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Full text of "Records of the South Australian Museum"

VOLUME 1 4 No. 1 

1961 





RECORDS 

OF THE 

SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 

Published by the Board and edited by the Museum Director 

Printed in Australia by W. L. Howes, Government Printer, Adelaide. 
Registered in Australia for Transmission by Post as a Periodical. 



VOLUME "I 4 

1961-1964 




RECORDS 



OF THE 



SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 



Published by the Museum Board and edited by Norman B. Tindale 

Printed in Australia by W. L. Hawes, Government Printer, Adelaide, South Australia 



The title page design incorporates a sketch by Madeleine Boyce of Caloprymnus 
campestis, a rare species of rat kangaroo, once considered extinct, but rediscovered 
in the Lake Eyre Basin some years ago by the Honorary Curator of Mammals 

(Mr. H. H. Finlayson) 



The Museum Board accepts no responsibility for opinions 
expressed and statements made herein by the authors of papers 



iii 



CONTENTS 

Page. 
No. 1. Published 8th August, 1961 

Aboriginal hammer-stones of South Australia. (H. M. 

Cooper) 1 

Cenozoic Stratigraphy and Vertebrate Paleontology of the 
Tirari Desert, South Australia. (R. A. Stirton, R. H. 
Tedford and Alden H. Miller) 19 

Re-examination of the species of Protura described by 

H. Womersley. (S. L. Tuxen) 63 

Studies of the Acarina fauna of leaf-litter and moss from 
Australia No. 1. A new genus and species of Phaulo- 
dinychidae, Corbidinychus corbicularis, from Queens- 
land (Acarina, Uropodina). (H. Womersley) 107 

Studies of the Acarina fauna of leaf-litter and moss from 
Australia No. 2. A new Trachytid mite {Polyaspinus 
tubercidatus, from Queensland (Acarina, Trachytina), 
(H. Womersley) 115 

A new record of the little known Calotrachytes sclerophyllus 
(Michael, 1908) from New Zealand (Acarina, Polyas- 
pidae), with description of the male and nymph. 
(H. Womersley) 125 

A new species of Chlenias (Lepidoptera, Boarmiidae) on 
Acacia aneura with some Central Australian native 
beliefs about it. (Norman B. Tindale) 131 

On Central Australian Mammals. Part IV. The Dis- 
tribution and Status of Central Australian Species. 
(H. H. Finlayson) 141 

Archaeological excavation of Noola Rock Shelter: a 

preliminary report. (Norman B. Tindale) 193 

No. 2. Published 27th July, 1962 

The Pigmy Sperm Whale (Kogia breviceps) on South Aus- 
tralian Coasts, Part III. (H. M. Hale) 197 

Occurrence of the Whale Berardius arnuxi in Southern 

Australia. (H. M. Hale) 231 

Rock Engravings at Koonawarra, Western New South 

Wales. (Charles P. Mountford) 245 



iv 



Some Tingidae (Hemiptera) in the South Australian 

Museum. (Carl J. Drake and Florence A. Ruhoff) . . 249 

New Hylid Frog from the Central Highlands of New Guinea. 

(Michael J. Tyler) 253 

Geographical Knowledge of the Kaiadilt People of Bentinck 

Island, Queensland. (Norman B. Tindale) 259 

Some Population Changes among the Kaiadilt People of 

Bentinck Island, Queensland. (Norman B. Tindale) . . 297 

Australian Quail-Thrushes of the Genus Cmclosoma. (H. T. 

Condon) 337 

Aberrant Australian brachypterous Myodochine Bugs 

(Lygaeidae, Rhyparochrominae). (G. F. Gross) . . . . 371 

Sacred Objects of the Pitjandjara Tribe, Western Central 

Australia. (Charles P. Mountford) 397 

No. 3. Published 23rd August, 1963 

Fossil Ratite Birds of the Late Tertiary of Australia. 

(Alden H. Miller) 413 

A Turtle Shell Mask of Torres Straits type in the Macleay 

Museum, University of Sydney. (G. L. Pretty^ . . . . 421 

Australian Rhyparochromini (Hemiptera Lygaeidae). (G. F. 

Gross and G. G. E. Scudder) 427 

Aquatic and Semiaquatic Hemiptera taken in Portuguese 
Timor by G. F. Gross of the South Australian Museum. 
(Herbert B. Hungerford and Ryiuchi Matsuda) 471 

A new Larval Neotrombidium (Acarina, Leeuwenhoekiidae) 

from bat guano. (H. Womersley) 473 

Monunguis Wharton 1938, a valid genus (Acarina Trombid- 

ioidea). (H. "Womersley) 477 

New records of Diarthrophallidae (Acarina) with description 

of the hitherto unknown larval stage. (H. Womersley) 487 

Totemic beliefs in the Western Desert of Australia, Part II. 
Musical rocks and associated objects of the Pitjandjara 
people. (Norman B. Tindale) 499 

Preliminary survey of the Reniform Slate Implements of 

South Australia. (Robert Edwards) 515 

The Aboriginal Skin Rugs of Australia. (C. P. Mountford) 525 



V 



Three new species of the Gekkonid Lizard genus Diplodac- 

tylus Gray from Australia. (Arnold G-. Kluge) 545 

A Tjurunga-like Stone Pendant from New South Wales. 

(Norman B. Tindale) 555 

Young Female Pigmy Sperm Whales (Kogia breviceps 
Blainville) from Western and South Australia. (Herbert 
M. Hale) 561 

Fossiliferous Cambrian succession on Fleurieu Peninsula, 

South Australia. (Brian Daily) 579 

No. 4. Published 27th May, 1964 

Obituary and bibliography of Herbert Womersley. (R. V. 

Southcott) 603 

Aboriginal factory sites at Moonee Beach, New South Wales. 

(W. I. North) 633 

Rock engravings and stone implements of Pitcairn Station, 

North-Eastern South Australia. (Robert Edwards) . . 643 

Revision of the Ghost Moths (Lepidoptera Homoneura, 

family Hepialidae), Part VIII. (Norman B. Tindale) 663 

Flint implements found near Nipa, Central Papuan High- 
lands (with comments by Norman B. Tindale). (H. K. 
Bartlett) 669 

Systematic position of the New Guinea frog Hylella wolter- 

storffi Werner. (M. Tyler) 675 

Pigmy Right Whale (Caper ea marginata) in South Aus- 
tralian Waters, Part II. (H. M. Hale) 679 

A new meteorite find from South Australia. (D. W. P. 

Corbett) 695 



vi 

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS 

Page. 
Bartlett, H. K. 

Flint implements found near Nipa, Central Papuan High- 
lands (with comments by Norman B. Tindale) . . . . 669 

Condon, H. T. 

Australian Quail-Thrushes of the Genus Cinclosoma . . . 337 

Cooper, H. M. 

Aboriginal hammer-stones of South Australia 1 

Corbett, David W. P. 

A new meteorite find from South Australia 695 

Daily, Brian. 

Fossiliferous Cambrian succession on Fleurieu Peninsula, 

South Australia 579 

Drake, Carl J., and Ruhoff, Florence A. 

Some Tingidae (Hemiptera) in the South Australian 

Museum 249 

Edwards, Robert. 

Preliminary survey of the Reniform Slate Implements of 

South Australia 515 

Eock engravings and stone implements of Pitcairn Station, 

North-Eastern South Australia 643 

Finlayson, H. H. 

On Central Australian Mammals. Part IV. The Distribu- 
tion and Status of Central Australian Species . . . . 141 

Gross, G. F. 

Aberrant Australian brachypterous Myodochine Bugs 

(Lygaeidae, Rhyparochrominae) 371 

Gross, G. F., and Scudder, G. G. E. 

Australian Rhyparochromini (Hemiptera Lygaeidae) . . . 427 

Hale, H. M. 

The Pigmy Sperm Whale (Kogia breviceps) on South 

Australian Coasts, Part III 197 

Occurrence of the Whale Berardkis arnuxi in Southern 

Australia 231 

Young female pigmy sperm whales {Kogia breviceps 

Blainville) from Western and South Australia . . . . 561 



Vll 



Pigmy Eight Whale (Caper ea marginata) in South Aus- 
tralian Waters, Part II 679 

Hungerford, Herbert B., and Matsuda, Eyiuchi. 

Aquatic and Semiaquatic Hemiptera taken in Portuguese 

Timor by G. F. Gross of the South Australian Museum 471 

Kluge, Arnold G. 

Three new species of the Gekkonid Lizard genus Diplodac- 

tylus Gray from Australia 545 

Miller, Alden H. 

Fossil Eatite Birds of the Late Tertiary of Australia . . . 413 

Mountford, Charles P. 

Bock Engravings at Koonawarra, Western New South 

Wales 245 

Sacred Objects of the Pitjandjara Tribe, Western Central 

Australia 397 

The Aboriginal Skin Bugs of Australia 525 

North, W. I. 

Aboriginal factory sites at Moonee Beach, New South 

Wales 633 

Pretty, G. L. 

A Turtle Shell Mask of Torres Straits Type in the Macleay 

Museum, University of Sydney 421 

Southcott, E. V. 

Obituary and bibliography of Herbert Womersley . . . . 603 

Stirton, E. A., Tedford, E. H., and Miller, Alden H. 

Cenozoic Stratigraphy and Vertebrate Paleontology of the 

Tirari Desert, South Australia 19 

Tindale, Norman B. 

A new species of Chlenias (Lepidoptera Boarmiidae) on 

Acacia aneura with some Central Australian native 

beliefs about it 131 

Archaeological excavation of Noola Eock Shelter: a 

preliminary report 193 

Geographical Knowledge of the Kaiadilt People of 

Bentinck Island, Queensland 259 

Some Population Changes among the Kaiadilt People of 

Bentinck Island, Queensland 297 



viii 

Totemic beliefs in the Western Desert of Australia, Part 
II. Musical rocks and associated objects of the 
Pitjandjara people 499 

A Tjurunga-like Stone Pendant from New South Wales . . 555 

Eevision of the Ghost Moths (Lepidoptera Homoneura, 

family Hepialidae) Part VIII 663 

Comments on Flint Implements found at Nipa 670 

Tuxen, S. L. 

Be-examination of the species of Protura described by 

H. Womersley 63 

Tyler, Michael J. 

New Hylid Frog from the Central Highlands of New 

Guinea 253 

Systematic position of the New Guinea frog Hylella 

wolterst'orffl Werner 675 

Womersley, H. 

Studies of the Acarina fauna of leaf -litter and moss from 
Australia No. 1. A new genus and species of Phaulo- 
dinychidae, Corbidinychus corbicularis, from Queens- 
land (Acarina, Uropodina) 107 

Studies of the Acarina fauna of leaf -litter and moss from 
Australia No. 2. A new Trachytid mite (Polyaspmus 
tuberculatus, from Queensland (Acarina, Trachytina) 115 

A new record of the little known Calotrachytes sclero- 
phyllus (Michael, 1908) from New Zealand (Acarina, 
Polyaspidae), with description of the male and nymph 125 

A new Larval Neotrombidium (Acarina, Leeuwenhoekiidae) 

from bat guano 473 

Monunguis Wharton 1938, a valid genus (Acarina Trom- 

bidioidea) 477 

New records of Diarthrophallidae (Acarina) with descrip- 
tion of the hitherto unknown larval stage 487 



ABORIGINAL HAMMER- STONES OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA 



ByH. M. Cooper, Hon. Associate in Anthropology, 

SO UTH A USTRALIAN MUSEUM 



Summary 

This paper describes the various shapes and forms of the hammer-stones of South 
Australia. It is suggested that lack of sufficient evidence at the present time precludes the 
definite separation of the different types of this implement - so essential an aid to stone 
age man - either into their correct material culture sequences, if any, or to define many of 

their possible uses. 




llnlMTt .M;il1ip\v Hal.-, O.li.K. 
l>invlor 01' lluj NuuUi Aii*l iviluni Mus-urn from 1928 luilil his irtin.-morit in L9B0, 



ABORIGINAL HAMMER-STONES OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA 

By H, M. COOPER, Hon. Associate in Anthropology, South 

Australian Museum 

Fig. 1-29 

SUMMARY 

This paper describes the various shapes and forms of the 
hammer-stones of South Australia. It is suggested that lack of 
sufficient evidence at the present time precludes the definite separation 
of the different types of this implement— so essential an aid to stone 
age man— either into their correct material culture sequences, if any, 
or to define many of their possible uses. 

DESCRIPTION AND GENERAL DISCUSSION 

The writer, so far as his search has extended, failed to discover 
any paper devoted solely and in detail to our local hammer-stones 
although many references to them have appeared in various papers 
relating to South Australian stone implements by Howchin (1934), 
and Tindale and Maegraith (1931). 

The opportunity afforded by the examination of several thousand 
examples in the South Australian Museum together with the collection, 
personally, of many hundreds in the field, suggested the possible 
usefulness of a paper describing a representative series of types and 
their variants. 

It has been deemed preferable to refer solely to those from South 
Australia owing to the possible existence of additional types else- 
where in Australia (due to wide differences in its flora and fauna, 
which exist in such a vast territory) and, in addition, local variations 
unknown to the writer which doubtless occur. 

Lack of much undisputable evidence in many cases tends to 
advise the exercise of caution towards any arbitrary attempt to place 
our hammer-stones in any definite material culture sequence, if indeed 
any major changes have occurred during the antiquity of man in 
Australia. It appears probable, however, that the hammer-stone, 
which persisted into historic times and was indispensible in the every 



2 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

day life of primitive man, had continued to exist throughout bis 
materia] culture periods in its fundamental conception although subject 
to some modi locations in design and size as necessitated by his subse- 
quent change to many mueh lighter and smaller implements and also 
to nitrations in the flora and fauna provoked by his arrival in 
Australia. 

The principal need for the hatniner-stone was a tool for the 
manufacture of hfa stotta implements. These implements could be 
divided, broadly, into two groups -core and flake implements. A 
hammer was held in one hand and in the other the workman grasped 
another lock destined to produce a stone implement. The former, 
more especially in early periods, could have been a fairly heavy stone 
or water-worn pebble because at that time he depended largely upon 
Hi" weight of his implement for cutting and chopping, Sharp e 
skilfully aimed blows, struck with his hammer-stone, 'in the correct 
plane, removed rmneeessary material in the form of flakes from the 
latter, and so provided him with a base of the required weight and 
form for his crude implement. 

Any sharp edged stone could serve as a cutting tool. However, 
i lie working ftdgefl of the more refined examples were then improved 
by means of seeondary trimming, that ifi small flakes were more care 
fully removed along them by means of hammer stones, making his 
large implement more efficient. This technique of removing flakes 
i'rrnji a block of stone or a pebble produced a core implement. 

The manufacture of a flukt implement was commenced in the 
same way, that is with a hammer-stone | 10 |,[ j n one j mnc i < mr( a \,\ {)V \ { 
of suitable stone in the other. In this ease, however, the block of 
stone itself, instead of being trimmed to form an implement, was used 
to provide Hakes of the required size, shape ami thickness, by striking 
it in the correct, place and thus breaking off flakes of the desired 
dimensions. These were then, during later periods at least, carefully 
givetl light secondary trimming along their working edges to provide 
efficient tools such as small knives, saws, scrapers or adzes. The 
II. >l microlith Jlake implements of South Australia weigh no more 
than .2 of a milligram, 

The hamnn \t -stones of South Australia, as elsewhere, at least 
when- an abandonee of material was available, were selected from 
examples possessing shapes that could be grasped conveniently in the 
hand. Smooth water-worn pebbles were sought after wherever 
possible; their surfaces tended to minimize injuries to the hand during 
n e, Angular blocks with rounded edges and even rough pieces w^re 



COOPER— HAMMER-STONES 3 

sometimes employed, especially in those situations where more suitable 
material was Jacking, 

The Ifttge majority of South Australian hammer-stones comprise 
(1) discoidal and (2) ovate shaped water-worn pebbles, the material 
employed, Chiefly, being line-grained quartzites very compact in texture 
and eminently suitable for the purpose. Other rooks used include 
granitic types, tlint, chert, fossiliferous Cambrian limestone and 
silieitied sandstones. Hammer stones with the slightest indications of 
wear, due perhaps to use upon no more than a single occasion, are 

i plentiful iii areas where pebbles abound such as upon the banks 
Of Ihe iiiver Waketield (Cooper 1960) and in the vicinity of Cape 

vis, bnl in districts where g'ood material was scarce or entirely 
absent and supplies Jiad to be transported or traded, lmnimer-sto 
often exhibit extreme wear suggesting tliat they wore highly valued 
and jealously guarded. Cooper (1954) discussed a similar situation 
relating to ft! .1/' -stones, those in localities where siulald<* material . 
lack fog, biding- trimmed again many times until completely unservice- 
able, wherca-, thOKfl in areas with a plentiful supply of raw material 

e rejected as soon as partly worn and replaced by new ones. 
ege two examples serve to indicate that even primitive man had Ins 
own particular economic problems, 

'Idle hammer- stone, m common with many other stone implements, 
appears to have been employed for a variety of purposes, mostly 
subsidiary, i j t addition to its primary function in the manufacture of 
stone implements. An examination of the collection indicates their 
n.-;e at tunes for such supplementary requirements as pounders and 
anvils. Some of the secondary purposes, more particularly in the 
earlier periods, can be assumed at present as merely conjectural but 
it is known that in historic times they were utilized in various vvayo 
such as I'm- pounding nuts, bark, skins and in the recovery of marrows 
contained in bones, Haminer-dressing: of polished stone axe-heads, in 
order to complete their trimming', was possibly another well defined 
purpose. Cribbed shells of periwinkles and other sea species, from 
i h it is difficult to extract the edible contents by other mean.-,, Lave 
been discovered upon kitchen middens on Kangaroo Island (Cooper 
1943) and upon the adjacent main. Hammer-stones would provide 
the logical means for effecting; this end, 

[t is believed that, prior to tile use of hammer-stones as an estab- 
lished material culture industry, primitive man, in at least some parts 
of the world manufactured his crude implements by simply striking 
or hurling a block of stone against a rocky face and thus breaking* off 



4 RECORDS OF THE s.a. MUSEUM 

in a haphazard way, tor subsequent use, a portion of the block which 
he hart thrown It is hardly possible to determine whether this was 
standard procedure or not dunny; the earlier periods of man's occupa 
tion i>f Australia although it Rppevtt to have been employed as a 
temporary measure during historic times for the manufacture of an 
occasional crude implement. 

Baines in Evans (1H72) records a further interesting method of 
producing flake implements witnessed by him near Victoria River, 
North Australia, dm in- 18(30. A native, slruek a piece of stone 4l as 
big as an ostrich ftggf" held in the hand against a targe rock with such 
skill as tO produce ;i perfectly symmetrical (lake -with a strengthening 
midrib, its finished form indicating the removal ot only three flakes 
in all for its production. This implement, owing to its design and 
locality of origin, appears to have been an interchangeable one u 
in (hat pail of Australia as a spear-head, a knife, or a pick. 

The laree accumulation of hammer stones npon camp-sites in 
many parts of South Australia, however, seems to offer sufficient proof 
that they provided the means utilized in the shaping and formation of 
the majority of that State's stone implements including many types 
which occur in thousands and are so standardized in form that 
haphazard methods of manufacture would be impracticable. 

Alternative implements to replace the conventional hammer-stone, 
possibly utilized merely as a temporary measure, are indicated by the 
prepuce of occasional discarded working CQTCS of convenient: size with 
evidence upon (heir surfaces of hammerinc- and battering (fi#. 2fi). 
Many hand pebble Shoppers 6f the domina7it Kangaroo Island industry 
bear extensive evidence of* use upoji their nether sides which show 
numerous traces of deep pitting over a considerable area, apparently 
the result of use as temporary hammers. (Cooper 1043), (fig, 27). 
A I'hav of the lar.^e implements from ITallett Cove (Cooper 1969) bear 
idar indications and also others, in addition, from the River 
Wakefield area, (Cooper 10(51). 

A earcfnl survey of the thousands of South Australian hammer- 
stones already refeired to disclosed that it was difficult, confusing, and 
even impracticable In separate, arbitrarily, all conventional hammer- 
stones, from a considerable proportion of pebble upper millstones, 
anvils and pounders because in many cases the three latter groups 
had been UBfid, apparently, when the necessity arose, to perform the 
functions of a hammer-stone hi addition to their own. Examples? of 
all three have been included in this paper. All types, to some degree, 
tend to mors^e into one another. 



COOPER— HAMMER-STONES 5 

A typical hammer-stone from South Australia may be described 
as a smooth water-worn pebbly symmetrically ovate in natural shape 
and derived from rock of sufficient strength to resist the wear and 
Stresses to which an implement of this nature is liable. These hammer- 
slonos exhibit degrees ot battering and pitting from the very Slightest 
surface marl-rings through all the respective stages to extreme wear 

when the pebble is finally reduced from a wmnded to an almost 

red angular fihttpG (fig. U 2 and 3). The we;tr, doubtless the result of 
diverse lW3&j Lfl practically always evident upon the middle of both 
dea, botli ends and all odgGB. Well developed pit holes develop, 
generally in pairs, (lie one above the other just higher and lower than 
mid -centre. Their existence in this interesting manner appears te be 
due to the operator turning Hie hammer-stone end for end from time 
to time when using cither one or the other of the two sides. They arc 
usually fairly similar in depth or nearly so. This may suggest that 
fhe reversal of end was deliberate and not accidental because such 
intentional action would tend to retain a better balance and extend, in 
addition, tie- useful life of tin* stone. 

Dual deep inoovos, due to battering, upon both edges of certain 
hummer stones, are found upon a considerable nmiiln'r of ovate 
examples; they occur, chiefly, upon camp-sites on Yorke Poumsula 
(fig, 4). The depth of these grooves is roughly equable, which tends 
to indicate that they were reversed deliberately end for end by the 
i <t in much the same way as in the case of the dual depressions upon 
the two side already referred to. An interesting variant but not a 

conventional type of bammer-stoiie is shown in fig* 5, where the two 
central pitted or depression centres upon both sides have been made 

in a transverse but slightly oblique direction instead of the conventional 
longitudinal position. 

The Other dominant South Australian hammer- stone, as already 
stated, is dlacoidal in shape, itfl line grained texture being generally 
: -.miliar to that of the ovate I'orm. It exists in forge numbers, as does 
the ovate type, and similarly bears evidence of use from the slightest 
to extreme wear. Both sides and the whole of its discoidal periphery 
(edge.) were subject to use. A typical and plentiful well-worn example 
unlike the ovate type, however, exhibits only a single pit hole or 
depression at the centre of one or both sides. This could be due to its 
discoidal shape because the blows of the operator, irrespective of which 
of the sides was held uppermost would tend to fall in the centre 
(fig. b\ 7, 8, f> and 10). 



f> RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Both ovate and discoida] forms vary greatly in size, more 
especially the latter :md many of ffiem served uq dw*t as anrila 
although some of these, in addition, bear evidence of marked use as 
hammers upon their edges> The central pit mark upon the larger 
examples is often very deep. 

An occasional anvil possesses well defined pit marks, with jagg&d 
edges instead of (lie normally smooth worn sides. This jagged deep 
pitting also occurs upon small hammer-stones of various shapes but 
•i such a size as suggests use in (he hand. This condition seems too 
harsh to indicate the use of either as a hammer-stone or anvil 
respectively when used Cor pounding and breaking, us the case, may 
he, hones, shells ot skins. ]t may be the result of much heavier work 
r-urh us atolle crushing or flaking, perhaps for some specific work, 
who,] operating a hammer-stone plus anvil technique (fig. 10 and 11). 

Small ovate hammer-stones, such ns shown in []q;, 12 and 13 
occur, almost exclusively, upon oainp^itea on the Adelaide Plains, the 
OOtttal regions southwards towards Cap6 Jcrvis and Yorke Peninsula. 
Hammering is confined exclusively to the two extremities wilh no 
evidence of wear elsewhere. The absence o! marks in their middle 
sections is puzzling and suggests a p.w -ihility that they were hafted 
in some manner. 

B% 14 shows a hammer-stone made of tough line grained 
quortaite with marked evidence of severe end flake damage to itself 
incurved during use; it is relatively common, more particularly upon 
the Adelaide Plains and adjacent regions. Stone nspfaraorift • 
wor ttUrfle from the same hard rock ai adant upon these 

camp in •• grounds. Such damage to hammer-stones appears to be the 
result of attempting f<> striKr off flakes from blocks of the same 
intractable material as that from which the hammers were derived. 

Rammer-stones, move elongate than the ovate type described, occur 
in small numbers. Wear in these examples appears to be mostly upon 
the extremities si ting a preference for pounding (fig. 15). 

Many polished axe heads. Composed of various igneous rocks from 
&6 Srmth-lui i of Month Australia, possess a well defined pit hole 
UP0H each Bide fl little above the working edge, prnbahlv resulting from 
rise ns anvils. Fig. 16 from that area, in addition, exhibits a deeply 
battered depression upon both edges due to hammering, 

Many upper millstones, when made from water-Avorn pebbles, in 
addition to possessing the normal nether surface worn smooth' 
grinding seeds, show distinct evidence of hammering upon the entire 



COOPER— HAMMER-STONES t 

periphery of their edges. This implement, therefore, appears to have 
had at least two important uses (fig. 17). 

Long and narrow atones, shown in iig. 18 and 1!>, nondescript in 
shape and nutrhnnied, are found sparingly. They exhibit near one 
extremity, and usually upon one side only, either a well developed pit 
hole or a more widespread battered area, due to some form of hammer- 
ing. Thejf were termed by McCarthy (1946) " Brachinas" from the 
Far Northern (Week, where the first QXOmple was found by the writer. 
Their use must have hern restricted to work of a light nature because 
of the iulenor stiojigth of the material composing them and also their 
long and narrow form (Mount ford 1939), 

Fig. 'JO shows a type of nondescript shape from Kangaroo Island. 
Tt is severely weathered, thickly patinated and has an outer coating 
of Interitic coiierMion. jj wn^hs bib. There is a somewhat jagged 
pit lioi. upon each side. Its chief use could have been as an anvil. 
Fig. 29 w;e- used, probably, somewhat similarly. Its peripheral edge 
in addition, however, bears strong evidence that it was also employed 
as a hammer-ston*. 

The use or uses of very small hammer stones — some weighing as 
little as loz.— may he somewhat more difficult <<> define even although 
they aro < Inn identical with their larger counterparts. It is obvious 
that their lightness precludes association with any type of work wle.ee 
weight is a consideration. Tt is possible that they were utilized m the 
addition of vr-mdary trimming 1o certain of the smaller type® oS 
implements and for the removal of small and frail BaketS Frxttfl working 
cores b the mauufaeture of some of the microlith types (fig. 21, 22 
and 23 

Fig. 24 and 25 represent a group of Kangaroo Island hanimcr-stones 
latter than those of more conventional size from that locality They 
may have been used to fashion stone implements of lesser size such as 
those described by Coppfcf (1980). 

Fig. 28 illustrates an interesting dual type of implement — ol' which 
the South Australian Museum possesses over 80 specimens. It in 
confined, so far as is known locally at present, to the Far North West 
of the Stale and thence across the border into the adjacent districts 
of Western Australia. Its battered ends indicate extensive use for 
pounding and hammering. Its other, and obviously chief use, is for 
employment as a kind of rolling millstone. Mr. N. B. Tindalc, (Curator 
of Anthropology, South Australian Museum, has witnessed this latter 
function in progress and will describe it fully in a later paper. 



8 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

The writer has not soon any water-worn pebble or other form of 
rock, where the natural shape has boon deliberately altered by 
chipping, preparatory to it* use as a hammer-stone. This, of course, 
is in marked contrast to the various stone implement industries. 

CONCLUSIONS 

The two dominant hammer-stone shapes, as described in detail, 
disclose, it will have been seen, some differences caused by wear. 
There appears to be very little definite evidence available relating to 
at least some of these variations, although it is possible that there 
may have been deliberate and important reasons for selecting the two 
different shapes, and if this be true they may liave at Least some 
different fund ions. The two extremities of ovate forms, for example, 
would appear ideal for the purpose of striking the necessary flakes 
from working cores to shape tliem into implements or removing flakes 
from blocks to serve, when completed, as future tools. 

The possibility that they represent separate material culture 
periods could be considered bill such a hypothesis seems hardly tenable. 
Both sbapeS. more especially I he ovate form, exist in association with 

the large hand pebble choppers oi Kangaroo Island left behind by the 

natives formerly inhabiting that locality but who, apparently, 
disappeared a considerable lime a«;o. 

The question arises, too, whether the earliest primitive man to 
reach Australia brought with him the knowledge of hammer-stones 
represented by one or m<>re of the \'<>rm< discussed herein or whether 
it reached the continent through the medium of laler arrivals. 
Primeval man, during the earliest periods of his existence, as bis 
native successor of today does as a makeshift, was doubtless content 
to iinc any random fragment of rock lying upon the surface of the 
ground in ins domain in order to provide himself with ft crude 

lenient, with which to ctrt 5 saw or chop. He may have devised 
later, as his experience progressed, one more to his satisfaction by 
hurling one rock fcgainsi another and selecting a suitable fragment. 
He appears io have learned, subsequently, by holding: in his hand a 
stone of suitable size — preferably a water-worn pebble which would 
obviate eiits and bruises- -that it could more easily enable him to 
fashion a rude implement but an improved one, from a rock of superior 
material held in the other. 

Recent excavations and Carbon 14 datijigs appear to extend (he 
antiquity of man in Australia to much earlier periods than previously 



COOPER—) I A M M ER-STONES * 

believed possible. It sterns fairly certain* however, that Australia's 
first inhabitants were acquainted with the hammer-stone and its 
functional use at least in a generalized way. The ninny thousands of 
standard examples of the more recent material culture implement typ< a 
found in Australia Indicate that, hammer stones— not haphazard 
mq [hods-were essential for their production, as alre&dj emphasized 
in this paper. 

It may be observed that wear upon the surfaces of the hammer- 
fttones discussed lirrrin is the sole evidence, IB many instances, upon 

which i<> baa* even problematical deduetions relating to some of their 

A njimmbeiing that function is of Ear greater anthropological 

significance than mere shape o* form, it is toost essential, further- 
more, in order to minimize possible faulty conclusions, that these 
deduetions should be nssocialed only with those examples belonging 

to any particular branch of the enltare of primitive man, which oceur 
in niinibc].-, sufficiently abundant in order to prove, beyond reasonable 

doahtj their respective existences as distinct well established types. 

These eouditions appertain to all figured specimens in this paper with 

flic xception of fig, 5 wbieli is described in I he text hut with the 
necessary reservations. 

Stone, wilhout donht, did Ml comprise the only materia) employed 

through the ages lor the purposes of bammerinfo pounding and batter- 
in--, it i- logical to assume that wood pOSfi 1 advantages or at 
;1 wns suitable for some purposes. The latter <>f Course, with the 
pa- at time, have kmg since disap])eared. 

Suitable took, fortunately, is practically indestructible; never! he 
less it is useful lo bear m mind that implements made of that material, 
as for example in the ease trf our hammer-stones, comprise no more 
than part of any one of the many particular material cultures of 
former periods of primeval man. 

An examination of the stone implements el" Australia, however 
cursory, cannot fail to emphasize the vital importance of the hammer- 
stone to the native workman without which he would be as helpless as 
a skilled tradesman who has mislaid his footrulo or hi s drill, The 
correct OSe of fhis simple tool in the production of flakes having; the 
me,-- length, breadth and thickness— more especially when the 

eors to be straei is of equal strength and intractability— required skill 

in its initial achievement and in completing the finished product 

An account of the manufacture by a Shasta Indian of California 
of an obsidian arrow-head derived from a flake— observed by an 



10 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

unnamed writer— is referred to by Stevens (1870) and is deserving of 
repetition. It reveals the skill needed by the unlive worker, not. only 
10 its final trimming hut also in his intimate knowledge of the various 
types of roefc used by liirn, because in many cases, owing to their 
Varied texture, they did not respond satisfactorily to produce the 
required flaking unless treated correctly in anticipation of it. 

This unknown writer states that a flake having been struck off a 
block by the native "he commenced a scries of continuous blows, every 
one of which chipped off fragments of the brittle substance. It 
gradually seemed to acquire shape. After finishing the base of the 
arrow-head ... he began striking gentle blows, every one of which 
I expected would break it iu pieces. Yet such was his "adroit applica- 
tion, his skill and dexterity that in little over an hour he produced a 
per red obsidian arrow-head. 

"I then requested him to carve one from the remains of a broken 
bottle which, after two failures, he succeeded in doing. He gave as a 
reason for his ill-success that ho did not nnderstandVhe grain of the 
glass. No sculptor ever handled a chisel with greater precision, or 
more carefully measured the Weight and effect of everv blow, than did 
this ingenious Indian," 

The handicraft in stone bequeathed by our own native people of 
more recent years— still nomadic hunters and food gatherers, as were 
the many generations whieh preceded them-eannot fail to disclose 
the symmetric;! I beauty of their craftsmanship. 

REFERENCES 

Cooper, H. M., 1943; "Large stone implements from South Australia." 
Rec. S. Aust. Mus., Adelaide, 7, pp. 343-369. 

1954: 'Material culture of Australian aboriginals." Rec. 

S. Aust. \tiis., Adelaide, 11, pp. 91-97. 

1959: "Large archaeological stone implements from Hallett 

Cove, South Australia." Trans. Roy. Soc. S Aust 
Adelaide, 82, pp. 55-59. 

I960: "The archaeology of Kangaroo Island." Rec. S. 

Aust. Mus., Adelaide, VS, pp. 481-503. 

1961: "Large stone implements from the lower River 

Wakefield, South Australia." Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 
Adelaide, 84, pp. 105-118. 



COOPER— HAMMER-STONES 1 1 

Evans, John, 1872: "The ancient stone implements of Great Britain." 

London, p. 23. 
Howchin, Walter, 1934: "The stone implements of the Adelaide Tribe 

of aborigines." Adelaide, pp. 69-73. 
McCarthy, F. D., 1946: "The stone implements of Australia." Aust. 

Mus., Sydney, Memoir 9, pp. 57-60. 
Mountford, C. P., 1939: ''Australian and Tasmanian Implements of 

unknown use." South Aust, Naturalist, Adelaide, 19, 

pp. 12-14. 
Stevens, E. T., 1870: "Flint Chips." London, pp. 77 and 78. 

Tindale, N. B., and Maegraith, B. G., 1931: "Traces of an extinct 
aboriginal population on Kangaroo Island." Rec. S. 
Aust. Mus., Adelaide, 4, pp. 275-289. 



12 



RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 




COOPER— HAMMER-STONES 



13 




14 



RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 




COOPER— HAMMER-STONES 



15 






" ft*"* 






V 






'•-•••■72 



" «-^. • r v. .*- :: i 







r 



5 

1-4 
■3 

■2 

■I 

-0 
cm. 





\R 



16 



RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 





I 2 3 4 5 

1 ' i ! d — I 

cm. 





NR 



COOPER— HAMMER-STONES 



a 




18 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

LOCATIONS OF FIGURED SPECIMENS 

Fig. 1. Sellick Beach. 

Fig. 2. Port Rickaby. 

Fig. 3. Pennington Bay, near. (Kangaroo Island.) 

Fig. 4. Tiddy Widdy Well. 

Fig. 5. Normanville. 

Fig. 6. Hallott Cove. 

Fig. 7. Murray Bridge. 

Fig. 8. Cleve. 

Fig. 9. Baan Hill. 

Fig. 10. Brachina Creek. 

Fig. 11, Brachina Creek. 

Fig. 12. Normanville. 

Fig. 13. Port Elliot. 

Fig. 14. Normanville. 

Fig. 15. Bulcara. (Kangaroo Island). 

Fig. 16. Mundalla. 

Fig. 17. Limestone Springs. 

Fig. 18. Brachina Creek. 

Fig. 19. Moorowie. (Mount Chambers Gorge.) 

Fig. 20. Hog Bay River. (Kangaroo Island.) 

Fig. 21. South Australia. 

Fig. 22. Lake Albert. 

Fig. 23. Loveday Bay. 

Fig. 24. Bay of Shoals. (Kangaroo Island.) 

Fig. 25. Bay of Shoals. (Kangaroo Island.) 

Fig. 26. Moonta. 

Fig. 27. Pennington Bay, near. (Kangaroo Island.) 

Fig. 28. Pudalja. 

Fig. 29. Bay of Shoals. (Kangaroo Island.) 



The above drawings, acknowledged with appreciation, were 
executed by Miss V. Richardson, South Australian Museum. Dr. 
B. Daily, Curator of Fossils and Minerals in the same institution 
kindly identified the principal types of rocks selected by the natives 
for use as hammer-stones. 



CENOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY AND VERTEBRATE 

PALEONTOLOGY OF THE TIRARI DESERT, 

SOUTH AUSTRALIA 



ByR. A. Stirton, R. H. Tedford, andAldenH. Miller 



Summary 

The origin and evolution of the Australasian vertebrate fauna has been the subject of 
considerable speculation due to the lack of evidence from the fossil record. The 
Pleistocene marsupials of Australia are fairly well known, but they tell us little about the 
Tertiary evolution of their ancestors. Only a few undoubted Tertiary marsupials had been 
reported prior to the investigations described in this paper. Baldwin Spencer (1900) 
described a bushytailed opossum from Fossil Bluff, Tasmania, which was critically 
reviewed and redescribed by Frederic Wood Jones (1930). This specimen was found in 
marine deposits containing foraminifera which are said to belong to the Janjukian "Stage" 
and probably Oligocene in age. Charles Anderson (1937) recorded diprotodontid and 
macropodid remains from New Guinea which are possibly late Pliocene or early 
Pleistocene. Edmund D. Gill (1957) and Stirton (1957b) have recently summarized the 
evidence on the few Tertiary marsupials found in Victoria. The Beaumaris fauna of 
Victoria is associated with late Miocene Cheltenhamian invertebrates, the macropodid 
from Forsyth's Bank belongs in the early Pliocene Kalimnan "Stage", and the cuscus 
from a podsol near Hamilton is referred to the late Pliocene (see review by Gill, 1957). 
Recently Martin F. Glaessner, B. MeGowran, and M. Wade (1960) recorded part of the 
diaphysis of a "large kangaroo" femur from a place called Henty's near Hamilton, 
Victoria. This they consider as referable to the Balcombian "Stage" middle Miocene, 
Some other mammalian remains from Chinchilla in the Darling Downs of Queensland 
may be as old as Pliocene (Woods, 1956, p. 139; 1958, p. 189). 



CENOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY AND VERTEBRATE PALEON- 
TOLOGY OF THE TIRARI DESERT, SOUTH AUSTRALIA 

By K, A, STlllTON, E. H. TEDFORD, and ALDEN H. MILLER 

Fig. 1-4 

INTRODUCTION 

The origin and evolution of the Australasian vertebrate fauna has 
boon the subject of considerable speculation due to the lack of evidence 
from the fossil record. The Pleistocene marsupials of Australia are 
fairly well known, but they tell us little about the Tertiary evolution 
of their ancestors. Only a few undoubted Tertiary marsupials had 
been reported prior to the investigations described in this paper* 
Baldwin Spencer (1900) described a bushytailed opossum from Fossil 
Bluff, Tasmania, which was critically reviewed and redescribed by 
Frederic Wood Jones (1930). This specimen was found in marine 
deposits containing foraminifera which are said to belong to the 
Janjukian u Stagg n and probably Oli.^oeene in age, Charles Anderson 
(1937) recorded Siprotodontid and macropodid remains from New 
Guinea which are possibly late Pliocene or early Pleistocene. Edmund 
D. Gill (1957) and Stirton (1957b) have recently summarized the 
evidence OB the few Tertiary marsupials found in Victoria. The 
Beaumaris fauna of Victoria is associated with late Miocene Chelten- 
liamian invertebrates, the macropodid from Forsyth's Bank belongs in 
the early Pliocene Kalimnan "Stage", and the cuscus from a podsol 
near Hamilton is referred to the late Pliocene (see review by Gill T 
1957). Recently Martin F. Glaessner, B. McGowran, and M.Wade 
(1960) recorded part of the diaphyais of a "large kangaroo" femur 

from a place called Iiont.y's near Hamilton, Victoria. This they con- 
sider as referable to the Balcnmbian "Stage" middle Miocene. Some 
other mammalian remains from Chinchilla in the Darling Downs of 
Queensland may be as old as Pliocene (Woods, 1956, p. 139; 1958, 
p. 189). 

Stirton and Tedford came to South Australia on Fnlbright Awards 
in 1953 to search for Tertiary mammalian faunas and if possible to 
initiate studies on the strati graphic sequence of the assemblages. In 
his original invitation to us, the late Sir Douglas Mawson suggested 



20 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

the eastern side of Lake Eyre Basil] as an area to explore. The 
expedition u) organized that year was sponsored by the Department of 
Geology, Uni versify of Adelaide, the South Australian Museum, and 
the .Museum of PaJeontology f the University of California. It is 
interesting to note that alter several months of most discouraging 
pro^pfieting in {he Lake Eyre Basin during which we went down 
Cooper Ofeek as far as t3ie Malkuni waterhole (Emu Camp), 
G. Davidson Woodard made our first discovery of Tertiary mammals 
at Lake Palankarinuu on July 27, 1IJ53. TIjis was the key that 
unlocked the door to the success of our subsequent expeditions. An 
account of the 1953 explorations appeared in Pacific Discovery (Vol. 
7 t No. 2, 1954), and preliminary descriptions of some of the late 
Tertiary Palankarinna mammals were reported by Stirton (1955). 

When we left the field in 1953 we thought the "Woodard locality 
would prove to be an extensive quarry. Unfortunately at that site the 
Mainpuwordu channel sands in which the fossils occur had been 
truncalr-d |.y the overlying Tirari Formation. Consequently the 1 
party soon depleted the quarry. Later that season outcrops of a 
correlative of the Katipiri Formation along the Warburton River were 
prospected from Cowarie to Kalamurina, and a locality was examined 
on the Diamantina near Birdsville. Finally four of us (Connell, 
Marcus, Stirton and Woodard) drove across southern Queensland tu 
r he Darling Downs 7 where we collected some fossils and measured 
sections near the Condamine Biver on the Nangram Lagoon and old 
I | Itilla Stations. Also exposures were prospected along King and 
Spring Gfrffeks near Clifton and OB Freestone Creek near Warwick. 
When the remainder of the party was returning to Adelaide, Lawson 
found part, of a small mandible in the Etadnnna Formation at Lake 
Palankarinna This was subsequently described as the holotype of 
F'crihoftla pdlnulr/t, iD-uira Stirton (1957a). At that time we w< j Ve still 
confused about the stratigraphie relations of the Mampuwordu Sands 
and the Etadunna Formation. Consequently Pcrikoala was incorrectly 
assigned to the Palankarinna Pliocene fauna. 

The 1957 party mmlr important contributions to our knowledge 
on Ihe strati-n-.iiiliy, found other productive fossil sites at Lake 
Palankarirma, am] discovered fossils at Lake Kanunka and Lake 

Q. 

\ 

' - ; Jiarry J. Bowsaall, Brian Daily, Lawaon, and 7V<1ford. 1^5$; Lawso'n, Stirton, and 
Tedfonl 




STiRTON and others— CENOZOlC STRATIGRAPHY 21 

Pitikanta. By shovelling numerous trenches through the weathered 
surface materials across the exposures Daily and Tedford revealed 
the correct stratigniphie relations of the Etaduuna Formation, the 
Mampuwordu Sands, and the Tirari Formation. This party also 
prospected along the Warburton River. For the first time now there 
was sufficient evidence to reveal the columnar positions of four 
vertebrate fauna 

In 1958 we collected extensively from the four faunas. The areas 
visited were Lake Ngapakaldi, Lake Kanunka, Lake Pitikanta, Lake 
Palnnkarinnn, and from the Mnlkuni waferhole on down Cooper Creek 
to within 16 miles of Lake Ejrfe In the course of refining and con 
tributing to our information on the stratigraphy we discovered the 
late Pleistocene Katipiri channel Hands with remains of Diprotochrn 
at Lake Palankarinna, 

All of our efforts to find fossil vertebrates in the underlying non 
marine Winton Formation thus far have failed. There is one piece of 
a large hone from Lake ITowitt that may have come from that forma- 
1 M»n, hut it is too incomplete and poorly preserved for identification. 

Only preliminary identifications Off Hie faunas are included in this 
report. Detailed descriptions ol' the higher vertebrates will appear in 

separate pahKeattom The HTgapakaldi and Palaflkatiiuifl mammala 

will he done by Stirton, the Kanunka and Malkuni mammals by 
Tedford, and flw birds from all four faunas by Miller. 

A CKNOWLFDGMENTS 

This research and exploration for Cenozoic vertebrates and on 
the continental stratigraphy in South Australia is a joint project of 
the South Australian MilBetim and the Museum of Paleontology of the 
University of California, We are permanently indebted to the former 
lot erf or, Mr. Herbert M. Hale, O.B.E. and all members of the South 
Australian Museum for their cordiality and constant assistance. 

As the recipients of Fttlbright Awards in 1053, Stirton and 
Ted lord were sponsored l>y the Department of Oeology of the 
University ol Adelaide. We gratefully acknowledge their sponsorship 
and wish io express our appreciation to Professor Arthur R. Alderman 
and all members of his staff for their helpful suggestions and efforts 
to facilitate our work. 

We an most appreciative of the support received through our 
Ptilbright Awards and in particular to Mr. Geoffrey G-. Rossiter 
(executive officer of the United States Educational Foundation in 
Australia) who did everything; possible to make our experience in 



22 RECORDS OF THF S A. MUSEUM 

Australia pleasant and profitable. The 1953 expedition was greatly 
facilitated by a liberal grant-in-aid by Dr, Malcolm (\ MeKenna. We 
are equally grateful to the National Science Foundation and to Dr. 
David D. Keck (programme director for Systematic Biology) for their 
generous support to continue in 1!>58. The 1957 expedition was 
financed by the South Australian Museum and by the Museum of 
Paleontology} also some of the fund* for the other expeditions came 
from those institutions. 

The encouragement and advice given by both the late Sir Douglas 
Mnwson and Mr. (\ Warren Bonython from (lie time we first thought 
Of going to Australia has been of the Jriglfeft order. Their confidence 
in our ability to attain our objective gave us the inspiration to 
surmount all discouraging obstacles. Much valuable information on the 

lS>gy of So«tb Australia was received from Drs. F. W. Whitohouse, 
K, CI Sprigg and M. F, Glaessner. We are especially indebted to 
Dr. Brian Dally for his assistance in working out the stratigraphy and 
for sketching from aerial photographs promising areas to explore. 

. Norrnan B. Tindale, with his profound knowledge of geography 
and aboriginal place names, lias lerttrdj placed all of this 

inforT- oiion at our disposal. 

All success of our efforts in the Ntptosaftoll must bo attributed to 

the team work of all members of the fiHd parties. The efforts of Mr. 

Pan] K Lawson however SettfVft especial recognition, He has assumed 

all the difficult tasks of organizing and procuring the materials 

ary for all Operation* in the field. Furthermore he has found 

1 of the best specimens which will be designated as holotypes. His 
assistance and suggestions both in the field and in the laboratory have 
been invaluable. 

Australian hospitality was well exemplified at the Etadunna 
Station whore Ave won* made welcome by Mr. and Mrs. R. J. Oldfield. 
th to we stored our provisions and came at regular intervals for freah 
water. It is not piJBSlblfl to list liere all of our other friends in 
Australia who w<«v < qually generous and hospitable to us, but to all 
v. p are most grateful. 

GEOC!TRONOU)Glf\ STRATIGEAPHIC AND FAUNAL 

TERMINOLOGIES 

1 -^chronologic Terminology,— Our most difficult problem in the 
Ti rati area is to determine the age of the rock units in which the fossils 
occur. Except for the Upper part of the Txatipiri Formation with the 
remains of Diprotodon, our reference tfl the Lyellian time terms is 



STfRTON km 'iTiu.RS- ( FN0Z01C STRATIGRAPHY 23 

little more than a guess. Unfortunately we have discovered no volcanic 
POoks to offer means of absolute dating with radioactive materials. 
Nor does the age of the marine formations in Victoria and Tasmania 
in which land mammals have been found help us at this time. 
Mammalian remains are meagre and very incomplete in these forma- 
tions, nor is there any indication of closely related forms occurring 
in the marine beds and in the Tirari area, although additional 
specimens from these or from other formations may offer important 
clues. If fossil pollen occurs in these rocks it may be useful in 
correlation. This will necessitate a research programme in palynology 
but this is beyond the scope of our present project. 

Our sug-grstioij of Lycllian time terms is based OB our interpreta- 
tion of the stage of evolution of the mammal h. Tills 0? course is 
largely speculative because we have no phvietic control even in the 
xNtacropodidae which are better represented in the fossil record than 
any of the families of Australian mamrnals. Lf we assume that the 
rale of evolution in the hypsobrnehyodont Macropodinae is roughly 
• •ompa ruble to that of the brachyhypsodont to hypsodonf Equina<\ then 
may reasonably conclude that the Etadunna formation is as old 
<Miv.;kmih\ This will be discussed further when the faunas are 
described in flefcgdJ in our forthcoming CgportSi "When knowledge on 
the vertebrate paleontology and continental stratigraphy of Australia 
offers adequate information for correlation, it will be int< resting to 
■■■- how far "if we were in mir first tentative Kpoeh designations. 

On i i M'i; sequences arc not complete enough to represent a 
continuous succession of chmriosfra tigraphie unit-, even from the 
different exposed sections. Until the succession of the Tertiary 
vertebrate faunas is much better known, or other evidence is available, 
we shall have no means of knowing (lie duration of the Matt 
represented by the uneou formatics and disconformaties between our 
formations. The faunas, however, indicate that the longest is between 
the Ktadunna and the Mampuwordn. 

Stretigraphic Terminology. — We have proposed four formational 
names. The Etnthimw , fflampw oidr/, '/'irari and Katipiri. Each of 
fchesfi formations is disf inguisiied on its litliologic character and on 
the basis of its strntigraphic position in relation to the other forma- 
tions. They are not defined on the basis of their contained fauna or 
faunas. The maximum horizontal or vertical extent of these units is 
i obserV&hle and therefore not determinable from the surface 
rvposure-. The lacustrine Etadunna Formation is evidently the most 
extensive and our knowledge of the Mampuwordn channel and flood 



24 



RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 




Kig. 1. A map of the Australasian region showing the location of the Tirari Desert area 
east of Lake Eyre. The other Tertiary and early Pleistocene faunal localities are indicated 

by X (see correlation chart, fig. 3). 



STIRTON and others— CENOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY 25 

plain sands is limited to a local area at Lake Palankarinna. The red 
argillaceous sandstones and arenaceous claystones of the Tirari Forma- 
tion are also wide spread, possibly almost as much so as the Etadunna. 
The Katipiri fluviatile beds possibly represent all of Pleistocene time. 
They are exposed at Lake Palankarinna, Lake Kanunka, Lake 
Pitikanta, Lake Ngapakaldi, along Cooper Creek, and probably farther 
north. 

Faunal Terminology.— Most vertebrate paleontologists, especially 
those working with fossil mammals, consider their fossil assemblages 
as biological entities and refer to them as faunas (or local faunas). 
This procedure has been employed to implement efforts in the applica- 
tion of the biologic evidence to the problems of faunal succession, 
paleoecology, and geochronology. The term "fauna" as used here 
(Stirton, 1936, 1940) need not be confused with the concept of fauna 
as representing all the animals living in a given area at a given time. 
In fact there is no local area of any appreciable extent in which we 
can know, or hope to know, all of the animals that lived, or are living, 
at any given time. In any event the evidence available to us can be 
considered only as a representation of that fauna. 

An assemblage of fossils from one locality may represent the 
mammals living in a given area at a given time. Several assemblages 
from different sites may be recognized as belonging to one fauna. A 
single species or an individual fossil specimen may be our sole 
representation of a distinct Faunal unit and may be so designated. 
Collections of fossils from different localities are recognized as 
representing a fauna when the genera and species are the same. 
Separate faunal names may be employed when the paleontologist has 
reason to assume that the materials before him represent distinct 
faunal units, even though the specimens cannot be precisely identified 
to genus and species. Eventually additional evidence may necessitate 
synonymizing certain faunal names ; on the other hand a faunal name 
as it has been applied to certain fossil materials may be found to refer 
to two or more faunas. This need not be considered as confusing nor 
misleading but as normal procedure as our knowledge increases. 

This biologic approach offers basic control units in phylogenetic, 
paleoecologic and stratigraphic interpretations. Many fossil mam- 
malian assemblages occur in fluviatile deposits where there is no 
chance of tracing the beds laterally and where there is little or no 
chance of establishing suprapositional or infrapositional temporal 
control with other rock units in the section. In other areas the strati- 
graphic position of the sites where fossils are found may be obscured 



26 RECORDS OF THE S ,A. MUSEUM 

by complex geologic struct are. Therefore it is only exceptional when 
mammalian fossils are sufficiently represented in a continuous 
succession of ehronostrati graphic uuils to permit lLlc delineation of 
Stages and Zones (Savage, 1955), One Fauna may be distributed 
throughout a considerable thickness of rocks lx: of relatively 

rapid deposition of sediments. On the other hand due to a slow 
accumulation f detritus or alterations in the distribution of animals, 
two "I more distinct faunas may occur very close to one another in a 
vertical section, Locally or within an area oi" 50 miles, marshland, 
woodland and grassland environments may affect the composition of 
synchronous faunas. Some animals with wide environmental tolerances 
will frequently reveal the contemporaneity of such faunae. These 
synchronous assemblages of different composition (fauna! facies) when 
discovered as fossils mav be recorded hv distinct fauna! names, 

We have recognized four faunas in the Arr-ri here referred to as 
the Tirari Desert. A type locality has been designated for each of 
these faunas as is standard practice in introducing new formation 
name To avoid confusion these have been given local geographies 
names that differ from the names of the formations. The reason for 
this is apparent because we have recognised two faimas, the Malkuni 
and the Kannnha, as coming from the Katipiri Formation. The 
MaUi] mi is represented from numerous localities along Cooper 

Creek and nl Lak Palankarinna. On the other hand we have found 
Kawmka fauna in remarkably similar channel sands only at Lake 
Kjbai oka. Eventually one of oni faunas may be discovered elsewhere 
in Australia in a differed formation, The P- winnQ fauna is thus 

far restricted to two localities at Lake Palankarizma in the Mampu- 
wordu Sands. Ifemnins representing the Ngajwkaldi fauna are more 
lely distributed. There are numerous localities at Lake 
1 Vilarikarhma, one at Lake K./mnika, and several at both Lake 
Pitikanta fitfid a1 Lake Ngap&keldL 

STBATIORAPHY AMD VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY 

The term Tirari Dmari was first used without explicit definition 
by John Walter Gregory (1906) for the sandridge country between 
the V, 'ton River and Oooper Creek occupied by the Tirari 

abori final tribe. As used in this report the Tirari Desert actually 
represents a southern extension of the Arunta (or Simpson) Desert 
i of Lake Eyre, bounded to the east by a north trending anticlinal 
diving McsozoJc and early Tertiary rocks. The southern 
boundary is the divide between the Lake Eyre and Lake Frome basins 



STIRTON and OTHtRS— CENOZOtC STRATIGRAPHY 27 

Formed by a north-easterly trending anticlinal axis involving Mesozoic 
and Terliarv rocks. North of the Warburton River the Tirari D»S$ri 
merges with the southern Aruiita Desert, 

The present-day physiography of this region is dominated by a 
remarkably linear system of parallel sandridges, the long axes of 
which trend slightly* west of north (BfafilgtfO, 1946). Characteristic 
of the Tirari Desert is the great number of large ami small saltpans, 
ins of very local drainage, produced by large scale deflation in late 
Quaternary and Recent time Donald King (1960) has given an 
extended discussion of the sand ridge deserts of 8<>uth Australia. 
Cutting across Hie sandi-idges and in places into the underlying forma- 
tions are two large stream courses, Cooper Creek and the AVarburton 
Etiver, thai carry flood wafers frOITl en-tcru Queensland into Lake Eyre 
North. 

The stratigraphy ft! the STtee eovered during these investigations 
never received detailed attention although the general geology of 

Ehe Lake Eyre Ln-in as a whole is fairly well known (Ree Sprigg 

I I ^f>S) for summary) 

(i, L. Debney (1881a) gave the only account of the pre-sandridge 
ecology of the Tirari Desert mi a report on tho results of attempt* to 
Ideate -hallow wells in this coimiry during the latter part of tic 
century. Significantly he mentions (p. 146) "the broken lace of the 
escarpment of ilic fable hills, overlooking a salt lake 86 miles north- 
west of Lake Killalpnninua. displays marly clays mixed with gypsum 
and fossil bones. The fossils, which have been determined by 
Professor Tate, consist of tish vertebrae, teeth and the bony scales of 
crocodiles, and phalanaes of a gigantic marsupial of the family of 
kangaroo, from which it may be safely concluded that the marly clays, 
sandstone, and gvpsiferoiis beds of the tableland country are of lacus 
trine origin''. Tills discovery was mentioned by Ralph Tate (1885, p, 54 ) 
whose list includes 44 phalanges of an emu-like bird" instead of those 
of a kangaroo. Tn any event it appears that Dclmcy discovered Lake 
Kanuuka where hones of the Kannnka vertebrates had weathered out 
of tine loose channel sands of the Katipiri Formation and occur as 
float on the Etadunna. exposures below 7 . It appears from Dehno- 
( 1891b) well loc/c at sites 1-1 that the Katipiri channel and flood plain 
sands were well distributed out from the present course of Cooper 
Creek. Only at his well site 2 which is 41 miles north of Cooper Creek 
and 23 miles east of Lake Eyre did he find a section like the ones we 
have described at Lake Kannnka and Lake Palankarinna. Evidently 



2* RECORDS OF THE S A. MUSEUM 

that bore cut through the Katipiri and Tirari formations and some 
six feet into the Etadtmna. 

John W. Gregory (1906) and Cecil Thomas Madigan (1945) 
crossed the Tirari Desert, but give only a cursory discussion of the 
sandridges and saltpans. Gregory's primary interest was in the fossil 
vertebrates reported from Cooper Creek and (he Warburton River. 
In so far as we can determine at this time, all the fossils collected in 
the Turin Desert area by the Gregory expedition belong to the 
Malkuni fauna. He apparently was not aware of Debney's discovery 
in tie sand ridge country between these rivers. Recently D. King 
(1956 and I960) has dealt with the late GfeSQBOifl deposits exposed in 
the south western margin <>f the Tirari Desert along the southern 
shores of Lake Eyre, but this is 50 to GO miles southwest of the area 
discussed in this report, 

Exposures of middle find later Cenozoic rocks in the Tirari Desert 
arc widely scattered due to the ubiquitous sandridge cover which 
obscures most of the mulct-lying deposits. Only here and there where 
deflation or the major water cancma have carved deep enough into 
the desert floor are exposure* to be round. Therefore the margins 
of the nmnerous saltpans (usually t1 tern sides) and banks of the 

i ;.n.lied Cooper Creek and Warhurton River expose the only 
nitieant outcrops of pre-sandridge rocks in the Tirari Desert. 

ft was found that the distinctive lithologies and superpositional 
relationships of the formational units could he recognized over wide 
ar#afir, Wen though the outCTDpl are discontinuous. In some instances 
it lias been pOHSlWe fo cheek these lithologicul correlations with fossils. 

Three general localities are dealt with somewhat in detail in this 
report (Fig. U). They were singled out because they have yielded 
the most significant fossil vertebrate remains and offered the best 
exposures of the IVmnjf ions. The type sections of our stratigraphic 
units and the type localities for the faunas have been designated from 
these local areas. 

1. Lake Palankariuva, — This is the best single section so far 
discovered. Late Mesoaoic and middle to later Cenozoic rocks are 
continuously exposed in a dissected escarpment stretching for about 
three miles along the western side of this saltpan. Lake Palankannna 
is south of Cooper Creek and about 18 miles southwest of Etadunna 
Station at approximately latitude 28° 47' S., longitude 138° 25' E. 

Lake KQMmk& 3 Lake Pitikavta and take Nyapaluddi. — Nearly 
T*0 miles north of Lake Palankarinna are exposures along the shores 



STIRTON and others— CENOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY 



29 




O Ngopohotdi Fauna 

9 Poionliorlnno Four*p 

» KonunKQ Fouoo 

• MalfcMll Fauna 



y.its 



Routtt of Expedlrlcm 

r UKOlKlM 



Fig. ii. The Tirari Desert area east of Lake Eyre, South Australia. There are many 
more Ngapakaldi faunal localities on the west side of Lake Palaukarinna than indicated 

on this map. 



of the two small lakes, Lake Kanunka and Lake Pitikanta, and Lake 
Ngapakaldi. There we have found important fossil vertebrate remains, 
especially those from the lower channel sands of the Katipiri Forma- 
tion and from the much older Etadunna Formation. 

Lake Kanunka and Lake Pitikanta are small saltpans only li miles 
long and two miles apart in the same interdune valley at approximately 
latitude 28° 23' S., longitude 138° 18' E. 



30 



RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 



Three miles north of Lake Pitikanta lies the larger Lake 
Ngapakaldi at approximately latitude 28° 18' S., longitude 138 u 15' E. 
Only the exposures of the Etadunna Formation on the eastern side 
of this saltpan have yielded fossils of the Ngapakaldi fauna. The 
same fauna occurs in outcrops of the same formation on the west 
sides of Lake Kanunka and Lake Pitikanta. 

3. Katipiri ivaterhole, Cooper Creek.— There is an excellent cliff 
exposure along the northern bank of Cooper Creek at Katipiri water- 
hole, 24 miles northwest of Lake Palankarinna at approximately 
latitude 28° 35' S. ? longitude 138° G' E. There the superpositional 
relationships of the upper fluviatile deposits of the Katipiri Formation 
are revealed. 

On the following pages a Composite siratigraphic column for the 
area investigated is described utilizing information drawn from a 
study of the three sections listed above. A description of the strati- 
graphic columns for each locality is given in Appendix A. 

Late Mcsozoic — Early Tertiary 

The base of our oldest Cenozoic unit is exposed at the south- 
western end of Lake Palankarinna. These basal green sandstones of 



AGE 


MEGAFOSSIL 
"STAGES* 


MAMMALIAN FAUNAS 


VICTORIA AND TASMANIA 


LAKE EYRE BASIN 


PLEISTOCENE 






Ma/kunf f 
Kanunka f. 

Palankarinna f. 


WERRlKOOlAN 


Smeaton t 

Hamilton f' 

Forsytes Bonk f.* 


PLIOCENE 


KAUMNAN 


MIOCENE 


CHELTENHAMIAN 


Beaumaris f,' 




BALCOMBIAN 




BAIRNSDALIAN 




BATESFDRDlAN 




JANJUKiAN 


Fossil Bluff f 


Ngapokoldi f. 


OLIGOCENE 






EOCENE 









x Directly correlated with the marine type sections or their generally accepted equivalents. 
Fig. 3. Tentative correlation of some Cenozoic mammalian faunas. 



STIRTON and oiui-.rs— CENOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY 31 

the middle Tertiary Etadunna Formation rust uneonformably on 
deeply weathered gray siltstones, clays and sandstones of the non- 
niarine Winton Formation, the uppermost CretaCGOUS 11 'lit recognized 
in the Lake Eyre Basin, Immediately south of Lake Palankarinna 
those older rocks aiv gently upwnrpod fortaing a low anticlinal divide 
Separating the Lake Eyre and Lake Frome depressions. Superficial 
:- i liciiication (the formation of duricrust) of an extensive peneplane 
cut across (lie Cretaceous rocks and thin remnants of overlying early 
Cenozoic ih.ivial.ile deposits predates the deposition of the Etadunna 
Formation. The Etaduruia. Formation lacks any trace of large scale 
silieiiication and contains locally at its base a limonito cemented 
conglomerate of siliceous nodules derived from the Winton Formation. 
The absence of any marked southward coarsening of the Etadunna 
Formation against the duriemsted upwarp flf older rocks snggeatfl 
that this anticline was not a prominent feature in mid-Tertiarj time. 

Middle Tertiary (?Otigocene) 
Etadunna Formation 

Stratigraphy -The term Etadunna Formation was first used by 
Stirton in his preliminary description df the mammals from the 
Palankarimm fauna (1955, p. 267). In that paper Stirton credits the 
term Etadnnna Formation to (J. Davidson Woodard who proposed it 
in a report on his pioneer investigations of Tirari Desert geology 
(unpublished manuscript on tile at the Museum of Paleontology, 
University of I -ahfoi mia). It was assumed that Woodard's report 
would soon be published as planned. At that time the post-Winton 
lacustrine deposits at Lake Palankarinna and the immediately over- 
ly ine; channel sands with the Palankarinna fauna were thought to 
belong to the same cycle of deposition and hence to a single formation. 
Later stral i.c'aphie work by Brian Daily and Tedford has shown that 
the channel sands are a distinct lithologic unit dis< oaformably over- 
lying the lake beds. As used here the term Etadunna Formation is 
restricted to the lacustrine deposits and a new name, Mampuwordu 
Sands, is proposed for the overlying channel sands containing the 
Palankarinna fauna. 

At the type section, the bluffs along; tin 4 western side of Lake 
Palankarinna, the Etadnnna Formation consists of a maximum of 
97 feet of gre<m claystone and sandstone interbedded with white 
calcareous mudstone and do'lomitic limestone (see Appendix A for 
detailed description). The basal green sandstone member of the 



n W CORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Etadunna Formation rests unconformably on the Winton Formation. 
A •; linnoiiR basal conglomerate may occur at this contact. The 

baeal member ol* the Etadunna formation is succeeded by a sequence 
ot dolomitic limestones, calcareous raudstones and claystones with 
several horizon* of intra forma tional breccia denoting repeated 
exposure and drying of the shallow water lagoon in which these 
riiU'J. Poorly preserved gastropoda, ostraeodes and 
ocigonia of Charm were found in the calcareous mudstones. 

The succeeding strata at Lake Palankariima consist of an alterna- 
nt of green fel&ystoilGS ami argillaceous sandstones yielding abundant, 
but fragmentary, remains of fish, reptiles, "birds ami some mammals 
(notably Perikoala). These deposits give way to a calcareous mud 
stone with intfithedded clays tone and calcareous sandstone. The 
-jcrmost units at the type section are fossiliferous arenaceous green 
daystoTies and interheilded -reid-dones in places overlain diseouform- 
ably (probably with angular unconformity) by the Mampuwordu 
Sands. Where the Mampuwordu Sands are absent, the Etadunna 
Formation is overlain with angular unconformity by the Tirari 
Formation or locally by the succeeding Katipiri Sands. 

At Lake Pnlankarinna the Etadunna Formation was folded into 
a broad syncline before the Mampuwordu Sands and horizontally 
bedded Tirari Formation were deposited. This folding may have 
corresponded with movements along the Mesozoic — early Tertiary 
anticlinal axis immediately to the southeast because the formations 
overlying the Etadunna are poorly sorted fluviatile deposits rich in 
fragments derived from a duruTiistcd terrain, 

The Etadunna Formation exposed at Lake Kanunka, Lake 
Pitik.uita, and Lake Ngapakabli la thinner than at the type section 
but strikingly similar in lifhology. There is a maximum of 24 feet 
of Lake Kanunka dolomitic calcareous pmdstcmes with prominent intra 

fonnationaJ breccias Mt the top which alternate wi(h green elaystones 

urrl sections see Appendix A). Articulated mammalian 
skeletons and parts ..f skeletons «rfc*fi \'ouiu\ consistently at the top of 
tlte lowest exposed green elrtystone and at the base of the immediately 
overly ing calenreoir--. nmdstone. The positions assumed by the 
articulated skeletons of the abundant small diprotodonts and small 
macropodids suggest entrapment of the animals in boggy clay. Tluir 
remains are truncated and weathered where they projected into the 
overlying calcareous mudstone indicating exposure before burial 
beneath the overlying calcareous sediments. Although it is impossible 
directly to trace the fossiliferous horizon from Lake Kanunka and 



STIRTON and others— CENOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY 



33 



Lake Pitikanta to Lake Ngapakaldi, the unusual concentration of 
mammalian remains at a similar stratigraphic position at each locality 
is tentatively accepted as indicating approximate synchronous 
deposition. 

The Etadunna Formation at Lake Kanunka, Lake Pitikanta, and 
Lake Ngapakaldi is nearly flat-lying. There the strata are disconform- 
ably overlain by equivalents of the Tirari Formation and locally by 
the Katipiri Sands. 

It is possible that the dolomitic mudstones and interbedded thin 
green clays recorded from the southern shore of Lake Eyre North by 
King (1956) are part of the Etadunna Formation. The unconformably 
overlying deposits at that locality cannot be correlated at present with 
any of the post-Etadunna Formations in the area we have studied. 

Paleontology. — The vertebrate fauna from the Etadunna Forma- 
tion is herein designated as the Ngapakaldi fauna with its type locality 



KATIPIRI WATERHOLF 
COOPER CREEK 

r 



htALKONI 

fA'J'SA 



LAKE KANUNKA 

LAKE PITIKANTA 

\ COMPOSTS I 



LAKE PALANKARINNA 

1 







CRO55-HEO0E& 
OSPkLAeCQUf SAM. 

arenaceous CLirrrtaNE 



.OG.'C S'MBOtS 



LIMESTOU* AND KLOMiTIC 



if4"f?4FORW6T 1& WA'. HftrcCtA 



WINTCN FORMATION 






VlflTiCAt SCAWe 
IH FEET 
190-1 



Sd- 



Fig. 4. Columnar sections indicating stratigraphic positions of faunas and formations in 
the Tirari Desert area east of Lake Eyre, South Australia. Scale in feet. 



34 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

on the east shore of Lake Ngapakaldi (U.C. Loc. V 5858). Its most 
important representation is the locally abundant skeletal remains of 
marsupials collected on the eastern shore of Lake Ngapakaldi and the 
northwestern shore of Lake Pitikanta, Additional, but more frag- 
mentary, marsupial material has been taken at the same horizon at 
Lake Kanunka and from members 4, 6 (Perikoala), and 9 of the 
Etadunna Formation at Lake Palankarinna. 

A provisional faunal list for the Ngapakaldi fauna is given below 
combining the material from all the localities mentioned. Only the 
koala-like Perikoala has been previously described (Stirton, 1957a). 

NGAPAKALDI FAUNA (fOLIGOCENE) 

MOLLUSCA 

Gastropoda: Poorly preserved gastropods have been found that 
evidently represent three genera. 

Arthropoda 

Ostracoda : Some fossil ostracodes occur in the calcareous mudstones 
but these have not been identified further. 

osteichthyes 
Dipnoi : 

Ceratodontedae : One locality at Lake Palankarinna yielded a 
large series of lungfish teeth. These for the most part are smaller 
than the teeth in the Malkuni and Kanunka faunas. Other teeth, how- 
ever, found on the Etadunna exposures are as large as those in the 
later faunas. 

Teleostei: Bones of teleost fishes are as abundant in the Etadunna 
Formation as they are in the later channel sands. 

Reptilia 

Chelonia: Parts of carapaces, plastrons, and body skeletal elements 
are abundant in this formation, 

Crocodieia: Pieces of skulls and lower jaws were found at different 
sites, but these reptiles seemed to have been much less numerous than 
the turtles. 

Squamata : 

Varanidae: There is one vertebra of a large, but not gigantic, 
lizard. 



STIRTON and others— CENOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY 35 

Aves 

More than 45 fragmentary bird bones represent a rather 
diversified avifauna. The collection is sufficient to permit identification 
to family as follows. 

Pelecaniformes : 

Pelecanidae: The distal end of a tarsometatarsus represents a 
pelican differing significantly from the modern genus. 

ClCONIIFORMES : 

Phoexicopteridae : The distal articulation of a tarsometatarsus 
represents the genus Phoenicopterus but the species is about 50 per 
cent larger than any modern flamingo. The family is not represented 
in the modern fauna of Australia. 

Anseriformes : 

Axatidae: A complete humerus is tentatively allocated to the 
subfamily comprising the spine-tailed ducks. 

(xRUIFORMES: 

Gruidae : An imperfect proximal end of a tarsus is some form of 
crane. 

Charadriiformes : 

Burhinid ae : A proximal half of a humerus apparently represents 
tliis family of shore-birds, the thick-knees. 

Laridae: A distal half of a tarsometatarsus appears to represent 
a gull or a tern. 

Mammalia 
Marsupialia : 

Dasyuridae: One of the most significant specimens found in the 
Etadmma Formation is a new genus of dasyurid. The size of the 
animal is comparable to Dasyurus quail. This specimen consists of 
Pj both upper canines, P 2 , P*, M 1 and M 2 of both sides; M 3 ; the left 
mandible with the canine, Pi, the anterior end of Pa, Pa missing 
from its alveolus, Mm in place; part of a pelvis and much of the ulna, 
and numerous foot bones. The proximity of these parts in the clay- 
stone indicates they belong to a single individual. The three premolars 
with gradation in size from Pi to P3 and the absence of the metaconid 
on Mi suggests that this animal may not be far removed from the 
ancestry of Thylacinus. 



36 RECORDS OF THh S.A. MUSEUM 

Phascolargtidae : 

Perth ()tda palankormnica Stirton (1957a) 

The type and paratype of this species were originally described 
as part oi' the Palankarinna fauna. We now know that they couie 
from the underlying- Ftadunna Formation aud belong to the 
Ngapakaldi fauna. .As yet we have found no specimens referable to 
this species at Lake Kanunka, Lake Pitikanta, or Lake Ngapakaldi 
where most of the mammalian remains have been found. 

Macropoiuoau: 

Potoroinae: Pari, of a left inaudible is referable to a group that 
is possibly ancestral to the genus Button an. Most of the horizontal 
and posterior parts of the jaw arc missing. The incisor is broken off, 
but !\ Mi, Ma and Ma are in place and little worn. The specimen is 
n'umrkably like the living bettongs especially in the premolar, but the 
details in the patterns of the molars are different. 

Subfamily 7 

One of the most remarkable mammals in the Ngapakaldi fauna 
is a new genus of questionable subfamily relationships. The skull is 
somewhat comparable in outline but more elongate than that of 
Aepyprymnus. On the whole however the new genus seems to be 
abottt equally distinct from each of the Recent potoroine genera as 
well as from li y jwipryw notion. There are two crania with mandibles 
Miid parts of the body skeletons that belong to two individuals, as well 
as two other lower jaws with parts of the mamillaries associated., and 
parts of the lower jaws of still another individual. Features in the 
molars otter some suggestion of I heir derivation from a primitive 
marsupial with a tribospbenic pattern. Furthermore the transverse 
loplis and lophids are more trenchant and not as depressed in the 
middle as in the Potoroinae or the Hypsiprymnodontinae. The 
characters in these Ngapakaldi kpeohnQM aTfl much like those seen in 
the living SetoirLv bruchyurus as well as those in tin* three specimens 
discussed later in the Malkuni, Kanunka and Palankarinna faunas. 

Diprotodonttdae j The inost abundant marsupial in the Ngapakaldi 
fauna is a primitive diprotodontid about the size of a domestic suid. 
Unfortunately the bones of the skeletons we have found thus far have 
been badly shattered by expansion and contraction in the surface 
weathering zone. Nevertheless enough specimens have been found to 
make a restoration possible, although adequately preserved cervical, 
thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, as well as bones of the sternum and 



STIRTON ano others— CENOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY 37 

ribs are still wanting. All of the bones in our collection have not yet 
been Fully prepared and restored because of their fragmentary con- 
dition. The phylogenetic position of this interesting animal, as in most 
of the other Ngapakaldi. marsupials, cannot be accurately determined 
until more of the genera and species intermediate between it and the 
later minted genera can be found. The molars are sharplj biliphodont 
\vi(h only slight indications of forelinks and inidJink^ Of the 
premolars only Pj are present. They have a simple pattern and 
are reduced in size. The lower incisors are rather widely spatulate 
as in Palor, hrsh ;; t not rounded as in the Diproiodontinae. 

Late Tertiary (?carly Pliutene) 
Mampuwordu* 2) Sands 

Str(iti ! /raphy.— r TiiQ Mampuwordu Sands are locally exposed 
-(ream channel deposits known only at the type locality, Lake 
Palankarinna. This formation contains the Palankarinna fauna partly 
described by Stirton (1955). Scattered remnants of probably wide- 
spread stream channel and Hoodplain deposits outcrop along the north- 
western side of Lake Palankarimia where some have cut as much as 
16 feet into the uppermost member of the Etadunna formation. They 
are disenn forma bly overlain by the Tirari Formation, 

Mammalian remain;- have been found in local concentrations at 
ihp bae€ r >»* these channels at two localities in pebbly cross-bedded 
quart* sand and lenticular arenaceous claystones. These remains were 
commonly broken, but not badly waterworn. Broken fragments found 
wpaxtftted in the fossil quarries WftM frequently found to fit together 
indicating lift p;reat distance of transport. Waterworn pebbles within 
thr basal sands include duriern-i and quartz fragments derived from 
I he Mesozoie and early Tertiary deposits as well as limestone 
fragments derived from the underlying TCtadmina Formation. The 
presence of fragments derived from the deeper parts of the Etadunna 
l'urniafi"i. BUggost tt)&t the folding of these rocks preceded depuration 
of (he Mampuwordn Sands. Regional uplift is reflected in the change 
from fine grained elastic and chemical sediments of the Etadunna to 
I he coarser lluviatile deposits (?f the Mampuwordu Sands and the 
succeeding Tirari Formation. 

Pah ontnloay. — The Palankarinna fauna was taken from two 
quarries in the Mampuwordu Sands exposed along the northwestern 

00 A Pun Banlfl for a eite at. tho north western end of Lake Palankarinna; appxoTr.J \>y tHe 
State Nomenclature Committee of South Australia. 



38 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

side of Lake Palankariima. The Woodard Quarry (U.CM.P. locality 
V 5367), the type locality, was discovered in 1953 and worked out in 
1954. The Lawson and Daily Quarries (U.CM.P. locality V 5769) 
are two bone-bearing pockets in a single channel discovered in 1957 
about i mile north of the Woodard Quarry. Stirton (1955) gave a 
preliminary description of the 1953 collection from the Woodard 
Quarry. A provisional faunal list for both localities is given below. 

PALANKAEINNA FAUNA (fPLIOCENE) 

Arthropoda 
Crustacea : 

Decapoda: Both gastroliths and pieces of the pinchers occur in 
this collection. 

OSTEIOHTHYES 

Teleostei: Numerous bones probably representing a diversified fish 
fauna have been taken from the Woodard locality. 

Eeptilta 
Crocodilia: There are more than 125 isolated teeth, 7 dermal scutes 
and 6 parts of crocodilian skulls and mandibles. The ravages of 
these creatures may account in a large measure for the fragmentary 
condition of the mammal bones. 

Aves 
Oasuariiformes : 

Dromicetidae: A tarsometa tarsus seems clearly to represent a new 
species of this family. It is the first Tertiary record of the 
Dromiceiidae. The proportions of the bone are intermediate between 
those in the emu and the cassowary, but the species clearly was an 
emu and not a cassowary. A detailed study of this bone should 
contribute to our knowledge of the antiquity and evolution of these 
birds. 

Mammal,™ 
Marsupialia : 

Peramet jdae : 

Isclinodon australis Stirton (1955) 

The type and only known specimen is the anterior half of a 
right mandible with only the posterior half of the canine alveolus 
showing. Pi-2 and M1-2 in place. P 3 is missing from the alveolus, 
and M2 is broken across the talonid resulting in the loss of the 
posterolingual corner. 



STIRTON and others— CENOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY 39 

Macropodidae: 

f Subfamily: One left mandible with well worn teeth, although of 
about the same size as those of P. palankarinnicus, represents an 
undescribed genus of the Macropodidae. The construction of the 
molars, especially the less worn M4, is much like that in the portion 
of a right mandible with Ms and the anterior moiety of M* in the 
Malkuni fauna, which we have stated has Setonix-like molars. The 
Palankarinna specimen however is larger than the Malkuni species. 
When the species of this group are well exemplified, it may be thought 
advisable to recognize another subfamily. 

Macropodinae : 

Prionotemnus palanharimiicus Stirton (1955) 

We have a large series of maxillae, mandibles, and limb and foot 
bones of this macropodid. Fossils of this macropodid are by far the 
most numerous of any vertebrate in the fauna. 

A tibia with macropodine characters and of about the same length 
as those in Prionotenimis has a shaft nearly twice as great in diameter. 
This obviously belongs to another macropodid much larger than 
Prionotemnus. 

Stttkxcrinae: There is a wide but short-crowned lower incisor 
that is suggestive of those seen in the Sthenurinae. 

DlPROTODONTIDAE I 

Meniscohjihus maivsoni Stirton (1955) 
Our information on this species has not been augmented since 1955. 
Another diprotodontid (Stirton, 1955) is more like Evowenia than 

either M en iscolo pints or Not other 'mm. More information on it must 

await the discovery of better specimens. 

Late Tertiary (?Pliocene) 
Tirari (3) Formation 

Stratigraphy: Flat-lying brick red argillaceous sandstones and 
arenaceous Haystones overly the Etadunna Formation at all three of 
the areas discussed in this report. Reconnaissance investigations 
indicate even more widespread occurrence of these deposits in the 
Tirari Desert. 



(8) From the Tirari Desert in which these deposits are widespread. 



40 RECORDS OF THE S A. MUSEUM 

The Tirari Formation is best exposed at its type section along the 
western shore of Lake Palankarinna where almost 40 feet of 
predominantly red, poorly sorted fluvial ile deposits outcrop (see 
Appendix A). Ihe lower tliird of the formation is dominantly 
arenaceous- Scattered pebbles of dtrcicrust and milky quartz occur at 
the base, but no prominent basal conglomerate is developed. Current 
cross-bedding is common in those basal sands. The upper Iwo-thirds 
is dominantly argillaceous. 

At Lake Kanunka, Lake Piliknnta, and Lake Ngapakaldi tlic 
Tirari Formation dbefi not exceed 13 feet and is dominantly a red 
arenaceous claystono with a few incites of coarser sand and dnricrust 
pebbles at the base. Eleven feet of horizontally bedded red and 
mottled green aiid red arenaceous rfaystonea outcrop at the base of 
the exposed section at the Katipiri walerhole on Cooper Creek. These 
deposits are also lithologieally identified as the Tirari Formation. 
Only at Lake Palankamma, Lake Kanunka, Lake Pitikanta and Lake 
Ngapakaldi can the Tirari Formation be seen uneonformably overlying 
the Fiadurma Fonnation. 

The characteristic lithology and differences in the dominant grain 
! hoi ween those three areas suggest that the Tirari sediments may 
have been derived in large part by stripping of red soils developed OH 
dnnVrusted pre Ftadnnna rod;-, exposed to the south and east. The 
increasing dominance of argillaceous materia] toward the top of all 
sections may indicate the lowering of Ihe sourer atva and attainment 
of base level. 

All attempts to find fossil material in the Tirari Formation have 
so far failed. 

Pleistocene 

Katipiri Sands 

Stratigraphy — Overlying the Tirari Formation at all three 
localities are stream channel and floodplain deposits which we have 
grouped together as a. single formation, the Katipiri Sands, ft is 
quite possible that some ol these occurrences do not belong to Ihe name 
cycle of deposition. "We have evidence that they are not the same age 

everywhere yet at our present state of knowledge it is not possible to 

distinguish subunits on any consistent lithological grounds, intimately 
it may be possible to separaio this complex of fluviatile deposits into 
two or more distinct units as future investigations reveal sections in 
which ihe superpositional relationships of units and their faunal 
assemblages can be established. 



ST1RT0N and othlrs— CENOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY 4t 

Tlie Katipiri Sands rest disconformably on the Tirari Formation 
in felija kype locality, Katipiri watcrholc on Cooper Creek, approxi- 
mately 24 miles northwest of Lake Falankarinnn. These stream 
charmed deposits are dornm&lrtly arenaceous, consisting for Qifi most 
part of conspicuously RtQSe-hG&dfid quartz sands. At the base these 
sands are poorly sorted, stained reel, orange or yellow with limonite, 
and enclose dnrhnet, black ehert and limestone pebble&, elayballs, 
ferrugiuo. • nndstonc concretions, casts of small logs, and frag- 
mentary vertebral.' remains which are frequently abraded. Toward 
Hie top of the typo section the sands are buff or white, better ported, 
and filler grained. Cray arenaceous clay lenses and pla1y\ spheroidal 
and pipey j ypsum cement ed sandstone eoftOretrCFM are common 
throughout (sec Appendix A). 

At the: type locality the Katipiri Sands are overlain and deeply 
channelled by later fluviatde deposits described below. The Katipiri 
Sands contain the youngest fossil vertebrate far.ua so far recognized 
in Ibis part of the Lake Ey« Basin. This fauna includes the genus 

I'ost-Tiran Formation channel and floodplaiu deposits also occur 
at b:.l«c Kannnka, hake Litikanta, Lake Ngapakaldi and Lake 
Lalankarinna far from the presenl channel of Cooper Creek. At these 
localities they represent the youngest pre-saudridge formations, for 
they are directly overlain b\ the s.n.dridge deposits. 

The occurrence at Lake Kanonka is particularly significant, for 
fossil vertebrate materials taken from the Katipiri Sands at Lake 
Kanuuka appear to represent an a blage somewhat older than that 

frum the type section. Til called the Kanuuka fauna which 

apparently did .not include ViprQtodOtt although other smaller dipro- 
todontids were present. 

At Lake Kanunka these floodplaiu and stream channel deposits lie 
diseonfei'mably Qfl the Tirari Formation. They vary from less than 
10 to nearly '20 feet in thickness in the deeper channels where they 
have nit through the Tirari Formation to the top of the EtadoiTOS 
FMirnation. Tn gross lithology they are identic;) I with the type 
tipiri Sands (see Appendix A). 

At Lake Falanknrintm up to 20 feet of floodplaiu and stream 
channel deposits rest diseonfomiably on the Tirari Formation and 
in places cut through it to Blp top of the Ftadnnna Formation. In 
gross lithology llti&e deposits are much like the type Katipiri Sands 
except for a somewhat greater prevalence of gray arenaceous clay 
lenses (see Appendix A). A lower jaw and part of the upper dentition 



42 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

of Diprotodon has been taken from these deposits suggesting that they 
may be about the same age as the Katipiri Sands at the type locality. 
The sudden appearance of the Katipiri sandsheets in the Lake 
Eyre Basin may be the result of important uplifts in source areas 
probably within the margins of the basin in latest Cenozoic time. 
Larger clasts in the stream channel deposits were all derived from 
dnricrusted Mesozoic and early Tertiary rocks or from the Etadunna 
and later formations, 

Paleontology. — The oldest vertebrate fauna so far collected from 
the Katipiri Sands is known from a single locality at Lake Kanunka 
(U.C.M.P. locality V 5772). This may have been the locality discovered 
by Debney. Here the Katipiri stream channel has cut through the 
Tirari Formation to the top of the Etadunna Formation, The base 
of this deej) (Kil't.) channel has yielded generally fragmentary, but 
well preserved, bones and teeth and a few more complete jaws and 
limb-bones of vertebrates. This assemblage will be known as the 

Kanunba fauna. 

KANUNKA FAUNA (?EAELY PLEISTOCENE) 

A i; i in mPODA 

Crustacea: Decapoda: The fossils of crayfish are much more numerous 
at this locality than in the late Pleistocene Malkuni materials. There 
are 22 gastrolith nodules, 10 terminal parts of pinchers, and some 
associated elements of an exoskeleton. 

osteichthyes 
Dipnoi : 

OefwYtodontipae: The lungfishes of the genus Epiceratodiis are 
represented by 17 teeth. Superficially they look much like the ones 
from the Malkuni fauna described by White (1925), 
Teleostei: Teleost bones are as plentiful and apparently represent 
a fish fauna as diversified as that of the Malkuni. 

Reptilia 

Ciieloxia : Paris of carpaces of a large chelonian and limb bones of 
.'i small form are indicative of at least two kinds in this fauna. 

Squam ata : 

Vakanidae: One tooth somewhat ovate in cross-section and with 
serrate edges like those in the giant megalanid seems clearly referable 
to this family. 



STIRTON and others— CENOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY 43 

Crocodilia: Seventy-two teeth, 5 vertebrae, a dermal scute, and 
parts of two mandibles have been collected. The teeth range in size 
tram very large to very small. At least we can say that crocodilians 
were 6a abundant in the Kanunka fauna as in the Malkuni. 

Aver 

It is estimated that a total of eight species will be recognized 
among the 48 specimens now at hand from this fauna when adequate 
Recent skeletons are available for comparison. Those tentatively 
identified are: 

Casuariiformes: 

Dromorntthidae: There are four parts of bones from a large 
dromormthous bird that appear to belong to the genus Genyornis but 
are smaller than the late Pleistocene (?. neivfoni. 

PttLECANIFORMES : 

Phalacrocoracipae : There are two species of the genus Plialacro- 
oorax (cormorants). These bones are small and medium-sized and as 
such are the counterparts of two of the species in the modern fauna, 
but they may prove to be specifically distinct. About one-sixth of the 
bird bones in the Kanunka fauna belong to cormorants. 

Anseriformfs: 

An ati dm ■:: One bone of the genus Anas (duck) is comparable in 
size to the American shoveler. Four other specimens belong to 
Cifc/nn.s (swan). It will require more detailed comparisons than those 
possible to make now to evaluate the specific affinities of these fossils. 

Mammalia 
Rodentia : 

Muridae: One upper incisor in this collection represents the oldest 
rodent thus far known from the Australasian Region. 

Yl \umpialia; 

Dasyittudae: There are parts of two individuals of a dasyurid 
that is larger than Dasyurops but smaller than Thylachius or 
Sarcoph'dus. One specimen is a right maxilla showing alveoli of M 2 
and M\ and the paraconal-parastylar crest of M 4 . The other is also 
part of a right maxilla displaying inner roots broken off and parts of 
the alveoli of the outer roots of M 2 and M 3 , as well as parts of the 
alveoli for the roots of M\ The paraconid-parastylid alveolar shear 
of M 4 (the only part of any of the teeth preserved) is narrow and 



44 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

shaped like that in XktsyUfQpS and Dasifurus; it is nol as thick as in 
Thylaciints or Sarcopldhis nor is it shaped like tliern. The animal 
appears also to have been smaller than Cilattcodon baUurolcnsis Stirton 
(1957b). It seems then to have been a large dasynrid most closely 
related to Dasvnnis and Dasjjurops. 

TnYLAcoLEONiDAE: The oldest known fossil referable to this family 
is a M 1 in the kanunka fauna. It probably belongs to the genua 
Thijlacolco, but a generic identification must await the discovery of 
more complete materials. 

Vombatidar: Two upper molars represent this family. One is 
apparently referable to the gigantic extinct genus PJtascolomts. The 
other is much smaller and probably belongs to one of the Recent 
genera. 

Macropodidae ! 

Potorotnae: The rat-kangaroos are represented by part of a 
right maxilla with M" 1 * 8 in place and by a nearly complete right 
mandible with the incisor broken off. These are clearly referable to 
the genus Bcttovgia. 

?Subfamily: Aw upper P* and a M 3 appear to indicate a new 
genus, The RiP is low crowned but not bunodont as In Propleopus nor 
like that in the I'ojoroinae. The pattern of the molar and the very 
much compressed anterior cingular shelf is much like that in Setouix, 
but the fossil belongs jo mh animal much larger than the quokka. Its 
size seems to be comparable to that of the larger wallabies. It appears 
to be closely related to part of a mandible in the Mnlkuni fauna, and 
possibly it falls in the same subfamily as a mandible in the 
Palankarinna fauna. 

Macropodinak: I'art of a right mandible with Mi-a in place and 
au Ma erupting, and also an isolated upper molar are possibly referable 
to I he genus Ijar/orchrstes. The teeth are somewhat larger than in L. 
conspicillalus, but the pattern of the teeth is much like that of the 
Recent species. 

Another genus and species is known from an excellent left 
mandible and several isolated cheek teeth. This animal was as large 
as Pro/emiwdon, There are several outstanding diagnostic features 
in this material. It appears to be related to ' ' Slhennrux" minor Owen 
(1877) and to "Tlahvaturus" vfticeus De Vis (1895), but the Kanunka 
form is larger and differs in certain details in the teeth. 



STIRTON and OTHERS— CENOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY 43 

There is part of a left mandible in which Pa, DP 3 , and Mi have 
the crowns broken off, Mm t8 well preserved, and M3 is erupting. This 
is a Wftllabyllkfi niacropodid bnt the molars are wider in relation to 
their length than in Wallabia. It is comparable in size to the larger 
species of that genua. We have not been able to determine its relation- 
ships from this specimen. 

Part <A a lower jaw, four lower molars, one upper molar, a P a , 
a lower incisor, and a IV metatarsal with composite phalanges, all 
may or may not belong to another species in this fauna. The animals 
appear to have been smaller than Prwnotcmnas pahivkanimicm and 
certainly larger than the largest known Wallabia. The proportions of 
the molars are intermediate between Prionnfc)>iii.us and WaUabio, The 
P a is more like that in PiKniohmnus than Wallabia but the lingual 
longitudinal basin is larger and the Intermediate ribs are not as 
prominent, and apparently there are two instead of three ribs as in 
Prionofennrus. On the other hand the construction of the proximal 
end of metatarsal IV resembles that in WaUabia, Perhaps more and 
better preserved specimens will clarify this problem. 

An excellent left mandible and several isolated teeth are clearly 
referable to the genus I'roietnnodoii. These specimens display several 
characters that distinguish them from the Bbr types and referred 
specimens of the Speciea from the Darling Downs and Wellington 
Caves proposed by Owen, Another Protcmnoduu lower molar in the 
Kanunka assemblage is mueh larger than those, from the same locality, 
mentioned above. 

Two isolated upper molars with high lophs are in many ways 
suggestive of Mrfjalcia rufa, but the Kanunka animal was considerably 
larger than the red kangaroo. 

STnENrrRiNA.E; Part of a right maxilla with a well preserved ftPj 
the alveolus for M\ and the posterior half of the alveolus for P" 
(which appears to have been wider than M 1 or M*) evidently is related 
to Sthcnurius. The posterolabial corner of a very young left P a and 
the unworn hypholophid of a right molar (possibly M") are also 
referred to this form. 

Family Tncertac sedis: There is one molar (M' J ) that cannot be 
allocated to a family. It bears a marked resemblance to those in the 
small diprotodontids in lire Ngapakaldi fauna although it is larger. 
The tooth differs from Palan instes and agrees with the Ngapakaldi 
form in a minimum development of the midlink. The relationships of 
this form cannot be determined until more complete specimens are 
found. 



46 RECORDS OF THE S.A MUSEUM 

hiFROTODONTTDAE: Conspicuous by its absence in this fauna is an}' 
specimen the size of Diprotodon. There is, however^ an unworn left 
M' that displays characters like those in Euowetria. Two other molar 
fragments, a heavily worn 1\ three median phalange* and a distal 
phalanx, may also be referable to this form. 

Fossil vertebrate remains were collected m situ- in the Katipiri 
Sands at the Igrpe locality and farther down Cooper Crook, hut the 
bulk of the collection was obtained on sandbars within the main channel 
of Cooper Creek where the LossiJ material had been transported during 
infrequent floods. As neither the subjacent Tirari Formation .ir super" 
jfteeat flnviatile deposits are f ossiferous, it seems must "likely that 
these rcdepositcd specimens were washed out of the basal part of the 
Katipiri Sands winch are exposed at or near the bed of the Coop r 
Creek channel in this area. 

Fossil vertebrate remains from the bars ol' Coojht Creek were 
known to the Dieri, an aboriginal tribe inhabiting the area, who had 
legends to explain their origin (Gregory, 190G, pp. 3-4). One of the 
first collections from this area to reach scientific, circles was made by 
Henry Yorke Lyell Brown as Government Geologist for South Aus- 
tralia during the later part of the last century. Some of Brown's 
original materials are now housed in the South Australian Museen . 
Adelaide. These discoveries were followed up in 1901-2 by 
J, W. Gregory who made au extensive collection from several localities 
along the lower course of Cooper Creek from the Malkuni waterhole 
westward U>v ,-ome iO miles. Only the lungfish (White, 1925) and 
birds (I)e Vis, 1906) from this collection have been described. The 
mammalian remains were not described and their whereabouts are 
presently unknown. 

All the material from lower Cooper Creek of undoubted or highly 
probable provenance in the Katipiri Sands is considered as the 
Malkuni^ fauna. For the most part the material is fragmentary, 
consisting of broken limb-bones, isolated tooth and parts of .jaws, hut 
some more complete material is known. Such fossil remains have been 
secured by our party from the Unkninilka waterhole, 10 miles north 
west of Lake Palanknrimm, downstream to within 16 miles of Lake 
Eyre North. The best collections, however, came from near or below 
the Malkuni, Katipiri and Bul.jutu waterholes. The Malkuni fauna 
includes lie* Following vertebrates: 

"«> From a prominent wnterhole on Cooper Creek 1 mile eastof Katipiri waterhole. Valuable 

vertf brain Material Wfta Obtained mostly as float, but ocoasioiiaUy fa situ from 

If tVio Kntipiri Sanda in the bed and wtiUa of the main channel of Conner 

1 left immediately downstream from this waterhole. J. W. Gregory also collected at 

thii ■ !<H-:.lity (1006, pp. 80-81). * J 



STIRTOM AND others— CENOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY 41 

MALKUN1 FAUNA (LATE PLEISTOCENE) 

Arthropoda 

CllUSTACEA : 

Degapoda: Part of a pinchers and three discoidal calcareous 
nodules sometimes called 4f gastroliths M or "crab's eyes" that are 
formed in the cardiac part of the stomach of crayfish have been found 
in this fauna. 

osteichthyes 
Dipnoi : 

Cehatodontidae: In 1925 Errol I. White described two species of 
lungfish of this fauna. The specimens were collected during the 
expedition of Professor John Walter Gregory for the University of 
Melbourne. These species, Epiceratodus eyrensis and E. gregoryi, are 
based on palatine teeth. The types are in the University of Glasgow 
collections, and paratypes are in the British Museum (Natural 
History). We have 11 additional specimens from Cooper Creek. 

Teleostei: The isolated bones of teleosts are abundant. Evidently 
they represent numerous genera and species. 

Reptelia 

Chelonia: There are pieces of the carapaces, plastrons, and some 
limb bones. 

Crocodilia: Numerous teeth, dermal scutes, and some skull parts 
demonstrate the presence of numerous eroeodilians in these deposits. 
Some of these creatures were of enormous size. 

Luektiua: Parts of vertebra and a large claw are comparable in 
size to the remains that have been described from the Pleistocene of 
Australia as Varanus (Mrf/alai'ia) prisons. Charles Anderson (1930, 
p. 315) estimated this largest known lizard to be 15 to 17 feet long. 

Aves 

Bird bones are abundant in the Malknni fauna. We have nearly 
100 specimens. Tt is estimated that when the identification of herons, 
shorebirds and the remains b£ miscellaneous other groups have been 
completed, a bird fauna of at least 20 species will be recognized. Many 
species probably will be slightly or not at all distinguishable from the 
modern species but may reflect ehanges in distribution or ecologic con- 
ditions. Most of De Vis' (1906) three new genera and 17 new species 
described from the materials collected by the J. W. Gregory expedition 
of 1901 along Cooper Creek and the Warburton River will probably 



48 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

prove to be synonymous with modern species. Classification of these 
birds will require a careful statistical analysis utilizing series of the 
living species. 

Casuariiformes : 

Dromorxithibae : Ten bones of a large bird of the size of 
Genyornis have been recovered. 

Pelecaniformes : 

Phalacrocoracidae: The genus Pludacrocorax (cormorants) is 
represented by birds of three sizes comparable to three modern species 
of South Australia. There are 19 bones of the large form, 26 bones 
of medium size, and four are small. The large cormorant has not been 
recognized in the Kanunka fauna and consequently may have appeared 
in this area since the early Pleistocene. Theae materials should afford 
an opportunity to derive information on alterations in the distribution 
of the five living species of Australasian cormorants and they may 
contribute to our knowledge of the ecology, fresh water versus marine, 
of these birds. 

ClCONIIFORMES : 

Threskiornithidae : A distal end of a tibiotarsus represents a 
spoonbill of the genus Platalea. At present we cannot indicate whether 
it is closest to Platalea regia or Plat aha (Platibis) fiavipes among the 
modern species because of lack of modern comparative material. 

Anseriformes : 

Anatidae: Two species of large ducks (Anas) are known from 
two or three bones each. Another very small duck (Anas) may be a 
teal. Other specimens may belong to a goose, the genus of which has 
not yet been determined. 

Falcon iformes : 

Aocipitbidae : A tarsometatarsus of an eagle of the genus 
Vroaetus has been identified. 

Grttiformes : 

Gruidae : A earpometacarpus of a crane of the genus Grus is not 
surely identical with the modern Grus nibicAindus. It may represent 
a smaller species. 

Stpjgtformes : 

Sxrigidae : An excellently preserved tarsometatarsus should throw 
some light on the history of the Australasian endemics of this small 
family that comprises the barn owls. 



S riJRTON and others— CENOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY 49 

Mammalia 
Rodextia : 

MuRrnAE: There are 4 maxillaries, 4 lower jaws, and one upper 
incisor of Rat las and one mandible, one maxillary, and one Upper 
incisor apparently of Notomys from the Cannatalkaninna locality, all 
of which are Eragmeutary, None of tlie large* mammals so common 
in the Malkuni LYuina farther down Cooper Creek was found in this 
locality. Consequently the fossils from this locality may be a some- 
what later assemblage, although these murid genera have been found 
with the large extinct marsupials elsewhere; they have not yet been 
discovered in the Malkuni assemblages. 

Mabsupiaua ; 

Dabyvbidae: Several genera must have been present in this area 
at the time the Malkuni fauna Mas extant, but the only fossils recorded 
are a prema\illary fragment without teeth and a lower jaw both 
representing Botcophilw sp. The latter is part of the Henry Yorke 
Lyell Brown collection in the South Australian Museum, 

Puala.no wudak: Of this large family only a right lower jaw of a 
bushy-tailed opossum, Trichosvriis, is represented in the Malkuni 
fauna. 

Vomuatjoak: There are 4 cheek teeth and a metapodial of the 
giant wombat l*hasc<>loniis. 

MACnopomuM : As in the Kanunka fauna, specimens of kangaroos 
are by far the most abundant fossils in the Malkuni collection. The 
numerous limb bones, foot bones and vertebra cannot as yet be 
accurately identified to genus. There are, however, some jaws, teeth, 
and limb and foot bones from which genera can be recognized. 

IVnwoiN \rc: One left mandible with well worn teeth apparently is 
referable to Bettunfjia le&UGuri t Other limb and foot bones may also 

pug to this epeoiefli 

(Subfamily s This group of macropodids is represented by part of 
the right mandible, of a medium-sized maeropodid, with the protoIopMd 
of M 4 , Ma complete and part of the hypolophid of Mi The teeth are 
low crowned but not bunodont nor are they like those in the 
Tlypsiprymnodontinae or Potoroinae. The pattern of the molars and 
the much reduced anterior cingulttru shelf is like that in Setouix. It 
is possible that this specimen belongs to the Kanunka fauna and was 
reworked from the older Katipiri channel deposits directly into 
Cooper Creek (see Kanunka f annul list). Of course it could have lived 
until late Pleistocene time. 



50 RECORDS Of THF S.A. MUSEUM 

Ma< -uoi'ooinak: Several specimens representing different parts of 
She mandibles, booth, and five or more fourth metatarsals are referable 
to Proft'niihif/ov. The beat specimen, a left mandible, is in the size 
range of PnAetUkOdoH <>o Owen, and otherwise agrees with the late 
Pleistocene specimens from (lie Darling Downs and elsewhere. Five 
or more metatarsals also belong to PrOtewitoOdoW. 

A small Species of iWallalria is represented by parts of two 
inandihles. One is a young specimen and the other is from an old 
animal with heavily worn teeth, Gnfl large lower molar belongs to 
MacropKs cf. /crra^its, 

iSi'HF/NrmxAK; The genttS Sflx-iuirns is ivpi rsontod by five 
fragmentary inandihles and numerous limb bones. Two species seem 
to be present both of which are endescribed. They both appear to be 
Wore closely related to tlie long jawed 8* atlas than to the short-faced 
group repn- ruled by S, o< - /<!> nhilis. One i f - about the size of 8, atlas 
but differ-. ■ i -.. | fteanl ly in height of crown and morphology of the 
lower molars. The second BpeciOfl is p larger, long jawed form with 
higiier-crowned leetb. It is considerably larger than S. alias, but 
iM-vvise it is similar in dental morphology, Tlie lack of associated 
in » i ii I makes it impossible to assign the limb bones to any of the. 
speries represented by dentitions. 

Procoplodon i;- known from part of a maxilla with the teeth broken 
off. Tlie species represented is apparently closely related to f\ goliah. 
Several broken limb and foot bones also belong to this genus. 

I>(j KOTonox tii>ak: Numerous teeth, part of one mandible, and limb 
and foot, bones seem to be clearly referable to the genus Diprotodon. 
Both large and small animals are represented, although some of the 
smallest bones possibly belong to Notntlu j rhi>n or Evonuumi, but tins is 
not demonstrable with the comparative materials we have at hand. 

Quaternary — Recent 

Away frOHJ t Ito present channel of Cooper (!reek tbe Katipiri 
Sands are directly overlain by acolian sands of the Tirari Desert 

ilridgc System. King (1960) lias recently attempted to show that 
these aeolian deposits are lor the most part wind rift dimes, aeolian 

•leapped erosiomil remnants flanking linear wind scoured channels 
cut info the latest Cenozoic lluviatilo sandsheets. His suggestion, 
although limited to ground observations at the south end of Lake 
Kyre North, seems to be corroborated in the area under study because 
the local saltpans are clearly of deflation origin cut deeply into the 



STiRTON and others— CENOZOtC STRATIGRAPHY 51 

Cenozoie deposits. The present topography, as King believes, is 
probably of latest Quaternary or Recent age. 

Post-Ka.tipi.ri fluviatile deposits are found only along the present 
channel of Cooper Creek. At the Katipiri waterhole 17 feet of large 
scale cross-bedded gray to gray-brown argillaceous sands diseonforrn- 
ably overly the Katipiri Sands in places, cutting through the latter 
to the top of the Tirari Formation (see Appendix A). These lluviatile 
deposits are also found at the Malkuni waterhole and they continue 
downstream beyond the Katipiri waterhole where they are consistently 
diseonformably above the Katipiri Sands. They are unfossiliferous 
and were not studied in sufficient detail to warrant introduction of a 
stratigraphie name at this time. These deposits clearly predate the 
formation of Uk» wind rift dunes for they are capped by the sand- 
ridge accumulations (see Katipiri waterhole section, Appendix A). 

APPENDIX A 

DESCRIPTIONS OE MEASURED STRATIGRAPH1C SECTIONS 
A. Lake Palankarinna. In ascending order: 

VVlNTON FoitMA TiON 

Gray O/rgUlaceous sandstone. — Poorly sorted, fine grained, sub- 
angular quartz saucl in mottled pttrple-gray, buff and white argillaceous 
matrix. Abundant pipe)' and holryoidal limonite cemented and silica 
cemented sandstone concretions -f 13ft. 

EWlDVSWA Formation (Type locality) 

1. Gffteri argillaceous sandstone. — Poorly sorted, fine grained, sub- 
angular quartz sand in light green argillaceous matrix, darker in 
colour toward top and bottom. Lenticular horizons of limonite slained 
sandstone. Local concent rations of siliceous nodules cemented with 
limonite at base, but no persistent basal conglomerate 8ft. 

2. Oaioareoua mu3sione ami etelomifttf linn stone. — 

(a) Calcareous mudstone. — Buff to white calcareous mudstone 
with scattered One grained, subangular quartz sand. Branching 
vesicular structures toward top, Limonite and manganons stain on 
joint surfaces and walls of vesicles 2ft. 

(b) Gray arenaceous claystone. — Gray-grocn claystone with 
scattered fine-grained, subangular quartz sand. Base an intra- 
fonnational breccia of subangular pebble-sized fragments of under 
lying calcareous mudstone 1ft. 



52 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

(r) Calcareous mudstone. — White calcareous mudstone resting 
sharply on the underlying clay, Containing scattered fine-grained 
quartz sand 2ft. 

(d) Gray arenaceous claystone. — Base intraformational breccia 
composed ol' pebble-sized subangular fragments of underlying cal- 
careous in udstono 1ft. 

(e) Calcareous inudstone and dolomitic limestone. — Limonite 
stained yellow to white calcareous mudstone with limestone nodules at 
base passing into massive limestone with chert nodules. Uppermost 
five feet alternating calcareous mudstone and thin dense limestone 
beds. Scattered line-grained quartz throughout. Dendritic patch 
mancanous stain ami disseminated granules throughout. Calcareous 
mm 1st* me at base and top with gastropods, ostraends and Clara 24ft 

3. Greru dajistuve. — Pale green clay with scattered fine-grained 
quartz sand. TiUraformational breccia at base composed of subangular 
to stibroiinded fragments of underlying calcareous mudstone in green 
clay matrix. Small branching vesicular structures abundant. Walls 
of vesicles coated with manganous granules and limonite, Fa&9efl 
transitioually at top into member 4 with increase in arenaceous 
component. Fowiliferoue (U.C.M.P, locality V 5764) 2-ati. 

4. Green sandstone. — Pale green, well sorted, fine-grained quartz 
sand with lenses of green argillaceous sandstone. Fossiliferous 
(U.C.M.P. locality V 5762) 24ft. 

5. Green aienaceous cla/jstone. — Rests with marked contrast on 
member 4. Pale green claystone rich in fine-grained quartz sand. 
BranoMug vesicular structures as in member 3 with manganous 
granules lining cavities ■ . . . . 2-4ft, 

6. Green argillaceous sandstone. — Pale green, well sorted, fine 
grained quartz sand. Individual grains subangular to subrounded, 
Green argillaceous lenses throughout, passing transitioually to member 
7 w r itb inrn • -e in dark crav BPgillMeo&fl lenses at top. Fossiliferous 
(U.Ci.M P. localities V 5375, V 5763, and V 5765) 9ft. 

7. Green ela>/?tone.— Y>iivk gray at base, gray-green at top with 
scattered tine grained quartz sand throughout. Fossiliferous (U.C.M.P. 
locality V 5770) .... , 4-8ft. 

8. Calcare>ns mudstone. — 

[a) Calcareous mudstone. — White calcareous mudstone with 
scattered fine grained quartz sand. Small branching vesicles through- 
out. Manganous stain on vesicle walls and joint planes 2-3ft. 



ST1RTON and others— CENOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY 53 

(b) Green arenaceous claystone. — Pale green claystone rich in 
subangular to subrounded, medium to fine-grained quartz sand . . li't 

(c) Caleareous sandstone.— White, well sorted, fine grained, sub 
angular to subrounded quartz sand with 20-30% spherical or rod- 
shaped fine-drained fragments of limestone, Fossiliferous (U.C.M.P 
locality V 5771) 0-lft. 

{<]■) Green elaystone.— Pale green silty claystone with tiny branch- 
ing vesicles. "Walls of vesicles carry manganous stain 0-lft. 

(e) GaltRreOus mudstone. — White calcareous silty mudstone with 
Oianganoua dendrites, patch stain, and scattered small nianganous 
nodules 1-fif t. 

9. Green arenaceous claystone. — Base with gray green claystone 
with scattered fine-grained quartz sand, passing into more arenaceous 
gray claystone with lenses of the fine-grained quartz sand. Upper 2ft. 
brighter gray-green highly arenaceous clay. Uppermost Gin. black 
arenaceous clay. Limmiite stain and nodules, manganous stain and 
granules throughout. Fossiliferous at base (TLC.M.P. localities V 5755 
«LHd V 5778) 17ft. 

Unconformity 

MAMrrwoiuuj Sands (Type locality) 

Channel sands, — Basal 1 -fil't. white, rross-bedded, well-sorted, 
medium-grained, subangular to surrounded quartz sand with scattered 
[Kibbles ( duviernst, Bmefctone and milky quartz), green and blaefe clay- 
balls and thin gray and green day lenses. Upper part Qf rail more 

argillaceous, gray sandy shah 1 with fine quartz sand lenses. Limnnite 
stain throughout. GtypstUfl concretions occur in the sands and selenile 

along the joints and bedding planes. Fossiliferous at base (IU\M.I\ 

localities V 5367 and V 57G9) O-KJI't. 

Disronformify ( probable aiuinlar unconformity) 
TrRAUT Formation (Type locality) 

Red argillaceous sandstone. — Basal few feet of mottled green and 
red or buff and red, CT06S-b?<ided, poorly sorted, medium to fine 
grained qnartz sand with scattered coarse quartz grains and pebbles 
Of milky quartz, durieriist pebbles, and lenses of red or green 
arenaceous claystone, Quartz grains subangular to subrounded with 
larger grains appearing frosted, Locally lft bed white to buff, cross- 
bedded, better sorted fine-grained, subangular to subrounded quartz 
sand 3-4ft above base of formation. Six to 13ft above base formation 



54 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

becomes more argillaceous; red arenaceous claystone with sandy 
lenses. Gypsum occurs throughout along bedding planes and fractures. 
Uppermost 5-10ft. intergrown with selenite along bedding planes, 
forming a massive caprock 0-38ft. 

Ihsconfo/rnittf (atifjidar vvcovformity on Eiadmiva formation) 
Katipiri Sands 

Base locally with 3-4 inch selenite sheet along contact with under- 
lying rocks. Lower part of unit consist* of lenses of yellow, cross- 
bedded; subungnlar to subrouudod, oonrso-grained, quartz sand with 
scattered gray clayballs; mid duricrusf pebbles inlerbedded with lenses 
of arenaceous gray clay. Severn! feet above base formation consists 
of cross-bedded, well sorted, medium-grained, quartz sand with gray 
'•lav lenses on cross-laminae. Increasing argillaceous component with 
gray areaiaC0QiJS claysione at top. Upper few feet highly infiltrate"! 
with gypsum forming caprock. 

Liroonite stain common; gypsum abundant throughout; gypsum 
roflftttea and sandstone concretions in lower part of formation. Most 
fce&ils near the base (TLO.M.F. losatttj V &$J4) 0-20ft. 

Disronformity 

Wind rift dunes. 

B. Lake Kanunka. Tn ascending order: 

Etadxxnis^ Formation- (base not exposed) 

1. Greta clai/stovr. — Pah 1 green claystone with scattered fine- 
grained quartz sand r.ml silt; shows branching vesicular structures; 
darker green at top. Fossil Herons (U.C.M.P. locality V 5855) . . + 5ft. 

2. Calcareous fnudrtoite. White dolornilic. calcareous mudstone 
with pale -iv< u cl;r fo?io fragments at base. Locally l-2f t. thick silly 
horizon 1ft. above bnse otherwise arenaceous material scattered 
through argillaceous matrix. Manganous dendrites, grannies and 
patch stain throughout : 3-6ft. 

::. Hrrm in r;rat/ arevaccmi:.: rfa i/.-l <>>,<>.— At base intraformatioiml 
breccia of BUbfiUjgtflar while calcareous mudstone fragments in dark 
gray argillaceous matrix. ('nlcaroous fragments smaller and tetter 
ronnded above passing to uniformly gray claystone. rich in fine grained 
quartz sand and silt 2ft. from base. Three feet from base gray given 
arenaceous claystone with waterworn fish and reptile remains. Member 
becomes yellow green at top with limonite stain 6-16ft. 



STIRTON and others— CENOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY 55 

Discoiiformity 
TmARi Formation 

Bed arenaceous claysione—I&s& claystone with abundant poorly 
sorted, suhangular to subrounded, tine to medium-grained qparta sand 
in torl>e(ld<Hl with fontea of purer red cLaystone. Uppermost 411. 
motHed red and green Bandy claystone. 0-12ft. 

Disconjtn an.li/ 
Ivatipiri Wan us 

Ghmwel cur/ flood plain SMids. — Lower portion of formation 
limonite stained, cross-bedded, coarse and medium-grained quartz sand 
wiih DAbblta of diirierust and limestone; abundant green and red Hay 
balls, clay plates showing remnant polygonal outline, argillaceous 
lenses, coprolites, and abraded remains of lish, reptiles, birds and 
mammals. Four to five feet above base the quarlz sands are white, 
better sorted, medium to fine-grained and with red argillaceous lenses 
and occasional vertebrate remains. Gypsum cemented spheroidal and 
pipey sandstone runnel inns occur throughout. Base of channel above 
contact with Ftadunna Formation locally cemented with selenite. 
Fossiliferons (F.C.M.P. localities V 5772 and V 5773) 6 16ft. 

Disconformitp 

Wind rift dunes. 

C. Lake Pitikanta. In ascending order: 
Etaoonwv Formation; (bast) not exposed) 

1. Calcareous mvfaUntB* — White dolomitic calcareous mvulsfoee 
with scattered fine-grained quartz sand and silt, inanganous stain and 
granules + 6ft. 

% Green r/av/ f y^o//r.--lntraformational breccia at base, sub::ngnlnr 
pebbles of pnderlying cakareoilfi mudstone in green claystone matrix. 
Lighter green in colour above with scattered fine-grained quartz sand 
and silt, and branching vesicular structures. Manganous stain and 
grannie line cavities. Fossil vertebrates from top of this unit; 
articulated skeletal remains may project into the base of the overlying 
calcareous mudstone (U.C.M.P. localities V 5774. V 5856 nvu\ 
V 5857) 4ft. 

3. Calcareous mvdsiorte. — White dolomitic calcareous mudstone, 
nodular at base, lenses and clayballs of green claystone above. 
Scattered fine-grained qnartz sand and silt and manganous stain and 
granules throughout 2-3ft. 



56 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

4. Arenaceous claystone. — Base an iiitraformational breccia, 
angular to subangular fragments of white calcareous mudstone in black 
arenaceous claystone passing to scattered subroimded calcareous mud- 
stone pebbles in black arenaceous clay stone matrix 8ft above base. 
Above 2ft. gray-green arenaceous imidstone with locally abundant 
abraded fish and reptile remains. Mottled red and green at top due 
to infiltration of fractures by red Tirari sands 3-5fi 

Disconformity 
Titjatu Formation 

Red arenaceous clay stone. — Base locally with l-2in. poorly sorted, 
medium to coarse grained quartz sand with coarse grains of duricrust 
and ironstone. Arenaceous component liner grained toward top. 
Formation dominant ly a red claystone, but occasionally mottled green, 
with scattered manganous stain throughout 5-1411. 

Disconformity 

Katiphri Saxds 

Flood plain and channel sands. — At base cross-bedded, poorly- 
sorted, subangular to subroimded, fine to medium-grained quartz sand 
with elayballs, argillaceous lenses, and pipey gypsum cemented sand- 
stone concretions. Toward top sands are finer grained and better 
sorted, with green and rod claystone tengp& Limonite stain 
throughout 8-22ft. 

Disconformity 

Wind rift dunes. 

D. Lake Ngapakaldi. In ascending order: 
Etadunna Formation (base not exposed) 

1. Green claysfnne. — Gray-green to green claystone with scattered 
fine-grained quartz sand and silt. Branching vesicles throughout. 
Wall-; of vesicles encrusted with limonite and tiny manganous granules. 
Fossil mammal remains at top (U.C.M.P. locality V 5858) . . . -|- 3ft 

2. Calcareous mudstone. — White dolomitic calcareous mudstone 
with scattered line-grained quartz sand and silt; manganous stain on 
joint surface. Occasional fossil mammal remains at base 2ft. 

3. Green claystone. — At base intraformational breccia, fragments 
of gray calcareous mudstone in green clay matrix. Limonite stained 
green claystone above JL 2ft. 



STIRTON and others— CENOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY 57 

4. Arenaceous clay stone. — At base of exposure green arenaceous 
claystone with red claystone lenses passing to more dominantly red 

arenaceous claystone l-2ft. above base + 5.5ft. 

I Covered interval] 

5. White sandstone. — White fine-grained quartz sand with green 
and red claystone lenses 1ft. 

6. Green claystone. — Green claystone with abundant limonite stain, 
increasing in fei ruginization toward top. One to two inch calcareous 
shale stratum 8ft. from base 18ft. 



Disconformity 

T.IKART FORMATION 

Red siJfstonc. — Red siltstone with considerable fine to medium- 
grained quartz sand 3ft. 

Disconjorinity 
Katipdu Sands 

Flood /dam sands, — Buff, cross-bedded, fine-grained quartz sand. 

Gypsum omen-tod at base and upper 6ft -f 7ft, 

Disconformity 

Wind rift dunes. 

E. Katipiri waterhole, Cooper Creek. In ascending order: 
Tibari Formation (base not exposed) 

Arenaceous claystone. — Red and green mottled arenaceous clay- 
stone becoming dominantly green at top. Lenticular 3in. band of 
nodular calcareous claystone l-3in. from top. Limonite and manganous 
stain throughout -f- lift. 

Disconformity 

Katipiri Sands (Type locality) 

Channel sands. — Cross-bedded quartz sands. At base white, yellow T 
or orange (limonite stained) poorly sorted, subangular to subrounded, 
line to medium-grained quartz sand with coarser sand and pebbles of 
duricrust, black chert and silicified limestone. Clayballs, ferruginous 
Sandstone concretions, ferruginous sandstone casts of logs and abraded 
fossil fish, reptile, bird and mammal remains at base (U.C.M.P. 
locality V 5S61). Toward top sands better sorted, white to buff, fine- 
grained, subangular to subrounded quartz sand. Gray arenaceous clay 
lenses and platy, spheroidal and pipey gypsum cemented sandstone 
concretions throughout 0-17ft 



58 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Ihsconformity 

I nnamed unit. 

Channel sands. — Large scale cross-bedded, graj to gray-brown, 
argillaceous sands, frequently at base a while, poorly sorted, fine to 
medium-grained, subaugular to subrounded quartz sand and gray more 
argillaceous lenses. Above dominantly gray or gray-brown line bedded 
shale lenses with fine quartz sand on the sbaly partings. Cuts to top 
el Tirari formation at western end oi' Katipiri waterhole where 
maximum thickness measured . . 0-17ft. 

Disconformity 

Win I- Rift Dunf- Deposits 

1. Orange consolidated dune sands. — Poorly sorted, medium to fine- 
grained, subangular to subrounded quartz sands. Massive in appearance 
with scattered small calcareous sandstone nodules -f 10ft. 

li. Bvff dune sands. — Panels forming the existing sandridge systeni 
and making up the crest of Katipiri Hill " ± 20ft. 



SUM MA II Y 

Ttie paucity of the fossil record of Australasian mammals 
prompted the initiation of a series of explorations of the continental 
tVnozoie deposits of the Lake Eyre Basin by the South Australian 
Museum and the Museum of Paleontology of the University of 
California, This paper presBjlta the stratigraphie results and 
preliminary identifications of the faunas obtained from the middle and 
later Cenozoic deposit b of the Tirari Desert east of Lake Eyre North. 

The Ceno/.oic section in this; area begins with the Etadunna Forma- 
tion (Stirton, 1955), nearly 100 feet of greeil lacustrine elaystone, sand- 
stone, calcareous mudstunc and dolomitie limestone, resting uncon- 
formalily on duricrusted non -marine late Cretaceous rocks referred to 
the AVinton Formation. The Etadunna Formation contains an 
;isM-mblmrr of gastropods, ostracodes, fish, reptiles, birds and 
marsupials blOWD as tln^ Ntiajmkaldi fauna (new name). This fauna 
may be Oligocmic in age. 

In one loon] area at Lake Palankarinna the Etadunna Formation 
IS overlain uncouformably by thin stream channel deposits termed the 
Maminucordu Sands (new name). The base of the Mampuwordu 
channels have yielded the Palankarinna fauna partially described by 



STIRTON and others— CENOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY 59 

Stirton (1955). This fauna is questionably assigned to the early 
Pliocene. 

Overlying the Mampuwordu Sands diseonforinably, or resting 
directly on tire Htadunna Formation with local angular unconformity, 
are the unf ossiferous red-beds of the Tirari Formation (new name). 
Locally the Tirari Formation may include nearly 40 feet of Mat-lying 
brick red argillaceous sandstone and arenaceous claystone, but usually 
it is much th in nor dm* to deep erosion prior to the deposition of the 
overlying Htrviatile deposits. The Tirari Formation is questionably 
assigned a I Miocene age on the basis of its stratigraphic position. 

Cutting deeply into the Tirari Formation is a complex of (luviatile 
deposits of raryfoiS thickness termed the Kalipiri Sands (new name). 
These deposits contain two faunas of probable Pleistocene age. The 
?early Pleistocene Kanunka jauna (new name) is represented by 
nains of crustaceans, tisb, reptiles, birds, marsupials and rodents as 
Is the later Pleistocene Mtilfctmi I anna (new name). 

These fossiliferous channel and Hood plain sands are overlaiu 
locally by later (luviatile dopositfi or by the sandridge system of the 
Tirari Desert. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Anderson, C, 1930: Mciolania plmkeps Owen and Varanu* (Mega 
lania) prisons (Owen). Paleontological Notes No. 11. 
Uecords Aust. Mus., vol. 27, pp. 309-316, 5 pis. 

1937: Fossil marsupials from New Guinea. Paleontological 

Notes No. IV. Records Aust. Mus., vol. 20, pp. 73-76. 
1 pi 

Debliey, G. L. [891: Notes on the physical and geological features 
ftbOllt Pake Eyre. Trans. Roy. Soc S. Aust., vol. 4, 

pp. 145-146, 

1881 ; Sections of strata traversed in boring for water in the 

country between Cooper Creek and Warburton River. 
Trans.' Roy. Soc, S. Aust., vol. 4, pp. 147-148. 

Be Vis, 0. W., 181)5: A review of the fossil jaws of the Macropodidae 
in the Queensland Museum. Proe. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 
rot 10, pp. 75-133. 5 pis. 

1906; A contribution to the knowledge of the extinct avifauna 

of Australia. Ann, Queensland Mus., No. 6, pp. 3-25, 
9 pis. 



™ RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Uill, E. D., 1957: The stratigraphical occurrence and paleoecology of 
some Australian Tertiary marsupials. Mem. Nat. Mus. 
Vict., No. 21, pp. 135-203, 4 pis. 

Glaessner, M. F., MeGowran, B., and Wade, M., 1960: Discovery of a 
kangaroo bone in the middle Miocene of Victoria. Aust. 
Jour. Sci., vol. 22, No. 12, pp. 484-485, 

Gregory, J. W., 1906: The dead heart of Australia, John Murray, 
London, p. VII-XVI, 384 pp., 30 illust., 4 maps. 

King, D., 1956: The Quaternary stratigraphic record at Lake Eyre 
North and the evolution of existing topographic forms. 
Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., vol. 79, pp. 93-103, 4 figs. 5 pis. 

1960: The sandridge deserts of South Australia and related 

aeolian land forms of the Quaternary arid cycles. Trans. 
Roy. Soc. S. Aust., vol. 83, pp. 99-108, 2 figs. 1 pi. 

Madigan, C. T., 1945: The Simpson Desert expedition, 1939 scientific 
reports ; introduction, narrative, physiography and 
meteorology. Trans. Roy. Soc. 8. Aust., vol. 69, pp. 118 
139, 5 pis. 1 map. 

1946: The Simpsqfl Desert expedition, 1939. Scientific 

reports: No. 6, geology— the sand formations. Trans. 
Roy. Soc. S, Aust., vol. 70, pp. 45-63, 4 figs. 4 pis. 

Owen, R., 1877: On a new species of Sllirvunis, with remarks on the 
relation of the genus to Dorcopxis, Muller. Proe. Zool. 
Soc. Loud., pp. 35&S60, 1 fig. 2 pis. 

Savage, D. K., 1955: Nonmarine lower Pliocene sediments in 
California. A gooehronologic-stratigraphic classification. 
Univ. Calif. Puhl. Geol. Sci., vol. 31,26 p., 13 figs. 

Spencer, B. T 1900: A description of W/n/i/ardia bassiana, a fossil 
marsupial from the Tertiary beds of Table Cape, 
Tasmania. Proe. Zool. Soc. Lond.. pp. 776-794, 4 figs. 
2 pis. 

rigo\ R. C 1958: The Great Artesian Basin in South Australia. 
Chapter VII, The Geology of South Australia. Jour. 
Geo]. Soc Aust., vol. 5, pp. 88-101, 3 figs. 

Stir ton, R. A,, 1936: Succession of North American continental 
Pliocene mammalian faunas. x\mer. Jour, Sci., vol 32 
pp. 361-206. 



STIRTON and others— CENOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY 61 

1940 : The Nevada Miocene and Pliocene mammalian faunas 

as faunal units. Proc. Sixth Pacific Sci. Congress, Pacific 
Sci. Assoc, vol. 2, pp. 627-640. 

1954: Digging Down Under. Pacific Discovery, vol. 7, No. 

2, pp. 3-13, 28 figs. 

1955: Late Tertiary marsupials from South Australia. Rec. 

S. Aust. Mus., vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 247-268, 11 figs. 

1957a : A new koala from the Pliocene Palankarinna fauna 

of South Australia. Rec. S. Aust. Mus., vol. 13, No. 1, 

pp. 73-81, 2 figs. 
Tate, R., 1885 : Post-Miocene climate in South Australia. Trans. Roy. 

Soc. S. Aust., vol. 8, pp. 49-59. 
White, E. 1., 1925 : Two new fossil species of Epiceratodus from South 

Australia. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. 16, pp. 139-146, 

2 pis. 
Woods, J. T., 1956 : The skull of Thylacoleo carnifex. Mem. Queens- 
land Mus., vol. 13, pp. 125-140, 6 figs. 
1958: The extinct marsupial genus Palorchestes. Mem. 

Queensland Mus., vol. 13, pp. 177-193, 5 figs. 
Wood Jones, F., 1930 : A re-examination of the skeletal characters of 

Wynyardia bassiana, an extinct Tasmanian marsupial. 

Papers and Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, pp. 96-115. 



