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Full text of "Records of the South Australian Museum"



RECORDS 



OF THE 



SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 



VOLUME 17 



Published by the Museum Board, and edited by the 
Museum Director 



ADELAIDE 1974-1979 



CONTENTS 

Nc. 1. A revision of the described Australian and New Zealand species of the family 
Clambidae (Coleoptera) with description of a new species. S. Endrddy- 
Younga. pp. 1-10. 

(Issued 13 August 1974) 

No. 2. A revision of the Australian genus Stenospidius Westwood (Coleoptera, 
Scarabaeidae, Geotrupinae). H. F. Howdcn, pp. 11-21. 
(Issued 15 November 1974) 

No. 3. Notes on Bronze Age antiquities in the South Australian Museum. J. V, S. 
Megaw. pp. 23-29. 

(Issued 10 January 1975) 

No. 4. Lunghia Gudemans (Acari: Dermanyssidae); a genus parasitic on mygalomorph 
spiders. Robert Donirow. pp. 31-39. 

(Issued 24 January 1975) 

No. 5. Taxonomy and biology of frogs of the Litoria citropa complex (Anura: Hylidae). 
Michael J. Tyler and Marion Anstis. pp. 41-50. 
(Issued 7 March 1975) 

No, 6. A revision of the Pentatomidae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera) of the Rhynchocoris 
group from Australia and adjacent areas. Part 1. The genera from Orirrhoe 
through Cuspicona to Petalaspis with descriptions of new species and selection 
of lectotypes. Gordon F. Gross, pp. 51-167. 
(Issued 22 December 1975) 

Nos. 7-12. Vertebrate type-specimens in the South Australian Museum. 

I, Fishes. C. J. M. Glover, pp. 169-175. 

II. Amphibians. Michael J. Tyler, pp. 177-180. 

III. Reptiles. Terry F. Houston, pp. 181-187. 

IV. Birds. Herbert T. Condon, pp, 189-195. 
V. Mammals. Peter F. Aitken. pp. 197-203. 

VI. Fossils. Neville S. Pledge, pp. 205-219. 
(Issued 1 September 1976) 

No. 13. The Dermaptera of the New Hebrides. A. Brindle. pp. 221-238. 

(Issued 1 December 1976) 

No. 14. The genus Micratetmmeres Travassos (Nematode, Spirurida) in Australian 
birds. Patricia M. Mawson. pp. 239-259. 
{Issued 1 February 1977) 

No. 15. Taxonomic studies of some Australian leptodactylid frogs of the genus 
Cyclorana Steindacher. Michael J. Tyler and Angus A. Martin, pp. 261-276. 
(Issued I March 1977) 

No. 16. A new species of Thylacoleo (Marsupialia: Thylacoleonidae) with notes on the 

occurrences and distribution of Thylacoleonidae in South Australia. Neville S. 
Pledge, pp. 277-283. 

(Issued 1 June 1977) 

No. 17, Metasquaiodon harwoodi (Sanger, 1881). A redescription. Neville S. Pledge and 

Karlheinz Rothausen. pp. 285-297. 

(Issued 8 August 1977) 

iii 



No. 18. Protura (Insects) of the New Hebrides. S. L. Tuxen, pp. 299-307. 

(Issued 10 September 1977) 

No. 19. Brachina meteorite — A chassignite from South Australia. J. E. Johnson, June 
M. Scrymgour, Eugene Jarosewich and Brian Mason, pp. 309-319. 
(Issued 2 November 1 977) 

No. 20. Austrulites of mass greater than 100 grams from South Australia and adjoining 
states. W. H, Cleverly and June M. Scrymgour. pp. 321-330. 
(Issued 20 February 1978) 

No. 21. Three large australir.es from South and Western Australia. June M. Scrymgour. 
pp. 331 335. 

(Issued 23 February 1978) 

No. 22. Variation in the cranial osteology of the Australo-Papuan hylid frog Litoria 
infrafrenata. Margaret M. Davies, pp. 337-345, 

(Issued 28 February 1978) 

No. 23. A review of the frond-like fossils of the Ediacara assemblage, Richard J. F. 
Jenkins and James G. Gehling. pp. 347-359. 
(Issued 18 May 1978) 

No. 24. Some observations on the Eyrean grasswren Amytornis gayderi (Gould, 1875). 
5. A. Parker, I. A. May and W. Head. pp. 361-371. 
(Issued 30 May 1978) 

No. 25. Echinoderm type-specimens in the South Australian Museum. W. Zeidler. pp. 
373-380. 

(Issued 7 June 1978) 

No. 26. Mollusc type-specimens in the South Australian Museum. 1. Cephalopoda and 
Seaphopoda, W. Zeidler and M. K. Macphail. pp. 381-385. 
(Issued 12 June 1978) 

No. 27. Treponematoses (yaws and treponarid) in exhumed Australian aboriginal 
bones. C. J. Hackett. pp. 387-405. 

(Issued 25 July 1978) 

No. 28. A new species of viviparous asterinid asteroid from Eyre Peninsula, South 
Australia. Michael J. Keough and Alan J. DartnalJ. pp. 407-416. 
(Issued 31 July 1978) 

No. 29. The genus Bathycuelia A. & S. in New Guinea and Prytanicoris gen.nov. from 
the New Guinea area and the New Hebrides (Heteroptera-Pentatomidae- 

Pentatominac), Gordon F. Gross, pp. 417-428. 
(Issued 2 August 1978) 

No. 30. The tribe Hyalopeplini of the world (Hemiptera: Miridae). Jose C. M. 
Carvalho. The Australian fauna in collaboration with Gordon F. Gross, 
pp. 429-531. 

(Issued 10 September 1979) 



IV 



■ - 



RECORDS OF THE 
SOUTH AUSTRALIAN 
MUSEUM 



A REVISION OF THE DESCRIBED AUSTRALIAN 
AND NEW ZEALAND SPECIES OF THE FAMILY 
CLAMBIDAE (Coleoptera) WITH DESCRIPTION 
OF A NEW SPECIES 



By S. ENDRODY-YOUNGA 



SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 
North Terrace, Adelaide 
South Australia 5000 



VOLUME 17 

NUMBER 1 

13th August, 1974 



A REVISION OF THE DESCRIBED AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND 

SPECIES OF THE FAMILY CLAMBIDAE (COLEOPTERA) WITH 

DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES 



byS. Endrody-Younga 



Summary 



The type specimens of all species described under the family Clambidae were studied. In the 
present paper holotypes are confirmed and lectotypes designated where necessary. The systematic 
position of the species is clarified and a new species described. 

The taxonomic status of the family has changed remarkably since it was established by Thomason 
in 1859. Later authors of the last century placed the group under the family Silphidae or 
Anisotomidae (Leiodidae) until it was restored again as an independent family in the suborder 
Staphylinoidea. More recent work by Crowson (1960) resulted in the transfer of the family to the 
superfamily Eucinetoidea, sub-order Polyphaga. 



A REVISION OK THE DESCRIBED AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND SPECIES OF 
THE FAMILY CLAMBIDAE (Coleoptera) WITH DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES 

By S. ENDRODY-YOUNGA 
F.A.O. Entomologist 1 



ABSTRACT 

ENDRODY-YOUNGA, S. $73, A revision of the 
described Australian iind New Zealand species of the 
Familv Clambidac (Coleopleia i with description of a 

new spivies. AVi S. siitst. Mils., 17 II): I- Id. 

The type specimens of all species described 
under the family Clambidae were studied. In 
the present paper holotypes are confirmed and 
lectotypes designated where necessary. The 
systematic position of the species is clarified and 
a new species described. 



INTRODUCTION 

The taxonomic status of the family has 
changed remarkably since it was established by 
Thomson in 1 859. Later authors of the last 
century placed the group under the family 
Silphidae or Anisotomidae (Lciodidac) until it 
was restored again as an independent family in 
the suborder Staphylinoidea. More recent work- 
by Crowson ( I960) resulted in the transfer of 
the family to the superfamily Eucinetoidea, sub- 
order I'olyphaga. 

The members of this family can easily be 
recognized by the small size (0* 7-2-0 mm) and 
convex shape, by the rolled up resting position 
when the clypeus is curled under the pronotum 
(most of the specimens are mounted in this 
position ) and by the extremely enlarged hind 
coxal plate. Olher characters are: head very 
broad, nearly as broad as pronotum. broadly 
rounded in from; pronotum large, convex, not 
deeply excised in front to accommodate a narrow 
head as with many Anisotomidae; scutellum 
triangular with sides about equal (in the similar 
shaped Cybocephalidae the scutellum is very 
broadly obtuse-angled): antennae consisting of 
two enlarged basal and two club segments with 
Usually six funicular segments ( four only in 
ihe Palacarctic genus Lancaster Muls. & Rcy ) ; 
tarsal formula 4-4-4; tibiae simple, not serrate in 
contrast to Anisotomidae. 

I wish to express my gratitude to the colleagues 
Who supplied material and enabled me to study 
the type specimens, notably the late Mr, H. M. 
Hale. Dr. E. D. Giles, Mr. G. F. Gross and 



1 Present address: Transvaal M 



Mr. N. McFarland of the South Australian 
Museum, Adelaide: Dr. J. VV. Evans of the 
Australian Museum, Sydney; Mr. R. D. Pope 
and Miss C. M. F. von Hayek of the British 
Museum (Natural History), London. 

SYSTEMATIC TREATMENT 
Key to Genera 

1 . Front and basal margins of pronotum meet in it 

sharp angle, not forming laterally a straight 01 
arcuate margin (Fig. I A). Eyes free at the side 
of the head (Fig. I A). Metastenuim evenly 
convex for its whole length (Fig, 1 D), Abdo- 
men of 6 segments 

Calyptomcnis Redtenbacher 

Pronotum with distinct, straight or arcuate lateral 
margin (Fig. I B). Fyes completely enclosed in 
the disc of the head or only free behind (Fig. 
1 B. C), Surface of meiaslernum sharply angled 
along Ihe arcuate transversal crest (Fig. I E) 
Abdomen of 5 visible segments 2 

2. Eyes framed in front by art extension of clypeus 

(temporal margin) but free behind (Fig. I C"). 
Penis between bilohed or deeply emarginuted 
parameres .... Sphat'iciltorux F.ndrody-Yoiinga 

t yes completely trained by the temporal margin of 
clypeus and divided into a dorsal and a ventral 
half, Parameres fused into a single plate with 
pointed, arcuate or eivtarginutc apex 

Cltiinhiix Fischer von Waldlicim 

Genus CALYPTOMERUS Redtenbacher. 1849 

Caly/>lomerii\ Redtenbacher, J 849, Fauna Aus- 

triaca, Kafer, p. 18, 159; Endrocly-Younga, 

1959, Opusc.Enl. 24: 84-85; 1961. Acta 

Zoo). Acad. Sci. Hung.. 7; 401-412. 

CotnatuS Fairmairc & Laboulbene. IS54-56, 
Faune Hnt.Fr.,Col., 1:312, 328. 

Small, convex, reddish brown with dense covet 
of long yellowish hairs. Body both in dorsal and 
in lateral view pear-shaped e.i. broadest and 
highest close to the shoulders. Flead broad, 
clypeus broadly arcuate, in the middle finely 
cmarginated. Eyes on the hind angle of head, 
free (Fig. 1 A) or shortly framed in front (the 
European C. alpestris Redtb.). Pronotum very 
broad and short, convex with sharp lateral angles 
(Fig. I A) instead of lateral margins. Mela- 
sternum gently convex between mesosternum 
and hind coxal plates (Fig. I D). not sharply 

useum. Pretoria. South Africa. 



I3r/i August, 1974. 

I 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (1): 1-10 



August, 1974 



angled to form a transversal crest in the middle 
of metasternum. Antennae 10 segmented with 
two enlarged basal and two club segments. Male 
genitalia consisting of two basally fused para- 
meres, a pointed tongue-shaped penis, and an 
open, ring-shaped basal plate. 

The genus comprises four species, described 
from the Palaearctic and Nearctic regions 
(Alaska). One of the species however is also 
known from South Africa (Cape Province), 
and the same species was recorded more recently 
from Tasmania, where it was described as 
Clambus corylophoides Lea. 

J. Calyptomerus dubius (Marsham, 1802) 
(Fig. 1 A, 1 D, 2 G) 

Scaphidium dubium Marsham, 1802, Ent.Brit. 
1: 234. 

Comazus enshamensis Stephens, 1829, 111. Brit. 
Ent.Mandib., 2: 184; Johnson 1966. 
Entomologist's mon. Mag., 101: 186. 

Calyptomerus troglodytes Fauvel, 1861, Ann. 
" Soc.Ent.Fr., (4) 1: 576. 

Clambus corylophoides Lea, 1912, Proc.Lin.Soc. 
N.S.Wales, 36: 458 (syn.nov.). 

Calyptomerus dubius Endrody-Younga, 1959, 
Opusc.Ent. 24: 84-85; 1961, Acta Zool. 
Acad.Sci.Hung., 7: 411-412. 

Location of types: 

Scaphidium dubium Marsham, British Museum? 

Comazus enshamensis Stephens: without locality, 
British Museum, London. Lectotype 
designed by C. Johnson (1966). 



Calyptomerus troglodytes Fauvel: 
type unknown. 



location of 



Clambus corylophoides Lea: Lectotype <S and 
two para types: Hobart, Tasmania, A. M. 
Lea, in South Australian Museum, 
Adelaide. 

C. dubius is the smallest species of the genus. 
Sculpture of dorsal surface fine, pubescence com- 
paratively long and less dense than in other 
species. Apex of elytra truncate. Head broad, 
antennal fossa as long as the temporal margin 
of clypeus between eyes and side angle of 
antennal fossa. Eyes situated on the hind angle 
of head and completely free (Fig. 1 A). Surface 
of head shiny, with fine punctures at basis of 
hairs. Hairs longer and less dense than in other 
species, slightly elevated and forwardly directed. 
Pronotum broad and short, as long as head; 
front and basal margins joining laterally in a 
sharp angle (Fig. 1 A). Pubescence similar to 
that of the head but directed from the centre of 
disc towards the margins. Elytra hardly longer 
than combined breadth, at apex commonly 
truncate; laterally and at the suture finely 
margined. Microsculpture around scutellum very 
fine, laterally and towards apex more distinct. 
Pubescence similar to that of the pronotum, 
directed from base to apex. Ventral side with 
stronger microsculpture, pubescence shorter and 
denser than on dorsal surface. Male genitalia 
0-3 mm and 0-12 mm broad, stout in com- 
parison to other species of the genus. 
Parameres narrow, hardly longer than penis 
(Fig. 2 G). 



Length : 
mm. 



1-1-1 -6 mm— breadth: 0-6-0-8 




FIG. l 

A Calyptomerus dubius Marsh., head and pronotum in lateral view. 

B Clambus sp. head and pronotum in lateral view. 

C Sphaerothorax suffusus Broun: head, dorsal view. 

D Calyptomerus dubius Marsh., body in lateral view (position of metasternum). 

E Clambus sp., body in lateral view (position of metasternum). 



ENDRODY-YOUNGA— AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND CLAMBIDAE 



Distribution: Europe (except northern areas), 
Morocco, South Africa (Cape Province), Tas- 
mania. The origin of the South African and 
Tasmanian populations is not known; importa- 
tation is likely but there is no evidence. 

Three type specimens of Clambus corylo- 
phoides Lea in the South Australian Museum 
were examined, The male specimen, without 
head and pronoUim, was dissected. The external 
characters as well as those of the male genitalia 
are identical with specimens of Calyptomerus 
dubius Marsh, from the Palaearctic and from 
South Africa; therefore Clambus corylophoides 
Lea has lo he considered as a junior synonym 
of Calypiomcrus dubius Marsh. 

Genus SPHAEKOTHORAX Endrody-Younga, 
1959 

Sphaerothorax Endrody-Younga, 1959, Opusc. 
Ent., 24: HS-.S9; I960, Ann.Hist.Nat.Mus. 
Hung., 52: 241-244; 1965, Ann.Hist.Nat. 
Mus.Hung., 57: 259. 

Type: Clambus tasmani Broun. 

Morphologically this genus is intermediate 
between Calyptomerus and Clumbus. It seems, 
to be endemic to the Australian region. 

Convex, especially in front; shiny reddish 
brown lo almost black; some species with sparse 
and long setae on head, pronorum and elytra. 
Head narrower than pronotum, short, clypeus 
flatly arcuate in front. Antennal fossa far in 
front of eyes ( like Calyptomerus but in contrast 
to Clambus). Eyes framed by temporal margin 
of clypeus but free at back, behind the 
temporal angle (Pig 1 C). Pronotum longer 
and broader than head, as broad as elytra at 
shoulders. Lateral margin between front and 
hind angles distinct, more or less arcuate. Elytra 
convex, margined al the sides and from behind 
scutellum at suture. Melasternum large, with a 
sharp transverse crest about in the middle; hind 
part of metasiernum horizontal, slightly convex 
transversally. front part almost vertically drop- 
ping to metasiernum (Fig. I E). Mesosternum 
very small. Hind coxal plates large, much longer 
than hind part of metasternum. Abdomen five 
segmented. Antennae 10 segmented with two 
enlarged basal and two large club segments. 
Pararneres bilobed, fused al base, penis varying 
in shape according to species. 

The external characters o\ the species are noL 
veiy marked and without comparative material 
it is difficult to distinguish the three species. The 
male genitalia however are very distinctive for 
each species. 



1. Horizontal, hind pail of melasternum wilh clear-cut, 

large punctures tor whole width. Minute pubes- 
cence of head and pronotum more visible. Sub- 
sutural margins ol elytra visible close behind 
scutellum. Penis belween the large and rounded 
pararneres appearing thin and strongly curved 
(Fig. 2 C, D). 1-4-1 '6 mm. Tasmania 

I. Splnierothtinix ricrensix (Blackburn) 

Horizontal, hind pari ot metasternum without clear 
and distinct puncialion in the middle. Minute 
pubescence and punctation of head and pronotum 
not or hardly visible. Subsutural margins of 
elytra appear further behind scutellum. Para- 
mero lobes pointed, penis not curved back towards 
the base 2 

2. Larger, more elongate. Elytra behind shoulders 

semiparallel, in lateral view suiural line not 
evenly curved. Penis dilated before pointed apes 
(Fig. 2 V. V). lO-l-f) mm. Tasmania 

2 sphaerudwiax tuxmuni (Blackburn) 

Smaller, elytra both in dorsal and in lateral view 
evenly arcuate. Penis broad at base with a long 
and narrow apical process (Fig. 2 A. B). 
1 -2 mm. New Zealand 

3. Spluwrolhora.x siil'lnxiix (BrOun) 

L Sphaerothorax tierensis (Blackburn, 1902) 
(Fig. 2 C-D) 

Clambus tierensis Blackburn, J 902, Trans.Roy. 
Soc.S.Austr.. 26: 289; Lea. 1912, Ptoc.Lin, 
Soc.N.S.Wales, 36: 459, 

Clambus latens Lea. 1912, Ptoc.Lin.Soe.N.S, 
Wales, 3fo: 457 (syn. itov ), 

Clambus pubiventris Lea, 1912. Proe.Lin.Soc, 
N.S. Wales, 36: 456 (syn. no\>.), 

Sphaerothorax tierensis Endrody-Younga, I960, 
Ann. Nat. Hist.Mus. Hung.. 52: 242. 

Location of types. 

Clambus tierensis Blackburn: Lectotype $ , Tas- 
mania. British Museum (Natural History). 
London. 

Clambus Iatens Lea: Lectotype t* and three 
further paratypes, Stonor, Tasmania (prob- 
ably from tussocks). A, M. Lea, in South 
Australian Museum, Adelaide. 

Clambus pubiventris Lea: Hololype 3 and two 
further paratypes from the same locality, 
Mount Wellington, Tasmania. A. M. Lea, 
in South Australian Museum, Adelaide. 

Elongate ovate, shiny dark brown with lighter 
transparent lateral lobes of pronotum and front 
margin of clypeus. Lighter coloured specimens 
not rare. 



RFC S. AUST. MUS 17 (1) 1-10 



iiUSUSt. 1974 






B 



G 



FIG. 2 

A Splun'Miliuros suffiiMis Broun, aedeagus in venlral view; 

B same in lateral view. 

C Sphaerathontx tiemuk Blackb., aedeagus in ventral viesv; 

D same in lateral view. 

E Sphavrolliiinix tasmani Blackb., aedcagun in ventral view; 

V same in lateral view. 

C Culyplomi'iiix dahlia Marsh., aedeagus in ventral view. 



Head broad and short, narrower and shorter 
than pronotum. Front margin of clypeus 
between the antenrial fossa slightly trilobate, 
median lobe almost four times broader than one 
of the lateral ones; median lobe very flatly 
arcuate, finely emarginate in the middle. 
Pubescence of disc very short and fine with a 
few short additional setae. Elytra much longer 
than their combined breadth (46:38), evenly 
arcuate, both in dorsal and in lateral view. Sub- 
sutural striae of elytra appear close behind 
scutelktm, there line, slightly diverging from one 
another, behind the last two-fifths very distinct, 
parallel. Surface shiny with nearly evenly dis- 
tributed and similar setae. Hind, horizontal 
pari of metasternum with distinct, large punc- 
tures. Punctures in the middle set in two to 
three rows but more confused laterally. Inclined 
setae of transverse crest do not reach the hind 
margin of metasternum. Short and dense 
pubescence of abdomen collected into a tuft on 
anal steniite. Male genitalia 0-45 mm long and 
0-2 mm broad (Fig. 2 C. D). 

Length : 1 • 4- 1 • 6 mm — breadth : -8-0-9 mm , 

Distribution; Tasmania: Hobart, Stonor, 
Mount Wellington. New Norfolk. 

The type specimens of Clamhus latens Lea 
are paler than average 5. tierensis but are 
obviously immature, the genitalia of the dissected 
specimen (lectotypc) are feebly sclerotised. No 



specific difference could be found between the 
compared lectotypes. therefore Clambus latens 
Lea has to be considered as a junior synonym 
of Sphaerothorax tierensis (Blackburn). 

The type specimens of Clambus pubiventris 
Lea are similar to 5. tierensis (Blackb.). The 
aedeagus of the first specimen on the label 
(holotype) is visible without dissection and is 
identical with that of S. tierensis. The colour 
and setae of the elytra mentioned as specific 
characters by Lea in the original diagnosis are 
also characters of 5. tierensis. The size of the 
type specimens is within the size range of 
S. tierensis and in the shape no distinct difference 
could be found. Clambus pubiventris Lea has 
to be considered as a junior synonym of Sphaero- 
thorax tierensis ( Blackb. ) . The three type speci- 
mens are mounted on the same label, the first 
from the left, marked as **typ" by Lea should be 
accepted as holotype. The specimen in the 
middle had no head and pronotum at the time 
of the present examination. 

2. Sphaerothorax (asmaiii (Blackburn. 1902) 
(Fig. 2 E-F) 

Clambus tasmani Blackburn. 1902, Trans.Roy. 
Soc.S.Austr.. 26: 288. Lea, J 912, Proc. 
Lin.Soc.N.S.Wales. 36; 458. 

Clambus rnfocastaneus Lea, 1912, Proc, Lin. Soc. 
N.S. Wales, 36: 457 {syn. now). 



BNDRODY-YOKNG A— AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND CLAMRIDAI 



Sphuerorhnnn lusmani Endrody-Younga, 1959, 
OptBcfirtt, 24: 89; I960, Ann.Hist.Nat. 
Mus.Hung., 52: 243-244. 

Location of types: 

Clamhus tasmani Blackburn: Lectotypc 6, 
Tasmania, in British Museum (Natural 
History), London. 

Clamhus vujfnastaiicus Lea: Lectotypc 6 , Huon 
River, Tasmania (in tussocks), A. M. Lea, 
and one further paratype from the same 
locality, in South Australian Museum, 
Adelaide. 

Elongate ovate, shiny reddish or chestnut 
brown, lateral lobes of pronotum and lateral 
margins of elytra ( where body does not give a 
shade) lighter transparent. Setae of elytra 
numerous, very strong and long. 

Head shorter and narrower than pronotum. 
Front margin of clypeus slightly trilobate, 
median lobe less than double width of a lateral 
lobe. Front margin of median lobe only very 
slightly arcuate, not cmarginate in middle. Setae 
of clypeus longer than in i'. tierensis but the fine 
pubescence even less visible. Pronotum convex, 
margin of lateral lobes finely arcuate, front and 
linn! angles rounded but distinct. Surface very 
shiny with a pair of setae (on rubbed specimens 
only the basal punctures visible). Elytra longer 
than combined breadth (45:36). Sides in dorsal 
view nearly parallel behind shoulders. Sub- 
sutural striae distinct but shorter in front, first 
visible at the first two-fifths behind scutellum. 
Setae on disc and lateral margin similar, very 
long and strong. Horizontal, hind part of meta- 
sternum shiny, only punctate laterally close to 
the transverse crest. Recumbent setae of crest 
reach or surpass the hind margin of metasternum. 
Abdomen densely pubescent with a tuft of 
short hairs on the anal stemite. Male genitalia 
0-5 mm long and 0- 15 mm broad (Fig. 2 E. F). 

Length: 1 -4-1 -6 mm — breadth: 0-8-0-9 mm. 

Distriliiniott: Tasmania: Launceston, Mount 
Wellington, Ftankford. 

The type specimens of Clamhus rufocastaneus 
Lea are identical with specimens of .S'. tasmani, 
the male genitalia are also similar. The smaller 
size and lighter colour mentioned by Lea in the 
Original diagnosis are within the variability of 
S. tmmani. and the subsuturat striae arc also 
characters of it. Clamhus ruhxustaneus Lea 
lias to be considered as a junior synonym of 
S. tasmani (Blackb.). 



3. Sphaerothorax siiftiisus (Broun, J 886) 
(Fig, 1 C, 2 A-B) 

Clamhus suffnsns Broun, 1886. Man.N.Zeal. 
Col., 2: 762. 

Sphaerothorax maori Endrody-Younga, 1959, 
Opuse.Enl., 24: 90; 1960, Ann.Hist.Nat. 
Mus.Hung.. 52: 243. 

Sphaerothorax sutfusus Endrody-Younga. 1965, 
Ann.Hist.Nat. Mus.Hung.. 57: 259. 

Location of types: 

Clamhus sufftisus Broun: Lectotypc i , New 
Zealand, Broun Coll. in British Museum 
(Natural History). London, 

Sphaerothorax maori Endrody-Younga: Holo- 
type & , Wellington Prov.. New Zealand, 
and a paratype, Auckland, New Zealand, 
in British Museum (Natural History), 
London. A further paratype with the latter 
locality in Natural History Museum. 
Budapest, 

Smaller, elongate ovate, shiny reddish brown 
with lighter sides of pronotum and elytra. Setae 
of elytra somewhat shorter and less numerous 
than in S, tasmani, but much longer than in 
S. tierensis. 

Head much shorter and, also narrower than 
pronotum. Front margin of clypeus slightly 
trilobed, median lobe less than double lite- 
breadth of a lateral lobe: front margin of lobes 
more arcuate (Fig. 1 C). Setae of clypeus short, 
fine pubescence of disc hardly visible Pro- 
notum convex, margin of lateral lobes evenly 
arcuate between lateral angles. Surface shiny 
with a pair of long setae. Elytra only slightly 
longer than combined breadth (39:3h), Sides 
in dorsal view, and sutural line in lateral view 
evenly arcuate. Subsutural striae of elytra first 
appear just before the second third of length. 
Setae numerous along lateral margins with some 
additional ones at shoulder and neat apex. 
Ventral side similar to that of S. tasmani, but 
without the accumulation of hairs on anal 
sternite. Male genitalia 0-48 mm long and 
0-1 mm broad (Fig. 2 A, B). 

Length: 1 -15-1-35 mm— breadth: 0-85-0-90 
mm. 

Distribution: New Zealand: Wellington. 
Auckland. Rotorua 

Genus Clambiis Fischer von Waldheim. 1820 

Clamhus Fischer von Waldheim. 1820. Eul 
Russ., 1: 20. Endrody-Younga, 1960, 
Acta Zool.Acad.Sci.Hung., 6: 257-303. 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (1): 1*10 



Annum, 1974 



Johnson, 1966, Handb.ldent.Brit.Ins., 
Clambidae, vol. 6. part 6 (a}; 1-13 (Roy. 
Eul. Soc.London). 

Stermicluts Leeonte, 1 850, in Agassiz (ed. ). 
"Lake Superior", p. 222. 

In general appearance the genus is very homo- 
geneous and most of the species can only be 
characterized by minute but usually very constant 
characters. The male genitalia ( penis and the 
fused parameres) appear to be the best specific 
characters. 

Small, between 0-9 and 1-8 mm, almost 
spherical to elongate ovate, scmiglobular to pear- 
shaped, i.e.. flattened or narrower towards apex 
of elytra. Surface polished, shiny or sometimes 
with reticulate mictosculpture. if latter, more 
distinct at apical part of elytra or on ventral 
surface. Pubescence very characteristic, varying 
from hardly visible fine hairs to a fairly dense 
vestiture of long setae. Normally unicoloured 
brown or black, usually with lighter transparent 
lateral margin of pronotum and elytra. 

Head large and broad, clypeus broadly arcuate 
between temporal angles. Eyes entirely framed 
by temporal margin of clypeus (Fig. I B), 
divided into a dorsal and a ventral part. Hind 
angle of clypeus (temporal angle) situated beside 
or behind eyes. The pubescence of clypeus is 
characteristic and can be used for the grouping 
of species. Pronotum large and convex with 
distinct lateral margins. Lateral margin broadly 
and almost evenly arcuate, or straight between 
front and hind lateral angles, hind angle if dis- 
tinct more flatly arcuate than front angle. Elytra 
longer, only exceptionally slightly shorter than 
combined breadth, uniformly convex, or flattened 
or contracted towards apex. Metastcruuin. along 
a deeply bent transverse crest, divided into an 
almost vertical front and a horizontal hind part 
(Fig. 1 E). Metasternum very short, only 
accommodating median coxae. Abdomen 5- 
segmented. Antennae 10-segmented with two 
enlarged basal and two club segments. Penis 
dilated or tubular, parameres fused at base, there 
with an additional, usually less sclerotised, 
genital segment. 

The genus is widely distributed in all tem- 
perate and tropical regions. Only four species 
are known from the Australian region. 

SYS I EMATIC TREATMENT 

Kky co Si>iicir;s at rue Australian Region 

1 . Head, pronotum and elytra apparently hairless In 
macroscopic view hut minulc hairs visible under 
strong magnification. Punctation on whole disc 



of elytra very fine. Horizontal, bind part of 
mcusternum reduced to the deeply curved trans- 
verse crest at the middle (Fig. 3 A) .... .. 2 

Dorsal and ventral surface distinctly pubescent 
Punctation of elytra line at base but very distinct 
behind I he middle. Horizontal, hind pail of 
metasternum also quite long medially, transverse 
crest less curved (Tig. IE) 3 



2. Temporal margin of clypeus almost siraight in front 

Of temporal angle (Fig. 3 B). Somewhat more 
elongate ovate, shoulders almost rectangular (Fig. 
3 C). Apex of anal sternite simply excised with 
only one horizontal set of hairs (Fig. 3 D) . Club 
of antennae broader ovate, last funicular segments 
broader than long, Penis simply curved (Fig. 

3 F). apex triangular and shorter (Fig. 3 E), 
I -3 mm. Southern Australia 

I . Cltimhus inyrmccophilu; Lea 

temporal margin of clypeus slightly more arcuate 
in front of temporal angle. More broadly ovale, 
shoulder broadly rounded (Fig. 4 A). Excision 
of anal sternite double curved, larger aiea pubes- 
cent (Fig. 4 B). Club of antennae with semi- 
paratlel sides, last funicular segments not broader 
than long. Apex of penis distinctly hooked (Fig. 

4 Dl and more elongately pointed (Tig. 4 C), 
I -3 mm. New Zealand 

2. ( liinihux bulla spec nov. 

3. Pubescence more disunci. longer, hairs on elytra 

closer to each other than length of a single hair. 
Temporal margin ot clypeus straight to the 
temporal angle. Penis truncate or flattened at 
apex (Fig. 5 A). I 0-1 '2 mm. Tasmania, 
South Australia 

3. Clumbus simsoni Blackburn 

Pubescence not so distinct, shorter, hairs of elytra 
more spaced than length of a single hair Tem- 
poral margin of clvpeus slightly arcuate in front 
of temporal angle. Margins of penis evenly 
curved towards the rounded opes (Fig. 5 C). 
0-9-0-95 mm New Zealand. Southern Australia 
4. Clambtts rffftnesfivNK Broun 

1 . Ciambus myrmeenphilus Lea, 1910 
(Tig. 3 A-F) 

Clamhus mvrmecophiliis Lea, 1910, Proc.Roy. 
Soc. Victoria. 23: 190. 

Location of types: 

Clamhus myrmecophihis Lea; Holotype ? . Port- 
land, V,, Inquiline, in South Australian 
Museum, Adelaide; Neoallotype •'< , South 
Australia, in author's collection. 

Very convex, reddish brown, shiny, apparently 
glabrous, pubescence extremely fine. 

Head large, convex, as large as pronotum 
between front angles of lateral lobes, Margin 
of clypeus evenly curved between temporal 
angles. Labrum very small. Eyes large on 
dorsal side, somewhat closer to temporal margin 



t-NDRODY-YOUNGA— AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND CI AMBIDAb 



than to antennal fossa; on ventral side only few 
I probably three) ocelli free (Fig. 3 B), a similar 
reduction of eyes is known also from other 
regions (c.f. C, kaszxtbi E.-Y. from Norlh 
Africa). Temporal margin only slightly curved; 
temporal angles behind eyes (Fig. 3 B). Pro- 
notum convex, lateral lobes with short straight 
lateral margins, front angles narrower than hind 
angles. Elytra very convex, only slightly longer 
than combined breadth (38; 35); sides in dorsal 
view and stilural line in lateral view evenly 
arcuate. Humeral angle of elytra sharp, almost 
rectangular (Fig. 3 C). Subsutural striae very 
faint, only visible near apex. Apical angles 
sharply rectangular. Ventral surface shiny; 
pubescence as fine as on the dorsal surface but 
basal punctures of hairs more distinct. Trans- 
verse crest of metasternum very deeply bent in 
the middle, there touching the hind margin of 
the plate (Fig. 3 A). Hind coxal plate large, 
longer than horizontal part of metasternum 
laterally ( Fig. 3 A). Apex of anal sternite simply 
and angularly excised with only a single line of 
line and short yellowish hairs at base (Fig. 3 D). 
Antennae short, last two segments of funiculus 
(seventh and eighth segments) broader than 
long; club ovate. Penis 0*32 mm long and 
0'04 mm broad, parallel to apex; apex triangular 
with tip rounded; in lateral view simply curved. 
Parameres 0*2 mm long and 0*06 mm broad, 
deeply and symmetrically excised, excision acute- 
angular, apices with very tine setae ( Fig. 3 E, F). 
The description of male characters is based on a 
specimen from South Australia in the author's 
collection ( Ncoallotype) . 




fig 3 

A CUnnlnis niyrmccophilits Lea, melaslcrnum and hind 
coxal pl.ilt; 

K jiidic. eye with temporal margin and angle in dorsal 

view wilh the position of -ventral ocelli marked; 
C same, humeral angle, semidorsa! view: 
D same, excision of anal sternite: 
E same, acdeayu.s in ventral view; 
t same, aedeagus in lateral view. 



1-3 mm with head bent — breadth: 
Distribution: Victoria, South Australia. 



Lenxtii : 
0-88 mm. 



2. Clambus bulla Fndrody-Yoimga, n. sp. 
(Fig. 4 A-l)) 

Holotype t : New Zealand, Broken Riv., 
15.1.1 90S, Broun coll., 1922-482, in 
British Museum (Natural History) London. 

Very similar to C. mxrmccopbihis. The diag- 
nosis is restricted to characters which are 
different; others mentioned only under the 
former species are identical. 





FIG. 4 



A Ct<inihii\ hullo Spec.rlOV, humeral angle in semi 

lateral view; 
B same, excision of anal Mernite; 
( same, aedeayus in vcnlraJ view: 
D same, aedeagus in lateral view 

More broadly ovate, temporal margin of 
clypeus somewhat more strongly bent (compare 
Fig. 3 B). Humeral angle of elytra rounded 
(Fig. 4 A). Elytra shorter, as long as combined 
breadth. Excision of anal sternite double-curved 
at base, here more densely pubescent (Fig. 4 B). 
Last two segments of funiculus (seventh and 
eighth segments of antennae) not broader than 
long; club of antennae more parallel at sides. 
Penis 0-4 mm long and 0-05 mm broad, apex 
more acute with tip rounded. Apex of penis 
hooked in lateral view, Fused parameres 0*28 
mm long and 0-08 mm broad slightly dilated 
towards apex, apex symmetrically but less deeply 
excised, excision rectangular (Fig. 4 C, D). 

txngth; 1-3 mm, with head bent — bread fit: 
1 -0 mm. 



Distribution: New Zealand. 



RK S. AIJST. MUS., 17 (1): 1-10 



.Uiviisl, 1974 



3. ('Iambus simsoni Blackburn, 1902 
(Fig. 5 A-B) 

Clnmbus simsoni Blackburn, 1902, Trans. Roy. 
Soc.S.Austr., 26: 288. Endrody-Younga, 
1959, Opusc.Ent., 24. 95; 1965. Ann.Hist. 
Nat.M ns. Hung.. 57: 260-261. 

Chimbus fkvtpes Lea, 1912. Proc.Lin.Soc.N.S. 

Wales, 36: 456 (syn, now). 

Location of types: 

Clnmbus simsoni Blackb.; Lectotype 3 , Tas- 
mania, Simson, Broun Coll. B.M. 1910- 
236, in British Museum (Natural History). 
London. 

Chunbus fluvipes Lea: Holotype 8, Gordon 
River, Tasmania, J, E. Philip, in South 
Australian Museum, Adelaide, 

Light to dark brown with long shiny pubes- 
cence. Moderately convex. Front part of dorsal 
surface shiny, with only indistinct micro- 
sculpture and minute basal punctures of hairs, 
latter becoming very distinct in the hind third of 
elytra. 

Head large, margin of clypcus broadly and 
evenly arcuate between temporal angles. Tem- 
poral margin almost straight between antennal 
fossa and temporal angle. Temporal angle 
situated beside eye, i.e., an imaginary line 
between temporal angles cuts through eyes. Eyes 
large both on dorsal and ventral side of head. 
equally close lo antennal fossa and to temporal 
margin in front. Pubescence uniform, shorter 
than on elytra. Pronotum convex. Hind angle 
of lateral lobes broadly, front angle more 
narrowly, arcuate; lateral margin slightly curved. 
Pubescence as on head. Elytra longer than com- 
bined breadth (35:30), sides more strongly 
arcuate towards apex than behind shoulders. 
Humeral angle nearly rectangular or slightly 
obtuseangulate. Sutural line in lateral view more 
strongly arcuate behind scutellum than towards 
apex. Sutural striae line, appearing only before 
middle of elytra. Pubescence long, more closely 
set than the length of hairs. Transverse crest of 
liietasternum moderately bent in the middle, here 
also leaving a comparatively long piece of die 
horizontal part. Hind, horizontal part of the 
metaslernum, hind coxal plates and abdominal 
segments evenly pubescent, as on elytra; basal 
punctures of hairs strongest on hind coxal plates. 
Legs and antennae reddish yellow, Penis 
0-27 mm long and 0-04 mm broad, parallel, 
with apex contracted. Apex broadly truncate; 
in lateral view slightly curved lo paramercs, 
apical two-thirds straight, Fused paramercs 



0-15 mm long and 0-05 mm broad, contracted 
towards apex, apex excised with line setae at 
points (Fig. 5 A, B). A specimen from 
S.E. Queensland has broader penis with less 
contracted apex. 

Length: I "0-1 '2 mm with head bent — 
breadth', 0-75-0-85 mm. 

Distribution: Tasmania and Eastern Australia. 

The type specimen of C. flavipes is light brown 
and therefore its pubescence less apparent, 
though identical with that of darker specimens. 
Subsutural striae present, very line as is general 
with this species. Male genitalia identical with 
that of the lectotype of C. simsoni. Chunbus 
fluripes Lea has to be considered as a junior 
synonym of (Iambus simsoni Blackb. 

4. Clnmbus domesticus Broun, I8S6 
(Fig. 5 CD) 

Clcunbus domesticus Broun, 1 886, Man. N. Zeal. 
Col., 3: 762. Endrody-Younga, 1959. 
Opusc.Ent., 24: 96; 1965, Ann.Mus.Nat. 
Hist. Hung., 57; 259-260. 

Chunbus tropicus Blackburn, 1903, Trans. Roy. 
Soc.S.Austr. 27:97. 

Location of types: 

Clcunbus domesticus Broun: Lectotype i , New 
Zealand. Broun coll., B.M. 1922-482. 
(1350). in British Museum (Natural His- 
tory ), London. 




FIG. 5 

A Clamhni stmnonl BIflC&b., uedeauu* in veal rut view. 

B same, uedeagns in laieral view. 

C CUimtun ilomi'sticus Broun, acdeagus in ventral uew; 

D lame, siedeagus in lateral view. 



LNDRODY-YOUNGA— AUSTRALIAN AND NEW /LAI AND CCAMB1DAK 



Clambus tropicus Blaekb.: Lectotype 9, Aus- 
tralia. Blackburn coll., B.M. 1910-236, in 
British Museum (Natural History), London. 

This species is very similar and is apparently 
closely related to C. simsoni. Therefore the 
diagnosis hereunder is only extended to those 
characters which are different; others, mentioned 
only under C. ,\im\i>ni arc identical. 

Smaller, pubescence much shorter, dark, less 
apparent. Colour, punetation and microscul|3- 
ture similar. Temporal margin of clypcus dis- 
tinctly arcuate in front of temporal angle, latter 
less obtuse. Pubescence denser in front of, than 
between the eyes. Pubescence of elytra similar 
to that between eyes, hairs wider apart than their 
length. Pubescence of ventral surface longer 
than that of dorsal surface, here very similar to 
C. simsoni. Penis 0*22 mm long and 0-04 mm 
broad, simply curved to the apex, in lateral view 
more smoothly arcuate. Fused parameres 0-14 
mm long and 0-05 mm broad, truncate or 
slightly emarginate at apex, rounded apical 
angles with fine setae (Fig. C. D). 

Length: 0-9-0-95 mm with head bent — 
bread ili: 0-7 mm. 

Distribution: New Zealand and Southern 
Australia, 



C Iambus vesritus Broun, 1886, Man.N.Zeal.Col., 
2: 762. 

Lcctotypus & : New Zealand, in British Museum 
(Natural History), London. 

The species apparently belongs to the family 
Anisotoniidae. The generic characters of die 
species required the establishment of a new genus 
and it was transferred to the family Anisotoniidae 
( Leiodidae ) under the name AusTraliodes 
vestitus (Broun) in Endrodv-Younga, f960, 
Ann.Mus.Nat.Hist.Hung., 52: "239-240. 



SUMMARY 

Since 1886, when the second part of Broun's 
Manual of the New Zealand Coleoptera was 
published with the description of the first species 
of Clambidae in this region. 16 species have 
been described, all, with one exception, under 
the genus Clambus. The revision of these 
species was begun by the present author in 1959 
when a genus, Sphaerothora.x, was established 
for a distinctly different group of the family. 
Later, after a study of the type specimens of the 
British and South Australian Museums, a further 
genus, Calyptomcnis Redth. is identified and the 
taxonomic status of all described species clarified. 
Ckunbus bulla is described as a new species. 



TaNonomic status tit Other fxio described under the 
family Clambidae 

CUtmbiis semijlavus Lea, 1926, Proc.Roy.Soc.S. 
A ust r., 50: 5 I . 

Leetotypc / : Northern Queensland, Blackburn 
coll.. in South Australian Museum, 
Adelaide. 

The species belongs to the genus Cyboccphalus 
Erichson in the family Cybocephalidac. In that 
genus this species name is already preoccupied 
by Cyboccphalus scmiflavus Champion, 1925, 
Etil.Mo.Mag.: 263. from Kumaort, India. Lea's 
species has therefore to be transfeircd lo the 
family Cybocephalidac under a nomen novum, 
lor which I propose Cyboccphalus Icai nom.nov. 

Clambtts australiac Lea, 1926, Trans.Ent.Soc 
London, 74: 280, 

Lectotype & : VVest Australia, King George's 
Sound, C. Darwin coll.. in South Australian 
Museum. Adelaide. 

This species also belongs to Cyboccphalus 
Erichson. Cybocephalidac and becomes Cybo- 
ccphalus australiac (Lea) nov. comb. 



RfFFRfcNCEvS 

Blackburn. T . 1 002. Further Notes on Australian dleop- 
lertt (31). inms. ft. .v,« . A. ,4„\i., 26; 28S-32I. 

Blackburn, T., 1903. Further Notes on Australian Coleop- 
tera, with Descriptions of New Genera mid Species 
(32) Traits R. Sac. S. .■lust.. 27: 91-182. 

Broun, T., 1 886. Manual itf the New ZealnnU Coleoptera, 
7 parts (1880-9.1). Colonial Museum & Geological 
Survey Department, Wellington, 

Champion, G, C, 1925. Some Indian (and Tibetan) 
Coleoptera (IS). Entomologist's nton. Mas., 61; 
260-273, 

Lrowson. R. A„ I960 (1954). The Natural Classification 
of the Families of Coleoptera. Classey. London 

Crowson. R. A.. 1967. The Natural Classification ot" the 
Families of ( oleopteni Addenda ct Corrigenda. 
I.tuomolo^isls's num. Mag., 103: 209-214. 

Endrody-Yoimga. S. 1959. Systemahscher Lleberblick 
ueber die Familie Clambidae. Opittc. cut., 24: 81-116. 

Lildrddy-Ycuiiiiia, S., I960, Monographic der pnlii.ul. 
tischen Arten tier Gallung Clamhus (Col.). Acta 
zool.-luiun . fi: 257-301. 

Fndtody-Younga. S., 1960 Ncue Augaben zttr 

kUirung des Systems der Familie Clambidae nnd 
tteschreibuny einer neucn Liodiden-Gattnng I Coleop- 
tera). Ann}) liisl.-iml. Mus. mil. htfn&n Sxi 239-245. 

Fnilrody-Youngu, S., 1961. Revision der Gammis 
Calvpiomeius Reillb. tCoteoptera: Clambidne). Acta 
zooi htmg., 7: 401-412. 

LndiiHtv-Yiiiinga, S., 1965. Clambidcn Suidien. Aunts 
Itisl.-imt. Mus. twin hunt,:, 57- 259265. 

Fainnaire. L. & l.abonlbene. A,. 1854-56. Faune ento- 
mologique Francaise. Coleoptera I: pp. 665. Deyrolle. 

Paris* 



II) 



RFC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (I): 1-10 



August, 1974 



Fischer von Waldheim, G., 1820. Entomographie de la 
Russie et Genres des Insectes avec un Catalogue 
raisonne des especes de la Russie. 5 Vols. Soc. 
Caesar. Mosc.natur. Moscow. 

Johnson, C, 1966. Handbooks for Ihe Identification of 
British Insects, Clambidae, Coleoptcra, Royal Ento- 
mological Society, London, 4, 6a: 1-13. 

Johnson, C., 1966. The Stephensian Species of the Family 
Clambidae (Col.), together with a Revised British List 
of the Family. Entomologist's tnon. Mag., 101: 
185-188. 

Lea, A, M., 1912. Descriptions of New Species of Aus- 
tralian Coleoptera (9). l J roc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 36: 
426-478. 

Lea, A. M., 1910. Australian and Tasmanian Coleoptera 
inhabiting or resorting to the nests of ants, bees and 
termites. I'roc. R, Soc. Vict., 23: 116-230. 

Lea, A. M., 1926. Notes on some miscellaneous Coleop- 
tera with descriptions of new species (6). Proc. R. 
Soc. S. A u.st., 50: 45-84. 

Lea, A. M., 1926. On some Australian Coleoptera Collected 
by Charles Darwin during the Voyaee of the "Beagle". 
Traits. R. eni. Soc. Loud., 74: 279-288. 

Leconle. J. L., 1850. General Remarks upon the Coleop- 
tera of Lake Superior. In "Lake Superior", Vol. 4 
(L. Agassiz ed.). Agassiz, New York. 

Marsham. T., 1802. Entomologia Britannica, sistens 
Insecta Britanniae indigena secundum Linneum dis- 
posita pp. 548. White, London. 

Rcdtenbacher, Dr. L., 1849. Fauna Austriaca, Kiifer, pp. 
883. Ceroid, Vienna. 

Stephens, J. F.. 1829-1846. Illustrations of British 
Entomology, Mandibulata, 7 Vols. (2 and 5). Baldwin 
& Cradock, London. 

Thomson, C. G.. 1859. Skandinaviens Coleoptera, 5 Vols. 
(1859-63) Lund. 



LIST OF SPECIES 

Family Clambidae 

Calyptomerus Redtenbachcr 

C. duhitts Marsham 

= Clambus corylophoides Lea 

Sphaerothorax Endrody-Younga 

S. tierensis (Blackburn) 

= Clambus tierensis Blackburn 

= Clambus latent Lea 

= Clambus pubiventris Lea 

S. tasmani (Blackburn) 

= Clambus tasmani Blackburn 
— Clambus rufocastaneus Lea 

S. sufjusus (Broun) 

= Clambus suffuilts Broun 

= Sphaerothorax maori Endrody-Younga 

Clambus Fischer von Waldheim 
C. niyrmecopliiltis Lea 
C. bulla spec. nov. 

C. simsoni Blackburn 

= Clambus flavipes Lea 

C. domesticus Broun 

=a Clambus tropicus Blackburn 

Family Cybocephaudae 
Cybocepbalus Erichson 

C. leal nom. nov. 

= Clambus semiftavus Lea 

C. austral iae (Lea) 

= Clambus australiae Lea 

Family Leiodidae 

A ttstraliodes Endrody-Younga 

A. vestitus (Broun) 

= Clambus vestitus Broun 



RECORDS of the 
SOUTH AUSTRALIAN 
MUSEUM 



^ ^.ir^bae. 



A REVISION OF THE AUSTRALIAN GENUS 

STENASPIDIUS WESTWOOD (Coleoptera, 

Scarabaeidae, Geotrupinae) 



By H. F. HOWDEN 



SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 
North Terrace, Adelaide 
South Australia 5000 



VOLUME 17 

NUMBER 2 

15th November, 1974 



A REVISION OF THE AUSTRALIAN GENUS STENASPIDIUS 
WESTWOOD (COLEOPTERA, SCARABAEIDAE, GEOTRUPINAE) 



byH. F. Howden 



Summary 



The Australian genus Stenaspidius Westwood is revised, and the species are keyed and illustrated. 
Five species are recognized: S. nigricornis Westwood from southern Western Australia, S. brittoni 
n. sp. from southern Western Australia, S. matthewsi n. sp. from west central Western Australia, S. 
ruficornis Boucomont from South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales and S. albosetosus n. 
sp. from the northern portions of Queenlsand, Northern Territory and Western Australia. 



A REVISION OF THE AUSTRALIAN GENUS STENASPIDIUS WESTWOOD 
(COLEOPTERA, SCARABAEIDAE, GEOTRUPINAE) 

By H. F. HOWDEN 

Biology Department, Carlcton University, Ottawa, Canada 



ABSTRACT 

HOWObN, H. P, 1'»7I. A revision of the Australian 
genus Strniixpirfiit.'i Westwood (Coleoplera, Scaraliaeidac, 
Geotnmpinae). Rec. S Aust. Mw„ 17 (2): 11-21. 

The Australian genus Sretmspidiits Westwood 
is revised, and the species are keyed and 
illustrated. Five species are recognized: 5. 
nigricomis Westwood from southern Western 
Australia, 5. brittoni n, sp. from southern 
Western Australia, 5. matthewsi n. sp. from west 
central Western Australia, S. ruficornis Bouco- 
mont from South Australia, Victoria and New 
South Wales and S. albosctosns n. sp. from the 
northern portions of Queensland, Northern 
Territory and Western Australia. 

INTRODUCTION 

On 21st March, 1848, J. O. Westwood read 
a paper entitled "On the Australian species of 
the coleopterous genus Bolboceras, Kirby" in 
which he described as new the species Bolboceras 
(Stenaspidins |new subgenus]) nigricomis. A 
short version of I his paper which validated the 
names was published in 1848 in The Annals and 
Magazine of Natural History, Volume 2. An 
expanded version of the same paper, including 
figures, was subsequently published in 1852 in 
The Transactions of the Linnean Society of 
London, Volume 21. In 1856 Lacordaire gave 
Stenaspidins Westwood generic rank, and sub- 
sequent authors have concurred with this. In 
1906 a second Australian species, S. ruficomis, 
was described by Boucomont. Paulian (1939) 
described a third species, S. wagneri, from South 
America which was later correctly synonymized 
by Martinez (1952) under Athyreus ruftcollis 
Bruch (1925), At the same time Martinez 
transferred rubcollis into the genus Stenaspidius. 
Recent studies have shown that ruftcollis is not 
congeneric with the Australian species and it 
has been transferred to a separate genus 
Bolbothyrcus (Howdcn, 1974). Stenaspidins, 
as presently constituted, is an endemic Australian 
genus containing five species. 

A number of people have assisted me with the 
present study and their generous help is grate- 
fully acknowledged. In the following list of 
persons and institutions lending material, the 
abbreviations in parentheses are those used in the 
text: 

IStlt November, 1974. 

) 



E. B. Britton, Australian National Insect 
Collection, Division of Entomology, 
CSIRO, Canberra (ANIC). 

A. Descarpeniries, Museum National 
d'Histoirc Naturelle, Paris (MNHN). 

G. Holloway. The Australian Museum, 
Sydney (AM). 

L. E, Koch, The Western Australian 
Museum, Perth (WAMJ. 

E. G. Matthews, South Australian Museum, 
Adelaide (SAM). 

A. Neboiss, National Museum of Victoria, 
Melbourne (NMV). 

R. Pope, British Museum (Natural 
History). London (BM). 

K. T. Richards. Entomology Branch 
Department of Agriculture, W.A., South 
Perth (DAWA). 

T. Weir and N. Forrester, Entomology 
Section, Agriculture Branch, Northern 
Territory Administration, Darwin 

(NTA), 

I am particularly indebted to E. G. Matthews 
and G. F. Gross of the South Australian Museum 
for support for field work in July and August, 
1972, and for the use of their facilities, and to 
E. B. Britton. CSIRO, Division of Entomology, 
for the use of facilities at Canberra. 

The scanning electron microscope pictures 
used herein were taken by L. E. C. Ling, 
Carleton University. This work has been sup- 
ported, in part, by an operating grant from the 
National Research Council of Canada. 

SYSTEMATIC TREATMENT 

Stenaspidius Westwood 

Westwood, J. O., 1848. p. 144; 1852, p. 17. 

Lacordaire, T., 1856, p. 141. 

Martinez, A., 1952, p. 326 (Catalogue of refer- 
ences to genus). 

Howden, H. F.. 1974, p. 1567. 

Type-species. Bolboceras (Stenaspidinr) 
nigricomis Westwood, 1848, by monotypy. 



12 



REC. S. AUST. MUS.. 17 (2): lt-21 



Npvctnhut, 1974 



Major characters that separate Stenaspidius 
from other genera in the tribe Bolboceratini are 
as follows: Each mandible moderately to dis- 
tinctly lobed on outer margin; labrum with 
irregular transverse carina, at least in median 
half; clypeus slanting slightly to abruptly 
upwards to posterior carina, the carina often 
with median and lateral horns or tubercles; gena 
rounded or angulate; vertex with at least an indi- 
cation of median horn; pronotum with complete 
marginal Jinc, pronotal midline poorly to deeply 
indented; scutellum approximately twice as long 
as wide; eacb elytron with five striae between 
suture and humeral urn bone, intervals broadly 
convex; fore tibia with five teeth on outer 
margin; middle and hind tibiae each with one 
complete subapical transverse carina on outer 
surface; middle coxae distinctly separated by 
metasteinum. External sexual differences slight, 
in many males apex of the genital capsule visible 
between pygidium and last sternite. 

The elongate scutellum will separate Stenas- 
pidius from all other genera of Australian 
Geotrupinae except fix the genus Gilletinus 
Boucomont, The broadly convex clytral 
intervals and five narrow striae between the 
suture and humeral umbone separate Stenas- 
pidius from Gilletinus which has seven deep, 
broad, heavily punctate striae (instead of five) 
and abruptly convex clytral intervals. 

The various species of Stenaspidius are poorly 
represented in collections. Adults come 
occasionally to light. Specimens are best 
collected by excavating their burrows and, in 
some cases at least, a number of adults have been 
found in a single burrow. The meagre data 
available indicates that the genus occurs (see 
map) most frequently in sandy soils in areas in 
which the rainfall exceeds 250 mm per year. 

Key to the species of StrriaspicHits 

I. Frons, vertex and pronotum With scattered 

clumps of coarse punctures; much of vertex 

and central portion of pronolum impunetate 

or finely punctate . . 2 

Frons, vertex, and pronolum relatively evenly, 
coarsely, heavily punctate (Fig. 5). less so 
near posterior margin ol pronotum; K_al- 
barri area. W.A. 

Stenaspidiu.x malllicwsi n. sp. 

2 (!) Mctasierniim anteriorly elevated into a sharp, 
ahruplly angulate point (e.g. Fig. 22j; 
occurring in southern hall' of Western 
Australia 3 

Melasternum rounded or carinate anteriorly 
but with apex (viewed laterally) Tounded. 
not sharply angulate to vertical face t Figs 
23, 24); occurring in northern or eastern 
Australia A 



3. (2 1 Horn on vertex (Fig 2) distinctly transverse. 

usually slightly bifid at apex; male genitalia 
as in Fig. 20 

Sleimxpidiiis riigricorttix Westwood 

Horn on vertex (Fig. 3) longitudinal with 
base extending anteriorly, apex evenly 
rounded; male genitalia as in Fig, IS 

Stenasptrfiiw brluani n. sp. 

4. (2i Posterior clypcal carina well developed, distinctly 

narrowed, the three horns obsolete and 
close together; mctastcrnum distinctly 
carinate anteriorly: occurring in south- 
eastern Australia 

Sii-nmpiiliw; ruficomh Boucomont 

Posterior cJypeal carina poorly developed 
except for distinctly, widely separated 
horns; nietasiernum rounded anteriorly 
occurring across; northern Australia 

Sieiutspuluis alhosemsifi n. sp. 

Stenaspidius nigricornis Westwood 
(Figs. I, 2, J 9, 20. 22) 
tiolhoceras (Stenaspidius) nigricomis West- 
wood, 1S4S, p. 144- 1852, p. 17. 

StemispidiiiK nigiicomis Westwood, Boucomont. 
1932, p. 264. 

Males: Length 7-6 to 9-1 mm; greatest width 
4*5 to 6- 1 mm. Colour usually black, occasion- 
ally very dark brown; antennae and tarsi usually 
very dark brown, Clypeus (Fig. 2) rising at 
45 to 55 ' angle to posterior carina; carina, in 
large specimens, with three low horns, median 
horn anterior in position. Face of clypeus on 
each side with U-shaped carina extending from 
median to lateral horn, the area encompassed 
usually as wide as deep or wider. Frons and 
vertex behind clypeai horns concave anterior to 
horn on vertex Genu, frons, and vertex with 
scattered minutely or moderately sized punc- 
tures. Horn on vertex transverse, often pro- 
nounced (particularly in large specimens) and 
slightly bifid at apex (Fig. 2). Pronotum with 
midline distinctly indented, punctate; on each 
side on anterior third behind eyes a distinct, punc- 
tate indentation delimits an impunetate con- 
vexity (Fig. 1); pronotum in anterior lateral 
two-thirds moderately to heavily, irregularly 
punctate. Scutellum longitudinally shallowly 
concave; concave surface dull, often with vague, 
small punctures. Elytral striae moderately 
indented, finely punctate: intervals moderately 
convex, impunetate, smooth to vaguely trans- 
versely wrinkled. Metasteinum (Fig. 22) 
narrowed anteriorly to sharply pointed apex, 
anterior face nearly vertical, slightly indented 
near apex. Genital capsule (Fig. 19) evenly 
narrowed to abruptly rounded apex. Genitalia 
(Fig. 20) with upper lobe of each paramere 
narrowed, then dorso-ventrally expanding near 
pointed apex. 




Figs. 1-6, Stt'rtaxpiiliiis spp: l 5 Head and pronotum of S. nigricnrnis; 2, Head of 5. 

nigrkarnix; 3, Head of S. britlvni; 4, Head of S. ruficornis; 5, Head and pronotum of S, 

matlhewsi; 6, Lateral view of S. alboselosus. 



►2 



14 



RRC, S. AUST. ML1S.. 17 (21 11-21 



Ncvtmtec 1^74 



Females: Length 7*8 to 10 '5 mm, greatest 
width 4' 8 (o 6-9 mm. Variation in females 
similar to that described for males, horns of 
small females being poorly developed, those of 
large females well developed. External sexual 
differences negligible. 

Steiiasfiidiit.K nigricornix can he distinguished 
by the following combination of characters: 
metasternum (Fig. 22) anteriorly narrowed to 
acutely pointed apex, anterior face nearly 
vertical, slightly indented by apex; posterior 
clypeal carina well developed, the three clypeal 
horns of the carina obtuse, not greatly elevated 
above the carina, the two lateral horns directly 
above the mandibular insertions; horn on vertex 
transverse, usually well developed (Fig. 2) and 
slightly bifid at apex: male genitalia (Fig. 20) 
very distinctive. 

Type: Holotype. female. Swan River, No. 507 
(Hope Museum, Oxford); specimen examined 
February, 1973. 

Material examined; Thirty-one specimens 
bearing only the following data: 1 — Australia: 
3—S.W. Australia; 1 — Australia Orient., Febru- 
ary, 1896. Muller; 1— Nov. Noll. Oecid.; 2— 
Albany, W.A.; I— Bedfordale, W.A., March. 
1951, W. M. OTJonnell: 1— Calgardup, 40— 
1580: 1— Deepdene, Karridale. W.A„ 14lh 
October, 1962, L. M. O'Halloran; 4— King 
Georce Sound (nr. Albany). W.A.; 2 — Mundar- 
ing, W.A.. J. Clark; 1— Nedlands, W.A., 27th 
November, 1939. P. N. Forte; 1— Pearce, Bulls- 
brook. W.A., 13th January, 1966. O. W. 
Richards: 1— Salmon Gums, 43—1226; 1 — 
South Perth. W.A., 20th December, 1902, H. M. 
Giles; 2— Swan River. W.A.. J. Clark; 1— 
Vasse; 2 — •Warren R. (nr. Pemberton''), W.A., 
W\ D. Dodd: 4— William Bay, W.A., 3J.st 
October, 1967, E. Matthews; 1— Yallingup. 
S.W. Australia. tst-12th December, 1913. R. F. 
Turner. 

Specimens are in the following collections : 
AN1C, BM. DAW A. MNHN. NMV, SAM. 
VVAM and Howden. 

Stfnaspidins brittoni n. sp. 

i Figs. 3, 17, 18) 

Holotype: Male, length 8-7 mm, greatest 
width 5 • mm. Colour dark to very dark brown 
except dorsum of head and pronotum black. 
Clypeus (Fig. 3) rising abruptly to three horns 
at posterior margin; median horn anterior in 
position, with U-shaped carina on each side 
extending nearly to anterior margin of clypeus 



and thence to lateral horns; the U-shaped area 
approximately as deep as wide. Frons and 
vertex behind clypeal horns concave except for 
low. rounded, longitudinal median ridge extend- 
ing posteriorly to slender horn at base of vertex 
(Fig. 3). Gena and vertex laterally with 
scattered coarse punctures, central concave por- 
tion of vertex with widely scattered, line punc- 
tures. Pronotum with midline distinctly 
indented, punctate; on each side on anterior 
third behind eyes a shallow, punctate indentation 
delimits an impunctate convexity; pronotum in 
anterior lateral two-thirds with irregular coarse 
punctures, Scutellum longitudinally shallowly 
concave; surface of concavity dull, slightly 
irregular and with scattered line punctures. 
Elyttal striae moderately indented, finely punc- 
tate; intervals moderately convex, smooth, 
impunctate. Metasternum narrowing anteriorly 
to sharply pointed apex, anterior face vertical 
(metasternum very similar to iilgncoinis, Fig. 
22). Genital capsule (Fig, 17) evenly narrowed 
to acutely rounded apex. Genitalia (Fig. 18) 
with upper lobe of each paramere evenly arcuate 
to acutely pointed apex. 

Allotype: Female, length 7- 1 mm, greatest 
width 4-4 mm. Similar to male except in 
following respects: colour brown (specimen 
teneral). clypeus rising less abruptly, clypeal 
horns poorly developed; frons and vertex less 
concave, horn of vertex low, rounded; rounded 
longitudinal ridge extending anteriorly from base 
of horn less well defined than in male. 

Variation not mentioned in the description is 
slight. The single female paratypc measures 
6-6 mm in length and 4-2 mm in greatest width. 
The clypeal carina and the horn on the vertex 
arc both poorly developed, and distinctly 
abraded If the sexual differences in the horns 
of the head can be shown to be consistent, then 
S. brittoni must be considered to be the most 
obviously dimorphic species in the genus. 

StetHispid'uis htiuoni is most closely related 
to 5. nigriconib, differing from nigricornix in the 
following major characters: horn of vertex not 
transverse, rounded at apex; a low, rounded, 
longitudinal carina extending anteriorly from 
base of horn; genital capsule (Fig. 17) more 
acutely rounded at apex; genitalia (Fig. 18) 
with parameres evenly arcuate to acutely pointed 
apices. 

The species is named in honour of Dr. E. B. 
Britton. who has greatly facilitated my studies 
on the Australian Geofrupinae. 



V' 






■. ■ ■■■■.......... 

.-."■..■■■■-.i-.--..-'.,>-';;:=r;.-- 
■■;•=■.:■-., -.■ i- :■■..,-.•.-. ■■■ 

TBI 







^ 




11 



Ji 




Figs. 7-12. StenaspiJiits alboxctosus: 7. Hend of male from Queensland; 8, Head of male from Western 
Australia; 9. Male genital capsule. Queensland specimen; 10. Frontal view of male genitalia, Queensland 
specimen; 11, Lateral view of male genitalia, Queensland specimen; 12, Lateral view of male genitalia, 

Western Australian specimen. 



rfi 



MX. S. AUSt. MUS.. I? 12 J 1 1-31 



Nmrnilirr, 1974 



Type material: Holotype, male, no data 
(SAM). Allotype, female, Melville, Western 
Australia. No, 73/798 (WAM). Paratypc, 1 
female, Bunbury, Western Australia, Whitlock 
(AM). 

Slenaspidius inutthewsi n. sp. 

(figs. 5. 15. 16, 21) 

Holotype: Male, length 7*2 mm. greatest 
Width 4-5 mm. Colour dorsally very dark 
brown to black, ventral surfaces dark brown. 
Clypeus f Fig. 5) gradually sloped upward, .it 
10 to 15 . to low posterior carina; carina with 
three poorly developed horns, median one most 
prominent; U-shaped carina on either side 
anterior to median horn, irregular in shape. 
Vertex centrally with slightly bifid, transverse 
swelling. Entire dorsal surface of head coarsely, 
irregularly punctate. Pronotum (Fig, 5) with 
midline shallowly indented, on either side on 
anterior third of pronotum two or three vague, 
low convexities present; entire surface of prono- 
tum except for posterior median sixth, coarsely 
punctate, with tine secondary punctures inter- 
spersed. Scutellum longitudinally concave, con- 
cave surface dull, granular, with two or three 
coarse punctures vaguely indicated near base. 
Elytral striae moderately deep for genus, finely 
punctate; intervals smooth, evenly convex 
longitudinally. Metastetnum (Fig. 21) dis- 
tinctly narrowed and carinate anteriorly, apex in 
lateral view broadly rounded, lobe-sbaped. 
Genital capsule (Fig. 15) broad, tapering 
abruptly in apical third to rounded tip. Genitalia 
(Fig. lo) with parameres relatively broad, 
dorsally angulatc before rounded apices. 

Allotype: Female, length 7 '7 mm, greatest 
width 4-fc mm. Similar to male in all major 
external characters except median bifid tumosity 
of vertex slightly larger, probably a function of 
the larger size. 

Variation in the small scries is negligible. 
Si?e ranges from 7*0 to 9-1 mm with females 
averaging larger than males. Width varies from 
4*3 to 5*8 mm. The number of coarse punc- 
tures in the median, posterior third of the prono- 
tum shows some minor variation. In other 
respects the characters seem quite stable. 

Striui.spidius mutthewsi can be readily 
separated from the other species in the genus by 
the following combination of characters: 
posterior clypeal carina low, horns poorly 
developed; pronotum and head dorsally heavily, 
closely punctate, pronotal midline shallowly 
indented; male genitalia as in Fig. 16. 



It gives me considerable pleasure to name this 
species in honour of Dr. E. G. Matthews who has 
assisted me in many ways. We found the pre- 
sent species in open sandy areas along with 
several other species of Geotmpinae. One live 
foot square area when excavated to a depth ol 
about 18 inches yielded eight SteHOSpidlUS 
matthrwsi and five F.nciinihus fclschei Bouco- 
mont. There was little surface evidence of 
burrows and no indication of any food, except 
possibly some rich, black deposits of humus in 
the soil (humus is used as larval food by some 
North American Molboceratini; see Howden. 
1955). 

Type material: Holotype. male. 50 km E. 
Kalbarri, W. Australia, 6th August, 1972. E. G. 
Matthews (SAM ). Allotype, female, same data 
as hololype (SAM). Paratypes, 3 males, 5 
females: 3, same data as holotype; 4, 51 km E. 
Kalharri, near Murchison River. W.A., 30th 
July, 1972. fitta August. 1972, H. F. Howden; I, 
Highway I, 59 km north of Murchison River. 
W.A.. 4th August. 1972, H. P. Howden 

Paratypes are in the following collections: 
ANIC. SAM. Howden 

Stenaspidins ruficornis Boucomont 
(Figs. 4, 13. 14, 24) 
Bolhocrru.s (Slcmi\i'i(lin.s) ruFicoriiis Boucomont, 
190f>. p. 452. 
Males: Length 6-5 to 8-4 mm, greatest width 
4-3 to 5-5 mm, Colour dorsally dark reddish 
brown, frequently head and pronotum black, 
antenna! club usually reddish. Clypeus (Fig. 
4) rising abruptly l 90 ) to intuberculate 
posterior carina, the elevated tritubereulate 
portion of carina distinctly narrower than width 
of clypcus; anterior face with indistinct, irregu- 
larly U-shaped carina, the area encompassed 
deeper than wide. Clypcus. frontal area and 
gena with irregular, shallow, large puncture; 
frontal area behind clypeal carina concave, horn 
of vertex further forward than in nigricontis, 
transverse and slightly bifid at apex. Height of 
clypeal carina and of horn on vertex proportional 
to overall size, increasing in development as size 
increases. Pronolum with midline distinctly 
indented, on either side of anterior third of pro- 
notum a Second indented line, these indentations 
delimiting four broad, low, circular convexities; 
a pronounced transverse concavity present on 
pronotum behind head between anterior margin 
and circular convexities. Pronotal surface 
coarsely punctate on lateral thirds and to a lesser 
degree in indentations; convex areas largely 
impunctate. Scutellum longitudinally concave, 
concave surface irregularly, vaguely ridged and 
granular, Elytral striae moderately deep, finely 



HOWUbN— AUSTRALIAN GENUS STt NASPIOIUS WTSTWOOD 



17 



punctate; intervals moderately convex, either 
smooth or with vague transverse wrinkles. 
Metastcrnum (Fig. 24l carinate, the carina 
when viewed laterally with apex rounded to 
nearly vertical anterior face. Genital capsule 
(Fig, 13) apically moderately broadly rounded 
in outline. Genitalia (Fig. 14) with dorsal 
portion of each paramere produced into a 
slender cylindrical arch, 

Females: Length 7-2 to 9-1 mm, greatest 
width 4-7 to 5*8 mm. Exlernally not differing 
noticeably from males, the degree- of develop- 
ment of the clypcal carina and of the horn of 
the vertex being associated with size rather than 
showing any sexual dimorphism, 

The high, narrowed, trilubcrculate clypcal 
carina, the forward position of the horn of the 
vertex in line with the anterior edges of the eyes, 
and the reddish anlennal club arc characters that 
distinguish ruficomis from the other SteiuHpictitt*. 
The mole genitalia (Fig. 14) are also very dis- 
tinctive and the range is apparently allopairic 
from others in the genus. 

Types: Boucomont (1906) lists three speci- 
mens (cotypes): two from New South Wales, 
Australia, in (he "Dcutsches Entoniologisches 
National Museum" ('— Dcut. Ent. Institute. 
Berlin?) and one female labelled "Australia, ex 
Musaco Van Lansbcrgc*. now in the Paris 
Museum (MNHN). Since the species is easily 
recognizable and since T have seen only the Paris 
specimen, a lectotype designation does not seem 
to be necessary or advisable at present. 

Material examined' Twenty-live specimens 
with the following data: 2 — Australia: 2 — S. 
Australia: I — Adelaide. S. Australia: 1 — Luein- 
dale. South Australia: 2— Caulfield. Victoria. 3rd 
October, 1908, June. 1906: 3— North 
Melbourne, Vict,; 1 — Nova Holland. 50404. ex 
Mus. Murray; 1 — Portland. Vict., January. 
1938, C. Oke; I — Raymond Isl. near Bairnsdale, 
Vict.. 21st October. 1907. W. W.: 1— Seaford. 
Vict.. 4— Wannon, Hamilton. Vict. 10th Octo- 
ber. 1 947. B. B. Given; 6— Victoria. 

Specimens are in the following collections: 
ANIC, BM. MNHM. NMV. SAM~ Howden. 

Stcnaspidius albosetosus n. sp. 

(Figs. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, IE 12, 23) 

Holotypc: Male, length 9> 1 mm, greatest 
width 5-5 mm. Colour very dark brown with 
head, pronotum and seutcllum black; base of the 
antenna, sides of prothorax (on ventral surface), 
and base of scutellum densely fringed with con- 
spicuous, white setae; (in other species setae are 



less numerous and yellow, buff, or tan in 
colour). I lypeus (Fig. 7) rising abruptly to 
median anterior horn, gradually sloped upward 
to low. lateral portions of posterior carina: sur- 
face of clypeus divided into nearly equal thirds 
by U-shaped carina on either side of median 
tubercle or horn. Vertex posteriorly (Fig. 7) 
with low, slightly bifid transverse median 
tubercle; surface of frons and vertex between 
tubercle and clypcal carina Hat or slightly con- 
cave and with scattered line punctures. Prono- 
tum (Fig. 7) with midline slightly to coarsely 
punctate and shallowly indented, a transverse line 
of punctures present at anterior third: marginal 
line behind head thickened, rounded; behind 
this pronotal surface transversely concave, 
coarsely punctate; pronotal surface behind eyes 
shallowly. broadly concave; pronotal surface 
coarsely punctate laterally (Fig. 6) and in a 
band near posterior third, elsewhere surface 
largely smooth and shining. Scutellum slightly 
concave medially: surface closely, irregularly, 
coarsely punctate, less so along lateral margins. 
Elylral striae moderalcly indented, finely to 
obsoletely punctate: intervals moderately con- 
vex, smooth and shining. Mctasternum (Fig, 
23) with midline distinctly indented, except 
anteriorly, not carinate anteriorly, mctasternum 
anteriorly broadly rounded: surface with 
numerous coarse punctures. Genital capsule 
(Fig. 9) broad near abruptly rounded apex, 
dorsal surface near apex flat to shallowly con- 
cave. Genitalia (Figs. 10, 11) with each para- 
mere bent, then thickened before acute apex; 
lower lobe of each paramere slender and sharply 
hooked near midline. 

Allotype: Female, length 9-3 mm. greatest 
width 5-4 mm. Externally differing only sligbllv 
from holotypc in the following respects: anterior 
pronotal concavities smaller and shallow ft 
punctate areas similar but punctures smaller and 
more numerous: punctures of elylral striae 
slightly larger and better developed, 

Stcnaspidius albo&etostts ranges widely across 
northern Australia from Queensland to Western 
Australia. Variation in the series at hand is of 
two types, local and geographic. The small 
series from Cairns. Oueensland, varies from 6 to 
8 mm in length and from 3*5 to 5-5 mm in 
greatest width. The smallest specimen of this 
sones has the head and much of the pronotum 
heavily punctate, the pronotal concavities 
obsolete, and the clytral striae distinctly deeper 
and nurre heavily punctate than in the other 
specimens The degree of this ''local" type of 
variation is considerable, being equal to or 
exceeding the variation noted for the other 
species in the genus. 




14 



« I 




■■■ 






16 







>v 




.;':. :jsSgf;;;j 



I 



18 



Figs. 13-18. Sicninpiiliiis spp.: 13, Male genital capsule of S, ruficornis; 14, Male genitalia of S. rufirarnis: 15 Male_ genital 
capsule of 5. matrhewsi; 16, Male genitalia of 5. rnatthewsi: 17, Male genital capsule of i'. brittoni; 18, Male genitalia of 

5. brilloni. 




Figs. 19-24. Stenaspidius spp.: 19, Male genital capsule of S. nigricmnh; 20, Male genitalia of 5. 
nigri'cornis; 21, Metasternum of S. matthewsi; 22, Meiastcrnum of S. nigricoiiiis; 23, Melaslernuin of S, 

albosetosus; 24, Metasternum of S. rujicorms. 



20 



REC. S, AUST. MUS.. 17 (2): 11-21 



November. 1974 



Geographic variation is also evident and speci- 
mens from Queensland are consistently different 
from those occurring in the Northern Territory 
or in Western Australia. It could be argued 
that populations from these different areas 
should be recognized as taxonomically distinct. 
However, since the few specimens on hand seem 
to show concordant clinal variation, I consider 
the different forms as variants of one species. 
The major variation occurs in the development 
of the horns of the head, in the size and depth 
of the anterior pronotal concavities, in the shape 
of the apex of the genital capsule, and in the 
shape of the parameres of the male genitalia. 

In specimens from Queensland the clypeal 
carina is only slightly lower than the three 
tubercles (or horns). The tubercles are small 
and generally equally developed. The tubercle 
(or horn) on the vertex is low and vaguely to 
moderately bind. The anterior pronotal con- 
cavities vary from obsolete to shallow (Fig. 7) 
but distinct; distinct convex ridges surrounding 
the concavities are lacking. The male genital 
capsule is moderately broad and rounded at the 
apex. The male genitalia (Figs. 10, 11) have 
the parameres moderately thickened near the tips 
and the lower lobes slender and hooked. 

In specimens from the Northern Territory and 
Western Australia the clypeal carina is distinctly 
lower than the well developed tubercles or horns. 
The horn on the vertex is usually distinctly bifid 
(Fig. 8). The anterior pronotal concavities 
(Fig. 8) are deep, being surrounded laterally 
and posteriorly by convex ridges. The male 
genital capsule is flattened near the apex and 
very broadly rounded. The male genitalia (Fig. 
12) have the parameres more distinc'Iy 



thickened near the tips and the lower lobes 
wider. These differences seem to be consistent 
geographically, but with the differences discussed 
being based upon six specimens, my conclusions 
arc tentative. 

Slenaspidius aliwsetosus is at present the only 
member of the genus known to occur in the 
northern third of Australia. The numerous, 
long, white setae on the basal segments of the 
antennae and on the underside of the prothoracic 
margin will identify the species. Also the male 
genitalia are very distinctive. 

Type material: Holotype, male, Ycppoon, 
Queensland. 20th December, 1969, H. Evans 
and R. W. Matthews (ANIC). Allotype, 
female, same data as holotype (ANIC). 
Paratypes, 18 specimens: 5, Cairns, (N.) 
Queensland, (1) E. W. Ferguson; 1, Little 
Mulgrave R., Qld., Hacker; 1. Ravenshoe — ■ 
Ml. Garnet Road., Archers Creek, N. Qld., 
Australia, 11th January, 1962, E. B. Britton; 1, 
Rockhampton, Qld., 23rd March. 1950, I. F. B. 
Common; 2, Townsville, Qld., (1) N. B. Tin- 
dale. ( I ) 24th December, 1902, F. P. Dodd; 1, 
N. Queensland: 1, Q. (Victoria) (=museum?) 
Coll. French; 2, Berrimah Farm, N.T., 27th 
January, 1956, L. D. Crawford; I, Daly R., 
N.T., H. Wesselwan; 2, 80 km E. of Daly Waters 
on Borroloola Road. N.T., 20th March, 1972, 
A. Allwood and T. Angeles; 1, Wyndham, W.A., 
15th December, 1953, G. Luking, K. R. S., 
Light Trap. 

Paratypes are in the following collections: 
ANIC, BM, MNHN, NT A, SAM, Howden. 



HOWDEN— AUSTRALIAN GENUS STENASPIDIUS WESTWOOD 



21 




Fig. 25. Dislribution of Stenaspidius spp 

1, nigricornis Westwood; 

2, brittoni n. sp.; 

3, matthewsi n. sp.; 

4, ruficornis Boucomont; 

5, albosetosus n. sp. 




REFERENCES 

Boucomont, A., 1906. Description d'un Bolboceras 

nouveau. Dt. ent. Z. 2: 452. 
Boucomont, A., 1932. Genre nouveau et especes nouvelles 

ou peu connues de Bolbocerinia (Col. Scarabaeidae) 

Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 37: 262-268. 
Bruch, C, 1925. Coleopteros nuevos y poco conocidos 

Physis 8: 199-200. 

Howden, H. F., 1955. Biology and taxonomy of North 
American beetles of the subfamily Geotrupinae with 
revisions of the genera Bolbocerosoma, Eucanthus. 
Geotnipe.i and Peitolrupes (Scarabaeidae). Proc. U.S. 
nam. Mus. 104: 151-319. 

Howden, H. F., 1974 (1973). Bolbothyreits, a new genus 
for Stenaspidius ruficollis (Bruch) (Coleoptera, 



Scarabaeidae, Geotrupinae). Can. 
1571. 



Ent. 105: 1567- 



Lacordaire, T., 1856. "Histoire naturelle des insectes. Vol. 
3". Librairie Encyclopedique de Rorel, Paris. 

Martinez, A., 1952. Insectos nuevos o poco conocidos-IX. 
Revta. Soc. ent. argent. 15: 314-327. 

Paulian, R., 1939. Un nouveau coleoptere lamellicorne 
coprophage d'Amerique du Slid. Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 
44: 20-21. 

Westwood, J. O., 1848. On the Australian species of the 
coleopterous genus Bolboceras; Kirby. Ann. Mag. nat. 
Hist. Ser. II 2: 143-144. 

Westwood, J. O., 1852. On the Australian species of the 
coleopterous genus Bolboceras, Kirby. Trans. Linn. 
Soc. Loud. 21: 11-18. 



RECORDS OF THE 
SOUTH AUSTRALIAN 
MUSEUM 



NOTES ON BRONZE AGE ANTIQUITIES IN 
THE SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 



By J. V. S. MEGAW 



SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 
North Terrace, Adelaide 
South Australia 5000 



VOLUME 17 

NUMBER 3 

10th January, 1975 



NOTES ON BRONZE AGE ANTIQUITIES IN THE SOUTH AUSTRALIAN 

MUSEUM 



BY J. V. S. MEGAW 
Summary 



A single penannular bronze ring with a gold sheet is described from the holdings of the South 
Australian Museum. This piece of 'ring money' has been assigned to the Late Bronze Age. 
Three Irish bronzes, an axe and two halberds, are also described and figured. Metallurgical analyses 
of these are compared with similar objects from the British Isles. They have been tentatively 
assigned to the Irish Early Bronze Age, ca. 1600-1500 B.C. 



NOTES ON BRONZE ACE ANTIQUITIES IN THE SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 

By J. V. S. MEGAW 
Department of Archaeology, University of Leicester, England 



ABSTRACT 

MKGAW, J. V. S. 1974. Notes <m Brorue Age antiquities 
m the South Australian Museum. Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 17 
ii): 23-29. 

A single penannular bronze ring with a gold 
sheet is described from the holdings of the South 
Australian Museum. This piece of 'ring 
money' has been assigned to the Late Bronze 
Age. 

Three Irish bronzes, an axe and two halberds, 
are also described and figured. Metallurgical 
analyses of these are compared with similar 
objects from the British Isles. They have been 
tentatively assigned to the Irish Early Bronze 
Age, ca. 1600-1500 6,C* 

I. AN EXAMPLE OF BRITISH BRONZE 
AGE 'RING MONEY" 

As part of a survey of European prehistoric 
antiquities in Australian collections (Burke and 
Megaw. 1966: Megaw, 1964, 1965. 1969, 
1973), in February, 1970 I was able to study 
briefly the holdings of the South Australian 
Museum. Amongst a small group of non- 
Australian antiquities in the Museum is a penan- 
nular ring made of gold sheet over what seems 
without analysis to be a bronze core (Figs. 1-2). 




Kigs. 1-2: Bishopslone, Wiltshire. 'Hair ring' 

of sheet Catd over hrorue core. Seale 2: I 

DiawiiiK Hrviuki K Head; I'hclo. Si>mh 

Auxlnilian Museum 

Measuring I "4 cm in maximum diameter, the 
ring (Reg. No. A50523) was presented to the 
Museum in 1957 by Mr. Francis P. Dibben 
whose father, H. J. Dibben, had found it at 
Bishopstone, Wiltshire some time prior to 1907. 
An unpublished letter dated December. 1907 
from the Rev. E. Goddard notes this 'ring 
money' as die hrst found in the country and 

* In this paper jll dates quoted 
IQlh hiiimiiy, |4/s 



promises a published description which was 
forthcoming with a drawing of the Dibben ring 
as part of a long article on objects of the Bronze 
Age found in Willshirc (Goddard, 1911: 112. 
156 and PI. 7:14). Finds of miniature gold 
rings of this type (so-called 'ring money', once 
alleged on the grounds of its more or less 
uniform size and weight to be a primitive form 
of currency), though commonest in Ireland, 
occur both in Scotland and Southern Britain. 
At least one other example — apparently unasso- 
ciatcd — is recorded as having been found 
belween Bishopslone and Broad Chalk. This, 
with a cover of gold and silver bands is pre- 
served as an electrotype in the collections of the 
Devizes Museum (Goddard. 1911: nos. 293-4, 
1923: 251). 

The origin and indeed use of such gold- 
covered penannular rings is still very much a 
matter of dispute. In a general study of Bronze 
Age gold ear-rings Hawkes has considered the 
British 'ring money' as hair rings (Hawkes, 
1961: 453-6, 468-9 and Pl.I, 2) on the basis 
of the custom amongst Egyptian nobility of the 
New Kingdom for threading similar gold rings 
through their wigs. Hawkes postulates an 
original western dissemination of the type as 
Mycenaean loot passed on by trade. The 'hair 
ring' suggestion is certainly supported by 
Childe's citing of the report of the discovery of 
traces of hair adhering to the rings from the 
Sculptor's Cave. Covesea mentioned further 
below (Chtlde, 1935: 163). As to possible 
Mediterranean prototypes there are certainly 
similar forms to 'ring money" amongst Egyptian 
and Palestinian materials but this is all prior to 
ca. 1200 B.C. and the earliest possible British 
find — a penannular ring with tapering ends from 
an Early Bronze Age Wessex 1 chieftain's grave. 
the primary cremation under a ball barrow. 
Filsford G,8, Norman ton Down (Annable and 
Simpson. 1964; no. 192) — is much more 
probably a miniature copy of contemporary 
continental Reinecke Bronze Age A2 "ingot 
lores". 

Eogan (1964: 272ft) follows Hawkes in 
suggesting later Mycenaean trade as a source 
for 'ring money' and ascribes the earliest exlanl 
Irish examples to his Middle Bronze Age 

are 'conventional' if u mot retted 



24 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (3): 23-29 



January. 1 975 



"Bishopsland phase"; but there arc no associa- 
tions of 'ring money' in indisputable Middle, 
let alone Early, Bronze Age contexts in the 
British Isles. Recent reassessments of the 
absolute chronology as well as the alleged 
material for east-west trade in the second millen- 
nium B.C. also argue against a possible 
Mycenaean source (Renfrew, 1969, 1973: 98- 
103). 

In fact in Britain there is no association of 
'ring money' of certain date earlier than the 
eighth century B.C. The material from the 
Sculptor's Cave, Covesea, Morayshire, Scotland, 
includes some ten examples of 'ring money' — 
two without their sheet gold covering- — of similar 
diameter to our Bishopstonc example (Benton, 
1930-3 1 : 181-2 and Fig. 5 ) . The Covesea find 
is dated on the basis of imports from the Middle 
Rhine to ca. 700 B.C. and the "Covesea" phase 



of Coles' recent review of the later Scottish 
Bronze Age seems to be one of settlement on 
the north-eastern coast of the British Isles by 
groups from the northern German plain. A 
hoard of similar date to Covesea is that from 
Balmashanner. Angus which includes a single 
'hair ring' (see Coles, 1959-60: 39ff. and 91 
for a complete list of Scottish 'ring money'). 
From Ireland probably the best dated 'ring 
money' is that from Tooradoo, Co. Limmerick, 
a hoard of Eogan's "Dowris" phase con- 
temporary with Covesea in Scotland, a phase 
to which it would seem best to assign Irish hair 
rings as a whole (Gogan, 1932; Eogan, 1964: 
304 and Fig. 15,5). Tending to support this 
dating is the recent publication of a now lost 
Irish find which indicates the association of a 
hair ring with a so-called 'dress fastener' 
(Herity, 1969: 9 and Pl.VIlb). a penannular 
gold ring with cone-shaped terminals. 'Dress 




10cm 




Fig. 3: (a) "Italy", Decorated bronze axe; (b) River Suek, Co. Galway. 

Copper halberd; (<•) unprovenanced. Copper halberd. Scale as marked. 

Photos. South Australian Museum 



MEGAW— BRONZE AGE ANTIQUITIES IN THE SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 



25 



fasteners' of this type have a widespread and 
even continental distribution (Hawkes and 
Clarke, 1963, 220ff). The association of an 
Irish Middle Bronze Age (ca. 1000 B.C.) 
"Ballintober" sword with a piece of 'ring money' 
and other fragments of gold alleged to have 
been found at Strabane, Co. Tyrone cannot 
now be proved (Eogan, 1965: 8 and 25 no. 
12). 

In the absence of any closely dated asso- 
ciations of 'ring money' or 'hair rings' in the 
south of England, it seems best to date such 
pieces as our Bishopstone ring to the Late 
Bronze Age when contacts between Ireland and 
the rest of Britain not to mention the continent 
were frequent and strong (Eogan, 1964: 3 1 Off., 
1965: esp. 10711; Burgess, 1969: esp. 17ff). 

2. THREE IRISH BRONZES OF THE 
EARLY BRONZE AGE 

Apart from the Bishopstone 'ring money" 
there are three other prehistoric British pieces 
in the Museum's collections which, if not 
unique, are worthy of comment. The first of 
these, presented by a Captain Davidson to the 



Museum in 1918 (Reg. No. A 11331), is a 
bronze axe measuring 18 cm in length and with 
a maximum breadth across the blade of 10-5 cm 
(Fig. 3a, 4a). The axe, which may have been 
cast in a one-piece rather than two-piece mould, 
has a slight or "incipient" stop-ridge just visible 
halfway down the haft. The flanges on either 
side of the haft have a cable design produced 
probably by forging or grinding. On the face 
of the axe a rough "rain" pattern has been 
produced by irregular stabs of a scriber or 
graver ( Meg aw and Hardy, 1938: 6ff.; Harbison, 
1969c: 67-69). 

Although the original labelling of the axe as 
it was received by the Museum seems to have 
recorded its source as "(Roman) Italy" there 
can be no doubt that this axe is a product of 
the Irish Early Bronze Age of about the mid- 
second millennium b.c. Its decoration and 
nearly straight sides with hammered rather than 
cast flanges class it as one of a series of decorated 
bronze axes first studied by Megaw and Hardy 
in 1938; the present example is close in size 
and decoration to their Type IT (cf. op. cit., 
5ff.). This type corresponds in part to 




Fig. 4: in) "Italy", Decorated bronze axe; (h) River Suck. Co. Galway. 
Copper halberd; (c) unprovenanced. Copper halberd. Scale 1:3 Drawings 

Bremla K. Head. 



:r» 



Kli S. ADvST. MU.S 17 l\>- 2.V2y 



lanuarv. I ^75 



Harbison's Type Derryniggin as defined in his 
recent corpus of axes of the Early Bronze Age 
in Ireland (Harbison, 1969c: 55-64, 79, pis. 
68-78) and in the Scottish Early Bronze Age 
is Coles' (1968-69: 15-16 and Fig. 12) Type Be. 
Although axes (and other material of Irish 
origin) were exported to the continent in the 
Bronze Age, most of these arc of the presumed 
earlier Megaw and Hardy Type I and no 
bronzes of Irish origin have to the best of my 
knowledge been found in Italy (Butler, 1963: 
Chap. II. 241 ff. and Map I). It seems almost 
certain therefore that the provenance "Italy" 
for the Adelaide axe is erroneous. 

As part of a continuing programme of metal- 
lurgical analyses of British and Irish Bronze 
Age artefacts in Australian collections (Burke 
and Megaw. 1966: Megaw, 1964, 1969, 1973), 
arrangements were made to subject the axe and 
the two other bronzes discussed in this note to 
non-destructive spectrographs analysis. The 
analysis was carried out at the Commonwealth 
Defence Standards Laboratories in Adelaide. 
The analysis of the Adelaide axe arc compared 
with those vf two other Derryniggin axes of 
similar form in Table I 

It is clear that these axes have been cast 
from lin-bronze, the intentional alloying of 
local copper with bronze being a strikingly early 
feature of metal technology in Ireland (Butler, 
1963: 39-40 and Table 1 ) "although the original 
impetus for tin alloying as well as the basic 
form of (he axes themselves is probably due to 
continental influence, This influence seems 
particularly to have been due to contact with 
the ore-rich area of Saxo-Thunngia in central 
Germany and in Britain was the result of settle- 
ment rather than trade by the so-called "Beaker 
folk" of the early second millennium (Case. 
1965, 1967). The Adelaide Derryniggin axe 
seems however to lack the arsenic content which 
was a feature of local Munster copper ores (see 
also p. 4 below). 

Unfortunately there are few finds of axes of 
the Derryniggin type which are of much use 
for chronological purposes Two hoards I'mm 
the Isle erf Wight with axes of Megaw and 
Hardy Type III indicate that these axes con- 
tinued comparatively late in the British Early 
Bronze Age or contemporary with the latter 
part of the Wessex culture of Southen England 
(Harbison, 1969a: 68ff., 1969c: 79-80) which 
on conventional dating should not be before 
ca. 1500 B.C. Recent rccalibration of radio- 
carbon estimations with absolute dates suggests. 



however, that this date may be of the otder of 
two to four centuries too young (Renfrew. 
1969, 1973). 

The two remaining bronzes to be discussed 
here are again castings and, despite the descrip- 
tion of one in the Museum's inventory as a 
dagger, are both examples of the- prehistoric 
halberd, a metal knife-like blade set at right- 
angles to its haft. More than 300 halberds of 
various types are known from Early Bronze Age 
Europe though of these almost half come from 
Ireland with a significant number also from 
Scotland; all but a very small proportion of 
these Irish and Scottish examples are isolated 
finds, There have been several typological 
studies of the halberd m prehistoric Europe 
prior to Harbison's recent reassessment (Har- 
bison, 1969b) of which the most important is 
that by the late Professor Sean ORiordain 
(1937). ORiordain considered the metal hal- 
berd as being in the first instance an Irish 
development spreading thence to the continent 
and in particular to Central Germany. 
Subsequently, Coghkm and Case (1957: 103). 
Butler (1963: 20ff.) and Allen et at. (1970: 
106-7) have suggested a reversal of this theory. 
Case (1967: 1 5 2 ff . > has looked once more to 
Saxo-Thuringiu as an immediate source of the 
type; this is a region from whence he would 
also derive the thin-butt axe ancestral to the 
decorated form we have discussed above. 
Harbison (1969b: 48ff. ), while agreeing to a 
largely continental source, is less certain as to 
the precise locality. 

Of the two Adelaide halberds, that described 
as a dagger (Reg, No. A42739; Figs. 3b, 4b) 
was found eight feet below the surface in W 
old stream bed of the River Suck in Co. Gal way 
and presented to the Museum in 1951 by Mr. 
Walter Hawker who had previously lived at 
Ochrane Castle in Gal way. As noted below, 
this is one of three halberds found in or near 
the River Suck. The hilt shows considerable 
evidence of cold working and with a blade 
32-5 cm long, this halberd is of Harbison's 
Type Cotton, This corresponds more or less 
to ORiordain 's Type 5 (with its curved or 
scythe-like blade) and some of his Type 3. 
Tins form of halberd has an asymmetiicql blade 
with three large round-headed rivets set in a 
triangle and with "blood grooves" running 
parallel to the cutting edge and a mid-rib whose 
sides are curved. The "Cotton" class accounts 
for over half of the known Irish halberds, With 
straight sides to the mid-rib this becomes 



MTfGAW -BRON/K AGE ANTIQUlTIfcS IN THE SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSIiUM 



27 



Harbison's Type Cam which corresponds more 
or less to ORfordain's Type 4 as well as some 
Of his Type S. It should in fact be noted that 
it is not always possible to reconcile Harbison's 
classification with that of ORfordain or vice 
versa Thus the examples from the type site 
of Cotton Moss. Co. Down (see analyses in 
Table 2) were both classed by ORfordain as 
being of his Type 4. though by Harbison's 
criteria at least one of the Cotton halberds 
(Harbison, 19696: no. 207) which he compares 
on the whole with ORiordain's Type 5 would 
seem certainly to fall rather within his Type 
Cam. The marked shoulder of the Adelaide 
halberd is shared by two of Type Cam found 
with five others of Type Cotton in a peat bog 
at Hillswood, Co. Galway not far from the 
River Suck (Harbison. 1969b: Fig. 4a). 

As with thin-butt axes, halberds of Irish 
manufacture seem to have been exported to the 
Continent, particularly those of ORiordain's 
Type 4 (Butler, 1963: 20ffV). although it is 
clear that such exports must have followed the 
introduction of the halberd form itself — from 
whatever source. 

The second Adelaide halberd Reg. No. 
A49959, has no find spot recorded (ex Sheffield 
City Museums; Figs. 3C. 4C). With a squat 
blade 18*5 cm long, it now lacks part of its hilt 
and all four of its original rivets. It corresponds 
to Harbison's Type Clonard or ORiordain's 
Types I and 2. The squared and shouldered 
halting-plate is characteristic. Originally con- 
sidered by OR (ordain to be the archetypal form 
of all Irish halberds, since halberds arc now 
generally considered to have developed from 
norma! elongated metal dagger types, this squat 
profile is more likely to represent a local 
development, albeit one which occurred not 
long after the original introduction of the 
halberd into Ireland. 

Spectrograph^ analyses were again carried 
out on these bronzes and Table 2 gives the 
results and compares them with previously pub- 
lished analyses of halberds of certain and 
probable Irish provenance whose form is closest 
to that of the Adelaide examples. Also listed 
are the two other halberds from the River 
Suck (listed by ORiordain as Type 5 and 
Harbison as of his Type Cotton) and two of 
the three halberds from the type side of Cotton 
Moss itself. 



The analyses indicate that, irrespective ot 
type, these halberds are all made of copper 
with very little or no tin present and certainly 
no indication of intentional tin alloying 

The metals consistently show a .significantly 
high content of arsenic, antimony and silver 
and minor traces of other elements. Similar 
metals were used for Irish thick-butted axes and 
for Irish and British Beaker Culture knives 
(= Group I of Coghlan and Case, 1957: 
98-99; Case, 1967: 163-4), and were used in 
the Early Bronze Age in Scotland (Coles, 1969: 
338). Their advantageous content of arsenic- 
is likely to have been deliberately contrived, and 
Case has advanced the possibility that the Irish 
metals were alloys, in which the contents of 
arsenic, antimony and silver reflected the use 
of a regulus smelted from the Munster Fahlenc. 
This typically Irish Group I metal corresponds 
more or less with the Early Bronze Age Copper 
or EH group metal of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft 
fiir Metallurgie des Altertums which over the 
past fifteen years has performed more than 
12 000 analyses of prehistoric European metal 
artefacts. On the basis of some 96 analyses 
of British halberds more than 70 per cent 
appear to be of the British Ell metal (Junghans 
et al., 1968: 132-3). In parenthesis it may be 
noted that analyses of halberds from Britain 
and particularly Scotland as opposed to Ireland, 
owing to their very similar spectra, strongly 
suggest that such halberds arc all imports from 
Ireland or at least cast from imported ore 
(Britton. 1963: 284 and Table 8: Coles. 
1968-69: 35ff. and 97 — see here esp. Junghans 
et al., 1968: nos. 7458, 9287 == Coles' Muster 
C" metal). 

Regarding chronology, as has already been 
mentioned finds of halberds in the British Isles 
in association with other objects are extremely 
rare; there are in fact only two Irish finds with 
objects other than halberds, the more important 
for our purpose being that from a Food-Vessel 
burial at Frankford, Co. Offaly (also known 
as the Birr find (Case. 1967: 152ff. and Fig. 
8. 5-9; Harbison, 1969b: 23, 52ff. and Fig. 
I, c). The Frankford find includes a thin- 
butted axe and two thick-butted forms and a 
dagger of a type common in the earlier rather 
than the later phase of the Wessex culture in 
(he south of England (Harbison, 1969a. 65-66). 
The halberd, of Harbison's Type Cotton, has 
been analysed — both the blade and one of the 
rivets (Coghlan and Case, 1957, nos. 59 and 
71) — and is once more of the typical Irish 



2H 



rec s. ausi. MiUS, 17 GS>: zwa 



j<iittiiii\, 1973 



arscmc-antimony-silvcr copper. Of six asso- 
ciations with halberds from Scotland that from 
the Moor of Sluie, Morayshire, consisted of two 
thin-butted axes of Coles' cluster C metal with 
a halberd of Harbison's rare Type Breaghwy of 
continental originating cluster D metal (Coles, 
1968-69; 40, 73 and 107). 

It may be concluded that both our Adelaide 
halberds belong to what Case has termed the 
later part of his "impact phase" of the Irish 
Early Bronze Age, a period when tin-bronze 
was in fact already in wide use and Ireland's 
contacts with the Continent no less wide-spread 
than other parts of the British Isles (as 
indicated by the export of the earlier decorated 
thin-butt axes as well as halberds themselves). 
This stage may be conventionally dated between 
1600-1500 b.c. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The writer's best thanks are due to Mr. G. L. 
Pretty, Curator of Archaeology, for his full 
co-operation and to Mrs. Brenda K. Head for 
her drawings reproduced here, Mr. J. M. 
Nobbs. Senior Research Officer, Defence 
Standards Laboratory, Woodvillc North, kindly 
undertook the metallurgical analyses. I am 
also indebted to Mr, H, J, Case, Senior 
Assistant Keeper. Ashmolean Museum. Oxford, 
Dr. George Eogan, Department of Archaeology, 
University College, Dublin and Mr. F. K. 
Annable. Curator, and Mr, Alan Burchard, 
formerly Assistant Curator, Devizes Museum, for 
their comments. 



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niidiiiimi 2nd prehistoric I'urope. Pondon, 



MEGAW— BRONZE AGE ANTIQUITIES IN THE SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 



29 



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RECORDS OF THE 
SOUTH AUSTRALIAN 
MUSEUM 






UUNGHIA OUDEMANS (ACARI: DERMANYS- 
SIDAE); A GENUS PARASITIC ON 
MYGALOMORPH SPIDERS 



By ROBERT DOM ROW 



SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 
North Terrace, Adelaide 
South Australia 5000 



VOLUME 17 

NUMBER 4 

24th January, 1975 



LJUNGHIA OUDEMANS (ACARI: DERMANYS-SIDAE); 
A GENUS PARASITIC ON MYGALOMORPH SPIDERS 



by Robert Domrow 



Summary 



A key, illustrations and descriptive notes are given for the four laelapine species now known in 
Ljunghia Oudemans (Dermanyssidae). At least three are parasites of mygalomorph spiders, as 
follows: L. selenocosmiae Oudemans from Selenocosmia (Theraphosidae) in Sumatra; L. hoggi sp. 
n. from Aganippe (Ctenizidae) in South Australia; L. pulleini Womersley from Selenocosmia and 
Adame (Dipluridae) in South Australia, and an unidentified diplurid in Queensland; and L. rainbowi 
sp. n. from an unidentified spider in South Australia. 



LJUNGHIA OUDEMANS (ACAR1: DERMANYSSIDAE), A GENUS PARASITIC 

ON MYGALOMORPH SPIDERS 

By ROBERT DOMROW 

Queensland institute of Medical Research, Brisbane 4006 

ABSTRACT associates of arthropods, but the generally nolo- 

_^.,_,,.„ „ ..... ... r . , , > A _j, trichous condition of the dorsal shield (at least 

DOMROW. R 1974. I.<i<tiglt«i Oudemans (.Acari: *™ » « .,, j- .■ • i n 

Dermanyssidae), a genus paraubjc on mygalom.irph spiders. 37 pairs of setae ) Will distinguish Hypoaspis, 

the. 8. Aiisr. Mux 17 ( ui: 31-39. however unclear its Internal relationships may be. 

A key. illustrations, and descriptive notes are from the markedly holotrichous Ljunghia (at 

given for the four laelapine species now known in most 32 pairs of setae). 

Ljimghki Oudemans (Dermanyssidae). At least Frankly, it is difficult to delimit a genus in 

three are parasites of mygalomorph spiders, as such a UtUe known subta mily. yet a diagnosis so 

follows: L. selenocomiiae Oudemans from extende d to include the widely varying seta! 

Selenocosmia (Theraphosidae) in Sumatra; L. formu i ac on lnc dorsal shield and legs may well 

hoggi sp. n. from Aganippe (Ctenizidae) m exc i U( j e spe cies as yet undescribed (Costa. 

South Australia; L. pulleini Womcrsley from , 9?1 , Accordingly, J assign to Ljunghia those 

Selenocosmia and Aname < Dipluridae) in SouUi spcc i cs w j ln the following characteristics; 
Australia, and an unidentified diplurid in 

Ouecnsland; and L. rambowi sp. n. from an Chelicerae ehelate-dcntate in female: lixed 

unidentified spider in South Australia digit reduced (except in L. setenocosmiae), but 

always with at least trace of pilus dentilis. Cheli- 

INTRODUCTION cerae normally formed in male, with spermato- 

This paper revises the two known species of phore-carricr slightly exceeding tip of movable 
the genus Ljunghia (family Dermanyssidae sensu digit. Dorsai shield entire, markedly hypo- 
Evans and Till. 1966) to the extent that the trichous. Metasternal setae absent (except m 
original descriptions need expansion, and details *- selenocosimae). Only genital setae set on 
two new species. The following key will quickly £ emtal shieki ( exce P* '» l - rainhom). Anal 
show that the seu.tir.na! patterns vary consider- s,1ield elongate, with characteristic anteromedial 
ablv from species to species, but an otherwise urn- extension. Leg setation holotrichous to markedly 
form facta and the ecological data indicate only hypotrichous, Parasites of spiders, especially 
a single uenus is involved (sec Hunter and mygaJomorphs, in the Oriental- Australian 
Husband, 1973). Region. 

Thc setae on the dorsal shield are equated with KCY jq sPbXIES OF / lU\c,llt4 

thc standard pattern given for Haemotaelaps . . . 

"~ _ r ,n^7 I, i-i (Adults only; male or L, rmnhowi unknown) 

Berlese by Costa (1961, as amended by Lind- 

quist and Evans. 1965). The patterns on the '• < l) > Dorsul s,litllJ wilh 32 (21 podonoial and II 

capitulum and legs are compared with those of opi.ihonotul) pairs of setae. Me.asternal setae 

. ' .. . c . , ._ r , rrvi , ,.>. present Ventral setae numerous. No lee sea 

free-living dermanyssids (Evans and Till, 1965, mcnt haS , css setue Am tvpiou , tt&tfag der- 

as amended by Evans, 1969). except for the manyssids. Cheliceral digits of female subequal 

larvae, whose legs are detailed after Evans sdenucusmiw 

(1963). The less reduced species of Ljunghia . ^, 

. j. , i , , . , , , . ., Dorsal shield with 25 pairs of setae at most. Mela- 

show relatively constant formulae, but the regu- stcrfti|1 ^ abseilt ' Qnlv eJ! , ht pairs rf vcnlral 

lar presence or absence of one or even two setae sc , ae At | Cilsl „ ne ]cg segment has less setae than 

in the more reduced species is to be expected. typical free-living dermanyssids. Fixed cheliceral 

digit of temale only half as long as movable 
Genus LJUNGHIA Oudemans digit .. .. .. .'. 2 

Ljunghia Oudemans. 1932. p. 204. Type- 2 . (I) Dorsal shield with 25 (17 + 8) pairs of setae, 

species: Ljunghia selenocosmiae Oudemans, Palpal trochanter-tibia with normal setation 

1932. by monotvpy. (2.5.6.14). Only one leg segment (femur I) with 

m.^imoin t- r> i p*!*iti i deficient setation ... ....... hoggi 

DIAGNOSIS. From Evans and Jills keys , ."* 

. mffs * j „ . . - i . . , t .- „; ;„ :.. „i,„..i.. Dorsal shield with less than 25 pairs of setae. Palpal 

(1966, to dermanyssid taxa L/w*/»a ts clearly trochanter .ubia with reduced setation. At least 

a laelapme genus related to the Hypoaspis Canes- tnreo leg se „ ments (excluding genu IV) with 

tnnt complex. The latter also includes many deficient setation .. .. s 

24th January, 197S 
1 



32 



REC. S. AUST. MUS.. 17 (4); 31-39 



Jaiwury. 1975 



(2) Dorsal shield with 18 (15 -f 3) pairs of setae. 
Genital setae on genital shield. Deutosternal den- 
ticles single. Palpal trochanter-tihia with 
2.5.6.11 setae. Seven leg segments with deficient 
setation (see text) .. ,. .. , pulleini 



Dorsal shield with 15 (11 -j- 4) pairs of setae. 
Genital setae off genital shield. Deutosternal 
denticles multiple. Palpal trochanter-tibia with 
2.5.5.14 setae. Three leg segments with deficient 
setation (see text) rainbowi 





FIGS. 1-2. LJUNGHIA OUDEMANS 

1. L. Itugxi sp. n., female, dorsum of idiosoma. 2. L. pulleini Womersley, 
female, venter of eapitulum (with inset of epistome and true left palp shown 
dorsally ). (Each division on the scales = 100 /t.) 



Ljunghia selenocosmiae Oudemans 
Ljunghia selenocosmiae Oudemans, 1932, p. 204. 

FEMALE. Capitulum inconveniently, but 
variously, disposed in available specimens, and 
many details visible. Setae rather longer than in 
other species, c reaching well beyond sides of 
basis. Deutosternal groove broad, with multiple 
denticles (number of rows uncertain). On 
hypostome, h3>h2>hl, with /i3 subequal to c. 
Hypostomatal processes not clear. Epistome 
triangular, intermediate in length between those 
of L. pulleini and L. rainbowi; denticulate. 
Palpal trochanter-genu with normal setation 
(2.5.6); tibia and tarsus not clear, but former 
probably 14; claw bifid. Chelicera as figured by 
Oudemans; pore undetected. 

Dorsal shield 735-755 ^m long, 495-525 /mi 
at maximum width; with 32 pairs of setae com- 
prising 21 pairs of podonotals (only z3 
missing) and 11 pairs of opisthonotals. (The 
observant will note that Oudemans, well aware 



of minor individual variation, tacitly shows only 
31 setae on the right-hand side of his drawing.) 

Tritostemum as in L. rainbowi. Deeply 
eroded, but rectilinear posterior margin of 
sternal shield confirmed. One ventral seta occa- 
sionally usurped by tip of genital shield. Small 
metapodal shields present. Peritremes reaching 
forward almost to vertex, but peristigmatic details 
not clear. 

Legs also difficult to examine, but many setae 
considerably longer than shown by Oudemans. 
Formulae normal except for tibia I, which shows 
one. additional v (2-6/4-2). Tarsus I, including 
distal sensory plaque, not dissimilar to that of 
other species. Claws rather larger than in 
L. pulleini. 

MALE and DEUTONYMPH. See Oude- 
mans. Dorsal shield 660 jan long. 440 /.mi at 
maximum width. Chelicera of male in normal 
(dorsoventral) aspect in both specimens, but not 
dissimilar to Oudemans' Fig. 26. 



DOMROW— A GENUS PARASITIC ON MYGALOMORPH SPIDERS 



33 



PROTONYMPH and LARVA. Not seen. 

LOCALITY. Twelve females, two males, and 
six deutonymphs from the type series, Seleno- 
cosmia javanensis (Walckenaer) (Therapho- 
sidae), Deli, Sumatra, 3.1931, col. J. C. van der 
Meer Mohr, dep. RMNH. I designate one female 
as lectotype. 

Ljunghia hoggi sp. n. 

FEMALE. Capitulum with c setae only 
slightly exceeding sides of basis. Deutosternal 
groove as in L. rainbowi, with seven or eight rows 
of multiple denticles. Hypostome with 
h3>hl>h2; only lattermost snorter than c. 



Hypostomatal processes as in L. pulleini. 
Cornicles as in L. rainbowi. Epistome as long as 
that of L. selenocosmiae , but more strongly den- 
ticulate. Palpi with normal setation on trochan- 
ter-tibia; tarsus not clear; claw bifid. Chelicera 
as in L. rainbowi. 

Dorsal shield with outline intermediate 
between those of L. selenocosmiae and L. 
pulleini; 635-690 ^m long, 415-440 / t m at maxi- 
mum width. Podonotal half with seventeen pairs 
of setae: /'1-4, 6, z\, 2, 4-6, sl-5, and 2/\ Opis- 
thonotal half with eight pairs of setae (seven long, 
one short). Cuticle with about eight pairs of 
setae, the most anterior pair of which may repre- 
sent extrascutal .v6. 




EIGS. 3-9. UVNGHIA OUDEMANS 

3-6. L. hoggi sp. n., female: 3. venter of idtosorua; 4. epistome; 

5. spermathecae: male: 6. sternogenital shield. 7-9. I., pulleini Womersley. 

female: 7. venter of idiosoma; larva: 8-9. venter and dorsum of idiosoma. 



34 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (4): 31-39 



January, 1975 



Sternal shield more conventionally shaped 
than in other species, but still weak and eroded. 
With three pairs of subequal setae rather longer 
than interval between them. Venter otherwise as 
in L. rainbow! , except that genital setae are on 
genital shield and poststigmatic portion of peri- 
trematal shields is fuller. 

Legs with normal setation except for femur I, 
which is unideficient ventrally (2-5/3-2). 
Femora lacking outstandingly long setae dor- 
sally. Tarsus 1 essentially as in L. piilleini, but 
claws rather stronger than in that species. 



MALE. Capitulum as in female, except for 
chelicera, which is similar to that of L. 
piilleini. 

Dorsum as in female. Dorsal shield 555 jxm 
long, 325 jam at maximum width. 

Venter as in female, except for sternogenital 
shield, which is similar to that of L. piilleini. 

Legs as in female. 

IMMATURES. Unknown. 




FJGS. 10-20. UUNGIIIA OUDEMANS 

10-12. L. setenocosmiae Oudemans, female: 10-11. venter and dorsum of leg 

IV; 12. epistome. 13-20. L. piilleini Womersley, female: 13-16. dorsum and 

venler of legs I-IV; 17. exterior of chelicera; 18. spermatheeae; male: 19. ventro- 

interior of chelicera; larva: 20. venter and dorsum of chelicerae. 



DOM ROW— A GENUS I'ARASI 1 It ON M VGAIOMORPH SPIDPRS 



W 



LOCALITY. Holotypc female, three paratype 
females, and two morphotypc deutonymphs from 
Aganippe sublhsHs Pickard-C ambridge (Cteni- 
/iilae). Scaelilf, Adelaide. South Australia, 
1 J, 1 973, col. R. Coulter, dep. SAM. 

Two females and one male from A. subtrislis, 
Peterborough, South Australia, 4.3.1967, col. 
L. Wright, dep. SAM. Not types. 



Ljuiighhi pulleiui Womer.sley 

LjiMxhhi ptillciiii Womersley, 1956. p. 591. 

FEMALE. Capitulum with c setae barely 
reaching sides of basis. Deutosternal groove 
narrow and difficult to examine posteriorly, but 
denticles single and at least live in number. 
Hypostome with three pairs of h setae (/?3 
strongest I, and moderately sclerotized cornicles in 
addition to distal processes. Epistome rounded, 
denticulate, not exceeding distal margin of tro- 
chanter. Palpal trochanter-genu with normal 
sctation, but femur occasionally lacking one d. or 
with one (more rarely two. as figured) additional 
v seta; genu occasionally lacking one d seta. 
Tibial sctation considerably reduced, comprising 
eight (seven to nine) d, and three l occasionally 
two) v, setae, including dorsodislal rods. Tarsus 
shown diagrammatieally; claw bifid. Chelicera 
unreduced except for fixed digit, which shows 
merest indication of pilus dentilis. 

Dorsal shield 505-605 ,uii long 285-340 ,,.m 
at greatest width. Podonotal half with fifteen 
pairs of setae: yl-6, jl-2, 4-6, and .si -4 (-.3 
always absent, one r.l occasionally absent, and 
.vl -2 often represented only by single pair ) . First 
six pairs of setae on cuticle constant in number 
and position, and possibly representing extra- 
seutal v5-6 (two long pairs) and '2-5 (four short 
pairs ) . (hereby accounting for full complement 
of 22 podonolal pairs. Opisthonotal half of 
shield typically with three pairs of setae (two long 
and one short), hut minor variation common. 
Thus although terminal pair is always present. 
one or both of other long pair, or one of short 
pair, may be lacking. Because of extreme reduc- 
tion from normal seventeen pairs on opisthonotal 
half of shield, these setae are not assigned. Of 
seven or eight additional pairs of setae on cuticle, 
at least the long pair may he extraselital, 

Metasternal complex absent except for pores 
(normally free in cuticle, but rarely on extension 
of sternal shield, VVoinersley writes '•shields" in 
error for "setae" on p. 593). Genital setae on 



shield, but attendant pores free in cuticle. Ven- 
tral setae in eight pairs, but not easily reconciled 
with pattern in other two Australian species 
(2.2.4.6.2). Peritrematal shields extended nar- 
rowly behind stigmata, and more broadly on 
dorsal margin near end of peritrcme. 

Coxa II with minute process on anterodorsal 
margin. Sctation normal for following leg seg- 
ments: all coxae and trochanters, femora II and 
IV, genua IT-TII, and tarsi TT-1V. One seta 
lacking on femur I (2-5/3-2), femur III 
(1-3/ 1-0), genu I (2-6/2-2), tibia I (2-6/2-2), 
and tibia III (1-3/2-1). Two setae lacking on 
tibia II (2-3/2-1). Three setae lacking on tibia 
IV (1-3/2-1). Genu IV with full complement 
only because additional V makes up for absent d. 
Femora with 2,2, I.I d setae distinctly longer than 
remainder. Tarsus 1 with sensory plaque distal. 

MALE. Setal patterns as in female. Setulo 
and pore on chelicerae not detected. 

DEUTONYMPH Capitulum as in female. 

Dorsum as in female, but shield smallei 
(360-440 ,,m long. 210-255 ^m at maximum 
width). 

Venter as in female except for .sterno- 
pregenital shield. This bears usual three pairs 
each of setae and pores along eroded margin: 
pregenital setae free in cuticle. Development of 
peritrematal shields minimal. 

Legs, including tarsus I, with same setal 
formulae as female. 

PROTONYMPH. Unknown. 

LARVA. Hypostome lacking Setal hair /;3. 
Palpal setal formula for trochanter -genu nor- 
mal, but tibia as in adult (i.e., with eleven setae). 
Chelicera presaging that of adult female. 

Idiosoma 425-450 fl .m long. 310-340 /<.m at 
greatest width. Dorsum without shield, but with 
normal nine pairs of setae: j\. 3-6. :,2. 4-5. and 
,s4. These are readily equated with adult pairs 
of similar position and strength. 

Venter without shields, but with three pairs of 
sternal, one pair of ventral, and three anal setae 
( postanal shortest as in adult). Stigmatic 
apparatus absent. 

Legs with normal setal patterns, femur II being 
as in Evans ( 1963. Fig. 2b). Setae ad\ and pd\ 
on tarsi II-HI not detected. 



36 



RHC. S. A LIST. MUS., 17 (4): 31-39 



January, 1975 




*T We 7 *b „ »A x ^ 





FIGS. 21-25. LJUNGHIA PVLLEINI WOMERSLEY 

21-23. Female: 21. dorsum of idiosoma; 22-23. dorsum and venter of (arsu.s I; 
24. male: venter of idioMJma; 25. deutonymph: venter of idiosoma. 



LOCALITY. Six females from the type 
series, Selenocosmia stirlingi Hogg (Therapho- 
sidae), Orroroo, near Peterborough, South Aus- 
tralia, 5.1933, col. H. Gray, dep. SAM. Despite 
Womersley's statement, the present curator, Mr. 
D. C. Lee, tells me fin lift., 9.8.1973) that no 
specimen bears a holotype label, and I therefore 
designate one female as lectotype. 

Four females and two males from A name sp. 
(Dipluridae), Strathalbyn, east of Mount Lofty 
Range, South Australia, 8.12.1971, col. I. 
Buring, dep. SAM. 

Sixteen females, eighteen males, fourteen 
deutonymphs. two larvae (plus several specimens 



still in spirit) from an unidentified spider OM 
VV3856 (Dipluridae), Rifle Range, Chinchilla, 
Queensland, 10.9.1972, col. R. J. McKay, dep. 
OM. 

REMARKS. The description and figures now 
given apply to the series from Queensland. The 
type specimens all show three pairs of setae on 
the opisthonotal half of the dorsal shield. 
Generally speaking, their body setae are relatively 
longer, e.g., /5 and especially j5 exceed the bases 
of /6 and ~6. Their leg setal formulae differ only 
on tibia II (commonly 2-4/2-1, occasionally 
standard 2-4/2-2) and genu III (commonly 
2-4/2-2, occasionally standard 2-4/2-1). 



