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Vol. XI, No. 1 

Published by The Museum Board, and edited by the 
Museum Director 

.IDE, May 8, 19 



by Ursula H. McConnel, Eagle Heights, Queensland 


This paper describes in technical detail, material collected during field research in 1927, 1928 and 
1934 in the Gulf of Carpentaria region of Cape York Peninsula, North Queensland, and particularly 
on the Kendall, Holroyd and Archer Rivers, which is housed in the South Australian Museum. This 
material is complementary to that obtained by Hale and Tindale (1933) on the east coast of the 
Peninsula and demonstrates Papuan and Torres Straits Island influences upon mainland culture. 
The specimens, which are fully listed and illustrated in plates and drawings, are described in 
relation to the cultural background to which they belong. 




By URSULA H. McCONNEL, Eagle Heights, Queensland. 
Plates i-xvii and text figs. 1-4. 


This paper describes in technical detail material collected during field 
research in 1927, 1928 and 1934 in the Gulf of Carpentaria region of Cape York 
Peninsula, North Queensland, and particularly on the Kendall, Holroyd and 
Archer Eivers, which is housed in the South Australian Museum. This material 
is complementary to that obtained by Hale and Tindale (1933) on the east coast 
of the Peninsula and demonstrates Papuan and Torres Straits Island influences 
upon mainland culture. 

The specimens, which are fully listed and illustrated in plates and draw- 
ings, are described in relation to the cultural background to which they belong. 


The material described in this paper was obtained by means of grants from 
the Australian National Research Council in 1927-28 and 1934, since when I have 
been awaiting an opportunity to prepare it for publication, an opportunity 
recently afforded by courtesy of the Director of the South Australian Museum, 
in which institution it is now housed and where I have had the assistance of 
members of the staff in sorting, repairing, describing and photographing the 
specimens shown in these plates. I am particularly indebted to Mr. Norman B. 
Tindale for his help in classifying and describing specimens; the technical 
descriptions of which are largely his. The compilation of the material has 
been further assisted by a grant made towards typing costs by the Science and 
Endowment Fund of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Organisa- 
tion, which I gratefully acknowledge here. I would also like to acknowledge the 
assistance of the late Government Botanist, Mr. Cyril White, in identifying 
plants referred to, and to Mr. B. C. Cotton for identifying shells. I am also 
indebted to my brother, Mr. K. H. McConnel, F.R.I.A., for the drawings of text 

2 Records of the S.A. Museum 

figures, and to Miss M. Boyce for the preparation of the ethnographical photo- 

My task as a social anthropologist is to place these artefacts in their social 
setting and to describe their function in the way of life to which they belong. 
This way of life may have existed for thousands of years and would still be 
existing indefinitely if it had not been disturbed. 

The specimens are all from Cape York Peninsula, North Queensland, and, 
unless otherwise stated, from the Archer, Kendall and Holroyd Rivers, which 
flow into the Gulf of Carpentaria on the Queensland side. The area in question 
forms part of a Native Reserve extending along the Gulf coast from the Batavia 
to the Mitchell River. A list of specimens is appended, fully illustrated by 
plates and drawings, together with their registration numbers in the South 
Australian Museum. Native names of specimens, unless otherwise stated, are 
given in the Wikmurjkan language. The phonetics of the Wikmurjkan language 
are as outlined in my previous paper (McCoiinel 1945). aS y in Sivri is a northern 
sound, not used in the Wikmurjkan language; / is sometimes a cerebral / not 
previously recorded, but usually a palatal; r is sometimes a retroflex palatal r 
and t is sometimes an interdental t. 

I am indebted to Prof. A. P. Elkin and the Australian National Research 
Council for arranging the use of a special symbol used in setting up one of the 
native words given herein. 

Archer, Kendall and Holroyd Rivers area is sheltered from northern con- 
tacts by the mangrove-clad and crocodile-infested Archer River (five miles wide 
at the mouth), and from the eastern coast by the Great Dividing Range. It is 
low-lying country, perfectly flat for thirty to forty miles inland, and inaccessible 
to stock on account of its innumerable water channels, its net-work of lagoons, 
swamps and water holes, with bogs in all directions. As it teems with wild life, 
it is a veritable paradise for its native inhabitants. 

I chose this field for research because nowhere else in Queensland was I 
likely to find a native culture less disturbed. In 1927 I accompanied the 
Aurukun (Archer River) Mission's first journey overland into these parts, which 
had at that time been but partially surveyed. Apart from a few sandal wood- 
getters, and a visit by the Mission lugger, little other white contact had been 
made, though some of the men had visited the Mission the previous year, and 
some had signed-on for work on pearling luggers. Here the natives pursued 
their customary life oblivious of an outside world. John Burke's steamer, on 
its monthly voyage down the Gulf to Normanton, was regarded as a corpse 
in the course of cremation — inspiring, appropriately enough, a funeral dirge. 

McConnel— Native Arts and Industries 3 


In studying the culture of the Peninsula in s>enerat, one has to take into 
consideration the proximity ul the mainland to Papua and the Torres Straits 
Islands. Contact undoubtedly lias been made, over a long period, apparently bv 
means of the double ont-nu«>er ( ..| 1I()L . \v ) i h'1» ifi made and Used by Papuans, 
Islanders and mainlanders alike, as far solDi as Pi in cess Charlotte Bay < Stewart 
River) on the oast coast, and the Batavia and Archer Rivers W the (Hilf Coast, 
Iladdon and llornell (19373 havd made a detailed study of the canoes in ihis 
area. Uaddon (1912) speaks of these canoes as voya^inu to the mainland from 
the Islands in 18S8 and demonstrates the similarity of Island customs and arte 
facts to those of I lie I'apuan mainland. Lt is not surprising, therefore, to tind 
cultural similarities existing also between the Islands and the Cape York main- 
land, particularly whore d-.rcet contact by canoe ims been made. QtfcmgtO the 
early establishment of a Covcrnment Resident at Somerset, near Cape York, 
however, there is little ev leneo left ot such contact in the area nearest the 
Islands, where it must have been most obvious at one Mine. Evidence of this 
cultural contact diminishes inland and southwards as direct links by canoe 
nrodes, borrowed customs beinp; adapted and simplified to meet mainland 
requirements and the conditions of a hunting rather than a villain life. This 
external influence extends turther south on the eastern coast than on the western 
GfuU coast, because the eastern coast is more accessible by canoe. This eastern 
coastline of the Peninsula, and particularly the Princess Charlotte Bay lepion, 
has been studied and recorded in detail by Halo and Tindale (1933). They 
also discuss the use of double and single rait-ri^er canoes. 

In this area of direct Contact on the east wist, Thomson (1933, 1934) 
describes the use ]>\ the Jtflto Yaro ( Pascoe River. Princess Charlotte Bay) 
of drums, bark-strip skirls, masks and dance enclosures in the cult of the croco- 
dile. These were reported also by Roth (1909) in tin* Marj.aret Bay area and 
oi nif also in the dauccs of the sea-eaide. sea -«rull and Torres Straits pigeon cults 
of the Tyyriandifi and Yv ipfjaH tribes, south of the Batavia River on the Gulf 
I i ast, as do also the drum and the bow ;iu<l arrow, recorded by Thomson £1934 ) 
and by McConnel (1936). but which are not ton id elsewhere un the mainland 
and are typically Torres Straits Islands and Papuan. Hirri, the seagull, is said 
to have made his drum of kWO kinds of wood, the hollow stem of the paudanus 
tree for soft sounds, and messmate wood for loud sounds, and to have covered 
both ends with goanna skin. The specimen shown here in Plate vii, ()£. a, has 
only one end closed, a type which is also found in Papua. The palm of the 
hand is used for low sounds and the fingers for high sounds. Hivri is also said 

4 Records of the S.A, Museum 

to have made his bow from the wood of u native shrub and its string from tin 
fibre of the bean tree root. 

It is in the totemie pattern of the mainland that these sea-going heroic 
should be said to have voyaged, ill the direction of the migratory birds they 
respectively represent; to J\laubia<>; Island and the Papuan mainland, and, on 
returning thence, to have Introduced these arts to the mainland. The song and 
dance of the seagull and Torres Straits pigeon resemble those used in t bo 
Islands and Papua, and the Maubiag ia freg&rded as a brother-cult to that 
of Hivti op the mainland, 


These objects are not in daily use, however, ami occur only in the ceremonial 
dances. In addition to sueh objects found Only in these dances and common &lfiO 
hi Papua and the Islands, arc the plaited puudanus pahnleaf armlets, pearl 
shell pendants, cowrie and pearl shell necklets and head bands, nautdus shell 

liosepcgS, forge Wooden ear-cylinders i\\orn oispemled m the ear-lobe v, hirh 

has been pierced (Plate i, fig. a) and gradually stretched for the purpose), and 

OrftaiZlCnta] Hubs, all of which are either traded in or copied, and .ire m use to 
some eitenl all over the northern part of the Peninsula. 

fours shared with the Islands arid Papua which have permeated the 
common life of the mandanders are (a) the use of the Sleeping platform, which 
is sometimes two-storied like those shown in use on the Islands by Wilkin and 
Haddon (1912) and Roth (MHO); (b) the round bark -house whieh is also 
shown by Wilkin and Haddon (P)12) in use on the Islands; (e) the Papuan 
communal pipe, made of bamboo or hollow wood ((Kill* area), sealed at both 
ends with wax, with holes on the top &1 either end used respectively for holding 
the cigarette and for inhalation. This is ;i pipe which can be passed around, with 
a finger over the smoke Imfc, and shared when tobacco is scarce; (d) the weaving 
of baskets from Xemtrs multifloru as described by Haddon (1912), and most 
striking of all, perhaps, (e.) Mm , i :.•<• of mummification, described hy both 
(1907), with its attendant mourning restrictions and observances, its mourning 
dance or wake, and its concluding reasr and Wrestling match — thoatrh these rites 
are far less elaborate mid spectacular on the mainland than those described for 
Papua and the Torres Straits islands by Haddon (19l2) and Harris (lSl2) 
and end in cremation. 

7'///./, the tishhawk, a hero of the Ndtdu'-Ofyit tribe (north of the Archer 
b'ivcr), is said to have introduced these funeral rites in honour of his brother 
Mbu:, the ghost, who was killed lighting (Plate vi, fig. c, e and I). According 
bO the legend, recorded by MeOonnel (1935), this hero, after removing the 
intestines and liver, etc., through an opening made in the side, tied the body 

McConnhl— Native Arts and Industries 5 

of Mini: to h long pole and suspended |j oi, fcWo forked sticks to dry deal' a five. 
Then the body was rolled in fi-tree hark (Plate vi. tig. i-i), Died round with bush 
string and curried to his parent^ and a big dance waa held. The corpse is kept 
thus on forked slicks for the required period, I •»'• lor anything up to two or three 
J cars- according to the w'shos of the rolat i ves, and is guarded always by them 
in a secluded spot, the wake being periodically performed by the women, if and 
when Uie corpse is in camp. These rites have already been described by 
,\lc.(\.mml ( 1036). Relatives tfl tllC opposite moiety are siibjeel.ed to food obliga- 
lions and Speech taboos, especially the widow, who has to sit and weep, ;md. 
eats only when given certain foods by the deceased's relatives, lo whom she tC 
not speak, She must remain apart from the camp, her head covered with ashes 
and tufts of hair fastened with beeswax o\er Jjer head. Mourning ends with 
the cremation ol the body at dawn after an all-night vigil kept by women in 
relays accompanied by a. continuous wailing and performance ol ihe monrom-j 
• lance. The cremation is followed by a least, when the recognized food debts mv 
paid, and a wrestling match takes place | between members of the same moiety 
only), ;iftcr which the widow's head is shaved, her remarriage arranged, and 
all food ami sneeeh taboos are lifted, i witnessed a cremation on ihe Yreher 
River in 192?, which was probably the last to be performed near the Missmn 
therO, These practices then extended as far south as the lOdward h'ivc.r, and 
probably even Further along the CTulf (/oast. Along tie.- east coast the type of 
mummification varies. Harris (1012) and Koth (1907) have described the 
various forms found as far south ;is southern Queensland. A legend <rf 
K<t:n<hji< (near Oo€Jl) reported by MeCmnel (193?) shows that burial also was 
practised on the Peninsula. Both (1907, p. 3fl9) reports the eating ol' the 
deceased's flesh by the widow, a custom also recorded for the Torres Straits 
Islands, t myself have nothing to report of this nature in the eJuJt ana, but 
in the Mossnian-Daintree area on the east roasl an informant had eaten ji part 
of Ihe thigh of his sister, and expected thereby lo become better at Jiudiug yams. 
in which art she had excelled. The eating of ceriain parte ol ;i dead relative's 
flesh wis an accepted duty that one should honour if not enjoy Roth 

(1907) records the can-vim; of the deceased^ bones by certain relatives. This 

custom was still practise.! south Ol the Archer River in 11)27-28; the carrying 
i)\[ the leg bones was said Pi be a means ol preventing the deceased's -jhost limn 
walking about the camp alter death I laic and Tindale (193.% p. 94) describe 
similar burial customs at Princess Charlotte Bay on the east coast. 

Jn contrast to these Island and Papuan affinities, it is interesting to note 
the. absence on the i'enms da of the boomerang and shield, so typical of the 


south. The use of the former is, howuver, recorded in a Wik-kulkwu tribe legend 

as having been used to Cleat scrub. The boomerang win be made, !ml It is nol 
now used. The shield is used on the Mitchell River to tb6 south. It assumes 
unusual proportions on the e;ist roast in the Oairns-Port Douglas region in asso- 
ciation with, the wooden lighting sword, peculiar to these parts (see 
MrConnel 1935» 1). Absent also fmin this part of the Peninsula are the rite of 
circumcision and the four-section system*; according to Tindale (1940) the 
former does not occur east of Burketown and the latter occurs only to the south 
of PrineeSS Charlotte Bay. 


The Gulf Coast is rich in food supplies — in animal, bird, fish, and plant lifG« 
The •! yields dugong, sea-turtle and large salt-water fish for those who own an 
outrigger eauoe. The tidal rivers bring in a plentiful supply of fish with every 
incoming tide, which men spear from fchfi pVOVl of the indigenous bark Ganoe. 
fish are cooked in the coals. Stingray, a deliear\ rg&gpved tor older men, 
is flavoured by roiling the cooker! flesh around the previously removed heart 
and liver, wrapping all in li-tree. bark and cooking in an antbed oven. The 
sandbeaeh supplies crabs, sea-turtle, tgga and shellfish of many kinds, wlncli 
ihe women gather at low tide and cook in the coals (the heat opening the shell). 
Oyster* cluster thickly on the roots of the mangrove Irees edging the mouths 
of certain salt-water creeks (Plate n Kg. c). In Hie salt-water creeks women 
collect mud-mussels (Gdoma QMXnw), trawling along the creek bed on all lours 
as rhe\ feel lor the shells with their fingers in the mud, dropping them m!n 
dilhki -s suspended from llw neck or held ui the teeth. River beds and \'v*^\\ 
Water channels inland are interspersed 'vith doep water-holes (left after flood- 
ing). These harbour fish and the fresh-water crocodile, the eggs of which are 
dttg out of the sand ami eaten as a delieaey, especially when nearly hatched. 
The freshwater turtle is cooked upside down in the ashes; then, after knocking 
out the under-shell nm] removing the head and limbs, the shell is used ;is a 
SOiap toureen; juices from the body make a soup which is imbibed by dipping 

ycd end of a stick into the juices and sueking it The. eggs are sometimes 
Wed in the juices of the up-turned shell. The salt water turtle's eggs, which 

oft -shelled and do not set when cooked, are. usually sucked raw. 

Swamps, lagoons and waterholcs are the haunts of wild fowl — due! 
.ii'- companion, jabiru. etc. Kmii are to be found in certain localities 
inland, and flying-fox camps are numerous in mangrove and other scrubs. 
Kangaroo (inland i and wallaby abound, Men spear all Ihese by stealing up 

McConnel— Native Arts and Industries 7 

close, merging with their surroundings and disguising themselves w&h branches 
in open obuntfj . 

In the flrj w inter months, the grass is burned u\T and kangaroo and wallaby 
air speared as they l!ee before the Han es. Women follow in the wake of the 
flames, digging out from Hie holes, in which they have taken refuge, bushrat 
and bandicoot, iguana, snakes and lizards, etc., with the aid of their yamsticks 
and the domesticated dingo, AH these foods are eooked in antbed, as arc emu 
and all large birds and animals, the skin and viseera being discarded only al' 

The antbed oven is marie by digging a hole in tiie ground, lighting a bre 
in it and beating chunks Of antbed in the lire. When hot, the fire is removed 
and the food then placed between the pieces of hot antbed and covered over 
Willi clean strips of ti-tree bark, over which the sand or earth is piled to preserve 
I lie heal, This method of cooking is thai of a slow oven and preserves all the 
juices in the meat. 

Swamps near the coast are tilled with rushes (SdrpUs UttOttiliB), the feonflS 
of which are dug du1 by tie wumen, sitting up to the cheat in mud around the 
Bilges. The conns are carried home and washed and roasted in the coals, the 
old ones being first beaten with a wooden hammer into a flat cake. Conns of 
the Up-river swamp rush, called "bush-nuts,' ' which are washed up with the flood 
rubbish in the we! season, are also cooked and eaten. The seeds of the mangrove 

pod are cooked and ground into flour. 

Swamps and lagoons ate covered with white and blue water lilies of several 
varieties, the flowers and -talks of which are eaten raw, the roots cooked in 
antbed and the seed-pods roasted in the coals, The women wade in the lagoons 
ami swamps ha these, and dive for the roots in deep water. Yams of several 
varieties, arrowroot and many other roots are, dug up by the women with their 
yamsticks. Sometimes the top of the yam is left adhering to the stem of the 
vine and replanted, only the lower part, of the root being taken for food, which 

is Interesting where agriculture is unknown, A simitar practice is reported by 

Hale and Tindale (1933, p. 118) on the east coast. ralibfe fruits of many kinds 
are gathered in the summer months. As they travel through the bush, especially 
in Spring ami summer, the eyes of alt air on tire look-out for the tell-tale bee, 
coming IS and out of its bole in tree or log. The shading of the eyes with the 
hand, looking Upwards this way and that as they travel, is so characteristic an 
attitude, that it is used in corroboree to signify a journey through the bush. 
When a bee is sighted, the tree is felled, or climbed, and a stick with a frayed 
end is inserted into the Jiole h> lest the supply of honey. When -found to be 

8 Records of the S.A> Museum 

present, it is chopped out, and eaten — hoes, wax and all — till the spoilers are 
replete. The surplus is carried home tied up in bark or in a tubular ,l gr$ 
basket (woven closely lor the purpose) and is usually mixed with water to make 
a sweet drlllk, There arc a variety of honeys, taken by bees from different trees 
and shnibs, each with its peculiar flavour and its special name. As it is the 
v mi uin \s place to supply roots and small game obtained by diggiilg, the yamstiek 
is regarded aa Ihc symbol Ot womanhood; and sincfi it is the man's part to 
ride ■n'-at. the spear is the symbol of manhood. In ceremonies the par! i)f 
a woman played by a man is alway ; signified by the use of a yamstiei\ 


The equipment required i'oi these ceonomic pursuits is limited by the 
materials available. As previously stated, sione and flint are lacking in this 
area. Axes and knives are Iraded jfl and are a rare and valuable possession. 
Spear barbs are made | "mm the b©JWS ot stingray, emu, kangaroo and wallnhv 
the jawbone of the latter boiag used as a craper and, with the incisor attached, 

ii engraver. Wallaby bone is used also as a stiletto i'or piercing holes in 
bark, cte. Such material takes the place of flint in other places. Shells (par 
tieularly the mussel-shell) are used as seraperx and as spoons. Sharp fragments 
< ! shell grit, hardened hy the afctiofl &t the sea. are used lor grinding and shaping 
the edges ot" pearlshcll, and I he spiral shell (Tvrritella vtrea) is used for boring 
holes in the sheli discs thus shaped. The baiter shell (Meh ampharus) is used 
to bail water out of canoes and wells, as a drinking- vessel, and for heating gum, 
etc, on the fire. 

The plentiful supply of hardwood and softwood timbers (and bamboo), 
with their stems, hark, gums and fibres, supplies the greater part of the material 
used in the manufacture of artefacts. Yellow stains are obtainable from certain 
roots, and red and white clays and charcoal are used as colouring matter. I 
wax is used in addition to gums for sealing purposes. Grass buttles, scarlet 
seeds and yellow orchid hark, feathers and cowrie shells (threaded on string i 
a iv used for decorative purposes. 

During the dry winter months people sleep by the open campfire, wherever 
food supplies take them, by Lagoon or swamp, riverbed or seashore, and on recog- 
nized camping ground;- used from season to season. Break-winds of bark and 
branched are placed against stakes m the ground as open shelters, the branches 
also affording a shade during the heat of the day. Camps consist usually of 
small family groups, but where the food Supply is temporarily abundant, as 
by water lily lagoons or swamps (Plate ii, fig d, and Plate iii, fig;, ad)), at certain 

McConnel— Native Arts and Industries 9 

V the year, larger groups a-sseinbk'. ami an opportunity is afforded for 
holding initiation ceremonies ami inter-tribal discussions, jifc. Daring tlie wet 
north- west monsoon season in the summer months, however, when rain is inces- 
sant and Hooding takes placfc, it is necessary to build flltfre permanent shelters. 
A eommon shelter used is the steeping nlaU'orm, built mostly near inland water 
holes and water courses, which attract birds, and where wallaby may be speared 
and Fish I rapped Tlie sleeping -platform is made by placing sapling OB f(W 
-orseil slicks ami laying others across them, which may then be covered With 
shirts of messmate bark, I nder this platform fires may be lit for cooking, 
which also provide a smokescreen to wurd off mosquitoes. Sometimes B seeotld 
rtOQ is built to form a celling above the first. Wlten the weather is squally, 
especially near tlie coast, a completely covered-iu bark house is used. The round 
Imm Jmeshapcd bark house is made of brandies placet] circularly in the ground 
ami lied at the top over which strips eft ti-trec bark (Mr/at, -urn Inamhndrov) 
are laid so as to completely cover over the branches, one piece being removed 
when going in or out. Inside these sealed bark houses, with a fire smoulder m-. 
a familv with its dogs may live snug and dry ami free from mosquitoes till Die 

I t weather is over. These houses and platforms, being used only during the 
wet se;is..ii, usually tail to pieces from neglect during the winter months. In a 
homing community, where there is no incentive to build permanent, houses 08 in 
fch&fl ' BE the village settlements of the Torres Straits Islands and Papua,, there 
IS T.m ad&quatfl StJHPAge tor goods made from perfehablfi materials. Perhaps for 
this reason mainland artefacts are less elaborate and spectacular than those of 
Papua and the Islands. tlumgh the technical skill and artistic finish of the former 
are none the less excellent, and adequate for the requirements of their owners. 
The double out-rigger canoe is fashioned from the trunk of a milkwood 
Into, Tlie out-rigger booms pass over the gunwale and are fastened, inside and 
outside the hull by strips of green bark (usually flil>iscus) to a. stick which 
!.;i rs ibrough both sides of the gunwale. Tn tlie specimen I saw made on the 
Archer RJVCT, the two booms were not made in a single piece, but in two pie.-es, 
and were fastened to the tloats on either side by lashing. The dug-out canoe 
.Mi- travel along the coast and out to sea in calm weather and is used for fishing 
expeditions. The art ol* making out-rigger canoes on the Archer River wax 
pqsaibly copied from the Batavia and Emhley Kivev Missions in the north and 
may have deteriorated. Certain it is. however, that the out-rigger canoe in not an 
indigenous product and must have been introduced ;it some time or anothe m 
Hie past to tlie mainland. Tim mainland canoe is made from bark of the mess- 
mate ire*- ( 'riilc ITaddon and Horned, 1937)- After ringbarking a strip of bark 

10 Records of the S.A. Museum 

of the required .size, the bark in smoked dry over the fire. It is then folded in 
two (inside out) and placed between two sticks to secure it i. Plate i, fig. b), 
whilst each cml is shaped by aUttlUg Ofll 8 kltolgtllft]! piece, downward tc t6c b>kl. 
The ends ol' the canoe are secured by sowing-up these sjiaped ends with a piei 
cane, the point of which has been sharpened and hardened in the lire and the eane 
softened by biting. The eane is passed through holes pierced in the bark (Plate t, 
Bg. b) by means of a bone stiletlo (With or without a wax knob to protect the 
handi. When both ends arc thus secured, the canoe sides are drawn together to 
the required dislanee by tying strips of ^.reen liibiseus bark across (he canoe 
towards prow and stern, and Ihe canoe is kept open by two forked sticks placed 
crosswise under each tie. The inside ol' the canoe is sealed with beeswax to 
render it watertight, A yoiUJg mangrove siem splayed at, the end is \^r<\ as a 
paddle. To manipulate the canoe, the rower kneels, or sits on Ihe door with his 
legg out in front ol' him, and swinv/s the paddle tiXBl to one side and then Ihe 
Other, which also serves to steer the eanoe. The sides of the canoe are BO me 
times only a few inches abo\c water- level The canoe is so light that it responds 
tO Mm B%hte&1 secernent of the paddle (Plate i s tip; f ] ) ( and | |,,« paddler must 
iiiiiinfairi a perfect balance if he is to escape the crocodiles lurking below When 
hunting) the fisherman stands in Ihe prow of the canoe, spear poised on spear 
thrower, alert for action. When hunting the bony bream at flight time he holds 
a bark torch in the one hand, which attracts and bewilders ihe 1ish. As the fish 
Hashes part, the spear Mies through the air, and the fish, plunging madly.. 

carries the spear with it, till, the paddler deftly steering tie eanoe in chase, the 
fish is captured and the spear retrieved. 

Messmate bark is also used to make vessels for carrying and washing food 
and as a baby's cradle (Plate iv, fig, d). The bark is treated as &>r canoeft, 
but instead of cutting: and sewing; up tlie ends, Ihe bark is thinned out at the ends 
ami gathered together with pleats held by a woodeu skewer, which is bound 
over and over with coarse bark strips to secure the pleats, 

Spears naturally vary in make and type according to the use tor which 
they are required (Plate viii). Short spears ;nv esed \'uv ftghtmg (OT huntinu 
wallaby) al a distance. The heavy spears are used Lor large name sueh as 
kangaroo, wallaby and emu, etc., and the lighter Kpears for fish and birds. 
Heavy spear shafts are made from Hie straight yomm. Stems of iron wood or 
acacia, carefully scraped and shaped to the required balance, the light part being 
used nea?' the throwing-end and the heavy part near the head and barbs to throw 
the weight forwards. Lkrht spear handles are similarly made from tighter 
sjjeh as rosella, hibiscus, Cottonwood, ^rass-tree Mower spike^ and bamboo, . •!<■ 

McConnhl— Native Arts and Industries 11 

A spear may be made all in one piece, or with a separate butt, or head, or with 
Sometimes an imitation btltt <>r head is simulated by painting the part 
with elay. A spear may have one. three or four points, which arc usually made 
Of aeaeia wood. The batto is fastened to the point with wallaby or kangaroo tail 
SlriSW .'ind is covered over with grass-tree (or other) gum heated over the fire in 
a bailer shell and smoothed on a wooden palette, which is sometimes fitted with 
a wallaby ineisor for engraving (Plate ii, fig. b). 

Stingray-bone barbs are used for lighting- and punitive spears, and are. very 
poisonous. These barbs may be. arranged serially along the head, pointing 
backwards or in a cluster of three, or in a flower like cluster (painted red i on 
a siem-like head (painted white). Ceremonial spears arc dceorated with white 
and red clay in large or small circles. Sometimes blood is smeared along the 
shaft of a spear in a wavy pattern ( mad' by turning the spear in a bloodstained 
hand ), used possibly as a charm to acquire power in hunting another \ietun. 

The spearthrower of the Peninsula is distinctive with its shell ornament at 
One antL The shaft, which varies in width, has a smooth, plain surface contract 
tag towards the head -end, and is plash red at, this Q)\d with gum, which serves 
io fasten to this end twin bailer shell discs, against which the spear is balanced. 
In use, a wooden peg at (he other end engages the end of I he spear. The shaft 
is sometimes ornamented at the end with bands of yellow orchid bark nod 
scarlet Ahn's seeds are sometimes let into the gum of the shell ornament. 
Children us. i-., spears 50" -53" long, with wooden points let into light cane 
shafts lashed with bark fibre (Plate ii, fig. c). On some of these a strip of 
batfe is left in a position similar to thai used by poisonous gum on adult spear* 
so as to make believe it is a fighting spear, and sumetinics string round the 
handle is used to simulate a join between head and shaft, also in imitation of 
an adult's spear (Plate ix, fig. g k). 

Shields are lacking, but wooden clubs with painted knobs or plain flat 
sticks are used to deflect spears (Plate x, Jig. b-e), Women use long hard 
wood fighting stieks usually made of acacia wood and painted fed with white 
points, and are supported by "seconds" m a fight, who use short stieks, similarly 
painted, to hit back the opponents spears (Plate ix, (m c-iK Axes, which .ire 
traded in, and the beater, the yam-stick anil the fighting-stick used by the women 
are made or halted in hardwood. 

Gulf tiresticks are made of nwit.chbox-bcan wood and are as long as spears. 
( ..iirving, the two sticks are fitted into a double barrel sheath, made trf 
two hollow bamboo tubes tied round with strips of yellow orchid bark ami 
fastened into a knob df beeswax studded with scarlet Abrus seeds These 

12 Records of the S.A, Museum 

shenths with Uieir MlOtttti &t lire add note to the camp scene. Tq kindle 

flire, one stick is laid on ike .uround and steadied with the toot, whilst the other 
is twisted between the hands with a BWift downward movement, and create* 
the required friction as it rubs against, the stick on thfi grottud. As SUOU as a 
spark is kindled, it is deftly dropped urtd tinder, and la blOWtl between CtiJ 
.hands into a Hame tor starting the lire. When no fires tick is to kind, a smoulder 

lag stick is carried and rekindled at interval by stopping to make & small fee; 
a picee oi' bark is often carried for kindling purposes. The Brings of such larfto 
birds as jabirm ibis and native companion are fastened lordlier i .si retched out 
and stiffened) to form a feather fan which is used as a bellows and Is canded 
about on a stringdoop passed over the w i 

The soil bark oi* \\w Melaleuca is used for innumerable purposes. Ajmrl 
IVoiu its use for walls of houses, brrakwinds and shelters, it is used i<> wrap up 
objects of all kinds and sizes, from corpses to spearbarbs and clays, and for 
covering food when cooking in anibed ovens, etc. Twisted into a flat pad, it is 
worn by women to distribute the weight of loads carried on the head, sucll US 
a bark vessel loaded with roots or a pile ol* firewood picked up on the homeward 
jOUfttey. && a small Avedgc it is used to break the strain of string handles on 
'•grass' ' baskets. Women use a strip of ti-tre.c bark for utility purposes I Plate 
xi, fig. q), whieh is passed between the legs and fastened back and front to a 
wmst-striug by turning in the ends. Rolled into a long bundle, this paper b ' 
serves as a torch or flaw at night-time (Plate xi, fig. r). 

Strips Of green bark (usually ffibiiCVs) are used in the rough for binding 
])uriM>se.s, Q.g., in making canoes, houses and hark vessel etc. fibres an*, used 
ui making rope and twine for weaving- fishing nets, dillybags, aprons and 
decorative strings, etc. The coarse red fibre of Acacia llarcsccit.s or .1. Inh 
makes a strong harsh string (km pzda) tar fishing nets, etc*, whilst the 
raffia-like strands of the under epidermis of the Jjinslona au&fralis palm deaf 
makes 4 hrm white string ( In :la) for more delicate use. The fibre most 
commonly used tor making twine for dillybags, aprons, etc., la Fious <c\nnriny- 
harmi (km Tfattau) (Plate xi, lig. fa), The fibre is softened by soakiiej it in 
waler or chewing it in the mouth. When dry it is Stripped into strands and 
tucked away in a bundle ready for use (Plate xi, fig. a). Twine is made by 
twisting together strands (usually two) of I he required size with a defl fllOVC 
inent of the palm of the h;md Against the thigh, which is used as a kind ol' table, 
i.e., with the lower leg and foot tucked under Mini the other leg crooked up 
out of the way. Roth (1901, Plate ii) illustrates this method ol* making twine, 
and in other plates in this same Btllletln fully illustrates Hie various types of 

McConnhl -Native ARTS and Industries 


ucivino and nett&lg use* I also in tins .irea and shown in the accau&patiyillg 
til vruiriv ■>.. *- Grass 55 baskets {kampian) are made (Plate iii. fig*, e-dj from tW 
blade-' Oi .VVm/cs- nmU-ijhrd. ThfcJ arc PSUIllly made wide at the mouth (Text 
C". 1< :., hut. also woven closely in tubular form for holding foohcy (Text fljjf, 1b) 
and, in smaller sizes, as: tob&GCO pouches for the men. Sometimes the basket is 
close-woven at 1 he base owlj . to hold food when washing it. allowing fchu watfit 
;n fl&cape thromdi the more open weavii " n£ the sides. These "gra& baskets 

are woven iii an anti-eloekuise ehain-twist |>;it1ern ( /7//c Roth f9lD, Plate xvi), 

and are woven over basal si rands from I he bottom upwards, the ends benm 
turned jm ;il the lop and sometimes over-wound to make a neai edge (Text 

Be ie). 

Fig. 1. Bagg affld hasW. !-. a. Dilly-bag in the hour-glass pattern, b, Closely woven 
basket for holding honey, <• Wide-mouthed basket made vn\i aDtl-eloekwise chain twist. 

Dlllybaga (wtiiffka) are sometimes made in this chain-twist or "gjrass - 
stitch pattern (Text fig. 2c d) from the LwisUmn twine (wairjk iya/npan) and 
sometimes in the tishiou-noi patt^TM ( tni :)fk nruyamt) (Text fig. 2a-b). 
diDybaftS, however, are made (folate iv, Rg e) in the hourglass (visually doulile- 
loop) pattern, from brown lihres of the F%CUS ( ira ytjha qrf.ian), red Arm in 
(watffkU i>o:fa) and white ] Avis if ma (vxKirjfai mc:'a). and often two or more of 
these twines are combined t" give a striped effect. The hourglass stitch is worked 
with one eontiniions lOfcg strand (joined at intervals) for the whole length 
of the dillvbag. from a basal strand stretched between two sticks (Plate lv, 

fie. e), 01? from one big toe to the other f Roth 1901, Hate viii-v :. 

Fishing nets are usually made in the fish-net pattern (Roth 1901, Plate .si), 
but the specimen shown (Flft.te xii. fig. a) is made in the hourglass pattern, the 


Records of tkk S.A. MUSEUM 

s|r;ni<ls being l(WP6d around a h;rs;il eane. withy (bent to form a hoop) and lashed 
over with Mrtacta of ttMng I/ihis, «s bark (liotli 1001, Plate x, fig. 4-6), Tftfl 
technique then proceeds as wit h dilljfbag making, The looping commences at 

tho top (over tin- hni'fv) and gradually narrows towards ihc bottom, whi-l. i- finished tjft Willi a fiat intermeshing (knotted at the Jinat end ,i 

rfv iflg .1 wide, l|;if base tO |b« Itfcl 


Fig, 2. it. Netted siring bag l>. WWO ft&tttl] ••■ CoilOd string bag. d. Ditto detail. 

|f| HiiiM, "•• :,.|>hmi. f. />////< (lrl.:iit 

The type of handle used with "grass" baskets and dillybags varies. These 
may be of one or more strands used separately or ovenvound to give strength 
(Koth [901, Plate vii. fig. 7). The method of fastening also varies; e.g., the 
basal strands mav be oaught together with other weaving strands to make a 
central care wlneh is overwound, or separate strands may be passed directly 
through the basal strings on either Hide, overwound, and fastened m t tie centre 
bj blotting or intertwining. Sometimes the handles are fastened more to one 
Sidfi of the mouth. SO Unit the mouth tails Open when in Use I . T»'xt ftgi Is | 
allowing the hand fo |»ms.s in ;nid out easily and the dillyba.": to lie flat on the 
back. The handle is sometimes interwoven witfi jabiru-down to make it Bofl 
against the forehead. ITandles of "grass" baskets arc usually fastened to \h& 
sides with a protective wedge of bark to break the Strain of the handle on the 
basket, Ol? P small stick may be used, whieli is imnv easily removed and renders 
the handle detachable. 

Women's aprons (wa:fn) t may be made from Firus, A<acia or Urislona 
twine, but Usually from Ffcwa which is softer, and may be coloured with red 
clay or stained yellow with the root or leaves of Alphisftnta crdtonoides or 


Moriiida atiifodu, which is used also f(tf dialling aprons and dillybagSj when 
the colour- is usually rubbed off afterwards. Aprons are made on a basal waist- 
tfring (Text ftg. 2e-f) from which long loops of equal length are suspended in 
front and fastened by a single loop Id tie waist-string (Roth, IDOL, Hate vn, 
fig. 4). The basal waisi-striug is looped at, one end and the ends left tree ;i1 
fcfoe olhcr end for tying into the loop. When not in use. this apron 18 rolled round 
a stiek and fastened round with tlie loose ends of the waist-string. Leaving the 
loop at the fop lor carrying, 


Clothes in I he European sense are non-existent. Men and women go miked. 
Aprons are worn by women ojdy on certain occasions with a special signilieance. 
A yonim girl (Ljinau man</<t) first wears an apron when she returns to camp 
after separation at the onset of puberty, and after each ensuing separation for 
a similar reason, either as a mature girl (1>:man) or as a married woman (iranhjn 
pi yon) When a mother returns to her husband's camp at the end of her iso'a 
ttol) dtiriog childbirth, she wears a brand new aprOJl, bringing with her an 
offering of vams and fish, one dillybagftll each for herself and her husband 
and one from (he child to its fattier. Aprons are aiso worn by women on 
ceremonial occasions, as when they take part in dances, and especially for the 
mourniirj, dance. 

As healing, power-giving and protective charms, plain strings are tied 
round the affected part, for headaches, pains in leg and stomach and sirknev-, 
.Men wear strings round arm or leg wlrm hunting, and pregnant women wear 
Ihem around the abdomen when diving for water lilies. Decorative strings are 
worn on ceremonial occasions. Both men and women wear shell ftOSfipegS (made 
from Mcgalolructus aruana), pearlshell pendants suspended from a string round 
the neck. Such necklets and headbands of threaded discs are made of pearl 
shell and Nautilus pumpil4U8. Men wear pandanus-palm armlets, plain and 
plaited ( b'oth l!)Ol, Plate iv), a large hollow wooden ear-cylinder (painted red 
ami white and worn in the lobe of one ear, which is stretched to hold it), or, less 
usual, a collar of light wood covered with beeswax and studded With scarlet 
Ahrit8 seeds. Women wear < owrie shell girdles and cross-overs, These ornaments 
are mostly borrowed from the north and are not, properly speaking, indigeno i>. 
Indigenous art is seen in plain and overwound strings, strings interwoven with 
possum-uir and jnbiru-feather down, threaded golden grass-bugles (Text tig. -V ). 
plaited yellow orchid-bark, local pearlshell necklets and headbands, and 
nowadays (when needle and cotton are available) strings of scarlet Abrus seeds. 


Records of the S.A, Museum 

Women's strings may be made completely circular for passing' over the head, 
either ol* the required size or long enough to be doubled and redoubled a number 
of times; or they may be made of one or more strings Fastened together at the 
ends by various devices, e.u., loose string at one end and a loop at the other, or 
wilii basal strings left free to tie back into the main string- (doubled), or with 
the basal strings at either end overwound partway but left loose at the ends 
for tying (Text %. Ete). The workmanship of these decorative strings is skilled 

Fi£. 3. Shell drill aud ornaments a, Turritotta ci >v«. drill for piercing .shells, k Xaiitilux 
shell necklace e. Necklace of gtass bugles. <i. FIfti blind ofnsnunit of u< -ndrobium orchid 

.pnirnnis and string. 0. Overwound BtringS worn ris. ornfinierit. f. I'inrtafJa vmrijarifif 'cm, :\. 
;ilfc pearly shell used in necklace making. 

and artistic. A small, fragile pearlsheLI [Pinclad'i nutryuritift rn, Text, fig, 3f) 
found on the Gulf shore is used instead of the eonliBer N(toetih&8 pvmpiUus to make 

a line pearl necklet OV headband, worn by nmn and women. Holes are drilled 

in the |M"ari.sliell bj means <<r a spiral sli^U (TurrUel/a c$rea) which is fastened 

to the end of a stick (fixed so that the point is in a central position) and twisted 
between the hands like a tirestick (Text %. 3a), The small pieces of shell, each 
with its mitrr hole, are ground and sharpened by means oi' solidified shell- 
gril and then Strang on twine wlrieh is twisted so that the reetanindnr pieces 
lie fiat (Text fig. 8b}. The epidermis of the Dcndrahium jolunati.s orchid 
f wilted to yellow in the fire) is plaited in and out oi' a string-base to form a 
flat band (Text fig. 3d), which may lie worn ronnd the head or arm or leg by 

McConnel— Native Arts and Industries 


men, and long and doubled as a girdle nr crossover breast let fry women. Some- 
times twine is interwoven with soft white jabiru-down and, folded and twister! 
into a number of strands, worn as a crossover breastlet or girdle by the women, 
showing dazzlingly white against their brown skins. Golden i>rass-bugles, fine 
and coarse, are gathered together into a number of strands and tied round the 
neck, or, folded over a number of times, passed over the head as crossovers and 
girdles, or sometimes in single strand w r orn hanging from the head down the 
back for mourning. 


-TOBBBHW-^ V ' mntn >^ e f ut0atl ^ 



KB* 8 

i ^^^^^ ff * ;l(, ' QlStr,1IIlV " 3C5t -*i. 


,r^if>^ 0Wff " i: 

^|«l;rMV»»1^at«» s|iV, 

Fig. 4. a. Betrothal ring of string, overwound, b. Lover's string, dyed red. c. Umbilical 
cord in wax pendant, decorated with yellow orchid bark stripes, d. Widow's string neck 
ornament with wax balls decorated with red Abrus seeds fastened with beeswax. 

In addition to these decorative strings, worn for ceremonial purposes in 
general, strings are used also for specific purposes. The most common of these 
is the circular overwound plain string worn as a crossover (single or doubled) 
for mourning; the crossover goes over neck and underarm, i.e., across the breast. 
It is worn by widows but is not compulsory. The compulsory widow's string is 
made of overwound twine, with blobs of beeswax at the ends. It is worn round 
the neck, fastened in front, with the ends crossed again at the back and hanging 
down behind. Sometimes the beeswax blobs are studded with scarlet seeds 
and have the basal strands left loose for tying so as to make the necklet more 
secure (Text fig. 4d). The wearing of the widow's string is compulsory until 
mourning ends. If it should wear out, it must be replaced, but the old one 
must be kept also. If a widow should lose her mourning necklet and be seen 
Walking about without it, she would be killed by her husband's relatives. 

18 Records of the S.A. Museum 

A small plain ring (Text fig, 4a), made in the same overwound technique, 
is used in the betrothal ceremony as a symbol of the promise made by a woman 
to give her daughter in marriage to a man. In this ceremony her head is 
covered with a sheet of bark (on account of the strict taboo existing between 
son-in-law and mother-in-law), as, accompanied by another woman (acting as 
proxy for the promised daughter) she encircles the man seated on the ground 
and places the ring over a tuft of his hair and hangs a dillybag over his head. 
The betrothal ring is kept by the man as a surety for his promised bride. When 
the marriage takes place the ring is placed under honey in a bark vessel, as the 
last payment due to future mother- and father-in-law. 

A lover's string (manerjka), made of several fine strands of twine, plain 
or knotted and coloured with red clay (Text fig. 4b), is sent by a woman to her 
lover by the hand of this man's half-sister, in whom she can confide. On receipt 
of it, the lover sends her back a message arranging a rendezvous, saying: 'You 
pretend to go for yams, and I will go hunting," and they meet at the time and 
place arranged. 

A baby's umbilical cord (which it is considered essential to preserve), 
finished with a wax pendant striped with yellow orchid bark (Text fig. 4c) 
is hung around a baby's neck when it is presented to its father, on the occasion 
of the mother's return to her husband's camp after childbirth. The father 
accepts the child as his own and as a member of his clan, anoints its face with 
his sweat so that the clan spirits will recognise it as "belonging." Later the 
child is given a name identifying it with a clan totem through a "namesake," 
who acts as its guardian should anything happen to its father. 


In ritual and ceremonial art the use of coloured clays is unlimited. Painted 
on the body, clays are used with an endless variety of meanings according to 
the ritual and the ceremony concerned. In everyday life clays are used in 
sickness to cool the body. When a baby is presented to its father, a white 
streak is painted down its nose (the significance of which I am uncertain) and 
the child is also rubbed with charcoal to cover any remaining lightness of skin. 
At the betrothal ceremony, a white streak is placed on the abdomen of the girl's 
mother's brother, denoting his relationship to her through the mothei, and his 
responsibility for his sister's promise; the girl's lather touches the man's head 
with his spearthrower as a gesture of subjection and the girl's brother rubs 
chests with him as a sign of his acceptance of the pledge. In initiation cere- 
monies, women paint their bodies (Plate vi, fig. d) in a manner signifying their 

McConnel— Native Arts and Industries 19 

relationship to il,e. initiates, e.gV, "mothers'" paint their breasts with red &n4 
while clay and bold Mm- Ijpeast a«5 if to feocl, sywfeolijjiiig a maternal relationship; 
;i ■ Pathupts Rist^r n paints a circle on her shoulder and hnld>. her hand there in 
the attitude of steadying a child by the knee when carrying it on her shoulder, 
whilst a "sister" paints her legs with white stripes and holds her hand behind 
her head in the manner of supporting a baby 's hack, when carrying it on the 
shoulder. Sometimes two or ;ill of these symbols and altitudes are combined 
to Signify a variety of relationships on tile part oi' oiiu woman In mourn nc 
dances, women of the deceased's elan and moiety paint their faces and bodies 
with rod and white clay, and wear the mourrlftig strings, apron, and other 
ornaments ;dbided to above. 

Tn all B&cred ritual and ceremonial, fed and while elays are used by the 
men to denote the peculiar si&nilicunce of I he ceremony. Toternic emblems arc 
painted on the bodies of the men who take part in the ritual of their own 

totemle elans. Pot example, men of the bony-bream elan have a male ami female 

fish paintd on their chests, men of the> opossum elan are covered in 
white apote, and men of the tortoise elan have a tortoise painted in while elay 
on tlie back; etc, A white mark down the abdomen denotes the female of the 
speeies, In the bony-bream ceremony, the male and female bony-bream appear 
covered respectively in red or white play, according as cacti "steps oat " of a 
U'M.,lwood or a milkwood tree. In addition to ehns, feathers are used, e.g., 
as headdresses, held together with ^11111 \}T \va.\, Wax is used for modelling — as 
in the ease of the figurine ,,1" a p a |iy | ;' IMuto v, fig. f. and Plate xvii, fig, f). Wood 
also is tlSOd, e.g., for making ceremonial objects such as the bull-roarer (Plate v, 
fig-, a), wooden phallus Hate v, fig. d), etc. Bark is used for representing 
various objects, such as a fish carried in tlie beak of a bird (Plate v, uV, p, and 
Plate vi, fig, b), pultviiiy<i, etc. There is no end to the uses made of such 
available materials, of which the examples ij noted are but an inadequate 


The creative talent of these people is revealed no1 only in their leehnieal 
skill and ingenuity in the manufacture and tlie artistic finish of object;-. 01 
cvmvday use, and their decorative and ritualistic ail, but is seen to perfection 
in tlie dramatic portrayal of religious beliefs associated with tlie cults of their 
clan totems or i>vhr<uii<t. for behind all these economic activities, and the ritual 
attending the crises of life, behind the sanctions which govern mental attitudes 
and behaviour patterns, even behind all natural phenomena, beneficial or other- 
1 < lies 'he belief in a spirit world, conceived in terms of these pulwaiyn. 

20 RECORDS ok the S.A. Museum 

whose abode is known, who permeate all reality and are the source of all that 
exists, wiio control and maintain all forms o)' life and inherent capacities, and 
whose creative and inventive activities 'in the beginning" (ke:nka) established 
the world as it is today and who sanctioned Lhe present social order. These 
traditional beliefs absorbed implicitly by OQti mmeratiou after another, are made 
explicit in the social consciousness In means of ritual and the recital and drama! ic 
portrayal of the prowess and creative powers of the pulwaiya. It is only in the 
light of such beliefs that present activities and skills can be properly evaluated. 

Kw.r> cult, whether it be associated with fi&fld supplies, forces of nature 
or with human attribute^ has its "story," its drama and ritual and its ww#, 
where natural and human factors arc merged by the incarnation of tllO human 
[nilnuiiya in sonic malerial form Each uutva is marked by a tree, water-hole 
or ftfttibtidj in which the puliraiya resides and whence its creative power emanates. 
On the upper Kendall River, where the fresh water bream breed, is a small 
circle of antbeds with a line of them leading from these spirit-camps down 
to the water-hole. On the upper Archer River a small circle of antbeds marks 
the auwn Of 'he cuss diss opossum All such shrines arc kept in order and swept 
with branches and revered as the abode of the puhraiifa is felt fcO be there. M 
the mouth of the Tokali River — at the auxva of oiya 7]o:pan, the. rock- python, 
the trees on which the spirit-snakes sun themselves are sacred and must not be 
touched for fear of Creating a, bush-lire. .Sweat must be smeared on strangers 
who approach so that they ma> be recognised by oiya Tforpan as " friends." 
On th€ Orcat Dividing Raui>e in which these rivers rise, where stones and rocks 
are plentiful, these auini often are marked by stones, e.g., the rock-cod family 
marked by three stones (father, mother and child), and the kangaroo pahvaiyu 
by a line of stones crossing a ridge with a larger "old man in the Lead 
(McOonuel 1931). Though separately conceived, all these cults are implicitly 
comprehensive and complementary and together cover the whole held of man's 
orientation to reality in all its forms. 

Only those cults associated with ceremonial Object*! shown in this collection 
are described here, for the better understanding of the nature and function of 
these objects. Incidentally, these cults deal with two most important aspects »r 
social life: (i) the source of food supplies; (ii) the crises of life, associated 
with the sex relationships and childbirth. 

A. The cult of Wojk-jjan, the bony-brearn pulwaiya. 

Members of the bony-bream elan are the custodians of this cult, Uvr.rv 
yeai^ when the bony-bream come up the river to I. reel, word is sent, to neigh 
bouring* clans to come for the fishing season and share in the proceeds of the 

McConnel— Native Arts and [nuustkiks 21 

Intnl. W^jhAan has his abode fiNMwJ in a small creek ftft tlxe lower Archer 
River, where fl Sprhig breaks through i lie bank into a waterhole, in which the 
bony-bream breed Efepp a ritual for the increase of the bony-bream periodically 
takes place. With stamping of feet and hitting f the surrounding trees in 
which the spirits of the bony -bream reside, men c;dl upon W^fkifan to send out 
a plentiful supply of bonv -bream into the river for men to spear for food, 
The measure of the response of Wofkojan to this " awakening 1 ' ritual dramatic 
ally was revealed to an initiate of this '.dan during the initiation ceremony, a 
ritual which I w r as permitted to attend. Tn response to the rhythmic chanting 
and clapping of hands came an answering call as the female spirit of the bony- 
bream i merged from a group of trees. She was covered from head to foot in 
white clay (having ''stepped out" from a milk wood tree). She was crowned 
with a semi-circle of feathers of the peewit (an associated elan puhvaiya), her 
body was riddled with the spears of her slayers. She staggered forward to the 
rhythmic chanting (legs and arms outstretched and head falling forward). 
She paused now and then, only to be called into action again by the chanters. 
Beside her stood \X Milan, covered with red clay (having ''stepped out" ot a 
blood wood tree), Kneeling at the feet erf WtffoJ&fc, fi suppliant, with a feather 
fan, raised (by sleight 61 hand) the wooden phallus into creative activity m 
response to his people's call for a plentiful supply of bony-bream (Plate \\ 
fig. d). Innate in this dramatie portrayal of the pulwanfa answering the call 
of this people, staggering under spear wounds indicted through a willing incar- 
nation as bony bream, slain that, pqgple may eat mim! live, lies the belief in a 
beneficent and creative, deity and a spirit of voluntary self-sacrifice For a full 
description of this cult sec McConnel (1935). 

B. The cult of the M Bull-roarers." 

This cult is not confined to one clan or tribe but is a series of cults, asso- 
ciated by their own inner logic with one another each with its own auwa and 
pulwaiyu, and each concerned with one aspect of the phases through which 
a woman passes in her development from (a) a girl enterinu puberty (Ionian 
ma/Ufa) to (1>) a mature girl (fcrniAtt), (••) a married woman ( tnantya pi:'an). 
(A) a married woman who has given birth to a child (kata). The bull-roarers 
vary (in order of the above) from (a) a small, plain leaf-like piece of wood 
(moiya) to (b) one similar but larger (pakapaka), (c) a larger one coloured 
red with white splotches (moipaka) which is one of a pair (husband and wife), 
the male being phallic-shaped and painted red with long white stripes and dots, 
and (d) a female moipaka similar in shape but painted red with white stripes 

22 Records of the S,A. Museum 

across, which is used (Plate v, fig. a .) in association with the ritual of a woman 
with a child (karfu) (Plate v, fig. i'j, the lalftet being represented by a wax 
figurine of a hfcwborfl male baby, uomplete with eyes (scarlet seeds), teeth. 
[mbic hair, etr., lying on the abdomen of the "first woman'' (Plate v, Qg, I) 

Tlie ^Ittdt^roareiff'* moiya and pakityctha are swung respectively by young 
initiates at the end of thd Rj»1 pari and at die elose of the P dymam ceremonj 

tlt€ firiH mnipaha is SWttfcg by men lur married women* and the last mmp&ha in 
association witli the ritual of ehildbirth. tfach has its own story of origin ita 
ritnal and drama, and its place in relation bo soeial life. 

The dramatic presentation of these symbolic ideas concerning the u bull 

roarers" and their Milieu was vivid and arresting coming as it did withoul any 
expectation on ray par!. These dramatic scenes are described here jusl as Ihey 

were witnessed by me. 

(a) A tomem manyu vehement lv swung the mOi$Q whilst other fcotftofl 
] m(mya lay stretched on the grdund they represented those who had gone down 
into their annul; after hiding Lhe wiiyu in a crack in a bloodwood tree "for 
men to use,"' she too went down into her antra. 

(b) Tlie pabtipaka was swunu; by a l.itnart (white clay on breasts to 
indicate her sex), wliilst the n:t<t«iHt (initiates) stood hand in hand apparently 
Listening, The marks on the ictytina were those used for initiates in the I' :!ij<nunn 
ceremony (MeConnel L935). It i -. from these "gfcl" auira (gfflg having first 
possessed the jntfjya and thfe pakapaJca) tll»1 the power of awakening adolescence 
and maturity are believed to DOine til response to the swinging of the "bnll- 
roarers" by tlie icfjimia. who now assert their claims over the swinging of ihe 
kl bull -roarers" relinquished by the girls, 

i e ) A line of figures lie prone on the ground with arms outstretched and 
hands interlocking, on the abdomen of one of which (wmty& j>irun) lies the 
female moiyahii. She represents a married woman, as yet without child. The 

moimka (man and wife), having found each other, have entered a state o\' 
married life. The female moipctka is SWWlg by a man for "married woman," 
invoking the virility from this uuw<t. 

(d) A line of figures similarly (ying, on the abdomen of one of which is 
ka?ta t the wax figurine of a new -boi n ma<fe baby. This represents the first birth. 

The figures on one side of the woman with a Hiild are the first men who inhabited 

the earth and who wme growing old with tin one to replace them; those on the 
other side of "the woman with a child" are Umse alio, naming after this event. 
are born of woman in the ordinary Way, A man at the end of the line swings 
ti moipaka. The idea symbolically presented here is "the continuity of life 

McConnel— Native Arts and Industries 23 

through birth, and its first coming." The interlocking of hands denotes conti- 
nuity, and the swinging of the moipaka preservation of that continuity. 

(e) The female moipaka pultvaiya sits with her child on her knee (the first 
child ever created) with her husband beside her, the three together representing 
the institution of family life. Sitting thus in their camp, the moipaka pidwaiya 
father, mother and child go down into their auwa, whence more babies now come. 
From these 4 * bull-roarer auwa are believed to emanate those mystic forces 
intimately concerned with the maintenance of sex relationships, which the 
"bull-roarers" symbolise, and the sanctions which govern their social strati- 
fication (McConnel 1935). 

The primitive symbolism of these cults should not mislead us into under- 
estimating their psychological and sociological value. They are the means by 
which individual experience is socialised and made explicit in the social con- 
sciousness. They are a basic support of social structure and the concrete 
expression of abstract ideas such as we are accustomed to express in more 
sophisticated language, with the accumulated knowledge of thousands of years 
enabling us to do so. 

The ethnological specimens upon which the foregoing analysis is based 
are in the South Australian Museum under the registered numbers listed here. 
Duplicates of many of these specimens have been passed to the Australian 
Museum, the University of Sydney (Department of Anthropology), and the 
University of Queensland. 


A.42055. Drum (Plate vii, fig. a). This is a hollow wooden cylinder, 
slightly tapered; over larger end-hole is stretched skin of a lizard; beaten by 
hand — palm of hand for deep notes and fingers for lighter sounds — used with 
one or both ends closed, as in Papua. It is used in ceremonial dance of totem ic 
hero Sivri, the seagull, among the Tyyr^andyi tribe (Batavia River), who is 
said to have introduced it from the Torres Straits; not found south of Archer 

A.42066-67. Bows (Plate vii, fig. 1-m). Specimens used in dances asso- 
ciated with cults of totemie hero Sivri. (Tyorjandyi tribe, Batavia River). Not 


found south of Archer River. 

A.42068-69. Arrows (Plate vii, fig. n-o). The points of these arrows are 
missing. They are used with the above bows. 

A.42056-57. Shell Nose-Peg (Plate vii, fig. b-c). Wikmut]kan name 
ka.'ivoiyama. Nose ornament pierced through hole in nose; made from Me gala- 

24 Records of the S.A. Museum 

traolus aruanus or TnrritclUi caceaS This specimen is from Kendall, Holroyd 
and Air her Rivers area. 

A.420u8-59. Shell Pendants (Plate vii, fig. d-e). Semi-lunate or oblong 
pearlshell ornament, worn mostly by men suspended from neck, pearlshell 
usually traded in from east coast and the Torres Straits. These specimens 
are from Kendall, Holroyd and Archer h'ners area. 

A. 42063. Dancing Skirt (Plate vii, fig. i). The skirt is made from strips 
of hibiscus bark and worn by men in danees. Pound north of Areher Hiwr, 
associated with the Batavia River hero cults of Sivri the seagull and Nyarifjn the 
Torres Straits pigeon, said to have been introduced by them. 

A. 42060. SHELL Necklet (Plate vii, fig. f). Wilcmutihin name wa:laku:po, 
The necklet is made of rectangular pieces of nautilus shell strung together; the 
shell is traded from East Coast and Torres Straits. Specimen collected from 
Kendall, Holroyd and Archer Rivers area. 

A No specimen. Eah Ornament. A large wooden cylinder painted red 
and white and worn through lobe of ear, Papuan fashion. Used in Kendall, 
Jlolroyd and Archer Rivers area. 

A.42061-62. Armlets (Plate vii, fig. g-h). Plaited strips of pandanus- 
i>a.Jm leaf from Kendall, Holroyd and Archer Rivers area, worn by men (Torres 
St raits Islands fashion). 

A.42064. Pipe (Plate vii, fig. j). Native name is manjipa, It is a wooden 
cylinder, sealed at both ends, with two holes, one to hold bark cigarette and the 
other for drawing smoke into mouth. The pipe is passed from one to another 
with finger held over hole to prevent smoke escaping. This type of pipe is used 
in Papua, also by men on Archer River (Papuan fashion). 

A. 42070. Club (Plate vii, fig. p). Named wr>rika?i. A two-pronged club, 
decorated with black seeds; traded in from Torres Straits Islands. The head is 
used to knock back spears. 

A. 42071. Club (Plate vii, fig. q). Native name nun/can. Pineapple type 
of club, traded in from Torres Straits Islands and used to knock back spears. 

A 4206:'). BooMEKANG-snArKn Ckkkmonial Object (Plate vii, fig. k) 
Decorated with pipeclay and strips of orchid bark; significance not recorded 
The boomerang is not used in this area, 

axe. An unhaftcd axe traded in from south or east, found on Kendall- 
Holroyd River and reliaf ted. 

Knife (no specimen). Is named hoiyanm. Traded in Wrkmurjkan name. 

Double-Outmogek Canoe (no specimen). This is made from hollowed-ont 
milkwood tree; the booms are usually in two pieces and lashed to a, stick placed 

McConnel— Native Arts and Industries 35 

through guuuales Inwards prow and stern; floats on either Bide afcti lashed to 
booms, Abide on Batavia, Embley and Archer Rivers and used along UlC <iuJi* 
I 'oasl as far south as Edward River It was introduced from northern neigh- 
bours and is not indigenous art. Vide: Hale and Tindale ( 1933, rig. 150-151) 
and Haddon and Ilornbill (1037). 



A.42001. Short Fioiitixg Spear (Plate via, fig. a). \Vi!;mur)],nn name, 
/\u:'ii)u; has no barb; acacia head and bamboo shaft; is used lor fighting at a 

A.42002. Butt Pxn of an example identical with A.42001 i.lMale viii, 
fig. b). An imitatioii butt; used for lighting at a distance; average tengtiJ 
60 inches. 

;\.4200o. Sjinur Piohtlm; Speak (Plate viii, fig. c). Wrhnuiijkan name 
pc/jin. There is no barb, has acacia bead and tight wood (hibiscus) shaft, ll is 
used for fighting at a distance. 

A .12001. Short Pioh-jtm; Speak (I' late viii, fig. d). Native name, 
pWfkuta. There is no barb, has acacia head, cottonwood. bamboo or gres;-. '"« 
shaft and is use<l lor lighting- at a distance (also far wallabv ). 

A. 4200*. \j)SC Pini-nixo Speak (1 nrong) ( Plate \ iii, rig. h). Native name, 
keka ifundalu. It has a lofcg aca.cin point and shall, in otic i imitation join, 
poisonous gum'), wallaby dr emu bone barb with short cane or softwood butt; 
notch at end to lit spearthrower. It is coloured red and white at end of shaft 
and has circle of white edged with red ;.! fool of point. 

A. 1200!). P,;tt End of example identical with A.4200S ( plate viii, fig. i). 

A.4201o-I7 LONG Piohting Spears (Stinukay Barbed") (Plate viii, fig; 
o-<|), Native name, irM'a. lias a, long hardwood head spliced to lightwood shall ; 
1 3 siingray barbs (white) with imitation painted butt. Painted when given to 
initiates at end. of second initial ion ceremony (e.g., note white rings on head of 
A. 42017). These spears are used for spearing in the leg, a punishment for 
infringement of tribal law or misconduct, etc. 

A.42010. Bhtt End of example identical wilh A 420 15 (Plate viii. fig. p). 

A. 42019-23. Loxu fieirnxo Spears (Sttwrav Barbed) (Plate viii, tig. 
r-\\ ). Tliis is called kaiya and is a flower like cluster of stingray barbs CEOVUXlcd 
on stemlike head of acacia wood (white and r\nY) and is attached by gum lo 
bamboo or softwood (ffibi^ifs) shaft. Blood is smeared on bamboo shaft in 
waving pattern by twisting jpeaf in blood-stained hand. Note ceremonial paint- 

26 Records of the S.A. Museum 

ing on butt ends [Plate viii, Bg. u and x). They are. punitive or lighting .spears; 
e>,g., used lor Spearing in the leg as punishment for infringement of 1 ribal law or 
misconduct, etc 

A.42024. Butt End of example identical with A.42023 (Plate viii, J.-, x). 
A ceremonial spear, red and white paint on shaft; has been decorated for W 
initiation ceremony. 

A.42025. Long Fighting Spear (Stingray Barbed) (Plate viii, fig, y) 
Bpeaft etUUtfy with successive stingray barbs (white) lashed on to m-acia. head, 
facing backwards and serially arranged; with bamboo or lightMrood (JtihiscmJ 
shaft. A punitive or lighting spear used for spearing in the. leg as punishment 
for infringement of law or misconduct, etc. 

A.42005. Light Hunting Spear (Plate viii, fig. e). WHwW*lkm name, 
pimta. It has long bamboo shaft, one-pronged hardwood head and double- 
pointed bone lashed on to aeaeia or ironwood point to form a terminal barb. A 
long, light Spear u*cd for fish, birds, goanna, native companion, etc. 

A 12006. Long Hunting Skws (] Prongt) (Plate viii, fig. f). This spear. 
fu. r n has (a } a short but! ( ceremonial ) ; (b) long butt (utility) ; head and shall 
of acacia in one piece; strip of gum in imitation of join; butt of hibiscus or 
other softwood; milkwood gum on point; ironwood gum on lower part of head 
has ceremonial paint (red and white circles) on shaft. This is used for spearing 
bony-bream from canoe on lower Archer River and in ceremony of bony-bream 
totem (MeConnel 1036). 

A.42007. Butt End ok A.42006 (Plate viii, Bg. g>. 

A. 42010. Long Hunting 8m« (3 Pkonged) (Plate nil, Hg. J.)- (Jailed 
Iranian dyindari, lias a softwood shaft ( IJ ihisi us); acacia head; 3 points with 
bOllfi barbs; false butt effect in painted white butt-end of shaft. This is used Ihe 
same as A.4200G. 

A.42011. Long HUNTWQ Spear (4 Pronged) (Plate viii, Bg, k). Wikmnrj- 
hint name is pita pi:n(a. It is a bamboo shaft with 4 acacia points. e,i« I, vmi!i 
terminal double-ended bone harb lashed on to form a barbed point; the IigW 
end of cane is at hutt end. This is used for hunting emu, wallab\, jabiru, fish, 


A. 42012. Butt End of example identical with A.42011 (Plate mm. tij. [) 
A.4201:!. Long Heavy Hunting Spear (4 Pronged) (Plate viii, Mg. m). 
Wilrmtnikan name, kel.v. nnlyau. There is a double-pointed terminal beta* OH eaoll 
of the 4 hardwood points. It is used for hunting big game. This specimen htf 
(a) Acacia wood shaft, imitation butt Httiug into spear thrower; tin / 
pjLv)hu grass tree shaft; («• I Pita ;>Amdy4i Hibiscus wood shaft. 

McConnel— Native Arts and Industries 27 

A .420 14. Butt End of example identical with A.42013 (Plate viii, fig, n). 

A 42045 47. Si'EARTkrowers (Plate x, fig, l'-h). Named tudiqa: {fu:hi 
L-mihja — or peg; //'.*/// mui]ka — neck where held; h(:!<i mumpa = shell 
end). This has a flat shaft, pjaifl smooth surface, varying in width; sometimes 
expanded to bwadtb, contracting towards handle-end, which is plastered with 
gum and fastened between two bailer discs, igainst which Spear is balanced, 
wooden peg at other end into which .spear is hooked; ornamental yellow orchid 
bark bands, and searlet abrns seeds sometimes inserted into gum between shell 
discs, It is used 1o give added force and length in throwing spear, 

A.4204S, Wax, A stick ol' wax on carrying stick. 

A.42051. Sinew (Plate x, tig:. 1). Wallaby-tail sinew prepared for use in 
fastening on spear barbs. 

A. 42049. Qvto (Plate x, fig. j). A stock of grass-tree gum on carrying 
slick fnr use on spear point after barb is Instilled on to point. 

A.4205O. BAILEE SHELL (Mefo amphoras) (Plate x, fig, k). Native name, 
irtla. It is used for (getting gam on fire before putting over spear point, used 
also lor bailing out water and for drinking purposes. 

\.420f>;j. Pali Tii (Plate x. fig. n). WikmilffMn name, Laujuviau. A 
wooden palette with projection for engraving-; used for smoothing hot gulp on 
spear point. 

A. 42054. Palkttk (Piale .<. ftg, 0). \Yilurut)lan name, lavjarnan. A 
wooden palette with incisor tooth of wallahy or kangaroo attached to projection 
for use as engraver. 

A.42052. Bark Bundle (Plate x, %. m). Made of folded ti-tree bark and 
tied with string; used for carrying stingray barbs, etc,, and for use in spear 
making; found m a man's dilly-bag. 

Bakk Canok (Specimen in Queensland Museum). Canoe is made from strip 
of messmate tree bark shaped at ends and sewn up with cane by using a bone 
stiletto; sides drawn together with straps of green hibiscus bark and kept open 
by forked sticks supporting ties; paddled by young mangrove stem splayed at 
the end, and used in fishing and for crossing rivers. (Plate i, fig. b-d.) 

A. 42041-42. Fjghtixu Sticks ok Clubs (Plate x, fig. b-e). These are hard- 
wood, flat, pointed n\n\ j vd ochi ed. I sed by men for light ing at close range or lor 
warding off spears, 

A. 42043-44. Clues (Plate x, fig. d-e). Rounded (dubs with knob at end; 
used for warding off spears. 

A. 42040. SHORT Yam Stick (Plate x, fig, a). Wil;mui)lain name, katyan. 
It is made of hardwood and used by women for digging out roots, etc 

28 Records of the S.A. Museum 

A.42026. Long Yam Stick (Plate ix, fig. a). Wikmurjkan name, ka'tyan. 
Hardwood yam stick pointed at one end, used by women for digging out roots, 
goanna, bandicoots, etc., and for stripping bark, etc. 

A.42027. Pointed End of Yam Stick similar to A.42026 (Plate ix, fig. b). 

A.42028-29. Fighting Sticks (Plate ix, fig. c-d). Wikmurfkan name, 
katyan-idaka or katyan pu'tfka* These are painted red with white points and 
used by women in fighting each other; the photographs show opposite ends of 
the two specimens. 

A.42030-31. Fighting Sticks or Clubs (Plate ix, fig, e-f ). These are short 
fighting sticks and are used by women taking part in fight to hit back at 
opponents' long fighting sticks. The photographs show only the head end of 
one and the butt of the other. 

A.42032-36. Children's Spears (Plate ix, fig. g-k). These have wooden 
points let into reed shafts and fastened with strips of bark fibre string; average 
length 50-53 inches, (a) Portion of bark left on wooden point in imitation of 
poison gum used in similar place on adult fighting spears, (b) Plain, no bark 
strip, (e) Imitation prong, made by fastening string round place for joining; 
imitation poison gum on point, Plate ix, fig. h, shows the butt end of a spear 
identical with A.42032. 

A.42037-39. Fire Sticks (Plate ix, fig. 1-m). Wikmurikan name, 
tu:mpu:piya. Two long sticks made of match-wood (match-box bean); carried 
in sheath made of two hollow bamboo tubes, fastened together by strips of 
orchid bark (Dendrobium johannis) burnt yellow on the fire and wound round 
and round the tubes, which are held together at end by a knob of black bees- 
wax, studded with scarlet seeds of Abrus precatorhis; black, yellow and red 
represent the colours of fire. Method of using fire stick is to place one on the 
ground, steadied by foot, and to spin the other downwards between the hands 
to create friction against the one on the ground. 

A.42081. Stems of Ficus cunninghamii (Plate xi, fig. a). Wikmurikan 
name, rja:tan. Samples of raw material from which string (koiya) is made by 
stripping off bark. 

A.42082. Strands of Ficus cunninghamii (Plate xi, fig. b). Wikmur]kan 
name, koiijadan. Strands stripped from stem of Ficus and used for making 
twine; sometimes used in this rough state also for tying purposes. 

A.42083. Bundle of Ficus cunninghamii (Plate xi, fig. c). Wikmurjkan 
name koirja:tan. It is rendered soft by chewing in the mouth and used for 
making twine. 

A.42084. Strands of Ficus cunninghamii (Plate xi, ^g. d). Ready for 
use in making 2-ply twine by twisting strands together with palm of hand 
against thigh. 

McConnel— Native Arts and Industries 29 

A.42085-87. Twine, Completed (Plate xi, fig. e-g), Wikmut]kan name, 
koiya. It is made from Ficus fibre; of varying- thicknesses — coarse, medium and 

A.42088. Strands of Completed Twine (Plate xi, fig. i). Twine is caught 
together into required size and fastened at top by overwinding; sometimes worn 
in this unfinished state. 

A.42089. Twine Circlet (Plate xi, Hg. j). Circlet is in overwinding 
pattern and only partially completed. 

A.42090. Twine Circlet (Plate xi, fig. k). Overwinding completed. 
A.42095. String Apron (Plate xi, fig. o). Wikmur)kan name ivada. A 
small apron made of Ficus twine (koiya t]adan); long loops suspended from 
waist-string (single loop) and fastened behind; rolled for carrying and usually 
wound around a stick or piece of bark; worn by young girls at onset of puberty. 
A.42096. String Apron (Plate xi, fig. p). Wikmurjkan name, ivada. A 
woman's apron made of Ficus twine (koiya iiadan). It is worn by a woman on 
special occasions such as presentation of child to its father, mourning dances, 
etc.; rolled, with loop out for carrying. 

A.42093. String Apron (red) (Plate xi, fig. m). Wilcmui]kan name, wada. 
A woman's apron made of Ficus string (koiya r\adan); dyed with red ochre; 
worn on special occasions; rolled, with loop out, for carrying. 

A.42094. String Apron (white) (Plate xi, fig. n). WihMUtjkan name, 
wada. The twine is made from strips of white under-epidermis of leaves of 
Livistona palm (koi-tuda). It is worn by women on special occasions, such as 
presentation of child to its father, mourning dances, etc.; rolled, with loop out 
for carrying. 

A.42092. String Apron (yellow) (Plate xi, fig. 1). Wikmurjlmn name, 
wada. The twine is made from Ficus cumiinghamii, stained yellow with root 
or stem of Morinda citrifolia or leaves of Alphitonia crotonoides. It is worn by 
women on special occasions, such as presentation of child to its father, mourning 
dances, etc.; rolled, with loop out for carrying. 

A.42091. Root of Morinda citrifolia (Plate xi, i\g. k). A powdered root 
used to clean aprons and dillybags, dried in sun and rubbed off again; leaves 
a yellow stain used for colouring, if desired, as above. 

A.42097. Woman's Utility Pad and String (Plate xi, iig. q). Wikmurjkan 
name muda me:'a. It is a strip of ti-tree bark (Melaleuca leucadendron) used 
as a pad during menstruation; passed between legs and fastened at waist both 
back and front by folding ends under waist-string; carefully burned and buried 
after use. 

30 Records of the S.A. Museum 

A.42098. Bark Torch (Plate xi, fig. r). Bark is of Melaleuca leucadendron 
(kihja tumpa); rolled into longish bundle and tied round with strands of the 
bark. It is used as a flare at night, e.g., finding one's way around the camp, 
attracting prawns, or when fishing for bony-bream from canoe at night time, etc. 

A.42099. Bark Bundle (Plate xi, fig. s). It is tied round with twine and 
used to carry spear-barbs, clays, etc. 

A.42134. Bark Head Protector (Plate xv, fig. d). Bark twisted into pad 
for wearing on top of head to distribute weight and lessen strain in carrying 
loads; used by women. 

A.42145. Dilly-Bag (Plate xiii, fig. h). Wikm%it]kan name, wa:r]ka 
t)a':tan. A large dilly-bag made from fig-tree fibre string (koiya t]a:tan) in 
figure-of-eight double-loop pattern and used for carrying roots of all kinds. 

A.42146. Dilly-Bag (Plate xiii, fig. c). Wikmur)kan name, wa:r\ka poda. 
String twine made from red acacia (Acacia flavescens or A. latifolia), sometimes 
alternated with white Livistona twine to give striped effect; figure-of-eight 
pattern; used for carrying heavy loads. 

A.42143. Dilly-Bag (Plate xiii, fig. f). Wikmui]kan name, wa:r\ka me:' a. 
The fine white twine is made from epidermis of leaf of Livistona australis; 
figure-of-eight pattern; sometimes alternates with Ficus or Acacia twine to 
give striped effect; used for carrying lighter loads. 

A.42144. Dilly-Bag (Plate xiii, fig. g). Wikmurikan name, waitfk omyana. 
The twine is from dark Ficus fibre in pattern used for making fish nets. 

A.42155. Fishing Net (Plate xii, fig. a). WikmUtjkm name, puntibman. 
Made from fibre of Acacia holosericea (koiya go:ka) or its equivalent; in figure- 
of-eight pattern; held at top by looped cane; usual pattern for fish nets is 
that used in dilly-bag A.42144 (waifjk omyana), i.e., fish net pattern. 

A.42148. Xerotes multiflora (sample) (Plate xiv, fig. c). Wikmurjkan 
name kampian. It is used for making grass-baskets after soaking in water to 


A.42149. Grass Basket (incomplete) (Plate xiv, fig. b). Wikmurikan 

name, kampian; in course of manufacture. 

A.42147. Grass Basket (completed) (Plate xiv, fig. a). Wikmut]kan 
name, kampian. A large open basket, handle of fibre-string overwound; some- 
times with white jabiru-down interwoven to render it soft against head or 
shoulder in carrying; used by women to carry roots, etc. 

A.42150. Grass-Basket (partial close- weave) (Plate xiv, fig. f). Native 
name, kampian. It is closely woven at base to hold meal when washing (after 
grinding) to cleanse from poisonous or indigestible substances; wad of bark 

McConnel — Native Arts and Industries 31 

Hastened to end of String handle to ease strain OD aide trf basket; handle not 

A.42151. (Jrass-Basklt (all CfaGSE w i:\vi ) (Plate xlv, Bg. fi ). Il'i-A mnqkan 
name, kampuhi. This specimen is closely woven throughout to hold moist sub 
stances, e.g., honey ; handle partially completed. 

A.42151. <;rass-Bakki:t (Plate xi\\ Rg. h). Wikhimihan name, kiimi>i<m. 
It is closely woven and coloured with white and ped tdftj"; tubular shaped; 
specially woven for carrying honey. 

A.421:>o\ Grass-Baski t (Plate xiw fig. g), iPt&nuty&M ftftfne, L'n>ni>}<in, A 
small, tubular-shaped, closely woven basket used by men lor carrying small 
treasii n.-s, e.g.. tobacco. 

A .42152. <«rass-Bakket (Plate xiv, fig. d). WikmutjkiW name, kumpiav. 
A small, tuhular-sloiped, coarsely woven basket used by men tor carrying small 
treasures, e,g, tobacco. 

A. 42140. Livtstona avstkatjs (Plate xiii, fig, b and e). A bundle of 
strands from underneath of palm leal, and twine made. from same, Wikmiu]kau 
name, koi iudii. This is raw material used for making 2-ply twine (white) from 
epidermis of under-leaf of Livhtona. 

A. 42141. Dilly-Bag (Plate xiii, fig, ft), WikmntfLav name, n-arqh iytnitpau. 
This specimen is made from white twine of IAvidoua a\islrnln in grass-basket 
chain and twist pattern (anti-clockwise), which lends itself to this pattern. 
handle of overwound type, not yet joined in centre. Positions of handles to one 
side allows bag to lie fiat, against back as it lianas from the head, and also leaves 
room for hand to pass in and out easily. 

A. -12142. Dilly-Bag (Plate xiii, fig, d). Wikmuiikan name, wa:t]k 'njnmpan. 
It has handles equidistant on sides of it. 

A.42135. SeiRi'Us littoralis (old corms ox stalk) (Plate xv, (ig. k). 
Wikmuipcan name pandyfl or max ku:fa!u. ( orms dug from edge of swamp 
by women who sit up to the shoulder in mud as they dig; (Plate iii, fig. a). Old 
corms beaten into flat cake after cooking in fire. 

A.42136. Scrum's littoralis (vounti corms on stalk) (Plate xv, fig. 1). 
W ihnmnkan name, pumlyu. (.'onus are cleaned and tied together for carrying. 
The young corms are roasted and eaten without beating first. 

A.42KV7. Dilly-Bag (Plate xv, fig. m). A dillydmg containing corms of 
S( ir])us littoralis. 

A.42JS8, Woodf.x Mallet (Plate xv, fig. n). Wikmuqkfiu name -3:1a. It 
is used for beating corms after cooking them on coals. (It is shown in use in 
Plate iv, fig. a). 

31! Records of the S.A. Museum 

A .42139. Flat Cakes of Scirpus littoralis (Plate XV, 6g. f), Tbey aro 
read; lor eating, rendered digest iblc by roasting and boating'. 

A.4212f). Dilly-Bao (sample) (Plato w, tig. a), Bag filled with shells to 

illustrate falling' open of mouth due to position of handles, which allows il tQ 
lie Mat on back; also gives easy entrance of hand when gathering- roots and mud 


A.42120-42127. Misski, Sim i. is iCkloiw cowans) (Plate xv, fig. b-c), 
WiktifcUtjIcan name, I:it:»mla. Shells dug out of the mnd of the mangrove-clad 
creek -beds by women. These mussels are eaten and sheila used for spoons, 
scrapers, etc. 

A.4212H. Bailer Shell (Melo amdhorus) ( Plate xv, fig; e) Wikmuijkun 
name, weja. This specimen is used for bailing water out of canoes and wells, 
lor drinking as a cooking' vessel, and for heating gum, etc. 

A.42130. Pearl Shell Oysters (Pinctada maroaritikkica) [Plate xv, fig. 
li. f also Text fig. of). WihmiqLirn name, afiara. They are found on Iho Qui! 
shore. The fish is used lor eating- and the shell for making necklets. 

A, 42131. Necklet made from hv<\ \ .<;klar pieces of Ptnctada margakiti- 
n<\i,\ | Plate xv, fig. o). \\'ili)\u)\knn name, afiiwa. Rectangular pieces of shell 
ground and shaped by pieces of hardwood and shell-grit and threaded on string. 

A.,42132i Spiral Smell Drill (Tpuritella cerea) (Plate xv, fig. i). 
\\ iLvutijkan name, la.-'ynfa. Tins specimen is used for drilling holes in reetnng-u- 
lar pieces of pearl shell. 

A.42133. Shell Drill (Plate xv, fig, p, also Text fig'. 3a). A stick with 
Turriff f/n shell lashed obliquely on to end — so that drilling- point is at exact 
centre of spinning 1 stick when twisted between hands as in making lire, used 
to bore holes in pearl shell for threading pieces into necklet. 

A.4211M12. Circlets (twine overwound) (Plate xvi, fig. o-p). }Yikmuii 
Lit n name, mat)h(t pi:hui (girdles). These are worn by women for special occa- 
sions around abdomen or over neck and Under arm, doubled over to required 

A.42108 and A.4215N. Circlets (twine and jahiru-dowx) (Plate 
fig. I). These are made of white fluffy jabiru-down woven into twine, folded 
to required size, worn by women around abdomen (marfka pi:Jan) or over neck 
and under' arm (manloiya hurrtyaka) on special occasions. 

Betrothal Rino (twine ovj.kwound) (Text fig\ 4a). This Specimen i- 
placed over tuft of man's hair by a. woman who promises hor daughter. 

A.421 13*114. Ql&CLETS (twine overwound) (Plate xvi, fig. q-r). Vfilmwi 

km name, munTcoiya buntyaka. These overwautfd twine circlets are made to 61 

McConnel— Native Arts and Industries 33 

over neck and under arm and worn by women, chiefly for mourning purposes 
'optional] and dances. 

A, 42107. Ni-vKhKT (widow's) (Rate xvi, ftjf, k). Wikmiujlitn name, 
vntnl-,n(in W&nlyv '■intnleniitha, i.<\, necklet of a bereaved woman. String of 
overwound twine, worn by widows round neck, fastened in front and crossed 
behind; beeswaxed ends hanging down at back; compulsory use; must be kepi 
and worn always till mourning ends. 

A.4210& \e<:klet (WIDOW'S) (Plate xvi, flg, j; also Text fig. 4d). Wik- 
inmjLun name, mmhriya Ktinfifti-uuinfifnukn. It is worn as above, beeswax ends 
are studded with scarlet Ahrus seeds with strings at one end for fastening i'or 
extra security. 

A.4210. r >, Xkokllt (ijmjysi ( [Plato xvi, 8g. i ; also Text fig. 4c). Wikmuip 
/iftit ]iamc, moiiLn'ifti irantini-ivanlaiinlu. Tliis specimen shows manner of 
attaching navel cord to pendant (beeswax ornamented with yellow orehid bark 
strips), tied round baby's neck on occasion of presentation to its father by its 
mother, navel cord must always be kept safely. String replaces navel cord m 
this specimen. 

A. 42109-110. NteRUBTa (loykk's) (Plate xvi, fig. m-n). Wikmitnkav 
name, mamijLa. These specimens are fine knotted or plain strands of striim. 
dyed j*ed, sent by woman to her lover bv ids half-sister, who arranges a meeting 
place i See also Text fig. 4b.) 

A. 42100-101. Girdles (orchid bark) (Plate xvi, fig. a-!)). Wikpwifhafl 
name. mar)ka pi-Jan. These are strips Of orchid bark (Deurfrohiuin joJiauxis) 
burned in (ire to accentuate yellow colouring; woven or plaited bv women into 
a Hat baud on twine base; worn by women around abdomen on special occasions 
or as crossovers; sometimes worn in shorter lengths round head, arm or leg by 

A. 42102-1011 Girdles, (grass bugle) (Plate xvi, fig. c-d). Wiktiiunkan 
name. matfko pi:Um mankiiya buntyakn, They have hollow sterns of grass of 
various sizes strung on twine; made in single, double, or multiple strands; 
fastened by strings at both ends or a loop at one end and strings at other; or by 
tying string into doubled over girdles; worn by women on special occasions 
around abdomen (mai)ka pi-Jan) or over neck and under arm ( tnankuiya pwn- 
tijdkti) in short lengths or folded. 

A.4210H. nA'idow's Stklxg (Grass bugle) (Plate xvi, fig. d). This speci- 
men is worn hanging down the back from head for mourning. 

A. 42104. Necklet (grass bugle) (Plate xvi, fig. e), Wikmnqkan name 
mankoiyu. This is similar to the above specimen and is worn around neck by 

34 Records of the S.A. Museum 

A.4211. r >. Nkcklrt (nautilus) (Plate xvi, fig. s). Wikmu^kan name, 
i<-(t;iaLu:i>«. Pierced fectangular pieces rff pearly shell (Nautilus pompilius) 

threaded on String, twisted so as to show pearly flat, side of shell: worn as head 
Kaild or necklet l>y men and women; usually by women tor mourning da ores. 

A.42117. Necklet (sijkld (Plate xvi, fig. y). Wibmuqkm name, 
inhnavyn. A necklet m;ide oi' small sliells (OHva ispi(hiJfi) used by 10. coa»1 
IribeSj sometimes used m Gull" area as necklets, or cross-over and under arm, or 
;j round abdomen. 

A.42121. Abkcs PRSTGATORItra (sample) (Plate xvi, fig* g). These seed- 
are used for deeoration purposes, e .-., on tiresfiek sheaths and spear-throwers; 
nowadays are threaded to make necklets, etc.. while green, using needle and 

fill loll 

A.42I22. Officii (Abrus) (Plate xvi, fig. f). Seeds of AbfUS irrrnttoriits 
threaded when soft on cotton with needle This String is popular lor use on 
Ceremonial occasions; worn by women over neck and under arm or as necklets; 
probably a modem adaptation of an old use of decorative seed, due to introduc- 
tion ol' needle-and-cotton, 

A. 421 lb. Headband ( opossc m 's fur \\:n twin^r) (Plate xvi, (tg. x). \ 

worn specimen of man's headband made of Iwine with opossum fur interwoven. 

V. 42120. Neckband or Collar (Plate xvi, fig. li). Lt is made of pliable 

wood bent in a. circle, covered with beeswax and studded with Abrttx seeds. It 

is said to be worn by men; a unique specimen; not indigenous to (iulf areas. 

A.4211S-1)!). Armlets (panoaxus) (Plate xvi. fig. t-u). Wikmvi]L<ni 
name, feaJtfia huvl<iki(. These armlets are made of slips oi pandanus palm leaf 
(kvvtiiun), sewn together at ends by passing stripped ends of leaf through 
other cod oi" band and knotting. They are worn chiefly by men for the dance. 

A.42123. Message Stick (Plate xvi, fig. v). Wifawit&fkan name. >,\>i:hu. 
Tic message is indicated by ineisions on stick; telling recipient to come up 
Archer River and bring his wife; division into two parts— smaller part denotes 

A. 42124. Messuje Stick (Pbrte xvi, lie w'j. Wikmurfkan name, madid, 
The incisions indicate how many sticks of tobaceo recipient is asked to deliver- 
to owner of message stick. 

A. 42074. Bullkoarer (Plate xvii, %. b). Wikrmrt]kan name, moixja. This 
specimen represents youim girl entering puberty (kzman many&) r small leat- 
liKe Hat smooth wooden object, fastened to string tor swinging. It is swung by 

initiates at end of first part of initiation (V:la<n\uv\) ceremony. Vide Oceania, 
vol. vi. No. 1, pp. 68-93; plate 2 (A and P). p. 68; V)\ 76-83. 

McConnel — Native Arts and Industries 35 

A.42073. Bullroarer (Plate xvii, fig-, c). Wikmut]kan name, pahapaka. 
A similar object, larger and heavier, painted red and white, represents 
fully-matured girl (koman); swung by initiates at end of Udyanam ceremony. 
Vide Oceania, vol. vi, p. 68, plate 2, and pp. 76-83. 

A.42075. Bullroarer (female) (Plate xvii, fig. d). Wihmurjhan name, 
moipaka. This specimen is similar to above specimen but is larger, red with 
white splotches. It represents a married woman (wantya pi: 1 an), who has as 
yet no child; swung by fully-grown man (mantaiyan) to awaken interest of 
ivantya pi:'an. Vide Oceania, vol. vi, p. 69 (3-4), also pp. 89-92. 

A.42072. Bullroarer (male) (Plate xvii, fig. a). Wikmwqkan name, 
moipaka. A phallic-shaped specimen; represents husband of above. Vide 
Oceania, vol. vi, p. 69 (3-4) and pp. 89-92. 

Bullroarer (female). It is striped red and white, similar to above 
(female), and represents married woman w T ith child; swung at childbirth drama. 
Vide Oceania, vol. vi, plate III B. 

A.42077. Figurine (Plate xvii, fig. f). A wax-modelled figure of newly- 
born baby (male), complete in all essentials. Penis and pubic hair are well 
shown. This specimen is used in myth and drama of creation of first child; 
shown (Plate v, fig. f) lying on abdomen of man (representing a woman). 
Vide Oceania, vol. vi, No. 1, p. 92, Plate III A. 

A.42076. Phallus (wooden) (Plate xvii, fig. e). It is painted red and 
white and used (Plate v, fig. d) in creation ritual of bony -bream pulwaiya 
Wolkolan (Wikmurjkan tribe, Archer River). Vide Oceania, vol. vi, No. 1, p. 93, 
Plate I; also pp. 66-68. 

A.42078-79. Phallic Symbols (Plate xvii, fig', g-h). These symbols are 
made of painted strips of pandanus palm bark strung together; worn suspended 
from the waist, Part of Wikkalkan drama of the Two Cockatoos and the 
moipaka. Vide Oceania, vol. vi, No. 1, pp. 84-89. 

A.42080. Symbolic Fish (Plate xvii, fig. i). This specimen is made of a 
wad of ti-tree bark to represent a fish; held in mouth of man (Plate vi, fig. b) 
representing bird preying on fish on edge of water hole in drama belonging to 
that clan. 

A.42245. Firestick, Sheath. A sheath for firesticks; two hollow cane 
tubes for holding firesticks, fastened with bark strips of orchid (Dendrobium 
johannis) burnt yellow in fire; sheath held at end by knob of black beeswax 
studded with scarlet seeds of Abrus precatorius; colours of fire, black, yellow 
and red. This specimen is from Gulf of Carpentaria. 

36 Records of the S.A. Museum 

A.42244. Figured Base and Firesticks (2). They have a flat base carved 
and coloured; represents woman's figure, into eyes of which firesticks are bored 
to produce fire; from Cairns-Port Douglas area, N.Q. 

A.42243. Figured Base and Firesticks. The sticks are fastened to base 
for carrying; from Cairns-Port Douglas area, N.Q. 

A.42246. Firesticks (2) and Tinder. The flattened base is said to be 
female into which the rounded stick, said to be male, is bored to make lire. 
From California, U.S.A., Karuk Indians, Klamath River. 


A.42201. Fighting Shield. This specimen has boomerang design, comes 
from the Giimdnni tribe of Mitchell River, N.Q. Published in "Art in Austra- 
lia," May, 1935, p. 57, fig. 1. 

A.42202. Fighting Shield. Mopoke design from Gumdnni tribe of 
Mitchell River, N.Q. Published in "Art in Australia," May, 1935, p. 57, % 2. 

A.42203. Fighting Shield. Initiation markings, Gumdnni tribe, Mitchell 
River, N.Q. Published in "Art in Australia," May, 1935, p. 57, fig. 3. 

A.42204. Fighting Shield. Boomerang design, from Gutndnni tribe, 
Mitchell River, N.Q. Published in "Art in Australia," May, 1935, p. 57, fig. 4. 

A.42205. Small Ceremonial Shield (bi:go:r7i gidgar). Ink fish (dyu:- 
dugan) design, Kurjgdmdyi (often Kuiigdndyi) tribe, Yarrabah, Cairns, N.Q. 
Mira Kaibara ground, Fitzroy Island. "Art in Australia," p. 58, fig. 1. 

A.42206. Small Ceremonial Shield (bi :go :rn gidgar). Boomerang (ivatjal) 
design, from Yiddindyi tribe, Mira Gu:dyut] (near Reeve Creek) ground. 
Published in "Art in Australia," p. 58, fig. 2. 

A.42207. Small Ceremonial Shield (bi:go:rn gidgar). Tree grub (min- 
deri) design, Yiddindyi tribe, Mira Gu:dyur\ (near Reeve Creek). Published 
in "Art in Australia," p. 58, fig. 3. 

A.42208. Small Ceremonial Shield (bi:go:m gidgar). Leaves of scrub 
tree bearing edible fruit (bi:win), from Kut]gd:ndyi tribe, Mira Kaibara (Fitz- 
roy Island). Published in "Art in Australia," p. 58, fig. 4. 

A.42209. Large Fighting Shield (bi:go:rn). Turtle (birikala) design, 
Yiddindyi tribe, Mira Baki. Published in "Art in Australia," p. 59, fig. 1. 

A.42210. Large Fighting Shield (bi:go:rn). Scorpion (dumbun) design, 
Yiddindyi tribe, Mira Baki ground. Published in "Art in Australia," p. 59, 

fig. 2. 

A.42211. Large Fighting Shield (bi:go:rn). Matchbox bean pod 
(dyurjai) design, Kurjgdmdyi tribe, Mira Wungida ground. Published in "Art 
in Australia," p. 59, fig. 3. 

McConnel— Native Arts and Industries 37 

A.42212. Large Fighting Shield (biigoirn). Drops of blood and scratches 
(gunaugu) design, scratches made on nose and drops of blood thus obtained 
and used as an adhesive in decoration during ceremonies; Yiddindyi tribe, 
Mira Baki ground. Published in "Art in Australia," p. 59, fig. 4. 

A.42213. Small Ceremonial Shield (bi:go:m gidyar). Scorpion (dum- 
Imn) design, Yiddindyi tribe from Yarrabah, Cairns, N.Q. Mira IJumlnmdyi 
ground. Published in ' ' Art in Australia, ' ' p. 60, fig. 1. 

A.42214. Small Ceremonial Shield (bi:go:rn gidyar). Salmon (kuiman) 
design, Kurfgdmdyi tribe, Yarrabah, Cairns, N.Q., Mira Wungula (mission site) 
ground. Published in "Art in Australia," p. 60, fig. 2. 

A.42215. Small Ceremonial Sword (ba:go:r gidyar). Salmon (kuiman) 
design, Kurfgdmdyi tribe, Yarrabah, Cairns, N.Q., Mira Wungula (mission site) 
ground. Published in "Art in Australia," p. 60, fig. 3. 

A.42216. Small Ceremonial Shield (bi:go:rn gidyar). Leaves of tree 
used in making boomerang (dydra dyira), Kurfgdmdyi tribe, Yarrabah, Cairns, 
N.Q. Published in "Art in Australia," p. 60, fig. 4; cf. also p. 62 VI 

A.42217. Small Ceremonial Shield (bi:go:rn gidyar). Tomahawk (kdl- 
bun) design, Kurfgdmdyi tribe, Yarrabah, Cairns, N.Q., Mira Ka:bara ground. 
"Art in Australia," p. 61, fig. 1. 

A.42218. Small Ceremonial Shield (bi:go:rn gidyar). Bark water bag 
(dogobil) design, Yiddindyi tribe, Yarrabah, Cairns, N.Q., Mira IJumbundyi. 
"Art in Australia," p. 61, fig. 2. 

A.42219. Small Ceremonial Shield (bi:gi:rn gidyar). Starfish (dydra 
madyai) design, Kurfgdmdyi tribe, Yarrabah, Cairns, N.Q., Mira Kaibara 
ground. "Art in Australia," p. 61, fig. 4. 

A.42220. Small Ceremonial Shield (bi:go:rn gidyar). Nettle-sting curing 
plant (ka:ndo:r) f Kurfgdmdyi tribe, Yarrabah, Cairns, N.Q., Mira Baki ground. 
"Art in Australia," p. 61, fig. 5. 

A.42221. Ceremonial Paddle (milgara) used in paddle dance. Crocodile 
(kanyara) design, Kurfgdmdyi tribe, Yarrabah. Cairns, N.Q., Mira Baki ground. 
"Art in Australia," p. 62, plate i, Hg. 1. 

A.42222. Ceremonial Paddle (milgara) used in paddle dance. Sawshark 
(dydgara) design, Kurfgdmdyi tribe, Yarrabah, Cairns, N.Q., Mira Baki ground. 
"Art in Australia," p. 62, fig. 2. 

A.42223. Ceremonial Paddle (milgara) used in paddle dance. Nettle-sting 
curing plant (ka:nd^:r), Kurfgdmdyi tribe, Yarrabah, Cairns, N.Q., Mira Baki 
ground. "Art in Australia," p. 62, fig. 3. 

38 Records of the S.A. Museum 

A.42224. Ceremonial Paddle (milgara) used in paddle dance. Rainbow- 
serpent (kudyu kudyu) design, Kur)gd:ndyi tribe, Yarrabah, Cairns, N.Q., Mira 
Baki ground. "Art in Australia," p. 62, fig. 4. 

A.42225. Ceremonial Paddle (milgara) used in paddle dance. Lawyer 
cane ( design, Kurjgd:ndyi tribe, Yarrabah, Cairns, N.Q., Mira Baki 
ground. "Art in Australia," p. 62, fig. 5. 

A.42226. Ceremonial Pole (worripa gidyar). Rainbow-serpent (kndiju 
kudyu) design, Kut]gd:ndyi tribe, Yarrabah, Cairns, N.Q. "Art in Australia," 
p. 62, plate ii, fig. 1. 

A.42227. Ceremonial Sword (ba:go:r gidyar). Rainbow-serpent (kudyu 
kudyu) design, Kurjgd:ndyi tribe, Yarrabah, Cairns, N.Q. "Art in Australia," 
p. 62, plate ii, fig. 2. 

A.42228. Ceremonial Paddle (milgara gidyar). Rainbow-serpent (kudyu 
kudyu) design, Kurjgdmdyi tribe, Yarrabah, Cairns, N.Q. "Art in Australia," 
p. 62, plate ii, fig. 3. 

A.42229. Ceremonial Cross— Boomerang or Twirler (yintyo.-r gidyar), 
spun between hands in whirlwind dance. Scorpion (dumbun) design, Yiddt7idyi 
tribe, Yarrabah, Cairns, N.Q., Mira IJumbundyi ground. "Art in Australia," 
p. 62, plate vi (first step). 

A.42230. Ceremonial Cross — Boomerang or Twirler (yintyo-.r gidyar), 
spun between hands in whirlwind dance. Comet (dyiri.-bara) design, Kurj- 
gd:ndyi tribe, Yarrabah, Cairns, N.Q., Mira Kaibara ground. "Art in Aus- 
tralia," p. 62, plate vi (second step). 

A.42231. Ceremonial Cross — Boomerang or Twirler (yintyo.-r gidyar), 
spun between hands in whirlwind dance. Star (kauivai) design, Kurjgd.-ndyi 
tribe, Yarrabah, Cairns, N.Q. "Art in Australia," p. 62, plate vi (second step, 

A.42232. Ceremonial Cross — Boomerang or Twirler (yintyo-.r gidyar), 
spun between hands in whirlwind dance. Kingfish (tydla-.da) design, Kurj- 
gamdyi tribe, Yarrabah, Cairns, N.Q., Mira Wungula ground. "Art in Austra- 
lia," p. 62, plate vi (third step). 

A.42233. Ceremonial Cross — Boomerang or Twirler (yintyo.-r gidyar), 
spun between hands in whirlwind dance. Bark water bag (dogobil) design, 
Kwqgd-.ndyi tribe, Yarrabah, Cairns, N.Q. "Art in Australia," p. 62, plate vi 
(fourth step). 

A.42234. Ceremonial Cross — Boomerang or Twirler (yintyo:r gidyar), 
spun between hands in whirlwind dance. Matchbox bean pod (dyurjai) design, 
Kwqgd.-ndyi tribe, Yarrabah, Cairns, N.Q. "Art in Australia, p. 62, plate vi 
(fourth step). 

A.42235. Ceremonial Cross — Boomerang or Twirler (yintyo-.r gidyar), 
spun between hands in whirlwind dance. Salmon backbone (kuiman) design, 

McConnel — Native Arts and Industries 39 

KuY]g'd:ndyi tribe, Yarrabah, Cairns, N.Q. "Art in Australia," p. 62, plate vj 
(fourth step). 

A.4223G. Ceremonial Cross — Boomerang or Twirler (yintyorr gidyar), 
spun between hands in whirlwind dance. Sawfish (dydgara) design, Kurjgdmdyi 
tribe, Yarrabah, Cairns, N.Q., Mira Baki ground. "Art in Australia," p. 62, 
plate vi (fifth step). 

A.42237. Ceremonial Cross — Boomerang or Twirler (yintyo:r gidyar), 
spun between hands in whirlwind danee. Edible palm leaf and fruit (dyaiyo:r) 
design, Kurjgdmdyi tribe, Yarrabah, Cairns, N.Q. "Art in Australia," p. 62, 
plate vi (fifth step). 

A.42238. Boomerang. Plain stick with lighting attachment, used to amuse 
children by spinning at night-time. 

A.42239. Ceremonial Sword (ba:go:r gidyar). Scorpion (dumbun) 
design, Yiddindyi tribe, Cairns, N.Q., Mira IJumbundji ground. "Art in 
Australia, ' ' p. 67, plate iii, fig. 2. 

A.42240. Ceremonial Boomerang. Scorpion (dumbun) design, Yiddindyi 
tribe, Cairns, N.Q., Mira IJumbundji ground. "Art in Australia," p. 67, plate 
iii, fig. 3. 

A.42241. Ceremonial Spearthrower (milai). Scorpion (dumbun) design, 
Yiddindyi tribe, Cairns, N.Q., Mira IJumbundji ground. "Art in Australia," 
p. 67, plate iii, fig. 4. 

A.42242. Old Fighting Sword (ba:gz:r). Found by early settlers on 
Daintree River by the late Mr. Osborn, senior. "Art in Australia," p. 68, 
plate v, fig. 2. 

A.42249. Pair of Tapping Sticks, used to keep time in dances. Kurj- 
gdmdyi tribe, Cairns area, N.Q. 

(at present on loan to Sydney University). 

One Fish Hook from Cairns area. 

Axe. It is a large, unpolished and rehafted axe from the Cairns area and 
found by early settlers in Douglas Creek; smoothed by action of water. Rehafted 
by man of this area in old style with lawyer-cane and beeswax. 

Axe. A small, polished and rehafted specimen from the Cairns area. The 
stone is not indigenous; axe picked up on beach; said to be a child's axe. 

Axe. Unhafted specimen from Daintree River, N.Q. 

Axe. Unhafted specimen from Upper Brisbane River, found by the late 
W. A. Munro on Braemar farm, Toogoolawah. 

40 Records of the S.A. Museum 

One Grinding Stone and Grinder. This specimen was found by the late 
W« A. Munro on Braemar farm, Upper Brisbane River, and is of a type used 
for grinding Moreton Bay chestnuts into flour. 

One Coup de Poing. This specimen is Mousterian and from Dordogne 
River, France. Dug out of rock shelter by U. H. McConnel when working with 
American School of Prehistory. 

Spear Head. This specimen is made from glass insulator; found in Central 
Australia and presented to U. H. McConnel by a Central Australian resident. 

Shields. Four shields from Mitchell River, figured in "Art in Australia," 
plate i, fig. 1-4. (A.42201-42204.) The others listed above have not as yet 
been allotted South Australian Museum numbers. 


Haddon, A. C. (1912) : Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition 

to Torres Straits. 
Haddon, A. C, and Hornell, J. (1937). Canoes of Oceania. Bernice P. Bishop 

Museum, Honolulu. Special publication No. 28. 
Hale, H. M., and Tindale, N. B. (1933) : Rec. S. Aust. Mus., Adelaide, v, pp. 

63-172, maps and figures. 
Harris, R. H. (1912) : Mem. Qu. Mus., Brisbane, i, pp. 1-22. 
McConnel, U. H. (1932) : Oceania, Sydney, ii, pp. 292-295. 
McConnel, U. H. (1935) (1) : Art in Australia, Sydney, 3rd series, No. 59, 

pp. 49-68. 
McConnel, U. H. (1935) (2) : Oceania, Sydney, vi, pp. 66-93. 
McConnel, U. H. (1936) : Oceania, Sydney, vii, pp. 69-105. 
McConnel, U. H. (1937) ; Oceania, Sydney, vii, pp. 346-371. 
McConnel, U. H. (1945) : Oceania, Sydney, xv, pp. 353-375. 
Roth, W. E. (1901) : North Queensland Ethnography Bulletin, i, Brisbane. 
Roth, W. E. (1907) : Rec. Aust. Mus., Sydney, vi, pp. 365-403. 
Roth, W. E. (1909) .• I.e. vii, pp. 166-185. 
Roth, AV. E. (1910) : I.e. viii, pp. 20-54. 
Thomson, D. F. (1933) : Journ. Roy. xinthrop. Inst., London, lxiii, pp. 453-537, 

map and figures. 
Thomson, D. F. (1934) ; I.e. lxiv, pp. 217-235, 237-262, and figures. 
Tindale, N. B. (1940) : Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., Adelaide, lxiv, pp. 140-231, 

Wilkin, A., and Haddon, A. C. (1912) : Reports of the Cambridge Anthropo- 
logical Expedition to Torres Straits, iv, pp. 94-107. 

McConnel — Native Arts and Industries 41 

explanation of plates. 

Plate i, a-d. 

a. Archer River family; note the artificially distended ear lobe for wearing ear ornament. 

b. Sewing the prow of an Archer River bark canoe with cane and wallaby bone stiletto; 
sheet of bark is folded in two and held by stakes. 

c. Archer River woman in a bark canoe with dog and her husband's spears, paddling along 
the mangroves. 

d. Kendall River man paddling a sewn-bark canoe, using mangrove wood paddle. 

Plate ii, a-d. 

a. Old woman returning to camp, yamstick in hand; on her head is a dilly-bag full of 
corms, topped by a bundle of firewood. 

b. Old man repairing a spear point by using a palette to smooth on it hot gum while moulding 
the join. 

c. Boy with play spears of bamboo, and small girl with abdominal string. 

d. Women coming up out of lagoon with dilly-bags full of water-lily seed-pods on their heads. 
Note habitually worn abdominal strings. 

Plate iii, a-d. 

a. Women digging with their hands for Scirpus conns in mud of a swamp near Kendall River. 

b. Women gathering water-lily (Nymphaea) seed-pods in a lagoon near the Holroyd River. 

c-d. Women camped in sandy river bed of the Holroyd making " grass " baskets of Xerotes 

Plate iv, a-d. 

a. Woman roasting rush-corms on a fire; another using a mallet to soften when roasted. 

b. Mother with new-born babe, still in seclusion, attended by other women ; note dilly-bag 
of roots on stick, feather fan, and shell dish with water. 

c. Woman netting a string bag; note string tied around deformed leg, also about wrist, 
to induce strength. 

d. Mother and old woman attendant in a secluded spot with new-born baby in a bark cradle. 

Plate v, a-f. 

a. Drama of the first birth; man swinging the female moipaka or bullroarer. 

b. The oyster pulwaiya goes down into his auwa, after being speared by a shark; he is 
attended by his younger brother, who catches lice in his hair; the elder brother is 
gradually assuming the sessile position of the oyster. 

c. Archer River drama of the first death. 

d. Increase ritual of bony-bream; this fish pulwaiya stands, riddled with the spears of 
his slayers, while a suppliant fans him and manipulates a wooden phallus. 

e. Wax figurine of first man child lying on abdomen of first mother; the clasped hands 
symbolize continuity through birth. 

f. Bird pulwaiya on edge of waterhole, with a fish (of bark) in its mouth; see also Plate vi, 
fig. b. 

42 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Plate vi, a-f . 

a. Dramatic representation of oyster pulwaiya; the performer has his nose flattened by 
tying; the face is covered with white ash pigment and the mouth propped open with a 
stick to represent the oyster shell opened for eating. 

b. Man representing bird pulwaiya holding a fish (of bark) in his mouth. 

c. Mbu: the ghost, haunting the camp after death; body tied to pole for mummification. 

d. Women painting their bodies with clay for a mourning dance. 

e. Mbu: the ghost, representing the first corpse to be mummified, tied up in bark and 
supported on forked sticks. 

f. Tyi:t, the hawk, his brother, making a mourning dance for Mbu:, the ghost, during the 
first inauguration of funeral rites. 

Plates vii-xvii. 

Ethnographic objects from Kendall, Holroyd and Archer River areas. For descriptions see 
text at pages 23 ct seq. 

Kl< . Sw\. V i s|. r.\j 

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Kir. S. A. Mlski'm 




byNormanB. Tindale, B.Sc, South Australian Museum 


Two new races of Heteronympha banksii, H. b. nevina from Mt. Rosea, Western Victoria, and H. b. 

mariposa from the Macpherson Range, South Queensland, are described, also a new race of H. 

solandri, H. s. angela from Mt. Rosea. 

Pseudalmenus chlorinda fisheri is described as new from Mt. Victory - the first record of a form of 

this Tasmanian and Eastern mountain species in Western Victoria. 

Hesperilla crypsargyra lesouefi is also described as new from Mt. William. Several life histories and 

locality records are given, together with a list of 39 species taken in the vicinity of the Grampians. 

The sword grass Gahnia microstachya Bentham, foodplant of Hesperilla crypsargyra, and a grass 

(Tetrarrhena acuminata R. Brown) are recorded for the first time from Western Victoria and the 


The significance is discussed of the presence of these newly recorded species in terms of climate 

and geographical distribution. 


By NORMAN B. TINDALE, B.Sc, South Australian Museum. 
Plates xviii-xxi and text fig. 1-4. 


Two new races of Hclcnmympha, II. h. ntvina frmn Alt, Rosea, Western 
Victoria* and //. b. mariposa from the Macpherson Range, South Queensland, 
are described, also a new race of II . solaruiri II. s. auycUt from Bit Rosea. 

Pscudalmenus chlorinda jisheri is described as new from .Alt. Victory — the 
lirst record of a form of this Tasmanian and Eastern mountain species in 
Western Victoria. 

Ilcspcrilfa crijpsaryyra le&QUefi is also described as new from Bit. William. 

Several life histories and locality records are given, together with a list 
of 39 species taken in the \ieinity of the Grampians. 

The. sword grass Gahniu microstachya Bent-ham. foodplant. of Hcsperilla 
crypsargyra, and a grass {Titrarrhcna acuminata R. Brown) are recorded for 
the first time from Western Victoria and the Grampians. 

The significance is discussed of the presence of these newly recorded species 
in terms of climate and geographical distribution. 


Messrs. B. B. Given, J. (J. LeSouef and the writer spent from 8-1!) I h 
November, 1950, collecting in the Grampians and vicinity. The author again 
collected in the Grampians from 24-oOth November, 1951, with Messrs. R. H> 
Fisher and .1. G. LcSouef; Fisher and he also visited the Little Desert and 
Kiata. A third visit was made to the Grampians, with A. J. Tindale, from 
25.28th December, 1951. The subalpine summit plateau of Mt. William (3,829 
ft.) was collected over on loth and 27th November and 27th December; owing 
to bad weather none of the visits to the summit proved to be productive. In 
-eneral the 1951 season was poor, possibly a result of the unprecedented 
heat of the previous summer. 

These visits to the Grampians area have yielded several new records as 
well as live new forms. Of these Heteronympha peuelopc maraia Tindale ( 1952) 
is described elsewhere, the Others are presented herein. 

44 RECORDS of the S.A. Musuum 

Hktekony.mpha iunkhii baxksii (Leach ) 1814, 

Plate xviii, fig. e-d; plate xL\, fig. h. 

Ilipparchia banksii Leach, 1814, i, p. 28, pi. 10, fig 1 . 1-2. 

/It 1 1 ' tvnympha ujjinis Lucas, 1890, p. 1,065. 

Hetcrouympha hanksi Waterhouse and Lyell, 1914, p. 38, fig. 103-105. 

In the original account, this species was indicated only as from New 
Holland. " The early nineteenth century date implies that the first Specjuaiffi3 
must have been taken in New South Wales, either in the general virion 
Sydney, or along the eastern coast. At that time other places where the »pecd& 
is known to occur bad not been visited by Europeans. Therefore 1 nominate 
as the typical race that from the Sydney district. The male example figured 
herein is from Clifton, and the female from Kosevillc; both are place-, in Hie 
Sydney area. These may be regarded as topotypical. A pair depicted by Water 
house and Lyell (1914, fig. 103405) were from Waudin, Eastern Victoria. Tta 
appear to belong to the same race as Sydney examples. Lucas described vei v 
similar examples from Gippsland as II. afpnis. His type pair arc in the South 
Australian Museum (registered No. 1. 1486(3). They are closely similar to 
Sydney examples, and it is unlikely they ever could be regarded as belonging 
to a separate race, [f required the name affinis is available. It is possible I/ltcaS 
when he described //. afjinis did not have any authentically identified spe. -inn m 
of II hanhsii for comi)arison; his remark that typical H< hmksii llftd ten 
orange spots on the forcwing seems hard to reconcile with any examples of the 

II. h. hanhsii flies in February, .March and April, being distributed Oil tfati 
Eastern Coast from Manning River, Central New South Wales, southward to 
Loch, Trafalgar and Wand in in Eastern Victoria. It is everywhere rare near 
the coast, becoming more common in the Blue Mountains and on the uplands of 
Eastern Victoria, at elevations of from one to three thousand feet, 


Plate xviii, rig. a-b, g; plate xix, fig. g, and text fig. 1. 

Mate* Wings above black with orange markings, also dull brown markings 
and suffusions near bases of both wings but not extending to tornus of hind- 
wing; wing patterns generally as in the race //. h. hanhsii but with basal 
orange, areas of hindwing large and separated from distal series only by a 
relatively narrow zig-zag intervening portion of black ground-colour; tornal 

Tindale— New Rhopaeocera rr<OM Western Victoria 45 

area orange, Itflt uniformly suffused with brown as In other races; a single 

pot nn IliftdWmg similar in size to that in 77. h, hanhsii bur. with outer brown 
rim> less developed. Winus below generally as in //. i>. hanlsii but apex of 
forewine; w r itb a sub costal dark brown patch more conspicuously developed; 
i>;is,il half ot bindwbg of a bright yellowish opatigc tiUfi Scarcely darker than 
basal-third ol* forewine.; the outer suffused chocolate areas on hindwimj; have a 
rather conspicuous dark patdj in the outer third. Whig length 27 mm., expanse 
57 nun. 

