," a special edition in February, 1981, This is enormously helpful in keepinq up with 
changing figures, and it is necessary to keep the material current, 



Selected References 



"A Complete Source for Solar Heating and Cooling Information," National Solar Heating and Cooling Information Center Rockviiie 
Maryland, 1978. 

"A Special Report in the Public Interest; Energy," National Geographic, February, 1981. 

"Current Science," Volume 65, Number 1, page 8, September 5, 1979. 

"Energy Resources of Texas," University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, 1976. 

"Environmental Impact of Electrical Power Generation: Nuclear and Fossil Fuel," U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration 
and Pennsylvania Department of Education, 1975. 

Fisk and Blecha, "Laboratory Investigations: The Physical Sciences," pages 53-56. Laidlaw Brothers, River Forest, Illinois, 1970. 

"NASA and Energy," U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1978, 

'1979-1980 Teachers Source Book," Gulf States Utilities Company, Conroe, Texas. 

"Petroleum Supply Vulnerability, 1985," U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., 1979. 

"Recommended Minimum Standards for Energy Efficient Homes," Gulf States Utilities Company, Conroe, Texas. 

"Saving Energy is Saving Money," Texas Governor's Office of Energy Resources, Austin, Texas, 1978. 

"South Texas Project Fact Sheet," Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Public Affairs and Information Program, Washington. D.C. 1980. 

"Special Report on Energy," Newsweek, July 16, 1979. 

"Texas Energy and Mineral Resources," Volume 6, Number 5, Texas A&M University, April, 1980, 

"What Do We Make From Energy?", (wall chart), Union Carbide Corporation, 1978. 

"What Is Energy?", Union Carbide Corporation, 1978, 

6.4 

LOW-COST TEACHING OF ENERGY CONVERSION 

Michael K. Bowker, Worcester College of Higher Education 
Henwick Grove, Worcester, WR2 6AJ. U.K. 

l^iZi! f™ darable discussion of energy conservation, both in academic circles and in the community at large. The terms used by 
PoMticians and planners often reveal a fundamental lack ofunderstanding of thescienceand technology of energy In particular energy is 

usefu° woTas ft ts m" «r&. ^ * "^ A ' S °' ^^ * °' n ° ValUe " ,l ,8 m6rely °° nserved ' !t is va ' uable only whenft d?« 

Our task as educators Is to teach the citizens and leaders of the future to use energy wisely. If pupils are to be sensitized to these issues 
they must rece.ve explicit teaching of energy conversion. The ability to recite, "energy is the capacity to do work 'Tnd iqnonno the 
circularity o the argument, "work is done when energy is converted from one form to another," is of lift e value. pCpiis should J° SbW 
experience for themselves, or at least see and discuss demonstrations of energy conversions. rupussnou.o preteraoiy 

The topic often occurs in physics and general science curricula in the lower secondary age range, for pupils 12 to 16 years old In Britain 

mis a 9 o y ™h r ThP M 3S ,f Th" 3U9ht USin9 3 CirC , US , 0f PraC,iCal WOrk - The Nu,,ield Secondar V S * ence £xk provide aVp ica exampL Tf 
^^f^STy «^"r ' By convors,on k,t developed for teaching this topic currently sells at U.S. ma Thl» pri» places it out of 

EuLTl^f ^, 9 """IF 00 ?, vers i on can be ^Provised. This is cheap, and the equipment isavailable more quickly than it is 
from regular laboratory suppliers. It can be adapted, and repaired if broken, in a way that factory-made items cannot. 

IhlZ ^?n^Z^w h °f ° f ap P r ° achi ]9 irn P rovisati °nOneistoputanexistingobjecttoanewuse.Thekineticenergyofaspinning 

moves more easl v wheShP^tV^h?" ^""J* T^""'* PUUing a ,inger ' wrapped in » a P er ' on the *"»■ A hin S door" which 
s^is marked n IrlmPtrl ,1 "f *•! m ° vm 9 ed 9 e ' demonstrates lever action. The handle of a drinking mug can act as a pulley. If the 
.2^ ^ C,ear,y — Multiple P""^ can be d — strated by passing thLring 

bamboo Tl,^ h o ?f r iJ mpr0ViSin h 9 C( ! nSists °' making a PP^atus from available materials such as jars, string, wire. tins, coconutshellsor 

Sno°s to coo Ev S™ l°t C ° nS,der '1? i0b the eqUipment iS t0 d0 ' then h0W i4 ma * be don * with the materia 's on hand 
tu nsT nX ?wh?r TZtTf^L^l * S are ^ sua,| y unsuccessful - The Nuffield kit previously mentioned contains a water turbine. This 
enoughs leUhSurW^,taft m »I? P rl ** throug , h '■ C °Py in S this inv °'^ making joints which are watertight, but which are free 
blades cu^ from a ™ Mn rnH ?T T " ' S WtUally lm P 0Ssible wi,hout ^ services of a workshop and machine tools. A model with 
conversion ^^ Th^ naSonnH Mn^Vi"' * ' ^^ ° rSimilar hard fruit orve 9 etable - rotali "S on two nails, demonstrates the same energy 
conversion. The nail is wound up as kinetic energy is converted to potential energy. When the flow of water stops the nail falls, turning the 



90 



turbine and reconverting the potential energy to kinetic energy. This shows that it is possible to analyse the results of an experiment at 
various levels of sophistication. Thus, a piece of improvised equipment can be used with pupils of different ages. 

There is an extensive literature on improvised equipment, ranging from items produced by skilled technicians,- 1 •> to items which science 
teachers can make themselves, 4 5 Some instruction in improvisation is desirable in all courses taken by students training to become 
science teachers. 

References: 

■ E. Howard, NUFFIELD SECONDARY SCIENCE THEME FOUR: HARNESSING ENERGY, (Longman, London, 1971) 

* E. Apea and N.K. Lowe, DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION OF SCHOOL SCIENCE EQUIPMENT, (Commonwealth Secretariat. 
London, 1979) 

M.D. Lockard, GUIDEBOOK TO CONSTRUCTING INEXPENSIVE SCIENCE TEACHING EQUIPMENT, VOLS. 1, 2, and 3 (University of 
Maryland, 1972) 

4 J.D. Lockard, UNESCO HANDBOOK FOR SCIENCE TEACHERS, (UNESCO, 1980) 

5 M.K. Bowker and A.R.D. Hunt, MAKING ELEMENTARY SCIENCE APPARATUS, (Nelson, London, 1979). 

6.5 

Y.E.S. - STUDENTS EDUCATE YOUTH 

Louise Mary Nolan 

9 Stevens Road 

Lexington, Massachusetts 02173 

John F. Kennedy Memorial Junior High School 
Woburn; Massachusetts 01801 

Abstract: 

Y.E.S, - Students Educate Youth is a program designed to stimulate interest in and increase knowledge about one's environment. The 
program begins as one that is scholastic academic in nature, using the scientific method to help junior high school students explore their 
environment, and ends as one that is concerned with the social development of the students, allowing them to use their knowledge, skills, 
and talents to develop programs designed for elementary school children. The section of the program described is that which deals with 
energy and the Energy Fair the students present at the end of their studies. 
Text 

Y.E.S. - Students Educate Youth is a program designed to stimulate interest in and increase knowledge about one's environment. 
Students involved in Y.E.S. use the scientific method to explore the biotic and abiotic environments of their communities. They share their 
knowledge with elementary school children through a series of specially designed activities. 

The goals of Y.E.S. are to help individuals acquire: 

1. a clear understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry. Science is an open ended intellectual activity. What is presently known- 
or believed is subject to change. 

2. an understanding of the limits of science and the scientific methods. Some problems of great importance can not be dealt with 
through science, 

3. an understanding of the great diversity of life and the interrelations among the living organisms and the living organisms and the 
abiotic environment. 

4. an appreciation of the beauty, drama, and tragedy of nature. 

5. an understanding of man's own place in nature as a living organism who interacts with all organisms in the biological systems of 
earth. 

6. a clear understanding that man is an inseparable part of a system, consisting of man. culture, and the biophysical environment 
and that man has the ability to alter the interrelationships of this system. 

7. a broad understanding of the biophysical environment, both natural and man-made and its role in contemporary society. 

8. a fundamental understanding of the biophysical environmental problems confronting man, how to help solve these problems, 
and the responsibility of citizens and government to work toward their solution. 

9. attitudes of concern for the quality of the biophysical environment which will motivate citizens to participate in biophysical 
environmental problem solving. 

In helping students to reach these goals Y.E.S. will help to build citizens who are: 

1. interested in their environment and its relationship to society 

2. sensitive to the environment - both its natural and man-made aspects 

3. sensitive to the dimension of quality of their environment and abie to recognize environmental problems 

4. inclined to participate in coping with environmental problems 

5. willing to share their knowledge and skills to help educate others 

91 



A n S Jl at6d l 1 e TI? y educa,ion ,he ,irs < efT, P hasis ° f Y-E.S. deals with those parts of the scientific method that will give students insight 
into the work of he scientists presently concerned with the utilization and conservation of our present energy resources and with the 
search for feasible future sources. From this emphasis arises the scientific spirit of inquiry. 

The second emphasis of Y.E.S. deals with that part of the scientific method which will make students aware of the role they shall assume 
as leaders of tomorrow. ' 

The second emphasis is not a distinct section removed from the first, rather the sharing of acquired skills and knowledge is an integral 
part of the program |ust as it is an integral part of good citizenship. micy.ai 

Searching into the nature of things, experimenting, analyzing data, generalizing, predicting, and sharing are the spirit of Y E S while the 
subject matter we are concerned with in this case is energy. " 

Three specific sections of Y.E.S. are concerned with energy. Prior to studying these sections the student will have attained a frame of 
reference by studying ecosystems, the basic functional units of nature, and the abiotic factors that affect ecosystems. Having investi- 
gated the structure of an ecosystem the student will investigate energy flow and nature's metabolism. 

The energy that moves through nature's ecosystem is of prime importance to man. Headlines announcing fuel shortages increasing fuel 
^ c f" d k plan ? 1° dec / ease energy consumption have increased our awareness. Specially designed lessons will allow the student to 
add to his knowledge of energy flow through the ecosystem as he studies how the U.S. is currently obtaining its energy and evaluates 
future energy sources. The classroom lessons will end with a series of presentations and activities designed to teach the student things 

that he and his family can do to help conserve energy, 

The acquisition of knowledge provides the student with only a partial education. It is his responsibility as a productive member of society 
to share his knowledge with others. The student will fulfill this responsibility by presenting an Energy Fair for third grade children AUhis 
studems 3 Pr ° 9ram m ° VeS ° m ° ne WhlCh iS scholastic ac ademic in nature to one that is concerned with the social development of the 

1™^^* °' 3 f Sh ° rt intro 5 uotor y movie ' an ener 9V carnival with booths designed to teach children an energy related 
now ,nl» ? h P y '? h 9 ° f agame ' anda serles of arts and crafts amities in which the children will construct mobiles to show energy 
IE S * 0W ™ X hods of ^"serving energy draftometers to check the tightness of doors and windows, lightswitch covers, and 
pencil holders decorated with energy saving ideas. Each elementary school spends one and one half hours at the fair Each elemental 
student is guided through the activities by a junior high school student. The junior high school studen °fo™ovw a v^'s^fSX S« 
S^h^JT *m Ch H ' V "k iS r: kin9 Wilh an °PP° rtunit V t0 °™Plete « maximum number of aclMt es The X X the™ 
^fnn^ln.tm , ad)us h eac h n ac „ tlvi y t0 me6t the ***** °' the elementa ry schools tudent with whom he is working. Each element 
h*Hn« t h! „.« I 6 W ' th 2 ^° k ° *"V 9V 9ameS 3nd PUZZl6S the iunior high sch001 studef1ts ha ve written; a chest covered wUh 
S d h bag of Penny candy his prizes from the carnival; his arts and crafts activities; and a hat made from recycled paper. But more 

LccnShmP^ IZ\Z t ? ^I'T?* ^ " been enha " Ced thr0ugh the s P ecial attention he re «ived from an older child and the 

accomplishments that he attained during the day, 

m° a t b ^i! n tpL P h a a n th^n^ y It t aCh T 6 ?- iS 9iVen the * aSk ° f WOrking wi,h a sma " gr0u P of his P eers t0 design acarnival type of booth 
that wil teach a third grade child, through active partici pation, about some aspect of energy, energy sources, or energy conservation The 

to U .etTo^ 

« ^ ! Ph r " ! no » " nuS " a for one student t0 emerge as an academic leader. This student is usually one who is known 

to have done well during the unit and thus faith is put in his opinion of what merits teaching. Once the topic is agreed upon the method of 

^r*roT£ 

fn .hi fnr^Hon^ T "'■? ^ ^VV* *"?.* P3per and penCif idea into realit V- Th ^ careful selection by the teachercan resuU 

fCllpotenTial '" W haVe " tUm 3S b °' h ' 6ader and f °" 0Wer ' a group in which each s,udent wi " reach h * 

mfrfht^r ?ZT»° Pr 7 ided S ° th f if 1 * S ' UdentS Can COmplete ,neir booths - Two li,er bottles may be converted to energy wasters 

bal that SnfKh ,hV ? B htT. flame ' ! °° nS ° an b6C0me lightbUlbS Careless| y le,t on <° be shut °' f ^ a ^11 thrown dart or a gol 
ball that falls through the right hole may strike a switch that will turn out a light. 

S^multttZh^ "T 9r h UPS jn SCh ° 01 th6y T 9iVen taskS that can be completed at home without the aid of their friends. 
m? d ?htT e frih tn h T? aS P , rlZSS 3t SOme ° f the booths. Asheet of directions, and thenecessary paper, stars, and ribbons 

nidi, pth L^n " UC , h 3 T th3t 6aCh t ,Udent ° an take h0me and return a set of P ri2es ' ln addition to completing his share oHhe 
badges each student must create a page for the activity book. Looking through children's coloring books and games books will help the 
students to realize what the third grader is capable of doing. After the student has created his page and had it checked the Jag 2n be 
transferred to a master and run off. When all of the pages are completed an assembly line will quickly put the hook together 
As the day of the Energy Fair approaches a pamphlet must be prepared that will let each junior high school student know exactly what his 

™5 b T l e n,I e H t n e i°tfh P ^ ° f thC day , and Where he Sh0uld be at an * given time ' The pamphlet must provide a Ms^of ac tivmes hat 
must be completed to set the fair up and who is responsible for each, pictures that show the students how to set up the wall decorations 

lZTZl° P ^ the ^ '"r c l raft8 tl mat f ri3lS ' 3 MSt that aSSi9nS each iuni0r high sch001 studen < t0 a speclflcgroup and a schedufi that 
trlnJlT^Z SpeC '" C , l0Cati °r '° r each P6ri0d of time ' A floor P |an must be P rovided s ° 'hat there is no question about the 
n^vln . ,? h ' 'J?'"", ' a PP aratus ' A time line <° r ^ch school that will attend, a description of each booth and how it should be 
iS'rL^nZ^Z L° r SaCh '^ ar : d 1 raftS aCtiVity mUSt be included - Each student'sclean-up responsibility must be clearly 
SSrar ^Should be SscussLd r6V ' eW W ^ ^^ ^ meth ° dS ° f making the day mOSt beneficial for the elementary school 

onhelair Setti " 9 UP °' '^ ^ ^^ " e COmpleted the a «ernoon before the fair. This will allow some time for adjustments the morning 



92 



As the elementary school children arrive they can be paired with junior high school students who can help them ot make an energy savers 
thinking cap and guide them to the movie theater. The introductory movie will help to give the junior high school student a basis for the 
material he will be presenting and discussing with the child. 

After the movie the junior high school students move to their assigned locations in the carnival or the arts and crafts area and work with 
their children. They may move freely from one acitivity to the next as long as they remain at either the carnival or the arts and crafts area. 
How long is spent at each booth in the carnival or each arts and crafts activity depends on the abilities and interests of the elementary 
school child. When the signal is given, halfway through the alloted time, the children at the carnival move with their junior high school 
guide to the arts and crafts activities and those in the arts and crafts area move to the carnival. This insures that an equal amount of time is 
spent at each activity. While there never seems to be enought time at the carnival added activities such as a mural to draw on or 
microscopes to look through are helpful to those who finish the crafts activities early. 

A break of fifteen minutes between the departure of one school and the arrival of the next will allow for the booths to be restored to order 
and the arts and crafts materials to be replenished. Again specific tasks must be assigned to insure an orderly transition. 

As the final group of the day is getting their coats and bags of completed crafts activities to take home the junior high school guides may 
offer them the decorations that were used through the day. In this way the children take back to their classrooms and homes largevisual 
reminders of their experiences. 

Through Y.E.S. elementary school students can learn about energy and how it can be conserved while junior high school students 
become productive citizens through not only acquiring a storehouse of knowledge that will serve them in the future but also by sharing 
their knowledge with others in an effort to build a better environment 

Y.E.S. was developed by the author. Further information may be obtained by contacting her at 9 Stevens Road, Lexington, Massachusetts 
02173. 

6.6 

"APPROPRIATE ENERGY EDUCATION AND TECHNOLOGY" 

Joe W. Priest, Science Department, UCISD. 1000 North Getty, 
Uvalde, Texas, 78801, USA. 

As a teacher in the sunny southern community of Uvalde, Texas, I recently initiated an Energy Education Project for seventh grade 
students. I sought a very broad approach to the problem in order to involve as many individuals as possible, hoping, in the end, to present 
appropriate education and technology to this low-income community. 

In order to make students aware of related fields of technology, I presented them job descriptions of Design Engineer, Construction 
Engineer, Experiment Analyst, as well as "Data Searcher;' Publicist, and Photographer. After surveying contemporary alternative energy 
sources, solar heat was chosen as most appropriate for our project Together we designed and constructed a passive solar space heater, 
installed it in our classroom window, and are in the process of analyzing the solar contribution. We submitted stories of the Energy Project 
in school newsletters, local newspapers, and the Xerox Educational Publications Company, This process effectively involved students 
from all levels of academic achievement. 

As a community outreach, future activities planned include seminars on solar heating and cooling theories, construction techniques, and 
evaluation methods. 

Having accomplished the original goal of the project, the students were issued personally designed "Solar/Renewable Energy" T-shirts, 
thus spreading the good news well into the warm South Texas Spring. 



93 



SESSION 7: ENERGY EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCIENCE 

7.1 

OUR COSMIC ENERGY BUDGET 

George Marx 
Department of Atomic Physics, Eotvos University 
Puskin utca 5, Budapest H-1088 

The history of the Universe can be told as the history of cosmic energy dissipation. Big Bang explains the origins of nuclear energy. Life 
explains the origins of chemical fuels. Human society learns digging deeper and deeper for free energy in the cosmic past, to drive its 
machines, its civilization. By presenting this cosmic perspective in school the coming generations can be educated to understand the 
energy options and to face the technofogical and moral challenges of future. 

In school energy is taught to be able to transform into various forms, but its overall amount is strictly conserved, "But then why do we 
import energy carriers? The energy does not disappear! 1 ' — is asked by clever pupils. Power stations are located on sea shores or river 
sides, elsewhere giant cooling towers are built to dissipate heat. M Why do we waste energy obtained from expensive fuel?" — is another 
question of openminded young brains. If the teacher is interested in making steps beyond the pragmatic recipes of everyday life, if she or 
he intends to iliuminate our energy perspectives and energy options, it is worth offering a bird eye's view of the whole problem. 

The universe is a closed system of innumerable particles, it has inexhaustiblely many degrees of freedom. In nature and in human 
economy any concentrated energy dissipates sooner or later to the many degrees of freedom available in our world. As it is expressed by 
scientists: energy is conserved/ 'First Law/ but disorder increases spontaneously/Second Law/. When one is interested in creating order, 
in concentrating energy/to produce locomation/, one has to pay for this unnatural course of events: elsewhere more energy must be 
dissipated to other degrees of freedom of matter. Only this way can society reach its technical goals without violating the laws of nature. 

This Second Law of thermodynamics was discovered in the past century, when the Industrial Revolution became interested in 
constructing steam-engines. But this understanding produced a lot of headache elsewhere. In the closed universe total disorder/maxi- 
mum entropy, a heat death predicted by Clausi us/should be the natural result of events. "How come, that in our world onestill finds heat 
and cold, light and darkness, decay and birth?" These questions tormented among others Ludwig von Boltzmann, contributing to his 
suicide on a coastal resort just in the summer 76 years ago. 

The explanation was understood only in our century. The equations of motions for matter do not have static solution: the Moon cannot 
stand still in the sky. A stone cannot float in the air, it has to fall down to earth, or — if possessing kinetic energy enough — it has to fly 
away. This theoretical conclusion of Alexei Friedman/USSR, in the twenties/has been confirmed by Hawking and Penrose/UK, in the 
sixties/in full rigour. It has been observed by Hubble/USA t in the thirties/, that the set of galaxies runs apart indeed. By extrapolating back 
into the past, one reaches a time of infinitely high density about 15 billion years ago. 

If the particles were compressed tremendously, they had to produce the most stable medium heavy nuclei/mets like iron/. On the other 
hand the present actual universe is dominated by the lightest elements. The only explanation can be — argued Gamow — that the early 
universe was hot. It cooled down by adiabatic expansion, like hot air above sunny land raises up and cools down, to produce hails in 
August. 

The leftover of this early hot universe was discovered by the radio engineers of the Bell Laboratory, when in thesixties they werescanning 
the sky for quiet radio bands. From the present radiation temperature -270°C= 3 K it is possible to reconstruct the course of events. The 
Planck spectrum of radiation indicates that the early hot universe was in state of complete disorder, in the very first second of its 
existence the temperature was above 10 10 centigrades. In such a heat no composite nuclei existed, free protons and free neutrons 
transformed into each other in violent collisions. 

After the first second the thermal motion dropped below 1 MeV. The collisions were not able to produce new neutrons any longer. The 
existing neutrons decayed gradually. But before they all had time to decay, in the first three minutes the protons captured neutrons, by 
fusion they built up the first composite nuclei, like deuterium, helium, lithium. But the fast drop of temperature and the spontaneous 
decay of the remaining neutrons terminated this fusion chain before reaching equilibrium. From the primordial particles only the first few 
elements of the periodic table were produced. The mutual electric repulsion prevented any futher nuclear buildup in the cooling gas: the 
matter was trapped in the Coulomb potential valleys of light nuclei. 

Millions of years passed by, until the temperature dropped below thousand degrees. The protons calmed down, they captured electrons 
and formed hydrogen atoms. The universe was filled by luke-warm hydrogen gas(agood first approximation even for today), contami- 
nated by helium and by tiny traces of other light atoms(deuterium and lithium did not make more than 10- 5 percent), The cooling gas 
became unstable against gravitational contraction. It split into dense hydrogen cfouds, these fragmented to galaxies, the galaxies to 
stars. The falling stellar layers liberated gravitational energy, which heated the gas sphere to glowing and to shining. The darkness of 
space was illuminated once again by starlight 

The gravitational work increased the central temperature above million degrees. The proton collisions became more and more violent, 
Occasionally quantum tunnelling helped a proton through the repulsive potential wall of the other one. In even more rare lucky cases the 
transient conglomerate suffered radioactive decay. 

By emitting a positive electron, heavy hydrogen was formed: deuterium. Its nuclear binding energy was radiated off, feeding and 
prolonging the shining of the star. The deuterium is, however, not long-lived at several million degrees; it merges into helium. 

d + d ~— - 4 He. 

In details: a H + z H"*- 3 He + 1 H, 3 He + 3 He— *- 4 He + 'H + 'H, The heilum nucleus possesses a closed shell, it is stable even at this 

temperature. In most stars of our night sky hydrogen. ~- helium build-up feeds the central power station, it supplies the stellar 

radiation through billions of years. The flow of nuclear matter towards the equilibrium state is retarded by Coulomb barriers. Even now 3 /t 
of the universe is made of promordial hydrogen, V* of helium. 

94 



When the hydrogen supply of the central core gets exhausted, the thermal fusion stops. The radiation loss of the star can be covered again 
only by gravitational work. The new contraction heats the star up to 100 million degrees. At this high temperature even triple collisions 
become frequent. The impact speeds are enough to penetrate potential barriers around nuclei with increasing electric charge. So the 
nuclear build-up goes further: 

3 He — *■ C. He + C — - 0. 

Oxygen — 16 is again a closed shell structure, at which the fusion chain stops. Red giant stars (like the Antares and Acturus on the 
evening sky of the harvest moon) produce carbon and oxygen of helium, The stellar wind, blowing out from the stellar surface, 
contaminates the space by these life-essential elements up to a part per thousand. 

Where have the other elements been made, e.g. the metals? A simple answer is; nowhere. The stars are not yet old enough to develop such 
a high temperature, where collision speeds make the penetration of the increased potential wails encircling oxygen nuclei possible. The 
amount of metals is negligible even in third approximation. 

A sun-sized star lives in hydrogen-burning state longer than the present age of our Galaxy. But a considerable overweight results faster 
aging: a star of ten solar masses radiates more lavishly, it exhausts its hydrogen and helium supply within one billion years. In the critical 
period of diminishing nuclear fuel the star shrinks with uncontrolled speed, the work performed by gravitational pull heats it up to billions 
of degrees, all the channels open up for nuclear reactions, so an equilibrium population is realized along the periodic table of chemical 
elements. The most abundant elements are iron and the neighbouring metals. But at such a high temperature not only the states of 
minimum energy are populated but in a smaller amount also the states with higher energy content are present: the light nuclei and the 
very heavy radioactive ones/iike uranium and throium/as well. By reaching the end station of nuclear evolution the death of the giant star 
arrives with complete collapse. The liberated heat gives rise to a shock wave, which strips the outer stellar layers off. The fast spreading 
gas envelope raises the brilliance of thedying star for a few weeks: astronomers register it as supernova explosion. The ejected metal-rich 
gas cools down, it surges the neighbouring interstellar gas and dust. New density concentrations are formed, bearing a second 
generation of stars. These are contaminated not only by carbon and oxygen, but - to 0.01 percent by metals (fourth approximation). Our 
Sun was born in this way less than five billion years ago. 

If the star-bearing cloud was whirling, its angular momentum prevented its shrinking to a single star. The outer fragments took over the 
angular momentum by their orbiting and spinning motion. Only the birth of planets enabled the central mass to become a star. 

The most common elements in the planet-forming material were hydrogen, helium, oxygen, carbon, with traces of some otherelements. 
Consequently the most common compounds of the gas and dust were Ha, noble gases, H2O, CH*, CO2 and metal oxydes in decreasing 
order. This composition can be found in the outer planets of the Solar System. In the luke-warm inner region however the hydrogen and 
noble gas never condensed, they were blown out by the solar radiation and solar wind. The planetary cores were built of metal 
compounds, surrounded by atmospheres of water, methane and carbon dioxide. 

The fast-decaying radioactive elements — originated in the supernova — melted the body of the planet, to be called Earth, which 
produced a chemical separation by weight. Within half a billion years most radioactive isotopes decayed, leaving back only the long-lived 
uranium and thorium. Slowly'rigid crust was formed, ocean of HsO was precipitated and a carbonrich atmosphere of CHt. CO2 was left. 
Hydrogen escaped gradually, so one would expect oxydized planets (H2O, C02, Fe203etc), This equilibrium composition can be observed 
on the present Venus and Mars. But the fate of our own planet turned out to be very different. 

Earth is not a closed system. The star called Sun was made mostly of the primordial hydrogen. This solar material leaked slowly through 
potential tunnels towards energy-deeper equilibrium, the energy set free fed the sunshine. The hot rays of Sun hit the molecules of Earth. 
Chemical reaction formed a selection of new compounds, 

H2C=0 is a polar compound, solubfe in water. With it rains washed carbon into the ocean. The double bonds meant reactivity. The 
formaldehyde was polimerized to sugar. 

6H 2 C=0 - CgH-^^tgiucose). 

The high energy bonds of sugar conserved a fraction of energy from the absorbed sunlight, so seawater became a nourishing soup, out of 
chemical equilibrium, due to the flood of sunshine. In this soup creatures were formed in a suprisingfy short time (within a quarter of a 
billion years), they fed on this broth and spread fast. Soon they ate up all the nourishing compounds from the ocean. In the coming poor 
years of starvation, some organisms invented photosynthesis: by their extended molecular aerials they collected even the tiny energy 
quanta and so they produced sugar and protein for themselves. These biological heat engines worked by making useof the temperature 
difference between the 6000 K hot sunlight and the 300 K cool atmosphere, they extracted red quanta from thesunshine and so made the 
Earth green. Carbon was separated from carbon dioxide, hydrogen from water, the collected free energy stored in the bonds of 
carbohydrogen/oil/and carbohydrate/sugar, starch, cellulose/molecules for the hard days. Oxygen was left over, which changed the 
chemical character of the atmosphere. 

Combustible organic compounds in the sea, in the grass, in the woods and oxygen-rich atmosphere above them built up a chemical 
tension, unprecedented in the Solar System. Some pushful creatures learned to exploit this chemical tension: by feeding on organic fuel, 
by combusting it at an accelerated rate in the oxygen -enhanced atmosphere they were able to realize a more intensive way of living: 
locomotion, predatory behaviour, fast evolution. The world of animals succeeded in constructing more and moreefficient regulatory and 
replicative systems. In less than a billion years a socialized animal called man emerged. By his social structure man performed the 
exploitation of the natural sources of free energy with an unprecedented intensity, Man invented fire, cooking, heating, industry, 
steam-engine, inner combustion engine. 

Before the industrial revolution man made use of wood to get free energy. This meant that tiny fractions of the actual power of the 
permanently working thermonuclear reactor inside the Sun was captured; the Solar energy was transformed to chemical fuel by natural 
photosynthesis. 



95 



The industrial revolution has increased the public demand in free energy to drive the machines. Man has started mining, coal, oil, gas. 
Mankind consumes fossil fuels, collectd by the green biosphere from solar radiation through millions of years. The worldwide industrial 
revolution empties terrestrial reservoirs of the chemically stored solar energy within century. The end of the fossile fuel supply has come 
within sight. 

Taking the present energy hunger into account, our society has to face a dilemma: Either to go back to the pre-industrial stage, using the 
renewable energy sources of woods, winds, waves , rivers, accepting the fact, that this soft energy enables only a rural way of living for 
much less people than live today. Or to insist on the comfortable centralized distrubition of energy through a network of wires and pipe 
lines, which is a condition for the urban life style, consequently to open deeper reservoirs of hard energy. A possible option is offered by 
energy of the ancient supernova trapped in the nuclei of unranium and thorium. These many billion degrees hot sparks offer us highly 
concentrated free energy, but the seals are luckily - hard to break. The whole undertaking needs more initiatives and the game is getting 
more dangerous: any run-away war game may lead to global catastrophe. The pros and cons of the energy dilemma are burning in the 
mind of our generation. Anyway, man has learned to know how to build fission reactors and these offer a way to survive the coming poor 
decades at the turn of second millenium. 

The coming generations have to survive by nuclear power stations, they have to live together with radioactive waste, in the shade of 
nuclear weapons. Is there any clear sky, are there any rich decades within sight for them? The controlled fusion of light nuclei is a great 
promise for the next century, The light elements, like the very heavy ones, are out of nuciear equilibrium, high above the level of the iron 
sea. Hydrogene and its neighbours have preserved the very high temperature of the early hot universe, due to the slowness of stellar 
evolution compared to the speed of biological and social progress. Fortunately, we live in young universe! The man-made thermonuclear 
installations areabout using deuterium and lithium as fuels, left over from the first three minutes. Most learned peopleare inclined to think 
about the next century, as the age of proliferation of thermonuclear technology, but they know, that this must be an age of social 
responsibility as well. It is up to our children and grandchildren, to realize this dream. It is up to us, to educate them to be inventive and 
responsible enough for this heritage. 

School is a social invention to prepare new generations for social adaptation. In slowly rolling times the school might be satisfied with 
cultural reproduction: with transfer of social experiences from generation to generation. In a time of acelerated progress this policy is 
Inefficient and may produce harmful conflicts. 

Let ups consider physics teaching. The central concept of traditional school physics was force. The static concept of force had been 
introduced by spring, which was completely satisfactory to visualize static equilibrium, which might be helpful in the age of handicraft, 
but it has become of less use to understand the dynamical behavior. It is even a greater problem, that this force concept is of no use in the 
sciences, e.g. for the description of the motion of heat, of light, of fields. The chemical force (valence) and the "vis vital is" (of biology) are 
concepts, completely different So traditional school physcis appears to be an outdated "1 " art pour I'art" of school masters in the eyes of 
young people, it has become rather irrelevant for the present and future' of society. 

According to a recent evaluation of the European Physical Society, in the past decade most European countries introduced new physcis 
curricula to cure this disease, In our country a main characteristic of the new physics curriculum is the energy takes over the central role 
from force. Energy is a convertible currency in science, technology and economy. I n the junior high school energy gets an early operative 
definition: energy is what one can warm water with. This introduction is not only understandable, practical, and quantitative, but it leads 
us beyond the classical pair of kinetic and potential energy. It includes inner energy, chemical and nuclear energy and the energy of light 
as well, with have got central role in our economic thinking. In the senior high school mechanics is based on conservation theorems. In 
electrodynamcis the study of currents and fields is motivated by pointing to the versatile handling of energy and information. Thermody- 
namics concentrates on the statistical aspect of the Second Law: how the dissipation of energy determines the direction of events. Atomic 
and nuclear physics deals with ground state, excited state, binding energy, band structure. On this way pupils get oriented not only in 
physics books but also among the open problems of the present world. As conclusion our curriculum offers a cosmic view of the energy 
budget showing place of Earth and mankind in the universe. The flow energy Is a useful guide line to trace the follow of events, as it was 
sketched in the first half of this talk. On this way the youthful romanticism is directed to astronomy, theintellectualchallengeof Big Bang 
is connected with the fate of our terrestrial ecosphere, So to the end of our very earthy problems may appear not as heavy burdens but as 
exciting challenges. It is easy to fill these chapters with hard content and scientific activity, leading to the conclusion, that science is 
relevant for people, even the best hope for them. 

Our ecoshpere is not in the state of thermal equilibrium. The curious phenomenon called life created chemical tension between the 
organics matter and oxydizing atmosphere. Grazing animals and fire making men exploit this chance since millions of years. 

Our whole univese is not in static equilibrium either. This is a deep understanding of the 20th century. Thespeed of the expension and the 
slowness of the stellar evolution drove matter out of its primordial equilibrium, resulting in a thermodynamical tension between "hot" 
nuclear fuel and "cool" environment. It Is now our share to make use of it. 

Our society has now got out of equilibrium. The fast progress of science and technology on the one hand, the slowness of the adaptation 
of human moral and public understanding on the other hand has increased the social tension, which produces discharges from time to 
time. In our days tension is increasing to a dangerous level. The old saying was never so true as it is now: Future is a race between 
catastrophy and education. We, science teachers have the moral obligation to face and answer this challenge. Surely science is the best 
tool man invented to find our way in the unknown and to solve new problems. 



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7.2 

The Role of the Second Law of Thermodynamics 
in Energy Education 

Uri Haber-Schalm 
Boston University 

Abstract 

At present there is a conflict between the law of conservation of energy in the classroom and the admonition "to conserve energy" in the 
media. A resolution of this conflict can be provided by the understanding of the difference between the internal energy of a system and its 
free energy. 

The usefulness of the concept of free energy can be demonstrated after entropy has been introduced. Simple examples of how this can be 
done will be presented. Attention will also be given to the importance of the concentration of fuel reserves in determining their usefulness 
as a resource, 

Introduction 

"Energy Education" is a strange term. The reasons for its existence must have something to do with limited oil reserves, nuclear power 
plants, acid rain, etc. Yet there are other topics that have scientific technical, economic and social implications, which have not been 
teamed up with "education." Has anybody heard of ''Pollution Education?" "Energy Education" being a new and broad term may mean 
different things to different people in different contexts. 

In this lecture I wish to address one aspect of "Energy Education 1 ' in the context of science education during a time interval spanning 
from, say, the eighth school year through the twelfth school year. I shall spend most of the time on what might be done at the beginning of 
this period, because that is where it can have a larger impact. Having come to find syllabi, i.e. .listing of topics, to be a most unsatisfactory 
way of describing an education process, I shall try to express my thoughts in a more descriptive way to enable you to imagine what may 
actually go on in a classroom. 

A Philosophy of Science Education 

To begin with, let me outline the philosophy of science education that is behind the approach and content which will follow. 

(a) We increase the ability of students to focus on the subject matter if we first describe facts and express ideas in words with which they 
are familiar. The need fora new term should be established before it is introduced. This way the term will have an operational meaning and 
will be- better integrated with the students' natural vocabulary. As simple and obvious as this premise may sound, teachers, textbooks 
writers and publishers widely believe that teaching science consists first of all to memorizing vocabulary by rote. To. experiment, observe, 
and reason is considered too difficult for most students. 

(b) The ability to abstract develops with age (to a different degree in different individuals). Starting from the concrete and the tangible is 
essential, especially for young learners. This is particularly true for treating energy, which is a very abstract idea. Thus, for the beginners 
the more observation and the more experimentation - the better. 

(c) Learning takes time, there are no "ten easy lessons on energy." A program whose objective is to give a graduating high school student 
a general understanding of energy and its implication for society has to be spread over several years to allow for student growth. 

(d) to yield a coherent development, such a program must take into account the development of the learner as we! I as the structure of the 
subject matter. However, this does not impfy that even an elementary exposition of the second law of thermodynamics must be preceded 
by the study of the first law. The reason is simple; the first law is inherently a quantitative law, the second law is not. 

Heating and Cooling 

We consider first the process of heating and cooling, When we bring together two bodies at different temperatures, the cooler one will 
warm up and the warmer one will cool down. Traditionally, this simple effect is sometimes discussed in elementary textbooks in relation 
to the quantity of heat, heat capacity, and specific heat. However, I have not found any elementary text that in this context calls attention 
to the qualitative fact that we somehow never observe the opposite effect: two objects at the same temperature becoming hotter and 
colder respectively. (Whether we talk of two objects in contact or one object and different parts of them, makes no difference.) Yet this 
simple observation teaches us that if we wish to raise the temperature of an object, we must have another object at higher temperature. 
Similarly, if we want to cool an object we need another one, which is at a lower temperature. This is why in the old days people put hot 
bricks or a hot water bottle in their beds, and large blocks of ice in their ice boxes. 

If we do not have a hot object available (if heating is desired) then we use an instrument, a gadget, that will make some object hotter than 
the surrounding which is to be heated. This can be a stove, or an electric heater, for example. However, a stove needs fuel, such as wood, 
coal, or oil; the electric heater has to be plugged into the wall outlet, and this will not be enough unless that outlet is connected to a power 
plant, and the power plant uses fuel. 

The same is true if we want to cool something, such as air in the room or food. Ifwedonothavean object at a lower temperature, we need a 
device such as a refrigerator or air conditioner; and they need fuel. (Thirty years ago there were gas refrigerators in use.) 

It is likely that junior high school students will associate the word "fuel" only with substances that burn such as wood, gasoline, etc. To 
give the term a broader meaning and at the same time provide a useful experimental tool, it is worthwhile to introduce a "power plant" 
made of a battery of Daniell cells. The "fuel," that is, the substance that is visibly consumed, is zinc. Daniell cellsare easy to construct; all 
that is needed is a styrofoam cup, a piece of parchment paper and some glue. In addition, one needs zinc and copper electrodes and 
ZuS0 4 and CuS0 4 solutions. 

Expansion of a Gas 

The reverse process of the equalization of temperature is not the only process that does not occur spontaneously. Consider two 
containers filled with air at the same temperature. They are connected with a valve. Suppose that initially the valve is closed and the 
pressure or densities of the air in the two containers are different. When we open the vatve air will flow from the high density side to the Jow 



97 



density side until the densities will be equal. Thishappenswill ail gases irrespective of the size of the container. In fact, one container may 
be a balloon and the other container may be the entire atmosphere, In this form the phenomemon is very familiar. 

Again, we should point out that we never observe the process to go the other way, starting from equal pressures and ending with different 
pressures in the two containers. This teaches us, in analogy with the case of heating, that if we want to add air to a container, we need 
another container with air at a higher pressure, If we do not have such a container, we need a gadget, called a pump or compressor. But a 
pump, like a heater or refrigerator needs fuel. Students will be familiar with hand pumps forbicyclesorsoccerballs, or with the air supply 
at automobile service stations where air is stored at high pressure. 

Depending on the students' familiarity with the rudiments of the atomic model of matter, one may {although it is not necessary for the 
continuity of development) raise the question of what prevents the air from flowing from the low density to the high density. A simple 
demonstration based on the idea that a gas consists of a large number of small particles bouncing around freeiy will make the point. We 
need an air table with floating discs. We draw a chalk line across the middleof the table, Above the line we mount a piece of wood holding a 
tight wire to act as a temporary divider. We start with a few discs in one half of the table, remove the divider, and measure the time it takes 
unit! al I the discs are again in the original half ten times. The reason for timing ten returns ts to average out the fluctuations. To answer the 
question "How does the mean return time depend on the number of discs?" we measure the time of ten returns for 1 , 2, 3,,.. discs. This 
experiment has been done many times in PS II classes; no class went beyond 8 discs. 

The main lesson taught by this class experiment is that there is really nothing that forbids, say, 100 discs to congregate in one half of the 
air table. It is just extremely unlikely. This becomes apparentwhen one realizes that afterthediscs have been bouncing around forawhile 
they are more or less uniformly distributed over the table and are just as likely to move in one direction as in any other direction. For the 
discs to congregate "voluntarily" in one half of the table requires that on the average more discs will move one direction than in the 
opposite, and this is very improbable. The average return time for 100 discs would be - 10' 5 years). 

Expansion of a Sotute In a Solution 

We can capitalize on these simple ideas by observing solutions. A solute in a solution behaves in many ways like a gas. For example, a blue 
droplet of CuS0 4 placed in a glass of water will spread out until it is uniformly distributed, moving always from higher concentration to 
lower concentration, We never see a uniformly blue solution become more concentrated at one place and less concentrated at another 
place just by itself. 

Separating a dilute solution into a concentrated solution and a pure solvent is often very disirable. Sometimes we may be interested in the 
pure solvent, such as in the case of desalination of sea water; other times we may be interested in the concentrated solution, such as in the 
case of maple syrup, Unfortunately, these processes do not happen by themselves; to separate a dilute solution into a concentrated 
solution and pure solvent takes a gadget, such as a heater and a condenser, and the gadget requires fuel. 

It is worthwhile to note at this point that although the sponteneous equalizing of temperatureand the equalization of pressure or density, 
and the absence of the reverse processes do not seem to be related, one actually mandates the other. For example, if we could have 
spontaneous heating and cooling, we could use the hot side to produce steam to compress air without using up fuel. Conversely, if we 
couid have air build up pressure in one vessel at theexpense of the pressure in another vessel, we could use the high pressure side to run a 
refrigerator. 

Products and By-products 

The various fuel consuming processes which we have discussed so far are all made to take place for a purpose. They are carried out with a 
device for a specific purpose of product. However, each device also produces some side effects or by-products. 

If the students are not aware of the fact that fuels cost money, and that fuel reserves are limited, then this would be a good time to bring 
these matters up. Once the fuel problem isappreciated the question of how to get the most product and the least by-product out of a given 
amount of fuel can be raised. Some qualitative considerations, and a simple experimentcan lead to surprising conclusions, at least as far 
as the students are concerned. 

Let us start with a wood burning stove. Naturally, we want as much heat as possible to stay in the room. Since oxygen must continually 
reach the burning wood, one cannot just close off the chimney. What can be done is to cool the gases in the chimney as much as possible 
and heat more of the house at the same time. Whatever the configuation of the chimney may be, whether a simple vertical structure of a 
complicated heat exchanger, the gases will cool off to a lower temperature if they spend more time in the system, because cooling takes 
time. Thus a small fire causing only a gently flow of gases in the chimney will heat the house more for the amount of wood burned. 

A deeper insight into the role of the rate at which a process takes placecan be achievedby studying the electrolysis of water. The product 
in this case is hydrogen and oxygen. If we use a battery of Daniell cells asa power plant, then the fuel will bezinc. For a given configuration 
of the electrolysis cell one can show that with more Daniell cells in series, we can electrolyze water faster. However, we shall get less 
hydrogen^nd oxygen for the same amount of zinc consumed. To get the largest amount of hydrogen and oxygen out of, say, 1 g of zinc 
we have to use a battery which will produce the gases as slowly as possible. We can summarize these observations by saying "slow is 
beautiful" or "slow is efficient." 

It should be noted in passing that living organisms are very efficient usersof fuel (glucose) and indeed work rather slowly. When forced to 
work fast the efficiency goes down. 

I believe that the qualitative development of ideas which I outl ined provides a sound background for a quantitative study of various forms 
of energy and the law of conservation of energy. Once this meant a reasonably detailed study of Newtonian mechanics with extensions 
into non-conservative forces. However, in the middle 1960's the Physical Science Group embarked on a project in which the quantity of 
heat and electrical work were the starting concepts. The results are published and I will only give the references (' * 3 ) 

Free Energy 

Independently of any particular approach to the law of conservation of energy, the confused students will ask "If energy is conserved, why 
all the fuss about conserving energy?". The more critical students will realize that the fuss is about conserving fuel (in the sense of using 
as little as possible), and that energy takes care of itself. However, these students should be encouraged to wonder whether fuels are 



98 



related to a special kind of energy, the kind of energy, which, in conjunction with specific devices, can do work. For some classes of 
processes this kind of energy is the free energy. For systems at constant pressure it is defined as 

G = H - TS, 

where H is the enthalpy, T = the absolute temperature, and S - the entropy. ( 4 ) Obviously, as the definition suggests, the study of free 
energy has to be preceded by the study of entropy, a topic well covered in the textbook literature. ( For an unorthodox approach, see the 
PSSC Advanced Topic Supplement. ( 5 ) 

What is the advantage of introducing the free energy? It is well known that the direction in which a spontaneous process proceeds 
depends on the total change in entropy everywhere. We can get the same information from the change in free energy of the systems of 
interest only. To see this, let us consider some process that takes place in a vessel, which is in contact with a heat bath at temperature T. 
The only interaction between the vessel and the bath is the heat flow. Then the total change in entropy 

s = ^system + A SRATH with aSrath = J where Q is the heat added to the bath system 
hence: Tas = TiS syste(n -nH T hus at constant temperature AS >p -• afi <p 

Looking at energy changes this way will reveal to students that while the total energy involved in processes consuming fuels indeed 
remains constant, the free energy is always decreasing. As we deplete various fuel resources, whether chemical or nuclear we are 
depleting the reserves of free energy. 

Furthermore, the amount of fuel reserves by themselves is not the only relevant parameter. Their concentration must also be taken into 
account since just concentrating any substance, i.e., reducing its volume, requires free energy. 

To sum up, I suggest that Energy Education as part of science education start with processes that take place by themselves, with 
emphasis on the observation that reversing such processes requires a fuel consuming device. This can be done in a qualitative way using 
mainly everyday language. After the study of the conservation of energy as part of a physical science, physics or chemistry course, the 
second law of thermodynamics, as formulated, in terms of free energy should be given more prominence than is the case today. 

References 

1. The Teaching of Energy in the Junior High School. Physics Teacher 9, 238, May 1971. 

2. Physical Science II, by the Physical Sciene Group, Prentice-Hall, 1972. 

3. Energy. An Experimental Approach, Physical Science Group, Boston University, 1974. 

4. For practical reasons I refer to the Gibbs free energy. The Helmholtz free energy is conceptually a little simpler. 

5. PSSC Physics, Advanced Topics Supplement, Chapters 2 and 3. D.C, Heath and Co., 1972. 

7.3 INVITED 

HOME HEATING; COMPUTER ASSISTED LEARNING 
APPLIED TO ENERGY EDUCATION 

John Harris 

Centre for Science & Mathematics Education 

Chelsea College 

London 
Abstract 

The use of Energy Audits as an educational strategy is becoming increasingly common. Home heating combines some of the objectives 
of an energy audit in a real domestic situation with the opportunity to answer the question "What would happen if...?", that is. to find out 
very quickly what effect changes in some of the parameters of the dwelling under investigation (construction method, choice of fuel, etc.) 
would have on energy demand and fuel bills. 
Computer Assisted Learning 

Home heating' is one of the Computer Assisted Learning packages produced by the Schools Council's Computers in the Curriculum 
Project based at Chelsea College. The aims of this project have been to explore ways in which the computer can contribute to the learning 
of different topics in several subjects at secondary school level (11-18 years)-. The material produced is intended to supplement the 
normal teaching, not to replace it. Mor has the project tried to introduce new topics into the curriculum, but rather to try to make more 
effective the learning of topics which are already taught. Such a topic might be one in which for reasons of time, cost, danger and soon, 
students cannot carry out their own investigations. Most elementary science courses include some mention of and simple investigations 
into the transferof heatenergyand the thermal properties of different materials/ In Britain this work mighttypically bedone by 12-14year 
olds. The teacher might well follow the experimental work with a mention, but perhaps no more, of the effectiveness of various forms of 
insulation and of the fuel savings that would ensue from moreefficientinsulationof our homes. The CAL unit Home heating might well be 
introduced at this stage to aliow students to investigate these effects, as they relate to their own homes, in some detail. The work links the 
somewhat artificial experiment in the school science laboratory with the real world of the students' homes (and their parents' bills), and 
furthermore it deals with a subject whose importance they should recognize because of its increasing prominence in the public media. 

An important feature in the design of these CAL packages is that the students' activity does not consist only of work at the computer; some 
preparation is usually needed beforehand, and some foiiow-up afterwards. 

All the packages consist of written material for teachers and students as well as computer programs (written in BASIC) and program 
documentation. 



99 



Home heating is one of the most ambitious of these packages and is intended for use at a variety of levels in British secondary schools. To 
allow for this flexibility of use the program itself can be run in four different modes of increasing sophistication. 

Teachers' and students' notes 

The teachers' notes include suggestions as to how the unit can be incorporated into the teaching of a variety of subjects at different levels: 
a certain amount of detail of the physics of the computer mode! which is intended as background material for teachers; information about 
the data used in the program and its sources is included. The students' material includesa series of five worksheets which could be used if 
necessary to help establish the ideas which must be understood before the program can be used. Another worksheet asks students to list 
the kinds of heating appliances used in their homes, the types of fuel used, and encourages them to find out the power rating and running 
costs per hour of each one. 

Using the Computer 

The sixth worksheet 'How to use the program HEATER for the first time* requires students to collect certain information about their homes 

including area of walls, windows, etc, and inside temperature. 

When using the program for the first time thestudent is asked a limited number of questions if he cannot answer any of these questions he 
can reply with -1 and the computer will assume a typical "default value." The student is informed of the value assumed in this way. When 
he has input the required information the student is offered a choice of three kinds of results. These are: 

1. Rate of heat loss as a function of outside temperature. 

2. Rate of heat loss plus heating cost per hour, 

3. Annual costs. 

As with all the CAL units developed at Cheisea the student is encouraged to interpret the results he gets from the computer and to use 
them to answer specific questions. {What makes some houses lose heat more q uickly than others? Does it cost more to make the inside of 
a house warmer? and so on). 

Clearly the computer prog ram makes a lot of assumptions in working out results from the data supplied in answer to the limited number of 
questions asked in the FIRST use of the program. The final worksheet is called "Windows, Walls and Roof — a second use of the 
computer.'* This introduces a longer dialogue in which a student is also asked for information about the construction of the walls, 
windows and roof of his home. At this stage the student is given a fairly restricted set of possibilities to chose from corresponding to the 
most common types of construction in Britain, When using the program in this way the student is told to try to reduce the cost of heating 
the home by changing the construction methods, and to compare the cost of different forms of insulation with the reduction in fuel bill 
achieved. 
Flexible use 

The FIRST and SECOND modes of use discussed above do not exhaust the possibilities of the program. Its full versatility becomes 
apparent if it is used in PRELIMINARY mode. This allows the user to choose what factors he wants to investigate using a series of 
"command words" and codes, 

The commands and codes are explained in a series of leaflets intended for the more advanced students who would use the unit i n this way. 