RE-EXAMINATION OF THE SPECIES OF PROTURA 
DESCRIBED BY H. WOMERSLEY 



ByS. L. Tuxen, Zoological Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark 



Summary 

Within the framework of my re-examination of the species of Protura described prior to 
1945 (and a few others), I have long felt the need to examine the species described by H. 
Womersley. This author in 1924 first reported the finding of Protura in England with 
specimens then determined as the well known species Acerentomon doderoi Silv. Later 
(1927-28) he described this material as a new species (A. bagnalli), together with six 
other new species from the British Isles. Late in 1929 Womersley was appointed to the 
Australian Council for Scientific and Industrial Research to work in Western Australia on 
the Lucerne Flea and Red Earth Mite problem. On his way to Australia he spent some 
weeks in the Cape Town region of South Africa on this problem and there collected a 
species of Protura which he later described (1931). Since that time he has described eight 
species and one subspecies from Australia and two species from the United States of 
America. 



RE-EXAMINATION OF THE SPECIES OF PROTURA DESCRIBED 

BY H. WOMERSLEY 

By S. L. TUXEN, Zoological, Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark 

Fig. 1-98 

Within the framework of my re-exainination of the species of 
Protura described prior to 1945 (and a few others), I have long felt 
the need to examine the species described by IT. Womersley. This 
author in 1924 first reported the finding of Protura in England with 
specimens then determined as the well known species Acermt onion 
dodeioi Silv. Later (1927-28) he described this material as a new 
species (A* bafjnalli), together with six other new species from the 
British Isles. Late in 1929 Womersley was appointed to the Australian 
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research to work in Western 
Australia on the Lucerne Flea and Red Earth Mite problem. On his 
way to Australia he spent some weeks in the Cape Town region of 
South Africa on this problem and there collected a species of Protura 
which he later described (1931). Since that time he has described 
eight species and one subspecies from Australia and two species from 
the United States of America. 

'Through the kindness of Mr. Womersley and the Board and 
Director ef the South Australian Museum, Adelaide, 1 have been 
privileged to borrow the whole of Ids collection of Protura, now in 
the South Australian Museum. A few species not present in this 
collection have been most kindly lent to me by Dr. A. J. Hesse of the 
South African Museum, and Dr. Theresa Clay of the British Museum 
(Nat. Hist.), London. To all these scientists and institutions I extend 
my warmest thanks for their comprehending co-operation. The 18 
species and one subspecies described by Womersley, including one 
species renamed by .Bonot, are the following: 

L Eosevtomoif w-t'tt mhensc Worn. 1932. 

2. Eo&etofomon sWOivi Worn. 1932. 

:>. flosentomon mUlsi Worn. 1938 from U.S.A. 

4. Eosentomou inillsi Worn. 1939 from Australia = E, womersleyi 

Bonet 1942. 

5. Eosentomon millsi var. aitstraUca Worn. 1939. 



t»4 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

6. Para tint onion clevedonense Worn. 1927. 

7. Protitrcvtotnon ioivaense Worn. 1938. 

8, Acerentoiuon- bagnalli Worn. 1927. 

9, Acereutomon nemorale Worn. 1927. 

10. Acerentowon oMottgwm Worn. 1927, 

11. Acerentomon mctarldnus Worn. 1928. 

12. Acerentomon ai/rorum Worn, 1928. 

13. Acerentomon pin us Worn. 1928, 

14. Acerentulus capensis Worn. 1931. 

15. Acerenf id/ir; u-es/ralicnsis Worn. 1932. 

16. Act rent nl us australiensis "Worn. 1932. 

17. Acerentulus tiUuardi Won). 1932. 

18. Acerentulus occidcntalis Worn. 1932. 

19. Acerentulus sexspinatus Worn, 1936, 

These species will be dealt with in the above order and in 
accordance Avith my earlier type of re-examination, i.e., with special 
reference to the setae and sensillae on the foretarsus, the filamento di 
sostegno and abdominal combs in the Acerentomidae, the Female 
squama genitalis and the third tarsus in the Eosentomidac, as well as 
the chaetotaxy, although other characters will be considered where 
necessary. The numbering of the setae and sensillae follows my plan 
from earlier papers (Tuxen 1956-60, Bonet and Tuxen 1960). All 
figures are original. 

Womersley marked several of his slides as ''Type" but not, how 
ever, for all species and in several cases slides of the different stages 
of a species were also similarly marked. 

I have, therefore, disregarded this as a regular designation of a 
holotype — in his papers no holotypes are designated — but have selected 
a lectotype for each species preferably from amongst the slides marked 
"Type". Only in cases where the description is based on a single 
individual has this been regarded as a holotype. 

1. Eosentomon westraliense Womersley 

EossniomW M estroliensis Womersley 1932 p. 73, fig. 4-6, 17-18. 

Eosentommi west/aliense Womersley 1939 p. 287, fig. 79 F-I. 

Fig. 1-9. 

This is the first Eosentomon described by Womersley and the 
description was based on statements of length in /i and on the 
chaetotaxy. In 1939 the description was repeated almost word for 
word, but the drawings were new. Tn his collection one slide of a male 



TUXEN— PROTURA 65 

from "King's Park, Perth, Western Australia, 21st April 1931" is 
marked as "Type". I take this as a leetotype. Two other slides are 
marked "Paratope". One of these, a larva 2 from "Crawley, W.A. 
10th October, 1981, D. 0. Swm" may be a paratype though it is not 
mentioned in the first description? the other one, however, a female 
from Glen Osmond, South Australia, 9th July 1933, cannot be a 
paratype, bein^ found after the publication of the original description. 
I may, however, select it as a neo-allotype, because the shape of the 
female genitalia is so important for the understanding of the species 
of the genus Easentomon. 

The foretarsus, fig, 1-2, shows the following characteristics: tl 

is slightly pointed, elongate oval, and set much nearer to dfi than to 

a 3'. The distal part from tl (termed d) is almost exactly equal to 

the proximal part from tl (called p), so that d:p = 1.00 (1) , a is very 

Short, a' long and exceeding the tip of tl, d is longer than t2. 

Especially remarkable is the position of c/ quite near to 1/1 and 
b'2; the tip of s is shortly club-shaped; the empodium is long in relation 
to the claw, ratio e:u (empodium to unguis) = 0.9; TR (ratio (daw to 
tarsus) is stated by Womersley to be 6.0 but I am unable to make it 
more than 5.0. 

The shape of the head is given in fig. 3 drawn from the neo- 
allotype. The pseudoeuli are very large, 1:6 of the head length, but 
broadet than shown in the figure, w r here they are seen in fore- 
shortened view. The mouth parts (tig. 4) are very much like those of 
E. wheclcri Silv. (Bonet and Tuxen 1960). The mandibles are striated 
in the outermost part, and their tips are not smoothly rounded but 
with three very small li teeth'*. There is a structure (hyp) which may 
be the hypopharynx seen by Prell in 1913, but not by me in 
Aar.rcnlom.on (Tuxen 1959). 

Tarsus III (fig, 5) with a very stout spine. The chaetotaxy 
(fig. 6-7) is as follows, the pleural setae being included in the number 
of tergal setae : 

i u.ni TV-V VI VII VTIl IX x XI XTt 

8( ft ) 

4 4 a 5 



4 

— 


10 
14 


10 

n> 


8(*) 
16 


4(») 
16 


6 

7 


4 
4 


ft 
4 


6 
lo 




6 

10 


7 



m The importance of this ratio was stated by Bonet and Tuxen (1900 p. 27) for E. irhr,l<'ri. 
Silv. Unfortunately" l>v a slip the ratio was given as 8:7 — 1:1~>. It aliOUlCl Pfiad 
7:8 — 0.88. 

(*')**3 M is missing; (3)"l-3" are missing; (*) very small, almost points; (6)6 long 
and 2 small Setae. 




aw* 



Fig. 1-4. Eosentomon westraliense Worn. 1, exterior side foretarsus of lectotype $ ; 2, interior 
side of same; 3, contour of head of neo-allotype $ ; 4, mouth-parts "of lectotype $ — 
ga, galea; hyp, f hypopharynx ; lc 1 and 2, lacinia; indb, mandible; pinx. maxillary 
palpus. 




0.05 mm 



Fig. 5-8. Eosentomon westraliense Worn.; Lcctotype $. 5, right tarsus III; 6, abdominal 
tergal chaetotaxy; 7, abdominal sternal chaetotaxy; S, chaetotaxy of sixth abdominal 
tergum with numbering of setae. 



68 



RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 



The chaetotaxy does not entirely agree with the figures given by 
Womersley 1932 and 1939, which also do not agree. It is, however, 
identical in the type specimen (male) and the neo-allotype except for 
an individual variation in the former ; the posterior row on tergite III 
shows 8 setae on the right side (shown in fig. 7 where the supernumary 
seta is marked "X"). Fig. 8 is part of the sixth tergite showing the 
length and enumeration of the setae; the thin accessory setae "la" 
and "2a" are as long or longer than the principal ones on all tergites 
except "la" on tergite VII. 

The squama genitalis of the female neo-allotype is shown in 
fig. 9. The actual shape of the processus sternales (p.st.) is rather 
difficult to see and is different from that of all other species known 
to me. 

Lectotype: a male from "King's Park, Perth, W.A., 21/4/31". 

Neo-allotype: a female from "Glen Osmond, S.A., 9/7/33". 

Both in the South Australian Museum collection. 




Fig. 9. Eosentomon loestraliense Worn.; 

Neo-allotype 9. Squama genitalia from 

dorsal side — p.st., processus sternales. 



TUXEN— PROTURA 69 

2. Eosentomon swani Womersley 

Eosentomon swani Womerslev 1U32 p. 75, fig. 7-8, 19-20; 1939 p. 287, 
fig. 79 A-b). 

Fig. 10-16. 

The description gave only the measurements in /* of parts of the 
body and the statement "chaetotaxy as figured''. In 1939 it is repeated 
almost word for word, but the figures of the chaetotaxy of t VTI-IX 
differ slightly. In a key on p. 289 (1939), there is an important new 
statement "tarsus III without a strong subapical dorsal spine". This, 
however, is incorrect. In the collection are two slides both marked 
"Type"; one, a female, I take as a lectotype; other sLides are marked 
as paratvfMvs. The following new description is of the lectotype. 

The foretarsus (fig. 10-11) is much broader in relation to length 
than in westraliense, or in fact in most Eosentomon species known to 
me; i\ is relatively large and placed on a level with «3; thus being 
mueh nearer to the distal than to the proximal end of the tarsus, 
d :p = 1,36; 12 is short and slender, t3 relatively long, a is rather 
short, b thicker than the other sensillae, a' very long and reaching to 
the tip of tl. Very curious is the long and sinuate e', s is long with 
pointed club. TB = 4.5, e:u = 0.85. 

The shape of the head is shown in fig. 12; the psendoculi are 
rather small, about !4i of the head. The mouth parts are shown in 
fig. 13; the mandibles arc striated as. in E, westraUense, and also like 
E. vennifonne Ewing (see Bonet and Tuxen 1960 p. 273). 

Tarsus III (0g. 14) has a very distinct subapical spine. 

The chaetotaxy is as follows: 

T IT-III IV- VI VII vm TX X XI \H 

4 W) 8(«) 4(v) 6 6 4 2(») 

1 8 16 16 16 §(•) * 3 

4 6 6 6 2 8 

I 4 10 10 7 4 4 8 4 

The chaetotaxy of t VI is given in fig, 15; "la" is abnormally 
missing on the left side. 

The srpiama genitalis of the female (fig. 16) shows two distinct 
V-shaped proximal sclerites, probably the processus sternales, hut 
appearing as if free of the distal sclerites of the acrogyne. 

<«> "3" is missinp in t II-IV, although found on the left side of t II; (7) "1" "3", and 
"S 7 ' are missing J W almost points; 0*) a small seta quite near the glandular opening, 
absent in icextraliense. 



70 



RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 






Wm m 



Fig. 10-13. Eosentomon swani Worn.; Lectotype $. 10, foretarsus, exterior side; 11, interior 
side of same; 12, contour of head; 13, mouth-parts, compare with fig. 4. 



TUXEN— PROTURA 



71 



Lectotype: A female from "in moss, Crawley, Western Australia, 
27/7/1931, D.C. Swan" in the South Australian Museum. 





Fig. 14-16. Eosentomon swani Worn.; Lectotype 9. 14, left tarsus III; 15, tergal chaetotaxy 
of sixth abdominal segment; 16, squama genitalis from ventral side. 



3. Eosentomon millsi Womersley 

Eosentomon millsi Womersley 1938 p. 221, pi. XII fig. D -G. 

1 Eosentomon armatnm, Mills 1932 p. 130; nee E. millsi Womersley 

1939 (= E. womersley i Bonet 1942), vide p. 16. 

This species was described by Womersley in 1938 from specimens 
sent to him by Dr. Harlow B. Mills from Iowa, United States of 
America, and probably the same as Mills referred to in 1932 as 
E. armatum Stach. In 1940 Ewing, without giving any reason, 



72 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

synonymised Hie species with E, ivheeleri Silv. This synonymy has 
since proved to be correct. In 1939 Womersley recorded the species 
from Australia but Bonet in 1942 considered the Australian material 
as another species which he named rvomersleiji nom.nov. (see the 
following species). 

fn Womersley 's collection are several slides of this species from 
the U.S.A.; one, a female without Pore-legs, marked as the type; I have 
examined the characters of the lore and hind tarsi, the squama genitalis 
of the female and the ehnctotaxy, and find complete agreement with 
E, wheeleri Silv. as redescribed by Bonet and Tuxen in I960, and also 
in respect to the very long accessory setae in the posterior rows of 

tergites. Tt is therefore unnecessary to give any figures. The 
synonymy given by Ewiug, although he did not have an exact 
knowledge oi* ivheeleri nor of the type material of millsi, is therefore 
justified. 

Lertntjipe : A female from "Columbus Jnt., Towa, U.S.A., 26/9/38** 
(probably an error for "1939 H. B. M(ills)") in the South Australian 

Museum. 

4, Eosentomon veomersleyi Bonet 

Eosentomon viillsi Womersley 1939 p. 287, fig. 79 J-M ; nee E. milht 
Womersley J 938 p. 221. 

EMentOfKQn womersleyi nom.nov. Bonet 1942 p. lb*. 

Fig. 17-23. 

In his work on the Australian Aptcrygota 1939 Womersley 
recorded his Eoserrtonu.m millsi from Australia. He ^nvo a description 
which is word for word identical with that of millsi 1938 except that a 
line (line 3, p. 289) had fallen out, the result being that the spine 
appears to be present on tarsus TT. The figures, however, were new 
and different from those of 1038 — it should he noted, however, that 
the figures of the ohsetotexy of totUsi in 1938 were incorrect. From 
the difference in these figures Bonet concludes quite Ironically: "pero 
basta comparar las respeetivas figuran . . . para conveueerse de 
que se trata de fornias distintas"; he gives no further description 
but, without having seen the type, gives it the name womersleyi 
nom.nov. 

As the figured chaetolaxy might have been wrong— as it is in both 
cases— the procedure of Bonet was rather audacious. Unfortunately 
only one specimen of millsi from Australia is present in Womerslev's 



18 •" 




Fig. 17-23. Eosentomon womersleyi Bouet; Holotype $, 17, foretarsus, exterior aide; 18, 
interior side of same; If), left tarsus III; 20, tergal ehaetotaxy of abdominal segments 
VII-XII; 21, sternal chaetotaxy of same; 22, tergal chaetotaxy of second segment 
with numbering of setae; 23, same of sixth abdominal segment. 



74 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

collection and Womersley himself has added to the label (t womer$kj,n 
Bonet 1942 nee millsi Worn. 1!);iS ,T and the word "Type". This slide 
may he taken as the holotype, The specimen is a male and is described 
as follows, though of course without reference to the female genitalia. 

The foretarsus (fig. 17-18) is first and foremost characterised by 
a redoubling of 11 on the interior surface, a feature not seen by me 
in any other Eosenlomon. This occurs on both legs but may, of 
course, be an individual character. The sensillae and setae are mostly 
as generally found, a Btttttia rather shortly clnb-shaped but the club is 
seen lore-shortened in the figure; tl is placed far advanced, even distal 
to tt3' .'uid <>n a level with sensillae el and c2, d:p therefore = 0.65, 
even shorter than in irltiu'lcri, TR = 5.3, e:u = 1.3, S 5 is missing. 
Tarsus III (fig. 19) with a distinct spine. 

The shape of the head cannot be given as it is broken. The mouth- 
parts are as En weBtroli&toSG and SWMi) the mandibles with striae. 

The cliaetotaxy (tig. 20-21) also shows several characteristics and 
schematically is as follows: 

I II in iv v vi vn viii IX x XI \i.i 



4 

8 


10 


16 


*n 

16 


i-.f") 


.fi ( ", 


r. 



-1 
4 




4 


10 


6 

10 




10 


2 

1 



4 * 4 10" 10 in 7 i * 8 ,2 

There are many curious features in this chaetotaxy ; "3" is missing 
in the anterior row of t II1-V1 (in t VTI w l" and "2" are also 
missiivj ;), thus abdomen IT and TTJ are different. 

The accessory setae "la" are longer than the principal ones on 
abd. Tl-TV, as are "3a 11 on all segments, but they are shorter on 
nbd. V-Vll ; in all other species of Kowriomon known to me this only 
holds good for abd, VTI. ft IS worthy of notice that the accessory 
setae "la*' are placed inside the border of the sclerite when they are 
short, but immediately outside when they are long (see fig. 22-23), 
This occurs in all species of Eosentomon known to me. 

The two lateral setae on sternite IX are short and the two median 
long; on slcrnite X, however, all four are short. 

The ehaetotaxy and the foretarsus appear to me therefore to 
justify the regarding of this specimen as a separate species. 

Holotype; A male from "Brown Hill Creek, Adelaide, S.A., 5th 
June 1932 D. C. Swan*' in the South Australian Museum, 



(io) "3" missing; (U) "la" is very short; U2> "1-3" are missing. 



TUXEN— PROTURA 73 

5, Eoscntomon womersleyi Bonet var. austral ica Womersley 
Eosentomon millsi var. ausfralica Womersley 1939 p. 289, fig. 79 N Q. 

in 1939 Womersley further described a variety of Ins ffi, neillsL 
Although from tiie description there should bo several slides from 
various parts of SoUfffl Australia, no slide with this name is present 
in the collection. In the text Womersley gives the following differences 
ttom the typical form: Stenifte VIII with no anterior row of setae, and 
on stcrniie IX (sic. ^im-gitc" b error) the lateral setae are much 
smaller than the median, JTis fig. 79 Q also shows this, but as stated 
above, hia figure of the typical form is wrong in respect to sternite IX, 
the dift'civn.v in size of the Intern) and median setae being present also 
in this form. In the key on p. 289 lev further says Hint the accessory 
seta "2ft" in the posterior row of tergite VU in var. an,<traliea is 
absent; this is very improbable. 

There remains, therefore, only one character separating the two 
forms, viz., the absence of the anterior row of setae on stemitc VI1T. 
If then, a form of #. womerslei/i Bonet. with s VITT — f be found 
and proved not to be an individual variation, then the var. austral ica 
Worn, is a reality j till then we cannot say more of its existence. No 
holotype or lectotypr 

6. Paraentomon elevedonense Womersley 

Paracnf onion elevedonense Womersley 1927a p. 145, fig. 4-7. 

rroturenlomon wiinnum Bagnall 1936 p. 212; Tuxen 1956a p. 241, 
fig. XllI-XV. 

Pig. 24-27. 

Of this British species which was described from three specimens 
"taken with others under deeply-embedded stones ttbove Norton Wood, 
Clevedon, Som.. 21, IX. 1926, Found also in a similar habitat OH 
Backweli Hills, Som., lG.X.192(r\ I have had two "!> pe slides" before 
me, one from the South Australian Museum marked "Co- type, 
< 'h-vedon, Oct 1926, Hi Womersley 1 - and the other from the British 
Museum (Nat Hist.) coll. Bagnall, marked "Paratype, West Town, 
Som M 10/10/26 H. Womersley" (both are determined as Paraeutomon 
elevedoniei/sis, with the female adjectival ending). Neither of these 
belong to the series from Norton Wood, Somerset, England; but as 
both belong to the type material, T select the South Australian Museum 
specimen as the loetotype, because although smashed, it shows the 
characters, including the mouth-parts, very well. 



76 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Already in his description 1927 Wumersley had stressed the 
resemblance to A&$reutulus minimus Berlese, but Berlese had oot 
observed that the second abdominal leg resembled the first but not 
the third and con seqiiontly Womersley had to replace lus species in a 
new genus and even a new subfamily. Later Bagnall (1936) for quite 
theoretical raBSOna synonyrnised the two species, to which Woinersley 
himself agreed in 1S38, and which I myself in 1950 confirmed after 
having seen the type <»!' A. minimus Berh 

In 1956 I gave a detailed description of the species, based on 
specimens from Rothn.iu.sted, England and sent to me by Dr. F. Raw 
under the name of Protunvtomou minimum Berh The 1ype of 
Berlese 's species was not fit for description although suitable for the 
checking of important characters. I have now checked the above type 
specimens of rleredoncnse (one on each slide) with my 1956 description 
and with the specimens from Rothamslod and find the elo 
resemblance ho that it is unnecessary to draw or describe the lectotype 
of P. clcvrdonensr, only some corrections nnd additions to my descrip- 
tion of 195(3 need be given. 

The moutbparls (fig. 24) are very clear on the lectotype owing to 
its smashed state, wherefore \ hnve thought tit to figure them. The 
shape of the mandible is important, shorter and stouter than in 
Aeerenlnhis and with a long and distinct slit; in the maxillae the galea 
could not be seen. The pseudoculus is very peculiar, the "lever" 
being long triangular and nearly as broad as the "lid". 

The last abdominal segments (fig 1 . 25) show rows of very small 
lecth ,,,, the hind border of the ninth, tenth and eleventh terete, and 
a small "lunula" Of beeth on the middle of tergite XIL 

The rhactotaxv. In 1 05(5 (p. 244) ] gave t V1TI A SfoA B X 2. 
Both these statements Wffcre duo to having chosen an aberrant specimen 
for drawing. In this specimen (fig. XV 1) there were 7 setae in the 
anterior row on t VIII, but an examination of all the Rothamsted 
specimens as well [is the present lectotype shows that there was a seta 
too many in the figured specimen and not one too few. The ventral 
view (fig. XV 2) v. :v, drawn from another aberrant specimen with only 
2 setae on s 3 and 8 on « XII; the correct numbers are four and six. 
The examination of the present lectotype has further shown that my 
stating i for s I, which was given with a question mark, is correct. 

In an examination of the 19 adult specimens of this species T have 
found two specimens with only two setae on s XI, This is a feature 
of the maturus junior of Acerenttilus (at least danicus Conde) ; only 




Fig. 24, 25 and 27. Paraentomon, clevedonense Worn. ; Lectotype 9 . 24, mouth-parts — fll, 
filament o di sostegno; lac. laciuiae; lb t labium; mdb, mandible; pinx, maxillary palpus; 
ps, pseudoculus; 25, chaetotaxy of tergites VIII-XII; 27, squama genitalis. 

Fig. 26. Proturcntomon minimum Berl. ex Rothamsted, leg. Raw. genital squama of male! 
Fig. 28-30. Proturentomon iowaense Worn.; Lectotype $. 28, left foretarsua from above; 
29, filamento di sostegno and pseudoculus: 30, squama genitalis. 



78 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

in one of these specimens, however, T could see the genitalia, and these 
scorned to differ Erom those of all other specimens (fig. 26), In fig. 27, 
1 have drawn the genitalia of the lectotype of clcvedonense which on 
comparison with Borlese's figure (Tav, IX, fig. 105) I would assume 
to be a Female squama. All the specimens except the abovemmtioned 
have this rouwna and [ have not seen one which 1 could, without 
doubt, consider a male. Whether the abo\ specimens with s XI 2 
are males or imnuiture specimens, I do not venture to decide. 

Lectotype: female from "Olevedon, Oct. 1920, TT. Womersley ' ', in 
the South Australia]) Museum, Adelaide. 

From the above the long supposed synonymy of Paracntomon 
rlrr<''hn(ci!sc Worn, with Prolurentovion inniihnivi Berl. and Paratm- 
lonion Worn, with Proturenlomon Silv. will be evident, (The Paraen- 
t onion species of Tonescu belong to another genus, lonesciielluni Tnxen 
1960.) 

7. Proturentomon iowaense Womersley 

Proturmtontov ton at'itse "Womersley L9S8 p. 221, pi, XJl, fig. a-C. 

Fig. 28-30. 

This species was described without the designation of a holotype, 
oi v a statement of the number of specimens available. The description 
was reprint^* I b\ Swing 1040 (p. 531) but nothing new was added. 
Jt was said to differ from P. elevedovense only in the absence of the 
two small anterior setae on tergites V and VI, and in the length 
(585/x as against 900/*). This latter, however, is incorrect, the length 
being about 800ft. 

I have before me four slides of one specimen each; one marked 
iir V\ pe 7 \ the others "Paratype 5 \ T have selected that marked "Type' ' 
asa lectotype because it is best preserved. The species is extremely 
like the preceding. 

The IY>rrt:trsu.s (dig. 28) is shown as seen from above (both tarsi). 
The many sensillae, all equally long and stout, can be seen and may 
be counted together with the setae as 1 did for P. yninimum Berl. 
in 1956, i.e., in accordance with the numbering of the sensillae and 
setae in Aoerent'Ulue^AcerentoMon. In this species all the sensillae 
could be identified with the sole exception of tl ; in the present species 
also tl is found Miid this gives a clear difference between the two 
species, but also more distinctly shows a near relationship to the 
Accrenfoininae. Womersley described these sensillae in clevedonense 



TUXEN— PROTURA 79 

as having a single median rib, which is clearly seen in the present 
species but probably is nothing more than an optical phenomenon. The 
ratio T li is given by Womersley (1938) as a difference between the two 
species, 3.2 in iowaense and 3.0 in clevedouense] but in 1927 he gave 
2.8 for clevedonensc and I would measure 2.9 in this species and 3.1 
in iowaense; these differences, however, are too small and inexact to 
warrant species differentiation. The pseudocuhts and filamento di 
tegno (fig. 29) are as in mintmnvi BerL The comb of abd, VTI1 
with many email teeth* 

The squama genitalis of female (fig. 30) is difficult to see and 
understand clearly. I have drawn it as it appears to me in the lecto- 
type; perhaps the differences from fig. 27 are of a Specific nature. 

The ehaetotaxy is in all respects like that in the preceding species 
except that on tergites V-VI the two small anterior setae are missing 
as pointed out by Womersley (yet they are on t V in the lectotype). 
Also the small teeth on the hind margin of t 1X-X1 and on the surface 
of t XTIT are clearly SGfcfl. One of the specinunis is a maturus junior 
without genitalia and with only two setae on s XI. 

Lectotype: A female from the United States of America, 
"Columlms Jnt. Iowa, 26/9/32, H. B. Mills,' ' in the South Australian 
Museum, Adelaide. 

The species is very close to P. mhiinntm Berl. differing only in the 
presence of tl, perhaps the shape of the filamento and squama genitalis, 
and the absence of the two small anterior setae not only on tergite VII 
but also on t VI and often on t V. 



8. Acerentomon bagnalli Womersley 

Acerentomon bafjnalli Womersley 1927a p. 141 fig. 1. 

Fig. 31-37. 

This British species was described by Womersley 4i from a male 
specimen, one of many taken under old bark . . . Blaise Castle Woods, 
Bristol, Glos. 27,X1L1926'\ He mentioned that it is the species he 
recorded in 1924 as doch'ioi Silv. but does not indicate how it differs 
from this species. He introduces here two characters not previously 
used in Prot.iiran taxonomy, viz., the relation between the lengths of 
the claw and tarsus of the foretarsus (Til) and the relation of the 
length of the labrum to that of the head (LB). Both characters have 
since been abundantly used. He also gives points to the chaetotaxy, 




09f mm 



*0(*m 



Fig. 31-37. Acerentommi bagnalli Worn.; Lectotype $. 31, foretarsus exterior side; 32, 
interior side of same; 33, contour of head, arrow points to base of labrum; 34, filamento 
di sostegno and pseudocuhis ; 35, comb of abd. segment VIII; 36, pectine of pleurite 
VIII; 37, pectines of pleurites VI and VII, sternum to right. 



TUXEN— PROTURA 81 

a characteristic the significance of which was later elaborated by 
Ionescu. 

In Womersley's collection twelve slides of this species are present, 
most of tliein containing yonng stages (as to the supposed stage with 
eleven abdominal segments in this species see my drawings in an 
earlier paper (Tuxen 1943 p. 47, fig. 72-75) ), only two with adult 
specimens: 4t Mature female, type" and "submature male, eotype". 
All Blades are from the locality and date mentioned in the description. 

There serins every reason therefore, to believe that i4 ma]e ,v in the 
description is a printer's error for "female--, the more so as the 
"submature male cotype" is not a good specimen from which to 
describe the species. I have thus selected the female as a leetotype 
and marked it accordingly. It will be described as follows: 

The foretarsas (fig. 31-32) with the seLae and sensillae arranged 
as commonly found in Accreutomou, tl is elavilorm, 12 long- and 
slender, 13 long knicet-like, b much thicker 1han the other sensillae, e 
situated about m the middle between d and f, f longer than g. Seta 
s is very long and straight. On the inner side b' and c' are very long 
with the small 8 5 between them, a' is missing, ft 1 is short, S 4 very 
long; TR = 3.0 (Womersley gives 3.4 through a printer's error as 
his measurements (35/* io lQ5ft) show; em (empodmni ; unguis) = 1:7. 

The head (fig. 83) with LR = 4.3; somewhat flattened in the slide 
The filamento di ^ostegrm ( lig. 34) with short proximal part and 
heart-shaped dila uon The shape of the psciidoenhis may be seen in 
the same figure. 

The comb on the eighth abdominal tergite (tig. 35) docs not reach 
as far backwards as in dod&rvi and has shorter and fewer (12) teeth; 
on tergite, plenrite and sternile are found rows of short spines, fewer 
and much shorter than in doderoi. The hind border of the plenrite 
carries 5 short teeth (fig. 36). In all the above characters the species 
is clearly distinguished from doderoi Silv. (see Tnxen 1.060a). 

Womersley (lac. cits) mentioned a pectine on the eighth plenrite 
and fifth tergite. The first one must be a row of teeth on the hind 
bo7*der of pi, VTI7 mentioned above, the second must refer to a comb 
found on the anterior pari of the sixth pleurite. In my paper on the 
Protura of lonescu (1961) T have described these pleural ''combs 1 ' in 
the genus Acerentomon as specified in the species Ac, qucrrwuvi ion. 
In the present species the pectine on nbd, VI carrier some three long 
teeth and a small number of smaller teeth, that on pleurite VII carries 
two strong and two slender teeth (lig. 37). In this character also this 
species differs from doderoi Silv. 



82 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

The chaetotaxy is as follows (the pleural setae are included in the 
tergal count) : 

I II III IV-VI VII VIII IX x XI XII 

M 10 4 9 



6 

n 


JO 
16 


10 
16 


10 
16 


10 

16 


8 
13 


3 

— i 

4 


6 

— 

5 


7 
5 


7 
8 


6 

8 


4 



4*66 

The "eu-type male" has B VII •■ ■ \ . The hind border of 9 XII is 
very faintly ser rate- 
In many characters this Species resembles A. doderoi Silv. but 
distinct differences are to be found in the characters of the abdominal 
pectines as well as in the cliaetotaxy, t VTI having H in doderoi, an 
extra seta being found between seta "4" in the anterior and posterior 
rows (and one more, 4 Ma" in the posterior row), t XI has only four 
setae, the median pair being missing. 

Lectoiype: ".Mature female under rotten bark, liaise Castle, 
Bristol, 27/12/26, H. Womersley" in the collection of the South 
Australian Museum, Adelaide. 

9. Acerentomon nemorale Womersley 

Accrcirtotnoit newtorah Womersley 1927a p. 142, fig. 2. 

Fig. 38-44. 

This species, which will) its 2 mm. length is among the largest 
Proturans known, was described from "one of two specimens taken in 
the rotten sapwood of an old stump in Brockley Combe, Somerset, 
17.TV.1026". There is only one slide present in the collection, most 
probably a female though some impurities prevent a clear decision, 
with the date and locality as in the description. H is marked "Type" 
and may be regarded as the holotype, though Womersley expressly 
states, " genital organs well developed". 

The foretarsus (fig. 38-30) oi' which only one leg is present has 
been examined and drawn from both the exterior and interior sides. 
Unfortunately some of the setae* have been more or less broken off, a 
transverse line in the drawings indicates where they are broken; tl is 
only represented by tin- socket go that it cannot be stated whether it 
is el a vi form, although it is most probably so, t2 is slender and curved 
and to is long lancet-like. The most characteristic feature is the short 
and slender sensilla b, shorter and not broader than c. The other 




Fig. 38-44. Acerentomon nemorale Worn.; Holotype $. 38, forctarsus, exterior side; 39, 
interior side of same; 40, contour of head; 41, pseudoeulus and filamento di sostegno; 
42, comb of abd. VIII; 43, pleurite VIII and part of sternite; 44, pleural pectines on 
abd. VI and VII, sternum to left. 



84 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

sensillac are long, a stonier than the other*, c in the middle between 
d and f; a' is missing, IV near to c' with 8 5 between them, s long 
and straight. TR = 3.0, e:u = 7:45. 

The head as shown in iig. 40, a little crushed. LR = 4.2 
(Womersley has 2.8). The liJamento di BGStegtlO (fig. 41) with longer 
proximal part than in h<if/r><itlt. The comb on abd. VIII (fig. 42) is 
very characteristic with 9-10 strong and long teeth set apart, the most 
lateral one recurved against the others, the next two the longest, and 
numbers 6 and 8-10 equally long but diverging from the small number 
7. A row of small blunt teeth 18 found near the striated line on the 
anterior part of the segment, and also ventrally. The eighth pleurite 
has G-7 small blunt teeth along the hind margin (fig. 43), 

The incline on pleurite VI with about 15 long teeth and one or 
two more near the M rotary-wheel". Pleurite Vll with a few sharp 
aild Blender teeth lateral to this wheid and two groups of stouter ones 
on (he median side (fig. 44). 

The chaetotaxy i« as follows: 

T MILL IV V-VI VII VIII IX X XI XII 

U id 6 ft 



6 


10 


10 


10 


10 


B 


14 


18 


16 


n; 


16 


i:i 


3 


•> 





7 


5 


i 




■ m 


T* 





• ; 





4 


B 


i 


8 


9 


2 



The number of 6 setae in the anterior row of s IV is certainly an 
abnormality, although they are arranged symmetrically. 

In t VII seta M l" is missing in the anterior row but a seta is 
present between number 4< 4" in the anterior and posterior rows; in 
both characters it is distinguishable from the preceding segments. 

The short and slender sensilla b of the foretarsus and the shape 
of the abdominal combs make this species clearly distinguishable. 
Unfortunately fig. 2 of Womersley is not correct in details of the 
pectines. The species has since been recorded by Qon&& (1044 p. 44) 
from France, and by Nosek (1957) and 'Paclt (1958) from 
Czechoslovakia. The last two authors, however, do not agree as to 
which species should be called ftewuWQt€\ some specimens lent to me 
by Dr, J. Nosek, Bratislava, show that at least his species is another 
spocies which he is going to describe. Conde has seen that Womersley \s 
poctine on abd. V in fact belongs to abd. VT and he also notes that the 
Chaetotaxy of sternites TI-IV "sont sujets a variations". 



TUXEN— PROTURA 85 

Eototype: FemalftC?) 'Minder bark, BrocMey Combo, Sort 17/4/26, 
H, Womersley' > in the collection of file South Australian Museum, 
Adelaide, 

10. Ace rent onion oblongiim Womersley 
Accrcnfomon oblon</um, Womersley 1927a p. 143, fig. 3. 

Fig. 43-52, 

Wojsriersley described tins species! from two eipecimeilfl u received 

from Mr. BagnaU, labelled Sta. Banks, Whitby, and Foneohousos". 
This species is not present in Womersley "s collection in Adelaide, but 
B lide containing a Specimen determined as this species and marked 
"TypC ri has recently eome to the British Museum (Nat. Hist.), Loudon, 
with the collection of R. S. Bagnall. It is furthermore labelled 

"Whitby, Sfa. Bks" and must therefore be one of the two specimens 
mentioned by Womersley; 1 therefore select it as a lectotype and 
describe it as follows : 

The Inretaisus (fig, 45-46) is characterised by a long and 
extremely Slender claw. Unfortunately many of the setae are broken, 
and in the figures, where it is not possible to complete from the other 
loretarsus this is indicated by a transverse line. Sensilla. b is a little 
broader than the others vvdiich are all rather long and almo^l equally 

bo, e is situated much nearer to d than to f, tl is rather long and 

rlavil'orni, fcS lancet-like and not extremely long. The interior side is 
characterised by an extremely long 8 4. TR = 2.5 (Womersley gives 
1.6, but bis figures iV front tarsus 101m, claw 45,.*." give 2.2), e:u — 10:o7. 
The head (fig. 47), upon which the specific name is based is of 
quite different shape to that of other species of Jcneuton/on. It is 
broken in the rnid-Iine as sliown in the figure, but its long and narrow 

shape is obvious. The rostrum is long, exceeding the maxillary palpi, 

but LR amounts to Only 4.7. The shape of the pseudoculus is shown 
more enlarged; it showfi a small but distinct sort of "handle" or 
" lever'-. The filamento <li ftQStegftQ could not he seen. 

The comb of abd. VIII (%, 4fi) consists of 14 teeth, the four 
median ones being shorter and more dispersed than the laterals. The 
anterior part of this segment carries only a few very small dispersed 
teeth. The pleurite has 4-5 small blunt teeth on the hind border 
(fig, 4.0), PleilTite VH with two stout and two tine teeth, pi. VI with 
a row of about 7 rather long and acute teeth (fig, 50). 

The chaetotaxy is not easy to follow, as the anterior part of the 
body is twisted and the four posterior segments so much withdrawn 




0-OSmm 



h'ig. 45-52. Acerentomon oblongum Worn.; Leetotype 9. 45, foretar&US exterior side; 4(3, 
interior side of same; 47, contour of heart, to the side a pseudoculus ; 48, comb of 
abd. VIII; 49, pleurite and half of sternite of abd. VIII; 50, peetines of pieurites of 
abd. VI and VII, sternum to right; 51, genital squama from venter and in situ; 
52, same, more enlarged. 



TUXEN— PROTURA 87 

into alxl. VIII. that their setae are hardly distinguishable. It may be 
givep &s follows: 

\ || III IV-Vl V1J VIII IX X M XII 



t T T 



10? 10 in 6 |4 l2? t fi 

\u 16 10 13 



f t 7 1 * ** 4 4 > 6 

6 ft U 2 

The most curious feature of the whole animal, however, IB the 
geflital squama, if I identify it correctly , The specimen unfortunately 
18 not bleared as much as could be wished, and the characters of the 
last segments are obscured by their contraction, Pig, 51 gives a sketch 
of the geftital squama in $itu 3 and fig. 52 of the squama itself more 
magnified, It looks as if two sclerotised rods connect the basis of 
(civile Vll with the pectinal parts of tergite VTII but proximaLly these 
rods seem to be fused in the middle, and the whole structure may also 
be interpreted as an ' 4 endosternum", a view which seems to be 
supported by its finer structure. Distally a structure of toOBfi eonlour 
appears to contract the "rods" and from this extends what I presume 
to be the real squama genitalis, corresponding to the distal part of the 
i-oiiiiiioii squama. Tt consists ok" an acrogynium( !) and two ncrostvli, 
ending in a seta or cannula. Between these acrostyli two mote styli 
are found, lint their enuneetions to the other parts J am unable to 
follow, nor can I see the true opening of the vagina — if it is at all a 
female squama. The acrostyli are covered dorsally by two weakly 
chilinised "wings" and the whole squama is situated in a "cave" 
opening in the usual way. T have only seen the type specimen and as 
the species has not been recorded since the original description I am 
unable to investigate it further. I hope, hOWever, Hint the species may 
be rediscovered, and that then, some one from the above indications, 
may gel enough material to solve the problem. 

Ledotype; FenmleU) marked "Whitby Stn, Bks., R. S. Bagnnll" 
in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.), London. 

1 1 . Acerentoraon metarhinus Womersley 

■\< crcnlowov nicfnrh'nins Womersley 1928a p. 113. 

Fig. 53-57. 

This species was described from a single specimen "from amongst 
tangled bracken roots under a stone in Cranhara Woods, Glos., 
13/9/26". Womersley reported the specimen to be of the eleven- 
segmented instar: in earlier papers (1949, 1956a) I have shown that 



88 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

tli e instar does not exist, and tlio .specimen in question rightly appeared 
to be a matnrus junior (see fig. 57). Because of this the chaetotaxy 
is not to be relied upon; on the other hand Womersley is right in 
stating that the characters LR and TR are constant throughout the 
larval life, and this hold-; good also for the further characters of the 
foretarsus (see. Tuxen 194!) where it is also shown that all these 
characters are different in the prelarva, not known to Womersley). 
I give a description of the characters seen on the specimen, which 
unfortunately is crushed and difficult to examine. 

The foretarsus (fig. 53-54) (only the left one is present) is rather 
short and broad. It is characterised by sensilla b being slender, and e 
placed much nearer to d titan to f, t1 is slenderly claviform, t3 short 
bat slender. TR = 2.7 ("Womersley gives 3.0), cm = 6:52. 

The head is very squashed; fig. 55 gives its rough outline but the 
hind border is difficult to ascertain. LR is given as 6.4, to me it seems 
more like (K), The pseudoculi are as figured, the filamento di sostegno 
could not be seen. 

The comb on abd. VIIT (fig. 56) carries about 14 slender but rather 
short teeth of which the middle ones are the longest, decreasing slowly 
in length to both sides. The hind border of the pleurite carries four 
very short and fine teeth, but there arc only a few short and dispersed 
tr-eth ou the anterior part of the segment. The peetines on pleurites 
VT and VI T, if any, could not be seen. 

The chaetotaxy (fig. 5G) could not be seen on the first four 
abdominal segments; on abd. V-XTT it is as follows: 



v.vn 


VTJJ 


rx 


x 


XI 


XII 


10 
16 


8 
13 


12 


8 


4 


9 


5 

8 


4 


4 


4 


2 


6 



but it must be remembered that the. specimen is a matnrus junior, 
winch is further shown by the presence of only two setae on the 
sternum XI (see Tuxen 1949 p. 28). 

It will be seen that there are only very few really characteristic 
features present, among them being the slender sensilla b, and the 
position of e on the foretnrsns, and especially the shape of the comb 
ou VIII. Nevertheless both Ionescu (1932) and Conde (1944) mention 
this species from Roumania and France, respectively. I do not know 




Fig. 53-57. Acercntomon metarhirms Worn.; Holotype, a maturus junior. 53, foretarsus 
exterior side; 54, interior side of same tarsus ; 55, contour of head and right pseudo- 
culus; 56, chaetotaxy of abd. VIII-XII; 57, comb of abd. VILE. 



90 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

on what characters these determinations are founded; both authors 
only give the length in p of Rome parts of the body, appendages or 
setae, but these measurements are often not the same as given by 
Womersley and even not the same between the two authors. For 
instance: TR = 2.6 (Conde), 2.75 and 2.55 (Ioncscu), :U> 
(Womersley) — and 2.7 for rny measurement of the holotype; or length 
of rostrum 25/'.. (Conde, loneseu, in adult individuals), 27^ (Womerslcy 
in the maturus junior). It is tliei ofm »e, not quite certain that the reports 
of (his species from Franco and Roumania are correct; the species was 
not present in that portion of lonescn's collection which I have had 
before me (Tuxen 1%1), Oonde mentions a line of teeth on both 
tftrgite V and VI, but I have not been able to see these pectines on 
the bolotypo; maybe thev are not present in the maturus junior. 

Ifololifpe; A ma turns junior from "CVanham, Glog., 13/9/26, 
II. Womersley" in the collection of the South Australian Museum, 
Adelaide. 



12. Acerentomon agrorum Womersley 
doerentomon agrorum Womersley 1928a p. 114. 

This species was described from fl ''single specimen from under 

ne along with A^oermMus confims Uerlese, Brockley Combe, 

Somerset, Oetob«r< 1928", In Womersley 's collection, specimens of 
A. cov puis from the above locality are present, but on none of the 
slides could any Aoerentompn be found and no slide of anrm inn is 
present; nor in Hie collection of Engnall is there any specimen bearing 
the name ,f. agrorum. It must, therefore, be concluded that the single 
specimen, the holotype, lias been lost. 

From the description alone, the species cannot be identified. 
Apart from some measurements only three characters are given by 
Womersley: LR == 4.1, TR = 2... (but his figures give 2.5), and 
spines on the eighth tergal pecthie of equal length. These characters, 
however, are too insignificant to make a characterisation of the species 
possible, and nobody has found specimens since then; and further- 
more the description was made on an immature specimen (called the 
eleven-segmented instar, which means maturus junior). It seems 
therefore advisable to abandon this species altogether from future 
catalogues. 



TUXEN— PROTURA 91 

13. Acerentomon pinus Womersley 

Acerentomon pinus Womersley 1928a p. 114. 

Fig. 58-62. 

This species too, was described from a maturus junior (Womersley 
says a specimen of th6 4 ' eleven segmented instar" but the limit between 
the eleventh segment and the end segment is very distinct) ''under 
bark of an old pine stump, Brockenhurst, New Forest, 24/§/26"j and 
only this specimen is so far known. It is not very well mounted, not 
all the characters being distinguishable. It will be described as 
follows : 

The foretarsus (fig. 58-59) is characterised by a very long sensilla 
a which is somewhat thicker than the other sensillae, b is relatively 
short and slender, e long and placed nearer to d than to f, tl is 
relatively long with a slender club, t3 short but slender. All the setae 
are very long, especially conspicuous being the y setae. TR = 2.7 
(Womersley gives 2.6), e:u = 6:53. 

The shape of the head is shown in fig. 60, LB = 3.3. The 
filamento di sostegno cannot be seen. 

The comb on abd. VIT1 (fig. 61) has 12 relatively short but slender 
teeth. A row of very dispersed and very small teeth on the anterior 
part of the segment. The hind border of pleurite VIII (fig. 62) with 
three short teeth. Pectines OB pleurite VI and VII not visible, either 
missing or too hyaline to be seen. 

The chaetotaxy on the first three abdominal segments cannot be 
seen as the specimen is coiled in the slide. For the rest it is as follows: 

iv-vi vii vin ix x xj xn 

12 8 6 9 



10 
16 


10 
17 


8 
13 


5 

8 


8 


4 



The number of 2 setae on s XI shows the specimen to be a maturus 
junior (see above). 

Holotype: A maturus junior from u Brockenhurst, 24/5/26. 
H. Womersley*' in the collection of the South Australian Museum, 
Adelaide. 

(13) Abnormal, one of the setae being placed in the middle line. 



92 



RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 




Ftg. 58-62. Acerentomon pinws Worn.; Holotype, a maturus junior. 58, foretarsus exterior 
side; 59, interior side of same tarsus; CO, contour of head and a pseudoculus; 61, comb 
of abd. VIII j 62, pleurite and half of sternite VIII. 



TUXEN— PROTURA 93 

14. A cere 11 tul us capensis Womersley 
Acererdulus capensis Womersley 1931 p. 89, fig. 1-2. 

Fig. 63-69. 

This is the first species of Acereutulus to be described by 
Womersley, based on two specimens collected at Cape Town, S. Africa, 
on his way to Australia. The two specimens in the South African 
Museum have been kindly lent to me by Dr. A. J. Hesse. One specimen 
is a female but unfortunately all six legs are missing, the other is a 
inafurus junior. As the characters of the foretarsus are of such para- 
mount importance in Acerenlulus and alike in all stages except the 
prelarva, I am forced to make the maturus junior the lectotype 
describing it as follows; the chaetotaxy, however, will be given from 
the female. Both specimens are labelled "Orangezicht, Cape Town, 
6/9/30- H.W.". 

The foretarsus (fig. 63-64) is first and foremost characterised by 
the large, bottle-shaped sensilla a' which I have not seen in any other 
species of Acer en lulus, tl is club-shaped, t2 long and slender, 13 small 
and not lancet-like but long-oval without pointed apex (also a 
distinguishing character from other Acereutulus species), a-d and f 
are all equally long and slender, e and g shorter, e is placed nearer to 
f than to d, b is a little stouter than the other ones. On the inner side 
b' is missing, c' long and slender. TR = 3.3, e:u = 1:7. 

The filamento di sostegim (fig. 65) is rather short, not reaching 
the tip of the inner arm of the fulcrum. The comb of abd. VIII (fig. 
66) consists of six short teeth. 

The chaetotaxy of the female (fig. 67-69) is as follows with the 
pleural setae included in the tergal counts. 

i rr-iu iv v vi vii vm iv x xt xn 

14 12 o 9 



6 


8 


8 


10 


6(") 


6 


12 


14 


14 


14 


16 


14 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 






— 








4 


4 


6 


8 


8 


8 





I have figured the whole tergal chaetotaxy of the abdomen to show 
a curious feature. In the anterior row 4t 3" is placed further back 
than the other setae. In abd. VI this is even more pronounced and in 
VII the seta has retreated right back into the. posterior row. This 
retreating of U 3 M of the anterior row is met with, more or less 
pronounced, in many Protura. The striated band which occurs in all 

(14) "i" i g missing. 



94 



RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 




Fig. 63-09. Accrcntuius capcusis Worn. 63, 64 and 66 from lectotype, a maturus junior, 
65, 67, 69 from a £. 63, forotarsus exterior side; 64, interior side of same; 65, 
fiJamento di sostegno; 66, comb of abd. VIII; 67, tergal ehuetotaxy of abd. I- VII: 
G8, same of abd. VIII-XII; 69, sternal chaetotaxy of abd. VIII-XII. 



TUXEN— PROTURA 95 

Acer ent ami nae on the anterior part of the eighth abdominal segment 
has a curious appearance in this species. The striae are almost 
entirely invisible; instead the anterior border consists of a row of 
very fine teeth, shorter or longer, and the posterior border of two 
exactly parallel lines (fig. 68-69). I have unfortunately only observed 
it in this one specimen but may be the clue to what this striated band 
really is lies hidden in this species. 

The species is easily distinguished on the shape of a' in the 
foretarsus. 

Lectotype: A inaturus junior from "Orangezieht, Cape Town, 
6/9/30. II. Womersley" in the South African Museum, Cape Town. 

15. Acerentulus wcstraliensis Womersley 

Acerentulus westralieusis Womersley 1932 p. 71, fig. 9-12; 1939 p. 286, 
fig, 78 E-H. 

Fig. 70-75. 

The description and drawings of this species were repeated 
unchanged in the 1939 publication. Several slides are present in the 
collection and I have chosen a male from Crawley, Western Australia, 
as a lectotype which is described as follows: 

The foretarsus (fig. 70-71) has very long and slender sensillae a-g, 
a is a little stouter than the others, e is placed quite near f, and b, c, 
and d are not in a line, tl is slender and club-shaped, t2 long and 
slender, t3 short-oval and not lancet like. On the inner side a' is long 
and thick, b' and long and slender. TE = 3.5, e:u = 1:8. 

The filamento di sostegno (fig. 72) is rather long and most 
unusually the posterior end seems to be shortly three-lobed. 

The comb on abd. VIII (fig. 73) consists of five slender dispersed 
teeth. 

The chaetotaxy (fig. 74-75) is as follows: 

I IT III 1V-V VT VTI VIIT IX X XI XII 



14 12 



I Q B(M) H_ 8 10 _8(") ^ 

12 14 14 14 14 16 14 

3 2( w ) 3 3 3 3 

H - ■ - - 4-( 1 *) 4 4 ft 6 

4 S 5 8 8 8 4( ) 4 4 tf o 

Leclotjipe: A male from "Crawley W.A., 8/5/31, D. C. Swan", 
in the South Australian Museum, Adelaide. 

(15) "5 M is missing; (16) but normally 3; (17) "3" in anterior row, retreated to posterior 
row; (18) normally in a row. 



96 



RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 




TUXEN— PROTURA 97 

16. Acereiitulus australiensis Womersley 

Acercutulvs tiustraliensis Womersley 1932 p. 72, fig. 3, 11-12; 1939 p. 
284, fig. 78 1-L. 

Fig. 76-80. 

Tins species is said to have been found "on only one occasion" 
which seems to imply only one specimen as only one slide with a. 
male, from "Crawley, W.A. 30/10/30. D. C. S." IS present in the 
collection exactly as stated in the description, repeated unchanged in 
1939. Both foretarsi (fig. 76) are seen directly from above, but only 
one is drawn. It is seen to be very close to that of westmliensts in the 
length and position of the sensillae. TR = 3.9, e:u = 1:6. 

The filamento di sostegno (fig, 77) is three-lobed at tlie proximal 
end and does not exceed the proximal arm of the fulcrum. 

The comb of abd. Vlll (Hg. 78) with 8 very smalt teeth. 

The chaetotaxy (fig, 79-80) is as follows: 

i ii-ur IV'-V VI VII viii in x xt xn 



« 


8 


8 


10 


M 


6 


10 


10 


lu 


10 


16 


H 



To To io is 

3 3 3 3 3 

4 f, 8 8 rf 3 * * * / 

The difference which Womersley notes is that sternite VTIl has 
only three setae. This is quite unusual and may be due to individual 
variation but another difference is that M la' M and "4a" are missing in 
all posterior rows of tergites I-VI (fig. 79). 

The species was founded on only a single specimen from the same 
locality (University Grounds, Crawley, Western Australia) as the 6 
specimens of in- straiten sis on which the description of the latter species 
was based. Only the specimen of a/ltstrtili&tosis was collected on October 
301 li, 1930, the Other specimens on November 2nd, 1930, and April-July, 
1931, all by Mr. D. 0, Swan. I would be tempted to synonymis* the 
two species as all characters except the chaetotaxy are alike, and 1 
would not hesitate to regard 1h^ chaetotaxy of sternite VT1T as an 
abnormality, but T have not known earlier examples ol' the missing of (he 
accessory hairs in the posterior tergal rows being due to individual 
variation. It might be a pre-imago & (in A, daniciis Oonde, u lft" M is 
missing in the posterior terga] rows in this stage), but the genijal 
squama is distinct and fully developed. Also the comb of abd. VIII 
is different from that of irestraliensis. 

Ilolotvpc: A male from "Crawley, W.A., 80/1&/BQ. D. C. 
Swan" in the South Australian Museum, Adelaide. 




Fig. 76-80. Acerentulus australiensis Worn.; Ilolotype $. 76, foretarsus from above; 77, 
iilaraento di sostegno; 78, comb of abd. VIII j 79, tergal chaetotaxy of abd. I- VII; 
80, sternal chaetotaxy of abd. VIII-XII. 

Fig. 81-83. Acerentulus tillyardi Worn.; Lectotype $. 81, foretarsus, exterior side; 82, 
interior side of same; 83, comb of abd. VIII. 



TUXEN— PROTURA 99 

17. Acerentulus tillyardi Womersley 

Acerentulus tillyardi Womersley 1932 p. 73, fig. L 2, 13, 14; 1939 p. 284, 
fig. 77 A-F. 

Fig. 81-83. 

Womersley writes that this is the only species found in the Eastern 
Australian States. It was first found by Dr. R. J. Tillyard at 
Blimdells*, F.C.T., 18th February, 1931, but only one specimen which 
now appears to be lost. Several other specimens were found the same 
year at Belgrave, Victoria, on the 19th April. Of these, two slides are 
present in Womersley \s collection, one a pre-larva, the other a female; 
I select the latter as a lectotype. Several other slides are also present, 
found after the publication of the original description, and some of 
these arc referred to in 1939. 

Womersley says that the species is very similar to A, westraliensis 
but differs distinctly in the value of TR which he gives as 3.6 in 
weslialiemus and 3.0 in tillyardi. This, however, is the only difference 
he gives. 

1 have examined and drawn the lectotype though its state of 
preservation does not permit me to see the characters of the foretarsus 
and the pseudocuK as clearly as in other species, nor can the filamento 
di sostegno be seen at all. I give the drawings of the Ion 'tarsus 
(fig. 81-82) with the sensillae as clearly as possible but my conclusion 
is that the small differences from the two preceding species are due 
only to my difficulty in examination. TR = 3.0, e:u = 1 :6. 

The comb of the eighth abdominal tergite (fig. 83) has six 
dispersed teeth as in westraliensis, but they are extremely short as in 
australiensis. 

The chaetotaxy is exactly as in australiensis, except that 
s VIII = 4, 

Lectoly/>e: A female from "Belgrave (Victoria) 19/4/31, coll. 
F. H. Drurnmond" in the South Australian Museum. 



The preceding three species of Acerentulus seem to me to be very 
close to one another — if they are really different. The forctarsi are 
very much alike as to size and disposition of the sensillae. The ratio 
TR, however, varies in the three type specimens. The filamento di 
sostegno is three-lobed proximally in two of them and possibly also in 
tillyardi (could not be seen). The abd, comb VIII consists of 6 longer 



100 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

teeth in westraliensis, 8 short ones in austral if a sis and 6 short ones 
"m tiliifardi, and in all three Speriies flispfiTsely set. The ehaetotaxy 
differs in so far as 4 'la M in the posterior row of the abdominal 
segments is missing' in australiensis and lillyanli (a VIII = 3 in 
australievsis may be regarded as abnormal). I have examined the 
other specimens found after the publication of the original description 
and tind that one is a true weslr(dicnsts y the others are like 
westralievsis but with the ehaetotaxy as in Ullyardi. 

18. Acerentulus occidentalis Womersley 

Aoerewtutm pCd4$ntalis Womersley 1932 p. 73, iig. 15-16; 1939 p. &85, 
fig. 78 A-P. 

Fig. 84-90. 

This species was described in 1932 (repeated unchanged in 1939) 
from seven specimens, two from the " University (.[rounds, Crawley, 
W.A. 28/4/31 and 29 /6 /31" and live specimens from "Fairbridge 
Farm, Pinjarra, W.A. 3Q/9/B1, under stones", all collected by Mr. 
D. C. Swan, Two slides are present in the collection of which I select 
a female as the lectotype described as follows: 

The foretarsus (fig. 84-85) is VetJ much like that of the preceding 
species, tl slenderly cltlb-shaped, t3 not lancet-like, b shorter than c, 
e placed very near to I, a' is thicker than all the other sensillae. 
TR — 4.0, e:ii - 1 :K. 

The filameiito di SOStegntJ (fig. 86) is longer than the arm of the 
fulcrum, and weakly three -lobed at the proximal end. The shape of 
the head is seen in tig. 87; there is a distinct labrum. Abdominal comb 
VIII (fig. 88) has 15 very closely set and rather long teeth. 

Tile ehaetotaxy is as follows (fig. 89) : 



1 


11 111 


IV-V 


VJ 


Vll 


\ 111 


IX 


X 


XI 


XI 


6 
12 


14 


s 

14 


to 

14- 


8 

10 




It 


14 


[2 





a 


3 
4 


3 


3 

S 


3 

8 


3 

8 


2 
2 


4 


i 


tf 


t5 



This is exactly as in U y&8t ralicnsis except that the two median 
setae on stcrnite VII 1 are placed in a a anterior row. The tergal 
apodemes are slightly branched. 

Lectotype: A female from ' 'Crawley, W.A. 21/4/31, coll. 
D. C. Swan", in the South Australian Museum, Adelaide. 

Tins species is distinctly different I'mm the three preceding species 
but the great resemblance in the forrtarsus is very curious. The 



TUXEN— PROTURA 



101 




Fig. 84-90. Acerentulus occidentalis Worn.; Lectotype 9. 84, foretarsus, exterior side; 
85, interior side of same; 86, filamento di sostegno ; 87, contour of head; 88, comb of 
abd. VIII; 89, sternal ehaetotaxy of abd. VIII-XII; 90, anterior part of pleurite VII, 
sternum to left. 



102 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

abd. couib VII T, however, distinguishes it clearly as also does the 
disposition of the sternal setae on abd. VIII. The presence of a 
labrimi is quite unexpected. With uncertainty as to the real difference 
between Acerenfidus and Acerentomon i should not like to transfer the 
species to the latter genus: firstly because of the great similarity of 
the foretarsus and the filamento di sostegno to the Arcrfutulus species, 
and secondly because it shows no pleural row of teeth on abd. VIII as 
species of AccrentoiHon generally do, nor is there a pectine on pleurite 
VI or VII. The only feature reminiscent of this is the "rotary-wheel" 
which is present on pleurite VII (fig. 90) and which I have not 
observed in the preceding Acerentitlus species. 

19, Acerentulus sexspinatus Womersley 
Acerpntnhis sexspivotus Womersley 1936 p. 65, fig. 1-2; 1939 p. 286. 

Fig. 91-98. 

This species was described in 1936 from a number of specimens 
collected by Mr. D. C. Swan from under stones u on banks of the River 
Onkaparinga, near Noarlungn, South Australia, April 25th, 1932". 
Tenter, Womersley collected (wo adult and five immature specimens 
from under stones on the banks of the stream in the Bolgairop "Ravine, 
South Western Australia, 30/9-1/10/32. Slides of these specimens are 
not present in Womerslev's collection. The description was repeated 
in 10W. 

As justified in the introduction I select one of the original 
collection, marked as ''type" as a lectotype and describe it as follows: 

The foretarsus (fig. 91-92) is provided with very long and slender 
sensillae, only a' being stout but long, tl is slenderly club-shaped, f3 
long and lancet-like. TR = 6.0, em = 1 ;7. 

The filamento di sostegno (fig, 93) is as long as the proximal arm 
of the fulcrum; its proximal fend two-lobed, heart-shaped. Fig. 94 
shows the shape of Ehfi head and the exceptionally broad pseudoculi. 

The comb of Abd. VTT1 (fig. 95) with about 10 closely set teeth 

The chaetotaxy (fig. 96-98) is as follows: 

I n -in iv. v vi vrr vni ix x xi xn 

12 12 « s* 



6 


8 


8 


8 


8 


6 


10 


12(") 


12 


14 


18 


ie 


3 
4 


a 

6 


3 

8 


3 
8 


3 
8 


4 
2 



(19) n la" ia missing. 



TUXEN— PROTURA 



103 




Fig. 91-98. Acerentulus sexspinatus Worn.; Lectotype 9- 91> foretarsus from above; 92, 
same of paratype, exterior side to show disposition of sensillae; 93, filamento di 
BOfltegnoj 94, contour of head; 95, comb of abd. VIII; 9(5, tergal chaetotaxy of abd. 
V-VII ; 97, sternal chaetotaxy of abd. V-VII ; 98, sternal chaetotaxy of abd. VIII-XII. 



104 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

It is important how many accessory setae have been added to the 
posterior row on termite VII. Also the number of setae on sternite 
VIII is different from that in the other Australian species of 
Acerentuh/bs* 

Leclotjipe: A female i'rom "Onkaparinga Riv., Noarlunga, S.A., 
25/4/32, D. C. Swan" in the South Australian Museum, 

This species is readily distinguished from the other Australian 
species by the very small claw of the foretarsus, the long t3, the 
filamento di sostegno and the comb and ehaetotaxy of abd. VIII. 

REFERENCES 

Bagnall, R, S., 1936: Notes on Protura I. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (10), 
17, pp. 210-213. 

Bonet, F., 1942: Sobre algunos Protttroa de Mexico (not a preliminar). 
Oieneia, 3 pp. 14-17. 

Bonet, F. and Tuxen, S. L., 1960: Re-examination of species of 

Ptotnra described by H. E. Ewiug. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus, 

1 12, pp. 265-30r>. 
Conde, B., 1944: Sur la faune des Protoures de France. Rev. Fr. d'ent. 

11, pp. 3«-47. 
Ewiug, H. E., 1940: The Protura of North America. Ann. Ent. Sue. 

America 33, pp. 495-551. 

lonescu, M. A., 1932: Nouvellos contributions a la connaissance de la 
faune des Protoures en Roumauie. Publ. Soe. Nat. 
Romania, No. 11, 11 pp. 

Mills, Harlow B., 1932: Catalogue of the Protura. Bull. Brooklyn 
Ent. Soc. 27, pp. 125-130. 

Nosek, J., 1957: Prispevek k faune hmyzenek (Protura). CSR 
Zoologieke Ldsty, Brno, 6, pp. 31-38. 

Paclt ? jirl, 1958: Sur la faune Tc4ieeoslovaque des Protoures. Acta 
Faunistica Ent. 3, pp. 3-6. 

Prell, H., 1913: Das Chitinskelett von Eoseutomon. Zoologica 25, 
54 pp. 

Tuxen, S. L., 1949: Tiber den Lebenszyklus und die postembryonale 
Enhvicklung zweier clanischer Proturengattungen. Kgl. 
da. Vid. Sclsk. Biol. Skr. 6, 3, 49 pp. 

1955: The first record of Canadian Protura, with systematic 

notes on Acerevtulus. Ent. Mcdd. 27, pp. 113-128. 



TUXEN— PROTURA 105 

1956a: Neues iiber die von Berlese beschriebenen Proturen. 

Redia 41, pp. 227-258. 

1956b: Neues iiber die von Silvestri beschriebenen Proturen. 

Boll. Lab. Zool. Gen. e Agr., Portici 33, pp. 718-729. 

1958: Neues iiber Eoscvlovioa armatum. Stach. Acta Zool. 

Cracoviensia 11 27, pp. 621-636. 

1959: The phylogenetic significance of entognathy in 

entognathous aptervgotcs. Smiths. Misc. Coll. 137, pp. 
379-416. 

1960a: Erganzcndes iiber die von Silvestri mid Berlese 

beschriebenen Proturen. Ent, Medd. 29, pp. 294-303. 

1960b: Neues iiber die von Rimsky-Korsakow, Prell, Stach, 

Denis, Ionescu, Strenzke und Gisin beschrieben Arten 
von EosiMtioinou (Protura). Vid. Medd. Nat. For. 123, 
pp. 1-19. 

1960c: Eine neue G a thing von Proturen: Ionescuellum. 

Vid. Medd. Nat. For. 123, pp. 21-32. 

1960: On Ewing\s Protura, ride Bonet and Tuxen. 

1961; Neues iiber die von Ionescu beschriebenen Proturen. 

in press. 

Womerslev, H„ 1924: The Apterygota of the South-West of England. 
Part II. Proc. Bristol Nat. Soc. (4) 6, pp. 166-172. 

1927a: Notes on the British species of Protura, with deseri p- 

tions of new genera and species. Ent. Mo. Mag. 63, pp. 
140-148. 

1927b: A study of the larval forms of certain species of 

Protura. Ent. Mo. Mag. 63, pp. 149-153. 

1927c: Notes on the mounting of Protura. Ent. Mo. Mag. 

63, pp. 153-154. 

1928a: Further notes on the British Species of Protura. 

Ent, Mo. Mag. 64, pp. 113-115. 

1928b: Additional notes on the Protura. Ent. Mo. Mag. 64, 

pp. 230-233. 

1929: Further British records of Protura. Ent, Mo. Mag. 

65, p. 39. 

1931 : A South African species of Protura. Ann. South 

African Mus. 30, pp. 89-91. 



106 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

1932: A preliminary account of the Protura of Australia. 

Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 57, pp. 69-76. 

1936: A new species of Protura from Australia. Ent. Mo. 

Mag. 72, pp. 65-66. 

1938: On two new species of Protura from Iowa, U.S.A. 

Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 33, pp. 219-223. 

1939: Primitive insects of South Australia. Adelaide, 

322 pp. (Protura, pp. 279-289.) 



STUDIES OF THE ACARINA FAUNA OF LEAF-LITTER 
AND MOSS FROM AUSTRALIA 

No. l.-A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF PHAULODINYCHIDAE, 
CORBIDINYCHUS CORBICULARIS, FROM QUEENSLAND 

(ACARINA, UROPODINA) 



ByH. Womersley, Honorary Ac arologist, South Australian Museum 



Summary 

A new genus and species of Phaulodinychidae, Corbidinychus eorbicularis, is described 

from specimens from leaf-litter from Queensland. Females, males and tritonymphs are 

known. 

The basket-like hyaline fringe of long marginal setae is remarkable and resembles 

superficially that of a somewhat similar genus and species Clausadinychus cristatus 

described by Sellnick from Martinique. Comparison of the two species is discussed and 

they are shown to belong to two different familes of Uropodina. 



STUDIES OF THE ACAREMA FAUNA OF LEAF-LITTER AND 

MOSS FROM AUSTRALIA 

No. 1.— A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF PHAULODINYCHIDAE, 
CORBIDINYCHUS CORBICULARIS, FROM QUEENSLAND 
(ACARINA, UROPODINA) 

By H. WOMEBSLEY, Honorary Aoarologist, South Australian 

Museum 

Pig. 1-2 

SYNOPSIS 

A new genus and species of Phaulodinychidae, Corbidinychiis 
corbirularis, is described from specimens from leaf-litter from Queens- 
land, Females, males and tritonymphs are known. 

The basket-like hyaline fringe of long marginal setae is remarkable 
and resembles superficially that of a somewhat similar genus and 
species Clausadi-ntfcluis crista his described by Sellnick from Martinique. 
Comparison of the two species is discussed and they are shown to 
belong to two different families of Uropodina. 



Genus Corbidinychiis nov. 

According to the key to the families of the Uropodina given by 
Baker and Wharton, 1952, based on the studies of Tragardh and 
Max Sellnick, this new genus, except for the exposure of the 
tritosternum between coxae I and the position of the stigma more 
directly opposite coxae TIT. rather than between coxae IT and III, falls 
into the family Phaulodinychidae Berlese 1917. 

The body is dorso-ventrally compressed with the gnathosoma 
completely hidden under the dorsum. The dorsal shield is entire and 
occupies most of the dorsum, except for the marginal shields which 
anteriorly are coalesced with the dorsal and posteriorly are reduced 
to a pair of short narrower shields, and then a pair of narrow posterior 
marginal shields. The dorsal shield is punctate and furnished with 
fine slender tapering setae and a number of pores. The edge of the 



108 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

marginal shield carries a double series of long mide curved setae which 
extend all round the body except for the posterior one-fifth. The 
more dorsal of the two series of setae are longer and about one-fifth 
of (lie body width; all are furnished with broad irregular hyaline 
laminae and together they form a hyaline wall braced by the setae, 
like the .sides of a basket. On the posterior fifth of the margin the 
hyaline membrane is continued but here the setae are in one row and 
much logger, straight and not so tapering. Ventral ly the leg 
depressions are disfincl. Leg 1 is furnished wilh a lung caruncle and 
paired 'laws. The trifostermim has only two laciniae and is clearly 
exposed between coxae T, The stigma is small, situated directly 
Opposite coxae III and the thin peril rome makes a right angled bend 
before miming to the margin in a. double curve midwav between coxae 
11 and TTT. The female genital shield is elongated, with posterior 
truncate jnsl in front of posterior margin of coxae IV; it reaches 
anteriorly to middle of coxae IT. The rnetnsternal shields arc coalesced 
with the. sterno-genital shield. The anus is in the middle of the large 
vent ri anal shield. In the male the genital orifice is situated between 
coxae IV, and the anterior cover or operculum is hinged anteriorly and 
carries a pair of loiig genital setae. 

Corbidinychus corbicularis sp. nov. 
Fig. 1, A.-F, 2, A -17 

Local tt i/: Seven females, four males and three tritonymphs 
obtained by the Berlese funnel method from leaf litter from the corner 
of TTaven Road and Upper Brookficld Road, Brookficld, Queensland, 
22nd July. I960 (cull. & H. Derrick). 

Tgpe&i Hblptype female, allotype male, morphotype tritonymph, 
and all paralypes in the cnllcelion of the South Australian .Museum. 

Description, 

A rathe* small brownish, dorso-ventrally depressed species with 
the gnalhosoma completely hidden by the dorsum; with a double series 
of long curved marginal setae forming in life the wall of a basket. 

Female holotypr. Almost circular in form; length 760/*, width 702//. 

Dorsum: Dorsal shield covering the whole of the dorsum except 

for the marginal shields, finely punctate with 44 long, 72m, fine flexible 

tapering setae of which the middle members of the second and third 

transverse rows are not paired, almost every seta is accompanied by 



WOMERSLEY— A PHAULODINYCHID FROM QUEENSLAND 



109 




* "i 



Fig. 1, Cmbitlinychiis ('orbicularis £. et sp.nov. A, ventral view of f t'lualu ; B, dorsum of 
female; O. giiatliosoma, from brluw; ]), sternal and genital shields of female, much 
enlarged; E, sternal and genital shields of male, much enlarged; F, tarsus of leg I of 

female. 



no 



RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 




Fig. 2. Corbidinychus corMcularis g. et sp.nov. A, two of the long marginal setae 
showing hyaline laminae; B, peritreme of female; 0, tritosternum of female; D, chelicerae 
of female; E, tectum of female; F, anus of female; Gr, genital shields of male, much 
enlarged; H, genu, tibia and tarsus of leg II of male; I, ventral view of tritonymph 
(marginal aetae omitted). 



WOMERSLEY— A PHAULODINYCH1D FROM QUEENSLAND 111 

a conspicuous round pore; the shield is 714/^ long by 608/>- wide, the 
sides converge inwards slightly from just behind the middle, and 
posteriorly there W & short incision. The marginal shields are 77a* 
wide, coalesced anteriorly with the dorsal and reduced posteriorly 
where they break up into a narrower shield and then into two posterior 
marginal shields which are only about 20/* in depth and 168/x wide, 
the marginal shields carry a douhle series of approximately 27 on 
each side of long curved tapering setae, the upper scries anteriorly 
extend to 164/s and medially to 234/* before they curve backwards 
reaching a total length of ca. 48(K the shorter sel;ie extend to 117//: 
posteriorly about 6 setae on each side in a single series are straighter, 
less tapering and to 351ft long, all these setae ftte furnished with wide 
irregular hyaline laminae and together they form a sort of basket 
arrangement the sides of which stand up in life to a height of 
about 234a*. 

Venter: Gnathosorna, tritosternum and coxae 1 set in a distinct 
camerostomc. Tritosternum with elongate basal portion and a single 
pair of ciliated laciniac. Sternal shield as figured, Bitty, wide anteriorly, 
coalesced with the endopodal and uietnsternal shields, with 6 pairs of 
very minute setae, each accompanied by a pore, in addition a lyriform 
pore, just posterior of sternal setae T which are close to the. anterior 
margin, sterna) setae 11 are just anterior of but close to (he apex of 
the perigeuital ring, thou follows four other pairs of setar, the first of 
which may be sternal setae III, (lie last the metasternal setne, and the 
two intermediate supersternal setae, all these are on the perigeuital 
rim. The genital shield is 168^ long by 9G/x wide and slightly overlaps 
the perigeuital ring apical!}, it is furnished with punctae. The 
ventri-anal shield is also punctate and carries 6 pairs of largely 
pre-anal setae of 9(5/* and 4fy' in length. 

(r/iathosoma: As figured, with four pairs of hypostomal setae 
which lie in a longitudinal line, the rostral pair are the longest and 
tapering, the first post-rostral pair of medium length and tnpeving, 
tin: capitular and second post-rostral pairs are shorter and blunt 
tipped; labial cornicles short and blunt pointed, Ohelicerae as figured, 
fixed digit the longer with two indislinct subapical teeth. Tectum a 
long slender spike, slightly sw r ollen medially with five pairs of spine- 
lets. Palpi with five free segments, tarsi with two long setae and 
fined seta stout and two-pronged; genu with a single stout inner spim* 

Legs: Generally slender, I 560/* long, IT 515/'. long, III 515/*, 
IV 560/x, tarsi 1 slightly swollen in distal half with long caruncle and 



112 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

paired claws, and with a terminal slender seta longer than the segment, 
tarsi TI-IV with much shorter caruncle and paired claws. 

Male allotype. Of the same general facies and dimensions as in the 
female. 

Dorsum : Dorsal and marginal shields as in female, dorsal 690/* 
long by 526/1 wide, marginal 82/* wide; dorsal and marginal setae as 
in the female. 

Vend r; (lenital orifice between coxae IV, operculum fringed above 
and furnished with a pair of setae 28j* long, orifice 72/x wide by G2/t 
long; center otherwise as in female, and as figured. 

Leys: Of the same general structure and length as in (he female 
except that the genu, tibia and tarsus of leg I are furnished with much 
longer and stonier setae as figured. 

TrtfoHt/iupJ! viorpholype. General facies as in the female. Length 
G55#j width 4;!7ju. 

Dorsum: Marginal shields net manifest; dorsal shield occupying 
all the dorsum, with punctae and »etae as in the female. 

I'eufer: Sternal shield 172/* Wide anteriorly and 192/* wide 
posteriorly, 322/* long, (lie posterior margin lightly concave and only 
Separated from the anterior margin of ventri-anal shield by a narrow 
strip, with apparently only five pairs oL' minute pores, of which the 
anterior pair are lyriform. Ventri-anal shield roughly transversely 
oval, 120//. long by 26G> wide, with five pairs of setae besides the 
anal setae. 

Leys: Depressions for the legs present but on the outside of the 
depressions with two reticulate shields, one opposite coxae IV an 
elongate rough oval, and another smaller Opposite coxae Tl and 111 
carrying the peritrerne. Otherwise as in the female, all legs about 
equal, 374** long. 

Iiemarks, The peculiar and striking development of the marginal 
setae of this flritG IS strongly reminiscent of the equally curious form 
C'loitsiulltnich us crista! us Sellniek 1 930 described from Martinique. 
l:>olh forms have long setae forming a fringe on the margins of the 
marginal shields. ("loHsafiinyehtis, however, on the structure of the 
dorsal shields belongs to the family Prodinychidae whereas Cnrbi- 
(liuyclius belongs to the Phaulodinychidae. 



WOMERSLEY— A PHAULODINYCHID FROM QUEENSLAND 113 

In the new genus and species the body is dorso-ventrally depressed 
while in Clausadinychus it is elevated from front to rear, and the 
marginal shields form a raised rim which is not so in Corbidinychus. 
The long marginal setae in the Martinique species are finely ciliated, 
in Corbidiny chits nude and laminated. The setation of the dorsal 
shield is different in the two forms. Leg I of Clausadinychus lacks 
any ambulacral apparatus and in the male the genital orifice is longer 
than wide and situated between coxae II. 

REFERENCES 

Baker E. W. and Wharton Gr. W., 1952: An introduction to Acarology. 

Berlese, A., 1917: Intorno agli Uropodidae, in "Redia", 13 (1) : 7-16. 

Sellnick, M., 1930: Eine neue Milbe von Martinique (Acar. Uropod.). 
Zool. Anz., 91 (5-8) : 168-180. 

Tragardh, I., 1942: Further contributions towards the Comparative 
Morphology of the Mesostigmata — Where are the meta- 
sternal shields of the Uropodina? Arkiv. f. Zool., 34A 
(3) : 3-10. 

1944: Zur Systematik der Uropodiden. Entom. Tidsk, 65: 

173-186. 

1946: Contributions towards the comparative Morphology 

of the Mesostigmata (Acarina) VII. The praesternal 
hairs and the male genital aperture. Entom. Tidsk. 64 
(3): 88-108. 



STUDIES OF THE ACARINA FAUNA OF LEAF-LITTER 
AND MOSS FROM AUSTRALIA 

No. 2.-A NEW TRACHYTID MITE, POLYASPINUS 

TUBERCULATUS, FROM QUEENSLAND 

(ACARINA, TRACHYTINA) 



ByK Womersley, Honorary Ac arologist, South Australian Museum 



Summary 

A third species of the genus Polyaspinus Berlese, 1917, P. tuberculatus sp.nov., is 
described from specimens collected from leaf-litter from Brookfield, Queensland. Adults 
of both sexes as well as the larva, protonymph and tritonymph are known. 
In his 1953 paper "A Revision of the Cohort Trachytina Tragardh 1938, etc.", Dr. J. H. 
Camin has shown on p. 365 that the family Polyaspinidae erected by Tragardh in 1941 
for Polyaspinus cylindricus Berlese 1917 is not justified, and that the genus should be 
placed in the Trachytidae. It was considered that the characters used by Tragardh to 
separate the two families, Trachytidae and Polyaspinidae, were no more significant than 
those used to separate the four genera included in the other family of Trachytina, the 
Polyaspidae. 



STUDIES OF THE ACARINA FAUNA OF LEAF-LITTER AND 

MOSS FROM AUSTRALIA 

No. 2.— A NEW TRACHYT1D MITE, POLYASPINUS TUBERCU- 
LATUM FROM QUEENSLAND (ACARINA, TRACHYTINA) 

By H. WOMERSLEY, Honorary Acarologist, South Australian 

Museum 

Fig. 1-2 

SYNOPSIS 

A third species of the genus Poly as punts Berlese, 1917, P. tuber- 
ctilatiis sp.nov., is described from specimens collected from leaf-litter 
from Brookfield, Queensland. Adults of both sexes as well as the 
larva, protonymph and tritonymph are known. 



In his 1953 paper "A Revision of the Cohort Trachytina Tragardh 
1938, etc.", Dr. J. H. Caiiiin has shown on p. 365 that the family 
Polyaspinidae erected by Triigardh in 1941 for PdlyaSpinuB cylindricus 
Berlese 1917 is not justified, and that the genus should be placed in 
the Trachytidae. It was considered that the characters used by 
Tragardh to separate the two families, Trachytidae and Polyaspinidae, 
were no more .significant than those used to separate the four genera 
include^ in the other family of Trachytina, the Polyaspidac 

In his key (lor. cit. p. 3(37) to the families and genera of the 
Trachytina, Camin separates the Trachytidae and Polyaspidae mainly 
on the presence or absence of small claws on tarsi I. The first of these 
families, in which claws are present on tarsi I, contains only the genera 
Trachytes Michael 1894, and Poh/asphnts Berlese 1917 which he 
separates as follows: — 

"Body pyriform; metasternal shields narrow, elongate, 
flanking genital apperture; epigynial shield trapezoidal; 
dorsal marginal shields entire; dorsum covered by nymphal 
skins. 

Genus Trachytes. 



116 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Body oval, pointed anteriorly; inetasternal shields usually 
reduced, rounded, at posterior corners of genital apperture; 
epigynial shield ovoid, truncate posteriorly; dorsal marginal 
Betae on individual platelets; dorsum with fragments of 
nyrnphal skins on shields only. 

Genus Polyaspinus." 

Until 11)54 only the genotype of PolyasphtHs, F\ cylhvlricus Berl. 
1917 was known but in that year Gamin described a second species, 
P. liigginsi, from a solitary female specimen collected by Mr. Harold 
Bigghia in Idaho, U.S.A. 

More recently, however, the present writer obtained a number of 
specimens of a Polyaspid mite from a collection of leaf-litter from the 
corner of Haven Road and Upper Brookfield Eoad, Brookfield, 
Queensland, made bv Dv. I). II. Derrick. These mites have proved to 
be a third species of Potyaspinus, and are here described and figured 
as a new species, Polyaspinus tuberndalus sp.nov. The larval, proto- 
nymphal and tritonymphal stages as well as both sexes were present. 

Polyaspinus tuberculatus sp. nov. 
Fig. 1, AH ; 2, AH 

Locality'- In leaf litter from the corner of Haven Koad and Upper 
Brookfield Road, Brookfield, Queenslnnd, 20th July, 1960 (coll. 
E. 11. Derrick). 

Types: Holotype female, allotype male and morphotypes of larva, 
protonymph and tVitonymph, as well as six paratype males, and one 
paratype tritonymph in the collection of the South Australian Museum, 

Description. 

Fewule liolofype; Fig. 1, A-J, 2, A. A strongly sclerotised, deep 
brownish species with fragments of nymphal skins adhering. Body 
boat-shaped with vertex a rounded point terminating in a small bifid 
tubercle, sides curved and posterior truncate With a pair of large 
broadly conical processes, flattened dnrsally with a slightly concave 
smooth median strip, slightly convex ventrally, shields strongly 
areolated, Length of idiosoma 1,088ft, width ft78j». 

Dorsum: Fig. 1, B. With a large oval median shield, 749/* long 
by 433a* wide, strongly sclerotised and areolate laterally but with a 
clear smooth median strip, on the margins of this strip are 7 pairs 
of small 24/» setae each of which is accompanied by 2-3 small round 



WOMERSLEY— A TRACHYTID FROM QUEENSLAND 



117 




Fig, 1. A-K — Polyaapinus tubvrculatus sp.nov. A- J — Female. A, venter; B, dorsum; 
0. gnathosoma ventral; D, mandible; E. tectum: F, tined seta of palpal tarsus; G, short 
Btumpy sternal seta; H, dorsal marginal seta; I, tarsus 1; J, tarsus II; K, male, venter. 



118 I I CORDS OF THE S.A, MUSEUM 

pores, anteriorly on the lateral margins of the shield arc four pairs of 
ptae, the anterior pair 24/* long- and fine, the others to 48/* long, 
continuing posteriorly arc 4 pairs of pores or J Beta] bases-, there are 
two series of marginal setae, the biner is 8 ta number on each side, 
generally situated singly on individual platelets although wh§re two 
platelets are coal&sced two setee may be present, the anterior platelets 
on each side are elongate and coalesced anteriorly of the dorsal shield 

they carry the verth lie setae of &2fi length and one pair o| short setae 

2-h< long, the setae on the other platelets are i. ±1.1.1.1. to !)b> long; 
the outer eerier of marginal setae are 7 in ftumber to 62j^ long and on 
eery small platelets, the anterior one on each side lacta a B©taj between 
the posterior end of the large antorior marginal platelet and the dorsal 
shield is another -himII platelel on each side with sata 62m long, and at 
tii- posterior end of the dorsal shield and in front of the aniero lateral 
I of the p<J tieid is another pair of plan-Ms with a 

stronger seta to 110// bang; the posterior shield is rectangular, strongly 

lolated, '2'~)7/a wide by 187/' long, without setae except for a pail 

b posterior corner 72? long, the miter setae roiitg on raised 

tubercles; the livMon.- . :: m two |<arge BOnfcal characteristic 

prominences, 67// long by 72/.', wide, Mfth nimh-hed with ;, short curved 
seta. 

VmHr\ Fig. J, A. Trito&iermwn with broad rectangular basal 
pari exposed between coxad i and w it h paired laelniaoj sternal shield 

coalesced with the endopodals, parapodaJS and metapodals and 
surrounding the pcngenital rim, posteriorly of COSae IV the combined 
shield extends to a point midway on each side of the round ventri-ana! 

shield, the shield is strongly areolated except for a wide slightly raised 

median strip extending I Vorn the posterior of the perigenital rim to the 
anterior margin ol' the ventri-anal shield and a narrow strip which 

runs I'rom the posterior margin to coxae IV (fig. ± A), sternal setae I 
to the anterior margin and accompanied by a lyrifown pore, 

ae 11 are ahoui midwny between 1 and the apex of ihe genital rim, 

ni are in lino with the angles between coxae IN and TV, two super- 

i }'nal s< i : r lie close to Hie perigenital rim opposite coxae III, all 

these setae are short and slnmpy (fig, I, 0) nnd MITT am ncconipnnied 

bv small round por< : tho medltpa strip expands posteriorly -and earries 

5 pairs of setae, the anterior pair being short and stumpy and sub- 
median in position, fchfi second and third pairs am Longer and spine- 
like and lateral on the margins of the strip, the fourth pair am short 
and stnmpy and placed on strong tnboreles. the fifth pair arc at the 
pxtreme end of the p'>stero lateral expansions <>f the median strip and 



WOMERSLEY— A TRACHYT1D FROM QUEENSLAND 




Wig. ~. A -II — Folyaspmus luhercvlaUix si.i.nov. A, genital area of female, enlarged; 
B, same of nmlc; C, tritonymph ventral j D, same dorsal: B, protonympli ventral; F, same 

dorsal; G, lawn ventral; II, snnip dorsal. 



120 RECORDS OF THH S,A. MUSEUM 

also on strong lubercles ami with a strong Bffri .spine-like seta, the 
inner areolated portions of the shield carry two 40/* setae on each side 
and the outer predated portions a stronger posterior tubercle with 
seta 96/x loilgj the ventri-anal shield is round, strongly areolate, 288)* 
long by 307 fi wide, with the anus posterior of the mid-line and with 
only the two pairs of anal setae; the metasternal shields are reduced, 
rounded, and situated in the postero lateral corners of the perigenital 
rim, they Garrj a strong seta 72/i long and a small round pore. 

The genital shield is oval with an excavate anterior and a truncate 
hinged posterior margin, it overlaps Hta B&hilarl; shaped perigenital 
rim anteriorly, and is without setae, it is 192//. long by 1S2/* wide. 
The stigmata are situated opposite coxae HI with short poritreme 
reaching to coxae II. 

(hxitliosnnta : As figured ; fig, 1, 0. With four pairs of hypostomal 
setae in a longitudinal row, the posterior post-rostral and the rostral 
setae about twice as long as the capitular and anterior post-rostral 
iae; the labia] cornicles are short and broad. 

The ehelicerae, fig. 1, D as figured, the moveable digit is edentate 
and shorter than the fixed digit, the apex of which is dentate. The 
JWilfM, fig, 1, We (NegmentQO, the firs! free segment with two short 
stout spines and the femora, wilh an miter anterior spine, tarsus with 
'Moied basal seta and long subtorminal setae. The tectum is of 
! -riiliar form (i\ii\ t, E) with cylindrical basal part topped by two 
outwardly directed cornea! piece: 

Le.rjs: Generally fairly dendfi* an. I shorter (fig. 1, P), than the 
body, I 702/x long, tarsi 1 with a pair of small sessile claws and a long 
192/* terminal seta, IT 76*0,* long, ITT 64S**, IV 819/ij tarsi TI-IV (\]g. 1, J), 
with ambulacra of short barnnde, pointed pulvillus and strong paired 
claws. 

Male allotype, (boieral iaeies as in the female. Length of idiosoma 
1,110/*, width 64LV. 

Dorsum: Shields and ehaetotaxy as in the female. 

Venter: Fig. 1, K. Shields coalesced and areolated as in the 
■ale, Genital shield (fig, 2, B) transversely oval, 96/' wide !>y B2 /• 
long, situated between coxae NT and TV; sternal setae T and II and 
supevstio'nal setae short and stumpy situated as in fk>\ 2, By ITI in 
line with the anterior margin of genital orifice and long with 
accompanying pore, only one pair of supersternal stumpy setae 
pre&entj metasternal setae long and tapering, in line with posterior 
of genital orifice, setae posterior of genital orifice as in tin- female but 



WOMERSLEY— A TRACHYTID FROM QUEENSLAND 121 

liir firsi two pairs longer and pointed ; otherwise as in the female in 
all respects. 

Giuilhosoma: Palpi, cliclieerae, and tectum as in the female. 

LeptSl Somewhat shorter than in the female, T $6fy long, TT 702/*. 

long, in (;4;; /s rv tab 

Larva nwrfjlioti/pe: Fig. 2, G-H. Of oval Bhape. Length of 
idiosoma 585/tj width 328ft. 

Dorsum; Pig, 2, H willj a large spear-head shaped median shield 
331 r by 250// wide, not. reaching Dearly to the anterior of dorsum, 
ornamented with areolations as shown, furnished with 9 pairs of small 
setae including the ^articles, of these the Ihree marginal pairs are 
stumpy, die others pointed; on each side slightly posterior of the 
vertex is a small irregular platelet without setae, posterior of the 
lateral Corners is another small platelet with a seta, in the posterior 
fcnglSfi of the spoar-head are a few areolae, in a transverse row in 
line with the posterior tip of the shield are four simple setae lo 57/* 
Long; posterior shield transversely pval with flattened anterior and 

posterior margins, H4>< wide by &8p> long and areolate only on the 

posterior hall', without setae; posterior of this shield is a pair of sub- 
marginal platelets beating a short seta while laterad of these on each 
side, is a cluster of 5 slender tapering setae to 57m long. 

Veil I ci : As figured (fig, 2, (J), with only a posterior ventnanal 
shield, fiodal and sternal shields absent; Hie sterna] and metasternal 
shields only represented by four pairs of minute setae; vntri-anal 
shield reticulate;, 144/' wide by 72m long, with a straight anterior 
margin, and with only the anal setae, anterior of this shield is a 
procurved line of four short setae. 

Leg*: i 292** long, li -47/s ill 347ft all rapidly tapering. 

Prolonijniph niorphoti/pe: Fig. 2, K-l\ Of oval shape, length of 
idiosoma 585/f, width 328/** 

Dorsum: Fig. 2, V. With a large median shield, smaller posterior 
and a pair of elongate marginal shields, the median shield is 307// long 
by 173m wide, longitudinally rectangular except for the anterior third 
which tapers to a rounded vertex, it is areolate on the lateral thirds 
and smooth and slightly depressed medially, on the median strip it 
carries 7 pairs of short stumpy setae including the \< j r1icles, and on the 
lateral margins five pairs of setae; the anterior lateral marginal shields 
are 216/x long by 48/* Wide, without setae, areolated and they carry the 
stigmata and peritreme; the posterior shield is pentagonal, L20/i long 



122 RECORDS Of THE S.A. MUSEUM 

l»\ 14U' Wide, areplate With a lateral marginal pair of spathulate setae 
to 4S// long; OH the caiticle, between the median and lateral shields and 
PflSterlfir thereof are 19 pairs of strong' setae which pmhably represent 
the marginal of (lie adults, of these (i-7 pairs lie between the 

marginal shields and the median, the remainder to en 38/* long arise 
Prom small tubercles and generally are curved, tapering, with a short 
lateral branch. 

)'<i>f(>: Fig. 2, K, Sternal shield elongate* widest anteriorly to 

120m, then contracting to 20/* between coxae 11, expanding to 62fi 
between coxae III and Ihen tapering to a point at ftbdttt midway of 
coxae IV, length 1P2/', tin* anterior coiners are united with the 
ciulonodal shields of CJOXaG U to Torn) short lobes, the shield is 
furnished with one pair of i -'mall setae and two pairs of pores 1 or 
minute setae, the. posterior tip is nreolate; ventri-anal longer than 
wide, 144// by 108/*, elongate ovoid bu1 alightly constricted in posterior 

Italf, areolata except for the anal region, wiih one pair of minute setae 

and the anal setae; metapodnl shields free, large, triangular and 
reticulate, ,>. wide hy 120/, I<mg ; on the cuticle between coxae TV and 

between tbe metapodal shields with 5 pairs of minute setae of which 

tln> third and fourth pairs ;<!•<• in a transverse row, laterad of the 
venfri-anal shield on ench side are four stronger curved setae on 
tubercle 

I^fis: I 29$u ion- ii ;:i(;„. \\\ 292**, IV 35fy. 

Triltiwpnph mitrphOiype; Fig. 2, (J-IX Ovoid in shape, with conical 
vertex, sides convex, posterior margin truncate with a pair of short 
conical processes on each side of the inner ones as in the adult*. 

Length of idioaonia pSffy, width 526^* 

Dw$Um\ Pig, 2, D. With a large media]) shield as figured, with 
conical vertex. cbllVOX ;-id< s and sinuate convex posterior margin, 
nation and areola! ion as in th« adults; marginal i -Hae in two series 
of about 12 on each side on tic individual platelets of varying size 
and accompanied hy 1 3 pflr&s, ;-elac to 57/' long, outer series of 8 
setae mi each Side to £8/j long of which the first 5 are situated on the 

elongate! anterior marginal shields; posterior shield wider than !oi 

24U." })v L20/»5 with concave anterior margin and convex posterior 
margin, areolate, without setae; a pair of aetae 57m long, on small 
platelets in front of (he anterior corners of the posterior shield. 

Vrnln : Fig. 2, C. Sternal shield of the same shape as in the 
prnlonymph, with more expensive a eolation, l!>2/< wide anteriorly con- 
tracting to 82/* between coxae U and then expanding to IQQu before 



WOMERSLEV— A TRACHYT1D FROM QUEENSLAND 123 

tapering to a point midwav of coxae IV, with 3 pairs of simple setae; 
endopodal shields well developed and areolate; metapodal .shields large, 
niangiilar, 312/a long by 17S/A wide, areolate; ventri-anal shield shaped 
like a conical flask with neck about one third of its height, areolate, 
with two pairs of seta.- anterior of the anal region, which is slightly 
posterior of the mid-length of the shield; between the stern.nl shield 
and coxae III and IV are two pairs of setae; jnst anterior of the tip 
of the vontri-aicd shield LS a transverse row of 4 setae of which the 
OUter members arc u,i small platelets; laterad of the posterior half of 
the ventri-anal shield are three pairs of strong setae, each on small 
platelets R.D/d posterior of the shield is another similar pair. 
Legs] I 5()0y long, H 562/x, Ul 685^ TV 595/x. 

Remarks While it is ffoiihtftd whether the form described here as 
the tritonymph is really that stage or the dentonymph, the development 
of the margined shields suggests the Iritonymph. No other stage has 
been seen. 

From the other known species Of the genus, tubercut&tw WB be 
readily distinguished by the posterior tubercular processes in both 
the adnlt stages. It is also a somewhat larger species than either 
c/jlnulneHS or hi g gin si. 

To Dr. E. II. Derrick Of the (Queensland Institute for Medical 
Research the writer expresses In:- [fl re thanks for the collection of 
many leaf-litter samples from which much interesting material such 
aa the above is being obtained. 

REFERENCES 

Berlese, A., 1917: Centuria seconda di aeari imovi, Bedia, 12: 131. 

Gamin, ,\\ IT., 1953: A revision of the cohort Trachytina Tragardh, 
1938 with the description of Dgscrifusjiis rrluirtoni, a new 
genus and species of Polvaspid mite from Tree Holes. 
Bull. Chicago Acad. Sei. 9 (17): ;w>2-367. 

1954: A New Species of Uropodine Mite, Polya$}nuus 

hiof/insi (Mesostigmata ; Trachytoidea ; Trachytidae). 
Bull Chicago Acad. Kei. 10 (2): 15-41. 

Tragardh, I., 1941: Further contributions towards the comparative 
rnnrphologv of the Mesostigmata, TIT On the Polyaspidao 
Berl. Zoo'l. Bidrag Fran Uppsala, 20: 345-357. 



A NEW RECORD OF THE LITTLE KNOWN CALOTRACHYTES 
SCLEROPHYLLUS (MICHAEL, 1908) FROM NEW ZEALAND 
(ACARINA, POLYASPIDAE), WITH DESCRIPTION OF 

THE MALE AND NYMPH 



ByH. Womersley, Honorary Ac arologist, South Australian Museum 



Summary 

The Trachytid mite Calotrachytes sclerophyllus (Michael) from New Zealand hitherto 
only known from the unique female in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) is redescribed and 
figured from two further females in the collection of the South Australian Museum. The 
unknown male and nymph are also described from single specimens in the same 
collection. 

The genus Calotrachytes was erected in 1917 by Berlese as a sub-genus of Polyaspis for 
the unique female specimen described by Michael 1908 from New Zealand as 
Trachynotus sclerophyllus. Apart from the solitary female in the British Museum (Nat. 
Hist.) no further records of the species appear to have been published nor has it been 
refigured. However, in 1953 Dr. J. H. Camin in his paper "A Revision of the Cohort 
Trachytinae Tragardh, 1938, etc.", gave a detailed generic diagnosis of Calotrachytes 
based on a study of the type made for him by Dr. G. O. Evans of the British Museum. 



A NEW RECORD OF THE LITTLE KNOWN CALOTRACHYTES 
SCLEROPHYLLUS (MICHAEL, 1908) FROM NEW ZEALAND 
(ACARINA, POLYASPIDAE), WITH DESCRIPTION OF THE 
MALE AND NYMPH 

By H. WOMERSLEY, Honorary Acarologist, South Australian 

Museum 

Fig. 1 

SYNOPSIS 

The Trachytid mite Calotrachytes sclerophyllas (Michael) from 
New Zealand hitherto only known from the unique female in the 
British Museum (Nat. Hist.) is redescribed and figured from two 
further females in the collection of the South Australian Museum. 
The unknown male and nymph are also described from single 
specimens in the same collection. 



The genus Calotrachytes was erected in 1917 by Berlese as a sub- 
genus of Polyaspis for the unique female specimen described by 
Michael 1908 from Now Zealand as Trachynotus sclerophylhis. Apart 
from the solitary female in the British Milium (Nat. Hist.) no further 
records of the species appear to have been published nor lias it been 
refigured. However, in 1953 Dr. J. II. Camin in his paper "A Eevision 
of the Cohort Trachytinae Tragardh, 1938, etc.", gave a detailed 
generic diagnosis of Calotrachytes based on a study of the type made 
for him by Dr. G. 0. Evans of the British Museum. 

Camin's diagnosis is as follows: '''Metasternal setae on small 
metasternal shields behind posterolateral margins of epigynial shield, 
within perigenital rim. Epigynial shield rectangular with rounded 
corners, slightly longer than broad, extending from behind anterior 
margin of coxae IV almost to middle of coxae II; apparently 
articulated within perigential rim, anterior to metasternals. Genital 
apperture completely surrounded by narrow perigenital rim, which 
bears sternal setae II and III and the pseudosternals. Sternal setae I 
on sclerotized anterior margin of sternal shield. Metapodal and anal 



126 RECORDS OF THE S A. MUSEUM 

shield* fused, forming' a. single shield covering ventral opisthosoma, 
with transversa row of four very large ventral setae anterior to anus. 
Tritosternal laeina with several short branches, without long setules. 
Peritremes extending from stigmata Opposite eoxae III to middle of 
coxae II, then directed outward to margins of body. Dorsal median 
shield covering most of the dorsum, posterior dorsal shield small, 
little more than OHe-tenth the length of the median dorsal shield, 
without setae. Marginal setae very large, leaf-like, free or on 
independeut platelets. Cornieuli moderately long, blade-like reaching 
slightly beyond distal margins of palpal femora. Chelicerae as in 
Dipolijaspls; fixed digit slightly longer than moveable digit and with 
hooked (ip. Palpal tibiae and tarsi insensibly fused. Male and 
immature stagey unknown. 

Type Trachihinlus sclcroplu/llxs Michael, 1 DOS ' \ 

Recently in tin- Collection of the South Australian Museum the 
writer has located tour specimens labelled tentatively as "Polyaspidac, 
gen et sp.nov." sent to him some years, ago by Mr. E. 1). Prit.chard of 
Ylanurewa, New Zealand. These w r ere Collected from moss or leal' 
debris by menus of the Berlese funnel. 

Although the preparations are not now in the best of condition, 
mainly through loss of some of the setae, the specimens can definitely 
be identified as MichaoPs specieg, The female agrees fully with 
CamirPs generic diagnosis and with the figures, especially the excellent 
dorsal view, given by Michael. Hitherto the male and immature stages 
were unknown but besides two females one preparation is that of a 
male and one a Meutonymph. The mule also agrees well with (Jainin's 
diagnosis except for the genital shields and also agrees dorsally with 
Michael's figure of the female dor-aim. The specimen is described 
herewith, as is also the nymph. Tin- generic diagnosis of Gamin is 
modified to include the male, 



Genus Calotrachytes Berlese 

Berlese, A., 1917: < Amturia prima <li acari nuovi, Redia 12: 28 (as a 
subgenus of J'oli/as/ns), 

Type Trach ytwi 'us scleropJiylhlfy Michael 1908. 

Oamfft, J, lb, 195?: A Revision of the Cohort Traehytina Tnignrdh 
L938j With the Description of Th/MtitiXSpfa ivliarloni, a new Genus 
and Species of Polyaspid mite from Tree Holes. Bull. Chicago 
Aead. ScL fl (17): 335-385. 



WOMERSLEY— CALOTRACHYTES FROM NEW ZEALAND 127 

Calotrachytes sclerophyllus (Michael) 

Trachpnbtus solerophyttiis Michael 1908: Unrecorded Atari from New 
Zealand J. Linn. Soc. London — Zool. 30; 145-147, pi. 17, fig. 4, 
pi. 21, fig. 25, 

Calotrachjtlcs scleroplii/llus Berlese 197, Redia 12: 28. 

Calulrachijtes sclera phyti 'us Camin 195$. Bull, Chicago Acad. Sci. 
9 (17): 335-385. 

Text Bg» fl A-IT. 

Locality : Two females and allotype male from moss, YVaimamaka, 
New Zealand, 21st October, 1938 (coll. R D. Pritchard); paratype 
male and morphotype nymph from Ohau Lavin, New Zealand, 25th 
November, HWi (coll. u/l). P.). 

Tt/pes: All specimens in the South Australian Museum. 

Description 

Female. The two specimens studied are somewhat longer than the 
type; (he lengths are 1,19M/'. and 1,112,". and the widths 936p and 877^ 
(Michael gives 93Q/A and 58Qj|C s >). Ollierwise they tit well the generic 
diagnosis of ( amin and the detailed description of Michael. The 
dorsal shield measures 877m long by 596m wide (second specimen 760/* 
by 585/1 and the posterior dorsal shield 257/' wide by 117/< long (257ft 
by 98/;.)). The marginal dorsal setae are damaged but much as hi 
Michael's fig'. 4, pi, 17. The sternal shield is 351/a wide anteriorly 
(304/*), 560/' long (4l!8/<), and MUH/.'. wide posteriorly (374//) in a line 
between posterior margins of coxae IV; it is furnished with 4 pairs 
of strong setae of which sternal setae I are ?/< Loilg, straight, blunt 
(33/0 Olid L0§/i apart situated near anterior margin; gternaJ setae TI 
and 111 and a pair of superslornal setae are situated on tlie porigonita] 
rim, II about level with the tip of the orifice, J J I jttfit posterior thereof 
and the flttperstenial about three times as far back, these setae are 
long and curved, IT and 111 38/x long and supersternal 62/x. The 
metasternal shields are close to the posterior of tin 4 perigcnital rim 
and their seta is strong and curved to 72/' Lpng. The genital orifice 
is 2!*2^ long by 210/' wide (24fi> by 187/'). The large ventri-anal 
shield is 936j* wide hy 491/>. long (880// by 4(>S/0 ; the two pairs of 
setae 4 are about level with the middle of the anus and not slightly 
anterior thereof as stated In Michael and Camin, they are about 
144/x long by 48^ wide. The gnathosoma is as figured with four pairs 

<i> All thu measurements '^iven here are on the mounted specimens. 



128 



RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 




Fig. l. Colotrackytes soleropTiylfos (Michael). A-E — Female. A, sternal, genital and 
ventri-anal shields; B, gnathoQOma ventral; C, ehelieerae; 1>, tritoateruum J E, lined seta 
of palpal tarsus; P, male, sternal and genital shields; G-Tl, nymph; G, dorsum; H ; venter. 



WOMERSLEY— CALOTRACHYTES FROM NEW ZEM AND 129 

of hypostomal setae of which the capitular pair Jive short and thick 
and branched, the posterior post-rostral pair fine and slender, the 
anterior post-rostra) pair stout, and the rostral pair long and slender 
almost reaching the tip of palpal genu; the palpal femur is furnished 
with two stout setae, the tibia and tarsus are not insensibly fused 
as stated by Canon but quite differentiated. The ehelicerne, tectum 
and tritosternum are as described and here figured. The legs are as 
has been described, and the lengths, from the second and smaller 
specimen only are T 772m long, II 842m, III 702m, IV 93(V 

Mule allot if pc. Of the same general fades as in the female; length 
1,170m, width 901m. 

Dorsum: As in the female. Anterior dorsal shield 939/* long 
by 630/* wide* posterior dorsal shield 292/' wide by 117m long. Marginal 
dorsal setae as in female. 

Veiili r : Sternal shield 351/1 wide anteriorly, 550/* long Mid 862^ Wide 
posteriorly, with 5 pairs of setae including the suporsiernals ami nieta- 
sternals but these setae are smaller than in I he female. Tin Ul 

orifice is wider (ban long Pip by 77m and is situated between coxae 111. 
The ventri-anal shield is as in the female, 795m wide by 445m lung. 
The tritosteriMinu gnathosoma, etc., as in the female, The legs are 
also much as in the female but II and Til are relatively longer, the 
lengths being I 1,100/*, IT 1,048m, TIT 994m, TV 986/i. 

Nymph, ? Dcul-unymplu General facies as in the female; length 
912m, width 749m. 

Dorsum : Median dorsal shield somewhat arrow head shaped, 468m 
long, sides diverging to a width of 42V at about on a level with coxae 
III and then curving inward:- to a rounded apex, with large irregular 
pitting as figured, antero-lateral of the dorsal shield with an elongate 
pair of shields and postero-lat orally with another pair 269m long by 
117m wide, posterior of the median shield with a small shield 220m wide 
by 101m long, posterior of this shield with four short blunt setae, 
marginal dorsal setae as figured. 

Venter: With a small elongate tongue-shaped sternal shield, 
read iing to posterior of coxae III and Constricted between coxae II, 
I44,x wide anteriorly and 237/* long with three pairs of minute setae 
on shield. Met apodal shields triangular 201m long by S6m wide. Anal 
shield as figured, as long as 240m wide. 

Legs : Much as in female, I ?, II 919m long, III 702ft IV I 



A NEW SPECIES OF CHLENIAS (LEPIDOPTERA, BOARMIIDAE) 
ON ACACIA ANEURA, WITH SOME CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN 

NATIVE BELIEFS ABOUT IT 



By Norman B. Tindale, Acting Director, South Australian Museum 



Summary 

Chlenias inkata, a new Boarmiid moth with an apterous female, apparently adapted for 
existence in an arid environment, is described and figured from Haast Bluff, Central 
Australia. Its life history on common mulga (Acacia aneura) is outlined, and some 
aboriginal Australian beliefs abut its larvae are given.. 

During field work with the University of Adelaide Anthropological Expedition to Haast 
Bluff Station, in the Western MacDonnell Ranges, Central Australia, August, 1957, many 
Boarmiid larvae were noticed feeding on the needle-like phyllodes of mulga, Acacia 
aneura. 



A NEW SPECIES OF CHLENIAS (LEPIDOPTERA, BOARMIIDAE) 
ON ACACIA ANEURA, WITH SOME CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN 
NATIVE BELIEFS ABOUT IT 

By NORM AN B. TINDALE, Acting Director, South Australian 

Museum 

Fig. 1-9 

SUMMARY 

Chlenias inkata, a new Boarmiid moth with an apterous female, 
apparently adapted for existence in an arid environment, is described 
and figured from Haast Bluff, Central Australia. Its life history on 
common mulga (Acacia aneura) is outlined, and some aboriginal 
Australian beliefs about its larvae are given. 

INTRODUCTION 

During field work with the University of Adelaide Anthropological 
Expedition to Haast Bluff Station, in the Western MacDonnell Ranges, 
Central Australia, August, 1957, many Boarmiid larvae were noticed 
feeding on the needle-like phyllodes of mulga, Acacia aneura. 

When disturbed either by such sounds as the clapping of hands, 
bv shouting, or by throwing; a stick into the trees, many hundreds of 
the larvae would drop down suddenly from the branches on long 
silken threads so that the tree instantly seemed to develop a silken 
aura. The effect was spectacular when many larvae were present. 
These larvae would remain suspended perhaps three to six feet from 
their previous perches. After an interval as long as 10 or 15 minutes 
they would haul themselves up again to their feeding positions. 

Observations were made, specimens of the larvae placed in KAAD 
solution, and, prior to returning to Adelaide, some 25 live larvae were 
collected on 5th September, 1957. By this date they were far fewer 
in numbers. Those taken alive all appeared to be in the last larval 
instar and were from 20 to 25 mm. in length, with head diameters 
approaching or slightly exceeding 3 mm. In Adelaide these larvae 
were fed on phyllodes of mulga which had been kept fresh in a humid 
atmosphere until required. 



132 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Most of the larvae continued to Peed until early October. All but 
two of them then rested in what appeared to be a pre-pupal phase for 
abOUl three days, and had pupated by 5th October. The remaining 
two Wfire still feeding oil that day and later proved to be ones which 
Were parasitised. They were active for several more days. From 
them appeared Tachinid fly lai'Vae Which pupated outside their hosts' 
bodio 

Pupation of the Chlmias larvae bo6& place in shallow loose sand 
in the breeding box without indication either of a cocoon or of the 
spinning q! silk. 

Tile pupae had a lough cuticle, were pate creamy white, and 

darkened quickly to a deep cheatntit brown. They were kept at normal 

indoor temperatures at Blackwood, near Adelaide, th rough the 
follow ing months. 

At the end of a year (August 1958) a Tacliiuid fly emerged; the 
other fly pupa died. At some time between August 1958 and January 
I960 f when I returned from a long visit to the Dinted States, a Braconid 
|) parasite was found to have emerged from one of the pupae. Of 
the remainder, at that date, some still lay dormant, others were 
apparently dead. They wore (ested by placing' them ag&lMt tin.' tip 
of the tongue; seven tit. those which seemed distinctly cold to the touch 
Ol this memfcer were alive. 

Iii August I9b(\ after tWO years and ton months, two male moths 
emerged us adults and were discovered alive, but moribund, in the 
breeding box on 14th Align*). One was fully winged, the other was 
crippled and three of its wings were not fully expanded. Some lime 
alicnvards a wingless female emerged and freed itself from its pupal 
integument before succumbing, It was not noticed Until after it had 
died. A second female was then found dead in a fully developed 
condition Within its broken pupal shell, and further dead male examples 
were dissected from their pupal skills. 

When this paper was being prepared for press in January 1961 
two of the original pupae wctv still alive after three years and three, 
months. 

Brief reference was made to the larvae of this moth, as attacking 
Antchi aneura, ill a paper on the vegetation of Ilaast Bluff, by Cleland 
and Tindale (1959, p, 134). In that paper they were teiitatively 
identffied as Goometrids, related to Amdoru, Rearing of the adult 
mot lis now makes possible a more detailed account of the species and 
warrants giving details of its life history. 



T1NDALE— CHLENIAS FROM CENTRAL AUSTRALIA 133 

Chlcnias inkafa sp. no v. 

^ Antennae strongly bipoetinato, pectinations long, slender, 
delicately haired, those near middle of length of antenna are about 
eight timfts as long as the diameter of shaft ; Lopg pectinations continue 
nearly to the apex. Head, patagia, mjk! tegulae clothed in pale fawn 
hairs; head with EfcGfi truncate, dark brown, tip? of palpi just visible 
from above; abdomen pale brownish -fawn with long spine like hairs Of 
fcWO sizes OVCrlyillg more normal scales, the spine-like Lairs become leBS 
ttbviotte towards tip Of abdomen. Korewings broad, well rounded, apex 
rounded, lightly sealed, pale brownish -fawn with isolated flecks and 

scattered groupu of darker brown nestles; those are concentrated into 

slightly more obvious group? on a subterminal part of each of the veins 
from near the anal angle to Ulfaa at about %th these darker scales 
continue in diminishing numbers on eaeh vein to apex, with traees of 
other lesser gTOttps extending towards eosta at %ths; fringes con- 
coloromy anal margin clothed with longer pale silky hairs. Hindwmgs 
paler, sub-hyaline* delicately scaled, with line hairs along the veins; 
fringes also delicately scaled, coneolorous. Wing length 14 mm. 

Expanse 30 met 

9 Antennae filamentous, not pectinate, not markedly tapering 
except near apES Head with front rounded, sniooth, dark brown, 
palpi not visible from ahove. AYmys absent or with only small traces 
Of wine; buds I'atagin and tegulae with long dark brown haiis, li 
normal, smooth, clothed with (irmly adprcssed greyish fawn Bcales 
Abdomen atout, wilh smooth integument, clothed bl hmg, straight, 
spine-like brown hairs each posteriorly directed; normal scales 
virtually absent; each abdominal segment somewhat laterally produced 
(in the/dried on1 condition); those apparent processes become largm 
on the 0th and 7fh segments; the laM named process is semicircular 
inn] Seemingly strongly ehifinised. These ma> be post-mortem effects. 
Total length II mm.; greatest width of abdomen 4 mm. 

L<<< : Central Australia; Tlaast Bluff Station, at 2,000ft, collected 
by N. I>. Tiudale, as larvae, in September 1957 and reared out in I960. 

Material-* Type male (pupated October 1957, emerged August 
I960) and allotype female (pupated October fc95T, taken dead from 
remains of pupal skin) : a para type male with crippled wings (pupated 
October lic.r. emerged August 1960) and other specimens dissected 
from dead pupae, including a paratype female which died ;just after 
emergence. Some larvae and pupae are preserved in alcohol and there 
are six slides of parts of bodies and genitalia preparations. All are 
registered as No. 1.11)110 in the South Australian Museum. 



134 



RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 




.. .. .,. . . j 

•- -- ■•. 



^* 




N.B.T. 



i— •- 



Fig. 1-5. Chlenias inkata Tindale. Fig. 1, male, Haast Bluff, Central Australia, 2,000ft. ; 
Fig. 2, female, same cLetaitej Fig. 3, larva of last instar. September, 1957; Fig. 4, 
anterior view of head; Fig. 5. pupa of a male (where a scale is shown alongside a drawing 

it, is to be read in millimetres). 



TINDALE— CHLEN1AS FROM CENTRAL AUSTRALIA 



1*5 



The drawing of the male (fig. 1) is based principally on the holo- 
type, hut as the antennae of this specimen were damaged before the 
drawing was inked in, details were completed with the aid of other 
m&tea, principally an example marked B, which lias been prepared as 
a slide tnmmt, The illustration of the female (fig. 2) is based on the 
allotype 

The adult male moth is a dismal looking and obscure member of 
its genus. In general appearance it, si-i-ms !o be nearest to Chienias 

cyclosticha Lower (1915, p. 477), which was described from a single 

male taken at Broken Hill, New South Wales, in June, at a light; the 
type and only known specimen is in the South Australian Museum 
where its registration numbers are L.43S9 and T. 18216. 

C. nikata differs from C. cpolostidha in its smaller size, shorter, 
less markedly pectinate antennae, shorter palpi and in its general 
appearance. The male genitalia differ in some essential points which 
are detailed below; sufficient hasic resemblances remain to suggest that 
they fall into the same section of the genus CJdeuias. 

The two male genitalia drawings of Chienias inkata (fig. 6-7) are 
based on a pa rn type specimen marked B, dissected from its pupal shell 
The thawing was checked against a second example (specimen A), 
which also had been dissected from its pupal integument. 




fi-9. Fig. 0, Chi minx inkuta Timble, (tarsal view of male genitalia ; Fig« 7, ditto. 
obuqi i "•. t" --liow form of uncos: Fig. 8, ChUnias pgaUsHaha Lo<wir, oblique view nt: 
[mutts ol oiula genitalia I ig '•*. < :: '<o, dora&l view of male gsnItaMa (the walo to b^ 

r*ad in inilUiuri r os ) . 

Viewed from the dorsal Btlrface the male genitalia of C. inkata 
differ ttom those of C. ci/clnsficJui in the broader uncus, tapering to an 
acute point instead of a more rounded one. The harpes of C. inkata 
are fiimple, less expanded and with less evidence of flanges. The penis 



136 RECORDS OF THE S.A, MUSEUM 

appears more Blender, In oblique view the uncus also appears more 
slender in C, inkata than in (\ cj/rlnsficha and rounded at the tip 
instead of sharp-pointed, thus reversing the appearance a* viewed from 
above. Tu the tWO oblique views given, uncus and its connections are 
drawn principally to show the form of the apex. 

The hairs in Q t cyclotricha appear stouter than in (\ inkata but 
this character must be used with caution since the mode of preparation 
disturbs the orderliness of such hairs, 

The genitalia slide preparations were cleared in canstie potash, 
imbedded in P. V. A. in standard hollow cells, and ringed with a 
polyvinyl glue preparation. 

in general the genitalia of C. inkata seem more compressed or 

widened w f hen viewed from above while the corresponding parts of 
(\ cycJosfirJia are more slender when viewed from this direction. 

Possibly f\ rifclo-iirha and C. inkata represent ancestral races 
Which through long; isolation from each otlior have become sufficiently 
different to be regarded as species, Jf (hi - opinion is not correct and 
the differences have been unduly magnified ihey may at the least be 
regarded cither as valid races or ends of a dine of a desert species 
living on both the northern and the soutiiern sides of the belt of 
maximum aridity in the Australian sub-tropics. From the appearance 
o!' genitalia it can be deduced that these two species are relatively 
more closely related to each other than either are to the members of 
the section of the genus which contains ChJenias pint Tindale 
(1928, p. 43). 

Ta searching for the life history of C. cyclosti-cTlQ larvae should be 
sought on several species o\' Acacia related to A. aneura which occur 
at Broken Hill Many Haast Bluff larvae were in the penultimate and 
early last instar phases of their life when first taken in August. It 
is possible, therefore, Hint, as in so many other species of Chlenias, 
the adults of C, inkafa laid their eggs daring an early month of winter* 
either June or early July. Lower V specimen of C. cyatosticha was 
taken at. light in June; tin's is the same month in which the moths of 
Southern species sudi as (\ banksiaria Le 0., (\ mclanoriista Meyrick, 
and C. piiii Tindale make their principal appearances in temperate 
Australia. 

In view of the general relationship evident between the males of 
the two species, the female of C. cyclosticha may also prove to be an 
apterous form. 



TMnAhE—CHLEWiAS FROM CENTRAL AUSTRALIA 157 

IMMATURE STAGES OF C. INKATA 

The larva drawn (fig. 3) was in the last instar, and measured 
28 mm. in lengtb with a head diameter of just over 3 mm. It was 
fixed in KAAI) solution and preserved to alcohol. Larvae, apparently 
in the previous instar appear similar but tend to lack a rather con- 
spicuous median dorsal process which is present on the posterior part, 
of Ihe abdomen of the adult larva. 

The adult, actively feeding lnrva is smooth skinned and naked 
except for the inconspicuous basic hairs. The general colour is a 

dull green, au effed resulting frtml a series of roughly longitudinal 

linens of dark olivaceous green overlying a creamy yellow background. 
On the dorsum the longitudinal lines arc more widely spuced and on 
the ventral surface the larva is pale all over. On the sides the dark 
lines tend <o be hroken up and to become an intricate pattern of 
marbling. The patterns are seemingly not alike on any two 
individuals; some lend to look maze like and others show intricate 
designs- The anterior patl Of the head has a vertically placed, dark 
brown, almost black band, on each side; the posterior part of the head 
is pale creamy yellow; the oeelli and the principal hairs on the head 
l.'ud tfl be ringed with patches of the darker colours. The pro legs are 
pale creamy yellow with (lie segmental margins and Ihe parts facing 
forwards touched with dark brown. The abdominal process mentioned 
above, when viewed from the side, usually appears dark brown, or 
almost black; Ihe anal claspers are pale creamy yellow but usually are 
Watched with a pattern in brown pigment 

The fully fed larva hceornes shortened, rather stout and swollen, 
and lose* its bright colours. It remains almost immobile for several 
days in a prepupal status before pupation takes place. 

The pupa as drawn (tig. 5) is that of a male. It lias a length of 
11 nun. and a greatest diameter close to l.o mm. The pupa is chestnut 
brown in colour, is strongly cuticled, and has a shining or polished 
appearance. \Yh<\n drawn it was dead and had dried out: pupae whielt 
were still alive after &£ years could only be distinguished from it by 
the tongue jest. The wing eases show obscure pittings between the 
veins; in addition the thoracic segments and middle portions of each 
abdominal segment are pitted with large and deep, circular 
impressions. 

A female pupa is similar to that of the male and also is 11 mm. 
in length, but appears larger owing to the slightly greater diameter 
of the abdomen (4.8 nun.). Norma) wing cases are present, no 



138 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

apparent reduction of v\ 'i&g is registered in the pnpal in tegument. The 
antenna] sheath is fljore Btetlder Mian in the malt- and indicates lack of 
pectinations by B less complex patterning of the surface. 

Sines the motll itself is known only by these bred examples, 
nothing oaf) be recorded of Hie habits of the free living prepnpal larva, 
the type of shelter Bought for pupation, or the time and circumstances 
in which (lie adult I I is passed. The pupal skin itself is stout and 
may bo ant-proof. The female trongly clothed in (irmly adpreaseel 
spine-like hairs and in ( 1 1 i h respect, seems to depart rather markedly 
from kindred specie of Chhu/as with normally winged females. The 
presence of these fen! nre-: may g i that (he moth lfl equipped for 

close association with honey ante, which throng* Hie same trees. 
Aboriginal Australian beliefs • fling the larva of tins moth, which 

are detailed below ragged they have observed a close association 

between ants and the larvae, eve-,, thoiurh their biological observations 
and deductions, in other respects, are rather wide of the mark. 

The conditions in which the pupae were kept at Blackwood, 850ft. 
above sea level in latitude 85° S, Were artificial, and in no close way 
resembled the climnte ol* their home near Haast Bluff, at 2,000ft. 
vntion in latitude 23 li WOUld therefore be unwise to d7-aw 

any firm conchisnms from their tfltig endurance as pupae and from the 
emergence of some of the B11ir?iVQfs after nearly three years in a 
dormant condition. Their persistence, bowever s does hint at one of 
the possible meehmiisrns of survival in the relatively arid surroundings 

of the MncDonnoll Ranges. 

Most members Of the Ghtewas group arc so characteristic of the 
Qool moist temperate EN > - ol Australia that it was a distinct surprise 
to find this s|»"<,e- in Central Australia and to find it so curiously 
adapted to its desert mountain environment. 

It will lie inter- rig to h-nrn whether the species is confined to 
the muleyt plains al higher altitudes within the MaeDonnell Ranges, 
where rainfall, although very unreliable, is much higher than on the 
opaii desert plains to the smith, or whether it has been able to extend 
ite domain over the whole exfenf of the mtdga covered lake plains of 
the desert interior of Australia. The presence at Broken Hill, on the 
south side of the bell, of maximum aridity of what appears to be a 
separate species, C. ri/clnsticha, may pflggeat that (\ inlcuta is not now 
able to live over the whole area of mulga desert but may be a relict 
form confined to areas of less confirmed aridity within Central 
Australia. 



TTNDAL&— C1ILENIAS FROM CENTRAL AUSTRALIA 1*9 

NATIVE BELIEFS ABOUT CULENIAS INKATA 

In Aranda mythology there is an association between the larv 
of this moth, the mulga tree, the jeraniba ['jeraniba], honey ant 
(Melophnni* bagoii Lubbock) and the lataruba I'lataruba) or spur 
winged plover (Lob'ibyx ; riuvaehidhwdiat:) loading- to a strange admix 
ture Of uhsorved fact, wrong association and false {induction. 

The Cldcnias larva IS called kapadada I'kapada :daj or ngarda 
['Oarda] and it fa regarded a - the inkata |/i>)kala| or ttttemie "leader* 
(colloquially translated as "the boss 71 ) of tlje jeraniba or honey ant. 
In their belief kapadada appears ami causes little globules of honey 
dew to develop near the bases of the JTOffig phyllodes of Acacia aiicura 
shrubs and trees. When one looks at the fresh growth, in August, 
au'unst the sunlight, these little globules of sap, which natives call 
Udandja ['lufandja] glisten in the light, 

They are a natural secretion from a gland near the bate of the 
uug phylhxle. In Aranda belief, these globules, under the compelling 
force of the inkata, become larger, form along the stems and become 
lac scales (Austrutacltardia araaar Masked), which yield sugar. These 
also are called lutandja. Jeramba honey aids gather the sap from the 
mulga pli.lltMlr Mfd die sugar ol" the lerp scales. They take it all 
below ground under the "direction' ■ of the inkata, to feed their passive 
companions which become the living containers for the honey which 
they store. The natives do not associate inkata with any adult 
rnoih. They recognize that the larva goes into the ground near the 
ant nests ami becomes a hard-shelied pupa. This they falsely associate 
with a stage of honey ant life, 

Following the season of summer rains there is an appearance of 
sap in these mulga lives; at the same time the early stages of the life 
Cycles of a whole suite ol: associated insects appear together, It is not 
altogether surprising that the aborigines with a less than complete 
interest in these insect life histories should incorrectly observe, and 
falsely entwine thera into their beliefs. 

There is said to be an Aranda song series which describes the part 
taken by kapadnda, in a human form, in the development of the story 
of the jeramba or honey ant totem. The spur-winged plover man also 
plays an active pari in the same story. 

* The Kukatja have similar beliefs about the CIdenias larva and call 
it ['pun:n 'parutji :tal where f'puuiu] is a word meaning stick or tree. 
In the previously mentioned brief account of the botany of the Haast 
Bluff area (Cleland and Tindale 1959, p. 134) this Kukatja name was 
unfortunately given in error as I'pun ;a 'parutji :ta]. 



HO RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

REFERENCES CITED 

Cleland, J. B. and Tindale N. B., 1959: Native names and uses of 
plants at Haast Bluff, Central Australia. Trans. Roy. 
Soc. S. Austr., Adelaide, 82, pp. 123-140. 

Lower, O. B., 1915: Descriptions of new Australian Lepidoptera. 

Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, Sydney, 40, p. 477. 
Tindale, N. B., 1928: Species of Chlenias attacking pines (Lepidoptera, 

Family Boarmiidae). Records of S. Austr. Mus. 

Adelaide, 4, pp. 43-48. 



ON CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS 

PART IV - THE DISTRIBUTION AND STATUS OF CENTRAL 

AUSTRALIAN SPECIES 



ByH. H. Finlayson, Honorary Curator of Mammals, 

SO UTH A USTRALIAN MUSEUM 



Summary 

The recent appointment by the Commonwealth Government of a full-time biological 
officer based on Alice Springs, with a major commitment in field work on mammals in 
Central Australia, draws attention again to the paucity of published information on the 
above heads upon which such work may be based. Under modern conditions the 
opportunities of making further contributions in this field are now much less favourable 
than formerly, owing to the growing rarity of most species and to the decline and changed 
interests of the aboriginal population, formerly one of the most prolific sources of such 
information. To augment the published data may well help to reduce this disability, and 
(departing from the planned sequence of this series of papers) the present contribution 
has been compiled with that end in view. 



ON CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS 

PART IV— THE DISTRIBUTION AND STATUS OF CENTRAL 

AUSTRALIAN SPECIES 

By H. H. FINLAYSON, Honobary Curator of Mammals, South 

Australian Museum 

Fig. 1 

CONTENTS 

Page. 

