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Full text of "Publications_Buddhist"

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nijlan Ha my n^i "ta i^m'i fmNvmsan m vtas&jgnwkeialil 

wiflfM^fwuuviflBTiilvi^wwiiwwliJ Iw yUmiliwwa^miBnij 
IsnniLiuari Cu2umjm™fi9i3J^™ iw'i^laM^iMfiu ywj 
jji^wyUflwatjiifl^uviiJTirig vifau^ui^aulviilra'a^mfi ViiUj 

ii9i iaia« iifi^msnulpinmyuan mnuynlvifi'nji^tiriau g 
ii^atliii^ lumiYiTuI mtrh iaefi?^mra^l'39iiv3 s ] rajleirifii&j 
■uan vna&m^aasju muynlmflutfa^iu Ha ^saimamiumu 
mvt iiu oVirj^jiiavj rmmli wain smimaumummi Haiwau 



□ 



las: lanmjmifliiiy1w9J<i 

vmm^^wusam^ m^wutmujiunymmafi fiamVUf 

Mvitn^Iyiwnna'um^ laiiaiiwuffw £heJNViei>3 ma^mau muii \,\A% 
flnHnlft?EiulvflwfmjjJ l^vkfluibsWu ia™™«omiifi«fraia<3«fm 
lJiinJ^^inpiaajj unlmkyvneh-^ walmuin 

iwfUtaiiiifm lum?^j4iwmij^iiQ^aasj , uu ffTjsefrfiiija&ru 
vriwnfia ^»WBQylmiwfMilm?iJ?Infl fianviay wiwiaivrrj ifmmjj 
vi^j viadai<Ffej MmfTOuvliaflflaftflfoaaylfl m^wtoilailgiifi 
da&uvieh'utai^n&Ni i?&mTi "lnlnntakfiu" ^flnifiuatftaifi ai^w 
rmwaylihafl 

waiYharata^adlvifi Mawnfmaivm iflwm YiwunTW&a 
uflnfilwiflu ^ulum?iiiiJ?t:viiuaivn? vi'aTTUiJTtTnuUj lSw n^aMl 
ikjnji IjJfTinulilmaasta 

^wnfti&pfuiivms MTisam^YiTui^ ^WEjaiffEjpftytfifl- 
lyniul^TuaEJ ^Qvtammii^vma&pi^iiuV nfiafiTijjfmf&jnTi 
ifcyiymiivifls rii3J'u»?j 8 iJi^(fni3jf^yam^^^jin v LiJM^ J&riaulaiU 
ivm MsUi Jii a sl-jifl-ufj tua kI?i9u!vi» a stain an ^a slmfiua witi u uri 
m\.w ffimamuftZtimlmmAi ummznu ntaifiinuivlaaBta nu 
astaiifilviwam>3^?iKiflwfjmifluiJiKlL^iin , fi9iiia<39i'u 

laiiiraiwm^immn "nuivlaatj atiiatjivlanu" mnllViiiB 
atruvivw ii^nMraa^linwasMiJm'iuu vralavjMneimmu w 
w&jjjiltutuivijja^wuifwwwii mimmaasta 

ia\..?ia^ni3jnw) m\mmm ifimilnneiaiilii iw'iliyvnayvidi 
ilmiinuiifitilie) iiaKnUiifitiSfiumjJim mnai^snia/lvumftafl tan... 

□ 



vrssmvaifjiuvrstu (d. a. iliieih) ^^ 

nuiwaasl? nuumaaia^Miw m<$.m\x\i)z tcmuti mMmu 
iwaa'jaEj vimayfrnlw ifrulw viia^l? 6 ] T,wu iTwwNTwmEJiiiNii'ja 
u^uiif^ii^adlfl&la y^m^a^m^m^Samraaulvnl^myit; 
asl? aa...ni'WTi«iimu4mw iiphmwjJiqinW rorrainaiviTJ as... 
waulmifh fifmaivn^iwaliflTumEJiwki'N fftirrvwei ijmeu <3kUi 
miuu^mfiua^lfl l^masT,?*] 1^ 

^n^-31'i TinwfliviiwiiiiinniwflliwwliJih^iia^aiJiiWTi^TriEi 

ihsTtrarulpi a + a...rifTU'u ^mfiiLifi^^^iw^vi^iEJ^im^a^^'ua^^'U'uia^ 

flnvfeiu/sTuau wa^&uaivmnlmjan^Qia^ "djj&vi-Ju...' Tiihwwh 
WTnuiiiaQlpi&JiiyiJfny ^%uaivmam^^vmnrji ^u?Inaufltav3 
maiafwa-jay wa^nfluwauji iwBTCiaiifl'waiTnasWjan iwifm 
iwalvrKwifiuliI ma^i^i > ai§Q(?iii^niy'uliJl^iiJ?^Iy e iJ'u lilmavmu 
nri^9iv!li<n3J fiaiTi^Kl^iai^9i^a«3iTi^iJiInftte^/ii'Wiil«3ii?«3liu 
lililtmj liJfWi liJflnvfa liJwwui liJiii^viwaslw^i unfiflmjfm 

walmkuryiimnim^am>m n^aih^a^aTvm jja^ik&j^ ua^ 
SjufMifiTOal^hrMviaiy waawmuj&aivifilulaa hIIliuIiI fia Tai's^wem 
maiaf^iaiay maef^nefwu (wuvn) Iw'^maaQ^In ivtaiiffewjiui: 
fmjjS^lvny (ntuk) ua^f^^vmnf^^i^ldi rhiTililefuavjfrraf 
fnaiaLiu iJi^uM^wa^kviian fmarouii&ifiuTYiwiijJin utrc 
nuaivii?u'w^nlw'^i9'U(|ia^i 1 9'uil'3^ 6 ff'U(?ia«(?i 