The use of "command word" rather than the dialogue form familiar in much computer based learning makes for much more flexible, and 
student-directed use. It encourages the student to investigate the effect of changing only one parameter at a time and makes it easy for 
him to do this. 

It is not necessary in this mode to specify all the parameters in the model, Once again a default value will be assigned to any that have not 
been specified by the user. The command word LIST will cause the computer to print out a complete description of the dwelling as 
currently defined, including any assumed default values, 

The computer program HEATER and the associated data files, etc. are available on punched paper tape for main frame computers and on 
mini floppy discs for several of the most popular microcomputers. Future plans include a smaller version of the package, suitable for 
junior schools with a program on cassette tape. 

Footnotes 

1. R.D. Masterton, and R.E.J. Lewis (eds) HOME HEATING, (Schools Council/Edward Arnold, London, 1979). The complete package 
consists of Teachers' notes, Students' worksheets, Students' leaflets, Program documentation (by P.W. Smith) and software. 

2. Schools Countil Computers in the Curriculum project has also produced packs of CAL material in Biology, Chemistry, Economics, 
Geography and Physics. (Schools Council, London, 1978*1980). 

3. For example: AJ. Mee, P. Boyd, and D. Ritchie, SCIENCE FOR THE 70's, (Heineman, London, 1974), 2nd ed. Book 2: Inner London 
Education Authority, INSIGHTS TO SCIENCE (Addison Wesley, London, 1978), work cards on AIR and HEAT. 



100 



7.4 

ENERGY AND THERMODYNAMICS IN 
THE HIGH SCHOOL CLASSROOM 

by 

J.M. GROW 

H. KIMMELL 

and 

R.P.T. TOMKINS 

Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry 

New Jersey Institute of Technology 

Newark, N.J. 07102 

Introduction 

The Inclusion of a section on classical thermodynamics in a high school course presents several problems for both the teachers and the 
students. The traditional methods of discussing the first and second laws of thermodynamics using mathematical notation and 
introducing parameters such as enthal py, free energy and entropy seem to give rise to serious difficulties at this stage and do not provide 
sufficient Interest for the students. However, it is apparent that many everyday examples such as the principles of the internal combustion 
engine, power plants, and the combustion of food in the body all involve energy conversions which, in turn, are determined by 
thermodynamic principles. 

One interesting way to approach the subject of thermodynamics at the high school level is to examine the overall energy picture for the 
United States including the various energy inputs in terms of Quads being directed to various energy uses such as electric energy 
generation, residential and commercial use, industrial use and transportation, All these energy demand areas involve energy conversions 
and the first point to emphasize from this overview is that some energy is lost in the conversions and only some of the energy is converted 
into useful work. 

This should provide a springboard to raise several questions as to what is energy and what are the principles governing energy 
conversions. In addition, the concept of Quad of energy [1 Quad - 10 15 BTU], some discussion of the various energy sources and an 
appreciation of how energy is used can be presented at this time, 

Energy conversion and the first law 

The First Law of Thermodynamics forms the basis for understanding the operation of energy conversion devices. A good example to 
illustrate various energy conversions is that of the generation of electrical energy in a nuclear or fossil fuel power plant. Somediscussion 
of these processes would introduce the concepts of energy and work and, at this stage, it is important to clarify the meaning of some of the 
important terms invovted in energy conversion. 

A. ENERGY AND ENERGY CONVERSION 

For a full understanding of the term energy, the problem would have to be examined in terms of molecules and atoms in motion and the 
mathematical analysis of this problem is not particularly easy at the high school level, Most textbooks mistakenly define energy as a 
measure of the ability of the system to do work and usually is considered as a general term which embraces all kinds of work, e.g., 
mechanical work, electrical work and chemical work. It is easier for the students to understand energy in terms of what it can do rather 
than what it is. At this stage it is useful to perform some demonstration experiments in ordertoreinforcethe concept of energy. Examples 
of possible experiments include 

* windmill (potential energy — mechanical energy) 

* solar cell (solar energy — electrical energy) 

* simple steam turbine 1 (heat energy — mechanical energy) 

" simple chemical cell involving copper and zinc electrodes immersed in solutions of copper sulfate and zinc sulfate 
separated by a salt bridge and connected to a light bulb (chemical energy — electrical energy) 

* simple chemical decompostion, e.g., heating ammonium dichromate on an asbestos board (chemical energy — heat 
energy). 

These demonstrations wilt help the students to recognize energy in various forms such as radiant (light), thermal (heat), chemical, 
nuclear, mechanical and electrical and also that energy can be changed from one form to another, An energy conversion device is any 
device whose purpose is to change energy from one form into another form, which is more convenient or useful. 

S. HEAT, WORK and THE FIRST LAW 

Before formulating the First Law of Thermodynamics, it is preferable to examine the physical concepts of heat and work in more detail. 

Some familiar examples of heat are i) theprocessof combustion, whether in an oil orgas fired home furnace orin the body (combustion of 

sugars, or ii) the heating of water in a hot water system. Some simple heats of mixing experiments should be introduced using cubes of 

different metals and several liquids to illustrate that the amount of heat necessary to obtain a given temperature change is dependent 

upon 

* the amount of the substance 

* the temperature rise 

* the nature of the substance 

These experiments form the basis of establishing the simple relationship that is used in any calculation involving heat, namely, 

Heat = m x c x (T 2 - Tj) 
where m is the mass of material, T 1 and T a are the initial and final temperatures respectively, and c is the specific heat of the substance. 
Examination of equation (1) leads naturally to the definition of the specific heat of a substance which is defined as the amount of heat 
required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one degree. 

At this juncture, the units in which heat is measured could be introduced, i.e. calories, Joules and the BTU (British Thermal Unit), along 
with their definitions. Simple problems involving conversions of units and temperatures scales would be appropriate. 



101 



One way of introducing the concept of work is to consider the combustion of food in the body which not only produces some heat, but 
also yields some ability to do mechanical work (i.e. movement of arms, legs, etc). Another example of a system that produces work is that 
of a gas or vapor being heated in a confined space (e.g. a turbine or internal combustion engine). The expanding gas pushes against the 
surrounding and moves the piston a certain distance. The definition of work can be introduced as: 

Work = Force x Distance 
In addition to heat being converted into work, the heat can also cause the motion of the atoms or molecules of the substance to change, 
i.e. the temperature will increase. The translational (kinetic) energy will increase with an increase of temperature. Also, molecules will 
begin to vibrate more vigorously and their rotations will increase. Jn other words, the input heat will change the energy of the substance 
(gas, solid, liquid). The effects of temperature on molecular motions can be demonstrated very effectively with the use of molecular 
simulators which are commercially available or through the use of computer graphics, 

After introducing the concepts of heat and work through discussion* experiments and demonstrations, the time is now right for 
introduction of the First Law of Thermodynamics. 

Internal Energy = Heat + Work 
E = Q +W 
Although energy can be converted from one form into another, energy must be conserved in this process. Several different energy 
conversions are needed to convert the fossil fuel energy or nuclear energy into electric power. During each conversion, varying amounts 
of the energy are transformed into waste heat. In particular, the operation of a turbine produces a large amount of waste heat. The 
question as to how much heat is converted into work or vice-versa (i.e. the efficiency of the process), is not answered by the First Law. This 
will be discussed via the Second Law of Thermodynamics. 

The First Law of Thermodynamics is a statement of the Law of Conservation of Energy, that is, "Energy can neither be created nor 
destroyed, only converted from one form to another," It follows from this statement that, "Energy may be transferred from one source to 
another' 1 "Energy may bestored and later released in a different form." In real-life terms, theFirst Law can be expressed by such saying as 
"You can't get something for nothing." "You can't get ahead." "You get what you paid for." 

This fs obviously part of our energy problem. Our energy consumption is limited by the available energy sources. One can not simply 
create energy out of nothing, whenever it is desired or needed. All of the above statements concerning the First Law should be discussed 
carefully so that the students can begin to get a feeling for the Law. 

Thus, the First Law allows the operation of energy conversion devices, so that, for example, a fixed amount of mechanical work can 
always be converted into the equivalent amount of heat. However, the study of utilization of energy such as a heat engine demonstrates 
that the reverse process cannot be accompl ished; that is, a fixed amount of heat cannot be completely converted i nto the same amount of 
mechanicaf work, as some of the initial energy is unavoidably wasted, 

Energy conversion and the second law 

Energy conversions are not necessarily exactly reversible, but there is some directionality in naturally occurring processes. The First Law 
does not shed any tight on this matter. It is the Second Law of Thermodynamics that indicates which processes can occur naturally. 

A prime example of one of the most important types of energy conversion devices is known as the heat engine. A heat engine converts the 
input heat energy into mechanical energy (e.g. turbine in a power plant) as the useful energy output. Waste heat is rejected from the heat 
engine as a result of the energy conversion. 

A fairly detailed description of a power plant is appropriate at this point and should be combined with a visit to a local power plant, or if that 
is not possible, representatives from such a plant should be invited to discuss the plant operation with illustrated slides or movies. Several 
different energy transformations are needed to convert the nuclear energy or the fossil fuel energy into electric power. The first energy 
conversion device depends on whether it is a fossil fuel-fired plant or a nuclear power plant. Otherwise, the two types of plants are made 
up of analogous energy conversion devices. The source of the thermal energy necessary to produce steam is a chemical reaction {the 
burning of a fossil fuel) or a nuclear process (the splitting of an uranium atom). The thermal energy is absorbed by the water in the boiler, 
transforming the water into high pressure steam which is piped into the turbine where some of the thermal energy is converted into 
mechanical energy (work). 

The energy which remains in the steam that was not converted to work in the turbine is passed as waste heat from the turbine in the spent 
steam. This steam must be converted to water using a condenser before returning to the boiler to go through the power plant cycle again. 
The condenser is a heat transfer device through which cold water is piped, picking up the waste heat which causes the water to increase in 
temperature by about 10-20 degrees, This warmer water is returned then to its source, usually a lake, river or ocean, causing thermal 
pollution of the body of water. More recently, especially where bodies of water are not available, cooling towers are being used to 
dissipate the waste heat. 

The mechanical energy produced in the turbine is transmitted through a shift into an electric generator where it is converted to electric 
energy by means of a coil moving in a magnetic field. Essentially a steam turbine is a pinwheel driven by high-pressure steam rather than 
by air It basically consists of a rotor from which project several rows of blades over which the steam flows, causing rotary motion and the 
conversion of some of the energy in the high pressure steam into mechanical energy (work). Other sources can be consulted for more 
information on turbines. 2 

There are many different ways of expressing the Second Law. Consideration will be limited to those which are relevant to this level of 
presentation. 

The Second Law deals with the directional flow of energy, i.e. which way will energy flow spontaneously, demonstrating that the law of 
conservation of energy (i.e., The First Law) is not enough. The Second Law can be expressed as follows: 

"Naturally occurring processes are those which can proceed in a spontaneous manner and are irreversible/ 1 
There are several spontaneous processes with which we should be familiar. For example, water flows downhill, but not uphill. After a fire 
has burnt the ash cannot be returned to the original starting material (e.g. coal), the process is irreversible. An automobile roils down a hill 
and then is driven back to its original position (assuming no mishaps to the car). Isn't this a reversible process? No, it is not, unless the 
emitted fumes can go back up the tail pipe to the engine where the gasoline and oxygen are restored, etc. Or, you can not run a car on 
pollution! 



102 



One knows intuitively that heat flows from a hot body to a cold body, so that the directionality of energy flow can also be expressed as 
"Heat cannot spontaneously pass from a colder body to a warmer body," Thus, a btock of ice placed on the kitchen table will melt by 
taking heat from the surroundings, but a pool of water on the same table cannot form ice spontaneously and give heat to the 
surroundings. Evaporation of a liquid from a surface occurs by taking heat from the surface, thus cooling the surface, 

A power plant uses the directional flow of heat to create electrical power. This direction of flow can be created by having a warmer area at 
T2 and a colder area at Ti, where T2 is greater than Ti. In an actual power plant, T2 corresponds to the temperature in the boiler and Tt 
corresponds to the temperature of the river or lake, which provides cooling water for the condenser. The flow of heat would cause the 
temperature of the river or lake to increase. If this heat is not removed, thenTi will approach T2and the output of power will stop. As long 
as the condenser can remove heat from the steam, thus condensing it back into water, Ti will not increase and power can be generated. 

There are other statements of the Second Law which refer more specifically to the production of waste heat during an energy convesion, 
and to the operation of a heat engine. For example, 
"A// energy conversion processes involve the production of waste heat, and reduce forever the amount of useful energy available," 

"Energy conversions are not totally efficient" 

"You can't even break even." 

Thus, all energy conversions occurring in a typical power plant must involve formation of waste heat, since no conversion is perfectly 
efficient. The most inefficient of the energy conversions is the conversion of thermal energy to work in the heat engine (i.e., steam 
turbine), where approximately 50% of the thermal energy is converted to work and the remaining thermal energy converted into waste 
heat. 

"There is a general tendency in nature for energy to pass from a more available form (i.e., ordered) to a less available (i.e.. disordered) 
form. " 

Some other important and interesting examples of efficiency in energy conversion processes are those following the complete processes 
of (a) extracting crude oil through to the movement of an automobile and (b) the mining of coal through to the production of electricty in a 
power plant. These examples should make It perfectly clear to the students that some of our common everyday practices are very 
inefficient. 

The concept of limited efficiency of heat engines was first presented in 1824 by an engineer named Carnot (who was 19 years old at the 
time) who showed that the efficiency of conversion of thermal energy to work was related to the operating temperatures, as follows: 

EFF - TH0 ^ TC0LD x 100 

where Thot is the temperature of the heat reservoir (i.e., boiler) and Tcold is the temperature of the heat sink (i.e., the temperature of the 
cooling water). E.g., if Thot = 600° K, Tcold * 300° K, then 50% of the heat energy is converted into mechanical energy and 50% Into waste 
heat. Inspection of equation 4 shows that the efficiency is independent of the nature of the working fluid. Note that the loss of energy due 
to friction is not included in the above consideration. Using the temperatures representative of the steam and the cooling water in the 
fossil fuel-fired power plant (590° C and 20°C) and the nuclear power plant (315° C and 20°C), the efficiencies for the two power plants are 
found to be (59Q4-273M20+273) . yinn . fl „ 
Fossil Fuel-Fired Power Plant: Erf * - i (5Qfl+g73) * 100 fi °* 

Nuclear Power Plant: Eff = ^ 31B Miflgffi* 273 ^ s X1D0 = 50% 

That is, there is a significant difference in the efficiency of conversion of thermal energy to work in two types of power plants. 

Another way of viewing the Second Law considers the concepts of order and disorder (or chaos). For example, a brand new deck of 
playing cards is arranged by rank and by suit. This can arbitrarily be defined as an ordered system. Throw this deck of cards into the air 
and let the cards fall in a random fashion on the floor. The original order of the deck of cards is lost and the new arrangement is a random 
choice from many possible orderings of the deck of cards. The process by which an ordered system has been transformed into a 
"disordered system" was a spontaneous one. Further, the reverse process cannot occur (without using energy). Again, the Second Law 
dictates the directionality of naturally occurring processes, that is, "Spontaneous Processes Tend to Produce Disordered Systems." 

One can also introduce a little of the philosophy of the Second Law of Thermodynamics by considering the earth in a thermodynamic 
sense. Here it must be concluded that, in spite of all the technological innovations leading to the creation of apparent order (e.g.. 
buildings, cars and spaceships), nature is gradually moving towards a state of disorder within the universe as a whole. Thus, thecreation 
of wastes such as pollutants, 3 or the gradual exhaustion of the world's resources of oil and coaJ wouid be examples of the Second Law of 
Thermodynamics. Thus, in a thermodynamicsense, the soothsayers who say "Repent now, the world is coming to an end" are technically 
correct. Only their time frame is off, One can then conclude from the two laws that you can't get something for nothing, and you can't even 
break even. 

In conclusion, we feel that the inclusion of the concepts, experiments and examples discussed above will give the high school student a 
sound introduction to the ideas of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics and therefore equip the students for a more 
mathematical approach at some later stage. 

References 

1 . See, for example, NSTA, "Energy, Engines and the Industrial Revolution," 62-63, 1977, DOE Publication No. EDM-1 032; D.W, Stephen, 
"Solving the Power Plant Enigma Through 'Puff Mobile' Turbine," The Science Teacher, 47 (5), 44, May (1980). 

2. W. Hossli, "Steam Turbines." Scientific American, 220 (4), 101-110, April (1969), 

3. W.F. Sheehan: J. Chem. Educ: 49. 18, (1972). 

103 



7.5 

CLASSROOM CONSTRUCTION OF APPARATUSES USING RENEVABLE ENERGY SOURCES: 
A MOTIVATIONAL APPROACH TO ENERGY EDUCATION. 

Michela Mayer and Anna Maria Conforto 

Institute di Rsica "G, Marconi" - Laboratorio Didattica delle Scienze 
Universita degli Studi - P. le Aldo Moro, 2 - 00185 ROMA (Italy). 
Introduction 

Science teaching is based, at least in Italy, on a simplified "reconstruction of scientific thought." which often misrepresents its actual 
history, by eliminating all the technical, cultural, and economical aspects of the problems which gave raise to its development, with the 
purpose of presenting a purified and neutral picture of science. 

A gap between the subjects included in the standard curricula, and the topics of more practical and social interest which would better 
stimulate the attention of students, is therefore a consequence of the structure and methodology of this kind of science teaching. 

The eduational experience discussed in this paper, assumes as starting point the need to cope with this problem, particularly for low 

ability students, and follows a line of research grounded on two basic assumptions: 

i) the approach to a scientific problem should always take into account the practical problems arising from its social use: 
ii) the proper understanding of concepts can only be attained by experiments, their validity through planning and realization of 
definite applications. 

Following these premises we have chosen to concentrate on the problem of energy education as a subject of our research group of the 
"Laboratorio di Didattica delle Scienze" of Rome Universityt. 

In this case, in fact, the above mentioned gap is particularly evident: while the discussion on energy crises and consumptions goes on 
every day and everywhere, in school students learn almost only energy conservation, with little or no reference to energy downgrading, 
without ever being taught to connect the abstract scientific concepts to the problems in which their use is required. 

Planning as classroom work 

We have decided to present in two high schools of Rome tt the problem of the present energy crisis, starting from an analysis of the world 
energy balance with the purpose of discussing possible solutions. 

The first stage of the work has been therefore devoted to acquire several information through seminars on definite subjects prepared by 
working groups sometimes with the help of experts. 

The result of this preliminary discussion has been the decision to focus the bulk of the work on the study of renewable sources, through 
the planning and the construction of small scale apparatuses with the aim of testing the possible practical use of this kind of resources. 

It was agreed that the projects elaborated by the students should respond to the following requirements: 

i) to deal with a single concrete problem: e.g. the possibility of heating water on air by means of solar radiation: 

it) to envisage the performance of measurements or semi-quantitative controls, in order to verify the correspondence between 

goals and achievements and compare the results of different projects; 

iii) to plan the use of currently available materials and simple technologists with the purpose of realizing entirely the construction at 

school, with a minimum of external aid. The following apparatuses have been realized by the working groups during a year (with 3 

work hours/week): 

a) Different types of fiat plate collectors, 

The heat absorber consisted of blackened copper tubing or radiator elements, and the storage unit was made of insulated 
cans or tanks. Thermometers were placed at the inlet and the outlet in order to compute and compare the efficiencies of the 
different heaters. 

b) Different types of air-heating solar collectors. 

The absorber surface was increased by means of an array of beverage cans. The inlet and outlet air temperature has been 
measured. However, the difficulty in measuing the flux made thecomputation of the efficiency only qualitative. The purpose 
of the model in this case was mainly to study the properties of air as a heat-carrying fluid, in view also of its application to the 
heating of buildings. 

c) Parabolic cylindrical concentrating collectors of various sizes. 

The purpose of the model was to investigate the convenience of using this device for small scale, low-temperature water 
heaters. 

The efficiency of the apparatus was compared with that of flat plate collector, taking also into account the cost of the 
orienting device which is needed in this case. 

The common background of all these measurements has been provided by the evaluation of the incoming solar energy flux, 
performed by means of a calibrated photovoltaic ceil. 

These data have been supplemented by measurements of maximum solar attitude at different times of the year. 

d) A blogas generating plant 

The gas produced by ordinary food-waste has been collected in a water-filled flask, and burned, in order to evidenciate the 
presence of methane. The quantity of CO2 contained in the gas. the nitrogen enrichment, and themicrobic increase of the 
residuals have been measured. 



104 



e) A model of energy self-sufficient, house. 

The architectural features of the house are planned both for achieving energy saving and use of renewable sources. The first 
one is obtained by means of adequate orientation, suitable roof overhand, and the choice of appropriate building materials. 
The second ones are favored by a correct roof inclination for the installation of water heaters and photovoltaic collectors, the 
use of "green house" elements for air heating, and the inclusion of heat-storage walls. The thermal conductance of building 
materials has been measured by means of a thermally insulated box which loses energy through one of its walls. 

Conclusions 

From this experiment, mainly performed during vocational area time, we have been able to draw the following conclusions. 

The first, and the most important one, consists in the acknowledgement that the introduction of a "planning focused approach" changes 
completely the teaching methodology. 

The students, in fact, for the first time, had to face a practical situation with the task of producing viable solutions. This means; 
a — to identify a limited problem; 

b — to collect information and data, of scientific as well as technical and economical nature; 
c — to chose the dimensions, materials and tools to be used; 
d — to build practically the apparatus and test its performance; 
e — to work out possible improvements in order to find the best economical and technical compromises. 

The difference with ordinary laboratory work should be stressed. In this case, in fact, the task to be accomplished is very different. 
because neither the goal, nor the procedure to attain it are predetermined in advance. 

This new methodology has three important features. The first one is given by the integration of manual and intellectual activities. 
Even the low ability students, in this way, become involved in this type of work, discovering their manual and technical skills, which 
usually our traditional school does not appreciate. 

To fill the gap between the life time dedicated to learning and the one in which the acquired notions are applied is the second important 
feature of this method. 

The third feature is the change in the teachers role, which becomes that of a coordinator, and organizer of the common work even without 
necessarily posessing all the relevant expertise. 

For what concerns the knowledge acquired by the students we have already pointed out the advantage of filling the gap between the 

curricular contents and the technical and scientific problems of everyday life. I want to stress that his advantage does not entail a 

substantial loss of the scientific information imparted. 

In fact we have treated in sufficient detail the main topics of thermology, and geometrical optics, togetherwith more restricted arguments 

such as emission and absorption of radiation, fermintation chemistry, electrical circuits, etc.. 

Furthermore the concept of energy has been developed under many different perspectives, including energy transformations, energy 

conservation, downgrading of energy, energy sources and consumptions. 

At this stage the need arises of planning some curricular units intended as support of this kind of activity. We are starting to work in this 
direction and we are at present experimentating an introductory unit on energy transformations. A second interdisciplinary unit on 
"energy sources," is being prepared, integrating concepts of physics, mathematics and chemistry. 

7.6 

A PHYSICAL SCIENCE COURSE FOCUSED ON ENERGY 

John L. Roeder 

The Calhoun School 

433 West End Avenue 

New York, NY 10024 

Abstract. 

Many people agree that education about energy is important for an informed citizenry. Most efforts in energy education at the secondary 

level have been achieved through "infusion" into existing courses. My search for a way to give energy education the focus I feel it truly 

deserves has led me to offer a physical science course focused on energy for the past three years at the Calhoun School. This course, 

"Energy for the Future." offers students a way to learn much of the material from a traditional 9th-1 0th grade physical science course in a 

way that is much more relevant to their daily lives and some of the future decisions they will face. 

After beginning with a historical overview of our energy use in the past, the course turns to our energy sources of the present and 

prospects for the future. Political and economic considerations are included as well as scientific and technical considerations. Students 

learn from films, games, and field trips in addition to reading, written assignments, and laboratory experiments, 

Although courses on energy abound at the college level, a greater standardization of curriculum seems to have made "infusion" a more 

practical approach at the secondary level. The experience of teaching an energy-focused physical science course at the secondary level 

is presented as an alternative to "infusion" in the hope that others might be stiumlated to teach an energy-focused course themselves. 

Text. 

One goal of education is to prepare our students for the future. Included in that education is usually at least one science course. For 
students who do not go on to become scientists, It is increasingly important that their science courses focus on ways in which science is 
expected to affect their future. One topic which is both relevant in our everyday fives and transcendent among all the sciences is energy. 
Many approaches have been taken to educate our students about energy, such as the National Science Teachers Association's Project 
for an Energy Enriched Curriculum (PEEC) and energy education curricula developed by various of the United States. These approaches 
have been mainly to "infuse" energy topics into existing courses. 



105 



While "infusion" of energy topics is better than ignoring them, I fee! that the "infusion" approach does not give energy the focus it truly 
deserves in the curriculum. I would like to describe for you my preferred alternative: "Energy for the Future," a physical science couse 
refocused on energy, 

"Energy for the Future" was not my idea alone. In fact, it wasn't evey my idea at all For several years I had been teaching at The Calhoun 
School, an independent school on the Upper West Side of Manhattan. Eugene D. Ruth, Jr., who then headed Calhoun, continually 
emphasized the importance of educating our students to prepare them for the twenty-first century. In response to this I had already been 
teaching about energy in team teaching situations for three years, Then, in the spring of 1 978 1 found myself at a conference sponsored by 
the National Energy Foundation asking the question, "Should energy be taught merely as a topic infused into existing courses or should it 
be given the focus of its own separate course?" The answer — and the idea for "Energy for the Future" — was provided by my friend Lys 
Keneally Waltien of John Adams High School; why not restructure the tradiational physical science course with a focus on energy? 

i have taught "Energy for the Future" for each of the past three years to mostly 9th and 1 0th grade students at The Calhoun School. In the 
first and second of those three years I relied on existing materials t especially those from DOE and PEEC, pieced together in the way I felt 
the course should be organized. In the second year I also wrote my own text, which was then ready for students to use in the third year. 

The list of chapter titles below also indicates the structure of the course. I begin with a historical overview, which was inspired by George 
Russell Harrison's The Conquest of Energy.' Harrison characterizes the evolving stages of humankind by their sources of energy: food 
(hunting and fishing), food (agricultural), fuel (industrial), fission (modern),and fusion (future). Thisalsoallowsforsome experiments to 
teach the basic physics of energy: the heat content of food (and the measurement of heat by the increased temperature of a known mass 
of water); the work done by lifting an object the sameheight above theground in four different ways; the basic elements of electromagnet- 
ism; and the conversion of electrical energy into heat It also provides a natural form to teach the first and second laws of 
thermodynamics. 

1. Food: Our First Energy Source 

2. Using Energy to do Work 

3. Finding Another Way to do the Work: The Industrial Revolution 

4. Converting Energy from one Form to Another: The First Law of Thermodynamics 

5. Some Forms of Energy are More Useful than Others: The Second Law of Thermodynamics 

6. Electricity: Capstone of the Industrial Revolution 

7. The Formation of Fuels from Fossils 

8. Atoms 

9. How Electrons Behave in Atoms 

10. How Atoms Combine 

11. Energy Storage in Fuels 

12. Nuclear Power Plants 

13. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle 

14. The Kinds of Fuels We Use Today 

15. The Environmental Impact of Goal 

16. Nuclear Power Plant Safety 

17. Handling Nuclear Wastes 

18. The Breeder Reactor 

19. To Breed or Not to Breed 

20. Nuclear Fusion 

21. Solar Heating 

22. Other Sources of Heat (Solar Thermal Electric, OTEC, Geothermal) 

23. Direct Conversion of Sunlight to Electricity 

24. Sources of Mechanical Energy (Wind, Water, Tides) 

25. Biomass 

26. Synthetic Fuels 

27. Other Ways to Store Energy 

28. Energy Conservation 

29. What Kind of Energy Future? 

In order to discuss the types of fuel used today (both fossil and nuclear), I then turn to atomic, molecular, and nuclear structure. This is 
followed by a confrontation with our present patterns of energy production and consumption and an assessment of future supplies of the 
fuels we have come to rety on. 

Having thus brought ourselves into the present, we then focus on the future, beginning with an environmental assessment of the effects of 
nuclear and coal, the only presently-used fuels that remain in abundance. In light of the realization that both nuclear and coal pose 
environmental problems and that neither is an unlimited source of energy, we continue by exploring alternative future sources of energy 
and examine the lifestyles that might be necessitated. Political and economic considerations are included as well as scientific and 
technical considerations, The conclusion is a series of activities designed to focus on the question posed in the title of the concluding 
chapter: What kind of energy future? 

Because i feel that an important dimension of energy problems is quantitative, written assignments stress problem solving with arithmetic 
the students should have already mastered. Students in "Energy for the Future" also learn from laboratory experiments, films*. games" 1 , 
and field trips. Indeed (and not surprisingly) these "hands on" and audiovisual activities have been the most popular part of the course. 

Because of the topical nature of "Energy for the Future" and the audience to whom it is addressed (students more likely to take physical 
science than physics and chemistry), I have measured the success of this course not in terms of factual material learned but by its impact 
on the way my students look at the world about them and their expectations for the future. In one of three possible final essay topics I 
allowed my students to address this question. Some of the responses, such as greater awareness of the need to conserve energy and a 
realization that it is their generation whose responsibility it will be to solve our energy problems, are understandably expected, Not quite 



106 



so expected, and all the more heartwarming, were responses that showed concerns for generations following, commitments to an 
energy-conserving lifestyle, and awareness of relationships between energy issues and international affairs. Many of the students noted 
that they felt themselves to be more "energy conscious" than their parents. 

Although courses like "Energy for the Future" abound at the college level, they seem to be quite rare at the secondary level.- 1 Perhaps this 
is because the secondary curriculum is more standardized, and "infusion" of energy topics into this standardized curriculum is easierto 
achieve. I reiterate, though, that "Energy for the Future" is not a new course to be added to the curriculum. Rather, it is a refocused version 
of an existing course. I present my experience in developing and teaching it in the hope that others might be stimulated to teach an 
energy-focused course of their own and that a network of communications can be set up among those who do so. 

Footnotes 

1 G.R. Harrison, THE CONQUEST OF ENERGY, (Morrow, 1968) 

2 The two sources I have used are 1) DOE TIC Film Library, Oak Ridge Turnpike at Athens Road, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37830, 
615-576-1285; and 2) Shell Film Library, 1433 Sadlier Circle, West Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46239, 317-291-7440. 

3 J.L. Roeder, Phys. Teach., 15, 428 (1977), 18, 302 (1980); PEEC, "Fossil Fuels and the Greenhouse Effect,' 1 (NSTA, to be published) 

4 Foroneexample, see H.Goldring, "Energy — A30 Period module for Mixed Ability Classes," in Uri Ganiel (ed.), PHYSICS TEACHING — 
OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES, CURRENT PROBLEMS, (Balaban, 1980). J.M. Oxenhorn. ENERGY AND OUR FUTURE, (Globe, 1979), 
addresses the same material, that I do, but at a slightly lower level. 

7,7 

ENERGY SUPPLY BY NUCLEAR POWER STATIONS 
AN INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO PHYSICS TEACHING 

Helmut Mikelskis/Roland Lauterbach 

AU , A IPN KIEL, FRG 

Abstract 

We are introducing an approach toward physics education developed at the Institute for Science Education (IPN) in Kiel, Fed. Rep. of 

Germany. 1 2 This lecture will illustrate one of five paradigms for science education representing the IPN Physics Curriculum for grades 9 

and 10. 3 

* Education is an integral move of a society to secure its survival: The move has to be toward dynamic change. 

* The young are influenced, often forced, toward system conformity or fit. The influence has to go toward system-consciousness, 

* A democratic society requires members of high qualification, self-confidence and responsibility: The requirement is one of 
creative solidarity against misuse of social power. 

We, therefore, consider it an educational must to deal in our schools with issues of our society's future as It is established at present. The 
tradition of school subjects is not permitted to curtail this task. 

Starting the approach with an analytic view of society 

Our approach can be shortly characterized by four questions. They reflect education in its cultural context and have delineated the 
instruction unit we present. 

(a) A question of public concern and democracy: 

Our societies proclaim to be democratic, i.e. participation of each member in deciding on matters of public concern is fundamen- 
tally guaranteed. 

Education has to prepare the young generation for that participation, Nuclear power use is of public concern. Government spends 
large amounts of tax money, it is discussed in political parties; unions as well as industry consider it a vital economic issue. 

(b) A question of controversial interests and values: 

In our society people have differing interests and values. So, basically, democratic participation bears controversy and conflict. 
They are delivered when interests and values clash on vital issues such as scarcity of resouces, inbalance of need satisfaction, or 
danger of existence. Education has to prepare theyoung to accept controversy and conflict, to identify own interests, develop own 
values, and handle conflicts. Nuclear power use has developed into a major conflict. Heads -of political parties and of local 
government already have resigned, court orders have been released, thousands of policemen and national guard have been 
activitated, ten thousands of people have demonstrated. 

(c) A question of awareness and information: 

Matters of public concern and controversial valuation usually become an issue of public debate, making most members of a society 
aware of them and requiring their decision on them. Information available tends to influence people. It is modified, distorted, often 
manipulated and usually hidden in different types of presentation and material. Education has to make the young aware of vital 
issues and prepare them to analyze and handle manipulated information. Information on nuclear power is given in different media 
in a multitude of presentations and it is often highly manipulative. 

(d) A question of relevance and scope: 

Wide coverage in public media doesn't guarantee relevance of an issue. Depth and scope of an issue is linked with conflict of 
interests and values, with threat to way of life, structure of a society or plain survival. Education has to prepare the future generation 
to handle such problems in their totality and complexity. Nuclear power use is an issue of high relevance, wide scope and probable 
lethality, 

Consequences for teaching "Nuclear Power Stations" 

Nuclear power use has been identified as an important issue in our societies. Education has to pick it up and deal with it. In the Federal 
Republic of Germany this issue has led to an introduction of the topic "nuclear power" into the physics syllabi of all types of school for 

107 



grades 9 and 10. About 80 percent of students are leaving school after these, grades, at the age of 15 or 16. But syllabi and regular school 
books are developed according to the disciplinary structure of "nuclear physics," Research has proven the disciplinary approach 
ineffective. Besides, "nuclear physics" Is not the issue, the "use of nuclear power" is. We shall retrace the four questions we have just 
discussed and illustrate our answers to them with excerpts from our instruction unit. 4 

(dt) What is the scope of the issue on nuclear power and what of it is relevant for physics education? 

A content analysis of 200 representative articles of three newspapers published during one year identified that only 1% of the 
information on nuclear powerwas concerned with physics. But percentages reveal neither importance of the given information nor 
its structure. Further analysis of information linkage and scope showed complex relations. 

For instructional purposes we have simplified the structure concentrating on those five aspects which we consider indispensable 
even if the issue is picked up only in physics teaching, 

(cf) How can students sharpen their awareness of the nuclear power issue and cope with the information made available? Global 
awareness of the issue was already present. But various, often contradictory information packaged in miscellaneous types of 
presentation kept students at a distance and from going into depth. They had to be made familiar with the different modes of 
presentation and to draw information from them. Our unit, therefore, contains excerpts from newspapers and books, diagrams, 
charts, tables, graphics, pictures, cartoons, and it refers to slides and films. Some of these materials had to be simplified but, 
basically, they retained their contents and form. 

(bt) How can conflicts be analyzed to identify the driving interests and values involved? 

Trials in 21 classes have helped us to develop farily adequate means for analyzing the varied types of information. They also 
guaranteed that the offered information was comprehensible. In addition to special assignments on information analysis and 
specific hints on modes of distortion and manipulation, we prepared a scheme for analyzing assertions and claims. This scheme 
can also be used for working out ones own line of argument. 

(at) How can public concern become personal and activate students to democratic participation? 

Democracy is not a privilege of adults facing children or of socially powerful facing the powerless. It is the continuous struggle of 

the suppressed for equality. The issue on nuclear power is an enlighting example for that. 

In our unit we try to fight resignation because of powerlessness by getting the students to participate in at least three areas. First, they are 
supported in setting their priorities for learning in selecting areas of emphasis, and in following their interests, Second, the unit is 
organized to permit students to plan their whole teaching-learning process together with their teachers. Third, the work in the classroom 
is directed toward public presentation and discussion of the learning results (e.g. panel, info-booth, exhibition). 

Summary 

The presented approach to physics education, developed at the Institute of Science Education in Kiel (FRG), transposes the controversial 
issue on nuclear power as it is represented in the Fed. Rep. of Germany into curriculum materials. Care is taken to retain its structural and 
procedural characteristics and to prepare student to cope with the issue responsibly; i.e., they experience and examine its scope and 
relevance, increase awareness and information processing ability, study controversial values and interests and handle conflicts, and 
participate in matters of personal and public concern. 

Footnotes 

1 W. Westphal, Physics curriculum work at IPN. Physics Education, (1977), pp. 32-37. 

2 H. Mikelskis, Social science as a part of physics education — The IPN Physics Curriculum, in: U. Gantei (Ed.) PHYSICS-TEACHING. 
PROCEEDINGS OF THE GIREP CONFERENCE 1979, JERUSALEM (Philadelphia, 1980), pp. 19-28. 

1 H. Hartel. R. Lauterbach, tPN PHYSICS CURRICULUM — INTRODUCING A NEW APPROACH TO PHYSICS TEACHING IN THE 
FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY, (John Murray, London, in prep.). 

4 H. Midelskis, R. Lauterback. IPN CURRICULUM PHYSIK. ENERGIEVERSORGUNG DURCH KERNDRAFTWERKE (Klett. Stuttgart. 
1980). 

7,8 

EXPERIMENTS IN THE TEACHING OF ENERGY IN THE ROMANIAN 
SECONDARY SCHOOL 

Prof. Mariana T. Popescu, Industrial Lycee nr. 6 r Ploiesti, 
(Home address) str.Covurlui 43. R - 2000 Ploiesti, Romania 

In the introduction is shown the structure of the system of teaching in Romania. In its frame are indicated the number of hours affected to 
the teaching of Physics in accordance with the contents of the physics curriculum in the secondary school. 

Further on. we develop the themes referring to the teaching of energy in different years of study and we present the experiments which 
have to be performed within that theme. We make stand out the experiments within its theme indicated by: a) the school programe: b) the 
text — books of Physics. 

We show what experiments were introduced in teaching taking into account the proper experience of teaching or using another 
bibliography. 

Then we mention the equipment at the disposal of the schools: apparatus of Physics for pupils, films, slides and we indicate some 
examples referring to the way of handling them on experiments to check up the conservation of energy. 

It is shown the part of these experiments and their influence in the success of teaching energy in the secondary school of Romania. 



108 



SESSION 8: CURRICULA — UNDERGRADUATE 

8.1 INVITED 

THE ENERGY AND ITS CARRIERS: A UNIFIED APPROACH TO THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES 

G. Bruno Schmid 

Institut fur Didaktik der Physik 

Unversitat Karlsruhe/7500 Karlsruhe 1 

West Germany 

Abstract: 

A modern physics curriculum, developed by G. Falk and F. Hermann, is presented, in which the concept of energy plays a central role, 
This new approach to physics is not simply an undated way of explaining things with traditional concepts but, rather, is based upon a 
restructuring of physics as a whole. Fortunately, this restructuring naturally leads to considerable unification throughout the sciences 
and, futhermore, is easy to.elementarize. 

The basic idea of our approach is that descriptions of most natural events can be reduced to statements about the flow of energy. Thus, 
physical problems conceptually reduce to problems of energy. Accordingly, theenergy is treated as a primary and not a derived concept. 
This means that problems of energy are as immediately accessible to one's intuition as problems of motion are toastudentof traditional 
physics. 

Introduction 

I would like to present the outlines of a new elementary physics course developed at our institute by G. Falk and F. Herrmann at the 
University of Karlsruhe, West Germany (1). The energy plays a central and decisive role from the very beginning of this course. Although 
this course has been devised for children, ages 10-12, it is not simply an ad hoc construction just to get a fast grip on the energy concept 
(and not much more). Rather, it is based on a conceptual restructuring of physics as a whote. In this restructuring, which has previously 
been developed by G. Falk (2, 3), certain variables — which we call "substance-like" — form the basic concepts. Amongst these variables, 
the energy is particularly important. Structuring physics in this way favors a description of nature which represents considerable 
unification of the rules and operations within many branches of physics, including chemistry as well. At the same time, this approach 
offers the advantage of being easy to elementarize. 

The basic idea underlying the course is that the explanation of most natural events can be reduced to statements about the flow of energy. 
In order to understand, in simple terms, what this means, let us consider the concept of energy itself from an everyday point of view. 
Contrary to a wide spread opinion, energy is something that we "get" during a meal and that we "run out of" after too much physical 
exertion. Energy is what our electric meter at home measures, what we need to heat our houses, to run our cars and so on. Energy is 
something like money: we all know when we have got it or when we have lost it. This way of looking at the energy has nothing directly to do 
with the ususal way of defining theenergy mechanically, say, in terms of force and displacement or mass and velocity, Theenergy itself is 
taken as a primary concept. 

Considering these examples more closely, it is easy to recognize that, whenever energy flows, something else flows along with the 
energy; the electric meter at home measures the flow of energy which, from a layman's point of view, is brought from the powerplant into 
our house by the electricity; the warm water circulating through the heating system of a building brngs the energy from the boiler in the 
basement into the radiators within each room; the gasoline in our car brings the energy from the gas tank to the motor; light brings the 
energy from the sun to a field and so on. Energy is something like money: monetary value is always carried by something else (asilver 
dollar, a poker chip, a bank check, etc.) In the same way, we can say that something else "carries" the energy in each of the examples 
above. 

This way of looking at the world remains valid whenever energy flows from one location to another. In other words, energy is always 
carried by something else, even if this something else might not be as familiar as in the above examples. Thus, we have the following 
simple rule applicable to all natural events: "Energy is flowing whenever anything is happening and this energy is always carried by 
something else." This is a more complete way of expressing the idea stated above. 

A nontrivial example that this "something else" is not always simple to recognize but is, nevertheless, physically real is the following. 
Everyone knows that energy is required to move a car. Also, everyone knows that the motor in the car provides this energy. However, it is 
actually the rear axle which drives the rear wheels of a car, pushing the car along. Thus, it is reasonable to ask just how it is that the rear 
axle gets its energy from the motor. If we look under the body of the car, we see that the rear axle is connected to the motor via a drive shaft. 
If the drive shaft is removed or cut in two, the motor might be running, but the car nevertheless stands still: The rear axle gets no energy. 
Thus, energy must flow through the drive shaft into the rear axle during the normal operation of an automobile. Our rule says that this 
energy must be carried by something else. What then, might the energy carrier be in this case? The first thing we may notice is that the 
energy flow through the drive shaft has something to do with the rotation of the drive shaft: the car stands still unless the drive shaft is 
rotating. Could the carrier be the rotation itself? No: energy is flowing from the motor to the rear axle, but rotation itself cannot flow. The 
energy carrier is something which we can not see and which a physicist calls "angular momentum." 

A modern physics curriculum 

I would now like to present the essential points of our two year physics course for beginners. These points serve to outline the structure of 
a school book entitled "The Energy Book" (4) which was developed at our institute and is used by the children in this course. 

Energy carriers 

At the very beginning, the concept of energy and its carriers is introduced by way of numerous examples taken from everyday life. For 
example, it might be pointed out that, in order to do anything, say, to travel somewhere, we always need one type or another of fuel: 
gasoline for a car, hay for a horse, etc. This shows that something is contained in all fuels, independent of their particular nature and, since 
we have to pay for all types of fuels, this something is valuable. We call this something energy. We say that energy is "carried" by the fuel. 
We call fuel an energy carrier. Our experience shows that it is impossible for anythi ng to receive energy unless this energy is carried by an 
energy carrier. 

109 



Energy sources and energy receivers 

Next, the concepts of energy sources and energy receivers are introduced. Consider the flow of energy along with some carrier. Tracing 
this flow backwards, we eventualEy reach a point where the carrier current begins. We call the device where this takes place an energy 
source. Similarly, following the flow forwards, we again eventually reach a point where the carrier current ends. We call the device where 
this takes pface an energy receiver. Furthermore, each carrier requires a channel through which it can flow. For example, an automobile 
engine receives energy with the carrier gasoline. In this case, the gas tank is the energy source, the energy channel is the fuel line. An 
electric light bulb receives energy with thecarrierelectricity. The corresponding energy source might be a battery. Theenergy channel is 
a wire. It is easy to think of many more examples which show how energy flows between various energy sources and receivers. For 
example, light carries energy from the sun to the earth; food carries energy from an agricultural field to man; blood carries energy from the 
stomach (or intestines) to the muscles of a person; a bicycle chain carries the energy from a person riding a bicycleto the rear axle of the 
bike and so on, We see that a particular energy carrier is associated with each source-receiver pair. 

It is immediately clear that the flow of energy along with some carrier between a source and a receiver always displays the same structure. 
This can be symbolically represented by an energy-flow diagram, This type of diagram has an important formal function in the course. It 
represents a graphical picture of the energy ffow and, at the same time, serves as an introduction to something which eventually leads to 
calculation. 

Return and nonreturn energy carriers 

Upon a more careful examination of the function of energy carriers, there seems to be two different kinds: return and nonreturn energy 
carriers. Unless it is stored within the energy receiver, the energy carrier does not just disappear withing the receiver. Rather, the energy 
carrier unloads its energy within the energy receiver and then goes further, either to besimply "thrown away M like a nonreturn soda bottle 
or to be returned to the source like a "return for deposit" bottfe. It is easy to find several examples of each kind of energy carrier. For 
example, the air which carries the energy between the energy source-receiver pair, compressor-jack hammer, is a nonreturn energy 
carrier. On the other hand, the water circulating between the boiler and radiator of a central heating system is a familiar example of a 
return energy carrier. Nonreturn energy carriers are connected by just one channel between the energy source and the energy receiver, 
return enejgy carriers by two channels. Thus, return energy carriers flow in a closed loop: from theenergy source to the energy receiver, 
where they unfoad their energy and then, back again, to the energy source where they are reloaded with energy and so on. 

The property that something be a return or a nonreturn energy carrier is nothing fundamental. Indeed, in many cases, this characteristic is 
nothing more than a practical distinction. There are energy carries which can occur just as well as either return or nonreturn carriers, 
depending upon the way we might regard them. One example of this is the energy source-receiver pair: compressor-jack hammer. Here. 
the energy carrier is the air. If the return path of the air is left open, the air apparently functions as a nonreturn energy carrier. On the other 
hand, if the air, after decompression through the jack hammer, were to be returned via an air hose to the air-inlet of the compressor, the air 
would then serve as a return energy carrier. 

After discussing the concept of return and nonreturn energy carriers, it is advantageous to introduce the energy carrier electricity. Since 
all electrical cables consist of two wires, it is easy to recognize electricity as a return energy carrier. Thus, electricity is an especially 
well-suited example of an energy carrier which is not only an invisible but also an abstract "substance-like" quantity like the energy itself. 

The angular momentum is yetanother invisible, abstract substance-like quantity which also plays a very common and fundamental role in 
physics as an energy carrier. 

The energy load of a carrier 

Next, it is pointed out that the same carrier can be loaded with more or with less energy, For example, consider heating a room with a hot 
water radiator. The water entering the radiator is obviously at a higher temperature than the water leaving it, On the other hand, we know 
that a radiator transfers energy from the water entering the radiator to the energy carrier air. Thus, the water at the higher temperature 
carries more energy than the water at the lower temperature. If we now replace the radiator by a hydraulic motor {or a jack hammer), then 
a similar consideration shows that water (or air) under higher pressure carries more energy than water (or air) under lower pressure. This 
ail shows that a given current of water (orair) is loaded with more energy, the higher temperature orthe pressure of the water (or air) might 
be. Similarly, the electric potential (or electric tension) is a measure of how much energy the carrier electricity is loaded with. With regard 
to these examples, a physicist would say that the temperature, pressure or electrical potential are a measure of how much energy an 
entropy current, a molar current or a charge current, respectively, are loaded with. We will come back to this point later when we discuss 
the formal basis of this physics course. 

There are two ways for a carrier current to deliver a certain amount of energy in a given time interval. Either the flow of the carrier can be 
larger and the energy load smaller or, vice versa, the flow of energy carrier can be smaller and this carrier can be loaded with more energy. 

One can think of many other examples of this simple fact. Perhaps the most personal and direct is provided by the energy carrier that we 
call food. Food loaded with much energy like, say, cream, must be consummed in a considerably smaller current, i.e. amount per time, 
than food loaded with less energy like, say, milk. 

Energy transceivers 

The next important step is to show that the energy fed into an energy receiver can also go further, that is, that an energy receiver can also 
serve as an energy source for some other energy receiver and so on, Thus, not all devices are really just receivers or just sources of 
energy. Rather, most energy sources and receivers can function in both ways: each is an energy transceiver. Numerous examples can be 
given of energy transceivers which receive energy from one carrier and transfer in to another. 

We can represent each energy transceiver as a single block with arrows entering and leaving each diagram. For example, consider a solar 
cell as an energy transceiver. Then, these arrows represent the energy flow into a solar cell along with the energy carrier light and out with 
the carrier electricity. An electric motor is also an energy transceiver, Energy flows in with the carrier electricity and out with the carrier 
angular momentum. A simple water pump represents yet a third example, Here, the energy flows in with the carrier angular momentum 
and out with the carrier water. 

It is obvious that these individual diagrams can be put together, forming a chain. With a little fantasy, this could be easily turned into a 
game of "energy domino." The rules for putting the energy transceiver diagrams together are essentially the same as those for putting the 
dominoes together: the energy carriers must match. 

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Energy losses 

So far, we have considered an energy transceiver as a device which transfers the energy arriving with one energy carrier to another carrier 
which, in turn, carries the energy away. Although this picture is an accurate description of the essential function of an energy transceiver, 
the real situation is somewhat more involved. 

Having accepted the energy as a flowing "substance," one is naturally led to expect that energy is conserved. However, it is easily 
observed that an energy transceiver seemingly does not giveaway all the energy it receives {at least not with one and the same carrier). 
Thus, if we adhere to the principle of energy conservation, it seems natural to suspect that all of the energy does not leave an energy 
transceiver with only one carrier but, rather, that part of the energy must be carried away with a second energy carrier. 

This "lost" part of the energy is usually given up to the environment and is called "heat" We call the outlet of an energy transceiver where 
this part of the energy leaves, a cooling outlet 

The radiator of a car is such a cooling outlet of the energy transceiver "motor" because, there, the motor gives up heat to the surrounding 
air. Another, structurally quite similar, example of a cooling outlet is the cooling tower of a power plant The cooling outlet of many 
machines is simply there, where the machine has slits from which warm air emerges. 

Consider describing an energy transceiver in the simplest diagrammatic way, i.e., by a diagram with only one inlet and one outlet. Then, 

for any machine represented by such a diagram, there is another machine represented by reversing all the arrows on thefirstdiagram. A 

familiar example of such a pair of diagrams can be quickly sketched for an electric motor and a generator. 

An energy transceiver diagram which takes what we call the cooling outlet into account expresses the following observed, fact: if it is 

possible to build a machine described by some diagram, then it is not possible to build a machine which would be described by a diagram 

resulting from the first one by reversing all arrows. 

In a more accurate description, therefore, a generator is not simply a machine which, in ail respects, does just the opposite of an electric 

motor. Notice that the arrow assoctatd with the cooling outlet is not reversed. 

It is interesting to point out that the same diagram logic applies to ail natural objects.. This means that most objects have a "cooli ng outlet." 
Thus, in addition to all kinds of machines, this is also true for objects in which chemical reactions take place, in particular, for ail living 
creatures. 

The property of a real energy transceiver, that its total reversal does not exist, expresses what is scientifically called the irreversibility of 
real processes. 

Some Basic Ideas of a New Approach to Physics 

Substance-like Physical Variables 

Usually, when we recognize something in our everyday life to be an energy carrier, a set of values for many physical variables can be 
associated with this something. For example, the word "electricity" usually refers to the free electrons in a conductor. These electrons 
have mass, charge, momentum, angular momentum and so on. We can even speak about the number of moles of such electrons. The 
same holds true for any other physical object we might think of, such as the water flowing through a central heating system, the gasoline 
in the gas tank of a car, even the light from the sun and so on. As we know from thermodynamics, Hamiltonian mechanics and quantum 
mechanics, the state of an object (viewed as a physical system) can be characterized by specifying the values of many physical variables 
associated with the object. 