1. Introduction 141 

2. The sources of the information summarized . , . 142 

3. The subdivision of the area 144 

4. Factors influencing the present status of species 149 

5. Systematic presentation of the data 152 

(a) Ornithodelphia 152 

(b) Didelphia 152 

(c) Monodelphia 170 

6. Summary 185 

7. List of references 185 

Appendix 1. Alphabetical list of aboriginal names 

used in text 187 

Appendix 2. List of English vernacular names for 

the species discussed 191 

INTRODUCTION 

The recent appointment by the Commonwealth Government of a 
full-time biological officer based on Alice Springs, with a major commit- 
ment in field work on mammals in Central Australia, draws attention 
again to the paucity of published information on the above heads 
upon which such work may be based. Under modern conditions the 
opportunities of making further contributions in this field are now 
much less favourable than formerly, owing to the growing rarity of 



142 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

most speplee atld to the decline and changed interests of the aboriginal 
population, formerly one of the most prolific sources of such informa- 
tion. To augment the published data may well help to reduce this 
disability, and (departing from the planned sequence of this series of 
papers) the present contribution has been compiled with that end 
in view. 

Its primary object is to give in summary form the relevant results 
of field work carried out by the present writer in a series of journeys 
in Central Australia in two widely separated periods, namely 1931-1935 
and 1950-195$ during which a total of 27 months were Spent in the 
country. The work of the earlier period was based chief!} in the 
south-western sector, in the great confluent Aboriginal Reserves of 
South, West and Central Australia and at a time when conditions 
there w T ere still virgin and very favourable for the purpose, both the 
mamma) fauna and the aboriginal population, being virtually 
undisturbed. In the later period the work was extended to districts 
further north and east, mostly in areas of pastoral occupation where 
aborigines, though still present, were detribalized in varying degree. 

THE SOURCES OF THE INFORMATION SUMMARIZED 

The information on each species is arranged in the following 
sequence : — 

Aboriginal names; 

General distribution; 

Present status; 

Material personally examined; 

Other remarks; 

and it embodies four categories of data, as follows: — 

1. The Results of Personal Observation and Collecting. 

2. The Results of Interrogation of Aborigines. 

In recent years there has been in some quarters overseas a 
tendency to depreciate the value of the testimony of native peoples in 
such matters. Undoubtedly it is easy to be misled by casual methods 
of enquiry ami possible to be misled even when the most careful 
methods are employed. But the systematic interrogation of aborigines 
in this country has yielded so much of value in the past, that no-one 
with a knowledge of the special conditions which obtain in Central 
Australia — where hunting was formerly the sole means of subsistence 
of the aboriginal population and followed with a marvellously 



F1NLAYS0N— CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS 143 

cultivated technique — would suggest that this source of information 
Could be neglected or even relegated to a subordinate position. Indeed 
had its value been recognized earlier and the much greater oppor- 
tunities of 50 yen is ago seized aJid vigorously exploited, we would not; 
have to deplore the great and probably permanent hiatuses which exist 
ui our know ledge today. The information here presented has b&OT 
obtained, whenever possible, by placing authentic specimens of the 
varion,-, known inanunals in the hands of natives of both ,v..%es and 
allowing them to freely I xmninc and consider ihem, and the results so 
obtained have in many eases been cross cheeked by interrogation of 
widely scpn rated groups. 

In quoting native names of mammal:-., Lhe intenlion has been to 
place a practical tool into the hand;- of others, rather than to make 
any formal contribution to aboriginal vocabularies, and for this 
purpose there are some ndvautae'e- in partiall <i IJ&fed forms rather 

than in those involving special phonetic symbols, which an- little used 
or understood beyond anthropological circles. This applies to the 
names of native group: il -, where I have tor the most part used the 
name or names actually given me at the time. These do not always 
agree with the standard forfla adopted by Tmdale (1940) but are 
Ufinally elo-e ko "iie or more of the anglicized variants or alternatives 
feted by him. The approximate tribal boundaries as given by Tir.dale 
are no doubt also on approximate grade to the former rurroncy of 
names of fauna, but under modern conditions where considerable 
Infiltration, merging of minorities, or even complete replacement of 
aboriginal populations by nei'/hboiiriug groups, has taken place, I have 
found thai words may occasionally be heard in normal use far beyond 
these boundaries, M >l the vocabularies used by natives for fauna 

when these oh.-'orval ions were made, had a dual basis owing to this 
merging or replacement of adjacent tribes and it has usually not been 
expedient, ami sometimes not possible to make a complete separation of 
the original elements, This a pplies for instance to the. Wonkanonroo 
and Dieri of the bake Byre Bus hi, ^ankunjarre ;md Pitj.-nijurru of 
the Evcrard and Mnsgrave Range area. Areata and Tlyowra of the 
Eastern Macdonnells, Tehingilli and Mudbnrra of T>aly Waters, 
Walpari and Warrumunga of the Davenport Range, and others. 

The names recorded are those actually met with in the area9 
personally worked over and 1 make no attempt to compile lists by 
drawing on other sources such as Stirling and Spencer, Spencer and 
Gillen, Strohlow snr.. Helms, Black, etc., partly because these vocabu- 
laries are readily available and partly because the identity of the 



144 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

species in question is sometimes in doubt. In a few cases where a 
name of special interest is quoted from another work, the source is 
indicated with it. 

3. Locality Records of Material Personally Examined and 

Identified. 

This is undoubtedly the most satisfactory type of evidence on 

which to base conclusions on diptribtitioii but unfortunately when 
material is scanty and the areas involved very great, it can give only a 
very inadequate version of the real state of affairs, and it is for this 
reason largely, that supplementary evidence from aboriginal sources 
lias been considered on a comparatively lavish scale. 

In the few Gasea where material has been available in large series 
only the peripheral or other significant records are quoted, The 
distribution of most species will be discussed in greater detail and 
mapped in a series of comprehensive papers now in preparation. For 
reasons indicated in the third paper of this series (1958) the treatment 
is for the present mostly at species level only. 

4. I'kkvioosi.y PiTiujsjiED Records. 

These are incorporated in the general statements on distribution, 
usually without specifying the source, except where the species has 
not been seen personally. \n such cases, the essential data I'roin the. 
original publication is reproduced for the sake of completeness of 
account. 

THE SUBDIVISION OF THE AREA 

Tlie term Central Australia has been used somewhat elastically to 
include not only the area within the political boundaries of the Federal 
Territory formerly so named, but also arid tracts of similar character 
adjoining it in the States of South Australia, Western Australia and 
Queensland, and then- are necessary references also to the transition 
belt which separates the arid Cent)*- from tbe well watered Torresian 
tracts to the north. 

In the discussion of so large an area some subdivision is a 
convenience or even neeessity. The excellent work of the Land 
Research Division of the C.S.I.R.O. will ultimately make this possible 
in terms of homogenous natural subregions but for the present purpose 
eight larger units are indicated, whieh though less uniform in character 
than these ate wont to be and detined by more or less arbitrary 
boundaries, nevertheless show appreciable overall distinctness with 
some marginal overlapping. 



FINLAYSON— CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS 



145 




5<ctor Boundaries 7^ T" ~~~ 
State •» — • — . - 

Stuart'* LFne • » ■ ■ * 



Kig. 1. Map of Central Australia and adjoining areas showing subdivision into eight 

sectorB employed in text 



A useful primary division of the country may be had by reference 
to Stuart's Line, which lying on a general north-south axis undulates 
between the meridians of 133°-134° E. long. It marks the advance of 
J. McDouall Stuart to the north coast in his journeys of 1860-62 and is 
followed approximately by the Overland Telegraph and the Alice 
Springs-Port Darwin Highway. Especially in its northern portion the 
line divides the country into more or less distinct east and west 
moieties, the former being free from large sandridge areas, having 
generally firmer soils and more numerous and distinct drainage 
channels. This results in differences of vegetation, the most notable 



146 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

of which is a partial replacement of TriotHa (spinifex), which is almost 
Ubiquitous in the lower lands of the western division, by glttffB com- 
munity's such as Flinders and Mitchell grass, in the east. As a 
consequence, pastoral occupation and its aftermath, is more extensive 
and of longer standing, in the latter. 

The eight sectors (fig. 1) may be briefly indicated in general terms 
as follows: — 

1. The Sou tu-E ast i:i;>; Sector. 

This includes (a) the eastern and northern portions of the Lake 
Eyre Basin in South Australia and the adjoining areas in south-west 
Queensland comprised in the. drainage of the lower courses of the 
Barcoo River (Cooper Creek), and the Diarnantinn and Mulligan 
(G-eorgma) Rivers, and (b) 1h< Arunta Desert. 

It contains fctfi lowest portion of Hie area mapped, some of it lying 
below sea level and its ereiniaB features are more extreme than else- 
whore. The rainfall Is low and erratic, varying from 2 to 12in. per 
luirium, l)nt the eastern portion is periodically flooded by the overflow of 
rivers fed by remote catchments to the north-east. Large areas are 
occupied by sand ridge and gibber deserts, where the vegetation is 
normally sparse and arboreal species largely suppressed. 

This sector is markedly distinct from others, and some of its 
mammals are subspecifically differentiated, a pallid colouration being 
especially frequent 

Pastoral occupation is limited to the areas east of Lake "Eyre and 

the Mulligan. 

2. TF1K SoUTH-WksTKKX OH. AlVTADKUS SkcTOK. 

The Amadous Basin With the highlands to west and south of it 
across the three State boundaries and including the Rawlinson, 
Petermann, Tomkinson, Mann, Musgravo and Evorard Ranges and 
those on the 26* parallel \)\ S. lat. in Western Australia, as an 
extension. This sector is a complex of granite, gneiss and quartzite 
hills with intervening mulga parks and thickets and some minor sand 
hill areas about thfi salt lake, and near its southern limit. Except for 
the Musgrnves which rise to nearly 5,000ft. I he hill systems are minor 
features and the creek channels whieh emerge from them are generally 
short lived, The long series of rangelets which extend deep into 
Wetftpni Australian territory on the 26th parallel are important from 
the point of view of distribution as they provide feasible lines of east- 
w T est diffusion for several species. 



FINLAYSON— CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS 147 

Pastoral occupation, chiefly with sheep, is limited to a small area 
in flic north-east quarter and is not of long duration. The rest of the 
sector was originally part of the Aboriginal Reserve and is virgin 
country. 

;>. The Larapinta Sectob. 

This is a Son ill Central area lying between numbers 1 and 2 and 
including the lower drainage of the Finite and of the South Australian 
creeks which flow towards the west shore of Lake Eyre. It consists 
in large part of undulating gravelly plains, with areas of dense mulga 
tMckdtfi and frequent groups of residual tent-topped hills and eroded 
tablelands capped with desert sandstone. In the south the creek 
channels are lined with gidgee and myall (Acacia spp.) rather than 
with oiieMypfs. The whole Kfea is pastorally held, 

4. Thi Macdon t nell Sectoi;. 

The ranges and enclosed plains from ca, 25° B. lat. (excluding 
those of sector 2) to 23° S. lat, including the Macdonnell Range 
system, the James, George Gill, Stuart Bin IT, Reynolds, Jervois, and 
Tarlton, etc, A high, comparatively w r ell watered and well vegetated 
tract, with peaks vising above 4,0()(.)ft, in tint central portion. The 
arborescent plains vegetation is still largely acacia spp. but with an 
increasing element of eucalypt to the north. The lower, western 
portion merges with the Arnadeus sector and the mulga (Acacia 
anew a) is the chief arborescent species there, but the eastern third is 
increasingly dominated by the very distinct gidyee (a complex of 
closely related species allied to A. canibafiei) which forms characteristic 
uniform forests over hundreds of square miles towards the Queensland 
border, 

Pastoral occupation involves the whole sector except for a small 
area near the western margin and in the central portion is of 80 
years' duration. 

5. The Lander Sectok. 

From the northern bomidary of sector 4, to the former boundary 
of Central Australia and Northern Australia at 20° S. lat,; east to 
Stuart's line and west to the margins of the Great Sandridge Desert. 

This is an area of general low relief with isolated hills and out- 
crops but no considerable ranges and with the single major drainage 
line of the Lander Creek as a central feature. Undulating plains of 
sandy loam are heavily scrubbed with mulga in the south-west, but 



148 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

elsewhere arc lateritic, with lower shrubs and a considerable stunted 
eucalypt element alternating with triodia communities. 

There are some minor isolated sandridge areas. Only a small 
portion of the sector is pastorally occupied and stocking of most of 
this is light and recent. 

6. The Trans-sandover Sector. 

The area east of Stuart's Line in the same latitude as 5. The 
north-western quarter is occupied by a characteristic scries of quartzite 
and s;imMone ranges (the Minchison and Davenport) with a great 
development uf spiuii'ex covered serges and plains and some thickets 
of tin- local "turpentine" (Acacia lysiphlnia). A characteristic relict 
plant in the hills is the desert paperbark (Melaleuca lasiandra) {}) . 
Elsewhere are spinifex plains with mixed eucalypt-aeacia parks 
merging in the north-east corner with Mitchell grass plains of the 
Barkly type. 

The eastern portions of this sector contain the only areas east of 
Stuart \s Liue (apart from the Arunta desert) which have not been 
occupied for pastoral purposes. 

7. The North-West Sgctoh. 

This is the western part of the lower transition zone between the 
Central and Northern Australian environments and extending from 
latitude 20° to 18' south; eastward fco Stuart's Line and 100m. 
westward of the Western Australian border. The rainfall is higher 
(l;")l!()in.) and there is an approach to a monsoonal climate, with 
increased summer humidity. The north-west angle includes some grass 
plain on Sturt Creek and the head of the Victoria River and along its 
eastern edge a belt of quartzite and sandstone rangelets and screes 
similar to the Murchison-Davenport area to the south. 

The remainder is similar to the scrubby plains of the Lander 
sector but with a considerable increase in the eucalypts. The true 
rnulga (Acacia anc.ura), the most characteristic of the Central Aus- 
tralian arborescent acacias, is ftow rare, its northern limit lying a little 
north of the 20th parallel of S. bit. in sectors 7 and 8. Pastoral 
occupation is confined to a relatively small area on the eastern 
boundary and in the north-west angle. 

111 1 .-cm indebted to Mr, G. Chippendale f»f tin; Commonwealth Administration, Alice Springs, 

for the identification of these two plants. 



hnlayson— central australian mammals 149 

8 The North-East or Babkly Sector. 

The eastern half of the transition zone from Stuart's Line to 50m. 
east of the Queensland border. This consists largely of the so-called 
Karkly Tableland, characterised by treeless plains of black or ash 
grey soils with pure communities of Mitchell and Flinders grass, 
interspersed with islands of red soils carrying eucalypts and 
trrminalias of northern facics, w ith triodia and under shrubs. The 
whole sector is occupied pastorally and portions of it have been stocked 
for SO years. 



FACTORS INFLUENCING TTTE PRESENT STATUS 

OF SPECIES 

What I have recently written (1957) of the mammals of Upper 
South Australia is equally true of the Centre; namely that the question 
of what is extinct and what is barely extant is often impossible feo 
answer with conviction, and where materia) ipecords are scanty or 
lacking one must necessarily fall back on general inference and the 
testimony of the natives, where it is forthcoming. 

In order to avoid the wearisome repetition of the same facts and 
inferences, species by species, it may be well to Summarize very briefly 
the chief factors which have operated and arc operating, to bring about 
the marked decline in numbers and territory, which with one or two 
exceptions <>nly, has been the fate of all the Central Australian 
mammals. 

1. Ijono Term Climatic Cuangks Involving Increased Aridity and 

AdVKRSI, VttOKTATJVF, CllANGES. 

In many cases this has prevented the development of large 
uniformly distributed populations and substituted a discontinuous type 
of occupation in widely scattered groups or colonies. Provided that 
sufficient mobility is retained or developed and that numbers do not 
fall so low as to prevent adequate gene flow between groups, this is 
probably a valuable adaptive mechanism tending towards perpetuation 
of the species. But there is ample evidence that several species known 
to science and probably still others known only to aborigines, did not 
develop this mobility or in other ways lagged in adaptation to the 
changing post pluvial conditions, and these were drifting towards 
extinction long before any of the human agencies next considered, were 
operative. 



150 K I CORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Blieh species wvrv Phnscogalc calura, Ph. pemcillata, Bcttovgia 
pentiiJlata and perhaps Tricliosurvs vulpecula, Leporillus apicalis, and 
Macrode nna gigas, 

2. Aboriginal Hunting. 

Aboriginal influence on the decline of the mammal fauna as a 
Whole is probably a minor one and perhaps quiff, negligible, but it is 
not to be altogether discounted in the case of particular .species. A 
good deal has been written and more implied about the possible 
effectiveness of some native food taboos, in conserving fauna. "What- 
ever be the truth of 4 that, it is clear that it only applies to the chief 
"game" spedes, and it seems probable that an active hunting popula- 
tion, even though in very small numbers, may have hurried along the 
exterminating process in those cases where the range occupied by the 
animal was very restricted and its population thill. 

Some of the hunting methods of the blacks, especially (lie "fire- 
trail" tcchivifjne, in which ktge areas of vegetation nre burnt out, 
must have borne very hard on non burrowing Bpeciea, like Bcttovgia 
jfcmrillnfa. 

3. ErmoruAN OnourATroN and Pastoral R\w,oitation of ttttc Country. 

This is no doubt a major cause of decline and perhaps the chief 
one. Although the total numbers oi' ungulate stock seem relatively 
smal! when compared with the area occupied, the constant movement 
to and from watering plnees muses a multiplication of a disturbing 
factor with which many native species, especially the surface nesting 
forma, cannot cope. Tt has constantly been observed 633 stocking 
virgin country. Mint, many native species disappear long before any 
question arises of competition for food. In many cases qo competition 
for food is involved at all and in the case of ]\L rvfus, which from its 
grazing habit flight ti priari be exported to furnish an exception, one 
finds fchfl greatest tolerance -kangaroos in large numbers coexisting 
with domestic slnH. a (wait the same waters. 

The raj kangaroo (and to a lesser extent the hill kangaroo, M. 
rohtifitit.s) is of Special interest in this connection as furnishing the only 
example of a unlive BpeOiefl which may have been favourably influenced 
by pastoral operations (infra) and which in some districts has shown 
marked Increase in numbers in spite of restrictive measures. 

Pastoral occupation is of grenler extent and longer duration east 
of Stuart's Line than west of it and this fact has to be borne in mind 
when considering present-day distribution — several aperies stieh as 



riXLAYSON— CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS 151 

Isoodun aurafus, Peramrlrs crcmuma, BMongw U'surinu and Lagor- 
Chesfes ftjrflftw, which are much better represented in the western 
division, may originally have been more uniformly distributed and 
may perhaps even have passed east of the Queensland border, where 
today they appear to fall short of it. 

Active persecution by the white comm unity is limited to two 
S p CC j es _the red kangaroo and the dingo — and in neither case lias 
survival, or OTflfl genera] numerical status, been seriously threatened 
yet. 

4. Tntrom<cki) Pests. 

Here and there introduced ungulates have escaped and built up 
considerable feral populations in virgin territory which have had a 
del&terioHfi effect on native Sauna over small areas. Far more 
important however, are the three major scourges, the rabbit, the fox, 
and the feral house cat, which together have had an effect in certain 
districts only to be <l< bribed as catastrophic 13 the first by competition 
For food plants and the two latter by direct predatiou. 

At present the f<.\ mid rabbit are chiefly concentrated in the 
southern sectors wIumv a vain feope was entertained that the lafbr 
might buffer &e fcffeel Of thG fox on the native mammals, Hut in the 
Inst X> jreata, the region comprised by the FAerard, Mus^rave. Mann 
ami Tomk'mson Railges-^fie of* the most beautiful hill tracts in arid 
Australia, largely utio<vu[Mcd by white man and with many of the 
attributes of a natural sanctuary — lias been stripped n1 ' most fl1 ' its 
smaller species by the increase of the fox there. The work of the fox 
is often done with remarkable speed and it seems probnble that the 
colonial type of distribution of so many marsupials, is particularly 
vulnerable to its attack — small groups being systematically hunted out 
of existence, before Ihev lmve time to develop a protective mechanism. 

The extent to which the fox succeeds in occupying Hie sectors 
further north is of vitnl concern in tlte future of Northern Territory 
mammals, Experience in Western Australia suggests that if left to 
itself it ui;n eventually work riejit through to the north coast. 

The feral domestic cat which is widely spread in Central Australia 
is also no doubt a destructive force of some magnitude here as else- 
where; but as it preceded the white man in the Centre by several 
decades at least, and the rabbit and the fox by a still greater interval, 
without producing' comparable effect to the latter, it is presumably of 
less virulence. 



152 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

5. Epidemic Diseases; Poisoning Thhouoh Natural Agencies; and 
Heat Apoplexy. 

These have all been observed to cause death in the larger 
macropods, but do not appear to act as major causes of loss in Central 
Australia. 

SYSTEMATIC PRESENTATION OF THE DATA ON NAMES, 
DISTRIBUTION AND STATUS OF SPECIES 

ORNITHODELPHIA 

Tachyglossus aculeatus Shaw 1792 

Wonkanooroo (5. lato.), Inappa, Inniwalliiirja ; Pitjanjarra 
(s. lato.)) Tchilhrmvtta, Tchirilya; Arunta, Inarlinga (widely used); 
[lyowra, Yunaba (widely used) ; Warramunga, Wafiru/urri (Wajinga) ; 
Worgaia, Nilliyilloo; Tchingilli, Kedyilli, Nfrinyidda; Mudburra, 
Yeiiodin- Alowa, Oolbulla. 

Ubiquitous and sometimes qtdie plentiful, especially in rocky hills ; 
has one of the highest survival rates amongst Central mammals even 
in fox infested country. 

Material examined is from the Musgrave Range in sector 2 and 
from the George Gill Range, Napperby Hills and Frazer River in 
sector 4. 

On the former occurrence of OrnUhorhyurhits in Central Aus- 
tralia, the possibility of which has been canvassed from time to time, 
I have obtained no evidence in support, 

DIDELPHIA 

DASYURIDAE 

Dasyums geoffroyi Gould 1841 

Wonkanooroo (s. Into.). Ytkmvra; Pitjanjarra, Pulchida (Part- 
jada) ; Yankimjarra, Kecvika; Kukatja, r I'ajadi (widely used) ; Arunta, 
Ilyowra, ArJulpa (widely used); Warramunga, Wiiwijurtgoo. 

Further north the following names are used primarily for D. 
hallucatus (infra): Tchingilli, jobodo; Alowa, Wanumbeera; Mara, 
Woonijaboonya :■; Larrakia, Luali. 

Formerly widely distributed and plentiful over a large part, or 
possibly over the whole of the central area, but now a rare and 



FINLAYSON— CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN MAMMAI 5 15* 

apparently vanishing form. I have* recent accotints of it surviving in 
sector;; 4,. 6, and 7, "but it seems to have completely gone from the 
Everard Mnsirrave Range area which yielded the only material 
examined. This indicates a small phase of D. ffeoffrogi with some 
modifications tending* superficially towards D. hallucatiis so that 
gttparation frqni that Species by interrogation is uncertain, and it is 
possible that D. KtffacaUto infiltrates the transition zone of sectors 7 
and B. It is significant liowever that Glauert (1033) records D. 

geoffroyr in the Sandridge Desert about 50m, from the western 

boundary of sector 7. 

Material examined is from Chuudrinna and Walthajalkanna to the 
ftorth Of the Kvernrd Range, Spencer had material from Alice Springs 
and Crown Point. 

Phaseogale calura Gould 1844 

The inclusion of this species in the Central fauna still rests on the 
original record of Spencer Of Specimens taken by Gillen at Alice 
Springs b the Macdonnell Range in 1896. T have been unable to obtain 
any further satisfactory information upon its status, and it would 
appear to be a relict form confined to the range or at least with a very 
restricted distribution. Jf it still exists it must be excessively rare 
One. of the original specimens has been examined, as well as one from 
the Mount Lofty Range of lower South Australia. 

The related species P. penkittata Shaw has a northern race pirata 
Thomas, originally based ttpon the South Alligator "River in Arnhern 
Land, in a high rainfall are:-!. Glauert, however (1933) records it 
from the Satnlridg** Insert of AVestern Australia at about lat. 21° 50' S, 
This correspond-, fo the south boundary of the Lander sector about 
200m. east, and it may therefore extmid into Central Australian 
territory. 

Phaseogale (Pseudanf echinus) macdonnellensis Spencer 1896 

Since the original series was taken at Alice Springs in the 
Mnednnnell ranges, I have had it from the Basedow Range area in 
the Amadeus sector of the South-West in 1937 and again in 1939, and 
it was recorded also from the Granites south of Tanami in the Lander 
sector, in 1952. It is certainly not a common form at the present day 
but its true status is obscure. 



154 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Material examined comprises part of the original collection, the 
Basedow Range specimens and a long series from localities unfor- 
tunately not further specified than as from "Central Australia' \ (1) 

The related form Ph. (Pseudani 'echinus) mimitlus Thomas 1906 is 
apparently still represented solely by the type specimen from 
Alexandria in sector 8. 



Phascogale (Planigale) ingrami Thomas 1906 

The original record of 5 specimens from Alexandria in sector 8, 
is apparently still the only one for this species, in the area here 
considered. 

Dasycercus cristicauda Krefft 1867 

Wonkanooroo, Mudagoora; Pitjanjarra, Muritcha; Arunta, 
Ilyowra, Ampurta; Walpari, Narloodi, Tajinna. 

A widely distributed and formerly very plentiful species, with 
records in all the sectors except 8, but especially characteristic of the 
south Central areas. The northern limit is at about 19° S. lat. but in 
the adjoining tracts of Western Australia, Glauert (1933) records it 
from 18° S. lat. 

It tends to concentrate upon sandridge areas and in 1931-32 
after a period of scarcity was in large numbers about the lower 
Diamantina and Barcoo in the eastern part of the Lake Eyre Basin, 
and from 1932-35 was found to be one of the most plentiful small 
mammals in the Amadeus sector. At the present time it is almost 
unknown in the latter sector and is everywhere much reduced but has 
been obtained during the last five years from points as far apart as 
Yuendumu and the Tarlton Range. 

Material examined is from the eastern part of the Lake Eyre 
Basin, where the very distinct pallid phase known as D. c. hillieri 
Thomas occurs; from sand areas adjoining the Everard, Musgrave, 
Mann, Tomkinson and Basedow Ranges in sector 2; from Yuendumu 
near the boundary of sectors 4 and 5; from the Tarlton Range in the 
far east of sector 4; from Tennant Creek in sector 7; and from the 
Canning Stock Route in the Sandridge Desert of Western Australia. 

(i) Much early material examined by me is labelled baldly as from "Central Australia", 
which at the time seems to have been regarded as a sort of torrid Ultima Thule, neither 
capable of, nor needing, more detailed localization. This leads to an exasperating loss 
of many valuable records. 



FINLAYSON— CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS 155 

Dasyuroides byrnei Spencer 1896 

Wonkanooroo, Kovnn. 

The locus Of the typo series was Charlotte Waters in sector 3 and 
of the later subspecies D. b. paUidior Thomas 1906, Killalpaninna in 
sector 1. Formerly it had a considerable range in the eastern pari of 
the Lake fijyre Basil] and was well known to the blacks and many 
settlers by the above name, but I have been unable to trace it in other 
parts of the Centre, several reports of it being due to confusion with 
Ddsj/ccrrifs. 

At the present time it is one of the rarest of the Dnsyuridae, but 
retains a very tenuous hold on the eastern part of the Lake Eyre 
Basin, and lias been taken recently at Birdsville. 

Four specimens only have been examined and these are imperfectly 
localized, as from "Central Australia". 

Sminthopsis crassicaudata Gould 1844 

Wonkauooroo, Nilee. 

This species periodically undergoes great increase in the eastern 
part of the Lake Eyre Basin in sector J, whence most of the material 
here examined has come. It represents the long legged, long tailed, 
pale coloured local phase, & c. centralis Thomas 1902 which Tate 
(1047) proposes to separate from er&Ssicmdata and treat as a sub- 
speeiQfl of 8< tnacroura now raised to specific rank. I have discussed 
in detail (1033) the evidence tor regarding cnLssicumhita and centralis 
as subspecifjcally related, based on the examination of a large series 
from intermediate localities. 

Elsewhere in the Centre it is less well known and is apparently 
not subject to great fluctuations in numbers. 

Records are available fi*om the Lake Eyre Basin in sector 1; 
Arckaringa in sector 3; Mentibee in sector 2; Macdonnell Ranges and 
the Bundey River drainage in the north-east of sector 4; Yuendumu 
in the north-west of sector 4; and AVillowra in sector 5. 

Material from all these points has been examined. 

Sminthopsis hirtipes Thomas 1898 

The type was from Charlotte Waters in sector 3 and it has since 
been obtained in the Lake Mackay area in the far west of sector 4, and 
Glauert (1933) has recorded it from near the Warburton Range in the 



156 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

western extension of sector 2 and at Well 29 on the Canning Stock 
Route of the Sandridge Desert. The latter specimens have been 
examined, 

Nothing is known of its status. 

Sminthopsis larapinta Spencer 1896 
Wonkanooroo, Melatjhani. 

The type locality is at Charlotte Waters in sector 3, and it has 
been taken also in the eastern portion of the Lake Eyre Basin in 
sector 1 both in South Australia and Queensland; in the Macdonnell 
Ranges and between the Bundey and Frazer rivers in sector 4, and at 
Tan a mi in sector 5 — the last record by Glauert (1933). It has latterly 
been considered that S. statkrri of Alroy and Alexandria is a subspecies 
of larapinta and if this be so, it is likely that the distribution of 
larapinta covers most of Central Australia. 

Like S. crassicandata centralis, & larapinta is periodically very 
plentiful in the eastern part of the Lake Eyre Basin, but is very sparse 
elsewhere. 

Tate (194-7, p. 123) states that I have questioned the distinctness 
of these two species. This however is very far from being the case, 
and in 1933 I listed (he obvious points of distinction both external and 
cranial, which separate them. 

Material examined is from the first four localities quoted. 

Sminthopsis murina constricta Spencer 1896 

This somewhat cryptic form still rests I believe, on Spencer's 
original specimens from Oodnadalfa in sector 3 and Alice Springs in 
sector 4. 

Sminthopsis psammophila Spencer 1895 

The type which is still imique so far as published records go, is 
from the vicinity of Lake Amacleus in the south-west sector. 

I append a number of aboriginal names for Smintho])sis like 
animals which are insufficiently characterized to be assigned to any of 
the above species with confidence: Yankunjarra, Walbunba; Arunta, 
Miwi/oolba; Ilyowra, Hunyilba, Annuljalu; Walpari, Kurinakulumbi, 
Tchungunba; Tchingilli 5 Yarrukaddi; Mara, Maloiveea. 



FINLAYSON— CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS U1 

Anteehinomys spenceri Thomas 1906 

Yankunjarra, Pitchi pitchi; Arunta, Ilyowra, Arrajamdn.. 

Records are available from Oodnadatta and Charlotte Waters in 
sector 3; from the Everard, Mann and Musgrave Ranges and Wollara, 
in sector 2; from the Macdonnell Ranges, upper Sandover River, 
Bundey and Ooratipra Creeks, and the Tarlton Range in sector 4; and 
from Termant Creek in sector 7. 

Wood Jones (1923) wrote of its excessive rarity and this may be 
true of the Lake Eyre Basin and of the western district of South 
Australia, where he sought it, but from 1932-35 in the Everard and 
Musgrave Ranges an4 fi'om 1953-56 in the eastern part of sector 4, 
I found it fairly plentiful— much more so than any of the Smintliopsis 
species, and in the latter period it was frequently being brought into 
homesteads at night by cats. 

Material has been examined from all the above localities and a 
specimen also from the Murchison district of Western Australia, taken 
in 1928, 50 miles north of Meekatharra. This appears to be the most 
westerly record and is nearly 600 miles north-west of Rawlinna whence 
it is also claimed. 

Myrmecobius fasciatus Water house 1836 

Yankunjarra, WulpoorU ( Wailburdi ) . 

Locality records are from the south and west of the Everard 
Range; south uf the Cavaiiagh Range a&d north and west of the 
Rawiinson Range, all in sector 2 or its western extension. 

In these localities it was formerly quite plentiful, but 1 know of 
no materia) having been taken since 1933 and as the fox has greatly 
increased in this sector since that time, its chances of survival are 
not good. 

Material examined is all from the Everard Range district. The 
local form is M. f. rufus Wood Jones 1923. 

PERAMELIDAE 

Thalacomys lagotis Reid 1837 

Wonkanooroo, Tkulka ; Dieri, Kapita ; Pitjanjarra (s. Into.), Talgoo 
(Djalhi) (widely used), Ncjynoo; Arunta, Ilyowra, AtoUliga, Ai/oorlaj 
Walpari, Yarninya', Warramunga, Wombaia, Warrifjiddi; Tchingilli, 
Talbo urrn. 



158 KPCORDS OF THE S.A. MUSFIJM 

Formerly one of the most plentiful and universally distributed of 
Central Australian mammals, with a heavy concentration of population 
ifi Hie .south-west sector and central portions of sector 4. Locality 
records cover all Hectors except 8 where the Barkly Tableland was 
apparently never occupied. The &peeiea formerly extended much 
further north than is generally realized and then* is good evidence of 
it 30 years ago at Lulwa about 50 miles north of Newcastle Waters. 

At the present time it is rapidly being reduced to the status of a 
rare form and has been completely eliminated from much of the south- 
west sector in the last 25 years, by (he fox. It still occurs in sum II 
numbers in the ranges of the 26th parallel in Western Australian 
territory; in the Western Maedonnclls; in the Lake Eyre Basin; and 
at one or two points in sectors 6 and 7. 

The greater part of the material examined is from the south-west 
sector, but material from peripheral localities includes (1) Pundi in 
the sandhill belt south of the Musgrave Range; (2) Blackstone and 
Warburton Ranges on the 26th parallel in Western Australia; (3) 
Start Creek in the north-west; (4) Tennant Creek in the north centre; 
(5) Frazer River in the east of sector 4; (ti) Cooncheri and Birdsville 
in the south-east of sector L 



Thalaeomys minor Spencer 1897 

WoriL-u.onmo, YaUara ; Fralmnna, U t ihIh (fide Stirling and 
Spencer). 

The species is known from two districts only, the original form as 
described by Spencer coming from near Charlotte Waters in sector 3, 
and a subspecies 2\ m. nustdius described in 1932, from Cooncheri, 
Munger.nnie and Kopperarnanna on (he lower Diamantina and Barcoo 
in sector 1, 

From the type locality in sector 3 the. species seems to have com- 
pletely disappeared and I know of no records of it since 1904. The 
subspecies Mfeeftta probably still persists in the Lake Eyre Basin in 

vanishingly small number 

The material examined comes from all four of the above localities, 
but much more plentifully from sector L 

It has been debated whether the eastern form T. m. miselhts may 
not be identical with the earlier described form l\ levevra Thomas 
1887 which is known only by a single immature and unlocalized 
Specimen. Tate' (1948) who alone has examined the types of both 



FINLAYSON— CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS 159 

h'Hcura and wiselius dissents from this, bo that there are no grounds 
at present for claiming the former as a Central Australian species, 
though it may well have been so. 

Isoodon auratus Ramsay 1887 

Pitjanjarra (#• lata), Wtntarro, Nyurloo, 

These two names are well differentiated from Perameles eremiana 
by natives who knew both animals as living sympatne species. Those 
which follow may apply to either: — 

Nadadjara, Makoora; Kukatja, Poodoojooroo; Ilyowra, Yitvurra, 
Tairh; Ariinta, Yucntnt, Arkoora; Walpari, Warrnmun#a, Bulajuroo; 
Mudburra, VhL/k* 00, Ujftn ifl ; Tchingilli, Butgoohi, Kuluairi. 

There fa no doubt that L aurol/is was foimerly a very widely 
distributed form in Central Australia, wherever sandy spinifex tracts 
occurred in considerable expanse, as is particularly so west Oi Stuarts 
Line. Where material is not available, however, it is often impossible 
to be sure from the accounts of natives whether this species, or 
Perameles eroviana or both are being indicated, in districts such as 
the south-west sector in the period U):>2 :>5 where the two occurred 
sympatrically there was no confusion in nomenclature, but in the 
pastoral districts east of the line, where bandicoots of either kind had 
not been seen for thirty years or more, names were used less precisely. 
All that can new be said is that one or other of these two species, 
and frequently both, probably occurred in suitable habitats over the 
whole of Central Australia. 

/. uinalHx survives in considerable numbers in the western part 
of sector 4; the adjoining part of sector 2 and in sectors 5, 6 and 7, 
In the more southerly districts it is rare or absent. Its reduction in 
the southern part of the south-west sector has been very steep in the 
last 25 years. 

The material examined comes from the lower Bareoo River in 
sector 1; from Pundi and Koonapandi south of the Musgrave Range 
and from the Everard Range in sector 2; from Lake Maekay in sector 
4; from Lho Granites south-east of Tanami in sector 6; from several 
points on the Canning Stock Route in the latitude of sectors 4, 5 and 
7 but further west in the Sandridge Desert; and from Tennant Creek 
in sector 7. 

The "Perameles ohesula 1]l recorded by B. Spencer (1896) from 
the Burt Plain and Tennant Creek is no doubt to be referred here — 
I. ohesidus and I. auratus are closely, perhaps subspecifically, related. 



160 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Perameles eremiana Spencer 1897 

Pitjanjarra (s. lato) 7 WalUlya, Ngina-na (>/ ride, supra), 

Spencer's original material upon which the species was founded 
came from north-east of Charlotte Waters in sector 3 and from the 
Burt Plain in sector 4. Other records are available from south of the 
Musgrave and Mann Ranges, and north of the Rawlinson Range in 
sector 2; from the Warhurlon Range area, west of this (Glanert 1933) ; 
and from near the GraniteB below Tanami in sector 5. Although no 
definite records are available east of Stuart's Line, some material 
collected by Whmeeke, which has been examined, should probably be 
so placed, and it is almost certain that some of the native names of 
mixed application, which are listed above with /. auralns, relates to 
P. cirhn'fiuf! Possibly a former sympatric occurrence of the fcwp species 
over the greater part of Central Australia, would be a justifiable 
inference. 

In 19B2-35 it was a well known and fairly plentiful species in the 
south-west sector, though less numerous than /. uuratus, but is now 
absent or rare in this fox infested quarter. It still persists in sectors 
5 and 7. 

Material examined comes frani south of the Musgrave and Mann 
Ran :uid from unspecified localities in "Central Australia". 

Sanger (1882) records ^Perawehs foAciafats'*, from the lower 

Barcoo River in sector 1, but the interpretation of this is doubtful. 
I have not been able to gather any good evidence of the presence of 
any of the handed bandicoots in the areas here, dealt with. 

Choeropus ecaudatus Ogilby 1838 

Pitjanjarra {s t lata), R inrjilbci. 

Locality records exist For the lower Barcoo in sector 1; from south 
of the Musgrave Ranges in sector 2; from Charlotte Waters in sector 
:»; from Ryan Well in sector 4; and from Barrow Creek in sector 5. 

If the animal still exists it must now be excessively rare. It is 
possible that some references to it are entangled in the incompletely 
specified names given under /. auratus and P. eremiana, as its habits 
arc quite similar to those of the latter, but the only clear cut account 
of it which 1 have had in personal interviews was from elderly 
Pitjanjarra men in the Musgraves. They distinguished it satisfactorily 



FIN LAYSON— CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS 161 

from Wallilya by the longer ear and the peculiarities of its nmnus and 
pes. They had not seen it since about 1926 and spoke of it in general 
terms as a southern form. 

Of the four specimens examined only two are definitely localized 
in Central Australia and these are from Ryan Well and the lower 
Barcoo respectively. 



Notoryctes typhlops Stirling 1889 

Pitjanjarra (s. lain), EecJiarricham (Itjaritjara): South Arunta, 
Urnhiinua, Qorquamntii (Stirling); Walpari, Miutdaivulint Hi ji. 

The species is recorded from the Basedow range area, from east 
Of Mount Conner, and South of the Mann, Musgrave and Evcrard 
ranges in sector 2; from Charlotte Waters, Idracowra and Crown 
Point in sector 3; from south of the George Gill Bange, Herinflitosfottfg 
and Arltunga in sector 4; from the Wauchope area south-west of 
Tennant Creek in sector 5; and from the Start Creek in sector 7. 

The centre of distribution in the latitudes here considered seems 
definitely to be in the south-central and south-western districts of 
Bedtotfl 2 and :>; the bulk of the material and most of the records, 
originating there. Elsewhere, over large areas, especially east of 
Stuarts Line there seems to be no aboriginal knowledge of it at all 
In 103] 1 found thai keen Wonkanooroo hunters who had spent 40 
years between the lower Diamantina and Barcoo and the southern 
portion Of the Arunta Desert knew nothing of it, nor did their women, 
hut Johnston (1948) gives some credence to a report that an animal 
•-ailed Kakoma (by the f Wonkadjura) in south-west Queensland may 
be this species. The Arltunga record is based on statements of 
II. T. Maurice (1903) who knew the animal well in the south -west 
sector niid in lower South Australia and the Wauchope report I 
obtained from a group of Walpari in 1954 who recognized and named 
the animal from a skin. 

At the present time it persists in some numbers in sectors 2 and 
■'», hut elsewhere, if present, must be a very rare form. 

Much of the material examined is only \a ni.ly localized as from 
u Central Australia ■', though there is contributory evidence that this 
meant sectors 2 or 3. Of the records quoted above all are supported 
by material, except that from Arltunga and Wauchope. 



162 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

PPTALANGER1DAE 
Trichosurus vulpecula Kerr 1792 

Pitjanjarra (s. lata), Wyoota (very widely used), Mungaivyuroo) 
Arunta, An<lto/ya; Ilyowra, Uvduiua; Walpari, Tckimgha ; Warra- 
munga, Man <tbun ; ( T) Worgaia, Wamburra ; Wombaia, Cowuyar ; 
iMudburra, Jtntfjautn ; Ichingillij '/'<//. Ooludji j Mara, Kudjani 

This ubiquitous animal is notable in the Central Australian fauna, 
as being the solitary representative of a family, elsewhere often ricli 
in species. The locality records involve all sectors, but there are large 
areas in the Bnrkly Tableland, Lander basin, and the north-west sector, 
which it may never have colonized. 

Formerly it was an extremely abundant animal over wide areas, 
And as late as 30 years ago, one of the chief food species of the natives 
in some districts, but now suffering a decline which in most parts ha.s 
reduced it to the stains of a vi\vv> form. In the field work of 1932-35 
it was found to be very plentiful ami easily obtained in the south-west 
seetor, where a portion of its population was living a semi-terrestrial 
life and sheltering in tchungoo and rabbit warrens. This innovation 
has probably been terminated by the increase of fcte fox, but it still 
persists in widely separated "pockets". I have recent reports of it 
in the Pdackstone Kange in the western extension of seel or 2, and in 
the Central Maedonnell Ranges, ;md Arthur and Plenty Creeks in 

sector 4. 

The collapse of its population, especially in sector 4 where tlen- 
is a great development of cucalypt avenue woods along the streams 
and the fox is not a serious menace, is difficult to account for. In 

spite of its apparent success in occupying large areas of country, it 

may be that a long term climatic factor has been slowly telling 
against it. 

The maloihil examined is from the lower Barcoo in sector 1; 
from numerous points north and south of the Mus-vrave Ranges, smith 
of tin- Mann Range, Kvornrd Range area, and Wollara in sector 2 
and west, of that in Ihe Warburton Range; from the Lake Mackay 
area of sector 4, and from west of seetor 5 at Well 43 in the Sandridge 
Desert. 

PHASCOLOMYIIXAJJ^^ 

There appears to be no worthwhile evidence, aboriginal or other- 
wise, of the occurrence of any member <>f this family as a recent 

1 1 pixrt BoriptwtH i 

1 preparing the above note, I fall overlooked tin. fact that in eorrespomh-npe with the 
tatti Dr, ATrH'Millivr.-iv, ut* Broken Hill, he had informed me that wornlirifs still surrivnl in 
small numbera in the Paroo River and Tiboohurra diyUietw Of New South \V;i|.>« as I/ife 
:ih 1923. 



FINL A YSON— CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS 163 

species, witlim the am here treated of, but a passing' reference to it 
is called For by reason of I he local reports which have been made from 
time to time, of wombat burrows about the main ranges of sector 4. 
These are probably based on old tehungoo warrens, with the holes 
enlarged by weathering and coalescence. 

The most northerly extension pf the family is given by J'Cttnrhnrus 
latifroiis Which, as a recent species in South Australia, reaches only to 
ca. 31° Si lat, and about COO miles south of Alice Spring! In 
Queensland, however, the relict population which has heen named L. 
latifrons barnnrdi Longman occurs in about the same latitude as the 
Macdonnell Range, at a point some 900 miles east of the same town. 

MACROPODIDAE 

Macropus rufus Dcsmarest 1822 

Dieri, Tehukooroo; Wonkanooroo, Koonr/arra; Pit janjarra, Marlon 
(Merino) (very widely used); Arunla, Okrnu (Stirling); Uyowra. 
(south) ami; Uyowra (north) and ! Worgaia, Alarm*, Wal<<ari, 
Warrarmmga, Tchingilli and Wombaia, Yoiv wirri (very widely Qaed) ; 
Muclburra, Wauntirra. 

Locality records for the red kangaroo cover all eight sectors and 
it extern!-, Ear beyond the boundaries of the area hfeta consider ed, to 
the south, west and east, and considerably beyond the noj'tliern 
boundary, 

in the last two decades the density of its population has undergone 
an enormous increase in the central parts of sector 4, whieh fa some- 
times attributed to the artificial proliferation of surface waters, 
through pastoral agency, Whatever its cause it should be noted that 
the increase has merely accentuated a natural distribution pattern, 
shared by several other species, which are not iulhieiieed by this fafit< 
Within a south-central area of about 20,000 square miles which lies to 
the north of the main mass of the Macdonnell Range*, it is safe to 
assume that several millions have been killed sinee 1945. 

Its numbers fall away vrvy steeply to the east, west and north of 
this area, and somewhat less so to the sooth. Normally it is absent 
from the major sandridge areas and from the larger espaiiaes of 
spinifex fiats, but its phenomenal mobility enables it to exploit all types 
of country when favourable changes in the vevebitiou occur. 

The materia] examined is copious, the peripheral localities 
represented being: to the west, the Waiimrfon Range; to the south 
east, Tcherrikooninyee, west of Start's Stony Desert between the. 



164 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

TMamantina and Bareoo Rivers; to the east, Pituri Creek on the 
Queensland border of sector 4; north, Banka Banka in sector 7; and 
north-ca^t, Alexandria on the Barkly Tableland. 

Macropus robustus Gould 1842 vars. 

Pitjanjarra (s. lata), Kurnda (Kunald) (very widely used); 
Arunta, Ilyowra (south), Arrimya; Tlyovvra (norfii) and I Worgaia, 
An 't'.u'.v; Warranium'a, Mamdjee; Tehingilli, Watabunmurra; Mud- 
hurra, Joodunid; Mara, Kiriwbu. 

Phases of this species are almost as widely spread in Central 
Australia as M. rufvs, and its extension beyond its border* even 
greater, reaching almost to the coast in the north and east. It occurs 
wherever the elected habitats of rocky ranges— often of very insignifi- 
cant dimensions — arc to he found, but has probably always been absent 
from secto* U aihl at the present time is virtually so from sector 3, 

In the last §0 year* the euro has undergonr marked recessions in 
some parts of the country, particularly in the eastern third of sector 
4 and in the southern tablelands of sector 3, but in all the major hill 
systems it. maintains large populations, some of which, in the 
Macdomiell Ranges, have shown an increase parallel with that of 
M, rufUBj though on a less spectacular scale. 

Much material has been examined, the marginal collections coming 
from the Everard Range in the south; Cockatoo Creek in the north- 
West ; Banka Banka and Newcastle Waters in the north and the Tarlton 
BangQ in the east. 

During the course of this work, some skulls of the very distinct 
species M. MtUophms Could have been examined, which are attributed 
to Banka Banka in sector 7, which is about 200 miles south of its 
normal range and in anomalous conditions. The same collection has 
skulls of M. tufas labelled as from the Adelaide River, which is an 
equally anomalous record in 1 lie opposite direction. As I have been 
unable to confirm either of these apparent extensions of range by rny 
own held work, I am assuming, pending further evidence, that the 
localities of th©Be skulls have been transposed. 

Petrogale lateralis Gould 1842 

Pitjanjarra (s, lato), Warroo (very widely used); Arunta, 
Arrawa; Ilyowra (south), Arrawa, Kvlara; Tlyowra (north) and 
? Worgaia, Ranee; Walpari, Warramunga, WafjiilarrL 



FINL A YSON— CENTRAL. AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS 165 

The major distribution of this rock wallaby is in Western Aus- 
tralia, whence it overlaps the Centre to about the Queensland border in 
sector 4, The north limit is at about 20 S. Int. just below Tennant 
Creak in sector 7, and in the south it extends to the limit of the belt 
of granite peaks south of the Musgrave Range at about 27° 30' S. lat. 

The distribution pattern is somewhat similar to that of M. 
robtt.-hts, })\\\ is less extensive and more discontinuous— many ranges 
and raugeleta either having no colonies at all or being occupied only 
intermittently with long periods of vacancy between, Its chief popula- 
tions ate in sectors 2 and 4; it is absent from sector 1 and there are 
HO records tor the greater part Of sectors 7 and 8. 

Its numerical status at the present time is much reduced from 
what formerly obtained, but whether it is precarious or not is difficult 
to determine, owing in part to its normally migratory and incomplete 
OCCnpation Of the country. In 1932-35 it was one of the commonest 
mammals of the smith-west sector with swarming populations in many 
of the rocky outliers of the main ranges, Today, although it still 
persists nt Hoattered points there, it is a comparatively rare form. 
In sectors 4 and (> it is eurre .illy reported in small numbers from 
several widely separated localities in the Mae.loimell [tattgd, the 
DavenpOrl Range, Wftd thB drainage Of the Sandover and Bundey 
Rivers. Oddly enough it persists in some numbers on CllCWinge Bidge 
on flie outskirts of the iown of Alice Springs, where it now has to 
contend with the tourist and pea rifle, 

A long aeries of specimens has been examined, and the outlying 
localities representee! are; Barrow Ra*ige and Everard ftange in 

seetor 2; Cockatoo Creek on tin* boundary of sectors 4 and 5, and 
between Hie Sandover and Frazer Kivnrs in sector 4, east of Stuart's 
1 jine. 

There is at present no satisfactory evidence of any other species 
Of Petrogale W Centra] Australia. Tate (1952) records a form of 
P, iuonnifn iYom the Mount isa district of west Queensland and it is 
possible that I his diffuses across the border into the eastern areas of 
sectors 4 and 6, from which very little material has been examined. 

The nearest colonies of P. xanlhopns in South Australia and 
Queensland lie far to the south and east, with no overlap with the 
central lateralis. 



166 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Onychogale lunata Gould 1841 

I'd jan jarra (s. lata), Towalu ( TowuJpa), UnkuUla \ Arunta, 

Y 'nnttla. 

Another predominantly Western Australian species with an over- 
lap in Centra 1 Australia, but less extensive than that of P. lateralis, 
The locality record* listed involve sectors 1, 2, :? and 4 only, with a 
northerly limit at about 23° 8. hit; sector 1, Lower BarGOO Creek; 

BGCto* 2, Everard Bang*, Officer OreeJc, south of Musgmve. Mann, 

Tom! mson and Basedow BangOSj wesf extension of sector 2 in the 
Cavenagh and other i'anges on the 26 paraflelj Macumba Creek area 
of sector 3; and in BOCtW 4, north o£ Khrenburg Rwge, Red Bank, 
Bond Springs, AHfie Springy Iluekitta and west of Tarlton Raiiga; 
the two last, east of Stuart's Line, 

At (lie present time this is one of the rarest of Central Australian 
ttiacropodfl, but is still extant in sectors 2 and 4 at least and one was 
killed between the Tarlton and Jervois Range as late as 1956. Tn 
1932-35 it was still being reported and occasionally obtained by natives 
in I he south -west sector, but T have personal knowledge of only two 
specimens taken in that period. 

Material examined is scanty, and comes from the "Rvcrard Range; 
between the Klvernrd and Mnsgrave Ranges; the C.ivenagh Range and 
Bond Springs. 

Onychogale unguifera Gould 1841 

Mudburra, Tchingilli, Wnrramunga, Trhvuma (very widely 
known); (Wakvnja, W&giMtyaMMteii descriptive nicknames of the 
same peoples). 

A north Australian species extending east from the coast of the 
Kimhcrloy Division in Western Australia to the Pacific coast of Cape 
York Peninsula in Queensland, and diffusing south to about 20° S. Int. 
in the area here eonsidered. There are records in sector 7 from Banka 
Banka, and the lower eourse of Start Creek. 

It is not in large numbers on this southern fringe of its distribu- 
tion, but is well known in several districts there. 

Material examined i s from north of Banka Banka and beyond. 

Lagorchestcs conspicillatus Gould 1842 

Knkatja, 0gualpi\ Arunta, Ilyowra, Quatba ; Warramunga, 
Nadfim'i; Tchingilli, Kalama; Mudburra, Wambanna. 

This also is essentially a North Australian species with an east- 
west range similar to that of 0. mgidfera but it extends further south, 



FINLAYSON— CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS 167 

viz., to approx. %4? S. lat and probably formerly occupied all the area 
to the north of that parallel. I havo no records for sector 5 but as it 
occurs to nOrth and south of that block, this is probably not significant. 
In sector S the the only reemds are at the western end and it may have 
been absent from the Barkly Tableland as SO many other species were, 

The locality records arc. sector 4 T many points in and about the 
western Macdonnells, including t bo Mareeni Plain; south of Mount 
Souder; the Opialpi Plain near Mount Razorbaek (a Famous haunt in 
earlier \cmi\s); west of Mount lleughlin ; TTansts Bluff; and further 
north, west of the Napperby Hills and the Warburton Creek. To the 
east of Stuart's Line, between the Burnley and Frazer Rivers, Lucy 
Creek, ITackitta and west of the Tarlton Range; sector 6, Argadargada 
on the handover River, the Klkedra River area ami east of the 
Ibivcnport Knnge; and in sector 7, Bnnka Banka. 

Though in very small numbers, this beautiful hare wallaby is well 
known to the natives as a Irving species over wide areas and today it 
has a much stronger hold on the country than L. Itirsiifus, and its long 
persistence in the cattle country of sector 4 BttgUfS well for its future 
in the Centre. There are recent sight records of il from several of 
the above localities. 

Central Australian material examined comes from the Mareeni 
Plain and between the I Vn/er and Bundey Rivers. 

Tin* local form conforms in a general way to L. c. Icirjiardh Gould. 

Lagorchestes hirsutus Gould 1844 

ritjanjarra, Maria {Mania) (very widely used); Ilyowra, 
A dim n qira ; Walpa CI, Dci'lrnida, 

The headquarters of this species are in the great spinifex deserts 
to the west of the area here considered and the Central Australian 
population may be considered as an overlap from that region. The 
■•■cords involve sectors 2 and A at injury points, but there are no satis 
factory records from 1 and 3 and few from the northern areas in 5, ff, 
7 and S. A former sparse occurrence in 5, G and 7 is probable, though 
aboriginal knowledge of it is much less developed there than in the 
south-west. It is not known with certainty whether it reached the 
Queensland border, and its southern limit in South Australian territory 
was nevei- determined and is now indeterminable. 

The locality records are as follows: — Sector 2; south of the 
Cavenagl Range; south-west of the Barrow Range; Koonapandi and 



Wfi RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Pundi, south of the Musgraye Range; between the Evera.nl and 
Muagrtfve Bariges; north of Sladden Waters between the Rawlmson 
Range and the Robert Range; Docker Creek and Mount Jenkins, north 
arid south respectively of the Pelermann Range; north of Lake 
Amadous; between Mount Conner and Murraclmrra. Sector 4: 
Wytookarri (NAV. of Lake Amadous) ■ Dare's Plain in the George (rill 
Range area; near Lake Maekay; McEwiri Hill; Mount Doreen ; west 
of Warburton Creek and north of Hie Sand«>ver River about 40 miles 
upsiroam from (he Bundey junction. Sector 5: between the Lain!-. 
and Davenport Ranges. Sector fi : west of Banka. 

The species has been encountered on the Canning Stock Route 
further west, between wells 28 and 4::, in the latitudes of sectors 2, 4, 
5 and 7 of the present area. 

Tin- mode ^\' occurrence of this hare wallaby is fluctuating and 
: continuous and with isolated colonies widely sundered — circum- 
StaHGes which always add to the difficulties of estimating status. But 
Ihciv seema no doubt that a major collapse in its numbers in the south- 
west has occurred in the last 2.~> years. 

In VJ5C) the testimony of natives who still hunt yearly in the sand 
tracts BQtith Of the MusgraVe^ Mann and Tomkinson Raitgefi (where it 

w;is one of their chief food supplies in L932-35) 4 was that it was 

"finished". It is certainly a comparatively rare animal in any pari 
of Central Australia today, and in the districts where it lives 
(patrically with h. GOnspicittotUS, is much scarcer than that spec 
Material has been examined from most of the localities quoted 
above, and the marginal specimens are from the Canning Stock Route 
in the Sand Ridge Desert of Western Australia; Barrow Range; Lake 
Maokaj and Fundi. 50 miles south-west of Koonapanrli in the 
Musgravo Range 

Lagorchcstcs asomatns Finlayson 1943 

knowledge id' this Sjftcies LS still confined to the holotype skull, 
which came from I he Lake Mackay area of sector 4. 

Bettongia penicillata Gray 1837 

Pitjanjarra, Kai}>ifrhi ; Tlyowra, luiiwurritchax Worgaia, Winrft- 
jorra; Warramunga, "Walpari, Yclkamin. 

There are records in sector 2, from Pundi, 50 miles south of the 
Musgrave Range; Mount Harriett between Pundi and the Range; at 



FINLAYSON— CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS 169 

Waldana Spring, 100 miles south of Fundi; Unyaba Hill between the 
Kverard and Mmsgravc Range; and near Mount Conner. In sector 4 
at Huckitte and in the Lake Mackav area; on the Tvankin Creek and 
east of Davenport Hills in sector 6 and near the Buchanan Creek in 
sector 8. 

This bettong, formerly considered absent htm Central Australia, 
was still evlanf in very small numbers on both sides of the South 
Australian Central Australian border in sector 2 in 1932-35, where 
-pi'cimeii S > obtained by the blacks, and in the Lake Mack ay area 
of sector 4. Elsewhere ds presence as an excessively rare or recently 
extinct Specie^ rests 0« aboriginal testimony. It has now almost 
certainly been eliminated from sector 2, but may survive as a very 
attenuated remnant in some of the more northerly localities quoted- 

Material examined is limited to two specimens, one from Waldana 

Hi of ^riov 2 and one from the Lake Maekay area of sector 4; the 

tatter hag been recognized provisionally on cranial characters alone as 

;i new nice, />. />. «nl><fdru L9S8, but may prove to be a full species when 

more completely known. 

Bettongin IcKiiciiri Quoy and Gaimard 1824 

Wonkanoomo. Dicri, Ka)tnnk<i; Mitjanjarra (.v. fato), Tr.hun/joo 
(very widely lised) 4 Me<'tik<i; Aruntn, Tiinnka\ Ilyowra, AluMa (very 
widely used). 

A species widely distributed over south-western Australia 
generally, the area occupied being probably greatest in Western Aus- 
tralia, bul covering almost the whole of the State of South Australia 
ami v ill) a south eastern extension in New South Wales and Victoria 
(l!KiS, n/> rit 5g. !). The central overlap IS wide, with a northern 
limit at abend 2<>' S. Int. It is uncertain whether it enters Queensland 
territory, but Certainly reaches to within 50 miles of it. 

The locality records involve sectors I to 6 inclusive, but it was 

rare or absent in most of Secto? 1 an<l its heaviest concentrations were 
in gecrfcors 2 and 4. 

This borrowing bettong unique in the Macropodidae for its 
fossorial habit, and often proclaiming its presence by the great warrens 
it excavates, was formerly exceedingly plentiful, and (subject, to much 
local fluctuation) almost universally distributed in sectors 2 and 4, where 
it wftfl one of the most important of aboriginal accessory food sources. 
Tt lire now been almost eliminated from the south-western sector and 



170 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

persists only as a rare form in scattered localities in the drainage of 
the Sandover and Plenty Rivers and in the north-west of sector 6. 
The material examined has come entirely from the south-west 
sector, the chief localities represented being: Chundrinna and Waltha- 
jalkanna about 12 and 5 miles north of the Everard Range respectively ; 
several points south of the Mnsgrave Range in about the same latitude; 
Allarinna on the north front of the same range ; 20 miles east of Mount 
Conner; 12 miles south-west of King's Creek on the south side of the 
George Gill Range, and 5 miles north of Desolation Glen in the 
Rawlinson Range. 

Caloprymnus campestris Gould 1843 

Dieri, Wirtiree; Yowrorka, Koorjee; Yalliyanda, Wonkanooroo, 
Oolacunta. 

The known distribution of this animal as a recent species is in a 
portion of the eastern part of the Lake Eyre Basin in sector 1, between 
Coorabulka in Queensland and Mulka in South Australia and east to 
Innamincka. 

Within this area it occurs in very small numbers but is subject 
to occasional increase as in 1931. I know of no reliable records since 
1935. 

Material examined comes from Ooroowillani, Mulka and Cooncheri. 

MONODELPHIA 

MURIDAE 

Except in the case of species of strongly marked characters, the 
data on individual murids, especially from aboriginal sources is 
generally less than that for marsupials, and where material also has 
been scanty, I have not felt justified in speculating on status and 
distribution, but simply record the localities represented. 

Rattus villosissimus Waite 1897 

Wonkanooroo, Miaroo; Anmatchera, Artoka {1) ; Warramunga, 
Walpari, Gootanga (very widely used) ; East Arunta, Ilyowra, Yimala. 

Locality records are from east of Banka, and from Alroy and 
Alexandria in sector 8 ; Lake Nash, Wycliffe Well, Elkedra in sector 6 ; 

(i) The same, or a very similar word may be used for a frog which also burrows into 
creek banks. 



FINLAYSON— CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS 171 

Bundey BlVW ftrea, Tarlton Range, Pituri Creek, Napperby Crook in 
seofor 4j Appamunna, Cooncheri, Puttaburra, and Alulka in sector 1. 

This is an eastern form with headquarters &B a breeding species, 
in Western Queensland. At intervals of from five to seven years its 
populations undergo a cyclic increase and it swarms into the adjoining 
parts of eastern Central Australia occasionally reaching Stuart's Line 
or slightly beyond. These migratory populations vanish again, usually 
quite quickly but sometimes persist for as much as 18 months. In the 
eastern part of Che Lake Eyre Basin in sector 1, it is a resident species 
tlmuo-li normally present in very small numbers, and there is a 
possibility that the Napperby Creek population south of Stuart's Bluff 
Kari'j;<\ and perhaps others in the Macdonnells are of the same kind, 
though it is more likely thai they are rather persistent remnants of 
migration waves. 

The material personally examined comes from all four of the 
sector 1 localities ami from all three of those in sector 4, and from 
unspecified localities in u Central Australia". 

Rattus tuiineyi Thomas 1904 

The subspecies R. t. rlispur Brazcnor 1936 is known from the Alice 
Springs district in sector 4 and from Tonnant Creek on Stuart's Line 
between sector 7 and 8 and evidently once had a considerable north- 
south range. 

No new material nor data on the status of this species has been 
obtained during the course of this work. 

Material personally examined comes from both the aboveiiamecl 
plnees and specimens labelled 4i Central Australia'* have also been seen. 

The above two species which are numerically insignificant in 
" normal" times are apparently the only representatives of the genus 
in the area, 

Pseiidomvs (Pseudomys) tninnie Trough ton 1932 

WonkanooToo, Pallyoora. 

Recorded from Appamunna, Cooncheri, Mnlka, Ooroowillani, 
Innamincka, Cordillo and other points in the eastern portion of the 
Lake Eyre Basin in sector 1 ; at Stuart, Creek just south of this sector 
and at Arckaringa in sector 3. 

Known to settlers as the River Rat, from its occasional prevalence 
along the course of the Diamantina and Barcoo channels, it is normally 



172 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

in small numbers but subject to local increase which, however, does not 
seem to carry it into the more northerly or westerly sectors. A south- 
easterly form not characteristic of the Centre as a whole. 

Material examined from all the above localities and from Ooldea, 
south of sector 3. 

Pseudomys (?Pseudomys) field! Waite 1896 

This ver\ obscure species is, I believe, still known only by the 
original specimen obtained by the Horn Expedition at or near Alice 
Springs in sector 4, It has been variously ascribed by different 
authors to iMygadina, and Thctomys as well as Pseudomys ss. 

Pseudomys (Thetomys) nanus Gould 1858 
Pitjatijarra, Ewtrootfc 

Tlir locality records are Koonapandi and Mount Crombie, south of 
the Alus^rnvc Bnm»;e in sector 2; near Alice Springs in sector 4; 
Barrow Creek and WyHiffo Creek on Stuart's Line between sectors 
5 and 6. 

Material from all these localities has been examined as well as 
some labelled "Central Australia M only. 

Tbis rat has been variously relegated to "Mastacomys sp. M , to 
*\T//r •■"" nanus Gould, and to Gyomys des&rtof Troughton. I have 
redeseribed it fully (li)41) and shown that inclusion in Gyomys is 
contra indicated by its cranial characters. Tate (1951) after 
re-examining the type of MUs HOMUS Gould, dissents from the above 
identification, but T adhere to it until the matter can be tested by direct 
comparison, Tate finds the interval of 1,000 miles separating the type 
locality of flf«U nouns (bmid from that of the above material, good 
reason for not merging them. It must be recalled, therefore, that a 
greatet distance separates the type locality of Gyomys desertor at 
WyclifFo Creek from that of Victorian specimens taken on the Murray. 

Pseudomys (Leggadina) forresti Thomas 1906 

The type locality is at Alexandria in sector 8, and a single 
specimen from Mulka in sector 1 has also been referred to it. Nothing 
is known as to its status except that it is certainly not plentiful. 



FINLAYSON— CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS 173 

Pseudomys (Leggadina) hermannsburgensis Waite 1896 

Pitjanjarra, Menln. 

Locality records are, in sector 2; Wollara, near the Basedow 
Range; Ayer's Rock; Alpera at the north-west spur of the Musgrave 
Ranges; Krliwiinyawunya, Owellinna, and Ernabella on the south side 
of the same; Chundrinna on the uortli side and Karmetuui OB the south 
Side Ol the Everard Bangs; sector 3; Charlotte Waters: sector 4; 
Bermaxmgburg.; "Maedonnell Range**'; and Tea tree Well: sector 5; 
Barrow Creek an<l the (iranites: sector 7 8; Tennant Creek on Stuart's 
Line; and in sector 8 at Alexandria. 

Although formerly having a wide distribution outside the central 
areas and said to have occurred as late as 1857 at the junction of the 
Murray and Darling Rivers in Victoria, in western New South Wales, 
south-western Queensland, western and south-western South Australia 
and south-eastern West Australia, this species is today a characteris- 
tically Central Australian form, and provides a curious inversion of 
the usual regional status of such widely spread mammals. In central 
latitudes its chief concentration is hi the south-west and though it has 
been recorded ProflQ Alexandria in the opposite sector, I could find 
little aboriginal knowledge of it in many of the intermediate districts 
in 1950-50/ 

In 1032-35 it was probably the most plentiful and wide spread 
mammal in sectors 3 and 2 and in the western half of sector 4, where it 
still persists, but T conld g#t no evidence of its presence in sector 1 
and if it exists today east of Stuart's Line, it is rare. 

Material examined has come from all the above localities except 
the last four. 

Pseudomys (Leggadina) waitei Troughton 1932 

I 'it janja rra, AnoolxL 

Locality records exist for Mulka in sector lj Wollara near the 
Basedow Range in sector 2; " Macdonnell Ranges", Frazer River, and 
Hart Range, in sector 4. 

Little is known about, the distribution and status of this species. 
Most of the above records are based on material taken prior to 1940. 
A small non saltatory mnrid which may be this form is still known to 
natives in the eastern sectors, but no specimens are available in 
support. The names ldjibudoo y Wiichihurrl of the Warramunga; 
Eeyimma of the eastern Arunta, and Umhwinyilpa of the Ilyowra may- 
be relevant here. 



174 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

In 1932 it was considered a rare form at Wollara, where it was 
outnumbered ten to one by P. (L.) hermanrrsbur^eiisis and was not 
known in the Musgrave Range districts. 

The material personally examined comes from Wollara, 
"Macdonnell Range*' and Frazer River. 

Laomys pedunculatus Waite 1896 

The original localities from which the Horn Expedition material 
came were Alice Springs (s, lata-) and lllamurta in the James Range. 
I have acceptable records of it since at Hugh Creek in the Macdonnell 
Ranges; from the Napperby Hills south of Stuart's Bluff Range, also 
in sector 4; and in the Davenport Range in sector 6. 

This species seems now to be rare and no material of it could be 
obtained during the field work of 11)31-35, It is still extant, however, 
and the three additional records provided are based on specimens 
taken, though not examined by me— the Hugh Creek in 1935; Napperby 
Hills in 1950 and Davenport Range in 1953. The latter represents a 
considerable extension of range — 200m, north of Alice Springs. 

Material examined is from Alice Springs (1s. lata) and from 
Tllamurta, and includes the dubious variety M brachi/otis u , 

There are as yet, I believe, no records of the related species 
Loomi/s woodwardi Thomas (based on Wyndham in the Kimberley 
Division of Western Australia) within the area here considered, nor 
of Zj/zoiHt/s argurus' Thomas, though the latter has been taken by Tate 
(1951, p. 265) in the Mount Tsa district of w-esterii Queensland, about 
100 miles from the Central Australian border in sector 6. There are 
native accounts of a large brush tailed raf living a subarboreal life on 
the lightly timbered pbnns in the north-west of sector 4 and adjoining 
portions of sector 5, The Anmatehera of these parts speak of it as 
of something belonging to a recent past, and their accounts suggest a 
Cunilurns sp. cf. heniili' untrue. 

Leporillus apicalis Gould 1853 

Pitjanjarra, Tchujalpt; Arunta, Tttrulpa; Pintubi, Tweeaipi. 

Locality records are from the country south of the hills between 

Avers Range and the Cavenagh on the 2fith parallel j and west of Mount 

Crombie, in sector 2; and west of Mount Peculiar and at M Alice 

Springs" in sector 4. 



FfNLAVSON— CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS 175 

This .species, which is believed to have had a wide range over 
SOttth-eastfini Australia, was first noted Ul Central Australia by Ernest 
Giles in 1872, It seems always to have had a rather Trail hold there 
and by 1940 had become a tare form even in the virgin districts of the 
Aboriginal lieserves, and was quite unknown in the pastoral country 
of tlie mid Macdonuells where the Horn Expedition obtained it. If 
it survives today it is probably in the north-west of sector 4, and must 
be in very small numbers. 

Two specimens have been examined, obtained near Mount Crombie 
in 1.933, by Messrs. Haekett and Tindale, and one of the Horn 
Expedition, from "Alice Springs . 

Leporillus conditor Gould 1849 

Wonkanooroo, Wopilkara. 

Although definite locality records are lacking, this species was 
accorded by general repute, a wide distribution at the beginning of 
pastoral occupation, in the southern part of sector I, exclusive of the 
A runt a desert, and as far v\<\st as the Arekaringa tablelands in sector 
3. An interval of nearly 400 miles separates the most northerly 
Specimens of QO^dHot examined, from the most southerly of the central 
population of apical is. Bnt this may not be significant and whether 
the two species ever overlapped in these latitudes as they seem to have 
done further to the south- east, is now a matter of speculation. 

By 1931 it had become very rare in the Lake Eyre districts, and 
it is doubtful if it still survives there, though it does so far to the 
south-west near the southern margin of the Nullarbor Plain. 

Material examined was taken in 1907 near the western shore of 
Lake Eyre North, near the boundary of sectors 1 and .'», 

Nototnys alexis Thomas 1922 

Yankunjarra, Darrjawat ,a\ Pitjanjarra, Wilchtmba, Other names 
in use for Notoinys spp. dosfi to ah -ris but not specifically identified 
are: Pitjanjarra, llpalija; Kukatja, Aupa, Illyakirri ij East Arunta, 
llyowra, Allabaiiia, Nvnivju; Tchingilli, 1/ iiui/i-uium. 

The specie* of Nofovii/fi appear, vanish and reappear at such 
MteXpected places and times thai it would be highly unsafe to 
dogmatize as to the local status or distributional headquarters of any 
of them. The recorded limits of nlcxis, however, exceed those of all 
other inland species and there can be little doubt that it is the dominant 



176 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

form today ovor the whole of Central Australia, with the exception of 

the districts about Lake Evre in the south-east, The locality records 
involve nil 8 sectors, and are numerous, 6§peeially in the south-west. 

In 19&2-8E it was exceedingly plentiful in sectors 2 and 3 and in 
one or two restricted localities such as Wollara in (lie Basedow Range 
area and Chundrinna and Walthajnlkanna near the Everard Range, it 
constituted a minor plague. It is still present in these sectors, bat it 
is many years since it has heen seen in large numbers. Elsewhere it 
persists but has not been reported in large numbers in any of the areas 
personalty visited. 

Long series have been examined, the peripheral localities being: 
Warburton Range and Canning Stock Route in the west; Alexandria 
and Alroy in the north; Haddon Downs in the south-east and Oolarinna 
below the Everard Range in the south. 

Notomys amplus Brazenor 1936 

Knowledge of this large species still depends upon Brazenor's 
original description of two females from Charlotte Waters in sector 3, 
taken by the Horn Expedition in 1896. 

The Pitjnnjarra of (he Musgrave Range have a name Arrvja, for 
a species of Notowys much larger than the Dai\(/airarra, but it seems 
to be almost legendary at the present day. 

Notomys ccrvimis Gould 1853 

Wonkanooroo, Uvrarrir. 

In the past this species has been much cuiil'used wilh A 7 , alcxis 
and N. fu$OUS <// . which has tended to give it a fictitiously wide 

range. Following n re-examinalion of the type by Morrison-Scott ami 
Tate (J&53 Op, fiit u p. 262) the writer (I960) gave a summary redescrip- 
tion of the species and the locality records amy qiiotdd conform to this 
conception of its characters. 

The main distribution belt appears to be to the east and south and 
only sectors 1 and 3 are involved in the records, These are: Roseberth, 
25m. north of Hirdsville; Birdsville; Appamunna; Pandi Pandi; 
Cooncheri; Cowarie; and Mulka, all in the southern part of sector 1 
on both the Queensland and South Australian sides of the border and 
Charlotte Waters in sector 3. 

Normally its occurrence is very sparse but it is subject to periodic 
increase in the Lake Evre "Basin as in 1930-31. 



RNLAYSON— CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS 177 

Material has been examined from all the above localities except 
the first. 

Notomys fuscus Wood Jones 1925 

Wonkanooroo, WUkintie. 

The type locality of this species is at Ooldea, south of the. area 
here Considered, but a local form of it distinguished by the trinomial 
vyreius (1960 op. ctt.) occttfa sympatrically with A 7 , cervims in sectors 
1 and 2. The localities are: Put la Buna; Etadhma; Midka; Cordillo 
and Innamincka in sector J j and at Charlotte Waters in sector 3. 

This species has been plentiful in the Lake Eyre Basin recently 
(1967) but is normally in small number-. 

Material personally identified is from all the above localities. 

The specimen assigned under this name to the Basedow Range by 
Tate ( 11)51, op. cit,, p. 263) is an intermediate of N. alrxis iilevis and 
•V. aliii> everapdensis, 

Notomys longicaudatus Gould 1844 

Arunta, Ilubaiifa (ol' Spencer). 

Locality records are: Mount Burrell, and the Burt Plain north 
of Alice Springs, in sector 4; Barrow Creek in sector 5. 

This large species was first obtained in Central Australia by the 
Horn Expedition Of 1896, and again taken by Spencer at Barrow Creek 
in 1901. I have been aide to obtain no more recent material and 
reports of larger species than N. afoxis though current, are vague as 
to survival. The word Allabaiya, listed above for indeterminate 
BpeoieS of Notomys, is obviously the same as Spencer's quoted here. 
It was heard on the Sandovor and at Pituri ('reek on the Queensland 
border of sector 4 bttt was not applied to a particularly large species. 

One specimen examined (date unknown) from Mount Burrell. 

Notomys mitchclli Ogilby 1839 

Localities from which this species has been recorded are Dickaree, 
40m, north of Birdsville, and Birdsville in sector 1; " Alice Springs'* 
in sector 4; and "Central Australia". 

The occurrence in the Lake Eyre Basin was recorded by Tate 
(1951) and has recently been confirmed (1959) but the others are based 
on old specimens of somewhat doubtful history. 



178 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

iV. •mitehelli appears to be numerically of minor importance as a 
Central Australian .species, but its general status there is obscure. 

Materia! personally examined comes from the Lake Eyre Basin 

in sector 1 and Erom "Aliae Springs" and "Central Australia 1 '. 

Hydromys chrysogaster Geoff roy 1804 

Wonkanooroo, Tinva appa. 

Locality records are from the Bareoo and Diamantina Rivers and 
outlying lagoons of B6ctor 1, south-east of the Arunta Desert. 

The water rat is not in large numbers in this district but is 
persistent and has adapted itself sncrrssfully to the violent fluctuations 
of its domain, which may change almost overnight from a small pool 
isolated by hot wastes of sand drifts and stony deserts, to an inland 
sea. In view ol' its known hardihood and resource it is somewhat 
remarkable that it has never colonised the Finhe valley where some of 
the western tributaries provide permanent water; but persistent 
enquiry there has revealed no trace of it as a living species, nor 
aboriginal knowledge. 

It may be present in the streams of the north-west of sector 7 
and north-east of sector 8, but mueh of their drainage is in Torresian 
lands. 

Material examined is from the Bareoo River near Innamincka, and 
conforms in a general way to 77. r. fulvolavafxs Gould 1853. 

Cat? is fomiliaris dingo Blumenbach 1780 

Dicri, Khiturra; Wonkanooroo, Mudla; Pitjanjarra (a. lalo), 
Tchit0Qdj<$ 3 Papa (Papa iinirra) ; Arunta, Adnerra; Ilyowra, 
A if hum //r/ t1} : "Walpuri, Malik \ Warramunga, Kunaba; Tchingilli, 
fniinji ; Mudburra, Wivjiirairiioo. 

The dingo is ubiquitous in Central Australia and the present day 
security of its status is one of the major grievances of the pastoral 
community. Although steadily x^rsecuted by poison bait, trap and 
native hunter, it succeeds in maintaining itself — often in surprising 
numbers — wherever watering facilities and suitable breeding grounds 
are to be found. 

Material examined comes from many localities chiefly in sectors 
2 and 4. 

O) This word has heen distorted in spelling, in an attempt to contract it with the Ilyowra word 
/or the euro — Ammga — from which, in rapid speech, it is almost indistinguishable 
by Europeans. 



II N LA YSON— CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS 179 

CHIROPTERA 

Comparatively little Is known about the bat fauna of Central 
Australia, It has sometimes beep assumed that aridity and a quanta- 
tive reduction f)F Insect life as a whole, are eoneommitants which must 
necessarily lead to a parallel poverty of microehiroptern, both in 
species and individuals. How true this may be, can only be tested by 
itematic COlleetffig. A study of the known distribution of Australian 
bats, indicates fhat in a considerable number of cases where the specie* 
lias not yet been taken in Central Australia, the records straddle that 
area, either from north to south or more often from east to west, caid 
it seems likely that more field work will show that some of them are 
actually exploiting the region, as a seasonal activity, at least. 

The writer did not collect systematically 1X1 this group and such 
results an W4M obtained wore more or less incidental to other Work. 
On Several occasions native children brought in quite large series of 
the smaller kinds, which in general they seemed to have no difficulty 
in locating. The species represented by this materia] and the localities 
involved arc listed below together with previously published records — 
some of the latter are of long standing and may need review and the 
identifications should be regarded as provisional. 

The following names are used for bats in general :— Wonkanooroo, 

Piv<'hi}>/)trhn<<n w/; Pitjanjarra, l J nidniarra % Oolpoolpamc; llyowra, 
Arunta, Walpari, JtijiLrcra; Teldngillb Mudburra, Nidlamintniniri 

Pteropus cf. scapula tns Peters 1862 

\Vai rnnnmga ( IV; ml Kaitish), Petuiui, Bit anno, Wilwanuiuja; 
Worgaia, W itiniooaarri; Tchingilli, Piljeena; Mudbitrra, Wolpaooron; 
Mara, Alowa, Matchoo\ Yn.nuhi, Murrain jiin/a; Larrakin, Lumulcna. 

Locality records: Arthur Creek, Pituri Creel and Handover River 
ill sod or 4; Crow River in sector G; Bank Banka in sector 7; Buchanan 
and Playford Creeks in sector 8. 

After a descent, by easy stages i rom Die green, well watered 
count.i \ <>l the northern tribes who use the above names, into the much 
8 well favoured territory of the Warramnnga, it was surprising to 
find the latter well acquainted with this fruit bat as a frequent visitor. 
The furnace like gorges and spinifex clad quartzite screes of the 
Miirehisou-Davenport Range area seem very incongruous habitats for 
such a creature, but it appears that after rains it exploits for a season 
the wealth of oucalypt blossom which follows along the creeks and is 
relished as a food item by the blacks. 



180 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

The visitations are regular in sector 8, frequent in sectors 7 and 
6 and occasional in sector 4. In the latter they are often reported 
drowned in open tanks. 

No material has been examined and it is possible that 2 Pteropus 
spp. are involved — but specimens of P. scapulatus were immediately 
recognized as the more frequent, 

Macroderma gigas Dobson 1880 

Arunta, Elkintera (Spencer and Gillen). 

Locality records are: li Alice Springs", Mount Conway, Frazer 
River, Ellery Creek Gorge, Field River at ca. 23° 30 7 S. lat. in sector 
4, and il Central Australia". 

Although its general status is that of a relict species, the Ghost 
Bat is less rare than formerly thought and is quite widely spread in 
Central Australia and adjoining tracts. The recession has been from 
the south. Old men of the Pitjanjarra knew it 40 years ago in the 
Musgrave, Mann and Tomkinson Ranges, whence it has now long gone. 

Material has been examined from most of the above localities. 

Nyctophilia geoffroyi Leach 1822 

Pandi Pandi, Putta Burra on the Diamantina River and "Lake 
Eyre" in sector 1 (material); Tempe Downs on the Palmer Creek 
(mat.) and Home Expedition, in sector 4; Tennant Creek (mat.) 
sector 7; Alexandria in sector 8. 

N. g. pallescens Thomas 1913 is based on Alexandria. 

Eptesicus pumilus Gray 1841 

Officer Creek (mat,) sector 2; Temple Bar (mat.) and Brook's 
Soak (mat.) in sector 4. 

E. p. emu in us Thomas 1914 has been recorded from Mount Isa 
ca. 100 miles east of the Central Australian border. 

Chalinolobus gouldi Gray 1841 

Barcoo River (mat.) sector 1; Erliwunyawunya (mat.) and 
Ernabella (mat.) in the Musgrave Range of sector 2; Tempe Downs 
on Palmer Creek (mat.) in sector 4; Tennant Creek (mat.) in sector 
7; Alexandria, sector 8* 

C. g. venatoris Thomas 1908 has Alexandria as its type locality. 



FINLAYSON— CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS 181 

Chalinolobus cf. niorio Gray 1841 

"Lake Eyre district " (mat.) in sector 1; Officer Creek (mat.), 
Ernabella (mat.) and Wollara (mat.) north of Basedow Range in 
sector 2. 

Scoteinus greyi Gould 1858 

Lower Barcoo River (mat.) in sector 1; Tennant Creek (mat.) and 
Sturt Creek in sector 7; Alexandria in sector 8. 

Scoteiiius balstoni Thomas 1906 

This has been identified in collections from the Canning Stock 

Route in the Great Sandridge Desert, Wells 43-46, by Glauert 

(? unpublished record). The localities are in the latitudes of sectors 
5 and 6. 

Taphozous australis Gould 1854 
Tennant Creek (mat.) in sector 7. 

This bat has previously been recorded from Cloncurry, ca. 150 
miles east of the Northern Territory border. 

Taphozous flaviventris Peters 1867 
Junction of Warburton and Tower Creeks (mat.) in sector 4. 

This species is stated by natives to frequently appear in the above 
area Tor a short time in late summer. 

Nyctinomys australis Gray 1839 
Birdsville in sector 1; "Central Australia* 1 (mat.) = sector 4. 

The Birdsville record (Tate 1952, op. ait.) is attributed to N. a. 
atratus Thomas 1924 the type of which is from Ooldea, south of sector 
2 (Wood Jones 1925). 

Chaerephon plicatus Buchanan-Hamilton 1800 
Alexandria in sector 8. 

This yielded the type of C. p. colonious Thomas 1906. The species 
has been recorded from Cloncurry, 150m. east of the Northern 
Territory border and T have examined material also from Boulia, just 
east of sector 1. 



182 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

SOME INTRODUCED MAMMALS 

Eteal populations of horses, donkey*, goaty and camels an/ nf 
[©Gal occurrence and though not without influence on the native fauna, 
call for no special treatment here. It may be noted in passing that 
the feral water buffalo of the north roast (Bos buhalis auct.) drifts 
sporadically over the northern borders of the area here considered 
and hay been observed at the following localities: Start Creek in 
sector 7 (1938)} 40m. rant of Alexandria U.S. in sector 8 (1953) and 
between Tananii and the Granites, sector 5 (1927). 

In a different category from these ungulates however, are the 
house mouse, rabbit, fox and cat which owe their introduction much 
more remotely to human influence and which are, or may become in 
fill ore, all pervading. The distribution and status of these pests will 
no doubt be the BObject of properly organized surveys — in the mean- 
time 1 lake the OppOjl unity of recording a few facts which have been 
ascertained incidenlally during this work. 

Mas musculus Linne 1758 

Wunkanooroo, Pvntu pvvlu; llyowra, IJ>i<)<:hujuil. 

So far as personal observation goes I have records of this animal 
as a bush living species only in the southern sectors 1, L\ 3 and 4. 
That populations of it exist in the vicinity of European settlements in 
the other sectors is certain, and that it will ultimately be universally 
distributed, is very probable. 

I have already (193!)) discussed it at length ill the Lake Eyre 
Basin of sector 1, and have drawn attention to the fact that its popula- 
tions there are of lung standing, considerably differentiated from urban 
types, and may actually represent a derivation from Asia, long 
predating fiuropeau occupation of this country. In this sector it is 
subject to periodic increase to plague proportions, but elsewhere seems 
to be as yet, a very minor influence in the fauna! economy. In 1932-35 
it was in considerable numbers in various parts of sector 2 — as at 
Wollara for example, where W. IT. Liddle\s settlement at Angas Downs 
had given it a start — but it was largely masked by the very large 
populations of Ps, ( LeggadmH ) het'infii/nshurgensis and Notomtjs 
alcris, In the intervening years there have been some sharp local 
increases in its numbers, but its status as a whole does not seeru to 
have changed much. 

Uaftus norvegicus Erxlehcn and B. rattus Linne, vars., which 
latter has free living rural populations in many parts of Australia, 



RNLAYSON— CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS 183 

dfl DQf seem to be able to colonize the Centre. The environment is 
spparfiHtJy definitely adverse to the genua, and the two indigenous 
species which have been recorded have only a very slight hold outside 
tlie Lake Kyre Basin. 

Oryctolagus cuniculus Linne 1758 

"Rabbila" very generally used by natives. 

Locality records cover all sector*, but as a pest it is chiefly of 
importance in 1, 2 ami $ and north of sector 4 (ea. 22° S. lat.) its 
numbers arc never great The following progressively northern 
records were obtained durim: the work of 1950-56. Kurundi, Lake 
Bh, between Phillip Creek and Bank Banka, Alexandria, Herbert 
Vale,' near < H arnooweal, Helen Springs, 15 miles south of Newcastle 
Waters, and Newcastle Waters. At. Daly Waters, Kathcriue and 
Darwin there ate elder sight records, thought to lie due to escape of 
individuals held for experimental purposes, but Kateliffe and Calaby 
(1958) record a thriving colony at Normanlon on the <4i 1 1 1* of 
Carpentaria. Some of the reports of large warrens in the north-west 
o|" eeetor 5 arc probably due to confusion with Bettonfjia lesueuri. 

The arrival Of the rabbit in I he Centre wns via the Lake Eyre 
IVi-in in ;<v!or 1 i,, 1H8!> or 1S00. In 1901 Maurice mid Murray 
recorded it 33 nlren<ly plentiful in the Muse, rave Range area and in 
1002, en mute to I he Cambridge <3ult\ they found it as far north as 
Lake Amadous. Murray as early as 100o saw its tracks at Kurundi, 
in (he Davenport Range of sector 6, which is near the present northern 
limit of uniform occupation 

Tli- enormous reproductive potential of the species is chiefly 
responsible for its being almost chronically out of equilibrium with its 
Central Australian environment and its history in most districts is 
»ne Of plague number- being built up after unusually good rains, 
followed by large scale mortality, and then a period — often of several 
years — ol' smreity Pi near extinction. So far as the local numerical 
change is concerned, this is more m- less characteristic of many 
mammals of the area, but in the case of the rabbit the amplitude of 
population (lux is far greater than in any of the native species and 
il docs not appear capable of dispersing protect ively as they do. 

Tt should be noted however that good eye witnesses have stated 
(hat at times of large scale mortality a proportion of the rabbits have 
Shown symptoms outwardly quite similar to those of modern myxoma- 
tosis. Some of these observations predate the deliberate introduction 
of that virus by 40 years or more, 



1*4 RECORDS OF THH S,A MUSEUM 

Volpcs vulpes Linne 1758 

Pitjanjarra, Torha (said fcg be an attempt to reproduce the English 
sound "fox" which is very difficult for them). 

Locality records involve sectors 1 to 6 but north of sector 4 it is 
still something of a curiosity. The most northerly report obtained 
(1956) was between EJkedra and Hatches ('reek in sector 6, but there 
are much more northerly observations to east and west of tin* Centre, 
:«1 Inveileigli, 4om. sonth-west of Normanton on the Gulf of 
Carpentaria in Qtlfieil&larid and al Wvndham in the Kimherlev Division 
of Western Australia at ca. 15° 32' S. Int. 

Foxes were noted at Anna Creek in sector 3 in 1010 and for two 
deeades subsequently made Duly filoW {iruiiTM-x in their northern 
advance, In the field work of 1932 the) were found to be well known 
to natives and white doggers in the F.verard and Musgrave Ranges of 
sector 2, though still in quite small numbers. They reached the 
Basedow Range to 1983 and Harpef Springs in I937j the latter is just 
east of Stuart'g lane and near (lie northern border of sector 4 wbieh 
is now completely occupied from east to west 

At the present time the densest tV\ population Is centred in 
sectOM 2 and 3 and it is in the virgin, pastorally unoceiipied areas of 
the former that the most spectacular damage to the native fauna has 
tteerue& The bounty on Poa scalps which was paid in South Australia 
in earlier years has unfortunately long been discontinued so that it is 
not possible to get numerical estimates of its status, as with the dingo. 
ion at Krnabella iu the Musgrave Range, where large numbers of 
dingo scalps are traded in every year, native hunters interrogated iu 
1956, stated that iu the area Immediately to the south of the Musgrave, 
Mann, and Tomkinson Ranges ( which yields most of their dog scalps), 
the tCS now outnumbers the dingo. The annual take of dingo scalps 
in this area for the eight Years prior to 1956 is stated to have fluctuated 
from 500 to 3,000, with in average of ca. l.oOO. and the maximum 
in 1956. 

Felts callus domesticus Linne 1758 

Titjanjarra (> lato) } N/taimt (= mecow), Mulcoo. 

Although no systematic work has been done on the distribution of 
the feral eat, it is probable that at the present time it is ubiquitous in 
Genfora3 Australia. Wells" record of one seen during the Elder 
Expedition iu 1891, 100 miles south-west of Mount Squires m the 
northern portion of the Victoria Desert and 400 miles from any 



FJNLAYSON— CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS 185 

European settlement, is remarkable evidence of the extent of its 
penetration and the duration of its tenure. 

In sector 1 it sometimes increases markedly during rodent plagues, 
but elsewhere its numbers are moderate, and as the natives hold it in 
high esteeiq gastronomically, it may possibly be checked somewhat, 
wherever there are active hunting populations. 

SUMMARY 

The results of two periods of field work on Central Australian 
mammals in 1931-35 and 1950-56, are combined with existing data in 
a summary statement on the distribution of the known species. 

The area dealt with is subdivided into 8 sectors which are indicated 
on a map and briefly defined. 

Factors having a potent influence on the status of mammals in 
Central Australia, are briefly discussed. 

Some native names, obtained during the field work, are recorded. 

LIST OF REFERENCES 

Brazenor, C. W., 1636; Memoirs Nat. Mus., Melbourne, 9, 7. 
Finlayson, H. H., 1933: Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, LVII, 197-200. 
1939: ibid. 63, 1, 115. 

1941: ibid. 05, L>, 224, 

1958: Handbook lor South Australia, A.N.Z.A.A.S, 122-125. 

1958: Ree. S. Aust. Museum, XIII, 2, 235-302. 

I960; Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 83, 79. 

Glauert, L., 1933: Jour. Roy. goo. W. Austr., XIX, 17-32. 
Johnston, T. H., 1943: Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 67, 2, 249-270. 
Marlow, B- J., 1958: O.S.I.R.O, Wild Lite Research, 3, 2, 71-114. 
Ratcliffe, F. N,, and Calaby, J. EL, 1958: art. "Rabbit 1 ', Aust. 

Encyclopedia, Sydney. 

Sanger, E. B., 1882: American Naturalist, XVIII, 9-14. 
Shortridge, G. C, 1910: Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1909), 803-848. 
Spencer, B., 1896: Proc. Roy. Soc, Vict, N.S., IX, 5. 

1896: in "Reports of the work of the Horn Scientific 

Expedition to Central Australia". 



186 



RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 



Stirling, E., 1896: ibid. 

Tate, G. H. H., 1947 : Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 88, 3, 123. 



1948 
1951 
1952 



ibid. 92, 6, 343. 
ibid. 97, 4, 247. 
ibid. 98, 7, 593. 



Tindale, N. B., 1940: Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 64, 1, 140-231, map. 

Wood Jones, F., 1925: "The Mammals of South Australia", Adelaide, 
3, 393. 



FINL A YSON— CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS 



187 



APPENDIX 1 



Alphabetical list of aboriginal names used in the text. 



Name 



People 



Spears 



Achilpa 

Adnerra 

Adnungwa . . . 

Alarra 

Allabaiya .... 

Alluta 

Ampurta 

Andunya 

Anoola 

Anpa 

Anjibeera 
Anuljalu 

A reenin 

Arrajanuta . . 

Arrawa 

Arruja 

Artnnga 

Artokn 

Ayonrta 

Ay yanga . . . 

fiilango 

Bukquroo . . . 

Bunyilba 

Butgoola . . . . 

Dargawarra . . 
Dec la in la 
Djalku 

lvvharricharri 
\\<:\ liuma . . . . 
Elkiutora . . . . 

Entroota . . . , 

(inotanga 
Gowngar . 

Idjibudon . . . 
lllyakirri 

Ilpalya 

Iiaiiiji 

Inappa 

Inarlinga 

Indwarritja . . 
Inniwallinga , 
Itjaritjara . . . 

Jobodo ...... 

Joodama 
Jungunar 



A runt a : 
Arunta . 
.Ilyowra 
Ilyowra : 
Arunta : 
Ilyowra 
Arunta ! 
A run 1<i . 
Pitjanjarra 
Kukatja 
Ilyowra : 
Ilyowra 
Ilyowra : 
A run ha : 
Arunta : 



Ilyowra 



? Worgaia 
Ilyowra . . . 



Ilyowra 



Arunta : Walpari 



? Worgaia 
nyowra . . . 
Ilyowra , . . 



Pitjanjarra 
Arunta: Ilyowra 



Dasyurus yeoffroyi 
Ctmis familiar is dingo 
Lagorchesies hirsuhis 
Macropus rufus 
Notomya ap. 
Bcttongia lemenri 

DaayG&rc us or istkuuda 

Trichosu ru B cvlpecula 
Ps. (Lcggadi.no) wditei 
Notofnys sp. 
Bats (in general) 

of. Sminfhopsis sp. 
Macropus robustus 
A ntechinomyx spencer i 
Pelrogalt lateralis 
Notomys sp. (large) 
Macropu* robustvit 



Anmatchera . . . . | Rati us villas is* im us 



Arunta : 
Ilyowra 



Ilyowra 



Warramunga : ? Kaitish 
Warramunga : Mudburra 
Ilyowra 

'IYhingilli 



Pitjanjarra 
Walpari .. 
Pitjanjarra 



Pitjanjarra 

Arunta 

Arunta . . . 
Pitjanjarra 



Warramunga : Walpari 
W ombaia 



Warramunga . 

Kukatja 

Pitjanjarra . . 

Tchingilli 

Wonkanooroo 

Arunta 

Ilyowra 
Wonkanooroo 
Pit janjarra . . 



Tchingilli 

Mudburra 

Mudburra 



Thalacomys lagotis 
Canis familiar is dingo 

Pteropux Hp. ci. *capulatus 
Isvodon or PeramcJes sp. 
cf. Sminthopsis sp. 
Isoodon or PErarneles sp. 

Notomya akr> 
Lagorchestes hirs uiu$ 

Thalacomys lagotis 

Notoryctes lyph lops 
of, Leggadina. ap. 
Macroilerma gigas 
Ps. (Thrtomys) noma 

Jtatlus villosistrim-u* 
T 'rich 06 urns vulppxiila 

cf, Lcggadina ap. 
Notomys sp. 
N atomy s sp. 
Cailix familiar is dingo 
Tachyglossus a-cuhatus 
Tacky ghfis us acsttea I U 5 
Bcttongia penicUlata 
Tachygloss us ac &fcd t us 
Notoryctes lyph In pi 

Dasyutus sp. 

M octopus robustus 

Trichosurus vulpecula 



188 



RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 
APPENDIX \— continued 



Namf 



People 



Species 



Kalama 

Kanunka 

Kaptta 

Karpitcbi 

Keelyilli 

Knenika 

Kinturra 

Kirimbu 

Koongarra 

Knorjee 

Kowari -. 

Kudjani 

Kiilnra 

Kulwarri 

Kunaba 

Kunala 

Kimjilba ..,,. 
Kunnakulumhi 

Kunula 

Kumiija 



TohtogUli . . . 
Wonkanooroo 

Dieri 

Pitjanjarra .... 

Tcliin^illi 

Yankunjarra . . . 

Dieri 

Mara 

Wonkanooroo . . 

Yowrorka 

Wonkanooroo . . 

Mara 

gs Jlvowra 

Tchingilli 

Warramunga 
Pitjanjarra ... 
Pitjanjarra 
Wolpari 

Pitjanjarra 

Uyowr.i : Arunta 



Dirri 



Lagorcheaten c&nsjputitta&us 

Bettongia lesueuri 
Thalacomys lagotis 
BHtongin penicilJata 
Tachygloss us nrulrrrt u a 
Dasyurns geoffroyi 
Canif familiaris dingo 
Macropus robustus 
Macropux ru/us 
Caloprymnus campestris 
Dasyuroides byrnci 
Trichos urns vu Ipec U la 
Pcirogah lateralis 
Jsoodon or Perameles sp. 
Canis familiaris dingo 
Macropus robustus 
Chnnropus ecauda.J>.- 
cf. fiminthopsis sp. 
Macropus robustus 
Notomys sp. 



Luali .... 
Lumul< n I 



I-.aira.kia ' Dasyurus hallucatus 

Larrakia < Pteropus cf. scapula! as 



Maal.i Pitjanjarni 

Maknora ? X.nladjera 

Malik W:il[K.ri , . . . 

Malowcra Mam 

Marloo Pitjanjarra . 

Maradjcc i WarnuunngH 

Marrabiin Warramimga 



Mafichoo 

Meetika 

Melatjliajii 

Menki 

M iaroo 

Mudagoora .... 

Mudla 

' 1 1 looo 

Munrlawiiljiwulji 
Mungawyuron . . 

Munyiniimi 

Munv""ll' < .... 

Muritja 

Murrairijiriya . . , 
Myarin . . 



Nadama 

N'arloodi 

STiioc 

NilJivilloo 

Ngaiya 

Nginana 

i lgtfldft 

5 noo 

Nullaniinminni .... 



Mara : A Iowa 
Pitjrinjarii 

Wonkanooroo 

Pitjanjarra . . 
Wonkanooroo 

Wonkanooroo 
SVonkanooroo 

Pit junjarra . . 

Walpari 

Pitjanjarra . . 
TohingiJlj 

A run La 

Pitjanjarra 

N inula 

Mud bill Tti . . 



\Varrarmiu^ a 

Walpari 

Wonkanooroo 

Worgaia 

Pitjanjarra 

Pitjanjarra , 

Tchingilli 

Pitjanjarra 

Tchingilli : Mud buna 



LagorrhesUs hirsut UA 
Jsoodon or Peramdes sp. 
t 'finis familiaris dingo 
cf Sminthopsis sp. 
Macropus tUJUs 
Macropus robust u* 

Trichos wtub wdpBeida 

I'Uropus cf. scapidatus 

Bettongia Ir-su e uri 

S m i n t hops is lamp in ta 

Ps. (Liggadina) hermannsburgensis 

Ratlus villosissimus 

Dasyczrcus cristicawla 

Cams (am i liar is d j n Q 1 1 

Fells cattits dorntsticus 

Nototpctes typhlops 

Trichosurus vu I pre ulu 

X of amy $ sp. 

pf. fl '-mi nth ops -is »p. 

Dasycercus cristica uda, 

Pteropus cf. scapulalus 

Isoodon or Pe.rame.lcs sp. 

Lagorchestes conspirillatus 
Dasycercus cristicauda 
Sminthopsis crassicaudaia 
1 W hy gloss us acidaatus 
Felis cattus domesUcus 
/ '(ramelps eremiana 
Tachyglossus aculeatus 
Thalucomys la-got is 
Bats (in general) 



FINL A YSON— CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS 
APPENDIX 1— continued 



189 



Name- 



People 



Species 



Nyurloo 

Okirra 

Oolaeunta 

Oolbulla 

Oolpoolparri 

Oorarri 

Oqualpi 

UJTH 

Pallyoora 

Papa 

Fartj&da 

Petong 

Piljcena 

Pinchi pilichj narra 

PindinaiTa 

Pitr-hi pitchj 

PoodoOJOOTOO 

PuMiida 

Punt a punta 

Qualba 

' . nee 

Taioh 

Tajadi 

Tajinna 

Takoolmlji 

Talgoo 

Tchllkamutta 

IVhivilya 

T.-hitoodja 

Trhujalpi 

T.-bukooroo r 

Tcbungba 

Tchungoo 

Tohnngunba 

Tchimnia 

rhulka 

Tinna appa 

Tjiunka 

Torka 

Towala 

Turulpa 

Tweealpi 

Unbwinyilpa 

Undeluquil 

Undinna ........ 

Wagunyamcnzi . . . 

Wailburdi 

Wajingurri 

VVakunja 



Pitjanjarra 



Aninta i 

Yalliyanda : Wonkanooroo. 
A Iowa 

Pitjanjarra 

Wonkanooroo 

Kukatja 

llvowra 



Wonkanooroo . 

Pitjanjarra , r , 

Pitjanjarra 

Warrarnunga ; ! Kaitifib 

Tehingilli 

Wonkanooroo 

Pitjanjarra 

Yankunjarra 



laoodon aoratun 

Macropus rufius 
Caloprymnus campestris 
Tachygloxsus acvlmt u 8 
Bat8 (in general) 
Nofatnys cervinus 
Zogorchetfes conspiciUat us 
Macropus rufu-s 

Pseadomys minnie 
Can-is J'u miliar i-ff dingo 
Dasyurux geoffroyi 
Ptero-pus of. scajndaivs 
Pleropus cf. sea jm talus 
Bats (in general) 
Bata (in general) 
A ntechinom ys span ceri 
P?rai»jh:s or Isooilon Bp. 



Kukatja 

Pitjanjarra Dasyurus geoffroyi 

W onkanooroo Mas musculus 



Arunta : Ilyowra 



Lagorcftested connpicillal u.s 



n. Ilyowra : ! Worgaia F'cirogak lateralis 



1 1\ -owra 

Kukatja 

Walpari 

Tehingilli 

Pitjanjarra 

Pitjanjarra 

Pitjanjarra 

Pitjanjarra 

Pitjanjarra 

Dieri 

Walpari 

Pitjanjarra 

Walpari 

Mudburra : Tehingilli : Wnrramunga 

Wonkanooroo 

Wonkanooroo 

Arunta ..... 

Pitjanjarra 

Pitjanjarra 

Arunta 

T'intubi 



f lyowra 
Ilyowra 
Ilyowra 



Tehingilli 

Yankunjarra 

Wnrramunga 

Mudbun a : Tehingilli : Warramunga 



Jsoodon or Peramdf* sp. 
Daxy MiiA geoffroyi 
Dasucerc us cristica uda 
Tr ich Off uru a v ulpecu la 
Tholucomys lagotis 

Tachygloss u & tint leatu 3 
Tachygloss us ac idea tu 8 
( anis familiaris dingo 
Leporilius apicalis 
Macropus rufux 
Tr khosu rus vulpecu la 
Etttofigia lestunri 
cf. Sminlhopsis sp. 
Onychogak u ngu if era 
Thalacomys lagotis 
11 yd n m ys fh rysagasler 
Betlongia U-.sueuri 
VitHpes <<ii [.«■■•> 
Onychognlc lunata 
Leporilius apicalis 
Leporilius apicalis 

cf. Lrggadina sp. 

Mas muscvlus 

Tr ich osu r u s V u Iptc U la 

n ych ogale U ng u ifc ru 
Myrm ecob i us fuse ial us 
Tachyglossus aculeatus 
n ychogale ungu if era 



190 



Name 



RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 
APPENDIX I— continued 



People 



Species 



Walburiba .... 
Walpaooroo . . . 
Wambanna. . . . 

Wamburra 

Wojigurra .... 
Wannumbcora 
Warrigiddi .... 

Warroo 

Watabunmurra 
Wilehiraba .... 

Wilkinti 

Willwanunga . . 
Windijarra . . . 
Winjiwanoo . . . 

Wintarro 

Winnijungoo . . 

Wirtiree 

Witchiburrt . . . 
Woonya boon ya 
VVopilkara .... 
Wulpoorti .... 
Wundoogarri . 
Wyoota 



Yankunjarra 

Mudburra 

Mndburra 

Worgaia 

Mudburrn 

Alowa . . , 

Warramunga : Wombaia 

Pitjanjarra 

Tchingilli 

Pitjanjarra 

Wonkanooroo 

Warramunga : ? Kaitish 

Worgaia 

Mndburra 

Pitjanjarra 

Warramunga 

Dieri 

Warramunga 

Mara 

Wonkanooroo 

Yankunjarra 

Worgaia 

Pitjanjarra 



Yalbo iinu Tchingilli . . 

Yallara Wonkanooroo 

Yarninga | Walpari 

Yarrukaddi | Tchingilli 

Y'lkamin Walpari 

Yenodin | Mndburra , . . 

Yikowra i Wonkanooroo 



Yimala . 
Yiwutta 

Yiwurra 
Yovvirri 



1 lyowra \ 
Arunta . 
A runt a : 

Walpari 



e. Arunta 



I lyowra 

Warramunga 



Tchingilli 



of, Smintkopsis sp. 
Pleropus cf. smpulatus 
Lagorch esfes conspicillatus 
Trichosurus vulpecula 
Macropm rufus 
Dasy u r u s hallucatus 
Thalacomys lagot is 
Petrogale lateralis 
Macropus robustus 
Notmnys alexis 
Notomys fuscus eyreius 
Pteropus cf. scapulatus 
Beitongiu penicillata 
Canis familiar is dingo 
Isoodon auratus 
Dasyurus sp. 
Caloprymnus campestri s 
cf. Leggadina sp. 
Dasyurus hallucatus 
Leporillus conditor 
M yrmecobius fasciatus 
Pleropus cf. scapulatus 
Trichosurus vulpecula 

Tluilacomys lagotis 
Thalacomys minor 
Thalacomys lagotis 
cf. Sminthopsis sp. 
Brftongia penicillata 
Tachyglossus acu leaf us 
Dasyurus geoffroyi 
Rail a s villosissimus 
Onychogale lunata 
Isoodon or Peramelcs sp. 
Macropus rufus 



F1NLAYS0N— CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS 



191 



APPENDIX 2 

List of English vernacular names for the species discussed (in 
the order of the text). 



tus 
Uasyurus geoffroyi 

Phascogah. calura 

Phnsro</<iiu penicilUrta 

Phase"!/ ah-, imicdon 

ii.tr lien. •da i 
Phasfatjuit lug rami . 

Vasijccrcu-s n is tir.au da 

Uosi/uroidt s bynei . 

Stnin1li<>) ■' '<■:■■' 
caudal a 

S ini.nl kops)::. 'fnrtip- 

Stninthopsis la r a pint a 

Hminthopsis ntiirina . 
Sviutlhnpxt.i psOUtMO- 

phila 
lnteohinovfti/8 sjw nt art 

Myrtnecobius fm 

llidJannm/s lagotis . . 
Thulacomys minor 

I oodon aura tus . . 
Pcrottirl.es i ictiLiiina . 
Choeropus ecaudalus . 

Notorifctej typhlops . 
Trieh usv \ us ru Ipecula 

Macrnpus rufus . . . . 

Mocropus robustus . . 
PrlnKjalr lateralis . 

Onychogale lunata 

Onychogale unguifera 

La gov chest es cons picil 

I at us 
Lag Or chest es hi rs ut us 

Lagorchcslcs asomatus 

Rvtlunyia pevicillafa 



Echidna: Native 

porcupine 

Black toiled Native 

Cat 
Lesser Brush Tailed 

Pouched Rat 
Brash tailed 

Pour h r<l Rat 
Fat tailed Pouched 

Rat 
Ingram !« Pouched 

Rat 
Crest tailed Pouched 

Rat 
Byrne's Pou 

'Rat 
Fai tailed Pouched 

Mouse 
Hairy footed 

Pouched Mouse 
Finite River pouched 

Mouse 
Slender tailed 

Pouched M 

idMU Pourl.nl 
&£DU£B 

Western Hopping 
Pouched Mouse 

Banded Ant 
Rabbit Bandicoot 

! : Rl b\flX 

Bandicoot 
Gulden Bandjeoot 

Desert Bandicoot 

[■i.. footed 

Bandicoot 
Marsupial Mole 
Brush tailed 

Opossum 
Red or Plains 

Kangaroo 
Hill Kangaroo 
Black flanked Rock 

Wallaby 
Crescent marked 

Nail tailed 

Wallabj 
Northern Nail 

tailed Wallaby 
Spectacled Hare 

Wallaby 
Rufous Hare 

Wallaby 
Central Hare 

Wallaby 
Brush tailed Rfl 

Kangaroo 



lirUrnifjui leBUi )i>t- . . 
i 'nlnprym n us <;im pes 
UOMUS iUl'JSiSS >;»■: I 

Rallie- ti'-mn.ut • • • • 
Fseud<>tnt/s mine, 
Pseud omys pr.UU . . . 

Ps. ( Tht tOHii/:.) lien U.< 
P.'L ..>dmii) 

Laotnyti pcduuculnlus 
■'■::: a p tea lis . . 

oriltua cojiditot . 
Not amy & alexia . - . 

Xntoiieys mn pi us . . 
Notomq/6 »:•••' * nriix 
Xolejwys fUSDtlH 

Notoie>i; lon£ica&d$ 

Ins 
\ Qttm 'is >nUe.h,!li . 

Ihjdremus ehr>; . 
go 

CarUi famiUaA Is dm go 

..■a[>i(lali,s 

tewrodavma giga*. . . 

l0pMlU8 ffi 

Pni: . . ■ \m ■ | . . 

Gliali-n Globus gouhli . 
dial i no lob us morio . . 
Srotrivus grey i . . , . 

Scot fine.', bahtoni 



lophoyous oust rah* . 
Taphozous flaevvcntris 
tinomys aus t rolls 

eiiocrephon pheatm . 

Bus bu bolts 

l\f>{:: jiriisriiltls 

(us norvegicuff . . 

Rattus rattus 

O rii e I o Jan us eun iculu a 
Vitlpes vulpt.'S ..... 
I'' el is GOttWt domes- 
ticus 



Burrowing 

K:m£:iro<» 

. n- Riit 

Kangaroo 
Long Haired Rat 
Tunney's Rat 

Reese's Rat 

Fiehl '9 Rat 
Little Bat 

Waited Muii:.. 
Thii-k taileg Eiat 

■ I I 1 1 U1MQ 

baildine Rat 

. - l.»uili 
Brown LToppiag 

Mouse 
Rra^.enor's I fop 

ping M 
Fawn Hopping 

Muuse 

Wood Jones' flop- 
phig 

Lou i J tap- 

ping M . . 

Mih-'h<.'!l 's Hgpping 
Mouse 

Water Bat 

Dingo: Wild Dog 
Collared Fruit Bat 

-'t Bat. 
(ifotTroy'H Long- 
eared Bat 
Little L:i[ 
GoiileVs Wattled 

Chocolate Wattled 
Bat 

Grey's Broad nosed 

BttlstOn '-; J; mad 

nosed Bai 

Sharp nosed Bat 
Fellow bellied Bat 
Free tailed Bat 
Wrinkled lipped 

Bat 
Water Bufl'alo 
House Mouse 
Brown Rat 

Ip Rat 
Rabbit 
English Fox 
Domestic Cat 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATION OF NOOLA ROCK 
SHELTER: A PRELIMINARY REPORT 



By Norman B. Tindale, Curator of Anthropology and 
Acting Director, South Australian Museum 



Summary 

On 2 nd January 1961 Mr. Norman Blunden discovered Noola Rock Shelter on a south- 
facing wooded slope below a high cliff, on his grazing property near Rylstone, New 7 
South Wales. The site is near the eastern end of Portion 34 in the Parish of Tayar, County 
of Roxborough. 

Acting partly on advice from the Chicago Museum of Natural History, Mr. Blunden 
wrote to the South Australian Museum for assistance in the study of the shelter, and, after 
some preliminary soundings of the floor had been made at our request, he offered us the 
privilege of the excavation of the site. 

During preliminary tests he examined surface material to a maximum depth of 18in. over 
a part of the floor east of the centre. His first workings may be known as Excavation No. 
1. At the lowest level reached there was a large rectangular slab of roof rock 6ft. in 
diameter, which effectively sealed off most of the deeper part of this portion of the 
shelter. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATION OF NOOLA ROCK 
SHELTER: A PRELIMINARY REPORT 

By NORMAN B. TINDALE, Curator of Antui«>i olouv and 
Acting Director, South Australian Museum. 

On 2nd January 1961 Mr. Norman Blundcn discovered Noola 
Rock Shelter on a south-facing wooded slope below a high cliff, on 
his gY&8aflg property near Ryl&tOlie, New South Wales. The site is 
near the eastern end of Portion 34 in the Parish of Tayai\ County of 
Roxborough. 

Acting partly on advice from the Chicago Museum of Natural 
History, Mr. Blunden wrote to the South Australian Museum for 
assistance in the study of the shelter, and, after some preliminary 
soundings of the floor had been made at our request, be offered us 
the privilege of the excavation of the site, 

During preliminary tests he examined Surface material to a 
maximum depth of ISin. over a part of the floor east of the centre. 
His first workings may be known as Excavation N T <>. 1. At the lowest 
level readied there was a la rue rectangular slab of roof rock 6ft. in 
diameter, which effectively sealed off most of the deeper part of tills 
portion of the shelter 

In late April after arrangements tor the main dig had been 
planned he dug a second, narrower trench (No, 2) at the approximate 
centre line of the shelter. This was carried down to a depth of 44im; 
he took a photograph of the sect ion for us. At some time during tins 
srrond excavation Mr. John Bland was a visitor and took away a few 
duplicate specimens for his own collection. 

On 22nd May 196] the site was surveyed and Excavation No. 3 
was begun by N. Blunden and the present writer, with the assistance 
of a team of eight voluntary helpers, Roy Braddock, Reginald 
Kverson, Gilbert and June Grimshaw\ Albert Mills, Barry Trounsen 
and Arthur and Margaret Williams. They worked in relays during 
the dig. The new hole extended outward from a datum point estab- 
lished on the back wall, 11ft. from the eastern extremity of the cave. 

The cave itself is situated about 300ft, above the flood plain of 
Bogee Nile Creek, just west of a small side valley with a trickle of 
water running down from the base of the cliff, The long axis has a 



*6 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

by complex geologic structure, [Therefore it is only exceptional when 

eiamnialian fossils are sufficiently represented [H a continuous 
I eesfiiojp of chronostratigrApJrie units to permit the delineation of 
Stages and Zones (Savage, 1955)* One fauna may be distributed 
Sfcronghoilt a GOrtattterable thickness of rocks because of relatively 
rapid deposition of sediments. On ill" other hand due to a slow 
accumulation Of detritus, or alterations in the distribution of animals, 
two or more rl j ;--. J in.-i t'n mjims may oeeuC very close to one another in a 
verlii.-ii sect em. Locally or within an aiv;i of 50 miles, marshland, 
woodland and grassland environments may affect the composition of 
synchronous faunas. Some animals with wide environmental tolerances 
wR] ftv<|non(Iy r- 'r;il tlir eonlemporniioU y of siu-h faunas. These 

•l:ronoiis assemblages of iJifferenl edmptHutian (faunal facie b) when 
discovered &B fossils may be recorded by distinct faunal names. 

We havo recognized four faunas in the area here referred to as 
r ir;iri Desert A type locality has been designated for each of 
these r.-iunas as is standard practice in introducing new formation 
name.. To avoid confusion these have beefi given local geographic 
ies that differ from the names of the formations. The reason for 
this is apparent because tfe have recoe,Tii7.ed two faunas, the Mallnmi 
mid the Kov.imlca. as doming from the Katipiri Formation. The 

tfktini fauna <- presented froin atanwotn localities along Cooper 

C .f .-k mid al Lake Paiankarimia, On the oth^r hand we have found 

the Kariunkd fauna in remarkably similar channel sands only at Lake 
KanuriLa. Kventnally one of oyr faunas may be discovered elsewhere 
in Australia in a different formation. The l l <tl<nik<niin>a fauna is thus 

far restricted to two localities af Lake Palankannna in the Mampu- 
wordu Sands. Remains representing the Ngapahatdi fauna are more 

Eelj distributed. arfl numerous localities at Lake 

PallUt&arlflna, One at Lake Kanunka, arid -■. h eral at both Lake 
PitTkanta and at Lake Ncapakaldi. 

UATH.JRAIMIY AN]) VBBTEBBATB PALEONTOLOGY 

The ^nn Tirari TVsr iS f n cf „ MOf i without explicit definition 

John Walter Cr. gory (1909) for the sandridge country between 

the AV:m burton River and Cooper Creek Oeoupied by the Tirari 

aboriginal tribe. As used in this report the Tirari Desert actually 

represents a southern extension of the Arunta (or Simpson) Desert 

i si ;.i' Lake Byre, bounded to the east by a north trending anticlinal 

is involving Mesozoir and early Tertiary rocks. The southern 
boundary is the divide between the Lake Eyre and Lake Frome basins 



194 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

bearing: of 300 \ with its opening to the south. It protects a lenticular 
nrea fiOfl. Iun.ii: and ISffc wWfl at tlie centre line. It has an arched 
roof 10ft. high with a floor surface which slopes rather evenly down 
from the west to the east with a drop of about one foot in ten. 
Several large rocks cumber the (loor and a larger mass over 60ft 
long and Jfflft, bigi lies below the Belter, It holds up a small plateau 
outside (lie BflVe entrance 

Tlie excavation was made by removing 12in. squares of debris, 
earh to a depth <►!' I'imi. The hole extended down to Win. in a trench 
4ft. wide and 8ft, long, The greater- part of this area had been sealed 
off by the rode fall. A sieve of O.iMn. mesh was used. 

Photographs, scale drawings and sections were prepared. Samples 

were obtained bona each of 215 rectapglMj those, pitta all implements, 

pieces of bono and carbon samples, constitute the record. A runrn 
journal was made using a tape recorder. The excavations are to be 
continued. 

This La a preliminary report on a few of the more interesting 
results achieved up to present time. The western half of the cave 
has been left inviolale for future study. 

Specimens in the top layer, down to ISin., comprise a rich suite 
of microiith stone implements, including points of bonrli and iroakvhu* 
styles, geometric mieroliths, diseoidal microiith adze stones, also bone 
points of two types, one sharp-pointed and the other of a slightly 
spatulate form. Edge ground axes vrc obtained, one was just under 
tin* surface, and another battered and worn specimen, seemingly mm li 
mistreated during* attempts to rejuvenate it by reducing its thickness 
appeared just above the level of ISin. 

Nine or more species of mammals seem to be represented among 
bones and teeth recovered in the first 18in. The remains of the flora 
above this level, in e*eneral seem to be those of the adjoining present- 
day bushland. Food remains include much hurrawang (Macrozamia) 
husk. Evidently the nuts were an important article of diet. An 
abundance <»r emu egg shell &UggQfita occupation at least during some 
winter months, for Mm- is the stated general breeding season of these 
Kirds in the nearest area where they occur. 

The occupational layers immediately below the rock seal were 
more compact and less productive. Stratification was very well defined. 
Mieroliths disappeared very soon. Bonefi were less common and 
generally absent at depths below about 4ft., except for a few teeth 
and some indeterminate fragments, Each occupational layer was 
denoted bv a charcoal band. 



TIN DALE— NOOLA ROCK SHELTER 195 

A few EfetfgB dmple flakes. Struck off from cores with a striking- 
platfotn) angle of about t20° v appeared below 40in. At 74in. there 
was the top surface of a largo lire hearth, with masses of wood 

ehareoaj and ash which wont clown to 80in., wltere it rested on n 
prepared floor composed of many rounded stones, in the ashes of this 
fire, at ■ soiiK, was a, characteristic, well-worked, targe, bigh-backed flal 
implement, of a nosed graver type, Other lees worked large flakes 
were recovered in adjoining layers. 

Tentative assessment of the site suggests that an earlier octfupSr 
H\ m v.ar. by a people possessing an implement culture of tin* same type 

the carbon dated sites at Tartane-a in Boutb Australia, at Cape 
Martin, ami al Lake Monindoe (Tindale 1965, 1957). The new find 
im Is the range eastward beyond the limits of the .Murray Biver 
Basin iu this pari of Australia, Noola Bock Shelter is near and east 
of the crest of the continental divide. H is situated at an elevation of 
about 2,O0Ofi above sea level, Tn Tartattgan times it probably was not 

a place of very permanent ivsidmice, but rather one where brief visits 

re followed by IttDg absences, when erosion products from the roof 

above supplied the hulk Of the debris which accumulated on the lloor. 

The early, well used hearth between 74 and SOim, provides the chief 

exception (r> this generalization. As one approaches the present 

BUrfac£ there is a particularly sterile white bund some 12in. thick, 

virtual absence of visits, followed very suddenly by dense 

accumulations of occupational debris of the succeeding microlifh lifting 

"ile. This occupation was more consistent and continued upward 

until the deposits merged with the veneer of present-day dust and 

Ctebrifi on the surface of the cave. 

Posf-Knropean disturbance wns confined to droppings of sheep 
oul cattle. Tn one place n ral)bit burrow was cut aero Tl 

fortunately did not penetrate the compact lower levels, which were 

so hard as to require the use of a crowbar before they could be loosened 

for digging. 

The upper occupational horizon has the general facies, and 
contents, of tlie Aludukian culture of the type locality at Devon Downs, 
(Hale and Tiielale 1930), and of similar layers at Fromm Landing 
(lUnlvnney 1960)» However, consonant with the absence nearby of 
any rivers or deep streams which me:>ht have yielded fish, no Wtlduk 

tig fishing toggles wore present, A relatively great abundance of 

points, of types thought to have been nsed as needles in sewing skins 
toL'elhor, may ffttggoel thai the altdnde and southern exposure of the 
Kite was conducive fo the use of skin cloaks and rags. A liomoelime 



m RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

of tliis place would ho tin 1 Lower Sonth-ftast of South Australia, where 
implements like these atfi Ahtindaul m Mudukiau levels, as at 
Kong-orong, and at Policeman Point on the Coorong, 

The presence of axes, of a type remaining in use until modern 
times, is of interest. Tin .1 similar, hut halted one in the South 

Australian Museum, Prom New South Wales, which shows use-polish 

on the handle. It is lashed with tin* red "turkey*' twill doth commonly 

traded to aborigines by the first Settlera, henee must date to the very 
first days of eon! act, before metal axes were given to them. 

The present writer's interpretation of tin. 1 evidence found on 
several open air surfaee sites in South Australia, backed b\ C.14 dales, 
has been rjufcstittiied by a Tew of (hose who feel that stratigraphy 
cannot readily he detected and evaluated, save in rock shelter and 
GttVO excavations. The discovery of this shelter is therefore of 
particular interest since is provides the kind of evidence considered 
most desirable, although it is clear to the present writer that, evaluated 
by one with training in stratigraphy, Open air sites can yield data as 
equally usefnl as that likei\ to lie afforded hy intermittently inhabited 
eaves. 

The study of the site semis likely to go far to reinforce the claim 
L'or tin* existence of a Tartailffau culture, earlier than the Mndukian. 
It ma> make more difficult rival interpretations which lately have 
arisen as a result of the increasing interest in the subject of 
archaeolo^x in Australia. These matters will be more fully discussed 
when the Carbon 14 dntes are available and the definitive account is 
prepared. 

We ure indebted to Mr. Norman Blunder) for his interest in the 
excavation, for his assistaneo with equipment, his companionship and 
participation in the field work and Tor the gift of the specimens he 
collected in the earlier souinlin-s. Whatever SUCCC&g has resulted is 
due to the efforts of tin- members of the teaifi who worked together on 
the project. 

REFERENCES CITED 

Hale, H. \l, and Tn.dah\ N. B., 1930: Efcec S. Aust, Mils., Adelaide 4, 
P1>. 1+5-218. 

Mulvaney, I). 3, 9 L960: Proc Rov. So<-. Victoria, Melbourne, 72, 

pp. 5;i-85. 
Tmdale, N. B., 1955; ftec, S. Austr. Mas., Adelaide, 11, pp. 269-298* 

1957: Ilec. S. Austr. AIus., Adelaide, L3, pp. 1-49. 

1957: Trans. Hoy Sue. S. Australia, Adelaide, 80, pp. 109-123. 



VOLUME 1 4 No - 2 

1962 








RECORDS 

OF THE 

SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 



Published by the Board and edited by the Museum Director 

Printed in Australia by W. L. Howes, Government Printer, Adelaide. 
Registered in Australia for Transmission by Post as a Periodical. 



THE PIGMY SPERM WHALE (KOGIA BREVICEPS) 
ON SOUTH AUSTRALIAN COASTS, PART III (1) 



By Herbert M. Hale, Hon. Associate, South Australian Museum 



Summary 

Herein are described examples of Kogia not previously recorded from South Australia, 
with additional information concerning previous records. Following, under "Discussion" 
a comparative study of South Australian specimens is made from available data, 
including measurements, etc., concerning the exterior and the skulls. 
The information so far recorded, herein and elsewhere, supports the view that only one 
species of Kogia exists. Further, while there are differences - sometimes considerable 
differences - between the skeletons of individual specimens, these as yet cannot be 
aggregated to provide satisfactory 7 evidence that separate populations or schools occur. 
Nevertheless, examination of the features of a large number of specimens, when present 
at the time in given localities, could be illuminating. 



THE PIGMY SPERM WHALE (KOGIA BREV1CEPS) ON 
SOUTH AUSTRALIAN COASTS, PART HI W 

By HERBERT M. HALE, Hon. Associate, South Australian 

Museum 

Plates 1-4 and text fig. 1-12 

SUMMARY 

Herein are described examples of Kogia not previously recorded 
From South Australia, with additional information concerning previous 
records. Following, under "Discussion" a comparative study of 
South Australian specimens is made from available data, including 
measurements, etc., concerning the exterior and the skulls. 

The information so far recorded, herein and elsew T hcre, supports 
the view that only one species of Kogia exists. Further, while there 
are differences — sometimes considerable differences — between the 
skeletons of individual specimens, these as yet cannot be aggregated 
to provide satisfactory evidence that separate populations or schools 
occur. Nevertheless, examination of the features of a large number 
of specimens, when present at the same time in given localities, could 
be illuminating. 

INTRODUCTION 

Below are listed the known strandings of Kogia on South 
Australian coasts, with record of the material recovered and placed 
in the South Australian Museum. 

Pregnant adult female, April 25, 1937 (Reg. No. M.5009) ; and 
female suckling calf (M.5010) ; Port Victoria in Spencer Gulf. Half 
cast and complete skeleton of both. Male foetus, in formalin (2) 
(M.5011). 

Unsexed example, August, 1944 (M.5197) ; Sleaford Bay, near 
Port Lincoln in Spencer Gulf. Skull, sternum and a few other bones. 



(1) See Hale (1947 and 1959) for parts I and II. 

(2) Hale, 1947, pp. 534-536. 

A. 



198 RECORDS OF THE S.A, MUSEUM 

Adult female, August 7, 1957 (not recovered except for some teeth) 
with unsexed calf (£L6150)'i Sleaford Bay, near Port Lincoln in 
Spencer Gulf. Skull and portion of right ramus of lower jaw of calf. 

Unsexed juvenile (not recovered (3) ) and young male (M.6186); 
July 11, 1058, Largs Bay, in St. Vincent Gulf. Complete skeleton 

or M.tnsf;. 

Adult Female and female suckling calf, June 28, 1A59 (M.6256 and 
M.G257) ; Encounter Bay. Complete skeleton of both. 

Adult male, September 29, 1959 (M.G2GG) ; Glenelg, in St. Vincent 
Gulf. Complete skeleton. 

A mandible said to have come from Encounter Bay and noted by 
Wood .Tones, is not included as an authentic South Australian record 
(Hale, 1947, p. 544). 