□ 



fhvkm {kvnrkrua^lil mimy^mLiununuay^ Tamawmavwh 
lawiu liJiijawiijEiw&JinwflQuwiy iiasliJwumiiuuMauM^fl'jE] 
iw'viilTflpfi^i^inaqafrulpillw vinam^sfiliJvi^ 

uifluiifiwiQEi'Miviiwi iifmaivniMa^mfhraaivniTiviuyi 

otkmuuism umia^mifmaLJ ^nuadlvmn nul^lvfifiu auifiu 
WGaminismwus-iuflasfmlnin 

■wamnuiiluiiph fmaj^mirwwuiliJan iw'riauufmjj^atjvi 
Iwffua^fmufSna'jaEJ 9ia»n ldin'uaivn^S(fitU(fiii > il'uiJ?^ s ifu uuM 
wljJfiflEifl?aEi npntuk «fmjj^Bani in iaa...uml!nu&3vifi Ctaru 
fii ifiuihtlEJ'tfu innuati^jn^ fmjj^nuJayuliJ fiiuj^nJaEJuliJ 

in^i^j ^aiAiawuTO^ilnjnjiwinTO iwnn emotion imenfinjjpn 
wvi?riEiffa^nwmmiJr}&j 

lumwm iTi«fni«pnflumiyiw^iw , umusft^flTi«wwTTi , 5iflyi 
vrw ?n vi ^n aw ivhmi uw'wajjn^nnmTwwvnwTUfniJjJ niMnjnj-iyi 
jjTWWuiprrufiiiJJpn usiYiifen^pnili^iu^S^TO 6 ] liJ<sraaieiij Ha 
miJfltfftrUilw u^&jfnu^iwidi pnuf rajfliufffmu ifugnuay 

ehu emotion wafmjjffn vMmmnui'i "aii^al" wiiiife 
tj m ti fliluetfnvmvi muliJ ifa ej 6- ] Ia EJviiirnUi fiiliy iuiji w imwmam 

WAim^&wmiJ*] lulllan aaTJYIfimTMwi negative emotions 

usnrhiTTWwuignwa^ auYilyvraehu "f" Haikjnji rfossji 
wwuifliufmaj im mlvi positive emotions meiNimm*! List; 

□ 



vrssmvaifjiuvrstu (d. a. iliieih) (g^ 

ihsnwwimiui 

IsJffinEJ u^riamyun^^pnlaj'flai/k L^nviun^nu^wn mnWmnn 
inaaw T^iviaTa Uicftjie/k iTiftymfwiE] m<n emotions filaJw «naun 
mlliliyiyif^hvki'mti ujanmfmmihsflTliJw viuiwiijwiwui imumn 

iJnjvn ^wnyiWmraa inarm viaftawfljj&JBEhnt ikynjimHu 
nJatiUfmjj^nl'wlvijJ imwta^lnisvifa^mh nin5iisJ9i9nn^rui nau 
ifluwllJlflE] wiaital3J1W&mi emotion 

ilnjnjii>il^'u<pi'ii3jpn 6 ija^<fi'ul^w'Vi3j?i womviiw^tetiuj 
ftnwwwui i^a<fTu^i]njnjiTOjji iTiflwwuiM^miJwfm stivnii 
miijpn^qnuflyfTiJfliiijfmi n^Bwwvn'liJniJfmsjJwQy lac^npi 
amasjdhwmuf ^aiJnjnji fta^^^u'ilLkfaEJ 

^auyiini.iluifi'ii^lLmu'MM^fi^iiyfi^Lay^n'i wiv, "f m 
dnjnjn yiwwuiwiufmjj "fin" tmh^nkmlikla^ atrMqifitHfm 
lilu ^iiim^alihulwifto lijaiftytyiiwui^efa ehufma "fin" 
fai/fein "ai?34iu" fkA / m<?i) mEfiiw'fmjjpnviiS'unfta nnlwheJi^ 

nTlJJlwi positive emotions I^yM'3Unu^l9uflIU?f3Jlj'^l,5 i l'uf|^^a 

"mnn" 3Ji<FJnii "iftunji" 

fwsiauu w^Svmiw^ 6 '! -in H "f" nil "in" viuTgjvifiUTysfU 
wa^^^finYkSun^aV] du fm«il«a9iIiJ^T»a Lin fmmau 
ajjmniiiuwa^ uaERiij4^sj3uluw%uvi^w5aEl?sjimy^i!M2pi 
nu ifluafftniwiia^ufff^^iivR^iiaK^yu 



□ 



to£ lanmjtT'Htniiw'hijJi 

wouuimsmoCIryryi 
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mlnfiTwEi^wfiiviiivi amwQEiiTinlwfiw rajjinu iiflsimfltrwj«i?i 
mujfw vujiufniJJTi 9hwm«f3nia?«fl?Qa nlajliMiiTra^vrcafis 
ia&j am^uaymna^^niima'u^'uw^Qy'FiQi^i.'fiil^i iiASiaa'krm 

am^nCmfiTU mn\vfilinnwlvifl?QEi u^maajnuumrinUifsj 
ermviim raM^itmnaiayam^fim iwiaTOUiiMwT^wTMliw 
iflufiiufiiiiviphy I(^l!lnl$imi?yufi'nnmwaasta iM^a^'nufniaws 

irm T^nulMuIriyneiiyLfluiJ'uyia'u^iiiyj a ija^(?i'ui > a^ ivmsan^iaiuw 
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quEiQjj^tyiSaqwfi'iviiivi ilnm^MEJufiA|(aj'ui<fi'ii^i]njnji^3Ji a 5Qy 
wmaim??(ua«3^iumijjpnlTfliJ , 5EtU9iW9r3y ilnqtuflufi'uvif^niwjjjj 
lumwBSfWi M^^3ja^jniifni3jff n iRufafyiyitarnimujiifit] 

waiamm?a^rn?num3J"i<snv3 mwiwni'jjjflu 

w'aT.iJm^ifluQymu^i nwhjJi^TJfWierjE] am^taawi n 
qswTmnTi vkriwviuiawmiwaaslmiu a + a...M , m<fima^efa^i3j 
vifa^daeraal^aslinuvi'jari w^nM^a^Tnin aieiiiaiflrjEJ 
jjii9iyiUKQsl?fm vkmnmanwmiQnufa'u fmiviflfliJ^aul? %wm 



