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Full text of "قصة الحضارة لول ديورانت - نسخة مفهرسة - والمجلدات مربوطة ببعضها"

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'WILLIAMS, H.S. : History of Science, 5v. N.Y., 1909. 
W1NCKELMANN, J. : History of Ancient Art. 4v. in 2. Boston. 1980. 
WRIOHT, F.A. : History of Later Greek Literature. N.Y, 1932. 

XENOPHON : Works. Loeb Library. 
XENOPHON : Memorabilia., Phlla 1899. 
XENOPHON : Minor Works. London, 1914. 

ZEITLIN, S. : History of the Second Jewish Commonwealth. 1933. 
ZELLER, E. : Socrates and the Socratic Schools. London, 1877. 
ZELLER, ,E; : Stoics, Epicureans, and Sceptics. London, 1870. 
ZIMMERN, A. : The Oreek Commonwealth. Oxford, 1924. 



Notes 



< V US3I , ^'j J* 5^1 yu^jJI f lSjSl JjI «aai ^j^Jl /i^j, ^ijl jj 
. y^i *o csou ^ oLJL v l»3l Jjj J, JjU lili 4L> f ujSI cJlf |ju 



CHAPTER I 

1. Plato, Works, Jowett \x.\Phaedo, 
109. 

2. Semple, Ellen, Geography of the 
Mediterranean Region, N.Y., 
1931, 99, 607. 

3. Evans r Sir Arthur, Palace of 
Minos, London, 1921 f, I, 20. 

4. Homer, Odyssey, tr. A.T. Murray, 
Loeb Classical Library, London, 
1927, xix, 172-7. 

5. Aristotle, Polities, 12jib. 

*. Ludwlg, Emll, Sfhliemann, 
Boston 1931, 964-5; Olotz \Q.\ 
Aegean Cevtlizatton, N.Y., 1925, 
14; Cambredg Ancient History 
(nereafter referred to as CAH), 
bl.Y., l924f, I, 1-S. 

7.^Evans, I, 18; Hall, H.R., Civili- 
zation of Greece in the Bronze 
Age' N.Y., 1997; 27; Olotz, 30- 1, 
67, 348; CAH, I, 68B-90. 

8. Evans. I, 26. 

9. Ibid., I, 27; Olotz, 3P, 40; CAH, 
1, 597-8. 

10. Olotz, 60-4; Baikle, Jas.. Sett- 
kings oj Crete, Lonion, 192)5, 
212-3. 

11. Hall. 27; Olotz, 68-73. 

12. Kdhler, Carl, History of Cos- 
tume, N Y., 192:5, frontispiece^ 
Evans. Ill, 49. 

13. CAH, I, 596 : Olotz, 65-6, 75-8, 
311, and fig. 6. 

14. Cf. Evuns. Ill, 227. 



19. Olotz, 147-8; CAH, II, 437. 

20. Thucydldes, History of the 
Peloponnesian War, Evryman 
Library, I, 1.4; cf. Herodotus, 
History, tr. Rawhlinson, Lodon, 
1862, vii, 170, and Diodorus Sic- 
ulus, Library of History, v, 78. 

21. Strabo, Geography, Loeb, Lib- 
rary, x, 4.8; Olotz, 149; Evanc, 
I, 2, IV, p. xxii; (AH, II 442; 
Homer, Odyssey, xi\ 668-70. 

22. Ibid., iii, 396. 

23. Olotzj 139-42; 1734; Baikie, 
120, l)29-i3l. 

21. Evans/ 1, facing 305, III. 13f; 
CAH, I, 591, 605,11, 432; Olotz, 
106-9, 163-4; Baikie, 97. 

25. Evans, I, facing 472; Olotz, 169, 
70, 293/ 

26. Evans./ill, 213; Hall, 16; Olotz, 
294 6, 312-31. ' 

27.' Evans, I, 15. 

28. Ibid., 161; Olotz, 229, 217-41, 
218-9, 256; Farnill, L.R , Greece 

and Babylon, Edinburgh, 1911, 
228; NllBspn, M.P., History of 

Greek 'typgion, Oxford, 1925, 

13, questions any worship of 

the bull U Crete. 

29. Glotz, 146./244-7; Evans, IV 468-9. 
80. Ibid.; Olotz, 252-4. 

31. Ibid., 231-8, 265-70; 273-4; Far- 
nell, 125; Reinash. S., Orp toe. 
N.Y., 1930, 33; Nilsson, 13, 16; 
CAH, II, 444-5. 



-Ytr= 



33. Miion. W. A , History of the 
Art of Writing, N.Y., 1920, 815- 
88, 3S1; Evans, I, 16, 124f. IV, 
xx, 959; Olotz, 150, 196, 371-7, 
881-7; Encyclopaedia Britannic*, 
14th ed., I, 913; CAH, II, 437; 
Whlbley, L., Companion to Greek 
Stedfts, Cambridge U.P., 1916-96 

33. Olotz, 165, 388; Baikle, 238. 

34* Homer, Iliad, xvlii, 690. 

35. Olotz, 174, 821, 

36. Evaue, I, 848-4; Evans in Baikle, 
71 ; Relnach, 82; Pliny, Natural 
History, London, 1855, xxxvi, 
19; Olotz, 108. 

37. Hall, 102. 

38. Evans, I, 142, III, 252-1; Bur- 
rows, R.M., In Baikle, 99, and 
Semple, 670. 

39. Evans, III, 116-22. 
■40. In Baikle, 129. 

40a. Evans. Sir Arthur, "The Mino- 
an and Mycenaean Element In 
Hellenic Life", Journal of Hdle- 
nie Studies, XXXII (1912), 277f; 
Hall, 87. 

41. Evans, Palace of Minos, I, 17. 

49. Ibid., 16-7; Smith, Human Bis- 
torn, 378-90; Hall, 35; Olotz, 
191-3, 209; Speng'er, Qswald, 
Decline of the Vest, N.Y., 1996 
■8, II, 88. 

43. Strabo, xiv, 2.27; Evans,"Minoan 
and Mycenaean Element," 288. 

44. Herodotus, vii, 170 : CAH, II, 
475; Smith, Q.E , 398. 

45. Baedeker, K-, Greece, Leipzig, 
1909, 417. 

46. CAH, I, 443-3. 

47. Himes, Norman, Medical Bislorp 
of I Contraception, Baltimore, 
1936, 187. 

48. Orate, Q, History of .Greece, 
Everyman Library, 1, 190;Orazer, 
Sirjas., Dying God, N.Y., 1935. 71 

49. Dlodorus, iv, 76. ' 

50. Ibid., 79 Qvld, Metamorphoses, 
Loeb Library, viil, 18lf. 

61. Pausaniaa, Description of Greece 
London, 1886, ix, 40. 



59. Plutrach, Lives, "Thesem--; 
Homer, Odyssey, xi, 821-5. 

53. E.g. f Polybins, Histories, Loeb 
Library, vi, 45. 

54. Strabo, x, 4.16-22. 

CHAPTER II 

1. Schliemann, H. i /#m,N.Y.1881,3. 

2. Ibid, 9. 

3. Ibid., 17. 

4. Ludwig, p. ix. 

6. Schliemann, 14-16. 

6. Lndwig, 137. 

7. Ibid., 182-8, 183, 284. 

8. Schliemann, 26. 

9. Ibid., 41; Ludwig, 139, 165 

10. Schliemann, H., Meeenae, N.Y., 
1878, 101-9. 

11. Homer, Iliad., ii, 559. 

12. Ludwig, 284. 
18. Ibid., 956-7. 

14. Pausanias, Ii, 25. 

16. Warren, HL., Foundations •/ 
Classic Architecture, N. Y., 1919 
124-5; Pausanias, II, 26. 

16. Ibid., ii, 15. 

17. Iliad, ii, 69, vii, 180; Odyssey, 
lil, 806. 

18. Pausanias, ii, 16. 

19. Schliemann, Mycenae, 29Bf;CAH 
II, 462-3; Olotz, 46; Enc. BriU, 
XVI, 38. 

30. Hall, I; Nllsaon, II; Olotz, 31-3; 
Whibley, 27. 

20a. Murray, A.S., History of Greek 
Sculpture, London, 1890, I, 61. 

31. Herodotus, ii, 51, 67. 

23. Pansanias vii, 2-8J Hall, ii. 
23. Ibid.; Olotz, 47; Evans, I, 38; 

CAH, I, 608. 
34. Lippert, J., Evolution of Culture, 

N.Y., 1931, 171. 

85. Olotz, 47-8. 

36. These frescoes are all in the 
National Museum at Athens. 
They are reproduced in Roden- 
woldt, 0., Kunts der Antike, 
Berlin, 1927, 1431. 

37. Schliemann, lios, 381-3. 



YYi — 



29. National Museum, Athens; Evans 
III, 13i; Rodenwaldt, 148-9. 

30. Nat. Mus., Athens; Rodenwaldt, 
152. 

81. Evans, III, 1»8; Olotz, 888. 

32. Oardiner, P., New Chapters in 
Greek History, N.Y., 1892, 178; 
Hvans, "Minoan and Mycenaean 
Element," 28; Mason, 327-8; 
Farnell, 97-8. 

33. Schliemann, Itions, 587. 

34. Ludwig, 280. He was later 
financed by Kaiser Wllhelm II. 

86. CAH, II, 489-90. 
86. Schliemann, llios 453-505; Enc* 
Brit, XXII, 502-8. 

37. CAH, II, 488; Schliemann, llios, 
123. 

38. Bury, J.B., History of Greece. 
London, 1931, 46; CAH, II, 487. 

39. Iliad, xx, 230f. | 

40. Herodotus, il, 118; Strabo, xlii, 
1.48. 

41. Murray! O., Rise of the Qreek 
Epic, Oxford, 1934, 49. 

42. Ramsay, Sir—., Asiatic Elements 
in Greek Cirilizatton, Yale U.P, 
1928, 109. 

43. Berard, M., in Semple, 699; 
Murray, Epic. 88. 

44. Schliemand, llios, 240, 253; 
Bury. 48; Qlotz, 197, 217. 

CHAPTER III 

1. CAH, II, 276-83; Olotz, 90. 

2. Iliad, II 681. 

3. Rldgeway, Sir— m., Early Age 
of Greece, Cambridge U.P.,1901, 
88-90, 337, 680, 682-4, etc. 

4. CAH, II, 478; Hall, 248, 289. 

5. Burry. 6; Olotz, 386-7. 

6. Nllsson, 61. 

7. Odyssey, sx, 588f ; Diodorus, Iv.77. 

8. Thucydider, i, 1.8, ii, 6.15. 

9. Diodorus, iv, 9. 

10, One form of the legend tells 

bow Heraeles triumphed • over 

fifty virgins In s single night.— 

, Athenaeus, Detpuosophisis. Or 

Banquet of the Learned, London, 



1854, xili, 4; Pausanias, ix, 27. 

11. Diodorus, iv, 85, 53. 

12. Ibid., Iv, 57-8. 
18. Ibid iv, 41-8. 

14. CAH, II, 475, III, 662. 
16. Iliad, ii, 683, iii, 76. 

16. Ibid., xxili, 198. 

17. xxiv, 228. 

18. xxix, 186. , 

19. xviii, 641, xxi, 257; Keller, AG., 
Homeric Society, N.Y., 1902, 78. 

20. Iliad, v, 87-9. 

21. Olotz, O., Ancient Greece at 
Work, N.Y., 1926, 36. 

22. Odyssey, xx, 72. 

23. Symour, T.D., Life In the Houe- 
ric Age, N.Y, I9O7, 234, 209-10. 

24. Olotz. Ancient Greece, 88; Ridge- 
way in Boisford, G,— ., Athenian 
Constitution, N.Y., 1895, 82. 

25. Ibid., 35; Pohlmann, R. von, 
Gesehlchte der soztalen Fragt' 
and desSozialisnus in der antiken 
Welt, Munchen, 1925, 6, 1, 29; 
Browne, H., Handbook of Home- 
ric Study, London, 1908, 209; 
Seymour 286, 273; Burry 64. 

26. Iliad, xxlii, 826. 

27. Ibid., xxiil, 341. 

28. Olotz, Ancient Greece, 45. 

29. Ibid., 42; Calhoun. O.M., Busi- 
ness Life of Ancient Athens, 
Chicago, 1926, 13. 

30. Odyssey, xv, 8Sf, 

31. Ibid., vi, 116. 

32. xiv, 202. 

38. Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 281 f. 
84. Mad, xlx, 247. 

35. Ibid., ii, 210f. 

36. Odyssey, xxl, 224-6. 

37. Ibid., iv, 184. 

88. Iliad, ix, 74. 

89. Odyssey, vi, 207. 

40. Ibid., iv, 20; 267-8. 

41. xv, 82f. 

42. vlH, 870f. 

43. Oardiner, E.N., Athletics of the 
Ancient World, Oxford, 1930, 
27; Mahaffy, J.P.. Sodai Lift i* 
Greece. N.Y..gl925. 51. 



-TTo 



44. Gardiner, E.N., 21-3; Iliad xxiii, 
166f. 

45. Thucydides, i, 1.5. 

46. Odyssey, vlii, 158f. 

47. Ibid., ix, 39f. 

48. Iliad, x, 383. 

49. Odyssey, xili, 287-95. 

50. Ibid., ii, 234, iv 1 690, xiv, 138-141 

51. Ibid., i, 87, viii, 14; Iliad, ii, 169 

52. Odyssey, i, 57-9; Iliad, xx, 18 

53. Odyssey, xvli, 280 

54. Athenaeus, xili, 8 ; Harrison, 
Jane, Prolegomena to the study 
of Greek Religion, Cambridge 
U.P., 1922, 260-2. 

55. Athenaeus, xiii, 4 
66. Iliad, xviii, 693 

57. Ibid., xviii, 490 

58. vi, 169 

69. Odyssey, 1, 153, 325, viH, 43-64, 
xxi, 406-8 

60. Ibid., xxi, 46 

61. Iliad, vi, -318-7 

62. Ibid., 1. 249 
S3, iii, 292 

64. Murray, Epic, 129 

65. Sumner, — .Q., and Keller, A.O., 
Seiedee of Society, New Haven, 
1928, I, 658 

66. CAH, II, 478; Murray Epic, 174 

67. Whibley, 30 

68. Pliny, xxxvi, 64 

69. Orote, I, 77 

70. Ptutarch, De StoieorumRepug- 
nantiis, 83, in Bakewell, CM., 
Source Book in Ancient Philoso- 
phy, N.Y., 1909, 278 

71. Iliad, vi, 406 

72. Ibid., viii, 542 

73. CAH, III, 670 

74. Odyssey, Iv, 621 

75. Butcher and Lang, Odyssey, N. 
Y., 1927, introd., xxiv 

77. Seymour, 73 

78. Odyssey, v, 151-8 

79. Ibid., vi, 239 

80. Nllssu, 4-5 

81. Oydssey, xix, 177 

82. Thucydides, i, 1.2 



83. Herodotus, i, 68 

84. Evans, IV, 477, 9B9 

85. Fauaanias, iii, 2. 

86. Ridder, A. de, and Deonna, — . y 
Art in Greece, N.Y., 1927, 167 

CHAPTER !V 

1. Plato, Phaedrus, 244; Frazer, 
Magic Art, N.Y., 1935, II, 358; 
Reinach, Orpheus, 98; CAH, 
II, 629 

8. Orote, IV, 196 

3. Mahaffy, J. P., What Have the 
Greeks Done for Civilization ? 
N.Y., 1909, H 

4. Plato, Timaeus, 28-3 

5. Herodotus, ii, 143 

6. Ibid., ii, 63, 81, 123; Dlodorus, 
1, 96; Harrison, Prolegomena, 
574-5 

7. Herodotus, ii, 109 ; Strabo, xvit, 
3 : Diodorus, i, 69 ; Smith, Q.E., 
417-8 ; Rider, 7, 341. 

8. Ibid.; Smith, 418-29; Warren, 
Foundations, 193-4 

9. Glotz, Ancient Greece. 128; 
Day, C, Bistory of Commerce, 
London, 1926, 14 

10. Olmostead, A. T., History of 
Assyria, N.Y., 1923. 537 

11. Herodotus, ii, 109 
18. Orote, IV, 184 

18. Heath, Sir Thos., Bistory of 
Greek Mathematics, Oxford, 1931 
I, 44, II, 21 ; CAH, IV, 539 

14. Ridder, 840 ; Anderson, W. J. 
and Spiers, R.P., Architecture of 
Greece and Rome, London, 1902 
49; Gardner, E.A., Handbo 
Greek Sculpture London, 1920, 
61-2 
. 16. Cook, A. B., Zeus, Cambridge 
U.P. 1914, 777. 