DOMROW— A GENUS PARASITIC ON MYGALOMORPH SPIDERS 



37 



The specimens from A name all lack the sub- 
terminal pair of long setae on the dorsal shield. 
Generally speaking, their body setae are rela- 
tively shorter, e.g., /6 is hardly longer than f5 and 
z5. Their legs are not suitably arranged for 
detailed examination. 

All three series, however, key out together and 
are clearly conspecific. 

Ljunghia rainbowi sp. n. 

FEMALE. Capitulum with c setae reaching 
beyond sides of basis. Deutostemal groove more 
distinct than in L. pulleini, with nine rows of 
multiple denticles. Hypostome with setae h\ and 
3 subequal to c, and longer than hi; hypostomatal 
processes as in L. pulleini. Cornicles with 
incipient cleft distally. Epistome an elongate 
triangle, weakly denticulate, reaching to mid- 



femur. Palpi with normal setation on trochanter- 
tibia, except for unideficient genu (a/1, pi, 3 d). 
Tarsus shown diagrammatically; claw bifid. 
Chelicera similar to those of L. pulleini, but small 
pilus dentilis present and movable digit almost 
edentate. 

Idiosoma capable of considerable distension 
because of weakness of shields. Dorsal shield 
shaped as in L. pulleini, 585-615 //.m long, 340- 
365 fktn at maximum width. Podonotal half 
with eleven pairs of setae: ;'l, 3-4, 6, zl-2, 4-6, 
and a2, 4. Opisthonotal half with four pairs of 
setae (two short discals and two long subter- 
minals). Because of strong reduction of setal 
formulae on dorsal shield, it is idle to assign ten 
or eleven pairs of setae free on cuticle. Never- 
theless, constant position and relative lengths of 
at least first five pairs suggest they are extra- 
scutal members of s and r series. More posterior 




FrGS. 26-30. LJUNGHIA RAINBOWI sp. n. 

26-30. Female: 26. dorsum of idiosoma; 27-28. verttrointerior and dorsoextcrior 
of chelicera; 29-30. dorsum and venter of larsus I. 



38 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (4): 31-39 



January, 1975 



pairs less regular in position, but always long 
except for terminal pair. Pattern of pores and 
muscle insertions on shield difficult to discern 
because of granular inclusions; accordingly, while 
those shown are correct, more may exist. 

Tritosternum with well developed base, but 
laciniae rather short, slenderly tapering, and 
weakly ciliated. Sternal shield less convention- 
ally shaped than in other Australian species; pale 
and unreticulated, with anterolateral margins 
extremely weak and posterior margin eroded. 
Sternal setae short and subequal, at most only 
slightly longer than interval between them; 
sternal pores present but weak, particularly pos- 
terior pair. Metasternal complex represented 
only by pore. Genital shield reduced and with- 
out striae, but with normal muscle insertions and 
operculum supported by apodemes between 
coxae IV. Genital setae and pores free in cuticle. 
Margin of anal shield only slightly extended 
anteriorly; adanal setae set near centre of anus, 
rather longer than postanal; cribrum present. 
Small metapodal shields present. Crescentic 
exopodal shields IV present but weak. Ventral 



setae in eight pairs arranged as in L. hoggi; of 
increasing length posteriorly, one posterolateral 
pair being quite strong. Stigmatic apparatus as 
in L. pulleini, but poststigmalic development 
minimal. 

Legs largely as in L. pulleini, with same 
segments showing normal dermanyssid setation, 
except for trochanter I ( 1-0/3-1 ) . Of eight seg- 
ments modified in L. pulleini (Queensland speci- 
mens), four retain normal dermanyssid setation 
(femur III and tibiae IF-IV); of remaining four, 
femur-tibia 1 are as in L. pulleini, while genu IV 
is normal dorsally, but bears an additional v 
(2-5/2-1). All femora with one d distinctly 
longer than remainder. Tarsus I as in L. 
pulleini except for minute details. Ambulacra as 
in L. pulleini. 

MALE AND IMMATURES. Unknown. 

LOCALITY. Holotype female and three 
paratype females from an unidentified spider, 
Long Gully, South Australia, 11.6.1938, col. H. 
Womersley, dep. SAM. 




FIGS. 31-33. LWNGHIA RAIN BO Wl sp. n. 

31-33. Female: 31. venler of idiosoma; 32. spermathecae; 33. venter of capitu- 
lura (with inset of epistome and true left palp shown dorsally). 



DOMROW— A GENUS PARASITIC ON MYGALOMORPH SPIDERS 



39 



NOMENCLATURE 

Although Womersley (1956) coined his 
specific name explicitly in honour of R. H. 
Pulleine, his consistent pulleini is in literal accord 
with Rec. 31 A, and is retained as the correct 
original spelling ( Art. 32 ) . Following Womers- 
ley's lead, the two new species above are also 
named after early students of Australian spiders: 
H. R. Hogg and W. J. Rainbow. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

1 am grateful to Mr. D. C. Lee, South Aus- 
tralian Museum, Adelaide, for material from 
Womersley's series and the two new species; to 
Dr. L. van der Hammen, Rijksmuseum van 
natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, for slides from the 
Oudemans collection; to Dr. D. H. Kemp, 
C.S.I.R.O., Indooroopilly, for specimens from the 
diplurid with Queensland Museum, Brisbane, 
labels; and to Miss Leanne Jackson for technical 
assistance. 



REFERENCES 
Costa, M., 1961: Miles associated with rodents in Israel. 

Bull. Br. Mus. nut. Hist., 8: 1-70. 
Costa, M., 1971: Mites of the genus Hypoaspis Canestrini, 

1884 .v. str. and related forms (Aeari: Mesostigmata) 

associated with beetles. Bull. Br. Mus. nut. Hist., 21: 

67-98. 
Evans, O. O., 1963: Observations on the chaetotaxy of the 

legs in the free-living Gamasina (Acari: Mesostigmata). 

Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist., 10: 275-303. 
Evans, G. O., 1969: Observations on the ontogenetic 

development of the chaetotaxy of the tarsi of legs 

II-1V in the Mesostigmata (Acari). Proc. II int. 

Congr. Acur., 195-200. 
Evans, G. O. and Till, W. M., 1965: Studies on the British 

Dermanyssidae (Acari: Mesostigmata). Part I. 

External morphology. Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist., 13: 

247-294. 
Evans, G. O. and Till, W. M., 1966: Studies on the British 

Dermanyssidae (Acari: Mesostigmata). Part II. 

Classification. Bull. Br. Mils. nat. Hist., 14: 107-370. 
Hunter, P. E. and Husband, R. W., 1973: Pneumolaelaps 

(Acarina: Laelapidae) mites from North America and 

Greenland. Fla. Ent. 56: 77-91. 
Lindquist, E. E. and Evans, G. O., 1965: Taxonomic con- 
cepts in the Ascidae, with a modified setal nomenclature 

for the idiosoma of the Gamasina (Acarina: Mesostig- 
mata). Mem. cut. Soc. Can., 47: 1-64. 
Oudemans, A. C, 1932: Opus 550. Tijdschr. Ent., 13 

(Suppl.): 202-210. 
Womersley, H., 1956: On some Acarina-Mesostigmala from 

Australia. New Zealand and New Guinea. J. Linn. 

Soc, 42: 505-599. 



RECORDS OF THE 
SOUTH AUSTRALIAN 
MUSEUM 



TAXONOMY AND BIOLOGY OF FROGS 
OF THE UTORIA CITROPA COMPLEX 
(ANURA: HYLIDAE) 



By MICHAEL J. TYLER 

and 

MARION ANSTIS 



SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 
North Terrace, Adelaide 
South Australia 5000 



VOLUME 17 

NUMBER 5 

7th March, 1975 



TAXONOMY AND BIOLOGY OF FROGS OF THE LITORIA CITROPA 

COMPLEX (ANURA: HYLIDAE) 

by Michael J. Tyler and Marion Anstis 

Summary 



A new species of hylid frog related to Litoria citropa is described. The new species inhabits 
mountainous areas of north-eastern New South Wales and south-eastern Queensland. The tadpoles 
of both species are described and details of life history are reported. Whereas the adults of citropa 
and the new species are similar, the tadpole mouthparts differ conspicuously. 



TAXONOMY AND BIOLOGY OK FROGS OK THE LITORIA CITROPA COMPLEX 

(ANURA: HYL1DAE) 

by 

MICHAEL J. TYLER 

South Australian Museum, Adelaide, 5000 

and 

MARION ANST1S 

630 King George's Road, Penshurst. N.S.W. 2222 



ABSTRACT 

IYLKR. M. J., ;ind ANSTIS, M. I<>75. Taxonomy unci 
biology of Horns of Ihe l.itoriu cilro/m complex (Anura: 
Hylidsie). Rec. S. Am. Mils.. 17 (5): 41-50. 

A new species of hylid frog related to Lituria 
citropa is described. The new species inhabits 
mountainous areas of north-eastern New South 
Wales and south-eastern Queensland. The tad- 
poles of both species are described and details of 
life history are reported. Whereas the adults of 
citropa and the new species are similar, the 
tadpole mouthparls differ conspicuously. 

INTRODUCTION 

Litoria citropa is a hylid frog of rather striking 
appearance and known to occur from north- 
eastern New South Wales to south-eastern 
Victoria. The species was known in Victoria 
from only three specimens (Copland, 1957), 
until Littlejohn, Loftus-Hills, Martin and Watson 
(1972) reported on a series collected in East 
Gippsland. Littlejohn el al. provided an analysis 
of the call, representing the only information on 
the biology of the species. 

Because L. citropa is such a distinctive animal 
and so readily distinguishable from all other Aus- 
tralian species of Litoria, we did not envisage that 
it constituted other than a single species until one 
of us (M.A. ) obtained a series of specimens from 
Point Lookout in north-eastern New South Wales. 
These specimens were consistently smaller than 
those obtained from the central and southern por- 
tion of the geographic range, and also differed in 
the absence of vocal sacs and in having indistinct 
as opposed to prominent tympana. The subse- 
quent collection of tadpoles introduced an 
unexpected degree of divergence in what, from 
adult morphology, we regarded as two closely 
allied species. Here we define the L. citropa 
complex, describe the new species and rc|>ort 
additional biological data. 

lilt March, i ( >75 

1 



MATERIAL AND METHODS 

The specimens reported here are lodged in the 
following collections; Australian Museum 
(A.M.); Department of Zoology, University of 
Melbourne (M.U.Z.D.); South Australian 
Museum (S.A.M.). 

Methods of measurements of adults follow 
Tyler ( 1968). The following abbreviations are 
employed in the text and in tables; S-V (snout 
to vent length), TL (tibia length); HL (head 
length); HW (head width): E-N (eye to naris 
distance); IN (internarial span); E (eye); T 
(tympanum). 

Descriptions of larval morphology follow the 
format of Duellman ( 1970) and use the staging 
tables of Gosner (1960). Measurements were 
made to the nearest 0-0 1 mm with cither vernier 
calipers or an eyepiece micrometer. Abbrevia- 
tions of larval measurements and their definitions 
follow: ST (total length, being the distance 
between the tips of the snout and tail ) ; BL ( body 
length, measured from the tip of the snout to the 
edge of the intestinal mass). 

OBSERVATIONS 

Definition of the Litoria citropa complex 

Members of the L. citropa complex occur only 
in eastern and south-eastern Australia. They are 
the only Australian frogs possessing a submandi- 
bular dermal gland. This gland is located along 
the lingual margin of the mandible and is clearly 
demarcated from the surrounding area in having 
a protuberant form and smooth surface. The 
supratympanic fold is also a prominent grandular 
feature. 

The snout to vent length of males ranges from 
35 mm to 57 mm. and females from 46 mm to 
62 mm. The colour of the dorsum varies from 
brown to green or gold, and there is always a 
pronounced dark stripe extending along the 



42 



RliC. S. AUST. MUS- 17 (5): 41-50 



Mairh, 1975 



canthus rostralis and broadening on the sides of 
the body. The inguinal region and adjacent 
portions of the abdomen and lower limbs are 
usually immaculate yellow or reddish-orange. 

Litoria citropa (Tschudi) 
Type locality: Port Jackson (Sydney). New 
South Wales. 

Material examined: New South Wales — 
M.U.Z.D. 47/67, 18 km E. of Braidwood; 
S.A.M. R13304 A-D, 13339 A-F, 13764: 
Darke's forest; M.U.Z.D. 176/63: Flat Rock 
Ck.. Royal National Park; M.U.Z.D. 1593/69: 
I I km S. of Kiah; M.U.Z.D. 1518-19/69: 8 km 
S. of Robertson; M.U.Z.D. 1 1 19-20: 1 km W. 
of Tomerong; M.U.Z.D. 1792-93/64: Upper 
Allyn; M.U.Z.D. 582/63: Waterfall Sydney; 
M.U.Z.D. 1690-91/64: Wombat Ck., Barring- 
ton Tops. Victoria— M.U.Z.D. 1594-97/69: 
Maramingo; M.U.Z.D. 1590-92/69: Tonghi 
Ck., 8 km W. of Cann River. 

Description: Because detailed descriptions of 
external morphology have been provided by 
Copland (1957) and Moore (1961). we have 



only summarised the variation observed in the 
specimens examined by us, and devoted the 
greatest attention to those features unreported or 
inadequately described previously. 

The adult males range in size from 44-4 to 
56-6 mm S-V, and gravid females from 56*9 to 
61*8 mm S-V. The head is bulbous, rounded 
and broader than long (HL/HW range 0'87- 
0-96; mean 0-92). The eye to naris distance is 
consistently greater than the internarial span 
(E-N/iN range 1-05-1-44; mean 1-3). The 
superior border of the tympanum passes beneath 
the glandular supratympanic fold, but the visible 
portion is very distinct and has a pronounced 
annulus, 

The lingers are long and slender, with 
moderately large terminal discs, and either a 
trace of webbing between the third and fourth 
lingers or no webbing at all (Fig. la). Webbing 
between the toes is incomplete, reaching the 
•.ubarticular tubercle at the base of the penulti- 
mate phalanx of the fifth toe (Fig. lb). The 
hind limbs are of short to moderate length 
(TL, S-V range 0-50-0-57; mean 0-53). 



', — "\ 



s id 



K 



■A 

km 

• - 







fit? 
Mfc-fatta 4%" "I 

4 ■ ■ .. i i# 












v. ~ ' 






:-:,y 



MA 







- m y -■ - 



marls 







mm 



■■■!■ ■• •.*>*>;' 



\f?!.' ' ■<■■ 

\ftv7- . ■'-'•. T " •• •'■■■■: '-i-'-'' iirii 




&•:. 



& 






:-.V>>.iW 



PJG. I 

C.il hand, and (b) foot of l.iioriu rimi/iti. 



I YIN* \ni> ANSTIS— IAXONOMY AND BIOLOGY OP UIOIU4 CITROPA COMPLEX FROGS 



41 



The vocal sac is a unilobular, submandibular 
structure conlined to the area above the musculus 
intcrliyoidcus. The size and position of the vocal 
sac apertures are unique amongst Australian 
hylid frogs, being very small slits located adjacent 
to the articulations of the jaws. 

The colour in life was described by Kinghorn 
( 1932), and reproduced by Moore ( 1961 ). A 



photograph of a living adult is shown in Figure 
2a. Variation of dorsal colours of a live adult 
includes slate grey with green suffusions, to brown 
and green or almost pure green. The anterior 
anil posterior surfaces of the hind limbs, the 
axillary and the inguinal regions are usually deep 
reddish orange, and the ventral surfaces of the 
hind limbs are light red. 





FIG. 2 

(a I l.ilwitt (ilroiHi; (h) /.. xlundiilosii. 



Some of the specimens examined by us 
have violet pigmented bones comparable to the 
condition reported by Tyler (1970) which 
characterises five other species of frogs occurring 
in eastern and south-eastern Australia, The 
pigmentation is most intense in specimens from 
the extreme south-east of the geographic range: 
Maramingo, Kiah and Tonghi Creek. Bone 
pigmentation is very faint or absent in specimens 
from Tomerong and has not been found in indi- 
viduals from localities north of Robertson. 
Absence of violet pigment is in no way associated 
with the period of time spent in preservative, but 
is clearly correlated with geography. 

Habitat: Specimens were collected over a 
wide geographic range. The principal field 
studies, however, took place at Darke's Forest, 
where adult and/or tadpoles were collected in 
the following situations: ( I ) Maddern Creek — 
a series of broad, deep pools separated by shallow 
sections of varying How rates crossing a sandstone 
base, and sometimes falling into large canyons; 
(2) The Waratah Creek: and (3) an unnamed 
creek flowing into the Lodden River. 

Plants found along these creeks included 
species of Eucalyptus, Banksia, Acacia, Lepto- 
spermum, Callistemon, Hakea, Pultenea, Per- 
soouja, h'trophile, Typha, Cypenis and Ghania. 



Adult Behaviour; Adult males most frequently 
were collected adjacent to the creeks in Darke's 
Forest during April, 1971, and September to 
November. 1972. Dry bulb temperatures 
recorded on four occasions when frogs were heard 
calling ranged from 14 "C to 19-5 C. During 
the day frogs were found on sandstone plateaus 
or outcrops, either beneath or amongst the rocks, 
and usually fairly close to water. The mating 
call has been described and analysed by Littlejohn 
el at. ( 1972). The impression gained was that 
calling increased on warmer nights following rain 
when the skies were still overcast. 

Breeding is known to occur in September and 
November and possibly extends until January. 
Amplexus is axillary. 

Life history; Amplexus was observed in a 
captive pair on the night of 6th-7th November, 
1972. The individuals were placed in a plastic 
container with some water and amplexus was 
observed at about 20-30 hours. The female 
uttered a soft release call for some minutes 
following the onset of amplexus and then 
remained silent. The specimens were then trans- 
ferred to a dish containing water, a large, Hat 
sandstone rock and some reeds, and 890 eggs 
were laid during the night, either singly or in 
small groups and attached to the surface of the 
rock or to the floor of the vessel. 






RFX. S. AUS'l. MUS., 17 (5 |; 4I.J0 



■Uuivl,. 1M75 



The sites of ova deposition in ihc field were 
the smooth rocky floors of small pools connected 
to or separated from the creeks. In all cases the 
water depth ranged from approximately 10 to 
70 mm. The outer capsules of the eggs became 
covered with tine brown silt within two or three 
days of deposition. 

The eggs have dark brown animal hemispheres, 
appearing black macroscopieally and have 
creamy white vegetal hemispheres. There arc 
diree vitelline membranes, 

Measurements of the early stage embryos, 
capsules and larvae derived from the above 
mating are listed in Table I . Initial development 
was rapid, nerulation was reached early on 9th 
November, and the tail bud (Stage 17) later on 
the same day. At this stage a U-shaped groove 
united two welt-formed ventral suckers, above 
which occurred the stomodeal depression, The 
body was dark brown and the yolk sac yellowish- 
brown. 

r-vut 1 1 

Ml \SIRI MINTS OF LMHRYOS ANI> LARVAE OF L. COROPA 
AT VARIOUS STAt.hS 

(Maim in iiarunthusiM 

I Mil RY OS 



sue* 

2 
4-5 

5 
5-6 



It 

20 

21-22 

23 

24 

25 (early) 
25 (l.ttc) 



Stage 

14 

8 

» 
»1 
a: 
34 
.15 
36 
H 
411 



Sample 



3 
3 

15 
15 



I 
10 
•I 
J 
J 
8 

9 



- I If 



Eitibryii Diumctcr 
(mini 
•68-1 76 «1 7,1) 



1-60-1 76 
I 70-1 SO 
168- 1 76 

1 76-1 84 

2 56-3-48 



II 701 
11-75) 

(1-72) 
(1-781 

a 121 



Cup-ule nuimiMur 

(mml 
5-92-6-48 (6-101 



544-7-20 
5-84-6-48 
6-08-7-20 
.5 16-6-48 



(6-18) 
(6- 191 
(6 45) 
I60X) 



Total l.englh 
(mm) 
5-68 

.5-84-6 56 
6-24-7-12 
8-24-8-64 
848-0-28 



(6-261 
(676) 
(X-451 
(8-96) 



8-96-I0T6 (9-65) 
12-48-13-44 (12 92) 



LARVM 



Hoclv Lcnt'tH 
(mm) 
5-9-7-8 (6-0) 
6 7-9-0 (8-11 
•J-4-1 1-2 (10 3) 
IO-3-II-2 ilil-Ki 
0-9-11-7 (10-9) 
III). 1 1 -8 
II 4 
120-12-5 l\2Z\ 

11 3-IMI (11-71 

12 H 
11-0 



Tolul Lcnglh 
(mm) 
(4-7-200 (17- 1 1 
16-2-23-0 

23 8-25-6 

24 1-28 7 
^•S-iO I 
28 7, 29-<| 
29-5 

32V-33-9 
10 4-31-6 
M4 
34 1 



120-3) 
(24-51 
C6-3I 
(28-3) 



(332) 
(30-9) 



Maximum gill development occurred at Stage 

22 with the anterior pair possessing one or two 
branches, and the posterior pair two or three. 
The optic bulges were still not distinctly demar- 
cated and the corneas remained opaque. Stage 

23 (material collected in the field on 1st October, 
1972) exhibited greatly reduced external gills, 
clear corneas, well-differentiated olfactory pits 
(narcs), lateral-line sense organs extending along 
the body to the caudal region, well-developed 
labia, and an open or partly open anal tube. 

Oral ridges on which the labial teeth had 
developed were characteristic of Stage 25. The 
horny beak became pigmented and the extreme 
reduction of the ventral suckers diminished at 
this stage. Subsequent development mainly 
involved increase in size and proportions as 
recorded in Table I. 

In our description of the new species of the L. 
citmpu complex we provide a detailed composite 
description of tadpoles at Stages 29 and 36. Here 
we report only those features apparent at Stage 35 
of /_,. citropa that differ from those of the new 
species. Thus the anal opening is diagonal from 
the edge of the ventral tin. and tail depth is 
greatest just anterior to its mid-region. 



8» 

v -■■ i ■ 



M^^^SAm^S^SSt s 



■mms : :^ [ ' 



1 sm ■ 



»« 



tHHS^P^T •: i 



.:■-_-., 



a 





Matching commenced after four days at Stage 
20, but the peak was reached on the fifth day, 
and a few larvae hatched on the sixth day at 
Stages 20 to 21. By Stage 20 there were two 
pairs of external gills (each with only cine or two 
branches), indistinct optic bulges, and prominent 
olfactory pits; the stomodeal depression had 
deepened and the ventral suckers had increased 
in size. 




a 

FIG. 3 

(a and c) Lateral and dorsal view-, of loivn of l.iioriu 
rilrnfni m Mace 35, (b ami dj lateral and dorsal VfcWS »f 
/.. yliiiitltilosii a( Slage Jfi. 



TYLER and ANSTIS— TAXONOMY AND BIOLOGY OF UTORIA CITROPA COMPLEX FROGS 




^ t |^iSSrpC/ I 



iSPMM* 



"1ft 



r »jJ S 






'"W, 

% 






I • iv' ' p*r Wm «**■• j '« 






*>*4fo>+^F** 



vsf iA" - 



FIG. 4 
Mmuhparls of (a) Lihiria citvopu; (b) /.. gkmdulma 



fa 






« 



The mouth is ventral in position (Fig. 3a), 
and the labia are bordered by a single row of 
small papillae (Fig. 4a); only a few small 
papillae occur inside the labial border. There 
are two rows of upper labial teeth and three rows 
of lower labial teeth, of which the second upper 
is the longest, and the third lower the shortest. 
There is a medial gap in the second upper row 
and in the first lower row. Odd teeth were 
missing in the majority of the specimens 
examined. The beaks are pigmented, relatively 
shallow, and of almost equal depth with 
moderately-sized serrations. 

In preserved specimens the dorsal surface of 
the body and the upper labium are dark brown 
with small areas of darker pigment. The orbital 
and narial regions are paler. The caudal mus- 
culature is cream and densely blotched with 
brown dorsal ly. The fins are transparent, but 
marked with scattered clusters of melanophores. 
The lateral line organs are unpigmentcd. In 
life the dorsal and lateral body surfaces have a 
uniform golden sheen, noticeably incomplete in 
its distribution at earlier stages (e.g., Stages 
25-26). 

Metamorphosis of tadpoles reared from the 
spawn laid on 6th November, 1972, was com- 
pleted in January, February and March. 1973, 
indicating a larval life of from two to four 
months. Snout to vent lengths of eight newly 
metamorphosed specimens ranged from 11-9 mm 
to 14-3 mm (mean 13-1 mm). 

Distribution: Litoria citropa extends from 
Aberfeldy in south-eastern Victoria to the 
Harrington Tops in New South Wales (Fig. 5). 




= L.citropa 
' L.glandulosa 



FIG. 5 

Geographic dislribulion of the Litvriti citropa complex. 
The close proximity of several adjacent localities is such 
lhal each individual locality cannot be shown on a figure 
of this scale. 



46 



REC. S. AUST. MUS.. 17 (5): 41 50 



March, I "75 



Liloria glandulosu n. sp. 

Holotype: S.AM. RI3504. A gravid female 
collected at Barwick Creek, Point Lookout, 
near Ebor. New South Wales, by M. Anstis 
on 24th January, 1973. 

Definition: A moderately-sized species (adult 
females 45-8-50-4 mm S-V; adult males 34-5- 
40-3 mm S-V). Adults are characterised by an 
indistinct tympanum, and by the presence of a 
submandibular gland. The tadpole is unique 
amongst previously described Australian species 
in lacking tooth rows, and in possessing elongate 
tubercles and filaments within the buccal cavity 
(Fig. 4b). 

Description of Holotype: The head is deep, 
bulbous and broader than long (HL/HW 0-91 ), 
its length is equivant to approximately one third 
of the total length (HL/S-V 0-34). The snout 
is not prominent; bluntly rounded when viewed 
from above and evenly rounded (but not project- 
ing) in profile. The nostrils are orientated dorso- 
lateral^; their distance, from the end of the snout 
is slightly more than one-half the diameter of the 
eye. The distance between the eye and the naris 
is greater than the internarial span (E-N/IN 
I «I6). The canthus rostral is is clearly demar- 



cated and straight, and the loreal region sloping 
but not concave, The eye is rather small and 
not prominent; its diameter equals the E-N dis- 
tance. The tympanum is small and very poorly 
defined, there being no distinct tympanic annulus; 
the tympanum is separated from the eye by a 
distance about one-third of the eye diameter. 
The vomerine teeth are on two confluent eleva- 
tions whose anterior borders are level with the 
posterior margins of the choanae. The tongue is 
broadly oval with a very weakly indented 
posterior border. 

The lingers are long and slender with slight 
lateral fringes and prominent subarticular 
tubercles (Fig. 6a). There is only a trace of 
basal webbing between the fingers. The terminal 
discs are rounded and prominent. 

The hind limbs are short and muscular 
(TL/S-V 0-52). Toes in decreasing order of 
length 4>5>3>2>l. Webbing between the 
toes reaches mid-wuy up the penultimate phalanx 
of the fifth digit, to a position slightly below the 
penultimate phalanx of the fourth digit. The 
terminal discs are prominent, There is a small 
oval inner and a very slightly developed rounded 
outer metatarsal tubercle (see Fig. 6b). 





., — . 8... -VS jJSS-i • **r'* •■/ 

V ■ &* ?$ 



fi»SS 

. (\ ** '.•.'-■ 

. . , . • • t-m 

.••••/■ 



tt,A 



Of liioritt xUhkIiiIumi. 



(Nlt-R am. ^NSriS-IAXONOMY ANO HIOI OC.Y (>(• IllOIV.-i CIIKCri C/UMPLkX PRODS 17 



The skin of the dorsal surface of the head and 
body is rather coarseiy granulate. There is a 
very prominent supratympanie fold which 
obscures (he upper portion of the tympanic 
region extending from the posterior corner of the 
eye to a position above the insertion of the fore- 
limb. There is a slender supralabial gland and 
a narrow tarsal ridge. 

There is a broad and prominent submandibular 
gland covered by smooth skin; the remainder of 
the ventral surface of the throat, pectoral region, 
abdomen and limbs is coarsely granulate. 

The dorsal surface of the head, body and limbs 
is dark blue in life. The supratympanie fold is 
darker, and superior to it is an extremely irregular 
pale brown line merging intu isolated creamisli 
patches on the flanks. The supralabial gland is 
white and is preceded by a similarly coloured line 
extending to beneath the eye. A disrupted white 
line extends along the anterior portion of the 
labial margin. 

The ventral surfaces are dull creamish in colour 
and densely stippled with black, particularly on 
the submandibular gland and breast. The 
posterior surfaces of the thighs are predominantly 
dull brown, sparsely spotted with cream. These 
cream spots are densest in the subcloacal area. 

Dimensions: Snout to vent length 45-8 mm; 
tibia length 23-7 mm. head length l$'$ mm; 
head width 17-1 mm; eye to naris distance 
43 nun; inlernarial span 3-7 mm; eye diameter 
4-6 mm; tympanum diameter approximately 
2-3 mm: diameter of terminal disc of third linger 
2-3 mm. 

Variation: There are 38 paratypes: S.A.ML 
R 1 3505- 10. collected at Barwick and Bullock 
Creeks. Ebor on 24th January, 1973. S.A.M 
R 1 3060 (II juveniles): S.A.M. R13303, col- 
lected at Barwick Creek in January, 1973; 
S.A.M. Rl 3626-39. A.M. R39498. collected at 
Point Lookout in May, 1973, all above specimens 
taken by M.A.. M.U.Z.D. 1991,68, 1992/68. 
1997/68, 1999/68.. collected at Point Lookout 
by M. J. Littlejohn, J. ,1. Loftus-Hills and G. F. 
Watson; MUZ.D. 1885/68 collected at 65 km 
E. of Glen Innes by Littlejohn. Loftus-Hills and 
Watson. 

The adult male paratypes have snout to vent 
lengths ranging Irom 34-5 mm to 40-3 mm. 
All lack vocal sacs. The short limbs, relatively 
high E-N/1N ratio and broad head of the holo- 
type are consistently demonstrated by the follow- 
ing ranges and means of proportions of these 



specimens: TL/S-V == 0-48-0-53, mean 0-5": 
E-N/IN I -00-1 -23, mean I • 14; HL/HW 0-87- 
1-00, mean 0-91. 

Coloration varies only in the intensity of the 
blue dorsum and in the extent of the irregular 
lateral stripes and light markings on them. The 
posterior surfaces of the thighs are consistently 
darkly patterned. Snout to vent lengths of 
recently metamorphosed specimens ranged from 
M -5 to 14*5 mm (mean 13-0 mm). 

Coloration in life: Observations on an adult 
(S.A.M. RI3678) indicated differences associ- 
ated with activity. When active the dorsal sur 
face of the head, body and limbs was brilliant 
green. The lateral stripe was dark brown on the 
side of the head, becoming paler in the supra- 
tympanic region and merging with a series of 
golden patches in the inguinal region. This 
lateral stripe was bounded superiorly by a gold 
line broadening on the body. The superior 
labial margin bore a cream stripe extending 
posteriorly to above the insertion of the forearm. 
The section of the head anterior and posterior to 
the eye and between these labial and lateral 
stripes was pale green, The iris was uniformly 
golden. There were rows of gold and brown 
(leeks on the borders of the limbs. The hands 
and feet were mottled with gold and green. The 
ventral surfaces were a creamish white: the sub- 
mandibular gland had a faint yellow hue. The 
axilla, and inguinal areas and the anterior and 
posterior surfaces of the hind limbs were a 
translucent deep yellow. 

When the frog was at rest the dorsum was 
usually very dark brownish-green, the lateral 
stripe and associated patches a rusty brown and 
the labial stripe grey. The iris was golden above 
(he pupil, brown below it. The ventral surfaces 
were generally dusky brown. 

In other specimens dorsal coloration ranged 
from olive with uniform dark green mottling (or 
mottling confined to the limbs), green with large, 
discrete gold patches (J. de Bavay, pels, comm.) 
lo gold or brown so that the lateral stripe was 
scarcely discernible. Those found m green vege- 
tation were inevitably bright green, whether col- 
lected by day or night. The colour of individuals 
tound beneath rocks or logs varied from dark 
brown to almost any shade of green. In captivity 
most frogs were dark whilst at rest during the 
day and bright green whilst active at night. 

Hahimi: The specimens collected or observed 
by M.A. were taken adjacent to creeks and rivers 
in cool, montane forest within 10 km of Point 
Lookout, and at altitudes of I 350-1 450 metres 
These water courses are: — 



4H 



RH S Al SI. MUS.. 17 (J) 41 -5U 



\tur-:h. |y7S 



(a) Barwick River, consisting of moderately 

deep pools (containing submerged 
plants), separated by shallow flowing 
sections and waterfalls. The floor of 
the river is predominantly basalt. 

(b) Little. Styx River, which is similar to 

Barwick River. but appreciably 
broader. 

(c) Bullock Creek, which differs from Bar- 

wick River only in its generally smaller 
dimensions and predominantly granite 
base. 

(d) Spring Creek, the smallest of all four 

watercourses, with a sandy floor over 
a basalt base, 

Amongst the vegetation on the banks were 
species of Juncus, Epactis. Leptospcrtnum. 
Ranunculus. Pterostylis and various ferns. Areas 
of sphagnum were present. The dominant species 
of tree was Eucalyptus pauctflom. which was 
replaced by Nothafagus moorei at higher 
altitudes. 

Adult behaviour: During the periods of obser- 
vation the species was found amongst vegetation 
adjacent to the watercourses, beneath rotten logs, 
under bark on trees or amongst rocks and low 
vegetation (particularly Juncus). 

In May, 1973. 14 adult males, one female 
and one juvenile were found together under a 
rotting log approximately three metres long and 
one metre across. We conclude from their 
sluggish behaviour that they had aggregated to 
hibernate communally. To our knowledge this 
represents the first report of a possible communal 
hibemaculum for frogs in Australia. 

Data on breeding behaviour are lacking. How- 
ever, we have evidence to indicate an exception- 
ally long breeding season. For example, the sight- 
ing of amplexal pairs on the Barwick River in 
mid-December. 1971 (J. Barker, pets, comm,). 
indicates larval development during the summer 
months when water temperatures reach their 
annual maxima. The dates of collection of the 
stages of larvae reported below are consistent 
with ova being deposited in November-December. 

In apparent conflict is the finding of a gravid 
adult female in May in the hibernaculum. The 
entire body cavity was rilled with large pigmented 
eggs up to 2- I rum in diameter and, perhaps 
more significantly, the oviducts were greatly 
enlarged and extensively convoluted. The speci- 
men was found in breeding condition at a time 
when ground temperatures were so cold as to 
make it lethargic. We therefore believe that at 



least this female would have been in breeding 
condition at the conclusion of hibernation in the 
following spring. 

Newly metamorphosed specimens of L. glun- 
dulosa were collected in December, supporting 
our belief that some individuals do breed in the 
spring. 

The mating call has not been recorded on tape. 
It consists of a scries of several, moderately low- 
pitched notes initially increasing in volume and 
rate, and finally slowing. M.A likens it to: 
"orak-orak-orak . . . .**', 

Life History The spawn and early stages of 
development are unknown. Tadpoles in Stages 
25 to 43 were observed in the Barwick River on 
20th December, 1972. in a shallow, slowly mov- 
ing section just beneath a deep pool. Most 
larvae appeared to be feeding over the red silt 
covering stones on the stream bed. When dis- 
turbed they swam under rocks. Stages 29 to 36 
were collected on 25th January, 1973, from a 
physically similar section of Spring Creek but in 
an area where the floor was covered with pale 
sand, against which tadpoles were well camou- 
Ikiged. Some were amongst the roots of water 
plants, but others lay in exposed areas, occasion- 
ally moving to the shallower sections of the pool. 

Measurements and ratios of proportions on the 
above series are summarised in Table 2. The 
following description of larval morphology is a 
composite one based on specimens at Stages 
25-43 

TABU 2 

MI.ASURI Ml MS Ol- LAKVAI Ol I CILANDULOSA Al VARIOUS 

STACKS AT BAHWICK RIVFR COMPARI -O WITH SPRING. CHH K 

WHICH ARC SHOWN IN PAKnNTHLSIS 



I.IUI. 


tiodi l.cnglli 


I.H.-il LellRlh 


Samp 


c Si/c 




mini) 


(mm) 


— 




M 


j-f 




14-3 




2(. 


in-: hj.ji 




13-5 


1 




21 




Ift-2 (20 M 


1 


(II 


JO 


4'*. Idl 




23-6, ZM 


2 




31 

33 


IU-4 

V-4 (>l-fi| 




MS 

23-2 (25-0) 


1 

1 


(1) 


34 


IIIK2-II ") 




OS 3-2VOI 




;;: 


13 


ll-O (•>•"- 


ItWl 


21,-2 (26 1-3110) 


1 


H, 


101-11-2 


111 0. III.) 


2B-2-I7 4 (30-2. All-M 


3 


(2) 


11 


114 




29-0 


1 




IK 


in-7, ii7 




W-l. 31 


1 




M) 


1 1-0.117 


Ill 21 


2')-7-.;i4 13051 


4 


(II 


an 


110 




2*5 


1 





The snout is evenly rounded in lateral and 
dorsal profiles (Fig, 3b. d). The nares are closer 
to the tip of the snout than to the eyes, dorsal in 
position and directed antcrolatcrally. The eyes 
aie in a dorsolateral position. The body is 
broadest at a position corresponding to the level 
of the eyes and is broader than deep. The spiracle 
is sinistral, ventrolateral in position and is slightly 
further from the tip of the snout than from the 
anus The anus is dextral. opening adjacent to 
the edge of the ventral fin. 



IYLLR and ANST1S— TAXONOMY AND HIOI OCTN OP IIIOKIt ( 1 1 KOf'A COMPLEX FROGS 



49 



The tail is a moderately thick structure deepest 
at about the anterior one-third, narrowing pos- 
teriorly and is terminally rounded. The lateral 
lines arc pigmented and the lateral line organs 
are numerous and narrowly spaced. 

The oral disc is ventral in position and is in 
the form of a funnel marginally .surrounded by 
a row of small papillae (Fig. 4b). The area 
within this funnel is occupied by numerous finely- 
pointed papillae projecting ventrally and occupy- 
ing the greater part of the lumen. From the 
most superficial to the deepest, the lengths of the 
papillae increase so that all terminate in the 
form of spikes near the level of the disc margin. 

On the inner edge of the lower labium, adja- 
cent to the mid-line, is a variable number (2-6) 
of large, black papillae. There are no tooth rows 
and the horny beak is small, unpigmented and 
located far posteriorly. There is a Hal while 
structure projecting from the centre of the upper 
beak forward and then inclined ventrally. and 
terminally divided into from four to seven tooth- 
like structures, each of which bears from one to 
four line hair-like black filaments. Some of the 
filaments are branched, In many specimens all 
filaments have broken oil leaving a white basal 
core. On each side of this projecting structure is 
a row of three large, pointed papillae. 

in life the dorsal surface of the tadpole is 
brown with tin irridescent golden sheen. Small, 
scattered, dark brown spots are most conspicuous 
in later stage tadpoles, '1'he areas around the 
eyes and nares arc least pigmented. The (ins are 
transparent, but for dark brown flecks, densest 
on the superior margin. The caudal musculature 
appears cream in transparency. In preservative 
the golden irridescence of the body is lost and 
the specimens appear darker. 

At metamorphic climax body lengths range 
from I2'0 mm to 12 - H mm. In life frogs at this 
stage are brown with a gold sheen. The lateral 
stripe, so conspicuous in adults, extends pos- 
teriorly only to the insertion of the arm. The 
dorsum bears numerous flattened tubercles which 
become progressively less conspicuous in older 
specimens. 

Distribution', Litoria glanditlosa probably 
replaces L. cilropa on the Great Dividing Ranae 
of northern New South Wales (Fig. 5). G. 
Ingram (pers. comm.) reports collecting speci- 
mens in eastern Queensland just north of the 
New South Wales border which were probably 
L. ghuululosu, Three specimens were taken 
adjacent to the Girraween National Park, south 
of Stanthorpe. The description of the habitat (a 



small creek descending from extensive rock for- 
mation ) is similar to those at which /.. pjaadnlosu 
has been collected by M.A. 



COMPARISON WITH OTHER SPECIES 

Distinguishing characters for adult L. glandu- 
losa and L. cilropa are compared in Table 3. 



TABLI. 3 

SUMMARY OF MAJOR DISTINGUISHING KEATURfcS 
Ol- I. Ol ANDULOSA AND L. CITROPA 



Chu racier 



S-V (mules) mm 
S-V (lemales) mm 
Tympanum 

Vocal sac 

Rones 

Larval labial leclh 



L. glandulosn 



L. cilropa 



34-5-40-1 46-9-500 

4.v:-f-50-4 56-5-5fv9 

hidden dislinci 

absent present 

unpigmented unpigmented or violei 

abscnl present 



Larval oral disc papillae elongate shori 

Larval liorny beak small, white I large, black 



Adults of Litoria glandidosa can be easily 
distinguished from all other species of Litoria 
except L . citropa by its possession of a very large 
submandibular dermal gland and prominent 
supralympanic fold. Only L. caerulcu has com- 
parable (and in fad more extensive) supratym- 
panic fold, but it is a much larger and far more 
robust animal and lacks the dark lateral band 
and gold lateral line of L. glandulosa, and has 
broadly webbed fingers. 



DISCUSSION 

Absence of labial teeth in hylid tadpoles has 
previously been reported only for the Neotropical 
Region (Martin and Watson. 1971). where, in 
the genera Amphignathodon, Crypiobatrachus. 
Gastrotheca and Hemiphractus larvae are carried 
on the backs of parent females for at least part 
of (heir development. Species of Hyla lacking 
labial teeth usually have enlarged horny beaks, 
The absence of both labial teeth and of a pig- 
mented horny beak in L. xhinduiosa appears 
unique. 

Umil now the newly described species L 
i;landi<losa has been included within L. cilropa 
and, although morphological comparison of the 
adults of the populations indicates two distinct 
species, it appears that they are closely related 
to one another. Our finding that the larval 
mouthpai'ts of L. citropa (sensii .wicto) are of a 
pattern common to many Australian Litoria, 
whereas those of L. gtandltiosa are so different 
therefore poses problems of interpretation. 



50 



RFC. S. AUSI MUSv, 17 (5): 41-50 



March. 1975 



There arc far from adequate data for assessing 
the ancestry and phylogenctic relationships of 
Australian hylids. In view of the extent of mor- 
phological divergence currently encompassed 
within Litoria, it can be predicted with some con- 
fidence that Litoria will be ultimately shown to 
constitute several distinct genera. 

If L. citropa had not been known and we were 
here describing L. glatidalosa, there would be 
adequate data from our knowledge of adult and 
larval morphology to place it in a new genus. 
The purpose of such a step being to demonstrate 
that L. glamlulosa is so different from all species 
recognised previously, the erection of a separate 
genus would be a useful and logical step demon- 
strating the extent of divergence from Litoria as 
currently constituted. 

In the absence of any information on larvae, 
subsequent discovery of citropa adults would 
not have posed a problem. The general 
morphology and particularly the possession of 
the submandibular dermal gland would have 
justified its association with glandttlosa in the 
new genus. Subsequent discovery and identifica- 
tion of the tadpole of citropa with its generalised 
mouth-parts would raise the sort of questions that 
we now actually face. 

There seems no reason to doubt that the 
direction of larval evolutionary change is from 
the generalised hylid pattern of citropa to the 
bizarre lotic adaptation of gkuulttlosa. Never- 
theless, the extent of the adaptation involves 
major morphological changes: loss of all labial 
teeth rows, and pigmentation of the horny beak, 
and the development of oral disc tubercles with 
keratinised tips. Whether or not the central 
black filaments suspended anterior to the pharynx 
involve particle filtration, or have a sensory 
function, is immaterial to the assumption that 
their evolution constituted an extremely major 
evolutionary shift. 



We do not dispute Watson and Martin's 
( 1971 ) contention that hylid larval features are 
of value in assisting studies of phylogenetic 
relationships. However, our observations demon- 
strate that divergence in adult and larval mor- 
phology is not necessarily complementary. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

For the loan of specimens reported here we 
arc indebted to Dr. A. A. Martin and Mr. G. F. 
Watson (University of Melbourne), Dr. H, G, 
Cogger (Australian Museum), and Mr. J, de 
Bavay (University of New England). Mr. de 
Bavay, Mr. G. Ingram, Mr. J. Barker, Mr. and 
Mrs. R. Scott and Mr. and Mrs. D. Anstis assisted 
us in various ways. Our thanks are due to all 
of these colleagues. Grateful acknowledgment 
is also made to the Science and Industry Endow- 
ment Fund for a grant to M.A. to assist these 
studies. 



REFERENCES 

Copland, S. J.. 1957. Atl£U*aliiim tree frogs of ihe genus 
tfy/tf, I'ruc. IMm. Sac, N.S.W. 82: 9-10X. 

Duellman, W. I... 1970. the hylid Trogs of Middle 
America: Monogr, Mux. Nat. Hist. Vniv. Kansas 
No. I. I 753. 

tiosner. K., I960. A simplified table for staging anuran 
embryos and larvae, wilh notes on identification. 
ItcrpctoloKica 16: 183-190. 

kingdom, I. R.. 1932. Herpclolouical notes. No. 4. ftcc, 
Aitst. Mas.. 18: 355-363. 

I.itllcjohn M. J., I.ofus-Hills. J. J., Martin, A. A., and 
Watson, G. P. (1972). Amphibian fauna of Victoria. 
Confirmation of the records of Litoria (-Hyla ) titrops 
( Tschiidi) in Oippsland. Vic, Nat., 89: 51-54. 

Marlin, A. A., and Watson. G. F., 1971. Life history as 
an aid to ueneric delimination in Ihe family Hvlidae. 
Cnpcia 1971 I I): 7H-89. 

Moore, J. A., 1961. The frogs of eastern New Soulb Wales. 
Hull. Amir. Mas. Nat. Hist. 121: 151-385. 

Tvk-r, M. J.. I96S. Papuan hvlid frogs of the uenus H\iti. 
tool. I V/7i.. No. 96. 1-203. 

Tyler, M. J., 1970. The occurrence of bone pigmentation 
in Auslralian frogs. Search I: 75. 



RECORDS of THE 
SOUTH AUSTRALIAN 
MUSEUM 



A REVISION OF THE PENTATOMIDAE 
(HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA) OF THE 
RHYNCHOCORIS GROUP FROM 
AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS 



By GORDON F. GROSS 



SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 
North Terrace, Adelaide 
South Australia 5000 



VOLUME 17 

NUMBER 6 

22nd December, 1975 



A REVISION OF THE PENTATOMIDAE (HEMIPTERA-HETEROPTERA) 
OF THE RHYNCHOCORIS GROUP FROM AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT 

AREAS 



by Gordon F. Gross 



Summary 



The history of the recognition and a definition is given of the Rhynchocoris group of pentatomid 
genera. A first section of five genera, two of them new, are described, or revised and redescribed. 
Thirty-eight species of these genera from the Australian, New Guinea and neighbouring Pacific 
islands, 22 of them new, are described, or redescribed, and figured. Two other species formerly 
thought to occur in this area are shown to occur only outside of it, each is briefly redescribed but not 
figured. 



A REVISION OF THE PENTATOMIDAE (HEMIPTERA— HETEROPTERA) OF THE 
RHYNCHOCORIS GROUP FROM AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS 

PART I THE GENERA FROM OC1RRHOE THROUGH CUSPJCONA TO PETALASPIS 
WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES AND SELECTION OF LECTOTYPES 

By GORDON F. GROSS 

South Australian Museum, Adelaide, South Australia 5000 



ABSTRACT 

GROSS, O. F. |U?5, A revision of the Pentatomidae 
(Hemipiera-Heieroptera) of the Rhynchocoris group fiom 
Australia and adjacent areas. Pari 1. The genera from 
Ocirrhoe through Cuspkonu to PvtultlSpiS with descriptions 
of new species' and selection of lectotypes. lice. S. AV&t 
Mux. 17 (6): SI- 167. 

The history of the recognition and a definition 
is given of the Rhynchocoris group of pent a torn id 
genera. A first section of five genera, two of 
them new, are described, or revised and 
redescribed. Thirty-eight species of these genera 
from the Australian, New Guinea and neigh- 
bouring Pacific islands, 22 of them new. are 
described, or redescribed, and figured. Two 
other species formerly thought to occur in this 
area are shown to occur only outside of it, each 
is briefly redescribed but not figured. 

INTRODUCTION 

The group relationships of the Pentatomidae 
are in such an unsatisfactory condition that 
recognition of formal super-generic categories 
seems undersirable. 

Jn Gross (1975, and in press) where this 
problem is considered in greater detail it is pro- 
posed that the term "group" be applied to clusters 
of allied genera, each such group being named 
after the oldest or most typical genus included 
therein. 

The Rhynchocoris group of genera of Penta- 
tomidae was first recognised by Stul in 1870 
(p. 636) under the name "division Rbynchoco- 
rina" in these words: "Genera Rhynchocoris, 
ffoffmanse^iclln, Morno, Pugionc, Pegahi, 
Vitellus, Cusnicotut, Ocirrhoe et Pcrihoea 
divisionem (Rhynchocorinu) fonnanl, quae 
mc.sosterno alte carinato, carina antcrius inter 
vel ante pedes anticos in laminam produeta, 
metasterno elevato, postice emarginato, basi 
ventris spina, in emarginatura metasterni quie- 
scente, armata, marginibus scutelli apicc vel 
apicem versus nee elcvatis, samissime etiam 
tibiis teretibus, sulco destitutes, marginique 
postico thoracis Issvi est iusignis'f ■ 

22nd Oititnhi')- 1475 
I 



The group as such was referred to again by 
Atkinson in 1888 (p. 147) and then by Distant 
in 1902 (p. 221) as the Rhynchocoraria. Dis- 
tant's concept of the group was somewhat wider 
than SCSI's or Atkinson's as some of the genera 
he included [Sahaeus, Amhlycara) lacked 
strongly raised, laminate keels on the meso- and 
metasterna 

My concept of the Rhynchocoris group of 
genera is substantially the same as Stal's and 
Atkinson's but includes some additional genera 
( e.g. PetatasplS, Biproruhis etc. ) described after 
both ceased to be active in the field and some 
new genera described in this first part or to be 
described in the second part. 

The group in the Australian region make up 
one of the biggest and easily characterised sub- 
groupings of Pentatomidae along with the Halys 
group which, in certain features such as the 
development in some genera of spinously pro- 
duced juga and the development in a number of 
genera of spinously produced (or acute) lateral 
angles to the pronotum, they resemble. However 
these similarities appear to have arisen con- 
vergently for the two groups do not appear to 
be closely related on other features of die external 
morphology or of the rigid or sclerotised portions 
of the male and female genitalia. 

Members of the Rhynchocoris group as under- 
stood here have the following attributes: — 
medium to large size; juga reaching to apex of 
anteclypeus. slightly beyond, or produced 
spinously unteriorad; anterolateral angles or 
pronotum entire, not serrate; lateral angles of 
pronotum obtuse or convex, or with posterior 
part of anterolateral margins forming an acute 
angle or produced into a spinous process; on 
mesosternum a raised laminate keel which pro- 
jects forward over prosternum; on metastemum 
a similar keel with apex adpressed to the base 
of the mcsosternal keel, or the area of contact 
difficult to see, its base expanded and excavated 
or notched; on abdomen arising from second 
and part of third ventrite an elevated area 



52 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (6|: 5I-KS7 



Dcrcnilwr, 1075 



directed as a spinous process anteriorly whose 
apex fits into the notch on the metasternal keel; 
orifices of metathoracic scent glands followed 
dorsally by a long, usually curved, vertically 
directed streak or keel; colour in life usually 
some shade of green fading to yellowish, 
yellowish-brown, or brownish when preserved as 
pinned specimens, other colours frequently 
present are black, brown, luteous and a bright 
carmine red. these latter colours not usually 
fading after capture; outline of posterior margin 
of pygophore not usually complicated by marked 
projections or processes; claspers strongly 
F-shaped, the upper ramus longer than median 
bulge, frequently inclined upwards a little to 
appear oblique, median bulge usually blunt or 
convex and dorsally forming a flattened or con- 
vex pilose platform (Figs. 6 C, 8 E, 15 E, 25 A, 
25 C-D, 25 F etc.); aedeagus with phallosoma 
honey-coloured and semi-transparent (in most 
of the species of other groups of Pentatomidae 
the phallosoma is more heavily sclerotised and 
blackish, dark brown or brown in colour, 
in several sets of dissections one specimen, 
presumably teneral, had a honey-coloured 
phallosoma whereas others of that same species 
had the darker phallosoma, in species of the 
Rhyrichacuris group the phallosoma was always 
honey-coloured), conjunctiva membranous and 
either single lobed and projecting somewhat 
anteriorly, or bifid, sometimes right from base, 
in other cases only towards apex, laterally on 
conjunctiva on each side a flattish ear- or tongue- 
like process, here called the "lappet" processes, 
which are usually a little darker than the rest of 
the conjunctiva, medial pental plates parallel 
and directed vcntrally, frequently in the form 
of an inverted Y with very blunt arms as viewed 



laterally, in other cases hatchet-shaped, vesica 
and gonoporc located in front of the medial 
penial lobes and directed downwards at about 
45 (Figs, 15 C, 25 B, 25 E, 40 A. 46 A. 50 
A-C etc.); female external genitalia generally 
unremarkable; spermatliccae only of Ocirrhoe 
huesccns Distant (Fig. I A) and of Cuspkona 
simplex Walker (Fig. 1 B) examined, these of 
usual pentatomid form with a median hollow 
sclerotised rod through which the sperm-carrying 
duct runs, processes (diverticula) of the apical 
spermathecal bulb much longer than those seen 
in most other pentatomid genera investigated, 
a single sclerite at entrance of spermathecal duct 
into genital chamber. 

The relationships of this group of genera to 
other groups within the Pentatomidae are not 
clear. On external features the group would 
appear to be related to genera which have a 
forwardly directed spine arising from the basal 
abdominal ventrites eg. Piezoilurus, Cutucunlhus, 
Aspideurus, Mcnhla etc. or those with a conical 
tubercle or a convex swelling on the basal 
abdominal segments e.g. GhuicUis, Amhlyhelns, 
Plaulia, Alciphron etc. Some of the latter group 
are also green though this green does not fade 
in collections. The structure of the aedeagus 
and claspers in these various genera does not 
indicate any particularly close relationship 
between any of them and genera of the 
Rhynchocoris group though there is general 
relationship amongst many of them. 

A relationship between the Rhynchocoris 
group and the Tessaratomidae equally cannot 
be discounted as some of the latter group have 
forwardly directed processes developed from 
the basal visible segments of the abdomen or 



processes ol antral 
spermathecal bulb 



proximal oumrj llanqe 




apical 
OulD 



selertje 



distal nump 
flange 



spermathecal 
pump 



I mm 




I-ij:. I, Spcrmalhevae A. Ocirrltoe tulescenx Distant, 
Cuspteam simple* Walker. 



KIIYNC IIOCOKIS (.ROI'P IN AUSIRAIIA AND ADJACEN'I AREAS— I 



S3 



tnesostcrnnl and mctasternal keels but again the 
structure of the aedcagi and elaspcrs do not 
support any close relationship. 

In the descriptions which follow the cited 
measurements in the tabled dimensions arc in 
eyepiece divisions where I division -0-052 nun. 
If these measurements are converted to milli- 
metres using the above relationship more 
significant figures appear in the millimetre figure 
than are justified and the subsequent biometrie 
analysis is frequently inaccurate. Therefore to 
convert approximately to millimetres divide Lhc 
number of eyepiece divisions by 20. The head 
length is measured from the apex of the ante- 
clypcus (or if the juga surpasses the anteclypeus 
from an imaginary line joining the apices of the 
juga ) to the visible base Of the head on the 
middle of the anterior margin of the pronotum. 
This measurement is more variable than for some 
of the other measurements because of differences 
caused by varying degrees of exscrtion of the 
head. The head width is measured from the 
outer margin of one eye to the outer margin of 
the other. Bar both head measurements the 
animal was placed so that the head was 
horizontal. The measurements of the antcnnal 
segments \\cc\\ no explanation save that the first 
segment is in the vicinily of 8-10 eyepiece 
divisions and hence is being measured with too 
coarse a scale and shows a high variability 
because ol this. Tor the remaining measurements 
the dorsal surfaces of the abdomen, scutelhun 
and hind portion of the pronotum were placed 
horizontally, hence the two longitudinal measure- 
ments are foreshortened in comparison to those 
which would occur if measurements were made 
following the longitudinal curve of the body. 
The pronotal width is taken from one humeral 
outer margin to the other, if the lateral angles 
are spinously produced then the measurement is 
from the tip of one spine across to the tip of the 
other. The pronotal length is measured from the 
anterior margin to the posterior margin along the 
midline, The total length is measured from the 
apex of the anteclypeus or if the juga surpass it 
then from their apices to the apex of the mem- 
brane along the midline. The total length is 
also cited convened to millimetres but without 
assuming any more Significant figures than 
prudent. 

The nomenclature of the male and female 
genitalia follows Gross I "72, p. 131 el scq. and 
much of it is indicated on at least one illustration 
of each sex on those figures which show their 
structure. 



The abbreviations of the institutions in which 
type material and material examined is lodged 
are as follows: 

AM The Australian Museum, Sydney. 

AMNH The Amcncsin Museum of Natural 

History, New York. 

ANIC The Australian National Insect Collec- 

tion, C.S.I. R.O., Canberra. 

ASH LOCK Peter Ashlock Collection, presently in 

the University of Kansas, Lawrence. 

BISHOP The Bemice P. Bishop Museum. 

Honolulu 
BM The British Museum (Natural History), 

London. 

BRUSSELS Inslitul Royal de Sciences Naturelles. 

Brussels. 
CAS the California Academy of Sciences. 

San Francisco. 

HEI SINKI Universilelcts Zoologiske Museum, 

Helsingfurs. 

HOPE The Hope Collodion, University 

Museum, Oxford. 
KU University of Kansas. Lawrence. 

LEIDEN I'he Rijksmu.seum van Naluurlijkc 

Historic, Leiden. 
NM the National Museum of Viclona, 

Melbourne. 

CM The Queensland Museum. Brishanc- 

SAYI The South Australian Museum. 

Adelaide. 
SLATER I. A. Sinter Collection, presently in 

the University of Connecticut. 

Storrs, 
STOCKHOLM The Naturhistomka Riksmuscum. 

Stockholm. 

UO Department of Entomology, Univeisity 

of Queensland. Brisbane. 
USNM The Smithsonian Jnslilution, The 

United States National Museum. 

Washington. 
VVAM The Western Australian Museum. 

Perth. 

In the second part of this paper several new 
genera will be established for some species now 
placed in Cuspicona, such species as do not 
appear in this first part have not been missed 
through an oversight but arc to be treated as 
members of new or different genera in the 
second part. 

In drawing up a key for inclusion in this first 
part it was necessary to avoid all mention of the 
new genera to be erected in the second part lest 
their primary descriptions became based on a 
key or be mentioned without a type. Hence it 
was necessary to construct an abbreviated key 
which will serve to distinguish the genera con- 
sidered in this part from each other, and in a 
general way from genera to be considered in the 
later paper. 1 apologise for this, but I see no 



54 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (6): 51-167 



Deeeniher, 1975 



other satisfactory solution. A full key to all the 
genera of the Rhynchocoris group from this 
region will appear in the second part. 

Key to part of Rliynehoemis group of genera round 
in the Australian, New Guinea and Pacific Regions 

1.(1) Juga produced in front on the anteclypcus or 
at least level with it 

generQ not covered in this first purl 

Juga not produced in front of anteclypeus but 

obliquely or rouncfedly sloping back from i1 



1 ( I ) Apex of scutellum acute with apically a rather 
quadrate membranous plate around and 
beneath apex and into which apex is pro- 
duced, this plate reaching behind true apex 

of scutellum 3 

Apex of scutellum acute or more rounded hut 
without an affixed membranous plate like- 
process 4 

<. (2) lateral angles pronotuni produced into a 
prominent outwardly directed reddish or 
blackish tipped spine 

1 itcllns Still (lint covered in this part) 
Lateral angles of pronotum acute, not produced 
into laterally directed spines 

Petuluspis Bergroth 

4 (2) Anterior margin of pronotum not mostly levigate 

but punctate regularly in two or more 
scries and rest of pronotum mostly finely 

punctate , 5 

Pronotum with anterior margin smooth or never 
more than two rows of large punctations 
(except Pei>ala virens) and scattered large 
punctations on disc 

generti ml covered in this first pari 

5 (4) Tibiae flattened or silicate almost their whole 

length. Scutellum with a very distinct 
black impression in each basal angle; some 
black punctations on dorsal surface, 
including head . , , . Ocirrhoe Sin I (part) 
Tibiae not sulcafe, flattened only apically or not 
at all. Impressions in the basal angles of 
the scutellum concolorous. black or absent 

6. (5) Proportionately long and slender, head relatively 

long, thoracic angles unarmed 

Diuphyia Bergroth 
{=Paraboeci Jensen-Haarup) 
[not emend in this first purl) 
Body ovate or obovate, head medium sized, 
lateral angles of pronotum sometimes pro- 
duced into spines, sometimes not . 7 

7. (6) Apical angles of seventh abdominal segment 

strongly produced or conspicuously angu- 

late 8 

Apical angles of seventh abdominal segment not 
strongly produced 9 



8. (7) Lateral angles of pronotum rounded 

Parocirrhoe gen. nov. 
Lateral angles of pronotum acute or produced 
into a long spine 

itenero nut covered in this first purl 

9.(7) Anterolateral margins of pronotum angulatcly 

concavely incised at about half their length 

Everardia gen. nov. 

Anterolateral margins of pronotum straight or 

genlly convex in front of lateral angles 

10 

10. (V) Mesosternal keel close to presternum and 

reaching about base of head II 

Mesosternal keel not so adprcssed to prosternum 
and reaching forward under base of head 

A vkennu Distant ( part ) 
(not covered in this first part) 

11.(10) Tibiae flattened towards apices: loveac in 
basal angles of scutellum present and black 
or concolorous: lateral margins of pronotum 
narrowly rcllcxed or rarely broadly explan- 
atc, this reflexion or explanation continued 
onto truncale lateral angles for a short 
distance, antennae relatively robust 

Ocirrhoe St.'il (part) 

Not as above: lateral angles frequently acute or 
produced into a spinous process. If 
(prtvata Walker) tibiae flattened towards 
apices, fovcae in basal angles of scutellum 
present and concolorous and lateral margins 
of pronotum narrowly retlexed then this 
reflexion continued around the lateral 
angles and the antennae slender 

Cnspicoiw Dallas 



Ocirrhoe Stal, 1867 

Ocirrhoe Stal, 1867. p. 521, 1870, p. 637: 
1876, pp. 62 & 102. Lethierry & Severin. 
1893, p. 180. 

Rhynchocoris Westwood 1837 (in part) p. 29. 

Cttspicona Dallas, 1851 (in part) p. 296; Stal, 
1867 (in part) p. 521; Lethierry & Severin. 
1893 (in part) p. 180. Kirkaldy. 1909 
(in part) p. XXXI. 

Type species: Cttspiconu inconspictta Stal, 1867, 
non Dallas, 1851 Rltynchocoris aitstralis 
Westwood. 1837 OD. 

Description', 

General appearance: Species greenish or 
brownish-green in life, in museum collections 
brown or yellowish brown. Strongly punctate 
above. Small to moderate sized, rather oval. 
Anterolateral margins of pronotum retlexed or 
explanate, nearly straight and diverging pos- 
teriorly with lateral angles obtusely rounded or 
truncate, the reflexion of the anterolateral margin 



RilYMHOCORIS GROOP IN AUMRAUA ANU AD.IAC bN I \RhAS I 



•• 



continued partly onto the lateral angle. Head 
and anterior portion of pronotum inclined at an 
angle of 30 to rest of body. Tibiae only gently 
llatlencd near apices or strongly flattened, even 
slightly sulcate, on their outer surfaces. 

Head: Appearing elongate or not, in most 
species rather quadrate, wider across eyes than 
long. Disc flattened anteriorly and rather raised 
posteriorly; lateral margins usually straight and 
diverging posteriorly but sometimes concave and 
in aiistralis (Wcstwood) also retlexed. Apex 
rounded, rarely rather acuminate, apices of juga 
and anieclypeus al about same level. Eyes 
rather triangular and touching anterior margin of 
pronotum, ocelli not very conspicuous and placed 
nearer to inner margin of eyes than to centre line 
of head, on level of. or behind level of. hind 
margins of eyes. Antennifers short, antennae 
live-segmented, first segment thicker than second 
and third, fourth and fifth generally thicker than 
second and third, antennae not very long. 

Pronotum: At least twice as wide across lateral 
angles as long, anterior margin truncate or con- 
cave behind eyes, then excavate behind collum. 
anterior angles in the form of a small vertical 
keel or a spine, frequently rcflcxed, Antero- 
lateral margins straight, slightly convex or 
slightly concave, diverging posteriorly, marginate, 
these margins rather reflexed or explanate and 
continuing onto region of lateral angles. Lateral 
angles obtusely rounded or truncate. Postero- 
lateral margins concave, sometimes angulately so. 
Posterior angles obtuse or formed into a small 
spine (anstrtdis), posterior margin only slightly 
concave. Disc behind lateral angles in same 
plane as hind body, before level of lateral angles 
inclined downwards at about 30 . 

Sattellum; Triangular, anteriorly gently raised 
or not. lateral margins somewhat concave 
medially, apex broadly rounded. Frena extend- 
ing about half to two-thirds of length from base 
to apex. 

Hemelytnt; Coriaceous parts normally thick- 
ened, Cerium with exterior margin concave 
basally or not. then broadly concave to acute 
or shortly rounded apex. Posterior margin 
straight, inner angle broadly rounded, Clavus 
narrow and strongly triangular. Membrane 
infuscatcd and hyaline with veins substantially 
parallel apically. 

Abdomen: Gently convex above, excavate 
apically in males and faintly so in females. 



Laterotergitcs: Three to seven armed with u 
short acute spine on lateral posterior angle 
(except in dallasi). 

Underside: Head obtusely triangular in lateral 
view. Bucculae lobulately produced anteriorly 
then sinuate or straight, reaching to about middle 
of eyes, deeply sulcate between bucculae. Ros- 
trum robust and four segmented, first segment 
robust and generally reaching to at least base 
ol bucculae, second segment frequently arched. 
Meso- and metastcrnum with a robust keel pro- 
jecting over part of whole of presternum, latter 
broadly sulcate under this keel. Legs normal 
but tarsi always flattened near apices and some- 
times strongly flattened and even sulcate their 
whole length. Abdominal venter faintly V- or U- 
shaped in cross section as viewed from behind, 
third segment medially raised into a short tri- 
angular tubercle directed anteriorly, its apex 
fitting into a notch in the metasternal keel. 
Seventh ventntc in males shallowly excavated 
posteriorly and deeply excised in females. Pygo- 
phorc with lateral portions of posterior ventral 
margin mundedly or angulately produced or not 
with margin medially truncate or with a U- or V- 
shaped excavation. Acdeagus with phallosoma 
lightly sclerosed, conjunctiva produced forward 
as a more or less single process with or without 
sclerotized rods, ventrally a pair of vcntrally 
directed parallel, usually bilobed. medial penial 
plates. Clasper strongly F-shaped. Female 
genitalia flat, in some species gonocoxac raised 
along their interior margins. 

General remarks: Species placed in this genus 
have rather a uniform appearance, they can be 
confused with Parocirrhoc but in that genus the 
posterior angles of the seventh latcrotcrgites are 
strongly and angulately produced. 

The shape of the posterior ventral margin of 
the malepygophore differs from species to species 
but is constant in each species and is a good 
character to help distinguish species. The F 
shaped claspers arc probably also distinctive for 
each species but as only those of several species- 
have been dissected out so far this has not been 
confirmed. The acdeagus of the male also differs 
quite considerably from species to species of the 
few investigated. In those species investigated 
the "lappet" processes of the Rhynchocoris group 
were present and two of the three specie- 
investigated had bilobed medial penial plates. 

The female genitalia are not very distinctive 
but the shape of the hind margin of the gonocoxae 
and whether the gonocoxae are raised along I he 
midline where they meet are good characters to 
disiinguish closely related species. 



56 



fcfiC B \US! NIL'S.. 17 <6>: 51-167 



/>,r<(,(//-7. W!i 



The genus breaks up into three distinctive 
groups of species as does Cuspkona. The first 
group of species are suboval with tibiae strongly 
flattened their whole length; the anterior or pos- 
terior tibiae may even be rather sulcate. The 
second group has the tibiae only flattened distally 
but are still suboval. One species of this second 
group, prasinala St:il. i.s very similar to Cuspicona 
privata Walker in appearance and may bridge 
the gap between the two genera. Under the des- 
cription of C. privata it will be noted that there 
the tibiae are more flattened than in the other 
species of Cuspiama. Prasinala and its allies 
seem best placed in Ocirrhoe on the feature of the 
reflexed lateral margin of the pronotum continu- 
ing onto the region of the lateral angle and the 
strongly transverse posterior margins of the hind 
gonocoxae; these are characteristics of some other 
species of the second group of Ocirrhoe species 
but not of the thoracica group of Cuspicona 
where privata i.s best located. The third group 
contains only the single species virescens West- 
wood which is rather more elongate in appearance 
than other Ocirrhoe species, has a longer head in 
telation to its width across the eyes than other 
species of Ocirrhoe and has the posterior margins 
of the first gonocoxae of the female arcualely 
convex across their whole width, a feature not 
seen in any other Ocinhoe species. In this group 
too the tibiae are only flattened distally. Despite 
the elongate head there does not seem to be 
close relationship between Ocirrhoe virescens 
and the long headed Cuspiconas of the intacta 
group. The dorsal punctation i.s relatively sparse 
in virescens whereas it is very strongly developed 
in the itihicta group of Cuspicona. 

The three groups of Ocirrhoe may later prove 
to be of subgeneric or even generic rank bul 
such action should await a thorough examination 
of the aedeagus and claspers of the males of most. 
if not all, species. 

Stal's genus Ocirrhoe is supposed to be based 
on Cuspkona inconspicua Dallas, 1851 as it is 
the only species mentioned under the key couplet 
No. 156 ( 157) ( 1867. p. 521 J which forms the 
description of Ocirrhoe, However in the couplet 
he mentions "Angiitis postic is thoracis dente acuto 
armatis; . . . i tibiis superne sulcatis; . . ." 
which are character states only of Ocirrhoe 
australis (Westwood. 1837) m the genus as 1 
understand it. In 1870 (p. 51) Stfil gives a 
second description, again only in the form of a 
key couplet — No. 2 (3) which repeats most of 
the features of the 1867 couplet, including the 
two character stales mentioned above, but does 
not list any iucluded species. 



Finally m 1876 in the key couplet 188 (189) 
(p. 67) which forms his third and last diagnosis 
of the genus he mentions again the sulcate tibiae, 
adds that the foveae in the basal angles of the 
scutellum are black and that the dorsal surface 
of the body has some black punclalions. and 
notes thai the posterior angles of the pronoium 
may be obtuse or produced into a tooth This 
definition could now only refer to australis (West- 
wood) and to two new species, wilsotu mihi and 
westwoodi mihi, of those I include in ihis genus, 
Clearly at this stage StSl recognises al least two 
of these three species, both in my first australis 
group, as belonging to the genus. On p. 102 of 
the same publication he lists two species under 
the genus heading, O, iinimaeulata (Westwood) 
and O. australis (Westwood), he does not give 
either a generic description of Ocirrhoe in this 
citation or specific descriptions of the (wo 
included species; he does not mention inconspicua 
as an included species and he does not mention 
any specimens examined of the two species he 
does include, O unimaciilaia was also obviously 
misidentificd for true iinimaeulata has to be 
excluded as it does not have sulcaie tibiae, black 
punctations on the body or black foveae in the 
basal angles of the scutellum. There are six 
specimens in Stockholm which could have been 
concerned with StuTs conception of the genus. 
Five of them stood above the label iinimaeulata 
(Westwood), one of them is labelled on the pin 
"Ocirrhoe inconspicua Dall 1 ex unimaculatae 
Hope Westw aff'\ all live are actually australis 
(Westwood). The sixth specimen stood above 
the label australis (Westwood) but it is an 
example of my new species nest wood i. Therefore 
it is clear that Stul used one of the series of 
australis, probably the one with the label on the 
pin (though Dr. Per Inge Persson infoinis the 
handwriting is not that of Stal), which he had 
first misidentified as inconspicua and then 85 
unimactilata, in the construction of the first 
diagnosis of Ocirrhoe. He expanded the diag- 
nosis upon recognising the second species which 
he took to be australis but which is again not 
that species but wcstwooili mihi 

Therefore I have altered the previously cited 
fixation of Cuspicona inconspicua Dallas as the 
type of this genus to Cuspicona inconspicua St;tl 
1867 non Dallas. 1851 ( Rhynchocoris aus- 
tralis Westwood. 1837). Original designation. 
Application will be made to the International 
Commission to have this type fixation validated. 

Key to Olirrli'h- nfit>ckvt 

1(1) Head coarsely punctuate With black: a bku-k 
poinl in each hasal angle of scutelltnn. 



Rf/YKCflOCORlS CROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT ARF.AS— I 



» 



tibiae strongly flattened or even vaguely 
snlcntc almost their whole length . , . , 2 
Head not punctate with black; wilh or without 
a black point in each basal angle of scutel- 
lum; first two pairs of legs with tibiae only 
flattened apically, hind tibiae flattened their 
whole length or not ,,.,.,,.. 4 

2,(1) Dark brown; head densely punctate with black 
and appearing much darker than pronotum; 
third segment of antennae apically infus- 
cated; posterolateral angles of pronotum 
acutely triangular produced 

austral),? (Westwood) 
Yellowish or greenish brown; head more sparsely 
and more regularly punctate, usually not 
appearing darker than pronotum; first three 
segments of antennae completely pale o; it 
third apically iufuscatcd punctation even on 
head, pronotum and sculellum; postero- 
lateral angles of pronotum obtuse or 
rounded i 3 

3. (2) Anterolateral margins of pronotum rather 

laminately expanded and vaguely reflcxed: 
a black spot at bases of pro-, meso- and 
mclcpistcrna; fourth and fifth antennal 
segments frequently strongly infuscated 
except at their bases; pronotum coarsely 
punctate with black (male) or narrowly 
black punctate just interiorly of antero- 
lateral margins; hind margin of male 
pygophore gently concave medially and 
gently convex laterally . , . wil.\oni sp. nov. 
Anterolateral margins of pronotum obtusely 
mnrginate, the actual margin raised; no 
black spots at bases of epistcrna; all anten- 
nal segments pale or at most only lightly 
infuscated; pronotal punctations usually 
sparse and brown but if black punctations 
present then only anteriorly behind collum; 
hind margin of male pygophore strongly 
transversely truncate with a small medial 
concavity . wi'Mwotxli sp. nov. 

4. (' I ) Last two segments of antennae strongly infus- 

cated (except at their bases and apices) 

5 

I asl two segments of antennae not infuscated, 

or only fifth inl'uscaled (except at base 

and apex) ..... 6 

*>. (4) Scutellum with » conspicuous black or brown 
spot in each basal angle; hind margin of 
male pygophore medially strongly con- 
cavely excavate and laterally broadly con- 
vexly rounded, this hind margin frequently 
reddish; hind margins of female gonocoxac 
faintly sinuated, transverse, gonocoxac not 
raised along their inner (longitudinal con- 
tiguous) margins ., sffl/i&jf/ sp, nov, (part) 
.Scutellum svilhoul a conspicuous black or brown 
spot in each basal angle; hind margin of 
male pygophore medially strongly V -shaped 
excavated and laterally produced posteriorly 
into a strong somewhat angulate lobe on 
each side; hind margins of female gono- 
coxac slrongly IransverscI) truncate except 



medially where they turn anteriorly, gono- 
coxac slrongly raised medially along their 
inner (longitudinal contiguous) margins 

liile.scciis Distant 

6. (4) Fifth segment of antennae broadly infuscated 

with black or dark brown, only extreme 
base and apex of this segment pale; hind 
margin of male pygophore laterally lobu- 
lalely produced and medially with a sm ill 
tooth on the margin of cither side of the 
midline curonala .vp. nov. 

Fifth segment of antennae not infuscated. hind 
margin of pygophore without a small tooth 
on either side of midline 7 

7. (6) Scutellum with a conspicuous black or hrown 

spot in each basal angle H 

Scutellum without a conspicuous black spot in 
each basal angle 10 

8.(7) Under 7-5 mm long; hind third of pronotum 
transversely reddish or pinkish; with a tri- 
angular patch of brown punctations on 
either side of scutellum just in front of pale 
apical area cavenda sp. nov. 

Over 75 mm long; hind third of pronotum con- 
colorous; scutellum uniformly punctate 
with brown except at pale apex .... 9 

9. (8) Antennae robust, lour terminal segments reddish. 

third segment as long as or longer than 
second; base of head not black 

incom pic tia (Dallas) 

Antennae robust or not, four terminal segments 
reddish or pale; third segment shorter than 
second; extreme base of head black 

tiiillasi sp. nov. (part) 

10. (7) Pronotum without a pale transverse band 

posteriorly; pygophore of male with hind 
margin laterally produced posteriorly as a 
rather hooked lobulate process on each side; 
hind margin of female gonocoxac slrongly 
transverse .. prasiimia (Suil) 

Pronotum with a pinkish or yellowish transverse 
band or bar posteriorly, in faded specimens 
still visible as a paler area; male pygophore 
not as above: hind margins of gonocoxae 
transverse or not II 

11,(10) Scutellum laterally yellowish or pale, this 
yellowish or pale running into apical pale 
area; if lateral areas of scutellum con- 
colorous then apex of scutellum also not 
conspicuously lightened. Hind margin of 
male pygophore rather triangularly pro- 
duced on either side, medially rather V- 
shaped incised; hind margins of female 
gonocoxac strongly roundedly or angulately 
convex virescvm (Westwood) 

Scutellum laterally concolorous, apical area 
generally pale. Hind margin of male pygo- 
phore almost truncate, so also hind margins 
of gonocoxae .. unimurulatu (Westwood) 



58 



RBC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (6): 51-167 



December, 1975 



Australis Group 
This group contains three species collectively 
occurring in the moister regions of South Aus- 
tralia east of Saint Vincent Gulf, Victoria, 
Tasmania, New South Wales and southern 
Queensland. The group characteristics are: — 
rather obovate (pronotum width: total length 
about 9 : 16); rostrum not reaching much past 
hind coxae; all tibiae clearly flattened for most of 
their length on their exterior surfaces, usually 
also one or more pairs distinctly sulcate for most 
of their length on the flattened area; hind mar- 
gins of female gonocoxae transverse or produced 
into a rounded lobe interiorly; head and usually 
also pronotum marked with black punctations; 
apical segments of antennae usually infuscated; 
foveae in basal angles of scutellum black. 

Ocirrhoe australis (Westwood, 1837) 
Figs. 2, 4 A-B 
Rhynchocoris austral's Westwood, 1837, p. 30. 



Ocirrhoe australis Stal, 1 876, p. 102. Lethierry 
& Severin, 1893, p. 180. 

Cuspicona australis Walker, 1867, p. 387. 

Rhaphigaster viridipes Walker, 1867, p. 370. 
New synonymy. 

Cuspicona inconspicua Stal, 1867 (non Dallas, 
1 85 1 ) , p. 521 . Misidentification. 

Cuspicona uninotata Walker 1868, p. 571, 
New synonymy. 

Description: 

General appearance: Museum specimens 
yellowish-brown or reddish-brown with coarse 
black and brown punctations and brown and 
black infuscated areas. Apex of scutellum and 
most of underside bright yellow. Eyes and ocelli 
purplish. Foveae in basal angles of scutellum 
black. Three apical antennal segments infus- 
cated in part. 




'- 

Jilt* "»«** 



-"** 




Fig. 2. Dorsal aspect of Ocirrhoe australis (Westwood ), 



RHYNCKOCOtUS GROUP IN AUSIRAIIA AND AD.IACKNI ARKAS— 1 



<i9 



Head: Appearing rather broad and apically 
rather broadly rounded. Concolorous with dense 
coarse black punctations and base of coll urn also 
black. Eyes and ocelli purplish, Anteriorly 
flattened with lateral margins of juga shallowly 
retlexed, posteriorly only a very little raised. 
Anteclypeus hardly surpassing apices of juga, 
lateial margins distinctly concave. 

Pionotum: Concolorous with coarse brown 
punctations, latter exteriorly sometimes black, 
not reaching lateral margins. A black or brown 
spot just interiorly of each lateral angle. Calli 
glabrous, sometimes with a transverse black bar. 
Anterior margin oblique behind eyes and trapezi- 
formly excavate behind collum, anterolateral 
angles represented by a small recurved tooth. 
Anterolateral margins slightly convex, thickened 
laterally and narrowly reflexed. Lateral angles 
behind rerlexed margin truncate, posterolateral 
margins at hist convex then concave, postero- 
lateral angles produced as a small, acute, tri- 
angular lobe. Posterior margin slightly concave. 

Scutellum: Concolorous only laterally, basally 
medially and preapically suffused with chocolate 
brown; apex broadly bright yellow and impunct- 
ale. Rest of disc with coarse brown or black 
punctations. A black fovea in each basal angle 
inward of which on each side is a callous pale 
point. Raised somewhat in anterior half and 
flattened in posterior half, Sometimes a trace of 
a broad longitudinal callous line present in 
posterior half. Lateral margins gently convex in 
basal half then straight, short and gently con- 
verging to broadly rounded apex. Frena reach- 
ing about 7/13 of length. 

Hemelytra; Coriaceous parts concolorous or 
somewhat browner than ground colour; basal 
half of exterior margin o( corium and a callous 
patch near apex of medial fracture yellowish, 
behind the latter a black patch; elsewhere 
coarsely punctate with brown. Exterior margin 
of corium clongately concave basally then almost 
straight to subacute apical angle, reaching about 
middle of abdominal segment VI, laterolcrgites 
broadly exposed. Posterior margin of corium 
straight, inner angle very broadly rounded 



Clavus comparatively short and elongately tri- 
angular. Membrane and veins brownish hyaline, 

Abdomen: Together with dorsum of pygo- 
phore black. 

Laterotergitcs; Exteriorly yellowish or reddish 
interiorly black or reddish, densely punctate, 
posterior exterior angles produced into moder- 
ately strong minutely black tipped spines. 

Underside; Bright yellow 1 , punctate on pro- 
pleuron, except along lateral margin, on 
mesopleuron in front of evaporative areas, on 
metapleuron behind evaporative areas and 
laterally on abdomen, punctations sometimes 
concolorous, sometimes brown and occasionally 
black. Antennal segments I and II, the basal 
2/3 of 111; the base of IV and the base and apex 
of V yellow, the apical 1/3 of IT the apical 3/4 
of IV and a medial band on V dark brown or 
blackish. Rostrum ventrally and its apex black. 
A black spot at base of pro-, meso- and 
metepi pleura, sometimes abdominal segments 
IV-V1I with a medial black spot basally. Legs 
completely yellowish. 

Bucculae low and strongly sinuated, reaching 
about middle of an eye, anteriorly produced into 
a rounded lobe. Rostral segment I robust, 
reaching to base of bucculae, II compressed and 
arched, surpassing fore coxae. III to base of mid 
coxae and IV just onto abdomen, Ratio of 
antennal segments ( ,i ) 10 : 19 : 15 : 23 : 27. 
Metasternal-mesosternal keels about the same 
height their whole length, not reaching apex of 
prosternum, anteriorly rounded, hardly deflected 
to left in pentral view Legs normal without 
long pilosity, only the normal short pilosity an 
tibiae and tarsi; fore tibiae strongly flattened 
their whole length or even sulcate. middle and 
hind tibiae sulcate. Abdomen broadly U-shaped 
in posterior view. Apex of male abdomen Fig. 
4 A, hind margin of pygophore transverse and 
vaguely sinuated, broadly rcllexed. Apex of 
female abdomen Fig. 4 B, hind margin of first 
gonocoxae exteriorly transverse and interiorly 
produced posteriorly as a lobulatc process, inner 
margins very shortly raised; posterior margins of 
Vlllth laterotergites angulalely produced. 



fill 

Dimcnsions- 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (6); 51-167 



MALES 



I ><■•< mbtr, 1975 



Parameter 



Head length . . 

Head width 

Antennal segment I 

Antcnnal segment II _ . . 

Antennal segment III 

Antennal segment IV 

Antennal segment V ...,..,.,, 

Pronotum width 

Pronotum length ........ 

Total length 



Parameter 



Head length 

Head width 

Antennal segment I 

Antennal segment II 

Antennal segment 111 

Antennal segment IV 

Antennal segment V 

Pronotum width 

Pronotum length 

Total length ...... 



Number or 




Standard 


Coellieienl 


Observed 


Measurements 


Mean 


Deviation 


of 

Variation 


Range 


8 


40 


10 


2-5 


39-42 


8 


44 


13 


30 


42-46 


13 


10 


0-8 


7-4 


9-12 


10 


21 


1-4 


6-9 


19-23 


9 


15 


0-9 


5-9 


14-16 


5 


23 


0-7 


3 1 


22- , 4 


3 


27 


— 


— 


26-28 


7 


97 


5-4 


5-6 


90-107 


8 


40 


2-6 


6'5 


36-42 


8 


180 


12 4 


6-9 


164-200 


FEMALES 








Number of 




Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Measurements 


Mean 


Deviation 


of 

Variation 


Range 


17 


39 


35 


90 


32-42 


17 


46 


2-6 


5-8 


40-48 


30 


10 


0-9 


8'9 


9-11 


28 


19 


1-3 


70 


17-22 


27 


15 


1-2 


7-9 


12-16 


21 


21 


2-2 


10 3 


16-25 


18 


26 


2-3 


89 


20-29 


17 


105 


94 


8-9 


87-116 


17 


43 


3 1 


7-2 


37-47 


MS 


191 


259 


13 6 


155-215 


Total length: 8T- 


1 1-2 mm 









Remarks: Ocirrhoe australis is the darkest 
coloured of all the species in this genus and is 
easily recognised in mixed series on this feature 
alone. It is one of only three species that have 
black punctations on the head and has the unique 
feature of the posterolateral angles of the prono- 
tum being produced into acute triangular pro- 
cesses. Ocirrhoe australis has a quite restricted 
distribution, occurring only in Queensland from 
just north of Brisbane, in eastern New South 
Wales, and northern Victoria to Trawool. One 
specimen in Stockholm is supposed to have come 
from Fiji, if so it is the first record of an Ocirrhoe 
species occurring outside of Australia if we 
accept that Cuspicona privata Walker is not an 
Occirhoe. 

The description of Rhaphigaster viriclipes 
Walker and Cuspicona uninotata Walker are such 
that they can only apply to Ocirrhoe auslrahs. 

Location of types: 

Type 6 of Rhynchocoris australis Westwood, 
"New Holland," in HOPE, types of Rhaphixaster 
viriclipes Walker, "Queensland", and Cuspicona 
uninotata Walker, "Australia", cited as originally 
m NM but not now to be found there (A. 
Neboiss in lift. ) . 

Specimens examined: The type of australis 
Westwood and Queensland 1 t , Ml. Beerwah via 
Glasshouse Mountains, 550 m (I 800ft.), 



5.XIU965, T. Weir UQ; I#, Brisbane, 
12.1X.I91I, H. Hacker; if, Caloundra, 
28.X. 191 3, H. Hacker; 1 -' . Tambourine Moun- 
tain, H. Hacker QM; 1 9, Gumdale near Bris- 
bane. 30. VI. 1968, at fluorescent light, J. K. 
Guyomar ANIC; U Brisbane, 12.1X.19II. H. 
Hacker SAM; 19, Brisbane, 12. IX. 191 I. H. 
Hacker; I 9, Tambourine Mountains, I 1-18. IV. 
1935, R. E. Turner BM; It, 19. Brisbane, 
12.IX.191 1, H. Hacker KU, New South Wales 
I 3, 3 9, Mt. Toman, 28-29.11.1932, in totting 
grass-tree, J. Armstrong; 1 A , Comboyne, I0.X1. 
1932, K, M. McKeown AM; 3 km (2 miles) 
S.S.W. of Nambucca Heads, 18.X.I956, P. B. 
Carne ANIC; 1 9, French's Forest near, Sydney, 
21.X. 1948, E. B. Britton; 25, National Park. 
3 I.X.I 948, E. B. Britton BM; U, Gosford, 
1904, W. W. Froggatt KU; 2 9, Sydney, Nov. 
1902, ex Helms collection; 1 9, National Park. 
Dec. 1905, ex Helms collection BISHOP. Aus- 
tralian Capital Territory. 1 9 , Jervis Bay, 
18.1X.I951, T. G. Campbell ANIC. Victoria 
29, Trawool, 17.XII.I919, ex J. E. Dixon 
collection NM. Unlocalised Australian 2 <5 , 19, 
Australia, Winnerz (The female is the specimen 
bearing the additional label mentioned on 
p. 56 and is believed to be the specimen, or one 
of the specimens, on which the genus Ocirrhoe 
was diagnosed); 19, Austral, bor,. Thorey 
STOCKHOLM, Fiji 1 9 , Ins. Fidschi, Diimel 
STOCKHOLM. 



IWYNl IIOCORIS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— 1 



61 



Ocirrhoe wilsoni sp. nov. 
Figs. 3, 4 C-D 

Description : 

General appearance: Museum specimens 
yellowish with coarse black and brown puncta- 
tions. some brownish markings on scutellum. 
Apex of scutellum and most of underside bright 
yellow. Eyes and ocelli purplish. Foveae in 
basal angles of scutellum black. Two apical 
anteiuial segments black except at: base. 

Head: Appearing rather broad and apically 
rounded. Concolorous with dense coarse black 
punctations arid base of collum also black. 
Eyes and ocelli purplish. Anteriorly flattened 
with lateral margins of juga broadly rellcxed, 
posteriorly only a very little raised. Anteclypeus 
just surpassing apices of juga, lateral margins 
distinctly concave. 

Pronotum: Concolorous; punctations on 
males and females differently coloured; in males 
blackish brown on all parts of pronotum and 
conspicuous, in females brown or concolorous 
on disc but laterally just inside anterolateral 
margins punctations intense black. Hind portion 



of pronotum behind level of lateral angles 
frequently faintly darker than rest of disc. Calli 
glabrous. Anterior margin oblique behind eyes 
and semicircularly excavate behind collum, 
anterolateral angles represented by a small 
recurved tooth. Anterolateral margins nearly 
straight and laminate, broadly reflcxed. Lateral 
angles behind rellexed margin very short, postero- 
lateral margins sinuate turning smoothly into 
faintly concave posterior margin, posterolateral 
angles therefore not produced. 

Scutellum: Concolorous with blackish-brown 
punctations, on basal margin a brown spot on 
either side of middle and preapically a brown 
triangular patch on either side, not meeting in 
middle. Apex yellow and impunctate, this yellow 
produced a little forward medially between the 
subapical brown patches, in front of this a trace 
of a raised longitudinal line extending forward 
to base. A conspicuous black fovea in each 
basal angle. Raised somewhat in anterior half 
and llattencd in apical half. Lateral margins 
gently convex in basal half then straight and 
converging to broadly rounded apex. Frena 
reaching about 7/ 1 2 of length. 




5 mm- 



Kig. 1. Dorsal aspect of Otirrluii 1 wil.\oiii 
sp. nov. 



62 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (6): 51-167 



December, 1975 



Hemelytra : Coriaceous parts concolorous with 
fine blackish-brown punctations, a callous patch 
near apex of medial fracture and a small brown 
patch on interior angle of corium. Exterior 
margin of corium faintly concave and depressed 
basally then broadly curved to subacute apical 
angle, reaching just beyond base of abdominal 
segment VI, laterotergites broadly exposed. 
Posterior margin of corium straight, inner angle 
very broadly rounded. Clavus elongately tri- 
anguler. Membrane and veins faintly brownish 
hyaline. 



Abdomen: Probably concolorous. 
Laterotergites: Concolorous with 



black 



patches of punctations exteriorly in front of and 
behind each incisure Posterior exterior angles 
almost rectangular. 

Underside: Bright yellowish with brown and 
black punctations on propleuron, anteriorly on 
mesopleuron, posteriorly on metapleuron, on 
femora and tibiae and laterally on abdomen in 
males, in females these punctations except on 
femora usually concolorous. Antennal segments 
I-III concolorous, IV and V black except basally 
and in V sometimes apically also. Rostrum 
ventrally and its apex black. A black spot at 

Dimensions — 



bases of all episterna, and in males medially at 
the bases of abdominal ventrites IV-VII, spiracles 
also black. 

Bucculae low and sinuated, reaching to about 
middle of eye, anteriorly produced into a sub- 
triangular lobe. Rostral segment I robust and 
reaching to about base of bucculae, II compressed 
and arched, surpassing fore coxae, III reaching 
to about middle of mid coxae and IV just onto 
base of abdomen. Ratio of antennal segments 
(3)8:18:11:19: 22. Metasternal- 
mesosternal keels about same height their whole 
length, not reaching apex of prosternum, 
anteriorly rounded, hardly deflected to left in 
ventral view. Legs normal without long pilosity, 
only the normal short pilosity on tibiae and tarsi 
and a few short hairs on femora. Tibiae strongly 
flattened almost their whole length hind tibiae 
rather sulcate. Abdomen broadly U-shaped in 
posterior view. Apex of male abdomen Fig. 
4 C. hind margin of pygophore shallowly 
excavate. Apex of female abdomen Fig. 4 D, 
hind margin of first gonocoxae slightly convex 
and interiorly produced as a short lobulate pro- 
cess, inner margins shortly raised; posterior 
margins of Vlllth laterotergites subangulately 
produced. 



MALES 
Parameter 


(2 only) 


Mean ( 

31 
37 
8 
18 
II 
19 
22 
78 
34 
137 

Standard 
Deviation 

0-8 
0-9 
0-5 
0-8 
0-4 
II 
1-3 
1-7 
1-3 
61 


Dbserved 
Range 

31-2 

36-38 

8-9 

17-19 

11-12 

19 

22-23 

77-79 

34 

135-140 

Coefficient 

of 
Variation 

2-4 
2-3 
5-9 
4-8 
3-9 
6-2 
6-3 
1-9 
3-5 
3-9 




Head width 








Antennal segment I . 








Antennal segment 11 








Antennal segment III 








Antennal segment IV 








Antennal segment V 








Pronotum width . . . 








Pronotum length . . . 








Total length 








Parameter 
Head length 


FEMA 

Number of 
Measurements 

5 


LES 

Mean 

35 
39 
8 
17 
11 
17 
21 
87 
37 
155 

70-8-4 mm 


Observed 
Range 

34-36 


Head width 


5 


38-40 
7-9 


Antennal segment I 


10 


Antenna] segment II 


10 


16-18 


Antennal segment III 

Antennal segment IV 


10 
9 


10-11 
16-19 


Antennal segment V 


9 


19-23 


Pronotum length 


5 

5 


86-90 
16-39 


Total length 


5 


149-161 




Total length: 





Remarks: Ocirrhoe wilsoni is apparently projection inwardly on the hind margins of the 
closely related to australis as they have in first gonocoxae. It lacks the triangular pro- 
common a black punctate head, dark prepical jection of the posterolateral angles of the 
markings on the scutellum and a lobulate pronotum of australis and is generally paler. 



KHYNCHOCORIS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— I 



63 



The species is found only in the wetter parts 
of south eastern Australia, occurring in the four 
states New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and 
South Australia. 

Location of types: 

Hoiotype £ , allotype 9 , I paratype £ , Grampians, 
Victoria, Oct. 1928, F. E. Wilson; 1 paratype?. 
Cockatoo, Victoria, G. F. Hill in NM; 1 para- 
type 9 . Jervis Bay, Australian Capital Territory. 
18.IX.1951, T. G. Campbell; 1 paratype 9 , 
Rupert Point, 5 km (7 miles) north of Pieman 
River, Tasmania, 30.XII.I953, T. G. Campbell 
in ANIC; 1 paratype 9 (Reg. No. 120,726), 
Tapanappa near Cape Jervis, South Australia. 
5-9.XII.1949, G. F. Gross & N. B. Tindale 
in SAM. 

Specimens examined: The types only. 



Ocirrhoe westwoodi sp. nov. 
Figs. 4 E-F, 5, 6 A-C. 

Ocirrhoe unimacuktta Still, 1876 (non West- 
wood, 1837). p. 102, misidentification 

Description : 

General appearance: Grass green in life with 
brown and black punctations and brown infus- 
cated areas. Underside paler, apex of scutellum 
luteous or yellow. Eyes and ocelli purplish. 
Foveae in basal angles of scutellum black. 
Antennae yellowish brown, two apical segments 
infuscated in part. Museum specimens with 
green colour changed to yellowish, other colours 
OS noted. 

Head: Appearing not very broad and narrow- 
ing apically, actual apex rounded. Concolorous 



posterior margin of pyqophore 



ventral surface 



apiol angle ol „ parateryile IX 

sternum X 




paratergiteVIII 





nmd margin ot firsl 
gonocoxa 

rst gonncova 




Fig. 4. Ocirrhoe tutstralis (Westwood), Ocirrhoe wilsoiu sp. nov., Ocirrhoe 
westwoodi sp. nov. A-B. Ocirrhoe austraiis. A. ventral aspect of male abdomen. 
B. ventral aspect of female abdomen. C-D. Ocirrhoe Milsoni. C. ventral aspect 
of male abdomen. D. ventral aspect of female abdomen. E-F. Ocirrhoe 
wc.\t\vooili. E. ventral aspect of male abdomen. F. ventral aspect of female 

abdomen. 



with discrete black and some brown punctations, 
base of collum black. Anteriorly flattened with 
lateral margins of juga shallowly reflexed, 
posteriorly only a very little raised. Anteclypeus 
hardly surpassing apices of juga, lateral margins 
distinctly concave. 



Pronotum: Concolorous with coarse and 
scattered black, brown and concolorous puncta- 
tions, posterior 3/7 infuscated with brown and 
punctations in this region darker. Calli glabrous. 
Anterior margin oblique behind eyes and con- 
cavely excavate behind collum. anterolateral 



64 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (6): 51-167 



December, 1975 





5mm- 



Fig. 5. Dorsal aspect of Ocirrhoe westwootli sp. nov. 



angles represented by a very small tooth. 
Anterolateral margins nearly straight, laterally 
thickened and very slightly raised. Lateral 
angles behind reflexed margin very short, 
posterolateral margins slightly concave and 
rounding onto slightly concave posterior margin. 

Scutellutn: Concolorous with a few coarse 
brown punctations except apically and pre- 
apically, pre-apically on either side a small tri- 
angular brown patch, apex luteous or yellow and 
nearly impunctate, this yellow or luteous extend- 
ing forward between the brown patches and then 
faintly visible as a median paler line extending 
to base. A black fovea in each basal angle. 
Raised somewhat in anterior half and flattened 
in basal half and then straight and gently con- 
verging to broadly rounded apex. Frena reach- 
ing about 2/3 of length. 



Hemelytra: Coriaceous parts concolorous with 
coarse punctations, latter brown or blackish 
brown interiorly and concolorous exteriorly; apex 
of medial fracture of corium with a brown spot, 
around this glabrous. Exterior margin of corium 
concave and depressed basally then almost 
straight to nearly rectangular apical angle, reach- 
ing to just past base of abdominal segment VI, 
laterotergites narrowly exposed. Posterior mar- 
gin of corium faintly convex, inner angle very 
broadly rounded. Clavus comparatively long 
and elongately triangular. Membrane and veins 
hyaline. 

Abdomen: Exteriorly concolorous, behind 
scutellum with large quadrate black patches, 
parts of dorsal surface of pygophore black. 

Laterotergites: Concolorous with concolorous 
punctations, posterior exterior angles produced 
into strong black tipped spines. 



K1IYNCHOCORIS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— I 



65 



Underside: Paler than above, in museum 
specimens bright yellow, punctate on bucculae, 
near base of head below, on propleuron except 
along lateral margin, on mesoplcuron in front of 
evaporative areas, on metapleuron behind evapor- 
ative areas and laterally on abdomen, punctations 
concolorous. Antennal segments yellowish 
brown, apical pair somewhat darker, the former 
except at base, the latter except at base and apex. 
Rostrum ventrally and its apex black. A minute 
black spot on mesopleuron anteriorly midway 
between mesepisternum and exterior margin; 
spiracles and posterior angles of the ventrites 
black. Legs mostly yellowish. 



Bucculae low and strongly sinuated, reaching 
about middle of an eye, anteriorly produced into 
a triangular lobe. Rostral segment I robust, 
reaching base of bucculae, II compressed and 
reaching about middle of fore coxae, 111 to about 
middle of mid coxae and IV to just past middle 
of hind coxae. Ratio of antennal segments ( £ ) 
9 : 16 : 12 : 20 : 23. Metasternal-mesosternal 
keels about the same height for most of their 
length, apically obliquely descending and then 
shortly rounded, not reaching apex of pro- 
sternum, not deflected to left apically in ventral 
view. Legs normal without long pilosity, only 
the normal short pilosity on tibiae and tarsi, fore 



lappet processes 



lihallusoma 



r.oniuncliva 



rvtsal plates 



vesica 
gonopore medllit ^^ 

plates 




Fig. 6. Ociirhoe westwoodi sp. nov. — aedeagus and clasper. A. left 
hand side aspect of aedeagus. B. ventral aspect of aedeagus. 

C. clasper. 



tibiae flattened and rather silicate apically, mid 
and hind tibiae faintly sulcate almost their whole 
length. Abdomen broadly U-shaped in posterior 
view. Apex of male abdomen Fig. 4 E, hind 
margin of pygophore sinuated, shortly semi- 
circularly excavate medially. Clasper Fig. 6 C. 
strongly F-shaped, the upper ramus sclerotized 
towards its tip. Aedeagus Figs. 6 A-B, with 
phallosoma short and honey-coloured, "lappet" 
processes rather elongate and directed upwards 



and slightly backwards, conjunctiva curved down- 
wards, apically produced into two tubular pro- 
cesses, medial penial plates apparently different 
in shape to most other members of the Rhyn- 
chocoris group, vesica prominent and emerg- 
ing from between the medial penial plates. Apex 
of female abdomen Fig. 4 F, hind margins of 
first gonocoxae virtually transverse, interior mar- 
gins not raised, apical angles of Vlllth para- 
tergites angulately produced. 



65 
Dimensions 



Parameter 



Head length 

Head width 

Aotennal segment I 

Antennal segment It 

Antennal segment III 

Antennal segment IV 

Antennal segment V 

Pronotum width 

Pronotum length 

Total length 



Parameter 



Head length 

Head width 

Antennal segment I 

Antenna! segment II 

Antennal segment HI 

Antennal segment IV 

Antennal segment V 

Pronotum width 

Pronotum length ... 

Total length 



3. AUST. MUS., 


17 (6): 


51-167 




December, 1975 


MALES 










Number of 




Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Measurements 


Mean 


Deviation 


of 
Variation 


Range 


15 


29 


15 


4-9 


27-32 


15 


34 


15 


4.1 


31-36 


29 


9 


Or 


92 


6-10 


29 


16 


1 2 


7-5 


12-19 


29 


\2 


07 


63 


11-13 


20 


20 


16 


84 


16-23 


15 


23 


18 


B 


21-26 


15 


80 


38 


76-88 


15 


31 


1-7 


5-5 


29-34 


15 


142 


70 


50 


130-151 


KLMALLS 








Number of 




Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Measurements 


Mean 


Deviation 


of 

Variation 


Range 


19 


31 


P6 


51 


28-34 


19 


36 


12 


3-3 


34-38 


35 


9 


08 


91 
61 


6-9 


35 


13 


10 


14-17 


34 


12 


09 


81 


10-14 


27 


in 


10 


5-8 


16-20 


2S 


22 


09 


4-2 


20-24 


19 


87 


4-8 


55 


76-95 


19 


34 


2-2 


6-5 


28-39 


19 


153 


«7 


5 7 


130-174 



Total length. 6'8-9-l mm 



Remarks: Ocirrhoe westwoodi is apparently 
closely related to wilsoni, sharing the black 
spotted head and similar markings on the prono- 
tum and scutellum. It differs from wilsoni in the 
paler terminal segments of the antennae, in the 
angulately produced lateral posterior angles of 
the laterotergites, the hind margin of the pygo- 
phore being excavate only medially and the 
transverse hind margins of the female gonocoxae. 
The latter feature shows resemblance to the 
species of the animaculata group. O, west- 
woodi occurs only in the wetter parts of Victoria, 
New South Wales and Tasmania. 



Location of types: 

Holotypc i , Wamberai, Gosford District, 
N.S.W., 1-3.X.1932, A. Musgravc; 4 para- 
type i , 3 paratype 2 (Reg. Nos. K63379-80), 
Marysville, Victoria, 30-31. XII. 1930, A. Mus- 
grave; 1 paratype 6 . Fern Tree Gully, Victoria, 
27.IX.I9I9. donated F. P. Spry; 1 paratype 9. 
Millgrove, Victoria, Jan. 1927, F. E. Wilson; 
I paratype & (Reg. No. K57813), Eagle Hawk- 
Neck, Tasman Peninsula, Tasmania, 22.1.1928, 
A. Musgrave, I paratype 3 . Kurrajong, New 
South Wales, Oct. 1933, Dr. K. K. Spence AM; 
allotype 9 , I paratype 9 , Gunyah, Victoria, 
1 2.1. 1 962. on Senecio jacobaea L. (Ragwort), 
G. Bornemissza; 2 paratype 9 . Fern Tree Gully, 
Victoria, Oct, 1930. J, Evans; 1 paratype 9. 



Kangaroo Valley, New South Wales. 1 7. IX, 

1951, T. G. Campbell ANIC; 1 paratype S, 
Koongalala Point, Lamington National Park. 
South Queensland, 29.X.1955. T, E. Woodward; 
1 paratype i . Lamington National Park, 28 Jan.- 
3 Feb. 1963. G. Montieth; 2 paratype 9, Mt. 
William, Grampians Range. I I 50 m (1 800ft), 
Victoria, 2.1. J 966, I. B. CantrelL I. T. Weir 
UQ; I paratype & . I paratype 9 , Healesville. 
Victoria, I5.X1I.I958, F. E. Wilson NM; 1 para- 
type 9, Rtngwood (Reg. No. 120,729), 9.X1. 

1952, F. E. Wilson; I paratype $, (Reg, No, 
120,727), 1 paratype 9, (Reg. No. 120,733), 
Pt. Campbell, Victoria, Nov. 1 959, G. F. Gross; 
I paratype i (Reg, No, 120,728), between 
Peterborough and Port Campbell, Victoria, 
I7.XI.1959. G. F. Gross; 1 paratype 9 (Reg. 
No. 120,730). Selby, Dandenong Ranges, Vic- 
toria, 20.XI.I959. by sweeping vegetation, G. F. 
Gross: 1 paratype 4, 1 paratype 9 (Reg. Nos. 
120,731-2), Belgrave National Park, Victoria, 
20. XI. 1959, by sweeping vegetation, G. F. Gross 
SAM; 1 paratype & , National Park, New South 
Wales. 3 1, X. 1948. E. B. Britton BM; 1 paratype 
■ ; , I paratype 9 , Gosford, New South Wales, 
16.X. 1903. W. W. Froggatt KU; 1 9, Mt, 
Wellington. Tasmania. 2-300 in., 23.XII.1960, 
in Nothofagus forest, J. L. Gressitt BISHOP, 
I paratype i , New South Wales, Darnel 
STOCKHOLM. 

Specimens examined; the types Only. 



HHYNcmxaKis (.Roue in Australia and adjacent areas— i 



n7 



Unimaculata Group 
This .group contains a series Of seven species 
collectively oeeuring over most of Australia with 
the exception of the northern part of the Northern 
Territory and the northern half of Western 
Australia. The group characteristics are: — 
rather obovate (pronotum width: total length 
about 5:9); rostrum not reaching much past 
hind coxae; tibiae flattened only apically though 
hind tibiae may be more extensively flattened 
than those of the two anterior pairs of legs; 
hind margins of female gonocoxae transverse, 
transversely sinuate or slightly arched; head not 
marked with black punctations; lour apical 
antcnnal segments infuscated or not; and fovae in 
basal angles of scutellum infuscated or 
concolorous. 

This group appears to be intermediate between 
members of the australis and virescens groups 
as some members have some or all of the four 
apical segment infuscated and/or have black 
toveae in the basal angles of the scutellum like 
the members of the australis group whereas 
others have pale antennae and/or concolorous 
toveae in the basal angles of the scutellum like 
the virescens group. One member (unimaculata 
(Westwood) ) has a pale transverse bar on the 
pronotum and large red maculae laterally on 
ventrites JTl-IV of the abdomen like virescens 
(Westwood). Members of this group differ 
from those of the australis group in having the 
tibiae flattened only apical ly and not having black 
punctations on the head. From the virescens 
group they differ in their more oval shape. 
Ocirrhoe prasinuta (Stal), a member of this 
unimaculata group closely resembles Cuspicotw 
piivata Walker and is presumably closely related 
10 it and hence to the simplex group of 
Cuspid mil. 



Ocirrhoe Intescens Distant, 1900 

Figs. 1 A, 7, 8 A-E, 9. 

Ocirrhoe Intescens Distant. 1 900a, p. 422. 

Rhaphigaster virescens Dallas (nrm Westwood) 
1851, p. 284. 

Description : 

General appearance: Green in life: apex of 
scutellum yellow, sometimes apical margin 
narrowly red. Extreme base of head black. 
Eyes and ocelli purplish. Foveae in basal angles 
pf scutellum concolorous. Apical pair of 
atttennal segments infuscated except at bases and 
apices. In museum specimens green fading to 
bright vellow. other colours as noted. 



Head: Appearing strongly triangular and 
apically narrowly rounded; concolorous but 
narrowly black at extreme base; anteriorly 
flattened and posteriorly only a very little raised, 
Anteclypeus not surpassing apices of juga, 
lateraf margins distinctly concave. Disc rugu- 
losely punctate. 

Pronotum: Concolorous with rather coarse 
punctations, calli glabrous. Anterior margin 
oblique and slightly raised behind eyes and 
trapeziformly exeavate behind collum, antero- 
lateral angles represented by a small recurved 
tooth. Anterolateral margins nearly straight, 
thickened laterally and broadly reflexed. Lateral 
angles behind reflexed margin truncate, postero- 
lateral margins somewhat concave, posterior 
margin almost straight. 

Scurellum: Concolorous with rather coarse 
punctations; on anterior half transversly rugulose; 
apex bright yellow and impunctate, sometimes 
margined with red apically. A concolorous fovea 
in each basal angle. Anteriorly a little raised 
and in posterior half flat, A trace of a longitu- 
dinal glabrous line present. Lateral margins 
gently convex in basal half then straight or gently 
rounded and converging to rather acute apex. 
Frena reaching about 4/7 of length. 

Hemelytra Coriaceous parts concolorous 
with regular moderately dense punctations, a 
large elongate callous area inward of the apical 
third of the medial fracture. Exterior margins 
of coria elongately concave basally then almost 
straight to shortly rounded apical angle, reaching 
base of abdominal segment VII, laterotergites 
broadly exposed. Posterior margin of corium 
nearly straight, inner angle very broadly rounded. 
Clavus comparatively short and elongate trian- 
gular. Membrane and veins pale brownish 
hyaline. 

Ahtlnnwu: Medially piceous, laterally con- 
colorous. 

Laterotergitt's: Concolorous, densely punc- 
tate, posterior exterior angles produced into an 
acute black-tipped spine, 

Viuleisidc; Concolorous, coarsely punctate, 
except on exterior margins of head and pro- 
notum. evaporative areas and the appendages. 
Antennal segment 1 concolorous, segments II- 
111 reddish brown, IV-V piceous except at 
extreme bases and apices. Rostrum ventrally 
and its apex black. Tibiae apically and tarsi 
brown or reddish brown, rest of tibiae and ros- 
trum more yellowish than rest of underside. 



GK 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (6): 51-167 



December, 1975 




Brenjdr K. Heod 



5 mm.- 



Fig. 7. Dorsal aspect of Ocirrhoe lutescens Distant. 



Ventral spine and a large area surrounding 
it on vcntrites III and IV brownish yellow, behind 
this a broad yellow longitudinal line extending 
back medially to the apex of ventrite VII. Pygo- 
phore of male with hind margin frequently 
reddish. 

Bucculae low and sinuated, reaching about 
middle of an eye, anteriorly produced into a 
prominent lobe. Rostral segment I robust, reach- 
ing nearly to base of bucculae; II compressed 
and arched, reaching to about middle of fore 
coxae; III to about middle of hind coxae and IV 
to about middle of hind coxae. Ratio of anten- 
nal segments ( S ) 9 : 18 : 14 : 21 : 26. Meta- 
stemal-mesosternal keels about the same height 
their whole length, anteriorly rounded, not 
deflected to left anteriorly in ventral view. Legs 



normal without long pilosity, only the normal 
short pilosity on tibiae and tarsi. Abdomen 
broadly U-shaped in posterior view. Apex of 
male abdomen Fig. 8 A, hind margin of pygo- 
phore medially strongly triangulately excavate, 
the margins of this incision rather sinuate, 
exterior margin somewhat convex giving the 
pygophore the appearance of a lateral subtri- 
angular lobe on either side. Clasper Fig. 8 E, 
shaped as an inclined F, the central lobe not 
strongly produced. Phallosoma Figs. 8 C-D, of 
medium length and honey-coloured, "lappet" pro- 
cesses well developed, the conjunctiva apparently 
was not completely inflated but made up of a 
dorsal lobe on either side of which along its 
base is a strongly sclerotized rod, these rods 
converging basal ly. Medial penial plates not 
heavily sclerotized and perhaps not fully everted 



RHYNCHOCORIS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— I 



69 



posterior margin of pygophore 



sternum X 



posterior angle of 
paratergite VT TI 

-paratergite IX 
posterior margin of 
first gonocoxa 
k - raised inner 
portion of first 
gonocoxa 




05mm- 



apex of conjunctiva 



lappet process 



conjunctiva 



scleroti/ed rod 



apex of 

.conjunctiva 



basal 
plates 




sclerotized rod 
gonopore 



medial 
penial 
plate 



Q-Smm- 




J -basal plates 



Fig. 8. Ocirrhoe lutescens Distant — external genitalia, aedeagus and claspers. 
A. ventral aspect of male abdomen. B. ventral aspect of female abdomen. C. left- 
hand side aspect of aedeagus. D. ventral aspect of aedeagus. E. clasper. 



in the dissections but sinuated. Apex of female 
abdomen Fig. 8 B, hind margins of first gono- 
coxae transverse laterally and directed obliquely 
forward interiorly, inner half of each gonocoxa 



strongly reflexed so that the inner margins of the 
two gonocoxae are strongly elevated. Posterior 
margins of Vlllth laterotergites strongly and 
angulately produced. Spermatheca Fig. 1 A. 



Dimensions — 



MALES 



Parameter 



Number of 
Measurements 



Head length 25 

Head width 25 

Antennal segment I 49 

Antennal segment II 49 

Antennal segment III 50 

Antennal segment IV . 41 

Antennal segment V 37 

Pronotum width 25 

Pronotum length 25 

Total length 25 



Mean 



38 
41 
9 
18 
14 
21 
26 

105 
43 

192 



Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Deviation 


of 

Variation 


Range 


1-3 


3-3 


35-40 


1-4 


3-5 


38-44 


0-8 


8-6 


7-11 


1-7 


9-3 


13-21 


16 


111 


11-18 


10 


4-7 


20-24 


1-2 


4-8 


24-29 


5-5 


5-3 


96-112 


2-8 


6-5 


38-47 


11-6 


61 


168-212 



70 
Dimensions — 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (6): 51-167 



December, 1975 



FEMALES 



Parameter 



Number of 
Measurements 



Head length 25 

Head width 25 

Antennal segment I 47 

Antennal segment II 48 

Antennal segment III 48 

Antennal segment IV 47 

Antennal segment V 41 

Pronotum width 25 

Pronotum length 25 

Total length 25 



Mean 



38 
41 
10 
18 
14 
21 
25 

106 
44 

192 



Standard 
Deviation 



1-2 
1-4 
0-8 
11 
1-4 
1-2 
1-4 
5-0 
30 
11-5 



Coefficient 

of 
Variation 

3 1 
3-4 
8-6 
5-9 
100 
61 
5-5 
4-8 
6-8 
60 



Observed 
Range 



36-41 
38-44 
8-11 
16-20 
11-17 
18-24 
22-28 
91-112 
38-50 
174-216 



Total length: 8-7-11 -3 mm 



Remarks: Ocirrhoe lutescens is easy to recog- 
nise in collections as it has most of segments IV 
and V of the antennal blackish but the foveae in 
the basal angles pale. It has no black spots on 
the head. Two other species in this group with- 
out black spots on the head, dallasi (sometimes) 



and coronata, may have one or both terminal 
antennal segments darkened. Ocirrhoe dallasi 
has the foveae in the basal angles of the 
scutellum infuscated. Ocirrhoe coronata has the 
basal foveae in the scutellum concolorous but has 
only the terminal antennal segment darkened. 



Ocirrhoe lutescens 




s 8Arjf 



Fig. 9. Distribution of Ocirrlioe lutescens Distant. 



,v//t \< nix -nxls CiROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACF.NI ARRAS— I 



71 



From both of these species lutescens may be dis- 
tinguished from the strong angulate ■emargination 
in the hind margin of the pygophore and the 
strongly raised inner portion, especially the inner 
margins, of the female lirsl gonocoxae. 

Ocirrhoe lutescens: is distributed in the wetter 
regions of Australia .south of the 25 S line of 
latitude. The only host plant record is Lepiox- 
permum myrsinoides Schlecht from Blackwood. 
South Australia. 

Location oj type: 

Type 9 of lutescenx Distant, "King George's 
Sound, Australia", in BM. 

Specimens examined The type and 68 a and 
79 9 specimens from 45 localities. Detailed 
locations for these specimens are not given but 
arc plotted on Fig. 9. The specimens examined 
came from the following collections (numbers in 
each collection in parentheses) UQ(24), QM 
(I), AM(9), ANIC(24), AM(9), NM(21), 
SAM(28).WAM(1 ), BM(4), AMNH(8), CAS 
(12), BISHOP(6). 



Ocirrhoe dallasi sp. now 

Figs. 10. 12 A-B 

(uspicona roei Dallas {non Wcstwood) 1851, 
p. 297, Distant. 1900 b, p, 815. 

Description: 

General appearance: Olive green in life with 
concolorous punctations; first antennal segment 
yellowish, remaining segments ferruginous, ter- 
minal pair frequently infuscated. Eyes and ocelli 
purplish, very base of head black. Apex of 
.scutellum yellowish or reddish. Museum speci- 
mens with green fading to yellow, other colours 
as noted. Second antennal segment clearly 
longer than third. 

Head: Appearing rather broad and apically 
broadly rounded: concolorous. black at very base, 
eyes and ocelli purplish; anteriorly, flattened, 
posteriorly slightly raised. Anteclypeus hardly 
surpassing apices of juga, lateral margins of latter 
gently concave. Disc coarsely and rugulosely 
punctate 

Pronation: Concolorous with discrete dense 
punctalions, in green specimens the lateral 
margins yellowish, calli narrow and slightly 
rugulosc. Anterior margin shortly oblique 
behind eyes and trapeziformly excavate behind 
collum. anterolateral angles represented by a 
small vertical carina. Anterolateral margins 



nearly straight, thickened and reflexcd. Lateral 
angles behind explanate margin truncate, postero- 
lateral margins slightly concave, posterior margin 
almost straight. 

Scutellum: Concolorous with discrete fairly 
hoe punctations, apex yellow, reddish-yellow or 
reddish and impunctate. Fovea in each basal 
angle infuscated. Raised slightly in anterior half 
and flat posteriorly. No trace of median longitu- 
dinal line. Lateral margins nearly straight but 
converging in basal half then fairly convex to 
broadly rounded apex. Frena reaching a little 
past half length. 

Hemelytra: Coriaceous parts concolorous 
with regular moderately coarse punctations, in 
green specimens basal portion of exterior margin 
of corium yellowish. Medial fracture glabrous 
towards apex. Exterior margin of corium con- 
cave and reflexed basal ly then nearly straight to 
shortly rounded apical angle, reaching middle 
of abdominal segment VI, laterotergites broadly 
exposed. Posterior margin of corium straight, 
inner angle very broadly rounded. Clavus 
elongate triangular. Membrane and veins pale 
brownish hyaline. 

Abdomen: At about the level of the middle 
of scutellum a broad transverse black bar, under 
apex of scutellum and behind it large quadrate 
black spots, sometimes divided. Dorsum of 
pygophore reddish, Rest concolorous. 

l.aferotcrgites; Concolorous, tinely though 
densely punctate, posterior exterior angles almost 
rectangular, marked with black. 

Underside: Paler than above, coarsely punc- 
tate except on sides ot head, exterior margin of 
prothorax, evaporative areas, vcntrally along 
abdomen and appendages. First antennal seg- 
ment yellowish, remainder reddish, fourth and 
fifth frequently infuscated, the former not at base 
and (he latter neither at base or apex. Rostrum 
ventrally and its apex black. Tibiae apically 
and tarsi reddish-brown. Lateral margins of pro- 
thorax, epipleuron and abdomen paler, pygo- 
phore edged with reddish. Thoracic keels and 
a broad median stripe on abdomen paler 
Spiracles and posterior angles of abdominal 
ventrites black. 

Bucculae low and strongly sinuated, reaching 
to about middle of eyes, medially depressed, 
anteriorly forming a rounded lobe. Rostral 
segment 1 robust, not reaching base of bucculae. 

II compressed and reaching base of fore coxae, 

III to base of middle coxae and IV to base of 
abdomen. Antennae not unduly robust, ratio 



72 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (6): 51-167 



December, 1975 








5 mm. 