Female. flplouT au<l markinos al)0?e somewhat as in male bill orange spots 
larger and separated tfltfy by narrow black interspaces; basal Orange areas of 
l"ie « < » 1 4 J lundwniLis vffv ham-; a small spot near termeu ol* foivwnm white, 
instead of orange, as iu male. PorewiJig beneath With basal areas orange, but 
distal spots vellow and surrounded with black, except near apex, where there 
is a chocolate-brown patch, ;md below if a small white spot. The hindwings 
have the basal hall' fawn vvilli fine rich brown markings, the distal half Is 
broadly blotched with I he same brown colour, with a more smoky area midway 
between the eve spots Wine' length 2&B mm., expanse 50 mm. 

Lot'. Western Victoria \ Alt. Rosea at 1,001) ft. < Holotype, a male, 28th 
January, l!)52, and allotype female, 13th February. 1052, ami paratype male, 
registered \"o, 1, WON!) in South Austrrdian Museum, collceted and presented 
I.; B, II Fisher and the author; a paratype pair in ihe collection of R II. 
Fisher), Three males and two females examined. 

Members ol this race differ from II. h. banksii in colour and markings, Iu 
particular the basal orange areas of the hind wing above are much larger. 
enio-oaelunii on the dark area separating the basal and distal series of orange 
spots ami reducing it to about one-half the width found in // it. banksii. The 
darker In-own areas of Intern inus beneath are much less evident and the basal 
hall' is of an orange to yellow colour little darker than on forewing, Ef only 
females of the two races had been known they would be considered separate 
species for the differences between them are marked, Fxamination of males 
suggests a closer relat ionship and they fcatl only be regarded as very distinct 
races of one species. 

The «h scribed examples were bred from larvae taken in late November, 
1951. The male pupated UOth December., emerged 28th January. The female 
pupated 20th January, emerged loth February. The larvae were discovered 

Feeding at night on native tussoek grasses (Poa caespito&a Forster and Pna 
CiteHpito&a ■.mi tenerd Benthfiltt) .-it an elevation of u. Several larvae 
occurred also at a site at 2.000 ft. elevation in ciose proximity to larvae of 
//. sulaiidrL anr/rht and from these one was reared. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

AVhere present the ferv^e were not uncommon, it being estimated that like 
the //. solmdri larvae referred lo in later paragraphs a larva was to be found 
for each thirty tussocks or so of the food plants examined. However, the habitat 
is a very restricted one, the larvae occurrinc; only where the grass is sheltered 
I'i-oMi direct sun. Even a few yards away, where conditions of less adequate 
shelter prevail, larvae could nol be found. Two larvae may be present on 
the one grass tuft, unlike //. penetope, which seems always to he solitary in ifta 




Fig. 1. a-c, IJr/rrn,)umpha hantaii runivna. Mt, Eoaeaj 2 t 0D0 ft.: :u adult larvu, length 
*jj mm.; h, fact-, diameter 2*8 ram.; i-, pupa, length 12 nun. 

Larva, The adult larva (text fig, lain is 23i-25 mm. in length, shai»reened, 
pale buff in colour, with longitudinal striae, the head dark brown with cre.-mi 
stripes. The sides of the abdomen are brown ami a dark spot is present on each 
of the prokgS, the tip of the abdomen is bifurcate. The head, viewed from in 
front, bears large laterally placed, somewhat rounded projections covered with 
relatively larire pustuledike elevations which extend over much of the face; 
some are dark brown and others pale cream, forming two stripes on each side 
of face, also a lateral stripe. There are three pustular elevations 00 each side, 
larger than t lie rest, and pale cream in colour. 

Tindat.e— New Rhopalocera from Western Victoria 

Larvae feecl after about 9 p.m. WltWl mature they remain dormant fbl 
lip to nine days restlflg on a pad of silk; they then suspend themseh <•-,. main 
taining a Hexed position, head down, for from 10 to 28 hours before the pupa) 
'vdysis takes place. 

Plipa Btfght grass green or dull ))urplish-hro\vn suspended by eremaster 
(text fig. le) Length 12 mm., diameter 6 mm. There are four, sometimes live 
pairs of rounded processes on the abdomen. The pupation period ranued from 
20-32 days. On occasion the butterfly emerges from the pupa during the 
hour of midnight and is then fully developed long before dawn. 


Plate xviii, fig, e-f, and plale xix, fig, f. 

Male. Wings above black with orange markings, a broad pale brown suffu- 
sion over basal part of each wing extending to tornus of hindwing; orange 
markings ot brewings as jn .//. h. hauksu: basal orange patches of hindwing 
large but well separated from distal ones; ocellus large with large black inner 
ring, but. outer brown ring less conspicuous than in the above mentioned form. 
Hindwing below with chocolate. brown markings extending over whole ot win", 

an opalescent purple sheen very conspicuous over the- wing, eyespois both 
large. Wing length 27 mm ., expanse 58 mm. 

Female. Wings above black with orange markings and brown basal suffu- 
sion similar to the male; sex seales absent from hind margin of cell of forewing 
and the posterior subapieal spot white instead of orange. The eye spot on hind- 
wing above, and both of those present below are large. The 'hu.olatc brown 
markings extend to base of hindwing but the Opalescent sheen appears far paler 
there. Wing length 2f> nun., expanse 56 mm. 

Lftr. Queensland: McPherson Kange (llolotype, a Diale and allotype 
lemalr numbered I. 19001 in South Australian Museum) taken March, 1891, 
by H. Try on. 

11. h. laariitosa differs from //. h. bunksii in the larger «'ye spots on the 
wings; the inner Black ring fe over half as big again as ha the corresponding ring 

on the two more southern tonus. Other differences lie in the larger size and 
greater diffusion of the orange markings 

The examples of this raee described wuv taken by ihe late 11. Tryon and 
given to R. Ulhlge, who in 181)8 took note of them in a published list of the 
butterflies Of the Brisbane district. They came to the South Ausmdian Museum 
along with the T. P. Lueas eulleetion, The late Dr. <■'. A. Watcrhouse. to whom 
they were shown in 1931, mentioned the locality of their taking in his bo6k 
(1032, p. 97). He had intended to collect specimens of his own and deseribe 

is Kecords of the S.A. Museum 

it. as the northern race. The finding of tire Grampians form affords a convenient 
opportunity to place it on record 

Possible limiting factors in the (list ribmion of the three races oL* If. banksii, 
as now recognised, ate their seeming requirements of cool, grossed slopes in 
Sheltered humid are&s away from the lieat of ftooji-ctay where the foodplants 
either arc perennially green or at least remain gjtitil until -January. Our efforts 
at. (breeding them show that the larva* as readily succumb to the effects of 
excessive moisture, as they arfi intolerant of dry conditions. It is probable 
that conditions suitable for the species occur at few if any places between the 
(Irampians and Eastern Victoria* 

The three races are separable, by the following key: 


1. Median black band of hin&wing above narrow nevina 

Median black band of hindwiilg above wide 2 

2. Tornal ocellus of hindwing above and below relatively small htnihsii 
Toiaial ocellus of hindwirlg above and below relatively large mariposa 

IIeterony.upha solan ma solandri YVaterhouse. 1904. 
Plate xiXj fig. a-fcr. 

Heieronyrnjriw suluntlri Waterhouse 1!H)4, p. 460, 

The type male was from Poowon^, January, 1893, and the female from 
M.t. Erica, 4,500 ft., in February, LQ0% Both localities wo in Eastern Victoria 

ThC race also has been taken on Alt. Ilotham, on Mt. St. Bernard at 5,000 ft., 
mi All. Donna Buang al 1,000 II- and 1 have it also from Tauybryn in the 
Otway Kanges. taken on 1st I'Ybruary. 1!),>:;. New Soulh Wales records are 
from Mt. Kosciusko im d near .Jenolan ( 'aves. It Hies from late December to 

In the (iianipmiM ils place is taken by a separate race, smaller in size and 
differently marked. In this western form mal< as have the orange marks generally 
reduced in size but more interconnected, while the females have the orange 
areas much extended and in consequence appear far brighter in colour. 

Heteko-N'ymj'ha solandki Angela subs]), nov. 

Plate xviii, fig. h; plate xix, fig. c-d, and text fijur. 2. 

Male. Wings above black with orange markings, generally as in //. s. 
solandri but reduced in size, some sex scales alon.<_r posterior margin of cell less 
conspicuous than in 11. s. solandri] the sub-mar-inal orange spots of hindwing 


obsolete; a diseal scries of spots parallel to tcrmeu oi' hindwin^ forming a 
continuous band, however, the third spot in the series is only fi;i)l I lit- Width 
of the others; the background GOltiW appears as a black band dividing these 
diseal s]>ots from the orange basal area. I his band is particularly narrow where 
adjacent to the first and srnmd diseal gpottfj there is an ocellus near anal an^le. 
VVlliga beneath much as in II s, :u,l(i,nin. Jiindwni^s yellow With conspicuous 

Dpaleaaenl |jtirple-browti KuDf'wstori beyond cud of r.-ii VViug kuj^tft 2tf nun., 

expanse 50 mm. 

hYmale. Markings generally R8 tW male, hut ;,e\ scales absent: orange 
patch near inner margin of fnrewinv fflrgC and connected with a basal orange 
area and. the subcostal &po1 at one-half; Uteri ia a c&uspitiuoua white spot below 
apex; I lie diseal Spots oi" hindwm^ arc continuous and the basal Orange patch 
extends almost fo inner au^le. h\.re\vni«vs below as in male; hifadvingq dull 

yellowish-br-own with a general tridcseenl appearance accentuated to a patch 

beyond end of cell. Wui^ length 50 mm., expanse 54 nun. 

Lm\ Western Victoria: Bit. Rosea, 2fitiQ It, ( Ifolotype, a male and allotype 
female, 25fh December, HJ51, collected end presented I » \ R, fl. Fisher an<l N. B. 
TimlalCi numbered 1.11)000 in South Australian Museum; a paratype pair 

2nd and L4tli January, 1052, in collation of Ft u. Fisher). Two nudes and 

two females examined. 

In typical //. n. soUtnrfri the diseal series or orange spots on hindwin^ 
is broken, whereas in both sexes of the western race the spots form a con- 
tinuous cries only divided, in the males, by faint black lines at the veins, and 
in the females appearing as u solid band The (intmpians race appears to be 
smaller than the Eastern Mountain one. 

The paratype male is similar to the. type bul BHgitly smaller; a paratype 
female has the orange markings rather larger and even more conspicuously 
connected together than in the described female specimen. The givett name was 
suggested to me by Mr. Fisher 

An example of the larva of this interest in«j; form was first encountered on 
loth November, 1050, on Ml. Rosea at 2,-000 ft., it pupated 30th December but 
the author tailed to rear it. Additional larvae, some about to pupate, were taken 
in the same an-;* the following year. They were feeding, late at flight, on 
sheltered clumps of the tussock jiiass. Poa carsjiltusa Forster, and occasionally 
also on clumps of the tenuous form of the same species, which is found in some 

Like thOBfl of //. b. nrviuK the larvae afcerfl intolerant both of dry sunny 
<Mtnlilious and excessive humidity, SO I hat iheir larval habitat is very restricted. 

Larva. Similar to that oi //. hmikm u<:rvmi in colour and markings, but 
viewed from above the dark markings on the back of the head form a conspicuous 


Recoups of the S.A. Museum 

triangle arid the texture of the body surface is finer (Text ftg. 2a). There is 
generally a pink Hush over the anterior part of the body and some traces of a 
transverse pink tone running around the middle of eaeh body segment. The 
head (Text fig, 2b) bears small lateral rounded projections. The surface, in 
common vvith the face and sides, is covered with tiny elevations, generally each 
bearing traces of a hair. Viewed from the front the head is finely sha greened, 
brown with two ill-defined pater patches. The adult larva is 2:1-25 mm. In 

Fig. 12. a-e, TTetrranymphn solanttri an<7fla. Mt. Rosea, 2,000 ft.; a, adult larva, length 
21 mm. ; b, fneo, diameter 2-8 mm.; c, pupa of female, length M mm. 

length. It may be distinguished from that of //. b. nivina by the less defined 
lateral projections on head, the finer shagreening, and the absence of the 
specialized pustular elevations present on the head in that species. 

Pupa. Green, grayish -green, or as in the example figured, dark brown, 
almost black, with paler brown Wing cases and head; there are seven rounded 
tubercles on each side of abdomen, each with the summit cream in colour. 
Length 14 mm., diameter (J mm. the pupa drawn ( Text \^. 2c), when its 
specific identification was cheeked by a partial dissection, proved to be a female. 
The pupal period is about 21 dr 

Tisdale— New Rhopalocera from Western Victoria 51 


Further series confirm the appearance of this Grampians form as reported 
iu an earlier paper (Tindale, L952). In one female specimen a hlaek bar 
breaks the normally linked orange palekes across the brewing above Inn in all 
Other characters it is like pthers of tliis nice. Air. J. \Yomersle\ has since taken 
;i -nuill foi iu at Snuggery in iMareli, 1952, thus extending the range of the 
Slpeeiea into the South-Kast ol South Australia. 

Further Observations were made in the 1951 52 season on the life history 
Of the species in the Grampians. The larvae are to be found feeding at night 
chiefly on large; tussocks of the grass Poa caespUoaa Forster. They were found 
at several places between flail (Jap and Alt. Rosea, at altitudes of from 750 to 
1,000 feet They occurred also, less commonly, on Danthonia pitosa ft. Brown 
and one larva was taken on Tin t>u<ht matratis "R. Brown. Nowhere common, 
rough counts were made indicating the finding of only one larva to each 100 
lussocks of grass searched. The larvae ;ire solitary, in no instance were two 
taken even on adjacent clumps. There is ;i prepupal resting stage of more than 
a week in which the larva stays among damp grass and leaves, no attempt is 
made by the larva to attach itself to any support and the pupa lies loose among 
debris held together with a few strands of silk on the ground. All the pupae 
seen were pale brown; a few had dark spots OH the wing cases and leg sheaths, 
The adult emerges with a sudden and very complete rupturing of its pupal 
skin and is most vigorous and active while seeking a plaee where it may rest 
and Gxpand its wings. On more than one occasion such emergences have taken 
place at night; one at 9 p.m. and another between midnight and dawn. Pupation 
periods m four different examples were 37, 41, 47 and 60 days. 

IIeteronympha cordage wiesoxi Burns 1947, 

A large newly emerged male taken at Dartmoor, Western Victoria. ISlh 
November, 1950. is the earliest seasonal ivcord for the species. 

A series of five freshly emerged males were taken in a swamp thicket 
overgrown wii.h scented Hone} Myrtle (Melaleuca sfjiffirrnsa Donn J on Button 
Grass ( ' •)// $omi hi, nil BphaeTOCe fhtilus K Brown) Hats of the Wannon Kiver 
headwaters at 1,400 ft., on 26th and 27th December, 1952. They were alighting 
COT and flying about sedges ( Can j- faSCh ultiris) overgrown with a rare species 
Of grass (Tflrarrht \nn mvnrinatu R Brown) not previously ivcorded from 
Western Victoria. 

These are the first examples of the butterfly from the Grampians. They 
leeiU •-'< m ralh to be a little larger than ones taken at the type locality near 

52 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Dartmoor, on the Lower Olenelg River, otherwise they are not to be distinguished. 
It is possible that Tettwvhefaa is the foodplant of //. cordace, since a Satyrid 
larva was taken on a Telrarrhma grass similar to it, at Dartmoor, in November, 
I950J but was not reared. 

PsKUDALMENi's chlorinda ( Blanchard ) 1848. 

Tlncla chlorinda Blanchard 184*, pi, 3, fig. 15-18, and 1853, p. 401. 

Four races previously have been described. 

Pseudalmeittts chlorinda barringtomnsis Waterhouse 1928. Originally 

known only from a single male found dead on snow in October near Edwards 
11 tit, on Barring-Ion Tops, New Scmth Wales; others were obtained by .Messrs. 
Frank Dodd and A. Burns at Tubrabncca. New South Wales, in September, 

Pseudalmcnus c. clitoris Waterhouse and Lyell 19J4. New South Wales. 
Only known so far from Katoomba in Qctftbftr and MtttagOUg in November, 

P&eudalmenus e. zcpJiyrits Waterhouse nnd Lyell 1914. Eastern Victoria, 
Gippsland and Dandenong Ranges. Single-brooded, appearing in September, 
October and early November (Plate xx. fig. e-f). 

Pseudtohnenus <•. chlorinda (Blanchard 1848-), Tasmania, found usually at 
low elevations; very local. Singled >roo< led, appearing From August to November 
(Plate xx, Bg, d). There are intportrinl notes about this raee in a paper by 
Couehman (1948). 

To these may be added a fifth race from tie' Orampians. 


Plate xx, fig; a-e and text Bg; 3. 

Male. Forewines above brownish-black with a black spot at end of QeU 
enelosed on three sides by a pale orange oval patch, broken into five contiguous 
spots by fine black lines following the veins, termen finely Frinued white. Hind- 
wintz;s brow nishddaek with a small orange mark near cell outwardly from a 
rather darker black spot, an oratlge baud running parallel to termen, tapering 
evenly towards and disappearing before apex, this partly eneloses two small 
black spots; fringes conspicuously while, dorsum broadly suffused with white 
scales. Forew ingS beneath pale stone grey with a relatively large black discoidal 
spot and a more distal band; the termen narrowly margined with black. Hind- 
wings also pale stone gr©$ with wide orange terminal band ami a series of 

Tind/vle — New Khopalocera from Western Victoria 53 

rather large black spots, the apical throe marginal, the more posterior ones 
enclosed within t lie orange band; a black spot at toruus separated from another 
by the tornai portion of the orange band; a band composed of three black 
spots across cell. Wing length 14.5 nun.: expanse 31 mm. 

Female. Forewing with orange area similar to male, with black spot tfi cell 
almost surrounded by orange Hindwings with pale orange cell spot very large; 
submarginal de6p orange band wide and with margins intensely black; th( v two 
black spots within it well indicated. Forewlngs beneath as iji male; rather dull 
grey in colour with traces of Lighter scales in ])osition corresponding to markings 
above; hindw 'inga dull grey with bbek markings not very evident, and reddish 
ernes, rather diffused, extending well in from the black ones. Wing length 
1 l.o mm., expanse 32 ?nm. 

Lin . Western Victoria; Mt. Vfctory, Grampians, 1 ,1200 ft. (Ilnlot.v pc, 
a fiuile, January, 1852* &Qcl allotype female. Kith September, 1952, numbered 
I. 14092, and a parat\ pe male, in the South Australian Museum, eolleeled by 
K. 11. Fisher and the writer; a paratype pair are in the collection of U. 11. 
Fisher). Three males, I wo females have been examined. 

As indicated in the. accompanying' key. the present race differs from the 
others in extent of or&ttgC markings on wings above aiid in the distribution and 
relative sizes of I he markings on the wings below. 

From P. r. Z( [ihyrus it ciift'ers below in the greater development of black 
spots within the orange marginal baud of hiudwing; from P, « . rhlornnht it 
differs in the absence of a second black band in the ''ell o£ hindwin 

Tlie paratype male in the series placed in the S.A. Museum has the normally 
pate oran.gC murks of the wings above ahiinsl while; in olher respects it is 
like the other two examples. 

Mr. A. C. LeSouef took one example on Ml. ftosea at 2,300 ft in \o\ ember, 
15)41, ile realized it was a dislinelive form but the specimen was lost and no 
furl her specimens have been taken at. the place where he 1'nuud it On 30th 
November, l!)ol, numerous lar\ae were found feeding on blarkwood {AC&CW 

metanoxylon) shrubs near Mt. Victor;,. They were attended by small sweet 
smelling black ants. 

When disturbed the anls shepherded larvae logelher in Hosiers of up to 
;i dozen ami iimhv. usually near a fork, and stood over 1hem. 

Eggs <utd larvae in all stages were preseni. The larvae U.h\ readily on 
blaekwood tips and were reared to maturity. Ants continued to minister to 
them until they pupated, m December. Further adult larvae ami pupae wen 
taken at the same place on 28th December, L0&1. The pupae were generally 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

to be found iiiddcn in crevices in bark and seemed not to be of interest to the 


Three male examples emerged in early January from pupae of this brood. 
The pupal Period was about 22 days. Tbo January emergences SttggO&l that 
under some conditions there may be either a complete or a partial second or 
summer brood of this race. The greater proportion of the brood remained in 
the pupal state over the winter. Females emerged on the l:>th and 14th 

Fig. o. a-<\ Psrii(lahn<- nits rhlontula fixluri. M>. Victory, 1 ,-00 ft.,; a, eggs, diameter 
0-8 mm.: b, adult larva, length 19 mm.; c, pupa, length 10 mm. 

The eggs an- laid, qp to £bt# at 8 time, on tender tips of saplings and small 
trees. They are 0-<S mm. in diamHer, jj-rernish-while. hemispherical and pitted 
with coarse punctures set, in spirals about the Bgg (Text, liir. 3a),. 

L&rvae which emerge from these eggs are 3*5 mm. in length. Thev complete 
their larva] life in 2S tn 33 days. There seem to be five larva instars. The 
adult larva (Text%- 3b) is 18-21 mm. in length, rather cylindrical with similar 
diameter from prothorax to last segment of abdomen. The head is black, carried 
partly concealed beneath the prothorax, the body above is marked with 
numerous greenish-grey bands and lines together with spots of greenish-cream ; 

Tindale— New Rhopalocera from Western Victoria 55 

paired pream spots Ot larger size are preaenl on second and fifth abdominal 

segments, Die seventh abdominal segment lias a pink suffusion. In lateral rfew 
a pink hand extends from posterior margin of prothorax to the sixth abdominal 
segment, ventral to this band is a grey one, below it there is a narrow lighter 
band having while lateral hairs; the under parts are pale greGtt, 

Pupa. Brownish-black, rounded, poiupact, covered with fine ridges and 
eminences which give il a matt appearance (Text fig; 3e). It is supported by a 
median girdle and by a oremaster. Length JO mm., width -1 mm. 

r rhe adult larva appears to differ from that of P. c. barrin<itoncnais in the 
disposition of the markings, the large ereaifij^yfiliow spots usually being absent, 
except for onea W khe seeond and fifth abdominal segments. 

The five races of P. </t!orincln may readily be distinguished as follows .- 

Kev to Races of FSEUDAUIENIS V1ILOK1NDA (Blanchard). 

1. Cell of hindwing above with orange spot 2 

Cell of hindwing above without orange spot 5 

2. Cell spot of hindwing not joined to terminal orange band .,.. 3 
Cell spot joined to terminal orange band barringtoiurms 

£ Central orange spot of forewing large and surrounding a blaek internal 

spot chloris 

Central orange spot of forewing smaller, not surrounding the black 

internal spot 4 

4. Orange cell spot of hindwing above relatively large < phy/us 

Orange cell spot of hindwing above relatively small (or obsolete) jisheri 

6. Hindwing below with only one series of eell spots fishtrt 

Hindwing below with two series of cell spots (sometimes without 

orange) chlovmda eiarsAue.vRA (Moyriek) lr 

Ttltsto r,'!//,s<ir<j!/ra Merrick (.1887) ISBflj P 829, 
f/fsperiJla c. crypscwgyra Waterhouse 1!>27, p. 281. 

Two races of //. < rtjpsargi/ra previously were known. 

Hi spirilla r. hopsnni Waterhouse 1927, is from New South Wales at 
Harrington Tops and Deervale, near Domgo, Hying in January and February. 
The sexes aire ('mured here (Plate xxi, fig. id) for comparison with a new form. 

nespcrilht e. crifpsnii/nni (Meyriek) 1888, New South Wales, from the 
Blue Mountains, near Blaekheath and Katoomba, above 2.0(H) ft., where locally 
it iseommon from about 21st November until early February (Plate x\'i, fig, e h ). 

The following new form lias been taken in the Grampians. 

56 Records <>i thk S.A. Museum 

IIksperilla crvpsauuvka LKSOU^FJ subsp. now 
Ltt xxi, fijg, a -I, m-n, and text fig, to ftl 

M.i lo. I^o.vwinirs brownish-black with tatcea of lighted greenish -toned liftiry 
scales on basal fourth: three sets of splits silvery-white; an oblique blaek fee* 
mark from beyond end of cell to dorsum; hindwin^ brownish-black with 
an orange yellow band. Pqrewingg tefta&tt) dull black tending to brown 
towards apex, with markings similar to I hose of upper side, but Larger and 
pate yellow in colour; also 8 pale l<''non-yellow series of four spots near 
apex; himl\vim<: rich bn.wu with tlirce !arjj.e silvery-white spots arranged aOJPGSS 
wing and another series of smaller ones parallel to margin; Eruiges alternately 
hlack and very pale yellow. Wine, length IS mm., expanse '21 mm. 

female. Similar to male but with more rounded WllJgS and heavier body. 
The silvery-white markings of forewtnga are larger and there is an additional 
spot present near the posterior margin; the sex band is absent; hindwmes wilh 
markings similar to those of male; the median orange yellow band bro;id, 
fringes conspicuously ]>ale yellow ami black, the yellow tone being generally 
darker than in male. Wings beneath as ill male. VVing length 14 mm., expanse 
81 mm. 

Lnr. Western Victoria: Rlt. William 2,()l)0-;k000 ft., locally common. 
( Holofype a male, numbered i. 10093 in South Ausiralian Museum, 5th Deem 
bei\ 195ft, collected and presented by N. B. Tindale. Allotype female, 29th 
November. 1!)f>(), collected by J. Cf. LflSmief and deposited in the South Austra- 
[ian Museum. Paratypes are in the collections of J. C. LeSouef. F. Erasmus 
Wilson, K. II. fisher and the South Australian Museum. The figured specimens 
are a paratype pair from the collection of B\ E. Wilson; they were tatei! \>\ 
B. B. (liven). Thirty males and thirteen females have been examined. 

In one aberrant male the white spots normally present beside the sex mark 
m tacking and in three others there is only one instead of two. Rarely, in the 
male, there are traces of 07ie or two spots near the posterior margin in the 
position of the conspicuous spots present In the female. 

JL c. ksoiu It differs from typical //. c Cfrffpsargfyfa in colour, markings, and 
I , The wlttg colour above is darker and the forewing markings are silvery- 
white, not pale yellow. The him I wing band is a clear orange-yellow, somewhat 
wider, and less interrupted at the veins than in most specimens of the typical 
form. Allowing for the freshness of the speeimens the forewinus beneath are 
of a far darker background colour and the silvery-white spots of the hindwimj 
,\\^ relatively large. The small male wing expanse, ranging from 28«29 mm. 

TtNDALK -New Khofalocera I'ROm WeoTfkn Victoria 57 

contrasts wiili the 32 Itoin. visual ra Bladcbeath wd Katoaniba males qJ Urfi 
originally named form; females also are smaller than in the two eastern races 

//. r. hopsnni [a ever mkhi* distinct from 1 his new rare by reason of its 
l;ir ; jor size, the deep orange-coloured marks of the forcwings beneath, and the 
brighter brown colour of the hindwings. Examples of this new race were Ural 
taken on 13th November, 1950, in the pupal state, also as larvae, on clumps of a 
swordgrass (CfaKnia microsldrhya Benthain). This swordgrass was growing 
on steep, south facing rock walls and slopes of the Mt. William massif tip to 
altitudes of about 3,000 ft. 

At. somewhat lower elevations down to 2,000 ft. larvae of tiie probable 
second and third instars were found. Between 25 and MO clumps )ia\e to be 
examined for each larva found. The food plant on Alt. Wxtli&fi extends down 
wards commonly to about 1*800 ft., below which it is found only as an uncommon 
plant to its limit at 1,500 if., Occurring there on damp sandy slopes of Cathedral 
Rock among Acucw thickets and tea tree scrub. So far as is known the fpod 
plant, does not occur elsewhere in the Grampians and its presence seeminglv has 
escaped scientific notice fill now. 

The first adult specimen of the butterfly, a male expanding 27 mm., emerged 
on 25tll November: another of similar si/.e and markings on 5th December, 1950. 
J. LeSouef rea?ed two males and a female in the last week of November, and 
B. Given took specimens on the Wing, and as pupae, between 13th and 19th 
December. Other examples were reared and taken on the wing in December, 
1951. The latest emergence date is 2nd January; males seem far more abun- 
dant than females, 

Life history Egg not examined. 

SToiUig larvae, perhaps tff the second or third instar, are 10 mm. in length, 
pale -rei'ii, will, traces of longitudinal markings; the head, ls-1-9 mm. in 
diameter, is pale brown with a faint median longitudinal darker brown stripe. 

Larvae of a laler instar (Text tig. 4a and Plate x\i, ftg, mi, length 14 mm., 
;ne pale olive-green with faint traces of longitudinal brown markings, a narrow 
darker midline and paler brown lateral stripe. The head is 2-1-2-4 mm. in 
diameter, yellow with a broad black median facial band, widened anteriorlv, 
where if is divided, viewed from abOVfl the mar-ins of the bead appear as if 
rimmed narrowly with brown but in ihe larval head-easts this is not as evident.. 

Adult larval shelters usuallv are made by drawing three leaves bogethei ta 
an upright position; pupation is in the open tube so formed , the third leaf often 
has a loop j|j it which seems to serve as a Spring and keeps the shelter in position. 
there usuallv is a white meal over the anterior end o\' the pupa. The pupa 
(Text fig, 4b and Plat* xxi, fig. n) is IS mm. in length, smooth pale green, 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

with still paler wing cases, which become yellow and then brownish-black as 
the pupa, matures, a prominent pair of horns is present on the head. The, 
pupation period is abonl 21 days. Breeding sites preferred are on Gahnia 
microstachya in open patches among the Grampian .Mountain gums, but some 
larvae and pupae were found on tussocks in flense under-brush. 


■' • ,• J«o 


Fig. 4. 4a-l>, HrsprriJ'a crypsor<jyra {psoiicjh Bit, William; a, pubadult larva, length 
14 mm.; b, pupa, length 18 nun. 4c, Si/jn<ftt ffai/iunata, Mt. Rosea; pupa,, length 15 mm. 
4d, Dispar compticta, Mt. Kusea, 1,000 ft.; male pupa, length 12 mm. 

The finding of such a distinctive mBittber of the //. crypsargyra group in 
Western Victoria suggests Ilia! with the further examination of the Eastern 
Victorian highlands a form of the species also should be found there. In the 
light of the subspeeifie differentiation shown by other Grampians butterflies, 
when compared with Eastern Yi<b»rian races, it seems possible that, if such a 
find is made, the form taken in Eastern Victoria will be closer to If. c. crypsar- 
gyta than to the Western race. If <:. Irsourji. 

SlOXETA FEAMMEXTA (Butler 1882) 

Text fig- 4c. 

On 10th November, 1950, a larva approximately 10 mm. in length was taken 
in a tussock of soft grass (J?oa Cttespitosa Forster) at Mt. Rosea, by searching 
about 11 p. m. with a lamp. On 31st December the adult larva was 15 mm. in 
lenglh, pale brown with a darker mid-dorsal line; the head brownish-black, 
large and with prominent eyes. The larva gathered dry grass together to form 
a loose shelter within which it pupated on 2nd January; the pupa was attached 
to the grass by a few strands of silk about the tip of abdomen. The pupa 


(Text fig. -Ir) is 15 mm. in length, rather cylindrical, with t he head somowkaJ 
squarely truncate, brown in colour with rJic eyes mottled wilh dark brown; the 
last, segments erf the abdomen seem to possess an enlarged ch*CUlar gland or 
Specially pigmented area. On 11th January the pupa darkened. Il emerged 
V.Uh January, 1051, and the butterfly was fully developed by 8 a.m. Mr. Tl, II. 
Fisher louk a. male speeiinen on the wing at Hall (lap, 89th January, l!)ol. In 

November, H>r>i. farther larvae were taken by U. Fisher; Uvesealeo Mietged to 

January. All proved to be males. 

So far as can be asemtaincd these are the first reeords of the species in 

Western Victoria. 

tt is known to occur ai Killarney m Southern Queensland, at BaWingtOtt 
rOpfi, DOTrfgOj Sydney, Illawarra, the Blue Mountains, and C&lo Yale, in New 
Smith Wales, and in Victoria at Alt. St, Bernard, Wandiu, I lea le>\ ille, I .'isborne, 
Kallist;i and Lome. On Jsl l-Vhruary, 1953; 1 took it at Tarry bryu in Hi. 
Southern Otway fonge, ft ranges from near se;i level to about 4,000 ft. 

Variations whieh migM be considered of fifcbapeoififl value have not been 
^cognized although some examples are vejy dark in colour. Further study 
may show that the separation is warranted of the northern examples from 
Uorrigo and Killarney. Butler's type came from the vicinity oi ? Melbourne. 

Eastern Victorian specimens from Kallista are large, and widle somewhat 
darker than speeimens from Northern New South Wales, are not quite as dark 
as examples from Ml. Rosea, Mt. Si, Bernard examples agree with those from 
Kallista except that they are a little lighter in colour. A typical freshly 
emerged Ittale from KalHstU expands 36 mm . ami has the hmdwing beneath 
dark oehreous, while I lie .1 peons rt uffusion a])ove is conspicuous. 

I)i;-pak compact a Butler L882f. 
Text. ti.u. Ad. 

Mr. B. (liven took a male of I his species at Dartmoor on olsl January, 
I'.td. It seems not previously to liMve. been known from Western \ Vloi i,i. 

Larvae ferere taken at Mt. Jiosea (1,000 ft.) in November, t&5l, feeding 
on the grass l>nu <,nst)itos« fforslcir and also on /'. <arsiniosa var. h ,ttr,, Beu- 
l.hain. They can be found near midnight on the .fine riower stems. These 
/nay betel over wilh the freight of the larva, 

The larva is of the palest green wilh a dark head. On 3rd December 
three examples measured 14, 1f> and Hi nun. in length when fully extended, but 
'" llv 9i W '"'d II in a contracted position sueh as they assume when disturbed. 
The largest larva pupated jost prior to 26tfl December in a tube shelter formed 
by joining the two edges of a teal with a series ol' equally spaced silken straps, 

60 Records of the S.A. Museum 

it emerged on 20th January; 1952. Two other larvae continued to feed until 
7th January. They formed shelters by joining the edges oi* spills of paper in 
a similar manner to the leal' used by the earlier one, and pupated bet 
St.]] and 12th January. The two last, named showed little Sfigna of development 
on 27th January; they darkened shortly after this date and one emerged 
on 7th February. 

Pupa pale fawn, smooth, covered with an opalescent white meal. The head 
is rounded, with a large black process at base of forewing. There is another 
lai'Lfe dark chestnut coloured lateral impression near the apex of abdomen; 
the abdominal extremity in ventral view is expanded, fan-like strongly rhifini/.ed 
and with a fringe of hairs. The pupa (Text ftg< 4d) is similar to thai of Sigwta 
jlaninnata. With development the pupal wing cases darken. The pupal period 
ranges from 24 to 28 days. 

The adults do not seem to differ from those iaken in Eastern Victoria. 


Delias aganipjx (Donovan, 1805). Alt. William, 27th December; Wannon Falls. 

Anaphaeis jaea leutonia (Febricius, 1775). Hall Cap; Mt. Rosea. 

Pieris rapae (Linnaeus, 1758). Hall Cup 

Danaus menippe menippe (Huebner, 18 1G). Hall Gap. The studies of Talbot 
(1943), Corbet (1049), and Field and others (1951) indicate menippe to be 
the proper name of this North American visitor. The formerly used name 
plexippus Linnaeus applies to a < Tiincse species, displacing the name genutia 
Cramer. The leetotype of D. plexippus, nominated by Corbet (1949) is one 
of the Chinese examples studied by Linnaeus, still bearing- his name label. 

\ nntssa eanlui kerskawi (McCoy, 1808). Mt. William. The name Vpto 
takes precedence over Pyrantels by reason of Opinion 156 of the Interna- 
tional Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 

Vanessa it ca ( Fabricius, 1775). Mt. Rosea. 

r/rterom/mpha banksii nevina Tindale, 1953. Mt, Rosea, 1000-2,000 ft. 

Ileteruninnplia solandri anrjela Tindale, 1953. Mt. Rosea, 2,000 ft. 

Helerontfmpha merope merope Fabricius, 1775. Wannon Falls; Myrtlebank; 

Hall Gap. 
Heteronirmpha penelopc maraia Tindale. 1952. Myrtlebank, 800 ft,; Mt, Rosea, 

1,000 ft. 

Tindale— New Rhopalocera from Western Victoria 61 

TMefonympka c&rdace anlsoni Bums, 1047. Dartmoor, ISth November, 1951; 
Wannoii River Head waters, 1,400 II. , 2G-27th December, 1951. 

GWfttfieWa l.liHjii Lhu/ii (Guerhi, 183&J. Hall Gap. 

TiRiphom nhcoHit anhnii Tindale, 1948. Wannon River Headwaters, Moora, and 
Dartmoor, as larvae on (uihn'm psiltacontm: newly emerged female, Dart- 
moor, i'.lth December, 1951. Examples oi T. uhtonu taken at Yau^her, 
Otway Ranges, 23rd December, 1951, are all T. a. nihil Hsiitt Waterhouse. 

Orc'uruhii Ltrslnnri Lunutula Tindale, 1949. Dartmoor, Slfct January, 1951. 
A newly emerged male of (). kershawi taken at. Tin-ton Pass, Otway Ranges, 
23rd December, 1951, appears to belong to the form O. h. kershawi .Miskin, 
L8T6, as also tang series from Lavers Hill and Tanybryn, also in the Otway 
Ranges, 31s| .lannary to 1st February, 1953. 

Cuurfulides arasta Cox, 1873. Little Desert, 1st December. 

Ciuulalitlrs hyacinthina simphxa Tepper, 1882. Briqibaga, South Australia; a 
pair oi 4 the species from Yau^her, Otway Ranges, taken 23rd Deeember 
are of the race C. ft, hyacinthinu Semper, 1878. 

Ifypot'hrysops ignita igmta (Leach, 1814). Kiata. 1st December. 

Zktcria (nhrudus lahradns (Godart, 1824). Myrtlebank. 

ParaTucia. n$nm htcida Crosby, 1951. Kiata. 

Xeoluvia scrpenlata llemeh-SHiaeffer, 18G9. Little Desert and Kiata, 1st Deeem- 

Neohtcut arp'icola agricola Westwood. Mt. William, 3,800 ft., 27th December; 
Pomonal, 11th and 28th November; Little Desert, 1st. December, worn 

Lampides boeticus Linnaeus. Taratap Station, South Australia; Hamilton, 

fOgyfis olanc Hewitson. A larva on Loranthns pcndulvs at Tyrendarra, Vic- 
toria; it was not reared. 

OfiyriH irhito halmnturia Tepper, 1890. Brimbaga, South Australia, 23rd Novem- 
ber and 2nd December, 1951. 

Of/yri:< heivitsoni nu < ridionalis Bethune-Baker 1905. At Bellficld; several pupae 
w-ff taken under bark of Anicia virlanoxyJon near Lortinthus linophyllus; 
of these one reared by R. Fisher proved to be an example of the aberration 
lin/>f)isis Burns, 1947, which is not a separate race since it occurs as an 
occasional variant in more than one place where 0. ft, )ntridi(ni(ilis occurs. 

62 Records of the S.A. Museum 

The race 0. h. parsonm Angel 1951 described from Central Australia is a 
distinctive form of the same species. Some previous authors have been in 
error hi associating' the name meridionalis with Ogijris lunaryllh. The last 
named is a separate species} with several races, found from South Queens- 
laud to South Australia, principally along the coast and inland near Can- 
I ul ni' nits iciJhis Ilewitson, 1§65, Kiata, December. 

Ps&udalmemts chlorinda jtiheri Tindalc 1953, Sit, Victory. Eggs, larvae and 
pupae on Acacia mclanoj-ylov November and December; adults, .January, 

Trap&ziieS diem monocycla Lower, 1911. Myrtlebank, a reared example, 18th 
December, pupal duration 1(1 days; Snui^erv, Soiith-Kast of S. Australia, 
30th January. 1993: 

77r//* mron eremcola Burns, 1047. Little Desert, a worn example, 1st 

December, 19ol. 

Trqpmtte phigaUozdes Waterhouse, L903, IMmonal, 11th November; Myrtle- 
bank; Ml Rqsea 3 2,000 n. ? loth November. 

Tr&jmites phiffaUa phigalia Ilewitson, 1868. Pomonab 11th November. 

Sigmeta jhonmcala Butter, 1882. Mt. Rosea. 

Dispur cow pacta Butler. [882. Dartmoor, 31st January, larvae at Alt. Rosea, 
1,000 ft., emerged January. 

IlcspcriJIa chaastola chares Wnlerhouse. 1933, Jimmy Creek, a worn female 
taken by R. Fisher on 26tb November. 

UeSperilla donvifsa <i</os Watcrhouse, 1941. All examples taken in the Crnm- 
pians area are of this race. Myrtlebank. 24th and 27th November; Jimmy 
Greek, 'lv<] December; Wannon Palls, 19th and 23rd November, 2nd Decem- 
ber; Cavendish, 23rd November, 3rd December; Victoria Valley, 22nd 
November. All larvae ;ind pupae seen were on (hthnia radula. The. identi- 
fication of the Qahnia has been confirmed by the National Herbarium, 
Melbout ii 

Ilespcrilla chritsnhicha Icacotia Watcrhouse, J938. Dartmoor. 27th November, 
reared from pupae on (iahma Irifida; closer to this race than to the eastern 
Victorian //. c. oydospila Lower. 

flcspc cilia idothca ciara Waterhouse VXV2. Ml. Rosea. Mt, Victory, and Mt. 
^ r illiam; larvae on Gaknia psittacoruat, 1.400-2,500 ft., males flying abottt 
summits in December. Both sexes also from Snus^ery, S. Australia, 30th 
■ Ian nary, 1\W>. 

Tindale— New Riiopalocera from Western Victoria 63 

UwpmMa trypsargyra Ibmivfl Tindale, 1Q53, Mt. AVillicjni. 2,01)0 9,000 ft,, tai 
tfiflg December, as larvae and pupae, November, on (tulnu'a imcruslachiiu. 

OrsisplmUS ixronuilus kirby, t893l Wannon I leadwaters, 1,400 it,; Lake 
Witrluuk; Mt Victory, 2,000 ft. Larvae and pupae \<>vemb. r ; on tyjag 
late November. 

Progress rf spallation in the Grampiaija area seeing bo have led to the 

formation of distinctive raC6S in several species which require relatively high- 
humidity in their environment, Atatfflg those previously reported wen-. 

Tixii>hn)t, obtoitii mhlli Tindale; li eforowympha wrd&CG irilsnin BuniB; 
licit r<>>nj))ii>lia p< mi',*,,, mattlia TindaJe; <)r<:ix< mm kefshaWl Lani'iuht Tinflate, 

To this suitt me fcolv added l\\o further Satyrids, a form of HeUronympha 
solandri Wateiliouse and another ot //. huHl.sii Leach, a race of rsitididnuwius 
chtorindu, as well as Jlispcrilht enjpsarauru Usoiuji Tindale, member of a 
peculiarly southern Australian group of Temperate Zone tlespenids. 

The last named seems to reipnre an environment such as is now restrietcO 
on Mt, William in Western Victoria to a belt extending- from about 2,000 ft., 
up to (he upper limit of the growth of its foodplant Oahuia i.iicrosturhjia, at 
about JfyDOO it, Tije rainfall of this area is stated to be in the vicinity of 4b 
inches per annum, distributed rather uniformly over the year. //. < . lekouefi 
seems to have maintained its isolated existence in tirampiaus area during a 
time sufiiciently i<gig to have diverged from forms (existing further to Hie east. 
It shows well-marked fcubspdOlfifc differences. 

The two other known survival areas for this species are in the Lastern 
highlands ot New South Wales. The three known forms live m ateas now 
Separated from each other by belts of drier country respectively &B0 and 250 
.miles in width where to. l.i \ conditions seemingly are not suitable for their 

Any draslie past degeneration of climate in Southern Australia probably 
would lune caused //, t\ U&OUefl to have become locally extinct since in such ail 
6Vent there is no area where either it could have sought asylum, or lm\e found 
its climatie needs. 

Bene* within the limits oi time which must be allowed for the development 
of a distinctive subspecies of this kind, there probably has not been, in the 
(Jrampianfl area, any drastically arid climatic cycle. 

On the contrary, the dispersal of the. parent form of what are now the three 
known races of //. crtjpsargyra, confined respectively to (1) Barrington Top;, 

64 Kecoki^ oi cius S.A. Museum 

(2.) the Blue Mountains and (3) the GtrathpiatW, must have been affected "> 
s..i we period when there prevailed a cooler and wQbtfiP {iondition than now exist*. 
Wind is at present the climate of areas situated at about 2,000-3,000 it. «h ttttolJ 

iuii;i tJien have prevailed far more generally either on the lowlands OT the lesser 
hijj.hbunls between these areas. 

Another Ilesperiid which shows the Ban3€ fcjypc of distribution is Trapt^Us 

m, ")' which the Western Victorian rare, V. r. morWCych Lower, deaCTJ 
1 -i • peal i ago, is differenl Proul Hm Eastern form. 

To Soulh Austr;ihan .-. the Lepidol>t0raUS I'aunu txi the Grampians is thus ul' 
particular interest since it preseryes elemcms of the relatively cool-wet -climate 
Li 1 1 1 'j. seetioti of the South Australian PaUTia to so far iis it, is distinct from that 
of Snuth-Kasteru Australia. Some Grampians subspecies extern! also to the 
Rtfc Lofty Ranges, Kiiii-rtron Wand, l*0Tl Lincoln, atld tJic southern Flinders 
Ranges others extend only to the Alt. bofij highlands, yet cithers ran-e only 
into wet places in the of South \ ush-alia ;nid still tftfaers, being 
truly hidi humidity-re<punii'j fOlltltt, survive mik lit the 1 3 rampians area itself, 
.i iVv v oven being confined to specific valleys and peakfl within the (Jrainpians 

It 18 ut '-.iinc interc&t Id note that due to the limited number and situ;iti<m 
ni' painful] observation atatiorui available in Western Victoria the presence of 
the fteampfeua raasaif; with Itt rainfall of over 40 inches, is not recogpized on 
generalized climate maps such as ihat of Thornwaite. as elaborated by 
(Jentilli (1948). It actually is a more extensive area of relatively high rainfall 
than the Ut Loi'ty one and shouhl Becmingly fell into the classification as B B'r 
(humid, warm, rainy ) wit Ii an aura b| B B ; S (humid, warm, summer dry) 
around iL Tlie highest Grampians summit plateaux are subalpine in character. 
Wood (1!)4!)), in his Vegetation Map bf Australia, gives no indication of the 
presence erf the small areas o\' w«i BclorophyU forest and incidentally also fails 
to show the outliers of rain forest end NtithofaffUS of the Otway Railge, si.uniti- 
r;oit though these aire from the point ol' view of plant distribution. 

It seems evident foam the stud} of the Lcpidoptera that there is a significant 

fauna! break between the Grampians and the mountain areas of Bafttetii Vic- 
toria. The Grampians fauna extends westward into the lower Suuth-Uasl of 
South Australia and to the M1. Lofty Jinnee itself, which must be regarded as 
a recently isolated outlier sim-c recaguizaHc subspecrfic differences seem not 
yet to have arisen hetween butterflies common to the Qvainpiana and Mi, Lofty 
areas; At no very distant date in the pa&1 tliey probably were more closely 
linked than today: ai. thai lime the climate of the more humid highland areas 
must then have been prcseiil in the low Country bctWCCn them, 


The Otway Kange fauna is different 10 that Cd the Grampians, favouring 
more S) relationship with the Eastern Victorian mountain areas. Htemfce it is 
probable that what is now the fauna of the wet Otway Raiiges at 1 ,000-1 .S00 ft., 
was formerly that of a. moist lowland bell <-on1 unions with that of Gippsland 
when it was a little eooler than now. Examples &igg6&ting this are Tisiphmic n. 
Qtbifasciaj vdufeh oeOWa in the Otways, not 7'. a. anfmn: ,ik<> OftiimnirJl I. 
Lirshiun and nut the form O. /,-. Lunnu<Ja. The broad ball of -a vanunh land 
hetween the Otways ;ind (Jrampians effeetively divided these two areas even 
during the suggested cooler more humid interval. 

The button Lii;iss incidentally i-cfmicd to in recording the capture Gf 
//. itnihtic irilsoni on the Watnp flats at ttte h&ttlWaterB uf the Wannon River 
is the same specie® ( McsovtfJncna sphacan vcphalus B. Brown) as is found in 
Western Tasmania on swamp lands in the old vdacial valleys. Although loeally 
rather common on the headwaters of the Wannon and occurring elsewhere in the 
wettest parts Of the Sctafh-Etnt of South Australia, it nowhere in the Grampians 
seems to cross the low divide to the headwaters Of the northward (lowinn Fyans 
('reek. It is possible therefore that its «list > Unit inn is intimately tied to the 
l»ast climate o\' the Grampians region and on the headwaters of the Wannon 
and in the Seuit li-1-lnsl of South Australia it mag be a relief i'orm making a last 
stand and witness to former welter and possibly cooler conditions in the country 
SOlith of the Grampians. Similar witness is perhaps borne by ihc postelimax 
communities of tree ferns and attendant Pomarhrris aprtaht Lnbillardicre 
thickets about VI t. Roses. 


I am indebted to Mr. S. Blalw\ of die Botanic Museum and Herbarium. 
Brisbane, \\w identifications of (nthniu sword graBBea. lie informs me thai ours 
is perhaps the first report o r Gahnia mtcrosiachya Bentham from Western Vic- 
toria. A pre\ ions Victorian record. ,irrmdiiie to Mr. .1. 6. LeSoiicf, is from the 
Avon Rangfc, north of Stratford, < .' ippsland, wtiere it was collected in 1854 by 
Baron F. von Mueller. 

Prof. .1. B. Gleland has kindly provided identifications of several shrubs 
and grasses and submitted others to Mr. A. \V. .J esse p, Director of the Nationaf 
IN -rl.arium. Melbourne, for continuation ; T am indebted to both tor their help. 

Mr. Keith llalelev kindly placed his knowledge of the Kiata district and 
Little Desert at our disposal, enabling interesting series to be obtained within 
a mininuun of time. 

Mr. 4. C. LeSouef kindly (SOUS! Sited to lodge ;m allotype female specimen 
of //. c. lesouefi hi the South Australian Museum and lie and Mr. B. B. Ciiveil 

66 Records of the S.A. Museum 

contributed freely of I heir knowledge and experience to make (ho visits to the 
Grampians a success. 

Mr; P. E. Wilson kindly loaned two paratypc specimens of Hesperilla c 
tcsonefi which have beeta figured. Mr. R. Fisher, my companion mi the second 
visit, to the area, also kindly placed type mnterial in the South Australian 
Museum when my own takings were not adequate for the purpose. All material 
listed, other than thai in the collections of my companions, has been presented 
to the South Australian Museum, 


AniH, F. M, (1951) : Tram. Roy. Soc 8. Australia, Adelaide, 74, pp. 6-17, pi. L 
Blanehard, C, E. (1848) : Voy. an Pole Sud, Atlas. ZooL Ins., pi. 3, fig. IMS. 
Blanehard, C. B. (1853) : Voy. an Pole Sfld, Desc. des Ins. 4, pp. 401-40*2. 
Burns, A. (1947) : Men. Nat. Mas., Melbourne, 15 p, N6-102, 
Butler, A. G. C18S2) •. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., London, (5) ix, [>. 85, 
Corbet, A. S. (1949) ; Proc Roy. Knl. Soc, London, 18, p. 188. 
Couchman, L. (1948) J R<c. Qu. I ictoria Mas., Launeeston, 11, (2), pp. 95-96, 
Field, W. I)., Clarke. J. F. Q„ and Franelemont, J. G. (1951): Science, Cam 

lirid-e, Mass-, 113, p. 68. 
Gentilli, J. (1948) : Aast. Jonrn. {Science, Sydney, 9, pp. 18-16. 
tllidge 3 R. (1898) : Proc, Roy. s<>c Queensland, Brisbane) xiii, p. 9:1 
Leach, W. E, (1814) : Zool. Miscellany, London, 1, 
Lucas, T. P. (1890): Proc Linn. Soc N. S. Wales, Sydney, U (4), pp. 1065- 

Wpjriek, E. (1888) : Proc Linn. Soc. N. S. WaTes, Sydney, 1887, 11 (2). i>. 829. 
Talbot, G. (1943) : Tram. Roy. Knt. Soc. London, 93, p, 115. 
Tindale, NT. B. (1947) : Rec g. Aast. Mas., Adelaide, viii, pp. 013-618. 
Tindale, N. B. (1949) j Rec. S. Aitet. Mas., Adelaide, ix, pp, 143-155. 
Tindale, N. B. (1952) j Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aast., Adelaide, 75, VV- 25-29, 
Waterhouse, G. A. (1904) : Proc Linn. S<>< -. X. S. Wales. Sydney. 29, p. 466. 
Waterhouse, G. A., and Lyell, G. (1914) : Rati, of Aast., Sydney. 
Waterhouse, Q« A. (1927) : Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Walts, Sydney, 52, pp. 275 

Waterhouse, (I. A. (1928) : Proc. Linn. Soc N. S, Wales, Sydney, 53, pp. 401- 

Waterhouse. G. A. (1932): What butterfly & that?, Sydney, pp. 1-291. 

Tindale— New Rhopalocera from Western Victoria 67 


Plate xviii. 

Fig. a-b, Heteronympha banksii nevina. 

(a) holotype male, Ml. Rosea, 1,000 ft., 28th January, 1952. 

(b) allotype female, same locality, 13th February. 1952. 

Flo;, c-d, Heteronympha banksii banksii. 

(cj male, Clifton, Kith March, 1898. (d) female, Roseville, 4th April, 1904. 

Fig. of, Heteronympha banksii mariposa. 

(e) holotype male, McPherson Range, March, 1891. (f) allotype female, same details. 

Fig. g, Heteronympha banksii nevina. 

paratype female, Mt. Rosea, 1,000 ft., 9th February, 1952, underside (specimen in Fisher 

Fig. b, Heteronympha solandri angela. 

allotype female, Mt, Rosea, 2,000 ft, 25th December, 1951. 

Plate xix. 

Fig. a-b, Heteronympha solandri solandri. 

(a) male, Mt. Hotham, January, 1904. (b) female, same details. 

Fig. c-d, Heteronympha solandri angela. 

(c) holotype male, Mt. Rosea, 2,000 ft., 25th December, 1951. (d) allotype female, same 

Fig. e, Heteronympha solandri solandri. 

male, Mt. Donna Buang, 4,000 ft., 12th February, 1949, underside. 

Fig. f, Heteronympha banksii mariposa. 

holotype male, McPherson Range, March, 1891, underside. 

Fig. g, Heteronymplm banksii nevina. 

paratype male, Mt. Rosea, 22nd January, 1952, underside (specimen in Fisher Collection). 

Fig. h, Heteronympha banksii banksii. 

male, Clifton, 10th March, 1898, underside. 

Plate xx. 

Fig. a-c, Pseudalmenus ehlorinda fisheri. 

(a) holotype male, Mt. Victory, 1,200 ft., 6th January, 1952. 

(b) paratype male, same locality, 7th January, 1952. 

(c) paratype male, same locality, 10th January, 1952, underside. 
(Last-named specimen in Fisher Collection.) 

Fig. d, Pseudalmenus ehlorinda ehlorinda. 
male, Kingston, Tasmania, November. 

Fig* e-f, Pseudalmenus ehlorinda sephyrus. 

(e) male, Gisborne, 30th October, 1894. (f) male, Moo, October, 1922, underside. 

68 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Plate xxi. 

Fig. ad, Hesperilla crypsargyra lesouefi. 

(a-b) paratype male, Mt. William, 19th December, 1950, upper and under side, (c-d) 
paratype female, Mt. William, December, 1950, upper and under side (specimens 
in F. E. Wilson collection). 

Fig. e-h, Hesperilla crypsargyra crypsargyra. 

(e-f ) male, Blackheath, upper and under side, (g-h) female, Katoomba, upper and under 

Fig. i-1, Hesperilla crypsargyra hopsoni. 

(i-j) male, Barrington Tops, upper and under side, (k-1) female, Barrington Tops, upper 
and under side. 

Fig. m-n, Hesperilla crypsargyra lesouefi. 

(m) subadult larva, Mt. William, (n) pupae, showing three aspects. 

lv'K< . S. A. \I< >!• I M 

Vol . XI. Pi. ati XVI 

Kir. S \ Mi SI i M 

VOL M. IMAM- \l\ 

Rec. S.A. Muski \i 

Voi- XI. Plate XX 



r^i < 4r*f-' *"' 

s # 



Kh< . S.A. Mi si i \i 

Vol.. XI. Pi ATI. XXI 

L 1' it 



~' : Wh 





byK Womersley, South Australian Museum 


A sarcoptid mite infesting the skin of the Australian Wombat has been known since 1893, when 
Raillet (Traite Zool. med. et agric,. 2 nd ed.) recorded without description or figures, a mite which 
had been found by Dumeril on the skin of a wombat from Australia in the Museum nationale 
d'Histoire naturelle de Paris. Apparently on the opinion of Fournier, the mite was considered to be 
identical with that of man, Sarcoptes scabei (Linn. 1758) and was given the variety name of 
wombati. It was said to be able to affect man (the keepers in charge of the wombat while in 
captivity) and to cause larger vesicles than the human scabies. 


By H. WOMERSLEY, South Australian Museum. 

A Sarcopttd mite infesting the skin of the Australian Wombat has been known 
since 1893, when ftaiiliet (Traite Zool. med. at agric, '2nd cd. ) recorded without 
description or ligures. a mite which had been found by Dumeril on the skin of a 
wombat from Australia in the Museum nationale d'Histoire natnrellc de Paris. 
Apparently on tiie opinion of Founder, the mite was considered to be identical 
with that ol' man, Bwcoptes scabei (Linn. 1758) and was given the variety name 
ol' toombati. It was said to be able to affect man (the keepers in charge of 
the wombat while in captivity) and to cause larger vesicles than the human 

Apart from the above information which lias been repeated by many writers, 
viz., Cancstrini and Kramer in "Das Tierreich, h£g. 7, 1S!J!) ,, ; Warburton 
in "Parasitology, 12, 2*9, 1920"; Lemaire in "Traite d'Entomologie Med. et 
Vet., 1938"; and Rainbow in ' 4 Ree. Aust. Museum, 6, 190, 1906 (who also gives 
the species of wombat as Phqscofomys ursinus Shaw ( — Yomhutus itrsinus 
vrsuius Shaw in Iredale and Troughton, which if correct would indicate that. 
the specimen was from Tasmania), no records, descriptions or figures of fresh 
material have been found in the literature. 

In 1937, however, specimens were collected from wombats and were ideuti 
iied by Dr. li. N. McCtfltocfc as 8&rCop$w scabei (L.). A slide of this material 
was sent to Mr. S. L. Allman, of the Departmcut of Agriculture, New South 

Fortunately Mr. Allman has been able to Hud this slide, which contained 
seven females and three males, and I am greatly indebted to both Dr. McCulloch 
Alld Mr. Allman for the opportunity of examining this material. 

The specimens have been remounted on individual slides, and I am now 
able to give certain details of the morphology, figure both sexes, and fully 
con B rm the identification. 

I am also indebted to Mr. David Lee for the opportunity of examining four 
other slides of Dr. Mc( 'ullorh 's material left at the School of Public Health and 
Tropical Hygiene, Sydney. These slides contained numerous specimens of both 
sexes and young stages. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 


Genus Sarcoptes. 

SarooptbS scabei v. wombati Railliet 1893. 

Sarcoptes scabei v. wombati Railliet 1893, Traite de Zool. med. et agric, 2nd ed. 

Fig. 1. Sarcoptes scabei v. wombati Railliot 1893. A-B, Female: A dorsal, B ventral; 
C-D, Male: C dorsal, D ventral. 

Womersley— Mange-Mites of the Wombat 71 

Description; As ill &. scabri ami Its various physiological races, from differ- 
ent host spefciefc Female.* Length pi idiosoma. of mounted specimens 32Qf*, 
width 2!)0//. Length of dorsal cones J6ft, of dorsal spines Mf*. Male. Length 
of idiosoma 162p, width 169/a, dorsal cones 8^, dorsal apitiea 17//. 

toe, and 1[o$t From wombats, species :\ from Coulburn. \ew South 
Wales, June, 1937 (coll. the District Veterinary Officer). 

Recently I have received through Mr. T. <«. Campbell, of the Division of 
Fntomology, C.S l.K.O.. Caiiboira, some sareoptid material taken from a speci- 
men of \'ot/ihnfns fcfctliftu itirxiihis IVrrv 1810 (= mifcheJli auct.) which was 
killed on the Bimdabella Road, Australian Capital Territory, on the loth July, 
1 951. 

This new material, while being closely related to the Kareoptidae. differs jo 
fin man} respects that a new family is restored for it. 

Family ACAROPTIDAE nov. 

With a pair <n \crtical setae. Cuticle striated. Caruncle stalked on ahpiM 
legs. Without dorsal eones. spines or scales. Female with only propodosomal 
shield; male with both propodosomal and hvsterosomal shields. Male with anal 

/urtutrhs. Closely allied to the Sareoptidac, differing hi the above charac- 
ters. In the structure of the third and fourth legs and the anal suckers in the 
male, however, it shows some resemblance to llcfjnhiia of Hi.* Annli/rsulai, a 
family confined to birds, and in which vertical setae are wanting. 

Genus Acaroptes nov. 

Female with legs I and II normal, tarsi furnished with a single claw and 
a shortly pedunculate sucker; legs III and TV short, without claws or suckers 
bllt ending in a pair of vvvy long seta..-; epimera of leg I united apically; 
genitalia between livs> II and TIL Male with all legs of normal length except 
III, which is half the length of IV; I and II furnished with tarsal pedunculate 
sucker and paired bifurcate claws; leg TIT with tarsus ending; in a short stout 
claw; leg IV ending in two long setae and two lanceolate spines; anal suckers 

Dorsum striate, with propodosomal and hysteiosomal shields in the male, 
propodosomal only in female; without dorsal spines; apically in the male the 
abdomen is divided into six short lobes, each with a long seta, the middle pair 
of winch are slightly expanded b&sally. 

Genotype Acaroptes vomhittus sp. n. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 


Description. Female. Shape oval, but anterior of shoulder the sides are 
coneavely converging to the rounded apex Length of idiosoma 380ft, width 
o00/x. Dorsum striated with a single anterior small dorsal shield as figured; 
furnished with a pair of vertical setae 16/a long, three median pairs of setae of 
moderate Length ea. SO/*, on each side of the first, of these pairs is a very long 
seta of almost body length, and laterally of these another of moderate length; 

Fig. 2. Acaroptrs vombatm g. et sp. it. A-C, Female: A dorsal, B ventral, C tip of 
tarsus 1 or IT; D-H, male: D dorsal, E ventral, F tarsus I or II, G tarsus III, IT tarsus IV 
with long setae cut off. 


laterally on level of coxae III another of moderate length. Ventrally; epimera 
of leg 1 united medially; a seta on coxae 1, 11, III; genitalia between coxae II 
and III, Hanked by three line setae, the third of which is fairly long and 
sinuous; anus also flanked by three setae, the anterior of which is fairly long 
and sinuous; legs I and II of normal length, tarsi furnished with a short stout 
claw, and a fairly long caruncle and sucker- legs 111 and IV short, tarsi without 
claws or caruncles and sucker, but ending in a pair of very long setae. 

Male. Shape as figured. Larger than female. Length 780/x, width 650/*. 
Dorsum with striate cuticle, and two dorsal shields, an anterior as in female 
and a larger posterior shield; body posteriorly with six lobes, the medial pair 
with a moderately long basally slightly- expanded seta, the next and longest lobe 
with two very long and one short seta, and the short outer lobes with a long 
seta; other dorsal setae much as in female. Ventrally: epimera of leg 1 tree 
as figured. Legs all of normal length, except III which is only half as long 
as IV; tarsi 1 and II with shorter caruncle than in female and ending in a pair 
of bifid claws (see figure), 111 ending in a single strong stout elaw with a few 
inner small teeth; IV with tarsus ending in two very long setae and a pair 
of strong lanceolate setae. Anus flanked on each side by an anal sucker. 

Chelicerae in both sexes small, with two blunt teeth. Palpi apparently 
three segmented. 

Remarks: Described from 11 males and 18 females in the collection of the 
South Australian Museum. 



by Francis J. Mitchell, South Australian Museum 


Several specimens belonging to the "Heteropus" subgroup of this genus were collected in 1948 by 
the National Geographic Society, Smithsonian Institution and Commonwealth Government 
Expedition to Arnhem Land. Considerable difficulty was experienced in identifying these 
specimens for inclusion in the official report on the expedition, and therefore a brief revision of the 
group, characterized within the genus by the presence of 4+5 digits and an undivided fronto- 
parietal, has been compiled in an endeavour to clarify the taxonomy. This work has been 
handicapped by the inadequacy of the material and data available, the inconstancy of certain 
characters in some species, but apparent constancy in others, necessitating the examination of a 
large number of specimens of all recognizable forms. Until more extensive collections are made, the 
distribution and interrelationship of the twelve Australian lizards recognized in this work cannot be 
determined satisfactorily. 


By FRANCIS J. MITCHELL, South Australian Museum. 

Text fi«-. 1-4. 

Several specimens belonging to the ''Heterpjras^ subgroup f this -onus were 
fcplleeted in 1948 by the Kational Gfeagrapiric Society, Sjufithsonia» [nstitution 

and rommonwealth (hrvernment Expedition lo Arnhein Land. Considerable 
difficulty snfm experieftcea «i identifying these specimens for inclusion in the 

official report on the expeddion. and thcremre a brief revision £>f the group, 

diarartcrized within the gentte by the presence of 4^5 digits and <m undivided 
rronto-parietal, has heen compiled in an endeavour lo ckiriiy the taxonomy. 
this work has beefl handicapped hy the inadequacy of tiie material and data 
availaible, the inconstancy of certain characters in some species, but apparent 
constancy in others, nccessitat m- the elimination of a Large uumber of specimens 
di alt recognizable lonm. I'ntil mor. extensive, collections are made, Die 
distribution and interrelationship ol" the twelve Australian lizards recogfcissed 
in this work eannot be rle 1 rfiiiiiecl satisfactorily. 

The fallowing abbreviations of Museum titles have been utilized to indicate 
the institution in which each speeimen is housed: " IJ.S.N.M.,*' United States 
National Museum, Waahingtptl; '\M.(\Z./ Museum of i •emparative Zoology* 
Harvard; -A.M.." Australian Museum, Sydney; 'S.A.M.y- South Australian 
Museum, Adelaide; c *Q.M,; ,a Queensland Museum, Brisbane; and 'MM./' 
.Maeleay Museum, University of Sydney. 

T wish to acknowledge my appreciation of the co-operation of Mi-. (4. Maek, 
Director. Queensland Museum, Krisbane, and Messrs. .1. limn and S. .). <Y,p- 
land qi the Mfidray Museum, liniversiU of Xy<\nQY, in making the I )e Vis 
and Maeleay lype material, toother with their opinions thereon, available 
my examination. Also, I am prate lul to Mr. Arthur Loverid^e, of the Muscnin 
of Comparative Zoology. Harvard, for Ids assistance in obtaining the hum of two 
specimens dollfeeted at < Vm, Queensland, which are herein considered to repr'- 
sent a previously undeseribed Species. 

Key to the Australian Si-urns and Raj 

These species have pro\rd difficult to key, lew possessing an outsiandm<' 
distin.nuishirin- feature Also, the limited number of specimens available has 


76 Records of the S.A. Museum 

in many rases prevent^ determination of the stability of some features, and 
therefore their suitability tor use in a key is in doubt. 


1. Interparietal distinct , 

Interparietal fused with frontoparietal rhomboidalis 

2. Dorsal scales smooth ' 

Dorsal scales keeled 

3. Palpebral disk much larger than ear £ 

Palpebral disk equal to ear 

4 Dorsal and lateral colouring uniform fuscum fuswm 

Darker and/or lighter dorso-bdteral stripes present fv&mM ranu/atuni 

5, 28 or less midbody scales novav yuincac 

30 or more midbody scales 

(i. Prefrontals separated maccootyt 

Prefrontals contacting or forming short median suture tclrodmi i/hun 

7. Majority of dorsal scales trieyriimtc 

Majority of dorsal scales bicarinate 

8. Prefrontals separated on the midline 9 

Prefrontals forming a median suture InacavUKi. 

9. Dorsal scales with simple keels 10 

Dorsal keels broken into series of points M ■• coense 

10. Palpebral disk much larger than ear pectoraUs 

Palpebral disk equal to ear ll 

11 Dorsal and lateral colouring uniform juscum fuscum 

Darker and/or lighter dorso-lateral stripes present fuscam vanc'/alum 

12. 28-32 midbody scales }? 

38-40 midbody scales verkbrahs 

13 Palpebral disk much larger than ear •••••• , vlva:c 

Palpebral disk equal to ear bicarinaHim. 

Both fuscum and pectoraiis show wide variation in the degree of keeling of 
the dorsal scales. Both the keeled and the smooth varieties of fusium are 
included in the above key, but only the keeled variety of pectoralis. Apart from 
the fact that 1 have not seen a perfectly smooth scaled example of the latter 
species, the inclusion of this variety could not be made without greatly compli- 
cating the key. It has therefore been omitted, although its probable existence 
could be borne in mind when using this key for the identification of smooth 
scaled specimens. 

Mitchell— Four-Fingered Species of Lf.iolopisma 77 riTscuM kuscum (Dumeril and Bibron). 
lUter»i>itH fuscus Dumeril and Bibron, 1830, p. 759, 
]Jf(cro/nis si hmrHzii Peters, 1867, p. 23. 
llttiroints (ru itrinatils Noxq.v, 1*74. p. 138, 

/ft((l'OJ)US loHf/ipcS MiH')Oi\\\ 1877, p. 66. 

fTeiwopw s(.r(h7ilaf,( S Marlcay, 1877, p. 07. 
I/, t< minis »«t<v/n!iis De Vis, 188;*), p. Ui9. 
llttrropas ruhricatiis De Vis, 1885, p. 170, 
tlstewpUS rostral is De Vis, 1885, p. 171. 

Spa-hums (.rammed: Northern Territory: U.S.N.M. 128612428617, 128519, 
Yirrkala; A.M. R13583, 135S4, 13656 f8 SpedmStiS),, ( 'ape Arnhem. 

Queensland': Q.Jff, J77S6, Iron Bange, rape York Peninsula; Q.M. J7778, 
South Percy Island, Northumberland Group: Q.M. .17790, ftoekhampton (topo- 
tyjte of //. srkmrlhii Peters); QJf, .15639 Lindeman Island, Cumberland 
Group; Q.M. J7801, Archer Kiver. ('ape York Peninsula; A.M. J230 Cardwell 
(liolotype of //. rostralis De Vis); S.A.M. $2069-2970, Port Dou-las; M.M. 
R 127, Endflrivoqr Hiver (holotype of //. Imgipes Maell -a y ) ; M.M, 8462464, 1 'ape 
Orenvflle Hypes of //. sexdentatus Maeleay), 

Variation: MidbQ% SGafeg in 32 rows (3 specimens ) , ')\ rows (12 speci- 
mens) ur 36 rows (9 specimens). Dorsal scales obtusely trikeeled, tristriated. or 
perfectly smooth; oeeasional quinqueearinate scales on the nape. Four upper 
labials (five fa AM. R135S4) anterior to the suboeular. Kar opening vertically 
Oval, Ui similar size and shape to the horizontally oval palpebral disk; auricular 
lobules very -ariable, varying- from 3-5 short, acute lobules on the anterior 
border and 1-2 large but obtuse lobules on the posterior border to numerous 
aeute lobules on all borders. Six or seven supraeiliaries; 27-32 lamellae beneath 
the fourth toe. 

In the Arnhem Land specimens the dorsal colouring is dark brown to 
olive without any &ign of dorso-lateral markings in either juvenile or adult 
specimens, while to the Queensland material taint indication of a black dorso- 
lateral stripe is evident on the neck of several small specimens., and the dorsal 
colour has faded to j^rey in the long-preserved material. 

Discussion; The presence or absence of dorsolateral markings has been 
used as a key character for the separation at the eastern (fitscvm raricgatum) 
a 1 1. 1 western (fuscum fuscam) races in New Guinea. The Arnhem Land material 
agrees with the western race in possessing uniform dark brown dorsal and 

78 Records OF the S.A. Museum 

lateral colouring while those e>;amiu< d from islands in Torres Strait agree with 

Him eastern race, pog&esswg a light-edged black dorsolateral stripe extending 

from the ear to above the shoulder., and part or all the way along the body. 
However, the task of satisfactorily stabilizing the sub.-.p<'« ]Sk names in this species 
is complicated by the I tape Fork Peninsula specimens, winch have been described 
under various names by Peters, Maclea\ and De Vis. This material is shown 
to be intermediate between the New Guinea caees, tH juvenile coheir pattern 
agreeing with the eastern la'-e. while that of the adult is uniform as in the 
\vyferii race. 

Accepting the adull colouration as standard, all Austrnlian mainland speci- 
mens have keen placed under fUSCWtl fWCIftnt; although some I ape York adults 
no doubt show sign Of the dorsolateral markings. Should the markiu-s prove 
to he present in the -miter majority of adult skinks from the vicinity of Bocfc 
hampton, tchmvlUii Peters (186?) may be considered to hold priority over 
ruruijatum Macleay (1877) Edr the eastern race. 

The type specimens of srhmrUzii, mm vlalus, ruhrinitvs, and the two smallest 

Boimens of the stwUmrtatUB types | Al.M. R46346*) appear to have possessed 

BOme d"iso-later;d markings. 

A re-examination of Q.M. 3230, the holotype of JTeterojms ifltfittKs De Vis 
Indicates that the name should be placed in 1hc syuonomy of j'uscum rather 
than tliat of rhomboiddliSj to Which it WaB doubtfully referred by KonleiiLjer 

i 1887, p. 285). De Vis ( 188-7* p. 822) also recognized this, but retained rttf&'aSfi 

on the grounds of its possessing strongly comprised toes. The dehydrated con- 
dition of the type specimen leaves dottht as to the value of this &h i 

TjEiolohsma ivsoum \ ti;m (Macleay). 

Heieratms Vdriegafats Mrieleay, 18T7, p. 66; 

IJeicropiis <iviiui<tr< ,tnv<ihis Macleay, 1877; p. G7« 
Hefaropw chivtrii .Macleay, 1*77, p. 07. 
//< h roi>tis luctllOSilS Peters ;md Doria, 1878, p. M-L 
Li/ffoxoma alrocnrfare Ogilby, 1890, p. 84. 

Lti(t<>s<»>i<t nigrignlure Bqnlenger, 1897, p. 700, pi. vii, fig. :t. 
Leiolopisma i>t<lh<ni Barbour, 1911, p. 15, 
heiolopiswa fusci&m diguftmse Kopstein, 192(1, p. 88, 

Specimens axaminedl WtJft Rns4-:!S^, Barrow Island, Queensland (type 
specimens of 11. tfievpdi Macle;;,o ; M.M. R389-?9-l, Darnley Island, Torres 
Strait (type specimens of //. varicgatus Macleay); MM. K422-t2o\ Darnlej 

Mitchell— Four-Fingered Species of T.eiolopisma 79 

Island, Torres strait (tyiie specimens of //. quinqmcarimtut BXacleacs Q.M. 
JflSW, Dawitey island, Ttarp Straitj CJJC J6488, Yorke [aland, Torres su,,, . 

•1(5440, Prince of Wales Island, Torres Strait. 

1''// 7/f /■>>>//. &»d Dkcttssion, This race is not. readily distinguishable from (lie 

type rarr on structural characters, altJicragl the E>resenJ material &u&$csts that 

i! may posses a lower average ©f midbody fiseales and sulxli-ita.1 lamellae. This 
■ ■■ Pies shows a variation of 52 midbodj seales (4 specimens), 34 midbody scales 
(10 specimens). 36 midbody scales il specimen); subdigit&l lamellae beneath 
I'dUrtB fcQ©, 24-30 Dorsal scales weakly triearinate; a few faintly ojuimjur 
earinate scales in the quivquu ■ariiurfus type series. 

Colouration constant; markings less prominent in the. fully adult speci . 
mens. The longitudinal siripes in thr dorsodateral region provide the on!; 
suit means of idcut i iy in^ this race without Knowledge of Hie locality. 

Loveridge ( 194K, p. 30$ 38J > was unable to diagnose the positions of i'arir- 
ffQt'US, Qiduqumnnatus atld Ckwerti ErOlU Macleay\s short descriptions and 
Ihcrelore accepted tuvtvostis Petri's and I )oria (1&18) as holding priority for 
this race. However, the present exaairil&tion Indicate all Ihree o\ .\laelea,\ S 
names n, |>e ,wiouymou> with furfiivsns and tWld |H'iority over it. I/ctcroftus 
Mhtmihii (Peters, LS67) could hold priority for this race if Kuekhampton 
dunks ;ire shown to consistently retain their dorsolateral markings to adulthood, 
(See discussion on the type race.) 

Of Ihe //. runri/ahis type series. MAI l;:;!M) j,,,s hren chosen as lertotypc 
and the following detail eompiled from it to supplement the type description. 
Axilla to groin measurement 1 ,', times the forolimb to tip of snout length; when 
the limbs are. ;idpres;-r,| ., dng the body the fourth loe reaches the elhow. Mid- 
|;odj SOales in 32 rows; dorsals and laterals weekly triearinate. Far openm- 
vertically oval, Its vertical diameler bein- cpial to the horizontal diameter of 
Ihe palpebral disk, which is half that ol Ihe ocular slit, three acute auricular 
lobules present on the anterior border. The 'Yurth of seven upper labials 
largest, suboeular; four supra-oculars; M«ven or ei : uht supra-eiliaries. Length 
ol the frontal e<pial to that of the frontoparietal' iniernasal-i'rontal suture 
equal lo .iiir .pnirtcr the. in ternasal -rostral sulurc. SttMigiUl lamellae formula 
lor bind limb, Uk27 IS,14,S. .No markedly enUrged anal scales. 

Dorsal OoloUr fawn, with a white-ed.eed black dorsodaterai stripe com- 
menting behind (he eye and extendine. I ■,m. aUee the em lo the shoulder and 
alQttg the body to the hind limb, becoming less prominent posteriorly, The 
light lower border of the stripe passes through the ear. 

Measurements j 128 (46-j-*€20 mm. 

so Records of the S.A. Museum 

All three of the type specimens possess 32 midbody scales and %G or 27 
lamellae beneath the fourth toe. 

Tiie abovemenlioned //. rttriri/al ns types and those 0$ II. qiiM^COrinaAw 
iippW to represent the juvenile and adult respectively of the Darnley Island 
population of this race. Tn two of the five II. qniuqiirruriiiafiis types occasional 
scales could be considered qoin<pieearinate, but by Tar the greater majority 
are obtusely triearinate. and except for the less prominent dorsolateral stripes 
and the inconstancy o* the upper labials, M.jVI. R43& possessing five labials 
anterior to the suboeular on both sides and M.M. R425 on one side ? these spect 
mens show no features which conid he used to separate them From the sub- 
adnlt //. varia/ahts types. The largest specimen, MM* IM22, measures 130+ 

(65 + 65+) nnn. 

The Barrow 7 Island lizards described as //. chrrerfi by Alacleay show similar 
variation, ILK. BSSi measuring 132 (43 + 89) mm v possessing the dorso- 
lateral markings. While in tUt, B38B measuring 118+ (57 + bl+) mm. the 
dark stripe is only visible for a limited distance on the neck. 

Doveridgc I [1948, p. «£6§) has keyed two additional races of this speeies. 
jamwwm GoV0|i<Jge from Janma Island, Dutch New Guinea, and beccarii 
(Peters and Doria) from Kei Islands, Dutch East Indies. In addition, he 
Suggests that Inuolafnia (Bleeker. I860) ftGW Ceram will prove to be a fifth 
race (! = schlegelii (Peters, 1884) from Amboyna and Timor). 

Leioloi'Isma vmtkhkalik (De Vis). 

Pig. 1. 

freteropus vericbratis De Vis, lsss (1887), p. 821. 
Lijf/osoua ntWhdWBWe Broom, 1897, p. 64:;. 

Liff/nsomu waitei Zietz, 1<)2(K p, 211 (uom. now for vcrlchralis as preoccupied in 

Spc<i}nais (.rron'n'f,/. (Queensland: Qjff. et24S, Chinchilla. Darling Downs 
(one of the type series); Q.AI. -1440s. TowiiMille: S.A.M. R2<)G7-2!)(i^ Lrvine- 
bcink; S.A.M. H2!)oS, R2966, Kaban. 

I'roiii a comparison of its type description with the present material, 
hygtMOtiltt ittuiidicriisr Broom would appear to be synonymous with vertehralis. 

Q«SL J248, one of the type seines forwarded lor examination from the 
Queensland Museum, has been designated tie- Leetotypft fflQ the following data 
and fig, 1 compiled from it. Midbody seales in 40 rows; four lower labials 



.•interior to the suboeular; four supraoculars and seven supra-ciliaries. Dorsal 
and lateral senles mostly bicarinate, hoi with occasional In- ami quadricarinate 
•■rah-s, particularly towards the nape. Subcli^ital lamellae constant, 2:5 or 24 
beneath fourth toe of the leetotype and 22-24 for the remainder of the Material 
examined. Ear opening a little shorter than the transparent palpebral disk, 
almost round, with short, aeutc lobnles on all borders, the one or two on the 
anterior border being mos t prominent. The snout of this species is strongly 
deoressed (see fig, 1 i. 

Fi^r. i. Leialopisma rertebroMii [Do Vin'j 
leetotype (Q.M. Jlms ■,. 


tors;. I Hud lateral views of the bead of the 

Air. (J. Maek of the Queensland Museum kindly i'orwa rded the EolfoWJUg 
data on the remainirm tour specimens of the type series, " Dorsals hi-, tri- and 
quadriearinate, each keel being entire; laterals mostly biearinate, but some tri- 
earinate. Midbody scales iu 23 rows ( :"'; specimens) or 24 rmvs (1 specimen) ; 
lamellae beneath the fourth toe 23 (3 specimens) or 24 (J specimen i." 

The overall variation noted for llie species is: midbody scales in 38 rows. 
£5 specimens). 39 rows (2 specimens) or 40 rows (3 specimens): lamellar 
formula for the hind limb, 15-16. 22-24, 17-1S. 13-14, 8; there is some variation in 
the percentage of tricarinato scales in the lateral region of the body. 

The basic colouring oi tie- recently collected South Ausiralian Museum 
specimens is hhic-<_»reen with the irregular darker patterning in the dorsodateral 
and lateral regions defining a uniformly coloured vertebral stripe, comprising 
two adjacent sieries rf pale blue scales. Ventral surfaces uniform pale blue. 


Records of the S.A. Musevm 

Lkioluhsma COE^SE Bp. nov. 
Big. 2. 
Lefalopisma rcrlchrafis Loverid^c (xec. De vis), 1934, p. 361, 

Tapes: Ilolotype. KG&. 37171 and w& paratype. M.t'.Z. 37170. Both 
speciffteiut were collected 81 Co&i to Northern Queensland by I'. J. Darlington '^ 
Alay, 1332. 

piagnotriSt Midbody scales in 36 or 38 rows; dorsal and lateral scales weaklj 

tTlCarinate, each keel being broken up into B series of points |w fig; 3). Fifth 
upper labial lar^esl. StthOfeular; palpebral disk a little smaller than 1 he eat 
Opening; which has 4 or 5 shcrl rounded lobules nil the anii'Hor border, Sub- 
dmital lamellae of 4th toe, 30-32. 


Kg, 2, LrinJ,</n:OU<> r,uil^ :-]■. Ihiy,; Unr^lt :m<l Ul\vVil\ VH'WS Of thi' »M'H<I <>t' tti" li-'IotVpC 

(M.C. Z? 37171 I 

fype description. Distance belweeu the tip of the snout and the l'ordimb 
equal t«i that, between the axilla and groin; when the hind limb is ail pressed 
along the body the fourth toe reaches the axilla. Frouto-parietal sin-le, inter- 
parietal distinct; prefrontals separated by a distance a little less than half the 
length of intemasal-rostral suture Four supra ovulars, seven or eight supra- 
eiliarie.s; one pair of enlarged nuchals: seven upper labials, tilth largest, 
subocular. Transparent palpebral disk a little smaller than the ear opening, 
which has four short rounded lobules anteriorly. Body scales in 3* longitudinal 
rows at midbody; dorsals and laterals weakly trikeeled, each keel being b 
into a series of points. Dibits slender, lamellae formula for hind limb. 20, 30, 
25. 17, 10. 

Miichell— Four Lingered species of Leiolopism y 83 

Ih« tfonaal colouring b dark chocolate brown with fwc. longitudinal series 

of light WUe NJGtailgttlflS! spots, ail almost continuous middorsal scries, one 
axteiutiflg from fchfi posterior border oi cJach eye along the body above the limbs 
to fl point apprOXi'mfctaljy one third M,r way alOJlg the tail .«md one from r.n-i, 
''••'I- U Hie forelimband along the side to theoroin '!'!,♦• ,|orso -lateral stripes are 
continuous m the nape but break up on the body. Ventral surfaces near white. 

The Imlotype measures 107 (4? -f 6$) mm.- -tail complete, but damaged. 

Pttf&type rariullon. [ nfortunalely. the parfttyps specimen is badly erushed 
about thfi bead, but the dilation detail discernible mftifiMW tfatft it agrees closely 
with the holotype Itfiabodj scales in Ufi lotl&i ildiual rows, eaeh dorsal scale 
possessing three of the ehat'acteristiea Jlv broken keels. The subdhi.ital lamellae 
vary a little, £be lamellar formula for the hind limb in M.LZ M7170 being 
22, 32, 24, IS, JO. The size, shape and nrominence of Hie aiu icular Opening and 
lobules are constant, while the only si-ndicant vai'iation in the colour pattern 
is a slight difference in the eontinuit; ol ihe middorsal stripe. 

AffimHeS, ijoveridoe (1934. p. Ml ) confused this species with vrrtebralis 
De Vis. from which it differs in the nature and eonslane} o( the fcrikeeMng, larger 
size of the ear with less prominent lobules, -reater number of subdural lamellae 
and in colouration. 

Leiolopism a TOTRADAClTIiA (O'Shau^hncssy). 

Moron (etrutlucttfla O'Shaughn., 1879, p. SQft 

Spewmm examhwd, Qil. .)26;U-2632, Toowoomba, south-eastern Queens- 

Variation, The two specimens examined possess thirty smooth scales at 
mtdbody. Prefrontals contacting on the midline or forming a short median 
suture. Ear Opening small, oval: vertical diameter equal to half the horizontal 
diameter of the palpebral disk, which is equivalent to one third the length of 
the ocular slit. One large auricular lobule anteriorly and small denticularions 
-ii -mcI, sale. Limbs short. >.tou1, the hindlimb lamellar formula for these 
ftetettaB being 12 l:; t is 21, 14-lh, 1 1-1.5, 7. 

LifilOLOPlBMA MACCOCWBY1 ( Kamsay and (Jnilby). 
Li/f/osonuf MacCOOeyi Kan. say and Ooilhy. 1S|)I), p. s. 

Specimen* aaunktod* Q3T, -l777r>-7777, Dubbo, New South Wales. 

\'<trlutio>t. Body scales smooth, in 3Q-&2 rows at midbody. Bar opening 
small, round, without obvious lobules; much smaller than the palpebral disk. 
Prefrontals and nasals separated. The subdigitaJ h.mcllae vary as follows: 
hindlimb formula 13-14, 21-23. If., 11-12, 8; forelimb formula 7 9 12-14 14-16 

84 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Lkiuloi' uu'AiaNAiu.M ( Maeleay }. 

Heterapus bicariwtiiB Maclcay, 1877$ p. 68, 

fit kropUS alh< rlisii Peters atul Ooria, tB78, !>• 362. 

Lcw(<>i>isHht fi/hcrlisii Barbour, U)14, p. 204. 

Uit>l<>i>isvui per tmii Barbour (nee. DjimfcrJl and Bibron), op. c& 

Specimen evdmned. Queensland Q.M. JWT8j Baiik Island, Boc3dnghairt 
Bay; s.A.M. R2S77, 08873; R2983, Cainia; s.A.M. &2974, R2979, B288Q, 
R2985-2987, Palm Beadi* ttea* OairnS; S.A.M. B297.6, Port Don-las. 

Fflmfi&m. Midbody scales in 3G or 32 longitudinal rows; each dorsal and 
lateral mate strongly bi.-arinate, the keels Pormfag longitudinal lines alon^ the 
body. Ear opening almost round, diameter eq^tttl to or a little smaller than 
the mean diameter of the palpebral disk; with numerous aente lobnles on all 
borders. Four labials anterior to Hie siibocnlar. Lamellar formula for the 
hind limb, 15, 28-30, 10-20, 13-1 I, Mfc 

A black-edged pearl-white dorsolateral line commencing at a. point above 
the ear in line wilh the sopraciliary rfdgfl and continuing along the body to 
above the hind limb is prominent in three of the speciin&ttB from Cairns and 
ihe one l'rom Port Doi.mlas, bnt is very taint Qf absent in all other material 
examined. The white line follows a simile longitudinal series of scales, keeping 
between the two keels. 

LeioLOI'Isma RHCmBOiPAXilS ( INtter 

]I<t<rupvy, rhomhouhiiis Peters, 1869, p. 44h 

S)>rr;»,<nx examined, Queensland: QJ£ -1249:5, S.A.M. B296&, R2989. 
Innislail; Q3L J7785-7787, Herbert River (Jor-e ; S.A.M. 112959, K2962, Tally; 
S.A.M. R2960-2961j R2963-2964i Lake Uacham; S.A.M. R2987, Mount Ifypi- 


This species is readily distinguishable I'rom its allies by I he fusion of the 
frontoparietals ami interparietal into a single rhomboidal shield. 

Varfatto*, Midbody scales weakly t nrarinate; in 32 Oft 34 loni>itndinal rows 
at midbody. Palpebral disk apprOximftteJj eqttftl in size to the ear openii 
which has two or three shod COUnded lobnles anteriorly. Snbdigital lamellae 
somewhat irregular, the hind limb formula varying 15-17, 23-28, 18-21, 11-12, 7 
in the specimens examined. 

Some evidence, of a light dorsolateral line is evident in all specimens, the 
line, generally Starting behind 1 : and fading into the basic body colouring 

about half-way along the body. In this species the lim- is approximately one 
scale wide, and runs between two series of scales, ea.-h scale being half white. 

Mitchell— Four-Fingered Species of Leiolopisma 85 

Leioi.opisaia m>y\\'a)viskm: (Aleyer). 
Lycjosoma (Carliti) Novae (limum: Mcyn\ 1875, p. 132. 

Lygp&qmQ htwr Oudemans; 1894; p. 144. 

Lyfjosnma acrufum Barbour, 1901, p. 7. 

Speetmm* txummed, Queensland: Q.AI. J7791-7792, Iron Kange, (ape 
York Peninsula; 8*AJT, R2972. Palm Beach, near Oairm 

Variation. Midbody scales in 22-2<i longitudinal rows; dorsal and lateral 
scales perfectly smooth. Uar opening smaller than the palpebral disk, hut vari- 
able in both size and shape; in K2D72 it is surrounded by fong ;l(;ll1r 
lobules almost concealing the opening, as in acratuw. while in the Irm, Range 
specimens only one clause lobule is present on the anterior border. 

Paint signs of a dark-ed«j,ed light donftjctejtal stripe are evident on the 
1 vU,r half oi: the body in the two Iron Bange specimens. 

Leioloplsma vivax (De Vis), 

ffeUMpus peronH Dumeril and Bibron. ls:;f), p. 7u() (suppressed as a homonym 
in the genus Ltjgu.sumu). 

Myophila virax I Jo Vis, lhS4, p. 77. 

IIcfcro)>us Uachnanni De Vis, 18g5, p, lbs. 

Specimim ixammul. Northern Territory (Arnheii, Laud): L'.S.X M 
128507428510, AHlimoiiuBi Island, Crocodile Islands; C.S.X.A1. i^S2o7, \mht- 
riiff, near iJarum; A.M. Ums* ( 4 spemmeus,, R12586 i I specimens), Cape 

Queensland : Q.M. J7803, Xoosa lj ( ,,,!s. soulh-cas1ern Queensland . Q.M. 

J5640-5641, Island. Cumberland G*0Up; Q.M, .17772. Low Islands; 

QJC. .I77S0-7781, S( ;U inary Hills near llerberton; Q.M. ,J«32N. .|G:«2, Toegooraj 

via Torbaniea, .Wth Maryborough; Q.M. dims, .Mount <;oot-tha; Q.M. .1777:;, 

•No data, hut probably one of t type aeries of fitetaonii De Vis," which 

were collected at I'ort Curtis. 

Variation, The Arnhem Land specimens displayed the following variation: 
Dorsal scales .sharply biearmate, becoming smool I) or obtusely fcri- or .p.adri- 
Cariliate on the ftape. Unlbody scales in 28 rows 1 2 specimens : . 30 rows ,C 
specimens) or 32 rows (4 .specimens)- -only the I .s.X.AI. and S.A..M. specimens 
eonnted. Prefrontals narrowly sep.oated or making p,„ nl contact io the majority 
nt specnens, hot Eojrminga delinite median suinre in two of the <;,„oic Kvlandt 
skrnks. Interparietal very small; a single pair u f enlarged nuehals. Sftvefl 

86 Records of the S.A. Museum 

upper labials, fifth subocular. Ear opening- variable in size, usually only about 
half the maximum diameter of the transparent palpebral disk; several short 
lobules anteriorly. The position of the posterior suture of the second supra- 
ocular is variable; this scale makes point contact with the frontal in several 
specimens. The frontal is fused with the frontoparietal in U.S.N.M. 128440. 
The subdigital lamellae counts show a variation of 22-26 for the fourth toe. 

Metallic green to bronze dorsally with numerous, irregularly distributed, 
black-edged ocelli, recalling those of Ablepharus lineo-ocellatus Dum. and Bibr. 
Lateral surfaces light bronze; ventral surfaces white to pale blue; a black 
reticulate patterning along the ventro-lateral surfaces and under the throat 

of males. 

The Queensland specimens examined showed similar variation, the signifi- 
cant points being: Midbody scales in 28 rows (1 specimen), 30 rows (6 speci- 
mens) or 32 rows (3 specimens); dorsal and lateral scales strongly bicarinate, 
becoming tri- or quadri-carinate, towards the nape; in some specimens as many 
as twelve distinct keels are present on the enlarged nuchals. Usually four labials 
anterior to the subocular, but occasionally only three, and in J 5641, five. Ear 
opening noticeably smaller than the palpebral disk; with one or two rounded 
lobules anteriorly. The lamellar counts for the fourth toe are a little higher 
than those recorded for the Arnhem Land specimens, varying from 25-28. 

The general colouration is more uniform and less metallic; little or no sign 
of the reticulate patterning in either sex. A light lateral stripe is faintly visible 
in three specimens. 

Leiolopisma pectoralis (De Vis). 
Carlia melanopogon Gray, 1844, pi. vii, fig. 1 (homonym in the genus Lygosoma). 
Heteropus lateralis De Vis, 1885, p. 168 (homonym in the genus Lygosoma). 
Heteropus pectoralis De Vis, 1885, p. 169. 
Heteropus mundus De Vis, 1885, p. 172. 
Lygosoma clevisii Boulenger, 1890, p. 79 (n.n. for lateralis De Vis as preoccupied 

in the genus Lygosoma). 
? Lygisaurus foliorum De Vis, 1884, p. 77. 

Specimens examined. Northern Territory: U.S.N.M. 128764, Oenpelli; 
U.S.N.M. 128528, Port Essington; S.A.M. R2696, R2699, R2703, Adelaide River; 
Q.M. J2619-2620, J7789, Darwin. 

Queensland: Q.M. J1414, Port Curtis (holotype of 77. pectoralis De Vis); 
Q.M. J234, North Pine River (holotype of //. lateralis De Vis) ; Q.M. J7782-7784, 

Mitchell- Four-Fingered Species ok Lliolopisma 


Stannary Hills, near Hcrberton; Q.K. J24G2, Herbert Kiver Gorge; Q JL J(i2K7, 
J832ff f Toojjoom, via Torhanlea, North Maryborough; Q.M. .1*2 »(>:;, Kagwtfc 
Island, off Tosvusville; Q.M. .17774, Gregory River. 

Unfortunately the type specimen pi Lm/isaunts fiflditrUm !>e Vis could noi 
1 v located iii the Queensland Museum and therefore Its position remains in doubt, 

« M * ■■-.:-^;j;-.' 

iii.. ::. ^ Drawings ilJiiatrathjg thfl noiddorsal gcafos of faj Lflfolepimfl ><rhhr<u 
*pismu poi we vp. 

,;. »»"5« i»i^»nwuu ww wwuursai vesica ui ', ;< ; L>mowpi&ma i< rfi Oram 

(BeViS); (In LCjolopima pttotQlvtia (TV Vis): (V) Lfadopisma trvwanthn sp. nov.1 
firni (H) Lrtoloplftma oo&mB kto. oov. 

FflffetiMi Midbody scales in 2(i rows (F.S.N.M, 128764), 28 rows (3 speci- 
mens), 30 rows (11 specimens | or 32 rows (5 specimens). Four, occasionally 
live, upper labials anterior to the suboenlar, five to seven sup rae 'diaries. Ear 
Opening usually without prominent lobules, but one or two short rounded ones 
are evident on the anterior border Ui several Specimens. An avenge lamellar 
formula lor the hind-limb is 14. 21, 1!», 11,7. the specimens examined staffing a 
variation of 22-20 in the number ,,!' lamellae beneath the fourth toe. 

(ieneral colouration varying from uniform brown to «j;rey^reen with silver- 
grey dorso-latera! and occasionally lateral stripes. These longitudinal stripes 
are discontinuous in the Adelaide River specimens. 

Q.M, J6287 is a gravid female containing two ews. It. measures !)5-f- 
(41 + 54+) mm, — tail incomplete 

88 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Discussion. The specimens examined support the opinion of Lovendge 
(1934, p. 363) that pect oralis De Vis and mundus De Vis are synonymous with 
melanopogon Gray, and that this species shows wide variation in the prominence 
of the keeling on its dorsal and ventral scales, as does its near ally, fuscum 
Dumeril and Bibron. An examination of the type specimen of lateralis De Vis 
(Q.M. J234) indicates that the name belongs in the synonomy of this species 
rather than that of peronii Dumeril and Bibron (= vivax De Vis), to which 
it was doubtfully referred by Boulenger (1887, p. 286). 

The holotype of Ileteropus pectoralis De Vis (Q.M. J1414) was also re- 
examined and the following details were noted as being discrepant with the 
type description. The midbody scales are in 30 and not 32 longitudinal rows 
and there are eight upper and eight lower labials, five of the upper labials 
being anterior to the subocular. The colouring of the type has faded beyond 


The type specimen of Ileteropus mundus De Vis could not be located, but 
Q.M. J7774 was identified by De Vis as belonging to this species. It corresponds 
closely with De Vis' short type description, differing from the type of pectoralis 
in possessing only seven upper labials with four anterior to the subocular, and 
in lacking the distinct trikeeling on the dorsal scales, the only evidence of this 
being striatums visible when the scales are viewed under oblique light. Mid- 
body scales in 30 rows and subdigital lamellae 23-24 on the fourth toe in both 

Leiolopisma triacantha sp. nov. 

Holotype: S.A.M. R2697, a sub-adult male taken at Adelaide River, Northern 
Territory, and collected by Dr. R. V. Southcott, in June, 1943. 

Paratypes: S.A.M. R2700, R2702. Adelaide River, Northern Territory; Q.M. 
J7788, Darwin, Northern Territory. 
Diagnosis. Midbody scales in 30 or 32 longitudinal rows, each dorsal scale 

being strongly tricarinate and of characteristic form (see fig, 3). Ear opening 

without obvious lobules; approximately two-thirds the horizontal diameter of 

the palpebral disk. 

This species appears to be most nearly allied to pectoralis, differing in the 
nature of the dorsal scales and in possessing a median prefrontal suture. 

Type description, Distance between the end of the snout and the forelimb 
equal to that between the axilla and groin. Adpressed hind limb reaches a 
point between the axilla and the ear opening. Frontoparietal single; inter- 
parietal distinct; prefrontals forming a median suture equal to one third the 

Mitchell— Four-F ingeked SpBCtES OF Leiolopisma 


internaMJ rostral suture. Fatu-SttP^oefltore^^eeoiid largest and Corniing Sutures 

with botfi I'rontal and fronto-parietal; six supraciliaries. Seven upper and 
;.( vrn lower labials, the fifth upper labial latgesl and suboeular. I0ar opening 
crescent shaped, without obvious lobules on the anterior border, bill With a 
denticulate posterior edge fsfee fig. h : its horizontal diameter IB two-thirds that 
ol' the palpebral disk. One pair of enlarged nuehals and a pair of enlarged anal 
scales present. Thirty-two rows of scales at midbody, the dorsals and laterals 
beitig strongly tricarinate, some middorsals incipient ly tricuspid; ventral scales 
mostly SttlOOtb although faint trikcelinii is evident in some ventrodateral scales. 


V\£. I. I • ■■ una UitMWltha gp- bin 
'S..Y.M. R2flfl7), 

Jufflal •••'"• Literal vic\v;s of rlie iinlut\|M 

Sxibdigital lamellae rounded, the hind- and fore-limb formulae being 14, 2:5. 17, 
10, 7 and IF 17, 15, 7 respectively. The reproduced section ol; the tail has 
Liirrally expanded upper eaudals. 

Mnfsur, iiiaiis. 79 CM> j 43) nun. tail reproduced. 

Colour. The colouring ol the type is iridescent bfuc-greeu dorsallv with 
irregularly distributed black-pointed scales, these being most numerous on the 
tail. Ventral surfaces pearl-white, 

Variation* The paratypos show Lew differences from the type. Midbody 
scales in MO or 32 rows; 22-24 lamellae beneath the fourth toe. Seven or eight 
Upper labials with the iifih constantly subocuhir; SIX or seven supraciliaries. 
Median prefrontal suture constantly one-third the intei •nasal-rostral suture. 

90 Records of the S.A. Museum 


The type specimens of certain species described fay W. Macleay and <\ W. 
De ViB have been re-examined and compared with 134 specimens from Queens- 
land and Northern Territory in an endeavour to stabilize some ol' the scientific 
names and synonymies of species in this glfqUJ). Numerous changes arc made 
in the synonymies, and Lciolopisma coense and Lrivlopisma Iriacantha are 
described and figured as new species. The lectotype oi" Lciolopisma vertehralis 
(De A" is) is also %ured. 

A dichotomic key has been constructed for the Australian species and races. 


Barbour, T., 1901, Proc. Mas. Com p. ZooL, 39, p. 3. 

Barbour, T., 1911, Proc. Biol. Soc. ]\'ash., 24, p. 15, 

Harbour. T ff 1014, Proc. Biol. Hoc. Wash,, 27, p. 2011, 

Boiilon-er, (J. A.. 18854887, "Catalogue of Lizards in the. British Museum," 

London, Vols. 1-3. 
Bou lender, G. A., 1890, Proc, ZooL Soc, p. 79. 

Buulenoer. <;. A., 1897. Ann, Mas. Genoca (2), xviii, p. 700, pi. vii, fig. 3. 
Broom, II., 1897, Proc. Linn. Soc. S. S. Wales, xxii, p. 643. 
Dumeril, A., and Biberon, <L, 1834-1854, Lrp. (,'en., i-ix. 
Uray, ,!. E., 1*44, Zool. k * Erebus and Terror," Rqpt,, pi. vii, fio. I. 
Kopstein. h\, P>26, Zool. Med, Leiden, p. 88. 

Loverid.ue, A., 1934, Bui!.. Mns. Pomp. ZooL Harvard, Ixxvii, No. (3, pp. 336-341. 
Loveridge, A., 1948, Bull. Mus. Pomp. ZooL, ci. No. 2, pp. 805*430. 
Alacleay, \\ ti 1877. Proc Linn. Soc, :V. S. \\ <ihs, li, pjy. 63-G7. 
Meyer, A., 1874, MB. Akad. Berlin, pp. 128-1 10. 

O'Shaughnessy, A. W. E., 1879, Ann. and Mac/. Nat. IPst, (5), iv\ p. 300. 
Oudemans, J. T., 1894. Meat. Sot. Zool. France, vii, p. 144. 
Peters, W., 1867, Mouafsb. A Lad, Wis*. Berlin, p. 710. 
Peters, W., 1869, Monalsh. Akad. Wiss. BcrLn, p. 607. 
Peters. \V., and Dona, G., 1878. Ann. Mas. Geno%% xiii, p. 364. 
Ramsay, E. P., and O^ilby, J. D., 1890, Bee. Austral, Mas., i, p. 8. 
Vis, (\ W. de, L884-188S, Proc. Ray; Soc„ Qld tJ I pp. 77, 169-172. 
Vis, C. AY. de, 1887-1888; Proc. Linn. Soc., V. >\ Wales (2), n. pp. 820 >24. 
Vis, C. W. de, 1888, Proc. Roy. Soc. QUI., v, p. 160. 
Zietz, F. R., 1920, Bee. 8. Austral, Mas., i, pp. 181-228. 




Vol. XI, No. 2 

Published by The Museum Board, and edited by the 
Museum Director 

Adelaidb, May 28, 1954 




byK M. Cooper, assistant in ethnology, South Australian Museum 


This paper discusses briefly, in part 1, the diminution in size and alteration in shape of the Tula and 
other closely related adze-stones of the Australian aboriginals, resulting from wear and re-trimming. 
Mention is made of the important bearing which the relative abundance and scarcity of material, 
suitable for their manufacture, appears to have upon the numerical extent of their occurrence. 
Reference is also made to the subsequent improvization of an implement, differeing in form from 
the original, fashioned from apparently discarded worn examples of suitable shape. In part 2 Incised 
Stones from the Artipena and Yudnapunda Hoards are described, together with a brief but general 
discussion regarding their possible use and significance, both of which continue to remain 
indeterminate. A series of drawings, illustrating examples of their characteristic pattern markings, is 




By H. M. COOPER, Assistant in Ethnology, South Australian Museum. 

Fig. 1-26. 


This paper discusses briefly, in part 1, the diminution in size and alteration 
in shape of the Tula and other closely related adze-stones of the Australian 
aboriginals, resulting from wear and re-trimming. Mention is made of the 
important bearing which the relative abundance and scarcity of material, suit- 
able for their manufacture, appears to have upon the numerical extent of their 
occurrence. Reference is also made to the subsequent improvization of an imple- 
ment, differing in form from the original, fashioned from apparently discarded 
worn examples of suitable shape. In part 2 Incised Stones from the Artipena 
and Yudnapunda Hoards are described, together with a brief but general 
discussion regarding their possible use and significance, both of which continue 
to remain indeterminate. A series of drawings, illustrating examples of their 
characteristic pattern markings, is shown. 

Part 1. 

Adze-stones, semi-discoidal in shape, differing but little in technique of 
manufacture and design, may be found upon abandoned native camp-sites in 
many parts of Australia; some, in fact, continue to be made and employed in 
the more remote and isolated parts of the Continent where the Stone Age culture 
of primitive man persists amongst groups of our surviving aboriginals. 

The zenith of master craftsmanship attained in the production of this type 
of implement, represented by the true Tula adze-stone industry, appears to 
have existed in certain portions of the Lake Eyre Basin, including the territories 
formerly occupied by the Wongkanguru, Dieri and neighbouring tribes. Variously 
coloured cherts, jasper, agate, porcellanite, fine-grained quartzites and other 
products of these and adjoining arid regions — all of which produce an excellent 

92 Records of the S.A. Museum 

conchoidal fracture when struck — provide material worthy of association with 
so skilful a culture. 

Home and Aiston (1924) introduced the word "Tuhla" in order to 
describe this beautifully made implement, but subsequently the spelling' was 
altered to "Tula" by Hale and Tindale (1930) as being more in consonance 
with the phonetic system. 

Fig. 1, illustrating a typical example of the Tula adze-stone, shows little 
if any evidence, either in its shape or form, of wear from use and necessary 
re-trimming; it may be regarded, therefore, as a specimen in almost new condi- 
tion. The head or working edge, situated upon the upper surface of the imple- 
ment (at the opposite end to the base which, in all cases, is also the point of 
percussion), is stoutly convex in section in order to anticipate provision for 
future wear, and shows strong edge and associated stepped trimming; the remain- 
der of the periphery being secondarily trimmed in most cases but to a lesser 
degree. The flake, which upon its under or nether side is comparatively flat, 
as the drawings indicate, was detached from the parent core by means of a 
single fracture and needed no further trimming upon that surface. 

The adze-stone of the Australian aboriginals was mounted in and held 
securely by a mass of gum at the extremity of a comparatively short, stout 
wooden stick, about 50-60 cm. in length, and also at the handled end of certain 
spear-throwers, more especially the broad-bladed type of Central Australia. 
When removing the adze-stone for sharpening and further trimming or reset- 
ting, the process was simplified by softening the gum. Such adze-stones, 
including the Tula, mounted in this manner, were employed when in operation 
similarly to the handled European metal adze, that is, with a chopping motion 
directed towards the operator. They were highly efficient in the hands of a 
skilled native craftsman and capable of producing beautiful work. Food vessels, 
shields, spear-throwers, boomerangs, spears, clubs, digging sticks and tjurungas, 
besides the many other domestic, hunting, fighting and ceremonial impedimenta, 
all so essential in the every-day life of the aboriginals of Australia, both in camp 
and afield, were fashioned with the aid of this very effective implement. 

Home and Aiston (1924) remark that during the process of shaping a 
boomerang the native tradesman trims the Tula from time to time as its edge 
becomes blunted, by means of a hammerstone, until it is discarded and a fresh 
implement inserted in the gum. A good Tula, they add, was capable of fashion- 
ing at least two boomerangs. 

In consequence of continued use and the resultant symmetrical re-sharpening 
of the working edge to compensate for it, the Tula is gradually but evenly 

Cooper — Material Culture of Australian Aboriginals 






Q4 Records of the S.A. Museum 

diminished in size and shape in the direction of its base, as shown in fig. 2-6, until 
it finally attains that state of diminution where it is no longer practical to 
emhed it firmly in the jjuni or continue its employment economically. Tito 
apparently deliberate use of discarded examples, such as shown in fig. 6, for 
conversion into a new design is referred to later in this paper. 

Semi-discoidal adze-stones of the Tula and closely related types appear 
to have been especially dominant in certain specific but often widespread locali- 
ties such as the Far North of South Australia, including the Lake Eyre Basin, 
areas around Stuart's Creek, Arcoona, portions of Central Australia, South- 
Western Queensland, Western New South Wales, South-East of South Australia 
and parts of Yorkes Peninsula in the vicinity of Moonta and Black Point. 

The retention of Tulas for as long as possible, particularly those made from 
the more highly prized material, is clearly shown by the presence of largo 
quantities of worn specimens found strewn upon many now long-abandoned 
camp -sites. The relative scarcity or abundance of suitable material appears to 
have A significant bearing upon the ratio of discarded to still serviceable examples. 
The three analyses which follow, in association with comparable ratios from 
other sites, tend, perhaps, to confirm this theory. 

An examination of material secured recently upon an extensive camp-site 
previously unnoticed at Oolarinna Waterholc, west of Oodnadatta, by an 
experienced collector, included the following: 

Tula adze-stones, approximating fig. 1 and 2 74 

Evenly worn examples, such as in fig. 8-fi 392 

A small number of specimens represented successive and intermediate 
stages of wear. These figures appear to indicate that material in certain locali- 
ties was highly prized owing to difficulty in replacement. 

During the course of seven visits to Emu Springs, Wirrealpa Station, by 
the present writer, 279 adze-stones, many showing no more than partial but 
very irregular diminution in size and shape due to use, were secured, together 
with only 29 evenly worn, trimmed examples, such as shown in fig. 3-G. The 
presence of an extensively worked near-by native M stone quarry," and in con- 
sequence the abundance of suitable rock, would appear to account for both 
the scarcity of totally worn symmetrically re-trimmed examples and the presence 
of so many implements apparently rejected early in their lives, in preference 
to adjusting the effect* of wear by means of further trimming and consequent 

Extensive camp-sites in the South-East of South Australia provide an 
additional significant indication of what could be termed an example, primitive 

Cooper— Material Culture of Australian Aboriginals 95 

96 Records of the S.A. Museum 

it is true, of the application of a law of supply and demand in its simplest form. 
Although the collection from that area in the South Australian Museum embraces 
several hundred examples of semi-discoidal adze-stones, no symmetrically re- 
trimmed worn types, such as fig. 3-6 denote, could be found with the exception 
of one specimen from Woakwine Kange, possibly wrongly labelled. There exist, 
however, in this collection, several thousand adze-stones from the same area 
worn by use to an irregular and only moderate^ reduced size and then ap- 
parently discarded, an inexhaustible supply of local flint, excellent in its texture, 
rendering any need for prolonging their usefulness by symmetrical trimming 

The absence here of highly-worn re-trimmed examples might indicate, per- 
haps, in addition, that to the skilled craftsman the fashioning of new implements 
where material was easily available for replacement purposes, was a labour of 
little consequence. The presence of many partly worn adze-stones of similar 
irregular shape at Emu Springs, with its abundance of local stone, may be 
comparable in its inference. 

The existence, therefore, of large quantities of adze-stones, carefully and 
progressively re-trimmed to the utmost limit of their useful life, upon certain 
camp-sites, provides an interesting example of practical economy, dictated, not 
by choice, but by stern necessity. 

Some collectors, influenced perhaps by the symmetrical shape of trimming 
applied to examples reduced in size, step by step, owing to wear, such as shown 
in fig. 3 and 4, have inclined towards the belief that they may represent a totally 
different type of implement to the semi-discoidal adze-stone. However, a careful 
examination of many hundreds of specimens gradually reduced in dimensions 
down to iig. 6, including some still mounted in situ at the gummed ends of their 
wooden handles, appears to indicate without doubt that all represent suc- 
cessively worn stages of original forms such as shown in fig. 1. 

Tulas and other types of implements, fashioned from the more highly prized 
material such as cherts, porcellanite, jasper and fine-grained quartzites, may 
be found upon camp-sites far distant from their nearest natural source of supply, 
doubtless reaching their various destinations, along with other bartered pro- 
ducts, by way of the elaborate network of trade routes then existing. Where 
suitable local stone was non-existent, they represented, therefore, the only 
material available, and even when rock of an inferior nature was obtainable 
near-by the traded examples of superior quality were employed as a welcome 
addition to supplement it. The presence of cores and blocks of such traded 
stone upon certain camp-sites suggests that the unfinished raw product was 
secured by "importation" additionally to the completed article. 

Cooper— Material Culture of Australian Aboriginals 97 

Although an examination of over one thousand worn adze-stones in the 
Month Australian Museum collect ion appears to convey the impression that most 
specimens, upon attaining the state depicted in fi£. (I were finally discarded as 
no longer economically or practically efficient* a comparatively small proportion 
of the requisite shape appeal's to have been retained and adapted to a further 
period of usefulness by transformation, with considerable skill and improvisa- 
tion, into long end-scrapers. Such implements, shown in fig. 7-11, would per- 
form admirably in producing; the beautifully symmetrical scribing, grooving 
and fluting with which the natives in some districts delighted to adorn and 
decorate their food vessels, shields, spear-throwers, boomerangs and clubs. 

A comparison of figured specimens 7 to 11, with typical examples of the 
long end-scraper found so abundantly in association with them upon Far 
Northern South Australian camp-sites, indicates, significantly, identical trim- 
ming, and in consequence the possibility that both types may have been in use 
contem poraneously . 

An examination of the relatively small collection of worn adze-stones from 
Western New South Wales and South-West Queensland, possessed by the South 
Australian Museum, is suggestive of the probable existence of this interesting 
improvised implement in those and other areas. 

Part 2. 

Incised stones of unknown significance, such as illustrated in fig. 12-26, 
were first referred to by Mountford (1938) and subsequently by Cooper (1947 
and 1948). In the earlier of the papers by the latter, the writer expressed a 
hope that, as a result of attention drawn to the existence of this interesting 
material, definite proof might be forthcoming regarding its use and also some 
information more clearly defining the localization or extension of their present 
known occurrence — a realization which, unfortunately, has not been attained. 
Little fresh evidence, therefore, is available for inclusion in this paper with 
the exception of a description of the Artipena and Yudnapunda Hoards; certain 
information, however, previously known regarding these incised stones, is added 
in order to assist those unfamiliar with them. For a more detailed description 
the reader is referred to Cooper (1947) wherein the figured drawings still ade- 
quately represent the principal arrangements of incisings upon the specimens, 
now increased from 70 to 200, including the Yudnapunda Hoard, lately trans- 
ferred to the South Australian Museum. 