16. Strabo, viii, 6; CAH, III, 640-2; 
Orote, III, 96 

17. Herodotus, ill, 131 

18. Oardner, E. A., Handbook, 365. 

19. Pausanlas, iv, 6-14 

20. Strabo, vii, 5.4 



— YY1 — 



21. Muller, K.O., in Rawlinton's 
Herodotus vil, 234n. The calcu- 
lation is for 48o B.G., Meyer,' 
Ed.,' Qesehichte des Alterthums, 
Stuttgart, 1884f. Ill,' §§ 263-4, 
gives the population of Loconia 
ca. 470 as 12,-000 Spartans (4000 
adult males), 80,000 Perioeci, 
and 190,000 Helots. 

22. CAH, V, 7 . 

23. Plutarch, Spartan Institutions, 
in Lyra Graeca, London, 1928, 
III, 387; Mahaffy, Social Life, 
45; Cicero, in Cotterill, H.B., 
History of Art, N.Y., n.d., I, 61 

24. Grot*, IV, 264 

So. Greek Anthology, ix, 488, in 
Lyra Grtteca, I, 29 

28. Orote, III, 195; Murray, Sir O., 
History of Ancient Qreeck Lite- 
rature, N.Y., 1927, 80 

27. In Ridder, 106 

28. Orote, III, 195 

29. Mahaffy, J.P., History of Clas- 
sical Qreeck Literature, London, 
1908, I, 189; Saeroix, -Paul, 
History of Prostitution, N.Y., 
1981) I, 149-50 

30. Alcman, Free. 36 in Lyra 
Greaca, I, 77 

.81. Das Oxf order -Buck Deutsehen 
Dlchlung, Oxford, 1936, 117 

31. Ooethe, J. V. von, Poetical 
Works Mfcbbb, N.Y,, 1909, 61. 

33t Glover, T.R., Democrrey In the 
Antienl World, Cambridge U.P, 
1927,. 84 

34. Herodotus, I, 85 

85. Aristotle, Politics, 1271b 

86. Plutarch, "Lycurgus" 

87. Ibid 

38. Ibid.; Polybius, vi, 48 
89. Thucydides, i; 6 

40. E.g., Polybius, vi, 10 

41. Plutarch, "Lycurgus" 
48. Ototz, Ancient Greece, BB 

48. Coulonges, Fustel de, Ancient 

City, Boston, 1901, 460 
44. Plutarch, I.e. 



45. Ibid., Orote, III, 148 

46. Thucydides, iv, 14 

47. Coulanges, 294; Olotz, G„ Greek 
City, London, 1929, 300; Carroll, 
M., Greek Women, Phila., 1908, 
136 

48. Mahaffy. J. P., Old Greek 
Education. N.Y.,.ri.d., 10 

49. Hesiod, Callimucbus, and Theo- 
gnis, Works, tr. Banks and Frere, 
London, 1856, 44 In. 

50. Plutarch, I.e.; Orote, III, 157; 
.Muller-Lyer, F„ Family, N.Y., 

1931, 45 

51. Thucydides, i, 3 

52. Nilsaon, 94 

53. Mahaffy, Greek Education 46- 

54. Plutarch, "Demetrius." 

55. Xenophon, Anabasis, Loeb Lib- 
rary, Iv, 6.15 

56. Symonds, J. A., Greek Poets, 
London, 1920, 159 

57. Becker, — ., Charicles, London, 
1886, 246, 297 

58. Carroll, 138-40; Weigall, A., 
Sapphoof Lesbos, N.Y., 1932, 101 

69. Plutarch, "Lycurgus" ; Llppert, 
301 

60. Athenaeus, xiil, 2 

61. — hibley, 618 

62. Orote, III, 155-6; Sumner,-— . 0* 
Folk-ways, Boston, 1906, 351 

63. Athenaeus, xiii, 2 

64. Plutarch, "Numa and Lycurgus 
Compared." 

65. Aristotle, Politics, 1270a; Orote, 
IU, 168-7; Briffault, R., Mothers, 
N.Y., I, 899 

66. Plutarch. "Lycurgus" ; Olotz, 
Ancient Greece, 89 

67. Athenaeus, xii, 74 
' 68. Plutarch, I.e. 

69. Orote, III, 131, IX, 298; Rawlis- 
son's Herodotus, iii, 148 

71. Orote, HI, 132, 158 

72. Plutarch, "Pelopldas." 

73. E.g., Herodotus, i, 82 

74. Ibid., vii, 104 



-YYV- 



75. Xenophon, "Constitution of the 
Lace d*emonlans," In Minor 
Works, London. 1914, i, I. 

76. Pausanias, v, I. 

77. Ibid., vli, 21 

78. Frazer, Sir J., Studies in Qreek 
Scenery, Legend, and History, 
London, 1931, 324-5 

79. Pausanias, ii, I; Olotz, Ancient 
Greece, 116 

80. Strabo, viii, 6.21 

81. Iliad, H, 670 

82. Arhtoile (?), Economics, Loeb 
L'brary ii, 3 

83. Aristotle, Politics, 1315b 

84. Enc. Brit., XVI, 6:6. Others 
attribute the first Corinthian 
coinage to Cypse us ; cf. CAH, 
ill, 652 

8a. Olotz. Greek City, 113, Ancient 
Greece, 86; — elgall, Sappho, 46 

86. Plutarch, Moralia, Loeb Library, 
147D 

87. Herodotus, 11L 60*3; Diogenes 
Laertius, Lins and Opinions 
of the Eminent Philosophers, 
London, 1853, "Periander." 

88. Aristophanes, The Eleven Corne- 
ous, N.Y. 1908, Frogs, 138; 
Lacroix, I, 110 

89. Pinidr, Odes, Loeb Librsry, 
Frag. 122 

90. Strabo, viii, 6.20 

91. Atnenaeus, xili, 32 

92. Ibid., 33 

93. St. Paul, I Cor. vi, 15-18 

94. Semple, 669 

96. Pausanias. vl, 17-19 ; Litchfield, 
F., History of Furniture, Boston, 
1922, 13 

96. CAH, III, 564 

97. Olotz, Greek City, 113 

98. Orote, III, 264-6 

99. Theognis, 237, in Dickinson, 
O.L., Qreek View of Life N.Y. , 
1928, 186 

100. Theognis in. Hesiod, Calllma- 
chus and Theognis, Works, 
444-6 

101. Ibid., II. 373f. 



102. Ibid.. II, 349f. 

103. Synonds, 161 

104. Botsford, O. — ., and Sihler, 
E.O., Hellenic Civilzation, N.Y., 
1920, 1984; Coulanges, 369 

105. Sjmonds, 162 

106. Theognis in Hesiod, etc., 442 

107. Ibid., 470-1, 447-8, 489-90 

108. 479-81 

109. 477, 491-3 

110. 454-6 

111. Ringeway, 3) 

112. Calhoun, 30-1; Simple, 669 

113. Pausanias, ii, 26 

114. Pindar. Pythian iii, 47-68 

116. Gardner, E.A., Ancient Athens, 
N.Y., 1902, 431 

CHAPTER V 

1. Stabo, viii, 6 21; Ix, 2.26 

2. Pausanias. ix, 31 

S. Mahaffy, Greek Literature I, HT 

4. Enc Brit., XI, 629 

5. Hesiod, Works and Days, 640 

6. Ibid., 665 

7. Oardiner. E.N., Athletics, 30 

8. Pausanias, ix, 31 ; cf. Mahaffy, 
Greek Literature, I, 136 ; CAH, 
IV, 474; Orote,. I, 12 

9. Hesiod, Theogony, 1-6 

10. 120f 

11. Nllsson, 185-6 

12. Theogony, I66f 

13. Ibid., 73fif 

14. Works and Days, 266 
16. Ibid., 286f 

16. 504f 

17. 54f 

18. Theogony, 686f 

19. Works and Days 696f 

20. Ibid , 109f 

21. Mahaffy, Social Life, 72 

22. Mahaffy, Qreek Literature, 64 

23. Diodorus, xvi, 28; Frazer, Stu- 
dies, 374-6 

24. Pope, A., Essay on Man 

25. Bury, 95; CAH, III, 619. Others 
(Murray, Epic, 43, md' Enc. 
Brit, XII, 575) derive the OtaU 
from Epirus 



— YYA — 



26. Cicero, De Fato, 7. 

27. Baedeker, xxvll; ZImmern, A., 
Greek Commonwealth, Oxford,' 

28. Hippocrates, Works, Loeb Libra- 
ry, In trodnctory Essay I to Vol. 
II, by W. H. S. Jones; cf Jones, 
W. H. S., Malaria and Greek 
History, Manchester U.P., 1909. 

29. Isocrates, Works, Loeb Library, 
Patugyricus, 24 

80. Ridder, 122 

31. Orate, III, 370-4; Vinogradoff, 
Paul, Outlines of Historical 
Jurisprudence, Oxford, 1922, II, 

86-6 

32. Frazer, Studies, 68-9 

48. Aristophanes, I, 196, editoVs 

note. 
84. Baedeker, 104 

35. CAH, III, 679-80 

36. Aristotle, Constitution of Athens, 
London, 1891, Beet. 57; Orote, 
III, 890; Conlanges, 331 

37. Meyer, Ed., in Zimmern, 896 

38. Aristotle,' Constitution, 2 says 
that these "sixth-shares" paid 
one-sixth of their product to 
the owner ,and Plutarchf'Solon") 
follows him; but recent scholar- 
ship inclines to believe that the 
sixth part was the amount kept, 
not paid. Cf. Bury, 174; Olotz, 
Greek City, 102. 

.39. Botsford, Athenian Constitution, 
141. 

40. Aristotle, Constitution, 2. 

41. Olotz, Ancient Greece, 61, 80, 
Greek City, 102 

42. Olotz, Ancient Greece, 71 
48. CAH, IV, 33 

44. Ibid 

46. Orote, III, 293-4; Coulanges, 418 

46. Plntarch, "Solon." "* 

47. Botsford, Constitution, 143 

48. Pdhlmann, 158; Olotz, Ancient 
Greece, 71. 

49. Olotz, Greek Cltt, 119 

50. Plutarch, Amatorlas, 751c, In 
Ltnforth, I.M., Solon the Athe- 
nian, Berkeley, Cal., 1919, 166-7 



61. Diog. L., "Solon," ii. 
52. Plutarch. "Solon." 
63. Diog. L, "Solon," ix. 

54. Aristotle, Constitution, 5; Orote, 
HI, 313; Botsford, 158 

55. Aristotle, 6, 12 
56.- CAH, IV, 38. 

57. Aristotle, 6 

58. Plutarch, "Solon" 

59. Orote, III, 819 

60. Aristotle, 10 

61. Plutarch, Ic. 

62. Orote, III, 316; Mahaffy, What 
Have the Greeks Done' for 
Civilization P, 186 

68. .CAH, IV, 134; Bury, 183 

64. Plutarch, I.e. 

66. Aristotle, 12,' Orote, III, 331-2. 

66. Plutarch, I.c. 

67. Ibid., Aristotle, 9 

68. Coulanges, 420; CAH, IV, 42; 
Orote, II, 350 

69. Plutarch, I.c. 

70. Diog L., "Solon," vii 

71. Athenaeus, xlll, 25; Lacroix, I, 
68-70; Bebel, A., Woman under 
Socialism, N.Y., 1928, 36 

72. Plntarch, I.e.; Orote, III, 351; 
Tucker, T.O., Life In Ancient 
Athens, Chautauqua, N.Y., 1917, 
159 

73. Plntarch 

74. Ibid 

76. Diog. L, "Solon," xvl 

76. Orote, III, 344 

77. Diog. L i I.e. 

78. Ene. Brit., XX, 965 
79..Herodtus, i, 29 

80. Plato, Amatores, 133, in LInforth, 
•130 

81. Herodotus, 1, 30 

82. Plutarch, I.e. 

83. Diog. L., "Solon," iii 

84. DIodorus, ix, 20 

85. Herodofus, i, 60 ; Athenaeus, 
xill, 89 

86. Aristotle, Constitution, 16 

87. Olotz, Greek City, 121 

88. Calhoun. 29 

89. Aristotle, Polities, 1310a 



-YY*- 



90. Thueydides, vi, 19. 

91. Athenaeus, xiii, 70; Lacroix, 1,153 

92. Aristotle, Politics lBOOb 

CHAPTER VI 

t 

1. Pater, W., Plato and Platonism, 

London, 1910, 346. 
S. Thueydides, i, I. 
3. CAH. Strabo, x, 5.6; Plutarch, 

MoraUia Loeb Library, 9190. 

5. Lyra Qratca II, 639 

6. Aristophanes, Peace, 695 

7. Cicero, De Oratione, il, 86, in 
Lyra Qroeca, II, 306 

8. Lyra Greaca, II, 257 

9. Ibid., HI, 897, 339; tr. J. A. 
Symonds, Qrrek Poets, 155, 167 

10. Cicero, De Natura Deoram, 
Loeb Library, i, 22 

11. Thueydides, ill, 109 

12. Qlotz, Ancient Greece, 113 

13. Botsford and Slhler, 188 

14. Carroll, 99 

15. CAH, IV, 483 

16. Symonds, 169 

17. Herodotus, iii, 57 

18. Ovid, Metamorphoses, Loeb Lib- 
rary, x, 243 

19. Herodotus, I, 142 

20. Ibid., I, 146 

21. Ibid., i, 170; Diog. L., "Tales." 

22. Aristotle, Pottles, Loeb Library, 
1259a 

23. Diog. L., "Thales," Hf-viii; Plu- 
tarch, "solon," 

94. Heath, Greek Mathematics, 1, 
130; I eberweg, F., History of 
Philosophy, N.Y., 1871, I, 34-5 
Heath, I, 137; Herodotus, i r 74 

26. Aristotle, Metaphysics, tr. M' 
Mataon, London, 1857, i, 3 

27. Ibid 

28. Diog. L., "Tales," ill 

29. Ibid., "Thnlea » viii 4 

30. Ibid 

31. Ibid., 'Thales." xli 
89. Starbo, xiv, 4.7 

33. .Spencer, First Principles of a 
New System of Philosophy, N.Y., 
1910,367. ' 



34. Bakewell, 6 

36. Heath, II, 36; Orote, V, 94 

36. Bakewell, 6. 

37. Aristotle , Metaphysics, i, 3 
Bakewell, 7; CAH IV, 664 

38. Athenaeus, xii, 26xiil, 29, xiv 20 

39. Ibid , xii, 2b 

40. Diog. L., "Bias," i-Iv 

41. CAH, IV, 92-3 

42. Herodotus, ii, 134 

43. Plntarcb, Moralla, 16C 

44. Leslie, Shane, Greew Anthology, 
N.Y., 1929, x, 123 

45. Pfuhl, Ernst, Masterpieces of 
Greek Drawing and Painting, 
London, 1926 Fig. 79 

46. Sarton, Qeo., Introduction to the 
History of Science, Baltimore, 
1930, I, 76 

47. Pausanias, viii, 14; Qlotz, Ancient 
Greece, 132; Jones, H. Stuart,. 
Ancient Writings on Greek Scul- 
pture, London, 1 896-, 24-5 

48. Ridder, 174 

49. Pliny, xxxv, 46 

60. Ibid., xxxvi, 91 

61. Athenaeus, xii, 29 

62. Carroll, 102 

53. Frag. 78 in Berodes, Cerddas, 
and the Greek Choliambie Poets, 
Loeb Library, 66 

54. Dlog. L. in Heracleltus, On the- 
, Universe, Loeb Library, 464 

55. Cf. Mahaffy, What Save the 
Greek ?, 219 

56. Bakewell, 33. 

57. Nietzsche, P., Early Greek Phi- 
losophy, N.Y. 1911, 103-4 

58. Diog. L., "Heracleitiis," v. 

59. Strabo,. xiv, 1.28J Weigall, 
Sappho, 155; Webster's Diction- 
ary, s.v. colophon. 

60. Weigall, 186; Symonds, 150 

61. Tr. in Harrison, Prolegomena, 178- 

62. Lyra Qratca, HI, 636, II, 126 131 

63. Athenaeus, x, 83 

64. Lyra Qratca, II, 126, 139 

65. Ibid., 145, frag. 16 

66. Greek (Palatine) Anthology, vil24 

67. Diodorug, xx, 84 



-tr«- 



88. Herodotus, viii, 105; Qlotz, 

Ancient Greece, 85 
6Q. Athenaeus, vi, 88-00; Ward, C. 