Fig. 10. Dorsal aspect of Ocirrhoe dalla.ii sp. nov. 



of segments (6) 9:17:12:21:24. Metasternal- 
mesosternal keels of even height to fore coxae, 
then slightly inclined downwards to apex which 
is obliquely directed posteriorly dorsally, surpas- 
sing apex of prosternum, keels not deflected to 
left in ventral view. Legs normal without long 
pilosity, only the usual short pilosity on tibiae 
and tarsi. Tibiae flattened, at least apically. 



Abdomen broadly U-shaped in posterior view. 
Apex of male abdomen Fig. 12 A, hind margin 
of pygophore concave medially and convex 
laterally. Apex of female abdomen Fig. 12 B, 
hind margins of first gonocoxae transverse, inner 
margins only faintly elevated; posterior margins 
of Vlllth laterotergites produced only into a 
blunt angle. 



Dimensions — 



MALES 



Parameter 



Head length 

Head width 

Antennal segment I 
Antennal segment II 
Antennal segment III 
Antennal segment IV 
Antennal segment V 
Pronotum width 
Pronotum length 
Total length 



Number of 




Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Measurements 


Mean 


Deviation 


of 

Variation 


Range 


21 


Jti 


1-6 


4-3 


33-39 


21 


39 


1-8 


4-4 


37-44 


38 


9 


0-5 


5-5 


8-10 


38 


17 


1-2 


7-3 


15-19 


38 


12 


1-4 


11-4 


10-17 


i2 


21 


0-9 


4-4 


19-23 


20 


24 


11 


4-8 


22-2f, 


21 


93 


7-9 


8-5 


83-116 


21 


38 


3-4 


8-7 


33-47 


21 


174 


146 


8-4 


155-213 



ItllYNCHOCORlS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— I 



V 



Dimensions 



Parameter 



Head length •- 

Head width . - 

Anlenmd segment 1 

Anlcnnal segment II 

Antennal segment III 

Ante.nnal segment IV 

Anlcnnal segment V ..., 

Pronotum width 

Pronoium lenjjth 

Total length 



Remarks: Ocirrhoe dallasi resembles O. 
tutexcens in the black base of the head and the 
tendency of the two terminal segments of the 
antennae to become infuscated. It differs in 
having black or fuscous foveae in the basal angles 
of the scutelluni, in the broader apex of the 
latter, in the apical margin of the male pygophore 
being convexly excavate not angu lately excavate 
and the inner margins of the first gonocoxae of 
the female not being strongly elevated. 

Och'thos dallasi occurs in southern Queens- 
land, New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia 
(including Kangaroo Island) and there is one 
specimen from the Northern Territory, the only 
example of an Ocirrhoe from that state. This 
species may occur in Western Australia also, 
a female specimen from Ravensthorpc tits the 
description in most details whereas another female 
from Muchea in certain respects is closer to 
inconspicua though it has the short third antenna! 
segment of didUcd. The species has been 
recorded from several species of native plants 
belonging to the genera Hakea and devilled 
(Proteaceac), Exocarpos ( Santalaeeae) and 
Leptospermnm ( Myrtaccae) . 

Locution of types: 

Holotype t , I paratype i , Canberra, Aus- 
tralian Capital Territory. Oct. 1929, J. W. Evans; 
allotype 9 . Black Mountain. Canberra, Aus- 
tralian Capital Territory, 1. XI. 1960, on Eu>- 
carpos cupressijormis Labill, T. G. Campbell; 
2 paratype & . Black Mountain Australian Capi- 
tal Territory, 30.X1.I929, A. Tonnoir; I i , Black 
Mountain, Australian Capital Territory, 12.1. 
1961. I.F.B. Common; 1 paratype 3 . 1 paratype 
9. Black Mountain, Canberra, Australian Capi- 
tal Territory, I l.X. & 22.XI.I965. e.r Hakea 
sericeu Schrad, .1 M, Walker, AcHa 103; 2 para- 
type '■ , I paratype 9, Black Mountain, Can- 
berra, Australian Capital Territory, 23.11.1966, 
<-.v Hakea sericca Schtad. S. Neser, AcHa 103; 4 
paratype ' , Black Mountain, Canberra. Aus- 



FEMALES 








Number of 






Standard 


Coefficient 


Observe. I 


vlcasurements 




Mean 


Deviation 


of 

Variation 


Range 


15 




8 


1-7 


44 


16-42 


15 




1 9 


4'7 


HX-44 


26 




10 


06 


6S 


y-ii 


2R 




17 


1 2 


fi<8 


I5-I<) 


28 
25 




$ 


16 
II 


12*7 

5 1 


11-17 

iy-2? 


18 




24 


14 


5-7 


22-26 


15 




97 


4-7 


4 .r, 


91-107 


15 




41 


V7 





J7-4<> 


15 




182 


ll-X 


ft-5 


109-20? 


Total length: 


8 1- 


III mm 









tralian Capital Territory. 1 .111.1 967, on Grevillca 
lanigera A. Cunn. ex R.Br. T. G. Campbell; I 
paratype 9, 16 km (10 miles) east of Bathurst, 
New South Wales, 850 m ( 2 800ft.), 20.X.I964, 
T.F.B. Common and M. F. Upton; 1 paratype 9 , 
Telegraph Station, National Park. Alice Springs, 
Northern Territory, 8.V.1967. A. M. Hayes 
AN1C; I paratype 9 , Mt. Norman area via 
Wallangara, Queensland, 7.8.X.1972, G. B. & 
S. R. Monteith UQ; 2 paratype 9, Blackrock 
District, Victoria, J. E. Dixon; 1 paratype 9, 
Kiata, Victoria, Oct. 1928. F. E. Wilson NM; 2 
paratype 2 (Reg. Nos, 120,734-5), Ssaford, 
Victoria. W. F. Hill; 2 paratype i (Reg. Nos. 
120,736-7), Mt. Rosea (Grampians). Victoria. 
Nov. 1950. N, B. Tindalc; 1 paratype S (Reg. 
No. 120,738). Kiata, Victoria. 22.XI.1952, F. 

E. Wilson; 1 paratype 9 (Reg. No. 120.739). 
Mouth Glenelg River. Victoria, 28.Vtll.l965, 

F. J. Mitchell; I paratype I (Reg. No. 120.740). 
Black Mountain, Canberra, Australian Capital 
Territory. 26.X1.1959, by sweeping vegetation, 

G. F. Gross; 1 paratype 9 (Reg. No. 120,741). 
Adelaide, South Australia, H, M. Hale; I para- 
type S (Reg. No. 120,7421, Adelaide, South 
Australia, taken with sweepnet, N. B. Tindalc; 1 
paratype S (Reg. No, 120.743). Pt. Lincoln, 
South Australia, A. M. Lea; I paratype 9 (Reg. 
No. 120,744), near Coonalpyn, South Australia, 
Sept. 1967, beating Leptospermnm coriaceum 
(FvM) Chccl, A. N. McFarland; I paratype £ 
(120,746), Kangaroo Island, South Australia, 
Oct. 1924; 2 paratype 9 (120.747-8), 4 km 
(2 "5 miles) south of Mt. Taylor, Kangaroo 
Island, South Australia, 3 1. XII. 1965, beating 
heath shrubs, D. Seton and A. N. McFarland, 
1 paratype & (Reg. No. 120,749), South Aus- 
tralia. Rev. A. P. Burgess SAM. 

Specimens examined: The types and two 
questionable specimens from Western Aust- 
ralia I 9, 24 km (15 miles) east of Ravens- 
thorpe, 1 10 m, 23. IX. 1962, E, S. Ross and D. Q. 
Cavagnaro CAS; I 2 , Muchea, 4.1V. 1967. F. H. 
Uthcr Baker SAM. 



74 



R£C. S. AUST. MUS.. 17 (6): 51-167 



December, 1975 



Ocirrhoe inconspicua (Dallas, 1851) 
Figs. 11, 12C-D 
Cuspicona inconspicua Dallas, 1851 p. 297. 
Lethierry and Severin, 1893 p. 180. 

Ocirrhoe inconspicua Stfil , 1967 p. 521. Distant. 
1900a p. 422. 

Description: 

General appearance: Green in life; apex of 
scutellum yellow; anterolateral margins of pro- 
notum and basal exterior margin of corium and 
exterior margins of abdomen yellow or reddish 
yellow; first segment of antennae concolorous, 
rest ferruginous, apices of tibiae and tarsi reddish. 
Eyes and ocelli purplish. Foveae in basal angles 
of scutellum black. In museum specimens the 
green colour fading to dull yellow or pale red, 



other colours as noted. Third antennal segment 
nearly as long as, about the same length as, 
or longer than second. 

Head: Appearing strongly triangular and 
apically narrowly rounded; concolorous; anteri- 
orly slightly convex, posteriorly more convex and 
slightly raised. Anteclypeus slightly surpassing 
apices of juga, lateral margins distinctly concave. 
Disc transversely rugulose and punctate. 

Pronotum: Concolorous with coarse dense 
punctations, calli glabrous. Anterior margin 
oblique and slightly raised behind eyes and 
trapcziformly excavate behind collum, antero- 
lateral angles represented by a small vertical 
carina. Anterolateral margins nearly straight, 
very narrowly explanate, this explanate portion 




&*£*»* K HtHlti 



5mm. 



Pig. 11. Dorsal aspect of Ocirrhoe inconspicua (Dallas), 



HHYNl IHH ORIS GROUP IN AUS1RAIIA AND ADJAt HN I ARIAS— I 



-^ 



yellow or reddish yellow. Lateral angles behind 
c.xplanate margin truncate, posterolateral and 
posterior margin slightly concave. 

Scutellnm Concolorous with coarse dense 
punctations, apex yellow and almost impunctate. 
Fovea in each basal angle black. Raised in 
anterior half and Hat posteriorly. A trace of a 
faint median longitudinal impunctate line present. 
Lateral margins gently convex in basal half then 
straight or gently rounded to broadly rounded 
apex. Frena reaching about half length. 

Hemelytra: Coriaceous parts concolorous with 
regular coarse dense punctations, medial fracture 
glabrous towards apex. Exterior margins of 
coria slightly concave and thickened basally then 
faintly convex to shortly rounded apical angle, 
reaching middle of abdominal segment VI, 
laterotergites broadly exposed. Posterior margin 
of corium straight, inner angle very broadly 
rounded. Clavus elongate triangular, Mem- 
brane and veins pale brownish hyaline. 

Abdomen: Medially a broad black longi- 
tudinal bar or series of black maculae behind 
apex of sculellum, laterally concolorous. Dorsal 
surface of pygophore reddish. 

Luteroterghes: Concolorous, densely punctate, 
posterior exterior angles produced into an acute 
black-tipped spine. 

Underside: Concolorous. coarsely punctate 
except on sides of head exterior to bucculae, 
exterior margin of prothorax, evaporative areas. 



ventrally along abdomen and appendages. 
Antennal segment 1 concolorous or yellowish, 
remaining segments pale red or reddish brown. 
Rostrum ventrally and its apex black, Tibiae 
apically and tarsi reddish brown. Lateral mar- 
gins of prothorax, cpipleuron. abdomen and 
apical margin of pygophore reddish or yellowish. 
Thoracic keels and a broad longitudinal medial 
stripe on abdomen yellowish. 

Bucculae reaching to about middle of the eyes 
and rather elevated, medially lower, anteriorly 
forming a rounded lobe. Rostral segment I 
robust, reaching nearly to base of bucculae, 11 
compressed and arched, just surpassing fore 
coxae, 111 reaching onto hind coxae and IV onto 
the base of ventrite IV. Antennae comparatively 
robust, ratio of segements ( i ) 9 : 13 : 14 : 18 : 
23. Mctasternal-mesosternal keels of even height 
to just behind fore coxae, then gently and 
obliquely inclined downwards to rounded apex, 
almost reaching apex of prosternuni. not deflected 
to left in ventral view. Legs normal without long 
pilosity, only the usual short pilosity on tibiae 
and tarsi, tibiae flattened, at least apically. 
Abdomen broadly U-shaped in posterior view. 
Apex of male abdomen Fig. 1 2 C, hind margin 
of pygophore gently concave and laterally not 
convex. Apex of female abdomen Fig. 12 D, 
hind margins of first gonocoxae rather convex, 
inner margins a little elevated; posterior mar- 
gins of Vlllth laterotergites produced into only 
a blunt not very obvious angle. 



Dimensions- 



MAI IS 



ParamtMet 



Number of 
Measurements 



Head length 

I lead width , , , 

Antennal segment I 
Antennal segment II 
Antennal segment III 
Antennal segment IV 
Antennal segment V 
Pronotum width 
Pronotum length 
Total length 



. 



. . . . . 





• 











— . . - 



21 
21 
38 
37 
37 
27 
20 
21 
21 
21 



Mean 



9 
13 
14 
18 

21 
00 

37 
164 



Standard 
Deviation 



» 

06 
09 
10 
I I 
1-4 
5 I 
I 9 
JO 3 



Coefficient 

of 
Variation 

5-4 
31 
7 5 
6-9 
7-5 
5-9 
6-2 
5-7 
50 
6-3 



Observed 
Range 



32-39 
33-38 
7-10 
11-15 
12-15 
16-20 
19-24 
79-98 
35-42 
155-195 



htlvtALES 



I', i ra meter 



Number Of 
Measurements 



I lead length 15 

Head width ... 15 

Antennal segment I 28 

Antennal segment II 29 

Antennal segment 111 29 

Antennal segment IV . . . 24 

Antennal segment V ...... . 21 

Pronotum width .... ,. .. . 15 

Pionoluin length . . [5 

Total length 15 



Mean 



1.S 

in 

9 
14 
14 
19 

23 

94 

40 

174 



Standard 
Deviation 



20 
I 4 

5 
0-9 
II 
10 
1-3 
3-4 

1 3 

7: 



Coefficient 

or 

Variation 

5-3 
56 

54 

r.5 
7-8 
50 
5-7 
3-7 

3 3 

4 I 



Observed 
Range 



35-41 
36-40 
8-10 
12-15 
12-16 
17-21 
21-26 
89-9'J 
38-41 
160-185 



Total length: 8-1-10-2 nun 



76 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (6): 51-167 



December. 1975 



Remarks: This species is easily distinguished 
from all other species of Ocirrhoe by the second 
antennal segment being about the same length 
as, or longer than, the second. In the non-infus- 
cated antennal segments and the shape of the 
pygophore it is close to unimaculata Westwood, 
however the black spot in the basal angles of the 
scutellum and the shape of the pygophore indi- 
cates it is also related to dallasi. It is distin- 
guished from dallasi by its more acuminate head 
which is not black at base, by the third antennal 
segment being about the same length as the sec- 
ond or even longer, and by the shallowly concave 
hind margin of the pygophore. 

Ocirrhoe inconspicua has only been recorded 
from Western Australia with the exception of 
one male specimen from the mountains of north- 
eastern Victoria. Host records include a 
Melaleuca species and Chamelaucium unici- 
natum, both members of the Myrtaceae. 



Location of type: 

Type 9 of inconspicua Dallas, 
in BM. 



'New Holland", 



Specimens examined: Western Australia: the 
type and; 1 cJ , Bushmead, 17. XII. 1966, on 
Melaleuca, E. M. Exley UO; 3 <3 , 3 9 , 1 .?, 
Bunbury, 3.1.1957, A. Snell; 1 9, Capel Dis- 
trict (29 km south of Bunbury), 7.1.1957, 
A. Snell AM; IS, Yardie Creek, April 1958. 
Snell; is, 19, Capel, 7.1.1957, Snell; IS, 
Collie, 13.1.1957, Snell NM; 1 6 , Northhampton, 
16.IX.1958, F. H. Uther-Baker; 12, 1 ^ , Kelm- 
scott, 16 Oct. & 7 Nov. 1958, the first in Banksia 
and scrub, J. Baldwin; 1 3 , Yanchep, 16.X.1964, 
F. H. Uther-Baker; 1 $, Kings Park, 2.X.1965, 
H. Mincham; 1 9, Jandakot, 24.X.1965, F. H. 
Uther-Baker SAM; 13, 19, Mundaring Weir, 
20.11.1963, 1 i, same locality, 10.XII.I964, J. 
Dell; 1 & , Wembley Downs, 1. XI. 1969, on wax 
(Chamelaucium uncinatum Schau) only, E. A. 



hind margin of pygophore 

^ventral surface 
spl pygophore 



sternum posterior angle of paratergite W 

paratergite S 
hind margin of first 
gonocoxa 
first 
gonocoxa 






1mm- 





Fig. 12. Ocirrhoe dallasi sp. nov., Ocirrhoe inconspicua (Dallas) 
Ocirrhoe cavenda sp. nov. A-B. Ocirrhoe dallasi. A. ventral view 
of male abdomen. B. ventral view of female abdomen. C-D. Ocirrhoe 
inconspicua. C. ventral view of male abdomen. D. ventral view 
of female abdomen. E-F. Ocirrhoe cavenda. E. apex of male 
abdomen. F. apex of female abdomen. 



RHYNCHOCORIS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— I 



77 



Jefferys & M. Archer WAM; 1 9 , Swan River. 
L. J. Newman; 1 9 , Merredin, L. J. Newman; 
14,3 9, Yanchep, 51 km (32 miles) north of 
Perth, 13-23.XI.1935, 2$, 19, same locality, 
20-31. XII. 1935, R. E. Turner BM; 2i, 19, 
Tortoise Reserve, 39 km (24 miles) north of 
Perth, 16.XII.1971, J. A. Slater; la, 19, 
Wildlife Reserve, 34 km (21 miles) north of 
Perth, 16-18.XII.1971, J. A. Slater SLATER; 
1 6 , Margaret River, 2 Nov.; Harvard Australian 
Expedition, P. J. Darlington AMNH; 1 9, Dar- 
lington, 150 m (450ft.), 5.IX.1962, E. S. Ross 
and D. 0. Cavagnaro CAS. Victoria: 1 8 , 
Hotham Heights, Victoria, 1 800 m (5 900ft.), 
on snow, L. II. 1957, A Neboiss NM. 



Ocirrhoe cavenda sp. nov. 



Figs. 12 E-F, 13. 16 



Description : 

General appearance: Green in life with pro- 
notum between and behind level of lateral angles 
pinkish, latter reaching lateral angles and 
posterolateral and posterior margins. Scutellum 
apically very broadly pinkish or luteous, in front 
of this luteous with a diffuse band of black 
punctations denser laterally, foveae in basal 
angles black. Antennae and tarsi yellowish 
brown. Museum specimens with the green faded 
to yellow. 




5mm. 



Fig. 13. Dorsal aspect of Ocirrhoe cavenda sp. nov. 



78 



REC, S, AUST. MUS., 17 (6): 51-167 



December, 1975 



Head: Appearing fairly broad and apically 
rather truncate, concolorous, anteriorly flattened 
and posteriorly only very little raised; anteclypeus, 
hardly surpassing apices of juga, lateral margins 
clearly concave. Disc rugulosely punctate. Eyes 
and ocelli purplish red. 

Pronotum: Anteriorly concolorous, from a 
line drawn between the lateral angles posteriorly 
pinkish and coarsely punctate, some punctations 
in the pinkish area infuscated, calli glabrous and 
frequently a submarginal callous line paralleling 
the anterolateral margins. Anterior margin 
oblique behind eyes and trapeziformly excavate 
behind collum, anterolateral angles represented 
by a small fine tooth or ridge. Anterolateral 
margins nearly straight. Lateral angles behind 
the reflexed margin truncate, posterolateral and 
posterior angles only slightly concave. 

Scutellum: Concolorous with apex very 
broadly luteous or pinkish, before the pale apex 
a broad band of black punctations, constricted 
and less dense medially. A black fovea in each 
basal angle. Raised a little anteriorly and flat 
in posterior half. A trace of a faint median 
longitudinal line present. Lateral margins gently 
concave in basel half and then almost parallel 
to rather broadly rounded apex. Frena reaching 
to about half length. 

Hemelytra: Coriaceous parts concolorous 
with coarse, but not dense, punctations; a glab- 
rous streak just interior of posterior half of medial 
fracture. Exterior margins of coria distinctly 
concave basally then almost straight to shortly 
rounded apical angle, reaching about middle of 
abdominal segment VI; laterotergites broadly 
exposed. Posterior margin of corium straight, 
inner angle broadly rounded. Clavus elongate, 
triangular. Membrane and veins faintly 
brownish hyaline. 



Abdomen: Concolorous, 
scutellum infuscated. 



behind apex of 



Laterotergites: Concolorous, densely punc- 
tate, posterior exterior angles produced into a 
short black spine. 

Underside: Concolorous; bucculae, pro- 
pleuron, mesopleuron except exteriorly, meta- 
pleuron posteriorly and abdomen coarsely punc- 
tate. Antennal segments II-V pale reddish or 
yellowish-brown. Rostrum ventrally and the 
apical half of its terminal segment black. Tibiae 
towards apices and tarsi brown. On abdomen 
three pale longitudinal stripes, one medial and 
the other two midlateral. Spiracular eminences 
dark brown or black below the orifices. 

Bucculae low and sinuated, reaching about 
middle of an eye, anteriorly produced into a 
blunt triangular process. Rostral segment 1 
robust, reaching nearly to base of bucculae, II 
compressed and arched and reaching to about 
middle of fore coxae, III to middle of mid coxae 
and IV to base of hind coxae. Ratio of antennal 
segments ( 3 ) 8 : 13 ; 11 : 17 r 21. Metasternal- 
mesosternal keels highest between fore coxae, 
then obliquely truncate, then broadly rounded 
at apex, reaching nearly to apex of presternum, 
directed to left apically in ventral view. Legs 
normal without pilosity, only the usual spines 
present, tibiae only flattened apically. Abdomen 
broadly U-shaped in posterior view. Apex of 
male abdomen Fig. 12 E, hind margin of pygo- 
phore subangulately excavated, lateral lobes not 
strongly prominent. Apex of female abdomen 
Fig. 1 2 F, hind margins of first gonocoxae trans- 
verse, turning anteriorly towards the midline, 
interior margins not raised, apical angles of 
VHIth paratergites angulately produced. 



Dimensions 



Parameter 



Head length 

Head width 

Antennal segment I 
Antennal segment II 
Antennal segment 111 
Antennal segment IV 
Antennal segment V 
Pronotum width 
Pronotum length 
Total length 



MALES 










Number of 




Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


leasurements 


Mean 


Deviation 


or 

Variation 


Range 


5 


34 


1-6 


4.9 


31-35 


5 


36 


1-4 


3-9 


34-38 


9 


8 


0-7 


9-2 


7-9 


9 


13 


II 


8-4 


11-15 


9 


11 


0-9 


8-3 


9-12 


9 


17 


1-2 


7-2 


15-19 


9 


21 


1-8 


8-6 


17-22 


5 


82 


6-5 


7-9 


73-87 


5 


36 


2-5 


6-9 


32-38 


5 


149 


9-9 


6-7 


133-160 



HllYNCIIOCOIilS GROUP 



Dimensions 



Parameter 



Head length 

Head width > i ■ i - 
Antennal segment I 
Anlennal segment II 
Antennal segment III 
Antennal segment IV 
Antennal segment V 
Prnnotum width 
I'ronotum length 
Total length 



IN AUSTRALIA 


AND 


ADJACENT / 


tREAS— 1 




FEMALES 










Number of 




Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


leasiirements Mean 


Deviation 


of 


Range 








Variation 




4 


35 


___ 





13-.K. 


4 


-'7 


— 




35-39 


6 


8 


— 




8-9 


5 


14 


— 





1.1-14 


3 


II 


_ 


_ 


10-13 


5 


18 


— 


— 


17-19 


4 


■»■> 


- 




21-23 


4 


84 





— 


76-91 


4 


36 


— 


— 


33-40 


4 


154 






1:47-158 



1» 



total length. (r')-H-i mm 



Remarks: This species occurs in a narrow 
belt in New South Wales and Victoria from near 
the Queensland border to about Bendigo in 
Victoria. It is very similar to unimaculala and 
easily confused with the latter but differs in the 
black fovcae in the basal angles of the scutelluin, 
the transverse band of black punctations before 
the pale apex of the latter, the more angulatcly 
incised posterior margin of the hind margin of 
the pygophore, the comparatively longer third 
antennal segment and its rather smaller size. 
Only ten specimens are known. 

Location of types: 

Holotvpc i (Reg. No. 120,725), Mullaley, 
New South Wales. Jan. 1959, F. E. Wilson 
SAM; allotype V , Bendigo District, Victoria. 
6.X. 1928, ex J. E. Dixon collection donated Jan. 
1940 NM; 3 paratypes i . Nollo Mountain 32 
km (20 miles) north east of Rylston, New South 
Wales, I2.XI.I950, T. G. Campbell; I paratype 
9, 14 km (9 miles) north east of Putty, New 
South Wales, 28.X. 1956. P. B. Carne AN1C; 
I paratype i , "Calumet", 42 km (26 miles) 
north east of Binnaway. New South Wales, Nov. 
1931, A. Musgrave AM; 1 paratype 3 , 2 para- 
types 9 , Lennox Bridge, New South Wales, 
28.IX.I958. M. I. Nikitin BM 1959-57. 

Specimens examined: The types only. The 
distribution of the known specimens has been 
added to the map on Fig. 16 so that its distribu- 
tion may be compared with that of unimaculala. 



Ocirrhoe unimaciilata (Westward, I 837) 

Figs. 14. 15 A-E. 16 

Rhvnchucoris unimaculala Westwood, 1837, 
p. 29. 



Ocirrhoe unimaculala Lethierry & Severin, 1893, 
p. 180. Distant, 1900a, p. 422. 

Rhynchocoris roei Westwood, 1837, p. 30. 
Lethierry & Severin, 1893. p. 181, 

Ocirrhoe roei Distant, 1900b. p. 815. pi, 52, 
(ig. 12. new synonym. 

Cuspicona fasciata Dallas, 1851, p. 297. pi. 10. 
lig. 3. 

Description : 

General appearance: Green in life with an 
elongate oval pinkish or yellow transverse bar 
between, but not reaching, lateral angles and 
posterolateral margins of pronotum. Scutellum 
apically yellow. Foveae in basal angles con- 
colorous; antennae and tarsi yellowish brown. 
Museum specimens with the green faded to 
yellowish, pink or light red. Other colours as 
noted. Eyes and ocelli purplish. 

Head: Appearing fairly broad and apically 
rather truncate, concolorous, anteriorly flattened 
and posteriorly very little raised; anteclypeus 
hardly surpassing apices of juga, lateral margins 
clearly concave. Disc rugulosely punctate. Eyes 
and ocelli greyish to purplish red. 

Pronotum: Concolorous with rather coarse 
sparse punctations, latter rather infuscated in 
the area of the pale patch, calli glabrous. 
Between lateral angles a very elongate transverse 
pale pink or yellow bar not reaching lateral 
angles or posterior margin. In some examples 
an irregular yellow callous line just inside 
anterolateral margins. Anterior margin oblique 
behind eyes and trapeziformly excavate behind 
collum, anterolateral angles represented by a 
very small tooth. Anterolateral margins nearly 
straight. Lateral angles behind the retlexed 
margin concave, posterolateral and posterior 
margins only slightly concave. 



80 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (6): 51-167 



December, 1975 



%to 




Sti# 



• **»«v.M. 



• ••••».?* 



,-*V»* 



Sft. ■-•■...■:■■:?•:* ; 



; 




%% 



5mm.- 



Fig. 14. Dtirsal aspect of Ocirrlwe uniiniuiilata (Westwood). 



Scittellum: Concolorous with evenly distri- 
buted fairly dense vaguely fuscous punctations, 
apex broadly yellow and impunctate. A concol- 
orous foveae in each basal angle. Raised a 
little anteriorly and flat in posterior half. A 
faint raised medial longitudinal line present. 
Lateral margins gently convex in basal half 
and then converging gently to rounded apex. 
Frena reaching about % of length. 

Hemelytra: Coriaceous parts concolorous 
with regular, moderately dense punctations. 
Exterior margins of coria faintly concave basally 
then broadly convex to shortly rounded apical 
angle, reaching about middle of abdominal 
segment VI, laterotergites broadly exposed. 
Posterior margin of corium straight, inner angle 
broadly rounded. Clavus very elongate triangu- 



lar. Membrane and veins hyaline, frequently 
rather brownish. 

Abdomen: Concolorous, infuscated on either 
side of apical portion of scutellum. 

Laterotergites Concolorous, densely punctate, 
posterior exterior angles produced into a short, 
minutely black tipped spine. 

Underside: Concolorous, punctate on pro- 
pleuron, base of mesopleura, hind portion of 
metapleuron and abdomen, coarser laterally on 
the latter. Antennal segments II-V pale or 
yellowish brown. Rostrum ventrally and its 
apex black. Tarsi brown. In green examples 
the sternites and three longitudinal lines on the 
abdomen, one medial and the others midlaterally 
on each side, yellow. Spiracles with their 



RHYNCHOCOR1S GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— 1 



81 



orifices black. Apical margin of pygophore or 
in females apical margins of Vllltn paratergites 
frequently narrowly black. Many examples with 
two large subquadrate pink markings on either 
side of the midline, a pair each on segments 
III and IV. 

BuccuJae low and sinuated, reaching about 
middle of an eye, anteriorly produced into 
a blunt lobulate process. Rostral segment I 
robust, reaching nearly to base of bucculae; 
II compressed and arched, reaching about 
middle of fore coxae. III to middle of hind 
coxae and IV just onto base of abdomen. Ratio 
of antenna! segments (6) 8:16:12:20:23. 
Metasternal-mesosternal keels highest between 
fore coxae then obliquely truncate, reaching 
nearly apex of prosternum, directed to left in 



ventral view. Legs normal without long pilosity, 
only a few spines present, tibiae only flattened 
apically. Abdomen broadly U-shaped in 
posterior view. Apex of male abdomen Fig. 
15 A, hind margin of pygophore only slightly 
concave and laterally not produced into 
prominent lobes. Clasper Fig. 15 E. strongly 
F-shaped, the upper ramus compressed and 
darkly sclerotized towards its tip. Phallosoma 
Figs. 15 C-D, short and honey-coloured, "lappet" 
processes rather elongate, conjunctiva reflexed 
downward, medial penial plates elongate in the 
axis of the aedeagus, notched ventrally in lateral 
view, in ventral view broad and diverging. 
Apex of female abdomen Fig. 1 5 B, hind margins 
of first gonocoxae transverse and nearly truncate, 
interior margins not raised; apical angles of 
VHIth paratergites angulately produced. 



posterior margin of pygophore 



posterior angle ol paraterglte ! 



paratergite J, 



: \^hir>d margin 
of first 

,.V\ gonocoxa 




Fig. 15. Ocirrhoc unimuculata (Westwood). A. ventral aspect of 
male abdomen. B. ventral aspect of female abdomen. C. leflhand 
side aspect of aedeagus. D. ventral aspect of aedeagus. E. clasper. 



82 
Dimensions- 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (6): 51-167 



MALES FROM SOUTHERN AUSTRALIA 



December, 1975 



Parameter 



Number of 
Measurements Mean 



Head length 20 

Head width 20 

Antenna! segment I 37 

Antennal segment II 38 

Antennal segment III 38 

Antennal segment IV , . 33 

Antennal segment V 25 

Pronotum width 20 

Pronotum length 20 

Total length 20 



35 
38 
8 
16 
12 
20 
23 
92 
38 
160 



Standard 
Deviation 



J 9 
1-5 
0-8 
10 
1-3 
II 
1-3 
4-5 
2*6 
80 



Coefficient 

of 
Variation 

5-4 
41 
9-2 
6-5 
11-2 
5-5 
5-6 
4-9 
6-7 
5 



Observed 
Range 



3 1 -38 
35-40 
7-9 
14-1S 
10-15 
17-22 
21-25 
85-98 
33-43 
148-172 



FEMALES FROM SOUTHERN AUSTRALIA 



Parameter 



Number of 
Measurements 



Head length 20 

Head width 20 

Antennal segment I ,..,.,..,.., 36 

Antennal segment II 38 

Antennal segment III 37 

Antennal segment IV 32 

Antennal segment V 28 

Pronotum width ■ 20 

Pronotum length 20 

Total length 20 



Mean 



37 
39 
9 
17 
12 
19 
23 
96 
40 
174 



Standard 
Deviation 



1-8 
1-5 
0-8 
1-3 
1-3 
10 
1-4 
51 
4-4 
9-4 



Coefficient 

of 
Variation 

4-8 

3-8 

8-7 

80 
11-2 

5-3 

60 

5-4 
111 

5-4 



Observed 
Range 



34-40 
36-42 
7-11 
14-19 
10-14 
17-22 
20-25 
85-109 
26-47 
155-200 



MALES FROM QUEENSLAND AND NEW SOUTH WALES 



Parameter 



Number of 
Measurements 



Head length 19 

Head width 19 

Antennal segment I 32 

Antennal segment II 34 

Antennal segment III 34 

Antennal segment IV , 30 

Antennal segment V 24 

Pronotum width 19 

Pronotum length 19 

Total length 19 



Mean 



B 

7 

16 
11 
20 
23 
84 
35 
154 



Standard 
Deviation 



14 
10 
0-9 
1-2 
11 
1-4 
1-4 
4-5 
20 
10-6 



Coefficient 

of 
Variation 

4-2 
2-8 
12 3 

7-7 
10-2 
7-3 
6-2 
5-3 
5-7 
6-9 



Observed 
Range 



31-37 
35-38 

6-9 
13-18 

9-14 
17-23 
20-25 
77-91 
32-38 
137-175 



FEMALES FROM QUEENSLAND AND NEW SOUTH WALES 



Parameter 



Number of 
Measurements 



Mean 



Standard 
Deviation 



Head length 19 36 1-2 

Head width 19 38 1-5 

Antennal segment I 35 8 0-8 

Antennal segment II 36 17 1-2 

Antennal segment III 39 II 0-9 

Antennal segment IV 36 19 1-3 

Antennal segment V 28 23 1-3 

Pronotum width 19 92 3-9 

Pronotum length ....... ly 39 2-2 

Total length 19 172 10-4 

Total length (both populations): 71-10-4 mm 



Coefficient 

of 
Variation 

3-4 
40 
9-9 
7-4 
7-8 
69 
5-8 
4-2 
5-8 
61 



Observed 
Range 



35-39 
36-42 
7-9 
15-20 
10-14 
16-22 
21-25 
88-99 
36-42 
148-190 



Remarks: The type of imimaculuta Westwood 
is in poor condition but as it is a male and the 
pygophore is intact the identity of the species 
is not in doubt. The types of both roei Westwood 
and fasciata Dallas are females in better condition 
and belong also to this same species. The type 
of roei is the largest example yet seen in the 
genus. 



The species is fairly easily recognised by the 
pale, usually pinkish elongate-oval, transverse 
patch near the hind margin of the pronotum. 
Two other species have a similar pale patch on 
the pronotum, notably cavenda and virescens. 
From cavenda imimaculata differs in having pale 
foveae in the basal angles of the scutellum, in 
lacking a preapical transverse band of black 



RHYNCHOCOR1S GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— I 



S3 



punctations before the apex of the scutellum and 
in the hind margin of the pygophore being only 
faintly concave. From virescens unimaadata 
differs by lacking pale lateral margins to the 
scutellum, by having the hind margin of the 
pygophore only faintly excavate (triangularly 
excavate in virescens) and in having the hind 
margins of the female first gonocoxae transverse 
(convex in virescens). 

Ocirrhoe unimaadata is widely distributed 
near and on the coast of Australia south of about 
26 S latitude. It has been taken on the following 
species of plants — Correa sp. (Muston, Kangaroo 
Island), Myoporum insulate R. Br. (Coorong, 
South Australia), Geijeria linearifolia (D.C.) J. 
M. Black (Mannum, South Australia), Platylob- 
ium sp. (Mt. Lofty, South Australia), Beyeria 
leschenautti ( D.C. ) Baill and Melaleuca pubscens 
Schau (Hallett Cove, South Australia) and in a 
formation dominated by Leucopogon parvifiora 
(Andr. ) Lindl. and Acacia sophorae (Labill) 
R.Br, (near Robe, South Australia). Specimens 
have been captured in all months of the year. 



Populations from the southern states of Aust- 
ralia and from New South Wales south of the 
latitude of about Sydney are somewhat larger 
than populations from northern New South Wales 
and southern Queensland. The measurements 
of the two populations have been analysed 
separately in the descriptive section. 

Location of types: 

Type 9 of unimaculata Westwood, "New 
Holland", and type 9 of roei westwood, "SR" 
( = Swan River) in HOPE; type 9 of jasciata 
Dallas, "New Holland", in BM. 

Specimens examined: The types and 144 
specimens from 58 localities from the 
following collections (numbers examined in 
parentheses):— QU (24), QM(4), AM(ll), 
AN1C(19), NM(10), SAM(34), WAM(2), 
STOCKHOLM(4), BRUSSELS(l), BM(ll), 
J. A. SLATER(l), AMNH(IO), CAS(l), 
BISHOP(J2). As this is a common species 
individual Australian and Tasmanian records 
have not been listed in detail but are plotted on 
Fig. 16. 



• Ocirrhoe ummaculala 
A Ocirrhoe cavenda 




r-4. 

Fig. 16. Distribution of Ocirrhoe cavenda sp. nov. and Ocirrhoe unimaculata (Westwood). 



84 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (6): 51-167 



December, 1975 



Ocirrhoe prasinata (Stal, 1859) nov. comb 

Figs. 17, 19 A-B. 

Cuspicona prasinata Stal, 1859, p. 231; 1876, 
p. 103, Lethierry and Severin, 1893, p. 180. 

Description: 

General appearance: Museum specimens 
greenish-yellow or yellow, in fresher specimens 
apex of third and fourth and most of fifth anten- 
nal segments reddish. Eyes and ocelli greyish. 
Foveae in basal angles of scutellum concolorous 
or greyish. 

Head: Appearing moderately elongate, con- 
colorous, triangular, anteriorly flattened and 
posteriorly a little raised; anteclypeus slightly 
surpassing apices of juga, lateral margins clearly 
concave. Disc rugulosely punctate. Eyes and 
ocelli greyish or reddish-grey. 

Pronotum: Concolorous with fine dense con- 
colorous or slightly infuscated punctations, caili 
glabrous. A faint trace of a medial longitudinal 
line. Anterior margin oblique behind eyes and 



trapeziformly excavate behind collum, antero- 
lateral angles prominent as a small tooth. 
Anterolateral margins straight or slightly convex. 
Lateral angles behind the reflexed margin shortly 
truncate, posterolateral and posterior margins 
only slightly concave, posterior margin slightly 
concave. 

Scutellum: Concolorous with fine dense con- 
colorous or slightly infuscated punctations, an 
almost concolorous fovea in each basal angle. 
Raised very little anteriorly and flat posteriorly. 
Lateral margins gently convex in basal 4/7 and 
then converging gently to broadly rounded apex. 
Frcna reaching about 4/7 of length. 

Hemelytra: Coriaceous parts concolorous 
with fine dense concolorous or slightly infuscated 
punctations. Exterior margins of coria faintly 
concave basally and then faintly convex to nearly 
rectangular apical angle, reaching about middle 
of abdominal segment VI, laterotergites broadly 
exposed. Posterior margin of corium straight, 
inner angle broadly rounded. Clavus very elon- 
gate triangular. Membrane and veins hyaline. 





«rf>J v 



; V"~ 



"->•" 




A ' 



BMMBM K.UCND 



■5mm. 



Fig. 17. Dorsal aspect of Ocirrhoe prasinata [St&I). 



RHY\'CilOCORIS CROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— I 



M 



Abdomen: Concolorous, some dorsal portions 
of pygophore pinkish. 

Lutcrotergites: Concolorous, coarsely punc- 
tate exteriorly, posterior exterior angles produced 
into a short, minutely black tipped spine. 

Underside: Concolorous, coarsely punctate 
except on head, margin of propleuron, evapora- 
tive areas and legs. Apex of third and fourth 
and most of fifth antennal segments reddish or 
orange. Rostrum ventrally and its extreme apex 
black. Spiracles concolorous or faintly infus- 
cated. 

Bucculae high and moderately sinuated, reach- 
ing about middle of an eye, anteriorly produced 
into a rather triangular lobulate process. Ros- 
trol segment I robust, reaching nearly to base of 



bucculae, II compressed and arched and reaching 
middle of fore coxae, Til to middle of hind coxae 
and IV to about middle of ventrite III. Ratio 
of antennal segments U ) 9; 15; 12: 21: 25. 
Metasternal-mesosternal keels depressed a little 
anteriorly, nearly reaching apex of prosternum, 
anteriorly rounded and directed to left in ventral 
view. Legs normal with sparse pilosity, tibiae 
only flattened apically. Abdomen broadly U- 
shaped in posterior view. Apex of male abdomen 
Fig. 1 9 A, hind margin of pygophore laterally pro- 
duced into a reflexed lobe on either side, between 
these deeply excavate this excavation with a 
smaller excavation on midline. Apex of female 
abdomen Fig. 19 B, hind margins of first gono- 
coxae transverse and nearly truncate, interior 
margins not raised. 



Dimensions — 


Parameter 


Head length 

Head width 

Antcnnal segment 1 

Antennal segment It 

Antennal segment III 

Antennal segment IV 

Antennal segment V 

Pronotum width , , 

Pronotum length 

Total length 



MALES 







....... 



.... 



Number of 
Measurements 



8 

9 

15 

17 

17 

14 

9 

9 

9 

9 



Mean 



35 
37 
9 
15 
12 
21 
25 
92 
38 
171 



Standard 
Deviation 



21 
0-9 
0-5 
10 
13 
14 
2-3 
19 
•3 



! 



Coefficient 

of 
Variation 

60 

2'4 
5 1 
6-7 
107 
70 
90 
20 
3-3 
2-9 



Observed 
Range 



30-37 
36-39 
9-10 
13-1 ft 
11-15 
19-24 
23-29 
90-95 
37-40 
Ifo-lSO 



FEMALES 



Parameter 



Number at 

Measurements 



Head length , . 

Head width . 

Antcnnal segment I 

Antennal .segment II 

Antennal segment III 

Antennal segment IV 

Antennal segment V 

Pronotum width 

Pronotum length 

Total length 



13 
13 
16 
19 
19 
13 
13 

n 

13 
13 



Mean 



35 
38 
9 
15 
12 
20 
23 
93 
39 
169 



Standard 
Deviation 



0-9 
II 

0-9 
I -3 
1-3 

18 
24 
50 
2-3 
8-8 



Coefficient 

of 
Variation 

2-5 

3 
101 

9-0 
10 7 

9-2 
10-3 

5-4 

ft-0 

5-2 



Observed 
Range 



33-36 
37-40 
8-10 
11-17 
11-15 
17-24 
21-29 
85-103 
35-43 
155-181 



Total length: 8-l-Winm 



Remarks: This species is very easily confused 
with Cuspicona private Walker on a macroscopic 
examination. It appears to be a true Ocirrhoe 
on the following features: — the antennae are 
more robust than in Cuspicona species, the 
anterolateral margins of the pronotum are 
reflexed and this reflexed area continues for a 
short distance onto the lateral angle and the hind 
margins of the first gonocoxae of the female are 
transverse and also truncated, a feature which 
occurs commonly in Ocirrhoe but only in 
Cuspicona in the long-headed intacta group 
which O. prasinata does not resemble. O. 



prasinata has much less flattened tibiae than 
some of its congeners whereas C. privata has 
more flattened tibiae than other species of 
Cuspicona. It is in the area of these two species 
(O, prasinata and C. privata) that the two 
genera become rather close to each other and it 
is likely the point where the two genera diverged, 
whether one arose out of the other or both 
diverged from a common ancestor must remain 
unanswered. 

Within Ocirrhoe itself prasinata appears to be 
related most closely to coronata by virtue of the 
rather similar posterior margin of the pygophore 



«6 



kn S ai si MUS i? i6>: 5i« 167 



I'.irmbtr. 147^ 



of thcr male, the two strong lobes, one either 
side of the midline, in coronuta arc reduced to 
only slightly prominent lobes in prasinala. 

C. prasinata occurs near the eastern and 
southern coasts of the Australian mainland from 
southern Queensland to about the Mt, Lofty 
Ranges and Kangaroo Island in South Australia. 

The high coefficients of variation noted for 
the lengths of the antennal segments seem to be 
due to a progressive shortening of their length 
as one progresses from Queensland to South Aus- 
tralian examples and does not appear to indicate 
a specilic difference. 

Location of types 

Typus ' , iilloiypus 9 , paratype.^, paratype 
"Sidney, Kinh." (for "Sydney, Kinberg"). 
STOCKHOLM. 

Specimens examined: The types and Queens- 
land Id, 19, Tibrogargan (reek, 4. IX. 1 953, on 
Leptospermnm, T. E. Woodward UQ; I 9 , 
Springbrook. I2.X.I959, A. N. Bums. ] J. . 
Burleigh, )6,IX.I%0. A. N, Burns NM. A.C.T. 
3-, 3 9. <2v Lake Windcmcre), Jervis Bay, 
IS -I9.IX.195I, T. G. Campbell AN1C. Vic- 
toria I a . Mallacoota. 23.XI.I965, A, Neboiss. 
I 9 , locality and date illegible, donated by L. P. 
Spry 5.X. 1922 NM. South Australia I 5 . Tea- 
tree Gully. 16X1,1954, R, V. Southcott; 29. 
L.S.I. 833, Bclair, 10. X. 1952. G. F. Gross; I 9, 
E.S.I. 594, Belair, 1 LI. 1953, G. F. Gross; I X, 
Bclair National Park. 20. X. | C J65. by sweeping, 
B. K. Hubbard and A. N. McFurland; I v 
Kangaroo Island, A. M. Lea: 1 i , Kangaroo 
Island, Oct 1924; IS, 16 km ( 10 miles) west 
of Vivonne Bay. I2.X.I966, by beating, A. N. 
McFarland and M. Pate SAM; 29^withnut 
further locality AMNH. Unlocabsed I S AM. 



Ocirrhoe coronala sp. nov. 

Figs. IK, 19 CD. 

Description : 

General appearance: Museum specimens 
yellow; second, third and fourth antennal seg- 
ments reddish, fifth black medially and narrowly 
reddish at base and apex. Eyes and ocelli 
leddish-grey. Fovea in basal angles of scutellum 
concolorous. 

Head: Appealing moderately elongate, con- 
colorous, triangular, anteriorly llaltcned and 
posteriorly a little raised, apex of anteclypeus 
in same curve us apices of juga; lateral margins 
clearly concave. Disc coarsely and rugulosely 



punctate. Eyes and ocelli reddish or reddish- 
grey. 

Fronotum: Concolorous with rather coarse 
vaguely infuscated punctations. calli glabrous. 
Lateral margins tending orange. No trace of a 
median longitudinal line. Anterior margin 
oblique behind eyes and semicircularly excavate 
behind collum, anterolateral angles prominent as 
a fine tooth. Anterolateral margins straight. 
Lateral angles behind the termination of the 
refiexed anterolateral margins shortly truncate, 
posterolateral and posterior margins only slightly 
concave. 

Scntellitm: Concolorous with coarse dense 
slightly infuscated punctations and concolorous 
fovea in each basal angle. Raised very little 
anteriorly and flat posteriorly. Lateral margins 
gently convex in basal half and then broadly 
rounded and converging to sublanceolate apex. 
Frena reaching about half length. 

Hernelytra Coriaceous parts concolorous 
with line not very dense slightly infuscated punc- 
tations. Exterior margins of coria faintly con- 
cave basally then obtuse angled and then straight 
and converging to shortly rounded apical angle, 
reaching about middle of segment VI, laterotcr- 
gites very broadly exposed. Posterior margin 
of corium rather rounded, inner angle broadly 
rounded. Clavus very elongate triangular. Mem- 
brane and veins fumose hyaline (holotypc) or 
hyaline (allotype and paratype). 

Abdomen: Reddish interiorly and on dorsum 
of pygophore. 

I.aremrergires: Concolorous, coarsely punc- 
tate exteriorly, hind and inner margins of seventh 
reddish. Posterior exterior angles produced into 
Li short spine which is minutely black tipped. 

Underside: Concolorous. coarsely punctate 
only on propleura, towards base of mesoplellra. 
hind portion of metaplcura. laterally on abdomen 
and very sparsely on ventral surface of pygo- 
phore First antennal segment concolorous. 
second, third, fourth and base and apex of fifth 
reddish, rest of fifth black. Rostrum ventrally 
and its extreme apex black. Spiracles con- 
colorous. 

Bucculae high and moderately sinuated, 
reaching to about anterior nuiTgin of an eye, 
anteriorly produced into a sublriangular lobulate 
process. Rostral segment 1 robust, reaching 
nearly to base of bucculae, II compressed and 
slightly arched and reaching about middle of fore 
coxae, lit to anterior part of mid coxae, and 
IV to posterior pa it of hind coxae Metastcmal- 
mesosternal keel rather raised anteriorly and 



KHYNCHOCORIS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND AD.IAC EN I AREAS— I 



X7 




.-:'.-..■.■: ; •' .- "•: - . ■■■.■■■ 

'.■"-- ■ • ■" . ■ .-■ " i *.' 

A^T*« .■..■.-•■■'•.*> 

. " ,■:■ >■■■•-., 

tit "" '£' - J - ; ' -'•»»' «r 





5mm. 



Eig. 18. Dursal aspect of Ocirrlwc ionmuta sp. nov. 



forward of this obliquely truncate, reaching apex 
of presternum, directed to left in ventral view. 
Legs normal with sparse pilosity, tibiae not very 
flattened. Abdomen broadly U-shaped in pos- 
terior view. Apex of male abdomen Fig. 19 C. 
hind margin of pygophore laterally produced into 
a reflexed lobe on either side, between these 
excavate, this excavation with a broad tooth on 
either side of the midline, between the latter 
notched. Female Fig. 19 C, posterior margins of 
first gonocoxac transverse, medially slightly con- 
cave; posterior angles of eighth laterotergites 
sharply angulated. Dimensions (holotype): 
Head length 40; head width 42; antennal segment 
I 10, 10; antennal segment II 20, 19; antennal 
segment III 15. 15; antennal segment IV 26, 
25; antennal segment V 29. 28; pronotum width 
102; pronotum length 44; total length 185 
(allotype) head length 42; head width 42 
antennal segment I 9, 9: antennal segment II 21 



22; antennal segment III 17, 17; antennal seg- 
ment IV 25, 25; antennal segment V 28, — ; 
pronotum width 102: pronotum length 44; total 
length 192. 

Total length: 9' 0-9*6 mm. 

Remarks: This species appears to have only 
one close relative in the genus, namely prasinatu 
(Still) which it resembles in the shape of the 
posterior margin of the pygophore. The three 
known specimens come from two fairly widely 
separated localities. 

Locution of types: 

Holotype S (Reg. No. T72I5), Iron Range, 
Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, 26.V.-2.VI. 
1971, B.K. Cantrell QM; allotype $, Mt. Tozer, 
Iron Range, North Queensland. 20.1 V.-l .VJ973, 
G. Monteith UQ; paratype t , Finke River. 
Central Australia, Dr. H. Basedow SAM. 

Specimens examined: The types only. 



88 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (6): 51-167 



December, 1975 



posterior margin ventral surface of 
of pygophore 



sternum E ^ posterior angle of paratergite W 
paratergite £ 




1mm- 





Fig. 19. Ocirrhoe prasinatu (Stiil), Ocirrhoe coronala sp. nov. 
Ocirrlwe virescens ( West wood ) . A-B. Ocirrlioe prasinata. A. ventral 
view of male abdomen. B. ventral view of female abdomen. C-D. 
Ocirrlwe coromilu. C. ventral view of male abdomen. D. ventral 
view of female abdomen. E-F. Ocirrlioe rirescens. E. ventral view 
of male abdomen. F. ventral view of female abdomen. 



Virescens Group 

This group contains only the one species, 
Ocirrhoe virescens (Westwood), which is res- 
tricted to Queensland. The group characteristics 
are: — more elongate than other species of 
Ocirrhoe (pronotum width: total length almost 
1:2); rostrum long reaching onto, or almost 
onto ventrite V; tibiae flattened only apically; 
and in virescens the hind margins of the first 
gonocoxae of the female arcuately convex; head 
not marked with black punctations; antennae 
not apically infuscated and foveae in basal angles 
of scutellum concolorous. 

There is a close resemblance to O. unimaculata 
in the pale transverse bar on the hind portion of 
the pronotum and the large red maculae on either 
side on ventritcs III and IV. Like unimaculata 
and other species in the unimaculata group the 
tibiae are only slightly flattened. 



Ocirrhoe virescens (Westwood, 1837) 

Figs. 19 E-F, 20 

Rhaphigaster virescens Westwood, 1837, p. 31. 

Ocirrhoe? virescens Distant. 1900b, p. 815, pi. 
53 fig. 7. 

Description : 

General appearance: In life green with a 
broad transverse bar on the hind portion of 
scutellum, lateral margin and apex of scutellum 
bright yellow or orange-yellow. In older museum 
specimens yellow or yellowish-brown with the 
transverse bar on the scutellum and the scutellar 
margins and apex paler or more orange, First 
segment of antennae concolorous, rest brown or 
reddish-brown. Eyes and ocelli reddish-grey or 
black. Foveae in basal angles of scutellum con- 
colorous. 



RHYNCHOCORIS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— I 



8s> 



Head: Appearing strongly elongate triangular 
but actually about as wide across eyes as long. 
Concolorous, anteriorly flattened and posteriorly 
raised, apex of anteclypeus in same curve as 
apices of juga; lateral margins only slightly con- 
cave. Disc coarsely but not unduly densely 
punctate, some transverse rugulosities. Eyes and 
ocelli reddish-grey to black. 

Pronolum: Concolorous with rather coarse 
evenly spaced punctations, latter tending fuscous 
posteriorly. Calii concolorous but glabrous. 
Between lateral angles and reaching almost to 
hind margins an elongate trapeziform transverse 
yellow or orange-yellow bar not reaching lateral 
angles or posterolateral margins. Anterior mar- 
gin oblique behind eyes and trapeziformly 
excavate behind collum, anterolateral angles rep- 
resented by a small toothed spine. Anterolateral 
margins straight. Lateral angles behind termina- 
tion of reflexed anterolateral margins shortly 
truncate, posterolateral and posterior margins 
only slightly concave. 

Scutellum: Concolorous medianly in basal half 
but along lateral margins and tip broadly yellow 



or orange-yellow; with coarse fairly evenly spaced 
concolorous or fuscous punctations. Foveae in 
basal angles concolorous. Raised anteriorly and 
flat posteriorly. Rather elongate, lateral margins 
only slightly convex in basal % and then chang- 
ing direction and faintly convex to sublanceo- 
latc apex which is slightly reflexed either side 
of midline. Frena reaching about % length. 

Ilemelytra: Coriaceous parts concolorous but 
inner angle of corium infuscated with black. 
Punctations evenly distributed except just inside 
of apical portion of medial fracture where there 
is a narrow glabrous area. Exterior margins 
of coria faintly concave basally and then broadly 
convex to very shortly rounded apical angle, 
reaching about middle of segment VI, lateroter- 
gites narrowly exposed. Posterior margin of cor- 
ium nearly straight, inner angle broadly rounded. 
Clavus very elongate triangular. Membrane and 
veins hyaline. 

Abdomen: Concolorous exteriorly and 
broadly reddish behind scutellum, dorsum of 
pygophore also reddish. 




. ,-w-..,. 



■j - : s 





&RENGA K HEAD 

5 mm. ' 



Eig. 20. Dorsal aspect of Ocirrlioc virc.uciis (Weslwuod). 



90 



RBC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 <6)- 51 167 



December, 1975 



Laterotergites: Concolorous and coarsely and 
densely punctate. Posterior exterior angles pro- 
duced into a short black-tipped spine. 

Underside. Concolorous, coarsely punctate 
only on propleura, ventrally on mesopleura and 
posteriorly on metapleura. First antenna! seg- 
ment concolorous, remaining segments brownish 
tending reddish-brown towards apex. Rostrum 
ventrally and tip black. Abdomen medially with 
pyogophore broadly pale, a quadrate reddish 
patch just laterally of midline on either side on 
segments III and IV, not in contact with either 
fore or hind margins of these segments. Tarsi 
brown. Spiracles concolorous. 

Bucculae low and moderately sinuatcd, reach- 
ing to about middle of eye, anteriorly produced 
into a subtriangularly lobulate process. Rostral 
segment I robust, reaching to base of bucculae, 
II compressed, arched and reaching onto meso- 



sternum. III to past hind coxae and IV onto 
ventrite V. Ratio of antennal segments ( a ) 9; 
19 : 14 ; 23 : 25. Metasternal-mesosternal keels 
highest just behind fore coxae, forward of this 
obliquely and truncately directed downwards then 
anteriorly shortly rounded, not reaching apex of 
presternum, directed to left in ventral view. Legs 
normal without pilosity, only the normal bristles, 
tibiae only slightly flattened apically. Abdomen 
broadly U- or V-shaped in posterior view, Apex 
of male abdomen Fig. 19 E, hind margin of pygo- 
phore laterally produced into a prominent lobe 
on each side whose external margin is convex, 
between the lobes a strong V-shaped incision, 
on the ventral surface slightly in front of this 
a V-shaped ridge. Apex of female abdomen 
Fig, 19F. h'nd margins of first gonocoxae 
strongly arcuately convex, inner margins slightly 
raised, angles of VHIth paratergites distinctly 
acute. 



Dimensions- 



MALES 



Parameter 



Head length , , , , , 

Head width 

Antennal segment 1 

Antennal segment II 

Antennal segment III 

Antennal segment IV 

Antennal segment V ,„,,., 

Pronotum width 

Pronotum length 

Total length 



Parameter 



Head length 

Head width 

Antennal segment t 
Antennal segment II 
Antennal segment III 
Antennal segment IV 
Antennal segment V 
Pronotum width . . . 
Pronotum length , . . 
Total length 



Number of 




Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Measurements 


Mean 


Deviation 


or 

Variation 


Range 


10 


35 


11 


3 


34-37 


10 


37 


07 


18 


36-3S 


iy 


y 


0-8 


100 


7-10 


18 


14 


12 


61 


16-21 


18 


14 


09 


6-7 


12-15 


14 


23 


1-3 


5-9 


20-25 


13 


25 


1-3 


5 2 


23-27 


10 


86 


3-2 


3-7 


81-90 


10 


36 


1-2 


3-1 


33-37 


10 


164 


49 


3 


155-170 


FEMALES 










Number of 




Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Measurements 


Mean 


Deviation 


of 
Variation 


Range 


16 


38 


2'4 


6-5 


35-43 


16 


39 


2'3 


5-9 


33-43 


27 


9 


0-7 


7-2 


8-10 


26 


21 


1-7 


8-2 


18-25 


26 


15 


25 


165 


12-21 


2} 


25 


20 


8-2 


23-29 


19 


26 


1-7 


6-3 


23-29 


16 


96 


50 


5-2 


88-106 


16 


40 


2-7 


6-7 


36-46 


16 


187 


126 


67 


169-220 



Total length: 81-11-5 mm 



Remarks: This species appears not to have 
any close relatives in Ocirrhoe. It is more elon- 
gate than the other species in the genus and the 
convex arcuate outline of the female gonocoxae 
and the long rostrum are unique in the genus. 
In other features such as the relatively sparse 
punctation and the reflexed anterolateral margin 
of the pronotum which continues partly onto the 
lateral angle it is similar to most other species 
of Ocirrhoe, The tibiae are only flattened 



apically but this is a characteristic also of the 
unimaculata group. 

Ocirrhoe virescenx is only known from eastern 
Queensland, specimens from Cape York Penin- 
sula are larger and have proportionately longer 
antennae than those from southern Queensland. 

Location of type: 

Type (sex unknown as abdomen missing) of 
virescens Westwood, "New Holland", HO Ph. 



RilYNCIIOCOHIS CROUP IN AUSTRALIA \Kt> ADJAC8KI AREAS— 1 



•••' 



Specimens examined: The type and Queens- 
land 1 9, Brisbane, 28X1913, H. Hacker; I 9. 
Brisbane, 15.11.191 6, H. Hacker: 1 i , Brisbane, 
LX1I.I929. A. A. Girault QM: I 9, Brisbane, 
16.IV.1956. H. J. Lavery; 3 i , 12, Caloundra, 
21. HI. 1972. G B. Monteith; 24, Currumundi 
Lakes. Caloundra, 30.IX.1972. G. B & S. R. 
Monteith: I i . Dunwieh, 12 IV. 1 952, .1. Davis; 
1 i . Dunwieh. 1 1 IV. 1965, K. L. Lehmann: 1 i . 
35, Dunwieh, Stradbroke Island. 21-22.111. 
1970, G. B. Monteith; 1*. Stradbroke Island, 
4.111,1971, G. B. Monteith; 1?, Cleveland. 
25V1H.1965. P. Safligna; I*. Tibrogargan 
Creek, I0.1X.I957, F. A. Perkins: 19, Iron 
Range. Cape York Peninsula. 1 I-I7.V.1968, G. 
Monteith; 19, F. W. Lake, 16 km (10 miles) 
north of Roeky River via Coen, 17X11.1964, 
G. Monteith; 4 9. Telegraph Line Crossing, 
Jardinc River, Cape York, 1 5-1 7.VI. 1969, G, 
Monteith UQ; 3v 9. Stradbroke Island, 27.IX. 
1906 & 3.X.I908. e.\ W. W. Froggatt collection 
AN1C; 1 9, Cairns, 23.1-1 .11. 1964, J. Sedlacek 
BISHOP. 

Cuspicona Dallas, 1 85 I 

Cmpictma Dallas, 1851, p. 296, Still, 1867, p. 
521: 1876, p. 102. Lethierry & Severin, 
1893, p. 180. Kirkaldy, 1909, p. xxxl. 

Type species: Rhvnchocoris thoracica Westwood, 
selected by Kirkaldy. 1909. 

Description ! 

General appearance: Species usually greenish 
in life, Tarely yellow brown or orange; in museum 
collections usually brown, orange or yellow. 
Strongly punctate above. Smalt to moderate 
sized, rather oval; anterolateral margins of pro- 
notum nearly straight and diverging posteriorly 
with lateral angles acute, obtuse, or rounded; or 
anterolateral margins of protiotum nearly straight 
and diverging posteriorly with lateral angles 
produced into a blunt tooth: or anterolateral mar- 
gins of pronotum straight anteriorly but pos- 
teriorly angling out to form in combination with 
the lateral angles a prominent laterally directed 
spine, Head and anterioi part ot pronotum 
inclined at an angle of about 30-45 to rest of 
body. 

Hriui: Appearing elongate or not. in some 
species rather quadrate, in others strongly tri- 
angular but OH measurement wider across eyes 
than long. Disc flattened or rather convex, 
lateral margins nearly straight though diverging 
posteriorly, or rather sinuate; apex rounded or 
rather acuminate, apices of juga and anteclypeus 
at about same level, Eyes rather triangular and 



touching anterior margin of pronotum. ocelli 
conspicuous and placed nearer to inner margin 
of eyes than to centre line of head but on level 
of. or behind level of, hind margins of eyes. 
Antcnnifers short, antennae live segmented, first 
segment thicker than second and third, fourth 
and fifth same thickness as second and third or 
thicker, antennae not very long. 

Pronation: At least twice as wide across 
lateral angles as long, anterior margin truncate 
or concave behind eyes, then excavate behind 
collum, anterolateral angles not prominent or 
produced only into a minute spine oi ridge. 
Anterolateral margins straight or very slightly 
concave in most species and diverging posteriorly 
but in some species about two thirds of the way 
back directed directly outwards to form with the 
fused lateral angles a prominent outwardly ( and 
sometimes upwardly directed) spine; in species 
with straight or nearly straight anterolateral mar 
gins lateral angles spinous, acute, obtuse or trun- 
cate. Posterolateral margins usually concave, 
sometimes almost straight. Posterior angles 
obtuse, acute, or lobulately produced, posterior 
margin concave or nearly straight. Disc behind 
lateral angles in same plane as hind body, before 
level of lateral angles inclined downwards at 
abou i 30-45 , 

Scntellinn Triangular, anteriorly not or only 
slightly raised, lateral margins somewhat con- 
cave medially, apex broadly rounded or acutely 
rounded. Frena extending about half to two 
thirds of length from base to apex. 

Hcmelytru: Coriaceous parts normally thick- 
ened. Corium with lateral margin concave bas- 
ally or not, then broadly concave to acute or 
truncate apex, posterior margin straight or con- 
vex. Clavus narrow and strongly triangular. 
Membrane usually hyaline with veins substanti- 
ally parallel apically. 

Abdomen: Gently convex above, excavate 
apically in males and faintly so in females. 

Lalcroicr^ites: Three to seven armed with a 
short acute spine on posterior exterior angle or 
this angle unarmed. 

Underside. Head obtusely triangular in lateral 
view, Bucculae mostly lobulately produced 
anteriorly and then sinuate or straight, reaching 
to about middle of eyes; deeply sulcate between 
bucculae. Rostrum four segmented, first segment 
robust and generally reaching to at least base of 
bucculae. second segment frequently arched; rost- 
rum reaching base of abdomen, sometimes as far 
as apex of fourth ventrite. Meso- and metasterna 



5>2 



RKJ S. AUS'l. MUS.. 17 (ft) .M-I67 



December, l'»75 



with a robust keel projecting ovet whole pro- 
sternum or only over posterior portion of pro- 
sternum, latter broadly sulcate under or behind 
this keel. Legs normal, tibiae only flattened 
apically. Abdominal venter faintly V- or U- 
shaped in cross section as viewed from behind, 
third segment medially raised into a short tri- 
angular tubercle directed anteriorly, its apex 
fitting into a notch in the mctasternal keel. 
Seventh ventrite in males shallowly excavated 
posteriorly and deeply excised in females. Pygo- 
phore with lateral portion of posterior margin 
produced or not, with posterior ventral margin 
deeply excised or not, with or without a small 
process. Aedeagus with phallosoma lightly 
sclerotized, conjunctiva produced forward usually 
into a pair of anterior processes, ventrally a pair 
of ventrally directed paraflel bi-lobed median 
penial plates. Clasper strongly F-shaped, in one 
case Y-shaped. Female external genitalia flat 
or slightly convex. 

General Remarks: Species placed in this genus 
have quite a varied appearance, some are strongly 
spined laterally on the pronotum, others have the 
pronotal lateral angles acute, obtuse or even 
truncate. Members of the genus can be con- 
fused with Parocirrhoe and Avicenna species but 
in these latter genera the posterior angles of the 
seventh laterotergites are strongly and angulafely 
produced. 

The shape of the posterior margin of the male 
pygophore varies considerably but is constant in 
each species and is a good character state to help 
distinguish species. l'hc claspcrs are mostly 
rather F-shaped and in general related species- 
have a similar shape. The aedeagus of the male 
also varies quite considerably but the "lappet" 
processes and the rather inverted Y-shaped 
ventrally directed medial penial plates of the 
"Rhynehocoris" group arc present and typical 
in all species examined except C. ouldeac sp. nov. 
where the "lappet" processes are tubular and 
the medial penial plates lack the ventral con- 
cavity along their margin. 

The female genitalia are not very distinctive 
except at the level of species group where the 
members of each group tend to show similar 
features in regards to the hind margin of the first 
gonocoxae. 

I have divided the genus into three recog- 
nisable groups of species with one transitional 
group to handle two species apparently not very 
closely related to each other and which do not 
fit into any of the other three more charaeteris- 
able groups. It is not unlikely that each of the 



groups ought each to represent a separate 
subgenus of Cuspleona or even separate genera. 
It is premature. I consider, at this stage to do UiLs 
until more aedeagi have been examined which 
requires a lot more material to be collected so 
that sufficient males can be spared for 
dissection. If the groups are later recognised 
as genera then the Ihoracica group will be 
Cuspicona xen.su stricto and the other groupings 
new genera. 

A short outline of the features of each group 
is given in the text before the treatment of the 
series pi species which I have placed in each. 

Some species formerly in Cuspicona have been, 
or will be, shifted to other genera and these 
changes in generic placement will be listed at 
the end of the second (and last) paper pro- 
posed on this revision of members of the 
"Rhynciiocotis" Group from Australia and 
nearby island areas, 

Key lo Cusjiicoiui species 

!. (0) lateral jingles vi pronotum produced, cither as 
a longish spine like process or acutely 
produced into an incipient spine like pro- 
cess; if the latter and doubtful then the 
scutcllum unicolorous . . . . , , , . 2 
Lateral angles of the pronotum obtuse or very 
shortly rounded, not produced into an 
obvious spine or conspicuously acute 10 

2.(1) Lateral angles ol the pronotum produced into 
n substantial and outwardly directed spine 

3- 
lateral angles of the pronotum acute or pro- 
duced only into an incipient spine . . 17 

3. (2) Yellowish or greenish (in life) above; the only 

other markings may be pink or red tips 
lo the spinous lateral angles of the pro- 
notum. this pink may be produced 
anteriorly a little along the anterolateral 
margin of (he pronotum and the anterior 
part Bf the exterior margin ot the corium, 
some specimens also have a few black 
pnnclalions near the lateral angles of the 
pronotum , 4 

Variously coloured above but nearly always 
with the sculelluin variously marked or 
the tips of the spinous lateral angles ot 
the pronotum blackish; frequently black 
punctations on hind portion of pronotum 

9 

4. (3) A short line made up of several rows of black 

punctations on the anterolateral margins 
of the pronotum in front of the produced 
IriTeral angles (visible in part venlrally 
also) and more black punctations on the 

epipleura i-xiiigronijeno sp. nov. 

Hlack pimetauons absent from dorsal surface 



laiYNCHOCOKIS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— I 



>< 



5. (4) Produced lateral uncles of pronotum apically 

distinctly reddish 6 

Produced lateral angles Of the pronotum eon- 
colorous. if reddish or pinkish then very 
pale and only at extreme apices ... 7 

6, (5) Produced lateral angles of pronotum produced 

more than their width at base (as deter- 
mined at the point where the outer margin 
of the corium terminates anteriorly) 

nijupitw Still ( Phillipines) and allies 
Produced lateral angles of the pronotum not 
produced more than their width (as 
measured above) but shorter 

forth ornh Breddiu 

7.(5) Smaller, lateral spines a little more acirtc; pygo- 
phore of mule with hind margin relieved 
as a vertical septum; hind margin of first 
gonocoxae of female strongly and rather 
trapezoidally produced posteriorly in its 
inner half neoraledoinac sp. nov. 

A little larger, spines not quite so acute; pygo- 
phore of male with posterior ventral mar- 
gin not produced as a vertical septum but 
obliquely produced only medially and near 
outer edges with two black lobes; hind 
margin of first gonocoxae produced pos- 
teriorly but lohulately so 

prvximu Walker 1 

K. (I) Pronotum anteriorly with two short longitudinal 
lines of course punclations, one on either 
side of the midline and beginning at the 
anterior margin , . , , equisignutu sp. nov. 
Pronotum anteriorly without two short longi- 
tudinal lines of coarse punctations ... & 

9. (H) On pronotum between the strongly black punct- 

ate and produced lateral angles a con- 
spicuous or dense transverse band of black 
punctations, seven or eight punctations 

wide 10 

Disc of pronotum not traversed posteriorly by 
a conspicuous wale band of dense black 
punctations though there may be some 
scattered black punctations, or a patch of 
black punctations, or a faint band, it) this 
region H 

10. (9) Males with the head coarsely black punctate, 

sometimes almost wholly or with only a 
conspicuous patch of black punctations at 
ihe base of the head above; black puncta- 
tions on the scutellum restricted to the 
apical thud and arranged as a triangular 
patch on either side of the midline , I I 
Head with only fine black punctations or no 
black punctations; black punctations on 
apical half of scutellum concentrated later- 
ally or more evenly spread over apical 
region , . . . - • ■ 12 

11. (10) Black punctations on head restricted to about 

basal third in both sexes and absent trom 
lateral margins; black punctations on scu- 
tellum reaching very near to apex; pygo- 
phore of male with posterior margin 

' Cumi'lu Wulki-r Uuim Wniuiu ^rul rtdiairiint MRUS ik nol included 
lifclinguMu-d hy Ita vciy mucli li>ii£vi' KMtrmn JivJ W»riBr pronolal 



smoothly convex exteriorly grading into 
smoothly concave medially 

apothonicku sp. nov. 

Black punctations covering most of dorsal sur- 
face of head in males, restricted usually to 
basal third in females but lateral margins 
black punctate; black punctations on scutel- 
lum ceasing well before apex; pygophoTe 
of male with posterior margin laterally 
rather truncate or even slightly concave, 
medially broadly concave but separated 
from lateral portions by a sharp angle 

thonicka ( Westwood > 

12.(10) Black transverse punctate band on pronotum 
rather broad and diffuse; lateral spines 
on pronotum short in relationship to their 
basal width ( 1 5 : 1 5 ) ; underside of abdomen 
not laterally broadly green and medially 
luleous in life • • • pU sp. nov. (in part) 
Black transverse punctate band on pronotum 
narrower and intense; lateral spines on 
pronotum longer than their basal width 
or not; underside of abdomen broadly 
green laterally and ventrally luteous in 
life - • ■ ' ■ ' 3 

13.(12) Lateral spines on pronotum short in relation 
to Ibcir basal width (20:15) and about 
same lenglh as posterolateral margins of 
pronotum; black transverse hand on pro- 
notum rather thin and medially sending 
a longitudinal branch several punctations 
wide towards apex; black punctations in 
apical third of scutellum fairly evenly dis- 
tributed . . . , . . . ungiist'nona sp. nov, 

Lateral spines on pronotum longer in relation 
to their basal width (25-30:15) and longer 
than posterolateral margins: posterior trans- 
verse band oi black punctations not send- 
ing forward a medial branch: black 
punctations in apical third ol scutellum 
tending to be concentrated in a V 

longispino sp, nov. 

14. (9) Posterior angles of latcrotergiles lll-Vll black: 
lateral spines of pronotum not long in 
relation to their basal width; a medial 
broad longitudinal pale callus in anterior 
portion of pronotum; underside ol pro- 
notal spines punctate only apically: apical 
sixth of scutellum impunctate; abdomen 
apparently unicolorous below 

prucuUoso sp. nov. 

Posterior angles of lateroiergitcs lll-VI not 
black, VII black tipped; it a medial longi- 
tudinal callus present anteriorly on pro- 
notum then lateral spines strongly punctate 
beneath their whole length and punctalions 
extending on to propleuron: apical sixth 
of scutellum punctate or not 15 

15.(14) Abdomen laterally broadly green in life: 
ventrally broadly luteous 16 

Abdomen apparently unicolourous below, or 
with small red maculations 

phi sp. nov (in part ) 

in UuS kry l,iu wnnJd ,nn rtnf wtllt (.'. p7>.¥mm liom wbali il ifi 
punelalion. 



<M 



kk . s. MJSfT. MUS., 17 (ft) J| I..? 



Ilrrrmhr,. 1<>7? 



16. (15 1 Lateral spines of prouotum long in relation 
to their basal width (32: 17). and equal lo 
length of posterolateral margins (17 17): 
scutellutn with dark punetations in apical 
Sixth i:yf>iiitiinif sp. nov, 

Lateral spines ot' pronotum shorter in rel.i- 
non to their basal lcnglh (20-25:15-17) 
and longer than posterolateral margins 
(20-25:20); scutellum mainly glabrous in 
apical sixth ... sirtnuelhi Walker 

17.(2) Suture on either side ol anieelypeus blackish 
in posterior hall' and base of head some- 
what clouded with dark punelalions. some- 
times basal region ol" pronotum also, lateral 
ingles and some ol anlcrolaleral margin 
ol pronotum pinkish . obvsula sp. nov. 

Not marked as above .... | g 

18.(17) Hind margin of pronotum strongly concave: 
anterolateral margins of pronotum black 
just before lateral angles: disc of head 
rather raised and head appearing com- 
paratively long . . . , . council sp. nov. 

Hind margin ol pronotum truncate or only 
leebly concave: anterolateral margins ol 
pronotum not black; head flat dorsally and 
not appearing unduly long 

simplex Walker 

19,(1) largish, hind portion ol pronotum with a 
prominent transverse fairly broad pink or 
red stripe between Ihe lateral angles; oulcr 
margins of corium pink or red 

cuincolii Van Duzee 

Smaller, pronotum not marked as above, il a 
reddish or pinkish transverse stripe present 
then thin and very sinuous, or very pale 
and diffuse 20 

20.(19) Head strongly triangular and apices of juga 
acute, sloping hack obliquely, though 
slightly concavely, to eyes , 23 

Head not so slrongly triangular and apices of 
juga oblique or rounded but distinct from 
lateral margins 21 

21.(20) Lateral angles of pronotum rectangularly or 
obliquely aeule, noi broadly rounded: tibiae 
not silicate or sttongb flattened . , . 22 

Lateral angles of pronotum rounded: fore and 
middle tibiae llaltened towards apices 

privala Walker 

22.(21) Ape* Of abdomen beneath inluscated, al 
least in males; second and third antcnnal 
segments suhequal, fifth about 6 per cent 
longer than fourth . norjolcensis sp. nov 

Apex of abdomen beneath not inluscated, al 

least in females; second antcnnal segment 

about 25 per cent longer than third and 

fifth about 20 per cent longer than fotuth 

clieesnwmu' sp. nov. 

23. (20) Dorsal surface maculated with black; ground 
colour in museum specimens yellowish or 
orange; hind margin of male pygophore 
medially smoothly concavciy excavate, 

laterally broadly convex . intacta Walker 



Dorsal surface not maculated with black; hind 
margin of male genitalia mipeziformly 
excavate medially or with a prominent 
tooth on either side ol the middle . . 24 

24. £33) Pygophore with apical margin deeply exca- 
vate medially, this excavation bordered 
on each side by a conspicuous tooth: 
exterior to this convexly rounded; first 
gonocoxae ol lemale with hind margins 
sinuated: Ihird antcnnal segment very short 
in relation to second (11:20) 

eremophtlUe sp. nov 
Pygophore with apical margin medially Irapezi- 
formly excavate; depressed in front of 
excavate margin, laterally to this concise: 
hind margins of female gonocoxae trans- 
versely truncate; third antcnnal segment 
longer in relation to second (16:21) 

ooldfiic sp. nov. 



Intacta Group 

The iiitcicta group of species comprises four 
species occurring mainly in the semiarid and arid 
regions of Australia. They do not penetrate in 
the welter south western, south eastern or north 
eastern portions of the continent or into Tas- 
mania. The four species have a similar fades, 
the head appears very long in relation lo its 
width but is actually a little shorter than its width 
across the eyes. The lateral margins of the head 
and the juga laterally are indistinguishable and 
run forward from the eyes distinctly converging, 
although the actual profile of this margin may 
be a little convex. Only one species (intacta 
Walker) has black spots (although frequently 
absent ) but these are widely dispersed and scat- 
tered fairly evenly over the whole coriaceous 
parts of ihe dorsal surface. The lateral angle 
of the pronotum is truncate or feebly rounded 
except on cooperi sp, nov. where il is acute. 

The first gonocoxae of the female have the 
posterior margin rather sinuate or transversely 
truncate (ooldeae sp. nov.). 

Host plant records lor the group include species 
of Eremophila and Melaleuca. 



Cuspieona intacta Walker. I 868 

Figs. 21, 23 A-B, 25 A. 

Cttspicona intacta Walker, 1868, p. 571; Kirk- 
aldy 1909. p. 239 (as incertae wdis). 

Description; 

Genera/ appearance: Museum specimens 
brownish yellow or orange, often with widely 
separated small black maculae on the dorsal 
surface. First two antcnnal segments and base 



KHYiXCHOCORIS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS—] 



95 



of third yellow, apical portion of third, and fourth 
and fifth reddish brown. Eyes and ocelli 
blackish. 

Head: Appearing strongly elongate, but 
actually as wide or a little wider across eyes 
than long; triangular, medially rather raised, 
particularly towards base, lateral margins almost 
straight. Coarsely and rugulosely punctate. 

Pronolum: Concolorous, frequently with 
small scattered black spots, densely punctate and 
appearing rather rugulose, calli glabrous. No 
trace of a medial longitudinal line. Anterior 
margin obliquely truncate behind eyes and rather 
trapeziformly excavate behind collum, antero- 
lateral angles not prominent. Anterolateral 
margins narrowly obtuse, nearly straight and 
diverging posteriorly. Lateral angles shortly and 
obliquely truncate, posterolateral margins angu- 
lately concave, posterior margin broadly concave. 



Sciiwllum: Concolorous, frequently with 
small scattered black points, strongly punctate, 
rather convex basally and flat apically. Lateral 
margins gently convex in basal 4/7 then straight 
and converging gently to narrowly rounded apex. 
Frcna reaching to 4/7 of length. 

Hemelytru: Coriaceous parts concolorous, 
often with scattered small black spots, densely 
punctate. Exterior margins of coria faintly con- 
cave basally and then faintly convex to shortly 
rounded apical angle, reaching about middle of 
abdominal segment VI, this and most anterior 
segments narrowly exposed. Posterior margin 
of corium straight, inner angle very broadly 
rounded. Clavus elongate triangular. Mem- 
brane and veins hyaline. 

Abdomen: Concolorous, sometimes coarsely 
punctate with brown. 




'\\ » 



: V 




"%: 




5 mm.- 



Fig. 2 1 . Dorsal aspect of Cuspicona Intacta Walker, 



96 



REC. S. AUST. MUS.. 17 (6): 5I-K.7 



December, 1975 



Laterotergites: Concolorous, sometimes 
coarsely punctate with brown; posterior exterior 
angles produced into a spine which may be 
minutely black tipped. 

Underside: Concolorous but paler along mid- 
line, coarsely punctate nearly all over, including 
the evaporative areas, these punctations and also 
spots on the legs sometimes brown. Rostrum 
ventrally and extreme apex black. 

Bucculae low and sinuated, reaching about 
middle of an eye, anteriorly produced into an 
elongate lobular process. RostraJ segment 1 
robust, reaching to base of bucculae, II com- 
pressed and arched and reaching onto meso- 
slernum, III to about hind coxae and IV onto 
abdominal ventrite IV. Ratio of antennal seg- 



ments ( A ) 11 : 21 : 15 : 25 : 27. All pleura 
coarsely punctate, punctations sparser on 
evaporative areas. Metastcrnal-mcsosternal 
keels a little higher medially than anteriorly, 
reaching over prosternum but not to its apex, 
anteriorly rounded and directed to the left in 
ventral view. Legs normal with sparse pilosity, 
femora and tibiae sometimes maculated with 
brown. Abdomen broadly U-shaped in 
posterior view. Apex of male abdomen Fig. 23 
A, hind margin of pygophore medially semi- 
circularly excavate with a slight impression 
laterally where margin is mainly convex. 
Clasper Fig 25 A, strongly F-shaped the upper 
ramus ascending rather steeply, Apex of female 
abdomen Fig. 23 B, hind margins of first gono- 
coxae rather angulately sinuated. 



Dimensions- 



MALES 



Parameter 



Head length 

Head width , -,- ...... 

Antennal segment 1 

Antennal segment II 

Antennal segment III 

Antennal segment fV 

Antennal segment V 

Pronotum width 

Pronotum length 

Total length .... . . . 



Parameter 



Head length 

Head width ...... 

Antennal segment I . 

Antennal segment II ,....,,.. 

Antennal segment III 

Antennal segment IV ■ i , 

Antennal segment V .- 

Pronotum width 

Pronotum length 

Total length 



Number of 




Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Measurements 


Mean 


Deviation 


Of 
Variation 


Range 


8 


43 


24 


5-6 


39-45 


8 


43 


18 


42 


40-45 


ir, 


II 


07 


6-8 


9-12 


16 


21 


0-7 


31 


20-22 


In 


15 


1-2 


80 


13-17 


15 


25 


0-7 


2-8 


24-26 


13 


27 


1-6 
30 


60 


25-30 


8 


l.ll 


30 


96-105 


8 


as 


4-4 


114 


31-42 


8 


187 


9-2 


4-9 


175-200 


FEMALE5 










Number of 




Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Measurements 


Mean 


Deviation 


of 

Variation 


Range 


13 


46 


2 1 


4-6 


43-50 


13 


47 


19 


40 


44-50 


24 


II 


0-7 


6-2 


10-12 


22 


23 


IS 


7-8 


21-26 


22 


15 


12 


7-9 


14-18 


J9 


26 


1-6 


6-4 


2V2S 


10 


27 


1-5 


5-5 


25-29 


13 


114 


US 


7-5 


99-129 


13 


43 


119 


34-50 


13 


210 


11-9 


5-7 


195-230 


Total length: 9-|- 


120 mm 









Remarks: There is little doubt that this is the 
species described as Cuspicona intacta by Walker. 
The sternal keels are mentioned by Walker so 
intacta is a member of the Rhynchocoris group. 
It is also from his description clearly not a mem- 
ber of a genus with longly produced lateral 
angles which eliminates Biprorulus, Viteflus, 
Avicenna and a number of others nor of a 
genus with the posterior angles of the seventh 
laterotergites strongly produced which eliminates 
still more, or of those genera which are shiny 
with only sparse and coarse punctations above. 
This leaves only Ocirrhoe, part of Cuspicona and 



Everardia to which it could belong. The pro- 
notal shape is wrong for Everardia and no species 
of Ocirrhoe has a "long" head. Four species of 
Cuspicona do have the head appearing con- 
spicuously long in relation to its width and all 
four have acute or subacute lateral angles on the 
pronotum and the third antennal segment shorter 
than the second, three addition character states 
mentioned by Walker. Of these four this is the 
only species which may have black spots on the 
dorsum. Walker mentions them as only occur- 
ring along the hind margin of the pronotum 
whereas these examples which are spotted which 



RHYNCllOCOHIS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— 1 



97 



1 have seen tend to have them scattered over 
the whole pronotum, scutellum and corium, 
though frequently more concentrated in the 
posterior regions of the pronotum. 

Cuspicona intacta has a wide distribution in 
the drier regions extending from Arnhem Land in 
the north to near Adelaide in the south and from 
Cunnamulla in Queensland and Nyngan in New 
South Wales in to the east to the area of Carnar- 
von in the west of Western Australia. The only 
recorded food plant is Eremophila frceimgii 
FvM, 

Local ion of type: 

Supposed to he in the NM but apparently lost. 
The sex was not stated and the locality simply 
given as "Australia." 

Specimens examined. Queensland I 9 , Cun- 
namulla, 12.X11.1938, N. Geary AM. New 
South Wales 1 i, Nyngan District, J-9.II. I960, 
T. E. Woodward UO. South Australia 1 9 , 
Tea Tree Cully, 27.XII.1967, C. van Dijk; I v , 
Derna Pass, 19 km. south of Copley. 25.X.I969, 
on Eremophila freelmgii FvM, A. N. McFarland: 
4tf, 29, Arkaroola Homestead. 28, X.I 969, on 
Eremophila jreelingii 1-vM, A. N. McFarland; 
2^, 49, same data but 1. 1. 1969; I 9, Mt, 
Davies, Oct. -Nov. 1956, at light. S. B. Warne 
SAM. Western Australia 1 6 , Reid. 17.X.I96S. 
Britton, Upton and Balderson; 19, 107 miles 
(170 km) SSE of Carnarvon, 21. IV. 1968. 
I.F.B. Common and M, S. Upton ANIC, North- 
ern Territory I i , Arnhem Land (interior), Dr. 
H. Basedow SAM; 1 9. 17 km. ( I 1 miles) north 
of Alice Springs, 825 fltL, 28.X.1962. collected at 
ultraviolet (black) light 15 watt, E. S. Ross 
and D. Q. Cavagnaro CAS. 



Pronotum: Concolorous, densely punctate and 
appearing rather rugulosc. punctations some- 
times faintly reddish; calli paler and glabrous. 
Medially a faint trace of a longitudinally raised 
line. Anterior margin obliquely concave behind 
eyes and rather trapeziformly concave behind 
collum, anterolateral angles prominent as a small 
tooth. Anterolateral margins marginate, nearly 
straight and diverging posteriorly. Lateral angles 
narrowly marked with pink or orange, obliquely 
truncate, posterolateral margins angulately con- 
cave, posterior margin broadly concave. 

Scutellum: Concolorous, strongly punctate, 
rather convex basally and flat apically. Lateral 
margins gently convex in basal 5/8 then straight 
and converging to narrowly rounded apex. Frena 
reaching about 5/8 length. 

Henielytra: Coriaceous parts concolorous and 
densely punctate. Exterior margins of cona 
faintly concave basally and then faintly convex 




%i 



Cuspicona ooldcac sp. nov. 

Figs. 22, 23 CD, 25 B-C 

Description : 

General appearance: Museum specimens pale 
yellow, frequently with a reddish tinge; strongly 
punctate above; antennae yellow or sometimes 
pale reddish, eyes greyish purple or concolorous. 
ocelli ted. 

Head', Appearing strongly elongate but actu- 
ally a little wider across eyes than long; triangu- 
lar, medially rather raised, particularly towards 
base. Lateral margins somewhat concave in 
front of eyes. Coarsely and ruguloscly punctate 
except at very base. Eyes greyish to concolor- 
ous. ocelli red. 




' 




HntNDBi H M -<«*«ai3 



1 5mm. 1 

Fig. 22. Dorsal aspect of Cuspicona ookleiw sp. nov- 



9X 



RK. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (6): 51-167 



December. 1975 



to broadly rounded apical angle, reaching about 
middle of abdominal segment V, this and most 
anterior segments narrowly exposed. Posterior 
margin of corium straight, inner angle very 
broadly rounded. Clavus elongate triangular. 
Membrane and veins hyaline. 

Abdomen: Concolorous. 

Laterotergites: Concolorous, sparsely punct- 
ate, posterior exterior angles produced into a 
spine which on the medial segments may be min- 
utely black tipped. 

Underside: Concolorous; antennal segments 
II-V usually reddish yellow, underside of lateral 
angle of pronotum narrowly orange or reddish; 
punctations on underside frequently faintly red- 
dish, sides of abdomen sometimes spattered with 
reddish points or fine punctations. Underside 
and extreme apex of rostrum black. 

Bucculae low and strongly sinuated, reaching 
about middle of eye, anteriorly produced into a 
low triangular process. Rostral segment 1 robust, 
reaching to base of bucculae, II compressed and 
arched and reaching beyond fore coxae. III to 
just behind mid coxae and IV to about middle 



of 3rd abdominal segment. Ratio of antenna! 
segments 6 10:21 : 16:21:21. Propleura 
coarsely punctate all over, mesopleura mostly 
glabrous with only a few scattered punctations, 
metapleura mainly glabrous anteriorly with but 
a few punctations, more strongly punctate along 
hind margin. Metasternal-mesosternal keels a 
little higher medially than anteriorly, reaching 
over presternum but not to its apex, anteriorly 
shortly truncate and directed a little to left in 
ventral view, Legs normal but conspicuously 
finely spinose, tibiae flattened apically. Abdomen 
broadly U-shaped in posterior view. Apex of 
male abdomen Fig. 23 C, hind margin of pygo- 
phore rather trapeziformly excavate, laterally to 
this broadly rounded. Clasper Fig. 25 C, 
strongly F-shaped, the upper ramus not ascend- 
ing so steeply as in intacta or eremophilae. 
Aedeagus Fig. 25 B, phallosoma short and honey- 
coloured, lappet processes in form of two tubules, 
medial pcmal plates rather hatchet shaped. Apex 
of female abdomen Fig. 23 D, hind margins of 
lirst gonocoxae transversely straight in contrast 
to the more sinuated hind margin of allied 
species. 



Dimensions - 



MALES 



Parameter 



Head length 

Head width 

Antennal segment I 

Antennal segment II 

Antennal segment III ...... . .. , 

Antennal segment IV 

Antennal segment V 

Pronotum width 

Pronotum length , . 

Total length 



Parameter 



Head length 

Head width , , 

Antennal segment 1 

Antennal segment II . , 

Antennal segment III . 

Antennal segment IV 

Antennal segment V 

Pronotum width 

Pronotum length 

Total length 



Number of 




Standard 


Coe h*icienl 


Observed 


Measurements 


Mean 


Deviation 


of 
Variation 


Range 


I 


38 


1-7 


4-5 


36-40 


1 


40 


1-6 


41 


38-43 


10 


10 


0-7 


7 3 


8-10 


9 


21 


14 


6-8 


19-23 


9 


16 


0-5 


3-4 


15-16 


8 


21 


10 


4-9 


20-23 


3 


21 


— 


— 


20 :i 


7 


94 


42 


4-4 


90-102 


7 


32 


2-9 


9-1 


30-36 


7 


181 


4-8 


2-6 


175-190 


FEMALES 










Number of 




Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Measurements 


Mean 


Deviation 


of 
Variation 


Range 


14 


40 


20 


4-9 


37-43 


14 


41 


1-2 


30 


39-43 


20 


9 


0-4 


4-5 


9-10 


18 


22 


1-3 


5-8 


20-25 


18 


15 


11 


7-2 


13-18 


16 


20 


0-6 


30 


20-22 


13 


20 


0-6 


30 


20-22 


14 


100 


.3-5 


3-5 


95-106 


14 


34 


4-7 


13-7 


27-43 


13 


189 


8-4 


4-5 


1 78-200 



"fatal length: 91-10-4 mm. 



Remarks: Cuspiconu oaldeue differs from 
C. intacta by not having black spots on the 
dorsum, by the faintly trapeziform incision of 
the hind margin of the pygophore, by the 



transverse depression on the disc of the pygo- 
phore below and by the transverse straight hind 
margin of the female first gonocoxae. The 
species is found in the arid centre of the continent 



RHYNCHOCOR1S GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— I 



99 



ranging from the Flinders Ranges westwards to 
well into Western Australia and northward to 
near Alice Springs. 

Location of types: 

Holotypes i (Reg. No. 120,719), Farina, South 
Australia, at light in creek bed, 27.X.1970, G. F. 
Gross & E. Matthews; allotype 9 (Reg. No. 120, 
720), Mambray Creek (crossing on) Port Augusta 
Road, South Australia, under (bark of) Eucalyp- 
tus camaldulensis Dehnh, 13.XI.1970, G. F. 
Gross and E. Matthews SAM; PARATYPES: 
South Australia 1 9 (Reg. No. 120,721, 
hill near Victory Well, Everard Park Station, 
8.XI.1970, T. F. Houston; 1 6 , Madigan Gulf, 
Lake Eyre, South Australia, at light, 5.XI.1955, 
E. T. Giles; 6 i , 9 2 (Reg. Nos. 20,723-38), 
Ooldea, South Australia, A. M. Lea SAM; 1 9 , 
Emily Gap, 9 km (6 miles) E. of Alice Springs, 



Northern Territory, 17.11.1966, Britton, Upton 
& Mclnnes ANIC; 1 paratype <S , 18 km (11 
miles) north of Alice Springs, Northern Terri- 
tory, 625 m, 28.X. 1962, collected by 15w 
ultraviolet (black) light, E. S. Ross & D. Q. 
Cavagnaro CAS; 1 2 , Meekatharra, Western 
Australia 3.IX.1971, F. H. Uther Baker WAM. 

Specimens examined: The types only. 



Cuspicona eremophilae sp. nov. 

Fig. 23 E-F, 24, 25 D 

Description : 

General appearance: In life bluish-green 
mottled with white or luteous, in museum speci- 
mens yellow or brownish yellow; terminal half 
of antennae light brown, eyes purplish red or 
brown. Densely and finely punctate. 



posterior margin 
of pygophore' s 



ventral surface of 
pygophore 



sternumX paratcgiteii 



Jiind margin o! 




B 



gonocoxa 










Fig. 23. Cuspicona intacla Walker. Cuspicona ooldea sp. nov. 
Cuspicona eremophilae sp. nov. A-B. Cuspicona intacla. A ventral 
aspect of male abdomen. B. ventral view of female abdomen. C-D. 
Cuspicona ooldea sp. nov. C. ventral aspect of male abdomen. 

D. ventral aspect of female abdomen. E-F. Cuspicona eremophilae. 

E. ventral aspect of male abdomen. F. ventrai aspect of female 

abdomen. 



100 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (6): 51-167 



December, 1975 



Head: Appearing elongate but actually wider 
than long; strongly triangular, medially rather 
raised, particularly towards base. Densely punc- 
tate, appearing rather rugulose, concolorous. 
Eyes and ocelli purplish-red or brown. 

Pronotum: Concolorous, densely punctate 
and appearing rather rugulose, calli paler and 
glabrous. Medially a trace of a longitudinal 
raised line. Anterior margin concavely oblique 
behind eyes and broadly concave behind collum, 
anterolateral angles prominent as a small ridge. 
Anterolateral margins marginate, nearly straight 
and diverging posteriorly. Lateral angles rather 
truncate, posterolateral margins conspicuously 
concave, posterior margin broadly concave. 

Sciitelhim: Concolorous, strongly punctate 
and rather flat. Lateral margins faintly convex 
in basal 4/7 then straight and converging slightly 
to narrowly rounded apex. Frena reaching to 
about 4/7 length. 



Hemelytra: Coriaceous parts concolorous and 
densely punctate. Exterior margins of coria 
faintly concave basally then rather sinuately 
convex and converging to expose abdominal 
segments III-VII. Apical angle of corium 
narrowly rounded, posterior margin straight 
exteriorly, inner angle very broadly rounded. 
Clavus elongate triangular. Membrane and 
veins hyaline. 

Abdomen: Concolorous. 

Laterotergites: Concolorous, coarsely punc- 
tate. Posterior exterior angles nearly rectangular. 

Underside: Concolorous; apex of third 
antennal segment, fourth antennal segment 
(except at base) and fifth light brown. Stylets 
and extreme apex of rostrum black. 

Bucculae low and strongly sinuated, reaching 
base of head, anteriorly not produced into a 








jk 



j! -N\ 




BOBHM* K. HlRO 



-5mm. 



Fig. 24. Dorsal aspect of Cuxpkonu eremnphilae sp. nov. 



KflYNCIIOCORIS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— I 



101 



tabulate process. Head laterally coarsely punc- 
tate. Rostral segment I robust, reaching almost 
to base of head, segment II more compressed and 
arched, surpassing fore coxae. III surpassing 
mid coxae and IV reaches onto visible base of 
abdomen. Ratio of antennal segments i , 
9:21:11:20:22. All pleura coarsely punctate 
except on evaporative area. Metasternal-meso- 
sternal keels higher medially then narrowly 
rounded, detteclcd to left in ventral view. Legs 
normal but conspicuously pilose, tibiae slightly 



flattened apically. Abdomen broadly V-shaped 
in posterior view. Apex of male abdomen Fig. 
23 E, hind margin of pygophore scmicircularly 
concavely excised medially, laterally on cither 
side of incision a strong triangular "tooth" and 
exteriorly to this arcuately rounded. Clasper 
Fig. 25 D. vaguely F-shaped, with the upper 
ramus ascending at an oblique angle. Apex of 
female abdomen Fig. 23 F. hind margins of first 
gonocoxae gently angulately convex. 



Dimensions 



MALES 



Parameter 



I lead length . , , 

I lead width 

Antennal segment F , , . . . 

Antennal segment II 

Antennal segment III 

Antennal segment IV 

Antennal segment V . . 

Pronotum width 

Pronotum length 

Total length . 



Parameter 



Head length 

Head width . . . 
Antennal segment I 
Antennal segment II 
Antennal segment III 
Antennal segment IV 
Antennal segment V 
Pronotum width 
Pronotum length 
Total length 



Number of 




Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Measurements 


Mean 


Deviation 


or 

Variation 


Range 


8 


36 


T4 


3-9 


34-38 


8 


41 


1:6 


39 


39-43 


16 


9 


0-6 


7-2 


X-10 


16 


21 


10 


4-7 


19-23 


16 


ii 


0-8 


7-5 


10-13 


12 


14 


7-4 


17-21 


9 


21 


13 


6-2 


20-23 


8 


93 


a 


50 


S7-I00 


8 


30 


116 


24-35 


8 


160 


6-6 


41 


155-175 


FEMALES 








Number of 




Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Measurements 


Mean 


Deviation 


of 

Variation 


Range 


II 


1 


15 


3'9 


36-41 


It 


10 


2-4 


42-45 


21 


9 


0-6 


6-5 


8-10 


21 


22 


13 


5 9 


19-24 


21 


11 


0-9 


8-4 


10-13 


20 


19 


10 


5 1 


17-20 


17 


20 


0-6 


3 


19-21 


11 


101 


2-5 


2-5 


96-104 


II 


34 


18 


53 


31-37 


11 


180 


63 


3-S 


173-190 


Total length. 


8- 1-9-9 mm 









Remarks: C. eremophilae is rather similar to 
C. oohleae but differs in the much shorter third 
antennal segment and in lacking the pink mark- 
ing on or just before the lateral angles. 

C. eremophilae is a true eremian species occur- 
ring in the north of South Australia, southern 
half of the Northern Territory and western 
Queensland, but with a single specimen collected 
on the outskirts of Adelaide. 

A single female specimen in the British Mus- 
eum (Nat. Hist.) from Alexandra in the Northern 
Territory, and well outside the range of distribu- 
tion for eremophilae as indicated by other speci- 
mens, has the same rather angulate hind margin 
of the first gonocoxae as has eremophilae but has 
the third antennal segment longer than the sec- 
ond. It likely represents a fifth species of the 
inlacta group but is being passed over in this 
present revision due to its poor condition. 



Location of types: 

South Australia Holotype 



( Reg. No. 



120,700), allotype 9 (Reg. No. 120,701), 4 
paratype $ (Reg. No. 120,702-5), 5 paratypc 
9 (Reg. No. 120,706-1 0) , Arkaroola homestead, 
1. XI. 1969, on Eremophila freelingii FvM, A. N, 
McFarland; I paratype t (Reg. No. 120.711), 
2 paratype 9 9 (Reg. Nos. 120,712-3 ), same data 
and collector but on 28.X.1969; I paratype 9 
(Reg. No. 120,717), Aroona Dam south of 
Copley, 3.XI.1969, at ultraviolet light, A. N. 
McFarland; 1 paratype $ (Reg. No. 120,714), 
near Victory Well, Everard Park Station, 30.X. 
1970, by beating trees and shrubs, G. F. Gross 
& E. G. Matthews; I paratype £ (Reg. No. 
120.7 15), Mt. Eyre west of Hookina, 1 0. V. 1 956. 
at light, G. F. Gross; 1 paratype 9 (Reg. No. 
120,716), Coopers Creek, 1916 Museum Expe- 
dition to Central Australia; 1 paratype 9 (Reg, 



102 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (6): 51-167 



Oecmber, 1975 



No. 120,790), Athelstone, 15.XI.1973, at light, 
M. L. Szent-Ivany SAM; Queensland 1 paratype 
9, Cunnamulla, Queensland, 8-I9.X.194?, A. 
J. Turner QM; 1 paratype 9, Thargomindah, 
Apr. 1941, N. Geary AM; Northern Territory 1 
paratype 9 , 1 50 km south of Alice Springs, 
Sept. 1972, Dimits NM; 1 paratype 9 , Standley 
Chasm, 40 km (26 miles) west of Alice Springs, 
9.11.1966. Britton, Upton & Mclnnes ANIC. 
1 paratype £. Ooratipra. 275 m.. 31.X. 1962, 



E. S. Ross & D. Q. Cavagnaro; 1 paratype i , 
18 km (11 miles) northeast of Yamba near 
Alice Springs, 625 m, 29.X.1962, E. S. Ross & 
D. Q. Cavagnaro; 1 paratype 9, 18 km (11 
miles) northeast of Alice Springs, 28. X. 1962, 
collected by 15w (ultravoilet) light, E. S. Ross 
& D. Q. Cavagnaro CAS. 

Specimens examined: The types and South 
Australia 1? (abdomen missing), Lake Calla- 
bonna, A. Zietz; I 9 , Ooldea, A. M. Lea SAM. 




lappet processes 



conjunctiva 



paired 




5mm 




< conjunctival 
processes 




O'Smm 



6 mm 



tappet processes 
fcz* t<* conjunctiva 



paired conjunctival 
processes 

oonopore 




phatlosoma 




Fig. 25. Cuspicona inlacta Walker, Cuspicona oolcleae sp. nov., Cuspicona eremophilac sp. nov.. 

Cuspicona carneola Van Du^ee, A. Cuspicona inlacla — clasper. B-C. Cuspicona ooldcae. B. lefthand 

side aspect of aedeagus. C. Clasper. D. Cuspicona eremophilae — clasper. F.-F. Cuspicona carneola. 

E. lefthand side aspect of aedeagus. F. clasper. 



Cuspicona cooperi sp. nov. 
Figs. 26, 28 A-B 
Description : 

General appearance: Ground colour yellow 
or brownish yellow in museum specimens with 
terminal half of antennae brown and antero- 
lateral margins of pronotum just in front of 
lateral angles narrowly black. Eyes purplish. 
Sparsely and finely punctate. 

Head: Appearing elongate but actually a 
little wider than long; strongly triangular, 



medially rather raised particularly towards base. 
Finely punctulate, concolorous. Eyes and ocelli 
purplish or purplish red. 

Pronotum: Concolorous and densely and 
rather finely punctate, punctations discrete, calli 
paler and glabrous. Medially a faint raised 
longitudinal line. Anterior margin concavely 
oblique behind eyes and broadly concave behind 
collum. anterolateral angles slightly prominent. 
Anterolateral margin thin but obtuse, shallowly 
concave and diverging to region of anterolateral 



KI1YNCIIOCOIUS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— I 



\W 



angles, black just before latter. Lateral angles 
rectangularly acute. Posterolateral margins con- 
spicuously concave, posterior margin broadly 
concave. 

Sculelliim ; Concolourous and rather flat with 
fine discrete punctations. Lateral margins faintly 
convex in basal % then straight and converging 
to narrowly rounded apex. Frena reaching to 
about \'-, length. 

Hemelylra: Coriaceous parts concolorous 
and densely punctate. Exterior margins of coria 
faintly concave basally then slightly convex and 
gradually converging so that 4-7th segments of 
abdomen are only narrowly visible. Apical angle 
of corium nearly rectangular, posterior margin 
straight, inner angle very broadly rounded. 
Clavus elongate triangular. Membrane and 
veins hyaline. 

A bdomen : Concolorous. 

Latcrotergites: Concolorous except apices of 
posterior exterior angles which are black; sparsely 
punctulate. 

Underside: Concolorous; apical half of third 
and fourth and fifth antennal segments brownish, 
stylets of, and apex of, rostrum black. 

Bucculac low and strongly sinuated, reaching 
to about middle of eye, anteriorly formed into 
a rounded lobe which is not particularly 
obstrusive. Rostral segment I robust, reaching 
to just behind base of antennifer and not quite 
to base of bucculae, segment II more compressed 
and arched, reaching just behind fore coxae. Ill 
to base of mid coxae and IV to base of hind 
coxae. Ratio of antennal segments & 9:18:15: 
23:27. All pleura rather sparsely punctate but 
evaporative areas impunctate. Metasternal- 
mesosternal keels higher anteriorly than poster- 
iorly, reaching over presternum almost to its 
apex, anteriorly broadly rounded, deflected to 
left in ventral view. Femora normal, tibiae 
slightly flattened apically. Abdomen strongly 
V-shaped in posterior view. Apex of male 




5mm. 

Fig. 26. Dorsal aspect of Cuspiconu vooperi sp. run 

abdomen Fig. 28 A, hind margin of pygophore 
rather angulately incised medially with a small 
convex margin at base of "notch", laterally on 
either side of medial incision a small tooth and 
exteriorly to this strongly rounded. Apex of 
female abdomen Fig. 28 B, hind margins of first 
gonocoxae transverse and slightly concave along 
their central portions, turning anteriorad both 
interiorly and exteriorly. 



Dimensions - 



MALLS 



Parameter 



Holotypc 



Head length 40 

Head width 41 

Antennal segment I < '"> l> 

Antennal segment II ! **" ! 7 

Antennal segment III le' it 

Antennal segment IV , -5, -5 

Antennal segment V • - '• — 

Pronotum width '"* 

Pronoium length 39 

Total length - 175 



Stockholm 


RM Paratype 


Paratype 




39 


37 


41 


42 


9, 


y, 9 


19,- 


18, 17 


15, - 


15, 15 


23,- 


22, 23 




28.- 


110 


109 


40 


40 


IK') 


194 



lilt 

Dimensions 



Parameter 



Head length 

Head width 

Antennal segment I 

Antennal segment II , , , 

Antennal segment III 

Antennal segment IV ... 

Antennal segment V . . , , 

Pronotum width 

Pionolum length , 

Total length " 



Remarks: C. cooperi is closely related to C. 
eremophilae in the shape of the male pygophore, 
it is however distinguished from that species by 
its longer third antennal segment, much sparser 
punctation and in not developing the mottled 
mgulose appearance of eremophilae. From 
eremophilae and other species in the intacta 
group it is distinguished by the rather rectan- 
gular lateral angles of the pronotum and the 
short black marginal line on the anterolateral 
margins just before the lateral angles. 

The present known distribution of the species 
is over an elongate elliptical area stretching from 
Rockhampton in Queensland to the southern 
Flinders Ranges in South Australia. The species 
is named after the late H. M. Cooper who gave 
so much of his time in a voluntary capacity to 
the South Australian Museum and who collected 
the holotype specimen. 

Location of types: 

Holotype S (Reg. No. 120,698 ), Mt. Remark- 
able, South Australia, 600-700 m (1800- 
2200ft.), 12AU968. H. M. Cooper SAM; 
allotype ? , I paratype S , 3 paratype 9 , Rock- 
hampton, Queensland STOCKHOLM; 1 paratype 
i (Reg, No. 120,699), 18 km north of Broken 
Hill, New South Wales, by sweeping, 8.111.1963, 
K. Dansie SAM; 2 paratype 9, unlocalised. 
Distant collection 1911-383 BM; 1 paratype t, 
I paratype 9, Peak-Downs. Queensland; 1 para- 
type i Rockhampton, Queensland RM. 

Specimens examined: The types only. 



UNGROUPED 

The next two species of Cuspicona appear 
not to have any close relatives in the genus nor 
are they apparently closely related to each other. 
They lack the strongly triangular heads of 
the intacta group but have not developed the 
strongly produced spinose lateral angles of the 
pronotum of the thoracica and simplex groups. 



S. AUST. Ml 


JS., 


17 (6): 


51-167 




DtUiinhei. V 


FEMALKS 








Number of 






Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Measurements 




Mean 


Deviation 


of 
Variation 


Range 


8 




41 


25 


60 


37-45 


8 




45 


Z4 
0-3 


5-4 


40-47 


14 




10 


30 


9-10 


14 




19 


1-3 


6-7 


17-21 


J4 




15 


08 


5-5 


14-16 


9 




22 


1-2 


5-5 


21-24 


3 




25 


— 


___ 


24-26 


8 




119 


81 


6-9 


102-127 


8 




44 


41 


9-3 


38-sjo 


8 




207 


146 


71 


180-225 


Total length: 


91- 


11-7 mm. 









1975 



Their position in the sequence of groups 
appears to be somewhere in between the intacta 
and thoracica groups. 

Cuspicona earneola Van Duzee, 1 905 

Figs. 25 E-R 27, 28 C-D 

Cuspicona earneola Van Duzee, 1905: 207; pi. 
8 fig. 9. 

Description : 

General appearance: Ground colour yellow 
or brownish-yellow in museum specimens; lateral 
angles of pronotum and a broad band across 
scutellum, apex of scutellum, lateral margins of 
corium (broadly) and laterotergites tat least 
exteriorly) bright carmine red, occasionally only 
pinkish. Lateral angles of pronotum angulately 
truncate. 

Head: Appearing large, broad and flat, 
transversely rugulose, concolorous. Frequently 
a pinkish suffusion along lateral margins in front 
of eyes. Eyes and ocelli reddish-brown. Lateral 
margins very gently angulately concave. 

Pronotum: In anterior half and along 
posterior margin concolorous; across disc from, 
and including, lateral angle to lateral angle a 
broad carmine red (or in some specimens pink) 
stripe. Punctations on disc reddish or blackish, 
calli glabrous. Anterior margin oblique behind 
eyes and broadly concave behind pollute, antero- 
lateral angles somewhat prominent. Anterolateral 
margins thickened, straight and obliquely diverg- 
ing to region of lateral angles, Latter obliquely 
truncate. Posterolateral margins strongly and 
angulately incised, a convex lobe formed between 
each and shallowly concave posterior margin. 

Scutellum: Concolorous with apex broadly 
carmine red, disc covered with coarse reddish or 
brown punctations and flatfish;. At base of each 
lateral margin a deep concolorous fovea visible 



RHYNCUOCORIS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— I 



105 



if pronotum has moved a little forward. Lateral 
margins broadly convex in basal 5/9, then 
straight and slightly converging to very broadly 
rounded apex. Frena reaching to about 5/9 
length. 

Hemelytra: Coriaceous parts concolorous 
interiorly but outer margin of corium broadly 
carmine red or pink, coarsely and concolorously 
punctate. Exterior margins of coria straight 
basally then gradually converging so that 
laterotergites are exposed in the more distal 
region. Apical angle of corium fairly acute, 
posterior margin straight, inner angle very 
broadly rounded. Clavus elongate triangular. 
Membrane fumose hyaline with veins browner, 
near inner base of membrane a large piceous 
spot. 

Abdomen: Mostly concolorous but black 
areas around margins of scutellum and along 
posterior margin of genitalia, sometimes also 
along posterior margin of segment VII. Behind 
apex of scutellum frequently carmine red, the 
extent of this red variable. 

Laterotergites: Concolorous interiorly and 
carmine red or pink exteriorly. Posterior exterior 
angles produced into a small black tipped spine, 
sometimes whole exterior margin narrowly black. 



Underside: Yellowish. Apical half of third 
antennal segment and antennal segments III-IV, 
tibiae and tarsomeres sometimes darker, brown 
or reddish. Underside of rostrum and very apex, 
and sometimes lateral margin of abdomen and 
posterior margin of female genitalia, very 
narrowly black. Margins of head basally, lateral 
margins of pronotum, exterior margin of 
epipleuron, lateral margin of abdomen (latter 
sometimes only submarginally, extreme margin 
then black) most of pygophore and female 
genitalia behind first gonocoxae usually carmine 
red or pinkish, sometimes however concolorous. 

Bucculae low and sinuate, reaching to about 
middle of eye, produced into a blunt triangular 
lobe anteriorly. Rostral segment I robust, 
reaching to base of bucculae, II fairly thick and 
arched, reaching to just behind fore coxae, III 
to mid coxae, IV to about middle of abdominal 
ventrite III. Ratio of antennal segments ( S ) 
I-V 11:19:21:27:29. Propleura red or brown 
punctate except on proepisternum and proe- 
pimeron, exteriorly to these two latter a raised 
though sparsely punctate area. Mesopleuron 
punctate anteroventrally and posteriorly, meta- 
pleuron posteriorly and sometimes anteriorly also. 
Metasternal-mesosternal keels higher anteriorly 
then posteriorly, reaching over presternum to its 




5 mm.- 



Fig. 27. Dorsal aspect of Cuspicona carneola Van Duzee. 



106 



JtEC. S. AUST. MUS.. 17 (6): 51 167 



December, I '175 



apex, anteriorly very broadly rounded, deflected 
to left in ventral view. Femora normal, tibiae 
fairly flattened apically. Abdomen rounded in 
posterior view and only becoming broadly 
V-shaped anteriad. Apex of male abdomen Fig. 
28 C, hind margin of pygophore strongly 
excavated mediaJly and lateral lobes on either 
side of this excavation with the inner margins 
sinuate, apically a little produced. Clasper Fig. 
25 F, slightly F-shaped. Aedeagus of male Fig. 



25 E, with phallosoma rather short, conjunctiva 
basally shortly tubular with rather large dorsally 
directed "lappet" processes, more distally two 
conjunctival processes which are dorsally 
sclerotized. Medial penial plates shaped rather 
as an inverted T, directed downwards, gonophore 
opening between the conjunctival processes. 
Apex of female abdomen Fig. 28 D, hind margins 
of first gonocoxae faintly oblique and nearly 
straight. 



Dimensions - 



MALES 



Parameter 



Head length 

Head width ........ 

Antennal segment I 
Antennal segment II 
Antennal segment 111 
Antennal segment IV 
Antennal segment V 
Pronotum width 
Pronotum length 
Total length 



Parameter 



Head length 

Head width 

Antennal segment I 
Antennal segment II 
Antennal segment 111 
Antennal segment IV 
Antennal segment V 
Pronotum width 
Pronotum length 
Total length 



Number of 




Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Measurements 


Mean 


Deviation 


or 

Variation 


Range 


10 


45 


2-4 


5-3 


40-49 


10 


52 


2-4 


4-7 


48-55 


15 


H 


0-9 


8-4 


10-13 


14 


19 


1-4 


7-6 


17-22 


13 


21 


0-9 


40 


20-23 


11 


27 


1-3 


& 


25-29 


8 


29 


II 


28-31 


10 


119 


5-8 


4-8 


110-125 


10 


39 


3-8 


9-7 


33-45 


10 


186 


14-6 


7-8 


160-205 


FEMALES 








Number of 




Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Measurements 


Mean 


Deviation 


of 

Variation 


Range 


2! 


48 


4-2 


8-8 


39-52 


21 


54 


3-3 


6-2 


46-58 


29 


11 


0-7 


61 


9-12 


33 


18 


1-9 


10-6 


1 5-23 


28 


20 


2-3 


1 1-7 


15-26 


23 


23 


2-6 


10-9 


17-26 


19 


26 


2-6 


9-9 


20-29 


l\ 


128 


108 


8-4 


106-147 


21 


40 


5-8 


14-5 


30-54 


21 


191 


15-8 


8-2 


161-220 


Total length: 


8-3-1 1-5 mm 









Remarks: This species is one of the largest 
in the genus and easily recognised by the broad 
carmine bar across the hind portion of the 
pronotum and the strongly truncated lateral 
angles of the pronotum. It appears to have no 
other close relatives in the genus. 

A feature of note is the rather high coefficient 
of variation in the series of females which could 
indicate that there may be two closely related 
species mixed in together in this sample. I was 
unable to make any real distinctions on the 
examples of this series but the point should be 
borne in mind and when a much larger series of 
males becomes available when the augmented 
male scries should be examined for differences in 
the shape of the pygophore, 

Location of type: 

Holotype 9 of carneola Van Duzee, "New 
South Wales," AMNH. 



Specimens examined: The holotype and 
Northern Territory I 9 , Oooratippra, 275 m, 
31.X. 1962, E. S. Ross & D. Q. Cavag- 
naro CA; Queensland L 9 , 32 km north of 
Emerald, 10.1.1972, B. Cantrell UO; New 
South Wales 19, South Ite Sand Hills (100 
km south of Broken Hill), 10.XII.1966, J. B. 
Williams UQ; 19, Bogan River, Jan. 1932, 
.1. Armstrong AM; 1 i , no precise locality, 
presented by Perth Museum BM 1953-629; 
Victoria I 9 , Lake Hattah. J. CO. donated 
F. P. Spry 16.V.1922; 19 4 9 9, Lake Hattah, 
J. E. Dixon, donated Jan. 1940; 1 j, Hattah, 
Mar. 1914. Dixon, donated F. P. Spry 5.X.1922; 
1 i, Ouyen, donated F. P. Spry 5.X.1922; I 9, 
Mallee, ex J, E. Dixon coll. donated Jan. 1940; 
2$ . 19, Mallee, Oct. 1904, donated F. P. Spry 
8.X.1922; 19, Quantong, June 1929, A. D. 
Selby NM; South Australia 19, no further 
data AM; 1.5, Minnipa, H A. Johnson; 



RHYNCHOCORIS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— 1 



HI7 



posterior margin 

of pygophore \ ventral surface of 

pygophore 




posterior margin ot sternum' 
first gonocoxa 



.paratergite 'Z 
first 
gonocox.-i 




> 1mm 




Pig. 28. Ctispiama cooperi sp. nov.. Cuspicona cameoia Van Duzce, 
Cuspicona phi sp. nov. A-B. Cuspicona cooperi. A. venlral aspect of 
male abdomen. B. ventral aspect of female abdomen. C-D. Cuspicona 
Cameoia. C. ventral aspect of male abdomen. D. ventral aspect of 
female abdomen. E. Cuspicona phi — ventral aspect of male abdomen. 



I 9 , St. Francis Island; 1 9, Ardrossan, 25. VII. 
1879, Tepper; 19, Adelaide. 12.VII.1947. 
F. J. Mitchell; 1 A , 19, Karoonda; 1 9 , Mallee, 
22.X. 1879, SAM; 13, I 9 , no precise locality, 
H. Edwards AMNH; Western Australia 1 9 , 
Katanning, 12.X.I941, K. R. Norris ANIC; 
I 6 , 19, Swan River, L. J. Newman, presented 
by Comni. Inst. Ent. BM 1948-548. 

Cuspicona obesula sp. nov. 
Figs. 29, 30 A-B, 32 E-F 
Description : 

General appearance: Ground colour bright 
green in life fading to brownish-yellow in museum 
specimens. Anterolateral margins of pronotum 
(including produced lateral angles) carmine-red, 
apex of scutellum reddish-orange. Head brown- 
ish-yellow, just interior of anterolateral margins 
of pronotum in anterior 2/3 a yellowish stripe, 
a median longitudinal yellowish stripe on 
scutellum in apical half but terminating before 
apex. Lateral angles of pronotum produced 
rectangularly. 



Head: Yellowish-brown and rather convex 
above, groove between anteclypeus and rest of 
head infuscated in posterior half, a patch of fine 
black punctations medially at base, just inward 
of eyes glabrous. Lateral margins with fine black 
punctations or very narrowly infuscated. Ocelli 
and eyes purplish-grey. Lateral margins gently 
angulately concave. 

Pronotum: Concolorous, lateral margins nar- 
rowly at apex and more broadly at produced 
lateral angles margined with carmine-red in 
anterior 2/3, this red bordered interiorly by a 
yellow bar. In faded examples sometimes a 
transverse band of fine black punctations between 
lateral angles. Anterior margin obliquely trun- 
cate behind eyes and rather trapeziformly 
excavate behind collum, anterolateral angles 
produced as a small ridge. Anterolateral margins 
thickened and irregular, nearly straight but 
diverging in anterior halves, posterior halves 
with lateral angles produced as rectangular sub- 
spinous angles directed outwards only, about 40 
per cent length of posterolateral margin, basal 
diameter also about 40 per cent of latter. 



10K 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (6): 51-167 



December, 1975 



Posterolateral margin gently concave, posterior 
margin gently concave medially, produced into 
posteriorly directed lobes at junction with 
posterolateraJ margins. 