□ 



vrssmvaifjiuvrstu (d. a. iltieih) ^^ 

ii&mwhu&flij wiwrmfreanEJ ^aw'alilWn^a^ilnjnji 
mafimfiivum mnrfit^irra'u hIuti laV.^Tifftatoawmfilvm 

pfQ^MiJii^ifluri'ya'U^TiEJiiri^nia^ unsfalwliJYravi'CM ^Tuanmn 
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laEiuwvniSyjjflflflflflU'rfaTiiJiaEi ivwfluniro^flnmuTjJiifiTffiEwi 
W vmffalwliJawuviiM EJfltfunatfufoia«3nae[a<iwri 

mt fiiiflufivwil^iyif^nfiiufi'i^uri wnffosajadi iaa...jjvjwa 
mua^^nululem mfmfimrai iJynriuilta'anu viiTiifluivlau 
sjuwnuu mMu^u^Aa^a^nuu^nu 

muflnjj^umjnfm uJatwiihiaJqifuay nfnwslwwuwu&jw 
™ efeilef flsaiwwyiJTBy 'n^uny^n wiflinuls rtat^lwta'k^m 
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ran ^T.wfim^^m'uyi^inwliajj^ 8 ] Itfmlw&JWfiirnNtfwi Ivflw 
wu^ulmliEJW ifiu^u iriMu^inraa^aw'ua'u vm<Fmi,ii , u&3 
inpiaajj^ia^nuuaiifi'u ma^im'umn^alm^il^'fni^tlinEJ^nml^i 
WTiswmuiTiniiwwil'MiviJJisfljj tifonliawiM'urn^ fteaiei 
raina^j viaiviuiK wafi 

waiiwwphEjfiiijjfmlqiiaK^yw^uiam^u m?lMawhifi?a«3 
ijavijjnviawvfwyiifla IwvwfmjjUSiTjffa 5wni«w»ninaqa^nuiifl»nvi 
iiaQniiwlwwaivwJiirwali ^aa^it<filvi'uam^l^^i^ite^ s ija^<pi'ua'u 
wnednti iflu^iiQ^aajJvl^a^nuiiaimi, mhumm yrjia^nnSl^Clfmjj 



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Mvif'iill'marj?iwau auiauilhwm avmntlawattfo&j a TOfvww 
TJjjfmaj'Ji «9K«^iffwiJ?lfifliviflIuIflflflKl? mnlwMnjnj'iYi 

ffliumiivm -i^riil^^^vifaiJi^lEJMa^^'uaLjfllvi'u 

gnjJiiJflTrii^MiQwwliJTOflQUWQWQ? naa«3f!aEj«i mirii v\mz 

fituidai^B^tiflpi laiiflmnju^n^ jjm<3uwu^a<Fiajj^ii9ia4n , ulvi 
ftynliliflt] ramiinai^sMAnliJ^imma^wmda'u n&qnwa 
fisium^i^ei jJifiEjrruei ^i^^mi^itwui'^Maifiauwi^alam^ 

am^Mmfa^awkmua^ mayiilranniilunii^nww'uu 

uasrruiffijnn I^yfl^vi^uIy^vi^ifi'iiJfiail^Ejm'uiliiJiiji iwrnsatm 
msfintn oTooufouunnnamujiiKiowDiuaa 

waai wanfiQnw^iwwviunwwun^in4fws(ua^fiQiwwa^niii^Yi\wn9i 

9ia«3niTMilvili iiaQRQiJj^nin^iuluniTffua^wijj^a^niTinnwmi 
flu lu^^4wm?Yhlwm , u mjfiin^ftMiTuiwwmpft] rfasa] 

aEiSaYn'mai wiNfla^mTmltfemu if^nnm^amnlwkwi 



□ 



manwmtuimui (d. a. dtiwh) ffl9 

ytawmOTU^a^ammlawriam^ twufi Ivfmwnu liwuffljij'nu 
nan \,m mamnlwwuriuuii^ijffca'iei amnteui3jviijjhiltaw ui 

vmanmuviw wamimwm mffamnltfmjjfwmustoyitvi 1*1 
wnemrrn CtaTiajiS'uatjfi unl)aamnlwmltaii3Jff2i 

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rni^na^J9nsJiJn9i iTiSfrcmiiuifa? amnlwmayfiiii'uilrili u^n 
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astjelmi ib«elijfmu«?'ii&i 3Jfmuw<3i3JEU*i fulil vilaiivkmifkTii 
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iilamwS'uaywGn unviat; ^vimwauaJi^auvimiianliflmfl^ nt^i&jSj 
mminnmz iwinmwiauYisYHVwfl 

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□ 



eteaimia^mi, amnlwwwlijifufljjijTOiiiwiiTJ namnteutfsjireiuuij 
n-HUfNam auSawlumiauvis tfuMnaiMQmiasliiia<aiTi 

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stnnmiluma fmFmimtimmiliwnFm fmj4ayinv!ifl , unftai?Ejm , i 
"wuvit:" fmsjaEJinvSifluanfta ilarm "muvn" 

flu fni3ja^in^i9unff?ifli^n'ii%un^ , u3JunQiv3 wfuwaNiifiErj 
niimauam™ fmtfwehiilu ujwwi rrmn iimi ^jferRshfityTi 
amnliifauawifrraefti viuifiaayinlviiinfifmjj^ waimiwiulfiTijj 

TTlTlhEJlVlflQlWflVUJVJWJlfla 

ifa^^^nrifmjjatnnl'iflfi'uauifl'U^u fla^&nvtaii^'ifiuena&ru 
iviTiBviaiuJilvuvijjQvni aq isjawi rrmn sjyisn y^wfat^yravimri 
viefei liaammn 

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(jj/wn) YnaiMraniSmfijTJi nifrusjwiEJ 

fluTAiawugnifiuviril iluwi iIq&j vtaidnamnviili^nvnavimi 
(n?ftn) viam^yviilvi^nvnEJVjn^l^ emiQuefii viaiuiniflu^phti 

yiugniflwquEMflu vreaiJ'rafiUfmjjtfiB'a vhasMeirafi rmvmi 
lurm^mTrnflnun wmwnwaauwUehEj iurim) emiJauI^ amnion 