My sincere thanks are due to Mr. A. Kau, who has enthusiastically 
assisted in the collecting of a number of small whales, and with his 
various assistants has prepared the skeletons of all examined by me. 

To Miss M. Boyce I am indebted for the outline drawings and 
photographs of the skulls, sterna and tongue bones. 

DESCRIPTION OF ADDITIONAL MATERIAL 

FEMALE AND CALF (REG. NO. M.6156) SLEAFORD BAY, 
AUGUST 7, 1957. BODY LENGTH 1,700 mm. 

The skull of the calf and portion of the right ramus of its 
mandible, as well as some of the teeth of both female and calf are 
available. 

The stranding of these two examples was reported by Miss 
N, M. Follctt, who, thirteen y<-:ir:- before, and during the same month, 
August in mid-winter, reporfed the stranding of a Kogia, bnt here 

again the difficult terrain mads it impossible to secure more than the 
skull and a lew odd bon&g (Hale, 1!)47, p. 531). 

For recovery of this second skull from Sleaford Bay I am grateful 
to the late Mr. W. 0. Johnston, then of Port Lincoln, who, on request, 
visited the locality a Few day;- 1 , later, took a few external measurements, 
and moved the bodies of both female and calf above high tide mark, 
Some time afterwards he was able a.^ain to make his way to Sleaford 
Bay but found both specimens partly eaten and badly damaged, 
apparently by foxes; he did, however, recover the skull of the calf 

CO Hale, 1959, p. 334, pi. XL. 



HALE— PIGMY SPERM WHALE IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA 199 

and Jrfndly brought it to tile Museum. For some externa! measure- 
iits Bee p. 217 herein, 

Skull 

According to the Mesh measurements supplied by Mr. Johnston 
the skull of this calf is distinctly less than seven times in the body 
length, measured correctly in a straight line from the notch in the 
tail fco the tip of the snout. 

The rostrum, from tip to anterior wall of left nostril, is not much 
less than half the total length of the skull. 

The snpraoccipital, when viewed from the side, is Slightly convex 
hut in general faintly sinuous; mediauly it lias a shallow gutter, which 
teflOXQGfl *-vanescent as it approaches the foramen magnum; measured 
across its iiarioArst part, the snpraoccipital is more than one and 
two-thirds times its length From the upper edge of the foramen 
magnum to tin- triangular apex, and the condyles are prominent, 
separated dorsally by a distance equal to one-half the length of the 
condyles. The foramen magnum is ovate (pi. 1, D) and is higher 
than wide. 

The lateral surfaces of the maxillae are much as in most of the 
other skulls examined, the greatest depths being 43 mm. (left) and 
32 mm.; the total length of the skull is 265 mm. The maxillo-inalar 
sutures are indistinct on hoth sides, the malar and maxilla heing fused; 
both sutures are sinuate, not descending Steeply at about anterior 
third to form a decided V, but rather a shallow U. The length of the 
lei"! suture is 77 mm., (hat of the right somewhat shorter. The 
maxillary crest is not elevated above the level of the upper edge of 
the snpraoccipital and the suture between the occipital complex and 
the maxillae is quite open, as also are those between the maxillae and 
right prcmaxilla, which docs not reach quite to the summit of the 
dorsal crest The maxillais fossae nrc shallow dorsally but the 
borders begin to slope more abruptly to deepening fossae, at a point 
midway between the right nostril and the vertex. The prefrontal is 
narrow in front, not widely truncate as in calf M.G18R, nor is it 
elevated above the right prcmaxilla on the Opposite Bide of the right 
nostril. The anterior ends of both premaxillne appear OH the palatal 
surface. The maxillary alveolar grooves extend back from the anterior 
end of the broad rostrum for a distance of 45-52 mm., that is almost 
to, or a little beyond, the middle of the length of the rostrum, from 
tip to the anterior margins of the palatines. 



200 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Teeth of femah. mid calf. When Mr. Johnston first examined 
the mother and her call' M.615G, shortly after they were stranded at 
Sleaford Bay, he removed from both young and adult all the teeth he 
could discover. In the mandible of the female lie found only fourteen, 
in that of the calf thirteen. As it is reasonable to suspect more to be 
present Mr. Johnston agreed to search further but, as aforementioned, 
thi' specimens had sustained considerable damage before his second 
visit. 

The fcesth from the female are stout, each approximately 30 mm, 
in length and most of them arc very much more curved than those of 
an adult previously cast ashore at Sleaford Bay (Hale, 1947, fig. 11). 

The longest of the teeth of the calf is 14 mm, in length. Two of 
the teeth are conjoined for five-sevenths of their length, the tips being 
free and separated. 

For additional details see Discussion. 



YOUNG MALE, LARGS BAY, JULY 11, 1958 (REG. NO. M.6186). 

BODY LENGTH 1,930 mm. 

External Features 

These are dealt with in part in a previous note (Hale, 1959, 
pp. 334-336, fig. 1-2). In describing the exterior of this example I 
recorded the fact that, although the body proportions approach those 
of suekling ealf M.5010, ''The snout is considerably shorter and has a 
more abrupt downward dorsal curvature, its tip being on a level with 
the eye- 7 . Also, the high dorsal fin was situated slightly in advance 
of the middle of the length of the animal. 

As mentioned elsewhere herein, the snout anterior to the mouth 
is unusually short, being only 2.07 per cent of the total length of the 
animal, whereas in two other young specimens From South Australia 
the snout measured thus is 5.2 and 6.3 of the body length. 

Skeleton 

When the skull was subsequently removed and cleaned it was at 
once obvious that it, was relatively much smaller than in other examples 
examined by me. In the last-named, the skull is at most barely more 
than seven times in the body length, usually less, whereas in M.6186 
it approaches eight times in this length. The relatively short snout 
;.iul small skull are associated with the more forward position of the 
dorsal iin in relation to the body length. 



HALE— PIGMY SPERM WHALE IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA 201 

The rostrum of the skull of M.G18G, from tip to anterior wall of 
loft nostril, is decidedly less than half of the total length of the skull, 
thus be&lg rel/itivoly abort, as in female calf M,5010, from Port 
Victoria. The supraoeeipital has a shallow ami rather wide median 
gutter. Its Upper margin medianly is only slightly produced and 
rounded, while the. lateral margins curve gently downwards, so that 
the skull, as seen from the rear, presents a very different appearance 
to that of other skulls examined (pi. 2, C) ; the hone is more than one 
and one-half times wider than lung. The occipital condyles are 
prominent, widely separated dorsnlly, the gap being equal to one and 
one-third times the height of the condyles. The foramen magnum is 
slightly obovate, almost circular (pi. 2, 0), and is as wide as high. 
The squamosal and frontal are distinctly marked off from the occipital 
complex, 

The lateral surfaces of the maxillae are unusually low, that of 
the right side, as measured from the posterior end 0$ I he maxillo-malar 
suture, is only 18 mm. and is decidedly lower than that of the left 
| i. mm.). The total length of the skull is 243 rmn. 

The maxillo-malar suture is very distinct and is S-shaped, the 
anterior part forming a deep V, most pronounced on the left side, 
where the length of the suture is 50 mm. as against 56 ram. on the 
right side. Both malars have the apex subacute and the greatest 
length of the left is more ihan one and one-third times the length, 
the right only one and one-half times the length. 

The dorsal crest is not, strongly elevated posteriorly and indeed 
reaches only to the level of the sitpraoeeipital ; anterior to this, how- 
ever, it curves upwards to form a well elevated erest 

The maxillary fossae are &QGpN than in other South Australian 
calves, sloping steeply from the bordering wall. The prefrontal, 
truncate in front, forms a high thin crest between the nares, and is 
elevated ahove the level of the right premaxilla alongside the right 
nostril. 

On the palatal surface the anterior ends of the premaxillae appear 
on both sides, the exposed portions being 9 mm. in length in hoth. 
On each g|3e the maxillary alveolar groove extends back from the 
anterior end of the rostrum for a distance of 70 mm., approximately 
seven-tenths of the length from the apex of the short rostrum to the 
-anterior margin of the palatines; as previously noted (ITrIp, 1959, 
p. 335), there are two small teeth near the anterior end of the rostrum. 
The width between the postorbital processes is greater than elsewhere 
in the skull. 



202 RECORDS OF Till S A MUSEUM 

The lower ,jaw bag thirteen tooth in the right ramus, twelve in 
the left. 

In the tongue bones (pi. 3, A) flio baaOiya] la hexagonal, the 
anterior margin with a woll marked U-shaped median uwdsLoi^ on 
each side of which is a. short rounded cartilage. The eoratohyals are 
cartilaginous and the BSSliied portion of the sfylohynls is longer than 
the thyrohynls. The latter an- woll separated from Iho basihyal by 
cartilage: eneh Ihyrohs al is much longer than wide and the bone is 
eordute. 

The sternum is not compoflsd of three entire aectioUfi but of four. 

The manubrium, apart from the cartilaginous portions, is not greatly 
expanded anteriorly, when- its greatest width js only twice (hat of the 
posterior margin; there is no trac*) of a median suture and the whole 
hone is considerably md&t than its length. The anterior margin has 
a rounded incision, as shown in ph 4, A. The second segment is little 

less in length than iho manuhrfctmj as taken from the anterior notch 

of the last named, and has the anterior in convex and the 

posterior obliquely bdined to the left of the animal; the above- 
mentioned pinto shows the Cartilage separating this and other ossified 
components. The third ossified segment is irregularly quadrangular 
in shape, the anterior margin inclined lowards the left side of the 
animal. The fourth segment is small, wider than long and separated 
from the third by cartilage equal to its own length, 

The cervical*, as in most examples of Koyia, form one solid mass, 
the height of which (S7 mm.) is not much less than the greatest width 
(94 mm.); the spinous process is, in general, much as in Yamad: 
No. 5 example. (1054, p. 48, fig. 8); similarly the dorsal process of the 
vrtebrae is also relatively shorter 

The first of the fourteen thoracic vertebrae has the neural arch 
complete, iho canal little wider than <lee]), and the 3orsa] spine less 
than one-fourth of the depth of the vertebra. In the last thoracic the 
dorsal process, measured from the upper margin of the neural arch, 
is slightly shorter than the distance between the venter of the centrum 
and the dorsal limit of the neural canal. In all of the ten lumbar 
vertebrae the dorsal process is decidedly shorter than the lost- 
mentioned measurement. There are twenty-six caudal**; there is no 
trace of paired metapophvses after the third eaudaL The neural 
canal becomes an open groove on the fourteenth and is bnrely evident 
on the seventeenth. 

There are fifteen chevrons; the members of the last pair are not 
united, those of the rest completely fused. 



HALE— PIGMY SPERM WHALE IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA 203 

For additional measurements of skull see Discussion. 
The ribs number thirteen on the right side, fourteen on the left. 
The anterior nine pairs have a double articulation. 

Length of ribs, taken in B straight line from 
tie&d to free end of bony portions. 



Rib 


Bigjit. 


J.tfl. 


No. 


nira. 


mm. 


1 


160 


160 


- 


245 


245 


3 


290 


295 


4 


310 


308 


5 


310 


305 


6 


313 


310 


7 


300 


200 


s 


292 


296 


•» 




270 


10 


252 


254 


11 


L>:-i3 


235 


12 


315 


214 


18 


107 


180 


14 





72 



Thus the first twelve pairs are practically symmetrical, but the 
right rib of the thirteenth pair is decidedly shatter than the left, and 
abruptly shorter than the twelfth ribs. The last rib on the left side 
is rudimentary and was free of the vertebral column. 

Remark*. As will be noted from the above description this young 
male is unusual in some respects, and is the only Kogia examined by 
me in which, notwithstanding careful search, any traces of the pelvis 
were found (Hale, 1959, p. 336). 

FEMALE (REG. NO. M.6256) AND MALE CALF (M.6257), ENCOUNTER 
BAY, JUNE 28, 1959. BODY LENGTHS 2,980 mm. AND 1,892 mm. 

On the abovementioned date it was reported that a young whale 
had " beached himself beside the body of his fatally injured mother". 
This instance evoked a graphic account of the urge of a suckling calf 
to remain with its mother under all circumstances (see also Hale, 
1947, p. 531). 

The female in this case became injured on a reef where, according 
to one observer, she "bad been cut on rocks when scraping barnacles 
from her body. She made for the beach, grounded and was stuck". 

Another of the witnesses of the strandings, Mr. G. H. Rumbelow, 
of Encounter Ray, stated: ""We did our best to save the calf by 
driving him out to sea. Some of the onlookers dragged the mother 
whale on to the beach, but the calf wouldn't leave. It went out to the 
reef but came in again and ran itself on to the shore." 



204 RECORDS OF THE: S.A. MUSEUM 

Early next day Mr, A. Rati, with two other members of the 
Museum staff recovered both Bpeeim&ne, which, as suspected from 
descriptions given, proved to be Koffia, and brought them to the 
Museum; thus they were examined about eighteen hours after death, 
with the colouration presumably not greatly affects! by reeent strand- 
ing. The specimens had not been subjected lo sunlight but had been 
cut about by visitors during the night, However, with exception of 
the dorsal fin of the calf, all parts were recovered; the dorsal fin of 
the female had been cut off, and also some of the adjoining flesh of 
the back, so that, while the fm itself was in perfect condition, it was 
not possible to ascertain with certainty its position in regard to tho 
total body length. 

The admittedly meagre evidence available seems to indicate that 
when the sluggish Pigmy Sperm Whale becomes injured, or even 
touches bottom, in shallow waters, it immediately makes its way to 
the adjoining beach. This may apply to other whales, particularly the 
smaller species, MesoploJnn, Brrardii/s (Hale, 1939, p. 5), etc. 

External Features of Female 

The colour of the female was light bine-grey above and white 
below; the dorsal colour was, in feet, much paler than in any other 
of the examples seen by me. The white of the lower portions extended 
upwards to about three inches below the eye and included the lower 
half of the depth of the snout. In the caudal area tho white was 
restricted to the underside, the sides and dorsum being pale blue-grey. 

The body was fully four and one-fourth times its greatest depth. 
The head was deep, with the. snout, blunt and rounded (fig. 8); the 
blowhole was large, 85 mm. in width, creseentie arid oblique, the left 
gild of the opening 250 mm., iu vertical level, from the tip of the 
snout, the light end 275 mm. 

The falcate dorsal fin (fig. 12) was long and low, its length 
(400 mm.) four and three-fourths times the height, and 13.3 per cent 
of the total length of the animal. The pectoral limbs (fig. 3) Avere 
rather slender, two and two-third times as long as deep. The dorsal 
keel of the tail terminated 45 mm. in advance of the narrow caudal 
notch, and the width of the flukes was relatively less than in the adult 
male No. M.6266 (see figs. 1 and 5 herein). 

For additional measurements of exterior and skull see under 
Discussion. 



HALE— PIGMY SPERM WHALE IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA 



205 




Fig. 1-4. Aged female and her male calf, Encounter Bay; 12, caudal fins: 3-4, pectoral 

fins (% nat. size). 



Skeleton of Female 

The skull is very slightly less than one-seventh of the total length 
of the animal. The rostrum, from its tip to the anterior wall of the 
left nostril, is relatively distinctly longer than in the young calf 
accompanying M.625G, being more than half the total length of the 
skull, viz., 1.7 in length of skull. The supraoceipital, as seen from 
the side, is concave, and has a well defined groove on the upper three- 
fourths of its length; its dorsal margin is broadly triangular medianly, 
where it is 9 mm. below 7 the top of the maxillary part of the crest, 
the premaxillary part being a trifle more elevated; from the median 
angle the lateral margins curve outwards and only slightly downwards; 
the narrowest width of the bone is a little less than one and three- 
fourths the height, measured as in other examples recorded herein 
from the upper margin of the foramen magnum to the triangular 
dorsal apex. 

The prominent occipital condyles are separated widely dorsally, 
the height of the condyles being little more than one and one-half 



206 KHCORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

times the width Of the gap; vcntrally the condyles are separated by 
a distance egtial to only One41lir(3 Df tlio dorsal gap. The foramen 
magnum is obovate, very little higher than wide (pi. 2, A). The 
lateral Faces of the maxillae, above the maxillo-mular suture, are 
deep, 80 mm. on left side, 54 mm. on the right. The distinct maxillo- 
malar suture ifi irregularly triangular, eurved downwards posteriorly 
for only a. very short; dislance. 

The dorsal crest is strongly elevated posteriorly with, as already 
noted, the promaxillary element slightly elevated above the maxillary 
part. The maxillary fossae are deep, doping steeply from the nan 
borders. 

The prefrontal IS nearly half the length of the rostrum as 
measured from tip to anterior wall of left nans and is elevated as a 
Greet above the level of the pre.maxdla alongside the right nostril. 

The anterior ends of the premaxillae appear on the palatal surface 
EOT a length of 87 mm., whieh is equal fco one-half of the distance 
between the tip of (ho rostrum and the anterior margin of the 
palatines; the maxillary grooves are 115 mm. In length on both sides, 
about half the length Of rostrum mensnivd a* above. No upper teeth 

wfTo present* 

The rami of the mandible are firmly fused anteriorly for a distance 
of 87 mm, but the tips are narrowly Separated to a length of 10 mm.; 
the distance between the condyles is about six-seveidhs of the mid- 
line length of the jaw. There are fourteen teeth in the loft ramus, 
thirteen in the right; they are only slightly curved and the anterior 
nine or leu have the tips worn and blunted in varying; degree. 

Tn the tongue bones (pi. 3, B) the basihyal is hexagonal, distinctly 
wide than long, and with the anterior margin Insinuate, and capped 
Wlti a short, irregular- cartilage, while the posterior margin is concave. 
The cartilaginous eeratoliyals are much shorter than the ossified 

portions of the slylohyals. The thyrohyals are much shorter than the 
stylohyals, and are snboval in shape; the bony plates are fused to 
the basihyal, leaving a jagged gutter for the greater part of the length 
OH both surfaces, the gutters being filled with cartilage. 

In (he scapula the acromion is curved to an unusual degree and 
in both left and right almost touches the coracoid; the calf of this 
female has the acromion and coracoid well separated distally, the 
first-named showing only slight curvature. 

The sternum (pi. 4, B, ventral view) consists of three segments, 
all entire, while (ho sternum as a whole has a distinct curvahnv 
towards the left side of the animal. The manubrium is fully one- fourth 



HALE— PIGMY SPERM WHALE IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA 207 

as wide again as long and its anterior edge has a deep notch, nearly 
one-third of the length of the bone; above the notch the anterior 
margin is rounded, then sweeps steeply down to the lateral ends of 
l.lii! mag-like expansions of the distal half; the second segment has 
markedly concave sides and is as long as the distance between the 
posterior margin of the manubrium and the terminal end of its median 
anterior notch; the third is short and very irregularly quadrate. 

The cervicals form a solid mass, with the dorsal process high; 
the cervicals closelv resemble those of Yamada's No. fi specimen 
(1954, p. 48, fig. 8)/ 

Tn the first and second of the thirteen thoracic vertebrae the neural 
arch is broken. The dorsal process of the la*st thoracic, measured, as 
always herein, from the upper limit of the neural canal, is one and 
one-third times the distance between the ventral keel of the centrum 
oid the apex of the narrowly triangular canal, while it is nearly 
three-fifths of the total depth of the vertebra. 

The eighth of the nine lumbar vertebrae has the dorsal process 
even shorter than in Yamada's photograph of this vertebra in his 
No. 5 (fig. 9, right), and the dorsal spines of all lumbars are relatively 
short as compared to Yamada's example No. 6. 

Tn the twenty-three caudal vertebrae the neural canal becomes a 
completely Open groove on the twelfth, whereas it is entirely roofed 
over on the eleventh. Met apophyses are not apparent after the fourth 
caudal. There are thirteen chevrons, the components of all united. 

There are thirteen ribs on the right side, twelve on the left; the 
greatest lengths of the bony portions, where not damaged, are given 
below. 

Length of ribs, taken in a straight line froni 

head to free end of bony portions. 

Eib Right, Left. 

No, mm. mm. 

1 2S2 290 

2 -11.1 120 

3 483 483 

4 500 505 

5 490 500 

485 485 

7 Broken 480 

8 452 452 
Q 420 420 

10 Broken 390 

1 1 Broken 359 

12 255 255 

13 101 

External Features of Male Calf 

The colouration was exactly as in the mother; the white of the 
underside readied to within two inches below the eye. 



208 RECORDS OF THfc SA. MUSEUM 

The snout was, relatively, longer than that of the female, and 
tapered to a blunt point (fig. 9)f this difference in the shape of the 
snout in mother and calf was apparent also in a previous record (Hale, 
1!M7, ph XIV). The distance between the tip of the snout and the 
axilla wa« a little greater, proportionately, than in the female. 

As in the mother the blowhole was wide (65 mm.), ereseenlic 
and oblique; in vertical level the left end of the opening was 183 mm. 
from tin- tip of (he snout. Hie right end 205 mm. The pectoral limbs 
were fully two and two-third times as long as greatest width (tig. 4). 

The dorsal keel <>!' the tail terminated 30 mm. in advance of the 
narrow median notch; the Bufcefl were relatively not as wide as in the 
mother and swept backwards to a greater degree (fig, 2). 

Skeleton of Male Calf 

The skull is a little less than six and one-half times in the total 
agth of the animal. The rostrum, measured from the tip to anterior 
wall of Lefl nostril, is little less than half the length of the skull. The 
occipital complex (supraoccipital) lias a shallow median depression 
for about three-fourths of its length, expanding downwards from the 
apex and with an irregular median tuberosity towards its ventral 
lenninatiou; the upper rimi-gin is medianly triangular, the apex ol' 
the triangle 10 mm. below the top of the maxillary part of the dorsal 
crest; from the median portion the lateral margins curve outwards 
almost horizontally, much as in the male calf from Largs Bay 
(M.6186), but this example differs n\ the decided median triangular 
dorsal elevation (el\ pi. 2, B and C); the bone, measured from the 
upper margin of the foramen magnum to the triangular dorsal apex, 
is slightly more than one and three-fourths wider than long, with the 
breadth measured aeross the narrowest part. The rather prominent 
occipital condyles, as in the mother (M.(525G) are widely separated 
dorsal ly, the height of the condyles being little more than one and 
two-third times the width of the gap; ventrally the condyles are 
Separated by slightly more than one-fourth of the dorsal gap. The 
foramen magnum is obovafe, angular dorsally and is one and one- 
fourth times higher than wide (pi. 2, B). The lateral surfaces of the 
maxillae, above the maxillary malar suture, are deep (50 mm.) on the 
left side, hut distinctly lower, 35 mm., on the right, The maxillo- 
malar suture is distiuct, irregularly triangular and curved downwards 
posteriorly for only a v^ry short distance. 

The dorsal crest is strongly elevated posteriorly, the. pre-maxillary 
portion a little lower than the maxillary elevations. As in the mother 



HALE— PIGMY SPERM WHALE IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA 209 

the maxillary fossae slope deeply inwards from the narrowly rounded 
bordering walls. 

The prefrontal is, as usual, truncate and slightly excavate 
anteriorly when the cartilage Is removed; it is much shorter than in 
the. mother, with the crest between the nares not elevated above the 
level of the preruaxilla alongside the right nostril. 

On the palatal surface the anterior ends of the prcinnxLllae appear 
for a length of 30 01111., one-fonrth of the distance between the tip of 
the rostrum and anterior margin of palatines. The maxillary grooves 
are 83 mm. (left) and 70 nun. in length, much less than half the 
length of the rostrum, measured as above. r riiere are no Upper teeth, 
but in the lower jaw there are lourbrn in the right ramus, thirteen 
in the left; the teeth are as i r • a female calf previously illustrated 
(Hale, 1947, lig. 10), slightly curved and with Die tips EeeWy hooked; 
the longest is If) mm. in length, the shortest almost; 14 mm. 

The distance between the condyles of the rami, which are not fused 
anteriorly, is not much less than the mid-line length of the mandible. 

The bony parts only of the tongue bones are before me, the 
cartilaginous portions having disappeared during maceration. The 
basihyal is broadly hexagonal, wider than long and with the anterior 
margin narrow and slightly oblique, with no suggestion of a median 
incision; the styiohyals are one-third longer than the oval thyrohyals. 

The last of the presumably three stenebrae is missing but 
obviously was present. The cartilaginous parts of the sternum are not 
available, even in part, but in the bony portion of tlir manubrium the 
greatest length is equal to the greatest width and not much less than 
twice the width of the posterior margin ; file .'interior median notch 
is wide, angular at posterior end, and is not quite one-twelfth of the 
greatest length of the inannbrium; from the anterior notch the lateral 
borders curve downwards an<l inwards on each side to form semi- 
circular wing-Ida* projections; the two components ore completely 
fused, but with some I race of a median siituiv, and the transverse 
posterior margin is equal to a little more than half of the length as 
measured from the end of the anterior notch. The second sfenebra 
consists nf one bone, with the lateral margins concave and the anterior 
margin inclined to the right; it is widest anteriorly, where it is seven- 
truths of its greatest length, the latter being five-sevenths of the 
greatest length of the manubrium. 

The cervicals are not fused into one solid mass, the centrum of 
the seventh being quite separated from that of the sixth cervical; 



210 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

the epiphyis of the posterior end of the centrum of the sixth cervical 
and both the anterior and posterior epiphyses of the seventh are 
completely free; the dorsal process of the cervical vertebrae is 
relatively long, as in Yamada's No. 6 example (1954, p. 48, fig. 8) 
and tapers to an acute dorsal point. 

The first of the fourteen thoracic vertebrae has the neural arch 
complete, the canal wider than deep, and the acute dorsal spine more 
than one-fourth of the depth of the vertebra. The dorsal process of 
the last thoracic, measured from the upper margin of the neural canal, 
is almost one and three-tenths limes the distance between the ventral 
keel of the centrum and the dorsal end of the triangular canal, and 
is distinctly more than half the total depth of the vertebra. 

In the nine lumbar vertebrae the eighth (to compare with 
Yamada's photographs of this vertebra: fig. 9, right) has a dorsal 
process much longer than in Yamada's No. 6 example. 

The dorsal processes of the twenty-four caudal vertebrae are 
progressively shorter than those of the lumbars. On the thirteenth 
caudal the neural canal becomes an open groove, with the merest 
indication of the neural arch. No trace of paired metapophyses are 
obvious after the fourth caudal. 

There are thirteen chevrons; the small components of the last pair 
are free, those of the rest united. 

For additional details of external features and skeleton see 
Discussion. 

There are thirteen ribs on the right side, fourteen on the left; 
the twelfth to fourteenth ribs on the left side are short and were 
separated from the vertebral column by cartilage equal to their own 
length. 

Length of ribs, taken in a straight; line from 
In ad to free end of bony portions. 

Rib Right. Left. 

No. uuu, mm. 

1 162 164 

L' 240 242 

3 880 280 

4 280 285 

5 284 288 

6 285 284 

7 271 L>69 

8 255 Broken 

9 UlL' 245 
10 225 225 
U 215 211 

12 194 MVA 

13 Broken 81 

14 73 



HALE— PIGMY SPERM WHALE IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA 



211 



ADULT MALE, GLENELG, SEPTEMBER 29, 1959 (REG. NO. M.6266). 

BODY LENGTH 2,730 mm. 

This example was stranded at Glenelg early on the morning of 
the abovementioned date and, thanks to the assistance of the Glenelg 
Corporation, was loaded on to the Museum truck and reached the 
Museum a couple of hours later. It was thus the only South 
Australian example to be examined so soon after death — in fact it 
was still warm when received. 

External Features 

The disposition of the colours seemed to be much as in the 
photographs of a calf previously published (Hale, 1959, p. 334, pi. XL). 
It differed, however, in that the back was dark grey, much darker than 
in the female and calf from Encounter Bay, taken three months before. 
The white of the underside extended to about one inch below the eye ; 
there was no sharp demarcation of the two colours. From the level 
of the anus to the end of the tail the colour was dark grey, both 




Fig. 5-7. Adult male, Glenelg; 5, caudal fin; 6-7, left and right pectoral limbs 

(% nat. size). 



21 2 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

<>vo and below, QXftept tot a white median patch on the underside of 
the tail, The pectoral limbs were white below, merging at edges into 
the dark grey of tlie outer faces. 

The hody was more than Tour times its greatest depth. The 
head was deep and blnnt (fig. 10) ; the snout, anterior to the gape, was 
shorter than in the adult female M. 6256, the last named being of 
approximately the same body length; the blowhole (42 mm. in width) 
was crescent ie and markedly oblique, the left end of the opening 
315 mm., in Vertical Level, from the anterior end of the snout, Qie right 
end 337 nun. 

The relatively large falcate dorsal I'm (fig, 11) originated only 
slightly behind the middle of the body length and was more than three 
times as long as high, The pectoral limbs were nearly three times 
longer than wide (fig. 0-7). The dorsal keel of the tail terminated at 
the median caudal "notch 1 '; posterior to 1he dorsal keel, however, the 
flukes overlapped for a length of BO mm. and, at greatest width, for 
17 mm. (fig. 5), a condition not occurring in other examples examined. 

For additional notes on the exterior and of the skull see under 
Discussion. 

The Skeleton 

The skull, 420 mm. in length, is six and one-half times in the body 
length. The rostrum, from tip to anterior wall of left nostril, is 
decidedly more than half Ihe total length of (he skull. The supra- 
occipital has no median gutter and seen from the side is markedly 
concave; it is relatively very wide, its narrowest breadth nearly twice 
the height from the upper margin of the foramen magnum to the 
apex; medianly its dorsal <>A^> is broadly subtriangular and does not 
reach the level of the posterior end of the dorsal crest. The occipital 
condyles are prominent, widely separated dorsally by a distance ccnaal 
to half their height; ventrally the condyles meet The foramen 
magnum is oval in shape, its height nearlv one-third greater than its 
width (pi. 2, D). 

The distinct maxillo-malar suture is sinuate, its anterior portion 
Straight and running subparallel to the lower edge of the malar for 
a, distance equal to more than half the length of the latter, thence it 
rises in the form of a wide U, which soon recurves to meet the frontal. 

The dorsal crest posteriorly is elevated and broad. The maxillary 
fossae are deeply excavate, sloping steeply from the rounded edges of 
the bordering wall. The prefrontal is long, due to the fact that 
anteriorly the ossification of the cartilage has proceeded considerably 



HALE—PIGMY SPERM WHALE IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA 213 

further than i& the skulls of the calves described herein: it is truncate 
at the anterior end, from which it rises steeply, the posterior portion 
forming a thin crest rising between the nares to above the level of the 
right bQrder of the left nostril, 

The anterior ends of the premaxillae appear on both sides of the 
palatal surface for a distance of GO mm. The maxillary alveolar 
grooves arc 130-135 mm. in length, a little more than three- fourths of 
the distance between the anterior end of the broad rostrum and the 
front margin of the palatines. 

The width between the condyles of the rami of the lower jaw, 
which are firmly fused at the symphysis for a distance of 50 mm., is 
little less than the mid-line length of the mandible. There are no 
teeth in the upper jaw but in the lower there are fourteen teeth on the 
left side and fifteen mi the right; tjie curvature of the teeth is as in 
an adult female previously figured (Hale, 1947, tig. 11), and they are 
hubequul in size, 28-32 mm. in length. 

The basihyal of the tongue bones (pi. 3, C) ia slightly notched 
anteriorly, a little wider than long and with the posterior margin 
irregularly serrate; on each side of the anterior notch of the basihyal 
is a small rounded cartilage; the cartilaginous ceratohyal is relatively 
much shorter than as shown in Benham's figure (1902, pi. iii), possibly 
due to the tact that the ossification of the styloliyal is more advanced 
and that his ceratohyal represents, in the distal part, the proximal 
end of the stylohyal; in M.62(5(> the ossified parts of the stylohyals 
are one-fourth longer than the bony portions of the thyrohyals; the 
latter are irregularly semicircular in outline, with the outer edges 
convex and smooth, the rest of the bony margin irregularly serrate, 
while, as shown in pi, 3, 0, they are well separated from the basihyal 
by cartilage. 

The sternum (ventral view, see pi. 4, C) is composed of three 
stetiebrne, but only the anterior two are entire, the left side of the 
last, unfortunately losl before the photograph was secured, was wholly 
cartilaginous, but ul' tin' same shape and size as its opposite ossified 
member. The manubrium is greatly expanded anteriorly, where its 
greatest breadth is three times that of the posterior margin and more 
than ttg length; there is a tiny anterior incision at the middle of the 
anterior margin, but no median suture, although tiny foramina occur 
ou the mid-line. Tlte second segment is less than the length of the 
manubrium from posterior margin to anterior notch, while the ossified 
portion of the third is barely More than one-third the length of the 
second and is irregularly subquadrale. 



214 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

The rest of the skeleton was examined in situ after partial 
dissection of the animal. The cervieals are fused into a solid mass; 
the dorsal process is short as in Yamada's No. 5 example (1954, p. 48, 
fig. 8, tippet) but as seen from the side its shape is very different, the 
dorsal end forming a broad obtuse angle, with tittle backward inclina- 
tion; the fused epiphysis of the seventh is concave and fits firmly 
linst the attached ephiphysis of the first thoracic Those epiphyses 
are both eroded in the centre as if an abscess had been present. 

The first of the twelve thoracic vertebrae has a complete nenral 
arch, with its canal one and three-fifths times wider than deep; the 
acute dorsal spine, as measured from the upper margin of the neural 
arch, is short, less than one-fifth the height of the vertebra. The 
dorsal process of the last thoracic IS nearly one and one-quarter times 
the distance between the ventral keel of the centrum and the dorsal 
end of the narrowly triangular neural canal, and is a little more than 
half of the total depth of the vertebra, The eighth of the nine 
lumbar vertebrae has the dorsal process (measured from dorsal end 
of neural canal) one-half of the total depth of the vertebra. 

As usual, the dorsal processes of the twenty-five caudal vertebrae 
become progressively shorter, the neural canal becoming an almost 
open groove on the twelfth, the two sides of the neural arch nearly 
meeting on this vertebra. Metapophyses disappear on the sixth 
caudal. There are only eleven chevrons; the members of all are united. 
It should be mentioned that maceration was carried out very carefully, 
evidenced by the fact that even the tiniest caudals are preserved. 

For further comparative details see under Discussion. 

There are twelve ribs on each side; excepting the last, the 
greatest length of the bone in each pair is almost uniform, as shown 
in the following table, 

Length of ribs taken in a straight line from 
Ih-.-pI to t'rrr eml of bony portions. 



T?ib 


Ritfit. 


Left. 


No. 


rriTTi, 


in 111. 


1 


25 C 


256 


2 


308 


390 


3 


434 


437 


4 


445 


455 


5 


150 


458 





462 


405 


7 


455 


455 


8 


4 30 


430 


9 


4Hi i 


400 


10 


3.G5 


365 


n 


340 


340 


12 


&2Q 


312 



HALE— PIGMY SPERM WHALE IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA 215 

Food 

The thick-walled and internally strongly convoluted first compart- 
ment of the stomach contained beaks of a Cephalopod, identified by 
the Curator of Molluscs, Mr. B. C. Cotton, as belonging to a squid 
(SepiolcufJiis australis) ; in addition there were portions of the 
exoskeleton of long-tailed Decapod crustaceans, including parts of a 
Peneid prawn, and ligaments from a kangaroo. For identification of 
these last I am indebted to Mr. I. Thomas, Department of Zoology 
at the University of Adelaide; they probably represent the remains of 
bait used by cray-fishers or big-game fishermen. The rest of the 
stomach contained a large volume of thick soupy matter, stained almost 
black with sepia from the ink sacs of the squids, while the contents of 
the intestine throughout wer$ similarly coloured. According to Mr. 
Cotton Sepioleitfltis may occur in schools, in which case this Kofjia 
had encountered, shortly before its death on a sandy shore, such a 
swarm, as around the mouth there were many shallow, freshly made 
Hhort cuts, in addition to other healed scars. The diet of Kogia is 
obviously varied (see also Hale, 1947, p. 544 and Scheffer and Slipp, 
1948, p. 308). 

Parasites 

There were numerous barnacle scars on the body, behind the 
pectoral fins and extending as far back as the anus. 

Amongst the food remains in the first compartment of the stomach 
was a mass of nematode worms. As usual in specimens examined by 
me in the flesh tapeworm cysts were imbedded in the flesh. 

Edible Qualities 

Seven people requested beef from the carcass of this male. They 
reported that it constituted an excellent hot meal and provided some 
of the most tender steak they had eaten. This notwithstanding the 
fact that the specimen had not, been bled and had been dead for 24 
hours or so when fleshing was commenced. It was noted further that 
the steaks when cold were not so palatable and in fact then had little 
appeal as food. Hubbs (1951, p. 409) reports that "the staff of 
Scripps Institution and friends ate a large part of the deep-red flesh 
of ftte pygmy sperm whale " captured on a beach in California, and 
notes their reactions. Tn Japan the species is utilized as food when- 
ever it is taken. 



21ft RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSKUM 

DISCUSSION 

Season of Strandings 
Glover Allen (1941, p. 23) writes "what significance may be 
attached to the fact that most of the North Atlantic records are for 
the cooler months of the year is uncertain". 

In Japan, Yamada (1954, p. 53) notes that "The appearance of 
kogiids oil Taiji is confined to the trying summer season probably 
due to their migrating habit 5 \ Gunther, ilubbs and Beal (1955, 
p, 268), suggest that there may be a northward movement, in the 
northern hemisphere, between autum and spring. They write, "It 
is quite possible that the pygmy sperm whale, like some of the larger 
cetaceans, moves rather far towards the poles, in the summer, to feed 
on the rich pelagic food supply of those regions, returning to warmer 
waters to breed," TTubbs (1951, p. 409) earlier discussed the 
distribution of Kogia. 

The examples which have been beached on South Australian coasts 
have come ashore during the colder half of the year. The dates of 
strandings indicate that Kogia is present in South Australian waters 
at least between late April and late September; also that during this 
period calves as well as adults of both sexes occur. For example in 
July, 1958, two young specimens (Hale, 1959, p. 333) were noticed in 
St. Vincent Gulf, and soon came ashore at Largs Bay. From early 
in June, 1959 (winter) until September (spring) of the same year 
fishermen and others reported that small whales with blunt heads were 
seen travelling slowly to and fro along the coasts of Encounter Bay 
and St. Vincent Gulf. During this period a female and her calf were 
stranded at Encounter Bay, while three months later an adult male 
(M.6266) came ashore in St, Vincent Gulf (see also Hale, 1947, 
p. 532). Most of the South Australian strandings occurred during 
cairn weather. 

According to published records Kogia has been cast ashore in 
New South Wales (south of lat, 30 S) during August and September. 
On the other hand the similarly few dates of New Zealand strandings 
extend well into the summer season, August to late January (Oliver, 
Proc. Zool. Soc, London, 1922, p. 567), 

External Characters 

Boschma (1951, p. 12) lias called attention to the fact that more 
exact knowledge of the external features of Kogia is desirable. 

Unfortunately, in relatively few strandings is it possible for the 
worker to bring the whale to his institution before post-mortem 



HALE— PIGMY SPERM WHALE IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA 217 

changes have resulted in change of colour, or, as is so often the case, 
before a stranded or captured Kogia is mutilated. Naturally, stand- 
ings of whales, large or small, are most often reported from populated 
areas, and before an animal is recovered, even after a lapse of only 
a few hours, vandals have time to mutilate it. However, I have been 
fortunate in being able to examine at the Museum a few w T hole 
specimens. Some external measurements of these follow, together 
with meagre data provided from another source. 

External measurements of young male (M.6186(*)) and adult male (M.6266) from 
Largs Bay and Glenelg, St. Vincent Gulf. 

Measurements. M.6186. M.6266. 

uini. per eent. mm. per cent. 

Total length to notch of tail flukes 1,930 100 2,730 100 

Greatest depth of body 440 22.7 630 23.0 

Tip of snout to vertical level of 

anterior corner of eye 180 9.3 372 13.6 

Tip of mandible to vertical level of 

anterior corner of eye 140 7.2 275 10.0 

Tip of snout to vertical level of 

anterior end of base of dorsal fin 930 

Tip of mandible to axilla 386 

Width of flukes 475 

Height of dorsal fin 155 

Length of base of dorsal fin ... . 220 

Greatest, length of pectoral fin . . . 300 

Greatest width of pectoral fin . . . 105 

Length of gape to posterior fold . . 119 

Length of eye 24 

Depth of eye . . . • 13 

External measurements of two adult females and their calves. M.6156, calf (sex ?) of 

Sleaford Bay female; M.6256 and 6257, female and male calf from Encounter Bay (5), 

(Measurements of Sleaford Bay examples as supplied bv Mr. W. L. Johnston.) 

$Not 
re 
Measurements. 

Total length to notch of tall 

flukes 2,925 

Greatest depth of body . . . 
Tip of snout to vertical level 

of anterior corner of eye — — — — 400 13.4 270 14.2 

Tip of mandible to vertical 

level of anterior corner of 

eye 238 8.1 

Tip of mandible to axilla . . — — 

Width of flukes 660 22.5 24.1 

Height of dorsal fin 

Greatest length of pectoral fin 
Greatest width of pectoral fin 
Length of gape to posterior 

fold 

Length of eye . . . . . . 

Depth of eye 

(4) See also Hale, 1959, pp. 334-335. 

(8) See also Hale, 1947, p. 535, for measurements of another cow and her calf. 



48.1 


1,430 


52.3 


20.0 


680 


24.9 


24.6 


763 


27.9 


S.O 


152 


5.5 


11.4 


510 


18.6 


15.5 


350 


12.8 


5.4 


165 


6.0 


6.1 


152 


5.5 


1.2 


30 


1.1 


0.6 


15 


0.5 



recovered. 


M,6156. 


M.6256. 


M.6257. 


per 
tira. cent. 


mm. 


per 

cent. 


ram. 


per 
cent. 


per 
mm. cent. 


925 100 
665 22.7 


1,720 
450 


100 
26.1 


2,980 
665 


100 
22.3 


1,892 100 
475 25.1 



660 


22.5 


115 


3.9 


355 


12.1 


140 


4.7 



235 


7.8 


150 


7.9 


658 


22.0 


450 


23.7 


750 


25.1 


378 


19.9 


110 


3.7 


— 


— 


405 


13.6 


260 


13.7 


150 


5.0 


95 


5.0 


190 


6.3 


123 


6.5 


30 


1.0 


25 


1.3 


10 


0.3 


12 


0.6 



218 



RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 



Length of Snout. The length of the snout, anterior to the tip of 
the lower jaw, is very variable in length. In the South Australian 
specimens measured in the flesh the snout of juveniles, 1,710 mm. to 





Fig. 8-9. Heads of aged female and her male calf, Encounter Bay (% nat. size). 



HALE— PIGMY SPERM WHALE IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA 



219 



1,930 mm. in body length, varies from 2.0 to 6.3 per cent of the body 
length; the first named, 2.0 per cent, is extreme, as mentioned else- 
where herein. In adults of both sexes from southern Australia, 
2,730 mm. to 2,980 mm. in body length, the proportion ranges from 
3.5 to 5.5, and this ratio has no relation to sex. The snout length in 
relation to skull length also has no bearing on size or sex. 




Fig. 10. Head of adult male, Glenelg (% nat. size). 

Yamada (1954, p. 41) provides measurements of some Japanese 
examples. These also show differences in the snout length, tliis vary- 
ing in two females, of approximately the same size, from 3.3 to 4.0 
per cent of the body length. 

Thus the length and shape of the snout provide no clear indication 
either of age, sex or locality. The variation may be due at least in 
part to the degree of development of the mass of the spermaceti organ, 
which Glover Allen (1941, p. 26) suggests ''possibly acts as a bumper 
or shock absorber in head-on contacts . . ." 

Dorsal Fin, From available data the dorsal fin originates slightly 
posterior to the middle of the total body length of the animal, or a 
little in advance of the middle of the body length. Care is necessary 
to ascertain as closely as possible the most anterior point of the base 



220 



RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 



of the fin; it seems likely that its more forward position occurs in 
examples with an unusually short snout. 

The fin itself is variable in size and shape. In South Australian 
examples examined in the flesh the following variation occurs : 





Fig. 11-12. Dorsal fins of adult male, Glenelg (11) and (12) of aged 
female, Encounter Bay (% nat. size). 





Length of fin 


Height of fin 




Specimen and 


per cent 


per cent 


Height per cent 


body length. 


body length, 


body length. 


length of fin. 


M.5009. $ 2,897 mm. . . 


11.1 


3.1 


28.2 


M.5010. 9 1,710 mm. .. 


10.8 


3.7 


34.0 


M.6186. $ 1,930 mm. . . 


11.4 


8.0 


74.0 


M.6256. $ 2,980 mm. . . 


13.3 


3.6 


27.5 


M.G266. g 2,730 mm. . . 


18.6 


5.5 


29.8 



For comparison the proportions of examples from widely 
separated North Atlantic localities are given below, viz., Virginia and 
Massachusetts, U.S.A. (Glover Allen, 1941) and Japan (Yamada, 
1954). These are taken from the measurements published by the 
aforementioned authors and indicate that the dorsal fin is surprisingly 
small in the Massachusetts adult male, whereas it is unusually high in 
a South Australian young male (M.6186). 



Specimen and 
body length. 

Virginia; $,2,210 mm. 

Mass.; 6\ 3,200 mm. 

Japan; $, 2,180 mm. 

Japan; 9,2,220 mm. 



Length of fin 


Height of fin 


per cent 


per cent 


body length. 


body length. 


11.7 


6.5 


4.3 


2.3 


13.7 


6.6 


15.3 


5.8 



Height per cent 
length of fin. 

55.7 
54.2 
48.3 

38.2 



HALE— FIGMY SPERM WHALE IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA 221 

Glover Allen (1941, p. 29), comparing some external characters of 
the one adult mala and one breeding female, from the abovementioned 
separate localities off the Atlantic GOast of the United Sfntvs, remarks 
that "Apart from the generally greater dimensions of the adult male 
as compared with the adult female, Hie only striking difference is in 
the very much smaller dorsal tin, which in the male is low and narrow, 
while in the female it is of nearly twice the size (fig. 2) ■ . . Whether 
or not this is a normal sexual difference, or merely individual 
variation, future observations may show". 

In the South Australian adult male (M.o l 2hb), 3,730 mm. in body 
length, the dorsal (in is of practically the same shape and proportions 
as that of the aged female (M.6256), 2,980 mm. in length; the male, 
however, has a relatively larger and higher fin (see lig. 11-12 herein). 

Gunther, Hubbs and Beal (1955, pp. 263 and 266) writing of 
Kogia on Hie Atlantic coast of America, and recording an example 
from Texas, state that in the case of a specimen recorded from New 
Jersey by Knders (J 942, fig. 2) "The length of the dorsal fin and its 
vertical height are much the smallest in the New Jersey specimen," 
Tn the opinion of these authors "The most unexpected and significant 
differences seem to be the measurements of snout to eye, snout to 
blowhole, and snout to dorsal tin. The last measurement is checked 
by the measurement from the fluke notch to the posterior insertion of 
ili<> dorsal. These measurements and a comparison of the photo- 
graphs indicate, with little doubt, that the dorsal fin of the Texas 
specimen was placed considerably further back than on the other 
two 1 ' (California and New Jersey). 

It seems apparent that in so far as either sex or locality are 
concerned, the proportions of the dorsal fin have no significance. 
Yamada, however, writes 4 M liked to know what was known at sea, 
especially if they [examples of Kotjia] belonged to the same school 
<>r were separated. u Yamada was given some information by a whaler 
hunting in Japanese wafers; this individual testified "that No. 5 was 
with No. 4 in a school of six or seven whales, and No. 6 in another 
Of two or three. Tills may somewhat favour on one hand the opinion 
to recognize K. smuts and seems on the other to be a new knowledge 
of the habits of kogiids" (Yamada, 1954, pp. 51-52; see also note 
by Palmer, Journ, Mamm., 29, 1948, p. 421.) 

As already stated if is recognized that far too few accurate 
illustrations of the exterior of Koqia are available. Nevertheless, 
Glover Allen's adult female (1941, pp. 28-29, fig. 2) and a young male 



222 RE CORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

recorded by me (Hale, 1959, p; 333, fig. 1) have the dorsal fin high, 
trith Us origin in advance of the middle of the body length. 

W. Elliot's drawings of a female From India (sunns of Owen, 
1869*5 pi. 10-11) are of doubtful accuracy but show a similar dorsal 
fm, as also does the illustration of Ftaset and Parker (1949, p. 18, 
tig. 15) whieh may be a modification by jjhfl artist, Col, Simon, of the 
figures published by Owen. 

While, as mentioned by some other atttbora, examinations of the 
variable skeletal character-, give:- oik- no reason to recognize more 
than one species of the gwiua [Bee Cat example Hirasaka, 1937, pp, 120, 
135, 139, and Alien, 1941, p. 17), one ma> rflnttnrfl to support Yamada's 
indication that the animal nreurs in semi-isolated migrating small 
herds, Further, to suggest that individuals of such schools may be 
separable from those of other herds by superficial external characters 
(including colouration), although much evidence is required to sub- 
stantiate this theory. Comparison of cows and their calves could be 
useful. For example, in both the cow and female calf from Port 
Victoria (M.5009 5010) the dorsal fin is relatively small, and 
originates just behind the middle of the hmgth of tin- body (cf. Glover 
Allen, 1941, and Hale, 1959, illustrating individuals with higher (ins). 
The photographs of a male from California (Huhhs, 1951, pi, ii and 
iii) show a small dorsal Im, very like that of the Port Victoria cow 
and calf. 

(U:>1oitratw)t. From examination of the few Pigmy Sperm Whales 
stranded on South Australian coasts it IB obvious that the extent of 
the darker partiWlB, in relation to the white of the underside, shows 
considerable variation. The pigmented areas vary in colour also from 
blue, blue on the sides merging into brownish grey dorsally, dark 
grey and light bluish-grey. 

Yamada (1954, p. 40, fig. 5) illustrates a braeketdikc marking 
which occurs behind the eye in some specimens and, following Hubbs 
(1951, p. 408, pi. iii), Bi istfi that this could be a generic character 
of Kofjia. Hubbs' published photographs <>f a specimen taken near 
Imperial Beach, California, show the bracket v^vy clearly. Onnther, 
Hlfbba and P>eal (1955, p. 267) comment on the presence or absence 
and variability of the marking. (See also note by I). K. Caldwell, 
Journ. Mamm., 41, 1960, p. 137.) This bracket was especially looked 
for in examples stranded on onr coast during 1958 and 1959 but was 
not present, although there is possibly a faint indication of it in an 
nnrecovered calf (Hale, 1959, p. 334, ph XL) known only from 



HALE— PIGMY SPERM WHALE IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA lli 

photographs in colour. In the upper figure of the aboveinentkmed 
plate there appears, very ohseiirely, an extension of the white ventral 
colour into the darker area behind the eye <n \ 

The colouration given for a female and calf from Port Victoria 
(Hale, 1947, p. 532), nnmely "jet blade above and on the sides, fading 
into the white of the underside from back of the mouth to a little 
posterior to the anus' 7 must now be ignored as being duo to post- 
mortem change in the darker areas (Hale, 1959, p. 337). 

It is certain that post-mortem changes in colouration can and do 
occur very rapidly in stranded examples, particularly when they are 
subject to heat or sunlight. Thus, from available evidence, specimen* 
cast ashore do not necessarily provide a true indication of the life 
enlouration, eVfcU though they may have died on the beach shortly 
before examination. However*, reasonably fresh examples do show 
the colour pattern, viz., the distribution of the dark areas in relation 
to the white. 

Skeleton 

Skull Attempts have been made to s»paraP' Kngia into species 
by utilizing skeletal characters. 

Below are given some measurements of seven skulls of examples 
taken on South Australian coasts. Three of calves, 1,700 mm. to 
1,892 mm. in body length, which were accompanying their mothers; 
one of a young male 1,930 mm. in length; three from adults 2,730 mm. 
fco L\9S0 mm, in length. These include for comparison the skull 
measurements of a female and her suckling calf previously recorded 
(Hale, 1947, p. 536). 

The measurements, amplifying data supplied by other workers, 
show that marked variation occurs. 

Skull measurements of adults, 12,730-2,1)80 mm. in length. 

Vli'.-i. urprnenK 9 , M.fii. 9 , M.G2f.6. £ i M.6266. 

Hupji per runt. mm. per fent. mm. percent. 

Total O-ondvlobfisal) length 410 100 412 100 A20 100 

Height to vertex ." 245 59.7 266 64.5 245 58.3 

Width l>. BtweOQ posiorhilal processes . •• 360 360 87.3 355 84.5 

Himfrr ftdgfl Of <><'<-i jul :i 1 condyles to 

posUwior troll of tefi nana . ' -• 150 3G«5 154 37.3 150 35.7 

Height of supnioe-'ipit.-il from tipper 

margin of foramen magnum 115 2S.0 133 32.2 122 29.0 



(•) During September, 1961, while the present paper was in press, a gating female came ashore 
in St. Vincent Gulf, H. Aust. Tins had a well defined bracket, eompnrahlc to that 
illustrated by TTubbs and which still could be traced 48 hours after the death of the 
animal. 



224 



RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUNf 



Skull measurements of adults, 2,730-2,980 mm. in length — continued. 

Measurements. $ , M.5009. 9 ; M.6256. £ , M.6266. 

mm. per rent. mm. percent. mm. percent. 
Width of supraoceipital at narrowest pari 

between posterior margins of temporal 

fossae 214 52.2 224 54.3 230 54.7 

Length of rostrum from tip to anterior 

wall of left naris 227 55.3 239 58.0 225 53.5 

Tip of rostrum to anterior margin of 

palatines 170 11.4 174 42.2 170 40.4 

Width of rostrum between anl.mhHal 

process 220 53,6 218 52.9 194 46.2 

Greatest length of pterygoids 188 15.8 208 50.4 180 42,8 

Length of left narie 47 11.4 46 11.1 48 11.4 

Width of left naris 33 ft.€ 35 8.5 34 8.0 

Height of foramen magnum JJ 10.fi 38 9.2 40 9.5 

Width of foramen magnum 41 1 0.0 36 8.7 32 7.6 

Height of occipital condyles 04 15. 64 15.5 tf8 16.2 

Width of occipital condyles 90 21.9 88 21.3 81 19.2 

Length of mandible (mid-line between tip 

and level of back of condyles) .. .. 360 S7.s 375 91.0 350 83.3 
Length of left ramus of mandible (con- 
dyle to anterior end) 380 92.6 405 98.3 382 90.9 

Depth of left ramus at coronoid .. .. 100 24.3 90 21.8 90 21.4 

Length of symphysis 80 19.5 110 20.7 95 22,0 

Length of alveolar portion 140 34.1 190 46.1 170 40.4 



Skull measurements of calves, 1,700 1,892 mm. in length 

a ml K in- ii i inter Bay). 

Measurement m. $,M,5010. 

mm. per cent. 

Total (eoudylobasal) length 250 100.0 

Height to vertex . .' lfjii 60.0 

Width between postorbital processes . .. 210 
Hinder edge of oceipital condyles to 

posterior wall of left naris .. . > .. 124 19.6 
Height of supraoceipital from upper 

margin of foramen magnum . .. ., 8Q .; n 
Width of supraoceipital at narrowest 
part between posterior margins of 

temporal fossae , 155 £2.0 

Length of rostrum from tip to anterior 

wall of left naris 93 37.2 

Tip of rostrum to :iiit«-nor margin of 

palatines 76 30.4 

Width of rostrum between antorbital 

processes 127 50.8 

Greatest length of pterygoids 97 38.8 

Length of left naris . .". 33 13.2 

Width of left naris 23 9.2 

Height, of foramen magnum ........ 42 16.8 

Width of foramen magnum 34 13.6 

Height of occipital condyles 58 3342 

Width of oceipital condyles . , » 64 25.6 

Length of mandible (mid-line between 

tip and level of back of condyles) . . — 
Length of left ramus of mandible (con- 
dyle to anterior end) — — 

Depth of left ramus at coronoid .... — — 

Length of symphysis 48 19.2 

Length of alveolar portion 83 33.2 



(Port Victoria, Sleaford Bay 



Sex? 


M.6156. 


#,M.6257. 


mm. 


per cent. 


mm. per cent. 


205 


100.0 


295 100.0 


180 


67.9 


186 63.0 


240 


90.5 


262 88.8 



134 
94 



170 
124 



93 



50.5 
35.4 



64.1 

46.7 
35.0 



130 



93 



166 



114 



119 



44.0 
31.5 



56.2 
48.8 
40,3 



ISO 


49.0 


159 


53.9 


115 


43.4 


139 


47.1 


30 


11.3 


35 


11.8 


26 


9.8 


29 


9.8 


38 


14.3 


38 


12.8 


SI 


11.7 


27 


9.1 


60 


22.6 


57 


19.3 


057 


25.2 


70 


23.7 


— 


— 


230 


77.9 


— 


— 


260 


88.1 


— 


— 


70 


23.7 


— 


— 


50 


16.9 


— 


— 


100 


33.9 



HALE— PIGMY SPERM WHALE IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA 225 

.Skull measurements of young male (M.GlSti), 1^090 mm. »'• length, from Largs Bay. 

Measurements. 
Total (eondvlobat-al) length 

Efolg&t In MTlo 

Width between poBtorbital pm< : • • ■ 

Hinder ed^e ol orripitaJ condyles to posterior wall $£ I eft jnr'.s 

Height of supraoceipitnl from upprr m&fgill of foramen magnum 

Width of supraorcipiinl n! m:m i -mwst. p;ut; between posterior margins or 

t < ni|M i j;i i fofs&e - - • 

Length of rostrum from tip to nuU'i-ior wall of left m\v)t\ 

Tip of rO tiui.i tn anterior margin of "palatines .... , ...... 

Width of rostrum between autmbital pTOCflSSBS 

Greatest length oi pterygoids •• ^ 

Lengtli of left naris 

Width of left naris . 

Height of foramen magnum 

Width of foriimeti magnum . . . 

ll'ight of oeci]nt;d rondyles , . • . » . ♦ . ♦ • » 

Width o| occipital condyles - • • 

Length of mandible (muitiuf between Up and level of bAflk oi nmdyloa) -. 

i of left ramus of mandiide (i-oudyJe to anterior end) 

Depth of left raom* nl eoronoid .... ....... 

Length of Bvmphyjiis -* •• 

Length of alveolar portion . , ,. 72 



mm. 


per cent. 


24a 


100.0 


16.1 


07.0 


222 


91.3 


115 


47.2 


BE 


39.0 


162 


66.6 


9S 


40.3 


77 


31.(5 


122 


50.2 


140 


57.6 


32 


J 3.1 


i ' 


7.8 


28 


11.5 


2H 


11.5 


53 


21.8 


71 


&9.2 


187 


76.9 


200 


82.3 


63 


25.9 


14 


5.7 


72 


29.6 



The above measurements indicate that with age the rostrum 
increases iu length in relation to the length of the skull; further, in 
the four smaller examples (1,710-1,930 mm, in body length) it is wider 
than long, whereas in the three adults (2,730-2,980 mm. in body length) 
it is longer than wide. 

It is now possible to compare the skulls of two breeding females 
with those of their suckling calves (pi. 1-2, A and B); these are from 
Port Victoria, Spencer Gulf (M.5009-5G10, April, 1937) and Encounter 
Bay on the south coast (M.62S6-6SG7, Jtpae, 1959). The skulls of the 
calves show no detail of import linking them with those of their 
mothers. It may be noted, however, that in both cow and calf from 
Encounter Bay the height to verlex is lower, and the pterygoids 
shorter, than ft] the female and young from Port Victoria. The 
occipital condyles in both enlves resemble those of their respective 
mothers, but are Similar also to those of some other individuals; in 
the calf of female M.6256 the foramen magnum is more ovate than in 
the parent. 

Posterior views of the eight skulls available from South Australia 
are shown on pi. 1 and 2 herein; these comprise four adults and four 
juveniles, and serve to illustrate in part the descriptions of the skulls, 
including the occipital condyles and foramen magnum. The photo- 
graphs are all to the same scale and, with exception of female 
M.5009 (in which the lower jaw bones are wired to the skull) are 



226 RECORDS OF THE S,A. MUSEUM 

shown with the lower edge of the pterygoids and the tip of the rostrum 
resting in the same plane. 

Vertebrae. From the descriptions of skeletons of Korjia I fail 
to find anything to correlate convincingly the varying lengths of the 
dorsal spinet) and other characters of the vertebrae with skull 
differences. The fusion of the epiphyses, however, is of interest. 

Glover Allen (1941, p. 24) ^escribing a female 2,210 mm. in body 
length (preguant and taken with suckling calf), stairs that: it "was 
fully adult, as indicated by the welt-Ossified mesethmoid and complete 
union of all epiphyses" The degree of fusion of the epiphyses of 
the Vertebrae certainly seems to furnish some indication of age, as 
demons! rated in six of the examples stranded in South Australia; it 
would appear from this and other skeletal characters (i.&* in the 
tongue hones, the tbyrohyals and basihyal are fused) that the female 
from Encounter Bay (M.6256) is the oldest of the specimens. Details 
of the fusion of the vertebral epiphyses are given below. Tt will be 
noted that these fusions follow no completely uniform sequence 
(cf. M.6266 and M.r.OOD). 

M.5010, female calf of M.5009, 1,710 mm. hi body length. 

Cervical, 7; thoracic, 13; lumbar, 10; Qftndal, 23. Epiphyses of 
the centra are completely free on the following. Cervical: no. 7 
only, posterior. All thoraeies, anterior and posterior. All lurnbars, 
anterior and posterior. Caudal; 1 to 19, anterior and posterior; 
because of their tiny size and extreme fragility it is impossible, after 
maceration, to ascertain whether or not, free epiphyses were present 
in the last four caudals. 

M.G257, wale calf of M.62of;, 1^892 mm. m body Iciuftli. 

Cervical, 7; thoracic, 14; lumbar, !); caudal, 24. Epiphyses of the 
centra are completely free on the following. Cervical: posterior of 
centrum 6; both anterior and posterior of centrum 7. All thoracics, 
both anterior and posterior. All lurnbars, both anterior and posterior 
All caudals with exception of 7, which has the epiphysis attached io. 
but not completely Fused witfei the anterior face of the centrum. 

M.618G, calf from haras Bay, 1,930 mm. in body length. 

Cervical, 7; thoracic, 14; lumbar, 10; caudal, 26. Epiphyses of 
posterior of cervical 7, and all remaining vertebrae both front and 
back, completely free. 



HALE— PIGMY SPERM WHALE IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA 227 

M.626ff, adult male from Glenelg, 2,730 mm> in body length. 

Cervical, 7; thoracic, 12; lumbal^ 9; caudal, 25, Epiphyses of 
the centra are completely free on the Following, Thoracic: 2 and 3, 
anterior only; 4 to 12 both anterior and posterior. Lumbar: 1 to 3 
both anterior and posterior; 4, 10 and 11 posterior only. Caudab 
5, 6, 8 and 13, both anterior and posterior; 12 anterior only. Epiphyses 
fused on all other faces of centra. 

M.5009, female fnnn Port Victoria, 2,807 WW. Wf body length; pregnant 

and with suckling calf. 

Cervical. 7; thoracic, 13; lumbar. 9; caudal, 26. Epiphyses of the 
centra are completely free on the Following. Thoracic: 3 to 33, both 
anterior and posterior, All lumbars, anterior and posterior. Caudal: 
1, anterior and posterior; 2, anterior only; 3, posterior only. 

In the first and second thoracic* the epiphyses are almost com- 
pletely fused with the centrum; from the sixth caudal back the edges 
of the epiphyses are barely or not at all distinguishable from the 
centrum. 

M.625(i, adult female (with suckling calf) from Encounter Bay, 
2,9<S() nun. in body Iciu/th. 

Cervical, 7; thoracic, 13; lumbar, 9; caudal, 23. All epiphyses are 
completely fused with the centra. 

Sternum. As in examples of Kogia from other localities the 
sternum of specimens taken in South Australia exhibit considerable 
differences (pi. 4). Tn one case, that of the young male from Largs 
Bay (pi. 4, A), it is composed of Pt>ur segments, instead of the usual 
three, and these are all entire; as noted herein the skull of this calf 
is also unusual. 

The degree of development of the anterior median notch of the 
manubrium has no significance, nor lias the degree of fusion of the 
two components of each section. Tn this last respect the sternum of 
the large male from Grlenelg (pi. 4, 0) is interesting in that: while the 
last, or third, steuebra consisted of two separate elements, that on the 
right side is completely ossified, the other cartilaginous but denser 
than, and readily distinguishable from, the surrounding cartilage. 

Glover Allen (1941, p. 32) considers that "Very likely, as 
commonly in cetaceans, this wide variation in form of the sternum 
ig ;i mark of degeneration in the structure". 



228 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

REFERENCES CITED 

Allen, Glover M. (1941): "Pygmy Sperm Whale in the Atlantic". 

ZooL Series, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Chicago, XXVII, 

pp. 174B, fig, 1-4. 
Benham, W. P. (1902); "Notes on the Osteology of the Short-nosed 

Sperm Whale", Proe. ZooL Soc., London (1), pp. 54-62, 

pi. ii-iv. 

Boschma, II. (1951): Bull. LMust. Oceanographiqms Leiden, No. 991. 

Enders, R. K. (1942): "Notes on a stranded pigmy sperm whale 

(Kogia hirviceps)". Not. Nat. Acad. Nat. ScL, 

Philadelphia, 111, pp. 1-6, fig, 1-4. 
Fraser, F. C. and Parker, EC W. (1949): Stranded Whales, Dolphins, 

Porpoises and Turtles on the British Coasts. British 

Museum (Nat. Hist), p. 18. 
Gunther, G., Hubbs, Carl L., and Beal, M. Allan (1955) ; "Records of 

Kogia brericeps from Texas, with remarks on movements 

and distribution". Journal of Mammalogy, 36, pp. 263- 

270, pi. 12. 

TTale, Herbert M. (1947): "The Pigmy Sperm Whale (Kogia 
breviet'ps, Blainville) on South Australian Coasts". Rec. 
South A ust. Mus., VIII, pp. 531-546, pi xiv-xviii and 
text fig. 1-17. 

(1959): "The Pigmy Sperm Whale on South Australian 

Coasts (Continued)". Her. South Aust Mus., XIII, 
pp. 333-338, pi. xl and text tig. 1-2. 

Hubbs, Carl L. (1951): "Eastern Pacific Records and General 

Distribution of the Pygmy Sperm Whale". Journal of 

Mammalogy, 32, pp. 403-410, pi. i-iii. 
Ilirasaka, K. (1937): "On the Pigmy Sperm Whale, Konia hrevicrps 

(Blainville)". Mem. Fac Sci. Taihoku Imp. Univ., XIV, 

pp. 117-142, pi. i-v and Map 1. 

Owen, ft. (1866): "On Some Indian Cetacea Collected by WalteT 

Elliot*" Trans. ZooL Soc, London, VI, pp. 17-47, pi. 3-14. 
Seheffer, V. B., and Slipp, J. W. (1948): "The Whales and Dolphins 

of Washington State". American Midland Naturalist, 

39, No. 2, pp. 307-309, fig. 41-42. 
Yamada, M. (1954): "Some Remarks on the Pygmy Sperm Whale, 

Kogia". Sci. Rept. Whales Research Inst,, Tokyo, Japan! 

No. 9, pp. 37-58, fig. 1-13 and plate. 



HALE— PIGMY SPERM WHALE IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA 229 

EXPLANATIONS OF PLATES 

PLATE 1. POSTERIOR VIEWS OF SKULLS. 

A and B, adult female, M.5009, body length 2,897 mm., and her female calf, M.5010, 
body length 1,710 mm.; C, sex unknown, M.5197, body length unknown; D, calf, sex unknown, 
M.6156, body length unknown. (All to same scale.) 

PLATE 2. POSTERIOR VIEWS OF SKULLS. 

A and B, aged female, M.6256, body length 2,980 mm., and her female calf, M.6257, 
body length 1,892 mm.; C, young male, M.6186, body length 1,930 mm.; D, adult male, 
M.6260, body length 2,730 mm. (All to same scale.) 

PLATE 3. TONGUE BONES. 

A, young male, M.6186, body length 1,930 mm.; B, aged female, M.6256, body length 
2,980 mm.; C, adult male, M.6266, body length 2,720 mm. (Not to same scale.) 

PLATE 4. VENTRAL VIEWS OF STERNA. 

A, young male, M.6186, body length 1,930 mm.; B, aged female, M.6256, body length 
2,980 mm.; C, adult male, M.6266, body length 2,730 mm. (Not to same scale.) 



U-jcc. S.A. Mi &KI w 



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OCCURRENCE OF THE WHALE BERARDIUS ARNUXI 

IN SOUTHERN AUSTRALIA 



By Herbert M. Hale, Hon. Associate, South Australian Museum 



Summary 

An adult female of the Beaked Whale Berardius arnuxi Duvernoy, stranded on a South 
Australian coast, is described herein. The relationship of the second species of the genus, 
B. bairdi Stejneger, is discussed. 

Genus Berardius Duvernoy, 1851 
Berardius arnuxi Duvernoy, 1851 

Loc: Port Lome in St. Vincent Gulf, South Australia (skull and part skeleton in South 
Australian Museum; Reg. No. M.5012). 



OCCURRENCE OF THE WHALE BERARDIUS ARNUXI IN 

SOUTHERN AUSTRALIA 

By HERBERT M. HALE, Hon. Associate, South Australian 

Museum 

Plates 5-6, and text fig. 1 

SUMMARY 

An adult female of the Beaked Whale Berardius arnuxi Duvernoy, 
stranded on a South Australian coast, is described herein. The 
relationship of the second species of the genus, B. bairdi Stejneger, is 
discussed. 

Genus Berardius Duvernoy, 1851 

Berardius arnuxi Duvernoy, 1851 

Loc. : Port Lome in St. Vincent Gulf, South Australia (skull and 
part skeleton in South Australian Museum; Reg. No. M.5012). 

INTRODUCTION 

A brief note recording the occurrence of Berardius arnuxi in 
South Australian waters was published previously (Hale, 1939, 
PP. 5-6, fig.). 

The specimen, a pregnant female, was stranded in December, 
1935, on an extensive tidal flat, south of Port Lome, near the northern 
end of St. Vincent Gulf. The presence of the whale was not reported 
to me until early in January, 1936, and, in company with Messrs. 
J. and A. Ran and an assistant, the carcass was examined on January 
6, when some flesh measurements and skeletal details were secured. 
The whale then had been carried by the tide to one mile north of 
Port Lome, and was resting on the flat nearer to high tide level than 
when first seen by others. On the same day fleshing was partly carried 
out but as darkness fell work was interrupted by the invasion of the 
incoming tide which* as usual in this locality, raced across the flat 
with surprising speed and force, on this occasion coinciding with a 
sudden thunderstorm. The partly fleshed carcass was then anchored, 
securely as we thought, to strong stakes, but on visiting the site early 



232 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

next clay we found that during a further storm in the night tidal 
action had gouged out a crater where the whale had been lying and 
that sections of the body were scattered about tin- 9ai With the aid 
of a local fisherman all but the major part of the caudal vertebral 
section, comprising caudal s i'our to nineteen, were recovered. Despite 
extensive search by the Museum party, and later, following offer of 
a substantial reward, by residents adjacent to Port Lome, this 
portion, regrettably, was never recovered. 

Externa) Characters 

Mr. J. J. Waters, of Yatala, South Australia, observed, from a 
small boat, the whale when it was first stranded on December 27, 1935, 
He supplied, in lift., the following information. "At tike time when 
I saw it first it was at low water; the whale was then about half a 
mile from low water mark . , , When the tide rose sufficiently for 
us to go in we went to within twenty yards of it and were going to 
anchor it. After a time we discovered that it was alive. The only 
noise that it made was when it expelled air, a loud 'whish'; it was 
also moving its head from aide to side. The colour on close inspection 
was black. Where it was when I saw it was due west from a big 
sand bank about two miles south of Tort Lome". 

My best thanks are due to the abovementioned for their personal 
observations and I am indebted to Mr. C, P« Moimtford for photo- 
graphing the bones herein illustrated, 

Tahlf L Body proportion, 

Per cent 

HwamnontB. mm. of length. 

Total length to median projti-tion nf tail fluke* , . 8^845 100.0 

Tip of snout to anterior em In of throat grooves » .. . ., SSI 4.3 

Tip o£ snout to verUrol \v\iA of anterior corner of eye . . .. r , 915 10.8 

Tip of snoot to blow hole S! rt .. ,, ,. .. .. „ , .. », 1,040 11,7 

Tip of mandible to vertical level of anterior corner of i\ e . . , . , , . , 864 9.7 

Projection of lower jaw beyond tip of Ki&oi , - . * . - .•**«..,, . Rl 0.5 

Tip of snout to vertk-.fi] level q$ anterior end of baoe uf dorsal fin ., 5,871 Ofi.Ii 

Tiji of HiiuiK. to axilla . ., .. , ,. ». . . .. 1,082 22.4 

Width of flukes ."-... 2,238 gS 8 

Height of dorsal fin » lr BP .. .. , 15.% 1,7 

LftngtJa of base of dorsal fin .. *« .. . . 534 8.0 

pti of pe-ctoral fln, axilla to tip - * . . rr ,, 787 8=9 

iTTijutf-H moth of pectoral ftn , . . . , . » , . . . 4H2 4.8 

Length of eye . , . , ....,..., , . . , . 3a 0,4 

Depth uf eye , . . , .. .. Ifi 0.1 

Skeleton 

Shall (pL 5, fig. A-B)* This? Is & little 1ms than one-seventh of 
the body length, It is of the same size as the type skull of Duvernoy 



HALE— BERARDIUS IN SOUTHERN AUSTRALIA 233 

and in general differs in no very significant detail from the descriptions 
of other authors. The mesethmoid, however, rises above the? level of 
the prenmxillae (ef. Flower, 1874, p, 218, pi. 28, flg. 8) while its rugose 
ossification extends to approximately 320 mm. in front of the base of 
the rostrum, as measured between the posterior limits of the antorbital 
notches, a feature due to the greater age of the Australian female. 

Measurements of the skull, mandibles and teeth arc given in 
tables 2 and 3. 

Tabic 2. Skull measurements. 

Per cent 

Measurement.-. mm. of length. 

Total (eondylobasal) length Ij&fiO 100.0 

Height .from* vrrr.-x to mlVnur border of pterygoids -6*8 51*4 

Breadth across postorbital plOOeasefl ► i 701] . r >5.5 

Length of rostrum • 765 ?0.7 

Breadth or rostrum at base •• ■■ 435 84,5 

BfeaUth oi" rostrum at Middle 1U * *&3 

Length ol' prcmaxilla 1*085 86,1 

Breadth of promaxillae at mid. [In of length 122 9.6 

Greatest breadth of premaxillae in front of nare» • • 218 17.3 

Greatest, breadth of premaxillae behind nares ., . . .. 800 15.8 

-Distance from anterior end of premaxillae to level of posterior borders of 

pterygoid* - • . WB 78.9 

Length Oi n.'ii! s (greatest median) 120 9.5 

Breadth of nates (greatest) -. . 98 7.7 

Breadth &cr09S oCCtpit&l condyles 220 17.4 

Breadth of right condyle .... 95 7.5 

Height of right condyle 1*4 1M 

Length of mandible (right ) 1.155 91.6 

Length of symphysis , »• 290 23.0 

lbiglil .-it rmoiioid i ^80 ^'2 

Distance from tip of jaw to centre of Ut tooth 50 3.9 

Mure from tip of jaw fcO centre of 2nd tooth 150 11.9 

Height of 1st tooth: 'right n 104 8.2 

icfl 105 8.3 

Greatest length of 1st tooth : rigid » f»5 5.1 

left 70 5.5 

Syoids, The basihyal has the median anterior incision much 
deeper, and the adjoining prominences more elevated, than in the 
younger specimen described by Flower (1874, p. 223, pi. 28, fig. 9; 
body length about 1 lie same as that of the Australian female); this 
bone is two and one-quarter times as wide as its median length, and 
is more massive than as described by Flower, its breadth being 180 mm. 
The thyrohyals are not fused to the basihyal and like the stylohyals 
are also more massive, not much longer, but relatively distinctly wider. 

Vcrfrhrar (pi. 6, fig, B-H). Cervical, 7; thoracic, 11; lumbar, 12; 
caudal, 19. 

The vertebrae were counted in the partly fleshed animal but, aB 
already mentioned, most of the caudals were lost during a storm. 



234 RECORDS OF TIlK S.A. MUSEUM 

There are in hand, however, all cervieals, thoracics and lumbars 
together with the first to third caudals ami three pairs of chevrons, 
each of the latter with tin* components fused. Tin- held notes also 
show that there are ten ribs on the left side and eleven on the right. 
The epiphyses are all coalesced with the free ends of the centra, 
so completely incorporated that they have become an integral part 

of all of the latter. 

In the first three fused cervieals the maximum height of (he 
combined dorsal processes of the first and aecotld is two-sevenths of 
the greatest depth of the mass, with the upper surface rising, not 
steeply, to the rear, where there i.- an irregular median incision 
between a pair of apical bosses. The atlas is decidedly wider than 
high. The neural arch of the third cervical is free on both sides (nv 
a short distance, above tin? third large lateral foramen, lad is complete, 
although the dorsal apical portion is fused with, but below the level of, 
the dorsal part of the arch of the second vertebra. The fourth to 
Seventh cervieals also haw complete neural arches. In the fourth and 
fifth there is no dorsal process, the upper sides of the arch being 
almost uniform in anterior-posterior Wldtli, but eloping slightly 
upwards dorsally; the fourlh is not higher than its greatest width, 
The sixth has a low, obtusely rounded dorsum and the seventh a short, 
triangular dorsal process, less than one seventh of the total height 
of the vertebra, which thus is wider than high. The centrum of the 
seventh has a median gutter 071 the ventral surface, where in the 
preceding cervieals is a low protuberance 

The dorsal spines of all eleven thoracic vertebrae slope back- 
wards and in general resemble those described and figured by Flower 
in 1874, although his example had only ten thoracics. The first is 
wider than high, because of the low dorsal process. The eighth has a 
pronounced lateral rib-attachment facet on each metapophysis and 
another articular facet on each side of the posterior end of the centrum. 
The ninth thoracic has the dorsal process fairly well developed and is 
nearly twice as high as its greatest width. Each of the prominent 
lateral processes first appearing on the tenth has a large and rugose 
articular face on the distal end 

The twelve lumbars differ in no essential feature from those 
described by Flower. The distal parts of the dorsal processes, how- 
ever, are inclined towards the [eft in the first two, towards the right 
in the third to fifth, again to the left iu the sixth and seventh, slightly 
to the right in the eighth to tenth and to (he left in the eleventh. 
The first lumbar is wider than high and the dorsal process, as in the 



HALE— BERARDIUS IN SOUTHERN AUSTRALIA 235 

thoraeics, is rather slender, the greatest width at the distal end being 
one-fourth of the length, the last measured from the upper limit of 
the neural arch to the apex. The dorsal process of the remaining 
lumbars is wider, but the increase in breadth is not successively 
regular until the ninth; in the eleventh the width of the distal end is 
not much less than half the length of the process and in the twelfth 
slightly more than half the length. The sixth lumbar has become much 
higher than wide. 

The first to third caudal vertebrae have the distal end of the 
dorsal processes, as in the posterior lumbars, expanded and truncate, 
t heir apical width being more than half the length. The height of the 
first, caudal is more than one-third as long again as its width. 

Sternum (pi. 5, fig. C). The components of each of the five 
segments are solidly fused. The massive first segment has the whole 
anterior margin shallowly concave and the lateral articular processes 
more prominent than as show r n in the illustrations of this structure 
in arnuxi (cf. Flower, 1874, pi. 27, fig. 3 and Morelli, 1920, pi. 4, 
tig. 4). The posterior processes of the hist segment are shorter than 
depicted in the abovementioned illustrations. 

Scapula (pi. 6, fig. 1). Kesembles very closely the photographs 
of this bone by Morelli (1920, pi. 4, fig. 3, and pi. 5, fig. 2; adult female 
of arnuxi from La Plata). 

Ribs. As already noted, there are ten ribs on the left side and 
eleven on the right. The eleventh has no trace of a fellow on the left 
and is much shorter than either of the tenth ribs. The tubercle is 
rudimentary in the ninth ribs, disappearing on the tenth pair and the 
single eleventh rib. The differences in the lengths of ribs of a pair, 
given below, are not significant, depending mainly on the projection of 
the distal rugosity. 

Length of ribs, taken in n straight lino from 
head to free end of bony portions. 



Bib 


Eight 


Left. 


No. 


mm. 


mm. 


1 


450 


450 


2 


730 


710 


8 


«90 


895 


4 


990 


970 


5 


1.015 


1,015 


6 


1 ,055 


1,050 


7 


1.045 


1,040 


8 


1,040 


ljOas 


9 


970 


Broken tip 


10 


825 


830 


11 


435 


Absent 



236 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

DISCUSSION 

The two species of herar<li\ts recognized in literature occupy, as 
far as is known al, present, widely separated oceanic areas, The 
genotype, B. arinixl Duvernoy, lias been taken from the Antarctic 
Ocean to South America, New Zealand and southern Australia, while 
B. bairdi Stejnegtir occurs in the North Pacific, from the Bering Sea 
to California and Japan. 

External Characters 

Onnira, Fujiuo and Ivimura (1955, p. 99) furnish body proportions 
of four females of hutrrfi IVom Japan in percentages of total body 
length; the South Australian female is compared below with these and 
other specimens. 

The snout was relatively longer, and Ihe lower jaw projected for 
a lesser distance from the tip of the snout than in the Japanese 
females. Measurements of a young female of the same total length 
as the South Australian specimen, are given by Pike (1953, p. 101); 
these show the projeetifcn (rf the lower jaw beyond the snout to be 
still less than in Ihe Australian female. 

The throat grooves were approximately 535 mm. in length, and 
as usual did not meet in front; posteriorly fhev Were separated by a 
distance of 8&0 mm. As shown in Table 1 the eye was well in advance 
of the blowhole. 

The dorsal tin, although approximately equal in length to those 
el' the Japanese females, was considerably lower. This tin is high in 
some other females referred to baird%\ for instance see True, 1910, 
j), fi7 and Pike, 1953, p. 101. True, vide Hector, indicates that the 
dorsal tin of the Wellington, New Zealand, male aruiixi is relatively 
still higher. 

The pectoral fins were fully as long and wide as those of the 
Japanese females. 

The caudal fin showed no trace of a median notch? ^n the contrary 
the rear edges of both flukes were concave, a little sinuate and met 
medianly to form a slight but distinct projection (fig. 1), the tip of 
which was only 77 mm. posterior to the last, and tiny, caudal vertebra. 
The flnkes were not symmetrical, the left, measured from tip to the 
median projection, being 1,069 mm. in width, the right 1,169 mm. 
The totftl width of the caudal tin Corresponds With the proportion to 
body length of a large adult female of ha'rrdi from Alaska, as given 
by True (1910, p. 67) and while less than that of the abovementioned 
Japanese females, is greater than stated in the few available body 
measurements of arniixL 



HALE— BERARDIUS IN SOUTHERN AUSTRALIA 



237 




Fig. 1. Dorsal view of caudal fin of Berardius arnuxi from South Australia 

(i/ l8 nat. size). 



It is possible that the posterior margins of the tail flukes of the 
South Australian Berardius had been damaged, and healed, during 
life, but it is difficult to imagine that in such case the width of the 
caudal fin could be increased, but if anything the reverse. Mutilation 
of the fins of living whales is by no means unusual (see for example 
R, M. Gilmore, Joura. Mamm, 42, 1961, pp. 419-420). 

The distortion of the dorsal processes of the lumbar vertebrae 
suggest that the whale suffered a mishap at some period of its 
existence. 

Skeleton 

In Table 3 the skull measurements, per cent of breadth, of the 
South Australian female are compared with those of two females 
referred to bairdi. One, not fully adult and taken off the coast of 
Vancouver Island, British Columbia (Pike, 1953, p. 103) is equal in 
size to the South Australian example. The second, from the opposite 
side of the North Pacific, is a larger adult female (Omura, Fujino and 
Kimura, 1955, p. 109). The last column refers to a "physically adult" 
Berardius, thought to be a female, and not specifically identified, from 
near Ocean City, Washington (Slipp and Wilke, 1953, p. 108). 



~^8 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Table 3. 

S. An-! Vancouver la, Japfln. Washington. 

Measurement*. 29ft. 2!»ft. 36ft. 34ft. 5i r n. 

•iili'li. Immature, adult. adult. 

Total (ecmdylobawtl) length I -0.0 203-5 196.8 181.8 

Height from vortex to inferior border 

of pterygoid* 79.7 79.1 73.6 

Breadth across postorbitftl processes . 100.0 100.0 ion Q 100,0 

Length of iHMlr.un 100.2 132.0 127.6 110.7 

Breadth of rostrum at &ase . 65.0 60.2 60.5 56.3 

radth "f* i-'-lr.iin nt WA&&fo . . .. 24.0 20.4 1*7.8 26.0 

Length of pwiuaxijh 155,0 180,9 ini,i 162.4 

Bfeadth of prenuixiHa at nmldlr of 

length 17.4 20. 9 15J 15.7 

Qteatasi breadth of pycmaxillao ill 

front, oi jiovos 31.1 36*3 SlJ 31*1 

Greatest width of premaxillae behind 

narcw 28,S 30*8 86,15 

Distance from anterior a/kl of pfe 

oi:i\iii:ic to level of posterior border 

of pterygoid- 142. 1 1^1.3 lRL'.D 141. 8 

Lengtfi of narea (greatest uodiaui) .. i;.i 16.7 u>.s 17.1 

Breadth of nnres (gnwitosb) 14.0 19.0 1.5.9 16.6 

Breadth across- occipital condyles . .. ;o.i 32,8 33.0 27.y 

Breadtft of right condyle r* LS.5 io\2 15,! l&9 

tfrigM of rigW condyle 22.0 36,3 B2.6 21,6 

' Mi of nuindihle {'rigid ) .. .. .. H55.0 180.6 180.1 — 

Height at foronoid 32,8 :*2.2 38.4 28.2 

The South Australian skull has flic rostrum shorter and wider at 
the base than In the throe North Pacific examples but otherwise 
exhibits no measurements of significance. The proportions of the 
rostrum, moreover, can hardly be regarded as important, for according 
to Truc\s cited measurements of annui in the New Zealand examples 
it is Longer, and narrower basally, than in the Australian specimen, 
and falls within the range of hdmli. Remington Kellogg (in Slipp 
and Wilke, 1953, p. 109) writes "So far as can be judged from the 
five hairdli skulls in this Museum [U.S. National Museum], the breadth 
of the rostrum at the base . . . seems to vary considerably". 

In short, the measurements of these and other skulls of Bcrardius 
support T rue's statement (1.5)10, p. 69) concerning the skulls of the 
lew specimens discussed by him " there appears to be nothing which 
ran he fixed upon in this small series to distinguish the two species 
by dimensions alone". 

As far as can be ascertained with the bones vn situ the tympanies 
and periotics resemble those figured by True (1919, pi. 35. 37, fig. 7) 
for Ixiirdi rather than Flower's illustrations of these bones in arnvxi 
from Canterbury, New Zealand. 

The mandibles (pi. 6, fig. A) are relatively deeper than in the 
;i(lult female from Japan referred to bairdi, and 36 feet in length 



HALE— BERARD1VS IN SOUTHERN AUSTRALIA 239 

(Omura, Fujino and Kimura, pi. 9); also than in the female (?) of 
Klipp and Wflke (1053, p. 108), 34 feet in length, in which the depth at 
the coronoid is 232-223 mm., this measurement in the South Australian 
example being almost 5 per cent greater, notwithstanding the smaller 
size of tlie last named specimen. In Flower's description (1874, 
P 221) of anu/ji from New Zealand, about SO fflot bfl length and yet 
"Far from adult 15 the depth at the coronoid is given as only 8,3 inches, 
or about 205 mm. 

When the carcass was first seen hy me at Port Lome the posterior 
of the two pairs of teeth were in place, slightly moveahle in their 
surloMs and with the tips projecting slightly above the gum. Accord- 
ing In eyewitnesses the large anterior teeth also were loose in their 
sockets and approximately an inch of the apical portion of each was 
exposed and obvious, thus templing a visitor forcibly to remove them. 
Fortunately, thanks to the prompt action of the district police officer, 
Nonstable Mahouy, these teeth were recovered during the first day of 
our operations. 

As indicated l>\ the measurements, I he anterior pOatokiT length 
of the front tooth of the right, mandible is less than that of the left; 
the light tooth had been extracted with very little damage to (be 
alveolus but the distal part of the left inaudible is broken on the outer 
face although its tip is intact (pb 6, fig. A). The large teeth, when 
fitted into their respective sockets, are forwardly inclined in the j 
although less so than in the second pair; both anterior teeth have the 
root completely closed, thick and rugose. 

Tn the immature rffttwd described by Flower (1874, p. 222) the 
pulp cavity in the first pair of leeth is completely closed below, While 
the tips, as in the South Australian female, show little or no sign of 
abrasion. These teeth in larger females (hd'adi) from Japan, and 
33-39 feet in length, show definite apical erosion (Omura, Fujino and 
Kimura, lf>5f>, pi. 6, \\\;. 1-2) but those of an immature Japanese female 
of about the same length as the South Australian female, are much as 
in the latter- 
Table 4 provides measurements, per cent of eondylohasal length 
of skull, of some vertebrae and the scapula of two adult females of 
UcranVius. Right column, buirdi from Japan, 36 feet in body length; 
skull 1,421 mm. in length (Omura, Fujino and Kimura, L955, p. Ill), 
Left column, arymxi from South Australia, 29 feet in body length; 
skull 1,260 mm. in length. The incorporated epiphyses are included 
in the length of the centra of the vertebrae in the Australian 



240 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

specimen, as presumably they must have been in the adult Japanese 
female. 

Table 4. 

Per cent length 
Measurements. of skull. 

Atlas: 

Breadth 19.4 22.9 

Height 10.6 21.3 

Fourth cervical: 

Greatest height Ifi.B 16.3 

Greatest width 15.7 14.0 

Length of centrum 2.3 2.6 

Seventh cervical: 

Greatest height , 17.8 16.8 

Greatest width 19.3 13.2 

Length of centrum 3.7 2.9 

First thoracic- 
Greatest height .. » 19.4 2.1.2 

Greatest width 20.3 19.9 

Length of centrum 4.6 4.4 

Ninth thoracic : 

Greatest height » 28.5 32.5 

Greatest ; width 14.4 18.4 

Length of centrum , 12.0 11.8 

First lumbar: 

Greatest height 36.1 38.4 

Greatest width > 3S.0 38.4 

Length of centrum , 14.2 14.4 

•Sixth lumbar: 

Greatest height , 42.0 46.5 

Greatest width 36.1 38.4 

Length of centrum , 17,8 17.0 

First caudal; 

Greatest height 47.2 51.1 

Greatest width 34.9 36.2 

Length of centrum r . .. 20.2 20.9 

Length of scapula 40.8 44.8 

Height of scapula , 31.7 34.2 

In the Australian female the skull is proportionally longer than in 
the larger Japanese female, 14.2 as against 12.9 per cent of body length. 
If the Australian slaill wore relatively as short as that of the Japanese 
female the ratios given for the vertebrae would be about one-tenth 
greater and thus in some approximately or quite equal to those for 
the Japanese specimen. Minor differences in the vertebrae probably 
represent only individual variation. It is known that the ratio of 
skull length to body length is variable in Berardiiis. True (1910, 
p. 67), relying on limited data, considered that arniixi has a relatively 
larger skull than bairdi. On the other hand Omura, Fujino and 
Kimura (1955, p. 119) note that in armixi the posterior caudals are 
smaller than in bairdi (also True, 1910, p. 72). The abbreviation of 



HALE— BERARDIUS IN SOUTHERN AUSTRALIA 241 

the caudal tegioU may be a conataTtl character in amuxi but here again 
examination of further southern examples in desirable. 

From descriptions and figures it is evident that the sternum of 
Berardius is subject to considerable variation, particularly anteriorly 
and posteriorly. That of the South Australian specimen is composed 
of five thick bones, in the first of which the anterior border, as noted 
above is widely concave (pi. 5, fig. C). 

The scapula of the Australian specimen is much more like that of 

llypcroodon plmdfrons (aee Eale, Bee fs. Aust. Mus., IV, 1031, %. 18), 

and of the B&rafdim annul illustrated by Morelli in 1920, than as 
shown in True's figure (1910, pi. 33, fig. 2) of this bone in Berardius 
bairdi. 

CONTUSION 

With information recorded to date one cannot but accept with 
some reservation the premise that the caudal fin is constantly relatively 
wider, and the pectoral fin larger, in bairdi than in arnu&L This was 
suggested by True (1910, p, (57) and supported by Pike (1953, pp. 100- 
102) as well as Omura, Fujino and Kimura (1985, pp. 10G and 119). 
If these constitute the only differences, the validity of bairdi as a 
true species would be questionable; the features of the South 
Australian female alone tends to raise a doubt (see Table- 1 herein), 
although it would seem thai Berardius, possibly because of a longer 
caudal region, attains a greater adult length in the North Pacific 
than it does in southern sens. Bearing in mind the great distance 
between the known distribution areas of art/uxi and bairdi it is 
reasonable to regard them as separate forms; future records of 
Berardius may throw further light on the status of the two living 
representatives <>t' the genus. 

REFERENCES 

Berardius amuxi Duvernoy 

Duvernow M, (18S1): '*De Cetaees Yivants on Fossilc.-". Ann. des 
Sci. Nat., ZooL, (3), 15, pp. 52-54, pL 1. 

Flower, W. II. (1874): "Oil the recent Ziphoid Whales, with a 
description of the skeleton of Berardius anion* /'\ Trans. 
Zool. 8oc.j London. 8, pp. 212-234, pi. 27-29. 

Hanst, J. (1870): "Preliminary Notice of a Ziphid Whale, probably 
Berardius anwxil"* Trans. New Zeal. Inst., 2, pp. 190- 
192; (also in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (4), 6, pp. :*48-351), 



242 RECORDS OF THE S.A MUSEUM 

Hale, Herbert M. (1939): "Hare Whales in South Australia". S. 
Aust. Naturalist, pp. 5-6, text fig. of throat grooves. 

Hamilton, J. E. (1952) : "Cetacea of the Falkland Islands". Comuni- 
caeiones Zool. del Mus. de Hist. Nat. de Montevideo, 4, 
no. 66, pp. 1-6. 

Hector, J. (1871): " Observations on the Ziphidae"; (part). Trans. 
New Zeal. Inst., 3, pp. 128-129, pi. 16-17. 

(1878): "Notes on the Whales of the New Zealand Seas". 

Trans. New Zeal. Inst, 10, pp. 338-339, pi. Ifi. 

Knox, F. J. (1871): "Observations on the Ziphidae". Trans. New 
Zeal. Inst., 3, pp. 125-128. 

Marelli, C. A. (1920): "Revision osteologica de Berardius arnouxii 
Duv." Anales del Mus. Hist, Nat. Buenos Aires, 30, 
pp. 411-444, pi. 1-5. 

Omura, H. ? Fujino, K., and Kimura, S. (1955) : Sci. Rep. Whales Res. 
Inst., Tokyo, no. 10, pp. 100, 104-106, 112 and 119. 

Pike, G. C. (1953) : Journ. Mammalogy, 34, pp. 100 and 102. 

Slipp, J. W., and Wilke, F. (1953): Journ. Mammalogy, 34, pp. 106 
and 109. 

True, F. W. (1910) : Bull. 73, U.S. Nat. Mas., pp. 60 and 66-75. 

Berardius bairdi Stejneger 

Omura, H., Fujino, K., and Kimura, S. (1955): "Beaked Whale, 
Berardius bairdi of Japan, with notes on Ziphivs 
cavirostris". Rep. Whales Res. Inst., Tokvo, No. 10, 
pp. 89-122, pi. 1-9, and text fig. 1-28. (Literature cited.) 

Pike, Ck 0. (1953) : "Two Records of Btrai dins bairdi from the coast 
of British Columbia". Journ. Mammalogy, 34, pp. 98-104, 
pi. 1. (Literature cited.) 

Seheffer, V. B. and Slipp, J. W. (1948): "The Whales and Dolphins 
of Washington State '\ American Midland Naturalist, 
39, no. 2, pp. 226-227. 

Seheffer, V. B. (1949): "Notes on three Beaked Whales from the 
Aleutian Islands'-. Pacific Science, 3, p. 353, fig, 1. 

Slipp, J. W. and Wilke, F. (1953) : "The Beaked Whale Berardius on 
the Washington Coast". Journ. Mammalogy, 34 y p . ]05, 
pi. 1-2. (Literature cited.) 



HALE— BERARDIUS IN SOUTHERN AUSTRALIA 243 

Stejneger, L. (1883): "Notes on the Natural History of the 
Commander Islands, including descriptions of new 
Cetaceans". Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 6, p. 75. 

Taylor, R. J. F. (1957) : "An unusual record of three species of whale 
being restricted to pools in Antarctic Sea-ice". Proc. 
Zool. Soc, London, 129, pp. 325-331, pi. 3. 

True, F. W. (1910) : "An Account of the Beaked Whales of the family 
Ziphiidae in the Collection of the United States National 
Museum, with remarks on some specimens in other 
American Museums". Bull. 73, U.S. Nat. Mus., pp. 60-75, 
pi. 26-31. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES 5 AND 6 

PLATE 5. 

Berardvus arnuxi from South Australia. A and B, lateral and upper views of skull 
(y 10 nat. size). C, sternum (%2 na *- size). 

PLATE 6. 

Berardius arnuxi from South Australia. A, mandibles. B to H, vertebrae; B, cervicals; 
C to F, first, eight, ninth and tenth thoracics; G, first lumbar j H, first caudal. I, scapula 
(all y$ nat. size). 



Rjsa SLA, Mi-ski m 



Vol.. 14, [Y.VTK 3 






B 




7 o ',-wv pUffC "I ' 



Bkc\ S.A. Mcsim'm 



Vol. 14, Platk 6 





ROCK ENGRAVINGS AT KOONAWARA, 
WESTERN NEW SOUTH WALES 



By Charles P. Mountford, Honorary Associate in Ethnology, 

SO UTH A USTRALIAN MUSEUM 



Summary 

This paper records a number of rock engravings at Koonawara, north of Broken Hill in 
Western New South Wales. Many of these are forms which have not been previously 
described. 

This record is due, in the first place to Mr. T. A. Brown, who, with others, has specialized 
in photographing, in colour, some of the outstanding rock engravings on sites adjacent to 
Broken Hill. Although most of these sites have already been recorded by Dow (1938, pp. 
101-120), and Black (1943) in "Aboriginal Art Galleries of Western New South Wales" 
none of them have been studied in any detail. 



ROCK ENGRAVINGS AT KOONAWARA, WESTERN 
NEW SOUTH WALES 

By CHARLES P. MOUNTFORD, Honorary Associate in 
Ethnology, South Australian Museum 

Fig. 1 

SUMMARY 

This paper records a number of rock engravings at Koonawara, 
north of Broken Hill in Western New South Wales. Many of these 
are forms which have not been previously described. 

This record is due, in the first place to Mr. T. A. Brown, who, 
with others, has specialized in photographing, in colour, some of the 
outstanding rock engravings on sites adjacent to Broken Hill. 
Although most of these sites have already been recorded by Dow 
(1938, pp. 101-120), and Black (1943) in "Aboriginal Art Galleries of 
Western New South Wales" none of them have been studied in any 
detail. 

INTRODUCTION 

Dow (1938, pp. 101-120) published a survey of the rock art of the 
aborigines who had lived in the somewhat arid country of western 
New South Wales. During 1943, Black published a well-illustrated 
booklet " Aboriginal Art Galleries of Western New South Wales" in 
which he lists, describes and illustrates engravings and cave paintings 
from nineteen localities known in western New South Wales at the time. 

Recently, as mentioned earlier, Mr. T. A. Brown and others have 
specialized in photographing examples of rock engravings from those 
sites already recorded. 

TECHNIQUES OF REPRODUCTION 

The methods used for producing the illustrations on fig. 1 from 
Mr. Brown's colour photographs are: — The transparencies were placed 
in an enlarger and the designs, which were easily distinguished because 
of the excellence of the photographs, traced with pencil on a sheet 
of card. 



246 Kh( ORDS OF TUB S,A MUSfcUM 

The transparencies were then examined with a magnifying glass 
against, a strong light, and corrections made on the pencil sketch until 
it was accurate. This sketch was then hiked in and mounted. By 
this method, particularly if the transparencies Me of a high quality, 
the final drawing would he as accurate as that obtained by any olher 

method. 

Description of Figure I: A is a group of three designs, a large, 
well-executed dancing human figure with arms outstretched; a much 
smaller hgure under the left arm, and a loop like design which extends 

across the legs d£ the larger figure, B i« a human iignre, with legs 

turned inwards, who tl WBftfing (probably) some ceremonial head- 
dress, <! is a hum/in figure with arms and logs outstretched. There 
is a circle with a dot in the centre between I he outstretched legs. 
The human figure at 1) is wearing what appears to he a tall, and 
particularly elaborate headdress. Black (1943, p. 100) and Dow 
(1038, fig. 15) both illustrate rock engravings at Fhiriowie which 
depict human figures wearing tall head-dresses. B is a complex, 
particularly well-executed ninzeOike design which hoars more than a 
passing resemblance to cave paintings at Gundabooka (Black, 1943, 
p. 123), and at Wiltngoona (Black, |$48, pis. 130, 131, 134, 135). There 
is a line of bird tracks to the right of this design. W is a simple, but 
fully infagliafed engraving of the ti'acks of an nuidenlifiod marsupial. 
The star-like design at (J, bears sonic resemblance to a simple rock 
engraving at Ewaniltga (Mountford, 1900, fig. 5), On the left of II 
is a single barred circle and to the right a line of bird tracks. The 
single barred circle, although normally rare in rock engravims . 
doniinate a group in Mount Chambers Gorge ill South Australia 
reported by MounliWd (1928, pp, 347-34!)). I, P, and T are varying 
forms of the multiple-barred circle, designs which are also present in 
J'anaran.itoe North (Mount .I'ord, Lfi20, p. 347 349). K is a pair of 
well-engraved human footprints j M, those of an emu seated on the 
ground, and N, those of an emu walking L is a complex, but 
indecipherable design. is a representation of an emu seated on a 
nest of gggS, The small black discs symbolize the eggs, while the 
footmarks of the seated emu are shown Oh either side of the nest. 
A portion of the rock (shaded portion) has split off the left-hand 
design. Spencer and Gillen (1890, No, 12, fig. 124) record a cave 
painting at Ayers Rock, which illustrates an emu sitting on a nest 
oi eggs which resembles the engraving at O, Q and S are rock 
engravings of human figures wearing head-dresses, 




Fig. 1. Rock Engravings, Koonawar.i, Western New South Wales. 



248 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

DISCUSSION 

Dow (1938, p. 119), points out that the rock engravings of the 
Western Darling area depict a much wider range of designs and use 
a slightly higher degree of skill than those recorded from South 
Australia, which consist, in the main, of irregular circular figures, and 
scattered tracks of animals and birds. 

This statement is undoubtedly true and somewhat puzzling, 
considering that distances separating the two localities is less than 
200 miles, and the country and climate almost identical. Yet, except 
for three outstanding examples of engravings of marine creatures no 
longer living in the Panaramitee area, i.e., the head of a sea-going 
crocodile, at Panaramitee North (Mountford, 1927, pp. 245-248, pi. 10, 
figs. 1-4) ; u marine turtle at Yurita (Mountford, 1928, fig. 87, p. 361), 
a recent unpublished find of a salt-water fish, I have not seen, among 
the many hundreds, probably thousands, of rock engravings I have 
examined in South and Central Australia, an engraving of an animal 
or of a human being. 

At the present moment, there is no evidence to explain the reason 
for the wide difference in the designs, only future research will reveal 
the reason. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

I am indebted to Mr. T. A. Brown for lending his colour 
transparencies from which I made the drawings on fig. 1. 

REFERENCES 

Black, Lindsay, 1943: Aboriqinal Art Galleries of Western New South 

Wales. 

Dow, Edmund B., 1938: Aboriginal Carvings: West Darling District 
of New South Wales. Mankind, 2 (5). 

Mountford, C. P., 1928 : Aboriginal Rock Carvings in South Australia. 
Austr. Ass. Adv. Sci. Hobart. 

1929: A Unique example of Aboriginal Carving at 

Panaramitee North. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 
Adelaide, 51. 



SOME TINGIDAE (HEMIPTERA) 
IN THE SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 



By Carl J. Drake and Florence A. Ruhoff <I) 



Summary 

Through the kindness of Mr. G. F. Gross, Curator of Insects, South Australian Museum, 
Adelaide, we have received a small collection of undetermined Tingidae. This collection 
comprises 20 species, three of which are described as new to science. The types (holotype 
and allotype) and other specimens are deposited in the above Museum. The work was 
supported in part by the National Science Foundation Grant No. 18721. 

Subfamily CANTACADERINAE Stal 

Phatnoma uichancoi Drake, Northeast Papua, elevation 1,300-1,500 feet, Gonycentrum 
tindalei Hacker, South Australia (Myponga, in moss and lichens; Coorong, 25 February 
1959, in moss; Waterfall Gully, February 1959, from Berlese funnel). G. socium Drake 
and Ruhoff (pi. 7, fig. 1), South Australia (Naracoorte Bog, February 1959). 



SOME TING1DAE (HEMIPTERA) IN THE SOUTH 
AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 

By CARL J. DRAKE sm FLORENCE A. BUHOFF< 1 > 

Through the kindness of Mr. G. F. Gross, Curator of Insects, South 
Australian Museum, Adelaide, we have received a small collection of 
undetermined Tingidae. This collection comprises 20 species, three 
of which are described as new to science. The types (holotype and 
allotype) and other specimens are deposited in the above Museum. 
The work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation 
Grant No. 18721. 

Subfamily CANTACADERINAE Stal 

Phatnoma uichancoi Drake, Northeast Papua, elevation 1,300- 
1,500 feet. Gonycentrum tindalel Hacker, South Australia (Myponga, 
in moss and lichens; Coorong, 25 February 1959, in moss; "Waterfall 
Gully, February 1959, from Berlese funnel). G. sociurn Drake and 
Ruhoff (pL 7, 'fig. 1), South Australia (Naracoorte Bog, February 
1959). 

Allocader nesiotes, sp. nov. 

Plate 7, fig. 2 

Brachypterous form. Very large, broadly obovate, reddish-brown 
with costal areas, paranota, and collar mostly testaceous, head grayish- 
testaceous; body beneath flavous-brown. Legs brown with tibiae 
testaceous-brown. Length 9.00 mm.; Width (base of pronotum) 
1.10 nun., (widest part of elytra) 5.20 mm. 

Head very long, greatly extended in front of eyes, surpassing apex 
of second antennal segment, armed with one pair of short, thick, blunt 
tubercles a little in front of vertex, deeply transversely furcated 
behind eyes; bucculae very long, areolate, surpassing apex of clypeus; 
antenniferous tubercles deeply excavated within, with apices slightly 
curved inward. Antenna with first two segments short, not attaining 
apex of clypeus, last two segments absent. Rostrum extremely long, 



(*) Both of Snrithsoniau Institution, Washington, D.C. 



850 RECORDS OF THE s.a. museum 

teaching middle of fifth abdominal sternite. Eyes eniaS, rounded, 
slightly tnbereulate, the stalk very short and rounded. 

Pronotum depressed, arcolate, tricarinate ; earinae ridgelike, 
percurrent. the lateral pair interrupted at ealli; calli deep, each with 
large deep pit; collar very long, two-fifths as long as pronotum; 
pronotum raueh wider than collar, with hind margin slowly rounded, 
not covering small scutellum; paranotum rather narrow, areolate not 
plainly visible, refloxed upright opposite humeral angles, costing 
against surface of collar. Laminae of rostral sulcus areolate, open 
behind. Legs long, femora somewhat ganulate. 

Elytra extremely large, very broad, cordate, widest a little in 
front of middle, meeting in a straight commissure behind seutelluin, 
nbQUt width of costal area longer than abdomen; sternocostal area 
narrOWj uuiscriate, slightly roflexed; costal area very wide, composed 
of six irregular rows of areolae; subcostal, diseoidal, claval, and 
sutural areas fused, not clearly distinguishable from one another. 
Metathoraeic wingS obsolete. 

IJoloiypc (male), Lord Howe Island, South Pacific Ocean, east 
of New South Wales. Illustrated, 

Separated from A. corduia (Hacker) and A. Irai (Hacker) by the 
slightly more petiolate compound eyes and especially by the much 
narrower and more reflcxed paranota. The cephalic spines (two pairs 
in front of eyes) are long in A. Icai whereas they are short, tuberculate 
in the other species, 

Subfamily TINGINAE Laporte 

Tinr/ls dfakei Hacker, Lord Howe Island; Eaaidana tasvirnrinr 
Drake, Mount Compass, South Australia, on Baulcsia sp.; Mahtndmhi 
s<»tnta Drake, Everard Range, South Australia; Paravopimn ttus- 
traliciim (St&l), Townsville, Queensland ; (fomp$etit(l Icfroiji Distant, 
RoeUiaiJiptou, Queensland; O^COphifSa vrsuiduta nir/ra Hacker, Mount 
Arthur, Tasmania; Httpsi/iyrf/ias telamonidcs Kirkaldy, Woodford, 
Queensland ; Parada larviophora (Horvath), Dorrigo, New South 
Wales; Xethersia maculosa Horvath, Central District, Western Aus- 
tralia; Diplurusta hilobala Drake, Nuriootpa, South Australia; 
ErUhu/is 1 HtivrgalQ (Horvath), Cairns District, and Tvuranda, Queens- 
land; E. hochcU (Drake), Myponga, South Australia; E. aporona 
Drake and Kuhoff, Myponga, Flinders Island, and Loxton, South 
Australia; Strphawlis ptfrioides (Scott), Lane Cove, New South 
Wales, Apr. 28; 194$, on Azalea leaves. 



DRAKE AND RUH0FF—T1NG1D BUGS 251 

Cysteochila aletheia, sp, nov. 

Small, oblong, testaceous willi head, disc, apex of triangular 
process of pronotum, most remits of paranoia, and transverse band 
7iear middle of elytra (including MOSt of discoidal areas) dark to 
reddish brown. &©dy beneath brownish witli tnesostermun blackish. 
Antenna testaceous witli first two and fourth segments dark brown. 

-; testaceous, tips of tarsi dark. Rostrum brownish-testaceous, 
Hiiid wmgfi clouded with fuscous. Length 2.50 mm., Width (elytra) 
0.92 mm. 

Head very short, little produced in front of ryes, Mimed wifil fcwO 
pairs of stout, moderately lone; spines, hind pair apprised, front pair 
porrect; eyes moderately large, reddish. Antennae fairly lon.e:, slender, 
smooth., measurements: segment t, 0.10 mm.; II, 0,08 mm.; ITT, 
0.90 mm. ; IV, 0.54 mm. Kostrum extending to middle of mesostcrnum j 
laminae Off sulcus uniseriate, with a wide V-shaped opening at base. 
Bueeulao areola te, closed in front. 

Pronotum moderately convex, punctate, tricarinate; median carina 
moderately raised, composed of one row of small areolae; lateral 
cariuae less raised, without distinct areolae, divergent posteriorly, 
barely covered on pronotal disc hy reflexed paranota; hood small, 
inflated, highest near middle of crest, produced slightly forwards in 
front and extending backwards between ealli to base of pronotal disc; 
paranotum very huge, reflexed BO that outer margin rests on lateral 
carina. Ostiole and ostiolar canal present on each metapleuron. Legs 
smooth, femora slightly swollen. 

Elytra with areolae neatly arranged in rows, sutural areas over- 
lapping each other at rest; costal area moderately wide, biseriate, 
areolae subquadrate and hyaline; subcostal area narrower than costal 
area, nearly vertical, biseriate; discoidal area large, about four- 
sevenths as long as elytra, acutely angulate at base and apex, widest 
near middle, there six areolae deep; sutural area with areolae slightly 
larger than in discoidal area. 

Tlolnifipr (male), Bisiatabu, Pott Morseby, Papua Territory, New 
Guinea, W. N. Lock; allot a pr (female), Mount Lnmington, northeast 
Papua, New Guinea, elevation 1,300-1,500 feet, C. T. MeXamara. 
Porafj/pr, 1 specimen, same label as allotype. All macropterons. 

Hypsipyrgias euphues, sp. nov. 

Macroptr.rons formt Moderately large, oblong, reddish hrown 
with pronotal disc and head (not spines) hlack. Body beneath black, 



232 RECORDS OF THE S.A MUSEUM 

slightly shiny. Autenna brown with segment IV black. Legs brown 
with tips of tarsi dark. Length 3.00 mm., width (elytra) 0.G8 mm. 

Head very short, little produced in front of eyes, armed with five 
long brownish spines, hind pair of spines Oppressed, frontal three 
porrect. Antenna rather slender, measurements: segment I, 0.12 mm.; 
II, 0.08 mm.; HI, 0.S8 mm.; IV, 0.28 mm. Labium reaching base of 
mesostermim, brown; sternal laminae of sulcus brownish, low, 
uniseriate, open behind. Metathoracic scent glands with ostiole and 
vertical channel on each metapleuron. 

Pronotum moderately convex, punctate, triearinatc; hood large, 
pyriform extending backwards slightly beyond middle of pronotal disc, 
nut covering lateral carinae, not produced .anteriorly over base of 
head, much longer than wide or high; median carina terminating 
anteriorly at base of hood, nniseriate on pronotal disc, loss raised and 
without areolae on hind projection; lateral carina entirely exposed, 
strongly constricted at base of pronotal disc, terminating in front at 
calli, composed of one row of areolae on pronotal disc, without cells 
on backward projection of pronotum; paranotnm moderately wide, 
long, relaxed almost against pronotum, triseriute, the outer row of 
cells resting flatly on pronotal surface; triangular process areolate, 
with a small tumid area at apex. 

Elytra constricted behind middle, sutural areas overlapping each 
other in repose; costal area narrow, composed of one row of small 
areolae; subcostal Area nearly vertical, composed of two rows of 
quadrate areolae; discoidal area large, extending beyond middle of 
elytron, acutely ungulate at base, obtusely ungulate at apex, widest 
behind middle, (here six areolae deep, Ilypocostal lamina uniseriate. 
Exterior margins of elytra and basal margin of paranota finely serrate, 

llohdiipr (male) and allo/i/pr (female), Lord Howe Island, 
A. M. Lea, Para/if/ns' 2 specimens, name labfclfl as type. 

Differs from //. telamomdes Kirkaldy, of Australia, by its much 
smaller hood (not concealing lateral carinae from dorsal view) and 
smaller tuinid area of backward projection of pronotum. 

DESCRIPTION OF PLATE 7 

Fig. 1. Gonyccntrum soriujn Drake awl Kulioff. I'ig. 2, A Vocoder nesiotrs *p. nor. 



Iilir. S.A. M iski M 



Vt)L, 14, I 'lath 7 








fo /.hv ftMi^r B.Tfl | 



NEW HYLID FROG FROM THE CENTRAL HIGHLANDS 

OF NEW GUINEA 



By Michael J. Tyler 



Summary 

In a check list of the amphibians of New Guinea Loveridge (1948) recognized thirty-five 
species of the genus Hyla. Of these, H. beeki, H. darlingtoni and H. angularis had been 
described by the same author (1945) from specimens collected in the Central Highlands 
of the Australian Trusteeship Territory. The herpetofauna of this region is very 
imperfectly known, and the only other Hyla species recorded from the area are H. 
angiana Boulenger and H. arfakiana Peters and Doria (Forcart, 1953). 
Included in a collection from the Central Highlands, made by the writer in 1960, is a 
species of Hyla considered to represent an undescribed form. 

Hyla iris sp. nov. 

Holotype: British Museum No. 1961.1206. A male collected at Bamna, near Nondugl 
(Lat. 5° 49' S. ; Long. 144° 44' E.) at 6,500 feet, 16 April, 1960. 



NEW HYLID FROG FROM THE CENTRAL HIGHLANDS OF 

NEW GUINEA 

By MICHAEL J. TYLER 

Fig. 1 

INTRODUCTION 

In a check list of the amphibians of New Guinea Loveridgc (1948) 
recognized thirty-five species of the germs Hyla. Of these, H. becki, 
II. darlmgtom and H. annularis had been described by the same author 
(1945) from specimens collected in the Central Highlands of the 
Australian Trusteeship Territory. The herpetofauna of this region 
is very imperfectly known, and the only other Hyla species recorded 
from the area are 11. anyiana Boulenger and 11. arfakiann Peters and 
Doria (Forcart, 1953). 

Included in a collection from the Central Highlands, made by the 
writer in 1960, is a species of Hyla considered to represent an 
undescribed form. 

Hyla iris sp. nov. 

Ilolotype: British Museum No. 1961.1206. A male collected at 
Bamna, near Nondugl (Lat. 5° 49' S.; Long. 144 c 44' E.) at 6,500 feet, 
16 April, 1960. 

A pygmy species mature at approximately 27 mm. body length, 
most closely related to 11. pyymaea (Meyer), but clearly distinct from 
that species. The specific name of iris is derived from iris (L.) : 
"rainbow," and refers to its multicoloured appearance in life. 

Hoi oiy }>(': Vomerine teeth poorly developed, in two slightly 
raised, short, oblique series, separated from each other and from the 
small rounded choanae by a distance slightly greater than the length 
of one of them; tongue less than half as wide as mouth opening, 
almost oval, its posterior border not emarginatc; snout elongated, 
sharply pointed when viewed from above, concave in profile; nostrils 
more lateral than superior, prominent, their distance from end of 
snout about three-quarters that from eye, separated from each other 
by an interval equal to about one and one-half their distance from eye. 
Canthus rostralis rounded and depressed; loreal region concave and 



254 kR oRDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

oblique. Eye large, its diameter almost one and orio liaif times its 
distance From nostril; interorbital distance one and one-half times 
the width of upper Eyelid, Tympanum very distinct, about two -fifths 
the diameter of eye, separated from eye by a distance half its own 
diameter. 

First finger webbed at base, second, third and fourth by loQS£ fold 
to disc, consisting of broad fringe beyond sub-artieular tubercle of 
third; disc of third rovers tympanic area; second, third and fifth toes 
webbed to discs, the web on first and fourth toes reaching subarticular 
tubercles at base of penultimate phalanges, continuing to disc as fringe 
covering about one third the tympanic area; a disfin<t oval inner but 
no outer metatarsal tubercle; up tarsal ridge; no dermal appendage 
OH heel. Body elongate, in post -axillary region two-thirds the greatest 
width <>f head: when hind Limb is adpressed, heel reaches nostril; when 
limbp. are hud along the sides, knee and elbow do not overlap; when 
hind limbs are bent at right angles to body, heels overlap slightly, 
Skin of upper parts deeply etched, skin of throat and thorax slightly 
granular, abdomen and posterior surface of thighs coarsely pustulosc. 
Skin of head not co-ossified with skull, roof of skull not c\-t>stosed. 
Vocal sac apparently internal with paired openings in tloor of month 
at base of tongue: nuptial pad on first linger. 

Diiijctisifiits: Snout-veut length 28.4 mm.; head length 9.0 mm.; 
head width 8.5 mm.; femur 14.4 mm.; tibia 15*4 mm.; foot 11.5 mm.; 
hand B<3 mm. 

Colour in (dcnliol: Dorsal surface of head, body and limbs dark 
slate blue; tip of uioslyle cream; side of head similar to dorsal surface 
with short, cream stripe extending from angle of jaw to below 
tympanum; elbows cream; lateral surface of body with large, oval 
white patches: axilla black, jiroin dull violet. Throat and thorax white, 
colour of abdomen determined by viscera SBOE in transparency ; 
posterior surface of thighs violet interiorly, cream on bine-black 
superiorly. Palmar and plantar surfaces cream; first and second 
lingers cream above, third and fourth toes lightly pigmented blue Mack. 

Colour in life'. Dorsal surface of head, body and forelimbs pale 
green lightly stippled with black; tip of urostyte cream; side of head 
pale green with pale yellow stripe from angle of jaw to below 
tympanum; elbows pale yellow; lateral surface of body deep violet 
with oval white patches; axilla black; groin violet, variegated with 
pale sky blue. Throat, thorax and lower surface? of limbs pure white; 
abdomen pale cream ; posterior surface of thighs green variegated with 



TYLER— HYL1D FROG FROM NEW GUINEA 255 

vivid orange. Palmar and plantar surfaces pale yellow; first and 
second fingers white, third, fourth and toes green barred with yellow. 

Variation: Paratypes: 218 * 49 91 juvenile— Australian Museum 
MOB. R.16832-16836; British Museum Nos. 1961. 1207- -1226. 

All but one of the paratypes were collected at the type locality 
during the interval between lfith and 24th April I960. The exception 
(RM. L06L1226) was collected at 9,500ft. on the Wahgi Sepik Divide 
north of Banz (approximately eight miles west of ihe type locality), 
on 201 h May, 1960. 

Body length : 27.5-30.7 mm, t S ; 34.4-38.0 mm. 9 9 j 15.4 mm. 
juvenile. 

As is indicated by the body lengths, the paratypes form two 
sexually homogeneous groups. The hind limbs of the females are 
relatively shorter than those of the males, reaching the eye, or between 
the eye and the nostril, as opposed to reaching the nostrils in males. 
This is demonstrated by the tibia length/snout-vent length ratios: 
Females .. .. Range: .526-.5S7 Mean;. 552 

Males Range: .503-.551 Mean:, 526 

Juvenile .442 

Vomerine teeth arc poorly developed in the entire series, and 
absent in the juvenile. The degree of webbing of the fingers and toes 
of the paratypes is similar to that of the holotype. Vocal sacs and 
nuptial pads are present in all male paratypes. The hitter are rugose 
and pigmented in sixteen specimens, but raised yet un pigmented in 
four. A typical example (B.M. 1961.1215) of a nuptial pad is 
illustrated in fig. 1. 

The variation of colour of adults in life was restricted to the 
dorsal surface of the head and body, where the pale green was 
frequently blotched with black. In alcohol this has resulted in a 
restriction of the slate coloured markings to occasional patches. 

The colour in life of the juvenile was, dorsally a uniform dark 
n-nM'ti; *i<h* of head similar with bright cream patch behind eye. 
Lateral and ventral surfaces of body bright cream. Limbs orange 
above and at sides, except humerus which was bright yellow. 

Comparison ivitlt oilier specie*: The small size of /7. iris is shared 
by relatively few T of the New Guinea representatives of this genus. 
Jhfla wolterstorffi Werner was described from a specimen with a body 
length of 23 mm., bid this species has unwebbed fingers, and bears no 
resemblance to H. iris. 77. beeki was found in the same region as 
//. iris, and is quite distinct from it. 



256 



RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 



When specimens of H. iris are checked against the key to New 
Guinea Hyla prepared by van Kampen (1923), they run down to 
H. fallax Boulenger (listed as a synonym of H. pygmaea (Meyer) by 
Loveridge (1948) ). A direct comparison with specimens in the British 
Museum collection (B.M. 1913.11.1.152-153) has been made, and 
affinities with this species appear closer than with any other. 




Fig. 1. Nuptial pad of Hyla iris 
paratype (B.M. 1961.1215). 



Hyla pygmaea, as represented by the British Museum specimens, 
may be clearly distinguished from H. iris by a comparison of the 
vomerine teeth and choanae. The latter are rounded in E. iris and 
oval in H. pygmaea. The vomerine teeth of iris are poorly developed 
and separated from each other and from the choanae by a distance 
greater than the length of one series, as opposed to well developed, 
and one-third of their length and twice their length respectively. Hyla 



TYLER— HYLID FROG FROM NEW GUINEA 257 

pygmaea has a relatively larger head, and the dorsal surface of the 
head and body is usually pale brown with large white markings upon 
it, as opposed to green with black stippling or patches. 

LIST OF REFERENCES 

Forcart, L., 1953: Verh. Naturf. Ges. Basel, 64 (1): 58-68. 
Kampen, P. N., 1923: Amphibians of the Indo- Australian Archipelago. 
E. J. Brill Ltd., Leiden, pp. 304. 

Loveridge, A., 1945 : Proc. biol. Soc. Washington, 58 : 53-58. 
1948: Bull. Mus. comp. Zool., Harvard, 101 (2) : 305-430. 



GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE KAIADILT PEOPLE 
OF BENTINCK ISLAND, QUEENSLAND 



ByNormanB. Tindale, Curator of Anthropology and 
Acting Director, South Australian Museum 



Summary 

This paper gives an account of the native geography of Bentinck Island and vicinity, the 
home of the Kaiadilt, an isolated Australian aboriginal tribe of eight hordes. There is a 
map showing the place names and general configuration of their country. 
The Kaiadilt remained aloof from direct European associations until the period between 
1945 and 1948 when an extraordinary series of natural events, including drought and a 
tidal wave combined with quarrels and many accidental drownings caused a major 
decline in population. The people were taken to Mornington Island where they now live 
in a small endogamous community among people of the Lardiil tribe. 



GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE KAIADILT PEOPLE 
OF BENTINCK ISLAND, QUEENSLAND 

By NORMAN B. TINDALE, Curator of Anthropology and 
Acting Director, South Australian Museum 

Plates 8-9, text fig. 1 and Map A 

CONTENTS 

Page. 

Summary 259 

Introduction 260 

Discovery of Bentinck Island 261 

Contacts with Bentinck Islanders 265 

Official and non-official names applied in the 

Bentinck Island group 271 

Aboriginal Nomenclature of Bentinck Island 

and vicinity 272 

Native traditions of contacts 278 

Climate 278 

Descriptions of areas visited, or noticed . . . 280 

The tidal wave of February, 1948 292 

Acknowledgments 294 

References cited 295 

Description of Plates and Map A 296 

SUMMARY 

This paper gives an account of the native geography of Bentinck 
Island and vicinity, the home of the Kaiadilt, an isolated Australian 
aboriginal tribe of eight hordes. There is a map showing the place 
names and general configuration of their country. 

The Kaiadilt. remained aloof from direct European associations 
until the period between 1945 and 1948 w r hen an extraordinary series 
of natural events, including drought and a tidal wave combined with 
quarrels and many accidental drownings caused a major decline in 



260 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

population. The people were taken f<> Morningfon Island where they 
now live in a small endogamous community among people of the 
Lnrdiil tribe. 

These people otherwise are of interest because of their special 
physical characters and because they have retained until now 
knowledge of the manufacture and use of simple stone tools of a 
predominantly ,J i!ace p&lfleo#tbiO tradition which did not survive 
elsewhere into modern times except among the Lardiil people of 
Morninuton Island, although found along the coast of N.W. Australia 
as archaeoloo . : 1 relics. 

There is a luminary ol' fchfi history of early eontaets and a general 
description of the geography of parts of the island visited by the 
author during May 1960 in company with D. h. Belcher, P f Aitkeu, 
(rally Peters and some twenty Kaiadilt helpers. 

INTUODUCTION 

This paper giVejs a brief outline of the geographical knowledge 
of the very isolated people of Bentinek Island, Queensland, and some 
account of the history of eontaets between them and members of the 
Western world up to tin* time of their removal to Morniugton Island 
in 1947-48. There is a sunimari/.ed aeeount of the physical surround- 
ings of Ihe island. Some details are givfitfl ol (he native nomenclature 
of their various ramping places and of those geographical features 
in their country which thoy regard as important. 

The island is of particular interest to anthropologists because of 
the isolation of these pjeoplfl and to historians becaw&e it was one of 
the first parts of the Gulf ol <>irpcnlaria examined in detail by 
Matthew Flinders in 1S02; he met North Australian aborigines I'aee tfl 
Pacte in this vieinify tor the first time. Following his brief encounter 
these aborigines, who today call fch01B86lv<te Kaiadilt f'Kaiadih 
'Kaijaalil, 'Kaiadilt], remained isolated and away from Western 
contacts fur another 145 years, to become the very last tribal group of 
coastal Australian aborigines to meet the eivilized world. 

To anthropologists they are physically of special interest because 
they are Unique in Australia in possessing a high ineidenee of B blood, 
and culturally for their continued use of some very simple forms of 
Palaeolithic atone tools, of types which have long fallen out of use in 
the rest of the world. Deiails of their anthropology, blood genetics 
and population statistics are the subjects of separate papers in 
preparation and in press (Tindale 1!hI2; Simmons, Tindale and 
Birdsell lit press). 



T1NDALIZ— GEOGRAPHY OF BENT1NCK ISLAND 261 

[Transcriptions of geographical names within the text of this paper 

Conform to the conventions of spelling called 'M'leographic IF\ the 
officially accepted method. Where greater accuracy of transcription 
of some Kaiadilt words is desirable, a version within square brackets 
has been glvefc in the Btsript of the International Phonetic Alphabet, 
as adapted for Australian languages, and conveniently set out in the 
Transactions ol the Royal Society of South Australia, 64, l$*0j *t 
p. 147. For publishing economy black letter and italic type are used 
for the did'orenliation of some vowel sounds and consonants. In the 
accompanying map, totter* with a vertical stroke beneath them corres- 
pond to tbOSC shown in black letters hen in; those with a dot beneath 
them are indicated in the body of this paper by italics. Tt will be 
noticed that in (he 1940 list the symbols 8 and o were accidentally 
transported bl the table, 6 is of course the unvoiced, and 8 the 
\ m.-ed fit sound. The symbols lta\e been correctly used in all published 
t«t8 J^'iveu in Hie script. 

In the Kaiadilt language occurs only i;noly, as in the word 
['rn .-r^l winch means soulh. A vny strongly rolled r is present 
but not universally used; when it appears in a word the terminal 
vowel usually disappears. 