Scutellum: Concolorous with apex broadly 
reddish-orange, latter preceded by a medial longi- 
tudinal yellow streak which becomes obsolete 
near middle. Black punctations absent or only 
faintly indicated laterally to latter. No fovea at 
bases of lateral margins, latter faintly concave 
in basal half then changing direction and nearly 
straight but converging to broadly rounded apex. 
Frena reaching to about half length. 

Hemelytra: Coriaceous parts concolorous 
with coarse punctations. Outer margin of corium 
concave in basal quarter then broadly convex 
to shortly rounded apical angle. Posterior 
margin straight, inner angle broadly rounded. 
Clavus elongate triangular. Membrane and veins 
hyaline. 



Abdomen: Concolorous above. 

Luterotergites: Concolorous, posterior exter- 
ior angles almost rectangular. 

Underside: Concolorous; head yellowish- 
brown except at base; first three segments of 
antennae mainly yellowish-brown, apex of third 
and whole of fourth and fifth segments reddish- 
brown; rostrum yellowish-brown, ventrally and 
apex blackish; all thoracic sterna and keels and 
a broad median longitudinal bar on abdomen 
reaching to apex of Vllth segment whitish 
luteous; lateral margins of prothorax carmine-red; 
apices of the tibiae and tarsomeres reddish-brown. 

Bucculae low and sinuate, reaching to middle 
of eye, produced into a thickened convex lobe 
anteriorly. Rostral segment I robust, just sur- 
passing base of bucculae, II slightly arched and 
compressed and surpassing fore coxae. III sur- 
passing mid coxae and IV to about apex of 
abdominal ventrite III. Ratio of antennal seg- 




Bf%E.fjon K. Head 

1 5mm. 1 

Fig. 29. Dorsal aspect of Cuspkuna ohesnlu sp. nov, 



RHYNCHOCOlilS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— J 



109 



merits I-V 9:19:20:21:23. Propleuron with a 
strong raised ridge behind anterior margin mostly 
coarsely punctate but more finely and sparsely 
punctate exteriorly in anterior half, mesopleuron 
punctate in a triangular patch lying anteroven- 
trally. metapleuron punctate below and behind 
evaporative area. Metasternal-mesosternal keels 
a little higher anteriorly than posteriorly, reach- 
ing over prosternum almost to its apex, anteriorly 
very broadly rounded, deflected to left in ventral 
view, Femora normal, tibiae a little flattened 
apical ty. Abdomen rounded in posterior view 



but segments Vll-lll progressively more 
V-shaped. Apex of male abdomen Fig. 32 E. 
hind margin of pygophore reddish, medially 
rectangularly excavate, laterally sinuated. 
Clasper Fig. 30 B, strongly F-shapcd. Aedeagus 
of male Fig. 30 A, conjunctiva produced into 
two tubular apical processes which cross over 
each other, "lappet" processes elongate, medial 
penial plates elongate with a posterior concavity, 
lower lobe with a small spine on its dorsal surface. 
Apex of female abdomen Fig. 32 F, hind margins 
of first gonocoxae distinctly oblique and straight, 



Dimensions— 



MALES 



Parameter 



Mead length 

Head width 

Antennal segment I 

Antenna I segment II 

Antenna! segment III 

Antennal segment IV 

Antennal segment V 

Pronoium width ....... 

Pronotum length 

Total length 



Parameter 



I lead length 

Head width ...... . . ....... 

Antennal segment I 

Antennal scgmenl II , ... 

Antennal segment III 

Antennal segment IV 

Antennal segment V ..... 

PrpnoBim width 

Pronoium lengih . 

Total lengih . , ,, , 



Number of 




Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Measurements 


Mean 


Deviation 


or 

Variation 


Range 


14 


33 


1-2 


3-5 


31-1? 


14 


38 


11 


2-8 


36-40 


19 


9 


06 


65 


9-11 


II 


52 


0-9 
13 


4-7 

'it 


16-20 
18-21 


16 


B 


10 


20-23 


13 


1:2 


5 2 


21-24 


14 


101 


3-0 


2-9 


96-106 


14 


35 


2-9 


SI 


31-41 


14 


150 


7-3 


49 


138-165 


FEMALES 










Number of 




Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Measurements 


Mean 


Deviation 


or 

Variation 


Range 


25 


36 


1-3 


3-7 


33-38 


25 


41 


1-2 


2-9 


37-42 


45 


IS 


06 


6-6 


8- II 


46 


10 


5 1 


I (5-3) 


44 


19 


10 


5-3 


17-21 


36 


20 


0-9 


4-4 


18-21 


27 


22 


II 


S3 


20-23 


25 


110 


4-5 


40 


98-118 


25 


38 


3-5 


9-2 


31-43 


25 


165 


10 3 


62 


146-183 



Total length; 7-2-95 mm. 



Remarks: £ obesula shows some affinity 
with the thoracica group of species in that in 
some examples a transverse band of dark puncta- 
tions crosses the pronotum between the lateral 
angles. However the lack of black areas on 
the lateral angles, the only modest production 
of these angles and the strong medial excava- 
tion of the hind margin of the pygophore indicate 
that the relationship is not close. The strong 
red lateral coloration is similar to that of carneolu 
but the more narrow head and more produced 
lateral angles of the pronotum indicates that 
obesula is not very closely related to carneola, 

C. obesula occurs in the southern wetter part 
of South Australia from the Mount Lofty Ranges 
east to the Victorian border and in the adjacent 
western districts of Victoria. The only host 
plants recorded both belong to the genus 
f.eptospermum i Myrtaceac) . 



Location of types: 

Holotype 9 (Reg. No. 120,6X3), I paratype 
8 , (Reg. No. 120.684). 3 paratype 9 (Reg. No. 
120,685-7), 6 km east of Lucindale, South 
Australia, on Leptospermum mxrsinoides 
Schlecht 26.X11.I968. A. N. McFarland; Para- 
types: 19, (Reg. No. 120.688). Naracoorte 
Cave Reserve, South Australia, by sweeping 
Leptospermum myrsinoides Schlecht in Eucalyp- 
tus obliqua L'Herit dominated dry sclerophyll 
forest. 25.X.1958, G. F. Gross; 1 9, (Reg. No. 
120,689), nr. Coonalpyn, South Australia, by 
beating Leptospermum coriaceum (FvM)Checl. 
Sept. 1967, A. N. McFarland: 1 <? , (Reg. No. 
120,690), Meningie, South Australia, in malice 
scrub, 1.XI.70, V. H. Mincham; I 9, (Reg. No. 
120,691), Blewitts Springs, South Australia. 
20.X. 1972, C. van Dijk; 2 9 (Reg. No. 120,f>92- 
3), Mt. Lofty Ranges, South Australia, N. B. 



110 



RHC. S. AUST. MUS.. 17 (6): 51 167 



December, 1975 



Tindale; I & (Reg. No. 1.20,699), Williamstown. 
South Australia, on Leptospennum, 20.X.1888, 
.1. O. Tepper; 1 9 (Reg. No. 120,695), Largs 
North. South Australia, Nov. 1969, R. Cook; 
1 <5, 19, (Reg. Nos. 120,718, 120,696), Pt. 
Lincoln, South Australia, A. M. Lea; 1 9 (Reg. 
No. 120,697), Marble Range in Pt. Lincoln 
District, South Australia, 15.X.1957, N. B. Tin- 
dale SAM; allotype i , J paratype A , Little 
Desert, Victoria, 23.X.1952, A. Burns; Paratypes 
(continued): 19. Little Desert. Victoria, 17- 
25.X. 1952, E. Matheson; 2 i , 2 9 , Lake Hattah, 
Victoria, J. E. Dixon; I i , Kiata, Victoria, Oct. 
1929, F. E. Wilson; 1 9, Kiata, Victoria, Oct. 
1928, F. E. Wilson; 1 9, Grampians, Victoria, 
Nov. 1922; 19, Grampians, Victoria, 29. X. 
1946. A. Burns NM; 19, 8 km south of Lah 
Arum, Grampians, Victoria, 5.11,1956, I. F. B. 
Common; 1 9 , Little Desert 8 km south of Kiata, 
Victoria, 12.11.1956, 1. F. B. Common ANIC: 
1 & , 1 9 , Murray Bridge, South Australia, A. M. 
Lea, AM; 1 A , 19, Lake Hattah, Victoria, 
J. E. Dixon; 1 c5 , Mt. Lofty Ranges, South Aus- 
tralia, N. B. Tindale BM; 13, 29 9 , Aldgate. 
Mt. Lofty Ranges, South Australia, 29.XI.1931. 
Darlington on Harvard Expedition AMNH; 3 $ , 
Bordertown, South Australia, 22.X.1963. J. 
Sedlacek BISHOP. 

Specimens examined: The type series only. 



Thoracica Group 

The thoracica group of species includes 
species which appear to be restricted to the wetter 
parts along the east and south coasts of the 
Australian continent, including the south-west 
corner of Western Australia. Members of the 
group are absent from the wetter forests of north 
Western Australia and the Northern Territory. 
The species in this group are probably all grass 
green in life with the tips of pronotal spines 
black or black punctate. Black punctations are 
always present laterally near the apex of the 
scutellum and frequently on the hind lobe of the 
pronotum as well. Luteous markings are 
common and sometimes some areas are pinkish. 
The lateral angles of the pronotum are always 
produced into a conical spine. The hind margin 
of the corium is almost straight. 

The first gonocoxae of the female have the 
posterior margin transversely or obliquely trun- 
cate or sinuate, if part of this margin is pro- 
duced more posteriorly than any other part then 
it is the exterior half. 

Host plant records for the group include 
species of Aster (introduced ), Hakea, Melaleuca, 
Leptospennum and Callitris representing the 
families Compositae, Proteaceae, Myrtaceae and 
Cupressaceac. 



lappet PI0CH53 




Jy ( .paired 
\ '■] Conjunctiva) 



Dasal 
plates 




med.l! - 

pEnitil plKles ^-^Ci^vAwsIca ~~^/ 
gonopotH ( 

-imm 






1mrn 



Fig. 30. Ctisimoini obcsulu sp. nov.. Cu.ypicoiui llnncuicu (Wesl- 
wood) A-B. Ciispicanu obesulu. A. leftband side aspect of 
aedeagus. B. clasper. C-D. Cusphtma thoracica, C. lefthand 
side aspect of visible portion of a medial penial plate of 
uedeagus. D. elasper. 



RHYNCHOCORIS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS—I 



111 



Cuspicona procallosa sp. nov. 
Figs. 31, 32 C-D 
Description ; 

General appearance: Ground colour in 
museum specimens yellow or brownish-yellow 
with a few black punctations along lateral margins 
of head, dorsally on pronotal spines in apical 



half, and on scutellum on either side of midline 
(but not reaching base or apex). Lateral angles 
of pronotum produced into conical spines. 

Head: Concolorous and rather convex above, 
some black punctations along lateral margins. 
Eyes and ocelli purplish or grey. Lateral margins 
gently angulately concave. 




5 mm- 



\/ M. (^ITSON! 

Fig. 31, Dot sill aspect of Cttspivmui prOCtiJIOSa sp. nov. 



Pronotum: Concolorous, but dorsal surface 
of exterior portion of spinous angles of pronotum 
with black punctations in apical half and black 
along apical half of anterior margins of these 
spines and at extreme apex; sometimes a few 
scattered dark punctations medially just in front 
of hind margin of pronotal disc. In anterior 
half of pronotum in the middle a broad longi- 
tudinal pale yellow or luteous glabrous fascia 
or bar, sometimes a glabrous patch of the same 
colour on each side just in front of posterior 



angles (as in example figured). Anterior margin 
obliquely truncate behind eyes and only shallowly 
concave behind collum, anterolateral angles 
hardly produced. Anterolateral margins obtuse 
and nearly straight in anterior halves, posterior 
halves, with lateral angles, each produced into a 
conical spinous process directed outwards and 
only a little upwards, about as long as postero- 
lateral margin, its basal diameter about 75 per 
cent length of latter. Posterlateral margin 
concave, posterior margin broadly concave. 



n: 



REG. S. AUST. MUS., 17 <6): 51-167 



December. 1975 



Scutellum: Concolorous with apex (broadly) 
and midline lutcous and nearly glabrous, midline 
area widening anteriad. Laterally to midline and 
beginning about a third of the way back and 
reaching to about three quarters of the way back 
an area of black punctation on each side, basally 
this patch narrow and paralleling the pale streak, 
apically broadened and reaching lateral margins, 
one or two black punctations medially on 
glabrous area where the lateral patches finish. 
No fovea at bases of lateral margins, latter 
broadly concave in basal half then changing 
direction and nearly straight but faintly converg- 
ing to broadly rounded apex. Frena reaching to 
about half length, 

Hemelytra: Coriaceous parts concolorous with 
coarse concolorous punctation. Outer margin 
of corium concave in basal quarter then broadly 
convex to shortly rounded apical angle. Pos- 
terior margin straight, inner angle broadly 
rounded. Clavus elongate triangular, Mem- 
brane and veins hyaline. 

Abdomen: Concolorous above but with upper 
surface of pygophore somewhat darkened. Some- 
times some black patches, one under tip of 
scutellum and the other before pygophore. 



Laterotergites: 
exterior angles of 
rectangular, 



Concolorous but posterior 
1II-VII black, latter almost 



Underside; Concolorous except extreme apex 
ol prothoracic spine, posterior angles of abdomi- 
nal ventrites III -V II. rostrum ventrally and apical 
third of its last segment, black. Apical third of 
antennal segment 111, antennal segments IV and 
V, and sometimes tarsi and extreme apices of 
tibiae, light brown. 

Bucculae punctate, not reaching base of head 
but to middle of eye, sinuate, produced into a 
convex lobe anteriorly. Rostral segment 1 
robust, surpassing base of bucculae and reaching 
onto apex of presternum, II arched and com- 
pressed and reaching mid coxae. III to about 
middle of hind coxae, IV to about base of 
abdominal ventrite IV, Ratio of antennal 
segments I-V 11:20:19:23:21, Most of prop- 
leuron (except two glabrous patches medi- 
ally), mesepisternum, metepisternum and hind 
portion of metapleuron punctate. Metasternal- 
mesosternal keel higher anteriorly than pos- 
teriorly, reaching over presternum almost to its 
apex, anteriorly broadly rounded, deflected to 
left in ventral view. Femora normal, tibiae a 
little flattened apically Midline of abdomen 
narrowly luteous, rounded in posterior view but 
segments VII-IU progressively more V-shaped, 
Spiracles a little raised. Apex of male abdomen 
Fig, 32 C, apical margin of pygophore shallowly 
concave, rather reflexed. Apex of female abdo- 
men Fig. 32 D. hind margin of first gonocoxae 
oblique and slightly concave. 



Dimensions- 



MALES 



Parametei 



Head length 

Head width 

Antennal segment 1 
Antennal segment II 
Antennal segment lit 
Antennal segment IV 
Antennal segment V 
Pronotum width 
Pronation length 
Total length 



Parameter 



Head length ...... 

Head width 

Antennal segment I 
Antennal segment II 
Antennal segment 111 
Antennal segment IV 
Antennal segment V 
Pronoliim width 
Pronotum length 
Total length 



Number of 




Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Measurements 


Mean 


Deviation 


of 
Variation 


Range 


9 


36 


2-6 


7-2 


32-41 


11 


36 


3-5 


9-7 


26-39 


17 


II 


0-8 


7-2 


9-12 


17 


20 


12 


6-3 


17-22 


16 


19 


1-3 


6-8 


15-20 


8 


24 


1-7 


70 


22-26 


6 


22 


10 


4-9 


20-23 


11 


120 


6-2 
40 


5-2 


110-133 


n 


.§ 


12-3 


26-40 


ii 


9-7 


61 


150-180 


FEMALES 








Number ol' 




Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Measurements 


Mean 


Deviation 


of 
Variation 


Range 


6 


39 


1 3 


3-4 


37-41 


7 


38 


15 


3-9 


36-40 


10 


11 


10 


9-2 


9-12 


10 


19 


II 


5-8 


1 7-20 


10 


in 


17 


93 


16-21 


8 


22 


F9 


8-9 


19-25 


6 


20 


OS 


4-2 


19-21 


7 


34 


29-5 


22 1 


113-199 


7 


5-5 


157 


25-42 


7 


166 


9-8 


5 9 


I4S-IS0 


Total length : 


7-7-9-4 mm. 









RHYhlCHOCORIS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— I 



113 



Remarks: C. procallosa is fairly easy to 
recognise by the longitudinal pale callous bar in 
the anterior half of the pronotum and by the 
black posterior exterior angles of the latero- 
tcrgites and abdominal ventrites. The species 
is restricted to the southwestern portion of 
Western Australia. 

Location of types: 

(All cited localities are in Western Australia.) 
Holotype $ , Fremantle, 3. II. 1934, K. R. Norris; 
allotype 9 , same locality and collector but 
2.II.1934; 1 paratype 9 , 1 km. WNW Foul Bay, 
Augusta (34° 19S 115' 10E), 3.XI.1969, E. B. 
Britton; 1 paratype & , Deep Dene, Karridale, 



16.XII.1962, L. M. O'Halloran ANIC; 1 para- 
type 9 , Geraldton, W. D. Dodd SAM; 1 paratype 
9 , Geraldton and Mullewa, Lea; 1 paratype i . 
Geraldton; 2 paratype i , Swan River, L. J. 
Newman; I paratype i , Swan River; 1 paratype 
9, Flinders Bay, 11. IV. 1936, A. L. Raymond 
(BM 1936-429); 3 paratype i, 2 paratype 9, 
Yanchep, 50 km north of Perth, 29 Jan-8th 
Feb. 1936, R. E. Turner (BM 1936-28) BM; 
1 paratype £ . Cape Naturaliste, 5 m, 27.IX.1962, 
E. S. Ross and D. Q. Cavagnaro CA, 1 paratype 
i , Mt. William, 250 m, 6.X1.1963, J. Sedlacek 
BISHOP. 

Specimens examined: The types only. 



posterior margin of pygophore 

...ventral surface of 
pygophore 



sternum X 




paralergile E 
irst 
gonocoxa 





c 



1mm 





Fig. 32. Cuspicona cqnisignata sp. nov., procallosa sp. nov., 
obesula sp. nov. A-B. Cuspicona cqnisignata. A. ventral aspect 
of apex of male abdomen. B. ventral aspect of apex of female 
abdomen. C-D. Cuspicona procallosa. C. ventral aspecl of apex 
of male abdomen. D. ventral aspect of apex of female abdomen. 
E-F. Cuspicona obesula. E. ventral aspect of apex of male 
abdomen. F. ventral aspect of apex of female abdomen. 



Cuspicona equisignata sp. nov. 

Figs. 32 A-B, 33 

Description: 

General appearance: Ground colour in 
museum specimens yellow with black puncta- 
tions on head (sparse), pronotum and scutellum. 
Lateral angles of pronotum produced into conical 
spines. 



Head: Concolorous and rather convex above, 
some punctations concolorous but on disc of 
juga towards apex and near base a few black 
punctations. Eyes and ocelli purplish or grey. 
Lateral margins concave. 

Pronotum: Mostly concolorous but anteriorly 
in either side of midline adjoined to anterior 
margin and reaching about a third of the distance 



114 



REC. S. AUST. MUS.. 17 (6): 51-167 



December, 1975 



back a pair of longitudinal lines of black puncta- 
tions, between these lines and extending back 
almost to hind margin on Cape York examples 
a pink longitudinal median linear marking. 
Dorsal surface of spines black punctate, espec- 
ially towards apices, across posterior portion of 
pronotum between spines a diffuse line of sparse 
black punctations. Anterior margin oblique 
behind eyes and rather rectangularly excavate 
behind collum, anterolateral angles produced as 
a small ridge. Anterolateral margins obtuse and 
nearly straight in anterior halves, posterior halves 
with lateral angles each produced into a conical 
slightly recurved spinous process directed out- 
wards and only a little upwards, not as long as 
posterolateral margin, its basal diameter about 
75 per cent length of posterolateral margin. 
Posterolateral margin slightly sinuate, posterior 
margin broadly concave. 



Scutelhim: Concolorous with apex (broadly) 
and midline luteous and nearly glabrous, midline 
area wider anteriorly than posteriorly where it 
runs into glabrous apical area. Laterally to 
these glabrous areas punctations all black, or 
some black and some concolorous, just behind 
where luteous midline joins apical area a few 
scattered punctations near the midline in the 
luteous area. No fovea at base of lateral margins, 
latter broadly convex in basal half then changing 
direction and broadly convex to broadly rounded 
apex. Frena reaching reaching to about half 
length. 

Hemelytra: Coriaceous parts concolorous 
with coarse punctation, some or many of these 
punctations fuscous, inner angle of corium 
narrowly black. Exterior margin of corium 
concave in basal quarter then broadly convex 













» •'-•' ? 



-5mm 





Ll >■ ■■!■■.,- 14 HI>b 



Fig. 33. Dorsal aspect of Ciixpiconu equisigiwta sp. nov. 



RHYNCHOCORIS CROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— I 



US 



to nearly acute apical angle, posterior margin 
nearly straight, inner angle broadly rounded. 
Clavus elongate triangular, Membrane and veins 
hyaline. 

Abdomen: Concolorous or with a fuscous 
area around apex of scutellum or (holotypc) 
with a broad longitudinal black band behind 
scutellum reaching apex. Dorsum of pygophorc 
with a lateral black patch on either side, dorsum 
of female genitalia with a fuscous patch on either 
side of midline. 

Lateratergites: Concolorous, posterior exterior 
angles of III- VII black, almost rectangular, hind 
margin of VII strongly black in holotype. 

Underside: Concolorous except extreme tip 
of prothoracie spine and posterior angles of 
abdominal ventrites III-VII, rostrum ventrally 
and apical third of its last segment, black. Apical 
half of antennal segment III, antennal segments 
IV and V, tarsi and extreme apices of tibiae 
brown. Bucculae not reaching base of head but 



to middle of eye, elevated, sinuate, produced 
into a convex lobe anteriorly. Rostral segment 
1 robust, surpassing base of bucculae and reach- 
ing nearly to fore coxae, II arched and reaching 
mid coxae. 111 to about middle of hind coxae or 
beyond, IV onto IVth abdominal ventrite. 
Ratio of antenna] segments 1 ; 2 1 ;21 ;25:24, 
Episterna, proepimera, propleuron, and hind por- 
tion of metapleuron. and abdomen (except along 
midline) punctate. Metasternal-mesostemal keel 
higher anteriorly than posteriorly, reaching over 
presternum but not to apex, anteriorly broadly 
rounded, deflected to left in ventral view. 
Femora normal, tibiae a little flattened apically, 
Abdomen with midline luteous, rounded in 
posterior view but segments VIT-III progressively 
more V-shaped. Spiracles raised. Apex of male 
abdomen Fig. 32 A, apical margin of pygophore 
somewhat triangularly excavate, reflexed, Apex 
of female abdomen Fig. 32 B, hind margins of 
first gonocoxae half truncate and only faintly 
oblique. 



Dimensions - 

Parameter Holotype $ 

Head length 36 

1 lead width 37 

Antennal segment I , , , „ 10. 10 

Antennal segment II 21,21 

Antennal segment III 19. ly 

Antennal segment (V .. .. 29,29 

Antennal segment V 26, 26 

Prnnotum width 110 

Pronotum length 28 

Total length 148 

Total length: 77-90 itinr 



illolype 


Paratype 6" 


Paratyp 


15 


41 


37 


39 


39 


39 


II. II 


11,11 


10, 10 


21,21 


23. 23 


21.21 


20,20 


24.23 


20,21 


24. 25 


30, 22 


24.24 


23, 23 


24.- 


24.- 


121 


121 


115 


M 


34 


30 


170 


158 


140 



Remarks: Only the four specimens listed 
above are known, the distribution appears to be 
unusually wide for such an uncommon species 
and it may be noted here that some other local- 
ities on Captain S. A. White labels have proved 
to be in error, these Cape York Peninsula records 
may also be. The species is similar to procaUosa 
having the same black posterior angles to the 
laterotergites and abdominal ventrites and a 
callous median patch anteriorly on the pronotum. 
It differs from that species in having a small 
black line on either side of the anterior callosity 
of the pronotum and the V-shaped posterior 
margin of the pygophore and the more black 
punctate hind portion of the pronotum, Tt is 
also somewhat similar to phi but differs in not 
having the underside of the pronotal spines 
strongly punctate right to their bases. 

Location of types: 

Holotype S (Reg. No. 120,672), allotype 9 
(Reg. No. 120,673), I paratype 9 (Reg. No. 



120,674), Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, 
Captain S. A. White; 1 paratype S (Reg. No. 
20,675). Mt, Wedge. South Australia, 16.X. 
1954, N. B. Tindale SAM. 

Specimens examined: The types only. 



Cuspicona phi sp. nov, 

Figs. 28 E, 34, 36 F 

Description: Ground colour in museum speci- 
mens brownish-yellow with black punctations on 
hind portion of pronotum and scutellum, on 
underside of frontal spines and hind or ventral 
portions of thoracic pleura, black markings on 
dorsum of abdomen above. Lateral angles of 
pronotum produced into conical spines. 

Head: Concolorous and rather convex above; 
punctation rather sparse and concolorous or 
light brown, arranged in rows. Eyes and ocelli 
purplish red, Lateral margins strongly concave. 



116 



REC. S. AUST. MUS.. 17 (6): 51-167 



December, 1975 



Pronotum: In anterior portion mostly con- 
colorous with brown punctations but calli a 
darker brown, between calli and extending to 
anterior margin a rather callous luteous marking. 
On dorsal surface of produced lateral spines and 
in disc between them a broad rather diffuse band 
of black punctations, apices of lateral spines 
black. Anterior margin oblique behind eyes 
and broadly excavate behind collum, antero- 
lateral angles produced into a small ridge. 
Lateral margins obtuse and slightly convex in 
their anterior halves, posterior halves with 
lateral angles produced into a conical slightly 
recurved spinous process directed outwards and 
only a little upwards, not as long as postero- 
lateral margins, its basal diameter about 75 per 
cent length of posterolateral margin. Postero- 
lateral margin obtusangulately excavate, pos- 
terior margin broadly concave. 



ScuteUum: Concolorous and finely punctate 
with apical third luteous and glabrous, this 
luteous produced forward along midline. In 
apical fifth some black punctations medially, 
just anterior to these on either side (leaving 
midline there broadly impunctate) a triangular 
to quadrate patch of black punctations. A con- 
colorous fovea visible at base of lateral margins 
in one of the paratypes, lateral margins broadly 
convex in basal half, then changing direction and 
broadly convex to broadly rounded apex. Frena 
reaching to about haLf length. 

Hemelytra: Coriaceous parts concolorous but 
inner angle or corium margined with fuscous. 
Exterior margin of corium concave in basal 
quarter then broadly rounded to almost rectang- 
ular apical angle, posterior margin nearly straight, 
inner angle broadly rounded. Clavus elongate 




-5 mm. 



Fig. 34. Dorsul aspect of Cuspkntm phi sp. nov. 



MIYNCIIOCORIS GROUP IN AUSTRAT IA AND ADJACENT AREAS— I 



117 



triangular. Membrane and veins largely hyaline 
but at inner anterior angle a small longitudinal 
fuscous bar joining the fuscous on inner angle 
Of corium. 

Abdomen: Concolorous: large single or paired 
black patches on segments VI and VIT medially, 
dorsum of female genitalia with large, black 
patches, one on each side. 

Laterotergites: Concolorous but fuscous 
along posterior margin of Vfl, lateral angles 
almost rectangular. 

Underside: Concolorous but in holotype 
with a reddish tinge and reddish punctations, red- 
dish especially more intense on evaporative area, 
on femora and broadly along lateral margins of 
abdominal ventrite VII. Bucculac, whole 
underside of spinous angles of pronotum and 
extending somewhat onto piopleuron, and 
female genitalia with reddish fuscous punctations. 
Rostrum ventrally and most of apical segment 
black. Prominent luteous areas ventrally and 
along hind margin of proplcuron turning anteri- 
orly under punctate area on lateral spines, 
ventrally on mesopleuron and ventrally and 



posteriorly on metapleuron. Mesosternal- 
mctasternal keel semihyaline. 

Bucculae not reaching base of head and not 
to past middle of eye, sinuate, produced into a 
convex lobe anteriorly. Rostral segment I 
robust, surpassing base of bucculae and reaching 
about base of head, IJ arched and reaching 
mid coxae. 111 to about middle of hind coxae 
and IV past middle of third abdominal ventrite. 
Ratio of antcnnal segments 9:16:12:18:16. 
Episterrta, proepimeron and hind portions of pro- 
and mctapleura punctate. Metasternal-meso- 
sternal keel higher anteriorly than posteriorly, 
reaching over presternum to about its apex, 
anteriorly broadly rounded, deflected to the left 
in ventral view. Femora normal, tibiae a little 
flattened exteriorly in apical quarter. Abdomen 
fairly densely punctate, rounded in posterior view 
but segments VI-III progressively more V- 
shaped. Apex of male abdomen Fig. 28 E. 
apical margin of pygophore gently concave 
medially and broadly convexly rounded laterally. 
Apex of female abdomen Fig. 36 F, hind margins 
of first gonocoxac somewhat oblique and 
narrowly sinuated. 



Dimension.s- 



Parameter 



Head length 

Head width 

Antcnnal segment I 
Antennal segment II 
Antcnnal segment III 
Antennal segment IV 
Antennal segment V 

Pronotum vvioth 

Pronotum length 

Total length 





• ' 

■ - • 

















Holotype .-* Allotype 



Pmatype 1 Paratype Paratype 1 

(Peak-Downs) I'PEak-Downs) (Syd.ievi 



tt 


» 


33 


33 


32 


38 


36 


33 


33 


J3 


9, 9 


9. 9 


8, 9 


X. 9 


9. 8 


J9, 19 


16, 17 


15. - 


16. 15 


15. 16 


li, 13 


12. 13 


12.- 


12. 14 


11, 12 


20.21 


IS, 19 


— 


i/. - 


17,- 


19.19 


17. 17 


— 


15, 


_ 


IK. 


its 


103 


115 


103 


40 


33 


33 


30 


33 


155 


150 


140 


14S 


150 


Total length. 


7 3 7 8 mm. 









Remarks: This species is apparently closely 
related to procallosa and cquisignata but differs 
from them in not having prominently black- 
posterior angles to laterotergites anterior to the 
VUlth pair and by having dense black puncta- 
tions on the underside of the pronotal spines. 
Only the nine specimens listed below are known. 

Location oj types: 

Holotype J (Reg. No. T72I6), Mt. 
Tozer area. Iron Range, North Queensland. 
29.IV-LV.I973. G. B. Monteith QM: allotype 
9 , West Normanby River, 64 km (40 
miles) west of Cooktown, north Queensland, 
I 2. XI. 1965, G. Monteith UQ; 2 paratype 9, 
Peak-Downs, Queensland: 1 9 paratype, Sydney 
(spelt "Sidney"). New South Wales STOCK- 
HOLM: 2 paratype 9 t New South Wales, Dis- 



tant coll. 1911-383 BM; 1 paratype i , Australia: 
I paratype 9 , New Holland, Deyrolle; 1 para- 
type 9, Peak-Downs RM. 

Specimens examined: The types only. 



Cuspicona angustizoua sp. nov. 
Figs. 35, 36 E 
Description : 

General appearance: Ground colour in 
museum specimens greenish yellow with black 
punctations on head (sparse), on upper surface 
of pronotal spines and in a narrow but dense 
band across disc of pronotum between lateral 
spines and beneath on underside of pronota! 
spines, Lateral angles of pronotum produced 
into conical spines.. 



UK 



REC. S, AUST. MUS.. 17 16): 51-167 



December, 1975 



Head: Concolorous, not very convex above; 
punctation moderately dense but fine, black and 
brown, basally arranged in rows. Eyes and 
ocelli dull purple. Lateral margins concave. 

Pronation: Concolorous with punctation 
mostly concolorous or reddish but on dorsal sur- 
face of lateral spine, in a narrow but dense band 
across disc between lateral spines and in a thin 
longitudinal, medial line only one or two puncta- 
tions wide given off from transverse band to 
anterior margin (interrupted a little before an- 
terior margin) with punctations black. Anterior 
margin oblique behind eyes and broadly excavate 
behind collum, anterolateral angles hardly pro- 
duced. Lateral margins obtuse and only slightly 
convex in anterior two thirds, posterior thirds 
with lateral angles each produced into a conical 
slightly recurved spinous process directed out- 
wards and a little upwards, not as long as postero- 
lateral margins, basal diameter about 60 per cent 
length of posterolateral margin. Posterolateral 



margin obtusangulately excavate, posterior mar- 
gin broadly concave. 

Scutellum: Concolorous and finely punctate 
anteriorly, in posterior third paler with scattered 
coarse black punctations, no less dense medially 
than laterally; this punctate area produced anteri- 
orly from the main mass of punctations for a 
short distance along midline. A small con- 
colorous fovea at base of each lateral margin, 
lateral margins almost straight in anterior half, 
then changing direction and almost straight to 
broadly rounded apex. Frena reaching about 
half length. 

Hemelytra: Coriaceous parts fuscous but 
inner angle of corium and apical angle of claws 
margined with fuscous. Exterior margin of 
corium concave in basal quarter then broadly 
rounded to almost rectangular apical angle, pos- 
terior margin nearly straight, inner angle broadly 
rounded. Clavus elongate triangular. Mem- 
brane and veins largely hyaline but at inner 







%0k ' " k 

5 mm. ' 



Fig. 35. Dorsal aspect of Cttipicotia angustizona sp. nm 



RHYNCHOCORIS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACKNI AREAS— I H9 

anterior angle a small fuscous area adjoins the proepimeron, hind portion of propleuron and 

fuscous on corium and clavus. metapleuron punctate. Legs apparently normal, 

Abdomen: Apparently concolorous or perhaps tibiae flattened towards apices, most tarsi missing 

rather reddish medially, dorsum of female on the two specimens examined. Metasternal- 

genitalia with some black patches. mesosternal keel higher and thinner anteriorly 

, . r, , , -i i than posteriorly, reaching over prosternum nearly 

Laleroiergites: Concolorous but apical angle . * • , , ., j ■ , „ , 

,.,,,,, j i . i i a a ■ to its apex, anteriorly broad y rounded, deflected 

of VII darkened, lateral angles produced into a ,._, .'■ , ^ • . , . , , , 

... or a i, tt ] e t0 t [ ie | c f t m ven t ra ] view. Abdomen 

finely punctate, rounded in posterior view but 

Underside: Concolorous but bucculae, under- segmen ts VI-III progressively more V-shaped, 

side of pronotal spine and first gonocoxae of Apex of female abdomen Fig . 36 E hind margins 

female with black punctations. Abdomen ven- of first gon0coxae oblique and narrowly sinuated. 

trally broadly luteous, a medial spot on propleura Males unknown 
and posterior margins of paratergites VIII black. 

Metastcrnal-mesosternal keel hyaline. Dimensions— 

. f , Parameter Holotype ■; Paralypc 

Bucculae not reaching base of head and not Head ( th 18 , 6 

to past middle of eye, sinuate, produced into a Head width , 41 39 

blunt triangular lobe anteriorly. Rostral segment Anlenna! s™! Ii [',:,:"', 18; 20 '°' 

1 robust, just Surpassing base of bucculae, II Antenna! segment III 18, 18 

arched and probably reaching about mid coxae, *ggj ggg v v ; ; ; ; ; A g;; m on lx1th examp|cs 

TV and III missing on both specimens. Ratio Pronotum width 130 125 

of first four antennal segments (fifth missing in TXTiength" 81 . 11 . . . " !! ."'! !! ,'! 180 175 

both specimens) 10:20:18:22. Episterna, Total length: 9-1-9-4 mm 



posterior margin ot pygophore 

. ventral surface of 
pygopnere 



sternum X 




veniral margin ol 
pygophore 



pcistenoi margin 
ol pygephorti 



pararerqtle IX 

.first gonocoxa 




sternum X 



pauteraitC! I,'' 



first gonoco/a 




Fig. 36. Ciispivoiui apolhomcicu sp, nov., Ciispicona thorucica 
(Westwood). Cuspiiona (inwtsiizona sp. nov., Citspiitma phi. 
sp. nov. A-B. Cuxpicnna apothoracica. A. ventral aspect of 
male abdomen. B. ventral aspect of female abdomen. C-D. 
Cnsplcofia tlioracica. C. ventral aspect of male abdomen. D. 
ventral aspect of female abdomen. E. Cuspkana artgtixtizomi 
— ventral aspect of apex of female abdomen. F. Cnxpiconn 
phi — ventral aspect of apex of female abdomen- 



120 



REC. S. AUST. MUS.. 17 (6>: 51-167 



l>,'i,mhi'i\ IV7S 



Remarks: This species is closely related to 
pfti, having the apical area of the scutellum fairly 
evenly covered with black punctations and 
having a median prolongation forward of 
the transverse dark band on the pronotiim. It 
differs by its larger size, prolongation forward 
of the black punctations medially on the scutellum 
and the strongly bicoloured abdomen beneath. 
Both examples are unfortunately incomplete. 

Location of types: 

Holotype 9 (Reg. No. T7217). Brisbane, 
Queensland, R. Kumar QM; paratype 9, Eids- 
vold, Queensland, ANIC. 

Specimens examined: The types only. 



Cuspicona thoracica (Westwood. 1837) 
Figs. 30 C-D, 36 CD. 37, 38 A 

Rhynchocoris thoracica Westwood, 1837, p. 30. 

Cuspicona thoracica Dallas, 1851. p, 386. Mayr. 
1866, p, 67. Sta). 1876, p. 103. Van Duzee, 
1905, p. 208. 

Cuspicona santhochlora Walker, 1867, p. 389, 

Description : 

General appearance; Ground colour greetl iti 
life with dorsum of head, a broad transverse 
band on pronotum between, and extending onto, 
produced lateral angles, antennae, underside of 
head, rostrum, apices of femora and tarsi brown. 
Basally or wholly on head, across pronotum as a 
transverse band, and laterally near apex of 
scutellum black punctate. 

Head; Brown and flattened above; m males 
strongly punctate with black above on almost 
entire disc; females usually less extensively black 
punctate (han males but basally a median quad- 
rate area made up of three short parallel longitu- 
dinal bands of black punctations always present 
and lateral margins with black punctations. Eyes 
and ocelli purplish red. 

Pronotum: Green in life, yellowish or pale 
yellowish brown in museum specimens; dorsal 
surface af lateral angles and a broad transverse 
band between them brown with numerous black 
punctations. this band of punctations about seven 
punctations wide medially, anteriorly and poster- 
iorly to this band finely and concolorously punc- 
tate except on glabrous calli, Anterior margin 



oblique behind eyes and concave behind collum. 
anterolateral angles produced into a very small 
toolh. Anterolateral margins obtuse, straight 
and diverging in anterior half; posteriorly half, 
with lateral angles, produced into a conical 
slightly recurved spinous process directed out- 
wards and only a little upwards, about as long 
as posterolateral margin., its basal diameter about 
75 per cent or less length of posterolateral 
margins. Posterolateral margins obtusangulately 
excavate, posterior margin broadly concave, 

Scutellum: Green in life with anterior median 
portion rather yellowish-green, pale yellowish- 
brown in museum specimens. Apical half with 
a broad median luteous or reddish longitudinal 
stripe reaching apex, laterally to this a triangular 
or semi-circular patch of black punctations not 
beginning as far forward as base of luteous stripe 
nor reaching near to apex. Latter broadly 
impuctate. No fovea at base of lateral margins 
latter broadly convex in basal half, then very 
broadly and slightly convex to rounded apex. 
Krena reaching nearly to half length. 

Hemelytra: Green in life, pale yellowish 
brown in museum specimens, coarsely and con- 
colorously punctate, Exterior margin of corium 
concave in basal quarter then broadly rounded 
to very shortly rounded apical angle, posterior 
margin nearly straight, inner angle broadly 
rounded. Clavus elongate triangular. Mem- 
brane and veins hyaline. 

Abdomen: Green in life, yellow in museum 
specimens; without black markings, except at 
posterior margins of pygophorc, 

Laterotcrgites: Green in life, narrowly black 
just laterally of midline on dorsum of female 
genitalia. 

Underside: In life, pale green, in museum 
specimens yellowish brown. Underside of head 
yellowish; antennae, most of rostrum, apical half 
of pronotal spines, apices of tibiae, tarsi and 
pygophorc vcntrally brown, Rostrum venttally 
and most of apical segment black. Mesosternal- 
metastcrnal keel, a broad median band on 
abdomen and all female external genitalia except 
paratergites VUI luteous, Underside of pronotal 
spines frequently reddish. 

Bueculae not reaching base of head and not 
to past middle of eye, strongly sinuate, produced 
into a triangular lobe anteriorly. Rostral 
segment 1 robust, surpassing base of bueculae 



RHYNCHOCORIS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— I 



121 




W 

i 











5mm. ' 

Fig. 37. Dorsal aspect of Ciispicona thoracica (Westwood). 



but not reaching base of head, 11 slightly arched 
and reaching mid coxae. III to hind coxae and IV 
to middle of abdominal ventrite III. Ratio of 
antennal segments 9:16:19:20:21. Episterna, 
proepimeron, hind portion of propleuron and 
metapleuron lightly and concolorously punctate. 
Metasternal-mesosternal keel reaching over apex 
of presternum, higher anteriorly than posteriorly, 
its anterior margin only slightly convex, deflected 
to the left in ventral view. Femora normal, tibiae 
rather flattened exteriorly in apical quarter. 
Abdomen sparsely, finely and concolorously 

Dimensions — 



Parameter 



Head length 

Head width 

Antennal segment I 
Antennal segment II 
Antennal segment III 
Antennal segment IV 
Antennal segment V 
Pronotum width 
Pronotum length 
Total length 



punctate laterally and on external genitalia, 
medially impunctate, rounded in posterior view 
but ventrites V-III progressively more V-shaped. 
Apex of male abdomen Fig. 36 C, apical margin 
of pygophore rather truncate laterally, concavely 
excavate medially. Clasper Fig. 30 D, rather 
curved F-shaped. Medial penial plates of 
aedeagus Fig. 30 C. strongly Y-shaped, their 
ventral surfaces sinuate, gonopore opening 
between them. Apex of female abdomen Fig. 
36 D, hind margins of first gonocoxae sinuated 
and vaguely oblique. 



MALES 










Number of 




Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Measurements 


Mean 


Deviation 


of 
Variation 


Range 


30 


29 


1-6 


5-4 


27-34 


31 


34 


1-2 


3-6 


32-37 


46 


9 


0-6 


7-0 


7-10 


48 


16 


1-3 


7-8 


14-18 


48 


20 


11 


5-8 


18-22 


42 


21 


1-2 


6-0 


19-24 


40 


22 


1-3 


60 


20-27 


J1 


104 


3-4 


3-2 


99-112 


31 


31 


2-7 


8-7 


28-34 


31 


133 


9-7 


7-3 


117-151 



122 
Dimensions- 



REC. S. AUST. MUS-, 17 (6): 51-167 



December, 1975 



FEMALES 



Parameter 



Number of 
Measurements 



Head length 

Head width 

Antennal segment . . 
Antennal segment II 
Antennal segment III 
Antennal segment IV 
Antennal segment V 
Pronotum width 
Pronotum length .... 
Total length 



36 
36 
63 
63 
63 
56 
50 
36 
36 
36 



Mean 



32 
37 
9 
16 
19 
20 
21 

114 
33 

145 



Standard 
Deviation 



2-3 
1-7 
0-6 
1-6 
1-2 
1-5 
1-2 
8-3 
2-6 
9-2 



Coefficient 

of 
Variation 

70 
4-7 
6-8 
9-5 
6-2 
7-3 
5-7 
7-3 
7-9 
6-3 



Observed 
Range 



28-39 
31-40 
8-11 
10-19 
17-22 
18-25 
19-25 

104-155 
29-39 

130-165 



Total length; 6-9-7-6 mm 



Remarks: When work was part way on 
specimens labelled thoracica in most collections 
it was noticed that the series were made up of 
two very similar species which can be distin- 
guished by the outline of the male pygophore, 
by the degree of black in the head in males, 
by whether the margins of the head are black 
spotted or not in females and the degree of 
posterior extension of the black punctations 
on the scutellum. As I was unaware of this 
when 1 examined the types of thoracica and 



xanthochlora in England in 1 969 it was necessary 
to call upon the good offices of Mr. I. Lansbury 
in the Hope Department at Oxford and Dr W. 
R. Dolling at the British Museum to recheck 
these types for me. They prove to be conspecific 
and to apply to this taxon. The second species 
is described hereunder and the differences 
between the two treated in the Remarks section 
there. Cuspicona thoracica occurs only near 
the coast in central and south-eastern Victoria, 
New South Wales and south-eastern Queensland. 



Cuspicona thoracica 




A Cuspicona apothoracica 




■*"••-. 44»»iseA„i: 



Fig. 38. Cuspicona thoracica (Westwood), Cuspicona apothoracica sp. nov. A. distribution of 
Cuspicona thoracica. B. distribution of Cuspicona upotlioracica. 



RHYNC1IOCORIS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS—] 



123 



Location of types: 

Holotype 9 of thoracica Westwood, "New 
Holland", in Hope, holotype 9 of xanthochlora 
Walker, "Australia", in BM. 

Specimens Examined: About 140 examples 
were examined, their detailed distributions are 
not given but the distribution plotted on 
Fig. 38 A. 



Cuspicona apothoracica sp. nov. 

Figs. 36 A-B, 38 B, 39, 40 A-C 

Description : 

Genera] appearance: Very similar to thora- 
cica. Grass green in life with dorsum of head, 
a broad transverse band on pronotum between 
and extending onto, produced lateral angles. 




5 mm.- 

Fig. 39. Dorsal aspect of Cuspicona apothoracica sp. nov. 



antennae, underside of head, rostrum, apices of 
tibiae, and tarsi brown. Basally on head, across 
transverse band on pronotum and laterally near 
apex of scutellum black punctate. 

Head: Brown and slightly convex above; in 
both sexes black punctations restricted to three 
basal black longitudinal bars, if punctations 
present in front of anterior margins of eyes then 



sparse and not reaching apex. Lateral margins 
and most of apical portion with concolorous 
punctations. Eyes and ocelli purplish red. 

Pronotum: Green in life, yellowish or pale 
yellow brown in museum specimens; dorsal sur- 
face of lateral angles and a broad transverse band 
between them brown with numerous black punc- 
tations. this band of punctations about seven 



12* 



RKL. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (6): .11-16? 



December. 1975 



punetations wide medially, anteriorly and pos- 
teriorly to this band finely and concolorously 
punctate except on glabrous ealli. Anterior 
margin oblique behind eyes and deeply concave 
behind eollum, anterolateral angles produced into 
a small tooth, Anterolateral margins obtuse, 
straight and diverging in anterior half; posterior 
half, with lateral angles, produced into a conical 
slightly recurved process directed outwards and 
only a little upwards, about 75 per cent length 
of posterolateral margin, its basal diameter about 
50 per cent length of posterolateral margins. 
Posterolateral margins obtusangulately angulate 
and sinuate, posterior margin broadly convex. 

Sciitellnm: Green in life with a broad orange- 
luteous median fascia in apical 2/5, in museum 
specimens the green areas change to yellow or 
yellowish brown. Laterally to apical pale streak 
an elongate triangular patch of black punetations 
on each side beginning at about base of pale 
streak and continued almost to apex, there tend- 
ing to continue on to the apically rounded portion 
as a narrow band one or two punetations wide. 
No fovea at base of lateral margins, latter broadly 
convex in basal half, then broadly and slightly 
convex to rounded apex. Frena reaching past 
half length. 

Hemelytra: Green in life, yellow in museum 
specimens, coarsely and concolorously punctate, 
Exterior margin of corium concave in basal 
quarter then broadly rounded to very shortly 
rounded apical angle, posterior margin nearly 
straight, inner angle broadly rounded. Clavus 
elongate triangular. Membrane and veins hya- 
line. 

Abdomen: Green in life, yellow in museum 
specimens, upper margins of male pygophore 
with some black markings. 

Laterotergites: Concolorous, posterior exterior 
angles with a small reffexed spine. 



Underside: Concolorous but in life head 
rather yellowish, abdomen medially towards base. 
thoracic sterna and their keels lightened in 
colour. Antennae, most of rostrum, apical half 
of pronotal spines, apices of tibiae, tarsi and 
pygophore brown. Rostrum ventrally and most 
of apical segment and pronotal spines apically 
black. 

Bucculae not reaching base and not even to 
middle of eye, strongly sinuate, produced into 
an acute triangular lobe anteriorly. Rostral 
segment I robust, just surpassing apex of buccu- 
lae. II slightly arched and reaching mid coxae. 
Ill to hind coxae, IV to base of abdominal 
segment III. Ratio of antennal segments 1-V 
9 : 16:19:23: 24. Episterna and epimera 
nearly glabrous, propleuron sparsely punctate 
anteriorly and posteriorly and with some black 
punctuations on underside of pronotal spine, 
metapleuron punctate posteriorly. Metasternal- 
mesosternal keel reaching over apex of prester- 
num to apex of latter, higher anteriorly than 
posteriorly, its interior margin only slightly con- 
vex, deflected to the left in ventral view. Femora 
normal, tibiae rather flattened exteriorly in 
apical quarter. Abdomen fairly densely punctate 
laterally and more sparsely on female external 
genitalia, medially impunctate, rounded in pos- 
terior view but ventrites V-III progressively more 
V-shapcd. Apex of male abdomen Fig. 36 A, 
apical margin of pygophore convexly tounded 
laterally and broadly concave medially. Clasper 
Fig 40 C, rather F-shaped. Aedeagus Figs. 
40 A-B, phallosoma only lightly sclerolized, 
conjunctiva produced apically into two tubular 
lobes which cross over each other in dorsal 
view, "lappet" processes elongate and directed 
downwards in their basal portion. Medial 
penial plates strongly inverted Y-shaped, their 
ventral surfaces sinuate, gonopore opening bet- 
ween them. Apex of female abdomen Fig, 36 B, 
hind margins of first gonocoxae faintly concave 
and rather oblique. 



Dimensions- 



MALL.S 



Parameter 



Head length . 

Maid width 

Antennal segment I , 

Antennal segment II ...... 

Antennal segment III ... 

Antennal segment IV . 

Antennal segment V - 

Pronolum width .. . 

Pronolum length 

Total length 



Number of 




Standard 


Coelliuenl 


Observed 


Measurements 


Mean 


Deviation 


or 

Variation 


Range 


25 


34 


1-4 


3-9 


32-.M 


25 


.36 


1 3 


.3-5 


34-39 


34 


9 


0-4 


43 


S-tO 


n 


16 


10 


6-3 


J4-I7 


32 


19 


I I 


5 6 


15-21 


26 


23 


1.3 


5 7 


2 1 -20 


21 


24 


14 


60 


20-26 


25 


104 


54 


5-2 


99-125 


25 


28 


3 4 


119 


23-36 


25 


130 


89 


6-9 


116-140 



Dimerrsions- 



KHYNCHOCORIS GROUP IN 



Parameter 



I lead length • 

Head Width 

Antennal segment 1 

Antenna I segment II 

Aniennal segment III 

Aniennal segment IV . 

Antennal segment V 

Pronotum width - . . 

Pronotum length ......... 

Total lenmh 



P JN AUSTRALIA AND 


ADJACKNT fi 


, RE AS— I 


1 


FEMALliS 










Number of 




Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Measurements 


Mean 


Deviation 


of 
Variation 


Range 


32 


37 


15 


40 


34-39 


32 


38 


II 


Z-S 


37-41 


37 


9 


02 


26 


8-10 


40 


15 


1-2 


81 


13-18 


40 


18 


1-4 


77 


16-21 


35 


22 


1 3 


5-9 


20-24 


23 


23 


0-9 


3-9 


21-24 


32 


113 


50 


44 


106-128 


32 


29 


2-8 


96 


24-36 


32 


139 


7-1 


5 1 


I 23-151 



125 



Total length: 60-81 mm 



Remarks: Cuspknna apothoracica is very 
similar in appearance to C. thorucica and very 
easily contused with the latter. The salient 
differences arc: — 

thoracica 

Head in males extensively marked with 
black punctations over most of dorsal sur- 
face and to lateral margins. 

Head in females with dorsal black punc- 
tations basally and also submarginally. 
Scutcllum in both sexes with a short triangu- 
lar patch of black punctations on either 
side which do not reach near to apex. 

Ratio of antennal segments I-V 9: 16: 19: 
20:21. 

Posterior outline of male pygophore from 
below with a truncate or slightly concave 
lobe on either side separated by a concave 
area medially, the lateral and medial regions 
separated by an angle (Fig. 36 C). 
apothoracica 

Head in males usually only black punc- 
tate in region between eyes. If black 
punctations present in anterior portion of 
disc then sparse and marginal areas con- 
colorously punctate. 

Head in females with dorsal black puncta- 
tions restricted to basal area, marginal areas 
concolorously punctate. Scutellum in both 
sexes with an elongate triangular patch of 
black punctations on either side which 
extend almost to apex of scutellum. 

Ratio of antennal segments l-V 9: 16: 19: 
23:24. 

Posterior outline of male pygophore from 

below with a convex lobe on either side 

running smoothly into a concave area 

medially (Fig. 36 A). 

Apothoracica (Fig. 38 B) has almost the 

same distribution as thoracica, occurring only 



near the coast in central and eastern Victoria, 
eastern New South Wales and south eastern 
Queensland. 

Location of types: 

Holotype £ , Acacia Ridge, Brisbane, Queens- 
land, 17. IX. 1964, A. Neboiss; paratopes: — j, 
Burleigh, Queensland, 28.IX.1960, A. N. Burns; 
9, same locality and collector, 18.1X.I960: 9, 
North Queensland, from C. French Jun., I9.XI. 
1911; $, Buchan, Victoria, Oct. 1907, N. V. 
Leach; 2 6 , Thurra River, Cape Everard, 
Victoria, 29. X. 1970, A. Neboiss; 9, 17 km 
S.E. of Merrijig on 8 Mile Creek oil Howqua 
River, Victoria, 1. XII. 1971, A. Neboiss; 9. 
Montrose, Victoria, 25.XI.I945. P.B.; 9, 
Beaconsfield, Victoria, 8.XIT.1933, G. F. Hill; 
29, Ringwood, Victoria NM; allotype 9 (Reg. 
No. 120,678). Glenmaggie Weir, Victoria, 14. 
IV. 1957, F. E. Wilson^paratypes:— 9 (Reg. 
No. 120,679), by sweeping, 1-6 km west of 
Apollo Bay, Victoria, 19.1.1962, G. F. Gross; 
9 (Reg. No. 120,680), Seaford, Victoria, W. F. 
Hill; 29, (Reg. Nos. 120,681-2), Bribie Island 
in Moreton Bay. Queensland, Lea and Hacker 
SAM; *, Brisbane, Queensland, 6.X.1914. H. 
Hacker; 3 <? , 1 9 , Birkdale, Brisbane, Queens- 
land, 7. IX. 1926, H. Hacker; 9, Stanthorpe, 
Queensland, 26.X.1930, E. Sutton QM; & . 
Glen Aplin, Queensland. 4.VI1.1964, P. Ker- 
ridge; 9 , Nth. Stradbroke Island, Queensland, 
20.IV. 1968. T, Weir, 6, Caloundra, Queens- 
land, 21.111.1972, G, B. Monteith; ■<■ , on 
Lcptospermum, Tibtogargan Creek, Queensland, 
4.1X.1953, T. E. Woodward UQ; i , Pt. Mae- 
quarie. New South Wales. 25 Aug.-14 Sept. 
1941, H. W. Simmonds; i , La Perouse, Sydney. 
New South Wales, G. H. Hardy; 4 , Sylvania, 
New South Wales. Oct. 1934. Dr. K. K. Spence 
AM; 1 6 , 3 paratype 9 . Mannus near Tum- 
barumba. New South Wales, LXJL1930. T. G. 
Campbell; 9,18 km south of Forster, New South 
Wales, I7.X.1956. P. B. Carne; 2, Blundells, 



126 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (ft): 51-167 



December, 1975 



Australian Capital Territory, T. G. Camp- 
bell; i , 6 km north of Briagolong, Victoria, 
13.XII.1949, T. G. Campbell, ?, shaken from 
Hakea sericea Schrad, Mount Oberon, Wilson's 
Promontory, Victoria, 5.IX.1967, S. Neser; 9, 
shaken from Hakea sericea Schrad in flower. 
Story Creek, Cann River, Victoria, 9.IX.1967, 
S. Neser ANIC; 6 , Brisbane, Queensland, 
4.IX.1914, H. Hacker, Brit. Mus. 1923-313; 
9 , North Narrabeen, New South Wales, 
27.X. 1957, M. I. Nikitin; 2, cliff over Pacific 
Ocean, North Narrabeen, New South Wales, 
13.11.1960, B.M. 1960-619; 9, Bulli Pass, New 



South Wales, 20.XI.1948, E. B. Britton; 9, 
by net sweeping on river banks, Loddun River 
near Bulli, New South Wales, 1.X.1959, N. 
Nikitin BM 1960-203; 9, Dorrigo. New South 
Wales, W. Heron, BM 1935-46; 9 , Sydney, New 
South Wales, Distant Coll. 1911-383; 2, New 
South Wales, presented by Perth Museum B.M. 
1953-629; 9, unrealised BM; 9, New South 
Wales AMNH; 7 3,5 9 , Brisbane, 1910, Sept. 
1915 and 15.IX.1915, ex Bridwell Coll.; 2 i, 
Stradbroke Island, Moreton Bay, Queensland, 
20JX.1915, J. C. Bridwell; 1 3,1 9, Botany 
Bay, New South Wales, H. Petersen, ex C. F. 



I;ippet process 



basal plate; 




basal 
plaies 



OSmoi 



medial penial plates 






0.5mm 



- 05mm 

Fig. 40. Cuspiconu apotlioracica sp. nov.. Cuspiconu streiuieUa Walker. 
A-C. Cuspiconu apothoracicu. A. lefthand aspect of aedeagus. B. dorsal 
aspect of aedeagus. C. clasper. D-F. Cuspiconu slrenuella. D. lefthand 
aspect of acdeagus. E. clasper of usual individual. F. clasper of rather 
unusual Queensland example. 



HHYNCHOCOKIS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— 1 



127 



Baker Coll. 1927; $ , National Park, New South 
Wales, 15.11.1957, W. W. Wirth; i, Bacchus 
Marsh. Victoria, ex G. W. Kirkaldy Coll, 1919 
USNM; 9, Stradbroke Island, Queensland, 
2.X. 1911, H. Hacker; 9, Brisbane, Queensland, 
10.V1II.1913, H. Hacker KU; 2 9 , Sydney, New 
South Wales, Oct. 1903, ex Helms Coll. 1 &, 
2 9 9, National Park, New South Wales, Dec. 
1905, ex Helms Coll. BISHOP. 
Specimens examined: The type series only. 



Cuspicona streniiella Walker, 1867 

Figs. 40 D-F, 41, 43 E-F 

Cuspicona streniiella Walker, 1868, p. 572. 

Cuspicona beutenmiilleri Van Duzee, 1905, 

p. 208, pi. 8, Fig. 10. New synonym. 

Description: 

General appearance: Ground colour rather 
greenish brown in life with anterior half of 
scutellum, corium, clavus, a patch on propleuron, 




5mm- 



Fig. 41. Dorsal aspect of Cuspicona xtrenueltci Walker. 



tibiae medially, embolium and abdomen (later- 
ally) green. Lateral angles of pronotum pro- 
duced into conical spines, latter black punctate 
and infuscated towards apices; black punctations 
in two patches laterally near middle of scutellum; 
femora maculated with brown. 

Head: Greenish brown, evenly punctate; eyes 
and ocelli reddish or purplish. Lateral margins 
frequently with black punctations, 



Pronotum: Greenish brown, anterolateral 
margins frequently with black punctations. Spin- 
ous lateral angles infuscated towards apices, dark 
punctate in their basal posterior portions, occa- 
sionally these punctations extending transversely 
across pronotal disc as a narrow band two or 
three punctations wide, more frequently a quad- 
rate patch of black punctations medially near 
posterior margin. On each side from base of 



12S 



REC. S. AUSi. MUS.. 17 (61/ 5l-lh7 



l>ci,tuhv>, 1973 



each lateral spine an oblique luteous fascia reach- 
ing posterior margin near middle, Anterior 
margin oblique behind eyes and sinuously exca- 
vate behind collum. Lateral margins straight 
or slightly convex and diverging posteriorly in 
anterior half; posterior half, with lateral angles, 
produced into a conical, slightly recurved spinous 
process directed outwards and upwards, about 
as long as posterolateral margin, its basal dia- 
meter rather less than length of posterolateral 
margin. Posterolateral margins slightly angu- 
lately concave, posterior margin broadly concave, 

Scutcllum: In life anterior half green and 
posterior half luteous. medianly luteous produced 
forward a little into the green. On either side 
of scutellum a quadrate patch of dark puncta- 
tions. their centre just behind midlength of 
lateral margins, some sparse dark punctations in 
apical portion. No fovea at base of lateral 
margins, latter broadly convex in basal third, 
then very broadly and slightly convex to broadly 
rounded apex. Frcna reaching about half length. 

Hcmelyiru: Coriaceous parts green in life, 
rather sparsely and coarsely punctate. Exterior 
margin ol corium concave in basal quarter then 
broadly rounded to shortly rounded apical angle, 
posterior margin nearly straight, inner angle 
broadly rounded. Clavus elongate triangular. 
Membrane and veins hyaline. 

Abdomen: Reddish green above with a medial 
broad black stripe extending back from well 
before apex of scutellum, genital segment black 
and reddish green above. 

Laterotergiti's: Green in life, posterior margin 
of VI lth narrowly black. Posterior exterior 
angles of all segments nearly rectangular with 
only a tine short spine. 

Underside: Luteous; a callous green patch 
on propleuron just behind eye and narrower 
than latter, extending back only a little more 
than half length of segment, most of basal 2/3 
of tibiae (except extreme bases), a triangular 
patch in posterior portion of metapleuron and 
a broad lateral band on abdomen with its inner 
edge irregular also green, in males also a dark- 
patch, perhaps green in life, more ventrally on 
either side and extending over ventrites 1I1-V, 
separated from the lateral patch by a narrow 



luteous bar. Antennal segments 1I-V darker, 
11-111 strongly maculated with brown as are 
femora and tibia of last two pairs of legs. Fore 
femora and tibiae less densely maculated. A 
bar on the dorsal surface of antenmfer and 
another along base of bucculae frequently black 
as are ventral surface and most of last segment 
of rostrum and a series of lateral spots, one 
each at outer ends of sutures between episterna 
and cpimera and one each on abdominal segments 
1V-V11, just behind each suture. Sometimes 
more ventral spots on the fourth and fifth ven- 
trites. Mesosternal keel hyaline, mctastcrnal keel 
sometimes darker. 

Bucculae not quite reaching base of head, 
strongly sinuate, produced into an obtuse lobe 
anteriorly. Rostral segment 1 robust, surpassing 
bucculae and reaching to anterior portion of 
prosternum; segment II compressed and curved, 
reaching to mid coxae; segment Til reaching 
hind coxae and IV onto 111 rd abdominal ventnte. 
Ratio of antennal segments 10:17:17:24:25. 
Proepisterna and procpiniera and posterior 
outer portion or propleuron lightly punctate 
with reddish black, mesepisterna and metepis- 
terna lightly punctate with 1'useou.s as is extreme 
hind margin of metapleuron, Mesosternal 
keel projecting over prosternum to a little 
past its apex, higher and thinner anteriorly, 
deflected to left anteriorly in ventral view. 
Femora normal, tibiae rather llattened exteriorly 
in their apical third. Abdomen inpunctate 
except on external genitalia but rather finely 
rugulose, rounded in posterior view but ventrites 
VHII progressively more cannate. Apev of 
male abdomen Fig. 43 E. apical margin of pygo- 
phore sinuate and medianly rather rectangularly 
excavate, slightly rctlexed. Clasper Fig. 40 L-F 
strongly F-shaped. Aedeagus Fig. 40 D, phallo- 
soma only lightly scleroti/cd conjunctiva pro- 
duced apically into two paralleled tubular lobes 
directed rather upwards and apically constricted, 
their posterior margins in the constricted region 
scleroti/ed: "lappet" processes small, medial 
penial plates shaped like an inverted Y, a small 
tonth on posterior margins of interior branches. 
Gonopore located between them. Apex of 
female abdomen Fig. 43 F. hind margins of first 
gonocoxac transverse but "stepped", the inner 
halves lying more anteriorly than the outer 
sections. 



RHYNCHOCORIS CROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— I 



12'.» 



Dimensions 



MALES 



Parameter 



Head length 

Head width 

Anlennal segment I 

Antenna] segment II 

Antenna] segment III 

Antenna] segment IV 

Antenna] segment V 

Pronotum width , 

Pronotum length 

Total length 



Parameter 



Head length ........ . 

Head width 

Antenna! segment I 

Anlennal segment II -. . ...... . 

Anlennal segment III 

Antenna! segment IV 

Anlennal segment V ,,,,..,,,, 

Pronotum width 

Pronotum length 

Total length - 



Number of 




Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Measurements 


Mean 


Deviation 


Of 
Variation 


Range 


14 


38 


20 


5-4 


3542 


14 


39 


0-8 


2-1 


38-40 


20 


10 


0-7 


6-8 


X-Kl 


21 


17 


1-5 


8-8 


15-20 


21 


17 


1 1 


6-2 


15-19 


'2 


25 


II 


4-2 


23-27 


9 


26 


15 


5-7 


24-28 


14 


J 29 


76 


5-9 


120-140 


14 


32 


2-6 


81 


26-35 


13 


159 


9-5 


60 


140-177 


FEMALES 








Number of 




Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Measurements 


Mean 


Deviation 


of 
Variation 


Range 


25 


41 


28 


6-8 


33-44 


25 


41 


1-6 


3-9 


37-44 


38 


10 


0-7 


7-3 


8-11 


38 


18 


1-5 


8-2 


1 5-20 


38 


16 


16 


10-2 


13-20 


26 


24 


1-7 


7-2 


20-28 


22 


24 


1-6 


6-7 


21-28 


25 


138 


8-8 


6-4 


121-152 


25 


37 


3-9 


10 7 


31-43 


25 


17S 


12-5 


7«2 


155-210 


Total length: 


7-3- 10-9 mm 









Remarks: One male Queensland specimen to 
band of this species is rather smaller than the 
other material, the pronotum anteriorly has a 
longitudinal pale callus and the shape of the 
clasper appears to be rather different to that 
seen in the other specimens dissected. This 
Queensland form may represent a distinct sub- 
species but one specimen is not adequate to 
determine that this is so. Consequently it is not 
so considered here, the dimensions of this male 
is: head length 36; head width 36; antcnnal seg- 
ment I 8; anlennal segment II 18; antennal 
segment 111 13; antennal segment IV 25; antennal 
segment V 27; pronotum width 115; pronotum 
length 30; total length 139 (7-2 mm.). 

The types of both slremiella Walker and 
bentenmiilleri Van Duzee have been examined, 
and. although females, clearly represent this one 
species. 

Location of types: 

Type 9 of strenuella, Walker, without locality 
BM; type •? of bentenmiilleri Van Duzee, 
"Victoria", AMNH. 

Specimens Examined: Queensland (5 , Mt. 
Norman area via Wallangarra, 7-8.X.1972, 
G. B. & S. R. Monteith UQ; 3 t , unrealised, 
from C. French Jun. I5.XI.1911 NM; New 
South Wales 19. Ebor. 3. XII. 1915 QM; I 9. 



Jindabyne, 1 000 m, Mar. 18X9, Helms; 1 9, 
Mannus near Tumbarumba, 1. XII. 1 950, T. G. 
Campbell; I 6 , Dorrigo. Feb. 1929. W. Heron. 
K 59373, AM; 2 <5 , Abcrcrombie River, 80 bn 
north of Goulburn, 27. XI. 1967. Britton and 
Misko ANIC; 3 9, Dorrigo SAM; 29. The 
Dorrigo, 1 000 m, W. Heron; I V , near Sydney, 
Wheeler AMNH; 19, 3 km west of Kioloa. 
90 m, 17.XII.1962, E. S. Ross & D. O. 
Cavagnaro CA; 1 i National Park, 29.IX.1902, 
Helms Collection, Bishop; Australian Capital 
Territory 4 4, 19, Blundells, 30.111. 1930, 
T. G. Campbell; 1 9. Blundells, 30.VIII.1933, 
T. G. Campbell ANIC; Victoria 1 i . Emerald, 
Sept. 1930. J. Evans ANIC; 3 9, Ringwood; 
19, Trafalgar, 9.VI.1930, F. E. Wilson; 
19, Murrindini, 24.111. 1971. A. Neboiss; U, 
Wallan, 25.XII.I956, F. Hallgarten, NM; 
(S, Croydon, 24. XII. 1948, N. B. Tindale; 
19, Port Campbell. Nov. 1959. G. F, Gross 
SAM; 19. Launching Place, 17.J.I905. Bucno 
via Van Duzee Collection CA; Tasmania I 9 , 
Dulverton, Mar. 1972 ANIC; South Australia 
I 9, Mylor, J. Formby. K56187 AM; 1 9, Glen 
Stuart, 9.XI1.I893. Tepper; 1 *, Magi 11. 13.X. 
1883, on Aster sp, Tepper; 1 9, no locality or 
date, Rev. A. P. Burgess SAM; 1 3 , 1 9 , no other 
data AMNH; Unrealised I tJ ; 19, ex C French 
Jun. I5.XI.I9I 1 NM; 1 9. Austral bor,, Thorey. 
I 9. Australia, Boutard; I 9, Nov. Holl., Lk?- 
berg. Stockholm. 



130 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (6): 51-167 



December, 1975 



Cuspicona longispina sp. nov. 
Figs. 42, 43 C-D. 
Description: 

General appearance: Ground colour green in 
life with head and antennae, most of pronotum, 
apical half of scutellura, dorsum of abdomen, 
brownish, yellowish or cream coloured as 
also on underside of head, rostrum, most of pro- 
thorax, half of mesothorax, ventral regions of 
metathorax and abdomen, bases of femora and 
apices of tibiae. Head and anterior part of 
pronotum strongly defiexed. Lateral angles of 
pronotum produced into long spines, on dorsal 
surface of spines and across disc of pronotum 
between spines a band of black punctates live 
or more punctations wide. 

Head: Brownish yellow, extreme lateral mar- 
gins with some blackish punctations, eyes and 



ocelli purplish red. Disc evenly and finely punc- 
tate, rather raised medially, more so towards 
base than apex. 

Pronotum: Brownish with apices of lateral 
spines black and a broad row of punctations on 
spines basal to black tips and then running 
transversely across pronotum black, this row more 
than five punctations wide in centre of disc. In 
fresh specimens a green trapezium shaped patch 
anteriorly not reaching anterior or lateral mar- 
gins, calli glabrous, located in the green area. 
Anterior margin oblique behind eyes and rather 
rectangularly excavate behind collum. Antero- 
lateral margins straight, obtuse, and diverging 
posteriorly in anterior half; posterior half, with 
lateral angles, produced into a long, conical 
acute tipped spinous process which is directed 
outwards and somewhat upwards, these spines 
about 50 per cent longer than posterolateral 




5 mm- 



Fig. 42. Dorsal aspect of Cuspicona tpngispirul sp. nov. 



nm-Nr/iocoms group in Australia and adjacent areas— i 



Ml 



margins, their basal diameters about 25 per cent 
less than length of posterolateral margins, 
Posterolateral margins obtusangulately concave, 
posterior margins broadly concave. 

Saitelttnn In fresh specimens a basal green 
triangular patch more or less in the shape of 
scutellum itself but not reaching lateral margins 
nor further than three quarters of the length, 
laterally to this bright yellow, in posterior third 
to one quarter of scutellum creum coloured with 
coarse black punctations tending to be concen- 
trated near midline. No fovea at base of lateral 
margins, latter broadly convex in basal half then 
almost straight to broadly lanceolate apex, Disc 
only slightly raised basally. Frena reaching 
about half length. 

Hemelytnt: Coriaceous parts green in life, 
fading to brown in museum specimens, coarsely 
punctate, Slightly narrower than abdomen in 
apical two thirds; exterior margin of corium 
concave in basal quarter then broadly convex to 
nearly acute apical angle, posterior margin of 
corium nearly straight, inner angle broadly 
rounded. Clavus elongate triangular, Mem- 
brane and veins hyaline. 

Abdomen: Not clearly seen in any of the 
specimens but apparently brownish yellow with 
some paired black marks behind apex of scutel- 
lum. 

Laterotergites; Green in life, posterior exterior 
angles of segments nearly rectangular. 

Underside; Head, first, second and most of 
third antenna! segments and most of rostrum 
brownish yellow; apex of third antennal and 
fourth and fifth antennal segments brown; rost- 
rum ventrally and most of its apical segment 
black, a reddish patch ventrally near base of 
second segment, Prothorax rather cream col- 
oured with black spots course on underside of 
lateral spines and less dense on propleuron. 
Above proepisteinum and proepimeron a glab- 
rous coneolorous patch and exterior to this a 
rhomboidal callous green patch reaching to 
anterior margin, almost to exterior margin but 
widely separated from posterior margin. Mcso- 
thorax mostly cream coloured with posteriorly a 
narrow nearly quadrate gTeeil patch reaching 
exterior margin. Metalhorax broadly cream 
coloured ventrally, laterally green, the inner 
margin of this green in line with inner margin 
of green mesothoracic patch. Metasternal- 
mesosternal keel scmihyaline, Coxae and bases 
of femora cream coloured, rest of femora and 
bases of tibiae green, apical 2 5 of tibiae yellow. 



tarsi and claws brown. Abdomen with whole 
©eternal genitalia broadly pale cream coloured 
medially, laterally green. 

Bucculae reaching base of head, convexly 
curved, produced into a rather triangular lobe 
anteriorly, Rostral segment I robust, reaching 
base of head, segment II arched and reaching 
mid coxae, segment III to base of abdomen and 
IV to base of abdominal ventrite V. Ratio of 
antennal segments 9:17:16:22:22. Propleuron 
sparsely punctate except on green area, meso- 
pleuron sparsely punctate on lnesepistemum, 
metapleuron sparsely punctate on metepisternum. 
Metasternal-mesosternal keel projecting over pro- 
sternum to a little past its apex, higher and 
thinner anteriorly, deflected a little to left anter- 
iorly in ventral view. Femora normal, tibiae 
slightly flattened apically on exterior surface. 
Abdomen impunctatc, rather rounded in 
posterior view but ventritcs VI-IU progressively 
more caiitiate ventrally. Apex of male abdomen 
Fig. 43 C. pygophore with posterior margin 
shallowly concave in middle, laterally slightly 
sinuate, rather broadly and slightly reflexed. 
Apex of female abdomen Fig. 43 D, posterior 
margins of first gonocoxac sinuate, paratergites 
XI almost triangular. 



Dimensions 

Paralype Paratype 

Hclotype Males Females 

6 (Average (Average 

of f.) of 6) 

Head length 37 36 39 

Head width ...... 37 37 37 

Antennal segment f 8 9 <) 

Antennal segment II 17 18 17 

Antennal segment III .... . 16 16 15 

Antennal segment IV 21 22 2? 

Antennal segment V 23 23 21 

Pronotum width \)& ]_<0 138 

Pronotum length J2 30 3} 

Total length 145 139 145 

Total length: 6 0-7-8 mm 



Remarks: This species is rather similar to 
thoracica but differs in the much longer lateral 
spines on the pronotum, in the laterally green 
and ventrally luteous abdomen, the different 
shape of the male pygophore and the lack of 
black punctations on the disc of the head. It 
appears to replace ihoracica and apolhoracica 
in South Australia and Western Victoria. 

Location of types 

Holotype t , 1 paratype £ , North Beach. 
Wallaroo, South Australia, by beating flowering 
ti-tree (Melaleuca sp. ), 12.11. 1 964, G. F. Gross 
SAM 120,633-4; allotype 9, 1 paratype 9,6km 
east of Two Wells, South Australia, beaten from 



132 



REC S. AUST. MUS., 17 (6); 51-167 



Dcccmhcr, 1975 



Melaleuca lanceolala Otto, 7.V1I.1971, A. N. 
McFarland SAM 120,665-6: 1 paratype S, I 
paratype 9 , 6 km east of Two Wells, South Aus- 
tralia on Callitris preissii Miq., 6. IV. 1968, A. N. 
McFarland SAM 120,667-8; 1 paratype i, 
approx. 5 km east of Two Wells, South Australia, 
on Melaleuca, 27.VIII.I966, A. N. McFarland 
SAM 120,669; 1 paratype S , Yarcowie, 26.IV. 
1894, H. Mayer SAM 120.670; I paratype $, 



Summit of Hummocks Mount, in dense under- 
scrub and trees, 30.V.1968, H. M. Cooper SAM 
120.671; 1 paratype S, 1 paratype 9. Murray 
River South Australia, H. S. Cope AM; 1 para- 
type 9 . Purnong on Murray River South Aus- 
tralia; 1 paratype 9 . Mallee. Northwest Victoria, 
donated 5.X.1922 F. P. Spry NM. 

Specimens examined: The types only. 



ventrai surface of pyqoofiorv- 




sternum X 



lllllM 



paratorrjile VIII 

paratergite Xf 




ventral surface ol pygophore 



s;ernum ,'. 




f.iralcrgite IX 

first gonocoxa 




posterior margin of pygophore 

venlral surface of pvj i ih iff 



sterttom X 




paratergite IX 

fir si gonocoxa 




Eig. 43. Cnspicona cygniterrtie sp. now, Cnspicona longispina sp. nov.. 
Cnspicona sirennella Walker. A-B. Cnspic<wa cygniterrue, A. ventral 
aspect of male abdomen. B. venlral aspect of female abdomen. C-D. 
Cnspicona lonaispina. C. ventral lisped of male abdomen. D. ventral 
aspect of female abdomen. E-F. Cnspicona straini'lla. E. venlral aspect 
of male abdomen. F. ventral aspect of female abdomen. 



Cnspicona cygniterrac sp. nov. 

Figs. 43 A-B, 44. 

Description : 

General appearance: Ground colour brown 
in life with anterior half of scutellum, corium, 
clavus, laterotergites, legs (except apices of tibiae 
and tarsi), a patch on propleuron, and outer 
margin of abdomen (broadly) bright green. 
Rest of underside creamy coloured. Lateral 
angles of pronotum produced into long spines. 



Head: Yellowish or greenish brown, evenly 
punctate; eyes and ocelli reddish or purplish. 
Relatively long in relation to its width. 

Pronotum: Brown, apices of lateral angles 
black or reddish black, punctations reddish black, 
a broad longitudinal raised area in anterior half 
and calli glabrous, yellowish. Anterior margin 
oblique behind eyes and rather rectangularly 
excavate behind collum. Lateral margins straight 
and diverging posteriorly in anterior half, pos- 
terior half with lateral angles produced into a 



RHYNCHOCORIS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— I 



133 



long, conical, acute-tipped spinous process up 
to about 75 per cent longer than posterolateral 
margin, its basal diameter about the same as 
length of posterolateral margin. Posterolateral 
margin only faintly concave, posterior margin 
broadly concave. 

Scutellnm: In life anteriorly greenish and 
posteriorly brown, normal length, raised basally 
and nearly fiat in apical two thirds. No, or 
only a minute fovea at base of lateral margins, 
latter broadly convex in basal third, then very 
broadly and slightly convex to broadly rounded 
apex. Punctations rather sparse and concolorous 
in anterior portion and in midline in medial 
third, laterally a dense patch of reddish black 
punctations near middle, in apical quarter punc- 
tations sparse but reddish black. Frena reaching 
about half length. 

Hemelytra: Coriaceous parts green in life, 
yellowish brown in museum specimens, rather 



sparsely and coarsely punctate, depressed and 
silvery glabrous just exterior to medial fracture. 
Narrower than abdomen in apical three quarters; 
exterior margin of corium concave in basal 
quarter then broadly rounded to shortly rounded 
apical angle, posterior margin of corium nearly 
straight, inner angle broadly rounded. Clavus 
elongate triangular. Membrane and veins hya- 
line. 

Abdomen: In museum specimens anteriorly 
and laterally yellowish; medially (behind apex 
of scutellum ) a black spot, then reddish to apex 
with some black patches margining the reddish. 

Laterotergites: Yellowish or green, posterior 
margin of Vllth narrowly reddish black. Pos- 
terior lateral angles of all segments rather blunt. 

Underside: Head, antennae and rostrum yell- 
owish brown, latter darker ventrally and with 
terminal segment black in apical half. Thorax 




quhck ■-. *4Kna 



5mm 



Fig. 44. Dorsal aspeel of Cuspicaim Cygniterrae sp. nov. 



IM 



Kit . S. AUST. MUS.. 17 ft); 51 167 



1>,;<i»Ut, l r >75 



and abdomen yellow but green areas as follows, 
femora and basal 2/3 of tibiae, a rather quadrate 
glabrous patch on propleuron behind eye but 
not reaching posterior margin of propleuron, a 
triangular region along outer portion of hind 
margin of metapleuron which extends forward 
on this segment as lateral margin is approached, 
a broad lateral band on abdomen with its interior 
edge sinuated. Tarsal claws black, apical half 
of lateral spine red, infuscated towards apex, 
metasternal-mesosternal keel hyaline. Pale por- 
tion of abdominal venter with faint pink macu- 
lations. In males medially on ventriie VIT near 
its apex some black spots and apical margin 
and red markings. Female with reddish black 
spots on first gonocoxae and pale reddish marks 
on rest of external genitalia, hind margins of 
paratergite VIII lateral to median incision 
narrowly black. 

Bucculae not reaching base of head, sinuate, 
produced into an obtuse lobe anteriorly. Rostral 
segment I robust, surpassing bucculae and reach- 
ing base of head, segment II reaching about 
middle of mid coxae, segment III to base of 
abdomen and IV to base of IVth abdominal 
ventrite, Ratio of antennal segments 9 : 15 : 13 : 
21:21. Propleuron sparsely punctate on mesc- 
pisternum and mesepimeron along posterior 
margin, on underside of lateral spine strongly 
punctate, mesopleuton punctate only on mesepis- 
ternunu metapleuron punctate on episternum, 
cpimeron and along posterior margin. Meta- 
sternal-mesosternal keel projecting over prosier - 
num to a little past its apex, higher and thinner 
anteriorly, deflected to the left anteriorly in 
ventral view. Femora normal, tibiae rather 
flattened exteriorly in their apical third. 
Abdomen impunctate save where previously 
indicated, rather rounded in posterior view 
but ventrites VI II progressively more carinate 
medianly. Apex of male abdomen Fig. 43 A. 
pygophorc with posterior margin medianly 
rather rectangularly excavate, posterior margin 
rather broadly and slightly reflcxed. Apex of 
female abdomen Fig. 43 B, posterior margins 
of first gonocoxae rather concave. 



Di tensions— 

Parameter 

Head length 

Head width 

Antennal segment I 

Antennal segment II .... 

Antennal segment III 

Antennal segment IV 

Antennal segment V 

Pionotum width 
Pionotum length 
Total length 






Males females 
(average of 2) (average of **) 

32 .17 

M .16 

y 9 

16 

it 



II 

I2X 
25 

i\, 



I 

141 



T.Hal length ; 6 6-7 6 oin) 



Remarks: C. cygniterrac resembles rather 
closely C longispino in general appearance and 
in the possession of very long produced lateral 
angles of the pmnotum. It is however distin- 
guished from that species by not having a 
conspicuous transverse dark band of punctations 
running across the pronotum between the lateral 
angles, by having a conspicous patch of dark 
punctations on either side of the scutellum near 
its middle and by the more rectangularly excised 
hind margin of the pygophorc, 

C. cygniterrae, like C. longispina. also resem- 
bles C. siremiellu but has longer lateral spines 
on the pronotum and differently shaped external 
genitalia. C. cygniterrae appears to occur only 
in Western Australia whereas C longispina is 
found in South Australia and Western Victoria 
and C. strciutella ranges from South Australia 
to Queensland The Thomas River specimen 
of cygniterrae has shorter lateral spines on the 
pronotum than the other examples. 

Locution of lypen: 

Holotype 9 . Kalamunda, Western Australia, 
3. IV. 1963 J. Dell WAM; I paratype 9 , Thomas 
River 100 km east of Esperance at 33 51' S 
121 53' E. Western Australia. 20.X1.1969. 
E. B. Brit ton ANIC: allotype i , 1 paratype 9 . 
Mt. William, Western Australia, 250 m, 6. XI. 
1963, J. Sedlacek Bishop; 1 paratype A , 1 para- 
type 5. Swan River, L. J. Newman BM; I 
paratype i , 1 paratype 9 , Serpentine Dam near 
Jarrahdule, Western Australia 9.XI1.197I. on 
A gain's lineari 'folia (DC) Schau, .1. A. Slater 
in J, A. Slater Collection, Storrs. Connecticut. 
U.S.A. 

Specimens Examined: The types only. 



Simplex Group 

The simplex Group of species includes a group 
of species ranging from the Philippines through 
Indonesia and New Guinea to Australia, New 
Zealand, Norfolk Island, New Caledonia and 
the New Hebrides. The species in this group 
are nearly completely grass-green in life with 
perhaps pinkish or reddish lateral angles of the 
pronotum and sometimes several of the other 
lateral margins as well. In museum collections 
most specimens fade to a characteristic light 
yellow colour with the pink areas persistent in 
colour. The lateral angles of the pronotum may 
be rounded (privata), obliquely truncate (nor- 
folcensis), acute (simplex) or produced as a 
rather conical spine (jotticornis). The hind 
margin of the conum is convex. 



MIYNCHOCORIS CROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— I 



135 



In all of the species the first gonocoxae of 
the female do not have a transverse or slightly 
concave posterior margin but instead this margin 
is produced posteriorly in its inner half, some- 
times gently, sometimes almost rhomboidally. 

There is a small but varied list of host plants 
from which members of this group have been 
captured but only plants of the family Solan- 
aceae have been recorded more than once and 
in their case for four of the eight species of 
this group which occur in the area covered by 
this paper. 

Further work on the male aedeagus pattern 
in Cuspicona may reveal that this group of species 
should perhaps be placed into a new genus of 
their own. However the dissections which could 
be done on members of the group do not reveal 
any apparent major differences from earlier 
mentioned species of Cuspicona and so far as 



I have been able to see nothing of the order of 
differences which distinguish Ocirrhoe species 
from species of Cuspicona. 

Cuspicona privata Walker. 1867 

Figs. 45, 46 A-D, 48 A-B. 

Pentatoma viride Montrouzier, 1855, p. 98 (pre- 
occupied by Pentatoma viridis Palisot de Beau- 
ville, 1811). 

Cuspicona viridis Montrouzier and Signoret, 
1861, p. 65. Stal, 1866, p. 156; 1876, p. 102. 
Lethierry and Severin, 1893, p. 181. Distant. 
1920, p. 146. 

Cuspicona privata Walker, 1867, p. 382. New 
synonym but oldest available name. 

Cuspicona laminata Stal, 1876, p. 102. Lethierry 
and Severin, 1893, p. 180. Kirkaldy, 1905. 
p.357. New synonym. 









A 



X 



■ v 



%<f%- ■ . V >" "V &SU.MI-.F1 K HtAO 

■ VU^BV ***** 

5 mm. ' 



Fig. 45. Dorsal aspect of Cuspicona privata Walker 



136 



REC. S. AUST. MUS.. 17 (6): 51-167 



Dirrmher. 1975 



Ocirrhoe privata Distant, 1900a. p. 422. 
Cuspicona zeloma Kirkaldy, 1909, p. 143 (new 
name for viride Montrouzier). 

Description : 

General appearance: Ground colour bright 
green in life but museum specimens frequently 
yellowish. Punctation fairly fine and even over 
dorsal surface, on dorsum of head denser and 
appearing rugulose. Lateral angles of pronotum 
broadly rounded. 

Head: Concolorous, densely punctate. Eyes 
and ocelli concolorous or blackish. 

Pronotum: Concolorous though lateral angles 
sometimes slightly infuscated; latter broadly 
rounded. Anterior margin concavely excavate 
behind collum changing rather gradually to 
obliquely excavate behind eyes. Anterolateral 
margins nearly straight. Posterolateral margin 
concavely elongate, posterior margin only slightly 
concave. Punctations fine though not very dense, 
calli impunctate. 

Scutellum: Concolorous; rather long; faintly 
raised basally and nearly flat in apical two thirds. 
Lateral margins with at base a concolorous fovea, 
slightly convex in basal half, then straight and 
gently converging then converging more strongly 
to apex. A trace of a medial impunctate line on 
disc. 



Hemelytra: Coriaceous parts concolorous, 
finely but not so densely punctate, narrowly 
glabrous just interior to medial fracture. Nar- 
rower than abdomen in apical three quarters; 
exterior margin of corium faintly concave basally 
then broadly convex to apex; apical angle strongly 
convex, posterior margin convex. Clavus reach- 
ing to about middle of scutellum, elongate trian- 
gular. Membrane hyaline with veins same 
colour. 

Abdomen: Concolorous; impunctate. 

Laterotergites: Concolorous; sometimes 
impunctate sometimes with sparse punctations; 
apical angles with a small black tipped spine, 
those on seventh segment hardly longer than rest. 

Underside: Mainly concolorous or tending 
somewhat lighter than upperside with antennae 
and apical segment of rostrum (except black 
apex) brown. Tarsal claws black in apical 
halves. Bucculae low and sinuate, reaching 
about base of head, anteriorly produced into a 
small angulate lobe. Rostral segment I robust, 
reaching to base of bucculae, II nearly straight 
and just surpassing fore coxae, III reaching nearly 
to second coxae, IV to about middle of hind 
coxae. Ratio of antennal segments I-V 8:17:14: 
23:26. Propleuron coarsely punctate except 



lappet process 

pliallosoma 
\ 




0-5mm- 



Fig. 46. Citspicunu privatu Walker. A. light hand .side view of 
aedeagus. B. dorsal aspect of apex (conjunctiva) of aedeagtis 
C. clasper (New Hebrides examples). D. clasper (Australian 

examples). 



IU1\ NCHOCOIilS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— I 



137 



broadly along lateral margin and on procpis- 
ternum and proepimcron. Mcsopleuron punctate 
only laterally in an anterior triangular area 
reaching from, and including, mesepisternum 
and with apex not reaching to exterior margin. 
Metasternum coarsely punctate only posteriorly. 
Metasternal-mesosternal keel reaching over pros- 
ternum but not to apex of latter, prostcrnum 
deeply sulcate under the keel, keel more elevated 
anteriorly than posteriorly. Femora normal, all 
tibiae rather flattened exteriorly in their apical 
quarter, first two pairs more obviously so than 
posterior pair; tarsi normal. 

Abdomen only gently V-shaped in posterior 
view, coarsely punctate laterally, glabrous along 
midline and lateral margins. Apex of male 
abdomen Fig. 48 A, apical margin of pygophore 



rather angulately concave, above posterior mar- 
gin a low forwardly inclined septum. Clasper 
Fig. 46 C-D, rather F-shaped, the upper ramus 
much longer in New Hebrides specimens (Fig. 
46 C) than in Australian specimens (Fig. 46 D). 
Aedeagus Fig. 46 A-B, with basal plates rather 
slender though large, phallosoma only slightly 
sclerotized. Conjunctiva produced anteriorly into 
an asymmetrical lobe (shown clearly in dorsal 
view Fig, 46 B). produced dextrally into two 
short lobes and sinistrally into a larger reflexed 
lobe; "lappet" processes rather long and slender; 
a robust vesica with a terminal filament opens in 
front of the medial penial plates which lie laterally 
on a ventral membranous swelling. Apex of 
female abdomen Fig. 48 B, hind margin of first 
gonocoxae oblique and slightly concave, so lhai 
there is only a short obtuse interior lobe. 



Dimensions 



MALES 



Parameter 



Head length ....... 

Head width 

Antennal segment I 
Antennal segment II 
Antennal segment III 
Antennal segment IV 
Antennal segment V 
Pronotum width . . . . 
Pronotum length . . . 
Total length 











- 'iii 



Number ol' 

Measurements 



27 
28 
41 
49 
49 
33 
23 
28 
28 
28 



Mean 



32 

n 

8 

\l 

23 
26 
96 
34 
159 



Standard 
Deviation 



16 

1-2 
0'7 
1-6 

1-9 
i-8 

1-7 
6-7 

■)•■> 

120 



Coefficient 

or 

Variation 

5 1 
3-7 
8-2 
9-7 
13-8 
78 
67 
7 
66 
7-6 



Observed 
Range 



30-34 
34-41 
7-10 
14-21 
11-20 
20-27 
23-29 
85-1 IV 
28-39 
I. 38- 1 76 



KEMALES 



Parameter 



Number of 
Measurements 



Head length . . . . 

Head width 

Antennal segment I 

Antennal segment II 

Antennal segment III - . 

Antennal segment IV 

Antennal segment V , 

Pionoluni width 

Pronotum length ... 

Total length ,.,.,, 



32 
32 
54 
57 
5fi 
50 
38 
32 
32 
32 



Mean 



32 
38 
8 
17 
14 
23 
26 
99 
35 
166 



total length 7-2-9-9 mm 



Standard 
Deviation 



1-8 
1-6 
0-8 
1-5 
I '8 
14 
21 
.5-4 
2-f. 
124 



Coefficient 

of 
Variation 

v-l 

42 

9-2 

90 
13-4 
10-8 

7-9 

5-5 

7-5 

7-5 



Observed 

Range 



28-35 
35-41 
6-9 
1.3-20 
11-22 
18-29 
20-30 
83-110 
27-41 
148-190 



Remarks: This is one of the most widely 
distributed species of the genus in this area, 
ranging from the New Hebrides through the 
Loyalty Islands and New Caledonia to Australia 
and in Australia from Queensland to Victoria. 
The only records on plants are from ferns and 
blackberries. 

The aedeagus is singular in the genus in that 
the conjunctiva apically is produced laterally 
but asymmetrically with two lobes, one the right 
hand side (as seen from the rear and looking 
forward) bifid and one larger entire reflexed 
lobe on the left hand side. 



A.s the claspers of New Hebrides examples 
have the upper ramus much longer than in 
Australian examples a case could be made for a 
subspecific difference here. However, a.s we do 
not yet know the shape of the claspers in Loyalty 
Island or New Caledonian examples it would 
be premature to create subspecies at this time. 

Location of types: 

Type of hematoma viride Montrouzier, 
"Woodlark I.", not located; holotype 9 of 
Cnspicona privata Walker. "Aneityum, New 
Hebrides"', in BM; holotype of Cnspicona 
laminata St&L "New Caledonia", in .Stockholm. 



158 



KIX S MJSr MUS. 17 (6); $ 1 167 



Hftrmlur, 197$ 



Specimens examined: New Hebrides the type 
of privara Walker and 1 9 . Aneityum, Nov. 1 930. 
L. E. Cheesman. BM 1931-127; 1 9 , Red Crest. 
365 m., 4-8 km N.E, of Anclcauhat, Aneitvum. 
May-June 1955. L. E. Cheesman. BM I955-*2I7: 
19, Tanna, Oct. 1930, L, E. Cheesman BM 
1931-30; %g, Erromanga. Aug. 1930, L. E. 
Cheesman. BM 1930-496; 1 & , north east 
Malekula, July 1929. L, E. Cheesman, BM 
1929-514; I 9 , by beating ferns in vicinity of 
Anelcauhat, Aneityum, 22 VIU97LG. F. Gross 
on Royal Society Percy Sladen Expedition SAM. 
Loyalty Islands U . La Roche, Mare, 30.XI. 
1911, Distant coll. 191 1-383 BM Queensland 
1 9 , Pimpama, 17.1IF.I962, 1. J. McKen/ie. I $ 
Mt. Glorious, 25.IV. 1930. D.D.A.; 1 i Laming- 
ton National Park. 28.V.1959, F, A. Perkins; 
I i , Bald Mountain area, via Emu Vide. 900- 
1 200 m ( 3 000-4 000ft. ) . 26-30.1. 1 973, G. 
Montcith; UQ; 1 3 . 2 ? , Mt. Tambourine, 19 & 
22.XI1.1925, A. Musgrave & G, P. Whitley AM 
K 54695; 16, Fairy Bower, Rockhampfon. 
15.1.1962, 1.F.B. Common; 1 9 , Eidsvold ANIC; 

1 9, Cairns, A. M. Lea, 1 & . Kuranda, F. 1'. 
Dodd; I 9 . Lake Barrine, Atherton Tableland. 
700 m.. 12.1V. 1932, P. Darlington on Harvard 
Expedition; 19, Lankelly Creek, Mcllwraith 
Range, Cape York Peninsula. 7.V1.1932. P. 
Darlington on Harvard Expedition; 1 ?■„ Bunda- 
berg, A. M. Lea; I 9 , National Park, McPherson 
Range, (910-1 220 m). 12.111.1932, P. Darling- 
ton on Harvard Expedition; I*. 399, Mt. 
Tambourine, A M. Lea SAM; 1 S , Bundaberg 
BM 1942-95; 1 2 , 29, Tambourine Mountains. 
1-9 & 18-25.V.1935, R. E. Turner BM 1935- 
240; I 9 , National Park, McPherson Range. 
(910-1 220m), 10.111,1932, P. Darlington cm 
Harvard Expedition; 1 9 , Lankelly Creek, Mcll- 
wraith Range, Cape York Peninsula, 7.VI.I932. 
P. Darlington on Harvard Expedition AMNH; 
1&. Tambourine Mountain, 2>J.X.1912, H. 
Hacker, KU; I I , Mt. Glorious, in rain forest, 
13-16.11.1961. L. & M. Gressitt; 1.1,19, Lam- 
ington National Park. 900-1 000 m., 16-18.11. 
1964, . I. Sedlacek; 1^,19, Babinda, from scrub. 
1920, J. F. Illingworth BISHOP. New South 
Wales 1 i , Dorrigo National Park via Dorrigo, 
21.1.1966, T Weir UQ; 19, Tooloom. Jan. 
1926. H. Hacker QM. I S . Dorrigo, W. Heron; 

2 6 , Ulong East. Dorrigo, W. Heron. K 43657; 
16, 19, Comboyne", 10.XI.I932, K, C. 
McKeown. K 66123-4; It, Wollongong. Dob- 
bins Bush, on blackberry, 12.11.1949 and I 9, 
Wollongong. on blackberry inflorescence, 13.111. 
1949. both C. E. Chadwick; I 9, Sydney. Oct. 
1931, Dr. K. K. Spence AM, 1 9 . Bawley Points 
of Ulladulla, 2.11. 1 96 1, D. F. Wntcrhou.se; I ?. 



8 km (5 miles) south of Bega, 28.XII.I964. 
K. R. Norris ANIC; I?, Upper Williams Road, 
Oct. 1926, Lea & Wilson; I i , Baw Baw near 
Armitage. Mar, 1914 NM; Li, 19, Dorrigo; 
1 j .Sydney. Lea SAM; 1 I , Fairfield, 27.11. 1 960 ; 
F. L. Edwards BM I 960-370; 1 V , The Dorrigo. 
1 000 m, W. Heron BM; 1 i , 1 9 Killara, 16.111. 
1945, N.E. Kent BM 1950-317; 1 9 , unrealised, 
RM; Australian Capita) Territory 1 9 , Black 
Mountain, 4.111.1964. H. Davies; 2 9 , O'Connor, 
I3.XII.1967. I.F.B. Common ANIC; Victoria 
29, Langwarrin, 8. XII. 1923; IS, Jarrah 
Valley, Jan. 1961, K. Heatey; 1.5, Walhalla, 
Apr. 1930, F. E. Wilson; 1 S t Burwood, I6.1X. 
1959. K Matchett. 18, I 9. Ferntree Gully. 
Jan. 1916, donated F. P. Spry; 1 i . Melbourne, 
May 1929, F. D. Selby; 2 i , 12 km. south east 
of Merrijig. Howqua River. 30.XI.1971. A. 
Neboiss; 1 9, Millgrove. 9. 11.1929, F, E. Wilson 
NM; 1 tf. Launching PJacc, 10.1.1905. ex E, P. 
Van Du/ee Collection CA. 

( uspicona imrtolccnsis sp nov. 

Figs. 47, 48 C 

Description: 

General appearance: Yellowish, but probably 
bright green in life. Punctation not even over 
dorsal surface, on head denser and appearing 
rugulose. Lateral angles of pronotum obliquely 
truncate. 

Head: Concolorous. densely punctate. Eyes 
purple, ocelli red. 

Pronotum. Concolorous. Anterior margin 
rather angulately excavate behind collum and 
oblique behind eyes. Anterolateral margins 
nearly straight, lateral angles obliquely truncate; 
posterolateral margin concavely excavate; poste- 
rior margin slightly concave. Punctations tine 
and fairly dense, calli impunetate. 

Scniellnm: Concolorous, rather long; faintly 
raised basally and nearly flat in apical two thirds. 
I _ateral margin with at base a concolorous fovea, 
slightly convex in busal half, then straight then 
converging to relatively narrow rounded to 
lanceolate apex, Punctate as for pronotum. 

Hemelyiro: Coriaceous parts concolorous. 
punctations coarser and less dease than on 
pronotum and scutcllum, narrowly glabrous just 
interior to medial fracture. Only slightly 
narrower than abdomen in apical half; exterior 
margin of corium fairly concave basally then 
broadly convex to apex; apical angle convex and 
posterior margin convex. Clavus reaching about 
middle of scutellum, elongate triangular. Mem- 
brane and its veins hyaline. 



KHYNCHOCORIS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— I 



J 39 




1 5 mm. ' 

Fig. 47. Dorsal aspect of Cuspicona norfolcensis sp. nov. 



Abdomen: Not visible on single example. 

Laterotergites: Interiorly concolorous but 
exteriorly narrowly infuscated on laterotergites 
VI and VII; apical angles with a small black- 
tipped spine, the spines on VI and VII larger 
than rest. 

Underside: Concolorous but apices of rostrum, 
tarsal claws, abdomen and pygophore (wholly) 
infuscated. Bucculae low and sinuate, reaching 
base of head, anteriorly produced into an angulate 
lobe. Rostral segment I robust, reaching to base 
of bucculae, II nearly straight and just surpass- 
ing fore coxae, III reaching between mid and 
hind coxae, IV to about middle of third 
abdominal segment. Ratio of antennal segments 
I-V 11:20:20:28:30. Propleuron coarsely 
punctate except broadly laterally and on 
proepisternum and procpimeron. Mesopleuron 



apparently impunctate, metapleuron also impunc- 
tate. Metasternal-mesostemal keel reaching 
over presternum to apex of latter, rather strongly 
elevated anteriorly and lower posteriorly. Legs 
normal, tibiae not flattened. 

Abdomen strongly V-shaped in posterior view, 
a few scattered punctations laterally. Apex of 
male abdomen Fig. 48 C. seventh segment 
apically in the middle and its posterior spines and 
pygophore infuscated. Apical margin of pygo- 
phore sinuate. 

Dimensions: Head length 30, head width 42, 
antennal segment III. antennal segment II 20, 
antennal segment III 20, antennal segment IV 
28, antennal segment V 30, pronotum length 41, 
pronotum width 1 19, total length 200. 

Total length: 10-4 mm. 



140 



REC. S. AUST. MUS.. 17 (fi): 51-167 
ventral surface of pygophore 



December, 1975 



sternum X .^ 

paratergite IX 




ventral surface of pyyophore 




sternum X 



paratergite IX 
rst gonocoxa 




10 mm 



vnntral surface of pygophorp 




".Ionium X 

» , paratorgite IX 
first 
, gonocoxa 




lOmm '-',-. 

Fig. 48. Cuspicona priviiln Walker, Cuspicoiw norfolcensis sp. now. 
Cuspicona simplex Walker, Parocirrkoe woodwardi gen. sp. nov. 
A-B. Cuspicona privata. A. ventral aspect of apex of male abdomen. 
B. ventral aspect of female abdomen. C. Cuspicona norfolcensis — 
ventral aspect of male abdomen. D-E. Cuspicona simplex. D. ventral 
aspect of male abdomen, E. ventral aspect of female abdomen. 
F. Varocirrlioc woodwanli — ventral aspect of female abdomen. 



Remarks: This species is fairly similar to 
privata, simplex and proximo in general appear- 
ance but may be distinguished, at least in males, 
by the darkened abdominal apex beneath. 

Location of type: 

Holotype & , Norfolk Island, A. M. Lea, SAM 
I 20, 662. 

Specimens examined: The holotype only. 

Cuspicona simplex Walker, 1867 

Figs. 1 B, 48 D-E, 49. 50 A-D, 51 

Cuspicona simplex Walker, 1867, p. 388. Frog- 
gatt, 1901. p. 5, fig. 8; 1907, p. 329, pi. 31. 
Sloan, 1941, p. 277-294. Anon., 1942 
p. 498. Spiller & Turbott, 1944, p. 79. 
Woodward, 1953, p. 314, 320; 1954, p. 
215,217. Eyles, 1 960, p. 1 004. Ramsay 
1963, p. 5. 



Cuspicona virescens Tryon, (non Westwood & 
Dallas), 1889. p. 189. 

Description : 

General appearance: Ground colour bright 
green in life but museum specimens frequently 
yellowish. Punctation fairly line and even over 
dorsal surface, on dorsum of head denser and 
appearing rugulose. Lateral angles of pronotum 
acute. 

Head: Concolorous, densely punctate. Eyes 
and ocelli concolorous or blackish purple. 

Pronotum: Concolorous though lateral angles 
partly blackish or pinkish at extreme apex. Apical 
angles produced as a short rectangular spine 
about one-third length of posterolateral margins. 
Anterior margin trapeziformly excavate behind 
collum and obliquely truncate behind eyes. 



RHYNCHOCORIS CROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— I 



141 



Anterolateral margin straight or only very faintly 
concave, obtuse. Posterolateral margin strongly 
and rather rectangularly concave, posterior 
margin only faintly concave. Punctation fine 
and dense, calli impunctate. 

Scutellnm: Concolorous; flat in apical two 
thirds, faintly raised in basal third. Lateral 
margins with at base a concolorous fovea, 
slightly convex in basal half, then straight but 
converging to near apex, latter broadly rounded. 
A trace of a medial impunctate line on disc. 

Hemelytra: Coriaceous parts concolorous; 
finely and fairly densely punctate except just 
inward of medial fracture in its apical half, then 
glabrous. Exterior margin of corium slightly 
concave basally then broadly convex to apex; 
apical angle strongly convex; posterior margin 
convex. Clavus short but elongate triangular. 
Membrane hyaline with veins same colour. 

Abdomen: Concolorous; impunctate. 



Laterotergltes: Concolorous; some coarse 
punctations exteriorly; apical angles with a small 
black tipped spine, those on seventh segment 
not longer than rest. 

Underside: Concolorous except: antennae 
brown; underside of rostrum and apex of terminal 
segment, apical halves of tarsal claws, and apical 
spines on sides of abdominal ventrites black. 
Bucculae low and sinuate, reaching almost to 
base of head, anteriorly lobulately produced. 
Rostral segment I robust, reaching almost to base 
of bucculae, II arched and reaching nearly to 
middle of mesosternum. III reaching to between 
mid and hind coxae, IV reaching about apex of 
abdominal ventrite III. Ratio of antennal seg- 
ments l-V approximately 8 : 19 : 18 : 26 : 29. 
Propleuron coarsely punctate except broadly 
along lateral margin and on proepisternum and 
proepimeron. Mesosternum coarsely punctate 
but with several callous patches, an especially 
large one ventrally. Metasternum coarsely 







r 






' 



• 






5mm.- 



Fig. 49. Dorsal aspect of Cuspicona simplex Walkci. 



142 



REC. S. AUST. MUS.. 17 (6): 51-167 



Decern her, 1975 



conjunctiva 



ptiallosoma 




basal 
plates 



conjunctiva 
lappet r\ 

processes / \ vesica 

1 \U- 

-medial 
penial 
lobes 



basal plates 




coniunctiva 

vesica 





0-5mrn 



Fig. 50. Cuspicona simplex Walker. A. dorsal 
aspect of aedeagus. B. righthand side view of 
aedeagus. C. ventral aspect of aedeagus. D. clasper. 



punctate except on evaporative area. Meso- 
sternal keel reaching over prosternum but not to 
apex of latter, prosternum deeply sulcate under 
the keel, the keel more elevated in anterior half 
than posterior half. Legs normal, tibiae 
cylindrical. 

Abdomen strongly V-shaped in posterior view, 
medially rather broadly raised along midline 
and glabrous, glabrous also along lateral margins 
between, these and midline coarsely punctate. 
Apex of male abdomen Fig. 48 D, apical margin 
of pygophore rather sinuate, medially the pos- 
terior margin ventrally more depressed than the 
remainder, above posterior margin a low septum. 



Clasper Fig. 50 D, strongly F-shaped. Aedeagus 
Fig. 50 A-C with basal plates rather large, 
phallosoma only very lightly sclerotized. Con- 
junctiva rather rounded in dorsal and ventral 
view, triangular in lateral view, not divided into 
appendages except for a pair of more strongly 
sclerotized "lappet processes" dorso-laterally: 
media] penial plates ventrally directed and in the 
shape of an inverted Y when viewed from the 
side, their dorsal arms apparently connected 
(Fig. 50 C); there is a short vesica opening just 
in front of the medial penial plates. Apex of 
female abdomen Fig. 48 E, hind margin of first 
gonocoxae produced only into a short lobe which 
is not rectangular. 



Dimcnsions- 



MALES 



Parameter 



Head length ........ 

Head width 

Antennal segment I 
Antennal segment II 
Antennal segment III 
Antennal segment IV 
Antennal segment V 
Pronotum width 
Pronotum length 
Total length 



Number of 




Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Measurements 


Mean 


Deviation 


of 
Variation 


Range 


49 


34 


1-8 


5-4 


29-38 


50 


40 


1-5 


3-8 


36-43 


76 


9 


10 


10-8 


6-11 


85 


19 


1-2 


60 


17-22 


86 


18 


1-6 


8-9 


14-21 


78 


:<> 


1-6 


6-3 


21-29 


60 


30 


1-4 


49 


25-31 


49 


117 


6-5 


5-5 


105-135 


50 


38 


3-5 


9-1 


32-47 


50 


182 


9-3 


5-1 


160-203 



RHYNCHOCOR1S GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— I 



143 



Dimensions- 



Parameter 



Head length 

Head width 

Antennal segment 1 
Antennal segment II 
Antennal segment III 
Antennal segment IV 
Antennal segment V 
Pronotum width 
Pronotum length 
Total length 



FEMALES 




Number of 






Measurements 




Mean 


49 




34 


50 




41 


79 




9 


86 




20 


83 




18 


69 




26 


59 




29 


50 




125 


50 




41 


50 




196 


Total length: 


8-3-11 -7 mm 



Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Deviation 


of 

Variation 


Range 


21 


61 


30-40 


1-6 


40 


37-45 


0-7 


8-3 


7-10 


J -2 


60 


16-25 


1-7 


91 


15-22 


1-7 


6-4 


22-30 


16 


5-3 


23-32 


8-7 


6-9 


105-139 


3-6 


8-7 


34-48 


12-2 


6-3 


170-225 



Remarks: This species is particularly common 
near the coast in eastern Australia though there 
are scattered records from Victoria, Tasmania, 
South Australia and Western Australia (Fig. 51). 
It occurs in New Zealand (Spiller and Turbott. 
1944; Woodward 1953 and 1954; Eyles, 1960; 
Ramsay, 1963) and the Three Kings Islands 
(Woodward, 1954) where it is believed to be 
introduced from Australia, and occurs also on 
Lord Howe Island (material in ANIC). 



In common with several other species in this 
section of the genus it is associated frequently 
with solanaceous plants, particularly the genus 
Solarium. In Australia it has been reported 
from Solarium nigrum L. and potatoes (Tryon 
1889, Froggatt 1901 ) and from tomatoes (Sloan, 
1 94 1 ) . Other records noted from the specimens 
examined are potatoes (Gordon N.S.W.), 
Solarium hispidum Pers. (Mitcham S.A.), wild 
tobacco (Mt. Tambourine, Queensland), flower 



• Cuspicona simplex 




**»**,- 



Fig. 51. Distribution in Australia of Cuspicona simplex Walker. 



144 



REC. S. AUST. MUS.. 17 (6): 5l-1fc7 



December, 1975 



garden near rain forest (Eagle Mts., Queensland) 
and in a sweepnet (Menai, N.S.W.). On Lord 
Howe Island it was taken from Solatium mauri- 
tianum Scop, and in New Zealand has been 
recorded from tomatoes. Solarium auritulatum 
Ait. and Solatium soclomaeum L. (Spiller and 
Turbott. 1944), and also on Mangels (Eyles, 
1960). On the Three Kings Islands it was 
captured on Solatium nigrum L. and Solarium 
aviculare Forst. 



Location of types: 

Holotype & of simplex Walker, "South Aus- 
tralia, presented R. BakewelT, in BM. 

Specimens examined: New Zealand 2 9 , 
Auckland, 30.IX.1939, O. Spiller ANIC. Lord 
Howe Island 1 i, 29.XI.1955, S. J. Paramanov 
and Z. Liepa; 3 & , 22 , 5.X.1959, T. G. Camp- 
bell; 19. 1?, 15.X. 1964, on Solanum mauri- 
tianum Scop., R. G. Lukins ANIC. Australia 




— 5 mm. 

Fig. 52. Dorsal aspect of Cuxpicf/rui proxima Walker. 



and Tasmania, the type and the numbers in 
parentheses from the following collections: QM 
(15), UQ (31), AM (32), ANIC (41), NM 
(10), SAM (42), BM (25), Stockholm (2), 
AMNH (6),KU (3), Ashock (1),CA (1) and 
Bishop (16). As this is a quite common species 
individual Australian and Tasmanian records 
have not been listed in detail but are plotted on 
Fig. 51. 



Cuspicona proxima Walker, I 867 

Figs. 52, 53 AC 

Cuspicona proxima Walker, 1867, p. 382. 
Black, 1968. p. 563. 

Description : 

General appearance: Ground colour green in 
life but yellowish in museum specimens with 
produced lateral angles of pronotum occasionally 



HHYNCHOCORIS CROUP IN AUSTRAI IA AND ADJACRNT ARRAS— 1 



145 



fairly pinkish at extreme apices. Punctation quarters; apical angle strongly convex, posterior 

relatively coarse and even over dorsal surface, margin convex. Clavus short but elongate tri- 

on dorsum of head denser and appearing rugu- angular. Membrane hyaline with veins same 

lose. colour. 



Head: Concolorous, densely punctate; about 
as wide as long. Eyes arid ocelli purplish or 
concolorous. 

Pronation: Concolorous though tip of lateral 
angles faintly pink, reddish or yellowish. Latter 
produced as a very short, conical, reflexed, 
thick, blunt spine about 3/5 length of postero- 
lateral margins; its apical portion, calli and 
anterolateral margins impunctate. Anterior 
margin trapeziformly excavate behind collum 
and obliquely truncate behind eyes. Antero- 
lateral margin before produced lateral angle 
faintly concave, obtuse. Posterolateral margin 
concave, posterior margin shallowly concave. 

Scutellum: Concolorous, flat in apical half 
but faintly raised in basal half, in apical half 
a faint trace of a medial longitudinal line; lateral 
margins basally feebly convex, at apices of frena 
broadly angulate then straight but gradually con- 
verging to near apex, latter broadly angulate. 
Frena reaching about half length of lateral 
margins. 

Hernelytra: Coriaceous parts concolorous. 
Exterior margin of corium broadly concave in 
basal quarter and broadly convex in apical three- 



Abdomen: Concolorous; finely punctate. 

Laterotergites: Concolorous; some coarse 
punctations exteriorly; apical lateral angles with 
a small black tipped spine, those on seventh 
segment not longer than rest. 

Underside: Concolorous except for reddish, 
sometimes blackish, apex of lateral spine on 
thorax and some small black spots on embolium. 
Bucculae low and sinuate, reaching almost to 
base of head, anteriorly lobulately produced. 
Rostral segment I robust, reaching base of 
bucculae; II arched and reaching about middle 
of mesosternum: III reaching between mid and 
hind coxae; IV reaching almost to apex of third 
abdominal ventrite, apically black. Antennae 
rather browner than rest of body, first segment 
not reaching apex of head, ratio of segments 
10:21:22:34:38. 

Propleuron coarsely punctate behind level of 
coxae except on obtuse margin and underside of 
lateral angle, metapleuron sparsely punctate in 
extreme posterior region. Mesosternal keel 
reaching over presternum to apex of latter, more 
elevated in anterior half. Legs normal, tibiae 
cylindrical. 



vontriat fturfOOC 
ol pyyephur..' 




sternum X 

u..rateryile IX 




^u<)a»;o>a 




ventr-al aurfnee 
ol Pygophore 



1 mm 



Fig. 53. Cuxpicona prvsima Walker. Patvcirrftoe woodwardi gen. 

el sp. nov. A-G. Citxpiroiiti proximo, A. ventral aspect of 

male abdomen B. ventral aspect of female abdomen. C. clamper, 

D, Parocinluif woodwardi — ventral aspect of male abdomen. 



146 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (6): 51 167 



December, 1975 



Abdomen strongly V-shaped in posterior view, 
medially rather raised along ventral midline, 
impunctate. Apex of male abdomen Fig 53 A, 
apical margin of pygophore conspicuously 
notched medially with two very shallow black 
lobes laterally about midway between notch and 
lateral margin, medially behind notch above a 



narrow obliquely directed septum, on the inner 
lateral wall on each side a small black tipped 
tooth, Clasper of male, Fig. 53 C, rather Y- 
shaped with one lobe strongly pilose. Apex 
of female abdomen. Fig. 53 B, hind margin 
of first gonocoxae sinuately oblique and not 
produced medially into a rather angular lobe. 



Dimensions 



MALF.S 



Parametur 



Head length 

Head width . . 

Antennal segment i , 

Antennal segment II 

Antennal segment 111 

Antennal segment IV 

Antennal segment V ....... 

Pronotum width 

Pronotum length 

Total length ..,..,.. . . . . 



Parameter 



Heed length . 

Head width ....,.., . 

Antennal segment I 

Antennal segment 11 

Antennal segment III . . 

Antennal segment IV 

Antennal segment V 

Pronotum width ... . . 

Pronotum length 

Total length i 



Number of 




Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Measure men Is 


Mean 


Deviation 


ol' 
Variation 


Range 


15 


39 


21 


5-3 


35-43 


IS 


45 


15 


3-4 


42-47 


26 


i 


04 


3 9 


9-11 


27 


13 


6-3 


18-24 


27 


23 


20 


8-9 


I9-2S 


24 


34 


21 


6-2 


30-38 


17 


37 


2-1 


74 


31-40 


15 


* 


63 


44 


130-153 


15 


5 1 


12-7 


34-52 


15 


201 


13 1 


6-5 


170-210 


FEMALES 








Numhcr ol 




Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Measurements 


Mean 


Deviation 


of 
Variation 


Range 


19 


19 


2-4 


6-2 


35-43 


19 


45 


17 


38 


42-50 


26 


10 


03 


28 


9-11 


31 


21 


09 


4-5 


20-23 


31 


21 


16 


76 


19-25 


25 


33 


:o 


6 1 


28-36 


14 


39 


ii 


2-H 


37-40 


19 


146 


I2'3 


84 


129-173 


19 


39 


5*2 


13 S 


32-50 


19 


200 


13-2 


61 


170-230 


Total length 


8-8- 120 mm 









Remarks: On exterior appearance this species 
would appear to be closest to simplex, though the 
lateral angles of the pronotum are more acutely 
produced. However, the clasper is significantly 
differently shaped in having a rather Y-shaped 
appearance with ihe lower lobe being strongly 
developed. 

Examples of this species from New Guinea 
may have been misidentified as ampin Walker 
(originally described from Waigiu) and at other 
times as laminata Stal as, for example, in the 
Annual Report of the Papua and New Guinea 
Department of Agriculture, Stock and Fisheries 
for the financial year 1965-66 where the follow- 
ing reference occurs on page 1 18. "Heavy popu- 
lations of the pentatomid Cuspieona sp? laminata 
occurred on tobacco at Popondetta." This 
record, and the records below, of the species 
being found frequently on members of the genus 
Solanum are significant as specimens of three 
other species in the group, simplex, neocaledoniae 
and forticornis, have also been recorded from 
Solatium species i see pp. 143-4, 150 and 153), 



Cuspicona proximo was described from the Ke 
Islands. A specimen of each sex, the female 
bearing a green "Type" disc, are in the British 
Museum from this locality. The marking of the 
type seems to be an arbitrary curatorial decision 
according to Dr. W. R, Dolling (pers, com.). 
As this species is most likely to be confused with 
C. ampla (which is represented in the British 
Museum by the original female type and one 
specimen added subsequently to Walker's 
description) I have chosen the female from the 
K(> Islands as the lectotype of C. proximo, and 
the male as a paralcctotype. This species has 
now been recorded from the Aru Islands and 
from New Britain and the Duke of York Islands 
in the Bismark Archipelago (Black, 1968). 
The species can now be recorded from Papua- 
New Guinea (from several species and genera 
of plants ) and possibly also from Celebes. 



Location of types: 

Lectotype 9 para lectotype 
presented W. W. Saunders' 



3, "Kc Islands 
in BM. 



KIIYSClltHORIS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND A I )J ACT NT ARKAS— I 



147 



Specimens examined: Papua-New Guinea & , 
Port Moresby, Papua. 28.11. 1 962. K. R. Norris 
(AN1C); 21 tf. 3 9-9, Komba, New Guinea. 
Reverend I- Wagner (SAM); 8 i 4 , 6 9 9 Pati. 
Popondetta. Northern District of Papua. 1 0- 1 7.1. 
1966. feeding on tobacco, S. ldo & B. Kearo 
(these specimens were taken during infestation 
mentioned in 1965-66 Department of Agricul- 
ture. Stock and Fisheries report cited above); 
i 9 , Wau, New Guinea, 30. X. 1 956. on Solatium 
verbascijolium L. erianthurn D, Don. J H. 
Ardley: sex?, no precise locality or date. New 
Guinea, J. L. Froggatt; ? , Upper Sirimumu in 
Central District. Papua, 8.V.I966. T. Fenner, 
I o . 4 i 9 , Papuan Highland on Soloiinm mam- 
mnsum L., Stock and Rubber Experimental 
Station, Bisianumu. Central District, Papua. I 
( I 600 feet), on Hevea hrasiliensis Muell. Arg. 
seedlings, 1 5. VI. 1962, T. V. van Harren; t 9. 
Redshield Farm (32 miles) from Pi. Moresby, 
Central District, Papua, on Crotalaiia anagy- 
roides H.B.C., I 5. X. 1965. £. Kanjiri ( Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. Stock and Fisheries, Pt 
Moresby). New Britain, 29 9, Rabaul. from 
seedheads of Solatium sp„ 22.V.I94I, .1. L. 
Froggatt; ." 9 , Mosa Plantation, West New 
Britain, 25.IV. I 968, D. F. O'Sullivan, (Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. Stock and Fisheries. Pt. 
Moresby). 