O , Ancient Lowly , Chicago, 

1907. I, 12df 

70. Eratosthenes in Orate, II, 159 

71. Lyra Graece, I, 333; Athenaeus, 
xiv, 23 

72. Tr. by Symonds, 197 

78. Stobaeus, Antholoy, xxix, 68, In 
Lara Qraeca, I, Ml 

74. Greek Anthology, In, 606 

75. Strabo, xiii, 2.3 

76. Ovid. Heroid.es, Loeb Library, 
xv, 81 ; scholiast on Lncian,. 
Imag, 18, In Lyra Qraeca, 1, 160 

77. Weigall, Sappho, 76 

78. Ibid., 176 

79. Symonds, 196 

80. Weigall, 86 

81. Lyra Qraeca I, 437 

82. Athenaeus, xii, 69 

81. Donginus, On the Sublime, Loeb 

Library, ix, 16 
«. Berliner Klrssikertexte, p. 9722, 

in Lyra Qraeca, i, 289 

86. Murray, Greek Literature, 92; 
Weigall 173, 90; Robinson, D.M. 
Sappho and Ber Influence, Bos- 
ton, 1924, 58 

87. Mahaffy, Greek Literature, I, S02* 

88. Weigall, 321 

89. Suidas, Lexicon, S.v.. Phaon, in 
Lyra Qraeca, I, 153; Strabo, 
x, 2.8 

90. Ovid, Heroides, xv 

91. Oxyrhynchue Papyrus 1281, In 
Weigall, 291 

92. Lyra Qraeca, I, 435 

93. Athenaeus, xiii, 89 

94. Strabo, xii, 3.1 1 

96. Ramsay, Asianic Elements, 118 

96. Diodorus, iv, 49 

97. Polybins, Iv, 88 
-98. Semple, 72-3, 814 

99. Murray, Greek Literature, 8* 

CHAPTER VII 

1. Paueanias, iii, S3 

2. Ludwig, 266; Cook, Zeus, 776 



3. Schliemam, Ihos, 41 

4. Strabo, x, 8.9 

5. Journal of Hellenic Studies, LVI, 

170-89, London lfc82f. 

6. Grote, IV, 160-1 

7. Mahaffy, Greek Literuture.lfil-S; 
J.B. Studies, LV, 138 

8. Randall - Maclver, D., Greek 
Cities in Italy and Sicilf, Ox- ' 
ford, 1931, 75; CAH, III, 676 

9. Diodorus, iii, 9 

10. Athenaeus, xii, 20 

11. Ibid., xii, 15, 17 

12. Ibid , 68 

13. Herodotus, vi, 127 
16. Crete, IV, 168 

16. Athenaeus, xii, 19 

17. Diog. L., "Pythagoras," ix 

18. Enc. Brit., XVIII, 802 

19. Diog. L., "i-ia, xvii ; Heath, 
Greek Math., 1, 4 

20. Cicero, De Finibas, Loeb Library, 
v, 29, 87; Diodorus, I, 98 

21. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 
Loeb Library | ii, 15 

32. Carroll, 299, 307, 310 

23. Diog. L., "P>thagoras," vili, 

24. Ibid., "Pythagoras," xix, xvlii; 
Orote, V, 103 

96. Diog. L., "Pythagoras," xix 

26. Ibid., "Pylh.," xvlii 

27. Orote, V, 100-1 

28. Diog. L , "Pyth ," xxil ; Cook, 
Zeus, 1 

29. Diog. "Pyth., viii 

30. Heath, 1, 10 

31. Prosluo, in Heath, I, 141. 

32. Diog. L., "Pyth.," xi 

33. Wnibley, 229 

34. Heath, 1, 70, 85. 145 

35. Whewell, W., History of the 
Inductive Sciences, N.Y., 1869, 
1, 106; Oxford History of Muiic 
Oxford U.P., 1929, Introductory 
Volume, 3 

36. Aristotle, Works, ed. Smith and 
Ross, Oxford, 1991, De Coelo, 
ii, 9; Metaphysics, 1, 6; Oxford 
History of Music, 27; Heath, 1, 
166, II, 107- 



- tn- 



37. Heath, II, 65, 11 9;. Berry, A., 
Short History of Astronomy, N. 
Y., 1909, 24 

38. Diog. L.. «Pyth.," xxv. 

39. Ibid., 9, Introd., xviih 

40. Livingstone, R. W., Legacy of 
Greece, Oxford, 1924, 59 

41. Diog. L., "Pylh ," xix 
49. Ibid 

43. Rohde, Erwin, Psyche,. N. Y., 
• 1925, 375; Pater, Plato. 64 

44. Greek Anthology, vii, 120 

45. Ariftotle, Nicomaehem Ethics, 
v 8 

46. Dlog. L , "pyth.." xxi 

47. Orote, IV, 154-8 j CAH, IV, 

I ' 115-6 

48. Frag. 84 in Mhibley, 89 

49. Heatb, II, 52 ; Mahaffy, Greek 
Lit., I, 138 

50. FragB.14-6,5-7,1-3, In Bakwell, 8 

62. Diog. L-, "Xenophanes," HI 

63. Frags. 9-10 

64. Bakewell, 10-11 

55. Warren, Foundations, 341 : but 
Koldewey (ibid.) places it about 
460 

56. Randall-Maclver, 9-10 

67. Child, V.Q,,.Dawn of European 
Civilization, N.Y. 1995, 98-100 

68. Thucydides, vi, 18 ,' Diodorus, 
v, S 

69. Orote, IV, 149 

60, Freeman. E.A., Story of Sicily, 
N.Y., 1899, 66 

61. Ibid 

62 Polyhlus, xii, 96 

63. Ibid., ix, 27 

64. Ibid., v, 2 

66. Herodotus, vii, 156 

6ft. Luclan, Works, tr. H. W. and 
F.O. Fowler, Oxford, 1905, Her- 
motimaa," 34 

67. Olotz, ' Ancient Greece, 116 ; 
Draper, J. W., History of the 
Intellectual Development of 
Europe, N.Y., 1876, I, 52 

CHAPTER VIII 

II CAH, II, 610 

( T-»lf i f t «!jUJ.IJ-f-\A) 



S. Cf. Sophocles, Oedipus at Colo- 
mas, 1470 ; Cook, Zeus, prssim 

3. Iliead, iii, 977 

4. Frazer, Magic Art, I, 815 

5. Murray, Q. Five Stages of 
Greek Religion, Oxford U.p., 
1930, 60 

6. Nilsson, 91; FantW.Greece 'and 
Babylon, 228 

7. Nillson, 91-2/ Heracleitus in 
Bakewell, 29 

8. Murray, O. Aristophanes : A 
Study, N.Y., 1933, 6 

9. Harrlsont Jane, Prolegomenat, 
898; Olotz, Aegean Civilisation, 

391-2; Briffault, Mothers, HI, 146 

10. Mnmy, Five Stages, 35-6; Reina. 
cb, S., Orpheus 86 ; Frazer Sir 
J., Spirits of the Corn and of 
Wild, N.Y., 1936, I, 4 

11. Whlbley, 387 

12. Murray, Five Stages, 31 

13. Ibid., 29, 33; Harrison, Prolego- 
menat, PP. viit and 28 

16. Harrison, 18 

16. Rodenwaldt, 815 

17. Sophocles, Phlloctetes, 1327-9 ; 
Harrison, 297f 

18. Ibid., 325 

19. Rohde, 159 

20. Nilson, 133 
31. Rohde, 297 

22. Ibid., 179 

23. Seymour, 98; Odyssey; i, 56f ; 
Iliad, iv, 14f 

24. Ibid., viii, 17-27 
26. Semple,' 529 

26. Iliad, xvl, 661f 

27. Hesiod, Theogony, 887 f 

28. Iliad, xv, 17 

39. Frszer, Magic Art, I, 14-15 
80. Iliad, viii, 880f 

31. Ibid., xx, 46, xxi, 406 

32. Smith, Win, Dictionary of Greek 
and Roman Antiquities, Boston, 
1859, 603 

33. CAH, II, 637; Olotz, Ancient 
Greece, 112; Blakeney, M.A., 

ti.,Smaller Classical Dictionary, 
Everyman Library, 258 



-Yrv- 



34. CAH, I.c. 

35. Diodorus, iv, 6 
"86. Attaenaens, xli, 80 

37. Oardner, P., New Chapters, 167 
SB. Frazer, Sir J., Adonis, Attis, 

Osiris, N.Y., 1935,226; Gardner, 

New Chapters, 157 

39. Semple, 43-4 

40. In Symonds, 204 

41. Diodorus, ii! 69 

42. Herodotus, il, 49-57 

48. Nilsson, 86; CAH, IV, 527 

44. Ibid., 535 

45. Rohde, 220 \ Oardner, New 
Chapters, 385 

.46. Diodorus, iv, 25 

47. Harrison, Pnlegomenat, 465 

48. Relnach, 88; CAH, IV, 586-B; 
Harrison, 483 ; Murray, Greek 
Literature, 65; Carpenter, Edw., 
Pagan and Christain Creeds, 
N.Y, 1920, 64 

49. Harrison, p. xi. 

5a Ibid., 68Bj Nilsson, SSI, Rohde, 

344 
61. Plato, Republic, ii, 864-6 
52. Harrison, 572 
63. Whibley, 402 
54. Nilsson, 247 
65. Symonds, 496 
56. Dickinson, O.I ., Qreek View of 

Life, N.V., 1928, I 

67. Orote, II, 101-9 

68. Coulanges, 223 

59. Xenophon, Anabasis, v, 3«4 

60. Iliad, xxi, 27, xxlil, 22, 176 

61. PauBanias, iv, 9, vii, lg, CAH, 
II, 621 

62. Pausanas, iii, 16, Plutarch, 
"Lycurgus", Nilsson, 94 

63. CAH, 1(, 618, Orote, I, 111 

64. Frazer, Sir J., Scapegoat, N.Y., 
1935, 258, Harrison, 107 

45. Aristophanes, Frogs, 734, and 
scholiast ; Rohde, 296 ', Harrison, 
103 ; Nilsson, 87, Frazer, Scape- 
oat. 253 

66: Harrison, 108 

67. Murray, O., Epie, 12-18, 817, 
Harrison, 103 



68. Plutarch, "Pelopldas." 

69. Hesiod, Theogony, 557f 

70. Odyssey, 111 338-41, CAH, II, 626 

71. Farnell, 237 

72. Hairison, 501 

73. Diodorus, iii, 66 

74. Orote, I, 145-6 
76. Harrison, 167 

76. Nilsson, 82-3, Rohde, 168 

77. Coulanges, 213, Rohde, 296-6 

78. Nilsson, 83 

79. Ibid., 86 

80. Theophrastus, Characters, Loeb 
Library, xvi 

81. Plutareh, "Solon" 

82. Sophocles, Trachinian Women, 
584., Lacroix, I, 117, Becker, 381 

83. Plato, Laws, 933, Harrison, 189 

84. Herodotus, ix, 95 

85. Coulanges, 291 

86. Carroll, 270, Rohde, 292 

87. Coulanges, 289 

88. Orote, III, 38-9, Benson, E. F., 
Life of Alcibiades, N.Y., 1929,83 

89. Herodotus, v, 63, vi, 66, Orote, 
V, 431 

90. Ibid., Ill, 127 

91. CAH, III, 627-8 

92. Ibid., 604 

93. In Coulanges, 288 

94. Harrison, 121, Frazer, Spirits 
of the Corn, II, 17 

95. Harrison, 82 

96. Frazer, Spirits of the Corn,], 30 

97. Rohde, 239 

CHAPTER IX 

1. Herodotus, vlii, 144 

2. Mahaffy, Greek Literature, 1V.24 

3. Enc. Brit., I, 681 

4. Mason, W. A„ . History of the 
Art of Writing, 344 

5. Mahafly, Old Qreek Education, 
49, Thompson, Sir E. M., Intro- 
duction to Greek and Latin 
Palaeography, Oxford, 1912, 58 

6. Pliny, siil, 11 

7. Shortwell, J. T., Introduction to 
the History of Bistoy, N.Y., 
1936, 30, Becker, 162n 



~YW- 



8. Thompson, 89, 43; Mahaffy, I.e., 
51 

9. Becker, 974 

10. Staowell, 32 

11. Mahaffy, Greek Literature, 1, 
25-8 

19. Orate, II, 246; Murry, Epic, 23ft 

13. Diog. L., "Solon," Ix 

14. Orote, II, 245; Murray, Epic, 147 

15. Ibid., 258. 

16. Iliad, xxii, 106-13, tr. O. Murray 

17. Ramsay, A&ianic Element!, 289 

18. Mad, i, 477, etc 

19. Ibid, ii, 469-78 

SO. Ibid., xx, 490, tr. Bryant 

81. Mahaffy, Greek Literature, I, 

35, 81. Arisfarchus of Samothrace 

wrote ci. 180 B.C. 