DTSCOVEEY OF BENTINCK ISLAND 

Supposedly earliest observations made in the vicinity of Bentinek 
Island were by .ran Catstonsz, commander of the ship Peru u\ 1623, 

who sailed along the Cape York coast of the <!ulf of Carpentaria as 
far soutli as Staaten TJiver. As quoted by Flinders (1814 p. xi) <4 in 
this discovery were found, everywhere, shallow' water and barren 
coasts; islands altogether thinly peopled by divers cruel, poor and 
brutal nations* 7 . The Ghnlf of Carpentaria itself was named after 
Pieter de ( 'a rpenl ier, Clovernor-(biM ,:> I of the Dutch East Tndies from 
1622-1628, The name of the (iulf was not used in instructions 
given to Abel Tasmau for his second vma^e in 1644. He is thought 
to have followed tin- coast of the Gulf and to have furnished data for 
Thcvenot's chart of 1663, but his journals seemingly have not survived. 
Malayan fishermen probably ventured as far as these islands long 
before Flinders* visit and the presence of planted tamarind trees, 
(irst noticed in the IKSO's sn^ffests they had camped on Fowler Island 
during visits to fish for trepan^ and other marine products. 

Flinders ( 1 S 1 4 p. 147) reported traces of what he interpreted as 
thfi presence of strangers cm Sweers Island in the form of seven human 



t: 



262 RECORDS OF I HE SA MUSEUM 

skulls, He saw many bones lying together near throe extinguished 
fires and elsewhere a squared piece of timber, seven feet long, which 
was of teak wood and considered to have been a quarter-deck earling 
of a ship. The last named was thrown up on the western beach. On 
Bentinck Island he saw stumps of at least twenty trees which had been 
felled with an axe, or some sharp instrument of iron, and not far 
from the same place were scattered the remains of an earthen jar. 
Ho inferred that a ship from the East Indies had been wrecked within 
the previous two or three years, part of the crew had been killed and 
others might have gone elsewhere upon rafts constructed after the 
inauner of the natives. 

Sweers Island, the eastern-most of the Bentinck Island group was 
the first high ground in the Gulf of Carpentaria seen by Flinders. 
He describes his first anchorage at tin* southern end of the island but 
makes no reference to a low rounded island known to present day 
Kaiadilt aborigines as DingkaTI I'Diqkari]. This islet lies due south 
of Bardatur ['Bardatur]. Dingkari is slated to be a nesting place for 
gannets and on our visit they were seen flying there. Between it and 
Sweers Island is a reef called KarandjaJt TKarandjalt]. 

Flinders anchored off Bardatur and on 17 November 1802 landed 
on the beach called Tjilki |/Tji:lkiJ making his way to Inspection Hill, 
a limestone elevation 104 feet high, from which lie had his first 
extensive view of the island group. This hill is the Duraknra 
['Du:rakar, 'THi :rukara] of the Kaiadilt; the name is applied 
specifically to the supposedly never-failing spring which oozes from 
rocks at the eastern base of the hill and trickles into the B£fl at low- 
tide from small rock pools. This water is quite fresh. 

Flinders found safe ain'lmragc off the western point of BfWBOll 
Island, known to present dfty natives as Milt ['Milt], and after 
exploring to the wesl spent several weeks repairing Iris ship. 

IK* described his one close encounter with the aborigines, near 
Allen Island on the 20th November IB05J, in the following pBSsag 
"I went eastward to a smaller island, two miles off, where several 
Indians were perceived. The water was too shallow for the boat to 
get near them; but we landed at a little distance, and walked after 
three men who were (bagging six small rafts toward the extreme 
northern rocks, where three other natives were sitting. 

ki These men not choosing to abandon their rafts, an interview 
was unavoidable, and they came on shore with their spears to await 
our approach. One of us advanced towards them, unarmed; and signa 
heing made to lay down their spears, which was understood to mean 



TIN DALE— GEOGRAPHY OF BENT1NCK. ISLAND 263 

that they should sit down, they complied; and by degrees a friendly 
intercourse was established . , , The raCts consisted of several 
straight branches of mangrove, very much dried, and lashed together 
in two places with I la.* largest ends one way, so as to form a broad 
part, and the smaller ends closing to a point. Near the broad end was 
a hunch of grass, wherG the man sits to paddle, but the raft, with his 
weight above, must swim very deep ; and also I should scarcely have 
supposed it could float a man at all. Upon one of the rafts was a 
short net, which from the size of the meshes was probably intended 
to catch turtle; upon another was a young shark; and these, with their 
paddles and spears seemed to constitute the whole of their earthly 
riches . . .. 

M After being live minutes with them, the old men proposed to go 
to our boat; and this being agreed to, we proceeded together, hand in 
hand. But they stopped half way, and retreating a little, the oldest 
made a short harangue which concluded with the word jakreel 
pronounced with emphasis; they then returned to the rafts, and 
dragged them towards their three companions, who were sitting on 
the furthest rocks. These T judged to be women, and that the proposal 
of the men to go to our boat was a feint to get us further from them; 
it did not seem, however, that the women were SO much afraid of us, 
as the men appeared to be on their account; for although we walked 
back, past the rafts much nearer than before, they remained very 
quietly picking oysters. It was not my desire to annoy these poor 
people; and therefore leaving them to their own way we took an 
opposite direction to examine the island.'' 

The rafts, shell water vessels, fish nets, pud fillets described by 
Flinders are still in use. 

hi addition to the six natives on Horse-shoe Island, natives were 
repea fedly seen both on Sweers and Bentinek Islands and one. of his 
officers found a small hole containing a little muddy water with a shell 
lying near it. This was dug out, to become the well near Milt which 
has remained in use up to the present time. 

The natives wore elusive, Fireplaces were found under trees 
and one instance a large hole was found to contain two "apartments" 
in each of which a man might lie down. Flinders considered tie 
"raves" to lie their foul weather residences and the fireplaces uuder 
tin- shade of the trees, with dried grass spread around, their fine- 
weather camps. The earth of dry swamps was found to be so dug 
up with pointed sticks that it resembled the work of a herd of swine. 
He inferred that thev obtained a H fern or similar root'' from the mud. 



264 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

The next available account of Bentinck Island commences on 
8 July 1841. Captain J. L. Stoker, while sailing into Investigator 
Road, observed a party of twelve natives under ' 'Mount Inspection" 
at the south-eastern extremity of Sweers Island. They gazed at his 
vessel without demonstration as it passed. Presumably they were 
congregated near the spring called Durakara at the eastern base of 
the hill. Aborigines were subsequently heard, uttering a ery like 
"eooey- \ but they did not show themselves again. He found the well 
dug by Flinders half a mile east of Milt, to which he gave the name 
Point Inscription, adding the name of his ship, the Beagle, to a tree 
inscribed by Flinders, and sent his officers to examine the const of 
Bentinck Island. Karnkai L'Karu'ka.-i |, the eastern extremity, he 
named as Raft Point, from having noticed native craft there. On 
Sweers Island be found exposed a native skull with forearm, left tiMH 
and part of a maxilla. Modern Kaiadilt custom is to bury (hose who die 
natural deaths, leaving exposed bodies of any killed in combat and 
those remaining unavenged. Stokes gave the name of Fowler Island 
to Baltae ['Baltae, 'Ba:tae], noting its reefs and a mangrove fringe on 
the south side, now a dense forest of black mangroves. In his descrip- 
tion lie states that this islet forms the 4< immediate eastern side of the 
Road"; evidently this is a slip of the pen for "western side". 

A Mr. Forsyth was sent to explore the islands of the Wellesley 
Group. He reported that after leaving Allen Island he had seen 
some natives on the ironstone cliff at the south -eastern extremity, that 
which is called Modoinodor ['Modomodor] by the present day Kaiadilt; 
the name appearing on modern official maps is Point ( Veffild, Other 
data recorded about the Group was the taking of 151 quail, 3 plover, 
20 pigeons, ;] w pheasants' \ 8 white and 2 black cockatoos and 5 
spurwing plover, all recognizable as species of birds seen in 1960. He 
noted elouds of "locusts" forming a complete curtain over Sweers 
Island. They diminished in numbers after a few days. Two species 
of large grasshoppers were abundant, but not in plague, numbers, 
during our visit in 1900; one of them is used as food by the aborigines. 

From his observations it may be assumed that three separate 
groups of aborigines were present on Bentinck, Sweers and Allen 
Islands, in July 1841. 

These were the same three areas in which aborigines were noted 
hy Flinders in 1802. 

On 31 December 1861 a naval vessel, H.M.C.S, Victoria visited 
Sweers Island and James Frost, a gunner, who had been accidentally 



TINDALE— GEOGRAPHY OF BENTINCK fSLAND 265 

killed by the discharge of a gun, was buried there in a grave still 

marked by a Headstone. 

In 18(35, shortly after the founding of Burke town, an epidemic of 
sickness caused a general evacuation to a temporary settlement on 
Sweers Island. The Gulf country was gradually abandoned again in 
the following three years, but some residents remained. Nothing is 
known about the relationships between these settlers and the 
aborigines; it is probable that there was HO contact. 

On 4 February 1874 Donald McLennan, who died at the age of 
4(1 years, was buried beside the grave of James Frost. The nature 
of his association with Sweers Island is unknown. 

In 1880 Captain Pennefather famished a report to the Queensland 
Government on exploration in the Gulf of Carpentaria. He landed 
on Sweers Island on 15th September 1880 and found it to be occupied, 
and overstocked, with 1,200 bend of cattle, sheep and goats. There 
wore two coconut trees, guavas, dates and tamarinds. There were 
only ruins remaining of William Landsborough\s "once thriving town 
of Carnarvon". Of the adjoining island he says, ' 4 Visited Bentinck 
Island, which is fairly grassed, and timbered with stunted bloodwood, 
Moreton Bay Ash, fig trees, etc. Saw u large mob of natives, who did 
not allow us to approach them. On the south side of the island there 
is a freshwater lake. Bentinck is about ten miles long by five or six 
miles wide. On Fowler Island (a small island between Bentinck and 
Sweers) tamarinds, supposed to have been planted by the early Dutch 
navigators, nre growing arid bearing luxuriantly". 

The reference to the freshwater hike indicates he visited Njinjilki, 
and the elusiveness of the aborigines is in keeping with their earlier 
and their later behaviour. From his account it seems likely that up 
to the end of the 10th century no very close contacts, other than the 
initial brief one by Flinders, had been made with Bentinck Islnnders. 



CONTACTS WITH BENTINCK ISLANDERS. 

First UOth century contact was in June, 1901, when Dr. Walter 
Hoth, Protector of Aborigines for North Queensland, with a party 
of native police, accompanied by John Frederick Bailey, then Director 
of the Botanic Gardens, Brisbane (later of Adelaide), and Charles 
Iledley, Zoologist of the Australian Museum, Sydney, landed on the 
island. 



266 RECORDS OF THE S.A MUSEUM 

The visit is not well documented. Seareh has failed to trace 

reports; then- ;ht entries in official Idler books but the tetters them- 

selves have disappeared. Diaries appea* not to have survived, either 
in Australia or in British finiana, where Dr. Roth died. 

Both (idOS, Bulletin S f p, S3 and 8, P . 6) speaks briefly of three 

its to Buiiliiick Island, saying that oji nuly one visit was lie able 
to cm,o into ''direct touch" with the aborigines Owing to their 
lb-nidify. f!e M met' a group of yottllg girls, six or more, under 

gnard of m vrry old man but was not able to Irani anything for lack 

of a common tongue, Anions the party, on wha1 presumably was this 

occasion, w:., Ned Soott, who gave Maclntyre (1921, unpublished 

nuseript in Mitchell Library, Sydney) an eye-witness account: — 

"Dr. Roth . , , tried to corner a lot of 1 hem on Ben fi nek 

bu1 after being pushed up to one end of the island by a drive 

they took In the roelV right out at sea, and he | Scott] was <^u\ 
in the bout around them to hnut tbem ashore, he did so but in 

the landing pharge Roth and party only cAughi one or fwo old 

gm$ and could no! do much with them, they weir- livid with 
tear and howled like a dog/' 

Bailey tool, a series of photographs of which nee-aim-;, labelled 

'T>entinek Island 1!)01'\ have survived. There also are a few 
specimens in the Brisbane Herbarium collected by •!* V, Bailey and 
labelled "Bentinck Island, June, 1901", 

Plate 8, fig. 1 and L* show some excited aborigines who were seen 
on this OCOai ion. The encounter appears to have taken place near 
Kamkai (Raft Point) the south-eastern extremity of the island and 
the natives describe how their parents attempted to conceal themselves 
under debris, standing up to their necks in water on the outermost 
edges of the vvvW 

The aborigines themselves have traditions of a later hostile attack 
with Rims by a white party, probably about 191H, but of this no official 
documentary record exists. 

The name of a white man, MacKenzie, whose first name is believed 
to have been John, appears in association with Bentinek and Sw^eers 
Islands during the Second decade of this century when he was the 
builder of a lime kiln on Sweers Island. Mrs. "R. H. "Wilson, wife of 
the early missionary at Mornine:ton Island has recollections of a 
physically big man, an elderly rugged individual, whom she first met 
about 1.923. lie was then about GO years of age. MacKenzie became 
skipper of the auxiliary ketch \htnr<t trading between Burketown and 



TIND ALE— GEOGRAPHY OF BENTINCK ISLAND 267 

Boroloola. According to Mission reeordg Maura first visited 
Mornmgtnn Island on 5 August 1922. 

U fas po-sibir iiiai MacJtwiaie accompanied Dr. Roth on the 1901 

visit 10 Bejjtinofc tslatld for hfl ill thought to be the one who gave 
Mrs. Wi'^oii a print I nun one of the Bailey photographs; it- is 

endorsed "Bentinek fed.p June I90r\ helping to €M>nftno the date of 

Koih's visit. 

A!)oiii CM I MncKmr/ao bad attempted to settle on the south coast 
Of Bentinek Island and built a hut near Kombali ['Kombali|. Re 
eonld make no friendly contacts with the aborigines, and well before 
I PIT had abandoned the trot, transferring his activities to Sweers 
Island whore \w also built a house, kept goats and horses, and 
constmcled the lime kiln by mining a chimney hole into the western 
Ride of Inspection Hilt His unauthorized attempt to settle mi Bentinek 
referred to as a pa %\ eTOflt in official reports written in ifll7. He 
ruetifUKMl t.< bum and sell lime in ( Jnli' ports until 11)22. No friendly 
r< nlnels were made with Bentinek Islanders. He employed two Lardiil 
alHMiyin s from Momiiigfon Island for a short lime. One of them, 
"Old William 1 \ has described his unhappy experience of lime handling 
on a diet of (joatfi 1 beads and livers, and told of their return to 
Mornington bland in Aligns!, 1P20 after escaping to the northern end 
of Swem-s Island and sig nailing to the passing Mission vessel, the, 
Morv'nn/ Sfar. A\ thai time MacKeazie liad as helpers one white man, 
a Normanlou hlackfellow, a balf-castc named Roger Thompson, and 
three Malay /Aboriginal half-caste brothers whose family name was 
Samardin. A white man named Nelson was Ilia partner for some time. 

Alter MncKmi/ie abandoned Sweers Island the Bentinek Islanders 
made return visits to il. One youth, Tarurukingati I'Tarurukitiati] 
- given the toternie name of Tungalngomoro (Tmjabjo'moro] said 
to be a name they had applied to a ".black goat" abandoned by 

Mai -Kuizie. Stories ate tola also of efforts to humt down and spear 

the last of MaeKcnzie V abandoned horses. Horses teeth said to be those 
of this animal wore picked up and given to us in I960 Much debris 
of European occupation was left on Sweers Island both by the earlier 
abortive settlements commencing in the 1860's and by MacKenzie, but 
the aborigines seem never to have made use of any of the material, 
unless several well worn nether millstones, of dark basaltic rock, 
present at Minakuri, originated from ballast dropped from some ship. 

Systematic efforts by Murninglon Island Mission officers to come 
into contact with Bentinek Islanders first began in October 1#36 when 



268 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MlJSHJM 

gifts for Beiltilick Islanders were left on the beach wink* on a voyage 
to the mainland. According to present day Islanders fchegfl gift* W&Tfl 
not appreciated; the tflbaCGO being particularly repugnant; it and the 
food were buried; a matter now of much amusement to them. In 

September 1926 uoraingtqn Islanders began working off-shore reefs 

around Beniinck Island tor heehe-de-iuer, then an important article 
of trade with China, and a source of Morniie-ion Island Mission 
revenue, Gully Peters, a leading Morniugton Islander, then a J*OliIIg 
man, succeeded in ounihlg eloae to mi old Avoman on a rool' and 
attempted a conversation. Baltae (Fowler Island) became a base 
camp Tor t«pftTI}?[ curing Dpomtioxuf, On Several occasions during the 
first season aborigine, were seen in the distance on tin- main island, 
opposite this camp. In some published Mission reportR the name of 
Sweers Tsland is used as Ttumc tor this base, an error of identification. 
All such activities were in fact centred on Fowler Island, as con- 
firmed in a recent letter from Cora, half-caste wife of Gully Peters. 

Prior to 1027 the Lardiil had no1 met any Kaiadilt people at cb 
quariers. Late in that year, a fllGftflagG indicating that a friendly 
Contact had been achieved, was sent; by Gully to the Mission 
Superintendent, Mr .R. H. Wilson, who made a visit and saw seVeraJ 
men ''together with some very young women T \ They were ^'exceed 
ingly timid". Photographs of this m Ihe next occasion are available. 
For copies of flifesc I am indebted to his son the Rev. Andrew R. 
Wilson, of Brisbane. Plate !>, tig. 1, of which the original is rather 
faded, depicts thirteen natives hurrying away from the camera. The 
print i* one that had been sliditly retouched to disguise the nudity 

of tin* people* 

A second contact was made m lute 1927; meetings with 48 persons 
(12 men, IG women and 20 children) are mentioned in reports dated 
5 February, 1928. Mrs. Wilsou was present on the second visit and 
was taken info flic hush on the main island where die saw and was 
photographed with women and children (plate !> tig. 2). Shortly 
afterwards relationships with Bentinck Islander-- deteriorated. They 
an to steal and to prevent hostilities, beche de-mor operations were 
suspended. Thoy were never resumed because a drastic fall in ' 
market price Cor that product destroyed Ihe industry. 

The late Mi. J. meakley, Chief Protector of Aboriginals in 
Queensland, in a book just published, states thai he made several 
official visits to Rentinck Fdand. On the first, in 1015, lie saw Light 
fl&rea carried by people fishing by night on reel's, but made no contact 
On a second official rieit, made apparently as a result of Rev. Wilson's 



TJNDALE— GEOGRAPHY OK BENT1NCK ISLAND 269 

firfii encounter in 1027, he briefly ttlet some natives face to face. The 
photograph on plat* 9, ftg, 2, probably was taken on this occasion. 
The people were very timid. 

In 1937 Bleakley made a farther landing with a party of Govern- 
ment Ministers urn! was met In the same short-statured ohl man whom 
he bad seen on his earlier visit. Jn his hook (Bleaklfcy, 1961), he 

refers to reports "that skeletons had been found with what appeared 

lo be bullet holes in them". He leaves conjecture npni as to the 
perpetrators of any outrage 

In late L940 while on a journey to Burketowii in a Mission dinghy, 
Moi -inn-'ton Islanders landed on the northern end ol' Allen Island, and 
one of them, "Cripple Jack", was killed by members principally of 
the wcsiniost horde or rloltmro, the X dolvorn of the map. These 
Bojltuicfe Islanders had gone to Allen Island by raft to escape friction 
on Bentinck Island; some had been drowned while making the journey. 
Police seized the offenders and after trial, members of this temporary 
AJIen Island community, numbering eleven in all, were taken to 
Aurukun Mission on the eastern coast of the Gulf where they remained 
until 1953, This was the first direct alteration imposed on the Bentinck 

Inland population, 

Tn October 1943, a Koyal Australian An- Force party in a launch 
were anchored off Milt (Inscription Point), Swcers Island, during a 
gale, They were attacked by a party of Islanders who threw spears; 
in warding tfrcin Off CKl£ native (named Kongarangati dawart) was 
kfllocL After some months, when a visit of enquiry was made the 
body of this native was found as left, and buried. Several wary 
Bentinck Island men were seen and spoken to at a distance. 

Tn early .Jane 1S45 Gully Peters who had been for so long a 
leader m attempting to make contact with the Kaiadilt and had been 
present on the launch during the attack at Milt, took the Mission 
launch Albinia to the western end of Bentinck Island. Tie had a 
friendly meeting with the Bentinck Islanders and on 6th June returned 
to Mornino'tun Island with 89 persons aboard. These people were of 
more than one western dofoltWQ, including six men, four boys, 
Ihirteen women and six children* A month later, after seeing life on 
a Mission Station, these people were taken hack to Bentinck Island, 

In September and October 1946 drought conditions prevailed in 
Hie area. Brief contacts were made witli Bentinck Islanders while 
searches were beiu# made for the A I In h hi which had disappeared in 



&?9 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

a storm, with all hands. At first it was thought the Islanders had 
b66H responsible i'or her loss. 

Oil 10 Juno 1047 a young Bentinek Island male, two women and a 
boy and girl were found in distress on Allen Island, remnants of a 
party wliieh hud Sod from Bentinek Island after a light. They were 
suffering From a shortage of water and wwe removed to the Mission. 

On 3 Augufti, IMT, Mission Suiterititemfettl J. R, McCarthy 

loinel 42 men, women and children on Nweers Island and took them 
to tlie Mission. They were in poor Condition because of the drought. 

lb. J, A. Spalding examined these people iii Decemtoet 1947 and also 

visited Ih'iitinek Island, liimselt' su ffe'ri n.^ shipwreck during the return 
voyage, lie noted th« presence of some edible berries, fruits, roots 
and grasses on the banks of the Markamki river. Ten of seventeen 
children examined b\ him showed some degree of malnutrition, lie 
noted thai Bme&frsi WfctG negative but thai symptoms of "chronic lung 
infections I tuberculosis'* were present, mainly amdlig women. Hook- 
worm was absent. He concluded that the Bentinek Islanders were 
rapidly dying out and ascribed their decline to t4 (l) tribal warfare, 
(2) disease, mainly loberrulosis ( >) and dysentery and (:]) malnutri- 
tiotl among the young." 

I'lie aborigines still remaining mi inmtinek Island in February 
1!)48 suffered the effects of an extraordinary high fide or tidal wave. 
described elsewhere in tins paper. This appeared to be a culminating 
event in the deterioration of the homeland of the Kaiadilt, 

Drought conditions continued in the Gulf of Carpentaria during 
1948 and because of the tidal wave the main coastal waterholes on 
AJomington Tsland Were salty. Alarm wan expressed at the possible 
fate of the remaining' population of Bentinck Islanders and smoke 
signals seen were interpreted as being distress calls, A police party 
in tlie launch Marlm therefore went to the island on 16th October 
11US. According !o a report by Missioner McCarthy they found pot 
holes dug along the bench, all of them dry; the usual camps were 
deserted; one hole at the eastern end of Dalwai [/Dalwai :] (Albinia 
Island) still conlained water. Tracks wen* found on the south roast at 
"MacKon/.ie Creek 1 -. The whole of the area around the waterhole 
had been burned off and looked OS if it had been ploughed, "probahl;. 
by the women, digging with sticks for roots". The aboriginal 
explanation, given in 19fi0 was that waterbearing frogs had been 
sought in the swampy soil. Sixteen persons were found and taken 
to Morningfon Tsland; three people still remained on the island. The 



TINDALE— GEOGRAPHY OF BENTINCK ISLAND 271 

latter were picked up during a second visit on 21st October 1948, thus 
bringing to a close the occupation of the island. 

McCarthy^ notes, written at the time, state that "Bentinck Island 
is in an appalling condition. There is no drinkable water in the 
north of the island and this has forced [the 1 remaining population to 
come together, probably for their betterment, as they had evidently 
hunted together and this would have assisted them very much. The 
physical condition of the men and women is not as bad as that of the 
people brought over in 1947 but Ul€ children are in ver\ bad shape. 
I think my figures are correct when 1 estimate thai there have been 
ten deaths among women and children and only two births since my 
Vfeit in December U) 17." 

Since 1948 the Kaiadilt have lived m a small closed community 
near the Mission on Mornington Island. Here they have built their 
own lish traps and have learned to speak a little English. They have 
not married out of their community. During the visit of the author in 
i960 they were Studied and genealogical and other information 
Obtained about them; the basis of several planned papers. Some of 
the information so gathered is the subject of a separate study on the 
population dynamic;- of Bentinck Islanders which follows this paper 
in these Records. 



OFFICIAL AND NON-OFFICIAL NAMES ALPLILI) IN THE 

BENTINCK ISLAND GROUP 

Very few official names have been proposed for features in this 
obscure group of islands. Nomenclators principally were Flinders, 
and Stokes, whpse few proposals are noted on the map and in this 
text, together with their aboriginal equivalents. Some unofficial 
European names have been applied to features around Bentinck 
Island by crews of local vessels, by Mornington Island mission officials 
and by Lardiil aborigines; none of these local names appear on 
available official maps, The Bentinck Islanders own names are given 
first in the following list: — 

Ngatamind ['J]ata'i rwindl — Douglas Island, named after a 
member of the family of the early missionary, the Rev. R. H, 
Wilson, 

Kandingarupai [ Kandi'narn'pai :] — Bessie Island, after a daughter 
of R. II. Wilson. 



272 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Dorati ['Dorati]— Margaret Island, after another daughter. In 
later reports this became McCarthy Island, but Rev. Andrew 
R. Wilson in a letter dated January, 1961, calls this a 
" ring-in' \ 

Dalwai ['Dalwai :]— Albinia Island, after one of several small 
vessels of this name successively used by Mornington Island 
Mission. 

Minakuri ['Minukuri |— Raft Point, also given as Raff Point in 
one report by J. B. McCarthy; not to be confused with the 
Raft Point of Stokes (1846) which is at the opposite or eastern 
end Df the island. 

Walpukoanki | 'Walpu'koankij— Kirk Point, also written as Kirke 
Point; so named by Mornington Island natives after a while 
employee of the Mission who walked to the Point from 
Minakuri while on a journey between Burketown and 
Mornington Island. 

Baltae ['Baltae, 'Ba:tai:, 'Bataej— Hall Island; named after 
R. Hall, pioneer of Mornington Island Mission avIio once 
landed there prior to his murder near the Mission by Lardiil 
natives on 19 October 1917. Baltae is the Fowler Island of 
Stokes. 

Dawalt ['Da wall]— Wilson Bay; the bay between Baltae Island 
and Njinjilki where Rev. R. H. Wilson made his first brief 
contact with Bentinck Islanders, late in 1927. 

Kombali ['Kornbali]— MacKenzie Creek; the bay outside is called 
MacKenzie Bay by Mornington Island officers; so named 
after the man who built a hut there about 1914, but abandoned 
it shortly afterwards without making friendly contact with 
the aborigines. 

ABORIGINAL NOMENCLATURE OP BENTINCK ISLAND 

AND VICINITY 

Bentinck Islanders have their own names for their country. They 
divide the islands into two categories ; — 

Dangkawaridulk [Dai)kawaridulk] or "Men absent lands" and 
Dulkawalnged ['Dulkawab)e:d] the ''Land of all"; the last 
named is also their proper name for Bentinck Island. 

The three chief Dangkawaridulk arc: — 
Mundamuru ['MundamuruJ — Sweers Island. 



TINDALE— GEOGRAPHY OF BENT1NCK ISLAND 273 

Ngakenap [IJa :ke sfiap], or Ngalkinabai I r)alkinabai] — Alien 
Island. 

Didjer ['Didje :r]— Horseshoe Island. 

These "men-less" islands pen visited from time to Lime when 
weather conditions were favourable for voyages on rafts; they could 
not reside permanently on them because of recurring shortages of 
water. Ngakenap (Ngalkinabai) was nearest the mainland coast and 
luainlnnders were said occasionally to have come there. Ancient fights 
with them were remembered in tradition, but no friendly contacts. 
Alinakuringati knlkitj, principal in the killing of a Morniugton Islander 
on Allen Island hi 1040, who had tied from Bentiuck Island with 
''stolen" wives just prior to this attack, was probably not understating 
tiie case when he said that "Ngalkinabai was not a good place". Tn 
the late history of the islands it served as refuge on two occasions for 
those fleeing from quarrels on the home island. Nevertheless it should 
be remembered (hat both it and Sweers Island were in use in 1802, 
and again in lS4ri, on the two occasions in that half century when 
explorers made reports. 

Bentiuck Island itself is divided into a series of dolvoro. for 
which the term (hihituia was obtained as a supposed Morniugton Island 
(Lardiil tribe) equivalent, A dolnoro can be described loosely as a 
hordal territory, claimed by descendants of a common ancestor m the 
male line. 

No fixed name is available for any didnnnr Usually it is known 
by the name of the doluorodougkn [/dolnoi'udarjka] who is the eldest 
living male of the dolnoro. His ->///«// [natil or birthplace name is 
fashioned from the place name, using it as a dilfermitiating prefix, 
c.r/., Mrnakuriiigati dolnoro, the one born at Minakuri. Mrnnlurinfioli 
bad another name which is totemic, Kulkh '■// (shark). In a second way 
qf talking of dolnoro, this toteinie name fir tjataneda I't.jata medal 
m:iy be employed without the -n</ati name, c.//., Touio dolnoto or 
Kainbow's dolfkOfQ. This man's birthplace name was Walkareingati. 
These names are not universally applied since, depending on the 
context, one or another or both of the names of anyone of the living 
or recently dead members ol' the dolnoro, may M occasion serve to 
indicate the intended dolnoro. This can be confusing. 

For purposes of gene ml description on the accompanying map 
the location of the boundaries of the eight dolnoro arc indicated, and 
each dolnoro is designated by a capital letter between S to Z. These 
symbols were allotted in arbitrary order, commencing at the northern 



274 RECORDS OI I HI S,A, MUSEUM 

end of the island and proceeding in a clockwise direction around ii 
a temporary ex nodical while sorting data, and have proved to be 
useful. The boundaries are Weil established. Tn defining llieir separate 
territories to Die, while sailing along the eoftSt, in sight of them, each 
informant indicated in tarn the place names of his n\vn dohioro- 
another person automatically began to speak up at the next boundary. 

An Interested audience list .: ikm I intently and assented jto each identified 

place name. Only at the bouudar> between the countries of flic IWO 
dohiorodarifjka named Minakurwgafi hulklfji and Walkarehu/afi fonto 
W&TM rival claims made. This brought out the point that a strip ot 
about half a mile of coast, line, shown a- "Difljjated territory" on the 

map, had long been a bone of contention, a matter leti unsettled when 

Minakuringati and hi* associates lied to Allen Tslaud in 1940. 

^ Four compass points play their pari in the orientation of the 
Kaiadilt, and in conversation each place name on the island can be 

related quickly to one or other ftf the qnaflranta. These terms appear 

to denote the same general points as our chief cardinal om 
follows ; — 

Tjirkar |'Tjirkar| North, Rarth |'ka-r«| South, Rii f'Ri:] Ejmt, 
Bad | 'Bad | West. 

The first r sound in Tjirkar is strongly polled as is indicated in 
the phemelic version of the spelling by a black letter ami on the map 
by a stroke beneath the letter. Some people roll both r sounds i]i 
this word. The lit in Rtirth is an alveolar (almost palatal) sound 
which has not yet otherwise been noted in my vocabulary of the 

language 

For directions between these tour main ones the term tujaruwar 
tends to be used, c.//., Bartli nQi ><n or > a, which would denote south-easl, 
but this degree of precision is Tint often required, Phiee names [torn 
Wairil and Kadolara in the west part of Ihe south coast, to 
Dangkarupurii, are Bad (western); from Waraburi to Kondongkuru 
ami Dolkalatji are Earth (south); from Mededingki to Bangari are 
nn (east) and from Honiara to Ritjnro (the noitlimost point) and 
to Toltajardaruki in the west are usually defined as being Tjirkar 
(north), it will be noticed (hat the breaks in classification t^iu\ to 
occur at boundaries between duhtoro. Place names in the dolvaro 
areas marked on (lie map as \\\ X and Y are said to be Bad (west), 
dohioru V area is Rarlii t but only One-half of dohunu area T from 
B&ngari southward and the whole of IT are Hit (east), while dohlOtO 
Z, S aitd the rest of T are defined as Tjirkar (north). 



TIN DALH— GEOGRAPHY OF BENTINCK ISLAND 275 

Inspection of the imposing array of native place names on the 
accompanying sketch map reveals the concentration ftf places of 
interest to the Kaiadilt in the vicinity of reefs, mangrove flats, and 
to a lesser extent in the estuaries of Hie several tidal creeks, including 
thoB€ with rallier impressive mouths and sterile clay pan hinterlands 
which are io be Found 08 all sides of the island. Areas generally less 
attractive are the wide, more densely clothed savannah woodlands 
such as form (he eastern "spine" Of the island and the inland portions 
of dolvaro T and U and portions of territories V and ST. The greater 
abundance of names along the coastal strip from Kitjuro to Minakari 
is a true expression of the greater richness of tins side of the island 
as an area for living. 

The map of Bentinck Island and environs on which place names 
arc marked, is based on uncontrolled tracings from official aerial 
survey photographs taken on 27 September 1951 and from several 
Dbliqtie photographs tnken on two flights over the island in I960. The 
Hera) vcgetatiunal and photographic features were checked on the 
ground and again during circumnavigations of both Bentinck and 
Sweers Islands, often at distances of only a few hundred yards from 
the shore. Landings were made near the three extremities of the 
island and at three places on Swerrs Island. Portions of Bentinck 
Island were traversed at the south-western and south-eastern 
extremities where we made camps, and walks of several miles were 
taken froni Lokoti (Uokoti) to the vicinity of Bcrumoi near the 
northern tip of the island. Portion of one day was spent on the 
southern end of Sweers Island in an archaeological reconnaissance near 
Tjilki, and an afternoon at the remains of the early attempted settle 
ment of the 1860*8 and the graves of the several white visitors which 
air io be sera near Inscription Point. Basic purposes of the skelch 
map are; 

(1) To give an indication of the relatively large sterile area* 

of claypan and mangrove swamp which rehire the areas 
generally considered moir useful by a subslautial amount 
of about fifty per cent. 

(2) To indicate the subdivision of the island among eight 

native flfdnnro (hordes) each formerly embracing some 

ten to thirty people, 

(3) To show the multiplicity of native place names and their 

disposition. 
As in other places where Australian hunting peoples live, the 
nomenclature of their country is very detailed, with place names 



276 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

denoting every utilized piece of country. The Kaiadilt people pi wide 
us with a most useful, because up !o date, udew of the native geography 
of a whole island. 

Along- the shores of Bentinek Island open sandy beaches alternate 
with muddy stretches sheltered by mangroves. The transition from 
one to the other is generally given a place name, as are the constantly 
recurring dumps of Cnsiuirina (shcoak) trees which denote tlid 
potential presence bf small seeps of fresh water coming out of the 
sand near tide margin, The serai-shade of several of Ehese shfiOa 
forms the normal camp area of a Kaiadilt family. 

Some 3QQ names are given and these are by no means ;ill 
which are used. A few met with as birthplaces in genealogies or 
mentioned in texts were not encountered when on the island. I! 
would not be surprising to be able to list 3§0 names in nil- 
More than a hundred place names were gathered in the course of 
genealogical enquiries before Bentinek Island was visited. These were 
checked and many ethers were gathered on the spot. Many were 
noticed as we sailed along the coast within sight of the specific slice 
frees, clumps of mangroves, thickets of taller trees, inlets, and beaches 
and particularly the many beach soaks of brackish and fresh water, 
both temporary and permanent, upon which they rely for then 
supplies. 

The place names are principally found along the coast; this is not 
especially due to the method of collecting since the several excursions 
made into parts away from the shore produced relatively few terms 

Where we can be reasonably certain of the place denoted by the 
place name a specific location mark is given; absence of sueh is an 
indication that only tin 4 general position is known; a few are marked 
as of doubtful position (pd.); these are recorded on the map so that 
tliey may be the subject of further enquiry, if Other opportuniln - 
should occur. 

The place names have meanings but the explanation offered was 
often involved and in the present state of knowledge of the language 
it is time consuming to get details. Study of them has not yet 
advanced very far; some arc said to be "just names", hinting that 
they may be of some age. Others have yielded useful lends fco the 

mythology, etc. 

A few names appear more than once. Allen Island is called 
Ngakenap as well as Ngalkinabai and there is also a Ngarkeinapa 
|T)arkeinapa] near the north point of Bentinek Island. There is u 



TINDALE— GEOGRAPHY OF BENT1NCK ISLAND 277 

south coast place called Bumpuri and another similarly named in 
the great WattgroVe and elaypan area dominating the central portion 
of the island. The latter is marked as of doubtful position on the map. 
There is a Kalturi at the S.E. corner of Bentinck Island and another 
on the western side of Allen Island. The Katjuruku of the northern 
end of Sweers Island is a name similar to that of the wooded plateau 
top called Kadjnruku, inland from the prominent North Eastern point 
of Bentinck Island; it is also the name of a Being referred to in a 
later paragraph. 

Many names show variations in pronunciations from the lips of 
different persons; in speaking the women tend to roll their r more 
than the men do. A few seem to be unable to enunciate any final r 
sounds, replacing it by a lengthening of the preceding vowel, which 
usually is an a sound. A good example is the name written in 
Geographic II as Karukai, the name for the eastmost point on Bentinck 
Island, This is on the map as [Karu'kau] but is also pronounced 
as ['Karu'kari] and as ['Karu'kar|. in the last named version the 
[r] is very strongly rolled. Where differences in pronunciation are 
extreme a second version is given on the map, in a bracket after the 
more usual rendering. The accepted version was that of the 
dotnorodangka of the place. 

Numerous reefs and sand banks are visited on rafts during 
periods of extra low tides and camped on during neap tides. To the 
Kaiadilt they seem to be places much like those on more permanent 
soil and equally worthy of names. The low and unsubstantial nature 
of the islands also has led to physiographic changes and some places 
now only reefs are remembered in tradition a: j once land, hinting that 
occupation of the island has continued uninterruptedly for generations. 

The map embraces the whole of the territory visited by the 
Kaiadilt people of Bentinck Island and until the time of the arrest of 
the Al leu Island people in 1941 and the first visit to Momington Island 
Mission by the 1945 party no person of the tribe had, within living 
memory been elsewhere and returned to relate his BtWy. Although 
they were familiar with smoke fires of places below the horizon in 
most directions from their island, two places outside their area were 
most readily visible to them, one the long line of low mainland shore 
visible on the southern horizon, and the outline of Sydney Island 
visible to the north, hut only from the tops of high sandhills at 
Berumoi. This, the only part of the Mornington Island area visible 
is called Olkadil |*0:lkadll|. When we stood on the crest of Berumoi, 
Olkadil was a. hazy smudge on the horizon. It is to be noticed that 



278 RECORDS Oh THE S.A. MUSEUM 

this name, as Olkadiil ['Olkadirl, 'Olkadidt] is applied also to a 
camping place on the south coast of Bentinck Island. 

Mornington Islanders, who likewise can see only one place on 
Bentinck Island, the Berumoi sandhills, call the island Maldanunda. 
Formerly they kn^w of the existence of other places only from the 
rising smokes of fi»es which periodically appeared over the horizon. 
They had interpretations of the activities oC Bentinck Islanders on 
various outer islands based on "readings" of these smokes. 

NATIVE TRADITIONS OF CONTACTS 

One aged Lardiil woman said that there was an olden time story 
which Bald that Allen Island people came from (.he vicinity of 
Burketown at a time when men were shooting natives along the 
Leichhardt IMver. She claimed that the language of Bnrketown was 
a little like that ol: the Kaiadilt. This story could not he confirmed 
except in the. refereitefl to the corning of mainland people to Allen 
Island when- l.hey fought with the Kaiadilt in "ancient time". 

Bentinck islanders are also said to have once or twice come to 
Momington Island, but the Kaiadilt themselves have no tradition of 
Bti&h a contact. 

In view of the unusual set of the South East trade winds at the 
time of turtle hunting and \^ gathering, in the later half of the 
S.E. Trade period, whefl Bentinck Island men become venturesome in 
visiting Die ouler reel's and sand banks, it might appeal that Bentinck 
Islanders have on occasion been driven on their rafts to Mornington 
Island, but they may not have lived to reach home again. The 
genealogies mention several men who disappeared on raft voyages 
and never returned. 

The impression is gained th^t the Kaiadilt have remained an 
isolated people for many years and this is confirmed by the absence 
o| any : ign of the 4 and 8 class systems of social organization of 
adjoining peoples and the relative isolation of their language, which, 
save for JTanggal, the tongue of the Forsyth Islanders, to the north- 
west, appears not to be very closely related to any neighbouring 
language*. 

CLIMATE 

In the absence of direct records of rainfall and temperature it is 
difficult to provide exact criteria to indicate the climate of Bentinck 
Island, For the purposes of this paper the likely general rainfall was 



TINDALE— GEOGRAPHY OF BENTINCK ISLAND 279 

estimated by taking available readings between 1910 and 1956 from 
the Several nearest recording stations of Norman ton, Augustus Downs, 
Karumba, Mornington and Burketown, all within a radius of 100 miles 
of Bentinek Island, so far as they were available* ami computing an 
annual figure, which over the years between 1910 and 1956 yielded an 
average of 33 inches. Inclusion of the Augustus Downs records may 
have lowered the average unduly, but the results suggest rainfall in 
the general vicinity of 33 inches. Tin's agrees with the trends of the 
isohyets shown on the Annual Average Isohyetal Map of Queensland, 
published by the Bureau of Meteorology in 1940. 

Rain generally falls in the summer. Aboriginals tell us that in 
Occasional years when heavy rain falls in winter or when there is much 
fug and dri'/'/ir at that season of the year they suffer from exposure. 
These are the "bad years 1 ' when people die of eoid and sickness. At 
such times sea fogs may trap them at night on the outer reefs where 
they may be Lu danger of drowning because of loss of their bearings. 
Summer or winter Die prevalence of low tides at night eompols them 
to find much of their food in the dark of night or hy the available 
light of the moon. Winters of dry weather without fog are "good 
>earw M and are considered more usual than wet ones. This is 
supported by the available records of meteorological stations in the 
vicinity. Bentinek Island is a little further south than Moruington 
Island and the climate probably i: 1&B€ maritime in character as well 
as being drier by ten inches or more, although basic similarities in 
vegetation indicate the differences in climate may be not very great 

In the climatic classification of Thorntliwaite (1033) the Bentinek 
Islam! group would fall into the type CA w, i.e., subhumid tropical 
with deficient rainfall in winter. In the system of Koppen (1931, 
1936) the area lies near the junction between V Rhw and Awi, i.e., 
between a "semi arid climate with annual average temperature over 
IS'-C, with Winter drought, with at least ten times as much rain in 
the wettest summer month as in the driest winter month' \ and 
41 tropical summer climate with distinctly dry season in low sun period 
or winter* and range of temperature between warmest and coldest 
months of less than S^CV The last-named classification suggests 
that Bentinek Island occupies an intermediate position. It haa a 
marine climate but it is situated nearer the dry mainland and is not 
so greatly influenced hy its setting as is Mornington Island, "which 
lies deeper in the Cuff and has an added 10 inches of annual rainfall. 
Bentinek Island lacks gallery forest trees save for a few relict strips 
in scattered places, where the ground water is near the surface, where 



2*0 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

it is augmented by small streams, or where the soil is a little more 
fertile. 

As is characteristic of savannah lands, there is a complete reversal 
of normal wind direction between the wet N.W. summer and the dry 
S.E. winter season which lasts from about May to November. Being 
situated near the drier boundary for savannah, tall grass predominates 
over patches of sparse deciduous woodland. While aborigines were 
present these open areas with Tlumada grass, etc, which grew to 
heights of four to six feet after rain, were tired each year. In the 
12 years since their departure this burning had only happened once, 
about May, 1059, when a party of Bentinck Jslnndors taken across on 
a brief holiday visit set fire to a large area on the south-eastern coast, 
thus in one area restoring a semblance to the conditions they had 
maintained for many centuries. 

DESCRIPTIONS OF ABE AS VISITED OR NOTICED 

In the following section general descriptions will be given of the 
areas of Bentinck Island visited by our party in May I960, or noticed 
in passing. More detailed notes on the vegetation will be possible 
when the botanical collections made are identified. 

Western End of Bentinck Island 

The first camp was made by our party on 23rd May 1960 at 
Minakuri f 'Minakuri], the west-most point of Bentinck Island, our 
launch being anchored in 2 A fathoms off the point. There is a shelving 
sandy beach backed by a higher belt of sand. This is the uorth-nu .-i 
and physiographieally youngest of a series of similar shore, line ridges 
which have developed in the shelter of the mangrove fronted shore 
which here runs in an east-and-westerly direction. Inland from this 
youngest shore are the successively older parallel strandlines, the 
whole forming a scries of low ridges and swales in a belt, half a tuile 
wide. All the swales are below ten feet above present high water of 
sea level but the ridges are higher. The series has been truncated at 
the western end by seas swooping through the channel between Dalwai 
(Albinia Island) and Minakuri. The north-most of these sand dune 
ridges and swales is entirely of loose sand but ones further south 
become progressively more indurated near the surface, probably by 
percolation of rain water and transfer of lime. At Miant f'Miant] 
the upper part of the developing sand rock has become truly consoli- 
dated. Where the less hardened lavers under it have been undermined 



TTO DALE—GEOGRAPHY OF BENTINCK ISLAND 2$t 

by the sea, these upper layers collapse into largo slabs of soft lime- 
stone rock. At Miant itself there is a spring which flows into the 
sea at low (ide from seepings at tide margin. The water forms a 
small pool frequented by various species of birds, whose scratehings 
seem to keep the water supply open and the paddiiags of their feet 
help in forming a slight pool. This water seems to be escaping from 
the dome of fresh water held between the parallel dunes and swales 
of this dime series. It is considered by aborigines to be a never 
failing supply, It Wc»s however affected by salt water during the tidal 
wave of February 1948, which according: to native eyewitnesses, 
covered all but the tops of the higher dune ridge.- with sea water, 
working inland for at least a mile along the swales and killing all 
trees except those ou high Band ridges and on some land-locked marshy 
land with Puudanuz palms, situated about half a mile inland. 

Just south of Miant the beach rock is being extensively eroded 
by the sea and undermined in great flat slabs. Aborigines pointed 
to what are now rattier indeterminate marks in the indurated sand 
crust, some fifty yard?; south of Miant, and claimed they were actual 
footprints of former aborigines, not artifacts or rock carvings, but 
their actual tracks. The old man who showed them to us was rather 
disappointed when we could not see the marks very clearly and lie 
blamed fhfi sea which had, since he v r as a young man, partly destroyed 
the supposed tracks of his ancestors. Continuing south the beach 
ridges suddenly cease, the most southern Mug on a broad sheet of 
clay forming a clay pan which further inland extends in a belt up 
to half a mile wide for a distance of several miles in an easterly 
direction. Following the coast line south the. eroded outcrop of this 
clay pan, trimmed by the sea to low tide level, is marked at 
Ngolorngolor ['I]olor' nolor] by a fringing growth of mangroves. 
Tliese extend with small breaks along the whole strip of claypan 
lined shore south to Tjodjongntjoro l'TiodjOi)a'tjo:ro], a distance of 
one-and-a-third miles. The mangrove trees here are of a variety 
useful in poisoning fish, by using scrapings of the wood. There is a 
small, nearly circular area of seemingly older and slightly elevated 
deep soil-covered land some 200 yards across, with trees, at Monoko 
['Monoko"]. This is interpreted as a small remnant of land older than 
the parallel .sand dunes perched on the clay pan, which itself seems to 
have been a sea floor of the Recent past. At Malturuki L'Maltaru'ki:] 
there is a small mangrove-filled estuary where rain water from the 
claypan escapes to the sea. Walking inland at Monoko and following 
the margin of the dune system eastward it is evident that what is 



282 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

now the inland side of the dunes lias suffered some deflation and 
partial destruction from streams of rain water such as flow off in the 
Wet season. These have worked back into the range system cutting 
channels down to the level of the day pan, At favourable points 
where the clay is depressed, possibly by compression under former 
weight of sand, there are marshes, some of faeshwater plants, others 
of salt meadow type Thus Kirkamangkatanapa (napa = tfgapa, 
means water), is rather brackish and unpleasant to taste, (hough 
used; Orandji | 'Orandji] has good wfctei, slightly sweet to the taste, 
it was a local maiustay for water; Mankange f'Mank&tfge] also lias 
water, quite fresh, the marshy soil here is so free of salt that a 
liliaceous plant related to Xcrotes, the fibre of which is used for 
string-making, grows very luxuriously. 

The surface of the clnypan sets bard when dry but carries 
impressions an inch or more d<>'|>. Today these fire principally of the 
tracks of Xative Companions, the only large walking inhabitants, other 
than jabiru and Varnnid lizards, whieh today frequent the island. The 
elaypans were native "roads" which aborigines followed when 
travelling quickly from one place lo another. Near older land surtax* 
the BfosiOB of lateritic soils has provided a layer of black-stained 
ironstone nodnles which covers the surface of the hardpan; on the 
divide between claypan water flowing west to the sea and that flowing 
north-east to the river channel at Tungalakar [Turjalakar], there is 
an accumulation of wind blown dust and silt caught by vegetation in 
the marshy ground. Near Orandji this forms some grassland, and a 
mixed marshy meadow is growing on 1 lie* VM.neer of soil over the clay. 

Inland from the claypan and forming a central ridge runrmig in 
an arc roughly from the south-west from the coast at Walkareri 
pWalkarerri], veering eastward and extending for several miles, is 
a plateau of higher anil older land, breached in several places by 
cross-cut channels, revealing clnypan bottoms. Viewed from the sea 
to the north this plateau rises in a whaleback to Mambungi 
['Mambuijgi], and forms the highest land area to be seen in the south- 
western portion of the island. 

On the ground Mambungi is seen to be the surviving remnant of 
a pern-planed older land surface levelled off by the sea at heights up 
to 33 feet above high tide* mark and forming a plateau remnant BG 
locally flat on top that the surface of the laterite soil is marshy and 
Waterlogged and carries a thick growth of Melaleuca and broad-Jcnfed 
EmalmtuB. The south western face of the cliff-like edge of (ho 
laterite plateau of Mambungi is dry and is clothed in porcupine grass 



TINDALE- GEOGRAPHY OF BENMNCK ISLAND 283 

(Triodia) giving an impression of arid dryness such BB would not 
he amiss through much of inland arid Australia, oven though just a 
few yards awa> to the laterite plateau above the BMmingly water- 
logged laterite BGil supports Melaleuca. The margins of this plateau 
have been notched by the sea and cut hack so relatively recently that 
rills of water which run off the surface of the plateau have not yet 
had time to cut more than incipient gorge-like channels here and 
there into the margins of the plateau area, In large measure this 
remains Intact in the shape its cliff-like margins were fashioned by 
seas cutting at its foot, The feet Of the cliffs now are situated by 
measurement some ten feel above high tide mark. The marshy surface 
of the plateau is held tip by B heavy duricrust of lateritie ironstone 
overlying s considerable thickness of clay of gumbo-like consistency 
containing ironstone nodules. 

A rough dumpy-level survey line was run from Mamhungi to the 
sea at Kapilnuru ['Kapilau :ru], a distance of two-thirds of a )nile 
in an S.E, to N.W. direction. The result Lfl i shOTOQ in the top half of 
fig. 1. The survey was achieved under difficulties and cannot be 
relied on to be more accurate than to the nearest foot but it may give 
a useful indication of some aspects of the physiography of this part 
of the island. 

The drawn section indicates tlie presence at its NAV. extremity 
pf a mangrove-fringe at Kapilanru. This extends out to sea from 
high tide mark on a mud flat for motfl than one hundred yards. The 
point selected as datum was at the margin between that part of the 
beach which carried vegetation and that kept free of growth by the 
rise of water at high tide behind the shelter of the dense belt of 
mangroves. This is considered to be normal high tide mark. The clay 
of this mangrove flat, at a point a little further west, was observed 
to overlie a reef of hard ironstone laterito with some shelly limestone. 
At Minaknri, fo the vfCSt, during our stay, we found that in the channel 
the tide dropped at least ten feet during the night, since the launch 
which drew flltee feet and was anchored in well over 2 fathoms, 
touched bottom at lowest ebb, 

Following the seel ion inland from Kapilauru there is a dune of 
sand, here high enough to carry an open savannah of broad leafed 
trees pf types commonly found elsewhere in impoverished coastal and 
riverine jungle. Where the section was run the dune rose to nearly 
20 feet, with a swale in which the soil appeared to be richer and 
carried a dense growth of vines, including a native passion fruit and 
several species of native yarn vine. These have not yet been identified 



284 



RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 



Mambufjgi Plateau 

-Swamp Soli 
sLatarlU Ourjcrutt 

— Consolidated Sand 




BENTINCK ISLAND 



Sand beach 



Kapitautfu 

Dune Sand 




Current- bedded cand rock wjthgralniof Sand ' 
with hard taterlte 
OiiconformJty V / gravel crust 

•m~» ii"»~ r» in ■ j-_r -« 

— .-~rr^^r'r : ~\ Claypan with taterlte gravel 



Mangrove lined 

fiat, 



SE-NW Section (approximately?^ mile) with vertical scale exaggerated 



M0RNIN6T0N ISLAND 



Momlngton Island Mission 



Garden flat Inundated by 
o*tra- ordinary tide 



Windblown tand 
•over durkrust 

Partly consolidated 
sands 



Appal Channel 

Extra-ordinary tide of February \%i& 




N - S Section (approximately 400 yards) with vertical scale exaggerated 



\r? 



Fig. 1. Coastal elevations at Kapilauru, BentLnck Tsland (upper section) and at 
Mission Jetty, Appel Channel, Mornington Island (lower section). 

because, at this season of the year, they were not in flower. They 
yielded tubers in abundance for the aborigines in our party. The 
seaward face of this dune had been cut and notched by storm seas 
of the N.W. season. On the inland side there was a beach-like ledge 
and also evidences of an older terrace notch at from 12 to 15 feet 
above present high tide mark. This showed a shelly sand which had 
been wave-sorted. The dune belt was about four hundred yards wide, 
the inland side dropping down to a claypan margined with a low 
sand beach at 6 to 8 feet above sea level. The sand of this beach 
contained an abundance of laterite sand and gravel. It appeared to 
be a beach formed when the claypan itself was inundated. The surface 



TINDALE— GEOGRAPHY OF BENTINCK ISLAND 2S5 

of the claypan stands at nix feet above present high tide mark, and 
at this season its surface locally was flat, dry, and strewn with 
laterite gravel, Evidence of recent wet season flooding by rain water 
to a maximum depth of two feet was apparent. This Water had been 
lapping against an outcrop of current bedded sand rock with a hard 
laterite gravel crust which formed a low cliff at the south-eastern 
shore of the claypan at this point It was apparent that this hard 
outcrop was overlain disconformably by the consolidated sand, 
tenacious clay and laterite diiricrust forming the Mambuugi plateau. 
This plateau, as indicated above, gave evidence that it had been 
attacked laterally by the sea at some former time. Us relatively 
steep walls were breached here and there by short trenches or valleys 
which ran back into its mass for distances of up to lifty yards usually 
ending in a lip of duricrnst over which, in the wet season, water had 
flowed. The plateau itself, at the locally highest point, was 33 feet 
above our high tide mark. The uppermost foot was of waterlogged 
soil in which there was water even at the ond of May in the S.E. Trade 
season; it carried a dense growth of undershrubs, broad leafed 
Euealypts and Melaleuca. 

This section is described in detail because the data it provides iB 
of considerable help in the interpretation of the structure of other 
parts of Rrntinek Island which we saw, and assists in an appreciation 
of the effects of a flooding of the island by the sea in 1948, as 
described in later paragraphs. 

Northern Extremity of Ben thick Island 

The dolnoro area denoted as S on the accompanying map, was 
visited in company with its doluoi odcuujka. After sailing along the 
westerncoast on the crest of the high early morning tide at a short 
distance from the shore, the Markaruki ['Markaruki] estuary with 
its broad areas of mangrove forests covering half a square mile, of 
mud was clearly visible from the north; a quarter-mile wide belt of 
normally dry claypan and sand lies behind the mangrove fringe. 
Inland is a wooded plateau seen by us only from a distance but 
estimated to be rather similar in elevation and general appearance 
to the "Marnbungi area examined in the south-west. A smaller estuary 
at Naltalk ['Naltalkl lies within a mile of the northern point of the 
island, cutting through a northern extension of the plateau and 
joining the sea on the western shore. The north-western end of this 
plateau, where examined near Molatjikara ['Molatjikara], in part bad 
been planed off at sea level to form reel's exposed at low tide. Boulder 



IU RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

detritus from this reef as also other hard rock on the eastern aide of 
tile point had been built into fish trap walls, most of those on the 
western side had been damaged by wave action. The north-most 
point of the island itself is a low flat area chiefly covered in 'rhemrdn 
grasses, Pandouvs palms with a few she oak trees {(Uh^uarhia) on ftug 
beach. There ' > • -.oak-age well near tide mark, beside some Casuarina 
trees responsible for the native name of Lokoti ['Lokoti, 'Rokoti]. 
The point continues north mil io sea as a sand spit. Twenty yards 
inland from t Jin northern beach line is a shallow depression, Ritjuro 
f/Rifjurol where fresh wafer was obtained by digging at a shallow 
depth. The grass hm L£ principally Imperata. On the eastern side 
of the point is a high, well grassed sand dune system of which the 
highest parts are probably of about 100 foot elevation. These relatively 
fixed dunes extend sout.h-Houth-eastwa.ril in a belt a quarter-mile wide 
for two or more miles, bnt diminish in height towards the south. The 
dcm&g collectively are known as Berumoi ['Berumotil which is also 
the Specific name of a point close to where the inland estuary of 
Naltalk impinges mi the dunes. The dune system appears to be of 
long standir .>: I s&fttteretl groves of Mtterpzandu or bm-rawang palm 
are present amid Thcweda gross, together with broad-leafed shrubs 
like Tilia, a ad vinCti, with patches of Pandanits and of Imperata grass 
iij the hollows. The north -eastern part of the point is formed, at 
"Rnndaro f'Baruinro ;1, by a hard rock reef oxt ending ont into the sea 
and joined (o the I>onim»o audhills by a boulder beach, and by many 
large blocks of stone at Marivvupanda ['MariWtt'paildalj tins name 
lileralK nn-nns "tnwkon iock*'\ it is the place where indurated 
siliceous rock is obtained for their stone oyster picks, knife flakes and 
palaeolithic typo bi fnce choppers {wurhru). This rocky outcrop is 
a particularly important native possession because of tin* presence of 
tins rare island resource. Betvcem Bandaro and the place eatled 
Modorokolaijurnp hit- several large stone-walled fish traps, still in 
foleraWe order, Cushioned from the freely available boulders All the 
walls ar« heavily enerusted with oysters. Several large fish, called 
buuiyihbut ['burantant] and ktirwark C'karwark], were speared while 
we were there, bavins; been trapped at half tide within the walls of 
tbe enclosures. Fresh water is obtained by digging among the boulders 
and into a yellow clay at tide mark, under Berumoi. The clay is said 
to be the diner of a Being named Katjurukiu winch some now say, 
since seeing dogs at Mornington Island, was a Dog Being, although 
they have no word for this animal in their own language and have to 
call it simply doga ['doga]. 



TINDALE^GEOGRAPHY OF BENT1NCK ISLAND 287 

Descriptions by others of the Being, who is associated also with 

Kweers Island and with a supposed cave on the Markaruki River, 

suggest that Katjurulai may have been a person M persona from a 

visiting ship, This .ship may have sailed ftlwg the coast and filtered 

uaries at Markaruki and Waduri before journeying to the northern 

point of Sweere Island. 

South Eastern Point of lSentinek Island 
Our second camp was at Njinjilki I'Njinjilki ] three-cpiarters of 
a milfi west of the south-eastern point oi Bentinck Island. The launch 
< ould he anchored here IB fottt fathoms close to shore in a position 
-■.holt* .Ted I'nmi oiost winds because of the short letch from Sweers 
and Fowler Islands. Sandstone Olltarops on the heaeh and has been 
IXQtch&i hy the sea. Fresh water oozes from the roek as tiny springs, 
encouraging a line of Cn:<uarma trees whieh mark the native camping 
place. A hundred yards inland is a lake of fresh water, about 
one-quarter of a mile long and of variable width, margined by 
large Melaleuca trees and carrying a relatively dense but narrow 
growth of fringe jungle along its shores; this is the most fertile 
looking atrip seen on the island, It presumably is the fresh water 
lake mentioned by Flinders. On the high bank separating the lake 
from the south coast are growing the largest Eucalypti^ trees seen 
on the island together with /'andaiiH*, and tall Themetla grass, 
Imprmid grass appears in hollows, and in the lake itself magnificent 
growths of waterlilu -; iXnnrphaca), indicate the relative permanence 
hi* the water. Immediately west of Njinjilki is a shallow bay margined 
by a cliff whose plateau top is within a foot or so of 30 feet above high 
water mark and densely clothed in low heathy vegetation growing on 
lateritie ironstone. Inland and west of here is a broad area of clay- 
pan representing the innermost parts of a large drainage basin 
breaking through an oh] dune system, now heavily vegetated, on to a 
broader clay pan and estuary, tilled with a dense growth of mangroves 
and opening OH t<> the eastern coast at Rutarntaro ['Rutarntaro], 
Tliis k river' is called Kirpakari ['Birpa'karil by the former 
inhabitants. The easternmost point of the island, Karukai ['Kani'lcari, 
"h amlcarl is the Raft Point of Stokes, and the reefs off the point are 
the supposed place where KntlFs part), in 1901 secured photographs 
of their contact with the TCaiadilt, for example pi. 8, fig. 1 and 2. 
PmdimU8 palms grow nearly to the tip of the peninsula. 

The cliffs west of Njinjilki previously referred to, show a thirty 
toot section to sea level. The top layer is composed of fifteen feet 



288 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

or ironstone laterite, below which there is a soil horizon of about one 
foot resting on yellow Band, rather firmly consolidated and of variable 
thickness (9 to 11 feet) itself lying directly on a red and gray mottled 
sand roek which extends to below tide mark; in front of the' cliff this 
rock has been planed off by the sea to form a broad shelf lying below 
high tide level. The cliff had been attacked previously by the sea at 
a height not much different to its present level of attack. As evidence 
of this, at the eastern end of the bay a series of cross-bedded sands, 
apparently wind-laid, and now consolidated had been lodged against a 
fossil portion of the cliff, These consolidated sands are now being 
attacked by the sea along with the laterite cliff face. 

Viewed from the sea it. seems evident that (lie high ground at 
Njinjilki at some time has been planed off by the sea at the same 
general level of about 30 to 35 feet as has Mambnngi plateau at the 
western end of the island. 

Across a mile wide strait from Njinjilki is Baltae, the small 
island named Fowler Island by Stokes. It is known to Mornington 
Islanders as Hail Island, al'ter their pioneer missionary who was 
killed on Mornington Island in October 1017; TIali once sheltered off 
it on a voyage to Mornington Island. 

Sometimes the native name is heard as ['Batae] and again as 
f'Bartai] but the oldest woman now living, whose birth place it was, 
prefers ['Baltae] Baltae is applied to the whole island, but there is 
also a specific place of this name inside the forest of black mangroves 
at the southern end of the island. 

In tradition the island is associated with a Being, Ngalkadaruru 
['I]alkadaru:ni] who had the power to cause strong south-easterly 
winds to blow. This creature, was perhaps the same Being as one 
vaguely remembered to have dug a well in the centre of the island 
and obtained water there. "He broke the water out of the high 
ground. M This well is said to be there still, but details of the storv 
were not obtainable and time did not permit a visit to the site. 

Interior of Bentinck Island 

The central part of the island was not visited and the data 
observed near the three extremities of the island has had to be eked 
out by inspection of aerial photographs. Thus the results of our 
observations on the geography of the interior of the island as a whole 
are to some degree tentative and remain so until opportunities occur 
for further study. 



T1NDALE— GEOGRAPHY OF BENTINCK ISLAND 289 

Sweers Island 
This island lies south-east of the main Bentinck Island mass. 
At its south-eastern end is the high point, Inspection Hill. On the 
eastern cliff slope of this hill, at Durakara, a section was studied, ^ It 
shows mottled red and white clayey sand rock with shells extending 
from below sea level to 5 feet above high tide mark overlain by partly 
consolidated Utterite soils to thirty feet above sea level, over which is 
some 70 or more feet of marine coralline limestone, much eroded, 
and weathered into rough masses almost impossible to climb over. 
The area of land over 30 feet above sea level on Sweers Island runs 
north and south for not more than one mile by one-third of a mile 
and has an abrupt cliff facing the east. There is a further plateau 
;in-a f about half a square mile, 30 to 50 feet high, with a cliff on 
the west estimated to be from 25 to 40 feet high near Dalkuruki 
['Dalkurnki] on the northern third of the island. This is covered with 
a rather dense Stand of a white-barked species of Eucalypt. The native 
name of the forested area is Ngankudalaijarup ['Ilankudalaijarup]. 
The northern extremity, with cliffs on the eastern side, is a plateau 
no more than about 30 feet high. All the rest of the island is low, 
covered in small open scrub of Eucalyptus and Acacia with tall grasses. 
The northern and southern extremities of the island w^ere once almost 
divided from each other save for a slender tombola-like strip which 
became widened by accretion of lines of parallel sand dunes; these 
run NNE-SSW along the eastern coast. There are some fifteen dunes 
and vegetated swales in a belt a third of a mile wide. The full 
complement is present near the sheltered southern end of the series 
near Ordodurui ['Ordoda'mi]. North of Kidiralangi PKidiralangi] 
subsequent erosion has cut very obliquely through those nearest the 
coast and only some ten dunes remain. A similar series, of about ten 
dunes, run east and west from Milt (Point Inscription) to Dangalo 
['Dana'lo:] also in a belt about 500 yards wide. These evidences of 
the late history of the island are in line with those on Bentinck Island 
itself. It is suggested they iire all the results of events of Post-lOft. 
Terrace time. 

The Western Islets 

Northwestmost of the several small islands off Bentinck Island 
is Ngataiwind [T]atai;wind] or Douglas Island. It is only a few feet 
above sea level and covered with low shrubs including a species of 
native currant bush. Tracks of a recent visit, assumed to be by 
Bentinck Islanders, were seen on the island by Mornington Island 



39Q RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Mission men who landed there on 10th August, 1946. It ia said to 
have been visited very seldom by them. 

Kandiugarupai, the Bessie Island of Mission records, was visited 
more often by natives on rafts. It has fto reliable water supplies; 
shell dishes of water had to be taken there. It was an attractive place 
for turtles and their eggs, hence was a tempting, if dangerous place 
to visit. 

South by east of it is Dorati (the Margaret or McCarthy island 
of different Mission records). This also is low, divided into two at 
highest tides, and waterless, exeept immediately after rain. It was 
always lifiCesfiary to carry shell dishes full of water on the rafts when 
attempting visits there. The journey was considered hazardous and 
only to be attempted in Very calm weather but the lure of turtle moat 
and eggs was important enough for risks to be taken. Formerly it 
was target and according to Kaiadilt tradition, included an area now r 
cut down to below sea level as a sand bank, named Ngindalki 
friindalki], This bank extends south by east towards the main island. 

These outer islands and reefs were not specifically within the 
territory of any one flolrtoro although the people who were said most 
often to venture there were those of the group denoted herein as 
doUioro Xi 

Nearer to and north of Dalwai (the Albinia Island of Mission 
records), is a large reef exposed at lowest tides. This was an 
important food gathering area called Meranmarai ['Meramna'rai]. 
Dalwai itself was often usQd as a camping area by members of several 
western dolnuro, more particularly when they were at enmity with 
eastern dolfaQr&dmgha. Several of the brief missionary contacts with 
Bentinck Islanders in 1945 were at Dalwai; at such times eastern men 
stayed at Mioakuri until they could be assured ol' the intentions of 
the white men. Several very dramatically described encounters I 
McCarthy with Bentinck Island people, recorded in his diaries 
and Mission reports, took place at eamps near Morokonobai 
rMorokono'bai]. 

Allen Island was known as Ngarkenap |T|a:ke:nap] and also 
Dalenduru ['Dalen'durul, but the last named may really be the Janggal 
tribe term for it. It was visited by the people of the south-western 
dolnoro of Bentinck Islanders but until the last generation of occupa- 
tion of the area no people ever were known to have received -ngati 
names, from having been born there. It was a kind of no-mansdand 
where occasionally people of the Janggal tribe from the adjoining 



T1ND ALE— GEOGRAPHY OF BENTiNCK ISLAND 291 

mainland and from Korsyth Lsland paid visits, and according to 
tradition, occasionally fought with the Kaiadilt, "Within living memory 
they had not had any friendly contacts. At the north west cad of the 
island is Ngnndamuro |T)andamuroJ the long reef and .sandbank which 
in 1802 prevented Flinders from euvuninavigating the island. The 
north western tip is Taliwindnru [/Taliwindurul. Two girl children 
born in 1940 bear this as their nguti name. There is water in springs 
emerging among the mangrov ■;-. It was here that the Minakuri 
people in late 1940 murdered "Cripple Jack" of Mornington Island. 
The north coast is mangrove-lined on the northern half. The first 
break is Manuka |'Mun:uku]. JtiBt south of this is the mouth of a 
small creek linked to an inland system of swamps. One of these U a 
waterlily lagoon named Ngarkinabai | 'HarkinabaiJ the only lagoon on 
the island The island generally is a low plateau, well wooded, with 
trees of a type called k&rdkffli by the aborigines (not identified), 
"milkwood^ trees and white gum trees. The so-nth-ea stern tip Jfl 
Modomodor I'Alodomodor] where there is p native spring, called a 
hourly ol;o ['koan,oko], on the beach, accessible only at low tide. On the 
south-eastern coast, in the second bay from the southern point is 
Ngandamurur ['IJaJidamurur] where another spring erf water emeri 
on the beach. Still further north in the third bay a spring, Wandarnki 
I'WandnruId | Hows across the beach, and a fourth spring is to be 
found at Kalturi ['Kalturi:] about a mile from the north-west point 
All these sources of water fail in dry years, rendering the island 
untenable as a permanent home. 

To the north-east of Allen Island is Didjer pPidjeir] or Horseshoe 
Island, a half circle of mangroves embraced by a sandy bank and a reef 
where Flinders encountered his aborigines. From the old man's 
vehement speech during the meeting Flinders reeorded a single word, 

jahrze, 

Tn the present day Kaiadilt D*jariJ *$ 6 verb in the imperative 
meaning "Go!" A native story associated with a Being railed 
Barindincli ['BarindindiJ has its setting on Allen Island or vicinity. In 
this story Koreanu ['Koreanu] was holding a fish he had caught with 
his hands in the mangroves. He went down to the waters -nlge as 
Barindindi came to the shore. "Why do you come up here '?" Koreanu 
held the stranger with spears, and told him to "go away" rdalitjl. 
The verb used is a stronger oiie than ['jari]. 

It is possible to regard this as a local counterpart to the record 
of the same encounter made by Flinders in his journal. 



2^2 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

A version of it appears on a tape record by a middle-aged woman 
named Morokonobaingati walawa; it was made during discussions on 
another strange Being, Katjuruku, referred to in an earlier paragraph. 
^ In the preceding sections of this paper an attempt has been made 
to introduce the geographical setting in which the Bentinck Island 
people lived until 1948. 

As a result of a series of disasters they suffered a severe reducti-.u 
tn numbers after 1945 and by 1948 were compelled to abandon their 
island. The final blow which rendered useless the country which had 
sustained them for centuries, was the tidal wave of February 104H, 
data on which forms the final section of this paper. 

THE TIDAL WAVE OF FEBHUARY 1948 

One of the geographical objectives of the visit to Bentinck 
Island was an attempt to assess the effects of the phenomenal tide 
which occurred in the Gulf of Carpentaria daring February 1948. 
This was one of the stated causes of the ultimate stress which led to 
tlif death of many Bentinck Islanders and indirectly resulted in the 
abandonment of their island home by the Kaiadilt. ' 

The aborigines themselves describe the flood tide as having 
covered all but the highest parts of Bentinck Island. It deeply 
drowned most of the places where they were accustomed to live, and 
where they obtained (heir supplies of water. It caused wells and 
springs to go salty. They were not prepared fOf the flood and suffered 
thirst even while the tide was at its extraordinary height. Their many 
subsequent efforts to find sufficient water by digging out wells and 
pot holes along the beaches and, later in the season, water-bearing 
frogs from out of the dried up bottoms of swamps, have been described 
to me and wore noticed by McCarthy in Ins report describing condition* 
in October 1948, when he went to rescue the last of the islanders from 
the south coast. 

The principal data on this extraordinary tide is recorded in an 
official report made by GIop and Woller (1949) to the Queensland 
Irrigation and Water Supply Commission, This Department had been 
asked to advise on the rehabilitation of the garden area at M'orningtcm 
Island Mission which had been destroyed by this tide. The tide was 
stated to be without recent parallel. The actual date and time of the 
flood tide unfortunately is not anywhere cited. Gloe and his companion 
prepared a map of the Mornington Island Mission area on which they 
placed approximately the line of encroachment by this tide but inade no 



TINDALE— GEOGRAPHY OF BENTINCK ISLAND 293 

mention of the height of the rise. During our visit it was possible, on 
M May 11)60, to survey a line from high water mark in the vicinity 
of Mornington Island jetty to the garden tlat (see fig. 1 bottom half) 
and from physical effects .still visible, to ascertain that the rise was 
to twelve Beet above the highest normal tide mark. The last named 
is indicated by the growth of vegetation at the foot of the half- 
consolidated saad dune on which the Mission headquarters is placed. 

At Mornington Island the ilood caused large Evcah/ptv to die and 
had caused a change in areas flooded by the salt water from its former 
savannah and tree growth to a Bftlt loving vegetation; only Melaleuca 
and Pandtiuns growing near to the edge of the Hooded area had 
survived, and there was evidence that much of the coast;] I vegetation 
other (hau mangroves and Melaleuca, in the parts inundated, had been 
killed. New growth had developed only after the salt impregnations 
had been leached away. 

"With this data in hand and the types of injury to vegetation it 
had caused at Mornington Island before us, it was possible to assess 
that the sea had risen at least to the same extent of about 12 feet above 
normal tide on Kentinck Island. It Hooded all but the higher parts of 
the island; the indications confirm aboriginal statements that it 
divided the main Island into two by inundation <>t' the elay pans which 
extend from the nor! h west coast at Markaruki to the south coast at 
Kotnbnli. As much as 50 per cent of the land area of Bcutinek Island 
temporarily most have been covered by sea water, including the parts 
most intensively used by the people. The effect would have been 
temporarily to restore conditions as they might have been during the 
Ten foot Terrace sea level of Mid-Recent time. There is evidence 
around I he island and on Mornington Island in the form of wave cut 
terraces at about this height above sea level to indicate the former 
presence of this eustatic sea level. 

The vegetation other than mangroves and some swamp plants, 
was hi large measure killed ami oven today sueh areas still principally 
are covered either with glasses, and salt marsh vegetation, or remain 
bare. At points which stand no more than a few feet above the twelve 
footmark the trees survived, and these are the principal places which 
today remain clothed in savannah woodland. 

It is probably correct to assume that 50 per cent, or possibly 
at most 60 per cent txf 'he island was atfeeted by the tidal wave in such 
a way as to be unproductive of its usual share of the islander^ 1 
terrestrial food, and water, during the balance of the time the 



294 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

aborigines remained on the island. There had been already a decline 
ifi population in 1!~»47, [mm killings, drownings and the supposed effects 
of drought. The removal by McCarthy of the large party from Sweers 
Island, late in 1047 must have reduced the pressure on the remainder, 
but even so the tinal stresses were great. 

Information on the population crash which terminated their stay 
on Bentinek Island, based on genealogical and oilier information, is 
the subject of a separate paper following this one, It assesses the 
various factors which contributed to this calamity, one which happened 
to a simple hunting people living thmr own life, apart from the modern 
world, and may serve as an example of a, type of recurrent happening 
which must have played a part in the development of man. 

ACKNOWLEDG M ENTS 

The author is imh-bted to the Wenner-Gren Foundation for 
Anthropological Research lor a grant in aid for a study of the 
Bentinek Islanders. The Board of the South Australian Museum 
supported the field work. It is a pleasure to acknowledge the re* 
co-operatim, received from the Rev. J. R, Sweet and the Presbyterian 
Church Committee, Brisbane, and to recall the direct help received 
from the Superintendent of the Mornington Island Mission, the Rev. 
D. L. Belcher, He, Mrs. Belcher and all members of the staff at 
Mornington could not have hem more kind, Mr. Ivter A liken, 
Assistant Entomologist at the South Australian Museum was 
companion on the visit and provided unstinting aid. 

For permission to use some photographs, and much other help I 
am indebted to Rev. Andrew R, Wilson who obtained historical data 
from others, ineliKlmg Rev. W. F. MaeKenzie, Mrs. M. Burnett, Bev. 
C. IX Sydney and also from his mother, Mrs. R, IT. Wilson, to all of 
whom I owe thanks, 

Mr. C. Claxton of the Land Administration Commission, Brisbane 
kindly provided data about early leases on Sweers Island. Dr. 
J. A. Spalding furnished a copy of his Medical Report of 1947. Mr. 
R, (£ Sharman, Queensland Government Archivist, supplied references. 
I am indebted also to the Mitchell Library, Sydney for access to 
several original documents. Mr. Vincent Roth, Curator of the 
British Guiana Museum kindly searched through his father's surviving 
papers but was unable to find anything relevant to the present 
research. Messrs. R. E. Davies and P. McK. Kitchen, who photo- 
graphed some Bentinek Islanders in 1945 at Mornington Island, while 



TINDALE— GEOGRAPHY OF BENTINCK ISLAND 295 

engaged as Air Force Officers on duty, kindly made their negatives 
aild personal photographs available for study. 

Gully Peters, the Mornington Islander, who with his wife Cora, 
has devoted Hie greater part of his adult life to trying to make contact 
with the Bentinck Islanders, and after twenty years of work, succeeded 
in bringing them into touch with the modern world, was our constant 
helper; without his aid the work would not have been possible. 

The Kaiadilt patiently bore our incessant questionings and pryings 
into their former life, and twenty of them were happy to accompany 
our party back on a visit to their island, so providing the needed first 
hand data about its human geography. 

Mr. H. Burrows kindly drew the accompanying map from a rough 
draft and Miss V. Richardson prepared the finished drawings of the 

Sections* 

REFERENCES CITED 

Rlrakley, J. W., 1961: Aborigines of Australia. Brisbane. 367 pages. 

Flinders, M., 1*14: Voyage to Terra Anstralis. London 2 v. and atlas. 

Glue, C. and Weller, N. H. E., 1949: Water resources of Mornington 
Island. Queensland Irrigation and Water Supply Com- 
mission, Brisbane (roneo report; copy No. 3 seen). 

Koppen, W., 1931: Grundriss der Klimakunde. Berlin. 

1936: Das Geographischen System der Klimate. 

Maclntyre, J. N\, 1921: < lapabilities of the Gulf Country, North Aus- 
tralia. (Unpublished manuscript in Mitchell Library, 

Sydney). 

Que&nsland, 1880: Papers and Reports official and otherwise descrip 
the of tin* country on the watershed of the rivers running 
into the Gulf of Carpentaria. Brisbane. Government 
Printer, 71 pages. 

Roth, W. U., 1906: North Queensland Ethnography Bulletins 6, 7 

and s. 

Simmons, R, T., Tindale, N. B., and Birdsell, J. B. (in press): Blood 
group genetieal survey in Australian aborigines of 
Bentinck, Mornington and Forsyth Islands, Gulf of 
Carpentaria. 

Stokes, J. L,, 1S46: Discoveries in Australia. London. 2 v. 

Thornthwaite, C. W., 1933: Geog. Rev. 23, pp. 433-440. 



296 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Tindale, N. B., 1940: Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., Adelaide, 64, p. 147. 

1961: Some population changes among the Kaiadilt of 

Bentinck Island, Queensland. Tenth Pacific Science 
Congress, Honolulu. Abstracts: pp. 87-88. 

1962: Some population changes among the Kaiadilt people 

of Bentinck Island, Queensland. Records of S. Austr. 
Museum, Adelaide, 14, pp. 297-336. 

DESCRIPTION OF PLATES 

PLATE 8 

Fig. 1. Two of Roth's party on edge of reef. The Kaiadilt man on the right is 
Kalturingati walta, as identified by his son. As an old man he was speared just before 
Minakuringati kulkitj fled to Allen Island in 1940. Mrs. R. II. Wilson's copy of this 
picture is labelled "Bentinck Island, June 1901°. Photo: J. F. Bailey; original 
negative in South Australian Museum. 

Fig. 2. Kaiadilt men on the edge of the reef; in the background one is holding up a mass 
of debris. Central figure is Tarukingati warungalta, as identified by his son. Photo: 
J. F. Bailey, June 1901. 

PLATE 9 

Fig. 1. R. H. Wilson and timid group of thirteen Bentinck Islanders at Baltae in late 1927, 
during their first voluntary contact with a white man. 

Fig. 2. Mrs. R. H. Wilson and four Lardiil helpers standing behind a group of sir women 
and ten Kaiadilt children during the second contact, late in 1927. 

DESCRIPTION OF MAP A 

Dulkawalnged or Bentinck Island showing dolnoro (hordes) and native place names of 
the Kaiadilt tribe. 



Bite, S.A. Mt r £J5tfM 



Voi,. 14, Platk 8 






ti 




*P 



VC lorr papt Zi»0 i 



BfiO. K.A. Mtskum 



Vok. 14, Plate 9 






SOME POPULATION CHANGES AMONG THE KAIADILT 
PEOPLE OF BENTINCK ISLAND, QUEENSLAND 



By Norman B. Tindale, Curator of Anthropology and 
Acting Director , South Australian Museum 



Summary 

This paper records the rise, and decline of a small isolated population of Australian 
aborigines on Bentinck Island, Queensland. After two or more generations of steady and 
slow increase to a peak of 123 persons in 1942, five years of decline brought about by 
less favourable conditions reduced the population to 58. Some removed from outlying 
islands by official intervention were eventually restored to the community after it was 
transferred to Mornington Island following white contact in 1948. Thereafter from a 
minimal population of 71 in 1951 they have increased again to 80 persons in 1960. Data 
given enables observation of the course of this population change in a simple hunting or 
foraging community, not in contact with other peoples. Their experiences illustrate some 
of the forces moulding tribal populations of people at the Stone Age level of culture. 



SOME POPULATION CHANGES AMONG THE KAIADILT 
PEOPLE OF BENTINCK ISLAND, QUEENSLAND 

By NORMAN B. TINDALE, Curator of Anthropology and 
Acting Director, South Australian Museum 

Plates 10-11 and text fig. 1-2 

CONTENTS 

Page. 
Summary 297 

Introduction 298 

Population controls 301 

Population density 302 

Population statistics for Bentinck Island , . . 304 

Data regarding causes of death 308 

Growth and decline of the Bentinck Island 

population 311 

Factors involved in population changes .... 31 5 

Introduction to list of the inhabitants of 

Bentinck Island, given as Appendix A . . 316 

Appendix A. List of the known inhabitants 
of the Kaiadilt tribe, of Bentinck Island, 
Queensland, to June 1960 319 

SUMMARY 

This paper records the rise, and decline of a small isolated 
population of Australian aborigines on Bentinck Island, Queensland. 
After two or more generations of steady and slow increase to a peak 
of 123 persons in 1942, five years of decline brought about by less 
favourable conditions reduced the population to 58. Some removed 
from outlying islands by official intervention were eventually restored 
to the community after it was transferred to Mornington Island 
following white contact in 1948. Thereafter from a minimal popula- 
tion of 71 in 1951 they have increased again to 80 persons in 1960. 



298 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Data given enables observation of the course of this population change 
in a simple hunting or foraging community, not in contact with other 
peoples. Their experiences illustrate some of the forces moulding 
tribal populations of people at the Stone Age level of culture. 

The researches wore supported by a grant from the Wenner Gren 
Foundation for Anthropological Research. Full acknowledgment is 
given to those who assisted the project at page 294 of this volume of 
the Museum Records. 

A tWO-paged summary of the contents i>f this paper wns published 
in the i4 Abstracts M of papers for the Tenth Pacific Science Congress 
held in Honolulu, August, 19G1 (Tindate 19G1). 

INTRODUCTION 

Bentinek Island is the centre of a small series of islands with an 
area of some 53 square miles situated in the southern curve of the 
Gulf of Carpentaria, it probably became an island group only when 
the lN>st-Glacial rise of sea-level flooded the Gulf, It had previously 
been a part of the Great Australian plain which extended across to 
New Guinea during tie- last cold phases of the Pleistocene and aW> 
during earlier cold phases of the Ice Age. Bentinek Island has varied 
in Size* During the highest sea levels of Mid-Recent time (5000 BJP.) 
Uta total land area must have be^n reduced to close on one-half, as 
indicated by a shore line of oustatie type at approximately 10 6 ol 
ahovc present sea level. 

The Kaiadilt, a small tribe of dark Australian aboriginals, have 
occupied Bentinek Island for centuries. They were first lniown to 
exist when the explorer, Matthew Flinders, rue! six of them on an 
off shore islet in .1802. Jtespite this early encounter the people avoided 
further close rouf;nis with Westerners until I048| although largely 
ineffective earlier efforts were made to meet them by Government 
officials, missionaries, and by would-be usurpers of their island. 
Between 1940 and 1048 there occurred a series of events which had 
drastic effects on the wcllbeing of this people. The happenings 
included inter-hordal conflicts, accidental drownings by loss of small 
rafts during inter-island crossings, a long continued drought of serious 
effect, and finally an abnormal tide or tidal wave, in February 1948. 
This tide inundated the island for the greater part <>f a day, rising to 
about 12 feet above the highest normal tide mark. The Wftter fo effect 
reoeeupied what is estimated to have been the maximum Post-Glac.ial 
shoreline, often in Australia callod the "Ten Foot" Terrace. 



TTN DALE— POPULATION OF BENTT1MCK ISLAND 299 

Fairbridge (1958, 1960) suggests that this terrace may have been the 
result of* two relative still stands of the seas, an earlier and longer 
phase which he calls the Older Peronian, and a shorter, the Newer 
IVronian Terrace. He dates the end of the second phase to about 
3500 B.P. (1540 B.C.) and the earlier phase to near 5000 B.P. 
(3040 B.C.). 

A previous paper in these Records, Tindale (1962), supplies 
details of the geographical and modern historical backgrounds for 
this study, ftnd provides a map on which are shown the boundaries of 
the several divisions of the Kaiadilt tribe. 

Genealogical studies detailed herein suggest that in 1940 there 
wis a population of 119 persons, divided among eight dohioro or 
territorially defined hordes. This population slowly increased from 
109 persons present in 1910 to 123 persons in 1942. 

Early in 1940 members, substantially of one dolnoro (horde-like 
unit), engaged in a quarrel and after fights with others, escaped to 
the outlying Allen Island, within their territory, but an area not 
petfD&netttly inhabited, because of the unreliable nature of its wafer 
-applies, f hoy journeyed on rafts, losing three persons by drowning 
during the crossing of some eight miles of water whieh intervenes. 

A native from Alornington Island Mission who landed on Allen 
Island from a dinghy, while on a mail-carrying journey to Burketown, 
was killed. Police rounded up and removed the survivors of the 
Bentinck Island horde to Aurukun, a Mission Station on the eastern 
side of the Gulf. 

The remainder of the Bentinck Island population, now reduced to 
some 107, who were ignorant of the fate of their kinsfolk, remained 
out of contact with other peoples until 1945, excepting for an attack 
they mado on personnel of a Royal Australian Air Force launch, 
anchored off Sweers Island during a gale, in 1943, when one Kaiadilt 
man was shot. 

Rainfall records available from adjoining areas imply that there 
were years of reduced rainfall between 194& and 1945. Water supplies 
normally are obtained from soaks and seepages at sea level. These 
derive from domes of fresh water trapped within the sands of the 
island following the heavy rains of the North-West Monsoon 
(December to March). Water itself is not remembered as presenting 
any special problem, but vegetable foods were stated to have been 
scarce and tishing was poor in 1945 and 1946. 



300 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Available rain records from surrounding areas suggest the 
summer rains generally were near to normal in 1946 and 1947 but on 
Bentinck Island there was severe famine. 

fn 1946 the culmination of several years of less than average rain 
brought Hn:-ses to a head. Inter tarda! I'riction was renewed; of 98 
persons on the island at the beginning of 1946 only some 87 survived 
a year later. 

In late 1946 or early 1947 fourteen of nineteen persons, predom- 
inantly of a second dolnoro, were drowned while going to Allen Island 
by raft. Those who reaped say they had hoped lo obtain better food 
supplies; water then was not critically short. These five surviving 
persons were discovered by the missionaries at Mornington, to be 
on Allen Island, and won 1 removed to Mornington Island. When 
found, they were in distress from shortages of water and probably 
would have died if they had not been rescued. 

Of 58 persons who remained alive on Bentinck Island following 
the departuie of these um -.nceessl'u! voyagers, a further sixteen died 
between eai /Is 1947 and mid-1948, after which, through the intervention 
of the Mission authorities on Mornington Island, all survivors were 
evacuated, the last leaving Bentinck Island in October. 

Most of the deaths in the last year are attributed to effects of a 
culminating blow r which struck this island population. This coup de 
grace was a seemingly unpre* ■■efh'iited high tide during February 1948. 
The coastal dunes were inundated and the. sands flooded with sea 
water, rendering useless their normal water supplies. Frantic searches 
for water-bearing frogs, which pans (he dry season buried in the dried 
muds of rainy season pools and ponds, marked the last days of the 
residence of the remaining Kaiadilt people on the island. 

When brought together on Mommgtoii Island there were only 83 
persons representing the original 119 of the Kaiadilt population of 
1940, including all those born in the intervening time and those held 
at -Aurukun. 

Several of those rescued from the stresses on Bentinck Island died 
from the effects of their experiences. The rest, who by 1951 numbered 
only 71, received careful medical treatment ami their numbers then 
began to increase. They now live in a small endogamous community, 
an enclave within the territory of t ho Lardiil tribe, on Mornington 
Island, under the care of the Presbyterian Mission; those at Aurnkun 
eventually were brought back into the group. Between 1951 and 1960, 
after the initial losses of weakened persons between 1948 and 1950, 



TINDALE— POPULATION OF BBNT1NC K ISLAND 301 

there has been a steady population increase from 71 to 80. Wlien 
sonic further genealogical enquiries have been completed it will 
probably be possible to establish some ideas on the capacity for 
increase of the Koiadilt people. 

This paper thus records stages in a natural calamity which had 
tin sudden effect of reducing a population to about 60 per cent of its 
former size. In fact this population presents us with the possibility 
of examining a small breeding group, maintained in isolation, subjected 
to abnormal climatic, and other forces, of kinds which we may infer 
have occurred from time to time in the past. The happenings took 
place while living on Bentinck Island under natural conditions, without 
any buffering or direct intervention hy Westerners during critical 
phases of their period of stress. 

No detailed account of any similar sequence of events has been 
obtained. The facts therefore may be of some assistance in enabling 
researche7s to visualize some of the kinds of events which have played 
a pari in moulding the fate of early human populations. 

There is a time limit on the situation, a maximum of 7,000 years 
since the islands were formed (Tindale 1962). There is the probability 
that, during the Climatic Optimum (Ten Foot Terrace) of Mid -"Recent 
times (about 5000 BJE\), the island group was reduced effectively to 
no more than half its present size, probably with more than corres- 
ponding reduction in its carrying capacity. Its present area may not 
have been re-established permanently until some 3,500 years ago. The 
situation is likely to be most useful for several kinds of studies in 
uiieroevolution. In this regard the blood grouping evidence reported 
by Simmons, Tindale, and Birdsell (1962, in press) is likely also to 
provide ample scope for theoretical discussion and thought, 

POPULATION CONTROLS 

Earl (1S4f>, p. 251) was one of the first to give thought to popula- 
tion controls among Australians. A principle, ho enunciated for 
northern Australia was that "the amount of the population upon a 
certain tract of country, is great or small in proportion to the quantity 
of vegetable food it produces" 

This principle may be sound for other than shore dwellers but 
where seafoods are available, as among the Kaiadilt it is not likely to 
be correct. 

These "strand dwellers-' so predominantly use the products of 
the s^a in their diet, that it #W3 be said that they are properly 



302 RECORDS OF THE: S.A. MUSEUM 

inhabitants of the littoral zone and only relatively casual visitors to 
real land. Among the Kaiadilt, women's work is tied closely to the 
actio zone (in its sense of the strip of half-laud between high and low- 
water marks). At low tide they gather tjilangind (small rock oysters), 
knlpanda (Arcamxvl cockles), and the denizens of mud holes and rock 
pools, retreating only at high tide to their camps under the sheoak 
trees just above tide mark (pi. 10, fig. 1) or to inland areas of land 
to dig for roota and stems of "edible' 1 trees and vines, to catch grass- 
hoppers for food and to glean the few varieties of seeds and fruits 
which the sandy dune and salt-marsh environments yield to them. 
Wood for (ires, annsful of dry grass for camps, and plant fibres for 
ropes and string are the ehief products of the land essenlial to their 
well-being. 

Males explore, the wider littoral, either walking up to their waists 
or chest in water or drifting over deeper reefs on their rafts of logs 
lashed together; at half tide either spearing fish trapped behind £fa< 
walls of their stone fish traps or standing motionless for hours on the 
edge of outer reel' channels waiting, in the hope of spearing a dugong, 
a turtle, or a shark. It is woman's work to repair fish trap walls and 
Likr ihe email fry among the fish trapped when tin 1 traps are almost 
dry. It is man's privilege to spear the larger fish cornered while the 
water is still deep. 

The long list of totem names in the genealogies attached to this 
paper givi fair indication of the foods on which their main attention 
is foeussed, incidentally drawing attention also to the sun, moon, rain, 
south-east wind, and waterspouts which control their lives, the rafts 
which carry them, the sheoak trees of the beach under whose lialf- 
shade their camps are placed, the crude palaeolithic fist axes, 
tjilanganda or inariwu, with which they open their oysters and "break" 
tlit- wood for litis poles of their rafts, paddles, and fighting clubs, and 
the baler shells for knives, with which they cut and scrape their spears 
and spearthrowers and the flesh of the marine animals that they kill. 

POPULATION DENSITY 

A map of the island appears in an earlier paper in this Journal 
(Tindale 1962), where the boundaries of the several hordes are shown. 

The areas occupied by the eight dolnnro or hordes of the Kaiadilt 
people are also shown in the following table, which gives, in square 
miles, figures for the various tjpfla of country available to them. The 
areas were calculated indirectly, by cutting up a photographic copy of 
the map and weighing the several portions on a sensitive balance. 



TINDALE— POPULATION OF BENTINCK ISLAND 
AREA OF THE BENTINCK ISLAND GROUP (in square miles) 



303 





Total 


Total 


Land Area 










Area 


Area 


excluding 


Area of 


Area of 


Reef 




with 


without 


Reefs and 


Reefs 


Interior 


and 




Reefs 


Reefs 


Interior 
Claypaus 




Claypaus 


Claypan 




4-5 

9-8 


3*5 

9-0 


1-5 

7-8 


1-0 
0-8 


2-0 
1-2 


3-0 


T 


2-0 


V 


9-6 


7*3 


6-5 


2-3 


0-8 


3-1 


V 


11 '3 


94 


5-2 


1*9 


4-2 


61 


includes Baltae Island 














W 


5*0 


S'O 


1-5 


2-0 


1*5 


3-5 


X 


3-8 


2-0 


1-2 


1-8 


0-8 


2-6 


includes Dalwaii Island 














Y 


5-8 


5-3 


4s3 


0-5 


1-0 


1-5 


Z 


7-0 

56-8 


5-0 


1-2 


2-0 


3-8 


5-8 


Totals Bentinck Island. . 


44-5 


29-2 


12-3 


15-3 


27-6 


Sweers Island 


5*8 


4-2 


3-9 


1-6 


0-3 


1-9 


AUen Island 


4-8 


2-8 


2-6 


2-0 


0-2 


2-2 


Horseshoe Island 


0-8 


0-2 


0-2 


0-6 


— ■ 


0-6 


All others 


IS 


0-9 


0-9 


0-9 


— 


0-9 






Totals other Islands .... 


13-2 


8-1 


7-6 


5-1 


0-5 


5-6 


Totals all Islands 


70-0 


52-6 


36-8 


17-4 


1 15-8 


33-2 



From these calculations it is apparent that the total area of the 
islands, including their littoral, is about 70 square miles of which some 
53 square miles are land. There are large areas of interior claypan 
covering 30 per cent of this land surface. Areas of littoral comprise 
approximately 25 per cent of the island area. As indicated elsewhere 
in this paper this was the most important part of their territory. 

At first sight there seems to be little direct relationship between 
total-areas of -land or land-plus-reef, and population. If we compare 
the figures for 1940 when the area was being used at about greatest 
pressure, just as the intensified i/nterhordal fighting broke out, fore- 
shadowing the collapse of their regime, we see many difficulties in 
interpreting land use among them directly in terms of persons per 
Bquare mile. 



30* RECORDS OF THE S.A, MUSEUM 

A Kaiadilt man gave us one clue. Dolnoro S, U, and X people 
have reef areas which they can work throughout both the N,W. and 
S.E. trade wind seasons, their N.\\\ season fifih (raps, etc*, being built 
on the Joe rida, and so protected, and (he rest protected during the 
opposite season. Some other hordes-people can only be sure of fish 
supplies for about one half of the year because fishing is often difficult 
on a windward shore in boisterous weather. Such folk have to depend 
to a larger extent on estuaries and the foods in mangrove swamps. 
The people of dolnoro S have hard rock reefs and can build very 
substantial fish traps dented to some others who have only fragile 
coral to work with. If these facts are accepted as providing adjust- 
ments to the wide figures •>)' area of littoral, the most marked 
relationship bo! ween population and area is between reef and man; 
the least exact relationship being between uplands and population. 
It must be stressed that the uplands are only relatively so, because 
nowhere are they much higher than about 33 feof, except on some 
sandhills near the northern end of the island. The density of popula- 
tion for the whole of TSentinek Isla.nd area in 1940 (the last year when 
all were present) was 1.7 person-, per square mile of total land and reef 
surface, or over 6.8 persons for each srpiare uule of reef. Since part 
of the total area is inaccessible, and only used at some risk (as 
indicated by two Irngie episodes accompanying efforts to reach Allen 
Island in 1940 and 11)47) only about 14 square milgfl of rv<:X were in 
constant use, ■/.*-•.. over 8 persons obtained (heir food on each square 
mile of reef. 

These figures are remarkably high for a "stone age" people. In 

southern parts of Australia, even in areas of high rainfall the 
figures for the most dense populations seeming! v went no higher than 
about one person per two square miles. 

This may point up a fact that strand-dwelling populations could 
have b»'on dominant ones during some parts of the Old Stone A^;e. 
If this be so the constantly changing sea levels of Glacial and Inter- 
glacial times may have wiped out much of the record of man's early 
culture history, either by sweeping the relics of his occupation into 
littoral marine deposits or otherwise destroying them. 

POPULATION STATISTICS FOB KENTTNOK ISLAND 

The population figures between 1948 and 1960 are controlled by 
the official records and by birth and death registers preserved on 
Mornington Island. For the period between 1910 and 1948 the data 
is that remembered by Kaiadilt people and passed to the present 



TIN DALE— POPULATION OF BENTINCK ISLAND 305 

writer in the form of genealogical information. Providers of data 
included some who were already from 10 to 15 years of age in 1910 
and hence are probably reasonably reliable witnesses, as far back aa 
about thai year. They and most of the other persona bdoQgiflg to 
the i&lsnd furnished their individual genealogical data.^ When this 
had been cross-cheeked and linked together with the similar .state- 
ments from other sources, so muck of the data fell together that a 
relatively complete record was obtained. 

The statistics for the earliest years of the century, 1900-1910, are 
probably less reliable and are minimal, since they lack data on some 
infants who died while young and on some old people. Loss of 
knowledge, of older people extended to such details as the names of 
their totenm, tew often the birth place name; seldom were birth place 
name and totem both Eoxgottft© for any one person. 

Approximations to ages were worked out on all available informa- 
tion. Various marker dates were available. TTalleys Comet, the loss 
of the. ship Douglas Mausrm which sent much flotsam ashore, known 
major cyclones, the passage of different types of ships trading to 
Boroloola and other Gulf ports were useful. The landings of Dr, 
W. Roth, the Protector of Aborigines for North Queensland, in 1901, 
the beginning of trcpang fishing near the island by Mornington 
Islanders, and the several known attempts of niissioners to contact 
the islanders at intervals of several years have furnished time marker 
information. The succession of births was established for very many 
people. The raw information, when examined for internal consistency, 
proved to give a realistic picture of the interrelations and vital 
statistics of these people. Principal difficulties encountered were in 
establishing generation level of a few of those whose nqati or birth- 
place names and totemic ones were the same in two successive 
generations. A typical example of this was- the man who is recorded 
in the List of people as "W2 whose -ngati name was not obtained 
because of his partial misidentification with las son W3. The identiii- 
cation \vas made the more difficult because, at his father's death, "W3 
took one of his father's wives as his own, so that at first it was 
thought there was only one man involved. 

The killings of people by a white raid about 1918 resulted in the 
stated deaths of eleven people. It is interesting to note how quickly 
this gap in the ranks was filled by new births. Statistically the injury 
caused merely a ripple in the population curve. 

In the last decade, under the Presbyterian Mission regime 10 
infant deaths have occurred, when the population level lay between 



306 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

72 and 80 persons. In the previous decade 8 children in all were 
remembered as having died, several of them about the time of stress 
between 1944 and 1949. Allowing for the greater population and the 
greater stress the loss was proportionately the same and could be 
carried in rough statistics as an annual loss of one child. For the 
1920-1929 and 1930-1939 periods only 4 children in each of the periods 



lao 

120 

no 
ioo 

90 
60 

70 

60 
SO 
40 
30 
20 

IO 

c 




TOTAL POPULATION 

| of the 

in 

| KAIADILT TRIBE OF BENTINCK ISLAND 

(adjusted figures) 
1900 — I960 



YEARS 

JL 



1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1 950 I960 



Pig. 1. Adjusted figures for the total population of the Kaiadilt tribe of Bentinck 
Island, 1900-19(JO. The data includes the people removed from Allen Island and held at 

Aurukun between 1941 and 1953. 

are remembered as having died in infancy. This may suggest that 
the statistics are warped by lack of records of up to 6 children per 
decade. In the 1920-1940 period this suspected loss possibly was of 
minor significance and may be carried as a deficiency in record of one 
child per year for the period 1920-1929 and none for the other decade. 
For the two periods 1900-1909, 1910-1919 at least one additional person 



TINDALB— POPULATION OF BENTJNCK ISLAND 307 

per annum should perhaps be added to make an adjusted population 
figlWS, It is more difficult to chock the data prior to 1920 for adults who 
may have Jived but who are not remembered by name. Inspection of the 
genealogies enable rough estimates of corrections for this deficiency 
to be suggested. The addition of an arbitrary figure of 5 persons for 
the 3900 1901) and 2 for the period 1910-1919 has heen allowed to 
prevent any undue warping of the data through existence of adult 
perecma who were present but whose data has uot been recovered. 
The parentage of persons born prior to the 1900 period is frequently 
listed as unknown. The mother lias been carried in statistics until 
at least two years after the birth ol" the last child and the male parent 
until the year of the child's birth, as a minimum. 

With the corrections listed above, the statistics on the Bentrnck 
Islanders, as shown in the attached graph (fig, 1), can be accepted as 
fully covering the population from 1900-1920 and without any correct- 
ing figures should be valid fur tin* period from 1920-19G0 within the 
limits of ± 1 person in any one year. 

The loose data available for age determination may have intro- 
duced an error whose magnitude is difficult to estimate. It seems 
possible that the data can be accepted as reasonably correct since the 
known dates of birth of children in the 1950-60 decade has enabled 
the calculation of a birth rate which suggests that earlier statistics 
are concordant even though developed from the less reliable sources. 
For the purpose of the present relatively crude analysis they are 
accepted as correct. 

It must be noted that the breakdown by dolnoro of birth, in the 
second diagram (fig- 2), does not indicate directly the size of each 
breeding dolnoro group. A married woman usually lives with the 
dolnorodangka listed as father of her children; the assembly of the 
data to show the actual breakdown, at any given time, of the dolnoro 
into breeding units, is a separate task which may require the acquisi- 
tion of further data on such facts as the mean period of widow-hood 
between marriages (probably not great, although in a few known 
instances extended for years after the death of the husband) and the 
periods over which womeu visit the dolnoro of their male parent after 
marriage (said at times to be considerable). The differences between 
the two methods of listing dolnoro populations may not lead to very 
great differences in statistical detail because, inter-dolnoro marriages 
are probably all on a one for one exchange basis, except where the 
women have been taken and held as the result of killings. Because of 



308 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

the existence of a system of vendetta, such stealings are likely to 
balance out since a male of one dolnoro is likely to be killed in revenge 
for the death of a man of the other. In the larger dolnoro a propor- 
tion of the women are kept in marriage within the dolnoro of their 
male parent. This type of endogamous marriage has sanction, as 
being the best one, by men of dolnoro S, T and U and X, although men 
of the other dolnoro, whose numbers are fewer, consider other 
marriage ways are better. In 122 listed marriages 26 or 21 per cent 
were endogamous, i.e., were within the dolnoro. The percentages for 
different dolnoro ranged from per cent to 36 per cent as follows: 

S 36 pel cent, T 18 per cent, U 17 per cent, X 14 per cent, but V, 
W, Y and Z men's marriages were all with women of other dolnoro. 



DATA REGARDING CAUSES OF DEATH 

From the statements of aborigines and Mission registers an 
attempt has been made to classify the causes of death for the period 
1910-1960 and to record them as percentages of all deaths: — 

Per cent. 

Natural causes 53 

18 
13 
8 
7 (3 occasions) 



Killings by Kaiadilt persons , 

Drownings i 

Cause of death unknown . . . 
Killings by Europeans .... 



99 

There was one case of suspected suicide of a woman after the 
drowning of her child, one case of snake bite and another of jelly-fish 
stinging. Among the stated "natural" causes of death was" one 
"dying of cold and rain in the South-East Trade wind season 
(winter) ■ '; the drownings included those lost at night by the rising of 
the tide during fogs, when direction is obscured. The last named is 
a special hazard determined by the fact that low tides fall always at 
night in this part of the Gulf of Carpentaria, necessitating much 
gathering of food by night. A complementary type of death hazard 
was that indicated by the relatively numerous instances of killings of 
men, assailed by night as they came ashore, carrying the food they 
had taken. 





Approximate 


Mean 


annual rate 


population. 


per 1,000. 


105 


11 


107 


31 


110 


10 


112 


41 


111 


20 


115 


21 


120 


35 


100 


100 


74 


65 


88 


7 



TINDALE— POPULATION OF BENTINCK ISLAND 309 

DEATHS 

No. of deaths 
Period. over 5-year 

period. 

1910-1914 6 

1915-191!) 17 

1920-1924 6 

1925-1929 23 

1930-1934 11 

1935-1939 12 

1940-1944 22 

1945-1949 51 

1950-1954 24 

1955-1959 3 

In the period of greatest stress, 1947-48, the death rate was near 
to 260 per 1,000. The high rate in the 1915-1919 period can he 
attributed to a raid by white men about the year 1918, when 11 persons 
were killed. 

The rather higher death rate in the 1925-1929 period is put down 
to natural causes since the period was relatively free of interhordal 
conflicts (20 deaths by natural causes to only one killing). The similar 
interval 1940-1944, was the reverse, there being 12 killings to 9 deaths 
by natural causes. At the beginning of this period the population was 
building up to its highest point (123 in 1942). Tn the 1945-1949 period 
there were 23 deaths by natural causes and 11 by killings. Another 
important death factor was that of drowning. 

In 1947 factional tights intensified and Dongkororeingati Kulkitj, 
abandoning most of his wives, but taking four and many of his 
children, fled from Bentlnck Island with the intention of reaching Allen 
Island. The rafts were caught in a storm and Dongkororeingati lost 
his life together with thirteen others. The greatest previous recorded 
number in a single year was in 1940 when the same attempted journey 
to Allen Island was made by Minakuringati and 14 companions while 
escaping from a fight. This resulted in the drowning of three persons. 

The first of these drownings constitutes the greatest single 
disaster recalled by living Kaiadilt people, paralleled only by the raid 
by an unidentified white man with helpers who rode a horse across 
Bentlnck Island, accompanied by dogs, shooting down all he could see. 



310 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

This happened about the year 1918; 11 persons are staled to have been 
either killed or died later from the effects of the attack. 

Allen Island is seen to be an escape valve for over-population; 
but the escape door leads escapees towards probable elimination. 
First hazard for an escaping group was the chance of drowning. The 
two recorded major movements of people to Allen Island from 
Bentinck in 1940 and 1947 had survival ratios as follows: — 

No. No. Percentage 

departing, drowned, survival. 

1940 15 3 80 

1947 19 14 86 

The Allen Island group of 1940 probably went there a little prior 
to the 11th May, 1940, since Aurukun records indicate a child, 
subsequently given the white name of Ann, was bom on or about that 
date. Other records show she was born at the northernmost point of 
Allen Island. 

The 1940 party did have children who were born there in 1940- 
1941, but it is a fact that no person listed as a Kaiadilt who was 
remembered as having been born between 1900 and 1940 had Allen 
Island given as place of birth. This may indicate the relative rarity 
of return to "Bentinck Island from that island. A statement from an 
old Lardiil woman suggests that people who went to Allen Island were 
subject to attack from roving mainland natives. When there were 
people on Allen Island the fact was known to all because Bf their 
camp fire smokes. 

The geographical classification used by Kaiadilt recognizes two 
categories of island. The smaller islands were called Dangkawaridulk, 
4 'men absent lands- ' while Bentinck Island was "land of all 7 % or 
Diilkawalriged. This governed the allotment of dolnoro territories — 
tin-! offshore islands were regarded only as appendages to, and not 
integral parts of dolnoro. 

Return to Bentinck Island evidently was possible as is suggested 
by the probability that people of dolnoro X are descendants of one 
of the six persons seen by Flinders in 1802. One of the women of this 
dolnoro possesses a story which seems to match the one Flinders gives 
of his encounter in 1802; survival of the story itself implies that 
return trips to Bentinck Island were made, as is indeed maintained as 
true by all Kaiadilt persons. 



I INDALE— POPULATION Oh BENIINCK ISI AND -Ml 

GJfcOWTB AND DECLINE OF THE BENTINCK ISLAND 

POPULATION 

Between 1915 and 1935 (lie population of Bontinck Island, with 
111 persons, .seemed almost to be at its asymptotic maximum value. 
its loss ol people by a White raid was made good after an eight year 
period of oscillation pf the population graph, it rose slowly, however, 
to 123 by 1942; this was its maximum near the ousel, of a p< riod of 
continuous decline. 

It ihe adjusted figure of 105 for the population in 1010 is taken 
as a starting point, it would, seem that there was a relatively slow 
and steady rise of one person in each second year or about 5 per cent 

per decade from 1910 to 1940. 

Under the Mission regime, which began in 1948, there was a 
decline but after the effects of the morn than live years of strain had 
been overcome by 1852 th6 population began again to increase, and 
at a rate higher than when the people Were on Bontinck Island, 
approaching 10 per cent per decade in the new environment. intro- 
duction of other blood, now just beginning, because t lu-y are in contact 
with others, may interfere with the further progress of what lias been 
an interesting little biological experiment from which much can be 
i-ned by study of its earlier hh-tory. 

When the population is broken down into its constituent dolnoro 
or horde-like groups, figures for both the growth and decline of 
population are seen lo be unevenly distributed between the dolnoro. 

Each dolnoro seems to have had its own period of onset of 
pansioa in the earlier part of (his century and to have been 
differently affected by the period of Btre&S, The after-results of the 
period of stress differ also for each dolnoro. For example, increase in 
numhers since this time bag been largelj concentrated in the S dolnoro. 
Populations of all tin.* other dolnoro have remained practically static, 
while S dolnoro population has increased from 21 to 29 persons (i.e., 
by nearly 40 per out). The leading man of this dolnoro is a dominant 
individual who has 5 wives and 7 children. It is of some interest that 
his dolnoro has had the largest percentage of marriages within the 
horde (36 get fcefit) and it has been numerically the Strongest dolnoro 
in each year for which records are available. Two of this man's 
wives are from his own dolnoro and these have borne four of Ms 
child ron 

A closer look at Ihe history 0? this and other dolnoro may be of 
interest, for while the Kaiadilt were an expanding group in the earlier 



312 



RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 




IfOO I9IO 1920 1930 1940 1950 

KAIADILT TRIBE OF BENTINCK ISLAND 
POPULATION ( by dolnoro ) 

BJAS, & Population of the K;il-nliii Ifclbfl "1* Bentinck Island, showing numbers 
composing the eight tfotowW. Jli6 t«>p line shows the uncorrected figure for the whole 

population, 1000-19(30. 

years of the century the rates of growth of individual dolnoro were 
very different. 

Tn the dolnoro B which already seems to have had the largest 
population in 1900, the growth was rather slow, increasing from 20 
to 25 in the first decade and rising to 27 in 1918; two men were killed 
by whites about that year and there were 24 present in 1920; a decade 
later they numbered 25, rising to 29 in 1940 and to 32, their peak 
population, in the same year as the top population of 123 for the 
Kaiadilt as a whole. Until the last year of the subsequent period of 
stress this population of 32 remained, with a 25 per cent drop to 24 
in the last few months, principally from drownings. 



TINDALE— POPULATION OF BENTINCK ISLAND 313 

On arrival on Mornington Island they showed relatively few 
after-afiectfi of the period of stress and their numbers increased 
steadily until in 1960 they were only two short of their highest known 
earlier population. 

The dolnoro T population originally was small. It expanded 
slowly and steadily throughout the period under consideration from 
1900 until 1942. Their territory is on the unsheltered eastern side and 
BeTOTa] drownings on reefs exposed to rough seas in the south-east 
trade winds season helped to keep their numhers in cheek. Several 
also died by drowning during the period of stress after 1940. Those 
rescued in 1947 and 1948 were weak and some of them died after 
reaching Mornington Island. Infants who were stillborn and one.? 
who died shortly after birth were relatively numerous in this dolnoro. 
It has not increased its numhers. 

The population of dolnoro If commenced to expand about 1906. 
It suffered loss of three persons during the raid by white men about 
1915. This gave a slight ebeck to population numbers but there was 
recovery by 192(1. With minor oscillations this population increased, 
showing no marked signs of stress, despite five hillings about 1942; 
they only commenced a decline from i!C> to 20 in 1944. Drownings and 
the Bids effects of their experiences hefore August 1947 drastically 
reduced their number to 14 in 1948. Some died after they were rescued 
fronj their island. Women capable of child bearing were few; young 
males predominated among those who survived. Only one child (a 
girl of Kaiadilt descent only OH her father's side) has been born to 
a member of the dolnoro since then. Young men of the dolnoro who 
are now in their twenties* have not yet begun to produce children, 
although some of them are married. 

Dolnoro V whose territory was on the south coast, with a shore 
line much exposed to the south-eastern trade winds was a small group 
of four, at the beginning of the century. Its period of expansion was 
between 1906 and 1918 to 11 persons. It suffered several losses during 
fho raid by white men in that year, and, except for a temporary 
expansion in nnd-twenties, its numbers have dropped rather steadily 
and slowly since then. During the period of stress in the 1940's total 
numbers fell by one only, although three persons were killed in 
quarrels. In I960 there were only four surviving persons, the same 
number as were remembered as beiug alive near the turn of the 
century. 

In 1900 dolnoro W population was smaller than for V, with only 
four known persons, but increased steadily to a maximum of 12 in 



iU RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

1942. Those who escaped drowning when voyaging to Allen Island 
in 1940, temporarily disappeared from (he Kaiadilt population after 
being apprehended Tor the murder on that island in 1941, Taken to 
Aurulcun Mission they were not again united with their kinsfolk on 
Morning-ton Inland until September, 1953. Of those who remained od 
Bentinek Island, in 1940, three men were drowned during' raft accide 
in the 1940's. 

Dolnoro X was the third largest with 19 persons at its period of 
greates! expansion in 1920, but although it has Ijold third place in rank 
most of the time IHLtil now, it was smaller, with only 9 persons in 1900. 
This number is the same as if pogges&s in 1960. Females predominate 
in the dolnoro. In 1925-1927 there was a spate of deaths, mostly ■ i 
middle-aged to old women. Only one adult male of the dolnoro 
remained in 1940. When attacked and deprived of some of his wives, 
tins man with other men and children fleel to A Mm Island, whence 
he was taken to Atirukun. One of the women of the dolnoro who 
remained on Bentinek Island WW killed in a quarrel during the period 
of stress in the 1940 's and one old lady died. 

A predominance of young and young adult females, some without 
children, enabled the people of X dolnoro who remained on Bentinek 
to pass through the difficult years with relatively HJidepleted numbers. 
"Dolnoro T. In 1900 there were 5 persons in this dolnoro, in 1900 
there were only 4. In only one decade (1935 to 1944) was it mm h 
larger, with a maximum population of 10 in 1940. The period of 
stress reduced the group to 5 by 194S then- being three killings anil 
one accidental drowning. Tw r o who were weak when they were rescued 
in W48, died shortly after being rescued, leaving only 3 in 1952. 

Dolnoro % was small with only 5 persons in 1900, of whom four 
were males, Populalimi began to increase in 1920 and was maintained 
between 10 and 11 from 1927 until 1943. By 1940 the sex ratio v 
equal; then there were deaths by killing of two young girls in quarrels 
over wives. Deaths of two young men followed mid a male kzlliji--;. 
prior to June, 1947. This caused extinction oi* the male line. T 
women in their thirties survived the period of stress and are now in 
their Forties. Their later born children att reckoned^ ft£ course, in 
other dolnoro. 

Commencing with one part-Kaiadilt child born at Aurukun in 1943 
and later ones born on Mornington Island, a small group of mi^cd 
Kaiadilt,- other tribe hybrids, is building np; there were, in 1960, five 
such persons. Properly to be counted as part of the Kaiadilt popula- 
tion there are also five persons of three tribes, from elsewhere, who 



TINDALE— POPULATION OF BENTINCK ISLAND 315 

have had clandestine associations with or have married into, and 
produced children for the Kaiadilt community since they have made 
contact with the outside world. 

FACTORS INVOLVED IN POPULATION CHANGES 

Decline: 

Study of the Bentinck Island population suggests that four 
primary factors may have led to the period of stress and catastrophic 
decline in the population alter 1940: — 

(a) Growth of population to beyond the limit of capacity of 

the area in which they lived. 

(b) Conflict between the hordes. 

(c) Climatic change, in the direction of a deterioration. 
(<l) Catastrophes {e.g., tidal wave, mass drownings). 

The climatic vagary may have been instrumental in triggering 
off the interhordal conflicts which marked the first stage in the 
catastrophic decline of the 1940's. 

It would appear that in a period of stress following one of 
expansion population diminishes by losses caused in a variety of ways. 
These can be listed roughly in the order of their importance and 
impact on the Bentinck Islanders: — 

1. Deaths of infants born during the difficult time. 

2. Relative lack of births during the period of stress. 

3. Inter-hordal killings of adult males and females. 

4. Deaths by weakening, especially of older females, and particu- 

larly after giving birth. 

5. Drownings through "forced" movements as well as through 

attempts at exploitation of the more dangerous parts of their 
littoral (perhaps aggravated by weakness due to starvation, 
combined with a possible lowering of judgment on the part of 
those participating, under stress of necessity, causing the 
taking of undue risks). 

These deaths added to those which would have occurred under normal 
conditions had a marked effect on population numbers. 

Recovery : 

Young adult males and young females tended to survive in greater 
numbers than others. After recovery from the stress (in this case 



316 RECORDS OK THE S.A. MUSEUM 

with a changed environment due to Mission contact and medical 
attention) births of children were numerous and, after some losses due 
to a high infantile mortality, some possibly owing to exposure to new 
disease in the changed environment, population numbers advanci id 
Steadily within the next 10 years. A factor delaying the rise in 
population after the period of stress was the early deaths of numbers 
of children who were born to mothers who had been weakened by their 
experiences in 1047 and 1948. The medical records of the Mission are 
not very complete but they indicate that many persons were treated 
for "anaemia" during the period 1949-1952. 

INTRODUCTION TO LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF 
BENTINCK ISLAND, GIVEN AS APPENDIX A 

This list contains, in compressed form, the whole of the 
genealogical data available in June, I960, for (he Kaiadilt people 
From it can be reconstructed the genealogies and basie population 
data used for the observations made in this report. 

Males and females are listed separately, according to their 
patrilocal and patrilineal horde-like units, called dolnoro. Tin isc 
dolnoro arbitrarily have been assigned letter symbols IVoiu S to Z, 
because they do not have fixed names of their own. 

The -ngati or birth-place name of each person is first listed, when 
available, in capitals and lower case for males, in full capitate for 
females. Then follows a totemic inane, usually that of some food, 
orrasioiially that of a natural force or a feature of the landscape. The 
totemic name is itself followed by the European name, where one has 
been given to the person after white contact, The numbers with an / 
following the symbol representing the dolnoro, are females, those 
without are males. So far as possible the persons of oaeh dolnoro 
are arranged according to succession of birth and the children also 
are so listed within the parental entries; a few casual anomalies of 
arrangement occur, usually because of the lnte arrival of rorreetine: 
data. A few persons who cannot be assigned to dolnoro aro list. I 
under the symbol following the main list, and there is an appendix 
detailing five persons not of the Kaiadilt tribe who have had marital 
associations with Bentinck Islanders since they emerged from their 
long period of isolation on the Southern Wellesley Islands. 

Since the -ngati name of the individual incorporates the name of 
the place of birth it is not generally repeated except when there art* 
anomalies or there is a seeming conflict between place of birth and 



TJNDALB— POPULATION OF BENTINCK ISLAND MJ 

assignation of dolnoro. Informants usually wore careful to draw 
attention to such discrepancies. Offered explanations were ones such 
as "his mother had him when she was away from his country" or 
"she was horn in her new father's country M , where the new born 
child had a stepfather. 

Married women live with the members of the husband's dolnoro, 
and her children are dolnorodangka (dolnoro folk) of her husband's 
horde. 

On the death of a husband the wife passes either to her husband's 
eldest son, or to her husband's brother, whichever is the older, or 
may be passed on into another dolnoro. Her children by the new 
husband fall into his dolnoro. Children born just after Hie death 
fj|' a prior husband usually are considered to Tall in the dolnoro 
i»l the deceased num. In a few cases, usually of recent date the dobioro 
-ignation remained in doubt until resolved after discussion. The 
probability is that the "value" of tin.' dolnoro as a territorial unit 
has declined in the twelve years since the people have abandoned 
their home. 

All births ami deaths after 1947 were recorded in the Mornington 
Island Mission Register. Some late entries, based on estimated dates 
of year of birth were made. Usually these can be recognized as 
estimates by the arbitrary giving of 1 July as the birth date. Earliest 
Mission assigned dates of this type may go back to 1941, and in some 
instances may be no more reliable than ages estimated in tins study 
by other means. All the Mission data appears to have be©l) M written 
into the present Register in 1953, some records being from lists on 
loose sheets of paper. ( V»pies have been made of all available registers 
ami lists, up to dune I960, and are on tile in the South Australian 
Museum collection. 

Blood genetics data is given after the other personal and family 
information. In ease of later enquiry it may be noted that the 
temporary field numbers assigned to blood tests are not recorded 
herein. They were not the same as the listed anthropometric numbers. 
The blood data for each person is set out in the following sequence: — 
ABO, MNSs, Rh, P, Le\ Py% K, Webb, Jk\ "Webb" is a rare blood 
group beiug described by R. T. Simmons and J. A. Albrey in the 
Medical Journal of Australia 1962 (in /m ss) t The tests were done 
in the Commonwealth Serum Laboratories, Melbourne, by R. T. 
Simmons, and the results are being discussed in a paper by Simmons, 
R, T.« TindaJe, N. B., and Birdsell, J. B. (in press 1962). 



318 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

REFERENCES CITED 

Earl, G. W., 1846: Journ. Geogr. Soc London 16: 239-251. 

Fairbridge, R. W., 1958: Trans. New York Acad. Sci., II, 20: 471-482. 

I960: Scientific American, New York 202, (5) : 70-78. 

Simmons, R, T., Tindale, N. B. and Birdsell, J. B., 1962 (in press) : 
Amer. Journ, Physical Anthrop. 

Tindale, N. B., 1961: Tenth Pacific Science Congress, Honolulu. 
Abstracts : pp. 87-88. 

Tindale, N. B., 1962: Records of S. Austr. Museum, Adelaide 14: 
pp. 259-296, plates 8-9 and map A. 

DESCRIPTION OF PLATES 10-11 

PLATE 10. 

Fig. 1. A deserted Bentinck Island cold season camp showing shell water vessels and break- 
wind, with pile of native yams in foreground. Photograph taken about 1927, before 
direct white contact. (Photo, attributed to the late R. H. Wilson.) 

Fig. 2. Kaiadilt people moving from a temporary camp during their first voluntary encounter 
with a European, at Baltae, in late 1927. (Photo, attributed to the late R. H. Wilson.) 

PLATE 11. 

Fig. 1. Group of timorous Bentinck Islanders as seen by W. Roth in June, 1901. The central 
figure was identified by present day islanders as holding a tjilanganda or mariwu 
(crude biface stone implement) in his hand. (Photo, by J. F. Bailey.) 

Fig. 2. Several Kaiadilt men and a woman dancing before Lardiil men 25 June, 1945, on 
the occasion of their first brief visit to Mornington Island; the woman in the back- 
ground is now the oldest living Kaiadilt person, KENAKENABAJANGATI (Sf. 8 of 
the accompanying list). (Photo, by R. E. Davies.) 



liKC. S.A. Ml SKIM 



Vol, 14, l'l.ATK 10 





/ lorr /in./t R I - ] 



Rbc. 8. A. Mrsrci m 



Vol. 14, Platk 11 





TtNDALE— POPULATION OF BENTLNCK ISLAND 319 

ATPENDIX A 

LIST OF THE KNOWN INHABITANTS OF BNNTINCK ISL AND, QUEENSLAN P, 

TO JUNE I'.hw) 

Males of Dolnoro S 

8.1. Dongkorormngnti (birth place name) hulkitji (shark) (totcoj);, born arna 18fif» at 
Douekororoij died r. 191s at Lokoti (places on Bent&aek l.Uand fie* may); mode of 

de- . i1 \n white man] aged 52 Years; father J moHuT - — ; married 

Wf.l; 3 tsliildiea, B.-3, Sf.4 t S,5. 

S,.'J, T(»iidiii. 1 ::;.ti bidjajapa (dugODg) j b, < % - 1865, d. c. 1030; speared while in the *e& at 

ugari by one of Urn brothers of 7AA< aged c. $ year*; f. ; m. — ; 3 

wi\. ; ..'. Xf.l, Xl8j cMldMSO, 8f.ll, Sf.12 (by Sf.3), Sf. 8, S.10, Sf.10 (by 
, M k S.lo, N.17, B£17 (by Xf.tfj 

9.3. Kongarangati kanatu (oil flfih) : b. a tf95. d. <?. 1915; killed nt Kongora. in a fight, by 

.■■<. Iienivo wife's brother? Offftd EX 8Q years; was to have married 8l\8; f. 8,1; 
m, Wf.l. The personalities of 8.3 and TSS seem to have become confuted in 
int\»f itiM-.f ,j.' iij'umIh nml the record as given may be inaccurate. They evident]? were 
stepbrothers who won* born some year* :i]>ivri 

8.4. Horuinoingati kanatu (nil lisli) an4/ot airuput (small mackerel); b. o l.SHS, d. e. 1939; 

Bpftararl .it Wnnaratji, died at: lhmgkankuru, aged <•• 44 years, death ascribed to 3T.2: 

f< ; m, ; married St,] (widow uf U.22(U'), gf.2 (probably widow ol 

! .UU j , Ur'.y; 1 child BHfl (by Sf.'J), no children by either 8f.22 01 EtfLfl. 

Note; This mau T s number is out oJ logical BequgNjoe lieenuse of a kite revision. 

8.5. Dongkororoingnti kullrit.ii (shark) | nl-n named Odejt.i ipqrf •.-(.,■ | , white name Terr}, thii 

Dame fiTBl gtrVGZI during R brief visit to Mornington Island MiBSioD m 194.5, 1!n 
fttlt oMernnl cord art with whiter; b. r. 1805, d. 1947; dn.v. ned on raft, voyage from 
B i-nhnrk t<» Allnr. I shim! widi mftnj others, aged 0< S3 years; f. 8.1 J rU Wf.l ; marm-d 
8 wives; he took roily foot oi thorn when b& and a. patty t\od to Allen Island after a 
fight in w47j Uirctn oJ thesn wjvcp aad 7 uf his children were among Huv-e iImiwilmi 
w.fl, him. His wives were, Bf.8. Bf.8 ( v.i.lnn of T.4,, Hf.10 (widow of T.H and S B 
Bf, 81 i Bf.SL M.8 (a widow), Tf.U (widow of ? T..'0, Ulfi (widtiVf U>1 BJ 
and UJi), UP. 4, tJ f. It, l.f.lS, Xf.5, in addition be bad relations with the unman; 
rid ur.:o. id rhddren svii, s.k;, «f.20 (by Sf.8), S.20 (by Sf.9), B£M f Sf.18, 8,26 
ih, 3f. "-.}, B£.22 and V'f.S (bj Sf.M, but V ttolnoro attrdjuti-Hi |rf second child 
&ol i •■■ill. Bf i e S L8, 8x,23 (l'V UtA who was said to have been the fir8fc or 

eUh-H.i wire), Hf.19 (by Xf.5), S.^'J, 8.25, 8,42 (nottlffi^ Damg mtf rvenrded). AJso 
he inlierited 10 &to\ ^-children and his widows had 4 by subsequent husoMtfej 9£.30 
(nmlher I't'.lt-., nmnari.l, is attril:.t]te<l to him; this child was rohtntnd ami fe&tQ0 
by Vi.10 and U1 

fl.6. Bcrumohigati n gkult ( .) ; b. ♦?. \8 ( J~>, d, c. 19*11 at Wanaratji of spear 

wound Inflicted bj WA who eaentwd to Allen I&fttid (wlieiv Ifl 1041 he shared the, 

killing of o Monungton I-.lan.ler), Mged «?. 47 years; f. ; tm ; married 

Sf.JO* (widow of T.. J ). 4 stepchildren, T.10, TJ1, T,14, TIM5, his wi.low married 8.0. 