With the exception of a few scattered examples, found in adjacent moun- 
tainous regions to the westward and south, the 200 known specimens were 

9s Records of the S.A. Museum 

polluted upon former cajup-Hites, amidst saltbush plains, ly&g in the area, to 
the south-westward erf Lake Frome and east of the Flinders' Ranges, more 
especially in pastoral country situated within Martin s WftU Station, along 
Sections of the Wilpena Creek and its iributarics. This district, the former home 
of the -ladliaimi Trihe, long since ♦.•xtiuet, is typically arid in its aspect and 
lias a six-inch annua) rainfall but is liable to .severe and prolonged droughts. 
The vegetation includes Alulga (Acacia avnira). Black Oak (CasiKiriva cris- 
htio), various species of Saltbush ( Airiplex) and other arid country plants. 
Splendid specimens of the Red Gum ( Iviicalypivs rttmnldulensis) line the creeks, 
more especially in the vicinity of permanent waters. The district is drained 
by several streams of considerable size, including Wilpena, Ralcoracana and 
Wirrealpa Creeks; all in times of infrequent but heavy flood carry immense 
volumes of water into Lake Frome. During all other periods their channels, 
with the exception of scattered permanent water-holes and springs situated in 
their beds, are Ary and parched. Many incised stones, including the Artipena 
and Vudnapunda Hoards, were found upon the banks of Wilpena Creek and its 
network of tributaries. 

Incised Stones, with the exception of a few examples either cylindrical or 
angular in shape, consist of small flat water-worn stories derived from fine- 
grained vsilt-stones and silty clay shales, countless numbers of which exist in 
the beds of local creeks and upon their banks. All examples found bearing 
incising are of natural shape with no evidence of artificial trimming; they vary 
in weight from J an ounce to 6 \ ounces, with an approximate, average of jj§ 

The Arttpena Hoard. Upon the banks of Artipena Water, situated in 
the bed of Wilpena Creek, is an extensive camp-site upon which have been 
discovered, along with other material, large and primitive trimmed water-worn 
pebble hand choppers, identical both in shape and technique of manufacture 
with the archaeological Kangaroo Island Industry, referred to by Cooper (1943V 
Numerous stone cooking hearths, extensively scattered in all directions, indicate 
the existence in former times of an important native occupation. The Artipena 
Hoard, comprising 10 specimens, was found within a small area upon this camp- 
site. Jn addition, some interesting examples were discovered in scattered places 
Upon the banks of Artipena Water in association with various types of stone 
implements; they include, fig. 25. The arrangements of the incisions, together 
with those of the Vudnapunda Hoard, are referred to elsewhere in this paper. 

Tiik Yudnapttnpa Hoard. Yudnapunda Springs, situated just outside the 
foothills of the Flinders' Ranges in the bed of a small gum creek which later 
joins Wilpena Creek, form a fine permanent water which, during the visit of 

Cooper— Material Culture of Australian Aboriginals 


the present writer in company with a native station hand in 1950, when the 
hoard was discovered, was flowing strongly for more than a quarter of a mile. 
A former camp-site, somewhat scantily supplied with the larger and more primi- 
tive stone implements such as trimmed cores and blocks and simple flakes, many 
highly weathered and probably archaeological, was found upon its banks. 

The Yudnapunda Hoard of incised stones, including fig. 18-24, was scat- 
tered upon the surface within an area having an estimated radius of 15 yards. 
The total collected comprised 73 specimens of which 59 are broken and incom- 
plete, and only two of these could be restored by re-construction to their original 
form by means of their respective parts. It is impossible to determine whether 
these restorable examples were already broken when deposited where found or 

100 Records of the S.A. Museum 

whether their present damaged state could be attributed to subsequent climatic 
conditions. A careful search failed to locate any missing portions of the 
remainder. The possible significance of the presence of so many broken examples 
is referred to in a subsequent paragraph. 


A casual or superficial examination of representative specimens of all the 
incised stones under review may appear to convey an impression of purposeless 
and haphazard markings, but upon closer inspection there is strong evidence of 
preconceived and deliberate intention, interpreted by at least several clearly- 
defined and alternatively utilized pattern markings. In order to examine these 
markings more fully, the specimens figured in Cooper (1947) will assist. The 
drawings in this present paper refer, necessarily, to material found in the two 
hoards, which, unfortunately, is somewhat circumscribed in the diversity of its 

The markings of the incised stones occur either upon one side only or upon 
both, the totals in each case being approximately equal. In rare cases, such as 
fig. 23 and 24, they are present, in addition, along the edges. The length, 
direction and form of the lines, used in the production of the incisings generally, 
comprise the following arrangements : long transverse lines, more or less parallel 
but sometimes rarely in spaced groups such as fig. 19 : very short transverse : 
very short longitudinal. Extended longitudinal markings are uncommon and 
consist chiefly of a single line as in fig. 19. These various lines are utilized in 
producing certain patterns, some complex, of which the following are those 
most frequently found : long transverse lines alone, as in fig. 12-15 : short trans- 
verse alone, fig. 21, second face: short longitudinal alone, fig. 24, second, third 
and fourth faces : long transverse in association with short longitudinal, fig. 19 
and fig. 24, first face. 

Examples combining long and short transverse markings occur sparingly, 
as also do patterns which associate long and short transverse coupled to short 
longitudinal lines as in fig. 26, first face, and finally, a concurrence of short 
transverse and short longitudinal, fig. 17 and 26, both second faces. In no case 
has the present writer discovered an incised stone exhibiting long transverse 
markings such as shown in fig. 12 to 15, upon both of its sides; the markings 
upon the reverse surface of all these examples consisting, invariably, of short 
transverse or longitudinal lines, either alone or in association. 

Occasional stones, such as fig. 22, exhibit dual or superimposed incisings, 

Cooper— Material Culture of Australian Aboriginals mi 

one superficial and the other deeply out, The.\ appear to have boon applied at 
different periods, similarly to carved designs recorded upon certain rock faces. 
Figures 25 and 26, included to indicate the amount of incising involved in 
unusual cases, illustrate, in addition, the patient application of their creator. 

The various arrangements of incisings described above, appear to be far 
too deliberate in the constancy of their use to permit the investigator any thought 
of rejecting the belief that they represent some very real intention of purpose. 

Any definite conclusion or even assumption regarding the use or purpose 
for which incised stones was intended, is hindered by the lack or almost complete 
absence of corroborative evidence upon which to base a decision; the best, there- 
fore, which can be attempted at the present time is to consider, perhaps, certain 
tentatively possible uses to which this interesting culture were applied. The 
present writer has been unsuccessful in tracing, amongst records regarding the 
aboriginals of Australia, any reference relating to incised stones, similar to or 
resembling those under discussion, with the exception of a single example to be 
d escribed later, and this could imply, in consequence, that they were not in 
general use throughout the Continent at any time since the commencement of 
the European occupation. It is possible, therefore, that either they will be found 
in a local and restricted area, where their use has passed unnoticed, such as their 
incidence at the present time appears to suggest, or that the culture will prove 
to be archaeological. 

Of three specimens received by the South Australian Museum a consider- 
able time ago, one is endorsed, somewhat vaguely: "Message stone, sent from 
one tribe to another with an accompanying verbal message; Northern Flinders* 
Range," The use of wooden message sticks by some Australian tribes is well 
established and has been referred to by several writers, including Roth (1901), 
Howitt (1904) and R. Ha lnlyn-H arris (1918), but owing to much conflicting 
evidence the actual significance of the markings is somewhat obscure, It appears 
probable, however, that the meisings upon the sticks, in many if not all cases, 
merely represent a tally or some general indication of the kind of message with 
which the carrier has been entrusted, for delivery verbally in detail, and is, 
in addition, a proof of his own bona, fides. Despite the little similarity of the 
markings upon the wooden message, sticks, in comparison with incised stones, 
the latter as regards convenience in transportation, at least resemble the former 
in approximate length. .Message sticks, however, are not comparable generally 
in shape with incised stones, which, in addition, owing to the softness of the 
material utilized, would be prone to damage when carried from place to place. 
The presence of countless numbers of flat stones, so readily available, identical 
in shape and poorness of texture with examples selected for manufacture into 

102 Records of the S.A. Museum 

incised examples, probably influenced the natives in the selection of this material, 
ease in securing it overriding the inferiority of its structure. This adverse condi- 
tion alone, however, should not influence the observer unduly by dismissing the 
possible use of the latter as "message stones/ 5 

The significant presence of so many broken examples amongst the Yudna- 
punda Hoard, and other incomplete specimens secured upon an abandoned camp- 
site near Wirrealpa homestead, together with the absence of the necessary broken 
parts to reconstruct them, is the result of some unknown contributory cause; a 
possible explanation could be damage whilst serving as a " message stone." 

It is unfortunate that the only recorded information known to the present 
writer relating to the possible use of incised stones, is the vague record as stated 
above, but since this particular specimen was found in the Northern Flinders 
Ranges — the source of several others — their employment as "message stones'' 
to denote some unknown interpretation merits consideration. 

In proposing any alternative uses, several suggestions, all problematical ♦ 
present themselves, such as some association with the social, cultural or cere- 
monial fields. They could represent, perhaps, a primitive type of tjurunga or 
possess some affinity with the mystifying cylindro-conical stones which some- 
times bear similar markings, or finally, they may be phallic in their meaning. 

The difficult problem which at the present time appears to surround the 
origin and use of the Incised Stones of South Australia provides an interesting 
and fascinating field for future investigation. 

Localities of the specimens figured are as follows: 

1. Merti Merna. 

2. Goolong Springs, S.E. of Marree. 

3. Stuart's Range. 

4. Muloowurtina. 

5. Cooper's Creek. 

6. Oallabonna. 

7 to 11. Oolarinna Water-hole. 

12 to 17. Artipena Water. 

18 to 24. Yudnapunda Springs. 

25. Artipena Water. 

26. Salt Creek, Martin's Well. 

These drawings were made by one of the South Australian .Uusetuu artists, 
Miss M. P. Tioyce, to whom best thanks are due. 

Cooper— Material Culture of Australian Aboriginals 103 


Cooper, H. M. (1943) : Records South Aust. Mus., Adelaide, vii, fig. 44, 62, 63, 79. 
Cooper, H. M. (1947) : Mankind, Sydney, iii, pp. 292-298, pi. AB, AC. 
Cooper, H. M. (1948) ■ South Aust. Nat., Adelaide xxv, pp. 1 and 4. 
Hale, H. M. and Tindale, N. B. (1930) : Records South Aust. Mus., Adelaide, iv, 

fig. 243, p. 208. 
Hamlyn-Harris, R. (1918) : Memoirs Qld. Mus., Brisbane, vi, pp. 13-36. 
Home, G. and Aiston, G. (1924) : Savage Life in Central Australia, London, 

p. 89, pp. 101-103, fig. 74. 
Howitt, A. \V. (1904) : The Native Tribes of South-East Australia, London, 

p. 710. 
Mountford, C. P. (1938) s Victorian Nat., Melbourne, lv, pp. 144-146, fig. a-h. 
Roth, W. E. (1901) : North Queensland Ethnography, Brisbane, Bulletin 8, pp. 

9-12, pi. 1-4. 


by Trevor D. Scott, B.Sc, marine biologist, South Australian Museum 


Four new species of fishes from South Australia are described and figured. Threpterius maculosus 
Richardson and Trygonorrhina fasciata guanerius Whitley are redscribed, and keys are given for the 
Urolophidae and Gobiesocidae, known to occur in South Australia. 


By TREVOR D. SCOTT, B.Sc, Marine Biologist, South Australian Museum. 

Plate xxii and text fig. 1-3. 


Four new species of fishes i'rom South Australia are described and figured. 
Threpterim maculosus Richardson and Trygonorrhina fasciata guanerius Whit- 
ley are redescribed, and keys are given for the Urolophidae and Gobiesoeidae, 
known to occur in South Australia. 


This family contains one genus, Vrolophiis, characterized by the rather short 
muscular tail, terminating in a well developed caudal fin. A small adipose 
dorsal fin may be present or absent. 

Key to the UROLOPHIDAE of South Australia. 

1. Disc broader than long 2 

Disc longer than broad 3 

2. Nostrils with broad and prominent posterior lobes testaceus 

Nostrils with small and inconspicuous posterior lobes expansus 

3. Spiracle of moderate size; disc with cruciform markings cruciatus 

Spiracle very large, more than twice as long as eye, disc spotted 

gigas sp. no v. 

(Jenus Ukolophus Muller and Hcnle. 
Vrolojihus Mullcr and Hcnle, 1836, p. 117 (Orthotype, Raja cruciala Lacepcde). 

Urolopiiu^ GXQAS sp. nov. 

Plate xxii. 

Snout very obtusely pointed, disc oval, slightly longer than broad. Length 
of disc 420 mm. (1-7), width 385 (1-8) in the total length 698 mm. Skin 
smooth. Eye small, length 14 (3-3) in the interorbital width 47. Spiracle very 
large, length 29, width 18, projecting forward below to middle of eye. Tail 
short and muscular, length 265. Width of tail 38 at posterior insertion of 

106 Records of the S.A. Museum 

ventrals. Preocular length 110, greater than preoral length 98. Width of 
mouth 55, teeth small and flattened. Width of internasal valve 58. Ventral 
fins rather short, length equal to width of mouth. 

Adipose dorsal fin small, height 10, length of base 28. Spine originating 
immediately behind posterior margin of dorsal fin. Origin of spine 112 from 
tip of caudal fin. Last gill opening only slightly behind middle of pectoral 

Colour. Central part of disc, tail and caudal fin dark brown, fading to 
light brown pectoral flaps, margin of disc off-white. A pattern of small cream 
spots bordering disc, passing along tail to the caudal fin. Spots aggregated 
to form irregular circular markings covering parts of the disc. Ventral fins 
bluish-grey. Ventral surface white, with a wide border coloured warm brown. 

Described from a female specimen measuring 698 mm. total length, taken 
January, 1952, at Port Noarlunga, South Australia. Type in South Australian 
Museum, Eeg. No. F2744. 


Body, head and tail depressed. Disc broad behind, tapering anteriorly. 
Orbit with low fold below eye and projecting shield above pupil. Teeth small, 
numerous, in pavement-like formation. Nostrils oblique. Spiracles large, close 
to eye. Tail muscular, wide at base, with two dorsal fins, moderate to small 
caudal. Pectorals extend opposite gill openings, but not on snout. 

Genus Trygonorrhina Muller and Henle. 

Trygonorrhina Muller and Henle, 1938, p. 90. (Logotype, T. fasciata Muller 
and Henle). 

Trygonorrhina Melaleuca sp. no v. 

Snout obtusely pointed, rather short, slightly longer than interorbital width. 
Skin velvety. A row of thirteen spinous tubercles on median line of back, 
between eyes and first dorsal fin. Two more between first and second dorsals. 
Two rows of four tubercles situated two on either side of median line, and in 
line with second and third median tubercles. No tubercles near eye as in 
fasciata. Pectoral disc slightly narrower than long, its length 360 mm. (2*5) 
in the total length, 890 mm. Width of disc 338 (2-6) in the total length. Length 
of eye 23 (3-0) in interorbital width, 69. 

Preocular length 92, slightly longer than preoral length, 90. Mouth large, 
transverse, its width 72 (1*25) in preoral length. Teeth small, surfaces smooth 

Scott— Four New Fishes from South Australia 


and flattened, arranged in broad bands in upper and lower jaws. Width of 
internasal valve 78, its margin entire. Length of spiracle equal to that of eye, 
projecting forward below to middle of eye. Tail length 490, much longer than 
body. Width of tail at posterior insertion of ventrals equal to that of inter- 
nasal valve. Ventral fins entirely separate, length 150. Claspers longer than 
ventral fins, length 180. First dorsal fin, height 70, longer than second dorsal, 
height 65. Distance of first dorsal from origin of tail 105 (8*5) in total length. 
Distance of second dorsal from origin of tail 245 (3-6) in total length. Last 
gill opening only slightly behind middle of pectoral disc. 

Fig. 1. Trygonohhrina Melaleuca, holotype male from Kingscote, Kangaroo Island. 

Colour. Outer margin of disc off-white. A diffuse bluish-black pattern 
covering all of back and upper part of tail to caudal fin. Dorsal and caudal 
fins off-white. Four dark grey bars at posterior end of disc, two on either side 
of median line, in same position as bars on fasciata. Claspers with a black spot 
on distal ends. Lower surface of body white. 

Described from a male specimen measuring 890 mm. total length, taken 
March, 1953, at Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, by Mr. E. Sundberg, of Kingscote. 
Type in South Australian Museum, Reg. No. P2769. 

Differs from T. fasciata guanerius (Whitley, 1932), the South Australian 
subspecies, in the colouring and pattern, absence of tubercles near the eye, 
smaller number of tubercles in the median line, and in general body proportions, 
the tail being much longer in relation to the body in melaleuca. 

108 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Trygonorrhina fasciata guanerius Whitley. 
Trygonorrhina fasciata guanerius Whitley, 1932, p. 327. 

Snout obtusely pointed, short, longer than interorbital width. A row of 
seventeen spinous tubercles on median line of back, between eyes and first 
dorsal fin. Two more between first and second dorsals. Two rows of four 
tubercles situated on either side of median line as in nielaleuca. Pectoral disc 
broader than long, its width 374 mm. (2-3) in the total length, 864 mm. Length 
of disc 357 (2-4) in the total length. Length of eye 24 (2-5) in interorbital 
width, 61. 

Preocular length 93, shorter than preoral length, 100. Mouth large, its 
width 78 (1*5) in preoral length. Teeth very small, arranged in pavement-like 
formation in upper and lower jaws. Width of internasal valve 83, its margin 
entire. Length of spiracle equal to that of eye, projecting forward below to 
middle of eye. Tail length 434, slightly longer than the body. Width of tail 
at posterior insertion of the ventrals 74 mm. Ventral fins entirely separate, 
length 156 mm. 

First dorsal fin, height 88, longer than second dorsal, height 77. Distance 
of first dorsal from origin of tail 66 (13*0) in total length. Distance of second 
dorsal from origin of tail 182 (4-7) in total length. Last gill opening slightly 
behind middle of pectoral disc. 

Colour. Disc and tail brownish -grey. A number of grey bars edged with 
dark brown forming a characteristic pattern on the disc as in Waite's figure 
(Waite, 1923, p. 47). Under surface white. 

Described from a female specimen measuring 864 mm. total length, taken 
February, 1954, in St. Vincent's Gulf, South Australia. Specimen registered 
F2843 at the South Australian Museum. 

Genus Threpterius Richardson. 

Threpterius Richardson, 1850, p. 68 (Haplotype T. maculosus Richardson). 

Threpterius chalceus sp. nov. 

D. xv. 17-18. P.M. A. iii. 7. V. i. 5. C. 15-16. L.l. 47-48. L. t. 6:13. 

Length of head 54 mm. (3-3), greatest depth of body 47 (3-8), greatest 
width of body 27 (6-6) in the total length 177 mm. Snout 18 (3-0), eye 13 
(4-1) in the head. Depth of caudal peduncle 14. Interorbital 9. Branchiostegal 
rays 6. Gill rakers 16. Body slightly depressed anteriorly, compressed pos- 
teriorly. Dorsal profile strongly convex behind eye, concave above eye. Eye 

Scott— Four New Fishes from South Australia 


encroaches upon the dorsal profile. Mouth small, not extending back to the 
eye. Lips thickened. Teeth small and conical, in several rows in front of 
jaws, single row at sides. Vomer with a single row of similar teeth. Gill mem- 
branes united across isthmus. Gill rakers short and numerous,, longest measuring 
2-5 mm. 

Fig. 2. Thrrpterius chalcens, holotype female from Kangaroo Island, South Australia. 

Pectoral fin long, 9th ray being the longest, length 45 mm. Upper 7 rays 
of pectoral branched, and connected by a membrane. Lower 7 rays un- 
branched, the last four only joined at their bases. Dorsal fin begins above 
upper angle of operculum. Membrane of dorsal fin without scales. Ventral 
fins abdominal. Third spine of anal fin half as long as soft rays. Caudal fin 
rounded, length 25 mm. Scales small, preoperculum and operculum scaly, inter- 
orbital and snout scaleless. 

Colour in Alcohol. Sides of body and upper parts of body dark brown. 
Head, operculum and ventral surface off-white with dark brown patches on the 
snout and under the eye. Dorsal and caudal fins off-white with dark brown 
bands. A small silver spot at the upper origin of the operculum. 

In life, the sides and upper parts of body exhibit a bronze tint; the name 
chalceus is proposed, in allusion to the life colouration. 

Similar in general appearance to T. maculosus Richardson, but differing in 
scale counts, number of dorsal spines, character of membrane of the spinous 
dorsal fin and the position of the silver spot on the operculum. 

Described from a female specimen measuring 177 mm. total length, taken 
September 10th, 1952, on the West Coast of Kangaroo Island, South Australia. 
Presented by Mrs. I. M. Thomas of the Zoology Department, University of 
Adelaide. Type in South Australian Museum, Reg. No. F2729. 

\ 10 Records of the S.A, Museum 

Threpterius maculosus Richardson. 
llmplrnvs moiulosm Kichardson, I860, p. 70, pi. ii< fig*- 1 -"_!. 
Chnoncmus 7nucul(mts (Timther, i860, p, 78, 

D. xiv. 184ft P. 14. A. iii. 8. V. i. 5. C, 16-17, L.l. 58-GO. L. t, 11:22. 

Length pi head 81 mm. (4-0), greatest depth of body 70 (4*7), greatest 
width of body 40 <8-2) in the total length 327 mm. Snout 18 (4-5), eye 21 
(3-8) in the head. Depth of caudal peduncle 24. Interorbital IS, Branchio- 
stegal rays 8. OilJ rakers IS. 

Head depressed, body compressed, Dorsal profile strongly convex behind 
eye. Rye large, not encroaching upon the profile. Mouth large, extending- back 
to below middle of eye. Teeth small, cardiform, arranged in several rows in 
front of jaws> single row at sides. Single row of similar teeth on the chevron- 
shaped vomer. Palatines and tongue toothless. Gill rakers short and numerous, 
longest measuring 4' 5 mm. Base of pectoral fin scaly, scales extending on to 
part of fin. Operculum and suboperculum scaly, several rows of scales on the 
preoperculum. Cheeks, snout and top of head without scales. Dorsal fin com- 
mences over upper angle of operculum. Seventh spine is the longest. Base 
of dorsal fin scaly. Spines of dorsal fin with a deep groove on each side. Caudal 
fin rounded, the rays projecting beyond the membrane. Anal fin commences 
opposite beginning of soft dorsal. Pectoral, anal, caudal, and soft dorsal fins 
with discontinuous bbick banding Sides of body light brown, densely covered 
with dark brown spots. A silver spot on the hind edge of the operculum. 

Described from a specimen measuring 327 mm. total length, taken February 
18th, 1944, at Port Lincoln, South Australia, Registered number P2081 at the 
South Australian Museum. 

Key to tiil: OOBIKSOCTDAR m South Australia. 

1. Dorsal fin not connected by a membrnne with the base of the caudal fin 2 
Dorsal tin connected by a membrane with the base of the caudal fin 

Aspusmogasier tnsvi an iensis. 

2. Distance between termination of dorsal and base of caudal fin less than 
total base of caudal 3 

Distance between termination of dorsal and base of caudal fin greater 
than total base of caudal ! Parvkrepis parvipinnis, 

S. Dorsal fin with 6-9 rays. I'pper surface without spots 4 

DOrSal fin with 6 rays, t'pper surface densely spotted 

Cochleoceps spatvht. 

4. Incisor teeth present in both jaws Volgiohis costatus. 

Teeth in both jaws of uniform size Aspasrnogaster patella sp. nov. 

Scott— Four New Fishes from South Australia 111 

Genus Aspasmogaster Waite. 

Asjiasmogaster Waite, 1907, p. 315 (Orthotype, Crepidogaster tasynaniensis 

Aspasmogaster patella sp. no v. 

D. 8-9. P. 18-19. A. 7-9. V. i. 4. C. 13-14. 

Length of head 22 mm. (2-9), greatest depth of body 10 (6-4), greatest 
width of body 13 (4-9) in the total length, 64 mm. Snout 6 (3-6), eye 4 (5-5) 
in the head. Body depressed anteriorly, compressed posteriorly. Head rather 
broad, snout narrow, greatly depressed. Mouth small, extending back to below 
anterior third of eye, jaws equal. Teeth in upper and lower jaws villiform, in 
a single row. Eye moderately large, oval, encroaching slightly upon the dorsal 
profile. Dorsal profile strongly convex from beginning of head to tip of snout, 
slightly convex from above origin of pectoral fin to end of tail. 

Fig. 3. Aspasmogaster patella, holotype from Kingston Park, South Australia. 

(rill membranes united across isthmus at anterior origin of first adhesive 
disc. Pectoral fin short, length 8-2 in total body length. Pelvic fins attached 
to 17th pectoral ray. Dorsal i\n small, height 16-1 in total length of body, 
base longer than base of anal fin. Dorsal begins more anteriorly than anal, but 
both are co-terminal. Caudal fin rounded, length 6-4 in total length. Anterior 
sucker slightly wider than body. Posterior margin of anterior sucker terminat- 
ing at middle of posterior sucker. The posterior sucker does not overlap base 
of anterior sucker. 

Posterior sucker oval, broader than long, width 5-8 in total body length. 
Vent mid-way between posterior margin of this sucker and origin of anal fin. 

Colour in Alcohol. Yellow ochre, with twenty-one reddish-brown bars 
almost completely encircling the body. One of these bars crosses the snout, 
three bars pass from eye to eye, and the remaining seventeen bars, which are 
fairly uniform in thickness, lie between the eyes and the tail. 

A single bar passes down either side of the snout from the tip of the upper 
jaw to the eye. 

112 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Aspasmogaster patella is closely allied to A. tasmaniensis (Gunther), but 
differs in possessing twenty-one cross-bars, compared with fourteen in the latter. 
The dorsal fin is not connected with the base of the caudal fin in patella, ami 
body proportions differ considerably from tasmaniensis. 

Described from a specimen measuring 64 mm. total length. Other speci- 
mens measuring 72, 56 and 57 mm. were collected with the type specimen in 
shallow pools at Kingston Park, South Australia, on September 26th, 1953, by 
biology students of the University of Adelaide. Type in South Australian 
Museum, Reg. No. F2788. 


Muller and Henle (1.836) : Ber. Verh. K. Pr. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 

Muller and Henle (1838) : Mag. Nat. Tlist. (Charlesw.), n.s. ii. 

Richardson, J. (1850): "Notices of Australian Fish/' Proc. Zoal. Soc. Lond., 

xviii, pp. 58-77. 
Waite, E. R. (1907) : "The Generic Name Crepidogaster, ' ' Rex. Aust. Mus., vi 

(4), p. 315. 
Waite, E. R. (1923) : "The Fishes of South Australia/ ' 
Whitley, G. P. (1932) : "Studies in Ichthyology, No. G, ,? Rec. AusL Mus. xviii 

(6), pp. 321-348. 

Rec. s.a. Mdseum 


C rolophua fiifids, liolotyju 1 i'Vnwile from Pofi Nojirlim^si, Snutli Ausir;ili:i 



byK Womersley, entomologist, South Australian Museum 


Family Ascaidae Ouds. 1906 

Genus Dendrolaelaps Halbert 1915 

Clare Island Survey, Pt. 39 II Acarinida; Terrestrial and Marine, in Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., 31, 68- 

69, pi. 6, fig. 15a-d. 

Type Dendrolaelaps oudemansi sp. n 

Dendrolaelaps adelaideae sp. n 

As with the other known species of this genus, viz., oudemansi Halbert 1915, armatus (Kramer) 
1886, and quadrisetis (Berlese) 1920, the following species are very small, white, and found 
amongst the frass of bark-boring beetles of the genus Ips and its allies. 




By H. WOMERSLEY, Entomologist, South Australian Museum. 

Pig. 1-2. 

Family ASCAIDAE Ouds, 1906. 

Genus Dendrolaelaps Halbert 1915. 

Clare Island Survey, Pt. 39 II Acarinida; Terrestrial and Marine, in Proe. Roy. 
Irish Acad., 31, 68-69, pi. 6, fig. 15 a-d. 

Type Dendrolaelaps oudemansi sp. n. 

Dendrolaelaps adelaideae sp. n. 

Pig. 1 A-G. 

As with the other known species of this genus, viz., oudemansi Halbert 1915, 
armatus (Kramer) 1886, and quadrisetis (Berlese) 1920, the following species 
are very small, white, and found amongst the frass of bark-boring beetles of the 
genus Ips and its allies. 

Female. Length of idiosoma 325/*, greatest width on level of coxae II, 182/*. 
Shape, elongate with almost straight sides, and rounded anteriorly and pos- 
teriorly. Colour in life whitish. Dorsum divided into two by a line between 
coxae III and IV; on the anterior shield the setae are 14//, to 16/* long except 
a pair behind the 4 vertical, and one on each shoulder between coxae II and 
III which are 28/* long; on posterior shield the two longitudinal rows of setae are 
14//. to 16//, long, the laterals from 25//. to 35//.; posteriorly with 3 pairs of longer 
setae, the anterior laterals 56/* long and of the two extreme pairs the inner 
pair 84/*, the outer pair to 100/* long. Venter: the sternal shield as figured, 
ending posteriorly at posterior point of coxae III; genital shield as figured, with 
straight posterior margin and 1 pair of setae; a pair of elliptical inguinal shields 
behind coxae IV; anal shield wider than long and narrower anteriorly than pos- 
teriorly, widely separated from genital shield. Legs shorter than body; 
I slender, 812« long, II slightly thicker, 221/* long, without any specialized 


Records ov the S.A. Museum 

armature; TIT 221/x long, IV 234ji hmgi coxae TT narrow, and much broader 
than trochanter. Onathosoma as figured, epistome (tectum) trispinous; eheli- 
cerae short arid stumpy, movable finger with 4 prominent retrorse teeth; fixed 
finder with a strong subapical and subbasal tooth, and finely serrate in between. 

Fig. I. Dendrolaelaps adelaideae sp. n. A-D, female: A venter, B 
dorsum, C tectum, D ehelicerae; E-G, male: E venter, F chelicerae, G Leg II. 

Womersley— Mites Associated with Bark-Boring Beetles 1)5 

Male. Shape and colour as in Female. Size from the material available 
larger than in female. Length of idiosorna 4.1 ftp, width 195/*. Dorsum a8 in 
female, with setae of similar lengths. Venter; sternal and genital shields as 
figured; anterior of anus is an indistinct transverse line which seems to suggest 
an incipient demarcation of an anal shield as figured, between this line and pos- 
terior <>!' genii h! shield are some radiating lines. Legs: II much thicker than I 
and III, and IV also thicker, II armed on basifemur with a long and strong 
ventral spur, but no other incrassations, IV with a posterior spur on coxae; 
I 31% long, IT S% III SHfc JV 286j*. Gnathosoma as in female. Ohelicerae 
as figured, tixed finger with a strong subbasal tooth; movable finger unarmed, 
with a long slender spermatophore carrier. 

Remarks. This species differs markedly from the genotype oudentansiy in 
(he shape of the nnal or ventri-anal shield of the female, and the posterior margin 
oi* the sternal shield in the same sex. In the male, the second leg lacks the small 
incrassations or spurs on the other segments than the femur. 

From the European cornutus the female differs in the shape of the ventrianal 
and inguinal shields, and the posterior end of the sternal shield. In the male, 
it lacks the small boss-iike inerassations on the genu and tibia of leg II present 
in cornutus, and is different from both ottdemwisi and comutus in having a 
spur on coxae IV. 

Locality. The holotype 9 , and two paratype 9 9 and the allotype $ from 
frass of bark-boring beetles, Adelaide, May, 1952. In the collection of the 
South Australian Museum. 

Dendrolaelaps concinna sp. n. 
Fig. 2 A-B. 

Female. Shape as in preceding species. Colour in life whitish. Dorsum 
as figured, divided in two on level of coxae TV, anterior shield 195/t long, pos- 
terior 247/a; dorsal setae as figured, of similar lengths to preceding species. 
Venter: as figured; sternal shield ending between coxae TII and IV with eon- 
cave posterior margin, and the 3rd and 4th gains of setae close together; genital 
shield as figured with 1 pair of setae; ventri-anal shield as shown, with irregu- 
larly scolloped anterior and lateral margins, widest in line of anus, with C setae 
in addition to anal setae, adanal setae longer, 3]/x than post-anal 17/*; inguinal 
shields lenticular and longer than in odehiideue. all other ventral setae including 
sternal I4p> long. Legs: I longer and more slender than others, 351/x long, II 
2()0//, III 234/*, IV 300/v. t^rsi with short ambulacra and paired claws. Epistome 
trispinous. Dentition of chelicerae not observable. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

Locality. A single female from frass under bark infested with bark-boring 
beetles, Adelaide, May, 1951. In the collection of the South Australian Museum. 

Remarks. Differs from preceding species in the shape and size of the ventri 
anal shield. 

Fig. 2. Dendrolaelaps concinna sp. n. Female: A venter, B dorsum. 


byH. Womersley, entomologist, South Australian Museum 


Family Laelaptidae Berlese 1892 
Laelaps (Laelaps) sminthopsis sp. n. 

Description Female. Shape broadly oval. Dark brown and strongly chitinized. Length of idiosoma 
l,300u, width 845u. Dorsal shield not entirely covering dorsum; as figured 880u long by 500u wide 
with numerous long slender setae to 120u long; some of the anterior marginal setae on shield and 
anteriorly on the surrounding cuticle are rather shorter, stumpier and strongly shortly ciliated. 
Venter: tritosternum with base in front of margin of sternal shield; no pre-endopodal or jugular 
shields; sternal shield wider than long, with 3 pairs of setae and 2 pairs of pores, the anterior setae 
are short and ciliated, the others long and nude, surface reticulate; metasternal shields distinct with 
long slender seta and pore; genito-ventral shield small, flask-like but not conspicuously expanded 
behind coxae IV, with fimbriated anterior and 4 pairs of setae; metapodal shields small and round; 
cuticle behind coxae IV with numerous setae, lengthening posteriorly where they are more ciliated; 
anal shield rounded with usual 3 setae; setae on gnathosoma ciliated. Legs: rather short, II the 
thicker, I 780u long, II 650u, III 690u, IV 975u; coxae I with a very stout blunt smooth spur, a 
smaller one on II, the other setae on coxae ciliated and rather stumpy; legs with ciliated setae. 
Chelicerae small as figured, each finger with 2 subapical teeth and fixed finger with simple seta 
(pilus dentarius), pulvillum with spine-like teeth. 


By H. WOMERSLEY, Entomologist, South Australian Museum. 

Fig. 1-2. 

Family LAELAPTIDAE Berlese 1892. 

Laelaps (Laelaps) sminthopsis sp. n. 

Fig. 1 A-D. 

Description Female. Shape broadly oval. Dark brown and strongly chiti- 
nized. Length of idiosoma 1,300ft, width 845//,. Dorsal shield not entirely cover- 
ing dorsum; as figured 880/x long by 500/* wide with numerous long slender 
setae to 120/x long; some of the anterior marginal setae on shield and anteriorly 
on the surrounding cuticle are rather shorter, stumpier and strongly shortly 
ciliated. Venter: tritosternum with base in front of margin of sternal shield; 
no pre-endopodal or jugular shields; sternal shield wider than long, with 8 
pairs of setae and 2 pairs of pores, the anterior setae are short and ciliated, the 
others long and nude, surface reticulate; metasternal shields distinct with long 
slender seta and pore; genito-ventral shield small, flask-like but not conspicu- 
ously expanded behind coxae IV, with fimbriated anterior and 4 pairs of setae; 
metapodal shields small and round; cuticle behind coxae IV with numerous setae, 
lengthening posteriorly where they are more ciliated; anal shield rounded with 
usual 3 setae; setae on gnathosoma ciliated. Legs: rather short, II the thicker, 
I 780 fx long, II 650/x, III 690ft, IV 975/*; coxae I with a very stout blunt smooth 
spur, a smaller one on II, the other setae on coxae ciliated and rather stumpy; 
legs with ciliated setae. Chelicerae small as figured, each finger with 2 subapical 
teeth and fixed finger with simple seta (pilus dentarius), pulvillum with spine- 
like teeth. 

Male. Unknown. 

Loc. and Host. The holotype female and 5 paratypes from Sminthopsis 
leucopus Gray, from Gorae, Victoria, 1937 (coll. H. H. Finlayson). 

Remarks. In size this species is closely related to the genera Macrolae- 
laps Ewing 1929 and Gigantolaelaps Fonseca 1937. From the latter it differs 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

in having the normal 4 pairs of genito-ventral setae and the Straight not medially 
produced anterior sternal margin. In Macrolaelaps the genito-ventral shield is 
much expanded behind coxae IV and almost reaches the anal shield. 

Fig. 1. Laelops sminihop.sis sp. n. Female: A venter, B dorsum, C leg II, 
D chelieerae. 

Family L1STROPHORIDAE Canestrini 1892. 


Pig. 2, A-E. 

Description. Form elongate, with dorsal and ventral semicircular scaling, 
not much compressed, but provided particularly on coxae II with a raised carina 


for grasping hair, and the body posteriorly on coxae IV in life tending to incurve 
ventrally for the same purpose; legs I and II also slightly modified for grasping 
hair. Coxae in two comparatively narrowly separated groups. Dorsal shield 
trilobed. All tarsi with suckers. Legs IV of male stouter than in female, and 
in that sex with two pairs of anal suckers. 

v ••■■■• i ■ <*- it 

'- ■,«■ - ^ .u 

— * • -A -f ,<•< 

t-f ■ 

— • - .-«_ — >— ' I , — ■ 

_ t- - • - - r^u -^*v - 


v J »-. - - 

- ■ ii* " . , • ; 

■ * \s ~- — L. _, _, J -« *<* 

• *-■ *- ^_r 

- p. Vjd. t> V - ~ ; J _ u -J, 

^ y -^ - 1 ' J " J ^C *- -v ** 

</*/"'./• vW V V 

J \l J J Y * *\ 

Fig;. 2. Auslrochirufi sminthopsis sp. n. A, female dorsal view; B, same, 
ventral view; C T male, ventral view; D, eoxae II and legs I and II in semilateral 
aspect to show raised carina; E, genu, tibia and tarsus of leg IV. 

Female. Length of idiosoma to 877j*, width to I04/x. The dorsal shield 
about one-fifth of body length, divided into 3 lobes, the median of which is 
short and rounded, the laterals with the posterior margins curving inwards and 
bluntly pointed on inner angle; furnished with two pairs of setae, the anterior 
pair about 3 times as long as posterior; dorsum with 3 pairs of short setae. 

120 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Ventrally coxae I and II touching in the midline, that of II is enlarged with 
a strongly raised longitudinal ridge-like lamina, for grasping hair; posterior of 
coxae TI on each side is a smaller triangular apparently movable sclerotized 
plate which may also assist in grasping hair, both coxae I and II apparently 
without setae; coxae III and IV also touching in median line, IV the larger, 
with setae as figured; the genital opening anteriorly between coxae III; on the 
cuticle between coxae II and III two pairs of long setae, the posterior lateral of 
coxae III the. longest; on the posterior fifth of the venter are 4 pairs of short 
setae with 2 other pairs flanking the anal opening. 

Male. Length of idiosoma 326/u, width 104^, as in the female dorsally. 
Ventrally with the genital opening between coxae IV, the anal opening sur- 
rounded with an elliptical ring inside of which are two pairs of sucking discs. 
Leg IV with the trochanter femur and tibia much stouter than in female; apex 
of tarsi IV furnished with a strong subapical claw. 

Loc. and Host. Numerous specimens from a specimen of Sminthoims crassi- 
cu it data, the flat-tailed or yellow-footed pouched mouse from the Ninety-mile 
Desert, west of Tintinara, south-east of South Australia, September 27th, 1953 
(coll. AV. (!. Heaslip). 

Remarks, This species is placed in the genus Amlrochirus Womersley, 1943. 
although in some respects, the more cylindrical form, the peculiar coxae 11 
with the small accessory shield for grasping hair, the less modified legs I and II, 
the trilobed doi'sal shield, and the strongly scaled cuticle, it does not quite eon- 
form to the genus as typified by Austrochirus quettidandicus Womersley 1943. 
Holotype ? and allotype $ and paratypes in the South Australian Museum 



byK Womersley, entomologist, South Australian Museum 


The subfamily Trombellinae was erected in 1935 by Sig Thor (Zool. Anz. 109 (5, 6), 108) for the 
single genus Trombella Berl. 1887 (Acari. Myr. Scorp. Ital. rep., fase. XL, No. 2) with Trombella 
glandulosa Berl. 1887 from Italy, as type. Included by Berlese in his 1912 monograph (Redia VIII, 
fasc. 1) were also the species Trombella nothroides Berl. 1888 (Acari Austro-americani, p. 10, tab. 
VI, fig. 2, and tab. VII, fig. 6 and 7) and Trombella otiorum Berl. (Riv. Di Patol. Veget,. IX, p. 
127), the first from Brazil and Paraguay, and the second from Italy, Sardinia, Corsica and Norway. 


By H. WOMERSLEY, Entomologist, South Australian Museum. 

Pier. 1-2. 


The subfamily Trombellinae was erected in 1935 by Sig Thor (Zool. Anz. 109 
(5, 6), 108) for the single genus Trombella Berl. 1887 (Acari. Myr. Scorp. Ital. 
rep., fasc. XL, No. 2) with Trombella glandulosa Berl. 1887 from Italy, as type. 
Included by Berlese ill his 1912 monograph (Redia VIII, fasc. 1) were also the 
species Trombella nothroides Berl. 1888 (Acari Austro-americani, p. 10, tab. VI, 
fig. 2, and tab. VII, fig, 6 and 7) and Trombella otiorum Berl. (Riv. di Patol. 
Veget,, IX, p. 127), the first from Brazil and Paraguay, and the second from 
Italy, Sardinia, Corsica and Norway. 

In 1937 Womersley (Rec. S. Aust. Mus., VI (1), 75) also included in the sub- 
family the genera Chyzeria Canest. 1897 (Termes Puzetek, 20, 483) with C. 
omata Canest., 1897, as type from New Guinea and represented by several 
species in Australia, and Parachyzeria Hirst 1926 (Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 
p. 825) with P. indica Hirst 1926 as type. (Thmima%otrombium Andre 1938 with 
Th. poecilotrichum Andre 1938 as type is synonymous with Parachyzeria Hirst). 

This placing of Chyzeria and Parachyzeria in the Trombellinae has since 
been followed by other workers, Vitzthum, 1941, Baker and Wharton, 1952, etc. 

The subfamily was defined by Sig Thor 1935 as follows : 

"Korper langgestreck. Abdomen rektangular. Haut hart, hockerig; 
Haare kurz und spitz. Crista fehlt; die 2 Sinneshaare sitzen dicht beisam- 
men an der Mitte des Thorax in 2 dicken Tuberkeln zwischen den 2 unges- 
tielten Doppelaugenpaaren. 4 Palpenglied mit verschiedenen Dornen oder 
Haaren; 5 Glied lang." 

Vitzthum 1941, defines the subfamily rather more fully so as to include 
Chyzeria and Parachyzeria, thus : 

"(irosse scharlachrote, dunkelrote oder schwarze Acari von 1500 bis 
4400 m.m. Lange Rumpf ziemlich langgestreckt; Hysterosoma rechteckig, 
in Chyzeria mit jeclerseits 5 dorsolateralen Zipfelformigen Aussackungen; 
an deren Stelle bei Parachyzeria in Wirbeln btischelartig zusammensed 


riingte Rehaarnnu. Integumen milliliter (Trombdln) hart, liockeri^. Keine 

Crista mctopiea. Auf tier Mitte des Propodosoma zwci pseudostigmatisehe 

Organc DdXl Triehobothricn dicht aneinander gedran»t, zwischen zwei sehr 

knrz gesticltcu Doppdamgeo. Palpllibia uAX mchrercu Dornen und ILiaren. 

Palplarsus lanji' mindestcns bis an die Spitze der Tibialkralle reichend, 

Bciue massig lang." 

The species rf (liyzeria and Varachyzcria differ markedly from all tJje 
species hitherto placed in Trombclla in the comparative]}' simple nature of tlie 
dorsal setae which, in the species of Trombclla, arts characteristically in the I'orm 
of short to long slightly curved nude to ciliated setae at the apices of more or 
less elongate papillae. Nude or simple setae are Pound in otiorum and noihroidcs, 
but to other species they are filiate. Again Chyzcna and Parachyzeria in their 
peculiar body i'orm. apart from the lack of a crista and the sensillae bases being 
more or less close together in the midline of the propodosoma, seem 60 have but 
a meagre relationship to Trombellu, It is therefore proposed that, while retaining 
them in the Trombellinae : they should be placed in a new irilx\ the Chyzerini 
nov. with Chyzeria Canest rini as the type. 

Of the three species of Trombclla described by Berlese, both otiorum and 
nniliroidcs do not agree very well with the genotype, T. ylanduloMt, in the fol- 
lowing points: firstly, the characteristic dorsal juts furnished with peripheral 
setae in tjlandulom are absent in both tdiornio and noih nmhs: secondly, the 
palpal tibia has no distinct pectine in (jhrndulosa but only a secondary shorn- 
spine at the base of the claw. 

For otiora.m and nothroidvs, therefore, a new genus Nofhrofrnmhidium 1 
with Trombclla oliorum Berl. as genotype is now proposed. 

The two more recently described species of Tromhella from Australia, 
namely, ttftfWfl'anaft Hirst 1929 (Proe. Zool. Soe. London, p. 168) and adclaidfor. 
Worn. t939 (Trans. Koy. Soe. S. AusL, li:i (2), 149), agree in the above features 
with fflandulo^i t ux\ belong therefore to Trombclla s. str. They are redeseribed 
and keyed later in this paper. 

In a, current paper (Malaysian Parasites, V.1.II— New Genera ;\m\ Species 
of Apoloniinae (Leeuwenhoekiidae — Aearina) from the Asiatic-Pacific Region — 
Raffles Museum), the writer has described the larva of a new genus and species 
as Audyana Ihtnupzoni from larvae from a scorpion, Ilclcrometrus lonr/imanus, 
from Pahang, Malaya. 194K. 

On the basis oL' larval characters Ihis ^enus was pfai&A in the subfamily 
Apoloniinae of the Leeuwenhoekiidae, hut at the tune It was pointed out that the 

'The bpeClOfl Trombclla lundbJadi Willmanii 3p30 ( Arkiv. f. Zool. olA, No. 10; 15) frimi 
Madeira will eouie iulo NothrotrombirJiitwi . 

Womersley— The Subfamily Trombellinae (Acarina) 123 

subfamily was rather a heterogeneous assemblage of genera, many of which, when 
the nymphs and adults are reared and correlated with the larvae, will have to be 
placed elsewhere. 

While the above paper was in the press, Dr, R. J. Audy was successful in 
rearing the larvae of Audy ana thompsoni through to the nymph, and has very 
kindly asked me to study these nymphs. 

This study has shown that the genus Audyana is closely related to the 
other genera of the Trombellinae and must be placed therein and not in the 
Apoloniinae. Andy ana differs from Trombella s. str. in the apparent absence 
of eyes, the sensillae bases being wide apart and situated on the posterior margin 
of a large propodosomal shield, and in that the dorsum, instead of having glandu- 
lar depressions, has lateral and sublateral protuberances furnished with the 
characteristic Trombella type of setae. 

Genus Audyana Womersley 1954. 

Diagnosis. Nymph. Trombellinae with the dorsum furnished with lateral 
and sublateral tubercles bearing 2 to 12 small lightly-curved ciliated setae at 
the apices of rather long peduncles. Propodosoma apically with a large trian- 
gular shield rather deeply excavated anteriorly; without crista, but with two 
widely separated pseudostigmata on its posterior margin furnished with long 
nude sensillae. Eyes absent. Palpi with strong tibial claw, and two accessory 
spines at base of claw; no pectines. Only one pair of genital discs. 

Larvae. With a single anterior dorsal scutum, witli 2 AM, 2 AL and 2 PL 
setae of which AM and AL are short and claviform; no antero-median process, 
but with a wide anterior hyaline portion. Legs : I 7-, II and III 6-segmented; tarsi 
with only a single claw. Palpal tibia with two short straight claws; maxillae 
and femora with short claviform setae. Genotype Audyana thompsoni Womers- 
ley 1954 (larva). 

Audyana thompsoni Womersley 1954. 

Description. Nymph. Colour in life creamy pink. Shape as figured. 
Length 739/x, width across propodosoma 533/x. With suture between propodosoma 
and hysterosoma, the propodosoma with a large triangular shield, 227/*, long by 
227/x wide, the anterior end of which is fairly deeply excavated. Eyes apparently 
absent. Crista absent. Sensillae filamentous and nude. ca. 100/x long, and sen- 
sillae bases situated behind the posterior margin of the propodosomal shield and 
130/* apart. Chelicerae not observed. Palpi as figured, tibia with a stout claw 
with two strong accessory spines as its base, no pectines on tibia, tarsus long and 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

clavate and just exceeding tip of tibial claw. Dorsum with two to three lateral 
rows of strong tubercles furnished with peculiar short curved ciliated setae on 
long peduncles, the number on each dorsal tubercle varying from two to twelve ; 
there are similar tubercles on the sides of the propodosomal shield; the dorsal 

Fig. 1. Audyana thompsoni Worn. 1953. Nymph. A dorsal view, B 
palp, C leg I, D dorsal protuberance with one seta and peduncle more 
enlarged, E leg seta, F genitalia. 

setae, plus peduncles, measure to 32/a. Legs : not longer than body, I as figured, 
715/. long, II 559/x, III 55 V IV 670/x; tarsus I 260 /* long by 104/. high, tibia 84/x 
long; the setae on the leg segments, except the tarsus I, are of similar type to 
the dorsal setae but hardly ciliated and on rather shorter peduncles. The geni- 
talia are as figured, with only a single pair of discs; 97/1 long and discs 39//, long 
by 26/x wide. 


Key to the Tribes and Genera of TROMBELLINAE. 

1. Large reddish acarids, with either dorso-lateral elongate processes on abdo- 
men, and medially intermixed with the normal setae a number of fine 
filmentous sensillae-like setae; or without such processes, but with four large 
tufts of long fine setae arising anteriorly, and a few smaller tufts pos- 
teriorly. Crista absent, but senillae bases (pseudostigmata) close together 
with a pair of long filamentous sensillae. Eyes 2 + 2, sessile. 

Tribe Chyzeriini nov. 2 

Not as above, but of variable colour from red to black, without processes 
or bushes of setae on dorsum. With dorsal glandular pits or raised tuber- 
cles, or without these. Vestiture peculiar, consisting of short to rather long 
nude or ciliated, slightly curved setae at the apices of short to long 
peduncles. Crista absent, pseudostigmal organs widely separated. 

Tribe Trombellini nov. 3 

2. Dorsum with long lateral process and without bushes of setae. 

Genus Chyzeria Canest. 1897. 
Type C. ornata Canest. 1897. 

Dorsum without processes but with strong bushes of long setae. 

Genus Parachyzeria Hirst 1926. 
Type P. indica Hirst 1926. 

3. Dorsum with lateral and median circular glandular depressions, with 
more or less peripheral series of setae. Setae not on peduncles or only on 
short ones. Palpal tibia without a pectine. Eyes present 2 + 2, sessile. 

Genus Trombella Berl. s. str. 
Type T. glandidosa Berl. 1887. 

Dorsum with lateral and sublateral protuberances furnished with peduncu- 
late setae, or without either protuberances or depressions 4 

4. Dorsum with lateral and sublateral protuberances and setae on long 
peduncles. Eyes absent, no palpal pectine. 

Genus Audyana Worn. 1954. 
Type A. thompsoni Worn. 1954. 

Dorsum without such protuberances, setae on only short peduncles. Palpal 
tibia with distinct pectine. Eyes present 2 + 2, sessile. 

Genus Nothrotrombidium nov. 
Type T. otiorum Berl. 1902. 

Redeseriptions of the two known Australian species of Trombella Berl. s. str. 

Trombella warregensis Hirst 1929. 

Proc. Zool. Soc. 1929 (1), 168, fig. 5 K, L. 

Pig. 2 A-D. 

Length 1-84 mm., width 1-0 mm. Opisthosoma rectangular, with promi- 
nent squarish shoulders and rounded posterior; propodosoma subtriangular, 0-35 
mm. long with a prominent nasus about 180/x long. Crista absent. Sensillae 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

missing but arising from raised denticulate papillae, 170j* apart, the denticles 
of papillae enlarging outwardly and ending in about four ciliated pointed setae 
arising from long peduncles. Eyes 2 + 2, small and lateral, and subsessile or 
shortly pedunculate. Palpal tibia with strong terminal claw and long accessory 
spine (or claw) basally of claw; tarsus large and clavate, over-reaching tip of 
claw; no peetines. Legs fairly thick, shorter than body, I 1,650^ long, II 1,12%, 
III 1,125,*, IV 1,42;V tarsi I 575|* long by MMfft metatarsus I 300j* long. Dented 

Fig. 2. AD Tromhclla war ivy at sis Hirst 1929. A propodosorua, R 
featatlB and tibial Haw oP palp < n ft or TTirst, bnt now missing from typo), 
Q front tardus anrl tilmi, J) one of the. dorsal setae; E-TT TrombrUa adf 
laiOciK Worn. 1939. E propodosoma, V palpal flaw and tarsus, G front 
tarsus and tibia. H dorsal setae and pedunelap. 

setae decumbent conical, finely pointed with distinct filiations, and arising from 
long upstanding peduncles, length oi: both peduncles and setae 29//,; similar 
setae occur on the nasns and the legs, and on the propodosoma anteriorly and 
laterally of the sensillae base, otherwise this portion is bare. The depressions 
on the dorsum consist of a row of 6 circular ones on each side, and medially 
with two circular ones followed by a large oval one and then a smaller circular 
one; all these depressions are ringed with setae of the usual shape but are 

Womersi.ey— The Subfamily Trombellinae (Acarina) 127 

inwardly naked; the lateral rows all have strongly marked centres; ventrally 
behind coxae IV are 10 rather smaller depressions arranged 5 on each side. 
No genital discs. 

Locality. The type, a single specimen from River Warrego, near Barrin- 
gum, New South Wales, under a log, August, 1928 (& Hirst), now in South 
Australian Museum. 

Remarks. Hirst was unable to compare this specimen with (ilanduhmi Berl. 
but from Berlesc's figure, it differs in the size and dimensions of the front tarsi 
and metatarsi, the single simple curved accessory seta on the sensillae bases 
(see Berlese's fig, A and 6), and the ciliated and rather differently formed dorsal 
and leg setae; the dorsal depressions in glmuiufosa also have all littler ring or 
crown of setae. 

Trombella adelaidkae Womersley 1939. 

Traaft Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 03 (2), J49, fig. 1 A-D. 

Fig. 2 E-H. 

Length 1-2 mm., width 0*75 mm. Colour in life white. General form 
as in trarngensu Hirst, propodosoma 225//,, with nasus 75,, long, Crista 
MhsoTit. Sensillae long and line, arising from raised denticulate papillae bases, 
[26/i apart, the denticles enlarging outwardly and ending in one or two long, 
thick ciliated setae, different from the normal setae. Eyes 2 -f 2, small, lateral 
and shortly pedunculate or subsessiie, Palpal tibia as in tig. 2F, with strong 
terminal claw, and near its base with a strong spine ( .'accessory claw), no pec- 
tines; tarsus more or less clavate and over-reaching tip of claw. Legs fairly 
thick, shorter than body. I l,05G>. long. II 750/x, III 750//., IV 960,t, tarsus I 
270/i. long by 90/4 high, metatarsus 165/* long. Dorsal setae decumbent, conical, 
pointed, with, under high magnification, a very line pubescence, and ;i rising 
from upright, long peduncles, length of setae 25/*; similar setae occur on nasus 
;in<l legs, >h,<| anteriorly and laterally of the sensillae bases. Dorsal depressions 
Jt>. rounded, except the anterior one of medial row of four, which is oval, the 
lateral rows with six, all the pits are not ringed with a crown of setae, and the 
setae cover the whole pit-surface; ventrally behind coxae IV there, appears to be 
only five small depressions. Genital discs absent. 

Locality. A single specimen, the type, from under a stone, Burnside, South 
Australia, August, 1938 (J.S.W.). 

Remarks. Closely related to gUnululom Berl. and irarregensis Hirst, but 
differing in the arrangement of dorsal depressions, the dorsal setae, and the 
setae of sensillae bases. 

128 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Key to the Species of TROMBELLA Berl. s. str. 

1. The setae arranged in two peripheral rows on each depression 2 

The setae on the depressions not. in distinct peripheral rows. Tarsus I not 
parallel sided, half as long again as metatarsus (tibia) and about 3 times as 
long as high, widest at one-third from apex T. adelaideae Worn. 1939. 

2. Tarsus T with subparallel sides, slightly tapering to apex, twice as long as 

metatarsus and nearly 4 times as long as high T. glandidosa Berl. 

Tarsus I not parallel sided, more or less clavate and widest beyond middle, 
less than half as long again as metatarsus and 2-75 times as long as 
high. „ T. vjarregensis Hirst 1929. 


The subfamily Trombellinae Sig. Thor 1935 is discussed and divided into 
two tribes, the Chyzerini now with the genera Chijzeria Canestrini 1897 and 
Parachyzeria Hirst 1926; and the Trombellini nov. for Trombella Berl. 1887 s. 

str. and allied genera. 

The genus Trombella Berl. 1887 is separated into two groups, Trombella 
Berl. s. str. with T. glandidosa Berl. 1887 as type and Nothrotrombidium nov. 
with T. otiorum Berl. 1902 as the type. The latter genus also contains T. noth- 
roides Berl. 1888; and Trombella s. str. the two Australian species T. warregen- 
sis Hirst 1929 and T. adelaideae Womersley 1939, both of which are redescribed. 

The nymph of the larval Species Audyana thompsoni Womersley 1954 is 
described from two specimens reared by Dr. J. R. Audy in Malaya, and the 
genus is shown to belong, not to the Apoloniinae (Leeuwenhoekiidae), as thought 
on larval characters, but the Trombidiidae. 

Keys to tribes and genera, of Trombellinae and to the species of Trombella 
s. str. are given. 



by Gordon F. Gross, assistant entomologist, South Australian Museum 


The Anthocoridae of this area now number at least 28 species, belonging to seventeen genera. 
Seven of the genera and twenty-five of the species are restricted to this region, the remainder are 
fairly cosmopolitan. A more detailed account of the ecology and Pacific zoogeography of this group 
appears at the end of the taxonomic account. 




By GORDON F. GROSS, Assistant Entomologist, South Australian Museum. 

Fig. 1-4. 


The Anthocoridae of this area now number at least 28 species, belonging to 
seventeen genera. Seven of the genera and twenty-five of the species are 
restricted to this region, the remainder are fairly cosmopolitan. A more detailed 
account of the ecology and Pacific zoogeography of this group appears at the 
end of the taxonomic account. 

The usual differences in coloration, of apparent structure, and estimated 
dimensions that most past workers have employed to describe species in this 
family are, I am convinced, quite inadequate to separate very closely allied 
species or even to adequately characterize new species in some of the genera. 
I have, therefore, introduced as many measurements as practical into the descrip- 
tions and these when all else fails, or is strongly in doubt, will at least provide 
a concrete yardstick which can be relied upon, within the limits of observational 
error and normal variability, to be constant in the one species. 

To cio this it has been necessary to make permanent mounts in polyvinyl 
alcohol lactic acid medium. On the micrometer scale under the magnification 
used, each division was equivalent to approximately 17-24/x. Where measure- 
ments range from 200^ upwards, this gives relatively low deviations from 5 p.c. 
of the co-efficients of variation per se, but where the measurements range from 
100/x downwards these large steps in relation to the value being measured usually 
induce larger deviations from this desired level. 

Several measurements used are also subject to another kind of observational 
error irrespective of the relationship between the value of the measurement and 
the value of one division on the micrometer scale. This, in some cases, is due 
to difficulty in defining the edges or position from which certain measurements 
must be taken. An example would be across the anterior width of the scutellum, 

130 Records of the S.A. Museum 

which can depend on whether i lie animal is flexed, causing the pronotum to move 
forward (or backwards) ovei' the seutellum, exposing more or less (depending 
on the flexure). In other eases this type of observational error is induced by 
obliqueness of the object measured (inevitable with such thick mounts), and 
ihis affects especially the legs, antenna! and rostral segments. This error lends 
to lower the lower limit of the. observed range and increase the standard deviation 
and co-efficient of variation. 

All measurements are made with the aim to get the maximum length 
involved, and the usual ways in which tins is effected is shown in fig. 4 Ivl 
Only where there are more than five specimens has there been any attempt to 
treat the sample statistically, and then only in those measurements exceeding 
LOOjtAj in the other eases only the observed range is quoted. 

The presence or absence of a well-developed ovipositor in the female, fhv. 
systematically investigated by Myers and China, proves to be very useful Oil 
the ,'jenei'ie level, and the shape of the male genitalia likewise is useful mi both 
the generie and specific levels, these are both characters that have largely been 
neglected by past workers. 

The family may be characterized as follows: 


Head prolonged anteriorly, rostrum apparently three segmented, held away 
from the lower surface of head as in Reduviidae and Nabidac, antennae four 
segmented; a pair of ocelli present or absent; hemielytra with both eimeus and 
emboliurn separated by a distinct fracture. Tarsi three segment, no ariolia. 
Male genitalia strongly asymmetrical and ovipositor present, often reduced, or 

The three subfamilies are each represented here and may be distinguished 
by the following key. 

Key to Subfamily of ANTHOt K)RIDAE. 

Cell of hindwiugs with a ha in us (spur into the cell), this is sometimes 
almost rudimentary R , .„,.. 2 

("•ell of hindwings completely without a harnus ... ,.. fMifoiiricllinac. 

2. Last, two antennal segments slender, filiform, with long hairs, harnus 
given off from (he "vena connect ens" or posterior transverse vein of 

C&I1 — ...... hyefocorinai 

Last two antenna! segments fusiform, short, without long hairs, harnus 
given off from the "vena subtensa 1 ' (interior longitudinal vein of 
cell) or rarely from the "vena conncctens" Anthucorinae. 

Gross — A Revision of the Flower Bugs 131 

Subfamily Anthocorinae. 

The most distinguishing feature is the short fusiform nature of the two 
terminal segments of the antenna] and their short pilosity. This, however, does 
not apply to Blaptostethus Pieb. In addition, the hamus is usually given off 
from the "vena subtensa," but this is not so in Maoricoris China. 

Kky to Australian' and Pacific Genkra op ANTHOCfVRlNAK. 

1. All femora unarmed 2 

Pore femora with denticles 4 

2. Hamus arising from "vena connectens ' ? as in Lyctocorinae, but with 

Anthocorine-like third and fourth antennal segments Maoricoris China, 

Hamus arising from the li vena subtense" 3 

3. Apical annulation of the pronotum distinet Anthocoris Pall. 

Apical annulation obscure or completely absent 

Orius Wolff ( = Triphleps Piob). 

4. Last antennal segments fairly thick, spindle shaped. Whole body 

stifling and smooth with very short hairs Lampronanella Popp. 

Last antennal segments thin, filiform. Body longer, sparsely haired 

Blaptostcthus Pieb. 

Genus Maoricoris China, 1938, 
Maoricoris China, 1933, AMNII (10) ]], 514, fig. 

Narrow, elongate, head exserted, with a distinct collum, antennae short, 
last two segments fusiform, rostrum just surpasses anterior coxae. Apical 
annulation of pronotum completely absent, lateral margins of pronotum straight, 
basal margin deeply excavate. Scutellum convex. Cuneus large, rounded at 
apex, membrane with four veins, middle two joining the interior to form two 
basal cells. Basal cell of wing with vein arising from the vena connectens, meta- 
pleural orifice produced anteriorly. Anterior femora incrassate, unarmed. Ovi- 
positor absent or obsolete. Genotype M. benefactor China. 

Maoricoris benefactor China, 1933. 

Maoricoris benefactor China loc. cit.. 516, tig. 

Deep shining ferrugineous red, rostrum yellow, extreme base infuscate, 
antennae black. Hemielytra rather dull fuscous brown. An elongate spot down 
claval commissure, one half on the apex of each clavus and an indefinate round 
spot at apex of embolium extending onto eorium, but not onto cuneus, pale 

132 Records of the S.A. Museum 

yellow. Coxae, bases and apices of femora sordid yellow, tibiae and tarsi pallid 

Sparsely pilose, posterior margin of vertex behind ocelli with a characteris- 
tic fringe of backwardly-direeted moderated short bristles. Relative lengths 
anteimai segments 9: 21 : 1(5: lft Length, 2-8 mm. Maximum width of prono- 
tiun across humeral angles, ■ 7 mm. 

Loc. New Zealand. 

Genus Lampronaxnella Popp., 1909. 

Lampronxmnclla Poppius, 1909, Ac. Soc. Sci. Fenn., 37 (9), 39. 

Elongate, shining, with very short prostrate hail's. Head hardly longer than 
wide. "Rostrum surpasses the fore coxae. Antennae almost as long as the head 
and pronotum together, second segment as long as width of frons between eyes, 
and as long as the third and fourth together. Basal margin of the pronotum 
shallowly sinuate, apical annulation narrow but distinct. Disc posterior to the 
middle deeply transversely impressed. Orifice of the scent gland bent anteriorly. 
Middle coxae widely spaced, hind coxae approximated. Legs fairly short, fore 
femora incrassated apieally and with two small teeth. Tibiae with very short, 
teeth. Genotype: L, reuteri Popp. 

This genus is very near Orius Wolff, but distinguished from it by the armed 
fore femora and tibiae. It is possible my P. armatus should be placed in this 
genus, but ns this species differs only in the toothed fore tibiae from the remain- 
ing species ol Orius, I prefer to describe it under that genus at this stage. 

Lampronaxnella rruteri Popp.. 1909. 

Lumpronamiella rexiteri Poppius. 1909, loc, cit. 

Dark brown, the head lighter (reddish brown), hind femora and antennae 
brown, second antennal segment, rostrum, and legs yellow. 

Antennae with short hairs. Basal width of pronotum about twice the 
medial length and much wider than fore margin, the disc is wholly flat, anterior 
lobe somewhat convex. Scutellum deeply impressed medially. Tibiae with very 
short thorns. Length, 1-8 mm. 

Loc. New Guinea. 

Genus Blaptostethtjs Fieber, 1860. 

BlaplostetJms Fieber 1860, Wien ent, Monats., 4, 270; Reuter, 1885, Act. Sen-. 
Sci, Fenn., 14, 611 and 666; Distant, 1910, Fauna British India (Rhyn- 
ohota), 5, 309 (London). 

Gross— A Revision of the Flower Bugs 133 

Body elongate, shining, moderately pubescent. Head with a distinct collum. 
Kostrum long. Apical ammlation of pronotum obsolete or very tenuous. Anterior 
femora somewhat incrassated, beneath in the middle with two obsolete tubercles 
and behind middle nearest the apex with two acute teeth, the first the larger. 
Terminal pair of antennal segments thin, filiform. Cell of the hindwings with 
a hamus arising from the "vena subtensa." Genotype : B. piceus Fieb. 

Blaptostethus piceus Fieber, 1860. 
Blaptostethus piceus Fieber, 1860, loc. cit. 270, taf. 7, fig. 4; Reuter loc. cit. 667. 

Body shining black, with a greyish pubescence. Hemielytra with a pallid 
punctuation on the interior apical angle of the embolium, the membrane also 
narrowly pale at its external basal angle. Head in front of the collum as wide 
(including eyes) as long. Pronotum anteriorly strongly transversely triate. 
Length, 3 mm. 

Loc. Celebes, Sumatra, New Guinea and Lombok (fide Poppius, 1909). 

Genus Anthocoris Fallen, 1814. 

Anthocoris Fallen, 1814, Spec. Nova Hemipt. Disp. Meth., 9; Van Duzee, 1917, 
Cat. Hem. Nth. Mexico, 292 (Berkeley, California), syn. 

Body oblong, shortly pubescent above, sometimes almost glabrous. Eyes 
usually not touching pronotum but closely approximated to its anterior margin. 
Pronotum basally broadly emarginate with a distinct anterior collar. Rostrum 
reaching the anterior coxae. Orifice of the scent gland almost straight, or bent, 
but very slightly forward anteriorly. Posterior coxae almost contiguous, meta- 
sternum often produced between them in a simple lobe. Apex of the abdomen 
with long exserted setae. Female with a well developed ovipositor. Genotype: 
A. nemorum (Linn) ~ sylvestris (Linn). 

There are two known species in these regions which can be separated by 
the following key. Anthocoris arctatus Walker, 1872, Cat. Heteroptera, 5, 153, 
is definitely not an Anthocoris for the long rostrum and third and fourth seg- 
ments of the antennae distinguish it from this genus. It may be a Cardiastethus, 
but I have seem no examples of this genus which could fit Walker's description. 

Key to Australian and Adjacent Regions Species op ANTHOCORIS. 

Tegmina piceous, concolorous with body Anthocoris austropiceus nov. 

Tegmina cinereo-testaceous basally, apically and cuneus infuscated 

Anthocoris pacificus Kirkald.y. 

134 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Antuocoris pacificus Kirkaldy, 1908. 

Anthororis pacificus Kirkaldy, 1908, Proc. Linn. Soc N.S.W., 33, 374. 

Piceous shining, almost glabrous. Second antemial segment and last seg- 
ment of rostrum testaceous. Tegmina cinereotestaeeous basally, apex and cuncus 
infuscate. Apex of anterior and middle femora, fore and middle tibiae and 
tarsi, and hind tarsi testaceous. Head almost as long as wide between eyes 
Which are not nearly contiguous with pronotum. Mecond segment of antennae 
2-J times as long as first and 11 times as long as third, third segment slightly 
shorter than fourth. Lateral margins of pronotum subsinuate. Hemielytra short ly 
pilose. Fore femora with four or more bristles. Length, 2-76 to 3 mm. 

Loo. Viti Levu, Fiji Island Group. 

Anthocokis austropiceus sp. now 
Fig. 1 A, B. 

Body above wholly piceous, tibiae and tarsi only somewhat lighter. 

Elongate, nearly glabrous, shining, with five or six prominent hairs on each 
side near the apex of the abdomen. Head with a distinct collum and the eyes 
consequently well removed from the anterioi* margin of the pronotum. 

Pronotum with sides distinctly marginate into a narrow but explanate ledge, 
which continues almost straight right up to the anterior angles. Tollar distinct, 
placed in front of the anterior angles. 

Scutcllum broadly and deeply transversely impressed near the mirklle. 
Ham us very distinct, arising from the vena subtensa. 

The systematic measurements (whirl) have been made on all the material 
available to me of this family) are for this species (in microns from one 
specimen) ; 

If end. Total length, 362; length in front of eyes, 121; length behind eyes, 
103; length of eyes, 155 : 172; width across eyes, 413: width of eyes, 86 : 86; inter- 
ocular, 207; width of collum, 362. 

Antennae I, 12! X Eft 121 >< 52; II, 203 X 52, 310 X 52j HI, 207 X 34, 
207 X 34; IV, missing, 207 X 34. 

Rostrum. 1, 155 X 69; H, 258 X 69; III, 207 X 69. 

Pronotum. Anterior width, 396; posterior width, 809; median length, 258; 
lateral length, 465, 413. 

Scutellum. Anterior width, 534; median length, 413; lateral length, 430, 

Gross— A Revision of the Flower Bugs 


Fig. 1. A-B, Anthrocoris austropiceus sp. nov. Female. A, head and pronotum; B, 
apex of abdomen from above. CD, Orius armatus sp. nov. Male. C, fore tibia; D, apex 
of abdomen from above. E-F, Oplobates femoralis Beat. Female. E, left front femur and 
tibia; F, apex of abdomen from above. G-I, Falda queenslandica sp. nov. Female. G, head 
and pronotum; H, left front leg; I, left middle leg. J, Lyctocoris campestris (Fab.). Male. 
J, apex of abdomen from above. K, Lasiochilus derriclci sp. nov. Male. K, head and 
pronotum. (CD, enlarged 80 diameters; A-B, E-K, enlarged 40 diameters.) 

136 Records of the S.A. Museum 





tarsi I 















not visible 


not clear 







not clear 














not clear 







Total length, 2,400; width, 880; length abdomen, 1,295; ovipositor, 637. 

Loc. New South Wales: Bogan River (J. Armstrong, Holotype 9 in 
Australian Museum). 

Very closely allied to A. pacijicus Kirkaldy in having the eyes remote 
from the anterior margin of the pronotum, but can be easily distinguished from 
that species by the coneolorous hemielytra and the absence of spines on the fore 

Genus Oritjs Wolff, 1811, 

Orivs Wolff, 1811, Icon. Cim., 5. 4; Zimmerman, 1948, Insects of Hawaii 3, 176. 

TripIUeps Fieber, 1860, Wien Ent. Monat., 4, 266; references largely summarized 
by Van Duzee, 1917, Cat. Hem. Nth. Mexico, 293. 

Body ovate or oblong ovate. Fronotal collar absent or very obsolete. Ros- 
trum not surpassing fore coxae. Second segment of antennae as long or shorter 
than interocular. Ovipositor present. Genotype: O. nigra (Wolff). 

There are two species in Australia, and they may be distinguished by the 
front tibiae being armed with small denticles in the case of Orius armatus sp. 
nov. and unarmed in Orius amtralis (China). 

Orius australis (China), 1926. 

Triphleps australis China, 1926, Bull. Ent. Res.. 17 (1), 361. 

Elongate oval, almost glabrous. Black, hemielytra pale yellowish brown, 
with the clavus, embolium and cuneus more or less ferrugineous brown. Legs 

The standard measurements in microns of the female specimen in the South 
Australian Museum are as follows (China's measurements, where given, follow 
in brackets) : 

Hvad. Total length, 360; length in front of eyes, 130; length behind eyes, 
65; length of eyes, 160; width of eyes, 90-100; interocular, 170; width of colluin, 

Gross— A Revision of the Flower Bugs 137 

Antennae. I, 90-100 X 30 (93); IT, 210 X 50 (203); 111, 150-160 X 17 
(156); IV, 160-180 X 40 (179). 

Rostrum. T, 90; II, 250; HI, 160. 

Pronotum. Anterior width, 420; posterior width, 790 (690) ; median tengtfa, 
273; lateral Length, 400. 

Seutellum. Anterior width, 530; median length, 390; lateral length, 420-440. 
Legs ooxa femur tibia tarai I II Iir CI. 

I 270 390 350 40 70 70-80 40-50 

II 220-230 390 340-350 30-40 70 80 40 

HI 260 460-480 530 50 90 80-90 40 

Total length, 2,000; total length width hemielytra, 2,100 (1,750); total 
Width, 790 (690); length abdomen, 1,020; length ovipositor, 570. 
Loe. Queensland (no other data); 1 9 in S. Aust. Museum. 

Orius armatus sp. nov. 
Fig. 1 C, D. 

Fairly elongate. Head brownish black, pronotum and seutellum darker. 
Hemielytra yellowish. Legs ocelli and first two segments of antennae yellow, 
remaining two segments of antennae darker. Eyes reddish black. 

Head with but a very short collum. Lateral margins of pronotum straight, 
marginate, anterior margin almost straight, hind margin almost concave. A punc- 
tate crescent in the hind fifth of the pronotum not reaching the edges, anterior 
portion of disc slightly raised. Seutellum almost planate, slightly raised 

Fore tibiae with about 21-23 short denticles (approximately Qp long). Male 
genitalia asymmetrical (f\^. 1 D). 

The standard measurements in microns of the type and paratype are: 

Head. Total length, 310-350; length in front of eyes,. 120-130; length 
behind eyes, 50-80; length of eyes (oblique), 140-170; width across eyes, 360; 
width of eyes, 80-90; interoeular, 130-140; width of collum, 300-320. 

Antennae. I, 90-100 X 30-40; II, 200-210 X 50; III, 170 X 40; IV, 200-210 

Rostrum. I, 70 X 30; II, 180 X 50; III, 170 X 30. 

Pronotum. Anterior width, 330-3:10; posterior width, 640-720; median 
length, 270; lateral length, 360-390. 

138 Records of the S.A. Museum 

ticuteUum. Anterior width, 520-530; median length, 340-400; lateral length. 





tarsi 1 




























Total length, 1,970-2,030; total width, 770-780. 

Luc. Queensland: Stanthorpe (E. Sutton, August 7, 11)28, Holotype 6 ). 
Alt. Oootha (A. A. (iirault, -lime. 1929. Pnratype of unknown sex, apex of 
abdomen missing, both in Queensland Museum). 

Subfamily Lyctocorinae. 

Terminal pair oi' antenna! segments long and thin, usually with long hairs. 
Cell in the hind wings with hamus (inwardly direeted spur vein) always arising 
from the ''vena conneetens. (Also called "vena deeiirrens. "' the trans\erse 
vein making up the hind margin of the cell.) 

Five genera are represented in these regions, one of thorn new, and they 
may be distinguished by the following key. 

Key to Australian and Adjacent Pacific LYCTOCORINAE. 

1. Pronotnm with a very marked transverse, constriction about 2/3 of 

the way back Faida gen, nov, 

Pronotnm not as above 2 

2. Orifice of the scent gland on the metapleura bent backwards apically. 
Margins of pronotum and hemielytra ciliate Uisiochilus Reut. 

Apex of orifice bent forwards H 3 

3. Sides of pronotum and hemielytra ciliate, anterior femora armed 

Oplobcttes Reut. 
Sides of pronotum and hemielytra not unduly ciliate 4 

4. Our species large, black, suboval Lijctororis Hahn. 

Our species smaller, more elongate, bieoloured, anterior femora in- 
crassated ... Xylocoris Dufour. 

Genua Oplobates Router, 1895. 

Oplobatcs Renter, 1895, Ent. Mo. Mag- 31, 170. 

Body oblong, shining with a long pubescence. Head with a short collar 
behind the eyes. Rostrum hardly surpassing the base of the head. Pronotum 

Gross — A Revision of the Flower Bugs 139 

with a very tenuous anterior collar, sides not marginate or sinuate. Membrane 
with four distinct veins. Anterior femora armed, underneath with thin spines 
their whole length. Female with a well developed ovipositor. Genotype: 0. 
femoralis Reut. 

Oplobates femoralis Renter, 1895. 
Fig. I E, F. 

0. femoralis Renter, 1895, loc. cit., 171. 

Fuscous above with a long yellowish pubescence, head ferrugineous, antennae 
and legs testaceous, the first and third antenna! segments and the apical part 
of the second fuscous. Anterior femora infuscated on the upper surface. Hemie- 
lytra with a pallid mark within the interior angle of the embolium. Head in 
front of the collar as long as broad. Pronotum longer than the head, sides 
straight but curved apically, disc obscurely transversely impressed near the 
middle. Posterior tibiae shortly spinose. 

Length, 3| mm. 

Loc. Victoria (fide Reuter). Northern Territory, Melville Island (W. D. 
Dodd, one female in S. Aust. Museum). 

Genus Falda gen. nov. 

Elongate, linear. Head fairly short, broad, little produced and strongly 
declivous in front of the eyes with a distinct but not very long glabrous collum. 
Antennae about as long as head and pronotum together, terminal pair of seg- 
ments filiform long, last segment curved. Rostrum very short, surpassing base 
of head but not attaining fore coxae. Pronotum with a tenuous anterior collar, 
strongly transversely impressed about 2/3 way back, this impression continuing 
right to the lateral margins and giving the pronotum the aspect of such Lygaeids 
as Pamera. Anterior angles of pronotum placed behind the collar, lateral 
margins diverge gradually, going from the anterior angles to the constriction 
then thereafter diverge considerably more to the posterior angles. This latter 
section of the lateral margins gradually curved. Hind margin of the pronotum 
very shallowly excavate, almost straight, anterior margin slightly concave. 

Scutellum with a deep puncture about 2/3 way back on either side and a 
third centrally near the tip. Hemielytra with on the clavus 3 longitudinal rows 
of punctures, the two outer straight and extending the whole length, the inner 
curved and restricted to the apical half, and on the corium near the inner 
edge one row running from the base to as far as the apex of clavus. Inner 
margin of clavus markedly sinuate. Cell of hindwing apparently with a hamus. 

HO Records of the S.A. Museum 

Orifice of the went gland T shaped, the upper transverse portion crossing the 
whole pWurtte at a level lower than halfway up, the vertical section running' 
forwards as well as downwards from this right n, the base of the pleurite and 
forming a 45" angle with the head of the T, 

Fore and middle femora inerassated, subtriangulai', armed with short teeth 
from the middle to the apex on their inner margin, fore tibiae markedly expanded 
to at least twice the width of the rest in their basal third. Middle tibiae and hind 
femora and tibiae normal. Female with a short ovipositor, apex of abdomen 
with a few long hairs. Genotype Falda quecnslandica sp. now 

This is at once an extremely distinctive genus and one which is hard to 
pJaee systematically. The unusual shaped pronotnm for an Anthoeorid is 
approached only remotely by Septicius Dist. and Arnulphus Dist., and more 
particularly Eulasiovolpua Champ. Arnulphua, however, belongs to an entirely 
different subfamily. The incrassation of the first and second pairs of femora 
as well as that of the fore tarsi is extremely distinctive, Scoloposcrtis being the 
only other genus in this region with two pairs of femora expanded, but in its 
case it is the fore and posterior femora, and Scoloposcelis lacks a hamus. 

Falda. qukenslaxdica sp, now 
Fig. 1 & H, I. 

Head, pronotum and seotellum dark brown, head and pronotum shining, 
collum darker. Head in front of eyes, rostrum, antennae, legs (except the 
.spines which are blaek) and a median and lateral stripe on abdomen beneath 
yellowish brown. Remainder of underside very dark brown including a broad 
stripe on either side of the abdomen, reaching back to the seventh visible segment 
and between the pale areas described. Hcmielytra darkish brown, but with 
some yellowish lightenings. Membrane brown. Head, pronotum and seutellum 
sparsely pilose, hcmielytra a little more densely so. Solium glabrous. Last two 
filiform segments of antennae with very short hairs. 

The standard measurements in microns from two specimens are: 

Ileud. Total length, 570-51)0; length in front of eyes, 120; length behind 
eyes, 190-260; length of eyes, 240; width of head across eyes, 460; width of eyes, 
160; interocular, 120; width of collum, 380. 

Antennae. I, 210-220 X 70; 11, 400480 X 50; III, 450-520 X 30; IV, 
500-570 X 30. 

Rostrum, I, 280-310; II, 260; HI, 120-140. 

Pronotitm, Anterior width, 380-430; posterior width, 1,030-1,090; median 
length, 570-790; lateral length. 790-880. 

Gross— A Revision of the Flower Bugs 141 

ScntclluM, Anterior width, 690-760; median length, 520-600; lateral length, 





tarsi I 




























Total length, 3,900; length abdomen, 2,700; length ovipositor, 760. 

Loc. Queensland: Cairns District (A. M. Lea, Holotype $, Reg. No. 
J 20082); Mt, Tambourine (A. M. Lea, "rotting leaves," one Paratype, sex un- 
known — apex, of abdomen missing, Reg. No. I 20083; both in S. Aust. Museum). 

Genus Lyctocoris Hahn, 1835. 

Lffcioi'oris Hahn, 1835, Wanz, I., No. 3, 19. In addition to the references 
quoted by Van Duzee (1917, Cat. Hem. Nth. Mexico 2K8, Berkeley, Cali- 
fornia), there is Zimmerman, 1948, Insects of Hawaii, 3. 174 (Honolulu). 

Xoiidiocheilus Kirkaldy, 1902, in David Sharp's Fauna Hawaiiensis, 127. 

Body oblong or oblong ovate, with a very slight low pubescence, pronotum 
and seutellum shining, hemielytra densely punctate. Anterior collar of prono 
turn tenuous or very indistinct, anterior coxae almost contiguous. Female with 
an ovipositor. Genotype (Logotype) : L. domesticus Hahn = campesiris (Fab.). 

There is only one species so far known from these regions, the very widely 
spread L. campestris (Fab.). 

Lyctocoris campestris (Fab.), 1794. 

Fig. 1 J. 

Acantkia caynpesiris Fabricius 1794, Ent. Syst,, 4, 14; Lyclocoris campestris, 
Lethierry ct. Severin, 1896, Cat. Gen. Hem., 3, 327, and Van Duzee, 1917, 
Cat. Hem. Nth. Mexico, 288 (syn.). 

Dark ferrugineous, second segment of the antennae (except the apex), legs 
and hemielytra testaceous. "Rostrum reaching middle coxae. The standard 
measurements in microns of two British specimens, kindly loaned for this pur- 
pose by the British Museum, and three Australian specimens (male and 2 
females), are as follows: 

II md. Total length, 640-750; Length in front of eyes, 240-340; length 
behind ^yes, 170-190: length of eyes, 220-260; width across eyes, 540-620; width 
of eyes, 120-100; interocular, 250-290; width of eollum, 430-540. 

i I : Records of the S.A. Museum 

Antennae. I, 140-190 X 50-70; II, 520-590 X 50-70; III, 340-380 X 17-34; 
TV. 33&38G X 17-34. 

Rostrum. I, 280-370; IT, B8fc8S$Qi III, 380-390. 

Pronotum. Anterior width, 570-650 (?-740); posterior width, 1190-1400; 
median length, 520-590; lateral length, 410-720. 

Smtelhnn. Anterior width, 720-1000; median length, 490-690; lateral 

length. 590-780. 





tarsi I 






(190 740 






















Total length, 3,800-4,()00; width across abdomen, 1,020-1,800; length abdo- 
men, 1,820-2,540; length ovipositor, 850-900; length male genital capsule, 480-530. 

Lor. Eolith Australia: Crrhrac (II. M. Cane, dune. 1940, 7 specimens in 
C.S.l.R.O. Division pf Entomology, Canberra). Tasmania; Hobart (A. M. Lea, 
3 specimens, 2 reared from wood, in tt. A list. Museum) . A.C.T. : Duntroon 
(Willis, March, 1951, 1 specimen in C.S.l.R.O. Division of Entomolgy, Can- 
berra). New Zealand; Auckland (May, 1950, "biting man at flight," i" Wood- 
ward Collection). 

Genus Lasiochilus Reuter, 1871. 

Lasiochilus Reuter, 1871, Oefv. Vet, Akad. Forh., 562; in Van Duzee, 1917, 
Cat. Hem. Nth. Mexico, 289-90, and the useful account by Zimmerman, 1948, 
Insects of Hawaii, 3, 172, syn. 

Body oblong with a longish pubescence. Head with a short collar behind 
the eyes, frons between the eyes usually with one or two distinct arcuate lines. 
Rostrum reaching middle coxae. Pronotum with a very tenuous collar. Orifice 
of the scent gland produced backward. Apex of the abdomen with long exerted 
hairs. Female with an ovipositor. Oenotype -. L. paUidulus Rent. 

The six species now known from this region may be distinguished by the 
following key. 

Key to Australian and A oj a tent Regions Species of LASIOCHILUS. 

!. Hemielytra punctate 2 

Hemielytra not punctate , 3 

2. (1) Tibiae with thornlike spines jruhstorferi ■ Popp. 

Pronotum longer than head 

Tibia with five long spines, head longer than pronotum derricki nov. 

Gross— A Revision of the Flower Bugs 143 

3. (1) Pore femora armed solemonensis now 

Fore femora unarmed 4 

4. (3) Abdomen very elongate in relation to width (1350 : 620) misimae nov. 

Abdomen not unduly elongate in relation to width (1300-1500: 
900-1000) 5 

5. (4) Apex of abdomen with about 4 long hairs, fore and hind femora 

incrassated femoralis nov. 

Apex of abdomen with but short hairs, fore and hind femora less 
inerassated , 1tn vitiensis nov. 

Lasiochilus fruhstorferj Popp., 1909. 

Lasiochilus (Dila^ia) fruhstorferi Poppius, 1909, Ac, Soe. Set Fenn., 37 (9), 9. 

Elongate, shining. Above with a golden pilosity. Blackish brown tibiae 
and tarsi yellowish. Membrane brownish-black with a small light stripe at the 
apex of the euneus. 

Head as long as w r ide across the eyes, in front of eyes as long as an eye. 
Rostrum not surpassing middle coxae, second segment about 2\ times as long 
as the first. Pronotum longer than head, posterior width hardly tw T ice the 
median length. Hemielytra longer than the body, obscurely punctate on the 
euneus. Legs with fine hairs, tibiae with thorns. 

Length, 2-8 mm. 

hoc. Lambok Is. 

Lasiochilus dkkricki sp. nov. 
Fig. 1 K, 2 A. 

Elongate oval, pilose. Dark brown, legs (except apical halves of femora). 
rostrum and terminal pair of antenna! segments brownish yellow\ Hemielytra 
yellowish with a very broad diffuse transverse band about the middle and one 
apically on the coriaceous parts. 

Rostrum almost attains hind coxae. Eyes ciliate. Sides of pronotum very 
ciliate, with the characteristic long hair on each corner. Fore femora somewhat 
inerassate, fore tibiae sinuate. 

riavus, adjacent part of eorium and extreme hind portion of pronotum 
strongly punctate. Hemielytra soinew T hat abbreviated, not reaching apex of 

The standard measurements from two specimens in microns are: 

Head. Total length, 430; length in front of eyes, 170-210; length behind 
eyes, 70; length of eyes, 170; width across eyes, 470; width of eyes, 100-120; 
interocular, 210-241; width of collum, 360-380. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

/X/^rrn V 1 frrm * 

Fig. 2. A, LaswchHus derrick* sp. nov. Male. A, apex of abdomen from above. B-C, 
Lasiochilus misimae sp. nov. Male. B, head, pronotum and fore femora; C, apex of 
abdomen from above. D-E, Lasiochilus solomonensis sp. nov. Female. D, pronotum; E, 
right fore leg. F, Tjosiochilus femoralis sp. nov. Female. F, dorsal outline. G-H, Lasiochiius 
vitiensis sp. nov. Female. G, head and pronotum; R, apex of abdomen from above. (All 
enlarged 40 diameters.) 

Gross— A Revision of the Flower Bugs 145 

Antennae. T, 120-140 X 50; IT, 400 X 50; III, 360-380 X 30; IV, 410-430 
X 30. 

Rostrum. I, 260; II, 600; III, 400. 

Pronotum. Anterior width, 600-640; posterior width, 790-860; median 
length, 400; lateral length, 480-500. 

Scidellum. Anterior width, 520; median length, 430; lateral length, 450-470. 





torsi i 





not clear 























Total length, 2,860-3,480; width, 1,090-1,240; length abdomen, 1,260-1,690; 
length male genitalia, 220; length female genitalia, 720. 

Loc. Queensland: Brookfield (R. H. Derrick. 2nd Aug., 1949, "Berlesed 
soil fitter," llolotype g, Reg. No. 120071. Allotype 9, Reg. No. 120072, in 
S. A ust. Museum). 

Seems to be very near L. fruhstorferi Poppius. but can be distinguished from 
this species by the different colouration, the shorter hemielytra, and the absence 
of thorns on the Tore tibiae. 

Lasiochilus misimae sp. now 

Pig. 2 B, C. 

Very elongate, flattened. Castaneous, legs lighter almost yellow, femora 
between shades. Coriaceous parts of hemielytra and body with long sparse 
hairs. Eyes shortly ciliate, sides of hemielytra with short cilia, the usual long 
hairs at the four corners. Wings not attaining the tip of the abdomen, male 
genitalia very large with sparse long hairs. Fore femora very markedly in- 

The standard measurements (from one male), in microns, are: 

Head. Total length, 360; length in front oi eyes, 140; length behind eyes, 
90; width across eyes, 310; width of eyes, 90; interocular, 140; width of collum, 

Antennae. I, 100 X 50; II, 220 X 30; rest missing. 

Rostrum. 637 (individual segments are not clearly defined). 

Pronotum. Anterior width, 360; posterior width, 570; median length, 310; 
lateral length, 360-380. 

Scutellum. Anterior width, 400; median length, 260; lateral length, 290-310. 

146 Records of the S.A. Museum 





torsi I 




























Total length, 2/270; width, 620; length abdomen, 1.350; length male genitalia, 

hoc. New Guinea: Misima Is. (Rev. H. K. Bartlett, Holotype S . Reg. No. 
120073 in S. Aust. Museum). 

Tliis species does not seem to have any particular close allies in this 
genus; it can be distinguished from the other species here by the key characters. 

Lasiochilus solomonensis sp. nov. 
Fig. 2 D, E. 

Chocolate, antennae tibiae and tarsi yellow. Eyes grey, ocelli white. Hemic- 
lytra brown, membrane semi-opaque, light brownish. Elongate oval head with 
setae in front and behind eyes, pronotum with the usual hairs on the four 
corners, but with very short ciliations along the sides. Apex of the abdomen 
with a few sparse hairs. Rostrum not attaining fore coxae. Fore femora with 
four short teeth. ITemielytra surpassing the end of the abdomen. 

The standard measurements (one female) are: 

Head. Total length, 570; length in front of eyes, 170; length behind eyes, 
170; length of eyes (oblique), 240; width across eyes, 470; width of eyes and 
interocular, not clear; width of eollum, 400. 

Antennae. I, 160 X 52; II, 360 X 70; III, 260 X 20-30; IV, 290 X 30. 

Rostrum. I, 90; II, 550; III, 350. 

Pronotum. Anterior width, 430; posterior width, 930; median length, 400; 
lateral length, 550-590. 

ScuteUum. Anterior width, 620; median length, 470; lateral length, 520. 

Legs coxa femur tibia 

I 330 530-550 550-570 

II 330 530-550 530 

III 120-150 720-770 790-810 

Total length, 3,100; width, 1,120: length abdomen, 1,590; length female geni- 
talia, 670. 

Loo. Solomon Is. (.1. H. L. Waterhouse, "on bunches of dried bananas,'' 
Holotype 9, Reg. No. 120074, in S. Aust. Museum). 

tarsi I 
















Gross— A Revision of the Flower Bugs 147 

Lasiochilus femoralis sp. nov. 

Fig. 1 F. 

Elongate, depressed. Castaneous, legs and antennae yellow. Head with a 
prominent hair behind and before each eye, and with a faint U-shaped mark 
between the eyes, the open end facing forwards. Eyes not ciliate, but with a 
long hair in front and behind. Pronotum with the usual long hair at each 
corner, but the lateral margins with very short hairs, disc very flat, hind margin 
almost straight. Sides of hemielytra prominently eiliate, hemielytra not sur- 
passing the apex of the abdomen. Apex of abdomen with about 4 very long 
hairs, rest of body with but a very short pilosity including the terminal pair 
of antennal segments. Fore and hind femora markedly inerassated. 

The standard measurements (in microns) for two females are: 

Head. Total length, 410-460; length in front of eyes, 1.20-1 60; length behind 
eyes, 120-160; length of eyes (oblique), 140-160; width across eyes, 410; width 
of eyes, 100-120; interocular, 170-190; width of collum, 380. 

Antennae. T, 120-150 X 50; II, 360-400 X 50-70; III, 260 X 20; IV, 
240-260 X 30. 

Rostrum. I, 140; II, 470; III, 260-290. 

Pronotum. Anterior width taken as same as collum, fore angles shallowly 
curved; posterior width, 760: median length, 280-290; lateral length, 430-470. 

Scutellum. Anterior width, 550-600; median length, 350-380; lateral length, 


not clear in either spec. 
50-70 100 30-50 

90 100 78 

Total length, 2,550-2,800; width, 910; length abdomen, 1,290; length ovi- 
positor, 570. 

hoc. Queensland: Clermont (Dr. K. K. Spence, October, 1929, Holotype $ 
and one Paratype 9, Reg. No. K 62496 in the Australian Museum). 

Seems to be fairly closely allied to the following species from which it can 
be distinguished by the long hairs at the apex of the abdomen, the more incrassate 
fore and hind femora, the much shorter hairs on the last two antennal segments, 
and the different colouration. 





tibia I 







not clear 









148 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Lasiochilus vitiensis sp, nov. 

Fir. 2G.H, 

Elongate oval, semi-depressed. Brown, a yellow fleck on the outer basal 
angles of the hemielytra, first two segments of antennae and femora brown, 
terminal pair of antenna] segments, tibiae and tarsi yellow. 

Head with a short hair behind caeli eye (there may be a short one also 
before, each eye, but this point is not clear. Terminal pair of antennal segments 
with long hairs. Pronotuni with the usual long hair at each of the four eorners, 
sides with long filiations, likewise the lateral margins of the hemielytra. Disc 
of fairly depressed with a low anterior callus behind which is a semi- 
circular depression. Apex of abdomen and remainder of body with mainly short 
hairs, fore femora fairly strongly incrassated. 

The standard measurements (in microns) of two females are: 

Head. Total length, 400410; length in front of eyes, 100-170; length behind 
eyes, 1)0-100; length of eyes (oblique), 140-160; width across eyes, 400; width 
of eyes, 100-120; interocular, 160; width collum, 330-360. 

Antennae. I, 120-140 X . r >0; IT. 310-350 X SO; ITT, 280 X 20; IV, 200-280 
X 20-30. 

Rostrum. 1, 90; II, 430; III, 220. 

Pronoium. Anterior width taken as same as collum for the anterior angles 
are gradually rounded; posterior width, 790-810; median length, 330-360; lateral 
length, 450-480. 

Scut (Hum. Anterior width, 620; median length, 410; lateral length, 470. 

Legs coxa femur tibia tarsi 1 II Til CI. 

I 260-310 470-480 360-410 50 70 100-120 40-50 

II 240-260 430-470 450-480 50 70 120 50 

III 280-310 590-600 690-710 50 100-120 120-140 70 

Total length, 2,670-2,690; width, 980-1,000; length abdomen, 1,330-1,520; 
length ovipositor, 500-530. 

Lac Fiji Island Group: Viti Levu {A. M. Lea, Holotype 9, Reg. No. 
120075, and one Faratype 9, Reg; No. 120076, in S. Aust. Museum). 

Genus Xylocoris Dufour, 1831. 

Xylocoris Dufour, 1831, Ann. Soe. Ent, France, 2, 106; Zimmerman, 1948, 
Insects of Hawaii, 2, 175; Van Duzee, 1917, Cat. Hem. Nth. Mexico, 290 

Gross— A Revision of the Flower Bugs 149 

Oblong ovate, shining. Eyes remote from the anterior margin of the pro- 
notum, rostrum reaching middle coxae. Pronotal collar obsolete or tenuous. 
Apex of the abdomen (except in flavipes and queenslandicus) with a long pilosity. 
Anterior and posterior coxae contiguous, anterior and sometimes posterior femora 
somewhat incrassated. Anterior tibiae of the male apically strongly dilated. 
Our two species with prominent hairs on each of four angles of the pronotum; 
these are, however, very fragile (unlike Lasiochilus) and are easily broken off. 
Male genitalia very asymmetrical (fig. 3, A, C). Ovipositor present in the 
female. Genotype: X. i-ufipennis Dufour = cursitans (Fall.). 

There are two species here, the widespread X. flavipes (Reuter) in its 
apparently typical habitat of stored grain, and a new species belonging to the 
flavipes group. This species (X queenslandicus) is larger than X. flavipes 
(2430-2780/* to X. flavipes 1500-2260/x). much darker as microscopic mounts, 
the female ovipositor is much longer in relation to the body than in X. flavijies. 

/ 5J0/A 260/z \ an( j t j ie male extcrna i genitalia are somewhat 

\ 1,258/x w 1,070-1,090,^ / 

different (figs. 3 A, C). 

Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter). 

Fig. 3 A, B. 

Piezostethus flavipes Reuter, 1875, Bihang till S, V. A. K. Handl., 3 (1), 65; 
1885, Acta. Soe. Sci., Fenn., 14; Puton, 1886, Cat. Hem. Pal., 43. 

Elongate oval, piceous with a pale pubescence. Rostrum, antennae, legs 
and hemielytra yellow. Cuneus infuscated membrane fuliginous hyaline. Head 
pronotum and scutellum shining, almost glabrous. Dorsal surface of abdomen 
castaneous, ventral surface dark brownish to piceous. Eyes brown, ocelli red. 

Pronotum somewhat convex, sides immarginate, anterior angles very slightly 
rounded. Scutellum anteriorly raised. Hind legs with some mediumly promi- 
nent spines. The standard measurements (in microns) of two females and one 
male are: 

Head. Total length, 350-400; length in front of eyes, 140; length behind 
eyes, 90-100; length of eyes (oblique), 100-140; width across eyes, 350-360; 
width of eyes, 90-100; interocular, 170-190; width of collum, 330-360. 

Antennae. I, 90-120 X 30-50; II, 220-260 X 40; III, 190-220 X 20; IV, 
220-260 X 20. 

Rostrum. I, 140?; II, 400? Ill, 410?. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

Pronotum. Anterior width (lore angles too gradually curved to allow 
measurement); posterior width, 570-720; median length, 290-400; lateral length, 

Scutellum. Anterior width, 400-500; median length, 290-330; lateral length, 

Fig. 3. A-B, Xylocoris flavipes (Reut.)- A, apex of abdomen of male; B, apex of 
abdomen of female from above. C-D, Xylocoris queenslandicufi sp. nov. C, apex of abdomen 
of male; T>, apex of abdomen of female from above. E, PlocMocorella elongata Popp. Male. 
E, apex of abdomen from above. F, Phy nop! cure Ua mundula (White). Male. F, apex of 
abdomen from above. G-I, Physopleurella pacifica sp. nov. Male. G, head and pronotum; 
H, apex of abdomen from above. Female. I, apex of abdomen from above. J-L, Physo- 
pleurella armata Popp. J, head and pronotum; K, apex of abdomen of male from above; 
L, apex of abdomen of female from above. (All enlarged 40 diameters.) 

Gross—A Revision of the Flower Bugs 15 





tarsi I 




























Total length, 1,500-2,260; width, 840-000; length abdomen, 1,070-1,170; 
length male genitalia (.oblique), 380; length ovipositor, 260. 

Loc. Fiji: Suva (R. A. Lever, 1st July, 1944, "Ex bagged rice," in Fiji 
Dept. Agriculture). Western Australia: Pmtharuka (F. Wilson, August, 1941, 
"From insect-infested wheat/' in C.S.I.R.O.. Division of Entomology, Can- 
berra). Has been recorded from similar locations overseas, 

Xylocoris queknslandicus sp. nov. 
Fig. S O, P. 

Elongate oval. Dark brown, eyes black, ocelli red. Ilemielylra yellowish, 
membrane milky, eiuieus infuscated. Rostrum, tibiae and tarsi yellow, antennae 
and other parts of legs yellowish brown. 

Head and pronotum sparsely pilose, but hairs on head long. Hemielytiu 
with a thicker golden pubescence, also the underside of the abdomen. 

Pronotum flattened, immarginate, behind the middle with a suggestion of 
transverse striae, lateral margins straight and with but gradually rounded 
angles, anterior collar very tenuous. Scutellum slightly raised anteriorly. Fore 
coxae elongate, middle and hind tarsi with rather more prominent spines than 
A", ftavipes. 

Male genitalia directed to the left, ovipositor of the female longer in relation 
to the length of the abdomen than in X. flmnpes. Apex of abdomen without 
long hairs, but a few rather short ones present. 

The standard measurements (in microns) of four males and one female 
are : 

Head. Total length. 400-430; length in front of eyes, 120-170; length 
behind eyes, 90-140; length of eyes (oblique), 160-170; width across eyes, 410-470; 
width of eyes, 90-120; interocular, 210-260; width of collum, 350-400. 

Antennae. I, 100-140 X 50; II, 290-360 X 50; III, 260-280 X 20; IV, 
260-310 X 25. 

Rostrum. I, 170-240; II, 350-400; III, 200-260. 

Pronotum. Anterior width, anterior angles too gradually curved to permit 
a measurement; posterior width, 830-950: median length, 360-430; lateral length, 

152 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Sctitellum. Anferidr width, 590-740; median length, 450-500; lateral length. 





tarsi I 




























Total length, 2,430-2,800; width, 910-1,140; length abdomen, 9004,260) 
length male genitalia (oblique), 400-480; length female ovipositor, 590, 

The individual measurements of the female tend to be 5-15 p.c. larger than 
those of the male, though not invariably, and this has contributed to the large 
observed range in some cases. 

The differences in colouration and structure already mentioned distinguish 
this species from fiavipes. From .V. discalis (Van Duzee), the only other Specie* 
in this region, of which 1 have only Abemathy's figure in Zimmerman 's Insects 
of Hawaii (and which may not be a member of flunpex group as Abernathy's 
figure is no certain guide to whether the apex of the abdomen is with or without 
long hairs) ifutenslandims seems to be distinguished by the lighter coloured 
antennae and fore tibiae. 

Lor. Queensland: Cairns District (A. M. Lea, Holotype f t Reg. No. 
1 20077, Allotype ? , Beg. \o. I 20078, and three Vara types. Reg. Nos. 1 20079-81, 
in S. Aust, Museum). 

Subfamily Dufouriellinae. 

Cell of hindwings without a hamus, second and third segments of antennae 
filiform, usually with a long pilosity. 

This is our best represented subfamily, the two most characteristic genera 
being Cardiaslethus and Physoplvu reiki, both showing a marked reduction (or 
complete absence) of the ovipositor in the female. 

The genera can be distinguished by the following key: 

Key to Australian and Adjacent Pacific DUFOURIELLINAE. 

1. Fore aeetabula markedly intumescent, fore femora usually armed, 

fore tibiae bent B Physoplenrella Reut. 

Pore aeetabula not markedly intumescent P 2 

2. Fore femora interiorly armed 3 

Fore femora unarmed „ 4 

Gross— A Revision of the Flower Bugs 153 

3, Fore femora interiorly armed with bristle-like teeth, fore tibiae bent, 
body fairly thick set rounded, sparsely haired Orthosoleniopsis Popp. 

Fore femora interiorly with more or less numerous stouter denticles, 
lore tibiae straight, hind femora also incrassated. Body slender, 
parallel sided, glabrous ,.. _.„„ Scoloposcdis Fieb. 

4. Basal margin of pronotum shallowly mid broadly sinuate ... Lasidiclhi Rent. 
Basal margin oi' pronotum deeply sinuate 5 

r>. Orifice of scent gland on mctaplcura always bent forward and co- 
alescing' with the longitudinal keel in an are reaching to, or nearly to, 
the anterior edge of the mesopleurae 6 

Orifice straight with apex more or less bent posteriad, the latter not 
coalescing with the longitudinal keel (where this is present) 

Poronotellus K irk . 

B. Antennae not. very long, second segment not as long as head, our 

species fairly oval. Ovipositor absent Cardiastethus Fieb. 

Antennae very long, second segment longer than the length of head. 

A well -developed ovipositor present in the female Plochiocorella Popp. 

(Jenus Lasiellidea Renter, 1-885, 

Lasiellidea Renter. 1895. Ent. Mo. Mag.. 31, 172. 

Body elongate, parallel, flat, shining and smooth. Head about as long as 
wide with a short eollum. Rostrum reaching middle, coxae, first segment reaching 
the eyes, second the fore coxae. Pronotum depressed with a median longitudinal 
impression. Femora unarmed, embolium narrow. Genotype: L. glabtrrinw 

Lasiellidea ulabekrima Renter, 1895. 

L. fjlahcrrimu Kcuter, IS!)f>, lor. ciL, 172. 

Piceous, shining all over, rostrum apex of the femora base of the tibiae and 
tarsi, pale testaceous, Membrane fuliginous, interior basal angle paler. Scutel- 
lum depressed. Second segment of antennae 8j times as long as the first and 
as long as the head Up to the hind margin of the eyes. Length, 2J mm. 

Lor. Victoria (fide Rcuter). 

<tenus Plochiocorella Popp., 1909. 

Plochiocorella Poppius, 1909. Ac. See. Sci. Fenn.. 37 (9), 22. 

Large, elongate, above conspicuously shining. Head and pronotum sparsely 
pilose, hemielytra more densely pilose. Rostrum surpassing fore coxae, antennae 
\ery long, noticeably longer than the head and pronotum together. Pronotum 

154 Records of the S.A. Museum 

and head about the same length. Lateral margins of seutellum serrate. Orifice 
of the scent gland anteriorly directed. Legs long, femora slightly incrassated 
and with longish hairs. Genotype: P. clonguta Poppius. 
There is, so far, only the one species in this genus, 


Fig. 3 E. 

Plochiocorella elongata Poppius loc. cit. s 23. 

Dark brown, hemielytra largely yellow, a fairly broad transverse band 
across eorium at about the level of the apex of clavus, the cuneus and a band 
along the inner margin of clavus brown, antennae brownish or yellow', legs and 
rostrum largely yellow, the body beneath is brownish black. 

The standard measurements from three specimens (in microns) are: 

Head. Total length, 600-640 (600 if first true rostral segment is included) : 
length in front of eyes, 220-260 (330 it irrst true rostral segment is included); 
length behind eyes, 120-160; length of eyes, 210-220; width across eyes, 430470; 
width of eyes, 120-160; interocular, 160-240; width of collum, 350-360. 

Antennae. 1, 160 X 70; II, 530-600 X 40-50; III. 510-520 X 20; IV. 
370-470 X 20. 

Rostrum. 1, 160-210: II, 690-790; III. 290-330, 

Pronation. Anterior width, 330-400; posterior width, 930-950; median 
length, 400-430; lateral length, 600-670. 

Seutcllinn. Anterior width, 500-640; median length, 500-570; lateral length, 





tarsi I 




























Total length, 2,550-3,550; width, 1,030-1,090; length abdomen, 1,650-1,820; 
length male genitalia, 380-400; length female ovipositor, 770. 

Loc. Queensland: Bit. Tambourine (A. It Lea); < 'aims District (A. M. 
Lea, both in S. Aust. Museum); Stanthorpc ( E. Sutton, April, 1929, 3 males 
and 1 female, in Queensland Museum). New South Wales; Gosford (in S. Ausr. 
Museum): Vaucluse (Dr. K. K. Spence); Deep Creek (Dr. K. K. Spence, bVb 
ruary, 1932); Sydney (Dr. K. K. Spence, April 193J, Keg. No. K64188, all hi 
Australian Museum). 

Gross— A Revision of the Flower Bugs 155 

Genus Scoloposcelis Fiebcr. 

Scoloposcelis Fieber, 1864, "Wicn. Ent, Monat., 7, 61; Van Duzee, 1917, Hem. 
Nth. of Mexico, 297 (Berkeley, California) (&yn.) ; also Distant, 1906, Faun. 
Brit, India, 3, 6^7; 1910, loc. cit., 5, 30; and Poppius, 1909, Ac. Soc. Sol 
Fenn., 37 (9), 25. 

Body elongate depressed, glabrous. Head in front of eyes broad. Rostrum 
surpassing the anterior coxae. Orifice of the scent gland curved forward, meso- 
sternum flat, medially suleate, acutely produced between the coxae at the base, 
apieally truncate. Anterior and posterior femora flattened and incrassated, 
usually with spines or denticles along their length. Genotype: S. cmssipes Flor. 
s?= }>u!chellus Zett. 

There is only one recorded species from these regions and that is of remark- 
ably widespread occurrence in the Indo- Australian region. 

Scoloposcelis pauallelus (Motseh.), 1863. 

Anthocoris parallelus Motsehulsky, 1863, Bull. Soc. Mosc, 36 (3), 89. 

S<oh>i)fjx<:elix parallclus Reuter, 1885, Act. Soc. Sci. Fenn., 14, 717; Distant, 1906, 
Faun. Brit. India, 3, 7; 1910, loc. cii. t 5, 304; Poppius, 1910, Wien. Ent, Zeit, 
29, 140. 

Scoloposcelis pirirornis Poppius. 1909, Ac. Soc. Sci. Fenn., 37 (9), 26. 

Glossy, pieeous or dark brown, tibiae, tarsi and often the corium basally 
and near the claval suture yellowish brown. Head with some long hairs dorsally 
and laterally, fore and hind angles of the pronotum each with a long hair. 
Basal margin of pronotum very slightly excavate, about twice as wide as the 
median length and H times as wide as the anterior margin. Fore femora with 
about four strong teeth, hind femora with more. Length, 2-5 mm. 

Distributed from Ceylon to Queensland. One specimen apparently of this 
species (for it lacks the hind tibiae on whicli certain identification can be made) 
in S. Aust. Museum. 

Genus Orthosolkxiopsis Popp., 1909. 

Orthosoleniopsis Poppius, 1909, Ac. Soc. Sci. Fenn., 37 (9), 21. 

Elongate, shining with a long erect dorsal pilosity. Head clearly longer 
than interocular, rostrum not, attaining fore coxae, second segment not surpass- 
ing the base of the head. Base of margin pronotum deeply excavated. Fore 
acelahula simple, fore femora incrassated with short erect setae along the whole 

156 Records of the S.A. Musei III 

of the anterior margin, fore tibiae weakly arched. Genotype. 0. australis Popp. 
Poppius compared this genus witli ('tn-diastethus, but it is likely to be much 
more easily confused with PhysophuvelUt, indeed it may be only a subgenus of 
this genus. Tt seems to be distinguished by not having the expanded fore 
acctabula of Phys<ipkurella y in having a longer rostrum and a very broad inter- 
ocular. The genotype is still the only species included. 

Qrtuosoleniopsis australis Popp., 1909. 

Qrthosoleniopsis australis Poppius, 1909, loc. cit. } 22. 

Yellowish red. The legs yellow, the eyes, the apex of the second antenual 
segment, and the third antennal sequent brown, the euneus brownish red, pilosity 

Head not longer than wide across the eyes. The second antennal segment 
clearly longer than these former. Posterior width of the pronotum about twice 
the median length. Posterior portion of the disc finely punctate. Hemielytra 
shining indistinctly punctured. Length, 3 nun. 

Loc, New South "Wales (Jide Poppius). 

Oenus Pi-iysoplkurella Renter, 188ft 

PhysopUurtlla Keuter, 1880, Ac. Soe. Sci. Fenn., 14, 114 and 124, 

Oblong, lateral margins of pronotum and cmbolium often with long back- 
wardly directed cilia. Ocelli very large and prominent. 

Rostrum short, thick, hardly (or not) surpassing the base cri the head. 
Anterior collar of the pronotum distinct but tenuous. Fore acetabuia markedly 
intumesccnt, anterior femora very incrassated, in our species armed with long 
spines along the inner margin, sometimes in several rows. Fore tibiae arched. 
Scute Hum with lateral margins serrate. Genotype: P. mundulu (White). 

This genus is well represented in this region by at least five species, I 
have found the genus extremely difficult to treat tat there is a great deal oi* 
uncertainty over the identity of the three species described here. Physoplcurefla 
munrfula B. White has a conspicuous dark stripe down portion of the centre tf 
the scutellum according to Zimmerman's figure, a Fijian specimen showing this 
character has, therefore, been relegated to that, species. A series of specimens 
from N.S.W. and Queensland agree in many points with Poppius' Ph, armata 
and in other points with his Ph. ahscuru, showing einionirst themselves quite a 
range of colour variation. I have, therefore, followed Usinger and regarded 
these two species as synonymous, and, as the tirstnamed is first in Poppius' paper, 

Gross— A Revision of the Flower Bugs 157 

I he species stands as Ph. annaia. The remaining specimens fall into three now 

These five species may be separated by the following key: 

1. Apex of abdomen with long hairs , 2 

A]-»ex of abdomen with but very short hairs 4 

2. Seutellum with a broad Brown Stripe running from the base to two- 
thirds way to apex t male genitalia in the form of an expanded, back- 
ward ly facing, cup with two very long sinistrally directed processes 

mundula B. White. 
Scute! him concolorous 3 

.'J. Male genitalia composed of a large flat plate with a short process 
(fig, 3 K ) hardly exceeding the limits of the plate. Sides of pronotum 
nearly straight, broMclly rounded anteriorly 

armata Popp. = Ph. obscura Pop p. 

Male genitalia composed of an expanded posteriorly directed cup 
from which emerge 2 long processes directed sinistrally 

pacificn nov. (fig. 3 H). 