22. Browne, 92 

23. Qlotz, Aegean Ctvilzation, 393 ; 
Ward, I, 41 j Orote, II , 806-7 

24. Briffault, Mothers, I, 411 

25. Odyssey, lv, 120-86 

26. Herodotus, ii, 63 

37. Curtius, Ernst, Qriechlsehtt , 
Berlin, I887f, I, 136, in Rober- 
tson, J.M., Short, History of 
Free Thought, London, 1914, I, 
127j Mahaffy, Social Life, 358; 
Murray, Epic, 267 

87a.' Symonds, 187 

28. Odyssey, viii, 146 

29. Rodenwaldt, 283 

30. Oardinder, Athletics, 230 

31. Mahaffy. Qreek Education, 18 
89. Oardiner, Athletics, 284 

31. Tucker, 222 
34. In Zim'mern, 316 
85. Pansanias, 816 

36. Ibid., I, 44 

37. Oardiner, New Chapters, 291 

38. Ibid., 294 
89. Ibid., 294 

40. Oardiner, Athletics, 212f 

41. Pausaoias, vi, 4 

42. Ibid., viii, 40 

43. Ibid., vi, 14 

44. Herodotus, Hi, 106 

45. Pauaanias, vi, 18 

46. Herodotus, viii, 26 



47. Orote, III, 352-3 

48. Athenaeus, x, i; Oardiner, 
Athletics, 64-6 

49. Ferguson, W.M., Qreek Imperia- 
lism, Boston, 1913, 68-9; Halgb, 
A.C., Attic Thiatre, Oxford, 
1907, 3 

50. Winckelmann, J., History of 
Ancient Art, Boston, 1880, II, 288 

61. Athenaeus, xiii, 90 

52a. Ibid 

53. Richter Q.., Handbook of the 
Classical Colleetlon,tAtUopo\iin 
Museum of Art, N.Y., 1922, 76 

64. Rodenwaldt, 234 

65. Ridder, 171 
56. Pfubl, 38 

67. Ridder, 181 ; Murray, A. S., 
Qreek Sculpture, I, 11 

58. Rodenwaldt, 247 

59. Cf. Pijoan, J., Bistort of Art, 
N.r, 1927, 1, ligs. 351-2 

60. Ibid', p. 229 

61. Pliny, xxxv, 161 

62. Cotterill, H. B., History of Art, 
N.Y., 1922, 99-100 

68. Anderson and Spiers, 42; CAH, 
IV, 608-8 

64. Livingstone, Legacy of Greece 
412; Waaen, 277-80; Smith, O.E., 
422J CAH, IV, 99 

65. Polybius, iv, 20-1 ; Athenaeus, 

xiv, 22 

66. Lacroix, I, 122 

67. Pratt, W.S., HUtorf of Music, 
N.Y., 1927, 58 

68. Pansanlas, x, 7 

69. Mahaffy, Sodal Life, 456 

70. Diodorus, Ui, 67 

71. Lyra Qraeea, III, 582 

72. Strabo, x, 8.17 

7i Oxford History of Music, 8 

74. Ibid., Pratt, 65; Mahaffy, What 
Have the Greeks?, 143;id„ Sodal 
Life, 463-5 

75. Aristotle, Polities, 1342b. 

76. Athenaeus, xiv, 18 

77. Ibid., 10; Lyra Qraeea, II, 498; 
Symonds, 180; Olotz, Ancient 
Greece, 279 



-m- 



78. Oxford History of Made, I, 80 

79. Haigh, 811 

80. Lnclan, "Of Pantomime." 

81. Ibid' 

82. In Kirsteia, L- , Dance, N.Y., 

83. Athenaeus, 1, 37 

84. Kinteln, 28-90 

85. Ibid., 30 

86. Athenaeus, xlv, 12, 88 

87. Lyra Qraeca, III, 630 

88. Lucian, I.e. 

89. Mahaffy, Social Life, 464-5 

90. Athenieua, xlv, 17 

91. Aristotle, Poetics, iv; -Murray, 
Aristophanes, 3 

92. Enc Brit., VII, 689 

93. Aristotle, Politics, 1336b 

94. Murrayi I c.; id., Xireek Litera- 
ture, 212; Haigh, 292; Sumner, 
W.O., Folkways, 447 

95. Aristophanes, Eleven Comedies, 
I; 327 and editor's note; Kirstein, 
38 

96. Enc. Brit., VII, 684 

97. Aristotle, Poetics, v, 3 J 

98. CAH, V, 117 

99. Aristotle, Poetics, iv, 17 

100. Ridgeway In Harrison, 76; 
Sumner apd Keller, III, 2109 

101. Enc. Brit., VII, 682 

102. Ibid., 688 

10S. Athenaeua, I, '39 

104.' DIog. L., 88, "Solon," xi 

CHAPTER X 

1. Herodotus, vl, 98 

2. Orote, V, 16 
8. Ibid., 22 

4. Herod., vi, 102 

5. Rawlinson, app. to Herod., vi; 
Orote, V, 68; Pausanias, x 20 

6. Plutarch. "Aristldes." 

8. Herod., vi, 132-6 

9. Plutarch, I.e. 

10. Ibid 

11. Ibid 

12. Thucydides, i, 6. 138 

13. Plutarch, "Themlstoclea." 

14. Plutarch, "Arittidei." 



16. Herod., vii, 133-7 

16. Ibid., 184-6, 196 

17. Ibid., 146 

18. Ibid., 33-6 

19. Ibid., 66 

20. Athenaeus, iv, 27; Heroe., vi) 
118-9 

21. Ibid., vili, 4-6 

22. vii, 231-3 

23. viii, 24 

34. Greek Anthology, vii, 249; Strabo, 

ix, 4, 12-16 ' 
25. Plutarch, "Themistocles." 
26. -Mahaffy, Social Life, 223. Maha- 
ffy considers the story a legend, 
but no lover of dogs will doubt it 

27. Herod., ix, 4-6 

28. Ibid., viii, 89 

29. Orote, V, 316f, and Freeman, 
77. believe that the two actions 
were concerted; CAH, IV, 378, 

30. Orote,' V, 319-20 

31. Herod., ix, 70 

32. Rawlinson, note to Herod., Ix. 

CHAPTER XI 

1. Shelley, P.B., "On the Manners 
of the Ancients," qnoted by 
Livingstone, Legacy, 261 

9. Herod,, viii, 111-12 

fl. Oxford Book of Greek Verse in 
Translation, Oxford, 1938, 534; 
Plutarch, "Themistocles." 

4. Plutarch, "Ariatides." 

5. Thucydides, i, 5 

6. Orote, VI, 6-7 

7. Aristotle, Constitution, 21 

8. Ibid., 41 

9. Plutarch, "Pericles"; Orote, VII 
16; CAH, V, 72 

10. Plutarch, I.e. 

11. Ibid 

12. Ibid 

13. Olotz, Greek Cltg, 241 

14. Plato, Oorgias 516; Aristotle 
Constitution, 27; Plutarch, I.e. 

15. CAH, V, 100; Olotz, 210 

16. Olotz, 181 

17. Plutarch, I.e. 



-tr«- 



18. Ibid 

19. Plato, Phaedrus, 870 

20. Plutarch, I.e. 
SI. Carroll 197 

22. Aristophanes. Achamians, B14f ; 

Athenaeus, xiii, 26-6 
28. Lacroix, I, 15*; Carrol, 200 
74. Plato, Mentxtnus, 936; Carroll, 

311; Bemon, 58 
16. Lacroix, I, 156 
96. Plutarch, I.e. 

27. Plato, I.c.; Benson, 57-8 

28. Plutarch, I.c. 

29. Benson, 58 

30. Plutarch 

31. Plato, Teaetetas, 79, Republic, 
ii, 8, Laws, ix, 3; Thucydldes, 
M, 52; Mahaffy, Social Life, 
178-9; Orote, VI, 305-6 

32. Botsford, 222 

33. Olotz, Greek City, 166, Carroll, 
442 

84. Tuker, 251-2 

85. Isocrates, Antidosis, 320 

86. Coulanges, 248 

37. Tylor, E.B.,. Anthropology, N.Y., 
1906, 217 

38. Vinogradoff, II, 61-fl- 

39. Aristotle, Constitution, 57 

40. Olotz, Greek City, 986 

41. Olotz, Ancient Greece, 153 

42. Botsford, 53-4 

43. Olotz, Ancient City, 297 

44. Cf. Aristotle's will in Dlog. L., 
186, "Ariitoie," ix 

45. Xenophoi, Memorabilta, tr. 
Watson, Phila 189s, x, 2.9 

46. Murray, Greek Literature, 328 

47. Olotz, Antcient Oreece, 281 
4& Tucker, 263 

49. Isoerates, Antidosis, 79 

50. Enc Brit* X/829 

51. Olotz, Ancient Greece, 316 
■52, Olotz, Greek dtp, 863 

58. Herod., v, 77 ; Aristotle, Ethics 
v, 7 

54. Olotz, Greek City, 230 

55. Zimmern, 290; Ferguson, 69 
68. CAH, V, 29; Orote, II, 65-7 
57. Thucydldes, II, 6 



58. Lyra Orveca, II, 337 
CHAPTER XII 

1. Xenophon, Economieas, Iv-vi, In 
Minor Works 

2. Ibid., xviil, 3 

3. Semple, 407, 414, 421 

4. Pausanias, ii, 38 

5. Zimmero, 52*4 

6. Aristophanes, II, 245; Athenaeus, 
vii 43, bOf 

7. Ibid., vix, 51 

8. Xenophon, Memorabilia, ii, 1 

9. Hippocrates, "Regimen In Acute 
Diseases," xxviiif 

10. Aeschylus, Persian Women, 838 

11. Aristotle, Constitution, 47; 
Baedeker, 123 

12. CAH. V, 16 

13. Rickard, T.A., Man and Mitals, 
N.Y., 1932, 1, 376;Calhonm, 149-3 

14. Ibid , 164-6 

15. Olotz, Ancient Greece, 236 

16. Semple, 678-9 

17. Ibid., 668 

18. Olotz, 205 

19. Viiruvius, On Arhitecture, Loeb 
Library, II, 6.3 

20. Aeschylus, Agamenmon, 2781; 
Horod., ix, 3: Thucydldes, vlii, 26 

21. Aristophanes, Frogs, In Eleven 
Comedies, II, 194 

32. Plato, Qrogias, 611 
S3. Olotz, 891 

24. Ibid , 233 

36. In Zimmern, 307 

86. Lucian, "Nigrinus," 1 

27. CAH, V, 33 

28. Zimmern, «18; CAH, V, 8 

29. Zimmern, 383 

30. Isocrates, Panegyrtcus, 42 

31. Thucydides, ii, 6 

82. Xenophon, Economieas, Iv, 8 

33. Olotz, 218 

34. Oomme, A W., Population of 
Athens in the 5th and 4th Cen- 
turies B.C., Oxford, 1933, 21 

36. Athenaeus, vl, 103; Becker, 861 
36.' Semple, 667; Olotz, 192-8 

37. Ibid., 208 



-vn- 



38. Aescbines, Epistle 12, 
in Becker, CAH, V, 8 

39. In Bostford and Sihler, 225 
«0. Qlotz, 196 

41. Dickinson, 119; Ward, I, 39 

42. CAH, VI, 529-30 

43. Aristotle> Ethics, viii, IS 

44. Murray, Eplc,\B; CAH, VI, 529 
64. CAH, V, 25 

64. Aristophanes, Ecclestazucae, 307 
74. Warld, i, 98 

48. CAH, V, 12,85 

49. Qlotz, 337 
BO. 1Mb , 286 

61. Tontain J., Economic Life of 
the Ancient World N.Y., 1930; 
Introduction by Henri Ben, p. 
xxiii 

52. CAH, V, 38 

68. Semple, 426 

54. Qlotz, 168 

55. Tucker, 261 

66. Conlanges} 451 

67. Ward,I, 42 

68. Qlotz, 148 

59. Ward, I, 88, II, 48, 76, 263, 342 

60. Hall, M.P„ Encyclopedic Outline 
of Masonic, Hermetic,Oabbalittlc 

' and Roslcracian SymbollcalPhllo- 
sophy, San Franciseo, 1928, 64 

61. Aristophanes, II, 871f 

62. Ibid 440f 

63. Tuocydides, till, 24 

64. Ibid., iii, 10, slightly transposed 

65. Aristotle ( ? ), Economics, iii, 15 

66. Qlotz, 296 

67. Idid., 298 

68. Ibid., 298 ; Lyslas, Against the 
Qrain-Dealers, xxll, in Botsford 
and Sihler, 426; Semple, 365, 
663j Zimmern, 362 

69. Qlotz, 169 

CHAPTER XIII 

1. Plato, Republic, 459f 
3. Aristotle, Politics, 1335 

3. Haggard, H. W., Devils, Drugs, 
and Doctors, N.V., 1929. 19 

4, Hlmes 89. 96. Coitus interrupts 



was adparaently a popular 
method of family limitation 
through antiquity. 

5. Athenaens, xiv, 3 

6. Plutarch, "Themistocles," Mora- 
lia, 185D 

7. Greek Anthology, vii, 887 

8. McCless, H., Daily Life of the 
Qreeksand, Romans, N.Y., 1928, 
41; Metropholitan Museum of Art 

9. Ibid., 4i; Becker, 223; Mahaffy, 
' Qreek Education, 16, 19; Weigall, 

Sappho, 200 

10. Plato, Laws, vli, 84 

11. Plato, Protagoras, S26 

12. Mahaffy, op. cit., 89 

13. Becker, 224 

14. Winekelmann, II, 296 

15. Plato, Protagoras, 325 

16. Aristotle, Constitution, 42 

17. Oardner, Ancient Athens, 483; 
Mahaffy, op. cit., 76 

18. Lycnrgus, Against Ltocratesjl- 
89, in Botsford; and Sihler, 478. 
On its authenticity cf. Mahsffy, 
op. cit., 71 

19. dlog. L„ "Aristotle," xi 

20. Tucker, 173 ; Weigall, 184 
2). Plutarch, Moralia, 249B" 
22. CAH, II, 22-3 

28. Becker 456, 

24. Carroll, 172 

25. Tucker, 125-7 

26. Ibid 

27. P\ntucb,Moralia,928B;Athenetts 
xv, 34 

28. Weigall, 189, 206-7; Carroll, 178 

29. Eubulus, Flower Olrls, In Tucker, 
173-4, and Lacroix, I, 101-2 • 

30. Weigall, 187 

31. .Athenaeus, xv, 45 

33. Qlotz, 278 

38. Wright, F. A., History of Later, 
Qreek Literature, N. Y., 1932, 19 

34. Zimmern, 215 
85. Tucker, 120 
36. Csubwges, 294 

87. Qreek Anthology, x, 125 

38. Voltaire, Works, N.Y.,1927, IV.74 



-YVV- 



89. Thucydides, ii, 6; Mahaffy, 
Social Life, 296; Hbbhouie, L. 
Y., Morals in JEvolation, N.Y., 
1916, 347; Qlotz, Greek CHy, 131 

40. Vlnogrtfdoff, II, 54-6 

40a. Aristotle, in Sedgwick and 
Tyler, Short Bistort of Science, 
N.Y.,.1927, 103 

41. Qlotz, Ancient Greece, 390; 
Becker, 280; Tucker, 150 

42. Ibid., 123 

43. Qrote, V, 53 

44. Thucydidek, ii', 10.82 

46. Pausaniai, vil, 9-10; Plutarch, 
Artaxerxes II." 

46. Xeuophon, Cyrepaedia, Loeb 
Library, I, 6.27 

47. Thucydides, i, 3.76 

48. Ibid., v, 17 

49. Ibid., Hi, 9.34 

50. Ibid., v, 32.116- vl, 20.96; 
Polyblns, Hi, 86; Couldangel, 376 

61. Thucydides, ii, 7:67. 

62. Plutarch, "Aldbiades." 

68. Plato, Laws, vili, 881 
64. Herod., v, 78 

88. Ariltophanes, Ecct,, 720; Bec- 
ker, 241 

69. Ibid., 243 

81. Demosthenes, Against Neaen', 
■ Becker, 244 

62. Lacroix, I, 124, 129 

63. Ibid., 112 

64. Ibid., 85 

65. Briffault, II, 340 

86. Mahaffy ,0/v<A Life and Thought, 
1 London, 1887, 72 

67. Lacroix, I, 88 

68. CAH, V, 175 < 

69. Lacroix, I, 166* 

70. Ibid., 162 

71. Becker, 248 

72. Athenaeus, xilf, 59 

73. Ibid., 

74. Ibid., 58 

75. Ibid., 63 

76. Lacroix, I, ISO 

77. Ibid.", 179 

78. Athenaeus, xlil, 64 

79. Lacroix, I,- 182-3 



80. Ibid., 145-6 

SI. Ellis, H., Studies in the Psycho- 
logy of Sex, Phlla., 1911, VI, 184 

82. Murray, Aristophanes, 46 

83. Plutarch, "Lycurgus't; Strabo, 
x, 4.31 

84. Plutarch, "Pelopihas." 
86. Diog. L., "Xeuophon." vl 

86. Cf. Plato, Lysis, 204 

87. Plato, Symposium, 180f, 192 

88. Lacroix, I, 118, 126 

89. Bebel, 37,' Hime, 52 

90. Wbibley, 612 

91. Carroll, 307 

92. Sophocles, Trachlnian Women, 
443 

92a. Tr. by J.S. Phillimore in 
Oxford Book of Greek Verse in 
Translation, 367 

93. Becker, 478 

94. Athenaeus, xiii, 16 

95. Sunner, Folkways, 862; Beker, 
473. 

96. Tucker, 83 

97. Carroll, 164 

98. Euripides, Medea, 283 

99. Coulangel, 63, 298; Becker, 476 
Briffanlt, II, 836 

100. Ziminern, 334, 343 

101. Euripides, Aeolus, 22 

102. Demosthenes, Against Neaera; 
Smith, Win., Dictionary, 349, 
b.v., Concubiuof 

103. Olotz, Greek City, 296; Zimm- 
eru, 340 Zeller, Ed., Socrates 
and the Soeratic Schools, Lon- 
don, 1877', 62, questions the 
story and the law 