Two specimens collected by Forsten at Ton- 
dano in the Celebes in the RM collections over 
the label ampin Walker appear to be very close 
to, if not, proxima Walker. A note to this effect 
has been added by the author to the labels under 
each example. 



Cuspicona ampla Walker. I 867 

Cuspicona ampla Walker. 1867, p 381. Dis- 
tant. 1888. p. 480. 

Remarks: The type of this species has been 
examined for me by Dr. W. R. Dolling of the 
British Museum and the species appears to be 
distinct from proxima. The species is definitely 
a Cuspicona and differs from the type of proximo 
in that the pronotal dorsal punctation is much 
sparser than that of proximo and that the rostrum 
reaches to the base of abdominal ventrite VII. 
A second specimen from New Guinea bearing 
the label "New Guinea Coll. Sayer" is clearly the 
specimen recorded by Distant and has the ros- 
trum reaching the apex of the seventh abdominal 
ventrite. 



As I have not seen this species in any of the 
material and have examined from the eastern halt 
of New Guinea a detailed description is omitted. 
The species appears to be very close to proxima 
and also to some of the species in the Indonesian 
area. 

Location of type: 

Holotype 9, "Wagiou, presented W. W. 
Saunders'* in BM. 



Cuspicona neocaledoniae sp. nov. 

Figs. 54. 55 A-D 
Description: 

General appearance: Ground colour probably 
green in life but yellowish-brown in museum 
specimens with produced lateral angles of prono- 
tum occasionally faintly pinkish at apices. 
Punctation relatively coarse and even over dorsal 
surface save on dorsum of head, there denser and 
appearing rugulose. 

Head: Concolorous, densely punctate; wider 
than long. Eyes and ocelli purplish or con- 
colorous. 

Pronotum: Concolorous though rarely tip of 
lateral angles faintly pink. Latter produced as 
a short, conical, slightly reflexed, blunt spine, 
about three-quarters length of posterolateral 
margins, its apical portion and calli impunctate, 
Anterior margin strongly and rather obtuse 
angledly excavate behind collum, obliquely trun- 
cate behind eyes. Anterolateral margin before 
produced lateral angle faintly concave, obtuse. 
Posterolateral margin concave, posterior margin 
shallowly concave. 

Scutelum: Concolorous; rather flat but with 
a distinct low. narrow, longitudinal median 
raised line running from base to apex; laterally 
margins basally feebly concave, frena reaching 
about four-sevenths their length, at apices of 
frena broadly angulate, then straight and con- 
verging gradually to subacuminate apex. 

Hemelytro: Coriaceous parts concolorous, 
Lwterior margin of corium slightly concave in 
basal quarter, rather angulately convex in distal 
three-quarters; apical angle strongly convex; 
posterior margin convex. Clavus short and n i 
angular. Membrane hyaline with veins same 
colour, 



14ft 



REC. S. All ST. MUS.. 17 (6): 5l-lf>7 



December. 1975 




Fig. 54. Dorsal aspeel of Cuspicoiui neinuledoiutie sp. nov. 



A bdomen : 
medially. 



Concolorous laterally, darker 



Laterotergites: Concolorous; apical lateral 
angles with a small acute spine, those of seventh 
segment larger. 

Underside: Concolorous. Bucculae low and 
sinuate, reaching almost to base of head, 
anteriorly more raised and rectangularly lobulate. 
First rostral segment robust, reaching to base 
of bucculae. second faintly arched and reach- 
ing about middle of mesoternum, third reaching 
between raid and hind coxae, fourth reaching 
almost to apex of third abdominal ventrite, 
apically tipped with black. Antennae concolor- 
ous, first segment not reaching apex of head, 
shortest, second a little longer than third, fourth 
about 25% longer than second, fifth a little 
longer than fourth. 

Propleuron coarsely punctate except for 
obtuse lateral margins and underside of produced 
lateral angle, metapleuron punctate only in 



extreme posterior portion. Mesosternal keel 
reaching over presternum to apex of latter, some- 
what more elevated in anterior half. Legs 
normal, tibiae cylindrical. 

Abdomen strongly V-shaped in posterior view, 
medially rather raised along ventral midline, 
finely punctate or rugulose laterally. Apex of 
male abdomen Fig. 55 A. apical margin of 
pygophore turned vertically upwards as a sort 
of septum but along ventral surface of the septum 
medially notched, ventral surface of pygophore 
swollen laterally and also basally in the middle. 
Clasper F-shaped, Fig. 55 D. Aedeagus of male 
Fig. 55 C, with phallosoma lightly sclerotized, 
conjunctiva dorsally near base with a pair of 
small "lappet" processes, towards apex dorsally 
produced upwards as a large medial lobe, apico- 
vcntrally produced into a pair of tubular pro- 
cesses. Medial penial plates faintly in the form 
of a thick inverted Y, vesica placed a little in 
front of them. Apex of female abdomen 
Fig. 55 B. 



RHYNCHOCORIS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— I 



149 



Dimensions — 



MALES 



Parameter 



Number of 
Measurements 



Mean 



Head length 

Head width 

Antennal segment I 
Antennal segment II 
Antennal segment III 
Antennal segment IV 
Antennal segment V 
Pronotum width 
Pronotum length 
Total length 



Parameter 



Head length 

Head width 

Antennal segment I 
Antennal segment II 
Antennal segment III 
Antennal segment IV 
Antennal segment V 
Pronotum width 
Pronotum length 
Total length 



II 




35 


12 




39 


19 




9 


20 




19 


20 




18 


17 




25 


X 




28 


12 




126 


12 




34 


12 




172 


FEMALES 




Number of 






Measurements 




Mean 


6 




37 


8 




40 


15 




10 


16 




20 


16 




17 


12 




26 


5 




28 


9 




134 


8 




35 


8 




185 


Total length: 


8-4-10-4 mm 



Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Deviation 


of 


Range 




Variation 




10 


3-0 


33-37 


11 


28 


37-40 


0-7 


7-2 


8-10 


0-9 


4-7 


18-21 


1-7 


90 


15-20 


0-9 


3-4 


25-28 


1-4 


5 


26-30 


6-8 


5-4 


120-140 


20 


60 


30-37 


7-3 


4-3 


161-180 



Standard 


Coefficient 


Observed 


Deviation 


of 


Range 




Variation 




20 


5-4 


33-38 


1-4 


3-4 


38-42 


0-5 


5-3 


9-10 


0-8 


4-2 


19-21 


1-7 


9-8 


15-20 


12 


4-5 


24-28 


1-6 


5-8 


27-30 


8-7 


6-5 


122-150 


2-8 


8-2 


32-41 


9-4 


51 


170-200 



apex ol hemelytia 




5mm 



Fig. 55. Cusplcoha newaledoniae sp. nuv„ Cuspicana clwesmaitac sp. nov. 
A-D. Cuspicana nei/calcdoniae. A. venlral aspect of apex of male abdomen. 
B. ventral aspect of apex of female abdomen. C. aedeagus from lefthand side, 
D. clasper. E. Cuspicana cheemanae — venlral aspect of apex of female abdomen. 



150 



Kl ( S. AUSI. MUS., 17 (6): 51-167 



December, l'J75 



Remarks: Within the simplex group of species 
and commencing with neocaledoniae I have 
placed together a series of species in which the 
posterior margins of the first gonocoxae of the 
female are rather rectangularly produced in 
their inner half and the hind margin of the male 
pygophore has a small notch. Species in this 
final section of Cnspicona occur in the Philippines 
and Indonesia, possibly in South East Asia, 
Australia. New Caledonia and the New Hebrides. 

Location of types: 

Holotype 6 , allotype 9 , Foret de Thi, New 
Caledonia, 8. 11.1957 (Paris); 66 £ 49 9 I? 
paratypes, same data as type; I paratype. 
Noumea, New Caledonia, Sept. 1955, J. Ragcau 
(Orstom — Noumea); 2 3 6 paratypes, Mt. 
Chapeau Gendarme, New Caledonia, in rain- 
forest 7 & 8.VI.1944, J. C. Harrud (Bishop); $ 
29 9 paratypes (Reg. No. 62-7601 ), mountains 



west of Houailou. New Caledonia, on Solatium 
torvum Sw. 5.II.1962, N. H. L. Krauss (USNM); 
i paratype, Grotte de Ninrin-Reu near Poya. 
New Caledonia, at light 25.X1I.1965, G. F. 
Gross on Biospelaeological Expedition to New 
Caledonia; 9 paratype, Noumea, New Caledonia, 
A. M. Lea (SAM). 

Specimens Examined: The types only. 



Cuspicona cheesmanae sp. nov. 
Figs. 55 E. 56 
Description : 

General appearance: Ground colour green 
in life, yellow in museum specimens. Lateral 
angles of pronotum rectangular, hardly or not 
produced; whole upperside except membrane 
moderately coarsely punctate. Rather elongate 
and kite-shaped. 




&«tNf>* K- H*«0 



Fig. 56. DuraJil aspect of Cuspicona cIiccmiuiiiuc sp. nov. 



IWYNCIIOCOIVS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACHNT ARIAS— 1 l?l 

Head: Concolorous, eyes and ocelli purplish. Remarks: This specie.s is very similar in 

Wider than long. Densely punctate so as to appearance to pn'vata Walker which also occurs 

appear rather rugulose, in the New Hebrides, but is more elongate and 

Pronation- Concolorous, Anterior margins lhe '^ml im S [ * s ot the pronotum are more 

strongly excavate behind collum, obliquely trun- prominent and rectangulate whereas m pnvata 

cate behind eyes. Anterolateral margins almost »•«* iire ^oatily rounded. In cheesmanae the 

straight, margins obtuse, lateral angles not pro- i»™ hi,lvcs « the posterior margins of the 

duced beyond line of lateral margins and female gonocoxae are rectangularly produced, in 

rectangular. Posterolateral margins shallowly t' riv ""< tni > Projection has its outer margin more 

bisinuate, posterior margin shallowly concave. inclincd ynd tne whole structure is more roundly 

produced. In private! the fore and middle tibiae 

Sauellum: Concolorous; rather flat but with are rather fl . lt t eri ed apically above but not in 
a distinct low, narrow, percurrent, median line; c i ie{ , smanaei Cheesmanae is probably most 
lateral margins in basal half faintly convex thence c | ose | y rc i afcc t to neocaledoniae. 
straight and converging only gradually to sub- 
acuminate apex. Locution of Types: 

Hemt'lytra; Coriaceous parts concolorous. Holotype ? (Reg. No. 20-660), Nokovula, 

Exterior margin of corium slightly concave in Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides, 1 100 in, by 

basal quarter, faintly convex in distal three- sweeping low herbage, 1 4. IX, 1 97 1, G. F. Gross 

quarters; apical angle of corium strongly convex, on Royal Society — Percy Sladen Trust Expedi- 

postcrior margin gently convex. Clavus short Hon to the New Hebrides (SAM); 2 9 paratype.s. 

and narrow. Membrane with veins hyaline- Malekula, New Hebrides, Dec. 1929 and Jan. 

Abdomen: Concolorous. Iy39 « L ' E ' Checsman. BM .930-38 and BM 

1930-178 (BM). 

Laterotervites: Concolorous; posterior exterior „ . _ . 

, va : n , , ' ■ ,„ specimen* examined: The types only. 

angles with a small but acute spine, minutely ' ■" J 

black tipped or not. 

Underside: Concolorous. Bucculae low and Cuspicona forticornis Brcddin, 1900 

sinuate, reaching almost to base, anteriorly more Figs. 57, 58 A-C 

raised and rectangularly lobulatc First rostral ^ . , . n ■ ,• lnm , , 

. c , Cuspicona orticorms Brcddin, 19(10, p. 28 

segment robust, reaching to base ol bucculae. ... ' „ inn - ,„„ . „ ... ,_ 

e ,'-,.% „ f 1 Fig. 2. Frogeatt, 1902, p. 320 pi. 2. Fig, 17: 

second nearly straight and surpassing fore coxae. .i5._ . _„ *» '_ * r c 

third just surpassing mid coxae and fourth com- . p . - - t- « 

paratively short and reaching visible base of Cuspicona rufispina Van Duzce 1905 Own 

abdomen. Antennae concolorous but two distal Stal, 1870), p. _09. 

segments faintly infuscated, fourth terminally and Description- 

fifth medially; first segment not surpassing apex , rr ,i,,,Ki., 

,, . . J . , b . | . / , , General appearance: Ground colour probablv 

of head, second longer than third, lourth longer . ' ', ,, , ' „•„ J, 

, -J£ , r ir r. i green in life but vellow m museum specimens 

than second and tilth longest or all. rropleuron .„. , , , ,' , , , . 

. r . with produced lateral ancles ot pronotum red 

punctate a over except obtuse a tend margins, .K n . .. , *: . f , , , 

h . '. fr . or pink. Punctation relatively coarse and even 

metap euron punctate in only extreme posterior ' , .. , „ .. . , . 

.' .. H , , J , . * over dorsal surface save on dorsum ot head, 

portion. Mesosterna keel reaching over prosier- ., , . 

v , , . . ? • . • there denser and appearing rugulose. 

num to apex of latter, semicircularly raised in its c c 

anterior half. Legs normal, tibiae cylindrical. Head: Concolorous, densely punctate as 

Abdomen strongly V-shaped. Male terminalia described above. Wider than long, Eyes 

unknown, apex of female abdomen Fig. 55 E. purplish, ocelli pink or concolorous. 

Pronotum: Concolorous except for produced 

D " 11cm ""^ lateral angles which are usually red or pink. 

Parameter Holotype Paratypa La(te| . stlori „j y produced into a short, blunt. 

Haul length J4 J2-3"? slightly upwardly and outward directed spine or 

A« segment. |9 tlfl tail, latter about two-thirds length of poslero- 

Antenna! segment II ... i^ i l »-2i lateral margms, its apical portion impunctate 

tJSSSSSSS'?''"- M j" C alii impunctate. Anterior margin strongly and 

Ant«i na I segment V .. ti 2fi rather irape/.iformly excavate behind collum. 

SSS&Sh~~ '8 'SIT obliquely truncate behind eyes. Anterolateral 

Total length 193 180-201 margins obtuse and straight but diverging 

total i^ngtn V4-KI:' mm posteriorly in anterior half, then obtusely angled 



152 



REC. S. ATJST. MUS., 17 (6): 51-167 



December. 1975 




5 mm- 

Fig. 57. Dorsal aspect of Cuspicona forticornis Breddin. 



to form anterior margin of lateral spines. Pos- 
terolateral and posterior margins shallowly 
concave. 

Scutellum: Concolorous; rather flat; lateral 
margins in basal half feebly convex, frena reach- 
ing about % their length, at apices of frena con- 
cavely angulate, then straight and converging 
gradually to convex but narrowish apex. 

Hemelytra: Coriaceous parts concolorous. 
Exterior margin of corium slightly concave in 
basal quarter, faintly convex in distal three- 
quarters; posterior margin of corium strongly 
convex. Clavus relatively short and narrow. 
Membrane hyaline with veins same colour. 



Abdomen: 
laterally. 



Apparently concolorous, at least 



Laterotergites: Concolorous; apical lateral 
angles minutely black spined; finely punctate in 
exterior half. 



Underside: Head concolorous, occasionally 
lateral margins pink. Bucculae low and sinuate, 
reaching almost to base, anteriorly more raised 
and lobulate. First rostral segment robust, 
reaching to base of bucculae, second arched and 
surpassing fore coxae, third surpassing second 
coxae, fourth reaching nearly to base of fourth 
abdominal ventrite. Antennae concolorous or 
pale brown, second and third segments subequal, 
fourth and fifth much longer and subequal. 
Thorax concolorous except underside of pro- 
duced lateral angles of prothorax red. Pro- 
plcuron conspicuously punctate in posterior half 
and metapleuron in extreme posterior portion. 
Metasternal-mesosternal keel reaching over 
presternum to apex, higher anteriorly than 
posteriorly. Legs normal, tibiae cylindrical; 
concolorous. Epipleuron faintly marked with 
brown spots. 

Abdomen V-shaped in posterior view; con- 
colorous but occasionally lateral margins pink. 



RHYNCHOCORIS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— I 



153 



Apex of male abdomen Fig. 58 A. Clasper, 
Fig. 58 C, F-shaped, medially rather robust with 
an obliquely directed upper ramus. Apex of 
female abdomen Fig. 58 B. 

Dimensions — 

Parameter Mean of Males Mean of 

(7) Females (7) 

Head length 37 39 

Head width 45 46 

Anlennal segment I 10 10 

Antennal segment II 20 22 

Antennal segment III 20 22 

Antennal segment IV 32 32 

Antennal segment V , . . 33 33 

Pronotum width 157 163 

Pronotum length 42 43 

Total length 214 222 

Total length: 9-9-1 2 5 mm 

Remarks: This species occurs in a fairly 
narrow belt in far eastern Australia ranging 
from New South Wales to Northern Queensland. 

Location of Type: 

Holotype £ of forticornis Breddin, "New 
South Wales" (not located). 



Specimens examined: 

Queensland 6 2 , Upper Mulgrave River, 
20.1V. 1970, G. B. Monteith; 2, Gap Creek, 
8 km (5 miles) north of Bloomfield River, 30 m 
( 100ft. ) 8-9. V. 1970, G. B. Monteith UQ; 2$ Z . 
North Tambourine, on low bushes in grassland, 
7.III.1955 M. B. Wilson QM; i, Caboolture 
River, Caboolture, on Solanum, 6. II. 1959, T. G. 
Campbell ANIC; 6 , Rockhampton SAM; 2 , 
Mt. Glorious, Mar. 1963, J. E. Dunwoody 
BISHOP. New South Wales S , 3 km (2 miles) 
south of Port Macquarie, on Solarium maritianum 
Scop., 7.XI.1958, T. G. Campbell; ? , Coffs 
Harbour, 20.X.1958, T. G. Campbell ANIC; 
2 , Tweed River SAM; <5 2 , no precise locality 
but bearing labels (I) "347 N.S.Wales" (2) 
"Pres. by Perth Museum. BM 1953-629"; 2, 
no precise locality but bearing label "347 N.S. 
Wales" AMNH (this is the specimen misidentified 
by Van Duzee as rufispina Stal). 



apex ol hemelytra 

ventral surface 
of pygophore 




2mm- 




npex of hemelytra 

^ventral surface 
of pyjophore 



sternum X 

pa.-atergite K 



sternum X 

paratergite K 



first gonocoxa 




clasper 



Fig. 58. Ciispicona jorlicornis Breddin, Cuspicona exnigrospersa sp. 
nov. A-C. Cuspicona forticornis. A. ventral aspect of apex of male 
abdomen. B. ventral aspect of apex of female abdomen. C. clasper. 
D-F. Cuspicona exnigrospera, D. ventral aspect of apex of male 
abdomen. E. ventral aspect of apex of female abdomen. F. clasper. 



154 



REC. S. AUST MUS.. 17 (6): 51 167 



December, 1975 



Cuspicona exnigrospersa sp. nov. 
Figs. 58 D-F. 59 
Description; 

General appearance: Ground colour probably 
green in life but yellow in museum specimens 
with produced lateral angles of pronotum and 
extreme lateral margins of head and abdomen 
red, and with black spots and black marks 
laterally on sides of pronotum and abdomen. 



Punctation relatively coarse and even over dorsal 
surface save on dorsum of head, there denser and 
appearing rugulose. 

Head: Concolorous with extreme lateral 
margin frequently red or pink; wider than long. 
Eyes purplish, ocelli pink or concolorous. 
Densely punctate so as to appear rather rugulose. 
Much wider than long; first antennal segment 
not surpassing apex. 








%***d*±g. 




5mm. 

Fig. ?'). Dorsal aspect of Cuspicona exnigrospersa sp. nov. 



Pronotum: Concolorous except along antero- 
lateral margins (maculated with black) and pro- 
duced lateral angles (red or pink). Latter 
strongly produced into a blunt upwardly and out- 
ward directed, strong, apically slightly recurved 
spinous processes, these as long or longer than 
posterolateral margins. Apical portions of these 



spines impunctate. Calli impunctate. Anterior 
margin strongly and rather obtuse angledly 
excavate behind collum, obliquely truncate 
behind eyes. Anterolateral margins in front of 
spinous lateral angles rather concave and obtuse. 
Posterolateral margins nearly straight, posterior 
margins shallowlv concave. 



KHY\>( ll()t ORIS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACFNT AREAS— I 



155 



Scutelhtm: Concolorous; rather Hat, lateral 
margins basally feebly convex, t'rena reaching 
about r '.| the length, at apices of frena rather 
angulate. thence straight and converging only 
gradually to convex but narrowish apex. 

Hemelytrci: Coriaceous parts concolorous, 
in some specimens basal half of exterior margin 
of corium pinkish or pinkish with black spots. 
Exterior margin of corium slightly concave in 
basal quarter, faintly convex in distal three- 
quarters: posterior margin of corium strongly 
convex Clavus relatively short and narrow. 
Membrane hyaline with veins same colour. 



Apparently concolorous, at least 



Abdomen: 
laterally. 

Luterotcrgilcs: Apical lateral angles acute or 
minutely spined; lateral margins broadly pink, 
in some specimens this pink bordered exteriorly 
and very narrowly with black; inner halves 
concolorous. 

Underside: Head concolorous, occasionally 
lateral margins pink or red. Bucculae low and 
sinuate, reaching almost to base, anteriorly more 
raised and reclangulalely lobulate, First rostral 
segment robust, reaching to base of bucculae. 



Dimensions 



Parameter 



second curved and surpassing first coxae, third 
just surpassing second coxae and fourth reaching 
about middle of third abdominal segment, latter 
apically black. Antennae concolorous or pale 
brown, second and third segments subequal in 
length, fourth longer and fifth longest. Thorax 
concolorous except for exterior margins of pro- 
thorax which are black spotted and hind margin 
of produced lateral angles may have a thin 
black line, produced lateral angles themselves 
red or pink beneath. Propleuron conspicu- 
ously punctate in posterior half and metapleuton 
in extreme posterior portion. Metasternal- 
mesosternal keel reaching over prosternum 
almost to apex, higher anteriorly than posteriorly. 
Legs normal, tibiae cylindrical; concolorous 
except apices of tibiae and tarsi tending reddish 
brown, Epipleuron maculated with black. 

Abdomen V-shaped in posterior view; con- 
colorous but lateral margins frequently reddish 
or pinkish, sometimes exteriorly to this narrowly 
black. Apex of male abdomen Fig. 58 D, pos- 
terior margin of pygophore black. Clasper Fig. 
58 F, strongly F-shaped and upper ramus more 
vertically directed than in jorticornis and with 
an opaque bar visible in its ventral area. Apex 
of female abdomen Fig, 58 E. 



Head length . 

Head widlh 

Antenna] segment I . , 

Antenna! segment II ., 

Antcnnal segment HI 

Antennal segment IV , .., 

Antcnnal segment V . .... . . 

Pronoium Wrath 

Pronotum length 

Total length 



Hololype 



34 

42 
10 
19 

22 

53 

.if. 

ISO 

42 

205 



Allotype 



35 

44 

I 

22 

25 

38 



185 

45 
225 



Mean of 


Mean of 


all Males 


all Females 


(8) 


13) 


3J 


34 


41 


43 


10 


II 


20 


23 


11 


23 




.12 


38 


35 


— 


lt>3 


177 


39 


40 


1% 


207 



total length : I07-H7mm 



Remarks; This species is clearly closely 
related to jorticornis but differs from it in the 
longer spine formed by the production of the 
anterolateral margins of the pronotum and 
the lateral black spots on the pronotum and epi- 
pleuron, The male and female external genitalia 
look very similar but in the male of exnigrospersa 
the medial "notch" on the posterior margin does 
not have the two little produced lobes, one on 
either side of it, which occur in jorticornis. The 
posterior margin is also usually black in exnigws- 
persa but not in jorticornis. In the female 
exnigrospersa the posterior margins of the first 
gonocoxac are more deeply excised than in 
jorticornis. The clasper of e\nif>rospersu is 
narrower than that of jorticornis and the upper 
ramus is more vertically directed. 



This species seems to occur only in a limited 
area near the eastern portion of the Queensland- 
New South Wales border. 

Locution of types: 

Holotype i (Reg. No, K5 1 604), 2 $ 6 para- 
types (Reg. Nos. both K51267), Mt. Tam- 
bourine. Queensland, Oct. J924, A. Musgrave 
& C. Gcissman AM; allotype 9, National Park, 
Queensland. Dec. 1910, H. Hacker (with addi- 
tional label Brit. Mus, 1926-241) BM; 4 3 
paratypes (Reg. Nos. 120,658-9), Mt. Tam- 
bourine, Queensland, A. M, Lea SAM; I 2 
paratypes. Tambourine Mountain, H. Hacker; 3 
paratype. Tambourine, 21.11.1927. H. Hacker 
QM: ? paratype Lamington National Park, 
Queensland. 17-21.11.1964, G. Monteith & 



156 



RhC S. AUST MUS„ 17 (6) 51-167 



Drtr/lll'Cr, I97S 



H. A. Rose UO; 9 paraiypc. New South 

Wales STOCKHOLM; i paratype. Tambourine, 

Queensland, 500-550 m, 15.11. 1 964, J. Sedlacck 

BISHOP. 

Specimens examined: The types only. 



Cuspicona rufispina StiiJ, 1 870 
Cuspicona rufispina Stal, J 870 p. 636; 1876, 
p. 103. 

Remarks: 

This Philippine species was erroneously 
reported from Australia by Van Duzee ( 1905, 
p. 209) but a re-examination of the specimen 
Van Duzee saw reveals that it is in fact an 
example of C. fortincornis Breddin. 

Cuspicona rufispina is very similar in appear- 
ance to C. exnigrosperso but differs from it in 
lacking the black speckling along the antero- 
lateral margin of the pronotum and on the 
epipleuron, and the black marks along the 
margins of the abdomen ( as seen from below or 
in side view), In addition in rufispina the head 
is only about 5-10% shorter than its width across 
the eyes and the third antenna! segment is about 
15% shorter than the second. In exnigrospersa 



the head is 15% or more shorter than its width 
across the eyes and the second and third antennal 
segments are about the same length. 

The male pygophorc from beneath and the 
female external genitalia from below resemble 
more closely those of C. jorticornis but rufispina 
differs from this species in the much longer 
lateral spines of the pronotum, in its relatively 
longer head, and in the third antennal segment 
being shorter than the second; in jorticornis as 
in exnigrospersa the head in shorter than wide 
and the second and third antennal segments are 
about the same length. 

Cuspicona rufispina is clearly closely allied to 
jorticornis, exnigrospersa, neocaledoniae and to 
a lesser extent to proximo Walker. In the con- 
signment of Cuspicona species lent to me by the 
British Museum (Natural History) were three 
further specimens belonging to two species, 
probably both undescribed, one from Mindanao 
in the Philippines and the other from Tondano 
in the Celebes, which, though the lateral spines 
of the pronotum are concolorous, are clearly 
also members of this same group of species. 

Comparative measurements (in eyepiece 
divisions) on all of these specimens are: 



Head length 

Head width 

Antennal segment T , 

Antennal segment II 

Antennal segment III 

Antennal segment IV 

Antennal segment V 

Pronpkiro width 

Pronotum length 

Total length , 



Hololyoe J 


Allotype 


No. 1 $ 


No. Itf 


cf 


Of 


of 


Mindanao 


Mindanao 


Tondano 


iti/i'spina 


rufisirimi 








40 


40 


32 


43 


39 


42 


44 


44 


46 


43 


10 


10 


II 


10 


9 


24 


24 


24 


25 


21 


20 


21 


30 


27 


24 


— 


33 


40 


— 


a 


— 


36 


41 


— 




165 


ISO 


170 


182 


165 


40 


40 


40 


40 


38 


205 


208 


230 


240 


200 



Very likely Cuspicona curtispina Stal 1861 
from Java belongs to this same complex and 
requires further investigation. It is probable that 
the major differences between these species, as 
in the case of simplex, proximo, neocaledoniae, 
checsmanae, jorticornis and exnigrospersa, would 
lie in the length and colour of the lateral spines 
of the pronotum and in the structure of the 
claspers of the males. 

Location of Types: 

Holotype 8 and allotype 9, Ins. Philipp. 
Stockholm. 

Everardia gen. nov. 

Type species: Everardia picta sp. nov. 

Description: 

General appearance: Type species bright 
green and red in life, smallish, rather oval. 



anterolateral margins of pronotum at first straight 
and diverging posteriorad, then at about midway 
angled more strongly exteriorly though still 
straight, lateral angles subacute or rounded. 
Head and anterior part of pronotum inclined at 
an angle of about 45 : to rest of body. 

Head: Not appearing elongate, wider across 
eyes than long, lateral margins strongly concave 
in front of eyes, juga then rounding broadly to 
apex, apex of head wide, juga not surpassing 
apex of antcclypeus, latter rather broad. Eyes 
rather triangular and touching anterior margin 
of pronotum, ocelli conspicuous and placed 
about midway between inner margin of eyes 
and centre of head, but somewhat behind level 
of kind margin of eyes. Antennifers short, 
antennae five segmented, segments I, IV and V, 
thicker than II and JIT; antennae not very long. 



RHYNCHOCOR1S GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— I 



157 



Pronation: About twice as wide as long, 
anterior margin strongly but obliquely truncate 
behind eyes, then deeply excavate behind collum, 
anterolateral angles only very minutely promin- 
ent. Anterolateral margins straight or slightly 
concave in anterior half and diverging gradually 
posteriorad, at about mid length abruptly angling 
exteriorly to diverge much more strongly to 
obtuse or subacute lateral angles. Posterolateral 
margins rather rectangularly excavate, angu- 
lately turning to become the truncate posterior 
margin. Disc behind lateral angles in same plane 
as hind body, before level of lateral angles 
inclined downwards at about 45 . 

Scutellum: Elongately triangular, anteriorly 
rather raised, lateral margins anteriorly rather 
convex, medially rather concave, apex broadly 
rounded. Frena extending half length from 
base to apex. 



Hemelytra: Coriaceous parts normally 
thickened. Corium with lateral margins basally 
thickened then concave, behind this straight to 
almost subacute apex, posterior margin strongly 
convex. Clavus strongly triangular. Membrane 
with veins substantially parallel except at base. 

Abdomen: Rather flat above and slightly 
excavate in males and truncate apically in 
females. 

Laterotergites: Three to seven armed with a 
short acute spine on posterior exterior angles. 

Underside: Head obtusely triangular in lateral 
view. Bucculae faintly lobulately produced 
anteriorly and then vaguely sinuate, reaching to 
above middle of eyes, between bucculae deeply 
sulcate. Rostrum four segmented, first segment 
leaching base of bucculae, second just past fore 
coxae, third just to second coxae and fourth to 




^TT'\ A 




*i£S? 







5 mm. 



Eig. 60. Dorsal aspect nf Evcruiilia pitta gen. et sp. rtov. 



m 



REl S. AUST. MUS.. 17 (6): 51-167 



December, iy75 



about hind coxae. Meso- and metasterna with 
a robust keel projecting over posterior portion of 
presternum, latter broadly sulcate under the keel. 
Abdominal venter more or less semicircular in 
cross section in posterior view, third segment 
medially raised into a short triangular tubercle 
directed anteriorly, its apex fitting into a notch 
in the metasternal keel. Seventh ventrite in 
males excised posteriorly and in females much 
more deeply incised. Pygophore with lateral 
angles produced and rounded and medially on 
posterior ventral margin a small process. 
Aedeagus with phallosoma lightly sclerotized, a 
prominent pair of anterior conjunctival processes 
and with ventrally placed and directed, parallel, 
rather bilobed medial penial plates. Clasper 
rather F-shaped. Female external genitalia 
llattened medially. 

General Remarks: Only the type species 
known of this genus. At first appearance the 
species looks rather like a Cuspicona but the 
strongly uncised lateral angles of the pronotum 



indicates that it is a separate genus. The 
structure of the aedeagus indicates a close 
relationship to Cuspicona and Petalaspis. 



Everardia picta sp. nov. 
Figs. 60, 61 A-E 
Description : 

General appearance: Ground colour green 
in life, yellow in museum specimens, with red, 
yellow, luteous and black markings; hind part 
of scutellum coarsely punctate, scutellum and 
coriaceous parts of hcmelytra more finely 
punctate. 

Head: Concolorous; juga transversely 
wrinkled; base rugose punctate or impunctatc 
and slightly swollen: eyes and ocelli reddish 
purple. 

Pronotum: Concolorous in anterior half 
except along midline (luteous); about halfway 
back a transverse fine sinuate red line projecting 



— 1mm 



paratergite VIII 



ventt.nl surface ol pygoptiore 



sternum !X 
paratergile JX 
segment VII 




medial penial plate 



phallosoma 



capitate process 
O^sal plates 



medial penlwl plates 



coniunclival lobe 





clasper 



05mm 



Fig. 61. Everardia picta gm, et sp. nov. A. ventral aspect of apex of male abdomen. B. ventral 
aspect of apex of female abdomen. C\ lefthand side view of aedeagus. D. ventral view of aedeagus. 

K. clasper. 



HIIYNCI IOC ORIS CROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— I 



Is? 



forward medially, behind this line luteous with 
red punetations, anteriorly punetations con- 
colorous. Midline almost glabrous, anterior 
margin reflexcd, immediately behind it a single 
transverse line of course punetations, calli 
impunctaie, behind calli coarsely punctate. 

Scutellum: Medially in basal half eoneolorous 
lateral margins (broadly) and apical third 
luteous, a red fascia on each side just outward a 
luteous callous point in each basal angle, another 
at medial concavity of pronotum on each side 
and obscuring the luleous margin in this region, 
and a smaller one on each side just before apex. 
In apical third of scutellum and along lateral 
margins some red punetations, punetations on 
basal two-thirds medially eoneolorous; frena 
black. 

Heinelytra: Coriaceous parts eoneolorous with 
eoneolorous punetations, inner margin of clavus 
(at very base quite broadly, rest narrowly) black, 
inner sixth of hind margin of corium also black. 
Membrane hyaline. 

Abdomen: Concolorous with black quadrate 
spots or paired more rounded spots medially on 
some of the distal segments, genital segment 
concolorous. 



Laterotergiies: Concolorous with a red spot 
or bar along anterior and posterior margins and 
posterior portion of exterior margins, spines 
tipped with black. 

Underside: Head concolorous; bucculae low 
and sinuate, apically a little rectangularly pro- 
duced, reaching only to about anterior margin 
of eyes, head rather swollen behind bucculae. 
Fourth rostral segment black. 

Thorax concolorous but with a red spot al 
common base of episterna and epimera. Legs 
normal, tibiae cylindrical or vaguely flattened. 

Abdomen concolorous but with a small red 
spot laterally in the anterior angle, and lateral 
margin in posterior quarter red, of each 
segment. Apex of male abdomen Fig. 61 A. 
Claspcr Fig. 61 E. F-shapcd. 

Aedeagus Fig. 61 C-D, with phallosoma very 
lightly sclerotized and honey coloured, probably 
the conjunctiva was not completely inflated in 
the dissections but the "lappet" processes are 
strongly developed, there are two rather tubular 
conjunctival lobes and the medial penial plates 
are large, parallel and ventrally placed and 
directed, their ventral surfaces strongly concave. 
Apex of female abdomen Fig. 61 B. 



Dimensions- 



Head length 

Head width 

Antennal segment I 
Antennal segment II 
Antennal segment III 
Antennal segment IV 
Antennal segment V 
Pronotum width 
Pronotum length . 
Total lenglh ,.., 



Parameter 



MALES (Irom II specimens) 
Mean 



-- -i- - 







• ■ - 





• • 

...... 



26 
35 

f> 
14 

9 
14 
16 
77 

n 

141 



Standard 
Deviation 



16 
14 
0-5 
0-8 
II 
10 
05 
3.4 
20 
82 



Coeflicieni 

or 

Variation 

60 
40 
H-3 
5-3 
11-6 
7-3 
3 3 
4-4 
6-3 
S8 



Observed 
Range 



23-28 
33-38 

3-7 
13-15 

8-11 
13-16 
15-16 
71-81 
29-36 
125-150 



Parameter 



KEM 'SLES (Irom 17 specimens) 
Mean 



Head length 28 

Head width 36 

Antennal segment I 7 

Antennal segment II ... 13 

Antennal segment III . . . . . 9 

Antennal segment IV .;.,.: . 14 

Antennal segment V .... 15 

Pronotum width 81 

Pronotum length ... 34 

Total lenglh 148 

Total length: 6-5-8-6 mm 



Standard 
Deviation 



I -I 

15 
I I 
08 
II 
I I 
3 5 
2'6 
8-7 



Coefficient 

or 
Variation 

7-8 
3 2 
22-4 
8-2 
90 
8-3 
7-3 
4-3 
7-6 
5-8 



Observed 

Range 



25-31 
34-38 

5-10 
11-15 

7-10 
11-15 
13-18 
75-88 
30-39 
135-165 



Remarks', All but two specimens have been 
collected in arid regions. The "tea-tree" men- 
tioned by Brumby on the labels of the specimens 
he collected may be u species of Melaleuca for 



this genus occurs in the Everard Ranges area, but 
equally he could have applied it to a species of 
Thryptomene as the latter, apart from its small 
size, resembles Melaleuca. 



160 



RL.«. . S AilST. MUS.. 17 (6); 51 16? 



Itwmher, i**75 



Location of Types: 

Holotype i , allotype ? . 8 ,•; .{ 10 9 9, 
paratypcs (Reg. Nos. [20,634-53), Lverard 
Ranges, South Australia to Warburton Ranges, 
Western Australia, A. Brumby (parutypes on 
flowering tea-tree): I •-' , 19 paratypes (Reg. 
Nos, 120.654-5), Victoria Desert 6 km 
(= 4 miles) south west of Maynard's Bore. 
Everard Park Station. South Australia, 6. IX. 
1970, G, F. Gross (by beating Thryptomcne 
maisonneuvi FvM. — a small myrtuceous plant); 
i paratype ( Reg. No. 120.656), Adelaide 
Hills, South Australia. Jon. 1968 and ? para- 
type (Reg. No. 120,657), same general 
locality, 20.1.69, C. van Dyk SAM; 3 9 9 para- 
types, Murchison River. Western Australia. 21. 
XI. 1963, .1. Sedlacek (BISHOP); 9 paratype, 
48 km (= 30 miles) east of Southern Cross, 
350 m. Western Australia. I6.IX.I962. E. S. 
Ross & D Q. Cavagnaro CA. 

Specimens examined; The types only. 



Parocirrhoe gen. nov. 

Type species: Parocirrhoe woodwardi sp. nov. 

Description ; 

General appearance: Very similar to Ocirrlioe 
but posterior angles of seventh laterotergites 
strongly produced and pygophore diltercnl. 
Species probably bright green in life; small, elon- 
gate oval, lateral angles of pronotuiu rounded, 
head and anterior portion inclined at an angle of 
about 30 

Head. Appearing rather broad, wider across 
eyes than long, basally rather raised, apical ly 
flattened. Anteclypeus only a very litlle pro- 
duced past apices of juga and convex apically, 
juga apically broadly rounded and laterally 
broadly concave above antennifers. Eyes tri- 
angular and touching anterior margin of prono- 
tum, ocelli conspicuous and placed just inward 
of inner posterior angles of eyes. Antennifers 
short, antennae five segmented, first segment 
shorter and thicker than others. 

Pronotum: More than twice as wide as long, 
anterior margin only shallowly concave behind 
collum, anterolateral angles only very slightly 
prominent. Anterolateral margins nearly straight 
almost to base and strongly diverging posteriorly, 
anterolateral angles rounded. Posterolateral 
margins rather angulately concave, posterior 
margin shallowly concave. Disc behind level of 



lateral angles in the same plane as hind body, in 
front of level of lateral angles inclined down- 
wards at about 30 . 

Scutellum: Triangular, flattisb; frena extend- 
ing for nearly half length from base to apex; in 
basal third only slightly raised. 

liemelvtia; Coriaceous parts rather trans- 
parent. Corium with outer apical angles 
rounded and lateral margins very slightly convex, 
posterior margin also faintly convex. C'lavus 
narrow but triangular. Membrane with veins 
substantially parallel apically. 

Abdomen: Apparently flatfish above, deeply 
excised apically in males. 

Laterotergites; III to VI armed with a small 
acute spine on each posterior exterior angle, VII 
with apical angle rather strongly produced pos- 
tcj loriy. triangular with acute apex. 

Underside. Head rather triangular in lateral 
view. Bucculae rather lobulately produced 
anteriorly then convex, reaching to about mid- 
way along eyes, between bucculae deeply suleatc. 
Rostrum four segmented, segment I not reaching 
base of bucculae, II a little past lore coxae, Hi 
about midway between second and third coxae, 
IV to base of third abdominal ventrite. Meso- 
and metasterna with a robust raised keel project- 
ing forward over prosternum, low to about 
midway betwee mid and hind coxae then becom- 
ing elevated to reach its highest elevation just 
before lore coxae, prolhorax shallowly and 
obliquly keeled on either side of thi.s keel. 
Abdominal venter beneath with sides flattened 
and oblique, medially rounded, third segment 
medially raised into a short triangular tubercle 
directed anteriorly, its apex fitting into a notch in 
the mesosternal keel. Seventh abdominal seg- 
ment deeply incised. Pygophore ventrally with 
lateral angles slightly produced medianly into a 
posteriorly directed triangular process, Hind 
margins of first gonocoxae of females transverse. 

General Remarks: At first sight this genus 
resembles Ocirrlioe very closely and could easily 
be confused with it. However it differs in that 
the apical angles of the seventh laterotergites are 
much more strongly produced and the hind tibiae 
are not flattened (although the first and second 
are flattened ja-,1 before their apices). The 
median triangular spine on the hind margin of 
the pygophore indicates that the genus has a 
closer rclaiionship with such genera as Petalapis. 
Vitellus and Avicenna rather than to Ocirrlioe 
Only the type species is known. 



RHYNCHOCORIS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— 1 



161 



Parocirrhoc woodwardi sp. nov. 
Figs. 48 F, 53 D, 62 
Description: 

General appearance: Probably green in life 
but the type yellowish, smallish. 

Head: Concolorous, eyes and ocelli purplish. 
Juga dorsally punctate, anteclypeus with only 
several sparse punctations. Head behind base 
of anteclypeus transversly rugulose, immediately 
adjacent to eyes glabrous. 

Pronotum: Concolorous, densely punctate 
but ocelli and anterolateral margins impunctate. 

Scutellum: Concolorous, densely punctate. 
In apical half medially a broad flattened (but 
punctate) mark becoming a short raised 
impunctate keel apically. 



Hemelytra: Coriaceous parts concolorous, 
densely punctate; membrane hyaline. 

Abdomen: Concolorous. 

Laterotergiles: Concolorous, posterior lateral 
spines black tipped. 

Underside: Concolorous except eyes purplish 
and a lateral black irregular macula near exterior 
margin of metapleuron and about equidistant 
from base and apex. Apical halves of tarsal 
claws black. Head slightly rugulose and 
depressed in front of antennifers. Propleuron 
conspicuously punctate only posteriorly, meso- 
pleuron with only mesepisternum punctate, 
metapleuron punctate posteriorly and on mete- 
pisternum. Abdomen rather rugulose. Apex 
of male abdomen Fig. 53 D, the ventral margin 





*£- ~J^ % 



' 






"y4 \ 

1 V 



m 



it Jk 

; Ml* 



■•'/ 



*v 



- 




H*.*uo« K. H«»t, 



5 mm.- 



Fig. 62. Dorsal aspect of Parocirrhoe woodwurdi gen. 61. sp. nov. 



162 RKC. S. AUST. MUS.. 17 tfo- 11-167 Ihrrnilwr, 1975 

of pygophore sinuate on either side of median Pronotum: About twice as wide as long, 

process, ventral surface with a depressed pit Anterior margin rather concave, anterolateral 

on each side near spine margin and about mid- angles only very slightly prominent. Antero- 

way between median process and lateral margin, lateral margins straight almost to base and 

Apex of female abdomen Fig. 48 F, posterior strongly diverging posteriorly, then turning 

margins of first gonocoxac nearly transverse, inward shortly at 90 forming rectangular 

apical spines of paratergite VIII strongly lateral angles. Posterolateral margins strongly 

produced. concave and rounding broadly to become the 

strongly concave posterior margin. Disc behind 

Dimensions l cve ] f lateral angles in same plane as hind 

Holotype Allotype Paratype e . r .... 

j body, before level ot lateral angles inclined 

, A n ., downwards at about 45 . 

Head length ,.., .10 13 3.1 

Head width 38 41 39 ri „ a ,. . , „ 

Antennai segment l 7 8 x Scntellum: Strongly triangular, flattish, trena 

Antennal segment f i \\ f| !: extending for four fifths of length from base to 

Antennai segment III 15 16 16 ° ;<? 

Antennai segment iv 20 2: 21 true apex. Apex beneath with a square pale 

Prl e ml3.h nlV .: .:: 5i Vi « ^prol^d plate, latter in plane of body and 

Pronoium length 37 31 4t> beginning at apices of frena and extending about 

Total length 165 170 isi an equal distance past true apex of scutcllum. 

Total length: 8-7-90 mm . 

Heinelylra: Coriaceous parts pale and rather 

transparent, Corium with outer apical angles 

Location of types. almost truncate and lateral margins very slightly 

Holotype i (Reg. No. T72I8), South CO nvex, posterior margin straight exteriorly but 

Queensland, Koongalala Point, Lamington broadly rounded interiorly. Clavus strongly 

National Park, 29.X.1955. T. E. Woodward triangular. Membrane hyaline, veins sub- 

OM, allotype v, Dorrigo, New South Wales, slantially parallel apically. 
W. Heron SAM 120,661; Paratype ?, Sydney, 

Sept. 1902, ex Helms Collection BISHOP. Abdomen: Flattish above, rather deeply 

excised apically in males. 

Specimens examined: The types and 

unlocalised 1 i , BM. Lateroterxites: Three to six armed on pos- 
terior exterior angles with a short acute spine, 
seven with apical angle rather strongly triangu- 
larly produced posteriorly with apex acute. 

Pctalaspis Bergroth, J 91 6 Underside: Head rather triangular in lateral 

Peto'asp's Bergroth, 1916. p. 29. view. Bucculae tather lobulalely produced 

anteriorly then rather sinuate, reaching base of 

Type species: Petalaspis tesconon Bergroth. cycs between bucculae rather deeply .sulcate. 

191 o (monotypy). Rostrum four segmented, first segment reaching 

Descrinti nv ' 3asc °* t»ucculue, second to about midway 

' ,. ' n , .. . . . between fore and hind coxae, third to about 

General appearance: Pale yellowish (museum mK , ^ ^^ ^ thjnj coxae f h 

specimens); medium sized, elongate oval lateral (o ^V rf ^^ abdom|m| , ^^ M(jso _ 

angles of pronotum acute Head and an er.or gQd mctastcrna wjth „ robusl raised kee| ject . 

portion of pronotum u.elmed at an angle of [ng ^^ ^ prothurax there directcd 

' ■ ' somewhat to left (as viewed from below) so 
Head: Rather elongate but still wider across that rostrum passes to right of its apex. Pro- 
eyes than long, tapering anteriorad, basally sternum rather sulcate under this keel, 
slightly convex, apically flattened. Anteclypeus Abdominal venter beneath with sides flattened 
a little produced beyond apices of juga and and oblique, medially broadly raised, third 
rounded apically; juga apically rounded, laterally segment medially raised into a short triangular 
slightly concave above antennifers. Eyes rather tubercle directed anteriorly, its apex fitting into 
triangular and touching anterior margin of a notch on base of metasternal keel, Seventh 
pronotum, ocelli conspicuous and placed just ventrite deeply excised posteriorly in males and 
inward of inner posterior angles of eyes. Anten- females. Pygophore ventrally with lateral angles 
nifers short, antennae five segmented, first produced a little and truncate, medially with a 
segment shortest and thicker than others posteriorly directed process. Clasper rather 



RHYNCHOCORIS GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT AREAS— 1 



163 



F-shaped and similar to that of Cuspicona spp. 
Aedeagus with phallosoma lightly sclerotized, 
three pairs of conjunctival processes the ventral 
pair apparently medial penial plates. Female 
external genitalia rather flattened medially. 

General remarks: Only the type species is 
known in this genus, in general appearance 
species is very similar to some species of 
Cuspicona which do not have produced lateral 
angles to the pronotum. However the square 
plate like structure under the apex of the 
scutellum distinguishes this genus from Cuspicona 
and indicates a relationship closer to Vitellus. 

Petalaspis tescorum Bergroth, 1916 
Figs. 63, 64 A-D 
Petalaspis tescorum Bergroth, 1916, p. 29-30. 

Description : 

General appearance: Moderate sized, elon- 
gate obovate. General colour straw coloured 



but with lateral angles of the pronotum some- 
times narrowly reddish, also the posterior apices 
of the seventh laterotergites and the genital seg- 
ments. Dorsally finely and concolorously 
punctate. 

Head: Juga rather finely transversely 
wrinkled; base finely punctate; eyes and ocelli 
reddish purple. First antennal segment not 
surpassing apex. 

Pronotum: Finely punctate, punctations 
generally concolorous but sometimes a little 
darker than ground colour. Calli impunctate. 
Sometimes a faint reddish suffusion posteriorly. 

Scutellum: Finely punctate, punctations 
generally (but not always) concolorous. Medi- 
ally in basal half a raised nearly glabrous line. 

Hemelytra: Corium and clavus finely con- 
colorously punctate. A small black spot at 
apex of clavus; membrane including its veins 
hvaline. 




S ' 



■■';-' 




)*»•> V ''; }:■..' 



jgflB 




BftH-t^o** W Vtl^WO 



5mm- 



Fig. (i3. Dorsal aspect Pctuhispis Ic'scorum Bergroth. 



164 



RFC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (6): 51-167 



December. 1975 



Laterotergites: Posterior angles of III to VI 
with small backwardly directed black tipped 
spines, posterior angle of VII produced into a 
much larger flattened posteriorly directed spine; 
this spine, posterior margin of laterotergite VII 
and posterior margin of last abdominal segment 
reddish. 

Underside: Bucculae low and sinuate, not 
reaching base of head, rounded anteriorly. Head 
laterally rather swollen below antennifers. First 
segment of rostrum reaching to about level of 
base of antennifers, second segment curved and 
reaching just behind fore coxae, third segment 
to just behind middle coxae, fourth segment to 
base of fourth abdominal ventrite. Rostrum 
yellow with pale reddish infusion, tip of apical 
segment black. 

Raised keel of mesosternum thickish, protrud- 
ing over presternum and close to it (latter 
narrowly and shallowly sulcate anteriorly), 
almost reaching base of head, apically shortly 



truncate. Raised keel of metastcrnum darker, 
thicker, much shorter, posteriorly excavate to 
receive apex of ventral spine. Legs normal, 
tibiae cylindrical. 

Third ventrite of abdomen medially raised in 
a thick forwardly directed spine, all visible 
ventrites rather V-shaped as viewed from rear 
of animal. Spinous projections of seventh latero- 
tergites and apical portions of visible genitalia, 
frequently reddish, sometimes also ventral mid- 
line and base of abdomen. Apex of male 
abdomen Fig. 64 A. Clasper Fig. 64 D, rather 
F-shaped. Aedeagus Fig. 64 C, with phallosoma 
very lightly sclerotized and honey-coloured, as 
the inflations were not completely successful the 
whole conjunctiva was not seen but the "lappet" 
processes are strongly developed, there are two 
rather tubular conjunctival lobes and the medial 
penial plates are large and ventrally placed, each 
has a lateral laminate process. Apex of female 
Fig. 64 B. 



Dimensions- 



Head length 

Head width 

Antennal segment f 
Antennal segment 11 
Antennal segment III 
Antennal segment IV 
Antennal segment V 
Pronotum width .... 
Pronotum length 
Total length 



Parameter 



Parameter 



Head length , 

Head width 

Antennal segment I 

Antennal segment II 

Antennal segment 111 

Antennal segment IV . 

Antennal segment V 

Pronotum width 

Pronotum length 

Total length . . . 

Total length: 10-3-14-5 mm 



MALES (from 1 


2 specimens) 










Mean 


Standard 
Deviation 


Coefficient 

of 
Variation 


Observed 
Range 




39 
44 
II 
22 
20 
24 
27 

107 
47 

206 


4'2 
1-7 
1-5 
20 
1-5 
1-7 
11 
51 
2-7 
89 


10-7 

3-8 

13-6 

110 
7-5 
70 
40 
4-7 
5-7 
4-3 


34-47 
42-48 




9-15 





20-26 
18-23 
22-29 
25-28 
95-112 




43-50 
195-225 


■EMALES (from 


7 specimens) 










Mean 


Standard 
Deviation 


Coefficient 
of 

Variation 


Observed 
Range 




41 

47 
II 
23 
19 

1A 

26 

121 

53 

233 


3-8 
2-1 
2-6 
1-7 
1-2 
(five measure- 
ments only) 
(three measure- 
ments only) 
8-7 
3-7 
2|2 


9-2 
4-4 
23-6 
7-3 
6-3 

7-1 
69 
90 


35-46 


- ■ 


44-50 

9-17 

21-25 

17-21 

23-25 

25-27 




107-131 




48-59 




210-275 



Remarks'. A not very common species but 
widely distributed, ranging from near Geraldton 
in Western Australia to Yeppoon in Queensland. 
Most specimens examined were from arid regions. 

In Helsinki an unmarked male specimen was 
located which agrees in locality and all essential 



details of Bergroth's original description of this 
species. The specimen has been marked as the 
lectotype. 

Location of Type: 

Lectotype i , "Stevenson River, N.T." in 
Helsinki, 



RHYNCIIOCOR1S GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT ARRAS— J 



1*5 



05mm 




lappef" proces&es 
/\ 

conjunctival lobes 



segment VIII 
segment VH 



phallosoma 



..medial penial 
plales 

c 



slernum X 




parale'Qile IX 



B 



segment VII 

— lifst gonocoxa 
triangulum 



Fig. 64. l'ttalcL\pi\ leSforum Bergroth, A. ventral aspect of apex of male abdomen. B. ventral 
aspect of apex of female abdomen. C. lefthand side view of aedeagus. D. clasper. 




Specimens examined: The Jectotype and one 
other unlocalised specimen 9 , Australia. 
Blackburn SAM. Western Australia 3 ^ i , 19, 
Dongarra, 26.XI-3.XII. 1935, R. E. Turner; 
d\ Dongarra, 4-10.X.1935, R. E. Turner BM; 
29 9, 24 km C== 15 miles) west of Louisa 
Downs, 250 m, 18.X.1962, at Ultraviolet 
(black) light, E. S. Ross & D. Q. Cavagnaro 
CAS. South Australia; 4 £ , 2 9., Parachilna 
Gorge 1 1 km east of Parachilna, 20.V.1975, by 
beating foliage of Eucalyptus camaldulensis 
Dehn., G. F. Gross; <s , Lake Eyre, May 1951, 
G. F. Gross; 9, Cooper Crossing, 21.11.1956, 
G. F. Gross SAM. Victoria 1 9 , Lake Hattah, 
J. E. Dixon NM. New South Wales £ . Bourke, 
25 .V. 1905, ex Kirkaldy Coll. USNM. Queens- 
land 9 , Bowen, A. Simpson BM; l£ 6 , Mt. Isa, 
3.XI.1967. on Eucalyptus sp. ( E. M. Exley; 
2 o* £ , 2 9 9 , Lake Moondarra 19 km ( — 12 mi) 
from Mt. Isa, 3.XI.1967, on Eucalyptus sp. 
E. M. Exley UQ; 1 9 , Rockhampton, Sept. 1943, 
Heifer, ex J. R. De la Torre Bueno Collection 
KU; 2 6 o\ 19, Yeppoon, 25.XI.1967. J. M. 
Sedlacek Bishop. 



SUMMARY 
The history of the recognition that the genera 
of Pentatomidae related to Rhynchocoris West- 
wood form a distinctive grouping within the 
family is discussed and the distinctive features of 
the grouping given. The external morphology 
and the structure of the male and female external 
genitalia and the spermatheca of the female are 
considered in this context. A partial key to the 
genera in Australia and adjacent regions of the 
group is given which distinguishes the genera 
treated in this first part but avoids mentioning 
new genera to be erected in a subsequent paper 
on the second half of the group. 

This paper considers five genera, three of them 
known viz. Ocirrhoe Stal, Cuspicona Dallas 
and Petalaspis Bergroth and two new genera, 
Everardia and Parocirrhoe. A description of 
each genus is given, and where there is more than 
one included species, a key to the species. 



M.fi 



R| I S Al'SI. MI'S.. 17 fftl M 167 



QMrmkft, W* 



Ocirrlioc is considered U> contain 1 1 species of 
which live ( wilsoni, wesfwoodi, dalUWi, cavendu 
and coronata) are new. Cuspicona prasinaia Stal 
is transferred to the .genus and the three names 
which follow are shown to be previously unrecog- 
nised junior synonyms of earlier names. Rhaphi- 
Xaster vindipes Walker (of australis (Westwood)), 
Cuspicona uninotata Walker (of australis (West- 
wood)), and Rhynchocons roer Westwood (of 
unimacu/ata ( Westwood) ). The citations which 
follow are shown not to apply to the species to 
which they allegedly pertained: Cuspicona roei 
Dallas non Westwood (now to dallasi sp. now), 
and Ocirrhoe unitnaculuta Stal non Westwood 
(now to westwitoili sp, no v. ) 

Cuspicona is considered to contain 24 species 
in this region, of which 15 {ooklcac, crcmo- 
philae, cooperi, obesulu. procallosa. ecpiisiiiiiala 
phi, angiistiznna, apothoracica, hmvjspinu, CVgnt 
terrae. norfolcensis, neocalcdoniac, chi>r\iiiiu)i 
and exnigrospersa) are new. Cuspicona privata 
Walker is returned to the genus and is the liisl 
valid name for the taxon previously known as 
Pentatonui viride Montrou/.ier, then Cuspicona 
\iridis auctt. then Cuspicona rx'lonui Kirkaldy. 
The two names which follow are shown to be pre- 
viously unrecognised junior synonyms of earlier 
names: Cuspicona beutenmullcri Van Duzec (of 
Mienuclla Walker) and Cuspicona lanunata Stal 
(of privata Walker). The citations which follow 
are shown not to apply to the species to which 
they allegedly pertained: Cuspicona vnrscens 
Tryon non Westwood (now to simple\ Walker) 
and Cuspicona rufispina Van Du/ee non Stal 
(now to forticornis Breedin). 

Everardia is based on a single new species 
ipicra) and Puroccirhoe is also based on a single 
new species (woodwaidi), A leetotype has been 
selected for tesconun Bergrodi, the type and only 
included species in the genus Petalaspis. 

Descriptions and figures of all new species and 
redescriptions and figures of previously recog- 
nised species from the area are given. Short 
comparative descriptions are given of Cuspicona 
ampla Walker and Cuspicona rulisptna Stal which 
are shown to occur only outside of the area under 
consideration 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

Funds which assisted a visit overseas in I y69 
to study type material and identified and uniden- 
tified series of Australian Hetc-roptera were made 
available from the Mark Mitchell Research 
Foundation, the C.S.FR.O. Science and Industry 
Endowment Fund and the Board of the South 
Australian Museum. 



I am indebted to the Directors and entomo- 
logical stall" of the institutions listed on p. 53 
for permitting me to examine their collections 
and to make notes on type material and for the 
loan subsequently of both critical and unsorted 
material. 

Special thanks are due to the following: Dr, 
E. Tortonese. Genoa: Dr Z. Kaszab and Dr A. 
Sops, Hungary; Dr. U, Gollner-Scheiding and her 
family, Berlin; Dr. W. Haekman. Mr, M. Mein- 
ander. and their colleagues. Helsinki; Professor 
and Mrs, I.. Brundin and Dr, P. I. Persson, 
Stockholm; Dr, Br/>rge Petersen and Mr. N. 
M</»ller Andersen, Copenhagen; Dr. P. van Does- 
burg and Dr. H. C. Blote, Leiden; the staff of the 
Instilut Royal des Sciences Naturelles dc 
Belgique, Brussels; Dr. G. Sehmitz and the late 
Dr. H. Schouteden, Terveuren; Dr. A. Villiers. 
Paris; Dr. W. J. Knight. Mrs. J. M. Black and 
Mr. L. Mound, British Museum (Natural 
History); Mr. J. A. Grant. London; Professor 
Varley and Mr. I. Lansbury, Hope Collection; 
Dr. and Mrs. P. J. Darlington. Harvard; Pro- 
fessor .1. A. Slater, his family, and colleagues, 
Storrs, Connecticut; Dr. J. A. Rozen, American 
Museum of Natural History; Dr. R. Froeschner 
and Dr. J. Herring. United States National 
Museum; Dr. H. Dybas, Field Museum; Dr. P. 
Ashloek and his family, Lawrence. Kansas: Pro- 
lessor G. G. E. Scudder and his family, Van- 
couver; Dr E. Ross and Dr P. Arnaud, 
California Academy of Sciences the late Miss S. 
Nakala. Bishop Museum. 

The biometric analyses were done on a "Pro- 
gramma 101" minicomputer very kindly made 
available by the Department of Human Physio- 
logy and Pharmacology at the University of 
Adelaide. 

Kt-FFRFNt F.S 

Anon. 1943 RpY. iil'l'l. VttK (A)30. 4^K 

Atkinson. E-'l • IMS. Notes on Indian Khynchi.ua. Heierop 
k-r.i No 4. L A.uun, So,. Itenffal 57)2). II8-I84. 

Re.rj5n.1ih. t ; . IMI6. Hcteropteioiis Hciuipteia colleelcil by 
Professoi W. IMliWItl Spencer iliiung the Horn 
Ixpcdiiion inlo Central Auslralia. I'mc. R, Sbt) \'ici , 
i N.S.I 29(1), \V-V>. 

tihick. (.;. M, I9(iK. f'cnlalotnii.lac (Hemipteia, Helerop- 
teta) collected by the Noona Uan Hxpedhion in the 
Philippine, Kismaiek and Solomon Islands I'jn Mciltl. 
36(61. 5MM7". S li.;v 

Hreddin, (>.. lyiiu. Hemipteia nonnulbe Regionis ails- 
Iruhcac. luii. Mffltr 26i2-s|. 17-46. in fifit. 

Dallas, W. S IS?I ' 1 ist .it iMl Specimens or Hemip- 
lerotis Insects in the Lollcclion o| Ihc Hritish Museum". 
part I. Hi Miis nal. Hist.. LClrUlOfl, 

Distant W. L, IKKK. An linumcralion of Ihe Rhynchuta 
received from Karon von Mriller, anil colleclecf by 

Mr. Savci in New Guinea during Mr. Ciithherlsoii 5 
txpcdilion. Trtw*.. li. cnl. Six: Loiul.. 47MW>, pi. 13 



RHYNCHOCORM GROUP IN AUSTRALIA AND ADJACENT ARHAS— I 



167 



Dislant. W. L., 1900a. Rhynehotal Notes— IV. Hclerop- 
lera: Pentatominac (part). Ann. Man. nut. Hist.. 
5(7), 386-397 & 420-435. 

Distant, VV. I.., I900h. Revision of the Rhynehota belong- 
ing to the Family Pentatomidae in the Hope 
Collection al Oxford. Proc. Aotil Soc land,, 1900. 
807-824. pis. 52 & 53. 

Distant. W. 1... 1902. "The Fauna of British India, includ- 
ing Ceylon and Burma" Rhynehota part 1. Taylor & 
Francis: London. 

Fyles. A. C, I960. Insects Associated with the Major 
Fodder Crops in the North Island. II Hemiptcra. 
N.Z. J. agric. Res 3(6), 994-1008, 7 figs. 

Froggatt. W. W.. 1901. Notes on Australian Hemiptera 
(Plant Bugs). Agric. Gaz, N.S.W.. 12, or Misc. Piihl. 
538. I- II), figs. 1-15. 

Froggatt. W. W., 1902. Notes on Australian Hemiptera 
(Plant Bugs). Agric. Ga:. N.S.W.. 13, or Misc. Publ. 
538. 1-8, figs. 16-31. 

Froggatt, W. W., 1907. "Australian Insects." Sydney. 

Gross, G. F., 1972. A revision of the species of Australian 
and New Guinea Shield Bugs formerly placed in the 
genera Foecilometis Dallas and Eumecopus Dallas 
(Heteroptera: Peniatomidae) with descriptions of 
new species and selection of lectotypes. A list. J. 
ZoaL, Sitppl See. 15. 1-192. 65 figs. 

Gross, G. F.. 1975. "Plant-feeding and other bugs 
(Hemiptera) of South Australia" Part I. Government 
Printer: Adelaide. 

Kirkaldy, G. W.. 1905. Memoir on the Rhvnchota 
collected by Dr. Arthur Willey. F.R.S.. Chiefly in 
Birara (New Britain) and Lifu. Trans. R. ent. Soc. 
Lond.,: 327-362. PI. 17. 

Kirkaldy. G. W., 1909. 'Catalogue of the Hemiptera 
(Heteroptera) with Biological and Anatomical 
References, Lists of Food-plants and Parasites, etc." 
Vol. 1. Cimicidae. Helix Dames: Berlin. 

Lethierry. L. & Scverin, G., 1893. "Catalogue general 

des Hemipteres." Vol. 1. F. Hayez: Bruxelles. 
Mayr, G. 1... 1866. Reise der Novara. Zool. 2(1). Hem. 

3-204, 5 pis. Kais. K. H. Staatsdruckerei: Wien. 
Monlrouzier, X„ 1855. Fssai sin la faune de l'He de 

Woodlark ou Moiou. Ann. Soc. Agr. Lyon (2)7(1), 

1-114. 

Montrouzier, X. & Signoret. V.. 1861. Essai stir la Faune 
entomologique de la Nouvelle-Caledonie (Balade) et 
des lies des Pins. Art. lifu etc. Ann Sue. ml. Fr.. 
K4). 59-74. 



Ramsay. G. W.. 1963. Predaceus Shield-Bugs (Heterop- 
tera: Peniatomidae) in New Zealand. N.'/.. Ent. 3(2). 
3-6, 2 figs. 

Sloan. W. J. S., 1941. The Control of Tomato Pests. 
Qcl. agric. J. 56(4), 277-294. 4 pis. 

Spider. D., & Turbott, E. G.. 1944. The occurrence of 
some Ausralian insects and a spider in New Zealand, 
Rtc. Auckland (A'./.) Inst. 3(1), 79-83. 

Stilt, C„ 1859. "Kongliga svenska Fregatten Fugenies 
Resa omkring Jorden, under Bcfal af C. A. Virgin 
Aren 1851-1853." Zoologi 1, Insecta. Norstedt: 
Stockholm. 

Stal, C, 1866. Analeeta hemiplerologica. Rerl. cut. 7.. 
10. 151-172. 381-394. 

Stal, C, 1867. Bidrac till Hemiptcrnas Systematik. 
Ojvcrs. K. Vetensk Akad. Forh. 1867, 491-560. 

Still, C, 1870. Hemiptera insularum Philippinarum — 
Bidrag till Philippinska oarnes Hemipter-fauna. Ofv. 
Sv. K. Vet. A kail. Forh. 27(7), 607-776, pis. 7-9. 

Slid. C, 1876. Fnumeralio Hemipterorum 5. K. svenska 

1 etensk Akad. Handl. 14(4), 1-162. 

Tryon, H., 1889. "Report on Insects and Fungus Pests." 
I. Government Printer: Brisbane. 

Van Du/.ee, E. P., 1905. Notes on Australian Peniatomidae 
with descr. of a few new species. Bull. Am. Mits. 
fiat. Hist.. 21, 187-214, pi. 8. 

Walker. F., 1867. "Catalogue of the Specimens of 

Heteroptcrous Hemiplera in the Collection of the 

British Museum." Pi. II. Br. Mils. nat. Hist.: 
London. 

Walker, F., 1868. "Catalogue of the Specimens of Hemip- 
lera Heleroptera in the Collection of the British 
Museum.'" PL 111. Br. Mus. nat. Hist.: London. 

Wcstwood, .1. O., 1837. "A Catalogue of Hemiptera in 
the Collection of the Rev. W. F. Hope F.R.S. F.L.S. 
F.Z.S. M.E.S. Etc. Rtc. Etc. Etc. with Short 
Latin Description of New Species", part 1. J. C. 
Bridgewater: London, 

Woodward, T. E., 1954. New Records and Descriptions 
of Hemiptcra-Heteroptera from the Three Kings 
Islands'. Rec. Auckland (A'.Z\) Inst.. 4(4). 215-233, 

2 figs. 

Woodward, T. E.. 1953. The Heteroptera of New Zealand, 
Part I. Introduction. Cynidae; Pentatomidae. 
Trans, rov. Soc N.Z... 80(3 & 4). 299-321. pis. 62-71. 



RECORDS OF THE 
SOUTH AUSTRALIAN 
MUSEUM 



VERTEBRATE TYPE-SPECIMENS 

IN THE 

SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 



I. FISHES by C. J. M. Glover 

II. AMPHIBIANS by Michael J. Tyler 

III. REPTILES by Terry F. Houston 

IV. BIRDS by Herbert T. Condon 

V. MAMMALS by Peter F. Aitken 
VI. FOSSILS by Neville S. Pledge 



SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 
North Terrace, Adelaide 
South Australia 5000 



VOLUME 17 

NUMBERS 7-12 

1st September, 1976 



VERTEBRATE TYPE-SPECIMENS 
IN THE SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 



I. Fishes by C. J. M. Glover 

Summary 



The type-specimens of six genera and 71 species or subspecies of recent fishes in the South 
Australian Museum are catalogued. Most are from Australia, a number from Antarctica. 



VERTEBRATE TYPE-SPECIMENS IN THE SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 

I. FISHES 

by 
C. J. M. GLOVER 

South Australian Museum, Adelaide 5000 



ABSTRACT 



GLOVER, C. J. M., 1976. 
South Australian Museum. 
17(7): 169-175. 



Vertebrate type-specimens in the 
I. Fishes. Rec. S. Aust. Mux. 



The type-specimens of six genera and 71 species 
or subspecies of recent fishes in the South 
Australian Museum are catalogued. Most are 
from Australia, a number from Antarctica. 



INTRODUCTION 

The following is a list of all recent fish types, 
representing six genera and 71 species or sub- 
species, registered in the South Australian Museum 
to date, together with descriptive references, 
collecting data and currently accepted names. 

Most of these specimens have recently been 
relocated and data from their labels, type descrip- 
tions and the collection register cross checked. 
Some specimens, as indicated, have still to be 
located, but efforts to find them are continuing. 

CLASS CYCLOSTOMATA 

ORDER PETROMYZON I FORMES 

Family Eptatretidae 
Eptatrerus longipinnis Strahan, 1975. 

Aust. Zoo!. 18 (3): 137-148, fig. 1. 

Holotype: F4042, in spirit, from south-eastern 
Indian Ocean off Robe, South Australia, 
collected by R. B. Hawes, 2.ix.l97I. 

CLASS ELASMOBRANCHII 

ORDER HETERODONTI FORMES 
Family Triakidae 
Fur ventralis Whitley, 1943. 

Rec S. Aust. Mus. 7: 397 

=Furgaleus ventralis (Whitley, 1943) 

Paratypes: F2069, cast of specimen taken from 
St. Vincent Gulf, South Australia, collector 
unknown, 30.x. 1943. F2070, mounted skin 
of above specimen ; neither the cast or the 
skin can be located. 



ORDER RHINOBATIFORMES 

Family Rhinobatidae 

Trygonorhina melaleuca Scott, 1954. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. II (2): 106, fig. 1. 

Holotype: F2769, male in formalin, taken off 
Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, South Australia, 
collected by E. Sundberg, 26.iii.1953; a cast 
of this specimen (numbered F2769) is also in 
the South Australian Museum. 

ORDER MYLIOBATI FORMES 

Family LIrolophidae 

Urolophus gigas Scott, 1 954. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 11 (2): 105, pi. XXII. 

Holotype: F2744, female in formalin, taken at 
Port Noarlunga, South Australia, collected 
by T. D. Scott and F. J. Mitchell, 31.L1952; 
a cast (F4127) of this specimen is also in the 
South Australian Museum. 

CLASS TELEOSTOMI 

ORDER CLUP1EFORMES 

Family Dorosomidae 

Chatoessus horni Zietz, 1896. 

Rept. Horn Sci. Exped. C. Ausir., 2 (Zool): 180, 
pi. XVI, fig. 6. 

=Fluvialosa horni (Zietz, 1896) 

Holotype: F1063, in spirit, from "Central 
Australia", collected by Horn Expedition 
party, 1894. 

ORDER SALMONIFORMES 

Family Idiacanthidae 
Idiacanthus aurora Waite, 1916, 

Austr. Ant. Expecf.. (C) 3 (1) (Fish): 53-55, pi. 
V, fig. 1, text fig. 11. 

Holotype: F380, in spirit, from 25 miles (40 km) 
northward of Macquarie Island, collected by 
the Australasian Antarctic Expedition party, 
1912. 



170 



8 EC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (7-12): 169-219 



September. 1976 



Family Paralepididae 

Notosudis huinilfoni Waite, 1916. 

AitStt. Ant. Expect., (C) 3(1) (Fish): 56-58, pi. V, 
Jig. 2, text tig. 12. 

Holotype: F382, in spirit, from Macquarie Island, 
Antarctica, collected by H. Hamilton, some- 
time during the period 191 1-1913. 

ORDER SILURIFORMES 

Family Plotosidae 

Plotosus argenteus Zietz, 1896. 

Re/it. Horn. Sci. Exped. C. Austr. 2 (Zool): 410, 
pi. XVI, fig. 7. 

=Tandanus {Neosi turns) argenteus (Zietz, 1896). 

Holotype: F1090, in spirit, from the Barcoo River 
(=Cooper Creek), near Innamincka. South 
Australia, collected by the Horn Expedition 
party. 1894. 

Ostophycephalus duriceps Ogilby, 1899. 

Proc. Linn. Soe. N.S. Wales 24: 156. 

=Cnidoglanis macroceplia/us (Cuvier & 
Valenciennes, 1840). 

Holotype: FI093, in spirit from Semaphore, St. 
Vincent Gulf, South Australia, presented by 
A. Zietz. 1898. 

ORDER GOBIESOC1FORMES 

Family Gobiesocidae 

Aspasmogastcr patella Scott, 1954. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 11 (2): I U, fig. 3. 

=Aspasmogaster tasmaniensis (Guenther, 1 861 ). 

Holotype: F2788, in spirit, from Kingston Park 
(near Adelaide), South Australia, collected by 
University of Adelaide biology students, 
26.ix.I953. 

Paratypes: F2789, three specimens, in spirit, 
locality and collection data as for the 
holotype. 

ORDER LOPHIIFORMES 
Family Anrennariidae 

Lchinophryne crassispina McCulloch & Waite, 
1918. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 1(1): 67, pi. VI, fig. 2. 

Holotype: F609, in spirit, from Spencer Gulf 
South Australia, collector and date of collec- 
tion unknown. 



Histiophryne scortea McCulloch & Waite, 1918. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 1(1): 74, pi. VII, fig. 2. 

Holotype; F618, in spirit, from Stansbury, St. 
Vincent Gulf. South Australia, collector and 
date of collection unknown. 

Paratypes: F617 and F6I9, two specimens in 
spirit, locality and collecting data as for the 
holotype. 



ORDER ATHER1NIFORMES 

Family Melanotaeniidac 

Ncmatocentris winneckii Zietz, 1896. 

Rept. Horn. Sci. Expect. C. Austr. 2 (Zool): 179, 
pi. XVI, fig. 3. 

= Mekmotaenia nigrans (Richardson. 1843). 

Synlype: F1075, in spirit, from Finke River. 
"Central Australia", collected by Horn 
Expedition party, 1894. 

Nematocentris latei Zietz, 1 896. 

Rept. Horn. Sci. Exped. C. Austr. 2 (Zool): 178. 
pi. XVI, fig. 2. 

Synlypes: Fl 166, three specimens in spirit, from 
Idracowra, "Central Australia", collected by 
Horn Expedition party, 1894. 

Family Athcrinidae 

Fropidosterhus rhothophilus Ogilby, 1895. 

Proc. Linn. Soe. N.S. Wales 2 (10): 323. 

Paratype: Fl 1 64, from Maroubra Bay, New South 
Wales, collected by T. Whitelcgge, March, 
1893. 

Craterocephalus dalhousiensis Ivantsolf & Glover, 
1974. 

Aust. Zool. 18 (2): 88-98, fig. 1. 

Holotype: F3453, male in spirit, from Main 
Spring al Dalhousie Springs, collected by 
C.J. M. Glover, 3.viii.I968. 

Allotype: F3453, female in spirit, locality and 
collection data as for the holotype. 

Paratypes: F3453, 11 males and nine females, 
stored apart from the primary types, locality 
and collection data as for the primaries. 

Ncrrr — Some other paratype specimens were deposited with 
the following institutions: Australian Museum (Sydney), 
American Museum of Natural History (New York), British 
Museum of Natural History (London), Museum National 
d'Histoire Naturellc (Paris), Zcologisch Museum (Amsterdam). 



VERTEBRATE TYPE-SPECIMENS IN THE S. AUST. MUSEUM— I FISHES 



171 



ORDER BERYCIFORMES 

Family Berycidac 

Floplosrethus mediterraneus Cuvier & Valen- 
ciennes, van laius McCulloch, 1914. 
Biol. Res. Endeavour 2: 97, fig. 5. 

Syntype: F2I3, in spirit, from Great Australian 
Bight, collected by /'.IS. Endeavour, March, 
19l2or4.iv.l9|3(7). 

ORDER GASTEROSTEIFORMES 

Family Syngnathidae 

Syngnathus vercoi Waitc & Hale, 1921. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 1 (4): 298, fig. 41. 

Holotypc: F690, male in spirit, from Spencer 
Gulf, South Australia, collected by Sir 
Joseph Verco, 7.xii.l920. 

Paratypcs: F69I, 18 specimens in spirit, locality 
and collection data as for the holotype. 

Leptonotus costatus Waite & Hale, 1921. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. I (4): 301. fig. 43. 

Holotype: F693, female in spirit, from Spencer 
Gulf, South Australia, collected by Sir 
Joseph Verco, 7.xii.l920. 

Paratype: F694, in spirit, locality and collection 
data as for the holotype. 

Histiogamphelus maculatus maculatus Hale, 1939. 

S.A. Naturalist 19 (4): 2-3, lig. 

Holotype: F2039, female in spirit, from Aldinga, 
St. Vincent Gulf, South Australia, collected 
by J. D. McDonald, 9.xii. 1936. 

Histiogamphelus maculatus robensis Whitley, 1948. 

Rec. Aust. Mus. 22: 76. 

Holotype: F261I, in spirit, from coastal waters 
near Robe, South Australia, collected bv B. 
Hendon. 13.ii.1946. 

Histiogamphelus galiinaceus Hale, 1941. 

S.A. Naturalist, 21 (2): 10, fig. 

Holotype: F2227, male in spirit, from silt grounds 

at Outer Harbor, South Australia, collected 

by A. E. McWaters, 20.viii.194l. 

Histiogamphelus rostratus Waite & Hale, 1921. 
Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 1 (4): 303. lig. 44. 

Hvpselognathus rostratus (Waite & Hale, 
1921). 

Holotype: F696, in spirit, from Spencer Gulf, 
collected by Sir Joseph Verco. 7.xii,1920. 



Paratype; A juvenile specimen which, having very 
badly deteriorated, was subsequently des- 
troyed; locality and collection data as for the 
holotype. 

Ichthyocampus cristatus McCulloch & Waite, 19 18. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 1(1): 40, fig. 26. 

Holotypc: F569, a dried specimen, in good 
condition, from Spencer Gulf, collector and 
date of collection unknown. 

Lissocampas caudalis Waite & Hale, 1921. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 1 (4): 306, fig. 46. 

Holotype: F70I, in spirit, from near Kangaroo 
Island. South Australia, collected by a Mr. 
Rumball, 2.X.1901, 

Paratype: F702, locality and collection data as for 
the holotype. 

Corythoichthys flinders! Scott. 1957. 

Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 80: 182, fig. 2. 

- Syngnalluis Jlindersi (Scott, 1957). 

Holotype: F2922, two specimens in spirit, from 

Pelican Lagoon, Kangaroo Island, South 

Australia, collected by H. M. Cooper, 
20.ix.l956. 

Acentronura australe Waite & Hale, 1921. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. I (4); 317, lig. 53. 

Holotype: F719, female in spirit, from St. Vinceut 
Gulf, South Australia, collector and date of 
collection unknown. 

Paratype: F720. male in spirit, locality and 
collection data as for the holotype. 

Siokitniehthys herrci Herald, 1953. 

Bull. U.S. Nat. Museum 202 (I): 254-256 lig. 38 

Paratype: F3841. in spirit, from Fiji, Suva, 

collected by the Crocker Expedition partv. 

20.iv.l933. 

Note - formerly in the collection of Hie California!! Academy 
of Natural Sciences (C.A.S. Caialog No. 5910) until presented 
lo the South Australian Museum; one of seven specimens, all 
paratopes, of the same collection. 



ORDER SCORPAENIFORMES 

Family Scorpacnidae 

Neosebastes pantica McCulloch & Waite, 1918. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. I (1): 64. pi, IV. fig. 1. 

Holotype: F601 in spirit, from Spencer Gulf, 
South Australia, collector and date of collec- 
tion unknown, 



172 



RIIC. S. AUST MUS., 17 (7-12): 169-219 



September, 1976 



ORDER PERC1FORMES 

Family Cyclopteridae 
Paraliparis wildi Waite, 1916. 

Austr. Ant. Exped. (C) 3 (1) (Fish): 43-44, pi. IV, 
fig. t, text fig. 9. 

Holotype: F378, in spirit, from off the Shackleton 
Ice-shelf, Antarctica, collected by the Austral- 
asian Antarctic Expedition party, 29. i. 1914. 

Family Brotulidae 

Dermatopsis multiradiatus McCulloch & Waitc, 
1918. 

Ret: S. Aust. Mas. 1 (1): 63, pi. V, fig. 4. 

Holotype: F480. in spirit, from Kangaroo Island, 

South Australia, collected by E. R. Waite, 

1917. 
Paralype: F480, in spirit, with the holotype, 

locality and collection data as above. 

Family Centropomidae 

Ambassis tclkara Whitley, 1955. 

Ret: S. Aust. Mus. 5 (3): 349, fig. 2. 

Holotype: FI793, in spirit, from Bathurst Head, 
Queensland, collected by H. M. Hale and 
N. B. Tindale, January, 1927. 

Note Although the type description specifies no hoiotype, 
the South Australian Museum fish register indicates specimen 
FI793 as being the holotype, 

Twenty-seven specimens registered F1794. with locality and 
collection data as for the above specimen, probably constitute 
paratypes. The type description merely states that six specimens 
(presumably of this collection) were retained for the Australian 
Museum, Sydney (Reg. No. IA 6046). 

Family Pseudochromidae 

Dampieria ignita Scott, 1959, 

Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 82: 75-76, fig. 1. 

Holotype; F2997. in spirit, from Sharks Bay, 
Western Australia, collected by a member of 
the Underwater Spearfishermen's Association 
of Western Australia, May, 1954; this 
specimen cannot be located. 

Family Plesiopidae 
Trachinops norlungae Glover, 1974. 

The Murine and Freshwater Fishes of South 
Australia (Second Edition) Govt. Printer, 
South Aust.: 225; fig. 

Holotype: F3721 in spirit, from Port Noarlunga 
reef, St, Vincent Gulf, South Australia, 
collected by S. Doyle, January, 1973. 

Paratypes: F3676, eight specimens, in spirit, 
locality and collection data as for the holo- 
type. 



Family Theraponidae 
Therapon welchi McCulloch & Waite, 1917. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. 41: 472, fig. 1. 

Hephaestus welchi (McCulloch & Waite, 
1917). 

Holotype: F606. in spirit, from Cooper Creek, 
near Innamincka, South Australia, collected 
by E. R. Waite, 3.x. 1916, 

Therapon barcoo McCulloch & Waite, 19J7, 

Trans. R. Sot: S. Aust. 41 : 474, fig. 2. 

Scurtum barcoo (McCulloch & Waite, 1917). 

Holotypc: F607, in spirit, from Cooper Creek, 
"Central Australia", collected by E. R. Waite, 
date of collection unknown. 

Family Apogonidae 

Archamia leai Waite, 1916. 

Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 40: 455-456, pi. XLV. 

Syntypes: F308, four specimens in spirit, from 
Norfolk Island, off New South Wales coast, 
collected by A. M.Lea. 18.ii.1916. 

Family Carangidae 

Caranx humerosus McCulloch, 1915. 

Biol. Res: Endeavour 3: 1 37. pi. XXV. 

Carangoides humerosus (McCulloch, 1915), 

Paratypes: F19I, two specimens in spirit, from 
1 1-14 miles N. 59 W, off Pine Peak, Queens- 
land, collected by F./.S. Endeavour, I .viii. 19 10. 

Note — The holotype and other paratypes of this species are 
housed in the Australian Museum, Sydney (Reg. No. 1 ; .I436 it 
P.). 

Family Lutjanidac 

Nemipterus samsonensis Scott, 1959. 

Trans. R. Soc, S. Aust. 82: 77-78, fig. 2. 

Holotype: F2966, in spirit, from Point Samson, 
Western Australia, collected by a member of 
the Underwater Spearfishermen's Association 
of Western Australia, November, 1954. 

Family Pomadasyidae 

Plectorhynchus ordinalis Scott, 1959, 

Trans. R. Sor. S. Aust. 82: 79-80, fig. 3. 

Holotype: F3006, in spirit, from Sharks Bay. 
Western Australia, collected by a member of 
the Underwater Spearfishermen's Association 
of Western Australia, May, 1954. 



VERTEBRATE TYPE-SPECIMENS IN THE S. AUST. MUSEUM— I FISHES 



m 



Family Chironemidae 

Threpterius chalceus Scott, 1954. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 11 (2): 108-109, fig. 2. 

Holotype: F2739, a female in spirit, from the 
west coast of Kangaroo Island, South 
Australia, collected by P. M. Thomas, 
10.ix.1951, 

Family Labridae 

Cheiliims aurantiacus Castelnau, 1875. 

Proc. ZooL Acclim. Son. Vic 1 : 245. 

—Pseudolahrus aurantiacus (Castelnau, 1875). 

Paratypes: FI349. an indeterminate number of 

specimens from St. Vincent Gulf, South 

Australia, collected by F. G. Waterhouse, 

date of collection unknown; the three 

specimens found registered FI349 are labelled 

being cither "types or co-types". 

Note— MeCtilloch (1929-30) states thai llic Type is in the 
Paris Museum. 

Fupetrichthys gloveri Scott, 1974. 

The Marine and freshwater Fishes of South 

Australia (Second Edition) Govt. Printer, 

South Australia.: 303-304. 
Holotype: F3I64, in spirit, from Thistle Island, 

South Australia, collected from F.R.V. 

IVeerutta, September or October, 1960. 

Paratypes: F3164. three specimens in spirit, 
locality and collecting data as for the holo- 
type. 

Stethojulis rubromacula Scott, 1959. 

Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 82: 87-88, fig. 7. 

Holotype: F2993. in spirit, from Sharks Bay, 
Western Australia, collected by a member of 
the Underwater Spearfishermen's Association 
of Western Australia, May, 1954. 

Thalassoma scptemfasciata Scott, 1959. 

Trans. R. Soe. S. Aust. 82: 84-85, fig. 4. 

Holotype ; F2984, the larger (total length 21 4 mm) 
of two specimens in spirit, from Sharks Bay, 
Western Australia, collected by a member of 
the Underwater Spearfishcrmcn's Association 
of Western Australia, May, 1954. 

Anampses lennardi Scott, 1959. 

Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 82: 86-87. fig. 6. 

Holotype: F3024, the larger (a male, total length 
203 mm) of two specimens in sphit, from 
Point Samson, Western Australia, collected 
by a member of the Underwater Spear- 
lishermen's Association of Western Australia, 
December, 1957; this specimen cannot be 
located. 



Choerodon rubidis Scott, 1959. 

Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 82: 89-90, fig. 7, 

Holotype: F2985, in spirit, from Sharks Bay, 
Western Australia, collected by a member of 
the Underwater SpearfishermerTs Association 
of Western Australia, May, 1954. 

Family Uranoscopidae 
Kathetostoma nigrofasciatum Waite & McCulloch, 

1915. 
Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 39: 469. pi. XIII, figs. 1-2. 

Holotype: F 1 70. the largest (total length 195 mm) 
of three specimens in spirit, from the Great 
Australian Bight, collected during the S.T. 
Siniplon experimental trawling cruise, 1914. 

Paratypes: Fl 70, two specimens in spirit, locality 
and collecting data as for the holotype. 

Family Nototheniidae 
Notothenia coriiceps Richardson var. macquariensis 
Waitc. 1916. 

Austr. Ant. Exped. (C) 3(1) (Fish): 64-66, pi. V, 
fig. 3, text fig. 1 5. 

Syntype: F385. ill spirit, from Macquarie Island, 
Antarctica, collected by H. Hamilton of the 
Australasian Antarctic Expedition party, 
sometime during the period 1911-1913. 

Family Balhydraconidae 
Bathydraco nudiceps Waite, 1916. 

Austr. Ant. Exped. (C) 3 (1) (Fish): 27-29. pi. I. 
fig. 3, text fig. 4. 

Holotype: F369. in spirit, from olTthe Shackleton 
Ice-shelf, collected by the Australasian 
Antarctic Expedition party, 28. i. 1914. 

Aconichthys harrissoni Waite, 1916. 

Austr. Apt. Exped. (C) 3(1) (Fish): 30-32, pi, 11, 
fig. 1, text fig. 5. 

Genotype and Flolotype: F37I, one specimen in 
spirit, from off the Shackleton Ice-shelf, 
collected by the Australasian Antarctic 
Expedition party, 29,i,l9l4. 

Cygnodraco mansoni Waite, 1916. 

Austr. Ant. Exped. (C) 3 (I) (Fish): 32-34, pi. Ill, 
fig. 1, text fig. 6. 

Genotype and Holotype: F372, one specimen in 
spirit, from off Drygalski Island, Antarctica, 
collected by the Australasian Antarctic 
Expedition party, sometime during the period 
1911-1914. 



174 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (7-12): 169-219 



September, 1976 



Family Channicthyidae 

Dacodraco hunteri Waite, 1916, 

AtiStf. Ant. Exped. (C) 3 (I) (Fish): 35-37, pi. II, 
fig. 2, text fig. 7. 

Genotype and Holotype: F374, one specimen in 
spirit, from off the Shackleton Ice-shelf, 
Antarctica, collected by the Australasian 
Antarctic Expedition party, 31.1.1914. 

Family Peronedysidac 

Eucentronotus zietzi Ogilby, 1898, 

Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales 23 (3): 294, 

^Peronedys anguillaris Steindachncr, 1884. 

Syntype: FI49I, in spirit, from St. Vincent Gulf, 
South Australia, collector and date of collec- 
tion unknown. 

Family Ophiclinidac 
OphicLinus aethiops McCulloch & Waite, 1918. 
Rec: S. Aust. Mus. 1(1): 57, fig. 29, 

Flolotype: F481, in spirit, from Kangaroo Island, 
South Australia, collected by E. R. Waite, 
1917. 

Ophidians varius McCulloch & Waite, 1918. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 1(1): 57, fig. 30. 

— Ophiclinus gracilis Waite, 1906. 

Holotype: F503, in spirit, from Kangaroo 
Island, South Australia, collected bv E. R. 
Waite, 1917. 

Paratypes: F503, three specimens in spirit, with 
the holotype, locality and collection data as 
above; only one of these specimens has been 
located to date. 

Ophiclinus pardalis McCulloch & Waite, 1918, 
Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 1(1): 58, pi. 4, tig. 2. 

-—Op/u'clinops pardalis (McCulloch & Waite, 
1918). 

Holotype: F600, in spirit, from Streaky Bay, 
South Australia, collector and date of 
collection unknown. 

Family Tripterygiidae 

Helcogramma decurrens McCulloch & Waite, 
1918. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 1(1): 52, pi, 3, lig. 2. 

Holotype: F598, from St. Vincent Gulf, South 
Australia, collector and date of collection 
unknown. 



Brachynectes fasciatus Scott, 1957. 

7>ms. R. Sot: S. Aust. 80: 180. lig. I. 
=? Veronectes fasciatus (Scott, 1 957), 

Genotype and Holotype: F2921, in spirit, from 
Pelican Lagoon, Kangaroo Island, South 
Australia, collected by H. M. Cooper, 
20.ix.l956. 

Family Clinidae 

Heteroclinus adelaide Castelnau, 1872. 

Prac.Zool. Acclim. Sac. Via. 1: 247. 

Holotype: F1492, from St. Vincent Gulf, South 
Australia, collected by F. G. Waterhouse, 
date of collection unknown. 

Trianectes bucephalus McCulloch & Waite, 1918. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 1(1): 53, pi. 3. fig. 3. 

Holotype: F599, in spirit, from Spencer Gulf, 
South Australia, collected by Sir Joseph 
Verco. date of collection unknown. 

Family Nomeidae 

Cridorsa moonta Whitley, 1938. 

Rec, S. Aust. Mus. 6 (2): 159-161. pi. XVI. 

Genotype and Holotype: F2023, from Moonta 
Bay, Spencer Gulf, South Australia, collected 
by H. Kemp, 4.viii.l938; having later very 
badly deteriorated it was subsequently 
destroyed. 

Family Gobiidae 

Eleotris larapintae Zietz, 1896, 

Rcpt. Horn. Sci. Exped. C. Aus/r. 2 (Zool.); 179, 
pi. XVI, fig. 4. 

Mogurnda niogurnda (Richardson. 1844). 

Syntypes: F5I3, three specimens, from Red Bank 
Creek. "Central Australia"; F514, two 
specimens, from the Finke River, "Central 
Australia"; all collected by the Horn 
Expedition paity, 1894. 

Gobius eremius Zietz, 1 896. 

Rept. Horn. Sci. Exped. C. Austr. 2 (Zool,): 180. 
pi. XVI. lig. 5. 

Ctdamydogobius eremius (Zietz, 1896). 

Syntypes: F525, six specimens in spirit, from 
Coward Springs railway bore, Far North 
South Austialia, collected by the Horn 
Expedition party, 4, v. 1894. 



VERTEBRATE TYPE-SPECIMENS IN THE S. AUST. MUSEUM— I FISHES 



175 



Mugilogobius galwayi McCulloch & Waite, 1918. 
Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 1 (1): 50, pi. HI, fig. i. 

=Lizagobius galwayi (McCulloch & Waitc, 
I9J8), 

Holotype: F583. in spirit, from Patawalonga 
Creek (near Adelaide). South Australia, 
collector and date of collection unknown. 

Oxyurichthys eornutus McCulloch & Waite, 1918. 

Rec. S. /lust. Mus. 1 (1): 80, pi. VIII, fig. 2. 

Holotype: F592, in spirit, from Cairns, 
Queensland, collected by J. A, Anderson, date 
of collection unknown. 

Drombus halei Whitley, 1935. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 5 (3): 353-354, fig. 5. 

Holotype: FI801, in spirit, from Flinders Island, 
North Queensland, collector and date of 
collection unknown. 

Boleophthalmus caeruleomaculatus McCulloch & 
Waite, 1918. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 1(1): 79, pi. VI 1 1, fig. 1 . 

Holotype: F590. in spirit, from the Adelaide 
River, Australian Northern Territory, col- 
lector and date of collection unknown; this 
specimen cannot be located. 

Paratypes: F59I, three specimens in spirit, 
locality and collection data as for the holo- 
type; these specimens cannot be located. 

ORDER TETROADONTI FORMES 

Family Balistidae 

Weerutta ovalis Scott, 1962. 

The Marine and freshwater Fislies uf South 
Australia, Govt. Printer. Adelaide: 310, fig. 

Genotype and Holotype: F3057, a single specimen 
in spirit, from off Dangerous Reef, South 
Australia, collected by F.R.V. Weerutta, 
February, 1961. 



Family Ostraciontidac 
Anoplocapros gibbosus McCulloch & Waite, 1915. 
Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 39: 480, pi. 18. 

= Anoplocapros lenticularis (Richardson, 1841). 
Paratypes: F248, two specimens in spirit, from 
South Australian coastal waters, collector 
and date of collection unknown. 

Aracana spilogaster Richardson var. angusta 
McCulloch & Waite. 1915. 

Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 39: 488, pi. XXII I. 

Holotype: FI66, in spirit, from Bass Strait, east 
of Flinders Island, collector and date of 
collection unknown. 

REFERENCES 

Berg. L. S.. 1940. Classification of Fishes, both recent and 
fossil. Trav. Inst. Zool, Acad, Sri, U.S.S.R. 5 (2): 86-M 7, 
figs. 1-190. 

Greenwood, P. H. et at., 1966. Phyletic Studies of Teieosteon 
Fishes, with a Provisional Classification of Living Forms. 
Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. flisl. 131 (4): 339-456, fig. 1-9, plates 
21-23, charts 1-32. 

Lake, .1. S., 1971. Freshwater Fishes and Hirers of Australia, 
Thomas Nelson (Australia), Melbourne. 

McCulloch, A. R.. 1929-30. A Check-list of the Fishes 
Recorded from Australia. Aust. Mus. Mem. 5 (1-4) i-x 
and 1-534, 

Munro, I. S. R.. 1960-1961. Handbook of Australian Fishes, 
Scries published in Australian Fisheries Newsletter between 
July. I960 and December, 1961. Fisheries Division, 
Department of Primary Industry, Canberra. 

Neave. S. A.. 1939-50. Noinenelator Zoolo»icus (London. 
Zool. Soc). 5 vols. 

Scott, T. D., 1962. The Marine anil Freshwater Fishes of South 
Australia. Government Printer, Adelaide. 

Scott, T. D., Glover. C. J. M. & Southeoti. R. V., 1974. The 

Marine and Freshwater Fishes of South Australia (Second 

Edition). Govt. Printer, South Australia. 
Waite, L. R., 1921 . Illustrated Catalogue of the Fishes of South 

Australia. Ree. S. Aust. Mus. 2(1): 1-208, PI. i and 293 

texl-figs. 
Western Australian Museum (The), 1964. Type Specimens in 

the Western Australian Museum (part 5) . . . The 

Western Australian Museum 1963-64 Annual Re/tort : 34-45. 
Whitley, G. P., 1948 A List of the Fishes of Western Australia. 

W.A. Fisheries Dent. Bull. 2: 1-35 and map. 
Whitley. G. P., 1957, List of Type-Specimens of Recent Fishes 

in The Australian Museum, Sydney, i-iii and 1-40 

(Mimeographed). 

Whitley, G. P., 1964. A Survey of Australian Ichthyology. 
I'roe. Linn. Soc. h'.S. Wales LXXX1X (I): 1 1-127.' 

Zoological Record (The). 1864-1970. Pisces section in various 
volumes. 1-107. The Zoological Society of London. 



VERTEBRATE TYPE-SPECIMENS IN THE SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 

II. AMPHIBIANS 

by 
MICHAEL J. TYLER 

South Australian Museum, Adelaide 5000 



TYL.FR, M J. 1976. 
Australian Museum. 
17(8): 177 180 



ABSTRACT 

Vertebrate typc-spcci mens in the South 
II Amphibians. Rec. S. Aust. MBS. 



Type-specimens of amphibians in Ihc South 
Australian Museum represent 34 species and 
subspecies, and include holotypes and syntypes 
of 21 species. With the sole exception of a ranid 
from the Philippines, they are all from Australia, 
New Guinea and adjacent islands. 



INTRODUCTION 

Dovvling, Gilboa and Zweifel (1970) included 
53 titles in a world-wide survey of published lists 
of type-specimens of reptiles and amphibians. 
Of the lists of types held in particular institutions, 
the only Australian museums represented at that 
time were the Macleay Museum (Goldman, Hill 
and Stanbury, 1969) and the Western Australian 
Museum (Anonymous, 1962, el setf,: six titles 
vide Dowling el a/., 1970). Subsequently 
Coventry (1970) and Covacevich (1971) published 
lists of the types in the National Museum of 
Victoria and the Queensland Museum respectively. 

In Australia the largest number of amphibian 
types is lodged at the Australian Museum; a 
list of these is being prepared (H. G. Cogger, 
pcrs. comm.). However the South Australian 
Museum type collection is relatively substantial, 
containing types of 34 species and subspecies 
representing the following families: Hylidae (20 
species), Ranidae (rive), Leptodactylidae (five) and 
Microhylidae (three). Holotypes or syntypes 
of 21 species and subspecies are included. 

Twenty-four of these species involved arc from 
New Guinea, eight from Australia and one from 
the Philippines. 

AMPHIBIA, ANURA 

Hyla albolabris Wandolleck, 1911, Ahh. K. zool. 
Antbrop.-etbn. Mas. Dresden 13(6): 12. 
=Litoria a/bolabris (Wandolleck), vide Tyler, 
1971: 352 
Syntype: S.A.M. R4947, Aitape, New Guinea 
(coll. O. Schlaginhaufen) 



Hyla bulmeri Tyler, 1968a. Zool. Verb. (96): 56. 

Litoria bulmeri (Tyler), vide Tyler, 1971 : 352 

Holotype: S.A.M. R5625, Glkm, Upper Aunjung 
Valley, Schrader Mountains, New Guinea 
(coll. R. N. H. Bulmer). 

Paratypes: S.A.M. R5624. R8107 (same as holo- 
type). 

Hyla contrastens Tyler, 1968a, Zool. Verb. (96): 72. 

Litoria canirasiens (Tvler). vide Tyler, 1971: 
352 

Holotype; S.A.M. R5845. Barabuna, near 
Kundiawa, New Guinea (coll. F, Parker). 

Paratype: S.A.M, R6450 (same data as holotype). 

Hyla coplandi Tyler, 1968b. Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 
15(4): 716 

--Litoria cop/andi (Tyler), vide Tyler. 1971: 352 

Paratype: S.A.M. R9103, Wave Hill, Northern 
Territory, Australia, (coll. K. G. Buller). 

Hyla dorsivena Tyler, 1968a, Zool. Verb. (96): 83 

—Litoria dorsivena (Tyler), vide Tyler. 1971: 352 

Holotype: S.A.M. R790I. Telefomin, New 
Guinea (coll. B. Craig). 

Paratypes: S.A.M. R7902-7910 (same data as 
holotype). R79I I transferred to Museum of 
Natural History, University of Kansas. 
Now K.U. 153143. 

Hyla leucova Tyler, 1968a, Zool. Verb. (96): 119 
Litoria leucova (Tyler), vide Tyler, 1971 : 353 

Holotype: S.A.M. R6461, Busilmin, New Guinea 
(coll. B. Craig). 

Hyla meirlana Tyler, 1969, Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 
16(1): 2 

^Litoria nieiriana (Tyler), vide Tyler, 1971: 353 

Holotype: S.A.M. R9082. 157 km north of 
Mainoru, Northern Territory, Australia (coll. 
A. Fleming, R. Kdwards and H. Bowshall). 

Paratypes: S.A.M, R9014-32, 9034, 9074-81, 
9083-85 (same data as holotype). (R.9033 
transferred to Museum of Natural History, 
University of Kansas. Now K.U. 153144). 



178 



REC. S, AUST. MUS-. 17 (7-12); IM-219 



September. 1976 



Hyla micromembrana Tyler. 1963, Trans. R. Soc. 
S. Aust. 86: 121 

- Litoria micromembrana (Tyler), vide Tyler. 
1971: 353 

Holotype: S.A.M. R4150, Mt. Podamp, near 
Nondugl, New Guinea (coll. M. J. Tyler). 

Hyla mintima Tyler. 1963, Trims. R. Soc. S. 
Aust. 86: 123 

—Litoria angtana (Boulenger), vide Tyler, 
1971: 354 

Holotype: S.A.M. R4151. Mintima, near 
Kerowaghi, New Guinea (coll. M. .1. Tyler). 

Hyla modica Tyler, 1968a, Zoo/. Verlt. (96): 135 

Litorict modica (Tyler), vide Tyler, 1971 : 354 

Paratype: S.A.M. R8I08, Oruge, New Guinea 
(coll. F. Parker). 

Hyla multiplies Tyler, 1964, Anier. Mas, Novit. 
(2187): 2 

Litoria mult'tplica (Tyler), vide Tyler, 1971 
354 

Paratype: S.A.M. R4946, Kassam, Kratke 
Mountains, New Guinea (coll. H. M. Van 
Deusen), 

Hyla prora Menzies, 1969, Trans. R. Soc. S. 
Aust. 93: 165 

Li roria prora (Menzies), vide Tyler, 1971 : 354 

Paratypes: S.A.M. RI0410-1I, Efogi, Owen 
Stanley Mountains, New Guinea (coll. 
.1. I. Menzies). 

Hyla spinifera Tyler, 1968a, Zool. Verlt. (96): 167 

—Litorict spinifera (Tyler), vide Tyler, 197 1 : 354 

Paratypes: S.A.M. R6928-3I, Oruge, New Guinea 
(coll. F. Parker). 

Hyla wisselensis Tyler, 1 968a, Zoo/. Verlt. (96): 180 

Litoria wisselensis (Tvler), vide Tyler, 1971; 
355 

Paratypes: S.A.M. R5539-43, Enarotali, Lake 
Paniai, Wissel Lakes, New Guinea (coll. 
M. Boeseman and L. D. Holthius). 

Litoria brevipalmata Tyler, Martin and Watson, 
1972, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.SAV. 97 ( I): 82 

Holotype: S.A.M. R 1 1 236, Ourimbah Creek, 
8 km north-west of Gosford, New South 
Wales, Australia (coll. F. Parker). 



Litoria glandulosa Tyler and Anstis, 1975, Rec. S. 
Aust. Mus. 17(5): 41 

Holotype: S.A.M. R 13504, Barwick Creek, 
Point Lookout, near Ebor, New South Wales, 
Australia (coll. M. Anstis). 

Paratypes: S.A.M. Rl 3505-10, Barwick and 
Bullock Creeks, Ebor; R 1 3060 (1 1 juveniles), 
R 1 3303, Barwick Creek; Rl 3626-39, Point 
Lookout, (coll. M. Anstis). 

Litoria quadrilineata Tyler and Parker, 1974, 
Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 98 (2): 71 

Holotype: S.A.M. R13489, Jalan Trikora Road), 
Merauke, Irian Jaya (coll. F. Parker). 

Paratypes: S.A.M. R 13490-93, collected with 
holotype by F. Parker, 

Litoria timida Tyler and Parker, 1972, Trans. R. 
Soc. S. Aust. 96 (3): 157. 

Holotype: S.A.M. R 1 1658, Mcnemsorae, 
Western District, New Gunea (coll. 
F, Parker). 

Paratypes: S.A.M. R 1 1659-61 (same data as 
holotype. 

Nyctimystes montana Parker, 1936, Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist. 17: 80 

Nyctimystes clieesntani (nomen nudum) Tyler, 
1965': 268 

Paratype: S.A.M. R9424, Mondo, New Guinea 
(coll. L. E. Cheesman). 

Nyctimystes zweifeli Tyler, 1967. Trans. R. Soc. S. 

Aust. 91: 191. 
Holotype: S.A.M. R5426, Telefomin, New 

Guinea (coll. B. Craig). 

Paratypes: S.A.M. R88 1 2-88 13, 8815-8819 (same 
data as holotype). (R88I4 transferred to 
Museum of Natural History, University of 
Kansas. Now K.U. 15345). 



Leptodactylidae 

Crinia affiiiis halmaturina Condon, 1941, Rec. S. 
Aust. Mus. 7: 114 

Ranidella signif'era Girard. vide More, 1961; 
234 & Blake, 1973. 

Holotype: S.A.M. R2I65, Flinders Chase, 
Kangaroo Island, South Australia, (coll. 
Tate Society). Specimen missing. Notes: 
This specimen could not be found when a 
specific search for it was undertaken in 1 960. 



VERTEBRATE TYPE-SPECIMENS IN THE S. AUST. MUSEUM— II AMPHIBIANS 



179 



Crinia riparia Littlejohn and Martin, 1965, 
Copeia, 1965 (3): 3 19 

-Raniilella riparia (Littlejohn and Martin), 
vide Blake 1973. 

Paratypes: S.A.M. R9101-02, Alligator Gorge, 
Flinders Ranges. South Australia (coll. 
M. J. Littlejohn, A. A. Martin and 
P. Rawlinson). 

Glauertia russelli Loveridge, 1933, Occ. Pap. 
Boston Sac, Nat. Hist. 8: 89. 

Paratype: S.A.M. R9723. Creek flowing into 
Gaseoyne River, near Landor Station, 
Western Australia (coll. L. Glauert). 

Kyarranus kundagungan Ingram and Corben, 1975, 
Mem. QUI, Mus. 17(2): 335. 

Paratypes: S.A.M. Rl 3921-22, Mistake Moun- 
tains, Queensland (Coll. C. J, Corben and 
A. K. Smyth). 

Limnodynastes dumerili variegatus Martin, 1972, 
Aust.J.Zool. 20: 181. 

Paratypes: S.A.M, R13174-75. 6 km north of 
Cape Otway, Victoria, Australia, (coll. 
A. A. Martin). 

Ranidella remota Tyler and Parker, 1974, Trans. 
R. Sac. S. A ust. 98 (2): 74 

Holotype: S.A.M. RI3524, Morchead. Papua 
New Guinea (coll. F. Parker). 

Paratypes: S.A.M. R 13527-28, Gubam; RI3525- 
26, R 1 368 1 -82, Morehead (coll. F. Parker). 

Mierohylidae 
Barygenys cheesmanac Parker. 1936, Ann. Mag. 

nat. Hist . 17: 74. 
Paratype: S.A.M. R9423, Mount Tafa, New 

Guinea (coll. I.. L. Cheesman). 

Coplrixalus exiguus /weifel and Parker, 1969, 
Amer. Mus. Novit. (2390): 2. 

Holotype; S.A.M. RI031I, Mount Hartley. 

Queensland, Australia (coll, F, Parker). 
Paratypes: S.A.M. R9796, 10035-40 (same data as 

holotype). (R9723 transferred to Museum 

of Natural History, University of Kansas. 

Now K.U. 153146). 

Sphennphryne dentata Tyler and Mcnzies. 1971. 
Trans. R Soc. S. Aust. 95 (2): 79. 

Holotype: S.A.M. R 1 2063. Alotau, Milne Bay. 
New Guinea (coll. J. I. Menzies). 

Paratypes: S.A.M. Rl 1819-28 (same data as 
holotype). 



Ranidac 

Cornufer ingeri Brown and Alcala. 1963. Copeia 
1963(4): 672. 
-Platymantis ingeri (Brown and Alcala), vide 
Z weifel, 1967; 120. 
Paratypes; S.A.M. R8808, Cantaub area, Bohol 
Island, Philippines; S.A.M. RI3606, Dusita 
area, Bohol Id., Philippines (both coll. 
A. Alcala). 

Platymantis akarithymus Brown and Tyler, 1968, 
Proc. bio!. Sac. Wash. 81 : 76. 

Holotype: S.A.M. R7073, Pomogu, 1 1 km north- 
west of Kandrian, New Britain (coll. 
M.J. Tyler). 

Paratypes: S.A.M. R6982 (same data as holotype) 
S.A.M. R7066, R7082, near Malassait, 
approx. 85 km west of Rabaul, New Britain 
(coll, M. J. Tyler). 

Platymantis mimicus Brown and Tyler, 1968. 
Proc. biol. Soc. Wash. 81 : 74. 

Holotype: S.A.M. R6868. Numundo Plantation. 

Willaumez Peninsula, New Britain (coll. 

M.J. Tyler). 
Paratypes: S.A.M. R7064, R7069, Pomugu II km 

north-west of Kandrian; S.A.M. R6864, 

Gazelle Peninsula, New Britain. (All coll. 

M. J. Tyler). 

Platymantis rhipiphalcus Brown and Tyler, 1968. 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 81 : 77. 

Holotype: S.A.M. R7071, near Pomogu, approx 
1 1 km north-west of Kandrian. New Britain 
(coll, M, J. Tyler). 

Paratype: S.A.M. R7078, San Remo Plantation, 
Willaumez Peninsula, New Britain (coll. 
M. J. Tyler). 

Platymantis papuensis schmidti Brown and Tyler. 
1968, Proc. biol. Soc. Wash. 81: 85. 

Holotype: S.A.M. R76I8, Talasea, Willaumez 
Peninsula, New Britain (coll. M. J. Tyler). 

Paratypes: S.A.M. R6762-68, 6772-93, 6795, 
6801, 6803-07. 6809-13, 6815-16, 6858-60, 
6862, 6869, 6912-13. 6915. 6922-28, 7061. 
7070. 7080, 7085, 7088-89, 7093, 7095. 
7097, 7101-04, 7106, 7109. 7115. Willaumez 
Peninsula; 7615, 7617-23, 7625-37, 7639-47, 
7649-74, 7677-78, Baining Ranges, Gazelle 
Peninsula: 7043. 7045. 7099. 7132. 7134-37, 
7139, 7147-48, 7151, Kerevat, Gazelle 
Peninsula (all coll. M. J. Tyler). (R76I6. 
7638, 7648 transferred to Museum of Natural 
History, University of Kansas. Now K.U. 
153147-49). 



180 



REC. S. MIST. MUS., 17 (7-12)1 1 69-2 1 9 



September, 1976 



REFERENCES 

Anonymous, 1962. Type specimens in the Western Australian 
Museum (part 2). Ami. Rep. W. Aust, Mus. 1960-61: 
35-39. 

Blake, A. J. D„ 1973. Taxonomy and relationships of myoba- 
trachine frogs (Leptodactylidae): a numerical approach. 
Aust. J. Zool. Zi: 119-149. 

Brown, W. C. and Alcala, A. A.. 1963. A new frog of the genus 
Cornufer (Ranidae) with notes on other amphibians from 
Bohol Island, Philippines. Copeia 1963 (4): 672-675. 

Brown. W. C. and Tyler, M. J., 1968. Frogs of the genus 
I'latyinaiuis (Ranidae) from New Britain with descriptions 
of new species. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 81 : 69-86. 

Condon, H. T., 1941. Further records of lizards and frogs 
from Kangaroo Island. Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 7: 1 1 1-1 16. 

Covacevich, J., 1971. Amphibians and reptile type-specimens 

in the Queensland Museum. Mem. QUI. Mus. 16 (I): 

49-67. 
Coventry, J., 1970. Reptile and amphibian type specimens 

housed in the National Museum of Victoria. Mem. Not. 

Mus. Vie. 3t: 115-124. 
Dowling, 11. C. Gilboa, I. and Zweifcl, R. G. 1970. A list of 

herpetological type lists. Herpetol. Rev. 2 (3); 53-54 

Goldman. J., Hill, L. and Stanbury, P. J., 1969. Type specimens 
in the Macleay Museum, University of Sydney. II. 
Amphibians and reptiles. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.IV. 93 
(418): 427-438. 

Ingram, G. J. and Corbcn, G. J. 1975. A new species of 
Kvarratius (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Queensland, 
Australia. Hem. QUI. Mus. 17 (2): 335-339. 

Littlejohn, M. J. and Martin, A. A., 1965. A new species of 
Crinia (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from South Australia. 
Copeia 1965(3): 319-324. 

Loveridge, A., 1933. A new genus and three new species of 
crinine frogs from Australia Oee. I'ap. Boston Soc. Nat. 
Hist. 8: 89-94. 

Martin, A. A., 1972. Studies in Australian Amphibia III. 

The Limnodvnastes dorsalis complex (Anura:Lcptodac- 

tylidae). Aust. J. Zool. 20 : 1 65-2 1 1 . 
Menzies, J. I., 1969. A new species of tree-frog {Hvla) from 

Papua. Tram R. Soc. S. Aust. 93; 165-168. 

Moore, J. A., 1961: The frogs of eastern New South Wales. 
Bull. Amer. Mus. Not. Hist. 121 (3): 153-385. 

Parker, H. W.. 1936. A collection of reptiles and amphibians 
from the mountains of British New Guinea. Ann. Man. 
Nitl. Hist.. scr, 10,17; 66-93, 



Tyler, M. J„ 1963. A taxonomic study of amphibians and 

reptiles of the Central Highlands of New Guinea, with 

notes on their ecology and biologv. II. Anura: Ranidae 

and Hylidae. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 86: 105-130. 
Tyler. M. J., 1964. Results of the Archbold Expeditions. 

No. 85. A new hylid frog from the Eastern Highlands of 

New Guinea. Amer. Mus. Novit. (2187): 1-6. 
Tyler, M. J., 1965. An investigation of the systematic position 

and synonymy of Hvla montaiui Peters and Doria (Anura: 

Hylidae). Ahh. Zool. Mus. Dresden 27 ( 10): 265-270. 
Tyler, M. J.. 1967. A new species ofthe hylid genus Nyetlfnysiei 

from the highlands of New Guinea. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 

91: 191-195. 
Tyler, M. J., 1968a. Papuan hvlid frogs of the genus Hvla. 

Zool. lerh. (96): 1-203. 
Tyler. M, .1.. 1968b. A taxonomic study of hylid frogs of the 

Hvla leseueri complex occurring in north-western Australia. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 15 (4): 711-727. 
Tyler, M. J.. 1969. A synopsis of the frogs of the genus liy/u 

of north-western Australia, with the description of a new 

species, Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 16(1): 1-1 I. 
Tyler. M. J., 1971. The phylogenetic significance of vocal sac- 
structure in hvlid frogs. Univ. Kansas Pnbl. Mus. Nut, 

Hist. 19(4): 319-360. 
Tyler. M. J., and Anstis, M. 1975. Taxonomy anil biology 

of frogs of the Litoria eitropa complex (Anura:Hylidae). 

Rec. S. Aust. Mas. 17 (5) 41-50. 
Tyler, M. J., Martin. A. A. and Watson, G. F„ 1972. A new 

species of hylid frog from New South Wales. Proc. Linn. 

Soc. N.S.W. 97(1): 82-86. 
Tyler. M. J. and Menzies, J. I., 1971. A new species of micro- 

hylid frog of the genus Sphenophryne from Milne Bav, 

Papua. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aim. 95 (2): 79-83. 
Tyler, M. J. and Parker. F., 1972 Additions to the hylid frog 

fauna of New Guinea, with description of a new species, 

Litoria timida. Trurm. R. Sue. S. Aust. 96 (3): 157-163. 
Tyler, M. J. and Parker. F., 1974. New species of hylid and 

leptodactvlid frogs from southern New Guinea. Trans. 

R.Sac. S. Aust. 98 (2): 71-78. 
Wandolleck, B., 1911. Die amphibien und reptilien der 

Papuanischcn Ausbcute Dr. Schlaginhaufcns. Ahh. K. 

zool. anihrop — eilin. Mus. Dresden 13 (6): 1-15, 
Zweifcl. R. G., 1967. Identity of the frog Cornufer unicolor 

and application of the generic name Cornufer. Copeia 

1967(1): 117-121. 
Zwcifel. R. G. and Parker, F.. 1969. A new species of micro- 

hylid frog (genus Coplu.xalus) from Australia. Amer. Mus. 

Novit, (2390): I- 10, 



VERTEBRATE TYPE-SPECIMENS IN THE SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 

m. REPTILES 

by 
TERRY F. HOUSTON 

South Australian Museum, Adelaide 5000 



ASTRACT 

HOUSTON. T. F. 1476. Vertebrate type-specimens in the 
South Australian Museum. III. Reptile*. Rev. S, Aust, 
Mui. 17 (')); 181-187. 

The South Australian Museum holds primary 
type-specimens of 58 species of living reptiles 
(all but one species are Australian). Thirty-one 
species are represented by holotypes, syntypes 
or lectolypes. Full collection data are provided 
for all specimens, 

INTRODUCTION 

The following list is based primarily on the 
taxonomic literature so that it should include all 
reptile type-specimens (i,e, holo-, syn-, lecto-, 
alio-, para- and paralecto-types) purported to be 
in the South Australian Museum. An examina- 
tion of the type-specimen collection, however, 
has brought to light other types received by 
donation or exchange whose presence has not 
previously been published. 

The specimens are listed under their original 
names which are arranged alphabetically within 
each family. The currently accepted names of 
the taxa are noted where these differ from the 
original ones. Collection data are taken from 
the Museum registers. 

The names of several institutions arc abbreviated 
as follows: — 

MCZ Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Harvard University, Cambridge, 

Massachusetts, U.S.A. 

SAM — South Australian Museum, Adelaide. 

S.A. 
USNM- United Stales National Museum, 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 

U.S.A. 

WAM— Western Australian Museum, Perth, 
W.A. 

SQUAMATA: LACERT1LIA 

Agamidae 
Amphibolous caudieinctus macropus Storr, 1967a. 
./. R. Soc. IVest. Ausi. 50 (2): S3. 
Holotype: R3229 ( = USNM 128750), J, 4-5 mi. 
(7-2 km) SSE of Oenpelli Mission, Northern 



Territory, 30.ix.1948, R. R. Miller, 
Australian-American Arnhem Land 

Expedition, 

Amphibolurus barbatus minimus Loveridge, 1 933. 

/Vac. New Engl. zoal. Club 13: 69. 

Paratypes: R3I70 (2 specimens, MCZ 32978), 
West Wallabv Island, Western Australia, 
IO.x.1921, G. M. Allen & W. E. Schevill. 

Amphibolurus gibba Houston, 1974b. 

Trans. R. Soc. S. Ausi. 98 (4): 209-212, figs. 1-4. 

Holotype: RI3954A, ft 5-5 km NNW of Alberrie 
Creek Railway Siding, South Australia, 
29-35S x 137-31E, I4.U974, ex burrow under 
cracked mud crust of gibber plain, R. Forsyth 
and T. Houston. 