On the other hand, it is useful to ask just how many of ail the physical variables associated with an object are actually responsbile for the 
flow of energy along with the object. For example, in a central heating system, the flow of energy along with the water is predominantly 
associated with the flow of the entropy at one or another temperature and not with the flow of the number of moles or momentum and so 
on of the water. Considering all the other examples mentioned above and many more which we might think of leads us to the same 
conclusion: even though values for a number of physical variables can be associated with every object which flows along with the energy, 
nevertheless, it is usually true that only one of these variables is predominantly responsible for the flow of energy along with the object. 
This fortunate circumstance is just what enables us to present an intuitive feel for the nature of these physical variabfes from an 
elementary point of view and to a beginner in physics. 

So. when speaking as a physicist the "something else" which flows along with the energy is actually a single physical variable. Si nee such 
a variable can be considered to flow, it belongs to a special class of variables, each of which can be thought to represent some sort of 
substance. We call such variables substance-like variables, lor short. In addition to the energy, itself, examples of these are the electric 
charge, the entropy, the molar portion, the momentum, angular momentum and so on, 

Each substance-iike variable exhibits three properties which are very easy to grasp intuitively, namely: (1) Each Isadditlve in nature; (2) a 
density can be assigned to each; (3) A current can be associated with each, i.e. each can be thought to flow from one region of space to 
another. Thus, each substance-like variable can be thought to obey a continuity equation (with or without source terms). Although in 
tradiational physics, most of the substance-like variables are derived in terms of primary, kinematic concepts, we take the substance-like 
variables themselves to be primary variables, i.e, to be elementary variables not defined in terms of other, supposedly more fundamental 
concepts, 

Energy is always carried by something 

In view of the above comments, let us again recall the simple rule mentioned at the very beginning of this talk: Whenever anything is 
happening, energy is flowing along with another substance-like physical variable. Expressed this way, it is not difficult to recognize that 
this rule is related to the following statement already familiar to a physicist from thermodynamics, Hamiltonian mechanics and quantum 
mechanics: a physical system can be completely described with the help of the ("total") energy of the system when the ("total") energy, in 
turn, is expressed as a function oftheothersubstance-like variables (and their currents). Obviously then, it is impossible for the energy of 
a system to change without a simultaneous change in at least one other substance-like variable (or a current). 

This is a more formal way of introducing the idea mentioned at the beginning of this talk, namely, that explanations of all natural events 
can be reduced to statement about the flow of energy. The above statement actually finds its origins in the work of J.W. Gibbs, 
approximately 100 years ago. It finds its mathematical expression in the so-called Gibbs Fundamental Form of thermodynamics. 

I would like to further substantiate this idea from the point of view of a physicist by considering a few experiments. 

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For example, during thedischarging of a battery through a resistor, we noticethatthe flow Uof energy into the resistor, i.e. thedissipation 
of energy within the resistor, occurs simultaneously with a flow lo of electric charge around a current loop. But, what is usually called the 
power P represents the rate at which energy is being dissipated in the resistor and, therefore, we can identify P with Ig . Furthermore, we 
know that the power is given by the potential difference V between the poles of the battery times the chargecurrent Jo. Thus, wecan 
write Ie- V- la. Because of the simple proportionality between Ie and lo in the above equation, it is convenient to think of the energy as 
being "carried" by the charge. 

Another example is provided by the conduction of heat from one system to another through, say, a copper rod. Assume that one system 
at, say, temperature T is completely isolated from its surroundings except for its connection via the copper rod to the other system at 
temperature T' < T. We know that the change of energy dE within either system is given by the temperature T of the system times the 
entropy change dS, i.e. dE=TdS, if noother changes in either system areallowed. On the other hand, since neither energy nor entropy can 
be destroyed, the energy and entrphy changes of say, the unprimed system, can only occur if energy and entropy flow out of the system 
and into its immediate neighborhood within the copper rod. Thus, if lEand Is represent the net flow of energy and entropy into thesystem, 
this means that Ie - dE/dt and ls=dS/dt. With a slight wave of hand, we can divide the equation dE=TdS by an infinitesimal time interval dt 
and, using the above relations, obtain Ie-TIs. Of course, if we continue to follow the flow of entropy through the copper rod from the 
unprimed to the primed system, we must take into account the fact that entropy will be created along its way. In this case, the entrphy 
current must be adjusted to accomodate the entropy created (irreversibly) from one infinitesimal segment of the rod to the next. In any 
case, just as in the previous example, the simple proportionality between Ie and Is allows us to speak of the energy as being "carried" by 
the entropy. 

As a third example, we consider an elastic collision between, say, two balls. To approach this example, we first simplify the collision by 
assuming the two colliding balls to be perfectly rigid, with one initially at rest. Then, we can model the elasticity of the collision by 
assuming a spring attached to, say, the ball at rest. Initially, the momentum P of the ball at rest is zero. During the collision, however, 
this ball accelerates, i.e. the time-rate-of-change of its momentum is positive. x , in addition, we know that momentum is 

conserved, i.e. momentum can neither be created nor destroyed. Accordingly, during the collision process, momentum must be flowing 
out of the (decelerating) incident ball through thespring and into the ball Initially at rest. Thus, if I p represents the net low of momentum 
into an object, then we have l p -dp/dt . On the other hand, we know from Newton's Second Law that the force F acting on a body is 
given by F=dp/dt .This means that theforce F acting on a body and the momentum flow I p into a body are nothing more than two 
names for one and the same variable. Notice that, from this point of view, the concept of action-at-a-distance becomes a 

logical impossibility: an interaction is interpreted as a momentum current. 

In addition, we are ail familiar with the equation P-V.F . Here P, the power, is the flow of energy into, say, a body moving with 
instantaneous velocity V under the influence of an external force F . On the other hand, in accordance with the notation introduced 
above, we may prefer to designate the flow of energy into a body with the symbol I £ . Then, because of the above identity F =1 , we 
can immediately rewrite the power equation as I £ - VJ p , Once again, we can think of the energy as being "carried ,, by another 
substance-like variable. In this case, this variable is the momentum. 

These examples serve to motivate the individual terms appearing in the following mathematical relation: 

A theorist familiar with thermodynamics can derive this same result from the Gibbs Fundamental Form mentioned earlier. 

The other terms in this equation can be physically motivated similarly to the terms already discussed above. In the fifth term Ji is the 
chemical potential of a physical system and In is the associated molar current. The point is that all of these terms already appear in your 
physics text at home. Traditionally, these terms are referred to as energy "f orms." For example, the term TIs might traditional ly be referred 
to as energy flow in the form of "heat" energy. We prefer not to use this terminology, however, for the same reason that a traditional 
physicist does not refer to a current of protons and a current of electrons as the flow of charge in two different "forms." There is only one 
physical variable, charge. In the same way, there is only one physical variable, energy. Thus, we refer to the substance-like variables 
Q,S, P ^N as "energy carriers" Instead of energy forms. 

We clearly see from the above equation that each intensive variable V ,T, v j ^ may be regarded as a 'load factor," expressing how much 
the respective G,S,P,N current is loaded with energy. This supports our comments about the energy load of a carrier mentioned earlier in 
the context of our elementary physics course. 

The above equation can be read as: "The flow of energy is always accompanied by the flow of something else (another substance-like 
variable) which carries the energy." 

This equation is the cornerstone of our approach to the sciences. 

References 

(1) Falk, G, und Herrmann, F„ editors. Konzepte eineszeitgemaBen Physikunterricht$,Schroetie\-Ver\aQ W.Germany, (1977, 1978, 1979, 
1981). 

(2) Falk, Q. t Theoretische Physik aufder Grundlage einer atigemeinen Dynamik, Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York {1966, 
1968) 

(3) Falk, G. und Ruppel, W., (a)Mechanik, Reiativitat, Gravitation {b)EnergieundEntropie, Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 
(1975, 1976). 

(4) Falk, G. und Herrman, F., Neue Physik: Das Energiebuch, Schroedei-Verlag, W. Germany (in print) 



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^Mi: 



8.2 

CURRICULUM OF A THREE YEAR TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM IN ENERGY CONVERSION 
Z, Bajin, 0. Adkinson, L. Algie, G. Allen, D, Andrew, B. KNIins, S. Merianos, G. Mcintosh 
George Brown College, Toronto, Canada 

Abstract 

A three year technology program in Energy Conversion is presented starting from its conception to implementation, In the first two years 
the emphasis is on general engineering with particular inclination towards alternative energy, In the third year, the students specialize in 
one of the two options: Solar Energy and Biomass. 

Introduction 

The worldwide decrease in conventional energy supplies has made the term ENERGY a basic word in the vocabularies of most nations of 
the world. New definitions and derivations of physical concepts are being developed to demistify the concept of energy and bring it into 
focus of our fundamental thinking. Books about energy conversion principles, processes and systems are being written. In a recently 
published book on energy conversion' the author, A.W. Culp, points out that, basically, there are two general types of energy; transitional 
and stored, and that conversions of most forms of one type into the forms of the other type are possible. By looking at the six major groups 
of energy forms: mechanical, electrical, thermal, electromagnetic, chemical and nuclear, one can easily conclude that the nuclear and the 
chemical forms exist only as stored energy types. Electromagnetic energy, the only "pure" form {not involving matter), exists only as 
transtitional type. The mechanical, electrical and thermal energy forms, however, can exist either as stored or as transitional types. An 
Energy Conversion Technologist is familiar with these fundamental facts, and has expertise in most efficient conversion techniques. He 
has an educational and professional background in design, manufacture and application of energy measuring and conversion devices, 
systems and controls. 

The Energy Context of Ontario 

In "Energy Securities for the Eighties" 2 the Ontario Minister of Energy announced a plan to reduce the energy imports from 77 to 65% by 

1995. Approximately 40% of the total increase in self-sufficiency will be achieved by renewable energy contribution; a great part will come 

from solar energy and almost twice as much from biomass. The remaining portion of increase will stem from nuclear energy. 

In this context conservation has not been identified as a "resource/' probably for the same reason that savings cannot be confused with 

basic income even though they can help make ends meet - for a while, 

Energy Conversion Technoiogy - Conceptualization 

A training resulting in expertise of graduates to optimize the performance of a variety of energy conversion devices which act together as 
a system, inevitably implies maximum awareness of conservation. For this purpose a students of an energy conversion program must 
acquire an interdisciplinary "bird's eye M view. 

In view of the Ontario energy context and other indicators of emerging need for energy conversion technologists a three year technology 
program in the field of alternative energy has been developed and approved by the provincial Ministry of Colleges and Universities to start 
in September 1981 at the George Brown College, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. A Working Group of eight representatives from business, 
industry and educational institutions, involved in alternative energy field, was formed to brainstorm on program objectives and content of 
the courses. 

Throughout the process of development of the program to its implementation, through all approval steps by the existing hierarchy of 
administrative bodies, this what we deem sound prototype program in energy conversion yielded an additional bonus: a curriculum 
development model particularly suitable to the provincially controlled educational setting in Ontario. 3 This model is possibly applicable 
to a variety of societal settings in which a thorough input from many potentially important channels is a prerequisite for a general 
acceptance of a new proposal. 

In the above flowchart of the development of the Energy Conversion Technology program proposal one can recognize two main decision 
situations: the College Education Committee's go - no go decision point, and that of the Ministry of Colleges and Universities. Both are 
preceded by detailed collection and compilation of pertinent components of what is to become a complete picture of a proposal; the 
broader the range of inputs, the better. 

The implementation phase is one of the phases which determines the visible image that the program will receive: Advertising of the new 
program inevitably causes a change in the established image of the institution; new projects determine the developmental potential of the 
program and can open new funding avenues. The home-room laboratory is an integral part of the visible image. 

Energy Conversion Technology - Curriculum 

The Energy Conversion Technology has a strong emphasis on general engineering in the first two years, dealing with mechanical and 

electrical energy conversion as well as microcomputer and electronic control fundamentals. 

In the Energy Conversion (specialty) discipline, the emphasis is on Solar Energy and Biomass with a slight bias towards thermal energy, 

however neglecting chemical energy conversion and some important direct energy conversion processes such as photovoltaic and 

thermoelectric conversion. 

The third year is the year of specialization in either of the two presently available options, Solar Energy or Biomass. Thestudentstakeon 
one project for the duration of two semesters and a second project in the same option in the last semester. They may work on their project 
either in the home-room laboratory or in a co-op type arrangement with one of the institutions represented on the ECT Advisory 
Committee. 

In Solar Energy the two projects may cover topics in solar heating — active (air and liquid) and passive — concentrators, photovoltaics, 
storage and as additional option wind turbines. 

In Biomass the four major areas of combustion, gasification, anaerobic digestion and cogeneration are complemented by fuel prepara- 
tion, waste management and storage. 



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The general engineering and the energy conversion disciplines rely on the strong foundation of science and communication courses. 
The average number of periods per week is 28. Over 40% of the program content concentrates on the two presently available speciality 
options with general engineering and academic disciplines occupying slightly less than 30% each. 

The program is being implemented as a co-operative effort of Architectural Technoloy, Electro-Mechanical, English and Liberal Studies, 
and Mathematics and Science divisions. 

Empioyabiiity of Energy Conversion Technology Graduates 

in Summer 1980 the Research and Planning department of the George Brown College conducted a thorough market study in greater 
Toronto area to ascertain the empioyabiiity of future graduates of the proposed program. 4 426 questionaires were sent out, of which 305 
were aimed at institutions involed in alternative energy related activities. The response in this group was over 25%. 

Answering to the hard question: "Would you consider a graduate of the Energy Conversion Technology program for employment?," the 
response extrapolated over 305 institutions yielded 173 job openings. 

Another interesting fact supporting the need of a college trained technologist in energy conversion is the composition of the educational 
background of the 1980 work force in the institutions receiving the questionaire: Almost 29% had bachelor's degree, 25% secondary 
school diploma, and only 5% a three year college diploma. 

Conclusion 

Concerned individuals and institutions planning to develop an energy related training program certainly want to insure that the program 
is locally suitable in addition to its being globally desirable. This can only be achieved by involving an appropriate number of experts in 
energy, education and socio-economics from the private and public sectors, Their input should be sought throughout the existence of the 
program, and augmented by the feedback from students anchgraduates. 

The design of the program should be flexibleenough to incorporate changes suggested by the total feedback, without major sacrifice of 
the strong basis of academic and general engineering technology fundamentals. Periodical reviews following a set series of evaluation 
methods should take place to insure the program's suitability to changing societal needs and to maintain a high level of competence of its 
graduates. 

Acknowledgement 

Af this point, we would like to thank Dr. R.B. Gwiiliam, Dean of Mathematics and Science, and Director of Research and Planning, for 
making it possible to bring our proposal to the implementation stage. His supportive attitude and good judgement carried an immense 
weight in the development of this program. 

References 

1. Culpf, A.W., '"Principles of Energy Conversion," McGraw Hill, 1979, 

2. Welch, R„ "Energy Securities for the Eighties: A Policy for Ontario," Ministry of Energy, Toronto, Canada, September 1979. 

3. Bajin, Z,, "ECT - Program Development and Proposal," George Srown College, Toronto, Canada, November 1980 

4. Johnson, J., "ECT - Market Study," George Brown Coflege, Toronto, Canada, October 1980 

8,3 

A PARTICIPATORY APPROACH TO UNDERGRADUATE 

ENERGY EDUCATION: THE CASE OF 

CLARK UNIVERSITY 

Dennis W. Ducsik* 

and 
Robert L. Goble* 

Abstract 

Despite its small size and status as a liberal arts institution primarily, Clark University of Worcester, Massachusetts has the distinction of 
being one of only a handful of educational establishments in the country to offer an undergraduate degree in the interdisciplinary field of 
Science, Technology, and Society (STS). Since its inception in 1973, moreover, the most prominent feature of the STS Program has been 
It's energy studies curriculum. Beyond offering a variety of regular courses spanning both the technical and social aspects of energy 
problems, the Program emphasizes student involvement in "on-campus internships." One project with which numerous students have 
been closely connected is the Energy Self-Study, whose centerpiece has been a DOE-funded inquiry of the possibility (soon to be 
realized!) ofemploying grid-connected cogeneration to meet the University's future energy needs. Another significant project conducted 
in recent years has been the Energy Phone, a statewide information and referral service contracted by the Massachusetts Energy Office 
and staffed excl usively by students trained to answer a wide range of questions on energy efficiency in the home. This paper describes the 
nature and scope of student participation in these special projects and their value from an overall education standpoint. 

Introduction 

Since the establishment of the Program on Science, Technology and Society (STS) nine years ago, energy education at Clark University 
has included an approach at learning distinct from both regular courses and individual research efforts. The approach centers on the 
creation of what might be called "on-campus internships," special projects that involve highly practical but are carried out in close 
association with courses tailored to provide the theoretical underpinnings necessary for such work. In this manner we seek to realize the 
benefits of having students work in groups on "real world" problems concerning energy use, without failing — as so often happens with 
the typical extramural internship — to effectively integrate the experience with the established academic curriculum. 

We would like today to describe our two largest and most successful examples of this approach: 1) the Energy Self-Study, in which 
students have assisted in the evaluation of numerous energy conservation measures including, particularly, grid-connected cogenera- 
tion (for which Clark has been designated a national demonstration site); and 2) the Energy Phone, a student-staffed information and 
referral service for Massachusetts residents with questions on any aspect of energy conservation and use of renewable resources in the 



114 



home. The Energy Phone has been especially important to the educational program because of the large number of students involved and 
the finks it has forged with the outside community. 

First, however, we wish to say a few words about the STS Program at Clark and its energy curriculum as a whole. Briefly, STS was 
established in 1972 with the initial impetus coming from the Physics Department and with fiscal support for development supplied by the 
Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. The basic goal of the program is to produce individuals who ultimately will be able to deal with technical 
issues in their broader societal context. Thus, undergraduates majoring in STS are expected to acquire facility with quantitative 
information and methods as well as the ability to critically analyze and evaluate social processes. They are also required to participate in 
problem-oriented courses offered in three basic areas — energy, environmental studies, and control of technological hazards. 

Clark faculty members who are involved in energy-related activities are listed in Table I, the courses they teach are shown in Table 1 1, and 
their various research and other proejcts are given in Table ill. Of particular interest here, by way of background, are the regular course 
offerings in energy listed in Table II. Of these, the first four are introductory level courses on energy technology, economics, and policy; 
the next three are intermediate level courses in policy and planning; and the last two are the "practicums" affiliated with the self- 
study/cogeneration and energy phone projects respectively. The normal program followed by a students with an interest in energy has 
been to take one or two of the introductory courses, and then to jgin one of the "internship" projects by taking STS 272 or 273 (while 
taking, perhaps, a concurrent intermediate level policy course). The more accomplished students, moreover, often go on to write honors 
theses on topics emerging from their project work. 

Thus, the two special projects we are about to describe are quite central to our energy curriculum at Clark. They provide resources to 
enrich the introductory courses; they are integral to all intermediate and advanced programs of study in energy technology (and much of 
the work on policy and planning as well); and they lead to extensive "capstone" research on an individual basis, WiTh this in mind, let us 
now turn to a closer look at each project. 

The Energy Self-Study/Cogerteratlon Project 

The Clark Energy Self-Study was first conceived by the Chairman of the STS Program, physics professor Chris Hohenemser. In the 
Spring of 1973 — prior to the oil embargo — four students enrolled in his Energy and Society course and were assigned to investigate 
trends in fuel consumption at Clark. From this work evolved, in the following year, the first of the honors theses to come out of the STS 
Program — an analysis by Kathleen Hurley which showed there were many opportunities for energy conservation in the University 
heating plant. By this time the sudden rise in energy prices made some sort of follow-up seem important, and so a new course — Special 
Problems in Alternative Energy Systems (STS 272) — was convened in the Spring of 1975. Also inaugurated at this time was a fruitful 
collaboration between the STS Program and representatives of the Clark Physical Plant Office. 

With an initial enrollment of nine students, STS 272 generated a number of useful research papers. These were published in-house as the 
first issue of the Program's student journal, the STS Review. Clark faculty and students were already considering the feasibility of a 
cogeneration plant. At the time, however, they were envisioning a stand-alone system of "total energy plant" which would isolate Clark 
from the electric utility. In 1976 another honors thesis followed up on this idea, and led to a separate issue of the STS Review, 

Soon thereafter, Clark faculty began discussions with the local power company (Massachusetts Electric) to evaluate the possibility of 
grid-connected cogeneration at the University. A grid-connected system offers a number of advantages over a total energy plant; the 
equipment can be used more effectively by letting the electric utility provide back up, and more energy can be saved because electricity 
not needed on site can be sold to the utility. In any event, having begun to study the idea the Clark team found itself in an excellent position 
to respond, later in 1976, to a Department of Energy request for proposals for a national demonstration of grid-connected cogeneration. 
Of the twenty-two proposals submitted by various "communities" (towns, shopping centers, hospital complexes, and unversities), only 
five — including Clark's — were accepted. There followed a year and a half of feasibility studies and preliminary design, and then'—- after a 
two-year hiatus while the University struggled to finance the plant — another six months of final engineering design. Overall funding for 
the project has totalled in excess of $360,000. 

Now, we are pleased to report that construction is underway. With plant start-up expected near the beginning fo 1982, the Ciark project 
will be the first of the three national demonstrations to become operational. The facility will consist of a single large dual-fuel (diesel) 
engine which will generate about 1800 KW. Heat will be recovered from the engine exhaust in the form of steam from the waste heat boiler, 
and from the jacket in the form of hot water. The total heat recovery will be about 6 million Btu/hour. We anticipate an annual fossil fuel 
saving, counting the reduction in oil burned by the electric utility, of approximately 7500 barrels of oil. 

During this four-year period, students in STS 272 have worked in two areas; 1) collecting the energy use data needed for sizing the system 
and its components: and 2) collecting information and assisting with the preparation of applicants for environmental permits. When the 
plant is built, we anticipate additional support from the Department of Energy for monitoring efforts to document energy flows, the 
system's energy and economic savings, the link with the electric utility, and air quality impacts. A significant fraction of this work will be 
performed by students enrolled in future session of STS 272. 

The work performed by STS 272 students has been a mix of field and laboratory measurements and practical calculations. Included 
among this work have been building surveys, measurements of condensate return to determine building energy use, heat flux 
measurements and calculation of building material properties, air infiltration measurements using tracer techniques, ambient noise 
monitoring, tracer studies of plume dispersal, and calculations using EPA plume models. Lectures and readings provide the theoretical 
background for these measuring techniques and calculations, as well as an Introduction to the current literature on building energy use 
and cogeneration technology. Previous volumes of the STS Review have also proved valuable as references in the course. 

The Energy Phone Project 

The second "on-campus internship" the STS Program has made available to its students, the Energy Phone, was operated 
under a contract with the Massachusetts Executive Office of Energy Resources from September 1977 through December of 
1980. The Energy Phone was staffed entirely by specially-trained upperclass students from both Ciark and neighboring Worcester 
Polytechnic Institute (WPI), and consisted of four widely publicized toll-free lines open during normal business hours, During the 
40-month period of operation of the project, these part time "operators' 1 (who numbered overall in excess of 100) provided answers to 
over 100,000 questions from the public at large, and mailed out over 20,000 information packages. 



115 



Another important funcation of the Energy Phone was to serve as a general resource to the state energy office and the local community 
for the implementation of a variety of special programs. At the local level, Energy Phone personnel hosted several meetings gave 
numerous presentations and seminars, and served on the City of Worcester's Energy Policy Committee. At the state level the staff 
conducted a survey on insulation practices, coordinated a contractor certffication exam, established a summer gasoline hotline helped 
smooth the transition to a new lighting code, and served as a clearinghouse for information in connection with programs on bank loans 
oil burner tuneups, and alternative energy grants. It can fairly be said, in fact, that the Energy Phone in many ways became the 
conernstone of the public education and information efforts of the Massachusetts Energy Office. 

Aside from its obvious public service benefits, the Energy Phone also provided a practical experience of considerable educational value 
to the students who worked for it This occurred in three basic ways. First, through continual reference to a 250-page manual of fact 
sheets developed with the help of the students, through regular follow-up research using the mini-library assembied on the premises and 
through frequent personal contact with a network of energy conservation professionals in government and business the operators 
acquired a solid working knowledge of a wide range of measures to increase residential energy efficiency. Second, through use of our 
extensive referral files and through participation in the special projects carried out by the Massachusetts Energy Office and other state 
agencies, the staff became familiar with the internal structure and workings of the energy-related bureaucracy and the details of its 
outreach programming. Third, through literally hundreds of hours of directtelephone contact with both individual callers and representa- 
tives of various organization, each student had a golden opportunity to improve on basic communication skills and where ambiquous or 
sensitive or controversial issues were involved, to develop a capability for good judgment. 

Such "on-the-job training," of course, is not uncommon in a conventional internship setting. What sets the Energy Phone project apart 
however, was that a condition of employment for all students was that they enroll in a regular academic course on energy conservation in 
parallel with their first semester of work as an operator. This course, STS 273, was specifically designed to provide a broader conceptual 
framework for the practical elements the students encountered day-by-day on the job. For example, by studying the mathematics of heat 
loss calculations or cost-benefits analysis of alternative conservation investments, the staff gained perspective on the level of confidence 
to be placed in various "rules of thumb" used to estimate savings, which sometimes lead to grossly misleading results At the same time 
through exposure to recent journal literature they came to appreciate limitations in our current understanding of both technical and 
behavioral aspects of energy use in buildings. They also saw that what applied research is being done to improve the state-of-the-art in 
both respects. 

Another noteworthy aspect of this course is that it required students to complete a series of carefully constructed problem sets featurinq 
applications of a practical nature. One exercise required that the student discover the method used by the staff of Consumer Reports in 
constructing a table showing dollar-savings for different levels of insulation and different degree-day zones, and then use to develop a 
similar table for a climatic region not covered in the article. Another assignment was based on material presented in an industry report 
entitled The Professional Serviceman's Guide to Oil Heat Savings, and posed quantitative questions about the optimal desiqn of a 
combustion chamber, the relationship between smoke production and the chemical composition of combustion gases and the mathem- 
atical basis for curves depicting heating plant efficiency as a function of temperature and CO 2 measurements. 

Another way the course incorporated a practical dimension was through selective use of guest speakers. These invited lecturers 
exper.enced practitioners familiar with recent developments in theirfields, were scheduled after a sequence of two or three sessions (and 
usually one problem set) in which the fundamentals of the subject at hand were covered by the course instructor. This method proved 
particularly useful for instance in the area of heating system technology where rapid advances are being made withr respect to energy 
efficient des.gn and operation. Guests were also employed with good result to demonstrate the process of conducting a home energy 
. audit. Here, an audit trainer from a major consulting firm in the region was brought in to first describe the methodology of auditing (and 
some of the inherent ambiguities therein), and then to carry out the procedure - with the class in attendance - at a faculty-owned house 
in the vicinity p the University. Subsequently, the students were given as an assignment the task of assimilating the data and of preparing 
their own detailed repor to the homeowner. This exercise served as a fitting capstone for the semester's work, given the nature of the 
course as a practicum in home energy conservation. 
Concluding Remarks 

rnTJhfnlm 6 '^ ^ re ^ un, t e d above ' we feel ^at the STS Program has succeeded in bringing the "real world" onto the Clark campus, 
to the benefit not only of its students but to many others as well. Implementation of conservation measures identified in the self-study 
project for example, has saved the University approximately 40% of its annual consumption of fuel and electricity, and theS2 7 million 

nfn>^oH fTc rat,On D < L° 9enerat,0n plant wi " help point the wa V for other communities to do the same. The information services 
provided by the Energy Phone, moreover, has been instrumental in facilitating and stimulating a good deal of energy conservation across 
me state or Massachusetts. 

Jnl?i^ i ^ t r )na !, ValU f, 0, cx e c ! o W tn pr( S ° an be measured in ^veral ways, such as by the number of students participating (the 
fpTnnlnHl!? H l f ° r . STS "l^ 273 * ,ands at 93 >' or b V 'he high quality of the work most have performed. But in our view, the most 
H 1! Z ' e n h| Ca,,0n 1 ment i'!, S '" l £ e ' aCt that STS ^duates - equipped with job experience and factual knowledge together 
hZZr^H k P roblem ; soivm 9 ?*!"? ~ nave en l°y ed considerable success in pursuing subsequent energy-related activities. Some 
™f m ™ P f °/ re K spo " slbl,l 'y ln state and ,oca l energy agencies, doing work ranging from legislative and policy analysis, to 

nl.1T' to hands-on demonstrations for low-income community groups. Others have entered industry as energy 
TZr^ll h2i CO H Ser » at H t n mana 9 e r s ' weatherization auditors and retrofitters, and even (in one case) a wind-mill manufacturer. And 
Z£Z2n^ n , * > Z 9 I ad . U l te SCh ° 0lS t0 further their educa '^" ^ energy technology and policy. We also count as one of 
??%hll y hi a P hshment t the ' a f ' hat ' amon 9 ,he staffmemb ers who had a semester or more experience at the Energy Phone. /,a/f 
(26) have become career members of the energy conservation establishment. 

^Irtfl^J^ 1°^'l n C t ' 0Sin T' t0 ° ther institutions seekin 9 t0 incorporate this kind of practical training in its curriculum? Certainly we 
cated m^^«?. U - h ' nv0lVem . ent ' n an ener 9V self-study, since any building complex offers numerous opportunities forsophisti- 

htST interpretation (not to mention significant financial rewards). At the same time, it is important to recognize that 

ZlrTh, ll I a Tf 7 StUd6nt pr0,eCtS Can be su PP° rted this way; in our case, enrollment in STS 272 hasaveraged only about six per 

"™ f" l " stltut, °n »hat seeks to provide on-campus internships for a large number of students, one or more public service 
programs (like the Energy Phone, with enrollments at 20 per year) would be necessary 



116 



The chief obstacle to achieving this is funding, of course, a fact of which we are painfully aware in light of the recent termination of the 
Energy Phone due to state budgetary limitations. This has had an adverse impact on Clark's energy curriculum, one that the continuation 
of the self-study cannot be itself offset. So, with the resources and expertise we have accumulated to date, we are actively seeking new 
projects to take up the slack. 

TABLE I: MEMBERS OF THE ENERGY STUDIES GROUP IN STS 

John Davies, Associate Professor, Department of Physics 

Dennis Ducsik, Assistant Professor and Associate Chairman, Science, Technology, and Society Program 

Robert Goble, Research Associate Professor, Department of Physics and Science, Technology and Society Program 

Christopher Hohenemser, Professor of Physics and Chairman, Science, Technology, and Society Program 

Marcus Cleinerman, Research Associate, Center for Technology, Environment, and Development 

Peter Magnante, Research Associate Professor, Department of Physics 

Don Shakow, Assistant Professor, Department of Economics 

Linda Warrick, Project Director, Massachusetts Energy Phone 

TABLE II: ENERGY RELATED COURSES OFFERED BY STS 

STS 130. Energy Sources and Systems (Davies) 

STS 131. Solar Energy (Davies) 

STS 132. Alternative Energy Systems Laboratory (Goble) 

STS 155. Economics of Natural Resources/Environment (Shakow) 

STS 178. Nuclear Power Policy Issues (Hohenemser) 

STS 201. Energy Paths and Policies (Ducsik) 

STS 231. Electricity Planning and Decision-Making (Ducsik, Shakow) 

STS 272. Special Problems in Alternative Energy Resources (Gobte) 

STS 273. Practicum in Home Energy Conservation (Ducsik, Davies, Warrick. Goble, Magnante) 

TABLE III: FACULTY RESEARCH AND OTHER PROJECTS IN ENERGY 

Feasibility of installing a grid-connected cogeneration plant on the Clark Campus {Hohenemser, Goble, Gottlieb) 

Possible energy savings in the Clark heating plant (Hohenemser, Goble) 

Evaluation of heat pump performance and solar collectors in the Worcester climate (Davies) 

Measurement of conductive heat loss and solar collector performance on an experimental model house (Gottlieb) 

New materials for luminescent solar concentrators (Kleinerman) 

Small-scale alcohol fuels production and training (Magnante) 

A systems study of the fuel-wood cycle in Kenya (Shakow) 

Factors affecting capital cost and performance of nuclear and coal power plants (Hohenemser. Goble. Shakow) 

Load forecasting in the Pacific Northwest (Shakow) 

Development of a generation expansion and production model for power supply system analysis (Shakow) 

Development of a normative approach to electricity policy-making at the state level (Ducsik, Shakow) 

Critical analysis of electric utility planning and governmental regulation from the environmental standpoint (Ducsik) 

Case study of state electricity regulation in the Seabrook case (Ducsik) 

Citizen participation in power plant siting (Ducsik) 

Energy conservation activity among Massachusetts homeowners (Ducsik) 

Operation of a telephone-based information and referral service on home energy conservation (Ducsik. Warrick) 



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8.4 

ENERGY MANAGEMENT CURRICULA; WHAT SHOULD BETHEIR CONTENT? 

Stephen J. Mecca and Joseph E, Robertshaw 

Engineering/Physics/Systems 

Providence College 

Providence, Rhode Island 02918 

U.S.A. 
Abstract 

The need for the efficient use of energy in various systems — residences, commercial and public buildings, industrial settings — has 

resulted in the formation of Energy Management Programs in various places. What should be the nature of such a program — in 

particular, what should the curriculum content be for such programs at the college/university level? This question will be addressed and a 

particular curriculum which is being implemented will be described. 

Introduction t 

This paper contains a description of an Applied Physics - Energy Management concentration program at Providence College. It is part of 
an overall concentration plan being implemented at Providence College wherein a Physics, Mathematics.and Chemistry core curriculum 
provide the basis for four distinct concentration options, three of these in the Applied Physics areas (one of these being the Energy 
Management concentration) and the other in a combined Plan Engineering Program, it grew out of the belief that there is an important 
opportunity for a liberal arts college to become involved in energy management education. 

Energy Management Program 

An appropriate definition of energy management appeared in a paper by L, Heisenberg and C. Daspit, presented at the eighty-seventh 
an nual conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. In this paper, energy management is described as "an interdisci- 
plinary, problem-solving activity concerned with assessment and control of the economic, environmental, and societal effects of energy 
resource distribution, production, conversion, or end use." In this context, an energy management program is considered to be a course 
of study which addresses a broad range of energy management issues. As a liberal arts institution, Providence College views energy 
management in the broadest context of the issues involved. 

Most of the programs with which we are familiar are not at the graduate level and are associated with the applied science, engineering, 
and business-management schools and departments. The kinds of skills required for a professional or managerial level position in energy 
management, though, are certainly within the capabilities of an undergraduate program. 

The content of an energy managment curriculum, at least with respect to thecourses specific to the concentration, should be determined 
by what one expects the graduates of the prog ram to do, i.e., how they will be employed. Employment of prog ram graduates is expected in 
federal, state, city government, regional planning agencies, architectural and engineering firms, consulting firms, energy industries, and 
in al i institutions which must come to grip with energy budget allocations, Anticipating these areas as outlets for students, we believe that 
the program should be built upon basic science and quantitative problem solving skills. The Heisinberg-Daspit paper suggests five areas 
of inquiry: technology, resources, environment/health, economics/planning, and politics/policy. They point out the significance of two 
additional categories: systems-modeling and simulation and interdisciplinary/synthesizing courses. We believe that these two areas are 
very important since energy managment is by its very nature an interdisciplinary, complex, decision-making activity. 

Learning objectives should be established in the following areas: 

• General Energy Science and Technology 

• Modeling and Simulation 

• Resource Economics 

• Econometrics 

• Energy Audits and Analysis 

• Energy Hardware Systems 

• Energy Software Systems, Including regulations, codes, standards 

• Instrumentation, particularly monitoring and control functions 

• Energy Production Systems 

• Energy Conversion and Distribution Systems 

• Mechanical and Electromechanical Devices and Systems 

• Oral and Written Communication 

• Problem Solving and Management Principles and Practices 

Curriculum 

The Energy Management Program concentration at Providence College consists of a ten-course, 38 credit col lege core, a nine-course. 31 
credit Applied Physics core, and a thirteen-course, 39 credit energy management concentration. The Applied Physics core consists of 
two semesters of General Physics with lab, two semesters of General Chemistry (Inorganic and Qualitative Analysis) with lab, and 
Calculus through differential equations (four semesters). 

The energy management concentration includes the following courses: 

• Electronics and a microcomputer laboratory course credits - 8 

• Upper division microeconomics and econometrics 6 

• Business communications, accounting, management 9 

• Interdisciplinary problem solving 3 

• Energy science and technology 3 

• Energy production systems 3 



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• Energy auditing/analysis 4 

• Energy hardware/devices 3 

• Energy laboratory course 3 

• Work-study research 3-6 

A typical program of study by years and a description of some of the courses are given below. 



Development of Western Civilization 

Social Science Elective* 

Physics 102, General Physics 

Math 132, Calculus & Analytical Geometry 

Development of Western Civilization 
Math 304, Differential Equations 
Chemistry 122. inorganic and Analy. Chem It 
Physics 202, Electronic Devices, Measurement 
& Control 



Religious Studies Elective 

• Interdisciplinary 303 

Business 118, Principlies of Management 

• Energy Production Systems 



Philosophy Elective 
Energy Hardware/Devices 

• Energy Laboratory 

• Research or Elective 



First Year: 

Development of Western Civilization 

Social Science Elective* 

Physics 101, General Physics 

Math 131, Calculus & Analytical Geometry 

Second Year: 

Development of Western Civilization 
Math 223, Calculus & Analytical Geometry 
Chemistry 121, Inorganic and Analy. Chem I 
Computer Science 121, 122, 123 

Intro, Computer Program'g System 

Model'g, Numerical Methods 

Third Year: 

Religious Studies Elective 

Computer Science 151 

Business 105, Intro, Account'g Princip. 

• Energy Science/Technology 

Fourth Year: 

Philosophy Elective 

Business 465, Communications 

• Energy Audit/Analysis 
Research or. Elective 

" Economics suggested 

• Interchanged every other year 

303 SYSTEMS APPROACH TO COMPLEX PROBLEM SOLVING 1 semester. 3 credits 

Philosophy and techniques for defining problems, generating alternative solutions, and evaluating solutions for problems which require 
a multidisciplinary study will be discussed. Topics to be included: defining objectives, analysis of functions to be performed, enhancing 
creativity, the structure of systems, value systems, cost and effectiveness, project management. 

ENERGY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 3 credits 

An overview of the history and of the fundamental concepts in the development of energy science and technology as it is known today. 
The laws of thermodynamics and heat transfer and applications of these laws are treated. Traditional and alternate energy sources 
including fossil technology, nuclear technology, solar, renewable, and future sources are discussed. Applications and uses of energy in 
the industrial, commercial, transporation and domestic sectors are considered. The environmental impact, economics, and politics of 
energy will also be studied. 

ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEMS 3 credits 

This course discusses thermal systems design and the analysis of efficiency for energy production systems. Both centralized and 
decentralized sources areconsidered. Topics include electrical power production from coal and nuclear sources, nuclear reactor design, 
advanced coal and- nuclear technologies. Central station electricity from renewable sources such as direct solar, solar, power satellites, 
wind and ocean based sources, and geothermal sources will also be considered, Solar heating technologies are outlined, 

ENERGY AUDITING/ANALYSIS 4 credits 

This course presents a comprehensive approach forconducting billing and field audits fora variety of facilities. Topics will include billing 
audits, end use profiles, envelope losses, HVAC loads, electrical system analyses, energy costs, lifecycle costing, and federal programs. 
The course includes the development and use of computer audit programs, case studies, and a hands-on field audit 

ENERGY HARDWARE AND DEVICES 3 credits 

This course provides an overview of energy systems in current use in commercial, institutional, residential and industrial buildings. The 
course focuses on operating principles, performance, and maintenance of such systems. Topics include heating plant systems, 
distribution systems, energy recovery, lighting systems, refrigeration and cooling, solar hardware, controls, service hot water, ventila- 
tion, and cogeneration systems, 

ENERGY LABORATORY COURSE 3 credits 

This course provides a hands-on laboratory learning experience on building envelope system principlies and solar-renewables through 
the use of both laboratory and field measurementexperimentsand computer simulations, In addition, energy survey instrumentation and 
energy management devices are studied and hands-on experience with this instrumentation is gained. 



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8.5 

THE ENERGY CURRICULUM AT RAMAPO COLLEGE 

William J, Makofske 

School of Environmental Studies 

Ramapo College of New Jersey 

505 Ramapo Valley Road 

Mahway t New Jersey 07430 

Introduction 

Ramapo College was founded 10 years ago as an interdisicplinary four-year liberal arts college in Northern New Jersey. With a full and 
part-time student population of 3,800 and 150 full-time faculty, its is one of nine state colleges in New Jersey, Faculty from many 
disciplines focus on particular areas of study which are organized by schools rather than by disciplines or departments. One such school, 
The School of Environmental Studies, formed in 1975, consists of over a dozen faculty representing such diverse disciplines as ecology, 
physics, geotogy, geography, psychology, political science, planning, economics, sociology, philosophy and literature. 

The School of Environmental Studies, with a student population of approximately 300 students, offers an interdisciplinary, often 
team-taught, core program of five courses totalling 20 credits which integrate scientific, social and policy areas. Advanced course work, 
consisting of a minimum of 30 credits, allows environmental studies majors to concentrate in one of four areas: energy, land/water, 
policy/planning, and social/cultural ecology. Completion of the fifty-credit major and seventy additional credits allowed the student to 
satisfy the requirements for a BA in Environmental Studies. This paper will consider only the curriculum and course work composing the 
upper level concentration in energy.' 

Curriculum 

A. Rationale 

A few years ago, the U.S. became acutely aware that it was in the midst of an "energy crisis." While many Americans were initially 
convinced that this was merely a temporary situation contrived by oil corporations and politicians, they have subsequently become aware 
of the hard reality that there are serious limitations and constraints to our production and consumption of energy sources at ever- 
increasing rates. Moreover, an analysis of the situation provides dilemmas and trade-offs for our society as a whole and illustrates the 
complexity of our societal-energy relationships, It is now recognized that the energy debate is not merely one of competing technologies, 
but that a whole array of complicated social, political, economic and environmental questions are involved. The answers to these 
questions will allow us to make choices, and these will have profound impact on the future direction and quality of life of our society. The 
energy concentration seeks to provide the knowledge and skills which allow the student to explore the full dimensions of our energy 
choices from scientific, technical, social, political, economic and environmental viewpoints. 

B. Program Requirements 

The energy concentration requires a minimum of 30 credits at the upper level distributed according to the following categories: 

1. Environmental Science - 12 credits at the 300 level and 4 credits and the 400 level. 

2. Social Science - 4 credits at the 300 level. 

3. Policy - 4 credits at the 300 level. 

4. Fieidwork/lnternship - 2 credits at the 300 level. 

5. Senior Seminar - 4 credits. 

Most students choose to pursue considerably more than the minimum credit requirement The concentration is multi-disciplinary in 
scope and, together with the core requirements, insues that the student develops a wide range of integrated social science and policy 
knowledge with specific applications to.energy issues, together with an in-depth theoretical and applied treatment of the scientific and 
technical aspects relating to energy production and consumption. 

C. Curriculum Description 

The upper level concentration in energy consists of some 21 courses offered over a two-year sequence, thereby allowing opportunities 
for both advanced and transfer students to make appropriate course selections. Many of the courses serve more than one concentration 
area within the school For example, one course, Energy and Social Change, satisfies both Energy and Social/Cultural Ecology 
concentrations, while another, Energy Politics, satisfies both Energy and Policy/Planning concentrations. The present sequences of 
courses have evolved over the past few years and may be modified in the years ahead. 

A basic assumption of the energy concentration is that a detailed understanding of the energy problem must be based on a solid scientific 
foundation. The environmental science component of the curriculum is currently taught primarily from the perspective of physics. Four 
sequenced physics courses specifically develop the physics of energy conversion together with detailed applications to energy 
technologies. One set of courses, Energy, Power, and the Environment and Alternative Sources of Energy, emphasizes the scientific 
basis and limiting factors in power production from all energy sources. The second set of courses. Energy Efficient Solar Design and 
Alternate Energy System Design, emphasizes the physical principles, engineering and design of small-scale renewable energy systems 
such as solar, wind, hydropower, wood, and methane. 

Other courses expand upon the physical basis given in the four course sequence and provide more specialized treatment of related 
subject matter. Meteorology and Climatology elaborates on energy and radiative flows in the natural environment and incorporates data 
analysis and collection for renewable energy sources. Radiation and Radioactivity in the Environment emphasizes modern physics and 
includes detailed applications to fission and fusion power. Computer Modeling in the Environmental Sciences covers mathematical 
analysis, computer programming and modeling techniques with applications to energy-related problems. Energy Conservation analyses 
the potential for saving energy in the residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation sectors of our society by increasing 
efficiencies through both technological and lifestyle changes. Passive Solar Design explores the full range of materials, techniques and 
design options currently available or under development for passive solar applications. Economic Minerais and Fossil Fuels studies the 
fossil fuels, including their formation, distribution, supply, exploration and mining, from a geological basis. 



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There are four social science courses, taught from the perspective of sociology and psychology, which deal with the societal changes 
spurred by the energy problem. Energy and Social Change analyzes the growing debate on the social dimensions of the energy situation. 
Energy, Technological Dependence and Lifestyle explores the psychological dimensions of energy by considering attitudes, values, and 
behavior and their role in the choice, use and control of energy technology. Alternate Technologies and Communities considers the 
applicability of technologies such as solar and wind systems, methane digesters, aquaculture and bio-agricultural gardening in existing 
urban, suburban and rural communities and explores the relationship of these technologies to communal and cooperative lifestyles. 
Technology. Values, and Society looks at the development of the appropriate technology movement and the criteria which it uses to 
evaluate technological choices. 

There are three energy-related policy courses taught from the perspectives of a geographer, a political scientist, and a planner. Energy 
Resource Development emphasizes the historical development of energy use, the geographical distribution of energy resources, the 
transportation of energy, and the effect of pricing and government regulation. Energy Politics considers the political and economic 
development of the energy industries, the role of government, market forces and newly formed interest groups. Analysis is focused on 
participants, their resources, strategies and goals. Citizen Action and Advocacy studies local and regional planning issues involving 
alternate technologies and decentralization, and the role of government, public interest groups, and citizens, 

Practical experience and the development of construction skills in small-scale renewable energy systems is available through 4/femate 
Energy Workshop I and II, offered sequentially every fall and spring semester. Some projects include: a 12 ft. by 24 ft. solar greenhouse, a 
2000 watt wind generator system, a water pumping windmill, solar distillers, a passive solar classroom t and bio-agricultural experiments. 
Project work is performed at the Alternative Energy Center, a two acre site on campus which houses the above projects, and serves 
educational and research functions by demonstrating integrated alternate energy technologies for food production/ Advanced study is 
pursued at the center through independent study. 

The internship program allows students to work off-campus one day a week for 4 credits. Placements are made which provide the 
energy-related experience in a variety of settings: industry, environmental organizations, architectural and engineering firms, commun- 
ity organizations and state and local agencies. Care is taken to match the student's background and desired experience to the placement 
position. Internships are carefully reviewed and those which prove educationally unprofitable are eliminated. The internship program has 
proved to be valuable in providing initial real world experience for students and in providing contacts for future job opportunities. 

The Senior Seminar is designed to provide an integrating experience which builds upon the multi-disciplinary scientific, social and policy 
background of the student. Seminars are typically team-taught and serve more than one concentration area. Two seminars focus 
primarily on energy-related questions. A seminar entitled Changing Patterns of Energy Use emphasizes project work such as sociaJ 
impact assessment of energy alternatives, field work on energy attitudes and behavioral patterns, design of integrated energy systems, 
and the development of an energy plan for the college. 3 A seminar entitled Technological Impact uses a variety of technological 
assessment procedures, including methodologies for studying energy futures, to provide an interdisciplinary focus on the societal 
impacts of technology. Individual energy technologies are assessed by a team of students investigating the technological, social, 
political, economic, and environmental implications of various energy choices. 

Summary and Conclusions 

The energy concentration approaches the energy problem at the undergraduate level from an interdisciplinary perspective. Embedded in 
the context of an environmental studies curriculum, the concentration provides a generalist liberal arts education, togetherwith specific 
energy-related knowledge and skills. Based on the experience of recent graduates, it appears to provide a wide spectrum of career and 
advanced educational opportunities as well as entry level positions in energy-related and other fields requiring scientific, technical, 
social, and policy knowledge and skills. And, regardless of career choice, the program provides the basis for informed and effective 
citizen involvement in the decision-making processes relating to energy choices. 

References 

' Further information on both the Environmental Studies and the energy curriculum may be obtained from the author at the following 
address: School of Enviornmental Studies, Ramapo College of New Jersey, 505 Ramapo Valley Road, Mahwah. New Jersey 07430. 

-' Further details on the Alternate Energy Center may be found in the following references: 

W. Makofske, The Ramapo Aquaculture-Greenhouse System. Proceedings of the Conference on Energy-Conserving Solar-Heated 

Greenhouses, Marlboro, Vermont, No. 19-20, 1977, pp. 44-47. 

W. Makofske and J, Markstein, The Ramapo Alternate Energy Center: Ecological Design and Integration, Proceedings of the Second 

National Conference on Energy-Conserving Solar-Heated Greenhouses, Plymouth, Ma. April 6-8, 1979, pp. 283-288. 

1 See the abstract published in the proceedings of this conference by W. Makofskeand M. Edelstein entitled "The Ramapo College Energy 
Assessment Study." 



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SESSION 9: CURRICULA — COMMUNITY COLLEGE 

9.1 

THE COMMUNITY COLLEGE CONCEPT IN INTERNATIONAL ENERGY EDUCATION 

Dr. J.N. Carsey, President 

Charles County Community College 

La Plata, Maryland 

Dr. Dominic J, Monetta, President 

Resource Alternatives 

Washington, D.C, 

Developing countries are experiencing acritical need fortrained technicians, This is especially true in the field of energy — an area of new 
and rapidly-developing technology. An advisory panel for the United Nations Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy has 
stated "One constraint for all technologies involved in developing new and renewable sources of energy is a lack of trained manpower. 
The panel recommended that the U.N. should strongly encourage and support the development of local technical training institutions 
and rural extension services in the field of biomass energy production, management, and conversion technologies. 1 The U.N. recommen- 
dation is equally applicable to training of technicians to work with conventional sources of energy. 

An ideal vehicle for providing energy technician training is the community college. Community colleges in the United States have 
pioneered in training energy technicians. 2 James Mahoney, Director of the Energy Communication Center of the American Association 
of Community and Junior Colleges has stated 

the variety and scope of community college energy activities are impressive. Their richness is evidence not 

only of their responsiveness to local conditions, but also of their interest in and capacity for contributing to the 
solution of significant national problems. 3 

The community colleges have added to their curricula such courses as coal mining technology, alcohol fuels production, energy 
conservation technology, as well as adding energy options to existing occupational training programs, such as those for heating/ventilat- 
ing, air conditioning, and construction trades, 4 

The community college concept, as developed in the United States, emphasizes service to the community and responsibility for 
community development, as well as technical training. Important characteristics of the community college are 

• low cost 

• open access and equal opportunity 

• emphasis on paraprofessional and technical training 

• innovation 

• student centeredness 

• community based 

• decentralized decision making 5 

In addition, the community college is an evolving institution, Clark Kerr views it as "the most protean, the most plastic, the most mobile of 
all the institutions of higher education/* 8 

These characteristics make the community college an ideal setting for public involvement, dialogue, and education on energy issues. 
They also make the community college the appropriate educational setting forthe development of new technical training curricula in the 
energy field. 

Can this American experience in energy technician training through thecommunity colleges be applied in developing countries? There is 
evidence of a worldwide movement toward the development of what Frederick Kintzer in his article, "World Adaptation of the Com munity 
College Concept," calls ''short-cycle" educational institutions. These play a significant role in providing technical training in many 
nations, filling the gap between secondary and four-year-college education, Some differ greatly from the U.S. model, but all include some 
of the characteristics mentioned. 7 Thus, the potential for community college involvement in energy education and particularly, energy 
technician training, has international relevance. 