104. Westermarck, E„ History of 
Human Marriage, London, 
1991 III, 319; Becker, 497; Lyra 
Graeca, II, 136 

105. Lacroix, I, 114; Enc. Brit., X, 
828; Becker, 496 

106. Tucker, 84; Westermark, op. 
cli. 319; Lacroix, I, 143 

107. Westermarck, I.e.; Coulangas, 
119 

108. Thuc, ii, 6 

109. Lacroix, I, 143 



-tVA- 



110. Becker, 464: Tucker 83-4. 

111. Summer, Folkways, 497; Brif- 
fault, I, 405. 

112. Tucker, 156. 

113. Aristrophanes, Lyslstrata, 42f. 

114. In Tucker, 84. 

115. Greek Anthology, vii, 340. 

116. Botsford and Sihler, 51. 

117. Tucker, 80-6. 
US. Semple, 490-1. 

119. Athenaeus, i, 10. 

120. Greek Anthology, xi, 413. 
191. AtheaeUBi v £. 

122. Xenophon, Banquet ii, 8. 

123. Mafaffy, Social Life, 120-1. 

124. Coulanges, 422. 

125. Plato, Republic, iv, 426. 

126. Tucker, 270. 

127. Semple, I.e. 
128 Rohde, 167. 

129. Harrison, Prolegomena 600 ; 
Westermarck, E., Origin and 
Development of the Moral 
Ideas, London, 1917-24, 1, 716 

CHAPTER XIV 

1. Xenophon, Eeonomicus, vili, 19f 
Z Thuc, ii.-6.40 

3. Xenophon, Bonnet, Iv, 11 

4. In Ridder, 48 

6. Usher, A.P., History of Mecha- 
nical Inventions, N.Y., 101-7 

6. Cf. the gems in the Fourth 
Room of the Classical Collec- 
tion Metropolitan' Museum of 
Art, New York. 

7. Pfuhl, 5. 

8. Ridder, 287 

9. Pliny, xxxv, 34 

10. Mahaffy, Sieial Life, 449-60; 
Ridder, 10 

11. Plutarch, "Cimon." 

12. Pauaanias, x, 25 

13. Pliny, xxxv, 35; Winckelman, 
II, 299 

14. Pliny, xxxv, 80 

15. Ibid. 

16. Plutarch, •'Pericles." 

17. Pliny, I.e. 



18. Athenaeus, xxi, 62 

19. Murray, A.S., I, 13 

20. Pliny, l.c. 

21. Cicero, De Invent.. II, 1, in 
Murry, A. S., I, 12, Pliny, I.e., 
places the story in Acragas. 

22. National Museum. Naples; Guide 
to the Archeolagical Collection,, 
Naples, 1935, 11. 

23. Notional Museum, Athens. 

'24. Xenophon, Memorebilia, ii, 10.7 

25. RIpder, 177 

26. Fardner, Greek Sculpture, 20-1 

27. Pliny, xxxiv, 19 

28. Ibid. 

29. Pijoan, I, 264 

30. Cf. Lucian, "A Portrait Study," 
in Works, III, 16-16 

31. Jones, H. S., Ancient Writer* 
on Greek Sclpture, 78. 

32. Qlotz, Ancient Greece, 231. 

38. Cf. Jones, op. cit., 76; Gardner, 
Greek Sculpture, 284; Frazer, 
Studies in Greek Scenery, 411; 
CAH, V, 479 

34. Pijoan, 1, 269 

36. Pausanias, v, li; Strabo, viii, 
3-80 

36. Iliad, i, 628 

37. Pausanias, v, 11 

38. Pojybius, xxx, 10 

39. Frayer, op. cit., 293 

40. Quintilian. Institutes, Loeb 
Libary, xii, 1.07 

41. Plutarch. "Pericles." 

42. Scholiast on Aristophanes./VaM, 
605, in Jones, op. cit., 76. 

43. Lucian, I.e. 

44. Vltruvius, iv, 1.8. 
46. Cotterill, I, 76 
46. Pausanias, v, 10 

' 47. Zlmmern, 411, Qrote (VI, 70) 
makes a smaller estimate ($ 
18,000,000 ) for the architectural 
wprks in AtheuB proper. 

48. Warren, 156 

49. Ibid., 881 

50. Vltruvius, Hi, 5 

51. Ruakln Antra Pentelici, 174; 



-tr*- 



Qirdner, Ancient Atheni, 838; 
Oirdne, Greek Sculpture, 834 
52. Warren, 327/ 989-41; Maturity, 
. What Have the Greek? 130 

63. Ludwing, 189f. 

64. Warren 310-11; Qnrdner Ancient 
Athens, 258 

CHAPTER XV 

1. Heath, Greek Mathematics, I, 46 

Whibly, 328-9 
3. Heath, I, 150 

3. Sarton, 92 

4. Sedgwick and Tyler, 33 

5. Heath, I, 176, 178 
■6. CAH, V, 883 

7. Heath, 1 93 

8. Diog. L., .384, "Parmenides" HJ 
' Sarton, 85 

9. Aristotle, De Coelo, il, 18; 
Heath, Sfr Tho«., Arlstarchus 
of somas, Oxford, 1913, 94 

10. DIog. L.,.389; "Leuclppus," lii. 

11. Ibid., 390; Heath, Arislarches, 
. J25- 

lla. Sarton, 93 

12. Heath, 78 

13. Anaxagoras, tragi. 12 and 16, 
in Bakewell, 61 ; Ueberweg, I, 
68-5; CAH, IV, 570. 

14.' Heath, 81. 
16. Ibid, 83. 

16. Ueberweg j I, 66. 

17. Diog. L., 69 60, "Anaxagoras," iv. 

18. Heath, 138. 

19. Ibid., 79. 

30. Anaxagoras, frag. 4, in' Bake- 
well, 49. 

91. Diog. L., I.c. 

32. Frags. 6 and 17, In Bakewell, 
5 ; Diog. L.,.I.c. 

38. Frag.9, in Bakewell, 61; Arlsotle 
Metaphysics, i 3, De Coelo, fii; 
3, De, Qeneratione et Corrup- 
Hone, 1, i; Lucretius, DeRurum 
Natara, Loeb Library, i, 83 ol. 

94. Diog. L , I.c. 

35. Aiigtole t DePartlbusAnlmollun, 
I, 10, iv, 10. 



26.Mitotte,Metapphslcs, I, 4. 

27. Nllson, 274. 

98. Diog. L., 61, "Anaxgorai," viil ; 

Robertson, J.M., I, 153- 
39. Plutarch, "Pericles." 

80. Murray, Greek LUereture, 1S9. 

81. CAH, IV, 669-70. 

32. Heath, Greek Math., I, 172. 

83. Diog. L., 8l, a Anaxsgorac," ix- 

84. Oerminus in Heath, Arlstrehus 
376. 

35. Herod., ii, 4, and Rawlinion'a 

note; Whibley, 71. 
86. Orote, II, 29-30. 

37. Herod., ii, 4. 

38. Sarton, 83. 

39. Semple, 35-7. 

40. Ibid. 

41. Cf. Sect. III. of Chap. XVI, 
below; and cf. Aesehylns, 
Prometheus Bound, 442-506. 

42. Gardner, New Chapters 269. 

43. Sarton, 88. 

44. Herod., iii, 176-38. 

45. Sarton, 77. 

46. Ibid. Livingstone, Legacy, 309. 

47. Sarton, 103. 

48. Oarrlson," F. H., History of 
Medicine, Phlla., 1939, 95. 

49. Hippocrates,W0/£c,I, Introd.,by 
W.H S. Jones. 

60. Ibid., IV, "Aphorisms." i. 

51. "The Sacred bit ease"; Airs, 

Waters, Place*," xxli. 
62. Hippocritec, Works, II, Introd., 

viil; I, Introd., xxlv; Oamson, 

94. 

53. Ibid., IV, "The Nature ol Man," 
Iv, 10. 

54. Ibid., "Regimen 111," Ixviii. 

55. Livingstone, 234. 

56. Qarrison, 94 ; Hippocrates J, 
Introd., Ivl. 

57. IV, Introd., vili. 

58. Hardlng,T.S,in Medical Journal 
. and Record, aug., ],. 1928. 

59. Hipphoerates, IV, Introd., vil. 
Hippocrates- settles a very an- 
cient problem when be writes : 



-Yt»- 



"It is best for flatulence to 
pass without noise and break- 
ing, though it is better for it 
to pass even with [noise than 
to be intercepted and •accumu- 
lated internally." — Works, IV, 
"Prognostic," 11. 

60. In Livingstone, 285. 

61. Hippocrates IV.'Regimen, HI/' 
Ixviii. 

69. Saiton, 96. 

63. Livingstone, 108. 

64. Hippocrates, II, "The Sacred 
Disease," xvii. 

66. Xenophon, "Constitution of the 
Lacedaemonians," xli, 6; Ma- 
turity Social Life, 293; Becker, 
880; Oarrison, 91; Hippocrates, 
Works, 1, 299. 

66. Garrison. 97; Livingstone, 326. 

67. Ibid., UO. 

68. I am Indebted, for explanation 
of the material at Epidanrus, 

to Dr. A. A. Smith, of Hastings 
Neb. 

69. Livingstone, 226. 

70. Plato, Laws, iv, 780. 

71. Carroll, 824-6; Mahaffy, Sodal 
Life, 297. 

72. Xenophon, Memorabilia, Iv, 2 ; 
Garrison, 91 : Becker, 876. 

78. Ibid.. 291; Garrison, 90; Plato, 

Statesman, 859. 
74. HippocrateB, II, "Law," i, and 

Introd. to Essay VI. 
76. I. 291- . 

76. Ibid., 299. 

77. Becker, 379. 

78. Hippocrates, II, Decorum," vii ; 
"Precepts," vl. 

79. "Decorum," v. 

CHAPTER XVI 

1. Athenaeus, xli, 82.' 

a. Plato, Protagoras, 834, 389. 

3. Symonda, 116 j Owen, John, 
.■ .Evenings with the Sceptics, 

London, 1881, I, 177. 

4. Bakewell, 11. 



6. Ibid., 22; the conclusion is 
rephrased. 

6. Plato, Parmenides, 127. 

7. Russell, B., Principles of Mat- 
hematics, London, 1903, I, 817. 

8. Plutarca, "Pericles." 

9. Plato, I.c. 

10. Dlog. L., "Zeno," iv. 

11. Ibid. 

12. Tredennick, H., introd. to Aris- 
totle, Metaphysics, Lobe Libr- 
ary, xvii; CAH, IV, 575-6. 

13. Heath, Aristarchus, 106. 

14. Tredennick, I.e. 

15. Lencippus, frang. 2 in Bakewell, 

16. Diog. L., "Leucippns," i-iii. 

17. Lange, F-E„ History of Mater- 
ialism, N.Y., 1926, 15. 

18. Diog. L /Democritus." ii-iii. 

19. Ibid. 

20. Lange. 17. 

22. Enc. Brit., XVII, 39. 

23. Grote, O., Plato and the Other 
Companions of Socrates, Lon- 
don. 1875, I, 68 ; Bakewell, 62. 

24. Robertson, J.M., I. 158; Lange 
17. 

26. Diog. LI, "Democritus," xiii. 

26. Heath, Greek Math., 1, 176. 

27. Cicero, De Oratore, i, 11; 
Ueberweg, I, 68 : Grote, Plate, 

I, 68,96. 

28. Bacon, F., Philosophical Works, 
ed. Robertson, London, 1905, 
96, 471-2, 660. 

29. Democritus, frag. O (Eiels) in 
Bakewell, 60. 

30. Frags. 117 and 9 in Bakewell,60. 

81. Ueberweg, I, 70. 
32. Lange, 27. 

32. Ueberweg, 1, 96-70J Orow, 
Plato, 1, 77. 

34. Ibid., 76. 

35. Diog. L„ "Democritus," xli. 
86. Heath, Aristarchus, 26, 127. 

37. Ueberweg, I.e. 

38. Orote, Plate, I, 78. 

39. Lucretius, ill, 370. 

42. In Plutarch, Moralia, 81'. 



Y^~ 



43. Oweu, 1,149. 

44. Lance, 31; Diog. L. v "Demoerf 
tut," xlij Ueqerweg, Ix. 

44. Frag. 154a in Bakewefl, 69. 
4«. Frag, 57. 

47. !■ Owi, 1^ 149. 

48. Ueberweg, I, 68. 

49. Athenaeua, II, 96. 

50. Ibid.; Lucretius, HI, 1039. 
61. Diog. L-, "Democritua," xl. 
59. Athenaeua, I,e. 

68. Diog. L., "Democritua," vlll. 
64. Id., "Empedoclei » II. 
66. Io Symonda 127. 

66. Murrayi, Oretk Literature, 76. 

67. Symonda, 127. 

58. Diog. L.. "Empedocles," ill. 

59. Ibid., "Empcdoclca,"xl. 

60. Ibid., Symonda, 131. 

81. Diog. L i "Empedocles," Ix 

63. CAH , IV, 563 

64. Aristotle, Dt Auimn, il, 6; De 
Sensa, vl 

65. Symonda, 148 

68. Empedocles, frig. 82- in Bake* 
well, 45 

69. In Aristotle, De Coda, ill, % 

70. Ueberweg, I, 62 

71. Symonda, 143 

72. Fraga. 17 and 85 in Bakewell, 
44-5 

73. CI. Frazer, Spirits of the Corn, 
II, 808 

74. Fraga. 133-4 In Bakewell, 46 
76. Symonda, 187 

76. Livingstone, 46 

77. Symonda, ISA 

78. Diog. L., "Etnpedpcles," x 

79. Ibid., "Empedocles," xl 

80. Ibid; Symonda, 181 

81. Plato, Protagoras, 316 
89. Orote Hlttory, VI, 46 
88. CAH, V, 24, 377-8 

84. Plato, Protagoras, 309-10 
86. Utberweg, 1, 71 

86. Plato, Protag., 811 

87. Ibid., 328 

88. Diog. L. "Protagoras," iv 

89. PMo.Phaedrus, 287 

90. Ueberweg, I, 76; Sarlon, 88 



91. Euripides, frag. 189, puotcd by 
Rohde, 488* 

91 Plato, Theattetus, 160; Bake- 
well 67; Lange, 42 

93. Diog. L„ l.c; Baktwtll, 67 

94. Diog. L., I.e.; Ueberweg, I, 74 

95. Bakewell, 67 

96. Isocrates, Antldosis,, 166 

97. Phllostratua, Lives of tht Sop- 
hists, Loeb Library % 494 

98. Orote, Vlil, 848 

99. Ueberweg, I, 77 

100. Philoitratui, 488 

101 Plato, Requblie, i, 886f; Oxyr- 
bynchua Papyri xl, 1864. In 
Vlnogradoff. II, 29; Murray, 
Oretk Literature, 161 

102. Plato, Sophist, 265 

108. Murray, Aristophanes, 142 

104. Ibid 

105. Murray, Greek Literature, 160 

106. Zeiler, 36 

107. Plato, Oorgias, 502 
10b. Pluo, Cratylus, AH4 

109. Xenophon, Memorabilia, I, 6.19 

110. Plutarch, Dee. Orat.,.lv in 
Backer, 235 

111. Ariatotle, Soph. Elenehls, f. 165 

112. Orote, Vlll, 826 

113. Diog. L, "Plato," xxv 

114. Aristotle, Ethics, 1109, 1116, 
1144, 1164 

115. Livingstone, 79 

116. CAH, VI, 80 J 

117. plutarch, De JUallg. Herod., ix, 
866, in Duprdet E , La Legend* 
Soeratiaae, Bruxellea, 1922, 
415 

118. Mahaffy, Social Life, 806-6 

119. Pauaanla', I, 92 

120. Diog. L„ "Socratea," Iv 

121. CAH, V, 38G 

122. Plato, Apo ogyflBRepubttc, 337; 
Xenophon, Memor., I, 2.1 

124. Plato, Symposium, 220-1 

125. Repuplle, 649 

128 Aristotle in Diog. L., "Socra- 

t«s, x 
199 Cf. McClure, M., <n Dewey, J., 

snd Others : Studies in tht 



-Y*Y- 



uo. 
in. 