Paratypes: (All from South Australia) R2525, 
Finniss Springs, 17.1.1947. A. J, Pearce; 
R3542, 12 mi. (19 km) SE of Mt. Hamilton 
Station on Margaret River, I9.V.1953. 
R. Tedford; R3805, Lake Lettie Waterhole, 
23.iii.1956. G. F. Gross; R7605-6, R83IO. 
2mi. (3-2 km) S of Marree, February, 1966, 
F. J. Mitchell; R9499, Marree, June, 1966, 
F. J. Mitchell; Rl 1 165, 23 mi. (37 km) S of 
Coward Springs on road to Stuart Creek 
HS,26.x.l969,Zool. Dept., Univ. of Adelaide, 
"gibber, crumbly clay soil, ran into burrow": 
R 1 2494A-B, 20 mi. (32 km) N of Oodnadatta, 
1971. J. Brcdl; R 13891. Finniss Springs, 
6.ii.l964, F. J. Mitchell; RI3894A-B, data 
as for R2525; R13953. 34 km N of Coober 
Pedy, 6.X.I973, E.Story; RI3954B-K, data 
as for holotype. 

Amphibolurus rufescens Stirling and Zietz, 1893. 

Tram- R- Soc. S. Aust. 16: 1 64, pi. 6, figs. 2 and 2a. 

Lectotype: R1423, g, Mt. Sir Thomas, Birksgate 
Range, South Australia, Elder Expedition 
(1891-92). Selected by F. R. Zietz, 1915. 
p. 768. 

Paralectotypes: RI424-5, data as for lectotype. 

Notts — In describing this species. Stirling & Zietz did not 
designate types but simply noted they had ihrcc specimens and 
gave the dimensions of two of them. However, F. R. Zietz, 
1915. noted that Ihe largest specimen was the type" and gave 
its dimensions; these accord with those of "specimen A" in the 
original description. 



1X2 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (7-12): 169-219 



September. 1976 



Amphibolous scutulatus Stirling and Zietz, 1893. Diporiphora laliiae Storr, 1974a. 



Trans. R. Sac. S. Aust. 16: 165-167, pi. 7. figs. I 
and 2. 

Syntypes: R.1459 (9 specimens), R3024 (2 
specimens), R4814 (12 specimens), between 
Fraser Range and Queen Victoria Springs, 
Western Australia. Elder Exploring 
Expedition (1891-2). 

Notks Stirling &. Zietz noted they had several specimens ol 
each sf-t without giving any registration numbers. Therefore, 
all specimens collected by the Elder Expedition at the type 
locality are regarded as syntypes. 



Ainphibolurus vadnappa Houston, 1974a. 

Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 98 (2): 55-57. figs. 1, 2, 
12-16- 

Holotype: R3416B. ._?, Aroona Waters (138-21 Ex 
30-35S), Flinders Ranges. South Australia, 
3.V.1953. P. F. Lawson. 

Allotype: R33I4C. Mt. Aroona, South Australia, 
29.xi.l95l, F. J, Mitchell. 

Paratypcs: (All from Soulli Australia), R28I9, 
6 mi. (9-7 km) IMF of Commodore, 4.x. 1947, 
Adelaide Bush Walkers; R300L Bcltana, 
I4.ix.l949, H. Mincham; R3314A, B & D. 
sec allotype: R34I6A & C, same data as 
holotype; R3423, 20 mi. (32 km) E of 
Angcpcna, 8. v. 1953. P. F. Lawson; R3492. 
Yudnamulana Gorge, Flinders Ranges. 
2.ix.l952. K. Peake-Jones: R3950, lllawartina 
(error for lllinawortina) Pound, Gammon 
Range, 25.ix.l956, F. J. Mitchell; R432I, 
Parachilna Gorge, 6.xi.l96l, J. Findley; 
R4821, Aroona Waters, H. Mincham; R8I 14, 
Mt. Fitton, Moolawatana Station, I2.V.1966. 
H. Ehmann; R 10402-4, Narrina Station, 
Flinders Ranges, April 1969, H. Mincham, 
R 10638, Wilpena Pound. 25.viii.l969. 
H. Mincham; R 109 1 8-23, Arkaroola HS. 
24.x. 1 969, SAM expedition; R 1 0934-5, near 
Boulder Bore, 27.x. 1969, SAM expedition; 
R10946. Echo Camp (Arkaroola Station), 
27.x. 1969, SAM expedition: R 10965-7, East 
Painter Gorge, l.xi.1969, SAM expedition; 
R1I361, Copper Creek, Arkaroola Station. 
May 1969, C. P. Brown; Rl 1373, Arkaroola 
Station, January 1970; RI2432, Tern.pinna 
Springs (139-40E x 29-55S), I7.ix.1970, 
Ehmann and Houston; R 1 2749. Oraparinna 
National Park, September 1971, Nature 
Conservation Society; R 12837, Walkavvonda 
(error for Waukawoodna) Gap, 60 mi. 
(97 km) N of Blinman. 1971. R. Maddem; 
R 1 3053, see R 1 2749 : R 1 3 1 35, see R3492. 



Rec. West. Aust. Mus. 3 (2): 138-139, fig. 4, 

Paratypes: R3536, Moola Bulla Station, northern 
Western Australia, 7-30.Lx.1953. N. B. 
Tindale; R4824A-C, Tennant Creek, 
Northern Territory, 20.iv,l906, J. F. Field; 
R5047, Palm Valley, Northern Territory, 
September 1959, P. F. Lawson; R5352. 
Giles, Rawlinson Ranges, Western Australia. 
November 1963, P. F. Aitken and N. B. 
Tindale; RI3539A-B, 16 km NW of Tennant 
Creek. Northern Territory, 26,i,l969, in light 
scrub and spinifex. 

Diporiphora magna Storr, 1974a. 

Rec. West, Aust. Mus. 3 (2): 137-138, fig. 4. 

Paratypc: R8167, Delamere Station, Northern 
Territory, August 1966, P, Aitken. 

Diporiphora bilineara margaretae Storr, 1974a, 

Rec. West. Aust. Mus. 3(2): 143-144, fig. 5. 

Paratypes: R2848. R 1 3483A-Z. Umba Kumba, 
South side of Little Lagoon, Grootc Eylandt. 
Northern Territory, l-16.vi.1948, R. R. 
Miller, Australian-American Arnhem Land 
Expedition. 

Tympanocryptis cephalus gigas Mitchell, 1948. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 9(1): 65-67, figs. I and 4. 

Holotype: R2434. ,;, between Ashburton and 
Gascoyne Rivers, Western Australia, 1893. 
P. St. Barbe, Ayljfie. This specimen cannot 
be found. 

Paratypes: R2434 (two specimens), data as 
holotype. 



or 



Tympanocryptis intima Mitchell, 1948. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 9(1): 60-62. figs. 1 and 2. 

Holotype: R233I. ?, Oodnadatla, South 
Australia, Prof, J. B. Cleland. on gibber 
plain, 

Tympanocryptis maculosa Mitchell, 1948. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 9(1): 78-80. figs. 1 and 9. 

Ainphibolurus maculosus (Mitchell), vide 
Mitchell, 1965a, p. 190. 

Holotype: R2220a, $, Lake Eyre North. South 
Australia, August 1929, C. T. Madigan. 

Allotype and Paratypes: R2220 (19 specimens), 
data as for holotype. Only 13 of these 
specimens have been located. 



VERTEBRATE TYPE-SPECIMENS IN THE S. AUST. MUSEUM— III REPTILES 



i .-: -• 



Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla Mitchell, 1948. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mm. 9(1): 70-72. figs. 1 and 6. 

Holotype: R2468a, J. Victoria. 

Paratypcs; R2468 (two specimens), data as for 
holotype. 

Tympanocryptis uniformis Mitchell, 1948. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 9(1): 76-78, figs. I and 8. 

Hololype: R705, Darwin, Northern Territory, 
June 1911, O. Wesselmann. 

Gekkonidac 
Diplodactylus elderi Stirling and Zietz, 1893. 

Trems. R. Sac. S. Aust. 16; 161, pi. 6, figs. I and 

la. 
Holotype: R2027, Barrow Range, Western 

Australia. 23.viii.l89l, Elder Exploring 

Expedition. 

Diplodactylus galeatus Kluge, 1963. 
Rec. S. Ami, Mm. 14 (3): 545-548, pi. 34a. 
Holotype: R973, J, Stuart Range, South 
Australia, 15.x. 1919, Henry Greenfield. 

Paratype'.': RI563, Hermannsburg. Northern 
Territory, 24.i. 1930, H. Heinrich. 

Noths -Kluge regarded specimen RI563 as eonspecilte with 
the holotype and noted its differences. Paratypcs were net 
designated in his paper. 

Diplodactylus mitclielli Kluge, 1963 

Rec. S, Aust. Mm. 14(3): 548-550, pi. 34b. 

Paratypes?: R4280 (formerly R4I42), 

Coolawanyah HS, Western Australia, 
I7.vii.1958, F. J. Mitchell, under stones; 
R428I (formerly R4143), Tambrey Crock 
near Tambrey HS, Western Australia, 
28.vii,1958, F. I. Mitchell, under stones near 
vvaterhole. 

Notes — Kluge regarded these specimens as conspocilie with 
the holotype and noted their differences. Paratypes were not 
designated in his paper. 

Diplodactylus savagei Kluge, 1963. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 14(3): 550-553, pi. 35, a and b. 

Paratypes?: R3464 (two specimens), Pilgangoora 
Well. Western Australia, I6-25.V.I953, 
N. B. Tindale (one missing) ; R4282 (formerly 
R4144). Coolawanyah HS. Western Australia, 
I7.vii.1958, F. J. Mitchell, under iron. 

Notes — Kluge regarded these specimens as conspeeific with 
the holotype and noted their differences. Paratypes were not 
designated in his paper, 

Gehyra fenestra Mitchell, 1965b. 

Senckenbcrg. biol. 46 (4): 307-310, lig. 9. 

Paratypes: R4596, summit of Mt. Herbert-Big 
Pool, Western Australia, 25.vii.1958, F. J. 
Mitchell; R4597, Tambrey Station, Western 



Australia, 30.vii. 1958, A. Douglas, in crack 
in roof of cave; R4601-2, Tambrey Station, 
Western Australia, 3-4.viii.l958. F. J. 
Mitchell; R4600. top of Mt. Herbert, 
Western Australia, 4.viii.l958, F, J. Mitchell. 

Notls Specimens K45yf>. 4600 and 4602 are alizarin-stained 

skeletons 

Gehyra pilbaia Mitchell, 1965b. 

Senckenberg. bivl. 46 (4): 303-306, figs. 7 and 8. 

Paratypes: R4433-69 (R4437 and R4454 sent by 
exchange to LJSNM), Tambrey HS and 
Nuntana walcrhole, Tambrey Creek, Western 
Australia, 28.vii.-3.viii. 1958. F. J. Mitchell, 
ex termite mounds. 

Norrs— The following specimens are alizarin-stained 
skeletons: R4435, 444 1 , 4446a-b, 4462 and 4.S<M. 

Nephrurus stellatus Storr, 1 968a. 

West. Aust. Nat. 10(8): 180-182, fig. I. 

Paratype: R8392. Hambidge Reserve, Eyre 
Peninsula, South Australia, 9.x. 1966, M. 
Smyth. 

Pygopodidae 

Aprasia inaurita Kluge, 1974. 

Misc. Pubis. Mus.Zooi. Univ. Mich. 147: 51-53, 
figs. 21 and 32. 

Paratypes: (All from South Australia) R379, 
Mitchell via Yeelanna, 31.vii.1914, W. A. 
Dorwood; RI673, Lock 3. Murray River, 
28.viii.193I, J. Allen; R2752. near Rcnmark. 
9.V.1948, T. L. Wadrop; R2808, Salisbury. 
I6.ix.l948, H. Harris; R3089A, Streaky Bav. 
S.viii.1950. E. J. Greenfield; R3885, Port 
Lincoln, W. C. Johnston; R4302, Tumby 
Bay, 28.ix.1962, J. F. Darling; R84I0. 
Lameroo, November, 1966, J. Troubridge; 
R8994, "A" Island, Venus (Bay). 20.ix.l967, 
MacrowandSorrell; R92I0. Blesing Reserve, 
3.x. 1967, R. Hcnzell, under limestone; 
R9215, data as for R92I0 but collected 
7.x. 1 967; RI1655, Cultana Army Base, 
Whyalla, l.ix. 1970, L. Payne; RI2617, 5 mi, 
(8 km) NW of Wharminda, Eyre Peninsula. 
E, Jericho. 

Aprasia pseudopulchella Kluge. 1967. 

Misc. Pubis. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. 147: 56-57. 
figs. 24 and 27. 

Holotype; R6360. a few miles N of Burra, South 
Australia, I9.viii.l965. J. Bishop. 

Paratypes: (All from South Australia) R406A-D. 
Clare, December 1914, L. G. Thorpe; 
R2I 10A-D, Mylor, lO.viii. 1936, F. C. Carson; 
R6357-9, R636I, data as lor holotype; 
R 1 0778-9, Mambniy Creek Reserve. 



184 



RhX\ S. AUST. MUS., 17 (7-12): 1 69-2 IV 



Sepwmher. 1976 



1 7.ix. 1969, T. Grearson, under stones on top 
of range; R125I0, Yudnamutana, North 
Flinders Ranges, 10.ix.I970, Rostrevor 
College. 

Delma australis Klugc, 1974. 

Misc. Pubis. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich, 147: 77-80, 
figs. 4, 6, 41-43 and 120. 

Paratypcs: (All from South Australia) R380, 
Mitchell via Yeelana, 31.viii.l9l4, W. A. 
Dorwood; R3852, 15 mi. (24 km) N of 
Poochera, 15. vi. 1956, F. J. Mitchell; R430I. 
Port Germein Gorge, August 1961, J. A. 
Fisher; R5375, Gawler Ranges, March, 
1963, F. J. Mitchell; R9I89, R9213, Blesing 
Reserve, Eyre Peninsula, 1 0/3/. x. 1967. 
R. Henzell; R9224, 4 mi. (6-4 km) S of Baird 
Bay, 12.x. 1967, R. Henzell; R 10374, data 
as for R3852; R 10376. data as for R5375; 
R 1 2454-5, Corunna Hills near Iron Knob, 
18. iv. 1971, ex Triodia bushes, H. Mincham 
and T. Houston; R 1248 1, R 1 2669, Miccollo 
Hill (136-36E x 32-32S), Siam Station, 
19-20.iv.l97l. ex Triodia bush, H. Mincham 
and T, Houston; R 1 275 1, dala as for 
R 1 2454. 

Delma borca Kluge. 1974. 

Mm*. Pubis. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. 147: 81-82, 
figs. 44-47 and 1 24. 

Paratype: R8409, Kathcrine, Northern Territory, 
25.xi.l966, J. Turner. 

Delma elegans Kluge, 1974. 

Misc. Pubis. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich, 147: 82-86, 
figs. 43, 48-50 and 124. 

Paratype: R4475, Tambrey HS, Western 
Australia, 28.vii.I958, F. J. Mitchell, 

Delma inornata Kluge, 1974. 

Misc. Pubis. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. 147: 101-105, 
figs. 58, 62-64. 

Paratypcs: Rl 1095, 20 mi. (32 km) N of Walla 
Walla, New South Wales, 25, xi. 1969. D. J. 
Rees; R 1 2745. Tooperang, South Australia, 
26.vii,|971, G. S. Wynniatt, found under 
stone. 

Delma nasula Kluge. 1974. 

Misc. Pubis. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. HI: 109-1 13, 
figs. 70-73 and 124. 

Paratype: R4513. Millstream HS, Western 
Australia, I8.vii.l958, F. J. Mitchell. 

Delma pax Kluge, 1974. 

Misc. Pubis. Mus. Zonl. Univ. Mich. 147: 113-117, 
tigs. 69, 74-77. 



Paratypcs: (All from Western Australia) R3445A, 
Pilgangoora Well, 16-25.V.I953, N. B. 
Tmdale; R3452, Yandcyarra Station. 20- 
24,vi,l953. N. B. Tindale; R45J4, Tambrey 
HS, 28.vii.l958, F, J, Mitchell. 

Seine id ae 

Carlia amax Storr, 1974b. 

Rec. West. Ausi. Mus. 3(2): 160-162. 

Paratypes; R13531A-B, R13536, Kangaroo 
Springs, Bing Bong Station near Borroloola, 
Northern Territory, 8.iii.l969. 

Carlia gracilis Slorr. 1974b. 

Rec. West. Aust. Mus. 3(2): 158-159. 

Paratype: R5367D (now R 1 4723). Northern 
Territory. 

Carlia rurilatus Storr, 1 974b. 

Rec. West. Aust. Mus. 3 (2): 157. 

Paratypes; R5367A-C and E, Northern Territory, 

Ctenotus alacer Storr, 1969. 

J. R. Soc. West. Aust. 52 (4): 104-105. 

Paratype: R5588. MacDonnell Ranges, Northern 
Territory, November, 1963, M. Warburg. 

Ctenotus uber oriental is Storr, 1971a. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 16(6): 8-9. 

Paratypes: R23-4, Turners Well, River Murray, 
South Australia, 24.U9II, G. Wright: 
RI507, Pinnaroo, South Australia, don. 
Mr. Broadbent; R2789, R9466-9, between 
South Gap and Pcrnatty HS, South Australia, 
18.viii.-6.ix.1948, F. J. Mitchell and G. F. 
Gross; R36I8, Lake Palankarinna, South 
Australia, June 1954, P. F. Lawson; R5738, 
Panaramitee Station, South Australia, R. 
Edwards; R9735, Dalhousic HS, South 
Australia. 3.viii.l968, F. J. Mitchell; R10017, 
R 10027, R 10030, Mem Merna, South 
Australia. November 1947 and January 
1948. D. R. Hall; RI0044, Milparinka, New 
South Wales, 1 0.x. 1 968, A, Kowanko; 
R 10055, MacDonnell Ranges, Northern 
Territory, I7.iii.l913, Capt. S. A, White; 
R 10122, Blue Range Creek, South Australia, 
October 1968, M. Smyth. 

Ctenotus regius Storr. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 16 (6): 7-8. 

Paratypes: (All from South Australia) R759, 
Killalpaninna, September-October 1916, 
SAM Expedition; R2657, R 10028-9, 
R 10031 -3, Mem Merna, January 1948. 



VERTEBRATE TV HE-SPEC (MENS IN THE S. AUST. MUSEUM— III REPTILES 



IKS 



D. R. Hall: R2788, R10024-6. between 
South Gap and Pernatty HS, J8.viii.-6.ix.1948, 
F. J. Mitchell and G. F. Gross; R3177, 
RI00I3-4. Yudna Swamp. Moralana Station, 
12.ii.l95l, D. R. Hall: R10342, Goyders 
Lagoon, 1 2.ix. 1968, J, Hilditch, in rat burrow. 

Dasia smaragdina perviridis Barbour, 1921. 

Proc. New Engl. zool. Clubl: 106. 

Paratypes: R3166 (two specimens, MCZ 
15050-1 ), Graciosa Bay, Santa Cruz, Solomon 
Is., S.xi.1916. N. M. Mann. 

Egernia kinrorei Stirling and Zietz, 1893. 

Trans. R. Sac. S. Aust. 16: 171. 

Lectotype: R2925. Victoria Desert S of Barrow 
Range, Western Australia, R. Helms, Elder 
Exploring Expedition (1891-2). Selected by 
Mitchell (1950, p. 284). 

Patalectotypes: R29I5-6 ( E. inornata Rosen), 
Eraser Range and between Fraser Range and 
Victoria Springs, Western Australia, 
28.x. 189 1, R. Helms. Elder Exploring 
Expedition. 

Egernia whitii multiscutata Mitchell and Behrndt, 
1949. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 9(2): 176. 

= E. m. multiscuuito (M. & B.). vide Storr, 
1968 b, p. 57. 

Holotype: R2636, #, Greenly Island, South 
Australia. 6-1 7.xii, 1947. F. J. Mitchell. 

Allotype and Paratypes: R2636 (7 specimens) 
and R8579-81 (3 specimens formerly under 
R2636), data as for holotype. 

Notes — Two of the paratypes under R2636 have not been 
found, 

Egernia margaretae personata Storr, 1968b. 

J. R. Soc. West. Aust. 51 (2): 53. 

Holotype: R3748, Wilpena Gorge, South 
Australia, 26.ix.l955, F, J. Mitchell. 

Paratypes: (All from South Australia) R2573, 
8 mi. (13 km) SE of Warcowie School, 
22.iv.l947, D. R. Hall: R2645, Mern Merna. 
ll.ix.1947, D. R. Hall; R3934. S branch of 
Balcanoona Creek, Gammon Ranges, 
September 1956, E. J. Mitchell; R8503, 
Wilpena Gorge, 26.x. 1955, F. J. Mitchell; 
R8717-8 (formerly R330I). Wilpena Gorge, 
27-28.xi.195l, F. J. Mitchell; R8724-6, North 
Tusk, Gammon Ranges. 



Egernia wbitei tenebrosa Condon, 194E 

Rec. S. Ausl. Mus. 7 (I): 111. 

Holotype: R2161, Flinders Chase, Kangaroo 
Island, South Australia, presented by the 
Tate Society, University of Adelaide. 

Egernia slateri virgata Storr, 1968b. 
J. R. Soc. H'est. Aust. 51 (2): 60. 

Holotype: R602, Oodnadatta to Everard Ranges, 
South Australia, Capt. S. A. White. 

Leiolopisma greeni Rawlinson. 1975, 

Mem. tiatn. Mus. Vict. 36: 8-10, fig. 2; pi. I, 
fig. 2; pi. 2, fig. 3b. 

Paratype: Rll 136, Barn Bluff, western Tasmania, 
16.1.1963. F.J. Mitchell. 

Leiolopisma triacantha Mitchell, 1953. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 11(1): 88-89, fig. 4. 

Carlia triacantha (Mitchell), vide Storr, 1974b, 
p. 159. 

Holotype: R2697, o\ Adelaide River, 61 mi. 
(98 km) S of Darwin. Northern Territory, 
2.vi.l943, R. V. Southcott. 

Paratypes: R2700. R2702 (the latter destroyed), 
data as for holotype. 

Lerista picturata baynesi Storr, 1971b. 

./. R. Soc. West. Aust. 54 (3): 66-67, 

Paratype: R9498 ( WAM R24617), Eucla. 
Western Australia, 7.ix.l968. G. M. Storr & 
A. M. Douglas. 

Lygosoma melanops Stirling & Zietz, 1893. 

Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 16; 173-174. pi. 7, figs. 3 
and 3a. 

— Tiliqua b. branchiate (Giinther), vide Mitchell, 
1950. p. 303. 

Syntypcs: Two specimens, between the Everard 
and Barrow Ranges, South Australia- 
Western Australia, Elder Exploring Expedi- 
tion (1891-2). 

Notes- No registration numbers were quoted in the original 
description Mitchell. 1950. p. 304. lists R2732 (two specimens) 
as the types hut the SAM register indicates only one specimen 
under that number and this could not be located. Another 
specimen, R8I3'>, is listed in the register as a paratype and may 
be the juvenile described by Stirling and Zietz. 

Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) taeniata Mitchell. 
1949. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 9(2): J 80. 

=Ctenotus broaksi taenia! us (Mitchell), vide 
Storr, 1971a. p. 14. 



18*, 



REC S. AUST. MUS.. 17 (7-12): 169-219 



St'pli'Dihri', 1976 



Holotype: R2803, Tobys Swamp,. Andamooka 
Ranges, South Australia, I8.viii.-6.ix.1948. 
F. J. Mitchell & G. F. Gross, in burrow in 
sandhill with two geckos — Diplodactyltis 
clamaeus. 

Rhodona sty lis Mitchell, 1955. 

Rcc. S. Ami. Mus. IT (4): 400-402, tigs. 6 and 7. 

—Lerisla Stylis (Mitchell), vide Greer, 1967, 
p. 19. 

Holotype: R3094, Yirrkala Mission, Northern 
Territory, 22-27.vii.1948, R. R. Miller, 
Australian-American Arnhem Land Expedi- 
tion. 

Paratypes: R2855 (2 specimens), Umba Kumba, 
Groote Eylandt, Northern Territory, 
1-16. vi. 1948, Australian-American Arnhem 
Land Expedition: R2856 (5 specimens), same 
data as for holotype. 

Tiliqua scincoides intermedia Mitchell, 1955. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 11 (4); 393-394. 

Holotype: R3095, ?, Yirrkala Mission, Northern 
Territory, 22-27.vii.1948, R. R. Miller. 
Australian-American Arnhem Land Expedi- 
tion. 

Paratype: R3225 (- USNM 128388), near Umba 
Kumba, Groote Eylandt, Northern Territory, 
Australian-American Arnhem Land 

Expedition (April-November 1948), 

Varanidae 

Varanus (Odatria) glebopalma Mitchell, 1955. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mm. 11 (4): 389-390, fig. 3. pi. 37. 

Holotype: R3222 ( USNM 128385). ,?, S end 
of Lake Hubert, Northern Territory. Aust- 
ralian-American Arnhem Land Expedition 
(April-November 1948). 

Varanus (Varanus) mitchelli Mertens. 1958. 

Setickenberg. biol. 39: 256-259, pis. 27 and 31. 

Holotype: R3230 ( USNM 128755), 5 mi, 
(8 km) W of Ocnpclli Mission, Northern 
Territory, Australian- American Arnhem 
Land Expedition (April-November 1948). 

SQUAMATA: OPHIDIA 

Elapidae 

Demansia acutirostris Mitchell, 1951. 

Rec. S. Ami. Mm. 9 (4): 547-549, fig. I. 

—Pseudonaja acutirostris (Mitchell), vide 
Worrell, 1963, p. 143. 

Holotype: R3133, Island in Lake Eyre North, 
South Australia, 28.26S x 137.24E* 27.x. 1950, 
E. D. & M. Brooks and E. Price. 



Denisonia nigrostriata brevicauda Mitchell, 1951. 

Rcc. S. Ami. Mus. 9 (4): 550-551 , 

I'arasuta brevicauda (Mitchell), vide 
Worrell. 1963, p, 135, 

Holotype: R3I37, Fowlers Bay, South Australia. 

Paratypes: (All from South Australia) RI230, 
Waikerie, L. G. Thorpe: R2273, Parrakic; 
R3I36 (21 specimens), Sedan, Murray Scrub, 
October, 1885?, Mr. Rothe; R3138. Murray 
Bridge, J. G. Neumann; R3139, Beetaloo 
Waterworks, Dr. Stirling; R3I40, Murray 
Bridge; R3I4I. Mt. Wedge via Elhston, 
29.vii.l907, J. L. Harwood. 

Denisonia brunnea Mitchell, 1951. 

Rec. S. Ami. Mm. 9 (4); 551-552, figs. 2a and 2b. 

Holotype: R3151, Mt. Wedge via Elliston. South 
Australia. 29.vii.1907, J. L. Harwood. 

Notks — This specimen appears to be a juvenile of Pu-tttJrchi* 
tiutmilh. Only the last live subcaudals are paired, the remainder 
being single. 

Vermicella I'asciata Stirling & Zietz, 1893. 

Trans. R. Sac. S. Ami. 16: 175-176, pi. 7, figs. 4 
and 4a. 

- Rhynchoelaps fasciolatct fascutta (S. & Z.), 
vide McDowell, 1969, p. 489. 

Holotype: R2935, near the Barrow Ranges, 
Western Australia, 1891, R. Helms, Elder 
Exploring Expedition. 

Noils --No registration number was quoted in the original 
account but the specimen labelled as the iiololype in the SAM 
agrees \\ ith the description and ligures. 

Vermicella bcrtboldi littoralis Storr. 1967b. 

J. R. Sue. West. Aust. 50(3): 84. 

Rhvuclwelaps berthaldi liituralis (Storr), vide 
McDowell, 1969, p. 489. 

Paratype: R2271 (published in error as R2771), 
Murchison Goldrield. Anncan, Western 
Australia, H.Y.L. Brown. 

Typblopidae 

Typhlops endoterus Waite, 1918. 

Rec. S. Ami. Mus. 1(1): 32-33. chart 5. fig. 24. 

Tvpldina cruhtera (Waite). vide McDowell, 
' 1974. p. 6. 

Holotype: R88, Hermannsburg, Northern 
Territory, 22.1.1912. don. F. Scarfe. 

Paratypes?: R87, R89, data as for holotype, 

Notts - Waite recorded three specimens but only (he registra- 
lion number of the "Type" was noted. It seems obvious that 
RX7 and RK9 are the other two. 



VERTEBRATE TYPE-SPECIMENS IN THE S. AUST, MUSEUM— 111 REPTILES 



187 



Typhlops pinguis Waite, 1897, 

Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 21: 25, pi. 3. 

=Tvphlinct pinguis (Waite), vide McDowell, 
' 1974, p. 6. 

Holotype: R803, South Australia. 

NoTt— Registered in 1918 as "Type". 

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51 (2): 51-62. 
Storr. G. M., 1969, I he genus Ctenolus (Lacerlilia, Scincidae) 

in the Northern Territory. J. R. Soc. West. Aust. 

52(4): 97-108. 
Slorr.G. M.. 1971a. The genus Ctenotusi Lacerlilia, Scincidae) 

in South Australia. Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 16 (6): 1-15. 
Storr, G. M., 1971b. The genus Lerista (Lacerlilia, Scincidae) 

in Western Australia, J. R. Soc. West. Aust 54 (.1): 

59-75, 
Storr. G. M.. 1974a. Agamid lizards of the genera Caimanops, 

Phvsignathus and Diporiphont in Western Australia and 

Northern Territory. Rec. West. Aust. Mus. 3 (2): 121-146. 
StoiT, G. M., 1974b. The genus Cuilia (Lacerlilia, Scincidae) 

in Weslcrn Australia and Northern Territory, Rec. West. 

.lost. Mus. 3(2): 151-165. 
Waite, L. K.. 1897. Notes on Australian I vphlopidae. frans. 

R. Sot. S. Aust. 21 : 25-27, pi. 3. 
Waite, E. R., JJflfl. Review of the Australian blind snakes 

(family Tvphlopidae). Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 1(1); 1-34, 

pi. I. 
Worrell. E.. 1963. "Reptiles of Australia". Angus & 

Kobertson, Sydney. 
Zietz. F. R., 1915. Scientific notes on an expedition into the 

north-western regions of South Australia. Trims. R. Soc. 

S.Ausr.39: 766-769. 



VERTEBRATE TYPE-SPECIMENS IN THE SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 

IV. BIRDS 

by 
H. T. CONDON 

South Australian Museum, Adelaide 5000 



ABSTRACT 

CONDON, H. T., 1976. Vertebrate type-specimens in the 
South Australian Museum. IV. Birds. Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 
17 (10) : 189-195. 

Holotypes, paratypes and syntypes in the South 
Australian Museum of 27 forms involving six 
non-passerine and 21 passerine subspecies of 
living Australian birds are listed with explanatory 
notes. 

Some of the names applied to the specimens 
listed have been placed in synonymy; their 
correct (or valid) names and geographical ranges 
are given. 

INTRODUCTION 

In the following account the type specimens are 
listed in systematic sequence under Orders, 
Families, Subfamilies, Species and Subspecies; 
vernacular names are given also. The nomen- 
clature is that of the Official Checklists of the 
Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union. 

Following the original published reference to 
each name, the type-category, registration (B) 
number, sex, type-locality, date of collection and 
collector's name are given together with any other 
data, such as measurements, colours of soft parts, 
and remarks on the original label. 

Reference is also made to known paratypes, 
syntypes and Iectotypes. 

The last paragraph under each heading provides 
the currently accepted (or valid) scientific name 
with author, date of publication, vernacular name 
and Checklist numbers in brackets: the first 
number in brackets refers to the Second Edition of 
the R.A.O.U. Official Checklist (1926) and the 
second to Part I of the Third Official Checklist 
(1974). 

ORDER ACCIPITRIFORMES 

Family Accipitridae, Subfamily Accipitrinae : 

Goshawks, Sparrowhawks 

Astur clarus robustus F. R. Zietz, 1914. 

S.Aust. Om. 1(1): 13. 

Holotype: B1334, ?, Melville Island, Northern 
Territory, 2.viii.l913, W. D. Dodd. Grey 
phase, subadult. Original label marked 
"ZT" in red. 



=Accipiter novaehollandiae novaehollandiae 
(Gmelin, 1788), Grey (White) Goshawk 
(220) (137). Australia and Tasmania. 

ORDER COLUMBIFORMES 

Family Columbidae, Subfamily Turturinae: 

Bronzewing and Emerald Pigeons 

Chalcophaps chrysochlora melvillensis F. R. Zietz, 

1914. 
S. Aust. Om. 1(1): 12. 

Holotype: B1365, & Melville Island, Northern 
Territory, 15.viii.1913, W. D. Dodd. 
Original label marked "ZT" in red. 

= Chalcophaps indica melvillensis F. R. Zietz, 
1914. Green-winged Pigeon (33) (286). 
Melville Island, Northern Territory. 

ORDER PSITTACIFORMES 
Family Polytelidae: Longtailed Parrots 

Aprosmictus erythropterus melvillensis F. R. Zietz, 

1914. 
S. Aust. Om. 1 (1): 14. 

Holotype: B1336, $, Melville Island, Northern 
Territory 4.viii.l913, W. D. Dodd. Original 
label marked "ZT" in red. 

= Aprosmictus erythropterus coccineopterus (see 

note) (Gould, 1 865) Redwinged Parrot (280) 

(318b). Coastal Northern Territory and 

Melville Island. 

Note — For details of Gould's type of coccineopterus see de 
Schauensee 1957, page 167. 

Family Platycercidae, Subfamily Platycercinae: 

Rosellas and allies 
Platycercus elegans fleurieuensis Ashby, 1917. 
Emu 17: 43. 

Holotype: B2323, <J, Second Valley, Fleurieu 
Peninsula, South Australia, 7.iv.l917, Edwin 
Ashby. 
Paratype: B5333, $, Second Valley, Fleurieu 
Peninsula, South Australia, 7.iv.l917, E. 
Ashby. 
For coloured plate of Holotype and Paratype 

see Emu 17 (3), plate 17. 
= Platycercus elegans fleurieuensis Ashby, 
Crimson ("Adelaide") Rosella (283) (329), 
Fleurieu Peninsula, South Australia. 



190 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (7-12): 169-219 



September, 1976 



Psephotus haematonotus cacruleus Condon, 1941. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 7: 141 ; coloured plate. 

Holotypc: B2237, ..$, Innamincka Station, South 
Australia, 30.ix.1916, South Australian 
Museum Expedition. 

^Psephotus haematonotus caeruleus Condon, 
Redrutnped Parrot (295), (33Gb). North- 
eastern Interior, South Australia and 
adjacent parts of south-western Queensland 
and north-western New South Wales. 

ORDER CUCUL1FORMES 

Family Cuculidae, Subfamily Cucuiinae: Parasitic 

Cuckoos 
Chrysococcyx roinutilius rnelvillensis F. R. Zietz, 

1914. 
S.Ausl. 0/77.1(1): 14, 

Holotype: B1288, o\ Melville Island, Northern 
Territory, 26.viii.l913, W. D. Dodd. 
Original label marked "ZT" in red. 

= Chrysococcyx maluvanus minutillus Gould, 
1859, Little Bronzecuckoo (345), (357). 
Northern Australia. 

ORDER PASSERIFORMES 
Family TimaUidae, Subfamily Cinclosomatinae: 

Quailthrushes and allies 
Cinclosoma castanotum clarum Morgan, 1926. 

S. Aust. Om. 8: 138-9; Emu 16, 1926; coloured 

plate T. 
Holotype: B7705, g{, Wipipippee, ca. 5mi. ( = ca. 
8km) E of southern end of Lake Gairdner, 
South Australia, I7.viii.l902, A. M. Morgan. 
Cinclosoma castanotum clarum Morgan 1926, 
Chestnut Quailthrush (437). North- 
western South Australia (and adjacent 
parts of Northern Territory and Western 
Australia) south to Ooldea and vicinity 
of Lake Gairdner. 

Cinclosoma castanotum morgani Condon, 1951. 

5. Aust. Om. 20: 42. 

Holotype: B5673, j, 18 mi. (- c. 29km) NW 

of Kimba, Eyre Peninsula, South Australia, 

I9.ix.l925, A.M. Morgan. 

= Cinclosomu castanotum morgani Condon 1951, 
Chestnut Quailthrush (437). Eyre 
Peninsula and Flinders Ranges, South 
Australia. 

Family Acanthizidae, Subfamily Acanthizinac: 
Ihornbills 

Acanthiza pusilla cambrensis A. G. Campbell. 

1922. 
Emu 21: 64, 



Holotype: B194I5, & Cape Jervis, South 
Australia, 6,iv,19l7, E. Ashby. Original 
label marked (in red) "TYPE A. p. Cambrian 
(sic) A.G.C, 2/6/22". Ashby collection No. 
13. 

Paratype: BI9413, ? sex, Lucindale, South 
Australia, — .vii.1916, ? collector. Ashby 
collection No. 9. NoTt — This specimen is 
referred to by Campbell (Emu 22: 64). 

Acanthiza pusilla macularia Quoy & Gaimard 
1830, Brown Thornbill (475). Coastal 
districts of Victoria and eastern South 
Australia, 

Gcobasileus chrysorrhoa westernensis A. G. 

Campbell. 1922. 
Emu 22 : 65. 

Holotype: B19353, & "Watheroo Obs.'\ near 
Moota, Western Australia, 5.xi.l920, E, 
Ashby. Original label marked (in red) 
"TYPE G.c. westernensis A. G. Campbell 
2/6/22". Ashby collection No. 82. 

Paratype: B 1 9355, & breeding, "Watheroo Obs." 
near Moora, Western Australia, 5.xi.l920, 
E. Ashby. Ashby collection No. 81. Note — 
specimen referred to by Campbell (Emu 
22: 65). 

=Acantluza chrysorrhoa alexanderi Mathews, 
1921, Yellowtailed Thornbill (486). Mid 
Western Australia. 

Acanthiza tenuirostris A. H. Zietz, 1900. 

Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 24: 112. 

Syntypes (2): B7267, B7268, ? sex, Leigh's Creek 
scrub. South Austi alia,— .viii. 1895, R. M. 
Hawker. On original labels of both 
specimens, in handwriting of A. Zietz, is 
noted "Acanthiza tenuirostris A. Zietz (Type 
specimen) Aug. 1895. Leigh Creek, Hawker 
Esq". 

Acanthiza iredalei morgani Mathews, 1911, 
Samphire Thornbill (482-3). Interior of 
South Australia. 

Family Acanthizidae, Subfamily Sericornitlunae : 
Scrub-, Ground-, and Fieldwrens. 

Sericornis maculatus condoni Mathews, 1942. 

J. R. Soc. West. Aust. 27: 78. 

Holotype: B943I, y, Hopetoun. Western 
Australia, I2.vii. 1906, J. T. Tunney (collection 
No. 8565). Pencil notes on label by G, M, 
Mathews "in Espcrance Bay. Wing 55 
cul. 10 tar. 21 tail 45. Type of Sericornis m. 
condoni Mathews". Notes by J. T. Tunney 
"Shot in dense scrub. Mostly seen in 
pairs". 



VERTEBRATE TYPE-SPEC IMENS IN THE S. AUST. MUSEUM— IV BIRDS 



191 



^Scricornis frontalis coiuloni Mai hews, 1942. 
Whitcbrowed Scrubwren (488-492). 
South-west Australia. 

Sericomis maculatus houtmanensis F. R, Zietz, 

1921. 
S.Ausf. Om.6(2): 44-5. 
Syntypes (3): B547, B548. B549, £ y i?, Abrolhos 

Islands. Western Australia. 14.x. 1912. W. D. 

Dodd. NoTi r — Same data for each skin; 

but only B547 and B548 (?) are marked 

"Type" in handwriting of F. R. Zietz. 

Scricomis frontalis halstoni Grant, 1909, 
Whitebrowcd Scrubwren (491). 

Calanianthus fuliginosus parsonsi Condon, 1951. 

S.Aust. Orn. 20: 50. 

Holotype: B11850, ,3, 23 mi. (- c. 37km) E of 
Mcningie, SouLh Australia, 3.x. 1929, Dr. 
A. M. Morgan. Other details are "pharynx 
light flesh colour; palate dark flesh colour; 
iris creamy white; legs dark flesh colour, 
feet darker; bill: maxilla dark horn, 
mandible light horn at base, brownish tip. 
Total length 13-5 cm; wing span 15*7 cm". 

Paratypes (2): Bl 1849, 3— other details as 
above; "total length 12 cm; wing span 
16-6 cm; stomach contents — insect remains". 
B23068. J. )7mi.( c. 27 km) E of Meningie, 
South Australia, 2.X.1929, F, E. Parsons. 
"Iris buff, darker on inner margin; bill: 
upper horn colour, lower whitish; legs and 
feet light horn. Total length 4-75 in. [ — 
12-07 cm]; wing span 775 in. [- 19-7 cm]". 
81 1839. S, Coombe, South Australia. 
10,ix.l929, W. J. Harvey. Other details 
"iris dark grey; feet dirty pink; bill dark 
brown; pharynx yellow". 

Calanianthus fuliginosus parsonsi Condon, 
1951, Striated Fieldwren (500-503). Drier 
areas. South-east of South Australia. 

Calamanthus fuliginosus suttoni Condon, 1951. 

S. Aust. Orn. 20: 51. 

Holotype; B5669, i, Wcrtigo. SW of Whyalla, 
Eyre Peninsula, South Australia. 8.ix.l925, 
Dr. A. M. Morgan. Details from original 
label "iris cream; feet light brown; bill: 
upper dark brown, lower light brown; 
inside mouth dark horn, Total length 12 cm ; 
wing span 17-25 cm; weight 16 mg, Stomach 
contents insect remains". 

Calunuwihus < fuliginosus suttoni Condon. 1 95 1 , 
Striated fieldwren (50(1-503). Northern 
lyre Peninsula. 



Family Maluridae, Subfamily Stipiturinae: 
Emu-wrens 

Stipiturus malachunis halmaturinus Parsons, 1920. 

S. Aust. Orn. 5: 15. 

Holotype: B22762, $, Stokes Bay, Kangaroo 
Island, South Australia, 14.x. 1919, F. E. 
Parsons. Other details from original label 
"iris brown; legs and feet brown, bill 
brown-almost black; length from tip of bill 

to base of tail 2-75 in. [ = 7 em] to 

tip to tail 7-5 in. [- 19 cm]". 

Paratypes (4): B2984-2986. B4350-4352— a series 
of six specimens, all collected by F. E, 
Parsons at Stokes Bay. Kangaroo Island in 
October, 1919. For details, see Parsons 
(1920) pages 16 and 17. 
Stipiturus ma/achurus hahnaiurinus Parsons, 
1 920, Southern Emu-wren (526). Confined 
to Kangaroo Island. 

Family Rhipiduridae: Fantails 
Rhipidura mayi Ashby, 1911. 
Emu II: 41. 

Syntype; BI76, ? sex (desiccated specimen, from 
formalin). Anson Bay, Northern Territory. 
191 1. C. I, May. Received in exchange from 
Ashby on 15th February, 1912. Ashby {be. 
cit.) stated that he had received two formalin 
specimens from May; the second syntype 
was presented by Ashby to the Academy of 
Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, in 1917 (de 
Schauensee, 1957: 213). 
— Rhipidura rufifmns ilryas Gould, 1843, Rufous 
Fantail (362) Northern Australia. 

Family Muscicapidae: Old World Flycatchers 
Pctroica cucullata melvillensis F. R. Zietz, 1914. 
S. Aust. Orn. 1(1): 15. 
Holotype: BI285, & Melville Island, Northern 

Territory, 2l,viii.I9l3, W. D. Dodd. 

Specimen label shows "ZT" in red. 

—Petroica cucullata picata Gould, 1865, Hooded 
Robin (385) Northern Australia. 

Family Pacbycephalidae: Whistlers, 
Songshrikes and allies 

Pachycephala gutturalis longirostris F. R. Zietz, 

1914. 
S. Aust. Orn. 1(1): 15. 
Holotype: B1283, J, Melville Island, Northern 

Territory, 29.vii.l9l3, W. D. Dodd. 

Pachvccplialu pcciorolis violelac Mathews. 
1912. Golden Whistler (298-399). From 
Daly River, Northern Territory east to 
Normanton, Queensland; Melville Island 



192 



REC. S. A LIST. MUS., 17 (7-12): 169-219 



September, 1976 



Pachycephala ruliveritris minor F. R. Zictz, 1914. 

S.Aust. Orn. 1(1); 15. 

Hololypc: BJOOI, £ Melville Island. Northern 
Territory, 10.vii.1913, W. D. Dodd. Marked 
"ZT" in red on label. 

Paratypcs (2): BI002 (labelled "CTZ" in red) 
same details as above; B1003 (labelled "ZT" 
in red) as above except date (23.vii.l9l3), 

^Pachvcephala rujiventris falcatu Gould, 1842, 
Rufous Whistler (401). Melville Island, 
Groote Eylandt and adjacent Northern 
Territory mainland. 

Colluricincla parvula melvillensis F. R. Ziet2, 1914. 
S. Aust. Orn. 1(1): 16. 

Syntypes(7): B1008-10I 1 : B1271-I273. A series 
of seven specimens from Melville Island, 
Northern Territory, collected between 
lO.vii. 1913 and 6.viii.l913 by W. D. Dodd arc 
labelled "Z" in red and probably formed the 
basis for Zietz's description in The South 
Australian Ornithologist. There are five 
males and two females; all are indistinguish- 
able from specimens from the adjacent 
mainland. 

=Colluricincla parvula parvula (see note) Gould. 
1 845, Little Shrike-thrush (412). Northern 
Australia. 

Note -For details of type see de Scbauensee 1957, p 21 fi, 

Colluricincla brunnea melvillensis F. R. Zietz, 19)4. 
S. Aust. Orn. 1 (I): 16. 

Syntypes (3): BI007 ( ;). B1269 ( $, B1270 (y) all 
from Melville Island, Northern Territory, 
collected on KXvii.1913 and 27.viii.19l3 
(B1269) by W. D. Dodd. None of the 
specimens is marked "ZT" (in red) which was 
used by F. R. Zietz to indicate type specimens, 
but they are marked "Z" in red. There is no 
indication in the original description as to the 
number of specimens Zietz had, or whether he 
selected a holotype. 

Colluricincla hrunnea Gould, 1841, Brown 
Shrike-thrush (409). Northern Australia. 

Colluricincla harmonica anda Condon. 1951. 

S.Aust. Orn. 20: 41. 

Holotype: B 1 2897, $ breeding, Clifton Hills, 

South Australia, 31,vii.l930, Dr. A. M. 

Morgan. 

—Colluricincla harmonica anda Condon, 1951, 
Grey Shrike-thrush (408-410). North-east 
South Australia from Innamincka north to 
Clifton Hills and adjacent parts of New 
South Wales and south-western Queensland 
east to Charleville. 



Family Falcunculidae: Shrike-tits, Bcllbirds, Whip- 
birds and allies. 

Psophodes nigrogularis pondalowiensis Condon, 
1966. 

5. Aust> Orn. 24(5): 89. 

Holotype: B27133. $ adult, coastal sand dunes, 
near Pondalowie Bay. Yorke Peninsula, 
South Australia, 30.x. 1965, H. T. Condon. 

Psophodes nigrogularis pondalowiensis 
Condon, 1966, Western Whjpbird (421). 
Southern Yorke Peninsula, South 
Australia. 

Family Climacteridae: Australian Treecreepers 

Climacteris waiter S. A. White, 1917. 

BmuW, 168-9. 

Holotype: B2303, ,j\ Innamincka, South 
Australia, 2.x. 1916, S. A, White. "Iris 
brown", 

Paratype: B2304, + , Innamincka, South 
Australia, 2.X.19I6, S. A. White. "Iris 
reddish brown; feet and bill blackish brown". 

- Climacteris picumnus Temminck, 1 824, Brown 
Treecrecper (555). South-eastern Aus- 
tralia, coastal and inland, from central 
Queensland to Yorke Peninsula, South 
Australia. 

Family Zosteropidae: Silvcreyes. 

Zosterops westernensis flindersensis Ashby, 1925. 

Emu IS: 117. 

Holotype: B4506, g ? Flinders Island, near 
Clliston, South Australia, 6.J.1924, Prof. F. 
Wood-Jones. "Iris dark brown; feet 
greenish grey; bill grey with black tip". 
Note — Correction of page reference needed 
in R.A.O.U. Checklist (1926) from "177" to 
"1 17" as given above. 

= Zosterops lateralis halmaturina A. G. Camp- 
bell, 1906, Eastern Silvereye (576). South- 
ern districts of South Australia. 

Family Meliphagidae: Honeyeaters. 

Melithreptus magnirostris North, 1905. 

Ret: Ausr. Mus. 6 (J): 20, plate 5. 

Holotype: B8610, 3, Eastern Cove, Kangaroo 
Island, South Australia, 3.x. 1901, F. R. 
Zietz. Other details from original label 
^Melithreptus magnirostris (Type). A.J.N." 
(in red ink); note in handwriting of F. R. 
Zietz "these birds were shot out of a flock. 
Coll. by F. R. Zietz". 



VERTEBRATE TYPE-SPECIMENS IN THE S. AUST. MUSEUM— IV BIRDS 



193 



Paratype: B8616, ?, Kangaroo Island, South 
Australia, -.xii.1905, F. R. Zietz. A note on 
label apparently copied from original label 
(now lost) says "cotype of zietzr which 
suggests North seems to have had difficulty 
in choosing a name. It is recalled that in 
a letter to Robert Zietz, North stated that 
he wished to make "magnirostris" a sub- 
species of M. brevirostris, but the absurdity 
of the combination (brevirostris and 
magnirostris) was pointed out by the Director 
of the Australian Museum, Robert Etheridge, 
who prevailed upon him to treat the 
Kangaroo Island bird as a full species, 
Me/ithrept us magnirostris. 



=Melithreptus brevirostris magnirostris North, 
1905, Brownheaded Honeyeater (583). 
Kangaroo Island. 

REFERENCES 

Campbell, A. G., 1922. New Subspecies of Tit-Warblers 

(Acanthizae). Emu 22: 63-66 
de Schauensee, R. M., 1957. On some avian types, principally 

Gould's, in the collection of the Academy. Proc. Acad. 

nat. Sci. Phila., 109: 123-246. 
Hartert, E., 1918-1931. Types of birds in the Tring Museum. 

Nov. zool., 25-37. 
Hindwood, K. A., 1946. A list of the types and paratypes of 

birds from Australian localities in the Australian Museum, 

Sydney, New South Wales. Rec. Aust. Mus., 21 (7): 

386-393. 
Stone, W. and Mathews, G. M., 1913. A list of the species of 

Australian birds described by John Gould, with the location 

of the type specimens. Austral, avian Rec, 1 (6-7): 

129-180. 



194 REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (7-12): 169-219 September, 1976 

— NOTES — 



VERTEBRATE TYPE-SPECIMENS IN THE S. AUST. MUSEUM— IV BIRDS 195 

— NOTES — 



VERTEBRATE TYPE-SPECIMENS IN THE SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 



V. MAMMALS 

by 

PETER F. AITKEN 

South Australian Museum, Adelaide 5000 



ABSTRACT 

AITK.FN, l\ T.. l')76. Vertebrate lypc-specimens in the South 
Australian Museum. V. Mammals. Kcc. S. Auxi. Mux. 
17(11): 197-203. 

Type-spceimens of 19 species or subspecies are 
housed in the mammal collection at the South 
Australian Museum. They comprise either holo- 
types, lectotypes, synlypes or paratypes of 1 1 
marsupials, seven rodents and one chiroptcran. 
All are from Australia except the chiropteran 
which is Papuan. 

INTRODUCTION 

Although the acquisition of mammals for 
display began some years earlier, registration of 
mammal specimens at the South Australian 
Museum did not commence until July, 1890, when 
such specimens were first entered in the Taxi' 
dcrmist's Register. This register was superseded 
by the current Mammal Register in January, 1911. 
Since 1890 five species and 10 subspecies of 
Australian mammals, plus one species of Papuan 
mammal, have been described from specimens in 
the Museum's mammal collection, and type- 
specimens of three more Australian mammals 
have been acquired from other institutions. 

Some type-specimens in the mammal collection 
were described by authors who identified them 
individually in original descriptions, documented 
their dispositions and labelled them as types. 
These have been easy to catalogue, Others, on 
the other hand, were described by authors who 
did not identify them individually in original 
descriptions, gave few clues to their dispositions 
and did not label them as types. Cataloguing 
such specimens has been extremely difficult and 
has devolved on deduction and assumption rather 
than factual knowledge. Most types in the 
collection described by Wood Jones and many 
paratypes described by Finlayson are in the latter 
category. In many cases Wood Jones' types are 
quite impossible to identify from his original 
descriptions, and in the absence of personally 
attached labels, if indeed these were ever present, 
can never be selected with certainty. The South 
Australian Museum may well have unsuspected 
Wood Jones types, in addition to those catalogued, 
of the following species: Myrmecobius rufus 
Wood Jones 1923, Dtomfofa britta Wood Jones 
1925 and Arctoccpluilus (lorijerus Wood Jones 
1925. 



MARSUP1ALIA 
Dasyuridae 

Planigale gilesi Aitken, 1972. (Fig. 1) 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 16 (.10) : I , pis. 1 , 2, 3a-d. 

Holotype: M8406. male skin and skull plus torso 
in spirit, No. 3 Bore, pastoral property of 
Anna Creek. South Australia, collected P. 
Aitken, A. Kowanko, J. Forrest and J. 
Howard, 29.vi. 1969. 

Paratypes: M8407, male skin and skull, collected 
P. Aitken, A. Robinson and M. Stanley. 
25.vu.I969; M8408 and M8409, male skins 
and skulls, collected P. Aitken, J. Forrest and 
J. Glover, 26.xi.1969; M8410, male in spirit, 
collected P. Aitken, A. Robinson and M. 
Stanley, 27.vii.I969; M84I I. female in spirit 
with skull extracted, collected A. Kowanko 
and J. Glover, 25.vii.1970, locality data of 
all as for Holotype. 

Notm— Five additional paratypes are ut the Australian 
Museum : M7033. female in spirit with skull extracted, collected 
I. Kirkby, 27. ii. 1945 and M7393, collected v. 1 948, both from 
Bellalu, New South Wales, Australia: M7NI9, male in spirit 
vviih skull extracted and M7820. female in spirit with skull 
extracted, both From Brewarnna, New South Wales. Australia. 
fOlJeCTed K. lumbull, 1954; M9I90. male in spirit, Lake 
Cawndilla. Kinchega National Park, New South Wales, 
Australia, collected M. Gray, 20,v. 196*1. 

Phascogale (Antechinus) svtainsoni maritlma 

Finlayson, 1958. 
Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust, 81 : 148, pis. la-h, 2a-b. 
-Antechintrs minimus nuirilimns (Finlayson) 
vide Wakefield and Warneke, 1963. 
Holotype; M4985, male in spirit with skull 
extracted, Port MacDonnell. South Australia. 
collected G. H.Tilley, VI. 1938. 

N'cvrrs — Ten paratypes were indicated, but not identified 
individually, by Finlayson. All are hi his private collection. 

Myrmecobius fasciarus rufus Finlayson, 1933. 

Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 57: 203. 

^Myrmecobius fasciatus rufus (Wood Jones) 
vide Tate. 1951. 

Syntypes: M306I. female skin and skull, south 
of the Musgrave and north of the Everard 
Ranges. South Australia, collected A. 
Brumby, date of collection unknown ; M3759. 
female in spirit Oolarinna, north of the 
Everard Ranges, South Australia, collected 
R. T. Maurice, date of collection unknown. 



198 



REC. S. AUST. MUS.. 17 (7-12): 169,219 



September, 1976 



Notes— Wood Jones (1923.) published the first description of 
Myrmecohius rufus based on at least two syntypes, the skulls 
of which are at the odontological museum of the Royal College 
of Surgeons, London. His description was of a preliminary 
nature in which the name Myrmecohius rufus was treated as a 
synonym of M. fasciatus (Waterhouse), pending further des- 
cription in a "scientific journal". Finlayson (1933) apparently 
considered that Wood Jones had not made the name 
Myrmecohius rufus available in nomenclature and published a 
fresh description under the name Myrmecohius jusciaius rufus, 
based on two new syntypes selected from a scries of 1 7 examples. 
However, Wood Jones' original name undoubtedly is available 
under the provisions of Article 1 1 (d) of the Rules of Zoological 
Nomenclature and therefore has priority. 



Peramelidae 



Thalacomys nigripes Wood Jones, 1923. (Fig. 2) 

Rec. S. Aust. Mm. 2 (3): 347, figs. 358-60. 

= Macrotis lagotis nigripes (Wood Jones) vide 
Troughton, 1932 (1). 

Paratype: M3922. male in spirit, Ooldea Soak, 
South Australia (by inference), donated 
Daisy M. Bates, date of collection unknown. 




Fitv I, Planisale pilcsi Ailken. 1972. I'aiatype male— M 8410. (Photo — Roman 

Ruehle. ) 




W<1 0D J-(S*«»»' 



Fig. 2. Tluilticomys nigripes Wood Jones. 1923. General characters of adult male. 

(Drawing — F. Wood Jones.) 



VERTEBRATE TYPLi-Snt IMINS IN THE S. AUST. MLJSEDM-V MAMMALS 



I9Q 



Notts — Wood Jones based his description on a hololype 
and Will paratypes, none of which was identified individually. 
He slated lhat one Of lliis series was a male spirit -preserved 
specimen in theSoulh Auslralian Museum, from Ooldca Soak. 
captured by Aboriginals and donated by Mrs. Daisey M. Bates. 
It is reasonable to assume thai the paratype listed above was 
that specimen, because it fits the sub-specific description of 
Wood Jones and. although its locality is not entered in the 
mamma] register, it is Ihe only spirit specimen of M, lagolis in 
the South Australian Museum, known to have been donated 
by Daisy Hates. Ihe skiii of the hololype male is al Ihe 
British Museum I Natural History), registered number 
1925.10., S.I and its skull is al Ihe odontological museum of the 
Royal College of Surgeons, London, registered number 
A. 378.31. The whereabouts of the remaining three paratypes 
is unknown. 



Thalacomys minor niiselius Finlayson, 1932, 

Tram. R. Soc. S. Ami. 56: 168. 

Mac nil is minor inlsclius (Finlayson) vide 
Iredale and Troughlon, 1934. 

Holotype: M3465, male skin and skull, Coon- 
cherie, South Australia, collected L. Reese 
and H. H. Finlayson, xii.1931. 

Notes— A series of II paratypes was indicated by Finlayson, 
but none was identified individually. They are all presumably 
in his private collection. 

Macrotis lagotis grandis Troughton, 1932. 

Ausl.Zool.7Q): 229. 

Holotype: M5225, male stuffed skin without 
skull, Nalpa, South Australia, collector and 
collection date unknown. 

Paratype: MI625, skull (sex unknown). Nalpa, 
South Australia, collected Dr. E r Stirline, 
vi.1891. 

Not ks— Troughton designated three paratype skulls from 
Nalpa .... "as listed by Wood-Jones (1923-5 : 156)". The 
South Australian Museum has four skulls of M. lagoiis from 
Nalpa, bin only one of these has dimensions which correspond 
to those of a skull listed by Wood Jones. The whereabouts of 
the other two paratype skulls is unknown. 

Phaiangeridac 

Trichosurus vulpecula raui Finlayson, 1963. 

Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 87: 18. 

Holotype: M2518, male skin and skull, scrubs of 
Rocky River, Flinders Chase, Kangaroo 
Island, South Australia, collected H. H. 
Finlayson and R, J. Rau, viii.l92.S. 

Paratypes: M2509. M2524. M2530. M2541 to 
M2M3, M2545 and M2546, female skins and 
skulls; M2516, M25I7, M2519, M2531, 
M2532, M2540, M2544 and M2548. male 
skins and skulls; M2526. M2547 and M256I, 
female skulls, M2559 and M2560. male 
skulls, locality and collection data of all as 
for Holotype. 

Notes — According to the mammal register of the South 
Australian Museum, two additional paratypes with Ihe same 
locality and collection data as the hololype were sent to the 
Australian Museum— M25I5, male skin and skull and M2525. 



female skin and skull (original Soulh Australian Museum 
registration numbers). Si\ other paratypes were indicated, 
bul not identified individually by Finlayson; they are presum- 
ably in his private collection 



Macropodidae 

Bettongia penieillata anhydra Finlayson. 1957. 

Ann. Mag. not. tlist. Ser. 12 10(1 15); 552. 

BittOttglu lesueur (Quoy and Gaimard) vide 
Wakefield, 1967. 

Holotype: M3582, skull (sex unknown). MeFwin 
Hills, Northern Territory, Australia, collected 
M. Terry, 2().i.l933. 

Note— The hololype was the only original specimen. 

Bettongia penieillata Irancisca Finlayson, 1957. 

Aim. Mag. nut. Hist. Ser. 12 10 ( 1 15): 552. 

Holotype: M5484, part skull (sex unknown). 
Saint Francis Island. Nuyt's Archipelago, 
Australia, collector and collection date 
unknown. 

Notes According to the mammal register of Ihe South 
Australian Museum, M54H4 has no locality or collection data, 
but was found untagged in an old collection and registered in 
1945. How Finlayson knew that it had been discovered on 
Saint Francis Island has never been explained. Thb holotype 
was the only original specimen. 

Lagorchestes asoraatus Finlayson, 1943. 

Trans. R. Sac. S. Aust. 67: 319, pis. 33 A-D and 
34 F-H. 

Holotype: M3710, skull (sex unknown), between 
Mount Farewell and Lake Mackay, Northern 
Territory, Australia, collected M. Terry, 
i. 1933. 

Note— The holotype was the only original specimen. 

Thylogale flinders! Wood Jones, 1924. 

Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 48: 12. 

=Macropus eugemi flindersi (Wood Jones). 

Paratypes: M1749 and Ml 751, skulls (sex 
unknown), Flinders Island, South Suslrulia, 
collectors and collection dates unknown; 
Ml 750, skull (sex unknown). Flinders Island, 
South Australia, ex Adelaide Zoological 
Gardens, 30.ix.l892; M2025. female skin 
and skull, Flinders Island. South Australia, 
collected F. Wood Jones, i.1924, 

Notes — Wood Jones based his description on a series of 
nine specimens, one of which he designated as the holotype. 
Only three of the paralypes (Ml 749 to M175I above) were 
individually identified by number, but the female (M2025) 
was almost certainly another paratype, since she was presented 
to the South Australian Museum by Wood Jones and, from her 
collection data, must have been the female mentioned in his 
description as having been snared on Flinders Island in 1924. 
The whereabouts of the remaining four paratypes is unknown, 
but the skin of Ihe holotype male is at the British Museum 
(Natural History), registered number 1925.I0.K.II and its 
skull is at the odontological museum of the Royal College of 
SuTgeons. London, registered number A.347 9I. 



2on 



REC. S. AUST. MUS.. 17 (7-12): 164-219 



Sff>U"t>ihei\ 1976 



RODENTIA 

Vluridae 

Conilnrus pedunculams Waitc, J.S96. 

Rept. Horn. Sci. Expect Ccntr, Aitst. 2 {Zool,)\ 
395, figs. la-f. 

=Z\>:omvs pechmeulaius (Waile) vide Ride, 
' 1970. 

Syntypcs: M2412 and M2437. male skulls, 
labelled "Horn Expedition, spec. F" and 
"spec. B" respecuvely. 

No its— The whereabouts of ihc skins lor the above skulls 
is unknown, as is Ihc exact location of the remaining five 
synlypes designated by Waitc (A, C, D, E, and G). The 
erection or a lectolype is thus considered inappropriate at 
present. According lo Dixon (1970) the Australian Museum. 
Sydney, probably has specimens A and G.. numbered MI064 
and MI06S, and ihe National Museum. Victoria, lias another 
supposed syntype numbered C7806 and labelled "F". As 
pointed out by Dixon, the latter specimen could not be specimen 
F because il is a male in spiril and F was a male with the skull 
removed. Other specimens of/. pfcJiiinululiis. some ol" which 
were possibly in Wane's syntypic series, art in the Australian 
Museum Ml 158, skin wilh skull in v''». Central Australia, 
ex. Horn 1896 and M 1298. skin with skull in v//». Alice Springs. 
Australia, ex Spencer, 1898: and in the South Australian 
Museum, M4384, female in spirit and M4.^85 to M4387, mules 
m spiril, Alice Springs, collected Horn Fxpedilion. also M4379, 
female in spirit, labelled "Conilurus hirsuilus, Alice Springs. 
don. Prof B. Spencei. Dii. Mus. Melbourne. 1. 10.19011" 

Aseopharynx fuscus Wood Jones, 1925. 

Rec. S. AltSt, Mus. 3: 3. 

Nntumvs fuscus (Wood Jone.s) vide Aitken, 
1968. 
Lcctotype: M6258, male in spirit with skull 
extracted, Ooldea, South Australia, collected 
A. G. Bolam, date of collection unknown. 

Nuru— Wood Jones based his description on four, or 
possibly live, synlypes selected from "numerous specimens" of 
A. Justus ihat he slated he had received from A. G. Rolam 
collected "about Ooldea". None of these syntypes was 
identified individually and all were apparently in Wood Jones' 
private collection. In 1959, Finlayson discovered what he 
considered was one oY the synlypes in the museum of the 
Department of Zoology, University of Adelaide registered 
number — 524. He transferred this specimen to the South 
Australian Museum and erected it us lcctotype (Finlayson 
I960). However, although Finlayson "s lcctotype is almost 
certainly one of the "numerous specimens' Wood Jones 
received from A. G. Bolam. and although. Its body dimensions 
are reasonably close lo those or one oT ihc two male synlypes 
for which Wood Jones supplied body dimensions, there appears 
to be no real proof that Finlayson's leciotype was. in fact, a 
syntype. It bears no label signifying il as such, nor is il listed 
asa type in the museum register of Ihe Depanmeni of Zoology. 
Vt hfttJi for No. 524 reads "Aseopharynx fust us. Ooldea, 
F. Wood Jones (A. O Bolarn)". According to Mr. .1. A. 
Maboncy of Ihe Department of Geology and Geophysics, 
Sydney Lniversity (pers, eomm.), Ihere are more specimens 
Dl' IVv JkxeUH from Wood Jones' collection in London, where 
nearly all tit Wood Jones' private lype material is housed. 
Furthei evaluation of Ihc validity of finlayson's tcciotypc 
might be possible after a critical cxaminaiion of these specimens. 

Another specimen of A', fhsriis. which may have been a Wood 
Jones syniype. is M5966 in the South Australian Museum. 
This is a male in spirit wilh a damaged tall, whose bods dimens- 
ion:- correspond \crv closely to those ol Ihe second male syniype 
fin which Wood Jones supplied body dimensions. and which he 
described as having an imperfect lull. This specimen was 
also donaied by ihe Depanmeni of Zoology', University of 
Adelaide, lo Ihe South Xustnilian Museum, where il is still 
Stored in a DtpiWIttiCnl of Zoology spiril |;n. pic:.uiM.4iiy the 



one in which il was Itansferred. With the specimen U1 the 
jar is its original Department of Zoology label, on which is 
written "Rodentia, Muridac, Aseopharynx fuscus, museum 
No. 524". the same number as ihat of Finlayson's leciotype. 
According to the mammal register of the South Australian 
Museum. M5966 was Iransl'crrcd from the Department of 
Zoology iri 1933, whereas Finlayson's lectolype was nol trans- 
fciied until 1959. It is probable Ihat number 524 of ihc 
Department of Zoology museum originally referred lo both 
specimens, because no otbei entries foi Axcwhyrym i 
Nntt>my*l ftmux appear in ihe museum register of Ihe Depan- 
meni of Zoology 

Nolomys fuscus eyreius Finlayson. I960. 

Trans. R. Soc. S. Ausi. 83: 81. 

Notomvs fuscus (Wood Jone.s) vide Attkcn, 
1968. 

Holotype: M4595. female skin and skull, Mulka 
(New Well) east side of Lake Eyre. South 
Australia, collected G, Aiston, iv.1934. 

Paratypes: M3354, male in spirit and M3355, 
male skin and skull, Mulka, South Australia, 
collected G. Aiston, vi.1932. M4579 and 
M458L male skins and skulls; M4580, skin 
and skull (sex unknown); M460I, skull (sex 
unknown); M4582 lo M4594, males in 
spirit; M4602 to M4604. immature males in 
spiril; M4597 lo M4599 and M4600. females 
in spirit, Mulka (New Well), South Australia, 
collected G. Aiston. iv.1934. M6098 and 
M6099, male skins and part skulls; M6I48. 
male in spirit and M6I00 female skin and 
part skull, lagoon ruins, Goyders Lagoon. 
South Australia, collected R. Tedford and 
f\ Lawson 28.vii.l957. M6II3 and M6I25. 
female skins and part skulls, Cordillo Downs 
homestead. South AustraJia, collected R. 
Tedford and P. Lawson 7.vii.l957. M6I14, 
female part skull; M61 15 and IV16I 17 female 
skins and part skulls and M6I29. male skin 
and part skull, Etadunna, South Australia, 
collected R. Tedford and P. Lawson 
28. vi. 1957. M6H6 and M6I26, male skins 
and part skulls, M6I24. female skin and 
part skull and M6I45. male in spirit, 
Mudderacootera Hills. Innammcka. South 
Australia, collected R. Tedford and P. 
Lawson I8.viii.l957. M6II9 and M6I20. 
male skins and part skulls and M6I27, 
female skin and part skull. Motor Car Dam, 
Innamincka. South Australia, collected R, 
Tedford and P. Lawson IX.viii.I957 M6I22, 
male skin and part skull and M6I23, female 
skin and part skull, Howica Dam, Inna- 
mincka, South Australia, collected R. Tedford 
and P. Lawson. I S.viii 1957. M6I52 and 
M6I53, males in spirit; M6I5I male skin 
in spirit and part skull; M6153 female skin 
in spirit and part skull, Tilparee Watcrhole. 
Sltvelecki Creek, South Australia, collected 
R. Tedford and P. Lawson 22.viii.l957. 



VI-.RTF.BKATE TYPE-SPKC 1MFNS IN THE S, AUS1 MUSEUM— V MAMMALS 



201 



Ntn-iis— According to the mammal register of the South 
Australian Museum, two additional paraiypes were donated to 
the Museum of ihe Northern Territory Administration, Animal 
Industries Branch at Alice Springs: M6I2I, male skin and 
■-.kiiil anit M6IKN, female in spirit, Innamincka. South Australia, 
colluded R led lord and P Lawson, IS.viii l')57. 

In his description Finlayson indicated a series of 52 specimens, 
27 of which he staled were from Mulka and 25 from other 
localities in ihe lake byre Basin, '"most of the latter having 
been collected and carefully prepared in the field by Mr. Paul 
LaWSOrt - - and Mr. R Tcdlord". Only the holotypc was 
identified indiYWUally nv number. 

It is reasonable U> aSSOn* Ifad tlie 26 paratypes from Mulka 
were those listed above, because, apart from the holotypc, 
they are the only specimens of N. fuxcus from Mulka in ihe 
South Australian Museum. It is probable thai the remaining 
25 paraiypes were those additionally listed above, because 
tlicv are the only other specimens of N. fusnis from the Lake 
Eyre Basin in the South Australian Museum that would have 
been available to Finlayson at the lime. It is just possible, 
however, thai the latter specimens might nol all be paraiypes. 
because all were collected by Lawson and Ted ford , not "most" 
hi sly ted by I inlayson.. 

INotomys alexis everardensis Finlayson, 1940. 

Trans. R. Soc. S. Aitsr, 64: 133. 

Lcctotype: M3673, female skin and skull, 
Chundrinna, north of the Everard Range, 
South Australia, collected II, H. Finlayson, 
ii.1933, 

Allolectotypc; M3685, male skin and part skull, 
Walthajalkanna. north of the Everard Range. 
South Australia, collected H. H. Finlayson. 
ii.1933. 

Paralectotypes: M3669 and M367I, male skins 
and skulls. Chundrinna; M3672, female 
skin and skull. Chundrinna. M3684, female 
skin and skull, Walthajalkanna ; M3686 male 
s-kin and skull, Walthajalkanna: M3670, 
male in spirit. Chundrinna: M3674, M3675 
and M3688. females in spirit, Chundrinna; 
M3676 to M3679, M368I, M3682 and 
M3687, females in spirit, Walthajalkanna: 
M3680 and M3683, males in spirit, Waltha- 
jalkanna, all collected H, H, Finlayson, 
ii 1933. 

NoifS Finlayson indicated a series of 40 specimens in his 
description. Two of these he delected as opposile-se\ed 
cotypes. I have designated Ihe female as leciolype because she 
has a complete skull. None of the other specimens in the 
series was identified individually, but it is probable that IS of 
them are those parnleclotypes listed above, because they are 
entered together with llie lcctotype and allolectotypc in 
Finlayson's handwriting in the mammal register of the South 
Australian Museum. The type locality described by Finlayson 
encompassed both Chundrinna and Wallha.iulkanna. but he did 
not slate form which loealily each of hi-, type-specimens w:is 
collected. His entries in the mammal rcgisier clarity this 
matter The twenty additional paralectoiypes are presumably 
hi r iniaysorfs privalc collection. 

Pseudomys (Gyomys) apodtmoides Finlayson, 1 932, 

Trans. R. Sop. $. Aust. 56: 170. 

Pseudomv.s ulboaiwiem (Gould) vide Ride, 
1970. 

llolotype: M3466, female in spirit, Coombe, 
South Australia, collected W. J. Harvey, 
vni 1932. 



Paratypes: M3467, male skull and skeleton. 
M3468 to M3471, skulls and skeletons (sex 
unknown), locality and collection data of 
all as for Kolotype. 

Notts In his description Finlayson indicated a scries of 14 
specimens, one of which he designated as the holotypc. None 
of the olhers was identified individually, hut ii is probable that 
five of ihe remaining 13 specimens in Ihe series were those 
paratypes listed above, because they are registered in Finlayson's 
handwriting, consecutively with the holotype. in ihe mammal 
register of the South Australian Museum. Originally ihf.se 
S specimens were preserved in -spirit, but in l%4 (heir bodies 
were found to be decomposed so they were repreparcd as skulls 
and skeletons. Ihe other eight paratypes are presumably in 
Finlayson's private collection. 

Mus hermannsburgensis Waite, 1 896. 

Rept. Horn Sci, Exped. Cenlr. Ami, 2 (zoo)): 405, 
tigs. 5a-f. 

Fseinlnniy.s ( L eggadina ) hermannshurgcusis 
(Waite) vide Troughton, 1932 (2). 

Paralectotypes: M24I7 and M2417B. female 
skulls, labelled "Horn Expedition, spec. K** 
and "spec. C" respectively. 

Noils Waite based his description on five syntypes (A, It, 
C, D, and fc), one of which was erected leciolype by Troughton 
(1932) and is at the Australian Museum. Sydney, registered 
number MI070A. This is a mounted specimen of inderierm- 
inablc sex, but according to Troughton was probably specimen 
O. Dixon (TU70) claimed that the National Museum of 
Victoria held three of the four paralectotypes: C7807, male in 
spirit, which mils! be specimen A because this was the only 
male synlype; C7808, female in spirit, which is probably 
specimen H, because this was the only specimen, olhei than D. 
in which the skull was not removed: and €4874. female skin 
without skull. The latter is almost certainly ihe skin from one 
of i In: two South Australian Museum paraleclolypc skulls. 
The whereabouts of the olher missing female skin is unknown 
it may be Ihe mounted skin of L. hermannshinyfnsix al the 
Australian Museum mentioned by Troughton as being registered 
with the leciolype 

Rutins, greyi pelori Finlayson, 1960, 

Trans. R. Soc. S. Ausi. 83: 140. 

RatUiS fuscipes greyii (Gray) vide Taylor and 
Horner. 1973. 

Holotypc: M6268, male skin and skull, north 

slope, main mass of Greenly Island, Australia, 

collected H, H. Finlayson, xi 1947 

Notfs — Finlayson indicated a series of 13 specimens in his 
description, but, except for ihe holotypc.. none was identified 
individually. In addition to the boioiype, ihe South Australian 
Museum has 12 R. f. areyii Irom the main mass of Greenly 
Island, collected by a South Australian Museum expedition ill 
December 1147. It is possible thai Ihese are the paraiypes. 
Their numbers are M5738 to M574 1 ) inclusive, all -ire skins and 
skulls. 



CHIROPTERA 

Vespertilionidae 

Lamingtona lophorhina McKean and Calaby. I96S. 

Mammalia, 32 (3): 373, figs. 1-2. 

Holotype: MfS404. female skin and skull. Mount 
Lamington, Papua, purchased from C. T. 
Mc-Namara. xii.1929. 



202 



REC, S. AUST. MUS., 17 (7-12): 169-219 



September, 1976 



Paratypes: M6402 and M6403, male skins and 

skulls, and M6401, male in spirit, locality and 

purchase data of all as for Holotype. 

Notes^Two additional paratypes, CM2090 and CM209I, 
female skins and skulls with the same locality and purchase 
data as the holotype, are at the Division of Wildlife Research, 
C.S.I.R.O., Canberra. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 
I am deeply indebted to Mr. J. A. Mahoney of 
the Department of Geology and Geophysics, 
Sydney University, for information on the where- 
abouts of the holotype specimens of Thalacomys 
nigripes Wood Jones, Thyloga/e flindersi Wood 
Jones and the syntype specimens of Myrmecobms 
rufus Wood Jones. 

REFERENCES 

Aitken, P. F., 1968. Observations on Notomys fuscus (Wood 

Jones) (Muridae-Pseudomyinae) with notes on a new 

synonym. S. Ausl. Nat. 43 (2): 37-45. 
Dixon, J. M., 1970. Catalogue of Mammal Types (Class 

Mammalia) in the National Museum of Victoria. Mem. 

Nat. Mus. Vic. 31: 105-114. 



Finlayson. H. H., I960. Nomenclature of Notomvs (Muridae) 
in the Lake Eyre Basin. Trans. R. Sac. S. Aust. 83 (1): 
79-82. 

Iredale, T. and Troughton. E. Led., 1934. A check-list of the 
Mammals Recorded from Australia. Mem. Aust. Mus. 
6: 1-122. 

Ride, W. D. L., 1970. "A Guide to the Native Mammals of 
Australia". Oxford University Press, Melbourne. 

Tate, G. H. H., 1951. The Banded Anteater. Myrmecobius 
Waterhouse (Marsupialia). Am. Mus. Novit. No. 1521: 
1-8. 

Taylor, .1. M. and Horner, B. E., 1973. Systematica of Native 
Australian Ratlus (Rodentia, Muridae). Bull. Amer. 
Mus. Nat. Hist. 150 ( I ) : 1-1 30. 

Troughton, E. LeG., 1932 (1). A revision of the Rabbit 
Bandicoots. Aust. Zoot. 7 (3): 219-236. 

1932 (2). On five new rats of the 

Genus Pseudomys. Rec. Aust. Mus. 18 (6): 287-294. 

Wakefield, N. A. and Warneke, R. M., 1963. Some Revision 
of Antechimts (Marsupialia) 1 . Vict. Nat. 80 (7) : 1 94-2 1 9. 

Wakefield, N. A., 1967. Some Taxonomic Revision in the 
Australian Marsupial Genus Bettongia (Macropodidae) 
with description of a New Species. Vict. Nat. 84 (1): 
8-22. 

Wood Jones, F., 1923-25. "Mammals of South Australia" 
Parts 1-3. Government Printer, Adelaide. 



VERTEBRATE TYPE-SPECIMENS IN THE S. AUST. MUSEUM— V MAMMALS 203 

— NOTES — 



VERTEBRATE TYPE-SPECIMENS IN THE SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 

VI. FOSSILS 

by 
NEVILLE S. PLEDGE 

South Australian Museum, Adelaide 5000 



ABSTRACT 

PLEDGE. N. S. 1976. Vertebrate type-specimens in the South 
Australian Museum. VI. lossils. Rec. S, AUSt. Mux, 17 (12): 
205-219. 

The South Australian Museum holds primary 
type-specimens of 34 species of fossil vertebrates, 
all from Australia, and mostly marsupials, Of 
these types, three are in the collection of the 
University of Adelaide, Geology Department 
(AUGD), now held in the South Australian 
Museum. 

Besides primary types, there are plastotypcs 
(casts) of type-specimens of 28 species, held 
mainly in the British Museum (Natural History), 
and two plcsiotypes. 

INTRODUCTION 

The South Australian Museum owns (or holds) 
primary type-specimens (mainly holotypic 
material) of 34 species of fossil vertebrates, which 
form the first part of the following list. Much 
paratypic material of more recently described 
species is held by the Museum of Palaeontology, 
University of California at Berkeley, and is also 
listed briefly. 

One of the problems that faces the vertebrate 
palaeontologist, as distinct from most inverte- 
brate palaeontologists and taxonomic zoologists, 
is that in many cases only a small portion of an 
animal is preserved and used as the basis of a new 
species. This is particularly so for mammals and 
birds, where even a single tooth or broken bone 
is sufficient to indicate and diagnose a new form. 
Subsequently, if more complete material is found, 
the unknown parts of the animal may be described 
and occasionally, two species based on different 
elements may even be shown to be synonyms or, 
more rarely, a '"species" based on several isolated 
elements may turn out to be a composite of two 
or more distinct taxa. 

Consequently, in compiling Lhis Jist, I have 
included such specimens which have expanded 
our knowledge of their species, defining them as 
"plesiotypes", i.e. specimens used in later, more 
complete descriptions of the species. Only two 
species are so treated here, in the second section 
of the list. 



An advantage of a fossil bone is that to all 
intents and purposes its form may be reproduced 
faithfully in plaster, plastic or other media. These 
replicas of type-specimens— plastotypcs — may 
enjoy a wider circulation than their originals, both 
for research and display purposes. Accordingly, 
they also arc listed here. Twenty-seven species, 
mainly marsupials, are so designated. 

Within each of these categories of type- 
specimens — primary types, plcsiotypes and plasto- 
typcs — the species are listed alphabetically in their 
taxonomically arranged families, under the 
author's original name. Original and currently- 
used names are cross-indexed wherever necessary. 

Besides the original reference, the data include 
type locality, geological formation and age, and 
collector in so far as these facts are known. 

The names of several institutions are abbreviated 
as follows; - 

AM — Australian Museum, Sydney. 

AMNH — American Museum of Natural 
History, New York. 

AUGD — Adelaide University Geology 
Department. 

BM(NH)— British Museum (Natural 
History), London. 

CPC— Commonwealth Palaeontological 

Collection, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Canberra. 

SAM —South Australian Museum, Adelaide. 

UCMP — University of California, Museum 
of Palaeontology, Berkeley. 

UCR — University of California, Riverside 

(Department of Geological Sciences). 
WAM— Western Australian Museum, Perth. 

PART I, PRIMARY TYPES 
CLASS CHONDRICHTHYES 

ORDLR SELACHI1 
Family Carchariidae 
Carcharias maslioensis Pledge, 1967. 
Trans. R. Soc. S. Ausl., 91: 146-147, pi. 2. 
Holotype: AUGD. F17260, an anterior tooth. 



206 



REC, S. AUST. M1JS., 17 (7-12): 169-219 



Stplcmher, 1976 



Locality: E. & W.S. Bore No. 5, Naracoortc, 
South Australia, 426ft. (129-8 m). 

Formation: Knight Group. 

Age: Middle to Upper Eocene. 

Remarks — If seems probable that this species can be 
referred to Scapunorhynchas (Pcrs. obscrv.). 

Family Odontaspididae 

Odontaspis maslinensis Pledge, 1967 see 
Carcharias maslinensis Pledge. 

Remarks— Opinion 723 (Bull, Zool. Nomenrl. 22 (]): 32, 
April, 1965) repealed opinion 47, ruling that Carcharias should 
be repressed and the generic name Odontaspis Agassi?, be 
restored, 

CLASS OSTEICHTHYES 

ORDER PALAEONISCIFORMES 
Family Indet. 
Leighiscus hillsi Wade, 1 953. 
Trans. X. Soc. S. Aust.< 76: 80-81. 
Holotype: AUGD. F15094. ("Tate Collection, 
P2070" in lilt.) part and counterpart, com- 
pression of caudal region. 

Locality: Leigh Creek, South Australia. 
Formation: Sand lens in Leigh Creek Coal 
Measures. 

Age: Late Triassic. 

Remarks — This is the only Triassic vertebrate so far found 
in South Australia. Unfortunately, too Utile of the fossil was 
found to enable it to be placed taxonomieally. 

CLASS REPTILIA 

ORDER SQL AM ATA 

Family Varanidae 

Varanus warburtonensis Zietz, 1 899. 

Tram. A. Soc. S. Aust., 23: 209-210. 

Holotype: SAM. P, 1 1529, an unguinal phalanx. 

Locality: Float on gravel bars, Warburton River 
near Lake Eyre, South Australia. 

Formation: Unknown, probably Kaiipiri Sands. 

Age: Pleistocene. 

Collector: H. Y, L, Brown. 

Remarks — As this specimen was associated with niprototion. 
which is not known from the early Pleistocene kanunka 
Fauna, it probably belongs to the later Malkuni I auna. The 
species has long been overlooked, Heeht (1975; 245) suggests n 
is a junior synonym of Mcgalanici prisca Owen. 



Lectoholotype: SAM. P. 1 7001, 
(selected by P. Vickcrs Rich). 



Syntypes — 
SAM P, 1 0788 



10835 
10838 
13866 
1 3867 
13871 
13872 
13873 
13874 
13875 
13876 
1 3877 
1 3927 
17024 
17041 
17044 
17048 
1 7049 



Plate (tig,) 



a left femur 



Element 



1 7073 

1 7074 

1 7075 



XXXVII 



xxn 

XXXVl(l) 

XX (4) 

XXI (4,5) 
XXIV (4-6) 
XXIV (1-3) 
XXIV (8) 
XXIV (7) 
XXX (9) 
XXX (II) 
XXX (10) 

XX (1-3). XXI (I 

XXII (1-4) 
XXXIX II) 
XXII (1-6) 
XXXIX (3) 

XXXVIII (1), 

XXXIX (2) 
XXX (13) 
XXX (14) 
XXX (15) 



mandibles and 
associated rt. 
maxilla 

sternum 

skull 

rt. libiotarsus 

rt. (ibula 

rt. humerus 

coracoscapula 

I. ulna 

I. radius 

earpometacarpus 

rib 

rib 
-3) rt. ribiotarsus 

rt. tarsometatarsus 

synsacium 

ft. pes. 

synsacrum 

svnsacrum 

rib 

rib 

rib 



Locality: Lake Callabonna, South Australia. 
Zone 6. Sheet SH 54-6 Callabonna 
1:250 000. Grid reference for exact site 
unknown. 

Formation: "Unctuous blue Clays". 

Age: Pleistocene. 

Collector: A. H. C. Zietz, 1893. 

Remarks— This species is associated with rich deposits of 
bones of Diprotot/on op/alam, macropodids, Phascotoiuis gigas, 
and Diomains. The only reliable C-14 age determinations, on 
wood and plant material, indicate an age greater than 40 000. 
The species was established on the bones of at least three 
individuals, but their original associations have been lost. 

Family Dromaiidae 

Dromiceius ocypus Miller. 1963. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus., 14 (3): 414-418. 

Holotype: SAM. P. 13444. right tarsometatarsus. 

Locality: Lake Palankarinna. UCMP Loc. No. 
V5769 (Lawson Quarry). 

Formation; Mampuwordu Sands. 

Age: Late Pliocene Palankarinna Fauna. 

Collector; SAM-UCMP Expedition 1957. 

Remarks Dmmiceins is now considered to be a misprint, 
and the I. C.Z.N, recommendation is that Oromaius be used 
instead. (Sec Servcnty. Condon and Mayr, 1965.) 



CLASS AYES 

ORDER CASUAR1IFORMCS 
Family Dromornithidae 
Genyornis newtoni Stirling & Zietz, 1896. 

Trans, R. Soc. S. AoSt,. 20: 182-209. pis. Ill, IV, 
V. Mem. R. Sac: S. Aust., 1900, 1 (2): 
50-80, also 1905 idem I (3): 81-1 10; and 1913 
idem I (4): 111-126. 



ORDER SPHENISC1FORMES 

Family Spheniscidae 

Pachydyptes simpsoni Jenkins, 1974. 

Palaeontology, 17 (2): 294-304, pis. 37-39, text 
fig. 2a. 

Holotype: SAM. P. 14157 a-g: (a) most of left 
coracoid. (/;) head of right humerus, (c) 
broken head of left humerus, (</ ) damaged 



VERTEBRATE TYPE-SPECIMENS IN THE S. AUST. MUSEUM— VI FOSSILS 



2(17 



right radius, (e) incomplete left carpo- 
mctacarpus, (/) left proximal phalanx of 
2nd digit, (g) damaged vertebra. 

Locality: Blanche Point, extreme tip, opposite 
Gull Rock, Maslin Bay, South Australia. 

Formation : Blanche Point Marl. 36 m below top 
of Banded Marl Member. 

Age: Early Upper Eocene. (Aldingan.) 

Collected: B. Robinson & H. Eames, May, 1968. 

Rfmauks — This is one of I he earliest, well-dated penguins 
known. Olher material known includes two paralypcs (humerus 
and radius fragments) and a referred specimen believed to be a 
fragment of rib. 

Pachydyptes simpsoni Jenkins, 1974. 

Palaeontology, 17 (2): 294-304, pis. 37-39, text 
fig. 2a. 

Paratype: SAM. P. 141 58 (a) proximal two thirds 

of right humerus, (b) proximal end of right 

radius. 
Locality: Blanche Point, Maslin Bay, South 

Australia. 
Formation: Blanche Point Marl, lower part of 

Transitional Marl Member. 

Age: Early Upper Eocene (Aldingan). 
Collected: L. W. Parkin, October, 1932. 

Remarks — A referred specimen, believed to be a segment of 
the proximal pari ol a rib, P, 1 791.1, was collected as "float" in 
1971, and appears to have been derived from the Transitional 
Marl. 

ORDER CICONIIFORMES 
Family Phoenkopteridae 
Phoenicopterus novaehollandiae Miller, 1963. 
The Condor, 65 (4): 289-292. 
Holotype: SAM. P. 13648, right tarsometatarsus 
with proximal end missing. 

Locality: Lake Pitikanta, west side, about 550 m 
from sout h end . U C M P loc. V6 1 50. 

Formation: Etadunna Formation. 

Age: Early to Middle Miocene-Ngapakaldi 

Fauna. 
Collector: SAM-UCMP Expedition, 1961. 

Phoeniconaias gracilis Miller, 1963. 

The Condor, 65 (4): 294-296. 

Holotype: SAM, P. 13650, left tarsometatarsus, 

distal end. 
Locality: Lake Kanunka, northwest corner. 

UCMP loc. V5772. 
Formation: Katipiri Sands. 
Age: Early Plcistocene-Kanunka Fauna. 
Collector: SAM-UCMP Expedition, 1957. 



Phoeniconotius cyronsis Miller, 1963. 
The Condor, 65 (4): 292-294. 
Holotype: SAM. P. 13649, left tarsometatarsus, 
distal end. and two basal phalanges. 

Locality: West side of Lake Palankarinna, float 
from Etadunna Formation. UCMP Loc. 
5763 (between UCMP Locs. V5762 and 5375). 

Formation: Etadunna Formation. 

Age: Early to Middle Miocene-Ngapakaldi 

Fauna. 
Collector: SAM-UCMP Expedition, 1957. 

ORDER PELECAIM1 FORMES 

Family Pelecanidae 

Pelecanus tirarensis Miller, 1966. 

Mm. Qld. Mus., 14(5): 182-J85. 

Holotype: SAM. P.l 3857, right tarsometatarsus. 
distal half. 

Locality: Lake Palankarinna, north-west shore. 
UCMP Loc. V5762 (Turtle Quarry). 

Formation: Etadunna Formation. 

Age: Early to Middle Miocene-Ngapakaldi 
Fauna. 

Collector: SAM-UCMP Expedition, 1957. 

Pelecanus validipcs de Vis. 1894. 

(in Etheridge) South Aust. Ann. Rept. of Govt. 
Geologist, 1894: 21, pi. II (5, 6). 

Holotype: SAM. P.184I2, a right tarso- 
metatarsus, distal end. 

Locality: Warburton River near Lake Eyre, 
South Australia; float. 

Formation: Unknown, probably Katipiri Sands 
or equivalent. 

Age: Pleistocene. 

Collector: H. Y. L. Brown. 

Rkmarks — This specimen was given to the South Australian 
Museum in 1 899, but in common with other material at the 
time, was not registered. During subsequent shifts of the 
collections it was mislaid and its whereabouts was unknown 
until September, 1974, when it was relocated. 

Family Phalacrucuracidae 
Phalacrocorax gregorii de Vis, 1905. 
Ann. Qld. Mus., No. 6: 1S-22, pis. V (6A, B). 

Syntype: SAM. P.18413, a premaxilla, entire 

from tip to nasoftontal suture. 
Locality: "Cutupirra", (equivalent to Katipiri 

Waterhole), lower Cooper Creek, South 

Australia. 

Formation: Unknown, probably Katipiri Sands. 
Age: Pleistocene. 
Collector: H. Y. L. Brown. 



208 



REC, S. AtJST. MUS.. 17 (7-12); 169-219 



September, ly76 



Remarks— This specimen was rediscovered in September, 
1974, along wilh I'elticamix validipes de Vis. Included with the 
premaxilla, and listed also on the printed label (for they were 
apparently once on exhibition), are two tarsometatarsi. 
P.I84I4, an almost complete left, lacking the inner trochlea, 
and badly corroded, is otherwise almost identical lo the right 
tarso-metatarsus figured in Plate VII (2). The other. P. 1 84 1 5, 
also a left, lacks only the proximal end. These specimens 
apparently weie not seen by dc Vis as they do not fit the 
description of his unligured material. 

ORDER GALL1FORMES 
Family Megapodidae 
Progura naracoortensis van Tets, 1 974. 
Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust., 98 (4): 214-215. 
Holotype: SAM. P.l 7856, an almost complete 
right tarsometatarsals. 

Paratypes: SAM. P.I7I52, a right tibiotarsus; 
P. 17153, a left humerus; P, 1 7154, distal end 
of a left humerus; P. 17157, proximal end of 
right femur; P.17876. distal part of right 
tibiotarsus; P. 1 7877 right ulna; P. 1 7878, 
left humerus; P. 1 7879, distal part of left 
ulna; P.l 81 81. a cervical vertebra; P.I8I82, 
distal part of left ulna; P. 181 83, proximal 
and distal parts of a right humerus; P. 1 81 84, 
left radius; P.l 81 85, proximal part of a right 
tarsomctatarsus; P.l 8 1 86, distal part of a 
right femur; P.1S187, anterior fragment of 
synsacrum ; P. 1 6700, a right coracoid. 

Locality: A small cave disclosed in Henschke's 
Quarry, Naracoorte. South Australia, 

Formation: Cave earth. 

Aae: Late Pleistocene, around 30 000-35 000 yrs. 
B.P. 

Collectors: F. W. Aslin, N. S. Pledge, ex al„ 
1970-1974. 

RhMAHKS— The paratypc P.I67O0 was collected from the 
Fossil Chamber of Victoria Cave, by R. T. Wells el al.. and is 
one of only two specimens so fur recorded outside the type 
locality. The other, a referred specimen (fragment of larso- 
roetatarsus QM F2769), was collected from the Darling Downs. 

CLASS MAMMALIA 

ORDER MONOTREMATA 
Family Ornithorhynchidae 
Ohdurodon insignis Woodburne & Tedford, 1975. 
Jimr. Mus. Novitates, No. 2588: 3-10. 

Holotype: SAM. P.l 8087, a right tipper last 
molar. 

Locality: Lake Palankarinna. north-west side. 
UCR Loc. RV/7247. (SAM. North Qua rry). 
Zone 5, sheet SH 54-1: Kopperamanna 
I ; 250 000, grid reference 656431. 

Formation: Ftadunna Formation in white to 
pale grey quartz sandstone at local base of 
Number 6 of Stirton, Tedford & Miller 
(1961), about 10 ft. stratigraphically below 
the calcareous mudstone of Number 8. 



Middle Mioccne-Ngapakaldi 



Age: Early to 

Fauna. 
Collectors: M. O. Woodburne. UCR-SAM 

Expedition, 1972. 

Remarks — A cast of the paratype AMNH 97228, which was 
collected by Tedford at Lake Narnba in the Frome Embaymctit, 
is also held under the SAM registration P.18942. 

ORDER 7MONOTREMATA 
Family Ektopodontidae 

Ektopodon serratus Stirton, Tedford & Wood- 
burne, 1967. (Fig. 1) 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus., 15 (3): 438-445. 

Holotype : S A M. P. 1 3847. a left upper molar. 

Paratypes: UCMP. 67173. 67174, 67176, at 
Berkeley. 

Locality: Lake Ngapakaldi, cast shore. UCMP 
Loc. V6213. 

Formation: Wipajiri Formation. 

Age: Late Miocene-Kutjamarpu Fauna. 

Collector: SAMTJCMP Expedition. 1962. 

RhMARKS — The authors presented arguments for including 
this tatcon in the Monotremata, but material collected more 
recently bv Woodburne and Clemens (in prep.) shows this is not 
the case (Woodburne and Tedford, 1975:1). 

ORDER MARSUPIALIA 

Family Peramelidae 

Lschnodon australis Stirton, 1955. (Fig, 2) 

Rec, S. Aust. Mus., U (3): 249-252. 

Holotype: SAM. P.13645 (originally Lf.C. 
No. 44380), anterior half of right mandible. 

Locality: Lake Palankarinna. UCMP Loc. 

V5367 (Woodward Locality). 
Formation: Mampuwordu Sands. 
Age: Late Pliocene-Palankarinna Fauna. 
Collector: R. H. Tedford, 30th July, 1953. 

Remarks — Found ui weathered surface .'one, and con- 
sequently badly shattered. 

Family Thylacoleonidae 

Wakaleo oldfieldi Clemens & Plane, 1974. 

Jour. Puleoulol., 48 (4): 654-656. 

Holotype; SAM. P.l 7925, a left mandible with 
incisor P 3 and M ,, and alveoli for M ., M., and 
a singie-rooLcd tooth between incisor and 
P,. 

Locality: Lake Ngapakaldi, UCMP loc. V62I3 
(Leaf locality). 

Formation: Wipajiri Formation. 

Age: Late Miocene-Kutjamarpu Fauna. 

Collector: W. A. Clemens, UCMP-SAM Expedi- 
tion, 1971. 

Rimakks -Two referred specimens arc held in the collec- 
tions of the Museum of Paleontology, University of California. 
Uerkeley. They are UCMP 102678: an anterior fragment of 
a right Py, and UCMP 102677: a right Mi, 



VERTEBRATE TYPE-SPECIMENS IN THE S. AL'ST. MUSEUM— VI FOSSILS 



209 



Family Phascolarctidae 

Litokoala kutjamarpensis Stirton, Tedford & 

Woodburne, 1967. (Fig. 3) 
Rec. S. Aust. Mus., 15 (3): 446-45 J. 

Holotype: SAM. P.13845, right upper first molar 
in early stages of wear. 

Locality: Lake Ngapakaldi. east shore. UCMP 
Loc. V6213. 

Formation: Wipajiri Formation. 

Age: Late Miocene-Kutjamarpu Fauna. 

Collector: SAM-UCMP Expedition, 1962. 

Perikoala palankarinnica Stirton, 1957. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus., 13 (1): 71-81. 

Holotype: SAM. P. 10893. part of left mandible 

with talonid of Pj, Mi and M 2 nearly 

complete. 

Paratype: UCMP 45343. 

Locality: Lake Palankarinna, west side. UCMP 

Loc. V5375. 
Formation: Etadunna Formation. 
Age: Early to Middle Miocene-Ngapakaldi 

Fauna. 
Collector: SAM-UCMP Expedition, 1954. 

Remarks— This was originally believed derived from the 
Pliocene Mampuwordu Sands Palankarinna Fauna, but the 
correction was noted in Stirton el al. (1 961.) following clarifica- 
tion of the stratigraphy, 

Family Yomabatidae 
Rhizophascolonus crowcrofti, Stirton, Tedford & 

Woodburne, 1967. (Fig. 4) 
See, S. Aust. Mus., 15 (3): 454-456. 

Holotype: SAM. P. 13846. left upper third 
premolar, moderately worn. 

Locality: Lake Ngapakaldi. east shore. UCMP 

Loc. V6213. (Fig. 4) 
Formation; Wipajiri Formation. 
Age: Late Miocene-Kutjamarpu Fauna. 
Collector: SAM-UCMP Expedition, 1962. 

Remarks — This is ihe earliest known wombat, retaining a 
labial and two lingual roots on the V\ The teeth of modern 
wombats arc open-tooted, and grow continuously throughout 

life. 

Family Diprorodonfidae 
Meniscolophus niawsoni Stirton, 1955. (Fig. 5) 
Rec. S. Aust. Mus., 11 (3): 258-264. 
Holotype: SAM. P.13647, (originally UC No. 
44397) mandibles with complete, little-worn 
dentition, found in close proximity to UCMP 
44397: left maxillary fragment with M 2 and 
M- 1 in same stage of wear. 



Locality: Lake Palankarinna. UCMP Loc. 

V5367 (Woodard Locality). 
Formation: Mampuwordu Sands. 
Age: Late Pliocene-Palankarinna Fauna. 
Collector: SAM-UCMP Expedition, 1953. 

Neohelos tirareusis Stirton, 1967. 
Bur. Min. Resuur., Bull. 85: 48-51. 

Holotype: SAM. P. 13848. posterior part of left 

upper third premolar. 
Paratypes: (at UCMP. Berkeley). UCMP 69976, 

69977, 69978, 69979. 
Locality: Lake Ngapakaldi, east shore. UCMP 

Loc. V6213. (Leaf Locality.) 
Formation: Wipajiri Formation. 
Age: Late Miocene- Kutjamurpu Fauna. 
Collector: SAM-UCMP Expedition, 1962. 

Ri marks This species is known only from isolated teeth. 

Ngapakaldia bonythoni Stirton, 1967. 

Bur. Mill. Rrsour. Bui!.. 85: 26-30. 

Holotype: SAM. P.13863, a badly weathered 

specimen: most of cranium and left mandible, 

incomplete appendicular skeleton, some 

caudal vertebrae. 
Locality: Lake Ngapakaldi. eastern shore. 

UCMP Loc. V5879. 
Formation: Etadunna Formation, weathered 

surface zone — same stratigraphic unit as 

Ngapakaldi Quarry. 
Age: Early to Middle Miocene-Ngapakaldi 

Fauna. 
Collector: SAM-UCMP Expedition, 1958. 

Remarks— One questionably referred specimen UCMP S7263 
from Lake Pitikanta. 

Ngapakaldia tedl'ordi Stirton, 1967. 

Bur. Min. Resour. Bull., 85: 4-26. 

Holotype: SAM. P.13851, near-complete 

cranium; left radius, ulna, manus, pes, 

caudal vertebrae and haemal arches, all more 

or less complete; various right appendicular 

elements. 
Paratypes: (at UCMP, Berkeley). UCMP 57256, 

69817. 69814, 60985, 69815. 60977, 60979, 

69812, 57286,57257. 
Locality: Lake Ngapakaldi, east shore. UCMP 

Loc. V6213. Ngapakaldi Quarry. 

Formation: Etadunna Formation. 

Age: Early to Middle Miocene-Ngapakaldi 

Fauna. 
Collector: SAM-UCMP Expedition, 1958, 1961, 

1962. 

Remarks— In two localities (V5774 and V5858), this taxon 
occurs abundantly from 1 m to 5 m apart, but none is a complete 
skeleton. 




RFC. S. AD ST. MUS., 17 (7-12): 169-219 



September, 1976 




Fig. 1 







2 mm. 



Fig. 3 



en d rne d hyl d 







Fig. 4 



ONE INCH 
Fig. 2 



Fig. 1. Ektopodtm senatus Slirton, Tedford & Woodburne, 1967. Holotype (P.I3847), a left upper molar, in 
four views. X4. Pig. 2. Ischnoclon iwsiralis Stilton. 1955. Holotype (P. 13645 J. a right mandible, in occlusal 
and labial views. X4. Fig. 3. Litokoala kutjttmwpensis Slirton, Tedford & Woodburne, 1967. Fig. 4. 
Rlrizopha.scahmus crowcrofti Stirton, Tedford & Woodburne. 1967. Holotype (P. 13846), a left upper premolar 

in three views. XI. 



VERTEBRATE TYPE-SPECIMENS IN THE S. AUST. MUSEUM— VI FOSSILS 



111 



Fig. 5 




on o' post (fonts! cnnst 



f o r e link 



Fig. B 




" Holotype 

masseteric foramen M4 WU Mo Mi P? 




Fig. 5. Meniscoloplms muwsoni Stirlon, 1955. Holotype (P.13647). mandibles, in occlusal (A) and labial 
(B) views. Xi. Fig. 6. Prionotemnus paiqnkannuieus Stirton, 1955. Holotype I P. 13646), a right mandible, 

in occlusal (A) and labial (B) views. XI. 



212 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (7-12): 169-210 



September, 1976 




Fig. 7 Troposwton hnti Campbell. 1973. Holotype (P. 14507). a left mandible, 
in occlusal views. X$ (scale in cm). 



Nototherium victoriae Owen, 1872. 
Phil. Trans., 162: 61, pi. VII. 

Holotype; SAM. P.4986, left mandible with 
incisor and premolar missing and M, 
damaged. 

Locality: Near Lake Victoria, New South Wales. 

Formation: "freshwater deposits" (Owen). "45- 
60 feet below ground surface in a well" 
(Mahoney & Ride). 

Age: Pleistocene ( ?). 

Collector: Mr. Felgate (turn Tilgatc), 1869. 

Remarks— Marshall (1973) believes that the state of preserva- 
tion indicates derivation from the Pliocene Moorna Formation 
of the Lake Victoria area. A small sample was removed from the 
symphyseal stub of the right mandible for fluorine analysis to 
check this hypothesis, but the results are inconclusive (see 
Gill, 1973: GO, and Sinnolt, 1973: 175). Stirton has noted that 
the species should probably be included in y.ygoinuiurws, Two 
contemporary reports or the discovery arc in newspapers: 
Pastoral Times, December IS, 1869, p. 2; The South Australian 
Advertiser, January 1, 1870, p. 3. A cast M3637. is held in the 
BM (NH). 

Pitikantia daiiyi Stirton, 1967. 

Bur. Min. Resour. Bull., 85: 30-34. 

Holotype: SAM. P. 13862, right upper incisors 
l'-l\ left I 1 & P, left P J ; part of right 
mandible with incisor, Pi, Mi, M 2 , left P 3 , 
tarsals, metatarsals and phalanges. 

Locality: Lake Pitikanta, west side. UCMP Loc. 
V5774 (Discovery Basin). 

Formation: Etadunna Formation. 

Age: Early to Middle Miocene-Ngapakaldi 
Fauna. 

Collector: B. Dailv, SAM-UCMP Expedition, 
1957. 



Zygomaturus keanei Stirton, 1967. 
Bur. Min. Resour. Bull., 85: 136-144. 
Holotype: SAM. P. 13844, fused mandibles with 

all cheek teeth and base of left incisor; 

upper incisors; left maxilla with P 3 lo M 4 ; 

rP-\ rM 2 , rM 4 . 

Paratypes: (at UCMP) UCMP 66326, 70120, 
70121,44622,45409. 



Locality: Lake Palankarinna, north-west shore. 
UCMP Loc. V6265. (Keane Quarry.) 

Formation: Mampuwordu Sands. 

Age: Late Pliocene-Palankarinna Fauna. 

Collector: SAM-UCMP Expedition, 1962. 



Zygomaturus victoriae (Owen, 1872), 
Nototherium victoriae Owen, 



see 



Family lYIacropodidae 
Macropus hirdselli Tedford. 1967. 
U»iv. Calif. Publ. Geo!. Sci.. 64: 114-127. 

Holotype: SAM. P.13857, associated left and 

right mandibles, with right lower incisor and 

M A , and left M,- 4 . 
Paratypes: SAM. A27920, A 27936— fragmentary 

left and right mandibles (and other material 

at UCMP, Berkeley). 

Locality: Lake Menindee, north side. UCMP 
Loc. V5371, approx. 19 km north-wesl of 
Menindee, N.S.W. (Site J). 

Formation: Un-named lunette sand, Unit B of 
Tindale. 

Age: Late Pleistocene. 

Collector: R. H. Tedford, 1953. 

Riviarks — C-14 age determinations have been made on 
charcoal samples taken from Unit B hut are equivocal in 
interpretation: LJ-204 giving 26 300 ± 1500 years P.P.; 
Gak 335 giving 18 800 ± 800 years B.P. and NZ66 (on shell) 
giving 6 570 i 100 years P.P. 

Potorous morgani Finlayson, 1928. 

Trans. Rov. Sue. S. Aust., 62 (I): 132-140, pis. 

v-vii. 

Synlypes: SAM. P. 168, skull and partial skeleton. 
SAM. P.3413, skull. 

Locality: Kelly Hill Caves, Kangaroo Island. 

Formation: Cave earth. 

Age: Recent. 

Collector: Miss Edith May (P168). February 
1926. Dr. A. M. Morgan (P34I3). 1927 (?). 

Remarks — Ride (1970: 224) has synonymised this species 
with P. plalyops. an extant species in Western Australia. Sec 
also Butler and Merrilees (1971) for further discussion. The 
species may still live on Kangaroo Island. 



VERTEBRATE TYPE-SPECIMENS IN THE S. AUST. MUSEUM—Vl HOSSILS 



it? 



Prionotemnus palankarinnicus Stirton, 1955. 

(Fig. 6) 

Ree. S. Aust. Mus., 11 (3): 252-258. 

Holotype: SAM. P. 1 3646 (originally UC No. 
44381), right mandible with P3-M4 in place, 

Paratypes: (at UCMP, Berkeley). UC Nos. 
44382 to 44396:— maxillae, mandibles, and 
right metatarsal IV and phalanges. 

Locality: Lake Palankarinna. UCMP Loc. 
V5367. (Woodard Locality). 

Formation: Mampuwordu Sands. 

Age: Late Pliocene-Palankarinna Fauna. 

Collector: SAM-UCMP Expedition, 1953. 

Remarks — This is one of the more common mammalian 
taxa in the fauna. Bartholomni (1975) considers Prionotemnus 
10 bfi a subgenus of Macropua. 

Sthenurus (Sthenurus) tindalei Tedford, 1966. 

Univ. Calif. Pub/. Geol. St/., 57: 26-33. 

Holotype; SAM. P.I3820 (non P. 138201), a 
fragmentary skull with complete cheek denti- 
tion and damaged incisors. 

Locality: Lake Menindee, New South Wales, 
northern side, about 19 km from Menindee 
township. UCMPLoc. V537I. 

Formation: Unnamed lunette sand. Unit B of 

Tindale. 
Age: Late Pleistocene, approximately 26 000 ± 

I 500 years B.P. (LJ-204). 

Collector: R. H. Tedford, 1953. 

Remarks — Other age determinations from this deposit give 
conflicting results; see MfafflHtS bin/will Tedford. 

Troposodon kenti Campbell, 1973. (Fig. 7) 

Rec.S. Aust. Mus., 16(3): 3-11. 

Holotype: SAM. P. 14507, a left mandible. 

Locality: Lake Pitikanta. 

Formation: Katipiri Sands. 

Age: Early Pleistocene-Kan unka Fauna. 

Collector: UCMP-SAM Expedition. 1961. 

Family Squalodontidae 

Metasqualodon hardwoodi (Sanger, 1881). see 
Zeuglodon hardwoodii Sanger. 

Squalodon gamhierense Glacssner, 1955. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus., It (4): 362-367, text fig. 5a-c. 

Holotype: AUGD. F15107, a perfect molariform 
tooth, probably from the right mandible. 

Locality: Pritchard Brothers' Quarry, 12 km 
west-north-west of Mount Gambier, South 
Australia. 

Formation: Gambier Limestone, 



Age: Probably Late Oligocene, 
Collector: P. Pritchard, 1952. 

Remarks — When This species was described, the whereabouts 
of MekistjiHihilon hardwoodi (Sanger), although relocated, had 
not been disclosed. Both preservation and form of the two 
species are quite different. 

Zeuglodon harwoodii Sanger, 1881. 

Proc. Linnean Soc. N.S.Hales, 5 (3): 298-300. 

Holotype: SAM. P. 8446, a molariform tooth, 
Undescribed material of same specimen 
comprises a near complete anterior molar, 
half of another molar, and two premolars. 

Locality; "near Wellington, South Australia". 

Formation; "a bed of yellow calcareous clay" 
containing invertebrate fossils. Probably 
Ettrick Formation. 

Age: Tertiary, probably Oligocene, 

Collector: James C, Harwood, 1881. 

Remarks — The specimens were mislaid soon after descrip- 
tion, but Hall < I <> 1 1 ) working from the original description, 
established a new genus, Mihuytialodon, for them. The material 
was relocated in J94S and is cuirenily being redescribed. 
Regrettably, accurate data on (he locality are wanting, as the 
enclosed label stated only: "Wellington, lOIJf", suggesting a 
depth of 100 feet (30-4 m) In a bore. An allegedly associated 
shark tooth (Nolidmms) bears a label indicating derivation from 
the dill's at Wellington. However, the dark grey preservation 
of both argues against the reported lithology, and for the barely 
exposed Oligocene Eltrick Kormation. 

PART 2, PLESJOTYPES 

CLASS MAMMALIA 

ORDER MARSUPIAL1A 

Family Diprotodontidac 

Diprotodon optatum Owen, 1838. 

In Mitchell: Three Expeditions to the interior of 
eastern Australia. II: 362. 

Stirling & Zietz, 1899: Mem. R. Soc. S. Aust., 

1(1): 1-40, pi. 1-18, 
Plcsiotypes: SAM. P.5120 (right manus), P.5121 

(right pes). 
Locality: Lake Callabonna, north-eastern South 

Australia. 
Formation: "unctuous blue clay". 
Age: Pleistocene. 

Remarks — Previous to the discoveries at Lake Callabonua. 
only a few isolated elements of the pes were known, and 
reconstructions of the animal (e.g. Owen. 1877; pi. 35) always 
hid I he feet, 

Family Vombatidae 
Phascolomys gigas Owen, 1 859. 
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 8th cd., vol. XVII: 175. 
Owen, 1872: Phil. Tram'., 162: 257. 
Stirling, 1913: Mem. R. Soc. S. Aust., I (4): 
127-178, pi. 40-58. 



*7 



214 



REC. S. AUST. MUS, 17 (7-12); 1 6^-2 1 M 



September, 1 976 



Plesiotypcs — 


Plate (fig.) 


Element 


SAM P.5000 


XLIV, XLV (1-3) 


palate 


5001 


XLII 


mandibles 


5002 


XL11I 


mandible'; 


5003 (N) 


XL, XL1 


mandibles 


5004 




nalural matrix 
mould joining 
P.5000lo 5001 


5005 


XLVU (4, 5) 


1 . clavicle 


5006 


— 


rt, clavicle 


5007 


LV1I (6) 


epipubic 


5008 (N) 


XLVl (4, 5) 


atlas I'rag. 


5009 (N) 


XLVI (6) 


atlas I'rag. 


5010 


XI. VI III) 


vert, centrum 


5011 


XLVI (1-3) 


atlas 


5012 


XLVI (X, 9) 


axis 


5013 


XLVII (2) 


rib 


5014 


XLVII (3) 


rib 


5015 


XLVII U) 


rib 


5016 


— 


rib 


5017 


XLV (4-5) 


incisor 


5018 (N) 


XLV (6, 7) 


incisor 


501V (N) 


XI. V (8) 


molai 


5020 


XLVII (7. Si 


presternum 


5021 


Lilt 


1. femur 


5022 


LVI 


1. tibia 


5023 


XI.VIII 


scapula 


5024 




lihia 


5025 


L1V (4): I.V 


rl. remur I'rag. 


5026 


unlig. 


it. humerus 


5027 


XLIX(l-4), L(l,2) 


rt. humerus 


5028 (N) 


L1V (1-3) 


1. femur 


5029 


LVII (1-4) 


it. fibula 


5030 


LI (1-4) 


rt. ulna 


5031 


L (3-5) 


rl. radius 


5032 


LIV(5> 


it. femur frag. 


5033 


Lll 02, 13) 


rt. phalanx V 


5037 


LVIH(7) 


rl. MT V 


5038 


Lll (10) 


rl. MC V 


5039 


Lll (1-2) 


1. pisiform 


5040 


Lll (11) 


rl. prox. phalanx V 


5041 


1 II (5,6) 


rl. cuneiform 


5042 (N) 


LVI II (3,4) 


rt. astragalus 


5043 


Lll (3,4) 


1. unciform 


5044 


LVHI (1,2) 


rt. astragttlus 



Locality: Lake Callabonna, north-eastern South 
Australia. (Those indicated (N) are from 
Normanville, south of Adelaide.) 

Formation: "unctuous blue clay". 

Age: Pleistocene. 

Rtmarks — The discovery at Lake Callabonna of articulated 
remains of this species proved that the upper incisors known as 
Scenarnodon ramsayi Owen belonged to Pliaxcalomis gigax as 
Lydekker (1887: 157) had suggested. The specimen also 
provided the first definite P. giga.1 skeletal remains for descrip- 
tion. See also Ride (1967; 419-425). 



Phascolonus gigas (Owen, 
gigas Owen. 



1859). See Phascolomys 



PART 3, PLASTOTYPES 

CLASS REPTILIA 

ORDER CHELONIA 

Family Meiolaniidae 
Meiolania oweni Smith Woodward, 1888. 
Amu Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 6, 1: 89. 
Plastotypes: SAM. P.I8002; P. 18003 (Skull and 

jaws; caudal armour). 
Originals: BM(NH) R391, R392 respectively. 

Locality: King's Creek, Condamine River, 
Darling Downs, Queensland. 



Format ion: Alluviu m . 
Age: Pleistocene, 

Rl marks — These specimens had previously been regarded by 
Owen ( 1 88 1 a , b I as MeiailanUi pii.un. See Lydek ker ( 1 889 : 167). 
P.I8002 is actually a cast of the restored, modelled skull, the 
imperfect original of which is figured by Owen (1881 ; PI. 57 (I), 
38 (1-3)) and Lydekker. 

ORDER SAURISCIHA (?) 
Family Megalosauridae (?) 
Megalosauropus broomensis Colbert & Merrilees, 
1967. 

.hum. R. Sap, I!'. Aust., 50(1): 22-25. 
Plastotype of footprint G5-6. SAM. P. 14532. 
Original: WAM No. 66.2.51. 
Locality: Wavecut platform below high tide 
level; Broome, Western Australia. 

Formation : Broome Sandstone. 

Age: Early Cretaceous. 

Collector: (casting) Messrs. J. & E. Tapper. 

CLASS AVES 

ORDER CASUARU FORMES 
Family Drnmornithidae 
Dromonds australis Owen, 1 874c. 
Trans. Zool. Soc, 8: 383, pi. 62, 63. 
Plastotype: SAM. P. 1 7 107. 
Original: AM F, 1 0950, a femur, 
Locality: 55 m depth in a well, Peak Downs, 

Queensland. 
Formation: "drift pebbles and boulders". 
Age: Pleistocene. 

Remarks — See discussion of this species in Stirling and 
Zeit/ (1900: 43 ff) and Rich (unpubl. Ph.D. dissertation, 
1973: 127). 

Dromornis australis Owen, 1874c. 
Owen, 1879: Trans. Zool. Soc, 10: 186, pi. 33. 
Plastotype: SAM. P. 171 08. 
Original: BM(NH) 48160, a fragmentary syn- 
sacrum- a plesiotype, 

Locality: 61 m depth in the Canadian Gold Lead, 
near Mudgee, Gulgong mining district. New 
South Wales. 

Formation: Deep lead alluvium, 

Age: ? Pliocene. 

Ri.marks — Rich (ibid, p. 128) believes this specimen is too 
fragmentary to identify beyond the family level. 

Dromornis australis Owen, 1 874c. 
Owen, 1879: Trans. Zool. Soc. 10: 186. 
Stirling & Zictz, 1900: ibid: 43. 
Plastotype: SAM. P. 1 7 106. 
Original: BM(NH) 4401 1, distal end of a tibio- 
larsus, a plesiotype. 



VERTEBRATE TYPE-SPECIMENS IN THE S. AUST. MUSEUM— VI FOSSILS 



215 



Locality: A cave, "Mount Gambier range", 

Mount Gambier, South Australia. 
Formation: ? Cave earth. 
Age: Pleistocene. 

Rkmakks— Stirling and Zictz believed this specimen to be of 
their new species Genyonus iiewimii. 

ORDER DINORNITHIFORMES 
Family Emeidae 
Dinornis queenslandiae de Vis, 1884. 
Prat: R. Soc. QUI., 1: 32. 
Plastotype: SAM. P. 17105. 
Original: Queensland Museum; proximal end of 

a femur. 
Locality: Allegedly "King's Creek, Darling 

Downs, Queensland". 
Age: Pleistocene. 

RrsiAKks -Stirling and Zictz (1900: 44) note arguments 
against this taxon, and Rich 1197?, unpubl. dissertation) notes 
Scarlett's (1969) objection regarding the preservation of the 
specimen which is quite distinct from other King's Creek 
fossils. Scarlett equated it with the New Zealand moa 
Pachytttnis tflephm&fWK 

CLASS MAMMALIA 

ORDER MONOTREMATA 
Family Ornithorhynchidae 

Obdurodon insignis Woodburne & Tedford, 1975. 

Amer. Mus. Novitates, No. 2588; 3-10. 

Plastotype; SAM. P. 1 8942, 

Original; AM(NH) 97228, paratypc, a right upper 
molar. 

Locality: West side of Lake Namba, Frome 
Embayment, South Australia, Grid zone 6, 
refec. 320135, Curnamona 1:250 000 sheet 
SH54-I4. 

Formation : Float specimen, from un-named unit 
of thin-bedded black claystone, sand lenses, 
green claystone and white dolomitic claystone. 