Once the decision has been made to utilize community-based, short-cyclecolleges forenergy technician training, some crucial decision 
must be made. What types of training will be offered? What skills are most relevant to each country's particular energy situation? What 
types of education and training should remain at the four-year-university level, and which are most appropriate for the short-cycte 
college? What curricula should be developed? What will be the career patterns forthe energy technicians graduating from the two-year 
institutions? How will these new technicians fit into the overall manpower structure of the country? 

These questions make it evident that careful planning is needed to make energy technician training in the community college relevant to 
the overall energy and manpower needs of a developing nation. The energy technician curriculum must be developed within the context 
of a thoughtful and cohesive planning process. The purpose of a planning methodology used by the U.S. Department of Energy. Through 
this process, the community colleges in the United States played a key role in the development of federal energy research and 
deveiopment (R&D) priorities. 

In this paper, we will describe the role of the community colleges in the federal decision-making process as it evolved through the 
interactive planning workshops, describe the Project Appraisal Methodology (PAM) developed by the Department of Energy (DOE), and 



122 



explain the interactive planning process, Through the Interactive planning workshops, the community colleges in the United States 
played a key role in the development of federal energy research and development (R&D) priorities. 

The recommendation to embark on the interactive planning workshops came from the 1976 Energy Conservation Workshops for 
Community College Leaders sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration. 8 The principle objective of these 
workshops was to assess the role thatcommunity colleges might best perform in resolving the nation's energy problems. The participants 
concluded that the workshop concept itself was an excellent means of exchanging views and information, and that the community 
college would be an ideal host for any future workshops. 

These workshops provided a means of ensuring regional participation in the federal government's energy planning. The president of the 
host community college was responsible for inviting a cross-section of community leaders who represented a wide range of skills and 
perspectives: local and state government officials, environmentalists, and other public interest representatives. The participants 
reviewed the plans and programs of the division and commented on the individual technologies and analytical methods used. The 
division then used the findings of the workshops to ensure that its programs reflected the broad needs of and concerns of the public. As a 
result, the public viewpoint regarding the ultimate acceptability of new energy technologies was integrated into the federal decision- 
making process. 9 

The Project Appraisal Methodology (PAM) described in this paper was developed by the Division of Power Systems in the U.S. 
Department of Energy to aid in the determination of R&D priorities. It was used for comparing a wide spectrum of applied energy R&D 
projects to determine which offered the greatest potential, and therefore, merited support by the division. The methodology basically j 
involved the numerical scoring of projects for eight criteria: 1. energy savings; 2. technical risk; 3. cost; 4. commercial potential- 5 
uniqueness; 6. resource availability; 7. environmental impact; and 8. legal, social, and institutional effects. For each project, criteria 
scores were weighted and summed to generate an overall score. The appraisal results were used to rank proposed R&D projects and to 
prepare budgets.' 

The Project Appraisal Methodology (PAM) process was initiated by division project managers who prepared briefings on proposed 
projects. The data were then presented to appraisal panels composed of division staff, personnel from otherdivisions, planning analysts, 
an outside consultants. This process constituted the first appraisai. The second appraisal was performed by participants at the 
interactive planning workshops described above. 

A critical component of the planning process called PAM is a feedback mechanism to ensure that the process is relevant, and to evaluate 
the methodology. The community-college-based interactive planning workshops provided a specific type of feedback mechanism, and 
consequently, played a key role in evaluating the Project Appraisal Methodology (PAM). Without an interactive planning component, 
without a feedback mechanism, PAM can lose its sense of relevance and fail to provide the optimum solution to problems it addresses. 

Although the example cited here involves a U.S. government agency and American community colleges, the model could be adapted by 
governments of developing nations to set their priorities for energy technician training. The Project Appraisal Methodology (PAM) could 
be used by governments at any level to aid in planning and allocating resources, and in answering the following questions: 

1. What are national energy objectives? 

2. What are the energy manpower requirements for meeting those objectives? 

3. Which of those manpower objectives can best be met by vocational secondary schools, by four-year universi- 
ties, and which by short-cycle, community-based colleges? 

4. Finally, what energy technician training curricula should be initiated in community colleges? 

If PAM is applied to assist in making those critical decisions, it is likely that energy technician curricula will be designed that is relevant to 
the country's needs. 

The interactive planning process can also be adapted to mesh with a developing country's decision-making structure. Forexample, an 
interactive planning workshop constituted to make recommendations about energy technician training in community colleges could be 
composed of the following; officials from the national ministries of labor education, and planning; scientists, technicians, and engineers; 
academicians; representatives from energy and related industries; local and regional government officials; and community college 
administrators. 

Community colleges around the world provide an ideal vehicle for the implementation of energy technician' training to meet the 
manpower needs of developing countries. It is crucial that these training programs be initiated within the context of well conceived and 
cohesive energy and manpower planning processes. The Project Appraisal Methodology (PAM) developed by the U.S. Department of 
Energy is the ideal vehicle for the institutionalization of such a planning process. When used in conjunction with interactive planning 
workshops, PAM can be of enormous benefit in national development planning for energy manpower needs. 

References 

1. United Nations. Preparatory Committee for the U.N. Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy. REPORT OF THE 
TECHNICAL PANEL ON 8IOMASS ENERGY, Jan. 28, 1981, pp. 25, 39. 

2. D.J. Monetta, Comm. & Jr. Coll. J. 48 (May 1978): 39-41; J. Stud. Tech. Careers 1 (Spr. 1979); 228-35. 

3. J.B. Mahoney, Comm. & Jr. Coll. J. 50 (May 1980): 25. 

4. Ibid., pp. 25-26. 

5. F.C. Kintzer, New Direc. Comm. Coll. 7, 26 (1979). 

6. C. Kerr, Comm. & Jr. ColL J. 50 (May 1980): 6. 

7. Kintzer. p. 65. 

8. J.N. Carsey. Comm. & Jr. Coll. J. 48 (Nov 1977); 10-14; U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. Division of 
Conservation Research and Technology, ENERGY CONSERVATION WORKSHOPS FOR COMMUNITY COLLEGE LEADERS, CHI- 
CAGO. ILLINOIS, NOV 3-5, 1979, ERDA 76-156 (National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA. 1976). 

123 



9. U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, Division of Conservation Research and Technology, ENERGY CONSERA- 
TiON R&D OBJECTIVES WORKSHOP, SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA, MARCH 6-8, 1977, CONF-770305 (National Technical Information 
Service, Springfield, VA, 1977); U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Power Systems, IMPROVED CONVERSION EFFICIENCY 
WORKSHPS, PIPESTEM, WEST VIRGINIA, OCTOBER 16-1 8. 1977, CONF-771 003 (National Technical Information Service. Springfield, 
VA. 1977); U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Power Systems, ENERGY CONSERVATION WORKSHOP; TRAINING REQUIRE- 
MENTS FOR TECHNICIANS, ATLANTA, GEORGIA, OCTOBER 30-NOVEMBER1, 1977, CONF-771 01 8 (National Technical Information 
Service, 1978); U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Fossil Fuel Utilization," INTERACTIVE PLANNING WORKSHOP, MT. HOOD. 
OREGON, OCTOBER 15-17, 1978, CONF-781094 (National Technical Information Service. Springfield, VA, 1978). 



10. D.J. Monetta, PAM: A RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT APPRAISAL METHODOLOGY, Ph.D. Diss., 
1981. 

9.2 



Univ. of So. CaL, 



A TWO YEAR DEGREE PROGRAM IN SOLAR ENERGY TECHNOLOGY 
Dr. Francis Dunning 

Mohawk Valley Community College is a comprehensive community collegetn central New York. It was established in 1946 and has a long 
history of technical education. When we designed the one year certificate program (Solar Energy Technology Certificate) and the two 
year degree program (Air Conditioning Technology — Solar Energy Technology option) we planned it around the existing strengths in 
the technology and physics departments. The certificate program has heating, heat pump, sheet metal fabrication and plumbing courses 
offered by the mechanical technology department, electricity and wiring courses offered by the electrical technology department, active 
and passive solar energy installation and alternate energy courses offered by the physics department The degree program contains the 
courses included in the certificate program plus technical physics, mathematics and general education, drafting and photovoltaic solar 
energy and additional solar design courses. 

When designing the program, the focus was the product (graduate) desired at the end of the two years. The product should have a firm 
foundation in the science of soJar energy as weil as the knowledge of the technology of solar energy. This balance required plumbing 
skills of a master plumber, the mechanical skills of a sheet metal worker, the physis and chemistry of absorbers, transfer fluids, metals as 
well as the engineering knowledge of wind loads, snow loads, impact forces, etc. The rudiments of these are necessary in any Solar 
Technology Program. 



SOLAR ENERGY TECHNOLOGY 
Certificate Program 



Code 



Fall Semester 

Course 



Cr, Hrs. 



Code 



Spring Semester 

Course 



Cr. Hrs. 



MA121 Fund of College Math 1 

MT258 Hydronic Heating Systems 

MT260 Sheet Metal Fabrication 
and Duct Design 

ST111 Soiar Energy 1 



15 



MT255 Heat Pumps 

MT261 Warm Air Heating Systems 

ET110 Electricity and Wiring 

ST112 Solar Energy 2 

ST221 Passive Solar Energy 



16 



The 31 credit hours specified above are minimum requirements for the Solar Energy Technology Certificate. 



Code 



Fall Semester 

Course 



AIR CONDITIONING TECHNOLOGY 

Solar Energy Technology Option 

AAS Degree Program 

(66 Academic Credit Hours) 



Cr. Hrs. 



Cod0 



Spring Semester 

Course 



Cr, Hrs, 



EN101 English 1 
MA1 21 Fund of College Math 1 
PH121 Technical Physics 1 
ST101 Alternate Energy 
MT127 Technical Drafting 
Physical Education 



3 
4 
4 
3 
3 
Vz 
17V6 



EN102 English 2 
MA122 Fund of College Math 2 
PH122 Technical Physics 2 
ST111 Solar Energy 1 
CI115 Computer Science 
Physical Education 



3 
4 

4 
3 
3 
Vi 
17V 2 



124 



Code Course 

BM101 Survey of Economics 

ST112 Sotar Energy 2 

ET234 Electrical Wiring & Codes 1 

MT260 Sheetmetal Fab & Duct Design 

MT258 Hydronic Heating Systems 
Physical Education 



Cr. Hrs, 

3 
3 
3 
3 
5 
V4 



Code Course 

ST221 Passive Solar Energy 
ST213 Solar Energy 3 
ST231 Solar Photovoltaic Ceils 
MT255 Heat Pumps 
MT261 Warm Air Heating Systems 
Physical Education 



Cr, Hrs, 

3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
Vfe 



17% 



17V6 



Satisfactory completion of the twenty academic courses specified above is a minimum degree requirement for the Solar Energy 
Technology option. 

9.3 



WYOMING POSTSECONDARY ENERGY EDUCATION CONSORTIUM* 

W.C. Edwards, Division of Life, Health & Physical Sciences 

Laramie County Community College 

Cheyenne, Wyoming 82001 t U.S.A. 

Abstract 

During 1980, a Postsecondary Energy Education Consortium was organized in Wyoming to assist in meeting the State's increasing needs 
for energy education. The Consortium involves Wyoming's seven community colleges and State University. The president of each of 
these institutions was contacted and all agreed that the Consortium would be beneficial for the following reasons: 1) to help plan for 
future vocational energy programs designed to aid in meeting energy development manpower needs in Wyoming; 2) to assist in 
designing courses to meet the needs of Wyoming's citizens who are interested in improving the efficiency of their own energy use; 3) to 
aid in preparing classes on general energy education and, 4) taking into consideration the energy education curricula development K-12, 
to help develop integrated postsecondary energy education curricula which can take students from high school energy classes into more 
advanced and technologically sophisticated energy education in college. A grant was obtained to help set up the Consortium and on 31 
October 1980, an organizational meeting took place at Laramie County Community Col lege in Cheyenne, At this meeting, it was decided 
that a needs assessment for energy education in Wyoming should becarried out and a grant has been obtained to initiate the assessment. 
Wyoming's Consortium has the potential of being a model for other states and countries. 

* Supported in part by Wyoming 1202 Commission 

Introduction 

According to the 1980 census, Wyoming is the fourth fastest growing state in the U.S. behind Nevada, Arizona, and Florida. The 1980 
census showed an increase in Wyoming's population of 43% over 1970. The main reason for this increase is energy development. In the 
mining of coal, oil, natural gas and uranium, Wyoming ranks among the top ten states. The "1980 Wyoming Mineral Yearbook" 1 lists the 
state's 1979 mineral valuation at $2,533,459,759. This is the largest single contribution to the valuation of the state. It is 53% of thestate's 
valuation and is greater than the valuation of the entire state in 1977! Energy minerals account for approximately 95% of the state's mineral 
valuation. Because of the energy development associated with this evaluation, a bright economic future for Wyoming in an era of energy 
shortfall, seems assured. The energy development impact is being felt in all areas of Wyoming society; economic, political, social and 
educational. 

The response of the Wyoming educational community to this energy development "boom" has been varied. At the postsecondary level, 
one response has been the organization of the Wyoming Postsecondary Energy Education Consortium. The Consortium, consisting of 
Wyoming's seven community colleges and one state university was organized' in 1980; 1) to help plan for future vocational energy 
programs designed to aid in meeting energy development manpower needs in Wyoming; 2) to assist in designing courses to meet the 
needs of Wyoming citizens who are interested in improving the efficiency of their own energy use; 3) to aid In preparing classes on general 
energy education; and, 4) taking into consideration the energy education curricula development K-12 to help develop integrated 
postsecondary energy education curricula which can take students from high school energy classes into more advanced and technologi- 
cally sophisticated energy education in college. These objectives are consistent with the statutory definition of a community college 
which is, "an institution which offers programs of academic work in the freshman and sophomore years of college, general vocational 
education in terminal programs and adult education services." 2 In 1945, legislation was enacted, "which permitted the organization of 
public two-year institutions." 3 Casper College in Casper, Wyoming was formed the same year. Northwest Community College in Powell 
was established in 1946. In 1948, Sheridan College in Sheridan and Eastern Wyoming College in Torrington were created. These four 
colleges were originally extension centers of the University of Wyoming; however, by 1956, the electorate of each of these districts had 
voted to establish independent community college districts. Western Wyoming College was established at Rock Springs in 1966 and 
Laramie County Community College in Cheyenne in 1968, 4 . At the end of fall semester 1980, the headcount enrollment figures varied 
from a high of 5,181 at Laramie County Community College to a low of 2,198 at Northwest Community College. The headcount for all 
seven community colleges totaled 25,096, The objectives of the University of Wyoming are: "to provide an efficient means of imparting to 
men and women, without regard to color, on equal terms, a liberal education, together with a thorough knowledge of the various branches 
connected with the scientific, industrial and professional pursuits. 1 ' 5 The University was founded in Laramie in 18.86, s .The University had a 
final headcount enrollment of 9,014 for the fall semester 1980, 

Review of Literature 

Energy education is a nebulous field. However, there are some clearcut areas in which new classes might be initiated at the postsecon- 
dary level, especially in vocational programs. One source for information on energy education is "Energy and Education" 7 , a newsletter 
published bi-monthly during the academic year by the National Science Teachers Association, It contains guest editorials, a calendar of 
energy education events and reviews of energy education literature. An early publication was the revised edition of "The Energy and 



125 



Environment Bibliography/** published by the Friends of the Earth Foundation. A recent publication, with an extensive reference section, 
was "Energy Future." 9 Literature dealing with energy education in community colleges includes, "What Do Children, Alcohol and 
Windmills Have To Do With Community Colleges?" by Mr. Mahoney.lt appeared in May 1980 issue of the American Association of Junior 
and Community Colleges (AACJC). Mr. Mahoney stated, "In fact, the variety and scope of community college energy activities are 
impressive. Their richness is evidence, not only of their responsiveness to local and national concerns, but also of their interest and 
capacity for contributing to the solutions of significant national problems." He summarized community college energy activities: 
"College activities fall in several domains: energy-related occupational course curricula, applied research, institutional conservation, 
training for special community audiences and public information services," 10 The most recent publication in the area is "Energy 
Education Programs: Perspectives for Community, Junior and Technical Colleges," 11 by Ms.Settlemire.This publication was sponsored 
by the AACJC and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, ft deals with: history of energy use in the U.S.; energy legislation; energy 
manpower projections; the role of community, junior and technical colleges in energy education; program components and program 
funding. Other publications used by Wyoming Community Colleges in energy classes include: "Energy and the Way We Live," 12 a 
reader/study guide and National Geographies, "Energy: A Special Report in the Public Interest/' 13 

Discussion 

The Consortium idea was born in 1977 at a meeting in Casper of representatives of four of Wyoming's postsecondary schools. This 
meeting dealt with the impact of energy development and what effect it might have on postsecondary education. It was evident that 
because of energy development, postsecondary institutions in Wyoming were going to becalled upon to play an increasing role in energy 
education. 

The first major energy education and energy conservation program influencing postsecondary education in Wyoming came as a result of 
the Energy Policy Conservation Act passed by Congress in 1975. Its objectives was to save at least 5% of projected energy use in 1980 In 
Wyoming, this resulted in the establishment of the Wyoming Energy Conservation Office and the Governor's Advisory Committee on 
Energy Conservation. Bill Edwards served on this committee for four years and was chairman 1977-79. This committee reinforced the 
idea that postsecondary education needed to coordinate energy education activities. In 1977, Wyoming was selected as one of ten states 
to participate in a pilot project of the Energy Extension Service (EES), a U.S. Department of Energy program. EES was administered in 
Wyoming by the Engineering College at the University of Wyoming with satellite offices at each community college. The target audiences 
for this program were primarily small businessmen and residential homeowners. EES worked mainly through outreach to encourage 
energy efficiency. The Governor's Advisory-Committee was selected as the advisory group for the EES pilot project to help prevent 
overlap in the federal energy programs. In 1978, Bill Edwards was appointed to the National Advisory Board of the Department of Energy, 
Energy Extension Service. This appointment was, in part, a resuit of the American Association of Junior and Community Colleges desire 
to be represented on the EES Board. Contact was also made with Mr. Jim Mahoney, AACJC Project Director of the Energy Communica- 
tions Center. Mr. Mahoney explained that AACJC was sponsoring "Energy and the Way We Live: A Public Issues Forum," funded by the 
National Endowment for the Humanities, State Humanities Councils, U.S. Department of Energy and others. Wyoming Postsecondary 
Institutions participated in this nationwide program in the spring of 1980. Laramie County Community College was designated the 
coordinating school for the forums in Wyoming and distributed information and materials to other Wyoming postsecondary schools. 
State Humanities Council funds were obtained by several schools to aid in the Public Forum presentation in Wyoming "Energy and the 
Way We Live 1 ' helped coordinate postsecondary energy education activities and acted as a stimulus for the development of the 
Consortium. 

In the fall of 1980, funds were obtained to determine the feasibility of establishing the Consortium. The Wyoming 1202 Commission a 
federally funded program designed to coordinate postsecondary planning, provided the funds. Bill Edwards was project director and has 
subsequently become the Consortium director. Thefunding began in thesummer of 1980and continued into thefall. Funds weregranted 
for two purposes: first, for visits to each of Wyoming's Postsecondary Institutions to confer with staff interested in the consortium idea. 
The college presidents and staff were quite receptive to the consortium concept. The October meeting included representatives from 
seven of theeight institutions, plus participants from the Community CollegeCommission, the Wyoming Energy Conservation Office and 
the Wyoming Energy Extension Service. At this meeting, each college representative gave a short report on energy education activities at 
his school. Also, at this meeting a presentation was made by Frank Galeotos, Directorof Wyoming's Manpower Development Office on a 
project designed to make predictions on energy industry manpower needs in Wyoming, Three decisions were made at this meeting: 1 ) A 
Wyoming Postsecondary Energy Education Consortium would be organized; 2) The first endeavor of the consortium would be to 
consider vocational energy education or manpower training in energy fields, and 3) Funds Would be solicited to do a needs assessment of 
energy education at the Colleges. Sheridan College extended an invitation to hold the next consortium meeting in Sheridan. April 1981 . 

Funds were requested for a second time from the Wyoming 1202Commission by EstherSmith, Assistant Directorof the Consortium, and 
a representative of the University of Wyoming. The 1202 Commission granted these funds to: 1 ) cover the operating expenses of the 
consortium such as attendance at the Spring 1981 meeting; 2) to publish a newsletter, and 3) to do a needs assessment of energy 
education at the community colleges, 

A Consortium newsletter was distributed in June to participating schools, government agencies such as the Department of Education, 
industrial associations and other interested parties. Questionnaires were completed by selected studentsat all thecommunity colleges to 
assess their needs for energy education. The results of the assessment will be used to design or redesign energy activities at each school 
and will be part of a long-term plan for energy education in Wyoming. 

The future of the Consortium rests largely with the desire of the administrators of the eight institutions involved. To help clarify the 
commitment involved in the Consortium, a letter of understanding giving the objectives of the Consortium, the obligations of the 
consortium to the institutions, and the obligations of the institutions to the Consortium is being developed which will be circulated 
among the schools with a request for a signature by the chief administrative officer. 

The elements of the Consortium which seem important include a statewide, non-parochial, view of energy education by the community 
colleges and a clearer understanding of the different roles of the university and community colleges and policies which are consistent 
witn these roles. It seems desirable that the Consortium would continue meeting at least twice a year; that the newsletter would continue; 
jnatme needs assessment project would continue and that asummerseminaron energy education forstaffmembersof the participating 
insitutions would be conducted during the summer of 1982. The Wyoming Postsecondary Energy Education Consortium has the 
potential of being a model for other states and countries, 



126 



Literature References 

1. Publication of Mineral Division, Wyoming State Department of Economic Planning and Development, (1981). 

2. Wyoming State Statute. 21-18-202, Vo. 5, P. 180, (1977), 

3. Pamphlet, Wyoming Community Colleges, P. 2, (1980-1981). 

4. Ibid., P. 2, 

5. Wyoming State Statute. 21-18-102, Vo. 5, P. 140, (1977). 

6. University of Wyoming Catalogue, (1981). 

7. Energy and Education, Pub. by National Science Teachers Association, (1978-1981), 

8. Betty Warren, The Energy and Environment Bibliography, Friends of the Earth Foundation, (Revised 1978). 

9. R, Stobaugh and D. Yergin, ENERGY FUTURE, (Random House, Inc., N.Y. and Canada, 1979). 

10. J.B. Mahoney, Community and Junior College Journal, Vo. 50, May (1980). 

11. Mary Ann Settlemire, Energy Education Programs: Perspectives for Community, Junior, and Technical Colleges, AACJC, (1981). 

12. M. Kranzberg and T.A. Hall, eds., ENERGY AND THE WAY WE LIVE, Boyd and Fraser Pub. Co., San Fran. (1980). 

13. Energy: A Special Report in the Public Interest, National Geographic, (1981). 

9.4 

A MODEL CURRICULUM FORMAT AND PROGRAM FOR ENERGY EDUCATION 

Richard B. Giazer, Director of Environmental and Energy Programs 

Ulster County Community College 

Stone Ridge, New York 12484 

Introduction 

A model educational program was developed for the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the National Training and 
Operational Technology Center, and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation to train professional and sub- 
professional people in the fields of water and wastewater. 

This program is now being used widely and has proved extremely successful. It is my intent to present this curriculum as a model to serve 
as the framework for. similar programs in the area of energy education. The curriculum has been designed so that the purpose, 
instructional objectives, conditions, acceptable performance levels, and course sequences are clearly defined. It describes in measurable 
terms the skills and knowledge to be learned and furnishes the student with an honest definition of what he must know to successfully 
complete the program. It also provides the opportunity to standardize the curriculum in different colleges and training institutions 
throughout the country. The design further provides the ability to extract objectives or parts of objectives, and recombine them to form 
workshops, short training institutes, seminars or diploma programs. These then can be used for retraining or additional training, both of 
which are extremely important to thecontinuing education of the technician. Because of thedefinitive format, courses within the program 
or each individual instructional objective can be easily evaluated, 

Text . 

In 1968, the United States State Department notified foreign governmnets that American oil production would soon reach the limits of its 
capacity. The end of an era of cheap abundant oil was at hand and the United States was to become a major oti importer. In 1970. 
American domestic production peaked and began to decline while thedernand and use of oil continued to surge. For six months, the Arab 
oil embargo of 1973-74 threatened to paralyze the United States, setting off the worst U.S. recession in forty years. Since 1973, the world 
market price for crude oil has soared to its present price range of $36-41 per barrel. It is estimated that by 1 985, the price may exceed S80 
per barrel. 

The need for energy, this insatiable thirst, has left the United States vulnerable to the political instabilities of the primary petroleum- 
producing countries of the world. At the same time, it is becoming clearthat if weare to sustain our life style, we must begin to provide our 
energy needs by using other energy resources which, in many cases, exist in abundance. The United States has the world's largest coal 
reserves; massive reserves of natural gas; is a major petroleum producer; contains more than a quarter of the world's uranium; and is 
drenched with sunlight (500 times more energy than we consume each year). 

Nothing comes cheap, however. To use these resources will require new technologies and new approaches to conservation. This in turn. 
w jH necess jtate a massive work force skilled in the, often times, simple techniques of conservation or the highly sophisticated 
technologies of new energy production. 

Because of its timing, energy educators have a unique opportnity to take a crisis situation and turn it to our advantage. The preponder- 
ance of energy courses, curricula and programs are all starting off at approximately the same time. If, as in energy production, we are 
developing and using new technologies, then we should be certainly willing to use new educational technologies in ourenergy education 
programs. There is no longer any excuse for bad education. We can not justify it, we cannot effort it, and we have reached that point in 
time where we can avoid it. 

The evolution of the need for energy education is in many ways parallel to that of the water pollution abatement training programs which 
wer e devefoped for the United States Environmental Protection Agency in the 70's and which now continue successfully into the 80's. 
Energy and environment have a kinship which can not be denied as many of the unpleasantand in some cases, unacceptable side effects 



127 



of alternate energy sources are environmental. Similarly, training programs have been developed in the field of water resources that have 
provided not only superior educational programs and opportunities for thosein the environmental technology fields, but also serve as a 
blueprint for the development and conduction of similar educational systems in energy education. 

The program which I am reporting on today is one of the most successful of these and has had major national and international impact in 
all aspects of environmental education. 

This program, the Water Quality Monitoring Program at Ulster County Community College in Stone Ridge, New York, was supported by 
the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation to meet the work 
force needs of the Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1 972, These amendments provided for the wastewater treatment facility 
construction funds and the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination permit system. 

The initial intent of the Water Quality Monitoring Program was to develop a curriculum based on the behavioral objective format and 
objective mastery. This format included the; 

1. Development of a curriculum in Water Pollution Control, leading to an Associate in Applied Science degree, in which the 
graduate is productive immediately upon employment. 

2. Use of the format of behavioral objectives in which the curriculum has been designed so that the purpose, instructional 
objectives, conditions, acceptable performance level and course sequences are clearly defined. 

3. Production of a curriculum which the learning objectives are independent units that can be isolated and sequenced to provide a 
variety of instructional (critical) pathways for training personnel to do specific tasks. These pathways are used to provide a host of 
workshops and training programs of varying lengths and types. These programs have been used in continuing education for 
retraining or additional training of water quality personnel. 

4. Design of a curriculum format from which a system of modules can be produced, thereby allowing the instructor to develop, 
evaluate, and use a variety of instructional strategies for any given course or objective. Additionally, when the "critical pathways" 
are identified and approved, appropriate instructional materials (workbooks, audio-visual materials, simulations, etc.) can be 
produced and made available. These pathways then can be utilized with a minimal amount of participation by instructional or 
supervising staff. 

In 1978, the Water Quality staff at Ulster, successfully completed this project with the publication of four volumes. These publications are: 

1 . M A Two-Year Water Quality Monitoring Curriculum 11 ' 

2. "Learners Guide to Water Quality Monitoring" 3 

3. "Nutrients; Learning Guide for A Critical Path in Water Quality Monitoring" 3 

4. "Indicator Organisms; Learners Guide for a Critical Path in Water Quality Monitoring" 4 

In 1975, a prototype demonstration training program based on the Water Quality Monitoring curriculum was initiated. This program is 
rigorous, based on chemistry, analytical techniques, engineering principles, mathematics, communcation skills and humanities. Part of 
the measure of the success of the program is an attrition rate over the past five years of less then 15%, and a strong employment and 
transfer record. The behavioral objective format of this curriculum offers instructors and curriculum developers the flexibility to develop a 
multitude of pathways to meet varying or changing educational needs that can not be developed using the classical course description 
approach. These pathways enable students to enter and proceed through the curriculum from different entry points or to obtain partial 
skills which may not lead to a degree, but may make the individual employable or more useful in his occupation. 

Further, because each objective stands as an independent unit, the objectives can be isolated and resequenced to provide a variety of 
instructional {critical) pathways for training technicians to do specific tasks. In energy, they could easily be the objectives necessary to 
obtain the skills for energy auditing, solar panel construction, or the theories of thermodynamics. 

An example of an essential environmentai objective would be: 

OBJECTIVE 

Describe and perform aseptically the listed techniques using' the proper safety precautions: 

a. Serial dilution 

b. Pouring agar plates 

c. Streaking Agar slants and plates 

d. Making total counts 

e. Aseptic transfers with loop 

f. Preparing culture media 

g. Counting colonies. 

Each technique must be performed successfully and free of outside contamination 90% of the time. 

One that relates to energy might be: 

OBJECTIVE 

Describe the effect of each of the following upon the rate of a given reaction, including the role of activation energy: 

a. Temperature 

b. Bond energy of reactants and products 

c. Entropy change 

d. Concentration of reactants 

e. Catalysts 

Discussion must include the relationships between: 

a. Temperature, kinetic energy of molecules, bond strength, and activation energy. 

b. The molecular geometry, the favorable arrangement of molecules for reaction, entropy, and reaction rate. 

c. Concentration and the probability for a favorable collision in terms of energy and structure. 

d. Catalysts and activation energy. 



128 



The Water Quality Monitoring Program has be/err^rrrque and highly successful experiment in. higher education. It was based on the 
concept that ideas, skills, and tasks can be identified and clearly noted; and that what is necessary to be learned, and what is expected to 
be learned, can clearly be defined. Further, this process can include the conditions under which this knowledge is to be learned as well as 
the level of learning which would be considered acceptable for each teaming situation. 

It has shown that, If students prior to entering the program and then again in the classroom are informed of everything that is expected of 
them, including the performance level that they must achieve, their opportunity for success is greatly enhanced, Further, upon 
graduation, because they have obtained the skills they set out to develop, they will be highly valuable in the marketplace or highly sought 
after for transfer into programs of higher education, The system benefits, because it can be; 

1. Readily evaluated (through student achievement) 

2. Easily upgraded as, new laws, skills and techniques come along. 

3. Readily modified to meet changing conditions and challenges. 

Summary 

The Water Quality Monitoring system is designed, developed, and implemented is a system which, utilizing the concepts of instructional 
objectives, offers the student, faculty and institution: objectives which are clearly and specifically defined; instructional pathways for the 
continuing education of the technician; modular programs which can be easily identified and produced; and a curriculum in which the 
components or the totat system can be readily evaluated. The system has been classroom tested over the past five years. It has been 
highly successfui, beyond our expectations. The students are competent, experienced, resourceful, marketable, and perform admirably 
in their work positions. 

As a prototype program, the Water Quality Monitoring curriculum, concept and mechanisms are readily exportable and can be used as a 
whole or in part in training programs or institutions across the United States. 

Because energy education programs are starting now, all at relatively the same time, it would be appropriate to adopt the educational 
systems and mechanisms which have worked so well in the Water Quality Monitoring Program, ltwouldinfact.be folly to ignore it. There 
is indeed a challenge in meeting the future energy needs of a world without petroleum. There is an equal challenge to provide the very best 
energy education systems and training programs to as many people as possible as we enter this exciting new era. 

' Glazer, R.B., Et al. "A Two-Year Water Quality Monitoring Curriculum." United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1975, 

3 Glazer, R.B., Et al. ''Learners Guide to Water Quality Monitoring." United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1978. 

1 Glazer, R.B., Et al. "Nutrients; Learners Guide for a Critical Path in Water Quality Monitoring/' United States Environmental Protection 
Agency. 1978. 

4 Glazer, R.B., Et al, "Indicator Organisms; Learners Guide for a Critical Path in Water Quality Monitoring," United States Environmental 
Protection Agency, 1978. 

9.5 

SELF-RELIANT HOUSE: 
A MULTI-DISCIPLINARY CURRICULUM PROJECT & COMMUNITY RESOURCE CENTER 

C.E. Ford, Jr., Biological Science Department, Merritt College, 
Oakland, California 94619, USA 

Abstract 

Merritt College Self-Reliant House & Garden is a multi-disciplinary curriculum project that is challenging faculty and students in a broad 
array of "academic" and vocational departments to cooperate in a common venture — the construction, operation, and demonstration, to 
the campus and to the larger community, of a model system of "appropriate community technologies." It will take the form of an 
urban/suburban house and yard. It will feature numerous practical methods for achieving a more economically and ecologiclly sound 
lifestyle — methods for conserving energy and other resources, producing food, and utilizing local sources of energy, It will serve as a 
focus for; including content of energy and resource efficiency in a wide variety of existing courses in many departments; the creation of 
many new, specialized courses; asignificant expansion of community outreach, emphasizing evening and Saturday workshops and short 
courses; and individual and group tours. Importantly and most uniquely this project is designed to present appropriate technology in a 
physical style that will appeal to the broad populace. It will also contain a library of A.T. information and a community resources file, Early 
community participation includes in-kind donations of most of the building materials and many essential services by local businesses. 

The Merritt College Self-Reliant House & Garden project will be a permanent, evolving center of appropriate community technology — a 
real-life model house and garden that will feature: 

* a largely "passive solar" house — in essence a collection of "retrofits" (features that can be added onto existing structures, 
demonstrating a wide variety of insulating, weatherizing, and other energy conservation methods; 

" a "grey water" system for water conservation; 

* vegetable gardens, fruit trees, and small livestock; 
" compostng and other recycling methods; 

* demonstration devices for using local, renewable sources of energy; 

* a library of relevant books, periodicals, pamphlets, audio-visuaf materials, and a community resource file. This resource center 
for appropriate community technology is designed to serve both the College and the larger community: 

* College departments/courses involved in construction, establishment, and/or operation of the project are; Carpentry. Home 
Economics, Ecology & Appropriate Technology, Economics, Horticulture, Real Estate, and Welding. 



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' Self-Reliant House will contain the office of the Appropriate Technology program. It will be open for classes and tours six 
days/week and evenings. 

' At Self-Reliant House and in nearby classrooms, laboratories, and shops we will conduct a large variety of A.T. courses and 
workshops, varying in length from single Saturdays and evenings to entire semesters. We also expect a heavy schedule of school 
and other group tours, as well as having convenient hours open to the general public. 

Design Criteria 

In the design of Merritt College Seif-Reliant House & Garden, the following principles have guided the choice of features, and their 
details, scale, and arrangement. 

A. Features should be adapted to the CLIMATIC, GEOLOGIC, ECOLOGIC, SOCIOECONOMIC and HOUSING characteristics of the 
East San Francisco Bay Area: 

* Climatic - Mild, Mediterranean climate, with cool summer nights, few freezing nights; occassional drought years. 

* Geologic - Subject to extreme earthquake activity; extreme variation in soil types. 

* Ecologic - In summer, high fire danger in areas adjacent to natural vegetation; variety of wildlife activity in hill areas. 

* Socioeconomic - Highly diverse cultural, ethnic, and economic characteristics of residents. 

* Housing - Great mix of types and ages, but due to degree to which the area is built up, very littlenew housing to be built in the near 
future. 

B. Systems and components should be, as far as possible, of durable, recycleabte, and non-polluting materials and construction. 

C. Retrofltabie - all — or nearly all — features should be"retrofitable" (able to be added on) to existing houses and apartments. Thus these 
features would be relevant for all — or nearly all — residents of our community, 

D. All features should be relatively low cost, or have a relatively short "payback time." 

E. Simplicity -The construction, installation, and operation of most of theadd-on features should be within thecapabilities of the average 
"do-it-yourselfer," including the Merritt College students who will do nearly all of the actual construction. 

F. Features should be likely to be adopted for use by local residents, 

G. Features should be arranged so that the major aspects of function and operation can be readily observed by visitors. 

H. The major areas and features must be accessible to persons in wheelchairs. 

I. If sufficient funds can be obtained, some more complex or expensive systems — with long payback periods, or complex operational 
procedures, AND of particular educational value — should be purchased or constructed. Examples: urban aquaculture (fish pond) 
system; wind-electric generator. 

J. Last, but far from least, esthetic standards of design and maintenance should satisfy the great majority of members of the community. 

Major Design Features 

A. ENERGY CONSERVATION 

# Insulation — R-30 ceilings; R-19 in walls; R-1 1 under floors. # See-thru panels to demonstrate: types of insulation materials; earthquake 
safety construction features. # Window and doorweatherizing; windows and doors will be of different styles, to demonstrate the greatest 
variety of window treatments (double panes, inside and outside shutters, insulated curtains, etc.), #Small window areas on north and east 
sides. # Kitchen food cooler ("cool closet"), which enables use of smaller refrigerator. M Low-wattage refrigerator, cooking range, and 
lighting fixtures: careful design of lighting, with much use of "task lighting. "# Insulation on water heater tanks and lines. # Ceiling-to-floor 
heat recirculator, # Air-to-air heat-exchange ventilator, # Room humidifier. # Temperature and humidity monitoring instruments. 

B. "ALTERNATIVE" ENERGY SYSTEMS 

# South wall greenhouse/solarium solar collector, as well as roof skylight and clerestory windows, with water-filled drum "passive" 
storage, and movable, insulated shutters. # "Venetian-blind" type window solar collector. # Add-on rock-bin heat storage with ducts and 
blowers ("hybrid" system) or hydronic baseboard heaters hybridized with solar hot water system, # Solar hot water system ("active"). # 
Wood stove for supplemental space heating. # Fuel ethanol production system. # Solar photovoltaic emergency lighting system. # 
Wind-electric generator and storage (if wind data support it). # Solar clothes dryer. 

C. WATER CONSERVATION 

# Kitchen recycling bins. # Hot-bin composting system, # Vermiculture (earthworm) system for recycling organic waste. # Use of the 
Merritt College Recycling Center (the oldest continuously operating in Oakland). 

E. FOOD PRODUCTION, PRESERVATION, AND STORAGE 

# Raised-bed vegetable garden with wood-ch ip foot paths, # Indoor and outdoor planter boxes for vegetables. # "Foodscaped" front yard 
(low water and maintenance, with edible ornamental plants). # Fruit trees (dwarfs, for apartment roofs and balconies) in containers, and 
berry vines. # Beehive. # Solar greenhouse and cold frames for starting vegetables {greenhouse used as food dryer in summer and fall). # 
Breadbox solar oven (outdoor). # Rabbitry and chicken house. # Aquaculture (fish) system. 

F. ECOLOGICAL PEST MANAGEMENT 

# Fly traps. # Mesh covering of garden beds to protect from birds, etc. # Crop rotation practices; experimentation with "companion 
planting." # Specially designed fencing to discourage deer, raccoons, etc. 

G. EDUCATION 

# Library of relevant books, periodicals, pamphlets, and audio-visual materials. # Community Resource Directory file. # Display posters, 
models, see-thrus, etc. 



130 



H. OPERATIONAL FEATURES 

# Garden compost operation: use of garbage from the cafeteria kitchen and food classes, wood shavings from carpentry, and landscaping 
trimmings (this process has been in operation for two years). # Maximum use of the Merritt College Recycling Center. # Involvement of 
students from a wide variety of classes, plus College Work-Study students to perform routine operation and maintenance of the project. 

Course offerings 

What follows next is a listing of planned and proposed course offerings that support orare related to/spin off from the Self-Reliant House 
project. They represent offerings from six or seven departments, and some of them are cooperative efforts between two or more 
departments, "academic" and vocational. 

Planned for the fall semester, 1981 (Sep. 9 - Jan. 28, 1982) 

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY FOR THE HOME - What you can do to survive the energy crunch. 

SOLAR ENERGY FOR THE HOME. Practical approaches for Bay Area residents. 

ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY. Practical, hands-on projects, including work on the Self-Reliant House project. 

DO-IT-YOURSELF HOME REPAIRS. Learn preventive maintenance and how to make minor plumbing, electrical, and carpentry repairs. 

EARTHQUAKE SAFETY FOR THE HOME. You can do much to save your home and life. 

FRUIT AND NUT TREES FOR THE HOME. Selection, planting, and care. 

ORGANIC VEGETABLE GROWING. Get your compost system and your garden going. 

EDIBLE LANDSCAPING. Convert useless yard space into attractive, nutritious, water conserving edible landscaping. 

ALCOHOL FUEL WORKSHOP. Learn to make your own. See operating equipment. 

ALCOHOL PLANT CONSTRUCTION. Construction of small, wood, gas, or solar-fired alcohol production plant. 

WIND ENERGY i. Utilization of wind energy. First course. 

WIND ENERGY II, Second course. Make and test a small wind machine. 

SOLAR/ENERGY-EFFiCIENT HOME CONSTRUCTION. Construction of Self-Reliant House. Lectures on principies of design. 

SOLAR HOT WATER WORKSHOP. Construct a professional-quality solar system for your home that will provide about 75% of your hot 

water needs. (This is the Suncor system developed at Arizona State University.) 

Additional courses planned or proposed for faff, 1982: 

EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS FOR HOME AND APARTMENT 

CRIME PREVENTION FOR HOME AND APARTMENT 

FIRE PREVENTION FOR HOME AND APARTMENT 

BEEKEEPING 

ADOBE BRICKMAKING AND CONSTRUCTION 

FOOD PRESERVATION AND STORAGE 

GARDENING FOR THE HANDICAPPED 

ORGANIZING A COMMUNITY GARDEN 

Progress to date in developing the project 

The most obvious progress so far is in the development of the curricular offerings listed above. Progress in developing the physical 
structures is mostly in the late planning and early to middle fundraising stages. We have done some site development: fencing, compost 
system, vegetable gardens, half built a free-standing solar greenhouse/food dryer. We have secured major donations from local business, 
most notably architectural and structural engineering services, excavation work, some concrete, roofing materials, a solar hot water 
system, some other building materials, and most notably, $1 0,000 in cash and services from the Pacific Gas & Electric Co., the local utility 
company. Local College and Central District support, in addition to salaries, consists of a small development grant of some S1 1 ,000, and 
several $1 000 in contributions from the various departments, and several $1 000 in "emergency" funds from the College President's office. 
We also have received a $5,000 grant from the California State Dept. of Food & Agriculture for experimentation with fuel alcohol 
production, using urban food wastes as feedstocks. Other government (federal) and private foundation grants are pending. 

Finally, I would like to recap two of the special qualities of this project. The first of these is the emphasis on design: the physical 
appearance of the house and yard will, to my knowledge uniquely for a project of this sort, fall within middle class standards, in which the 
great majority of our people either live or aspire to (while we demonstrate the most ecnomical ways to achieve this style, whilestressing 
ecologically sound function). The second is the involvement of diverse groups of people — particularly customarily "territorial" college 
departments, faculty and students, in a most rare sort of cooperation, along with business and community groups, andother citizens. We 
have pooled a rather vast array of talents, human energies, and material resources to produce a significant, visible, and lasting product 
(and most importantly, process) — a learning resource center for appropriate community tecnology. We expect this project to make a 
major contribution to the ability of our citizens to adapt to the profound changes in material resources that are sure to come in the years 
ahead, 



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The need 



SESSION 10: POSTGRADUATE AND 
CONTINUING EDUCATION PROGRAMS 

10.1 

ENERGY IN UK 

SOME THOUGHTS ON THE NEED FOR AN ENERGY ENRICHED CURRICULUM 

John Gray 

Department of Science and Maths, 
Blackpool and Fylde College, UK. 



There can now be little doubt that the development of an 'energy aware' population should be an important aim of the educational system 
of every developed country in the world, Awareness of the needs and possibilities for the reduction of the rich countries high per capita 
use of the world's non-renewable energy resources must be developed through the formal curriculum of schools and colleges in order 
that our lifestyle and methods of production might be abfe to adapt to the inevitable changes in pattern of energy supply that wilfD'e forced 
upon us up to and beyond the year 2000, 

"The Challenge to budge a lethargic, disbelieving society from a nation of profligate energy consumers toward one which is energy 
literate rests primarily with the educators "* 

In the UK, which uniquely amongst the advanced industrial democracies, is self-sufficient in energy supplies, the task of curriculum 
renewal necessary to achieve this public energy awareness has not been undertaken in any systematic way - indeed it may be that the 
buffer of the UK's offshore oil and gas is a positive discouragement to the development of healthy energy attitudes and appropriate 
energy education provision. The Department of Energy based Advisory Council on Energy Conservation 8 reported in 1979 that "The 
prime need is to overcome the apathy that exists in the face of a problem of this nature- the failure to accept that there is a problem at all. 
This apathy is increased by the success we have had as a nation in exploiting North Sea oil . " 

Energy education In the UK 

This same government-sponsored document recommended that significantly increased attention should be paid to energy issues by 
educators with an expanded Department of Energy education service supporting in-service teacher training and pursuing curriculum 
and exam syllabus reform. There has been a Department of Energy programme in operation for some time, but, underfunded and 
understaffed, it has so far had tittle substantial effect on educational practice. An enormous quantity of educational support material 
(though little of it is actual teaching/learning material!) has been produced by the education/public relations departments of the main 
energy agencies and oil companies 4 , Whilst much of this material is informative and useful for the individual teacher having a specific 
interest in energy issues, the volume and inevitably partisan nature of such material can present a problem for the ordinary classroom 
teacher who recognizes energy's importance in his subject and who wants to introduce materials into his courses without spending lots of 
time and effort preparing them afresh, Such teachers need support, Frankly, UK performance in this area has been disappointing. There 
simply is no UK parallel to programmes like that of your National Science Teachers Association 3 . There are, it is true, a large number of 
small-scale initiatives taking place throughout the UK educational system but one feels that a measure of support for and coordination of 
these efforts is necessary if they are to have any real impact on UK curriculum. The UK education system is very decentralized, with 
decision-making on curriculum content residing very firmly at institutional level 8 , This results in aJack of uniformity which is particularly 
marked in the Further Education sector - it has considerable implications for curriculum innovation. 

The UK education system 

The UK education system can, in very simple outline, be seen as composed of three end-on components: the primary sector (ages 5-11), 
the secondary sector (ages 11-16) and the post-compulsory sector (age 16 plus). The post-compulsory sectory includes all the'higher' 
education carried out in universities and polytechnics and that done in the 'sixth forms J of schools, 6th form colleges and in further 
education institutions. The further education institutions (which are the nearest thing in the UK to the USA's Community Colleges) are 
responsible for courses catering for students taking vocationally oriented or academic courses at any level up to and including post 
graduate work - the bulk of their work is however 'non-advanced' and FE's bread and butter is the provision of trai ning and education for 
industry and commerce through an enormous range of part-time and full-time courses. The very complexity of the FE curriculum, which 
must be daunting indeed to anyone not involved in it, provides partial explanation for the almost complete lack of involvement by outside 
agencies in any coordinated attempt to stimulate the development of energy education in the FE sector, 

Energy education initiatives in the FE sector 

The development that is taking place is doing so as a result of initiatives in individual colleges and groups of colleges. Such an initiative 
has been taking place in my own college, Blackpool and Fylde College, and the other colleges participating in the activities of the 
Lancashire Energy Studies Development Group 7 . This group believes the FE sector has a key role in equipping UK citizens with the 
energy awareness demanded by present times'. 

"Many of the important small-scale decisions about energy use are taken by junior technical and supervising staff responsible for plant 
and vehicle maintenance, and the routine adjustment and control of domestic, commercial and industrial space and water heating 
systems. This workforce is still educated almost exclusively in further education institutions, wherethey need to learn thetechnical skills 
required for efficient energy use and to appreciate the importance of energy efficiency at a time of rapidJy rising fuel costs and 
diminishing fossil fuel reserves. Unless this material is specifically written into further education syllabuses it is likely to be neglected or 
given only token support, particularly in view of present pressures on time and funding." 

132 



Some specific examples of energy-based courses introduced into these colleges may be cited: 

1 . Energy Resources GCE - a one year course involving some 200 hours study which covers in some depth the various aspects of 
energy supply, utilization and conservation. This course is offered as part of the academic curriculum and followed by relatively 
few students 9 . 

2, Energy Resources and their Conservation - a 15 hour module using structured learning materials inciuded in the General and 
Communications programme for engineering students on Technician Education Council Certificate courses 10 . 

General studies is a compulsory feature of many curricula and one which thrives on the inclusion of topical and recognisably important 
themes such as the energy one. It is also one which can most benefit from the active involvement of personnel with a measure of technical 
expertise in the issues being considered. Although it is seen by many as low status activity, the'servicing' of General Studies by teachers 
from a range of backgrounds relevant to the energy theme is probably one of the easiest ways to implement some energy teaching in the 
curriculum. It is significant that most of the active energy education projects in the UK have chosen the General Studies route. 
However, the introduction of specific energy courses and/or energy modules may meet resistance and so present only a partial solution 
in certain colleges. 

Energy enrichment of the curriculum 

As always, there are serious problems encountered by any proposal to amend curriculum content if that amendment demands any 
significant allocation of time, any funding and, above all, if it is perceived as threatening to any existing subject in the curriculum. In the 
absence of any objective reappraisal of the total curriculum that might give due weight to energy education, it is felt that an attempt to 
achieve an 'energy-enriched' curriculum 11 by sensitising teachers of various subjects to the relevance of energy work in their field is the 
best way forward. The development and dissemination of materials should demonstrate their opportunity to include energy work in their 
teaching courses without in any way prejudicing their ability to meet the demands of their examination syllabuses. Work presently being 
undertaken by the Lancashire group includes the preparation of a number of case study packages for use in a compulsory module" of the 
Business Education Council National Certificate course. The packages, including ones on energy use in a small business, the effect of 
rising fuel prices on a road haulage operation and one on the multinationals, are intended to take advantage of the widely recognized 
shortage of materials suitable for the teaching of the objective specified for this module. There are many other similar potential vehicles 
for the development of the 'energy-enriched' curriculum. 

Teacher education 

To encourage teachers from a wide variety of disciplines to 'energize' their teaching, attention must be paid to the provision of in-service 
seminars and courses. The current needs for energy education demand a far wider perspective than many teaching staff have been 
expected, or indeed encouraged, to have. Technical considerations cannot be viewed in isolation from the economic, social and political 
realities that condition what is practically possible in the real world. There is a real need to help teachers break out of the narrow 
disciplinary view of what they can and should teach which their education and training have conditioned them into accepting. Curriculum 
innovation resulting from the grass roots development that in-service courses can encourage is likely to survive. For, whilst national 
curriculum projects may have a roie, it is widely recognized that the most lasting and cost effective innovations are those originated by the 
classroom practitioners themselves. Of course, if teacher 'enthusiasts'can be given a measure of backu p support in the form of resources 
to develop teaching materials and the time and opportunity to attend meetings, still more effective implementation of new ideas if likely to 
take place. 

Action not words 

The acquisition of appropriate knowledge and healthy attitudes toward the need for rational energy use will not in itself lead to positive 
energy saving action on the part of students 13 . One way of encouraging positive action is surely to provide a module for it inside the 
educational institution itself. Educational buildings in the UK are significant consumers of costly energy for heating and lighting and are, 
on the whole, very inefficient users of this energy. It is believed 14 that self-help energy saving schemes in schools and colleges could 
reduce fuel consumption by some 10% quite easily. In addition to a large number of individual institutional attempts to operate such 
energy saving schemes, there have been some formal projects established 1 * to examine ways of initiating and supporting such attempts 
based on student activity within the formal curriculum. Experience suggests that the main bars to success in maintaining such schemes 
are the lack of adequate instrumentation for extended monitoring of environmental parameters, and the lack of accessible and easily used 
computing facilities that enable real-life energy management tasks to be achieved by students from a range of backgrounds. The 
acquisition of microcomputer equipment dedicated to student use outside computer science courses provides the opportunity to 
considerably extend the possibilities for institutional energy management programme. 