132. 
133. 
184. 
186. 
136. 
137. 
138. 

189. 
110. 
141. 
143. 
143. 

144. 
145. 
146. 
147. 
148. 
149. 
160. 
Ml. 
152. 

158. 

154. 
155. 
166. 
167. 
158. 
169. 
160. 
161. 
162. 



163. 
164. 
166. 
166. 



History of Ideas, Columbia U. 
P.; 1936, II, 31 
Plato Symposium, 214 
Xenophon, Banquet, ii, 19 
Plato, Pkre'dras, 229 
Diog. L. f "Socrates," ix 
Xenophon, Banquet il, 84 
Dlog,- L„ 1 c. 
Plato, Charmides, 154-5 
Id., Protagoras, 309 
Id., Lysis, 206 J Xenophon, 
Memor., Hi, 11 
Ibid 

Ibid., iv, 8 
Plato, Phaedo, end 
CAH, V, 387-8 

Dlog. L. f "Socrates," Hi; Rober- 
tson, J. L , I, 160 
Plato, Apology, 41 
Xenophon, Banquet, i, 6 
Diog. L, "Socrates," xvill 
Xenophon, Mentor., i, 2.16 
In Pater, 179 . 
Plato,' Proiag. 338, 361 
Xenophon, iv, 4.9 
Plato, Theaetetus, 160 
Qrote VII, 92; Mahaffy, Greek 
Education. 81 

Cf., e.g., Charmides, 169, 161 ; 
Protag., 811, 350; Lysis passim, 
Diog. L., "Clio," I. 
Xenophon, II, G.28 
Ibid., i, 6 
Ibid 

Dlpg. L., "Socrates," xiv 
Xenophon, iv, 1.1 
Dlog. L, "Crito," i. 
Plato, Sfmposlum, 215, 218 
Sexlus ' Emplricus, Opera, 
Leipzig, 1840, Advenas Mathe- 
maticos, Ix, 45; Botstord and 
Sihlcr, 369; NU.son, 269; Sy- 
monds. 

Zeller, 205, 208 
Athenaeiis, xil, 534 
Plato, Meno, 94 
Xenophon, Memor., i,' 1.2; J, 
S.4; il, 6.8; IV, 7.10; Plato, 
Symposium, 220; Phaedo, 118; 
Apology, 21 



167. Zeller, 82 

168. Plato, Apology, 29 

169. Id , Cratftus 425 

170. Xenophon, Memor., i, II. II 

171. Ibid., iv. 8-16 

173. iv, 7 

174. i, 1. 16 
175' Iv, 2 24 

176. ill, 8.3; iv, 5 9 

178. lii, 9.5 

179. i, 2.9 

180. Hi, 5.15-17 

181. iv, 6.12 

182. CAH r VI, 309 

188. Xenophon, Apology, end 

CHAPTER XVII 

. 1. Pausanlas, ix. 22 

2. Lyra Qreaca, III, 9; II, 216 

3. Pautanlas, ix, 23 

4. Pindar, Olympic Ode xiv, 5 

5. Olympic Odes i-ii 

6. Frag. 76 in Pindar, Odes,- p. 657 

7. CAH, IV. 511 

8. Symonds, 211 

9. Lyra Oreaea, III, 7 

10. Pausaoias, ix, 23 

11. Olympic i, 61 

12. Frag. 131 

13. Olympic ii, 56f, tr. C. J. Billson, . 
Oxford Book of Qreek Verse In 
Translation. 294 

14. Pinder, Pythian Ode i, 81 
v 15. Pythian iv, 272 

16. Pythian viil, 92, tr. O. Murray 

17. Paean iv, 32 

18. Symonds, 216 

19. S.v. Pratinas, Lyra Oraeca, III 

20. Aristophanes, II, 83 editor's 
note 

21. Halgh, 37 

22. Ibid., 64 

' 23. Mahalty, Social Ltje, 469; Sy- 
monds, 380 

24. Haigh, 266 

25. Lyra Oraeea, HI, 283 

26. Aristotle, Rhetoric, Loeb Lib- 
rary, Hi, 1. 

27. Ward, II. 311. 



-Ytr- 



88. Lucian, "Of Paitimimr," 27. 


SB. 


89. Haigh, 825-7. 




W. Ibid., 827-38P. 




31. Ficklnger, R.C., Greek Theater 




and Its Drama, University of 




Chicago Press, 1Q18, 132. 




32. Haigb, 348. 


59. 


33. Ibid., 315 ; Norwood, Greek 




Drama, 8-3. 


60. 


34.' Haigh, 344. 


61. 


3.\ Ibid., 18, 24. 


62. 


36. Ferguson, 69. 


63. 


87. Haigfa, 34. 


64. 


38. Plato, Laws, 669, 700. 


65. 



89. Herod., vJ, 21. 

40. CAH, IV, 172. 

41. Heigh, 16. 

42. Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound, 
18f, tr, Elizabeth Barrett 
Browinag, in Greek- Dramas, 
N.Y, 1912. pp. 6-6. 

43. Ibid., II, 459f. 

44. Tr. in Mm ray » Greek Ute'alure, 
119. 

46. Schleged, A. JC., Lectures m 
Dramatic Art and Literature, 
London, 1846, 93. On the 
1849, 91. on the "paradox of 
Prometheus Bound," — an an— 
titheictic play by the raost 
pious of Oreek dramatists, cf. 
Journal of Hellenic Studies, LIII, 
40f, and LIV, Uf. 

46. Mahaffy, Social Life, 150 ; Sy- 
monds, 260; Murray, Greek 
Literature, 221. 

47. Aeschylus, Agamemnon, II. 218f, 
tr. O. Murrary, Oresteia, p. 44. 

48. Tr. Milman in Mahaffy Social 
Life, 162. 

49. Agamemnon,Uiif,Oresteta, P1O0. 

50. Choephoroc,\02-U, Oresbta t 18B. 
61. Athenaeua, i, 39. 

58. Schlegel. 96. 

53. Agamemnon, II. 66f. 

64. Ibid., 160. 

55. Eumenldes, en«\ 

66. Marry, Greek, Literature, 916. 

67. Bbtsford and Schlegel, 84. 



67. 

98. 
69. 
70. 
71. 
72. 
73. 
74. 
76. 
76. 
77. 



78. 
79. 
80. 
81. 
82. 
83. 
84. 

85. 
86. 

87. 
88. 



. Athenaeus, i, 87; Schlegel, 97; 
Taine. H„ Ltctures on Art. 
N. Y., 1901, II, 483 ; Plumptre, 
E. H., Introd. to Tragedies of 
Sophocles, London, 1867, p. 
xxxvl. 

Sopboclas, Works, tr. P. Storr, 
Loeb Library, I, lnrod, vii. 
Syraonds, 278; 
Athenaeus, xiii, 81. 
Mahaffy, Greek, Literature II, 57. 
Murray, Oreek Literature, 234. 
Symonds, 290. 

Sophocles, Oedipus the King, 
96 of. 

Oedipus at Colonus, 66Bf tr. 
Walter Headlam, Ox/o'd Book 
of Oreek Verse in Translation, 
878 

Oedipus at Colonus, 607 f, tr. 
Murray, Creek Literature, 249. 
Oed. Col , l648f, tr Munay. 
Antigone, Hit, tr. Storr. 
Ibid., 786f. 
Ibid., 122of. 

Murray, Creek Literature, 838. 
, Trachinian Women, 1265f. 
Phlloctetes 451-2. 
Elecira, »73f. 
Oedipus the King, P63f. 
Oed. Col., 181 if, slightly tran- 
sposed, tr. A. E. Housman. in 
Oxford Book of Greek', Verse In 
Translation, 378.. Cf. to like 
efiect Oedipus the King 1187- 
96 and lbM-AO. 
Athenaeus, xlii, 61 
Symonds, 878. 

Mahaffy, Greek Literature, II, 97. 
Murray, Gk. Lit., 261. 
Mrabo, xiv, 1-36. 
Disg. I., "Socrates." ii. 
Euripides, Htppolytus, 191-7, in 
Murray Gk. Lit, 12. 
Murray, op. cit., 34. 
Euripides, Medea, 41 of, tr. O. 
Murray, Oxford, 1918, p. 15. 
Herod, il, 180. 

Iphigenta In Aulls, 686-54, tr. 
A. S. Way, Loeb Library. 



Ytl — 



89. Iph. in Aalis, tr. Webb in 
Mabaffy, Social Life, 202-4. 

90. Iph. In Aalis, 1369-84, tr. A. S. 
Way. 

01. Hecuba, 4B8f, tr. Way. 

99. Murray, Gk. Lit. 137. 

43. Trojan Women, tr. O. Murray, 
Oxford, 1914. 

94. Euripides, Electra, tr. Murray, 
Oxford, 1907, p. 77. 

95. Euripides, lphigenia, in Taurls, 
tr. Murray, Oxford, 1930. 

96. Aristotle, Poetics, xiii, 4. 

97. Verrall, A. "W., Euripides the 
Rationalist, Cambridge Univ. 
Press, 1913, 178 and passim. 

98. Elizbeth ' Barrett Browning 
referred to "Euripides tbe 
human, with his droppings ot 

warm tears." 
*9. Iph. Aulis, 957. 

100. Helen 744 f, tr. Way. 

101. Ion, 374-8; Iph. in T.\ 570-5; 
Eltetra, 41)0 ; Bacehae, 255-7 J 
Hlppolytns, 1059 ; Robereon, 

I, 162. 

102. Euripides, Electra, tr. .Murray, 
p, 8T; Eeracles, ,1341 ; Iph. in 
T., 386. 

103. Bellerophontes, 298, tr. Symond, 
868; cf. Helen, 1137. 

104. Iph. in T„ tr. Murray, p. 82. 

105. Helen, 1688. 

106. Verrall, 79. 

I07i Trojan Women, 884. 

108. Hecuba, 282. 

109. Trojan Women, prologue. 
109a. Cresphontes, frag. 

110. Blppolytas and the Stheneboea 
and Chrysippus. 

111. Andromeda, 136, t., Symonds, 
361. 

US. Norwood, 311. 

lfa. Euripides, Medea, tr., Murray, 

p. 67. 
114. Frag. 167 in Rohde, 438. 
116. Electra, tr., Murray, p. 78. 

116. Rohde, 437. 

117. An uncertain frag. tr. Symonds, 
867. 



118. A frag, In Symonds, 366. 

119. Aristophanes, Frogs, 552; At- 
henseut, i, 41. 

120. Symonds, 426. 

121. Mahaffy, Gk. Let., II, 98. 
12S. Pater, 122- 

123. Plutarch, "Nictts." 

124. Greek Anthology. Ix, 4110. 

125. Quoted by Murray, Euripides 
and His Age, N.Y., 1913, 10. 

196. Murray, Gk. Lit., 277. 

127. Aristophanes, I, 117. 

128. Haigh, 260. 

129. Murray, Aristophanes, 102. 

130. Zeller, 203. 

181. Aristophanes, I, 91. 
133. Ibid., 3H, 319 • 
133. E.g.Thesmophoriazusae II, 286; 

Knights, 1,11; Eeclestozusae, 

II, 378. 

184. Knights, I, 31. 

185. Peace, I, 191.. In The Birds he 
calls Heracles a.bistard (1,173) ; 
and in Frogs he makes Dion- 
ysus a coward, an onanist, a 
lecher, and * clown.' 

136. Philiostratus, 483. 

137. Luclan, "Herodotus and Acti- 
on," 1 ; Bury, J. B., Ancient 
Greek Historians, N. Y., 1909, 
96 ; Mahaffy, Ok. Lit., II, 18'; 
Murray, Gk. Lit., 134. 

138. Herod., I, 1. 

139. Gibbon, Ed., Decline and Fall 
of the Roman Empire, Every- 
man Library, I, 77, ch. iii. 

140. Strabo, xvil, 1.59, 

141. Herod., ill, 101. 

142. Ibid., i, 68. 

143. iii, 88 ; ii, 3. 

144. E.g., vil, 189, 191. 
146. vii, 162. 

146. Lucian, I.e. 

147. Thuc, i, 1. 21-23. 

148. Mahaffy, Social Life, 208. 

149. Thuc, ii, 45. 

150. Ibid., vili, 24;.Ii, 17. 

151. Ok. Lit., l. 

CHAPTER XVIII 
1. DIog. L., "Empedodes," vli. 



- Yt«- 



2. Atfaenaeus, xii, 84 

3. Aristophanes, Acharnians, 1,111 

4. Olotz, Ancient Greece, 314 
B. Orote, V, 390 

6. Thuc., iii, 87 

7. Ibid , I, 3-75 

8. Plutarch, "Pericles." 

9. Thuc, if, 6.8 

10. Ibid , i, 2.68-66; i, 6.139-46 

11. Jones, W. H. S., Malaria and 
Greek fiistoy, 132 

18. Plutarch, "Tiberius Oraccb.ni." 

13. Arlstode, Constitution, 28 

14. Thuc, Hi, 9.4950 

15. Ibid., v, 15.22-3 

16. v, 17.841 

17. Plutarch, "Alciblades." 

18. Ibid. 

19. Xenophon, Me/nor , I, 1.49 

20. Athenaeus, i, 6 

21. Benson, Alcibiades, 162 
82. Plutarcb, I.e. 

23. Thuc, 18.18 

24. Ibid., 20.89 

25. vili, 23.18 

26. vlli, 36.97; Aristotle, Constitu- 
tion, 33 

27. Xenophon, Hellenica, Loeb 
Library, I, 4.13 

28. Aristotle, Constitution, 34 

29. Plutarch, "Lysander." 

30. Isocrates, Areopagiticus, 66 

31. Aristotle, op. cit, 40 
82. Murray, Ok. Lit., 176 

33. Xenophon, Memor., i, 2.82 

34. Orote; IV, 68 
36. Uebcrweg, I, 81 

36. In Reinach, 96 

37. Plato, Apology, 38 

38. Ibid., 27 

39. 18 

40. 29 
41.30 

42.- Dfog. L., "Socates," xxi 
46. Plato, Crtto 

46. Xenophon, Memor., Iv, 8.1 

47. Plato, Phaedo, 59-60 

48. Ibid., 89 

49. Xenophon, Apolagg, 28 

50. Diodorus, xiv, 37 



51. In Zeller, SOI 

52. Plutarcb, De Invid, 6, in Zeller 
68. Diog. L., "Socrates," xxli 

64. Orote, IV, 88 

55. Tertullian, Apology, 14, and 

Anguttine, City of God, viii, 3, 

3, in Zeller, 801 

CHAPTER XIX 

1. Aristotle, Physics, Loeb Library, 
1269-70; Plutarch. "Lisanber." 
"Lycurgut." 

2. Olotz, Greek city, 800 

3. Aristotle, Physics, 1270 

4. Xenophon, Anabasis, iv, 7-22 
6. Plutarch, MoraUa, I80f. 

6. Plntarch, "ARecilaus." 

7. Plutarch MoraUa, 39 

8. Ibid., 192 C. 

9. Aristotle, Physics, 1270 

10. Olotz, Ancient Greece, 199 

11. Xenophon, "On the Revenues," 
in Minor Works. 

12. Calhoun, 46-8, 98-4, 101 

13. Olotz, Anc. G., 304 ; CAH, VI, 
79 

14. Calhoun, 109 

16. Ibid. 116; Olotz, 306 

16. Olotz. Greek City, 311; Anc. 
O., 201 

17. Olotz, Ok. City, 312-3 

18. Plato, Republic, 312-3 

19. Aristotle Politics, 1310 

20. Isocrates, Arehidamus, 67. Isoc- 
rates was writing -oi the Pelo- 
ponneslan Oreeks, but probably- 
had his fellow Atheniana in 
mind 

21. P5hlmann, I, 147 

22. Plato, Laws, v. 7S6 

23. Vinogradoff, II, 118; Glotz, Gk 
City, 318 

24. Vinogradolf, I, S06 

25. Isocrates, Antdasis, 159 

26. Olbtz, Gk City, 323; Rostovtzeff, 
M., Social and Economic History 
of the Roman Empire, Oxford, 
1926, 2; id., htstom oj the 
Ancient World, Oxford, 1928, II 
362 j Coulargcs, 493 



Yil- 



27. Mahaffy, Social Life, 267, 273 
98. Qlotz, Gk. City, 296 
-39, Ibid. 

30. Athenaeus, xiilj, 38t; Lacroix, I, 
168 

31. Athenaeus, >.i, 43 

32. Aristotle, History Animalium, 
. 583sr 

83. Qomme, 18, 36, |47; Atheineus, 
vi, 272; Muller-Ljer, Family, 
203; Oote, V, 838 
34. Xenophon, Hellenica, vi, 1.5 
36. Isocrates, On Ike Peace, 50 
36. Aristotle, Problems, in Vinogra- 

doff, II, 67 
87. Demosthenes in Oloz, Gk 

City, 816 
38. Aristotle, Constitution, 41 
89. Aristophjncs, Clauds, 991; Plaip 

TheaeUtus,\\Tl. 
40. Isocrates, op/cit, 69 
4K Qrote, XI. 198 
43. DTpporua,.x, 4 
4ft; Aristotle (?) Economies, ii , 2.20 
44 Lyra O., III. 866 
46 Diog. L., "Plato," xiv; Plntarcb, 
"Dion"; Diddorus.ixv. 7; Qrote t 
XI, 84-5. Taylor,, A. E., Plvto, 
N. Y., 1936, 5, questions- the 
story 

46. Plato, Epistles, Loeb Library, vii 

47. Athenaeus, x, 47 

48. Plutarch, I.e. 1 

49. Plato, I.e. 

50. Plutarch, I.e. 

51. Athenaeus, xii, 58 

52. In Weigall Alexander the Great, 
N. Y„ 1933, 19 

53. Adams, Brooks, New Empire, 
N. Y„ 1903, 86 

54. Athenaeus, xfii, 63 

65. Mahaffy Social Life, 425-7 
56. Olotz, Gk, City, 339 

67. Philostratus, 507 

68. Plutarch, "Phocion.' 1 

69. Philostratus, 61 

€0. Plutarch, "Alexander." 