4. Lateral margins of pronotum almost straight, almost without hairs, 

broadly rounded anteriorly H bribunsis nov. 

Lateral mai'gins of pronotum sinuate, with long hairs in the anterior 
portion, anterior angles almost straight australis nov. 

Physopletjrella mundula (White). 
Fig, 3 P. 

Curdiastethus mundula White 1877, A.M.N.ll. (4), 20, 111. 

PhysopUureUa mundula Renter, 1885, Ac. Soe. Sci. Femi., 14, 125; Usinger, 1946, 
Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull., 189, 55; Zimmerman, 1948, Insects of Hawaii, 
3, 177, fig. 

Pale rufous brown, with fairly dense long oehraeeous pilosity, vertex of 
the head, first segment of antennae, the disc of the pronotum, a broad longitudinal 
stripe in the basal two-thirds of the seutellum, the cuneus, most of the under- 
side of the body and femora darker. Collum very short, anterior margin of pro- 
notum straight, posterior margin excavate, lateral margins sinuate and strongly 
ciliate, anterior angles very flat. 

Orifice of scent gland directed anteriorly at apex, mesopleurae striate. 
Male genitalia in the form of an expanded baekwardly-directed cup with 2 long 
thin sinistrally-directed processes, curving anteriorly at the tip. Apex of 
abdomen with long hairs. 













158 Records of the S.A. Museum 

The standard measurements (in microns) from one specimen are: 

Head. Total length, 450; length in front of eyes, 140; length behind eyes, 
90; length of an eye, 210-220; width across eyes, 410; width of an eye, 160; 
interoeular, 100; width of collum, 280. 

Antennae. I, 100 X 50; II, 360-380 X 50; IIT, 190-210 X 20) IV, 210 X 

tfostrum. 393. 

Pronotum. Anterior width, 330; posterior width, 790; median length, 400; 
lateral length, 550. 

Scutellum. Anterior width, 620; median Length, 530; lateral length, 500-530. 

Legs coxa femur tibia. tarsi I 

I 200-220 520-530 430-450 30 

II 200-220 500-520 450 30 

III 210-220 590-620 670 30-40 

Total length, 2,500; width, 1,120: length abdomen, 860; length male genitalia, 
240, White quotes the length as 2 ; f mm. 

Loc. Fiji: Moturiki (A. M. Lea, June, 1 male in S. Aus. Museum), is 
apparently widespread over the Pacific, being recorded from Hawaii and Guam. 

Phtsopleurfxla pacifica ,sp. nov. 
Pig. 3 G-I. 

Dark brown. JSecond, third and fourth segments of antennae, ocelli, apical 
portion of scutellum, rostrum, underside of embolium and tibiae and tarsi yellow. 
Eyes red to black, underside of abdomen (except central ly) infuscated. Pilosity 
golden, first segment of antenna, a transverse patch on land margin of pro- 
notum yellowish brown. Cuneus with a reddish tinge. 

Collum distinct, glabrous. Anterior margin of pronotum straight, posterior 
margin deeply excavated, lateral margins sinuate, prominently ciliate, anterior 
angles nearly straight. Pronotum with a centrally raised portion which has a 
longitudinal channel. Scutellum raised anteriorly, transversely impressed about 
halfway back, then plane in posterior half. Mesopleurae striate, orifice of scent 
gland directed posteriorly at the apex. 

Lateral margins of hemielytra slightly sinuate, ciliate. 

Male genitalia in the form of an expanded backwardly directed cup with 
two processes sinistrally directed, these processes shorter and stouter than P. 

Gross— A Revision of the Flower Bugs 


The standard measurements of 6 specimens treated statistically (in microns) 





Coeff. of 







Length of head 






Length of head 

in front of eyes 






Length of hend 

behind eyes 


Length of eves 

222-8+4 -7 


173-9-271 •; 



Width of head 

across ayes 






Width of eye 












Width of eollum 

295-0 ±10 -2 

25-1 + 7-2 








420- 4-*-9-8 


















1 and II 













Anterior width 






Posterior width 






Median length 






Lateral length 

020 -9 ±9 -3 






Anterior width 

554- 0-+-25 -5 





Median length 






Lateral length 







Coxa I 






Coxa II 






Coxa III 






Femur I 






Femur II 






Femur III 






Tibia I 






Tibia II 






Tibia III 






Tarsus I I 


Tarsus I II 


Tarsus I III 


Tarsus II I 


Tarsus II II 


Tarsus II III 


Tarsus III I 


Tarsus III II 


Tarsus III III 


Claw I 


Claw II 


Claw III 


160 Records of the S.A. Museum 










Total length 2748-t-66-2 


2362 -0-3234.0 



Total width 927-2±23-l 


756- 8-1097- 6 



Length of abdomen 1222.0+53-3 


830 • 0-1614-0 



length of male 



Length of female 



Hemielytra exceed the length of the abdomen and therefore the quoted 
total length by about 140/*,. 

hoc. Fiji: Viti Levu (A. M. Lea, Holotype t , Reg. No. 120068, Allotype 
9, Reg. No. I 20069, and 3 Paratypes, Reg. Nos. I 20070 and I 20067). Queens- 
land: Cairns District (A. ML Lea, Paratype $ , Reg. No. I 20066, all in S. Aust. 
Museum ) . 

Physopleurella armata Popp., 1909. 
Fig. 3 J-L. 

Physopleurella armata Poppius, 1909, Ac. Soc. Sci. Fenn., 37 (9), 12. 
Physopleurella obscura Popp., loc. cit., 13. 

Yellowish brown, fairly shining above. Hemielytra dull with semi-erect 
sparse hairs. Beneath, first segment of antennae and tip of second, scutellum 
and legs darker. 

Head with a prominent collum. The anterior margin of pronotum almost 
straight, posterior margin deeply excavate, lateral margins straight, ciliate, 
margined, anterior angles lying behind the collar, broadly rounded. 

Scutellum depressed, hemielytra longer than the abdomen, clavus, corium 
and cuneus indistinctly punctate. Male genitalia composed of a large plate 
with short process on the left side placed on the edge and sinistrality and an- 
teriorly directed (fig. 3K). 

The standard measurements (in microns) treated statistically from nine 
specimens are: 




Coeff. of 







Length of head 



446-9-669- 5 



Length of head 

in front of eyes 






Length of head 

behind eyes 


Length of an eye 






Width of head 

across eyes 

476 • 3+4 -0 





Width of an eye 








Width of collum 






Gross — A Revision of the Flower Bugs 





Coeff. of 













X 50-60 






X 20 






X 20 



I and 11 



221- 9-385-1 










Anterior width 



462- 1-655 •:; 



Posterior width 






Median length 






Lateral length 







Anterior width 






Median length 

608-0+1 J -5 


504- 8-711-2 



Lateral length 







Coxa I 






Coxa It 



173- 7-350-7 



Coxa III 


74- 7-4-12-8 



Femur I 



473 -4-790 -2 



Femur IT 



546- 4-625-0 


2- 'J 

Femur III 






Tibia I 






Tibia II 

504* 7-1-11 -0 


3 73- 0-636 -4 



Tibia III 






Tarsus I I 


Tarsus I II 


Tarsus I III 


Tarsus II I 


Tarsus IT IT 


Tarsus II III 


Tarsus III T 


Tarsus III II 


Tarsus III III 


Claw I 


Claw II 


Claw III 


Total teagtfa 


72-3 + 17-0 

3170- 0-3004.0 



Total width 


68-3+10- 1 




Length of abdomen 1753-0+21 -5 


1530- 0-1946-0 



Length of male 




Length of female 



Hemielytra exceed the length of the abdomen and therefore the quoted length 
by about 180j*. 

Loc. Japan and New Guinea (fide Poppius). Queensland: Cairns District 
(A. M. Lea, in S. Aust. Museum). New South Wales: Gosford (in S, Aust. 

162 Records of the S.A. Museum 


Fig. 4 A, B. 

Elongate oval. Above and below eastaneous, cuneus and eyes darker. Legs 
possibly lighter. 

Pronotum similar microscopically to P. pacific a, but the lateral margins arc 
margined, straight with the anterior angles broadly rounded like P. armata, but 
not ciliate as in the latter. Seutellmn anteriorly raised, transversely silicate well 
behind the middle. 

Mesopleurae striate, metapleural orifice curved strongly forward almost to 
fore margin of pleurite. Apex of abdomen without prominent long hairs. 

The standard measurements (in microns) from one female are: 

Head. Total length, 530; length in front of eyes, 170; length behind eyes, 
160; length of an eye, 250; width of eyes, 470; width of eye, 130; interocular, 
140; width of collum, 350. 

Antennae. I, 120; II, 400; III, 250-260; IV, 220-230. 

Rostrum. Missing. 

Pronotum. Anterior width (across collar), 380; posterior width, 1,030; 
median length, 410; lateral length, 570-620. 

Scutellum. Anterior width, 620; median length, 520; lateral length, 570-590. 

Legs coxa femur tibia tarsi I II III CI. 

I 260-280 620-650 530 30 50-70 90 missing 

II 220-260 500-570 480-530 50 70 100 missing 

III 240-310 620-690 770 missing missing missing missing 

Total length, 2,970; width, 1,140; length abdomen, 1,640; length female 

genitalia, 210. 

Closely allied to the following species in the very short hairs at the apex 
of the abdomen and almost glabrous sides of the pronotum, but in the shape 
of the pronotum it resembles Ph. armata. 

Lor. Queensland, Bribie Island, Moreton Bay (Lea and Hacker. Holotype 
?, Reg. No. 120003, in S. Aust. .Museum). 


Fig. 4 G D. 

Elongate oval. Dark brown: middle of venter, tibiae and tarsi, rostrum, 
humeral angles of pronotum and hemielytra yellow. Pilosity golden. Eyes 
black, ocelli red. Head with a distinct collum, pronotum with a distinct though 

Gross—A Revision of the Flower Bugs 


Fig. 4. A B, Physopleurrila bribiensis sp. liov. Female. A, head and pronotum ; B, 
apex of abdomen from above. C-D, Physopleurella austraJis sp. nov. Female. C, head and 
pronotum ; D, apex of abdomen. EI, series of dorsal outline sketches showing methods of 
taking some of the standard measurements. E, head and pronotum, and J, apex of abdomen 
of female of Physopleurella bribiensis sp. nov. ; F, fore right leg of Oplobates femoralis Rent. ; 
G, apex of abdomen of male of Physopleurella armata; H, apex of abdomen of female 
Xyloeoris queenslandicus sp. nov. (All enlarged 40 diameters.) 

ac, anterior width of seutellum; aw, anterior width of pronotum; i, interocular: 11, length 
tarsus 1: /#, length tarsus 11; IS, length tarsus III; hi, length of head in front of eyes; /r, 
length of elaw; le, length of eye; If, length of femur; \g t length male genitalia; Ih, length 
of head; II, lateral length of seutellum; lo, length female genitalia (or ovipositor when 
present); Ip length of head behind eyes; Is, lateral length of seutellum; //, length <>[' tibia; 
Ix, length eoxa; me, median length of seutellum; ml, median length of pronotum; pw, posterior 
width of pronotum; wac, width of head across eyes; we, width of -an eye: irlt, width of collum. 

164 Records of the S.A. Museum 

tenuous collar, anterior margin almost straight, posterior margin deeply excavate, 
lateral margins sinuate, not conspicuously ciliate, and hardly marginate. 

Scutellum slightly raised anteriorly, slightly impressed two-thirds oi* the 
way back. Sides of hemielytra not sinuate. Apex of abdomen without long 
hairs. Mesopleurae striate. 

The standard measurements for one female specimen (in microns) are: 

Head. Total length, 590; length in front of eyes, 210; length behind eyes, 
J 20; length of eyes, 260; width across eyes, 470; width of an eye, 160-170; inter- 
ocular, 140; width of collum, 310. 

Antennae. I, 140 X 50j IL 460-480; 111, 210 X 20; IV, 210-240 X 20. 

Rostrum. I and II, 241; III, 172. 

Pronotum. Anterior width, 360; posterior width, 1,020; median length, 500; 
lateral length, 650-700. 

Sculellum. Anterior width, 670; median length, 590; lateral length, 550-640. 

Legs coxa femur tibia 

I 290-310 650-670 550-570 

II 260-280 600(120 590-640 

III 280-290 660-670 910-930 

Total length, 3,570; total width, 1,170: length of abdomen, 1,810; length of 
female genitalia, 189. 

hoc. Queensland : Cowell Creek (McNamara, Holotype 9 , Reg. No. I 20064 ; 
in 8. Aust. Museum). 

This species is allied to Ph. bribiensis in not having long hairs at the apex 
of the abdomen. The side of pronotum is sinuate and strongly ciliate, resembling 
in the latter respect Ph. mundula, Ph. armata and Ph. pacifica, and in the former 
Ph. mundula and Ph. pacifica. 

irsi I 

















by Bernard C. Cotton, conchologist, South Australian Museum 


There is a rapidly-growing interest in shell collecting among students and school teachers in South 
Australia; this paper has been prepared, therefore, to explain how a typical beach may be explored. 
One of the best places for shell collecting near Adelaide is in the vicinity of the Outer Harbour, 
situated about fourteen miles from the city. In a radius of one mile, at the tip of LeFevre Peninsula, 
is an area of river, mangrove swamps, estuarine mud-flats, weeds, rocks and stones. Practically all 
the variety of marine fauna a collector is likely to obtain in the upper protected waters of Gulf St. 
Vincent is represented here. 


By BERNARD C. COTTON, Conchoi.ogist, South Austkat.un Museum. 

Plate xxiii and text fig. 1. 


There is a rapidly-growing interest in shell collecting among students and school 
teachers in South Australia; this paper has been prepared, therefore, to explain 
how a topical beach may bo explored. 

One of the best places for shell collecting near Adelaide is in the vicinity 
oC the Outer Harbour, situated about fourteen miles from the city. Tn a radium 
of one mile, at the tip of LeFevre Peninsula, is an area of river, mangrove 
swamps, estuarine mud-flats, weeds, rocks and stones. Practically all the variety 
of marine fauna a collector is likely to obtain in the upper protected waters of 
Gulf St. Vincent is represented here. 

This account records where certain well-known molluscs live, as distinct 
from the many kinds one may find cast up haphazardly on the benches after 
storms. Years of patient and experienced collecting are required to obtain the 
300-odd species which live here. 

Most of the shells mentioned are figured and briefly described in "South 
Australian Shells," published by the South Australian Museum, and sets of 
35 mm. colour slides are being prepared under the auspices of the Museum 
and Visual Aid Section of the Education Department for exhibition in schools. 
The slides can be obtained by schools on loan through the Visual Aid Section 
and the explanatory text is contained in the publication mentioned. 

Comparatively rapid changes have taken place on our beMehes during the 
last few r years through natural and artificial causes. The cumulative effect of 
recent violent storms coincident with high spring tides, protruding sea walls, 
and, to a lesser extent, minor sea level 7-ise, have measurably modified the pat- 
tern of scouring deposition along this coast. At Glenelg and Henley Beach fine 
sand has been temporarily removed in places, exposing the remains of a man- 
gi'ove swamp which flourished several thousand years ago in this area* during 
the Mid-Recent Period, when the sea-level whs some 10-15 feet higher. At 
Brighton an old gum tree in siiu was uncovered, and also an ancient whale 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

Sand drawn from sand dunes at storm level and from the sea floor further 
south may re-cover these areas. Sand movement is essentially northwards; sand 
depositions are occurring- at Outer Harbour, and finer materials are silting 
mangrove areas further north towards Port Wakefield. 






Fig. 1. Sketch map of the northern part of LeFevre Peninsula. 

Within the next few years portion of the Outer Harbour surveyed hero 
is to be entirely altered to form a "(ireater Port Adelaide." It is, therefore, 
suggested that biological surveys of local beaches should prove instructive and 
valuable to future generations, following the rapid changes and obliteration of 
certain areas. Here a remarkable opportunity is presented to observe the con- 
tinuous environmental adjustments which accompany changes in sea-floor con- 
figuration and the altered pattern of sand deposition. 

Cotton— MoT,i.u^( a or tML Outkk HAKBDUR, South Australia 167 


At the southern end of thfi Harbour is a 1oti*»* stone breakwater about one 
mile long proKWing the wharf and entrance channel to the Port River; toeing 
and parallel to it is another similar breakwater on the opposite side of the 
channel. From the two breakwaters northwards extend sand-mud Hats which 
are exposed at low tide. At the tip of LeFevre Peninsula there is a mangrove 
swamp, numerous small estuarine creeks, and a samphire swamp, inundated at 
high 1ide. Down the east coast of the Peninsula facing Torrens Island there 
arc odd stretches of the Port River mudbanks, where industries have not ob- 
scured them. SucJi a river bank is at Snowden Beaeh in the south of the 

]u pJ. xxiii, Ho, |, <. an be seen the two hundred acres of beach formed by 
silting south of the southern breakwater, and also, exposed at low tide, the 
sand and mud beach around the northern breakwater, tn pi. xxiii, fig. 2, the 
sand and mud flat is on the right ol 1 the Royal Yacht Squadron Harbour, the 
raised bank of dead shell-sand is on the right of the raised circle, and the sand- 
mnd flat of the northern bank is situated on the far side of the channel. Fig. 1 
pT'esents a sketch map of the northern part of LeFevre Peninsula 

South of tht- Brkakwatfjr. 

Thirty years ago the bay in the south, adjoining the harbour projection, 
was tilled with deep sea- water, but it is now silted up, forming a sandy beach. 
This southern breakwater lias acted as a groyne, catching the drifting sand, 
and thus building up 200 acres of fine-sand beach. Foreshore walls further south 
along Gulf St. Vincent have aided scouring and the shallow layers of fine sand 
resting above old mangrove swamps are being carried northwards, exposing the 
mangrove mud on formerly attractive beaches. 

At very low tide two shallow-water sandbanks beyond and parallel to the 
shore can be explored. On the outer bank lives the rare and attractive Frilled 
Cfefikte Catlanaiiis disjecta, the Heart tackle Cardiuyn nukctti, the Feather 
Cockle. Tawera galUnula* and the closely allied Grouse Cockle Tnwem lagopm 
(the latter favouring deeper water), the Globular Ark Vefetuceta radians, the 
Date Shell Xofemya australis and the rarer Southern Finger Solen vaginoides, 
which protrudes from the sand at night time until early morning, rapidly bur- 
rowing immediately the early sun rays appear. In a muddy sponge lives the 
Doughboy oi' Prickly Scallop Munactrlftnijjs asiHrri/nm, and crawling on the 
sand is the Smooth Mitre Yicimitra glabra, the Triangle Murcx Pterynotus tri- 
fornm, the Sea-bubble Quibbula feriuisimma and the False Helmet Ilypocassix 

168 Records ok tum s.A. Museum 

bicarinaia. On the first or inside bank live colonies of the targe White Cockle 
Anxlnnnucira pura, (he Southern Gflfclrie Anslromitctra anstralis and the Pink 
Sunset Shell Tclliua olbineUa wedded in hue sand. Rarely, the King Scallop 
Notovolu nll'U fiod, more frequently, the Queen Scallop Equkhlt/ntiis bifvtn ?, 
to which is sometimes attached the Southern Slipper Ztocri/jjla immcrsa. rest on 
the saud surface. 

Near low water mark the Sand Cockle Kat<hjsii( scalaniKt digs itself ill 
with almost invariably a tuft of "Tangle Weed" Knit ro dlOTpTtH inftnlinalis on 
the protruding posterior end. nigh up on the sand Hat near high tide mark- 
is the Adelaide Triangle Cockle Anapdht uilclaidae. In certain areas this sfcv$H 
white cockle is plentiful; it is good food, sweet and delicate in taste> but rather 
too small for anyone but a confirmed cockle connoisseur. Lower down the beach 
in pools left, by the tide, just beneath the sand, lives the Small Wedge Awphi- 
<h\s»ia MffWtfl Mud the Blunt Wedge \ ni^liirhsum niwitta, in quantity. Silver 
gulls can be seen ^paddling" the wet sand at low tide making numerous depres- 
sions about nine inches in diameter. From the disturbed wind and water the 
gulls pick up food — Small Wedge cockles, minute Amphipoda, aud other small 
crustaceans which live there, On clear rin r nearby are sharp carved knife-like. 
gasheB in the sand. These are \\\o tracks of the Small Wedge, and a specimen 
may be found half dug-iu at the newer end of ttie cut. Preying on these small 
cockles is the red-banded Flame Borer Niotha pyrrhus. A cockle can lie opened 
and used as bait to attract the Flame Borer and other carnivorous gastropods. 

Washed up in sponges on this beafcll after storms is the White Lima Aus- 
Iroliimt gonhm, aud sometimes also the Oricnial Lima I'nniLdiihlhrni <,yni\i<ilv- 
from deeper water, where it lives in colonies attached to broken Heart Cockles 
and Bazor Shells, and also the Fort Lincoln Oyster Ostrra sinvala, which grows 
particularly well when attached to accumulations of Razor Shell farther out. 
The light aud delicate Wing Shell Elcvfruma gcorgiana attached to weed is cast 
high up on the beach. 

Dead shells <rf scallops, oysters. Heart I 'oekles. Dog (Vickies, unci even 
Bednall's Trigonia Ntotngania bfdnnl/i, washed up from ten or fifteen fathoms, 
may have attached to the inner surface the tear-drop shaped container oi the 
Flask Cockle (laxtnirlwena tasmoniat. The container is composed of marine 
debris, shell fragments, [lydrozoa, Lace Coral, Bryozoa, and so on. 

The Brkakwatku. 

When the. tide is well out an examination of the lower rocks of the break- 
water can be made. Most of the reef-living shells are found here alive in sh&UoW 
water, the. Round Back Sea Ear KxohalioHs cyclobatcs, Torrs Periwinkle Am 
trocochUa torri, Black Key Hole Limpet Kophismalapax nigrita. Common War- 

Cotton— Mollusca of the Outer Harbour, South Australia 169 

rener Euninella undulata, Black Periwinkle Nerita melanotraga, Common Lim- 
pet Cellana tramoserica, Conniwink Beynbicium melanostoma (which deposits 
groups of bean-shaped, jelly-like egg masses about one-eighth of an inch long 
on the surface of the sand, each capsule containing about 50 eggs), the Dog Whelk 
Dieathais textiliosa (with its numerous close-packed, small horny, tumbler- 
shaped yellow egg capsules attached to rocks or broken shell), the Rough Cockle 
Chama rudcralis, and the Rock Shell Cleidothaerus albidus, and sometimes the 
Thorny Oyster Spondylus tenellus. Below low-tide the Jingle Shell Monia ione 
is found attached to stones by means of the shelly plug which protrudes through 
a hole in the lower valve. 

Some of the commoner chitons, for instance, the Lined Chiton Ischnochiton 
lineolatus, and Decayed Chiton Ileterozona cariosa, cling to the rocks. In 
deeper water, on rocks further out, live the Peppered Cowry Notocypraea 
piperita, the rare Gruner Warrener Euyiiyiella gruneri, and the Lyre Shell Lyria 
mitraeformis, the last active at night and readily collected in number if a suit- 
able light is available. Towards the end of the breakwater, attached to the 
rocks, the large Port Melbourne Mussel Mytilus planulatus has been taken, and 
also the Rostrate Mussel, Brachyodontes rostratus. In shallow water, attached 
to rocks, broken shell and debris, is a bed of Beak Mussels Brachyodontes erosus, 
solitary among the limy tubes of Serpulidw such as Galeolaria caespitosa, while 
imbedded in sponges is the Bearded Horse Mussel Modiolus areolatus, and less 
commonly the Ridge Mussel Modiolus alhicostus. Other Serpulae tubes attached 
to rocks are the solitary Galeolaria hystrix, the little flat, spiral, Spirorbis, and 
the world-wide Serpula vermicularis. 

Away from the breakwater to the south below low tide are meadows of the 
plants Posidonia and Cymodocea, giving a dark blue appearance to the water. 
In the latter lives the beautiful Pheasant Shell Phasianella australis, and these, 
when taken alive, have the delicate aperture of the shell undamaged and the 
shelly operculum in place, making them far more attractive to the student and 
collector. Many other weed-loving shells inhabit these meadows, such as the 
Spindle Shell Coins australis, the Waved Spindle Propefusus undulatus and 
Tulip Shell Pleuroploca australa<sia, with its small bell-like horny transparent 
egg capsules attached in groups to dead shells. 

Inside the Breakwater. 

When the tide is particularly low an examination of the inside of the break- 
water is well worth while. In the masses of weed growing just below low tide 
mark are the Stenochitons, which live only in Southern Australia. If you pull 
out a handful of the common strap-like weed Posidonia, beneath the sheath and 
near the root you will find the larger Weed Chiton Stenochiton longicymba which 

170 Records or the S.A. Mtskum 

should be carefully removed "with the finger and thumb and placed in the col- 
lecting jar of seawater. so that If can be carefully tied down to a flat lath and 
dried in the laboratory If removed and allowed to dry without this attention, 
it curls up tightly and cannot he straightened without fracture. All Chitons; 
enrl when removed from the water, the outer shell surface thus forming a 
protective eoveriuir. Strnochiton Itmrjicymba is in quantity at this locality. Ob 
the leaves of Ptmdonia may be found the small and inconspicuous Weed Limpet 
Nacrnht purra, and the Filsbry Weed Chiton Sienorhiton pilshryanus, once 
called Rtcnocliiton potiidoniaiis from its habitat. Amonir the roots of the weed 
live the Milestone Cockle Vcnt'rujds iiotociltts. You may next observe a patch 
of wiry weed with a green leaf almost like that of an olive tree; this is ffywo&OCea. 
Pull out a bunch of the weed for on it live, beside the Pheasant Shell, a number 
of smaller weed shells belonging to the genus Ph<isiitHi>li'm:hii$; the Small Neck- 
lace Phusianoirochus irisodovtcs, TCed Lip Necklace Phasianotrovhux IxUulus, 
Sharp Necklace Phasiantrochus apirivus, the Hoop Shell Thafolia <onic«, the rare 
shining green Creen Mouth Odnnto/rtn hits clilurosfomux and the common Handed 
Kelp Shell Bankiviu fusc'tata all oeeur on Cyntoducta. If you examine the weed 
carefully yon may find a very small and rare Slit Shell Scusurona vinccntiawi, 
or one of its relatives. The Dove Shell Zcmitrclhi lincolnensis and its relations 
may also be present; in addition may occur the little Emerald Mussel Muscuhis 
pauliicciae, also smaller Starfish, and the delicate spined Sea. Urchin Amblyp 
neuslcs paUidus, on which lives the glassy, curved commensal EuKma conntu n- 
saiis. On the stems of CymodaoGQ lives a small narrow Cymodoeea Chiton Sicvo 
ch Hon cym odocealis. 

North Breakwater. 

IT a boat is available, an examination of the breakwater on the f;\r side 
of the channel will produce worth-while results. Here will be found the reef- 
living shells, Limpets, Periwinkles and Warreners, like those on the south side 
of the breakwater previously examined, and in deeper water, crawling on sand 
patches at the south end of the sand pit and inside the breakwater, the Southern 
Olive OJiva auxtrtdis. In addition one may see here on rocks below low tide 
the flamed Limpet Ckfy$fflBW&(t flmnmcu, lhe Seven Flame Limpet So(nan<.<( 
Reptif'ynn™, and Scaly Limpet f 3 afrlhivn.r sqnamifcra, the Marbled Limpet f'n L 
lise!lhui larhlrigitta, Die Worm Shell Vtrmi< alarm siplm (which incubnles (he 
emzs within the shell), lhe Split "Worm Ki(i<ju<tri<t Uil8iroH# With its bottle-cork 
like operculum and the Hammer Oyster M<dl, its n>fridi(nins. Hammer Oysh-rs 
should be placed in water for 9 or I days, then scrubbed a Her reiuovimj- ill ' 
animal. Tie the shells together with string and dry and pieser\e the hair-likq 

Cotton — Mollusca of the Outer Harbour, South Australia 171 

byssus. Numerous blue Australwinks Melarhaphc unifasciata, Conniwinks Bern* 
bicium melanmtoma and closely related species, and the Speckled Periwinkle 
Fractarmilla concamerata are found on the rocks, also the large Stronger Spined 
Sea Urchin Ileliocidaris erytlirogramma, sometimes carrying the commensal 
Brown Stylifer Stylifer brunneus. 

The Sand and Mud Plats. 

At low tide an expanse of sand and mud flats are exposed on the north 
and west side of the Royal Yacht Squadron Harbour. At low to half tide mark, 
on the banks of the channel leading to the Port River, live the three common 
cockles, the Sand Cockle Katelysia scalarina, the Mud Cockle Katelysia peroni 
and the rarer Corrugated Cockle Katelysia corrugata, favouring mud to sand 
respectively, all closely alike in appearance. Numbers of people are sometimes 
seen working with rakes, spades, or bare hands collecting these cockles at low 
tide for food and bait. They are collected and sold commercially bottled, 
soused in vinegar. The cockles live just a few inches below the surface when 
the tide is down. As an experiment, open a cockle shell and place it on 
the surface of the sand. In a few minutes the small Borer Whelk Parcanassa 
panperata will appear nearby, or some feet away, and will approach the open 
cockle. Take out a pocket lens and watch the Borer Whelk insert its trunk-like 
proboscis into the flesh of the cockle. The radula or ribbon tongue with its 
minute teeth tear the cockle flesh to threads and pass it down the proboscis. 
The procedure can be easily watched under the lens. The Flame Borer, Lined 
Whelk Cominella lineolata, Small Ivory Whelk Cominella eburnea, Burchard's 
Borer Parcanassa burchardi, and even the Sand Snail Uber conicum may join 
in the feast. In pools left by the tide is Goldstein's Litozamia Litozamia gold- 

Just below the surface of the sand in a few inches of water when the tide 
is at its lowest lives the large cream coloured slug-like Ear Snail Ectosinum 
zonule, with a small ear-like shell on its back. Having a somewhat similar 
appearance, and living in a similar position, is the Angas Philine Philine angasi, 
with its delicate internal bubble-like shell and three strong internal gizzard 
plates for crushing the small shells which it eats. From November to February 
the peculiar gelatinous, balloon-shaped egg-capsule is found near the Philine, 
which burrows just below the sand. The egg capsule is two to three inches 
long and is attached to its sandy base by a thin filament. Beds of Razor Shell 
Pinna dolabnita occur in places such as at the northern entrance to the Royal 
Yacht Squadron Harbour and are exposed at extremely low tide. The shells 

172 Records of the S,A. Museum 

are anchored by the hairy byssus at the lower pointed end while the sharp hm<\ 
dangerous upper edges of the shell project above the surface. When colleetine; 
a few of these for the cabinet, preserve the hair-like byssus, soak it in tepid 
water until soft, place on a white blotting paper and stroke out with a camel- 
hair brush. Finally replace the byssus in the cleaned shell and uuin into position. 
The animal is large and is moderately esteemed as food, particularly the lar^c. 
cream > -white adductor muscle. On the "Razor Shell crawl variuus common 
chitons, particularly the Oval Chiton Isvhnorhiton contractus. Attached to 
dead Razor Shells are found the Jingle Shell Monia io))€ % the Southern Slipper 
Zpt/rrijptrr immrrsn, the Port Lincoln Oyster Oslrca sinuuta, and, anchored by 
the byssus, arc numerous Hammer Oysters Malleus uieridianvs. Anion? the 
Kazor Shells is Pound the Southern Tone Floraconus r/70 monc (a relative of Me 
larger tropical poisonous cones), the Triangle Murex r'tnifnniits friformis, the 
Queen Scallop ami oo<>d specimens of the Round Back Sea Bar. with occasionally 
the Cap Limpet ('(tjtu/us uuslrulis attached. Protected by and within the dead 
UYi ur Shells may be found the small kiimod Octopus Ihi\mUn hhn nm maculosa 
and the Lined Squid tiipiohridto liufoiata. Numerous Bggft of the former are 
sometimes attached to the inner surface of the dead Razor Shell. 

Below low water, amongst tonl stories and weed, are the burrows of a shrimp 
Axius plcclorhyiuhus; living in the burrows with the shrimp is the small and 
peculiar flat bivalve, the Moon Cockle Ephippodonla macdonyaUi. Adult speci- 
mens can sometimes he seen creepino- about the stones during March and April. 
The shrimp burrow is market! by a light orange coloured sponge and the Pagoda 
Cockle Myltitu deshayesi is also L'ound in the borrow. The burrow seems par- 
ticularly attractive to certain small incubatory commensal, nestling: bivalves, 
for in it are found Myllita tasviavicu, M. (temmuhi, Kcllirt anf/asiana, l\. austra 
lis, Marikellia vincenleiisis, M. 'yor1;ensis, Lcpton triyonalc, L ovatum and L. 

Buried deep in sandy mud is the large Hard Clam Lutraria rhynchaena, the 
shell gaping at the upper end, through which protrudes the trunk-like sheath 
containing the siphons, Nestling in the mud between tale marks is the orecrari- 
ous, small, sinning chestnut brown Variable Mussel Modiolus inconsfans and 
occupying crypts m a friable consolidated shell-ooze in (U^p water is the burrow- 
ing Southern Date Mussel Lithophayn cunciformis. 

As the lide turns and rises examine the sand quickly from the water's edge 
to ten i'eet or so up the beach. Many species at this period erawl out to the 
surface or move towards the water. Among those ploughing in the sand BTfl 
the Sunset Slicl! T<Hiva albiuclla, Bougll TelleJi Pst udarcopuyia vic1ocm<\ ({lo- 
bular Ark Yclrlnccta radians, Date Shell Solemya australix, White Cockle Ans- 
troynattra pura, the Southern Cockle Auslromaclra auxtralis and Flinders Mae- 

Cotton— Mollusca of the Outer Harbour, South Australia 173 

tra Elect romactra flindersi. The Feather Cockle Taivera gallinula and the 
Grouse Cockle Tawera lagopus throw themselves out of the sand at the turn of 
the tide following- low water. 

The Double Ray Sunset SoletelUna biradiata can be located by the semi- 
circular mark in the sand, as though a knife has been pulled along the surface. 
The mollusc is situated at the newer end of this cut and sometimes throws itself 
out when the tide approaches. On the surface is the Smooth Mitre Vicimitra 
glabra, False Helmet Hypocassis bicarinata and the Lyre Shell Lyria mitrae- 
formis. Ploughing into the sand and leaving a coarse wavy track of disturbed 
sand is the Sand Snail liber conicum. At the newer or more recently disturbed 
end of the track is a hump of sand and just beneath this occurs the Sand Snail. 
From November to February the Sand Snail \s collar-like egg girdle of cemented 
sand, three or four inches in diameter, is plentiful on the beach. The numerous 
small eggs can be seen by transmitted light. The girdle is flexible when fresh, 
stiff and very brittle when dry. 


If while the tide is low old piles and wood structures are examined, near 
their base will be found attached massed colonies of the small Black Mussel 
Modiolus pulcx, the Hairy Mussel Brachyodontes hirsutus, the Ark Shell Area 
pislachia. Among the encrusting masses of Serpulae tubes, such as Hydroides 
multispinom with its thin, white, brittle, limy tubes nestles, anchored by the 
byssus, numerous specimens of the rose-tinged Australian Kellia Kellia austrahs 
which retains and develops the young within the parent shell. Attached to and 
sometimes embedded in the piles are the limpet-like Southern Siphon Siphonari/i 
diemenensis. Old piles and pieces from them are usually bored by the Long- 
Sou thern Shipworm Nototeredo edax and the septate tubes can be seen lining 
the holes. The valves of the shells and pallets may be shaken out from dead 
Specimens or removed from living ones. 

Quantities of old wharf fenders and piles pulled up from the water front 
fire to be found in the vicinity of the wharves. An examination of these will 
provide specimens of sedentary, boring and nestling types of Molluscs, Cirripedia 
and other marine growths. 


At certain places on the sand -mud flats heaps of waterworn stones more 
or less encrusted with weed, such as the Sea Lettuce Ulva factum, and sometimes 
referred to by collectors as l ' foul stones, ' ' are uncovered at low tide. On these 
live the Lined Whelk Cominella lineolata and the Small Ivory Whelk Cominella 
ebumea, the Adelaide Whelk Cominella adelaidensis with its small acuminate 

174 kr.coRDS of tiiu: S.A. Muselm 

pouch -.shaped egg-capsules, thr-fii-ei.tiJit hs of an inch lung, bkmt at the point and 
slightly expanded at the base, attached individually in irregular groups or lines 
following the depressions or cracks in the uudersurface of the stones. 

There is an apron of larger stones at the northern end of the main wharf 6U 
the southern bank of the Jioyal Yacht Squadron Harbour. These are k 'foul ,T 
or weed-covered stones wli* r*. a -ood series of />« >.:nibicium, the Hay Limpet Natoac- 
Hwa se))iiformis, together with some of its relatives, may he I'oiiud alive near the 
water's edge between tide marks. 

Manorovk Swamps. 

Northwards is Hie entrance to the Port River at Pelican Point, where there 
are druse Mangros'es Avic()i)t<? officinalis, with the mangrove fauna which is so 
consistent round the whole coast line of Australia. The only difference between 
the northern tropical areas and the soul hern is that the larger 1 .rnpieai Club Shell 
and a few other large warm water soecies are absent in the south. Crawling on 
the sandy-mud about the mangroves, and south of them in littoral pools, is the 
Smooth Creeper Ivithfttvnn hnrhiinition, Hstuarine Creeper BatilhiricUa cxtu- 
rino, and the. Granular Horn Zanv.ntantus diemvneusis, all in great quantity-. 
On foul stones below low tide is the Granular Creeper Vavozeliana {/ranarnnii 
Among the mangroves crawl the Solid Air Breather Salinafor solida and the 
common and more numerous Fragile Air Breather SuJinafor fnujilis, distin- 
guished by its thinner shell and different operculum ; the last-named Air Breather 
will live in marine mangrove areas as well as in brackish to almost fresh water. 
Minute eggs of the Air Breather are cemented with grains of sand to form a 
small band or girdle, about one inch in diameter, deposited on the surface of 
the sand; the ova hatch in fourteen to sixteen days. Associated with these girdles 
are groups of about len red eggs of all unidentified marine animal. 

Attached to the limbs and on the finger-like pneumatophores is the Man- 
grove Conniwink BcDibkium imbrivulum and the Zebra Periwinkle Auatrocov.hUa 
zebra, These species are also to be found in some of the small creeks in the 
north of the Peninsula, together with Ihe Smoke Cockle Eumorciv fuwripafa 

Weed Channels, 

North of the Royal Yacht Squadron Harbour and running across the mud 
flats to the Porl Uiver Channel is a weed channel along which the. sea water 
flows in and out with the rise and fail of the tide. 

Most of the weed-living shells abound hem as also does the Smoke Cockle 
Eumtircin j'aniigala in muddy situations, and the small mud-dwelling Stout 
Triangle Cockle AnapcKu pinguid, and, less numerously, the Triangle Cookie 

Cotton — Mollusca of the Outer Harbour, South Australia 175 

Notospisula Irigonella, On the Sea (.'rass Zostent nana crawls the Hunkers (lan- 
cuius Isoclanculufi diinkeri, Yates Clancolus tsodmoUhiB yatcsi. Adelaide Peri- 
winkle Chlorodihma adelaidac and the Yellow Dot Periwinkle ('hhwtdiloma 
ndontis. Similar channels and creeks \o the norlh of LcFevre Peninsula have 
a similar fauna. 

A lit fie north of the Royal Yacht Squadron Harbour is a slightly raised 
area of sand which is covered only at high tide. Here can be found at almost 
any time numerous species of dead shells in fairly good condition; about two 
hundred different kinds have been taken over some years by diligent collectors. 
One old gentleman spent years of his later life collecting and sieving samples 
of sand aud sorting out the small shells. He found a goodly number of previ- 
ously unknow^n species which would take a long time to examine, draw, and 
describe; so one may make a valuable collection here without getting the feet 

North Bank. 

The North Bank is uncovered at low tide and will yield a typical 
sand fiat fauna. Kazor Fish beds, particularly on the north side, are more 
extensive here than on the mud flats, and the Ark Shell Area pistacJtia is common 
Ml rocks, just below low tide, opposite Pelican Point in foul ground, mud and 
weed. Pnder foul stones lives the Pitted Keyhole Cnnmetalepm conmtenutus 
(usually in compan;, with a gypy AscidiaiO and also the Shield Shell, Elephant 
SlUg or Duck Bill Scutus anatwus (a large black creature with a white shell 
&i Ms back hidden under the mantle). Wide Mouth stomatella imbricata, False 
Har Shell Gevtt auricula, (loklen Star Micrastraea avreinn. the Scale Star Bella- 
siraeo sqiuimdrru, /lie Beaded Top Uerpctopmna aspwsa, the Small AVarty 
Triton ('umati'llft verrucosa, llie Waterhouse Triton CymatUesta >raterho«xci, 
the Triangle Murex Plcrynolus trifoemis, the Paivae Boring Whelk Bedera 
paivae, aud the Southern f 'one Flomeonus anemone, which can be found in the 
hollows beneath the stones. Some collectors maintain that our Southern Cone 
is capable of transmitting a mild sting. However, there has heen no suggestion 
that it is a dangerous one, like that of Hie much bigger tropical cones. The Sea 
Bubble QuibbuJa ternrissirna is common in felly weeds and muddy sand. 

Port Rivrr, 

In the mud banks of the Port River, at places such as Suowden Beach, 
Peterhead, North Arm and Torrens Maud, live the Kstuary Tellen Macoma 
deltoidrs, Taper (Tarn Lalcrnula recta, Smoke <\>ekle Eiimarcia fumu/ata and 
the Fragile Air Breather Salvmitur frayiiis, while the Solid Air Breather Xulina- 
tor solida is more common here than on the mud Hats, Sandstone just below 

176 Records of the S.A. Museum 

low tide mark, and that dredged from the Port River, is sometimes bored by 
the Southern Piddock Pholm misiralasiae, and specimens may be removed alive 
by carefully breaking away the stone. 


It is helpful to obtain a tide table from the Harbours Board and to select 
particularly low tides when the rarer living material is desired. The falling tide 
should be followed out so that the species present under these conditions may be 
obtained and the maximum time allowed for low-tide collecting. As the tide 
turns and rises, and the collector moves shorewards, many species can be seen 
emerging from the sandbanks just above low tide. Incidentally, all species are 
edible if taken alive. 

Many will remain alive for days in a jar of sea water, where they can 
be easily photographed or sketched; little is known about the living colours 
of many animals, and good work could be done in this direction. Methylated 
spirits will serve to preserve the flesh but not the colours. Formalin decalcifies 
the shell and should not be used for anything but shell-less Nudibranchs and 
most Cephalopoda. Chitons are taped to a flat stick to prevent them curling 
when drying, as this spoils them as cabinet specimens. 

Rec. S.A. MrsriM 

\oi . XL Plate Will 

Pig. 1. Oulrj- HaH.onr iMokinw soutli. slum inn siltilAg soulli of llic Im-nkvvat.' 

|-'i,U- -• Outer Harbour looking wcsl. Htoyul \ :\c\\\ N<|u:i«lron ;nnl r&iWNi 
s;i!id aiva n<\ar the cirHr in lb,- ,- ( >u<iv ,.f 1 1)« • ph-hirc. 


by Bernard C. Cotton, conchologist, South Australian Museum 


This paper is a record of land and freshwater molluscs introduced into Australia. Its main object is 
to stimulate interest in the collecting and identifying of introduced species. 



By BERNARD C. COTTON, Conchologist, South Australian Museum. 

Plate xxiv. 

This paper is a record of land and freshwater molluscs introduced into Australia, 
Its main object is to stimulate interest in the collecting and identifying of intro- 
duced species. 

Following a request from Dr. H. E. Quick, President of the Malacological 
Society of London, for land snails, the author collected many living specimens 
in South Australia and western Victoria. Series of these were sent to Dr. 
Quick for comparison with authentic material from type localities in overseas 
museums and for dissection, and he gives a brief review of the introduced land 
molluscs in the references cited. Identification is difficult, and a thorough ana- 
tomical study of the animal as well as a microscopic examination of the shell is 
required before any satisfactory conclusions can be reached. An exchange of 
authentic material has aided this work in South Australia. Introduced snails 
frequently show variation from the typical species. 

The Common Garden Snail Helix aspersa is abundant in South Australia 
and variations in shell form and animal colouring occur. In later years there 
appears to be a greater percentage of pale pigmented specimens, some approach- 
ing the albino exalbida, odd specimens of which have been taken. Shells from 
the foothills are thinner and smaller of the tenuior variety, while some in the 
Torrens Valley area approach dark nigresccns. The largest specimens taken are 
from Kangaroo Island. Two sinistral specimens, one cornucopia and one acu- 
minata, are in the Museum collection, taken locally. Soil, rainfall, temperature, 
period of colonization, original variety and other factors have been mentioned 
in connection with some of these variants, but no scientific investigation has 
been made locally. 

Further species of land molluscs and, in addition, the freshwater species are 
recorded here as a preliminary basis for Australian workers. Numerous requests 
for identification of introduced species are made by government bodies to the 
agricultural departments, museums and universities, and it is presumed that 
similar questions are submitted to institutions in other States. 

ITS Records of tut-: S.A. Museum 

Milax gagatek ( Draparnaud ) 1801. 

Distribution. South Western Europe, ( 'J recce, Izium, North Africa, Atlantic 
Isles, British Isles. 

introduced. South Africa, Bermuda, Juan Fernandez, North and South 
America, New Zealand. 

Australia. S.A., Vict., N.S.W. 

Remarks. .Jet Slug. Small Black Slug. Redescribed as Limax maurus 
Quoy and Gaimard 1824 from Port Jackson, Milax tasmunicus Tale 1880 from 
Tasmania, Limax pectin at us Selenka 1865, Sydney. 

Time. Pleistocene to Recent, England. 

Limax maximus Linne 1758, 

Distribution. Europe to North Bergen, Transcaucasia, Baviois, Algiers, 
Atlantic Isles, British Isles. 

Introduced. North xYmeriea, South Africa, North and South America. New 

Australia, S.A., N.S.W., Vict., Tas. 

Time, Pleistocene to Recent. England. 

Remarks. Great Grey Slug. 

Limax klavits Linne 1758. 

Distribution. Europe, Norway. Syria, Tripoli, Atlantic Isles, British Isles. 

Introduced. North and South America, Japan, South Africa, New Zealand. 

Australia. S.A., N.S.W., Vict., Tas., Q. 

Time* Pleistocene, C'romerian to Recent. England. 

Remarks. Yellow slug, Redescribed as Limax mcrjalodontcs Quoy and 
Gaimard 1824 from Part Jackson, Limax olivavrus Gould 1852 from Panama tin, 
and possibly Limax bicolor Selenka 1865 from Sydney. 

Limax marginatus Miiller 1774. 

Distribution. Europe, Greece 1o Finland and Eastern Russia, Iceland, 
British Isles. 

Introduced. North America, New Zealand. 

Australia. S.A. 

Time. Pleistocene, Cromerian to Recent. England. 

Remarks. Tree Slug. Sometimes referred to as Limax (Lclwmnnia) ar- 
borum Bouchard-Chantereaux 1837. 

Cotton -Snails and Slugs introduced into Australia 179 

Agriolimax agrestis (Linne) 1758. 

Distribution. Northern Europe, Asia, Turkestan, China, Japan, North 
Africa, Syria, Atlantic Isles, Greenland, British Isles. 

Introduced. Zanzibar, North and South America, South Africa, West In- 
dies, Mauritius, New Zealand. 

Australia. S.A., N.8.W., Vict., Tas. 

Time. Pleistocene to Recent. England. 

Remarks, Field slug. Redescribed as Limax legrandi Tate, Tasmania and 
Limax molestia Hutton, New Zealand. 

Aurioijmax laevis (Muller) 1774. 

Distribution. Europe, Northern Asia, North and Central America, British 

Introduced. South America, West Indies, South Africa, Madagascar. 

Australia. S.A., Q. 

Time. Pleistocene to Recent. England. 

Remarks. Marsh Slug. Smooth Slug. Recorded from the foothills of the 
Mount Lofty Ranges, near Adelaide. A synonym is Limax quecnslandkus Hed~ 
ley 1888. 

Agriolimax reticulatus (Muller) 1774. 

Distribution. Southern Europe, Asia, North Africa, Atlantic Isles, British 

Introduced. North and South America, South Africa, New Zealand. 

Australia. Vict,, N.S.W., Tas. 

Time. Pleistocene to Recent, England. 

Remarks. Netted Field Slug. 

Arion MORTENS^ Ferussac 1819. 

Distribution. Central Europe, northwards to Tromiso, North Spain, France, 
Italy, Netherlands, Russia, British Isles. 

Introduced. North America, South Africa, New Zealand. 
Australia. S.A. 

Remarks. Garden Slug. The South Australian record is not definitely 

Arion ater (Linne) 1758. 
Distribution. Europe, Portugal, Italy, Balkans, British Isles. 
Introduced. North America, New Zealand. 
Australia. S.A., N.S.W., Vict. 
Remarks. Large Black Slug. 

ISO Records of the S.A. Museum 

Testacella haliotidea Draparnaud 1801. 

Distribution. North Africa, Western Europe, Belgium, Germany, Balearic 
Isles, Canary isles, Madeira, British Isles. 

Introduced. North America. 

Australia. S.A., Tas., N.S.W. 

Time. Holoeene to Recent. England. 

Remarks. Shelled Slug. Carnivorous Slug. Recorded from the Botanical 
Gardens, Adelaide. Testacella mauciei Ferussac 1819. Is a synonym. 

Euparypha pisana (Muller) .1774. 

Distribution, Europe, Mediterranean, North Africa, Atlantic Isles, British 

Introduced. North America, South Africa. 

Time. Pleistocene to Recent. England. 

Australia. Cottesloe, W.A., Vict., Geelong, N.S.W. 

Remarks. White Snail. Now placed in the genus Thcba. Specimens closely 
resembling this species and similar to those taken at Cottesloe, Western Aus- 
tralia, were found alive by H. M. Cooper on April 22nd, 1954, at Port Arthur, 
near Port Wakefield, S.A., on Boxthorn, about 200 yards above the high tide 

Helicella itala (Linne) 1758. 

Distribution. Europe to Petrograd, Transcaucasia, Algeria and Syria, 
British Isles. 

Introduced. New Zealand. 

Australia. S.A. 

Time. Lower Pleistocene to Recent. England. 

Remarks. Heath Snail. South-cast of South Australia. Mentioned as 
introduced to South Australia by A. E. Ellis, "British Snails," 1926, p. 195. 
Originally recorded as Helicella cricetorum (Muller) 1821. Dr. Quick now 
identifies specimens from Yorke Peninsula as Helicella (Xerocincta) necjlecia, 
mentioned below. 

Helicella (Xerocincta) neglecta (Draparnaud) 1805. 

Distribution. Southern France, Italy, Germany, Greece, Syria, Algeria. 
Introduced. British Isles. 
Australia. S.A., Yorke Peninsula. 
Time. Kecent. England. 
Remarks. White Heath Snail. 

Cotton—Snails and Slugs introditced into Australia 181 

Helicella (Ternuella) \ jkuata (Da Costa) 1770. 

Distribution* Western Europe, Mediterranean east to Crimea, British Isles. 

introduced. Australia. 

Australia. S.A. "X.W.A. Foul Point" (Richardson, quoted by Muttkm), 
X.S.W., Vict. 

Time, Pleistocene to Recent. England. 

Remarks. Striped Snail. Recorded from vineyards at Northfield near 
Adelaide, South Australia, Dr. Quick identifies the S.A. records of Tlieba pistnia 
as belonging to //. virgata, a synonym of which is //. variabilis Draparnaud, 
mentioning that "It is true the shell of the Northfield examples is more globose 
and the upper surface of the whorls flatter than in the British variety of this 
variable shell that I have seen, and the umbilicus is smaller than the typical.'' 

Shells sent from Kangaroo Island are identified by him as H. virgat't 
d&pressa Requien 1868, or H. v. subaperta Jeffreys. //. virgata depressa Requien 
1848 was taken in 1953 at American River, Kangaroo Island. 

Helicella (Candidula) caperata (Montagu) 1803. 

Distribution. Europe to Crimea, Bagdad, British Isles. 
Introduction. Australia. 
Australia. S.A., Robe, Vict,, Tas. 
Time. Pleistocene to Recent. England. 
Remarks. Wrinkled Snail. 

Helicella (Microsceromauxa) stoltsmena (Bourguignat) 1880. 

Distribution. Spain, France. 

Introduced. Australia. 

Australia. S.A., South-east. 

Remarks. A species named and described as Helicella. maijeri Glide 1914 
was taken on "Tea Tree'* Melaleuca, at Millicent, Mouth Australia. Dr. Quick 
thinks that the species may be //. stolismcna. Living specimens arc required 
to verify the identification. Although numerous shells are in the Museum col- 
lection from MiUieent and Robe, no living specimens have been obtained in 
recent years. A synonym of //. stolixmena is Helix vestita Rambur 1868 pre- 
occupied by Ferrasac 1819. 

Helicella heripensis (Mabille) 1877. 

Distribution. Germany, France, British Isles. 
Introduced. Australia. 

182 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Time. Pleistocene to Recent. England. 

Australia. S.A., Adelaide foothills and S.E. S.A. 

Remarks. Hedge Snail. Originally introduced into the South-east but. 
now taken in the foothills of the Mount Lofty Ranges, near Adelaide, in gardens. 
Also called Candidula gifjaxvi (Charpcntier) 1850. These may be //. rapcrata, 
the identification needs confirming. 

Cochucella acuta ( Miillcr) 1774. 

IHstribution. South-western Europe, Mediterranean, British Isles. 

Introduced. Australia. 

Time. Pleistocene to Recent. England. 

Australia. S.A., Yorke Peninsula. W.A,, Cottesloe, Vict. 

Remarks. Pointed Snail. Common at Stansbury and Minhiton, Yorke 
Peninsula, S.A., and Cottesloe, W.A. RuJimus acufus Muller 1774 is an older 
name for this species. Listed by Cox and Iledley, 10, p. 10, as Ilelicella arbarn 
Linne 1889 from Victoria. 

Cochucella ventrosa (Ferussae) 1819. 

Distribution. Mediterranean, Canaries, Azores, Bermuda. 

Introduced. South Africa. 

Australia. S.A.. Yorke Peninsula, Mount (lambier, Adelaide; Vict., X.SAV., 

Time, Recent. 

Remarks. Swollen Snail. Recorded from Corny Point and the South-east 
of South Australia. Sometimes referred to as C. ventricosa (Draparnaud) 1831, 
pre-occupied. There are two variants in Adelaide gardens, C. bizona Moquin- 
Tandon and C. inflate Moquin-Tandon. 

Helix ahperba Miiller 1774. 

Distribution. Netherlands, Prance. Spain, Mediterranean, British Isles. 

Introduced. North and South America, South Africa, New Zealand. 

Australia. S.A., Vict., N.SAV., W.A. 

Time. Pleistocene to Recent. England. 

Remarks. Garden Snail. Common in gardens, general. Brightly coloured 
specimens with thick shells measuring 38 mm. in diameter arc numerous at 
Muston, Kangaroo Island, according to a Series taken by II. M. Cooper in 
February, 1954. 

Cotton — Snails and Slugs introduced into Australia 183 

Oxychilus cellaria (Muller) 1774. 

Distribution. Europe, Algeria, Rhodes, Armenia, Palestine, Persia, British 

Introduced. North and South America, South Africa, New Zealand. 

Australia. N.S.W., Vict., Tas. 

Time. Pleistocene to Recent. England. 

Remarks. Cellar Snail. Redescribed as Helix sydneyensis Cox, from 
N.S.W. Sometimes called Helicella and Vitrea cellaria. Actively carnivorous 
in Sydney gardens. Eats slaters and Helix aspersa. 

Oxychilus alliarius (Miller) 1822. 

Distribution. Europe, Algeria. 

Introduced. America, South Africa, New Zealand. 

Australia. N.S.W. 

Time. Pleistocene to Recent. England. 

Remarks. Mentioned by Ellis 1926, "British Snails," p. 244, as having 
been introduced into Australia and first recorded from Australia by J. S, Miller, 

Geostilbia aperta (Swainson) 1835. 

Distribution. Southern Europe. 

Introduced. Australia. 

Australia. Tas. 

Remarks. Recorded from Australia by Petterd and Hedley, 1909. 

Vitrea crystallina (Muller) 1774. 

Distribution. Europe, north to Hamar Stift and east to the Caucasus, 
Algeria, Atlantic Isles, British Isles. 
Introduced. Australia. 
Australia. Tas. 

Time. Pleistocene to Recent. England. 
Remarks. Crystal Snail. Vitrina may prefer a carnivorous diet. 

Zonitoides nitida (Muller) 1774. 

Distribution. Europe, Algeria, Asia, Kashmir, Tibet, Japan, North America, 

British Isles. 


Introduced. South America, New Zealand. 
Australia. N.S.W., Tas., Vict. 

Time. Pleistocene, Cromerian to Recent. England. 
Remarks. Shiny Snail. 

184 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Vallonia uostata (Mullcr) 1774. 

Distribution. British Isles. Kurope, North America. 
Introduced. Madeira, Azores, South Africa, Palestine, 
Australia. N.S.YY., Tas.. Norfolk Island. 
Time. Pleistocene to Recent. England. 

Remarks. Ribbed Snail. Known also as Helix pulchelta Midler 1805, and 
redeseribed as Helix alexandrae Cox ISM, from places about Sydney. 

Vallonia pulchella i Miiller) 1774. 

Dis tr ih ution . B r i t iah Tsl es. 
Introduced. South Africa. 
Australia. N.SAW. Tas.. Norfolk Island. 
Time. Pliocene to Recent. England. 
Remarks. Beautiful Snail. 

Sr m-LiXA octana (Bruguierc ) 1789. 
Distribution. Ajucriea. 
Introduced. England 
Australia. N.S.W. 

Fekussacia foluuulus (Uronovius) 1781. 

Distribution. Mediterranean, South of France from the Pyrenees to the 
Riviera and in the Balearic Isles. 

Australia, S.A., Linden Park, suburb of Adelaide. 

Remarks. Inflated FerussaeJa. Tins small snail was seen in great numbers 
on August 1, WW, at Verdale Avenue, Linden Park, a suburb of Adelaide, by 
Colin F. Hutchinson. (iroups of individuals were found in very damp places 
on a building block, under bricks, old cement bags or any other type of cover. 
The builder. Mr. Page, noticed them only during June and July of this year 
(1653] and thinks they were not present when the undergrowth was burnt off in 
January. There are no unusual weeds among the thick grass, and the few small 
olive trees are seedlings of the olive tree so common in this district since the 
early days of white occupation. All building materials used on the block are 
locally produced. There is no clue as to how the snails came here. Householders 
and children around the district have not seen the snails even in adjacent areas. 
There are no records of the species or anything like it from South Australia 
or anywhere else in Australia. It seems that the snail has been discovered and 
recognized soon after importation or dispersal, and immediate steps have been 
taken by the Agricultural Department to eradicate it. 

Cotton-— Snails and Slugs introduced into Australia 185 

The shell is about a quarter of an inch long, pupaeform, brown, highly 
polished. The animal has a long slender foot, slender tentacles, the upper pair 
bearing well-developed eyes. The foot is light yellow grading to light green, 
anteriorly and posteriorly, and the long slender tentacles and head are a dark 
grey shade. The snail moved rapidly from light into shade, and one would 
say, from its general appearances and habits, that it would not survive the 
heat and dryness of the Adelaide Plains. It would probably thrive in hot houses 
whence these specimens may have originated. It is prolific and ovoviparous, 
the young being formed in an egg and the egg hatched inside the parent. It 
is normally herbivorous, but is said to turn carnivorous when vegetable food 
is unobtainable. 

On first sight the species was thought to be possibly Codilicopa lubrica, 
which is abundant all over the British Isles, Europe, North America, Asia and 
North Africa. Dr. Quick kindly examined specimens sent by us to the British 
Museum and mentioned in correspondence that it was a Ferussacia. The species 
belongs to the family Ferussacidae, which is contained in the superfamily 
Achatinacea, including the family Achatinidae, and consequently has distant 
affinities with the Giant African Snail Achatina fulica Ferussac, unfortunately so 
widely dispersed and uncontrollable. The family Ferussacidae contains some ten 
genera and numerous species. 

Helix similaris Ferussac 1819. 

Distribution. Cuba, America, South Africa, China, Brazil, Singapore, 
Bengal, Mauritius, Java, Sandwich Islands. 

Introduced. Frankland Isles. 

Australia. N.E. Aust, N.S.W. (Sydney). 

Remarks. This species appears to have been widely dispersed over the 
earth's surface. The Australian records are doubtful. Musson, 1890, writes, 
"Originally recorded for Australia from the Frankland Islands, collected by 
MacGillivray. Mr. Brazier, who had some of the original specimens, remarks 
that they are H. aridorum, Cox, 1867, or Neveritis aridorum, to give its latest 
name, and that it is a native snail, originally described from Clarence River, 
under logs in ironbark ranges, burrowing in dry weather." 

Otala vermiculata (Miiller) 1774. 

Distribution. Southern Europe and North Africa. 
Introduced. Australia. 
Australia. Tas. 

Remarks. Recorded by Petterd and Hedley, 1909, as Helix vermiculata 
Miiller 1774. 

186 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Lymnaka perecjer (Miiller) 1774. 

Distribution. Europe, North Africa, Asia, Kashmir, Afghanistan. Cape 
Verde Islands. British Isles. 

introduced. Tasmania. 

Time. Pliocene to Recent. England 

Remarks. Wandering Snail. Redeseribed as Limnava lasmanica Teuison- 
Woods 1870, IAmnaea httosa Petterd 1889, and Limnaea hobartcnsis Tenisoii- 
Woods, 1876, from Tasmania. 

Lymnaea stagnalis Linne 1T98, 

Distribution. Europe. Asia, Afghanistan, Kashmir, North Africa, British 

Introduced. Tasmania, South Australia. 

Australia. Frequently seen in aquaria, but so far not established in any 
freshwater area. 

Time. Pleistocene, Oromerian to Recent. England. 

Remarks. Great Pond Snail. Tins snail grows very well in South Aus- 
tralian garden ponds and aquaria, but is not in our creeks and ponds. 

Plaxoruik spirorbis (Linne) 1801. 

Distribution. Western Europe, Asia, North Africa, British Isles. 

Introduced. Australia?. 

Time. Pleistocene to Recent. England. 

Remarks. — Button Ranvs Horn. Sometimes named Planorbis (Gyraufus) 
laevis. Specimens of P. spirorbis Miiller 1774, or more correctly P. (Spiratina) 
spirorbis Linne 1758, are labelled as Australian in the British Museum (Musson, 
p. 884). 

Planorbis campanulatus Say 1821. 

Distribution. North America. 

Introduced. South Australia. 

Remarks. Bell Planorbis. Specimens of this species were recorded by the 
author in the " South Australian Naturalist" 15, No. 1, p. 8, lflSftj from Blanche- 
town, River Murray, where it was established. Mr. Oliver, Senior Resident En- 
gineer, reported "that the shells referred lo were found at approximately half 
a mile upstream (from Blanchetown), where the American machinery purchased 

Cotton — Snails and Slugs introduced into Australia 187 

for lock construction was unloaded. This place is, however, a landing place for 
farm machinery and windmills of American manufacture. ' ' 

This was the first record of a freshwater snail being introduced into the 
River Murray. I have seen no specimens at Blanchetown or elsewhere since 

Petterd 4, p. 97, records that Planorbis lacustris is plentiful in "the fresh- 
water streams near Melbourne/' This species is probably a Segmenting, more 
recently named Segnitila victorias, Smith, 1882, indigenous to the region. 


1. Quoy and Gaimard (1824) : Zool. Voy. Uremic, pp. 426-427. 

2. Selenka, E. (1865) : Malak. BJatt, 12, p. 105, pi. 2, fig. 1-9. 

3. Legrand (1879): Journ. of Conch., pp. 95-96. 

4. Petterd, W. F. (1879) : Journ. of Conch., pp. 96-98. 

5. Tate, R. (1880) : Proc. Boy. Soc. Tas., pp. 15-18. 

6. God win- Austen (1883): "Land and Freshwater Molluscs of India/' pt. 4, 

p. 146, pi. xli, fig\ 1-8. 

7. Hedley, C. (1888) : Proc. Roy. Soc. Qld. 

8. Musson, C. T. (1890) : Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 5, pj). 883-896. 

9. Petterd, W. F. and Hedley, C. (1909) : Bee. Aust. Mus., 8, No. 4, j)V- 283-304. 

10. Cox, J. C. and Hedley, C. (1912) : 31 en. Nat. Mus. Vict., No. 4. 

11. Verco, J. C. (1922) : Bee. S. Aust. Mus., 2, No. 2, p. 221. 

12. Verco, J. C. (1924) : Bee. S. Aust. Mus. f 2, No. 4, pp. 489-490. 

13. Fischer, P. H. (1939) : Journ. Conchyl, 83 (3), pp. 245-253. 

14. McLaughton, C. F. (1949) : Proc. Zool Soc. N.S.W., pp. 21-24. 

15. Quick, H. E. (1952) : Proc. Mus. Soc. Lond., 29, pt. 3, p. 75. 

16. Quick, H. E. (1952) : Proc. Mus. Soc. Lond., 29, pt, 5, p. 189. 

17. Cotton, B. C. (1953) : National Park and Reserves of South Australia, pp. 

136-146 (S.A. Museum). 

Rec« s.a. Museum 

Voi . XI. Plate XXIV 



Top. Six views of F< russaeia folHi-ulus ranptgliig from tlio shell ( • <j), Linden Park. 
I'cltiw. Three views of the shell of F<rttssit<-i<t full iciil : «« ( :- •' 5h. 


byK T. Condon and Dean Amadon 


The primary purpose of the present paper is to contribute to the series of revisions of Australian 
birds which must precede any semi-stable Australian check-list. Peters' work (1931) often follows 
Matthews' treatment of races, and these taxonomic notes are to some extent a re-examination of the 
proposals of that author whose types, now contained in the American Museum of Natural History, 
were available for study. 




The primary purpose of the present paper is to contribute to the series of revi- 
sions of Australian birds which must precede any seny-stable Australian cheek- 
list. Peters' work (1931 ) often follows Mathews 1 treatment of races, and these 
taxonomie notes are to some extent a re-examination of the proposals of that 
author whose types, now contained in the American Museum of Natural History, 
were available for study. 

Early students of the group, such as Gould ( '1865), Sharpe (1874), Rainsay 
(1876), and North (1912) were compelled to work with few specimens, and 
although unaware of the many contusing aspects of variability, the quality of 
their work was remarkably good considering the nature of their limitations. 
We have handled many hundreds of specimens which were not available lo 
previous workers, but have found that much still remains to be learned and that 
further collecting in all parts of the continent is very necessary. Especially 
have we lacked material from Western Australia, southern Queensland and 
Tasmania, and these regions should prove profitable areas for investigation in 
the future. Subadult specimens greatly outnumber adults in museums, many 
skins are incorrectly sexod or poorly labelled, and certain well-marked forms arc 
often represented by only one or two examples. 

As pointed out by Mathews ( 1946), the single record of Bvtastur teem from 
New South Wales is unconvincing and perhaps better placed on the suspended 

Because of its long isolation, the. Australian continent has served as an 
important area for differentiation in this order, as in others. One may mention 
such distinct and fine species as Falco subniger and F, hypoleucos. Aqiiila 
(Tiroa'etvs) mulax is the largest and most striking member of the Aquila chry- 
sacf/)s group (or, tor that matter, of the genus Arjuila). The Milvinae are very 
well represented, not only by widespread forms, but also by two remarkable 
endemics, Hamirostra melannsternon and Lophnictinia isnra. If present distri- 
bution means anything, Australia was the ancestral home or, at least, the focal 
point of the evolution and distribution of this group of kites. 

* OrnitliologtHt, Houth Australian Museum. 

t Department of Birds, Auioriean Muni-urn <>i Nn final History, New York. 

190 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Some fossil forms were named by DeVis (1890 to 1911) from the Pleistocene 
of southern Queensland and northern South Australia, but the status of most of 
these is doubtful. The genus Tapliaetus may be referable to Aquila or Halim- 
tus, while Lydekker (1892) expressed grave doubts as to the validity of 
Necrastur. The identity of Paleolestcs, named from a single toe-bone, is extremelv 

Our remarks are based on an examination of collections in the American 
Museum of National History (including the Mathews collection), the South 
Australian Museum, the National Museum, Melbourne (including the H. L. 
White collection), and the Australian Museum, Sydney, as well as certain 
material in the United States National Museum and the British Museum. 

To the Directors of the various institutions for permission to study their 
collections are best thanks are due, and we are especially indebted to Messrs. 
H. G. Deignan, Washington, W. B. Hitchcock, Melbourne, and J. R. Kinghorn 
and J. A. Keast, Sy&tt^y, for assistance rendered. 

The only Australian Acciptres not discussed in the following notes are 
Falco (leracidea) bcrigora, Circus approximates and Pandon haliaetus. The 
first-named species was recently revised by Condon (1951), and we have little 
to add to Amadon's earlier revision (1941) of the other two mentioned. 

Abbreviations used: AM — Australian Museum, Sydney; AMNH — American 
Museum of Natural History, New York; HLW — H. L. White collection, National 
Museum, Melbourne; NMM — National Museum, Melbourne; SAM — South Aus- 
tralian Museum, Adelaide. 


Variability due to geography is still incompletely understood in Australian 
birds, but correlation between environment and taxonomie characters and geo- 
graphical variation is often marked, as in other parts of the world, and being 
parallel in many species, seems to confirm certain ecological rules that were 
put forward many years ago. 

In the birds of prey the Bergmann effect may be conveniently demonstrated 
by the use of wing lengths; individuals of such species as Accipiter fasciatus, 
Circus assimilis, Falco berigora, Haliastur sphenurus, and Pandion are larger 
in the cooler regions of southern Australia and Tasmania than in other parts. 

There is also a tendency towards richer and darker pigmentation in popu- 
lations inhabiting regions of greater humidity (Gloger's Rule). Sometimes it- 
is a case of the colour becoming paler in the more arid regions, when orthodox 
(internal) clines occur; Accipiter cirrhocephalus, A. fasciatus, Falco longipennis, 

Condon and Amadon— Taxonomic Notes on Australian Hawks 191 

and R bcrigoru arc examples in Australia. The heavily pigmented races of 
JJieractetus mori>lnioi<Us and ^[cAijrilrr nnvaehollanditic in New Guinea may Jfe 
considered further examples of this law 

For reasons not yet understood, when species rather than races are com- 
pared, the ecological rules may receive little confirmation. Specie more or 
less characteristic of the drier areas, such as Etamts scriptm, Falcn subniger. and 
llamirosiru melanostemon are no paler than allied species of more humid 
regions, and in some cases are darker. It is possible, of course, that this may 
point to a very recent deterioration of climate, and that these dark forms arose 
during' more pluvial or humid periods which are known to have occurred during 
the Tertiary. 

Clines or "character gradients"' are found in areas where continuous or 
unbroken chains ol' populations occur, more especially on continents and islands. 
The clines most easily demonstrated are those of Ktoe and colour. 

The white-headed Pamlion, or Osprey common to the East Indies and Aus- 
tralia, show* a elimil increase in size in southern Australia which led Amadou 
(1041) to recognize southern birds as a race, vrislntus. Such procedure lias, ni k 
course, been generally followed by taxonomists, as with, for example, the Ameri- 
can sea^eagle (Ifolkteius Icucocephalus), but whether such clines warrant 
nomenclatural recognition is more and more debated, In the case of Pandion 
of Australia, however, further material may show that there is rather an abrupt 
increase in size in the southern part of its range. If such a stepped cline can 
be demonstrated there should be less misgiving about admitting two races in the 
Australian region. 

Stepped or external (inter-group) clines are not always readily apparent. 
In the Goshawk, Accipiter ffisciatus, tiro difference in size in northern birds is 
abrupt, and the birds resemble more closely in colour some of the insular 
tropical forms rather than members of populations inhabiting the major portion 
of the continent, This suggests that the small northern race, didimus, could be 
a derivative of some island form and a rather late entrant to the Australian 
• hi inland- 

However, one cannot always assume that small northern races outside Aus- 
tralia, as in Accipiter fasciatits and Ifif.raaetus morphnoidesi, are an extension 
of Die size trend discernible in Australia, for such species may have large races 
on some of the other (i.e., other than New Guinea) tropical islands. The popu- 
lation of Accipiter fascinhis on Rennel Island, an outlier of the Solomons, is 
folly as large as and apparently indistinguishable from the goshawk of southern 
Australia, and the races of this hawk on New Caledonia and the Louisiade 
Archipelago are comprised of birds almost as large. Possibly factors other than 

192 Records of the S.A. Museum 

temperature response may play the dominant role in directing chancres in the 
bird populations of small islands. 

While almost nothing is known of migratory movements, certain Australian 
hawks may wander far from their normal habitat. For example, it would appear 
that the Brown Goshawk of southern Australia may visit the Kimberley division 
in the north, and the falcons Falco longipennis and F. c. cenchroides occur as 
non-breeding stragglers to various islands north of Australia, and the latter 
also visits New Zealand at times. 

The distribution of the diphasic goshawk, Accipiter novaehollmidiae, in 
Australia and New Guinea is a special problem, for whose analysis one may 
consult Southern and Serventy (1947). The white phase has become exclusive 
in Tasmania, but elsewhere, though geographical variation occurs, there is little 
of regular clinal nature in the distribution of this phase. The fact that the 
grey phase has never been recorded in Tasmania indicates that in this species 
isolation is reasonably complete on that island. Also, the hawks of this genus, 
in parts of the world where they are non-migratory, show more geographical 
variation than do most other genera and are presumably more sedentary than 
most others. As might be expected, Tasmanian subspecies are particularly well- 
marked in small song birds, but in the hawks not enough collecting has been 
done in most species to enable satisfactory studies to be made of material from 
this region, although in certain instances there appear to be no differences be- 
tween specimens from the island and the adjacent mainland. 


Study of plumage changes due to age is important in taxonomic work. In the 
Accipitres the downy chick is usually whitish, but in Elanus it is pale brownish 
or grey. Sexual dimorphism is generally great, females being larger, except 
perhaps in Elanus where no striking differences have been detected. Juvenals 
of both sexes may be markedly different from the adult, and the moult into 
adult plumage may be direct, as in Elanus, Aviceda, Accipiter cirrhocephalus, 
Falco hypoleucos, and F. longipennis, or take several years as in Aqnila, Ilaliar- 
tus, Accipiter fasciatus, F. berigora, F. peregrinus, and F. cenchroides. Owing 
to the protracted moult in the species quoted, confusion may be caused through 
superficial examination or insufficient material, and a proper understanding of 
the factors responsible for individual variation by ornithologists whose chief 
interests lie in other directions is desirable in order to make their observations 
of value. For instance, in the Brown Hawk young birds are usually dark, 
even when in breeding: condition, vet they have often been confused with dark 

Condon and Amadon — Taxonomic Notes on Australian Hawks 193 

phase adults. In the Kestrel, also, both sexes may have reddish tails when 
young, and the young of the sea-eagles (Ilaliasiur and Haliaetus) might be 
mistaken for other species. Immaturity in goshawks and falcons is indicated 
by the markings of the rectrices, and since these are usually the last feathers 
to be replaced at the moult, a good idea of the age of cabinet specimens may 
be obtained. 

Genus Elanus Savigny 1809. 

Type. Elanus caesius = E. caerulus. Old and New Worlds. (Four species.) 

Of all the major regions, Australia alone has two species of Elanus. How- 
ever, this does not necessarily mean that the genus originated in Australia, but 
merely that we are dealing with an example of double invasion or double 
colonization at long intervals. 

Were it not for the occurrence of two species in Australia, species that 
are, moreover, very similar to each other, some might prefer to unite all 
members in a single species. Furthermore, notatus is more like leucurus 
of America than it is like caeruleus of the Bast Indies, Eurasia and Africa. 
Twice in the past and at two widely separated intervals this genus invaded 
Australia, presumably from the north, thus giving rise to the two species endemic 
there. Present day distribution of the two species, and the resemblance of 
notatus to leucurus of the New World, suggests that the first-named was the 
earlier arrival in Australia. Unusual, also, is the recent discovery of a local 
endemic race of E. caeruleus in New Guinea (Mayr and Gilliard, in press, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.). Presumably this species is a newcomer to New Guinea. 

Elanus notatus Gould. 

Elanus notatus Gould, 1838, Syn. Bds. Aust. part 4, app. p. 1 : New South 

Elanus axillaris parryi Mathews, 1912, Nov. Zool., 18, p. 251: Parry's Creek, 
northwestern Australia. Type: AMNH No. 531543; adult male; January 
27th, 1909; J. P. Rogers. Wing, f (moult); tail, 142 (worn). Coloured 
plate of type: Mathews, 5, plate 249, opp. p. 199. 
Range. Australia; not Tasmania. 

The Black-shouldered Kite has a wide distribution in Australia and appeal's 
to be a true nomad, although in many districts one or more birds will remain 
for weeks, or even months, before moving on. In Western Australia it is regarded 
as a typical inland species, whereas in eastern Australia it is perhaps just as 
numerous in coastal areas. 

f*M Records of the S.A. Museum 

In northern Australia it has been reported at Katherine River. Northern 
Territory, and Barnard at one lime, found ii breeding in the McArthur River 
district. In t h«- lower Northern Territory, it was allegedly seen by members 
of the Horn Expedition in 1*94, and in 1011 it was repotted by the Hare la. v 
Expedition ftt Tdracowra; in 1014 S. A. White believed he saw the species near 
Hurmbers' Pillar. 

As might be expected, no evidence of geographical variation has been found 
over the entire range, 

The opinion has been expressed that the blaek M shoulder' ' (lesser wing 
coverts) is larger in this species than in scriptus, but actually the. reverse may 
be the case in fully adult birds. In notatus, also, the true outer primary (small 
and concealed) is white on the outer web and grey on the inner, whereas in 
scriptus this feather is uniformly grey, 

In his account of the American species, leucurus, Friedmann (1050, p, 71, 
footnote) wrote: 44 It is rather remarkable that there should be no sexual differ- 
ence in size .... since Mathews .... finds females to be larger than males in 
Eiauus notatus and E. scriptus.-' Actually, however, the number of specimens 
of scriptus in Mathews' collection (hvc) is too few to determine this point, 
while in notatus the females, if ivally larger, are only very slightly so, as shown 
by the following measurements of adults. 

Wing. It j , 289-302 (298); If, ? , 203-310 (300 -5) (AMNII). 

12 i , 280-208 (290); 3 9, 280-208 (289) (SAM). 
Tail. 7 S, 142-152 (147); $, J42-154 (149) (AMNH). 

12 j, 143-153 (149); 3 9, 148-154 (152) (SAM). 

Weights of a pair of adults taken on .Juno 28tli by K, Bullcr were: S 270 
grammmj 9 250 grammes, This, would surest that the sexes are about equal 
in size, 

From the earliest, strides, when the tail is very short, nestlings of uotatus 
may bo distinguished from those of scriptus by the much greater extent of black 
on the under-wing coverts in the latter. 

At the time of hatching, young notatus are co\ered in pale brownish-coloured 
down, which changes within a fortnight to a smokey-grey colour. At this stage 
the position of the black shoulder is indicated by a bare patch of skin of dork 
bluish colour, perhaps caused by the uncrupted dark feathers beneath. It is 
not. known if a similar marking occurs in scrijftus. In the week-old nestling, 
the iris has been observed to be hazel, the cere bluish, and the le£s flesh- 
coloured. In a bird a fortnight old Ihe iris wag dark brown, the cere bluish- 
^rcen, and the legs pale yellow. 

Condon and Amadon — Taxonomic Notes on Australian Hawks 195 

Juvenals of notatus differ markedly from the adult, The top and sides 
of the head are rich brown and the back is brownish-grey with white tips to 
the feathers. The shoulder is dark grey with many of the feathers tipped 
with white and the black patch under the wing is less extensive than in scriptus. 
The upper breast is washed deep buff (formed by coloured tips to the white 
feathers), with dark brown central shafts; it becomes paler with wear. The 
iris at this stage is light brown, cere yellow, legs and feet bright yellow. 

In several adults of both sexes the iris has been recorded as red, cere 
yellow, legs and feet yellow. 

Elanus scriptus Gould. 
Elmius scriptus Gould, 1842, pt. 9, 1, pi. (24); South Australia. (Mathews, 
1927, p. 259, gives the further restriction of Cooper Creek.) 

Elanus scriptus victorianus Mathews, 1917, Austral Av., Rec, 3, p. 70; Victoria. 
Type (no field label): AMNH No. 531575; adult male; December, 1902. 
No collector is given, but it may have been A. Coles, who is mentioned as 
the collector of some specimens entered near the present specimen in 
Mathews' manuscript catalogue. Wing, 293; tail, 150. Coloured plate of 
type : Mathews, 5, plate 250, opp. p. 208. 

Range. Normally confined to the dry interior of the Australian mainland. 
In abnormal seasons some birds reach the coastal districts of New South Wales, 
Victoria, South and Western Australia; not recorded from Tasmania. 

The Letter-winged Kite, unlike its congener, is a gregarious species which 
nests in colonies (Jackson, 1919). In South Australia it is found in the north- 
east, from Minnie Downs, Lake Eyre, Manuwalkaninna, and Lake Callabonna to 
Moolawatana (near Lake Frome), an abnormal occurrence in 1952 being from 
Butler, Eyre Peninsula, Previously unknown from Western Australia, during 
the "southern invasion" of northern and central birds in the years 1951-53, this 
kite was reported from such widely separated localities as Adele Island (near 
Yampi) and Esperance, as well as the Pilbara district, and north and east of 
Perth (Serventy, 1952, 1953). 

Although specimens have been taken near Dubbo and at Melbourne (Moonee 
Ponds), generally speaking, alleged occurrences in southern Australia prior to 
1951 should be treated with caution. 

In describing victorianus Mathews gave no characters, merely referring to 
his plate and description of the specimen from Victoria in his "Birds of Aus- 
tralia." There he had made no attempt to differentiate Victorian birds from 
those of other regions, but was merely describing the specimen as a representative 
of the species. It is unlikely that any geographical variation exists. 

196 Uecokds of the S.A. Museum 

Probably scrip/us is a slightly larger bird than notatus, because all the wing 
"lengths of females measured are near or above the maximum found in a con- 
siderable series of notatus. The wing of the type of victoria nus is not in very 
good condition for measurement. 

Wiflg. 3 (type oi: viciorianus) 292 (AMNH). 

$ (breeding) 2%; (juv.) 287 (1ILW). 

v m\ 311, 813 (AMNH). 

Q (subadult) 310 (AM); (breeding) 302, 305; (juv.) 302 (HLWV 

Tail. S rvicioriauus") 150: 146 (AMNH). 
9 162 (AMi; 156 (JtLW). 

When fully adult, script us is a rather whitish-looking bird. Perched, the 
only means of dfctingmfliifcg it from nnlatus would be by the larger black 
shoulder and somewhat paler grey back, both rather difficult characters to observe 
in the field. The bill averages slightly deeper and heavier in script us than in 
uoioivs. Dr. Ernst Mayr has pointed out to us that whereas in the latter the 
outer visible primary is two centimetres or more longer than the fourth, in 
scriptus the difference is much less, and these two primaries are usually sub- 
equal; this difference was constant in all material examined. 

Mr. Warren Hitchcock has drawn our attention to a series of skins in the 
H. 1>. White collection, showing fourteen stages in the development from newly- 
hatched yotmg to breeding adult. On hatching:, the chick is greyish with darfc 
(blackish) eyes, and after about seven days the head and breast become white. 
Later, the. scapulars appear as brownish feathers, and the back is also brown. 
In the short-tailed nestling of about one month, the head assumes the same brown 
colouration as the back, aud the black shoulder and under-w'mg coverts are well- 
developed. At this stage the eyes are pale brown, cere pale horn, and legs and 
feet pale yellow. The tail, grey at first, becomes progressively more whitish as 
it lengthens, and as tlie bird approaches adult size the rufous upper breast 
becomes paler. The black shoulder and under-wing markings, which are strongly 
developed at an early age, increase in extent, while the head aud back become 
more whitish as the bird develops. With the completion in growth of the tail, 
the rufous breast disappears, the back remains brownish, but the head is white, 
and the primaries are broadly tipped with white. The irides at this stage 
have changed to a reddish -brown. In a comparable stage in notatus the head is 
streaked with brown and the edges of the secondaries, as well as the primaries, 
are. broadly tipped with white. 

The colours of the soft parts of adults are similar to those oi' FAanus notatus. 

Condom and Amadon— Taxonomic Notes on Australian Hawks 197 

Genus Avtceda Swainson 1836. 

Type. Aviceda cuculoides. Synonyms include Baza Hodgson 1837, Lepidor/enys 
Gould 1838, Loplutstur Blyth 1842, and Nesobaza Mathews 1916, Austra- 
lian, Ethiopian and Oriental Regions (five species). 

The name Aviceda antedates Baza which, until recently, was in general use, 

Aviceda subcristata ( Would). 

Aviceda subcristata subcristata (Gould). 

Lepidofjoiys suhcristatus Gould, 1838, Syn. Bds. Austr. part 3, plate (46) and 
text; New South Wales. 

Baza suhcristata queciislandica Mathews, 1912, Nov. Zool., 18, p. 251; Mackay, 
Queensland. Types AMNH No. 531727; adult female. There is no 
original label, but in Mathews' manuscript catalogue, where this specimen 
IS No. (1392, it is indicated that it was one of a lot of skins obtained from 
Gerrard (a London dealer) in 1911. Wing, 341; tail, 209. 

LoplwMvr sithscristalits J, fin pi Mathews, 1916, Bds. Austr., 5, p. 220; Skull 
Greek, Gape York, Type: AMNil No, 531725; adult (?) female; Decem- 
ber 22nd, 1912; Robin Kemp. Wing, 327; tail, 213. 

Range. Coastal northern Australia eastward and south to the northern 
rivers of New South Wales. 

. The Grested Hawk is of northern distribution in Australia, and one would 
not expect birds that have penetrated a short distance into New South Wales 
to be separable from those of Queensland, nor do they seem to be, Hartert 
(1931, p. 44) reached a similar conclusion, but Peters (1931), following Mathews' 
"Sytftenttj* recognized queenslandica with kempi a synonym, as distinct from 
nominate subcristata &t New Smith Wales. Measurements of specimens (some 
probably wrongly sexed) may indicate a clinal sequence, the largest examples 
being from New South Wales. 

The bird figured in Mathews (1916, plate 251) is unusually rufous on the 
abdomen, but is matched hy at least three of sixteen skins from Queensland in 
the American Museum. There seems to be considerable variation as regards the 
tone of this rufous or buffy suffusion, but it may be largely age variation and 
fading rather than individual variation. Freshly moulted birds are darker 
generally. Six skins have been seen by us from New South Wales, one without 
more restricted locality, one from Goondiwindi, one from Glareville (Pittwater), 
two from Richmond River and another from Gasino, not far south of the Queens- 
land border. 

wrs Records of the s.a. museum 

In New Guinea there are three races of this hawk, s/enzona and inai<jeucn«is 
111 the west and mcgala in the east, which differ chiefly in size (Mayr, 1940, p. 
7-8). Kastern Australian birds are larger than the New Guinea races, and the 
grey of the breast and ventral stripes or barrings are paler. 

Sexual dimorphism seems tu be somewhat reduced in the Australian birds, 
although material i.s not well enough labelled to work (nit the details, more 
particularly since wear is so great or moult is so protracted in this species that 
some portions of the plumage of many Australian specimens are badly bleached 
and foxed. 

Little is known of the occurrence of the Crested Hawk in the Northern 
Territory, but it has been reported from the Darwin area and as far south at 
least us Adelaide River township, Condon, during- the years 1943-1944, found 
it a rare species and observed it only at Ratehelor, about BO miles south of 
Darwin. It was reported from the lower Northern Territory, at Palm Valley, 
by Whitloek in 1025, but this reeord must remain doubtful as it has not been 
seen by other visitors to this ntr.-t. 

There is a single record from the Ivimberlcy area, Western Australia, and 
examination of the specimen obtained suggests that a distinct geographical race 
occurs in that region, and to which Territory birds may also belong. 


Type. HLW 8329, Nat, Mus., Melbourne; adult male, fresh plumage; Fitzroy 

River, Western Australia; August 8th, 1924; F. L. Whitloek collector. 

Wing, 3K), tail, 192; tarsus, 30. "Iris golden yellow (eyes very promi- 
nent), bill bluish, culnicn darker, legs drab' ' (from field label), 

Diagnosis. Smaller than eastern Australian birds (wing & 310, against 
3$ 1-348); top of head dark blue-grey, lace blue-grey, generally darker above; 
Less guey on hindneek (collar) and upper back; barrings on breast blackish- 
brown, without rufous tinge; some rufous on foreneek; under tail coverts deep 
ochraeeous as in .1. .v. suhvristala; rump dark slate-grey, also rctriees, with blue- 
black barrings and terminal band. Njikena is the tribal name of the aborigines 
inhabiting the area where this bird was collected 

In general appearance and size the type of njikena seems closest to bis- 
murckii of the Bismarck Archipelago. The closest race geographically is timor- 
laaensis, which occurs in the island chain from Lombok to Timorlaut, but it is 
smaller still than njikena and the cross-barrings are more as in s. subcristttta. 
Another form, pallida, from south-east and Kei Islands, is also small, but lacks 
the blackish tone in the barrings, while typical slcnzonu f torn Aru Islands and 
western New Guinea has blackish barrings and pale ochraeeous under tail 

Condon and Amadon — Taxonomic Notes on Australian Hawks 199 

"Whitlock, in his account of bis trip to the Fitzroy River (1925). stated that 
he believed he saw the mate to the bird described above. The species is very 
sedentary, ten subspecies being known from the islands to the north of Australia. 
Wing measurements: 

New South Wales, g 329; 9 358 (AMNII). 

S 328, 329, 389; ? 845 (AM). 
Queensland. 12 6 , 9 321-344 (338*$! (AMNH). 

3 6 340-348; ? 320,332 (SAM). 
Western Australia (type of njikena). 6 310 (HLW). 
Eastern New Guinea and islands (megala, from Mayr, 1940, p. 8). 

8 8 298-313 (307-4); S 9 314-334 (323*5). 
Western New Guinea. Aru and other islands (stcxvzona, from Mayr, toe, 

cit. ) . 

8 290-303 (296-8); 5 9 296-314 (305-6). 
Waigeu island (ivaigciumsis Mayr, 1940, p. 8). 9 314-319. 
South-east and Kei Islands (pallida, from Stresemann, p. 305). 

286-295; 9 300-314. 
Lombok to Timorlaut, etc. (HmorJuoinsts, stresemann, Inc. ci/.). 

6 295-306; 9 310-327. 
Bismarck Archipelago (biwuurkii, Stresemann, loc. cit.). 

$ 309-312; ? 317-330. 

In young birds of .1. $, subcris/afa the ^rrey breast is lacking and the. cross- 
bamtlg are much narrower than in the adult, while the upper surfaces are 
brownish, perhaps accentuated by Fading and wear. 

Genus Milvius Lacepede 1799. 
Type. Falco milvus. Old World (two or three species). 

Milvus MKJRAXS (Boddaert). 
.Milvus migrans affinis Gould. 

Mihms affinvi Gould, 1838, Syn. Bds. Austr., part 3, plate (47, tig. 1) and text; 
Australia (restricted to New South Wales by Mathews, 1916). 

Milvus korschun napieri Mathews, 1912, Nov. Zool. 18, p. 249; Napier, Broome 
Bay, Kimberley Division, Western Australia. Type: AMNH No. 532065; 
adult female (no date given) ; G. F. Hill collector; wing 408, tail (long outer 
feathers), 252. 

Range. Lesser Sunda Islands, Timor, Celebes, New Guinea, Bismarck 
Archipelago. In Australia mainly north of about 20° south latitude. 


It is probable that the Black Kite is only a recent arrival in the north of 
Australia, one which may yet establish itself in the south as a result of Ifcrge 
scale radial dispersal movements during abnormal seasons (sec Serventy, 1953). 

We have compared specimens from the Celebes, the Lesser Sundas, New 
Guinea, and various parts of Australia without detecting geographical differences. 

Although sexual dimorphism is slight, recently collected material shows 
that the bill is shorter and more strongly hooked in the male than in the female. 

Genus Lophoictima Kaup 1847. 

Type. Milvus isurus; Australia (one species). 

The single member of this inonolypie genus bears a strong resemblance to 
the Ked Kite. (Milvus rnilrus) of Uurope, and were it not for the fact that the 
latter has transverse scutes down the front of the tarsus, while isurus has reti- 
culations, one might be inclined to assign the Australian bird to the genus 
Mihnts, Although the nature of the tarsal covering is undoubtedly a rather 
variable character when well-marked differences occur among closely related 
forms (the scales are reticulate in Hnmirosira also), they must be given im- 
portance. In Lophoictinia the coracoids are distinctive, being short and rela- 
tively wide and heavy, and the right coracoid overlies ventraLly the left, which 
is the reverse of the condition of the pectoral arch met with in Aqnila, ('ircus, 
Foho, and ffii niacins. Instead of overlying one another, the coracoids just 
touch in tfihus, ffatiustur and the unrelated Kianus. We have no skeletal 
material of Ifuuiirostru for comparison. 

Published records and notes on stomach contents indicate that this species 
is a persistent hunter of birds, and probably also a nest-robber. In its actions 
it has been likened to a harrier, and possibly it is mistaken at times for one in 
the field. 

LoPHotcnNtA ibuka (Gould). 

Milvus isurus Gould 1888* Syn. Bd& Anstr,, pari 3, plate (47, fig. 2) and text; 
Australia— New South Wales, according to Mathews. 19HJ. 

Milvus isurus tvesfraficusis Mathews 1HI2. Nov. Zool., 18, p, 250, Perth, Western 
Australia. Type: AMN It No. 532H0J adult male; November 7th, IW>4; 
''Dr. Kelsair'; wing, 455. 

Range. Australian mainland. 

The Square-tailed Kite is a rare species which is likely lo turn up at 
unexpected times and places. For instance, Ashby collected a bird at. Black- 
wood, near Adelaide, in October, 1010* and the few specimens contained in 

Condon and Amadon— Taxonomic Notes on Australian Hawks 201 

museums have been taken from such widely separated localities as Pubelup and 
Broome Hill, Western Australia, Trangie (north-west of Narromine), and 
Sydney, New South Wales, and Gayxidah (west of Maryborough), Oooktown 
and Cape York, Queensland. 

The type of wesfraliensis is in rather abraded and soiled plumage, but so 
far as can be judged it does not differ from specimens from Queensland in the 
American Museum. The type is rather a small specimen, but one of the Queens- 
land males has the wing only three millimetres longer. 

At present there is no evidence of geographical variation. A male in the 
South Australian Museum, from Pubelup, collected by the late Major H. M. 
Whittell on December 30th, 1938, is a juvenal. It is a more " golden" bird 
than all others seen and entirely lacks the broad blackish stripes on the 
breast and head, thin blackish shafts on the feathers being the only indication 
of striping, with a few small black streaks on the nape. The rump is whitish, 
recalling the Swamp Harrier (Circus approximans) . In this bird the iris was 
"grey-brown," cere "flesh colour," and feet "white." 

In adults the irides have been recorded as "yellow," as also are the cere, 
legs and feet; the bill is bluish horn. 

Wing. 3 south-western Australia 445, 470 (SAM; HLW); 455 (tvestra- 

9 470 (HLW). 

* New South Wales 450, 460 (HLW). 
9 South Australia 475 (SAM). 

9 Cape York 470 (SAM); eastern Queensland 490 (AM). 
$ Queensland 463, 462, 460, 466, 482 (?— shot from nest— may be 

mis-sexed); 9 480; unsexed, 465 (AMNH). 

Genus Hamirostra Brown 1846. 

Type. Hamirostra montana = Buteo melanostemmi. Australian mainland 
(one species). 

The systematic position of this monotypie genus is still uncertain, but it 
may be related to the Kite Lophoictinia. The legs and feet are strong, the tarus 
heavy, feathered one-third in front and reticulated, but with a single row of 
scales in front somewhat Larger. In its actions and posture it is unlike any 
other medium-sized Australian hawk, and rather resembles the Buteos or "Buz- 
zards" in its habit of soaring in wide circles often to great heights, with 
separated primaries or ' 'fingers. ' ' Like a Buteo, too, its flight is rather laboured, 
becoming swift on attacking when it grapples with its prey on the ground. 

202 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Although BIcGilp (1934) and Servcnty and \\ hillel! (1051) h&rfi Stated Pmt 

IFnmiroslra does no1 ford on carrion, perusal of various authors quoted by 
Mathews can leave no doubt that ft docs so at times, One Oi ti& specimens in 
Mathews' collection had, according to the collector, d. P. Rogers, led upon a 
decomposed kangaroo. A similar habit has occasionally been reported in the 
tYn.rnion Buzzard (fiuU-o kulco) of the Palacarctic Region. DespiW nil these 
resemblances to buzzards it is considered that Ihnnirostru must be regarded as 
a kite, and it is unfortunate that the name •'buzzard" has become firmly 
established amongst ornithologists in Australia. It is su jested that the bird 
be known as the Black breasted Buzzard-Kite. 


Iiutn) m<l<nwsternon Could 1S41, Proe. Zool. Soc., Pondon, 1840, p, 162; interior 
of New South Wales. 

ffamirosini monluwt Brown I84(i. Illusti. (Jen. Bds., part 8, i>. 12; Swan River, 
Western Australia. 

(htpo-ii livid »i< l<uius/mut <!<r< plu Mm hews 1912. Nov. Zool,, 18, p. 250; Parry's 
Creek, north-western Australia. Tyjfcj AMNII No, 582147$ female: Feb- 
ruary 4th, 1909; .J. P. Rogers collector. Wing, 447. Coloured pinto of 
type: Mathews, Bds. Anstr., 5, plate 248. opp. ]). 18 r S. 

Range. The northern and interior regions of the Australian mainland, 
This short-failed raptorial bird is a. rare species judging by the limited 
number of specimens in collections. It is generally accepted that a light and 
dark phase occurs, but we have seen no very young birds with characters of the 
dark phase. In the Mathews collection there are three skins from the Northern 
Territory and i'unr from north-western Australia. Ali of them lack the black 
head and breast from which the spd-ics takes its name, but all appear to be 
adults and at least one of them was taken at the nest. They are rather uniform, 
although ureal individual variation was observed in specimens in other A us 
tralian collections, In some light phase birds the dorsal surface may be more 
rufous than in others, while in certain dark phase examples the hind-iieek is 
deep rufous and there is also much rufous on I he baek, Other dark birds lack 
entirely any rufous colouration above, and the presence of this feature is prob- 
ably a sign of immaturity. 

Light phase specimens have, been examined from Alarngoe Creek, \Y. Kim 
berley, Point Torment, north-west Australia, Alexandra. Northern Territory 
(nesting) (AMNTJ). Northern Territory. Parry s < 'reek, Western Australia, and 
Byrock (BLW ) and (lare (SAM), New South Wales, while the dark phase 

Condon and Amadou — Taxonomic Notes ox Australian Hawks 203 

has been taken in Western Australia (no exact locality (AM)), at Borroloola 
(H1AY), Northern Territory, Sedan (SAM) and Cooktown (AM), Queensland, 
Mossgicl (Ail i ? New South Wales, and Swan Hill (NMM), Victoria. 

Wing. 3 Western Australia 455 (AM). 

t North Queensland 445 (AM). 

i New South Wales 460+ (IILW), 452 ( SAM ). 

V type of deccpfa -117 (AMN1I). 

9 Northern Territory 455 (HLW). 

9 New South Wales 477 (AM). 

9 North Queensland 482 (SAM). 

The nestling lias been described as "clothed in bluish-white down with a 
few rufous feathers on the head and back .... bill horn-colour, the legs and cere 
pinkish-grey, and the irides brown/ ' (Mcftilp, 1934.) 

There is a chick labelled "about one month old 1 ' in the Australian Museum 
which was collected at Mnssgiel, New South Wales, by K. 11. Bennett, in Novem- 
ber, 1884, which is covered with white down, with rufous feathers just appearing 
on the head, hind-neck, scapulars, and with the remises and rectrices just 
showing, and the irides are recorded as "clear light brown/' cere "bluish." 
legs and feet "w-hite," and claws "black." 

Two nestlings in the Australian Museum, collected at Mossgiel, New South 
Wales, in December, are labelled "about six w r eeks old." Both birds are 
feathered and bright rufous generally; on the under-surfaces the very bright 
rufous feathers of the foreneek and breast have dark' shafts which are less 
prominent on the abdomen. Above both birds are blackish on the back, but the 
remainder of the bright rufous feathers all show dark shafts, including the sca- 
pulars, rump and upper tail coverts. From above the tail is brownish-grey, 
tipped with huffy white. "Iris, clear light brown; cere bluish-white; bill, basal 
half of upper mandible bluish, remainder black; lower mandible blnish; legs and 
feet white with black claws." 

In the adult Hie iris is "rich hazel"; cere "greenish-white"; bill "horn 
colour with black tip": legs and feet "pinkish" with "black" claws. 

(Jen us Haliastur Selby 1840. 

Ty pe. Haliastur pon dice riun us = Fnlco hid us. Syn ony m Ic Hniasiur 
Mathews, 1015. Malaysia and Australasia (two species). 

The name, fctiniastur, was originally introduced by Mathews as a sub- 
genus for the species sphcmirus, but cannot be upheld. 

204 Records of the S.A. Museum 


Milrus sphmKrus Vieillot, 1818, Noli v. Diet, d'Hist. Nat., 20, p. 564; "Austral- 
asie" s New South Wales. 

Uuliastur sphniurm h'rrilori Mathews 1912, Austral Av, Reo., I, p. 8$; Daly 
River, Northern Territory. Type: AMNH No. 532299; adult male; Septom- 
ber 24. 1894; Knut Dahl. Wing, 379'; tail, 245? (badly worn). 

IliiHasiur sphcnurus johanvac Brand, .January 7, 1911). Iter, Fninv, (VOn\,< 4, 
p. 201 ; New Caledonia. 

JJuliastur sphenurus sarasini Mathews, February 29, 1916; Bds. Australia, 5, 
p. 169; New Caledonia. Mathews designated no type. His collection con- 
tains only one specimen from New Caledonia, a female taken November 18, 
1914, by P. D. Montague, now AMNII No. 582341. This mitrlit be con- 
sidered the type; oil the other hand, it cannot be proved to be such, and it 
is possible that Mathews, who had a habit of writing- new names on labels 
attached to specimens, examined other New Caledonian material. A search 
of collections, such as those of the British Museum, may reveal a specimen 
so labelled. 

Range. New Caledonia, New Guinea, Australia; (.') visiting northern 

Amadon (1941) revised this species and admitted no wcs. Re-examination 
of large series from Australia and New Cuinea and of three from New Cale- 
donia re-affirms this conclusion. Admittedly, some specimens from southern 
Australia are very large, but this is not true of all of them, and the slight size 
clinc does not seem worthy of subspecilie status. There seems to be no important 
colour variation. The newly moulted feathers fade and bleach more rapidly in 
Australia than in the more humid climate of New Guinea, but any slight dif- 
ference visible in series seems to be due to this cause and not to geographic 

The following data for three females collected by L, Macmillan are of 
interest ; adult, New Caledonia, May 15, 1939; wing, 415; weight, 921 grammes 
(fat). Adult, southern Queensland, March 25, 1940; wing, 425; weight, 761 
grammes; immature (on wing), April 6, 1940; wing, 403; weight, 517 grammes. 

The name "Whistling Eagle" is a misnomer, and we feci consideration 
should be given to the suggestion that this species be called the " Whistling 
Kite,' 1 especially as the birds often gather in large numbers, are kite-like in 
their actions, and are, in fact, kites! 

Condon and Amadon — Taxonomic Notes on Australian Hawks 205 

Haliastur inpus (Boddaeri). 

Haliastur indus girrenora (Vieillot ). 

llaliaciHH girrenera Vieillot, 1822, Gal. ©is., t, p. &, pi. 10: "India. Bengal, 
Pondicherry, Coromandel and Malabar, also New Holland according to 
Latham." The type locality has been restricted to Australia 1 , and more 
specifically New South Wales, as the plate is said to represent the Australian 
form. The species occurs in New South Wales, though we have seen no 
specimens from there. Stresemann (1951) has shown that the "Expedition 
Baudin," which secured the Australian birds named by Vieillot, collected 
only a limited number of species in New South Wales. He does not men- 
tion this species, but the problem is less important in that only one race 
is found in Australia, 

Haliastur indus subleucostcrnus Mathews, 1912, Nov. ZooL, 18, p. 249; Augustus 
Island, north-western Australia (published as 4< Derby" in original descrip- 
tion). Type: AMNH No. 582278; adult female; August 4, 1910; Q, R 
Hill. Wing, 372; tail 200 (!). 

Range. Australia, chiefly the northern, mangrove-bordered coasts, and 
reaching northern New South Wales, which has been designated as type locality, 
but from whence we have seen no specimens. Also Papuan region and Moluccas, 
intergrading with intermedins on islands to the west of New Guinea, and ex- 
tending eastwards to the Bismarck Archipelago. Normally a coastal species in 
northern Australia, it will often proceed far inland along the margins of rivers. 

Diagnosis. Differs from H. i. indus and //. i. intcrmedius by having the 
breast usually immaculate white (without black shaft streaks). Differs from the 
Solomon Islands population as noted under the description of the following 

The nominate race of the Brahminy Kite, which is confined to south-east 
Asia (India, Burma, southern China, etc.), is replaced in southern Annam, 
northern Siam and the Malay Archipelago east to Celebes and the Lesser Sundas 
by the race internudim. 

Although New Guinea birds appear a little smaller than Australian ones, 
the difference is hardly as great as the wing measurements suggest. Many of 
the New Guinea specimens are moulting or in poor feather, and it is suspected 
that, some may be wrongly sexed. 

l RothsouiM and Hartert, Nov. ZooL. 21, p. 210. 1914. 

206 Rfxords or THE S.A. Mtj&EjCW 

Wing. Australia, 7 t , :^8-377 (SGS)^ 3 v 307. 372. 3T8; 2 Inhelled u J ." 

378, 300 (AMNII). 
Northern Territory, J,. 343 (SAM). 
North-western Australia. 9, 875 (SAM), 
Cape York, 9, 35K (SAM). 
.Ww Ouiuea (and coastal islands), 15 *, 348-378 (359): 10 ?, 

353-373 (304) fAJDHH). 
New Ireland (no sex). 360 (SAM). 


Type. AMXII No. 221221; adult female; Bougainville Island, Solomons; 
April 17, L928; Wliitney South Seas Expedition. Winy, 3S3; tail, 207; eulmen 
from cere, 30; depth oi' bill at front margin of cere, 20. 

Range. Solomon Islands (including Nissan Island), also some of Mi" 
easternmost islands of the Bismarck Archipelago, and Feui Island, east o)' 
southern New Ireland. 

Diagnosis. Agrees with ffirrcmr'i of Australia and Papua in having the 
breast usually immaculate white. Differs from it, and from the other races of 
(he species, by having (adults) the bill entirely yellow, without hlackish areas 
at the base Of either mandible. The bill of fluvirostvis is also, when compared 
with that of girrenfrd, perceptibly heavier ami more " aquiline. *' 

This race is doubtless of veiy general oeeurrence throughout the Solomons. 
Specimens were examined from the following islands in this archipelago: Arnar- 
von, Bagga, Beagle, Bougainville, Choiseul, i.'izo. (lower, < <'audaleanal, Kulam- 
baiigra, Pavnvu, Shortland, I'gi, Yella Lavclla, Wickam Arch, Ysabel 

Although specimens from the Admiralty Islands, New Britain, New Han- 
over, Lihir, Squally Island, and even New Ireland (one skin) are. veiw eiose 
to or inseparable from (jirrcnera, four birds from Feni Island definitely belong 
to jhirirosiris, Whether this Solomons 7 race has, correlated with its heavier 
bill, more predatory habits than other Brahminy Kites is not known. i\! so, it 
would form an interesting parallel to the sea-eagles represented in the Solomons 
by the species tin/iff rtus sanfordi, which has more predatory habits than Uiko- 
r/asfrr (Mayr, 1930, p. 3). 

Flavirodrh averages larger than r/irre)ur<t from Papua, but wc have not 
enough Australian birds in good feather to be sure how they compare with 
flu vi rutin's in size. Two unsexed Australian birds in the American Museum are 
fully as large as any of the Solomon Island ones, while two females in the South 
Australian Museum, one from the Northern Territory and one from Cape York, 
are slightly smaller and larger respectively than the type of this new race. 

Condon* and Amadon— Taxonomic Notes on Austrai iax Hawks 207 

Tlie belly in flavirostris averages paler villous than in girn nera. White thfl 
difference is unmistakable in our material, the difference mny possibly be due 
to wear or bleaching. No difference in colon?' was visible in dorsal aspect, nor 
did comparison of immature stages reveal colour differences, 

A female was selected as type of ft a vims Iris because the heavy bill is often 
more apparent in this, the. larger sex. The colour of the bill of this race, as 
noted by the collectors, was usually given as "yellow," once as "chrome yellow," 
miee as ''horn with u yellow tinge," arid once as iv irreen, M In the dried skin 
"horn with a yellow tinge" might be the best description. 

Although females of this species are somewhat larger than males, it is not 
always possible to sex. specimens accurately by measurements. The following 
data doubtless include some mis-sexed birds. 

Wing, Solomon islands, 16 3, 357-384 (371); 13 9, 371-390 (379) 
Fe.ii Island*, 2 a, 372, 373; 2 9 , 378, 383, 

Dr. K, Mayr, while with the Whitney Expedition in the Solomons, obtained 
the weights of three adult males, as follow: 625, 625, 650 grammes. 

Genus AccirrrrcR Brisson 1760. 

Typo. Accipiter Brisson = Falco nisus Linne. Synonyms include Astur 
Tjacepede 1799, Lcucospizu Kaup 1844, Vrospiza Kaup 1854, and* 
Mathews 1915. Old and New Worlds (about 45 species). 

All the generic synonyms given above were used at some time or other by 
Mathews in his various writings, none can be upheld. There are no reliable 
characters available tor separating the goshawks (under Astur) from Accipiter 
(el Peters (1931), p, 205, footnote). 

Owing to variation in size, plumage, coloration and pattern, some confusion 
has occurred as to the number of Australian species which should be admitted. 
Gould (1865), Sharpe (1874, 1899), North (1912) and Mathews (1946) all 
regarded the "Grey" and "White" Goshawks as separate species, but there 
seems little doubt that these are merely colour phases of a single species, Acci- 
/.iit<r mjraehollandiar . 

Accipiter fascialus and it, cirrhocephalus are sibling species which almost 
defy exact definition on a physical basis apart from size: both pass through 
similar plumage stages, but the changes are more prolonged in the first-named. 
In birds from the extreme north of Australia, males of the former are about the 
same size and colour as females of the latter, and mis-sexed cabinet specimens 
amy add to the confusion. In southern birds, small males of fasciatns also pro- 
vide some difficulties, Perhaps the most reliable feature for separating the 

;!(')••; Records or the S.A. Museum 

two species is t ho bill, which in the larger is always noticeably heavier. Mea- 
surements of the greater height of the maxilla or upper mandible liave shown 
that in (lidimus, the northern race of fasriatus, this is about 10 mm., while 
in females of cirrhoccphalus it rarely exceeds 8*r> mm. In the cabinet skin the 
feet may dry in such a way as to make measurement difficult but it is usually 
ijuite apparent that the tip of the hind claw reaches only to the proximal end 
of the last segment of the middle toe in the Collared Kparrowhawk, whereas in 
fasciaius it. reaches to the base of the claw of the middle toe. Nevertheless, in 
the Brown Goshawk the condition is more variable, and in some birds the tip of 
the hind elaw only reaches to about the middle of the middle toe. Because of 
these differences in the toes fasciaius was finally placed in Astur with the gos- 

Slight differences in the barrings of the primaries may also be observed, 
lu cirrhacepJudus 1 he dark barrings arc usually wider and stronger at all stages, 
whereas in fasciaius ihey may be narrow and tapering, with the outer edge of the 
feather light-coloured, and the bars nof rxiending so far towards the lip of the 
wiMLi Exceptions in both species occur, 

In young birds, differences in the tarsal aeutes permit ready separation of 
the species. In cirrhocephalus, which moults directly into adult plumage from 
the Juvenal stage, the scutes are fused at quite an early age, but in faxviatus the 
"booted '' condition is found only in old birds. 

Much con fusion has occurred regarding the status of the problematical 
"West Australian (iosliawk/' .1. crturdvs of Ootild and other early writers, but 
we have been unable to discover any discernible basis tin- its recognition, either 
as a species, "hybrid, " or geographical race, Mould's type specimen, which 
came from the York district, Western Australia, appears to have been merely a 
rather small individual in fully adult plumage (cl\ Ramsay 1879, p. 174; (lurney 
1SS1. p. 262). North ( 1898, p. 16-1S-, 1912, p. 104) dealt at some length with 
''mm} I us," and referred to it as •'undoubtedly the rarest" of Australian Ar- 
cipiu-es, hut examination of specimens in the Australian Museum labelled as 
such (by Ramsay or North) has shown that they are typical clidimus. 

Mathews, who examined the type of cruculus. found that North's "cruc/i- 
tm" was not the same as (Jould's bird, but "the common bird of Western Aus- 
tralia" (i.e., fu^ciutvs) (quoted by White, IfHo) 

Acciimthk i\\s«iATi>;s (Vigors and UorsHehi) 

Aceipiter fasciatus fasriatus j Vigors ami llorsficld). 

As/ur Fasciaius Vigors and llorsficld, l^L'7. Trans. Linn. Soc London, lo, p. 
1S1: Npw South Wales. 

Condon and Amadon — Taxonomic Notes on Australian Hawks 209 

Astur cruentus Gould, 1842 (1843), Proc, Zool. Soc. London, p. 113; York 
district, Western Australia. Type said to be in the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia (No. 1279). 

Astur maculosus Coles, 1897, Vict. Nat., 14, p. 43; Blackburn, Victoria. (Type 
said to be in British Museum.) 

Astur fascial us mackayi Mathews, 1912, Nov. Zool, 18, p. 246; Mackay, Queens- 
land. Type: AMNH No. 533214; adult male. The specimen has no date, 
locality, or field label, but according to Mathews' catalogue was acquired 
in 1911 from the London dealer, Gerrard. Wing, 290? (worn moulting); 
tail, 237? (worn). The type is in excessively worn plumage; this is the 
basis for this supposedly brown-backed race. 

Urospiza fasciata rennelliana Kinghorn, 1937, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, ser. B, 
107, part 1, p. 180; Rennell Island. Type: Austr. Museum No. 32284. 
The specimen has no date or field label, but bears a printed label "Astur 
versicolor Ramsay. Hab. Ugi Islcl. Sex female." The entry in the Aus- 
tralian Museum Register merely states ''Rennell Island. Coll. Gh A. V. 
Stanley." Wing, 280; tail, 214; tarsus 75. The type is in very poor condi- 
tion and the plumage is badly faded and worn. 

Range. The whole of Australia, except the coastal northern regions from 
Cape York westwards to the Kimberleys; Tasmania; Norfolk Island (queried by 
Peters, 1931, no specimens seen by us) ; Rennell and Bellona Islands, off the 
southern Solomons. 

The Brown Goshawk occurs in all parts of Australia and Tasmania, and 
has a wide distribution in tropical regions from Christmas Island in the Indian 
Ocean through the Lesser Sundas and Timor to New Guinea, New Caledonia, 
Lifu, Loyalty Islands, and Fiji eastwards. Peters (1931) listed seven sub- 
species, including three from Australia, and Rand (1941) has described an addi- 
tional New Guinea race, dogwa. 