UllVffiS UJ91911 man 3JYW1 WaiUJTilVIJJei VWVWJ51UlLlUf1IUBTJJJ 
^UJluluf111«^«mim»VI'31'J14lJ3«l 

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mfimmwffim'm ^'a^iwawiamau w'ajjifiuvi^l^nwlvinjI'Wftia 



□ 



vrssmvaifjiuvrstu (d. a. iliieih) mm 

z s. ^ & m ». «« , " ' « 

^ivusTTWunTi^QQn^iJiviTl? nS^wnoiJ ra w^^ajfiQi^fllwajiniyiiim 

u?Infl pia§™flTiN^nnm?efua^TW<fla<3m?f eiajjiijfiTUJfjfwin 
mtffua^ipnijj^a^miviil^ naiwauunilfmutjminmwilvfflWflu 

^nwnilEjm'iiflumTWWuifmjj^ 

i«a^«lwmjjvij4iyviw mmadirrnllriwfiaasta mjanlwri 

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tfnu/nv^lumiYtasiJfiTiijfjfii iishnUilififlu'unviimiJj^ii iwiiQwm 

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^nTJtgmfiin^nmi BnffrwfiTiiJ^Ulfl im^wwifiuunvnfiTiJj^ii 

urifiuau wiia^seftjlei Ma>ayhvnla&)>3ileiayl#fluau^n'?j awslii 
fluauwiMQW rfiyvivwgn andiaviiwvjmf ifrufnn^mmmwrm 
yiuviawwuiflTiJjqiiflwliI flamtnnaiuifl'uii wnifiuunfl^M 

uemttu uuvrcrc m^nwiMwuTKiriam^ TJjJVHWwuifmu^n wjjwqej 
vfwwifmjjff&jnTsriavi 

iiamTi Nui^tfn^a^WAuliJ I^laJfii^in^avjmTUU 



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nijmiNffflnijfiTjajtfifi ifiwiu mwnflUwnYkaiiwuffvi «ztairayiay 
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iflvmaymiamu 

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dnviiiivienEjfi'u rrwnw^iffvuiph iflwinwiwi rhlaJfivi^ IsiS 
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Mli mi^ma^mlwiami amwilEim'ifmjjtjiiwjwi Imfiuams 

sjuwyum'i^nia^iri^ vrifiTwefoilwin vranenmiiuefyiwTisj 



□ 



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A At*, at M a I M «!/ I 

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to \mifavm\.vm\Mmnmm\mpiti mw?>mnvii?nynwimm 

iw'viaiTi'wwui^n9ia<iay , i«3v!'iiifiafl iw ■wwuijji^wylvififnijj 
qnWrNviqn ImlfmjjqwiiflviafttsjJinflu IjJ^uwa^m yuan muliJ 
SfiQiw^ylTjJwa^wwnanffEJ^isfviiJiInfiJjnnvin wiwni&anay'flJifJii 
ii^^^iiEj^iijy^iily'Uivia'UJj'i^wy urujnmjdfmjj^^nnm'nhEJ 
wfamarmrm riil^uau^tt^ii^La^n^ u^nMuyisrmilmmTiiJ 
qnlumwiS^inwaaulvfw IvifteaiewwiNSwls ifiimi 

u^am^iwi?riw^ui^uw^w'3^iJii«?i^^l'u^ a ija^i 6 iJiia^ y\ 

Trkamfem a^fiu iieist-nneiaaw UYiuvtaKiflu^iJYimi&mi nlvi 
jjiiflwn^iJvlna^nauiiaKifiaqa^nuiiaimi. 

^anm^a^^f^^a^m^Snii^'uiam^i.fl'U'jsiJijl'u^Q'ija^ 
mua^ ^lwwuim^ LLVMiHBTMjflfaiJitwffi ftmnhu n am Ha 
fla-funt-Lftynn 

mtwfljj&niEriaaanliJ nilnn^'i 'RajiJ^wifMiTiviifiuojflTJjJw 
naiyi2ua«3^T3Jjl'ua'3RT334lviiyari^uviw Ha WsiiiiIgfsqfiTm uw 
awi'JNfbTan Mawfrmtimij n am«3 Ha fiflmmy-ffafljj-fimi'ff'ili 
vrcaifaramiu-&fiij-&m'waaij toI&qi fiu-fMfiii-irr»iin$i 

a^^raajlviiyu mnla^vhlwkram? Halw^adl^^-ieffi 
vmAtfiSuaa'iLluliJfl'j&Jfl m , ni'?t;iJijlvinj''ul'MaLjHl^i > iaQ nmnniiimA 

^iHnjad^'u Ha milmwuim® m^mvmwiimz 
, wviBftipfuiJja«3lan34a«3^n'5Qiavi?asja«3ff'5?vi^ay , i<iT > '5 ^Ki?Ejm'i 



□ 



model vilaa^nuihiwi ^aiflvnuJimulvim^sja^ iiastMrvftmi 
tfiviiijfmqfm m^^wwwujiiiJiJvi^viiiffifiuiJj&jTiWifw Marian 
liJmyijnuniJi > m'i,miJ(?ii3Ji,m'i^^ s ija^(5i^'i'u?in 

w^viiifnf(ui«wffmxfiQijjwiifM^vwviaiEivilQiJTSjJiri?i 

%Q9i i'iifiu?t:iJiJiiwfni3J^3J , wuBam^Qnu (ilanifiuniffyMTi "izuu 
Awtntm' nil") 

auuiflmiui^^^usramv3<ini^nulrisniJimQ^^a^9i£;T'u9in m 
ifiufifnuTi 9iE7U9in34a«3SJi^wyiiyri9ii«3viimiriBT5J4?ri9i imriad'iam™ 

U separate from nature BEi-vaviwiTlQiri&JllQWaQlJiaiJVIWWawwm? 