Micro-opportunities 

Over the last two years, work has been done on adapting and extending the Schools Council Computers in the Curriculum materials on 
Home Heating' 6 . Students following GCE Advanced Environmental Science courses have, on a trial basis, been using the computer 
programs to calculate expected heat losses from college buildings for subsequent comparison with energy usedata supplied by County 
Hail. The experience so far has indicated the tremendous potential for further development of computer assisted learning based on the 
energy theme. Specifically, the data capture potential of the machines is seen as capable of considerable development. A current project 
in the College involves the design and construction of a portable battery-powered temperature monitoring device which can (without 
tying up any much-used micros in hard wired systems) store up to 1000 hourly temperature measurements for later debriefing into and 
manipulation in the memory of an Apple II Plus microcomputer The important thing in curriculum terms is that this project is being 
carried out by students in one course (a 12 month full-time course training microelectronics technicians) to provide students in other 
courses with the hardward they need to do a realistic energy management task. It represents a fine exam pie of the type of inter-faculty 
cooperation that can occur in the FE environment where a very wide range of staff expertise and student interest exists. The finished 
product from this project will hopefully be used to acquire temperature data in the col lege buildings- it is hoped to use future project work 
to adapt this development for the acquisition of data from solarimeters, windspeed and humidity sensors. Cooperative development of 



133 



energy- based CAL packages is being planned - more sophisticated heat loss and heat gain models, economic aspects of fuel substitution 
in the domestic energy market and the human physiological factors influencing energy consumption in buildings are likely development 
areas. The present wave of 'micro-consciousness' being experienced in the UK presents an excellent opportunity for thedissemination of 
energy-based CAL packages that, because of their intrinsic interest in a number of disciplinary specialisms, might provide entry points to 
the teaching courses of those specialisms and so extend the 'energy enrichment' of the curriculum. Discussions have recently been 
taking place with representatives of British Petroleum and the British Gas Corporation to seek ways of implementing this idea. 

Conclusion 

As the recent Monte Carlo seminar showed 17 , the needs for energy education development are now widely recognized on our side of the 
Atlantic. The onus is on professional educators to identify desirable and practicable ways of extending the coverage of energy issues in 
the curriculum in a manner that recognises the need for both theirtechnical and attitudinal aspects to beconsidered. Efforts to 'energise' 
the curriculum must be realistic In recognising the legitimate demands of many other 'special needs' for time in the curriculum and must 
attempt to minimize resistance to their implementation by producing quality teaching/learning materials that teachers from a range of 
disciplines see as useful. Since energy conservation is so manifestly of practical value to all our students, everything possible should be 
done to encourage the realistic study of energy use in the home and in school/college buildings. Such study should take full advantage of 
the liberating power of microelectronics equipment wherever appropriate. There should be coordinating support for energy education 
initiatives on a larger scale than is presently available in the UK, but, in its absence, teachers and cu rricu lum developers can still do a great 
deal to meet the needs through local and regional initiatives. In the UK, the FE sector has a crucial role in such development, responsible 
as it is for a uniquely wide spectrum of work with adults who are already responsible for the decisions that control our energy use. It is 
hoped that attendance at this Conference will allow us to benefit from your wider experience in the promotion of energy education and 
hence enable more speedy and effective development as a result. 

Footnotes 

1. BOTTINELLI, C.A, J, Energy Ed., 1,1 (1978) 

2. Advisory Council on Energy Conservation, REPORTOFTHE PUBLICITY & EDUCATION WORKING GROUP (HMSO London 1979), 
P.2. 

3, IBID,, p. 14 

4. Mot notably British Petroleum, British Gas Corporation and the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. 

5, National Science Teachers Association, Project for an Energy Enriched Curriculum, 

6, DES THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF ENGLAND & WALES (HMSO London 1972) 

I. Lancashire Energy Studies Development Group is a teachers' curriculum development group, established in 1979 after an explora- 
tory conference and now supported by Lancashire Education Committee. 

8. HUME t D. Statement prepared in June 1 981 forsubmission to the Department of Energy outlining the Lancashire Group's perception 
of the importance of the FE system's role. 

9. Joint Matriculation Board REGULATIONS AND SYLLABUSES 1980 (Manchester 1979), pp. 453-461 

10. TEC energy studies modules and teaching materials prepared by John Gray at Blackpool & Fylde College, 

II. The term stolen from the NSTA project of the same name. 

12. Business Education Council THE ORGANIZATION IN ITS ENVIRONMEN BEG NATIONAL CERTIFICATE COMMON CORE 
MODULE (BEC London 1979) 

13. LUCAS, A.M. ENERGY ATTITUDE SAND ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION (Monte Carlo seminar Proceedings, In Print) 

14. Times Educational Supplement (London 10 April 1979), p. 2 

15. YANNAS, S. EDUCATION IN ENERGY MANAGEMENT (Architectural Association Graduate School, London 1980) 

16. Schools Council COMPUTERS IN THE CURRICULUM: HOME HEATING (Arnold, London 1979) 

17. A seminar held in Monte Carlo, Monaco on the theme 'Energy and Environmental Education in Europe' 25-31 March 1981 organised 
by ICASE. 

10.2 

CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR THE CONSULTING ENGINEER 

James S. Minges, P.E„ L.A., 

The Minges Associates, Inc., Avon, CT 
I. The problem 

Today there is no more "routine engineering" for the Building Engineering Consultant. Every building project design is unique and its 
focus must be on energy conservation. Every energy improvement must be cost effective and requires a thorough assessment of its 
impact on our much abused environment. 

134 



Energy concerns have now grown beyond isolated issues for new and retrofitted structures. Economics, engineering, maintenance, 
operation, replacement, computer programming, and environmental impact should be included in the building design and energy 
analysis. "Hands On" knowledge concerning the total building construction project of site/building, mechanical/electrical systems and 
processes are an added responsibility of the Building Engineering Consultant 

Frank Zarb, former U.S. Head of the Department of Energy and now an energy consultant in industry, recently stated that all energy costs 
will triple in the next five years. Certainly, the need to provide energy efficient buildings and processes demands a new and positive 
response from the Building Engineering Consultant. 

Yet, we find the following 

1. Few consultants are up to date on the basic engineering skills essential to design energy efficient facilities. 

2. Few are up to date on the new technologies available for energy balanced design. 

3. Few are up to date on the environmental implications of the many available energy conservation measures. 

4. Few are up to date on the new and necessary quality control programs required for the installation and operation of "Energy 
Balanced Buildings". 

II. Role of the Building Consulting Engineer 

In order to better understand updated educational programs that should be pursued for the various building engineering disciplines, a 
typical building construction project is broken out into its three major building components consisting of (1) Building and Site; (2) 
Mechanical and Electrical Systems; and (3) Process. 

The Building and Site, the first component, are traditionally designed by Soils, Civil, and Structural Engineers. These engineers are 
involved in the determination of the proper bearing capacity of the soil or rock for support, as well as the design of the building structure. 
The Structural Engineer designs not only the foundations, but the floors, roofs, and column supports to provide sufficient strength for the 
building to withstand seismic, wind, live, and dead loading. In general, the Civil Engineer is involved with thesite in the design of utilities, 
roads, parking, and circulation systems. 

With today's high energy costs, a knowledge of the heating and cooling aspects of the building and the energy role of the building's 
envelope and structure are important to these professionals in order to help in the planning for reduced building energy consumption, 
The positioning of the building's mass is very important in maximizing useful stored energy in passive solar design, in just the past few 
years knowledge of how thesun can be utilized by the proper use of building materials and the building structure in passive energy design 
has taken a giant step forward. Designing the building itself as a solar collector and utilizing the mass of the building for storage requires 
current and specialized knowledge. This knowledge is needed by all members of the design team, which includes not only the Engineer 
but the other design professions as well, including the Architect and the Landscape Architect. 

The Mechanical and Electrical systems, the second general component of the typical building construction project, comprise 50 percent 
of the total building capital cost Mechanical, Electrical, and Energy Engineers are charged with the responsibility of designing energy 
efficient space conditioning and utility systems within the building. Economics can only be realized by an integration in their design of the 
site, building, mechanical and electrical systems, and processes for each particular project, 

The veritable explosion of new energy "up front" systems such as the use of fluidized bed combustion of coal, the use of heat pumps, the 
design for active solar systems, and the utilization of more efficient methods of combustion of the traditional fuels of gas and oil req uire 
much more knowledge than ever before. 

Few engineers are up to date on the use of Cogeneration, the simultaneous generation at the building site of steam for heating/cooling, 
and electricity to provide total industrial and institutional energy needs. Thus the client is denied the potential economics of cogenera- 
tion. The use of these systems will accelerate in the 1980's. The increased use of new and efficient lighting luminaries, variable air volume 
systems for comfort cooling, energy storage, and waste heat recovery systems should also see increased future application. 

Process is the third component of the typical building construction project which is seeing a revolutionary change in design because of 
increased energy costs. I n the manufacturing sector energy consumed for process usually far exceeds the energy used for the building 
operation. Knowledge of energy utilization and waste heat recovery in the specialized process areas has been lacking among the 
consulting engineers. 

Processes in the environmental engineering field include industrial waste, water and air treatment. Laboratory analysis and control for 
the product manufactured and the impact of discharges to our air, water, and land need special attention for proper analysis. 

In the three components noted above each typical building construction project may be in turn considered to have three phase periods. 

The first is the period in which the project is designed. The second is the period in which the building is constructed, and third is the post 

construction period or operation phase. 

In each of these phase periods there is an increased need for engineering competance. In the Design Phase the consultant must be up to 

date on the many engineering alternatives available. Not knowing them could result in economic loss to the owner. TheConsultant must 

be able to sort out the best construction and energy alternatives for life cycle comparisons. 

in the Construction Phase the consultant must have a firsthand knowledge of the systems to be implemented as well as the procedures to 

insure a proper installation and operation for the owner. This should include the vast array of construction issues such as soil 

compaction, steel welding, and the operation of the mechancial/electrical systems. 

In the post construction or Operation Phase the building consultant is involved in "in place" systems. This requires a "hands on!' approach 

and knowledge to insure maximum system operating efficiencies. Needless to say, knowledge of controls and a thorough knowledge of 

system operation is a necessity, 

III. Continuing education program - a solution 

New building technologies, interdisciplinary knowledge and just plain human forgetfulness demand more than ever before a well planned 



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continuing education program for not only the Consulting Engineer and his staff, but the entire building design team. 

The occasional attendance at seminars is only a small part of the answer. Each consulting engineering firm should work out a program 

with each of is members to include the basic engineering knowledge from a combination of the following: 

1. Seminars 

2« In-House Courses 

3, Out of House Courses 

Attendance at seminars for consultants and their staff can be helpful in upgrading their knowledge on specific engineering subjects. It is 

advantageous to assign specific engineering personnel to specific seminars. These individuals should then be expected to pass on the 

information to the other firm members in the form of "In House" seminars. 

In addition to seminars, u !n House Courses" can be given, preferably by personnel in the firm. Outside specialists should be called in to 

supplement the instruction, 

The curricula for these courses should. consist of not only basic engineering and new technologies of design, but the inspection and 

testing necessary for the satisfactory operation in the field. This includes, for example, a course in thermodynamics to the conducting of 

soil compaction tests. 

Out of House courses are those which arebest instructed by field experienced engineers. Specific educational programs can beset up by 

Technical Colleges and Universities to include courses of basic engineering and field inspection testing. 

These courses are best planned in the three component categories of (1) Building and Site; (2) Mechanical and Electrical; and (3) 

Process. 

It must be remembered that Continuing Education means just what it says. There Is noend to it For those who wish to progress there is no 

substitute. 

The goals that should be set for each one should be as follows: 

1, To provide an "in depth" review of engineering and economic principles. 

2. To provide a background in new and old technologies which emphasize energy utilization and building construction. 

3, To provide an "overview" background of the design and inspection required for all of the building components. 

4. To provide an organized framework for each one to develop a specialized expertise in at least one area of practice. 
IV. Summary 

Because of our world-wide energy limitation, our present way of building and our traditional mechanical/electrical systems in many ways 
are obsolete, We are faced with the necessity to use new technologies, to change our way of design and our living habits in order that our 
retrofitted existing and new buildings will consume less of our expensive energy resources. Energy now constitutes about 20% of the Life 
Cycle Cost budgets of all buildings and the building construction industry Is the largest in our country. The greatest barrier that we now 
face in the solving of our energy and construction cost problems is our lack of knowledge in the transition into Energy Balanced Design. 

Successful energy engineering solutions require more education and an interdisciplinary approach. Successful solutions demand a 
thorough knowledge of the energy interaction occurring among the site, building, and mechanical/electrical systems. Design for energy 
efficiency must also be accompanied by a knowledge of economics and energy performance standards. 

The medical and'legal professional associations have already recognized their need and have mandated continu ing education programs 
for its licensed members. 

The Building Consulting Engineers who will henceforth survive in the marketplace will institute a program of continuing education for its 
membership. 



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SESSION 11: VOCATIONAL ENERGY EDUCATION 



11.1 

VOCATIONAL EDUCATION; A KEY TO SOLAR COMMERCIALIZATION* 

Gerard G.. Ventre and David E. LaHart 

Florida Solar Energy Center 

Cape Canaveral, Florida 32920 

Introduction 

Although the education and training programs of the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) are directed at a variety of target groups, they 
all have the common objective of commercializing both active and passive solar devices as expeditiously as system acceptability and 
cost-effectiveness permit. The Center has identified vocational education as having a key role in solarcommercialization. Consequently, 
a considerable amount of thought, effort and coordination have gone into developing a statewide program targeted at vocational 
educators. Principals involved in the development and implementation of the comprehensive program include the Division of Vocational 
Education (of the Florida Department of Education), local governments, district school boards, the solar industry, and the Florida Solar 
Energy Center. 

The need for vocational education in solar energy 

According to "Solar Energy Employment and Requirements 1978-1983, Summary and Highlights" (DOE/TIC-11154), prepared by 
Battelle Columbus Laboratories for the Department of Energy, about 22,500 persons in the United States were employed in solar-related 
activities in 1978 — a figure which is expected to triple by 1983. Approximately three-fourths were working primarily in solar water and 
space heating. Unskilled workers formed the largest occupational group in commercial activities; skilled workers made up the largest 
occupational group in installation; and engineers represented the largest occupational group overall. In seeking to identify unique 
aspects of solar jobs, Battelle found that only one of four employers thought they were substantially different from non-solar jobs. Where 
new skills were identified, special solar design, analysis and installation techniques were most frequently mentioned. Battelle estimated 
that there were about 2,000 active solar-related establishments and agencies in the national in 1 978, 60 percent of them in private industry 
or business. 

The Battelle results closely parallel those of a study conducted in 1979 by the Florida Solar Energy Center. FSEC's research was designed 
to project the solar industry's human resource needs, and it centered primarily on one area — sofar water heating. Approximately 600 
questionnaires were mailed to four target groups, including manufacturers of flat-plate collectors, distributors and installers ofsolar 
water heating equipment manufacturers of solar energy system controls, and consulting engineers and architects. 
FSEC's survey indicated that, although it found a relatively low level of activity in the solar industry, the 1980's will see a marked rise in 
demand for mechanics with solar experience, and that installation training is extremely important to the industry's success. 

In September 1980, the Florida Solar Energy Center made a solar "Needs and Strategies" presentation to a special Florida Energy 
Advisory Council appointed by the Governor, The following recommendations are excerpted from that report: 

1. Greatly expand the role of the community colleges and vocational centers in energy education, especially in solar installation 
training and low-energy building construction. 

2. Establish pilot programs in selected counties to address the solar contractor license issue. Joint programs involving the use of 
community colleges/vocational centers to educate, train and test installers and inspectors are encouraged, 

3. Expand monitoring of field systems throughout the state; expand site inspection of field systems. 

4. Develop a comprehensive list of recommended practices which address solar collection* structural mounting, roof penetrations, 
control strategies, use of sensors, electrical connections, pumps, plumbing, freeze protection, heat exchange, auxiliary energy 
supply and storage. These practices would be largely based upon system test results. 

5. Increase the level of awareness among the general public on low-energy strategies and do-it-yourself options. The community 
colleges and vocational centers are well suited to provide these services. 

in December 1980, FSEC hosted a national conference on performance monitoring of solar domestic hot water systems. Results 
indicated that "... the performance of systems is less than what should be attainable...," and points to the need for more and better 
training, and more data collection. 

Educating the educators 

After examining industry needs, FSEC conducted a statewide Energy Awareness and Conservation Conference aimed at determining the 
needs of Florida's vocational education community. Several key areas were identified by the conference participants for cooperative 
efforts in commercializing solar energy. 

FSEC currently offers quarterly short courses designed to teach participants how to install sotar domestic water heaters and pool heaters. 
It would be very desirable to train vocational educators how to teach similar short courses. There is a present need for qualified, capable 
solar system installers. FSEC cannot alone reach the great number of people who are interested in learning about different types ofsolar 
systems, the relative merits of each, and the correct installation procedures, 

FSEC is cooperating with the Division of Vocational Education to plan a series of week-long small group workshops that are regional in 
nature and designed to increase participants' knowledge and skills when working with solar. In addition, such workshops would enable 
participants to develop instructional materials for their own use. Local instructional materials can consider local climates as well as local 
codes and ordinances. 

One of the major needs in commercializing sotar energy in Florida is the establishment of a solar contractor license classification and the 
associated simplification of the building permiting process. The Construction Industry Licensing Board (CILB) of the Florida Department 



137 



of Professional Regulation is currently considering the creation of a residential solar water heating contractor classification. Broward 
County (Ft, Lauderdale) has established a solar water heater installer classification and several other counties are considering various 
alternatives for licensing and certifying solar practitioners. If statewide solar licensing becomes a reality, or if more counties establish 
solar certification procedures, a greater need will develop for regional training in solar energy. In addition to the development of courses 
and course materials, examinations will have to be developed, updated and administered. FSEGis working with the Division of Vocational 
Education, the soiar industry, the Department of Veteran and Community Affairs, and the Governor's Energy Office to establish 
meaningful and efficient prog rams related to theenti re area of solar licensing, permitting, training, examination, and codes and standards 
enforcement, Programs in the community colleges and vocational-technical centers are well suited to these activities because of the 
expertise of their faculties, their orientation toward hardware and instrumentation, their regional distribution, the availability of technical 
students, and their association with building-related professionals, 

There obviously exists a significant need for instructional materials relating to several disciplines emerging in the vocational-technical 
area. These materials should be developed in concert with the educators who will be using them as supplements to new courses, or as 
u plug-in" modules in programs designed to produce energy technicians as well as energy aware citizens. FSEC has the resources that 
enable the Division of Vocational Education to identify specific learning needs, the kinds of instructional materials desired, and can work 
closely with educators to develop and implement relevant teaching tools, 

To meet the challenges of an impending solar transition, there must be a concerted effort to accelerate both the implementation of 
effective conservation techniques and the commercialization of renewable technologies. FSEC and the Florida vocational community 
hope to develop a statewide plan for the collection of meaningful data in the conservation and renewable resource areas. Only with such a 
data base can effective education programs be designed and prudent energy decisions made. The following represents a smail sample of 
areas where significant needs for information and data exist: 

1. Performance, reliability and durability data for low-cost, low-tech systems such as bread-box water heaters. 

2. Side-by-side performance data for pumped versus thermosiphon versus bread-box solar water heaters for various microcli- 
mates throughout the state, 

3. Freeze protection data for different freeze protection techniques. 

4. Performance data for small wind energy conversion systems, especially near the coastline and in the Keys. 

5. Storage subsystem heat loss data for various configurations at different locations throughout the state, 

6. Comparative data on the effectiveness of various passive heat prevention and insulation strategies (e.g., vent-skin, exterior 
versus interior insulation, etc.) 

7. Performance data on various passive heat gain techniques and their effect on heating and cooling loads. 

8. Performance and durability data on various window films and heat retardants. 

9. Performance data on various convection and ventilation measures and their effect on human comfort. 

10. Comparative data on various active, passive and low-energy building designs, 

11. Performance and reliability data on active colling and dehumidification systems (e.g., Rankine cycle, desiccants, etc.). 

A model state solar program for vocational education 

The main features of Florida's solar vocational education program are as follows: 

1 . The Florida Solar Energy Center, in cooperation with the Division of Vocational Education, acts as the technical resource center for the 
program. Instructional materials are based upon FSEC testing and research, task analyses, and needs assessments. 

2. The FSEC, in cooperation with the solar industry, trains, on a regular basis, vocational educators in recommended sizing and 
installation practices for solar water and pool heating systems, and in recommended design and construction practices for passive and 
low-energy buildings. Consumer protection, training is also provided, 

3. Regional vocational institutions, using training techniques and materials from the Center, offer installation and design workshops 
throughout the state. 

4. Vocational institutions offer continuing education programs on energy awareness and conservation, comparison shopping, and 
consumer protection. 

5. The FSEC offers periodic workshops which provide updated information on the state-of-the-art. 

6. The FSEC cooperates with the Division of Vocational Education in curriculum development and publications development, and 
provides information on energy conservation in physical plants. 

7. Vocational institutions will hopefully cooperate by monitoring systems in their local areas. 

Summary 

In summary, Florida has developed a unique statewide educational network which involves a two-way flow of information and data 
between the Center and the vocational institutions. The capabilities of both are being enhanced, and the needs of the state are being 
served. Hopefully, information concerning Florida's success will be of use to others throughout the country and world. 

11.2 

VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND THE SOLAR TRANSITION 

David E. Lahart and Gerard G, Ventre 

Florida Solar Energy Center 

Cape Canaveral, FL 32920 

and 

Debra D, Langford 
Department of Energy 
Washington, DC 20585 



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Introduction 

If the decade of the '80's is to be characterized by a massive transition from conventional fuels to alternative energy sources, there will be a 
sizeable need to train and retrain workers during the inevitable transition to renewable resources. These persons will be critical to the rate 
and manner in which transition occurs. A strong thrust toward energy and conservation and using renewabies offers the best hope for 
maintaining economic stability, improving environmental quality and increasing employment opportunities. The Harvard Business 
School Study, "Energy Futures," concludes that an enlightened program of conservation and continuing capital investments in solar 
technologies can significantly increase employment and help stabilize our inflationary economy. 

Solar energy and Jobs 

As the nation takes steps to exploit alternative energy sources, it is important to recognize the potential shortage of technical and skilled 
workers as a possible barrier. Vocational educators are slowly establishing programs that will affect the supply of trained workers, but 
more and broader programs are needed. For example, the 1978 California study "Jobs from the Sun" concluded that feasible uses of solar 
for space and water heating could generate over 375,000 jobs during the '80's, This job potential could make the solar industry one of 
California's largest employers. Another study of "Solar Energy Employment and Requirements" predicted solar employment would 
increase from base year levels (1978) by 137 percent in 1981 and by 203 percent in 1 983. Nearly 90 percent of the responding employers 
felt these jobs required special knowledge and skills and primary source of the skills should be formal training, yet a majority of the 
employees had not completed any training programs or courses in solar energy or energy conservation. 

The demand for qualified mechanics and technicians is growing, and government, industry, and labor organizations foresee a potential 
shortage of skilled solar installers by 1985. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) estimates 15,000 DHW systems have been installed in 
Florida since 1972, 4,000 in 1978 alone. FSEC goals for solar installations, OHW and others, in Florida are300,000 by 1985, and 2,000.000 
by the year 2000, 

The number of solar energy scientists, engineers, and technicians was projected by the Energy Research and Development Administra- 
tion (now Department of Energy) to increase 40 percent over the decade. Many feel that figure is too conservative. A MITRE Corporation 
study predicted a billion-dollar applied solar energy business by the late 1 980's. Most of the jobs created by industry growth will occur in 
the construction and conversion areas rather than in research. 

Nationwide, 12 million new jobs will be needed over the next five years to regain 1973 r s peak employment percentages. Human resources 
studies show that the solar industry's job potential is two to eight times that of the coal and nuclear industries. Nuclear energy involves 
fewer tradespeople per professional scientist or technician than does solar energy. The ratio for nuclear is about two to one; for solar it is 
nine to one, and the rise in the number of solar practitioners has paralleled the dramatic increase in the number of researchers. 

Yet, despite the predicted expansion of the solar field, a significant problem faces the industry today: without formal training m the 
principles of solar technology, persons employed in existing trades will not be able to make the transition from conventional heating and 
cooling applications to solar Installations. Although some Florida counties require a licensed plumberto install solar systems, special 
training or experience in solar installations is not a condition of licensing, California offersa solar practitioner license to persons certified 
in the plumbing, swimming pool, and related trades, but not qualifying exam or prior solar experience is required for the license. This lack 
of regulation increases the chance of improper installation and system malfunction. In addition, the absence of building inspectors who 
are trained in solar applications, including their structural and design considerations, increases greatly the probability of system failure. 

The Florida Solar Energy Center inspected hundreds of H.U.D. funded solar water heaters and concluded that poor installation practices 
and techniques are the primary cause of system failures. Problems discovered during the on-site inspections included improper roof 
penetrations, check valves installed backwards, poor plumbing connections and a host of problems associated with collector mounting 
and orientation. 

A consumer protection study conducted by FSEC also concluded that the primary causes of solar system failure is poor installation, and 
the study identified effective installer training as a prerequisite for successful solar commercialization. Surveys indicating an overwhelm- 
ing majority of satisfied consumers may be misleading, because consumer perceptions of complex system operation are somewhat 
unreliable. Consumer inability to detect malfunctions, compounded by unskilled installers, may threaten the "solar age." The importance 
of training, both for the installer and for the building inspector cannot be underestimated and consumer education is a logical extension. 
People have to know what to expect. 

Flordia's needs assessment 

FSEC and Florida's Division of Vocational Education conducted a needs assessment within the vocational community. Respondents 
included administrators and other key decision makers as well as district-level specialist and classroom teachers. Almost 300 persons 
took part in the assessment and while our findings are obviously Florida specific, we feel they do represent, to some degree, national 
needs. 

Participants identified the n^ed to designate area Vocational Education/Technical Centers as Energy Resource Centers offering 
materials, speakers, and resource people to districts as their first priority. Since several Florida Centers currently are offering energy- 
related coursework, this would be a low-cost recommendation to implement. Actual funding for the additional work of the Energy 
Resource Center would come from the Division of Vocational Education. 

The second highest priority was to include energy education components in state-mandated In-service Master Plans for Teacher 
Education. This recommendation could be part of the assigned responsibility of the Energy Resource Centers and funded through 
existing mechanisms. The surprising support for additional teacher training indicated that many educators are not totally confident about 
their ability to integrate complex energy ideas into existing instructional strategies. 

As one might expect, the third priority was to request funding for district level workshops to rewrite existing vocational curriculum guides 
to include energy concepts in existing subject matter materials, 

Florida has an abundance of district level curriculum guides for most vocational disciplines. There also is a large national base of 
materials that needs to be adapted to Florida's unique needs. For example, "Providing for Energy Efficiency in Homes and Small 
Buildings," an industrial arts curriculum prepared by the American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials, lends itself to many 
construction trade practices in Florida. These materials would have a great deal more utility if they were linked to the Florida Model 
Energy Efficiency Code for buildings and passive design concepts for hot, humid climates. Funding a workshop to modify this curriculum 
would provide teachers in the building trades excellent resource materials taht are up-to-date and relevant, 

139 



A similar case can be made for modifying the "Energy Conservation in the Home" curriculum prepared by the College of Home 
Economics at the University of Tennessee and the "Home Economics" manual prepared by the Solar Energy Project in the New York 
Education Department at Albany. Both guides contain good material but they need adaptation to regional climates and educational 
environments. 

FSEC is currently completing a task analysis for a solar water heater installer. The second phase of this project will convert the task 
analysis into instructional materials in the form of a V-TECS catalog. The careful systematic method in which the catalog is being 
developed should typify the developmental process for other energy education materials for vocational disciplines. 

To ensure the orderly development of useful materials, a team approach using classroom teachers, instructional design specialists and 
experts on various aspects of energy conservation and alternative energy is highly recommended. 

Conclusions and recommendations 

Training for solar energy and conservation technicians and mechanics appears to be critical to the future success of the solar industry. 
Surveys of vocational centers and community colleges point out that graduates with several marketable skills are the easiest to place in 
roeaningful jobs. 

Consequently, it is not advisable to establish a large number of solar specialist training programs. We recommend the development of 
add-on solar and energy conservation skills through supplemental coursework and continuing education. 

Several states have developed integrated vocational programs in response to this need, North Carolina's Climate Control Program is a 
high school skill development and training program that teaches the techniques of installation, service and maintenance of solar energy 
systems and methods of energy conservation in residential and commerical buildings. 

Florida's St Augustine Technical Center has developed an individualized, competency-based program designed to provide solar 
coursework options for students in plumbing, heating and air conditioning and other related building trades programs. 

Vocational education can and must play an important role in the solar transition. Innovative teachers, creative administrators and 
supportive leadership at every educational level are critical to the success of this venture. Our experiences indicate jobs are waiting for 
qualified, skilled workers. Our nation's vocational centers can help meet workforce needs and guide us through the futuresolar transition. 

11.3 

CONSERVATION: THE OVERLOOKED COMPONENT OF ENERGY EDUCATION FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION STUDENTS' 

Rachel L Rassen 

Abstract 

The availability of energy resources has become a central concern in the U.S. today. The continuation of life, as we know it, of progress, 
growth, and a comfortable standard of living, depends on access to ever-increasing quantities of energy. The U.S. is currently facing the 
very real problems of limited and costly supplies of fossil fuels, possible energy-related environmental damage, and high costs for 
developing alternative energy sources. 

Resolution of our energy problems lies in large part with energy conservation — in learning to manage and use our present resources 
more efficiently and productively. But a prerequisite to changing energy-using behaviors and attitudes is a national energy education 
program, designed to increase knowledge of the energy problem and of the available options and solutions. 

Energy education is a critical area of concern for educators in the next decade. Energy conservation is one component of energy 
education, but one that is often overshadowed by analyses and descriptions of more dramatic events and issues of emerging technolo- 
gies and energy production and development. Energy conservation is a topic of particular concern for vocational education whose 
function is to help prepare tomorrow's workers for the actual economic and employment conditions that will exist in this country. This 
paper describes the role of vocational education in promoting energy education, outlines a highly focused strategy to develop energy 
conservation instructional materials, and explores some of the barriers to the implementation and the development of effective 
conservation instruction. 

The role of vocational education in conservation education 

Energy education is not a new academic discipline, Rather, it is composite of traditional subjects, primarily in the physical and solid 
sciences, and more recent curricular topics such as environmental and consumer education. Energy education and energy conservation 
education are new only in the way the elements of these disciplines are interrelated, focused, or introduced into existing courses. 

Schools teach with the intention of providing students with skills, attitudes, and knowledge functional to later success. When viewed in 
this manner, the critical role public schools play in giving legitimacy to categories and forms of knowledge becomes clear. The inclusion 
of conservation instruction in vocational programs is an indication of the legitimacy and growing importance of this issue. Vocational 
education is recognizing that new occupational skills and energy-related competencies will be required of people in existing as well as 
emerging trades and professions. 

The function of vocational education defines three key areas of responsibility with regard to the energy conservation skills, attitudes, and 
competencies: 

(1 } Training students and future workers in necessary skills and practices related to developing energy conservation and efficient 
energy use and management strategies; 

(2) Integrating or infusing energy conservation and management concepts, techniques, and skills into occupational programs that 
have potential for affecting the energy situation in some relevant way; and 

(3) Increasing students' awareness and understanding of the seriousness of the energy situation, the importance of energy use and 
its relationship to their respective occupations, and the potential impact of personal actions. 



140 



Vocational educators are expressing interest in identifying and designing instructional materials that are compatible with vocational 
education's goal to provide job skills which meet labor market needs in response to contemporary societal problems and occupational 
needs. Vocational programs are currently being developed or adapted to train students to work in energy production industries, improve 
the quality of the environment, assist in urban rebuilding, develop better mass transportation systems/acquire skills that will enable them 
to find employment in industries developing alternative resources and technologies, and in general to teach people to be more effective in 
their use of energy. Materials that are appropriate for vocational education students and tailored to vocational education training 
programs are in demand. 

For vocational education, the difficulties lie in organizing or identifying energy conservation information that iscomprehensive, relevant, 
concise, current, and appropriate for use in vocational education programs, Additional difficulties lie in communicating this information 
to a widely diverse population of vocational education students and instructors. 

Energy education: The need for instructional materials 

A recent study conducted by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)' found that while the young adults surveyed 
expressed deep concern about and awareness of the severity of the energy problem, they could not demonstrate a knowledge or 
understanding of basic energy facts or general issues and concepts necessary to make informed decisions. The results of the survey 
suggest that young adults are naively optimistic about potential solutions to the energy problems, and have a deep-rooted and unrealistic 
belief in the healing powers of technology. The authors report a positive relationship between the lack of knowledge about energy 
technology and expressed optimism in solving energy problems. 

These facts are disturbing in and of themselves. But for professional educators, perhaps the most disturbing finding of the NAEP survey 
is that the respondents' naivete and lack of knowledge is not attributable to a lack of information. Young adu Its receive a high exposure to 
information about energy problems and issues. But most of this information comes from the popular press rather than from the schools. 

However, the problem is not in the lack of eduational materials per se, but in the lack of usable instructional materials. When energy 
information is made available to the schools, the materials are rarely in a form appropriate for use by students. Typically the classroom 
materials used are isolated units of information that seldom constitute a consistent or intact curriculum. 

Industries have taken active roles in producing materials for distribution to schools and industrial training programs. For example, Gulf, 
Chevron, Phillips, Amoco, and Exxon all offer energy-related educational teaching aids as part of their public relations programs. 
However, some of these materials have been criticized as one-sided and self-serving. In response to criticism about their aggressive 
propaganda tactics, company representatives explain their programs as public service efforts, developed in response to teachers' 
requests for current information. 

In addition to the public relation materials, there is a vast array of literary analyses, fact sheets, informational manuals, and research 
reports on energy conservation programs and energy issues of production, supply, and demand (Hayes, 1976). 2 There are also numerous 
energy awareness materials that document historical, sociological, environmental, or scientific perspectives on the current energy 
situation. However, much of this material is of a highly technical and sophisticated nature, written from a biased perspective, and not 
appropriate for instructional purposes or amenable to adaptation for classroom use. 

Effective energy education and energy conservation programs and curricula have been developed or implemented by a few local 
organizations — public schools, area vocational centers, regional occupational programs, community college districts, and various 
community agencies (e.g., National Science Teachers Association, 1975). 3 However, the appropriateness and use of these materials 
outside of the locale, timeframe, or specific context for which they were developed is often limited. 

In addition, the lack of effective dissemination procedures is a common problem confronting curriculum developers. Another problem 
facing educators is the difficulty in keeping the factual content of the materials current and accurate when there are no funds or provision 
to update and revise the materials once the development has been completed. 

The lack of accurate and up-to-date information underscores the need for unbiased instructional materials in energy conservation. But if 
the materials are to have direct potential for affecting the energy situation, they must be relevant and related to the experiences, training, 
and instruction received by students. They also must be in a format that can be used by teachers and can easily be integrated into existing 
programs. There is, therefore, a strong need for a consistent educational strategy to provide students with a knowledge base for 
understanding and evaluating energy issues, one that highlights the linking cause and effect relationships between behavior and 
outcomes. 

Instructional design strategy implemented by the American Institutes for Research (AIR) 

The American Institutes for Research has undertaken a highly focused curriculum development strategy to meet the need for 
occupation-specific instructional materials for use in vocational education programs, An underlying assumption of Al R's program is that 
studnets need to understand that their personal contributions are significant, and that the energy savings accomplished by each 
individual contribute to the national effort to conserve energy. Prior to any attempt to develop the educational materials, an instructional 
design strategy was implemented that included the following elements: literature search, identification of specific occupational and 
instructional areas for module development, and analysis of competency data. These activities are briefly described below. 

Literature Search. The first step in this strategy involved identifying, collecting, and reviewing energy use and conservation materials. 
The literature search procedures included personal interviews with individuals involved \r\ conservation efforts, computerized literature 
searches, reviews of energy-library holdings, and reviews of materials recommended by others. The identified materials were then 
evaluated as to their instructional appropriateness for use with vocational education students as well as their comprehensiveness in 
addressing both general conservation issues and on-the-job conservation practices. Based on the results of this systematic survey, the 
occupational areas in which conservation instructional materials were lacking, insufficient, or inappropriate were identified. 

White conducting the literature search, a comprehensive list of energy conservation issues related to worker motivation was also 
compiled. The purpose of this effort was to establish a framework and instructional context for module development. The list identified 
effective practices and concepts for influencing worker motivation as well as conservation issues and practices most related to individual 
responsibility and control, individual benefits, and the collective value of individual performance. 



141 



identification of Specific Occupational and Instructional Areas 

The next step in the development process involved application of selection criteria for identifying the occupational areas and instruc- 
tional programs in which energy conservation materials were most needed, Selection criteria included: 

* relatively high student enrollment figures in the occupations and retted vocational programs 

* high projected student enrollment (1980-1985) based on occupational outlook projections 

* the lack of appropriate instructional or training materials (as indicated by the literature search) 

* a relatively high estimated potential for energy conservation in the identified occupational area. 

These criteria were used to establish a multi-dimensional definition of instructional and programmatic needs as determined by the 
current and projected programmatic size (student enrollment), and adequacy of instructional or training materials relative to the 
estimated amount of energy savings. 

Analysis of Competency Data: On the basis of the literature search, a list of student competencies were developed to serve as guides for 
curriculum development. The student competencies were identified and analyzed in consideration of both the specific skill requirements 
for each of the identified occupations and the instructional goals and objectives* Vocational competencies were also examined with 
regard to their potential for incorporating conservation skill and practices. The final selection of occupational competencies defined the 
scope of module content as well as the instructional format, learning activities, test items, and related resource materials that were 
included in each module. A module format was designed that would mesh the instructional materials with ongoing educational activities, 
and would be compatible with adopted courses and vocational training programs. 

The outcome of these efforts is the development of an interrelated instructional series designed specifically for use by vocational 
students and teachers. These instructional materials include: 

* two introductory motivational modules, 

* twenty-two occupation-specific energy conservation instructional modules, 

* an activity package for use by individuals or groups of students within a classroom situation, and 

* a reference guide describing exemplary conservation activities, for use by student groups and vocational organizations outside 
the classroom setting. 

These materials are designed to be flexible and adaptable to a variety of instructional contexts and modes (e.g., individualized or group 
instruction). No prescribed instructional sequence for using these materials is stated. The materials are intended to: introduce students to 
the facts regarding efficient energy use, energy conservation, and energy waste; present information to help students understand the 
personal contributions they can make to solving the energy problem; and provide instruction in nontechnical energy conservation 
practices that are specific to the vocational discipline and the particular occupation in which the student is being trained. 

Project findings and conclusions 

The reasons for practicing energy conservation are many. In brief, conservation is the least expensive, most reliable, safest, and least 
polluting energy resource available to us. As indicated in the literature search and occupational analyses, we have the technology to 
implement energy conservation practices without economic hardships, but there continue to be informational and attitudinal barriers to 
conservation. People may not conserve energy because they do not believe that an energy crisis exists, or because conservation 
practices are inconvenient (presumably due to the presence of higher or conflicting priorities). On the other hand, they may be simply 
unaware of available conservation techniques and practices; or ignorant of the relative amounts of energy consumed by different devices, 
and the range of conservation actions and options available to them (Baird & Brier, 1981).Mf people are not adequately informed about 
energy facts, they cannot make wise decisions regarding energy use and managment. 

There is generally a lack of energy education instructional materials that can be described as worker-oriented and designed for use by 
students in vocational education training programs. The instructional strategy undertaken by AIR in developing materials in the area of 
energy conservation has implications for the scope and content of future materials development efforts. 

When determining the vocational education courses for which specific materials, such as energy conservation instruction materials 
should be developed, educators must carefully evaluate current and anticipated student course enrollments and the impact the worker 
conservation behaviors could be expected to have In each content area. Materials should be targeted to grade and subject matter areas, 
and designed to mesh with ongoing educational activities, in addition, any materials development effort should equally reflect relevant 
social values and issues as well as 'current economic, industrial, and commercial concerns. 

However, the development of effective, accurate, and comprehensive instructional materials is not sufficient to ensure the use of the 
materials, Two necessary elements that must be taken intoconsideration in planning an instructional development strategy are: (1) future 
provisions for revising the materials, as necessary, to incorporate new information and up-to-date facts, thereby maintaining the 
accuracy of the materials; and (2) dissemination and distribution plans to inform people of the availability of materials — what they look 
like, the audience at which they are aimed, how much they cost. 

The response of the vocational education community to these materials strongly indicates that energy education, in general, and 
particularly energy conservation, is a high priority for vocational education. The responsibilities for vocational education include training 
workers in energy conserving practices and skills; integrating energy concepts, techniques, and skills into existing programs; and 
helping students develop an awareness of the value of their personal contributions in responding to the energy problem. The instruc- 
tional materials being developed at AIR represent an integrated effort between an identified educational need and the functional skills 
demanded by a changing society and changing workforce needs. The direct outcome of this venture is the development of curriculum 
materials that are current and relevant to our social and economic situation. 

References 

1 National Assessment of Educational Progress, INFORMATIONAL BULLETIN, (ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and 
Environmental Education, Arlington, VA), Autumn, 1979. 

2 a Hayes, ENERGY: THE CASE FOR CONSERVATION (WorldWatch, Washington, D.C.), 1976, 

3 National Science Teachers Association. ENERGY-ENVIRONMENT SOURCEBOOK. (Author, Washington, D.C.). 1975. 

4 J.C. Baird, and J.M, Brier, Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 90, (1981). 

142 



11.4 

A STUDY IN ENERGY CONSERVATION 

Dr. Charles H. Polk 
Daytona Beach Community College 

Community colleges enjoy a tremendous potential for service in the area of energy conservation because of their unique position within 
the structure of their communities, and because their objectives are so closely related to the welfare of the people they serve. Daytona 
Beach Community College has taken an active and enviable, role in promoting energy conservation on the local levels since the 
desastrous 1973 international oil embargo. When imposition of fuel adjustment costs resulted in increased electric power bills for our 
campus, efforts were made to reduce both demand and consumption of power. It was clear to us that unless serious conservation 
practices were promptly instituted, the increase in energy costs would soon outweigh the effects of any of our conservation efforts. 
Preliminary auditing provided information which indicated a need for more comprehensive technical examinations of the buildings. The 
chairman of our Air Conditioning/Refrigeration program was given the responsibility of making DBCC an energy efficient campus. He 
began by instituting a course for outstanding students who were graduates of the regular Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning 
program, skilled and motivated for energy conservation, and excited at the prospect of being involved in saving energy and money. It 
quickly became apparent that a systematic approach must be organized with concern for appropriate sequence of conservation 
measures, and budget dollars. We decided that our program must be self-supporting, and that initial savings must support subsequent 
phases. 

Ultimately, energy consuming equipment must operate efficiently, and only when necessary. Our Energy Conservation Applications 
course proved that preventive maintenance of electro/mechanical equipment was sorely lacking. We concluded that unless, and until 
appropriate maintenance is employed, little could be accomplished, Other colleges have done much in the areas of audit and engineer- 
ing. Experience proved that poor maintenance can and will negate someor all of theretrof it efforts. Our main thrust is in the area of energy 
conscious preventive maintenance, with accent on heating, ventilating and air conditioning control systems and strategies. Our energy 
students learn the technical aspects of hydronics, and control systems and strategies, with an ever present thought for energy 
consumption. 

In 1979, Daytona Beach Community College was the $10,000 grand prize winner for its Energy Conservation Applications program, 
conducted by students and instructors. DBCC competed with such prestigious institutions as Purdue University, Duke University and 
Brigham Young University for the prize in the Cost Reduction Incentive Awards program, sponsored by the National Association of 
College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) and the United States Steel Foundation. NACUBO and United States Steel officials 
stated, "The manpower furnished by DBCC students is the major factor in the program's success. The entire project has widened the 
scope of influence of an educational program, while broadening the employment opportunities for experienced graduates.'* 

DBCC introduced its award-winning Energy Conservation Applications program-in 1978 as part of its regular curriculum. Students used 
the College's own facilities as an open laboratory which gave them experience in making adjustments under actual operating conditions. 
Our students examined eight of eighteen buildings in 1978. The study resulted in reduced energy consumption and a savings of 337,942 in 
energy costs as compared with 1 977, and $39,01 9 comparing 1 976 costs. The reduction of electricity, gas and oil was accomplished even 
though there was an 18 percent increase in student population, an additional 31 ,600 sq, ft. of floor space, and a considerable additional 
load from other electro/mechanical expansion. 

Less than $500 was expended for the retrofit to accomplish these savings and proved that many energy conservation programs can be 
accomplished on a local basis. Conservation for a majority of people connotes a sacrifice in order to save. The application of conservation 
guidelines at our institution led directly to more effective use of HVAC systems and equipment while greatly improving the environment 
for less cost. We realized double dividends by a careful check of operating effectiveness and appropriate corrections. The successful 
results from the energy conservation activities of the campus and the high degree of qualification of the recent graduates of the Energy 
Conservation Applications program indicates a tremendous opportunity for us to be of service to other governmental agencies in our 
service area as well as the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning industry in the State of Florida. Revision and expansion of present 
courses and activities, however, is a necessity. 

As a specific service to the community which we serve, we have proposed that the College spearhead a community energy conservation 
educational program, A proposal is underway to take the expertise of the College faculty and students into the community and plan a 
steering committee of the civic and business leaders who will arrange a hands-on educational program to benefit the management of the 
area's motels, restaurants, service establishments, mercantile facilities, entertainment and transportation facilities. During calendaryear 
1981, we propose to make our campus THE center for energy information. This center will include a library of energy information where 
citizens may come and read or research their energy needs and ideas. An energy demonstration house is being developed to provide live, 
on-site reality. The community is indeed involved in this program and we have contributions of central water to air heat pump with waste 
heat recovery, solar hot water heater system, additional attic insulation, and many other energy conservation devices. Thus far, all energy 
devices and materials have been donated by merchants, contractors, and utilities. The blend of government, industry, and consumer is 
important because the cooperation of each is necessary to organize an integrated program. The program wilt help business communities 
save energy and money as the College has done within its own physical plants in Daytona Beach, New Smyrna Beach and DeLand.andas 
other towns and cities have done. The primary local benefits will be the improvement of the area's energy supply with the resultant savings 
used to attract more visitors to our area. The energy in financial savings from the area-wide project are a drop in the national bucket of 
energy conservation and the pioneer program will serve as a catalyst for projects elsewhere. 

On July 1, 1980, we appointed a Director of Energy Management, and organized an Energy Management Department. The Director of 
Energy Management is responsible for; 

a. teaching the Energy Conservation Applications course 

b. directing the in-house preventative maintenance program for electro/mechanical equipment 

c. identifying energy conservation opportunities, determining feasibility, return on investment and effect on energy related 
services to the campus. 

143 



During fiscal year 1980-81. the Energy Managment Department returned totheCollegeapproximatelySO percent morein dollars than the 
department s operational cost The reduction in costs were involved with reduction and energy cost avoidance reduction of maintenance 
costs, and alteration of billing schedules. Fiscal 1 981-82 promises to be a rewarding year. We have five main goals in energy this new fiscal 
year. 

1 An emergency contingency plan is being organized in order that college services to students will continue in spite of an enerqv 
emergency and curtailment of available energy, yy 

2. The energy demonstration house will provide awareness in the community we serve, and provide ideas and knowiedae to 
successfully carry out those ideas. y 

3. The Director of Energy Management will write a weekly newspaper column. The weekly column, together with the enerqv 
resources reading room and the energy demonstration house on campus, will further the awareness proqram and hoDefullv 
encourage citizens to act to avoid high energy costs and use. ' . 

4. Our $10,000 cost reduction award has been earning interest since 1979. We intend using it as matching funds for an electronic 
energy management system. Our interbuilding communcations conduit is in place and we are presently writinq specifications for 
the hardware. 

5. We continue to believe that energy efficiency is a function of good preventative maintenance, and is an ongoing process We are 
promoting the most important requirement of the electro/mechanical technician. The technician must be skilled enerqv con- 
scious, tactful, and the results of his efforts must be recognized as important and vital to society. 

CommlTn^ opportunity to be with you. to tell you about the energy program and the energy curriculum at Daytona Beach 

11.5 

SOLAR ENERGY FOR THE MASSES 

Roger G. Gregoire, PE 

Dunham-Bush, Inc, 

West Hartford, CT and Manchester Community College 

Manchester, CT 

Joel N. Gordes 

Alternative Energy Consultant 

Colbrook, CT and Northwestern Community College 

Winsted, CT 

This paper combines the methodologies and program details used by the.authors to makesolarenergy meaningfultothegeneral public. 
The comprehensive approach employed by the authors begins at the community college adult education level The use of this 
Additionally, the community college system presents an affordable alternative to most people. ayby&iems,. 

friZnth ^nto^'*?*"*?™* 8 * e StUd6nt bey ° nd thG Stage attainable through self teachin 9" The approach provides a more 
in-depth understanding of the physical laws and technical capabilities which govern the basic principles of energy education These 
basics are taught through an integrated variety of discussions, mediaand lecture approaches aimed at providing K 

TZ1X 1^ toSin" 11 3 f P . ,iCabl H U ",°' ^°' ar 6ner9y teChn0 '° 9y ' lnClUded in the CUrriculum is -™c» 
insight for the student to recognfze false and misleading advertising so prevalent in today's energy marketplace. 

The authors have developed and used the methodology described in this paper in teaching several hundred students in recent years. 



144 



SESSION 12: CURRICULA - VOCATIONAL TECHNICAL 

12.1 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF FACULTY ORIENTED PROGRAMS TO MEET ENERGY WORK FORCE NEEDS 

Gerard B. Roccapriors, President 

Solar Power Institute 

Meriden, CT 

John J. Kolega, 

Associate Professor of Agricultural Engineering 

University of Connecticut 

Stoors, CT 

Introduction 

The Solar Power Institute (SPI) is a non-profit organization whose purpose is to encourage the use of solar technology wherever it is 
economically feasible and in the best interest of the country. Since its inception the Solar Power Institute has worked closely with a 
number of educational institutions in thestate of Connecticut, primarily the University of Connecticut Central Connecticut State College 
and the E.G. Goodwin Vocational Regional Technical High School. In addition there has been the normal contact with state and federal 
agencies and the commercial sector particularly as it relates to the activities of the SPI and its program funding needs, 

One of the main activities of theSPI has been the offering of programs, e.g., training courses, to help increase the knowledge and capacity 
of those working with solar energy and to promote the industry standards needed to achieve a public acceptance of solar energy with 
emphasis being given to the proper design, installation, operation and selection of solar systems, The prime audience has been teachers 
in the vocational technical schools and the industrial arts area. This group* is singled out because of their responsibility in training the 
craftsman or the tradesman. These are the individuals who have a significant role in the commercialization of solar technology. Although 
teachers have been the prime target, the SPI course offerings have been taken by contractors, energy educators, engineers, retirees and 
by individuals who are working in an energy advisory capacity or who feel that solar energy is one direction to go in the future. 

The cost of the SPI course offerings were to be covered by student fees, but this has not been the case. Instead, financial support was 
sought from philanthropic groups and industry with these monies being used for student stipends and instructor salaries. An educational 
program of this nature and importance should not be dependent on private funding. 

The SPI educational seminars are a coordinated effort. This is to say that every effort is made to blend the theory and research from 
academic programs and the government areas with the technological skills provided by the vocational technical schools. Emphasis is 
placed on presenting meaningful practical knowledge. The basic theory presented is of the magnitude to provide an appreciation of what 
is involved in the proper design, installation, operation and selection of solar systems. Theory is combined with actual practice by 
including the installation of a residential solar water heating system in a one week course offering. The success of this endeavor is 
evidenced by the favorable course critiques that have been received at the end of the session, 

A series of one day seminars has also been presented to meet specific needs, e.g., a solar system installation inspection seminar for 
building officials. The seminar was in response to a field need. It was based upon the experience of the University of Connecticut 
Mechanical Engineering Department m the conduct of the U.S. Housing and Urban Development (HUD) inspection program. Also 
involved was the University of Connecticut Cooperative Extension Service, 

Program 

This past year the institute expanded its course offerings to include installaton of wind energy systems, solar assisted heat pumps, 
photovoltaic conversion and byconversion. 