Peters used the name cruentus for birds from "West and South Australia, " 
perhaps following Mathews, but there is little justification for recognizing a dry 
country race even though birds from a wide area over the interior of the con- 
tinent are duller and with greyish heads, characters which seem to be largely 
induced by wear and fading. Examples from more humid regions have blackish 
heads, and we have seen specimens from Napier Broome Bay, north-western 
Australia, Vasse, south-west Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Heidelberg, 
Victoria, and Ravenshoe, north Queensland, which are inseparable from New- 
South Wales birds. In several south-western individuals in the Australian 
Museum the thighs were brighter rufous than in eastern ones both in the adult 


and voun^ 7 but generally speaking western birds seem to be practically indis- 

Although nothing is known of j-o^hIh r- movemems of the Brown fiosluiuk 
in Australia* specimens ex.a mined suggested that, in Western Australia, at tapt, 
southern birds may wander 1o Hie extreme north of that Slate, thereby invading 
the territory of didhiiiLs. An adult L'emale in tlie National Museum, Melbourne, 
collected on June 5, 1H10, at Napier Broome Bay is fully as large as and almost 
indistinguishable from dark-headed birds from Vasse (near Busselton), Western 
Australia, Plenty River (near Melbourne), Victoria, and Oobborah, New South 
Wales. Furthermore, during a recent Australian Museum expedition, Air. Allen 
Keast collected a large female (wing 990)., in juvenal plumage, at Forrest River 
Mission, about 50 miles south of Napier Broome Bay, on June 2, H)52. Two 
other juvenals in the Australian Museum (no dates recorded), and one in the 
South Australian Museum (female, April 8, 1913) were taken near Derby, 
north-western Australia, and all are large birds. Although more brownish above 
and below than examples of corresponding ago seen from the south, they are 
matched by at least one from Homebush, New South Wales, and several from 
Swan River and King George's Sound. Western Australia. The breast and fore- 
neck are heavily-barred brown, tin* whitish throat is heavily streaked with brown, 
and the thighs are dull rufous-brown and buffy white, 

Tasmanian birds art 1 generally somewhat larger, a little darker above and 
below, with more whitish throats than most from the adjacent mainland, How- 
ever, at this stage, we prefer not to introduce a name to indicate the differences" 
in I his population, which appeal's lo merge with southern mainland birds, 

]t is remarkable that ou Kennel] Island and its outlier, Belloua Island, 
there is a population of this species xovy similar to the New Caledonian (vi</i(ux) 
and Australian races, RcnnelL though usually included with the Solomons, is 
considerably south of that group and has a somewhat, different fauna, and Ani- 
piler fasciatiis does not occur in the Solomons proper. 

The Whitney Expedition secured a pair of adults ol' I'dscmtics, the nude in 
badly worn plumage, on Rennell and Bcllona. Tliis was before the American 
Museum had any specimens of vujiUir, and Mayr, in his report on the Rennell 
Expedition (1931), based his assignment of these birds to ritjilux on a com- 
parison made for him in the British Museum by the late A. Goodson, who noted 
their similarity to fasciatus of Australia. 

With the present fine series of vi.ijilax y it became evident that the pair of 
adults from Rennell is larger in evpiy dimension than viijiliix. The difference 
is not very ureal, however, and merely serves to bring the Rennell birds into 
the size class of/, fasemtus. from which they appeal inseparable. In particular. 

Condon and Amadon— Taxonomic Notes on Australian Hawks 211 

the adult male from Belloua, which is in fine plumage, agrees in every detail of 
colour and size with specimens from southern .Australia. 

In the meanwhile, a third specimen was collected on Rennell by 0. A. V, 
Stanley, and became the type of Kingdom 's ( r rospiza faseiuia rcnnetliunu, dif- 
ferentiated as follows: "In size and eolnur this bird is very similar to the 
narrow-banded form of U. fasciata, The tail feathers, though much worn at the 
tips, are a little broader than those of //, fasciata (Australian), the tarsus is 
longer, and the legs and feet more powerfully built .... Wing, 280." These 
differences arc not apparent in the two birds in the American Museum. Examina- 
tion of the type of renndliana in the Australian Museum confirms Kinghorn's 
remarks to some extent, but the differences are well within the range of variation 
met with in Australian birds, and the specimen is in poor condition. It appears 
to be rather faded, with a "washed-out" appearanee, and in this respect is 
similar to a specimen of didimuH from Darwin. The head is dark grey, the 
face pale brownish-grey, and there is a trace of a red collar on the sides of the 
neck; the upper surfaces are greyish -brown. Ventrally, the feathers are barred 
pale rufous and dull white (slightly wider and darker on the breast), and the 
thighs are of the same colour. 

Unless by chance the Rennell birds reached there rather recenth' from 
Australia, one would not expect them to be the same as the Australian race. Wo 
conclude, nevertheless, that rennellumus must be considered a synonym of fascia- 
tux until proved otherwise. 

A few very large examples (mainly females) were examined from New 
South Wales and Tasmania, but the size is not indicated by wing or other- 
con vent ional measurements. Nevertheless, even allowing for different methods 
of prepa ration resulting in some distortion, it is believed that outsize birds (and 
also "runts") may be met with occasionally. 

Kxeept where otherwise indicated, measurements given below are taken from 
skins in museums in Australia. 

Wing. 6 , adult. 

South-eastern Australia (6), 260-275 (265) (AMNH). 

Now South Wales (9), 255-278 (265). 

Victoria ( 1 ) , 270. 

Tasmania (4), 268-272 (270-5). 

South Australia (7), 256-270 (262). 

Southern Queensland (1), 268 (AMNH). 

South- and mid-west Australia (3), 250 +, 261, 262 (AMNH). 

Rennell Island (1), 265 (AMNH). 

212 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Si immature (8), 257-207 (262) (AMNH). 
6 , second year 

New South Wales (7), 247-270 (200-1). 

Tasmania (1), 270. 

South Australia (4), 255-gTO (SOI- '4). 

Southern Queensland (1), 270. 

South-west Australia (1), 266; 
6 i juvenal 

New South Wales (7), 245-275 (204-4). 

Tasmania (1), 264. 

South Australia (16), 227-270 (261-7). 

South-west Australia (4), 238-265 (253-7). 
9 , adult 

South-eastern Australia (3), 302. 807, 311 (AMNH), 

New South Wales (3), 302, 305, 310. 

South Australia (3), 300, 302 f 308. 

Southern Queensland (1), 312 (AMNH). 

South-west Australia (Ij, 305. 

South-west and mid-west Australia (3), 300, 305, 313 (AMNH). 

North-western Australia (1), 290. 

Northern Territory (2), 287, 305. 

Kennel] Island (2), 280 (AM), 292 (AMNH). 
S, immature (15), 295-312 (304) (AMNH). 
9 , second year 

New South Wales (8), 292-311 (298-8). 

South Australia (8), 265-305 (290*2). 

North Queensland (1), 305. 
g , juvenal 

New South Wales (6), 296-312 (304). 

South Australia (10), 262-311 (300-6). 

Tasmania (7), 291-305 (300-7). 

South-west. Australia (4), 253-290 (268-2). 

North-western Australia (4), 270-290 (279-5). 

Weight, 1 large 9 imm. 593 grammes. 

Altogether, we have examined and measured more than 170 specimens of 
this, the large, more heavily-pigmented nominate race. The general trend towards 
maturity is for the broad stripes and barrings of the ventral surface in the 
juvenal to be replaced by narrower transverse barrings, probably over a period 

Condon and Amadon— Taxonomic Notes on Australian Hawks 213 

of several years. Immature birds far outnumber adults in collections, and this 
has enabled us to distinguish three plumage stages — juvenal, "second year,' 1 
and adult. Individuals in fresh plumage are always darker than those in worn 
plumage, especially on the upper surfaces. The moult from one plumage stage 
to another is gradual and protracted, and is responsible for the remarkable 
variety of patterns met with. However, most of the variations in colour are 
due to wear and fading, and very few skins were seen in which it was due solely 
to moulting. This is remarkable considering the large number of individuals 

After hatching, in the late spring or early summer, the white downy chick 
rapidly acquires the juvenal plumage — first on the wings, then on the scapulars, 
back and tail. As soon as fully fledged, and when about a month old, the 
young Goshawk leaves the nest. 

Juvenals of both sexes, which differ markedly from adults, may be distin- 
guished by the heavy brown streaks on the breast and throat and the broad 
blotches or barrings on the abdomen. Above, the dark brown feathers are edged 
with cinnamon-rufous, this later fading to pale buff or being lost by wear. 
The nape is streaked with white, the central rectrices are prominently barred 
above, and the tibiae are indistinctly or broadly barred dull rufous and buffy 
white. The few Tasmanian specimens examined have the streaks on the throat 
reduced, and the tibiae are heavily barred fawn and buff. Juvenals of didimus 
are duller with less rufous above (perhaps due to fading), have less white at 
the nape, numerous streaks on the chin and throat, and dull rufous-brown tibiae 
with only slight indications of barring. 

It is believed that the juvenal plumage is retained for nearly one year, 
when the "second year" plumage is gradually acquired. The first new feathers 
are those of the crown, cheeks, mantle, throat and abdomen, and these are fully 
developed before the second summer; the tail may not be replaced completely 
until the beginning of the following autumn. 

The "second year" plumage is much like the adult, but may be distin- 
guished as follows. The upper surfaces are dark greyish-brown without any 
rufous and the crown is blackish-brown or dark grey with fewer white streaks 
at the nape. The only trace of a chestnut nuchal collar is on the sides of the 
neck, while the central rectrices are paler and more distinctly barred than in 
the adult and are the last feathers to be acquired. Below are numerous trans- 
verse bars on the breast, abdomen and under tail coverts of dull rufous brown 
with darker edges adjacent to the alternating white bars; the throat is dappled 
grey and dull white and the tibiae have acquired narrow bars of dull rufous 
and white. The markings on the lining of the wings resemble the barrings of 

214 Records of the S.A. Muskkm 

the undcrparts, being rufous instead ol' dark brown (as in the Juvenal). Indivi- 
duals are commonly found breeding in this plumage, 

Nothing appears to be known of the duration of the "second yeaf M type oi 
plumage, but it may be retained for more, than one year. In most descriptions 
reference is made simply to ll immature" and ' 'adult" plumages, the "second 
year' Ma-e being included in the last-named. There is reason to believe, how- 
ever, that, the fully adult bird is characterised by much finer rufous and white 
central barrings on the breast, abdomen, under tail coverts, and thighs. A 
prominent chestnut collar and usually the complete absence of white streaks on 
the nape also distinguish this stuge, when the central pair of rectriees are dark 
in colour with the merest trace uf darker barrings. Altogether, the fully adult. 
Goshawk, examples of which are rare in collections, is a brilliantly-coloured bird 
w r hen in fresh plumage. It may be recognized also by the complete fusion of 
the tarsal scutes, which forms the "booted" condition. 

From specimens examined it would appear that the moult into adult plumage 
commences in the spring and continues for several months, although the body 
feathers are rapidly acquired. 

In several adult females the iris has been variously recorded as " yellow," 
' bright yellow/' and ''dark golden.*'; feet "yellow"; cere "olive" or "green"; 
bill "blackish" or "blackish-blue." In a female juvenal the irides and feet 
were found to be "straw yellow." 

Accipiter faseiatus didirnus (Mathews). 

Astur fasciaius didimus Mathews, 1912. Austral. Av Rec, 1, p 33; Melville 
Island, Northern Territory. 

Itange. Coastal regions from about Cooktown, Cape York, westwards to 
the Northern Territory and Derby, north-western Australia. 

In his original diagnosis the author stated "differs from A. f. faseiatus in its 
smaller size: wing 230 mm." In addition, didimus is a paler bird than the 
other Australian race, and in tcrt» nidation between the two forms seems to be 
of the "stepped eline M variety. 

A pair of birds from as far north as Mackay, Queensland, one of them 
the type of Mathews' m<trl,ayi t are fully as large as specimens of more southern 
origin. Another bird, in the TT. L. White collection, from Vine Creek (altitude 
3,000 ft.), Kavenshoe, which is just south of Cairns, belongs to the nominate 
form, while a large series of birds from Cooktown are nearer didimux in size, 
but a few of them are fully as targe as average examples of /. fasciatus. Some 
of the Cooktown specimens are quite as small as topotypieal didimus from Mel- 

Condon and Amadon— Taxonomic Notes on Australian Hawks 21 5 

ville Island, and do not differ in colour. The situation in north-western Australia 
may indicate a rather sharp area of intcrgradation, but the fact that a few 
specimens ai'e as large and dark as fasciatus while others are as small as didimvs 
suggests that the former may have been visitors from the south, and this has 
already been discussed above. 

Wing, 6 , adult 

Melville Island (5), 229-239 (234) (AMNH), 238 (SAM). 

Northern Territory (3), 240 (AMNH), 249 (AM), 245 (HLW). 

Cape York (4), 235, 240, 246 (AMNH), 247 (NMM). 

North-western Australia (2), 230, 235/ (AMNH). 
& t immature (22), 229-262 (247) (AMNH), 225-253 (243-3) (SAM). 
? , adult 

Melville Island (2). 263?, 275 (AMNH). 

Northern Territory (2). 270?, 277 (AMNH), (4), 270-287 (276) 

N. Cape York (2). 270, 284 (AMNH). 

Cooktown, (\ York (7), 272-297 (287) (AMNH). 

Derby, N.W.A., 265 (AM). 
9 , immature 

Melville Island (1), 261. 

Northern Territory (5), 267, 268, 314? (AMNH), 254. 272 (SAM >. 

Normanton, Queensland (3). 272, 276, 290 (AMNH). 

Cape York (29), 258-291 (277) (AMNH), (1), 285 (NMM). 

Xew Guinea (.1. /'. polycrypi%& and A. f. chffwa) 
6 , adult (4), 223, 224, 227. 233; 9 f adult (3), 254, 256, 257. 

.Most of the races of fasciatus of New Guinea and the smaller islands north 
of Australia are more or less similar to (vidimus, but, for the. most part, even 
smaller, paler, more rufous, and in some cases actually whitish on the Hanks 
and belly (e.g., hclhuai/ri Stresemann, dogim Hand). 

Aeeipiter fasciatus buruensis Stresemann. 

Actipiter tnrrjualcs buruensis Stresemann, 1914, Nov. ZooL 21, p. 381; Pakal, 

Range. Island of Burn. 

The status of this race is puzzling. Stresemann said it does not differ 
from fasciatus in colour, but is smaller. He gave wing lengths as 259 and 270. 

•Sfce also Van Beramel, Treubia, 19, 1948, part 2, p. 392. 

216 Records of the S.A. Museum 

The smaller of these, the type, which is the only one we have available I'or com- 
parison, actually has the wing in moult. Stresemann did not mention the small 
north Australian race didimiis, a valid form which Mathews had described two 
years before; Direct comparison of the type of buruensis with topotypical 
females of didimus reveals no appreciable difference. The bill of buruensis seems 
a bit heavier (and perhaps the feet also); it is slightly greyer on the cheat than 
most didimus, thus resembling /. fasciatus rather than didimus. Were Burn 
adjacent to north Australia we should not hesitate to list buruensis as a synonym 
Of didimus. 

Burn is some distance removed, however, and distinct races inhabit the 
islands around it, including a small rufous race wallacii found on some of the 
smaller islands more or less intermediate in geographical position between Bum 
and Australia, It is nut expected, therefore, that the birds of Buru will belong 
to the northern Australian race, and until proved otherwise by adequate material, 
it must be assumed that buruensis is valid on the basis of slight differences 
noticed and perhaps additional ones that will become evident in series. 

Aceipiter fasciatus vigilax (Wetmore). 

Astur fasciatus vigilax Wetmore. I!)2(i. Condor, 28, p. l> (new name for 
insularis Sarasin, pre-oceupicd) j New Caledonia. 

Like Ijcndunut of the island of Sumba, this race is similar in colour to 
nominate fasciatus, but smaller. Mr. L. Macmillan collected a fine series of 
this bird I'or the American Museum on New Caledonia (the type locality) and 
on the three principal islands, Lifu, Mare, and Uvea, in the Loyalty Croup. 
They all belong to vigilax, in which the bars on the underparts are rather greyish, 
as in fasciatus, except the flanks, which tend to be more rufous as in didimus. 

Wing. 6 ', adult (9), 236,253 (244); 9, adult (5), 268-232 (275). 

Acctjttkr ciRRHocKPiiAnns (Vieillol). 

Aceipiter cirrhocephalus cirrhocephalus (Yicillot). 

Sparvws cirrhocephalus Vieillot, 1817, Nouv. Diet. dHist, Nat,, tO, p. 329; 
New South Wales. 

Aceipiter cirrhocephalus bruoinei Mathews, 1912, Nov. ZooL, US, p. 247; Broome 
Hill, southern Western Australia. Type: AMNH No. 538982* adult male; 
"&/6/8-* 1 (1 June 8, 1900) ; ^TA\" (! Tom Carter). Wing. MBj tail, 150. 

Range. Tasmania; Australian mainland, except the northernmost pails. 

Condon and Amadon— Taxonomic Notes on Australian Hawks 217 

Four races* 1 oP the Collared Sparrowhawk may be recognised; papiiavus 
(New Guinea) inn I <iuaesitandus (northern Australia) are smaller and more 
imfous ventrally than <irrhocephalus } while rossel/ionus (Rossel Is., New Guinea) 4 
is believed to be large and similar to the nominate I'orni but darker above, though 
less heavily marked below. 

Of "hrwnnci," Mathews slated, " . . . , darker above and the nuchal eollar 
darker red," but we have seen examples in the Australian Museum from south- 
western Australia which are inseparable from eastern Australian birds, including 
Tasmania?) ones. Nevertheless, the darker colorations which characterize the 
nominate raee are on the Avhole slightly more evident in the west, though most 
-specimens from the two areas cannot be differentiated. 

Colour variation in Accipiter cirri or cphalus in Australia parallels that in 
Accipiter fascialvs: northern birds are paler, more rufous, and in both specie- 
these trends arc continued further in New Guinea, In the ease of fascintus, 
most of the other races of the northern islands are also paler and more rufous 
than the Australian forms, but there arc also definite exceptions; cirrhoccplialtts 
is absent from these smaller islands. 

As regards size variation within Australia, j'asckitus is much smaller in 
northernmost Australia than in southern Australia, while cirrhocephalux is only 
slightly so, The two species can be confused in the north, if the two sexes are 
not kept separate, but hardly in the south. 

Wins. 10 $ , 200-219 (208) ; S 5 , 232-242 (238) (AMNH ). 

15 ad. a, 195-210 (205); 14 ad. 9, 232-251 (236*5) (AM, NMM, 

Although cirrhoceplutlus is very similar to A. fasciatus in plumage, the 
change from juvenal to adult is direct and takes place at the beginning of the 
second year; this is indicated in examples with the fine breast barrings of the 
adult intermixed with the heavy blotches or stripes of the juvenal. Juvenals 
of the two Australian races are inseparable. 

Accipiter cirrhocephalus quaesitandus Mathews. 

Accipiter cirrlwccnhalus quaesitandus Mathews, 1915. Birds of Australia, 5, 
p. 81; Utingu, Cape York, Queensland. Type: AMNH No. 533939; adult 
male; July 4, 191.2; Robin Kemp. Wing, 203; tail, 154. 

Accipiter cArrhocephalus hamUtfa Mathews, 1917. Austral Av. Rec, 3, p. 128; 
Cape York 

•vfiffl Beuimel, 1948, Trcubia, 19, p. 391, also regard* AccipUar r.r ylhr uvvh en of the 
Moluccas as eonspecitic With cirrhocephalm. 

*Mayr, 1940, Anier. Mus. Novit., 1056, p. 12. 

218 Records of tiik S.A. Museum 

Type. No skin indicated as the type 61 this race is present in the American 
Museum of Natural History; probably no type was designated. Although 
entered as a new raee, with description and type locality, one wonders about the 
connection of haesitaUt Mathews, 1917 to (vuusihnidtis Mai hews 1915 with the 
same type locality, Probably in lf)17 Mathews forgot that he had named the 
Capfi York population in 1915, and yet involuntarily picked a similar sounding 
uiimic Perhaps he realized the blunder Inter and for this reason did not desig- 
nate a type for ftaesitata. 

Range, Cape York and the entire north coast area of Australia. 

Diagnosis, Differs from c. cirrhocepluilus by being less greyish, more rufous 
ventrally and perhaps slightly smaller. The race pn})vnnus, of New Guinea, is 
still more rufous ventrally, and less haired; it also smaller (wing, tf, 184). 

A male from Normanton and one for north-western Australia are slightly 
paler than the other four adult males, all from (Vipe York, in the American 
Museum. It is probable, however, that the differences observed are due to 
individual variation and, in pail, to plumage fading in the arid regions, because 
several other skins do not show this difference. Specimens of this race have 
been examined from 'Sit, Alexander (south of Derby), Fitzroy "River, Brooking 
Creek (West Kimberley); Borroloola, Brock's Creek, Alexandra, Alligator Hiver, 
f.Voote, Melville and Bathurst Islands (all Northern Territory). 

Tt is probable that birds from the arid portions of the interior and Western 
Australia begin to show the paler, rufous coloration of (fuarsitandus at more 
southern localities than do those, from the humid eastern coast. Yet, an adult, 
female, taken in 1947 by Ken Buller on the I)c (ivoy River, well north in mid- 
western Australia, is typical of the nominate race. This bird weighed 235 

Wing. G 6 , 196-209 (201); 4 9, 229-237 (232) (AMNH). 

2 ad. a 5 194 (HLW), 200 (SAM); G 9, ad. 228-242 (3$$*5l 
(HLW ? SAM). 


Aeeipiter novaehollandiae novaehollandiae ((xmelin). 

Falco novae-HollantHae tlmclin, 1788, Syst. Nat,, vol. I, pt. 1, p. 2G4: New South 
Wales ex Latham = Tasmania fide Mathews. 

Astut- clarus coolrfowni Mathews, 1912, Nov. Zool, 18, p. 245; Cooktown, northern 
Queensland. Type . AMNH No. 582939; "#■' = adult male, <>rey phase; 
May 13, 1902 (E. Olive). Wins, 2ol j tail, 197. As ITartert already pointed 
out, this bird is obviously a male and Mathews' indication of its smaller 
HlJfc as compared with a female from New South Wales is not significant. 

Condon and Amadon— Taxonomic Noths on Australian Hawks 219 

Aatur novaehoUmidiae alboides Mathews, 1912, Nov. Zool., 18, p. 246; Parry ? s 
Creek, East Kimberley, north-western Australia. Type: AMNU No. 532958; 
adult male, white phase; October 8, 1908: J. P. Rogers. Wing, 258; tail, 

istur clarus robustus Zietz, 1914, South Aust. Ornith., I, ]v 18; Melville Island, 
Northern Territory. Type: SAM No. B1334; female, juw, grey phase; 
August 2. 1913; W. 0. Dodd, eolleetor. Wing, 285: tarsus, 79; tail, 220. 
"Iris yellow, feet yellow." 

Range, Tasmania (white phase only); Australia (chiefly eastern and 
northern); Kangaroo Island. 

The Grey and White Goshawks of Australia are now known to be phases 
of one and the same species (see also Mack, 1953). Somewhat more difficult for 
immediate acceptance was Stresemann's demonstration that the brown Velar- 
ques") and white {leueouomuis) birds of New Guinea are also phases. 'Wild- 
tyjpt** birds oi' Australia are white below, barred With grey on the breast 
and pale grey above; in New Guinea races they are dark grey above and rufous 
or deep chestnut below. The female of the race leucosmnvs is somewhat barred, 
so that by a total loss of the phaeomelanins and a loss in intensity of the 
eumelanins, a coloration like that of wild-type Australian birds could result. 
Such changes, in one direction or another, have been of not infrequent occur- 
rence during the evolution of the numerous species and races of raptorial birds 
of the Australo-Papuau region, many of which are grey and white, others grey 
and rufous. 

Mayr has pointed out that immature* of wild-type teucosomw vary greatly 
in the amount of phaeomelanins present. Some of them are as light (though 
more heavily marked) as immature wild-type novaehollandiae. He designated 
two phases of these kucoiiomus wild-typo immatures: a Vk rufous" and a '* white" 
one. The latter might better be termed "pale," since it apparently, as Mayr 
concluded, has nothing to do with the true white phase of Icucosomus. We are 
inclined to believe that this variation in immature wild-type leucosomus may, 
to a greater degree* than realized by Mayr, be due to bleaching, fading, and 
possibly to age changes (appcaranee of first indications of adult rufous colora- 
tion), but there is undoubtedly some genuine genetic, variation in the amount 
of phaeomelanins present, This helps to explain how, in wild-type novaehof- 
landiae, the phaeomelanins are entirely lacking in all stages of plumage, and 
is further argument for regarding leucoxomus as a race of the Australian bird. 

It is impossible to say whether the paling- of the wild-type plumage in the 
nominate race (adults are nearly white below and pale grey above) has any 

220 Records of the S.A. Museum 

selective relation to the occurrence or origin of the white phase. Certainly the 
latter is a discrete genetic entity; even immatures of the white phase birds are 
said to be pure white at all ages. At the same time, it is possible that the physio- 
logical advantages presumably correlated with the white, which in Tasmania 
have led to its complete establishment, are also present and responsible for the 
paling of the wild-type Australian birds. The by no means low incidence of the 
white phase in New Guinea in a race which the wild-type adults are dark- 
coloured might be considered to refute this suggestion. As already noted, how- 
ever, there is a reduction of phaeomelanins (and perhaps in the intensity of 
eumelanins) in a considerable percentage of immatures of leueosomus, wild-type, 
so it is possible that the same trends discernible in wild-type novaehollandiae 
are incipient in leueosomus. 

Although white plumage may have a direct selective advantage in gyrfalcons 
and snowy owls, one cannot suppose this to be the case in white phase novae- 
hollandiae. More likely, the white colour is genetically linked with unknown 
favourable characters, and since it has not proved to be a great disadvantage it 
has become widespread. Hawks have few predators themselves, and apparently 
the white plumage does not seriously inconvenience them in securing their own 
prey. One observer even believed that small birds showed less fear of white 
goshawks than of the generality of hawks, perhaps mistaking the former for 
white cockatoos! 

In the case of novaehollandiae, the increase in size and the change in colour 
is so abrupt when one passes from the northern islands to Australia, that some 
may still prefer to recognize two species. The occurrence of a white phase in 
leueosomus does, however, serve to link the island races with that of Australia 
and Tasmania. One is inclined to follow the current practice and make them all 
races of novaehollandiae, if for no other reason than to emphasize the amount 
of variation that can occur within the limits of a ' ' rassenkreis. ' ' 

It is worth pointing out that the race misulae Mayr, found on two of the 
small islands east of New Guinea, is almost as large as nominate novaehollandiae ■; 
its feet and bill are fully as robust as in the latter race. Wild-type, that is 
"grey phase,''" birds of Accipiter novaehollandiae novaehollandiae differ from 
those of all other races by lacking rufous in the adult. White phase birds are 
inseparable from white phase leueosomus of New Guinea, but are, sex for sex, 
much larger. 

White phase birds in Australia are usually pure white at all ages and in 
all areas. We have discovered no geographical variation in colour in the grey 
phase. Fleay (1950) refers to one case of intermediacy, a specimen in the 
H. L. White collection. This bird is white, but with grey on the shoulders, back 

Condon and Amadon— Taxonomic Notes on Australian Hawks 221 

and outer webs of the secondaries. It is a female taken at Dorrigo, N.S.W. In 
immature birds of the grey phase the bars on the breast are much broader than 
in the adults and they are slightly tinged with brown. Dorsally a faint brownish 
collar is sometimes evident, and this seems to represent the last stage in the 
disappearance of a rufous nuchal collar previously present, and characteristic 
of many species of Accipitres in their adult plumage. 

As long since known, only the white phase of this hawk occurs in Tasmania. 
In Australia, as Southern and Serventy (1947) have shown in a detailed, if 
somewhat laboured, analysis, there is little regular or clinal variation. In par- 
ticular, there is no regular decrease from south to north in the incidence of 
white birds, which, as a matter of fact, predominate in the Northern Territory, 
and apparently, in the adjacent Kimberley Division of north-western Australia 
(whence the only specimen we have seen is the type of Mathews' alboides). 
Although these colour phases are, of course, genetic, the percentage of white 
birds in Australia is far too high to warrant separating them racially from the 
all-white population of Tasmania. 

Turning now to size variation, Mathews described a race cooktowni, from 
("ape York, and another race alboides, from the far north-west. Both supposedly 
differed from nominate novaehollandiae (terra typica, Tasmania) by smaller 
size. Mathews later admitted there is very little reason to think northern 
birds are smaller. Zietz, meanwhile, named a race from Melville Island which 
he believed to possess characters embodied in the name robustus. The type 
specimen is medium greyish-brown above, including the head, and has fairly 
heavy brownish barrings beneath, as well as an unbooted tarsus, both signs of 
immaturity. It is quite an average specimen in every way, and we conclude 
that Zietz must have lacked adequate comparative material at the time when 
he introduced the name robustus. Hartert (1931, pp. 40-41), in discussing 
Mathews' two types, admitted that they (and many other northern specimens) 
are as large as southern ones. He also detected a slight size decrease northerly 
which he thought might warrant recognition of cooktowni and most later writers 
have followed this course, including Peters (1931). 

Although Fleay (1950) believes Tasmanian birds to be larger and heavier 
than others, we have been unable to discover any great variation in size in this 
hawk, in available material, and believe it to be non-existent or negligible. One 
has only to place side by side adults from Tasmania, Cape York and the North- 
ern Territory to see that they are, in general terms, of the same size. It is 
true that, in series measurements, the northern birds average a bit smaller, but 
even this may be because the northern specimens available are in general in 
poor plumage. The interesting point is that the birds of such climatically 

222 Records of the S.A. Museum 

diverse and rather remote areas as Tasmania, Cape York and Melville Island 
and the Kimberley Division are substantially alike in size. The correct means 
of emphasizing this is, it seems to us, to unite all the Tasmanian and Australian 
birds in one race, novaehollandiae. 

Wing. Tasmania: 3 & , 250, 254, 257 (all worn) (AMNH). 
8 9,295-309 (305) (AMNH). 
South Australia: 1 ?, 315 (AMNH). 

1 9, 313 (SAM). 
New South Wales: 5 3, 258-270 (AMNH). 

2 9, 306, 312 (AMNH). 
Queensland (except Cape York): 5 9, 290-319 (307) (AMNH). 
Cape York: 7 6, 257-270 (261) (AMNH). 
7 9, 293-300 (296) (AMNH). 
Melville Island: 1 9, 303 (AMNH). 

1 9, 285 (SAM) (type of robustus). 
Northern Territory (except Melville Island) : I $ , 253 ( AMNH ). 

2 9, 300, 304 

North-western Australia: 1 6 , 258 (AMNH). 

Genus Erythrotriorchis Kharpe, 1875. 

Type. Falco radialus. Australian mainland (one species). 

The single member of this genus is usually considered to be a modified 
goshawk. The wings are longer and the tail shorter than in Accipiter, but the 
feet suggest that genus, white the coloration, as Mr. M. Jollie has pointed out 
to us, is very like that of Accipiter hurgersi of New Guinea. 

Although Megatriorchis doriae of New Guinea has sometimes been included 
in this genus, as for example in Peter's Checklist ( 1031 ), such action is debatable 
to say the least. Doriae has departed from Acvipiter in just the opposite way 
from radial us; the wings are very short, the tail very long. Thus doriae re- 
sembles J'rolriorchis macrourus of equatorial Africa, but the latter is not so 
far from typical Accipiter. 

/Crifthroiru/rcJtis radiafus is said to soar at times and is undoubtedly less 
closely restricted to forest cover than is M. doriae. Both species have very long, 
curved claws and both arc bird-eaters. Presumably they branched off independ- 
ently from Accipiter stock, but even if they are more closely related than this 
would indicate, they are now too unlike to fit properly in the same genus. 

Condon and Amadon— Taxonomic Notes on Australian Hawks 223 


Falro radiafus Latham, I SOI, Index Ornith., SnppL p. xii; Now South Wales. 

B '■/•<_/ thro trior chin rufotibia Campbell, 1911, Emu, 10, p. 249; Napier Broome 
Buy, KJTiiberley Division, Western Australia. Type: National .Museum. .Mel- 
bourne, No, HTAV 53B9; adult female; June 21, 1910; ft F. Hill for H. L 
White. Win- :l9ti ; tail, 245; tarsus, 7-5. Paratype: IIIAY 5M70; adult 
female; February 18, 1909; 0. F. Hill. Win-, ©Bj tall, 230 j tarsus, S. 

Knjthvotrionhir, rttdvttus katherinc (sie) Mathews. 191(i, Austr. Av. Ree., fi. 
p, 57; Katheriue River, Northern Territory. Type: AMNH No. 5:54012: 
male moult/in- from very worn and faded plumage into adult plumage; July 
25, 1895: (Knut) Dahl. Win-, 353; tail. 220. Coloured plate of type: 
Mathews, vol. 5, pi. 240, opp. p. 87. 

ICrythrotriorckis rudiatus que en dan die ilk Mathews, 1917, Austr. Av. "Ree,, 3, 
p. 12S; "OejoteE Bay*' (label says "CnrchvelF'), Queensland. Type; AM Mil 
No. 53401::; adult male (said to be from a eolleetion made in northern 
Queensland in June and July, 189-S. by collectors of A. S. Meek). Wing, 
362; tail, 218. 

Range. Australian mainland. 

The Red (Goshawk, which seems to occur mainly in northern and eastern 
Australia, is undoubtedly one Of the rarest and least-known hawks, and the 
number of specimens in museums is limited. 

Ilartert (1931, p. 42) has already pointed out that Mathews* names queens^ 
hrtulicus and katherinc are synonyms of radiatus, and there is no reason to 
believe geographical variation occurs. The type and paratype of ynifotihiu 
Campbell have been examined; both are females which seem to fall within the 
variational limits of the species. Campbell's specimens, which came from north- 
west Australia, differ from all others contained in the H. L. White collection in 
being whitish on the centre of the breast and abdomen, with the undertail coverts 
more whitish, but with some rufous. An the name im plies, the thighs are more 
rufous than the underparts, but this feature is matched in an adult female from 
Borroloola, Northern Territory, and this specimen also has a rather whitish 
abdomen, The rump is variable, being -rev in the type of rufotibia, grey with 
some rufous in the paratype and rufous in all others seen. While the colour 
of the upper surface generally is rather uniform, there is much variation in 
the coloration of the lower surfaces. The chin and throat varies from whitish 
to buff, with blackish stripes, and in a male from Cairns, taken in November, 
1 909, the entire underparts and tibiae are deep rufous. 

224 Records of the S.A. Museum 

All but one (the type of katherine) of the seven specimens in the American 
Museum are from Queensland. Three skins in the H. L. White collection are 
from "Borroloola, one from Cairns, and one from King River, Northern Territory. 
This last-named specimen, as well as another male from Borroloola have the 
tail incompletely barred, a sign of immaturity, hi the South Australian Museum 
there is a male from Bat-hurst Island and a subadult female from Byromine, 
Oloneurry River, Queensland has the tail incompletely barred. 

Three adults with completely barred tails and taken at Cooktown, -function 
Camp, and Dawson River, Queensland, are in the Australian Museum, Sydney. 
Measurements : 

Wing. $ , 335, 345, 350, 352, 353 +, 355, 35C, 358, 360, 362, 372. 

? , 385, 390, 395, 396, 410, 420, 420 + , 420. 
Tail. a , 198, 200, 210, 215, 218, 220. 222, 222. 

9 , 235, 235, 240, 245, 260, 265, 266, 268. 

For comparison of proportions, a female Mefjatriorchis doriae measured: 
wing, 352, tail 330; an immature female of Accipiter gentilis airieapiUus: wing 
383, tail 305. Tail/wing ratios: radiatus, 1. 9, -64; atrieapillus, 1, 9, imm., 
•80: doriae, 1, 9, -94. 

Colours of soft parts: s (? subadult): iris, pale yellowish-brown: feet, 
yellow: bill, bine-grey: tip black. J (? juvenal); iris, yellowish-olive; feet, 
sulphur yellow; bill, black upper, lower bluish; cere, pale dull blue. 9 ; iris, 
pale yellowish-brown; feet, yellow; bill, light grey, tip black. 

Genus Hieraaetus Kaup, 1844. 

Type. Falco pennala. Ethiopian, Palaearctic, Oriental and Australian 
regions (5 species). 


Hieraaetus morphnoides morphnoides (Gould). 

Aquilu mnrphiwides Mould, 1840 (1841), Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 61; Yar 

runrli, Upper Hunter River, New r South AY ales. 
Aqtnla morpJtn aides coonfjani Mathews, 1912, Nov. Zool., 18, p. 248; Coon^an 

River, north-west Australia. Type: AMNII No. 535063; adult male (mis- 

sexed by collector as female); July 7, 1908; F.L.W. (Whitloek). Winy, 

334 (worn). 

Ramie. Australian mainland. 

Condon and Amadon — Taxonomic Notes on Australian Hawks 225 

While the nominate race of the Little Eagle is confined to Australia, a 
smaller, more heavily pigmented form, weiskei, occurs in the mountain forests 
of central and eastern New Guinea. In his "Birds of Australia" Mathews 
pointed out the resemblances between these forms and pewnatm of the Palae- 
arctic region, and regarded them all as conspecific. Most authorities are now 
agreed that the Australian bird is distinct, and later Mathews reverted to this 
treatment in 1946. 

We have examined 36 skins all told and can find no evidence in support of 
the race coongani, which was supposed to be a small bird. Our material is in- 
sufficient to rule out absolutely the possibility of geographical variation in 
colour, but since individual and age variation is great in this direction, there is 
no reason to suppose that such exists. 

Although it is generally believed that light and dark phases occur, Fleay 
(1951) has drawn attention to the possibility that dark plumage may develop 
with increasing age. North (1898, p. 29) stated that besides being smaller, adult 
males are "usually darker in colour, and the abdomen, flanks, and thighs of a 
more uniform tint of rufous, the shaft lines always darker." An adult male 
from Broken Hill is actually lighter in coloration beneath than two females 
from the same district, and although Fleay (loc. cit.) has stated also that males 
are darker, it is felt that this distinction cannot always be relied upon. Examples 
of dark males have been seen from Kyabram, Victoria and Castlereagh River, 
New South Wales, and there is a dark female which was shot at the nest from 
Dawson River, Queensland. 

Wing. Queensland: $ , 343 (AMNH) ; 9 , 390, 393, 399 (AMNH), 370, 380, 

385 (AM). 
New South Wales: £, 334 (SAM), 345 (AMNH), 300 (jmO 

(AM); 9, 378, 380, 388 (juv.), 405 (juv.) (AM), 380, 381, 

402 (SAM). 
Victoria: 9, 382 (SAM). 
South and "Central" Australia: 8 , 335 (AMNH); 9 , 380 (juv.) 

(SAM), 374 (AMNH). 
Western Australia: 3 , £84; 9, 400 (juv.) (AM). 
New Guinea (weiskei) : 6 , 308; 9 , 327, 337, .342 (AMNH). 

Young birds (juvenals) are dark — the ''ginger" stage of Fleay (loc. cit.). 
They differ from dark adults in being very rufous on the head and hind-neck, 
darker brown on the back (although this probably fades rapidly in adults), 
with upper tail coverts and ventral surface a deep, dull rufous. Specimens of 
both sexes in this plumage have been collected in New South Wales, Victoria, 

226 Records of the S.A. Muskum 

South Australia and south-west Australia, and it is possible that in life they 
would be mistaken for dark phase adults. 

The newly hatched chick is covered in creamy-white down; iris "pale 
brown," cere "yellow," bill "light horn," feet "flesh colour." 

The juvenal plumage is rapidly acquired, and after two months the tail 
is about half grown with the central dark and somewhat less strongly 
barred than in the adult. In the adult, colours of the soft parts are as follows ■ 
iris, "reddish brown," cere "leaden blue." bill "bluish with black tip," feet 

Three birds from New Guinea (weiskei) in the American Museum are more 
heavily streaked ventrally than any from Australia. The female in this race is 
about the size of the male of //. m. morphnoides, and sexual dimorphism is 
equally great in both forms. 

Genus Aquila Brisson, 1760. 

Type. Fulco chrysaetos. Synonym Uroaitus Kaup. Old and New Worlds 
(7) species). 

The single Australian member of this genus (and ax) is often placed in 
Uroaetuti Kaup, the only character of which is that the tail is cuneate, whereas 
in the various species of Aquila it is rounded. This, jn our opinion, is not of 
sufficient importance to warrant placing the Wedge-tailed Eagle in a mono- 
typic genus; more particularly inasmuch as it appears to be closely related to 
the Golden Eagle (A. chrtjsa'ctos), the type of the genus. Indeed, it is possible 
that audax is more closely related to rhrysaclos than is any other species of the 

Aquila ai:dax (Latham). 

Aquila audax audax (Latham). 

Vulfur audax Latham, 1HOI, fnd. Ornilh. Suppl., p. ii; New South Wales. 

Aquila audux vartcri Mathews, I!) 1 2. Xovitates Zool., 18. p. 247; Graceheld, 
Western Australia. Type; AM Ml No. 535398; adult "male'' (.'); there 
is no original label on this specimen, but someone has written on the red 
type label of the Kothschild Museum "4-5-08 C^Btfugtf." Wing, 680 
Coloured plate of type: Mathews, Bds. Austr. 5, plate 241, opp. p. Bfi. 

Range. Australian mainland and southern New Guinea. 

The number of skins of the Wedge-tailed Eagle preserved in Australian col 
lections is inadequate for serious racial studies. This is partly due lo the 

Condon and Amadon— Taxonomic Notes on Australian Hawks 227 

preponderance of immature individuals and the frequency of moulting specimens, 
and partly because, owing to tlie large size of the species (which raises problems 
fid preparation and storage), no attempts have been made by institutions to 
gather comprehensive series. A fully representative collection of proporly- 
sexed individuals of all ages may reveal geographical variation on the Australian 
mainland, but at present we can find no evidence of this. Mayr (1937) found 
that a bird from Dogwa, southern New Guinea, compared "fairly well with adults 
from New South Wales/ 1 

Mathews described the race carferi in the belief that the birds of western 
Australia are blacker, or, at least, attain the black plumage (in which only the 
under tail coverts and nape remain rufous) at a younger age than do birds of 
eastern Australia. This would be difficult to prove except with captive birds, 
There is no doubt that fully adult birds are always black If. L White (in 
Mathews, 1915, p. 104) stated that a captive bird he had reared was no less than 
ten years old be tore it assumed black plumage, while Fleay (1952) has expressed 
the opinion that both sexes may don this plumage after six years, Old zoo birds 
examined by us have all been black. 

There appears to be much variation in size in all parts of the range, and, 
as pointed out by Fleay (loc. cit.), unusually small individuals of either sex 
may be encountered. There are numerous published records of the wing span 
of this eagle, and some rather astonishing claims have been made by bushmen 
and other observers. Many records are of little value because of the 
neglect to distinguish age, sex, and plumage condition. Discarding a lot 
of reports as unreliable, Morgan (1932) found, from a series of 126 
measurements of birds mainly from eastern Australia, that the average 
wing span was 7 feet 4 inches; there were no records less than G feet. 
The greatest wing span regarded as reliable was 10 feet, being that of a bird 
shot in Wei*ribee Gorge, southern Victoria. Roche (1914) recorded 11 feet 
for an adult from the same locality, but this was not accepted by Morgan, who 
also found that the average weight of 54 birds (sexes not distinguished) was 
7 pounds 15 ounces. In this ease the greatest reliable record was 10.1 pounds 
for a South Australian individual. 

Considering the large proportion of young birds which fail to the gun ur 
trap and the protracted moult of the species, the true average fig\ires might be 
slightly higher than those given by Morgan, although this would be offset to 
some extent by the numerous reports of exceptionally large individuals, other 
birds being neglected by observers. 

Fleay (ha. nit,) believes that Tasmanian birds are larger than those of 
the mainland, but we have found no conclusive evidence in favour of this. 

228 Records of the S.A. Museum 

neither can we refute it. He quotes one record of 9 feet 4 inches wing spread, 
but this has certainly been exceeded in reports from New South Wales, Victoria, 
and South Australia (Morgan, loc. cit.). Also, wing measurements of three- 
birds in good feather from Tasmania (all females) have been found to be no 
greater than those of mainland birds, as shown below. 

Wing. Victoria: 5,622; 9, 653; 7 $ (imm.), 584-667 (628); 2 9 (imm.), 
609, 667 (NMM). 
South Australia: 2, 620; 9, 670; 3 $ (imm.), 590, 590, 610; 9 
(imm.), 600 (SAM). 

Tail. Victoria: 2,444; 9 , 444; 7 S (imm.), 432-457 (447) ; 2 9 (imm.), 
432, 438. 
South Australia: S , 460; 9, 500; 2 $ (imm.), 420, 420; 9 
(imm.), 430. 

The following description was taken from an immature male in fresh 
plumage collected at Peake, South Australia, in January, 1953. 

Top of head, hind neck, ear coverts and back, deep buff; a very dark brown 
stripe along angle of jaw; rump, brown with buff edges to the feathers; tail and 
primaries, black; secondaries, blackish-brown; wing coverts, buffy to buffy - 
brown near the body; greater wing coverts, greyish-brown; chin and throat 
with black feathers, throat buff; foreneck, buffy-brown; breast and abdomen, 
dull dark brown with pale buff edges to tips of feathers. Under tail coverts, buffy - 
white; under wing coverts, buff; axillaries, buffy-brown. Tarsus, dull dark brown 
with buffy edges to feathers. Tail from below, lighter on the terminal half with 
dark brown bars; dark brown on basal half. Primaries 1-4 and secondaries 
greyish-brown with dark barrings near tip. Lores and eyelids, flesh white with 
black hair like feathers on lores. Iris, light hazel; bill, greenish horn with darker 
tips to both mandibles; feet, white; claws, black; cere, light horn; gape and 
inside mouth, flesh white. Wing, 590 mm.; culmen, 75 (incl. cere); wing span, 
6 feet 34 inches; weight, 7 lbs. (3175-2 grammes). 

Adult male (fresh ''black" plumage), Montacute, South Australia: Wing 
span, 6 feet; weight, 5f lbs. (September 28, 1947). 

Adult female (fresh "black" plumage), Reedy Creek, South Australia: Iris, 
dark brown; feet, creamy-white; bill, horn colour with black tip; cere, gape and 
inside juouth, flesh-white; wing span, 7 feet 4 inches; weight, 8 lbs. 10 ozs. 
(May 2, 1949). 

The iris has been given on various occasions also as "greyish-brown, " and 
"yellow" for adults (! male), and "buffy-brown" in younger birds. 

Condon and Amadon— Taxonomic Notes on Australian Hawks 22 c > 


Type. No. R6115, National Museum, Melbourne; adult female; Great 
Lakes, Tasmania; April 28, 1915; M. E. Chubb"; wing, 653; tail, 477. 

Diagnosis. Similar to birds from south-eastern mainland, but lacks the 
buff, golden-brown, or rufous coloration of the upper surface; the nape is buft'y- 
white or pale buff. 

Range. Tasmania. 

Fleay (1052), in his excellent account of the Wedge-tailed Eagle, has drawn 
attention to the differences in Tasmanian birds given above. He also mentions 
a "slaty tinge in the wing coverts, M but since only three females have been exa- 
mined, w r e ai'c. not certain of this feature, which is entirely lacking in a large 
juvenal. The question of larger size in this race has already been discussed 
above, and while at present we feel that further evidence is required, the toes 
and claws in our specimens, perhaps by chance, are slightly heavier than in 
females from the mainland. 

Wing. 9 .. 667 (near adult, taken on same day as type) (NMM) ; 650 (juv. / 

Tail. 451 -f ; 490 (juv.). 

Genus Haliaeetus Savigny, 1809. 

Type. Ilalid'i'tus yiisus = Faleo albimlla. Synonyms, ('uvriima Hodgson, 
is:i7, Blaqrus Blyth, 1846. Old and New Worlds (8 species), 

Haliaeetus leu cog aster (Gmelin). 

Falco leucogaster Gmelin, 1788, Syst. Nat., J, part 1, p. 257; New South Wales, 
designated by Mathews. 

JlnUaetus leucof/aster paltidus Mathews, 1912, Nov. Zool., 18, p. 248; Point 
Torment, King Sound, north-western Australia (from label; the type locality 
was published as u Derby")- Type: AMNH No. 535486: adult male; 
April 1, 1911; J. P. Rogers. Wing, 555; tail, 265. 

Rjinge. From India and Ceylon across southern Asia to the Philippines, 
New Guinea, Solomons, Australia and Tasmania. 

Very few Australian specimens from south-eastern Australia, the type 
locality of the White-bellied Sea-eagle, have been examined by the writers. In 
the American Museum there is a skin of an immature female from New South 
Wales, wing 630, and another, also an immature female, from Tasmania, wing 
600. In the South Australian Museum are three specimens from South Australia 
and one from Eitape, New Guinea. Details are: South Australia, adult male, 

230 Records of the S.A, Museum 

wing 520; immature female 620; New Ouinea, adult male, win- 535. Material 
is lacking from India and Ceylon, so that comparisons between the extremes of 
the Eange are impossible. So far as could be determined with birds from the 
area readme from Sumatra to New Guinea and Australia, there is no signi- 
ficant geographical variation. Australian examples may, as llartert once sog- 
uc st.'d, he a little larger. Whistler gave the wing oL' an adult male from Ceylon 
as o44 T which is about the size of the Australian birds. 

The species hiirof/astcr is thus to be treated as a binomial unless one wishes 
to consider sanfordi Mayr, of the Solomon Islands, a race of it. The loss Of 
the grey and white adult plumage in smtfonh, as well as its apparently more 
predatory, upland habits, indicates that Mayr was correct in givihg it specific 
status. The White-bellied Sea-eagle has now been recorded by Ripley (1047, 
p. 95) from Nissan Island, an outlier of the Solomons in the direction of the 
Bismarck Archipelago (where the species is eommon). Dr. Mayr, who spent 
about 10 days on Nissan while with the Whitney Expedition, tells ns that this 
party saw no sea-eagles and could hardly have overlooked them. But the species 
is a great wanderer anions islands, and the specimen taken by Bennett and 
reported fey Ripley might have been a straggler, or perhaps a pair or two 
colonized the islands subsequent to the visit of the Whitney Expedition. 

Genus Circus LacGpcde, 1709, 
Type. Falco aeruffwosits. Synonym Spilocircus Kaup, 1847. Old and 
New Worlds (12 species). 

Cmous assimilis dardine and Selby. 

Circus assimilis dardine and Selby, 1828, 111. Ornith., 1, sig. II, plate 51 and 
text; Sydney, New South Wales, 

i 'm-its assimills rogersi Mathews, 1912, Nov. %oot. T IS, p. 244; 4i 50 miles up Fitz- 
roy River' ' (from label), north-western Australia. Type: AMNH No. 
536099; adult male; August 1898. The field label is unsigned but does not 
appear to be that of -J. P. Rogers (as might be expected from the name 
given the bird), but rather like the labels of d. T. Tonney, who was actively 
collecting for the Western Australian Museum at the close of last century, 
According to Mathews' catalogue, he got the specimen from that museum. 
Wing, 397. Coloured plate of type: Mathews, 5, plate 234, opp. p. 18. 

Chrun (ipproximans incxpectafus Mat hows, 1912, Nov. Zool., IS, p. 245; Parry's 
Creek, nortb-western Australia. As flartert pointed oxit, this specimen is 
(*ircus assimilis in immature plumage and not C, approxhh<nts. Type: 
AMNH No. 536283; immature male; January 22, 1909; .J. P. Rogei-s, Wing, 


Condon and Amadon— Taxonomic Notes on Australian Hawks 231 

Circus asshnilis quirundm Mathews, 1015, Bds, Austr., 5, p. 23; Celebes and 
the northern islands (presumably Lessor Sundas). Type not in the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History. 

Circus (jssimilis cehhensis Stresemann, 1024, Ornith. Monatsber, 32, p. 48; 
Minahasa, Celebes. 

Ran^e. Celebes, Lesser Sundas, and Australian mainland. 

In an earlier revision of the Spotted Harrier, Amadon (1941. pp. 372-375) 
recognized three races based on size only: assimilis, of southern Australia 
(large); royersi, of northern Australia and the Lesser Sunda Islands (medium- 
sized) ; and quirunrlus, of Celebes (small). This division was not proposed with 
confidence, for, while specimens from Celebes are numerous, all those examined 
by Amadon seemed to have the wing in moult, a possible explanation of their 
small size. The possibility that some Celebes birds are as large as southern 
Australian ones was substantiated when Amadon, in the summer of 1950, mea- 
sured materia] in the British Museum. In that collection there are two females 
from Celebes with whips of 443 and 451, respectively, and a female from Cape 
York, Australia, with win*? 4f>0. These are as large as ones from southern 
Australia. At the other extreme, we have examined an adult male from Victoria 
with wing 393, a figure matched by some Celebes males. Unless southern Aus- 
tralian birds migrate to Celebes and mix with a smaller local race, which we 
doubt, it would seem that there is too much individual size variation in Cirrvs 
asshnih's to justify the recognition of races based on size. This is not meant to 
deny that tropical harriers of this species average a little smaller, but even of 
tliis we are not convinced. Ilartert (1931, p, 40) tentatively recognized the 
Celebes race, but felt "uneasy M about its validity. Bensch suggested that 
Lesser shimlas birds are neher coloured than Australian ones, but this im- 
pression seems based on nothing more substantial than the fact that they are 
less often faded than those from the drier regions of Australia. 

Genus Falvo Linne, 1758. 

Type. Falro svbbuico. Synonyms include Tinnuncvlus Vieillot 1807, 
Ilkrojalvo Cuvier .1816, Ccrchneis Boie 1820, Rhynchodmi Nitzeh 1829, /croculev 
Oould 183N, Gennuia Kaup IS50, Ncsierax Oberholscr 1K99, Notojalco Mathews 
1913, and Palifalco .Mai hews 1940. World-wide (about 37 species). 

These names have been employed by various authors as subgenera, and in 
some cases genera. Kricdmann (1950) lists no fewer than 54 names (subgenera 
and synonyms) under Falco. 

The characters of the members of this genus are so diverse that it would 

23,2 Records ok the S.A. Museum 

be a simple matter to derive a different subseneric mime for each Australian 
species, without, however, gaming a true understanding of relationships, Pete* 
arrangement of the group (19.11 ) is obviously imperfect, especially with regard 
to the Australian forms, but without having surveyed the genus as a whole we 
do not venture an opinion as to whether the resemblances of some species to 
extralimital forms is more than parallelism. Peters associates tin* drey Falcon 
(F. hypohucos) with the hobbies ("subgenus Falco"). Ooukl, ou the other 
hand, compared it with the Oyrfaleon (F. rusticalus) which Peters and Fried- 
mann (1950) separate under subgenus " Hierofalco." Gurney (1882) thought 
F, hifpoleucos and F, subniger should be placed together with the banner (F. 
biamarcus), another desert form, under "Gtnmiw" which was discarded by 
Peters but resurrected by Friedmann, while Mathews has proposed the names 
i( PaUfa,lco" and "Notofako" for the two Australian species. The subgenus 
Palifalco was differentiated from Fnlco s.str. "in proportions as follow: The 
bill is larger, the wiftg longer, the tail shorter, and the legs notably longer, while 
the coloration is distinctive' 1 ; and for Notofalco. "differs from Hhynchodon 
Nitzseh in its imieh longer wings, longer tail, and weaker feet/' These differ- 
ences are best regarded as well-marked specific characters. 

Kcalation of the tarsus is extremely variable in the different species, Iu 
some cases the differences are slight, while in others they are striking. In F. 
peregrhnis the tarsus is covered with rather small scales which are fairly uniform 
in size, while in F. subniger and F. hypoleucos they are also uniform but a little 
larger, hi F. Jnngipevnis there is an inner row of enlarged scales and six or 
seven scutella on the lower portion of the ^crotarsium, and a somewhat similar 
condition is found in F. cenchruidcH. The Brown Hawk (F. berigora). which 
has the tarsus unusually long and "coarse" and the tarsal scales greatly en- 
larged, is often placed in a separate genus (leracidca) on this account, but in 
excry other respect it is a true falcon. In the New Zealand Bush Hawk 
("Ncsicrtix" novaeseelandiae) the tarsus is somewhat like that of F. longipovnis, 
but if is relatively longer, and we are inclined to associate these two species, 
together with the Brown Hawk, as being closer to one another than all others 
in the Australian region. 

Friedmann (1050, p. 575) refers to the New Zealand Bush Hawk as 
"Ifrucidt.u:* (which is not a new procedure), and surest* it is intermediate 
between the "true falcons' 4 and the South American "Carrion Falcons 1 ' of the 
genus Milvago, but we cannot subscribe to this. 

Mathews (1915) hinted that there were important osteologieal differences 
which would support a division of Falro, but none have been found apart from 
those of bodily proportions. There is quite a lot of variation in the amount of 

Condon and Amadon— Taxonomic Notes on Australian Hawks 233 

emargination of the primaries in the different, species, but the taxonomic value 
of this feature is doubtful. 

The Peregrine Falcon (F. peregrinus) is sometimes placed in a separate 
genus Rhynchodon, and the kestrels in Cerchneis or Tinnunculus, but there art? 
not sufficient characters to warrant generic or subgeneric division. 

Falco hypoleucos Gould. 

Falco hypoleucos Gould, 1840 (1841), Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 162; York, 
Western Australia. 

Falco hypoleucus ashbyi Mathews, 1913, Austr. Av. Bee, 2, p. 73; South Aus- 
tralia. Type: AMNH No. 537628; adult male; 1902; < ' North. " Wing, 298; 
tail, 146? The type is a very poor specimen with most of the feathers 
missing from the head. 

Falco hypoleucus ashleyi Mathews, 1916, Bds. Austr., 5, p. 234 (Lapsus for 

Range. Interior of Australia. 

The Grey Falcon is one of the least known of Australian Accipitres. It 
clings to semi-arid districts, and avoids the forested areas of coastal regions. 
Owing to limited amount of material at our disposal there is little opportunity 
to make geographical comparisons, but variation is scarcely to be expected in 
this wide-ranging species of the interior of the continent. Specimens have been 
examined from Parry's Creek, north-western Australia; Borroloola, Northern 
Territory; north Queensland; Barcoo (Victoria) River, south-western Queens- 
land; Garah, Mungindi (both near Moree), Broken Hill, Nevertire, Wagga, 
Temora, Cobborah, Byrock, near Moulamein, New South Wales; and from Calla- 
bonna Creek, Laura, Yunta, and Fulham (near Adelaide— S. A. White Collec- 
tion), South Australia. No important differences were detected. Wear and 
dirt transforms the beautiful blue-grey coloration of the fresh plumage to a 
dull grey. 

Wing. $ (adult), 287, 288?, 298 (AMNH), 290, 290, 302 (AM), 268, 275, 
285, 295 (HLW), 280 (SAM); (immature) 281, 286, 294 
(AMNH), 265 (AM), 294 (HLW). 
9 (adult), 335 (AMNH), 325, 330, 338 (AM), 315, 320 (SAM); 
(immature) 297, 315 (AM), 320 (NMM). 
Tail. $ (adult), 146? (AMNH), 155, 177, 170 (AM), 138 +, 150, 147 +, 
163 (HLW), 150 (SAM); (immature) 143 (AM), 144 (HLW). 
9 (adult), 170? (AMNH), 156, 170, 174 (AM), 185, 175 (SAM); 
(immature) 163, 175 (AM), 180 (NMM). 

234 Records of the S.A. Museum 

In juvcnals the whitish breast, forcneek and abdomen is heavily streaked 
and blotched with brown or blackish brown, and the back, scapulars and rump 
are greyish brown with pale buff edges to the feathers. The primaries arc 
very dark grey or blackish, strongly barred with pale buffy-whitc, while tin 1 
reetrices are grey and feebly barred dark grey, the subterminal portion being 
blackish, with a white tip. Tn adults the tail is strongly barred while the entire 
upper surface is blue-grey with darker shafts, and below, pale grey with dark 

A female, collected at Orroroo, South Australia, in October, 1033, had iris 
"dark brown," feet "yellow/ 1 pharynx ' k grey. , ' Wing span was 98 cm. 
Stomach contents: " Flesh and hair of a mouse-like creature— no bones present 
and flesh almost digested" (J. T. Gra> }, 

Palco svbntokk G ray. 

Falco auhnUfc, Gray, 1843, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ll, p. 371: Australia (Victoria 
fixed by Mathews). 

Notofutvo subnifjer winnie Mathews, 1915, Austr. Ay. Rec, 2, p. 127; Minnie 
Downs, Queensland. Type: AMNTI No. 537096 (adult male); -January ff, 
1882. According to Mathews' manuscript catalogue this was one of the 
specimens he acquired from the Norwegian naturalist, Robert Collctt, Some 
or perhaps all of Toilette material from norlhem Australia, including, 
perhaps, the present type, was collected by Knot DaW, Win", 374; tail. 22. 
Coloured plate of type: Mathews Bds. Austr.. 5. plate 255, opp. p. 263i 

Range. Interior of Australia 

The Black Falcon, endemic to the more open country of the mainland, is 
a. rather elusive species which occasionally visits coastal districts. Individual 
variation is great, but there is no geographical variation. 

Mathews merely fixed the type locality in the southern part of the species ■ 
range and named a race from the northern part to have one of his names avail- 
able if needed. The Mathews collection contained only four specimens of suh- 
niger r three from Queensland and one from Horsham, Victoria. Three care- 
fully labelled specimens were secured in Queensland in 1940 by Messrs. y. 
Macmillan and J. R. Henry for the American Museum. 

About thirty skins have been examined from the interior of eastern 

Australia, and it is thought that immatures have re white about the head 

than adults. A breeding (.'adull) female from the Diamantina River, south- 
western Queensland, which was Collected in July, 1918, has a very while throat. 
and there are some w r hite spots on the breast, and the under tail coverts are 

Condon and Amadon— Taxonomic Notes on Australian Hawks 235 

prominently barred with white. Most individuals have some white at the chin, 
although in at least two males and one female this feature is entirely absent. 

The Black Falcon is at once distinguished from the extreme dark phase of 
Falco berigora by its much shorter and more powerful tarsi; the light markings 
on wing and tail are more sparing or absent on the tail and are whitish, not 

Wing. Queensland, $ (ad.), 371, 371, 374; (imm.) 366 (AMNH); 9 (ad.), 
391, 392 (AMNH); 403 (British Museum). 
Victoria, $ (imm.), 368 (AMNH). 
Loc? 9, 405 (British Museum). 

South Australia, $ , 363, 363, 366 (SAM) ; 9 , 405, 405, 415 (SAM). 
New South Wales, 9 , 393 (SAM). 
South-western Queensland, 9, 405 (SAM). 
Tail. Queensland, * (ad.), 219, 221, 222; (imm.) 215; 9 (ad.), 223, 226 
Victoria, & (imm.), 206 (AMNH). 
South Australia, g, 219, 220, 220; 9, 247, 235, 235. 
South-western Queensland, 9, 240 (SAM). 
Weight, Queensland, g (full breeding condition), 597; (imm.), 607; 9 (full 
breeding condition), 670 grammes. 

Soft part colours of a pair of breeding adults (June 14) : "Iris brown, 
bill bluish-horn with black tip, cere bluish, legs and feet livid pale blue flesh." 
The skin around the eye has sometimes been recorded as "whitish" or "bluish- 
grey. ' ' 

A chick taken from the nest towards the end of July was covered in white 
down with the primaries (brown) just showing. The irides were "dark brown," 
bill "pale bluish-horn," cere "pale bluish-horn," feet "pale bluish." 

In the juvenal the cheeks are often buffy-white, the throat is whitish with 
dark brown streaks, and a moustachial stripe is visible. In some juvenals also 
the rectrices and primaries are indistinctly barred with pale buff, but we have 
been unable to trace the sequence of plumage, changes to the adult condition 
from the limited material at our disposal. 

Falco peregrinis Tunstall. 

Falco peregrinus macropus Swainson. 

Falco macropus Swainson, 1837, Anim. in Menag., p. 341; Tasmania. 

Range. Australia (except south-western Australia), Tasmania. 

The Peregrine Falcon, of which about 18 races may be listed from most 

236 Records of the S.A. Museum 

parts of the world, is widespread but not very plentiful in Australia. Altogether 
we have examined 58 skins of juvenals and adults in the museums in Adelaide, 
Melbourne and Sydney, and there are eight specimens in the Mathews collection 
in New York. 

Available material is rather disappointing as it is largely composed of 
immature individuals. The head, cheeks and malar region are dull black in 
adults and brownish or brownish-black in juvenals, and while individual varia- 
tion is prevalent, females are distinguished by a stronger buffy wash on the 
ventral surfaces, but this colour may also be an indication of age and geographic 
variation. From Tasmania, the type locality of macropus, we have two adult 
birds, misexed but obvious males, in wiiich the characteristic ventral buffy wash 
is almost lacking and replaced by grey on the abdomen, flanks and thighs. 
Further material may show that the island birds are a distinct population, but 
this is doubtful. 

From the drier areas of the mainland, specimens are somewiiat paler than 
those from eastern Australia, and there is often a reduction of the ventral 
barring, characters which in part may be due to fading and abrasion, especially 
as the moult is irregular and prolonged. 

No geographic variation in size has been detected in Australian birds, which 
have average dimensions only slightly below r those of the American and British 

Wing. Tasmania, S (ad), 280, 290 (SAM). 

Victoria, j (Hd.),2S0; g (ju v.), 280, 285. 200: ? {Jim),:-39&-S$t 

(338.5) (NMM), 337 (HLW). 
New South Wales, g (ad.), 285-300 (203} (AM), 290 (HLW); 

$ (juv.), 289-300 (294); 9 (&&), 306*840 (32?) (AM). 325 

(SAM); 9 (juv.), 320-348 (330-7) (AM), 320-330 (332-3) 

(HLW), 330 (SAM). 
Suuth Australia, 6 (ad.), 270, 282, 295; $ (ad.), 32.",, 325. 32S; 

9 (juv.), 325. 335 (SAM), 328 (HLW). 

Tail. Tasmania. 6 , 144, 164. 

Victoria, 6 (ad.), 163; A (juv.), 155 r 162, 165; 9 ( juv.). 174-185 

(179-7), 175. 
New South Wales, 6 (ad.). 140-145 (142), 160; 6 (juv.), 148-155 

(150-7);? (ad.), 170-lKi (175), 170; ? (juv.), 173-195 < J82) ; 

(182); 170. 
South Australia, 6 (ad.), 135, 144, 158; 9 (ad.), 170, 170. 170; 

9 (juv.) ; 162, 172 T 174. 

Condon and Amadon— Taxonomic Notes on Australian Hawks 237 

In fresh juvenal plumage the feathers of the crown are tipped with cinna- 
mon buff and the nape region may be of the same colour; there is often a pale 
rufous auricular patch, but the cheeks and malar region are dull black. The 
upper surfaces are dark brown with cinnamon buff or pale buff tips to most 
of the feathers, and the tail coverts are barred with the same colour as also 
are the rectrices (incompletely). Ventrally the ground colour is a buffy- white, 
becoming deeper on the abdomen, and the breast and abdomen have well-defined 
brownish stripes which become sagittate on the flanks and thighs. The duration 
of the juvenal plumage is unknown, but fading is common and wear (or partial 
moult?) may cause a reduction in the intensity of the ventral stripes. It is 
possible that this plumage is retained for more than one year. 

A juvenal breeding female in wore plumage has some new grey (barred) 
feathers on the lower scapular region, and the upper tail coverts are completely 
replaced with grey feathers with darker barrings, as in the adult condition. 
This bird was shot at the nest in October near Burra, South Australia. A male 
taken on the Upper Murray River, in May, has acquired full adult plumage, 
including the strongly barred grey tail, but the head is like the juvenal, and 
there is a trace of rufous at the nape. 

Signs of moulting have been observed in skins taken at all seasons of the 
year, but this process probably begins in spring and is completed by the follow- 
ing winter. 

A juvenal female collected at Two Wells, South Australia, in February, 
1933, weighed 2 lb. 2 oz. 

Falco peregrinus submelanogenys Mathews. 

Falco peregrinus submelanogenys Mathews, 1912, Austral Av. Rec, 1, p. 33; 
"Bokerup, Plantagenet Arch," south-western Australia. Type: AMNH No. 
537365 (?) near adult female; April 14, 1900; J.T.T. (Tunney), Wing, 320; 
tail, 175. Figured, Mathews, Bds. Austr., 5, plate 254, opp. p. 241. 

Range: South-western Australia. 

Diagnosis. About the size of F. p. macropus, from which it differs in being 
pale rufous on the foreneck and upper breast, and deep rufous on the lower 
breast and abdomen, with blackish shaft lines and regular cross barrings. 

It would appear that this race is confined to South-west Australia. A single 
adult female in the American Museum from north-western Australia is much 
paler above and below than Mathews' type (cf. Mayr, 1941, p. 1), and South 
Australian birds are also rather light-coloured. 

Certain features of the type of submelanogenys, such as buff tips to the 
feathers of the dorsal surface, suggest that it may not be quite adult, The 

238 Records of the S.A. Museum 

only other specimen we have examined from south-western Australia is con- 
tained in the H. L. White collection. Tt is a jnvenal male with a few adult 
feathers on the back and scapulars (from Pallinup River), and is much darker 
below than eastern birds in similar plumage. The breast and abdomen are a 
deep, dirty buff with heavy blackish markings, and the foreneek is buffy-white, 
with some grey adult feathers appearing, on the back and rump. Wing, 290; 
tail, 153. 

Reference to "The Birds of Western Australia," by Serventy and Whittell 
(1951, p. 210), reveals that these authors regard the normal coloration of the 
breast of the adult as "chestnut-brown," with the abdomen, flanks, thighs and 
under wing coverts "chestnut" with blackish spots and barrings, but we have 
seen nothing from eastern Australia which will answer to this description. 

It is true that the amount of buff colouring on the ventral surface is sub- 
ject to individual variation, as mentioned by several authors, including Mayr 
(1941), and we have before us an adult male from Cobborah, New South Wales 
(February taken), which is quite dark below, as well as four juvenal females 
from the same area. Nevertheless, we anticipate that further material will con- 
firm beyond all doubt that south-western birds are distinct. 

Mathews claimed in his original diagnosis that submelanogenys was large, but 
later, in his "Birds of Australia," stated that eastern Australian individuals 
were larger than those from the west. Actually there are no appreciable differ- 

Falco longipennis (Swainson). 

The Little Falcon occurs in all parts of Australia and Tasmania, and in 
winter it is believed that some birds visit southern New Guinea and other islands 
to the north of the continent. A well-marked race, hanieli is resident on the 
Lesser Suncla Islands; it is small, and pale ventrally. In Australia, two geo- 
graphical races are recognizable, a southern longipennis and an interior and 
northern murchisonianiis. Altogether, we have examined 90 specimens in the 
museums of Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney, and there are 67 skins from Aus- 
tralia in the American Museum. 

Adequate material for comparison from Western Australia is lacking, but 
the few skins we have examined from that area have raised certain problems 
concerning plumage coloration, which will be discussed below. 

Falco longipennis longipennis Swainson. 

Falco longipennis Swainson, 1837, Anim. in Menag., p. 341; Tasmania. 

Falco nielanotus W T hite and Mellor, 1913, Emu, 12, p. 164; Flinders Island. Bass 
Strait. Not Shaw, 1809, Gen. Zool., 7, i., p. 86. 

Condon and Amadon— Taxonomic Notes on Australian Hawks 239 

Falco longipennis samueli Mathews, 1916, Bds. Austr., 5, p. 232; new name 
for melanotus White and Mellor. 

Range. Tasmania, islands of Bass Strait, and the more humid areas of 
southern, eastern and south-western Australia; (?) mid- and north-western 

Diagnosis. Head, hind neck, cheeks, auriculars and malar region sooty 
black; upper surfaces very dark grey; upper breast deep buff with heavy blackish 
streaks, becoming rufous brown on the lower breast and abdomen, with heavy 
blotches and barrings of blackish coloration, these markings extending to and 
becoming darker on the sides and flanks, with some scattered pale buff blotches. 

Individuals of the nominate race are at once recognized by the black head 
and extensive blackish markings on the under surfaces. In eastern Australia 
this race occurs in the humid coastal regions bounded approximately by the 
Dividing Range from southern Victoria to southern Queensland. The occurrence 
of similar dark birds in South-west Australia and other localities in that State 
might suggest that dark birds are merely a colour phase, but we have seen no 
dark birds from the interior, and no light specimens have been collected in 
Tasmania nor the coastal regions of the south-east. In the American Museum 
Ihere is a very dark adult female from Parry's Creek, north-west Australia 
(February taken), as well as two dark immature females from mid-west Aus- 
tralia (De Grey River, June 28, and Pt. Cloates, March 14). Possibly these 
birds were migrants or wanderers from further south, where dark individuals 
very similar to those found in south-eastern Australia occur. The southern form 
of the Collared Sparrowhawk has also been taken at De Grey River. The affinities 
of South-west Australian birds with those of south-eastern Australia is well known 
in many groups, and at present it is preferable to unite the two populations 
under longipennis, although a specimen of an adult female from King George's 
Sound, taken in February and now housed in the Australian Museum (No. 
023881), has prominent blackish streaks on the breast only and is more rusty 
rufous below than most others. Dark individuals from South-west Australia 
have been examined from the following localities — Armadale, Gordon River, 
King George's Sound, Lake Muir and Wilson's Inlet. As expected, a skin from 
Zanthus belongs to mwr.hisonianns. 

Females in both races appear to be slightly more heavily pigmented than 
males, but the present form is a striking one and readily separable, even though 
intergradation occurs with niurchisonianus in certain areas. Characters are 
variable in birds from north of the main Divide in Victoria, south-eastern South 
Australia, and in the vicinity of Wagga, Parramatta, Lithgow, and Yandembah, 

240 Records of the S.A, Museum 

New South Wales, ami Queensland coastal regions north to Cairns. In these 
areas sonic birds are dark above and light below, while others show the reverse 
condition, and usually the head is not so intensely blaek; perhaps they are better 
classed under inurchismiianus. 

Wing. Tasmania, $ (ad.) ,230+ (worn) (RAOU collection). 
Victoria. 9 (ad.), 264 (SAM). 

New South Wales, 6 (imm.), 242; 9 (imm. ), 265, 272 (AM ). 
Queensland, 3 (ail), 245 (AM). 

South-west Australia, 6 (ad.), 245 (NMM); £ (juv.), 23* 
(HLW); 9- (juv.), 242, 245 (AM). 

Ju vena Is are generally darker than those of the pale form. The head is 
brownish black with a rufous tinge, the upper surfaces dark brown with dull 
rufous edges to the feathers, while ventrally the throat is pale buff, breast 
and abdomen rufous brown with brownish black stripes and markings; thighs 
and centre of abdomen and under tail coverts deep buff. 

Faleo longipennis murchisonianus Mathews. 

Puled IwwlatW murchiHomdmiH Mathews 1012, Nov. Zoo!., 18, p. 252 (January 
31 ) ; East Murchison, Western Australia. Type: AMNH No, 537513; adult 
male; September 22, 1909. "F.L.W." (Whiilock). Win- 247. 

Falco Invuhilus apshyi Mathews, 1912, Austral. Av. Rec, 1, p. 33 (April 2); 
Mdville Island, Northern Territory. Type: AMNH No. 537523; immature 
female, moulting into adult plumage: October 22, 1911; J, P. Rogers. Win* 
2G2 (imm. primaries). 

Range. The drier parts of Australia, extending to the Kimberleys, Western 
Australia, and coastal Northern Territory. 

Diagnosis. Differs from the other Autsralian race in its much paler 
coloration above and below. The head is brownish black with a rufous wash; 
cheeks and malar region brownish black; upper surfaces pale grey with black 
shaft, lines; primaries greyish brown instead of brownish black. Ventral surface 
pale rufous brown, with the heavy blackish markings of the nominate race 
reduced to narrow brownish stripes on the upper breast and indistinct greyish 
barrings on the sides and flanks. 

Examples of this race have been collected from such widely separated 
localities as Derby and Zantlms, Western Australia, the Gulf of Carpentaria, 
Queensland, and Uootamundra. New South Wales. Of "apsleyi," Mathews 
stated that it was similar in colour- to mitrchisotiianus but larger; judging from 

Condon and Amadon— Taxonumic Notes on Australian Haw ks %A \ 

the few northern skins at our disposal, this seems unlikely. There is a perfect 
gradation between F. L lnn(/i})ciinis and /. murchisonianuif, but the differences 
between typical examples of each form are marked and it. is surprising that this 
fact has not been emphasized previously. 

.Measurements, except where otherwise indicated, are from skinn in the 
South Australian Museum. 

Wing. North-west Australia, i (imni), 245 (AM) j ? (imm.), 265, 273. 
Northern Territory, 3 (ad.), 244; 248 (AM); 9 (ad,), 267, 270, 

Queensland, j (ad.), 248; 6 (imm.), 237; 240 (NMM) ; ? (ad.), 

268; 270 (NMM); 9 (imm.), 267. 
South Australia, 8 (ad. L 242, 243, 240, 240 +; $ (imm,), 238; ? 

(ad.), 245+. 250, 255+, 255, 271, 272; ? (imm.), 267, 272. 
New South Wales and Vietoria, 3 (ad.), 235 +, 237, 244 (SAM), 

242 (NMM); $ (imm.), 235 (NMM); ? (ad.),26fi; g (imm.), 

267, 275 (SAM), 265 (AM). 
South-wesb-rn Australia, $ (ad.), 268 (NMM), 

Juvenals are markedly different in coloration from adults. The lop of 
tJie head is bright rufous with very narrow blaekish shaft lines, the. upper 
surfaces are dull brown with rufous edges to the feathers, and the two central 
reetriees arc similarly coloured with incomplete rufous barrings ami a broad 
rufous tip. Cheeks and malar region are brownish black, throat and upper 
breast pale buff becoming- a bright rufous brown on the breast and abdomen 
and darker rufous on the sides. Dark are limited to the upper breast 
and thighs and arc brown and very little wider I ban the central dark shafts. 

Moult eommences on the head and scapular region, the reetriees being 
replaced last From numerous juvenal specimens it would seem that the juvenal 
plumage is retained for less than one yeat when the assumption of adult plum- 
age is commenced in Spring, the whole process taking at least six months. A 
few examples have indicated that moulting may also commence at the end of 
autumn, but these may be individuals which were hatched early to the previous 
season, The normal breeding period for this race is between August and 

Sodrrberg (191!), plate I) shows, in natural colours, a .juvenal in fresh 
plumage (%, 3) and what lie believes to be an adult, with bleached plumage 
(August-taken) in tig. 2. Actually this last-named illustration is of a juvenal 
in worn and faded plumage, which is frequently met with just prior to the 
commencement of the moult. 

242 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Colours of soft parts. Adult (sexes similar) : iris, dark brown or (?) 
reddish (one record) ; bare space around eye bluish white, pale blue or bluish 
grey; cere, greenish yellow; bill, bluish horn with dark tip to upper mandible 
and darker mott lings on the lower; legs and feet, yellow; claws, black. The iris 
may be paler in juvenals. 

Weight of four adult females, collected between June and August: 247, 
248, 325, 420 grammes. Wing span of two adult females, 30f inches, 38 inches. 

Palco cenchroides Vigors and Horsfield. 
Falco cenchroides cenchroides Vigors and Horsfield. 

Falco cenchroides Vigors and Horsfield, 1827, Trans. Linn. Soc, London, 15, 

p. 183; New South Wales. 
Cerchneis unicolor Milligan, 1904, Emu, 6, p. 2; Yalgoo, Western Australia. 

Type said to be in Western Australian Museum, Perth. 
Cerchneis cenchroides milligani Mathews, 1912, Nov. Zool., 18, p. 253; the type 
locality was published as Parry's Creek, north-western Australia, but the 
field label says " : Point Torment, King Sound." Since there is a specimen 
taken by the same collector at Parry's Creek, it is possible that the type 
label was tied on the wrong specimen, but this cannot be proved. Type : 
AMNH No. 538594; adult male; January 7, 1911; J. P. Rogers. Wing, 
232 (?) (worn); tail, 149 (?) (worn). 

Range. Australia and Tasmania, straggling to Aru ? Ceram, the Moluccas, 
and Babber, South-west Islands. A number of stragglers have been recorded 
from widely separated localities in the north and south islands of New Zealand. 
The Nankeen Kestrel is very plentiful in southern Australia and probably 
a permanent resident in many districts. However, it is possible that seasonal 
or other movements may occur, because four specimens which were taken in 
Ceram, Moluccas (April 29) and Babber, South-west Islands (August 24, 29, 
September 1) are inseparable from Australian birds and presumably migratory 

Careful comparison of material from all parts of Australia reveals no geo- 
graphical variation, although a larger series might show interior birds to be 
a little smaller. We have seen no specimens from Tasmania. Mathews, at least 
at one time, believed there were no subspecies in Australia, and Hartert (1931, 
p. 4G) was of the same opinion. 

The plumages of the Nankeen Kestrel present some problems which, perhaps, 
can only be answered by study of birds of known age, i.e., ones kept in captivity 
for a period of several years. Individuals with heavy black barrings and 

Condon and Amadon— Taxonomic Notes on Australian Hawks 243 

hastate markings on the back and wings and prominent stripes on the head are 
rare in collections but appear to be first year birds. Ventrally, the breast is 
deep rufous with dark brown streaks, and females are much darker generally 
in this plumage than males. Study of skins has established that in males first 
the rump, then the tail, and finally the head becomes grey, and this involves 
several months. A few specimens with rufous rectrices were found to be males 
although labelled as females, and this was confirmed by the presence of a grey 
rump, which never seems to be present in the last-named, even in old birds with 
greyish tails. The rufous immature rectrices are barred with black in both 
sexes, but more strongly in females. In the adult the central pair is usually 
almost immaculate (except for the subterminal black band), and the barring- 
is much reduced on the others. From one or two males with the tail in moult 
it is evident that, even in the adult, the new rectrices are quite rufous at one 
stage; the whitish or even grey colour is in part acquired later as a result of 
fading; but the feathers do have a glaucous sheen. In most adult males with 
grey tails the edges of the rectrices are rufous in fresh plumage. The grey of 
the head in the male seems to be partly a matter of wear as well as age; in 
females the head is rufous with dark shaft lines, never grey. 

In the tail of the adult female the barring often becomes reduced through- 
out with maturity and is absent in the central pair of rectrices. The tail is 
usually rufous in females at all ages, but in one specimen it is quite greyish, 
but the rump is rufous. 

Fading of the plumage appears to be rapid and prevalent in birds even 
in southern districts. A female, taken in South Australia in December, shows 
the new rectrices (nearly half -grown) of a much deeper shade than the remainder 
of the rufous feathers of the dorsal surface, Juvenals in fresh plumage have a 
decided rufous or buffy wash ventrally, especially on the upper breast, and the 
dark shaft lines, which extend from this area to the sides of the body, are wider 
and heavier than in adults. Males are paler rufous below and with less dark 
striping than members of the opposite sex. 

In the adult, the dark markings of the dorsal surface are much reduced 
and confined to the head, scapulars and secondaries, and in some old males are 
almost absent. 

Sexual dimorphism in this species, as in kestrels in general, is much less 
than in some members of the genus Falco. Nevertheless, unusually small indivi- 
duals are fairly common, especially amongst males. 

Adult males of cenckroides in good feather seldom have a wing length as 
great as 255 mm., while in females the wing is almost always more than 255, 
generally 260 or more and reaching 275. 

244 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Colours of the soft parts (sexes alike) : iris dark brown; bill dark blue at 
tip, lighter at base; cere, tegs and feet yellow; eyelids yellow with a greenish 
tinge. Weight (female, juvenal, March), 128 grammes; female adult (Decem- 
ber), 272-2 grammes. Span of wfegSi Female juv\, 2!>i inehes; female adull. 
?A)\ inehes, 

Faleo cenchroides baru Rand. 

Falco cenchroides baru Rand, 1940, Amer. Mus. Novit,, 1072, p. 1; 11 km, X.E. 
of Mt. Wilhelmina. 

Range. Oranje Range, New Guinea. 

Examination of our specimens of this well-marked race (and other species 
of kestrels) suggests that the Australian form of ctitchroides is in a somewhat 
transitional stage as regards sexual and age colour dimorphism. In adult males 
or barn the grey of the head is much deeper than ever it is in the nominate race, 
and it extends around to the sides of the throat; the tail is also greyer with 
further suppression of the blade barring (except the subterminal band). This 
increase of the grey elements in the plumage is retted ed in the immature stages, 
at least as regards the tail, for a two-thirds grown nestling has the tail feathers 
grey except for rufous tips. These feathers have more black bars than those 
of the adult, although much fewer than are found in immatures of cenchr 'aides . 
The crown of this nestling o! barn is rufous. In the adult female the head and 
tail are grey, though the former is not such a clear grey as in the male. 

When describing baru, Rand hinted that cenchroides and tinmmculus 
might be regarded as conspecific by some workers, but the occurrence of two 
sympatrie species, Unnunculus and naumanni, in southern Europe argues 
against too much species lumping in the group. 

On Cerani, at least, there is resident Falco moluccensis which might be 
regarded as a geographical representative of cenchroides. This form, perhaps 
because of its tropical habitat, has less sexual dimorphism than cenchroides or 
Unnunculus, and most workers regard it as a distinct species. 


Avicrda subcristata njikeva ( Fitzroy River, Western Australia). 
JJaliastur inclus flavirostrvi (Bougainville Is., Solomons). 
Aquila audax fleayi (Great Lakes, Tasmania). 

Condon and Amadon— Taxonomic Notes on Australian Hawks 245 


Amadon, I). (194J) : "Notes on some Australian birds of prey"; Emu, 40, pp. 

Condon, H. T. (1051) : "Variation in the Brown Hawk"; Emu, 50, pp. 152-174. 
DeYis, C, (1890) - Proc. Roy. Soc, Qld., 6, p. 162. 
DeVis, C. (1892) : Proc, Linn. Sop., N.S.W., (2), 6, p. 439. 
DeVis, C. (1905) : Ann. Qld. Mus, 6, pp. 4-7. 
Devis, C. (1911) : Ann. Qld. Mus., 10, p. 17. 

Fleay, D. (1950) : "Notes on the White Goshawk"; Emu, 50, pp. 1-4. 
Fleay, D. (1951): "Little Eagle in the Healesville District, Vic. 77 ; Emu., 51, 

p. 57. 
Fleay, D. (1952) : - With a Wedge-tailed Eagle at the Nest/'; Enm, 52, pp. 1-16. 
Friedmann, IT. (1950) ; U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull., 50. 
Gould, J. (1865) .- Handbook to tlie Bcls. of Australia, volume 1. 
Gurney, J. H. (1881) \ Ibis. t 4th ser, 5, p. 262. 
Gurney, J. IT. (1882) : Ibis., 4th ser., 6, pp. 451-452. 
Hartert, E. (1931) : Novit. Zool., 37, pp. 39-46. 
Jackson, W. S. (1919) : "Haunts of the Letter-winged Kite (Ehtnux seriplux)": 

Emu, 18, p. 160. 
Lyddeker, R. (1892) : Ibis., 6th ser., 4, pp. 530-533. 
Maek, G. (1953) : Mem. Qld. Mus., 13, 1, p. 8. 
Mathews, G. M. (1915-1916): Bds. of Australia, vol. 5. London. Withcrby 

and Co. 
Mathews. G. M. (1946): A Working List of Australian Bds. Sydney. The 

Shepherd Press. 
Mayr, E. (1931) : Amer. Mus. Novit., No. 486, p. 8. 

May)', E. and Rand, A. L. il937) : Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 73, p. 19. 
Mayr, E. (1940) i Amer. Mus. Novit, No. 1056, pp. 7-8. 
.Mayr, E. (1941) : Amer. Mus. Novit., No. 1133, pp. 1-2. 
McGilp, .). N. (1934) : "Hawks of South Australia," S.A. Orn, 12, p. 268. 
Morgan, A. M. (1932) : "Spread and Weight of the Wedge-tailed Eagle (Uroae- 

tu.s audax)" S.A. Orn., 11, pp. 156-157. 
North, A. -I. (1912) ; Austr. Mus. Spec. Cat., No. 1, vol. 2. Sydney. 
Titers, J. L. (1931) : Checklist Bds. Wld., volume 1. Cambridge, Harvard Univ. 

Ramsay, E. P. (1879) : Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W, 3, pp. 173-174. 
Ramsay, E. P. and North, A. .7. (1898): Cat. Bds. in the Austr. Mus., part 1. 


246 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Rand, A. L. (1941) : Amer. Mus. Novit., No. 1102, p. 1. 

Ripley, 8. D, (1947) : J. Wash. Acad. Sei., 37, p. 95. 

Roche, W. G. ((1914) : "Eagles"; Emu, 13, p. 214. 

Serventy, D. L. (1952) : W.A. Nat., 3, pp. 4-5. 

Serventy, D. L. (1953) : W.A. Nat., 3, pp. 191-193. 

Serventy, D. L. and Whittell, H. M. (1951) : Bds. W. Austr. Perth. Paterson 

Sharpe, R. B. (1874) : Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., volume 1. 
Sodrrberg, R. (1918): " Studies in the Bds. N.W. Austr."; Kungl. Svensk. 

Handl., 52, No. 17. 
Southern, H. N. and Serventy, D. L. (1947) : "The two phases of Astur novae- 

hollandiae (Gm.) in Australia"; Emu, 46, p. 331. 
Stresemann, E. (1913) : Novit. Zool., 20, p. 305. 
Stresemann, E. (1951) : "Type Localities of Australian Birds Collected by the 

'Expedition Baudin' (18014803)"; Emu, 51, p. 69. 
White, H. L. (1915) : "Notes upon Astur cruentus (TJrospiza fasciata cruenta) "; 

Emu, 14, pp. 154-156. 
Whitlock, F. L. (1925): "Ten months on the Fitzroy River, North-western 

Australia"; Emu, 25, p. 80. 




Vol. XI, No. 3 

Published by The Museum Board, and edited by the Museum Director 

Adelaide, February 28, 1955 



Registered in Australia for transmission by post as a periodical. 


byR. A. Stirton, Museum of Paleontology, University of California 


In 1953 Richard H. Tedford and R. A. Stirton received Fulbright awards to search for Tertiary 
marsupials and monotremes in South Australia. Tertiary mammalian remains have turned up from 
time to time on the mainland of Australia but the stratigraphy and in many instances the exact 
localities of these important discoveries have not been adequately recorded. 


13y R. A. STIRTON (Museum of Paleontology, University of California) 

Fig. 1-11 


In 1958 Richard EL Tedford and R, A. Stirton received Fulbright awards to 
search for Tertiary marsupials ami monotremes in South Australia, Tertiary 
mammalian remains have turned up from time to time on the mainland of Aus- 
tralia but the stratigraphy and in many instances the exact localities of these 
important discoveries have not been adequately recorded. 

Some fossils now thought to be Pleistocene are surely Pliocene and others 
may be older. This is particularly true of some of the specimens said to have 
come from the Darling Downs area in Queensland. Also during the past few 
years Edmund D. Gill, of the National Museum, Melbourne, has been stressing 
an earlier age for some of the fossils from Victoria. Four of his marsupial speci- 
mens from marine formations should be helpful in establishing a correlation 
between continental and marine formations. 

Out 1953 expedition was a co-operative project between the South Aus- 
tralian Museum, the Department of Geology of the University of Adelaide, and 
the Museum of Paleontology of the University of California. Those who actively 
participated in different phases of the field work were Norman B. Tindale, Paul 
F. Lawson, Geoffrey D. Woodard, Harold C. Reynolds, Tedford and Stirton. 
Though we worked in human cultural levels at Lake Meniudee and in the Dipro- 
tOilov locality at Lake Callabonna, OUT prime objective was to locate concentra- 
tions of Tertiary mammals to initiate work on the continental stratigraphy of 

Toward the end of our last trip in the interior Woodard discovered a con- 
centration of late Tertiary mammalian materials in a sandy channel deposit 
along the edge of Lake Palankarinna east of Lake Eyre. In the limited time 
available we collected from that site a series of maeropodid jaws, teeth and limb 
bones, parts of two kinds of diprotodonts, a fragmentary bandicoot mandible as 
well as numerous crocodilian and chelonian fragments, teleost bones, lung fish 
teeth and crayfish gastrolitbs (Stirton and Woodard, 1954). 

This report gives preliminary descriptions of the mammals and is not a 
comprehensive faunal report. We hope to secure a more varied faunal represen- 
tation and better preserved materials after we open a quarry at the Woodard 
locality in July, 1954. 

2AS Records of the S.A. Museum 


We are grateful to Sir Douglas Mawson, Professor A. R. Alderman, Mr. 
Herbert M. Hale, Mr. C. Warren Bonython and our many otlier Australian 
friends without whose help and encouragement this project would have been 
Impossible. We also wish to express our appreciation for the Fulbright awards, 
to the Associates in Tropical Biogeography at the University of California and 
others who helped to make this work possible. Dr. A. T. Hop wood, of the British 
Museum of Natural History, kindly placed at the author's disposal Owen's types 
and generously took much of his time in discussing his ideas on some Of these 
specimens. Mr. and Mrs. D. J. Oldfield, of Etadunna Station, were most hospit- 
able and helped us in many ways. Mr. Jack Stewart, of the Electricity Trust 
Company at Leigh Creek, gave us invaluable assistance and suggestions with onr 
transportation problems. The illustrations were prepared by Mr. Owen J. Poe r 
staff artist in our Museum. All measurements are in millimeters. 


The Woodard locality where the fossil bones were found is a grayish sandy 
channel deposit with some Unconsolidated ferruginous concentrations ranging 
from one-fourth of an inch to two inches in diameter. Gypsum occurs through- 
out the beds but most if not all of it is secondary in origin, These channel 
sands were laid down in a formation composed primarily of greenish-blue and 
red gy psiferous clays with a basal conglomerate derived from the Durierust 
chert. The channel sands are 35 feet above the basal conglomerate. The maxi- 
mum thickness of the formation where the channel sands occur is 72 feet, though 
the total thickness may be greater. 

The exposures are along the west side of Lake Palankarinna, east of Lake 
E\re; 18 miles S. 75° W. of Etadunna Station homestead. Military grid refer- 
ence 656431, ordinance sheet Marree, South Australia, H54/1. 2.5.6, zones 5 and 
6, first edition 1942, scale 1 : 506880. U.C. locality V5367 (Pig. 1). 

Age of the fauna is difficult if not impossible to determine accurately at 
this time. Perhaps the best key to an age is the fragmentary notothen- | ]• "ig. 6") 
that seems closely related but more advanced than a specimen in the National 
Museum at Melbourne. The Victorian specimen came from the Sandriflftham 

s (" Cheltenhamian stage" of Singleton, 1941) at Beaumaris. Singleton 
(1941), Gill (1950). and Olaessner (1951) refer this "fttftgt" tf) (hr late 
Miocene, and Crespin (oral communication) calls it early Pliocene, The Palan- 

Bna fauna, therefore has been referred to the early or, possibly, middle 

Stirton — Late Tertiary Marsupials from South Australia 


Fig. 1. Map showing Woodard Locality at Lake Palankarinna east of Lake Eyre, South 



The first Tertiary fossil of a bandicoot was found by Mr. Tedford on July 
30, 1953, when we were opening the Palankarinna quarry. Unfortunately it was 
in the weathered zone near the surface and consequently was badly shattered. 

Genus Ischnoix>n (1) nov. 

Type of (jcnotypw species. Ischnodon mstralis sp. nov. 

The diagnostic characters of the genus are those of the genotypie species 
until other species have been described. 

(i) to^yos, thin; os«ii'=: o&Ws, tooth. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 


Uolotyj-e. Most of anterior half of right mandible with posterior < j dt:e of 
canine alveolus, Pj- 2 and Mi -a in place. P 3 missing from alveolus, M 2 with 
crack across talonid resulting in loss of posterolingual corner (Fig. 2). U.C. 
No. 44380. 

Generic diagnosis. Horizontal ramus slender; premolar thin transversely 
(r 1 =l-l; P-—1-G), with long gently declining crest from anteromedian eusp 
to talonid. Paraconid and hypoconulid reduced on molars; talonid as high its 
fcrigonid; height from base of enamel below metaconid- Mj^S-O; M 2 =--l: 
stylar cusp at anterior base of hypoconid of M x . 


Mandible. Horizontal ramus evidently nearly straight, perhaps with slight 
evity of tower border below molars; depth of mandible below Pj-5-4, below 

en d m e d hyl d 




Fig. 2. Ischnodon austral ix. Stirton, n. gen. and n. sp., holorype, No. 44380; Woorlar.l 
Locality Vf>:;(>7, ]'a IriTikariniia. fauna ; lutadunna formation. Most of anterior half of right 
mandible with posterior edge of canine ;il\< clua, Px-j, alveolus for P a , and Mj-M^. Oceluaal 
and labial views. Pour timea natural size. 

Stirton — Late Tertiary Marsupials from South Australia 251 

anterior edge of Mi-7'0, transverse tlii Inuss below M±— l-f); mental foramen 
below Pj. Horizontal ramus slender, evidently indicative of long narrow-faced 

Tfith. Posterior edgfe of alveolus of canine preserved; diastem between 
C and It-J'O, Pt with anteromedian cusp 1*9 high; no tiny eusp at anterior 
end; long gfintlj declining talonid Without CUSp-j straight ; very uarrow-1 • 1 ; 
length '»-ii. Diastem between Pi and P L .-l-2. P a with anteromedian eusp 2-.'J 

bighj no tiny CttSp at anterior end; Jong gently declining talonid with posterior 
slylar eusp, outline slrai^lit liuunally and convex labially; wider than Pi— I'B; 

ib 4-1. p a d Distance between P 2 and Mj-S'fx Molars basically 

tuherculosectprial but with talonid as high as trigouid; Mj triangular in outline, 
lingual edge straight, labial edge tapers from posterolabial corner to anterolin- 
glial corner; paralophid and paraconid present; paraconid not in line with meta- 
eonid and entoeindd. paraconid Separated Proitt metaeonid by distinct meta- 
flexid ; no anterior ein^uluin ; metaeonid and entoeonid equal in si/.e j hypo- 
cunulid vestigial; small stylar eusp at anterior base of protoeouid ; length 4*1; 
Width across trh-ronid-^-f), across talonid -.'t-O; height of metaeonid 2-0. Mo 
differs from Ma id less pronounced triangular outline; paraconid reduced; para 
lopbid closely dppreftaed 10 protolophid j prominent anterior einjrnlimi with 
Stylar cusp at anterior base of protoeouid ; larger size, lenirth-4-2; width across 
trigonid-3*2, across talonid 4-5 ; height of metai -oiiid-2- 1. 

C<n)ii>aris(>H>;. Tbe exact relationships of tbe Palankarinna bandicoot can- 
not be determined from the fragmentary specimen at hand. Nevertheless there 
are features in the teeth that suggest affinities with living genera. The long 
gently declining crest from the anteromedian cusp to the talonid on Pj and Po, 
and the reduction of the paraconid and tie hy po-'ouu)id on the molars are Sug- 
gestive of affinities with tbe bilbies. On tbfi oilier band, the pattern and height 
i . rown in the molars are mm-h like the features seen in Thyhicis fllinger 
(=h(Hklnn Desmarest), hut the presence of the paraconid ami the hypocenile| v 
though reduced, may be evidence of a remote relationship to both Thyhuis and 
PrruHirlcs. The characters displayed in this specimen seem to indicate that the 
Palanlcarinn.i anon;.],, were nearer fcO bilbies than to the Other genera of the 


('horropvs evidently represent;: another specialized form related most closely 

to Pf'Tiniifhii. The premolars in the Palsmkarim h speainten are relatively and 
actually longer u\m\ are relatively shorter crowned than in Choer&pus, Further- 
more there are no diastems between the premolars of Choer0pUb\ Other differ- 
ences are reflected in the molars; though considerably larger they are relatively 

252 Rkcords of the S.A. Museum 

milch lower crowned than in the pig-footed bandicoot* -The paraeonids ami hypo 
(•nniiliil.s, also, .ire more reduced. Chotropus is a much smaller animal. The 
Eossil form nia> In- SncestraJ ( .'hut probably is not) to bilbies. if it is in a direct 
stral position the bilbies have experienced considerable evolution in their 
dentition, especially in becoming higher crowned and in the loss of the para- 
• ■onid, since the Palankarinna fauna existed in the area east of Lake Eyre. 


Macropodid remains were more numerous at the Palankarinna site than all 
the other fossils combined, Even w the limited time available for collecting on 
our first trip to the locality \vr found a representative of every tooth both 
permanent and deciduous. Eventually we should have an excellent series for a 
study of variation in the population. 

This new genus and species is recognized as a member of the Maeropodiuae. 
Detailed comparisons with other genera in the subfamily have not been com- 
pleted for this preliminary report. 

(.leans Pjuonotemnus ( * J) now 
Type of irenotypic species. Prlonotcmnus palankarinnicus sp. nov.^> 

The diagnostic characters pf the genus are those of the genotypie species 

until Other species liavc been described. 


Holdliipc. Eight mandible with P;i-M.j in place, most of angle, ascending 
ramus, part of symphysis and incisor missing (Fig. B) 3 P.P. Xo. 44381. 

ParatypeS, Lfift maxillary with P3 M», LLC. No. 44:i^2 (Jftg, 4). Left 
maxillary with P-, DP 8 , IVP-JVP' in place, J\P 4 still imbedded in the maxillary, 
I ,0. No. 44384. Left mandible with P a -M 3 in place, M, empty; most of 
angle, ascending ramus, part of symphysis and incisor missing II. C. No. 44385. 

Right mandible with P;t-M< in places most of angle, part of ascending and in- 
ewo* missing, P.P. No. 44386. Left mandible with i\;-M_, in pla<<e ; angle, pari 
of ascending ramus, symphysis ami incisor missing, PP. No. 44387, Part of 
right mandible witli M. n -., in place; front half broken off, angle nearly complete, 
most of ascending ramus missing, P.P. Xo. 44388. Part of left mandible with 
P 2 DP 3 M 7 - 2 in place, \P ; still embedded in the maxillary, P.O. No. 44839. 
Eight metatarsal IV and associated phalanges, U,0. No. 441383 (Fig. 5). Eight 

••-) Trpttyv, Baw; re^vvs, to cut ( in re£€ to the premolar^) 

(3) Named for the type fauna at Lake Palankarinna. 

Stirton — Late Tertiary Marsupials from South Australia 


P 3 , U.C. No. 44:W0. Composite lijpper incisors, V.C. No. 44301 Left P 2 , ILC. 
No. 443J32, Symphysis of left nmndiblc, P.O. No. 44393. Drft lower incisor, 
K.C. No. 44394. Bight P 2 . I'.C. No. 44395, left DP 3 , V.C. So. 44396. 




masseteric foramen m 4 M3 M2 M| p 3 

Pig; 3- Primus I i-nmuR paltinkarinn.i< us, Stilton, a. gen. and Q. -p., Imlutype, No. 44ciSJ ; 
Woodaxd Locality Vei^T, Paia&kariniia Cauna; EtaQuana formation. Right mandihk* with 
P3-M4 ; most of angle, aacetodittg ramufrj part of .symphysis and incisor missing; Occlusal 
(A) and labial (B) views. Natural size. 

Generic Diagnosis. Partial forward rotation of molars. P- with no lingual 
basin; labial surface slightly convex and Lingual surlVe slightly concave. P- 
with fouc labial and four Ungual grooves. P a not longer than M ' nor shorter 
than M ;{ j P 3 with narrow Lingual shelf and narrow lingual basin; pr- 
posterointernal cusp, tiny posterointernal fossette. M 3 and M- nearly quadrate. 
J2(4) ^fh euarnel extending upward from ventral border nearly halfway on 
lingual surface; relative proportions of I 2 as in Watkbbia but larger. P^ with 
long, deep and narn.w anterior lingual groove and shorter wide posterior lingual 
groove divided into three parts by two short ridges in apical area pi unworn 
teeth. Pg usually e<pial in length to M L > sometimes as long as M : . : rusps of same 
height on crest. DPfj with short ereseeutic lophid on anterior moiety; crest 
extends anteriorly from midpoint of anterior ereseentie lophid thence labially 

1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • j 5 
('i)AHSumiiig the primitive incisor formula in marsupials was T> V^ . r aPf ^ that th '' "' 

0-2-3 4-0 
maining incisors in the Maeropodidae are q.o.q.q. q 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

downward and backward along basal part of anterior moiety forming shallow 
basin on anterolabial corner of tooth. Lower molars longer than wide but rela- 
tively wider than in Wallabia and in Protemnodoyi, 


Maxillary process opposite M : \ broad Il-fi mm. not rotated transversely, 
anterior lower border sharp not overturned posteriorly; infraorbital canal *2 1 -0 
mm. long, infraorbital foramen above M 1 . 

Teeth. P< 5 > not as elongate anteroposteriorly as T q , crown of enamel much 
longer, dimensions of crown almost uniform throughout, length of root variable 
from 10*0 to 20-0 mm,, faint indication of groove slightly back of midpoint on 
lateral surface ; strongly decurved ; occlusion on posterior face. 


P3 M' M2 M3 M« 




Fig. 4. Prionotemnui palanharmnicu^s, Stirton, n. p'n. ami n. sp., paratype, No. 44382; 
Woodnnl Locality V5367, Palaiiknrin nn f.-juna; Etadunnji formation. Left maxillary -with 
P3-M4. Occlusal (A) ami labial (B) views. Natural size. 

I 8 smaller in all dimensions than I- or I 4 , labial surface convex and smooth. 
occlusal surface triangular in outline with posterior inflection, crown probably 
not more than 8-5 mm., root relatively long-9-4 mm. 

I 4 crown elongate but narrow, prominent groove and ridge slightly anterior 
of median labial position, occlusal surface hook-shaped by anterior direction of 
inflection from lateral groove, crown short-9-1, root approximately 12-0 mm. 

(G)TliiB ia assuming that Ii and K» have been lost. 

Sttkton— Late Tertiary Marsupials EBOM South Ausihai ia 255 

Space between atrophia p£ T 1 add axillary preinajfrlliary Bniuw (2-0 t 
I' invo wide median Ubial grooves and two Caiiltei median Ungual '-" 
separated by sharp tfcfcftt; heavj basal ettanWl with trrsgulai! surface continuous 
along labial surface, not sharply differentiated into eiu&irlwn.; alight linguaJ 
ringulmii basal shell with imgular rntrfaq^ no liri£W) baaing no posterolingual 
cuspj anteriOT and posterior ettd* of oresl tarty slightly elevated jtbove middle 
part; lab&l and Ungual edges nearly parallel, labial surface slight*] com 
Ungual KiirtVe slighflj coiwiavc, annulate anteriorly : two roots. 

P3 not longer than IP nor shorter than M 2 , tour labial groftve* and four 

lingual gropw; labial Lrttffal otngiilmn a^t continuous Btptuaft posterolabial 

corner; irregular [friguftl cin-ulum forming narrow basal shell' and narrow Ufa- 
u.ii;,J basin; anterior and posterior eadfi of crest slightly higher than three inter- cusps; prominent pnsterolingual cusp; tiny posteromedian fossette; re- 
places both P- and DP 3 with crest pushing up between their roots. 

DP^ mnlanform hut with protoloph narrower than meialoph. All Speci- 
mens too heavily W0?U to show detailed pattern. 

TJpiJtr Molars. Gradation in size from large to small in upper molars M :I , 
M '. M M 1 ; M :i and M { nearly equal and somewhat elongate : M * and M- or; 
quadrate, M' and M* «J0W elongate; metalaph Of U 4 narrower than prot.oloph; 
prominenf trettrihant anterobasal oingulltm nearly as vrtfle (is protoloph, not 

Sharply (teflwt^ palinally from midpoint; in. fordinfcj lopta OSepoimtb in early 
BtagOS of wear become less so as they wear down; midlink usually formed by 
spurs developed from protoloph and from metaloph, curved labially and poster- 
iorly from protoeonc to middle of metalnph, curvature less apparent m later 
StagBS of wear, anterior and posterior spurs of midlink usually fused hut sotne- 
tnnrs QOl complete particularly in M :; ; faint basal lingual cinguluitt sometmn , 
present on any of the upper molars. ITimllink erescentie on M 1 , Ml 2 and usually 
OH M :t joins at midpoint with similar but less distinct crest From metacone, ex- 
tends to l>Hse of metacone on M 4 and sometime* on *I. :: . 

Miunlihir. Symphysial region only slightly Upturned in laterovcntral out- 
line, not decumbent Mental foramen usually elongate and ovate, directed am, near diastemal crest, distance anterior to Pa variable ( 8-4-1 3 >5 ) 
BdgS Of masseteric foramen between opening of posterior dental canal and eoro- 
noid fossa observable in adult specimens with mandible in horizontal position a* 
eye level ; mandibular ramus, tooth row, and symphysis nearly horizontal. 

I 8 lanceolate; sl'mhtiv curved from tip tO end of root in labial outline; 
labial enamel surface and lermth oi' runt about equal ; enamel extends upward 
from ventral border nearly halfway on liimna! surface; relative proportions as 
in Wulhtbia; length of diastem between l_. and C in one adult -36-9, 


Records of the S.A. Museum 






Fig. 5. P-rion-otemnus palanlcarin- 
nicus, Stirton, n. gen. and n. sp., para- 
types No. 44383; Woodard Locality 
V5367, Palankarinna fauna, Ktadun- 
na formation. Eight metatarsal IV 
and composite phalanges, A, exter- 
nal; B, internal; and C, front views 
of metatarsal; D, posterior; and E, 
front vit -ws of phalanges. Three- 
f ourths natural size. 

Stirton — Late Tertiary Marsupials from South Australia 257 

p£ Long, deep and narrow anterior lingual groove; shorter wide posterior 
litfglia) groove, divided into three parts by two short ridges in apical area of 
[inwom fceethj a. little over half as lou^ as P&j apparently two median labial 

grooves (not clear because of wear in specimens at hand) ; no indication of basal 
cixigultun; erest moderately serrate, of same height throughout ; slightly convex 
labially, slightly concave Initially : two roots; no posterointernal cusp. 

P 3 four labial and four lingual short grooves; labial and lingual cingula 
nui continuous anteriorly or posteriorly ; l"-. usually equal in length to M^ some- 
times us long as M :; j ferrate -rest, cusps of same height; posterior cusp thicker 
than those to front, slightly deflecled lingually; replaces both Eg and DP a With 
crest directly below these teeth; anterior i\u\ sometimes turned downward from 
rotary pressure of molars behind. 

DP 3 siibmolariform ■ triangular outlijie; anterior moiety with short fcrftfr 
c< titic lophid, posterior moiety bicuspid; crest extends anteriorly from midpoint 
p£ anterior erescentie lophid thence labially, downward and backward atom? 
basal part of anterior moiety forming shallow lateral basin on anterolabial 
corner of tooth; another short cingulum extends from anterior midpoint down 
to antcrul r.'u;d corner; posterior ein^nlnn ; Eophids connected by midlink. 

Lower Molars, Gradation in size of lower molars M. 1? M->, Mo, Mj ; longer 
than wide; prominent anterior einsndum not equal to full width of tooth; lophids 
erescentie in early stages of wear become less so as they wear down; foreliuk 
curves slightly inward from protoeonid then straight forward to anterior riu^u- 
luiii; midlink curves slightly inward from hypoeouid then straight forward to 
middle base of protolophid, no spur extending' posterior from protolophid j fa int. 
posterior einjnduni: no labial or lingual singula; tx6 hiudlink. 

Metatarsal TV — anterior surface not conspicuously convex; posterior prox- 
imal half of shaft with rather sharp edge; outline of shaft above distal an 
lating surface ovate. 

Measukfmi.n'ts of Metatarsal and Phalanges. 

Length M + IV 123*2 

Width proximal facet 20-:: 

Width distal articulating surface .. .. .. .. 19-2 

Depth of shaft 00 nun. above distal ^\)(i ., .. .. 20*2 

Width of shaft 9.0 mm. above distal end .. .. .. 12*3 

lu mark*. I\ palaakarimi/rus differs from Bach of the nine species from 
Queensland described by De Vis (1895) under the generic name Ualamafttrits. 
The characters examined occur both in the molars and in the premolars, 
characters based ou the same structures in our series from the Woodard locality 

258 Records of the S.A. Museum 

are constant. Unfortunately neither the geographic location, the strati»T<iphie 
position, nor any indication of fan rial assemblage, information is available for 
Do Vis' specimens. This of course makes a detailed comparison seem rather 
futile, since characters that are stable in one species are not necessarily stable 
in another. More than one of his typed may come i'rum one fanna. In some fea- 
tures the Palankarinna animals resemble the \v;iM;ibi<s and in other characters 
they look like the species of Protciv n<><lcn from the Pleistocene. Our form may 
approximate a common ancestral position to loose two genera. The propon 
of tlie limb bones are suggestive of the MatTopodinae. 


The relationships of the named genera of the Diprolodonfidae are not yet 
known. The smaller genera referred to the Xotoflieriuae seem to belong to Uxo 
or more distinct groups, but we do nut have enough information on the types and 
other Specimens in museum collections to determine the magnitude at these 
differences. Lack of information on the stratigraphic position of tbe fossils and 
on the associated mammalian faunas lias also ben a serious handicap in inter- 
preting their affinities. Nevertheless; certain characters seem worthy of compari- 
son and comment at this time. It is hoped that additional discoveries in the mar 
future will clear up the relationships of some of the named genera. 

Gunus Menlscoi;Opieus ((;) now 
Type of ijenotyyic sp, 6i\ )I< tiiscoluph u.s i)iaivsoni (7 > sp. nov. 

The diagnostic cbaraeters of the gdnUS are those of the geuotypic spi 
until other species baV€ been described, 

Meniscoi.oiuius mawsoni sp. nov. 

IJololypc. Mandibles with complete little -worn dentition, ascending ramus 
and most of angle broken off. Left maxillary* s) fragment with M- and M a and 
a right M s (Pig. 7, 8, 9). U.C. No, 44397. 

Generic (HagftOSis. Incisors not markedly procumbent nor conspicuously 
grooved, not eaniniform ; dorsal outline of slightly concave, Diastmmd 
crest between !•_. and Pjj slightly convex. Posterior end of sympbysis opposite 
anterior moiety of M t . Length of P :{ -17-1, rigid P : . 1-4 greater than one-half 

(H) ii.r]i>L$Ko*i, vrsHOunt ; Ao«£ns, met- 1 . 

(7)Name<l for Sir Douglas Mawson, Professor emeritus, Depart ment of Geology, Univer- 
sity of Adelaide. 

Evidently fchifl belongs to thr sami- iinlividual as the mandible since t\ uneiLs 

M.ini'i in proximity in the quarry and since both upper and lower teeth are in the aumn 

SrfRTON — Late Tertiary Marsupials from South Australia 259 

of length of Mj, left P3 6*0 greater than one-half length of Mj i HO indication of 
cingnlum OH anterolabial corner of P.-.. Length, width and height (of proto- 
lophid from base of enamel below metaeonid) of M»=-37- lx26*3x20-9. 
Lophids of molars slightly creseentie and slightly oblique, inidliiik not entering 
info creS6entic Outline of hypholophid; midlink extends straight forward down 

into median valley from middle of labial hall of hypolophid* No paralnphid, 
Posterior Singultus elevated sharply at midpoint, shallow somewhat widl 

trmi-ij between cingtduxn and main body of t< >« >t h blocked by short lo^ anterior 

diluted ridge at that point Prominent diagastric process and po&di*ga&trie 
1 1 us on posterior lower border of mandible. 


Mu.itiiihh: Symphysial region normal, not spatulate nor abruptly upturned; 
symphysial sulcus markedly U-shaped laterally, slightly convex anteropos- 
leiiorlv on lingual surface along symphysial suture, narrow (1*5 wide) deep 
groove along symphysial line fades out 19-0 back of incisor alveolar border; 
ventral surface als<| with grooved sutural line, Mi) -5 this gjrOOVe expands into 

•ate (41-7) relatively narrow (10*0) slightly depressed rugose area, suhai- 
veolaris fossa distinct; spina mentalis broken off; no torsus transversus ; dia- 
stema crest between incisor and Pg pitted and grooved; mental foramen ovate 
S-T) vertically and 5-S anteroposteriorly, 27-5 below and 8^8 anterior to P 3 . 
Lower border of ramus slightly convex between symphysial notch and diagastric 
process: diagastric process prominent, pointed 3 long (80 -A) pronounced post 
diagastric sulcus between diagastric process and base of angle; angular fosaa 

deep (approx. 1B 8 0) and continues forward as shallower depression 70-0 beyond 
postdiagastric process. Posterior angular surface nearly flat, 75-f- wide behnv 
condyle (broken (ianftof be ftteasuxed accurately); only base of ascending ramus 
preserved, anterior border opposite anterior mniety of SE 4 j poslalvooliii 
back ol' M ( trian-jular, 25 "0 long, with pnstalveolar ridge extending new. < : ,i h-;->; 

uninterrupted to pnstalveolar process at edge of postdent.'d canal. Poaidenta] 

canal !>•() in diameter, f>l-() back of and on level of Upper half of M 4 , canal runs 
under labial boiMifl] »>f tooth row-, basal part of eofonoid fossa 77-0 wide and 
I :»•(.) deep. 