^fmvijJiiiwvfftVBaifMiJ^wy (imsfisTiwin) vhaadamTmaiEJ&M'w 

aasj fiaim^fb'i 

Where did our attitudes toward nature 
come from? Most historians exploring that 
question have been primarily interested in the 
origin of the view that humans are "apart from 
and above nature" and "here to dominate it." 

vral^niSu&waSwnyilvm ivmsviiMa^m^nii^inei 
foantfnigflnuiiijijuwmi (u^afiQisjviEjn^grmCtfi'a'U'S'n'afiqjjfiiiJj 

v!^iw^w^nsja«3J4^i*yiiyn^inBTJJ4^il^ , i^viinnuaamiJ'uu 
^muta^ iim^WiiwM™um^a^ura {fo^mm mito'i 



Daniel D. Chiras, Environmental Science: Action for a Sustainable Future 

(Redwood City, Calif.: The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc., 
1991), p. 456. 



□ 



^&mifleiaN^1flfnlYiuimmwjj ivkn^lulsmmma^ ^niln^ 
"environment" liasdauUUTl "surroundings" fiaifium?Wfl«raillJlJ 

em^iiFi'njnfia ^J^SuuQ^^'ni.'iJii.a^yajJiiJus^mMm^au 
pjTj«ianuiQ'jlvfiflTiy«tifliifl«lviiiJlEiwliJi^Ei uwUfliiuifiwvijjfl'j 
uuumtmQwtmuviin Im^ifraiw^fitm^'iei <srafhiia^im'i 
nature uu pJ^sj a^liJri mtL^T unm isjsmian astamntiJ iwmjyjjjfu 
jjijwaflfl?r3wnifM (^ulyiyff^unTu^ia^Muri^^^^a^amvjpJ^) 

tf&jLjiifiviu wan^in«fl^»hi&JiiEin»h'jviiTwiniJTSjjiriliii?r3 

ifa^un^^^^in^um^^^iSua^l'u^'ui^'u^a^rai'Mfjnsi^^f 
Cjumquu^ ^Tiilraa^us^^^(?iaB?^ 8 5i^vi'unM'u^i'usiJ ftaifru 
iJfjiJnw hIuti mmimimtium\w\,r)miim®amn ifiuay'uefwsmn 
aiuin wtigviwniiviijljj«Qsl'WKnu rmra&huwwiqmiiiWw«i uvru 
qEiai^flUiTaei UOT^u&^n^^u»?jl'il(riai'u^ s ua^£j'u vhlviiTi&M 
flaavhenajmj, il^ri^uviWQUSi ^anmnM(fi "waviunn^wviatj 
aiffulviw amlvfejjiihiujiiwwiifiaiws uphnvnanvnirMw wenwiIejjj 
nnwuaivmT.Qria'u iiOTnwwiBliiwtigTim^^nwifwnwfll^w 

imiaQ 3JUT*mKvinasjli Ma^uniirnajinfflilviajei ufinlmSI 
rfmm«ifi9iiEiQ8iiEi8Qn «v^n«wiiiTiuignim«^iJumi.viunviwi 
aiinmuflaifm iTi^a^vnrm^mi&uira 

^inuu (Fm3J^^i s ija^^n9i^'i'u?innnn(ria v Lilfimfl m raiuw 



□ 



manwmtuimui (d. a. dtiwh) ^ 

^vwiEJuadflfriiNvm flflinwiiwifiwmjjm iriiftp«]fn34TnraemTj 

vnwi^mi^miu^mmmi^ emu ^mmimvusmmnim^m 

mvipJ^uyjjl'jf^imiJ^afmjJvijjiy'U fi m Hi Ha conquest of 

nature (WWlETJWlfi); mastery of nature/mastery over nature (ulu 
U1tnmJJin?i); dominion over nature (fnaufrnwimutflfi) 

vn3wfa&lftlfl34Vriwfo A Green History of the World Vi 

i^alMuQiuniJii^iyussi^iffuiiJ^iiJi^ia^rai^^amvjli^'aB^sj^l 
ffaflflaa^ifluauifi^imffiJN'ni ^a^riiJilTManmiKFmi'ff'ili Ha 

atil-J Iflfm^ (Rene Descartes) UfiKHIfiaU (Francis Bacon) fTJUVNllu 

ffifcAn&i u ■mpJiy^ifijj'uyjjfiajjSiUff^ wE-hylfmiefl fMiuuifim 

TOm^ltw^ftu^adl^WH Ufl en riTU Ha Francis Bacon, 
1561-1626; Rene Descartes, 1596-1650 ('them' vmn&JtVWTlJjfYra 
TKIEnfrifffon); LLSKUniJ^KTlifnffW'fWtQy^a M.N. Pokrovskiy, 1931 
enNAIflij fain A Green History of the World, pp. 148, 158 flaUJ&H 

wiwharsnan) 

Nature being known, it may be master'd, 
managed, and used in the services of human life. 



Clive Ponting, A Green History of the World (New York: St. Martin's Press, 
1991), xiv + 432 pp. 



□ 



... we can ... employ them in all those 
uses to which they are adapted, and thus 
render ourselves the masters and possessors of 
nature. 

It is easy to see that in future, when 
science and technique have attained to a 
perfection which as yet we are unable to 
visualise, nature will become soft wax in his 
[man's] hands which he will be able to cast into 
whatever form he chooses. 

m^L , iii'3QiJ'?Qjj<fni^^(?i(?inu(?inl'ua^(?i3Jii,^wu nraa^ 

u^mTua^mt; liamuanajidiwniTOW'iwei mwa^M-sJii^ri 
eh-wnn^nnsmitfifi iifhnfimfiuiJJjjilni^amjJ'ff'ifi UAin^^ilTiiJ 

lJTIJJIQIIfUSDTOJinIi 

ffiefrausjimwaasta nma^lflen^Tisjmj^maj'ff'ili ha^Ia 
ianfiQiwflwfiQnwaiJfla^BTJ^^Iivivi^n^nn , jniJSTJ3Jinli wnnma^ 
uiyfiuviw^iy^ajjSQUff^ynmlw^i^iJUiiai^ifiyuiJanmi ma 
iviyi^iff^miaEiviftluIa&lw^S^iuliJmiuluriyviwi rnajtfiwaKifiu 
iraaulMurraa yijJij^B^'ulvfifl'uayi^inlw iifblil gyiniuiifiau 
u^yhu^ipm^nta'mi ^QUi,i,(?i^(?i^t;i 1 eiu^iuti?'?3J 6 5i^w'U'uifiEJ 

ifluavrin ^du^n^iilivi^iEJ^^u'U'i^^^^'U'M^i^i.aif'u^fj'?^- 
mftaaawaiffawunTifl iflwiuifiwwiwiTiTTiJJiiaEi ii&aminifiuiiw 
fminjiu^a^ai?yTm^a^£TU<?in vmilifanum^ty^uifiu 
am^fk^mm 