A one week session is set up as follows, Course attendees arrive on Sunday evening and are greeted with a get acquainted hour which 
includes refreshments. Course introduction starts at 8:30 AM the following morning. Daily program sessions run until mid-afternoon. 
X nere j S a morning coffee break and a soft drink breat at mid-afternoon, Attendees are together for lunch. 

From mid-afternoon until after evening dinner, the course attendees are on their own. This fee time can be utilized for further study, 
discussion or relaxation. With these sessions usually being held on a college campus, facilities are available to the attendees, It is our 
feeling that by mid-afternoon the attendee welcomes this break and that it is essential in a one week long program. 

In the evening, there is a follow-up session for up to two hours to review and discuss questions arising from earlier in the day. These 
sessions are quite fruitful when there is a good audience, mixed in discipline and fields, I n our opinion, it is a vital key to program offering 
success. 

To conduct such a course demands that the attendee remain overnight. This results in an added expense, but it is more beneficial from the 
learning process and the program purpose, Daily commuting from any distance is discouraged. It makes for an extremely long day and 
the attendee loses the sense of feeling for being a course participant. Varied course time schedules have been tried, i.e., commuting and 
non commuting, all day sessions versus that described. 

A two or three person instructional team is used plus a program coordinator. The program coordinator permits the instructionaJ team to 
concentrate on course offering while the program coordinator scores as a floater, picking up the necessary details which can arise during 
the course of the week. For example attendee needs, unanticipated program problems, xeroxing, intermingling with the attendees for 
session feedback and administrative matters. Advantages of the team approach are voice change, background and outlook differences, 
and flexibility In being able to adjust more readily to the audience as the need arises. 



145 



Selection of personnel Is critical. For example, one can teach a course from subject matter, but in our opinion, this may not be enough. If 
actual experience can be included, this should besought out. It strengthens what is being presented based upon the knowledge currently 
at hand. A distinction is made here between the customary classroom approach and the target audience which is sometimes overlooked 
in an educational program at this levei. 

The development of a faculty oriented program to meet energy work force needs involves the selection and obtaining of highly qualified 
personnel curriculum development and funding. In terms of inputs to these areas by the SPI, the greatest time allocation has been 
devoted to obtaining funds for program support. Although the SPI courses are well publicized, costs areasignificant factor. Many people 

have sincere interests in attending if subsidized, but not if financial support is lacking. How does one interpret this? A lack of interest on 
the part of the teaching faculty or are we overlooking something in an energy education process need? 

As an overview to the SPI program, it might be worthwhile to cite some of the critique comments received at the end of a course offering. 
These comments followed: "I would recommend this course to anyone with a serious interest in solar"; "I now have enough background 
to go out and teach the subject and to continue research as well"; "The most effective course I attended"; "This course in many ways will 
constitute better counseling for the consumer"; "An excellent learning experience"; "A course that can't miss!". Comments received such 
as these reflect a need fulfilled. 

Varied educational approaches in energy education are needed. Their value must be related to a purpose. A one week in depth course 
offering such as thatoutlined earlier has certain advantages over aseries of once aweek three hour sessions over an extended time period 
at the end of a working day or a one day seminar. There is a learning environment which other methods cannot as easily achieve. The 
theory-practice concept can be handled more readily because of the time period available. Is the added cost worth it? From an energy 
point of view, an energy work force and the learning process our answer is "yes". It is the SPI's observation that the practical handson 
experience of an actual working system that will be permanent is a plus. SPI courses attendees have found the approach a knowledge 
asset which they have not been able to experience in other courses. 

What are some of the obstacles being encountered in the development of a faculty oriented program to meet the energy work force 
needs? A major obstacle can be funding. We say this recognizing that there has been a reasonable number of dollars spent nationally in 
this area. A question here is the expenditure of the dollar for the educational purpose. For example, an agency or group having state or 
federal funds may decide to develop their own educational program. This is certainly acceptable if it is needed. However, depending upon 
the circumstances, it may be more desirable tochannel the program through other groups already set up for this purpose such as existing 
educational institutions or specific independent groups. A review of the SPI's funding experience from national, state and local level 
follows: 

Funding: , . 

Federal funding for faculty development courses are accepted from any accredited four-year college, university, community or junior 
college, or two-year post-secondary technical institution; and from non-profit science museums and science centers. This excludes a 
non-profit organization such as the SPI. 

State funds are much sought after by too many groups for too few dollars and leave very little funding for faculty development energy 
education. This is particularly true for vocational technical and industrial arts teachers. 

Municipal funding at the local community level is difficult for a teacher to secure in order to attend a summer workshop on energy 
technology. 

We note that educators prefer an after school year educational program, especially during the summer months. For example, a one or two 
week workshop. This interest is there on the part of the teacher, providing the course offering is available at no expense. One can argue 
that if the teacher is truly interested the teacher will attend. If the subject matter area, energy education is important, then budget 
expenditure would be worthwhile. At one time the SPI had an indication that 980 educators from 1 2 states were interested in attending its 
course offering if financial support was made available. 

Enrollment History: 

; A matching grant was offered by the Connecticut State Department of Education and SPI in 1 979, This resulted in having 126 educators 
willing to attend the course offering with no stipend or reimbursement for travel expenses. 

The SPI offered a matching grant without state funding in 1980. The cost to the educator was $190. RESULTS: Six enrollments, a 96% 
. reduction in enrollment from the previous year. In 1981 the SPI repeated its 1980 offering of a grant without state funding. RESULTS: 
Three enrollments, causing a98% reduction in enrollment. Therefore, In orderfor SPI to continue its educational purpose, private funding 
was sought. Its success supported the following: 

150 Educators 

75 Building Officials 

22 Contractors 

15 Energy related officials 

5 Engineers 

Closing Remarks 

Approximately 600,000 jobs will create the energy work force. 1 A high percentage of the jobs will be filled by the non-collegiate sector. 
Yet, most of the federal funds for education are allocated to colleges and universities. We feel that the vocational technical schools and 
industrial arts area could make a valuable contribution to our national energy work force needs, This group is deserving of increased 
attention and financial support. With continued funding and perhaps a rethinking of energy education funding policy, groups such as SPI 
and other nonpublic educational bodies can survive and hopefully address the energy education needs of today and tomorrow. The SPI is 

prepared to schedule programs to suit a particular areas needs on a "world wide" basis. 



146 



12.2 

ILLINOIS SOLAR '80: A PASSIVE SOLAR CONSTRUCTION PROGRAM FOR VOCATIONAL BUILDING TRADES 

Patricia Donahue, Solar Education Coordinator 
Kristin Dean, Residential Conservation Programs Coordinator 
325 West Adams, Room 300 
Springfield, Illinois 62706 
Abstract 

Illinois Sofar '80 is a residential passive solar construction program targeted at fllinois vocational schools traditionally involved in home 
building projects. Conducted by the Illinois Institute of.Natural Resources (INR), the first round of this program has resulted in the 

construction of 18 energy efficient passive solar homes by 17 vocational schools throughout the state. The major program components of 
Illinois Solar '80 are: 1 ) an open solicitation process, 2) professional training in passive design and construction, 3} $1 .000 grant award to 
each school, 4) technical assistance, 5) promotional support, and 6) site visits. A total agency investment of $29,000 in direct costs has 
resulted in training over 650 building trades students in passive solar design through construction of 18 solar homes. 

Introduction 

The Institute of Natural Resources in thestrategles to achieve this goal, identified two major barriers. First, the home building industry has 
had limited experience in constructing passive solar homes. Without some formal training, the introduction of passive solar construction 
into the marketplace would be delayed. Second, as with all new technologies, there has been a general lack of public awareness and 
acceptance of the benefits of passive solar construction. Our goal was to design a program within the constraints of limited resources that 
could concurrently address these two issues. 

It became apparent that the vocational education network, with its state-wide financial and educational resources, was an ideal vehicle for 
our efforts. In Illinois alone, over 100 homes are built each year by high schools, vocational centers, community colleges and universities, 
This represents thousands of students throughout the state who are directly involved in the construction process itself. Also, thousands 
of other students enrolled in related programs such as architectual drafting, interior design, landscaping, and real estate are often 
involved in building trades projects. In addition, schools are generally viewed as credible institutions in their communities and their 
involvement would lend legitimacy to passive solar utilization. Illinois Solar '80 was initiated in the spring of 1 980. The first cycle of this 
program has resulted in the construction of 1 8 passive solar homes by 1 8 vocational schools throughout the state and thedtrect training 
of over 650 building trades students, Illinois future construction work force. 

Program operation 

Our basic approach throughout the Illinois Solar '80 program has been to familiarize building trades instructors with the fundamental 
concepts and practices of residential passive solar energy and to develop their capability to incorporate passive design into classroom 
instruction and project homes. The basic program components are as follows: 

Open Solicitation 

All Illinois schools involved in home construction projects were eligible to participate in Illinois Solar '80. Most schools were contacted by 
mail. Since a complete mailing list of home building trades programs is not maintained at the state level, a more complete list was 
developed using the conventional vocational network (i.e., conferences, newsletters, personal contacts, etc.), A simple package of 
information was sent to each school's principal and buiiding trades instructor consisting of: 

a) Introductory letter - Signed by the directors of both INR and State Board of Education, it announced the program, and more 
importantly, endorsed its objectives and encouraged school participation. 

b) Program announcement - Defined the goals, requirements and selection criteria for participation in Illinois Solar '80, Our minimal 
requirements were that each school 1) send a design team to attend the training workshop, (we suggested that each design team be 
comprised of a building trades instructor, a project manager, and a local consultant, 2) construct a passive solar house, and 3) document 
the construction process. 

c) Application - Requested a basic history of the building trades program, including the number of homes built, number of students, 
design team members, budget, construction timetable, related education programs and community resources. 

d) Home design books - Contained design renderings and basic floor plans, cost estimates and highlighted special features of passive 
solar homes developed by the Mid-American Solar Energy Complex (MASEC) and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). 

Training 

The formal training for Illinois Solar '80 consisted of two two-day workshops. The first, conducted prior to construction, addressed the 
fundamentals of residential passive solar design and construction, Attendance at this workshop was required for participation in the 
program. 

The sedond and more advanced workshop, was timed to coincide with the school's planning process for the next's year's construction 
project. It was also an opportunity to critique and review their progress on their current project houses. Participants found both 
workshops to be a very attractive and useful feature of the program. 

Common to both workshops were the following elements: 

a) Professional training: Our presenters covered topics including the fundamentals of passive solar design, specifics of energy efficient 
construction, landscaping, marketing and methods of classroom instruction. 

b) Designs: It was critical to have working plans available for review and discussion. We provided plans developed by MASEC and TVA; 
however, schools were encouraged to use original plans that could accommodate passive solar techniques or to modify the designs we 
provided. 



147 



c) Materials: A variety of resource materials were compiled by the Institute and provided at the workshop- We selected information that 
addressed a wide range of topics including design and construction details, methods of energy analysis, interior design, and economics. 

d) Expenses: INR paid travel expenses, lodging and meals for three representatives from each school to attend both workshops. 

Direct Financial Aid 

Each school received a $1 ,000 grant. These funds could not be applied to any of the costs directly associated with construction. Eligible 
uses included additional training, consulting services, curriculum materials, equipment and related expenses. 
While the grant was initially offered to attract schools to the program, our experience indicates that it is not an essential element* in fact 
each school plans to continue building passive solar homes without additional funds from INR. 

Promotional Support 

Once enrolled in the program, additional grants up to $500 were made available to schools who wished to conduct local solar events 
Possible activities included open houses (a traditional feature of building trades programs), hometours, workshops, fairs, public service 
announcements, production of visual aids, etc. The events were 'targeted towards builders, architects, real estate agents, lenders and 
local government officials, as well as the general public. In some cases, neighboring Solar '80 schools combined financial' resources in 
order to reach a wider audience. While this aspect of the program was optional, it was advantageous to both INR and the schools that 
these funds be used. In addition to providing an ideal opportunity to educate the public about passive solar energy, these events 
ultimately helped to promote the sale of the house. Although INR made funds available and offered support services, the format and focus 
of the event was developed by the individual schools. We felt it was important that the school initiate community education in passive 
solar energy. Our role was to support their efforts rather than to dictate their results. 

Technical Assistance 

Design and construction assistance was provided by INR'ssofar architect and mechanical engineer upon request In addition, INR's Solar 

Speakers and Consultants Bureau, a state-wide listing of solar experts, was used to refer schools to experienced people in their own 

communities. 

The staff engineer was responsible for providing each school with an energy performance analysis of its home. This analysis enabled the 

schools to fully understand both the positive and negative impacts of their design or construction modifications. 

Finally, information about current events in the solar industry and the home building trades profession was regularly forwarded This 

information included product updates, technical reports, announcements of upcoming seminars and conferences newsletters and 

other items of interest. 

Site Visits 

Each school was visited by the I NR staff several times during construction. These visits enable us to review their program identify specific 
needs and provide technical support on an individual basis. It was stressed that these visits were not inspections but rather an 
opportunity to provide support and encouragement. Moreover, these visits indicated to the schools that we were genuinely interested in 
their projects. 

Future directions 

Presently 27 schools have applied for participation in the second of three planned program cycles. It has always been our intention 
regardless of the impact of expected reductions in federal funding, to phaseouttheformaloperationof this program afterthe third cycle' 
By 1 983, having reached 50 percent of the schools that build homes in Illinois, we feel that an adequate passive solar construction network 
will be in place. {We plan to continue to provide technical assistance to this network as needed.) At that point, we will have been involved 
direct y or indirectly in the construction of more than 125 passive solar homes. More importantly, 5,000 future builders will have been 
directly involved in the construction of energy efficient passive solar houses. 

We believe this program will, over time, significantly affect the residential construction market in Illinois, Our experience indicates that 
once builders are introduced to the technology, the use of passive solar energy sells itself. As one building trades instructor told us, "We 
will never again NOT build a solar home." 

12,3 

PROJECT S.U.E.D.E.; A MODEL FOR COMPREHENSIVE SOLAR SKILLS TRAINING 

Constance Ellen Kruger 

Energy Education Center 

Division of Continuing Education 

University of Massachusetts 

Amherst, MA 01003 

Abstract 

Many new training programs are trying to meet the current and anticipated need for workers with technical skills in solar design and 
construction. Project S.U.E.D.E. (Solar Utilization/Economic Development and Employment) was a federally funded demonstration 
program intended to create a model for training soiar installers, 

InL P . a n Per t Wi " d J SCUSS thG followin 9 as P ects of the S.U.E.D.E. training model: curriculum, hands-on training, homeowner education 
component, gender issues inatechnfcal training project, and applicability of thetraining tothesolarjobmarket.TheS.U.E.D.E.Proiectis 
evaluated as a model for training solar technicians, with recommendations for applying this model to other energy training programs. 
Introduction 

I^nnff n 9' and S-U.E.D.E Project was one of fifteen federally funded solar demonstration training projects taking place throughout 
4m II\, n national level, the sponsoring groups were the Departmen tof Energy (DOE), Community Services Administration 
(CbA), and the Department of Labor (DOL). 



148 



The focus of this paper will be the experiences and lessons learned through Project S.U.E.D.E., administered by the Cooperative 
Extension Service, at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst. The Amherst S.U.E.D.E. Project was one of three training sites in a four 
group consortium, S.U.E.D.E./New England. This consortium was composed of the following organizations: the Energy Education 
Center, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA; Southern New Hampshire Center, Manchester, NH; Total Environmental Action 
Foundation, Harrisville, NH; and the Center for Ecological Technology, Pittsfield, MA. The training guide was developed as a collabora- 
tive effort of these four groups, with slight modifications made at the discretion of the different trainers at the three training sites. 

Project goals 

As the title Solar Utilization/Economic Development and Employment implies, this was a project of ambitious scope. Project S.U.E.D.E. 
had three major goals; 

1. "to develop a suitable curriculum to train CETA participants to understand, design, build and install solar heating devices. 

2. to demonstrate that relatively tow-cost solar systems work effectively to lower the fuel bilJs of low-income households. 

3. to expand the market for passive solar systems by creating a number of visible and attractive working examples of solar 
systems on typical residences. 

At the completion of the project, one hundred and five solar systems had been installed by the S.U.E.D.E./New England Consortium, with 
twenty-nine of the systems having been completed by the Amherst S.U.E.D.E. group. 

Classroom training 

The nine month project was divided into a three month classroom segment, followed by a six month field component involving system 
installation on existing homes. 

An average day of training allowed for four hours of lecture, slide orf ilm presentations, followed by four hours of hands-on shop activities. 
Eight hours of classroom training a day for 65 days totaled 520 contact hours. 

The following performance objectives were established for the trainees: the ability to: 

1) assess a site for solar suitability 

2) choose and design a passive solar device 

3) calculate that systems thermal effectiveness and pay back period 

4) draw plans for the construction of the system 

5) install one of the three S.U.E.D.E, designs onto an existing residence 

Trainees were treated as workers and not as "students." They were paid full wages during the classroom training segment. Breaks and 
lunches were scheduled as in a typical workday. Trainees received sick days and health insurance. No homework was assigned outside of 
the classroom, and reading time was provided during the regular workday. 

The S.U.E.D.E, training program is designed for people who are able to participate full-time and are not already engaged in any kind of 
employment activity, This aspect of the model would have to be significantly changed to be useful in training people already employed, 
who wanted to receive training on a part-time basis, because they cannot commit 40 hours a week to being in a training situation. 

The training curriculum 

A training guide was developed providing each participant with an outline of each day's presentations, including references to additional 
resource material, The entire course outline was divided into seven curriculum units: 

Unit I - Energy Overview 

This section provides information on the political and economic aspects of U.S. and world energy consumption and production. The unit 
reflects a concern that the trainee be able to converse with the homeowner about the social reasons for the development of passive solar 
technology. Role playing was used to give trainees practice talking to potentially skeptical homeowners. This section presented 
information about solar energy use within the larger context of the "energy crisis". 

Unit II - Bioclimate 

This section presents the criteria for thermal comfort, ft includes human physiology, microclimate, existing housing, and energy 
conserving sun-tempered housing. A field exercise in micro-climate mapping is included in this unit.Thls section stresses the concept of 
thermal comfort as a measure of the effectiveness of the heating system. 

Unit III - Heating Systems 

This section familiarizes trainees with existing heating systems and their comparative merits. The system covered were wood, oil, gas, 

and electric fuel systems, This unit teaches the integration of the solar retrofit system with the existing heating system. 

Unit IV - Weatherization 

This section teaches the theory, materials and techniques of energy conservation. Standard heat load calculations are taught with an 

opportunity for practice during site selection. Life style management was also taught during this section. 

Unit V - Solar 

This section presents the fundamentals of solar theory starting with the sun/earth relationship, and continuing through to the collection, 
distribution and storage of solar energy. Heat gain calculations, glazing and other materials, shading and other obstructions, thermal 
shutter design and theory, active systems, and sizing calculations are included in this unit. 

Unit VI - Hands-on Workshop Sessions 

Trainees divided into crews with a crew leader for hands-on workshop sessions that usuaily occurred each afternoon. Presentations 
given by the crew leaders include use of tools, safety, blueprint reading, and directions for the actual building projects. Projects to be 
constructed include sawhorses, toolboxes, test collectors, shading masks, heliodons, and sheds, 

Unit VII - Drawing Skills 

This unit includes architectural drawing, lectures, exercises in elevation drawing, and reviews. 

149 



Presentation Methods 

Technical information was taught by a combination of lecture presentations, slide shows, films, group discussions, and small group 
research projects and presentations. The hands-on projects were integrated into the curriculum to reinforce the theoretical concepts 
being taught in the classroom segments. 

Each trainee and instructor was given a curriculum guide which provided outlines for ail the lectures, referenced this material, and 
provided additional readings to accompany each of the sections. Each training site had its own small reference library. 

The contributions made by the skilled and dedicated training staff cannot be underestimated. The expertise of the trainers in solar, 
construction, and energy conservation was key to the overall success of the training project. Trainers often put in eight hours a day of 
teaching time with little preparation time planned for in the curriculum guide. S.U.E.D.E. presented both trainers and trainees with an 
intensive schedule. 

Field Component 

The field component follows the classroom training segment of the training program. The field component includes: choosing residential 
sites based on their solar suitability and construction feasibility; performing a heat loss calculation for each potential site; choosing and 
modifying the design of the solar system; drawing elevation plans of the system attached to the existing home; developing a materials list; 
installing thesystem; and homeowner education. During this component, the training staff provided field supervision for all aspects of the 
construction process. 

S.U.E.D.E. As a Training Model 

Project S.U.E.D.E. should be credited for its comprehensive approach to using a curriculum broad enough to encompass the study of the 
energy crisis, and homeowner education techniques, as well as a thorough examination of the most current technical information needed 
to become a competent passive solar designer and installer A more streamlined training might be a possibility for future projects, but the 
comprehensiveness that the S.U.E.D.E. training emphasized would have to be sacrificed in the process. 

The number of quality installations completed during the S.U.E.D.E. Project shows the success of the project in meeting its original 
performance objectives. Sophisticated skills were transferred to trainees in a relatively short time span. After three months of classroom 
training previously inexperienced workers were out in the field building low-cost soiar systems on low-income homes. This accomplish- 
ment speaks for the merits of the S.U.E.D.E. "training program. 

Homeowner Education 

The S.U.E.D.E. Project demonstrated the importance of homeowner education. The homeowner's satisfaction with the system and the 
thermal comfort they were able to enjoy, was a product of their understanding and appreciation of how their system worked, and of their 
willingness to become involved in the day-to-day operation of the system. Examples of the active participation required of homeowners 
are the manual operation of the night time insulation for both the greenhouse and direct gain system, or the ability to recognize and 
correct a failure of the back draft damper in the thermalsiphoning air panel. 

Homeowners were selected for participation in the project on the basis of three main criteria: 1) income eligibility - homeowners needed 
an income less than 125% of the federal poverty line for their size family; 2) their home needed to meet the technical requirements - 
orientation, shading, construction feasibility, and energy efficiency; 3) they needed a cooperative attitude that would contribute to the 
overall goais of the project. The project grant did not allow for any conservation measures to be applied in addition to the solar system. 
Sites had to be found which met the weatherization and insulation standards established by the site selection process. Each system would 
be expected to reduce fuel consumption by a minimum of 15%. Since eligible participants were required to be low-income, many of them 
were also eligible to receive assistance through the county weatherization programs. At times it seemed tike a contradiction of terms to 
find well insulated homes among low-income homeowners. A future improvement for this type of program would be to combine the 
installation of low-cost passive solar systems with already existing weatherization efforts so the two processes could happen as an 
integrated effort. 

The homeowner component of the Amherst S.U.E.D.E. Project was under the auspices of the three member outreach team. An evening 
session was heid once in three different parts of the region so that the locations (town halls or libraries) would be convenient to the 
homeowners. Attendance at the homeowner sessions was mandatory, and was part of the signed agreement between the homeowners 
and the project. 

The homeowners had been previously informed as to which system they were going to be receiving. During the homeowner education 
session, presentations gave information on the mechanics and maintenance of the three S.U.E.D.E. systems. These three systems are 
attached solar greenhouses, vertical wall thermosiphoning air panels, and direct gain systems. There was also a brief introduction to 
horticultural management of soiar greenhouses. Construction timetables were laid out, and the homeowners were given an opportunity 
to meet the folks who were going to be cutting into their south wall. They were encouraged to ask questions, both technical and 
non-technical. 

including homeowner input into the design and construction process was important. They were included into the construction planning 
process as much as possible so that their lifestyle and their intended use of thesystem could be taken into account. For example, people 
who were intending to use their greenhouse for horticultural purposes had the design option of having glazing in the end wall of the 
greenhouse. Recipients of the direct gain systems were educated on the benefits of using the thermal curtains that would be supplied as 
part of the project. The homeowner education sessions stressed the importance of "conservation first," which encouraged them to further 
their efforts to make their homes as weathertight as their means permitted. Trainees were encouraged to use the time on-site during the 
preparation and construction processes to provide the homeowners with additional energy information. 

In an analysis of the monitoring data collected by the Center for Ecological Technology under a small follow-up grant by the Community 
Service Administration, the data reinforces the notion that the homeowner is important in determining the thermal performance of the 
passive soiar system. In general, the S.U.E.D.E. solar systems contributed between 1 5-30% of the homes heating requirements. In certain 
cases, the fuel use reduction was greater than the theoretical capabilities of the system. This was accounted for by the fact that the 
addition of the system created a warm room during the day which allowed the inhabitants to change their lifestyle, using the warm room 
more and Jowering the thermostat setting for the rest of the house thus enabling (ess fuel to be used in the non-solar tempered part of the 
house. This and similar changes in patterns of fuel use were influenced by the homeowner education aspects of the project. 



150 



Gender issues 

In the training component of the S.U.E.D.E. Project, there were gender issues among the mixed group of men and women trainees who 
were taught both technical and trade skills. Both solar and carpentry are non-traditional ski I Is areas for women. Unfortunately, this paper 
does not allow the space neededto present a theoretical basefordiscussing the complex and sensitive issueof sex roles in relationship to 
a training situation. However, a few important points will be highlighted. 

in our culture, an expectation is that men will be more competent than women in both technical and construction skills. It is considered 
"legitimate" for men to have experience and expertise in these fields. The mixed group setting of the training component provided an 
opportunity to challenge the traditional sex-role expectations. As women proved themselves competent in technical and carpentry skill 
areas, expectations changed. 

In the administrative/trainer component of the S.U.E.D.E.* Project men filled two of three positions of authority. The one woman trainer, 
very experienced in solar construction, had to struggJe to maintain participation in the decision-making process, and her expertise was 
challenged by the Training Director. Yet the fact that there was a competent woman administrator provided the trainees with a valuable 
roie model of a woman demonstrating her leadership abilities. In the leadership heirarchy among trainees, all three crew chiefs were mate. 

The co-ed training situation was sometimes difficult for the men entering the project with few of the manual skills needed, since this is 
contrary to the traditional expectations of men. In general, men were competitive with each other in appearing skillfu I and knowledgea- 
ble. Among the women trainees, it was stressful to be in a small group learning situation with acrew of men, especially when using power 
tools and construction materials. 

To counter the isolation experienced by women trainees as a result of being in a crew of ali men, the women occasionally met together on 
breaks. These singular sex meetings were opportunities for women to discuss feelings about the male/female issues raised by the 
dynamics of a co-ed training program. These informal meetings of women were viewed with suspicion by the men. 

It would be advantageous for future training programs to build in structured groups exercises and support mechanisms that help bring 
these emotionally charged issues around sex role expectations out for discussion early on in the training for the development of 
cooperative working relationships. 

Solar job development 

It was hoped that S.U.E.D.E. would prepare people for entry into the job market at a number of levels. "Multi-lever' entry options may be 
available for positions in the job market such as solar designer, consultant, contractor, technician, and trades apprentice. Within six 
months after the completion of the S.U.E.D.E. Project, approximately half of the trainees found energy related work, 

A general observation was that those who came in with prior carpentry and technical skills went out with qualifications for the best jobs. It 
was over ambitious to expect trainees to be skilled craftspeople after only nine months of training. Those with previous carpentry 
experience needed only to add solar knowledge to existing skills. Solar skills can be taught in a relatively short amount of time, whereas 
skilled carpenters cannot be turned out in such short order, 

The CETA Dilemma 

As a project using CETA eligible people, there was an element of excitement in the prospect of taking previously unskilled workers and 
training them to be competent solar installers. However, in some ways, this may have been the undoing of the S.U.E.D.E. Project. The 
linkage of the S.U.E.D.E. program with CETA kept S.U.E.D.E. from receiving continued funding at a federal level because, in the fall of 
1979, CETA suffered much unfavorable publicity. As a result, the Department of Energy no longer wanted to utilize CETA labor for 
S.U.E.D.E., and no other monies were appropriated. This was an unforeseen political complication. 

Appropriate Targets for Solar Training 

Targeting solar training for workers without prior skill training in the trade may have been a misdirection for the project. It may be more 
realistic to see solar as a specialization area for workers with existing building trade skills. Many studies researching the future 
employment opportunities in the area of solar installation predict that most jobs will exist for workers already practicing in one of the 
related trades-carpentry, sheetmetal. plumbing, masonry, etc. Solar skill training might be most appropriately used as a way to upgrade 
existing workers, the study Solar Energy Employment and Requirements 1978-1985 prepared for the Department of Energy states. 

Based on the reported new skills and knowledge required, there appears to be a need for persons trained in the design and analysis of 
solar units, and for persons trained in the installation of solar units. However, no new occupations'unique to solar energy emerged as a 
result of this question, and a majority of respondents (including a majority of installers) did not regard the tasks performed as 
substantially different from traditional tasks. It appears that employees must be capable of performing traditional as well as purely solar 
work. 

In the larger scope of things, it seems contradictory to be training unskilled workers to be constructing solar installations, as in the case of 
the S.U.E.D.E. Project, which relied primarily on carpentry skills, while at the same time skilled area carpenters were unemployed or 
underemployed. 

The Union Issue 

Some of the S.U.E.D.E. Projects conducted in other parts of the country faced criticisms from trades unions because they were employing 

nonunion people at lower than union wages to do the work of unionized trades people. Future projects of this type will need to work in 
closer cooperation with the existing trade unions. 

Conclusion 

Many valuable lessons are to be learned from the experiences of Project S.U.E.D.E, This paper has attempted to analyze and evaluate 
many of the aspects of the S.U.E.D.E. project with the aim of adding to the existing body of knowledge needed to develop a skilled labor 
force prepared to meet the challenges of the "Solar Age." Some of the complicated issues raised by this project have been discussed: 
training design, sex roles, unions, political considerations, and solar employment potential. Project S.U.E.D.E. presents a model for 
existing and future sofar training programs, and itdeserves recognition and examination during the planning and implementation of solar 
training projects of the future. Solar exergy is a field filled with great expectations and high enthusiasm. Well executed solar training and 
demonstration projects play an important role in fulfilling the social and economic promises held out to us by the application ofrsolar 
technology. 



151 



12-4 

'•AN ASSOCIATE DEGREE CURRICULUM FOR SOLAR TECHNICIANS" 

Charles Orsak, Director 

SOLAR TECH Project 

(Funded by National Science Foundation) 

Navarro College 

Corsicana, Texas 75110 

Abstract; 

A two-year associate degree curriculum has been developed to train solar technicians. 

The SOLAR TECH program prepares a person to (1) apply knowledge of science and mathematics extensively and render direct 
technical assistance to scientists and engineers engaged in solar energy research and experimentation, (2) design, plan, supervise, and 
assist in installation of both simple and complex solar systems and sofar control systems, (3) supervise, or carry out, the operation, 
maintenance, and repair of simple and complex solar systems and soJar control systems, (4) design, plan, and estimate costs as a field 
representative or salesperson for a manufacturer or distributor of solar equipment, (5) prepare or interpret drawings and sketches and 
write specifications or procedures for work related to solar systems, and (6) work with an communicate with both the public and other 
employees regarding the entire field of solar energy. 

The curriculum has national and international significance, and is being pilot tested and revised by an international consortium: Navarro 
College, Corsicana, Texas; Brevard Community College, Titusviile, Florida; North Lake College in Dallas, Texas; CerroCoso Community 
College, Ridgecrest, California; and, Malaspina College, Nanaimo, British Columbia. It is being translated into Spanish and pilot tested in 
five locations in Mexico through the Secretaria de Asentamientos Humanos y Obras Publicas, 

The final curriculum package will consist of eleven instructor guides for the eleven solar courses in the curriculum, student-oriented 
material, laboratory exercises and projects, audio-visual aids, and course prerequisites. It will be supplemented with an implementation 
guide designed to help administrators answer questions on laboratory space, laboratory equipment, instructor requirements, student 
profiles, investment expenditures, and other variables necessary to consider before adopting or adapting this curriculum to other schools 
and situations. 

12.5 

ENERGY EDUCATION AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY 

Samuel Lomask 

New York City Tech. Coll. 

Univ. of New York 

450 W. 41st Street 

New York, N.Y. 10036 

Abstract: 

With varying degrees of awareness the Environmental Control Technology Program at New York City Technical College has been 
involved in Energy Education for well over 10 years. The program covers refrigeration, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, energy 
conservation and with lesser emphasis on solar, acoustics, lighting, fire protection, plumbing and electricity systems of buildings. 

The educational strategy is the creation of a curriculum dealing with the design and maintenance of the environment within a building or 
process. It is most closely related to the economy and the requirement of the professions, trades, and business real estate communities to 
whom we provide a corp of trained personnel. 

The maintenance of the man-made environment is achieved with the continuous expenditure of energy: 

in heating by combustion of fuel, electric power, solar or alternate energy sources. Refrigeration for process or air conditioning works on 

the vapor compression cycle which requires a prime mover or the absorption cycle which needs some source of heat input. 

In brief the curriculum is interwoven with energy considerations and decisions. Exactly how the Environmental Control Technology 
program deals with energy education in its credit based curriculum and its numerous Continuing Education endeavors will be described. 



152 



SESSION 13: TEACHER TRAINING 

13.1 

ENERGY EDUCATION IN GLOBAL STUDIES 

John D. FitzGibbons 

Cazenovia High School 

Cazenovia, New York 13035 

Robert J. Fredericks III 

Cazenovia High School 

Cazenovia, New York 13035 

Energy education in global studies 

Development of an interdisciplinary course involves problems not ordinarily encountered in curriculum development. In the case of 
Global Studies there is an additional difficulty; there is no agreed upon definiton of what constitutes a program of Global Studies. This 
presents a problem and an opportunity. A problem because of the danger of developing a fuzzy program without focus. An opportunity 
because one has the freedom to make value judgements concerning goals, content and evaluative procedures. 

For our purposes, Global Studies is a course in which students explore the cultural, political, ethical, sociological, psychological, and 
technological factors affecting our views of global problems in the areas of resources, population, environment and economics. Students 
are helped, through problem solving processes, to develop an awareness of how these global concerns may be approached and resolved. 
In a nation such as the United States it is important to help students understand that the wealth and power accumulated by the developed 
countries imposes great obligations. 

Several years ago the writers team taught some chemistry classes. Topics related to the environment, energy and population were 
intesrated into the chemistry course. As a result of this experiencea Science and Society course was proposed- Sufficient student interest 
was not developed and the course was not taught. In the 1979-1980 school year Robert Sherburne. Language Department Chairman at 
Cazenovia, became interested in Global Education. Since many of the concerns explored in Global Education were also included in the 
Science and Society proposal, it was decided that the three teachers would develop an interdisciplinary course in Global Studies. 

During the summer of 1980, Sherburne. Fredericks and FitzGibbons developed the Global Studies course. It was offered the following 
school year. The class included students in grades nine through twelve. Student evaluations of the program ranged from good to 
excellent. A fifteen hour workshop for teachers in the Cazenovia Central School District was conducted during the Spring of 1981, Nearly 
twenty-five percent of the teachers from most grade levels and subject areas participated. They indicated a great Interest in Global 
Education and the intention to implement the concepts developed during the workshops in their classrooms. Many of the teachers, 
especially at the elementary level, included activities related to energy education. The goals and objectives of the Cazenovia Global 
Studies course are outlined below.' 

Goals and objectives 

I. The Individual's Involvement in the World System 
Students should acquire the ability to: 

A. Perceive themselves and all other individuals as members of a single species of life — a species whose members share: a common 
biological status, a common way of adapting to the natural environment, a common set of biological and psychological needs, 
common existential concerns and common social problems; 

B. Perceive themselves and all humans as part of the earth's biosphere; 

C. See how each person and the groups to which that person belongs are participants in the world's socio-cultural system; 

D. Perceive that people at all levels of social organization — from the individual to the whole society — are both "cultural borrowers" 
and "cultural depositors"; they both draw from and contribute to a "global bank of human culture" that has been and continues to be 
fed by contributions from all peoples, in all geographical regions and in ail periods of history; 

E. Perceive that people have different perceptions, beliefs and attitudes about the world system and its components. 

II. Making Decisions 

Students should acquire the ability to: 

A. Make "creative" personal decisions regarding their own lifestyles, in adjusting to "imposed and uncontrollable" changes; 

B. Perceive and identify the transnational consequences of their personal decisions and of the collective decisions of the groups to 
which they belong; 

C. "Take into consideration" the interests of others when making decisions with transnational consequences: 

D. Perceive and identify long-term consequences of individual and collective decisions; 

E. "Take into active consideration" the interests of future generations; when making personal and collective decisions. 

III. Making Judgments 

Students should acquire the ability to: 

A. Perceive the choices confronting individuals, communities, nations and the human species, with respect to major world problems; 

B. Obtain and process information analytically and to use reflective moral reasoning when making judgments aboutworld problems: 

C. Identify, describe and analyze their own judgments about world problems; 

D. Perceive that human experience, earlier and elsewhere, may possibly be more useful for dealing with contemporary problems than 
beliefs dominant today; 

E. Perceive the world system in a systematic manner; 

F. Analyze, evaluate and create models of alternative futures; 

G. Analyze controversy surrounding an issue, problem or policy. 



153 



A topical outline of the course content follows: 
I. Problem Solving 



II 


Factors 




A. Culture 




B. Politics 




C. Ethics and Religion 




D. Technology 


III 


Population 


IV 


Resources 




A. Food 




B. Energy 




C. Other 


V. 


Environment 




A, Physical 




B. Biological 




C. Human 


VI 


. Economics 


VI 


1. The Future 


VIII. Intensive Personal Research 



One of the first activities done in the course is called "The Worfd in a Room."- Each student represents an appropriate fraction of the 
world's population. They are then divided into groups representing the population of the several continents. Based on 1 977 statistics, in a 
class of 42 students each student would represent 1 00 million people, Twenty students, representing the population of Asia are sent to the 
center of the room; nine students representing the population of Europe {including European USSR) are sent to one corner; eight 
students representing the population of Africa and the Middle East are sent to another corner; three students representing the population 
of Latin American are sent to the third corner; and two students representing the population of North America are sent to the remaining 
corner. 

Cookies or poker chips are used to represent energy use. According to the 1977 statistics used as the basis for this activity, the total world 
energy use was 220 milliquads. A scale of one chip per milliquad is used. Each group of students is given a number of cookies or chips 
according to the energy usage of the geographic unit represented. Asia received 35 chips or 1 .75 chips per student. Europe receives 40 
. chips or 3.89 per student. Africa and the Middle East receive 28 chips or 3.5 per student. Latin America receives 24 chips or 6 per student. 
North America receives 93 chips or 46.5 per student. We have found that dumping the 93 chips in front of the two students representing 
North America has a much more profound impact on students and adults than any chart or graph we could devise. Similar procedures 
may be used to demonstrate the production and consumption of any resource for which statistics are available. Ot course, the numbers 
must be adjusted according to the size of the class. This activity may be extended by extrapolation. Students from another class can be 
invited in to represent population growth. Increased energy use may be represented by additional cookies. It is an impressive way of 
teaching the nature of exponential growth, 

This past year, the energy block in the course occupied about 15 class periods. The activities used vary in student participation from 
active role playing simulations to personal or group research on a specific energy topic. A large proportion of the initial activities, which 
are designed to assess the incoming knowledge and attitudes of the students, are taken from theB.S.C.S. Energy & Society materials 
The materials we used from this packet provide a good starting point upon which to build an energy unit. 

The initial activity is a knowledge/attitude inventory which is administered to all students. The results of the survey are tabulated and 
presented to the class. This serves two functions: 1) It gives a barometer of where the class stands in terms of knowledge and attitudes 
towards energy and 2) it provides a nice jumping-off point for further discussion of various issues/topics addressed in the survey. A follow 
up to the activity involves a student discussion of one or two of the controversial items in the survey, i.e. items for which there was no clear 
concensus. Students are asked to clarify their positions and cite relevant factual information to justify their positions. At this point 
students often find out that their "feelings" about energy are not necessarily based of valid information. Another outcome of this activity is 
that students begin to come to the realization that there are often not any simple answers to energy problems, particularly when personal 
attitudes and personal freedom are involved. 

The inventory indicated a considerable lack of knowledge on the part of the students of information concerning energy and concepts that 
govern'its utilization. We used a number of films and video tapes to present this information to the class, and asked students to take notes 
in their journals. Another activity which helped to give the students more background information invovled having groups of students 
present reports on a particular type of energy technology. They were to gather as much current information on their particular resource in 
the following areas: 

Physical Laws soverning the use of this energy source 

Political Laws or policies affecting use of the energy source 

Environmental Impact 

Economics, Public and Private 

Public Attitudes 

Health and Safety 

Design and Technoiogy 

One of the most neglected areas of energy education is showing the total energy cost of objects, not just their direct energy use. The 
B.S.C.S. materials include a good activity to demonstrate this called "Back to the Source." Students view a film loop which traces a 
phonograph record from its disposal, backward through distribution, manufacturing, and eventually back to the original source of the 
material for the record. Through discussion, students try to pinpoint all the energy consumed during the lifetime of the record. The 
students are then asked to produce a diagram showing all the energy inputs invovled in the producting and. distribution and use of a 
common household item, After completing this activity, students have a better idea of the indirect energy costs found in our complex 
lifestyles. 

Other activities were included in the unit to help student's set a better picture of their own personal energy consumption patterns. A 
personal energy budget was prepared and then compared to energy consumption figures for individuals in other parts of the world. Next 

154 




year we will be incorporating some of the activities from the NSTA's Energy Enriched Curriculum, 4 in particular those in the "Energy in the 
Global Marketplace" module, 

One of the most popular parts of the unit was the use of simulation games. Each of the simulations emphasized slightly different aspects 
of the energy picture. Those that were used included: 

"Energy Quest" Weldon Productions Inc. Columbia, SC 

"The Energy Management Game" B.S.C.S. 

"Energy X" Ideal School Supply Co., Oaklaum, IL 

The Energy Environment Game" Edison Electric Institute, Washington. DC 
Students were asked to write a paragraph or two to describe those things that they learned from using the simulations. These thoughts 
were shared with the class. The simulation gave students a chance to make decisions to solve energy problems and see the effect of their 
actions. Our experience during the first year indicated the need to expand the amount of time spent on this topic. We have expanded this 
unit by ten days and are incorporating more activities in which students can further explore the world wide differences in energy 
resources and consumption. 

The last unit, The Future, required class members to bring together ail the parts of the course. The student's discussions during this 
segment and their individual research projects (the final 5 weeks of the course) gave evidence of an understanding that energy 
considerations are an integral part of many of the problems facing us today. 

In the Global Studies course and specifically in the energy unit, our aim is not to providestudents with answers. Our purpose is to help 

student's identify those factors which affect global issues and to help them gain the problem solving skills and information necessary to 

think globally and act locally. 

References 

' (adapted from David C. King, Margaret S. Branson and Larry E. Condon, Education for a World in Change: A Working Handbook for 

Global Perspectives, Intercom No. 84/85, (c) Center for Global Perspectives of the New York Friends Group, Inc.) 

Smith, Gary R: Cultural Sight and Insight pp. 15-18 Global Perspectives in Education, Inc., New York 1979 

1 Energy and Society; Investigations in Decision Making (c) biological Sciences Curriculum Study, 1977 

1 "Energy in the Global Market Place" Energy Enrichment Curriculum, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn. 1978. 

13.2 

SUMMER WORKSHOP FOR ENERGY 
EDUCATION TEACHERS IN TEXAS 

James D. Ellis, PhD 
Project Director 

Sponsored by; 

The University of Texas at Austin 

Science Education Center 

Introduction 

The Summer Workshop for Energy Education Teachers in Texas (SWEET-TX) is designed to improve Texas Community College 
Teachers' understanding of energy issues and concepts. Science teachers, with an understanding of these issues and concepts are more 
abie to educate their students and community about energy related problems and issues. The objectives for the workshops are for 
teachers to be able to: 

A. Analyze complex energy related issues and explain the historical, cultural, political, economic, and scientific dimensions of the 

problems. 

8 Describe examples of renewable resources and methods of energy conservation, 

C. Describe specific environmental and safety aspects of energy production. 

D. Describe a model for energy production and utilization emphasizing the special place of electricity in using energy, including the 
use of coal, nuclear, and solar systems for power generation. 

E. Describe projected shortages in oil and natural gas, and means for reducing the national demand for nonrenewable energy 
resources. 

F. Develop a community energy education curriculum and a plan for its implementation in their community. 

G. Maintain contact and communication with the training institution and experts in energy related topics. 

The scope of this project includes Texas college science teachers. Participation is limited to teachers in Community Colleges, private two 
and four year colleges, small four year public colleges, and other involved in continuing adult education efforts. The Summer Workshop is 
offered the second two weeks of June. 

Scope of the workshop 

Community Colleges have emerged during the past two decades as institutions of diversity, meeting the needs of individuals 17.-1 8 years 
of age with varying abilities, goals, and experiences. "Community" colleges have replaced "Junior" colleges through their focus on 
providing basic education courses, vocational training programs, and credit and non-credit continuing education courses, in addition to 
the additional junior college focus of two-year academic transfer courses. Many institutions have adopted institutional mission 
statements and program guidelines which stress their commitment to being responsive to the needs of the local population. Also through 
the efforts of the national governing body of community colleges, the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, they 
have made public their commitment to lifelong learning to foster adult development and self sufficiency. 

The schools which comprise the Texas community college system are known nationally for their innovative program efforts and 
continuing education outreach efforts. Statistics reported in October 1979 to the American Association of Community and Junior 



155 



Colleges indicated tha the total numberof individuals who participated in community education programs in the state. 289.827, surpasses 
the total number of full and part time academic and vocational students enrolled during the sameperiod. 262.236. Texas isoneof the five 
states in the nation which served over 250.000 individuals during the reporting period. 

The issues of meeting the world's energy demands and its environmental consequences is a paramount concern for today's citizen. The 
qlobal politics of energy influence world events as evidenced in daily news headlines. The economic costs of energy utilization and 
shortages of available energy are central concerns in U.S. households. Texas citizens have a unique interest in energy issues because 
Texas is a center of oil production and industrial technology. A large part of the Texas economy is dependent upon energy related 
business, 

The U S requires an informed and scientifically literate citizenry. In a democratic society, the success of the political system at 
resoondinq and planning for the society's needs is predicated on the ability of the individual citizens to be informed participants. Every 
American has many opportunities to influence the solution of U.S. energy problems through participation as 1 ) a voter in federal, state 
and local elections. 2) an individual providing input to political representatives about individual concerns, and 3) a consumer making 
daily decisions about energy utilization. 

In order to meet the need of developing an energy informed and scientifically literate U.S. citizenry, the SWEET-TX project will train a 
cadre of competent science teachers in energy education to operate within the already established community education system. The 
fact that Texas has one of the most prominent community college education systems in the U.S. facilitates the implementation of a 
community college education program. The miltiplier effect is included in the program design of this project. Large numbers of citizens 
can be reached efficiently and economically by training a cadre of faculty to in turn educate the community citizens. 

The SWEET-TX project comes at an opportune time, Current concerns of the Texas citizens include energy issues. Public controversy 
surrounds the South Texas Nuclear Project. Enviornmental concerns about energy production were provoked by the Gulf of Campeche 
Oil Spill in the Fall of 1979. Current community and state interest is evidenced by the numerous energy/environmental organizations and 
services such as: the Austin City Renewable Energy Resources Commission, Texas Energy Extension Service. Texas Solar Energy 
Society, Phogg Foundation, Austin Energy Initiative, Science for the People, Texas ACORN, and Texas Mobilization for Survival. During 
October 4-11. 1980, a Texas Solar Action Week emphasized Texas' concern for energy issues and included a SunFest exhibit in Austin 
where Texas energy /environmental concerns organizations provided information to the public. Texas citizens are exhibiting signs of 
concern with energy issues by becoming involved in these activities. This involvement should enhance the receptivity of the commu nity 
to the SWEET-TX project's energy education efforts. The time of energy education efforts in Texas is now. while the citizens are 
themselves establishing the need. 

Workshop Design . ... 

The course content is introduced the first day by presenting an organizing energy conceptual scheme, Concept mapping and webbing 
are used to assist the participants in establishing the relationships between the various energy related concepts. These organizing 
concepts include but are not limited to; 1) Energy Supply and Demand models, 2) Nonrenewable resources. 3) Energy Conservation 4) 
Energy/Environmental effects, 5) Energy Resources, and 6) Energy Utilization. This interrelated conceptual scheme developed in the 
presentation by the participants will be used as an advanced organizer to facilitate the assimilation of the content from the presentations 
into a coherent energy understanding. 

The topics to be included in the instruction for SWEET-TX emphasize: 1) Energy related issues and content, 2) Activities, resources, 
sources of information, and methods of instruction for energy education, and3) Curriculum development and implementation models for 
Community Energy Education Programs. The topics are presented by lecture-discussion, laboratory activities, and field trips. The course 
format for the program is lecture presentations of energy related topics in the morning and laboratory/curriculum development activities 
in the afternoon. The course is presented in two full weeks of instruction. The participants are involved in 44 hours of direct i nstruction, 8 
hours of field trip activities, and 28 hours of laboratory activities. 

The energy topics are presented by experts in the scientific areas. These experts include University scientists and engineers, economists, 
political scientists, and representatives of the energy industry. Additional state and local representatives of citizen groups concerned 
about energy/environmental issues are invited to provide information about their organization and share their views during the "Energy 
Fair." The purpose for inviting scientists, social scientists, engineers, industrial representatives, and concerned citizens as presenters is 
to encourage a broad range of views and opinions about energy/environmental issues and to establish a communication between the 
participants and the experts in energy related topics. 

The topics in this workshop focus on issues especially relevant to Texas citizens. There are presentations addressing Texas energy 
policies and energy education systems. Nuclear energy production, nuclear fusion, lignite fueled plants, and biomass energy production 
are current projects in Texas. Including state and local community concern groups in panels, exhibits, and presentations increases the 
relevance of the workshop to Texas concerns. 

The topics for the course are covered using a variety of methods and approaches. They areselected to provide information relevant to the 
objectives for the course. The energy content of the course is introduced first by an expert in the specific area of knowledge through the 
lecture/discussion approach. The guest instructors use a variety of teaching modalities, including various multimedia and activity 
oriented methods, A panel discussion is used to enhance the exchange of viewpoints about nuclear power and its impact. An 
energy-environmental simulator is used to provide the participants with an opportunity to interact with and apply their knowledge of 
energy and environmental parameters. The field trips to the university energy facilities are used to motivate interest and increase 
knowledge about current production and research about future production of energy. 

The afternoon energy curriculum laboratory sections are used to provide participants opportunities to apply their new knowledge to the 
development of an energy educational curriculum plan for their own situation. Instruction is provided about available resources for 
materials and services, and sources of information. DOE. NSF. and NSTA energy education materials are made available to all 
participants in the laboratory activities. The participants are provided training and instruction in energy education curriculum develop- 
ment and implementation. Materials and support services are provided to assist the participants in selecting and organizing their own 
curriculum. These materials are located in the Energy Education Curriculum Library in the Science Education Center. The library 
contains a large collection of K-12 curriculum materials, secondary and higher education energy related textbooks and readings, and 
assorted published materials from energy related corporations and the government. The.participants are divided into teams to develop 



156 



course syllabi and implement plans for common teaching situations, The teams are identified and formed from information obtained 
during the application procedure. Individuals describe their teaching situation and specify their 1) 3 hour credit course plans. 2) 
integration into science course plans, and 3) short community presentation plans. The teams make presentations of their curriculum 
plans during the last day of the course. 

During the year following the summer workshop, participants have additional opportunities to share materials and ideas about energy 
education and to interact with university faculty. The project staff and co-directors are available for consultation throughout the year 
Copies of the materials developed by the teams are duplicated and sent to all participants. There are two additional meetings during the 
following year for the participants to share materials, ideas, and report progress on their implementation efforts. The first meeting is held 
in conjunction with the Fall Texas Conference for the Advancement of Science Teaching. The participants report on the implementation 
and progress of their efforts during this meeting. The second meeting is during the Spring meeting of theTexas Academy of Science. This 
meeting is used to report an evaluation of the first semester of use of the energy education plans, The participants and their institutions 
are responsible for providing their own support for these follow-up meetings. 