Age: Miocene, Ngapakaldi fauna equivalent. 

ORDER MARSUP1AL1A 
Family Wynyardiidae 

Wynyardia bassiana Spencer, 1900. 

Pro,: Zool. Soc. Lonci, 1900: 776-795. 

Plastotype: SAM. P.4979, 4980. 

Original: Tasmanian Museum, Z237, an imperfect 
skull and partial skeleton, no teeth. 

Locality: Fossil Bluff, near Wynyard, north- 
western Tasmania. 

Formation: Fossil Bluff Sandstone. 

Age: Longfordian— basal Miocene. 



Remarks— This fossil was found in marine sediments, and ils 
age was for long in doubt, as some authors believed it to be 
intrusive. Gill (1 957) demonstrated its contemporaneity with 
Ihe associated fauna, but believed il to be Oligocene. Ludbrook 
(19671 points OUl the uncertainty of ils age. 

P.4979 is a cast of the specimen as originally found. P.4980 
comprises easts of the excavated skull, jaws and limb bones, 
and the cleared spine. 

Family Macropodidae 
Leptosiagon gracilis Owen, 1874. 
Phil. Trans., 164: 785, pi. 76 (11-15). 
Plastotype: SAM. P. 1 81 24. 
Original: BM(NH) 40005. fragment of a right 
mandible with M 2 , M 3 . 

Locality: Queensland. 
Formation: "alluvial drift". 
Age: Pleistocene. 

Rfmakks Lydekker (1X87: 23JJ included this specimen in 
MotTo/ms fenagus Owen, but Simpson (1930: 72) leaves il 
separate as Macrop.au gracilis (Owen). Bartholomai (1975) 
returns it to Macropus (Osphramet) ferragus. 

Macropus altus (Owen, 1874). See Phaseolagus 
altus Owen. 

Macropus ferragus Owen, 1874. 

Phil. Trans., 164: 784, pi. 81 (4), 82 (3, 4). 

Plastotype: SAM, P. 181 26. 

Original: BM(NH) 32903, fragment of right 

mandible. 
Locality: Condamine River, Queensland. 
Formation: "alluvial drift". 
Age; Pleistocene. 

Rt-MAKKS— Owen (1877: 449) used this specimen as type for 
Pachyxiaffon famous but Eydekker (1887: 231) returned it to 
Macropus. Bartholomai (1975) places it in the subgenus 
Osphranier. 

Macropus goliah Owen, 1846. 

Ijl Waterhousc (1846) Natural History of 

Mammalia, 1 : 59. 
Plastotype: SAM. P. 18125. 
Original: BM(NH) Ml 896, right maxilla with 

Locality: Darling Downs, Queensland. 
Formation: "alluvial drift". 
Age: Pleistocene. 
Remarks -Species renamed Pmcophnlim jfollak by Owen 

(1873: 387). 

Macropus gracilis (Owen, 1874). See Leptosiagon 
gracilis Owen. 

Macropus titan Owen, 1838. 
In Mitchell (1838) Three Expeili/ions into the 
interior of eastern Australia, 1 : 359, pi. 29 (3). 

Plastotype: SAM. P.18127. 



216 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (7-12): 169-219 



September, 1976 



Original: BM(NH) M 10777. anterior fragments of 
right mandible. 

Locality: Cave, Wellington Valley, New South 
Wales. 

Formation : Cave earth. 

Age: Pleistocene. 

Pachysiagon otuel Owen, 1 874. 

Phil. Trans., 164: 784, pi. 76 (I -10). 

Plastotype: SAM. P. 1 8 123. 

Original: BM(NH) 46310, fragment of right 
mandible with M 2 - 4 , 

Locality: King's Creek, Clifton, Queensland. 

Formation: "'alluvial drift". 

Age: Pleistocene. 

Remarks— Figured in Owen (1877: pi. LXXX1X (7-10)) as 
Procaptodon push. Sec Lydekker (1887: 237). Species is now 
known as Procoptodon oluei. 

Phascolagus altus Owen, 1874. 
Phil. Trans.. 164: 261, pi. 22 (1, 2). 
Plastotype : SA M . P. 1 3 1 25. 
Original: BM(NH) M 10779, an imperfect palate 
lacking rP 3 , and with both M 4 's unerupted. 

Locality: Wellington Caves, New South Wales. 
Formation: Cave earth. 
Age: Pleistocene. 

Remarks — This specimen was originally a syntype of 
Macropus titan Owen (1838). The species was replaced in 
Mucioptis ullus by Lydekker (1887: 223), and Bartholamai 
(1975) puis it in the subgenus Osphranter. 

Procoptodon goliah Owen, 1846. See Macropus 
goliah Owen. 

Procoptodon otuel Owen. 1874. See Pachysiagon 
otuel Owen. 

Procoptodon pusio Owen, 1 874. 

Phil. Trans., 164: 788. pi. 77 (2-6). 

Plastotype: SAM. P. 1 81 30. 

Original: BM(NH) 39996, imperfect palate (left 
and right maxillae) with P 3 -M 3 . 

Locality: Queensland. 

Formation: "alluvial drift". 

Age: Pleistocene. 

Remarks — Lydekker (1887: 235) Lransferred this specimen to 
Procoptodon rapha. 

Procoptodon rapha Owen, 1 874. 
Phil. Trans., 164: 788, pi. 77 (8-12). 
Plastotype: SAM. P. 18 129. 
Original: BM(NH) 32885. 
Locality: "alluvial drift". 
Age: Pleistocene. 



Protemnodon anak Owen, 1874. 

Phil. Trans., 164: 275, pi. 25 (1-2). 

Plastotype: SAM. P.13124. 

Original: BM(NH) Ml 895, a left mandible with 
P3-M4. 

Locality: Darling Downs, Queensland. 

Formation: "alluvial drift". 

Age: Pleistocene. 

Remarks— See Bartholomai (1973: 318). 

Protemnodon antaeus Owen, 1877. 

Extinct Mammals of Australia: 448, pi. 110(1-3). 

Plastotype: SAM. P. 13 123. 

Original: BM(NH) M2258 a partial left mandible 
with Pj-Mj. 

Locality: Queensland. 

Formation: "alluvial drift". 

Age: Pleistocene. 

Remarks— This species was transferred to Macropus raeclins 
by Lydekker (1887: 212), and is now included in Protemnodon 
roeemm Owen. (Bartholomai. 1973: 340). 

Protemnodon brehus Owen, 1874. See Sthenurus 
brehus Owen. 

Protemnodon mimas Owen, 1874. 

Phil. Trans., 164: 278, pi. 26 (1-3). 

Plastotype: SAM. P. 131 21. 

Original: BM(NH) 43351, a left mandible with all 
cheek teeth. 

Locality: Gowric, Queensland. 

Formation: "alluvial drift". 

Age: Pleistocene. 

Remarks Included in Macropus brehus by Lydekker 
(1887: 207). then Protemnodon brehus by Stirton (1963: 141). 
See Bartholomai (1973: 330). 

Protemnodon og. Owen, 1874. 

Phil. Trans., 164: 277, pi. 25 (5-6). 

Plastotype: SAM. P. 13122. 

Original: BM(NH) 35963, an imperfect left 
mandible with all cheek teeth. 

Locality: Gowrie, Queensland. 

Formation: "alluvial drift". 

Age: Pleistocene. 

Remarks— Lydekker (1887: 217) included this species in M. 
anak, now Protemnodon anak; see Bartholomai (1973: 3 IK), 

Protemnodon roechus Owen, 1874. 

Phil. Trans., 164: 281, pi. 27 (10-13). 

Plastotype: SAM. P.18128. 

Original: BM(NH) 35968, anterior part of left 
mandible with P r M 3 . 



VERTEBRATE TYPE-SPECIMENS IN THE S. AUST. MUSEUM— VI FOSSILS 



217 



Locality: Govvrie, Queensland. 
Formation: "alluvial drift". 
Age: Pleistocene. 

Rr marks— l.ydekker (1887) and others, transferred this to 
Macropits, but this has since been reversed. See Stirton (1963), 
Bartholomai (1973). 

Sthenurus brehus Owen. 1874. 

Phil. Tram., 164. 272, pi. 27 (5-6). 

Plastotype: SAM. P. 13126. 

Original: BM(NH) 43303a, an imperfect palate 

with M'-M 4 of both sides. 

Locality: Wellington Valley, New South Wales. 

Formation: Cave earth. 

Age; Pleistocene. 

RtMARKs — The species was transferred to Macropus by 
Lvdekker (1887: 209), and to Pioicmnoihn brehus (Owen) by 
Stirton (1 963: 141). 

Sthenurus minor Owen, 1877, 

Prac. Zool. Sac., 1877: 353, pi. 37. 38 (1-3). 

Plastotype: SAM. P. 1 3120. 

Original: BM(NH) 48409, an imperfect palate. 

Locality; County Phillip, New South Wales. 

Formation: "alluvial drift". 

Age: Pleistocene. 

Remarks— This species was transferred to Macropui by 
Lydckker (1887: 218) although the name was already occupied 
by Mavropiis niimu Shaw, 1800. Bartholomai (1967: 22) used 
this specimen as lype lor Iroposodon minor (Owen). 

Sthenurus occidenralis Glauert, 1910. 

Ret: W, Aust, Mus., 1: 31-36, pi. 5 (6-7). 

Plastotype: SAM. P. 13662. 

Original: WAM 60.10.2, left and right mandibles. 

Locality: Mammoth Cave, near Margaret River. 

south-western Western Australia. 
Formation : Cave earth. 
Age: Pleistocene, 37 000 yrs. B.P. 
Remarks— See also Tedford (1966: 33-39). 

Troposodon minor (Owen, 1877). See Sthenurus 
minor Owen. 

Family Diprorodontidae 

Euryzygoma dunense (de Vis, 1888). Sec Noto- 
therium mitchelli Owen. 

Kolopsis torus Woodburne, 1967, 

Bur. Miner. Resuiir. Bull., 87: 139-148. 

Plastotype: SAM. P. 1 81 16, skull. 

Original: C PC 6747. 

Locality: UCMP V6345 (Paine Quarry). 6' 5 km 

south-west of Alcoota Homestead, southern 

Northern Territory. 
Formation; Waitc Formation, 
Age: Late Miocene- Alcoota Fauna. 



Nototherium mitchelli Owen, 1 845. 

Rept. Brit. Ass. Ailv. Sci., York, 1844: 232. Cat. 

Foss. Matmn. & Aves Mus. R. Coll. Surg.: 

316. 
Plastoplesiotype: SAM. P. 1 81 22. 
Original: BM(NH) 43523, a left mandible with 

M ; -M 4 . — a plcsiotype. Figured by Owen, 

1872, Phil. Trans., 164: pi. II. 
Locality: Queensland. 
Formation: "alluvial drift". 

Age: Pleistocene? 

Remarks Woods (J968: 115) referred this specimen to 
Eiirycynii'iia i/imt-nse (de Vis). 

Palorchestes painci Woodburne. 1967. 

Bur. Miner. Resour. Bull,, 87: 107-124. 

Plastotype: SAM. P.I8I 18, skull. 

Original: CPC 6752. 

Locality: UCMP V6345 (Paine Quarry). 6-5 km 

south-west of Alcoota Homestead, southern 

Northern Territory. 
Formation: Waite Formation. 
Age: Late Miocene- Alcoota Fauna. 

Piaisiodon centralis Woodburne, 1967. 

Bur. Miner. Resour. Bull., 87; 149-159. 

Plastotype: SAM. P.181 19, skull. 

Original: CPC 6748. 

Locality: UCMP V6345 (Paine Quarry). 6-5 km 

south-west of Alcoota Homestead, southern 

Northern Territory. 
Formation: Waite Formation. 
Age: Late Miocene- Alcoota Fauna. 

Pyramios alcootense Woodburne, 1967. 

Bur. Miner. Resour. Bull.. 87: 125-138. 

Plastotype: SAM. P.I8117, skull. 

Original ; CPC 6749. 

Locality: UCMP V6345 (Paine Quarry). 6-5 km 

south-west of Alcoota Homestead, southern 

Northern Territory. 
Formation: Waite Formation. 
Age: Late Miocene-Alcoota Fauna. 

Zygomaturus trilobus Owen, 1859 (nan Macleay. 

1857). 
Quart. J. Geol. Soc. Loml., 15: 168. 
Plastotype: SAM. P.1812I. 
Original; AM. F4635, an almost-perfect cranium. 
Locality: King's Creek, a tributary to the 

Condaminc River, eastern Darling Downs, 

Queensland. 
Formation: "alluvial drift". 
Age: Pleistocene. 

RrMARKS — Kor a comprehensive resume of (he vicissitudes of 
this ia\on, see Stirton (1967; 133-134). 



218 



REC. S. AUST. NIL'S., 17 (7-12): 160-219 



Srptriiiher, 1^76 



RLI TRCNCr.S 

Barlholomai. A. I '767 Troposodan. a new genus oJ' fossil 
Mueropodinac (Marsupialia). Men). Qld. Mm:, 15 (I): 
21-33. 

Barlholomai. A., 1973. The genus Pioienuiodon Owen 
(Marsupialia: Mucropodidae) in the Upper Cnimv.oic 
deposits of Queensland. Mem. QUI. Mm., 16 (3); 309-363, 
PIS. 9-23 

Barlholomai, A.. 1975. The genus Mm m/ms Shaw (Marsupialia. 
Macropodidac) in Ihe Upper Cinno?oic deposits of 
Queensland. Mem Qld. Mm:. 17 11): 195-235. pis. 7-:o. 

Butler, W. H and Merrilees. D.. 1971. Remains <>|' Poioroux 
plalyopx (Marsupialia, Macropodidac) and other mammals 
from Bremer Bav. Western Australia. Join •-. R. So. . W. 
Ami . 54(2): 53-58. 

Campbell, C. R., 1973. A new species of 7 rvposodon 
Barlholomai; from the tarty I'/ciMncene Kanuka lamia. 
South Ausiralia (Macropodinae, Marsupialia). Ret: S. 
Ami. Mm., 16(13): 1-18. 

Clemens, W. A. an.) Plane, M„ |974. Mid-Tertiary Fhylu- 
colconidae (Marsupialia, Mammalia). Jour, Piilcontol., 48 
f4>: 652-660. 

Colbert, E, II. and Merrilees, D., 1967. (. "retaeeous dinosaur 
footprints from Western Australia. Join, li $ot\ W> Awln 
S0(H. 7.1-25. 

de Vis. C. W., 1884. The Moa (Dinornis) in Australia. Proc, /?, 
Soc. Qld.,i: 23-28, pis, 3,4. 

de Vis. C. W. , 1 888. On ;t supposed new Spwfics of Notolherium. 
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dcVis, C W., 1894. Hail L. Bird remains from the Win burlon 
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de Vis, C W., 1905. A contribution to tr)C knowledge of Ihe 
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Fiitlayson. H. H., 1938. A new species of Potorous(Marsupialia) 
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Gill, T. D., 1957. The stratigraphical occurrence and palaeo- 
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Gill, E. E>., 1973. Geology and geomorphology ol'the Mmi.iv 
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Glaessner, M. F., 1955. Pelagic fossils (Aluriit, Penguins. 
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Glaueit, L., 1910 Sthenurtis oceidenlalis (Cl.uierll Geyi, 
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Heeht, M. K.. 1975, The morphology and relationships of (he 
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Jenkins, R. J. F,, 1974. A new giant penguin from the Eocene of 
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Miller. A. II.. I'ttO 
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The fossil flamingos o( Australia. (on<lor, 



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Owen. R., 1859b. " Palaeontology ' 
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Encyclopaedia Br itaiinica 



Owen. R., 1872a. On the fossil mammals of Anstialia. V. 
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Owen. R., 1872b. On the fossil mammals of Ausiralia VII. 
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Owen, R.. 1874a. On the fossil mammals or Australia. Vllf 
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Owen. K.. 1874b. On the fossil mammals of Australia. IX. 
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Owen, R.. 1 874c. On Omorni\ (Part XIX). containing a 
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Owen. R., 1877a. Researches on the fossil remains of the 

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Owen, R., 1877b On a new species of Slticnurus, with remarks 

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Owen. R.. 1881a. Description of some remains of the gigantic 
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Ride, W. D. L., 1964. A review ol Australian fossil marsupials. 
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Ride, W. D. L., 1970 A guide lo the Native Mammals of 
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Scarlett. R, J.. 1969. On the alleged OutvnsHmd moa, Diiifiius 
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VERTFBRATE TYPE-SPECIMENS IN THE S. AUST. MUSEUM— VI FOSSILS 



219 



Servenly, D. L., Condon, H. T., & Mayr, E., 1965: Dromaius 
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Simpson, G. G., 1930. Post-Mesozoic Marsupialia. Fossilium 
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Smith Woodward. A., 1888. Mote on the extinct reptilian genera 
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178. 

Stirling, E. C. & Zictz, A. H. C, 1896. Preliminary notes on 
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Stirling, E. C. & Zictz, A. H. C. 1899. Fossil remains of Lake 
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Stirling. E. C. & Zietz, A. H. C, 1913. Fossil remains of Lake 
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36-39. 



Stirton, R. A., 1955. Late Tertiary marsupials from South 
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Stirton, R. A., 1957. A new koala from the Pliocene Palan- 
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Stirton, R. A., 1963. A review of the macropodid genus 
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Stirton, R. A., 1967a. The Diprotodontidae from the 
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Stirton, R. A., 1967b. A diprotodontid from the Miocene 
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Stirton. R. A., 1967c. A new species of Zygomaturus and 
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Stirton, R. A., Tedford, R. H. & Woodburne, M. O., 1967. A 
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Tedford, R. H., 1966. A review of the Macropodid genus 
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van Tets, G. F., 1974. A revision of the fossil Megapodidae 
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dc Vis. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust., 98 (4): 213-224. 

Wade, R. T., 1953. Note on a Triassic fish fossil from Leigh 
Creek, South Australia. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust., 76: 80-81. 

Woodburne, M. O.. 1967. The Alcoota fauna. Central Australia. 
An integrated palacontological and geological study. Bur. 
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Woodburne, M. O. & Tedford, R. H., 1975. The first Tertiary 
Monotreme from Australia. Ainer. Mus. Novitates, No. 
2588, 11 pp. 

Woods, J. T., 1968. The identity of the extinct marsupial genus 
Notuiherium Owen. Mem. QUI. Mus., 15 (2): 111-116, 
pis. 13-14. 

Zietz. A., 1899. Notes upon some fossil Reptilian remains 
from the Warburton River, near Lake Eyre. Trans. R. Soc. 
S. Aust., 23: 208-210. 



RECORDS OF THE 
SOUTH AUSTRALIAN 
MUSEUM 



THE DERMAPTERA OF 
THE NEW HEBRIDES 



By A. BRINDLE 



SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 
North Terrace, Adelaide 
South Australia 5000 



VOLUME 17 

NUMBER 13 

1st December, 1976 



THE DERMAPTERA OF THE NEW HEBRIDES 



BY A. Brindle 



Summary 



The present paper is mainly based on two collections of Dermaptera from the New Hebrides, the 
first lodged in the South Australian Percy Sladen Trust Expedition to these islands, and consisting 
of 118 specimens resulting from the 1971 Royal Society of London - Museum, in which the South 
Australian Museum participated. 

The second belongs to the B. P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, and consists of 189 specimens 
collected over a number of years. A few additional specimens of Dermaptera from these islands 
belonging to the British Museum (Natural History) have also been examined, some being those 
recorded in Hincks (1952). All previous records of Dermaptera from the New Hebrides known to 
the present author are included, and two previous records are rejected - that of Titanolabis colossea 
(Dohrn) in Dohrn (1864), and that of Labia canaca (Burr) in Burr (1908). 

Keys are given to all families, subfamilies, genera and species and a total of 16 species are now 
recorded, of which three are new and are described. The composition of the Dermaptera fauna of 
the islands is discussed and comparisons made between this fauna and those of other groups of 
islands in the area of the Western Pacific and the Papuan Region. 



THE DERMAPTERA OF THE NEW HEBRIDES 

By A. BR1NDLE 

Manchester Museum 



ABSTRACT 

HRINDLE. A. 1976. The Dcrnniprera of the New Hehridcx, 
Rcc. V. AKtt. Mux., 17 I LI); 221-238. 

The present paper is mainly based on two 
collections of Dennaptera from the New 
Hebrides, the first lodged in the South Australian 
Percy Sladen Trust Expedition to these islands 
int.' from the 1971 Royal Society of London — 
Museum, and consisting of 118 specimens result- 
in which the South Australian Museum partici- 
pated. The second belongs to the B.P. Bishop 
Museum, Honolulu, and consists of 189 speci- 
mens collected over a number of years. A few 
additional specimens of Dennaptera from these 
islands belonging to the British Museum (Natural 
History) have also been examined, some being 
those recorded in Hincks ( 1952). All previous 
records of Dennaptera from the New Hebrides 
Known to the present author are included, and 
Iwo previous records are rejected — that of 
Titanolabis colossea (Dohrn) in Dohrn (1864), 
and that of Labia canaca Burr in Burr ( 1908). 
Keys are given (o all families, subfamilies, genera 
and species and a total of 16 species are now 
recorded, of which three are new and are 
described. The composition of the Dennaptera 
launa of the islands is discussed and comparisons 
made between this fauna and those of other 
groups of islands in the area of the Western 
Pacific and the Papuan Region. 

INTRODUCTION 

The first survey of known records of 
Dennaptera from the New Hebrides is that of 
Hincks ( 1938) in which three species were 
listed, one of which. Titanolabis colossea (Dohrn) 
was thought to be doubtful. Four additional 
species were recorded in Hincks (1947) and 
another species in Rchn ( 1948 ) , Hincks ( 1 952) 
examined a series of 77 specimens of Dennaptera 
collected in the New Hebrides by Miss L. E. 
Chcesnuin, and added six species lo the fauna. 
Of the fourteen species thus recorded, however, 
the record of Titanolabis colossea is rejected: 
Dohrn ( 1864) listed the localities of colossea as 
Australia. New Caledonia, New Hebrides, and 
Hji, but the location of any specimen is doubtful. 
There arc large species of Anisolabis in New 
Caledonia which could be mistaken for colossea, 

\xt December. I97f>. 
I 



but they are not conspecific, nor congeneric with 
it. No large species of this family have since 
been recorded from the New Hebrides nor from 
Fiji, but the location of any specimen is doubtful, 
to Australia, where, if correctly recognised, it 
attains a considerable size, and is almost the 
largest of existing earwigs. The names Prolabia 
(tracliulis (Yersin) and Marava wallacei (Dohrn), 
listed in Hincks (1952) are now known to refer 
to forms of the same species ( Hincks 1 954 ) . One 
species was only named to genus {Labia sp.. 
Hincks. 1952), and the reference to Nesottaster 
aculeatus (Bormans) in Hincks (1947) is refer- 
able to N. apicalis Hincks ( Hincks, 1952). The 
specimen recorded as Labia canaca Burr, by Burr 
(1908) and Hincks (1938) has been examined 
and is a female of one of the species described 
as new in the present paper. 

Recently, an expedition organised jointly by 
the Royal Society of London and the Percy 
Sladen Trust, which included entomologists from 
the South Australian Museum and the CS1RO 
Division of Soils in Adelaide, undertook a survey 
of the New Hebrides; the 118 specimens of 
Dennaptera resulting from the survey have been 
examined by the present author. In addition 
189 specimens of Dennaptera from these islands 
belonging lo the B.P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, 
have been studied. These specimens are recorded 
in the present paper, which includes all previous 
records known to the author. The paper thus 
attempts to provide a complete survey of the 
known Dennaptera of the New Hebrides, and 
keys are given to all families, subfamilies, genera, 
and species represented. Notes on the com- 
position of the fauna and comparison of this 
with those or other groups of islands in the 
Western Pacific and in the Papuan Region ate 
included, A total of 16 species are now known 
from the New Hebrides, of which three are 
described as new. 

My sincere thanks are due to Mr. G. F. Gross, 
of the South Australian Museum, Adelaide, and 
to Dr. J. Linsley Gressill, of the B.P. Bishop 
Museum, Honolulu, tor the. opportunity to 
examine the respective collections of Dennaptera 
under their care. I am also indebted to Dr. 
D, R, Ragge and Mrs. J. Marshall for freely 
granted facilities in examining specimens of 
Dennaptera in the British Museum (Natural 
History"), London. 



222 



RRC. 5. AUST. MUS., 17 (13): 221-23K 



November, IV76 



The Dermaptera fauna of the New Hebrides 
(Table 1) is small, of 1(3 recorded species, but 
it is obviously related to the fauna of other 
island groups in the Western Pacific and the 
Papuan area. The Solomon Islands are the 
nearest to the north-west, and the south-eastern 
islands of Micronesia to the north-east. The 
Fiji islands lie to the east of the New Hebrides 
and the actual nearest island group to the New 
Hebrides is that of New Caledonia, with its 
associated Loyalty Islands. The Dermaptera 
of all these islands, except for Fiji, have 
recently been studied and the relationships of 
the Dermaptera fauna are now better understood. 

The Solomon Islands, as a group, are much 
larger in area than those of the New Hebrides; 
they are relatively close to New Guinea, have a 
much richer fauna, and mark the eastern limit 
of a number of Papuan genera. The islands of 
Micronesia are smaller, widely scattered and 
have. 24 species, whilst New Caledonia and the 
Loyalty Islands have 18 species. 

All the genera recorded from the New Hebrides 
occur in the Solomon Islands and all, except for 
Sphingolabis. occur in Micronesia, but three 
genera are absent from New Caledonia. This 
indicates that the Dermaptera fauna of the New 
Hebrides has extended from New Guinea into 
the Solomon Islands and further south to the 
New Hebrides. The New Hebrides have five 
endemic species, (about 31 per cent of species) 
which account for 18 per cent of the number of 
specimens examined. The endemic species thus 
form less of the population of Dermaptera than 
the number of species would suggest, and this 
feature is true of the Solomon Islands, and more 



particularly of Micronesia, In contrast the 
endemic species of New Caledonia arc dominant. 
The influence of cosmopolitan species, however 
(excluding Chelisochcs morio (F. )), is much 
less in the New Hebrides ( 1 8 per cent of species 
but only 6 per cent of specimens ) than in cither 
the Solomon Islands or Micronesia, indicating 
that the New Hebrides are somewhat off the 
general distribution range of the cosmopolitan 
species. The term "cosmopolitan" species has 
been generally used in the Dermaptera for species 
with a very wide world distribution, which to 
some extent may be due to accidental intro- 
duction, but recent work is clarifying these 
distributions and the status of some cosmopolitan 
species may have to be modified. Chelisoches 
morio (F.) although classed as a cosmopolitan 
species, is now known to be mainly a dominant 
Pacific and Papuan species; it extends westwards 
to India and Ceylon, where it is not common, 
and is probably adventive in Madagascar, and 
certainly adventive in Africa and elsewhere. )t 
is well represented in the New Hebrides, as in 
Micronesia, but less well represented in the 
Solomon Islands, and much less well represented 
in New Caledonia. 

There are four Australasian species recorded 
from the New Hebrides, so the influence of the 
Australasian fauna is clear, and these species 
account for nearly one quarter of the total 
specimens examined. There are also three Pacific 
species (excluding C. morio), i.e. one Oriental- 
Pacific; one Australasian-Pacific; and one entirely 
western Pacific species, and these account for 
about one fifth of the total number of specimens. 
The position of the New Hebrides in the western 
Pacific, but close to the Australasian Region, 



TABLE I 
DISTRIBUTION Ol- DERMAPTf RA IN THh NEW HEBRIDES 



| Vanua L>pi' ; '" 
Lava Snnio i Macwo 



Cyrelnophoridae — 

Carclnophorinae - 

I. EubarclUa tmiitilipt's (Lucas) 

7 A tikalabls vtrhoeffi Zuchcr - - 

BraehvlaWinne 

3. Bruthykibis icmlala ap.n 

Eabiidac — 

ISesOgastrinae 

"I Ncwuaster afiltnljs Hineka 

5. A'- hijkrri Hincks - 

SparulUnur — 

ft. AmllvniMllit tliMilfirix sp.n , - - - 

Labitnue — 

7. Charlolittiitt iltmmi (Cuudelll 

8. C. dentuUi sp.n. -. 

9. Labia rurriiiimla (Motischulsky) 

10. L. biiiibnruhla Brindle 

11. S/ilirnRt>lahls Itawaiiritsis (Bornmml - 
Sponpphoriuue - 

12. Matava araehmv (Ywaftt) 

I S, M. fttlH l Hurmtius) . - 

Chelisochidac- - .,_..., 

1 4 C hi/liswhex mono I rabricius) 

15. ( - rliccsmtma? Hindis . - . - . ...--. 
Id. ilani'ixui nigrarulm (Burr) 



X 

X 



x 



X 



X 

X 
X 

X 

X 



Peine- | 
Anna cosl 



X 

X 



MhIc- 
kula 



X 

X 



v 
X 
X 



t'.pi 



fate 


F.rro- 

manga 


I anna 


Anel- 
lyum 


World 
dtsiri- 
bution 


X 


IS 


: 


X 


Con. 

Aus. 

1 n.J. 


X 






X 


Aus. 
End. 

Lnd. 


1 


X 
X 
X 
X 
X 


X 


X 


Pae. 

! nd 
Cos. 
ALU. 

O-P 




X 




■ 


Cos. 
Aus. 


X 

X 


X 


X 

• 


X 


Cos. 
End. 
,\-f 



Aus. Australian 



Cos. - Cosmopolitan 



A-l' - Aiiilralisian-I'iicific 



O-P Oriental-Pacific 



Pac. - Pacific 



End - Endemic 



THE DERMAPTKRA OF THH NEW HEBRIDES 



22? 



could be expected to produce a balance between 
the Australasian and Pacific fauna, and this is 
the type of Dermaptera fauna found in the New 
Hebrides. 

Kry lu jamilii's ami subfamilies 

I.EIytia and wings completely absent; male genitalia with 

two distal lobes, one directed backwards :ind one 

directed forwards at rest I Fig 2) (C.ircinophoridae I 2 

At least elytra present, wings often visible; mule genitalia 

with a single median distal lobe (Pig. 26) .. ., 3 

2. First anlcnmil segment shelter than the distance between 

the antcnnal bases; body depressed, not fusiform; 
branches of forceps of both sexes trigonal at bases. 
with a short dorsal ridge on cacti: male forceps 

asymmetrical (Fig. 1) Careim.phonnae 

First antenna] segment longer than the distance between 
the antennal bases: body less depressed, fusiform; 
branches of forceps of both sexes cylindrical, not 
trigonal at bases, and symmetrical (Fig. 5) 

Brachylabiinac 

3. Second liirsal segment prolonged beneath third (distal) 

segment as a narrow lobe; male genitalia with two 
dark paired selcritcs associated with the virga (Fig. 2fi) 

Chelisochidae 

vS'eccmd tarsal segment simple; male genitalia without 

two dark paired selcritcs bnl often with a complex 

arrangement of denticulations and scleritcs associated 

with (he virga (Eabiidae) .. 4 

4 Head flat; body strongly depressed; first antennal segment 
as long as distance between the antennal bases or 
almost so; pronotnm narrowed anteriorly, forming a 

distinct neck I Fig. 28) Sparuttinae 

Mead normally convex: body less depressed; first antennal 
segment shorter than the distance between the antennal 
bases; pronotimi wilhoul such a distinct neck ... 5 

5. Each elytron with a distinct lateral longitudinal ridge 

lF 'P 51 . i Nesogasliinac 

Elytra without such ndgcs f, 

6. Third antennal segment shorter than fifth: elytra usually 

punctured and pubescent . Labiinae 

Third antennal .segment longer than fifth or almost so; 
elytra glabrous and irnpnnctate Spongiphorlnae 

CARC1NOPHORIDAE 

A large family, poorly represented in the 
Pacific and in the Australasian Region, the 
species being typically dark coloured apterous 
earwigs with short forceps, those of the male 
often being asymmetrical. A minority of species 
have rudimentary elytra and sometimes both 
elytra, and wings arc fully developed. Two 
subfamilies are now recorded from the New 
Hebrides 

CARCINOPHORINAE 

The largest subfamily, the species having 
rather short basal antennal segments, a depressed 
body, relatively short legs, and often a shining 
and more or less glabrous cuticle. The punctu- 
ration of the abdominal tergites may be stronger 



in the males than in the females, and a frequent 
feature of the males is the presence of well 
defined lateral longitudinal ridges on the posterior 
abdominal tergites, one ridge occurring on each 
side of a tergite; a dorso-median longitudinal 
ridge may also be present on the last" (tenth) 
tergite. The penultimate sternite may have the 
apex excised in males but not in the females. 
The determination of the species is based on 
the male genitalia, and there are few suitable 
external characters. 

Key to genera mid tptties. 

1. Pararoeres of male genitalia about as broad as long; each 
distal lobe of genitalia without a visible virga and 
with denticulated pads. Male penullimatc stertiile not 
excised at apex . .... Euborellia QHRUlipes CLuraa.) 
Parameres of mule genitalia long and slender, much 
longer than broad; each distal lobe of genitalia with 
a visible virga, but without, denliculaled pads (Fig. 2). 
Male penultimate sternite excised at apex (Fig. 4) 
Anisolabis vevlioclji Zacher 



Euborellia annulipes (Lucas) 

Forficesila annulipes Lucas, 1847, Ann. Soc. ent. 
France (2) 5: 84 (Paris, introduced). 

Anisolabis annulipes (Lucas): Burr, 1911, 
Genera Insectorum 122: 29. 

Euborellia annulipes (Lucas): Burr, 1915, J. R. 
Micr. Soc. 1915: 545. 

Anisolabis annulipes (Lucas): Rehn, 1948, 
Trans. Am, ent. Soc. 74: 160 (Erromanga), 

A rather small blackish, shining species, legs 
yellow with femora usually banded with blackish; 
antennae brown or dark brown, one or more 
distal segments white. Head transverse, eyes 
small, pronotum more or less as broad as long, 
wider posteriorly; elytra and wings completely 
absent. Penultimate sternite of male with apex 
rounded. Forceps short, trigonal at base, those 
of male rather asymmetrical, those of female 
symmetrical. 

Length of body 8-11 mm, forceps 1-1-5 mm. 

World distribution: Cosmopolitan; occurs in 
all faunal Regions, often as an adventive. 

Remarks; The above record of Rehn (1948) 
appears to be the only one from the New 
Hebrides, and may possibly be due to confusion 
with Anisolabis verhoeffi, which is superficially 
similar to E. annulipes. 

Location of type. 

Holotype 9 in Paris museum. 



224 



REC. S. AUST- MUS. 17 (13): 221-238 



November, 1^6 



Anisolabis verhoeffi Zacher 

Figs. 1-4 

Anisolabis verhoeffi Zacher, 19 1 J, Zool. Jb. 30: 

374 (Bismarck Archipelago). 
Anisolabis verboeffi Zacher: Hincks. 1947, 

Entomologist's mon. mag. 83: 65 (Espiritu 

Santo). 
Anisolabis verhoeffi Zacher: Hincks, 1952, Aim. 

Mag. nat. Hist. (12) 5: 200 (Espiritu 

Santo; Malekula). 

Dark brown to blackish, antennae dark brown, 
sometimes with one or more distal segments 
pale yellow or whitish; legs yellowish, femora 
usually darkened for basal half. Head, and 
thoracic nota impunctate, glabrous; abdominal 
tergitcs sparsely and finely punctured and pubes- 
cent. 

Male (Fig. 1): Head transverse, tumid, eyes 
small. Pronotum strongly transverse, more or 
less rectangular; elytra and wings completely 
absent; abdomen broad, depressed, tergites 6-9 
with lateral ridges, those on sixth tergite extend- 
ing for distal half only, those on ninth tergite 
also short, but those on seventh and eighth 
tergites almost complete; last tergite with a dorso- 
median ridge towards each side, the ridge curved 
medially posteriorly, and posterior part of tergite 
depressed; penultimate sternite with apex con- 
cave, the lobes pointed (Fig. 4). Branches of 
forceps trigonal at base, cylindrical distally, those 
of male often asymmetrical (Fig. 1 ) or almost 
symmetrical, those of female symmetrical and 
straightcr. Getiitalia of male with two basal 
penes, parameres long with a median darker 
membraneous flap, virga narrow and long (Fig. 
2); slight variations in the exact shape of the 
parameres occur in genital mounts due to slight 
distortion ( Fig. 3 ) . 

Length of body 7-9 mm, forceps 1-25- 
1 '73 mm. 

World distribution: Bismarck Archipelago 
and New Hebrides, 

Remarks: Specimens of A. verhoeffi from the 
original area (Bismarck Archipelago) in the 
British Museum (Natural History) have recently 
been examined, and appear to be conspecific 
with the present specimens from the New 
Hebrides. The species is variable in general 
appearance and colour, but all the males 
examined have the same type of excision in the 
penultimate sternite whilst the male genitalia 
are identical. A. verhoeffi is closely similar to 
•I horvathi Burr from New Guinea, A. bifida 
Brindle from the Solomon Islands, and A. 



minutissima Brindle from the Western Caroline 
islands. The latter two species have a less 
excised male penultimate sternite, although in 
verhoeffi the pointed lobes tend to curl dorsally 
and may seem blunt at first sight. The males of 
A. horvathi and A. bifida have lateral longi- 
tudinal ridges on abdominal tergites 7-9, 
whilst both A. minutissima and A. verhoeffi have 
similar ridges on abdominal tergites 6-9, the 
ridges on both tergitcs 6 and 9 being short. 
A. minutissima is smaller in body length (6 mm) 
than verhoeffi (7-9 mm) and the puncturation 
and pubescence of the tergites of the latter 
species are much more sparse than in the former. 
The male genitalia of these four species are 
similar in structure and differ only in minor 
details. 

Location of type: 

6 in Berlin museum. 

Material examined: 

ESPIRITU SANTO. From litter, flat terrace, 
E bank Apuna River Campsite No. 2, 
10 km SSW of Malau village. Big Bay area, 
27.VI1I.1971, 16,2 larvae, J. C. Buckerikld; 
terrace of Apuna River, 15* 13' S, 166 50' 
E, lowland rainforest, Coll. No. NH 49, 
13.IX.1971, 19,1 larva, K, E, Lee (SAM). 

MAEWO: Above Nasaua, 180 -f m, 
44X.1958, li, B, Malkin (BISHOP). 



AOBA: Dunduy, 6/8.IX.1958, 2 6 , B. 
Malkin (BISHOP). 

MALEKULA: SW Malekula, 16 28' S, 
167° 27' E, mesophyll rainforest, Coll. No, 
NH 68, ll.X.1971, 19, 3 larvae, K. E. Lee; 
SW Bay, 16 ; 29' S, 167 26' E, disturbed forest 
grazed by cattle, Coll. No. NH 63, 2 9.1 larva, 
K. E, Lee; SW Malekula, 16^ 28' S, 167 27' E, 
Meso-noto vine forest, NH 67, 1 1 .X.I 97 1, 1 9 , 
2 larvae. K. E. Lee; SW Malekula. 16- 29' S, 
167 27' E. cocoa plantations with some coco- 
nuts, Coll. No. NH 69, I3.X.197L U . 1 larva, 
K. E, Lee, (SAM). 

EFATE: From litter, terrace surface in ridge, 
400 m, down ridge from Narabut Camp site. 
2.V1I.1971, 1 larva. .1. C. Buckcrtield; SE Efate, 

17 45' S, 1 68 24' E, coastal forest on recently 
raised bench, NH 19, 13.VII.I971, I larva. 
K. E. Lee. (SAM). 

ERROMANGA: From Ftindanus epiphytes, 
2 km NNE of Nuankau River bridge on 
secondary milling road, 10 km WSW of Tpotak, 
4 VIII 1971, 19, K. E. Lee; S. Erromanga, 

18 53' S, 169° 12' E. Agatlus-Calophyllum 



THE DERMAPTERA OF THE NEW HEBRIDES 



225 




I 



Figs. 1-4, Anisolabis verhoeffi Zacher — 1. male — 2, male genitalia — 3, male parameres — 4, male penultimate 
sternite. Fig. 5, Brachylabis cantata, sp.n., female. (DL=distal lobe; P=paramere; PE=penis; V=virga). 



226 



RLC. S. AUST- MI'S.. 17 1 13): 221-238 



November. 1976 



high canopy rainforest. Coll. No. NH 33, Coll. 
No. NH 34, 4S, 29. 4 larvae. K. E. Lee; 
S. Erromanga. 18 54' S. 169 ] I' E, Agathis 
forest. Coll. No. NH 35, 7.VUI.1971. 2 larvae, 
K. E. Lee (SAM). 

ANEFTYUM: SW Aneityum, 20 15' S. 
169 46' E, live-induced grassland, imperata 
dominant. Coll. No. NH 27. 23.VII.197I. I very 
small larva, K. E. Lee (SAM). 

The last recorded specimen has not been 
definitely named as this species but is thought 
to belong here, and the two larvae in the last 
record for Erromanga may not belong to this 
species although they appear to be Carcino- 
phorine, One of these larvae has been removed 
and dried and appears to differ from the rest in 
the degree of puncturation and sculpture of the 
cuticle. These specimens are provisionally 
assigned to this species. 

BRACHYLABLINAE 

This subfamily is characterised by the long 
first antennal segment, the fusiform abdomen 
and by the relatively long legs; the cuticle may 
be shining, often punctured, sometimes very 
wrongly so, or may be rugose and dull, often 
strongly pubescent; the forceps of both sexes 
arc often similar, almost always cylindrical and 
relatively slender. 

No representative of this subfamily has pre- 
viously been recorded from the New Hebrides, 
but a jingle female specimen is in the present 
material and is placed in the genus Brachylabis 
Dohm. 

Hrathylabis cordata sp.n. 
Fig. 5 

Black, posterior parts of tergites of abdomen 
with a reddish tint; lateral margins of pronotum 
yellow; antennae blackish, segment 10 (last in 
type) somewhat paler; legs yellowish-brown, 
femora vaguely darkened; forceps dark red. 
Cuticle rugose, rather shining, with rather sparse, 
relatively long but line yellow hairs, more con- 
spicuous laterally on abdomen. 

Female (Fig- 5): Head transverse, almost 
cordiform in shape; eyes small. Antennae 10- 
segmented in type, first segment long, second 
transverse, third segment four times as long as 
broad, evenly widened distally, fourth segment 
one and half times as long as broad, tilth 
segment one and three-quarters as long as broad, 
sixth twice as long as broad; distal segments 
shorter and relatively wider than basal segments. 
Pronotum strongly transverse, slightly widened 
posteriorly, margins more or less straight; an 
impressed smooth line occurs medially on 



anterior half, with .short similar lines on each 
side. Mesonotum broad, with a broad lateral 
fold at base but without lateral longitudinal 
ridges. Only two First legs and right median 
leg present in type. 

Abdomen fusiform, scarcely depressed, last 
tergitc small; each branch of forceps very short, 
cylindrical, wider at base, apex slender and 
curved. 

Length of body 1 mm, forceps I mm. 

Remarks: The description of a species on a 
single female is usually not desirable in the 
Dermaptera.. where the taxonomy is so largely 
based on the male genitalia. In the Brachy- 
labiinae. however, the sexes are almost always 
similar, although the male forceps may be more 
strongly curved than those of the female, so 
that the male can be recognised from the des- 
cription of a female. The external taxonomic 
characters are usually good in this subfamily, 
unlike those in the Carcinophorinae, where 
isolated females cannot be identified with any 
certainty. The structure of the male genitalia 
is still necessary to place the species without 
doubt in a genus, but at present the present 
author has been placing all new species in the 
genus Brachylabis: pending a revision of the 
World species of the subfamily. 

B. cordata, however, is so closely similar in 
external characters to Brachylabis greenshuiei 
Brindlc from the Solomon Islands and Micro- 
nesia, and to Brachylabis yaloma Ramamurthi 
from New Britain, that it seems possible that all 
are congeneric. There are sufficient external 
differences to separate these three species, so it 
has been thought desirable to name the species 
and describe it as new. These three- species 
may be separated as follows- — 

1. Pronolum lunger than broad; body length 8-5 mm. 

New Britain yuloimi Ramamurthi 

Pronotum transverse ... 2 

2. Pronolum less strongly transverse, ratio o) length to 

Width 11:9. Antennae dark brown with two or more 
distal segments white, ratio of segment* 4, 5 r 6 - 
1:1 -25:1 '5. Smaller species, body length 5-6 5 mm 

f>rcen.<iliuli'i Brindlc 

Pronolum more strongly transverse, ratio of length to 

width 12-5:9. Antennae blackish, ulmosl unicolorous, 

ratio of xeements 4, 5, 6 — 1 5:1 -75:2. Larger 

species, body length 7 mm lordnhi 80 q 

Location of type: 

Holotype ? , ESP1R1TU SANTO: Nokovula. 
ML Tabwemasana track, ) 325 m, 15 : 22' S, 
166 44' E. Coll. No. NH 47. ex. litter. 
4.1X.1971. K. E. Lee (SAM) 

Material examined: The type only. 



THE DERMAPTERA OF THE NEW HEBRIDES 



227 



LABIIDAE 

A large family, mainly of small species, and 
characterised by the simple second tarsal segment 
and by the male genitalia having a single distal 
lobe and virga. Represented in all faunal 
Regions. Four subfamilies are represented in 
the New Hebrides, with ten species, four being 
endemic, and of these three are described as new 
species. 

NESOGASTRINAE 

This subfamily includes the single Indo- 
Australian genus Nesogaster Verhoeff, which is 
distinctive since it is the only Indo-Australian 
genus in which the elytra have lateral longi- 
tudinal ridges and in which the cuticle is brightly 
shining and more or less glabrous. The only 
other Old World genera of the Labiidae in 
which lateral longitudinal ridges are present 
on the elytra are Physogaster Ramamurthi and 
Parapericomus Ramamurthi (Physogastrinae) 
but in these genera the body and forceps have 
long stiff hairs. 

Key to Species 
1. Larger, body length 6-8 mm; more uniformly coloured 
species; male pygidium blunt at tip or with a short 
narrower tip (Fig. 6); branches of female forceps 
relatively shorter and broader, dorso-median ridge 
(DR) at base forming two tubercles (Fig. 7) 

bakeri Hincks 
Smaller, body length 4-6 mm; usually more contrastingly 
coloured species; male pygidium with a short wide 
base, distal part slender, narrowed distally (Fig. 11); 
branches of female forceps relatively longer and 
narrower, dorso-median ridge (DR) at base entire 
(Fig. 12) aplcalis Hincks 

Nesogaster apicalis Hincks 

Fig. 12 

Nesogaster apicalis Hincks, 1951, Ann. Mag. 

not. Hist. (12) 4: 568 (Malekula, Espiritu 

Santo, Banks Is., Papua). 
Nesogaster apicalis Hincks: Hincks, 1952, Ann. 

Mag. nat. Hist. (12) 5: 201. 
Nesogaster apicalis Hincks: Brindle, 1971, 

Entomologist's mon. mag. 107: 120. 
Nesogaster aculeatus (Bormans): Hincks, 1947, 

Entomologist's mon. mag. 83: 66 ( 4 , 9 , 

Espiritu Santo). 

Brown to dark reddish-brown, head reddish, 
antennae and legs yellow; last abdominal seg- 
ment often reddish-brown or reddish-yellow, 
forceps reddish-yellow, sometimes partially 
darkened medially. Cuticle brightly shining, 
impunctate or almost so. 

Head transverse, eyes small, antennal segments 
strongly moniliform; pronotum transverse, more 



or less rectangular; elytra short, wings absent or 
concealed. Each branch of male forceps long, 
rather broad, inner margin flattened at base 
and with small denticulations, and with a double- 
toothed projection beyond midpoint, distal part 
of branch cylindrical and curved; pygidium wide 
at base, thence sharply narrowed and long (Fig. 
11). Each branch of female forceps shorter and 
broader, inner margin with a dorso-median 
longitudinal ridge at base (Fig. 12, DR), distal 
part of branch with a ventral serrated flange, 
apex slender and curved (Fig. 12). 

Length of body 4-6 mm, forceps 2-5 mm 
(males), 1-75 mm (females). 

World distribution: New Guinea; New 
Britain; Solomon Islands; and New Hebrides. 

Remarks: The description and length given 
above refer to the present specimens which are 
rather small and more brightly coloured. Speci- 
mens from other areas may be less contrastingly 
coloured and larger. 

Location of types: 

Holotype 4 and paratypes in British Museum, 
paratypes in Manchester Museum. 

Material examined: BANKS IS.: Vanua Lava, 
Sola, 5/11 .VIII. 1958, 1 <5 , 2 larvae, B. Malkin 
(BISHOP). ESPIRITU SANTO: Luganville, 
23/28.VII. 1958, 2 4 , 5 9, 19 larvae, B. Malkin; 
Narango, 90m, June, 1960, 1 9 , W. W. Brandt 
(BISHOP). 

Nesogaster bakeri Hincks 
Figs. 6, 7 
Nesogaster bakeri Hincks, 1947, Entomologist's 
mon. mag. 83: 66 (Espiritu Santo). 

Nesogaster bakeri Hincks; Hincks, 1951, Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 4: 572. 

Nesogaster bakeri Hincks; Hincks, 1952, Ann. 
Mag. nat. Hist. (12) 5: 200 (Malekula, 
Espiritu Santo, Aneityum). 

Dark reddish-brown, head reddish to reddish- 
brown, legs yellowish-brown, femora vaguely 
darkened; forceps and pygidium yellowish-brown 
or with a reddish tint. Cuticle brightly shining, 
abdominal tergites 4-9 of male or 4-7 of femafe 
punctured, middle tergites more strongly 
punctured than others, last tergite irregularly 
punctured. 

Similar in structure to apicalis, but larger, 
more robust, and more uniformly coloured 
Each branch of male forceps long and broad, 
with an inner tooth, basal part of branch with 
a flattened inner surface on which are small 



228 



REC. S. AUST. MUS.. 17 (13): 221-238 



November, 1*>76 



denticulations or erenulations; pygidium large, 
long, somewhat variable in shape but usually 
broad for most of length and narrower only 
near apex (Fig. 6). Each branch of female 
forceps short and broad, excavated at base and 
with a dorso-median inner ridge forming two 
tuberculatc-like projections (DR), distal part of 
branch with a ventral inner serrated flange, apex 
slender and incurved ( Fig. 7 ) . 

Length of body 6-8 mm, forceps 3-5 mm 
(males)., 2-2-5 mm (females). 

World distribution: New Hebrides, endemic. 

Location of type, 

Holotype s in Hope Department of Ento- 
mology. Oxford, England. 

Material examined: 

ESPtRITU SANTO: From logs and epiphytes 
on crest of main ridge leading SE from Nokovula 
to summit of Mt. Tabwemasana, 25 km SSW 
Malau village. Big Bay area. 4 JX.l 971, I 3, 
K. E. Lee; Nokovula, 1 132 m. f 5. IX. 1971, 
2 9 , G. F. Gross; Nokovula, village, camp 4, 
23 km SSW Malau village, Big Bay, 5.IX.197I, 
1 9, J. C. Buckerficld; Nokovula village, camp 
4, 1 128 m, 10.IX.1971. 17 (abdomen missing), 
G. F. Gross (SAM), Namatasopa. 300 m, 
28.VIII.1957. 19,2 larvae, J. L. Gressitt; above 
Namatasopa, 400 m, 30.VIII.I957, 3 9,2 larvae, 
J. L. Gressitt; below Namatasopa, 250 m. 
1 .IX. 1 957. 1 larva. J, L. Gressitt (BISHOP). 

MAEVO: Above Nasua, 180+ m, 4.1X.1958. 
4i \ 10*, 1 larva, B. Malkin (BISHOP). 

AOBA: Dundy, 6/9.IX.1958, 4 9 . B. Malkin 
(BISHOP). 

PENTECOST: 200-500 m, 27.11.1964. 19, 
R, Straatman (BISHOP). 

MALEKULA: From rotten logs, gentle slope 
on broad ridge. 8 km NNW of summit of Mt. 
Yang'abah', 45 km E of Tisvel village, 1.X.1971, 
\i, K. E, Lee (SAM); Amok, 17.1X.I958, 

1 •. I 9, B. Malkin (BISHOP). 

EFATE: Terrace surface on ridge, camp site. 
Nat-abut. 1. VII. 197 1. 2 6 , J. C. Buckerlield;from 
rotteH logs, 500 m. NE Narabut camp site. 
7 .VII 1971. 1 larva. K. E. Lee; from rotten 
logs, terrace surface on ridge, 400 m. down 
ridge from Narabut camp site. 2.VII.1971. 

2 larvae. J C. Bucket-field (SAM); limestone 
plateau, N of Maat, 100 m, 20.VIII.l957. B^ . 
19,2 larvae, J. L Gressitt (BISHOP). 



SPARATTINAE 
Mainly Neotropical in distribution, and only 
represented in the Old World by a single genus, 
Auchenomus Karsch, which is distinctive by the 
strongly flattened head and body. The single 
species represented in the present material is 
new. 

Auchenomus insularis sp.n. 
Figs. 27, 28 
Reddish-yellow to pale teddish-brown, elytra 
and wings somewhat darker; antennae pale 
yellow; legs dark yellow. Cuticle slightly 
shining, punctured and pubescent, hairs mainly 
short and yellow, more conspicuous laterally; 
abdominal tcrgites with longer hairs and with 
longer marginal setae. 

Male (Fig. 28): Head broad, flat posterior 
margin concave; eyes small. First antennal 
segment about as long as distance between the 
antennal bases, second segment transverse, third 
segment three times as long as broad, fourth 
two and half times as broad as long, fifth 
longer than third, basal segments more or less 
cylindrical; distal segments shorter, twelfth (last 
in holotype) shorter than fourth, and more 
moniliform than basal segments. Pronotum as 
broad as long, narrowed posteriorly, lateral 
margins straight, posterior margin convex. Elytra 
and wings fully developed; legs relatively short, 
femora broad. 

Abdomen mainly parallel-sided, narrowed 
towards base, flat; last tergite transverse, pro- 
duced and raised above the base of each branch 
of the forceps, median part depressed. Each 
branch of forceps broad at base, with a dorso- 
median rounded tubercle, and with a ventro- 
median tooth beyond, last quarter of branch 
sharply curved medially (Fig. 28). 

Female: Similar to male, branches ot forceps 
shorter and broader, with a narrow ventral inner 
flange, evenly narrowed to distal third where 
each branch is more strongly narrowed forming 
a curved apex (Fig. 27), 

Length of body 7-8 mm, forceps 2-5 mm 
(male). 2 mm (females) 

Remarks: This species is distinctive by the 
shape of the forceps of both sexes. Those of the 
male are sharply curved distally, and in this 
resemble those of some of the Neotropical 
species of Sparatta, whilst those of the female 
are unusual in having the inner margin of each 
branch almost smooth, not dentatcd as in most 
species of the genus which occur in the Pacific 
and Australasian Region. 



THE DERMAPItrRA OF THE NHW HEBRIDFS 



229 



Location of types: 

Holotype <f, ESPIRITU SANTO: SW 
above Namatasopa, 400 m, 30.VIII.1957, 
L. G. Grcssitt. Paratypes, same data, 4 9 , 
(including allotype) (BISHOP, except 1 9 para- 
typc in British Museum (Natural History) and 
in Manchester). 

Material examined: The types and two further 
specimens, without posterior abdominal seg- 
ments, same data. 

LABUNAE 

Three genera of this subfamily are now 
recorded from the New Hebrides, with a total of 
five species, one of which is new. 

Key lo sensed arid species 

I, Branches of forceps of both sexes not strongly setulose. 
those of the males without n ventral inner flange, 
and those of the females narrowed from base to apex, 
with inner margin at most weakly dentated or 

crenulated 2 

Branches of forceps of both sexes strongly setnlose, 
those of the males with or without a ventral inner 
flange, and those of the females not narrowed from 
base to apex, and inner margin with at least a 
ventral inner flange, the margins of which arc strongly 
dentated or crcnulated ..,.., 3 

2 Pronotum almost us wide as head and transverse; a 
broad, shorter, less depressed species with more 
slender brunches of the forceps 

Lubki birnlnirulaki Brjndie 

Pronotum small, narrower than head, and quadrate or 

alrnosl so; a more narrower, elongated, and strongly 

depressed species with broad short branches of the 

forceps .. .. .. . Labia (wnicoi/f/n (Motschulsky ) 

5. Latgcr species, body length tfl mm or more, antennal 
segments more or less cylindrical; elytra glabrous and 
irnpunctate . .. Upllingoicthls hawaiiensis (Bormans) 
Smaller species, body length 8 mm or less; antennal seg- 
ments moniliform; elytra punctured and pubescent 4 

4. Smaller species, body length h mm or less, each branch 
of male forceps with one very large toolh on inner 
margin, pygidium large (Fig. 15): each branch of 
female forceps less strongly dentated, venlral inner 
margin differing strongly in dentation from dorsal 
inner margin (Fig. In) ClmrtoUihia Stoneri (Caudell) 
Larger species, body length 7-8 mm: each branch of 
male folccps with two relatively large and one very 
small teeth on inner margin, pygidium small I Fig. 13), 
each branch of female i'onxpx more strongly dentated. 
ventral inner margin more similar in dentation to 
dorsal margin (Fig. 14) Clittetoltihin lUntulo sp.n. 

Chaetolabia stoneri (Caudell) comb. nov. 

Figs. 8, 15. 16 

Labia stoneri Caudell, 1927, Vniv, fowa Studies 
12 (3): 5 (Fiji), 

Yellowish to reddish-brown, elytra and 
wings somewhat darker; antennae brown; legs 
yellowish-brown; forceps and pygidium reddish- 
yellow. Cuticle of head irnpunctate and glabrous. 



that of pronotum irnpunctate but with sparse 
short yellow hairs of elytra and wings punctured 
and pubescent; abdominal tergites pubescent and 
with long marginal setae. 

A small and slender species (Fig. 8); elytra 
and wings fully developed, or with elytra shorter 
and only tips of wings protruding. Each branch 
of male forceps curved, with a large ventral inner 
tooth, pygidium almost pentagonal ventrally with 
a concave posterior margin, dorsal part of 
pygidium rounded (Fig. 15); each branch of 
female forceps straight, ventral inner margin 
dentated basally, dorsal inner margin scarcely 
dentated basally but dentated prominently from 
near midpoint, pygidium broad, ventral surface 
concave posteriorly, dorsal surface rounded; a 
small tubercle occurs medially near the posterior 
margin of the last tergitc (Fig. 16). 

Length of body 4-5-6 mm, forceps I • 25- 
1 "5 mm. 

World distribution: Fiji and New Hebrides. 

Remarks: The original description and figure 
of the male forceps are excellent and the struc- 
ture of the forceps and pygidium is characteristic. 

Location of types: 

Holotype a , allotype ? , 1 paratype, I para- 
type 9 in the United States National Museum. 

Material examined: ERROMANGA: Ex light 
trap, Nuankau river, 5/7. Vlll, 1971. U. 19, 
(fully winged). G. Robinson; under bark of log, 
500 m SW of Nuankau river bridge, 10 km WSW 
of Ipotak, 7.VIII.1971, I 9, (short elytra and 
wings), J. C. Buckerheld (SAM). 

Chaetolabia dentata sp.n, 
Figs. 13, 14 
Labia canaca Burr, 1908 (not Burr, 1903). 
Hull. Mas. nam. Hist. not. Paris 1908: 32 
(New Hebrides). 

Reddish-brown; antennae yellowish to brown; 
legs yellow; forceps yellowish-brown. Cuticle 
of head and pronotum smooth, irnpunctate and 
glabrous, elytra and wings punctured and pubes- 
cent, hairs sparse and short, yellowish; abdominal 
tergites punctured and pubescent, more strongly 
on tergites 6-7; marginal setae present on most 
tergites; forceps with shorter hairs and long 
setae. Cuticle rather shining. 

Male: Head tumid, cordiform, transverse, eyes 
small. First antennal segment rather shorter 
than the distance between the antennal bases, 
second segment transverse, third two and half 
limes as long as broad, fourth equal to third m 



230 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (13): 221-238 



November, 1976 




Figs. 6-7, Nesogaster bakeri Hincks — 6, male — 7, female forceps. 
Fig. 8, Chaetolabia snmeri (Cuuclell). Fiiis. 9-10, Marava feae (Bormans)— 9, male, New Hebrides— 10, male 

forceps, Australia. (DR=dorsal ridge). 



THE DERM API ERA OF THE NEW HEBRIDES 



231 



length, fifth three times as long as broad; distal 
segments as long as fifth, each segment narrowed 
to base, all segments pubescent, Pronotum 
slightly longer than broad, strongly widened 
posteriorly, lateral margins straight, posterior 
margin convex. Elytra and wings fully developed 
or short. 

Abdomen relatively long, somewhat depressed, 
lateral tubercles on third and fourth tergites 
very small. Each branch of forceps weakly 
curved with one tuberculate median tooth on 
inner margin near base and a second small 
median tooth towards apex; a very small ventral 
tooth occurs distal to basal tooth; pygidium 
small, narrowed posteriorly (Fig. 13), 

Female: Similar to male, but last tergite with 
a median tubercle near posterior margin; each 
branch of forceps straight except at apex, broad, 
apex curved, ventral and dorsal inner margins 
with similar dentation, consisting of one larger 
tooth about one third from apex, followed by 
three smaller teeth beyond midpoint (ventral 
margin with only two), a distal tooth occurs 
only on the ventral margin; pygidium short and 
broad (Fig. 14). 

Length of body 7-8 mm, forceps 2-75 mm 
I male ) , I • 5 mm ( females ) . 

Remarks: In addition the female specimen 
from the New Hebrides, without exact locality, 
recorded by Burr ( 1908) as tabid canaca Burr, 
is in the British Museum (Natural History) and 
proves to be a female of the present species, 
and is hereby designated as a paratype. The 
locality label reads "N. Hebrides francais" whilst 
a second label reads "Labia canaca Burr 9 ", 
Labia canaca is restricted to New Caledonia. 

The specimen from Aueityum is the only 
specimen in which the elytra and wings are 
fully developed: it has been named by the shape 
of the pronotum and other details of the anterior 
part of the insect which are adecpiate lor the 
known New Hebrides fauna, but it is possible 
that there is another species in the New Hebrides, 
and without the forceps it is not possible to be 
entirely certain about its identity. The pronotum 
is rather more transverse in this specimen than 
in the others. 

There, are three known species of Chaetolabia 
from other areas in the Western Pacific, but none 
are yet known from the Australasian Region, 
These three species, together with the two 
now recorded from the New Hebrides may be 
separated as follows: — 

l. Each hranch of the male (creeps wjlh ;i very large 
inner tooth (Fiji. 15); each branch of the female 



forceps wi(h the inner dorsal edge scarcely dentated 
at base and merging with the veulral inner edge 

beyond midpoint i Fit'. 16 1 stmu-ri (talldcll) 

Branches of male forceps with small inner teeth or a 
tooth; dorsal inner edge of female forceps denuded 
front base .> 

2. Pronolum parallel-sided: mate pygidium narrowed lu 

apex: female pygidium broad, short, narrowed di.stally. 

apex concave. Micronesia ( Patau ) . ipicakt KriitJIc 

Pionolurn widened posteriorly 3 

3. Male pygidium shori, partly hidden by basal innei teeth 

of forceps (Fig. 13); inner margin ol each branch 
of female forceps irregularly deniared, with teeth of 
varying si^es (Fig. 14) .... ( lein,ihi sp.n. 
Male pygidium large, or lung, not hidden by mnei leeth; 
inner margin or each branch of female forceps 
rejuilarly denlatcd with small teeth of almost etaial 
size ; . 1 1 4 

4 Male pygidium large, as long as bioad, narrower at base 
but widened distally with margin curved, and apes 
deeply concave; last tergite of female Willi n small 
median dorso-postcrior projection. Micronesia 1 Ponapc; 

Kusnie) . ., 1 ,, . , c,\,:Lii (Menozztl 

Male pygidium long, narrow, almost parallel-sided, apes 
concave; last tergile ol female with a larger median 
dorso-posferior projection. Micronesia ( Ponapc; Ttuk ) 

iippt'iulkina ( VI enoz.it ) 

Labia canaca Burr from New Caledonia has 
a male pygidium similar to that of esvlii. but (he 
pygidium of canaca is not narrowed at base and 
is more deeply excised posteriorly; the female of 
canaca has the inner margin of each branch of 
the forceps irregularly donated as m deniata. but 
the pygidium is not short and broad hut longer 
than broad and ending in two irregular posterioi 
projections, the projections separated by a median 
concavity. 

Location of types: 

Holotype •: . AOBA: Dunduy, 6/ 8. IX. 1958, 
B. Malkin; allotype 9 , same data; both in the 
Bishop Museum. 

ERROMANGA: 1 9 paratype, Nuankau river 
camp, 7.VIII.1971, G. F. Gross in the South 
Australian Museum. 

Material exam ined: 

The types and ANEITYGM: Red Crest, 
1 200ft., 3 m NE of Anelcauhat, IIT.1955, 1? 
(end of abdomen missing), L, E. Cheesman 
(BRIT. MUS.). 

Labia curvicauda (Motschulsky) 

Figs, 22, 23 

Forficesila curvicauda Motschulsky, 1863. Bull. 

Sac. not, Moscou 36: 2 (Ceylon). 
Labia curvmiuda (Motschulsky); Hincks. 1952. 
Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. ( 12) 5: 201 (Espiritu 
Santo: Malekula; Erromanga). 

Blackish, abdomen reddish, legs yellow with 
femora partially darkened, antennae yellow or 
brown pronotum sometimes yellow. 



232 



REC, S. AUST. MUS., 17 (13): 221-238 



November, 1976 






II 



13 



15 




12 




17 





16 




19 



Figs, 
male 



11-19 forceps— 11, 12, Nesogaster apicalis Hincks, male and female— 13-14, Chaetolabm dentata spn. 
and female— 15-16, Chaetolabm stoned (Caudell), male and female— 17, Labk, bituberculata Bnndle, 
male 18-19, Sphingolabis hawaiiensis (Bormans), male and female. (DR — dorsal ridge). 



THE DERMAPTERA OF THE NEW HEBRIDES 



233 



A small depressed species usually recognisable 
by the relatively small pronotum, which is 
parallel-sided, and the short broad branches of 
the forceps. Elytra and wings fully developed, 
legs short. Each branch of male forceps curved, 
with a basal wider part, pygidium broad (Fig. 
22), Each branch of female forceps broad, 
more or less straight, and narrowed distally 
(Fig. 23). 

Length of body 4-5 mm, forceps 0-75- 
1-25 mm, 

World distribution; Cosmopolitan, in all faunal 
Regions, but mainly adventive in temperate 
countries. 

Location of types: 

Believed lost. 

Material examined; 

ESP1R1TU SANTO: Luganville. 20. VII. J 958, 
1?, B. Malkin (BISHOP). 

AOBA; Dunduy, 6/8.IX.1958, 1 $ ,B. Malkin 
(BISHOP). 

Labia bituberculata Brindle 

Fig. 17 

Labia bituberculata Brindle, 1970, Pacific Insects 
12 (3): 675 (Solomon Islands). 

Reddish-brown to blackish; cuticle punctured 
and pubescent. A short broad species, very 
similar to Labia pilicornis (Motschulsky) in the 
dark form, but distinguished by the structure of 
the male pygidium, which is smaller than that 
of pilicornis, the latter having a larger triangular 
pygidium. Elytra and wings normally developed. 
Each branch of male forceps simple, evenly and 
weakly curved (Fig 17); each branch of female 
forceps similar to those of curvicauda (Fig, 23). 
but much more slender. 

Length of body 4-5 mm, f creeps 1-1-25 mm. 

World distribution: Solomon Islands (San 
Cristobal) and New Hebrides. 

Location of types 

Holotype & . allotype 9 in the British 
Museum, 

Material examined: 

ESPIR1TU SANTO: At light. Apuna river 
camp 2. 146 m, 30.V1II.I971, 1 9, G. F. Gross 

(SAM). 

ERROMANGA: 18 53' S, 169 12' E, 

Agathis-Calophvllum high canopy rainforest. 
Nil 33. 3.V1IM971. 1 i , K. E, Lee (SAM). 

The above specimens are blackish and much 
darker than the original material. 



Sphingolabis hawaiiensis (Bormans) 

Figs. 18, 19 

Forficula hawaiiensis Bormans, 1882, Ann. Mus. 
civ. Star. nat. Giacoma Doria 18: 341 
(Hawaii). 

Sphingolabis hawaiiensis (Bormans); Hincks, 
1947, Entomologist's mon. mag. 83: 67 
(Banks Is.; Espiritu Santo; Elephant Is. ?), 

Very dark reddish or purplish brown, base of 
wings yellow. Cuticle of head and pronotum 
more or less impunctate and glabrous, elytra 
and wings pubescent, hairs sparse and rather 
long, yellow; abdominal tergites punctured and 
pubescent, hairs short and yellow, but with long 
yellow setae in addition; forceps with long golden 
setae (Figs. 18, 19). 

Length of body 10-13 mm, forceps 5-6 mm 
(males) 3-5-4 mm (females). 

World distribution: Lesser Sunda Islands east- 
wards to Hawaii, but somewhat sporadic, not in 
Micronesia; New Guinea and Solomon Islands. 

Location of types; 

(J, 9 , in Genoa Museum. 

Material examined: 

BANKS ISLAND: Vanua Lava. Sola, 
5/11.VIII.1958, !<$. B. Malkin (BISHOP). 

ESPIRITU SANTO: Apuna river, camp 2, 
146 m, 30.VII1.197 1-2. IX. 197 1,2 9, G.F. Gross 
(SAM); Namatasopa, 300 m, 29.V1I1.1957. 
1 <4 , 29, J. L. Gressitt; Namatasopa, 400 m. 
31.VII1.1957, light trap. 1 9 , J. L. Gressitt; 
Luganville, 23/28.VI1.1958. I 9, 1 larva, B. 
Malkin (BISHOP). 

MAEWO: Above Nasua, 1 80-(- m. 4.1X.1958. 
4 9,3 larvae. B. Malkin (BISHOP). 

AOBA: Dunduy, 6/ 8. IX. 1958, 1 larva, B. 
Malkin (BISHOP). 

MALEKULA: From rotten log, gentle slope 
on broad ridge, I km NNW of summit of Mt. 
Yang'abalo, 45 km E of Tisvel village, 1 .X. 197 1 , 
1 i , 7 larvae, K. E. Lee; Notophyll vine forest. 
16 17' S, 167- 26' E. NH 58, 1. X.I 971. 
3 larvae. K. E. Lee (SAM); Amok. 17, IX. 1958. 
1 ■<, 1 9. B. Malkin (BISHOP). 

EPI: Ringdove Bay, 21.VI1.I900, 14, 19. 
J. J. Walker (BRIT. MUS.). 



ERROMANGA: Vicinity of Ipotak. 
3.VIII.I97I. 1 9, G. F. Gross; Nuankau river 
camp, 7. VIII, 1971, I 9 . G. F. Gross (SAM) 

TANNA: No locality, V1I1.1900. I & , 1 V. 
J. J. Walker (BRIT. MUS.). 



234 



REC. S. AUST. MUS.. 17 (13): 221-238 



i\-orcmbci, 1976 



SPONGIPHORINAE 

Two species of this subfamily are now 
recorded from the New Hebrides, both in the 
genus Marava Burr. 

Key to species 

I. General colouration reddish-brown, or with head, pro- 
nolum. and elytra blackish; wings, when present broadly 
yellow at bases; forceps of mule with brunches evenly 
.ircuule. bases not broadened, each branch with one 
or two inner teeth (Fig. 21): forceps of female with 
a small imwr tooth near base of each branch (Fig. 20) 

Muntvti uiwliiilis (Yersin) 
Cftaanjl colouraliou blackish, wings usually present and 
whitish, blackish on external margins; pronotum 
broadly white laterally and posteriorly; abdomen oflen 
reddish medially or posteriorly and forceps usually 
pule at bases; forceps of male strongly curved, usually 
with :i wider part at base of each brunch (Fig. 10), 
sometimes without (Fig. 9); forceps of female without 
a small inner tootli at base Manuel frue (Bormuns) 

Marava araehidis (Yersin) 
Figs. 20. 21 

Forficula araehidis Yersin, 1860, Ann. Soc. ent. 

Fiance 8 (3): 509 (Marseilles, France, 

introduced). 
Prolabia araehidis (Yersin). Hincks, 1952. Ann. 

Mag. nat. Hist. (12) 5: 201 (Erromanga). 
Marava wallacei (Dohrn): Hincks, 1952, Ann. 

Mag. nat. Hist. (12) 5: 202 (Malekula). 
Marava araehidis (Yersin). Hincks. 1954. Proe, 

R ent. Soc. Land. (B) 23: 162, 

Variable in colour and in development of 
elytra and wings, together with size of eyes. 
Two forms are concerned in the records from the 
New Hebrides. 

(1) Elytra and wings normally developed; 
blackish to dark reddish-brown, elytra usually 
paler, wings partially yellow, legs mainly dark, 
tarsi yellow (Fig. 21). Eyes usually large. 

(2) Elytra short, wings absent or concealed: 
reddish to yellowish-brown, legs yellow, abdomen 
reddish often darkened laterally ( Fig. 20 ) . Eyes 
smaller. 

Each branch of male forceps weakly curved, 
with two inner teeth (Fig. 21 ) or with one tooth 
absent; pygidium basically pentagonal (Fig. 21 ), 
but somewhat variable. Each branch of female 
forceps shorter, branches more or less contiguous 
(Fig. 20). 

Length of body 5-9 mm, forceps I -5-2-75 mm 
(males), 0-75-1-25 mm (females). 

World distribution: Cosmopolitan, in all faunal 
Regions, often as an adventive; form 1 is more 
typical of the Oriental and Australasian Regions. 



whilst form 2 appears to dominate in the Neo- 
tropical and Ethiopian Regions and in the Pacific. 

Location of types: 

i , 9 in the Paris Museum. 

Material examined: 

ESPIRITU SANTO: Malau village. Big Bay 
area. 22.V1II.1971, I 9 (form 2). G. F. Gross 
(SAM). 

MALEKULA; Ounua. IU/IV.1929. Id 
(form 1). L. E. Cheesman (BRIT. MUS.) 
(specimen recorded in Hincks, 1952). 

Marava feae (Dubrony) 
Figs. 9, 10 
Labia (eac Dubrony, 1879. Annati Mas. civ, 
Stor. nat. Giacoma Doria 14: 368 (New 
Guinea and Key Islands), 

Marava jeae (Dubrony); Hincks, 1952, Ann. 
Mag. nat. Hist. (12) 5: 201 (Espiritu 
Santo). 

Black, rather dull, pronotuni broadly whitish 
laterally and posteriorly, elylra usually uni- 
colorous but sometimes whitish laterally and 
along posterior margins: wings, when present, 
largely whitish; posterior abdominal tergites often 
more or less reddish, forceps black, base and 
sometimes apex, reddish or yellowish (Fig. 9). 
Elytra and wings usually fully developed but the 
elytra are short and the wings absent or concealed 
in the present specimens. Each branch of male 
forceps strongly curved, usually with a wider 
base (Fig. 10) but present specimens have simple- 
forceps (Fig. 9), pygidium broad, usually with 
two posterior teeth: forceps of female with 
simple, straight branches, more or less con- 
tiguous. 

Length of body 5-6 mm. forceps 1-1 -25 mm. 

World distribution: New Guinea eastwards to 
Caroline Islands and south to Australia, but 
present known distribution is sporadic. 

Locution of types: 

t, 8 in the Genoa Museum, 

Material examined: 

ESPIRITU SANTO: no exact locality. 
V1II-TX.1929, 1 S ; VIII. 1921, 1 9 , L. E. Chees- 
man (BRIT. MUS.). 

The above specimens are recorded in Hincks 
( 1952) and arc unusual in having no visible 
wings, in having the elytra broadly whitish 
posteriorly and laterally, and by the simple male 
forceps. 



THE DKRMAPTERA OF THE NEW HEBRIDES 



235 



•- ; ', V" •' 



vU- : 







BSj^-j 


;' \l- ' z '"'-*i 


Bff^s^'-* 




fpn:':'- 1 , ■ ..-* 






||§?8p 


£: - fMmi 




taJr"" -';-' 


; % 


Rv ■ v-.-r 








g^'/;:;,..~.^l «Vi"3 




Hf*r/: ■"""'*'* *-"'■■ 






m 



20 



22 




23 





21 



24 



Figs. 20-21, Manna arachiriis (Yersin)— 20. wingless form, female— 21, winged form. male. Figs. 22-24, 
forceps — 22-23, Labia ctmicaiula, male and female — 24, Hamaxas nigromfus (.Burr), male. 



236 



RF.C S, AUST. MUS., M (I?); 221-2"-.* 



h'ovcmher, 197ft 



CHELISOCH1DAE 

Mainly Oriental and Australasian in distri- 
bution. Two species are recorded from the New 
Hebrides, both in the genus Chelisoches Scudder. 

Key to species 

l.Pronoium parfillel-sided, longer than broad: black: head, 
pronotum. and elytra metallic bluish-gieen. shoulder-;. 
sutures, and wings violet 

Clu-lisoches clict:\nuiihic Hincks 

Pronotum as broad us long or nenrly so, more or less 

widened posteriorly: black generally, but sometimes 

elytra and wings metallic bluish or green or sometimes 

the whole insect is almost uniformly reddish-brown 

Chelisoches morin (Fabricius) 

Chelisoches morio (Fabric ins) 
Forficula morio Fabricius, 1775. Syst. Ent.: 270 

(Tahiti). 
Chelisoches morio (Fabricius): Hincks, 1938, 

J. Fed. Malay Slates Mus. 18: 313 (New 

Hebrides ) . 
Chelisoches morio (Fabricius), Hincks, 1947, 

Entomologist's mon. mag. 83: 67 (Espiritu 

Santo). 
Chelisoches morio (Fabricius); Rehn, 1948. 

Trans. Am. ent. Sac. 74: 162 (Et'ate; 

Erromanga; Tanna; Aneityum; Aniwa ?; 

Fortuna = Futuna). 
Chelisoches morio (Fabricius); Hincks, 1952, 

Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (12) 5: 202 ( Male- 

kula: Espiritu Santo; Efate; Mai). 

Black, rather shining, antennae black, one or 
more distal segments white; tarsi yellowish- 
brown. Sometimes with a bluish or greenish 
metallic sheen or sometimes almost uniformly 
reddish-brown. Similar in structure to chees- 
manae (Fig. 25). but with the pronotum relatively 
shorter and usually widened posteriorly. Male 
forceps variable in length and structure, one 
form similar to those of eheesmanae, or with the 
basal inner dentation extending down to and 
including the distal teeth or tooth. Forceps of 
female simple, but variable in length. 

Length of body 14-18 mm, forceps 4-7 mm. 

World distribution : Neatctic, Palaearctic, and 
Ethopian Regions as adventive; Oriental Region 
more commonly, and most common in Pacific 
and Papuan Regions. 

Location of types: 

& , 9 "ut the British and Kiel Museums. 

Material examined : 

BANKS ISLANDS: Vanua Lava, Sola. 
5/1 1.VI11. 1958, 26, 12.2 larvae, B. Malkin 
(BISHOP). 



ESPIRITU SANTO: Malau village. Big Bay 
area, 23.VI1I.I97I, IS, G. F. Gross; Malau 
village, 23.VI1I.1971, at light, 1 larva, 
G. F. Gross; Apuna river, camp 2, 146 m, 
26/28.VII1.1971, 2 larvae, G. Robinson; 
Apuna river, camp 2. in leaf bases of Pandanus. 
28/29.V1U.1971, 2 i, 1 2 . K. E. Lee and J. C. 
Buckerfield: Apuna river, camp 2. 10 km SSW 
of Malau village, Big Bay area, from litter and 
leaf bases of Pandunus, Hat terrace on E bank, 
27/29.VIII.1971, It, I 2, 2 larvae, K. E. Lee 
and J. C. Buckerfield: Apuna river, camp 2, 
4. IX. 1971. 29. G. F. Gross; Apuna river, 
camp 3. at light, 8. IX. 1971. 19,1 larva, G. F. 
Gross (SAM); Luganville, 23/28.V1I.1958, 
5 V , 1 larva, B. Malkin; Narango, 90 m, VI. 1 960. 
3<5, 29, 1 larva, W. W. Brandt; SW, above 
Namatasopa, 400 m, 30.V1II.I957, U, 12, 
J, L. Gressitt; Segond Channel, IX. 1942, 1 9, 
R. L, Dautt; no exact locality, VII1.1950, 1 9, 
N. L, H. Krauss; no exact locality, 13.1. 1921, 
!<?, F. P. Drowne (BISHOP). 

MAEWO: Above Nasaua, 150— 180 f- ni, 
4.1X.I958, IS, 69, 2 larvae, B. Malkin 
(BISHOP). 

AOBA: Dunduy, 6/8.IX.1958, 1 <$ . 39. 
1 larva. B. Malkin (BISHOP). 

MALEKULA: Leaf bases of Pandanus in 
gully, 3 km ENE of Tisvel village, 1.X.1971. 
2-tf, 12, 1 larva, K. E. Lee and J. C. Bucker- 
field; from logs, Hurrnamburr, low-lying swamp, 
500 m, E of head of Marine Lagoon, 4 km SSE 
of Wintua. SW Bay, 9. X. 1971, I <J , K. E. Lee 
(SAM); Amak, 1 000ft., 15/ 18. IX. 1958, sweep- 
ing. I<J,-B. Malkin; Tenmark, 14.IX.1958. 
1 larva, B. Malkin (BISHOP). 

EFATE: La Cascade, W of Vila, 13.VIL1971. 
19,1 larva, G. F. Gross; in secondary forest, 
de Gaillande estate. Tagabe, 15.V1I.1971. 

1 larva, G. F. Gross (SAM); Efate. 12.VI.1900. 
13, J. J. Walker (BRIT. MUS); NW, Maat 
(Mat Ambryn Vill.) 3 m. 5.VUI.1957, lo, 

2 2,3 larvae, J. L. Gressitt; NW, Limestone 
plateau, N of Maat, 100 m, 19/20.VIU.1957. 
5 5, 102.3 larvae, J. L. Gressitt; Vila. 0-50 m, 
11,1970, \i,\ larva. N, L. H. Krauss (BISHOP). 

ERROMANGA: Nuankau riveT camp, 
7/S.VII1.197I, 2 4, 19, G. F. Gross; from 
Pandanus beside secondary milling road, 500 in 
SW of Nuankau river bridge, 10 km WSW of 
Ipotak, 8. V III, 1971, 1 larva, J. C. Buckerfield 
(SAM); 11 km W of Ipotak, 100-200 m, 
11.1970, IV. N. L. H. Krauss (BISHOP). 



THE DERMAPTERA OF THE NEW HEBRIDES 



237 




Figs. 25-26, Chelisoches cheesmanae Hincks — 25, male — 26, male genitalia. 
Figs. 27-28, Auchenomus insutaris sp.n. — 27, female forceps — 28, male. (DL=distal lobe; P=paramere; PE=penis; 

V=virga). 



238 



REC. S. AUST, MUS., 17 (13): 221-238 



t'fovember, iy 76 



TANNA:Isokoai (Enpinan), 28.Vll.1971, at 
lighl, J $ , 1 9 . G. F. Gross and G. Robinson 
(SAM); Tunna Is., 1904, 1 3 , J. J. Walker 
(BRIT. MUS.). 

ANE1TYUM: Vicinity of Anelcauhat, 
20/21. VII. 197 1. 1 <S , 1 larva, G. V. Gross 
(SAM); Red Crest, I 200ft., 3 m NB of 
Anelcauhat, III.1955, 26, 3 2, 2 (abdomen 
missing), L. E. Cheesman; rain forest. 500- 
I 000ft., XI. 1954, U , L. E. Cheesman (BRIT. 
MUS.). 

Chelisoches cheesmanae HLncks 

Figs. 25, 26 

Chelisoches cheesmanae Hincks. 1952, Ann. 
Mag. nal. Hist. (12) 5: 703 (Banks Is., 
Vanua Lava), 

Similar in structure to morio, but rather more 
robust (Fig. 25 ); separable mainly by the colour- 
ation, and by the shape of the pronotum, of 
which the latter character is the more satis- 
factory. The forceps are robust but are similar 
to some forms of morio in shape. The genitalia 
of cheesmanae (Fig. 26) are similar to those of 
morio but the parameres are more slender and 
the two sclerites associated with the base of the 
virga are unequal in size whilst those of morio 
examined are usually subequal in size. The 
differences, however, are small. 

Length of body 13 mm, forceps 5 mm. 

World distribution: New Hebrides, endemic. 

Remarks: No other specimen has been 
recorded and the type remains unique. 

Location of type: 

Holotype & in the British Museum. 

Hamaxas nigrorufus (Burr) 

Fig. 24 

Spongiphora nigrorufa Burr, 1902, Term. Fuzet. 

25: 480 (New Guinea). 
Hamaxas papuanus Burr, 1909, Nova Guinea 

9» 23. 
Spongovostox nigrorufus (Burr); Burr, 1911, 

Genera Insectorum 122: 52. 
Hamaxas nigrorufus (Burr); Burr. 1916, /. R. 

Micr. Soc. 1916; 10. 



Blackish in colour, legs dark red to blackish, 
sometimes yellow; abdomen and forceps dark 
red or with abdomen darkened. A rather 
depressed species. Elytra and wings punctured 
and pubescent, always fully developed. Each 
branch of male forceps arcuate, with one inner 
tooth, pygidium short with posterior margin 
concave and postero-lateral angles produced 
(Fig. 24). Branches of female forceps shorter, 
wider near base, narrowed distally and more or 
less straight and contiguous, pygidium angular. 

Length of body 7-9 mm, forceps 3-4-5 mm 
(males), 1 -5-2-5 mm (females). 

World distribution: From Celebes eastwards 
to New Guinea and Solomon Islands, and extend- 
ing across the Pacific to Hawaii. 

Location of type: 

6 , 9 in the Hungarian National Museum. 

Material examined: 

ESP1RITU SANTO: Apuna river camp, 
1. IX. 1971, 1 9, G. F. Gross (SAM); Narango, 
90 m, VI. 1960, 1 3 , W. W. Brandt (BISHOP). 

EFATE: NW Limestone plateau, N of 
Maat, 100 m, 19.VI1I. 1957, 1 9. J. L. Gressitt 
(BISHOP). 

ERROMANGA: Kauri camp (on Nuankau 
River) 3.VUI.1971, 2 9, G. F. Gross (SAM). 



REFERENCES 

Bnndle, A.. 1971, A review of (he genus Nesogaster 

Verhoeff (Dermaptera; Labiidae). Entomologist's won. 

mas. 107: 114-126. 
Burr, M.. 1908. Catalogue des Forficulides des collections 

dil Museum de Paris. Bull. Mux. natti Hist, nal. Purls 

1908: 29-33. 
Dohrn. H., 1864, Versuch einer Monographic der Dermap- 

teren (part) Stettin, ent. Ztg. 25: 885-296. 

Hincks. W. D.. 1938, The Dermaptera of Oceania, J. Fed. 

Malay States Mus. 18: 299-318. 
, 1947, Dermaptera from the New Hebrides and 

Lord Howe I. Entomologist's mon. man. "3: 65-67. 
, 1951, Notes on some species of Nesogaster 

(Dermapleia: Labiidae). Ann. Mag. nal, Hist, (12) 

4: 562-576. 
. 1952. The Dermaptera of the New Hebrides. 

Ann. Mag. nut. I fist. (12) 5: 200-204. 

-, 1954, Notes on Dermaptera. Proc Ti. flit. Soc. 



Urn J. (B) 23: 159-163. 
Rchn. J, A. C, 1948, Dermaptera records from the 
Solomon, New Hebrides, and Lovalty Islands. Trans. 
Am ent. Soc. 74: 159-163. 



RECORDS OF THE 
SOUTH AUSTRALIAN 
MUSEUM 



THE GENUS MICROTETRAMERES 
TRAVASSOS (NEMATODA, SPIRURIDA) 
IN AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 



By PATRICIA M. MAWSON 

Zoology Department 
University of Adelaide 



SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 
North Terrace, Adelaide 
South Australia 5000 



VOLUME 17 

NUMBER 14 

1st February, 1977 



THE GENUS MICROTETRAMERES TRAVASSOS (NEMATODA, 
SPIRURIDA) IN AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 



by Patricia M. Mawson 



Summary 



Australian Microtetrameres species were taken only from birds of the orders Accipitriformes, 
Cuculiformes, Strigiformes, Caprimulgiformes and Passeriformes. Considerable host specificity 
was noted. Fifteen new species are proposed, named after the host group or genus: M. 
meliphagidae, M. philemon, M. mirajrae, M. gymnorhinae, M. streperae, M. cractici, M. coracinae, 
M. sphecotheres, M. eopsaltriae, M. aegotheles, M. paraccipiter, M. cerci, M. raptoris, M. ninoctis 
and M. tytonis. M. helix Cram (syn. M. corax Schell) was identified from Australian corvids, and M. 
oriolus Petrov and Tschertkova from an Australian oriole. The shape and size of the hilt of the left 
spicule are regarded as of taxonomic value. A key is given based on male characters and a partial 
key based on female characters. 



THE GENUS MICROTETRAMERES TRAVASSOS (NEMATODA, SP1RURIDA) IN 

AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 

By PATRICIA M. MAWSON 
Zoology Department, University of Adelaide 



ABSTRACT 

MAWSON. PAVRIC \\ M. The genus MhrotniMiicres 
Ir.iv.isMis ( Ni_-ni.iiinl:i, Spinirul.i) in Australian birds. Ric. 
S.A. Mux. 71 (14): SM34Z59, 

Australian Microtetrameres species were taken 
only from birds of the orders Accipitriformes, 
Cuculi formes, Strigiformes, Caprimulgiformcs 
and Passcriformes. Considerable host specificity 
was noted, Fifteen new species are proposed, 
named after the host group or genus: M. meli- 
phagidae, M, philemon, M. mirafrac, M. 
gymnorhinae, M. streperae, M. cractia, M. 
coraanac, M. sphecothe.res, M. eopsaltrine, 
M. aegotheles, M. paraecipiter, M. cerci, 
M. rciptoris, M, tiinoclis and M tytonis, M 
helix Cram (syn. M, vorax SchcJI ) was identilied 
from Australian corvids. and M. oriolus Petrov 
and Tschertkova from an Australian oriole. The 
shape and size of the hilt of the left spicule are 
regarded as of taxonomic value. A key is given 
based tin male characters and a partial key based 
on female characters. 

INTRODUCTION 

No species of the genus Microtetrameres has 
ever been recorded from Australian birds. This 
is surprising, .since in dissections made in this 
Department the incidence of species of this genus 
has been relatively high in some bird groups 
(Table I). In honeyeaters, Microtetrameres 
spp. are the most common nematode parasites. 
In water birds (waders, gulls, grebes, cormor- 
ants, petrels) the same niche in the body is 
occupied by species of Tetrameres, Species of 
Microtetrameres have, however, been recorded 
from water birds in other countries — M. cana- 
densis Mawson, 1956 ( i only), M. egret es 
Rasheed, 1960, M. pelecani Skrjabin, 1949 («$ 
only), and M. spiralis Seurat, 1915. In our dis- 
sections both Microtetrameres and Tetrameres 
have been taken from an owl and from falcons — 
in two cases both parasite genera were repre- 
sented in the same host animal. Microtetrameres 
is a relatively homogenous genus in which the 
species have many characters in common, Ellis 
(1970) considers the female specimens as the 
type of a species; because of the dissimilarity in 
the appearance of the sexes, he allows the alloca- 
tion of a male to a species only when this has 
been proved by breeding from the eggs of the 

I if February, l</77 

I 



female, In the present work, it is considered that 
the form of males belonging to the genus Micro- 
tetrameres is characteristic of the genus, and that 
in general the occurrence of male and female 
specimens in the same host specimen is evidence 
of conspecilicity. The characters considered to 
be of the greatest taxonomic use are discussed 
below m the section "Characters of specific 
importance". 

The division of the genus into two subgenera, 
as proposed by Rasheed ( I960), has not been 
followed, because of the sporadic occurrence of 
a poorly developed gubernaculum in some speci- 
mens of some species in the Australian material. 

Most of the Microtetrameres spp. recognised 
show a marked degree of host specificity among 
cuculiform and passenform birds, and less among 
birds of prey. Almost all the species found in 
Australian birds are regarded as new. Excep- 
tions are M, helix Cram from crows, and M, 
oriolus Petrov and Tschertkova from an oriole. 
M. mirai'rae n.sp. from a lark and a flycatcher 
is very close to M. jakutensis Kontrimevichus 
from related birds in U.S.S.R., and M, parac- 
cipiter n,sp. from an Australian Accipiter sp. is 
very close to M, accipiter Schell from an Ameri- 
can Accipiter sp. It is noteworthy that Corvus, 
Miralra, Oriolus, and Accipiter arc regarded as 
relatively recent arrivals in Australia (late 
Pliocene or Pleistocene). 

METHODS 

Adult female Microtetrameres were taken 
from the proventricular glands of the host. 
Infected glands are readily recognisable by their 
dark colour, and pressure on the adjoining pro- 
ventricular wall causes the worm to pop out 
of the gland. The female lies in the gland with 
the tail end nearest the opening and often pro- 
truding through it (Fig. 61). Males and very 
young females are usually in the mucus on the 
surface of the proventriculus, but in two or 
three cases a male has apparently come out of 
a gland with a female. The greatest numbers of 
females present in one individual host were 40 
in Tyto alha and 30 in Corvus mcllori. This 
compares poorly with 250 females from a 
Golden Eagle and 102 from a Great Horned 
Owl recorded by Schell (1953, p. 227). 



240 



REC. S. AUST. MUS„ (17-14): 239-259 



Ft binary, 1977 



The worms were fixed in 70% alcohol. The 
measurements of all species described are given 
in Tables 2-7. In all cases the length of the 
whole oesophagus and of the muscular part of 
the oesophagus has been taken from the anterior 
end of the body to the posterior end of the organ 
in question. Measurements of the spicules have 
been taken along their whole length. 

In giving the locality of specimens the State 
is abbreviated as follows: SA, South Australia: 
NT, Northern Territory; Old, Queensland; NSW, 
New South Wales; ACT, Australian Capital Ter- 
ritory; Tas, Tasmania; Vic.. Victoria. 

Types of new species will be deposited in the 
South Australian Museum, and other material 
in the Helminthological Collection of the 
Zoology Department, University of Adelaide. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE 
AUSTRALIAN SPECIES 

The head (Plate 1; Figs. I, 2 T 3 and 4) bears 
two lateral lips each with three swellings — a 
lateral one bearing the amphid, and a dorsal and 
a ventrai with the submedian cephalic papillae. 
The mouth opening is more or less hexagonal. 
The inner circle of papilJae around the mouth, 
described by All (J 970), were not seen. 

The buccal capsule is well-developed. In the 
male it is laterally compressed, in the female 
barrel- or urn-shaped. In both sexes the anterior 
part is connected by a relatively thin cuticular 
sleeve to a chitiniscd basal ring lying just above 
the anterior end of the oesophagus. 

The oesophagus consists of an anterior nar- 
rower muscular and a longer glandular section. 
The nerve ring surrounds the anterior section at 
about sj to \ its length; the excretory pore is 
shortly behind this and the small cervical 
papillae at or behind the level of the excretory 
pore The cervical papillae are seldom distin- 
guishable in the gravid female, as the cuticle 
becomes inflated and folded in this region. In 
the female there is sometimes an apparent intes- 
tinal diverticulum, as the oesophagus joins the 
intestine obliquely; in one case ( M. raptoris) 
two distinct diverticula are formed at this junc- 
tion. 

Female: The shape of the coil of the 
female varies to some extent among individuals, 
but the general form is more or less constant in 
one species. There are three types of coil, the 
spiral, the reversed spiral, and the irregular 
(Figs. 6 1 , 72. 51). There is some evidence that 
the form is influenced by the shape of the gland 



which in some birds (e.g. honeyeater.s) is shal- 
low, in other (e.g. falcons and hawks), deep and 
narrow. It seems impossible that the tomi of the 
coil can change, or be assumed as the worm 
emerges from the gland, as suggested by Ellis 
(1969, p. 716). In fact, if the whole infested 
gland be dissected out and cleared, the contained 
worm, in its typical coil, can be seen inside (Fig. 
61). 

It appears that whether fertilised or not, the 
female enters the gland at an early stage (its 
body somewhat twisted and only slightly swol- 
len). Young female worms have been found to 
thicken and coil before any eggs are visible (Fig. 
72), so the swelling is not caused by pressure 
of eggs. Eggs are produced in great numbers 
even in unfertilised females. The shape of the 
female with infertile eggs is similar to that of the 
female with fertile eggs although on closer 
inspection it is seen that the unembryonated eggs 
are thin-shelled, often mis-shapen, and smaller 
than fertile eggs of the same species. Both fer- 
tile and infertile eggs may be present in one 
female. 

The posterior end of the female is often sur- 
rounded by a prepuce formed by overgrowth of 
the prevulvar cuticle; this is not seen in young 
females. 

Male: The tip of the tail ends in a small ball 
point. In all the Australian specimens there are 
two pairs of pre-anal papillae shortly in front of 
the cloaca, two pairs of post-anal papillae on the 
first half of the tail and a pair of phasmids 
laterally at Ki Of the tail length from the anus. 
In most specimens the papillae ate not exactly 
symmetrical; in a very few, one papilla Ls missing 
or one extra is present. The odd one is always 
aligned longitudinally with the others, and is 
never medial. The position ot the papillae with 
relation to the tail length varies within the 
limits noted above, this variation is, however, a.s 
great among individuals from one host as among 
all the specimens examined from any host, The 
phasmids are usually small and often hard to 
see. It is presumed that they are present in all 
specimens. 

The left, and longer spicule has a relatively 
short cylindrical hilt proximally and ends in a 
small terminal ala. The tip of the spicule within 
the ala is usually cleft or otherwise imperfectly 
chitiniscd. The shorter right spicule is simple 
and acicular or rounded at the tip. There is 
some thickening of the dorsal wall of the cloaca 
in some specimens, but this appears to be a vari- 
able feature, apparent in one or two specimens 



I UK OliNUS MIC KO 11:1 RAMEItES IRAVASSOS IN AUSTRALIAN BIKI>S 



241 



of a number of species. In one species (M. 
raptoris) it is well-developed in all the males 
(16), and in another it is present but onJy lightly 
chitinised in the three males available. 



CHARACTERS OF SPECIFIC IMPORTANCE 

Females: The form of the coil is not a specific 
character, as even among females from the same 
bird there arc variations, some a simple coil, 
some reversed once or twice. 

The length of the oesophagus and of its com- 
ponent parts, the position of the nerve ring, the 
cervical papillae (seen only in young specimens) 
and the excretory pore are very similar in all 
specimens examined. The presence or absence 
of an intestinal diverticulum at the point of 
junction with the oesophagus is cited by some 
authors as a specific character; however, in the 
gravid female its absence can only be ascertained 
by dissection, 

Ellis ( 1 969) considered that the size and 
shape of the buccal capsule and of the eggs, and 
the presence or absence of cuticulai ridges and 
flanges, is sufficient to differentiate the females 
of the various species of Mwrotetrameres, and 
he gave (p. 718) a key to species from the 
western hemisphere based on these characters in 
the female. In the Australian specimens, only a 
single worm was seen with cuticular flanges, and 
this was among and in other respects similar to, 
unhanged females taken from the same specimen 
of Corvus bennetri. Most of the measurements 
of female worms arc subject to error because of 
cuticular inflation to which the specimens are 
subject and because of the many curves of the 
intact worm. In the present work the measure- 
ments of the female considered to be most reli- 
able are those cited by Ellis, i.e. those of the 
largest fertile egg and of the buccal capsule. 
However, these characters are not sufficiently 
varied throughout the genus to form the sole 
basis for the identification of the species. The 
difficulties of identification of species from 
females only is apparent in the key given below 
in which only female characters are used. As 
some species are represented only by females, 
this key is given here, although the species arc 
by no means fully segregated. 

Males: In the male as in the female the posi- 
tion of the nerve ring, cervical papillae and 
excretory pore in relation to each other and to 
the end of the muscular oesophagus is similar 
in all specimens examined. The same situation is 
found with the positions of pre- and post-cloacal 



papillae. Judging from figures given by authors, 
there is a marked similarity between the arrange- 
ment of the caudal papillae in all Microtelrameres 
species, except where a larger number of papillae 
have been described. From some descriptions it 
seems likely that a third pair of post-anal papillae 
are in fact the phasmids. 

Schell (1953) suggested that the position of 
the constriction in die male reproductive tube 
between the testis and the vas deferens, might be 
a constant character within a species. This 
feature, however, is not clear in all of the 
Australian specimens and has not been used by 
other workers. Schell also used as a specific 
character the presence or absence of a "ball 
point" on the tip of the tail. Such a point is 
present on all the Australian males. 

Another character used by Schell as a dis- 
tinguishing feature, is the shape of the tip of the 
left spicule. However, this character must be 
used with discretion as the tip may appear bifur- 
cate in one view and rounded in another. The 
tip in almost all the Australian specimens is 
more or less cleft, or is imperfectly chitinised. 

In the present study, the characters of the 
spicules have been considered most useful in 
diagnosis. The length of the longer spicule in 
relation to the body length, the ratio of the 
lengths of the two spicules and the shape and 
proportions of the hilt (proximal end) of the 
left spicule, appear to be of value in separating 
species. The spicule ratio has been used by many 
authors. In the present study both the spicule 
ratio and the shape and size of the hilt of the 
left spicule were found to be similar in specimens 
from the same host bird, and this similarity 
extends to those from the same host species and 
often to those from related species, from the 
same and different localities. At the same time, 
the spicule ratio and the shape and size of the 
hilt differ, often markedly, from those of speci- 
mens from hosts belonging to a different group 
even from the same locality. The shape of the 
hilt (tapering, or slightly bulbous, etc.) as well 
as the actual length: width ratio has been con- 
sidered^ To obtain this ratio, referred to in 
TabJes 1-7 as the Hilt Factor, the width is mea- 
sured across the base of the cylindrical part 
of the spicule in lateral view, just anterior to 
the longitudinal groove, in the position indicated 
in Fig. 6 by line ab; the length is the distance 
from this level to the proximal end of the spicule. 
The chief limitation to the use of the hilt of the 
left spicule as a specific character is that in a 
few specimens it is damaged or folded over so 



242 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., (17-14): 239-259 



February. 1977 



that the shape, or at least the measurements, are 
not clear. As the hilt has seldom been noted by 
other workers, it cannot be used to compare the 
Australian specimens with many of the species 
already described. However, through the kind- 
ness of the Beltsville Parasitological Laboratory 
(U.S. Department of Agriculture), and of Dr. 
Schell (University of Idaho), male specimens of 
M. helix Cram, M. aquila Schell, M. bubo Schell, 
M. decipher Schell and M. corax Schell, have 
been examined, and some comparisons have 



been made. In particular it was noted ( 1 ) that 
the hilt has a different shape in each of Schell's 
species (Figs. 5, 55, 56 and 57) and (2) that 
the shape is similar in M. helix (Cram's speci- 
mens), M. corax (Schell's specimen) and speci- 
mens from Australian corvids. 

The characters which have emerged as most 
indicative of the species among male worms are 
the body length, the spicule lengths, the length 
and breadth of the hilt of the left, or longer, 
spicule, and the length of the buccal capsule. 



TABLE l 

Incidence of Mkrotetrameres spp. and Telrameres spp. in "land" birds dissected. 
Numbers refer to specimens, not species. 



Bird Group 



Passerifonnes — 

Alaudidac 

Motacillidae 

Campephagidae 

Muscicapidae 

Pachyccphalidae 

Faleunculidae 

Meliphagidae 

Oriolidae 

Grallinidae 

Cracticidae , ...... 

Corvidae 

Other families 

Caprimulgiformes , . . . 

Coraciiformcs 

Strigeiformes 

Accipitrifornies ...,....,..,..,. 

Cueuliformes 

Columbiformes 

Psittaciformes . , . . . 

Gruiformcs 

Gallilbrmes ... 







Number with 






Number 


Number with 


Miaotetramrres 


Number with 


Number with 


Dissected 


Nematodes 


sp. 


Tetrameies spp. 


Other spp. 


7 


1 


1 




1 


u 


1 


1 







16 


11 


5 


_^ 


8 


50 


11 


6 


_ 


10 


37 


16 


7 





4 


7 


7 


1 





6 


199 


45 


38 





18 


6 


2 


2 







34 


11 


-> 





111 


100 


51 


27 





40 


77 


69 


24 


_ 


61 


.385 


42 








42 


21 


U 


1 





11 


28 


14 


— 


i 


13 


25 


17 


8 


2 


P 


59 


38 


19 


2 


29 


21 


5 


4 





2 


43 


1 







1 


157 


4 


1 




3 


56 


17 





7 


12 


7 


2 







2 



LIST OF AUSTRALIAN SPECIES 
ARRANGED UNDER THEIR HOSTS 

The following is a list of hosts from which 
Microtetnuneres spp. have been taken. The 
numbers after each species indicates the number 
of host specimens in which Microtetramercs were 
found/the number of specimens examined. 
Microtctrameres is shown as M. throughout. 

Passfkipormes 
Alaudidaf. 

Mirojru jovanica Horstield, M. mirajrae n.sp.; 

1/2, NT. 

Campephagldae 
Coracina novaehollandiae (Gmelin). M. cora- 

ctnae n.sp.; 1/2 SA, 0/ I Tas, 0/2 NT. 
Coracina hvpoleuca Gould. M. coracinae n.sp.; 

1/1 NT. 
Lalage sueuri tricolor (Swainson) M. sp.; 2/3 

SA. 



Muscicapidae 

Microeca teucophaea (Latham). M. mirafrae 
n.sp.; 2/9 SA; 1/2 NT. 

Eopsaltria australis (Shaw). M. eopsaltriae 
n.sp.; 2/2 SA. 

Falcunculidae 
Oreoica gutturalis (Vig. & Horsf.) M. sp.; 1/1 
SA; 1/5 NT. 

Ptiloris sp. M. sp.; 1,1. 

Meliphagidae 

Meliphaga virescens (Vieillot) M. meliphagidae 
n.sp.; 4/15 SA; 0/5 NT. 

Meliphaga leucotis (Latham) M. meliphagidae 
n.sp.; 2/10 SA. 

Manorina melanocephala (Latham) M. meli- 
phagidae n.sp.; 2/7 SA; l/l ACT. 

Manorina flavigula Gould. M. meliphagidae 
n.sp.; 1/5 SA; 0/1 NT. 



THE GHNUS M1CU0TETRAMERES TRAVASSOS IN AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 



243 



Entomvzon cvanotis (Latham). M. philemon 
n.sp.; 2/4 NT. 

Philemon citreogularis (Gould). M. philemun 
n.sp.; 3/3 NT, 

Philemon argenticeps (Gould). M. philemon 
n.sp.; 3/11 NT. 

Anthochoera chrysoptera (Latham). M. meli- 
phagidae n.sp.; 3/1 1 SA. 

Anthochoera carunculata (Shaw) M. melipha- 
gidae n.sp,; 5/10 SA. 

Acanthocephala rufogularis Gould. M. melipha- 
gidae n.sp.; 10/18 SA; 0/5 NT. 

Orioudae 
Oriolus sagittatits (Latham) M. oriolus oriolus 

Petrov & Tschertchova. 1/3 NT. 
Sphecotheres fiaviventris Gould. M. sphecotheres 

n.sp,; 1/2 NT. 

Grallinidaf 
Corcorax melanorhamplvis (Vieillot) M. helix 
Cram 2/9 SA. 

CRACTICIDAE 

Strepera versicolor (Latham) M. slreperae n.sp,; 
1/7 SA;0/1 NT. 

Cracticus tortjiuitus (Latham). M. cractici n.sp.; 
1/5 SA. 

Gvmnorhina tihicen tibicen (Latham) M. gym- 
norhinae n.sp.; 0/4 SA; 0/2 NT, 8/16 
ACT. 

Gymnorhina tihicen leuconota Gould. M. gym- 
norhinae n.sp.; 9/58 SA. 

CORVIDAE 

Corvus mellori Mathews. M. helix Cam. 8/9 

SA; ll/48Tas. 
Corvus bcnnetti North. M. helix Cram 3/3 NT. 

Corvus orru Bonaparte. M. helix Cram. 0.2 SA: 

4/7 NT 
Corvus coronoides Vig. & Horsf. M. helix Cram. 

4/5 SA. 

CAPRIMVJLGIFORMES 
Aegothclcs cristata Shaw. M. aegotheles n.sp.; 
0/2 SA; 0/1 Tas; 1/3 NT. 

CUCULfFORMES 

Cuculus pallid its (Latham) M. coracinae n.sp.: 
1/4 NT; 0/1 Tas. 

Cacomantis variolosus Vig. & Horsf. M. caco- 
mantis n.sp.; 1/1 NT. 

Cacomantis pyrrhophanus Vieillot. M, sp,; 1/9 
SA; 1/1 Tas. 

2 



ACCLP I TRIFORM US 

Accipiter fasciatus Vig. & Horsf. M. paraccipiter 
n.sp.; 3/5 SA; 1/1 Tas; 3/3 NT. 

Accipiter cirrhocephaliis Vieillot. M. sp.; 2/2 
SA; 1/1 Tas; 0/2 NT. 

Circus assimilis Jard. & Selby. M. circi n.sp. 

Falco berigora Vig. & Horsf. M. raptoris n.sp.; 
2/4 SA; 0/ 1 Tas; 3/7 NT. 

F. longipennis Swainson M. raptoris n.sp.; 0/2 
Tas; 1/3 NT. 

F. cenchroides Vig. & Horsf. M. raptoris n.sp; 

1/5 SA;0/1 NT. 

F, peregrinus Tunstall. M. raptoris n.sp.; 2/4 
SA. 

Strtgjformfs 

Ninox novaeseelandiae (Gmelin) M. raptoris 
n.sp.; M, ninoctis n.sp.; 4/12 SA; 0/1 Tas; 
3/4 NT. 

Tyto alba (Scopoli) M, tvtonis n.sp.; 0/6 SA: 
1/1 NT. 

Keys to Microtetramcres spp. 
Two keys are offered. The first has been compiled 
from male characters. The second key, based only on 
the females, is necessarily restricted, but is included a^ 
the information conveyed may help other workers. 

lo some cases the ratios used were not given by the 
authors but have been calculated from data provided. 
Abbreviauons have been used to assist in the lay-out of 
the keys, as follows: HF, hilt factor; L, left; pap 
papillae; R. right; spic. spicule; sp. rat. spicule ratio. 
All measurements are in /un. 

I . Key to male Alicrotetramercs spp. 

1- Gubernaculum absent or weakly developed . 2 
Gubernaculum present . . 42 

2. ( 1 ) Median preanal pap. present 3 

Median preanal pap. absent A 

3. (2) Sp. rat. 6 '2; median preanal pap, on lip of 

cloaca .. . . M. calabocench Dia2-Ungria 

Sp. ratio 15-8; median preanal pap. anterior 

to cloacal lip . . . . M, inermis (Linstow) 

4. (2) Fewer than two preanal papillae .... 5 

Two or more pre pairs of preanal papillae 6 

5. (4) No preanal papillae . . M, siphidiopici Hams 

One pair of preanal papillae 

A/, cnizi (Travassos) 

6. (4) Three pairs of preanal papillae ...... 7 

Two pairs of preanal papillae 9 

7. (6) Sp. ral. 32 . . . , M , pupillocephalti Oshruarin 

Sp. rat. 25-26 S 

8. (7) R. spic. 85-88 .. . M. erythrorhynchi Ali 

R. spic. 150 A/, cunadensix Mawson 

9. (6) L. spic. longer than body 10 

I., spic. not longer than body 11 

10. (9) Sp. rat. 16-22 , . , M. Spiculaiu Boyd 

Sp. rat. 37 . . . . M. helix askilkux Oshmarin 

11. (9) Four pairs of post-cloacal pap, 

M. oshmarini Sobolcv 

Not more than three pairs of post-cloacal 

pap, . . 12 



244 RFC, S. AUST. MUS„ 07-14); 239-259 February, 1977 

12.(11) Adanal pap. present 13 35.(33) Tail more than 1-5 times length of R. 

Adanal pap. absent 14 spic . . 36 

13. (12) One pair of adanal pap. A-/, pnsilla Travussos Tail not more than I -5 times length of R. 

Two pairs of adaiial pap. S P» C ^ 

M. travasxosi Rasheecl 36 (35) L. spic. 2032-2270; vestibule 16 long 

14. ( 12) R. spic longer than tail 15 M. oriulus rushevdae Skrjabin ct al. 

R. spic. shorter than tail , ... 22 L. spic. 1250; vestibule 1 1 long 

15.(14) L. spic. less than 1200 16 *£. aegotheles n.sp. 

L spic. more than 1300 17 37. (35) Vestibule 18-20 long .. M. puravcipiter n.sp. 

16.(15) Vestibule length 25 AC cloacitectus Gahnrarin Vestibule not more than 16-5 long . . .. 38 

Vestibule length 19 . . . . M. pnghi Sultana 38 (37^ l spic. over 2200 long , . A/, philemon n.sp. 

17.(15) Sp. rat, over IS M. centuri Barus L. spic. not longer than 2200 39 

Spicule ratio not more than 17 .. .. 18 39 (38) Sp rat 2] A , mepemc u . sp . 

18.(17) Sp. rat. less than 9 19 s „ rat not more than 20 ,,..,. . 40 

Sp. ral. between 10-17 20 

,„ .,„, , - ,. , , . cm ,.„ 40.(39 R. spic. almost equal to tail length .. 41 

19. (IS) Junction ot vas delerens and testis 500-600 R K ic dislinct | , ess than tail , ength . . 42 

trom cloaca . . . M . . M. hiihn Schell 

Junction of vas delerens and cloaca 800-900 41. (40) Vestibule elongate in shape . . . M. x«i>uei 

from cloaca M. aquila Schell Vestibule almost as wide as long 

20. (18) Vestibule about 10 long . M, copsaltriae n.sp. M - mrt&rfwgifcg u.sp. 

Vestibule at least 13 long 21 42.(40) Veslibule not more than II long .... 43 

21. (20) Hilt of L, spic, very long: HF 6-8-1 Veslibule not less than 12 long 44 

M. cacomantis n.sp. 43.(42) HF 6- 1-7-9 M. coratinae n.sp. 

Milt of I., spic. shorter: HF 2-5-3-3 HF 3-4 M. mirafrue n.sp. 

M, cerci n,sp. 44, (42) From small passerines in Russia 

22. (14) L. spic, 3200 long or more 23 A/, jakuteiuis Konlrimavichus 

L, spic. not longer than 3100 25 From Australian birds 45 

23. (22) Spicule ratio not more than 30; parasitic in 45 (44) HF 2-2-3-3: hilt more or less cylindrical 

crows . . M. helix helix Cram /V/. rupiuris n.sp. 

Spicule ratio more than 34 24 HF 3.3.4.4; hilt tapering towards extremity 

24. (23) Spicule ratio 36; parasitic in hornbills M, gymnorhinae n.sp. 

M.tontifrta (Wtedman) 46 (1) Spic. rat, under 1 1 47 

Spicule ratio 40-45; parasitic in hornbills Sp rat over 13 49 

^ „-, ., k , 4rt . A ' L ^''>'!'>'l"^n\cpp A1 4fi t e ' thof ocsophagus less lhan k that of body 

25 (22) Vestibule 30 long .... M. spiral,* (Seural) M tubodiiacll Oshmarin 

Vestibule not longer than 25 26 Leflgth of oesophaeus j., lhal ot body 4s 

26. (25) Sp. rat. II or less , , .. 11 48 (47) L ic _ 1 12 5; R. spic. 220-260 

Sp. rat. 12 or more .. 31 M rusheedae SuUana 

27.(26) L. spic. not more lhan half body length 28 | 3p j c (950-21 20: R. spic. 142 

I... spic. more than half body length . 29 M cephalatus Sultana 

28. (27) Hilt of 1., spic, long, slender: HF 4-7-5-6 49 (46) L spic over 22()0 long 50 

M. splwcotheres n.sp. L spic not Ionger (nan 2 000 52 

Hilt, of L. spic. shorter; HF 1 -6-1 -9 ^ haU ^ , h vestihu]e n 

M. tytotus n.sp. v/ ^^ Rasheed 

29. (27) R. spic. 120 long R spic more ,|, an half tail length; vestibule 

A/, orio/iM orien/ii/is Oshmann 17 or less ... . 51 

R. spic. 80-1 00 long.. . 30 ^ _ R _ 100 -l\o \ ! \' \ ' Af ^o,/,V n.sp. 

30. (29) From Tachyplumas sp.. Brazil R jc l90 . 2 3 M. malahari Ali 

M. minima (Travassos) 

From CTflt-f/tw sp., Australia 52. (49 ) Gubernaeulum 20-21 long 

M. cracticus n.sp. /»' #*gW (Vay.lova) 

31. (26) L. spic. not longertban 1050: egg longer than Gubernaeulum 28 bhg , . ,:,',T^^ "S 

L. wrja not shorter 'than 1060;' egg shorter 53. <- s 2> fc *pfc 50-H0; tail 100-120 

.. ... 33 M. osmaiuue Rasheed 

,-,,,,.,,- ,J W Vn'i ' R. spic. 80-90; tail 140-180 

32. (31 ) R. spic. 66: vestibule 19 long M m[rae Rasheed 

hi. tongmvHtus Bnrus 

R. Spic. 100; vestibule 14 long , 

M. (.symmetrica Oshmarin 2 - KV t0 tema,e M'cratetrameres spp. 

33. (31) Vestibule 21 or more long , 34 M. contort a Wiedman is not included, as the length 

Vestibule not longer than 20 35 of the vestibule is not known; the eggs are 40-45 x 

34.(33) L, spic. over 2500 long: 1/1-1 of body 2(J " 25 l' m 

length M. o. oriotitx Oshmarin 1. Eggs very long. 70 at least 2 

L. spic. less than 2500 long; 1/1-7-1-8 of Eggs very short, under 40 3 

bodv length JVf. accipiter Schell Egg length between 40-60 4 



THE GENUS MICROTETRAMERES TRAVASSOS IN AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 



245 



2. Eggs 80-82 x 36-39: from Eunius sp. 

M. asymmetrica Ashmariu 
Eggs 70-73 x 20-23; from Glmicidium sp. 

M. longiovata Barus 

3. Eggs 39 x 26; vestibule 39 long 

M. erythrorhynchi Ali 
Egg 36 x 21; vestibule 24 long 

M. travussosi Rasheed 
Egg 36 x 20: vestibule 20 long 

M. inermis (Linstow) 
Egg 35 x 15. vestibule 24 long 

AT, egretes Rasheed 

4. Vestibule not more than 1 2 long 5 

Vestibule more than 1 2 long 6 

5. Vestibule 12 long; egg 45 x 24; from Tachyphonus 

sp M. minima (Travassos) 

Vestibule 9 long; eggs 42-49 x 28; from Turdus 

sp M. pusilla Travassos 

Vestibule 12 long; eggs 45 x 25-26: front Aes- 
thetes sp M. aegotheles n.sp. 

6. Vestibule not longer than 20 7 

Vestibule longer than 20 13 

7. Body with two longitudinal flanges 

M. accipiier Schell 
Body Without flanges . , 8 

8. Breadth of egg not more ihan 28 ....... . 9 

Breadth of egg more than 28 . . 1 2 

9. Vestibule twice or more, as long us wide . . 10 
Vestibule less than twice as long as wide . , 11 

10, Egg length 40 M, canadensis Mnwson 

Egg length 45-49 . . . . M. oshinurini Sobolev 
Egg length 50-60 M. cruzii Travassos 

11, Vestibule 17-19; egg 44-46 x 23-26 

M. paraccipiter n.sp. 
Vestibule 17-19: egg 43-50 x 26-2S 

M. rapt ark n.sp 
Vestibule 1 9; egg 46 x 26 . . . . A/, ninoctis n.sp, 
Vestibule 15-17; egg 42-44 x 24-27 

M. tytonis n.sp. 
Vestibule 17-19; egg 45 x 25-26 

M. cacomutuis n.sp. 
Vestibule 18-20: egg 44-48 x 24-26 

M, osmaninc Rasheed 

12, From Passeri formes: 

Vestibule 15: egg 46-49 x 29-31 . M. sflgwi Barus 
Vestibule I 7; egg 49-53 x 32 

M. jukuwnsis Koiitrimavichus 
Vestibule 16: egg 44 x 31 . . M. eopsulii'uic n.sp. 
Vestibule 13; egg 44 X 29 .. M. cctttciruie n.sp. 
Vestibule 13-16; egg 45-50 x 31-35 

M, mclipiuKidcie n.sp. 
Vestibule 16-19: egg 47-50 x 31-33 

M. philemon n.sp. 
Vestibule 14-17; egg 51-55 X 33-34 

M- xlreperae n.sp. 
Vestibule 17-20: egg 49-51 x 31-33 

M gynmorhinae n.sp. 
I rum Pici formes: 
Vestibule 19; egg 49-53 x 33-38 

M, cenlnii Barus 
From Coracii formes: 
Vestibule 18: egg 42-45 x 30-32 

M. bitcirotidae Ortlepp 



. . . 



., 14 

.. 17 

.. 15 

. . 16 



AT usmaniue Rasheed 
.... M. bubo Schell 



M. spiculata Boyd 

, 21 



13. From birds of prey . 
From other groups of birds . 

14. Vestibule not longer than 23 
Vestibule over 25 . . . , . . . 

15. Eggs 44-48 x 24-16 .. . 
Egg 44 x 28 . ..... 

1 6. Egg 48 x 28 M. mined Rasheed 

Egg 44-50 x 23-26 , . . . . . . . M. aquila Schell 

17. Egg at least 32 wide IS 

Egg at most 31 wide 19 

18. Length of vestibule less than twice its width 

M. xiphidiopici Barus 
Length of vestihulc at least twice its width 

M. helix Cram 

19. Vestibule 30 long . . M. spiralis (Seurat) 

Vestibule less than 25 long .... . . 20 

20. Egg length 48-50 . . 
Egg length less than 47 

21. Vestibule length 21; egg (34) 43 x (171-30 

M. oriolus oriolus Oshmarin 
Vestibule length 23; egg 40-46 x 25-29 

M. oriolus rasheedae Skrjabin ei al 

Microtetrameres helix Cram 
Plate 1; Figs. 1-9; Table 2 

Microtetrameres helix Cram 1926, p. 355. 