□ 



qinuuQftavifla^mtiamBifluunumNinfi (mastery over 
nature) ^Yhlwn^^fmmnijm^ifi &Sfa™u«iuiiiflunwM 
fni^jmjTja^B??^^^ iJjafflTiajmjTja^FmiTnli (science) iifh mmz 

IQllfUKDTSJJiriWU'U n*m<3¥ftWWWU1lYimulfit] (technology) mi 

^m^a^uwj I^EJiaiiviftluIay'uliJ'ww'UiawffiviriTJjj (industry) 
TwmqwfnvinTjajninflmttn i5wvw«m?ifliinwiriw«iifluT'9it)liiJiih 
Tiotu ii&nwfifl&iswinlnfl ^a^miwlia^mm^iJ?In<fi 8 ija^3J'UTO 
Ivfjji^wyflfmjjfj'ii piTyift?w|n^vii^?iy^i?a^ (prosperous 

economy/economic prosperity) 

flfiaiEuuaniuimusnsn'usfin fi im?v ejh ejIlI ii5uTani/iT?iulu 

iI^ijul«i%WKyiuuysJiviiu'U'Ut! wn'fraaiirasjvmei wvnm^mefl List; 
Safljjuajjflaufliwlw ay/iialwfiTOiwiiiwiiwfl«wwmi fia mm 
mminmmmfiXuXau irmMaMeuuidinamnssii qmawnssuasij 
fijwwstunmrtsvgnv ^hmmMnu^l^^mmin^mi^ep 

wuviflSTCiJiJii&JimifluaEi'MU ^ifimla^a^mirauwmjaAj 
phuiliEJi Ipiyntin9fi9ii«3vnn^nnBTJ3J^i9i UASwmm^wwiEmiTnfi 
H3i<jna3JnwiI^^iiunliJl3J?a5i IflEiijwafiriaiJTi mTWEJitimamiSBTHJ 
infmu «fMfln^wnwyifium?TaJuja«uj^iiifliaimj4irili wasmi- 
fflfuffesjImNtNliJ mwemix uatriwmmmawiiHayvii-a nnenu 
ySuiliyvnUnau yinlw^u-mHa^fawuiinu^^adM^i mp^jniaEjleilifl 

^iQ^QU^n^a^iefawmlvd ii&ninefiYimffiffon&ii'jfl 
aaw vipJ^JWEimi Environmental Science HflSinWKtllJTJjAvijJ fia 
^EJEmi^ailQAPiajJ {lUmi Environmental Ethic YlffaullfllJJjjlJflfl'a 



□ 



l3uebuVOMTia>JfiT534tfl0i 

k?. Mrariivii,9uiJpnwniiff3'33j'?n^ iwilwMmffaimainw 
en. i.mnmzm&nnz'sumi® nli^ihsenurmijniuaLi 
a m«3 inananufwraitfifi 

uuDflcimoiaon 
amsiinOrymaoooisasssunpi^OTiu 

viu Wvmiejbtiu nifiuauTi ^KiflisinirmjirillwiEirmiffw 
ij?In(Fivii<Fni^^(?n^ e ffaiJ(?iaT,ijM(li'i > iaQ qswadj restraint raf^n 
?^ii&Li&w/ta<?hia^ f^n«35if^ni7U nnsnmiluT'nmm^spia^aNefeis 
as ITU 39i asmiNeftrciawTia^ iwaaaNltfmjJtfiflaalfl rua&jnan&j 
iflvwiawwifoau A0q?EJfimiumj negative Hawii&jfi&JEiQjjyinfl 
ira IpiEJ^il^Ejajj^laiffsJiljjv! malmT^'infi adldi 

^?aim«iiiiiiuliJljJTQW MTis^uw^a^uU Eiajjlvhrraj 
^iia^nraYi™^<fia^a3^ m as mzmwm iflvraiEJimiJiiiJij 
Cim&vhajaj'ilia*] iliifiufcluU 1.ajHni? , Muuiiiu&?j 

m&wimiiuYimmi qsiSum^nnliJlwnaiiimwwui 
™^j vkikniiibsamaa^aa^nasjnauriu lia jjiji««sw&aj3fmjj 
aiufm l^vmw^uummmu'BTiimmimfiii \,iu mamrmilvi 
ffnjjmwwnsjffMij'jm mnau masjwihsa'mnija^^ am^vnim 
ff^i wnnflnwiy mvhlvbia^i intHffti aslTKhuaw VWt'i irresffti 



□ 



vrssvnvmfjiuvrstu (d. a. iltieih) g-g- 

v\m ia-anauilizuilizuamu adi^ufluU tfumimilvn 

mflnuflnNimwTau liamwa^Mmi^ymmf^Li uircn 

innuanTi vjvuffnefwunilnjvnl^ivi^^i^ufayisy intuitu 
VH&jflT3JjlvitiJiifl»&3flT3J4ian awSm^nnliaf^a^TTU yhsuj 
wem ^mwwuiii^u^wuOTiijIaririy'uari w&iU'iiieiwei'U iiairwwui 
iu?miJnjnji feimavi^u^fmiiaKnul'Uvii^vill 