The participants' utilization of the energy knowledge in community education is evaluated for one year following the project. The 
Concerns Based Adoption Model (CBAM) for investigating innovation implementation is used in this study (Hall, 1977).TheStagesof 
Concerns and Levels of Use Instruments are used to investigate the changes of the participants energy education programs. Data are 
gathered with these instruments during the workshop and during the year following the workshop. A questionnaire is used to gather 
descriptive information about each participant's program configuration. In November and March of the year following the workshop, 
each participant will be invited to attend and present their program to thegroup and to discuss and exchange ideas. Additional data will be 
gathered during these meetings to determine the success of the community education program. A thorough analysis of the evaluation 
data is provided to all participants and the funding agency. This report Is a comprehensive evaluation of the success to which the 
SWEET-TX project meets the predetermined goals. 

Evaluation Methodology 

A thorough evaluation of the effects of the program is an important component of the SWEET-TX project. A pretest/posttest design is 
used to investigate the effect of the instruction on the energy education knowledge and attitudes of the participants. The National 
Assessment of Educational Progress Energy assessments for young adults (NAEP, 1979)' was used to measure energy achievement and 
attitude. The instrument has 76 items relating to feelings and concerns and 70 items for the cognitive domain. 

Evaluation forms are used to obtain information about the abiiity of the workshop activities to satisfy the needs of the participants. The 
DOE participant evaluation form is a 26 item instruction survey which includes questions on demographic data about the participants and 
perceptions about the success of the workshop, The Daily Presentation/Activity Evaluation form is provided to participants for recording 
evaluations of each presentation and activity during the workshop. The combination of the two participant surveys provide information 
which is used to evaluate the workshop activities. 

Results 

The 21 participants involved in the SWEET-TX project have teaching experience at ail levels ranging from elementary to higher education. 
The mean number of yearsof teaching experience in community colleges is 6.86. Community college teaching is the present employment 
status for 67% of the participants. The participants specialized in a variety of science and social science disciplines. Science accounts for 
76% of the participant major fields and Biology is the largest at 38%. There is under representation among minorities and women with 76% 
of the participants being white males. 

The results from administering the DOE Participant Evaluation Form are very positive, The usefulness of the workshop and overall 
reaction of the participants to the workshop are rated very high, 

The participants expect to enroll a mean of 139 students this year in energy related courses. They feel that the mix of participants was 
advantageous to the learning. Lecture is the activity found most motivating and most applicable to their teaching. Ninety-five percent of 
the participants intend to introduce energy topics into their teaching. A fotlow-up session is desired by 75 percent of the participants. 

The participants scored significantly higher on the NAEP achievement posttest than they did on the pretest. Their mean score for the 
pretest was 49.57 and for the posttest was 58.71. The participants scored significantly different on 47% of the NAEP at titudeposttest.i terns 
when compared to pretest responses on the same items. A Chi square test was used to determine the significance of the difference among 
frequency distributions for items from pretest to posttest. The overall trend of the attitude change for these items was for greater concern 
and more positive attitudes about energy problems. 

Conclusion 

Two week summer workshops on energy topics for college teachers can be effective, The content knowledge and attitudes is improved by 
a carefully structured intensive educational experience. 

These college teachers can in turn return to their communities and institutions and implement local energy education programs. Those 
teachers can educate on the average 1 50 students each year. Their students can be local leaders, young adults pursuing energy related 
careers, or public school teachers. 

The central goal of this project is to increase the local citizen's awareness and knowledge of energy issues. The SWEET-TX project 
capitalizes on the strengths of Texas' excellent community education program by selecting practicing community college educators as 
the local energy education leaders. The likelihood of success of this project at achieving the goal of increased citizen energy awareness is 
greatly enhanced by the selection of a target population already dedicated toward the goal of developing a scientifically literate 
community citizenry. 

The participants were selected for their likelihood of creating change in their community's energy awareness. They are committed to 
developing their own energy education plan for their own community. They are encouraged to train other community leaders, educators, 
and concerned citizens to in turn educate others within the community, which greatly increases the number of citizens impacted 
(Multiplier effect!). They select the best methods to reach the citizens in their locale, including creating credit courses in energy 
education in their community colleges, integrating energy concepts into their existing courses, serving as presenter and consultant to 
local citizen groups, and developing a Community Energy Service Center. These community college teachers are the key "change 
agents" for promoting an increased citizen awareness of energy issues. 

This material was prepared with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DEFG05-81 ca10147. Any opinions, findings, 
conclusions, or recommendations are those of the author and do not necessarily relect the views of DOE. 

157 



13.3 

Energy Education Workshop for Teachers: K - Junior High 

Marianne Talafuse 
Associate Professor of Economics 
Associate Director of the Center for Economic Education 
Introduction 

This paper reports on a three-day inservice energy education workshop for elementary and junior high teachers from the greater 
Lafayette. Indiana area schools. The following areas will be discussed; 

I. Needs Assessment III. Funding 

N. Planning iv. Implementation 

A. Recruitment v. Evaluation 

B. Program vi. Dissemination 

C. Speakers V ll. Conclusions 

D. Materials 

Needs Assessment 

The Indiana Council for Economic Education was contacted by the Lafayette. Indiana School Corporation concerning an energy 
education inservice workshop. Teachers had requested opportunities to increase their knowledge of energy-related subject matter and 
energy-related education materials for classroom use. As a result of this contact the ICEE requested and received letters from the 
Lafayette School Corporation and other local public and nonpublic school corporations supporting the desire for an inservice energy- 
related workshop for greater Lafayette area teachers. 

The I ndiana Council for Economic Education was selected to conduct an energy education workshop because of its past experience in 
sponsoring inservice programs, summer workshops, institutes, and seminars for teachers and other community leaders. The ICEE is 
located at Purdue University. West Lafayette, and is sponsored by the Krannert Graduate School of Management and the Continuing 
Education Administration of Purdue University, The director and associate director of the ICEE have faculty appointments in the 
Krannert Graduate School of Management with the specific responsibilities of providing economic education experiences to groups on 
campus and off campus. Unique features of ICEE workshops are released time for participating teachers, graduate credit incentives, and 
materials development for personal use. 

The Lafayette School Corporation Director of State/Federal Projects met with the associate director of the ICEE to plan an energy 
eudcation workshop after the public and nonpublic administrators and teachers of the greater Lafayette area were informed of the 
possibility of this inservice training, A telephone survey of selected K-9 teachers determined that a sufficient number were interested in 
attending such a workshop. Specific teachers were involved informally in planning and implementing the workshop. 

Recruitment 

A brochure describing the workshop and an application form was distributed to elementary and junior high teachers in the target area. 
The brochure contained a rationale for the workshop as follows: 

Energy, its use and abuse, is of paramount concern to U.S. citizens who are being constantly bombarded with 
admonishments to turn down the thermostat and turn off the lights. There is a wide diversity of opinion about whether 
an energy crisis actually exists, but all agree that energy issues are closely related to both our national pleasures and 
our national problems. 

In response to this national concern and confusion regarding energy, U.S. public schools are integrating aspects of 
energy education into their curricula. The economic tools for simple market analysis and the instructional materials 
provided by workshop personnel will enhance participants* abilities to deal effectively with energy questions in the 
classroom. The workshop will focus on a broad spectrum of information regarding energy resources, alternatives to 
current technologies, and environmental and economic aspects of the energy problem, and appropriate teachinq 
practices. 

The brochure contained information on location, time, and the Indiana Council for Economic Education. A schedule of activities and an 
application form were included. 

Program 

Speakers were selected by the associate director of the ICEE for their expertise in various energy fields. On day one in the Fall of 1 979 a 
professor of history from Purdue University spoke on "Energy Crises in Retrospect," The goal of that session was that particpants would 
be able to cite instances of historical energy crisis. In the afternoon of day one, a Purdue University professor of education and 
geosciences spoke on 'The Fosse! Fuels Dilemma." Following that address, participants were able to chart the past and project the use of 
fossel fuels and list the advantages and disadvantages of using fossel fuels. A professor of economics at Purdue University-Calumet 
spoke on energy "Alternative Sources," and the director of the Indiana Council for Economic Education spoke on "The Economics of the 
Energy Problem. The day concluded with concurrent sessions for elementary and junior high teachers. A fifth grade teacher from the 
Lafayette School Corporation worked with elementary teachers on "Integration of Energy Education in Class Situations." An eighth 
grade science teacher from the Lafayette School Corporation helped participants identify specific instances of elementary and junior 
high energy education in a session entitled "Integration of Energy Education in the Junior High Curriculum." 

Day two began with a Purdue University professor of economics addressing "The Political Impact on the Energy Question." This session 
was Followed by a professor of agricultural economics speaking on "Energy From Biomass." The afternoon of day two was devoted to a 
study of the Indiana Department of Public Instruction Energy Education Curriculum Project The day concluded with participants in 
consultation with the workshop staff, planning their individual projects for integrating energy economics into their classrooms. After 
teachers had integrated the energy education materials they developed following days one and two of the workshop into their classroom 
curricula, they reassembled for one day in the spring of 1980. After a beginning session on "Energy—Future and Current Policies." 
teachers reported on their classroom projects. The afternoon program was conducted by persons representing additional resources for 



158 



future energy education. The curriculum directors of Lafayette School Corporation spoke on the emphasis on energy education by the 
school corporation. The director of the TRIAD Teaching Center explained what materials and facilities were available to teachers. The 
associate director of the Indiana Council for Economic Education distributed materials and gave participants information on energy 
education sources. The program closed with participants summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the workshop and offering 
suggestions for maintaining an energy education program in the schools. Participants were post-tested with an objective instrument and 
an attitudinal instrument. 

Speakers 

Speakers were from the following areas: 

1. History with a background of the history of technology, history of science, history of thought, and publications on the history of 
political economy. 

2. Geosciences Education, author of college textbooks, director of energy education projects, and national foundation grants, 

3. Department of Agricultural Economics with publications and textbooks concerning energy resources and government policy. 

4. Elementary and Junior High teachers whose workshop responsibilities were to demonstrate how energy-related subject matter can be 
taught in elementary and junior high schools and to work with participants on their individual projects. 

Materials 

Teachers indicated their need for energy education materials on the survey carried out prior to the energy education workshop. In 
response to that need, commercial and noncommercial materials were assembled and made available to teachers for use in and after the 
workshop. The following materials were distributed to participants: 

Eleven materials from U.S. Department of Energy 

Sixteen materials from AMOCO. Standard Oil Company 

Twenty-one materials from various other sources 
In addition materials were correlated to specific sessions throughout the workshop. For instance Energy For Man — a film strip which 
traces the increase in man's use of energy since 1850— was made available with the session on"Energy Crises in Retrospect," An energy 
education mini-course developed at Purdue University was distributed with "The Fossel Fuels Dilemma." A film. "Energy: The Fuels and 
Man." was made available from National Geographic Educational Services. Teachers used the materials whtch they recieved and the 
materials which were used with the workshop sessions in preparing the materials for their classroom. 

Funding 

The Indiana Council for Economic Education submitted a proposal to the U.S. Department of Energy, Elementary Teacher Inservice 
Energy Education, in the amount of S8.500 to cover expenses of the proposed three-day energy education workshop. The monies were 
budgeted to cover a portion of the workshop director's salary, a stipend to visiting speakers, clerical help, and instructional materials The 
instructional materials were ordered in duplicate, and, at the conclusion of the workshop, one copy was retained by the Indiana Council 
for Economic Education and one copy was placed in the library of the Lafayette School Corporation for continued use by teachers. 

The I ndiana Council for Economic Educatipn received an 38,500 grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to conduct the workshop. One 
graduate credit was awarded teachers fulfilling workshop requirements by Purdue University. 

Implementation 

Seventeen teachers completed the energy education workshop. They met from 8:00 to 3:30 Ocotber 25 and 28. 1979. and April 16. 1980. 
During the first two days of the workshop, teachers received energy education content and wrote lesson plans to be used in their 
classroom before the third day of the workshop. Classroom activities included student-prepared materials for a seventh grade media fair, 
an energy conservation day involving an entire elementary school, a survey of transportation modes by third graders, an energy 
awareness unit designed to help families save a gallon of gas a week, a fifth grade science unit focused on strategies for changing people's 
behavior into an energy conservation mode, a poster contest, building a solar oven, conducting a home energy audit, and others. On the 
third day of the workshop, participants reported on the implementation oftheirunits in theirclassroom. Workshop instructors suggested 
modifications of units for further use. Units were duplicated so that each participant would have a copy of each unit produced during the 
workshop. Reports on media coverage and plans for further use of the teacher-created materials were shared. 

Evaluation 

Teachers were pre- and post-tested with both cognitive and attitudinal instruments related to energy. The pre-test mean on the cognitive 
test was 17.5 with a range of 6-24 and the post-test mean was 20.6 with a range of 15-24. Test items were written by the workshop director 
and speakers. Table I shows change in attitudes related to energy. 

The DOE Faculty Development program was evaluated by the Labor and Policy Studies Program, Manpower Education Research and 
Training Division. Oakridge Associated Universities, Oakridge, Tennessee in September, 1980. The following is taken from pages 14 and 
15 of their report: 

Overait Reaction to the Workshop 

The reaction to the workshops was very positive. An overwhelming majority of participants (97 percent) reported that they would 
recommend the workshop to a friend, whereas only 2 percent would not, Another 1 percent said that they would recommend it only 
under specific conditions. Many of the negative responses were in reaction to one workshop which, as responses to the open-ended 
questions in the survey indicated, was too technical for the attending teachers. In response to the request "Give youroverall reaction 
to the workshop," participants characterized the program as being between extremely motivating (category 1 on a5-polnt scale) and 
motivating (category 2). The results. ...show that engineering teachers were less impressed by the workshops than were the average 
participants, whereas home economics, social science instructors, and sixth grade teachers were more impressed. Responses 
varying from the average seemed to be related to the degree of difficulty the respondents experienced in handling the materials 
presented in the workshops. 

The pattern of responses to the open-ended questions tends to confirm the conclusion that theoveral! reaction of most participants to 
the workshops was favorable. While few individual activities offered in the workshops were mentioned here as being parUculariw 
beneficial, many participants characterzied the program as interesting and stimulating. 



159 



The units developed by teachers in the workshop were made available to every teacher attending the workshop. A unit developed by two 

esS 

Council for Economic Education carried excerpts from the teaching units. The newsletter is made available to teachers and adm.n.stra- 
tors throughout Indiana and to Economic Education Centers and Council Directors in 49 states. 
The following is from page 15 of the above-cited evaluation by the Labor and Policy Studies Program. Oakndge. Tennessee: 

in lectures and handouts will be the most commonly used means of applying the knowledge. Teachers in the sample using these 
approaches will reach a minimum of 90,000 and 83,000 students respectively. Two hundred and eight respondent expected to 
incorporate energy information into student research projects. Not only will this new information be disseminated in classrooms, but 
at least 46 000 students will be involved in environmental or conservation projects: and 64.000 will discover and experience in the 
laboratory' The estimated number of students reached, should be approximately doubled when ail teachersattending theworkshops. 
and not just respondents, are considered. 

Conclusions 

The workshop objectives were to provide teachers with the analytical tools and instructional materials needed to teach energy education 
effectively in the classroom. As a result of the workshop, participants taught at lease oneenergy-related unit to theirstudents. had access 
to other classroom-tested units on energy, and exchanged teaching experience and materials with otherteachers at their gradelevels In 
addition, teachers from throughout Indiana were exposed to units prepared by greater Lafayette area school teachers at the annual 
meeting of the Indiana State Teachers Association. 

13.4 

"Planning Successful Inservice TRAINING in Energy EDUCATION" 

Dr. Mary Alice Wilson 

Inservice Coordinator, Hampshire Educational Collaborative, Northampton, Massachusetts 

Mr. Shaun Bresnahan 
Social Studies teacher, Belchertown Junior-Senior High School, Belchertown, MA 

Mr. David Rainaud 
Abstract Math teacher, Belchertown Junior-Senior High School 

For the past two years, the Inservice Program of the Hampshire Educational Collaborative has been sponsoring inservice programs in 
energy education.' Based on our experience in these courses, and in courses in a number of other areas, we have developed the following 
criteria for successful integration of energy education into the classroom: 

1) Administrative support of energy education activities 

2) Teacher participation in pianning of the inservice course 

3) Continuous evaluation of progress of the course 

4) Concentration on use of local resources and resource people that are readily and inexpensively available to school systems after 
course concludes 

5) Focus during course on inquiry based, experimental learning for teachers (and students) 

6) Inclusion of mechanisms on conservation and alternative energy through the use of inexpensive energy models 

7} Commitment to participants after course ends through a monthly support group, newsletter or other communication mechanism 

We have developed a number of strategies for achieving these seven components including a computerized resource retrieval system 
(written in BASIC for the Apple II), and mechanisms for planning, evaluating and continuing support to course participants, and a series 
of simple alternative models. 

The presentation will include flow charts, slides, and panel discussion of strategies for insuring that energy education will be integrated 
into the elementary and secondary curriculum. 

' supported in part by grants from the HEC Inservice Development Center (IV-c) and the Massachusetts Executive Office of Energy 
Resources 

13.5 

ENERGY - A VIEWPOINT FOR TODAY AND TOMORROW: AN ENERGY EDUCATION COURSE FOR TEACHERS 

Melvyn L. Dutton 

Department of Chemistry 

California State College, Bakersfield 

Bakersfield, CA 93309 

Abstract 

Energy — A Viewpoint for Today and Tomorrow has been offered for the past 3 years to teachers in the Mojave Desert region of the 
Southern California Edison Company. Since the number of teachers in this region is limited, the course was designed to serve the needs 



160 



of classroom teachers from the primary through secondary levels. This presentation will include a discussion of thecoursestructure. and 
pedagogy, a review of some of the participant developed projects and materials and an overview of the participants evaluation of the 
course. 

Support for these courses comes from the Educational Services Department of the Southern California Edison Company. A brief 
discussion concerning the academic/industrial interface aspect of this project will be presented. 



161 



SESSION 14: CURRICULA AND ASSESSMENT 

14.1 

DEVELOPMENT OF 10TH GRADE CURRICULUM MATERIALS 
ON ENERGY FOR NATIONWIDE USE 

Vivien M. Talisayon 

Science Education Center 

University of the Philippines 

Diliman, Quezon City 

Philippines 

Abstract 

The topics of energy crisis, alternate energy sources, and energy conservation measures are integrated into the 10th grade government 

physics textbook, Physics in Your Environment developed by the University of Philippines Science Education Center. 

Main entry points are the lessons on the energy conservation law and nuclear power plant. The energy topics are presented in a comic 

strip interspersed with questions for students. 

The Center also developed supplementary modules on a sofar cooker and solar crop dryer made of low-cost local material. Besides 

teaching science content and relating science to national concerns, the modules teach design skills. 

Activity-oriented teaching units on energy for gradelO have also been prepared by the Ministries of Education and Culture and of Energy. 

Objectives and concepts of the units are articulated for grades 7-10. 

Energy education in relation to the energy problem is not well-established in the Philippine school system. There is a need for articulation 
and empirical placement of energy concepts and values for grades K-12. Energy curriculum materials need to be developed for each 
grade level that are responsive to fast-changing energy developments. That provide teachers with skills to organize and simplify 
increasing energy data and that result in students' greater understanding of concepts underlying indigeneous energy devices and 
resources. 

Energy education in the school system 

The Philippines with a population of 48 million and gross national product (current market price) of US S35 billion used 91.9 million 
barrels-of-oil equivalent of energy in 1979, 91 .4% of which is oil. ' 2 Imported oil was 81 A% while domestic oil was only 1 0%, The energy 
requirements are projected to increase by 1 00% ten years hence, By then, domestic oil is to have increased by 62%. Still, imported oil will 
constitute 31% of the 1989 energy requirements, 

These facts and projections and the nonrenewability of oil resource are compelling reasons for having energy education programs in the 
country's school system. Integrating the energy issues into the curriculum will: (1) complement the government's intensive mass-media 
campaign for energy conservation, (2) enable students to study the economic, political, social and environmental facets of the energy 
problem, (3) enhance students' understanding of the science concepts and principles involved, and (4) prepare students for the 
developement or use of indegeneous renewable energy sources. 

The Philippine energy situation is discussed in some local textbooks and taught by a number of teachers. However, this paper limits the 
discussion to energy curriculum materials developed for high school physics (grade 10) for nationwide use. 

Energy in the government physics textbook 

The topics of energy crisis, alternate energy sources, and energy conservation measures are integrated into the Grade 10 physics 
textbook. Physics In Your Environment to accomplish one objective of relating physics to national concerns.' 

The book was developed by the physis team headed by the author from the University of the Philippines Science Education Center, the 
national curriculum development center for science and mathematics. Part of the government textbook project, the book will be 
distributed free, one book for every two students, to public schools in June. 1982. 

The development model for the lessons on energy follows that of the other lessons in the book.- 1 There was preliminary evaluation which 
included assessment of students' entering competencies, teachers' perceptions of student needs, and existing school laboratory 
facilities. A small group of students was available for mini-tryout as the lessons were written by a team of physics teachers, physics 
educators and physicists. The formal tryout was conducted nationwide in 52 schools. Tryout feedback included the difficulty level, 
readability and appeal of the lessons. In revising the lessons, the energy data had to be updated for the final printing. 

One unifying concept of the book is energy, reflected in the unit titles: Force and Energy, Waves; Carriers of Energy, Electrical Energy, 
and Energy of the Nucleus. The specific entry points of the energy topics in the book are the following lessons: 

Lesson 1.2. Speed Up or Slow Down 

5.2. Energy Conservation — How and Why 

10.2. Mechanical to Electrical Energy 

11.2. Electrical Energy to Heat and Light 

12.3, A Visit to a Nuclear Power Station 

Lessons 1.2, 10.2 and 11.2 do not deal as extensively with the energy problem as lessons 5.2 and 12.3. In lesson 1.2. students are told that 
gasoline is pumped to the vehicle engine when the accelerator pedal is pressed. The advice is given that driving at constant, moderate 
speed on a level road saves on gasoline. 

Lesson 1 0.2 mentions the government's plan to build electric power stations that do not depend on oil. The reason cited is the effect of the 
increasing cost of oil on the country's industries and economy. The opeating principle of the geothermal hydroelectric and nuclear power 
plants Es briefly discussed. 



162 



Lesson 1 1 .2 exhorts students to conserve electrical energy for low electric bills to help reduce the nation's energy needs. Students are 
told that appliances with higher power convert electrical energy into other forms faster. They are taught how to read their electric bill and 
electric meter and compute the cost of electrical energy used at home. The heat and light given off by flourescentand incandescent lamps 
are also compared, 

Lessons 5.2 and 12.3 present the energy situation in comic strips interspersed with questions to be answered by students. The comic strip 
format was well received by the tryout students. 

In lesson 5.2, a discussion and activity on the energy conservation law precede the comic strip on the Philippine energy situation. The 
comic strip is a dialogue between a grade 10 student and his teacher. Here are some excerpts. 

Student; Miss Cruz, why conserve energy when it's conserved as a law of nature? Also, as long as the sun shines, we have energy. So. why 

worry? 

Teacher: The government's campaign is to conserve only certain forms and sources of energy. What we need to save are oil and coal 

needed for electricity, transportation and industries. We depend much on oil and its products like gasoline and cooking gas. 

Student: But why save oil? As long as the sun shines, plants and animals grow, die and then decay, forming oil. 

Teacher; But it takes millions of years for them to decay and form oil. We burn oil faster than it is formed. 

Teacher: The government aims to buy less oil from other countries and depend more on our resources. So, it is looking for oil substitutes. 

(Alternate energy sources are briefly shown.) 

Teacher: The government also encourages the industries to produce more for the same or less oil requirements. 

Student: Should we not also use less often the things which need oil? 

Teacher: You're correct, That's why the government sometimes limits the gasoline you buy, As a citizen, how else can you save on energy 

of oil? 

Student: Let me think.... 

Question to the reader: Can you help Lino? List the ways by which you, as a citizen, can conserve energy of oil, 

The comic strip in lesson 12.3 integrates an activity simulating fission and chain reaction using matchsticks and bottle caps. The students 

are cautioned about the (imitations of the simulation. 

This lesson on the nuclear power plant is significant in view of the recent controversy surrounding the only nuclear power plant in the 

country. Construction of the US $1.9 billion 620-megawatt plant was stopped in 1979 for more than a year. Public hearings were 

conducted to investigate the plant's safety. Notwithstanding the additional safeguards to be installed, some environmentalists are still 

opposed to nuclear energy as an alternate energy source. 

The comic strip, through the conversation of two Grade 10 students and the engineer of the plant, presents the side of the government as 

well as the environmental implications of the plant. Uranium is mentioned as a much cheaper energy source, compared to oil and coal. 

The criteria for a nuclear plant site are listed. Nuclear accident, effect of waste heat on marine life and the problem of nuclear waste 

disposal are discussed. 

The lessons in the textbook dealing with the energy problem relied heavily on data and manuals of the Ministry of Energy and the 
Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. 

Enrichment lesson on energy 

To supplement the government physics textbook, the physics team of the University of the Philippines Science Education Center is 
developing modules in several areas; one is on alternate energy sources. A specific area of interest is solar energy. The Philippines is 
blessed with abundant sunlight, averaging 2000 hours a year, with insolation of about 400 calories per square centimetre per day. 

Modules on a box-type solar cooker and tent-type solar crop dryer have been written. 5 6 Development of a module on windmills for 
pumping water is ongoing. The development process of the modules is similar to that of the textbook except the formal tryout is confined 
to a school typical of the target group, 

One primary objective of these modules is to translate the work of the scientist or technoiogist for studens" use, emphasizing the science 
concepts and skills involved. In cases where a device is the focus of study, the device is the vehicle for teaching the science concepts. 

Selected devices are those made of low-cost locally available materials. Substitute materials are used to lower the cost of devices to an 
amount (about US 7-9) affordable by teachers and students for a class project. 

In the solar cooker, for instance, plastic sheet is substituted for glass, carton boxes instead of wooden box, newspapers instead of 
fiberglass material, carbon paper instead of black paint. The only materials to be bought is 2 meters of plastic sheet costing about US S1 ; 
the rest can be brought by students. Needed masking tape and glue are school supplies. If most of the materials are bought including the 
mirror, the device costs about US $7. 

The solar crop dryer costs a bit more. If bamboo is used instead of wood for the framework and can be obtained free, the only expense is 

about US S8.5 for 19 meters of plastic sheet for the table and full-scale models. Thumbtacks areused to fasten the plastic sheet to the 

bamboo frame. 

Response of tryout students to the modules was enthusiastic. The students initially could not believe it was possible to boil eggs in the 

solar cooker. Tasting the hard-boiled eggs for the first time was a joy of discovery for them Some students commented that the solar 

cooked eggs tasted better than eggs boiled the conventional way. 

The solar crop dryer was also well-received by the tryout students many of whom are children of farmers. One farmer parent was willing 

build a costlier dryer made of glass instead of plastic sheet. 

For both devices, it was observed that the construction part by itself was fun for the students. 

In the preparation of the energy lessons, whether enrichment or textbook material, close cooperation with the scientists or engineers 

concerned and the Ministry of Energy is essential for accuracy and recency of content for the dissemination and implementation of 

curriculum materials, coordination with the Ministry of Education and Culture is necessary. 

Teaching units of energy 

Another project of nationwide import is a two-year joint undertaking between the Bureau of Secondary Education, Ministry of Education 
and Culture and the Center for Nonconventional Energy Development of the Ministry of Energy. The project aims to disseminate 

163 



awareness in nonconventional energy through the secondary school system. In particular, the project seeks to train secondary school 
science teachers nonconventioanl energy resources and provide them with teaching units on these resources for integration into the 
school curriculum." 

The grade 10 science teaching units are on: 
1 Energy resources of the Earth 

2, Alternative Energy Sources 

3. Solar Energy 

4 Water and Wind Energy 

The units consist of activities with questions for students. The entry points for integration and list of readings for students are also 
included. After completing the grade 10 units, the students are expected to be able to; 

1 . point out the major energy source on earth; 

2. state at least ten energy conservation conservation measures at home, in school, industry and community; 

3. identify alternative energy sources in the community; 

4. construct appropriate devices using alternative' energy sources in the community; and 

5. explain science principles involved in using devices on alternative energy sources. 
The concepts discussed are: 

1. The major source of energy on earth is the sun, 

2. Fossil fuels, the conventional energy sources, are depletable; hence the need for conservation measures and utilization of 
alternative energy sources. 

3. Geothermal energy, solar energy, hydroelectric power, wind energy, and biomass are some in digeneous alternative energy 
sources. 

4. A solar dryer, solar cooker, solar heater, mini-hydroelectric plant, wind powr generator and biogas plant are some appropriate 
energy devices. 

Noteworthy in this project is the articulation of objectives and concepts of the teaching units for grades 7 to 10. 

Problems and recommendations 

Although some 10th grade energy curriculum materials have been developed and the government's mass-media energy conservation 
campaign is extensive, energy education in relation to the energy problem is not well-established in the Philippine school system. 
There is a need for articulation and empirical placement of energy concepts and values to be taught in grades K-1 2. in the di fferent subject 
areas, integrating the economic, political, social and environmental issues of the energy problem. Implementation of such a spiralling 
energy curriculum requires the development of curriculum materials for students and teachers at each grade level. 

One difficulty faced by curriculum developers is adjusting the normally slow process of curriculum development ( from conceptualization 
to printing) to the rapidly-changing energy research and development. Often, time is needed to simplify the work of the scientist or 
engineer for students' understanding and to look for substitute materials to lower the cost of energy devices for class projects 
With the fast-growing mass-media coverage of the energy problem, Filipino teachers will be greatly helped by materials that teach skills 
and give examples of organizing, synthesizing and simplifying energy data for students' use. 

The mass-media energy materials often border on the information level. There is a need for curriculum developers to aim for students' 
greater understanding fo the concepts and principles involved in local energy devices and indigeneous energy sources. There is also a 
need for curriculum developers to reinforce the mass-media attempts to teach energy conservation values. 

The energy problem is greatly felt in most parts of the country. Yet. the supportive energy education in the schools has only begun, I ndeed 
the country's curriculum developers and teachers face the responsibility and challenge of making energy education in the classroom 
more responsive to the energy developments in the country. 

Footnotes 

' Asian Development Bank, KEY INDICATORS of Developing Member Countries of Asian Development Sank. (Economic Office Asian 
Development Bank, Manila, 1981), Vol, 12. No. 1, p. 175. 

Ministry of Energy. TEN-YEAR ENERGY PROGRAM ^O^, (Ministry of Energy, Manila. January. 1980). p, 28. 

University of the Philippines Science Education Center, PHYSICS IN YOUR ENVIRONMENT. (Ministry of Education and Culture 
Manila, in press). 

; V. Talisayon. Diwang Pisika, 1. 19(1980). 

University of the Philippines Science Education Center, A Solar Cooker. (A module in experimental edition. 1981). 

,; University of the Philippines Science Education Center. A Solar Crop Dryer, (A module in experimental edition. 1981). 

Bureau of Secondary Education, Ministry of Education and Culture, Project Proposal on Integration of Nonconventional Energy 
Technologies in the Curriculum for Secondary Schools (Submitted to Ministry of Energy, 1980). 

14,2 

AN INSTRUMENT TO INVESTIGATE THE LEARNING OF THE ENERGY CONCEPT 

Reinders Duit, Institute for Science Education (IPN), W-Germany 
Abstract 

To investigate the learning of the energy concept in school an instrument has been developed which indicates shifts in the meaning of the 
energy concept for students between the beginning and the end of an instruction unit or between the beginning and the end of a school 

164 



level. The instrument consists of two parts. The first part probes the meaning of the word energy (and the meaning of the words, force, 
work power as welt), the second part is designed to find out whether the students are abie to apply the energy concept in "simple" 
situations. This paper serves as an introduction to the paper "Comprehension of the Energy concept: Philippine and German Experien- 
ces" presented at this conference by Reinders Quit and Vivien Talisayon. The results of teaming the energy concept in two very different 
countries are obtained with the instrument described here. 

Basic aspects of the energy concept 

The instrument presented here has been developed mainly to investigate the learning of the energy concept in grades 5 to 10 although it 
can be used for other purposes as well. I think there is no discussion necessary that at this school level (grades 5 to 10) the general aim of 
teaching energy should be to provide students with some insight to understand problems of energy supply. This aim has been the starting 
point of considerations on the question "Which aspects of the physical concept of energy can help thestudents to some insight in oneof 
the most urgent problems of their future?" 
The following basic aspects of the energy concept have resulted. 

(1) Energy as a quantity «,-,_. < 
This aspect is often delivered when speaking of energy as precondition (or even abil ity) for doing work or doing a useful job in general. 
Energy is "something" being able to bring about changes in the world. Energy is a special (a very general kind of fuel '). Although I tried 
to give a somewhat conspicious notion of what is meant with the aspect of "energy as a quantity" it should not be overlooked that in 
physics a very abstract Idea is meant 2 ). 

(2) Energy transfer 

The abstract quantity being able to bring about changes or to perform a useful job (or just work) can be transferred from one system to 

another (from one place to another). 

(3) Energy conversion *u 
The abstract quantity we call energy can occur in several forms. Energy can be converted from one form to another. 

(4) Energy conservation 

When energy is transferred from one system to another or when energy is converted from one form to another the amount or energy 
does not change. Energy conservation is a basic principle of physics. 

(5) Value of different energy forms 

When speaking about energy one can't avoid to speak about entropy too. For the purpose of introducing energy in lower grades ( e.g. 
grades 7 to 1 0) we have to restrict ourselves to a very simple notion of entropy. When energy is converted in a process the amount of 
energy is conserved. But although the amount of energy has not changed the "value" of energy has decreased. \£/e can't use the 
energy to run the same process once more. The different energy forms are of different value. Mechanical energy and electrical energy 
are of high value because it is possible to convert them totally — in principle — in any other energy form. Heat energy (especially at low 
temperature) is of lower value because it can be converted to mechanical energy only to a certain rate. 

Which of the basic aspects are needed for the above mentioned insight into problems of energy supply? I think the students should get 
some idea of all five aspects because a comprehensive understanding is not possible when restricting to some aspects only, ! t is obvious 
' that the students should know something about the aspect (1) that is to know that energy is needed to run our machines or for life in 
general (energy in food) It is obvious, too. that some knowledge about energy transfer and energy conversion is needed. The answer the 
question whether the aspect of energy conservation can contribute to an insight into problems of energy supply is not as easy to answer 
Of course energy conservation is a basic principle in physics and an energy concept without this aspect would not be the physics concept 
of energy But this answer is not sufficient from the point of view of the above mentioned general aim of teaching energy in school. 
Anyway the aspect is important in our context too, Many problems in the area of energy supply have to do with the fact that one is 
interested only in using energy to run a certain process. What happens with the energy when the process is finished is very seldom 
considered (e g heating up the air). It is easier to answer why the students should know something about the value of different energy 
forms The first reason has to do with the fact that the notion of energy conservation may hamper an understanding of sufficient energy 
supply The student may wonder why there is a problem of energy supply when energy is not lost (is conserved). The second reason has 
to do with the insight of researchers in the area of energy supply that the most important task in this area is not only to save energy but to 
minimize energy devaluation. It is not possible to discuss the 5 basic apsects of the energy concept in more detail here. One should keep 
them in mind during the description of the instrument in the following section of this paper because the instrument, especially the 
evaluation and interpretation of the data, is based on 'these aspects, 

Description of the instrument 

The instrument has the form of a questionnaire. The first part is focussed on the meaning of the words (the concept s names) energy, 
work, power and force. The second part of the questionnaire is restricted more or less to the application of the principle of energy 
conservation in simple processes of mechanics. 

When the 5 basic aspects of the energy concept are concerned there is a focus on aspect (4) although the other apsects are taken into 
consideration, too. 

Part 7 

In the tasks of this part the students are asked to state the meaning the concepts have in physics if they have had physics instruction 

already and to state the colloquial meaning if not. 

TASK 1: associations to energy, work, power and force. The students are asked to write down their associations to words presented for 30 

seconds at the blackboard. Every 30 seconds a new word follows. 

-When you hear or read a word, you usually associate other words which have something to do with the word you heard or read about, i ne 

following task concerns such associations, Seven physics concepts (besides the already mentioned it is current, voltage and P ressure * 

will be named (e.g. written at the blackboard) one after another. You have about 30 seconds for every concept tn which to write down the 

words which come to your mind." 

TASK 2: definitions descriptions of energy, work, power and force 

"It is not so easy to describe in a few words the meaning of the physical concepts energy, work, power and force. Please try anyway to nno 

165 



another description for the meaning of these concepts in physics, 

If vou have not yet heard anything about these concepts in your physics class, give a description of the ideas you have formed about them 



Of vour own.' 



TASK 3: examples for energy, work, power and force 

•Perhaps in task 2 you have had some problems in describing your ideas and notions about the four concepts Maybe it is easier for vou to 
give an example for every concept. 'Peter stretches a rubber band' may for instance serve as an example for work. 'A new battery lights up 
a lamp as an example for energy. Please write down your own examples for energy \ work, power and force. " 

TASK 4: 

The drawing shows a "toy crane," When the switch is 
closed, the "crane" lifts a weight. Please describe this 
process by using each of the following four concepts at 
least once: ENERGY, WORK, POWER and FORCE. 

If you have heard something about these concepts in your 
physics class take the physical meaning. If you have not 
yet heard anything about these concepts use the ideas you 
have formed about them on your own. 

Comment on part 1 

The meaning of thewords energy, work, power and force is investigated in different aspects. The associations provide us with information 
about ideas coming into the minds of the students more or less spontaneously i.e. without "logical" thinking about the concepts This 
method has been used by several authors^ Some of them {e.g. Shavelson and Preece) wanted to detect relationships between content 
structure and cognitive structure. 

In the questionnaire discussed here I am interested in differences between associations of different words and in differences between 
associations of the same word at the 

unit). Therefore, the same scheme of categories is used for every word. Differences of the percentage in categories are the basis for 
interpretation. ^ 

The associations give us some information about ideas coming into the students mind when confronted with words we use in physics as 
names for concepts. The definitions bring us a little nearer to the logicai thinking of the students in this area although one cant 
distinguish whether a definition is based on "understanding" or is merely learned by heart 

The examples for the concepts give information somewhat between associations and definitions.' The same scheme of categories as in 
task 1 is used for evaluating the data. 

Another aspect is payed regard with the application of the words to describe a process (task 4). This task gives, therefore some hints 
whether the students are able to make use of the concepts. 

Of course .Mheresultsoftasksl to4 don't provide us withacomprehensiveinsight in learning the concepts energy, work, power and force. 
J»Z £ i? °h 9 H? a h"" the ™ in9 °J the words ~ and ' of co ^e, ^ey do this only partly. For a more comprehensive ins.ght 
tasks for application had to be included in the questionnaire. Because of time limits (set mainly by the limited patience of energy 
conservation is contained in the second part of the questionnaire, eneryy 

Part 2 

The first two tasks of this part are concerned with the motion ofaballrollingwithoutfrictionand without driveof it sown in curved pathes 
and over slopes of different shapes/ K 

in the three graphs, a ball follows a curved path. The bail is 
released at the marked spot and then rolls with no drive of it's 
own. in alt the experiments we want to pretend that there is no 
friction. 

Mark with (1) the spot you think the bail will 
reach before it begins to roil back! Give a short 
reason for your answer! 

The ball does not remain at the spot you 
marked with (1), It rolls back aiong the curved 
path, Mark this spot with (2). Give a short rea- 
son for your answer here too! 
in this task our ball takes its course over slopes of various shapes. The speed of the ball at spot A is always so great that it can go over the 
slope. Again, the ball rolis without any drive of its own and we shall pretend that there is no friction. 

Put a cross next to the correct answer and give a reason! 

The speed of the ball at spot B is...greater than ( ); less than ( ); the same as ( )...at spot A. 

In these two tasks thestudentsareaskedforaprediction of theheightorthespeedoftheballand for an explanation of thepred.ction The 

purpose of these tasks is to find out whether the students are able to apply the energy concept and especially the principle of energy 

conservation or whether they make use of notions gained from environmental experiences. 

TASK 7 

The last two tasks were concerned with the motion of balls without any friction. We will now turn over to a motion with friction. 

12- il 1 ™ 1 tfia *' ? ca # r J 8 ' 03 * 1 ®* 1 « n 'y w«h the driver, /f s/arfs ro///n^ rfown a /i/// without any drive by the motor anc/ comes fo a res^ af po/n/ /\ o/ 

me Horizontal path. In the second triai the car is loaded with 5 persons. It starts roiling at the same place as m the first trial and rolls down 
the hill without any drive by the motor, too. Where comes the car to a rest in the second trial? 
Please mark this point with a cross (X). 

166 



Please explain your answer! 

Task 7 is not as '■artificial" as tasks 5 and 6. The problem is nearer to the "real" world because friction is no longer neglected. This tasK too 

shall provide us with some information about the ability of the students to apply the energy concept (especially the principle of energy 

conservation). , . ., t . _ . 7 

An explanation in the framework of the energy concept is of course not the only possibility of solving the problems in tasks b to /. 
Application of the concept of force is possible too although this is much more difficult. 

3. APPLICATION OF THE INSTRUMENT 

As already mentioned the questionnaire has been developed to detect differences between the beginning and the end of the learning 

process. ,. 

It has been used to analyse the learning of the energy concept during an instruction unit in grades 7 and 8.* the learning of this concept 
during grade 6 and grade 10 in Philippines and German schools 7 and to detect learning difficulties of students at university level. To 
enrich the information gained from thetasks5to7 interviews have been included. After thepresentation of thequestionnaire in interviews 

some students were confronted with the answers in their questionnaires and asked for some more explanation. This combination of 
questionnaire and interviews seems to be a very economic way to get information from a great sample and to get information in more 
detail from some students. 

Concluding remakrs 

The instrument for investigating the energy concept presented here may give some insight in learning the energy concept (and as rar as 
part 1 is concerned, of course, also in learning the concepts work, power and force), With regard to the 5 basic aspects of the energy 
concept (see section 1 of this paper) tasks 1 to 4 (part 1 ) provide us with some information about all aspects. This is true because the 
schemes of categories for evaluating the data (they can't be presented here) are based on these aspects. Part 2 focusses on the aspect of 
energy conservation in the area of mechanics only. The instrument therefore, gives some limited information about the learning of the 
energy concept. These limitations have to be taken into considerations when conclusions are drawn from the gained data. 

5. Footnotes 

1) see eg • EM Rogers, PHYSICS FOR THE INQUIRINGS MIND (Princeton University Press. New Jersey. 1965.) 

2) see eg ' RP Feynman et. aL THE FEYNMAN LECTURES ON PHYSICS (Addison-Wesley Pub!.. London. 1969). Vol. 1. 

3) see eg ■ R J Shavelson. Methods for examining representations of a subject matter structure in a student's memory. Journal of 
Research in Science Teaching, 11. 231 (1974); P.F.W.- Preece, Development trends in the continued word associations of physics 
students Journal of Research in Sciene Teaching, 14. 235 (1 977); G. Schaefer, Was ist Wachsturn?. in: G. Schaefer. G. Trommer. K. Wenk 
(Ed.) Leitthemen 1. WachsendeSysteme (Westermann, Braunschweig, 1976); W. Jung, Assoziationstests und verwandte Verfahren. in: 
R Duit W Jung, H. Pfundt (Ed.), Vorstellungen der Schuler und naturwissenschaftlicher Unterricht {Auiis, Koln. 1981). 

4) The ability to give examples for a concept is of significance in learning theories like the approaches of Gagne or Klausmeier indicate 
(see R.M.Gagne, The conditions of learning (Holt, Rinehart& Winston, New York, 1970*); J.H.KIausmeieret.aL Conceptual learning and 
development — a cognitive view (Academic Press, New York. 1974). ,„,,._. ,. ■ u * ^ . i«™ 

5) The idea of these takes I owe: H. Dahncke. Energieerhaitung in der Vorsteilung 10- bis 15-Jahnger (IPN Arbeitsbenchte, Kiel. 1973). 

6) Some results of these studies are reported in: R. Duit H. Dahncke, C.v. Rhoneck, Methoden und Zwecke verschiedenerUntersuchun- 
gen zur Erfassung der Vorstellungen von Schulerndie Bewegung einer Kugel in gebogenen Bahnen. in: R. Duit, W, Jung. H. Pfund (Ed.), 
see footnote 3. 

7) Results of this study are presented by R. Duit and V. Talisayon at this conference. 

14.3 

COMPREHENSION OF THE ENERGY CONCEPT - PHILIPPINE AND GERMAN EXPERIENCES 

Reinders Duit, Institute for Science Education (IPN), Kiel, W-Germany 

Vivien Talisayon, Science Education Center — The University of the Philippines 
(UP-SEC). Manila. Philippines 

Abstract 

This abstract is a sequel to R, Duit's paper on "An instrument to investigate the learning of the energy concept.'" This instrument was 
administered to students in Manila (Philippines). Kiel (W-Germany) and Basel (Switzerland).* Preliminary results point out that physics 
instruction of the students enrolled in the study seems to be not very effective with regard to the learning of the energy concept during 
grades 6 to 10. This is true for the Philippino and the German students as well (the Swiss students get no physics instruction in this age 
level), The energy concept the students acquire in physics instruction during grades 6 to 1 is restricted to a limited number of the 5 basic 
aspects of the energy concept mentioned in R. Duit's article/ 

The aspects of energy conservation seems to have a meaning only for about 10% of the German students, the aspect of energy 
degradation (value of different energy forms) is mentioned by no student at all. Furthermore there seems to be only little change of 
notions about energy during instruction and little change of the ability to apply the energy concept (especially the principle of energy 
conservation) in explaining simple processes, 

Overview about the sampler of the study 

Energy is worked out in Manila and Kiel more or less in "traditional" manner via work. In Manila (Philippines) the students get a first 
introduction into this concept in grade 7. In grades 8 and 9 there is no physics instruction. In grade 10 physics instruction is given for five 
periods (each 45 minutes) a week. Energy is introduced as ability to do work. Only little emphassi is given to the principle of energy 
conservation and to the aspect of energy degradation. In K iel (W-Germany) the students get physics instruction during grades 7 to 1 (2 
periods a week, each 45 minutes). Energy is one of the guidelines of physics instruction. The concept is introduced in grade 7 and 
enlarged during grades 8 to 10. 



167 



Some results of the study 

As the answers of the students have not been fully evaluated only preliminary results and preliminary conclusions can be presented here 
Subsequent papers will deal with the findings of our study more in detail. 1 

Definitions for energy: 

The students are asked in this task to write a definition for energy. Many of them mentioned "work". Sixty-two percent in the Philippines 
answered "Energy is the ability (or capability) to do work." 

In Germany the percentage of students mentioning work is smaller and they use other definitions like "energy is stored work" or'energy 
is necessary for work."These definitions have been employed in their textbooks. Remarkably high is the percentage of students both in 
the Philippines and Germany using concepts like force, power, current and strength. 

When force, power and work are concerned, in many answers there seems to be no difference in meaning between these concepts and 
energy. A mixing up of the concepts is visible among many students even after physics instruction about energy. When the five basic 
aspects of the energy concept are concerned the aspects energy transfer, energy conversion and energy conservation are oniy 
mentioned by a small number of students in Germany. The aspect of energy degradation is not mentioned at all. 

Associations to energy: 

Energy is linked very cJoseiy to current (electricity) and fuels for German students in grade 6. Whereas force is linked with strength, 
energy is linked closer with endurance and something stored (general fuel). 

The associations of students in grades 6 and 1 have one remarkable difference. The percentage of physical concepts has increased. This 
increase is caused mainly be a larger number of energy forms and words linked with energy like energy conversion. The general features 
of the diagrams are more or less the same in grades 6 and 10. For instance, current and fuels are still among the associations with highest 
percentages in grade 10. 

It is interesting to note that the associations in the Philippines are different in grade 6 and in grade 10 as well (for grade 1 0. It seems that 
energy for these students is not as closely related to electricity and fuels as for the students in Germany. 

In the Philippines and in Germany a remarkably large number of students associates energy forms in grade 10. Although only some 
students mention the aspect of energy conversion when defining energy many of them are aware that energy can occur in several forms. 

Application of the energy concept (principle of energy conservation): 

The questionnaire we used to investigate students' notions about energy contains three tasks (tasks 5 to?) dealing with theapplication of 
energy conservation. We will be concerned here only with the results for task 5 (see fig. 6). When the application of the principle of energy 
conservation is concerned the same general findings are obtained in all these tasks. 

The students are asked in task 5 to predict the spot that the ball will reach in (a), (b), (c) and to explain their prediction. 
The students in the Philippines have great difficulties with this task. A small number is able to predict the correct height on the right side 
when the ball is released. But almost no one is able to predict the height on the right side when the ball is going back, too. For the German 
students there is a remarkable difference between grades 6 and 10, especially for task 5a. 

The students in Switzerland, who have no physics instruction between grades 7 and grade 10. gain only a very small increase in grade 1 0. 
It is discouraging that only a small number of students make use of the word energy and the principle of energy conservation when 
explaining the prediction, The number of students using these explanations is relatively high in task 5. In the other tasks of the 
questionnaire the number is much smaller. 

Although the questionnaire was presented in a physics class and deals with associations and definitions to energy, force, work and 
power, too. most students do not make use of these concepts but prefer words and notions stemming from their everyday experiences. 
Sometimes a mixing up of physics knowledge and "everyday" knowledge is visible. One student, for instance, predicted in task 5a "the 
same height" and explained this in the framework of energy conservation. But in task 5b he gave an incorrect prediction and returned to 
explanations stemming from everyday experiences. 

Conclusions 

As mentioned above already only preliminary conclusions can be presented here because the answers of the students have not been fully 
evaluated yet.' 

With regard to the five basic aspects of the energy concept, the knowledge obtained by our students during physics instruction is rather 

limited. 

This knowledge seems to be not sufficient to enable them to have an insight into the problems of energy supply. The students have, for 

instance, great difficulties to make use of the principle of energy conservation even in simple processes. The conception of energy 

degradation (value of different energy forms) is not established in the students. 

We think that our findings point out that energy should not be restricted to the ability to do work. 

Introducing energy in the "traditional" way seems to cause severe difficulties because energy is linked with electricity and fuels more 
closely than with processes in mechanics. It would be interesting to investigate whether the approaches on dealing with energy in school 
presented at this conference 4 are able to overcome some of the learning difficulties described here. 

Footnotes 

' Ft. Quit: An instrument to investigate the learning of the energy concept. This paper is contained in these proceedings, too. 

This study has been carried out during a stay of R. Duit at the Science Education Center of the University of the Philippines (UP-SEC) in 
the beginning of 1981 as part of a cooperation between the IPN in Kiel and the UP-SEC in Manila, Very many thanks to Prof, Dr. Dolores 
Hernandez, the director of UP-SEC, and the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) for facilitating this stay. 
Very many thanks, too. toGenelitaC. Balanguewho kindly processed theanswersof thePhilippinesamples, to Hans Dorrwho evaluated 
patiently the answers of all samples according to complicated schemes of categories and to Hans Brunner who organized the study in 
Switzerland. 

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Please contact for further information 
R. Duit (IPN - University of Kiel. Olshausenstr. 40/60. D 23 Kiel. W-Germany) 

! see the papers of G. Delacote. U. Harbor-Schaim, F. Herrmann, and G.B. Schmid presented in these proceedings. 



14-4 

ENERGY IN SCIENCE CURRICULUM OF PRIMARY SCHOOLS: IN SERVICE 
TRAINING FOR SCIENCE TEACHERS IN A DEVELOPED COUNTRY 

Prof. MarNu Rioseco G. 

Universidad de Concepcion, Sede Los Angeles (Ciencias Bastcas), 

Casilla 341 - Los Angeles - Chile. 

Introduction 

Since 1979. at the Sede Los Angeles, Universidad de Concepcion, Chile, a research project has been developed, whose main objective is 
training teachers in service, working together as a research team, designing ascience curriculum adequated to the local teacher-student- 
school conditions. 