LQWr t<rlh, Oia.slem between incisors 6*0; incisors curved gently upward 
and slightly outward, extends 37»0 out of alveolus; anteroventral and labial aur 
face o£ incisor coated with enamel, enamel extends 12-0 into alveolus, lower 
surface not grooved, upper lateral surface slightly grooved near contact" with 
exposed dentine sur 'ace. dorsal surface of dentine also slightly grooved m?ai 
lateral border; dentine exposed on inner and posterior surfaces, enamel Occurred 

260 Records of the S.A. Museum 

on these surfaces; thick root, reduces in size at lower end, open, not compressed 
laterally, terminates about 20-0 back pi and below mental foramen and below 
P 3 j dental canal passes down and over labial side of open root. 

Cheekteeth decrease in size from M 4 to P$, but M% only slightly smaller 
than M 4 ; some cement in depressions of teeth. 

P 3 moderately worn, evidently with single cusp, exposed dentine roughly 
triangular, expanded eingulum extending from post.erolinirual corner to point 
between roots on labial side, shallow somewhat widened trench between ein^ulum 
and main body of tooth, no indication of anterior cinendum ; lingual edge 
straight; no indication of vertical lateral grooves dividing tooth into anterior 
and posterior moieties; labial enamel 2-0 thick, lingual enamel 0-5 thick; both 
roots curved posteriorly. 

Pattern ol' molars alike except shelf like einuulum structure aCFOSS opening 
of median valley more prominent on lingual side of Mo and M ( ami more pro- 
nounced on labial side of Mt and Mm, Lophids slightly rrescontic and slightly 
oblique; protolophid not higher than hypolophid. Anterior and posterior moie 
ties about equal in width except on Mj where anterior moiety is a bit narrower: 
posterior moieties on M 2 , M 3 and M 4 as wide or slightly wider than antrrior 
rnoieties; posterior moieties longer anteroposteriorly than anterior moieties on 
all of the molars. Median valleys sharply V-shaped. Posterior cingnlum ele- 
vated sharply but not discontinuous at midpoint, shallow somewhat widened 
trench between posterior ciugulum and main body of tooth blocked by low erest 
at that point. Midlink extends straight forward down into median valley from 
labial side of hypholophid. Oimnila discontinuous opposite labial and lingual 
surfaces of protolophids and hypolophids, tend to ascend but fades out on these 

Vpptr teethi Lophs ereseentie and slitrhtly oblique; anterior moiety wider 
than posterior moiety; median valleys sharply V-shaped; only slight elevation in 
area of inidlink; wide anterior eimrulum, without labial cusp; short, (insula 
across lingual and Labial openings of median valleys; wide posterior basal em- 
gula. Posterior edge of jujral arch opposite anterior edge of M 3 . 


Length from tip of incisor to posterior angular surface .. .. 3500 

Length from tip ol' incisor to entry of dental canal . . 290-7 

Depth of ramus hefnw anterior alveolus of M a . . .. 70-0 

Depth of ramus below anterior alveolus of Mg .... . 61*0 

Thickness of minus below M 7 .. .. .. .. .. 33-5 

Length of symphysis .. .. .. .. .. .. 113-0 

Depth of symphysis at midline opposite mental foramen .. 47-8 

Diasteiii between incisor and P 3 . . . . . . b'2-9 

Stihton — Late Tertiary Marsupials from South Australia 261 

Length of teeth measured at middle and on left tooth row. 

P 3 _M 4 =150-3; P ? -M 3 =113--4 ; Po-Mo^77-f); 
p 3 -M 1 =46-4;M 1 -M 1 =l;:!:M;M 1 -M3=96-7; 
M 1 -M 2 ~61 • ; M g M j =103 • 9 ; M 2 -M 3 =67 • 9 ; 
M 3 -M 4 =72-8. 

Median length X width of anterior moiety < width of posterior moiety, excapi 
Pg which is measured across the middle. 

P3=17-2X13-0;M 1 =29-0X^();Mm=32-4X22-8; 
^[,=3G-4x2(i-0;M 4 =37-lX2fi-3. 

Height of anterior lophid from of enamel below inetac.onid of M 4 20*9 

Length M--M- GU * 1 

Median length X width of anterior moiety X width of posterior moiety. 
M-=31 -6X28 -0X26-4 M«=37-0X31-lX26(i 

Comparison. The generic name ifototherium is second only to Diprotodon 

in its frequency in the literature. Ironically though, in all probability the 
specific characters in the type of the geuotypie species A'. miUhclli Owen (1845, 
p. 223, pis. 3-4) from the "alluvial or newer tertiary deposits in the bed of the 
Condamine River, west of Moreton Bay," can never be recognized. If this 
pn.vcs to be true the name mitehdii must be set aside as a vohkii <lnbiu)ti r ' V) or 
itemen vanum^'^. It seems unwise to treat the generic name in a like manner as 
long as there is a, possibility of recognizing- generic affinities of the other species 
with the type of the genotypie species/ 1 <') 

Owen's type of Nolotlicrituii is the posterior part Crf a lei't mandible with 
M 3 and Mi in place but nearly all of the enamel on the teeth has been shattered 
and lost. The posterior lo\v:u* border of the horizontal ramus is complete but the 
ascending ramus is broken oil*. 1 Jifortunaxely the teeth are so badly broken an 
accurate determination of affinities from them will be extremely difficult. In 
comparing the type with other specimens in the Tiritish Museum of Natural 
History it was found to be more like SpeciineB No, 43523 (Owen, 1877, pp. 28&- 
290, pi. XLV) than any other specimen with which it was compared. Some 
enamel still preserved in tile median valley of M :i in the type is indicative of a 
V-shaped valley as in the specimen mentioned above. This feature is also found 
in the type of Ewy&ygoma famense (De Vis), 1887. Wwryzy&oma agrees with 
the British Museum specimen No. 43.123 in that the midlink on the molars is 

no Btide ntlv fcheae berma are synonymous. 

<io)TLus the opinion expressed by S&v&g4 (1951, p. *200, footnote 7) is followed ia his 
treatment of the genus Qa'melaps. It is appreciate*! though that the ease of Notothi 
differs from that of Comrlops in that I r.m still not •: rt.iiii I hat the genua can be recognized 
in Owen 's type. 

262 Kecobds of hie S.A. Museum 

rmit unions as a labial inxrvEtura of t)ie hypolopMd. Furthermore, Jjfury&yffOfha 
resembles Owen's typo and the British Museum specimen No. 43523 in the ab- 
sence of a pronounced diaga&trfc process and postdiagastric sulcus. N.n'.iirin/h 
differs further from Mermcolophiw in its postalveolar process being 40*0 below 
iiii' opening of the i>ostuVntal canal, lii both Wwyzygonw and the referred 

''t'tluriuHt, the lophids are more obi itj » !♦•! v crescentio than in ffletmcolopliiis. 
jn addition. MeniscolopkllS dif'A ' ^„i bdth [>£ ilie,r genera in the anteropos- 
terior direction of the midlink, and in the midpoint elevation Of the posterior 
(.unguium. V-shaped median valleys are found iu all Of these genera. tSuryzy 
frniia differs EtOlO UenisCOlopltUS in its larger si ire pmrnmbent. and more 

prcmouiiced Lateral grooved incisors. Other features of distinction in Bury 
(finna are seen in the posterior end of the symphysis being bpposite the anterior 
r\\i\ of M^j in the length of P 8 which is one-half the Length oL' M u ami in the 
protolophid being 5*0 higher than on I&4 in Mcni-:c<>foph hs. 

Both Euovu tihi rohusta De Vis, 1891, and Euowcnia grata (De Vis), 1887, 
show marked resemblances to Mcniscolophus in the construction pf the molars, 
in the presenee of a diagastne process aad a diagastrie sulcus. They differ in 
the shape of the symphysis and in the outline and direction of the Lncil 
There also are minor differences in the molar patterns. The symphysis in 
I'okusta is long (197-2), narrow (51 "8 between mental foramina), slightly up 
turned, and with the symphysia) notch below Mo On the other hand the sym- 

vsis is miirli shorter in grata [ 116*8), wider (70 1 between mental foramina >, 
abruptly upturned and with the symphysial notch below M t . 

I designate Euotr> wia rubusta De Vis, 1891, as the genotypie species since 
Oe Vis did not refer fo either species as the type of his new genus. The type 
-uncus of these two speeies will be described in detail at a later date by dark 
T. Woods of Die Queensland Museum. 

Though Hie generic annuities of ^JfotothtHum 91 victoriae^ 0*weaj a 1873, are 

not clear and it differs from MehisCOlOpftw IU BeY&Mtl features d seems nearer to 
1 be I'abinkai itoia genus than to the other genera S ■<-\<-a. M differ! 

la^hus as follows: posterior rnd of synt .physi B Opposite middle (Jf Mg< 
Length Width and hoitrht (of protolophid Erottl bnse at enamel In I m.Is) 

,,r St 4 «=45.-3X33 # 5X24'fi approx. Lupoids ft fee, Midlink not as pro- 

nounced but in same position. Diagastrie prominence 08 long a-, postdiagast rie 
suleus. Postdental eanal about on same level in relation To tooth row as in 
MtiiliscolaphuSj but separated from postal veolar shelf and posted veolttT ridge by 
p groove. Median valley not as sharply Y-shaped. Shelf Jike Mflg ula. struc- 
tures aeross openings of median V alleys of molars not pronuueni. Trench be- 
n posterior eingulum and main bo< booth not bloeked by CFtesl Dongtb 

M.-M. t — 122-D. 

Stirton — Late Tertiary Marsupials from South Australia 


"Noiotlh sritiffll" tasnutwicum, Scott, 1911, seems to be close to 4l j\ r ." victorias 
except in the position ot the foramen of the postdeiital canal, which is high on 
rli:' ascetLdtug ramus as in the type of (i N" mitcJnh'i. 

PfOfolojrti m«jatop*i politic n of parocona 

enonst oardor 






Fig. 6. Diprotodcmt, No. 44398; Woodard Locality V5367j Palaakarinna fauna; Eta- 
dunna formation. Part, of left maxillary with \P~M : -. Occlusal view. One-third natural 


Pig. 7. McnisaolophitrS mawnoni, stirton, n. gen. and a. gp #1 hrrtotyps X<>. 44397, v 
ard Locality V5867J Palankarinna fauna; Etadunna formation. Mandibles with little worn 

incisors and I'—M*, ascending ramus and moat of angle broken off, Occlusal (A) and labial 
(B) views. One-third natural 

264 Records of tiie S.A. Museum 

Wift", Anderson, 1937, is represented by a very poor 
type specimen since only a fragment of M 4 remains in part of the mandible. 
Nevertheless flu- piesem.-e of a diaMastrie process and a posldiagastric sulcus give 
evidence of a mandibular outline, at least in that area, much like that in S£i 
COlophus. Though the tooth of a possible tOpOtype tvom Surprise Creek, near 
Wan, New Guinea (Australian Museum No. F£1443), is much lower crowned 
and smaller than Mcnisculuphus, has median valleys not 50 narrow, has a nuich 

mare complete anterior posterior ;md labia) eingulum, but has slightly oblique 
lophids and midlinks, though not as prominent, in the same position as in Meni- 
zcolophus, "NJ* waiufense is probably referable to the genus Mi M$CQl&pkii$, 

It is not clear at. this time to which of the smaller nototheres Dipt <>(u<hm 
is most closely related. 11 is much larger, has a longer eranium ami mandible, 
and the cheekteeth, though brachyodont, are both relatively and actually higher 
(. It shows a marked similarity to Mrnist (iloplncs in the diagastrie 
process, in the postdiagastric sulcus, the postal venlar ridge leading from the 
postalveolar shelf to the postdental canal, but in other features it is not close. 
The large incisors have open roots; if root closure took place it must have been 
in the oldest individuals. On the other hand the area covered with ena 
the incisors is somewhat like that in Meniscatophv^s. The paiteru of the molars 
in their transverse creseeutie lophnls, in the absence of midlinks, in the presence 
of cement both in the median valleys and on other surfaces of the molars, is 
quite different from Mcniscolopkus. 

in* d! the characters mentioijecl here may prove useful in an interpreta- 
tion of phylogenetic relationships when we have more information on the 
Tertiary Fossil record of the Daprotadcirtidda 


Pour notothcre specimens from I'alankarinna are clearly not referable to 
\l< nisfolopliKs. The>,- are the hark part of a left mandible with a well-worn 
M t in plaee, T'.(\ No. 44401, a fragment pf a feft mandible witli a mo-lof; 
worn U4 (Fig. 10) 6UJ. No. 44300, a left maxillary fragment with M 1 M'> 
moderately WOm (Fig. 7), and a left M 1 of a smaller individual I' C. No. 44400 
(Fig. 11). The Epllcrwing characters indicate affinities with part of a maxillary 
from tin marine Miocene in-nr lieaumaris, \'ietoria, hat it is thought that 
materials from Palaukarinna are not referable to the species from Victoria, 
though it may belong to the same genus. 

Upper molars with protoloph transverse and with metaloph slightly 

oblique; anterior moiety wider than posterior moiety except on M 1 ; median 
valley wide : slight elevation of mid I ink-like structure in median valley back of 

Stirton — Late Tertiary Marsupials from South Australia 265 



Fig. 8. Meni#colophus viawsoni, Stirton, n. gen. and n. sp., holotype No. 44397, Woodard 
Locality V5367, Palankarinna fauna; Etadunna formation. Part of left maxillary with 
M2 and M3. Occlusal (A) and labial (B) views. One-third natural size. 

Pig. 9. Meniucolophus mawsoni, Stirton, n. gen. and n. sp., holotype No. 44397. Wood- 
ard Locality V5367; Palankarinna fauna; Etadunna formation. Mandible- Ventral view. 
One-third natural size. 

Fig. 10. Diprotodont, No. 44397. Woodard Locality V5367; Palankarinna fauna; Eta- 
dunna formation. Right M,j. Labial (A) and occlusal (B) views. One-third natural size. 

Fig. 11. Diprotodont, No. 44400. Woodard Locality V5367; Palankarinna fauna; Eta- 
dunna formation. Left ML Labial (A) and occlusal (B) views. One -third natural size. 

paracolic; wide anterior eingulum with labial cusp; wide posterior eingulum 
with labial cusp; Short eingulum across lingual opening ol' median valley; 
stylar cusp at posterior labial base of paracolic, does not cross labial opening 
of middle valley. Posterior edge of jugal arch opposite middle of M 3 . 

M, with transverse crcsccntic lophids; anterior eingulum less prominent 
than in upper molars; anterior moiety wider than posterior moiety; median 

266 Records of the S.A. Museum 

valley wide; slight elevation of enamel in area of midlink; no indication of 
ciuguia across opening of median valley; posterior eingulum slightly elevated 
at midpoint; shallow trench between posterior eingulum and main body of 
tooth not. blocked by low crest at midpoint. 

Lower mandibular outline like that in N, miiekelli. 


No. 44398. 

Length JVP-M* . . . . 109-5 

Length M*-M 2 .. .. 67-9 

Length M--M 3 .. 80-2 

No. 44398. 

Median length X width of anterior moiety X width posterior moiety 

M 1 — 31-9X27-9X28'0 1(*--37*£X83-*7><B1-1 M 3 =43«4X36-lX32-4 
No. 44400. 

No. 44401. 

Depth of ramus below anterior alveolus of M x =79-0 
No. 44397. 

Median length X width of anterior moiety X width of posterior moiety 


Comparison. The Palankarinna form is larger than the largest specimen 
from New Guinea (7-0 in the length of M 4 ) and almost twice as large as the 
Beaumaris specimen, from Victoria (1f>-6 difference in the length of M a ). 
Irrespective of the difference in size characters in the Palankarinna maxillary 
seem to be foreshadowed in the Beaumaris form except in the following features. 

Posterior moiety relatively narrower transversely; anterior eingulum with 
labial cusp less developed but distinct; no stylar cusp at posterior labial base of 
paracolic; posterior edge of jugal arch apparently opposite anterior edge of M 3 . 

If, as the evidence seems to indicate, the specimen from Beaumaris is in or 
near the line of ancestry to the Palankarinna diprotodont and the unit of the 
Sandringham sands from which it came is late Miocene in age (Singleton, 1941; 
Gill, 1950; (Uaessner. 1951) onr fauna probably belongs in the early Pliocene. 
On the other hand, if the Beaumaris fossil is early Pliocene (Crespin, oral 
communication) then our fauna could be middle Pliocene. 

Unfortunately the specimens at hand offer meagre evidence for a generic 
diagnosis, though some of the features observed may be of generic magnitude. 
Nevertheless it seems expedient to await the results of another field season in 
anticipation of a more revealing type specimen. 

Stibton — Late Tertiary Marsupials from South Australia 267 

tedeokd LOCALITY* 1 *} 


Tedford discovered a fragment of a. right maxillary of a koala-like anii&al 
among fragments of other vertebrates approximately 2S feet below the Wood^ 
ard locality. The specimen contains the posterior border of the alveolus of P*, 
the roots of M 1 , M- with much of the enamel surface and the inner edge broken 
away, part of the alveolus of M 3 , and the base of the jugal arch. 

Though the specimen shows a marked resemblance to Phascolarctos it differs 
in B6veral features. Auteorbital fossa shallow; width of base of jugal arch 
opposite M 2 =6-7; enamel Surface of molar conspicuously crenellated ; prOtO- 
COfle and hypocoue more erescentm ; M- as wide as long; length ft? 8. width 6--3j 
Occlusal Outline of M 2 evidently more rounded. 

This fossil is more closely related to the koala than to Psaidochcirvs, 
Schoinobfctes or H&faibeMd&us* Tt differs from u PscudocJiiru* (?.)■" HotalnUs* 1 -) 
Dp Vis, 1889, from freestone ( 1 reek, Queensland, in the crenellated enamel sur- 
face of M 2 , in that tooth being as wide afi Ioml', and in its more rounded outline. 

Perhaps additional discoveries at Lake Palankarinna will clear up the relation- 
ships of this animal. 


Late Tertiary vertebrate remains are reported from the -west side of Lake 
Palankarinna east of Lake Eyre, South Australia. The assemblage is named 
Palankarinna fauna. In accompanying notes the strati graphic unit in vfhich 
it Occurs has been described as the Etadunua f urination by G. D. Woodard. 
Locally the mammalian fossils are abundant in a channel deposit called the 
Wnudard locality. The ape seems to be early or middle Pliocene. 

Preliminary descriptions of the mammals include : PEliAMELIDAE — ■ 
Ixchnnd'jit australis n. gen. and n. sp.; PIIASt 1 ' H ,A 1UT1 DAE — plmscolaivtid, 
specimen not adequate for diagnosis (found on the same level as the Woodard 
locality and in the Etaduuna formation): MACKOPODIDAE— Primwtemnus 
pala^karmmcm n. geii. and n. sp.; DIPROTODONTIDAE — Mniiscoloplius 
nwtesam a* gejOs and n. sp. ; diprotodont specimens not adequate for diagnosis. 
Telenst, dipnoian, i-liehmian, crocodilian fragments and crayfish gastroliths also 
were found. 

Ixrhuodon seems more closely related to the bilbies than to Pcrameles and 
Th (da cis but in some features it displays relationships with these genera. The 

(11) Bee stratigraphic position unc3er section on stratigraphy. 

(i2)Thia type is not referable to the genus PseudocheiruHj but is ranch closer to the koala. 

268 Records of the S.A. Museum 

pbasctilartftid is cleai*ly neater to the koala than to PseudocJietrus, BchoinobateB or I'ctrupseudes. It also differs from f4 P$eudocheirU8 ( ?) M ftflfa- 
&*Kaf, De \ is, 188!.), in Certain details. Prionoternnus has some characters in 
common with the wallabies and others that resemble Protemiunlnv. It may 
represent a proximity to a common ancestor of both genera. M&mscolophus and 
tlje unidentified notothere share characters with most of the proposed genera 
and species of the Nototherinae. 


Anderson, C. (1937). Paleontologies! notes. Fossil marsupials from New 
Guinea. Rec. Anst. Mus., vol. SJO, No. 2, pp. 73-87 ? pi. 8. 

De Vis, C. W. (1887). On a supposed new species of Sot-other hum ••; Proe. Linn. 
Soc. N.S.W., vol. 2, pp. 1005-1070, pL 38. 

De Vis, C. W. (1889). On the of the post-Tertiary period in 
Queensland. Proe. Roy. Soc Queensland, y ol. 6, pp. 105-114, pis. 4-5. 

De Vis, C. W. (1895). A review of the fossil jaws of the Macropodidae in the 
Queensland Museum. Proe. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., vol. 10, pp. 75-133) pis. 

(lill, E. D. (1950). Nomenclature of certain Tertiary sediments near Mel- 
bourne, Victoria. Proe. Roy. Soc, Victoria, vol. b'2, pp. 165-170, Fi^s. 
1-2, pi. 10. 

Glaessner, M. F. (1951). Three i'oraminii'eral zones in the Tertiary of Aus- 
tralia. Geol. Mag;, vol. 88, pp. 27SM&8& 

Owen, R. (1845). Gti the extinct mammals of Austn-dia. Kept. Brit. Assoc. 
Adv. Sci, for 1844, vol. 14, pp. 223-240. 

Owen, R. (1873). IV. On the fossil mammals of Australia — Part V. (ienus 
Sotothrrittm, Owen. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc, London, vol. 162, pp. 41-82, 
Figa 1-2, pis. 2-11. 

Savage, D. E. (1951). Late CenOZW vertebrates of the San Francisco Bay 
region. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bull. Dept. (icol. Sci, vol. 38, pp. 215-:U4, 
Pigs, 1 51. 

Scott, 11. ii. (1811), Nnlothermm l&wtowi&unh Tasmanian Naturalist, vol. 2, 

No. 4, pp. 64-68, Figs. 1-5, 

Singleton, F. A. (1041 I . The Tertiary geology of Australia. Proe Roy. Soc,, 

Victoria, vol, 53 f pp. 1-125, Figs. 1-15, pis: 1-3, 
Stirtun, R. A. ami Woodurd, CI. D. (3954). Continental stratigraphy and late 

Tertiary marsupials in South Australia (abstract). Puoe. fleol. Soc, 

Amer. (in press). Read March 12, 11)54, Cordilleran Sec, Seattle, Wash. 


by Norman B. Tindale, Anthopologist, South Australian Museum 


This paper records the details of the finding, in 1939, of a site at Lake Menindee near the River 
Darling in Western New South Wales, where aboriginal relics and some human remains were 
present in a series of three superimposed old lake-shore deposits under circumstances implying the 
occurrene of at least three successive industries. These have been identified, in descending order, as 
representing the Mudukian, Pirrian and Tartangan culture horizons. 

The mammals found at the site range from extinct species of Sthenurus, to a present-day fauna, it 
being evident that the animals were in general relics of the hunting and feeding activities of the 
people who made their camps there. 


By NORMAN B. TINDALE, Anthropologist, South Australian Museum 

Plate XXV and text fig. 1-12 


This paper records the details of the finding:, in 1939, of a site at Lake Menindee 
near the River Darling in Western New South Wales, where aboriginal relics 
and some human remains were present in a series of three superimposed old 
lake-shore deposits under circumstances implying the occurrence of at least 
three .successive industries. These have been identified, in descending order, as 
representing the Mudukian, Tirrian and Tartangan culture horizons. 

The mammals found at the site range from extinct species of Sthciutriis, 
Procoptodov , I'votcnntudon, Sarct/philvs and Thylaviuus, etc., at the lowest level, 
to a present-day fauna, it being evident that the animals were in general relies 
of the. hunting and feeding activities of the people who made their camps there. 


During the Harvard and Adelaide Universities Anthropological Expedition, 
1938-1939, while travelling by car from Broken Hill to Menindee in Western 
New South Wales, on 23rd June, 1939, a chance roadside delay enabled some 
members of the expedition to spend an hour examining the marginal shore dunes 
of a dry lake where the highway from Broken Hill to Menindee, dropped down 
on to the dry floor of Lake Menindee, at a point 12 miles north-west of Menindee 
township. Mineralized bones, including those of several extinct species of 
mammals were noted, together with aboriginal implements, on a series of wind- 
blown erosion areas on the high bank fronting the northern shore of the lake 
Actual first find was made by Mrs. D. M. Tindale. At the conclusion of anthro- 
pometric field work at Menindee Aboriginal Station Dr. J. B. Birdscll and the 
writer devoted several days to an examination of the site. A general survey was 
made, a partial contour map being prepared with improvized instruments, and 
numerous specimens were collected for study. These are now registered as 
A. 27628-A. '28148 in the South Australian Museum. It was the intention of 
the team to give additional attention to the site but the commencement of the 
War in 1939 prevented realization of plans. A brief preliminary reference to 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

l^ig. 1. Sketch map of the vicinity of Lake Menindee, Darling River, N.S.W. 

the discovery was made by Dr. Hallam Movius in the Britannica Book of the 
Year 1940. 

In March, 1953, the occasion of the visit to Adelaide of the mammalian 
palaeontologists, Prof. R. A. Stirton and Mr. R. H. Tedford, enabled the present 
writer briefly to revisit the area, and to introduce them to the array of fossil 
bones scattered over the area. It was then possible to check again the prelimi- 
nary conclusions reached by J. B. Birdsell and the writer as a result of the 1939 
work and to gather additional specimens. These also were included in the study 
and the following paper is a result. Prof. Stirton has given some general par- 
ticulars and photographs in the journal, "Pacific Discovery", for March-April, 
1954; the four illustrations on page 5 of that publication relate to the Lake 
Menindee site. 

The identification of mammalian remains has been carried out by Mr. R. H. 
Tedford, w T ho has kindly furnished a separate report on the mammal bones of 
Layer B. 

Tindale — Abchaeological Site in New South Wales 271 

Save SOme isolated human teeth gathered by Prut*, Stirton from the surface 
of area B the human remains appear all to haw been burials of bodies placed in 
holes in the ground in the flexed position. Thus they are transgressors in the 
beds to whicl they were introduced. Tliei • posit ions furnish only limited 6YV- 
dence for their relationship with the other remains 

The implements and the fragmentary animal bones, being alike the waste 
products of camp life may tend to furnish somewhat more readily interpreted 
evidence as to the history of the site, and the animal bones, where they have been 
fragmented and burned in fire or fashioned into implements before they were 
buried will probably prove of the utmost, significance as linking the aborigines 
with the mammal fauna, which they, by their continued living and hunting, 
doubtless helped to render extinct. 

The main purpose therefore of this paper is to place on record the eireum- of the finding of the series of aboriginal remains and to discuss, to pre- 
liminary fashion, some of the cultural remains found in association with the 
scries of animal bones. Other papers may deal in more detail with the mnm- 
malian and the human remains. A summary list of the principal human remains 
is given as Supplement A. 


Lake Menindee is one of a series of flood basins and lake plains on the 
: of the Darling River, whieh here flows southward as an entrenched 
meandering stream within a broad and mature valley many miles wide (Fig. 1). 
Its bed is largely cut into its own more ancient lacustrine deposits. 

In 19313 Lake Menindee was, and within living memory, had been a dry 
plain, some miles across, with a rim of earthy sand dunes along an old lake shore. 
This shore was marked by a line of E vrnl,, plus trees, principally river red-gum 
and box -trees. 

However, in IS50 it became filled with water during the unprecedented 
rains of that year and in 1953 it still remained a full sheet of water in the 
shallow margins of whieh were growing many lignum bushes. 

The principal fossil site is situated near the northern extremity of the Lake, 
just to the west of the old surveyed main road whieh runs from Broken Hill to 
Menindee. The place is near the point where the road descended from the higher 
plain to the floor of Lake Menindee plain. The site is about 12 miles north-west 
from the river township of Menindee. 

Shore features of this old lake include sand dunes, some red and earthy, 
others of coarser and sharper sand forming a wall up to titty feet or more in 
height and of a width varying from a few hundred yards to half a mile. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

In 1939 the shore contours of the lake were rounded, and did not obtrude 
themselves, being masked by a canopy of blown sand. The advent of the water 
in 19,50 re-established the freshness of the shoreline features and at the height 
of the flood nicked into and accentuated the steep sand-cliff which now fronts 
the area under examination. By 1953 the water was slowly subsiding, leaving 
the successive traces of its decline as "tide marks " along the lake shore. 

200 metres 

Fig. 2. Area I and part of Area II at Lake Menindee, as plotted in 193d, 

During the 1939 visit to the site a survey had been made of the portions of 
the site that had become known to us as Area I and Area II (part only). A 
measured base line of 100 metres was used, together with some elementary sur- 
veying aids. A metric tape was available for linear measures but the heights 
were read in feet. The main features of this rough plan are reproduced as 
Fig. 2. The spot height of each of the major finds in the beds of Area 1 was 
noted, but as these do not furnish any particular information for this report 
they are not further referred to. 

Contour heights were determined to a general accuracy of 0-5 foot using 
the highest point of the measured cross-section of the beds as an arbitrary 100- 
feet datum. On the basis of this datum point the "dry" lake floor near the 

Ttn^ale — Archaeological Site ik New South Wales 


shore lay at forty feet or thereabouts, rising ten feet to a beach, and f urtlier as a 
shore cliff, some forty feet in height, to the summit of the measured section. 

The shore cliff, after it became nicked at its base in 1950, was a steep very 
slightly indurated sand cliff, in places awkward to climb. The section, Fig. 3, 
shows the levels of the beds as worked out on the arbitrary scale of heights. In 
reproducing the plan, contours have been shown only at intervals of 10 feet 
although the original plotting was, in critical areas, recorded in more detail. 

By 1953 shifting layers of superficial sand and further erosion had so far 
altered the appearance of the area that R. H. Tedford made new plans of Areas 
I and II on a somewhat less detailed scale and continued the mapping into 
Areas TIT and TV. The general and detailed appearance of these areas is shown 
in Fig. 4 which was reduced from a copy of his work plan, 


Lowest and eariiest bed exposed at this site is the one depicted as Layer B 
in the accompanying plans and section. The greatest thickness of it seen was 
about four feet (1-2 metres). The bed was not depthed during the course of 
this study. It is a biiff-coloured sand containing calcareous pipes and concre- 
tions which on weathering produce a gravel of spheroidal calcareous nodules up 


Fig. 3. Diagrammatic and detailed sections of the beds in Area I at Lake Menindee. 

274 Records of the S.A. Museum 

to 2 cm. in diameter, which everywhere characterizes Layer B exposures. The 
upper part of Bed B contains a slightly harder band which Oil weathering temU 
to stand up in miniature tableland I'oi -mations. a fool or two above the rest of 
the bed and balding relatively sharp cliff edges. A minor erosional interval 
thus appears to have occurred between the laying down of Layer B and the 
appearance of a bright red silty sand bed (Layer A) lying above it. Proof of 
this appears to be that in more than one area the miniature erosioual cliff fea- 
ture of Layer B surface continues under bed A. In general the diseonformity 
shown may be a minor one with only a moderate degree of erosion between 
Layers B and A. 

Layer' A as made known by erosioual exposures varies from 2 to 4 feet (0-fi- 
1*2,1*1.) in thickness. Its uppermost few ceritinietre.N tend to be grey and 

itly indurated. It weathers differently from the slightly softer lowest, tevfela 
Of A. 

In the preliminary field survey attempts were made to differentiate between 
an upper and a lower A layer horizon, but this yielded little additional informa- 
fion owing to the possibly subjective judgments necessary to prepare a good plot. 
On erosion Layer A does not shed any concretionary gravel residue. 

The most recent bed is Layer 0, lying unconformably on Layer A, and con- 
sisting of a wind-blown light red sand, coarse-grained in some areas, perhaps 
as a result of wind-sorting, partly held in control by dune vegetation, but 
merging into a drifting superficial zone denoted in the diagrams of this report 
by "flying bird" marks. The uppermost levels of this sand, where not fixed by 
vegetation, move about so relatively rapidly, under present-day conditions, that 
the amount of underlying beds exposed to view is subjeet to continual change. 
The different appearance thus created may be realized by trying to match the 
[dan of Area I, as drawn in June 19S9 (Fig. 2) with that done again, in some- 
what less detail, by R. H. Tedford in April, 1958 (Fig. 4). 

No significant differences have been detected in the beds as they reveal 
themselves successively in the four main areas of exposure. For the purposes 
of this report they are treated together although each of the specimens collected 
is so marked that its source can be reviewed, on an individual area basis, when 
this is deemed desirable. 

In the gathering of the fossil and archaeological material a few general 
principles were borne in mind. On the one hand uneroded witnesses, or un- 
eroded bloeks of late beds, from their surfaces tend to yield only relies of late 
culture. The greater the degree of erosion and the larger the number of beds 
involved the greater the mixing with earlier culture strata. 



o so 100 metres 

hearths • burials * 


Fig. 4. Areas I-IV at Lake Menindee, as mapped by R. H. Tedford in 1953. (Positions 
of some hearths and burials added in Area III.) 

276 Records of the S.A. Museum 

On this criterion it was determined that mie.rolith implement suites occurred 
as uintiiv,.(i assemblages along* with billing stones in and on the beds and, 

where dropped pu to A, they become mixed with pirri points, which Joined 

them during the disintegration of bed -V The pfayi impletm-uts themselves 

l€ more eoinmon as the base of A was exposed, while large semidisc< 
high -backed flake implements only became common on the top surface of B and 
in the erosion of B itself, where B few "horsehoof" implements also joined them. 

The general impression gained thus was that the worked flake implement* 
.me larger and coarser as the beds became, mure eroded. This could not I 
been due primarily to any form of differentia! wind-sorting for many of the 
iest Stones of all, the millstones, occurred on the uppermost deposits. 

The distribution and succession of implements thttS inferred led to the oon- 
elusion that, since Lal;e iYlemndee is not permanently supplied with uaj, 

ilt of its periodical Riling was a snecession of camps made on the site, each 
itering a slightly different period of native culture. Since the margin of 
the Lake extends for many miles there may have been relatively long intervals 
between some successive camping episodes at a given place. The mammalian 
and shell remains found seem to bo the food remains of these camps. They are 
scattered among the implements and on occasion are found broken and burned 
as if they have been subjected to the heat of cooking fires before being incorp- 
orated in the layers in which they had become imbedded. (Plate 1 h and i). 

The intermittent character of the occupational deposits at the site seemed 
to be manifest in another way, The areas of distribution of individual camp 
sites tended to be less than the total area of the outcrop of the exposed beds, 

Gamp sites in Beds and A were not always directly above areas containing B 
horizon camps, so that partial separations of the implement-bearing strata were 
observed and the contents of the several strata could in part be isolated on such 
evidence. Thus it happened that m Only a few places were crescent-shaped 
ilith implements of Layer dropped 08 to the areas of B under study. In 
general the B camps were further away from the lake shore than sites favoured 
by later visitors to the site. This was possibly due to the growth lakeward of 
the dunes in course of time. In other places, e.g. in part of Area II, \\ itself 
was overlain by a sterile or relatively sterile bed A and from this area in par- 
ticular only one pirri point and no crescents were recovered. The inference is 
that here the implements of an earlier period are present as a relatively M |miv M 
, lation. Details snch a.s this tended to support conclusions to be draw T n from 
a more directly statistical treatment of the implements. 

Tindale — Archaeological Site in New South Wales 277 


The stone implements, ehippttlgB, mills and hearthstones found at Menindee 
Lake site are all humanly transported ones since there are no immediately avail- 
able deposits of rock from which they might have been derived by natnrnl means. 
Henee the few critical examples found in 8itH in the several beds seem sufficient 
to establish the existence of man in the area during the periods of formation of 
all three beds, 0, A and B. 

The data from buried specimens is hard to come by unless they are just 
bHL'hminir to be exposed, and excavations, unless on a very large scale are not 
likely to be very productive owing to the low degree of concentration of speci- 
mens. As illustrating this the approximately 360 specimens including j-.m, 
points, studied in this paper were retrieved from a surface area estimated as 
some 286,000 square metres of eroding surface; in round figures this is no more 
than one implement on each 800 square metres of exposed surface within the 
area of study On such a basis the chances are unlikely of establishing imple- 
ment successions by any small excavation. 

The best evidence is that furnished by the limited number ol specimens still 
remaining in situ in the deposits, with their substance in part revealed at the 
surface. A few such specimens were found and marked as in A, in B, etc. The 
great majority of "floating" specimens could only be recorded according j the 
nature of the surface on which they were recovered, as "on A/ 1 "on uneroded 
B," "on eroded B M , "on O", etc, 

On the assumption that the primary disturbing factor in this remote spot 
was the erosional one, which occurred only after the country was overstocked 
with our animals in the past half century or more, it is possible to study the 
distribution of the implements found on the various surfaces and to make some 
tentative deductions from their occurrence. 

The areas of exposed surface of the beds where implements occurred were 
in square metres, approximately as follows : 

i ii in IV 

O — — est. 10,000 

A 20,000 8,500 18,500 30,000 

B 65,000 68,500 33,000 37,500 

This is a grand total of 2Hli/J00 square metres. The implements were not gen- 
erally distributed on O, somewhat more widely present on A and still more 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

generally distributed in areas of B. The yields can be divided on a percentage- 
basis as follows: 




total camp areas 



On layer 


4 (based on the one 
camp in area IV) 

On layer A 



On layer B 



These figures are not very satisfactory since large sterile areas of are ignored 
in making the calculations. Only in Area IV was there a large camp site on 
Layer 0. 

The readily recognizable implements recovered fall into seventeen rather 
loosely defined categories which may serve the purpose of this analysis. Some 
typical examples are figured in this paper. They are ones which occurred in 
and on the several beds in the following proportions ■ 

Implement types 

Approximate percentages 

On and in On and in On and in 

Bed Bed A Bed B 





Microlith crescents 




Microlith discoidals 


under 1 

Bondi points 



Throwing balls 




Cores (microlith) 


under 1 




Irregular adzes 




Adzes, on random flakes 




Adzes, prepared platform 



Scrapers, eore-like 




Elouera implements 


under 1 

End scrapers 


under 1 

Points, pirn-form 



Kit rta-like implements 



Horsehoof cores 


Large hand choppers 


From this table it may be deduced that the main implement types from the 
three principal studied beds, 0, A and B, are different. Thus, no pirri appear 
above horizon A; they are most common in and on Layer A. When the contents 
of A beds are "dropped" by erosion on to eroded surfaces of bed B and become 

Tindale — Archaeolocical Site in New South Wai es 


mixed with B specimens they become fewer in proportion, because of the addi- 
tion of implements of different types eroded from Layer B. In the same way 
microlh lis predominate in and on eroding surfaces of bed 0; when dropped on 
to and mixed with specimens from Layers A and B they become, percentage- 
wise, far less abundant. The implications of tins table seem to be in line with 
deductions that can be made from the specimens, few in numbers, which were 
found in situ in the several beds. 

The total number of stone implements on which this rough analysis was 
based is 544, <>f whieh Layer contributed 33, Layer A SO, Layer B 231. The 
number of specimens from Layer is meagre, but was from a well-defined 
campsite area in Area TV and the implements tabulated were the result of much 
searching* on surfaces which nowhere had been eroded down to the level of 
Layer A. 

Fig. 5. Mieroliths from Area IV. a. triangle, b. crescent, and c. diseoidal ad; 
Layer O; d. crescent on B; e. bovdi point on B; f. short ho7idi point, made from quartz c< 
on uu eroded B (natural 


A few of the implements whieh appear to be characteristic of Layer at 
Lake Menindee are shown in Fig. 5. They comprise crescentic and triangular 
mieroliths, some diseoidal mieroliths and h&ndi points. Some are fashioned from 
a white, now slightly chalky, chert and others in fine grey quartzite, a greyish- 
white quartzite, and a greyish chert containing sandy nodules One Iwinli point 
(Fig. of) is very delicately worked in clear quartz crystal. 

Along with these implements appear to belong adze stones made on casual 
flakes, such as shown in Fig. 6b. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

At least a few of the "throwing sfone* ,? belong with this suite; an example 
is the one found on Layer O in Area IV and figured as Fig. 6a. It is made from 
a dull milky-white quartz. Other subspherical throwing stones were found 
lying on beds A and B, so that it cannot be established that suek spherical 

Fig. 6. Implements from Area IV. a. throwing stone Of milky quartz.) on Layer O; 
b. adze stone made from random flake, on Layer O (slightly under natural size). 

trimmed stones are particularly an implement of upper horizons. However, 
f hey arc known to have remained in use until modern times and an example of 
the implement as used by a living aboriginal of the Flinders Ranges, only some 
200 miles to the west, is preserved in the South Australian Museum. Others 
occur in Kangaroo Island where they are associated with an industry (the 
Kartan) believed to be rather old. 

Among known suites of implements those of this bed would best be placed 
with the Mudukian industry of Hale and Tindalc (1930). It may be significant 
that the double-pointed bones, or )nudv.k, characteristic of the industry at the 
type site, are absent. These are now known to be fishing toggles and their ab- 
thia site could be accoimted for by the absence of likely fishing Bites 
on this shallow lake shore. The mierolithir stone implement types recovered 
may be regarded as reliable indicators of the Mudukian industry. 

Tindale — Aeckaeolocical Site \n Ni-av South Wales 


"Fig, 7. Points :in<l aflsw atones From Layers A and b. a. butted Wade, in i 
U butted W&dfr, in Lnvrr A; t- . ptrri fiQfnl oil UfiVefc pArt of A; d. JWfri point on B. til 
t/Uviaj at Area Til; C. «'>nl,-: f ;i|"'i\ DO A; t, MrH «!ip.» ri'ul.-il : 1 1 1 y. i r.lojii' mi Aj & '.liHiMMdal :hU'- 
BtOlIC nan < on nnulom fluke, i'oun 1 QUI I- fit ireq I I (all natural ftko). 

282 Records of the S.A. Museum 


In Fig. 7 are shown some implements which seem typical of Layer A. Pro- 
jectile points of the types known as butted blades, and the developed form called 
pirri occur in and on Layer A but not in the layer above. On erosion of Layer 
A they are shed on to Layer P> surfaces. Fig. 7a is of a specimen found m situ 
in Layer A and two others, Fig. 7b and 7e w T ere on surfaces of A. Fig. 7d 
shows a specimen found on B beside the remains of a flexed burial which ap- 
peared to have been buried from a surface in A. It is not possible to establish 
that p/V/'/like implements do not also occur in Layer B, but on present evidence 
i ems reasonable to suggest that they are the most characteristic type of 
La\er A. 

Coming also from this layer are a few end scrapers of which Fig. 7e is 

There are large numbers of high core-like diseoidal scrarjers of a type shown 
at Fig. 7f. This implement comprises nearly one fourth [22%) of the artefacts 
of characteristic form recovered. The type is not characteristic of Layer 
where the adzes arc all on random flakes and much more squat in form. 

Half the diseoidal and other adze stones recovered on and in Layer A were 
«>ms made from flakes showing a prepared platform. These correspond to tvla 
adzes and in their developed form are nearly equal to the best products of the 
famed Lake Byre factory sites. Pig; 8a and d are excellent examples Found on 
Layer A. 

The balance of the adzes of Layer A ape ones made on random (lakes. Fig. 8b 
being a Rood example. The presence of the random Make adze is not diagnostic 
it is found in all three layers appearing in increasing numbers from Layer 
O down to eroded Layer T3. 

The implement suite which emerges as characteristic of Layer A seems to 
be the Pirrian Industry, as defined by Hale and Tindale (1980). The projectile 
points arc the same, as are also the very occasional rknh mdike examples which 
fi\ These are comparable with FJgl 195 in Hale and Tindale (1930). 

There are some notable differences. At Devon Downs the lew adze stones 
present were so worn by continued use in the manner recently described in detail 
by Cooper (11)51), fchat little more than butts remained. At Lake Menindee, 
with sources of stone probably only a few miles removed, partly used adze stones 
are much more abundant and few show the great reduction which comes with 
long use and continued resha.rpe.ning. 

Tindale — Archaeological SrrE in New South Wales 


Pig. 8. Adze stonea from Layers A and B. a. discoidal adze with prepared platform, 
found oil A ; b. irregular adze made from raudom flake, on A; c. discoidal adze with prepared 
platform, on B; d. large discoidal adze showiDg prepared platform, un A. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 


The only stone implements found in side while excavating: in B, "were two 
flakes. One without secondary trimming was found by R, H. Tedford (his 
No. 38 from Area II). It has a dull white patina and is covered with the concre- 
tion of B. The other (A. 27720) was found during the 1939 visit in B at Area 1. 
This is of a dull white patinated chert similar to several of the implements iden- 
tified as of Tartangan faeies. 


T'ig 9. a. small chopper on Layer 13; b, large, chopper in .situ, in & bed, identified a: 
Layer B, two miles W. of Menhuloe township. 

Tin dale — Archaeological Site in New South Wales 285 

The total assembly of implements picked up on the eroded surfaces of B 
embraces at least some examples of each of the types characteristic of Layers 
and A as well as those which might be contributions from within B, hence the 
assessment of what implements are from Layer B is not easy. Despite the rela- 
tively large numbers of implements retrieved from the surface of Layer B the 
majority of them must be ones dropped from Layers A and above; the imple- 
ments belonging to Layer B are likely to be relatively few hi numbers as com- 
pared with those from Layer A. However, it is not possible to clearly differen- 
tiate them, and it is only the appearance of kinds of implements not gathered 
from later beds which give any reliable indications. 

Large, "horselmof " implements seem to be from this Layer, although one 
very lettered one, which probably had been secondarily used as a source of 
flakes, was found on a B surface at a place where little or no erosion had taken 
place, hence presumably came from above the B horizon. Pig. 9a shows a large. 
chert implement reminiscent of irregularly-shaped karfa implements, and also 
<rf some of the larger implements found in the Tartangan beds by Hale and Tin- 
dale (19:J0). This is presumed to be a type from Layer B. Several like it were 
recovered from Layer B surfaces but none from the higher beds. 

The finding of a rather fine hand chopper (Fig. 9b) at another site, two 
miles west oP Meuindee township, in a bed whieh is identified as probably equiva- 
lent to B (see notes on Other Bites, below) may tend to confirm the conclusion 
that large hand choppers, horsehoof implements, smaller core implements in 
great, numbers and adze stones made on random flakes are all at home in Layer B. 

These types in general are ones characteristic of sites of the Tartangan 
Industry, as first defined by Hale and Tiudale (1930). Horsehoof implements 
themselves were not particularly associated with this industry at the type site 
but elsewhere they are quite characteristic of sites attributable to the Tartangan 
and earlier industries. Subject to confirmation it seems probable that men em- 
ploying implements of the Tartangan Industry lived around Lake. Meuindee in 
the closing phases of the formation of Layer B and that at some time thereafter 
when Layer A begau to be deposited they had been succeeded by people with a 
Pi r Han Industry. 


Twenty bone implements, or pieces of them, were recovered at the site. 
Most of them were adrift on areas of A and B where wind erosion had exposed 
them ; not one was found on Layer 0, 

Two series are evident; first those with stainings aud adhesions whirls :-«,•-,, 
to indicate they were derived from bed A (Plate I e-g and Fig. 10 a-c) and 


Records of the S,A. Museum 


Fig. JO. Bone implements from Layers A and B. a. on B at Area III; b. on B at 
Area IT (R.A.S. No. 4592); c. on B Area II (R.A.S. No. 4589); d. on L* Area IV; e, on B 
Area II (part of K.A.8. No. 4589) j f, on eroded B in Area T: g. in B at Area I (dotted 
portions represent matrix). 


secondly, two examples which are from bed P>. 0n6 Of the latter has adhesions 
of B deposit (Plate I a and Pig. 101) ; Hie other was found still in siht in B at 
a Um& judged to be 2 metres Biratigr&pMtfftHy below the fop of the bed. As 
figured (Plate lb and Rig 10g) it still AffW part of the matrix from which it 
was removed. 

The bone implements considered to be derived from bed A are very charac- 
teristic and even the broken noes, whieh have snapped off, seem to have done so 
in a manner quite similar to ones found in Devon Downs Shelter Layers V1II-X, 
perhaps implying they were put to very similar uses. The two worked bones of 
Layer B are less easy to I lassify. Both are made from split pieces of massive 
bone and seem to have some relationship to ones found at Tartanga by Hale and 
Tindale (1930). Tt will be noted, however, that Fig. lOf bears some resemblanee 
to the compressor-like piece of bone found in Layer IX (Pirrian Industry) at 
D&VOfl Downs Shelter and figured by Hale and Tindale (1030, Pig. 224). The 
example found in situ is the pointed end of a length of massive split bone (0-5 
mi. in thickness) which lias been abraded to a point by rubbing in such a way 
ys to leave two nearly flat oblique faeets nieatftlg at the outer cortex of the bone 
to form a feOint, its general relationship might be with the bone implement, 
from beds figured by Hale and Tindale (1890 Fig- 24), bat it is far 
taoH < -rudely iinished. 


The mammal remains at the site probably are in part the results of the 
bringing together of bodies Of animals as food by the hunters who eamped there. 
Not all are likely to be food remains since there are remains of animals whieh 
could have died there naturally. Others may have been the victims of predatory 
animals such as TftyldciWUS and ftatfwptelil* whose bones have been found at the 

It is of interest to note that one Of the extinct forms, Snrcoplulus, was also 
found in association With Pirrian cultural remains, at Devon Downs Shelter. 

No evidence of the dingo has turned up so far on the Lake Menindee site; 
it may have been an inhabitant or * tMo vamps °f Mudukian or Pirrian times since 
a few limy eoprolites, which could be of the dog were recovered loose on Layer !» 
in 103'.). Identifiable bone material was very scant from beds O and A. If the 
clog really was present perhaps the mammal bones w r ere absent as a result of the 
omnivorous-eating habits of these animals which, on modern aboriginal camp- 
Rites manage to dispose of most bone substance. 

There are traces of fresh-water mussel shells in sitM in hearths m .ill thr, 
the principal beds. These shells seem to have been ones transports! from the 

288 Records of the S,A. Museum 

lake as food. In general they have been subjected to fire, and hence all but a 
few are much disintegrated. Mr. B. 0. Cotton has kindly identified the species 
as Alathyria profutja, Gould, 1851, a form which is still common in the Darling 

Groups of shell fragments of large eggs occurred twice, both sets (A. 27920) 
and (A. 28103) on the surface of Layer B. Mr. Condon has studied these frag- 
ments and comments on them as follows ; 

A28103 consists of eleven irregular-shaped fragments, the largest 
nun., the smallest 21 X 1^ mm. ; all except one have some of the matrix attached. 
The outer surface is smooth and unpitted, and some mineralization has occurred, 
but there is no trace of weathering. Thickness 10 mm. A27920 counts of 
22 pieces, the largest 24 ;< 22 mm. ; the other fragments are mostly smaller than 
those of A28103. The outer surface is smooth with some evidence of pitting. 
Some fragments have a dark stain, but all appear to be slightly less mineral ized 
than A28103. Thickness 1-3 mm. A28043 is a single fragment 22X23 mm, 
and about 1-5 mm. thick. Both surfaces are covered with a limey incrustation 

In attempting to discover whether abrasion and weathering of a fresh egg 
of an Emu would result in a similar surface texture, an average-sized specimen, 
138 X 91 mm. and 1 mm. in thickness, was nibbed with sandpaper until the 
coarse granulations were removed. It was found that the thickness of the shell 
was reduced to only 0-8-0-9 mm., and that the general texture of the shell 
showed little resemblance to the fragments under notice. 

From comparisons made the fragments are shown to have no particular 

tiblance to any egg of a modern species. Curvature and thickness Suggest 
an egg larger than that of the Emu (Dromadus novae-hoUandim) and it is 
possible that some species of fossil ratite (Genyorm's, Dromornis, etc) is 



The sole extinct mammal bone found in situ in Layer A wmich can be de- 
duced as affording positive evidence of large extinct animals contemporary with 
people of Pirrian times is a lower jaw of Proccrptodon with the two rami still 
joined together, found in a fragile state, in silu during the 1939 study. It is of 
course possible, since some erosion of bed B evidently had occurred before the 
deposition of bed A, that this was a disturbed fossil, brought up by accident on 
to Layer A, rather than an animal killed in Pirrian time. However, its presence 
appears significant. During the present author's second brief visit to the area 
part of an articulated leg which probably was that of a large bird, of the style 

Tinpale — Archaeological Site in New South Wales 289 

of Gniyornis, was noted in siiu in A; owing to an oversight this example was not 
collected by Professor Stirton's party. 

The vast majority of the larger mammal hones are ones found on the surface, 
u few r on A, usually where eroded down towards its base, lint the bulk were lying 
on Bed B. TIenee they might appear to h.jve been contemporary principally 
with the relies of the implement industry here tentatively identified as Tar- 

Burued bones were found in Bed B indicating man had subjected animal 
bones to fire. Plate I h shows an excellent example. The figure is of part of the 
rigM side of the rear part of a skull of the size of ProcopUtdon in the region of 
the orbit. This bone, its species not yet identified, was found by R> H. Tedford 
(his No. 62) as a loose specimen, or ' 'float M on Layer B in Area III; it has 
matrix of Layer B still remaining attached, hence its horizon should not be in 
doubt. This matrix is posterior in time to the burning of the bone. 

The presence of the bones and stone implements in apparent association in 
the one area could be fortuitous, and there are undoubted difficulties in tie iftl 
prrtation of alt sites which have been exposed by wind erosion with com-; -, 
slumping of remains from one horizon to another, for despite every eare in 
gathering the material, errors of interpretation undoubtedly can arise. Henri- 
there is every reason to regard as tentative, the eonelusion reached hero, that 
the pre r seuee of so many animal bones together with native implements requires 
the particular explanation that at least some of the bones were brought together 
on surfaces of Layer B as food by early aboriginal hunters. The Layer B hunters 
s<< mindly lel'r relatively few implements but many animal bones. The suc- 
ceeding Pirrian people left abundant traces of occupation in the form of imple- 
ments, but relatively fewer traces of the animals they hunted. 


During the 1939 visit heavy rains interrupted the field work. During inter- 
ludes in the rain several sites nearer to Menindee township, on the Darling 
River, were examined. Beds which seemed to represent the three horizons, 0> A 
and B were identified and Further material collected. The results of these brief 
reconnaissances Were given separate held marks in which Bed AV=0, X=A and 
Y = B, these identifications being based on lithological similarities, which should 
be confirmed by further study. The principal sites were : 

(a) 2 m. W. of Menindee township, 

(b) 14 m. S. of Menindee township, 

1£ m. NVW. of the Lake Menindee railroad cutting, 
(d) l£m. N.-W. of the Lake Menindee railroad cutting. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

The " cutting" referred to is one where the railroad from Broken Hill, after 
skirting the shore of Lake Menindee, turns slightly to the east, and cuts obliquely 
across the lake dunes towards Menindee township. The new (1953) highway, 
whieh avoids the Lake, instead of traversing its floor, crosses the railroad to the 
south side, just beyond the eastern end of this cutting. 

The results of these reconnaissances yielded no data inconsistent with that 
from the main site. A few examples of the material therefore have been drawn 
to attention in the body of tins paper and one specimen has been figured. 

At the site 1$ miles north-west of Lake Menindee Cutting on the windblown 
sand of the equivalent of the top surface of Layer and extending slightly 
over on to a patch of uneroded A surface there is a Post-European campsite, 
possibly associated with the time of construction of the railroad. Here also 
were a few aboriginal hearths with some long blades, fresh wombat and rodent 
bones, fresh-water shells, pieces of red ochre, crude flakes and some remains 
of .lay pipes such as were traded to and much used by aborigines in the period 
ls\p)-1880. There were neither microliths nor pirri implements on this site. 


The presence of several suites of implements on the Lake Menindee site 
which can be matched with ones from elsewhere encourages speculation as to 
their historical smnitieanco. In this the inrlieations furnished by the excavations 
at Devon Downs and Tartanga some 300 miles downstream on the same river 
system are considered pertinent. 

The microliths derived from Layer O are the same as those found in the 
Mudukian levels of Devon Downs Cave. 





Present day 

wind blown surface sands 


i Hexed bundle burial 

\is o 


a** i 

cooking»hearth o\V '*' f 

of 200 ( ~ Jr 

flexed burial 

pirri points 

uppermost ^ Procoploihn 

tMony fossil 


Fig. 11. Diagrammatic summary of relationships of principal finds at Lake Menindee. 

TiNDAi.E — Archaeological Site in New South Wales 291 

The implements found in and on the eroded surfaces of A are cpMparaMe 
with the Pirnau Industry Df DeVOtJ Downs. The suite of implements of I 
A dropped on to the un eroded surface of B may run as high as "2^ pot WO\ { "> 
actual pirn implements, whk'h would be, regarded as a reasonable proportion mi 
quite typical Pirrian sites, The relatively large implements of Layer B wlu< h 
appear where the bed is well exposed, seem to have affinities with those called 
Tartangau on the Murray River, although there are a few examples of karia- 
like implements which might be equated with the limited suites of implements 
Of the Kartan (and allied Fulham Industry). 

A generalized summary of the findings at Lake Menindee is given as Lig. 1 1. 

The time interval involved between Layer B times and the present em 
a! the moment be assessed with any great exactitude. It is hoped that some 
Carbon 14 determinations may soon become available for the corresponding 
sequences at Devon Downs and Tartanga. These may throw some light on the 
age of the Lake Menindee finds. 

The only real -clue so far available for Tartanga itself is based on the fact. 
that the remains in the Tartangan beds became mineralized by immersion in 
Water after they were deposited. This could have taken place during the Post- 

Glacial bigh-sea4evel period, since the Tartanga site would then have been 

' 4 <lrowned'' and would have remained so through the period of high-sea levels. 
Kfom this it has been deduced that Tartangau relics probably- wen/ dejiosited in 
the earlier half of the Recent Period with a terminal date indicated by P 
Ulaeial High Tofracfl time. On this basis the Pirrian culture which appears to 
have suceerded the Tartangau might have followed immediately after this mid- 
Recent episode. If this IS substantiated by further work it may be possible to 
see the extinction of the older Australian mammal fauna as a gradual pro<< >, 
brought about almost as mm-h by the increasing toll of aboriginal hunters as by 
Climatic vagaries in mid-Recent time. If the very tentative time interpretation 
worked out lor Tartangan ia applied to file Lake Menindee Site the continued 
presem -r fit relics of aboriginal occupation in bed A certainly implies that . m, 
ditnatie changes involved during the formation of the bed were sufficiently 
moderate to permit of periodic returns by man to Lake Menindee, each time the 
lake became refilled with water, and the continued present of man in the vicin- 
ity implies water was never very far away. 

Looking further afield the evidence from Lake Menim! m general 

harmony with data suggesting that the Mudukian and Pirrian Industries w T ere 
widespread in parts of Australia, both along the coast and inland and that where 
both bave occurred the Mudukian with its microliths was later in time than the 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

The particular phase of the Mudukian Industry which occurs in coastal 
New South Wales has been separated by McCarthy (1939, etc.) as a separate 
industry (the Bondaian) implying: that, it represented a separate coastal indus- 
try. However, typical Mudukian implements are " coastal' ' on the Coorong' and 
at Penong in South Australia and the particular bondi points on which stress 
has been laid in distinguishing the coastal Bondaian Industry occur well into 
the interior of the continent, for examples at sites near Wiluna, at 62 miles 
north-west of Leonora, and at Smithsonia Waters, in Western Australia whore 
they were found by Dr. J. B. Birdsell last year. These sites are unquestionably 
norma] Mudukian ones. It is possible that the curious hondi points are really 
triangular needle points, used in piercing skins, when sewing them together for 
ii,'!_s and skin cloaks. 

It is likely that in parts of eastern New South Wales as also in part 
South Western Australia and limited areas of Queensland the Mudukian (or 
Bondaian) was still the implement culture of the living aborigines at the time 
of white settlement ; although it was undergoing replacement by the Murimdiau 
culture with axes, blades and crude adze flakes, it was still influenced by Mudu- 

19-5 c m 


Fig. 18'. TTaftert microlithu 1 discoidal adze, as used by the M&ranganji natives of .tteeohall 
Greek, near Cliarleville, Queensland (example collected in 1886; A.31089 in S. Aust. Museum). 

Ttndale — Archaeological Site in New South Wales 29S 

kian survivals. Apropos of this it seems of some Utile interest to note that micro- 
llthie (Escoidal or chisels of the Mudukian culture phage survived, as 

functional iiiij>|piiirrits, in the present-day culture of Western Queensland. There 

is an excellent example in our collection (Fig. 12) showing the mode of bafting 

empJo\ i .1 This adze and toother were collected by Miss Dryer in 1886 from 
members of Mil* Marangajgi tribe at Beachall Creek (on the present. Bierl 
♦Station, 75 miles west south-west of Charleville). The second example, from vln 
same place, lacks the stone but retains the impression of the butt of the mie.rolith 
hi the gum of the haft, Tests have shown that the long, slender handle (18*5 
ceelimetres) provided exeeprional control and balance for the adze, which seem- 
ingly could serve equally well as a chisel and graver in making the shallow 
grooves en implements, dishes and shields characteristic of the area, 

The Pirrian Industry has not yet been found to occur in the coastal areas 
of Eastern Australia. The south-east-most localities as at present est abb 
•in on the Coorong and near "Mt. Gambler in South Australia, and the most, 
easterly in New South Wales is near Goondiwindi on the upper reaches of the 
Darling L'iver. The westward and northern distribution of the Industry is now 
well established, since they have been turned up in Arnhem Land by Macintosh 
(1951) while Father Wurms recently has reported p/mMike implements from 
Dampier Peninsula, north of Broome. .1 have examined some of his specimens, 

True pirri have been found by J. B. Birdsell and myself in the past year 
as occurring archaeologically over large areas in North Western Australia and 
the implements survived as ft functional type of spear point until modem times 
in the Pilbara area of Western Australia, particularly among some people in 
the vicinity of the Hameraley Ranges. There are several hafted examples in 
this and other Museums which will be more fully described and discussed iu a 
Separate paper. l! becomes possible to conceive that the surviving implement 
culture in some parts of Western Australia to-day is Pirrian and that further 
north the projectile point element of the industry evolved into the pressure 
flaked spear point of the Worora, Ungarinjin, Djaru, Fvitja and Wandjira tribe 
people of North Western Australia. We have an archaeological sequence at 
Moola Bulla, North Western Australia, which substantiates this, 

Notably missing from among the implements recovered at Lake Menindee 
are forms of edge-ground stone axe. This lack may have been fortuitous, but a 
relatively large area was searched and the absence IS perhaps significant. It 
seems to be in line with indications at Tartanga and Devon Downs, admittedly 
on the very periphery of distribution of axes, that Mudukian mierolithie sites 
lack edge-ground axes, which appear only in the subsequent Murundian horizon, 
perhaps indicating a late arrival of the edge ground axe in this part of Australia. 

294 Records of the S.A. Museum 

The supposed ''throwing stones' 7 found at Lake Menindee are similar to 

fouiid elsewhere in Southern Australia, both as to dimensions and -weights. 
Li the living culture their function is a known one as indicated by the general 
name, "throwing stone" applied to them. Their distribution, etc., is to bo the 
Subject of a separate paper. A Wailpi tribe term for them is |'mara] which 
elsewhere is a root-word for "hand". Pig. 6a shows a subspherieal example of 
such a iiKira in milky quartz, which weighs 137 grains. This weight is slightly 
less than the mean of those in our GCllection. 

The filling of Lake Menindee occurred in 1950 after phenomenal rains in 
Queensland and Northern New South Wales. Mr. B. Mason, of the Common- 
wealth Meteorological Service has kindly supplied some notes on this unusual 
happening : 

tc The year 1949 was wet in Queensland and New South Wales. Every river 
in both Stat<s was in flood. By the end of the year all the catchment areas of 
the Darling River showed rain records 20 to 30 per cent, above average. Thfc 
j -ear 1950 was even wetter, and by the end of the year all districts had had from 
two to two-and-one-half times their normal rainfall. 

"In 1950 Darling River floods reached Menindee in April and by the end 
of the month the mark was 9 inches above flood level. It continued so for 13 
months. Peak of the flood level, at 9 feet 4 inches was at the end of October, 
1950 The long continuous period of flooding was most unusual. 

" Records show that rainfall conditions similar to those which filled Lake 
mice in 1950, forcing the deviation of the old road across its bed, occurred 

in 1879 and 1890. There is evidently a lip over which the waters spill into the 
only at the highest flood level. There were lesser floods in the Darling in 

IflOS and 1921. The only other indications of unusual rainfall which might 

hai B a bearing, is the legendary account, from the coast of northern New South 

Wales, of very heavy rains at the end of the 18th century. 


The field work of the Harvard and Adelaide Universities Anthropological 
Expedition of 1938-39 was made possible by grants from the South Australian 
Government, the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the University of Adelaide 
and the Board of the South Australian Museum. 

The field work described in this paper was done in company with Dr. J. B. 
Birdsell. Although his name does not appear as co-author much of the spade 
work was shared with him and full acknowledgment is made of his contribution 
to the work. The implications of the finds were discussed with him and the 

Tindale — Archaeological Site in New South Wales 295 

appearance of this paper is in no small measure a tribute to his encouragement. 
Nevertheless, any errors in it are to be attributed to the present author. 

The second visit to Lake Menindee was made possible through Prof. R. A. 
Stirton, who devoted part of a grant-in-aid from the Associates in Tropical Bio- 
graphy. University of California, to the journey. He and Mr. R. H. Tedford 
obtained additional material as well as many mammal bones for study. Mr. R. II. 
Tedford supplied identifications of mammals. 

Mr. B. Mason, of the Commonwealth Meteorological Service, provided data 
on the phenomenal rains which filled Lake Menindee in 1950. Mr. H. Condon 
kindly examined some remains of eggs, and the identification of the fresh water 
shells was made by Mr. B. C. Cotton. Miss M. Boyce and Mr. H. Burrows are 
responsible for some of the drawings illustrating this paper; warm appreciation 
is expressed for their contributions. 


Cooper, H. M. (1054) : Bee. 8. Aust. Mm., Adelaide, xi, pp. 91-97. 

Hale, II. M. and Tindale, N. B. (1930) : Bee. 8. Ausi. Mus., Adelaide, iv, pp. 145- 

McCarthy, F. D. (1939) : Awt, Journ. Sci., Sydney, I, pp. 39-40. 
McCarthy, F. D. (1951) : Oceania, Sydney, xxi, pp. 205-213. 
McCarthy, F. D. (1951) : Journ. Polynesian Soc, Wellington, 63, pp. 243-261. 
Macintosh, N. W. G. (1951 ) : Oceania, Sydney, xxi, pp. 178-204. 
Movius, H. L. (1940) : Brita/nnica B<ook of the Year, 1940. Archaeology — 

Eastern Hemisphere, pp. 50-57. 
Stirton, R. A. (1954) : Pacific Discovery, Berkeley, vii, (2), pp. 3-13. 

296 Records of the S.A. Museum 


a. Possible bone compressor on eroded B in Area I ; with adhering matrix of B. 

b. Bone point found in B on Area I with some matrix still retained on it. 

c-d. Tips of pointed bones, found on B in Area II (B..A.S. No. 4589) ; show adhering par- 
ticles of Layer A. 

e. Tip of implement on B in Area IV. 

f. Two parts of bone implement, on B in Area II (R.A.S. No. 4592) ; shows matrix of 

Layer A. 

g. Complete bone implement on B in Area III. 

h. Burnt bone with incrustation of Layer B found on B in Area IV (R.H.T. No. 62). 
i. Typical jaw fragment showing probable traces of burning j on Layer B in Area III. 

Hit. S. \ \!im i \i 

\o>. XL Flat. WY 

l«)MK im:m.\i\^ ri;u.\i \i i;\ ;i\ih:k 

Tindale — Archaeological Site in New South Wales 297 



The principal human remains found in 1939 are listed below. No attempt 
has been made to study them. 

A. 27712 was a partly mineralized human skeleton found at Area I in a cir- 
cular pit dug through the lower part of A into Layer B, and situated immediately 
to the east of the measured section. The hole contained the soil of Layer A, indi- 
cating burial from a horizon in the upper part of A. The. burial was in a flexed 
position, having been buried in the upright squatting position, pelvis to the 
north-east and knees to the south-west. Only the lower part of the trunk was 
in Sit lb; the bones of the upper half of the body had partly disintegrated and 
were scattered over the adjacent eroded surface of B. 

A. 27759 comprised parts of an incomplete skeleton lying at the junction of 
A and B beds in Area II. 

A.2776^ consisted of bora's of at least two persons lying on the surface oi 
MMivtdy eroded B neat- to a hearth on the uneroded top surface of B. This 
hearth was in xitu and fashioned from many transported stones. (A photograph 
suggests over 200 stones were present ) 

A.27770 was the burial of a child lying on an eroded surface of B at the 
western end of Area 111 (approximately at the position shown with a cross in the 
1953 survey of Area. III). The remains were spread over an area of a diameter of 
3 metres. It is estimated that 0-5ni. of bed B had been eroded from the area. 
The child may have been buried from a horizon in A but there is no evidence to 
contradict an sveii Inter interment from Layer O. 

A.27725 consisted of fragmcntaiy portions of the skeleton of a child found 
in Area I in an eroded area 1-3 metres below the level of the* upper surface of B 
at a point 100 metres W. of the measured sect on. Some of the bones seem to June 
adhesions of the matrix of Layer B. 

A.27734 consisted of scattered human bone fragments found on the surface 
of B in Area I, 155 metres W. of the measured section. The bones were mixed 
with various mammal bones scattered over an area of 3 metres diameter. The 
mammal bones showed more concretionary adhesions and appeared older than the 
human remains. 

A.27752 was a burial the bones of which were scattered widely in Area II on 
top surface of barely eroded bed B, being evidently derived from A or above. 

A.27752 was a burial near the eastern end of Area II, the bones of which had 
become scattered on the top surface of slightly eroded B. Seemingly it had been 

298 Records of the S.A. MUSEUM 

derived from A or above. A hearth in the uppermost B horizon at this point 
suggested occupation at an earlier period when Layer B was being- formed. 

A. 27755 comprised parts Of an adult cranial vault tying on bed B which had 
eroded to approximately Q*3 metres below the red A bed which was here 0*6 
metre thick Evidently the bones had weathered out from the level of top 15, but 
must have been buried Eroia a horizon either in A or above. 

A. 27757 a "floating*" 1 fragment of a right parietal on B in the ecntre of the 
blown out Area II was lying anions some mammal bones (A. 27758). 

A. 27774 was a burial in the central part of eastern end of Area II. Remains 
of it were spread on uu eroded B. 

Two burials still in situ were obtained by Stirton, Tedford and the writer 
during the 19513 visit. They were both in Area IV. The first was the bundle 
burial of a flexed individual (field No. 41), which was buried from a high lev 
Layer O into its base; a eireular hole had been dug. a small amount of burned 
material or highly carbonized vegetable debris was in the bottom of the bole. 
The parcelled body had had an arm broken and passed through the pelvic, girdle, 
before burial ; there was the remains of a piece of wood over the region of the 
head. On the wind eroded surface of Layer 0, beside this skeleton, was a white 
(liscoidal mierolith. Others were found on the surface of Layer in the vieinity ; 
all being exposed by the blowing away of portions of Layer 0. Where this Layer 
had been much eroded, they increased in numbers. This burial is figured at the 
top of page 5 in the account by Stirton (1954). 

The second burial (field No. 42) was situated 8 metres S.W. of the first. The 
skeleton lay on its left side, knees folded at right angles to body with head 
pointing N.N.W. This burial was in a deposit of a coarser red sandy natiu'e 
than the first and had been buried from a. surface in a red cartky layer. It was 
demonstrated by Tedford, after the present writer had returned to Adelaide, that 
this red earth was Layer A, hence the Strong probability exists that this burial is 
to be associated with the period of an upper level of bed A. 

The grave earth was slightly indurated j the original burial pit was circular, 
1-0 X 1*1 metres in diameter. The bones were much decayed but portions 
including the calvarium and the right humerus were salvaged. This find is 
figured on the lower part of page 5 of the account by Stirton (1954). 



by Richard K Tedford, Museum of Paleontology, University of California, 

Berkeley, California 


In 1939, while engaged in the work of the Harvard- Adelaide Universities Anthropological 
Expedition, Dr. J. B. Birdsell, then of the Peabody Museum of Harvard University, and Mr. N. B. 
Tindale, representing University of Adelaide, discovered human remains and associated extinct 
marsupials at Lake Menindee along the Darling River in Western New South Wales. The discovery 
as made in connection with other studies in the area and only a few days were available for an 
investigation of the site. At that time, however, these workers were able to map and make a small 
collection of fossil remains and a larger one of artifacts from two of the exposures as well as 
explore the extent of the fossiliferous deposits on the northern shore of the then dry Lake Menindee. 
A notice of this discovery was made by H. L. Movius in 1940. World War II interrupted further 
investigation planned at that time. 


By RICHARD H. TKDrOKD (Mu$eut$ <rf Mwntotogy, tinfcffth? *i Ckliffcrftld, 

Li i . r k e 1 e y, Ca 1 i f ornia ) . 

In 1939, while engaged in the work of the Harvard-Adelaide Universities Anthro- 
pological Expedition, Dr. J. B. Birdsell, then of the Pefibofiy Museum of Harvard 
I Tui versity, and Mr. N. B. Tindale, representing: the University of Adelaide, dis- 
covored human reim-iins nud associated extinct marsupials at Lake Menindee 
along the Darling River in Western New South Wales. The discovery was made 
in connection with other studios in the area and only a few days were available 
for an investigation of the site. At that lime, however, these workers were able 
to map and make a small collection of fossil remains and a larger one of artifacts 
from two of the exposures as well as explore the extent of the f ossiferous 
deposits on the northern sliore of the then dry Lake Menindee. A notice of this 
discovery was made by II. L. Movius in llidO. World War II interrupted further 
investigation planned at that time. 

While in Australia in 1953 on Fulbright Awards, Prof. B. A. Stintou an€ 
the writer, representing the Museum 6f Paleontology of the l.'niversih of Cali- 
fornia, and N. B. Tindale, representing- the South Australian Museum, reopened 
investigation of the Lake Menindee area. The work was partially financed by 
i he Associates in Trnph :«>l BiogCOgraphy, by the Museum of Paleontology, both 
of the University of California; by donation from a friend of the University; 
and by the South Australian Museum. 

Tn late March of l'JOo, ProL Xtirton and the writer spent nearly a mouth 
in the field Concentrating on the discovery site and associated areas on the north 
western shore of Lake Menindee. Tindale directed the party to the locality 
remained for the first w< >: to collect additional artifacts and review the strati- 
graphy of the sites in\ estimated. Our party was fortunate in recovering a large 
collection of mammalian remains which are now being studied in the Museum 
of Paleontology at the University of ( Jalil 'arnia Additional human remains ami 
artifacts were also obtained, which are housed in the collections of the South 
Australian Museum. The circumstances of the finding of the site and an account, 
of I he arehaeoloiry has been published by Tindale f 1954). Detailed descriptions 
of fossil remains and other studies will be presented in the future by Tindale and 
I he writer. In view of the unusual interest of this occurrence to students of 
human prehistory it was felt that the preliminary results of field work on the 

300 Records of the S.A. Museum 

mammal remains done in 1953 should be reported at this time despite the incom- 
pleteness of the studies. 

The generous assistance and encouragement provided by Mr. TT. M. Hale, 
Director of the South Australian Museum; Mr. N. B. Tindale, of the same 
institution; 0ll4 Pwtf. E. A. EStirtQH, CliMirman of the Department of Paleon- 
tology of the University of California, is gratefully acknowledged. 


The sites are four wind deflation hollows or u blowouts" in the sand hills ,'il along the north -western shore of Lake Menindee, New South Wales, 
immediately west of the point at which the former main road from Broken Hill 
to Menindee entered the lake bottom. This road had been replaced by a new 
main road, the old one being unavailable, as tilling of the lake in 1950 after phe- 
nomenal rains had left standing water over a considerable portion of the usually 
dry lake bottom. 


Deflation by the wind has penetrated deep enough into the sand hills to 
expose a series of superimposed aeolian deposits separated by erosioual uncon- 
formities. The following generalized section presents the stratigraphie BUCCes* 

S3 ls exposed In all four of the blow-outs. 

Unit Lithology Thickness 

1. (O of Tindale Light red dune sand, active, but partially 0-10 ft. 

paper) "frozen'' by locally thick growths of Cane 

Grass [8pinife$ paradoxus)* 

Erosioual Unconformity 

2, ( A ( upper) ) Locally exposed unit of gray silty sand. 0-0 • 75 ft. 

:i. I A (lower) ) Bright brick-red cross-bedded silty sand. 0-3 ft. 

4. (B) Reddish to buff cross-bedded sand containing 6 + ft. 

small calcareous spheroidal to pipey sand- 
stone concretions, and sandstone casts of 
roots. Base of exposed section. 


Fossil remains and artifacts were collected from all of the units of the above 
section except the thin and locally exposed unit two. In making these collections 
the atratigraphic position of each specimen was recorded. Care was taken to 
also record the disposition of each specimen as it was desirable to know whrtlnu* 
materials were found in place or as float on the present erosioual surface of a 

Tedfohd — Extinct" Mammalian Remains in N.S. Wales 301 

given unit, It is hoped that this data will allow us to assign specimens found 
scattered on the present erosional surface of the blow-outs to their proper strati- 
graphic position. This problem is a major one at the Lake Menindee Kites as 
wind removal of the upper units has lowered fossil remains ami artifacts i'rom 
the upper units on to lower units. It would thus seezti possible that any speci- 
men not found in situ raiidit have one of the following origins in terms of the 
local sequence : 

| ';! .) Contemporaneous with deposition of the unit on which it is found. 

(b) Contemporaneous with the time represented by the erosional hiatus 
separating; the unit on wlinh it is found from the overlying unit. 

(c) Contemporaneous with any of the overlying deposits or the erosional 
hiatuses which separate them, including that, of the Recent. 

Fortunately the mammalian material, the bulk of which was collected from 
or oji the present erosional surface of unit four (B), shows clear evidence of 
h^ing derived from that unit. Mammalian remains were rarely met with in the 
overlying units, a fact which lessens the possibility of contamination by material 
of origin in the overlying deposits or hiatuses. On the other hand, material on 
the erosion surface of unit four (B) before unit, three (lower A) was deposited 
may be represented in our collection as float from unit four. 

in contrast with the mammalian material, relatively few artifacts were 
found in place and as such they present considerable difficulty of interpretation. 
The bulk of these materials was found scattered over the present erosional sur- 
faces of all the lithologie units except unit two. Intrusive human burials Wetfe 

entered but owing to the characteristic litholugy of the exposed deposits 
they were easily detected. 

Collections from each of the four areas investigated have been retained sepa- 
rately although it is clear that the lithologie units can be correlated from one site 
to thti next. The following discussion, a summary of the material taken from 
each of the lithologie units, assumes such a correlation is justifiable. 

TJnitI. (0) 

A bundle-type human burial was collected in situ from this unit. Another 
burial of undetermined type was found intrusive into unit four from unit one. 
A few artifacts and bones of recent mammals were found on the present erosion 
surface of this unit. 

Unit 3. (A) 

Two flexed human burials were found with this unit. One was confined to 
this unit while the other was intrusive into unit four from unit three. These 

302 Records of the S.A. Museum 

burials may be contemporaneous with unit three, or may have been made from 
the surface of that unit during the time represented by the erosional hiatus 
separating unit three from units one or two. Two partial skeletons of the rat 
kangaroo {Boiiongm) wen 1 found m place in this unit. Scattered artifacts were 
found on the present erosion surface of this unit. 

Unit 4. (B) 

This unit yielded the bulk of the mammalian remains collected at the Lake 
Menindee sites. Some of these were materials collected on the surface of the 
unit and may belong to the time interval represented by the erosional unconfor- 
mity between units four and three as mentioned above. In the main, how< 
the bull* of the material was takes in situ during the aetive phases of our work. 
Many of the bones found in place were ejected and cracked as if exposed to 
weathering for a considerable time before burial. Frequently materials in place 
consisted of whole or partial skeletons, usually more or less articulated. These 
specimens were usually well preserved, suggesting rapid burial. Complete articu- 
lated skeletons of the smaller maeropodids (Bettonyiu and Layorch est <■.•{) - % and of 
the monotreim' {lotckygi were found in place. Specimens of the l,i 

aroos were usually scattered, but Interestingly enough, nearly complete 
art ici dated feet were not uncommon. In one. case parts of the broken skeleton of 
a giant short-faced kangaroo (Proc.optodon) were found closely associated. The 
mandible of this individual was still attached to the cranium, but most of the 

n'.-ise was missing. Xearby the caudal Vertebra*?, sacraDfl and pelvis were 
found articulated. Articulated portions of both fore and hind limbs. hroken iso- 
lated limb bones, and many small bone fragments were scattered within a radius 
of about a yard of the cranial and caudal portions of the skeleton. In several 
instances large marsupial bones showed clear evidence of having been burned. 
Small bits of charcoal were also commonly associated with mammalian remains 
in situ in unit four. 

The evidence seems highly suggestive that the fossil mammal rem;i 
leeted in place from unit four represent, to a considerable extent, man's selection 
of the game animals of the Lake Menindec. atea during the time unit four was 
being deposited. Thus at least part of the accumulation of animal remains in 
this unit might be regarded as a kitchen midden built up over a period i»f seasons 
when movements or' game animals brought the nomadic hunters continually back 
into the area. 

Tedford — Extinct Mammalian Remains in N.S. Wales 



The mammalian remains collected in situ from unit four have been identi- 
fied to generic level and are listed below, This group of mammals, termed the 
Lake Menindee assemblage, includes a somewhat selective sampling of the mam- 
malian fauna living in the lower Darling River region during the time unit four 
was being deposited. Due to the fact that materials collected from the surface 
of unit four may actually belong to any one of the overlying units or erosional 
hiatuses I have included in the following faunal list only those genera that were 
found in situ. 












*( T) Zaglossus 

Dasyurus s.l. 

( 1) Myrmecobius 


(?) Perameles 



* Phase olomis 






Macropus s. 1. 




Murinae various living genera 

Hydromyinae Hydromys 

* Indicates the genua is extinct to-day on the Australian mainland. 

K the faunal list given above is compared with the list of genera of Recent 
mammals from the same region and allowance made for the incompleteness of the 
fossil representation, the Recent fauna appears as merely an impoverished rem- 
nant of the fossil assemblage. Extinction or change of range could account for 

304 Records of the S.A. Museum 

the differences. Among tlio geflerjB -Mil extant cccordefl in the fossil a^emblage 
only the hairy-nosed tfqiubat {LwiwMflUs) appears not to have lived in the 
immediate region in recent times. It occurs ta-day in the general geographic 

proximity of Lake Meuindoe. alone the liivrev Murray River, and probably en- 
joyed a much larger range in former limes. If one exelndes t » i e mammals 

known to have been Introduced during European eolofiiscatioii, the dingo stands 

alone in being the only meml... i native Recent ('anna known to have en- 
red the area since unit torn tvas deposited. Bad tin ft gs bean preseM it is 
difficult to see why ai ftstst sonic •"•■ ol tfo " 1 "' was not preserved 

in deposits in which even man was represented. The absence of tl" j dingo from 

the Lake Menindee aS&embkge is thus regarded us reel until further collections 
demonstrate evidence to the Contrary, 

The change in the animal life of the re-ion. as demonstrated hy the com- 
parison of the Lake fcfeliHidfifi assemblage and the present-day mammalian fauna 
from the same region, eonld be a result of the Supposedly vigorous elimatic 
changes that marked the end of the Pleistocene and the hecrinning of the .Recent 
in Australia (for summaries of Pleistocene and Post-Pleistocene, physical history 
see David and Lrowne (1950] and Fafc&fidge ( 1 &53 ).). GfiOlogicfi] and associated 
studies in Australia have revealed that this climatic change involved an overall 
trend towards aridity broken only by minor reversals sin«e the end of the Plei- 
stocene. One ^\' the results of this transition from the cool-moist conditions 
affect in-; a large part of Australia during the Last Glaciation to the warmMry 
conditions of the Recent probably involved a great restriction in the large areas 
of suitable herbage necessary to support tie- diversity of late Pleistocene L. 
bivores. Such a climatic change could have been the greatest single cause o& the 
extinction of these I'm -ins. As wo have seen fmm the evidence at Lake Menindee, 
man was a witness to this extinction. He might ha\ e accelerated the process of 
extinction in the case rf some forms, bill il seems unlikely that lie played the 

major role. 

Considering the almee evidence, an early Recent age or at earliesl late 

pleistocene for the Lake Meninclee assemblage seems 'he most reasonable infer- 
ence. The Study of the artifacts from the Lake Menindee sites offers evidence 
tot dose correlations with established sc-iious mi the Lower Murray River at 
Devon Downs and Tartanga (Hale and Tindale, 1930). The su^estion exists 
therefore, that the numnimlian assemblage can he correlated with a known cul- 
tural sequence. Suitable carbonaceous materials on which to conduct absolute 

Tedford — Extinct Mammalian Remains in N.S. Wales 305 

age determinations by the carbon 14 method may be present but have not been 
obtained as yet on the site. If sufficienl fresh water shell material ean be recov- 
ered on further work it may be possible to obtain a dating. 


The evidence gained from a preliminary study of the material collected from 
unit four (Layer B) at. Lake Menindee suggests tin; following conclusions ; 

1 . Man was a contemporary of extinct marsupials in Australia. 

2. Man hunted these animals as a source of food. 

3. Tic accumulation of animal remains in this unit probably represents a kit- 
chen midden built up over a period of seasons when movements of game 
animals brought the nomadic huntei^s continually back into the area. 

4. The dingo probably was not present in western New South Wales at the time 
unit four (B) was being deposited. 

5. The Lake Menindee assemblage lived at a time when a more equable climate 
prevailed over this part of Australia, either at the close of the Pleistocene or 
at the beginning of the Recent 


David, Sir T. E., and Browne, W. E. (1950) : The Geology of the Commonwealth 

of Australia, London, pp. 
Fairbridge, K. W. (1953): Australian Stratigraphy, 2nd Ed., Perth, Ch. XI, 

pp. 1-100. 
Hale, H. M. and Tindale, N. B. > 11)30). Notes on some Human Remains in the 

lower Murray Valley, South Australia, Be&, 8. Aits/. Mas., Adelaide 4 

pp. 145-218. 

Movius, H. L. (1940) : Archaeology — Eastern Hemisphere, lh'itannka Book of 

the Year, 11)40, pp. 56-57. 
Tindale, N. B. (1955) : Av hai oloprica] site at Lake Menindee, New South Walei 

Ree. S. Aust. Mus. t Adelaide, 11. pp. 269-298. 




Vol. XI, No. 4 

Published by The Museum Board, and edited by the Museum Director 

Adelaide, May 31, 1955 



Registered in Australia for transmission by post as a periodical. 



byNormanB. Tindale, B.Sc, South Australian Museum 


Part V of this Revision was published in these Records, in vol. Vii, 1942, pp. 151-168. The long 
delay in the appearance of this part was forced by six years of interruption during World War II 
followed by pressure of other work. Parts VII and VIII are now in preparation. 
Since 1942 three other short papers, not in the series, but dealing with Hepialidae, have been 
published by the present author, namely, in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., London, ser. 12, vii, 1954, pp. 13- 
15 and plate; Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., Adelaide, 76, 1953, pp. 73-79 and plate; Proc. Ent. Soc. 
Washington, 47, 1945, pp. 183-184. One earlier paper, in the South Australian Naturalist, Adelaide, 
20, 1938, pp. 1-6 and plate, dealing with the life-histories of some Australian Hepialids, has not 
been mentioned among previous bibliographic references. 


(LKPIDOPTERA HOMONEURA, Family hepialidae) 


By NORMAN B. TINDALE, B.Sc, South Australian Museum 

Plate xxvi-xxxii and text tig. 1-25 


Part V of this Revision was published in these Records, in vol. vii, 1942, pp. 
151-168. The [dug delay in the appearance of this part was forced by six years 
of interruption during World War IT followed by pressure of other work. 
Parts VI [ and VIII arc now in preparation. 

Since 1942 three other short papers, not in the series, but dealing with 
llepialidae, have been published by the present author, namely, in Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist., London, scr. 12, vii, 1954, pp. 13-15 and plate; Trans. Roy. Soc. 
S. Aust., Adelaide, 76, 1953, pp. 77-79 and plate; Proe. Ent. Soc. Washington, 
47, 1945, pp. 183-184. One earlier paper, in the South Australian Naturalist, 
Adelaide, 20, L938, pp. 1-6 and plate, dealing with the life-histories of some 
Australian Ilepialids, has not been mentioned among previous bibliographic 

A supposed ancestral 11 onion eurous insect fossil was described by the author 
in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, 56, 1945, j)p. 37-46, as 
Eoses triassiett, from the fossil insect beds of Triassic Age at Mt. Crosby, 

As already mentioned hy name in previous parts of this Revision, thanks 
are due to many who have assisted in Ihc studies by loan of material, etc. As 
the material is worked type specimens are being returned, requests being made 
for paratype material for the South Australian Museum collection when these 
are available. 

Genus Oxycajvus 

Australian members of this genus were discussed in Part III of the Revision; 
in the present account the New Guinea species are described and some additions 
and corrections are made to the earlier paper. 

Previously eight valid species of Oxycanus had been recorded from New 
Guinea. An additional 15 are described and figured herein. 

808 Records of the S.A. Museum 

As in fchfl rase of the Australian ones, the study of the apfiCICS of Orif^un/s 
i mm New (Juinea has presented no little difficulty because of the greal Y«£3 
ability Of the wine marking, which in amy gfiveH species may tend to ran the 
gamut from an almost unmarked li^hl -coloured phase, through light and dark 

■ ate, ami silver-spotted forms to several distinctly melanic ones. In the study 
and c.iiiivi nation of tlie relationships of the Australian species Lang scries of 
specimens, including inter«;rades between the forms, usually were available. l T hc 
New (iuinea species are in general relatively scantily represented in collection-., 
hence in ranking some estimates of specific distinctness, experience gained in 
handling Australian material has had to be relied on to make up for the limited 
i liable series. 

After study of the major part of the extant material it seems that ti ftlj 

dependable characters for specific separations are evident in tlie male genitalia, 
but times of appearance and altitude are also useful indicators. As in the 
Australian forms, most of the New Guinea species have limited emergence periods 
and their habitats also are altitudinally (hence climatically) delimited, BO that, 
for example, a species emerging in duly is in general separable from one 
OCClUTing in, say, November, and one occurring at, say, 1,500 metres is not likely 
to be present also near sea level 

Unfortunately these seeming fact:, have tended to be overlooked in the 

•ind they often run counter to earlier cabinet identifications, which often 

have tended to equate, say, silver-spotted forma of more than one spem s as one. 

while lt'i\ ring a different name in common to groups of melanic examples of more 

than one other species. 

Unless otherwise specified, the camera-lueida sketches of genitalia illustrat- 

ihis paper were drawn from two aspects, without removal of the parts, ami 
are intended to uive as much information as possible rcg&rdittg the hard parts 
Ami marginal contours of the tegumeii, the api'-c of the harpes and the shape 
and general size of the 8th stcrnite. In ihesr sketches the body form is 
generalised and no allowance could be made for post mortem changes, etc hi 
general, the form of the tegumen is constant for each species; the principal 
M.itions are in the number ami relative Of the smaller Spines along 

the teininien; in several instances Mich minor differences are evident as asym- 
metries in the drawings. 

Since this revision was ready for press, a paper by Viette (19&ft) has 
become available. In it is a proposal thai some Xew (iuinea members of this 
group should be placed in a separate melius i'tinioxym^ius. 

Some of the material upon which this Revision is based already has been 

Tindale — Revision ob the Ghost Moths 


distributed, hence a comprehensive ehecfe is not possible, bnt, on the available 
material, it would seem probable that at most Paraoxycanus is a valid subgenerie 
division which can be u>qA for O. norncf/Hinee-nsis and its allies. However, the. 
advisability of using strictly genitalui characters even for subgenera separation 

US also one on whieli there may be legitimate doubts. 

The separation of ;i Papuan snb-reirion is a relatively recent episode of 
zoolo'ji' ;il history — hence it is not often possible to establish clear-cut generic 
Separations in forms from this area, and it will be noticed thai, in the body of 
this paper, their at*6 several instances where direct comparisons are made even 

between New Guinea species and the mora archaic forms preserved in, for 
example, Sotrth-Westera Australia. 

The ease of Paraotvycmms may be parallel with that encoiuitered in the 
genus Oncope/FOi where an e&sentially northern scries of species were placed in 
the ffub-getitffl Paroncopera, but the separation cannot be defined by elear- 
/tit characters. 

(based principally on male genitalia) 








Hale genitalia with teguminal margin nut armed with spines 
Male genitalia with leguminal margin armed with spines 
Margin with main armature of seriate spines 
Margin with main armature not of seriate BJ ones 
Spines on nearly full length Of tegUttien 

Spines only on posterior half of tegnmen 

Posterior margin of Bfch sternite convex 

Posterior margin of 8th sternite not convex 

Tegrnnina] contour rather even 

Temimiual contour markedly uneven 

Apex of Eorewinga sub falcate, size large 

Apex of EorewiflgS rounded, size small 

Posterior margin of 8th sternite concave 
Posterior margin of 8tli sternite not concave 
Serrations of tegumen irregular in size and sparine 
Serrations of tegumon regular in size and spacing 
llarpe with apex not dilated 
llarpe with apex dilated 

llarpe bent over at apex 

llarpe not bem over at apex 

Tegmnen with large process, or spine, in anterior third 
Tegumen with large process, or spine, at or near middle 
Posterior half of tegmiien with seriate spines 
Posterior half of tegumen with irregularly spined process 
Anterior process of tegumen with more than <mc tip 
Anterior process oi tegumen with a single tip 









• • •' 


subochrai < ri 

fa ■■ 

Imahf f. let he 




l has 1 1 



310 Records of the S.A. Museum 

14. Anterior proee&i of le.gumen not strongly bent Gvei? at tip 

Anterior process of tegumen strongly bent over at tip 
1"). Anterior process oi fegumen pointed vertically downward: 
Anterior process of tegumen pointed oblif juely forwards 

16. Anterior half of tcunmen with seriate spines. 

Anterior half of tegumen not armed with seriate s])incs 

17. Median process of tegumen only a simple pointed spine 
Median process not a simple pointed spine 

18, Median process other than a plate-like expansion 
Median process a plate-like expansion 

19, Median process a broad digitiform lobe 

Median process a slender digit! form lobe 

20. Median process anteriorly directed 

Median process posteriorly directed 

21, IJarpes slender and inflated at tip 
Harpes of normal form 














disci} tennis 
.... hebe 

Oxycanus fulkunosa ( Rothschild ) 

Plate xxix, Bg. 6 and text fig. 1 

Porina fuliginoso Rothschild 1916, Lej/idoptera of Brit. OrniihoL Union Exped. 
to Nw) (luinm, % No. 15, p. 145. 

Male. Antennae reddish-ochreoits, slender, short, moderately pectinate wiih 
whorls ol* bans. Head and thorax dark sooty brown, abdomen grayish-brown. 
Forewings rather uniformly dark sooty brown, roughly scaled, with traces of 
long yellowish hairdike scales along costa; there is a transverse series of 
oehreous-fuscous marginal spots, one between each vein from § costa running 
parallel to lermen ami reaching inner margin just beyond one-half (in the 
holotype male these are slightly more evident with traces of two additional ones 
on discoecllulars) flindwing gray with the base onl\ of the wing clothed in 
yellow-tinged hairs; hairs near inner margin darker than elsewhere. Forewing 
length l!) mm., expanse 42 mm. 

Loc, New Guinea: Carsteus/ Peak, Utakwa River, 5.000-10,000 feet, Febru- 
ary to March. 191:5, A. F. R. Wollaston. Type, probably a male, in British 
Mnseiuu (ex Tring), also a paratypc male. The type was described as a 
I'lnale but appears to be (without critical examination of the genitalia) a 

The example available for detailed study is the rather worn para type 
male, but a photograph oi^ the types (pi. xxix fig. 6) is available. The figure 
shows the rather characteristically rounded wings, with redueed vannal area of 
hindwmgs, a rather obscure series of markings across the forewings, and the 
hairy clothing. 

Tindale — Revision of the Ghost Moths 


Fig. 1. Oxycanus fxdiginom (Rothschild), Carstenaz Peak, male genitalia of paratype, 
oblique lateral and ventral views. 

The genitalia (text fig. 1) have the teguinen entirely unarmed, presenting 
an even convex outline, when seen in lateral view. 

This species is not close to any other known one, which is perhaps to be 
expected from its presence at such a relatively high altitude on a tropical 
mountain. The form of the genitalia may hint at relationship with the rather 
isolated 0. perditus from South Western Australia, which likewise shows a 
tendency to reduction of the vannal area of hindwing. It is oi interest to 
speculate that these two peripheral species may represent relict forms of a 
very early differentiation of the Oxycamis stock. 


Plate xxvi, fig. 1 and text fig. 2 

Male. Head with nntennal segments ochreous, segments transversely 
keeled, with whorls of fine hairs; head and thorax grayish-brown, abdomen pale 
gray. Forewings dark brown with tinges of ochreous brown in anterior part 
of disc; a broad creamy-white flash from base to termen, crossed by about eight 
transverse rows of silvery-white spots, each spot ringed with dark brown, cilia 
on termen cream, on inner margin grayish -brown. Ilindwings gray with a 
tinge of ochreous-yellow towards termen. Forewings below gray with traces 
of the cream flash and the white, spots. Ilindwings below tinged ochreous yellow, 
the colour stronger along cost a. Wing length 30 mm., expanse 05 mm. 

Loc. New Guinea: Nomnagihe, 25 miles south of Wangaar, 2,000 feet 
January to February, 1921, collected by CL, P. and J. Pratt. Type in British 
Museum (Joicey Coll., 1929-122). 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

Only a single example has been examined of this most distinctive species. 
It Beams rather out of place among the New Guinea species and to fall more 
with 0. poetkus of South Western Australia and with O. stelJons of Victoria, 
This relationship may lie real, though remote. However, the form of the tinmen 
is different, so ib;»t in m ehissihVat ion based on form of genitalia alone it would 
Tall into a quite separate i>roup, not very close to any Other. 

Fig. 2. Oxycanu.-i rilryi Tindiilo. Nomnagihe, 2S miles smitli nf Wan^tur, male genitalia, 
ventral and oblique lateral \a 

The male genitalia (fig. 2), so far as they may be seen in the type without 
dissection, have the eighth sternite with posterior margin evenly concave: there 
is a Jong and slender harpe, and the tegumen, viewed i'rom the side, shows 
anteriorly a pair of forwardly directed spines; the anterior half of the margin 
is unarmed and the posterior half well armed with about ten seriate spines. 
I have pleasure in associating with this species the name of Mr. N. D. Riley, 
to whom I am much indebted for opportunities to study material from the 
British Museum. 


Plate xxjx, fig. 5 and text fig, :> 

Porina postftavida Rothschild, 1915, Lepyfopt$ra of British Ornith. Union 
I-Lrped. to Neic (Urinca, p. 145, 

"Male. Antennae brown; head and thorax blackish-ehoeolate; abdomen 
buff. Forewing blae lush -chocolate with four transverse, rows of dull orange 

TrNiMLE — Revision of the Ghost Moths 


fulvous rings* Hindwing semihyajine buff, nervures and margins broadly 
orange/' Forewing length 25 mm., expanse 55 mm. 

Lor. New GhpuM : Carstenaz Peak, 5.000-1 0,000 feet, February to March, 
1913, A. P. M, Wollaston. Type, unique, in British Museum (ex Trittg). 

The antennae in this species are relatively long, nearly one-fourth the 
length of forewing and eaefi segment is surrounded by a complete ping of hairs; 
1 he palpi are very short and concealed in the dense hairy clothing of face. 

The genitalia, so far as they could be observed in the tvpe, are shown in 
free-hand sketches (fig. 3). The posterior margin of the 8th sternite is convex 
and the tegumen, viewed from the side, is seen to be arched and well armed, with 

Fig. o. Oxyra?iua postffarida (Rothschild), Carstensz Peak; freehand sketches of male 
genitalia of type} left, ventral view; right, silhouette of right tegumen as viewed from right 

seven large spines, followed by two small ones. In the general form of the 
genitalia this species is nearest to O. tamsi from Mt. Goliath, this also is a 
species from a moderately high altitude, emerging at about the same time of 
the year. However, the shape and markings of the wings, as well as details 
of the genitalia are quite different, it being noted that the spines of 0. postfkivi<Ia 
are more acutely pointed and rather more evenly dispersed along the margin 
of the tegumen, the right and left sides of which appear more widely separated. 


Plate xxvii, fig. 1-3 and text fig. 4 

Male. Antennae dark ochreous, short, stout, tapered. Head and thorax 
pale brown, abdomen ochreous. slightly darker at apex. Forewing bright 
ochreous with a dusting of fine black and brown scales; costa, a band from near 
costa at I to inner margin at §, and blotches surrounding small black spots near 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

termen grayish-brown, and showing a taint violaceous bloom; at the costa itself 
the transverse band is grayish-white; there is a black blotch in the discoidal 
area and a series of black margined silvery-white discoidal spots, also some 
additional subterminal marks just beyond the grayish transverse band. Hind- 
wings bright ochreous, the dense hair near base appears slightly darker. Wings 
beneath rather uniformly ochreous, without markings. Forewing length 38 mm., 
expanse 83 mm. 

hoc. New Guinea: Mt. Goliath, 5,000-7,000 feet, February, 1911 (A, S. 
Meek); type, a male in British Museum (ex Tring) ; also fourteen paratypes 
taken in January and February. 

Like many of its congeners this species is variable in colour and markings. 
The type example (plate xxvii, fig. 1) is representative of a bright ochreous. 
silver-spotted phase; a further example (plate xxvii, fig. 3), also taken in 

Fig. 4. Oxycanus taynsi Timiale. Mt. (ioliath. .January, genitalia of paratype male, 
oblique lateral and ventral view^. 

February, represents a darker form with the silvery-white spots remaining only 
as dark marks and the slightly violaceous gra.yish-brown bands somewhat ex- 
tended. A third example (plate xxvii, fig. 2), taken in January, is an inter- 
mediate form. In the almost pointed forewiugs this species stands a little apart 
from the other New Guinea species, and at first sight it bears a superficial resem- 
blance to some examples of the genus Phassodes, from Fiji. Of Australian 
species it might bear some relationship to O. beltistus and its allies, which share 
a somewhat similar type of genital armature, but the rather peculiarly shaped 

Tindalk — Revision of the Ghost Moths 


hindwinps, which are characteristic of several other Now Guinea species, may 
BUggeSt that the relationship with Australian forms is no closer than with 
several other New Guinea species. 

The nmle genitalia have the 8th slernite with hind margin strongly convex; 
the harpes are relatively long and slender; the tegumen, viewed obliquely, is 
StfOitgly and bluntly serrated, with the silhouette not markedly irregular save 
for the slight elevation of the spines immediately before the middle, followed 
by a series of slightly depressed ones (fig, 4). 

The name chosen for this interesting species is that of Mr. W. H. T. Tarns. 
to whom I am indebted for much hidden help in checking details on specimens 
in the British Museum. 

Oxycan is xois sp. i. 

Hate xxix, fig. 1-2 and text fig. 5 

Male. Antennae dark ochreous, short, relatively thick-set; head and thorax 
dull brown, abdomen ochreous fawn, apex a little more ochreous. Forewiugs 
brown with ochreous-brown patches surrounding black spots some of which show 
traces of an ochreous centre; a more or lege connected series of black marks from 

Fig. 5-6. Fig. 5 (left). Oxycanus jcois Tindale, Dohunsohik, Arfjtk Mts., male genitalia, 
oblique view. Fig. 6 (right), Oxymiws dwc$ TJadale, Mt. Kuaupi, male genitalia, ohliqu-' 
lateral and ventral views. 

near costa at two-thirds obliquely to discs thence to inner margin at one-half. 
Hindwings ochreous fawn, the down at base of wing appeals lighter, termen 
narrowly, and veins ochreous. Wings below ochreous fawn with the markings 
above repeated as traces. Forewing length 23 mm., expanse 50 mm. 

316 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Lor. New Guinea • Dohunsehik, Arfak Mountains, 1,400 metres, .luiic. 1 928, 
Dr. 13. Mayr; type, a male in British Muvnm [et Tvfrtg)'; a second Specimen ifi 
from A&gi Lakes, Arfak, 1,800 metres, June, 1928, Dr, B. Mayr, 

This is one of the smaller species of New Guinea Oxycvx*: it is not very 
close to any other. 

The genitalia of* t ho male present rounded posterior margin to the 8th 
slernit.e. 8 strongly Spilled tc^umen, elevated with a pair of spines in Ihe anterior 
third and a median excavated area (fig. 5). 

In the well-rounded shape of the Brings 'his species Palls close to 0. fuli- 
(finosa, hut the apex of the fee a is not as rounded and the armature of 

the tegumen places it far closer to 0. tamsi from Mt. Goliath: From that species 
it differs markedly in the abundantly spotted Eorewiflga, as well as in details 
of the genitalia. 


Plate xxviii, u> 1-1 and text fig, 6 

Male. Antennae oehreous, well developed; head and eyes large, dark brown, 
Ihnrax and abdomen somewhat paler, base of abdomen slightly oehreous. Fore- 
wings with costa and inner margin pale grayish-brown, rest of wing getU rally 
chocolate-brown with oehreous scales near costa towards apex, near inner angle, 
and partly margining otherwise black outlined silvery-white Spots in discal area. 
Hindwings dull oehreous, brighter towards termen. Wing below ol)scurely 
oehreous. Fore wing length 87 mm., expanse 81 nam. 

Lor. New Guinea: Mt, Kunupi, Menoo Valley, Weyland Mts., 6,000 feet, 
November to December, 1920 {('.. W. and J. Pratl ), type in British Museum; 
also thirty paratypes with same details and one marked, December, 1920, to 
January, 1921, 

This species presents ;i .vide ranue of variation. Of the colour phases a 
dark form has been described and 6gUre4 as typical (plate xxviii, fig* 1). Among 

ble variants there is an ochreous-brown-spotled form (plate xxviii, i\%. 2) 
and a dark form with a median longitudinal white flash on i'orewing (plate xxviii, 
lie '•]). In addition there is an oehreous form with markings largely suppressed 
except for a diffuse brown transverse bar from costa at jtbfl to inner margin 
at §rds, and a few dark brown spots (plate xxviii, fig. 4). Intermediates occur 
between these forms. 

The genitalia show a markedly serrated tcuumen, a little produced towards 
the anterior end (fig. 6). As usual in species with a serrated tegumen there 
are slight variations in the development of individual spines; the degree of 

TiKDAUE — Revision 01 the Ghost Moths 


asymmetry evident in the figured example is of the usual order. The genitalia 
SUgg€Sl a relationship between this species, 0. scrralns, frotn Wondiwoi, and 
O. subovhrami, 1ml the resemblances do not extend to the win<_»-form, patterns, 
or size, which are very different. 

If the same brief emergence limits hold for Papuan speeies as for Australian 
ones, this should he mainly a December speeies. The Messrs. Pratt took a long 
series, all males, of which ren examples have been examined in detail at Adelaide 
—the others during a visil to the British Museum. 

Oxycanhs &UBOOHBACEA (doieey and Talbot) 

Plate xxvi, figi 2-3 and text fig, 7 

PoHnti Subachracsa Joicey ami Talbot, 1917, Ann, M<ag. Nat. Hist (8), 20, 
I). 85, plate 2, fig. 12. 

Porivn argcntipuvcla Joicey and Talbot, 1917, Ic. p. 85, plate 2, fig, 13. 
Paraox yen mis suhnrhrca Yietta. 1950, Zool. Med., Leiden, 31, p. 71, fig. 6. 

Male. Antennae short, taperin-, pale ochreous, head and thorax brownish - 
ochreous, abdome?] paler, Forewfrlg brownish-oehreous with some gray altiftg 
COStai a series of silvery-white spots, narrowly margined with dark brown, larger 
in diseal area, where the largest is partly surrounded by an ochreous-brown 
suffusion darker alonir veins and towards inner margin at one-half; a wide 

Fig. 7. Oxycanus suboehracea (Jokvy am! Talbot >, Wautlaminen Mtn.. November, tnatt! 
genitalia, ventral and oblique lateral views. 

suffused grayish-white band from costa at |ths to inner margin at one-half, 
within it a line of small spots; between band and termen a series of spots, some 

Urge; a sublerminal series of small spots surrounded by whitish -gray, ! 

between each pair of veins. Hindvrings subhyaline, pinkish-ochreous withmil 
markings. Forewing length 27 mm., expanse 60 mm. 

,318 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Lac, New Guinea: Wandammen Mountains, 3,000-4,000 feet, November; 
type, a male, also type of argenlipuncta, same details, and a series of paratypes 
from the type locality in British Museum; two males (ex Tring) in South 
Australian Museum. 

The two named forms associated hero are undoubtedly conspeeiiie. The 
above description is based on an example which is almost identical with the 
type of 0. argentipuncta. The genitalia have the outline of the te^umcn, as 
viewed obliquely, rather evenly arcuate with only 6 to 7 small seriate spines 
which, in ventral view, appear to be irregularly placed (fig, 7). The differ- 
ences in win«' markings, between the two named forms, though considerable, 
follow the usual trend of variation; the typical one has a longitudinal white 
Hash on forewing; the argentipuncta form has the Hash absent, the Spots are 
enlarged and these have conspicuous silvery -white centres. Plat*- xxvi, fig. 3, 
shows a third form in which the lore win.'. • are paler, the spots are black, and 
eaeh is surrounded by an area of oehreous suffusion. In still other examples 
most of the markings are suppressed in favour of a uniform oehreous suffusion 
with scatterings of individually darker seal- 


Plate xxriii, fig. 5 and text fig. 8 

.Male, Antennae oehreous, relatively long, pectinations 1. Head and thorax 
pale brown, abdomen palest salmon, becomirm ora\ ish-fawn towards apex, Fore- 
wings brown with bright oehreous suffusions towards base and paler oehreous 
along termen from near apex to beyond middle; several silvery-white marks 
bordered with brownish-black; traces of a slightly paler brown band from costa 
at two-thirds to inner margin at two-thirds partly margined by a series of 
oehreous patches, some embracing small spots; eosta grayish-brown; a series of 
white-centred subterminal spots, liindwings oehreous, becoming salmon-tinged 
towards base. Costa of forewings below narrowly brownish-black, rest of 
wings oehreous. Wing length 32 mm., expanse 70 mm. 

hoc. New Guinea: Hunsteinspitze, 1.350 metres. Kaiserin Augusta Ft. 
Expedition, February to Match, 1913, S. <t. Burners (Sepik River)- Type, a 
male, No. 4,509 in Berlin Museum; a paratype, same details, in South Australian 

Oxycanus iiecabk form lei he now 
Plate xxviii, fig. 6 and text fig. 9 
Male. Antennae oehreous, appearing slightly shorter than in typical hecahe. 
Head and thorax oehreous gray, abdomen pale salmon, apical half becoming 

Tindale — Revision of the Ghost Moths 


grayish-fawn. Forewings grayish -ochreous with two moderate black spots and 
four subhyaline gray bands across wing; each band encloses a series of small 
black spots; the band commencing at 5/6th costa, runs only to near termen at 
about M 2 vein; it is ochreous-tinged near costa; the fourth band is obscure, sub- 
terminal, and encloses a series of subterminal black spots each ringed with gray; 
cilia dark gray. Hindwings ochreous with a fuscous suffusion near posterior 
angle. Wings below ochreous, without markings; costal margin scarcely darker 
than rest of wing. Forewing length 29 mm., expanse 64 mm. 

Loo. New Guinea: Hunsteinspitze, 1,350 metres, August, 1912, S. G. 
Burgers. Type, a male, in Berlin Museum, a paratype male, same details, but 
labelled February-March, 1913, in South Australian Museum. 

Fig. 8-9. Fig. 8 (left). Oxyeanus hecabe Tindale, Hunsteinspitze, February to Marcn, 
male genitalia, obiique lateral view. Fig. 9 (right). 0. hecabe form lethe Tindale, Hunstein- 
spitze, August, eighth sternite and male genitalia, oblique lateral view. 

The four specimens of 0. hecabe available for study were taken at two 
different periods of the year, nearly six months apart. They belong to two very 
different colour forms which differ also in size and might almost be considered 
to be separate species. However, these colour changes cut across some slight 
structural differences in the genitalia, as may be seen from the following table: 



f. lethe 

f. lethe 

Wing length 

Emergence period 

32 mm. 

28 mm. 

ochreous gray 
29 mm. 


ochreous gray 
29 mm. 

Bearing in mind the inherent variabilities of colour pattern, repeated in 
so many species of Oxycanus, it might seem that there are two races or forms 

320 Records of THE S.A. YIiskum 

of 0, hwoht, wiii'i Leaily isolated siii0e they emerge at different times of the 

year These, perhaps, are despefndpd from a common stock which already 
I >ossessed two colour phases. Though now structurally diflVrenl iated and possess- 
ing different -seeming genitalia, the />///< edlonr phase -ill tends h> appear ffi 

each strain. When further material is collected it vn ill be of interest to learn 
Whether a /jccc/holike form appears also in the August appearing strain. 

Ar'-ordiiiii; to another possible explanation, 0. hecahc and O. lethr could he 

separate species of whieh one, 0. hemht, is variable and presents two 
separate forms, one of whicij is tegs readily differentiated from 0. leihr on a 

basts of wing patterns. Both Hie above arc attempted cxplanalions of the 

presence of ihese two forms; they furnish another of the many aignifictfnl 

problems associated with the study of these interesting species. 

(>. ho'aht is prol>;iU ;J io 0- subuchran a and in the key these species 

fall near to each other, I hie of the forms of (). subuchracru, figured a1 plate xxvi, 
fig*. Sj shows many points of resemlilance to the form Uthe of this speeies. Mow- 
ever, the two species are separable pu several characters pf which one of the 
moi-e evident is wing shape; the forewinga of O. suhooh/racea are relatively 
broader and the apex of hindw iiej.s sompwhal less acute. The bar pes also are 
of quite different shape 

The genitalia y^\' 0, hecttfn I have the posterior margin of the eighth 

Bternite transverse and slightly notched; the t.egumen is armed with seriate 
spines which are somewhat irregularly disposed and irregular in size. In the 
fur hi Uthe (fig. 9) the seriate spines of tegumen are rather more even in size 
and arrangement. 


Plate xxvi, fig. 6 and text hg\ 10 

Male. AnUim.ii sln.rt, blender, tapering, pale oehreous; head pale brown, 
thorax paler, abdomen pS n With a pinkish tinge on basal half. Forewings 

pale brown, cpata lightly more grayiah-brpwiii two aeries of siivery-wliiie spots 

each margined with la-own; one a dlSCal series of scattered spots, several of them 
partly embracing, an irregular diseal black patch; the other a transverse series 

running in stepped fashion in a lme from near apex to near posterior angle; 

on the inner sidfi of this line is ;i pale -May f rans\ erse baud in which there are 

:-n.,jil brown spots; a subtenninaJ aeries of small spots also are surrounded by 

l»ale grayish-white, llindwings opaque > clluw isb-oohreous with the cilia rather 
lly dark gray; wmgs holow yellowish-oehreous. Korewing length 28 mm., 
expanse 60 mm. 

Tindalk — Kiaision cap TOE Ghost Moths 


hoc. New Ouinen : Wondiwoi. Wandammeii Mountains, 1.400 metres, July, 
1928, Dr. K. Mayr. T; pe, a male, in British Museum (ex Tring). There is a 
pa rat \ pe (Simple. 

This form is su similar in markings to some examples of 0. suhuchra< en, 
taken m il" 1 saJflfi inounfcains, that it Is difficult to separate if until the genitalia 
are examined. There is between a llnve and a five months difference in emer- 
gence date. Thr Wrodi#oi examples of (). st rutins were taken in July at an 
elevation qA jnsi over 4.500 feet, whereas O. suf>o< hracm Hies in November at 
:;.000-4,000 feet. 