■WQTCLUJ^wfl&aiTill fmjjqira&]iTinvf«JwiiiJflyuliJvijj9iii?h 

vi ,A * A * Am 

wfu iTHJfmaj^niiiJiJUJWwi viia'w^'WTuaEj^ 6 ] jjfmjjfnajiTOviwjj 
fmsj^L^iyw iiaKiTinffiaji^YREinanfwaftm'waajj inaneisna 

uia^uiflnwrnnliJauT^nflN tfuninaqmsiJiAviiyTiAiwi 
i9um?mavi^u^nuiiPi5irm nraimilufilih/i^ 

ntnw ujaflsnumnflwh m^vnrraaantumminilTpi^in^ 
aaw w&aviwyiwniflil^nfiQ m?lifiviflIwTflS iwnswnlwNwwuiifo 
ti ^w'tujjh t^nl^m^I'uIfiSma^m'jniJBTJjj^^ enaJiiuiftavRs: 
■mtoiirrnjtfifi iifhniaainwTvii* ^suirfawiwunlvf 

rauuiTOinwi l^mflluIeiS RaaflmiawmwaflenvirimM 

environmentally friendly Wniflum^la^VlW lwfWlflQll§unmffttyvri 

uuiJiiEjnfh'u AQflwTiJwiiJRiMiaw^iiawisnTOl ntwKMiiwjflwwwfm 
^a«3fiuvliJflii'9iai^Efi«3ay , aEj , i<ii9i3j lia&fi^mitm^w^Tyr^Tifi 
wumTi^xiiii^^i^^^^mi^a^ai?EJS?^&^m^^ummaEjW'i 



□ 



uwa^nw niii^KSJa«3iia!ol^iiJayufml'MWjiU'ii antarrn^tTuein 

nfliaifiuvnflH&aiviflT'ufaS rio^TnzfowaiuwiJtitijjufai} vflvi 
3j , uwm9'U'uiEJ 6 ija^iYi<fiI'ulfiS wKiaiivi^IuIatluujJil'ifay^iJ'jtiffminarja 
iia^wSamjirnw^lilwm^fi^s(TJ^nvliflwij'ii , lTni?mEJwmEJW 

yHtu emsffifiiyflfia lmi«MWiiiimj4vi?Q?siJiJfr3iJj^ w 
upifieiamMj T3349iaa5ilann3vw49i QiLilu^iJiJ^mnu ra<?raTin^ 
yijj&juanifliJjijwEiflQnjjiiilvBnflEi'Mviw 

i%"WiKam<i5«3 ai?tiBTJjJ9iETU9in , u i.inijani.a^'ani.fluEn'aEJBTasJ 
vkflu man-centered NJJV^lfiuffUEJna'U VINItlflTlNTl mptffjvhs; 
aanliJfliliJwvfuliJ^TTi^n&j^nfla'M ■mfalan wtoramria qsifiiuj 
n^iwa^wviaiyvnliJvwvijj^* VM34a«3iiiJ«3iiEjn iia^&nuphnia'ifiu 
iflulntiJifiuguEJTifl'M 

iwtyviwnWliJiJfMfluwu waiMu nua<a?fjmBTiufia&3 
wvifinywiJ^Qniflu^iiiJ^in^^^usauviwam^invi Irarbuwjn 
ifluin«]iI^EJffiwviiMlwsaiiJU vifiuiTi^KWfMjS'nwjifM flfljqnmuias 
il|]iffifla3ml#nn<lia-3 aumiMadnfinj ifiuimum^a^ifaviA'i&j 

ni^wuw^^ni^^il^^^'a^ia^l'Mfjnuu d la fu fimm 
lumwiri miifiTi«wiianiiaKwiiTii9u^iJimi4iiflKUi«imjj ^ayaanlil 
iiiwusvh isi &ifium3Jtfi9in3vi3J0 nai;iLlviliJ9iiJJBT534pn^ia«3mi vi 



ILUQfiwuifluilU'M'il^l^aanjJIlflu FlflimfchlMimifl'U A3 frontier mentality fkeiu 
\u%Wmursf\U WWfful^a^lllflnWflS frontier (ranifam frontier expansion) 



□ 



vrssmvaifjiuvrstu (d. a. iliieih) g^ 

mivi id iTiw&jw^sviunwfliijj^vHi jjipifliilu&rimfto vi 

mpravm ItfifiusNmbsnaiJvllw'ijj foumwwuifiTiNifiuay'flaififl 
wenmiem liiuQuiMmnanmmnroiJij iwalwa^Q^vinfbuYiTMem 
inaqfl^jnuiiflsfm M'wm^ilnjvn^nnmiiJgiJ^'fin vmilvfaajij 

qEimrii ^Q^nwa^immim^vnminmMifi iiiusvi 
viTCTijymfnfluiaj&aTaw ifluauiwEnffu 

ii9iwwrmwniiflsvi|viiiffiflWii4fMi4^wy'3ii3u "www" ush 
flnuflnmjwmtfiefuineraima^^ 

TwEiWEiyiTiflnjJi miiJiWTWTJfmmi ^wwglwiflaww to wwu: 

?£0i/?? © lia^i/lvinj 

n) wsTuwn«&jjJij»tiiianQflnjJi fhwnn^nimajirwvlivraa 

n) wviBffne(ui3jav3vin^i2u?5iiJiJ^3JWurauilm 

isuulvny'uu 

n) wsTiwinaj&JTi mjwaiSuwTCianyiwQflTiliJ^m'sw^n 
iwnamvj 

n) wiMtifftraadi mp^mi^iflwimjJiriwffTwvriijflylu 
'jsuupfjJviuBU ii9i'34u™i2uav3^ilxnaiivi?aaj^T3i4^Sfiiu 
ffjjTjiwiftw Ha I'u^ui^s^^m^fiTua'uiS'uam^niil'u^a^ 
^uaLi'am>3uuu^'3Ju™i2uK?3J^ilvii^ufSnra^uill' 

□ 



min^ii , s»iJiJiiwirrs«inwvMvii49iviiflu&jflT3i4lvitiJuQyl'u 
ffjnwfiliffijijmuiwaWiTatM vunuffiflumamn tw wmB&ijm? 

wwwwnlwmwQiJ Ha l'u^a^'uw49'ua^^3J o wi 1 <Ftwi?EJ'uf 

mavimia^ih^riaLia'u 6 '! iiasliJ^yii^^m^ifianafru IwjrrrnijEJfl 
muunmfctKM iiaaaynuflQUflNfiTi^iiNimiu am^-mQwiawiuii 
"wimlmmiium Mnnivnmvnu" unviaKfiafrtn'UtiiiaKiJViiJivi 