R.7. Wnrtadan^'Nti kulkitji uhark) also kalbara (white crane) and Ijilangind (sjnall rnck 
oVater) i b. '\ lft0. r >, d. e. 1944 at lu-kuti of a throat infection, with blood, condition 

known as dorongk, aged c. <H> yeaMJ f. } rn. ; married 8f.7, Uf.b\ It'.?, 

Vf,7 S.x childten, V.o, Vf.8 (by Bf-T), V.0, Uf.17 (by Uf.ff), VF.10, V.7 (by Vr\7). 
'i'lie dolnoro aeROciatione ate not understood and need Batoking in the fiald; 
it SGffTns poaiible that he ahanged from V dolnoro to S but his children remained in 
V; ..fi.rr in-tancc* of such n change were cited.) 

H.6. Majkaruhingati toato (rainbow), whit.. nam6 Kmg Alfred, also called Dingkararangati; 
b. .. 1897 il. 1917 (before June), killed at Lokotw by S,1H # aged r, 50 veavs; was 
killer of ZS\ f B.2j tti. Xf.3; married wives T Sf.l6, Sf.18, Uf.7, Uf.15, TJf.17, Zf.2; 
4 children. B.21 (by Sf.l6i , Sf.27, Bf.29 (by Sf.18), 8f2S (by Zf.2), Note: QtM 
was [lis stepchild (by Zf.2' whose real parent has not been recorded; three of his 
Widows passed to his younger brother 8.17 



320 RECORDS OF THE &A MUSEUM 

BJ9, Tundoingati bidjarupa (dugaug), b. r. 1895, d. c. 1946, killed at. Maxan by Z.7 and Z.8, 

when lit- returned fidm finning at night lime, aged c. 50 vears; f. ; m. ; 

married Uf.10; 2 rhildfen, Kfl'l, S&2S, 

8.10. fondoiugati boboko (quail) also called Bilinapurignti, while name Kelly, b. c. 1900, 

fl, October 1950 of sickness while in transit by aii plane from Mornington Island to 
Ooneurry Hospital, aged c. 50 yearn; f. >S.l? ; m. Xf 1; married 4 wives, Uf.7 (widow 
of ail, S.7, 8.8), Uf.17 (widow of'tS.8), Tf.9 ( widow of LI. 13, U.10); 1 cluldreu, 
8.24 (by Uf.7), 8.23, 8f.33 (by Uf.17), 8.30 (by Tf.9> ; lio received Uf.3 (widow 

of u.0) Imji passed hw to v,5. 

8.11. Tondoingati bidjarupa (dugong) also orobari (bonensht, b. c. 1920, d. 1945, after 

. I unr, at ROttgata, killed when lie returned frOJD fi>hing, by tWtl flDfittj f. ", 

m. ; married unrecorded woman and Uf.7; 2 children, Sf.24, 8f.20 (by Uf.7). 

8 12 [son of BALTAKNGATI1; b. r. 1904, d. ft 1918 at Burumangi, killed by 

white man, aged c. 14 yearn; f. j m. Tf.2, 

9.13. Berumoingati airupul (small mackerel); b. r. 1905, d. r. 1925 of stomach eickness, aged 

r. 2ii yirira, not mannd; f. 8.4; m. Br\S, 

8.14. Tarurukingati (Tadukingati) kulkitji (shark), white name Buddy; b. c. 1916, d. 1947 

before August; killed at Markaruki by S.S, just prior to 8.S 's own death al«o by 
killing,; aged c. 31 years; newly married; f. 8,5; in, Sf.S: married Uf.13, no children 

5.15. Kongarangati dawart ( ), b. c, 1917, d. October 1043, shot by R.A.A.F. 

personnel during an IWlWOVOkBd attack with speara at Milt, «\ 2d vear«, "unmarried, 
f. 8.2; m. Xf.;i. 

Biff, Bokanaijarupaugati kaoibo (rock cod) also debedebe (rock cod), white namea Alec, 
Alex, Alft- Alien (also railed Ngftrangati, corrupted as NaranatjO) ; b, c. 1920, 

removed from A Ilea Island to Morniugton Inland 10 June or 2 July 1947, a survivor 
of the raft disaster in which his fatln-r- :md others porlflhodj living June 1960, age 
o, 40 veurs; f. 8.5; m. Sf.8; married 8f.l3 (widow of 8.5, his" father), 8f.24; 
4 children, Sf.34, 8,35, 8.36, 8.39 (by Rf.24). 

6.17. Korerurigati worobari (bone fish), also lokoti (sheoak tree) j white name Percy 
Tjoogat.ha ; h. r. 1922, nrrived MorniTigtnu Inland 4 August 1947, living June 1900, 
aire c, 38 yours; measured as B.l. no. 1, f. S.2 ; m. ~Xf.3; married Sf.lb\ Sf.18, 
Vf.10, Zf.2, Zf.4; 7 children, Sf.32 (by SfJ6), 8.28, 8f.36, 8.40 (by 8f.l8), 8.32, 
17, 81.38 (I'.v Vf. 1(1); DO children by other wives; £h0 child SF.30 reared hj 
Vf.10 WM adopted from Uf.lO, its supposed father was 8.5. Blood types: — B, "Mss, 
Rj l u , V, Ue(a-), Fy{*+>j K Webb-. 

818. Kobnratjingati boltoko (quail); white name Pat; b. O, 1922, arrived Morniugton Island 
18 October 1948, living Jtlkfi 1900, agfl c. 38 years; measured as B,I. no. 4 ; f. 8,5 , 

m, Liu.4; married >t wwca), Hf.n, Df.lS (whom he gave to T,i3), Wf.4, Of,i; 
9 children, BlSl, 8.29, B.S1, Bf.35, 8.38, Bf.37 (by SM7), S.27 (by Uf.13), 8.34 
(by AVf.l), iju children by Uf.l. Blood types:— B, Mas, Rj H l>} U r , LeO* — } p 
Fy(ft-f-), K , VVrbh-. 

3.19. Tarurukingali mnrokad: | ) also tungalngomoro ( ) ; white name 

Gilbert", b. c. 1922, arrived Morniugton Ishuid 18 October 1948; d. 24 Soptomhfti 
1955 bv drowning dti :< carina accident off Amlrrw fsUkfld, aged •'. 33 vars; W 8.5; 
m. Uf.2; married Tf.7 (widow of Z.3 r Z 2, UJO, '/.9), Xf.S (widow of*8.1U), Xf 17; 
no children. 

8.20. Kongaraugati, b. d 1925, ± c. 1925, aged c. 1 year; f. 8.5, m. 8f,9 ; fsce 8.41, out. 

of place, should go here]. 

8.21. Berurnoingati bidjarupa (dugong) ; b. c. 1934. d. c. 194^ of .make bite, aged r. 12 

\varr-; t 8.H, m Kf.10. 

8.22. Karukungati; b. c*-. 1938, d. 1947; drowned on raft voyage from Bentinck island to 

Allen Island, aged c. 9 years; f. 8.5, ra. . 

8.23. Kongarangati tapurciro (sword shark), also lokoti (3heoak tree); white name Peter 

litigate; b. d 1939, arrived Mormngton Island 4 August 1947; living June I960, 
ago c. SI years; f. 8,10; in. I T f.l7. 



8,3a. 



TIN DALE— POPULATION OF BENTINCK ISLAND 321 

5.24. Lhokalatjmgati holfnko ..quail) ; white name Rogue ; b. 1941, arrived MoTinngton Maud 

4 August 194.7; living June I960, ago 19 years; 1 8.10; m, DIU 

8.25. Rokotangati; b. c. 194.1; d. 1947, drowned pa P&fl royagfi from Bentinck to Alleu 

Island, aged A 6 years; f. S.5 j io. . 

H.2fi. Bokanaijarupanguti (Bokamungati) ; b, 0. 1942; d. 1947, drowned on raft voyage from 

Bentimk 1o Allen Island; aged c. 5 yeara; t S.5 ; in. Sf.13. 
8,27, irtita name Horace; h t 1947-8 after arrival of mother at Momington 

Island; d. 28 December 1948 at Mornmgtou Island; aged under 1 year; i H.18; 

m. Uth& 
;-»::S, white name Robert; b. 9 January 1949 on Momington Island; d. 9 January 

1949; aged 1 .lay j t S.17; m. Sf.18. 
S/JM. white name Malcolm; 1» 16 January 1950 on Momington Island; d. 22 

January 1950 ; aged 6 days; f. S.18; m. BfilL 
8.30. Njinjilkingati (jbo named for a place given "'is name ou Mornington Island by Kaiadilt; 
; Bcntinck Island), bbljarup (dugong) ; white iiiune Duncan; b. IS February 1950 

on Morningl.ur. Island; living June I960; aged Id years 8 months; f, H.10; m. Tf.9. 
H.3L banga (turtle); white uanu- Glenn; b. 1951 on Momington. Island; died 

before 1959;' aged about B-fl years; f. S.18; m. Sf,17. 
54.32. t,]u:.iMi:i (white porpois* -) ; whit,, name Geoffrey; b. 7 February 195S on 

Momington Island; living June 19C0 ; aged S years 4 months; f. 8.17; m. Vf.10. 
kamara (BtOHfl fish); white name Mnlenlm, b. 15 April 1952 on Momington 

Island; living June 1900; aged 8 years 1 month; f. unknown; m. Of. 17 (widow of 

S.10 for 1 year 6 mouths before birth of S.33). 
g.34 bamkaltji (native companion); white name Benjamin; 1». 0Q July J953 on 

Mondngtwn Island; living June I960; aged 6 years 10 mouths; f. S.38; m. Wf.'. 
gj^ wliite name Maxwell; b. 7 September 1953 on Momington Island; d, J&B3 

of pneumonia; aged ttufler S months, 5. S.16; m. 81*24. 
g;30. white namn Rodney; b. 11 Nov. mbei- 1954 on Momington Island; living 

June 1960; age 5 years months; f. S.10; fir. 8f.24. 
8.37. dangurt (mod Gfftfb) 1 white name Noil; b. 12 June 1955 on Moruingtou 

Island; living June 190(1; age 5 years Q months; f. S.17; in. Vf.10. 
jjj b wnnint (guana) J white name Harry; h. S September 1956 on Momington 

island: living June I960; age 3 years H months; 1\ 8.18; m. Sf 17. 
S ;: i)t white name Kobin; 1». $ duly 1957 on Moruingtou Inland: living June 

I960; age 2 years 10 months; f. S.16; m. 8t\24. 
g,40 t ■ — bidjarup (dugong) ) white name Gerald Baldagu; b. 1.9 August 1958 on 

Morningkm Island; liviug June 1960; age 1 year 9 month*; f S.17; m. Sf.18. 
Stl Beruruomgati kanatu (oil lish ) ; b. c. 1927; d tU 17, drowned on raft voyage from 

Bcntinck Islam! to Allen Island ; aged R 20 years. Tt,e data mi tin* ttW M not 

firm. f. ; nil . 

S.42. Tjodjongati; b. C. 1940; d. c. 1947, drowned on raft voyage from Beutiuck to Allen 

Island; aged ft 7 years; f. tt.5; m. . 

Females of Dolnoro S 

Sf.l. DONG KOKEING ATT banga (turtle); b, fti 1875; d. c. 1925 of fticknes* at 

Kom'nrangari; aged r, 50 years; f. J m. \ married U.22, S.4 an 

unre-orded T, man; children XJ7, 0U (by U.22), T.6 (by I), BM3 (by S.4; 

Sf.2. TONDOINGATI; b. c, 1875; d; ft 1933 of wmkness at MardankJ- aged c. 58 years; 
f. ; m. ; married U.22, 8.4; no chilitt 

Sf.3. KEND.!ALKAURirNG,\TT tjudabari (fish hawk); b. c KS83; d. after 1907 of sickness 

at Mededingki: aged over 24 years; f. ; m.- ; married S.2; previously 

bad had Children by V.l; 4 ehddrm, V.4, Vf.7 (by V.l), Sf.ll, 8f,12 (by S.2), 

Sf.4. BANDARANGATI; b. c, 1890; d. c. 1910; aged e. 20 years; not married; f. 8.1; 
m.— . 



322 RECORDS OF THJb S.A. MUSEUM 

BfA BEALUIUTNGATI kulkttji ( shark) ; b. r. 1*92; ft r, 1925 of BfcklttflS a I BaUao; 
aged c, 33 vi-.-n-.; r. ; tu. ; tnsfj i tLAj 1 elm'd. S,i2. 

Sf.fl. BEBUMOINGATI; b, & 1*93; d after IMJj f. 1 w. ; married U.l: 

I child, La. 
SC*. WrMMAJiUKAITrvTTNfJATr karwark {miecn fish) ; b. c. 1895; d. A 1928 of gfefa 
si Wedei; aged c. gjj year?; f.- j m. • married S.7; 2 children, V.5, \ 

Sf.S. KENAKJiNAlJA-TANGATI bidjarup (dugong); white name VKNl"S, h ft I 

r iviM st Morniugton Island 2 -July 1947 From AilletJ Island: living Juno li'i i 
age r, 65 .year*; measured as HI. 12.1 ; J'. S.2 ; m. Xf,lj mawtAd 8.5 (hnd freei] 
promised to S.3 but to *** Ultd); 3 ClltldMn, 8 14, 8J& Sf.S0. Blood tarpetJ- 

O, Ms*, R, K,>, Pj.—-, !*(*-), !'}(" + ), K- 

BfcJ. DONGKA_LAT.IIN(;aTT ( DOT/K fUuATJTNGATl) tjariru (stingray), b. 0; 1098; .! 
■ Bjfljf L9£7j HJKMXJCr] at night by 8.17 at Puugbiuknrn in mistake for 8.8 during 

general Bcnrnniage; aged c 49 yeaiaj t \ m. ; married T,4 and later 

., 3 children, EM, T.irj (by f I ty ( .by 8.6), The Kaiadilt woman first 

rin-f M, rtJcr-f] I \v M rnington Ulan) r. Gully, on a reef, about 1927, 

Mil) TONLMJlNGATI (TONUUnNUATI) bit ., ctt$* (dugong); white nam:.- BOONttAj 
b. r. L907, arrived on Mornington Inland -i August, jo;?: living Xiuui 1M0 ! age c 
&3 yearsj measured as BL20; £ 8.2; m, sr.i; married fp.8, EW fend U,14j 

.•hildren, T.ll), T.ll, T.14, TiU3 (by 1.3 <»r S,0), &JI, P&22 (by !/.M.i. 13J.mil 
types; — O, Mhn, l; ( ,. pj . I.e(a-), Py<u+), K- , Webb— . 

8f.Jl. DOI.MONAP.VNGASI t.:ih*i..di (trottipdt FbHii; b. o. 1907; 3. c. 1925 of fticVaefla 
at Njinjitki; not married; f. S.2; m. BfJ, Nqt«! Witf bortl in 7 domoro fcomti . 

Hf.12. DA^GGANGtJRUNGATI menuunguru (queen fish) ; b. t\ 1910; d. c. 192S nf &to»l 
tronble; aged o, IS years; f, S.2; tu, SO; newly ummed to TJ.10 at time of dea 
110 rliildrrn. 

Sf.l^. WlNDJAliUKAURUKOATr (RENDJALdvAUKITNGATI) Larantan (bono risl, ) . 
whif.r uame SARAH No. 1; b, a, ItMX); arrived on Motniugtno I-]:i T i<1 htm S I 
Mand 2 July 1947; living June 1900; age ff, GO yeary (could be 2 yrnr- older); 

Msured as BL, nn, IT. (beCftUW (it Iot black hair without. grr\nr - -; e»]te wrp a1 
c.M.sidcrHd much ynunger) ; f. S.4.; m. 6-C .1 , m&friocl 8.5 and S.'l<); 3 chiblr.n, 8f 
BfciS, BM (by S.5) ( BloOd 99MV B, ONWj Rj K , P^, l,n(u-V, Fy«:i^ ), I 

SrU4. KAKIKA1UWANGATI mLimb.tj. | ;.rgu rat fldi); b. r. 1912; d. 1047, drowuod on 
raft voyage from Benlinck tu Allen i slur i- A ; aged >\ 35 voars; f. 8.4, rn. Sf.2; 

in.'uiied 8.5 (slap probable aswedationa with v.2); 2 children, Bf r : Ma s.fj'i*. 

C.S I p -l-ably by Y.2). ' J 

i j. KONGAfiANCATT. tjaparta (sole); h. r. 1910, d ,:, 10IS, by drowning, after [,. 

had been chased out on to roefa by white innn, with dog*.; aged r. £ . . £ S.5; 

(n, r;f,4. 

i:;. KKNDJALKAUKUNGATl tjoloro (wtone fish); wnltfl m.n.o DONNA, also writtro ifl 
DONA :nid v<-i'y incurn-rUy ,-ih NOBMA \ b. e. 191'V, . --rivi-d mi Mornin- 
4 August. 1947; d. 23 PeCOnber 1950 at Mornii,£fon tfllaHllj t S.5 ; m. Sf. I. 

niarried 8.8 and 8.17; (duldrcn, 8.SJ (by S.«), 8f..",2 (by S.17). 

- 17. ' ; 'EIHNGraNGATI tjunnd:, (wt,itr porOofe*); whit^ name 8ALT.Y ; h, c. 1924, 
anived on Mun.ingtnn T:dand is Q^obej 194B; living JttIM I9(i0; age'/- 1 , 37 yon?*;' 
mflaeurtid as I'. I. no. :U); f. 8.2; m, XT.3; married "8.18; fi .diildfea, 81.31," 8.29, 

8.31, 3f.35, 8.38j Bf.fiT, Tliia is the wotaai] spokan to by M<*Cartliy trrhvs ■ >1 
gating thfi SltOOting nf rlic native on Sweers frdand In 1945, BloQd tvpe^: "R Mss 
^i E«i Pi—, Le(a-), Fy^.-f), k_. 




K , Pi-f, Le(»-), FyU-K), & 

i ( 
years 



8M9. KONGAHANGATI; h. c 1920; d. ct 1988 at Kombali. m the mangroves of eipoauii! 
nid cold during S.K, trade wind WtfHttiei and at same time as mother: SBfid c S 
years; f. 8,?j Dd, 8f,5. 



TINDALE— POPULATION OF BENHNCK ISLAND KB 

Bf.20. WANARATJINUATI; b. c. 1927; d- 1047, drowned on raft voyage from Bentinck to 
Allen L&l&Ild; aged $ 20 years; f. 8.5; m. St'.S; not tnarried, tjo children. 

B&21. KORAWW0NGAH biajarupa tAifon^Ji white Dame MATILDA; b, r. 1029 7 arri^d 

on Morunigt.on Island d August, 19-47; .1 5 Juno 1950, after, giving birih to still-bom 
male child ou S 12 May 1950; aged & 21 years; J'. 8.9; 111. L'f.lO; married 8.5 but 
uo children; «s widow Lad short marital a laftgtatfottfl with T.1LJ :mk1 VA fc>llt neither 
were QOnaidetfld to be proper marriages; 2 children, Tf..lf>, T.J 7 (considered to have 
boon fathered by T.12). 

Sf.22. BIKARDKINGATI Komi (>. fish) j fc c. 1932; d, <\ 1937, killed bj V.3 whoso elder 
hruthor should have Ij.'id her as wife; aged c. 5 years; f. S.5 ; m. Bf.14. 

Sf.23. KONGARANGAT1, also tilled KUNTURUNGATI mengunguru (queen fish) ; white 
name MARTHA; b. c. 1938; d. '19 11, drowned on raft voyage from j.*c attack to 
Allen Island; .'.god e. 14 yean*; not married, but, had been promised to Z.9 ; f. 8.5; 
m, VIA] not married. Reputed to have boon a light skinned person, known M ft 
kandokando. 

Hr\24. WERUNGATJIKGATI tadaoka (|>umpkinlmad fish); white name DAWN; b. 1935, 
arrived on Mnnungton Island 2 duly 1917 from Allen Island, living June 19G0; 
UH jcars; measured as BX. no. 17; £. 9.11 5 m. Uf.7 ; married 8.16, 4 children, 8f.34, 
S.35, 8.36, 8-39. Blond types:— O, MKftJ, H s R , Pi—, Le(a-), Fy<a + >, K— , 
Webb—, Jk» — . 

►St\2u. TONDOJNGATI bokadji (black hawk); white name MAY; b. r. 1936, arrived 
Mornington Island 4 August 1947, living June 1960; age c. S9 years; IflUftSUred as 

HI. no. 29' f. ft.9; in. Of. 10; married lj.17; no Chilton. Blood typos:— 0, MNlR, 
Bj R , P r , Ll-(h-.), PyU+), li— , Wrbb — , JU-K 

'«. KOBARKIXGATI karwark (queen tisli ) ; white name PAULA; b. 1 July 1988 ( 

given in Mission records, not verifiable); arrived Mornington Island i August 1917; 
living Juaii' I960; age 21 vcn.rs 11 months; I. N.ll j m, Clf ,7 ; not married, promised 

to t;id. 

:7. BERUMOTiMiATl mail (swamp turtle) ; white name NETTA; b. 1 July 1912 (mitFion 
record age, not verifiable); arrival mi M'orningtnu Tslnml 4 August 1947; living 
June I860; age 17 year.- 1.1 months; measured o: J .BI. 00. :95 ; t 8.8; m. Sf.18; 
DOt manieOj not premised- Blood types: — O, Nss, K t It^, P-, — , Lo(:« — ), Pv(u+) 4 
K , Webb— , Jk» 

Hf.28. WARTADAJS'GATl bidjarupa (dugong) ; white nanw ETflEL, earliei records give 
MILDRED (?); b. 30 July or September 1946 (ooaltiotitlg mission records); 
arrived Moruiugtou Island 4 August 1947; living June A9150, age 14 .years 9 tttOftUlfl 
(ir J. D . yemfl 8 months; measured as HI. no. 40; f. S.8; m. Zf .1! ; not married, not 
promised, Blood typos; — B, MN.s,-., R y K (M Pj — : L.^hiM, Fyiu-i, K — , 

8f.2». TONDOTJSGATT banga (turtle); white name DOLLY; b. Marob 1940, aniud 
Mornington Island 4 August 1947; lilting June 1900; age 14 years 3 months; 
meuBured as 151. no. 38; i. 8.$; m. StMs, Bluud types;— B, MXss. i:, i; 4 „ P n — , 
Lc(a-) f H^U I 1, K — .. 

Sf.30. WERKKHWKRRKENGATT knmbo (rock mil) J while nAffle MARGAIIET; b. May 
1946 Oil 8wecrs Inland; arrived Mornington island 1 August 1947; d. 14 April 1950 
on Mornington l*Isud, BaitBG m>t Btatedj m. UtMO nnuiarrierl : flbild .iseribed to S.5; 
VT&fi adopted by S.J 7 aud Vf 10 

sf.IJl. white tianu^ TRKNE; b. July 1948, arrived Mornington Island 18 October 

1S48; 4 in January 1949; aged li months: f. 8.18; m. St. 17. 

8f.33. white namr (JLIA'E, also known an OLOM ; b. 11 October 1948 at 

Morr»ington island; d. 110 February lfi50j BCOd 1 y ur 4 months. V\<v lirsl rinjo 
bom oti MoraiiigUm Biter the evacuation ol' Bcntmck Isl.-uol; f, 8,17; \n. SJMG. 

Sf.33. « white name STANi'Y ,, 1 Dm. ^.i,. -r 19 4 9 nt Mornington Island; d. 1950 ; 

d ondor 1 year; f. ,S.10, KB. IV. 1 7. 

Sf.34. wnite name DOKOTJIY; b. 27 May 1950 at Mornington Island; d, 28 

August 1951 at Cloneurry Hospital; aged 1 year 3 months; f. 8.16; m. Sf.L'4, 

Kf.35. whit.* aamo MADGE; b. 26 May 1953 at Mornington Island; living June 

1960; ago 7 years months; f S.lSj IB,- Hf.17. 



324 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

.16. white name OLIVK kuluwanda (ii small bird.!, b, 17 July 1953 at 

Morning ton Inland; living -Time 1900; age 6 yeaxfl 10 months j f. S.17j in, 8f 1H. 

Sf. 37. white name DOKOTHY; b. 1!) May 1959 at Mornington Island; living 

June 1960; age i year mouths; f. 8.1$; m. Sf.17. 

808 White ntn.ir JOY; b. 3 September 1959 at Mornington Island; living 

Juno 1960; age 9 months; f. 8.17; m. Vf.10. 

Males of Dolnoro T 

T.l, Ngolotalkiiruugai.iarupangati kambo frock cod); b. & 1880, d. o, 1918; shot, by a 

white man at Minakuri; aged c. 38 years; f.— ; tn. ; younger sisters were 

Tf.2 and Tf.3; family ii any, not recorded. 

T.2. Kongarangati waruku (sun") ; b, 0, 1885; d. c. 1919, killed m a. fight; aged c. 34 yeaTs; 
f. or step f. S.l; rn. Wf.J; married W£.2 and V,;! : ; children, T.4, Tf.7 (by 
\Yr\2), Tf.8 (by Vf.2). 

T.3. Modomodongntl bidjarupa (dugong); b. p, 1885; d. A. 1940; drowued at night at 

Kodakurn; aged c. 55 years"; f. T.2 ; m. ; married Bf.2 and Sf.10; 5 children, 

T,5 (by Sf.2); T.10, T.H, T.14, Tf.13 (by 8f,l0), 

T.4. Bitangati, also railed KongarangHti, tjilanganda — ninriwu (bifaec palaeolithic stone 
tool); b. c 1K90; d. probably tiafoxe 1983) drowned at flight while ffsning from a 
raft, ngimi (translated a* ( * outside") Baltac Island; aged <'. 43 years; f. T.L'; 
m. Wf.2; married Sf.9 ; a children, Tf.9, T.l 3. 

T.5. "Wundurungati (ftl80 called Kongarnnguti) kidkilji (>:hnrk) j white name Simj b. i\ 
L8&8, arrived Morningtou Island 2s October L948: d. 1 January 1949 at Mornington 
Island; aged e. 51 vearw; blind in uue eve since childhood; f, T.3 ; W, Xi',2 ; married 
Wf.4; 1 child, TtlJ. 

T.6. Kongarnngati knrwnrk (queen fish) ; white name Shorty; b. <\ 1905 arrived Mornington 
Island on 18 October 1948} living June 1900; age r, 55 j r cnrsj measured as Bl. no. 
J-I; f. unrecorded T. mun ; m. Sf.l ; married Wf. 3 and Uf.3 (widow of V.5) ; 
I Hold, Xtf.SO (by Wf.3), Blond types: — B, MNsa. K t R , P,— LeC*-), FytP+) 

s — . 

T.7. YVojopongati (Waijupungati) koako (curlew); b. c. 1915; il. c. 1944, Collapsed and 

died of y.iri.m-v while out holding al vV i n<( j:« m, k:i u »o . a;od 1_'9 year-; uiiioa rried , 

f. (or more likely step- father) S.'l ; in. Uf.9. 

T,8. WojopongaLi (Waijupungati) waldn (mkm.m,, 0. .. ID1S; d. ,., 19..'.. -;p. -,-■ Qi and killed 
ftt D.'ingkokinaijnrup: aged e. II venrs; nut married: t (ur stepfather) Z.3; 
m, Tf.4. 

T.9. Wanggalknanunti ngOrOugkelt ( ;. wbih' name Taut; b, e. 1920, arrived 

on Morniugtou Island 4 August 1947; living June I960; age c. 40 years; measured 
as Bl. no. 8; f. (or more likrly n!h[> f:i thir) S.4 ; in, TTf.9; inn rr.ie< I Tfl2 ( widow 
U.IO); no chiMrer.. Blood types: — !3. MNss, If, fv , P, , Lef*-), Fy(n f ) , R 

T.10. Wauaratjiagati; b. c. 1927; d. A 1929 at o. 2 yeara; h T.3 (or S.0) ; tu. Sf.10. 

TJ1, Wauaratjiagati; b. pi 19:U»; -1. c. \'X'A at 0. 4 years; f. T.3 (or S.6) ; m. Sf.10. 

T.12, Kon-arangMti winukru- (petir:..i ( 1) ) ; white noin.: Dug:. I (Doiigal) Ooongarra 
(corruption of ngati naine); b. e. 1980. arrived on Mornirjgton Island Decern' • r 
1917 after medical inspection tup of Dr. Spalding; living June 1900; age ff. 30 
years; measured as Bl. no. 2; f. | or »te>e father) 8.&j in. Tf.O; married Zi 
4 children, Tf.10, Tf.17, T.20, Tf.19; alfif) two stillborn, T.10 and T.18 (unsexci , 
prior to Tf.IG; algO ^uxpectrd t^tl..-r of T.17 and Tf,15 (by 8f.21). Note: Real 
!";tther of T.12 Maj have been TA Blood types:— O, MNbh," ft, B(h Pi-, I^(a- \ f 
KvU+), K— , Webb-, Jk*+ l 

T.13. I'itidjariridjingati kalbara (white cram') \ white name Frederick-, h. r. 1933, arrived on 
Mornington Island 4 August 1947; living June .1900; age c. 27 yeara; measured &» 
BL no. 11; f. T.4; ui, 8f,9; married Tr r 13 and Tf.17 \ 2 chiblTen, Tf,18, T.21 and 
1 stillborn unsexed, T.19. Blood typeBt — O. Mas, Ri Rj, P, — . !*(•—>, Fy(» I I 
K— , Wrbb Jk»4- t 



TINDALE^-POPULATION OF BENTINCK ISLAND 325 

T.14. Mapuru. bandeingati ; b. <\ 193 J; d. c. 1935 at. *\ 1 yuan f. T.3 (or S.6) ; m, Sf.10. 

T.ln. KotOCaraugatt karumoko (long torn fish); white name Arthur; b. 3938, arrived on 
AJoiningtoo Island 4 August 1047; living Juno 1900; age 22 years; f. 1M1; in. 
Uf.12; not married, but promised to St. 2b*. 

T.10. Stillborn nnsexcd, b. fc 1949; f. T.12; m. '/A' A. 

T.17. Stillborn .r:<lr, n 22 May 1^1); te&SM t T. L2 ; m. Sf.21 (jsefl nolo undur g£21)» 

T.1S. Stillhorn (?) ; not sexed ; b. prim to 1951; f T.12; in. Zf.-t. 

T.18. Stillborn; not sexed : fa. January 1951; & T.13; m, Uf.13. 

l'--9. White i'anuj Bernard} b. 14 February 1955 ; living June 1900, age 5 years 

3 months; is very blond-haired; f. T.12; in.* Zl',4. 

I.2i. kyjbara (white crane); white name VYestie Frederick; b. 9 January 19(50; 

living June 1900; age 5 months; & T.13; m, X£.17. 

Females of Dolnoro T 

Tf.J. AIAPUKAIlANDElJAK'llNtJA'n karwark (qfUM Hsh> and/or tantamant ( ); 

b. c, 1870; d. c. 19:;.;; aged c. B3 yours, of mulutji, a poison from the uea, f. ; 

m. j married U.l; 3 oldLdrim, U.b\ Uf.4, 1J.10. 

Tf.2. BALTAENGAT1 tjaparta (sole); b. c. 1883; d. c. 1918; aged <\ 35 jta&CS, BllOt by 
white man, inland, at Burnmangi, child shot, from her body in advanced pregnancy; 

f. ; Di. ; brother wjiih T.I ; Hi a tor wnn TO; widow Of unknown man; 

Married S,f»; 1 child, 8.12 (by unrecorded earlier husband). 

Ti\:: KOA'CJAb'ANGATl deh.<lebe. (rock cod); b. C >--••; d. ft 1925; died of cohl wind 

during storm while fishing in the water of a creek; aged c. 40 vk.mim; f. ; 

ui. ; elder brother was T.l and elder sister Tf.2; married W.2; 1 child, W.6. 

Tf.4. MARDANGICJNGATL bilti (tern); b, c. 1898; d, c. 1943 at Lokoti iRokoli); f. ; 

m. ; married Z.3, Z.2 and Z.5; 5 children, T.8 (by ?), Z.G, Z.7, Zf.3, Zf.4 

U I /. 

Tf.5. MAPL'KAL'.ANDELTAETJNGATI wondo (rain); b. c. 1900; d. r. 1945 of sickness at 
Kongarai; aged c. 45 years; f. ; m. :• married U.G; 2 children, Uf.13, 

Uf.l l. 

Tf.ti. KONGARANGATI bidjarupa (dugong) ; white name POLLY; b. <■. 1906, arrived on 
Mornington Island probably in 1947 group; d. shortly after 1946 but no mission 

data exists recording her death; 1\ ; m. ; married T.3 (not sore), S,0; 

3 children Tf .10, TJM1. T.12 (all probably by T.3). 

Tf.7. KOBATJTNGATI raerupudi (queen fish) and/or wonda ^=, karuwi (rain); white name 
EDITH; b. c. 1909, arrived on Mornington Island 18 October 19 |,S; living .Mm* 
19G0; ago c 51 years; measured as Il.l. no. 33; f. T.2 ; jii. Wf.2; married five 
times, Z.3, Z.2, 0.10, Z.9, 8.19; 3 children, TJf.18, 11.17, 17.18 (all by TJ.IO). Blood 
i.yj»f.s: — ft Nhj Eqj Pt— , LeX*-), Fy<*+)< K— . 
It. BELURUNGATI mandatji (cat fish); white name PANSY; b. c. 1917, arrived on 
MoTniri^ton IhIhihI 4 August .1917; d. 18 M:iy lii.'K, rrdssiiig, lu'lieved 'iiuwjied; 
after .leuth Of son; this r-oririd. wed aB a suicide by alx^rigines; aged e. 41 years ; 
f. T.2; m. Vf.2; nn-n,,i S.i, L.ln and U.14; 1 child, TT.1P (by LM0). 

Tf.9. M^\JMHUNT(iGrNGATl debedebe (rock cod) ; wiute name ROMA, h. c. 1917, arrived 
on Mornington IslaiuJ 1 Augu.st 1947; licing June. 19GU; nge r. 43 vears ; measured 
as Bl. no. Ml I T.4; ni. SO; rurirri.-d II. 13, U.10 and S.10; 3"children, Bf,21 
(by U.13), U.20 (bv U.10), and S.30 (by 8.10). Blood tvpee:— O, AfNss, R. i: (h 
Pj-, Le(u-), FydH), K , Webb-, 

Tf.10, NG1LTALNGAT1; b. e, tyfttj d. 1947, Oro^vned on raft voyage from Mentju.k to 
Allen Inland; nged 0k 22 years; omnairit'd j f. (or stepfather) 8.5; Dl, Ttfi, Note: 
lv'eal fnther may have been T.3. 

TT.11. TAKUKMNGATI; b, e. 1928; d, 1947, drowned on raft voyage from Bentinck to 
Allen Island; aged <\ 19 years; unmarried; f. (or stepfather), 8.5; m. Tf.6. Note: 
Real father may have been T.3. 



326 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

TL12. VvXREKEWEREK SKQAZEX (TJONQKOMANGATl) ; b. A 1035 on Swrnr* Island; 
d. 1947, drowned on raft voyage from Tietitinek to Allen Island; aged c. 12 yeara, 
parentage not recurded. 

Tf.13. TURURUNGATT kanatu (oil fish); white name ALISON, (ALLIKON) ; I., c [\K\C 
at Tururu, arrived on M-uiiiugion Island I lugtia! LlNrTj living Juno (960$ age 

l\ 24 years j measured as BI. no. 23; f. T.3 (or B;6)j m, si'.io; m.-irnwi Y-Cj 

1 child, Yf.5. Blood types:— B, MNhb, R, K<», F r -, Le(» ), IV{m | ) t K-. 

Tf,14, KAKONGATI talkuruki (giant kingfiahei > ; whii.: m.nie TP.ABKLLE; b. 1 July 1943, 
birth estimate in Mornington Island Register; arrived Mornington Island is October 
1048; living June 1900; age 16 Years 11 mdathfl; ms&SUfed as BI. no. 35 ; not yet 
married; f. T.5 ; m. \Vf,4. Blood tvj.es:— B, Mss, R t R„ 1^—, I I fa .) . tyU«W, 
K— . 

Tf.15. while name MILDRED; b. November 1948 on Mornington [aland; d. 29 

May 1919; aged tJ month?*; P, (suspected) T.12; m. (unmarried) St.'J/ fa* npfe 
under 8f.21). 

Tf.IO. white name A(4i\ T EH; b, is April M02 on Mornington Island; living .t,.r,. 

L9V0] aged 8 years 1. month; f. T.12; m. Zf.l, 

Tf.17. white name AMY; b. 1953-54; d, 1953-51; f T.12; m. Zf.l. 

1X18. kalbara (whir..- crane): white, name DAPHNE; b. 4 M:.rH. [055 ..n 

Mornington Island; living June lii'JO; aged 4- years J) months; f. T.13; w. Xf.17. 

Tf.19. white name OAV, h. 1 July 1959: d. 14 July H'50 ; aged 14 days: 

f. T.12; m. Zf.4. J ' 

Mates of Dolnoro U 

0.1. Banbnnnguti | b. c. 1805 at Banbnnbaru!a?iud; d, e. 1917; ag^.l r 52 years; f ; 

m. ; married Tt\ I and (lf.3 (..o {Affile); 3 children, I.J.H, l;f.4, Hit) i by Tf.l). 

TL2. Njinjilkingati bidjarupa (dugong); b, C 1870; d. ft 191S, drowned at lUmijalkanrn 

after being shot. at. by ;. while m&Xt} aged c, 48 years; f. ; ttk ;'mai 

TTf.l; E children, OJ.Sj V.9. 

TJ.3. Tjitunngati karwark (cjimen flat) ; b. 



ft 1875; d. r. lino, Reared and kitfwl in a fight; 
— ; RMTfled VIM; 2 children, Ur\7, Hf.l I. 



i c. 35 years; f. . m. ■ 

U.4. Modoinodongati aim put (small mackarel); b. c. 1885; d. after 1915; f — 
m, j mau-icd Kf.o, Kf H ; 2 children, (U2, U.13. 

X7.5. Murkurukand.jiugnt.i burautaut (bono fish); b, ft 1895; d, v. 1939 :it, Alinjikuri of a 
swelling- iloEnesfl Of Khe Mtomnch. --ailed mnkoitj wIi.U'Il La believed to coim- after 

breaking a food eating rule.; f. -; ru. ; married Vl'.i i -widow of W.3). 

Xf.9 (widow of "VY.3). Note: 1 stepchild Wf.b* from Vf.4, by VV.3). 

U.6. (ascribed also to W.) Modomotloug.-iti ngoroikn, al-o toato (raiubow) and/or binnr 
( ); b. <\ EB95; <I 0. 1940, drowiuM at Wutikl from a raft (broke a. 

rule by killing a flying fox in the day time :ind beO&Uti East in honvv fog wliile 
fishing with bark flares at niglit), a tall 1hiu man; aged ft 45 years; f, III; in. T: | 
.tmnied Tf.5, EJfJ) (vuuug widow of his far.her, t'.l ) ; 4 Vhiidron, Uf.13 Uf!t4 
(by Tt',5), ITf.15, U.1H (l)v Ijl,; 

TJ.7. (but could belong to H.) Kabaratjingati karwark (<|u<nu fish); b. e. 1896; d. c. 1920 
of stomach yickacss at Kongai.i; not married; aged 0, 24 years; f. U.22; in, Sf.L 

V.B. Njinjilkingati kadabalt, (curlew') and "Warduudi (mangrove dwelling pat); b. <7. 1897; 
d. c. 192S, death attributL-<l to :i, shot, by n white man &t Isongurai vvhilr, .-.Imie; 
aged c, 31 years; f. ; m, ; mMnu.l Uf.lO; 1 child, Uf.lfi. 

TT.9. KorowaraingaU bidjarupa (dugong); b, c. 1898; d. e. 1918, killed by white man in 
Irtish on BL-ntim-k lshmd; ag>i«l c 20 yrnr;*; unmarried; f. U.2 ; ni. *Uf.L 

U.1U. Uotjorotjongati tadaoka (pumpkinhead flsh) ; white hhiup Willy; b. c. 1900; d. July/ 
August 1945, killed by S.10 at Minalvnti; agi <i c. 45 years: his grave seen; his widows 
Btill had Unseated mourning Slashes on 17 August; 1945; f. TT.l ; ni. Tf.l; married hix 
wives, Tf.7, Ti'.9 T Of J (hin father's ^jdow), Tf-8. Xf.9. Sf.12: 4 children, U1MS, 
U.17 and U.18 (by Tf.7), l/.JU (by Tf.S). 



TINDALE— POPULATION OF BENTTNCK ISLAND 327 

UJ1. KaltannguU walda (moon), b, th 1^00; d. ft 1044; a ta.ll man; aged Of. 39 years; 
Speared and killed ;it Mededinglu by && who sneaked on hLm unfile lie was spearing 

fish; f. ■; in. ; fll&rrfecl UfilS; 3 children, U.14, U.lf>, T.15 (cheek, reason 

for difference in doluoro), 

U.12, Do.ij.Hi.in.i.i-afi tjoanda (white porpoise); b. ft 1912; d. <?. 1945; tall young man; 
unmarried; spem-d hv Q Q}AJ fyota Minukuri; f. U.4; m. Sf.5. 

U.13. Bokanaijarupnngati malnilda (big headed turtle) J b. c\ If)],'., <L fl, 1944; aged A 20 
V' r speared at Tjarapand by 2.8, died of wounds at Kongara; f. U.4; m. Sf.5; 
married Tf.9; ] <-hdd, ITI'.Lll, " 

XT. 14. Baltaengaii defoedobe (rook co9)j white uamc Mauriee; b. c, 1932, a -rived on 
Monungtun Island 4 August 1947j living Juno 1960; age e. 28 years; measured 
as BL w>, 5; f. U.li; m, [Jf.l2j married Ki'.io :<nd Tf.8j -2 children, U.21, Utf.22 

(by fctf.10). pleOd ' |ms:— }:, MJTbs, Bj K-i, Pj— , LeU+), B^(H >, K— , Webb—. 

U.15. Werungati minlt ( tint, fish} S whit" name Colin; b. c. 1935; arrived on Mornington 
Island 1 August Hit 7; d. 2(1 March 1952; aged c. 17 years J unmarried; but reputed 
father of 0&23 (part Kaiadilt) by Lardiil woman IDA, 

U.1G. Borcrungnti tjardaruki (crow) ; white name Desmond; b. 1936; arrived on Mornington 
Inland 4 Augm-t L94Ts living June liMin; &ge 84 pears j measured as BL no, (>; not 
nmrnui, i U,6j ftj, Uf..3. Bleed types:— O. MNss, K, K t , I\ — LeU-), FvU-t-). 
K-, Webb- , Jbi-K 

11.17. IJjoragarangaii buranlant (bone fish); white name Darwin; b. 1 July 1939 </f<fr Into 
entry to Mission Register), arrived on Mornington [gland IS October 191$; living 

June I960 J ago L'l year./ monl bs; measured Aa Bit no. 3j f. U.10; m. Tf.7 ; 
maiJi.il Sf£5j no children. Blood types:— B, Ns*, b' , r t — , Lo(n-), 1fr(ft-f). K— 

U.1S. Moraringati; while limuih Dmmhl; b. t), 1941 on Swcers Island; arrived on Moruington 
Island I ! October 1948; living June 19GU; age 19 yeaTSj not hWtriied; f. U.10; 
m, TX7, 

(M9, Tarurukingati murkudi (gmprr nNI, } j white name Tony; b. 1 July 1942 (fide late 
entry In Mission Register) at Taaro; amvod on Mornington Island 4 August 1947; 
d. L't September lf»f>:» y dtawned in a canoe accident off Forsvth Island; aged 13 
year;- 8 monihs; t U.H.); m. Tf.ft. 

U.20. ModoiurTdohL'.ati, also called Korownringnti tjadark ( i\ white name Roland} 

b ,■ 1&4C tnrivr<l mi MomingtOD Island 4 August 19-17; living June lOrlO; age 
r, i:» years; unmurvii d ; r.Mf^ureJ as 1U. un, .",7; r. TJJO; T ti. Tf.9. Blood tyiieB: — 
O, Vss, )?-, «,>, Pj-, LH(a-), Fy(a|), K-, Webb , Jk»4. 

H. til. ■ ■ uinle rhild; b. r. 1917, r.tnw.l Mornington Island 4 August 1947; <L c. 

1918; aged r. 1 years; f. U.14; m. Sf.10. 

U.22. (out of sequencer ■ I (father of Kabarat.ji karwaik) j b. ■ — ; d. o. 1904j 

mafried Sf.l (iJao perhaps 8t',2 but no issue).; 2 children, G\7, Uf.5. 

Females ol Dolnoro U 

Uf.l. P\NGAl,BADANGONGA'ri .ljinghjivviujiagaloro (southeast, wind); b, c. 1875; d. <x 

1918; aged c 4S peart*; drowned at Pifflgkal^angki after bring shot at by wldte men 
f. ; in. '—; married U.2 ; 2 children, Uf.3, U.9. 

Uf.2. JtTMUTANGATI (TCrMATEKb' of Mission Kecordsj; b. c. 1885; d. C. 1940; aged (X 
(J5 y^arflj Jtovnied during a 1940 raft voyage from Bentin<;k to Allen Island; her 

sou X.5 gel there with same oC the party; f. ; m. ; married X-2; 1 

child, X.5. 

Uf.3. BALTAKNG ATT ludjarupa (dugong); white name EVE; b. c. 1894; arrived on 
Mornington Island 4 August, 1947; d. 1 September 1954; agod o. 64 years; cause 
of 4eat0 g' " as ''age' T ; f. f'.'J; m. Uf.l; married TJ.l r TJ.6, 17.10 (she waa Ida 
father's otber wife) T S.O, then 8.10 who ,juat before Ids death passed her to V.5 
(in October 1950), T.f. ; 2 ehildren, Uf.15, U.10 (by U.fJ). 



328 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

VfA. DUBALKARURONGATI tadaoka (pumpkinhead rish); white name MARA j b. a 1897, 
arrived on Morniagion Island 4 August. 4947, was the woman who reported the 
mass drowning on the voyage by rafts from JJeuhm-k to Minn LflftBflj d. 194S Qafte 
June); aged a 51 years; f. CM j m. TIM; married B£j 3 children, SM5, '8.18, 

QltAO. 

L'f.n. TCABARATJINGATI raeruputa (a white fish"), b. e. 1M98; d. c. 190H of sirkimsa at 
ButyQg&r&j Bged Oi lfl years, i\ U.22; in. Sf.l. 

Uf.G. TJIUWAMiATT karwark (queen fish; ; I., c. 1905 at Tjiliwa = T Tjiwiaknra; d. 
A L93S i?,c<\ 28 year*, at Markaruki; went out into water, on return her stomach 

swcllou upt £ : rn. ; ramrlod 8,7. 1 child, UU7. (Not* ilmt the father's 

4 other children by two other wives Sf.7 and Vf.5 are t)£ dohn.ro V.) 

Uf.7. KALNJI1MNGATI. baJibah (bbek spotted sttagmyj and Karwark ( ); 

wh.tr name HANNAH; b, t\ 1905; ;i:nvr.l « n Morning too Island 4 August 1917; d. 

August i:'i7. aged .• 4£ years; described as having appo&r.a&ce <.f an aged woman 
nt daathj 1". U.3, m. Vf.J; married S.l.l, S.7, fcUOj 3 childieu, Bf.24, "Sf.26 (by 
8.11 i, S.&4 C*J s l r| : : 2 step-children, St\12 am I 6 (of earlier marriage in her 
j.lk-.IkupI'b men. i pavonta*g6 CkDl record. -d) 

Uf.8. TARDARinCTNGATt (TADAXMJN R .YTEKEINT) dobodeoe (rock cod); b. e. 1905; 

-i C '-•>::..: aged e 30 yea] -— ; m. j married V.3; 1 child, A r f.9. 

tttfc WKiUTNGATLN«JATI bo.oti I sole j ; b. c\ 1905; d. 1039 at Rrjug ant of fish poisoning 



from a suedes of sardine likv ftah? aged r. MO years; f_- 
S.4; 2 ehildn ■.., T.7, T.fl (probably both children by an e. 



m. ; mamed 



Uf.10, DANOlsANKHKHNGATI rigarumaii (ipoOflMlfyj b. c. 1907, d. /•. 1944. killed nt 
Taruruki with a spear by Z.8; agfcfl i 3R v.jm-'.v; f. 



earlier husband), 

, d. c, 1944 

. in. ; married TJ.fc, 

S.9; B children, Uf.Hi (h y 1.T.S). Si*.21 Sf.L'5 (by 8-9) 

Uf.ll. TALMANGKTNGAT1 bidtfaTUpa C&ȣWf) j b. rX 1910 ; d. c. 19to, at Bnkatuu, of 
karwar (slcbflGttB) al'ier she had bee-, tfiilbbed trv her husband (Y.I) ; need. e, 85 
years; f. U.3; m. Vl'.l ; BlAtftad y I - uo ehildren. 

Uf.12. DJILAWANGATI (TJIWIA K A KANGATI) babbali i bbek spotted stingray); flfefte 
name PINNY (sometimes .TINNY) ; h. ft 1912; arrived mi Momingtrm lsla.nl 4 
August 1947; j. U April lO.'s of pneumonia; aged e 40 years; f. ; m. ; 

married U.1J. '!'.!.♦: 8 <'liildren, U.ll, 1 T I.".. T.IT. ( 'parentn^v ni T . b", < s .--Hrribed to 
first ImtilianH but T.15 is now claimed a., belongmg to T.O-'s dolnorff},, 

L!f.];i. DANGKA.NKOblTNGATl fmirjuka (]»umpkinhcHd fish), whib- anme VERA; b. c. 
1920; arrived on KiouUDgtOll l.-laa.l 18 Grlnhcr 1948; ,1 gjfi Mairl. 1951; agnd n. :il 
vears; u:.- pi i-gn:. al i M Drr.-.r.t.or 1950, had RtlilbOCP <bild Janimrv, WoS haa.H- 
fusions at NaiinnnHOn Hospital 28 January; unable to swallow waf*cr 27Mi March 
1951; T, 0,6-; m. jr;, : Diacried L -t4, g.lfi Wlw KttYfl h.r kfl r.13 in 19C.il; I eLiUl, 
• .7 (/•;, .18) und one ytillburu cluld not wexed T.10 (by T,K<), 

TTf.l-i MAKALNCAT1 i HAXGKANK URUNG ATI ) l.nrr.r.taTit (bono fish ) , b. c. 39 I : 
d. ISfcTj cbov at ifl royagB HjnmJ BAatln^ to ftjjan uland. aged e, 2S year**.j 

f. U.ti, m. r l'r'.o; uianifi s., r / : mi rliiairc.!. 

,1.-, i.MUOAl \Kl.!TATU:PANGATt (WOMUAM AKUTAIUH'AlNGATJ) t.iaparta (solo); 
b. c. 1927; d. <. 1947 of sickness of the stomach, death attributed to mag'm, !>y 
Ub-iug hrr I.-hm.-:-, aged i\ SO years; f. U.0; m. Uf.3; married S.S j mi Hiildren. 




reared by Vf.10 to whom it lias sometimes bern ascribed, in error. 

Llf.17. RAlAKATATMM'AINGATr (R V1RAWA TA HTTP AING ATI } tjilangand (bifM0 
chopping itona>: Whit* home PHOEBE; b, a. 1927; arrivcrd on Mnmington Idttnd 

4 August 1.917; living Juno 1900, ugr r ?,?, years; measured as BI. no. 28; f 8.7' 
m, Uf.O; married S.8, SJ0; 2 rhildren, B.28, 8f,33 (by S.10); 1 <thihl S.33 after 
beiJJg -. i.low tor 1 year 6 months. Blood lypea:— O, MKas, Ko, Pi — , Lc(a-), 

TylM-), K — j Webb—. 



TINDALE— POPULATION OF BENTINCK ISLAND 329 

Uf.18. KABARATJINGATI} b. <\ Jfl$J- d. 1047, drewm-d <»> raft ttty&pe fr-m Bentmck to 
AJiezi Island; aged c. IS years; f. U.10; m. Tf.7 } newly married to H.5 when sho 
died, BO children. 

UM9. OMBOMAJvUTARtTPANGATI ngnrawunt (blue parrot fish); b. e. 19S2j arrived on 
Mornington Island 4 August 1947; d. 1917, but no record available of lie? dc;«th, 
aged c. In years; father, not recorded; Stepmother l ! t'.;i; ao! mrirned. 

Hf.20. RA1ARATARUPAINGATI kapinta (water snake) and/or mingingur ( woppa flsh) ; 
white Mumc AMY; ti I -Tnly 3042 (according to late entry in Mission Regieta 
arrived Mornington Island 4 August. 11)47 ; living June 1900, age 17 years 11 
uit.nl. lis; measured as Bl. ao. 'M; f. stepfather S.8 (real father not recorded.); m. 
Zf.LS; not married ; mi umniagr arfa&gaTriGQDtg v « r m.-nlr Blood l.\- 1 m -.. . — O, M.-.s, 
R t R 2 , P,-, Le(a-), Fy*(*«h) J K— , Webb . 

Uf.2l. DANGKANKUIUTNGATT mylvulda (big-headed turtle); white name DAPHNE; b. 
L942: arrived on Mornington Island 4 August 1947; d. S3 December 1917 of stingy 
M Jally fish, received while swimming; aged 5 years; f. U.IM; m. Tf'.9. 

TJf.22. MILBULKAIKATARANGATI; b. 104fi ; d. I9i&} aged ft l ftfce&J f. 1M1; ffl St 10. 

Uf.23. white name ALISTAIR; b. 9 Jtlly 19.12 or. Mnnm.gton I^t:i ...» fo 

June 1900; age 7 years U months; f. said to be U.15; m. a LardiiJ woman, IDA rf 
Mornington Island, :i widow not marrmd to Usl5 [by BOHie not teeogntocd as 
belonging to the Bentinck Island people, but regarded as a Lardiil person]. 

Males of Dolnoro V 

V.l. Tanmikingati warungalta (south-cast wind); b. c. 1872; d. r. 1918; aged p, 4ti yr.i 

shot by ft white man on bors>'b;u-k at Korombali (identified by Ilia son h* in a 
looi p&Otdgrapa taken by J. [•'. Bailey); f. ; m. } married 3M»1 also 

perhaps Bf.3 who patted to S.2; 1 children, V.2, Vf.2, V.3, Vf.« (b V ZM). also 
perhaps V.4, Vf.7 (by SO). 

V.2. Tndulkingati (Ngninngaiangati) jakar (porpoise); b. c. 1893, d. c. 191.7.; aged | 
yoars; t\ V.l; m. StM; not. martini]. 

V ::, Tadulkuigati rnatali (sea-eagle) ; white name Jack; b. 0, 1900; arrived ...i Monimgron 
Island 4 August 1947; living Jnrm 19f>0; age 0V 00 vears; measured as Bf. in... 7, 
f. V.l; m. Zf.l; married TJf.S, Xf.9 fno Children) and W&6] 1 child, VfJ 

DM)( S children, Vf.ll, V.S (by Wf.6) who had Yf.4 bv previctofl husband Ri I 

types:— O, Mss, U x l< 2} F,— , Loin-), Fy(n ), K -, \Vnbh-, JK-u . 

V.4. Tarurukingati jalunta (seaweed ) ; b. r. 1903; d. c. 1918; aged c. ffi ?6&rs; shot at and 

•■.■Hod by white iic.n from a Hmall ship at Baltae (Fowler Island) at same ftme ., 
hia father; t\ perhaps V.l with 8.2 as stepfather; m, ST. 3; not married. 

V.. r ». Tarurukingati morukadi (groper rish > ; white name Pluto; b. r. 1920; urnvod on 
Mornington Island 17 October 1948; UvJ&g June J&COj age & 40 years; measured 
aB BL, ji'j. i> ; a photograph dated December 1947 with Or. Spalding i$ n v:n t.*i i >t.« ; 
f. 9.7; m. Sf.7; married Uf-3, widow of U.G wlio bad UfSt passed to DUO then to 
8.10; mi children" by h^rj 8 RidOWer since 1954. Blood tvpes: — O. MX.-, I' . P. — . 
Led- ), Fy(a4), K , Webb-. 

V.6. Wartadangati bulunduntu ( ;, b. R. 1925; ri. a. L9o2. at Minakuri; aged 

a. 7 years, of kok, or sores all over m- boffyj f, 8.7; in. Uf.(3. 

V.7. Wartadaogati bilti (tern); b. v. 1942 j d. r. 1946, speared bv 8.17; aL't'd c. 4 ye, 
f, 8.7; m. Vf.7. 

V.N. Ttiingingur (woppa fish); white name James; b. July 1947, arrival mi 

Mornington Island 4 August 1947; d, 12 April 19o0; aged 2* years 9 months; f. 
V.3; m. wf,r 

Females of Dolnoro V 

VM. PINBINGARUPAINGATI baluinbant ( ) ; b. e, 1883; d. c. 1038 or M<k- 

tiess; aged e. 50 years; f. ; m. ; married U.'!; 2 children, Vf.7. C7f.U, 



330 RECORDS OF THE S.A MUSEUM 

Vf.2. JUMUTANGATT jamata (MiMed); b. & 1S96; d. <\ 1927 or after, at Mededingki of 
sickness; aged a &1 JWltj said to llATti bOCfl 8 Bftori fst wouunt , F. V.l: in. Zf .1 ; 
marked T.2. s.5j 2 'children, TC.S (by T.2), S.19 (by U). 

Vf.3. TALMANGKINGATI kaiwaruki (big \AwA toh); 6. <?. 1K»7, .1. . 192(5, at Dongalakara 

0| sii-km:--,; t'.-irp swelled up; aged r . " ■■; f. ; m. ; married W.l ; 

2 children, Wf.4, Wf.o 

Vr.4. DTTN"(ULAKAKAKGATI bnuga (turtle); b. c. 1DD&J d, c. 1947 at Minakuri of spear 

wound inflicted bv 8. 18; aged 44 years; f. ; id. ; married Y.2, W.3, 

U.5; 4 children, V.3 (by Y.2), WJT t W 8, vVf.O (by W.3) ; no children by 0.5. 

Vf.fi. DODJOTsGAPANC ATI kambo (rock cod) and/or bidjanipa (dugoug); b. c. 1905; d. 
A 1944; speared m an open iiirlii at Alaranr. bv 8. IS and died at FCongara; aged 
t \ 3fl jrB&raj f, j m. -$ married ts.7; 2 .'ii.idron, Vf.io, V.7. 

Vf.C. TJOBDJORORONGATT; k c. IMtfj d. ft 1019, at Tondoi, cause not indicated; aged 
c. 13 years; f. V.l; m. Zf .1 ; not mam 

V.f.7. DODJONGAPANGAT1 taliwindi (trumpet shell.; b. 0, .1.905; d. e. 1920, of sickness 
at. Njinjilki; aged c. 15 years; f, V.l ; m. Sf..V. not married* 

Vf.8. KONGARAXGAT1 bilti (tern); b. o. 1923; & <?. 1937, of stomach trouble at 
Barkowakar; aged v. 14 years; unmarried; f. 8.7; m. Sf.7. 

Vf.9. DONGKOROREINGAT1 waningalta {>mfh-cr,Kt wind)} h. v. 1925; d. c. 1931, at 
Dongkororei ; aged e. 6 years; f. V.3; m. L r t ! ,8. 

Vt.10. DONGKOROKELNGATI kardaka.di fa sea. bird); white name MONA ; b. 0. 1930 (or 
earlier); arrived on Mornington Island 4 August 1947; living June 1960; aged 30 
years (or older); f. 8.7; to. Vf.5; married S.17; ;i children, 8,82, Ml - 
(gf, 30 was an adopted child of 1W if> (unmarried glrl) p reputedly by 8. 

Vf 11. KAT.NJTKTNGATI. mandntji. (cat fish ') : whirr name RITA; b. 1 July 1942 (lato 
record in Mission Register); arrived on .Munjiugton. b/land 4 August* 1947 ; living 
June I960; age 17 years 11 months ; not married; r\ V.3; m. Wf.O. 

Males of Dolnoro W 

W.l. Kakongati burautant (bone fish); b. c. 1885, d. c. 1915 at Botenki of stomach sickness 

and diarrhoea j aged 0, 80 years; f. ; tn. ; married Vf.3; 1! children, Wf.4, 

Wf.f). 

Wlfi. ngati toalo (rainbow): b. before 1885; d. c. 1925; aged over 40 ft}fcfgj 

f. ^ m. ; married Tf.U, XfA 8f.7j 8 children, W.3 (bv Xf.7), W.4 (by 

B£fl)> W.5 (by T.f.3). 

W.3. Markurukandjingati boatO u:h. ilum) ; l>. ,-. 1905; il. r. 1935; aged c. 30 years, of : 

ttesg ami htsneoir beeaufie he tould nfit tatj f. W T .2; dj. Xf.7; married 5 wives, Sf.6 

(widow of W.2), Xt.9, XI. M t XF.I1, Vf.4 ; 5 chiMrpn. W,7« W&, Wf.O (by Vf.4), 
Wf.7 (by Xr.:*), no cluldnu bj Xf.0, W,r> (by Xf.Il). Xf.lo la said 'to have 
14 belonged" to W.3 and sin- baa I'ad otx child (Xf.14), but she was also stated tu 
have rtmiained * * single" all Iut life; it will be noted that her daughter * 'belongs' J 
to her mother's dolnoro. 

(TJi.tr are Btlll ioubtfl about the 3ata f'»r tula man and his family, lie inherited 
his father's wife Xf.0, who already had a son of the same 'utcm (tOftto) as himself j 
his widowed wives wen brn t.-K. r. by 0V5j a man of tho same ngati name.) 

W.4. Walkareriugati toato (rainbow); white name Rainbow; b. before 1910; removed from 
Allen lshmd. to Aurukun hv polic.o in April 1941 ; d. 5 May 1945, aged over 3t> >i::irn ( 
of sickness during an inllueiizri epidemic at Aurukun; described as • , rl<lprly ,, at 
death; f, W.2; m, XT .0 ; mank-.I Xt.15, XT.lfi; 4 children. Wt'.s, W.10, Wf.O 
(by Xf.15), W.l I (by Xf.lr>). 

W.6. Male child of W.2; b. c. 1922; d. c. 1925; aged o. 3 years, at name time* as its mother; 
f. W.2; m. Tf.3. 

W.6. Kakoagati kulpanda (Area Bihel] flah)j b. & 1925; d. c. 1945; drowned at Taruruki on 
south coast of Bentinek Island; aged c. SO yeat- ppt married; f« W.3; m, Xf.11. 



TtNDALEr-POPULATTON OF BENTINCK. ISLAND 331 

W.7. Dangkonsarupaingati burantaut (bone fish); b. c. 1927; d. 1047; drowned during raft 
VOyilgQ from Benfinek to Allen Islan-l; aged to, 20 years; unmarried; f. W.3; 
m. 4 VtA 

VV',8. Dangkongarupaingati ngarawunt (blue parrot fls$l)j b. c. 1930; d. c. 1942, aged c, 12 
years at Dungkongarupai; QftOie of death not stated; f. W.3; m. Vf.4. 

W.9. Walkiirertngali; b. d 1936; d. 1947 j drowned during raft voyage from Bentinck to 
Allen Island; aged <•. 11 years; f. ; m. . 

VV.10. Mmakuringati jakuri (red snapper fish); white, uauie Bobbie Kummari ; b. 3 April 
1937 {fdv laic entry at Aimikun Mission) J removed by police from Allen Island 
to Aurukun, April 1941; arrived on Mornington Inland September 1953; living dune 
19I>U; Age -3 yearn; not married; tneaPUSed as KL no. 12; f. W.4 ; m. Xf.15; was 
bom awav ErOXM his dnbuiru. Blood types; — B, Nse, Rj "Rj, P] — , Let>— ), Fy(i»+),. 
K- 

W.ll. Dalendurungati; white name Harney Walpo; b. 11 April 1940 on Allen Island; removed 
to Aurukun by police April 1941; arrived on Mornington Island September 1953; 
living June _19ti0 ; age 20 years 2 months; not married; £. W.4; m. Xf.lti. 

Females of Dolnoro W 

Wf.l. KAKONGAT1 walpukuten (rait); b. c. 1864; d. 0, 1924; aged c. 60 years, "Jlfrt 

Hud"; r\ ; m. ; married 8.1 (probably was widow of a man of T. 

d oluoro) ; 1 children, T.2, St), 8.3, S.5. 

Wf.2. llANGKONG,\Rni\\TNGATI burantant (bone fifth); b. c. 1870; d. c. 1920; killed in 

a fight after being chased into the aea at Malunji; aged c. f»0 years; f. ; 

m. ; married' T.2; 2 children, T.4, Tf.7. 

Wf.3. KAKONGATT mali (fresh water turtle); nlm. name LAURA; b. e. 1910; arrived 
009 Mtoliagton Island 21 October 1848 on the launch Martln- y feet family to leave 

Bent) nek iSaildj 8. 21 January 1949; aged 39 years, f. ; m. ; married 

T.fi; 1 child, Xf.20. 

W f. 4. D AWAKING ATI kulkit.ji (j-hnrk); white name MAUI.) IK PAT; b. c. 1913 at 
Duwarinnp; took pari in a short visit to Mornington Island July 1945; arrived 
permanently Mornington Island 18 October 1948; living Jane 1960 j agfl e. 17 years; 

measured as Br. no, 32 j f. W.l; m- VJS.8j married Y.l, T.5, x.3, 0,13; 5 children, 
r.5, V.fi (by Y.l), Tf.14 (by T.5>, Xf.20 (by X.3), 8.34 (by 8.18). Blood types:— 
B, Mas, R : R^, Pi~, !<#.<*— } ff Fy(^-r-), K— . 

Wf.5. BOTENK1NGATT burantaut. (bone fish); b. <\ 1017; d. o. 3937; killed at Rirarukt, 
Rtruek dowu by Y.l, her husband; aged ft 20 years; f. W.l ; ft Vf .3 ; married Y,l; 
nu children. 

Wf.6. BIKAKU KING ATI dadowokara (brown flflhjj white name JftW^; b. e. 1922; 
arrived on Mornington Tabu id 4 August 1947; living .tunc I960; age c. 38 years; 
measured a- 1U no. 19; f. W.3 (U.5 ia a Btapfittber) J m. Vf.4; married Y.2, V.3; 
3 children, Yf.4 (bv Y.2)j Vf,4 (considered as V. dolnoro but. probably belong* to 
Y.3, V.8 (by V.3).' Blood types : —B, BTsBj Kj R , l\- , T-e('»->, Fy(.» ■« >, K— , 

Wf.7. DAN(i KONG AR DBA 1NG ATI jaokati (.inbLru) j white Daxne DTJXiCDPj b. & 1925; 
removed from Allen Island to Aurukuu by pnliee in April 1941 (age then estimated 
a$ 11 15 years); living at Aurukun Mission June 1960; not seen, but. reported alive 
by Rev. AV. F, MacKen/ie; aged c. 35 ycjits; f. W,3; m. Xf.9; married Edward 
Muuukka. Koondoombin of Aurukun; 2 children. Of. I, Of. 3. 

Wf.8. WALKARERTNGATI ; b. c\ 1933; d. <\ 1935 at Minakuri ; aged c. 2 years; 

i. W.4; m. Xt\15. 

Wf.9. BALKNDURlTNGATt riningati (tiger shark); white, name JUDY WALPO; b. 15 
August. 1940 on Allen Island (fide Aurukun Atissiou Records) ; renjoved to Aurukun 
by police in April 1941; arrived on Mornington Island September 1953; living June 
19(H); i\£H 19 years 10 months; not married; f, W.4; m. Xf,15. 



332 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Males of Dolnoro X 

X.J. Minakuringati ; b. c, 1855; 1 probably before 1900; f. ; m- ; 

married ; 1 known child, Xf.i 

X.2. Minakuringati kuJkilji (ehark)j b. c. 1880; <1. c. 1925, oi' sickness of stomach at 

Walkareri; f. j m. ; married S WiVlg. Xf.4, [If. '2, Yf.l; 7 children, X.4, 

Xf.H, Xf.13 (b (V Xf.4), X.5 (by 0*49j Xf.8, Xf.10, X.H, XFJ5 (by Yf.l). 

X.3. Dalwaiugati; b, r. .1 .-■*:>. no record of death but perhaps between 1944 and 1946; 

ft ; m. ; married Wf. 4 and another; 8 children, Xf.12 (by unrecorded 

wife), XtM (by Wf,4). ' * 

X.4. Birarukingati kulkitji (shark) ; b. c, 1903; d. a, 1930; lulled at Dahva on Albirii* 
Island] aged c 33 years; f. X.2; in. Xf.4; married Xf.12 (widow of Y.2) ; 1 child, 
Xi»17. 

X.5. Minftkuringati kulkitji (shark) ; while name Shark Koolkitcha, gives at Aurnkun; b. o. 
1905J removed from Allen Islam! to Aurnkun by police in April 1941, after killing 
of a Moruiugton Island MiasioD native named Cripple Jack ; arrived on MorningUm 
Island from Aurukun Septeruln if Vj',;\ ■ living June 1900; age o. 55 year*; measured 
as Bl. no. 10; f. X.2; m. ttf.2; married Xf.14; 3 .-.hildrei.. Xf.18, Xf.19, X.7. 
Rev. MncKenzie considers this r.hild [a by an unknown Aurnkun man, principally Oa 
the ground that X.5 is reputed to have " castrated " himself in 1941 while in' jail 
at Clnncurry on trial for the murder of Cripple Jack at Allen [slaud. In the eyes 
of a Forsyth Islander this family was a model mm; the marriage was "straight" 
and others should havi gone this way*'. Blood types:— ('), NaSi ft Bn. Pi— , 
Late-P), Yy <a + ), K-, Webb-. 

X6. Unggultaknrnruki [iigatij (fish) ; b. ft. 1915; d. "as baby"; aged c. 1 year; 

f. X.2; m. Yf.l. (The ngati name of this child probably lias been incorrectly 
recorded and it may be a totem name.) 

X.7. "Kooindoambin" (name l» Aurukun records) kulkitji (shark); white name Royce; 
b. 23 October 1950 at Aurukun; arrived on Mornington Island September 1953; 
living Juno 1900 j age 9 years 8 months; f. ostensibly X.5 (but see note above), 
m. Xf.14. 

Females of Dolnoro X 

Xt.l. BARAKURU NGATI mariwu (oyster pick stum) ; »►. r, 1875; d. after 1910 of poiSOB 
tag from food she had <nten; aged over 35 years: f. X.l ; in, not indicated; married 
8.2; 3 children, Sf.8, 0,10, Sf.10. 

Xf.2. MEANGATI lcbaml (brown fish); b. c. 1880 at Mean = Miant; d. o, 1940, of sickness 

at Bilmaru; f. • m. j im.rned T.3; 1 child T.5 (may have been step 

child only of T.3). r 

Xf.3. MOUOKONOBAINOAT1 karnda (bushfire) and tantamant (water spout): knrnda was 
the "prv-pr-r on!-", b. c. 1880; w.is fihol '•< by white man e. 1918 bur. esCi 

194(5 or 1947 at Balt.ae Of sickness; aged c. 67 years; f • - m. ; married 

8.2; 4 children, 8.8, 8.15, 8.17, Sf.17. 

Xf.4. WARANTJINGATT bidjarupa (dugong); b. c, 1883; d. 1947, at Dangkongarupai of 

sickness; aged C. 64 years; f. ; m. ; married X.2: 3 children. XI, 

Xf.ll, Xf.13. 

Xf.5. KUDAITRCJNGATI ; b. c. 1883; d. «?, 1928. in the mangroves at Kombali 

of exposure and cold in south-east trmle wind weather; described as having a large 
growth on left a>i^e of her body which stretched down to her feet; this when it 

grew big. she supported under her arm; aged c 45 venrs; ft ; ra • 

married 8.5; 1 child, 8f.l9. 

Xf,r> BADATJINGATT ; b. c 1885. outside her dolnoro area; d. c. 1920, at 

Kuldungki of sickness; aged c. 35 years; f\ 1 ni. : married W.2, then 

her husband's son, WVd; 1 child, W.4 (by W.2). 

Xf.7. WARANTJTNGATI tantamant (water spout),- b, c. 1888; d. c. 1925 at Markaruki- 
aged c. 37 years; f. ; ra. \ married W.2; 1 chiLd, W.3. 



TINDALE— POPULATION OF BENTINCK ISLAND 333 

Xf.8. MINAKUTMTTOATI UulkiLji (shark), white name BU8IEJ b. .-. WIJ5j arrived on 
MunninifMiJ Island I August 1917 ; living June 106O{ age 0, &8 JOA?*; measured a* 
BI. no.J'j; t. X.2; m. YF.l ; married 8,HJ, 8,19; now a widow; no children. Blood 
types; <>/ Nss, i;, lv T . P, — , !*(•— )< SytH ' ; K j Wehb-. 

M •♦ K.WVI LJS.I IKl XCATI wardundj ( manerove-dwe.lliuir, rat); b. C 1910: d ft iMfl 

at Tondoi (Dundui); aged c. 20 years; f. ; m. J married V.3; no 

children, 

Xf.10. IWKAITJINOATI worobnn (bone fish) ? white nsmv ftABftit Km 2j h. <j. 1907 at 
Baknenoja, = Puknit.ji on Dalwai NlanW; removed from Allen Island to Aurulum 
by police in A|o-ii liUi-, .unved on fcCoxnington Island September 1953; living .Tune 
l&tfu; figq o. 53 years j measured as BI. no, IS; is a W3 flead rcqman^ considered 
a." a Widow now; said to have remained (i Single all her life" although she had had 
ft ,•,!..!.! ;mh! " belonged " to W* f, X.2; m, Yf.l | 1 child. X1M4 (father uulnmwu). 

Pood r,v|M!,-.; o, \\s, Bj K,. r, - , LoU-t-*, K\UM T K- , ffiebli , Jte**- 

Kf.IL MINAKURINGATT hiihip ('Atfffk) | b. e. 1.907; d. r. 1928 of sickness; aged ft. 21 
years; I, X.2; m. \/\t, married W.3; I child, Wi'fc 

Xf.i2. MINAKV 'ULXMATI bidjarupa I du^otig) ; ivl.r. £*]&£ MOLLY BENTINCK Riven in 

1945; b. c. 1910; d. C 194 fi at Dangkaukuru, by spearing; f. X.3 ; m. ! 

mnrrini Y.:\ X ,J j 9 elaidren, Y.4 (by Y.2). Xf.17 (by X.4 .. 

SMB. MlNAKllilNGATT knlkitji (shark); b. r. 1912; d. ft. l$Sff\ aged c. 15 yearn; not 
married; R X.2; m, Xf 4. 

XM4. MINAKI KLNGATI walpu (raft), rjariru (flat- tailed stingray) and/or toato 
(KftinbOW)^ while name JEAN TJ&WTT] •»■ ». 1918; Temoved from Allen Inland 
to Aurulum by police April 1941; died 29 April 1953, from sickness and rib Irfttfy 
r.r. i\i:.i iti a right with another woman: aged 0, 35 year;-'; f. unknown; m. Xf .10 ; 
married X..5; $ dllliWdtt, Xf.18, Xf.19, X.7 (see notes under X.:')). 

Xf.fi, MDRuKONI'DAlNaATl vvalawa (a fish); while- name MOLLY YVOLAH, WOOL A 
or Din \ I I Cised at AuMikiin } ; b. r, 19J9 on Dalwai Island; removed from Allen 
l-l:md in Aurukun by police April 1941; arrived on Monjingtou Island September 
Ufiftj Imng June 19(50; age c. 4\ years; [Heaetlted as BI. no, 11; f. X.2; m. Yr. I 
married wji, liben Koin-jt Kfra{rnanjpa q) \nruknn on 20 February 1946 ; also had 
a child bv Nigel Poohlemunka of Kendal] BivefJ 5 el.iidren, "Wt'.S, W.10, Wf.9 
,l»v W t). Of.:, (by Kobnt) 0.1 (by Nigel}. Blood types:— O, MNsh, U, «,, 
I', -, L.- Ui ), Kyu(-), K . Webb—, Jka-. 

XtMO. MKANGATT bidjarupn (dugong) ; white naim I ' OO.I LN.TINT ' ' j b. e, 3920; removed 
from Allen Island 1941 liy p0UC6 and died at Mornington Island in 1941 from 
weakm-SH after givlixg birth; bar ehild was taken to the fafljet at Aurubuu, 17 
BeptembOT 1941;" f. ; m. ; m:.rn.d W.4 ; 1 child, W.ll 

Xf.17. MTNAKIRlNtlATT knlkitji (shark); wliite name CARMEL, b. r. #36; arrived on 
Mm mo-jron inland is October I'.MS; living June L&60/J stge B4 pears 'i -in, 

BI. no, 2C, f. X.4; 03, XtM2, ui-.troU S.19, T.13; 1 child, T.21 (by T.l';.. BlOild 
•. ;.o.s.— O, Nss, R-j R , 1', . Cil|i-)j Fy(a + ), K-, WVbh— , 

Xf .18. TALl\V"INDnVTTT?.tTN(^A.Tl (vulkiirji ( ; J.:irU); wl.itc name ANTs' OOLOOKO lot) 
noLOKA; b. II May 1940 t/u7r Aoriikur» lrroids), on Allan Island, removed t<» 
Aurukun April 1941; arrived on Mornington Tslan<l Saptemt^r 19o3; liviti^ June 
19'6Q{ agiQ 80 years L month; not married ; f. X.5 ; in. Xf.H. 

Xf.19. ; white fianin EM1LV, h 17 August 1943 at Aurukun; d. 7 May 1950 at 

Aurukuu; aged yoars 9 months; f. X.5; m. XfJ4. 

Xf.20. MlNAKUinNOATr banp:.. (toitl. •); white name ELSTE ; b. 3 July 1945, ostensibly 
:it MMi:il-.uii but nrtually on Moniingtou Tsltind 0B <h»y [DOthet ^"ns taken ba^k to 
Bentinck [bland (aftti lirst short visit); returned j^ermanently to Mornington Island 
1H October 1948; living Jone I960; age 14 years 11 months; measured as BI HO 
41 , f. X.3; m. "Wf.4. Note; The father was also said to be 8.18, which may 
ggeat X -i 'bed before her birth. Blood typos:— O t AIss, Rj R , Fj— -, he(t-), 
Fy<*> | E , Webb—. JJ«<H 



H4 RECORDS OF THE S,A. MUSEUM 

Xf.Ql. MINAKU1UNGATI raerupuda (a fish): whito name. SYLVIA; b. 3 May 1047; 
arrived on Mornington Island 21 October 1948 (last child to arrive) ; living June 
19(50; age 13 years 1 month; measured gg Bl. no. 42; f. T.f>; m. Wf.3 (reason for 
child being in dolnoro X. nut yet evident). Blood types:— O, Nss. R. R^, Pi— . 
fceCa-), FyU+>, K-, Webb- Jk»+, 

Males of Dolnoro Y 

Y.l. Tawaringati kulbitji (shark); b. c. 1900; d, e. 1940; killed trffll spear at Mnnawurui 

by 8.8, aged c. HI years; "a tall man"; f. ; m, ; married Wf.4. 

Wf.5, Ufll; 2 children, Y.5, YM (by Wf.4) 

Y.2. Birarukingati bidjarupa (dngong) and/or Walpu (raft) ; h. & 1905; d. & 1945; 
drowned from a raft in an acddflDtj figed r. 40 year* (widow runim- In: was a 
ik young" ninti; it is possible that there was also an older man with walpu tutem 

who is confused here); f. ; m. ; married Vf.4, Wf 6, Xfl2; 3 

children, Y.% (by Vf.4), Yf.4 (by Wf.fi), Y.4 (by Xf.12), also Yf.3 is probably 
his daughter (by Sf.14). 

Y.3. T|od ( iongatjorongati buraatunt (bone UmIi) , b. ft 1923; d. r 1943; ♦♦just #1i.-<i " ; not 
married; was dumb from birth; f. Y.2; m, Vf.4. 

Y it. Tawaringati bininj (mullet); white, name Charlie Woollo; b. 2 October 1930 (date ua 
given in Aurnkun recOrda, authority not evident) ; removed from Allen Island to 
Aurukun by police in April 1941; arrived at Mornington lVl.-md 19f>0; d. 1950 at 
Burkctown, of enceplialitla; not married; aged e. 20 years; f. X.4; m. Xf.12 ( nu.noa 
for dolnoro placing not established) i 

V .5. Mg^ailgati banga (turtle, ;,nd/or tnntnuiriut. (waterspout) % whito name Smile i , b. .■:. 
1935 at Ngara on south side of Bentinck Island; armvd on Morningtou Island 
from Allen Iaaud & July 1947; d. 10 July 1952; aged c. 17 years; f, Y.l; m. Wf.4; 
married Tf.13; 1 child, Yf.5 (born 13 months :.ft«r father's death, but ascribed 
to hiru). 

Y.6. Birarukingati tautamaut ('water spout); white name Billy; b. 1940; arrived on 
Mornington Island 18 October 1948; living June 1960; age 20 years; measured as 
BI. no, 13; not. mMrrir<l- f. Y.i ; m . Wf.4, Blood typos:— B, 'Mss, R x K a , P,— 
LeU-), Fy<» I \ K— . 

Females of Dolnoro Y 

Yf.l. BIKAHUKTNGAT1 bidjarupa (dugong) ; b. e. 1885; d. c. 1940; killed with a Bpear 
at TJiltjadji on south side of llmrind Island when hef 'laughter Xf.15 and 

daughter'* daughter Wf.S were taken nwny l<» Allen Island hy W.4; f 

mi, j married X.2; 4 children, Xf.S, Xi\l0, X.(i, X t LB (by X.2). 

Yf.2. BIBAllirKlXnATT kolkjtji (shark); b. c. 1*98; d. I94H; killed with spear at 

Markaruki by S.10, aided by S.i:»; aged c. 45 years; f, ; m. ; married 

•'-I; 4 chihlren, Zf.2, X.S, Zf.5, ZtA\~ (by 2.4). 

Yf.3. B IttABU KITS fi ATI bidjarupa 
Mori 
no 
difference from that of father.) 



arlK r\<;,YTI hidjarnpa (dugn T ,-), white, n.-itno ANNA; b. 193r>; arrived on 
[u-mugtnn [tfaiui 4 August 1947, living June 1960; age 24 years; not maru> 
children; f. 8.5; m. sf.14. (Dohuirn pwatively identified] no explanation for 

ftVrenee J'rom Hint of father.) 
Vf.4. .DJOIXTONGATJORO rurupururupu (bJnrk tidi hawk); white name VALMATC; fc 
1940 (wftfl alive on 1 July 1941); arrived on Morningtnn Island 4 August 19<! 



Yf.5. 



^JgUdt 1947; 
living June J9G0; age e. 20 yeurs; not in:rrri<M] : f. y.2; m. Wf. ; 1 child. Of 5 
(by Colin Williams of LardiU Tribe, Mornington Island). 

— banga (turtle); while name SYBIL; b. 10 August 1953 at Mornington 

Island; Uving Juno 1060; age 6 years 10 months; f. supposedly Y.5 but child born 
13 months after his death; m. Tf.n. 



Males of Dolnoro Z 

Z.l. Ngiltalngnti , b. e. 1S55; d. C, 1918; shot by white Oftua who came in a boat fnm. 
Sweer.M Island; ran away to top of sand hills at Berumoi and died; aged ft 63 
rearfl; f. ; m. ; 2 known children, Zf 1, Z.2. 



TIND ALE— POPULATION OF BENTINCK ISLAND W 

Z.2. Dodjongapangati korpanggi (buttertish) ; b. C, 1880; d. c. 1930; Bpeared in the throat 

during a fight on a saltpan at Tjapiluru by V.3; f. Z.1 J m. ; married Tf.4 

hIi.v. pi Z,3)j no children (by Z.2). 

Z.3. Markarukingati; b. ft 1S90 or earlier; <L c. lfig8] speared ou a saltpan at, Tjapiluru; 

f, ; in, \ married Tf.4-.; 5 children, T.8 (perhaps his stepchild only), Z.fy 

Z.7, Zf.3, Zf.4 (by Tf.4). 
Z.J. Ngolotalkurunaijarupaugati riningati (tiger shark); is said to have left dolnoro Z. and 

joined Y ; b, t\ 1892; d. c. 1928; killed at Tjapiluru by S.7; aged c, 36 years; 

't. ; married Yf.2; 4 children, Zf.2, 2.8, Zf.5, Zf.6 (all by Yf.2). 

Z.fi. Dodjonapaugati; b. r. 1920; d. 0. 1046, of sickness of stomach; f. ; m. ; 

raarried Tit, widmv of Z.3 and Z.2; no children; also had been promised BfJ8, 

who was di owned during a raft voyage to Allen Island in 1947. 
ZA Bokanaijarupaiigati; b, ft 1921; d, a. 1944; aged «?. 23 year*; not married; f. Z.3. 

in. Tf.4. 
8.7, Ngiltalngat.i; b. c. 1923; d. e. 1945; aged o. 22 years; not married , nith 2,8 was 

killer of 8.9; f. Z.3; m. Tf.4. 
Z.S. Panitiingan hurantaiit ( ); b. A 101K; d. 1947 (before June); killed by 

B.8; was killer of Uf.10 and jointly with Z.7 killer of S.9; unmarried; f. Z.4; 

m. Yf.2. 
Z.9. T)odjoilodjougatj ( Dodjongapangati ) ; b. A 1927; d. 1948 of sickness of stomach; aged 

V. 20 years; Jutst beforr Mm wife left the island in October 1948; i. •; m, ; 

wmh mwly married to Tf.7 (widow of U.10) when he died; no child n " 

Females of Dolnoro Z 

ZM. BTMNAPANGAT1 bidjarupa (dugong) ; b. c. 1875; d. at 1925 at Polkalatji; aged 

c. 50 yoars; f. Z.lj EEL \ married V.l ; 4 Children, V.2, Vf.2, V.3, Vf.G* 

(by Y.l). 

Zf.2. TONDOlNGATt danuk (shark); white name THKLMA; b. 1922; armed on 
Mornington Island 4 August 1947; living June 19f>0; age 38 years; measured as 
BI. no. 27; t Z.4; m. Yf.2; married unknown, then 8.8, S.17; 2 children, Uf.20 
(by |), Sf.28 (bv S.8). Blond tvpes:— O, MNsa, B2 Ro» ^i— , Le(*-), Py<» + >, 
K .b— . 

Zf.3. DODJONGAPANGATI; b. c. 1925; d. c\ 1942 at Dodjongapa; aged c. 16 yeara; not 
married; ft Z.3; m. Tf.4. 

Zf.4. KALTUK1NGATT djolwaki ( ); white name D1JLCIE BOOTH; b. c. 1928 




This woman in one place was listed as of dolnoro V, but no check was made. 
Blood typos:— O, MNsa, B, i't , Pj- , Lo(u-), Fy(ftf >, K— , Webb—. 

Zf.5. TARUKUNGATI dentjorara (salmon); b. c. 1930; d. c. 1944 of spear wounds inflicted 
.it Parukuringki cbivpan apparently by B.8; aged /?. 14 years; unmarried j t. ZA r , 
m. Vf.2. 

Zf.6. DAWJKAXJKENAIJiVRUPANGATI (also called TJIL1 RUNG ATI) walpu (raft); 
b. c. 1987; d. e. 1943; killed with a upear at Markaruki by 8.15, shortly before he 
attacked and was killed by the R.A.A.F. man at Milt; aged c. 6 years; f. Z.4; 
m. N.fc 

Male Whose Dolnoro is Unknown and Cannot be Assigned Because of Extra-Tribal 

Male Parentage 



O.L 



; white name Russell; b. 23 November 1953 at Mornington Island shortly 
Mother's arrival from Aurukun; living June 1960; age <5 years o* months; 



after mother 3 

f. Nigel Pootdemiinka of Kendall River; m. Xf.15. 



336 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Females Whose Dolnoro is Unknown or Cannot be Assigned Because of Extra-tribal 

Origin of the Male Parent 

0M» NGATI; white name MOLLY; b. c. 1918; arrived on Mornington Island 18 

October 1948; d. 13 February 1949, cause of death not given; aged c. 31 years; 
*» ; m. ; married S.18; no children. 

Of. 2. MUNUKKA ANJUMB1N (name at Aurukun); white name BEATRICE; b. 10 
November 1944; still living at Aurukun June 1960; age 15 years 6 months; not 
married; f. Edward Munukka Koondoombin of Aurukun; m. Wf.7. 

Of.3. PAMPUTTA pulkududu (crocodile) j white name ALMA; b. 20 July 1947 at Aurukun; 
arrived on Morniugton Island September 1953; living June 1960; age 14 years 10 
months; measured as BI. no. 39; f. Robert Kongnarapa of Aurukun; m. Xf.15. 
Blood types:— O, MNss, B^ R x , P 1 — } Le(p.-), Fy(a-h), K— , Web))—, Jka + . 

Of.4. NDORNDORIN ANJUMBIN (name at Aurukun) ; white name DAWN, in some 
records incorrectly given as LORN A ; b. 6 May 1948 at Aurukun; still living at 
Aurukun June 1960; age 12 years 1 month; f. Edward Munukka Koondoombin of 
Aurukun; m. Wf.7. 

Of. 5. waning (goana) ; white name BETTY; b. 8 October 1958 at Mornington 

Island; living June 1960; age 1 year 7 months; f. Colin Williams, fullblood of 
Lardiil tribe, Mornington Island; m. Yf.4. 

Persons who are not Kaiadilt, who have Married, or have had Marital Relationship 

with them 

Extratribal 1. Robert Kongnarapa of Aurukun; b. ; d. October 1948; married Xf.15 

on 20 February 1946 at Aurukun; 1 child, Of.3 (by Xf.15). 

Extratribal 2. Edward Munukka Koondoombin of Aurukun; b. ; living June 1960 at 

Aurukun; f. ; in. ; married Wf.7; 2 children, Of. 2 and Of 4 (by Wf.7). 

Extratribal 3. Nigel Pootdemunka of Kendall River, Queensland; b. ; living June 1960 

at Aurukun; 1 child, O.l (by Xf.5). 

Extratribal 4. Colin Williams; Lardiil tribe of Mornington Island; b. ; living June 1960 

at Mornington Island; 1 child, Of. 5 (by Yf.4). 

Extratribal 5. IDA; Lardiil tribe of Mornington Island; b. ; living at Mornington 

Island June 1960; f. ; m. ; 1 child, Uf.23 (by U.15). 



AUSTRALIAN QUAIL-THRUSHES OF THE GENUS CINCLOSOMA 



ByH. T. Condon, Curator of Birds, South Australian Museum 



Summary 

Quail-thrushes are a small Australian genus of Passerine birds (Family Timaliidae), of 
problematical affinities. The different species occur in a variety of habitats on the 
Australian continent, from the stony plains (gibber deserts) and semi-arid shrub 
communities of the interior to the drier woodlands and sclerophyll forests of the eastern 
coastal regions and Tasmania. Apparently in the early days of European settlement they 
were extremely numerous in certain places, but during the last one hundred years many 
forms have been extirpated from the more closely settled areas and wheat-growing 
districts in several States; others are now threatened by expanding economic development 
and habitat losses in all parts of the continent. Outside Australia the genus is represented 
by a single species in New Guinea, where it is widespread in the lowland forests (fig. 1). 



AUSTRALIAN QUAIL-THRUSHES OF THE GENUS CINCLOSOMA 

By H. T. CONDON, Curator of Birds, South Australian Museum 

Plates 12-13 and text fig. 1-4 

CONTENTS 

Page 

Introduction and acknowledgments 337 

The Oenus Cinclosoma Vigors and Horsfield 
1827 339 

The number of Species 344 

Sexual differences 346 

Key to the Species 349 

Systematic treatment 350 

Literature cited 368 

INTRODUCTION AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Quail-thrushes are a small Australian genus of Passerine birds 
(Family Timaliidae), of problematical affinities. The different species 
occur in a variety of habitats on the Australian continent, from the 
stony plains (gibber deserts) and semi-arid shrub communities of the 
interior to the drier woodlands and sclerophyll forests of the eastern 
coastal regions and Tasmania. Apparently in the early days of 
European settlement they were extremely numerous in certain places, 
but during the last one hundred years many forms have been extirpated 
from the more closely settled areas and wheat-growing districts in 
several States; others are now threatened by expanding economic 
development and habitat, losses in all parts of the continent. Outside 
Australia the genus is represented by a single species in New Guinea, 
where it is widespread in the lowland forests (fig. 1). 

The quail-thrushes frequently are referred to as ground-thrushes, 
groundbirds, "rail babblers' 7 (Gilliard, 1958) or "ground doves" (in 
Tasmania). 

The Australian forms have been the subject of a careful study by 
A. J. and A. G. Campbell (1926). Unfortunately, no one museum 



338 



RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 




Fig. 1. Distribution of the genus Ciiwlosoma. The known limits, in Australia, Tasmania 
and New Guinea, are shown in black, la is a South Australian isolate of Spotted Quail- 
Thrush (Cinclosoma punetatwm). There are four described subspecies of the Now Guinea 
Quail-Thrush (Cinclosotna ajax), which is confined to lowland forests: a — ajax; 
b—muscaJis; c — alaris; d — goldei (after Mayr, 1941). 



CONDON— AUSTRALIAN QUAIL. THRUSHES 339 

possesses a representative series of all the known form*, among which 
are Home of the rarest of birds. It is not surprising, therefore, that 
opinions are divided and much bewilderment exists regarding the 
taxonomy and nomenclature of the genus. Some consider that the 
work of the Campbells was indecisive (they refrained from using 
trinomials) and certain contradictory proposals have been put forward 
by (i. M. Mathews and other writers. However, numerous specimens 
of the different forms have been taken during the last twenty T -five 
years from new localities and a good deal more is now known, than 
formerly, about distribution and the morphological differences between 
the species. 

The principal aim of this contribution is to add to the series of 
revisions of the genera of Australian birds, which have been com- 
menced by Mayr, Servcnty, Amadou, Kcast, Die author, and others 
(Bfie Keust, 1961), To this end the writer lias re-examined nearly all 
the specimens which were described in great detail by the Campbells 
(lo<\ cit.) and ean vouch for the accuracy of their work. Fresh 
material has been compared in the museums in Adelaide, Brisbane, 
Melbourne, Perth and Sydney. Dr. Ernst Mayr has kindly supplied 
comments ami measurements of specimens in the American Museum of 
Natural History and Dr. Allen Keast generously has made available 
his notes on the same collection, together with some details of speci- 
mens in the British Museum. Other information and comments have 
been received from Dr. D. L. Scrveuty and Messrs. N. J. Favaloro, 
W. B. Hitchcock, N. Jack, J. .lories, A.' U, McGill, A. R. McEvey and 
Q, Mack, to all of whom thanks are due. The conclusions reached in 
the text winch follows are the writer's own A. R. McGilPs 
comprehensive Judex to the first fifty volumes of The Emu has proved 
an invaluable aid to the work. 

The Genus Cinclosoma Vigors and Horsfield 1827 

Like many other Australian genera, Cinclosoma is of uncertain 
origin and relationships; and its position in any scheme of classifica- 
tion must be provisional. Thfl geritLS is generally placed amongst the 
4 ' babhli ng thrushes • \ or ' ' babblers ■ \ family Timaliidae. The 
Australian Official QkeckUsi ( 192(1) follows Mathews (1921) and 
recognizes a separate family Cinclosomatidae — a procedure which has 
met with little acceptance. 

Mayr and Amadou (1951), who have considered the question, 
iterate Hartert'S view that the thrush-flycatcher group is a natural 
one and all these birds, which include the timaliida, should be placed 



340 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

in the family jVluscicapidae. This course has been followed in the 
recommended sequence of Passerine families arrived at by an inter- 
national committee (see Mayr and Greenway, 19136). Amadon (1957) 
has found it expedient to restore family rank to both the Timaliinae 
and the (rue thrushes (Turdinae), Presumably he would retain 
Cinclosomti in the Timaliidae, as favoured by Beecher (1955). 

During a recent visit to Sydney, Mt\ Keith Hindwood drew my 
attention to a South African species, Chactops [renalns, the Cape 
Rock-Jumper, which bears a striking superficial resemblance to both 
the Australian and New Guinea species of Cnirlosoviu. Gill (1945) 
says "This remarkable bird and its two relatives are so difficult to 
place in any scheme of classification . . they are now generally 
placed with the babblers, presumably on account of their long and 
strong legs. Their genera] bearing and anions are th...-r f a thrush 
. . , The Cape species is found only on the mountains of the South 
west Cape Province (excluding the Cape Peniiisula) . . . n The 
coloured pictures in Gill and Roberts (1948) very slrongly suggest a 
• piait-thrush, and there may be some distant connection between the 
fcWO genera (cf. Sharpe, 1903, p. 5), 

Quail-thrushes are ground-freipieuting birds, with skulking habits. 
They are about the size of 8 ICuropean thrush (Tardus sp.) that is, 
between 73 and 10 inclies (18-25.4 cm,) in length. Gould (1840), who 
preferred to call the birds u ground-thrushes'\ observed that "they 
differ more in habits and economy from the True Thrushes than their 
outward appearance indic/alcs'-'. Dorsal coloration is rufous in the 
desert forms and some shade of brown in all others. The broad 
reetrices are dark with prominent white tips, except the central pair. 
! ■-! ich are plain, frequently of the same colour as the kick and, 
ilirirtDrc, variable from one Form to another. Plumage is soft and 
rattier long, especially on 1 he back. Hanks and upper tail coverts. 
Wings are short and rounded; the tail is longer than the bod)' and 
usually carried horizontally. 

The tarsus is of medium length (>>., nbont twice the length of 
the bill), grey or nearly black in all the arid and semi-arid forms and 
either pale brown or flesh-coloured in the eastern coastal mainland 
and New Ghxinea species; it is ecutellate in front and smooth and 
undivided on the plantar surface. The tegfl and feet are no larger 
or stron^r than those of the average passerine. 

The ratio of the lengths of the tnrsus and wing ranges from 29 to 
31 per cent in the Chestnut Quail Thrush (all subspecies) and about 
27 per cent in the Spotted Quail-Thrush; the values are somewhat 



CONDON— AUSTRALIAN QUAIL.THRUSHES 341 

higher in females. The bill, which in length exceeds its distance from 
the hvh, is slightly curved, op-ereulate and black in colour in both sexos 
of all the species. 

The sexes are different and can be easily distinguished in adults, 
iu the field arid in the hand. For further discussion see below. 

How far modern Cindosoma has diverged from the remote 
ancestral stock it is impossible to judge. Mayr (1944) places the 
group to which the genus belongs in the second-oldest category of the 
Australian avifauna. 

Doubtless, some form of sexual dimorphism was the condition in 
the immediate forebear of all the widely-dispersed, present day species. 

The plumage pattern of young quail-thrushes is spotted and 
squamate, which suggests Turdine affinities. 

Campbell (1926) refers to a small white "splash" on the outer- 
most (tenth) primary of all species. This marking is, perhaps, the 
last remnant of an earlier and more opiate plumage pattern which 
might have been similar to that of the maculose bower-birds 
(Chliuniidera)^ in which the tips of all the primaries, including the 
tenth, have a whitish splash. 

It is of interest to record that the only other Australian passerine 
genus which has been found with a similar wing-marking is Drymodes 
(scrub-robin). 

In the Southern Scrub- Robin {Drymodes brunneopygia), the wing 
splash occurs irregularly in males only and, together with other 
plumage markings on the head and wing coverts, seems to be in the 
process of being lost, for the evolutionary trend in this species has 
been clearly towards a more sombre coloration. 

In the rufous Northern Scrub-Robin (Drymodes super ciliaris) the 
same wing marking is found in both sexes, as in Cindosoma. 

The proper taxonomic relationship of Drymodes to Cindosoma 
remains undecided, albeit the two genera are often placed close 
tiie/ethcr in association with a few other genera, such as the New 
Ouiuea Eupctcs. Young scrub-robins are very similar to young quail- 
thrushes. However, in adults, there are considerable size differences 
between the sexes in Drymodes, males being larger than females. 
Also, sexual dichromatism is not evident at any stage in the 
development of the scrub-robins. 

Beecher (1953) does not mention Drymodes, but says u Cindosoma 
and Eupetes are slender-billed narrow-skulled terrestrial forms with 



342 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

free lacrymal and, probably, forward vision; in them the pinnate 
character of M7b (one Of the mandibular adductor muscles — H.T,C.) 
has virtually disappeared as it has in many honeyeaters and in the 
true wrens". 

Mathews (1921), speaking of Drymodes superciliaris says: 
" Superficially this bird is closely related to Cinclosowa s. str,, only 
differing in the longer legs, so that it appears to be a bush-loving 
form developed from a similar source M . 

Quail-thrushes are not songsters; they advertise their presence by 
uttering either short, harsh warning notes, a drawn-out, peevish mono 
tone whistle, or "htssfilff 11 ! The birds are usually found in pairs or 
small family parties; they feed on insects and seeds (Lea and Gray, 
1935)- Like quails, they Hush with a loud whirr of the wings and, after 
flying a short distance, they may either dnrp suddenly to cover and 
run before an intruder or take refuge on the limb of a tall tree. 

The vgg* y which are unmistakable in form and colour, are usually 
two or three in number; they arc extremely thin- shelled, rather large, 
blunt, oval in shape, and mostly dull creamy-white, with dark 
freckling* and spots, which vary in coloration according to the 
locality and the species. The "carelessly constructed" nest of bark 
and grass is placed on the gronnd in the shelter of a low bush, tree 
trunk or other object. 

( 1 inclosowu is a "natural" genus which may not be further sub- 
divided as proposed by Mathews ( 15)12) and Iredale (1956). Mathews 
separated the desert forms, with cinnanioweum as type, under 
ii Samvt'l<r 1 ; later he reduced this group to a subgenus in his Working 
List (1946). The minute differences, which Mathews ((noted as 
"characters' 7 of Savmd'i, are overshadowed by the more conservative 
features of plumage pattern and coloration which are common to all 
:--jmm-]< :-. I r. dale, whilst noting the similarity in pin ma go coloration 
of the New Guinea ('.', ajnr to Australian forms, has advocated the 
adoption of the generic name Ajnx Lesson on the grounds of 
"structural differences" in the bill and legs and different habits. How- 
ever, the New Guinea species seems not too different to be regarded 
as a true qnail-thrush (Sharpe, 1903; Mayr, 1941). 

So far as known, the genus does not occur very far north of the 
Tropic of Capricorn on I he mainland and it is unrecorded from any 
of the larger islands except Tasmania and New Guinea (fig. 1). 

The distribution witliin Australia conforms to the prevailing 
pattern amongst sedentary birds in that it is a radial one. Each 



CONDON— AUSTRALIAN QUA IL-THRUSHF.S 1 4 } 

species of quail-thrush is confined to a particular habitat which is 
typified by the vegetation association; and, of course, the vegetation 
.associations follow the climatic zonation (rainfall), which is concentric, 
with regularity. Discontinuities of the major habitats are reflected 
in the raflgCfl of the birds, some of which are isolated simply by 
indentations of the coastline (fig. 3). Present day distributions can 
only be explained by changes in sea level and radial shifts of popuia- 
tions before increasing aridity (Condon, 1954; 18 j. Worldwide 
climatic change is believed to have caused alterations to vegetation 
patterns during and since late Pleistocene times (Specht, 1058), the 
nit of which could have been five expansion of the ranges of the 
arid zone forms aud the elimination of other members of the genus 
in the tropical north and other parts of the continent. 

The Cinclosomatiui have had, without doubt, a long evolutionary 
Instory in the Australian region. Mayr (1944) thinks that the group 
"probably reached AustraloPapua during early or middle Tertiary'' 
times, roughly 35 million years ago, according to Holmes (I960). The 
separation Of the desert forms would have coincided with the initiation 
of the climatic trends which led to the present zonation of vegetation, 
perhaps during successive arid periods in the Pliocene (Waterhouse, 
1940). 

The Spotted t^uail-Thrush (Cnulosoma punctatum) is the oldest 
member of the genus in Australia. The presence of isolated popula- 
tions in South Australia and elsewhere (tig. 1) suggests that it may 
have Iweii widespread in former, more pluvial times. The remaining 
species in Australia seem to be later derivatives from a different stock 
more elosely related to the New Guinea species. Keast (1961) notes 
that. New Guinea, at its closet point, is only about 100 miles from 
Australia and that Torres Strait has been dry on several occasions 
during the Tertiary and Pleistocene. 

As already indicated, allopatry is another feature of the genus, 
although Cincfoxawu rivvnmomcmH. and Cindosown cnstan<)tu»i dorum 
occur together in the same sector oyer a large portion of South 
Australia (fig. 2, 3, 4), However, there are differences in habitat 
preferences between the two (ef. Keast, 1958, for a similar situation 
in the genus Amylnrnis). 

The species which has been recorded farthest north of the tropic 
of Capricorn is, rather surprisingly, the Cinnamon QuaihThrush 
(fig. 2, nos. 103, 103A). It is thought that only one species occupies 
the great central desert region of Western Australia, from which 



344 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

ornithological observations are lacking; this is Cinclosoma castanohim 
clarwn, the most distinct form of the Chestnut Quail-Thrush, 



THE NUMBEK OF SPECIES 

On the basis of sexual dimorphism, other differences in plumage, 
and geographical distribution, it is suggested that the number of 
species remains the same as that proposed by Campbell (1926). 
These are: — 

Cinclosoma ajax, New Guinea Quail-Thrush (four subspecies apud 
Mayr). 

Cinclosoma punctatum, Spotted Quail-Thrush (with two sub- 
species). 

Cinclosoma castanotum, Chestnut Quail-Thrush (five subspecies), 

Cinclosoma alisteri, Nullarbor Quail-Thrush (no subspecies). 

Cinclosoma cv>mamiomeiim, Cinnamon Quail-Thrush (two sub- 
species). 

Cinclosoma castaneothorax, Chestnut-breasted Quail-Thrush (no 

subspecies). 

Cinclosoma marginatum. Western Quail-Thrush (two subspecies). 

Several writers have proposed that the last four taxa listed above, 
which are all rufous-coloured, allopatrie desert forms, are conspecific 
and that only three Australian species of Cinclosoma should be 
recognized. A few workers have united R alisteri with 
C. marginatum^ whilst others have preferred the arrangement in the 
Australian Official Checklist (1926), in which the last-named is 
combined with C. castaneothorax. Although at first sight this might 
appear to conform to modern ideas of taxonomic practice, it seems 
that the similarity in plumage coloration should be ascribed to 
convergence rather than to close relationship, for, as mil be seen from 
the distribution map (fig. 2), there is no direct connection between 
C, marginatum and C. castaneothorax, which are on opposite sides of 
the continent. Furthermore, no evidence of intergradation has been 
observed between any of the rufous, desert-dwelling forms and the 
ranges of C. cinnamomevm and C. alisteri are contiguous in South 
Australia. So far as known, C. marginatum is not in contact with 
either G. cinnamomeiim or C, alisteri (fig. 4). 




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M« RECORDS OF THB S.A. MUSEUM 

For those who insist that C. alisteri and ft cinnamoweum are 
nonspecific, it may be pointed out that Bfertert (1931) was quite 

uncertain on this question and referred to C, alisteri as "a very- 
distinct form". Campbell (1926) remarked that C. ulistrrt "is at 
once distinguished from other 4 tawny' species by I he full black throat 
and breast" and listed the following "specific characters' 7 :— '■ (a ) 
Small size and dark coloration. (/>) Upper surface entirely plnm. 
russet, (c) Brown stripe not continuous btfqre the eye; lores entiirlv 
black, (d) White cheek stripe not reaching the. gape, (e) Deep chest- 
nut patch on each side of the breast 77 . The Campbells also referred 
to the Nullarbor Quail-Thrush as u an offshoot, from tmsfmotum 9 '. 
Its young are certainly more like those of the latter species than 
C t eiuvamomeiim. EJgg coloration, often a doubtful test, lends support 
to the view that. C. alisteri is distinct, Two clutches in the South 
Australian Museum, t>»ken at Haig, Western Australia and 40 miles 
south-west of Cook, South Australia, respectively, are heavily marked 
with light chocolate brown on a buffy white ground. These Dggfi show 
iio great resemblance to those of either C. civnamavi^nn, in which the 
freckling are pale stone colour, or C. aistanotum, in which the fcggB 
arc usually freckled with black. Also the normal clutch of C. alisteri 
appears to be three instead of two. H. L. White (1922) has referred 
to the ground colour in freshly taken DggB of C. aJistrri as having 4< the 
least possible trace of greenish tinge". 



SEXUAL DIFFERENCES 

Sexual diehromatism is a feature of the genus. Nothing appears 
to be known regarding pair formation and display but doubtless the 
marked sexual dimorphism not only assists the members of a pair to 
find each other; it is also aposematic (Huxley, 1938). Howe, in 
Mathews (1921: 192) describes the excited actions of parent tarda 
attempting to defend their young and the writer has observed a male 
of the Chestnut Quail-Thrush, with head feathers erect, wings droop- 
ing, and tail fanned, chase an intruder (scrulvrobin). Plumage 
differences, which are strongly developed in adults and usually readily 
discernible in the young, follow a basic pattern in each sex. However, 
in no two species are the sexes exactly alike and the minor variations 
which are met with have obscured inter -specific relationships. 
Prominent white superciliary and malar stripes distinguish males lu 
most cases and there is also much black on the face, ventral surfaces 



CONDON— AUSTRALIAN QU AIL-THRU SHES 347 

and wing coverts in all species, a feature which, almost invariably, 
is absent in females; these are much less boldly marked. Mules have 
the wiiiK coverts prominently spotted with white (except C. ajax); in 
females these Spots are mostly huffy white. 

At least one desert subspecies {darum) } of the widespread mallee 
frequenting species of C. aistanotum, presents a bright rufous colora- 
tion dorsally in both sexes, which suggests that this colour might have 
been acquired independently on several occasions witliin the genus. 
This obvious adaptation to a desert environment, which involves a loss 
of melanin in the visible portions of the feathers, has been discussed 
by Meinertzhntferi (1954, p. ?), XT may afford some protection from 
the sun's rays by increasing the reflectivity of the plumage aud 
additional **«»«8B 1 * protection from the sun is probably provided by 
the dark pigmentation of the concealed portions of the feathers, which, 
in Cntrlnxovin, as in many other unrelated desert lornis, is considerably 
darker than in species living in temperate zones. This is well shown 
ni tin- genua Drif modes, where the Northern tropical species, a rain- 
forest dweller, has rufous plumule of the "desert type 11 , but the be 
Of the back feathers are not dark as in the inland form, JUn/modes 
hrnnni:opy<n<i. which shows a slight amount of rufous on the Tniup. 

There is a marked difference in the ostein of rufous on the bach 
in the sexes of the fnicslnut-breasted Quail-Thrush (('. cusfuxeolhorax) 
of Queensland. In the male, the lower back and rump is rust-red, with 
the upper tail coverts and central recfrices fuscous; in the female, the 
scapulars and rump are rust-red with darker streaks and the upper 
tail coverts and central rectrices are brown. The female of the 
chestnut-breasted species is about the same size as the female of 
C. caslfvuGlum (nominate race) and at first sight could be mistaken for 
it I have ?een a female of Cinclosoma castanvtum durum, which is 
4i red u on the back tike C. marginatum, wrongly labelled as 
"caslaneothorax". 

The Nullarbor Quail-Thrush has the entire upper surface of the 
male, from f orchid t tail, a bright rust-red, whilst in the female this 
colour is restricted to the scapulars, back and upper tail coverts. With 
the head and mantle cinnamon-brown. Tu the Chestnut Quail-Thrush, 
the amount of rufous or chestnut on the back is variable; in two forms 
it is most prominent in males and either reduced or completely absent 
in females. In another arid form of this npecies (morgani) it is 
equally developed in both sexes. Dorsal coloration in C. cinnamomeum 
is similar in both sexes. 



3 *S RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Ventrally, there are important sexual differences in all species of 
Cvnclosoma. Males are invariably black-throated ; in 0. ajaz, C. 
rastanotum and C, alisteri this coloration extends on to the upper 
breast. The greatest amount of spotting (black) on the flanks is 
found in males of (\ puncfatum (both sexes) and C. ajax\ in other 
species the spots are reduced to streaks, and in C. rati av cot horax the 
cinnamon-brown Of the flanks is margined with a black line, somewhat 
as in marginatum* The flanks usually are not spotted lit females. 
Cinclosonra <inna>nomrum has the narrow whitish band, which separ- 
ates the black of the throat and breast in males, sometimes tinged with 
rufous. This band disappears following wear and tear. 

Tn the two rufous-breasted species, C. rastaneo thorax and C. 
marginatum, the breast is separated from the white abdomen by a 
T.urrow black line, which also borders the (kinks, but in the histnamed 
the flanks are of the same colour as the breast (bright cinnamon) 
whereas in C. cast nueat horns fhe flanks are more brownish. 

With the exception of C, punctal nm, which is similarly spotted on 
the flanks in both sexes, no black appears on the flanks* oT females. 
In C, pimctatum the upper breast is grey in males and females. The 
throat and breast are greyish in females of C. castanninm, C. alisleri 
and C. cinnamonieum and more rufous in the two remaining species. 
In females the centre of the abdomen and lower breast is white in 
all species, although the extent of white in (7. caManeotliorax is much 
less than in either C, marginatum or G. cinnamomeum and more as 
in C. casfanofuin. 

The reduction of the superciliary stripe, which is buff in the male 
of the Chestnut breasted Quail-Thrush, and the incorporation of the 
malar stripe in the light-coloured throat of the female in this specif 
perhaps indicates a trend towards Abe rendition found in New Guinea 
birds (C. ajax), where the eyebrow is entirely absent in the male and 
the throat and malar stripe (white) are merged in the female. As 
already mentioned, there are distinct differences in the markings of 
the head, face and throat in the different species (plates 12, 13)" and 
these may be used to separate them in the field and, more especially, 
in the hand (see the key). Males have red irides; in females these 
are brown except in C, punctatum, where the colour is grey. 

It is probable that all the forms of Cinclosoma are vicarious, but 
I have been unable to find any real reason why the more or less 
ecologically similar desert-dwelling species should be lumped together 
under one species. 



CONDON— AUSTRALIAN QUAIL-THRUSHES 349 

KEY TO THE SPECIES 

Males (all have black throat when fully adult). 

1. No superciliary stripe; wing coverts and alula 

black, unspotted a/oa? 

Superciliary stripe present; wing coverts and 
alula black with white spots 2 

2. Throat black, sharply defined from tJie breast . . 3 
Throat and upper breast black 4 

3. Breast grey, a large white malar patch punctatum 

Breast rufous, a white malar stripe extending 

from near the gape 6 

4. A whitish band on the f oreneck, which separates 

the black of the throat and upper breast (see 

text) cinnamomeum 

Foreneck black * 5 

5. Sides of breast grey, white malar stripe castanotum 

Sides of breast chestnut, an enlarged white malar 

stripe alisteri 

6. Superciliary stripe white marginatum 

Superciliary stripe buff castaneothorax 

Females (the throat is never black). 

1. Coloration of throat and malar region uniform 2 
Malar region distinct from throat 3 

2. Throat and malar region white ajax 

Throat and malar region orange-buff 6 

3. Breast grey; a large orange-buff malar patch . . punctatum 
Breast grey; a malar stripe extending from near 

the gape 4 

4. Throat pale; malar stripe orange-buff; breast 

fawn grey ciwnamomeum 

Throat same shade as breast, grey 5 

5. A white malar stripe castanotum 

An enlarged white malar stripe alisteri 

6. Superciliary stripe buffy -white; breast deep 

cinnamon marginatum 

Superciliary stripe pale orange-buff; breast pale 

brown castaneothorax 



*30 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

SYSTEMATIC TREATMENT 

1. Cinclosoma punctalum (Shaw) 1795 

(Spotted Quail-Thrush) 

The Spotted Quail-Thrush is a denizen of the drier sclerophyll 
forests of the highlands of eastern and southern Australia and 
Tasmania (fig, 2). ft is a declining species which has been wiped 
out in many districts following the destruction of its natural habitat 
A set of two egg* in the South Australian Museum (Malcolm Murray 
collection), labelled "near Ml. Gambier. Dr. Morgan, November U, 
1898' \ is the only evidence that the species may have mice occurred in 
that part of South Australia, Tn the southern Mount Lofty Ranges the 
Spotted Quail Thrush, nnlike much of the indigenous fauna, lias found 
a temporary haven in some of the government-owned pine forests, where 
its future is uncertain. But wherever the native vegetation remains 
undisturbed the birds occur in fair numbers and (here is little doubt 
that they were very numerous in the early days of settlement on the 
mainland as well as Tagfll&aia, where they were often killed for food. 

The species shares with C. ujax, of New Guinea, the distinction 
of having flesh-coloured or pale brown legs and feet. 

Judging from the eggs, the nesting record of C. castaneothorax 
from Gladstone, Queensland by Barnard (1900), should be referred 
here. The Spotted Quail-Thrush is "still a well-known bird on the 
Darling Downs-- (A. O. Cameron, in lift., January, 1962). 

(a) Cinclosoma punctatiim piinctatum (Shaw) 1795 

Tardus puvctaluni Shaw 1795. ZooL Nor, TToll, 3, pi. 9. New South 
Wales. 

Smwmjm; mffUifrUm Mathews 1912. Frankston, Victoria. 

Ran?j<>: Southern Queensland from Gladstone (?), Bunya Moun- 
tains and the Brisbane area south to coastal New South Wales (as 
far inland as Grenfel!) and Victoria (north to beyond Bendigo) and 
westwards towards the Glenelg River district in suitable localities; 
extinct in many districts. In South Australia, confined to parts of the 
Mount Lofty Ranges; probably extinct hi the Mount Gambier district. 
Not on Kangaroo Island. 

Dinqnosis: Grey breast band margined with black in male only. 
General coloration and size variable and similar to the Tasmanian 
form. Wing— Males, 111-112 (Queensland), 113-120 (New Smith 
Wales), 1 03 1 1 5 (Victoria), 105, 114 (South Australia); females, 108- 



CONDON— AUSTRALIAN QUAIL-THRUSHES Sfl 

111 (gnoensland), 104415 (New Smith Wales), 106, 112 (Victoria). 
102-111 (South Australia). Tarsus— 30. Bill— 16-17 mm. 

Bill black, iris grey, legs and feet pale brown (mate) ; bill black, 
iris grey with a tinge of lilac, inside mouth orange, legs and feet pale 
brown (female). 

Judging from variation in tring measurements, which is probably 
elmal, the iargest birds of both seated come from New South Wales. 
It has not been established that tbe members of the relict Mount Lofty 
population are smaller than those from Victoria, as suggested by 
Campbell (1926), but it is thought thai they may differ in having more 
grey on the wings. 

Mathews (1912) introduced the name vr(jhctum for Victorian 
birds, saying "differs from (\ p. pmntaium in its darker coloration, 
bat paler than C. p. <loreV\ According to Harlori (1931), the type was 
an adult female from Frankstoru Victoria, token on Marcb 13, 1909. 
The name venleclum was dropped by its anthor from his Working 
T/ist (1946) and has been rejected by most other workers. 

Localities*, (see fig. 2, Nos. 1-38). .1. [Sydney (type locality; 2. 
Port Hacking and National Park area; 3. Colo River- 4. Lithgow,- 
& Lake Wallis area; 6. Barrington Tops; 7. Cobbora; 8. Wellington 
district; 9. Grenfoll; 10. Upper reaches of Macleay River; 11. 
Oopmanhurst (North, 1904, p. 325); 12. Kmu Vale and Warwick 
(specimens, American Museum); 13. Brisbane (specimens, Queens- 
land Museum); 14. Darling Downs (eggs, Emu, p. 63); 15. Bnnya 
Mountains (specimens, American Museum) ; 16, Gladstone (Barnard, 
1900) ; 17. Goulbnrn-Braidwood district; 18. Bega district; 19. Wonboyn 
(Favaloro); 20. Buffalo Mountains; 21 Mallacoota (fit. A. White); 22. 
Mario (Bryant); 23. Wilson Promontory; 24. Moniim_rt<m Peninsula 
(Frankston) (type locality, HBglectrm- Mfftliews) \ 25. Gippsland; 26. 
Lang Lang; 27. Miteham-Ringwood area; 28. Anglesea (Purnell, Emu, 
i:<; 41); 29. near Gcelong; 30. Ballarat (specimen); 31. Gishorne- 
Macedon area; 32. Oastlemaine ; 33. North of Bendigo (Hitchcock, 
per:-, comnij; 34. PytSnfceS Mountains, m-ar Ararat; 35. Grampia i-; 
36. Hotspur; 37. Mount Gambler (egg,-. South Australian Museum); 
:;s. Mount Lofty Ranges. 

Other localities not shown on map: New South Wales: — 
Between Bermagui and Tathra (Edwards) ; Lockwood; Mount Irvine; 
Wolgan (specimens).. Victoria: — A, Gippsland and eastern Victoria; 
north of Buehan (specimen); Deddieh road, near Gelantipy (speci- 
men); Drouin (Batey) ; Glenaroua : Hazelwood (specimens); Mount 



352 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Cobbler, 4,500 feet (Cole); Mount William, near Lancefield 
(Batey); Merriman Creek (Ingle); Nyora; Beeves Elver; Tambo 
Rivet (specimens); Taujil River and Ranges (Ford); Sheep Station 
Point, Gippsland lakes; Yinnar (specimens). B. West and north of 
Melbourne :— Dog Rocks, near Geelong (Hill) ; Toolern Vale (30 miles 
west of Melbourne) (Campbell); You Yangs (Bird Observers Club). 

South Australia (Moiuit Lofty Ranges): near Adelaide; Amble- 
side; Basket Range; Belair; Blackwood; Blakiston; Bridgewater; 
Cape Jervis; Chnin-of-Ponds; Eden Hills; Encounter Bay; Kuitpo; 
Lobethal; Meadows; Mitehnrn; Mount Lofty; Teatree Gully; Upper 
Start; TJraidla (specimens and/or observations in each case). 

(b) Cinclosoma piinctatum dovei Mathews 1912 

(HnclosQma pnnctatum dovei Mathews 1912. Nov. Zool, 18, p. 330. 
Tasmania. 

Ram<je • Tasmania. 

Diagnosis; The male differs from the mainland bird in being, 
usually, more greyish on the head and back. There is a black margin 
to the grey breast band in both sexes. The abdomen, in females, is 
pure white. Wing— "Males, .107-111; females, 102, 109" (E. Mayr). 
Tarsus— 81 , Bill— 1 6 mm. 

8ome of the differences to be found in Tasmanian birds were first 
recognized by Campbell (1926) and they have been confirmed by 
examination of material in the Mathews collection in New York by 
Dm Mayr and Keast. As pointed out by Hartert (1931), in size dovei 
f nils within the range of the mainland form. Referring to Mathews' 
description of the type ("smaller and darker"), Hartert notes that it 
has no original label and that a second specimen in Mathews 1 
collection is not "darker" than mainland examples, Actually, plumage 
coloration is variable, some birds being more greyish above than 
others. Also the throat of the female may be either mottled greyish 
or buffy -white. 

Howe (1931) stated that the eggs of Tasmanian birds are "rather 
larger" than those from the mainland; also that the clutch "often" 
consists of three or four eggs, perhaps even five. Campbell (1900) 
referred to reports of large clutch sizes; see also Littler (1910). 
Sharland (1958), who gives the clutch size as two to three, considers 
that the Spotted Quail-Thrush is "a diminishing species in southern 
Tasmania and does uot appear to be common anywhere" for which he 
blames the domestic cat, Littler (1910) says "... in no locality is 



CONDON— AUSTRALIAN QUAIL-THRUSHES 



353 



it as plentiful as it was before the country was opened up . . . ", when 
it was ''extremely plentiful" and sold in the markets as a food 
delicacy. 

Localities: (not shown on map, fig. 2). Cullenswood; Freycinet 
Peninsula; Hobart; Mount Wellington; Sandford; Wilmot; near 
Koonya and Impression Bay. 

2. Cinclosoma castanotum Gould 1840 
(Chestnut Quail-Thrush) 
The Chestnut Quail-Thrush, which is confined to the southern half 
of Australia, is the most widely-distributed of all the species of 
Cinclosoma (fig. 3) and shows the greatest geographical divergence. 
It does not occur in localities with an annual rainfall of more than 
30 inches. In the northern parts of its range the natural habitat is 
arid scrub, with eucalypts in the minority, whilst in the south the 
habitat is semi-arid or sclerophyll mallee, with Eucalyptus species 
predominating. 




Fig 3 Distribution of Chestnut Quail- Thrush, Cinclosoma castanotum. The subspecies 

are . a castanotum; b — mayri; v.—morgani; d—dundasi; e—clarum. Stippled areas _ 

probable range, from which no specimens have been taken. Note that C. c, clarum over- 
laps the geographical range of C. cinimmomeum (cf. fig. 4). x = subsp. (!) (Pawns, 
1921); y = subsp. (f) (Keast, pera. comm., 1959). 



3 ** RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Keast (pers. comm.) observed the Chestnut Quail-Thrush at 
Nymagee (fig. 2, No. 47; fig. 3, y) near the northernmost extension 
of the mallee in New South Wales, but failed to obtain a specimen. 

Like the preceding species, Cvnclosoma castanotum has been 
driven from much of its former habitat in the wheat-growing districts 
and its range and numbers must continue to diminish. 

The following subspecies, some of which are isolates, may be 
distinguished: 

A. Dark chestnut rump in male (greatly reduced or absent in female) : 

(a) Size small, general coloration olive brown castanotum 
(6) Size larger, general coloration darker . . . mayri nov. 

B. Chestnut rump brighter and more extensive: 

(c) Coloration of rump equally developed in 

both sexes '...., war gam 

(d) Coloration of rump reduced or absent in 

females dundasi 

(e) Back, scapulars, rump and portion of upper 

tail coverts light chestnut rind equally 
developed in both sexes .... . . .". riarnm 

(a) Cinclosoma castanotum castanotum Gould 1840 

Cinclosoma castanotum Gould 1840. Birds Austr., part 1, Dec. L 
Belts of the Murray, South Australia, 

Range: Semi-arid Mallee districts of south-eastern South Aus- 
tralia (as far north as Leigh Creek) and adjacent parts of New South 
Wales (east to about Mossgiel) and north-western Victoria (south to 
Ironbark Ranges) (Howe, 1909), and south of Ararat (Hill, 1907). 

Diagnosis: Olive brown above (greyish) with a dark chestnut 
band (40 mm. maximum width) restricted to the rump in males and 
absent or greatly reduced in females and young birds. Flanks brown. 
Ear coverts olive brown. 

Measurements: Wing— Males, 98-105; females, 95-103. Tail- 
Males, 91-99; females, 95-98. Tarsus— 28. Bill— 13-16 mm. 

Gould's cotypes, which are housed in the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, were obtained east of the Mount Lofty high- 
lands in Mallee scrub near the River Murray in the direction of 
Morgan. De Schauensee (1957) says "Gould's plate shows a male and 
a female, the male being a particularly richly coloured individual, 



CONDON— AUSTRALIAN QUAIL-THRUSHES SS$ 

with which the type agrees' \ He gives the following measuremen 
M Adult male, wing 105, tail 94; adult female, wing 98; oilmen 16". 

<JaiiM>)>^Hs T description (1926) of a male from Karoonda, South 
Australia (B51G), which they call a "plesiotype", fits most individuals 
of this race. 

A specimen in the Australian Museum, Sydney (0.1 8077) bears 
the label ''Adelaide, 1864", which is questionable. 

Localities i (see fig. 2, Nos. 39-46). 39. Belts of the Murray 
River (type locality); 40. Chauncy's Line; 4L Pimmroo area; 42. 
Mossgiel; 43. Ouyen; 44. near Ararat (Emu, 44: 190) ; 45. Oodlawirr t; 
Leigh Creek (specimens). 

Other localities, not shown on map:— Victoria— Antwerp (near 
Jeparif; between Hattah and Kulkync; Lronbark Ranges (near 
Stawell) (Emu, 8: 135); Kow Plains; Lake Boga; Nhill; Panitya; 
Pine Plains; Red Cliffs; Turriff; Wyperfield. 

South Australia— Alawoona; Bowhill (specimen) ; Copley: 
Flinders Ranges near Lake Froine (8. slvstr. Qrtk, 4s 73); Loxton; 
between Murray Bridge and Karoonda (ibid., 10: 32); Mannum; 
I > aringa ; Patsv Springs (Copley) (eggs) ; Renmark area (ihid, 5: 72) ; 
Sntherlands; Taplan; between Truro and Blanchetown; Turner Well. 

(b) Cinclosoma castanotum niayri subsp. nov. 

Type locality: 20 miles smith of Rankin Springs, New South 
Wales. Type: Australian Museum No. O 39745; adult male. Allo- 
type: Australian Museum No. O 39688; adult female. 

Btognosfai Larger and darker than the nominate form.^ Adult 
male: — Crown, ear coverts and dorsal surfaces olive brown, without a 
greyish tinge; chestnut rump 47 mm. wide (against 40 mm. b 
cashmoUnnj; white malar stripe 40 mm. long (against 30 mm. in 
castanotum) ; extent of black from chin to lower breast 80 mm. 
(in castanotum this does not. exceed 52 mm.). Flanks reddish brown. 
Wing, 107; tail, 112? tarsus, 81; bill 17 mm. " Gonads developing; 
no surplus fat ; stomach contents seeds and insect remains' y (collector's 
label). Fresh plumage. Collector, J. A. Keast, September 15, 1957. 
Adult female: — Large. Dorsal coloration similar to male, except for 
rump, which is tinged with dark chestnut only; malar stripe well 
developed. Wmg, 100; tail, 99; tarsus, 30; bill, 16 mm. " Stomach 
contents, seeds. '* Fresh plumage. Collector, H. J. Frith, April 8, 
1955. Locality, 27 miles north of Griffith, New South Wales. 