The type of (). 8&rratUB i plate xxvi, fig, 6) compares well with the (). nrinvti 
pundit form of O. subochr<i(<a, is ml it was thought at first that the name arqvnli- 
jnuirta mi^ht be used for it. However, the type of urgenUpuncta was taken 
in November and unquestionably is an 0. suhockraiia form. 

I'i-. 10. OAyt'OhUs s< rrnltts Tonhilr, Wominvoi, .Inly, male grew 0i li.'l. ventral and oMique 
lateral views. 

The second example of O. stria his is an oehreous variant in which the 
brown of l!ie thorax and wingt; .".ml the pale transverse band of t'orowing are 
replaced by a bright oehreous colour; the silvery-white spots remain but tend to 
be slightly smaller, with I he dusky Margins sometimes encroaching on the white 
centres. This example was formerh ident ified ,-is an example of 0. unji tiiijtnrnln, 
which it rather closely resembles, bin like the type example, its genitalia are 
of 0. scrrnhis pattt m. The essejltml difference lies in the contrast between 
the rather regularly serrated margin of t!ie teirumen (fig, 10); as viewed from 
below, and the vcrv irregularly serrated ii.o^in found in (>. suharhracea. The 
former has 9-10. Ihe latter 7 spines. Another not so evident difference exists 
in the shape of the forewinics, which are relatively narrow in O. sermtiis and 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

shorter and broader in 0. sub ochr area. Despite the similarities it seems proper 
to regard them as separate species. II' the two belong together then the genitalia 
must be very variable and the emergence period in this species must be an 
extended one, unlike other members of this puzzling genus. 


1*1 ate xxvi, fig. 5 and text fig. 11 

Male. Antennae ochreous, short; head and thorax grayish-fuscous, abdo- 
men pale ochreous-fuscous, duskier towards apex. Forewings with costa 
grayish- Fuscous, elsewhere paler, with tinges of ochreous-fuscous; basal half 
of wing suffused whitish-ochreous with traces of a narrow median longi- 
tudinal light streak; several rows of small feebly white-centred fuscous dots 
across wing including a rather regularly spaced subterminal series. Hind wings 
pale ochreous-fuscous with terminal fourth from below apex to inner margin 
noticeably fuscous. Wings below pale ochreous. Forewing length 22 mm., 
expanse 50 mm. 

Fie:, tl. OxyccniHs thasm Tindalc, Fak Fak, male genitalia, oblique lateral and ventral 
views, of type. 

hoc. New Guinea: Fak Fak, 1,700 feet, December, 1906 (Pratt). Type, a 
male, 1911-117 in British Museum, unique. 

The sub-rectangular hindwings are shared with several other Papuan forms 
such as 0. meeki, from Biagi, and 0. per plexus, from Ninay Valley. This species 
seems close in wing pattern to the non-fascia 1e form of 0. mayri but in their 
genitalia these species bear little resemblance to each other. 

Tindalk — Revision Off the Ghost Moths 

The male genitalia [fig. II) have the eighth steruile with a slightly excavate 
postmn'or margin ; tic harpcs are concealed ;nd aiilcriorly the tegmneu is strongly 
chitiniscd; (here is a large strap like anterior projection behind which the t.egu- 
ineri is rafher evenly c xcavate to the middle w here it is again produced, showjiu,' 
from one angle a spinedike process, and from below a rather broad slight !;• 
denlatc eminence. 

In the only specimen parts of the genitalia are concealed by the eighth 
steruile, bul I In* two camcraducida sketches as shown, modified hy tree Inind 
sketching to sumlm^i ihe approximate form of the. hidden parts, should nssisl 


OXICIANTJS SALMDNACKA ( liot hscl) lid ailtl Jordan ) 

Plate xxvk fig. 7, plate xxix, fig. 7 and text fig, 12 
r<tnii<t ;ul-, )\0fm <« liothschild and Jordan, l!)()f>, Novit. Zonl. t 12, p. 47S. 

Mala. Antennae pale buff, very short, stoul and tapering inf Imt abruptly 
lo tip. Head and palpi mummydirown, ihorax slightly paler, abdomen Loose 
haired, buff with a salmon tinge. Korewings ochreousdnrff with eosta slighfly 
darker Four black-edged spots in diseoid.d region, usually conjoined in pan-- 
there are traces of other spots with light centres; terminal third of wing p;ih r. 
with a subteriiiiual darker band embracing vague traces of spots from eosta 
ne;ir apex to inner margin. Iliudwing pinkish buff becoming slightly more rose- 
OOloUTed near base. Length ol' lorewing 25 mm., expanse 68 mm. 

Loc. Papua: Anuabnima Kivcr, aftluenf ol : St, Joseph Ifiver. (1,000 fefil 
upwards. \ovembcr. 11)04, to February, 1905, A. S, Meek. Type, a male, u. 
British Museum (ex Trine, i, and a scries of pa rat vpes; one example with same 
deiails in Smiiii \usiralian Museum ( from Tring) 

The lar-e tin t of hairs a! base of the antenna is notable. This species has 
a generally rough-haired |nol; shared with 0. j 'tilitfhtiw, which also is a form 
from relatively high altitudes. However, i he hvu specie are entirely differem 
in colour ami markings. Plate xxix, lig. 7> shows vhe lype in the British Museum 
<r\ Tring) and plate \\\i. fig. 7, shows the South Australian Museum specimen. 

The genitalia (tig. 12) which have an anterior eminence on the tegunirii. 
followed by n nolch and several spines, may suggest a relationship with O tho, 
of the Waiidainitien coast. However, the species emerge ar different times of lie 
J on. unt far from sea level and the other at (>,0<Mi ft. elevation, and ihuinji. 
superficially similar in markings, they differ in size, wing-shape, and deia.l;-. 
of the 'jcnitalia. In 0, SalmoWOCBQ the anterior spine of ihe tegumen, as \ dewed 
i com below, is ouiwardh curled as a short Hal strap like spine with up to three 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

Fig. 12. Oxycanus mimonacca (KoihsrhiM anil .Tonkin), An^alumgn River, male ficnr 
tih.i, v.iitral and oblique lateral views. 

Blight projections on ir, whereas in <>. tkoe thfi spine tends to be a high, rather 
more rounded eminence, projecting ou1 wards, usually as a single ronnded point. 
The eighth sternite is different in the two species, ha\iii'j. a notched posterior 
margin in O. Sfthnonaccu and an only sliuhtly arched one in 0. Hi<>> . 

There is a specimen in the Kritish Museum labelled Mafalu (^~.Mafulu). 
b',000 feet, August. Id03 I A. E« Pratt), which seems close to this speeies. Tt was 
not possible to examine Hie genitalia. It will be noted that the season of emer- 
gence is entirely different (August instead of November- February ), hence the 
possibility that it will prove, on further siud.v. to be a separate species. 

Oxve.wrs xiukipuncta (Joicey and Talbot) 

Text h>. 13 

Porina niqripnncta -loieey and Talbot, 1!)17, Ann Ma//. W&b /fist. (8), 20, 

p. 8$ plate 2, % 10. 
r>>nna nigricosta Joicey and Talbot, 1017, Ir. p. 84, plate 2, fig. H. 

Male. Antennae pale oehrcous; palpi, head and thorax above brownish- 
oehreous, thorax below and abdomen pale oehrcous. P{ft*wittg8 oHireoiis uniy 
numerous transverse brownish-black spois (sometimes with pale centres ) bet 
the veins, ones at middle and end of cell and near jnie-tion of M A and Cu,;, 
larger than the others; traces of a line of brown suffusion from rosta at 

Tindale — Revision of the Ghost Moths 325 

three-fifths to inner margin at one-half; a similar faint suffusion from .four-fifths 
eosta to near inner angle. ]Iindwing>. od reous; an indistinct series of sub- 
lerminal spots between the veins. Wing length 36 nun., expanse ?8 nun. 

Lor. New Guinea: Wandammen Mountains, 3,000-4,000 feet, in November. 
Type, a male, also type of O. nujru -nstn, same details, in British Museum. 

There seems to be liltle doubt that 0. nuiripuvcta and 0. nigricosta are 
merely colour forms of the one species. 

O. irigrico.sfa has the forewings with eosta darker, the dark spots larger, and 
the spols, linked to form faint transversa streaks at three-fifths and four-fifths, 
are broadened into dark hands extending- nearly to hind margin. Both forms 
are figured in colour by Joicey and Talbot. The structure of the genitalia, so 

Kg, 13. Qxycww rtigripuncta (.min-v aud Talbot i, upper, >iihuui-rn- of tegnweri or 

nutrit'osta, type} tower, the same of niynpuncfd, type (aiilerior cxi n'mhy at left). 

far as they can be seen in the types are the same, and the ranges of variation 
in other characters arc only such as arc commonly found within specific limits 
in other species Of the genus. 

The main outlines of the tegumen were sketched, free-hand, during an 
examination of the types in the British Museum (fig. 13). The upper figure 
is that of the type of 0. nir/ricoslu, the lower that of O. nif/ripuncta. The species 
falls into a suite in which O. sulmonucca from Angabunga River at 6,000 feet. 
O. thor, from Wassior at sea level, in duly, and O. meeki, from Biagi at 5,000 feet, 
taken about March, are kindred forms. In (). mvcki the main process of the 
U-umen is placed in a medial position much behind that found in the present 


Records of the S.A. Museum 


PlaU* xxvi, ftg. 4, plate xxx, Bg, 3 and text Kg. 14. 

Male. Antennae oe hreous, Short pc<-i in;i t ions ver\ short, palpi brownish- 
ochreous. head and thorax ochreons, abdomen pale ochreons. Forewings sub- 
r'aleatc, brown ish-ochreous with a broad somewhat more grayish-brown band 
across forewing from costa at threequarters to near inner margin; a number of 
white-centred brown spots between the veins; two large silvery-white centred 
spots in disc and some smaller ones: traces of £ dark brown streak from near- 
base of wing to termer) before one-half. Hind wings pale ochrcous, tinged with 
pink in basal halt', cilia nearly eoneolorous with rest ol' tfifyg. Length of fore- 
wing S3 mm., expanse 72 nun. 

Fitf. \-\. OsyciKtis flux Tindale. WasHior, July, male genitalia, ventral and otuiqm: 
l.-.Ornil \i«\YS. 

Luc. New Guinea: Wassior, Wandamnien coast. July. 1028, Dr. E. Mayr. 
Type, a male, in British Museum: tin-re is a panitype with same details. 

This is a relatively large species with rather broad t'orewings (plate xxvi, 
fig. 4). having a tendency to truncated hindwings, as seen also in the much 
smaller O. s<i!uwn<n<:<t I'mm the AngaburiLm Uiver. Tin genitalia of these two 
species fall into I he same group, the arming of the tegumen being similar, 
except for details. The posterior margin of the 8th stern itc is almost transverse 

Tindale — Rkytsion oi tHB Ghost Moms 327 

in this species., whereas it bis a wide median notch in 0. Milmonacca, The 
iec-imien (fig, 14) has ail outwardly bent, blunted spine on the anterior third, 
Slightly variable, as may he seen from the two drawings, one from the type 
and the other from the para type. In this species ike harpes are more slender 
i han in 0. ftahnouacra. 

The second example ("plate \\x, fig. S$) has the winu' lips injured. It differs 
from Hie tjtpB in having a Mark streak from base of forewing to lermen just 
above 1 2. Th is form has a clflffl Superficial resemblance to 0. sahnonarca. 

OXYC.vXL'S \l,HOSTRir,ATA I l\ot liseliihl ) 

1'kue xxix, Tilt. •», plale x\x, fie;. 7-8 and text %. 15 
Phaxsnr/rs fdhnsfriififfa Uol .lisehikl 19$$ Novit. ZooL, 2U, p. 278, 

Male. Antennae o'hreons, short, slender, peet.iuat.ions I. Head and thorax 
grayish fusediis. .ibdoiuen gray, Forowing with eosta narrowly gray, rest of 
Wing oehreons fusemis, paler towards apex of wind's With darker fuscous suffu- 
sions; I wo series of irregularly connected --i I very -white spots margined with 
Inseons in diseoiihiJ area: a single ochrcous-ecu I red spot near inner margin at 
one-half and olher smaller ones forminir a series elottg eosta and scattered across 
wine.. Hindw iiiL!s with anterior half pale oehreous-fuscons, poslerior half darker; 
a. series oi' small vaguely pale-ceri! .red gray spots, one between each vein along 
termen. KorewiiiL- length 30 mm., expanse 65 mm. 

Female. Antennae oehroo us, I n r\ short, slender and simple; head and 
thorax pale grayish- fuscous, abdomen pale fawn. Fore wings pale ochreous- 
fuscous, with paler oehreous markings in patelies between the veins; two groups 
of silvery-white discoidal markings as in male; other markings present are 
margined with ochreoius; hindwings pale oehreous- fawn, without subterminal 
spots. Forewint: length 38 mm., expanse Si mm. 

hoc. New Guinea: Bolauber<j;, Uuon Gulf, ft,f>00 metres (Keysser). Type, 
a female, in J>ril ish JVI usciim (ex Trine;) ; .Kavvlinsoii .Mountains (Keysser), allo- 
type, male, described herein; an additional series of five females has been 
exam me* 1 

llitherin known only from the iyp<\ q female in the British Museum (ex 
Triii*:). This vrm taken on Bolauber^, inland from the Huon Gulf, at 8,800 
metres. This example, expanding 12 mm., ft somewhat similar in markings and 
colour to some males :>! 0. >n<tifri from Mt. Siwi, but is unlikely to be conspeeific 
Plate \w\, Ggi ;t. depn'ts the type. Structurally this species is notable for the 
rclativch Iffltg :jrd segment of Ihe palpi which are carried directed downwards 
and forwards. 

328 Records of the S.A. Museum 

The male is now described from takings in the same area; the second female 
example, also figured, was taken along with this male on the Rawlinson Mountains 
of which Bolauberg is a part. The wing markings of the two sexes are similar 
although the small terminal gray spots on the hind wing are absent from the 
female; the suffusions on forewings of the female are ochreous rather than 
grayish-brown, and there is less infuscation in the disroidal area. Two of 
five females examined are larger and have the forewings rather gray in colour. 

As indicating our relative paucity of material in this genus from New 
Guinea, this is the only New Guinea species of Oxycanus of which the female is 
yet known. 

The male genitalia have the posterior margin of the eighth sternite slightly 
concave. The tegumen, in oblique lateral view, shows a slightly anteriorly 
directed, outwardly rolled projection, rather flat at summit, placed well before 
middle; also a slightly elevated median and posterior portion armed with two 
larger and several smaller spines. Fig. 15 shows as much of the genitalia of 
the allotype male as may be sketched without dissection; for convenience of 
presentation a view from the left side has been mirror-imaged to make it more 
directly comparable with drawings of other species, shown as viewed from the 

The genitalia alone might suggest that this species falls near to 0. nigri- 
puncta and to O. thoe from Wassior; from both of these it is distinct in the 
form and markings of the wings. In the presence of small terminal spots on 
the hindwings there are suggestions of affinities with 0. eos from the Cyclops 
Mountains, and 0. thasus from Pak Fak; in the latter species these spots are 
only faintly represented. 


Plate xxx, fig. 5-6 and text fig. 16 

Male. Antennae ochreous, short, pectinations 1, delicate. Head and thorax 
ochreous-brown, abdomen pale fawn, more ochreous at tip and hairs pink-tinged 
at base. Forewings rich ochreous-brown, slightly darker towards termen with 
series of small brown markings, generally with ochreous centres and surrounded 
by ochreous suffusions. Hindwings ochreous-fawn, with hairs at base tinged 
pink ; cilia fuscous. Wings below ochreous-fawn, cilia fuscous. Forewing length 
33 mm., expanse 72 mm. 

Loc. New Guinea: Buntibasa district, Kratke Mountains, 4,000-5,000 feet, 
August, 1932, F. Shaw Mayer. Type, a male, also two paratypes, taken July 

Tindale — Revision ok the Ghost Moths 


and August, 103& in British Museum (ex Tring); another paratype male, same 
details, was taken dune, 1032. 

The examples examined were taken during- the three months .June, July and 
August; the dune example is superficially r;it hor distinct; however, the genitalia 
are very close, differing only in minor details of the anterior spines of tegumen, 
whieh are slightly less eoiispieuous. An Oj-ijcunus similar in appearance, taken 

Fig. 15- 1 7. Fig* 15 (left). O.ajcaniix alhost rujnhi ( Rothsrliilrl) f Rawlinson Range, allQ^ 

type male, genitalia, GijJiqua lateral flaw. Kg. 1-6 dimMi.- b Oxyaamn ttfrox Tbdftle. Punn 
i ): ,s:., August, mate ftttdtalia, oMiqnfl lateral view. &% *7 (tigbt). O*J0O»W iM TiUdWdj 
Cyclops Mts., male genitalia, oblique lateral view. 

in February, 198$, at the same place, may be a distinet species, hul it has not 
yet been studied. It is in the British Museum (ex Triii^). Evidently, as in 
other members of this genus, the speeies is variable in colour and markings; 
the type example represents an ochreous form with dark markings reduced and 
tending to be ochreous-cenTrcd, whereas one paratype (plate xxx, fig. G) tends 
a little toward a florid form with more conspicuous dark markings and with 
white suffusions instead of ochreous ones. In the examples seen the strongly 
rounded hindwings are the same as is also the dark ciliation, which gives a 
rattier clcfir-cui margin to the hindwing outlines; the dense clothing of down 
at the base of the hindwings is locally and strongly pink-tinged. In life the 
pink colour was probably most brilliant, but as in Australian species such as 
O. sfdhivs, is fugitive, fading rapidly after death. 

330 Records of the S.A. Museum 

In the male genitalia (fig. 16), the tegumen is divided into an armed anterior 
portion with five or more spines, a median eminence, which has its body bent 
inwards towards the centre line but at the tip is bent outwards again, and a 
heavily armed posterior portion with five spines. The harpes are more slender 
and more conspicuously dilated at the apex than in the other species examined 
from New Guinea. The genitalia in general are quite unlike those of any other 
species, showing perhaps some distant relationship with those of 0. hebe from 
Fak Fak. In the present species the enlargement of the central portion of the 
tegumen and its incurvature has not reached the extreme met with in 0. hebe; 
instead the anterior and posterior armatures are emphasised. 


Plate xxix, fig. 4 and text fig. 17 

Male. Antennae ochreous brown, very short, pectinations transversely 
carinate; head and thorax ochreous brown, abdomen somewhat paler. Forewings 
bright ochreous with costa and various suffusions brown ish-ochreous— towards 
base colour is very rich; several series of transverse lines of small, generally 
pale-centred blackish-brown spots, a particular series, running from costa at 
three-fourths to hind margin at two-thirds, are obscurely margined in light 
grayish-fawn scales, the ochreous suffusions near base are richly coloured and 
there is a particularly evident patch of darker suffusion surrounding a relatively 
large black spot near posterior margin at one-half; cilia brown. Hindwings 
grayish-fawn, darker near anal margin, along termen ochreous with a series of 
faint brown spots between the veins. Forewing length 30 mm, expanse 64 mm. 

hoc. New Guinea: Cyclops Mountains, August to September, 1928, Dr. 
E. Mayr. Type, a male, in British Museum (ex Tring); there is a paratype 
male with the same details. 

This species is conspicuous for its pointed and relatively narrow forewings. 
Both examples examined are similar in markings, the paratype example differing 
chiefly in the absence of the pale band across forewing; the hindwing is less 
evidently infuscated. 

In the genitalia (fig. 17) the outline of the tegumen is excavated at the 
anterior end and bears a large simple spine just before the middle; the posterior 
half shows several smaller spines; these are spaced rather widely apart. 

This species is not close to any other; in the form of the armature of tegumen 
it falls nearest to 0. occidentalis of South Western Australia, but in form of 
wings and coloration does not show close relationship with that species; its 
closest links possibly are with 0. albostrigata from the Rawlinson Ranges, inland 

Tindao: — Revision <w the Ghost Moths 331 

from the ITuon Gulf, and it shares with the male of that species, and with 
0. thimis from Fak Fak, tie presence on the hindwing aUne of an inconspicuous 
96ries ol terminal gray spots between the \< ms; in both these species, however. 
the genital armatures are different. 

Oxycani s !m:i;i 'LEXUS 
Plate xxx i. fig; 3-4 and text fig. IS 

Male. Antennae ochreous, short, pectinations about 1. Head and thorax 
grayish-brown, tending more fo gray on metanotuiri; abdomen pale creamy-fawn 
slightly darker at apex. Forewings pale grayish-brown, darkest along eosta, 
with about eight rows of transverse creamy-white spots, outlined with brown; 
a median silvery white flash runs from base to termen above one-half, where it 
turns towards apex: this fascia is wide iiftii 1 base then suddenly narrowed at 
one-hall': a darker suffusion lies between it and margin; there is a subterminal 
series of spots, one between each vein. A faintly visible broad gray band runs 
from eosta at four-fifths to just beyond inner angle. Hindwings creamy-fawn 
with subanal fourth of wing, eortfclidiflg tO »6*r apfcx, brftlHOated with grayish- 
brown; cilia "ravish brown. \\ mi> lenglh 27 mm., expanse 58 mm. 

Lot. Vw Guinea: Ninay Valley, Central Arfak Mountains, 3,500 U^i. 
November, 1908, to January, I9Q0, TjTPC in British Museum; there are three 
paratypes with the same details. 

The paratypes (for example, plate xxxi, fig. 8 I appear rather different from 
the type because t he broad gray transverse hand from four-fifths eosta to inner 
angle of brewing is emphasised and the silvery-white longitudinal flash tends 
to be suppressed. The eream-erni red spots are the same as in the type (plate 
xxxi, fig. 4); the eolour of the hindwings is identical. 

The genitalia (fig. IS) have the posterior margin of the eighth sternite 
slightly eonvex. The fcegumteE has a smooth-margined anterior portion, rising 
at about a right angle into a large, median, outwardly twisted eminence, showing 
a. slightly serrated outline ami outwardly curved tip; behind this the margin 
drops to a shallow notch, followed by two or ihree rather evident, and several 
less conspicuous spines. The harpes are long, their tips extending to the fust 
of the posterior suite of spines of tegumen. In | o- ventral view the. centra! 

elevations of the tegumen appear as a pair of shining easlaueous subquadi ate 
plates, bent obliquely forwards. 

This species ;md the | w o following are closely related, standing somewhat 
apart from other New Guinea species. They may Be distantly related to tin- 
Australian 0. nuptialis from Mt, Kosciusko. However, in that species the hind- 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

Fig. 18-19. Fig. 18 (left). Oxycanus perplexus Tindale, Ninay Valley, male genitalia, 
oblique lateral view. Fig. 19 (right). Oxycanus meeki (Viette), Biagi. 

wings are more acute, the wings are subhyaline, and the genitalia show little 
relationship. There are resemblances to 0. subvarius, also from Australia, par- 
ticularly in the pattern of spots on the wings and the wing texture, but again 
the genitalia are very different. The mutual relationships of this and the two 
following species are discussed under the heading of the species 0. discipennis. 

Oxycanus meeki (Viette) 

Plate xxx, fig. 1-2 and text fig. 19 

Paraoxyoanus meeki Viette, 1950, Zool. Med., Leiden, 31, p. 69, fig. 5. 

Male. Antennae ochreous, short, pectinations 1. Head, thorax and tip 
of abdomen brownish-ochreous, base of abdomen light pinkish-fawn becoming 
tinged with gray towards extremity; clothing of body and of hind wings relatively 
thick, scaling of forewings rather rough and hairy. Forewings pointed at apex, 
almost falcate in form, brownish-ochreous, darker along costa with some black- 
and some silvery-white-centred black spots, a creamy-white longitudinal flash 
from base to near termen above middle where it expands into a subterminal 
suffusion which runs from just below apex to end obscurely near anal angle; 
two conjoined lines of predominantly black spots cross the wing, the first from 

Tindale — Revision of the Ghost Moths 333 

near costa at five-sixths running nearly parallel to termen to touch anal angle; 
in ( he eenlre 6i the wins there is an obscure infuscation below the longitudinal 
white flash, basally from this the flash is much broadened; cilia brownish- 
OChfdom 1 1 jikIwiijjjs RtXgtxktBf costa and termen me&tmg nearly at fight angles, 
pale pinkish lawn, darker along costa am) near anal angle; traces of spots, 
some nl.-.riirely white-centred, one between each vein of ternien; cilia fawn. In 
hfV tie- ilc.wi) al base of Wizigti WW probably strongly pink-tinged, traces remain 
Wittg length 29 nun., expanse 62 mm. 

Luv. Xew <iuinea: Biaei, Mambare River. 5,000 feel, March, 190(1, typ« 
in Pari;-. Museum: ,i series of fourteen labelled January to April, 1900, A. S. 
Meek, from same locality are in the British Museum (ex Trinjf), and one, labelled 
March, 190(1, in Australian Museum. 

As in other species of this gGrtUfy the wing markings show variations. The 
figured specnm n (plate vn.v fig. 51) and one of the other examples seen I 
rather similar, although in the last named the silvery white spots arc ;• tittle 
larger. They share a tangil udinal white flash extending from base of forewing 
nearly to termen whe7*e it expands into ;, hroad fan-shaped suffusion from just 
below apex nearly to anal angle, in yet another example (plate xxx, fig. 1) 
the White flash is replaced by a similar, but brownish-black one. This type or 
Variation* by colour replacement, is common in OstyGfflWS species. 

The genitalia (fig, Ift) have the 8th sternite with posterior margin straight. 
The tegumen has a slender, almost parallel-sided median spine with gently 
serrated outline, tie- tip of it is outwardly bout ever. There is a single small 
spine in the middle of the anterior half of teguminal margin* and a. set of live 
to six medium-Sized spines on posterior half. On one margin of the exam pi 
drawn these spines tended to bo grouped together in pairs, this is not quite so 
lent on the other margin. 

The armature of the tegumen tends to place this species near O. perplexus 
and its allies, but the central spine is very different in its proportions. In wing 
form and markings these two species obviously lie rather far apart. A link is 
that the longitudinal white fascia of the forewings, when present, shows a 
common tendency t" be expanded in basal half and be narrowed in apical part 
of the wing, suggesting some ancient tie. The markings of the wings tttigW also 
suggest a relationship with O. rilct/i, but the SuWalcate brewing of the present 
species is quite distinctive. 

The above description and figures were prepared before the paper by Y'ntto 
beoajne available; the species seems unquestionably to be. that described by Viette, 
but there has been no time for a direct comparison of specimens. 


Records of toe S.A. Museum 


Plate xxxi, fig. 1-2 and text fig. 20 

Male. Antennae pale ochreous, pectinations short, less than 1. Head and 
thorax dark ochreous- fawn, abdomen pale ochreous- lawn. Forewings pale 
oHnvous-fawn, slightly darker along costs with ochreous suffusions and a broad 
M-defiHed: ochreous band from eosta at four-fifths to inner margin; there are 
seven 07* more transverse rows of brown spots, some larger and with ochreous 
centres, also a subterminal scries of spots each surrounded by an ochreous patch. 
Jlindwings pale ochreous- fawn, slightly darker towards anal angle; traces of a 
series of subterminal spotBj cilia dark fawn. Wing length 2(i nmi„ expanse 
58 mm. 

Fig. 20. Oxycanwt mayri Timiale. Ml. Mini, male genitalia^ oblique Literal arid ventral 

Luc. New Guinea: Mt. Siwi, Arfak Mountains, BOO metres, 13 May, 1928, 
Dr. E. Mayr. Holotypc, a male, in British Museum (ex Tring) ; there are 
eight paratype males with the same details. A worn male example, not critically 
studied, is dated as having been taken 23rd April, 1928, at the same locality. 

A paratype specimen (plate xxxi, fig. %) differs somewhat from the example 
described above, being superficially similar to the type of 0. per plexus. As in 
that species, it possesses a white flash from base to termen of forewing. The 
hindwing, however, agrees well with the type as also do characters of the 
genitalia; it seems evident that wing markings follow the same tendency to 
variation as is met with in many other species of Oxyoanus. 

Tindale — Revision of the Ghost Moths 


The male genitalia (fig. 20) have the tegurnen much as in 0. perplexus, but 
the anterior notched portion is shorter, the central elevation is more conspicuous 
and in posterb-ventral view appears as a dark, serrated, nearly circular plate; 
there are no large, and only a few small spines on the posterior half of the 


Plate xxx, fig. 4 and text fig. 21 

Male. Antennae ochreous, short, hnhy, pectinations short, (half or less), 
palpi projecting beyond irons; head and pronotum pale ochreous-brown, rest of 
thorax paler; abdomen creamy-fawn slightly more ochreous at base. Forewings 
pale grayish-brown, ratter more gray along costa, with traces of brown spots 
surrounded by ochreous patches arranged in transverse series across wiims; cilia 
dark [awn. II ind wings pale ochreous fawn with a dusky suffusion extending 
inward from anal angle between 0rtn, and Cu 2 veins; in life the base of wing was 
probably tinged pink, traces of this remain; cilia dark fawn. Wing length 
26 mm., expanse 56 mm. 

Fitf. it. Ojti<u,tux f /t\v< IHnAale, RIt Siwdj May* male genitalia, oblique lateral 

riTirl \ <ii t t :il \i--\vs. 

hoc. New Guinea: Mt. Siwi, Arfak Mountains, BOO metres, 13 May, 192S, 
E. Mayr; type, a mate, in British Museum (ex Tring) ; there is one other avail- 
able example, a worn male, with same details. 

This species was taken at the same time and place as 0. mmjri, of which 
it, at first glance, might be taken to be merely a variant form in which the lore- 
wing markings were partly suppressed- Tlie resemblances in the liindwing 

336 Records of tiie S.A. Muskcm 

accentuate the similm-it \ . However, the greater degree erf rounding of the hind- 
$ appears reai, tin iv are ao subterminal spots, and the genitalia show 
marked dififereneeg, beifag especially diatinot because of the exaggerated foldic 5 
of the central eminence of the tegtunen. This foldin < entuated by a Lateral 

ridging of the margin between it and the airterior extremity (tig. 21). 

In both examples of bhfe species the anterior portion of the tejjomina] 
margin is few acutely notched than in o. perplexus and Di mayri; in the presence 

<'I a medium-sized spine and traces of Other smaller ones on the posterior pari 
pf Hie tep-umen it is closer to the former species. The harpes rise from a broad 
narrowed median portion which is dilated in a knob-like extremity. 

The complex of forms heir described as 0. perplexus, (). mayri and (), disci- 
pruii/s hM\r constituted a probleifcj the complexities of which may, or may not 

be» n solved. All three have points of resemblance, in size, range <>f markings 
and general faeies, and it is evident that they belong to a <dosely linked species 
group. O. perplexvs and (). muyri were taken in the same general area, at 
slightly different altitudes, 3*500 yerm& Z,500 feet, at periods of the year at 
leant '■'■[ months apart. Singe Oxifcanv.s adults have a very brief non-feeding 
adult life, the emergence period i> usually restricted, hence the different emer- 

e periods may have significance. The genitalis are different, although some- 
times lhe\ require more than superficial examination to establish the differences. 
Acceptance of 0. pi rpl<xns and Q 4 mayri as distinct species on these grounds 
does not immediately resolve the puzzle because the wing markings in the two 
fcpecies are variable and uum patterns appeal' to range counter to genital 
structure. A nmyriAikv torm of (>. perpl&$U& exists as well as a perpZexttS-like 
form of 0, mayri. However, the liindwine characters seem to run with irenilalia 
and help to emphasise the distinctive character of the two species. 

Uthougi the view that these are all separate species is accepted, there may 
be alternative explanations It is possible that the difference between 0. mayri 
and 0. fHi,ih i <<:-. are pnlv bf subspeeifie value, the isolating factor boing time 
of niu wgmiCi rather IJian spatial >c)«irutiuh, since the areas of occurrence are 
not Very Ear apart. 

A third possible \ iew would be that the genitalia themselves are not constant 

and that all I .lie variant forms belong to one Species which also has a wide range 

in time of emergence. In the case of Australian members of the menus Oiuftpzra 

bnilar situation was met, but was resolved on further work, when the fo-i,./ 

• proved all to be quite separate specie 

The present specie**, 0. ctisi ipcttuis, docs not assist the solving of the problem 
and is puzzling in another way. It was taken along with examples of 0. mayri. 

Tjndale — Revision of the Ghost Moths 


at the same time and place. There are some similarities in markings, but the 
genital structures are very distinct, although they show relationships with those 
of both 0. nuft/ri and 0. petylexus. 


Plate xxvi, fig, 8 and text; fig. 22 

Male. Head and thorax oehreous brown, abdomen pale fawn. Forewings 
oehreous brown, slight ly darker in centre of wing, with two discoidal silvery- 
white spots, eaell narrowly margined with black; traces of other dark spots below 
them, and series of smaller white-centred spots, rimmed with pale fawn, along 
fcenxienj also a double BUbterminal series rather irregularly aligned. Hindwings 
pale lawn. Wings below pale lawn, the hindwiuus slightly more ochreous-tinged. 
Forewing length 30 mm., expanse Go' mm. 

Fig. 22. Oxycawm hebe Tindalc, Fak Fak. male genitalia, oblique lateral ami ventral 

Lor, New (iniiie;!: Fak Fak, 1,700 feet, January and February, I DOS 
(Pratt). Type, a male, 1 fM 1-1 IT in British Museum. 

Although this species occurs in the same district and altitude as (). thastoS 
and is about the same size, it appears about a month later in the season and 
evidently is quite distinct. Its genitalia ( ; fig. -2) are entirely different in form, 
possessing a large median expansion mi the tegumen which curls inwards and 
then outwards so that the processes of opposite sides almost meet in the midline. 
The only available example, unfortunately, lacks its antennae. Without examina- 
tion of the genitalia the example would probably have been placed with 0. nigri- 

338 Records of the S V Museum 

punctii to which it, has a close superficial resemblance. It differs in the relatively 
large size of its Eprewiage and the shape of the short Wide hindwinirs. The 
genitalia arc closest to those oil! 0. di is but differ in the much enlarged 

size of the median process on the lee_Timcn and in possessing "norma!" harpes 
rather than t he knob-like cues of 0. discip< mnis. 

Oxycajstcjs ( Pakaoxyoaxuk) novagujneensis (Viette) 

Paraoxycauus toVtoffWWtt i nsis Viette, 1950, Zool. Med., Leiden, 31, p. 68, ft™ 3 

and 8. 

Lor, New Guinea: Paniai, 4 September, 1939, taken by the Nieuw Guinea 
Expedition, K.N.A.G., 1939. Type in Leiden Museum. 

The temimen in this aperies, which has nol been seen, is figured as very 
similar to that of 0tiybunn& tamsi t described earlier in this paper. In the key 
given here the species would Fall out close to 0. flamst, but the harpes appear 
much shorter in the present species. The two were taken at different times of 
the year and are different in si:-', and cohwaf ion. 


(See Part 111, these Records, v. 5, 1935, p. 280-331,) 

Large series of moat Qf t lie Australian species of Qxycmus have been brought 
together by collectors since the earlier Revision appeared and several additional 
new species have been discovered; in the main, however, the account of t lie 
genus given earlier still holds. 

Oxycanus bvksa (IMitzner) 

Ptitznei could 001 have examined this form closely for, despite the different 
venation, lie regarded it merely as a variety of "Pit! us kyaZinatU$" Pfitzner 
and Grcde. in Seitz Macrolepidopfera 10, 1983* p. 834, retained it in Abantiades. 
The late Dr. B. L. Middleton took m;iny specimens at Ebor, New South Wales, in 
April and May, and it is now a Comparatively well-known species; examples 

il\ matching the type have been taken. The venatidnal patterns and general 
structure dearly indicate that it is an Oxycauus. 

QXYCANTXS oi.AUKirn »n. nov. 
Plate xxxii. fig. 1-4 and text flg, 23 
Male. Antennae moderate, ochreous, pectinations short, less than 1- palpi 

brown, siiioolh-haired, porrcr, not lonu; head and thorax p a l e brown, abdomen 
at base oehreons. becoming pale brown at apex. Forewing opaque, didl brown 

Tindale — Revision of the Ghost Moths 339 

with scattered yellow scales concentrated along veins, along costa at three- 
fourths, and in an obscure band from base to outer margin at one-half; there is 
a silver spot near apex of cell and traces of another nearer to base, the area 
betWe&l them is uniformly brown; there is a marginal series of brown spots 
between the veins from apex to inner margin, with a parallel submarginal series 
and traces of still others in the middle of the wing; several of them have traces 
of silvery-white scales forming centres to the spots. Hind wings pale ochreous 
at base and along veins, becoming dull brown towards apex. Witig length 
26 mm., expanse 56 mm. 

Female. Larger, generally gray with si few traces of markings chiefly 
confined to a small irregular silvery-white spot near apex of cell and a few dark 
brown scale patches also in the cell; the base of the abdomen and the base of 
hindwings obscurely ochreous. Win" length 41 mm., expanse B8 mm. 

%OCt Western Australia: no specific locality indicated; type, a male, and 
allotype, female, in British Museum (labelled W. Australia, G. C Shortbridge, 
1906-293); there are seven oilier examples. 

T have pleasure in naming this interesting' species after Mr. L. Glauert, who, 
as Director of the Western Australian Museum at Perth, has done so much for 
the general study of zoology in Western Australia. 

As in so many others of this genus, the wing patterns and colours of the 
male of this species show considerable variation in detail. The type is well 
marked and dark; one paratype tends to a pale extreme with the posterior 

fig. 23, Oxyeanup (/laur.rti Tindale, Western Australia, outline of teguinen in lateral 
view and of eighth sternitc. 

three-fifths of the wing yellowish and markings largely suppressed. A third 
male is much worn but shows a darker phase in which the yellow scales are not 
as evident. 

Examination of the male genitalia will at once identify the species. The 
tegumen bears three principal spines (fig. 23), a medium-sized anterior one, 
followed by a slightly smaller one, then a large posterior one, swollen at base and 
tapering to a sharp spine. The 8th sternite has its hind margin evenly concave. 

340 Records of the S.A. Museum 

The simple posterior spine of the tegumcn is hi marked contrast with the 
many-spined process found here in 0. determinatus (Walker), its nearest ally 
in Western Australia. From that species it differs conspicuously also in the 
much shorter, rather porrect palpi. Of Eastern Australian species it has, hi 
the male, the most general superficial resemblance to 0. nuptialis Tindale. 
Absence of an armed posterior lobe to the tegumen of this species indicates the 
two are not very closely related. 


Plate xxxii, fig, 5-G and text fig. 24 

Male. Antennae pale fawn, pectinations weak (U-2) ; palpi slender, porrect 
smooth-haired; head and thorax fuscous, abdomen Eight yellowish-fawn becoming 
a little darker at apex. Forewings pale ochreous fawn; the costa dark fawn; 
markings comprise a series of obscure dark fawn spots, one series diminishing 
in ske staining from near apex to near inner angle with several obscure 
blotches of the same colour surrounding white scales on each side of vein R n . 
-Hindwing rather narrowly ochreous-fawn aloiig costa and on veins, elsewhere 
fuscous. Wing length 27 mm., expanse 60 mm. 

Female. Larger, with elongate forewings uniformly pale grayish-fawn in 
both wings, with traces of a semi-lunate white patch of scales at apex of cell 
of forcwing. Wing length 40 mm., expanse 87 mm. 

\ — ^V 

Fiiz. 24. Oxyranxis kochi Tindale, Australia, outline of tegumcn, and of eighth steruite. 

Lot. Australia. Type, a male (No. 10797), and allotype, female (No. 
10798), in Senckenberg Museum (labelled only as "Australien") ; also one para- 
type, male, labelled u Ncw Holland," in Oxford University Museum. 

The abraded condition of the three specimens and their lack of exact 
provenance has hitherto deterred me from a description. ITowever, the genitalia 
of the males are distinctive and will enable the species to be readily recognised 
when further material conies to hand. The similarities in the palpi in the two 
Senekenberg examples helps to convince me that they are correctly associated 
as male and female of one species. The lastnamed examples long stood in the 

Tindale — Revision of the Ghost Moths 34 1 

Scnckenberg collection under a name label ^kyalinatus Kocii." They are y of 
course, typical members of the genus Oxycanus. 

The species appears to be distantly related to 0. nuptialis and there are 
some general resemblances, such as the slightly pointed wings of the male and 
the somewhat < mmgalcd wings of the female, but the body build is more robust. 
the markings less evident, and the genitalia show distinctive features. 

The male genitalia have the tegumen with a long anterior projection and 
also ? Large bifurcate posterior pair of blunt spines with a straight margin 
between them (fig. 24). In the key by Tindale (1935, p. 283, et. seq.) it would 
fall on p. 287 under a heading "gff, TfegumesJl with only posteriorly directed pest 
susperisorial spines or projections." 

The very battered Oxford University Museum example seems undoubtedly 
to belong here, the genitalia, so far as they may be seen without dissection, beinj 
identical. The forewings bear more definite silvery-white markings which 
occupy a roughly Y-shaped space near the extremity of the cell and below it. 
In this detail the Species bears a superficial resemblance to the male of 0. nip* 
hadias in which, however, the markings are nearer to the base of the wing. < Hher 
markings present include two ill-defined silvery-white spots in the cell. 


Plate xxxii, fig. 7 and text fig. 25 

Male. Antennae and palpi not preserved in available specimen; hra<| and 
thorax pale fuscous, abdomen yellowish fuscous. Forewings bright ochreous 
yellow with pale fuscous on basal halt' of eosta and generally along inner man/in: 
fuscous-margined silvery-while spots forming two parallel series from near apeN 
io inner margin, with two larger angulate markings towards base of wimj;; there 
is a series of semi-lunate marginal fuscous marks between the veins along outer 
margin. Hindwings bright ochrcous yellow, almost orange in colour on cost a, 
along outer margin, and on veins, with infuscatioiis between the veins; traces of 
three outer-marginal fuscous BpOt&. Wings below generally fuscous tinged with 
ochreous along margins and at base of hindwing. Wing length .34 mm., expanse 
7 ft mm. 

Loc. Western Australia. Typ< , I male, in British Museum (labelled W. 
Australia, G, V. Short bridge, 1*06,298). 

In the key previously published, Tindale (1935, p. 283), this species falls 
dose to 0. poiJnus, although the general appearance is strikingly different, 
showing, instead of the mixed brown and ochreous colours, a rather uniformly 

342 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Fig. 25. Oxycanus armatus Tindale, Western Australia, outline of- tegumen, and oi 
eighth sternite. 

yellow background tint on the forewings and also ini'useated hindwings instead 
of plain reddish-ochreous ones. 

The male genitalia differ in the shape and size of the posterior lobe of the 
tegumen. In 0. poeticus this is large and subcircular with a margin only feebly 
serrated, whereas in 0. armatus this posterior lobe is small, longer than wide, 
and armed with two large and a series of seven smaller seriate spines (fig. 25). 

Oxycanus sokdidus (Herrich-Schaeffer) 

Plate xxxii, fig. 8 

An extreme form of this species with the silvery markings greatly expanded 
was taken by Mr. Charles McCubbin at Langwarren, Victoria, in early May, 
1947, and through the courtesy of Mr. Nigel Quick I have examined a further 
series of 10 males and 3 females taken together on 10 May, 1947, ranging from 
a light brownish -ochreous form without markings on the forewing to the silvery 
extreme form. 

The last named form superficially resembles 0. stellans, but the base of 
abdomen and hindwings are almost crimson and the same wings are distally 
often a dingy gray. The markings of forewings are differently disposed. The 
tegumen is of typical 0. sordidns form and readily distinguishable from 
0. stellans by the longer principal spine on the tegumen, the margin of which 
is shorter than in 0. stellans. 

Three similar examples were taken by Mr. David Holmes at Red Hill. 
Victoria, on 25th May, 1952. Plate xxxii, fig. 8, shows one of his examples 
expanding 71 mm. In this the forewings, base of hindwings and body are flashed 
with a dull reddish-colour, becoming paler towards margins of wings. The 
silvery markings are widely expanded and edged and lined along veins with dull 

Tindale — Revision of the Ghost Moths 343 


This paper describes and figures fifteen new Oxycanus moths of the family 
Hepialidae from New Guinea, and also three new species from Australia. The 
status and synonymy of eight previously described New Guinea species is 

344 Records of the S.A. Museum 



Fig. 1. Oxycanus rihyi Tindale, male, Dohunsehik, type. 

_'. Oxycanus subocTwacfia (Jtnjaey and Talbot), male. Wandammen Mts., November. 
i •'■- Oxycanus suboehrucect (Joicey wad Talbot); male. Wandamraefl Mts.. Novci. 

Fig. 4. Oxycanus thoe Tindale, male, Wassiur, July, type. 

Fig. 5. Oj-yeanvs thasus Tindale. male, Pak Ft»k, December, type. 

Fig. 6*. Oxycanus $0TV&tU& Tindale, male. W<mdiwoi. July, type. 

Fig. 7. Oxycanus salnif>nacca (Rothschild and Jordan), male, Anga.bunga River. 

Fig; 8. Oxyoanua Jiebe Tindale, male, Fak Fak, type. 


Fig. 1. Oxycanus tamsi Tindale, male, Mt. Goliath, February, type. 
Fig. 2. Oxycanus tamsi Tindale, male, Mt. Goliath, January, paratype. 
Fig. 3. Oxyoanua tamsi Tindale, male, Ml. Goliath, February, melanin form. 


Fig. 1. Oxycanus dives Tindale, male, Mt. Kunupi. type. 

Fig. 2. Oxycanus dives Tindale, male, oehreous brown form, Mt. Kunupi. 

Fig. 3. Oxycanus dives Tindale, male, white-streaked form. Mt. Kunupi. 

Fig. 4. Oxycanus dives Tindale, male, form with markings suppressed. Mt. Kunupi. 

Fig. 5. Oxycanus hecabc Tindalo, male. Hunstoinspitze. February-March, type. 

o\ Oxycanus hecabr form htiu. Tindale, male, TTunM' •insoitze, August, type. 


Fig. 1. Oxycanus xois Tindale, male, D<thunsehil;, June, type. 

I' i^; 2. 0.rycjiuns Xoia Tindale, male, Angi Lake, June. 

Fig. :». Oxycanus albostrigata (Rothschild), female, Bolauberg, inland from Tluon (?uir f type 

Fig, 1. Oxycanus cos Tindale. male, Cyclops Mts., type. 

Fig. 5. Oxycanv>8 postflavida (Rothschild ), ma If. Cnrstensz Peak, type. 

Fig. o\ Oxycanus fuliginosa (Rothschild ) , probably a. male, Carstensz Peak, type. 

Fig. 7. Oxycanus salwonofea (Rothschild and Jordan), male, Augabunga River, type. 


Fig. 1. Oxycanus mceM (Viette), male Biagi. 

Fig. 2. Oxycanus mclcj < Viette), male, Biagi. 

Fig. 3. Oxycanus thoc Tindale. male. Wassior, July, paratype. 

Fig. 4. Oxycanus dise-ipennis, Tindale, male. Mt. Siwi, May, type. 

Fig. 5. Oxycanus atrox Tindale, male, Buntibasa, August, type. 

Fig. 6, Oxycanus atrox Tindale. male, Huntilia-a. August. 

Fig. 7. Oxycanus albostrigata (Rothschild), male. 1.'.. lm n Mts., allotype. 

Fig. 8. Oxycanus albostrigata (Rothschild), female, Kawlinsoii Mts. 


Fie. 1. Oxycanus mayri Tindale, male, Mt. .Siwi, May, type. 

Fig. i*. Oxycanus mayri Tindale, male. wdii re-si reaked form, Mt. Siwi. May. 

Fig. ;'►. Oxycanus pcrpUxus Tindale, mule. Ninay Valley, form without white &trea£ 

Fig. 4. Oxycanus perpltxux Timlnle, male. N~m:*y Valley, type. 


Fig. 1. Oxycanus glauerti Tindale, male, Western Australia- 
Fig. 2, Oxycanus glanrrH Tindale, male, Western Australia. 
Fig. 8i Oxycanus glauerti Tindale, female, Western Australia. 
Fig. 1. Oxycanus glantrii Tindale, female, Western Australia. 
Fig. 5. Oxycanus hochi Tindale, male, Australia, type. 
Fig. 6. Oxycanus kochi Tindale, female, Australia, allotype* 
Fig. 7. Oxycanus arrnatus Tindale. male, Western Australia, type. 

Fig. S. Oxycanus sotdidus (llerrich Srhaeffer », mule, silvery white marked form, Red Hill, 

I J !•:<■:. S.A. \IusM \i 

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Vol. XI. Plate XXXI 

Rkc. S.A. Museum 

Vol. XI, Plate XXXI 1 


- ■ • 






by Charles P. Mountford, honorary associate in ethnology, 

South Australian Museum 


Only two methods of aboriginal rock markings have been recorded in Australia, (a) the rock 
engravings on the Triassic sandstone of the Hawkesbury River basin of New South Wales, which 
consist of outline figures of human beings and creatures cut into the soft rock, some of them up to 
sixty feet in length, (1) and (b), the pecked or intagliated rock engravings of western New South 
Wales and South Australia in which the designs, usually of small size, are made up of a series of 
small pits, close together, probably as the result of blows from a sharp-edged boulder held in the 
hand (2). The latter type of rock engraving has a wider distribution than at present recorded, the 
writer having photographed examples of Korporilya Springs and the Iromba rock-hole in the 
Macdonnell Ranges of Central Australia and at Tomsons rock-hole in north-western Central 


By CHARLES P. MOUNTFORD, Honorary Associate in Ethnology, 

South Australian Mrsi im 

Plate xxxiii and text fig. 1-5 

Only two mot hods of aboriginal ruck markings have been recorded in Australia, 
(a) the rock engravings on the Triassie sandstone of the Hawkesbury River 
basin of New South Wales, which consist of outline figures of human beings 
and creatures cut into the soft rock, some of them up to sixty feet in length, 
(1) and (1)), the pecked or intagliated rock engravings of western New South 
Wales and South Australia in which the designs, usually of Small size, are 
made up of a series of small pits, close together, probably as the result of blows 
from a sharp-edged boulder held m the hand (2). The latter type of rock 
engraving has a wider distribution than at present recorded, the writer having 
photographed examples of Korporilya Springs and the Iromba rock-hole in the 
Maedonnell Ranges of Central Australia and at Tomsons rock-hole in north- 
western Central Australia. 

While a member of the 1937 University of Adelaide anthropological expedi- 
tion to the Granites gold fields and the 1940 expedition to the western deserts 
of Central Australia, the writer observed aborigines producing rock pictures 
by a hitherto unrecorded technique. 

The Method. Tn the arid parts of Australia, the exposed rock surfaces are 
coated with a dark-red patina, which is destroyed when struck with a hard 
object, exposing the lighter-coloured stone underneath. The aborigines have 
used this characteristic to produce their simple designs. 

In the Granites area, the aboriginal took a small pebble (Plate xxxiii, fig. A 
and B), and in the Musgrave Ranges, an upper grinding stone (Plate xxxiii, 
fig. C), and by pounding the surface of the rock produced the light-coloured 
marks which made up the design. 

These rock poundings have a different appearance from that of the intagli- 
ated engravings. This difference was strikingly illustrated at the Iromba rock- 
hole in the Macdonnel) Ranges where there were a number of these rock 
engravings, among them being a series of bird tracks. Immediately below one 
of these bird tracks some aboriginal had made a copy of one of them by 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

rock-pounding technique, leaving the pounding tool, an oval boulder, near-by 
(Plate xxxiii, fig. D). 

The eight localities in which rock-pounding designs have been found (ex- 
eludiag the Tromba rock-hole) arc indicated on fig. 1. They are the Granites 
gold fields and Tomsons rock-hole in north-western Central Australia; Mt. Olga, 
northern Musgrave Ranges, and Kanbi. Tjitibidi, Atalnya and Kuna in the 
Mann Ranges. The last six localities are in the western deserts of Central 

Fig. 1. Localities of rock-pounding designs. A, Granites gold fields. B, Tomsmis rock 
hole. C, Mt. Olga. ~D, Northern Musgrave Range. E, Tjitabidi, north-extern Mann Range. 
F, Atalnya, north-eastern Mann Range. G, Kuna, northern Maun Range. II, Kanbi, southern 
Mann Range. 

Australia. Further research will almost certainly show that this method of 
rock marking has a much wider distribution. 

The meaning of the designs. It has been possible to find out, from the 
aborigines themselves, the meanings of a number of designs recorded in this 
paper. From this it is reasonable to assume that the remainder, even though 
they have not been deciphered, would have a meaning. They could not, how- 
ever, be interpreted without the aid of the artist who produced them. 

Fig. 2. A, Musgrave Ranges. The circles represent breasts of young girls 
and the barred double circle the pendant breast of an old woman (Plate xxxiii, 
fig, C). C, Kanbi. Mann Range. The spiral with radiating lines on the upper 
edge pictures a ceremonial head-dress. The lower figures were unidentified. D, 

Mountford — A Method of Aboriginal Rock Markings 34' 

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348 Records of the S.A. Museum 


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Mountford — A Method of Aboriginal Rock Markings 349 

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Fig. 4. Kock-poaiiiliiig designs* 

Kanbi. The central group are crude alphabetical symbols made by aboriginal 
children who had attended a recently-established • mission school. E, Tjitabidi, 
Mann Ranges. An aboriginal, having ran an emu down on a liot day, returned 
to camp at the Tjitibidi rock-hole and commemorated the remarkable feat by 
pounding a series of emu and human footprints on a tall boulder. The emu 
footprints indicate the bird lie had just captured and the dots his own tracks. 
The paired meandering lines picture two WtiMtribi (rainbow serpents) who, 
the aborigine* believe, live in the near-by Filtadi rock-hole. P, Mt. Digit; B, G 
and .), Aialnya; and H and K ? Kiina, were not identified. 

Fig. 3. B, Granites. The meandering lines are the tracks of a mythical 
snake, irana, the paired tracks those of a kangaroo, and the bird tracks a 
bustard. C, Granites. Motor car. T), Granites. Motor lorry. E, Granites. 
Totem te map; a represents Burgidji, a totemie place adjacent to the Granites, 
the home of the mythical opossum, tanumba, who travelled to Bia; h, a place 
to the south. The lines c 3 d, e symbolize the tracks made by the mythical 
opossum. P, Granites. Mythical snake, wana. G, Granites. The figure on 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

Fig. 5. Rook-pounding designs. 

Mountford — A Method of Aboriginal Rock Markings 351 

the right is an old woman, Pundunda, and that on left an old man, Dina. H 
and J, Granites. Two white men whose hats distinguish them from aborigines. 
K, Granites. The rock-pound ing design is shown on Plate xxxiii, fig. A and B. 
The meandering lines on the right symbolize two mythical snakes, wana, which 
I 'dong to the area. The loops at the top of the design are their fangs and the 
double circle a1 the bottom the hole from which they had emerged. The tracks 
are those of an unidentified water-bird, kaliwa, and the meandering line on 
the right a small spinifex snake called ivilcjibura. A, Tomsons rock-hole, and 
1j, Granites, were not identified. 

Fig. 4. K, L, M, N, Tomsons rock-hole. Snake designs. 0, Granites. 
Snake, wana, entering hole. 11, Granites. TJie ivamnga or head-dress of the 
mythical opossum, fanumba. A, B, 0, D, E, F, G, I, P, Q, Tomsons rock-hole. 
Not identified. 

Fig. 5. A, Tomsons rock-hole. Simple human figures, meandering lines, 
abstract designs and kangaroo tracks. D and E, Tomsons rock-hole. Maze 
designs probably representing the tracks of snakes. C, Tomsons rock-hole, and 
B, F and G, Kuna, Mann Range, not identified. 


( 1 ) Campbell, W. 1). ( 1899) : Aboriginal Carvings of Port .Jackson and Broken 

(2) Mountford, C. P. (1935) : A survey of the Petroglyphs of South Australia. 
Aust., N.Z. Ass. Adv. Science, pp. 208-215. 

352 Records of the S.A. Museum 



A. Pebble used to produce rock-poundings at the Granites gold field. 

B. Aboriginal producing rock-pounding designs at Granites gold field. 

C. Aboriginal producing rock-pounding designs at northern Musgrave Eanges. 

D. Intagliated rock engravings (outlined) and rock-pounding design at Iromba rock-hole, 
Macdonnell Ranges. 

In < . S. \. \Ii'M 

Vol. XI, Plat*: XWIIi 






byM. F. Glaessner, University of Adelaide 


The study of the fossil remains of pelagic animals is one of the most promising approaches to the 
problem of inter-regional stratigraphic correlation. The re-assessment of the relative ages of 
Tertiary strata in southern Australia which is now in progress, makes it necessary to record all 
available information on fossils representing pelagic animals, and therefore likely to be encountered 
in other areas. The four groups discussed in the present contribution, the Cephalopod genus Aturia, 
the penguins, squalodont whales and cetotheriid whales, are approached from different points of 
view. Ample material of Aturia is now available which makes it possible to revise taxonomic 
concepts and define the regional stratigraphic value of at least two species. The use of Aturia for 
inter-regional correlation will depend on a general revision of its morphogeny and taxonomy, based 
on direct comparison of specimens from different parts of the world which are traditionally placed 
in different species of unknown genetic relations. 


By M. F. GLAKSSNER, University of Adelaide 
Plates xxxiv-xxxvi and text fig. 1-7 


Ti !'•: study of the fossil remains of pelagic animals is one of the most promising 
approaches to I lie problem of inter- regional stratigraphic correlation. The re- 
assessment of the relative ages of Tertiary strata in southern Australia which 
is now in pi-ogress, makes it necessary to record all available information on 
fossils representing pelagic animals, and therefore likely to be encountered in 
other areas. The four groups discussed in the present contribution, 1hc I Vpha- 
lopod genus A (n ria, the penguins, sipialodont whales and cetotheriid whales, are 
approached from different points of view. Ample material of Aturiu is now 
available which makes it possible to revise taxonomic concepts and define the 
regional stratigraphic value of at least two species. The use of Atwria for inter 
regional correlation will depend on a general revision of its morphogeny and 
taxonomy, based on direct comparison of specimens from different parts of the 
world which are traditionally placed in different species of unknown genetic 

The discoveries of penguin bones are recorded only from a Stratigraphic 
and biostratouomic viewpoint, and a correction is made in the age determination 
of the only specimen which had been previously described. A morphological 
and systematic study of this material will he undertaken by Dr. G> (I. Simpson, 
who is a noted specialist in this field and has better facilities for comparison at 
his disposal. 

A single squalodont tooth is described mainly because of its excellent pre- 
servation and obvious differences from all known Australian cetacean teeth. 
It gives hopes of further discoveries in this field. Because of the rapid and 
comparatively well-documented evolution of this group, such discoveries will 
eventually lead to important st ratigraphie conclusions. 

The re-discovery of a long-lost, exceptionally well-preserved sknll of a whale 
is announced. It is recognized as the first Australian representative of the 
I 'etotheriidae, the ancestors pi the whalebone whales. Detailed study and 
identification of this skull has to be postponed, but it is hoped that the recording 
of the Occurrence will lead to further discoveries in the field. 

354 Records of the S.A, Museum 


The writer is indebted to Mr. EL M. Hale. Director. South Australian 
Museum, tor the loan of specimens and for other facilities; to Professors K. S. 
Hills (University of Melbourne) arid B. T. P rider ( .'University of Western 
Attatr&lift) for the loan of material for comparison; to Mr. V. Ragh&vendra Rao, 
of the GreoJogical Survey ol* India, who is at present engaged in research work 
at the University of Adelaide and who was instrumental in obtaining specimens 
here described From the ML Gambler Limestone; to -Miss M. J. Wade ( University 
of Adelaide) for the Stratigraphy column of Wilton Bluff and photography 
ol' specimens, and to Miss M. Boyce (South Australian Museum) for illustra- 
tions. This research was assisted by a generous donation from the W. Burdetl 
Fund and by con tribut ions from the General Research Funds of the University 
of Adelaide. 


Aturia claukm Toichrrl 
Plate xxxiv, fig. 2, plate xxxv, fig, 3 and text fig. L-3 

L919 Aturia atari (Basterot) Newton, Malac. Soc. London, Proc. vol. I ;, p. 160, 

pis. 5, 6. 
L989 Aturia ef. A. dezae (Sowerby) Miller and Urespin, J, Paleont.. vol. IS, 

P. 80, pi. 14, fig, 1. 
1944 Aturia clarkei Teiehert. J. Paleont., vol. 18, p. T9j pi. 15, fig, 1-4, pi. 1.6, 

fig. 1-2, text, %. 2. 
1947 Deltoidonautiius baheri Teiehert, Min. Geol. J. Melbourne, vol. ;i No. -, 

fig. 1-2. 
11)47 Aturia vov. sp. s TeicfajBTt, Min. (b-ol. J. Melbourne, vol. ->, No. 2. 
1949 Aturia clarkei atf.inu.ala Teiehert and Cotton, Pec. S.A. Mus., vol. 9, 

No. 2, p. 255, pi. 21. 

Material. Types: llolotypc of ,1. elarhn, LAV. A. No. 21406, paratypc 
ILW.A. No. 21407; holotype of .1. ctorfcfli ttttemata S.AM, No. P902T, holoi\i><' 
of I), baheri M.U.G.D. No. 1939.* 

Other material. Christies Bcachd'ort \oarlunjm section, S.A.AL P5219, 
1*7153, 1*5944, P5954, P5837 (probably I'rom this locality), A.U.CJ). U15102-5. 
Maslni Bay A.lUiJL F15099-10L Campbelltown (north of Adelaide), from a 

The following ;i Lhrevuit ion- ;nv used fur coHerl ions in which spe.-i mens IwTti n -I '. 

to atfl kept: A.P.ei.l). — Adelaide University <;.-nin L ;y Department! M. (".<.]». -Melbourne Dui 

versify GfiolOgJ Department, S.A.M. — South Austntlimi .\Tii>eiiiTi, l.W.A. — University of 
Western Australia GeolOgft 1 l>ep:irtrnenl. 

Oi.akssnek — Pelagic Fossils fkom Soma Australia 355 

depth of 60 1'eei in well, K.A.IU. 7017. ^Northern Yorkr Peninsula (between 
< M i ut on and Ardrov-;;in ), A.T'.Ci.P. Pl5l06, This specimen WBfi Found W$UlOUl 
a lahel iii the old collections; its peculiar preservation in ;i s.ilicified Lrlaueouitm 
limestone with :- 1 »<*n -o spicule suggests thm it came from ibis arcu. 

Pr( serration. Most (rf the LB new specimens are Mll-pt^firved internal 
moulds of varying sizes, ranging Eroin •» diameter »>i' only : &;"> hum. to a frag- 
mentary tttge fldttfl SpOCiiDCB with chambers 4T» him. long on the \eiitcr. The 
body Clmmbte is partly preserved in only one specimen, The shell is present 
only in specimen F15102 in which parts of the surface are perieclly pn -served. 

it i-: replaced by SJttoa in FJ510& 

Remarks, . I. clark&i was fully described by Itaiehevt (1944). The abun- 
dant m ::\\ material shows that it is impossible, to distinguish the proposed SOtttJl 
Australian subspecies .1. <hirJ,<i attenuate from the Western Australian types 
in the manner proposed by Teiehert and Cotton. The original description of 
I. clartwi tlitmUdta docs not enumerate the differences between it ami .1. chit La 
</urh,i\ tmt Die stated resemblances with A. australis, i.e., "the genera] pPOpOT 
lions of the shell, particularly the narrowly rounded venter, and slight depression 
along a vontrodateral zone/ «;in be taken 'is indications of its diagnostic sub- 
specific characters, particularly OS allciuKiiii was regarded as "intermediate 
between the two species 1 * [Teiehert and Cotton, 1949. p. 256). The study of the 
new material from the (ype locality and adjoining areas, including specimens 
more than twice the size of the specimen deseribed by Teiehert and Cotton, 
shows that these characters are not present in adult shells and that at. the size 
of the holotype of A. clarkei the venter in the South Australian specimen is lesa 
"narrow l.\ founded" ruid the. depression on the ventrolateral thinks disapp- 

The examination of the fragmentary holotype of DtlloidoiiitutUux hokeri 
showed that (lie curved "spure lines*' figured by Teiehert (1947, fig. 3) are not 
external sutures but oblique sections across the inner portions of the septa on 
the deeply eroded right lateral surface of the specimen figured in Teiehert 's 
iig. I. Preparation of the other Hank revealed the true septa which prove that 
the specimen belongs to the genus Aturia, The apparently angular venter is 
the result of abrasion. The sniure as m>w revealed (text fig. 1 ) resembles that 
of .1. clark&i in the characteristic shape of the lateral lobe and saddle. In this 
small specimen they are close-set, but in a large specimen from the same locality, 
recorded by Teiehert as A* */>., they arc nunc widely spaced, as in the typical 
A. chirkri (text fig. 2). Another point of agreement between the holotype of 
A. clarJii i and this specimen is seen in the rehitive position of the tip of the 
lateral lobe and the ventrolateral shoulders of the ventral saddles of the preeed 


Records of the S.A. Museum 


Fig. 1. Aturia clarkei Teichert. Suture lines of the fragment described as DeltoidonautUus 
bakeri Teichert, 1947. Diagrammatic. Further preparation has since revealed some 
additional details. 

Fig. 2. Aturia clarkei Teichert. Suture lines of the fragment described as Aturia nor. >•/>., 
Teichert, 1947. 

Fig. 3. Aturia clarkei Teichert. Suture lines of holotype. 

Fig. 4. Aturia stansburiensis Glaessner. Suture lines of holotype. 

ing sutures. The tips of the lateral lobes are always placed a short distance 
towards the ventral side from the rectangular shoulders so that they come to 
lie against the straight transverse portion of the ventral saddle and the successive 
suture lines are "staggered" in this region. This is never found in the specimens 
from the type horizon of A. clarkei attenuata. In these the deepest points of 
the lateral lobes are very sharp and are in line with the sides of the ventral 
saddles. It is therefore necessary to emend the subspecies attenuata, basing it 
on the character and alignment of the lateral lobes alone. .4. bakeri, which was 
based on a fragment, is probably a synonym of A. clarkei clarkei. The separation 
of the subspecies attenuata as emended appears to have some biostratigraphic 
significance as one specimen found recently in situ in the Blanche Point Marls at 

Glai^sner — Pelagic Fossils j-rom South Australia 357 

Pdauehe PoJUt, and another which comes probably from the equivalents of these 
ifi.nls on Yorke Ppnirisula ( 1 > 1 1 1 was not labelled), have the "Staggered" arrange 
menr of the sulure lines whieh is seen in the typical I. clarkfi. The hnlotyp- 
of A. <l<tr/,/i attcHuaUt and all other South Australian specimens listed above 
whieh have the lateral saddles and ventral lobes aliened come from the qndefc 
lying Tortaehilla Limestone. 

Stratigmphic position ami «</<. Two of the South Australian specimens 
come from the type locality of the Tortaehilla Limestone a! Maslin Hay, where 
they were found just south of the hut known as "Uncle Tom's Cabin" (Kevnoll 
L95S)j about :> fattt above tie- ba&e of the formation. The BpeeimanH b*om 
Qhristie's Beach are alSO EfcDW the Tortaehilla Limestone, about 7 miles north 
of Maslin Bay. The specimen from ( 'ampbelltown is preserved in a tflaueonilie 
linn-stone which is the probable subsurface equivalent of the Tortaehilla Lime- 
stone, in the Adelaide Plains Basin, about 22 miles northeast of Christie's Beach. 
The Tortaehilla Limestone grades upward into the ''transitional" member of the 
Blanche Point Marl in whieh flaniluntno nlahimn ntsis com]iressa and other 
distinctive Upper Eocene l'oraminifrra were found by the late Mr. W. Ji Parr. 
A single specimen of A, chtrkei with the typical arrangement of septa was found 
at the top of the succeeding Bamled Mail member of the Blanche Point Marls 
at the southern end of Blanche Point, about 40 feet above the Tortaehilla Lime- 
stone. The type specimen of "fhttnulohanlihix balcrrr' came from a phosphatic 
nodule bed near Princetown overlain by strata containing smaller foraminiferu 
which indicate a transition from "JanjukiEn" to "Baleombian" (Parr in Baker* 
1944). i.e.. Late Oligoeene or Early Miocene age. Teiehert considered it and 
the larger Alurin as possibly derived from the Eocene of which lower members 
are preserved east of the Gellibrand River. The lame specimen shows clear sign* 
of wear prior to depot ItiOl as the deeply worn surface of its internal mould is 
coaled with fossiliferous calcareous material. 

The "Western Australian specimens of A. darkfi are probably also of Late 
Eocene age 1 toVC previously suggested that age for the Plantajjenet beds 
in which Newton's specimen was found (fllaessner, 1953), and the same ago 
is now assigned to the Tertiary strata <»f the Kennedy flange in whieh is the 
type locality of the species (Oral information from Dr. R. O. Bruiinschweiler). 

ArnurA stansbi:riensir Bp, nov. 

PI. xxxiv. fig. la, b 

Maft rial. A single well-preserved and undeformed completely septate 
specimen, part ly an internal mould and partly a cast. A. I .( | I .). No, F1510!J, coll 
O. S. KogerSv don. Lh\ J. Vereo. 

358 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Occurrence. Stansbury, Yorke Peninsula, in bryozoal limestone. 

description. A large specimen, diameter about 120 mm., maximum thiek 

EtboUt 50 mm., maximum height of Ias1 »4ianiber 71 mm., median height of 
lnsl ehamber 50 mm. The shell \r. nut preserved. The whorls are compress**], 
flattened laterally and narrowly rounded \ent rally. Ttie Hanks are slights 
inflated near the inner and comprised n« i ar the outer third of their height. 
There arc 14-1 f> chambers in the last whorl. Hie sutures are shaped as m 
A. clarkeL and show the ^staggered" arrangement d<>eribed above. 

Comparison. This form differs from A, tfarf.ei clearly in the shape of the 
conch whieh is much more laterally compressed and has a nun* m iked ventro- 
lateral compressed zone. The chambers are shorter and more closely set. Othcr- 
the septation does not deviate from the typical shape of the suture in 
i clarkd. It differs from .1. uv.stnilis in the shape of the suture line. 

Stratigraphic position and age. This species monies from a bryozoal lime- 
stone which is the equivalent of the Port Willunga Beds of Ihe A I a si in -Aiding a 
Bay standard section. The typical foraminiferal fauna of tin- Borl Willtulgfc 
Beds with Sherhornina was found at Stansbury but has not yet been described, 
Tint aire of these beds is considered as Late Oligoeene. 

Aturu australis McCoy 
Pi. xxxv, fig. la, b and 2 

1944 Alurui australis McCoy, Teiehert, J. Paleont., vol. IS, p. 73, pi. 14, text 

fig. 3. 

Material. 1. Muddy Creek, Victoria, A.! T .(M>. No. 15108, 2. Naraeoorte 
Quarries, South Australia, S.A.M. No. 10544, No. 8810, and probably also 
A.U.G.D. No. F15097-8 (received without label from Kingston School). Both 
collections include partial internal moulds of several specimens. 3. Table Cape, 
Tasmania, M.U.G.D. No. B118. 4. Mt. Gambier, South Australia. 

Preservation. The specimens from Muddy Creek are mostly perfectly 
preserved shells. Those from Naraeoorte are mostly large internal moulds which 
are perfect and not compressed, but tend to become disjointed. The specimen 
from Table Cape is a fragment of an outer whorl of a large conch with the 
chambers vent rally up to 40 mm. long. Only an internal mould of a single 
chamber is available from Mt. Gambier. 

Remarks. The characters and affinities of this species were recently dis- 
cussed by Teiehert, who showed that an orally directed bulge in the septum just 
above the siphuncular orifice, the even curvature of the lateral saddle (Teiehert, 
1D44, fig. 2, 3), and the compressed shape of the eonch distinguish this species 

Glaessner — Pelagic Fossils from South Australia 359 

froitl A. t'litrlii. Nothing can be added to his detailed description except the 
obserwitioii thai the distinguishing character-, are also clearly recognizable in 
internal moulds. The only new reeord is that from Naracoorte* 

Stra/ii/raphic distribution find age, Tcirhorf had restricted the strati- 
■jraphie ran-r of A. amtrtltui to Miocene, following Single-ton. This is undoubtedly 
collect for itn ivpe locality, Muddy ('reck, and for Beaumaris, in Victoria* 
Teiehert questioned khe New Zealand records which have since been eliminated, 
with the cNrcpiioii of s Lute Oligoflenc or Elarly Mioeene "A. cf. amtroiis" 
(Fleming, 1!)4.Y). Teiehert aCn doul>t a lie correctness of the record from the 
Cllihrand River, hat neither ihC material nor the specimens from Brown's 
Creel, to winch chapman referred are available tor re-examination. The sp ems 
also M.Tiirs at Spring Creek near Torquay. I \ idoria ). Table Cape (T:im 
and Mt. Gambler (South Australia). At all these localities;! foraininiforal laum, 
which is older than thai from Muddy Creek was found and the age of the steal.- 
is probably late Olitroceim. The aj>o of the limestone at \ai aeoorte has not 
yet been established, but if- is probably ttol much vntrmo-r than the Mt Gambn .-r 
limestone. .1. aust rails has not been found jii the Hocene where A. vhirhvi 

occurs. The relationship between the two BjK&aies ifi therefore not one of con- 
temporaneity in different areas, hut one of substitution in time. This should 
make them most valuable index fossils. 



En 1938 Finlavson desrnbe.l the first fossil penguin bone, from Australia. 
a left humerus, which he named PalaeeudyptBS cf. anUmtkus Huxley. Three 
more penguin bones have been Fotfnd recently in the Tertiary of South Australia. 
Pending description and identification of these remains, which will be under- 
taken by Dr. G. G. Simpson at the American Museum of Natural History \vh ■■■••« 
the necessary comparative material is available, only a record of their discovery 
and stratigraphie relations is included in the present communication. 

The first specimen was found by W. Buidett at "Witt on Bluff, at the southern 
end of Christie's Beach, about 10 miles south of Adelaide. The description given 
by Mr. Finlavson was hased on the lateral [external aspect of the bone (S. A.M. 
No. P7158). It has sinee been freed from the matrix which is a soft glaueonitic 
marl. It comes from the "Transitional V| ;|I r Member which forms the bafi€ 
ol the Blanche I'oint Marls and overlies ihe Tortaehilla Limestone at this 
locality as it does at Maslin Bay 7 miles further south (Reynolds, i&53), where 
\V. .1. Parr found (Jmtthmrna alctfoaftlCfms funprcssa and other Upper Eocene 

360 Records of the S.A. Museum 

foraminifera in the Transitional Marl. The foraminiferal faunas from this 
locality and from the matrix of Finlayson's Palaeeudyptes show close agreement. 
Their investigation is proceeding. Howchin had incorrectly considered the 
marine sequences at these localities (below transgressive Pliocene) as Miocene. 

In 1952 I found another penguin bone, a right tibiotarsus (S.A.M. No. 
PI 0862) in situ just below the top of the Banded Marl Member of the Blanche 
Point Marls north of Port Noarlunga Jetty, at the base of the cliff extending 
southward from Witton Bluff, at high water level. This bed is, according to 
Miss M. Wade who mapped and measured the cliff section, about 20-25 feet above 
the Transitional Marl. There is no significant change in the foraminiferal fauna 
and the age of the bed is probably Late Eocene. The proximal end of the bone 
was eroded away by the sea and the distal end as found in the rock matrix was 
incomplete, probably because of weathering prior to embedding. The shaft of 
the bone is well preserved. 

A third bone (pi. xxxvi, fig. la, b), a right humerus (S.A.M. No. P10863), 
was received soon afterwards from Mr. P. Pritchard, of Mt. Gambler. Mr. 
Max Pritchard had found it in Pritchard Brothers 5 building-stone quarry 
about 11 miles west-north-west of the town of Mt. Gambier. It was completely 
embedded in bryozoal limestone but the distal end was lost when a block of stone 
was cut during quarrying operations. The proximal part is completely preserved 
but its surface is worn. When the matrix was carefully removed from the surface 
of the shaft of the humerus it was found marked with several deep grooves 
running across it obliquely on both sides. They are sharp-edged, narrow, and 
slightly irregular on the external side, and shallower, with more rounded edges, 
on the internal side. They are obviously injuries inflicted by some animal, either 
in connection with or subsequent to the death of the penguin. They were infilled 
with bryozoal limestone matrix. The contrast between the sharp somewhat 
splintered cuts on one side and the corresponding smoother depressions on the 
other could be due to slight abrasion of the upper surface by current-driven sand 
on the sea floor prior to complete embedding. This was suggested to me by 
Mr. P. Lawson, of the South Australian Museum. It is thought that the parallel 
cuts were made by the bite of a shark or a squalodont whale. Large sharks' teeth 
occur in the Gambier Limestone, and the tooth of a Squalodon, found at the 
same time as this bone, is described below. 

The fourth penguin bone, a small left femur (S.A.M. No. PI 0870) was 
found and presented to the writer by Mr. D. J. Leonard, of Adelaide, who 
discovered it while working on the surface of a Mt. Gambier building stone 
block. It was taken from tile matrix undamaged, but both ends showed signs 

Glaessner — Pelagic Fossils from South Australia 


I I 



s 1 

O <Ji 

^ s 


-2 J 1 


«&i e 

oq s» 




ft, - 



<M 00 

CO lO 

00 ^H 

O I> 

. T5 

o d o 

1 1 


. | 













ft o 
CD o 

362 Records of the S.A. Museum 

of wear and weathering prior to embedding- Hryozoal colonics were found in 
growing position attached to the surface of the bone. The proximal part was 
deeply splintered with a V-shaped edge, suggesting that this part may have 
beftn bitten off. Abrasion would have removed the projecting caput femoris 
rather than an adjoining triangular portion. 

The Gambier Limestone, a thick-bedded aggregate of coarse hryozoal. 
echinoderm and mollusc;]?) fragment ary and complete Specimens, is yuiinyer than 
the Blanche Point Marl and corresponds in lithology and general character of 
its t'oraminiferal fauna (which is being examined) In some of the Port Willungn 
Peds of the Masliu-Aldinga Bay Section. Typical Eocene and Mioeene fora- 
minifera are absent and the age of the deposit is considered as Oligoenne. It 
rests uneonformably on the paralic (intermittently marine) sands and clays 
of the Knight Group. 

The stratigraphie position of the four penguin bones is shown in Table 1. 



Text tig. 5a-C 

Material. One isolated perfectly preserved mulariform tooth, probably fatnu 
the right mandible. 

Occurrence. Gambier Limestone. Pritehard Brothers' quarry, about 11 
miles west-north-west of Mt. Gambler. Presented by Mr. P. Pritehard, of Mi. 
Gambier, 3952. 

Age. Prol>ably Late Oligocenc. 

flolotype. A.U.G.D. No. P15107. 

Diagnosis. The species is based on a eompiessed mulariform tooth in which 
both cutting edges are denticulate, {he median cusp is targe, the enamel is 
smooth on the labial and finely vertically ridged on the lingual side near the 
base; the roots are widely separated below a thin isthmus. 

rhscription. The tooth, which is unworn, shows a compressed, triangular, 
denticulate crown and two widely separated roots which are joined below the 
crown by a thinner lamina ("isthmus") to about one-third of their length. The 
crown ends in a strong median point which has a lung curved anterior and a 
Shorter almost straight posterior cutting edge. The anterior edge of the tooth 
shows three denticles decreasing rapidly in size downward, The h'rst (upper) 
resembles the median point in shape but is much smaller. The second ami third 

Glaessnfji — Pelagic Fossils prom South Australia 


arc conical. The cutting edge which is pronounced uu the first and second 
denticle vanishes on the third. In some places, such as the base of the main 
point and the ••inferior edge ol the upper denticle, is seems to show a minute 
secondan dent iculation. The posterior edge Of the tooth shows four well- 
developed denticles which decrease regularly in size downward, and a minute 
trace of a tilth. The cult in- edge extends to the posterior end of the fourth 
denticle and shows a tine secondary dcnticulation on the posterior edge of the 
third. The maximum anhro-posterior diameter of the tooth lies above the 
base of the crown, owing to the pronounced curvature of the edges of the third 
anterior BUd fourth posterior denticles. The general outline of the crown is 
bmadl\ I rianciihir, the points pi the denticles bemg directed upward rather than 

Pijp. 5. n-e. Squalodoft gamin' ' ><■ QlawsMjiLU'. Molutype. <i, huYml vicu , | ■ . i new; -• 

anterior view. Nat. size (approcc). 

forward or backward. The haHCS <d the denticles are separated by pronounced 
"valleys" extending Up the Slopes of the crown. There is also a short, wide, 
median depression leading from the centre of the crown towards the isthmus. 
I >n the labial side the surface of the enamel is perfectly smooth and only slightly 
fluted by the ''valleys" between 1 he denticles. On the lingual side there are faint 
fttf&ighl Vertical ragositiea which converge in the direction of the main point 
and disappear without reaching it. They do not furm any prominent projecting 
points on the surface. The base of the enamel crown is a sinuous line, faintly 
S-shaped above each rotfl bafce and rising to an angular deep embayment labially 
and a rounded shallower embayment lingually. The roots are constricted below 
i he ciown. with irreglilar shapes and roughly triangular transverse sections. The 
maximum antero-poKlerior diameter of the posterior root exceeds that of the 

364 Records of the S.A. Museum 

anterior root, but there is Jittle difference between , heir transverse diameters. 
The distance between the runts varies little though the lower end of the anterior 
ruoT i lij iilly eur\cd backward. The isthmus ends below in a sharp edge which 
is pierced in the middle by a pin-hole opening. 

1/< \08Mft ( ttun(s. Antero-posterior diameter (maximum) 30 mm., aoiero 
postci ior diameter at base of crown 27-4 mm., median height of crown on lingual 
BUrfaCC 22*0 mm., median height of crown on labial surface 20*3 mm., maximum 
I m • r u> 1 1 1 pj crown ( from lowest level ol' enamel vertically to main point) 2(H) mm., 
maximum thickness ol" crown ITU mm., leinjth ol isthmus (labial) I2-T. mm., 
length of isthmus (lingual) S*0 mm., length of anlcrior root over 80 mm., length 
of po.-terior root over 29 mm., transverse diameter of roots about 10 mm., antero- 
posterior diameter of posterior root lo-2 mm., antero-posterior diameter tit 
anterior root lu- 1 mm., maximum antem posterior diameter si maximum con- 
vexity of roots 29*2 mm., same immediately below crown 27-2 mm., total length 
(height) of tooth as preserved £4 mm. 

Disru.ssion. lu 1883 Sanger enfablJahed the specks Zeugl^don harwoodi on 

;i molariform serrate tooth 'and the fragments of* a second" which was left 
undesrribed. The type m.i!-im;l s-cms to tiave been lost (Flail, 1911), It came 
from B i'osiVdiferous yellow calcareous dtfiy OH the River Murray near Wellington. 
Houtll Australia. None ol the fossils from that locality as named by Sanger. 
who considered Them ,in cr J3eCfi] j gives any definite indication of age, but the\ 
are definitely pro-Pliocene. The accompanying fauna consisted of sharks, 
Miirut.. lamellibranchs, gastropods, and echinoids. The exact locality is bOl 
knoWH, The tooth is eorapressed and rather small, the antero- posterior diameter 
being 23 r "iu. and the median bright (if the crown 19 mm. There are four 
denticles on the anterior and six on the posterior edge.. The median cusp is not 
much larger than the adjoining lateral denticles. The surface of the enamel 
is not described in the text but appears smooth in the drawing which is probably 
correct. Coarse rugosities such as appear on other Australian squalodont teeth 
would have attracted the authors attention and would have been mentioned in 
his otherwise detailed description. The roots arc broken off below a thin 
neetin<2 "isthmus" and the author was "'inclined to think that possibly the 
isthmus was wanting in the portion broken off, so that the pillars became two 
distinct tangs-" (p. 299). These details are important in the interpretation 
of this fossil. 

The speeies was discussed by Hall (1911), who attributed to it a tooth 
from Mt. Gambler on aceounl of a similarity in the thickiiess of the roots which 
he considered as different from those ol PdTQSqualodon wilkinsom McCoy. Me 

Glaessneh — Pelagic Fossils FROM South Australia 


though) that "such a marked difference in the proportionate size of the roots 
would probably be correlated with differences in the strength of the jaws" 
(p. 258) while he considered the "variation in the ornament" as less important. 
Ou thiii boats he established the genilfi Porasqualodon tor McCoy's species and the 
genus Mciasquuhirfon for Sanger's species, describing it as follows: 

"Hoots of mnl.iriioini teeth slender and only g little longer than the height 
of the crown, tie two Bangs connected by a thin isthmus" much lis figured by 
Lydekker in Pro&qualodan, but the fangs more nearly approaching one another. 
The material does not inform ns as to whether the fangs were connected through- 
out their length by the isthmus, or whet Iter they projected freely beyond it. 
Lateral cusps rather large. Ornament as in Paraxquidodsni" 

This generic description is obviously influenced by Hall's assignment of 
the booth from Mt. Camhi.T (in the National Museum of Victoria) to Sanger's 
species. The study of moiv complete remains of toothed whales shows clearly 
that IlalFs basic assumption was WTOug and that the ornamentation of the 
BUrfaee is a valid taxonoma-- .'haracter while the ''proportionate size of the roots" 
depends on the position of the teeth in ihe .jaws. Kellogg I t923, p. 20) stated: 
ornajnentaticttl of the enamel crown (Of the tooth from Mt. (Jambier) 

csts a closer relationship with Pdr&squafadon tt'ilkivsoui. In thai case this 
tooth represents one oi' the posterior pretfi&ldrs." Flynn (1948) fully described 
a fine skull of Prusqvalodou dnvidi and on this occasion revised HalFs identi- 
fications. Tiiis led to the following revision of the legend to PlalFs plate 36: 


fParasqualodo n vilkinsoni 

Fig. 1 
Fig. 2. 
Fig. 3. 
Fig. 4. 
•Fig. 5. 

Fig. G. Mvtasqualodon harivoodi 

•Pin 7 


(Figures of holotypcs are marked in the above list with *.) 




Waurn Ponds 

Pmsqualodon davidi 

JJ 19 



Spring Creek 



Table Cape 


Castle Cove 

ii 'Ik'insom 

f Porasqualodon 

Mt. Ganibier 

iril khisoni 



Though neither K&Uogg nor Klynn are quite definite in assigning the tooth 
of IlalFs fig. 6 to McCoy's species, it obviously does not belong to M( tasqualodon 
or to Sanger's species. The genus M< tasqualodon rests therefore on the lost 

366 Records op the S.A. Museum 

specimen frona Wellington only, and until another siLiitiar specimen is found il 
cannot be redefined or propel !y understood. The new tooth from Mt. (Jambicr 
..•;-, ■ii.hloK Sim ; i' il- \ ( ilal) s Sfi Oilly in the smooth crown, but differs 

, f| Uk> si/c and im- iter of demtietefi and particular!} in 1 he very latfge size oi' the 
ir\ (lisp. Its substitution as a neotypc of Mtiuxqiialodon kwtwwdi would not 
he justified. 

Abel (WIS) had tentatively placed ZnufUninw h.anroodi in the ^enus J/?V:n> 
MUgloddy Siromer (Type Zett&laioti caxcasirum Lydekker). The discovory 
t>i a new specimen from Ihe OligOCeOfi of the Caucasus, belonging q* a! tgflftl 
i lu-,i, related to &y4eltker*S species (lijabinin. L93&] proved that, the sknl! xA 
QCasiaH form has tin- character of the Arehaeoccii and not that of the 
sqiudodoiitids. Abel had prepdsed the establishment ctfa family Mierozeuulodoii 
lidac within the Archaeoceii. A distinction between Arehaeoccti and Squalodon- 
tidae on the basis of isolated teeth is difitenll bxtl not impossible, and perhaps 
ii.»t very important if then has been a l- Ta.lal ion from khc older to the you n-er 
-roup as some ;iui h<'i-s postulate The differences in the teeth have ma been 

. -irin-iy siated, but in las description pf Keketoodon Mainata fteetor, Kdltdgg 

('1923, p. '11 ) say>.: "The unusual appearance of tlie accessory cusps, i he charac- 
ter of the enamel surface of the crown, and the large size of the teeth are 
peculiarities which place this form among the zeu^lodonts. Such features are 
unknown foi m ^pialodont .'* lb ed to ihe Archaeoceti Plutaxttus 

rasrnvuvi ( J )elfoi'1 rie ) . which >v<is based OB a sinule tooth, as their yuin- 
cepresenlative (Lower Miocene). The appearance of the aCflflSfiorj cusps and 

•haraeter of the iej surface, rc\ea)ed by further preparation of the 

liolotyp^, which will be re< I escribed elsewhere, place BqUtUodoil sirr,(fii:< l>a.vis 
f Lower Olieocene. White Hock Kiver quarries, Okuku kiver. North ( 'anicrbury, 

Zealand) in the vicinity oi luhenodon, but it is much smaller than any of 
the lemh of f( onamata, tl had been suggested by Hynn (194S. p. 1845) that 
Davis;' species miyJit he Ion e-; to ParOSQUdlodon ifULhismii McCoy, but this proved 
in he incorrect 

la ihw tooth from Mt. (.'.-nebier differs in the character of the aecc^sni \ 
cusp:--. Ihe main fctUjp, 'he enamel surfcer and I lie roots from ail these gener*) 
and species, including: J'anisfjuniodov and PfOUtlUatodm. Although it resembles 
typical Arcfaaeoceti Surf) as I) or m don in the outline of the crown and the sopara 

Of the roots, it is sandier and much more COB] pressed and resembles more 

clo-,H i-'s of the genera tTeQS(£tb&lodon and Xqihtloilon. The teeth of Jfeo* 

iuhxlon are mucli smaller. The teeth of Sqiudodon are n\'\<-u of the size of the 

!M -rserii nen, but in mosi species their surface is more rugose. It is siani- 

Glaessner — Pelagic Fossils from South Australia 


fieant that, a species distinguished mainly by smooth enamel, ff. dalpiazi, was 
recently described by Fabian i (1949). He has also shown that the roots of 
S. xcillar. (Agassi/) (8. melitensis Blainville sp, in Kellogg, 1923) are straight 
and not bOtttfttgent at their lower ends. The median cusps of molariform teeth 
of Hqaalndon are oiten strongly developed, as in the present species. For these 
reasons it is best assigned to the widespread genus Hqualodon, though confirma- 
tion from at least the discovery of complete jaws is still required. Benham 
(1942, p. 2G7) has referred isolated more strongly sculptured teeth from the 
Middle OKgoeeae of New Zealand to a species Squalodon andrewi. This material 
requires further investigation. 

In 1885 R. Tate, in a paper on the geology of the Murray River Basin, under 

the heading "Species of the Lower Slurravian," stated: 

"This series is characterized rather by lithologieal than palaeoutological 

characters, which latter are somewhat negative, as the species are few in number 

Fig. 6, 7. Ajilaocrtus? sp. nov. 6. Diagrammatic dorsal view of cranium. SO — supraoccipilal 
shield, PA— parietals, B0?— -supraorbital process of irontal, BQ — squamosum. About 
1/9 mil. size. 7. Diagrammatic frontal view of broken cranium, showing slop.' oi 
supraorbital processes. 

and somewhat sparsely distributed. Cetacean remains have occurred to me 
only at this horizon, notably at MacBe;m T s Pound, four miles I'rom Blanche- 
town, whence I obtained the entire lower jaw of a balenoid whale, six feet long, 
and at Murbko, 14 miles north of Blaneherown, whence I obtained a cranium. 
The anterior half of a Paguroid (.sic) fish in excellent preservation was obtained 
at Morgan from these beds." (Tate, 1885, p. 41, ) 

368 FIkcouds of the S A Museum 

Since that time khere seems to have beeu no further reference to the whale 
Graniom from Murbko. Enquiries have now iwufted ixi the re*dfeeefvery of this 
skull in fchecollecl Che South An i Museum (No. 1*63). biridejrtaliy, 

Tate's patrroid fish was found in the collections of the Adelaide iniversity 
GfeoTdgy fte] 'it (No. F15110) and k now beuijjS described by J\lr. T. Sc 

beds termed "tower Miirravlati^ by Tate are currently placed b the Lower 


The posterior portion of the skull is well preserved and entirely mulisiorted 
(fig. 6, 7). It is 480 runt; wide between the broken ends of the /\^om,itie 
processes and bVCT 300 nun. Lfl ErOCT tie itai com!) li to the broken 

atiiri'ior edges of the supraorbital processes. Its maximum height is about 
240 mm. and the, distance from the upper ftargiti of the foramen rnagfittrh to 
the apex of the supraoreipital shield is 213 >"iii. The frontorostral portion is 
hnt an ii -, tfid I ran-: verse SflGtiOH 7) near the orbital plane is 

exposed on the br&fkcD face of the specimen. The palatal surface was well 
d and baa bean \'\^<\ from the matrix by a previous invr W. The 

skull is tilled with yellowish liner i which small fossils occur. 

lite: skull, which Was discovered by Tate more than 70 yctfra ago, is the 
first member of Ik [ae, a ej'oiip of ancestral whalebone wlmles, 

from Australia. Kellogg ( 1928, p. 135) described the nu 0$ this 

>y as follows: 

"... we find ilai the skulls of all known edentulous Mio fcothesreS 

have supraorbital processes that slope gradually outward from the dorsal sm 

of the intcrorhital reeiun to tie 1 rim of the Orbit and are never abrupt k depressed 

My below the level of the Fprniei as in the bal&eftopterine wludes. Many of 
fcheee cetotheres retained a well defined intertemporal r< mistitmed ettl 

k the parietal-:, wrbiflh meet along the median line in front of the snpraoceipital 
shield. In moat gpticiefi the brain and broad, hut the supraibctnpltal 

shield ls quite e in sh ad extent, de] fit mrt upuu the degree 

Ke! cm tq discuss tfli position of the maxillaries to the 

Biw3 the relations bet wee inn and Imainc.^e generally. The rele 

portion of Ihe skull i rved in Hie present specimen. 

More recently, the same author (Kellogg, 1940, pp. 3-4) confirmed his diag- 
nosis of the Ototf > whalebone whales belom-nm to the bmiily 
Octotheriidae were ihe precursors of the Reeent Mystieeii. These cetaceans differ 
from one another in the extern q£ the forward overthrust of the snpraoceipital 
shield ami in Mx- degree Of interdigilation of the posterior ends of I lie rostral 
bones with the interorbital region. Skulls of all b'e.eni whalebone whales 

Glaessner — PELAGIC Fossils from South Australia 369 

differ from those of the archaic less highly modified .HoUierrs in one very 
important detail, namely, the abrupt depression of the basal portions of the 
supraorbital processes below the median inlerorbital portions of the frontals. 
On all these, ceiothe.-e skills the supraorbital processes slope gradually down- 
ward ami outward from the level of the -ioi-d surface of the mterorbital region. 
Thus these criothere skulls are particularly distinguished from all Recent whale- 
bone whale skulk; by the fact llu.l the proximal portions of their supraorbital 
processes haw not as yet been abruptly depressed below the level of the mediaJi 
interorbital elevation of the frontals." 

KellQgg has also described a number of new genera (Mixocetus, Copkocclus, 
.{(flaocrtus Kellogg, 1934) of which the last -tamed, from the Lower Miocene | ?) 
r.M; (Un nian Formation, is i caresi bO the South Australian specimcir This shows 
in dorsal view a HV} lai "•" triangular supraorcipilal shield without a distinct 
median crest. Its ap«- \u& forward to JUSJ bevraid the level of the posterior 

margins ot' the supraorbital processes of the frontal. The parietals form a shori 
sharp sauiltai crest i p fronj ol' the apex and separate it from the rostral elements, 
DUSarencefi in the posterior ami palat its of the skull and deficiencies 01 

its preservation, particular \ of the terminations of the zygomatic pio.-esses, make 
it difficult to decide, without further detailed study and comparison, whether the 
South Australian specimen can be placed in the South American genus or in one 
of the other closely related genera, but the characters mentioned above and illus- 
trated in fig. 6 and 7 .justify the inclusion of this fossil in the family ( Vtothcriidae 
under Hie pro\ : aiottal designation of A<i(a<;nttus f nov. sp. 

It is of considerable interest that Kclio-u (<|iioted by Benham, 1942, 
pp, 2lH, Hb:;) tiad considered the fragmentary skulls from the Upper OligOCGtie 
Of New Zealand, described by Benham first (1937) as ttiphocephdu* (v<>,n 
prnnr.) and later (1042) as Mauicetifl o'/r/.V, as similar to Acilaoretus. The 
arguments <iiven by Benham against this view do not seem to carry much 

hi. These and Other New Zealand < rtacean remains need careful re-prepara- 
tion, re-examination, and eomp-< with Australian and other material which 
is likrl 3 to >eld important results in the fields of phytogeny MA biostratigraphy. 

Abel, 0, (1813) : !>h l Vorfalnen cter BftfteHV ale. Denkschr. Akad. d. Wissensch. 

Wien, vol. 00, pp. ir>f>-224. 
Raker, G. (1944): The gcologj of fctlG Port Campbell district. Proe. Roy. Soc. 

Vie., vol. 5b, pp. 77-10S. 
Benham, W. B. fl937) : On Lophoeepli-lu: a new i>enus of /eindodont cetacea. 
Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., vol fi7, pp- 1-14 pis. 1-7. 

370 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Bcnhain, W. B. (1942) : Fossil Cetacea of New Zealand, V. Mauicetus, a. geUftrio 

name substituted lor Lophoeephalus Benham. Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., \ - ol. 

71, pp. 260-270. pis. 4447. 
Chapman, F. ( 1915) : New or little known fossils in the National Museum, Pt, 17, 

Some Tertiary Cephalopoda. Proe. Roy. Soc Vie., vol. 27, h* 150-361, 

pis. 3-8. 

Chapman, F. (1921) : The specifie name oi' the Australian Aluria and its distri- 
bution, Proe. Ko.\ . Soc Vic, vol. 34, n.s. pp. 12-16. 
Fabiani, K. (1949): (Mi Odontoeeti del Miocene Tnferiore della Sicilia. Mem. 

Tusl. Geoi. Univ. Padova, vol. 16, 32 pp., 2 pis. 
Flemings C. A. (1945) : Some New Zealand Tertiary | •ephalopods. Trans. Roy. 

Soc N.Z., vol. 74, pp. 411-418. 
Flynn, T. T. (1948) : Inscription of fVos<pialodon davidi, a fossil Cetacean from 

Tasmania. Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 26, pp. lo:; 197, pis. l-(i 
Finlayson, H. H. (1938) : On the occurrence of a fossil penguin in Miocene beds 

in South Australia. Trans. Uoy. Soc. S. Aust, vol. 02, pp. 14-17, pi. 1, 
Glaessner, M. F. (1953): I .'onditions of Tertiary sedimentation in southern 

Australia. Trans. Roy. Soc S. AiisL, vol. 76, pp. 141-146. 
Hall, T. S. (1911) : Mn the systematic position of the speeies of Squalodon and 

Zcnglodon described from Australia and New Zealand. Proe. Roy Soc 

Vic, vol. 2;], n.s„ pp. 2f)7-2i;r>. pi. 36. 

Kellogg, R. (1923): Description of two squalodonts recently discovered in the 

Calvert Cliffs, Maryland; and notes on the shark-toothed Cetaceans. Proe. 

I .S. Nat. Mus., vol. (J2, art. I. 
Kellooi., R, (1928); The. history of whales, 1 heir adaptation to life in (he water. 

Quart, Rev. Biol., vol. 3, pp. 29-76, 174-20*. 
Keiloi>t>-, R. (1934) j The Patauonian fossil whalebone whale, Cetotherium EftOreiW 

(Lydekker). Carnegie Inst. Ptlfel. No. 44, pp. 63-81. 
Kellogg, R. (1936) \ A revijBW of the Archaeocetr Carnegie Inst. Publ. No. 482. 
Kellogg, P. (1940): on tin- ('ct..thercs (iiiured by Vandelli. Bol. Mus. Min. 

Gfeol. Univ. Lisbon., No. 7-S. 
Miller, A. K. an<] QreSpm, I. (1U39).: An Atni'ia from the Northwest Division 

(>£ Western Australia. .1. Paleont., vol. 13. pp. 79-81. 
Newton. R. B. (1919): Aturia aturi from Western Australia. Proe. Malaeol. 

Soc, vol. 13, pp. 160-167, pis. 5, 6. 
Reynolds. M. A. (1958) : The Cainozoie succession of Maslin and Aldinga Bays, 

South Australia. Trans. Roy. Soc S. Aust., vol. 76, pp. 114-140. 

Glaessner — Pelagic Fossils from South Australia 371 

Rjabinin, A. (1938) : Microzeuglodon aff. caucasicum (Lydekker) from the 

Upper Maikop Beds of Kabristan. Probl. Paleont., Moscow Univ., vol. 4, 

pp. 137-185, 16 pis. 
Sanger, E. B. (1881) : On a molar tooth of Zeuglodon from the Tertiary beds 

of the Murray River near Wellington. Proe. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, vol. 5, 

pp. 298-300. 

Tate, R. (1885) : Notes on the physical and geological features of the basin of 
the Lower Murray River. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., vol. 7, pp. 24-46. 

Teichert, C. (1944) : The genus Aturia in the Tertiary of Australia. J. Paleont., 
vol. 18, pp. 73-82, pis. 14-16. 

Teichert, C. (1947) : New nautiloids from the older Tertiary of Victoria. Min. 

Geol. J. Melbourne, vol. 3, No. 2. 
Teichert, C. and Cotton, B. C. (1949) : A new Aturia from the Tertiary of South 

Australia. Ree. S. Aust. Mus., vol. 9, pp. 255-256, pi. 21. 

372 Records of the S.A. Museum 



Iml;. la, b. Aturia stansburiensis Glaessner. Holotype. 5/6 nat. size. 

Tig. 2. Aturia clarkei attenuata Teichert and Cotton. S.A.M. Spec. No. 7153. 5/6 nat. 

Fig. la, b. Aturia australis McCoy. A.U.G.D. Spec. No. F15097. Nat. size. 
Fig. 2. Aturia australis McCoy. Topotype. A.U.G.D. Spec. No. F15108. Nat. size. 
Fig. 3. Aturia clarkei attenuata Teichert and Cotton. S.A.M. Spec No. F5219. Nat. size. 


Fig. la, b. Humerus of penguin showing bite marks diagonally across the shaft. Note that 
the lower end (fig. la) was cut off with a saw which also left marks at a steeper angle 
than the matrix-infilled bite marks. Mt. Gambier. S.A.M. Spec. No. P10863. Nat. size. 

Fig. 2. Femur of penguin, as extracted from the matrix, showing the proximal end fractured, 
" probably by a bite. S.A.M. Spec. No. P10873. About x2. 

Rec. S t A. Museum 

Vol. XL Plate XXXI V 

Hi( . S.A. Museum 

Vol. XL Platk XXXV 

ReC. S.A. \h M'i m 

Vol. XL Plate XXXVI 


by Francis J. Mitchell, South Australian Museum 


Under the field curatorship of the ichthyologist, Dr. R. R. Miller, the expedition made an official 
collection of 729 specimens. These have been divided between the United States National Museum, 
Washington, and the South Australian Museum, Adelaide, as indicated by the abbreviations 
U.S.N.M. and S.A.M. R. respecively, which precede the reference numbers entered herein. All 
holotype specimens have been deposited in the latter institution. In addition, a series of 179 
specimens comprising the bulk of a collection obtained by the expedition transport officer, Mr. J. E. 
Bray, and presented to the Australian Museum, Sydney, has also been made available for inclusion 
in this report. Such specimens are indicated by the abbreviation A.M. R. In all, 908 specimens 
representing 65 species and subspecies. 



LAND (April to November, 1948) 

By FRANCIS J, MITCHELL, South Australian Museum 
Plato xxx vii and text fe, 1*7 

Under the field curators! iip of the ichthyologist. Dr. R. "R. Miller, the expedition 
made an official collection of 729 specimens. These have been divided between 
the United Stales National Museum, Washington and tile South Australian 
Museum, Adelaide, as indicated by the abbreviations U.K.N.M. and S.A.M. R. 
respectively, which precede the reference numbers entered herein. All Holdtype 
specimens have been deposited in the totter institution. In addition, a series 
of 179 Bpeoimenfl comprising the bulk of a collection obtained by the expedition 
transport officer, Mr. T B. Bray, and presented to the Australian Museum, 
Sydney, has also been made available for inHusiou in this report. Such specimens 
are indicated by the abbreviation A.M. R. In all, 908 specimens representing 
65 species and subspecies. 

The present study was undertaken at the South Australian Museum and 
extensive use wns made of its research collection for purposes of reference and 

The titles of various Australian political areas have been abbreviated as 
follows: N.T., for Northern Territory; Qld., for Queensland; N.S.W., for New 
South Wales; Vict., for Victoria; S. Aust., for South Australia; and W. Aust., 
for Western Australia. 


I wish to ac knowledge the co-operation of Dr. Remington Kellogg and Dr. 
Doris M. Cochran, of the United States National Museum, Washington, and Dr. 
A. B. Walkom and Mr. J. Tl. Kinghorn, of the Australian Museum, Sydney, hi 
facilitating my examination of the total reptile and amphibian collection. Their 
assistance is much appreciated. I am also indebted to Mr. Arthur Loveridge, 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard, Mr. G. Mack, Queensland Museum, 

*A more detailed account will appear in the official journal of the expedition to be published 
at a later date. 

374 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Brisbane, and Messrs. J. Henry and S. J. Copland, of the Maeleay Museum, 
University of Sydney, who forwarded type and other material housed in their 
respective institutions for my examination. 



Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus) 
T( sludo imbricata Linnaeus, 1766, p. 350. 
Eretmochelys squamata Agassiz, 1857, p. 382. 

U.S.N.M. 128527, Black Rock Point, Coberg Peninsula, N.T. 

Crocodylus porosus Schneider 
Crocodylus porosus Schneider, 1801, p. 169. 

U.S.N.M. 128526, Black Rock Point, Coberg Peninsula, N.T. 

N.M. 128685, South end of Melville Bay, west of Yirrkalla, N.T. 

Family BOIDAE 


Liasis childreni Gray, 1842, p. 44. 

U.S.N.M. 128469, Port Langdon, N.T. 

Liasis fuscus fuscus Peters 
Liasts fuscus Peters, 1873, p. 607. 

U.S.N.M. 128768, Oenpelli, N.T. 


Morelia variegata Gray, 1842, p. 43. 

U.S.N.M. 128235 (head only), Lee Point, 9 miles north-east of Darwin, 

U.S.N.M. 128442, near Uraba Kumba, Groote Eylandt, N.T. 

As indicated by Loveridge (1934, p. 270), present, data does not suggest any 
correlation between the distribution of the variegala colour phase and a particular 
geographical region or environment. However, no one worker has yet had the 
opportunity of examining a large Australia- wide series of this species, and as 
pure populations of both phases undoubtedly occur, variegata is herein retained. 
[See also Mitchell (1951, p. 545).] 

Mitchell — Arnhem Land Reptilia and Amphibia 375 

Aciirochordtts jAVANicus Ilornstedt 
Achrochordus javanicus Hornstcdt, 1787, p. 307, pi. xii. 
U.S.N.M. 12876M28767, Oenpelli X.T. 
X.A.JI. R.2844 (2 specimens), Oenpelli, N.T. 

AchboCHordus granulatus granulatus (Schneider). 
Hydras gramtiafus Schneider, 170!), p, 243, 
U.S.N.M. 128511, iMilimgimW Island, N.T. 

Fordonia leucobaua (Schlegel) 
IIoni<tl(>i>sis leucobaMa Schlegel ls:i7. p. 345, pi. xiii, fig, 8-9. 

U.S.N.M. 128334, Inlet at dock for Delissevitle, 11 miles west-south-west of 
Darwin, N.T. 

Enhydhis polylepis (Fischer) 
Ilypsirhiiio polylepis Fischer, 1886, p. 14. 

U.S.N.M. 128474, Port Langdon, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128450, near Umba Kumba, Groote Eylandt, N.T. 

Kinghorn (1929, p. 90) appears to be in error when he records single sub- 
eaudals for mackayi Ogilby, a species which Loveridge (1934, p. 273) places in 
the synonymy of polylepis. 

Ahaetulla punctulata pungtula'i \ (Gray) 
Leptophis panel iilatus Gray, 1827, p. 432. 

U.S.N.M. 128445-128447, near Umba Kumba, Groote Eylandt, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. L28769-128771, S.A.M. &284S, Oenpelli, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128(i83-128(5N4. yirrkalk, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128470-128472, Port Langdon, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128233, West Point, 5 miles west of Darwin, N.T. 

The longitudinal dark line under the tail, stated to be eluinicteristic of the 
New Guinea race lineolata (Guiehcnot) is present in about half ol' this series, 
being particularly prominent in the three specimens from Groote Eylandt, As 
recorded by Loveridge (1948, p. 385) the horizontal diameter of the eye relative 
to the other head dimensions varies considerably with age in this species. 

Natrix mairii mairii ((hay). 
Tropidonoius mairii Gray, 1841, p. -142. 

I S.N.M. 128443- 12*444, near Umba Kumba, Groote Eylandt, N.T. 
U.S.N.M. 128772, Oenpelli, N.T. 

376 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Cerberus rhynchops australis ((.ray) 
II(.niufJo))>ns austral is dray, 1842, p. 65. 

U.S.N.M. 128204, Nightcliff, near Darwin, N.T. 

A single South Australian Museum specimen from Melville Island, N.T., 

was also ex a mined. 

Wntral scales 146, 148; snb<*audals in 48 (tail meomplete) and 58 pairs- 
anal divided: 28 and 25 rows of keeled it midbody. A suture through the 
UOSteil to t lie first labial on one side (rf the bad and to the second labial on the 
other in both specimens; loreal contacting t lu- l-i 2nd, 3rd and 1% or 2nd, 3rd 
and 41 h uppcrf labials. A single preoeular seale extends around to a point; well 
under the eye; one or two sub- and two poi *1 -oculars. 

The designation of these two specimens to australis is based mainly on the 
locality, it being evident from the above data that lliey do not eon form satis- 
factorily to any of the three subspecies as keyed by hovei-id^c ( 1H4S, p. S89), 
i key being based on a series of 70 r. rhyMhopS, 5 r. nnrurfpihna, 4 r. austral'ts 
and p* i-siiinably data published by Boulenuer (1S9K, 1897) and De Hooij (1917). 

If the tails were complete, boih specimen:, wonld possess more than Love 
ridge's maximum of 53 pairs of subeaudals and would be identifiable as r. rhif}) 
chaps. On the other hand, if the diagnosis is based on the m ;;d eJtft, there 
would be equal grounds for pkoitffi these specimens with either fiomegUinM or 
australis. ft is possil)le lhat. the eireumocular scalatmi. v. ill be found to provide 
a betler keying character for the separation of the three stfljs#ccte& Jn Rgci 
australis Boulenger shows the nasal clefi joining the 2nd Upper labial on one 
8id« and the preoculft* on the other, with only tlie feponfl and third upper labials 
contacting the loreal. thfl I*«>ur1 li being widely separated from it. De Rooij (1917, 
fig. 70) figures rhynch»}>* and shows 8 smaller preoeubir and tWO suboenlars. 

Although it seems probable that aastraiis and WVaegimm «W be satis- 
factorily distinguished from 1 he type eAfcfcj many I ^ecimons will liave ta 
be examined and their variation tablet before a fftMf3oal|I« key can be de vised, 

Boiua FUSCA ((ii 
Dendrophis fusca (Tray, 1S42, p. 54. 

P.S.N.M. 128473, Port Langdon, N.T. 



Ctoltmaria diadeinu Sehiegel, 1837, p. 32. 

U.S.N.M. L2826lj Nighteliff, 7 miles north-east of Darwin, N.T. 

Midbody scales in 15 rows; 17(i ventrals; 54 pairs of subeaudals; anal divided. 

Mitchell — Arniiem Land Reptilja and Amphibia 377 

Preocular almost separating the supraocular from the prefedntal. Nostril break- 
ing the upper edge of the nasal shield. 

The patterning of this Specimen very closely resembles that of ckristieamis 
Fry, with which this species coexists iu the vicinity of Darwin. The head and 
neck are block with a broad lighter baud across the nape replacing the more 
usual small crescent shaped marking. Upper labials and ventral surfaces; white; 
dorsal surfaces pale yellow, each scale being edged with brown, giving a net- 
work effect. 


Pseudelaps christi^anus Vvy, 1915, p. 91, fig, 6. 

U.S.N.M. 1282(>2, Ni-htcliff, 7 miies north-east of Darwin, N.T. 

Midbody scaler in 17 rows; 187 ventrals. If) pairs of subcaudals; anal 
divided. The nasal is Widely -eparated from the preoeular which joins the 

An additional specimen from Nighteliff was presented to the South Aus- 
tralian Museum in 1949 and a note forwarded with it suggests that the species 
is finite common within a limited, distribution centred near Darwin. Tt is 

tered S.A.M. B.2995, and possesses 17 midbody scales: 188 ventrals; 43 
pairs of subcaudals and a divided anal. It is the target 1 of the two and measures 
375 (319+56) mm. 

The tails of both of these specimens appear to be complete, indicating that 
the suli.aii.lal count is variable. It has been recorded as 38 (type specimen), 
4!) and 13 (Hie present specimens),, 56 (Loveririge, 1934, p. 276) and 57 (Long- 
man, Ifllli. p. 4K). 

The genera] ground colour is almost white tending yellow middorsally; each 
scale is edged with purple, giving the dorsal surface a reticulate appearance. A 
I'edit band across the nape separates a dark purple neck band from the still 
darker head. 

The distributions ol' dda&ema find chrisliranus appear to meet in the vicinity 
of Darwin, and the close superficial resemblance of the two snakes in tiiis district, 
together with the geographical segregation of flirisficunus in suitable districts 
Of norlli-western Australia, suggests that it may only be a. subspecies of diadema, 

nc'uisha.ble by its greater midbody count and several minor differences in 
colouration. Both snakes display a wide variation in ventral and subcaudal 
scale counts. 

378 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Demansia carinata (Longman) 

Diemenia carinata Longman, 1915, p. 31, fig; 

LJ.S.N.M. 128471, Port Langdon, N.T. 

The record of this specimen from Port Langdon is interesting as it con- 
siderably extends the known range of this arboreal Jh niunsia, the type locality 
being Cane Grass Station, via Charlesville, in western Queensland. 

Demansja psammophjs psammophis (Schlegel) 

ElapS psammophix Schlegel, LS37, p. 455. 

U.S.N.M. 128448, near Umba Kuiriba, Groote Eylandt, N.T. 
U.S.N.M. 1282G3, Nighteliff, near Darwin, N.T. 


Naja australis Gray, 1842, p. 55. 

U.S.N.M. 128451, S.A.M. R.2843 (2 specimens), near Umba Kumba, Groote 
Eylandt, N.T. 


Pseud cell is scufeUutus Peters, 1HG7, p. 710. 
Oxyuranus maclenrKnti Kinghorn, 1923, pp. 42-45. 

U.S.N.M. 128773 (head and neck only), 20 miles N.E. of Oenpelli, N.T. 


Boa antarctica Shaw, 1S94, pi. rnxxxv. 

U.S.N.M. 128476-128477, S.A.M. R.3226, Port Langdon, N.T. 

Head shields multikeeled, one specimen approaching the palpebrosa condi- 
tion. General colouration typical of the species, these specimens possessing a 
smooth scaled, strongly compressed, white extremity to the tail. 

A comparison of this Arnhem Land material together with other northern 
Australian specimens with southern Australian examples indicates that the colour 
variation of the caudal extremity is largely, if not completely, correlated with 
locality. Also, there would appear to be some variation in its form, southern 
specimens possessing an acutely keeled extremity with strongly imbricate scales. 
(See lig. 1.) 

South Australian Museum specimens from the following locabties were 
examined. Those possessing a light coloured caudal extremity were from 
Bathurst Head, Qld. (2 specimens); Coen River, Qld. (1 specimen); Melville 
Island, N.T. (1 specimen); Roper River, N.T. (1 specimen). 