CHAPTER XX 
1. piutarch , " Dcmostl e iei " : 



Moralia, 6 
2. Mahaffy, Ok. Lit., IV, 137 
8. Demosthenes, On the Crown, 

Loeb Ljbrary, 126, 268-9, 266 

4. Murray,' Gk Lit., 36? 

5. Isocrates, Antidosis, 48 

6. Orote, O., Aristotle, London, 
1872, I, 3i; Murray, 344 

7. Isocrates, Panegyrieus, 49 

8. Ibid., 167 
9 l>id., 160 

10. Isocrates, On the Peace, 94 

11. Ibid., 13 

12. /socrates, Areopagiticas, 15, 70 

13. On the Peace, 109 

14. Areopag., 20 

-15. Pausanias, i, 18; so Lucia* land 
Philostratus; of. Mutiny. 340 

16. Milton's phrase. <.»• i-»u«^ 

17. Diog, L , "Xenophon," i-ii 

18. Aristophanes, Cluods t V&- 

19. Plutarch,- Moralia, 212B. 

20. XcBophan*-Economicus, x A 1-10 

21. ibid., xlx, 1 

SI. Quoted by ^taeUiwH, W0 
23.- Pausanias, vlU; 4Er 
24. Plutarch, "Alexander." 
26. Cotterill, I, 108n. 

26. Pliny, xxxv, 36, 40 Winded- 
mann, I, 219 

27. Pliny, xxxv, 32 

28. Ibid., xxxv, 36 

29. Ibid. 

30. Aelian, Varia Historia, ii, 3, in 
Weigall, Alexander, 186 

31. Pliny, J c 

32. Vltruvius, ii, 8.14 

35. Paueanlas, i, 20 

36. Oardner, Greek Sculpture, 397 

37. Pausanias, v, 17 

38. Ibid., viil, 9 

39. They are listed in Murray, A. 
S„ II, 258-4. Pliny, alone men- 
tions 28 

40. Pausanias, vi. 25 

41. Pliny, xxxvi, 41 

42. Ibid., xxxiv, 19 

43. Ibid. 



- YiV — 



CHAPTER XXI 

J. Sarton 1S7 
2. Plutarch, "Marcellus." 
3. "Aristotle, Metaphylcs, i, 9 
4. Plato, Bippias Major, 303 
6. Sarton, 113 
6. Aristotle, Polities, 1340 
*7. Sedgwick, 76 

8. Heath, Greek Math, I, 209, 233, 
252 

8a. Ibid., 354 

9. Dion. L., "Eudoxns," i-iii,' 
Strabo, II, 6.14 Heath, I, 330; 
id., Aristarehns, 199 J Orote, 
Plata, I, 124n; Ball, W. R., 
short History of Mathematics, 
London. 1888, 41 

10. Heath, I. 323 

11. Heath, Aristarehus, 208 

12. Sarton, 118 

13. Ibid., 141 

14. Heath, Aristarehus, 276 

15. Heath, I, 16 

16. Arrian, Jndlca, London, 1893, 
chaps.' xxxliii 

17. Sarton, 120-1 

18. Carroll, 326' 

19. In Zeller, 266 

20. Zeller, 277 

21. Athenaeus, xiif, 66 

22. Vitruviue, il, 6. 1 

23. Athenaeus^ xii, 68 

24. Zeller, 357, 361 

25. Ibid., 862b 

26. Diogt L., "Ariitippus," iv 

27. Ibid. 

28. Ibid. 

29. Ibid. 

30. Ibid. 

31. Zeller, 367 
.32. Carroll, 313 

33. Ibid. 

34. Plato, Phaedo, 64 

35. Xenophon, Banquet, Jii, 8 
36 Diog. L., "Antistnenes," iv 
37. Murray, Five Stages, 116 
3B. Diog. L., "Diogenes," iii 

39. Ibid., Hi, vi; Zeller, 326n 

40. Diog. L., "Diogenes," vi. 

( r 4lf t r & i :jUi.lUi-.\«\) 



41. Ibid. 
4-2. Ibid , x. 

43. Ibid., vi. 

44. Ibid. 

45. Weigall Alexander, 103 

46. Arrian, Anabasis of Alexander, 
vii, 2; Diog. L., "Diogeaea," 
vi. 

47. Ibid., xi. 
48-. Zeller, 208 

49. Diog. L., "Antiathens," iv. 

50. Ibid , "Dlohenes," vi. 
5t. Plutarch, Moraila, 21 F. 
62. Diog. L., I.e. 

53. Zeller, 319 

54. Ibid., 396 

55. Diog. L., "Diog.," xi. 

66. Murray, Five Stages, 118 

67. POhlmann, 86-91 

58. Zeller, 317 

59. Plato, Republic, 372 

60. Diog. L., "Plato," I. 

61. Ibid., v,x. 

62. viil-Ix; Cicero, De Finibus, v, St 
62a. Plutarch. De Exilio, 10, hi 

Capes, W. W., Universitu Life 
in Ancient Athens, N. Y., 1922, 
32. 

63. Suidas, Lexicon, s.v. Plato, in 
Mahaffy, Greek Education, 139 

64. Diog. L., "Plato," xi. 

65. Mahaffy, op. cit.. 128; Orote, 
Plato, I, 125 

66. Heath, I, 11 

67. Plato, Republic, 539 

68. Heath, Aristarehus, 141 

69. Plutarch, M of alia. 79 

70. Plato, Epistles, vii, 631 

71. Taylor, 503 

72. Cf. Epistles, vii, 541 

73. Athenaeus, xl, 112 

74. Diog. L., "Ciraon," i-ili, "Plato," 
xxxii. 

75. Athenaeur, xi, 113 

76. Taylor, 20 ■ 

77. Plato, Protag , 884 

78. Symposium, 1 75 

79. Euthypho, 292 

80. Charmidet, 1C9 



YiA- 



81. Cratylus 

82. Phaedo, 106 

83. Theaetetus, 161 

84. Ibid , 158; Epistles, vii, 344 

85. Aristotle Mela, i 5-6; Hi, 2; 
xiii, 4; Cratylus, 440 

86. Aristotle, Meta., i, 9.16, etc. 

87. Plato Phaedo, 65 

88. Ibid., 74-5, Theaetetus, 186-7 

89. Carrel. Alexis, Man the Unk- 
nown, N. Y. 1935, 236 

90. Spinoka, De Emendotione Inte- 
llects, Everyman Library, p. 
269 

91. Phredrus, 246 

92. Philebus, 22 

93. Rep., 606 

94. Laws, 966j Phaedo, 96 

95. Sophist, 247 

96. Phaedrus, 246; Philebus, 30 

97. iWwio, 81-2 

98. Qorgias, 623 

99. PAflflfo, 69, 80-5, 110, IU; Rep., 
615f; Tinaeus, 43-4 

100. Phaedo, 91, 11 

101. /?«/>., 365 

102. 5//H/7., 209 

103. Qorgias. 482 

104. Ibid., 495; Rep., 6 19; Philebus, 
66 ' 

105. /?«/;., 441, 587 

106. Phllebas, 94-6 

107. Ibid., 57-8 

108. Otto, 49 

109. Ibid., Laws, 951; Phaedo, 82 

110. Aristotle, /W/rc, i, 4 

111. Rep 424. 

112. Quoted by Symonds, 411 

113. Philebus, blj Rep., 629 

114. Siwi/>., 206 

115. Laws, 636 

116. Sjw»/>., 201; Phaedrus, 241f 

117. ftp, 500 

118. Epistles, vil, 337 

119. Rep., 656 , 

120. Ibid., 667 

121. 562 

122. 565 

123. 667 



124. 496 

126. Phaedrus, 239 

126. Rep., 469 

127. 478 

128. Statesman, 297; Epistles, vii 
337 

129. Laws, 710 
ISO. Ibid., 704 

131. 968 

132. 761 

134. 744, 922-3 
136. 785 

136. 721, 774 

137. 672 

138. 885, 908-9 

139. Phaedo, 66 

140. Pater, 126 

141. Laws. 7 

142. Dioh. L., "Plato," xxv. 

143. Calhoun, 125-7 

144. Locy, W.A., Growth of Biology 
N. Y., 1925, 27 

146. Athenaeus, xiii, 56 

146. Orote, Aristotle, 1, 8 

147. Diog. L , "Aristotle,"' iv. 

148. Orote, Aristotle, I, 43 

149. Murray, Greek Epic, 99; CAH 
VI, 333 

150. Aristotle. Mela ill, 6.7-3 

161. Ibid., iv, 3.8 

152. Aristotle, On Generation, i, 2 

163. Physics, v, 3; vii, 1 

164. Aristotle, Mechanics, ill, 848-60 
155. On the Havens, ii, 14 

146. Meteorology, i, 14 
157. Meta., xii, 8.21 

168. Pliny, viii, 16 

169. Aristotle, Parts of Animals, 
i, 6 

160. History of Animals v, 21-2; 

ix, 39-40 
?161. Ibid., vl, 22 

162. Aristotle (?), Economics, i, 3; a 
typically Aristotleian sentence 
In a work long attributed to 
Aristotle, but probably from 
a later hand 

168. History of Animals, viii, 2 
164. Reproduction of Animals, i, 16 



YM- 



165. Ibid,, I, 81 

166. iv, 1 

167. Mist. An., vi, S-8 

168. Reprod. An, ii, 1 

169. Ibid., II, 3 

170. II, 12 

171. Hist. An., vi, 2-3 

172. Ibid. 
173. 1, 1 

174. viii, I 

175. Ueberweg, 1, 167 

176. Sedgwick, 14 • 

177. Lewes, O. H., Aristotle : a 
Chapter in the History of 
Science, London, 1864, 284, 
361; Longe, 81 

178. Lowes, 159 

179. Aristotle, Hist, An., 11, 3 

180. Parts of Animals, II, 7 

181. Sarton, 128 

182. Aristotle, Polities, 1256; Lewes, 

183. Aristotle; On the Soul, IL 1 

184. Ibid., II, 4 
165. Hi, 8 
186. ill, 7 

167. Reprod An , II, 3 

188. Mela., v|Jl, 4.4 

189. Poetics, 11 8 

190. Meta., Ix, 7 

191. Politics, 1, 8 

192. Ibid., *|, 2 

198. Politics, 1137b. 

194. Ethics, 1097b, 1176b. 

195. Rhetoric, f, 6.4, where, In a 
long Hit of things necessary 
for happiness, virtue coraoi In 
a poor last 

196. Ethics, 1099a. 

197. Ibid., 1153b. 

198. Rhetoric, II, 18.2 

199. Ethics, 1178a. 

200. Ibid., 1125b. 

201. 1098a. 

202. 1178b. 

203. Polittces, 1967s. 
804.' Ibid., 1275b. 
SOS. 1258a, 

206. 1996b. 

207. Ethics, U60ab. 



208. Rhetoric, II, 15.8. 
909. Politics, 1268b. 

210. Ibid., 1281a. 

211. 1818b. 

212. 1286a. 

213. 1278a. 

214. 1280a. 

215. 1266b. 

216. 1264b. 

217. 1320a. 
SlB. Ibid. 
219. 1295a. 
820. 1264 

221. 1261b. 

222. 1296b. 

223. 1996a. 
894. 1330a. 

226. Rhetorics, i. 1.7 

227. Politics, 1387a. 

228. Ibid., 1205b. 

280. In Ueberweg, I, 177 
231. 1'ater, 141 

CHAPTER XXII 

1. Plutarch, Maralia, 178P 

2. Mahafly, Greek Life 
tliotlght, IB 

3. Plutarch, "Alexander." 

4. Wcgall, Alexander, 2JJ5 
6. Ibid. 

O.'Plularch, Moralta, 127B. 

8. Id., Moralta, IH0A. 

9. Id., "Alexander." 

10. Ibid,' Arrlan, I, 17 

11. Welgall, 50 

12. Plutarch, Moralta, 1701! 
18. Id., "Alexander." 

14. Arrlan, vl., 28 

15. Ibid., Ill, 6 

16. Orote, History, XI, US 

17. Welgall, 83 

18. Arrlan, I, 6 

19. Welgall, 97 

20. Plutarch, "Alexander." 
31. Ibid. 

23. Arrlan, vil, 9 
S3. Plutarch, I ,c. 

24. Vltru viiia, II, 2 

26. Plutarch, Moralta, 180 



and 



_Y«»- 



26. CAH, VI, 384 

27. Arrian iv, 7 

28. Ibid., vi, 86 

29. vii, 4 

80. Plutarcb, "Alexander." 

31. Grote, XII, 8Q 

32. Athenaeus, xii, 35 

33. Plutarch, Moralia, 180D. 
84. Weigall, 146 

35. Plutarch. "Alexander."; Arrian, 

36. Lucian, Dialogues of the Dead, 

37. Cf. Arrian, iv, 9-11 

38. Ibid., vii, 11 

39. vii, 9-10 

40. ii, IS 

41.Plutarcb, "Alexander"; Airian, 
42. Plutarch, I.e. 
43: Grote, Aristotle, I, S3 
44.' DIog. L., "Aristotle," vii 
45. Thrasybulus in Grote, History, 
VIII, 263 

CHAPTER XXIII 

1. Mahaifay, Greek- Life and 
Thought, pp. xxx, 112 

2. Ibid., 56; Plutarch, "Demetrius 

3. Ibid. 

4. Pauasnlas, x. 19 

5. Ibid., 32 

6. Livy, T. L., History of Rome, 
xxxviii, 16; CAH, VII. 103-7 

7„ Polybius, iV. 77; Pausanlas, ii. 
9, vii, 7; Plutarch, "Aratus." 