This way we want to make teachers realize their own capacities for teaching science, although most schools do not have science 
equipment and teachers must be always seeking for equipment substitutes. We want teachers to understand that science should be 
taught according to the children environment, taking advantage of all what is familiar to them. Children who live in farms, which is the 
case of many of those in our region, do know a lot about science due to their daily experiences and teachers should develop the science 
curriculum considering this informal knowledge. 

In other words, one of the main purposes of the project is to make teachers realize that the national science curriculum might be 
re-orgnized according to the local conditions, around any of some topics of interest for the children, and that theselectedtopiccould be 
the "core" for the whole science course. 

Since few topics in science are wholly significant unless considered in relation to energy, we propose ENERGY as one of these"CORE." 
Besides, being the ten schools which participate in the research project located in a region where the hidroelectric centrals arespecially 
important and a job source for most of the people of the region, we want to emphasize hidroelectric energy as a special topic. 

Science curriculum in Chile, for primary schools, is organized around five main objectives which are developed along the eight years of 
primary school: 

1. Scientific processes 

2. Living things and the environment 

3. Man as a biological being 

4. Matter and energy 

5. Earth and its place in space 

Project research 

Xhe research project development began in 1979. We selected ten schools which presented characteristics that could be considered 
representative for our region. Thus we have six small rural schools and four urban schools (two small and two big ones). The project 
considers the work with children from 10 up to 14 years old — 5th to 8th year of primary school. Some of thesample school teachers have 
specialization in science, but most do not, Nevertheless, this is a common characteristic of our schools and this is not considered a 
disadvantage for the research project development. 

In 1979 the research objective was to make a diagnosis of science teaching in our region. The information obtained was used for defining 
the sample of schools for the project development. 

In 1980 we started working with teachers on weekly sessions where they designed the science curriculum for the 5th grade according to 
the school-students- and own conditions and then tried the material with the students, evaluated thestudents achievement and fed back 
the system. During this year, 1981. they are designing material for the 6th grade. The project will be finished in 1983, when the students 
complete their 3th grade. 

Energy and the science curriculum 

We selected two main topics as core for the development of the 6th grade science curriculum: Health and Energy 

Eight of the ten schools are working around "Health" as Core Curriculum and two schools decided to have "Energy" as a core. Both 

teachers at these iast two ones do not have specialization in science. 

Table I presents some of the class characteristics on both schools, 

TABLE I. - Students characteristics in schools using ENERGY as CORE. 

The objectives which should be reached at the end of the course are: 

1. Scientific Processes. 

General Objective: Ability for defining, interpreting data and formulating conclusion. 

Specific objectives: 

a. To formulate definitions which properly describe an object, a living thing or a phenomena, with respect to the content in which it is 
used. 

b. To describe and to experiment using properly the words "independent variable." "dependent variable" and "constant variabfe." 

c. To infer from comparison of informations taken from two or more tables or related graphs. 

d. To be able to tell observation from inference, prediction or formulation of an hypothesis. 

e. To formulate hypothesis in order to explain a fact or a phenomena, considering a set of observations and/or inferences. 

169 



? Livina thinas and the environment. 

General objective: To understand and to realize interdependence relations among living things and their environment as factors which 

favor subsistence. 

t P T°Q rlcoo^zethQt populations living on a certain place constitute a biological organization level called community 

b To distinguish some of the characteristics of a biological community: competence, fluctuation and limiting environmental factors. 

c To recoqnize the existence of a food interdependence among living things (food chain). 

d To describe some types of relations among species of organisms in a community (symbiosis, parasitism, etc.). 

e. To describe one community of the region and to recognize that it also includes microorganisms. 

3. Man as a biological being. 

General objective: To understand and to value the importance of perserving and improving health. 

a P To\ecogn^eThe illnesses affecting man are due to different causes, and to emphasize those due to microorganism. 

b To describe some characteristics of common infectious illnesses, indicating proper prevention and treatment. 

c To appreciate the influence of factors which limit the defensive capacity of organisms (bad nutrition, alcoholism, drugs). 

d To describe and apply procedures of basic first aid techniques for prevention of common accidents. 

e To recognize the need for applying basic norms of environmental sanitation, litter disposal, drinking water supply, green areas 

provision, etc. . . 

f. To value and to appreciate the contribution of science men in relation to the fight against illness. 

4. Matter and Energy. 

General objective: To identify some matter properties, certain types of energy and its transformations. 

5. Earth and its place in space. 

General objective: To know the main characteristics of the solar system. 

Specific objectives: ... 

a To describe the solar system considering that planets turn around the sun along characteristic orbits. 

b To describe the sun and moon clipses as a function of relative positions in the sun-earth-moon system. 

c. To value and appreciate the science men research work with respect to the solar system. 

DuVto'time limitations, in this paper we will only develop the first three Units which correspond to the first semester of the year 
(March-July); the last three ones will be developed during August-December term. 

Below we give a description of the activities designed by the school teachers for each Unit or Section, which they think will help the 
students to reach the corresponding objectives. 

Section 1: Energy, a vital principle for man. 

General objective: To understand that human organism requires a constant supply of food and oxygen and a permanent disposal of 

residues. 

To understand and to value the importance of health preservation and improvement 

Specific objectives: 

a. To identify main food sources: to classify food with respect to its components and function. 

b. To describe the characteristics of a balanced diet and to establish its contribution to health, 

c. To recognize the need for applying basic norms of environmental sanitation, specially that of green areas provision 

Activities 

'Presentation of drawings 

'Explanation and comments on drawings 

"Identification of food with respect to origin 

'Classification of food according to its composition 

'Making distinction between plastic, energetic and functional food 

'Design of 2 x 2 tables for food classification 

'Inquiries about the characteristic of a baJanced diet 

'Comments on food requirements for man with respect to the kind of work fulfilled, 

'Inquiries about the way substances are transformed through metabolism into vital energy 

'Establishing a relation forces and energy 

'Distinguishing mechanic from intellectual work 

'Comments on diets required for each one of the different jobs done by man 

'T # o make inferences related to consequences of a non-balance between excessive waste of energy and its reposition 

'To design weekly diets for people fulfilling mechanical or intellectual work 

'To prepare a wail magazine presenting model diets for school lunch 

'To investigate on combustion and its collateral effects 

'To comment on the importance of green areas provision for industrial centers and big cities 

'To talk about existing dispositions and to propose new ones for adoption, in order to reduce contamination. 

Section 2: Natural forces as used by man 

General objective: To acknowledge the natural forces and its utilization by man 

To be acquainted with gravity as a distance acting force which determines the objectives weight, 

Specific objectives: 

a. To recognize gravity as a force which determines the bodies weight. 

b. To study experimentally mass, volume, and density. 

c. To acknowledge natural forces which man utilizes for energy production. 



170 



Activities: 

'Measurement of forces 

'Inquiries about gravity and to relate it with Newton's work 

'Relation between gravity and weight 

'Definition of mass - volume - density 

*To establish relations between mass, volume, and density 

'To comment about uncontrolled effects of natural forces 

'Inquiries about man utilization of natural forces for his benefit 

'To design models of water mills and wind mills 

Section 3: Energy and its different manifestations 

General objective: Students should be able to recognize energy manifestations such as heat, light, electricity, magnetism and name 

energy transformations. 

Specific objectives: 

a. To experiment with energy in its different forms. 

b. To transform energy from one kind to another, 

c. To recognize the energy manifestations in daily life. 

Activities: 

"Inquiries about potential energy 

'inquiries about kinetic energy 

'Inquiries about chemical energy 

•Transforming experimentally chemical energy into electric energy 

'Building a steam machine 

"Drawing some heat engines (internal and external combustion), identifying the energy sources in each case 

'Location on regional charts of the principal coal layers and oil refining plants 

'Inquiries about production and consumption of coal 

'Inquiries about sub-products of oil; making a collection of samples 

'Visiting an hidroelectric central 

'Comments on uses of electric energy and other types of energy 

•Design of electric circuits 

'Inquiries about future energy sources and comments about world energy becoming scarce. 

For each one of these sections the teachers prepare some student guides for practical work. These guides are worked through by two or 
three students. Each group works on a different guide and after finishing the work the students exchange results obtained and comment 
on them, arriving to some conclusions. This way the teacher will be able to reach the different objectives stated for the section and the 
students will be taken through practical work to the understanding of all important concepts considered in the course. 

The evaluation instruments for each section are prepared by the school teachers and then revised by the research team evaluator. The 
evaluation is criterion referenced and objectives are the criterion used for item construction. 

Evaluation results indicate that students achievement is fair and that the objectives are reached. The percentage of correct answers for 
the first section was 63%. 

Conclusions 

Traditionally science teaching in Chile at primary schools has come across many obstacles, specially due to teachers attitudes, who 
associated science teaching with sophisticated equipment. Being schools generally unequiped, teachers avoid the teaching of science or 

just make students copy a certain amount of contents related to science which the children memorize not understanding what really is 
behind these facts. " 

Teachers working with the research team, and being considered as part of it, have come to realize the importance of practical work related 
to the children surroundings and have received in service training by means of their participation on the research project. 

We, as managers of the project and as university teachers, just guide the school-teachers and help them with suggestions, bibliography 
and assistance. We don't teli them what to do or how to do it; we just present them with different approaches for the curriculum 
development and they plan, design and apply with the students their own approach. They have come to consider their teaching as an 
hypothesis: "Effective teaching by means of a different approach to science curriculum." 

This kind of service training seems quite effective for developing countries, where possibilities for post-graduate courses are few and 

most teachers do not have the opportunity to assist to a science education college. The kind of work done with the teachers, being 

themselves part of the research team, has changed their attitude towards the teaching of science, and this is for us the best sign of 

success. 

Together with the above, flexibility as a characteristic of the Chilean scienc curriculum allows the teacher to select any important topic 

related either to the students interests or to local, national or international requirments, such as ENERGY. 



171 



14.5 

SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAMS 

— FROM KINDERGARTEN TO UNIVERSITY - 

S. Lam pert Mechanical Engineering Department 

University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90007, USA. 

K. Wulf, School of Education, 
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90007, USA. 

G. Yanow, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 
Abstract Pasadena, CA 91101, USA. 

A series of educational programs has been developed to familiarize various population segments with the potential of solar energy. Initial 
programs were aimed at developing elementary school curricula, but the same approach can apply for all grade levels. In addition, 
materials and demonstration devices developed have practical application for the solar designer and are presently used as instruction 
tools at the university level. 

Salient features and accomplishements of this program include:. 

a) Solar Energy Curriculum for Elementary Schools. 

b) Secondary School Programs. 

c) Development of Solar Device Demonstration Kits. 

d) Development of Broad-Based Educational Programs. 

I. Introduction 

The University of Southern California, working with the Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is developing aseries of educational progams 
to familiarize various population segments with the potential of solar energy. The initial stages of the program were aimed at developing 
elementary school curricula, but it was felt the approach could be applied for all grade levels. In addition, thematerials and demonstration 
devices developed have practical application for the solar designer, and are presently being used as instructional tools at the university 
level. 

The more salient features and accomplishments of this program include: 

Solar Energy Curriculum for Elementary Schools - This program was developed under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, and 

has been tested throughout the U.S. To date, over 1000 copies of the curriculum have been distributed to 40 states and to selected groups 

outside the U.S. General acceptance has been favorable. Development of the materials and field tests results are described in Section II of 

this paper. 

Secondary School Programs - These were developed for schools in Southern California, and established a network of weather stations 

throughout the Los Angeles basin to monitor solar insolation and augment existing weather data. The methods used, findings and 

suggestions for implementing similar networks in other regions are discussed in Section III. 

Development of Solar Device Demonstration Kits - These kits were developed to be both practical and instructional in nature for use in 

primary and secondary schools. For example, the "Sun See" and "Five Cent Solar Tracker" are readily assembled and can be used 

effectively in the design of solar collectors. "Sun See" can measure certain useful parameters in collector design, while the Tracker can be 

used in site selection and other related activities. These are discussed in Section IV. 

Development of Broad-Based Educational Programs - All of the elements above can be used to develop broader educational programs 

about solar energy, aimed primarily at the general public. This is discussed in Section V. 

II. Solar energy curriculum, K-6 

Funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy in October 1977. a team led by Dr. Seymour Lampert of the School of Engineering 
at the University of Southern California generated lessons appropriate for a 6-week unit in solar energy for students at various elementary 
school levels. Dr. Gilbert Yanow of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Dr. Kathleen M. WuJf of the School of Education at the University of 
Southern California, and 21 teacher specialists recommended by school districts in Southern California, pooled their expertise on the 
project. 

Systems Approach 

Since time and funding were limited, the USC/JPL team decided a systems approach was the most effective way to create the new 
curriculum. The plan was to obtain simultaneous contributions from each member, concentrating on their respective areas of expertise. 
Thus. Drs. Lampert and Yanow contributed information on content and subject matter, Dr. Wulf was responsible for educational 
psychology aspects, and the teachers suggesed practical applications for the classroom. The advantage of this approach was the team, 
collectively, was more effective and creative than as a group of individuals. 

All participants attended six 8-hour workshos during the winter of 1977-78. In the first meeting, the content contributors shared basic 
information on what solar energy is, how it can be used, and why it is a reasonable energy alternative. However, the teachers were 
concerned about needing a stronger background in science (although they were considered the best by their school districts) before they 
would feel comfortable designing new lessons for students. 

At that point, the subject matter contributors became resource individuals to answer any questions at any time during the workshop. 
Once the parameters of the content were identified, the educational psychologist and an assistant worked with the teachers to establish 
goals, performance objectives, and to analyze the tasks for appropriate sequencing. By agreement, it was decided to work in groups to 
write the goals and objectives, upper grade and primary grade teachers clustering separately. 

From the beginning, it became clear to everyone that sequencing of the objectives was more important than trying to assign grade level 
labels to particular activities. Therefore, the teachers began thinking in terms of tasks, i.e., what does thestudnets have to know to be able 
to achieve a given objective? In this way, required "prerequisite" behaviors were built into the curriculum at earlier stages. Similarly, 
concept development becomes more important in succeeding stages, exposing a young student to a new idea in the first level of lessons 
(e.g.. the size of the solar system), and then building on that introductory knowledge with more difficult activities at later stages. 



172 



"Non-Reading Formats for Lessons" 

A number of teachers stipulated the lesson plans developed from the stated objectives should not be based totally on reading ability. 
Their wide experience in the large urban Los Angeles area made them aware of enormous ranges in student achievement, as well as 
problems with reading, since a large percentage of the students speak English as a second language. For these reasons, the curriculum 
package included worksheets where a child can mark temperatures on a picture of a thermometer and can color code findings of a solar 
experiment. 

Young students, and those with limited reading ability can demonstrate their mastery of objectives in a number of ways. In the case of 
Kingergarten pupils, teachers are encouraged to use a checklist entitled "Suggested Participation Observation Sheet" to record student 
involvement in tasks. 

Another strategy is to use a project-designed laboratory worksheet requiring the student to draw a "prediction" in answer to a teacher's 
question, e.g.. "What do you think will happen if a plant doesn't get sunlight?" When the experiment is completed, the student records the 
observation pictorially . Another example of mastering a concept with limited reading skill is a worksheet "Looking at Energy." where the 
student considers five forms of energy in terms of three desirable criteria 

Preliminary Evaluation 

Since field tests were planned in elementary schools around the U.S., the major concern was to obtain meaningful data about: 1 ) student 
achievement; 2) student opinions on lesson effectiveness; 3) parent opinions on lesson effectiveness and: 4) teacher suggestions for 
improvement. All of this was to be accomplished with minimal paper-and-pencii testing and writing requirements for teachers. 

To assess lesson effectiveness from the student's point of view, an evaluation system was prepared to assess student reactions. ToThe 
basic statement. 4 M want to learn more about solar energy," responses of "not much." "some," or "a great deal." were offered as options. 
Younger primary students cold respond using a scale of "happy" to "sad" pictorial representations. 

One thrust of the solar energy lesson was to raise awareness about energy conservation issues in children. The team set out to measurea 
student's out-of-the-classroom behavior by asking parents if: 1) their child told about studying solar energy during the past few weeks 
and; 2) whether their child advised about conserving energy in the home. 

Finally, teachers participating in the field test were asked to contribute their student achievement data, student opinion data, parent 
opinion data, and their own appraisal of the lessons. Dealing with each lesson taught, teachers were asked to respond to one quest ion: "In 
your professional opinion, how can this lesson be improved?" 

When the data is complete in 1981 . the results of the first large-scale evaluation will be reported. Appropriate recommended changes will 
be incorporated in the curricular materials and. with the formative evaluation completed, the curriculum will be made available by the 
Department of Energy for nation-wide use. 

III. Secondary School Programs 

In 1977, a cooperative program was initiated between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Southern California Edison Company 
(SCE) to develop an educational supplement about solar energy that could be provided to science teachers in the Southern California 
area. The aim of the program was to provide the high school teachers with materials they could use in an educational atmosphere, and 
materials students could. use with significant scientific value, 

To accomplish this. JPL developed a series of specialized scientific kits, The initial kit, and perhaps the most useful, was a silicon cell 
pyranometer kit 1 . 

Detailed assembly instructions are included with the hardware components. The assembly manual contains 47 detailed check-off steps, 
and 20 explanatory photographs. These instructions were field tested with the cooperation of several high schools in the JPL area. For the 
teacher and student, a general information and operation manual was also included. This manual discusses the general properties of a 
pyranometer, and the accuracy of the particular unit supplied. All kits were pre-calibrated before being sent to the schools and. after 
construction by the students, a member of the JPL team visited the high school to recheck the calibration. Additional information 
supplied included detailed operating instructions on how to use the pyranometer kit. operating a chart recorder (presented to the 
students by SCE), and a variety of application modes. 

Once the units were installed and checked out, periodic data gathering was done by all the high schools in the program. This data was 
then returned to JPL, where microcomputers were used to reduce the information. Students and instructors were also given access to 
these computer programs at their own high schools. In this way, the students realized they were not simply going through an educational 
exercise, but were collecting information for a recognized scientific institution. 

The silicon cell pyranometer kits were produced at a cost of 550/kit. The major problem with a sil icon cell pyranometer is color sensitivity. 
It is more sensitive to reds than the human eye and. as a consequence, gives false readings of higher light levels during early morning and 
late afternoon hours. This is shown in the +7.1% error based on a whole day integration. However, as recommended to the students, a 
-3.0 0/ o correction factor was normally applied to whole day integrated values. 

In addition to the solar insolation data gathered with the pyranometer kits, many student and teacher teams stated recording temperature, 
humidity and wind data. Thus, the pyranometer kit. in many cases, could be considered an ice-breaker. Once a solar energy curriculum 
was initiated as part of the science program at high schools, numerous other applications were quickly brought in. Many schools that 
started in the program initially now have extensive solar energy programs of their own where the pyranometer kit is only one part of that 
activity. Other kits included in the demonstration materials given to the teachers and students were a thermo-syphon hot water heating 
system, and a battery charging unit using photovoltaic cells. 

IV. Solar device demonstration kits 

Several solar device demonstration kits developed for the elementary school curriculum' can also have broader applications and 
usefulness at the high school and even university levels. Two such devices are discussed in the following paragraphs, 

The "Sun See" . ... 

Originally designed to acquaint elementary school students with meter reading, the "Sun See" shows greater versatility as a scientific 
instrument. The unit consists of a silicon solar cell wired to a milliammeter. When exposed to the sun or an incandescent light source, it 

173 



will record an output proportional to the light intensity. When properly calibrated, it can act as a pyranometer to provide realistic 
quantitative values of solar insolation. Even without calibration, this instrument can be used to determine a number of useful parameters 
associated with solar collector design, and can serve as an exploratory device for site selection. Four approaches for determining these 
parameters are discussed below. 

Measuring Transmissibility 

The "Sun See" is placed on a horizontal surface with the solar cell facing the sun, The unit is rotated until a maximum reading is obtained 
on the milliammeter. This reading becomes the reference value, proportional to the total solar insolation (I *). The glazing material (glass, 
plastic, etc. } is placed in front of the solar cell and the reading obtained on the meter is proportional to the radiative flux (|p) received by the 
cell The ratio In/his roughly proportional toX the transmissibility. This parameter is used in rating glazing materials forsolar collectors. 

Reflectivity/Absorbtivity 

Reflectivity can be determined using methods similar to those used fortransmissibility. The solar cell, however, is turned 180 degree from 
the direction of the sun after the reference I o reading is obtained. The reflecting or absorbing surface is then placed in front of thecell. and 
a reading of the reflected portion of the sunlight (k) is taken. The ratio U/lois proportional toX the reflectivity. If a value for absorbtivity is 
desired, it can be calculated by. Keep in mind these are comparative values and not exact, but they can be used to evaluate a number of 
candidate surfaces. High absorbtivity and low reflectivity in certain wavelength ranges Is desirable for surfaces used in solar collectors. 

Concentrators 

The effectiveness of various reflecting surfaces selected by the process above can also be measured while varying mirror configurations 
relative to the solar cell, and observing the readings on the meter. The optimum angles and configuration can be readily determined with 
the instrument. An extension of this technique can also be applied to more sophisticated concentrators, such as the Compound Parabolic 
Concentrator (CPC). 

Occultation Experiments 

A simple occultation experiment can be performed, giving a qualitative answer for the amount of diffuse radiation to the total radiation at 
any given time of day. First, the reading proportional to I o is obtained, and then the cell is shielded from direct sunlight with opaque 
material. The value derived is proportional to the diffuse radiation. I d. The ratio I n/\o gives the fraction of diffuse radiation to total radiation. 
this is an important parameter for obtaining the ratio of beam radiation (lb) to total radiation. 

Lambert's Law Experiments 

Another experiment that can be performed with the M Sun See" instrument is proving light intensity varies inversely as the square of the 
distance. The experiment can be performed with an incandescent light. The instrument is placed at a distance that produces a "one unit" 
reading on the ammeter and the actual distance measured. Then, the instrument is moved toward the light source until a "two unit" 
reading is obtained and the distance noted. Intermediate readings and distances are recorded and compared with a plot of I 1 d 

These applications of the "Sun See" instrument are only a few of the numerous comparative analyses that can be devised with a little 
ingenuity on the part of the user. This type of investigation, however, should not be confused with very carefully performed experimental 
measurements. 

The Five-Cent Solar Tracker 

Another application of the "Sun See" unit could be solar tracking. While observing the ammeter, the solar cell can be rotated until it reads 
maximum, giving the azimuth direction measured from the solar south {not magnetic south). Tilting thecell until its surface is normal to 
the sun then gives the altitude angle. However, a simple device, called "The Five-Cent Solar Tracker" can be constructed to do the same 
thing. Basically, the tracker is an inexpensive verson of a number of solar site selection instruments. An old shoe box can be used, or any 
similarly shaped carton. Azimuth, altitude, and profile angles may be readily obtained by measuring the shadows cast inside the box, The 
baseline of the box must be on a horizontal surface and must be oriented as shown in a true north-south direction (not magnetic) 
Tracking involves measuring the sun elevation and azimuth angles as the day progesses. The azimuth angle is noted as positive before 
solar noon, and negative after solar noon. At equinox, sunrise will be at +90° . and -90° at sunset. 

V. GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION PROGRAMS 

During the course of these activities, two adult education programs were also held. A 9-week "Solar Energy for the Consumer" course was 
given at Pasadena City College, and a weekend course for the construction industry was given at the University of Southern California. 
Both courses were well attended. "Solar Energy for the Consumer," had approximately 100 students, and the course for the construction 
industry had approximately 50 attendees. Both courses used the same general format i.e.. a systems approach to the education of the 
particular students. Specific teaching goals were established, and then appropriate materials supplied, with heavy emphasis placed on 
hands-on activity 

Many of the activities described in the Elementary School Curriculum have been used by highschools and universities. The "10-Cent Hot 
Dog Cooker" activity, described in other papers, has been used in many high schools, and the Riverside City College uses it as a starting 
project for initiating their air conditioning, refrigeration/solar students. Here, the students are told it is an elementary school project and 
they should use their own imaginations and skills to improve upon the basic design. 

Some schools have also used the solar hot dog cooker as a pseudo-science project. After thestudents construct thesedevices. contests 
are held to see whose device will cook a hot dog fastest. 

As a final point, and perhaps the most satisfying, the authors have been told by many teachers thrust into the position of teaching science 
without the appropriate academic background, that these materials enabled them to carry out a successful science program at their 
respective elementary schools. Using the approaches described in this paper, solar energy concepts are easily understood by both 
teachers and students. Because of the heavy emphasis placed on hands-on activities, these lessons have provided an exciting and 
somewhat novel approach to the traditional teaching of science. 

Footnotes 

1 A pryranometer is a scientific instrument used to precisely measure the total amount of sunlight falling on a given area. 

2. Lampert. S.. Wulf. K.M. and Yanow. G., A Solar Energy Curriculum for Elementary Schools, Office of Solar Applications. U S 
Department of Energy. Feb. 1980. 

3 Lampert. S.. Wulf. K.M, and Yanow. G.. "The Dissemination of Solar Energy Curriculum." Proceedings of 1981 Annual Meeting. 
Philadelphia. PA, ISES. Vol 4.2. 

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SESSION 15: ENERGY EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 

15.1 

ENERGY EDUCATION FOR AFRICA: possible Policies for the future 

PaulB.Vitta 

Department of Physics, University of Dar es Salaam 

P.O. Box 35063, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 



Abstract 

Africa's energy requirements will be satisfied after, and only to the extent that, a number of obstacles will have been overcome. These 
obstacles include the following: a lack of the will to act; the absenceof policies to guide action; the inadequacy of data that might facilitate 
the preparation of needed policies; shortfalls of {and even shortcomings in) those who formulate or implement policies; widespread 
suboptimal utilization of energy resulting, essentially, from ignorance; and, as might be expected, Africa's poverty. The aim of this article 
is to identify among these obstacles those that are amenable to removal by the thrust of educational effort and to sketch the sort ot 
policies their removal would require. Five broad policies are suggested, One seeks both qualitative and quantitative improvements in 
human energy and in its utilization. This policy isa consequence ofthedominanceof labourin African economies. A second policy has as 
its aim a greater and more balanced provision of specialized skills - especially of skills that are catalytic to the removal of the obstacles 
mentioned This policy and the first imply educational reform, the subject of a third policy. A fourth policy, concerning research, is 
basically a call for relevance - again, Co-operation is crucial to the economic survival of Africa, and is the subject of the last policy. But if 
the past is any indication, this subject will continue to attract less attention before it attracts more. 

Rsdsons 

Limits obviously exist as to what education alone can achieve in satisfying Africa's energy requirements, and there may be no better 
illustration of this than the energy crisis itself, For, since the onset of the crisis in 1 973, developing countries generally, but most of those 
in Africa particularly, have increasingly become victims of one dual tyranny upon which education appears to have htte immediate 
influence This is the onslaught, on one hand, oftheoil crisis itself and, on the other, of the retaliatory measures that crisis provokes in the 
developed countries Owing to the double grip of these twin circumstances, nearly all African countries (naturally, excepting the 
oil-producers- Algeria, Gabon, Libya and Nigeria) now spend larger and large fractions of their convertible incomes on oil {10 percent in 
1973 but now nearly 50 per cent in the case of Tanziania, for example), and also on their imports from the developed world. At the same 

time while this tyranny rages, African countries are nowhere near finding effective ways of parrying either of its blows and recouping 
their losses On the contrary, for a long time to come, they seem destined to continue taking both blows lying down. If the fortunes of 
African countires resemble thus those of a feeble and helpless merchant locked in commercial combat with powerful and greedy 
adversaries, limits to what eduction alone can accomplish in Africa begin to emerge. 

Nevertheless three important reasons remain which indicate that African countries can still turn to education profitably. All of them are 
familiar but they can bear repetition. One is related to the first function of education - that is , to the transmission of knowledge. This 
function has as its aim the improvement of the manner in which individuals interact with each other and with their environment. It is 
therefore of great interest of Africa, where few changes are as crucial as those that produce such improvement. 

At present in Africa the interaction of individuals with each other and with their surroundings is generally ineffectual, It is purposeful, of 
course But often it is not very productive. The reason is that it consists of efforts that are neither sufficiently methodical nor adequately 
discriminating in their use of muscle power.There are not enough systematic attempts to exploit connections between events or relations 
between objects - indeed efforts are not rarely pitted against both. Too often dealings with the environment are prompted by beliefs that 
are not results of a systematic interrogation of nature. Too often those dealings are influenced by the unstated expectation that, in 
choosing its response to human effort, the environment is guided by the normal rules of proper human conduct. One gets the distinct 
impression that special pleas may be addressd to the environment, which etiquette then obliges it toconsider. Not seldom such pleas take 
the place of the effective acts that manipulate nature through its own laws. The individual's interaction with his environment consequently 
is inefficient with theresultthattherangeof possibilities that the environment offers him isseverely limited, Notsurpnsingiy, the majority 
of the African populations (69 per cent in 1973) live in conditions of "extreme poverty" (Kingue 1979, p 95). For them, it is no mean 
achievement merely to hold the line and keep body and soul together. Even for the rest, work is noted more for its drudgery than for its 
rewards, and life more for its struggles than for its pleasures, This cries for redress. 

The instrument appropriate for bringing about the required improvements is mass education. For it to be immediately effective in this, that 
education has to be aimed in the mostdirect manner possible both at an efficient utilization of the individual's own energy and ata rational 

exploitation of the energy resources in his environment. Provided proper arrangements are made, education can achieve both of these 
aims. Thus the first reason. 

The second reason relates to the second function of education - namely, research. In order to meet their energy requirements, it is clear 
not only that African countries will have to devise and employ more efficient ways of utilizing their existing energy supplies, but also that 
they will have to seek new energy sources. To each of these ends, the present stock of knowledge no doubt will proveuseful. It is equaNy 
certain, however, that in addition to existing knowledge new knowledge will be required as well. Thus the need for research. Thus also the 
second reason. 

The third reason is a subsidiary one and might have been subsumed within the preceding two, but is separated from them here in order to 
accord to it thespecial prominence it deserves in Africa.This is the necessity of collective action. Education can, and should, pave theway 

for collective action by fostering in students attitudes that predispose them favourably towards activities aimed at the benefit of their 
communities. This is not a question of ideology but of survival. Many African countries are simply too small or too weak to be 
economically viable (Adedeji 1979, p 87); at the same time, each of them guards its separate sovereignty jealously. In unfortunate 
circumstance such as these, survival requires at least the co-operation of African countries in the expoitation of their energy resources 

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particularly arid in the pursuit of their common goals generally, "Collective self-reliance" is a notion now very much in vogue in Africa 
(although, regrettably, more in word than in deed). It is a concept not entirely without merit, especially since many African states will 
almost certainly never attain individual self-reliance. To see the significance of the idea, one need only compare the wealth of individual 
African nations with the vast resources of the United States or the Soviet Union, or, even, with the great potential of "the patiently 
organized labour of 900 million Chinese". Such comparison makes it evident that, if African countries insist on each blazing its own trail, 
they should expect not only an ever-widening gap between themselves and the richer nations, but also their reduction into mere 
appendages of those countries (Tevoedjre 1979, p 17). 

At present, intra-African co-operation is impeded by especially one misfortune- namely, the evanescence of African political alliances. 
These alliances, as is well-known, are usually born of thepersona/ rapport existing among heads of state. Therein lies their weakness: 
They are co-terminous either with that rapport or with the principals 1 tenure in office. Co-operation flourishes or withers depending not so 
much on the presence or absence of mutual i nterest as on the concord or discord among those who fortune has placed at the top of their 
respective heaps. In short, "African governments have not yet learnt how to insulate (their arrangements for economic co-operation) from 
the vicissitudes of political differences'* (Adedejl 1979, p 61). Thus at the continental level, even at the national level, within the same 
borders, the individual not only needs to learn, and education to teach him, to subordinate narrow self-interest to the broader 
requirements of his community, but also must acquire, and education ought to reinforce in him, the habit of foregoing present satisfaction 
for the sake of future advantage. This is especially true with respect to the exploitation of energy resources. Hence the third reason. 

Obstacles 

For such reasons as these, then, African countries may look to education for contributions towards thesatisfaction of their energy need. A 
most natural noise to make now would be to exhort African educators to get on with their job and start delivering the goods. But instead 
one should ask why that is not happening already. For this quickly reveals a host of obstacles that will have to be removed first if the 
contributions of education are to be forthcoming, and, in so doing, indicates the sort of policies that are required to guide action in the 
energy sector if Africa's energy needs are to be met The obstacles are well-known; they grace the reports of several conferences of 
African ministers. Here there is a need only to broach them briefly. 

One of them is what has come to be referred to popularly as "the lack of political will" (ECA 1979, p 39; OAU 1980, p 117). A typical 
scenario here is that of governments praising to the skies a project (perhaps a proposed power dam on a shared river) and actually 
including it in their development plans, but prevaricating when the moment to act finally arrives. 

Not rarely, government go the whole length of, and incur considerable expense in , preparing elaborate plans which, right from the start, 
they have no wish to implement. This willed.impotence Is in no small way related to the fact that in Africa those who wield power tend to 
see in the apparatus of government a device for their own personal advancement, not for the welfare of the citizenry. Even in the most 
propitious circumstances, when governments have the will to act, they seldom have the ability to do so, since either the technical 
competence or the material resources action requires wlil stilt be missing. This is why, when they formulate a policy, that does not mean 
government support for that policy exists right there. While this obstacie may not be confined to African alone (Everywhere, only the 
unsophisticated expect governments to remember each of their numerous promises, let alone to fulfil them), because of the strong 
coupling between government action and people's lives that exists in Africa, nowhere are the effects of government in action as 
devastating as they are on the African continent. 

But if African governments do not always have the wish to implement their own policies, this is at least partly due to another obstacle, A 
second obstacle (with regard to energy, at any rate) is thafmost African countries" (OAU 1 980, p 1 15) do not have those policies to begin 
with. To be sure, proposals of needed policies exist, They may be gleaned, for example, beneath the rich embroidery of the resolutions of 
summits of African heads of state. Often, however, these proposals contain only implicit policies; not rarely, they are really convoluted 
restatements of the problems they are expected to solve. Explicit policies are rare, and when one examines African practice with regard to 
energy, say, one is struck instead by a preponderance of ad hoc edicts that rely heavily on the force of administrative measures -rationing, 
levies, exhortations, admonitions, prohibition, bans, fines, and so on. Obviously such controls cannot be dispensed with altogether - 
especially as tactics in short-term strategies. But, in Africa, there is little indication that they ever serve much useful purpose: the 
efficiency of the policing instruments that they presuppose is simply not there. Consequently, more often than not they only multiply 
opportunities for curruption. 

This lack of policies is in part a product of the absence of the will to act mentioned earlier; where there is no intention to act, there is no 
action to plan. But it is also a product of athird obstacle. This is the paucity of existing data that might be used to formulate those policies. 
African countries have among them vast natural resources which make them "one of the richest regions of the world". I n particular, they 
are rich in energy resources, being generously endowed with solar and geothermai energy, coal (1,3 per cent of the world's total 
potential), hydropower (20 to 40 per cent of the world's total potential), petroleum (20 per cent of the world's "trade oil" when the United 
States and the Soviet Union are excluded), and nuclear energy (20 to 30 per cent of the world's thorium and uranium) (ECA 1979, p9; 
UNDP 1980, p2;OAU 1980 , p 4). Only spotty inventories of these resources exist, however; many of the resources are known only in the 
roughest terms. While such information is apparently "hard" enough as a basis for brilliant speeches and knowledgeable statements by 
government ministers, it is demonstrably too "soft" as a foundation of development policies and programmes of action, Where reliable 
data exists, its analysis can greatly facilitate the formulation of policies, but the same exercise is pointless when most of the data would 
have to be invented. 

Resource inventories, do not exist largely as a result of a fourth obstacle - namely, shortages of, and inadequacies in, staff responsible for 
their preparation. Obviously this is generalizabfe, since the scarcity of competent personnel is not confined to the energy sector alone. In 
general, ministries are not always staffed with people capable of analyzing the policies which they administer, and of preparing (or having 
prepared) good feasibility studies of proposed projects. "Experience must be acquired in planning a project, getting it started, keeping it 
on schedule, amending it to take account of unforeseen snags, and evaluating its results from time to time" (Lewis 1966, p 21). The 
absence of such experience is one of Africa's greatest stumbling blocks. Yet even if this were to be overcome, little progress will have been 
made unless at the same time decision- makers conquer the urge "to act politically" and learn to pay heed to the advice of their technical 
experts. In this connection, it needs to be said that many African cabinets have yet to learn not to make an important decision until civil 
servants and technical advisers have examined the matter from every angle, 



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A fifth obstacle is the circumstance that any significant change in Africa means that millions of rural peasants must be induced to shed 
some of their old ways and adopt new ones. At the same time, since the vast majority of them (about 70 per cent) are illiterate, the 
multiplier effect literacy normally has on the acquisition of new skills is almost absent so that the absorption of new ways is extremely 
slow. The situation is consequently one of inertia so great that rapid change is all but impossible. A major educational effort aimed, in 
particular, at facilitating a wide dissemination of efficient ways of resource utilization is thus required. Since African national incomes 
depend heavily on the labour of rural peasants, the need for educating those peasants is accordingly one of supreme importance. The 
following illustration may convey a feeling of the urgency of this need. 

In Tanzania agriculture produces something like 40 per cent of the gross national product; industries produce only about 10 per cent 
(URT 1980, p 2). This is typical of African economies. So, although dreams of rapid growth usually centre on industries, this sector is 
nevertheless so small that even if it expanded at the rate of 10 per cent annually, which is extraordinarily fast by any measure, its influence 
on the growth rate of the economy as a whole would still remain relatively small. Consequently, in Tanzania, as in most of the other African 
countries, the main determinant of the growth of the economy as a whole for many years will continue to be thegrowth rate of agriculture. 
This is why the education of peasants is so important; it is also why their illiteracy is such a great barrier to development, 

But the ultimate barrier for most African countries must be their poverty. While in many ways this is a product of the obstacles already 
mentioned, it is also their immediate cause. African countries are unanimous in wishing to pin most of the blame for their poverty on their 
trading partners. These partners, they say, have put them in "the straitjacket of consuming whatthey do not produce and producing what 
they do not consume, and of exporting raw materials at low and declining prices in order to import semifinished and finished products at 
high and rising prices" (EGA 1980, p 2). This claim imputes bad blood (certainly bad faith) on the part of Africa's trading partners, and 
some might wish to dispute its validity. But whatever opinion one may have on this, there can be no denying of the fact that in a world 
powered by self-interest, as our world in fact is, possession of more handicaps marks one out as a natural prey of those with fewer And 
Africa simply has the most handicaps right now. These handicaps include'Mow income per head, a very high proportion of the population 
in agriculture, low levels of productivity, a circumscribed and fractured industrial base, a high dependence on a vulnerably narrow 
spectrum of primary export commodities, a transport network geared largely to the export sector, a sharp bifurcation between the 
traditional and modern sectors, a high degree of illiteracy, low levels of life expectancy, and a predominance of expatriate business 
enterprise in banking, commerce, finance, industry and management" (Adedeji 1979, p 59). Because of these handicaps, African 
countries are experiencing progressive impoverishment instead of steady growth, their great wealth of natural resources notwithstand- 
ing. Since these handicaps are not about to disappear, and since Africa's trading partners are not about to become more altruistic than 
they have been in the past, it is clear that, for a long time to come, poverty will remain an obstacle to African development. 

Policies 

The obstacle just described may be devided into two groups - those that can be surmounted through the thrust of educational effort and 
those that appear to be intractable by that method. While each group is of great interest, for the purposes of this articleattention must be 
limited to the former group. The subject of interest is what education can do to ease Africa's energy requirements and what policies that 
requires. There is special interest in the steps that education needs to take in order top overcome the obstacles Africa faces in the energy 
sector. 

Answers as to what education can, and ought to do, require knowledge of "the initial conditions". Each country must begin by locating 
itself on the energy-education scale first - that is, by finding out what itsschools are currently doing by way of disseminating the required 
knowledge. This is a major excercise, which will normally involve many subsidiary inquiries as to the existing objectives of education (Are 
schools preparing students for full lives, based on effective and purposeful interaction with their environment? Presumably, but not 
necessarily, yes.); or its content (Do current curricula pay adequate attention ot energy? Definitely not.); or its methods (Are present 
delivery modes satisfactory? Often not); or its resources (Are teaching staff and school facilities sufficient? Hopelessly not.); or its 
logistics (Are all the relevant segments of the population being reached? No.) or its links with local reality (Are schools"marginalizecT or 
"peripheralized", in the sense of being alienated from production? Yes.); or its direction (Do educators tend to take their lead from 
international orientations in education and to disregard causes offered by local exigencies? Yes.); and so on. 

When the desired end is more or less known, which would seem to be the case with respect to energy, knowledge of the initial conditions 
wilt normally suggest what needs to be done. (When schools are concentrated in towns, where less than a quarter of the people live, a 
rural-education policy is indicated; when high-level manpower is scarce and its mix improper, intensified and rationalized training is 
needed; and so on.) However, knowledge of the initial conditions will not always indicate how what needs to be done must be done. 
Essentially this is because the choice of means is always influenced by "extraneous" factors that are not everywhere the same - notably, 
by the nature and amount of available resources, by differences in visions and in the choice of methods for making them real, and even, 
simply, by the undeniable haze of uncertainty as to what means best answer a given end. For this reason, different countries will in general 

adopt different policies. 

However, since African countries have in common at least the initial conditions embodied in the obstacles described earlier, several 
generalizations are possible as to needed future policies. These generalizations are offered here as suggestion of the sort of broad 
policies that might provide pints of departure for national policies, which, it is realized, require further work, since they have to be tailored 
to specific factors, whereas what follows is derived only from general considerations. 

The first generalization follows from Africa's economic circumstances, from which as has been seen, stem a number of the obstacles cited 
earlier. In particular, it is an inference from two such circumstances- namely, the dominance in Africa of labour as a factor of production 
and the present low efficiency levels of African labour. These circumstances point to the need for an improvement of labour in every way 
and to the necessity of its full utilization, Africa's labour statistics express this need eloquently. It is estimated that open unemployment in 
urban areas amounts to 10 per cent of the urban labour force and underemployment (40 per cent in rural areas) to a further 26 per cent. In 
other words, about 30 per cent of the total African labour force {or over 60 million people) are currently unemployed or underemployed. 
Projections indicate that this will rise to about 39 percent (over 70 million people) by theyear 2000 (Adedeji 1979, p 68), To this must be 
added the great inefficiency of those "fully" employed, resulting from inadequate training, indifferent supervision, lack of discipline, lack 
of incentives, absenteeism, and corruption. The sum amounts to so great a waste of energy that, in Africa, energy education must lay its 
greatest emphasis here. Complete prescriptions for doing this do not yet exist, but several imperatives can already be recognized. 



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One would appear to be the need to start at the earliest stages of education possible - presumably at the primary level. This has the 
advantage not only of immediate benefit but also of widest access. (It must be remembered that in Africa 70 per cent of the children do not 
go beyond primary school,) A second imperative is dictated by the prevalence of agriculture in African economies. This is the need to 
orient energy education towards agriculture. (Over 70 per cent of the students should, even if they do not always, expect to earn their 
living on rural farms,) However, school leavers will be attracted to stay on rural farms only be improved working and living conditions, "not 
by three acres and a hoe"(Lewis 1966, p 109). A third imperative consequently is the need to integrate educational advance within overall 
development. Without that, school leavers will continue to drift into towns. (Urban populations are estimated to be growing a the average 
annual rate of 5 per cent, compared to 2 per cent for rural populations (Adedeji 1979, p 68).) 

A second generalization has to do with the demand for high-level manpower. Arrangements are needed which have as their aim the 
provision of the requiredspecialized skills and competence- especially those thatare catalytic to the removal of the obstacles mentioned, 
and including, therefore, those that are likely to lead to discoveries of new sources of energy or to more efficient exploitation of those 
already in existence. Such arrangements must be preceded by an identification of the skills required and by an estimate of the demand for 
each, What is likely to emerge from such an exercise is a shortage of persons with technical skills. Consequently, greater emphasis must 
as a matter of policy be placed on technical education than on general education. 

Moreover, training not only must produce skills, but must aiso produce them in balanced proportion - that is, liberally at the lower levels 
but more and more conservatively at higher levels. In this pyramid of proportions skills reinforce each other optimally. Certainly the 
provision of skills is cheaper this way than if the pyramid is invertd. Yet inverted pyramids are precisely what crowd the African landscape, 
This phenomenon is a consequence of two factors, which any policy seeking balanced skill proportions must take into account: there is, 
first, the circumstance that abundance of training facilities does not always reflect relative need, and, second, there is the fact that 
material incentives are usually stacked the wrong way. 

The third generalization is a corollary of the preceding two, It is the fact that in order to bring about optimal levels of efficiency in labour 
utilization, and in order to provide the required specialized skills in balanced proportions, tremendous educational expansion is needed. 
To convey a sense of the magnitude of the effort required, it is sufficient to draw attention to the disparity between demographic and 
economic factors in Africa, African children of school age (5 to 15 years) numbered 105 million in 1975, and are estminated to be 
increasing at an annual rate of 5 per cent. Only 60 per cent of them are currently attending school. So, targetting for full enrollments by the 
year 2000, say, would mean expanding primary education (to say nothing about secondary, tertiary and professional education) at an 
annual average rate of 5 per cent (Adedejt 1 979, p 67). But, on the other hand, most African countries (excepting the oil producers) have in 
recent years been able to muster annual economic growth rates, of only about 2 per cent (Kodjo 1979, p 44). For a long time to come, 
therefore, the demand for education will continue to exceed supply. This points to two policy areas. 

One is the need for delivery systems that provide education differently and, above all, cheaply. This need arises from Africa's inability to 
provide education traditionally and as fast as required Would students learn any less merely because their classes were held beneath a 
mango tree? Might staff shortages not be eased by using senior students to teach their junior schoolmates? Couldn't students grow their 
own iooti -fufu, for Instance -thereby reducing the clamour for non-existent funds? And shouldn't each village assume full responsibility 
for its primary education and relieve thecentral government of this onerous burden? Countries that have had the nerve to experiment with 
these ideas obviously deserve praise. However, during unguarded moments, a few of them might be willing to concede that it was all a big 
mistake. Gallant though these ventures may be, to date few of them can claim conclusive success. After visiting some of these "new" 
classes, it is difficult not to come away with the distressing feeling of having witnessed pointless exercises in futility; the simplest 
questions draw rehearsed responses, searching questions blank stares. Quality has so obviously been sacrificed to quantity that no one 
has to tell you that a few years after school these hordes of mango-tree graduates will show few signs of ever having been to school. And 
yet before dismissing these and similar attempts completely, one should weigh them against existing alternatives. Often none exist. Thus 
the first policy area. 

The second policy area fs curricular reform. At present, in Africa, education is chiefly a mechanism of escape from neglected stagnation 
in a rural village or unmitigated squalor in an urban slum to "the easy life" of a white-collar job. This view of the aim of education is 
reinforced in various ways, A popular form of punishment continues, or used, to be one in which the offending student is sentenced to 
manual work on the school farm. Moreover, teachers like to conjure up the spectre of life in a rural village or an urban slum to subdue 
unrully students and make them get on with their studies, Nor is this reinforcement really necessary. All students know the grinding 
drudgery of their parents 1 life and its stifling lack of opportunities only too weil. All they want now is to cut loose and escape from it. That 
only 10 per cent or less can hope to escape makes little difference. All students want, and receive, an education that is a gateway to 
white-collar jobs, It matters little that those jobs cannot go even a quarter of the way round. 

This obviously must be reversed; curricular reform aimed at the provision of an education suited to the future requirements of the majority 
must beset in motion. Such reform must of course be the result of careful preliminary inqiry. Here it is possible only to offer illustrative 
sketches of the shape such reform might take; energy and agriculture provide the background, 

At present, African crop yield rates are exceedingly low, a problem that is already serious enough but one which is made even more 
serious by high crop loss rates (30 percent (ECA1979, p 43)). This problem might provide a point of departure for a new curriculum; it 
could be studied in primary and secondary schools as an illustration of energy input and output Instead of memorizing tortuous 
biographies of local dignitaries, students would pass their time more profitably by engaging in both theoretical and practical exercises 
connected with this problem. Conclusions would then be reinforced by actual comparisons of the yield rates of traditional crops or 
indigenous animal breeds with those of new and improved varieties. This, of course, will plunge students into precisely the sort of farm 
routines from which they wish to escape, and the danger is real that their interest could be lost. Consequently, all farm activities have to be 
a natural, not forced, extension of classroom work. The temptation to turn schools into tools of production, though strong, is to be 
studiously resisted. Another class activity might be the preparation of "an energy consumption profile" for the surrounding village. Here 
each student would be expected, for example, to monitor his mother's firewood and kerosene consumption. Yet another class activity 
might be the compilation of local energy-resource inventories. This activity and others like it would furnish some of the missing data for, 
and facilitate the formulation of, policies that require it. Further examples of curricular reform obviously can be provided. 

No amount of tinkering with the school curriculum will bring much practical change, however, unless It is matched with "bush bonuses" 
(Dumont 1966, p 200) designed to make school leavers want to stay on rural farms. Changes in school curricula are important.but they are 
not a decisive factor. Job aspirations are "determined largely by the individual's perception of opportunities with the exchange sector of 

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theeconomy"(Olutolal975, p36). In other words, teach a boy agriculture, and he will still aspire to a clerical job if clerks earn more than 
farmers. And, in Africa, the popular perception right now is that clerks earn more than farmers. This is illustrated by a recent study made in 
Nigeria, which found that although 60 per cent of the students polled rated agriculture "highly", less than 3 percent oieven these wanted 
to work in it (Olutola 1975, p 38). Before sufficient incentives for rural farming have been instituted, therefore, expectations that school 
leavers can be made to return to their rural homes by "doctoring" the school curriculum amount to little more than a wish, 

A fourth generalization concerns research, but as the bulk of African research is carried out by universities, the generalization aslo has 
bearing on higher education generally. It has to do with the fact that African research institutions tend to be mere outposts of 
developed-world reseach. impressively erudite in problems affliciting developed countries but remarkably indifferent to those plaguing 
their own countries. Hardliners consider this to be a consquence of 'academic imperialism". Others see "no conspiracy or individual bad 
faith" about it and consider it to bean effect simply of "'the way thesystem works" (Cooper 1973, p 6). But whatever its cause, there can be 
no doublt about the need for policies aimed at bringing both research and higher education back in line with local demands. 

Tremendous effort is currently being put, for example, in solar energy research, with the aim of devising more and more efficient uses of 
solar energy for cooking, drying, refrigeration, pumping, distillation, and other functions. This work was pioneerd by, among others, the 
Institute of Physical Meteorology in Senegal, the Solar Energy Laboratory in Mali, the Institute of Solar Energy and Related Environmen- 
tal Research in Niger, and the Centre of Energy Studies and Applications in Rwanda (ECA 1 979, p 30) , but is now being carried out also by 
many universities. In addition active research is reported to be fn progress on windpower (at the Universities of Addis Ababa, Dar es 
Salaam and Nairobi), lightning power (at the University of Nairobi), biogas (at the Universities of Addis Ababa, Cario, Dar es Salaam, Ife. 
Kumasi and Nairobi), charcoal and wood stoves (at the Universities of Adis Ababa, Dar es Salaam, Ife, and Nairobi), and geothermaf 
energy (at the Universities of Addis Ababa and Nairobi) , and geothermal energy (at the Universities of Addis Ababa, Dar es Salaam and 
Nairobi) (GTZ 1 980, p 141 ), It is seen that Africa's energy research covers an impressively extensive span. But while this is so, involvement 
of African researchers in "extension and outreach programmes" designed to deliver the results of their work to potential users is, as a 
recent workshop of a number of these researchers has had to admit, "generally limited" (GTZ 1 980 p 145). Most researchers consider their 
work done when a report about it is accepted for publication In a "reputable international journal". It matters not that this still leaves 
potential beneficiaries exactly where they were before. 

There are two main reasons for this. One is that such images as universities have of themselves make it unlikely that they will see local 
problems as being intellectually respectable. This is not only because definitions of intellectual respectability are fashi