356 RECORDS OF THE S.A MUSEUM 

The presence of the Chestnut Quail-T brush in some scattered belts 
of Malice scrub in the Mnrrumbidgee Irrigation area of New South 
Wales has long been known (Emerson and Gannon, 1934; Chisholin, 
1938), Rather surprisingly, specimens collected have proved to be 
almost as large in body size as the Spotted Quail-Thrush; the 
population is, of course, an isolate. 

Localities: (see fig. 2, Nos. 48-51). 48. Rankin Springs (type 
locality); 49. Griffith; 50, Barellan (Emu, 37: 307); Leeton (ibid/22: 
311). Also 36 miles north of Warraiidera (Chisholm). 

(c) Cinclosoma castanotum morgani Condon 1951 

Cinclosoma castmioticm morgani Condon 1951. S. Austr. Orn., 20, 
p. 42. 18 m. north-west of Kimba, South Australia. 

Range: Eyre Peninsula, South Australia. Probably extinct in 
many localities. 

Diagnosis: Upper back (mantle.) olive brown. Lower back, rump 
and portion of the upper tail coverts bright chestnut and equally 
developed in both sexes. Ear coverts olive brown. Wing—Males, 
102, 105; females, 92, 97. Bill, 18. Tarsus, 30 mm. 

In size and coloration this geographical variant, which is 
mentioned by Campbell (1926) and Morgan (1926), is intermediate 
between clarirm and nominate castanohim. Like clarwm, it is 
exceptional in having the male and female similarly coloured on the 
upper surface, but the chestnut on the back is less extensive (47 mm, 
wide). The type, a breeding male, is in the South Australian Mnseum 
(No. B 5673). 

Localities: (see iig. 2, Nos. 52-53). 52. 18 m. north-west of 
Kimba (type -locality) ; Gawler Ranges area (.specimens). 

(d) Cinclosoma castanotum dundasi Mathews 1912 

Cinclosoma castanotuvt dundasi Mathews 1912. Nov. Zool, 18, p. 330. 
Lake Dundas, Western Australia. 

Ramge: South-western Australia (*' north to the mulga-eucalypt 
line . but excluding the heavy forested area" (Serventy and 

Whittell, 1951). Probably extinct in a number ol' localities. 

Diagnosis: The male resembles morgani, with the chestnut rump 
about 47 ram. wide, but differs in having a shorter bill and longer 
tarsus. Female is dull-coloured, the rump being either tinged with 
chestnut (in the more easterly parts of the range) or plain. Ear 



CONDON— AUSTRALIAN QUAIL THRUSHliS 357 

coverts olive brown. Wing— Males, 1)7-101; female, 95-99, Tarsus, 
;U. Bill 1245 mm. 

The tvpe, which i.s in the Mathews collection, was collected by 
F L. WMfclock, at an altitude of 8§0 feet, on July 16, 19Q&J Mathews 1 
figure (1021, pi. 424) is hardly recognizable. A topotypieal male, taken 
by Dt\ D. I*. Smwenty at a place 10 miles smith of Widgieinooltha, 

near lake Dundae, on March 22, 1937, bus been examined* Details 

of specimen; "Iris, port -wine recLj feet lead grey, Length, 200; bead 
47; wing 98; tail 105 mm." (Servcmty/Whittell collection, No. 74b). 

Most authors accept dandasi; some have suggested that clar«m 
(below) should be Included with it. Further collecting in the western 
part of its rang*' may show elinal differences witlj the trend, in the 
western parts of the range, towards a darker chestnut rump. 

The habitat is mainly semi-arid scrub (Mallee), but it may include 
areas of temperate woodland. 

Locality's: (see %. 2, Nos. G8-79), (38. North of Southern Cross; 
G9. Lake Dundas (type locality); 70. tieai Norseman; 71, Widgie- 
mooltha (specimens) ; 72. Coolgardio {Emu, 27: 180) ; 73. 80 m. east of 
Kalgoorlic ( [ibid., 10: 70) ; 74. near Nolhirbor Plain; 75. barker Range; 
Dwaladine; Woyaline (lbis } 3 (ser. 9) : $83) (specimens); 76. Wougan 
Hills; 77. Broome Hill; 78. Oanbrook; 79. Albany (specimens). 
Specimens from other localities not shown on map: — Graeefield; 
Woryantilla; Mongnp (Salt River); 53 m. from Fremanlle (on York 
road) (Gould). 

(e) Cinclosonia castanotum clanim Morgan 1926 

(Undosoma- castanolttni datum Morgan 192b*. S. Austr, Qrn. y 8. p. 138. 
Wipipippee rocks, near Lakp Gairdner, South Australia. 

Range: From the MacDonnell Ranges, Northern Territory west- 
wards to Separation Well, Callion, and north of Kalgoorlie, Western 
Australia; Alns^rave and Evcrard Ranges south to about Lake 
Gairdner, South Australia. 

Diagnosis: The most brightly coloured of all the forms of 
rast(inotuvh t The back, scapulars, rump, and portion of the upper tail 
coverts are light chestnut ("burnt sienna") in both sexes. The white 
tips of tlie wing coverts are enlarged. Far coverts blackish in the 
male. Examples from the northern parts of (be range arc more 
tawny on the Hanks. Wing— Males, 98402; females, 97402. Tarsus, 
MO. Bill, 19 mm. 



358 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Specimens of clarum have now been taken from such widely 
separated localities as Lake Gairdner, TCverard and Maedonnell 
Ranges and north of Kalgoorlie, There IB a specimen in the Australian 
Museum which was Bollroted by the Horn Expedition at Peering ('reek, 
Northern Territory and another, a female, fi'om Callion, Western 
Australia in the (Queensland Museum (No. 06768). A further skin, 
from near Ooldea is contained in the National Museum of Victoria 
(No. R9574); 

The type, a male, was collected by Dr. A. M. Morgan at a spot 
about 5 miles east of the southern end of Lake Gairdner on August 
17, 1905; it is housed in the South Australian Musenm, No. B7705. 
An adult pair was taken by R. Williams at a place between the 
Musgrave and Kveranl Ranges, South Australia, in September, 1926, 

other records which k&n bo referred to rhnu.iv a£e from Edward Creek 
(SJnrpson, L9S3)j Myrtle Springs, South Australia (Cain, 1935) and 
near Xeparnt ion Well, North west Australia (Keartland, in North, 
1009). Wliitloek (1!M0), knowing nothing of this rufous form of C. 
casfauofum, which was not described until sixteen years later, 
Suggested that Keartland met with C. margiuafum, not C. castanutum, 
at ScfparatioB Well. However, although the latler's speeimens were 
lost before he returned to civilization, there is no reason to doubt his 
ideui .J rcafioiL 

Females should not be confused with those of any other desert 
species; the foreneck and throat, as in all Forms of C rii^lanotum, 
is grey; 

The habitat of clarum differs from that of other subspecies ttf 
C. casttntolmn, being an arid Mnlga scrub Formation, rather thnn 
Mallee. In northern South Australia, the range of clarum overlaps 
that of the Cinnamon Quail-Thrush (-<<• %*. 3* 4), but the latter 

is restricted mainly to open stony (gibber) country and in the strictest 
sense should not be regarded as sympatric with clarum. In Western 
Australia the. ranges of clarum and viarf/inaturn are probably con- 
tiguous, and, depending on the nature of the terrain and vegetation, 
the occurrence of tin* former may be limited to "pockets" of trees 
and taller shrubs within the central desert nreas of Western Australia 
from which, as yet, no member of the genus has been collected or 
reported. 

Local >f"s: (see fig. 2, Nok. 54-67). South Australia. 54. 
Wipipippee Uoeks (type locality); 55. near Ceduna (S. Atistr. Orn., 
9: 144) ; 55. Ooldea (specimen) j 57 Myrtle Springs (8. Austr. Orn. } 13: 



CONDON— AUSTRALIAN QUAIL-THRUSHES 



359 



10) ; 58, Toward Creek (ibid., 12: 129) ; 59. Everard Banges (ibid* 17: 
fj) ; 60. OffiQCff Creek (eggs) {Emu, 15: 35) ; 61. between Musgrave and 
Mann Ranges (specimens); 62. Hermannsburg (Horn Expedition); 
Deering Creek (specimen) (Hoi'n Expedition). Western Australia. 
64. Separation Well (Trans. Roy Soc. S. Austr., 22: 180); 65. near 
Menzies (North, 1: 326); 66. north of Kalgoorlie (specimen). 
Queensland. 67. Diarnantina Gates (identity uncertain (Parsons, 
S. Austr. Om., 6: 20). 

3. Cinclosoma alisteri Mathews 1910 

(Nullarbor Quail-Thrush) 

Cinclosoma alisteri Mathews 1910. Bull Brit. Om. CL, 27, p. 160. 
Waddiliuia, Nullarbor Plain, Western Australia. 

Si/nouym: uidlarhorevsis Campbell 1922. Haig and Naretha, Western 
Australia. 

Range: Nullarbor Plain, Western and South Australia (fig. 4). 




Fig. 4. Distribution of the arid species of Cinclosoma. 3, Nullarbor Quail- Thrush, 
C. ali'Steri. which is confined to the shrub steppe region known as the Nullarbor Plain; 
4, Cinnamon Quail-Thrush, C. cinnamomeum, in the areay of lowest rainfall, the environ- 
ment being arid grasslands and stony (gibber) deserts; 5, "Western Qail-Thrusb, 
C. viarginalum, in a region isolated from the other forms; 6, Chestnut-breasted Quail 
Thrush, C. castaneothorax, which lives in open scrublands. Note that all, except the 
last-named, are contained within the 10-inch annual isohyet. 



360 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Diagnosis: The entire upper surfaces, including the central 
rectrices, are rich rufous ("auburn" or "russet") in the adult male, 
which has the ear coverts, throat, and breast black. The adult female 
is duller rufous on the head and bach, the superciliary and malar 
stripes are whitish, and the ear coverts, throat, and breast are grey. 
In both sexes the under tail coverts are buff, spotted with dark brown. 
Juveuals are dull rufous above and the feathers of the breast have 
dusky or bJaekish edgings which become more intense with age, 
in males. 

Measurements: Wing — Male, 81-92; male juv., 78; female, 85, 86. 
Tarsus— Male, 28; juv., 24; female, 25. Bill — 1G (adult); 14 mm. 
(male juv,). 

The Nullarbor Quail-Thrush is a rarity in collections. There is a 
small series, of about seven skins, in the H. L. White collection 
(National Museum of Victoria), two skins in the Australian Museum, 
Sydney, and thiee males in the Mathews collection (American Museum 
of Natural History). There are no specimens in the (South Australian 
Museum. It is worth while emphasizing that C ulisir.ri, which has no 
subspecies, is a much deeper rufous bird than C. cinnamonieiun, with 
the markings of the throat and breast, in both sexes, more as in 
C. castaMo/wf. 

Localities: (see tig. 2, Nos. 80-85). 80. Waddilinia (type locality); 
SL Haig (type at iiullathorensis Campbell) ; 82. Loongana; 83. Forrest; 
84. 40 miles S.W. of Cook (eggs) ; 85. Ooldea. Not shown on map: — 

Naretha. 



4. Cinclosoma cinnamomeum Gould 1846 
(Cinnamon Quail-Thrush) 

The Cinnamon Quail-Thrush lives in the stony (gibber) deserts 
and sandlull country of Central Australia, where the annual rainfall 
is less than 10 inches (fig. 4). The geographical range extends 
further north and south than shown in the map by Campbell (1926). 
This is a variable spe<i<\s, both in size and coloration, and two 
subspecies may be recognized. 

(a) Cinclosoma cinnamomeum cinnamomeum Gould 1846 

Cinclosoma cinntimomenm Gould 1846. Proe, Zool t Soc, London, p. 68. 
Start's Depot, north-western New South Wales. 



CONDON— AUSTRALIAN QUAIL -THRUSHES 361 

Synompn: todmordeni Mathews, 1923. Todmordon, South Australia. 

Range: Eastern desert regions of lower Northern Territory 
( extent ling to just above (lie Tropic, of Capricorn) far south-western 
Queensland, far north-western corner of New South Wales, and 
northern South Australia south to about Lake Ton-ens, Lake Frome 
and the vicinity of Leigh Creek. 

Diagnosis: Larger in body-size (not shown by wing and tail 
measurements). Head more greyish than the back; ear coverts dark 
greyish brown. Wing— Males, 85-90; females, 81-87. Tarsus, 28. 
Bill, 16 mm. 

Females are usually paler than mates with the wing covert* 
brOWTjisb black with prominent white tips. The female figured by 
Mathews (39Kt y \A. 420) is a specimen from ueur the Macumba River, 
South Austr&Ua. Young birds have the feathers edged with black, 
forming crcbceuts, especially on the under surface. Abrasion causes 
some variation ID the plumage pattern of males. Birds from near the 
centre <>f the range, separated as fod.mordcrii by Mathews, are often 
palest (caused by fading and wear), but light and dark individuals 
have been examined from the same looattty. Specimens from 
Torhnorden, Oodnadatta, Birdsville and Lflks Frome are indistir.gush- 
able in most instance- 

Of special interest, is a specimen token for the Northern Territory 
Administralion by Mr. W, B, Hitchcock, on May 9, 1955; the locality 
was "19 miles east of Cockroach W.1L, Jervois S. R.'\ The specimen, 
:m immature male, is temporarily housed in the National Museum of 
Victoria. Details from the collector's label are:— M Male, skull n.f.o.; 
iris warm sepia j monlt-Icgs; humeral (slight). On road and on 
stony ground in Acacia (jeorgivae ami Gmeia sp, community". This 
represents the northernmost record of the genus in Australia, although 
previously (1949), the lute L. J. Ellis took a set of two eggs of a 
species he was untitle to identify in roeky country in the Jervois 
Range, Northern Territory, at a spot south-west of Cockroach WML 

localities: (see (ig. 2, Nos. 86-104). 86. Start Depot, (type 
locality); 87. Mount A rruwsrnith ; 88. Lake Bancannia; 89. west of 
Wilcannia; 90. west of Paroo River; 91. Naryilco Station; 92. Lake 
Frome 5 9$ EiSlgh Creek} 91. nwtt Of Morroe; 95. Murturce, Strzeleckt 
Creek; 96. Mirramitta; 97. Bloods Creek; 98. Toduiorden {type 
locality of todmordeni); 99. near Oodnndatta; 100. Horseshoe B*ud; 
101. Crown Point; 102, near Hermanusburg; 103. Jervois Range; 103A. 
19 m. &. of Cockroach W.H., Jervois 8.B. ( Hitchcock ) | 104. Ooldea 
(specimen). 



362 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

(b) Cinclosoma cinnamomeum samueli (Mathews) 1916 

Samuela cinnamomea samueli Mathews 1916. Austral Av. Rec, 3, 
p. 60. Gawler Ranges, South Australia. 

Range : South-west of Lake Eyre, extending through Stuart Range 
to Ooldea and the Gawler Eanges. 

Diagnosis: Cinnamon coloration brighter and more intense; the 
crown and ear coverts have a rufous wash and the amount of white 
on the band separating the black breast and throat is somewhat 
reduced. Wing— Males, 85-90 ; females, 80-85. Tarsus, 27. Bill, 15 mm. 

It has not been possible to determine exactly the northern limits 
of samueli. Probably it does not extend beyond a line drawn from 
Stuart Eange to the northern shores of Lake Torrens. The type, a 
male in the Mathews collection, came from Sandford's paddock, a 
holding in the Gawler Ranges ; it was taken on September 3, 1912, by 
S. A. White. 

Hartert (1931) correctly points out that this form has nothing to 
do with the North-western Australian form C. marginatum, which 
Mathews calls u nea" in his 1931 List. Samueli can be distinguished 
by its small body size and greater amount of rufous coloration on 
the crown and ear coverts; it can in no way be confused with 
castaneothorax, from Queensland, with which Hartert was inclined to 
unite it. Material examined suggests that females may have more 
grey on the throat than those of the nominate form, but occasional 
examples are met with the throat pale buffy white. The general 
coloration, in both sexes, is more rufous, or of a deeper shade, than 
in the northern race, not "paler" as stated by Mathews, whose type 
was "very worn and in poor condition" (Hartert, loc. cit.). 

Localities: (see fig. 2, Nos. 105-107). 105. Mount Eba; 106. 
Stuart Range; 107. Gawler Ranges (type locality of samueli). 

5. Cinclosoma marginatum Sharpe 1883 
(Western Quail-Thrush) 

The Western Quail- Thrush occupies the Mulga scrubs of the huge 
pastoral area of North-western Australia, its range, so far as known, 
extending from just north of the Tropic of Capricorn southwards to 
the agricultural areas and eastwards towards the sand dune desert 
country where hummock-forming xeromorphic grasses (Triodia, etc.) 
predominate (fig. 4, No. 5). 



CONDON— AUSTRALIAN QUAIL-THRUSHES 363 

Much cod fusion lias arisen regarding (lie correct name for this 
form of Cr,ul<>soma fotkmng Mathews 1 decision (1957) to treat V. 
marginatum and C. cimamvmewm as conspecific. Previously the 

Etter had l>oon combined with C. mManeoUiorax (see Australian 

Official t'hcfklist, 1926). Making an erroneous assumption, Mathews 

, ipptessed t ho name )nur?jhialitin Sharpe and substituted Tot- U instead 

n b of his earlier names, ma. He argued, oqrrectly, that Ekay, whom 

Bhtfpfl had named as the collector of the type of (I ivuffjinaiuvu 1 ad 
nwor been in Western Australia and then went OH to propose "North- 
west New South Wales" as the type locality for C. maraniafum. In 
dtfErtg so, he ignored an entry in the British Museum register winch 
stated that Sharped type was "from an Australian Expedition, 
probably Mr. Austin's, W. Austr.'\ 

Robert Austin was a surveyor who arrived in Western Australia 
in 1S40. Four years later lie made a trip via lakes (Weowiue; and 
Austin to the upper te&ohea ot the MurchiRon and thru proceeded to 
Clerahiton. Tin- mute of this expedition is shown on early published 
maps of Western Australia (*.£., Philip's liaudv Conoral Atlas of the 
World, 1HS2). Aaslin rel urnod with a small collection of bird skins 
for the British Museum. Anions them were two skins of Cinclosonui, 
collected ill thfl vicinity of Mount Kenneth, 70 miles south of Mount 
fcfognel (W liltelL 106i); the type locality of Sharped C. warffinalum 
should bo amended RCJ ordingly. 

The inland form of 0, uioniinatnw is smaller and paler than the. 
bird described by Sharpe, and Mailiews' name, tiea, is available fitt it. 

Unfortunately, llartert (1931) treated n&& as a form of C. 
momommm and the true situation has been further obscured by 
WhiUell nod Servonty (1948), who have rejected both warpivatum and 
in a, employing; instead the name <(U;f(!uc<){lior<tr (type locality " South 
Queensland") as a subspeeifie designation in combination with 
i'mclosoma nnvawomemu for birds from Northwestern Australia. 
This course h&& recently heon followed by Lindgrcn (1961.) whuso 
referenee to the "Cinnamon Quail-Thrush" at Jigalong (Lat. 23 deg. 
24 min. 8 H L(»n?. 120 fog, 4fi miu. R) should, oS course, be applied to 
the Western Quail-Tlmish, 

As pointed out by riontilli (1961) the hnbiiat of ft wnr f /watum 
has suffVred groat chaises Gwiftg to overgrazing by sheep and the plant 
cover "in some places has been almost wiped out" Tims it seems 
that, like other members of the mentis, C. mar<miatum will have little 
opportunity to adapt itself to the new conditions imposed by man. 



364 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

(a) Cinclosoma marginatum marginatum Sharpe 1883 

Cmclosoma marginatum Sharpe 1883. Cat. Bds., Brit. Mus., 7, p. 336. 
Type locality, amended herein, Mount Kenneth, Western 
Australia. 

Range: Coastal regions from about the Tropic of Capricorn, 
extending to south-east of the Murchison Eiver, within the 10-inch 
rainfall belt, Western Australia. 

Diagnosis: Males have a bright rufous (cinnamon) breast band, 
dark brown ear coverts and a well-defined dark crown. The eyebrow 
is white and the breast and flanks are bordered with black. The under 
tail coverts are black edged with white. The back rump, central 
rectrices and flanks are bright rufous in both sexes. 

Females have a dark crown, brown ear coverts, the throat, super- 
ciliary stripe and malar region deep buff, the back is streaked darker, 
and there is very little white on the rufous abdomen. The under tail 
coverts are reddish-brown tipped with white, with a narrow 
subterminal black band. 

Wing— Males, 91, 97; female, 97. Tail— Male, 95; female, 101. 
Tarsus, 29-31. Bill, 14. 

Localities: (see fig. 2, Nos. 108-110). 108. Mount Kenneth (type 
locality) ; 109. near Yalgoo ; 110, Mount Ida. 

(b) Cinclosoma marginatum nea Mathews 1912 

Cinclosoma castaneothorax nea Mathews 1912. Nov. Zool., 18, p. 331. 
Day Dawn, Western Australia. 

Range: North-western Australia (inland). 

Diagnosis: Smaller and paler than the preceding form. Ear 
coverts rufous, lores brownish in the female. Wing — Males, 91-92; 
females, 81-91. Tarsus, 27. Bill, 15 mm. 

There is little doubt that specimens from the lower rainfall 
regions of North-western Australia can be separated from those nearer 
the coast and this is borne out by descriptions published by Mathews, 
Campbell and other writers. Day Dawn, the type locality of nea, is 
about 50 miles north of Mount Magnet. Further material may indicate 
that the variation in this species is clinal, in which case some authors 
may prefer to drop nea altogether. 

A small female, taken at Carnarvon, has the ear coverts brownish 
instead of rufous and could be referred to either form. 



CONDON—AUSTRALIAN QUAIL-THRUSHES J65 

Local airs: (ae$ fifc 2, Nos. 111-120). 111. Carnarvon; 112. Day 
Dawn (type locality); 113. Wiliuia (Mm*, 9s 196); 1 14- Lake Darin I ; 
L15-116. Canning Slock Route (specimens) ; 117. Brockman Creek 
(Calvert Expedition) ; US. Jigalong (W. Ausfr. Nat., 7: 114); 119 
Wanery River, 120. Bailee Range. 

6. Ciiiclosoma caslaneothorax Gould 1849 
(Chestnut-breasted Quail-Thrush) 
Cinalosoma castamothorM Could 1849. I'roc Zoul. Hoc, London, 
1848: 139, pi. (\ Near the Dawson River, Queensland. 
Ranr/e: Interior of southern Queensland and adjacent areas in 

New South Wales. 

Diagnosis ; In the male there is a glossy black throat; rich rust-red 
breast hand edged with tdft&J eyebrow buff, the rum p and back are 
deep rust-red. The female has the throat and malar region orange-buff 
and the eyebrow is of 1hc s;ime colour. The breast, which is pale 
brown, poMgea into the dull cinnamon brown of the flanks, There is 
no black on the \wu\or nirfege ,vl " 1<l female, which has the back 
olive-brown and the rump reddish-brown, with indistinct darker 
streaks. 

Rowdier Sharpe (1861) pointed out that Gould's name for 
this species, being a W V02 hybridal should be amended to 
• -. rythroihorax", but the altered spelling has never been used. In 
Gould's original description it was stated ^llah. Darling Downs, New 
South Wales" and this has been quoted generally as the type locality. 
HQWOTOT, it seems certain that, the type, a male, was taken by Charles 
Coxen at a place north of the Darling Downs nol far from where 
Gilbert, when collecting for Gould, saw some birds in the Valley of 
Ruined Castles, near the upper reaches of the Dawson River, Queens- 
land (Chisholm, 1945) (sen fig. 2, No. 121). 

Only four specimens have been taken of this little known species, 
viz. (a) Gould V; type, acquired by the British Museum, and, T am 
informed, now nursing; (b) an adult male, collected by F. L. Berney, 
at Barcarolle, Thomson River, Queensland, September 4, 1925 and 
now in the Queensland Museum (0 3601}-, This bird has been 
described by Campbell (192&) and described and figured by Mathews 
(1928, pi. 4*4), (c) An adult female (South Australian Museum, No. 
B 21432), collected by Dr. VV. MacGillivray, Adavale-Charleville road, 
August 27, 192S, It has been figured by Mathews (1928, pi 44). 
(d) An adult male, taken in Thryptomene heath scrub country at 
Eungonia (near Bourke), New South Wales, September, 1960 (National 



3 * 6 RECORDS OF THE S A. MUSEUM 

Museum of Victoria, No. B73S3). Eggs were also taken near the eame 
place in 1959. 

Measurements: Type male (adapted from Gould)— Total length, 
212. Wing, 100. Tail, 106. Sum, 25. Bill, 25 (?). Male (Berne's 
specimen)— Wing, 99. Tail, 105, Tardus, 27. Bill, 14. Male 
(Enngonia)— Wing, !)M, Tail (worn), 102. Tarsus, 28. Bill, 1 !. 
Adult female— Wing', 98. Tail, 9(3. Tarsus, 28. Bill, 15 mm. The 
male preserved in the National Museum of Victoria had a black bill 
and grey legs. 

CJonld's type MM figured with the original description (1849) and 

a different illij&tratioii Off the same bird was given in the u Supplement 

to lite Birds nf Australia" (1855, pi. 32). A fru-fht r illustration of 
tlie type was supplied by Mafhews (1$$, pi. 70, left hand figure). It 
would seem that the BOTOmpauying descriptions given by Mathews at 
this time, wherein (7. Cfl DtMMM and C, marginatum are compared, 

became transposed by the printer. The male in the Queensland 
Museum, which is the sane- Bpfmmfcn as described hy Campbell (1926), 
now bears the date May 20, 1926 instead of* the proper date 
"September 4, 1925". Cameron (19,12, 19:38) reported seeing the 
Bpegieg at Qttilpie and MfiOWlibidary Station (TTungerford), Queensland 
and more recently near Bourke, New South Wales. 

The Chestnut-breasted Quail- Thrush was combined with C. 
marginatum in the Australian Checklist (1926) because there is a 
superficial resemblance between the males of the two species. Of late, 
especially anions those who have not examined specimens, (he tendency 
hM been to regard bolh C. marginal turn and C. casfaneotl/orax as 
forms of C. cinnamomevm. The male from Enngonia, in which the 
plumage is fairly fresh, is darker on the back than the specimen taken 
by Berncy. The sternum has been preserved. 

A R. McEvey 1ms written, {i In the 11. L. WMto collection is a *»\ of 
two eggs labelled C 0tl$tW1#d£hQrteS-^ tak&t) by TT. Lau, Darling Downs, 
Queensland, October, 18SS (s<-e Emit, 8: 63). These ate distinct from 
others labelled marginatum alisferi and casta 'it o turn. Though smaller 
than those of pm/cititwm, they are clearly of the puuetatum type, 
having a white ground colour sparingly speckled with very small 
umber, mauve and purple spots 1 '. The writer agrees that these eggs 
are probably pii'itctatum. 

Localities: (see fig. 2, Nos. 121-124). Near Upper Dawson River 
(type locality). 122. Barcarolle, Thomson River. 123. Adavale- 
Charlevillo road. 124. Quilpie. 125. Enngonia. 



CONDON— AUSTRALIAN QUAIL-TH RUSHES J» 

7. Cinclosoma ajax (Temminck) 1835 
(New Guinea Quail-Thrush) 

Eupetes ajax Temminck 1835. Planch. Col. d'$is v pi 573. Lobo, 
Triton Bay, South-west New Guinea. 

Range: New Guinea (lowland forests). 

Iredale (1956) does not regard this species as a true quail-thrush, 
which it seems to be in every way. The male differs from all other 
members of the getttlfi in lacking a white eyebrow and in having no 
white on the black wing' coverts. The differences between the sexes 
are more marked than in any Australian species. The adult female 
has a white eyebrow, the throat and malar region are pure white 
(merged), and* the wing coverts are nearly black or brown, according 
to the subspecies, with prominent white markings. Tn size Cinclosoma 
<(/<i;f approaches C. pftntitdftm of the Australian mainland, being 
approximately 9\ inches (242 mm.) in length. 

The following is a synopsis of the subspecies listed by Mayr 
(1941):— 

(a) Cinclosoma ajax ajax (Temminck) 1835. Triton Bay, New 
Guinea. Larger find darker brown above than the following, with the 
lores and postocular stripes black. Wing— "Male, 114; female, 109, 
110". 

Range: Western coast of Geelvink Bay and Triton Bay. 

(h) Civclosowa api:r vniscalis Rand 1940. Palmer Junction, upper 
Fly River, south New Guinea. Resembles ajax above, with the flanks 
and sides of the breast much paler and less vividly coloured. Wing— 
"Male, 108, 110", 

Range. \ Upper Fly River, south New Guinea. 

(c) Cinclosoma ajax afaris Mayr and Rand 1935. Wuroi, Oriomo 
River, south New Guinea. Known only from the female, which is 
larger and more deeply rufous above than the female of goldei, with 
the wing coverts more brownish. 

(d) Cinclosoma ajar goldei (Ramsay) 1879. Port Moresby, New 
Guinea Smaller and paler olive brown above than the nominate form. 
Wing— "Male, 103, 1Q4". Two males, which are similar to that figured 
by Iredale (1956), are contained in the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Range : Milne Bay to Hall Sound, south-eastern New Guinea. 



368 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

LITEEATUEE CITED 

Amadon, Dean, 1957: Proc. Zool. Soc, Calcutta; Mookeriie Mem. Vol.: 
259-268. 

Barnard, E. D., 1900: Emu, 1: 26. 

Beecher, W. J., 1953: Auk, 70, 270-337. 

Cain, W., 1935: 8. Austr. Orn., 13: 10. 

Cameron, A. C, 1932: Emu, 32: 104. 

1938: Ibid., 37: 316. 

Campbell, A. J., 1922: Ibid,, 21: 161-2. 

1926: Ibid,, 25: 152. 

Campbell, A. J. and A. G., 1926 : Ibid., 26 : 26-40. 
Chisholm, A. H., 1938: Ibid,, 44: 190. 

1945: Ibid,, 44: 190. 

Condon, H. T., 1954: S. Austr, Orn,, 21: 17-27. 

Delacour, J., 1946: L'Oiseau, 16: 14-31. 

Delacour, J. and C. Vaurie, 1957: Contrib. Sci, No. 16. 

de Schauensee, R. M., 1957 : Proc. Acad, Nat. Sci, Phila., 109 : 199. 

Emerson, R. and R. Gannon, 1934: Emu, 33: 311. 

Gentilli, J., 1961: W. Austr. Nat,, 7: 180. 

Gilliard, E. T., 1958: Living Birds of the World. London. Hamish 
Hamilton. 

Gill, E. L., 1945: First Guide to South African Birds. Cape Town. 
Maskew Miller. 

Gould, J., 1840 : Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 5 : 116. 

1849: Proc. Zool. Soc, London, 1948: 68, pi. 6. 

1848: Snppl. Bds. Austr., pi. 32. London. 

1865: Handbk. Bds. Austr., 1: 439. London. 

Hartert, E., 1931: Nov. Zool., 37: 48. 

Hill, G. F., 1907: Emu, 6: 179. 

Holmes, A., 1959: Trans. Edin. Geol. Soc, 17: 183-216. 

Howe, F. E., Emu, 8 : 135. 

1931: Ibid., 20: 292. 

Huxley, J. S., 1938: Proc. 8th, Int. Orn. Congr., 1934: 430. 

Iredale, T., 1956 : Birds of New Guinea. Melbourne. Georgian House. 



CONDON— AUSTRALIAN QUAIL-THRUSHES 369 

Keartland, G., in North, 1909: Rec. Austr. Mus., Sydney, 7, No. 4. 
Keast, J. A., 1958: Austr. J own. Zool., 6: 33-52. 

1961: Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard, 123: 305-495. 

Lea, A. M. and J. T. Gray, 1935: Emu, 35: 93. 

Lindgren, E., 1961 : W. Austr. Nat., 7 : 174. 
Mathews, G. M., 1912: Nov. Zool, 18: 330. 

1921 : Bds. Austr., 9. London. Witherby. 

1923: Austr. Av. Rec, 5: 35. 

1927 : Bds. Austr., 12 : 427. London. Witherby. 

1931 : List Bds. Austr., 287-8. London. Taylor and Francis. 

1936: Suppl. Addit., Bds. Austr., London. Witherby. 

1946: Working List Bds. Austr., Sydney. Shepherd and 

Newman. 

Mayr, E., 1941: List Bds. New Guinea: 110, New York. Amer. Mus. 
Nat. Hist. 

1944: Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 83: 123-194. 

Mayr, E. and D. Amadou, 1951: Am. Mus. Novit., No. 1496. 

Mayr, E. and J. C. Greenway, 1956: Breviora (Mus. Comp. Zool., 

Harvard), 58: 1-11. 
Meinertzhagen, B., 1954: Birds of Arabia. London. Oliver and Boyd. 
North, A. J., 1897-8: Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 22: 180. 

1901 : Nests and eggs of birds found breeding in Australia 

and Tasmania. Vol. 1 : 326. Sydney. Australian 
Museum. 

Parsons, P. E., 1921: S. Austr. Om., 6: 20. 

Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, 1926: Official Checklist 

Austr. Birds. 
Eoberts, Austin, 1948: Bds. South Africa. Witherby. 
Serventy, D. L. and H. M. Whittell, 1951 : Birds of Western Australia. 

Perth. Paterson Press. 

Sharland, M., 1958: Tasmanian Birds. Sydney. Angus and 

Robertson. 
Sharpe, R. B., 1881: Ibis: 605. 

1883: Cat. Bds., 7: 331 et seq. 

1903: Handlist Bds., 4: 2-5. 



370 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Simpson, H., 1933: 8. Austr. Orn., 12: 129. 

Specht, R. L., 1958: Rep. Amer.-Austr. Sci. Exped. Arnhem Land, 3: 
433-438. 

Vigors, N. and T. Horsfield, 1827: Trans. Linn. Soc, London, 15: 219. 
White, H. L., 1922: Emu, 21: 164. 

Whitehouse, F. W., 1940: Univ. Queensld. Papers, 2, n.s., no. 1. 
Whitlock, F. L., 1910: Emu, 9: 196. 

Whittell, H. M., 1954: Bibliogr. Austr. Orn., p. 27. Perth. Paterson 
Brokensha. 

Whittell, H. M. and D. L. Serventy, 1948: Syst. List Bds. W. Austr. 
Perth. Govt. Printer. 

DESCRIPTION OF PLATES 12-13 

Plate 12. Genus Cinclosoma. Heads of adult pairs, males on left, la, Spotted Quail- Thrush, 
Cinclosoma punctatum punctatum; 2a, Chestnut Quail-Thrush, Cinclosoma castanotum 
castanotum; 2b, Cinclosoma castanotum mayri; 3, Nullarbor Quail-Thrush, Cinclosoma 
alisteri. 

Plate 13. Genus Cinclosoma. Heads of adult pairs, males on left. 4a, Cinnamon Quail- 
Thrush, Cinclosoma cinnamomeum cinnamomeum) 5, Western Quail-Thrush, Cinclosoma 
marginatum marginatum ; 6, Chestnut-breasted Quail-Thrush, Cinclosoma castaneothorax; 
7, New Guinea Quail-Thrush, Cinclosoma ajax ajax. 



Rec FLA:, Museum 



You H, PiiACT I 1 ! 




HT Coupon - I94>i 



To ftwu page WQ.] 



TvFA\ S.A. JMllSMtTM 



Vol, 14, Plati? I:; 




ABERRANT AUSTRALIAN BRACHYPTEROUS MYODOCHINE 
BUGS (LYGAEIDAE, RHYPAROCHROMINAE) 



By Gordon F. Gross, Curator of Insects, South Australian Museum 



Summary 

This paper deals with the systematics of a predominantly brachypterous group of rather 
specialized Australian bugs of the Lygaeid tribe Myodochini. Three new genera are 
erected and fourteen species of the Australian fauna discussed. Five of the species are 
new and some synonymy of the others is proposed. 



ABERRANT AUSTRALIAN BRACHYPTEROUS MYODOCHINE 
BUGS (LYGAEIDAE, RHYPAROCHROMINAE) 

By GORDON F. GROSS, Curator of Insects, South Australian - 

Museum 

Plates 14-16 

SUMMARY 

This paper deals with the systematics of a predominantly 
brachypterous group of rather specialized Australian bugs of the 
Lygaeid tribe Myodochini. Three new genera are erected and fourteen 
species of the Australian fauna discussed. Five of the species are 
new and some synonymy of the others is proposed. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

This paper was made useful through the unstinting help of Mr. 
G. G. E. Scudder of the University of British Columbia, Vancouver 
and of Dr. T. E. Woodward of the University of Queensland. The 
latter, when in England, took the trouble to examine all available and 
relevant type material. Mr. Scudder supplied much useful criticism 
at the generic level. I am indebted to the Directors and Boards of 
Trustees of the National Museum, Melbourne, the Australian Museum, 
Sydney, the British Museum, the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, 
Stockholm, the Waite Agricultural Research Institute, Adelaide, and 
the Division of Entomology C.S.I.R.O. Canberra, for loans of material, 
freely made to Mr. Scudder, Dr. Woodward, and myself. 

ABBREVIATIONS 

The following abbreviations are used in citing the location of 
material. S.A.M. — South Australian Museum, Adelaide; N.M. — 
National Museum, Melbourne; A.M. — Australian Museum, Sydney; 
C.S.I.R.O.— Division of Entomology, C.S.I.R.O., Canberra; W.A.R.L— 
Waite Agricultural Research Institute, Adelaide; B.M. — British 
Museum (Nat. Hist.), London; R.M.S. — Riksmuseet, Stockholm. 



372 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

INTRODUCTION 

Classification of the subfamily Rhyparochrominne on the tribal 
:nnl snbtribal level has always presented considerable difficulties, and 
Several markedly different schemes have been proposed. Stal (1872) 
divided the subfamily info six divisions — Myodocharia, Rhyparoehro- 
maria, Beosaria, (Tonianotaria, Lethoearia and Drymaria, then again 
m 1874 placed the subfamily in five divisions— Cle.radaria, Myodo- 
eharia, Rhyparoehromaria, Beosaria. and Lethoearia. Distant (1903) 
reeognized the first three of St.alV, 1874 divisions, but lumped the last 
two into the group Aphanaria. 

Guide ( 11)34) added two other tribe* to these ol' Stal (1874), 
Pteromet.ini and Stygnocorini, Seudder (11)57) round the drafters 
used up to that time to be rather unreliable and based a new BlaSBlfica 
tion on tJi^ position of the triehobothria and spiracles, together with 
the spermathecae. He divided the .subfamily into four tribes, 
Kh^arochromini, Dethaeini, Drymini, and Stygnocorini. He further 
subdivided the Rhvpamehromini into three subtribes Gonianotina, 
Rhyparochromina, and IMociomerina. Slater (1957) suggested the 
names for the BhypaTCh2(hrQttim8e and lihyparochromini should he 
Megalonotinae and Megalonotini, but this has been shown to be 
incorrect. 

Slater and Sweet (l!)61) and Sweet and Slater (1961) raised the 
number of tribes to eight, retaining Scudder's (and others') concept 
of Lethneim and Drymini but splitting his Stygnocorini into Clcradini 
and Pliuthismi, rearranging his Ithvparochrojnini into lour tribes, 
Myodoehini, KMivparocbromLiii, BeOBJOl, and (kmianotini, of which 
only the first tribe is still substantially the same as in Seudder 
concept. 

Tn fact all ol' these, classifications a,Lvree on placing in the tU2€ 
section a group of tcenura which have the pronotum constricted near 
the middle (and hence divided into two lobes) and in which thfl 
lateral margins of the pronotum are not explanate or acute but obtuse 
or rounded. Stal and Distant called it the division Myodocharia, 
Seudder the subtribe Plociomerina, Slater and Sweet the Myodochini, 
but. all agree in placing in it genera of the <n>n<naj appearance of 
J'Jrlaa/a Signoret, EUC&meim Bergroth, M/jodlocha LatreiUe, Pacini 
brachJvs Halm, I'arom'nis hVber and Ptorhtnmcra Sav. Seudder^ 
classification differs in one point Whereas bis Plociomerina (without 
exception so far as 1 can judge from published figures) contains 
genera of the general appearance <jf those just listed, not all genera 



GROSS— AUSTRALIAN MYODOCHINE BUGS 373 

of thia appearance belong to the "Plociomerina''; <'.//., Bedttnia St51 
(= Amtropamera Distant) belongs to the Stygnoeorini. 

It came as a considerable surprise to both Scudder and myself 
when working on our joint revision of Dlevches Dohrn to find the 
anomalous Dimelws rafaeli Evans belonged to the Myodochini. 
Subsequently I found D. rafaeli to be a synonym of Euander laccrtosus 
(Ericlison) and that related to Euander in our collections were a series 
of other genera including Udeoeoris Bergroth, the Australian species 
of "lj(t>nprodemrr\ and several new genera, all belonging likewise to 
tbe Myodochini. Scudder working independently discovered that 
lL Lamprndema" foleopteroides belongs to the Myodochini, but that 
L. maura belongs to the Rhyparochrornini (in litt.). 

These make up a group of genera and species related to Euander, 
and in general do not resemble closely the other Myodochines. An 
incipient transverse constriction of the pronotum is present in several 
of the genera (Euander Stal and Porander gen. nov.) but in two 
other genera (Udeoeoris Bergroth, and Teloeoris gen. nov.) this is 
quite absent. All the species tend bo be flattened and shiny and 
braehypterous forms are common, along with normal, maeropterous 
ones in the same species. Several of the species are known only from 
braehypterous forms. 

Frequent development of braehyptery tends to link this group with 
a group of genera which, although the pronotum is distinctly divided 
into two lobes, are braehypterous. This second group includes 
Fontejus Stal (= Alhanyarla Distant) and two new genera 
Crifpfocoris gen. nov. and Zygoeoris gen. nov., all from Australia, and 
from Other regions Aegyptoeoris China, CdjrpUu/i Stal, Cnemodus H. 
and S., ErJarda Signoret (sometimes), Ptoehiomera Say (sometimes), 
I'rijtanrs Distant and Sisammes Distant, amongst others. 

Tt is hard to avoid the conclusion that the first group makes up a 
(ion of the braehypterous Mydoehini diverging from the general 
faeies of the | ribo It is possibly a late development in the group 
towards specialized small shining forms, and linked through Eiuinder, 
Porander and the F ante jus, Ptoehiomera group of genera with the 
more typical fast-moving Myodochines of the litter and soil surface. 
Euander and Porander definitely 1 1 v < * on law shrubs in the forests of 
higher rainfall areas, l f deoeorix is a soil surface inhabitant of either 
w r et or arid areas, but the exact habitat of the others, whether heath- 
like plants or the deep litter layers, remains undetermined. 

Although genera like Udeoeoris aud Teloeoris are very distinct in 
appearance from the other Myodochini they are very close in structure 



374 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

to forms like Eucmder and Porander, where the transverse construction 
between the two lobes of the pronoturn is fully developed. These in 
turn grade into forms like Cryptocoris, Zyyocoris and Fontejus where 
the pronotal constriction is very well marked. This has necessitated 
this paper including all the Australian genera of Myodochini in which 
brachyptery occurs. 

The genera and Species of the braehypterous section of Australian 
Myodochini may be distinguished by the following key: — 

1. Pronoturn with an incipient transverse 

constriction near or well behind the 

middle 2 

Pronoturn without any trace of a trans- 
verse constriction, although the hind 
portion may be paler than the 
anterior 11 

2. Pronoturn with transverse constriction 

just behind middle 3 

Pronoturn with transverse constriction 
well behind middle 5 

3. Hernelytra always macropterous, hind 

margin of pronoturn concave in 

front of scutellum Euander lacertosus 

(Erichs.) 
Hernelytra maeropterous or with very 
reduced membrane, hind margin of 
pronoturn shallo wl y cu rved over 
whole length 4 

4. Hind lobe of pronoturn mostly pale, 

likewise 1 hernelytra, at least in brach- 

terous form Euander tdrquatus 

(Erichs.) 
Hind lobe of pronoturn dark with two 
prominent pale lateral patches, 
hernelytra mostly dark Euander cicero sp. nov. 

5. Pronoturn and head for the most part 

smooth and shining 6 

Pronoturn, head and scutellum coarsely 

and densely punctate Porander scudderi gen. 

nov. & sp. nov. 



GROSS— AUSTRALIAN MYODOCHINE BUGS 375 

6. Pronotum not markedly longer than 

wide, fore femora inerassate or not 7 
Pronotum conspicuously longer than 
wide, fore femora inerassate .... 8 

7. Fore femora not inerassate, corium 

dark with a pale oblique marginal 

fascia Cryptocoris fasciata 

gen, nov. & sp. nov. 
Fore femora inerassate and finely 
spined beneath, corium oehraceous 

with three lateral black spots .... Fontejus multicoloratus 

(Dist.) 

8. Hemelytra not surpassing middle of 

abdomen Zyfjocoris tiudalei gen. 

nov. & sp. nov. 
Hemelytra surpassing* middle of abdo- 
men 9 

9. Hemelytra dark, at least apically, with 

conspicuous oblique pale marginal 

fascia near apex Fontejus sidnicus (Stal) 

Hemelytra oehraceous or ochraceous- 
pieeous, nearer black 10 

10. Hemelytra evenly coloured pale 

oehraceous, or ochraceous-piceous, 
with only the vaguest suggestion of 
two pale lateral lighter areas .... Fontejus collaris 

(Walker) 
Hemelytra castaneous with several 
areas of yellowish-ochraceous on the 
disc, and two luteous patches on 
margin near apex. Scutellum with 
a paler patch near each basal angle Fontejus westraliensis 

sp. nov. 

11. Hind portion of pronotum lighter in 

colour than anterior region 12 

Hind portion of pronotum for the most 
part concolorous with anterior 
region, and possibly humeral angles 
pale 13 



376 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

12. Hemelytra with small scattered 

fuscous patches Udeocoris rolandi 

(Dist.) comb. nov. 
Hemelytra with a large curved band of 
fuscous in the posterior region of 
corium running from behind middle 
of outer margin to claval suture 
running along claval suture to hind 
margin of corium and along hind 

margin to outer margin Udeocoris scudderi 

sp. nov. 

13. Corium and clavus mainly dark .... Udeocoris nigroaeneus 

(Erichs.) 
Corium and clavus mainly pale .... Telocoris vittata (Dist.) 

gen. nov. & comb. nov. 



Fontejus Stal 1862 

Fontejus Stal, 1862, Stettin, ent. Ztg., 23: 314. 1865, Hemiptera 
Africana 2: 153. 1874 ? K. svenska Vetensk Akad. HandL, 12 (1) : 
145 & 154. 

Albanyaria Distant, 1918, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., (9) 2: 258, new 
synonymy. 

Head triangular, somewhat longer than wide, eyes not touching 
anterior margin of pronotum. Antennae moderately long, first 
segment surpassing apex of head. Pronotum elongate, constricted 
near base. Anterior margin almost straight, hind margin feebly 
convex. Lateral margin feebly convex in front of constriction. No 
obvious collar to pronotum. 

Scutellum a little longer than wide. Hemelytra abbreviated, not 
reaching apex of abdomen, membrane very reduced and dividing line 
between clavus and corium obscure. 

Fore femora very incrassate with a number of teeth in the apical 
halves. Fore tibiae feebly curved with in the male a prominent spine 
beyond the middle. 

Head, pronotum, hemelytra and fore femora with long sparse hairs 
in addition to the normal fine pilosity shown throughout this group 
of genera. 



GROSS— AUSTRALIAN MYODOCHJNE BUGS 377 

Type of genus: Fontcjus sidnkiis (StAl) 
This genus is the most closely related of this whole group of 
Australian hractypterona genera of Myodochini to the normal 
Pachybrachhis and Eurosmetus type. The constriction in the pronotum 
as placed well posteriorad (except in F. multicoloratus) ; the whole 
faeies is typically Myodoehine and is not greatly different from that 
of extra- Australian brachypterous Myodochine genera. 

Fontejus sidnicus (StSl) 

Plate 14, iig. B 

Hlivparochronius sidnicus Stal, 1859: K. svenska Fregatten Engenies 

Rosa etc. 11 (1); 246. 

Black or dark chocolate brown with brown and yellowish-white 
markings. Head with eyes black or dark chocolate brown. First 
three sfcgmfinta of antennae dark brown, second and third infuscated 
at apex. Fourth black with a broad luteous band near base. 

Pronotum concolorous with head, except For two pale luteous 
points, one on either side just behind constriction. One specimen has 
two additional luteous patches along the hind margin. Hind margin 
sliallowly excavate, exterior margin with distinct wide collar, lateral 
margins convex to constriction, behind that convex again. 

Scutellum always black with extreme apex luteous. Sparsely 
punctate, 

Corium and clavus difficult to distinguish and chocolate brown, 
either becoming black apically, or all black. On the lateral margin 
three luteous patches, one at the extreme apex and the second at 
about level of tip of scutelluiu small, the third on the margin at the 
three-quarter spot, large, oblique, reaching almost to mid-line of each 
hardened "elyiron". Without membrane, and hernetytra reaching 
back to about two-thirds length of abdomen. 

Abdomen above always black, with two pale luteous patches, one 
alongside the large luteous patch on hemelytra, the other just behind 
apex of hemelytra. 

Body beneath black or chocolate brown. Rostrum dark brown. 
Pale spots above insertion of coxae and on lateral margins of abdomen 
contiguous with those above. 

Fore femora black, armed beneath with a single row of six stout 
spines. Legs otherwise dark brown, femora paler basally. 



378 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Head, pronotum, heraelytra and fore femora covered with sparse 
long hairs. 

Length: 6 irmi. 

Locality: South Australia; Stickney Island, N. B. Tindale; 
Meningie, 12 September 1959, H. V. Mincham; Ardrossan, February 
1879, collector not indicated; attracted to light, Ravine des Casoars, 
Kangaroo Island, 18 October 1951, G. F. Gross (S.A.JVL). New South 
Wales: North Sydney, Taronga Park, 14 October 1913, A. Musgrave 
(A.M.). 

Fontejus collaris (Walker) 
Hate 14, fig. D 

BJiyparochrowvs collaris Walker, 1872, Cat. Heter., 5: 111. Distant, 
1901, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist, (4) 8: 510. 

Foul ejus collaris Stal, 1874, K. svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl., 12 
(1): 154. 

Walker and Stales descriptions appear to apply to the same insect 
although in Stal's account no reference is made to Walker's descrip- 
tion. Distant says Walker's type is lost. 

Black and chocolate brown. Ilead, anterior lobe of pronotum, 
scutellum, fourth segment of antennae (except for pale luteous sub- 
baeal ring) and sometimes apices of first, second and third segments 
and femora black. 

Antennae, hind lobe of pronotum, hemelytra, upper Bide of abdomen 
(except for a broad median longitudinal 3^ellowish or pale brown 
strips), tarsi and tibiae (latter apical ly infuseated) brown to chocolate 
brown. Some small pale patches on hemelytra and hind lobe of 
pronotum, tip of scutellum pale. 

Beneath head and thorax black, except just above insertion of 
coxae, Avliieh is hitfcOua. Rostrum nnd abdomen chocolate brown, 
abdomen beneath and above with a fine reddish pilosity. Head, 
pronotum and hemelytra with a sparse long pilosity. 

Length : 6-8 mm. 

Locality: Tasmania: one male in tussocks, New Norfolk, A. M„ 
Lea; one male, Hobart, (i-16 November 1928, C. Cole; one female No. 
2218, Seamander (S.A.M.); Eaglehawk Neck, 12 Februarv-3 March 
191.3, R. K. Turner (B.M.). South Australia: Cooper Creek, 
W. E. TTodson (B.M.). 

Walker records the species from Tasmania and South Australia 
(Adelaide), Stal from New South Wales (Sydney). 



GROSS— AUSTRALIAN MYODOCHINE BUGS 379 

Fontcjus westraliensis sp. nov. 

Plate 14, fig. C 

Very similar in general appear;) nee to F. collaris Walker. Choco- 
late brown. Eyes and first and L'ourth segments of antennae black, 
the latter with a pale In (eons subbasal ring. 

Pronoluin with a dark median longitudinal stripe and sometimes 
the very lateral margin infuscated. Scutellum mostly black, but with 
reddish-chocolate basal angles and a luteus tip. 

Hernelytra chocolate, with a pattern of paler and darker patches, 
two feebly marked pale lateral fasciae near apex of hernelytra. 

Upperside of abdomen reddish-chocolate and black variegate. 

Underside of head, pronotum and abdomen black. Luteous 
immediately above fore and hind coxae, reddish-chocolate patches on 
the bind margin of tll6 abdominal segments, lateral margin of abdomen 
also reddish-chocolate variegate. Middle and hind femora and all 
tibiae and tarsi apically infuscated. 

Underside of abdomen with a fine golden silky pilosity, pronotum 
and on hernelytra with long sparse hairs. 

Length 1 , 7 mm. 

Locality', Western Australia: Tlolotype male and allotype female, 
T\afanning,'2 May 193$ K. K. Norris (C.S.LIU).). 

Tins species is easily distinguished from F. collaris hy the 
variegated hernelytra, which contain several areas of black, by the 
brown head, and the wholly brown pronotum, which has a darker 
longitudinal median streak, 

I onlejus multicolorutus (Distant) nov. comb. 

Albam/arta midlicolorata Distant, 1918: Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., (9) 
*2 ■ 258. 

"Head, anterior lobe of pronotum, and the scutellum black; the 
narrow posterior pronotal lobe and the extreme apex of scutellum 
greyish white; antennae ochraceous, apex of third joint and more than 
apical half of fourth black; corium ochraceous, the lateral marginal 
areas with tile three prominent black spots, the smaller near base, the 
largest near middle, and Ihe third at apex, the exposed apical area 
of the abdomen bladfcj body beneath black; posterior sternal segmental 
margins very pale oehrueeous; legs reddish ochraceous, apical halves 
of the anterior femora and apices of the tibiae and tarsi black; 



380 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

antennae with the second joint slightly longer than the third and about 
subequal with the fourth; scutellum more or less rugosely punctate; 
clavus linearly somewhat coarsely punctate; rostrum ochraceous, the 
basal joint black, remaining joints imperfectly seen in carded type." 
( Distant 's original description.) 

Length: 5^ mm. 

Locality: Western Australia: Albany (J. J. Walker) Distant 's 
type (B.M.) King George Sound, no collector (G. G. E. Scudder, 
Vancouver). 

I have not seen this species. Fontejus multicolor m atus along with 
Cryptocoris fasciata seems to mark the next step forward in the 
divergence of certain Australian Myodochines from the characteristic 
facies of the group. In these two genera the pronotum is considerably 
shortened and is barely longer than wide and this is also typical of 
all the following forms treated in this paper. 

Genus Zygocoris gen. nov. 

Head elongate, rather acuminate, eyes not very prominent and 
placed well in front of pronotal margin. Pronotum hardly wider than 
head with eyes, with an incipient transverse sulcus placed only a 
short way in front of the hind margin. Anterior margin of pronotum 
concave, posterior margin almost straight, lateral margins almost 
straight from forward of sulcus curving in just before apex and also 
in region of sulcus. Margins of posterior lobe somewhat divergent 
from sulcus backwards. Collar flattened, not very distinct. 

Scutellum small, about as long as wide. Hemelytra very 
coriaceous and "elytra like", corium and clavus not separable and no 
trace of membrane, abbreviated, not reaching behind middle of 
abdomen. 

Fore femora very expanded, only twice as long as wide, not quite 
circular in cross section but feebly flattened laterally with three 
moderate teeth and a number of only slightly smaller ones on the 
underside in the apical half. Fore tibiae shorter than femora, strongly 
curved, apices expanded, with two rows of denticles on their under 
surfaces. Hind tarsi with the first segment not longer than apical 
pair together. 

Type of genus: Zygocoris tindalei sp. nov. 

This genus has affinities with the previous one, Fontejus, but 
differs from it in its longer head and pronotum and massive front 



GROSS— AUSTRALIAN MYODOCHINE BUGS 381 

femora. It also appears to be quite close to Fontejamis Breddin from 
India. Like Fontejamis it has massive front femora, curved and armed 
front tibiae, a sulcus on the pronotum placed just in front of the hind 
margin and very abbreviated hemelytra. It differs from Fontejanus 
in not having the eyes touching the anterior margin of the pronotum; 
it does not appear to have ocelli; the mid femora are unarmed and the 
first segment of the third tarsi is shorter than the apical pair together. 
Fontejanus must be considered a member of this new group of 
Myodochini by virtue of the brachypterous condition of the hemelytra, 
although the 'transverse sulcus of the pronotum is strong and gives 
it a more typical Myodochine pronotum than others of these Australian 
genera. The link between typical Myodochini appears to be either 
through Zygocoris and Fontejanus or through Euander. 

Zygocoris tindalei sp. nov. 
Plate 15, fig. E 

Chocolate brown with hind lobe of pronotum and ground colour 
of "elytra" luteous white. "Elytra" with a T-shaped fuscous patch 
with the head of the T laying along the inner margin, and the stem of 
the T reaching the outer margin at about the middle. Middle and 
hind femora, all tibiae and tarsi, extreme apices of fore femora, 
second segment of antennae (except at apex), and base of third 
segment, yellowish or yellowish brown. 

Head smooth and shining, with sparse long hairs. Anterior lobe 
of pronotum sparsely punctate, otherwise smooth and shining and also 
with sparse long hairs. Hind lobe of pronotum and "elytra" sparsely 
punctate, the punctations are brown in the pale areas. 

Scutellum black, with pale tip, feebly transversely impressed in 
front of middle. Hemelytra very abbreviated into coriaceous 
"elytra", apical margin truncate, feebly sinuate, outer apical angles 
rounded. 

Body beneath shining brown, with a short sparse white pilosity. 

Length : 4-5 mm. 

Locality'. South Australia: Holotype male, allotype female and 
three paratype females, Mount Lofty Ranges, N. B. Tindale (S.A.M.), 
Paratype male and two paratype females, ex soil Gile's Corner, July 
1950 (W.A.R.I.). Australia: Four paratypes, with Camponotus or 
lridomyrmex (Formioidae) (S.A.M.). 



382 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Genus Cryptocoris gen. nov. 

Head about as long as wide, feebly convex, eyes not very 
prominent, almost touching anterior margin of pronotum. No ocelli. 
Pronotum as wide as or slightly narrower than head with eyes, widest 
at anterior and posterior margins. Anterior margin of" pronotum 
straight, posterior margin feebly concave. Lateral margins straight 
and converging as they run back towards constriction which is placed 
well posteriad, thence diverging again to hind margin. No collar. 

Sc itcllum fairly small, almost equilateral. Hemelytra coriaceous 
and elytra-like, corimn and clavus not separable and strongly but 
sparsely punctate: a very reduced membrane present, Hemelytra 
reach a little behind middle of abdomen. 

Fore femora somewhat enlarged, with some terminal teeth beneath. 
Fore tibiae feebly curved. First segment of hind tarsi longer than 
remaining two together. 

Type of genus : Cryptocoris fasciata sp. nov. 
This genus appears to have some affinities with Zygocoris. The 
fore femora are neither so markedly expanded nor so conspicuously 
armed.^ In common with several other genera in this section it has 
abbreviated hemelytra, but the pronotum is not so elongate and in this 
feature it appears to be allied to the next genus. 

Cryptocoris fasciata sp. nov. 
Plate 15, fig. C 

Shining black. Hind lobe of pronotum and a spot on the lateral 
margin of hemelytra luteous. Membrane milky white. Basal 
exterior margin of hemelytra, tibiae, tarsi and second segment of 
antennae pale brown infuscated at apex. Eyes, third and fourth 
segments of anteunae and basal two-thirds of first segment dark 
brown. Beneath black, hind margin of prothorax and metathorax 
broadly, and a spot on the mesothorax above insertion of coxae, 
luteous. 

Head smooth and shining, with several long sparse hairs. 
Anterior lobe of pronotum likewise smooth and shining, with a few 
shorter pale hairs. Hind lobe with a few pale brown punctations near 
transverse constriction. Scutellum and coriaceous portion of hemelytra 
also smooth and shining. Scutellum and hemelytra with a moderate 
number of course punctations arranged in rows. Hind margin of 



GROSS— AUSTRALIAN MYODOCHINE BUGS 383 

abbreviated and fused corium and clavus straight. Oblique lateral 
margins broadly convex. Hemelytra with short and sparse pilosity. 

Beneath with a fine short pilosity. 

Length: 3-4 mm. 

Locality: South Australia: Holotype, Lucindale, Feuerheerdt 
(S.A.M.). A.C.T.: Allotype and one paratype, Blundell's 1 , under 
stones, 16 September 1930,' W. K. Hughes (C.S.LR.O.). 

Genus Euander Stal. 

Euander Stal, 1865, Hemiptera Africana 2: 154. 1874, K. svenska 

Vetensk Akad. HandL, 12 (1) : 156. 

Pronotum at apex as wide as head with eyes, as long as wide or 
a little longer, lateral margins obtuse, narrowed towards apex, behind 
middle slightly sinuate. Anterior margin of pronotum slightly elevated 
and forming a feeble collar, pronotum with an obsolete transverse 
sulcus behind middle, hind lobe paler than fore lobe. 

Scutellum distinctly longer than wide. Corium and clavus with 
distinct rows of punctations with scattered punctations between them. 

Fore femora moderately incrassated, beneath with three largish 
teeth and many smaller ones, fore tibiae of male curved and with a 
large tooth towards apex. First segment of hind tarsi as long as 
apical pair together. 

Type of genus: E. lacertosus (Erichson) 

Euander marks the next step forward in the development of the 
peculiar endemic group of Australian genera, the transverse^ con- 
striction of the short pronotum has moved anteriad to the middle, 
changing the whole facies of the insect. 

Euander lacertosus (Erichson) 
Plate 16, fig. A 

Pachymerus lacertosus Erichson, 1842: Archiv fiir Naturges., 8 (1) : 
279. Woodward, 1962: J. ent. Soc. Qld., 1: 50, figs. 

Rhyparochro7>ius lacertosus Dohrn, 1859, Catalogus Hemipterorum : 
34. 



i This locality, -which, appears in several other places in this paper, was a farm 18 miles 
west of Canberra at the eastern foot of Mount Coree, since resumed for water conservation 
purposes, and now largely planted in pine forest. 



3*4 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Euander lacertosus StM, 1867, Berlin ent. Ztg., 10: 161. 1874: K. 
svenska Vetensk Mad. Handl., 12 (1): 158. 

Rliypurochroimis pictipennis Dallas, 1852: List. Hem. Ins., 2: 571. 
(new synononiy) 

Blenches pictipennis Distant, 1901: A Tin. Mag. nat. Hist., (7) 8: 504. 

Dieuches rafaeli Evans, 1939: Bull, ent. Res., 30: 305. (new synonomy) 

The species is also mentioned and figured but not named by Lea, 
1908, Insect & Fungus Pests of Orchard and Farm (Hobart 3rd Ed., 
73-74. 

Black, with brown and yellowish white markings. Head and eyes 
mainly black, head has patches of heavy pubescence. First segment 
of antennae black with a few small strong spinas, second segment 
mostly brown, apex black, third segment with basal third brown, distal 
two-thirds black, last segment black with a pale band near base. 

Anterior lobe of pronotum black with hoary punctations near edge, 
collar brownish with three conspicuous yellowish points. Hind lobe 
luteous with black punctations. Hind margin of pronotum excavate 
in front of scutelluin, lateral margins with a whitish- or yellowish-spot 
in the position of the sulcus. 

Scutellum black, with extreme apex white and usually two orange 
points near the apex on the disc. A few scattered punctations on 
the disc. 

Corium and clavus in the main yellowish — testaceous with several 
rows of dark punctations, mostly following the curve of the veins, 
and many other scattered punctations, There are several small 
fuscous spots and a large black spot on the disc of the corium two- 
thirds of the way back. Also the extreme apex is black. Eeflexed 
margin luteous. Membrane blackish or brownish with veins pale, 
together with many pale points. Hemelytra always fully developed! 

Body beneath black, with a very tine, adpressed silky pilosity, 
episterna and epimera of each thoracic segment pale. Trochanters, 
bases pf second and third femora, tibiae except at apices and tarsi 
brownish. Fore tibiae always curved expanded at apex, and in the 
males with a prominent tooth at base of expansion. 

Length: 5-7 mm. 

Foodplants : Common in dry sclerophyll forest in Sooth Australia; 
a pest of strawberries in Tasmania. 

Our figure checked by Dr. T. E. Woodward in Europe, against 
Erichson's type. 



GROSS— AUSTRALIAN MYODOCHJNE BUGS »3 

Locality. Queensland: Cedar Creek, Mjbberg; Mount Tambourine, 
Mjoberg; Herberton, Mjoberg (R.M.S.). New South Wales: Three, 
Bombala, January 1930, Rev. A. J. Barrett (Reg. Nos. K 61432 and 
K 61180); Mount Irvine, 31 January 1944, B. A. Messiiicr; Nepean 
River, Gleubrook Creek, 25 February 1923, A. Mnsgrave; Sawpit 
Creek, Mount Kosciusko, 8 January 1929, A. Musgrave (A.M.) 
Dorrigo (S.A.M.); two, Nuilo Momitain, 20 m. N.E. of Rylstone, 20 
November 1950, T. G. Campbell; two, Island Bend, Snowy Mountains, 
20 October 1951, D. J. Wimbush (C.S.I.R.O.). Australian Capital 
Territory: Six, attacking strawberries, 4 December 1940, A. J. 
Nicholson; three, Blunder's, 7 January 1930, J. Evans; Canberra, 
May 1929, J. Evans; Canberra, February, G. F, Hill; Cotter Elver, 
24 '(month not distinct), 1029, M. Fuller; Jcrvis Bay, 18 September 
1951, T. <!. Campbell (C.S.I.R.O.), Victoria-. Toora, 16 December 
1937, R, V Fyfe (C.S.T.R.O.) ; near Melbourne, G. F. Hill; Kewell 
(S.A.M.); Malice District 1913, donated 5 October 1922 by F. P. Spry 
(N.M.); Ferntree Gully, 16 October 1927, F. E. Wilson (A.M.). 
Tasmania: Tbree, Launceston (No. 2218); Launceston 12 February 
1914; Launceston, 1 March 1914; Launceston, Launceston, 1 April 1916, 
F. M. Littler; five Hobart (Nos. 7-6-16/1, 3-6-17/21, 23, 24 and 25— 
possible these are dates), C. E. Cole; in fallen leaves, Hobart, Lea 
(S.A.M.) Lake St. Claire, 13 January 1937, G. and C. Davis; 
Rinadeena Siding, Mount Lyell Line, 11 January 1937, fj. and C. Davis; 
Lake Margaret, 12 January 1937, H. and C. Davis (A.M.); Moogara, 
January 1938, T, Raphael (coll. G. O, E. Scudder, Vancouver). 
South Australia: Thirty-seven, by sweeping undergrowth, Eucalyptus 
obUqua dry sclerophyll forest, Naraeoorte Cave Reserve, 25 October 
1958. G. F, Gross; on Poa caespitnsa scrub. Hundred of Joanna, 28 
October 1958, N. B. Tindale ; three, Clare, 19 April 1884, J. G. O. 
Tepper; two, Vivonne Bay, Kangaroo Island, Museum Expedition, 
February 1926; St. Marys (S.A.M.); in large numbers on Cape Weed, 
Cryptoslemma ealendulacetim, Inraan Valley, 25 January 1955, P. M. 
ilrosveoor; attacking strawberries; Ashton, November 1945, Mr. Hook 
(W.A.R.I.). Western Australia: King George Somid (B.M.); Collie, 
13 January 1957, A. Snell (N.M.). 

Euandcr cicero sp. nov. 

Plate 14, fig. A 

Black with brown and yellowish-white markings. Head black, 
with patches of hoary pubescence, more elongate than in E. lacertosus. 
First segment of antennae black, second black at apes and third black 



386 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

in terminal half, otherwise brown, fourth segment black with a luteous 
band near base. 

Anterior lobe of pronotum velvety black with three pale points on 
anterior margin. Tlind lobe likewise velvety black except for two 
large luteous areas along each lateral margin and two obsolete brown 
longitudinal bars, one on each side of mid line. 

Scutellum completely velvety black. Corium and clavus velvety 
black with most of the basal half of corium and outer half of clavus 
contiguous to it luteous, also a large oblong luteous area on each 
lateral margin near apex. Some brownish marks on apical exterior 
angle of clavus and apical interior area of corium. Membrane dark 
grey with some lighter points, very reduced. Distinction between 
corium and clavus clear. 

Body beneath black, abdomen and underside of head with a hoary 
white pubescence. Propleurae and mesopleurae strongly punctate 
and with a trace of a pale lemon yellow around each punctation. 
Metapleurae basally strongly rugulose. A spot above insertion of 
coxae on propleurae and metapleurae to dorsum luteous. 

Second segment of rostrum, basal third of all femora, tarsi (except 
apically), and tibiae brown. Apices of fore tibiae expanded. 
Length: 4-5 mm. 

Locality: New South Wales: Holotype female and one paratype 
(head and thorax only), Hotel Kosciusko, Snowy Mountains, October 
1957, B. J. Wimbush (C.S.LR.O.); three paratype females, Mount 
Kosciusko, January 1957, H. J. Carter (A.M.). Australian Capital 
Territory: One paratype female. Mount Gingera, 5 December 1950. 
H. Cane (C.S.LE.O.). 

Euandcr torquatus (Erichson) nov. comb. 

Plate 16, fig. C 

Pachymerus torquatus Erichson, 1842: Archiv fiir Naturges. 8 (1) : 280. 
Woodward, 1962: J. ent. Soc, Qkl, 1: 52, figures. 

Rhyparochromus torquatus Dohrn, 1859: Catalogus Hemipterorum : 
34. 

Black with brown and yellow markings. Head black, with traces 
of a heavy pubescence, more elongate than E. lacertosus. First 
segment of antennae black, brownish at apex, second segment and 
extreme base of third segment pale brown, third segment otherwise 
and fourth black. 



GROSS— AUSTRALIAN MYODOCHJNE BUGS 387 

Anterior lobe of pronotum black with a faint tinge of brown, collar 
a shade paler. Hind lobe pale yellow, with a few brownish puncta- 
tions and a few blackish spots one of which is largish and runs along 
the midline into the black of the fore lobe. ITind margin broadly 
excavate, lateral margins fairly straight, narrowing towards head. 

Scutellum black with extreme apex white ami two orange points 
near the apex on the disc. Sometimes these run into the white tip, 

Corium and elavus yellowish-white with numerous blackish-brown 
punetations which coalesce to form a longitudinal black streak on the 
elavus and a vaguely triangular black patch in the basal third of the 
corium. The corium also has a large blackish patch just behind middle 
connected by one or two black bars to the black apical area of the 
corium. In the macropterous specimen the black on the corium is very 
much more extensive, Membrane complete or very reduced, if ihe 
latter then distinction between elavus and corium not obvious and 
hemelytra apparently hardened and rather " elytra ' T like. 

Body beneath black, episterna and epimera of each thoracic 
segment pale. Trochanters pale, bases of second and third femora, 
tibiae, except at apices, and tarsi brownish. Apices of tibiae not 
expanded. 

Length: 4-5.2 mm. 

Locality. Australian Capital Territory: One macropterous 
specimen, Canberra, November 1929, J. Evans. Victoria: In moss, 
Ferntreo Gully, 1 November 1918, F. E. Wilson; two in tussocks, 
Rm^wood, f/E. Wilson (S.A.M.): Millgrove, 13 April 1927, F. E. 
Wilson (A.M.); Ferntree Gully, 27 July 1919, F. P. Spry; six same 
locality and collector, without date; two same locality und collector, 
7 October 1920; fourteen, same locality, 17 and 24 July 1920, 26 July 
1924 and 26 April 1925, F. E. Wilson; Eltham, September 1927, V.VL, 
Wilson; six, Upway, J. E. Dixon; live without exact date or locality, 
J. E. Dixon j five also without exact locality or date. F. P. Spry (N.M.). 

Our figure was checked, in Europe, by Dr. !\ E. Woodward, 
against Erichson's type, from Tasmania. 

Genus Porander gen. nov. 

Pronotura at apex narrower than head with eyes, wider at base 
than length, disc somewhat flattened with an incipient transverse sulcus 
well behind middle. Anterior margin raised to form a conspicuous 
collar which has two short lateral tooth-like processes. Lateral 



388 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

margins curved in just before collar, sinuate in region of sulcus, obtuse 
in front of sulcus, with an acute margin behind. 

Scutellum about as long as wide, hemelytra with abbreviated 
membrane and dividing line between corium and clavus obscure. 
Punctations on hemelytra numerous but not so obviously placed in 
lines as on Euander. 

Head, anterior lobe of pronotum and scutellum with numerous 
large pit-like punctations, each containing a short white hair. 

Fore-femora much more incrassated than Euander with four 
prominent teeth beneath and many smaller ones. Fore-tibiae curved. 
First segment of tarsi longer than remaining two together. 

Type of genus : Porander scudderi sp. no v. 

This genus is apparently closely related to Euander. It differs 
from it in the curious punctations of the head, fore lobe of pronotum, 
and scutellum, and the much more incrassate fore femora. The 
pronotal constriction is well posteriad and Porander, although related 
to Euander, appears to be also on a side branch from the main line of 
development. 

Porander scudderi sp. nov. 
Plate 15, fig. D 

Black with luteous white markings. Head black, eyes dark brown. 
Head has a rather short white sparse pubescence mainly located in the 
punctations. First, third and fourth segments of antennae black, 
second segment brown. 

Anterior lobe of pronotum black with numerous coarse deep 
punctations each bearing a hair and with odd small smooth areas 
scattered over disc. Collar narrow, brownish-luteous with a single row 
of punctations across it. Hind lobe of pronotum luteous with numerous 
coarse brownish punctations many of them concentrated into about five 
longitudinal fuscous areas. 

Scutellum black, with same hair bearing pit-like punctations as 
head, extreme apex white and also two white points on disc near apex, 
sometimes confluent with it. 

Hemelytra with a vestigial membrane, luteous with numerous 
blackish-brown punctations and some odd small infuscated patches. 

Body beneath black, rostrum brownish. A luteous spot on the 
propleurae on the frontal margin beneath and marking the end of sulcus 
above. Visible portion of connexivum (except for a transverse dark 



GROSS— AUSTRALIAN MYODOCHINE BUGS 3S9 

bar), hind margin of metapleura (except for a cluster of dark puncta- 
tiuiu-), and patches on upper hind comers of abdominal pleurae V, VI, 
and VII, luteous. All tibiae and tarsi brownish, extreme apices of 
femora and bases of tibiae luteous. 

Length'. 4-6 mm. 

Locality: South Australia: Holotype male, allotype female, two 
paratype males, sweeping undergrowth, Eucalyptus obliqua dry 
sclerophyll forest, Naracoorte Cave Reserve, 25 October 3958, G. F. 
Gross; two paratype males, one nymph, Vivonne Bay, Kangaroo 
Island, Museum Expedition, February 1926 (S.A.M.). New South 
Wales: One paratype male, Gosford (S.A.M.); Sydney, 2 November 
19c30, K. Spence; Waverley, Sydney, 1 November 1901, W.G.B.; 
North Bondt, October 1930, K.K.S. (AM.). Australian Capital 
Territory: Three paratype males and one paratype female, sweeping 
vegetation, Black Mountain, Canberra, 26 November 1959, G. F. Gross 
(S.A.M.). Victoria: One paratype female, Woori Yallock, F. E. 
Wilson; two paratype females, Eltham, J. E. Dixon (N.M.). Tasmania: 
One paratype, Bridport, October 1918 (S.A.M.); in fallen leaves, 
Hobart, Lea (G, G. E. Scudder Coll., Vancouver). 

Genus Udeocoris Bergroth 

Udeocoris Bergroth, 1918: Ann. hist. nat. Mus. hung., 16: 310. 

Head oblong, with eyes a little wider than apex of pronotum. 
Eyes touching or not anterior margin of pronotum, ocelli present, close 
to eyes. Pronotum wider than long, without a collar or any trace of 
a sulcus; anterior margin straight, lateral margins straight, con- 
verging towards apex, fairly acute or almost carinate. Humeral angles 
of pronotum rounded, hind margin shailowly concave. Disc of 
pronotum nearly flat, a little more arched in the anterior region. 

Scutellum about as long as wide or longer; very flat, sometimes 
finely punctate, just a trace of longitudinal keel. Hemelytra with or 
without an abbreviated membrane, when membrane is abbreviated the 
hemelytra become coriaceous and the division between corium aud 
clavus obscure. 

Fore femora moderately in eras sated, with a row of four to seven 
robust spines on the apical half on the inner ventral margin, the teeth 
becoming regularly smaller from apex of femora to middle. Hind and 
middle femora flattened, first segment of last tarsus longer than the 
apical pair together. 



390 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Type of genus: Udeocoris nigroaeneus (Erichson) 
The genus is evidently close to Euander which it resembles in 
general coloration, in the black fore portion of the pronotum and 
stramineous but darkly punctate hind region. It differs in showing 
not the slightest trace of a transverse constriction on the pronotum. 
It therefore seems to be the first member of a sub-line of genera of 
these peculiar Myodochini in which the typical Myodochine constriction 
is completely lost. Udeocoris is the apparent link between Euander 
and Telocoris. 

Udeocoris nigroaeneus (Erichs) 
Plate 15, fig. B 

Pacliymerus nigroaeneus Erichson, 1842: Arch, fur Naturges., 8 (1): 
280. Woodward, 1962: J. ent. Soc. Qld., 1: 54, figures." 

Rhyparochr omus nigroaeneus Dohrn, 1859 : Catalogus Hemipterorum : 
34. 

Udeocoris nigroaeneus Bergroth, 1918: Ann. hist. nat. Mus. hung., 
16 : 311. 

Shining black, with or without yellowish-brown markings. Head 
shining black with scattered long hairs, eyes dark brown. First and 
last segments of antennae dark chocolate brown, second and third 
segments brown. Last three segments with scattered long hairs and a 
fine adpressed pilosity. 

Prouotum shining black, very sparsely punctate. Sometimes the 
humeral angles are obscurely brownish. 

Scutellnm black, sparsely punctate, extreme tip usually pale. 
Hemelytra occasionally developed but generally with very reduced 
membrane and distinction between clavus and corium obscure. When 
humeral angles of the pronotum are pale the costal margin is also 
narrowly brown along the basal half. In one macropterous specimen 
there is also a pale spot on the costal margin just before the apex. 
Membrane when developed hyaline, brownish near apical margin of 
corium. In the fully winged form the punctures on the clavus are not 
in three regular rows. 

Beneath sinning black, connexiviimi, bottom edges of epimera and 
episterna, trochanters, apices of femora, tibiae and tarsi yellowish- 
brown. Tibiae with scattered black spines. Eostrum dark brown. 
The Eockhampton specimen is castaneous. 

Length: 4.5-6 mm. 



GROSS- AUSTRALIAN MYODOCHINE BUGS 391 

Locality: Torres Straits: Three, Moa Island, C. T. McNamara 
(S.A.M.). Queensland: Cairns; Townsville (S.A.M.) Scrubby Creek, 
1 mile E. of Fairy Bower, Rockluunpton, 3 August 1950, T. G. 
Campbell (C.S.I.B.O.). This last specimen is wholly eastaneous, with 
pale ej T es, antennae, tibiae and tarsi. New South Wales: Two, Island 
Bend/ Snowy Mountains, 20 October 1957, D. J. Wiinbush; Hotel 
Kosciusko, Snowy Mountains, 10 October 1957, D. J. Wiinbush 
(O.S.I.R.6.); Mount Kosciusko, 5,000ft., February 1926, H. J. Carter 
(A.M.). Australian Capital Territory: Blrmdeirs, 10 October 1930, 
W. K. Hughs (C.S.I.R.O.), Victoria: Bogong Plains, 5,600-6,00flft. 7 
January 1928, F. E. "Wilson ; Mildura (N.M.). Tasmania ; In tussocks, 
Stanley; Lake Margaret, 12 January 1937, G. and C. Davis— this 
specimen is fully winged; Magnet, G. P. Whitley; Cradle Mountain, 
Carter and Lea; same locality, 27 December 1915, Prof. Flynn; twelve, 
Great Lake, December 1906 and 1907, J. W. Mellor; in tussocks, Huon 
River, Lea; Waratah, 12 March 1916 (S.A.M.)- South Australia: 
Berlese Funnel out of leaf debris, Naracoorte Bog, February 1959, 
P. Aitken (S.A.M.). Western Australia: Boyup Brook, March 1936, 
D, Q. Norris; Fremantle, 15 November 1934, K. B. Norris (C.S.LR.O.) ; 
Warren River, W. D. Dodd; Swan River; two without exact locality 
(S.A.M.). Timor: There is a species hardly distinguishable from this 
in Timor, but all specimens I have are macropterous, whereas 
macroptery is very rare in the Australian specimens. A larger series 
is needed from the island before its identity can be established, these 
I hope to obtain from a coming second expedition to the island. 

Our figure was checked by Dr. T. E. Woodward against Erich son's 
type and specimens labelled "Udeocoris (n.g.) nigroaeneus^ in 
Bergroth's handwriting, in the collection of the British Museum, from 
Fremantle, Western Australia. 

UdeoL'oris rolandi (Distant) 

Plate 16, fig. B 

Naudarensia rolandi Distant, 1918: Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., (9) 2: 492. 

Black, with luteous and brown markings. Head black with sparse 
black hairs, finely rugulose, eyes brown. First segment of antennae 
(except at apex, which is paler) and fourth segment dark brown, 
second and third segments yellowish-brown. First, second and third 
segments with long hairs. 

Anterior two-thirds of pronotum shining black, densely punctate, 
but extreme anterior margin yellowish-brown. Hind portion of 



3<>2 RECORDS OF THE SJl MUSEUM 

prouotnm luteous but with numerous black or brown punctations 
tending to darken the whole area, five vague fuscous longitudinal bands 
further darken the area. 

Seutelln in black, feebly arched with punctations arranged in two 
longitudinal rows, apex white sometimes with odd white points on the 
disc Ed the apical region. 

Hemelytra may be normal, or brachypterons with membrane very 
reduced. Ground colour of corium and clavus luteous but with many 
brown or black punctations making the whole appear darker, there 
are seven fuscous areas, the largest being on the apical margin of the 
corium and the other in the apical angle. When the membrane is 
reduced the ' 'elytra' ' leave uncovered the last two, and half of the 
tbird-to-last abdominal segments. Membrane black with white veins. 

Beneath black with some long white hairs and an extremely fine 
white adpressed pilosity. Rostrum, rostral canal, the anterior ventTal 
portion of the prothorax, posterior margin of pro-, rneso-, and ineta 
pleurae, coxae and femora brown. Epimera and episterna of all three 
thoracic segments, trochanters, tibiae and tarsi yellowish-brown, 
connexivum lnteous. 

Length: 4-6 mm. 

Locality: New South Wales; Bogan River, October 1931, J. 
Armstrong; Euralie, Narrandera Road, 9-19 October 1932, K. C- 
MeKeown (A.M.); Broken Hilt (S.A.M.); two, Coolabah, November 
1905,W.G.B. (C.S.T.R.O.). Victoria: Melton, 25 October 1917, F.E.W. 
(S.A.M.). Bass Strait; Cliffy Island, 25 November 1949, D. J. Tugby 
(N.M.). South Australia: Tapanappa near Cape Jervis, 5-9 December 
1949, G. F, Gross and N. B. Tinclale; two, roadside swamp, Mypon^a, 
26 November 1947, G. F. Gross; Yurgo, M. H. Hopgood; Port 
Wakefield; two, Flinders Island, F. Wood Jones; Ilka Creek, Flinders 
Ranges, 24 November 1948, D. R. Hall; Italowie Gorge, Flinders 
Ranges, 30 October 1955, E. T. Giles; Leigh Creek; Flinders Ranges, 
September 1925; twenty-five, Moolooloo, 2,000ft., Flinders Ranges, 
1921, H, M. Hale; Upper Arcoona Creek, Gammon Ranges, 18 
September 1956, G. F. Gross; Purple Downs; Miller Creek, F~ Wood 
Jones; two, Blow Hole entrance, near Koonalda, 1 January I960, P, 
Aitken (S.A.M.); Blowhole near Ooldea, Troughton and Wright 
(A.M.). Western Australia: Mnllewa, Miss F. May; Beverley, E. F. 
du Boulay S.A.M.). Port Hedlancl, October, Mjoberg (E.M.S.). 
Northern Territory; Fourteen, Double Punch Bowl meteorite crater, 
Henbury, 15-17 October 1953, G. F. Gross; six, near Alice Springs, 



GROSS-AUSTRALIAN MYODOCHINE BUGS 393 

M. W. Mules; Finke River, J. W. Roe; Coniston Station near Alice 
Springs, M. W. Mules (S.A.M.). 

Udeocoris scudderi sp. nov. 
Plate 16, fig. D 

Black with dark brown and creamy white markings. Head shining 
black with a few long black hairs. Eyes, and first and last segments 
of antennae dark brown, tbird segment brown, second yellowish-brown. 

Anterior two-thirds of pronotum likewise shining black with a few 
sparse long hairs, extreme anterior margin reddish-brown. Hind third 
creamy-white with scattered pale brown punctations. 

Scutellum shining black, with sparse long black hairs, apex white. 

Corium and clavus creamy-white in the main, with brown puncta- 
tions, a small brown spot on clavus just behind middle. On corium 
two-thirds of the way back a wide transverse irregular brown band 
which may or may not be joined along the apical margin to the brown 
apical angle. Membrane when developed hyaline, otherwise hemelytra 
hardened and distinction between corium and clavus obscure. 

Beneath shining black, punctate, pilose, hind margins of all 
thoracic pleurae, all epimera and episterna and connexivum creamy 
white. Anterior portion of prostemum reddish-brown. Coxae, 
trochanters, fore femora and apical halves of mid- and hind-femora 
dark brown, remainder of legs yellowish-brown, tarsi darker. 

Length; 2.5-4 mm. 

Locality; Western Australia: Holotype male, seven paratypes 
(three of them larvae), Beverley, E. F. du Boulay (S.A.M.). 
Victoria- Allotype female, fully winged, Lake Hattah, J. E. Dixon, 
donated January 1940 (N.M.). New South Wales: Paratype, Bogan 
River, January 1932, T. Armstrong (A.M.). 

Differs from U. rolandi in its smaller size and the different 
pattern on the hemelytra. 

Genus Telocoris gen. nov. 

Head triangular, eyes not very prominent, touching anterior 
margin of pronotum. Pronotum a little wider than head with eyes, 
lateral margins faintly curved, obtuse, no trace of a transverse sulcus. 
Collar indistinct. 

Scutellum relatively large, longer than wide. Hemelytra normal 
and fully developed, clavus with punctures in three regular rows. 



394 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Fore femora somewhat incrassate, without spines. Mid- and 
hind-femora not noticeably expanded. Fore-tibiae about as long as 
femora, hind-tarsi with first segment about as long as apical pair 
together. 

Type of genus: Telocoris vittata (Distant) 
This genus seems to stand naturally at the end of the line of 
these modified genera. The pronotum is absolutely without trace of a 
transverse constriction, the fore-femora although still somewhat 
thickened, are unarmed, and the habitus is much more like that of a 
Lethaeine than a Myodochine. Its nearest relation would appear to 
be Udeocoris. 

Telocoris vittata (Distant) nov. comb. 
Plate 15, fig. A. 
Lamprodema vittata Distant, 1901: Aim. Mag. nat. Hist., (7) 8: 500. 
Black or dark castaneous; hind angles of pronotum, antennae, 
basal two-thirds of corittm and the whole anterior margin, outer half 
of clavus, and tibiae and tarsi, paler, almost luteous. Apical third of 
corium and inner half of clavus castaneous may be coarsely punctate, 
the latter then is laevigata along the central longitudinal area. 
Length: 4-5 mm. 

Locality: North Western Australia: Parry Harbour, Cape 
Bougainville, J. T. Walker (Distant \s type— B.M.) • Broome, Mjoberg 
(R.M.S.); Northern Territory: Eoper River, N. B. Tindale (S.A.M.). 
Queensland: Clermont, K. K. Spence (A.M.). 

REFERENCES 

Bergroth, E., 1918: Hendecas Generum Hemipterorum novorum vel 
subnovorum. Ann. hist. nat. Mus. hung., 16: 298-314. 

Dallas, W. S., 1852: List of specimens of Hemipterous Insects in the 
collection of the British Museum II: 369-592, four plates. 

Distant, W. L., 1901: Rhynchotal Notes— XI Heteroptera: Fam. 
Lygaeidae. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., (7) 8: 497-510. 

1903-4 : The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and 

Burma. Rhynchota— 2. i-xvii, 1-503, 319 text figs. 

1918: Contributions to a further knowledge of the Rhyn- 

chotal Family Lygaeidae. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist, 9 (2) • 
257-470. l 7 " 



GROSS-AUSTRALIAN MYODOCHINE BUGS 395 

Dohrn, R.. 1659: Catalogus Hemipterorum. 

Eriehson, W. F., 1842: Beitrage zur Inseeten— Fauna von Vandieruans- 

laftd mit besonderer Berueksiehtigung der geographischcn 

Verbreitung der Inseeten. Arch. Naturgesch., 8 (1): 

83-787. Pis. 4 & 5. 
Evans, J. W., 1939: A new species of Dieiiehcs, Dohrn (ITem. 

Lygaeidae) injurious to strawberries in Tasmania. Bull. 

ent. Res., 30 (3): 305-6. 1 test fig. 
Guide, J.. 1934: Die Wanzen Mitteleuropas 3. Frankfurt. 
Seudder, CI. G. EL, 1957: The Higher Classification of the Rhyparo- 

ehrominae (Hem. Lygaeidae). Ent. nion. Mag., 4 (18): 

152-156 

Slater, J. A., 1957: Nomeuelatorial Consideration in the Family 
Lygaeidae (llemiptera: Heteroptera). Bull. Brooklyn 
eat Soc., 52 (2)i 35-38. 

Slater, J. A. and M. W. Sweet, 1961: A contribution to the Higher 
Classification of the Megalottotinae (llemiptera: Lygaei- 
dae). Ann. ent. Soc. Amer., 54: 203-209. 

1961 : A Generic Key to the Nymphs of North American 

Lygaeidae (llemiptera: Heteroptera). Ann. ent. Soc. 
Amer., 54: 333-340. Text figures, 

Stal 1*59: Kongliga svenska Fre^atten Eugenics Resa Omkring 
.(order., under Befnl af < 1 A. Virgin 1851-1853. Zoologi 
I. Inseeta Hemiptera Species novas descripsit, 219-298. 
Stockholm. 

1862: Hemiptera mexieana enumeravit speeiesque novas 

descripsit. St.'tt. cut. Ztg., 23: 81-118, 273-281, 289-325, 
437-462. 

1865: Hemiptera afrieaua. 2: 1-181. 

1872- Genera Lv-aeidarum Europae disposuit. Ofvers. 

Vetensk Okad. Fori. Btoefch., 2:» (.7): 37-62. 

1874: Enumeratio Hemipterorum. Bidrag till en Fortech- 

ning ofver all hittills Kiirda Hemiptera, jemte system- 
atica Meddelauden 4. K. svensk Veiensk Akad. Handl., 
12 (1): i486. 

Walker, F., 1872: Catalogue of the Specimens of noteropterous- 
Hemiptera in the Collection of the British Museum. 8 
Volumes. 



Rec. S.A. Mi skim 



\'n|,. 14, IYate 14 





i' ,i iinV )<<';{,■ [Wfl, | 



Hkc. tt.A. MrsKi -M 



Vol. 14, PLATK 15 







Kkc. S.A. MrsKr.M 



Vol. 14. l ( i.vrK 16 





SACRED OBJECTS OF THE PITJAND JARA TRIBE, 
WESTERN CENTRAL AUSTRALIA 



By Charles P. Mountford, Honorary Associate in Ethnology, 

SO UTH A USTRALIAN MUSEUM 



Summary 

This paper records twenty sacred objects (kulpidji) of the Pitjandjara tribe who inhabit 
the western deserts of central Australia. Seventeen of them are associated with Kikingura, 
the totemic place of the Windulka (mulga-seed) aborigines, on the western end of the 
Petermann Ranges, and three are from Katatjuta, a group of isolated monoliths about 
twenty miles west of Ayers Rock. 

Being unable to visit Kikingura, the totemic place of the mulga-seed people, I could not 
link the designs on the kulpidji with the associated topography. To a limited degree, 
however, I was able to do so with those associated with Katatjuta, and even more fully 
with a series belonging to the totemic groups of Ayers Rock. {1) 



SACRED OBJECTS OF THE PITJANDJARA TRIBE, WESTERN 

CENTRAL AUSTRALIA 

By CHARLES P. MOUNTFORD, Honorary Associate in 
Ethnolooy ; South Australian Museum 

Fig. 1-5 

INTRODUCTION 

This paper records twenty sacred objects (kulpidji) of the 
Pitjandjara tribe who inhabit the western deserts of central Australia. 
Seventeen of them are associated with Kikingura, the totemic place of 
the Windulka (mulga-seed) aborigines, on the western end of the 
Petennann Ranges, and three are from Katatjuta, a group of isolated 
monoliths about twenty miles west of Ayers Rock. 

Being unable to visit Kikingura, the totemic place of the mulga- 
seed people, I could not link the designs on the kulpidji with the 
associated topography. To a limited degree, however, I was able to 
do so with those associated with Katatjuta, and even more fully with 
a series belonging to the totemic groups of Ayers Rock. (1) 

BELIEFS ASSOCIATED WITH THE KULPIDJI 

Spencer and Gillen (1899, Chap. 5), give a particularly full 
account of the beliefs and functions of the sacred objects, the churinga 
[ijumnga) of the Aranda tribe of Central Australia, which, in some 
respects, perform the same functions as the kulpidji of the Pitjandjara. 

Among other things, the Aranda believe that the child spirit leaves 
the tjurniifja and entering the body of a woman that happened to be 
passing, starts life as a human being. At death, the spirit of the dead 
returns to the tjurmiga from which it had emerged previously. ' 2) 

My research into the Pitjandjara beliefs of conception and life 
after death, although far froai complete, indicate that the k/idpidji 
is neither associated with the life cycle of the Pitjandjara in the same 
manner as the tjumnf/a is with the Aranda, nor does it occupy such 
an important place in the philosophical beliefs. 

(l) A description of the Ayers Rock kulpidji will be published elsewhere. 
<2) For the purpose of this paper, this belief has been much simplified. 



f 



'-> 



398 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Nevertheless, the kvlpidji of the Pitjandjara are objects of con- 
siderable sanctity and value. They are a record, is particularly limited 
symbolism, of the mythical beliefs of the tribe, and occupy an 
important part in the ceremonies (belonging to the same totem as the 
kulpidji), when the old men, laying the sacred object on the ground, 
relate the myth and explain the meaning of the designs engraved on 
its surface. 

The aborigines, also, believing that the kuljntlji is impregnated 
with a life essence (knrmiha or hurunUa; Mount lord, 1948, pp. 
111-113), often press the snerod objects against their body, believing 
that some of the kvruvha, by leaving the kulpid .//, and entering their 
body, gives them increased strength and vitality. The. kidpul}i y too, 
are particularly sacrdd, and all knowledge of them rigidly confined to 
the fully initiated men. Under no conditions must they be seen by 
the women or the uninitiated youths, or even mentioned within their 
hearing. 

DESIGNS 

Spencer and Gillen (ISj)f), p. 145) when referring to the Aranda 
tjurunna, point out that "the whole design consists, with few 
exceptions, of a conventional arrangement of circular, semi-circular, 
spiral, curved and straight lines, together with dots- \ As one travels 
from centra] to north-eastern Australia, however, the concentric circles 
Of the Aranda eliange, first to eoneentrie squares, then to the inter- 
locking key pattern, a characteristic of the art of north-western 
Australia (Davidson, 1937, p. 78, fig. 57). 

The majority of the designs on the hutpidji in this paper are of 
the typical Aranda type, those on tigs. 1 and 2 being typical There 
are two examples of the concentric squares, fig. 30, and 4GH 
(Davidson, 1937, fig. 55). 

A number of the hutpidji, however, figs. 3AB, 3EF, 3D, 4CD, 5A, 
and SB, are engraved with unusual designs which, so far as I nm 
aware, previously have not been recorded. On these hutpidji, the 
irregular designs are outlined with shallow holes, about three-sixteenth 
of an inch in diameter, and the spaces of the designs filled in with 
a series of straight, parallel lines. 

METHODS OF ENGRAVING 

Wlien carrying out research among the aborigines of the 
Ngadadjara tribe of the Warburton Ranges of Western Australia, ! 




L'ig. i. AD. Uucireumeisert IVindulku (urn I ija ■*«•(.'< I) boys at. Kilunguni. B. Mann Sisfera 
At Kikm^ura. G, Paratata (wallaby) men at Kikingara. FJI. Unciroumcisod IVindulhi 
iriiulcrusei'd) boyfl at KLkinguia. O. l-'arutula (wallaby) fuen at KikLngura J. \ "flung 

H indulka ^BllUga-seed) hoys at Kikingura. 



400 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

watched an aboriginal engrave a spiral design on a spearthrower. 
Using, as an engraving tool, the incisor tooth of an opossum, still in 
the skull, the aboriginal held and operated the tool in somewhat the 
same manner as that of the modern engraver in metals. He was able 
to maintain such an efficient control over his primitive engraving tool 
that, not once, during the engraving of the design, did he allow the 
tool to slip and ovor-rnn his cut. Further east, however, the aboriginal 
engravers I have watched, apparently not so sure of their skill, placed 
their thumb-nail at the end of the cut to prevent any damage to the 
design should the tool slip, 

DESCRIPTION OF SACRED OBJECTS FROM KIKINGURA 

There are seventeen sacred objects (kidpidji) described in this 
paper that belong to the totemic place of Kikingura. They are:— 

(A) The Wivdidka (mulga-seed) men, women and uneireumeised 

youths (eleven). 

(B) The Tjvkida men (one). 

(C) The J'aratafa (wallaby) men (two). 

(D) The Mann sisters (two), 

(E) The Kaduiui women (one), 

(A) The Windulka (mulga-seed) People 

Eight of the klilpidji belong to the adult mulga-seed people of 
Kikingnrn: (i) tig, 2DE ; (it) 2AH; (iii) 3CD; (ivj 3EF; (v) 4AF; 
(vi) 4BE; (vii) 4QB; and (viii) 4GIL and three to the uncircumcised 
buys: (i) IAD; (ii) 1FII; and (iii) U. 

(i) The kidpidji illustrated on fig. 3DJ3, pictures the camps of 
the mulga seed women (the wive* of the men shown on kulpidm, 
tig. 4C.JF). 

On 2D, the throe large groups of eoncentric circles, a, b, c, are 
the camps of the married women, and the four small groups, g, d, and 
h, e, their breasts. The double lines joining these groups of smaller 
concentric circles are the scars between the breasts of the women, and 
the smaller series of triple lines, mostly curved, that join the larger 
to the smaller concentric circles, the scars on their arms. The 
nvseents on either end of the kidpidji represent the windbreaks of 
the camps of the mythical women. 

On the reverse side of the kidpidji (fig. 2E), the larger groups 
of concentric circles represent the camps of the married women; the 



MOUNTFORD—PITJANDJARA SACRED OBJECTS 401 

smaller a, b; c, d, their breasts, and (lie lines joining them, the sears 
between the breasts. The designs, n, 1, are the windbreuks of J te 
esmps of the women, and tin' crescents OJ1 the edges of the kulpidji, 
the boomerangs of their husbands. 

(ii) This kulpidji (fig. 2AIT), illustrates a, group of young and 
old Windidka men at Kikingnra. 

Tbe larger groups of concentric circles on fig. 2A, represent 
the older Windidka men, and the smaller groups, tbe younger men. 
Tbe lines joining the smaller circles together are tho client scars of 
tbe voting men and the groups of short marks on the edge of the 
sabred objeotg, Bl€ scars on their upper arms. Tbe curving lines 
'hinugbou't tbe whole of the engraved design represent the boomerangs 
of both the older and the younger men. (;V) 

On the reverse side (fig, 2H), the larger concentric circles, as 
before, are tbe old men, tie smaller, the young men; the horizontal 
-roup of lines joining the smaller concentric circles, the chest scars 
and flic triple groups of lines, the spearthrowers of both the old and 
tbe young men. 

(iii) The ongraved designs on this knlpidp (fig. 3CD), represent 
a. group of Mulga-seed people travelling northward from a soakage 
at Kikingnra. 

Fig. 3D deals with the first section of that journey from the 
soakage at Kikingnra to a, spring in the side of a bill at Tjukula. The 
design h, on the top of 3D, is the soak at Kikingnra, and a, on t3ie 
bottom, tbe spring at Tjukula. The meandering design, W, running 
up tbe middle of the kidpidji, sytnholises the track made by the 
mythical people as they travelled from one locality to the other, and 
the irregular shapes, on either side of tbe design W, the footmarks 
of the travelling people. 

On 30, tbe ohverse side of the kidpidji the larger groups of 

concentric squares represent groups of muJga seed men at KiJdngura 

ting Gross legged in fcfag ground. The smaller groups of concentric 

squares, Q, m; p, u; and x, o, refer to twin peaks in the mountains of 

Kikingnra. 

(iv) The kulpidji illustrated by fig. 3EF refers to mythical mulga 
trees that grew at Kikingnra during the time of creation. 

The irregular designs on fig. 3E (made up of a series of holes 
drilled in the surface of the kuljjidji, and tilled with a series of 

(8) Tliis is a point of some iut»j »st, because thr Pit.jrmd.iara aborigines do not use the 
hoomemng. 



402 



RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 





\ 









M 



Fig. 2. AH. Old and young WinduUca (mulga-seed) men at Kikingura. BC. 
Mana Sisters at Kikingura. DE. WinduUca (mulga-sced) women at Kikingura. 

FG. K ad una women at Kikingura. 



MOUNTFORD— PITJANDfARA SACRED OBJECTS 403 

parallel lines), symbolise groups of Wi»didka fiteti sitting quietly in 
tlinr camps at Kilnngura. Tho design, o, on the top, indicate a group 
of living mulga trees (almost certainly of toteruie HnptJftatre©)* 

On tho other side of the kidpidji (fig, 3F), ftifi lixegplai! designs 
(similar to those on 3E) 3 indicate the camps of the M ul^a-seed men at 
Kikingurn and the short meandering design at k, a track made by the 
people as they walked from camp to camp. 

(v) The kul/ndfi illustrated on fig. 4i\F, refers In a number of 
Mulga -seed men who had always camped at Kikingnra. The series 
of concentric circles on both sides of this kidpidji show the adult men 
seated in their camps; the vertical parallel lines, the sp-enr throwers 
of the Wmdulha men leaning against, their windbreaks, and the 
diagonal lines, the men carrying their spearthrowers in the crooks of 
then- arm- The designs on the top of fig- 4 A. illustrate the 
boomerangs and shields of the men. 

(vi) Pig. 4BE illustrate a group of Wiitdidka men and boys in 
their camp at Kikingnra. The largest groups of concentric circles on 
both sides of the kvlpidji are the camps of the adult men ; the inter- 
mediate size, those of the adolescent youths ready for initiation, and 
the smallest, very young hoys. 

The central group of triple lines on the sides of both 4B and E, 

, .iirnte the spears of the aborigines, nnd the diagonal lines, their 

spearthrowers. There is a slight; variation in the design on fig. 433, 

the horizontal groups of lines represent lag the chest scars on the 

bodies of the men and the older boys. 

(vii) Fig. 4CD also deals with the mythical Mulga-seed men 
camping at Kikingnra. The irregular designs at tig. 40 symbolise 
groups of men seated on the ground and the curvilinear lines on the top 
of the kidpidji, their windbreaks. The lines of holes separating the 
groups of parallel lines, indicate the piles of mulga seed which had 
been collected Iiy the wives of the mythical mulgfl-sced men. 

The designs on the reverse side (fig. 4D), represent mulga trees, 
the seed of which, during the early days of the world, fell to the 
ground in such quantities that the men and women of those times 
always had an abundance of food. As on the obverse side (fig. 4C), 
the lines of holes on the surface of the kulpidji symbolise piles of 
mulga seecb (4) 

(4) Mulga seed wl.eu gTOund into flm.r, m:»<lt> Liito a cake and baked in tlie ashea of the 
camp fire, is a favourite food of the aborigines. 



404 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

(viii) Both sides of the kulpidji illustrated on flg, 4GI1 have 
identical meanings. The diamond shapes indicate the camps of the 
Mnlga-seed men and women at Kikingura, the linos of holes, the sticks 
iti the windbreaks of the camps, and the horizontal parallel Vines, the 
scars on the upper arms of the men. 

Three kxlpidji, figs, IAD, 1FH, and 1J, deal with the mythical 
uueireuincised boys of Kikingura. 

(i) On fig. IAD, the larger of the concentric circles, a, b, c, d, on 
fig, 1A, are the eamps of the elder uneimimcisod boys (called bttlga 
at this stage of their life), and the groups e 3 t\ g, h, those of tin- 
younger boys, The triangular patterns on the borders of the kulpidji 
symbolise the boomerangs of the older boys. The dcfiigna on the 
reverse side (fig. ID), although slightly different, have similar 
meanings. 

(ii) Fig. 1FTT also deals with the mythical uninitiated Mulga 
seed boys at Kikingura. The concentric circles on (he obverse side 
(fig. IF), are the boys in Iheir camps, mid the two designs at g and h, 
pairs of l)oys playing see-saw on a log balanced across a tree inink. 
Tlie boomerangs of the youths are indicated at a, b, and c; and their 
body scars by group of triple lines at d. 

On the reverse side of fig, 1H, the series of concentric circles, 
a, b, cr f d, are the camp-fires of the mythical youths and the groups of 
curved lines e, f, g, h, the boys lying beside their fires. The groups of 
concentric circles at r. k, indicate other boys resting in the "shade of 

the trees, 

(iii) On the third lulpidjl of the mythical boys (fig. U), tlie 
groups of concentric circles, a, b, e, d, etc., are the camp fires, and the 
groups of curving lines, g, h, and j, the uninitiated boys warming 
themselves beside those fires. The smallest circle, f, on the extreme 
left represents a small child sitting by himself. 

(B) Tlie Tjvhda Men 

One hulpidji (fig. SAB), over five feet long, deals with the journey 
of a group of mythical (unidentified) Tjvkida men. The obverse side 
(fig. 3A), illustrates a journey from Kikingura northward to Tjukula, 
where there is a spring of that name in the side of a hill, and the 
reverse side, the journey from Tjukula to a rock-hole called Pulitjilda. 
From this point, according to my informants, which was the end of 
the Tjukula line of eongg, the mythical men "flew" away, and the 
owners of the kulpidji had no further knowledge of them. 



MOtrNTrORD-PMJANDiAKA SACRED OBJECTS 



405 




Big. 3. AB. JOUri^ of Tjiiknla men from Kikingura. Cjf). HivtJulla ;. mu'lg.vseefl) 
men at Kikuigura. EF TFtndttMa (inulgti-seetl) mon at Kikingimi. 



406 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

On fig. 3B, the meandering pattern, o, outlined with small holes 
and filled in with short parallel lines, symbolises the track made by 
Jlhe mythical Tjukula men as they travelled from Kikingura, a, to 
Tjukula, c. The irregular designs covering the remainder of the 
kulpidji represent the tracks made by the Tjukula men as they 
travelled from one locality to the other. 

The other side of the kulpidji (fig. 3A), the irregular patterns 
represent the footmarks of the Tjukula men as they continued their 
journey from the spring at Tjukula, a, to the rock-hole at 
Pulitjilda, b. 

(C) The Wallabies, Paratata 

Two kulpidji, figs. 1C and 1G, belong to the totem of the mythical 
wallaby (Paratata) men. These mythical creatures, relatives of the 
Mulga-seed men, lived permanently at Kikingura. 

(i) Fig. 1C, a beautifully-engraved, stone kulpidji, deals with an 
old wallaby man at Kikingura. The concentric circles at m is the 
place where the Paratata man once camped. The circles, q and o are 
his feet, and the groups of parallel lines a, b, his legs. The U-shaped 
design, p, was once his windbreak, and the groups of crescent*, young 
wallabies lying down. It is likely, although my informants did not say 
so, that these young walla bios were the children of the old man. 

The camp of the wallaby is now a birge spring of water; his feet 
are two rock-holes; his legs, stony ridges, and the bodies of the young 
wallabies, outcrops of stones. 

(ii) On the small stone kulpidji (fig. 1G), the concentric circles 
at m, n, are places at Kikingura where a Paratata (nan once camped. 
At u, r and v, s, are his feet, and the parallel straight lines joining 
them to m and m respectively, his legs. The designs, k, w, x and y, 
are the painted decorations OB the back of the Paratata man. The 
designs on this side of the kulpulji, like those on fig. 1C, almost 
certainly refer to topographical features. 

(D) The Mana Sisters 

Two kulpidjis (fig. IB and fig, 2BC), deal with the Mana sisters 
who lived at Kikingura during creation times. 

(i) The four scries of concentric circles, on fig. IB, are the Mana 
women sitting on the ground; the triple diagonal lines, symbolising 
their legs. The smaller pairs of circles, indicate their breasts; the 



MOUNTFORD—PITJANDJARA SACRED OBJECTS 407 

short transverse lines along the edge of the kulpidji, the scars on 
their chests, and the triple parallel horizontal lines, the windbreak 
behind which the Mann women slept. The engraved designs on the 
reverse side have similar meanings. 

(ii) The four large groups of concentric circles on tig. 2C, again 

represent the Mana women seated on the ground; the paired groups 

Of concentric circles, q, j; p, k; and o, m, their breasts, and the short 
transverse lines joining the smaller circles their chest scars. The 
diagonal lines on this kulpidji represent the outstretched legs of the 
women (see fig. IB). 

On fig. 2B, the five series of concentric circles represent the Mama 
women sitting down and the meandering lines, the hair string 
ornament which the women wore around their neck and over their 
shoulders. 

(K) The Kaduna Women 

The hdpidji (fig. 2FG), belongs to a group of Kaduna women, 
the wives of the Mulga -»eed men (see fig. 3 CD)* 

The large concentric circles j, k, on 2b\ are two of the Kaduna 
women; q, n, and t, 1, their breasts and the &m crescent designs 
on the Upper part of the /, tdpidji, the scars on their arms. The body 
of a third Kaduna woman is indicated at m. 

On the reverse side (fig. 2G), a, b, c, d, are places where four of 
the adult Kuduua women sat down and e, that of a young girl. The 
paired concentric circles are the breasts of the older women. 

SACRED OBJECTS FROM KATATJUTA 

Three kvlpidji are associated with Katatjuta, a group of enormous 
domes of rock about twenty miles west of Avers Rock, the highest of 
them, Mount Olga, rising to almost eighteen hundred feet above the 
surrounding plain. One lulpidp (fig. 5A), belongs to the myth of the 
giant Pimgalmga men of the western side, and two, fig. 5B and 5C, 
to the mythical Mmgiri (brown desert monsr) women of the 

eastern face. 

(A) The Pungalunga Men 

(i) The irregular designs, j, k* 1 and m, on one side of fig. 5C 
(the other side is plain) symbolise the footmarks of the giant 
run gain nan men of creation times, whoso camps, at the close of the 
''creation" period, woiv transformed into a series of huge monoliths 
on the western side of Katatjuta. Mountford (1948, p. 98) gives a 



408 



RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 




Pig, 4. AF. iVindulla (sxulgMWd) men at Kikingura. KB R*to$HflCQ fmulga-seed) 
men at Kikingura. CJ>. Wift&ulfca (ttmlga-see&) matt and boy» Ht Kikingura.. CJT{. 

Windulka (inulga-sed) men at Kiluugura'. 



MOUNTFORD—PITJANDJARA SACRED OBJECTS 



409 



short description of the I'nvgalunga myth. The engraved rectangles 

at a, b, ty etc., and gj h, i, met to unidentified trees associated with 
the Puvgaluuga myth. 

(B) The Mi u gin Women 

Two kulpidji (fig. 5A and fig, oB), belong to the myth of the 
Mhunri (mice) women who lived on the eastern side of Katatjuta. 

(i) The kulpidji, 5A, like 5B, is engraved only on one side. The 
meanderillg design, a, along the middle of the kulpidji represents a 
Watercourse at Katatjuta, called Gnndnndura, which is associated with 
the myth of the Mingin women. The irregular patterns are piles of 
the yellow-fruited solnmim jiftuxba, which the Mingiri women 
collected as food. At tlie close of the creation period these piles of 
food Were transformed into high rocky monoliths. 

(it) Fig, 5B is a kulpidji with a sere:- of simple circles that is 
associated with the Mwgln myth of Katatjuta, Those at a, a, repre- 
sent the camps of the women; b, b, the breasts of one of the women; 
c, e, a pregnant Mtngiii woman who gave birth to her child, d, d, 
under the mnlga trees, e, e. 

At present, a, a, are high rOeky domes, b, b, patches of level 
ground, c, c, small .'rock-holes, d, d, a eave and e, e, mulga trees. 




Fig. 5. Katatjuta, AB. M'mgin (mice) women at Katatjuta. 0. Pungalunga men. 

-.it Katatjuta. 



410 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSbUM 

DISCUSSION 

An examination Of the Pitjandjara fadpid}i and of others I ha 
studied among the Aranda, Ngalia and Walpiri (Wailbri) tribes of 
Central Australia has shown that tin 1 aborigines of this area use a 
remarkably limited number of art motifs to illustrate the mythical 
stories they engrave on their sacred objects, motifs which are 
particularly simple, being almost entirely limited to circles, spirals, 
parallel straight arid meandering lines, rows of dots, and little else. 
Figs. 1 and 2 in this paper are typical of these motifs. 

Among the kulpldji of the Pitjandjara, however, are two different 
motifs, concentric squares, fig. 30 and 4 < i 1 1 , and another curious and 
previously .unrecorded motif, i.r.. } 3AB, SEP, etc, The motifs on these 
hidptdji are even more limited than the curvilinear designs on the 
remainder. 

This paucity of design elements has meant that the same motif, 
will, on different and 80me$nMws on the same kulpidji, have different 
meanings. Until, however, we have a much wider range of fully 
interpreted kidp/dji or oilier sacred objects available for study, it is 
not possible to make an analysis of the designs and to find out the 
stability, or otherwise, of any particular motif. 

TECHNIQUES OF RECORDING 

The method employed for recording the engraved designs was to 
first make a rubbing with blade lumber crayon of the design on strong 
tissue paper. On this rubbing 1 wrote the meanings of the engraved 
designs and in my field note book, details of the associated myth. (6) 

The drawings on iigs. 1-5 were traced from the rubbings made in 
the field. By this method, a much more accurate record is possible 
than by any other means. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to the Minister for 
Territories (The Hon. Paul llaslnek, MJ?.) and his staff for their 
unstinted help in making this research possible, to the South Australian 
Museum for the use of their facilities, and to Miss Brenda Hubbard 
for her excellent; drawings of the kulpidji 

(0) Although the aborigines were willing to part with the majority of these snored object*, 
departments! regulations did not allow me to &ce$pt ihem. However, the rubbings and tho 
associated data gave mc the information I required. 



MOUNTFORD— PITJANDJARA SACRED OBJECTS 411 

SUMMARY 

This paper records the designs, the meanings, and to a limited 
degree, the myths belonging to twenty-one sacred objects of the 
Pitjandjara tribe of western central Australia. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Davidson, D. S., 1937: A Preliminary Consideration of Aboriginal 
Decorative Art. Memoirs of American Philosophical 
Society, Philadelphia, 9. 
Mountford, C. P., 1948: Brown Men and Red Sand. (Melbourne.) 
Spencer, W. B. and Gillen, F. J., 1899: Native Tribes of Central 
Australia. (London. ) 



VOLUME 14 No. 3 

1963 



RECORDS 

OF THE 

SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 



Published by the Board and edited by Norman B. Tindale 

Printed in Australia by W. L. Howes, Government Printer, Adelaide. 
Registered in Australia for Transmission by Post as a Periodical. 



FOSSIL RATITE BIRDS OF THE LATE TERTIARY 
OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA 



ByAldenH. Miller, Museum of Paleontology, 
University of California 



Summary 

Two kinds of ratite birds occur in the late Tertiary 7 of the Lake Eyre region of Australia. 
These fossils are part of the Palankarinna fauna, tentatively referred to the early Pliocene, 
and were found in the Mampuwordu Sands at Lake Palankarinna. One specimen is 
described as a new species of emu, Dromiceius ocypus, which shows foot specialization 
equivalent to that of the modern emus of the continent. It is a smaller species than the 
living emu of the area but has foot proportions like the even smaller insular species of 
Pleistocene and Recent times. The other specimen is a fragmentary pelvis which is 
referred to the genus Genyornis. It is equivalent in size to the giant extinct Genyornis 
newtoni of the Pleistocene. 

The fossils here reported extend the paleontologic record of the avian families 
Dromiceiidae and Dromornithidae from the late Pleistocene back to the Pliocene. 



FOSSIL RATITE BIRDS OF THE LATE TERTIARY OF 

SOUTH AUSTRALIA 

By ALDEN H. MILLER, Museum op Paleontology, University 

of California 

Fig. 1-2 

SUMMARY 

Two kinds of ratite birds occur in the late Tertiary of the Lake 
Eyre region of Australia. These fossils are part of the Palankarinna 
fauna, tentatively referred to the early Pliocene, and were found in 
the Mampuwordu Sands at. Lake Palankarinna. One specimen is 
described as a new species of emu, Dromiceius ocypns, which shows 
foot specialization equivalent to that of the modern emus of the 
continent. It is a smaller species than the living emu of the area but 
has foot proportions like the even smaller insular species of 
Pleistocene and Eecent times. The other specimen is a fragmentary 
pelvis which is referred to the genus Genyornis. It is equivalent in 
size to the giant extinct Genyorms neivtoni of tlie Pleistocene. 

The fossils here reported extend the paleontologie record of the 
avian families Dromiceiidae and Dromornithidae from the late 
Pleistocene back to the Pliocene. 

INTRODUCTION 

The discovery of Tertiary fossil-bearing deposits in the Lake Eyre 
basin of South Australia was made known in 1954 by R. A. Stirton. 
One of the fossil assemblages found was of late Tertiary age and has 
been tentatively referred to the early Pliocene. It has been designated 
the Palankarinna fauna (Stirton, Tedford, and Miller, 1961, p. 37). 
In our preliminary listing of this fauna, a ratite bird was mentioned 
(p. 38). This may now be described as well as an additional ratite 
from the same formation that was obtained in the course of the field 
expedition of 1961. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Work on fossil vertebrates of South Australia has continued to 
receive the generous support and encouragement of the South 



414 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Australian Museum and its staff. In 1961 we were especially aided 
by Mr. Norman B. Tindale arid Paul F. Lawaon and in tlie field by 
Lawson and Harry J. Bowshall. The expedition in that year was 
made possible by a grant from the National Science Foundation of 
the United States. For opportunity to examine Pleistocene and 
Recent emu bones I am indebted also to Edmund D. Gill and Allan 
MeEvey of the National Museum of Victoria, Melbourne, and to 
H. T. Condon of the South Australian Museum. 

DESCRIPTIONS 
Family DROM1CEIIDAE 

The tarsometn tarsus of an emu was obtained at the Lawson 
Quarry (U.C.M.P. locality V 5769) at Lake Palankarinna in 1957. 
It is essentially complete and lacks only the tip of the intercotylar 
prominence. Tlie surface of much of the shaft is chocked and in 
places eroded, but the distal articular area is complete and well 
preserved as is the hypotarsus. The shapes and relative sizes of the 
trochleae, the configuration of the plantar surface, the presence and 
location of the distal foramen, and the details of the hypotarsus all 
conform to those of tlie modern emus (Drorniceius) and in no respect 
suggest the conditions in the cassowaries (see fig. 1). The shortness 
and relative stoutness of the fossil is somewhat like the condition in 
cassowaries (Cas)tarin^ Hn(ii>j>rudicut(iLiLs) but in proportions it is 
even closer to the extinct forms of Recent and Pleistocene emus of 
the islands off the southern border of the Australian continent, namely 
Dromuvius dienteuianus and Dromiceius minor. 

Comparisons imve been made with seven skeletons of the modern 
emu of the continent, Dronucmis novae hollandiae, and with measure- 
ments I have taken of 14 tarsometatarsi of minor , including those 
labelled as ^hypotypes" at. Melbourne and with two complete tarso- 
metalarsi of d.iemt:numns in the South Australian Museum. The 
measurements show that the Pliocene emu was significantly shorter- 
legged than the modern continental bird and larger than the insular 
forma while possessing the relatively greater width of the latter. Tlie 
Pliocene Species may be known as: 

Dromiceius ocypus sp. nov. 

Type Right tarsometatarsus, essentially complete. South 
Australian Mns. No. P 13414; Univ. Calif. Mus. Paleo. locality No. 
V 5769, Mampuwordu Sands, Lake Palankarinna, late Tertiary, 
apparently early Pliocene. 



MILLER— FOSSIL RATITE BIRDS 



415 



. K 






K. 



I.'.-. 



Fig. 1. Right tarsometatarsi of emus and cassowaries, plantar view, X i- a. b. 
Dromiceius no-vae-hollandiae, large and average individuals. c. Dromiceius ocypus, type. 
d. Casual vus unappendiculatus. 



416 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Diagnosis: Similar in foot structure to Dromiceius novae- 
hollandiae but relative breadth of distal end of tarsometatarsus 
greater and linear dimensions less. Ratio of width across trochleae 
to length of tarsometatarsus 15.7 per cent as contrasted with 13.3 to 
14.5 (average 13.6) per cent in novae-hollandiae and length 15 per 
cent less. 

Analysis and comparison: Individual variation in size in emus 
is rather great as casual examination reveals. One can readily set 
aside the tarsometatarsi of individuals that are not yet fully grown 
by reason of the evidence of immaturity in the incomplete fusion of 
the tarsal region, the imperfect ossification in the area of the distal 
foramen and at the junction of the trochleae, and the roughness of 
the surfaces of the shaft. But even in bones of adults linear 
dimensions show considerable range of variation. For example, the 
coefficient of variation in tarsal length of the seven adult modern emus 
is 4.6 per cent. The bones of Dromiceius minor and of D. diemenianus 
represented in table 1, as well as the tarsometatarsus of D, ocypus, 
are those of adults. The departure of the fossil from the modern emu 
in tarsal length and relative width of the distal end of the tarso- 
metatarsus was found to be significant (t test, P = < 0.02 and 
< 0.01, respectively). 

Although the individual measurements of the series of Dromiceius 
minor were not recorded, the range of the 14 specimens and the values 
for D. diemenianus are such that there seems to be no possibility of 
overlap of either with D. ocypus. The latter exceeds the maximum of 
D. minor by 4.7 cm. or 16 per cent. The ratio of the width across the 
trochleae to tarsal length is, however, the same in minor, diemenianus, 
and ocypus. 

Table 1 

Measurements of Tarsometatarsi of Emus {Dromiceius) in Millimeters 

D. novae-hollandiae D. ocypus D. minor D. diemenianus 

(7 specimens) (14 specimens) (2 specimens) 

Mean Standard 

and Range deviation Mini- Maxi- 

(N-l) mum mum 

Total length 399(377-431) 18-2 3370 2310 2900 2520 2500 

Distal width across trochleae 54-5 (510-58-9) 2-8 53-2 42-0 45-0 42-7 42-8 

Proximal width 53-2 (511-56-7) 2-4 50-5 36-5 42-0 35-8 37-8 

Least depth of shaft 13-5 (12-5-14-8) 0-85 12-6 8-4 10-5 10-4 9-9 

Ratio of distal width to 

length (per cent) 13-6 (13-3-14-5) 0-46 15-7 15-5 16-6 170 17-1 

Three names have been created for late Pleistocene emus from 
the continent of Australia by De Vis (1884, 1888, 1892). Two of these 



MILLER— FOSSIL RATHE BIRDS 417 

are based (in very unsatisfactory fragments. Dromiceius queenslandme 
(Pe Vis, 1884) is known from a proximal part of a left feniur 
Mutton's report (1893) on this brings out characteristics of shape 
which seem to relate it either to the emus or the Dromornithiclae 
rather than to the moas, contrary to (he original view of the describes 
Oliver (104!), pp. 80-88, 183) makes no appraisal of Mutton's allocation 
and returns quenislamUac to the moas. Oliver's photographs and 
description of this fossil compared with bones of moas (Ptichvornis), 
emus, and cassowaries at hand do not convince me that his assignment 
is well established. In any event the bird was roughly 60 per cent 
larger than Dfomieeim niyvae-hoUanduie and thus it is wholly distinct 

from D. n t -l/pns. 

tfromkeim yrrwilipes (De Vis, 1892) was based on a very 
fragmentary distal end of a tarsometatarsus that should never have 
been named. Because it lacks the distal tarsal foramen characteristic 
of emus, it may not even belong to Ibis group. The figure of it suggests 
that there has been considerable abrasion of the specimen and there- 
fore evidence trf immaturity may have been lost. The specimen could 
have been part of an immature emu in which the distal foramen had not 
yet formed, or it could be from a small cassowary. Clearly it has no 
close affinity with I>. ocijpus. 

Dromicpws pat turns (Pe Vis, 1888) was based on a tibiotarsus; 
a coracoid was also described and provisionally referred to it. The 
tibiotarsus was slated to reflect a heavier, more muscular leg than 
that of the modern emu. De Vis' description of differences in 
configuration leave one in doubt as to their significance, and examina- 
tion of his figures of tibiotarsal fragments gives no assurance of the 
validity of the differences. The size of ]>utri<:ivs as measured from 
the figures is not greater than in large individuals of modern emus, 
nor is the hone heavier. Much other Pleistocene material has been 
referred to patriaus, including remains from the Pleistocene of the 
Lake TCyre region. Whether or not pafririvs or this referred material 
in fact represents a distinct Pleistocene form close to riovae-hollaitdtae 
cannot be determined until the Pleistocene fossils are assembled and 
fully analy/.e/l for variability and significance of differences. At 
present the validity of patriruts seems questionable, but it is safe to 
Bay (fret *d shows no features that suggest identity with ocypns 

The general conclusion to be drawn from the diseovery and 
analysis of Droniircius ocypuy is that, the structure of the foot of 
emus of the late Tertiary had already reached the level of specializa- 
tion seen in the group today. The <h, ures to be noted since then in 



418 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

this group of birds on the mainland have been an increase in size and 
moderate a I ond« 'rising of proportions. The insular emus, if direct 
descendants, did not, change gropQ?ti<ms and eitlier became small or 
represent persistence of a line of small forms. 



Family DROMORNITHIDAE 

At the Law.-u.n Quarry (locality V 576S|) in 196! a fragment of a 
pelvis .U. (\ Mus. Paleo. No. 60G13) was obtained which, although 
scry c Miiplcte, shows features distinctive of the giant Pleistocene 
bird Gi)nfinnis. The fragment consists of the base of the left pubis 
and ischium surrounding the obturator foramen, the posterior and 
ventral parts of the acetabulum, and the ascending bar of the ischium. 

These parts of the pelvis have been compared with those of emus, 
wiili p hoto graphic plates of Qetoyorma vrwtoni (Stirling, 19.13; pis. 
XXXVIII and XXXIX), and with a large moa (Pachynruis 
ehphantoims). The Pliocene fossil shows (fig. 2) the following 
features characteristic of Genyornis which distinguish it from 
Dromlcems: The pubis at its base, below the obturator foramen, is 
broader (25 per cent greater) than the ischium rather than the 
converse (50 per cent less); the ascending bar of the ischium is 
relatively longer and more slender, and the externa! surfaces are much 
more rugose. In these respects the men is like Drmntccius and not 
Gcujtnrnis, The fossil from Lake Palankarinua matches Genyornis in 
size rather closely. It differs somewhat in (be angle of the ascending 
bar of the ischium to the axis of the pubis. In Genyorriix toBtOttml 
(his is a somewhat obtuse angle posteriorly whereas in the Pliocene 
bird it is essentially a right angle. The bar also shows greater taper 
dorsally and some differences in surface configuration. These features 
may well suggest that a different sjucirs is involved but the 
fragmentary nature of the material affords inadequate basis for 
naming "1 as now. The pelvic can be referred with confidence (o the 
genus GriDfonris, although no comparison is possible with the one 
other genus of this extinct family, namely Dromomis, of which fin- 
pelvis is unknown, 

This Pliocene fossil has significance in demonstrating that the 
giant birds of the family Dromoruithidae existed as massive Specialized 
ratitos in the late Tertiary as well as in the late Pleistocene of Australia 
and that, in so far as the meagre evidence shows, they have changed 
little over the considerable time interval involved. 



MILLER— FOSSIL RATITE BIRDS 



419 





Fig. 2. a. Pelvis of Dromicevus novae-hoUayidiae, X £. &. Fragmentary pelvis of 
Genyorriis from Lake Palankarinna, X |. Partial reconstruction based on figures of 
Genyomis newtoni. 



420 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

LITERATURE CITED 

De Vis, C. W., 1884: The moa (Dinomis) in Australia. Proc. Roy. 
Soc. Queensland, Brisbane, vol. 1, pp. 23-28, 2 pis. 

1888: A glimpse of the post-Tertiary avifauna of Queens- 

land. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., Sydney, vol. 3, pp. 
1275-1292, 4 pis. 

1892: Residue of the extinct birds of Queensland as yet 

detected. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., Sydney, vol. 6, pp. 
437-456, 2 pis. 

Button, F. W., 1893: On Dinornis (?) queenslandiae. Proc. Linn. Soc. 
N.S.W., Sydney, vol. 8, pp. 7-10, 1 fig. 

Oliver, W. R. B., 1949: The moas of New Zealand and Australia. 
Dominion Museum Bull. No. 15, Dominion Museum, 
Wellington, New Zealand, x + 206 pp., 143 figs. 

Stirling, E. C, 1913 : Description of some further remains of Genyornis 
newioni, Stirling and Zietz. Mem. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 
Adelaide, vol. 1, pp. 111-126, 4 pis. 

Stirton, R. A., 1954: Digging Down Under. Pacific Discovery, San 
Francisco, vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 3-13, 28 figs. 