8. Athenaeus, vl, 103 

9. Heitland, W. E., Agricola, Cam- 
bridge University Press, 1921 

10. Plato, Critias, 111 

11. Rostovtzeff, M. Historr of the 
Ancient World, Oxford, 1930, 
I, 320 

12. Cf. Tarn, W. W., Hellenistic 
Civilization, London, 1927, 90 

13. Vinogradoff, II, 108-9 

14. Qlotz, Ancient Greece, 866 

15. Ibid 364 

16. Ibid. * 

17. Ibid., 331-3; Tarn, 95 

18. Tarn, 102; Heitland, 63 ; Qlotz, 
369 

19. CAH, VII, 740 



20. Ibid. 

20a. Ibid., 265, 741; Tran, 104 

21. Ibid., 3l 

22. Olotz, 333. 

23. Polybius, vi, 9; vii, 10; xv, 21 
Olotz, Greek City, 323 

23a. Diodorus Sic, V, 41-6 

24. Beatwich, Norman, Hellenism, 
Phlla, 1919, 62 

25. Athenaeus, xii, IS 

26. Tarn, 82 

27. Theocritus, Idvl ii. 

28. Lacroix, I, 138-9 

29. Athenaeus, in Becker, 344 

30. Gloiz, Ancient Greece, 298 Tarn; 
86 

SI. Ibid., 88 

32. Polybius, xxxvi, 17 

38. Plutarch, "Agls." 

34. Qlotz, Ancient Greece, 846 

35. Plutarch, I.e. 

36. CAH VII, 755 

37. Polybius, ii, 62; v, 38; Paun- 
nias, ii, 9 

88. Coulanges, 467 

39. Pansaniss, vii, 50 

40. Strabo, xix, 2.5 

41. Ibid. 

42. Polybius, v, 88 

CHAPTER XXIV 

1. Meeting of the Oriental Institute, 
Chicago, Mar. 29, 1932 

2. Plutarch. Moralia, 183 F. 

3. Polybius, xy, 8 

4. Ibid., xxx, 26 

5. Ibid., xxxix, 27; xxxi, 9; Bevan, 
E. R, Bouse of Seleucus Lon« 
don, 1902, II, 131, 158 

6. Rostovtzeff Social and Economic 
History of the Roman Empire, 
3; Tarn, 79 

7. Toulaln, 103-3 

8. Olotz, Ancient Greece, 358 

9. Rostovtzeff Roman Empire 3j 
id., Ancient World, I. 368-70; 
Qlotz, 321 

10. Qlotz, Greek City, 388 

11. Tarn, 25.4 



-Yo\- 



13. Jotephns, Against Apian, I, 60 J 
Bevan, 35; Tarn, 809 

14. CAH, VII, 193 

15. Sachar, A.L., History of the Jews, 
N.Y., 1932, 102. Cf. Zeitlin, S., 
History of the Second Jewish 
Commonwealth, Phila., 1988, 18f, 
or CAH, VIII, 501f, for an 
economic interpretation of these 
intrgues 

16. Qraetz, H., History of the Jews, 
Pbila., 1891f, 1, 446-6; Zeitlin, J8 

17. Bevan, I, 171; Mahaffy, J.P., 
Empire of the Ptolemies, London 
1895, 341 

IB. CAH, VIII, 6Q7-8 

19. 1 Mace., i; Josephus, Works, 

Boston, 1811, I, 438; Antiquities 

of the Jews, xii, 6 

20. Bevan, II, 154 

21. 1 Mace, v-vi; Bevan, 174 

21. I Mace, ii 

23. Ibid., vi 

24. Ibid., 11 
8ft. Ibid., ii-v 

26. Sachar, 104 

27. Bevan II, 183, 223 

CHAPTER XXV 

1. Breccia E-, Alexandria at 
Aegyptum, Bergamo, 1982, 96; 
Strabo, xvli, 1.8 

2. Mahaffy, Empire, 104; Greek 
Life, S04 

3. Athenaeus, xiii, 37 

4. Mahaffy, Empire, 162 
6. Draper, I, 19o 

6. Tarn. 148; CAH, VII, 197 

7. Ibid., 27; Rostovtzeff, Roman 
Empire, 259 

8. Tran, 149-51, 155; Olotz, Ancient 
Greece, 345 

Q. Ibid., 343 

10. Usher, 80, 85 

11. Strabo, xvii, 1.95 

12. Olotz, Ancient Greece, 863 

13. Tarn, 152; Usher, 76 

14. Olotz, i.e. 

15. Rostovtzeff, Roman tmpire, 4S2 



16. Usher, 79, 119 

17. Pliny, xxxv, 42 

18. Rostovtzeff, Ancient World, I, 
373; Tarn, 102} Olotz, 350 

19. Tarn, 155. 

20. Botsford and Sihler, 597 
21.' Athenaeus, v, 36 

28. Pliny, xxxyi, 18 

23. Breccia, 107 

24. Tarn, 198 

25. Calhoun. 130 

26. CAH, VIII, 662 

27. Mahaffy, Greek Life, 182 

28. Mahaffy, What Bare the Greeks?, 
195-7 

29. Tarn, 163; CAH, VII, 28 

80. Ibid., 139-40; Tarn, 153; Mahaffy 
Empire, 182, 213; Breccia, 42 

81. Breccia, 69 

82. Strabo, xvii, 1.8-10; Tarn, 146 
38. Olotz, 336 

84. Athenaeus, Hi. 47 

35. Herodas, Mimianbi, i 

86, Lacroix, I, 124 

37. Carroll, 326 

3.8. Oraetz, I, 418; Mahaffy, Empire 

86 
89. Josephus, Antiquities, xii, 1-2 

40. Zeitlin, 6-8; Bevan, I, 165 

41. Bentwwich, 86 

42. Renan, E., Bistory of the Peop 
of Israel, N.Y., 1888, IV, 194; 
V, 189 

42a Oraetz, I, 504 

48. Bevan and Singer, Legacy of 

Israel, Oxford, 1927, 32 
44. Josephus, Antiquities, xii, 2 ; 

Sarton, 161 
46. Sachar, 109 

46. Enc Brit., XX, 886; Tarn, 177 

47. Olotz, Ancient Greece, 356; 
Tarn, 204 

48. Tarn, 168 

49. Mahaffy, Greek Life, 208 

50. Rostovtzeff, Roman Empire, 264 

51. Olotz, Greek City, 323 

52. Polybius, vii, 8 

63. Ibid. 

64. Randall-Maclver, 138-9 
66, Athenaensj v, 40 



r«t- 



56. Livy, axiv, 4 

CHAPTER XXVI 

1. Polybiui, ix, 2 

9. Thompson, 71 

3. Strabo, xill, 1.64 

4. Orate, Arts otle, 50 

6. Breccia, 47 
ft. Ibid., 48 

7. Mahaffy, Empire, 208 

8. Oxyrhyncfans. Papyri • X, 1241, 
p. 99,' Breccia, 44 

0. Tarn, 238; Symonds, 21 

10. Tarn, 2S7 Mafaaffy, 511 

11. Waxman, M , History .of Jewish 
Literature, N.Y., 1930, I, 48 

12. Ibid., 49 

13. Ibid., SI 

14. Renan, IV, 258 
IB. Lacroix, I, 166-7 

16. Wright, 22 

17. CAH, VII, 227. 

18. Menander, Arbltranss, 679-85 

19. Bacchis in the Pkormio 

20. St. Paul, I Cor., xv, 33 
SI. Tarn, 919 

S3. Frag. 40 In Murray, Aristophanes, 
983 

23. Translation by Symonds. 464 

24. Ibid., 6S6 , 

96. Murray, Greek .Literature, 881; 
Mahaffy, Greek Literature I, 
166; Id., Progress of Hellenism 
in Alexander's Empire, Chicago, 
1905; US 

26. Theocritus, xv, tr. Lindsay, in 
Oxford Both of Greek Verse, 
564 

97. Theocritus, I, 193-42; tr. Sir 
Win. Marrit, Oxford Book, 643 

28.- Tarn, 52 

20. Frag. 64 in McCrlndle, J. W., 
Ancient India, Calcutta, 1877, 120. 

30. Bury, Greek Historians, 188 . 

31. Poly bins, xli, 85, 27, etc 

32. Ibid., xxxiv, 6; xxxviii, 6 

33. xxx, 32 
84. iil, 2 
36. vi, 9 



J6. vf, 3 

37. Hi, 48, 59; ShotweM, 199 

38. xvi, 90 

39. xil, 98 

40. v,76 

41. xxi, 32 

42. xvi, 12 

43. vi, 43 

44. Hi, 31 
46. i, 1 

46. i, 86; I, 1 
47. 1,. 4 

48. ix, 1; H, 66 

49. Dionyslus of Halicaigassus in 
CAH, VIII, 10 

CHAPTER XXVII 

1. Atheiaeus, xlv, 33 

2. Mahaffy, Social Life, 467-8; 
476-6 

3. Vltrnvins, Ix, 9; x, 18; Atfaenaeas 
iv, 76; Oxford History of Music, 
Introd. Vol., 96 

4. Mafaaffy, 455; id., Greek Life, 
389 

5. Athanaeus, xiv, 31 

6. Strabo, xiv, 1.87 

7. In Gardner, Ancient Athens, 486 

8. Pliny, xxxv, 40 

9. Plyntarch, "Aratus," 

10. Strabo, xlv, 2.5 . 

11. Pliny, xxxv, 36 

12. Ibid., xxxv, 36 

15. Lessing, O.E., Laocopn, London, 
1874, 15 

14. Pliny, xxxiv, IB 

16, Greek Anthology, vi, 171 

16. Pliny, I.e. 

17. Bostock's note, Ibid 

18. Wlnckelmann, I, 229 

19. Virgil, Aenetd, ii, 49 

20. Pliny, xxxvi, 4 

21. Winckelmann, II, 826 

22. CAH. VIII, 676 

28. In Oardner, E. A., Six Greek 
Sculptors, London, 1910, 6 

CHAPTER XXVIII 

1. Stobaeus. In Heath, Greek 
Mathematics, I. 357 



-Y«r- 



9. 
3. 

4. 
5. 

6. 
7. 
8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
91. 
22. 
28. 

24. 
25. 



27. 

28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 

39. 
33. 
34. 

36. 
36. 
87. 

38. 

.89. 
40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 



Plutarch, ■Mtrcellus." 
Ball, W.W.R., Short History -o/ 
Mathematics, London, 1888, 61 
Ibid., 66-7 
Plutarch 

Cicero, Tuse. Disp., i, 26 
Cicero, Rep., i, 14 
Singer, C , Studies in the Bator* 
of Science, Oxford, 1991, II, 502 
Heatb, II, 18 
Plntarch 
Ibid 

Polybias, vili, 5; Livy, xxiv, 34 
Heatb, I.e. 
Plutarch 
Polyblus, I.e. 
Plutarch 
Livy, xxv, 31 
Heath, II, 20 
Sarton, 184; Usher, 44 
Ibid., 80 

Ibid., 41; Sarton, 184, 195 
Vltnivlus, I, T.16 
Heath, Aristarchus of Santos, 
310, 383 
Ibid., 302 

.Heath, Greek Math., II, 2 
Williams, H.S., History of Science, 
N.Y., 1909, I, 233 
Heath, Aristarchus, 296-7; CAH, 
VII, 3U 

Enc. $rlt., XI, 683 
Tarn, 280' 

Heath, Aristarchus, 339-40 
Sarton, 144; Glotz, Ancient 
Greece, 875, 
Strabo, i, 8.8 
Ibid., i, 4.7-4 
Ibid., i, 46 
Wright, 14 
Qarriaon, .102 

Tbeophraatua, Bistort of Plants, 
ii, 1.1, in Livingtone, Legacy, 178 
I.ocy, 37 
Orate, II, 17 
Sarton, 143 
Ibid, 126 
In Wright, 14 

Cclans, De Artibus, I, 4 in 
Bottford and Sihler, 631 



44. Bottford and Sihler, 631 
46, Sarton, 159; Qarriaon, 153 

46. Sextua, Empiricus, Adv. Math., 
xi, 50, in Livingstone, 201 

47. Garrison, 103 

48. Sarton, 159-60 

CHAPTER XXIX 

1. Carroll, 316 

2. Athenaens, xiii, 90 

3. Diog. L., "Theophraatus," iv-xi 

4. Theophraatus, Characters, Loeb 
Library, 1929, iii, xiv, etc 

5. Diog., "Xenophanea," iii 

6. Ibid., iii-v, x. 

7. Aristotle, Anal. Post., ii, 1 
9. Ibid., iii 

10. Zeller, E., Stoics Epicureans 
and Sceptics, London, 1870, 99 

11. Ibid., 603 

12. Wright, 128 

13. Ueberweg, I, 136 

14. Poljbius, xii, 26 

15. Diog., "Aristippus," xii-vix 

16. Lacroix, I, 160-1 

17. Biog. , "Epicurus,"- v. 

18. Ibid., vi-viii' 

19. Lucretius, v, 196;' ii, 1090; 
Lucian "Zeua Tragoedui," in 
Works, III, 97 

20. Lucretius, ii, 992; Plutarch, 
Moralia, 964 C. 

21. Cleero, Nat. Dear., i. 20 
82, Diog., "Epicurus," xxiv 

23. Ibid., xxvli; Murray Greek Reli- 
gion, 168 

24. Diog., xxv 

25. Atheuaeua, xil, 67 

26. Diog., xxxl 

27. Ibid., xxvil 

28. Ibid. 

29. Ibid., xxxl, SI 

30. Ibid., xxvi 
81. xxvii 

32. Zeller, 464 

33. Diog., xxxi, 28 

84. Cf. Fraga. 166, 186, 194 and 

213 In Murray, 180 
35. Murray, 138 
86. Frag. 188 In Murray, 141 



-toi- 



37. Dlog., X. 
SB. Athenaeus, vll, 11 
39. Becker, 825 

tO. Jewish Eac, art. "ApikoW; 
Bentwicli, 77 

41. Zeller, 388 

42. CJcero, De Fin., I, 7.25 

43. In Murray, Qrttk Llteratur, 372 

44. Dior., "Zeno," 1-11 

45. Ibid., x\, v. 

46. Ibid., v. 

47. n/id.,"CralM,"M v, "Hlpparchla", 
Mi; Zeller, Socrates, fiN n. 

48. Diog., "Zeno/ xxvlil-xxix 

49. Ibid., xiv 

50. Zeller, Sfoift, 37n 
61. Diog(, "?eao," ix 

Ej2i Ibid., Kjilvil, Lucian, Lactaniiiu, 
aJndStdbdeua tell the tame storv; 
8,1. Zeller, 40 

s'3. Zeller, 69 ' 

54. Ibid., 121 

55. Cicero, Nat. Deor., Ii, 1 
- r »6, Dioff., "Zeno," IxvllHxxvii 

,57. Tr l>v Patcri 50 
68. pitainfcii, fie-StohRepug., xxi, 

«. In- Zeller, 178; but Plutarch 
fas intensely prejudiced againit 
tlic Stoica 

59. Oyford Book oj Qrtek Verse,Ub 

60. Zeller, 288 

61. Dion-, "Zeno," xix 



62- Ibid., Ixlv 
63. Zeller, 316 
84. Dtog., [xvi 
66. Zeller, 3o3 

66. Cicero, Ttue. Disp. % i, 84.83- 

67. Zeller, 327 

68. Ibid., 207 

CHAPTER XXX 

1. Polybius, i,-l. 

2. Plntarcb, "Pyrrhm." 
8. Ibid. 

4. Ibid. 

5. /Mommsen, T., History of Home, 
London, 1901, lj, 6 

6. Plntarcb, I.e. 

7. Livy, xxv, 40, 31 

8. Polybini, i|, 8 

9. Ibid., vl 1Q3 
01- Ii(yy^iii,l33 

11. PbNBIna, rfyi, W, Livy, xxxi, 18 

12. Poiyjiitis, yvffi, 45 
li LiyyUVxiv, 62 

14. Tarn, 29 

15. Strabo, vtll, 6.23 

16. Polybius, .xxxlx, 2; Strabo, I.e. 

EPILOGUE 

1. Symonds, 579 

2. Rede Lecture for 1875, in 
Symonds, 678 

8. Ene. Brit., II, 844