Mitchell — Arnhem Land Reptilia and Amphibia 


Fig* I. doanthopfHs antan\tieu$ (8ha\v): &f?sal and lateral virus m* the. caudal append 

slifiwiiip iii,- variation in colour and form (see text i, 

Those possessing a dark coloured caudal extremity wore from PeUOJlg, S. 
Aust. ( I specimen); Reevefiby Island, S. Aust. (1 specimen); Koonibha, S. Aust. 
(2 specimens); Ardrossan, S. Aust. ((I specimens); 20 miles west of Why all a, 
% Aust. (1 speeimen); Hallett's Cove, S. .\ust. (I specimen); Denial Bay, S. 
Aust. (1 specimen); CoOTabie (near Fowlers Bay), S. Aust. (1 specimen) ; and 
7 specimens taken at local beaches near Adelaide, S. Aust. 

Although T have been unable to find any oilier character correlated with this 
Caudal Variation, its constancy within the material examined and Mpparent geo- 
graphic Segregation indicate that it is more than an irreunlar variant, and the 
possibility of the two "roups beitog sub-speeifieally distinct is worthy of farther 
consideration, hi dealing with Indo-Aust vilian specimens, De Rooij (1017, 
p. 273) states "<>nd of tail yellow or black/' Whether this statement is based on 
the Indo Australian material examined or merely following Boulenuer i 1 890, 
p. $55) is not clear. The specimen figured by De Rooij {op. cit. fig. Ill) li; 
light caudal extremity. 



Ahiria elegans Gray, 1842, p. 61. 

r.S.N.M. J2847& Port Langdon, N.T. 

380 Records of toe S.A. Museum 

Heteronota binoei Gray 
Heteronota binoei Gray, 1845, p. 174. 

U.S.N.M. 128539-128556, S.A.M. R2854 (28 specimens), YirrkaUa, N.T. 
U.S.N.M. 128282-128291, 128463, A.M. R.12473 (3 specimens), R.13474 (3 
specimens), Umba Kumba, Groote Eylandt, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128240-128246, Nighteliff, near Darwin, N.T. 
U.S.N.M. 128518, Rocky Beach, Cape Arnhem, N.T. 
U.S.N.M. 128525, Black Rock Point, Coterg Peninsula, N.T. 
A.M. R.12651 (7 specimens), Cape Arnhem, N.T. 

IIemidactyuus frenatus Dumeril and Bibron 

HenMactylus frenatus (Schleg.) Dumeril ami Bibron, 1836, p. 366. 

U.S.N.M. 128494, S.A.M. R.2872 (2 specimens), Milimgimbi Island, Crocodile 
Islands, N.T. 

Oedura rhombjfera Gray 
Oedura rhombifera Gray, 1844, pi. xvi, fig. 6. 

U.S.N.M. 128531-128534, S.A.M. R.2859 (3 specimens), YirrkaUa, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128460-128461, Central Hill, Groote Eylandt, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128293-128299, A.M. R.12627 (5 specimens), R.13518 (2 speci- 
mens), R.13517 (2 specimens), Umba Kumba, Groote Eylandt, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128728, Oenpelli, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128516-128517, Birlouja Creek, N.T. 

A.M. R. 13559 (2 specimens), Cape Arnhem, N.T. 

S.A.M. R.2870 (3 specimens), Gove Air Base, 8 miles south-west of YirrkaUa, 

Oedura m arm grata Gray 
Oedura marmorata Cray. 1842, p. 52. 

U.S.N.M. 128557-128565, S.A.M. R.2S64, YirrkaUa, N.T. 
U.S.N.M. 128729, Oenpelli, N.T. 
U.S.N.M. 128515, Purlonkoima Creek, N.T. 
A.M. R.13551-13553, Cape Arnhem, N.T. 

Mitchell — Arniiem Land Reptilia and Amphibia 381 


Drphhhii hflns. iiliuris Boulenge)', 1885, |> 98, pi. viii, fig. 2. 
U.S.N.M. 128247. Nmhtctiff, near Darwin, N.T. 
This Specimen is almost topotypie. 

Bra/.enor ( LftSl) and Gkuert (1952) have contributed much toward ul&vxfjf 

uig tin* taxonomy of this i ., 1 1 i ■-. and associated forms by exa intolng I ;<■ ;-i»erimens 
(MregfiTVfid fu the National Museum, Melbourne, and the Western Australian 
Museum, Perth, respect ively. Tn ati endeavour to link the work oi' these two 
authors, the eolledmn m In- South Australian Museum, Adelaide, has beeffl 
examined and a gehSTal mtigQQgruphinBi study undertaken. 

This has resulted in drOpkurm being considered a polytj pic species in which 
the fiWhap^cfefi tphtijjerUS, vitiaris and abwzm& ean he satisfactorily distinguished 
lY<>m the type race. The subspecies intermedins Ogilby is provisionally recog 
nized, bill additional work on its variation will have to be undertaken before 
its status ean he satisfactorily determined. 

An analysis of the variation of the individual characters has revealed several 
<ii kind geographical trends. The supraciHary spines are well developed in. the 
northern populations, I'du-rd to short conical tubercles in Central Australian 
specimens, and ill-defined or absent in material collected in the south-western 
and south-eastern coiners of tin- continent. A survey of the literal tire and the 
specimens examined reveals all stages in this north to smith itradation, and the 
inconsistency of tin's, and other characters in the intrmu (tins zone which separates 
the typical populations of ciiiar/.s and s(n>j>hi<rus has resulted in two or more 
of the races being recorded from the one locality An example IS two specimens 
in the South Australian Museum collection taken at Well 32 on the Canning 
Stock Route in Western Australia. One of these had been identified as ciltmis 
and the other as inhruif</ii<:<. Both of these specimens have the sivpraci]ia? ; and 
caudal spines reduced to short conical tubercles, but whereas t lie lineal distrihu- 
tion of the dorsal tubercles persists in one specimen, there is little sign of 
regularity m the other. Similarly, a collection of seventeen specimens collected 
from between the Kverard and Musgrave Ranges, South Australia, contains these 
two variants, and other specimens showing additional intermediary slaves. 
!\ih'_rhorn (1929, pp. SO-M ) identified three forms from New Smith Wales, 
hittvnuxhus with regularly distributed dorsal tubercles, stro/jhnrux with scat- 
tered dorsal tubercles, and some specimens i" -i>i, i the northern half of ihe State 
winch he identified as spinigerm. From the variation noted among gome fcolleo 
tious taken further west, and the reference by hem-man (1916, p 50] 1)0 iOJM 
southern Queensland specimens possessing short supracibary spines, it is siig 

382 Records of the S.A. Museum 

nested that the latter specimens strictly belong to the subspecies cifiuris, although 
the reduction Of the supraeiliary spines, without, a corresponding decrease* in the 
size of the caudal spines made spiriif/ems Hie only practicable identification at 
that time. 

An examination <rf several Western Australian specimen--, tojjfl with 

the data provided by Glauert (op. cU.) indicate a similar gradation of 

• en strojflnmis and spmigerHs, Typical specimens of npinigeriM appear to 
be restricted to within the fttulgSrBucalyfri line in the south-west, and although 
some specimens taken to the north-cast can be identified as spMgeru&j Ehey shov 
definite signs of gradation toward strophulus. Specimens examined from L- 
ton, Malcolm and Frazer Range, Western Australia, possess reduced caudal 
iplues and distinct supraeiliary tubercles. Gflaueri {op* <>L) mentions that 
ni ! i -western specimens possess solid tubercles along the supraeiliary border 

and also records an additional specimen from Laverton, \Y. Aust,, wild i be 
Caudal s])ines reduced to tubercles 

The describing of the subspecies aberrcmS has provided an additional link 
between strnphurus and ciliaris as it indicates how the transverse rows of caudal 
1 ul:t 'i-cles in stro]>hunts and intjrmnlias could have evolved. Each ring of 
tubercles comprises Tour of approximately equal SI8e OH the dorsal surface. Two 

<ii ihese replace the spines, and an additional pair have formed between them. 
In tfberrans, the central pair of tubercles have formed mthoul ao\ depreciation 
in ihe size of the caudal spines. 

From the proem study only one feature appears to be sufficiently stable 
to provide a foundation \'ov separating intermedium from stwpkwru&i and I his is 
fchfi regularity of the dorsal tubercle distribution. The disposition of the caud.-d 
tubercles appears to be identical in both forms although the segmentation is 
DOJ as pronounced in the eastern form. If specimens of the s7 rophur US type, 
but with the dorsal tubercles distributed uni l"i eily in two loimitudiiml series 
.M.- accepted as representing- intermedinis^ then I he race c-m be recorded as 
occurring From northern Victoria, aoutb-ea&tern South Australia to central New 
South Wales and extending across a narrow zone in northern pouth Australia 

into Western Australia, Although I his distribm ion pattern [g rather unusual 
and one IS hesitant to accept a race based on ;i single definable, but, rather 
unstable difference, the large area over which recognizable specimens have been 
il make its provisional recognition appear warranted. Ogilby's name for 
this race is most appropriate as it appears to cover a discontinuous series of 
populations, in which Several of the major features are at median stages of 
disl ind ■ aphu-al trends. 

Mitchell — Arnhem Land Reftilia and Amphibia 383 

A synopsis of the salient features and recorded distributions of the sub- 
speeies is as follows: 

THplodactj/lus strophulus sfrophurus ( Dumcril and Ribron). 

Supraciliary spines replaced by sbor< conical tubercles; dorsal surface of 
the body with irregularly distributed tubercles. Tail with sixteen or seventeen 
rings of enlarged tubercles, &aeh ping representing the position of one pair of 
caudal spines in other races, and composed of four major tubercles of approxi- 
mately equal size 01 tin dorsal surface, 

Recorded distribution: Type locality. Shark's Hay, \V. Aus1. : Mount 

Narryer Station, \V. Aust.: Murchison District. W. Aust.: Yalgoo District, 

W. Aust,; l.';ini;irvor,, W. Aust.; Milly Milly Station, W. Aust. (Olauert, 

1.903). Wells :J2, 39 Canninv. Stock Rente, W. Aust.; Barrow Ranges, W. 

Aust.; Ooldea, S. Aust.; between B\< . r.-ird and Itfusgrave Ranges, 5* Aust. 

(Mouth Australian Museum), llillston, N.S. Wales; Leeton, N,S, Wales 

(Kinghorn. 1920). 

DiplodaCt I// us slrnpli urns rnh' rmcdhis r)o-iIl3v. 

Oencral form and scalation similar to that of the type race, but possessing' 
the dorsal tubercles uniformly distributed in two longitudinal series. Segmenta- 
tion not obvious in regenerated tails although the tubercles are occasionally 

Keeorded distribution: Type locality, ''Interior of New South Wales." 
Northern Malice districts of Victoria; Purnong, S. Aust. (Brazenor, 1951). 
Tintinara, S. Aust.; Peake, S. Aust.; Wilpena Pound, S. Aust.; between 
i he Everard and Muse-rave Ranges, 8. Aust.; Well 32. Calming Stock Route, 
\V. Aust. (South Australian Museum). Bo^a^abri, N.S. Wales; Daehlan 
River, N.S. Wales; Tarinda. N.S. Wales (Kinoiiorn. 1929). Darling Downs, 

Qld. (Longman, 1916). 

Diplo&Gh [(ifiKs stropliurus riliuris (Boulen»er). 

Supraeiliary and eniidal spines L'ully developed; dorsal tubercles distributed 
uniformly in two longitudinal series. 

Recorded distribution: Type locality, Darwin, N.T.; Dunraveu, Qld.; 
Prairie, Qld.; Army Downs, Qld. ( Loveiid^c, 1934). Sylvania. Qld. (King- 
horn, 1929). Vuendumu, N.T.; Tempe Downs, N.T.; .junction oi Fiuroy 
and Margaret Rivers, W. Aust.; Well 39, Canning Stock Route, W. Aust.; 
Erldunda, NT.; Tennant Creek, NT.: Hermannsburi* Mission. N.T. (South 
Australian Museum). Murchison District, W. Aust.; Mount Margaret. W. 

384 Records of the S,A. Museum 

Ausi; Yandie Station, Canning Stock Route, W. Aust. (Glauert, 1952). 
Specimens recorded by Kino-horn ( 1 92D ) from Tamworlh, Laehlan River, 
Fflndembah., Barmcdonau, (oonamble, Wyalong, Hillston in New South 
Wales and Bowen in Queensland ami idwfifled lis spiMgems are probably 

referable to this race. 

Diplotiacfiffus sfroplittrus nhrrrans Glauert. 

Supraciliary and caudal spines fully developed, the supraciliary spines ex- 
tending on to the nape in the form of short tubercles. Two enlarged tubercles 
lief wren eaeh pair of caudal spines. 

Recorded distribution: Type locality. Mt. Wynna, West Kimberley. 

W. Aust,; La Orange, W. Aust.: Wallal. \Y. Aust.: Kinu Sound, W. Ausi. 

(an Australian Museum specimen recorded by Kinuhorn (1929) as ciliaris). 

100 miles east of 80-mile Beach, W, Aust. (South Australian Museum). 

IHplodac-tylus strophurus spinigrrus (Gray). 

Supraciliary spines absent; caudal spines well developed. Tubercles on the 
dorsal surface of the body slightly irregular but forming 1 wo distinct longitudinal 

Recorded distribution: Type locality, lloutman Abrolhos, W. Aust.; 

I •underdin, "W. Aust.; Kulin, \V. Ausi.; Mount Magnet, W. Aust,; Perth, 

W. Aust. (Loveridge. 1934); Kra/er Ratlge, AY. Aust, (South Australian 


Gehyra variegata australjs Gray 

Gehyru australis (J ray, 1845, p. 163. 

U.S.N.M. 128292, 128300, Umba Kumba, Groote Eylandt, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128535-128538, S.A.M. R.2861, Yirrkalla, N.T. 

A.M. R.13638 (2 specimens). East Alligator River, N.T. 

A.M. R.13556, Cape Arnhem, N.T. 

S.A.M. R.2863, Oenpelli, N.T. 

S.A.M. R.2862, Milim^imbi Island, Crocodile Islands, N.T. 

Subdigital scansors undivided anteriorly but with a median groove pos- 
teriorly; a slight rudiment of a claw is evident on the fifth toe in several 
specimens and the rudiment of a web at the base of the toe seems to be more 
prombieni than in variegata variegata. A cutaneous fold present along the 
back of the thigh; in three specimens a dorsal-lateral fold is also present, but 
this may be the result of dehydration by strong preservative. Nine to eleven 

Mitchell — Arnhkm Land Reptilia and Amphibia 385 

enlarged ttppef, and BWtefl to nine enlarged lower Iabial& Two or three post- 
nasals; internasals Eoritiing a medium suiure or separated by one or two small 

gi-anules. Five of this series are males and they possess 15-29 (average 212) 
preanal pores. 

Contrary to the findings in other species, the Arnhem Land specimens of this 
species seem to possess a greater average number of preanal pores than specimens 
taken further south. Lnverid«>e (1934, p. 313) rceords an Average of 15 with 
rann*e of 13-19 for five Queensland males, while an examination of the males in 
the South Australian Museum collection gave the following data. G.v. au.-ttralis. 
six males possessing 13421, ftyer&ge Hi; G.v. punctata, four nudes possessing 
11-18, average 12 (Loveridge (op. <:it.) also records 11-13 for punctata); G.v. 
vnririfata, thirty-three males possessing 0-21, average 15. 

The colour varies from uniform tight blue to light brown with indistinct 
darker variegations. When analysed under a microscope, the light blue colour 
is shown to be a translucent white minutely punctate with black. 

The position and status of punctata Fry have been verified by the examina- 
tion of eleven specimens in the South Australian Museum collection. The best 
diagnostic feature for its separation appears to be the shape of the mental and 
chinshields (see fig. 2), the characters used by Fry in his type description being 
both variable and difficult to define. 

Fig. 2. Gehyra variegata (Dumeril and Bibron i : ventral view of the snout of (a) 
G. v. amstralis Gray; (b) G. v.. punctata (Fry) and (<*) G. v. variegata (Dumeril and Bibron). 

On examining the type description of variegata (Dumeril and Bibron, 1836, 
p. 353), it was noted that, one of the four type specimens is referable to 
punctata, being from "foftie de Chiens Marins" or Shark Bay, Western Australia. 
The remaining three specimens, which are mentioned first wherever the variation 
warrants a comparison and are therefore accepted as representing the type race, 
were reputedly taken in Tasmania ("la terre de. Vandieman"). The species 
has not been subsequently recorded as occurring on the island and the last 

386 Records of the S.A. Museum 

person to list the lizards of Tasmania, Hewer (1948), completely omits the 

The .South Australian Museum specimens are from the following localities: 
Gehyra \utri< (fain varicgato ; South Australia. — Ooldea. R specimens; 

northern Flinders Ranges, 22 specimens; Mount Lofty Ranges, 8 specimens; Lake 

PhilJipson, south-wes1 of Stuart Range, 1 specimen QUorDj 1 specimen; Koo- 
nibba, 1 specimen; Streaky Bay, 1 specimen; Devon Downs, 1 specimen; Putta- 
hurra, vim Abirrce, 1 specimen; Oawlei Ranges, 2 specimens; Mt, Painter. I 
uncn; Lake ( \-illabonna, 2] specimens; between Everard and Barrow Ranges. 
8 specimens; Fowlers Ray, 1 specimen; Kangaroo island, 10 specimens; 
Wykibrtng, 2 specimens; Encounter Bay. 1 specimen; Sutherland*, 1 specimen; 
Buekleboo, 2 specimens; Moolooloo. 7 specimens; Tftteoolft, 3 specimens] Oodhfl 
datta, 2 specimens; between Everard and KEusgrave Ranges, 17 specimens; Finniss 
Springs, 10 specimens; Waivowie, 2 specimens; Marree. 1 specimens; Andamooka 
Rangesj 7 specimens; Gammon Ranges, 1 specimen; Strzelecki ('reek, 5 specimens; 
Killalpannina Mission. I specimens; Clayton, 2 specimens; Coop&rs Creek, S 
specimens; Eudunda, I specimen. 

Northern Territory. — Hermannshurg, 25 specimens; Charlotte Waters. 1 
specimen; Cordilla Downs, 2 specimens; Macdonnell lian^es, 23 specimens; IJanns 
Range, I specimen. 

New South Wales. — Dareton, 2 specimens. 

Western Australia. — Frazer Range, 3 specimens; Broad Arrow, 1 specimen. 

Gehyra rariegata australis: Northern Territory.- -Darwin, 7 specimens; 
Tennant ('reek, 3 specimens. 

Queensland.— Bathhurst Head, 5 specimens; Cairns, 1 specimen. 

Gehyra variegala yum tain-. Western Australia. — Gaseoync District, 7 speci- 
mens; Flora Valley, East Kimberleys, 1 specimen; Canning Stock Route, 3 

( •iilamydosaurus KiNGii Gray 
(liUrmyrfomurus Jcingii Gray, 1827, p. 425, pi. A. 

IJ.S.N.M. 128480, Milimgimbi Island, Crocodile Islands, N.T. 
C.S.N.M. 12*452-12845;J, Umba Kumba, Grootc Eylandt, N.T. 
US.N.M. 128568, S.A.M. R.3228, Yirrkalla, N.T. 
C.S.N.M. 128752, Oenpelii, N.T, 

Mitchell — Arnhem Land Refttlia and Amphibia 387 

Amphibolurus catjoicinctus rAijDiciNCTUs Mlunther) 
Gravimatophora randicincta Ounther, 1844, p. 19, 

U.S.N.M. 12*751, S.A.M. R.:!229, 44 miles S.S.U. of Oenpelli, NT. 

Loveridge (1934, p. 319) >m_'gests that mfescens Stirling and Zieta and 
imhricalus Peters may prove to be races at cn-uflinuctus Ounther. Preliminary 
work on a revision of the genus Amphibolurus has been Undertaken by the 
author and the above possibility investigated. The types (S.A.A1. E.1423, R.1424 
and R,142&) and four other specimens of ru)es<<ns have been examined and 
compared with c&ttdicitu I us. Although 1hey do resemble one another in colour 
and general form, they differ markedly in structural detail, and until more 
extensive work on the distribution and variHtion of these lizards ran be under- 
taken, no advantage is to be gained by linking them under a specific name, 
although this may ultimately prove v\,nr. Med, The following characters setve 
to distinguish the two lizards: 

I. txm<Uwnctu& Uunther 

1. Femoral and preanal pores 20-S5. 

2. fanthus rostralis swollen ami 

rounded, with nostril in the ros- 
t cm lis, directed upward. 

3. A longitudinal scries of enlarged 

middorsal seales mid low spinous 
uuehal crest. 

A. rufwens Stirling and Zietz 
l-emoral and preanal pores 56*60. 

I anthus rostralis obtuse, but annu- 
late, with nostril below the ros- 
tralis, directed outward. 

No longitudinal series of enlarged 
middorsal scales, and a slightly 
enlarged, non spinous series of mid- 
nuchal scales. 

After examining eleven Specimens from the vicinity of Marree and Finniss 
Springs, Si Aust., the author is of the opinion that iml>ri<utus Peters is speci- 
fically distinct from eaudiciuefvs Ounther. 

Ampiiibolurtjs barbatus barbatus: ((Tuner) 
Agatna barbatus Cuvier, 1829, p. 3$. 

U.S.N.M. 128529, Horseshoe Bend, Finke River, S. Aust. 

Although most characters of this specimen agree with those of the type 
race, UiG "beard" is not developed to I he same extent as that of specimens taken 
further south, showing a tendency toward the sub-species minor Stern f eld, which 
was originally taken at Hernial mshur.", N.T. It apparently occurs at that 
locality and westward, as specimens examined from localities to the south, 
east and north are all nearer the type race. Loverid^e (1934, p. 325) records a 
specimen of minor from the north-west coast at Broome, W. Aust. 

388 Records of the S.A. Museum 


Diporiphora bilineata Gray, 1842, p. 54: Loveridge, 1934, p. 327 (Syn. i 

U.S.N.M. 128301, 129542429561, S.A.M. R.284S (29 specimens), Umba 
Kumba, Groote Eylandt, N.T. 

A.M. R.13621 (7 specimens), IU3613 (6 specimens), R.13617 (6 specimens ), 
Groote Eylandt, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128734-128749, S.A.M. R.2847. Oenpelli, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128248-128249, NigfctcEff, near Darwin, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128455, south end of Lake Hubert, N.T. 

A.M. R.13644 (4 specimens), East Alligator River, N.T. 

S.A.M. R.2858 (1 specimen), Yirrkalla, N.T. 

Preanal pores present in the male, 1+1 or 2+2; gular fold constantly absent. 
This latter character serves to readily distinguish hilinc<tta from Physignathus 
gilberti (Grav), some specimens of which closely resemble it. 


PnvsiGNATims <vilbekt! cilberti (Gray) 
LophognatTlUB gilberti Gray, 1842, p, 53. 

U.S.N.M. 128730, 128732-128733. 8. A.M. R.2941 (3 specimens), Oenpelli, 

U.S.N.M. 128731, 2 miles S.S.E. of Oenpelli, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128566, Yirrkalla, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128456, west side of Lake Hubert, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128454, south end of Lake Hubert, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128464, between Emerald River and Old Mission, Groote Eylandt, 

A.M. R.13639, East Alligator River, N.T. 


Varanus (Varanus) gouldii (Gray) 
Hydrosaurus gouldii Gray, 1838, p. 394. 

U.S.N.M. 128571-128573, 128575, Yirrkalla, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128384, 4 miles south-west oi Umba Kumba, Groote Eylandt, N.T. 

I S.N.M. 128479, Port Langdon, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128753, Red Lily Lagoon, 7 miles W.S.W. of Oenpelli, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128754, Oenpelli, N.T. 

Mitchell — Arnhem Land Reptilia and Amphibia 

Varanus (Yaka.vus) varttjs (Shaw) 

Lucerta varia Shaw, 1790, p. 246, pi. iii. fig:. 2* 

U.S.N.M. 12838ft near swamp at Lake Hubert, NT. 
S.A.M. B.S230, 5 miles west rf Oenpelli, N.T. 


Ilnhdype-. S.A.M. 113222 an adult male taken at the BOttth end of Lake 
Hubert, N.T. 

Diagnosis: This Varan us is a typieal member 0& the Odatria group and is 
most nearly approached by the subspecies irmon nsis iri&iis (Sehlegel). It d> 
from that lizard in possessing a much longer tail, different colouration and cliarac 
teristie dorsal and caudal sealations (see pi. xxxvii). The best diagnostic 
feature is the presence of highly polished black pads on the. soles of all torn feel 
(See fig, 3.) 

Description: Teeth acute, slightly compressed. Oanthus rostralis acute, 
nostrils oval, below the rostralis, nearer the tip of the snout than the anterior 
corner of the eye, the measurements from the centre of the nostril being 9 mm. 
and 12 mm. respectively. Upper head scales moderate, slightly larger than ile j 
temporals but smaller than the interorhi ais; 3T-40 between the supraeiliary 
ridges. Two or three rows of scales at the supraeiliary bonier larger than the 
Supraoculars, Ear opening triangular, slightly oblique; its vertical diameter is 
approximately equal to the horizontal diameter of the eye. Dorsal and caudal 
scales of characteristic forms, ao1 approached by the variation recorded Eot 
thnormsis. (See pi. xxxvii.) Abdominal scales smooth, in one hundred and 
twenty-six transverse rows. Tail slightly depressed nasally, compressed pos 
teriorly; covered with uniform, obtusely keeled scales which do not rise to a 
spine. The spines often to be found on each side of the vent in males of Odatria 
species are absent, being replaced by several slightly prominent scales. Scales 
on the limbs with an obtuse central keel. The soles of both fore and hind limbs 
are covered with highly polished black pads, the largest pads being at the. I 
of each digit. (See fro;. 3.) The tail is very long, measuring more than Ihe 
combined lengths of the head and body. 

The basic colour pattern of the body is light grey-brown with num« n eku 
black scales distributed irregularly ove • the dorsal surface. On the anterior 
half of the tail the black scales become dominant, while toward its tip the 
basal colouring lightens and black pigmentation disappears. Under side of the 
lower jaw white with four black transverse bands; remainder of gular region :\\\ii 
chest with a black and white recticulate patterning-. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

Fig. 3. Varanus glebopalma Mitchell: view of the sole of the hind foot showing the 
positions and size of the polished black pads. 

Measurements: 821 (262+559) mm. — the distance from the tip of the snout 
to the gular fold is 112 mm., while 75 mm. and 107 mm. are the lengths of the 
fore and hind limbs respectively. 

Comments : The type specimen is unique and was "shot by R. R. Miller and 
F. M. Setzler in a crevasse of a sandstone boulder at the base of a sandstone 
escarpment near south end of Lake Hubert" (R.R.M.). 

Varanus (Odatria) timorensis orientalis Fry 
Varanus punctatus var. orientalis Fry, 1913, p. 18. 

U.S.N.M. 128481-128485, 128487-128493, S.A.M. R.3227, Milimgimbi Island, 
Crocodile Islands, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128569-128570, 138574, Yirrkalla, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128387, S.A.M. R.2851, Umba Kumba, Groote Eylandt, N.T. 

A.M. R.13637, R.13646, East Alligator River, N.T. 

A.M. R.12550, Cape Arnhem, N.T. 

The following South Australian Museum specimens were also examined: 
V.t orientalis— R.137, R.182, R.183, Eidsvold, Qld. (type locality); R.351-353, 
Stewart River, Qld.; R.362-365, Melville Island, N.T.; R.1938, Flinders Island, 

V.t. tristis—R.329, Macdonnell Ranges, N.T.; R.2058, between Mt. Singleton 
and Treur Range, S. Aust. (4 specimens); R.2186, Kairi, Qld.; R.3085, Frazer 

Mitchell — Arnilem Land Kliiilia and Amphibia 391 

BaBge, w. Aust.; I&3223, Ijtoaminekn, S. Anst.; M224, Teniid&t Greek, N.T. 

(5 specimens). 

The dorsal and caudal sealations of the material listed above show consider- 
able variation. It indicates that the sealation characters enumerated and figured 
by Fry (1913, pp. 18-19, fig. 7 10) as distinguishing features are Inadequate fco 
satisfactorily characterize this subspecies. However, several more easily dis- 
cernible and constant features distinguishing il from the other subspecies are 
described by Mortens (1942, pp. 298*307}. One of these, the suposed longer 
tail of tri&tfc is not confirmed by the present material. In the Arnhem Land 
specimens the tail length, combined head and body length ratio varies from 
1 • f> - 1 • T and in the South Australian .Museum specimens of orirnlalis from 
1-4-1 -7; in the Irish's material the varutioi is Mi-I-X. Except in cases wliere 
the difference is paramount, the taxonomir value of this character is limited 
because of the difficulties ill accurately measuring the body lengths of many 

preserved specimens and hi determining whether or not the last few eentinieters 

of tail arc present. 

The measurements aud tail/head and body ratio of the adult specimens 
taken by tic expedition : 


i 28484 




ilcu'l und" 
Body length 

1 94 



Tail lengtli 

Head and Body 






















































Several additional adults obviously possess incomplete tails. 

AJthoftgh aomparatively constant in specimens from the one locality, the 
IhhP sealation <>f tfaifl apeetos varies markedly from one Locality to another. The 

scales vary both in shape and relative density. The latter variation can be illns- 
i rated by counliue 1 he number of micro scales. In the Arnhem Land specimens 

the dorsal scales are separated by as many as five rows of micro-scales, while 

in others, notably thoae from Ten nam Creek, by only one or two rows. Pry 
(191.3, fig, 7) figures 1-2 rows for his E ids void specimens, while the three South 
Australian Museum specimens, from Ihe type locality possess 2-'\. Further, the 
relative size of these micro-scales varies. The number bordering each dorsal 

392 Records of the S.A. Museum 

varies from an average of eight lor the Stewart River specimens to fourteen for 
those from Tennant Creek; the aY6Tftge is twelve in the Arnhem Land series. 
Fry (op. tit., fxg t 8) (inures eighteen for his pmatatiis var. iypico. In some 
specimens there is a tendency J*or the micro-scales to become fused, forming 

larger elongate scales along the lateral borders of the dorsals. Working on a 

limited number of specimens, this variation does not appear to be significant, 

although the examination oi* a larger series osaj reveal grounds for the sub- 

di\ ision of the material at present referred to tristis. Plate xx.wii contains photo- 
graphs illustrating this variation in both trixti* and orienlalis. 

The number of abdominal scales averages 84 in a range of 79-94 in the 
Arnhem Land specimens and !)() in a range of 85-104 in the South Australian 
Museum series of fristis. 

Two gravid females were opened, one I .S.N.M. 128574, contained twelve 
eggs, while the other, 128287, contained eight; 

The largest Specimen examined, S.A, Ah K.3U85, a male from the Krazer 
Range, AV. AusL, originally recorded by Stirling and Zietz (1893, p, 170), 
measures 694 (265+436) nun., while the largest Arnhem Land specimen, 
I'.S.N.M. 128483, also a male, measures 465 (2104-255+) mm. — tail incomplete. 


Delma fraseri fraseri Gray 
Delms fraseri Gray, 1831, p. 14. 
Del ma pfebcia De Vis, 1888, p. 825. 

U.S.N.M. 128679-128082, Yirrkalla, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128200, Xi-htcliff, near Darwin, N.T. 

A.M. 11.13048 (2 specimens), R.13569 (2 specimens), R.13570 (2 specifiiefts), 
Cape Arnhem, N.T. 

A.M. R. 13471, (Jroote Eylandt, N.T. 

The anal sealation of this rnaterial is interesting as ii confirms thai plcbeia 

De Vis is a variant of jntseri, as was sn^estcd by Longman (1916, p. 51 ) and 
Kinahorn (1020, p. 53). Although all of the present series possess three anst] 
sealer, the size and position of the median scale Paries considerably; the outer 
anals accordingly vary From widely separated by the median anal to forming 

a median suture, thereby excluding the mediae anal. (See fig. 4.) Probably 

I he. median anal is present in the type of pfabeity but its position and size make 
it of little apparent Burnifieanee. 

Mrrcni I l — Arnhem Land Reptilia and Amphibia 



Fig. $. Ddlma frasefi frasori Gray: drawings of the mini region showing, (a) the vta 
typtea condition and (b) the w. pZeftcta condition, Ruth drawings were made from speentiene 
taken at or near Yirrkalla, N.T. 

Lialis burton is Gray 
Lu/Vi.s hurfonis Gray, 1834, p. 134, 

U.S.N.M. 128379-128383, 128441, A.M. R. 13610 (3 specimens), Umba Kumba, 
Groote Eylandt, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128467428468, Port Langdon, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128259, Nightelrtt, near Darwin, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128576, Yirrkalla, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. L28504, Milim-.-imlM Island, Crocodile Islands, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128514, iCuraitummum, N.T. 

A.M. &18546, oenpolli, N.T. 



Holotype: S.A.M. R.3U95, an adult male, Yirrkalla, N.T. 
Paratypes: U.S.N.M. 128636-128637, 128639, Yirrkalla, N.T. 
S.A.M. B»3225, near Umba Kumba. Groote Eylandt, N.T. 
U.S.N.M. 128478, Port Langdon, N.T. 

Diagnosis: Differs from the southern Australian race in possessing a dis- 
tinctive colour pattern and in attaining a larger adult size. 

394 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Scalation : Midbody scales in 32-35 rows, irregular in the dorso-lateral region 
of the body. Prefrontals narrowly separated or making point contact on the mid- 
line; nasals invariably separated. Nine or ten upper labials with the 5th, 6th 
and 7th or 6th, 7th and 8th subocular; 6-7 supraciliaries; 2-3 auricular lobules. 

Colouration: The most distinctive feature of this race is its colour pattern. 
In the type race the dorsal surfaces of the body and tail have a uniform pat- 
terning of alternate light and dark crossbands; in intermedia this banding is 
broken up into a series of alternate light and dark bars on the dorso-lateral 
surface only, none of the bars extending to or across the dorsal midline. Further- 
more, the bars are staggered along the body, a dark bar on one side facing a 
light bar on the other. The middorsal colouring is darker than the light bars, 
but with a light blotch the same shade as the light bars at the dorsal end of 
each dark bar. The dark temporal streak is not as prominent as in the type 

This somewhat complicated colour pattern is constant in all specimens 
examined, including the South Australian Museum specimens recorded by 
Mitchell (1950, p. 295). 

Measurements: The largest specimen examined is the holotype and it 
measures 447+ (334+113+) mm. — tail incomplete. All specimens examined, 
except the juvenile (U.S.N.M. 128388) possess body lengths in excess of 300 
mm. Of twenty-one South Australian specimens of the type race examined, the 
largest measure 293 mm. from the tip of the snout to the vent. 

Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) taeniolata (Shaw) 

Lacerta taeniolata Shaw, 1790, p. 245, pi. xxxii, fig. 1. 

U.S.N.M. 128758, S.A.M. R.2868, Oenpelli, N.T. 
U.S.N.M. 128756, East Alligator River, N.T. 

Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) essingtonii (Gray) 

Tiliqua essingtonii Gray, 1842, p. 51. 

U.S.N.M. 128251-128256, Nigbtcliff, near Darwin, N.T. 
U.S.N.M. 128603-128607, 128609-128610, Yirrkalla, N.T. 
U.S.N.M. 128402-128407, A.M. R.13466 (2 specimens), R.13467 (3 speci- 
mens), S.A.M. R.2866 (7 specimens), Umba Kumba, Groote Eylandt, N.T. 

Loveridge (1934, p. 346) raises the question of the affinities of T. essingtonii 
Gray and suggests that it may be more nearly allied to leonhardii Sternfeld 
than taeniolata Shaw. Although varying a little, the colouration of this series 
of 31 specimens agrees well with Gray's type and Boulenger's catalogue descrip- 

Mitchell — Ahnhem Land Kuptilia and Amphibia 395 

lion (1887, p. 228) °* Uua Species; An examination of the sealatiori supports 
Boulen^crs statement (oj>, cflL") that it differs in no way from that of taeniolahi 

The colour and pattern are distinctive. A broad dorsal Stripe varies from 
light brown in the NIgtrtcliflE specimens through [ight hroir/e to almost cream 
in sonic ol' the Groote Eylandt material. This is bordered on each side by a 
wide, light edii'cd, dark dorsolateral stripe, which breaks up into 8 series of 
dark spots on the tail. The lighl upper edge of this stripe is defined on the 
nape ;ind anterior half of the body by a further dark line, which is particularly 
prominent in the Ni»hf.clilT specimens. Ln the Yirrkalla and Groote Eylandt 
specimens a series erf 16-24 bronze blotches are enclosed within the dark dorso- 
lateral stripe. In the Nipjiteliff sei'ies there are only occasional small lighter 
Bpota in the anterior half. Limbs bron: ■•:-. spotted or striated with black. Upper 
labials and ventral surfaces white. 


flrnuliu Spaldingi Maeleay, 1877, p. 63. 

U.S.N.M. 128594-128595, 128548, 128600, L88685. Yirrkalla, X.T. 
U.S.N.M. 128391, S.A.M. R.2851, Umba Kumba, Groote Eylandt, N.T. 
A.M. RU3&76 (part), Cape Arnhem, N.T. 

Lygosoma (SPHBNOMORPKt^) leonhardu (Sternfeld) 

Lifgosoma (Himilui) titi/niolaliim var. vuwvJnia Rosen, 1905, p. 140. 
Lygnsomu (llimdia) Icunhnrdii Sternfeld, 1919, p. 79. 

t .S.X.M. 128577-128584, 128586428593* 128596-128697, 128590, 12K601, 
128608, 128618, S.A.M. B.2860, yirrkalla, X.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128389-128390, 128392 128401s S.A.M. [L286S| A.M. RJ3605 (3 
specimens), B. 13602 (3 specimens), R.J3611 (1 specimen), R. 13465 ( 1 specimen), 
R. 13514 (2 specimens), R.18G0S (3 specimens), R. I350S (2 specimens), IM3597 
(3 specimens), Umha Kumba, Groote Eylandt, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 138757, S.A.M. Bc2867, Oe-ipclli, X.T. 

A.M. BL13666 (2 specimens), li. 13577 (2 specimens), R. 1357b' (1 specimen), 
Cape Arnhem, N.T. 

The variation displayed by this large series is as follows: Midbody scales 
in 28 rows i "Hi specimens) or 30 rows (24 specimens) — only the adults were 
counted. Nasals separated behind the rostral in all specimens; prefrontals form- 
ing a variable length median suture; ear opening oval, relatively smaller in the 
adull than in the juvenile; :'.-5 auricular lohules, the shape of each varying from 
obtuse to xvvy A subnarial suture (a present in many specimens. Two 


Records op the S.A. Museum 

or three pairs of enlarged nuchalft All specimens possess four supraoculars 
except U.S.N.M. 128582, which has only three, there being an indication of the 
fourth suture a1 tin- supraciliary border. The second anterior supraocular is 

invariably the largest Except for two specimens which possess six on one side 
and five on the other, all specimens have live upper labials anterior to the first 
suboeular. The length of the snout seems to be very Variable with consequent 
variation in the shape and size of the loreals and proportions of the prefrontals 
and intcrnasal. 

The colour alld pattern show some variation. Many adult specimens are 
without a black vertebral stripe, and when some vestige of this line is evident, 
il is usually without the white border characteristic of Specimens taken further 


Some interesting variation in the size and shape of the supraoculars is 
also evident from this study. Although the size of the second supraocular is 
Variable in all populations examined, there appears to be a. south to north 
gradation lending toward an enlargement <d this supraocular, its average size 

in i he Arnhem Land specimens being markedly greater than that of South 
Australian skinks examined. (See fig. 5.) 

Pig. 5. tygosomc (Spkenomorphus) iardii Btturifcld: three tfTaw-iuga illudtr&ting 

Mi.iiioti in supraocular Bcalation and i<- correlation with latitude, (a.) r.s.x.M. L28608, 

.ill.'i, N.T. ; tin s.A.M. B.1532, Lfermannsburg Mission, N.T. (type locality); fc) s.a.m. 
R.3177, Morn Meroa, 8. Auat 

MiTOHELL — Arniiem Land Reptjlia and Amphibia 397 

Lvuosoma ( .SiMiENOMOui'nrs) isohKi'is isolrims (Boulenger) 

Lygosoma usolepis Rouleimer, Inst, p, 2;;4, pL xv, fig; l. 

I.S.N.M. 128506, S.A.M. EMHMB, Milim-imbi Island, I'ro.odile Islands, N.T. 
LLS.N.M. 128250, Nightcliff, near Darwin, N.T. 
ILS.TM.J1 I285EJ, ti^porlomi, N.T. 

\.AI. R.18606 (2 sfMM-it urns), R1346g i.o specimens). Grootc Bykiidt, N.T. 
A -M. K.I 3649, Arnhcm Land, N.T. 
A.M. R.1365^ Cape Arnhem, N.T. 

A.M. R.13641, Last Alligator Rivets N.T. 


Lyymo\M crwteicmdum A. fhimtsril, Ifc51> p. 172. 
I.S.N.M. 112X01 1, Yirrkalla, N.T. 

Midbody scales in 20 longitudinal rows; four pans of enlarged noejufc 
contracting in size to a double aeries 01' slighlty enlarjged varteferala Auricular 
Opening round, without lobules; apf.TOxinial.ely one-third t lie boriiontaJ diameter 
of tin- eye; Th.- wills to groin measurement is approximately one and tbree- 

pter times longer than that from 1 lie tip of the snout to tie- foreKmb. The 
h'mdlimb measures 14 mm., a length equal to the distance between the centra of 
the eye and (be forelimb. Fifth upper labial centrally subocnlar; frontonasal 
tormiii^ broad sutures with both rostral and frontal, the suture in eaeli ease 
being a little more- than hah 1 h<- frontonasal length. The maximum combined 
length of the frontoparietals and interparietal is a little greater than I bat 01' 
the frontal. Subdigital lamellae smooth, 5, 7-8, 12-13, 18-19, 8-9 beipg the 
formula fur the biudlimb and ;j.s,<\(j,4, the Formula for Hm* forelimb. Dorsal 
surfaces dark brown, minutely punctate with black; the black spots beeoinur- 
more prominent as the basic colour tightens ventrodatcrally. I'ppei labials and 
underside of tail also punctate with black. Remaining ventral surfaces uniform 
white. Tin 1 limbs have longil ndinal rows of black apo 

This specimen measures 78+ (56+22+) mm. — tail incomplete. 

Although ii frosBeefiew the lung frontonasal- frontal and Frontonasal-rQStiraJ 
sutures stated to be characteristic of mjobefgi Lonnbeiv ami Andersson (1915, 
p. 6 ) . t his specimen baa the larger number of subdigital lamellae of < rassicaAidum, 
While conhdently claiming on the evidence o! an examination of a specimen from 
Uavenshoe, Qld., referral to Wljob&Fpi by Lroetor (1923, p. 107:U, and another 
without locality data, (hat these tWO nam r to distinct species. Loveridge 

( )!>:;4, p. :iil7 ) refers the latter specimen which possesses only twelve lamellae 

beneath the fourth toe to crassicavdnm. 1 1 correct, this would gt-eatly reduce tie- 
value of the hindlimb lamellar formula as a iaxonomic character for the separa- 

398 Records of the S.A. Museum 

lion of these two lizards. Similarly, the validity of the relative lengths of the 
Frontonasal suture-: as a distinguishing feature is endangered it' this specimen 
baa been correct h referred to erassicaudum. 

A comparison w 1 1 1 1 the literature also shows the following characters to 
\;ii\ . Tlic Arnhein Laud specimen and the type material as figured by liombron 
aild Jacquin0l ( 18424833, pi iv\ fig. 1 ), have the fifth upper labial centrally sub- 
ocular, while ijonnber»> and Andersson record the fourth as beittg "below the 
centre of the ' in the eotypes of mj'obergi; Boulenircr I 1.SS7, f>. 325)j after 
examining the specimens from Fly Rivet} New Guinea, Murray and r'ornwallis 
Islands records both conditions in his material A BUggestioti of variation in 
tin' relative proportion of the frontonasal ami in the number of supraoculars 
contacting Ihe frontal is dependent on the accuracy of the Hombron and Jae 
quinot figure yojf. <it.) which shows the frontonasal to be much longer than 

wide and the 1st, 2nd and 3rd supraoculars contacting the frontal. In colouration 
Mjobergi is intermediate between that of ihe Andiem Land specimen deseril>ed 
above and that of typical CTOSSi (nudum. No evidenc€ cA a dark 
stripe, sharply defined at its dorsal edge, is to be found in the present specimen, 

while some reference to this is made in all other relevant literature, including 

MctCleay'-S Lyf/ostmm omnium (1878, p. fi4). 

Lovei-idizc (op. rit.) mentions that mjoftergi is a nmefj larger species,, a su^- 
ufstion supported by the measurements of the larger col y pi-. 

Genus Leiolopisma 
Because of the confused nomenclature in certain sections of this -cnus. it 
was found in i ^ i to make a brief revision of the ''Hetcropus' 7 species group, 
whi<h is characterised within the genua by the possession of 4-f5 digits and an 
undivided frontoparietal, to enable three of the species taken by the expedition 
to be satisfactorily identified. This revision has been published in the l \Records 
of ihe South Australian Museum," xi, pp. 75-90, and tiie \\ nonomies quoted b- Im 
arc discussed in it. fuschm irscuM f Duuieril and Bibron) 
llitrropus fusrus Dumeril and Bibron, 1839, j). 759. 
Ih/eropus schmdtzii Peters, 1867, p. "2,1. 
/Jtlcrojms Iricurmatus Meyer, 1*74, p. 13$. 
ffetf:ro])us tonf/ipes Macleay, 1877, p. 68. 
ffeteropits s$xdeniatu& Macleay, 1877, p. 67. 
Ilettropus mucif lulus J >e Vis, 1885, p. 161). 
Ueteropus rubrioatus De Vis, 1885, p. 170. 
Ileteropus rostralis Dc. Vis, 1885, p. 171. 

Mitchell — Arnhem Land Reptilia and Amphibia 399 

U.S.N.M. 128612-128617, 128518, Virrkalla, N'.T. 

A.M. R.13583-13584, R.I 3656 (3 specimens), Cape Arnhem, N.T. 

Lwolopisma vivax ( De Vis) 

Jhteropus pcronii Dumeril and Bibron, 18)39, p. 760. 
Mgophila virn.r He Vis, 1884, p. 77. 
Ihtrrnptis hlockmamii De Vis, 1889, p. 168. 

C.S.N.M. 128507-128510, Milimgimbi Island, Crocodile Islands, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128257, Nightoliff, near Darwin, N.T. 

A.M. R.13585 (4 specimens), Jt.13586 (4 specimens). Cape Arnhem, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128439-128440, 128412; A.M. R.13464 (2 specimens), R.1W0 (2 
specimens) ; R.13607 (2 specimens) ; S.A.. M. R.2857 (3 specimens) , Umba Kumba, 
Oroote Eylandt, N.T. 

SAM. R.2865, Virrkalla, N.T. 

Leiolopism a pectokalis (De Vis) 

Curl in melanopogon Gray, 1844, pi. vii, fi m*. 1. 

JJeteropus lahralis De Vis, 1885, p. Iu'8. 

FIflrropus p< ((oralis De Vis, 1885, p. 169. 

Heteropus minidus De Vis, 1885, p. 172. 

Lygosoma devisii Boulenger, 1890, p. 79 (n.n. for lateralis De Vis, as preoccupied 

in Lygosoma). 
■ Lygisaurus foliorum De Vis, 1884, p. 77. 

(T.S.N.M. 128764, Oenpelli, N.T. 
U.S.N.M. 128528, Port Essington, N.T. 

Lbiolopisma OUrCIIEXOTI delicata (De Vis) 
Moron delicata De Vis, 1888 (1887), p. 820 

A.M. B13461, Uroote Eylandt, N.T. 

Midbody scales in 26 rows; no auricular lobule-'. (.Vneral scalation similar 
to thai of South Australian and Victorian specimens of yinvhenoii, but with a 
much wider iY<mtonasa!-i><mtal suture. Us j«mcral form is more slender and the 
limbs weaker. On 1 he above evidence delicata is retained as a subspecies. The 
colour corresponds accurately with thai described by De Vis, and if constant 
would distinguish it readily from the type race. 

Loveride.c (1934, p. 350) doubtfully referred delicata to the synonymy of 
(fuichenoti, eommeinmid on the Fact that all specimens of guichenoti possessed 
enlarged preanals, and that this feature was not characteristic of delicata. This 
is confirmed by material examined. 


Records of the S.A. Museum 

TChodona stylis sp. nov. 
Holotype: S.A.M. R.3094, Yirrkalla, N.T. 

Paratypea: 0J3.N.M, 12S64G-128678; s.A.Al. R.2856 (5 specimens), Yirr- 
kalhi, N.T. 

L'.S.N.M. 12S40!)-1284I1. S.A.M. R.2855 (2 specimens), Umba Kurnba, 
Gfroote Eylandt, N.T. 

U.S.N M. 128520 ? Rocky Beach, Gaps Arnhem, N.T. 

A.M. BJL-3668 (4 specimens), R.I3S67 (5 specimens), B.1S568 (5 specimens ), 

B.1I657 (8 specimens), BJ.3858 (8 specimens). Cape Arnliem, N.T. 

Diagnosis: This species most nearly approaches Hhodonu lineala Cray in the 
degree of reduction of the limbs, but is immediately distinguished from it by 

presence of ErdntoparietaLg and at least three supraoculars. The scalation 

closely resembles that of Rhodmm wUkinsi Parker, with which it agrees in all 
essential details including the midbody scale count. However, the presence of 
a styliform hind limb immediately separates it from that species. 

Type ducriptjtm-i Body elongate: forelimb absent; hindlimb minute, styli- 
Eortit, variable in size (see fig, 7), but equivalent in length to two of the 


Pig. <;. Bho&ona stylte Mitchell: aomi and lateral views f the head of the holotync 

in approx.), - ' 

Mitchell — Ahnhem Land Rephwa and Amphibia 


adjacenl scales in the holetype. Snout cuneiform with angularly projecting 
labial edge; eye small, lower- eyelid with a large transparent 3iak. Three supra- 
oculars; frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, the Former being widely 

separated and less than half the size of the latter, pavietals forming a suture 
behind the interparietal A loreal and one or two preoeulars; two postoculars. 
Five upper and five lower labials, the third upper labial being subocular; tW<3 
pairs oi' enlarged nuehals and a pair of slightly eiilarged anal plates present. 
Eighteen smooth scales at midbody. Ear opening minute. 

Colouration: Ughl grey dorsally with a black dorso lateral stripe extending 
from behind each eye io the tip of the tail. On the dorsal surface a longitudinal 
line of fine black dots extends down each side of the vertebral line, the two rows 
coalescing on the tail. Ventral surfaces uniform white. 

Measurements i The holotype measures 113 (60+53) mm.— tail regenerating. 

Variation: The head sealation is very constant within the type series of 
82 specimens, the main variation being in the size and number of the small 
ocular and supraeiliary scales. In several of the Groote Kylandt specimens the 
large postocular has been forced up into line with the supraoculars by the en- 
largement of several small scales at the posterior border of the eye. and it might 
therefore be considered an additional supraocular. The number of scales at 


Fig. 7. Drawings [)f tflti bones dissected from within the styliform hindlimb of Rhodona 
stylifi Mitchell. 

A nrifl P. — specimens from Groote Eylandt. N.T, 

C and D — specimens from YiirK-rillri, N.T. (type lodalil 

The body lengths of the tour specimens from wh'n'h the bones figjjrocl above were taken 
are 00 ±2 min. 

402 Records of the S.A. Museum 

midbody is usually eighteen, but the lateral scales are often irregular and in 

such cases twenty can often be counted, particularly in the Yirrkalla material. 
The basic midbody count for the (Jroote Kylandt skinks is sixteen, with eighteen 
Occurring in the two specimens with irregular lateral sealing. Accepting mid- 
body us being the middle point of the distance between the ear opening and the 
hind Hnil), fifty specimens were counted with the following results: eighteen 
Specimens were found to possess 20 midbody scales, twenty-seven possessed IS, 
and five possessed 16, .Many specimens have only four lower labials. 

Although no point would seem to be gained by separating them, the firoote 
Eylandt specimens have several characters which distinguish them from the 
Yirrkalla series. Apart from the small serial ion differences indicated above, 
they differ in possessing less degenerate hind limbs, some evidence of the tibia, 
fibula and tarsals being present. There is only a short rudiment of the tibio- 
fibuia present in the Yirrkalla lizards (see fig, 7), 

The uniform degeneration of the limbs and digits m the genus Rhorfona 
has been of considerable interest to the author, and limb dissections of the nine 
speeles available in the South Australian Museum collection have been made 
and studied. Although by no means eonHnsive, the variation in tarsal (carpal) 
and metatarsal (metacarpal) bones, particularly among specimens of the same 
speeies. but from different tacaiiiies, suggests t lint the loss of digits and digital 
bones may not be always indicative of specific variation. The genus may be found 
to contain polytypic species within winch the number of digits varies. 

Ablepharus taentopleurus Peters 
Ahlepharv.s i Mnrethia) tneninplcnrii.s Peters. 1874, p. 375. 

I.S.N.M. 128750. Red Lily l,a-....n. 7 miles W.SAY. of Oenpelli, \\T 
P.S.NA1. 128635, Yirrkalla, X.T 

Ablkphakus okii:n t taij> (I)c Vis) 
MuuJin orient nlis He Vis, L888, p. 160. 

U.S.N.M. 128408, near I'mba Kumba. Groote Ej, N.T. 

Excepl for the possession of £}Q instead of 18 muibody scales, this speei 
corresponds accurately with 1 )e Yis's type description. De Vis (op t oft) refers 
to ortentaMs as the "eastern representative of ehif&ns Uuuthor. ,T This suggests 
subspeeifie relationship, and it is possible thai the western ;md north 
populations do intergrade at some point in north-western Australia. Zietz 
(I920j p. 2221 gives the distribution oi &tegail8 as Wefetern Australia. 8oiltl] 
Australia, Central Australia, New South Wales and Victoria, Except For 

Mitchell — Arnhem Land Reptilia and Amphibia 403 

Western Australia, I have been unable to find feraands for suggesting that the 

species occur in any of the Slates mentioned. The Strath Australian Museum 
collect ion contained 18-20 specimens which had been identified as ehf/ans, but 
all are referable to .1. gfeyi Gray or A. timidus De Vis. The occurrence of 
elegm* in South Australia is therefore doubtful. The present specimen differs 
from the Western Australian elegam in possessing a higher number of in id body 
scales, the presence of only Ihree upper labials anterior to the subocular ami in 
the complete encirclement of the eye by small granular scales. 

Arlepharus boutonii mktallicijs Boulenger 
Altlrplmrus boutonii var. mttallirus Boulcn.irer, 1887, p. '347. 

U.S.N.M. 1 2861 9-128634, Yirrkalla, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128413-128438; A.M. R.13409 (3 specimens), R.13592 (10 speci- 
mens), S.A.M. R.2852 (3 specimens), near [lihba Kumba. Groote Eylandt, N.T. 

I S.N.M. 128760-1287(53. SAM. R.2850 (3 specimens), 2 miles S.S.E, of 
Oenpelli. N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128232, 128258, Ni-htcliff, N.T. 

A.M. R. 13582 (5 specimens), R.13650 (7 specimens), Cape Arnhem, N.T. 


Limnodynastes ornatus ( ( J ray) 

Disclogkmus ornatus Gray, 1842, p. 56. 

U.S.N.M. 128457-128458, Central Hill, Groote Eylandt, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128274-128275, S.A.M. R.3250 ? Umba Kumba, Groote Eylandt, 


U.S.N.M. 128465-128466, Port Langdon, N.T. 

Cyclorana austkalis (Gray.) 
Ah/tes aiistralis Gray, 1842, p. 56. 

U.S.N.M. 128236-128239, Ni«ditcliff, near Darwin, NT, 
This species is separable from its more slender ally, C. alboguttatus (Gun- 
ther) by the strong sculpturing of the upper surfaces of the maxillae, prc- 
maxillae and zygomatic processes of the squamosals. The occurrence of both 
species at Alexandra Station, N.T. (Loveridge, 1935, p. 13; 1949, p. 213, quoting 
Parker, 1940, p. 20) and Port Denison, Queensland (Parker. 1940, pp. 19-^0) 
indicates that they coexist over a large range. 

404 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Glattertja orientalis Parker 

Gtouertia orientaUs Parker, 1940, p. 67. 

I f.S.N.M. 128276-128277, tJmba Kumbn, Groofe Bylftodt, N.T. 

These two interesting frogs support Parker's type description in all respects, 
one paratype female having been taken on Groote Eylftndt 

TTyla cakkulea (Shaw) 
Sana caerulea Shaw, 1790, p. 248. 

T.S.N.M. 128267, Umba Kumba. Groote Eylandt, N.T. 
U.S.N.M. 128530, Yirrkalla, N.T. 

Hula rubella Gray, 1842, p. 57. 

r.S.N.M. 128281, Dmba Rumba, Groote Eylandt, N.T. 

Hyla lesueurii Dumeril and Bibron 

/////// Itsumrii Dumeril and Bibron, 1841. p. 595, 

U.S.N.M. 128719, Oenpelli, N.T. 

This specimen agrees well with Gunthers type description (1867, p. 56) and 
Boulenger's redeseription and figure (1882, p. 413, pi. xxvi. fig. 2), of the type 
df Hifjrofrenaia, which name was placed in the synonymy of hsitcurii by Love- 
ridge (1935, p. 51). 

Hyla peroni (Tschndi) 

Devdrifht/as peroni Tschudi, 1838, p. 75. 

T '.S.N.M. 128715-128718, Oenpelli, N.T. 

This species appears to be widely distributed in northern, eastern and 
southern Australia, having been recorded from the Northern Territory, Queens- 
land, New South Wciles, Tasmania, and I take this opportunity to record its 
occurrence in the lower reaches of the River Murray, at Tailem Bend, S. Aust. 
Il seems probable that the species also occurs in Victoria. 

Except for a darker and more variegated colour pattern, the South Austra- 
lian specimens are not distinguishable from northern and eastern Australian 
specimens. In life these dorsal variegations contain numerous green flecks which 
are not evident in preserved material. 

Mitchell — Arkhem Land Reptiua and Amphibia 405 

Hyla adelaidensis Gray 
Byla adeMdensis (I ray, 1841, p, 447, pi. viii, fig. 2. 

U.S.N.M. 128720-128725, S.A.M. R.3252, Oenpelli, N.T. 

Hyla nasuta (Gray) 
Pclndtftrs nasutus Gray, 1842, p. 56. 

U.S.N.M. 128268-128271, S.A.M. R.3253, [Jmba Knmbn, Groote Eylandt, 

U.S.N.M. 128459, Central Hill. Groote Eylandt, N.T. 
U.S.N.M. 128462, near Old Mission, (J mole Eylandt, N.T. 

Hyla bicolor (Gray) 
Eucnemis bicolor Gray, 1842, p. 57. 

U.S.N.M. 128712-128714, Oenpelli, N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128686-128703, s.A.M. R3251, (ahill's Landing, East Alligator 

River. N.T. 

U.S.N.M. 128710-128711, Red Lily Lagoon, N.T. 

The latter localities are within a mile or so of each other, approximately 
six miles west of Oenpelli, N.T. 


Aoassiz, L. (1857) : Contr. Nat. Hist. U.S., i, p. 382. 

Boulenger, G. A. (1882): Catalogue of Batrachia Salientia in the British 
Museum, London. 

Boulen-er, G. A. (1885-1887): Catalogue of Lizards in the British Museum 

London, vols. 1-3. 
Boulengcr, G. A. (1890) t Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 79. 
Boulcngcr, & A. (18934896): Catalogue of Snakes in the British Museum 

London, vols. 1-3. 
Bourne. G. (1932-1933) : Journ. Roy. Soc W. Aust., xix, p. 9. 
Copland, S. J. (1946) : Proc, Linn. Soc N-S. Wales, Ixx, (pts. 3-4), pp. 62-92. 
Copland, S. .1. (1947) : Proe. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, lxxi (pts. 3-4), pp. 186-144 

ier, G. (1829) - Begne Animal (2nd ed.j, ii, p. 35. 
Dumeril, A. (1851): Cat. Method. Coll. Sept. Paris, p. 172. 
Dumeril, A. and Bibron, G. (1834-1854) : Erp. Gen., i-ix. 
Fischer, J. G. (1886) : Abh. Nat. Geb. Hamburg, 
Fry, D. B. (1913) : Rec. Aust. Mus. Sydney, x, p. 18, fig. 7-10. 

406 Records pF tiie S.A. Muskim 

Fry, D. B. (1915) : Proe. Roy. See. Qld., xxvii. p. 91, fig; 6. 

Oarnran, S. (1901): Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, 39, pp. 1-14. 

GHauert, L. (1950) : W. Aust. Naturalist, p. 1®, 

Gray, J. E. (1827) : hi Kind's Voy Aust., ii., pp. 425, 432, pi. A. 

Gray, J. E. (1831) ; Zool. Misc., p. 14. 

Gray, -I. R. (1834) : F*qc. Zool. Ko<\ London, p. 134. 

Gray, J. E. (1838) : Ann. and Ma-. Nat, Hist. (3), xx, p. 52. 

Gray, J. E. (1841): Tn Grey's Journ. Exped. Discow, 2, pp. 442, 447, pi. via 

V 2. 
Gray, J. E. (1842) : Zool. Misc., pp. 43-65. 

iy, .1. E. MS44) : Zool. Erebus and Terror, Kept., pi. vii, fig. 1. 
Gray, J. E. (1845) ■ GktategtM of Lizards in the Brilisn Museum. London. 
Ountbetj A. (1844) : Zool. Erebus and Terror, Kept, p. 19. 
Gunther, A. (1867) : Ann. and Mag. Nat, Hist. (3), xx, pp. 52-56. 
Hewer, A. NT. (1918): Tasmanian Naturalist, i (pt. 3), pp. 8-11. 

abron, J. B. and J»6quinot, C. H. (1842-1853) - Voyag* au pole sud. Astra- et Zoologie (Reptiles el IVissons PW daequinot et. Guiehenot), pp. 16-17. 

pt iv, fig. 1. 
Hornsledt, C. F. (1787) ; Abh. Ae. Stockholm, viii, p. 307, pi. xii. 
Kin-horn, J. R. (1923) : Ree Aust. Mus., xiv, pp. 42-45. 
Kin-horn, J. R. (1924) : Ree. Aust. Mus. t xiv, p. 186. 
KniLdmrn, .1. 11. (1926) ; Re<«. Aust. Mus., xv, pp. 51-55. 
Kinghorn, J, R. (1929) : The Snakes of Australia, Sydney. 
Kin-horn, J. R. (1942) j Ree. Aust. Mus., xxi, p. 118. 
Linnaeus. - (1786) ! Syst. Nat. (ed. 12), i, p. 350. 
Lonnberg, E. and Anderssou, L. G. (1915): Svenska. Vetsk. Akad. Handl., 

Stockholm, 52, No. 7, pp. 1-9. 
Longman, H. (1915) : Mem. Qld. Mus., iii, p. 31. 
Longman, H. (1916) : Mem. Qld. Mus.. w p. 48. 

Loveridge, A. (1934) : Bull. Mus. Couip. Zool. Harvard, lxxvii. No. fi, pp. 336-344 
Loveridge, A. (1935) : Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, Lxxviii, No. L v\>- 1-60, 

Loveridge, A. (1948) : Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ci, No. 2, pp. 305-430. 

Loveridge, A. (1949) ; Trans. Roy. Soe. S. Aust., 72 (2), pp. 208-215. 

Mortens, R. (1931) J Zool. Jahrb., 61, VV- 63-210, pis. ii-iv, text fig. 

Mrrte.ns, R. (1942): Abhand. Senekenberg, Natnrf, Ges., No. 4G6, pp. 237-391. 

Mever, A. (1874) : MB. Akad. Berlin, pp. 128-140. 

Mitchell, F. d. (1950) : Ree. ft Austral. Mus., ix, pp. 275-308. 

Mitchell, F. J. (1951): Ree. ft Austral. Mus., be, p. 545. 

Mitchell — Arniiem Land Reptilia and Amphibia 407 

Montague, P. J). (1914) : Proc. Ko\ \ Zool. SOC,, London, ii, pp. 640-643. 

Ogilby, D. (1890) : Roc. Austral. Mus., 1, p. 94. 

Parker, IT. W. (1940) : Nov. Zool., 42, p. 67. 

Peters, W. (1867): Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 710. 

Peters, W. (1869) : Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 607. 

Proctor, J. B. (1923) : Proc. Roy. Zool. Soe. London, p. 1073. 

I)e Rooij, N. (1917) : Indo- Australian Reptiles, ii, p. 77, Leiden. 

Rosen, N. (1905) : Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), xvi, p. 140. 

Sehlegel, H. (1837): Phys. Serp., ii, pp. 32, 345, 455. 

Schneider, J. G. (1799) : Hist, Amphih., i, p. 243. 

Schneider, J. G. (1801) : Hist. Amphib., ii ? p. 169. 

Shaw, G. (1790) : In White's Journ. Voy. N.S. Wales, app. p. 248, pi. 

Smith, II. A. (1931) : Fauna of British India, Reptilia and Amphibia, i, p. 67, 

Smith, M. A. (1937) : Rec. Ind. Mus., xxxix, pp. 213-234. 

Smith, M. A. (1943) : Fauna of British India, Reptilia and Amphibia, iii, London. 
Sternfeld, R. (1919) : Mitt. Senckenb. Naturf. (Jesell., i, p. 79. 
Stirling, E. C. and Zietz, A. (1893) : Trans. Roy. Soe. S. Austral, xvi, p. 170. 
Thomson, D. F. (1930): Austral. Journ. Exp. Biol, and Med. Science., vii, pp. 

125-133, text fig. 
Thomson, D. F. (1933) : Proc. Roy. Zool. Soe. London, p. 859. 
Tschudi, >J. J. (1838) : Classif. Batr, p. 75. 

Vis, d W. de (1884-1885) : Proc. Roy. Soe Qld., i, pp. 77, 169-172. 
Vis, a 1). de (18874888) : Proc. Linn. Soe. N.S. Wales (2), ii, pp. 820, 824. 
Zietz, F. R. (1920) : Rec. S. Austral. Mus,, i, pp. 181-228. 

408 Records of the S.A. Museum 


Plate xxxvii 

Photographs showing the form and density of the middorsal (right) and basal third 
caudal scales of: 

Varanus glebopalma Mitchell. Holotype. 

Varanus timorensis tristis (Schlegel). Loc. Fraser Range, W. Aust. 

Varanus timorensis tristis (Schlegel). Loc. Tonnant Creek, N.T. 

Varanus timorensis orientalis Fry. Loc. Eidsvold, Qld. 

Varanus timorensis orientalis Fry. Loc. Groote Eylandt, N.T. 

It »•:<:. S.A. \Iisji\j 

Vot. XI. Plate XXXVII 

1*?* vt^*^r 



by Gordon F. Gross, assistant entomologist, South Australian Museum 


Cardiastethus Fieber, 1860, Wien. Ent Monat, 4, 266. 

In addition to the reference in Van Duzee, 1917, Cat. Hem. Nth. Mexico, 295, there is Zimmerman, 

1948, Insects of Hawaii, 178. 

Body oblong or ovate pubescent. Rostrum surpassing anterior coxae. Posterior margin of pronotum 

deeply excavate, lateral margins straight or sinuate. The channel of the scent gland surpassing the 

middle of the pleurae and directed anteriad at the apex. Anterior tibiae usually armed with a row of 

short denticles on their inner side. 

This genus is very well represented in the fauna of the regions dealt with here. 




By GORDON F. GROSS, Assistant Entomologist, 
South Australian Museum 

Pig. i 

Genus Uakdjastetfius Fieber 

Cardiastetkvs Pieber, I860, WieiL Em. Monat., 4, 366, 

In addition to the reference in Van Thr/ec, 1917, ( 'at. Hem. Nth. Mexico, 295, 
then- is Zimmerman, 1948, Tusccfs of Hawaii, 178. 

Body oblong or ovate pubescent. Rostrum surpassing anterior coxae. Pos- 
terior margin (»!' pronotum deeply excavate, lateral margins straight or sinuate. 
The channel oi J the scent gland surpassing the middle of the pleurae and directed 
anteriad at the apex. Anterior tibiae usually armed with a row of short denticles 
on their inner side. 

This genus is very well represented in the fauna ol' the regions dealt with 

The species Can he separated by the following key: 
Ki:v to Australian and Adjacent Regions Species of CARDJASTETIIT'S 

1. Head much wider than Ion- c. inqniUfm China and Myers 

Head not, or little, wider than Ion ; 2 

2. Small species, less than 2 mm, in length (\ poweri White. 
Larger species more than 2 mm. in length 3 

3. Second segment of antennae not longer than width of head across 

' ,s C. minutus Popp. 

Second segment Of antennae longer than width of head across eyes -] 

4. Pronotnm almoM rectangular, anterior angles produced in front of 

the anterior margin (fig. LC) <'. aridimpressus *p. nov, 

Pronotum considerably broader posteriorly than anteriorly, anterior 
angles not produced ... 5 

5. Cuneufi in part rosaceous, male genitalia in the form of a large pJate 
over 500/* long, female genitalia also wvy Ion- (ea. 350/*) 

( . consort White 
Ouneus not rosaceous, male genitalia do not exceed 350/* nor the 
female genitalia 250f< <; 

6. Brown speaies c. UncQlnemis sp. nov- 

Liirht spc<-ies r mainly yellow 7 

410 Records of the S.A. Museum 

7. Lateral margins of pronotum founded with four long hairs on each 
side as well as the usual short pilosity. Hind margin of pronotum 
virtually straight. Terminal pail: of antenna] segments fairly short 

( 172-210 : 220-240) < '. noumeensis »p, uov. 

Lateral margins of pronotum sinuate without four long hairs. Hind 
margin of pronotum excavate. Terminal pair of antennal segments 
longer (both 2X0-200) 0. fulv&em (Watt 

Oardiastethus iNQUiLiNUS China and Myers 
Canhaslrlhxs mgutfinitt China and Myers. 1929, A.M.N. If., (10) 3, 1J& 

( )\ al. .lark brown shading to yellow brow)i towards apex of head and anterior 
lateral margins of pronotum. First and second antennal segments, rostrum, 
and legs yellowish. 

Head short and broad, sightly longer llian interocular width (17: H), 
rostrum reaching apex of anterior coxae. Ratios of length of antenna! segments 
7 17:12:14 (same scale as above). Pronotum flattened with ealli feebly 
otevated, distinctly but broadly impressed in I he middle, behind anterior lobe. 
Anterior margin straight, not cmareinate. 

Left ocnital style of the male conspicuously large and spathulate, strongly 
widened and truncate at apex. Length 2*1 mm. 

Loc. South Australia. The original Specimens were taken in the nest of 
an Oxyopid spider near Reumark, S.A. 


Fi£. 1, A-B 

raniiusffilins tonsors White, 1ST 4 .), Eut. Mo. Ma.L'. Hi, U& 

"Yellowish, clothed with long pale hairs; head, pronotum anteriorh 
posteriorly, and the abdomen dilutely reddish or yellowish fuscous; scutellum 
darker, euneus exterolaterally rosaceous; hemi-elytra more or less i'usconebuloiis; 
first segment at the antennae apieally infuseated, seeond with the apical third 
fuscous black, third fuscous brown; membrane dilutely brownish fuscous with 
indistinct eoneolorous veins, near the base vri' the exterior vein a small triangular 
luteous spot Vertex and the posterior part of the disc of the pronotum trans- 
versely rui»ulose, the latter with the lateral margins and the hind margin trans- 
versely punctate; scutellum subrugulosc. the posterior lobe of the disc, of the 
pronotum transversely impressed. 

Length, 3 ton** (translated fronj While's Latin description). 
There are several specimens in the Woodward Collection available to the 
atlthor for study which fit this description. From them the following standard 
measurements (in microns) have been obtained. 

Gross — A Revision of the Flower Bugs 


Fig. 1. A-B, ('ardiastcthus censors White. Male, A. apex of abdomen from below. Female, 
B, apex of abdomen from below. CD, Cardiastvthus aridimpressus sp. nov. Male. C, head 
and pronotum; D, apex of abdomen from below. E-F, Cardiastrthus lincohu-nsis sp. nov. 
Male. E, head and pronotum; F, apex of abdomen from below. G, Cardinstclhas bnmnianm 
White. Male. Apex of abdomen from below. H, Carditis I (thus fulvescens (Walker). Male. 
Apex of abdomen from below. 1-J, Cardiasttthus noumcensis sp. nov. Male. I, apex of 
•abdomen from below. Female. J, apex of abdomen from below. (All enlarged 40 diameters.) 

Head. Length, 500-590; length in front of eyes, 170-210; length behind 
eyes, 120-140; length of eyes, 170-210; width across eyes, 410-470; width of eyes, 
120-150; interocular, 190-210; width of colhim, 360-460. 

Antennae. I, 120-140; II, 500-530. Remaining segments missing on ail 

nostrum. I, 140-160; II, 380-450; III, 260-280. 

Pronotum. Anterior width, 380-470; posterior width, 930-1,000; median 
length, 400-470; lateral length, 550-600. 

412 Records of the S.A. Museum 

ScuteUum. Anterior width, 590-G50; median length, 450-470; lateral length, 





tarsi I 
























Total length, 2,810-3,450; total width, 1,030-1,410; length abdomen, 
1,360-1,790; length male genitalia, 530; length female genitalia, 350. 

£00, New Zealand: Iluia, Auckland (T. B. Woodward, 13 May, 1950, 4 
specimens); Paiaka, Manawatu (T. B. Woodward, 8 January, 1950). AH speci- 
mens in the Woodward Collection. 

Cardiastethus aridimfrkssus sp. nm 
Pig. 1, C-J ) 

Dark brown. Legs, antennae and embolium yellow. Eyes black. Ocelli 
red. Rostrum paler brown. Membrane fuliginous. Pilosity yellowish. 

Flattened oval pilose. Collum very short. Pronotum rectangular (fig. 1, C), 
slightly convex, marginate anterior angles produced somewhat in front of fore 
margin. Behind fore margin a slightly raised punctate callus. Collar tenuous. 
Seutellum triangular, plane, slightly depressed posteriad, with many denticula- 
tions laterally. All femora somewhat incrassated. Male genitalia in form of 
an angular plate with a hook-like process. 

The standard measurements (in microns) from 4 specimens are: 

Head. Total length, 3*0-460; length in front of eyes, 120-150; length 
behind eyes, 50; length of an eye, 200-270; width across eyes, 450-500; width 
of eye, 120-150; lnterocular, 170-240; width of collum, 320-400. 

Antennae. I, 900-1,000; II, 310-330; III, 190-220; IV, 240. 

Rostrum. I, 160-220; U, 330-430; m, 310-330. 

Pronotum. Anterior width, 450-520; posterior width, 760-930; median 
length, 290-450; lateral length, 430-530. 

XcuteUum. Anterior width, 520-690; median length, 350-480; lateral length, 





tarsi I 




























Total length, 2,400-2,800; width, 960-1,160; length abdomen, 1,150-1,580; 
length male genitalia, 240-330; length female genitalia, 172. 

Gross — A Revision of the Flower Bugs 413 

hoc. South Australia: Wilpena Pound (G. P. Gross, 3 August, 1951, Holo- 
fcype $ l Reg; Nos. E.SJ, 1480 and 120065), Mt. Lofty (Allotype 9, Reg. No. 
120066 and S. B. Curnow, Paratope 3 , J?ei>. No. 120067), Burnside (J. G. O. 
Tepper, S July. 18% Paratype 4, Re-. No. 120068). 

Cardiastethus ijncolnensis sp. nov. 
Fig. 1, E-F 

Wvx similar in colouration to C. arid\.m.]>ressu.s. Flattened, elongate oval, 
pilose, Collum quite long; Pronotnm marginate. Lateral margin somewlml 
sinuate and diverging tin eh more strongly posteriad than in C. (tfi<!iHipressus. 
Collar tenuous. Scutelktm triangular, plane, slightly depressed posteriad with 
many domiciliations laterally, Femora not incrassated. Male genitalia very 
similar to ('. arid-imp ressua. 

The standard measurements (in microns ) from 4 .specimens are: 
Head, Total length, 470-500; [ength in front of eyes, 170-210; length behind 
eyes, 90-120; length of an eye, 170-210; width across eyes, 100-470; width of an 
eye, 100-140; intorocular, 170-210; width of collnm, 330-380. 

Antennae. I, 100-120; 11, 350-430; III, 290-345; TV, 280=310. 

Nostrum. 1, 90-140; II, 400-470; 111, 290-310. 

F'ranufjiii). Anterior width, 430-520; posterior width, 900-1,020; median 
length, 330-350; fete**] length, 520-600. 

ScutfHvvi. Anterior width, 520-640; median length, 470-590; lateral length, 


1 1 bia 



Total length, 2,070-2,870; width, 1,020-1,140; length abdomen, 1,240-1,480; 
length male genitalia, 290; length female genitalia, 170-210. 

Lin-. South Australia: Vt. Lincoln (A. M. Lea, Holotype &, Reg. No, 
120069 and 1 paratype 9, Keg. No. 120070), Lucindalo (A. M. Lea, 1 paratype 
9, Reg. No. 120071); Tasmania: Da veystown (H. Felix, Allotype 9, Reg. No. 
120072); all in South Australian Museum. 

('•\uihastkthus POWER! White. 

(\rrdioMeihus poutri White, 1880» Ent, Mo. Mag. 16, 144. 

Tiecous brown or pieeous Mack, opaque, clothed with longish cinereous 
hairs; head anteriorly ami posteriorly, pronotum laterally and posteriorly, also 













fu-si 1 
















414 Recohds of THE S.A. Museum 

the seutellum apically, cinbolhun hasally, elavus and the corium for the most 
part more or less lighter, sometimes BgMly reddish. The third segment <rf the 

totennae fuscous brown, fourth reddish, a whitish fuscous nearly round spot 
before the base of the euneiis, membrane dilutcly fuscous brown with three 
lighter markings, two basalfo and the other on the inner margin, veins poorly 
defined. Rostrum bnsally piceous, apically somewhat yellowish, legs pieeous 
brown, hasally tending tighter in colour, femora apically, tlie apical half of the 
tibiae and usually the tarsi brownish yellow, body beneath a shining piceons 
brown, abdomen inedianly lighter. Head and pronotum (anterior part ol" the 
disc excepted) transversely rugulose; seutellum lightly iumdose punctate, the 
posterior lobe of the pronotum anteriorly tranversely impressed or (9) with a 
small deep fovea; membrane of the I'emale shortened. Length, l.}-2 mm.' (trans- 
lated from \\ 'bile's Latin description). 

Loc. New Zealand. 

Cakdiastetuits bkopnia.vus White 

Pig, 1, G 

Cardiff stethvs brounidnus White, 1878', Bnt. Mo. Mag., 15, 159. 

'Tieeous brown, clothed with rather long pale hairs: clypeus, anterior margin 
of the embolium, and the corium rather paler, second joint of the antennae 
(apex excepted) and legs brownish yellow; membrane dark fuscous, with the 
outer three nerves margined with whitish Head, pronotum and seutellum finely 
transversely rugose; transverse depression ol' Ihe prunolum nearly obsolete: 
central depression of the seutellum rather shallow. 

Length, 2-2} mm." (White's description i. 

There are a number of specimens in the Woodward Collection which seem 
to fit this description. From some of them the following standard measurements 
have heen obtained. 

Head. Length, 450-480; length in fronl of « y.-s. 170; length behind 
!)0: length of eyes, 100-210; width across eyes, 430450; width of eyes, 100420; 
interocular, 240; width of col him, 410. 

Antennae,. I, 100-120; II, 360; III, 220; IV, 240. 

Rostrum. I, 1H0 ; Jl, 310-350; lib 2IJO-310. 

Pronotum, Anterior width, 450; posterior width, 1,000; median length, 430; 
lateral length, 570. 

Seutellum. Anterior width, 410; median length, 430; lateral length, 480-500. 

Gross — A Revision of tiie Flower Hugs 415 

L.-^s coxa femur tiftfa targi I II LIT 

I — 

II — 

III 310 








Total length, 1,980; total wnltli. 1,100; length abdomen, 1,120-1,210; length 
male geuitaliaj 850; length female genitalia. 210. 

hoc. New Zealand: Cable Bay, N. Auckland (T. B, Woodward, 27 Feb- 
)'ii:in, L951, 3 specimens), Paiaka, Manawatu (T. E. Woodward, 15th January, 
!95(», by sleeping Muehlenbeclcia australis, 9 specimens), South West Island, 
Three Kings (T. E. Woodward, 13 February, 1951, 10 specimens), Great Island, 
Three KittgS, Has I Point | T. B. Woodward, 15 January, 15)51, 3 specimens, ditto 
TasniaD Valley, I specimen), Ot.aki River, South of Levin, Wellington Province 
(T. E. Woodward, 30 .January, 1951, 3 specimens), Huia, Auckland 
(T. Iv Woodward, 13 April, 1950, 1 specimen), and Punakitere, near Kaikohe, 
North Auckland (T. 6. Woodward, 11 February, 1951, one specimen). 

Caimhastethus. itia kstkns (Walk* 

Pig. 1, FT 

\)fl(nons fulvesoens Walker. 1872, Cat. Het. 5, 160. 

Qardiastethus ! fulvesoens Lethierry arid Severin, 1S96, Cat. Hem. 3, 250. 

Amphiareus fulccscens Distant, 1904, A.M.N.TI. (7) 14, 220. Faun. Brit, Ind. 
Rhynch. 3, 4, fig. 3. 

(',trdi<tsi<ihii:< [ii/, ,>.< Poppius, 1909, Act Soo. Sri. Fenn. 37 (9), 19. 

Xylocoris futfiipennis Walker loc. cit. 

Curdiasteihus fumip&nnis Lethieriy and Severin Inc. cit. 

Light yellow with long yellow hairs. Generally the apical margin of the 
corium and seldom the head, pronotum, clavus, the first sen-merit of the antennae, 
and an apical band on the second, brown. 

Sides of pronotum sinuate, disc deeply transversely improved behind the 
middle, hind portion punctate. Scutellum medially broadly transversely im- 
pressed, anteriorly punctate, terminally striated. 

The standard data (in microns) from the three specimens in the South 
Australian Museum are: 

Head. Length, 380-480; length in front of eyes, 140-170; length behind 
t-vi^ 70-120; length of eyes, 170-190; width across eyes, 3G0-430; width of eyes, 
120-140; interocular, 120-140; width of eollum, 290-310. 

416 Records of the S.A. Museum 

Antennae. I, 100-140; II, 360-460; III, 280-290; IT, 280-290. 

Rostrum. I, 140; II, 400; III, 210-260. 

Pronotum. Anterior width, 310-330; posterior width, 760-810; median 
length, 310-460; lateral length, 430-570. 

Seidell urn. Anterior width, 430-570; median length, 330-400; lateral length, 





tnrsi 1 




























Total length, 2,170-2,410; total width, 770-950; length abdomen, 1,070-1,090; 
length male genitalia, 280; length female genitalia, 120. 

Lor. Distributed widely over an area from Ceylon to Queensland. There 
are three specimens in the South Australian Museum from Malaya: Cap, Fmzers 
HOI (A. M. Lea and wife), New Guinea; M1, Lamington, N.E. Papua (C. T. 
MeNamara), and Queensland: Cairns District (A. M. Lea, attracted to light). 


Fig. 1, I-J 

Yellowish brown, eyes reddish brown. Collum, collar of pronotum, and 
two large patches on the anterior angles, elavus, seutcllum, cuneus, embolium 
apically, and underside brown. 

Colltim long, third and fourth segments of antennae short. Lateral margins 
of pronotum rounded with four long hairs and a number of shorter ones, fjM 
margin straight, hind margin excavate. Pronotum strongly raised, immarginate, 
just anterior to middle a deep curved suture. Seutellum with Strong denticula- 
lations laterally, impressed behind the. middle. Cl&VttB and posterior margin of 
corium punctate. 

Upper surface longly pilose, anal end equipped with long hairs. Male 
genitalia in the form of a roughly semicircular plate, with about 7 long back- 
wardly directed hairs. 

The standard measurements (in microns) from four specimens are: 

Head. Length, 380-550; length in front of eyes, 110-220; length behind 

eyes, 80-90; length of eyes, 160-190; width across eyes, 880470; width of eyes, 

120-160; interocular, 90-160; width of collum, 300-400. 

Antennae. I, 90-100; II, 220-360; 111, 170-210; IT, 190-240. 

Gross — A Revision of the Flower Bugs 417 

Rostrum. I, 120-170; II, 300-450; Til, 170-240. 

Pronotum. Anterior width, 210-480; posterior width, 8304,000; median 
length, 410-450; lateral length, 450-500. 

ScuteUum. Anterior width, 430-517: median length, 220-360; lateral length. 





l:irsi I 




























Total length, 2,170-2,400; total width, 800-1,020; length abdomen, 
1,0:10-1,330; length male genitalia, 190-270; length female genitalia, 140. 

Loc New Caledonia: Noumea (A. M. Lea, Holotype $ t Reg. No, 120073, 
Allotype 9, Reg. No. 120074, and two paratypes, Reg. Nos. 120075-76) in the 
South Australian Museum. 


CoJtMastetMu minutua I'oppius. 1909. Act. Soc Sc. Fenn. 37 (9), 20. 

Shining, hemielytra duller, clothed with short semi-erect brown hairs. Apical 
part of I'orium and cuneus, the second segment of the rostrum and the third and 
fourth antenna! segments brown. 

Head depressed, second segment of the antennae not longer than the head 
is wide, rostrum reaches the fore coxae. The disc of the pronotum is fairly 
deeply excavate behind the middle and transversely impressed. Corium and 
clavais very obscurely punctate, There is one specimen belonging to this species 
in the South Australian Museum and its standard measurements are: 

Head. Length, 3G0 ; length in front of eyes, 140; length behind eyes, 90; 
length of eyes, 110-140; width across eyes, 330; width of eyes, 100-120; interocu- 
lar, 100; width of colluin, 260. 

Antennae. T. 90; Tl, 220; remaining segments missing. 

Rostrum. I. 90: II, 2*0; III, 220. 

Pronotum. Anterior width, 330; posterior width, 720; median length, 310; 
lateral length, 600. 

ScuteUum. Anterior width, 400; median length, 350; lateral length, 360-380. 

Legs coxa femur (Una t :i) si J II III <l. 



















418 Records of this S.A. Museum 

Total length, 2,30ft; total width, 830; fcugti] abdomen. 1,100; length male 
genitalia, 170. 

hoc. New Guinea • Mt. Lamirmton, N.E. Papua, 1,300-1,500 ft. (C. H. Mc- 

Poronotellus Kirkaldy 
The genus Poronotellus has proved to be rather common in these tegions 
and the species have proved extremely difficult to separate. To date it has not 
proved possible to came to any definite contusions about the status of forma. 
Accordingly, it is intended to investigate more fully this prptjiem &n<J to present 
the results in a further paper to comprise, together with additional material on 
species in the other two subfamilies, part 111 of this revision, 

Therefore the sections of the ecology and ssoogeography of the Anthoeoridae 
have been introduced here, instead of at the end of the whole systematic aeeount 
as originally intended. 

The minor habitats occupied by Australian and Pacific Ani .hocoridae are 
fairly varied. Those species of Cardiostcthiis lor which the minor habitat is 
km>wn are all subcorneal, especially on euealypts, with the exception of the two 
type specimens of Cardiostcthm inquilinus CJhina, which were found in an 
Oxyopid spider's nest. This spider's nest was located in a malice area of South 
Australia in which in the main the only vegetation is depauperate speeies of 
Eucalyptus, mostly of the peeling "gum barfed* type. These mallees very nearly 
duplicate the minor habitat of such euealypts as BttcalyptuB ramaldulnmis on 
which C. wridimpremiQ no v. frequently occurs. Therefore it is not unlikely that 
C. mquilinus is also usually subcortical under eucalypt bark. 

The widespread Xylocoriti flavipes Keutei\ occurs in stored grains. The family 
B definitely to be prficULfceotIS, though it is not clear whetlier all are 
predators like are Orius oust rolls | Chiua) and Grins ivsidiosvs (Say) or whetlier 
some of the litter dwelling forms feed also on rVIlembola aud mites. The habits 
of Xylocoris jhivipvs and of Cordiash-tJuis spp. surest that fchej may be egg 
predators for adult animals small enough for them to feed on, are rare in their 
two preferred minor habitats. 

The widespread fcyotacoris oatovpesfois (Fab. ) is at home in crevices and 
cracks in man made dwellings and is the only A nt hoenrid known to lute man. 

The remaining forms all seem to be most likely associated with the litter 
layers of the forest floor. This has been proven for Falda nuanslandira dross 
and several speeies of Lasiochlh/s 

Cross — a Revision of the Flower Bugs 419 

The members ol the fernilj are definitely favoured by hot and warm condi- 
t ions Their aTfl Iherefore considerably more species in the tropins than in 
I he temperate zones, and in anv -iven temperature zone more speeies in the 
rarest major habitat* tlnn, in adjacent grassland or desert. Of the Imnwn 
Australian species only Lijctuivns camp c sir is, Cardutstdhns in<[uih'nus and (' 
Vricttmpmm OCttaT to major habitats drktf than dry selernphyll forest. On the 
other hand, M fewer than twelve species occur in the Queensland W& forests. 


This preference for hot and wet condrions of Anthocoridae described abOTfi 
has considerable beating on their nse in helping to elucidate the puzzline. facta 
Of the l»tv,-, nt distpibutiou of the Australian biotas and its relation to past 
i [Jtaal ifl history. 

The presefif primary diajtmctdoo of the terrestrial biotas is largely a resid- 
ent o\' the distribution of land and sen in past geological ages. Within any 
one area which has had a geologic^ history of relative stability and unity, any 
disjunction now evident is mostly an outcome of the past climatic history. Some 
groups of the biota (e.^., plants and their associated herbivorous insects) are 
affected more than others (e.g., mammals, carnivorous insects, etc.) by these 

climatic changes. 

hi Ausi.aiia the biota has at least two distinct elements with perhaps 
two, possibly three, other elements. The first of these is the "old world tT'opieaV 
or "northern 77 dement variously called Tropical, Torresiau, Papuan or Indo- 
Malayan, The last he; priority bu1 does not necessarily reflect the origin of the 
i !< nient, merely its present centre of distribution and the pathway by which it 
entered Australia. Some constituents may be but birds of passage in the Indo- 
Malayan tropics, hiring perhaps had their greatest period of development in 
the northern tempera!.- areas. This Tndo-Malayan element includes amongst 
animals the insect families Anthoeoridae, Pyrrhoeoridae, Flatidae. Rieaniidae, 
pte. (Hemipiera ) l\apilionidae ( Lepidoptera), etc., and of the vertebrate groups 
the whole of the Australian eutheria and metatheria and modern Australian 
reptiles >md amphibians. The Indo-Malayan element of the flora includes such 
genera as Euf/Hila, FkliS, TerminaJia, Knjthrina (Coral trees), Cochlosperwum 
(Kapok trees), Adamwtvid (Baobab), Cocos (Coconut palm) and Paudamis. Also 
(see Eyrian element ) !lif>>s<us, MaJva, Avici*, Cassia and Eucalyptus are really 
a part of this bio; a Generally members of this clement tend to be limited by 
the southern boundary of the northern Australian tropical forest, savannahs and 
savannah woodlands 

420 Records of the S,A. Museum 

The second element of the biota is the BO eatted "southern 1 ' element vvliose 
members show three different lypes of distribution, namely: 

(I) Endemic to Australia and adjacent nylons, e.g., ( ""asuarinaceac in the 
plants and Melolonthinar ( CotBopiera ) amongst the animals. 
Affinities with New Zealand and often South America, e.g. f the plant 
genera Xothofa</ns, Araunnm, part of the family Podoearpaccae and 
the family Eparridaeeae nnd (be ;inimal groups IVloridiidae, Isoder- 
minae ( Ftcmiplera ), part of the Tiphiidae | Hymenoptera), and of the 
Dynastinae ( Coleoptera ) . 

1 >.) Affinities with South Africa and .Madagascar only (Proteaceae, part 
of Podocarpaceae). 

ne authors recognize one or more of these three as being entirely different 
biotas, but it will probably prove thai (/J) and (3) are but wider Irangillg wind 
borne or island hopping members of | 1 I . which extended their distribution dtolbg 
Pleistocene and earlier changes of SQ3 level. This whole southern element, or 
various parte of it, has been called by a windy of names f©,g fcJ Antarctic, Bassian 
and Autoehthonian) ami it generally tends to be limited by the northern border 
d£ I he southern humid regions. 

Lastly, there is the desert biota. This has been considered a distinct element 
QIXTG authors (e.g., "Eyrean" of Spencer mi "Eremuu." of Tate), but this 
pan only be justified on the basis of the great modification that plants and most 
animals must adopt in order to survive in the desert. Apart from these physio- 
logically essential modifications, the Australian desen biota is clearly comprised 
of demonst rat able elements of the contiguous u non!,rn," ; hkI "southern" biotas. 
Actually, in plants it is much the same group the world over that may enter 
desert or similar areas. o.g t , Acacia (Australian. African. Asian and North 
American deserts, note also the closely related North American Prosopis), Atri- 
(Australian, African, Asian and North American deserts), Triodia (Austra- 
lian, AfiiaB and North American deserts), and many others. 

This rest^ictioTi on what groups f plants and animals can enter desert 
regions, together with the tendency of sti'ong prevailing winds to blow around 
the world latitudinally (e.g., parallel to the deserts, not across them) may well 
explain the primary disjunction of the Australian biota into two or (count in- 
the Eyrean) three elements. For if the continent has been divided latitudinally 
by the same belt of desert as now exists (this would have exte7ided probably 
Irom coast to coast before the Mount Kosciusko and New Guinea uplifts), I he 
southern clement would have been effectively isolated from the northern. If this 

Gross — A Revision of the Flower Bugs 421 

state of affairs came into being at Ihe beginning of the Tertiary, the "southern" 
element would have had time to develop its distinctive features. 

We cannot assume this barrier to have been am earliei* than the beginning 
of the Tertiary, for during the Upper CretaoeoUS plant species were notorious)} 
widespread. During the progress of the Tertiary progressive restriction trf 
distribution is evident in plants. ( ( 'ookson and Pike, 1953, a, b, 1054; Cookson, 
19fi$ a, b, 11)54). 

Tlif presence of a Tew members of tho one element in the area occupied 
in the main by members of the othei, and the present of both together in the 

i't, seems to be explicable mostly on the hasis of deser! adaption, for it is 
usually groups capable of desert adaption I ha! occur in the region of the other 
< --lenient \ whole suite of adaptable <jonru ol' the I ndo-Vlalayan elemeni lias 
moved into the desert from the north (Acarw, Cassia, Malra, Eucalyptus, II ibis 
(■us, and Melaleuca amongst the plants) or has been trapped in favourable 
pockets during <>ue of the north or south oscillations of die position of the eon- 
tinuous b;m<l of dcserl (in plants tdvi&tona marine, Marrozamia mactlonnclli, 
and Ficvs plutt/poda) with some actually crossing the southern boundary ol t lie 
desert into the southern humid formations (Acacia, Eucalyptus, Melaleuca). 
Equally, a "roup of adaptable genGTH were able to penetrate the desert ln>m 
the south and usually make their way through to the north (Ilakea, Grcvillea, 
Hrachychiton amongst the plants), 

At the end of the Pliocene the Kosciusko uplift formed a moist corridor of 
forest formations traversing the area formerly covered by part of the desert 
and brdaUng the continuity of this belt in the east. This ir;ive considerable 
Opportunity for mixing the ''northern* and "southern" elements, and this scene; 
to have occurred. As is to be expected, the greatest mixing has occurred in this 
north south moist corridor with the effect falling off 1 he further the distance 
from tJie corridor until, in such places as ihe Danvin and Perth areas, practically 
the only memhers of an extraneous elemeni present are those that have come 
through via the desert. No group shows the effect of this moist corridor better 
than the A nthoeoridae, for this undonhtedly tropical or "northern" group have 
fourteen species in Queensland, six in New South Wales, five m Victoria, five in 
South Australia (one of which is introduced), and one (introduced) in WfiSti 


This theory of the permanenee i the desert belts is not in accord with the 
eoiieepr of i vast aridity covering the whole continent as postulated by 0r<> 
and Wood (1947) during the "mid recent high?' in sea level. Their *great 
arid" hypothesis is at the moment under criticism from other quarters. Tindale 

422 Records of the S.A. Museum 

f 11)47, a and h, 1949, 1952) and Condon (1954) have shown that most geological 
daia. and even a considerable pari q{ the botanical distributions employed by 

l-:er and Wood as proof of their "great arid,'' arc better explained by assum- 
ing a steady increase in aridity in the southern regions from the end of the 
Pleistocene right up to the present. This may involve, a steady shifting south 
of the desert belt. 

Some investigations of the author have tended to confirm these later views. 
The discovery of "myall" (Acacia 8tnad$m) growing near the southern (Mid of 
bake Eyre South suir^ests rather an earlier continuous belt of • m. all" stretching 
from Ivintfoonya around the north end of Lake Torrens to the Broker) Hill district 
and disjoined into two species by the present aridity rather than that the 
distribution of the two species, A. SQWdtmi and 4. lodcri retleets < . <> 1'rom 

refuges in tb<- $»wiei Ranges and Flinders Rang6fl into which they retreated 
duriflg the wi ^t eat arid." The Gawie.r would provide little or no better 
conditions for such a plant than the surrounding untryside for flic rBJ 
lir!-^«-)v<'s are of porphyry, onto which myall never ventures, with wide loam flats 
(on whh-h myall now occurs) between, and which receive little, if any, more rain 
than tin- main areas of myall distribution. 

Even more difficult to explain by the "great arid* 1 are tta presence oi B8ch 

iV.nas as (lard lush I hus uiirfimprrssxs ami I he butterfly fh tcroyiyvipha merope 
merop4 in favoured iior^es in Wilpena Pound, over 90 miles away from their 
next main occurrences at Mount Komarkable. ( // vtt roinimphtt tiMTOpt inerop* 
also oceurs in favoured gtttges in the Bitter Uanue Id miles west of Wilpena 
PouthI.) a stunted maUee form of Siicdkyptiis etoMphara occurs in the 

Ugliest 300 feet of the Elder Ramre (3,700 feet) and as a similar though 
less stunted pateh in the Flare region. Its main nr<-iirrenee is as large 
trees on Mt, Remarkable and in Ajligator I targe, 90 miles to the south or 70 
miles to north respectively. Both the Elder Range patch and the Flare patch 
could hardly have survived moiv aridity than at present exists, nor could the 
small clumps of only a lew tree ferns ( IfhJ.^niM <tvt<intka) present in Morialta 
Horggj and some other isolated localities "i Sotttb Australia when 1 lie white man 
( -a me. This also applies to fhe small pat<'li now existent at the Silverband Falls 
in the Grampians of Victoria. 

Fkkatum. On pi IS3 of Part 1 of this paper Latulieila should read as 
Lasii llidea. 




abeona, Tisiphone 

. . 61 

aberransfj Diplodactylus 

. . 384 


. . 402 

Abrus . . . . 1 

5, 28, 34, 35 

Aea< i.i . . 12, 1 

3, 14,26,30 

Acanfhnphis . . 

. . 378 


.. 71 

ueusta, Candalides 





. . 375 

acuta, Coehlicella 

. . 182 

adelaideae, Dendrolaelaps 

.. 113 

adelaid^ac. Trombella 

.. 127 

adelaid ensis, Hyla 

. . 405 

aenea, Paralucia 


aJfinJS, f Jeteronyinpha . . 


affinis, Milvus 


aganippe, Delias 

.. 60 


367, 369 

■•■>tis, Agriolimax . . 

. . 179 

agneola, Neolueia 



. . 179 


- , 375 


. . 288 

albostrigata, Oxycanus 3 


alliarius, Oxyehilus 

. . 183 




. - 387 

amphorua, Melo 




andrewi, Squalodon . . 

. , 367 

angcla. Ik terunympha 

45, 48, GO 

anLuvtieiis, Acantlioplii-; 
antaretieus, Palaeeudyptes 

. . 378 

. . 359 


131, 133 

anumi, Tisiphone 

. . 61 

aperta, Ceostilbia 

.. 183 


. . 226 

argentipuncta, Oxycanus 3 


aridimpressus, Cardiastethus 4 

J9, 412, 419 

arraata, Physopleurella 

.. 160 

arraatus. Onus 

. . 137 

armatus, Oxycanus 

. . 341 

a man a, Mcgalatractus . . 



. . Ill 

i -i. Ht Ii.\ 



. . 376 

h ill's, Circus 


ater, Avion 

. . 179 

atrox. Oxycanus 

. . 310 

attenuata, Aturia 

. . 355 

Aturia ( Cephalopoda ) 

. . 353 

Aturia ( Reptilia) 

. . 378 

audax, Aquila 

.. 226 


. , 123 

australis, Aturia 

. . 358 

australis, Cerberus 

.. 376 

australis, Cyclorana 

australis, Gebyra 

australis, Ischnodon 

australis, Livistona . 

australis, Orius 

australis, Physogleurella . . 

australis, Pseudechis 

A i ist roc liir us . . 

■a\ ■: tropiceus, Anthocoris 



ri, Dcltoidonautilus . . 

bunksii, IleteromTnpha 
rbatus, Amphibolurus 
barringtoiicnsis, Pseudalmenus 
baru, Falco . . 
Ik ltistus, Oxycanus . . 
benefactor Maoricoris 

l'i ariiKitiiui, Lciolopisma 
bicolor, Hyla . 
bilineata, Diporiphora 
binoei, Hcteronota 
Blaptostethis . . 

a'ctlS; Lampides . . 

boutonil, Ablephams 
bnbionsus, Physopleurclla 
bmuniurius, Cardiastethus . . 
burtonis, Lialis 
buruensjs. Accipiter 
byrsa, Oxycanus 

caerulea, Hyla 

janulatus, Planorbis 
campestris, Lyctocoris . . 


caperata, Helicella 

cardui, Vanessa 
< :n inata, Dcmansia . . 
eaucasicum, Microsquafodon 
eaudicinetus, Amphibolurus 
ce Maria, Oxyehilus 
liroides, Falco 
cerea, Turritella 
chalceus, Threpterius . . 

chaostola, Hesperilla . 
chares, Hesperilla 
ehildrenL Liasis 
chlorinda, Pseudalnienus 
eh 1 oris, Pseudalnienus . . 





30, 3 1 

49, 60 
I] : 
302, 303 
76. 84 
. . 405 
, . 388 
- 380 
131, 132 



J 83 
8, 16, 32 





Records of the S.A. Museum 

christi canus, Aspidomorphus 

chvsotricha, Hesperilla 

ciliaris, Diplodactylus 


cirrhucephalus, Aeeipiter 

cirri folia, Morinda 

clam, Hesperilla 

dark cm Aturia 
coaxans, Geloina 
Cochlieella . . 
coense, Leiolopisma . . 
compacta, Dispar 

pressa. Hantkcnina 
.nnfinna, Dendrolaelaps 

;ors, Cardiastethus 

cordaee, Heteronympha 
costata, Vallonia 

icaudum, Lygosoma 

crotonoides, Alphistona 
eiypsargyra, Hesperilla 
crvstallirja, Vitrea 
cunninghainii, Ficus 

dalpiazi, Squalodon . . 




delicate, Leiolopisma 


deloft. Hesperilla 

1 Vltoidonautilus 



I >< ridrnlaelaps . . 

dcrricki, Lasiochilus . . 

diadema, Aspidomorphus 

didimus, Aeeipiter 

discipcnnis, Oxycanus 

m.s. Oxycanus 
donnysa, Hesperilla . . 


elegans, Hydrophis 

elieua, Trapczites 

clongata, Plochioeorella 

I .nhydris 

eos, Oxycanus 


cremicola, Trapezites 




. . 62 
. , 381 
. , 230 
. . 216 



. . 354 

. 6,32 

. . 182 


59, 62 
357, 359 
. . 115 
. . 369 

. . 184 
. , 397 
. . 374 














37 8 

33, 38 








310, 335 

59, 62 











essingtonii, Lygosoma 
Euryzygona . . 



lYisciata, Trygonorrhina 

fasciatus, Aeeipiter . . 

femoralis, Lasiochilus 

Femoral^ Oplobates 

FetB u 


Baharlj Pseudalirteaus 

flamnieata. Signet ;» . . 

fliivcsccrjs. Acacia . , 

Havipcs, Xylocoris 

llavirostris, Haliastur 


Aquila . . 

rollieulus, Ferussa- i I 


iraseri. Delina . . 

iron a (us, Hemidaetvlus 

1 1 - • i. OxyCaTlUS 
1 1 il\ csccais. Gardiastethus 

i. Boiga . . 
fusciim, Leiolopisma 
tuscus, Liasis 

fetes, Milax 
1 acrcrcse. Squalodon 
Geostilbi i 
glgas, (Jrolophus 
gilberti, Fhysignafbus 
gfrrenera, Haliastur 

'.daherrfjiiii, Lasiellidea 
irlauerti, Oxveanus . . 
Glauerti i 

glehopaliua, Varanus 
gouldii. Varauus . . 
lira nu la his. Aclirochordus 
grata, Euow'iiii . . 

pianr-Hus, Trygonorrhina 
guipheflOtj, Leiolopisn ia 



haliotidea, Testacella 

halmaturia, Ogyris 



Viarwcodi. Mctasqualodon 

harwnodi. Zeuglodon 

lalic, Oxycanus 

hecabe, Oxycanus . . 




. . 394 

.. 262 

.. 180 

. 261 

, . 231 

138, 139, 4 IS 

. 108 

. . 208 

. . 147 

. . 139 

. . 184 

12, 14, 28, 29 


ss, 02 

12, 30 
. . 206 
.. ITS 
. . 229 
. . 375 
. . 392 
. . 380 

410. .415 

. . 376 


. . 374 

. . 178 
. . 362 



288 a 289 

. . 183 

. . 388 
. 205 
. . 153 
. . 338 
. . 404 

. . 375 

. . 262 
.. LOS 
. . 399 

. . 229 

. . 203 




357. 359 

. . 366 

, 364 

310, 337 


. 180 

182, 185 

Index to Genera and Species 


Heinibelidcus . . 


lii-rpiprusis, licbiclla 
I I< rcronota 

bewitsoni. Ogyris 



holoscricea, Acacia . . 

hopsoni, Hesperilla 

bortensis, Arion 

1 1- iwijitliina. Candalides 


bypoleueos, Falco 


i !i's ? Ialnienns 

idmo, Ogyris . 

Idothea, Hesperilla 

i !-.ii if .1. Hypoehrysops 

irabrieata, Eretmoehelya 

imbricates, Amphibol 

Uldus, Haliastur 

liniHififju.s. Caxdiastethus 

intermedia, Tiliqua 

intermedins, Diplodactylus 


isolcpis, Lygosorna 

ixpkfula, Oliva 

is nra, Lophoietinia . . 

itala, He lux I la 

ilea, Vanessa . . 

[ava, Anapbaeis 

Java nuns, Achrochordus 

[ohaiuris, Dendmbium 

kanunda, Ore.iveniea 
I ; i era 1 » I nv i , ( )rclvenica 
kcrshawi. Vanessa 
kingii, ( Jb la 1 1 iy dos&UfUS 
klugii, Gaitooewra 
l.'u-lii. O.wcanus 

I a brad us, Zizecria 

. Agriotiitiax 




Laaioi hilus 
Lasiorhirius . . 
lafiloliju Acacia 
Leiolopisma . . 
leonbardii, Lygosorna 
lesouefi, Hesperilla , 

9, 12, 14 





25, 26 








410, 4 H) 





33, 35 










302. 303 


131, 132 


138, I 12 


12, 30 

75, 398 

. . 395 


lesuemiL Hyla 

•el be, 0\y« anus 

leucobalia, Fordonia . . 

leucadcndron, Melaleuca 

leucogastcr, lialiaeetus 

lcucosia, Hesperilla 





I nensis, Cardiastethus 
littoralis, Scirpus 

lougipennis, Falco 
lucida, Paralucia 

I / etocoris 

m eeooeyi, Lciolopisma 


macropus, Falco 

i ii bsi is, Threpterius 
mairii, Natrix 

Hnaxaia, Heteronyinplia 
in ' garftilera, Pinctada 
ii irginatus, Limax . . 
"ii ipcjsa, Hcteronyrnpba 
ma morata, Oeduaca 


maxim us, Limax 

") i ws o n i , M en i seolophus 

tnayri, Oxycanus . , 310, 

meeki, Oxycanus 



rae afeuca, Trygonorrbina 

rnel anosteroon, Hamirostra 

mclilensis, Squalodon 

Melo . . 

nai iippe, Danaus 

\f. .■niseolophus 

mi i idionalis, Ogyris . . 

I I Uerope, Hetcronynipha 

dlicus, Ablepbarus 
Mi -Lascfualodon . . 

Mil rozeuglodon . . 

ins. Milvus 
Mi lav . 

mmutus, Cardiastethus 
mitcbelli, Nototberium 
misimae, Lasiochilus . . 

mimocycla, Trapezites 

i norphnoides, Hieraaehis 
i ii u Ili flora. Xerotes 



308, 318, 320 


9, 29, 30 

.. 229 


.. 393 

.; 374 

.. 178 

. 403 

409, 413 

7, 31, 32 


. 238 

, . 200 

. . 61 

138. 141, 418 


. . 186 

76, 83 
51, 60 
334, 336 
322, 332 
29, 30 
409, 417 




Recohds of the S.A. Museum 

inundula, Pliysopleurt Hi 
lminliisoiiiauus, Ealco 

uasuta, Hyla . . 



eta, lleLicelk . . 
.mi, Ueteronyinpha 
N m .jiialoclon 
nigricosta, Oxycauus . . 
puncta, Oxycanus 

. Zonit<i 

njikena, Aviceda 
\\{)lu\ )i Lis, Pseudoehirus 
QOtatuS, Elanus 
Nototherium . . 
iiou in.. crisis, Gardiasti'llms 
ika.m hum ,u. LHolopisma 
novaguineensds, Oxycauus 
i lovaeholl tndiae, Accipitcr 
novaehollandiae, Dromaius 
nuptialis, Oxycauus . . 

pi Hdentalis, Oxycanus 

octana. Subulina . . 

i >■ latria 

( ) dma 

Og) i 


Oliva - 

( mm opera 

m galea 


< teoixenica 

■ I. ui.LiIis, Ablepharus 
ori* ntalis, Glauertiu . . 
□tails, Varanus - . 

oroatu.s, Limnqdyna 




. . 157 

. 240 

. . 303 

. , 405 

. . 375 


. . 180 

44, 60 


. . 366 


. 310, 324, 328 

. 183 

. . 198 

. . 267 

, . [Q3 

. . 261 
76, 85 
. . 338 
. . 218 
. . 288 
. . 331 

. . 330 

. . 389 





, . 308 

1 38 
. . 63 
. . 61 
. . 402 
. . 404 
. . 390 

. . 409 

153, L55 



. , 307 


. . 378 

. - 

p.u ilkus, Anthoeoris . . . . < * 134 

B( a, Pliysopii-urella . . 158 

I'alaL-cudyprcs . . . - 359 

palankarinnkus, Prionotemnus . . 252 

paraUelus, Scoloposcelis . . . . 155 

Paralucia . . . . . . . . 61 

•xycanus - 308, 338 

ParaMiiutlodon . . 364, 366 

tus . . . 369 

isi Ogyris . . . . . 62 

patella, Aspasmogatftef . • • . Ill 

pccroralis, Leiolopisma , - 76, 86, 399 

269, 288, 

pcnelope, Heteronyinpha 
peregrinus, Falco 
|j« icger, Lymnaea 
peroni, Hyla . . 
peromatus, Oreisplanus 
jH-rplcMis, Oxycanoa 
Phascolonus . . 
sodes . . 

pbigalia, liapczitcs - . 
phiga liotdes, Trapezi les 
Physignalhus . . 
i'hvsoplt'iJi clla . . 

piccus, Blaptostcthus 

pisana. Euparypha 
pOetiCUS, Oxycanus . . 
pulylepis, Enbydris . . 
pompilius, Nautilus . . 
Poronotellus . . 
purosus, Grocodylus . , 
postflii vida, Oxycanus 
powcri, Cardiastethus 
precatotiys, Abrus 

prntuga, Alatliyria 



nunophis, Demansia 

l i sr.-i] t {; l ln ( cnus 


Pscudocheirus . . 

pulchclla. Vallonia 
ptmctulata, Ahaetulla 

quaesitandus, Accipitcr 
queenslandica, Falda . . 
<|ii 'luslaudicus, Xylncori^ 

radiatus, Erytbrotriorcbis 
rHiculatus, Agriolimax 
reuteri, Lampronannella 

i hombirVra, Of dura . . 
rbomboidalis, Leiolopisma 
r by neh< >ps , Cerberus 
rileyi, Oxycanus 
robusta, Euowenia 
rubella, Hyla . . 
rufescens, Ampbibolurus 

sabnonacea, Oxycanus 

San optes . . 

Scoloposcelis . . 
seriptis, Elanus 



51, 60 
. . 235 

25 J. 10 
. . 186 
. . 404 
. . 63 

. . 267 
. . 303 

. . 62 
. , 388 
1 53, 156 
.. 138 
16, 32 
. . 180 
. . 186 
. . 153 

■■!.' ...I! 

15, 16 

. 41* 

. . 374 

30ft 312 

409, ' i ■ 

28, 34, 35 



. . 28S 

. . 303 

. . 365 

269, 303 


, . 52 


,, 184 


. . 217 

. . 151 



309, 232, 324, 326 

. . 269, 287, 303 


153, 155 

. . 195 

[ntdex to Genera and Species 


scabei, Sareoptes 
seillae, Squalodon 
Sehoinobatcs . . 
seiron, Trapczites 

scutellatus, Oxyuranus 
serpentata, Neolucia . . 
senatus, Oxycanus 
Sign eta 

similaris, Helix 
simplexa, Candalides 
sminthopsis, Austrochhus 
sminthopsis, Laelaps . . 
solomonensis, Lasiochilus 
solaudri, Fleteronympliu 
sordidus, Oxycanus 
spaldingi, Lygosoma , . 
sphenurus, Haliastur . . 
s pilules, Morelia . . 

spimgcrus, Diplodactylus 
spirorbis, Planorbis . . 

stagnalis, Lymnaea . . 
siansburiensis, Aturia 
stcllans, Oxycanus 
Stheniiiii 1 . 

stolismcna, Helicella . . 
strophulus, Diplodactylus 
stylis, Rhodona 
subcristata, Aviceda . . 
submelanogenys, Falco 
subniget, Falco 
subocnracea, Oxycanus 


Tachy gloss us 

turn io lata, Lygosoma 

taei i iopleurus, Ablepharus 

tamsi, Oxycanus 

tasmanicum, Nototherium 


totradactylum, Leiolopisma 

teu Ionia, Anaphaeis . . 

tliasus, Oxycanus 

thoe, Oxycanus . . 310 

thompsoni, Audyana . . 




. . 70 

. . 367 

. . 267 


7, 31, 32 

. . 378 


S09, 317. 320 

58, 62 





1 40 

45, 60 











312, 329, 342 

269, 303 










317, 320 

302, 303 

. . 394 

. - 402 

309, 313 

. . 263 

. . 180 

76, S3 


309, 322, 328 

324, 326, 328 

. . 123 

. . 108 

269, 287, 303 


tiinorensis, Varanus . . 

triacantha, Leiolopisma 
triassica, Eoses 
Trygonorrhina . 




variegata, Gehyra . . 
v ai iegatum, Leiolopisma 
variegata, Morelia 
\ alius, Varanus . , 

ventrosa, Cochlicella . . 
vermiculata, Otala . . 
vertebralis, Leiolopisma 
victoriae, Nototherium 
vigilax, Accipiter 
virgata, Helicella 
vil ensis, Lasiochilus , . 

vi\ax, Leiolopisma . . 
"iiibatus, Acaroptes . . 

W'al labia 

warregeusis, Trombella 
watutense, Nototherium 
wilkinsoni, Parasqualodon 
wilsoni, Hcteronympha 
wombati, Sarcoptes . . 




xois, Oxycanus 



zephyrus, Pseudalmenus 







251, 303 
76. 88 







85, 399 


4. 18 
138, 148 

. . 303 

52, 55 

. . 364