Stirton, R. A., Tedford, R. H., and Miller, A. H., 1961: Cenozoic 
stratigraphy and vertebrate paleontology of the Tirari 
Desert, South Australia. Rec. S. Aust. Mus., Adelaide, 
vol. 14, pp. 19-61, 4 figs. 



A TURTLE SHELL MASK OF TORRES STRAITS TYPE IN THE 
MACLEAY MUSEUM, UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY 



By Graeme L. Pretty, Assistant Curator of Anthropology, 

SO UTH A USTRALIAN MUSEUM 



Summary 

This paper describes a hitherto unpublished turtle-shell mask of Torres Straits type. Study 
of the records suggests a provenance of Darnley Island. It is possible that some of its 
constituent parts may have been re-used from other masks. General features suggest a 
human face but general form compares with the animal head masks of these islands. The 
mask is surmounted by a crest of fretted turtle shell plates which bears comparison with 
feathered head ornaments of Torres Straits. One such ornament, registered No. A40566 in 
the South Australian Museum collection, is figured and described. 



A TURTLE SHELL MASK OF TORRES STRAITS TYPE IN THE 
MACLEAY MUSEUM, UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY 

By GRAEME L. PRETTY, Assistant Curator of Anthropology, 

Socth Australian Museum 

Plates 17-18 

SUMMARY 

This paper describes a hitherto unpublished turtle-shell mask of 
Torres Straits type, Study of the records suggests a provenance of 
Darnlev Island. " It is possible that some of its constituent parts may 
have been re-used from other masks. General fen lures suggest a 
human lace but. general form compares with the animal head masks of 
these islands. The mask is surmounted by a crest of fretted turtle shell 
plates which bears comparison with feathered head ornaments of 
Torres Straits. One such ornament, registered No. A40566 in the 
South Australian Museum collection, is figured and described. 

INTRODUCTION 

The Macleay Museum collection came to the University of Sydney 
in 1889 from the estate of the late Sir William Macleay. Although 
rich in Macleay 's main interest, Natural History, it contained a small 
but significant collection of Australian and Melancsian ethnology of 
the period around 1875-1885. Most of it was obtained on his collecting 
expedition to Torres Straits and New Guinea in 1875, and was added 
to by collectors m various parts of Australia, Fiji, and the Solomons. 
II includes a complete mummy from Darnley Island, Torres Straits, 
a description of which 1 am preparing for publication. 

In past years, the trend of the Museum's major activities has 
been somewhat at the expense of the ethnological collection. It is 
now receiving the full attention of the Curator, Miss E. Hahn, who 
is anxious that its existence should become more widely known. 

Although the mask is unlabelled, its general appearance suggests 
it to be of Torres Straits type (Meyer 1889 plates 1-4). A search of 
the Macleay Museum papers and correspondence in the Sydney 



4 - 2 RECORDS of THE s.a museum 

University g rchives yielded no references to it. Macleay in his Journal 
of the expedition, recorded ethnological collections from Mokatta, nt 
the month of the Katan (now Binaturi) River, Warrior and Darnley 
Islands in the Straits, and Hall Sound in the Gulf of Papua. Since, of 
these localities, most time was spent a! Darnley, it would seem the 
mCWt likely provenance for this specimen. Although there are several 
masks in his collection, Macleay nowhere made specific mention of 
(hem. Darnley (Rrub) is one of the eastern islands of the Straits;. 

DESCRIPTION 

The mask (plates 17 and 18, fig. 1) has been constructed of plates of 
turtle shell, which are drilled at the margins, and sewn togetW with 
both two strand rolled and three strand plaited vegetnble twine 0.2 em. 
in width. It is crested by an arch of plates of fretted turtle shell, 
supported by & central strip of the same material. Beneath and 
forward, a rod of wood has been lashed to the lower margins. 
According to Hnddon (1912, v. 4, p. 303) this would have been clasped 
between the teeth by the wearer. It would also have served to 
strengthen the mask. 

The mask measures 37 cm. in length and is 18.5 cm. in width. The 
total height is 45 cm. Some of the plates of which it is composed 
show signs of previous use. The holes that hnve been drilled in them 
are so placed as to rule out. any useful function, e.g., the lashing 
together of the plates. Presumably they had formed parts of earlier 
masks. Other plates seem, at some previous time, to have been 
engraved and lime-filled, though they are now cut down, drilled, lashed 
and painted over [ike the rest of the mask. Other holes, e.g.. around 
the margins of the kl cars ,, ( have clearly been used to tie'on tufted 
and fctrhiged decorations, as may be seen on other masks from the 
same area and referred to hy J, niton and "Wingert (1946, pp. 124, 127). 

Turtle shell has heen used to form a well made aquiline nose 
10 em. long. A thin strip, projecting from its tip, has been brought 
underneath, giving the semblance of a pierced nose. 

The pierced ears, quite characteristic of these islanders, have been 
represented by ovoid plates of turtle shell, 10 cm. long, with the lower 
halves cut out. These margins, as aforementioned, have been drilled, 
probably for tufted decoration. 

The mask was originally fitted with two artificial eyes of shell 
nacre, 3.0 x 1.5 em. One of these has since been lost, A blob of some 
black resinous substance, perhaps the imn or black beeswax mentioned 



PRETTY—TURTLE SHELL MASK 423 

hv Haddon (1934, v. 1, p. 325), forms the pupil. The same substance 
has been used to fill and strengthen the joints between the plates on 
either side of the eye cavities. 

The feUottt has befell furnished with a white painted double row 
of turtle shell fJMtfr". 

A strip of serrated turtle shell runs along the basal margin, on 
each side of the mask, probably to represent a beard. From the rod 
beneath, hangs another fretted and serrated strip of turtle shell of a 
type, Which according tei Haddon (1912, v. 4, p. 303) usually 
resented animal teeth. Probably re-used from a previous mask, 
it, may haw been meant to strengthen the impression of a beard, 
however, it has been attached to the rod with modern European string. 

The whole mask, except for the facial parts, has been covered with 
red ochre, As an upper boundary on the face two bands of white run 
ii [i from the bridge of the nose, branching out parabolically, each 
meeting the periphery of the mask at the ear. In a similar fashion 
a double row of stitching sweeps out from below the tip of the nose, 
each meeting the white line at the ear. The space in between, 
including the nose, has been left free of paint. 

The crest is made from plates of fretted turtle shell, decorated 
with White lime-filled engravings. These designs have the zig-zags 
and handed decoration, adjudged by Haddon (1894, pp. 14-21, 63-66) 
to be characteristic of the Torres Straits— Kiwai cultures. If taken 
in conjunction with the bands of white paint sweeping out from the 
bridge of the nose, the whole bears a strong resemblance to the 
feathered bond ornaments worn in some Torres Straits dances. 
According to Ray (1907, pp, 137, 140) these were called dri, or 
d{a)ru in the eastern islands. One such ornament, specimen numbered 
A 4 0566 in the South Australian Museum collection, is illustrated for 
comparison (pi. 18, lig. 2). 

Behind there has been affixed a shell of the egg cowrie, 
An f f>ln.))i'ras ovum Linnaeus L758. This has been painted red with 
the rest, of the mask. Probably it served as a rattle. 

CONCLUSION 

In general form this mask compares with the animal head masks 
once common in the Torres Straits. Nevertheless,^ the over-riding 
intention SOems to have been to represent features of the human face, 
perhaps adorned with one of the feathered head ornaments typical of 
this area. 






424 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Haddon (1912, v. 4, p. 302, pi. 34) illustrates a turtle shell mask 
from Mount Ernest Island (Nagir) where a crocodile head form is 
surmounted by a human face, fashioned on its upper surface. In the 
Macleay Museum specimen, the human face is dominant and only the 
generalized long-snouted animal form remains to point to its possible 
morphological origins. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Acknowledgment is made, first of all to Miss E. Hahn, Curator 
of the Macleay Museum, for her many efforts on my behalf. Thanks 
are offered to Mr. S. Woodward-Smith, Illustration, New Medical 
School, University of* Sydney, for photographs, and to Miss 
I. AUpress, Librarian of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 
and Mr. D. S. Macmillan, Archivist, University of Sydney, for making 
available documentary material. Mr. N. B. Tindale, Curator of 
Anthropology, South Australian Museum, and Mr. IT. M. Cooper, Hon. 
Associate in Anthropology, have read the manuscript and made 
helpful suggestions and comments. 



REFERENCES CITED 

Haddon, A. C, 1894; Decorative Art of British New Guinea. 
Cunningham Memoirs 10, Dublin, pp. 1-278, pi. 1-12. 

Haddon, A. C. (Hd.), 1904-1935: Reports of the Cambridge Anthro- 
pological Expedition to Torres Straits, Cambridge. Vols. 
1-fi (Hsporially vol. 4, 1912: Arts and Crafts). 

Linton, Ralph and Wing< rt, Paul 8., 1946: Arts of the South Seas. 
Now York. 

Macleay, William, 1875: Journal of his New Guinea Expedition, 
commencing 29th May 1875, ending 28th August 1875. 
(Manuscript in the Library of the Linnean Society of 
New South Wales.) 

Meyer, A. B., 1889: Masken von Neu Guinea und dem Bismarck 
Archipel. Konigliches Ethnographisches Museum zu 
Dresden, 7; pp. 144, pi. 1-15. 

Ray, Sidney H., 1907: Linguistics in Reports of the Cambridge 
Anthropological Expedition &c. (ed. A. C. Haddon, 
Cambridge). Vol. 3. 



PRETTY— TURTLE SHELL MASK 425 

DESCRIPTION OF PLATES 17 AND 18 

PLATE 17. 
The mask, full face, showing the features described in the text. Specimen, without 
registration number, in Macleay Museum, University of Sydney. Scale to be read in 
centimetres. 

PLATE 18. 

Fig. 1. The mask, rear view, showing the re-used and engraved plates, the posterior 
surface of the centrepiece of the crest, and the Amphiperas ovum shell affixed behind. Scale 
to be read in centimetres. 

Fig 2 Head ornament, from Torres Straits (no specific locality). Greatest length 
42 cm. greatest width 31 cm. White feathers. Frame coloured blue, vermilion and white. 
Specimen No. A40566 in South Australian Museum collection. Scale to be read in 
centimetres. 



Rkc; S.A. Alrsiii-M 



Vot, 14, Plate 17 




To face ^agt- 426.1 



EEC. S.A. Museum 



Vci, 14, Plate IS 




THE AUSTRALIAN RHYPAROCHROMINI 
(HEMIPTERA: LYGAEIDAE) 



By Gordon F. Gross, Curator of Insects, South Australian Museum 
andG. G. E. Scudder, University of British Columbia 



Summary 

This paper deals with the systematics of the tribe Rhyparochromini (Hemiptera: 
Lygaeidae) in the Australian region. Twenty species, six of them new, belonging to five 
genera are described and figured. Most of the species belong to the genus Dieuches; 
species from this area formerly ascribed to Aphanus are shown all to belong either to 

Dieuches or to Elasmolomus. 



THE AUSTRALIAN RHYPAROCHROMINI 
(HEMIPTERA: LYGAEIDAE) 

By GORDON F. GROSS, Curator of Insects, South Australian 
Museum, and G. G. E. SCUDDER, University of British Columbia 

Plates 19-24 

SUMMARY 

This paper deals with the systematics of the tribe Rhyparo- 
chromini (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) in the Australian region. Twenty 
species, six of them new, belonging to five genera are described and 
figured. Most of the species belong to the genus Dieuches; species 
from this area formerly ascribed to Aphanus are shown all to belong 
either to Dieuches or to Elasmolomus. 

INTRODUCTION 

The insects considered in this paper belong to the Lygaeid sub- 
family Rhyparochrominae, which is characterized by having the suture 
between sterna IV and V laterally curved anteriorly and not reaching 
the lateral margin of the abdomen. The tribe Rhyparochromini is 
distinguished by having the spiracles on abdominal segments III and 
IV dorsal, whilst all other segments of the abdomen have ventrally 
placed spiracles: in Scudder (1957) the group is considered as the 
subtribe Rhyparochromina, but now the taxon is considered to be a 
full tribe (Scudder 1962b). 

Only five genera so far are known to occur in Australia, namely 
Bosbeqnius Distant, Dieuches Dohrn, Elasmolomiis Stal, Narbo Stal 
and Poeantius Stal. 

All Australian and Eastern Pacific Island species formerly con- 
sidered to belong to the tribe Gonianotini and described as species of 
the genus Aphanus Laporte or Pachymerus Lepelletier — Serville are 
shown to belong to the tribe Rhyparochromini and are treated here. 
This results in the elimination of the Gonianotini in this sub-region. 
Australian and Eastern Pacific Rhyparoehrominae belong only to 
the tribes Cleradini, Drymini, Lethaeini, Rhyparochromini and 



428 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Myodochini in the present arrangement of the tribes. Sweet (personal 
communication) indicates the imminent erection of some additional 
tribes but these will not alter the disposition of genera treated in 
this paper. 

KEY TO GENERA OF AUSTRALIAN RHYPAROCHROMINI 

1. Lateral margins of pronotum gently convex 

and corium without a pale subapical spot 2 

Pronotum usually with lateral margins 
straight or concave; corium with a more 
or less distinct pale subapical spot 3 

2. Lateral carinae to pronotum narrow but 

distinct; corium brown with irregular 
ochraceous maculae ; scutellum without dis- 
tinct ochraceous marks apically Bosbequius Distant 

Lateral carinae to pronotum broad and 
expanded in middle; corium ochraceous 
with irregular brown maculae; scutellum 
with distinct ochraceous marks apically . . Elasmolomus StS.1 

3. Elongate insects with lateral margins of pro- 

notum lacking a distinct laminate carina; 

male genital capsule with a small tubercle Narbo Stal 

Robust insects, the pronotum with distinct 
lateral laminate carinae, although some- 
times rather narrow 4 

4. Basal half of the corium pale, apical half 

castaneous with a pale subapical spot; 
pronotal lateral carinae narrow; middle 
femora in male unarmed ; male genital cap- 
sule without a small tubercle; membrane 
if with pale spots then these basal Poeantius St&l 

Basal half of corium distinctly marked with 
castaneous ; pronotal lateral carinae 
usually broad and turned slightly dorsal; 
middle femora in male armed with small 
spines; male genital capsule with small 
tubercle; membrane if with pale spot then 
this apical Dieuches Dohrn 



GROSS \ND SCUDDER— AUSTRALIAN RHYPAROCHROMINI 439 

Bosbequius Distant 1903 
Bosbequius Distant 1903, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhynch. 2: 64. 

Head triangular, minutely punctate, and with antennal tubercles 
visible from above; clypeus extending well beyond paraelypeal lobes; 
antennae with stiff semierect hairs; first segment of antennae extend- 
ing beyond apex of head, second the longest; rostrum with first 
segment extending less than half way to base of head. 

Pronotiim wider than long; disc flat and without distinct trans- 
verse impression; lateral margins continued laterally as a laminate 
carina; lateral margins gently convex; posterior margin slightly 
eoncav&J disc in anterior half more or less impunctate; lateral and 
anterior margins and posterior part of pronotiim with distinct 
punctures. 

Scutellum longer than wide; basal half of disc slightly excavate; 
distinctly punctate. 

Fore femora incrassate and with small spines more or less along 
the whole length, terminal ones the most prominent; posterior tarsus 
with basal tarsomere longer than combined length of the two distal 
tarsomeres. 

TTemelytra without distinct and contrasting dark and pale mark- 
ings and without a distinct, pate subapical spot to corium; clavus with 
three or more rows of punctures; corium quite densely punctate. 

Type species: Bosbequius lotus Distant 190.3, from Tenasscrim, 

Bosbequius australis Distant 1918 
Plate 19, fig. A 
liosbcqmus australis Distant 1918, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist, (9)2: 260. 

Colour. Head brown-black with apex of clypeus slightly 
ferruginous; antennae pale ferruginous with first segment and apical 
parts of second and third brown; rostrum ferruginous. 

Pronotiim with anterior and lateral margins and lateral areas of 
posterior part, ferrugino-ochraeeous; rest of disc ferruginous, with 
anterior part brown black. 

Scutellum brown with apical part slightly ferruginous. Legs 
brown or dark ferruginous with tibiae and tarsi ferrugino-ochraeeous. 

TTemelytra ferruginous to dark brown with irregular ochraceous 
maculae, usually along apical margin of corium and near Cu; 
membrane fuscous with basal parts of veins and small spots near their 
apex, somewhat pale. 



430 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Venter dark ferruginous. 

Structure. Head finely punctate; antennal ratio 7: 22: 17: 20; 
rostrum reaching between fore and middle coxae. 

Pronotal width; Length, 48:34. Total length: 7 mm. 

Distribution: Queensland, Northern Territory. 

Australian records: N.W. Australia, Adelaide River, J. J. Walker 
(B.M,); Cape York, Coen, 19214922, W. McLennan (A.M.). 

Dieuches Dohrn 1860 
Dieuches Dohrn 18(10, Stett. ent. Z. 21: 160. 

Dieuches Stal 1872, Ofvers. Vetensk. Akad. Forh., Stockholm, (7): 58. 
Dieuches Stal 1871, K. Vetensk. Akad. HandL, 12(1): 161. 
Dieuches Seudder, 1962a, (Janad. Ent., !)4 (7) : 766. 
Ahauus Distant 11)09, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., (8)3: 493. 
Maxaphanus Distant 1918, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., (9)2: 265. 

Elongate robust insects; head and much of pronotum fuscous; 
head triangular with antennal tubercles clearly visible from above; 
eyes more or less touching anterior margin of pronotum; finely 
punctate; first antennal segment surpassing apex of head. 

Pronotum with lateral margin carinate, the carina laminate, often 
broad and usually upturned; disc usually with a distinct transverse 
impression near middle; distinctly punctate; posterior margin slightly 
concave. 

Scutellum usually longer than broad; distinctly punctate; with 
basal half of disc tint or slightly excavate; often with a vague ^-shaped 
elevation. 

Legs with fore femora moderately swollen and with subapical 
ventral spines; middle femora in male usually with small ventral 
spines; tibiae with stout outstanding setae; posterior tarsus with basal 
tarsnmere twice as long as the combined length of the two distal 
tarsomeres. 

Hemelytra distinctly marked with brown or black and ochraceous; 
usually with a distinct subapical pale spot to corium; membrane if 
with pale spots, then these apical; chivns with more than three rows 
of punctures; corium distinctly punctate. Venter fuscous; often with 
postero-dorsal corner of metapleurae, coxal covers and lateral spots 
on abdomen, ochraceous. Male genital capsule with a small ventral 
tubercle. 



GROSS and SCUDDER— AUSTRALIAN RHYPAROCHROMINI 431 

Type species: Dienches syriacus Dohrn, from Syria and the 
Mediterranean area. 

Dienches leucoceras (Walker) was recorded from Murray Island 
by Carpenter (1891): 139, 'one of the specimens from Murray Island 
seems to me to be identical with Walker's type from Ceylon, in the 
British Museum,' but it would appear that this record is based on a 
niisideiitification; we have seen no specimens of this species from this 
Island. 

KEY TO AUSTRALIAN AND NEW GUINEA SPECIES OF DIEUCHES 

1. Large insects; over 10 mm. in length; pro- 

notum conspicuously broad and with a 
raised central line posteriorly; Banks 
Island grandicus sp. nov. 

Smaller insects, usually under 9 mm. in 
length, if longer then pronotum not con- 
spicuously broad and with a raised 
central line posteriorly 2 

2. Dorsum and/or legs with long outstanding 

hairs 3 

Insects not hirsute, without long outstand- 
ing hairs 4 

3. Inner angle of pale subapical spot of 

corium, truncate consangimieus 

Distant 
Inner angle of pale subapical spot of 

corium, acute hirsutus sp. nov. 

4. Anterior two-thirds of pronotal lateral 

carinae white and often translucent, if 
black, then only extreme anterior part 
so coloured 5 

Anterior third to fifth of pronotal lateral 
carinae, black 11 

5. Elongate insects, with legs and antennae 

appearing long and slender; subapical 

pale spot of corium constricted in middle longicollis (Dallas) 
Insects not greatly elongate; legs and 
antennae not appearing conspicuously 
long and slender; subapical pale spot of 
corium not constricted in middle 6 



432 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

6. Inner angle of pale subapical spot of 

corium, truncate oceanicus (Distant) 

Inner angle of pale subapical spot of 
corium, not truncate 7 

7. Pronotum longer than wide, conspicuously 

constricted laterally and not conspicu- 
ously tapering anteriorly ; inner angle of 
corium with a pale triangular spot . . . torpidus sp. nov. 

Combination of characters not as above . . 8 

8. Pronotum with posterior lobe without pale 

markings or with a central pale streak 
and sometimes also one pale spot on 
each side of streak, near transverse 
impression 9 

Pronotum with posterior lobe with a central 
pale streak and two pale spots on each 
side; anterior margin of corium, seen 
from side without fuscous spots in basal 
half; sterna V and VI with pale lateral 
spots finitimus Van Duzee 

9. Anterior margin of corium, seen from side, 

without fuscous spots in basal half; 

dorsum of insect chocolate brown . . . . obscuripes (Walker) 

Anterior margin of corium, seen from side, 
with fuscous spots in basal half ; dorsum 
of insects rather black 10 

10. Anterior margin of corium, seen from side, 
with two pale spots in basal half and 
apically a large pale area coincident with 
pale subapical spot of corium, and the 
pale spot laterally on sternum V . . . . scutellatus Distant 

Anterior margin of corium, seen from side, 
with three pale spots in basal half and 
apically a large pale area coincident with 
the pale subapical spot of corium, and 
the pale spot laterally on sternum V . . enigmaticus sp. nov. 



GROSS \nd SCUDDER— AUSTRALIAN RHYPAROCHROMINI 433 

11. Inner angle of pale subapical spot of 

corium truncate or acute and continued 
to inner angle of corium through a 
fainter and generally more ochraceous 
spot; pronotal lateral carinae anteriorly 
rather narrow 12 

Inner angle of pale subapical spot of 
corium not truncate and not continued 
to inner angle of corium; pronotal 
lateral carinae not much narrower 
anteriorly 13 

12. Hemelytra reacliing almost to apex of 

abdomen notatus (Dallas) 

Hemelytra not reaching almost to end of 
abdomen, but leaving apical segments 
of abdomen exposed nudus sp. nov. 

13. Terminal segment of antennae completely 

black maculicollis (Walker) 

Terminal segment of antennae with basal 

part white distanti Bergroth 



Dieuches grandicus sp. nov. 

Plate 20, fig. A 

Head dark ferruginous brown; antennae ferrugino-ochraceous 
with whole of first segment, apex of second and third, and extreme 
base and apical half of fourth ferruginous brown; fourth antonnal 
segment with an ochraceous basal annulation; rostrum with first 
segment ferruginous brown, second and third rather ochraceous and 
fourth ferruginous with brown apex. 

Pronotum with lateral carinae in basal third brown black, in 
middle ochraceous and in anterior third pale ferruginous; disc dark 
ferruginous brown to black with pale markings posteriorly consisting 
of a very short median raised longitudinal line and an ochraceous spot 
each side situated near transverse impression; anterior margin of 
pronotum with two vague pale spots. 

Scutellum dark ferruginous brown to black with apex slightly pale 
and with two distinct lateral luteo-ochraceous spots. 



434 RFCORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Legs ochraeeous with coxae and most of femora dark ferruginous 
brown to black; tibiae fuscous; tarsi more or less ferrugino- 
oehraeootis, 

Hemelytra luteo-ochraceous with dark brown to black markings; 
clavns except for streak and fepfita at base, and corhim except for 
subapieal pale spot and four complete or broken streaks in basal half, 
dark brown to bhick; pale suhapienl spot to corium with inner ancle 
rather Obtuse, basal side slightly concave and apical side convex: 
membrane fuscous, the apex slightly pale. 

Abdominal sterna V and VI with lateral pale spots. Insects not 
hirsute. 

Antennal ratio 20: 44: 40: 40; rostrum reaching posterior coxae. 
Pronotum with broad lateral carinae; lateral margins convergent 
(interiorly and concave at level of transverse impression of disc; 
pronotal width : length, 60: 57. Hemelytra reaching apex of abdomen. 
Fore femora with seven or eight small spines and a single long spine 
ventrally in anterior row; middle femora of female with four small 
sotigerous spines. 

Total length female 10.4 mm. 

Type: Holof </}><• a female, Moa I., Torres St. (S.A.M.). Para- 
topes i 2 females, Moa, Banks I., Torres St., 18 December 1910, W. 
McLennan; 1 female, id., 17 December 1919 (A.M.). 

A species easily recognized by its size. Only D. ohsciiripes 
(Walker) is also known from this island and this latter species is 
oiilv about 7.5 mm. in length, is much narrower and on the posterior 
part of the pronotum, the pale central line is not conspicuously raised 

Dieuches consanguineus Distant 1904 

Plate 21, fig. B 

Dieuches consanguineus Distant 1904, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (7)13: 268. 

Head dark ferruginous brown with clypeus flavescent; antennae 
ferrugino-ochrnceous with apical part of first and third segments 
slightly fuscous; fourth segment with extreme base and apical $ dark 
brown, the rest ochraeeous to white; rostrum forrugino-oehraeeous. 

Pronotum with lateral carinae, except for extreme posterior 
corners ochraeeous; anterior part of disc dark ferruginous; posterior 
part of disc ochraeeous with punctures, humeral angles and patches 
I'.c'li side of mid-line, dark ferruginous. There is a very distinct line 



GROSS and SCUDDER— AUSTRALIAN RHYPAROCHROMINI 435 

of transverse punctures just behind collar and a faint longitudinal 
keel on both lobes. 

Scutcllum dark ferruginous brown with apex and two large lateral 
irregular spots luteo-ochraceons. 

Legs octiraceous with coxae and apical parts of femora dark 
brown; apex of tibiae and tarsi usually fuscous. 

Hemelytra oehraccous with dark ferruginous-brown markings; 
subapieal pale spot, to eorium distinct and with inner angle truncate, 
basal side concave, apical side convex; basal half of anterior margin of 
eorium, seen from side, completely pale; much of clavus, apical half 
of eorium and eorium adjacent to elaval suture, castaneous; membrane 
fuscous with apical pale spot; sterna V, VI and VII with lateral 
pale spots* Specimens occur which have (tie darker parts of pronotum, 
scutellum and hemelytra a deep chocolate with a velvet texture. 

Insects distinctly hirsute; dorsum with long upstanding hairs; 
femora with long- outstanding hairs. Antennal ratio IS; 33: 30: 33; 
rostrum reaching middle coxae. Pronotum with broad lateral carinae ; 
lateral margins convergent anteriorly and slightly coucave at level 
of distinct transversa impression of disc. Hemelytra, reaching tip 
of abdomen; fore femora with row of 11 12 short spines; middle 
femora with three or four short spines in male. Pronotal width: 
length, 45: 35. Total length 6.2-8.2 mm. 

Distribution : Australia. 

Australian record*; Queensland; Cooktown, 1939 J. L. Frben 
(Prague); 1 female, Almadcn, Chillagoe District N.Q., June-Sr.pt. 
1929 W. D. Cnmpbell (A.M.); 1 male, 1 IVmale, Ayr, S5 July 1954 
G\ Saunders (U.Q.); 1 male, attracted to light, Cnirns District A M. 

Laa; Birri, Morningtoii J., 8 May W$Q, P. Aitkea, N. B. Kiidate 

(S.A.M.); 1 female, Redlvnch, 14 Aug. 193$ B. & Wind (C.A.S.). 
Torres Straits: 1 male, Prince of Wfllea L, 21 Feb. 1939, R, ft Wind 
(C.A.S,). Northern Territory : Daly R. (G. Gh E. Srmddor, Vancouver) ; 
1 male, Staple ton, G. F. Hill; 1 female, Port Darwin: 3 males, 8 
females, 6 nymphs, Durum Botanic Gardens, 6 Jan. 1961 G. F. Gro 
1 female at light, Mitchell Street, Darwin 5 dan. 1061. G. F, Gross 
(S.A.M.); 6, Northern Territory Administration Grounds, Darwin, 21 
Sept 1056 L. I). Crawford; 1,* Darwin 8 Oct. 1956 L. I). Crawford 
(A.N.I.C). 

Similar to D. oreanicus (Distant) bat dorsum and femora with 
long outstanding hairs. 



436 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Dieuches obscuripes (Walker 1872) 
Plate 22, fig. D 

Rhyparachromus obscuripes Walker 1872, Cat, Hot. B.M. 5: 104. 

Rhyporochromiis ohscuripcs Carpenter 1891, Proc. R. Dublin Soe. 
1801: 139. 

Dkvclies obscuripes Distant 1901, Aim. Mag. nat. Hist. (7)8: 501). 

Head dark ferruginous; antennae ferrugiuo-oehraceous with apex 
of fourth segment dark brown; rostrum ferruginous with tip brown. 

IVonotum with lateral earinae ochraceous in middle and with 
extreme anterior and posterior parts fuscous; disc dark ferruginous 
with pale markings posteriorly consisting of a short longitudinal 
ni'dian streak and one pale spot, on each side near transverse 
impression. 

Scutellum dark ferruginous with apex and two lateral spots 
ochraceous. 

Legs ferruginous brown with base of middle and hind femora 

neh racoons. 

Hemelytra dark ferruginous with a distinct subapical ochraceous 
spot and in basal half, with anterior margin of corium pale and with 
three ochraceous spots in transverse series in middle of corium; 
elavus with a short basal ochraceous streak; subapical pale spot to 
corium with inner angle acute, basal side more or less straight and 
apical Bide slightly concave; basal half of anterior margin of corium, 
seen from side, without fuscous spots except for extreme base; apical 
margin of corium dark brown especially in anterior half; extreme 
apical angle luteous; membrane fuscous with a pale tip. 

Abdominal sterna V and VI with lateral ochraceous patches. 

Insects not hirsute; antennal ratio 14: 30: 31: 32; rostrum 
reaching middle coxae. Pronotum with broad lateral carinae; lateral 
margins slightly convergent anteriorly and slightly concave at level 
of transverse impression; pronotal width: length, 37: 33. Fore 
femora with nine small and one large spine ventrally in anterior 
row; middle femora of male with about six small spines basally. 
Hemelytra reaching tip of abdomen. Total length 7.4 mm. 

Distribution: New Guinea, Murray Is., Banks Is. 

Australian records: Moa, Banks Is., Torres St., 18 Dec. 1919 
W. McLennan (A.M.). 



GROSS and SCUDDER-AUSTRALJAN RHYPAROCHROMIN1 437 

Similar to D. fiititcmus Van Duzee but with posterior part of 
pronotwm with different colouration. 

There is an Australian series, many specimens of which approxi- 
mate, the tvpr of Aphanvs oceanicus Distant, but which are very 
close in certain details to obscunpes. They are very similar in shape 
and size and the pronotum is on the whole flatter than in the average 
Australian Dicuches. The large apical spot is somewhat truncate 
along the inner margin in extreme Northern and North Western 
examples (pi. 23, fig. Q) but tends to he more rounded on the interior 
margin in Outral Australian and Western examples (pi. 22, fig, C). 
In North Eastern examples, this large spot is narrower and very like 
a New (iuiiiriL example of obscuripes in the South Australian Museum. 

The South Australian Museum specimen from New Guinea and 
the Banks Island specimens of obscuripes both have the basal hall' 
of the corium almost devoid of prominent pale markings although a 
Pajnt pattern appears as a trace and seems to be pi the oceanicus 
type. Both specimens of obscuripes have only a single pale streak 
on the davus along the corial commissure. 

These Australian specimens are being provisionally kept distinct 
;is the next species, Dicuches oceanicus, but it may be that oceanicus 
is only a subspecies of obscuripes. All these specimens have two 
pale spots OB ftie clavus, the longer along the claval commissure and 
the shorter along the scutellar margin, and prominent pale markings 
in the basal half of the clavus. 

Dieuches oceanicus (Distant 1901) 
Plate 22, fig. and plate 23, fig. C. 
AphQMW oceanicus Distant 1901, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (7)8: 502. 
Dicvchrs oceanicus Scudder, 1962a, Canad. Ent., 94(7): 767. 

Head dark ferruginous brown; antennae dark ferruginous brown 
with basal half of seeond segment oclmn ^oiis and fourth segment with 
a sub-basal whitish ambulation: rostrum ferrugino-ochraceous with 
apes brown. 

Pronotum with lateral carinae ochraceous and with extreme 
posterior part fuscous and extreme anterior slightly ferruginous; 
disc dark ferruginous brown with pale markings posteriorly consisting 
Of a median longitudinal ochraeeous streak and two oehraceous spots 
on each side near transverse impression. 

Scut .ell urn dark brown with an apical and two lateral ochraceous 
spots. 



438 RECORDS Or THE S A, MUSEUM 

Uegg oehraceous with coxae and apical parts of femora dark 
brmvn; posterior tibiae ferruginous brown, 

Hrmelytra dark ferruginous brown and ochraceons; corium with 
8 distinct pale subajueal spot and basal half of eoriiua almost com- 
pletely pale; clavus with two short basal pale streaks; subapical spot 
of eorivm with inner angle truncate; basal side concave and apical 
side ftlfgbtly eoBV« ; basal half of anterior mar?;in of corium, seen 
from side without fuscmis spots; membrane fuseOttfi with pale apex. 

Thorncic vnilrr wi(h coxa I cowr? and posterior margin of meta- 
pleurne pale ferruginous : abdominal sterna V, VI and VTT with 
lateral onliracoous patehw, Som«tiin©J9 the colour pattern is moro 
varied than here described with more cream and castaneous colours 
in place of the usual darker colours. 

Insets not hirsnte; antenna! ratio 12: 27: 27; 28; rostrum 
reaching middle coxae. Pronotum generally rather flatfish and with 
broad lateral mar-ins convergent anteriorly and more or less straight; 
disc witli distinct transverse impression; pronotal width: length 42: 30. 

Fore femora with seven small and one large sulmpica! spine in 
antero-venlral n.w. TTemelyh-a reaching end of abdomen. 

Total fenffthi 7.8-8.5 mm, 

D is I rib U t iov : Ai j at ral 1 an , 

Australian rrmrds: Northern Territory; Indinda Well, 3 miles 




(S.A. Mas. Expod, Aug. 1930) (S.A.M.); Mt. Qlga, Sept. 1948 
Bechorvalso (N.M.). Queensland: Mt. Lsa, Feb. 1954 Lamberts; Ooen, 

14-2? May inrvi o. Ofee (N.M.) BMfiont Bead, Jan. 1927 Hale & 

Tllidafej Stewart If. Jan. -Feh. 1927. Hale & Tindale (8.A.M.); Ols^n 
OftW, Ji'K'khaniHon, <M. 1924, A, Mas-rave; Thartfomindah, Apr. 
1911 N. Geary; (\tenuont. Dr. K. K, Spence (A.M.) ; Torres St.: Prince 
rf Wales Is., 21 Nov. 1939 R G. Wind (C.A.S.). Western Australia 




Plate 22 fig. shows a dark example, plate 23 fig. C a chocolate 
coloured specimen from Darwin. 



GROSS and SCUDDER— AUSTRALIAN RHYPAROCHROMINI 4W 

Di euches hirsutus sp. nov. 
Plate 21, fig. C 

Head dark ferruginous brown; antennae dark ferruginous brown 
(colon* Of terminal segment unknown); rostrum ferruginous brown. 

Pronotum with lateral earinae dark brown anteriorly and 
posteriorly and ochraceous in centre; disc dark brown to black with 
pate marks posteriorly consisting of an ochraceous central streak and 
two pale spots on each side near transverse impression. 

Scvilellum dark brown to black with apex pale, no pale spots on 
disc* Lege with base of femora ochraceous: coxae and most of femora 
dark brown to black: tibiae dark ferruginous and tarsi ferruginn- 
<>r! i race ous, 

Hemdytra ochraceous with dark brown to black markings; 
clavus dark brown with a pale basal streak; corium dark brown with 
B pale subapical spot, three basal pale streaks and a pale central spot; 
SflbapieaJ pale spot with inner angle acute, basal side concave and apical 
side convex; membrane dark brown to black with apical third to half 
pale and with a luteous spot near apical angle of eoriuin and a lnteous 
spot nil base of inner curved vein. 

Abdominal sterna V and VI with lateral pale spots. 

Dorsum and legs with long outstanding hairs; antenna! ratio 
18: 3H: 35; 1] third antenna 1 segment thicker than second and both 
densely hirsute; rostrum reaching posterior coxae. Pronotum with 
broad lateral earinae; lateral margins convergent anteriorly and 
concave at level of transverse impression on disc; pronotal width: 
length, 4-7; 42. Pure femora with a long snbapical ventral spine. 

Total h'vglh: Female 10.0 mm. 

Ti/pc: Holotype female, Northern Territory, Darwin G. F. Hill 

(N.A.M.). 

Pnratypc: Female, same data (O. G. E. Scudder, Vancouver). 

hi general appearance similar to D. finitimus Van Duzee, but with 
distinct tip&tanding hairs on dorsum and on femora. 

Dieuches finitimus Van Duzee 1940 
Plate 24, fig. A 
Dieuches fiwtimus Van Duzee 1940, Pan-Pacif. Ent 16: 184. 
Dieuches finUhnvs Scudder 1958, Nat. Hist. Rennell Ts. ? B.S.L 2: 138. 



440 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Head dark ferruginous brown; antennae ferrugino-ochraceous 
with apical part of first three segments ferruginous; fourth antenna! 
segment with apical half dark brown and basal hall' luteo-ochraceous ; 
rostrum IVrruginouR with apex hrown. 

Pronotum with lateral carinae pale ochraceous with extreme 
anterior and posterior parts hrown to black; disc dark ferruginous 
brown to black with pale markings on posterior lohe consisting of a 
mitral longitudinal ochraceous streak and two ochraceous spots, on 
each side of streak near transverse impression. 

Scutelluni dark ferruginous brown to black with apical and two 
lateral luteo-ochraceous spots. 

Loj's ochraceous with coxae Mini apical half of femora dark brown; 
apical half of fore tibiae and most of middle and hind tibiae dark 
brown; tarsi I'errugino-ochraceous. 

Hemelytra ochraceous with dark brown markings; apical two- 
thirds of clavus, most ol' apical half of coviiim and basal half of corinm 
partially, dark brown; corium with a distinct transversely elongate 
subnpicn.1 pate spot, with inner angle somewhat acute, basal side 
slightly concave and apical Side convex; basal half of anterior margin 
on corium seen from side, without fuscous spots ami with apex 
slightly pale. 

Venter with postcro-dorsal corner of nietaplcurae ochraceous; 
abdominal sterna V, VJ and VII with lateral pale spots. 

ImeHs not greatly hirsute; antennal ratio 13: 28: 28: 30; rostrum 
reaching middle coxae. Pronotmn with broad lateral carinae; lateral 
margins convergent anteriorly and more or less straight; disc with a 
distinct transverse impression; pronotal width: length, 38: 30. 
ITemelytra almost reaching apex of abdomen. 

Total Icrif/llt: 7.4 mm. 

Distribution: Solomon Is., New Guinea, New Britain, and 
Australia. 

Australian records: Queensland: Alice River, Mjtiberg (Stock- 
holm); 1 male, Horn Is., 2 April 1940 E, G. Wind, 'Torres St..* 3 
males, 1 female, Prtlicfi of Wales Ib m 8 Nov. 1939 R. G. Wind; 3 males 
same data but 28 Nov. 108& (C.A.S.). The figure is based on a series 
Irom Misiraa Island, Louisiade Archipelago, collected by the Rev. 
II. K. Bartlett and in the S. A. Museum, 

Somewhat similar to D. obsenripes (Walker), but with two pale 
spots on each side of pale median streak on posterior lobe of 
pronotum, instead of just one on each side, as in obscuripes. 



GROSS and SCUDDER— AUSTRALIAN RHYPAROCHROMINI 141 

Dieuches torpid us sp. no v. 

Plate 24, fig. B 

Head dark brown with anterior part rather ferruginous; antennae 

ferruginous with fourth segment basally ochraceous and apically dark 

brown; rostrum ferrugino-ochnieeous with first segment and apical 

segment dark brown, 

L-ronotum with lateral carinae ochraceous, narrowly margined 
with black and posteriorly fuscous; disc dark brown with ferrugino- 
ochraceous markings posteriorly consisting of a short median long! 
tudinal streak and two spots on each side near transverse impression. 
Scutellum dark brown with apex and two obscure lateral spots, 
feiTugino-ochraceous. 

Legs ferruginous brown with base of middle and hind femora and 
middle and hind trochanters, ochraceous. 

Hemelytra dark brown and luteo-ochraeeous; curium with a 
subapical paid L-shnped spot and a O-shaped mark proximally; inner 
angle of corium with a pale triangular spot; basal half of eorium with 
anterior margin ochraceous and margined with dark brown, with a 
longitudinal streak and two spots on each side, in middle, and with 
two or three pale spots along claval suture; clavus with, a pale streak 
along basal party of suture margin and with an obscure ferruginous 
spot basally; basal half of anterior margin of corium, seen from side, 
with a median fuscous spot; membrane fuscous and with an obscure 
basal pale area. 

Venter with eoxal covers and postero-dorsal corner of meta- 
pleurae pale ferruginous; abdominal sterna IV, V, VI with distinct 
lateral ochraceous patches and sternum VII with indistinct pale spots 
laterally. Dorsum of insect not hirsute; antennal ratio 20-23: 34-38: 
35-37: 35-40, with third Segment thicker than fourth and densely 
covered with short semi-erect hairs; rostrum reaching middle coxae. 
Pronotum witli broad lateral carinae; lateral margins not convergent 
anteriorly, but deeply concave at level of transverse impression on 
disc; pronotal width: pronotal length, 38-46: 39-43, that is sometimes 
longer than broad. The longest ratio is 38-43 (in the type), the widest 
ratio is 40:40; these differences are due to differences in development 
of the wings. Scutellum with basal half deeply excavate, Fore 
femora with about eight small spines. Tlcmelytra with much of basal 
area and a subapical spot appearing " frosted M ; membrane reaching 
middle of tergiun VII but not beyond. 
Total length i 8,5 mm. 



442 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Type: Hnlotj/pr male, New Guinea, Madang, W. Lohe (S.A.M.). 

Allotype female, Finiadhhafea, Apkr. 1944 E. 8. Boss. Paratopes: 2 

males, Finschhafen, Apr. 1944; 1 male, 1 female, same loc, 20 Apr. 
1944; 2 females, same loc., 21 Apr. 1944; 1 male, same loc, 15 May 
1944, all E. S. Ross (C.A.S.). 

This species differs from obscuripes and all other specimens by 
the shape of the pronotum and the colour of the hemelytra. 

Dieuches scutellatus Distant 1904 

Plate 24, fig, C 

Dieuches scutellatus Distant 1904, Ann. Mag. nat Hist. (7)13: 268. 

Head black; antennae brown to black with a distinct whitish sub- 
basal annulation to terminal segment; rostrum ferruginous brown with 
black apex. 

Pronotum with lateral carinae ochraceous and with extreme 
posterior part black and anterior part obscurely fuscous; disc black 
with ferrngino-ochraceous markings posteriorly consisting of a short 
median longitudinal streak and one spot on each side near transverse 
impression. 

Scufellum black with apes ochraceous and with two lateral 
terriigino-ochraeenus spots. 

Legs brown to black with basal part of middle and I.ind femora 
ochraceous. 

Hemelytra ochraceous and dark brown to black; corium with a 
distinct subapical pale spot and in basal half with two pale spots on 
anterior margin and two pale spots near elaval suture; clavus with 
two short pale streaks; subapical pale spot of coriura with inner angle 
somewhat acute and with both basal and apical margins convex; basal 
half Of anterior margin of corium, seen from side, with a median 
fuscous spot and base black; membrane fuscous with a pale apex. 

Venter with postero-dorsal corner of metapleurae ochraceous; 
abdominal sternum V with distinct lateral ochraceous patch and 
sternum VI sometimes with an obscure ferrugino-ochraceous small 

spot laterally. 

Insects not hirsute; antenna] ratio 11: 25: 25: 28; rostrum 
reaching middle coxae. Pronotum with broad lateral carinae; lateral 
margins convergent anteriorly and concave at level with transverse 
impression of disc; pronotal Width: pronotal length, 42: 32. Fore 



GROSS and SCUDDER— AUSTRALIAN RHYPAROCHROMINI 443 

femora with lour or five short spines in anterior row. Ilemelytra Jus! 
reaching apex of abdomen. 
Total Icnijth- 7.3 mm. 

Distribution'. Australian and possibly New Guinea, 
Australian records: North-western Australia: — Derby, Kirnberley 
District and Noonkanbah, Mjoberg (Stockholm); Flora Valley Stn., 
12 Oct. 1953 N. B. Tindale (G. G. E. Seudder, Vancouver). Onslow, 
Nov. 1955 Ei T. Smith; North-west Australia, from C. French ,In. 
Collection (N.M.). Central Western Australia: 3, Pilgangoorn, 5, 6 
& 9 May 1953 N. B. Tindale; Tambrev, 24-26 July 1958, F. J. Mitchell 
(S.A.M*) Tanihrev Stn., 28 July 1958 R. P. McMillan (W.A.M.). 
Northerji Territory: 2, Katherine, 20 Sept. 1953, G. F. Gross; 2, 
Tennauts Ck. J. K. Field; Finke R., MacDonnell Ranges, Capt. S. A. 
White; Macdonald Downs, S.A. Museum Exped. Aug. 1930; TIaast 
Bluff Stn., 2,000 feet, 62° F,, at mercury vapour light, N. B. Tindale 
(S.A.M.), Queensland: Laura and Alice River, Mjoberg (Stockholm), 
Townsville Distr. (SA.M.) ; 2, Almaden f Chillagoe, 10 Oct & Oct.-Nov. 
1927, W. D. Campbell (A.M.), South Australia: Madigan Gulf, L. 
Eyre, 5 Nov. 1955, at light, E. T. Giles (G. G. B. Scudder, Vancouver). 

Similar to D. distunti Bergroth, but with anterior part of lateral 
pronotal carinae pale instead of broadly black anteriorly. A very 
variable species; the hind lobe disc of the pronotum is generally 
black or concolorous with the disc of the fore. lobe. However examples 
occur with the fore lobe black on the disc and the hind lobe chocolate. 
Several examples also have three colours on the corium, black or deep 
brown, ochraceous and luteous; such an example is figured. 

Dieiiches enigmaticus sp. no v. 

Plate 21, fig. D 

Head brown-black; antennae ferrugino-ochraceous w r ith apical 
part of segments fuscous, the fourth segment quite brown with a basal 
pale annulation; rostrum with basal segment brown, other segments 
ferrugino-ochraceous. 

Pronotum with lateral carinae pale except for extreme posterior 
corner; disc brown-black with three spots posteriorly near transverse 
impression. 

Scutellnm brown-black with an apical and two lateral pale spots. 

Legs ochraceous with apical part brown-black and with a distinct 
pale subapical spot; subapical spot to corium with inner angle rather 



444 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

obtuse and sides convex ; basal half on anterior margin of corium seen 
from side, with three or four fuscous spots; membrane fuscous with 
tip pale. 

Abdominal sterna V and VI with lateral pale spots. Pore femora 
and mid femora in male with a row of short spines beneath, hind 
femora with several fine spines. 

Anterior lobe of pronotum, scutellum, and a long patch on head 
between eyes, finely punctate. 

Total length: 7-8 mm. 

Tt/jte: Northern Australia, Marrakai Stn., 28-31 July 1929 
I. M. Maekeras & T. G. Campbell (A.N.I.C.). Paratopes: 1 female, 
Western Australia, Wyndbam, 4 Oct. 1929 T. G. Campbell; 1 female, 
Western Australia, Wyndham, 16-28 Feb. 1931 H. J. Willings; 1 male, 
Monte Bello Is., Trimouille Is., Cocoa Beach, 10 Nov. 1953 T. G. 
Campbell (A.N.LC). 

Similar to D. acutdlatus Distant, but slightly smaller and with 
basal half of anterior margin of corium, seen from side, with more 
than a single fuscous spot. 

Dieuches distant! Berg roth 1916 

Plate 22, fig. B 

Dieuches distanti Bergroth 1916, Proc. Hoy. Soc. Vict, (n.s.) 29: 10. 

Head dark brown to black; antennae dark ferruginous to brown, 
the fourth segment with a basal pale angulation ; rostrum ferruginous- 
oehraceous with apex brown, 

Pronotum with lateral carinae pale only in middle; disc dark 
brown to black, the posterior part with a short median pale longi- 
tudinal streak and usually one pale spot on each side. 

Scutellum dark brown to black; sometimes with apical and lateral 
pale spots. 

Legs ochraceous with coxae and apical part of femora dark brown 
to black; tibiae fuscous; apex of tarsi brown. 

Hemelytra ochraceous with apical half of clavus and corium dark 
brown to black, the latter with a distinct pale subapical spot; subapical 
pale spot of corium with inner angle obtuse, and with both basal and 
apical sides convex; basal half of anterior margin of corium, seen in 
side view, with a single fuscous spot; membrane fuscous with an 
apical pale spot. 



GROSS and SCUDDER— AUSTRALIAN RHYPAROCHROMIN1 445 

Abdominal sterna V and VI with lateral pale spots. 

Insects not distinctly hirsute; antennal ratio 14: 30: 32: 33; 
rostrum reaching middle, coxae. Pronotuni with broad lateral carinnc; 
lateral margins convergent anteriorly and more or less straight; disc 
with transverse impression; pronotal width: length, 4J'»: 32. Fore 
femora with seven to nine short spines in anterior row; middle femora 
in male with six or seven spines, the basal tour longer than apical 
ones, Uemelytra just reaching tip of abdomen. 

DistribiiiiiiN : Northern Australia. 

Australian records: Western Australia :— Pilgangoora Well, 8 
June 1958 N. B, Tindale (G. G. E. Scudder, Vancouver). Pilgangoora, 
5 Apr. 1953 N. B. Tindale: Mcekathara-Billiluna Pool, Canning Stock 
Route Expedition, Apr. 1930-Aug. 1931 (S.A.M.), Northern Terri- 
tory; Areyonga, LS58 A. G. Woolcock; Finke (Crossing, 1933, J. W. 
Rose (S.A.M.). Queensland: Mt. Tsa, Jan. 1954 Lamberts (N.M.); 
Clermont, Dr. K. K. SpetlQe (A.M.). 

In general appearance similar to D> oceavicus (Distant) but with 
anterior part of pronotal carinae distinctly and broadly fuscous 
Instead (A white 

Dieuchcs maculieollis (Walker 1872) 
Plate 22, iig. A 
Rhi/parochrotHns maa<Hc<.>Hts Walker 1872, Cat. Het. B.M. 5: 111. 
Dii'iulies atricornis Stal 1874, K. svenska. Vetensk. Akad. tlandl. 

12(1): Uil. 
DlewhSB miuul'ir.ollis Distant 1901, Ann. Mag. nat, Hist. (7)8: 508- 
Dtriichrs wacvhcollis Scudder 1962a, Can ad. Ent., 94(7): 7(>7. 

Head, rostrum and antennae, including fourth antennal segment, 
dark brown to black. 

Pronotuni with lateral carinae dark brown to black on anterior 
and posterior thirds and ochraceous in middle; disc dark brown to 
black with posterior pale markings consisting of a short median 
longitudinal streak and two ochraceous spots on each side near 
transverse impression. 

Scutellum dark brown to black with apical angle ochraceous and 
with two lateral pale spots. 

Legs dark brown to black with base of femora and trochanters of 
second and third pairs of legs only ochraceous. 



446 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Heme ly Ira ochraceous and dark brown or black; clavus dark with 
a basal pale streak; ooriBJa with a subapical pale spot and basal half 
with anterior margin pale and with four or five pale spots; snbapical 
pale spot of coriiun with inner angle more or less acute and hasal and 
apical sides convex; basal half of anterior margin of coriiun, seen 
from side, wit bout fuscous spots; membrane opaque yellowish with 
basal and apical margins broadly dark brown. 

Venter with postero-dorsal corner of metapleurae ochraceous; 
abdominal sternum V laterally with distinct ochraceous spot and 
sternum VI laterally with obscure small ferruginous spots. 

trisects not hirsute; anlennal ratio 12: 25: 27; 30; rostrum 
reaching middle coxae. I'ronotnm with broad lateral carinae; lateral 
margins hardly convergent anteriorly and more or less straight, - 
pnmnfnl width: length 33: 29; disc with distinct transverse impression' 
ami with anterior lobe distinctly convex. Fore femora with live or 
six small spines and one or two large subapical spines. Hcmelytra 
almost reaching apex of abdomen. 

Tula!, length: 6.6 mm. 

Distribution : Australia. 

Australian records: Queensland :—l female, Nangram Lagoon, 
12 m. E & ;; ni. N of < Vuidamino, 16 Aug, l!)f»4 R, A. Stirton (C.A.S.1 ; 
2 males. Somerset Dam, 24 Oct. 1953 T.F.W.; Deception Bav, 
46 March 1954 Y. P. Ben; Brisbane, Feb. 1954 N. J. Thompson (U.Q.j ; 
Gum.amulla, 1, 17 Dec. 1940, 2, Oct. 1941, 1, Nov. 1941 X. Gearv (A.M.): 
New South Wales: Sydney, Apr. 1931 K. K. Spence; Co„iu, Dec. 1951 
ft Freeman {AM.). Australian Capital Territorv: Molomrolo, 4 
Apr. 1^30 L. Graham (A.N.I.O). Victoria: Mildora, Feb. 1955 
C. Flynn (U.Q.), 5, Kerang, 28-30 Apr. 1946 R.F.T.; Redcliffs, 
Planted IS Apr. 1925 A. S. Cudmill (N.M.). South Australia: 
Adelaide distr., Mar. 1920 W. E. Hodson; Prospect, 5 Aug. 1954 G F. 
Gross (GG. E. Scudder, Vancouver); 2, same data; Prospect, 22 
Mar. 1952 G. F. Gross; Prospect, 6 Sept. 1952 G. F. Gross; 7, Highgate, 
23 July l!J59 E. C. Lindsay; Wild Horse Plains 10-16 Apr. 1956 
C. .1, Martm; Upper Areoona Ok., Gammon Ranges, 16 Sept. 1956 
G F. Gross; Italowie Gorge, 30 Oct. 1955 EL T. Giles; no locality 
Mar. 1921 (S.A.M.). At roots of vine, Barossa Valley, 2 Apr. 1949 

A species easily recognized by the completely black terminal 
segment to the antennae and black bases of the fore femora. 



GROSS and SCUDDER— AUSTRALIAN RHYPAROCIIROMINI 447 

Dieuehes notatus (Dallas 1852) 

Plate 23, fig. A 

Rhuparochrumiis notatus Dallas 1852, List. Hem. B,M. 2: 569. 

Dieuehes noialvs Stal 1874, K. svenska Vetensk. Mad. Handl. 12(1) : 
1G1. 

Head dark brown to black with two small ferruginous spots on 
vertex on level with anterior margin of eyes; antennae dark brown to 
black with a basal ochraceous annulation to fourth segment; rostrum 
ferruginous to dark brown. 

Pronotum witli lateral margin dark brown to black in anterior 
and posterior thirds and ochraceous in middle; disc on anterior half 
black; posterior half of disc ochraceous with fuscous punctures, with 
humeral angles black and with four longitudinal fuscous streaks. 

Seutellurn black with apex ochraceous and with two lateral 
feiTiigino-ochraceons Spots. 

Legs ochraceous with coxae and most of femora dark brown to 
black; lore and middle tibiae with apex and base fuscous, the hind 
tibiae more or less completely ferruginous to dark brown; tarsi with 
apical part of tarsomeres fuscous, the posterior tarsi almost corn 
pletely dark ferruginous. 

Hemelytra ochraceous with ferruginous and dark brown to blade 
markings; clavus witli punctures and irregular intervening areas 
ferruginous, the extreme base black; corium with a distinct pah/ sub- 
apical spot, apical margins and an almost complete transverse band, 
black; basal half of corium with punctures and streaks dark 
ferruginous brown; subapical pale spot to corium if continued to 
inner angle of corium then with inner angle of spot acute, if not 
continued to inner angle of corium then with inner angle of spot 
truncate; basal margin of spot slightly concave, the apical margin 
Straight; basal half of anterior margin of corium, seen from side, 
without fuscous spots; membrane completely fuscous. 

Abdominal sterna V, VI, and V 11 with lateral pale spots. 

Insects not hirsute; antennal ratio 15: 27: 27: .'S4; rostrum 
reaching middle coxae. Pronotum with lateral carinae very narrow 
towards anterior; lateral margins strongly convergent anteriorly and 
slightly concave at level of transverse impression of disc; pronotal 
width: length 88: 33, Pore femora with about six small and one large 
ventral spine. Hemelytra almost but not quite reaching apex of 
abdomen. 



448 RECORDS OF THF S.A. MUSEUM 

Total length, i 0.9-8 mm. 

Distribution: Australia, Tasmania, Lord Howe Island, and New 
Zealand. 

Australian records* Queensland: — 13, Brisbane, Mar. 1957 J. EL 
Martin; same lot-., 10 Feb. 1951 M. Carpenter; same Inc., 8 June 1951 
J. Donnicad; same toe, Aug'. 1955 N. J. Thompson; same loc, 3 Mar. 
1956 S. Sckon; Lawes, 20 Feb. 1956 W. F. William; Tambo, 18 Ang. 
1955 B. R. Grant; Mbore, Jan. 1951 Upset! ; Beaudesert, 5 Jan. 1954 
R. E. Harri.sdii; BtaUthotpc, 1 June 195(1 J. Bonner (CO.): same Inc.; 
Dalbv, Mrs. F. H. Gobbler; Mt. Tambourine, A. M. Lea; Cnnnaraulla. 
H, Hardcastle (S.A.M.); same loc, <>t. 1941 N. Geary; Miles, 10 Jan! 
1939 N. Geary; Olsen's Cavos, Rockhanipton, Oct. 1924 A. Musgrave; 
Roekhnmpton, Oct, 1926 A. Musgrave; Warwick, Sept. 1947 Mrs. 
Miller, (A.M.) 1 male, 5 females, Roma, 5 Aug. 1954 R. A. Stirton; 
1 male, TaJoona Stn., 48 miles north of Roma, 6 Aug. 1954 R. A. 
BtirtOlJ (O.A.S.). New Smith Wales: Cnnnwindra 7 Jan. 1955 F. E. 
Wilson (S.A.M,) CaWweU 30 Dec 1951, V. Robb; Deniliqnin, 1914 
B. Reeves (N.M.) 5, Bombala, 4 Mar. L931 Rev. A. J. Barret; Bogan 
River, Sept, 19.'!1 J. Armstrong; same loc. & collector, nu date; Nyngan 
7 Apr. 1931 J. Armstrong; Hnrnsby, (',. Gibbons; Sydney, 24 May 
1925 W. W. Froggatt (A.M.); Sydney, ridge between Mossman's Bay 
and Middle Harbour J. Langhana (G. G. E. Semhler, Vancouver); 

4, Gnnue.lah, 83 An- 1959 A. Dyce; 2, Pilliga, 1525 W. W. Fro^alt; 

5, Forbes, 20 May 1925 and 24 Mav 1925 W. W. Fro Ui -att; Tweeil R. T 
17 .Inly 1904 W. W. Froggatt: Cooiibah, 20 Oct 1905 W. W. Froggatt; 
nr. Bourke, 26 Oct. 1949 S. J. IViramanov (A.N.l.C). Australian 
Capital Territory; 3, Canberra, Jan. & May 1930 J. Evans (A.N.l.C.). 
Victoria: Brm.awn, W. F. Bill (S.A.M.) 10, Studlev Park, 2 Aug. 
1923 J. E. Dixon ; 3, Kerang, 2 May, 25 Aug., 3 Oct. 1946 R E. Tillvard; 
KedclilTs, 18 June 1923 A. S. Oudinorc; Fern Tree Gully, ,1. E. Dixon; 
loc,?; (N M.) Melbourne (Stockliobn). Tasmania: :', (on-- fl nvmph), 
E. point of Babel 1., 16 Mar. 1900 T. G. Campbell (A.N.l.C); 
Launceston (S.A.M.). South Australia: 2, Whyalla, 16 & 23 Aug. 
1947 D.S. (N.M.); Uuderdale, 18 Jan. 1959 G. F. Gross (G. G. E. 
Scuclder, Vancouver) ; 2, same loc & collector, 1 & 21 Jan. 1959; Fulbam 
Gardens, Jan. 1959 G F. Gross; "Knrlge", Blackwood, 850ft.. at 
mercury vapour light, 84° F„ 27 Feb. 1957 N. B. Tinrlale; Blackwood. 
13 Dec, 1959 M. Kenny; Mylor, 5 May 1948 G. F. Gross; 2, Coomawlook, 
4 June 194S G. F. Gross; 2, Maitland, E. R. Waite; Ctirrnmulkn, 3 
Dec. 1954, G. F. Gross; Kielpa, Aug. 1958, P. W. Greenfield; Nth. End, 



GROSS and SCUDDER— AUSTRALIAN RHYPAROCHROMINI 449 

Pt. Lincoln, 20 Nov. 1957 M. Garrick (S.A.M.). Western Australia: 
2, Warren Biver, W. D. Dodd (S.A.M.); Lord ITowe L, 2, A. M. Lea 
(S.A.M.). 

The species is also represented by a series of six specimens from 
New Zealand collected amongst litter on the ground at P.D.P. 
Owairaka, Auckland, 19 May 1960 Mrs. B, M. May (Plant Diseases 
Division, D.S.T.R.). 

A distinct species recognized by the slightly brachyptcrous 
condition, the verv mmw pronotal carinae, usually pale truncate 
inner angle to spot on curium subapically, and the two ferruginous 
spots on vertex. 

Dieuches nudus sp. nov. 
Plate 23, fig. B 

Similar to D. vofatus (Dallas) but with head lacking the pale 
spots; with a narrower pale annulation to fourth antennal segment; 
with antennal ratio 18j 35: 32: 38; pronotal lateral carina- broad 

anteriorly and Dpt distinctly narrowed; lateral margins of pronotum 
not distinctly convergent anteriorly and more or less straight; 
posterior hail' of pronotal disc more or less completely pale and 
without fuscous markings except on humeral angles; eorium without 
distinct fuscous markings except in apical half ; inner angle of subapical 
pale spot to eorium always truncate; hemclytra reaching only onto 
lorgum VI and not beyond; fore femora in both sexes with two 
prominent spines, one near apex, and a series of smaller spines. 
Venter with coxal covers and posterior margin of rnetapleurae pale. 

Total Inu/fh : Male 7.7 mm., female 8.5 mm. 

Loc. Hulotupr male, WTiittata, Andamooka Ranges, South Aus- 
tralia, 22 Aim. 1948 G. F. Gross (S.A.M.). Allot ype female, Whynlla, 
South Australia, 7 Sept. 1947 D.S. (N.M.). Paral)!,ies'. South Aus- 
tralia:— 2 females, Whittata, Andamooka Ranges, 20 Aug. 1948 G. F. 
Gross; 1 female, same loc, 22 Aug. 1948 G. F. Gross; 1 male, 
Andamooka Ranges, Ang.-Sept. 1948 G. F. Gross; Leigh Clc, (S.A.M.) 
4 males. .'! females, Ooldea, July 1921 J. A. Kershaw (N.M.) 1 male, 
2 females, sumo data (G. G. E. Scnddcr, Vancouver). Victoria: 1 
male, 2 females, Kewell, Nov. 1892 (N.M.). Western Australia: 2 
males, Olampton 4(1—1922 & 1»23 (W.A.M.). Northern Territory: 
Double Punch Bowl, Henbury, 15 Oct. 1953 G. F. Gross (S.A.M.). 



4 -™ RECORDS OF Till S.A. MUSEUM 

Dicuchcs longicullis (Dallas 1852) comb. nov. 
rthyparorliroHins loufiicolIU Dallas 1852, List. Hem. B.M, 2: 570. 

Plato 19, figs. B, C 
The badly damaged type of U,is Bp6m.es is said to come from 
Australia bill, we have seen no other specimens from bore. In the 
Pan* Museum is a female specimen purported to be the same Species 
irom .Sumatra (Padan.o). and in the South Australian Museum is a 
male trom Timor which appears to have the necessary characteristics 
ol I he speeies, but IS at first sight rather different i'u appearance |o 

the Sumatran specimen. 

A close comparison of the basic elements of fehfi colour pattern 
ol. the Sumatran and the Timor examples suggests that the- two mav 
he the same species. A comparison of various dimensions in com- 
parison to one measurement (the total length.) adjusted to the same 
value (1,000) gives a close correlation, except that the Timor example, 
has a much shorter rostrum; we are of the opinion that these are 
the same species. Mr. R. I///ard of the British Museum kindly 
supplied a similar set of measurements from (he head ami thorax of 
the type (all that remains) in the British .Museum. These measure- 
ments do not. agree as closely, especially in that the thorax is longer 
than Wide, whereas in the other Ivra it [« wider than Ion- Neverthe- 
less as the one species appears to Occur with fair differences from 
opposite ends of (he Indonesian Archipelago it seems reasonable that 
an Australian race of the same species would he more divergent. 
The Sumatran and Timor examples are therefore considered to be 
probably races of the Australian lovlgicolUs and both are figured 
(Timor plate 10 fig. B; Sumatra plate 19 fig, C). 

The actual measurements considered in the comparison were:— 

Eztimpk Sumatra Timor •/■„,„. 

Measurement ,. '.' ,. . 

i wu * i o , t (Australia. 

Length Antenna] Segment J . ; , , , Hiilmm. I -01 mm. mfesfna 

Length Antenna ^nimtll. 2-38,,...,. ,.«,„„. ^to* 

Length Antenna Segment III . 2- 19mm. l-63mm. mU n t 

Length Antenna! Segment IV. BfaSng 2 . 38lnm . ™J 

Length Rostra Sermon t 1 l-23 n „n. -63mm. H 0„,m 

Length Rostra Segment IT l-Sllim. OSlmm. l-OTmrn 

Length Rostral Segment III ... I 10mm. 0-69mm. 1 *uEua 

Length Rostra] Segment. IV 0-63mm. 0-34mm f 

Length of heart l-aimm. M6mm. 

Unit, ,of _hearl across eyes .... l-30mru. 1 10mm. |.(iOmm 

w-^'% °. tUm '• 88n,m - ,,i3 '» m - MSnta 

Total Math n ^ 'i^ mm - l84m ™' *80n,m.' 

Total Length 9-18mm. 7-86mm. epp. 10-flmm. <r.,l,-. 

from Dallas' tjjfojd 
length) 



GROSS and SCUDDER— AUSTRALIAN RHYPAROCHROMINI 451 

The adjusted measurements for closer comparison are: — 

Example Sumatra Timor Type^ 

Factor Eyepiece Eyepiece IzzarJ's 

Divisions Divisions Eyepiece Divisions 

X0'734 XO-63 Xl-05 
Measurement 

Length Antennal Segment I .... . 142 129 mining 

Length Ante nnal Segment IT ... . 260 230 missing 

Length Antennal Segment 111 240 230 miaawg 

Length Antennal Segment IV — missing 302 mi^ 

Length Rostral Segment 1 132 90* 133 

Length Rostral Segment II 143 103* Ixg 

Length Rostral Segment 111 128 »7* I 808 

Length Rostral Segment IV OS 41* J 

Length of head 142 L48 Jg 

Width of head across ev*» 142 150 VjS 

Length of pronot-.um 202 206 Z7»* 

Width of pronotum 243 233 2b9* 

Total Length 1,000 1 ,000 1 .000 

Measurements which arc noticeably divergent from the other two are marked *. 

The description of the species given here is based on the Snmatran 
and Timor examples. 

Head black; antennae black with an ochraceous ^ sub-basal 
annulation to fourth segment; rostrum brown to black with second 
segment ochraceous. 

Pronoliun with lateral carinae ochraceous; disc black with two 
luteous spots on anterior margin or absent (Timor example) and 
posterior part with luteous or ochraceous markings consisting of a 
pale spot on transverse impression laterally, a median longitudinal 
narrow streak and a pale streak on each side, sometimes divided into 
anterior and posterior spots. 

Scutellum black with apex luteous and with two lateral luteous or 
fcrrugino-oohraceous spots. 

Legs ferrugirio-ochraceous with base of femora and trochanters 
ochraceous; apical part of femora dark brown to black; base and apex 
of tibiae fuscous. 

Hemclytra ochraceous and dark brown to black; clavus fuscous 
with scuteliar and commissure margins narrowly pale and with a pale 
streak emitted from base; corium with most of anterior margin pale 
and with a pale subapical spot, the latter constricted in middle; base 
of corium witb a long streak and a spot near claval suture, the streak 
often incomplete; another streak between this and the luteous exterior 
margin with a spot on either side behind level of apex of scutellum, 



452 RECORDS OF THE S.A MUSEUM 

the outer spot continuous with the pale costal margin. Membrane 
fuscous and without a pale apical spot. 

Venter with lateral parts of sterna V to VII predominantly and 
narrowly pale. 

Dorsum of insect non-hirsute; elongate insect with relatively 
long legs and aatemia&j rost rum reaching to or almost to hind coxae. 
Pronotum appearing rather elongate, lateral carinae broad and 
distinct ; lateral margins convergent anteriorly and slightly concave; 
disc with distinct transverse impression behind middle. Fore femora 
(female) with about eight small and a large subapical spine ventrally 
in anterior row; middle femora with five or six small spinas 
IfcMnelvtra reaching to, but not beyond middle of tergum VIT. 

T6M Innjlli: 7,040.5 mm. 

Distribution: Sumatra, Timor and Australia. 

Specimen* seen: 1 female Sumatra, Padang (Paris Museum); 
1 male Uato Lari, Portuguese Timor, 19 May 1959 I. B. Ffceytae 
(S.A.M.). * * * 

This species is easily recognized by relatively long legs, antennae 
and general appearance and by the constricted pale subapical spot to 
the eorium. The species is rather similar to Narbo biplagiatus 
(Walker), but may be distinguished by having distinct laminate lateral 
carinae to the pronotum. 

Elasmolomus Stal 1872 
Elasviotomvs Stal 1872, Of vers. Vetensk. Akad. Forh. 1872 (7) : 58. 
Elasmolomus Stal 1874, K. svenska Vetensk. Akad. Ilandl. 12(1): 160. 
Aphanus Barber 1958 (nrr Ln Porte), Insects of Micronesia 7(4): 21& 
( Elongate oval insects; head triangular with antennal tubercle 
visible from above; eyes more or less in contact with anterior margin 
of pronotum; finely punctate; antennae with first segment exceeding 
apex of head. 

Pronotum wider than long with anterior half of disc dark brown 
or black and posterior half pale with fuscous punctures: disc some- 
times with a median transverse impression, but lateral margin <>f 
pronotum with a distinct laminate carina and gently convex through- 
out .; posterior margin slightly concave; distinctly punctate with 
punctures on anterior half of disc smaller than those on posterior part. 



GROSS and SCUDDER— AUSTRALIAN RHYPAROCHROMINI 453 

Scutellum longer thai) wide; dark brown with an apical V-shaped 
pale mark; distinctly punctate; basal half of disc shallowly excavate. 

Leg's with fore femora moderately swollen and with a few small 
ventral well spaced spines; tibiae with distinct outstanding stout 
setae; posterior tasi with basal tarsomere more than twice combined 
length of the two distal tarsomeres. 

Hemelytra pale with brown mottling and punctures, the anterior 
margin with a distinct fuscous bar in apical half and with apical angle 
fuscous; clinus with more than three rows of punctures; corium rather 
densely punctate; apex of membrane just reaching or almost reaching 
tip of abdomen. 

Venter dark brown with coxal covers and postero-dorsal corner of 
inetapleurae pale; sterna laterally usually with pale spots. 

Type species: Cimex sordidus Fabricius 1787. 

Key to Australian species of Elasmolomus. 

1. Over 6.5 mm.; pronotal disc with distinct 

transverse impression sordidus (Fab.) 

Under 6.5 mm.; pronotal disc without a distinct 
transverse impression 2 

2. General colour brown or ferruginous, 6-6.5 mm. 

\ omr papuanus (Diet.) 

General colour black, 5.5-6 mm. long v-album (St&l) 

Elasmolomus sordidus (Fab. 1787) 
Plate 21, fig. A 
Cimex sordidns Fabricius 1787, Mant. 2: 302. 
Ltjpaeus sordidus Fabricius 1794, Ent. Syst 4: 164. 
Li!<Hicvs sordidus Fabricius 1803, Syst. Rhynch.: 231. 
Rhffporochrnnivs sordidus Dallas 1852, List. Hem. B.M. 2: 566. 
Beosua sordidus Stal 1868, Hern. Fabr. 1: 78. 
PdchviHcrus (Elasmolomus) sordidus Stal 1874, K. Vet. Akad. Handl. 

12(1): 161. 
Aphanus sordidus Distant 1903, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhynch. 2: 79. 
Aphanus I iff oralis Distant 1918, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (9)2: 262. 
Aphanus sordidus Hoffmann 1932, Lingnan J. Sci. 11(1) : 130. 
Aphanus HUoralis Corby 1947, Bull. ent. Res. 37: 611. 



4M RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Aphanus liitoralis Lindberg 1058, Comment, biol Hclsingf. 19(1): 66. 

AphrwHs sordidus Barber 1958, Insects of Micronesia 7(4): 216. 

Head dark brown; antennae oehraeeous with a few spots at apex 
of first segment, apical parts of S0GOBd and third, and apical half of 
Hh, dark brown; rostrum ferrugino-oehraceous with apex dark 
brmvn. 

Pronotum UdliraOQOllS with auterior hall' of disc and punctures, 
dark brown J lateral earinae and posterior part df pronotum 
rjchracoOUS, tie; extreme posterior part of earinae fuscous, and the 
anterior part of earinae also sometimes fuscou 

Scnlellum dark iin-wii with apical half with a more or less distinct 
broad oehraeeous V-shaped area and with fuscous punctures. 

Legs oehraeeous with apical half to third with two fuscous annula- 
Hon*, these sometimes united; apex of tibiae and tarsi frequently 
fuscous. Ilemolytra, like posterior part of pronotum, oehraeeous 
w r ith fuscous punctures and with odd and irregular brown maculae; 
membrane with brownish maculae and with tip rather pale. 

Antennal ratio 15: 31: 30: 31; rostrum reaching middle coxae. 
Fore femora ventrally with an anterior and posterior row of five or 
six small spiurs; fore tibiae of male with two small blunt projections 
nn apical hall*. Pronotal width: length, Rh 38; disc of pronotum 
with a distinct transverse impression. 

Total tenfjth: 7.7-9,2 mm. 

Distribution! Throughout the tropical regions of the Eastern 
Hemisphere, Specimens seen from Cape Verde Is., Senegal, Guinea, 
Und<i<piez Ts., Nigeria, Blue Nile, Sudan, Tanganyika, S. India, Indo- 
China, Laos, Bengal, Burma, Assam, Ceylon, Hong Kong, China, 
Malay Archipelago, Philippine Is., Okinawa, S. Mariana Is., Sumatra, 
Molin ra:-., N. Australia. 

Australian records: Northern Territory :— 13, C.S.LR.O. Experi- 
mental Station, Katherine, Mar. 1951 W.Anidt; 2, Kafhorine, 18 
Apr. 1956 L. D. Crawford; 4, Berrimah, N.T., 30 Aug. 1956 L. D. 
Crawford; L, N.T.A. grounds, Darwin, 29 Sept. 1986 L. D. Crawford 
(A.N.l.C); Darwin Botanic Gdns., 6 Jan. TOfil G. F. Gross (S.A.M.). 
The "Waite- Agricultural Research Institute in Adelaide is now main- 
taining an experimental colony of this species originating from a 
series from Katherine, N.T., taken Hi July 1960, collected by P. W. M. 

Our friend and colleague Mr. L. D. Crawford kindly passed on 
tfte following notes and extracts from index cards on the habits of 



GROSS AND SCUDDER— AUSTRALIAN RHYPAROCUROMFNI 455 

tins bug kept while working as an entomologist with the Northern 
Territory Administration. We quote — 

kk I V.anut Trash Bugs" From Annual Report— Entomologist, N.T.A., 
i July 1055-30 Jiirte 1956. 

H Thifl local Species is universally present wherever peanuts 
and other oil crops are grp-wrj arid stored OH Northern Territory 
farms, and it is quite obvious that, left unchecked, as is usually 
Hie ease, they cause serious losses in oil content, and adversely 
affect Ihe germination. These bugs are able to extract all the 
oil oui of unshelled peanuts, and have also been observed 
feedniL' <m sunflower seeds and even sorghum grain. It would 
eern that the use of control measures should be considered for 
all oil crops, as these bugs appear to be equally at home out in 
the field under plants or in storage sheds, where they feed on 
the bagged peanuts at night time. 

4i <Jummexane dust has been found to control them, hut, 
DWiXlg to the risk of tainting, lindane dust would be preferable. 
The bugs have also been observed in and under matured but 
Unpicked lettuces and Chinese cabbage at the Berrimah Farm. 
Lygaoid bugs (Aphanus spp.) with similar habits have been 
observed from Nigeria, where they cause poor germination, loss 
of oil content, and make the remaining oil in Ihe peanuts 
rancid" 

FroTn Monthly Report, April 1956. (Visit to Katherine.) 

"pninht Storage, A number of bags of peanuts kept in 
the one place for two years in a shed at the N.T.A. Farm were 
crawling with peanut trash bugs, which were also present on 
the walls of the shed and the surrounding grass. Most of the 
peanuts were soft and spongy, being devoid of oil. At night the 
buirs were observe*] feeding on unshelled peanuts, and even en 
sorghum grain. As this pest is common wherever peanuts are 
harvested and stored, it would appear that it is of considerable 
importance, and control measures are therefore justified On all 
peanut farms. It was reported later that a dusting with 4 per 
cent Gammexane dust had given an adequate control of the bugs 
at the N.T.A. Farm." 

Extracts from index cards kept while working as Entomologist, 
N.T.A., Darwin. 



456 RECORDS 01 110 S.A. MUSEUM 

Peanuts, Storage. 

"Aug. 1955. Bill Alexander, Daily River farmer, reported 
that the black peanut trash buys were in swarms amongst his 
bag-god peanuts, and that he was sure that fchey W6t& living on 
the oil in the nuts. In previous years he had found that many 
of the nuts had been dry and shrivelled when he was ready to 
plant." 

"SO Ptoifc 1956. Stored poantita and sorghum ai Katherine 
N.T.A. Farm swarming with black bugs according to manager. 
Several bags of peanuts at Berrimah sent up from Katherine 
a month or so i>reviously, showed heavy insect damage , . . " 
(Mainly Rice Moth and various beetles. Some bugs present.) 

lt 17 Apr. L956. Inspection of dozen bags of peanuts stored 
for two years in shed at 205 mile farm (Katherine N.T.A. 
Farm). Thousands of peanut trash bugs swarming over bags, 
over tin walls of shed, and m and over nearby machinery and 
grass. Many of them actively feeding on peanuts, even in the 
shell. Most of I In* peanuts are depleted of oil, and are spongy 
and white. 1 ' 

"2 May 1956. Peanut trash bugs at Katherine migrating 
out of sheds to house. Gammexane 4 per cent dust applied 
heavily around sheds — gave good control." 

Peanut Trash Beos (Lygaeidae). 

"These bugs seem to ho present wherever peanut trash or 
peanuts shelled or unstudied are stored on N.T. farms, and it 
is quite obvious that they cause serious hisses in oil content, 
being able to feed right through the shell into the interior of 
the kernals. Also observed feeding on sorghum grains. 

"RAE (A) 35: 218; 36i 44. Aphanus (Lygaeidae) in 
Nigeria 24 May 195G. Also present in and on ripening sunflower 
heads at Berrimah N.T.A. Farm. 

"27 July 1956. Bugs still present at Berrimah Farm, also 
being found in lettuce plants. 

"8 Aug. 1956- Visit to W. Christie's, Katherine, by T. 
Officer Moore. Reports that there bugs have been bad, and he 
considers that growing sunflowers has bred them up. They are 
even attacking pumpkins, which they honeycomb. When a 
pumpkin is kicked, large numbers of bugs fly out!" (1 can't, 
think of anything else that could have been confused with the 
bugs by this person.) 



GROSS and SCUDDER— AUSTRALIAN RHYPAROCHROMINI 457 

"Oct. 1956. Bill Alexander reports that he has had very 
little trouble with peanut trash bugs this season. Late rains 
prevented him from either drying out his dug crop, or digging 
out the remainder. The previous season there were many bugs 
about, and seed used for planting had numerous small bruises 
in the kernels." 

Sunflower. 

"24 May 1956. Sunflower plants at Berrimah Farm with 
heads almost mature. Heads infested with moderate number of 
peanut trash bugs. 

"8 Aug. 1956. Sunflower heads from Banyan Farm, 
Bachelor, very poor. . . . (caterpillar damage) . . . quite a 
number of peanut trash bugs also in sample." 

Peanut Trash Bugs Aphanus sordidus (" Groundnut Bug"). 

'Groundnut Cultivation in India.' Farm Bulletin No. 2. Indian 
Council of Agricultural Research. 

1 ( The Groundnut bug has been reported to cause appreciable 
damage to groundnut in Bombay. The bugs appear in large 
numbers and suck the oil out of the kernels both in the field and 
on the drying floor and occasionally from stored material." 

"Recorded from Madras on stored groundnuts, from Burma 
in millet heads. From Bombay, attacking groundnuts both 
during and after the harvest, also infests Sesamum and 
Carthamus tinctorius. Attacks may be prevented by putting 
the nuts into thick sacks immediately they are gathered. RAE 
(A)5: 101." 

Elasmolomus v-album (Stal 1859) 

Plate 19, fig. D 

Rhyparochromus v-album Stal, 1859, Kongl. svenska Fregatten 
Eugenies Resa Om. Jordan etc. 1851-1853. Zool. 1, Insecta: 247. 

P achy merits (Elasmolomus) v-album Stal, 1874, Kongl. svenska 

Vetensk. Akad. Handl., 12(1): 161. 
Aphanus v-album Barber 1958, Insects of Micronesia 7(4): 215. 
Aphanus australis Distant, 1901, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., (7) 8: 502. 
Elasmolomus australis Scudder, 1962a, Canad. Ent., 94(7) : 767. 
Elasmolomus insularis Kirkaldy, 1908, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 33: 

360. 



458 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Aphanus (Elasinolomus) insularis China, 1930, Insects of Samoa 2(3): 
133. 

We have seen specimens of this species from Java (which Barber 
equates with the Philippine and Micronesian n-alhum), Timor, North 
Queensland, and Fiji and all are certainly the same species. The 
Javan specimen and one Australian tend to be brownish, and the 
others blacker, but this is hardly a specific difference. The Australian 
specimens have a general transverse darkening on the conum inwardly 
from the dark spot on the margin § of the way back, but so also 
does one of the three Timor specimens. In all other respects the 
specimens are identical, Pachi/mcrus ncrccis was described from Lifu, 
but Kirkaldy's generic placing and his description leave little doubt 
that his material belongs to this species, or to the next. 

Head dark brown to black with a silvery pilosity; eyes con- 
colonrous, ocelli reddish. First segment of antennae black or brownish 
with live or six robust spines, one near base on interior margin, 
another on the same margin about halfway, another between this and 
apex but on the superior margin, and an apical inner cluster of three 
or four; second segment yelJowish brown vaguely infuseated at apex, 
third black or brown, pale at base; fourth with basal half pale 
yellowish brown, apical half blackish or brown. 

Pronotnm luteous to yellowish brown with anterior lobe witbm 
the rctlexed margins (except two small luteous points or streaks along 
anterior margin), two spots on each lateral reflexed margin, one near 
apex and the other almost at base, and numerous punctationx on the 
hind lobe blackish or brown. 

Scut ellum black or brown with a prominent V-shaped apical 
luteous or yellowish brown mark which bears a few fuscous 
pnuctations. 

Legs yellowish, apices of tibiae, fore femora (except at apex), 
and a broad sub-apical band to the second and third femora black or 
dark brown. 

Ifemelytra luteous to yellowish brown with numerous fuscous 
punctations for the most pari arranged in longitudinal lines but also 
some areas of scattered punctationH. Cerium with four distinct black 
spots two on the exterior margin, one past the half way mark towards 
the apex and the other at apex, a third spot in the middle of the d 
in the apical quarter and a fourth near inner margin and its apex. 
Membrane fuscous, witli elongate lightenings, principally on the veins. 



GROSS and SCUDDER— AUSTRALIAN RHYPAROCHROMINI 459 

Underside dark brown to blackish with light patches above 
insertions of coxae, hind upper angles of pro- and nietasterna, and 
extreme lateral margins of abdomen on segments V and VT. 

Bostrum reaches mid coxae, mainly pale. Antenna] ratio 30-35: 
75-82: 65-71: 75-90. 

Length: 4.90-5.40 mm. 

Specimens seen from Java, Timor, Fiji, Northern Australia. 

Itistrihutioit: Indonesia, Philippines, Micronesia, Australia, Fiji, 
Tonga, Solomon Is. (but see note under next species). 

A}isfralian recoxl*: N.W. Australia, Troughton Is., J. 0. Walker 
(B.M.). 1 female, Claudie R., N. Queensland, May 1914, O. 
MacGillivray (N.M.). 1 female, Daly R., Northern Territory (S.A.M.). 

It may very well be that the distribution of r-ulh)(,n is much more 
extensive titan we have claimed here. An examination of the types of 
E. trans versus (Siguoret) from Madagascar, E. consoclaUs (Dist.) 
from Seychelles and E, Ihteosiis Dist. from Burma and Ceylon, 

indicates that a single species may be involved, ranging from Africa to 

Tonga. In this case, the oldest name in the complex appears to be 
v-albitm. Such a distribution is quite credible in view of the almost 
parallel distribution of E scrdi&us. This problem is being considered 
furf&er by <:.<!. RS. 

Elasmolomus papuamis (Distant 1901) nov. comb. 

Plate 24, fig. D 

Aphaniis papuauns Distant, 1901, Ann. Mag. nat Hist. (7)8: 502. 

TIead chocolate brown, with silvery pilosity. Eyes concolorous, 
ocelli reddish. First segment of antennae brown with eight or nine 
robust spines, four or five of them at apex. Second and third apical 
halt* of fourth segment a paler brown; basal half of fourth yellowish. 

Pronotum luteous yellow with anterior lobe between the reflexed 
margins (except two obsolete luteous marks on the anterior margin), 
two spots on each lateral reflexed margin, one at middle of fore lube 
and the other almost at the hind angles, and numerous punctationa 
on the hind lobe brown. 

Scutellum brown and with a V-shaped apical yellowish mark 
bearing a few brown punctations. 

Legs yellowish, fore femora (except at apex) and a broad sub- 
apical band on the second and third femora brown. 



460 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Hemelytra brownish with numerous fuscous punctations for the 
most part arranged in longitudinal lines but also some areas of 
scattered punetations. The basal half of the lateral margins, a pro- 
apical spot and a basal streak running back paralleling the outer 
margin paler, yellowish. Membrane pale brown, extreme tip yellowish. 

Underside chocolate brown with light patches above insertions of 
coxae, hind upper angles of pro- and meta-sterna and two small 
patches on margin of abdomen on segments V and VI. 

Rostrum reaching mid coxae, mainly pale. Antennal ratio (to 
same scale as v-album) 42: 95: 85: 100. 

Length: Female, 6.25 mm. 

Distribution : Australia, 

Australian record: 1 female. Dunk Is., North Queensland, Dec. 
1932 P. Maclndoe (S.A.M.). Distant 's type pf this species cannot be 
found in the British Musenra; it came from Peak Downs, also in 
Queensland. The species described here fits Distant T s description 
fairly well although the head and anterior lobe of the pronotum and 
the underside of the tibiae and tarsi seem to be rather paler in colour. 
The size is about right. 

This species is very little different to v-album; it is 25-30 per cent 
larger, paler overall and with mueh less contrast in its coloration. 
It could be a sub-species of v-album were it not that v-album already 
occurs in Queensland. It shares with both the Australian specimens 
of v-album a similar pattern of infuscnlion in the apical area of the 
corium, but this is also present in one Timor specimen of the latter 
species. 

This distribution is quite credible in view of the almost parallel 
distribution of E. sordidus. 



Note: Elasmolomus nereis (Kirkaldy 1905) nov. comb, rarl/ymrrus 
nerds Kirkaldy, 1905, Trans, ent, Soc. Land.: 347, pi. IS, fig, 7, 
described originally from Lifu, was recognized by one of us (GJP.Ck) 
from several specimens in the Tnstitut Franeais d 'Oceanic in Noumea 
during a recent visit to New Caledonia. It is a distinct species of 
Elasmolomus, and differs from thti oilier three in tlie very narrow 
pronotal laminae and more shiny appearance. It is small like pap nanus 
and v-album, and would run down to the former in our kev. 



GROSS and SCUDDER— AUSTRALIAN RHYPAROCHROMINI 461 

Poeantius Stal 1865 
Poeantius Stal 1865, Hem. Afr. 2: 154, 163. 1874, Kongl. Vetensk 
Akad. EandL 12 (1): 159, 162. Distant, 1903, Faun. Brit. Ind. 
Khvnch. 2: 85. Breddin 1907, Dtsch. ent. Z.: 208. Bergroth 1918, 
Philipp. J. Sei., 13 (2&3): 84. 

Nmtdarensia Distant, 1904, Faun. Brit, Ind. Rhynch. 2: 86. 

Head triangular and with antenna! tubercles not visible from 

above. 

Pronotuin with narrow lateral laminate earinae; disc with a 
distinct transverse impression; posterior margin concave; anterior 
lobe with punctures finer and denser than on posterior lobe. 

Seutellum longer than wide; deeply punctate. 

Fore femora not greatly swollen and with a small sub-apical spine 
and a Tew stiff hairs; posterior tarsi with the basal tarsomere twice 
as long as the combined length of the two distal tarsomeres. 

Hemelytra usually with the apical half more or less castaneous 
and with a subapieal pale spot to corium; membrane if with pale spots, 
then these basal; elavus with more than three rows of punctures; 
corium with rather dense punctuation. 

Venter dark brown with coxal covers and posterior margin of 
metapleurae ochraceous. 

Type species: Bhyparochromus mgropictus St&l, from Africa. 

Both Breddin and Bergroth regarded Poeantius and Naiidarensia 
as synonymous and we are accepting their opinion here. The species 
described by Distant (1918) as Naiidarensia rolmidi does not belong 
in the genus Naudarensia, but in Udeocoris Bergroth which is in the 
tribe Myodochini (Gross, 1962, Bee. S. Aust. Mus., Adelaide, 14(2): 
391). 

Poeantius australopictus sp. nov. 
Plate 23, fig. T) 

Female. Head dark brown ; antennae pale ferruginous w T ith basal 
part of first segment, apex of second and most of third, dark brown; 
terminal segment of antennae without a distinct pale annulation; 
rostrum dark brown. 

Pronotuin with anterior half dark brown; anterior margin 
f errugino-ochraceous ; lateral earinae ochraceous with extreme 



462 RECORDS OF THF S.A. MUSEUM 

posterior part, dark brown; transverse impression laterally pale 
ferrugino-ochraceous, but centre distinctly fuscous; hind lobe of 
pronotum ocliraceous with dense dark brown punctures. 

Scutellum dark brown to black with tip ocliraceous; apical half 
laterally slightly ferruginous to brown. 

Legs dark brown with base of middle and hind femora oehraceoas. 

Ilcujplytra oehraeeous with dark brown punctures; clavus with a 
dark brown longitudinal streak; corium with apical half from inner 
angle to anterior margin, dark brown, but with slender subapical 
oehraeeous spot; membrane suffused with brown, but with a distinct 
pale spot TKHr apical angle of corium. 

Y T enter dark brown or slightly ferruginous, with coxal covers and 
posterior maigfal of metapleurae oehraeeous. 

Bead inclined ventrally; antennal ratio 5: 13-14: 11-12: 16-17; 

rostrum almost reaching middle coxae. Pronotum not greatly wider 
than long, the width: length as 23-27: 20; disc with a distinct trans- 
verse impression near middle, ratio length of anterior lobe: length of 
posterior lobe, as 9-10: 8; lateral margins of pronotum distinctly 
concave near middle. Homely tra macropterous. 

Total length: 4.5 mm. (4.0-5.0 mm,). 

Male. Similar to female, but usually a little smaller. Total 
length: 4.8 mm. 

Typr: A I'omalo, Queensland, Townsville, 1002 1<\ P. Dodd (B.M.). 
Paratifpe&l J sex midrib mined, N,W. Australia, Kimberley district, 
Mjoherg (Stockholm); 1 female, Queensland, 17 dan. 1929 Dr. K. K, 
Spence (A.M.); 1 female, Brisbane, 31 Apr. 1957, & S. Sekhon (U.Q.): 
1 male, 1 female, Normanton, E. Kemp (S.A.M.). 1 male, Northern 
Territory, Darwin, a. F. Hill (ft. Q. E. Scudder, Vancouver) : 1 
female, Townsville, 18 Apr. 1902 W. W. Froggatt (A.N.I.C.). 

This species is similar to P. variegatus Distant from Africa in 
genera] appearance, but has the pronotum less tapering anteriorly and 
the elaval white streak less evident. P. australopictus differs 'from 
P. Ihmtus Still from the Philippine Is. by the shape of the pronotum 
and the coloration of the corium. In the latter species, the pronotum 
lacks a distinct transverse impression and the fuscous markings on 
the apical half of the corium do not extend to the anterior margin. 

A single brachyptcrous female specimen in the Naturhistoriska 
Riksmuseum in Stockholm, with the data 'Queensland, Alice River 
(Mjoberg) ' has the coloration of the corium similar to P. fineatus but 



GROSS and SCUDDER— AUSTRALIAN RHYPAROCHROMIN! 463 

on structure of the pronottim appears to be conspecifie with the 
Specimens of australopictiis listed above. 

It would appear that the specimens here considered to be a new 
species were, by Distant (1918) considered to conspecifie with 
/-\ liittatus. This is not so as has been pointed out above. 

Narbo Stal 1865 

Narbo Stal, 1865, Hem. Afr. 2: 154, 163. 1874, KongL svenska Vetensk. 
Akad. HandL, 12(1): 159. Distant, 1903, Fauna Brit. Ind. 
Rhynch., 2: 85. Breddin, 1907, Dtsch. ent Z., 208. Bergroth, 
1918, PMlipp. J, Sea., 13 (2 & 7): 84. Barber, 1958, Insects of 
Micronesia, 7(4): 216. Scudder, 1962a, Gonad, Ent., 94(7): 769. 

Laxamava Distant, 1906, Ann. Soc. ent. Belg. 50: 416. 

Klongate insects; head porrect, eyes removed from anterior 
margin of pronotum; antennal tubercles clearly visible from above; 
antennae long and slender; first antennal segment extending beyond 
apex of head and subequal to head length, 

Pronottun wider than long; distinctly punctate; with a 
conspicuous transverse impression; lateral margins weakly carinate 
and without a distinct laminate carina; lateral carinac ending abruptly 
on humeral angles; lateral margins deeply concave at level of trans- 
verse impression on disc; posterior margin slightly concave. 

Scutellum longer than wide; distinctly punctate; basal half of 
disc excavate; disc with a vague Y-shaped elevation. 

hegs slender and elongate fore femora slender and with a row 
of short spines along ventral surface; hind tarsi with basal tarsoraeres 
more than twice combined length of the two distal tarsomeres; tibiae 
with short fine hairs and longer, outstanding, stout hairs; apex of 
tibiae with a circle of stout setae. 

Hemelytra distinctly marked with brown and ochraceous; corium 
with a more or less distinct pale subapical spot; membrane with a 
faint pale spot apically; clavus with more than three rows of 
punctures; corium rather densely punctate. 

Abdomen ventrally with a median longitudinal vague keel; male 
genital capsule with a small tubercle ventrally. 

Type species: Narbo longipes Stal, from Borneo and Sarawak. 



<64 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

Narbo biplagiatus (Walker 1871) 
Plate 20, fig. B 
Noliphus ? biplagiatus Walker 1871, Cat. Het. B.M. 4; 177. 
nhyparochromus terminalis Walker 1872, Cat. Het, B.M. 5 ; 105. 
Dieuches terminalis Lethierry & Severin, 1894, Cat. gen. Hero., 2: 220. 
Narbo biplagiatus Distant 1901, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (7)8: 510. 
Narbo biplagiatus Seudder 1962a, Canad. Ent, 94(7) : 769. 
Narbo metochoides Bergroth 1918, Philipp. J. Sei. (D) 13: 82. Barber 
1958, Insects of Micronesia 7 (4) : 217, fig. 

Head dark brown to black; antennae ferrugino-ochraceous with 
first segment, apical parts of second and third, extreme base and apical 
part of fourth, dark brown; terminal antennal segment with a broad 
pale ochraceous ambulation; rostrum ferruginous to brown. 

Pronotum dark brown to black with lateral margins ochraceous 
and posterior lobe with a median longitudinal short pale streak on 
anterior part. 

Scutellum dark brown to black with apex ochraceous and with two 
medio-lateral pale spots. 

Legs ferrugino-ochraceous with apical parts of femora, apex of 
tibiae and tarsi dark brown. 

Hemelytra dark brown to black with basal half of anterior margin 
and a subapical spot to corium, ochraceous; a short basal streak to 
clavus, an interrupted streak on corium near claval suture and a 
median spot to corium, ochraceous ; membrane with basal part of some 
veins and apex, vaguely pale. 

Venter dark brown with extreme postero-dorsal corner of meta- 
pleurae ochraceous and sterna V and VI with lateral pale spots. 

Antenna] ratio 13: 22: 18: 23; rostrum reaching middle coxae. 
Pronotal width: length, 23: 17. Fore femora with five or six ventral 
spines. Total length 10-10.3 mm. 

Distribution: Ceram, Gilolo, Philippine Is., Palau Is., New Guinea, 
New Britain, Celebes, Sumatra, Queensland, Samoa, Caroline Is., 
Borneo, Sarawak, Assam, Indo-China, Samboangan and Java. 

Australian records : New South Wales (Munich); Queensland, 
Cairns District, A. M. Lea (G. G. E. Seudder, Vancouver) ; Queens- 
land, P. P. Dodd; Stewart River, Queensland, Jan. Feb. 1927 Hale & 
Thidale (S.A.M.). 



GROSS and SCUDDER— AUSTRALIAN RHYPAROCHROMINI 465 

TYPES EXAMINED AND THEIR DEPOSITION. 

In the course of this work, the following types have been examined 
by one of ns (G.G.E.S.) : their location is noted. 

BoshetiHivs avst talis Dist. in B.M. 

nievclies consangumeits Dist. in B.M. 

I), distant i Eergr. not examined, deposition of type unknown. 

D. finilihus Van Dir/ee in C.A.S. 

D. Imif/icoIUs (Dallas) in B.M. 

D. maculicnllis (Walk.) in B.M. (D. alricornis Stal in Stockholm) 
/). not nl us (Dallas) in B.M. 

[), ahsruripes (Walk.) in B.M. 

I), oceanicus (Dist.) in B.M. 

Elasniolomus nereis (Kirk.) type not examined, deposition unknown. 

K. jHipuanus (Dist.) type not examined, not in B.M. 

E, sordid us (Fab.) represented by two specimens, one male, one 

female, in the collection of Kiel examined by G.G.E.S. in Copen- 
hagen. The female has been selected as lectotype and so labelled. 
(Aplninvs Ktt&raUs Dist. also examined in B.M.) 

E. v-albuut (Stal) in Stockholm (E. insularis Kirk in Hawaiian Sugar 
Planter's Association: /?. ausiralis (Dist.) in B.M.). 

Narbo bipkif/tatus (Walk) in B.M. (N. metochnidts Bergr. in Helsinki). 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

This work was done while one of us (G.G.E.S.) was in receipt of 
a grant from the National Research Council of Canada and^ University 
Of British Columbia. We wish to thank the following; for loan of 
material and/or permission to study types in their care: Dr. W. E. 
China, Mr. II. J. Izzard and the Trustees of the British Museum 
(Nat. Hist.); Mr. H. B. Leech (California Academy of Sciences); 
Dr. E. Kjellander (Naturhistoriska Riksnmseum, Stockholm); Dr. 
W. Pointer (Zoologische Sammlnng des Bayerischen Staates, Munich) ; 
Dr. J. W. Evans (Australian Museum Sydney); Dr. L. Hoberlandt 
(Narodni Museum, Prague) ; Dr. K. H. L. Key (C.S.I.R.O., Canberra) ; 
Mr, A. N. Burns (National Museum of Victoria, Melbourne); Dr. W. 
D. L. Ride (Western Australian Museum, Perth); and Dr. T. E. 
Woodward (University of Queensland, Brisbane). 

ABBREVIATIONS 

The following abbreviations of names are used for collections 
from which material has been obtained for studies in this paper. 



466 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

A.M.— Australian Museum, Sydney; A.N.I.C.— Australian National 
Insect Collection, formerly the collection of the C.S.I.E.O., Division of 
Entomology, Canberra; B.M.— British Museum (Nat. Hist.) London; 
C.A.S. — California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco; Munich — 
Zoologische Sammlung des Bayerischen Staates, Munich; N.M.— 
National Museum, Melbourne; Prague— Narodni Museum, Prague; 
S.A.M.— South Australian Museum, Adelaide; Stockholm— Naturhis- 
toriska Riksmuseum, Stockholm; U.Q.— University of Queensland, 
Department of Entomology, Brisbane; W.A.M.— Western Australian 
Museum, Perth; and W.A.R.I.— Waite Agricultural Research Institute, 
Adelaide. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Barber, H. G., 1958: Insects of Micronesia, Heteroptera : Lygaeidae. 
B. P. Bishop Mus. Insects of Micronesia, 7(4) : 173-218, 
11 text figs. 

Bergroth, E., 1916 : New genera and species of Australian Hemiptera. 
Proc. roy. Soc. Vict. (N.S.) 29(1): 1-18. 

1918: Studies in Philippine Heteroptera, 1. Philipp. J. Sci. 

(d) 13(2 & 3): 43-126. 

Breddin, G., 1907: Berytiden und Myodochiden von Ceylon aus der 
Sammelausbeute von Dr. W. Horn. Rhynch. Het. Dtsch 
ent. Z., 34-37 & 203-220, 9 text figs. 

Carpenter, G. H., 1891 : Rhynchota from Murray Island and Mabuiag. 
Sci. Proc. R. Dublin Soc. 1891 : 137-146. 

China, W. E., 1930: Hemiptera-Heteroptera. Insects of Samoa 2(3) • 
1-162, 28 text figs. 

Corby, H. D. L., 1946-47: Aphanus (Hem. Lygaeidae) in stored 
Ground-nuts. Bull. ent. Res., 37 : 609-617, 11 text figs. 

Dallas, W. S., 1852: List of the Specimens of Hemipterous Insects in 
the Collection of the British Museum. Brit. Mus Pub 
Pt. 2 : 369-592, 4 plates. 

Distant, W. L., 1901: Rhynchotal Notes— XL Heteroptera: Family 
Lygaeidae. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (7)8: 464-486 & 
497-510. 

1903 & 1904: The Fauna of British India including Ceylon 

and Burma. Rhynchota. 2: i-xvii & 1-242 (1903) and 
243-503 (1904). 319 text figs. 



GROSS /wo SCUDDER— AUSTRALIAN RHYPAROCHROM1N1 467 

1904: Rhynchotal Notes— XXII. Heteroptera from North 

Queensland. Ann. Mag. nat, Hist. (7)13: 263-276. 

1906-7: Oriental Heteroptera. Ann. Soc. ent. Belg., 50: 

405-417. 

1909: Oriental Ehynchota Heteroptera. Ann. Mag. nat. 

Hist. (8)3: 491-507. 

1918: Contributions to a further knowledge of the Rhyn- 

chotal Family Lygaeidae. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (9)1: 
416-424 & (9)2: 173-179, 257-270 & 486-492. 

Dohrn, F. A., 1860: Heraipterologische Miscellaneen. Stett. mi. Ztg. 
21 : 99-109, 1 plate, 158-162, 208. 

Fabricius, J. C, 1787 : Mantissa Insectorum. 

1794: Entomologia Systematica 4: 1-6, 1-434, 435-462, 

463-472. 

1803 : Systema Rhyngotorum. 

Gross, G. F., 1962: Aberrant Australian Brachypterous Myodochine 
Bugs (Lygaeidae Rhyparochrominae). Ree. S. Aust. 
Mus., Adelaide, 14(2): 371-396, 3 plates. 

Hoffman, W, E., 1932: The Economic Status of the Lygaeids and 
Notes on the Life History of Lygaeus hospes Fahr. and 
Aphanus sordidus Fabr. (Hemiptera, Lygaeidae). Ling- 
nan Sei. J., 11(1) : 119-135. Pis. 1-2. 

Kirkaldy, G. W., 1905: Memoir on the Rhynchota collected by Dr. 
Arthur Willey, F.R.S., chiefly in Birara (New Britain) 
*nd Lifu. Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond., 327-362. PI. 17. 

1908; A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proc. Lirm. 

Soc. N.S.W., 33(2) : 345-381. PI. 4. 

Letherry, L. and Severin, G., 1892-6: Catalogue generate des 
Homiptoivs. Bruxelles. Tome 1 (1893): i-x & 1-286 pp. 
Tome 2 (1894) : 1-277 pp. Tome 3 (1896) : 1-275 pp. 

Lindberg, H., 1958: Hemiptera Insularum Caboverdensium. Sys- 
tematik Okologie urid Verbreitung der Heteropteren und 
Cicadinen der Kapverdischen Inseln. Comment, biol., 
TTelsingf. 19(1) : 1-246, 114 text figs. 

Scudder, G. G. E., 1957: The Higher classification of the Rhyparo- 
chrominae (Hem. Lygaeidae). Ent. mon. Mag., 93: 
152-156. 



468 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

1958: 24. Lygaeidae (Hemiptera) of Eennell and Bellona 

Islands. Nat. Hist, of Eennell Is., Brit. Solomon Is., 
Copenhagen, vol. 2: 135-142, 2 text figs. 

1962a: The World Ehyparochrominae (Hemiptera: Lygaei- 

dae). 1. New Synonymy and Generic Changes. Canad. 
Ent., 94(7) : 764-773. 

1962b: The World Ehyparochrominae (Hemiptera: Lygaei- 

dae) II. New Genera for Previously Described Species. 
Canad. Ent., 94(9) : 981-989. 

Stal, C, 1865 : Hemiptera Af ricana, 2. 

1859: Kongliga svenska Fregatten Eugenies Eesa omkring 

Jorden, under Befal af C. A. Virgin Aren 1851-1853. 
Zoologi I, Insecta. Hemiptera species novas descripsit 
219-298, Stockholm. 

1868: Hemiptera Fabriciana. Fabricianska Hemipterater 

efter de i Kopenhamm och Kiel forvarade type- 
exemplaren. granskade och beskrifne. Fasc. I-II K. 
svenska Vetensk Akad. Hand!,, VII, No. 11, 1868, pp. 
1-148; op. cit. VIII, No. 1, 1869, pp. 1-130. 

1872: Genera Lygaeidarum Europae disposuit. Ofvers. 

Vetensk Akad. Forh., Stockh., 29(7): 37-62. 

1874: Enumeratio Hemipterorum 4. K. svenska Vetensk 

Akad. Handl., 12(1): 1-186. 

Van Duzee, E. P., 1940: New Species of Hemiptera collected by the 

Templeton Crocker Expedition to the Solomon Islands in 

1933. Pan.-Pacif. Ent., 16: 178-192. 
Walker, F., 1871 : Catalogue of the Specimens of Hemiptera Heterop- 

tera in the Collection of the British Museum. Brit. Mus. 

Pub., Pt. IV: 1-211. 

1872 : Catalogue of the Specimens of Hemiptera Heteroptera 

in the Collection of the British Museum. Brit. Mus. Pub.. 
Pt. V: 1-202. 



LEGENDS TO PLATES 

PLATE 19. 

Fig. A. Bosbeqwms australis Distant. 

Figs. B and C. Dieuches longicollis (Dallas), 

Fig. D. Elasmolomus v-albwm (Stal). 



Kkc. S.A. Museum 



Vol. 14, Plate 19 




To <"<■'■ I"'.'."' »7<i- I 



Rkc. S.A. Mxtsbum 



Vol. 14 Plate 20 




Rrc. S.A. Muskum 



Vol. 14, Plate 21 




Rkc. S.A. Mi/si<;r.w 



Vo), 14, Plate 22 



"i*j 




Ukc. S.A. Mushum 



Vol. 14, Plate 23 




Rf.c. S.A. MuSeitm: 




Vol. 14, Plate 24 




>U^( 




GROSS AND SCUDDER— AUSTRALIAN RHYPAROCHROMINI 469 

PLATE 20. 

Fig. A. Dieuches grandicus sp. nov. 
Fig. B. Narbo biplagiatus (Walker). 

PLATE 21. 

Fig. A. Elasmolomus sordidus (Fabr.). 

Fig. B. Dieuches consanguineus Distant. 

Fig. C. Dieuches hirsutus sp. nov. 

Fig. D. Dieuches enigmaticus sp. nov. 

PLATE 22. 

Fig. A. Dieuches maculicollis (Walker). 

Fig. B. Dieuches distanti Bergroth. 

Fig. C. Dieuches oceanicus (Distant). 

Fig. D. Dieuches obscuripes (Walker). 

PLATE 23. 

Fig. A. Dieuches notatus (Dallas). 

Fig. B. Dieuches nudus sp. nov. 

Fig. C. Dieuches oceanicus (Distant). 

Fig. D. Poeantius australopictus sp. nov. 

PLATE 24. 

Fig. A. Dieuches finitimus Van Duzee. 

Fig. B. Dieuches torpidus sp. nov. 

Fig. C. Dieuches scutettatus Distant. 

Fig. D. Elasmolomus papuanus (Distant). 



AQUATIC AND SEMIAQUATIC HEMIPTERA TAKEN IN 

PORTUGUESE TIMOR BY G. F. GROSS OF THE 

SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM (1) 



By Herbert B. Hungerford and Ryuichi Matsuda 



Summary 

Since the material sent us by the Basel Museum in Switzerland turned up several new 
species from Timor, we knew that this lot would at least add new distributional records. 

This it has done although only four familes are represented: Notonectidae, Gerridae, 
Hydrometridae and Micronectidae. 



AQUATIC AND SEMIAQUATIC HEMIPTERA TAKEN IN 
PORTUGUESE TIMOR BY G. F. GROSS OF THE 
SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM* 1 > 

By HERBERT B. HUNGERFORD and RYUICIII MATSUDA 

Since the material sent tts by the Basel Museum in Switzerland 
turned up several new species from Timor, we knew that this lot 
would at least add new distributional records. This it has done 
although only four families are represented. 

NOTONECTIDAE 

Avisops uasuta Fieber. "Pantai Macassar, Oe-Cusse, Timor 
PortagaSs Feb. 14 and IS, 1961 G. F. Gross" 4 males, 4 females. 
A new record for Timor. 

Avisops Hmorensis Brooks. Same label as above. 1 male, 1 female, 
1 nymph. 

GERRIDAE 

Lmnometra ciliata Mayr. "PttHtai Macassar, Oe-Cusse, Timor 
Portugues Feb. 14 and 15, 1961 G. F. Gross" 1 male, 1 female. 
While this is a new record for Timor it is to be expected to occur, 
for Ave have previously recorded it from the Lesser Sunda Islands. 

Lininofjonus dustralis (Skuse). "Pantai Macassar, Oe-Cusse, Timor 
Portugues Feb. 14 to 23, 1961 G. F. Gross" 64 adults, both 
apterous and maeropterous; four of them are kept at the 
University of Kansas. 90 nymphs. 

Twingogoyms robvstus Ilungerford and Matsuda. "Estacao Zootec- 
nica and foot of Mundo Perdido nr. Ossu, Timor Portugues, Mar. 
!>, 1961 G. F. Gross" 1 male, 1 female: "Pantai Macassar, 
Oe-Cusse, Timor Portugues Feb. 19, 1961 G. F. Gross" 1 male, 
1 female. All of these are apterous. Timor is a new record for 
this species which was previously known from East Java and 
West Sumba. 



(i) Contribution No. 1166 from the Department of Entomology, Thp University of Kansas. 
This is a by-product of a research project aided by a grant from thf* National Science 
Foundation. 



472 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

HYDROMETRIDAE 

Hydrometra maidli Hungerford and Evans. "Pantai Macassar, 
Oe-Cusse, Timor Portugues Feb. 14 to 23, G. F. Gross' ' 3 males, 
3 females. This species was described from Sumatra and Java, 
and this is a new record for Timor. 

MICRONECTIDAE 

Micronecta sp. "Pante Macassar, Oe-Cusse, Timor Portugues Feb. 18, 
1961 G. F. Gross" 3 females. While this is a new record for the 
genus occurring in Timor, males are needed to determine the 
species. 



A NEW LARVAL NEOTROMBIDIUM 
(ACARINA, LEEUWENHOEKIIDAE) FROM BAT GUANO 



ByH. Womersley, South Australian Museum 



Summary 

A new species of larval Neotrombidium, N. gracilipes (Acarina, Leeuwenhoekiidae) is 
described from a single specimen obtained from bat guano from Fig Tree Cave, 
Wombeyan, New South Wales. 

Neotrombidium gracilipes sp. nov. 
Fig. 1 

Holotype larva: Shape, slightly engorged, broadly oval. Length of idiosoma 960pt, width 
580^. 

Dorsum: With the scutum triangular with a broadly rounded anterior apex, furnished with 
three pairs of ciliated setae and a pair of fine filamentous sensillae shortly and sparsely 
ciliated distally, no trace of a crista, the lateral margins do not run in a straight and 
oblique line, but are roughly longitudinal and parallel from the antero-median setae to the 
anterolateral setae which they contour, and then similarly to the postero-lateral setae 
which they outwardly surround, posterior margin lightly convex. 



A NEW LARVAL NEOTROMB1DIUM (ACARINA, 
LEEUWENHOEKIIDAE) FROM BAT GUANO 

By H. WOMERSLEY, South Australian Museum 

Fig. 1 

SYNOPSIS 

A new species of larval N eotrombidium, N. gracilipes (Acarina, 
Leeuwenhoekiidae) is described from a single specimen obtained from 
bat guano from Fig Tree Cave, Wombeyan, New South Wales. 

Neotrombidium gracilipes sp. nov. 
Fig. 1 

Uolotype larva: Shape, slightly engorged, broadly oval. Length 
of idiosoma 960m, width 580/*. 

Dorsum: With the scutum triangular with a broadly rounded 
anterior apex, furnished with three pairs of ciliated setae and a pair 
of line filamentous sensillae shortly and sparsely ciliated distally, no 
trace of a crista, the lateral margins do not run in a straight and 
oblique line, but are roughly longitudinal and parallel from the antero- 
median setae to the anterolateral setae which they contour, and then 
similarly to the postero-lateral setae which they outwardly surround, 
posterior margin lightly convex. The antero-median setae, AM, and 
postero-lateral setae, PL, are fairly short and blunt, but the antero- 
lateral, AL, are long and tapering, the sensillae are shortly ciliated 
distally and arise from fairly large alveolae a little in front of PL. 
Dorsal surface posterior of the scutum w T ith 31 pairs of tapering finely 
ciliated setae to 60/* long and arranged in irregular transverse rows 
of 4 to 6 setae. The Standard Data in micra are as follows : AW 29, 
LW 52, PW 89, SB 38, ASB 87, PSB 20, SD 107, AM-AL 35, AL-PL 70, 
AM 41, AL 64, PL 35, Sens. 90, SW 96. 

Venter: As figured; coxae I and II separated by the width of the 
urstigma, all coxae with only one pair of slender ciliated setae, 
between coxae I with one pair of setae situated just off the inner 
margins of coxae, a single pair of setae between coxae III and posterior 
coxae III with 10 pairs of setae, all coxae with slight porosity. 



474 



RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 




Fig. 1. Neotrombidvum gracilipes sp. nov. Larva. A. dorsum, B. venter C. dorsal 
scutum, D. mandible, E. palp, F. tibia and tarsus, leg I., G. same of leg III. 



WOMERSLEY— NEW LARVAL NEOTROMBiDIUM 475 

Mandibles (Hjj« D) long and narrow, with strong simple cheliceral 
blade. Palpi slender as figured, tibial claw bifid and tarsus smalL 
Legs unusually slender, I and II 526/a long, III 620/a. Tibia and tarsi 
about 8 times longer than high, all tarsi with a single claw, tarsi I 
154/a long by 1 7^ high, without any solenidia as far as can be seen, 
tibia I 99/x long, tibia and tarsi III as figured, tarsi 168/* long by 
17ft high, and tibia 128/* long. 

Locality. A single specimen from bat guano from Fig Tree Cave, 
v\ ombeyan, New South Wales, 21st August I960, 

ilcmarks: This species differs from the other described larvae 
of N eotro mbidium, barring unefise Hirst, tenuipes (Worn.) and 
tricuspidum Borland, in the very slender legs. It also differs from 
the first larva to be described, barring, mcnse (Southeott, 1954) in that 
coxae I and II are separated by the. width of the urstigrna, as is also 
the ease in tenuipes and tricuspidum. These coxae are also similarly 
separated in Mommguis stre.blida Wharton, the genus of which 
Southeott 1954 synonymised with Neotrombidium, but which the 
writer has shown in a current paper on other grounds to be valid. 
It seems therefore that the separation or otherwise of coxae I and II 
is not of generic importance. 

Adults of a new species of Neotrombidium, N. gracilare Worn, 
and described in a current paper (Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr,, Adelaide, 
1962) are known from bat guano from other bat caves in Eastern 
Australia and it is probable that the larva described above is that of 
A f . gnicilare. The occurrence of two different species of Neotrom- 
hf'hvm in such a localized specialized biotope as bat guano seems 
extremely unlikely. However, until the larva and adult can be 
correlated by rearing, a new specific name is proposed. 

REFERENCES 

1. Borland J. G., 1956: The genus Neotrombidiiim (Acarina, Trom- 
bidioidea) in the United States. J. Entom. Soc. Kansas 
29(1): 29-35. 

*J. Southeott, K.V., 1954: The genus Neotrombidiiim (Acarina, Lceuwen- 
hoeldidae). I. Description of the ovum and larva of 
Neotrombidiiim barrvngunense Hirst 1928, with art account 
of the biology of the genus. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 
Adelaide, 77: 89-97. 

3. Wharton, G. W., 1938: The Acarina of Yucatan Caves. Carnegie 
Inst, of Washington, Publ. 491 : 137-152. 



476 RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

4 # 1947: The relationship between Trombiculid and Trom- 

bidiid Mites. J. Parasitol. 33, sect. 2. 

5. Womersley, H., 1954: New genera and species apparently of 

Apoloniinae (Acarina, Leeuwenhoekiidae) from the 
Asiatic-Pacific Eegion. Malaysian Parasites VII; 
Studies, Inst. Med. Ees. Malaya, No. 26 : 108-119. 

6. 1962: Two new species of Acarina from bat guano from 

Australian caves. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., Adelaide. 

7 # 1962: Mommguis Wharton 1938, a valid genus (Acarina, 

Trombidioidea). Eec. S. Austr. Mus., Adelaide, 14(3). 



"MONUNGUIS" WHARTON 1938, A VALID GENUS 
(ACARINA, TROMBIDIOIDEA) 



ByH. Womersley, South Australian Museum 



Summary 

The genus Monunguis Wharton 1938 was erected for a new larval species of mite, 
Monunguis streblida Wharton, found parasitic on bat flies (Diptera, Streblidae) from 
caves in Yucatan, Mexico. Considered by recent workers as synonymous with the genus 
Neotrombidium Leonardi 1901 (fam. Leeuwenhoekiidae) it is now shown, on re- 
examination of a paratype, to be valid and that while probably more nearly rated to 
Neotrombidium it does show some relationship to Johnstoniana George 1909 = Rohaultia 
Ouds. 1911 (fam. Johnstonianidae). 



"MONUNGUIS" WHARTON 1938, A VALID GENUS (ACARINA, 

TROMBIDIOIDEA) 

By II. WOMERSLEY, South Australian Museum 

Fig. 1-2 

SYNOPSIS 

The genus Monunguis Wharton 1938 was erected for a new larval 
species of mite, Monungius streblida Wharton, found parasitic on bat 
flies (Diptera, Streblidae) from caves in Yucatan, Mexico. Considered 
by recent workers as synonymous with the genus NeotromUdium 
Leonardi 1901 (fan. Leeuwenlioekiidae) it is now shown, on 
re-examination of a paratype, to be valid and that while probably 
more nearly rated to Neoirombidiiim it does show some relationship 
to Johnstoniana George 1909 = RohauUia Ouds. 1911 (fam. 
Johnstonianidae). 

The paratype examined, one of the three specimens comprising 
the type and two paratypes in the United States National Museum, 
is redescribed and refigured. 

Genus Monunguis Wharton 

Wharton G. W. 1938, Acarina of Yucatan Caves. Carnegie Institute 
of Washington, Publ. 491, pp. 150-151, fig. 25-28. 

Type Monunguis streblida Wharton. 

In 1938 Wharton {lot. cit.) erected the genus Monunguis for a 
curious larval trombidiform mite, Monumgids streblida found parasitic 
upon bat flies, Fterellipsis araneae Coq. and Trichobius dugesii Towns. 
(Diptera, Streblidae) from the Cinque de Mayas Cave, Tekax, Yucatan, 
Mexico. 

The description was very brief and the figures, especially that of 
the dorsal scutum, somewhat crude and puzzling. Since the original 
description few references have been made to the genus and species, 
and it was overlooked both in Vitzthum's big work in Bronn's 
Tiereich, vol. 6 Acarina, 1943, and in Sig Thor and Willman's work 

£ 



47 * RECORDS OF TFfE S A. MUSEUM 

in Das Tiereieh, Lfg. 71b. 1947. In a binef note in 1947 Wharton (9) 
suggested the possibility of the synonymy of Monunguis with 
Neotrombidiiim Leonard! 1901. The next reference appears to be that 
of Baker and Wharton 1952 (1) when they listed the genus in the 
subfamily Trombellinae. 

In 1953 Southcott (5) in describing the larva of Neotrovibidkim 
barringuucvsc Hirst, discussed its generic affinities with Monunguis 
but without having had access to any of the original material He 
concluded that Monunguis was synonymous with Neotrombidunn 
Leonardi 1901. Borland J. G. 1956 (2) was the first and only one who 
has in any degree re-examined a specimen of the original material and, 
although he g;we little or no further data and no figures, on com- 
parison with the larva of Neolrondndhum tricuspidum he was of the 
opinion that as more data became available the two genera might be 
validly separated. 

With a view to clearing up the question I have been endeavouring 
for some time to trace the deposition of the original material and 
lately, through the good offices of Dr. D. E. Johnston of the Institute 
of Aearology, Agricultural Experiment Station, Wooster, Ohio, I 
have been privileged to receive on loan from Dr. J. F. Gates Clarke 
and Dr. K W. Baker of the Division of Insects, Smithsonian Institu- 
ting Washington, D.C., a paratype slide of Monunguis slreblida 
Wharton, and 1 am indeed grateful to these gentlemen for the 
opportunity of redescribing the species. 

The paratype slide examined is labelled as follows: 
on the left hand side as — 

iL Morwnyx streblida n.g. n.s.p. G. W. Wharton, Duke U. 
Co-type *' 

Alongside this label is another red one marked — 

"Co-type No. 1393, U.S.N.M." 
on the right hand side as — 

"On Trichobius dugesii, Cinque de Mavas Cave, Tekax, 
Yucatan. A. S. Pearsc coll. no. 162, July 29-193(5 Lot. 36-31564". 

Dr, Baker informs me that the other two slides in the collection 
are similarly labelled, except that both specimens were from 
Pter ellipsis araneae. One of these is marked "Tvpe" the other 
"Co-type". 



WOMERSLEY— MONUNGUIS WHARTON 1938 



479 



The generic name used on the slides "Mononyx" was evidently 
changed before publication on realization of its having been used 
earlier. Before considering the affinities and validity of the genus, 
the species is redescribed and refigured from the paratype specimen 
seen, as follows : 

Monunguis streblida Wharton 

Wharton, G. W. 1938, Acarina of Yucatan Caves. Carnegie Institute 
of Washington, Publ. 491, p. 150-151, fig. 25-28. 

Fig. 1, A-B, 2, A-E 

Larva: Body elongate oval (pear shaped; Borland), nearly twice 
as long as wide, 514/* by 29$*, Scutum triangular with anterior apex, 
with 3 pairs of blunt ciliated rod-like setae and one pair of long 
filiform nude sensillae arising from large alveolae, a crista is distinctly 
present extending from the more or less straight posterior margin 



?OOm 





Fig. 1. A-B. Monunguis streblida Wharton. A. dorsum, E. venter ( Original, from 
paratype). 



480 



RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 




Fig. 2. A-E. Monunguis streblida Wharton. A. dorsal scutum, B. palp, O. chelicerae, 
D. tibia and tarsus of leg I, E. dorsal setae (Original, from paratype). 



WOMERSLEY— A/O/V UNGUIS WHARTON 1938 481 

to the anterior apex of the scutum, it is more clearly defined anteriorly, 
between the feemriUae bases and at the posterior end; in between these 
areas it is less demarcated and bulbous. The Standard Data in micra 
are AW 9, MW 46, PW 73, SB(p) 35, A-P 67, AL 26, ML 29, PL 15, 
Sens. 58, SD 78. The eyes are large, two on each side, on ocular 
shields in line with the sensillae bases, posterior eyes the smaller. 
Ohelicerae with well selerotised and strongly angled blade without 
teeth. Galeal seta short and as far as can be seen shortly ciliated. 
Palpi stout, femur with a long strongly branched seta as figured, genu 
with a similar shorter seta, tibial setae not clearly seen but claw 
strong thick and bifurcate, tarsus not clear. 

Dorsum with approximately 50 pairs of ciliated tapering setae, 
lengthening posteriorly from 17 to 30/*, in irregular transverse rows. 
Ventrally with the coxae as figured, I and II separated (as stated by 
Wharton (6)), but only narrowly so and for not more than the width 
of the urstigma, II and III widely separated, all coxae with a long 
tapering ciliated seta. Between coxae I with a pair of setae, between 
coxae III with two pairs of setae, and posterior of coxae III with 
approximately 30 piars of setae similar to dorsal. 

Lvc/s: Alt 6-segrnented, although there is an indefinite division 
of the femur, leg I "293/4 long, II 283j*, III 370^, tarsus I 72m long, 
each tarsus with a single strong claw 24/* long, tarsi I and II each with 
a long snleuidia and other sensory setae as in fig. 2D. 

AFFINITIES OF THE GENUS 

In his original description of Monunguis, Wharton considered 
it to be closely related to Rohaultia Ouds. 19U (4) (now regarded as 
synonymous with Johnsfoniana George 1909) agreeing with it in the 
possession of two pairs of eyes, a crista, a rostrum, divided femora 
and a single seta on each coxa, but differing in having only a single 
pair of |K-( k ij<h:)s1i-*inata and a single, claw on each tarsus. In a brief 
research note in 1947 (7) however, he raised the possibility of 
Monunfmis being synonymous with Ncotro?nbidiuni Leooaxdi 1901 as 
Follows "The larvae of Neotrombidiitni have not been previously 
recognized. However they have been described under the generic 
name Monunynis • ■ • •" 

In 1954 Southcott (5) described the larva of Neotrnmbidium 
barrintf urn' rise Hirst, and in discussing the relationship with Monunguis 
streblida Wharton stated that "That* are so many resemblances 



4K- RECORDS OF THE S.A. MUSEUM 

betweta these larvae that there appears little doubt that Monvnoms 
and Neotrovibulhnn are congeneric and as the latter genus has priority 
it must take precedence over M<nu<riqids.' n 

h\ 1956 Borland (2) 111 discussing (he genus Nvotrombidnim in 
the United States, described a new larval species A T , trtcuspidum as 
well as the adults reared from the larvae. In this paper he also 
refers to fcWO larvae ftf a second but umleseribed species, He had the 
opportunity of examining a "Aihiftte** of Mnvvnfjms strcblida 
Wharton, and conchulefl "if is the opinion of the writer that while 
recognition of fcbfl synonymy (with Nrolrombidhtm) may he expedient 
at this time, as more data becomes available the two genera may be 
validly separated. At present consolidation of the group appears 
desiralile.' Borland unfortunately did not give any frrsh figures of 
the specimen examined and only made the following comments on 

morpliofagfaal Peftturegj "The larval scutum of fflf, Btrebllda bears at) 

incipient crista which te not present in the known larvae nf 
Neotrafflbidium although upon careful comparison faint traces can 
be &eeil in Nvntromh'idium, Therefore will) respect to the scutum, 
M, sln'hlnhi differs from Neofromhidiitnt larvae in degree only. 
However tot)] the form of the body setae ;iijr| the body shape aeeffl to 
80< /I/, slnbllda apart from the larva of N cntramhidium. The setae, 
particularly those of the scutum, are much more plumose, bearing 
strong branches, and are more numerous on the dorsum than in either 
M, tricris.pidum or A 7 . barringwimSB, whose setae mv sparse and with 
indistinct barbs. Nmivnnnis str< hfid< ( is pear-shaped, as opposed to 
the ovoid body form of A r . tricuspidiitH arid A T . haninywnev The 

rhelirera) blades of .17. streblida are peculiarly modified", 

Southeott in his 1954 paper (5), and again in 1957 (()), notes that 
although Wharton did not figure the ventral surface he did state that 
eoxao 1 and II were separated as in 'fKft&wItw", lie also noted 
that the Single tarsal claw and the shape and e.haototaxy of the scutum 
strongly resembled that of N rotromlndium, but that the curious 
structure between flic scuta! sonsillae figured by Wharton has no 
comparable strueture in Neohnhibtdivm and might from its appearance 
be an artefact. From the figures now given, of the paratype specimen 
examined it will be seen that while the shape and ehaototaxy of the 
scutum do resemble those of Neofrombidhim there is a. very definite 
crista which is moderately wide posteriorly, narrows between the 
posterior sensillae and then swells out, narrows again and then 
expands to