^a«33J^»^U?nJlJmi«^SJWU^<IVlSJ^U'U 

Sfm3je«n3jn?ti3jnnlvi. lwm^«liJa«m?iiia«iiiEiuW»iJiJfmjj 
&mus mz&umh\T\ vftmvrrm vnraefnw&a vifaaslifuiaiiun 

lialui^maneirm 

TflETUEm JJ^llVIU^slfeflltUtUlflllJJfriJJITOluTTlTYMKllI 

^^V!iviiv3?fuav3^Qi3jl'av3rii'3i?fTAiiJiIjifi^iav3'?iui,i,?i^liJ^rii < 3i,ai^u^au 

vifa^ui^uw^te^'ii^tli^iiri^inS^TOluriiii.ai'iJu^s?^^^ n 

liw<i?njija^^Rii«na«naufm vifatew^wwinuia^teaef?- 
fnwvRslsi^vwvrairifu uphffimWliJii^a^m?my5imEJumi, Ivi 

-j5ajuTia^f<T5vi^vi?a?inT3i03Jfm3Jf<i]3jnmivi. 



□ 



vrssmvaifjiuvrstu (d. a. iliieih) g^ 

iwsi-ohonlilcjfflloio SounnuuiwwoTiu 

iztiumu vifalm^eiWsflijm^a^™ wmiwwpu&v, 

m^a^ura^a^il'uam-m flawwajwluiH^slmln^WEiuJ 
^nwlIlnfJuwwwirhiviuillCi'jfluliJ ufaivwulMffnvi ^ifiwian 
imuneralum^a^uu-fj 

diml^awrmtfifmiam^'u iiflsUiiaijjiliflui^iJfliwm? n 

wtu vieirmmi Wiifiilgijli vraiQuftuwaulumimiui 

mWlumfiilfpji ifluetawiwluxiJijWirm (rmiWm 
il|pjimnam^ayM<^n 8 in vi^a^wa^T.'wuTSfi viu wvm^u) SmnifiuiiTm 
mfiilflulim?lwmw»jwijjip«j flfliluuJSnwmwmi nfamitywlvi 
ImlilifaEJ 6 ] wj^kS^ stem ikyryi^imu nw^sifi ifluaffis 

«ravranmTU thmjumi flaSwiTiwiNiriami 1^'fivifawei 
vraieii&jvrit] mMa^mkiHiJiJiM wiamw'inwijlviijviwijjqnfi&j 
iSuihsWu rhnTri/iniiflunftauay Ma^yhnr^WtiM)un<pi^iri 
wi ifaiF| ufiamwwuiluWSmn 

mlmWliJIiflaynunTTJWfn imnflwauTOWfinTajimayim 

lu^an?^/ii^iJ§iJ'^i > 9ufi'iu'ViwW^iiijl?i^n 6 iJi TmuMa<aTEM*rifl 

□ 



^o lanmjtnTtniiii'hiih 

niTwami ^m'nJ?u , iJ^iinl , !i1 , wlS<3lvi.1vilw rnUiTtMJJi nfiaiJ|]ijfiw0* 
T.'wm'nJflifliYi^n^a^uu iT\f\Mfimjw^m7umrhi?\\\in 

nrrjyjfniiiuwawila^f wraauvta^a^YiifianTWlvimii'u 
flnin nTJNvtasiiluTmjjS nliadklikiajvifinfraivifatfuawfin 
inin nraifiuimnmuavj leiiiri i?&mf fclnvfa ykiwilulil hthj™ n 
ra ifiurmjjvl tfluriffei u$w\ 

uramam^'ii ^a^a^miJijIkiiraawiaraiMmyniQl^ Ijj 
luia^imijwvia v\w\w uavwn&J wtli Whatta M^V <<na^a^ 
a^ WmvtasunkiJiiJiJ^ nasjjQ'jWni«usyii9uifw»iflwiiw 
(FrrauFif aulvn ^uviui rmlif 

lilam'i jmiiiliiiTiJjfMwuiiaKaQiJTUfliiJJiiwnw'^vifliTivifliEi wlu 
iHajja^jj^wyiflupf^fUJ mmsuadi Imienvm^fhTim&aja^ay 

Bm^&rmnfJwJI at a given moment Ha luilfUslflllfUSVliwvl 



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wfirnniiltuili,a<3) 
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lanudrym wnsmainuohoiou 

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ffonumvi mil) UAtflTiflffliw (Fraternity) ^vwwnufla^nm&nli 

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weifva ^WAnuiimef^rnvi ueiKflTiNi.efNamf) 

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tfUUEJN (Individualism lllJalvi^n'lil^Wn'UEJJj) dlwmmjjlvflwfaKflU 
tin 6 ] flulflWiNflEurn? mEJ^i^'i^Mra^m^in'u laiumm 

naniJifatf^ib'i rnnAYmlvinj' id pi'iliu miinniJeiaylvi^LiiJ 
awV^a^ib^iM^ijn'iAiia^ lajynuinrsviflnm'nhmulvffiw m 
am«3 I^EJ§!fn§ja<3™visn/)r7WT/nwlil ftAumhK&latotntifiTiN 

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u m^^Miwmmi.ivvK^mi Iwyjja^nTJ^rafiiiEjnfhuaanliJ lSq 
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ukiJfiaEJ«fniJfiai/U mfim^Mima^imnriin^in 

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wain mvviuiliJnvmiiifa'm®ujlum™ffluiiiuv& 

msW^iienmi, amTOWwuiMvhrm innwitujuvi^viaiylvi 
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m^wmiraaliJ 

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laJiJflflEifriJjl^ nasljjiHmjIIIul^ 

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lanauanaossulnij flU(nooiUaauiiuD(fi(/ilnLi 

ma^mA il fi.fl. 2000 sj^i^^lanwinulluw'uwfyjjyiau 

Itl^^TjWLviaJ (new millennium) 

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□ 



vrssmvaifjiuvrstu (d. a. iltieih) ^g- 

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