Microtetrameres corax Schell, 1953, p. 234. 

Hosts' and localities: Corvus mellori, Launceston, 
Tas; Balgowan, Ardrossan, Williamstown. 
Adelaide, SA; C. bennetli ( ?s only) Ayers 
Rock, Erklunda, NT; C. coronoitles, Ade- 
laide, Heatherleigh, Lock, Oodnadatta, SA; 
C. arm (9s only) Ayers Rock. Alice 
Springs. Death Adder Creek, NT; Corcorax 
melanoihamphus, Mt. Crawford, Mantung, 
SA; Inverleigh, Vic. 

The numerous Australian specimens have 
been compared with M. corax (one male speci- 
men lent by Dr. Schell) and with M. helix (male 
specimens from Dr. Lichlenfcls) and it has been 
concluded that all belong to the same species. 

Schell differentiates M, corax from M. helix in 
the male by the length of the body and of the 
left spicule, the bifid tip of the left spicule in 
M . helix, the absence of a ball point on the tip 
of the tail in M. helix, and by the distance of 
the vulva from the tip of the tail. 

Examination of the single loaned male speci- 
men of M. corax shows that the tip of the left 
spicule is slightly incised, resembling that of the 
Australian specimens (Fig. 7). The four male 
specimens of M. helix (Cram's material) are 
mounted and are in a poor condition, because 
of air bubbles on Ihe slides. The tips of the tails 
are not very clear, but in one there is definite 



246 



REC. S. AUST, MUS., (17-14): 239-259 



February, 1977 




8 




Figs. 1-8, M. helix. I and 2, head of male, median and lateral views respectively: 3 and 4, head of female, 
median and lateral views respectively; 5, posterior end of male; 6 and 7, hilt of left spicule in Australian 
and U.S.A. (M. corax Schell) specimens respectively; 8, tip of left spicule. Figs. 9-11), M. oriolus. 9, 
posterior end of male; 10, hilt of left spicule. Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8 and 9 to same scale; Figs. 5 and 10 

to same scale. 



indication of the presence of a ball point; the 
hilt of the left spicule is similar to those of the 
Australian specimens and to that of M. corax. 

The measurements of all three sets of speci- 
mens are very close, except those of the eggs 
which in Cram's and Schell's descriptions are 
smaller than those of the Australian specimens. 
As it is easy to measure infertile eggs in Micro- 
tetrameres spp. this difference is not considered 
significant. Bethel (1973) recorded M. corax 
Schell from Pica pica hudsoni in Colorado and 
studied its life cycle. His young adult males 
agree in general appearance and in measure- 
ments with those of M. helix. Sultana ( 1 962, 
336) described M. helix from a hornbill, Tockus 
birostris, from India. The measurements of her 
specimens fall within, or close to, those of the 
Australian ones, except for those of the eggs 
which are smaller. Morgan and Waller (1941, 
16) recorded M. helix from Corvus brachy- 
rhynchos brachyrhynchos from eastern U.S.A. 
This work has not been seen by the present 
author. 

Oshmarin (1956, 303) described M. helix 
asiaticus from four corvid species from Turkes- 
tan. This is a large worm known only from the 



male. Only one set of measurements is given. 
It differs from Cram's specimens chiefly in the 
greater length of the left spicule which is longer 
than the body. 

Other records of M. helix and of M. corax are 
by Ellis (1972, p. 31 et seq). It appears that 
the species has a wide distribution, and that it 
is apparently restricted to corvids and hornbills, 
apart from the two records from an Australian 
chough, not now regarded as a corvid. Tt is pos- 
sible that closer examination of the specimens 
from hornbills may show some differences not 
indicated in published measurements and draw- 
ings. M. malabari Ali, 1970, from a hornbill, is 
very similar to Sultana's specimens of M. helix 
in many points, but differs in the presence of a 
gubernaculum. 



Mieroteframeres oriolus Petrov and Tschertkova 
Figs. 9-10; Table 4 

Microtetrameres oriolus Petrov and Tschertkova, 
1950, 78. From Oriolus oriolus. 

Host and locality: Oriolus sagittal us, Katherine 
Gorge, NT. 



THE GENUS MICROTETRAMERES TRAVASSOS TN AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 



247 



Only a single male worm was collected. It 
agrees with the description and measurements 
of M. oriolus. In M. oriolus rasheedae Skrj. 
(syn. M. orioles Rashced, 1960, 60) the spicules 



are shorter. The subspecies M. oriolus orientalis 
Oshmarin, 1956, is a much smaller worm. The 
hiJt of the left spicules of these species cannot 
at present be compared. 



TABLE 2 

Males of Microtetrameres helix from Australian birds and from U.S.A. 
Unless otherwise indicated, measurements are in fim. 



Host species , 



Locality 

Number of specimens 



Male : 

Length (mm) 

Oesophagus — 

Total 

Muse 

Buccal capsule 

Length 

Ant. end — 

Nerve ring 

Cerv. pap 

Excr. pore 

Spicule— Left 

Right ... 
Ratio . . . 
Left spicule — 

Hilt L ........ 

Hilt factor 

Body L/lcft 

spicule L 

Tail 

Female: 
Oesophagus — 

Total 

Muse 

Vestibule - 

Length 

ExL diameter . . . 
Ant, end, Nerve ring 

Tail 

Post, end vulva . . . 

Egg — Length 

Breadth 



Carvus mellori 



Tasmania 



South Australia 



Range 

3-7-5-8 

860-1 200 
260-350 

19-23 

175-260 
212-280 
175-280 
2 800^1 200 
120-162 
20-7-32-3 

23-32 
1-7-2-8 

1-1-1-5 
135-200 



1 760-1 900 
340-360 

20-25 
1 1-0—12-1 

190-200 

200-220 

340-350 

50-52 

33 



Mean 

5 

1 076 
309 

21 

187 
225 
214 
3 625 
140 
27-6 

26 
2-3 

1-3 

172 



Range 
41-5-3 



Mean 

4-7 



C. coronoides 



C. spp. 



South Australia 



Range 
4-0-5-4 



Mean 
44 



900-1 200 
230-330 


1070 
298 


19-23 


16-7 


140-190 
180-235 
150-245 
3 600-4 450 
130-160 
231-30-7 


179 

210 
202 

3 922 
144 
27-5 


20-27 
1-7-2-7 


24 
2-2 


1-0-1-3 
140-180 


1-2 
152 


1 640-1 900 
340-380 


— 


22-26 
110-121 
185-250 
190-220 
300-330 
50-55 
33 





AH Aust. 
Species 



900-1 200 
225-300 


1022 
265 


24-26 


21 


150-190 
190-235 
180-225 
3 650-4 510 
125-145 
25-2-34-7 


163 

208 
198 
4 042 
133 
30-5 


21-30 
2-0-2-7 


27 
2-3 


1-1-1-2 
160-180 


1-1 
172 


1 800-2 000 
360-420 


- 


23-26 
8-8-121 
190-210 
190-310 
320-450 

50-5S 
33 





Mean 

44 

1058 
28-9 

20 

174 
210 
201 
3 950 
141 
28-2 

25 

2-2 

1-2 
1 164-5 

From 
Corvus vrru 

1400 
250 

22-23 
110 
180 
180 
290 

57-53 
33 



C. ameri- 
canus 



C. curax 



U.S.A. 



U.S.A. 



(Ram) 

4-9 

826 
274 

21t 
191 



3600 

135 

26-6 



1-3 

183 



225-250 
22-5 



141 

216 

42 

33 



Schell 

3-7-4-7 

885-1 051 
244-266 

2l-25t 

151-187 
194-237 
154-194 
3 200-3 800 
120-140 
26-6-27-1 ♦ 



11 — 1-2* 

160-207 



1 625-1 709 
241-284 



•As these proportions are taken from the largest and smallest measurements given by Schell they may be inexact. 
fMeasured by the authors. 



TABLE 3 



Measurements of Mierofetmmeres meliphax;itlae and A/, philemon. 
Unless otherwise noted measurements are in wm. 



PMM 
3-6 



2d 



2 650 
22 I 



17 
1-9 



14 



24-25t — 

126-129 — 

129-187 — 

237-240 — 

47 — 

32 — 



Carcorax spp. 



South 
Australia 



PMM 

3-8-4-3 

950-1 250 
270-350 

16-20 

160-185 
200-230 
200 215 
3 000-3 950 
110-140 
27-3-29-0 

26-30 

2-0-2-5 

1-1—1-3 

165-170 



Host species 

Number of specimens 

Male: 

Length (mm) 

Oesophagus — Total .... 
Muse. . . . 

Vestibule length . 

Ant. end — Nerve ring . . 
Cerv. pap... 
Excr. pore . . . 

Left Spicule— Lett 

Right ... 
Ratio . . . 
Body L/lefi spicule . . . . 
Left spicule — Hill L 

Hilt factor 

Tail 

Female: 
Oesophagus — Total .... 
Muse. .... 

Vestibule — Length . 

Ext. Breadth 
Ant. end Nerve ring . . . 

Tail 

Post, end vulva 

Egg— length 

Breadth 



Mkrotefnmteres meliphagidue 



Acanthogenys sp. 



13 



Range 

2-0-3-3 
550-680 
190-245 

11-14 

130-170 

160-210 

155-205 

I 450-2 200 

90-130 
141-20-7 

1-2-1-6 

17-26 

2-0-3-2 
110-140 

1 600 

260 

13-15 

10 12 

140 

80-120 

130 220 

49-50 

31-35 



Mean 

2-7 

64 

218 

13 

152 

194 

182 

I 910 

114 

16-9 

1-4 

24 

2-5 

112 



Mannrinu spp. 



10 



Range 



Mean 



Meliphttga spp. 



16 



1-9-2-2 


2-1 


450-600 


552 


190 (1\) 


— 


12-13 


13 


135(1x1 


— 


170(lx) 


— 


550-1 770 


1 642 


90-110 


98 


14-3-18-3 


16-8 


12-1-3 


1-2 


18-27 


23 


2-2-3-3 


2-8 


100-130 


115 


850-1 200 





220-320 


— . 


14-16 


— 


10-11 


_ 


150-175 





120 140 





220-270 


— 


48-50 





31 33 





Range 

1-9-2-7 
490-650 
170-240 

12-14 

120-150 

150-200 

125-lfiO 

1 400-1 850 

85-110 
14- 7-19-6 

12-14 

17-30 

2-2-3-3 
100-140 

I 200 

270-280 

16 

10 II 

160-1711 

150 

240 

50 

30 



Mean 

2-2 
562 
193 

13 

132 

170 

152 

1 644 

96 
17-4 

1-3 

22 
2-6 
115 



M. philemon 



Anthochoera spp. 



Philemon spp. 



17 



Range 

1-8-2 8 
500-730 
180-240 

11-14 

120-150 

145 204 

130 177 

1 500 2 050 

80-120 

15-9-19-8 

i-I-l-5 

17-30 
2-3-3-2 

95 130 

980-1 400 

200 300 

14-16 

10-11 

130 160 

120 

230 

50 

31-33 



18 



Mean 

2-3 

587 

202 

12 

133 

173 

152 

1 737 

103 

16-7 

1-3 

22 

2-6 

112 



Range 

2-8-4-3 
600-850 
205-250 

13-17 
120-165 
150 225 
140-205 
2 200-3 000 
95 125 
20-2X 
1-2-1-4 
19-26 
19 2 ? 
120-150 

900-1 450 

280 300 

16-19 

10-12 

140-160 

130 

230 

46-50 

31-33 



Mean 

34 

736 

230 

15 

144 

181 

166 

2 571 

109 

23-4 

1-3 

23 

2-1 

131 



*3 



248 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., (17-14): 239-259 



February, \911 




Figs. 11-23, M. melipluigulae; unless otherwise stated, all from type host. 11, anterior end of male; 12 and 13, 

lateral and ventral views of posterior end of male; 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18, hilt of left spicule; 14, from type 

host; 15 and 16, from Anthochoera sp.; 17, from Mymntlui sp.; 18, from Mcliphaga sp.; 19, entire female; 

20, head of female; 21 anterior end of female: 22, posterior end of female; 23. egg. Figs. II, 12 and 13 

to same scale; Figs. 14, 15. 16, 17, 18, 20 and 23 to same scale; Figs. 21 and 22 to same scale. 



Microtetrameres mcliphagidac n.sp. 
Figs. 11-23; Table 4 
Hosts and localities: Acanthogenys rujogularis, 
Pt. Augusta, Flinders Ranges, Blanchetown, 
Meningie, SA; Meliphaga virescens, 
Blanchetown, Eyre Peninsula and the 
Flinders Ranges, SA; M. leucotis, Eyre 
Peninsula, SA; M. melanocephala, Can- 
berra, ACT, Naracoorte, SA; M. flavigula. 



Flinders Ranges, SA; Anthochoera chrysop- 
tera, Naracoorte, and Mt. Barker, SA; A. 
carunculata, Adelaide, Eyre Peninsula and 
Yorke Peninsula, SA. 

The male of this species is of medium size, 
with a short buccal capsule almost as wide as 
long. The left spicule is rounded, with a small 
cleft at the tip. The right spicule is simple, 
rounded at the tip. There is no gubernaculum. 



THE GENUS MICROTETRAMEKES TRAVASSOS IN AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 



240 



The body of the female is twisted into a 
reversed spiral, sometimes twiee reversed, The 
buccal capsule is barrel-shaped. There is a 
short intestinal caecum. This species is closest 
to M. philemon n.sp., in which the left spicule is 
longer and the spicule ratio greater; to M. sagnei 
Barns (1966) from Myadestes sp. (Turdidae) 
from Cuba, and to M. gymnorhinae n.sp. in 
both of which however the buccal capsule is 
elongate. 



of size, as the spicule ratio is quite different. The 
hilt of the left spicule is similar to that of M. 
meliphagidae, and the ratio between the lengths 
of the left spicule and the body, the egg size, and 
the shape of the female body ( though not its 
size) are similar in the two species. The size of 
the body and spicules are somewhat similar to 
those of M. oriolus oriolus but the buccal cap- 
sule and eggs are smaller. 



Microtctramercs philemon n.sp. 
Figs. 26-28; Table 4 

Hosts and localities; Philemon argenticeps, 
Coomalie Creek and Berrimah, NT; P. 
citreogularis, (?s), Coomalie Creek, NT; 
Entymyzon cyanotis, (immature 9 s), Edith 
R. and Yam Creek, NT. 

All the specimens of Microtetrameres taken 
from honcyeaters in the Northern Territory are 
distinctly larger than those from South Australia. 
The specimens from Entomyzon, though 
immature, are larger and have a larger buccal 
capsule than those of a similar stage from 
Acanthogenys ritfognlaris from South Australia, 
and are similar to some from Philemon sp. The 
distinction between the two groups is not only 



Microtetraineres mirafrae n.sp. 

Figs. 26-28; Table 4 

Host and locality: Mirafra javanica, '? loc, NT 
(6 -is, I imm. 9 ); Microeca leucophaea, 
Newcastle Waters, NT ( 1 i ) ; Blanche- 
town, SA (1 2 ), Waikerie, SA (3 young 
9s). 

These are small worms, in some ways resem- 
bling M. meliphagidae but the buccal capsule is 
more elongate and the left spicule shorter with 
a more slender hilt. The only females in the 
collections are immature. The male specimen 
from Microeca is very similar in shape and pro- 
portions to those from Mirafra. The females 
from Microeca from SA are placed in this species 
because they are from the same host species. 



TABLE 4 

Measurements of Mkrotttrameres miiajhte, M. gymnorhinae, M. streperae and M. cractici 
Unless otherwise indicated, measurements are in /un. 



Species 



Host species 



Number of specimens. 



M mirafrae 




M. gymnorhinae 



Microeca \Gymnorhinat. 
leucophaea \ tibicen 



G. tibicen 
leuconota 



Mean of 

all from 

Gymnorhina 

sp. 



M. streperae ' M. eractici 



Male: 




Length (mm) 


18-20 




4S0 560 




J 70-2 1 




12 13 




125-140 




145 170 


Fxcr. pore 


148 160 


Spicule — Left 


1 100-1 200 


Right .... 


80-92 


Ratio 


131 150 


Left spicule — Length 


1-3 1-7 


Hilt . 


19-27 


Factor .,,... 


30-40 


Tail 


115-130 


Female: 




Oesophagus- Total 


— 


Muse 


— 


Buccal capsule— Length . . - 


— 


Rreadth . . 


— 


Tail 


— 


Post, end vulva 


— 




— 


Breadth 


— 



1-4 

470 

190 

12 

100 

120 

120 

I 060 

80 

13-3 

1-3 

14 

3 

120 

650 
190 

19 
80 

90 
140 



2-3-2-9 
750? 080 
230-290 

14-19 

130-190 

1 S5-230 

150-180 

I 500 I 830 

90 124 
15-2-17-0 

1-3-1-7 

32-36 
3 3 4-2 
130-180 

1 300 1 320 

280-310 

17-20 

II 12 

120-130 

280-290 

49-5-50-6 

30-8-33 



16 



2-2-3*2 
620-800 
215-300 

14 17 

130-165 

155-190 

145-200 

1 400-1 960 

100 120 

142-182 

1-4-1-8 

26 38 

3-3-4-4 

130-160 

1 150 

250 

17 20 

II 

190 

300 

49-5 

30-8-33-0 



Slrepera 
versicolor 



2-6 

751 

245 

16 

151 

168 

171 

1 685 

113 

142 

1-6 

34 

3-7 



31 
900 
260 
14 
150 



2 100 
100 
210 
15 
45 
50 
150 

I 600-1 800 

330 400 

14-17 

12-13 

190 200 

340 350 

50-6-550 

33-34- 1 



Cruclicus 
loratiatus 



1-3-1-7 
530-580 
195-210 

13-16 
135 150 
150-170 
150 165 
860-1 000 

80-100 
8-6 11-2 

L5-I-7 

26-32 

41-4-6 

110 



250 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., (17-14): 239-259 



February, 1977 




29 



35 





Figs. 24-25, M. phileinon. 24, posterior end of male; 25, hilt of left spicule. Figs. 26-28, M. mirafrae. 
26, anterior end of male; 27, posterior end of male; 28, hilt of left spicule. Figs. 29-35, M. gymnorhinae. 
29, anterior end of male; 30, head of male; 31, posterior end of male; 32, hilt of left spicule; 33 and 34, tips 
of two left spicules; 35, posterior end of female. Figs. 25, 28, 30, 32, 33 and 34 to same scale; Figs. 24, 

26, 27, 29 and 31 to same scale. 



I HE GENUS MICROTETRAMERES TRAVASSOS IM AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 



251 



In the spicule ratio and the ratio of the lengths 
of the left spicule and the body, this species is 
very close to M. jakttlensis Kontriraavichus, 
1958, from species of Alauda, Motacilla, Anthus 
and Prunella, but as it is impossible to compare 
the hilt of the left spicule and as females are not 
present in the Australian species, it is considered 
wiser to regard the Australian species as distinct, 
pending further information. 



Microtetrameres gymnorhiuae n.sp. 

Figs, 29-35; Table 4 

Hosts and localities: Gymnorhina tibicen tibicen, 
Canberra, ACT; G, tibicen leuconota. 
Clarendon, Victor Harbor, One Tree Hill, 
Ashbourne, Blackwood, Naracoorte, SA. 

Microtetrameres specimens from Gymnorhina 
spp. are about the same overall size as those from 
honeyeaters. They are differentiated in the male 
mainly by the characters of the left spicule, 
which is rather shorter and has a more elongate 
hilt and in both sexes by the more elongate 
buccal capsnle. 

Tn many specimens the tip of the left spicule, 
which as in all the Australian species is enclosed 
in a small ala, is incompletely chitinised so that 
it appears bifid or broken. 

The female body forms a complex coil, often 
twice reversed and sometimes with the tail end 
passing between the coils. The whole coil is 
about the same size as that of M. meliphagidae. 



Microtetrameres streperae n.sp. 
Figs. 36-40; Table 4 

Host and locality; Strepera versicolor, Waikeric. 

SA (1 5, 4 9s). 

The tip of the left spicule is bifid, within the 
terminal ala. The female body forms an irregu- 
lar coil reversed two or three times. No intestinal 
diverticulum was seen. The egg is larger than 
that of most other Australian species. 

In most measurements it resembles M. parac- 
cipiter but the buccal capsule is shorter and the 
shape of the hilt of the left spicule is different. 
It differs from M. gymnorhiuae (from a host 
species closely related to Strepera) chiefly in the 
spicule ratio and the shape of the hilt of the left 
spicule, 

Microtetrameres cractici n.sp. 
Figs. 41-42; Table 5 

Host and locality: Cracticus torquatus. Eyre 
Peninsula, SA (3 is). 

The tip of the left spicule is entire and 
rounded, lying within the terminal ala. 

The species is close to M. asymmetrica 
Oshmarin, 1956, from Lanis sp., USSR, and to 
M, minima (Travassos. 1914) from Tachyphonns 
sp., Brazil, These three species arc very similar 
in such measurements as are available. The male 
of M. minima is briefly described and poorly 
figured. M. asymetrica differs from M. cractici 
in having the tail longer in comparison with the 
length of the right spicule and in the shape of the 
hilt of the left spicule. 



TABLE 5 

Measurements of Mivmlfltriunemi arioliiX, M. cacamanifs, M. acgolheles, bf- coracinac, M. spltccorheres, and M. copsaltriae. 
Unless otherwise indicated, all measurements arc in |im. 







M. 










M. 


M. 




At. oruilus 


cucwnaniis 


M aegorheles 




M. coravinae 




sphecotheres 


eopsaltriar 




Orhlux 


CncomaiUi\ 


Aegotlwles 


Coracina 


C. navae- 


Cuculus 


Sphecotheres 


Eapsallria 




xtifjittatttx 


varioloatiK 


cristata 


hypoleura 


hrillandhe 


palliilus 


flaviventrh 


austratis 


Number of specimens . . .,. 


1 7 


1 1 


I 


2 


1 


Mult- 




















3-4 


3 1-13 


20 


2-1 


1-7 


2-6 


2-0-2-3 


2-6 


Oesophagus — TOtol ..ii 


710 


Will 900 


— 




480 


_ 


700 <!x) 


690 


MUSf , . a . 


100 


270 (1\\ 


310 


— 


. 


__ 


190-200 


220 




If. 


If. 22 


13 


13 


ii 


11 


16-17 


11 


Ant end Nerve ring . . , 


ISO 


140 200 


200 


— 


— 


_ 


1.10-132 


140 


Cefv. pftp - . 


— 


160(10 


240 










132-135 


170 


Ebttr. pore 


180 


155 (1.0 




— 


_ 


_ 


142 (Ix) 


170 


Spicule— Left 


3 000 


1 900 2 250 


1 250 


1 400 


1 200 


I 150 


1 000-1 100 


1420 




no 


130-150 


75 


100 


90 


115 


95 115 


130 




27-3 


14-2-16 1 


16-6 


140 


LK1 


1 1-7 


9 II 


101 


Utfl Spicule — Length ......... 


II 


1-6-1" 


If. 


1-5 


1-4 


14 


20-2-3 


IK 


Hilt L. . . . 


26 


S5-78 


27 


37 


47 


SO 


16 -1(1 


27 


Mill fiiclni . tlTI 


2-5 


6-0-81 


3-S 


7-9 


fr3 


6 1 


4-7 5 6 


3-7 




155 


120- 145 


130 


130 


100 





130-150 


120 


I'trnutr: 




















— 


i iso 


850- 1 000 


[1*1 


— 








_ 


Muse 


— 


330 


110 


— 


- - 


— 


— 


295 


Buccal capfiuk — Lcngih 


— 


19-20 


13 


14 


— 




_ 


17 


Breadth i 


— 


11 


9 


11 


— - 


— . 


_ 


10 


Toil 


— 


160 


190 


— 


. — 


. 


_ 


160 




^ 


300 


320-330 














220 






44 


45 


44 








44 


Breadth 


— 


28 


25-26 


29 


— 


— 


~~ 


31 



252 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., (17-14): 239-259 



February, 1977 




Figs. 36-40, M. streperae. 36, posterior end of male; 37, hilt of left spicule; 38, entire female; 39, posterior end 
of female; 40, egg. Figs. 41-42, M. craclicis. 41, posterior end of male; 42, hilt of left spicule. Figs. 43-45, 
M. cacomantis. 43, posterior end of male; 44, hilt of left spicule; 45, posterior end of female. Fig. 46, 
M. coracina, hilt of left spicule. Figs. 47-48, M. sphecotheres. Al, posterior end of male; 48, hilt of left 
spicule. Figs. 36, 41, 43 and 47 to same scale; Figs. 37, 40, 42, 44, 46 and 48 to same scale; Figs. 39 and 

45 to same scale. 



fHK GENUS MICRVTE'IRAMERES TRAVASSOS IN AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 



253 



Microletrameres cacomantis n.sp. 
Figs. 43-45; Tabic 5 
Host and locality: Cacomantis variolosus, Tober- 
mory, NT (7 <J s, 2 9 s). 

The mules are distinguished by a combination 
and a low spicule ratio. The body of the female 
forms a more or less spherical knot from which 
of a short left spicule with a long slender hilt, 
head and tail protrude; one is a simple and one a 
reversed spiral. 

The species is perhaps nearest to M, centuri 
Barus, 1966, from a Cuban pieiforme bird, and 
M. cerci n.sp. from an Australian harrier. It is 
distinguished from both of these by the spicule 
ratio and actual spicule lengths, and from M, 
cerci by the shape of the hilt of the left spicule. 

Microtetrameres coracinae n.sp. 
Fig. 46; Table 5 
Hosts and localities: Coracina novaehollandiae 
(hi. 3 juv. 9 s) from Culburra, SA; C. 
hypoleuca (IS, I broken 9 ) Katherine, 
NT; Cucalliis pallidas (JO, Casuarina 
Beach, NT. 

Although the three male specimens come from 
very different localities they are very similar in 
general morphology and in measurements. They 
resemble M, cacomantis but are distinguished by 
the shorter spicules, and the fact that the right 
spicule is shorter than the tail. The specimens 
are not in good condition, but the chitinous parts 
are unimpaired. The shape of the hilt of the left 
spicule (Fig. 46) distinguishes this from all 
other Australian species. 

Microtetrameres spliccotheres n.sp. 

Figs. 47-48; Tabic 5 

Host and locality: Sphecotheres flaviventris, 
Katherine Gorge, NT ( 3 <Js). 

The tip of the left spicule is indented and 
a late. The species is nearest to M, tytonis (des- 
cribed below) and M, oriolus oriolux, It is dis- 
tinguished from the former by the length of the 
buccal capsule, from the latter by the length of 
the left spicule in relation to the body length, and 
from both by the shape of the hilt of the left 
spicule. 

Microtetrameres aegothcles n.sp. 
Figs. 49-52. Table 5 
Host and locality: Aegotheles crista ta, Tvlarkar- 
anka, NT (1 3 ,2 9s). 



In the male the hilt of the left spicule is dis- 
tinctly narrower than the shaft, a circumstance 
not seen in any other Australian specimen. The 
female forms a reversed spiral. There is a bulge, 
probably a diverticulum, at the anterior end of 
the intestine. The species is similar in many 
features to M. saguei Barus, differing in the 
shorter left spicule and in the ratio of tail length 
to that of the right spicule. 



Microtetrameres eopsaltriae n.sp. 

Figs. 53-54; Table 5 

Host and locality: Eopsaltria australis, Heather- 
leigh, SA (U , 19). 

The tip of the left spicule is not fully chiti- 
nised. The right spicule is longer than the tail. 

The female body forms a spiral reversed 
about its mid-length. 

The measurements of this species are closest 
to those of M. cerci n.sp.; the buccal capsule 
however, is much shorter, 



Microtetrameres paraceipiter n.sp, 

Figs 58-61; Tables 6 and 7 

Hosts and localities: Accipiter fascial us from 
Darwin (9). (Type host and locality 1 ), 
Kunoth Wells (<$.)„ and Petermann Range 
( 9 ) NT; Happy Valley ( 9 ) and Mallala 
( 9 ) SA; Longford, fas < 9 ); Brisbane. 
Qld ( 9). 

The male and female specimens listed above 
are placed together here only because they occur 
in the same host species, but in no case were both 
males and females in the same host specimen. 
The female body forms an elongate simple spiral 
(Fig, 61); the morphology and the measure- 
ments of the eggs and buccal capsule are similar 
in all the females present. No intestinal caecum 
was observed. The male worms are very similar 
to those of M. accipiter Schell in measurements 
and appearance, and the species are separated on 
characters of the females, which in M, parac- 
eipiter lack the longitudinal flange on the body, 
and the intestinal caecum described for M. acci- 
piter. It seems more likely that the male worms 
from A. jasciatns ifl Australia belong to the 
same species as the female worms lrom the same 
host species than that they belong to M. accipiter 
Schell from an American host. 



254 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., (17-14): 239-259 



February, 1977 




Figs. 49-52, M. aegotheles. 49, posterior end of male; 50 hilt of left spicule; 51, entire female; 52, anterior end 
of female. Figs. 53-54, M. eopsallriae. 53, posterior end of male; 54, hilt of left spicule. Fig. 55, M. bubo, 
hilt of left spicule. Fig. 56, M. aquila, hilt of left spicule. Fig. 57, M. accipiter, hilt of left spicule. 
Figs. 58-61, M. paraccipiter. 58, anterior end of male; 59, posterior end of male; 60, hilt of left spicule; 
61, entire female in proventricuiar gland of host. Figs. 49, 53 and 58 to same scale; Figs. 50, 54, 55, 56 and 

57 to same scale; Figs. 51 and 61 to same scale. 



THE GENUS MICROTETRAMERES TRAVASSOS IN AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 



255 



TABLE 6 

Measurement* of mule specimens of Mlrmtetrameres paraccipiler, Af. crrel, A/, raplotis, M, n'mortis. M. lywnis and M. sp. from Tyto alba. 

Unless otherwise indicated, measurements are in pm. 



Spades 

Host Species . . . 



puraccipitcr 



M 



A/, ruptoris 



Accipiter 
fauiatus 



Cercus 
tux&ntlfx 



Folco 
peregrinus 



Locality 

Number of specimens .... 

Lenth 

Oesophagus — Total . 

un 

Buccal capsule 

Ant. end — Nerve ring 

Cerv. pap 

Btdr. pore . 

Spicule — Left 

Right 

Ratio 

L/lcft spicule — I ength , 

HillL 

Hilt factor 

Tail 



Kuneth 

Wells, 

Northern 

Territory 



34.3 7 
901), 950 

250, i&a 

16.20 
140. ISO 
I M0. 200 
180, 180 
2 000, 2 400 
110,120 
18-2,2011 
1-7, 1-5 
27,11 
30. 33 
120.140 



Petermunn 
Ra., 

Northern 
Territory 



South 
Australia 



10 



2-1-3-3 
530-800 



21-25 



I 400- I 920 
115-150 
10 4-160 
1-5-1-8 
20-32 
2>$ 53 
110-130 



33-3-8 

I 200-1 400 

230 290 

19-20 
130-160 
180-210 
155-180 
1 750-2 000 
100-150 
13-20 
1-7-2-1 
29-36 
3'0-4-0 
100-150 



F. beriyona 



Northern 
Territory 
and South 
Australia 



2-2-2-6 

600-750 

165 

16-20 

105 

110 

110 

I 250 I 490 

80-105 

135-170 

1-5-1-9 

18-27 

25-2-9 

130-170 



Mnox sp. 



Northern 
Territory 



2-1-3-0 
810-1 200 



19-20 



I 510-1 630 

90- 130 
12 5-16-8 
1-4-18 
20-24 
25-3-3 
150-190 



Af, mnocti* 



N'uwx sp. 



Northern South 
Territory Australia 



3-4 


2-6. 3-2 


1 250 


?, 1 130 


300 


7,310 


20 


17,21 


170 


?, 160 


200 


7.210 


205 


7, 185 


2 250 


2 490, 2 500 


100 


100, 110 


22-5 


22-7. 24-9 


15 


II, 13 


20 


18.13 


1-8 


1-4. 2-5 


160 


160, 160 



Af. tyrants M. sp, 



Tyto alba 



Northern 
Territory 



2 9-3 1 

850-950 

240-250 

20-22 

140 

170-185 

150-170 

I 200-1 250 

115-135 

9-3- 10-4 

2-4-2-8 

15-21 

16 1-9 

150-155 



Tyto 
alba 



Northern 
Territory 



I 



3'9 
850 
250 
26 
180 
220 

I 900 
160 
11-9 

43 

4-2 
170 



TABLE 7 

Measurements of lemales of Microtttrameres paraccipiler, M. raploris, Af. ninoctH. M. tytmux, and M. sp, from A. cirrhocrphaliis. 

All measurements are in ftm. 



Species . . ..... . 


A/, /mract'tpiter 


Af. 


sp. 


A/, rnptnrls 


Af. ninoclis 


Af. tytonls 














Falco 






Slinos tinvac* 






Ac 


:ipitcr fasciutus 


A, cirrbncephiiliis 


peregrinus 


F. berigora 


F. la/igipemtis 


aeelumlkte 


lytt alba 




Northern 


South 






South 


South 


South 


Northern 


Northern 


Northern 




Territory' 


Australia 


Tasmania 


Tasmania 


Australia 


Australia 


Australia 


Territory 


Territory 


Territory 


Oesophagus — Total .... 


J 400 


2000 


1 800 


1300 


1 300 


! 100-2 140 


1 300-1 400 


1 050-1 400 


i 500 


1 300-1 400 


Ant 


260 


240 


270 


230 


200 


210-290 


200 240 


230-270 


250 


140 


Ant. end nerve ring .... 


130 


140 


120 


100 


100 


140-170 


110-120 


— 


— - 


260-290 


Buccal capsule — Length 


15 


19 


17 


15 


13 


1 7-20 


19 


17-20 


21 


15-17 


Breadth 


10 


II 


10 


10 


10 


10-12 


10 


10-11 


11 


9-10 




250 




200 


180 


140 


150-190 


100-210 


150-170 


— 


200 280 




400 





3110 


310 


280 


250-330 


230-320 


250-290 


— 


340-380 


Egg — Length 


44-^15 


44-46 


— 


46-49 


44 


50 


— 


43 


46 


42-44 




23-24 


24 26 




23 24 


24 


2B 




26 27 


26 


24-27 







Microtetrameres ccrci n.sp. 
Figs 62-65; Tables 6 and 7 
Host and locality; Circus assimilis, Petermann 
Ranges, NT (12 is, no 9 s). 

Some of these specimens, all collected front a 
single host were found actually in the wall of 
the proventriculus between the glands. The 
buccal capsule is relatively long, the cloacal lips 
are outstanding. The tip of the left spicule is 
not divided, but there is an annular groove 
shortly before the tip (Fig. 65). In some speci- 
mens there is a definite chitinisation of the dorsal, 
wall of the gubernaculum, but this is not present 
in all. The lips of the cloaca are more prominent 
in this than in any other Australian species. 

The species is distinguished from A/, aqitila 
and M, bubo by the greater spicule ratio; in 
measurements and proportions it is perhaps 
closest to M. centuri Barus and M. cacomantis 
n.sp., but is distinguished from the former by 
the very prominent cloacal lips from the latter 
by the shape of the hilt of the left spicule, and 



from both by the rather different, though over- 
lapping, range of measurements. Among Aus- 
tralian species, the measurements are closest to 
those of M. gymnorhinae, but the species are 
distinguished by the length of the tail compared 
to that of the right spicule. 

Microtetrameres raptoris n.sp. 

Figs. 66-74; Tables 6 and 7 

Hosts and localities: Falco peregrinus, Pt. 
Augusta, SA (5 is, 14 9s) (type host and 
locality), Mallala, SA ( 1 6 , 19); F. beri- 
gora, Blanchetown, SA, Robe, SA (9s), 
Petermann Ranges, NT, F. cencliroides, 
Meningie, SA (2 is, 1 9); F, longipennis, 
Humpty Doo, NT ( 9s); Ninox novae- 
seelandiae, Petermann Ranges, NT (4 rS s, 
juv. 2). 

The buccal capsule is elongate, The. tip of the 
left spicule is bifid (within the terminal ala) and 
the hilt is stoutly built, tapering very slightly. It 
is slightly shorter, but similar in general shape, 



256 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., (17-14): 239-259 



February, 1977 




. 62-65, M. cerei. 62, anterior end of male; 63, posterior end of male; 64, hilt of left spicule; 65, tip of left 

spicule. Figs. 66-73, M. raptoris, 66, anterior end of male; 67, posterior end of male; 68, 69, 70 and 71, 

hilts of left spicules from Falco peregljlius, F. berigora. F. ceiicbroulc.s, and Ninox novaescelamliae, 

respectively; 72, tip of left spicule; 73. female worm; 74, posterior end of female. Figs. 62, 63, 66 and 67 to 

same scale; Figs. 64, 65, 68, 69, 70, 71 and 72 to same scale. 



in the specimens from F. berigora (Fig. 69) and 
F. cenchroides (Fig. 70) than in those from the 
other hosts (Figs. 68, 71 ), The right spieule is 
not more than two-thirds the length of the tail. 
In all specimens there is a distinct guhernaculum, 
most heavily chitinised in the type specimens. 

The body of the female forms a spiral, usually 
simple, in a few cases reversed. The intestine 
forms two short caeca at its junction with the 
oesophagus. There were no females with fer- 
tilised eggs in any specimen from F. berigora. 

Two male and one female specimens from 
Falco cenchroides were broken, so measurements 
are not given. Their general appearance, the 
hilts of the left spicules and the egg size agreed 
with those of the other specimens from Falco 
spp. The females from F. kmgipennis and those 
from F. berigora from Robe agree with those 
from the Blanchetown, but the identification is 
not certain. 

Of the species in which a distinct gubernacu- 
lum has been described, the males of these Aus- 
tralian specimens fall closest to M, mirzxie 



Rasheed, 1960, M. osmaniae Rasheed, I960 and 
M. creplini Vavilova, 1926. They differ in the 
shorter gubernaculum and the shorter buccal 
capsule from the first two of these. M. creplini 
was described from Accipiter niseus from the 
U.S.S.R., from male specimens only: as the 
females cannot be compared it is safer to des- 
cribe the Australian specimens as a separate 
species. 

Microtetrameres ninoctis n.sp 

Figs. 75-78, Tables 6 and 7 

Host and localities: Ninox novaeseelandiae, Ber- 
rimah, NT (I £ , 4 9 s); Adelaide, SA 

(2 is, 2 9s). 

The three male worms are similar in measure- 
ments, but in those from South Australia the 
hilt of the left spicule is rather longer. 

The tips of the left spicules are different in the 
three specimens — one bifid, one rounded and 
one truncated. A very slight chitinisation, 30/xin 
long, of the dorsal wall of the cloaca, which 



I HK Gl-NUS MICROTETRAMERES TRAVASSOS IN AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 



iy, 





77 



78 



81 




Figs. 75-78, M. ninoctis. 75, anterior end of male; 76, posterior end of male; 77 and 78, hilts of left spicules 
from specimens from Berrimah and Adelaide, respectively. Figs. 79-82, M. tytonis. 79, anterior end of 
male; 80, posterior end of male; 81, hilt of left spicule; 82. egg. Figs. 75 and 79 to same scale; Figs. 76 and 
80 to same scale; Figs. 77, 78, 81 and 81 to same scale. 



could be called a small thin gubernaculum, is 
present in two specimens, one of them from 
Berrimah. 

The female specimens are broken and the 
form of the spiral is uncertain. Only one con- 
tained fertile eggs. 

These specimens differ from M. raptohs 
recorded from the same host species chiefly in 
the very much longer left spicule and the differ- 
ent spicule ratio. Among specimens in which a 
gubernaculum is present, the length of the left 
spicule brings it closest to M. egretes Rasheed, 
1960 (from an egret) but the gubernaculum of 
the male, the buccal capsule of both sexes, and 
the length of the eggs, are all shorter than those 
of M. egretes, 

Microtetrameres tytonis n.sp. 
Figs. 77-80, Tables 6 and 7 

HoM and locality: Tyto alba, Banka Banka, NT 

( 4 6 s, 5 9 s ) . 

Of the six male Microtetrameres found in the 
only host specimen, four (the type material for 
M. tytonis) were similar, the fifth was without 
any spicules, and the sixth was very different, in 
relative length of the left spicule, in the longer 
hilt of the left spicule, and in the length of the 
buccal capsule. The measurements of this sixth 



specimen are given separately in Table 6 as it 
may belong to another species, or may be 
another aberrant form. 

The left spicule in the four similar males is 
short, considerably less than half the body 
length; as in some other species the tip is not 
well chitinised, looking like a collection of refrac 
tile pieces in the terminal ala. 

The body of the female forms a long spiral, 
reversed in the most posterior coil. The eggs, 
which contain a spiny-headed larva (Fig. 80). 
are more strongly curved on one side than the 
other, and the operculum, presumably present, is 
not distinct. 

The species is closest to M. sphecotheres in 
which the hilt of the left spicule is longer, and 
to M. raptoris — in which the left spicule ranges 
from just less than i to jj the body length — bui 
in which the spicule ratio is very different. 

Microtetrarnercs spp. 

Female worms only were taken from the fol- 
lowing hosts: — 

Accipiter cirrhocephalns, from Koonamore, 
SA, and Flinders Island, Tas. The measurements 
of five females from SA and 1 from Flinders 
Island showed a small difference in the size of the 
buccal capsule and in the shape of the eggs, from 



258 



RF.C. S. AUSI, MUS„ (17-14): 259-259 



February, 1977 



those of M. paraccipiwr. Because of this and 
because no male is present, the specimens from 

A, cirrlwcephalus have not been allotted to a 
species. In other respects the specimens from 
the two host species are similar. 

Lnhge sueuii tricolor, Mt Barker, SA (29s); 
Sandy Creek. SA (2 9 s). AH without embryon- 
ated eggs. The buccal capsule is 14 x 10 fim, 

Oreoica gutfitmlis, Waikehe, SA (1 9 ). Peter- 
mann Ranges, NT, (1 juvenile 9 ). The buccal 
capsule of the specimen from Waikerie is 12 x 
1 ,.»,m, the eggs 44 x 22 itflt. 

Ptibris sp., two females, without fertile eggs. 
Buccal capsule 10 x 11 //,ni. 

Anthus ertistralis, Reynella, SA, one female 
only, without fertile eggs. 

Cacomantis pyrrhophamts, Gravelly Beach, 
Tas ( 1 5 ) with infertile eggs and Hamley Bridge, 
SA (3 immature 9 s), The adult female is coiled 
in a reversed spiral. The barrel-shaped buccal 
capsule is J 6-5 /xtn long. HjOti wide. The 
specimen is very similar to the female of M. 
cacomantis n.sp., but is impossible to identify 
positively on the material available. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

Many of the bird carcases from which Micro- 
tetrameres spp. were obtained were given by the 
South Australian Museum, or by the Northern 
Territory Administration (Animal Industry and 
Agriculture Branch). Others were given by 
various friends, the late Dr. M. Smyth. Mrs. J. 
Paton. Dr. R. Swaby and Dr. I. Bevendge. 
Hosts from Tasmania were sent by Dr. B. M tin- 
day of the Mt. Pleasant Laboratories of the Tas- 
manian Department of Agriculture, and by Mr. 

B. Green of the Victoria Museum, Launceston. 

Pararype material was lent by Dr. S. C. Schcll 
of the University of Idaho, and the types of 
M. helix by Dr. Lichtenfels of the U.S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture Research Service, Bellsville. 

For assistance with the use of the Scanning 
Electron Microscope ( Plate 1 ) I am indebted to 
Dr. Carl Bartusck, of the Geology Department, 
University of Adelaide. 

I am more than grateful for all this help. 

REFERENCES 

All". M M., 1970. Observations on the family Tropisondac 
YamagULi, 1961 (Nematoda. Spiruiidea ) with a revised 
classification of ihe genus Ircpisiirus (Dieting. 1835) 
and a description of four new species. Acta I'arasit. 
pal. 18: 85-98. 



Burn!,, V., 1966. Nematodes de la Familm Tropisuridae 
Yamagliti, 1961, PiUtVHtO? tie Ave* de Cuba. Ptjevtma 
Ser. A No. 20: 1-22. 

Barus. V.. 1969. Nematodes parasitic in the buds of Cuba. 
fv.v/. fcrf Spat. z<><>!. 33: 193-210. 

Boyd, L. M.i 1956. two new species of stomach worms 
(Nematoda: Spiriuoiilen) from the Blue iay, Cytmo- 
cittn crlxtnla L Proc. Helm. Sot: Wash. 23: 69-74. 

Cram, E. B., 1927. Bird parasites of the nematode suh- 
ordc-rs Strongylatn Ascandata and Spirurata. Hull. 
VS. National Museum 140: 465 pp. 

Diaz Unarm, C, 1965. Nematodes parasitos de aves de 
Calabozo. ,S'ex.\ Venezottuiti tic ciens. nut. 26: 1 03- 
128. 

Fills', C. J.. 1969, life history of Mtcrotetrumcres centuri 
Barus. 1966 (Nematoda: Teliamendae) 11 Adults. J. 
Parusit. 55: 713-719. 

Ellis. C. J., 1972. Comparative measurements and host and 
geographical distribution of species of Microteiramercs 
(Nematoda: Tetrameiidae). Iowa State J .Sri. 
46: 29-47, 

KontHmavictus, V. L., 1958, Studies on the helminth 
fauna of passeiiformc birds of Y'akutya. Works of the 
Expeditions of the Helminthological Laboratory 
Academy Sciences, U.S.S.R. (1945-19571: 141-150 (in 
Russian ). 

l.instow. D. von, 1879. Hclminthologisebe studien Mrrliiw 
f. Nat urn. ptrffll 7: 165- 1 XX. 

Mawson, P. M- 1956. Three new species of spirurid 
nematodes from Canadian birds. Can /. Zoo. 34: 
193-199. 

Morgan, B. B. and Waller. F. F., 1941. Some parasites of 
the eastern crow (("u/*w;.v hmclivrhx minis UnnU\- 
rhynchos- Brehm). Bird Banding 12: 16-22. 

Orllepp. R. J., 1964. Some helminths recovered (torn Red- 
and Yellow-billed Hornbills from Ihe Kruger National 
Park. Ondcrsrepvort J. vet. Res. 31: 39-52. 

Oshmarin. P. G.. 1956. Tetrameiidae (Nematoda Tetra- 
meiidae) of domestic and wild birds of coastal areas. 
Trudy Akad. Nauk U S.S.R. Far ha-H finuith. 
Zoological Series, 3: 281-314. (In Russian.) 

Petrov, A. M. and Tschertokova, A. N., 1950. Contribu- 
tion to the Htudy of the nematode fauna of birds of 
southern Kirgi/Jia. Truth Gclnitnt l.tib. 4: 90-99. 

Rasheed. S., 1960. The nematode parasilcs of the birds of 
Hyderabad (India). Bloiot>ia Lahore 6: 1-16. 

Schell, S. C. 1953. Four new species of Micratetranwres 
(Nematoda: Spiruroidea I Irom North American buds 
Tniir:. Ant Microsc. Soc. 72: 227-236. 

Seural. L. G„ 1915. Snr deux Tropidocerca des Ardeidac 
Coiupi. Rend. Soc. hiol Paris 78: 279-282. 

Skrjabin, K. I. and Sobolev. A. A., 1963. (Parasites of 
animals and man. Vol. II. Spirurata: Spuuroidea I 
572 pp. (In Russian.) 

Sultana, A., 1962. On some known and new species of the 
family Tetrameiidae Truvassos, 1914, from Indian 
birds. J. Helminth. 36: .327-338. 

Travassos, I .. 1914. Conlribnicoes para o conheeimento da 
fauna hclminlologica brasilcira. 4, Sohre as cspecies 
brasileiras do genero Tetrameres Creplin. 1846 (Por- 
tuguese and German texts.) Mem. Insi. Ostvaldo 
Cruz 6: 150-162. 

Travassos, I.., 1915. Sohre as cspecies brasileiras dc genero 
Ttlranwres Cplin (Sic\ 1846 (Nola previa). Jttruzd- 
Mcdicu 29: 297-298. 

Vavilova. N. M.. 1926. (Vogelneniatodcn des Moskaucr 
Gouvernements.) Truth tiosudarstv. Inst. Eksper. Vet., 
Moskva 3: 111-131. (Russian, German summary). 

Weidman, F.. 1913. A study of mctazoan parasites found 
in the Philadelphia zoological gardens. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Set. Phil. 65: 126-151. 



THE GENUS MICROTETRAMERES TRAVASSOS IN AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 



259 



LIST OF SPECIES 

Family Tetrameridae 
Microtetrameres Travassos 

M. helix Cram. syn. M. corax Schell 

M. oriolus Petrov and Tschertkova 

M. meliphagidae n.sp. 

M. philemon n.sp. 

M. mirafrae n.sp. 

M. gymnorhinae n.sp. 

M. streperae n.sp. 

M. cacomantis n.sp. 

M. coracinae n.sp. 



M. sphecotheres n.sp. 
M. aegotheles n.sp. 
M. eopsaltriae n.sp. 
M. paraccipiter n.sp. 
M. cere/ n.sp. 
M. raptoris n.sp. 
M. ninoctis n.sp. 
M. tytonis n.sp. 
M. accipiter Schell 
M. 6h6o Schell 
M. aquila Schell 




Plate 1. Head of Microtetrameres helix, female, S.E. micrograph. X 8000. The lateral lobes of the lips became 
wrinkled and shrunken in drying the specimen, but the median lobes, with the amphids, are clear. 



RECORDS OF THE 
SOUTH AUSTRALIAN 

MUSEUM 



TAXONOMIC STUDIES OF SOME 
AUSTRALIAN LEPTODACTYLID 
FROGS OF THE GENUS 
CYCLORANA STEIN DACHNER 



By 

MICHAEL J. TYLER AND ANGUS A. MARTIN 



SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 
North Terrace, Adelaide 
South Australia 5000 



VOLUME 17 

NUMBER 15 

1st March, 1977 



TAXONOMIC STUDIES OF SOME AUSTRALIAN LEPTODACTYLID 
FROGS OF THE GENUS CYCLORANA STEINDACHNER 



by Michael J. Tyler and Angus A. Martin 



Summary 



The Australian leptodactylid frogs Cyclorana brevipes and C. cultripes are here redefined on the 
basis of adult morphology and mating calls. Frogs variously reported to be these species from 
Western Australia, the Northern Territory, Queensland and New South Wales are shown to 
represent different species. Five new species are described here. 



TAXONOMIC STUDIES OF SOME AUSTRALIAN LEPTODACTYLID FROGS OF THE 

GENUS CYCLORANA STEINDACHNER 

by 

MICHAEL J. TYLER* AND ANGUS A. MARTI Nt 



ABSTRACT 

TYLER, M. J., and MARTIN, A. A. 1976. Taxonomie 
studies of some Auslrulian leptodactylid frogs of Ihe genus 
Cyclorana Steindachner. Rvc. S. Just. Mus. 17 (IS): 261-276. 

The Australian leptodactylid frogs Cyclorana 
brevipes and C. cultripes are here redefined on the 
basis of adult morphology and mating calls. 
Frogs variously reported to be these species from 
Western Australia, the Northern Territory, 
Queensland and New South Wales are shown to 
represent different species. Five new species are 
described here, 

INTRODUCTION 

The leptodactylid frogs of the genus Cyclorana 
Steindachner occur throughout Australia with the 
exception of the extreme south-eastern and south- 
western portions of the continent, As defined by 
Parker (1940) the genus comprises seven species 
and, although its content has been changed 
substantially by subsequent workers, the total of 
species has been maintained, The additions are 
C tlevitu Lovcridge (1950) from southeast Queens- 
land, and the type species C. novaehollaiuliae 
Steindachner which was resurrected from the 
synonymy of C. aastralis (Gray) by Tyler & 
Martin (1975). The species recognised by Parker 
but subsequently removed from the genus are 
C. inermis and C, alboguttatus, which were shown 
by Straughan (1969) and Tyler (1974) respectively 
to be hylid frogs of the genus Litoria, Cogger 
(1975). on seemingly arbitrary grounds, retains 
alboguttatus in Cyclorana. However, we con- 
tinue to regard it as a hylid frog of the genus 
Litoria, a disposition which has now received 
additional support from chromosomal studies 
(Morescalchi & Ingram, 1974). 

It has been suggested that the genus Cyclorana 
has hylid affinities, and also that Australian hylids 
and leptodactylids arc derived from a common 
ancestor (Tyler 1970). There are considerable 
data in support of the first hypothesis: affinities in 
musculature were demonstrated by Tyler (1972), 
similarities of proportions of the adrenal catechol- 
amines by Robinson & Tyler (1972) and 
similarities in larval structure and biology by 



Watson & Martin (1973). In addition, N. G. 
Stephenson (pers. comm.) has found that there, are 
numerous chromosomal similarities between C. 
platycephalu.s and species of Litoria. 

In the course of studies of the poorly docu- 
mented species C brevipes and C. cultripes we had 
difficulty in confirming the identification of 
preserved specimens in various museum collec- 
tions. Eventually it became clear that several 
undescribed species are included under these 
names. Our purpose here is to define the existing 
species and describe new ones and thus take a 
further step towards evaluating the genus. 

MATERIAL AND METHODS 

Specimens reported here are deposited hi 
university and museum collections abbreviated as 
follows : — 

A.M. — Australian Museum, Sydney 

B.M. — British Museum (Natural History) 
London 

LC.U. =• Department of Biology, James 
Cook University of North Queensland, 
Townsville 

M.C.Z. — Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Harvard Llniversity, Boston. U.S.A. 

M.U.D.Z. = Department of Zoology, 
University of Melbourne 

N.M.V. = National Museum of Victoria, 
Melbourne 

N.P.W.S. - National Parks and Wildlife 
Service, Yeerongpilly, Brisbane 

N.T.M. = Northern Territory Museum. 
Alice Springs 

Q.M. — Queensland Museum. Brisbane 

S.A.M. = South Australian Museum, 
Adelaide 

W.A.M. — Western Australian Museum, 
Perth 

Methods of measurement and of recording and 
analysis of mating calls follow our previous 
treatment of members of this genus (Tyler & 
Martin 1975). 



♦Department of Zoology, University of Adelaide. Adelaide. South Australia, 5000. 
-fDepurtment of Zoology, University of Melbourne. Pai'kvjlle, Victoria. 3052. 
\st March, 1977 
1 



m 



REC. S. AUST. MUS.> 17 (15 1: 261-276 



March, 1977 




FIG. 1 
Hands and Toe! at Cychrana species: A = Foot of C. tongipct (WAM R 14157): 8 =• first digit of C. longipvv show inn 
nuptial pads (WAM R 14157.); C - foot of C. rofm/ifilNMV O 12703). D hand of C. bmtipes (WAM R 14157)*; 

E - hand of C, culiripes (NMV D 1270.1 ). 



AUSTRALIAN LEPTODACTYLtD FROGS: GENUS CYCLORANA 



ZV 



SYSTEMATICS 

Cyclorana Stcindachner, 1867 

The leptoclactylid frogs of the subfamily 
Cycloraninae are distinguished morphologically 
from those of the Myobatrachinac by possession 
of a broad tongue, and omohyoideus muscle, 
pedunculate alary processes on the byoid, and 
confluent occipital condyles. 

Cyclorana is distinguished from all other 
cycloraninc genera by possession of a differentiated 
intcrmandibularis muscle, forming an apical ele- 
ment. It is further distinguished from Notaden 
by possession of teeth on the maxilla and pre- 
maxiJla, and from Heleioporus, Mixophyes and 
Neobat radius by having the first fioger opposed 
to the remainder (Fig. 1). 

Lynch (1971) has provided a detailed generic 
diagnosis of Cycloraim, and we defer any major 
redefinition pending completion of our studies of 
all members of this genus. However, insofar as 
the species discussed here are concerned, the 
following data diverge from Lynch (1971), who 
studied other species: — 

Squamosal: The zygomatic process of the 
squamosal is in extensive juxtaposition with 
the maxilla (not a feature confined to 
australis). 

Palatine: — Each palatine bears pronounced 
pre- and post-choanal alae. 

Tympanum:— The tympanum is normally 
visible, but is completely covered with skin in 
C. cryptotis. 

Within the genus Cyclorana several species 
groups are recognisable. C. australis and C. 
novnehollandiae comprise one group. They are 
large, robust frogs (S-V range for adults 614-120 
mm) in which there is exostosis of the maxillary, 
premaxillary, frontoparietal and squamosal bones 
(Tyler & Martin 1975). Cyclorana platycephultis 
is similarly a large frog but lacks exostoscd skull 
bones. It has extensive webbing between the 
toes, and possesses a shovel-shaped inner meta- 
tarsal tubercle. Cyclorana dahli is a large frog 
adapted to aquatic conditions. It has fully 
webbed toes but lacks such a tubercle, and lacks 
an exostosed skull. 

The remaining species are smaller in size, 
possess two separate nuptial pads on the first 
finger (Fig, I), and have little or no webbing 
between the fingers. These species form the 
subject of the present paper. 

All the species on which we have call data 
share an essentially similar mating call structure, 
Following the interpretation of Wat kins (1967) of 



signals of the kind represented, the basic call 
structure can be described as a pulse-modulated 
pure frequency. Interspecific variations occur in 
frequency, pulse rate and duration of the signal 

To assist in treatment of the undescribed forms 
the currently recognised species C. brevipes 
(Peters) and C. cultripes Parker are first redefined. 

Cyclorana brevipes (Peters) 

Cliiroleptes brevipes Peters, 187 J, Mber. Akad., 
Berlin 1871: 648 

Cliiroleptes brevipalmutm Gunther, 1876, J. Mus. 
Godeffroy, 12: 47 

Phractops brevipes: Nieden, 1923: 523 

Cyclorana brevipes: Parker, 1940: 21 

Holotype: A presumably subadult specimen (S-V 
31 mm) collected at Bowen ("Port Bowen''). 
Queensland, by Godeffroy, Specimen now 
missing (G. Peters in lilt.). 

Definition: A small or moderate-sized species 
(S-V of males 36-45 mm), clearly distinguished 
from congeners by its smooth skin and striking 
dorsal pattern of sharply demarcated areas of 
dark pigment on a very pale greyish or brownish 
background (Fig. 2). 

Description: The head is broadly rounded when 
viewed from above and ranges from being 
distinctly broader than long to almost as broad as 
long (HL/HW 0-84-0-98). The snout is rounded 
when viewed from above and in profile, The eye 
is conspicuous, its diameter almost one and one- 
half times the eye to naris distance. The cant litis 
rostralis is straight and inconspicuous. The 
nostrils are inclined laterally and separated from 
one another by a distance which is almost in- 
variably greater than the internarial span (K-N/1N 
0-97-1 -19). The tympanum is entirely visible 
except for the upper portion of its annulus which 
is occasionally hidden beneath the supratympanic 
fold. 

The tongue has a diameter of about one-half of 
the gape of the mouth, and js almost entirely free 
behind. The choanae are small and widely 
spaced, und the vomerine teeth are on obliquely 
converging elevations whose posterior margins 
reach or extend behind the posterior margins of 
the choanae. 

The fingers are short, unwebbed and without 
lateral fringes. The foot has a prominent inner 
metatarsal tubercle. The toes are webbed only at 
the base, the webbing on the fifth toe not reaching 
the subarticular tubercle at the base of the 
penultimate phalanx. The hind limbs are verv 
short (TL/S-V 0-36-0-45). 



:m 



REC. S. AUST. MUS„ 17 (15): 261-276 



March, 1977 



The skin of the dorsal surface is entirely smooth. 
The ventral surface is smooth anteriorly and 
finely granular on the abdomen. 

In preservative the dorsal surface is pale grey 
marked with sharply defined vermiculations of 
black or dark slate. There is a narrow white 
vertebral stripe extending posteriorly at least as 
far as the sacral region. Dark markings arc 
commonly absent from the posterior margin of 
the head, creating a pale, transverse, broad post- 



ocular bar. There is a dark stripe from the tip 
of the snout to the eye. The posterior surfaces of 
the thighs are an immaculate dull brown. The 
ventral surface is usually white or a dull cream 
colour, with the submandibular margin of adult 
males varying from pale grey to black. 

Material examined: Queensland — QM J 18773- 
74 Ban Ban; JCU AI5 (4 specimens), SAM R 
3966 (2) Bowen; QM J 18776 14 km E. of 
Biggenden; AM R 16928 Gin Gin; QM J 








yf 














D 






FIG. 2 
A and B dorsal and lateral aspects of Cyc/orana brevipes (SAM R 15223); C and D dorsal and lateral aspects of 

c. wmeosta (QM ) \Hini 



AUSTRALIAN LEPTODACTYLID FROGS: GENUS CVCLO&ANA 



2<tf 



18775 Helidon; MUDZ 109/70. 110/70 6 km E, 
orGracemere; SAM R 15223 Mourangec Station, 
Edungalbu; QM J 18771, 18772, 18777, 18779, 
18118, Murphy's Lagoon near Townsvillc; SAM 
R 15488 Bundaberg (alizarin); New South 
Wales— QM J 18778 Warrumbungle Natnl. Pk. 

Comparison with other species'. This species can 
be distinguished from all congeners except C. 
longipes and C. luaculosus by the existence of very 
sharply demarcated areas of black or intense 
brown pigment on the dorsum. Detailed com- 
parisons of these species with C. brevipes appear in 
the accounts of those species. Some other species 
possess dark markings but in none is there a 
sharp delimitation from the background 
colouration. 

The existence of the dark markings is sufficient 
to distinguish the species from C. cultripes which 
(in preservative) is most commonly a dull, dowdy 
grey frog lacking any dark pattern. In addition 
C. cultripes tends to have shorter legs, the TL/S-V 
ratio for C. brevipes being 0-36-0-45 (mean 0-41) 
and for C. cultripes 0-33-0-40 (mean 0-37). 

Call: Calls of C. brevipes were recorded 6 km 
E. of Gracemerc, Old., on 19-20.U970. The 
frogs were calling from positions near the margins 
of a permanent pond in lightly-forested country; 
wet bulb air temperatures at the calling sites 
ranged from 23-8 C to 25-8 C. Calls of rive 
individuals were recorded, and mean values (with 
ranges in parentheses) arc: call duration 1090 



msec (957-1460); dominant frequency 1930 Hz 
(1470-2210); pulse repetition rate 169 pulses/sec 
(163-175) (Fig. 3). 

Discussion: Chiroleptes brevipes Peters was 
based on a single, unsexed specimen with a 
"total length" (probably slightly more than snout 
to vent length) of 31 mm. No illustrations of the 
species were provided and, in the absence of the 
holotype and any previous critical studies, it is 
virtually obligatory for us to investigate its 
identity. 

Boulenger (1882) referred Chiroleptes brevi- 
palmatus Gunther to the synonymy of brevipes. 
In the light of the fraction of the Australian 
species known at that time, such an action also 
merits investigation. Insofar as the latter step is 
concerned our material conforms to, and varies 
from, the elaborate pattern depicted by Boulenger 
to an extent that eliminates any doubts based 
solely on external morphology. 

Other than in size the only real areas of differ- 
ence between our material and Peters' description 
of brevipes involve colouration. In particular 
none of our specimens tallies with the description 
of the surface of the thighs and of the ventral 
surface. Peters (1871) writes: "Die Hinterseite 
der Oberschenkel schwarz. Die ganz Unterseite 
einfarbig rostbraun". In other species examined 
by us there is not a difference of this magnitude 
between immature and adult material, leading us 
to attribute the darker colour of the holotype 



3- 

2- 
KHz 

H 



T" 
3 



4 



1 ' 

5 sec 



B 



-\ r 



50 msec 



FIG. 3 



Diagrams showing male mating call structure of: A, C. cultripes; B, C. cryplotis: C, C. niuini; D, C. brevipes; 
E, C. maculosiis. In each case the upper trace is a representation of an audiospectrogram and the lower trace a diagram 
or the pulse repetition rate, showing the number of pulses in a 50 msec segment of the call. Details of recording localities 

are contained in the text. 



**> 



266 



REC. S AUST. MUS., 17 (15); 261-276 



March, 1977 



venter to an artefact of preservation, rather than 
to an ontogenetic trend. 

Distribution: In addition to the localities cited 
above, this species has been taken at Port Denison, 
Peak Downs and Gayndah (types of C. brevi- 
palmatus) and from Coomooboolaroo Station, 
Qld. (Slevin 1955). As indicated in Fig. 4 the 
species occurs in coastal Queensland south of 
latitude 19 \ and east of the Great Dividing Range. 

A series of four frogs (NMV D0737-40), taken 
at Lower Archer River on the Cape York 
Peninsula by J. Thompson in 1933, has been 
excluded from this species but is not assigned to 
any other at this stage. Their narrowly spaced 
nostrils (E-N/IN J -22-1 -25) are conspicuously 
different from the habitus of all 21 measured 
specimens throughout the considerable geographic 



range of C. brevipes. It is conceivable that these 
frogs represent longipes despite the vast gap in 
distribution between the Lower Archer River and 
north-eastern Western Australia. 



Cyc/orana cult ri pes Parker 

Mitrulvsis albogut lotus (non Gunther) : Loveridge 
(1935): 13 (part). 

Cychrano cultripes Parker, 1940: 22 (part). 

Holotype: BM 1908. 2.25.33, an adult male, 
collected at Alexandra, Northern Territory, 
by W. Stalker. 

Definition: A moderate-sized species (males 43- 
52 mm, females 44-55 mm) with short hind limbs; 
dorsally marked with a broad, pale, transverse, 




d MACULOSUS 

■ MAINI (TYPE LOCALITY! 

o BREVIPES 

• VERRUCOSUS 

a CRYPTOTIS 



* LONGIPES 

i. CULTRIPES 

M MAINI (RANGE 



FIG 4 
Distribution of seven species of Cyctorana, The stippled area represents the geographic range of C. maini. 



Australian leptodactylid frogs: genus otlokasa 



w 



postocular bar and a narrow, pale vertebral stripe 
on an otherwise featureless dorsum (Fig. 5). 

Description: The head is triangular and 
distinctly broader than long (HL/HW 0-88-097). 
The snout is rounded when viewed from above 
and in profile. The eye is inconspicuous but its 
diameter is greater than the eye to naris distance. 
The canthus rostralis is straight and inconspicuous. 
The nostrils arc inclined laterally and are separated 
from one another by a distance which is greater 
than or less than the eye to naris distance (K-N/IN 
0-89-1-31). The tympanum is entirely visible 
except for a portion of the superior margin of its 
annulus which is hidden beneath the supra- 
tympanic fold. 

The tongue is broad and is almost entirely free 
behind. The choanae arc small and widely 
spaced, and the vomerine teeth are on oblique 
converging elevations whose posterior margins 
just reach or extend posterior to the posterior 
margins of the choanae. 

The fingers are short, un webbed and lack lateral 
fringes, The foot has a prominent inner meta- 
tarsal tubercle (Fig. )). The toes are only 
slightly webbed, the webbing on the fifth toe not 
reaching the subarticular tubercle at the base of 
the penultimate phalanx. The hind limbs are 
very short (TL/S-V 0-33-0-40). 

The skin of the dorsal surface is smooth except 
for occasional tubercles on each side of the mid- 
line in a few specimens. Ventrally the skin is 
weakly granular in the posterior portion of the 
abdomen and smooth elsewhere. 

In preservative the dorsum is a dull and uniform 
greyish or brownish colour. A pale postocular 
bar varies from being conspicuous to just detect- 
able, whilst a very fine, white or creamish vertebral 
stripe can be seen quite clearly. The ventral 
surface is usually cream with the throat of males a 
dark grey, NMV D 12703 is entirely grey 
ventrally, but this may be an artefact or preserva- 
tion. 

Material examined: Northern Territory — BM 
1908. 2.25.33 (Holotype), BM 1947 2,18.46-47 
(Paratopes), MCZ 1 1647, Alexandra; NMV D 
5732 Charlotte Waters; NMV D 12703 "Central 
Australia" Spencer Collection; SAM R 14724-25 
Alrov Downs; SAM R 14726 Barrow Creek. 
Western Australia -W AM R 27251 17 km N. of 
Argyle turn oif on Duncan Highway. Queensland 
—NPWS 12610, 12622 Durham Downs; NPWS 
12628-29, 12632-36 Dynevor Downs. 

Comparison with other species: Cyclorana 
cultripes is set apart from most congeners by its 
rather drab appearance. The dull greyish or 



brownish dorsum is relieved only by the pale 
postocular bar and the mid-vertebral stripe, Of 
the six other species reported here only C cryptolis 
shares the absence of particularly conspicuous 
patches or molding of the dorsal surface. The 
externally visible tympanum distinguishes C. 
cultripes from C. cryptotis which has the tym- 
panum covered with skin and so not visible 
externally. Cyclorana cultripes lacks the dark 
lateral head stripe of C. maini. 

Call: Calls of two specimens of C. cultripes 
were recorded at Alroy Downs, N.T., on 
I2.xii.1971. This locality is approximately 70 km 
W.S.W. of the type locality. The frogs were 
calling from the margins of a flooded roadside 
ditch; the wet bulb air temperature was 23-8 C . 
Means and ranges of call values are: duration 221 
msec (220-223); dominant frequency 1879 H/ 
(1857-1900); pulse repetition rate 373 pulses/stx 
(370-375) (Fig. 3). 

Distribution: As presently defined C. cultripes 
is known from live localities, all in or adjacent to 
the Northern Territory. The presence of the 
species as far south as Charlotte Waters indicates 
that it probably occurs in South Australia. 
However the specimen involved is part of the 
Spencer Collection. Thus the precision of the 
locality is questionable. 

Discussion: Parker (1940) was the first to 
observe that a wide diversity of animals were 
being identified as hrevipes. Accordingly he 
referred four of the specimens available to him to 
the new species cultripes which he erected to 
accommodate specimens from "Western New 
South Wales, Northern Territory and northern 
West Australia, probably northern South Aus- 
tralia also". Parker was certainly correct in 
recognising the existence of an additional species, 
but he included in his type series a female from 
Wilcannia on the Darling River, N.S.W, This 
individual we refer to the new species, verrucosus. 
Similarly Parker's deductions about the identity of 
specimens from other parts of Australia and not 
examined by him are attributable to other species 
described in the present paper. 

Cyclorana verrucosus new species 

Phractops hrevipalmatus (non Gunther), Fry 1915: 
70. 

Phractops hrevipes (non Peters). Loveridge. 1935; 
12. 

Cycloranu cultripe s Parker, 1940: 22 (part). 

Holotype: QM J 18105. a gravid female 
collected 18 km W. of Dalby, Queensland by 
I. R. Straughan on 8,ii,1964, 



26S 



KB S. AUST. MUS., 17 (15): 261 27fi 



Mtmh. 1977 



Definition: A moderate-sized .species (males 35- 
45 mm; females 39-48 mm S-V) with a dull and 
diffusely marked dorsal colouration and a slightly 
to extremely warty dorsal skin surface. 




FIG 5 

< yclortma vcrriirnsus: Photo: A. Ea-.ton 

Description of Hololype: The head is high, 
broadly triangular and distinctly broader than 
long (HL/HW 0-9 1 ). The snout is rounded when 
viewed from above and in profile. The eye is 
large and prominent, and its diameter is equivalent 
to one and one-third times the distance between 
the eye and the marts. The canlhus rostralis is 
poorly defined and very slightly curved. The 
nostrils arc inclined dorso-laterally and are 
separated from one another by a distance very 
slightly less than the internarial span (E-N/IN I •03). 
The tympanum is visible except, for a small 
superior portion of the annulus which passes- 
beneath the supratympanic fold. 

The tongue is very broad and is almost entirely 
Ctcc behind. The choanae are small and broadly 
spaced and the vomerine teeth arc on oblique, 
converging elevations whose posterior margins 
are anterior to the posterior borders of the 
choanae. 

The lingers are slender and unwebbed and lack 
lateral fringes. The foot has a prominent inner 
metatarsal tubercle and the toes are webbed only 
at the base. The webbing on the fifth toes does 
not reach the subarticular tubercle at the base of 
the penultimate phalanx. The hind limbs are 
short (TL/S-V 0-45). 

The skin of the dorsal surface bears numerous, 
raised, circular, oval and elongated tubercles. 
There is a rather prominent supratympanic fold. 
The skin is finely granular on the lower thighs 
and abdomen and smooth on the pectoral and 
submandibular region. 

The doi'sal surface is a very pale olive colour 
with small darker patches conforming to the 
tubercles and intermediate zones of dark grey. 



There is a narrow dark stripe from the tip of the 
snout to the eye, broadening as a dark postocular 
patch covering the tympanum and bordered 
superiorly and posteriorly by the supratympanic 
fold. There is an extremely narrow white 
vertebral stipe (Fig. 5). The posterior surfaces of 
the thighs are dark brown mottled with paler 
areas (Fig. 2). The ventral surface is dull cream 
with indistinct and sparse faint brown mottling 
on the submandibular area. 

Dimensions: S-V 43-8 mm; TL 19-5 mm; HL 
173 mm; HW 19-1 mm; E-N 3-6 mm; fN 3-5 
mm; E 5-7 mm; T 3-5 mm, 

Paratypes: There are 15 adult paratypes: 
Queensland— QM J 12274, Brookstead via Pitts- 
worth, reed. 1. R Straughan 17.ii.64; QMJ 18108, 
18116 21 km E. of Dalby, coll. A. K. Lee and 
[. R. Straughan, T6.xi.63: QM J 18111 18 km W. 
of Dalby, coll. I. R. Straughan, 8.u.64; QM J 
18104, 18107 Waratah Sin. via Cunnamulla. coll. 
A. K. Lee; QM J 18109, 18112, 18114-15, 18117, 
Warrawee near Petrie, coll. [, R. Straughan, 
7.xh.62-l0.ii.64; New South Wales— HM 
1947.2. 18.48 (formerly 191 1, .3.28.1, and AM R 
5149), Wilcannia, Darling River (Paratype of C. 
cullripes), MCZ 3585-86 (same locality), all coll, 
W. Stalker; SAM R 14081 Sturt Ntl. Pk. near 
Tibooburra, colJ. R. Gait. 

The male paratypes range in size from 37*3 to 
45 mm and the females from 37-2 to 49-2 mm. 
Variations in body and limb proportions are 
presented in Table I. The paratypes are fairly 
homogeneous and share a conspicuously 
roughened dorsal surface with diffuse markings. 
The dorsum varies from greyish to an obscure 
very dark brown; the posterior surfaces of the 
thighs are commonly a different shade of brown to 
the dorsum, and are usually irregularly flecked 
with pale grey. The vertebral stripe is a constant 
feature. The throats of the male paratypes are 
deeply suffused with uniform slate. 

An additional four specimens probably repre- 
sent verrucosus, but have been excluded from the 
paratype scries, because of doubt about their 
conspccilicity. Three are recently metamorphosed 

TAIlir I 
Sl/nS AND PROPORTIONS OF SOME Cl TLOKANA SPECIES 



S pecics p 



cKvpro/fr . 

/"■<>.:• (■<•■< 

I'lncujustii: 

nuttnl . . . 



21 

I 

IX 

Ifl 

l> 

SO 

Vi'rrmnMlx Ih 



S-V 


S-V 


1 1.,'S-V 


r-N/IN | 


.<?,-.» ..15H 
40-8 

.,;■.- ,i 

}7'5-**9 

iv 1 4"- 5 
354-46-4 
34-7-430 


3.VO-18 3 

43-8-17-8 
48-8- 50t- 
J8-7-47-2 
J'J-2-47K 


03fi-0-4J 

042 
o- 0-040 
0- 36-0-45 
LV3I-0-3S 
II <3-U4l 
0-35-O-45 


1197- 1 I'l 

111 
0-5EM'3] 

1 ll-l 36 
045-144 
M7-I 2.1 
0-94-1-25 



HI/IIVV 



044-0'/K 

OKI 
083-0-57 

Q<90-p'95 

oss-o-ys 

0- 89-046 



MeJiiiremenli are in mllllmei/«i. 



AUSTRALIAN LEPTODACTYL!t> FROGS: GENUS CYCL0H4NA 



Zt» 



juveniles (QM J 18106. 181 10, 18113) ranging from 
18-4 to 22-4 mm S-V, There is also a trans- 
forming tadpole (QM J 18119). The series was 
taken at Waratah Station with two of the 
verrucosus paratopes. 

Comparison with other species: For many years 
field workers in eastern Queensland have recog- 
nised the existence of two species. The first is 
C, hrevipes, and the second has been erroneously 
referred to as C. aillripes. With clarification of 
the morphology of C. atltripes. the Queensland 
population can he distinguished quite readily by 
its tendency to exhibit vcrrucositics on the skin 
(t , cul/ripes is usually quite smooth), the extensive 
irregular mottling of the dorsum (see Fig. 2), and 
by a tendency for verrucosus to have longer hind 
limbs (Table 1). 

Although C. hrevipes and C. verrucosus both 
have extensive dorsal pigmentation, the dark 
markings of C, hrevipes are sharply defined 
peripherally, whereas C. verrucosus is diffusely 
marked. Individuals of both species may be 
rough skinned, but the verrucosa ics in C. verru- 
cosus are rendered conspicuous by being 
surrounded by areas of paler pigmentation. In 
C. hrevipes there is no such highlighting and they 
are indistinct. In lateral view (Fig. 2) C. verru- 
cosus has a higher head (han C. hrevipes. As in 
members of the C. australis group (Tyler & Martin 
1975), we have been unable to express these 
differences in a quantitative fashion, 

Distribution: Cydorana verrucosus extends from 
south-eastern Queensland to north-western New 
South Wales. It is sympatric with C. hrevipes 
over a limited portion of its range (Fig. 4). 

Cyclorana maculosus new species 

Holotype: SAM R 14719. an adult male 
collected at Daly Waters, Northern Territory 
by B. Low and D. F. Gartside on 13.xii.1971 . 

Definition: A moderate-sized species (males 47- 
49 mm, females 49-51 mm S-V) with short hind 
limbs and a pattern of markings in which there 
are strong, contrasts of small dark patches on a 
lighter background (Fig. 6). 

Description of Hohtype: The head is rather 
flattened, triangular and distinctly broader than 
long (HL/HW 0-9 V). The snout is rounded 
when viewed from above and in profile. The eye 
is not prominent but its diameter is considerably 
greater than the eye to naris distance. The 
canthus rostralis is straight and distinguishable by 
the shelf-like structure of the maxilla. The 
nostrils are inclined superiorly and arc separated 
from one another by a distance which is less than 



the eye to naris distance (E-N/IN IT 3). The 
tympanum is entirely visible but for a portion of 
the superior margin of its annulus which is 
hidden beneath the supratympanic fold. 

The tongue is broad and is almost entirely free 
behind. The choanae arc widely spaced and the 
vomerine teeth are on oblique, converging eleva- 
tions whose posterior margins are anterior to the 
posterior borders of the choanae. 

The fingers are slender and unwebbed. The 
foot has a prominent inner metatarsal tubercle. 
The toes are slightly less than one-half webbed: 
the webbing on the fifth toe not reaching the 
subarticular tubercle at the base of the pen- 
ultimate phalanx. The hind limbs arc very short 
(TL/S-V 0-34). 

Mactoscopically the skin of the dorsal surface 
is quite smooth; under low-power magnification 
it can be seen to be covered by numerous, flattened 
tubercles. Vcntrally the skin is weakly granular 
over the posterior half of the abdomen, and 
smooth anteriorly. 

The dorsal surface is a uniform very pale grey 
on which there are a few clearly demarcated black 
markings, There is a stripe from the tip of the 
snout through each nostril to the eye. Behind the 
eye this stripe envelops the tympanum and 
continues to the insertion of the forearm, bordered 
superiorly by the supratympanic fold. There are 
a pair of small ellipsoid markings on the scapula 
and elongate markings on the flanks and in the 
groin. There is a narrow white vertebral stripe 
and a pale postocular bar. The posterior surface 
of the thighs is a uniform dull grey. The ventral 
surface of the body is cream with a dark slate 
submandibular region. 

This adult male specimen has a submandibular 
vocal sac with short, paired openings near the 
mandibular articulation, and two distinctly separ- 
ated, brown nuptial pads on each first digit. 

Dimensions: S-V 47-4 mm; TL 16-2 mm: ML 
16.9 mm: HW 181mm: EN 3-6mm; IN 32 
mm; E54mm: T 3-6 mm. 

Variation: There are five paratypes— SAM R 
14717-18, collected at the type locality with the 
holotype; SAM R 7612, Doomadgec Mission, 
Qld..'G. Douglas, February, 1966; NTM 3178. 
Siu3rt Highway at Tcnnant Creek. D, Lindner, 
30x66; SAM R 14736, Tennant Creek, J. F. 
Field, April. 1907, 

The paratypes comprise two adult males (S-V 
48 8-49-5 mm) and three adult females (48-8-50'6 
mm). In all specimens the limbs arc short 
(TL/S-V 3 1-0- 38). Topotypic material Win«S 
only in the extent and distribution of dark mark- 
ings and dificrs from the holotype in the presence 



270 



REC. S. AUST MUS., 17 (15): 261-276 



March, 1977 



of a broad, pale postocular bar and a pale border 
on each side of the mid- vertebral stripe. 

The lighter markings, are most pronounced in 
the Doomadgee Mission specimen, whereas the 
paratypes from Tennant Creek vary from having 
minimal dark markings to extensive areas of dark 
pigment. 

Comparison with other species: Cyclorana 
maculosus is a rather large species in comparison 
with the others described here. In fact each of 



the three adult males is larger than all males of all 
other species included. However it is its striking 
dorsal colouration that sets maculosus apart from 
congeners. Namely the isolated,. jet black, patches 
contrasting with a pale background. The species 
with which there is partial sympatry (C. cultripes 
and C. maitii) lack black patches, although the 
latter shares with maculosus a conspicuous dark 
stripe on the side of the head. 

Call: The call of the holotype was recorded at 
Daly Waters, N.T., on I3.xii.1971. The site was 




FJG. 6 



Dorsal and lateral views of Cyclorana species. A = C. maculosus (SAM R 14717): B and C = C. cuhtiiws (NMV D 
12703, SAM R 14725); D = C. maculosa (SAM R 14717); £ - C. aillripes (SAM R 14725) 



AUSTRALIAN LEPTODACTYUD FROGS: GENUS CYCLOR,\,\,i 



>7| 



a small roadside ditch; wet bulb air temperature 
was 24-1 C. Call values are: duration 1810 
msec; dominant frequency 1767 Hz; pulse 
repetition rate 108 pulses/sec. (Fig. 3). 

Distribution: The species is currently known 
from two localities on the Stuart Highway, NX, 
and one in Queensland (Fig. 4). 

Cyclorana cryptotis new species 

Uolotype: SAM R 14716, an adult male 
collected at Daly Waters, Northern Territory 
by B. Low and D. F, Gartside on 13.xii.t97l. 

Definition: A small species (male adult at 41 
mm) which is also characterised by having the 
tympanum covered with skin (and hence invisible 
externally), and by its obscure greyish colouration 
(Fig. 7). 

Description of Uolotype: The head is rather 
flattened, broadly triangular and distinctly broader 
than long (HL/HW approximately 087), The 
snout is rounded when viewed from above and 
rather truncated in profile. The eye is not 
prominent but its diameter is greater than the eye 
to naris distance. The canthus rostralis is almost 
straight and very poorly defined. The nostrils 
are inclined superiorly and are separated from 
one another by a distance slightly less than the 
eve to nans distance. The tympanum is com- 
pletely hidden beneath the skin. 

The tongue is roughly circular, not large and 
almost entirely free behind. The choanae are 
widely spaced and the vomerine teeth are on 
elevations projecting slightly behind the posterior 
margin of the choanae. 

The fingers are slender and unwebbed. The 
foot has a prominent inner metatarsal tubercle. 
The toes are approximately one-half webbed, the 
webbing on the fifth toe reaching the subarticular 
tubercle at the base of the penultimate phalanx. 
Hind limbs are of moderate size (TL/S-V 0-42). 

The skin of the dorsal surface is covered with 
numerous and densely aggregated, flattened 
tubercles. Ventrally the skin is granular except 
in the pectoral region where it is almost smooth. 

The dorsal surface is pale grey suffused with 
irregular darker markings. There is a narrow, 
disrupted, white vertebral stripe and broader, 
dark stripes between the nostril and eye and from 
the eye to the insertion of the forearm. The 
ventral surface of the body is cream with a greyish 
submandibular region. The plantar surface is 
lightly stippled with very dark brown. This 
adult male specimen has a submandibular vocal 
sac with short, paired openings near the mandibu- 



lar articulation, and two distinctly separated, 
unpigmented nuptial pads on each first digit. 

Dimensions: S-V40'8mm; TL 1 7-0 mm; HL 
13-8 mm; HW 171 mm; E-N 3-4 mm; IN 3-0 
mm ; E 50 mm; T 2-2 mm. 

Comparison with other species: Cyclorana 
cryptotis has few obvious affinities with other 
species. The lack of any dark markings on the 
dorsum is shared by C. cultripes and some 
individuals of C. maini. However C. cryptotis has 
the tympanum completely covered with skin, 
whereas it is visible externally in C, maim and all 
other members of the genus. A further feature 
unique to C. cryptotis is the rather compressed 
head producing the exceptionally low HL/HW 
ratio of 081 (0-84-0-99 arc the limits of the ranges 
for all other species). 

Call: The call of the nolotype was recorded at 
Daly Waters, N.T.. on 13.xii.l971 , The frog was 
calling from the margin of a flooded ditch; wet 
bulb air temperature was 241 C. Call values 
are: duration 530 msec: dominant frequency 
1060 Hz; pulse repetition rate 158 pulses/sec 
(Fig. 3). 

Distribution: Cyclorana cryptotis is known 
solely from the type locality of Daly Waters. 
NX, (Fig. 4). 

Cyclorana longipes new species 

Chirotepies breiipalmattts (non Gunthcr), Fletcher, 
1899: 678. 

Phractops brevipalnmtus (non Gunther), Fry, 1915: 
200. 

Nolotype: WAM R 43258, an adult female 
collected at Mitchell Plateau (140° 52' S; 
125 50' W), Kimberley Division. Western 
Australia by L. A. Smith and R. E Johnstone 
on 5.ii. 1973. 

Definition: A moderate-sized species (males 
37-5-45-9 mm; females 35-8-47 8 mm) with a skin 
texture which varies from smooth to very coarsely 
granular, and a colouration of dark patches on a 
lighter background (Fig. 7). The nostrils arc 
narrowly spaced (C-N/IN 1- 12-1-36). 

Description of Holotype: The head is high, 
triangular and almost as broad as long (HL/HW 
0-91), The snout is triangular when viewed from 
above and evenly rounded in profile. The eye is 
small, its diameter equivalent to one and one- 
quarter times the distance between the eye and the 
naris. The canthus rostralis is distinct and very 
slightly curved. The nostrils are inclined dorso- 
lateral!} and are separated from one another by a 
distance which is less than the eye to naris distance 



v: 



RFC. S. AUST. MUS„ 17 (15): 261 276 



Muni,, 1«J77 



(E-N/1N 1 25). The tympanum is almost entirely 
visible except for the upper portion of the tympanic 
annulus which passes beneath the supratympanic 
fold. 

The tongue is very broad and almost entirely 
free behind. The ehoanae are small and broadly 
spaced and the vomerine teeth are on prominent, 
oblique, converging elevations whose posterior 
margins are posterior to the ehoanae. 

The lingers are moderately long, slender, un- 
webbed and without lateral fringes (Fig, 1). The 
foot has a small but prominent inner metatarsal 
tubercle. The webbing between the toes is 
comparatively well developed, and on the medial 
surface of the fifth toe reaches the posterior edge 
of the subarticular tubercle at the base of the 
penultimate phalanx. The hind limbs are very 
short (TL/S-V 038). 

Anteriorly the skin of the dorsal surface is very 
coarsely granular. There are distinct plicae 



between the upper eyelids and in the form of a 
continuous dorsolateral glandular fold extending 
to the flanks. Posteriorly the skin becomes 
progressively less conspicuously granular, the 
individual granules being smaller and less promi- 
nent. The ventral skin is finely granular from the 
posterior surface of the thighs to the post-axillary 
pectoral skin fold. Anterior to that fold the skin 
is smooth. There is a small postmandibular 
gland. 

The dorsal surface is a dull brown colour which 
is to a great extent covered by large, elongate, 
irregular patches of darker brown. The arrange- 
ment is disrupted on a level with the tympanum. 
There is a dark and clearly defined stripe from the 
tip of the snout through the nostril and eye to the 
tympanum. There is also a pale vertebral stripe 
which is quite broad above the sacral region and 
tapers to a very narrow line at the snout and 
cloaca. The posterior surfaces of the thighs are 
spotted with pale grey on a dark brown back- 




i- : '-V. •-" - 










Dorsal and 



ffC. 1 

lateral views of Cyclorana species. A and C = C. ctyptotis (SAM R I47l(>); B and D «= C. (luoripti 

WAM R 14157). 



AUSTRALIAN LEPTODACTYL1D FROGS: GENUS CYCLORANA 



273 



ground, and there is similar spotting in the groin. 
The ventral surface of the body and limbs is a 
dull cream, 

Dimensions: S-V 47-8 mm; TL 18 ram; HL 
16-3 mm; HW 18 mm; E-N4mm; IN 3-2 mm; 
E 5 mm; T 31 mm. 

Variation: There are 43 paratypes, comprising 
nine adults and 34 juveniles, all from localities 
m 'Westero Australia: WAM R 14157, Broome, 
K. Male. I4.ii.1962; WAM R 43199-43200, 
L. A. Smith & R. E Johnstone 5. ii.73, R 
43268-75, Smith & Johnstone 2 1. ii.73, R 43294- 
95. R 43346 Smith & Johnstone 22.ii.73, all 
from Mitchell Plateau; WAM R 32349-51, 
Wyndham. T. Nelson 19,iv.68; WAM R 44735- 
59 Lake Argyle, Smith & Johnstone, 5.1.72: 
WAM R 42388. Mt. Phire, W. H. Butler 
29.ix.63. 

None of the female adult paratypes is as large 
as the holotype female, their size being 35-8-43-8 
mm, Males have an S-V length range of 37-5- 
45-9 mm, and there is a female 40-3 mm long 
The subadult material ranges in S-V length from 
21 8 to 332mm. 

Variations in adult dimensions are shown in 
Table 1; the consistently high E-N/JN ratio 
(11 2-1-36) is notable. 

Colouration of adults and juvemies is rather 
variable. In the figured specimen from Broome 
the darker markings are particularly extensive, 
because the longitudinally arranged markings 
have partly coalesced, in many juveniles and 
adults from the Mitchell Plateau the longitudinal 
orientation is detectable, but the markings are 
broken up into separate segments. The feature- 
less post-orbital area, the presence of a mid- 
vertebral stripe and the spotted pattern of light 
markings on the posterior surface of the thighs 
are the only features common to all individuals. 

Males have a submandibular, unilobular vocal 
sac and the submandibular area of the largest 
male (WAM R 14157) is almost black. 

Comparison with other species: All individuals 
of C toMgtpes exhibit a dorsal pattern in which 
there are black markings on a contrasting light 
background. The only other species sharing such 
a feature are C nuuulosus and C. brevipes. 
Cyr/oraiia maculosus tends to be a shorter -limbed 
frog (TL/S-V 0-3I-0-3S as apposed to 0-36-0-45 itl 
C. longipes). Similarly C. maculosus has a lower 
C-N/IN ratio range of 0-95-1-14, compared with 
I -12- 1-36, Other data in Table I indicate that C. 
longipes may be a slightly smaller species. How- 
ever, existing samples of adults of each species are 
inadequate to confirm the apparent trend. 



Distribution: Fletcher (1898) reported Cyclo- 
rana hre\'ipes (as Chiroleptes brevipulmatus) from 
two localities in northern Western Australia 
(Kings Sound and the junction of Margaret Creek 
with the Fitzroy Rivet). Parker (1940) attributes 
the records to C. ciihripes. However the situation 
of these localities within the range of longipes. 
and the striking similarity of longipes to brevipa. 
cause us to favour the new identification. Thus 
C. longipes is now known to occupy the coastal 
zone of northern W.A. and to penetrate inland 
via the Fitzroy River. At its southern boundary 
the arid Eighty Mile Desert effectively isolates the 
species from C. maini. However there is no such 
geographic barrier to dispersal in the west, and 
longipes may extend into the Northern Territory 
and be sympatrie with at least one other species, 
reported here. 

Cyclorana maini new species 

Chiroleptes brevipalnmtus (non Cunthcr), Spencer 
(1S96): 165. 

Cyclorana sp., Warburg (1967): 27.(1972): 91. 

Cyclorana ailtnpes (non Parker), Cogger ( 197^) 
pi. 214. 

Holotype: SAM R 1519 1. An adult male 
collected at Barrow Creek, Northern Territory 
by D. F. Gartsideand B. Low on ll.xii.1971. 

Definition: A moderate-sized species (males 
354-46-4 mm; females 38-7-47 2 mm) charac- 
terised by a dark lateral head stripe and irregular 
darker patches on a pale dorsum in most 
specimens (Fig. 8). 

Description of Holotype: The head is high, 
distinctly broader than long, evenly rounded when 
viewed from above and projecting slightly down- 
wards in profile (HL/HW 0-93). The eye is 
large and prominent, and its diameter is equivalent 
to one and one-half times the diameter of the 
distance between the eye and the naris. The 
canthus rostralis is straight and quite prominent. 
The nostrils are inclined dorsolateral and are 
separated from one another by a distance very 
slightly greater than the internarial span (E- 
N/1N 103). The tympanum is visible and is not 
overlapped by the supratympanic fold, 

The tongue is very broad and slightly free 
behind. The choanae are obliquely inclined and 
are separated in the midline, and the vomerine 
teeth are on converging, oblique elevations whose 
posterior margins are posterior to the choanae. 

The lingers are slender, unwebbed and without 
lateral fringes, and have prominent subarticulat 
tubercles. The foot has a prominent inner 



274 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (15): 261-276 



March. 1977 



metatarsal tubercle and the toes are long and 
webbed only at the base. The webbing on the 
fifth toe extends slightly above the base of the 
penultimate phalanx. The hind limbs are very 
short (TL/S-V 0-36). 

The skin of the dorsal surface is very slightly 
pitted and raised tubercles on other areas are 
totally lacking. The supratympanic fold is weak 
and the skin of the ventral surface is almost 
entirely smooth. The posterior surfaces of the 
thighs are weakly granular. 

The dorsal surface is a dull brown on which 
areas of darker pigment are densely scattered. A 
fine white vertebral stripe is present, and a dark 
stripe extends between the nostril and the eye. 



and then divides at the axillary region and is 
covered posteriorly by isolated patches of dark 
pigment on the flanks. 

The submandibular region is an intense dark 
grey, and the remainder of the ventral surface is 
dull creamish. 

This male specimen has paired nuptial pads on 
the first finger and a submandibular vocal sac. 

Dimensions: S-V 46 mm; TL 16-8 mm; HL 
16-3 mm; HW 17-6 mm; E-N3-6mm; IN 3-5 
mm; E 5-2 mm ; T 3-3 mm. 

Variation: There are 95 paratypes— Northern 
Territory— mM 2309-11, 2316, Arid Zone 
Research Institute 5 km S of Alice Springs 





me. 



v'-.W-. ■'•■••''• i •,'•-".■• 

VA 4 ■' '*•■-'" •* ■ • 
\ :■■•■ <i-\- " '• . 

v, '. ' 

v:>,. ; ■■;■": 
\- •■' ■ ' 






I ■• 



FIG. 8 
Dorsal and lateral views of Cyelorcma maini (NTM 231 J). 



AUSTRALIAN LEPT0DACTYL1D FROGS. GLNUS CYCWRANA 



275 



21.X.64; SAM 15192 10 km S of Alice Springs 
3.xi.63; SAM 6311, 14715 27 km S of Alice 
Springs: NTM 3177 Ml, Dorccn Sin., D. Lindner 
23166; SAM R 13038 A-D, Toko Range, 
S. Parker 20.i.72; Western Australia— SAM 
R 1711 Well No. 26, Canning Stock Route 
Expedition; WAM R 1440 Laverton, P. C. 
Warren, 1925 (accessed): WAM R 1510-11 
Boovlgoo Stn., E. L. Michel, 1925 (accessed); 
WAM R 10216 Mundabullangana, D. Lukis, 1951 
(accessed); WAM R 10634 Roeburne, T. Stove, 
1952 (accessed); WAM R 20546 Nannine, P. J. 
Fuller. 2.HL63; WAM R 28486-508, SAM R 
5979, R 15341-46 Mt. Edgar, A. R. Main & G. M. 
Sinn, February, 1961; WAM R 28517. R 28536 
Jiggalong. 6.xii.)959, presumably E. Lindgren; 
WAM R 28634-35. R 28638-48, R 39193-94 
Mundabullangana, G. M. Storr, February, 1961; 
WAM R 28795 New Yamarna, 2911967, WAM 
expedition; 28806-07 44 km SE of Leonora, 
WAM expedition; WAM R 28984-85, R 28987 
8 km S of Mundabullangana, R. M. Sadlier, 
26.V.1960: WAM R 29127-28 Roeburne, Christ- 
church Grammar School, 22. v.67; WAM R 
31444 presumably near Exmouth. D. G. Bathgate 
1965-68; WAM R 32373-80, R 32382 Koordarrie, 
N.T., Allen, 1967; WAM R 33188. Woodstock, 
E. H. M. Ealey 18156; WAM R 33212, R 
34791, R 34793 Woodstock, E. H. M- Ealey, 
February, 1957; WAM R 34206-07 Wittcnoom, 
E, P. Hodgkin, 2.iii.l954; WAM R 34208 S of 
Wanning, E. H. M. Ealey, June. 1954; WAM R 
36092 40 km N of Carnarvon, R. Humphries et a!., 
4.ii.l970; WAM R 36094-96 near Winning. 
R. Humphries et ah. 4.ii. 1970: WAM R 36105-06 
Barrabiddy Creek, R. Humphries et al.> 5.ii.l970; 
WAM R 36695 Mandidjarra R. H., NE of 
Carnegie, P. J. Fuller, Il.v.1970; WAM R 37248 
Angel Is.. Dampier Archipel., W. K. Youngson & 
P. Prince, 18.vi.1970: WAM R 39147 Talawana, 
J, B. Wade. 3.ii.l97l; WAM R 40355 Durba 
Hills, W. H. Butler, early August, 1971 ; WAM R 
45665-67, Bamboo Creek, A. M. & M. J. Douglas, 
22.1.1974. 

Because of the wide geographic area occupied 
by C. maini (Fig. 4), and because of limited data, 
particularly biological information, we are unable 
to give a definitive account of variation in this 
species. We can demonstrate that none of the 
individuals within this area represent C. cultripes, 
the species lo which they have been referred in the 
literature; but we cannot assert that they all 
represent C maini. 

We have therefore omitted from our list of 
C. maim paratypes a number of individuals from 
Western Australia and the Northern Territory. 
Many are immature and others are so poorly 



fixed or preserved that positive identification is not 
possible. Others again are satisfactorily preserved 
but possess sufficient morphological divergence 
from our concept of C, mnitii lo warrant their 
exclusion. Individuals from the Peterman Ranges 
and adjacent localities in southeastern N.T. and 
Western Australia fall into this latter category. 
We are not able to make specific identification of 
this material, but suspect that they represent an 
additional species remaining undescribed. Ranges 
of measurements of C. maini appear in Table I. 

Colour in life: Specimens from Jay Creek 20 km 
W of Alice Springs have an extremely variable 
colouration. Individuals can change from green 
to brown in a matter of a few hours. Iimtiiably 
the pattern consists of dark and commoniy 
longitudinally orientated markings on a pater 
background. In all specimens a dark eanlho- 
rostral stripe continues behind the eye lo the 
flanks. 

Compunwn with other species: Cychmma maini 
as defined here is readily distinguishable from 
congeners. Possession of a tympanum dis- 
tinguishes it from C. cryptofis. and the limbs of 
the latter species may be slightly longer (TL/S-V 
0-33-0-41 in 50 maun; 0-42 in the single cryptotis). 
The nature of (he dorsal pattern of markings in 
C. brevipes, C. longipes and C. macu/osus (clearly 
demarcated islands of dark pigment on a pale 
background), distinguishes each from maim which 
lias obscure longitudinal streaks. The allopatric 
C. verrucosus has a dorsal skin with raised folds 
or large tubercles highlighted by being surrounded 
by dark pigment. Cyciorona eul tripes tends to be 
a larger frog lacking Hie dark lateral bead stripe 
and distinguished, as are most other species, by 
differences in mating call parameters (Fig. 3). 

Distribution: Extending from the Hammersley 
Ranges in Western Australia in a continuous 
broad arc throughout central and southern 
Northern Territory to the western border of 
Queensland (Fig. 4). 

Habitat: Main & Storr (1966) state that this 
species occurs "in small temporary watercourse - 
with sandy or gravelly beds", and occasionally in 
larger wooded creeks and al windmills. It is 
found in areas that form swamps in wet weather 
but are dry at other times, and specimens have 
been dug from depths of 25 to 35 cm (Main 1965). 
It is clear from our examination of several sites 
at which this species has been taken that il can 
occur in Hat. open, and country subject to 
seasonal flooding. 

Call: Calls attributed to this species (reported 
as C. cultripes) arc as follows. Main & Calaby 
(1957) describe the call in the Pilbara region as 



276 



RIX. S. AUST. MUS.. 1/ (IS). 261-276 



March. 1977 



resembling a sheep bleating. Main (1965) con- 
sidered it a "high pitched even maa-a-a-a-a". 
Main & Starr (1966) state that it is "loud, moder- 
ately high-pitched and rasping. Close up and m 
chorus, when the vibrato is clearly audible, the 
call sounds like an ambulance siren. At a 
distance it is more like the bleating of a sheep". 
Calls of two specimens were recorded at Barrow 
Creek, N.T., on 1l.xii.l97l. The frogs were 
calling at the edge of a pool in a sandy river bed; 
wet bulb air temperature was 22-6 C, Call 
values (mean and range) are: duration 814 msec 
(775-852); dominant frequency 1922 Hz (1867- 
1977); pulse repetition rate 244 pulses/sec (232- 
255) (Fig. 3). 

Biology: Main & Calaby (1957) state that eggs 
are approximately 1-2 mm in diameter. Main 
(1965) reports the tadpoles to be comparable to 
those of C. platycephalus and that in their later 
stages they are pink with an opalescent sheen. 

Details of the diet of 12 adult frogs are provided 
by Main & Calaby (1957) and of a further three 
by Calaby (I960). Termites and ants predomin- 
ated in the diet of those individuals, but a 
small centipede was included. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

This project was funded by the Science and 
Industry Endowment Fund (administered by the 
C.S.I. R.O.), the Australian Biological Resources 
Study, and the University of Melbourne Research 
Vote. 

Specimens were provided by Dr. S. Barker, 
Mr. P. Christy, Dr. H. G. Cogger, Ms, J. 
Covacevich, Mr. J. Coventry, Mr. W. Dowd, 
Dr. D. Gartside, Mr. M. Gillam, Miss A. G. C. 
Grandison, Mr. D. Howe, Dr. B. Low, Mr. K.. R. 
McDonald, Mr. S. Parker, Dr. G, Storr and 
Professor E. E. Williams. To Ms. Covacevich, 
Mr. Howe, Dr. Storr and Dr. T. H. Houston we 
arc indebted for facilities provided at museums, 
and to the Donald Thompson Administration 
Committee for access to specimens in its care. 

Dr. Low and Dr, Gartside very kindly provided 
tape recordings of mating calls of C. cryptotis, 
C. cultripes, C. nwcitlosus and C. inatni. Dr. 
G. F. Watson's help in obtaining calls of C. 
brevipes is greatly appreciated. 

Dr. Gunthcr Peters provided information on 
the fate of the type of C. brevipes, whilst the 
Queensland Museum generously made available 
the photograph of C, verrucosus taken by Mr. A. 
Easton. Finally we wish to express our deep 
gratitude to Miss K. B. Bowsball for the superbly 
executed line drawings of each of the species. 



REFERENCES 

Boulenger, O. A., 1887 Catalogue of the Batrachia Salientia 
s. Eeaudata in the collection Of the British Museum. 
British Museum, London' 1-503 

Calaby, ,1 H., 196(1. A note on the food or Australian desert 

frogs. W. Ausi. Nat. 7 (3): 79-80. 
Cogger, H. G , 1975. Reptiles and Amphibians of Austral. a 

Roed: Sydney. 
Fry, D. B., 1915. On a collection of reptiles and batrachians 

from Western Australia. Rec. W. Aust. Mux, I. 174-210 
Fletcher, J. J.. 1898. Contributions to a more exact knowledge 

of the geographical distribution of Australian Batraehia. 

No. S. a. Batrachia of Tasmania, b. Batrachia of West 

Australia, PfOC, Linn. Sot. /V.S.H-'., Scr. 2, 12; 660-684. 
Gunlher, A. 1876. Descriptions of new species of reptiles 

from Australia, ./. Mtu. Cadeffroy, 5 (12): 45-47. 
Lindgren. II. & Main. A. R., 1%1. Natural history notes from 

.liggalong IV Frogs. «•'. #«sj, Nat. 7 (8>. 103-195. 
Lovcridge, A., 1935. Australian Amphibia in the Museum of 

Comparative Zoology Cambridge. Massachusetts. Bull. 

Mus. Cump. Zest. 78 (I I: 1-60. 
Loveiidgc, A., 1950. New frogs of the genera Cycloranu and 

1 1 via from south-eastern Australia, hoc. Biol. Soc. 

Wm.G)'. 131-138. 
Lynch, .1. D,, 1971. Evolutionary relationships, osteology and 

zoogeography of leptodaclyloitl frogs. Miic. Pub!.' Mus. 

Naf. Hist. Univ. Kansas (5): 1-238. 
Main, A. R., 1965. Frogs of southern Western Australia. 

(W. Aust. Nat. Club: Perth) Handbook No. 8, 73 vp. 
Main, A, R. & Calaby, J. H., 1957. New records and notes on 

the biology of frogs from north-western Australia. W. 

Aust. Nat. 5 H). 216-228. 
Main, A R & Storr, C. M., I960. Range extensions and 

notes on the bioloey ol frogs from the Pilbara Rceion, 

Western Australia, W. Ausi. Nat. 10 (3)r 53-6). 
Morescalchi. A. & Ingram. G. I . f974. New chromosome 

numbers in Australian Leptodactylidae (Amphibia. 

Salienlia). Expcrientia 30; 1134-1135 
Parker. H. W.. 1940 The Australian Irons of the family 

Leptodactylidae, Novit. Z.oal. 42 (1 ): 1-106. 
Nieden, F., 1923, Anura 1. Das Ticnvich. Berlin, (46): 

1-584. 
Peters, W, 1871. Uber einige arten der herpetologjschen 

Sammlung der Berlinei Zoologischcn Museum. Mmuitsb. 

A Pivuss, Akad. H'/.v.v. Berlin, 1871: 648 
Robinson, R. L, & Tyler, M J., 1971 The catecholamine 

content of the adrenal glands of frogs as an index of 

phylogenelic relationships. Camp, Geo. Pharmacol. 3 (10): 

167-170. 
Slevin, J. R.. 1955. Notes on Australian amphibians. Prut: 

Calif Acad Set. 28 (8): 355-392. 
Spencer, B., 1896. Report on the Works of the Horn Scientific 

Expedition to Central Australia. 1. Introduction, Narra- 
tive, Summary of results, supplement, to zoological report 

Amphibia I Melville. Mullei etSlade: Melbourne), 152-175. 

Straughan, 1. R.. 1969. Hyl.i inmiiis (Peters), a species hitherto 
erroneously referred to the leptodactylid genus Cycloranu 
(Anura. Hvlidae/Leptoductylidue), Zuol. Medcd. 43 (I7l: 
207-212. 

Tyler. M. .1., 1970. Patterns of distribution and the origins of 
the Papuan hylid frog fauna Search 1 (5): 246-247. 

Tyler. M. J., 1972. Superficial mandibular musculature, vocal 

sacs and the phytogeny ol AusUalo-Papuai'i leptodactvlid 

frogs. lice. S. Ausi. Mux. 16 (9); 1-20. 
Tyler, M. J., 1974. The systematic position and geographic 

dislribiition of the Australian frog Chin/lepra aiboguiraiu.t 

Gunther. Prnc R. Sac. QUI. 85 (2): 27-32. 
Tyler. M. J. & Martin, A. A 1975. Australian leptodactylid 

frogs of the Cvclurunu wisnulis complex 7>v/mv. R. Soc. 

S. Aust. 99(2)': 93-99. 
Warburg, M. R.. 1967. On thermal and water balance of three 

Central Australian frogs Camp. Binchctn. Plnsfot, 20: 

27-43. 
Warburg, M. R . 1972. Water economy and theimal balance 

of Israeli and Australian amphibia from *eric habitats. 

Symp. ZocA. Soc. Umd. Jl ! 79-1 1 1 . 
Watkins, W. A.. 1967. The harmonic interval: fact or artifact 

in spectral analvsis of pulse trains. In ''Marine Bio- 

.icoustics", (W. N. Tavolga, Ed), Vol. 2, pp. 15-43. 

Pergamoii: New Vork. 



RECORDS of THE 
SOUTH AUSTRALIAN 

MUSEUM 




A NEW SPECIES OF THYLACOLEO 
(MARSUPIALIA: THYLACOLEONIDAE) 
WITH NOTES ON THE OCCURRENCES 
AND DISTRIBUTION OF 
THYLACOLEONIDAE IN SOUTH 
AUSTRALIA 



By NEVILLE S. PLEDGE 



SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 
North Terrace, Adelaide 
South Australia 5000 



VOLUME 17 

NUMBER 16 

1st June, 1977 



A NEW SPECIES OF THYLACOLEO (MARSUPIALIA: 

THYLACOLEONIDAE) WITH NOTES ON THE OCCURRENCES AND 

DISTRIBUTION OF THYLACOLEONIDAE IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA 



by Neville S. Pledge 



Summary 



A new species, Thylacoleo hilli, is described from the Town Cave of Curramulka, South Australia, 
based on an upper carnassial P3, which is about half the size of that of T. carnifex but otherwise 
almost identical. It is markedly larger than the Miocene species of Wakaleo Clemens & Plane, and 
because there is no indication of such a diminutive Pleistocene species, it is suggested that T. hilli is 
of Late Tertiary, possibly Miocene-Pliocene age. 
A summary of the sites of thylacoleonid discoveries in South Australia is also presented. 



A NEW SPECIES OF THYLACOLEO (MARSUPIALIA: THYLACOLEONIDAE) WITH 
NDttS ON THE OCCURRENCES AND DISTRIBUTION OF THYLACOLEONIDAE 

IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA 

By NEVILLE S. PLEDGE* 



ABSTRACT 

PLEDGE, NRVIt Xli S. 1975. A new species of Thylacoleo 
(Marsupi.iliV TliylacolconiJac), with notes on the occur- 
rences and distribution of Thylacolconidac in South Aus- 
tralia. Ret 1 . S. Aust. Mas, 17 (Ifi): 26l-2f>7. 

♦South Australian Museum, Adelaide, South Australia, 
M>0<). 

A new species. Thylacoleo hilli, is described 
from the Town Cave of Curramulka, South Aus- 
tralia, bused on an upper carnassial P 3 , which is 
about half the size of that of T. camifex but 
otherwise almost identical, It is markedly larger 
than the Miocene species of Wakaleo Clemens 
& Plane, and because there is no indication of 
such a diminutive Pleistocene species, it is sug- 
gested that T, hilli is of Late Tertiary, possibly 
Miocene-Pliocene age. 

A .summary of the sites of thylacoleonid dis- 
coveries in South Australia is also presented. 

INTRODUCTION 

In 1956. the late. Alan Hill collected an 
unusual tooth from the far recesses of the Town 
Cave (Y2) at Curramulka, on Yorke Peninsula. 
South Australia. 

The Curramulka Town Cave had a natural 
30 m shaft entrance which was enlarged so that 
the cave could be used as the town's water 
supply. The easier passages were explored early, 
bones being noted in passing. Germein (I960) 
published a popular account of his 1936 visit to 
the cave. In 1959, Messrs. B. Daily, G. Gross 
and P. Aitken of the South Australian Museum 
visited the cave, following reports from the Cave 
Exploration Group of South Australia (CEGSA) 
which examined it in 1956. Daily excavated 
lime- and sand-encrusted bone, including a 
partial skelelon of Thylacoleo camifex (PI 2784) 
and a crushed skull of Protemnodon (PI 3027). 

The cave is developed in the Early Cambrian 
Kulpara Limestone along a system of vertical 
joints that probably were originally open to the 
surface, such as those that can now be seen in 
the nearby council quarry. The fissures filled 
with sediment and debris, which became partly 
lithified as a tough, red bone-breccia. Sub- 
sequent ground water movement apparently 
re-excavated the fissures from the bottom, leaving 
high narrow passages roofed with breccia. 
Remains of Pleistocene marsupials have been 
found in this breccia and in the soft red sill thai 
partially clogs some parts of the cave, ft is 

l.vr lime, 1977 



from the- latter that Daily's specimens were 
collected, in the section called the 'Bedroom 
Chamber", Although it has not yet been prop- 
erly prepared or identified, a cursory inspection 
of the fossil fauna suggests that it is of Late 
Pleistocene age. Hill's specimen, however, does 
not fit this hypothesis and suggests that at least 
some parts of the cave may date from Tertiary 
times. This is discussed below. 

The tooth is interpreted to be the upper left 
carnassial (P 1 ) of Thylacoleo, but is so much 
smaller than that tooth in other members of the 
genus that it warrants the erection of a new 
species. 

DESCRIPTION 
Systematic Palaeontology : 

Marsupialia 

Phalangeroidea 

Thylacoleonidae 

Thylacoleo Owen 

Thylacoleo hilli sp, nov. 

Diagnosis: Thylacoleo with P r; about half as 
long as in T, camifex. 

llolotype: upper left P\ registered no. PJ8621 
in the South Australian Museum. 

Type locality: Town Cave (Y2), Curramulka. 
Yorke Peninsula. 

Etymology: 1 have pleasure in naming this 
species for its finder, the late Alan Hill, a found- 
ing member of CEGSA in 1956, and a dynamic 
speleologist until his untimely death in 1972. 

Description: 

The only known specimen, PI 8621, an upper 
left P : , measures 24*4 mm long which is less 
than half the length of the equivalent tooth of 
Thylacoleo camifex. It has a long trenchant 
ridge, with the highest point over the anterior 
root (broken away), The height is 12-2 mm on 
the outer face. From here the crista descends 
abruptly on the anterior face to a point below 
the general base level of the crown, though not 
so obviously as in 7 . camifex. Posteriorly from 
the anterior cusp, the crest descends gently (at 
about 20 below ihe horizontal, the base of the 
enamel being taken as horizontal) for a little 
more than halfway before abruptly levelling out 
to form Ihe posterior "cusp" over the posterior 
root, then descends again at the same rate. In 
profile it is similar to P' of T, camifex, although 
with less development of ihe anterior "cusp'' 



278 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (16): 261-267 



June, 1977 



There arc more obvious differences in occlusal 
view. In Thylacoleo hilli, P' is relatively broad 
and shows a rather tuberous outline in contrast 
to the more slender form of T. camifex. How- 
ever, the crest has the same sigmoid form, 
starting slightly mesiad at the anterior end and 
curving, convex outwards, to the anterior "cusp". 
Thence it is almost straight until the midway 
break-in-slope, where it bends slightly but sharply 




outwards to the posterior "cusp", after which it 
curves gently outwards to reach the posterior 
extremity. The sigmoid curve is thus rather 
more angular than in T. carnijc.x. 

As in Thylacoleo camifex, the anterior cusp 
is buttressed with a noticeable internal ridge 
and a somewhat more rounded external ridge, 
but in contrast to T. camifex, this is not the 
widest part of the tooth. That point occurs 






10mm 



U_ O J3u^si^t> 



Fig. 1. Comparison of upper premolars of Thylacoleo carnifcx P17654 (upper drawings) ami T. hilli P18621, 
holotype, (lower drawings), in labial (left) and occlusal (right) views. 







Fig. 2. Thylacoleo camifex left P s (SAM P 17654) a: labial view; 
b: lingual view. Natural size. 

Fig. 3. Thylacoleo hilli n. sp. left pa (SAM PI 8621) Stereopairs; 
a: occlusal view; b: labial view; c: lingual view. Natural size. 



A NEW SPECIES OF TH1I.4COl.EO 



27'< 



slightly posterior to the cusp and just before the 
midpoint of the tooth. Again as in T. ranufex, 
the outer face is convex while the inner face 
is slightly hollow to maintain a constant sharp 
edge as tooth-wear progresses. This is particu- 
larly noticeable in the central region of the ridge, 
where tooth- wear has bevelled the inner face of 
the crest in a one-millimetre band. The hollow 
part of the face is apparently unworn, and is 
gently rugose in a vertical direction. 

The anterior root appears to have been by 
far the stronger, all hough both are missing from 
the specimen, It has a deeply crescentic cross 
section at the base of the crown. There is no 
cingulum and the enamei thins and ends in a 
rather irregular line, as in T. camifex. 

Discission: Apart from Thvlacoko, the only 
other form to which the Hill tooth could be 
compared is the lower premolar (Ps) of Proiem- 
nodon spp. (see Bartholomai 1974), but the 
differences in size and form [I'lotcmnodon is too 
small, too llal-bladcd and too narrow, and lacks 
the anterior descension of the crown enamel) 
are too obvious for this to seriously considered. 

The possibility has been considered that the 
Town Cave tooth is an abnormal development. 
Various abnormalities of marsupial teeth have 
been discussed by Archer (1975) But the only 
type of interest here is the ephemeral tooth: that 
which may be present in embryo, but normally 
is resorbed or shed in young juveniles. There 
does not seem to be any certain way of distingu- 
ishing an isolated, unusually small tooth as a 
deciduous or ephemeral looth. In the present 
instance, however, it is likely that this possibility 
can be discounted, for several reasons: (I) the 
tooth is well calcified and had well-developed 
roots (by contrast, some specimens of unworn 
T. carnifcx premolars have very thin walled, 
fragile roots). (2) the enamel is thick and solid, 
(3) the tooth was functional, having a small 
bul well-defined wear facet, 

The Thylacoleonidae have a relatively long 
history, which unfortunately is poorly represented 
for most of its length. A single undescribed 
toothless palate from the Miocene Etadunna 
Formation (Ngapakaldi local fauna) (Stir ton. 
Tedford and Woodburne 1968) in the Lake 
Eyre Basin, seems to be the first possible repre- 
sentative (Clemens and Plane 1974:659). This 
is followed by the two species of Wakalcn 
(Clemens and Plane 1974) from later Miocene 
deposits; then by the rather poorly known Thy- 
lucaiea vrassidenlalus (Bartholomai 1962) from 
the Pliocene Chinchilla Formation of the Western 
Darling Downs in Queensland, There is also 



an unidentified specimen from the Lower Plio- 
cene Allingham Formation of north Queensland 
(Archer & Wade 1976:390), in which P ; is 
relatively shorter than in T. crassideniuins, but 
larger than that estimated lor T. hilli (M. Archer, 
pers. comm., ll.ii.75). The Allingham species 
has been compared with a specimen from Balla- 
donia, W.A., mentioned by Mcrrilees (1968: 14). 
The best known species. Thylacolen carnijcx 
(Owen 1859), is widespread in Australian 
Pleistocene cave deposits and in some other open 
situations (see Gill 1954). 

Thylacoleo was an unusual animal m many 
ways, one of which was the apparent lack ol 
deciduous cheek-teeth. Most notably, the large 
sectorial premolars apparently had no functional 
precursors, and persisted from the pouch stage 
to senility (Finch 1971). In two specimens in 
the South Australian Museum (PI 372 1 , PI 3829), 
these full-sized camassials are almost fully 
erupted in jaws that are only 22-23 mm deep at 
the posterior end of the P:< alveolus, and 85- 
90 mm long from the incisor alveolus to the 
angular process. Mandibles of mature T. c/irni- 
fcx reach a depth, at the P a alveolar margin, of 
up to 53 mm. The premolars are. therefore, 
apparently functional even in pouch young, 
although the two specimens mentioned above 
show no signs of wear. It is thus unlikely that 
the Curramulka tooth, 7'. hilli, which is slightly 
worn and has well-developed roots, is deciduous. 

It is impossible, however, to present conclus- 
ive evidence one way or the other as to whether 
the tooth in question is permanent or deciduous. 
On the one hand, there is a slight indication that 
it could be deciduous by comparison with its 
postulated closest relatives. Woods 1. 1956: 1 38 ) 
has indicated its phalangeroid affinities, and 
certainly the jaw of Wakaleo oldficldi beats some 
similarities in form with, say Burramys, which 
Broom (4898) concluded was close to the 
ancestral condition of the Thylacoleonidae, 
Many groups of phalangeroids have diminutive 
deciduous premolars (e.g. SAM M5539. a. 
juvenile Trichomrus vidpecula wilh dP3, Ml -3. 
and P3 unerupted below dP3.K At the same 
time, a koala M4625 has only (he premolar and 
Ml fully erupted, and these premolars are identi- 
cal in size and form with those in adult, even 
senile, individuals which suggests that the decidu- 
ous premolar, if it existed, was of very short 
duration. A deciduous check tooth in a koala 
embryo was noted by an early German embryo- 
logist (M. Archer, pers. comm., Nov. 1976). 

On the other hand, there is good circum- 
stantial evidence againsr the Hill tooth being 
deciduous, in that for all the .scores of specimens 



280 REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (.16): 261-267 Juiu; 1977 

TABLE 1 
Lengths Of premolars of Thylacoleonidae (calculated parameters are based on the ratio for 7". camifex P':Pj «= I -295 ) 



Species 



Thyhuok'o carnifej; — 

Darling Downs (Woods. 1956) 

Wellington Ones (Australian Museum 
coll.) 

Naracoorte Caves (S. Aust. Mus. coll.). 

Tolul sample 

T, aassitlenttvus — (Barlholomai, 1962) .... 

T. hilli n. sp, : 

Wakaleo vandcrleuri (range ol'cstimatcs). . . 
W. oldfickli 





Carnassial Length 






P J 


P2 


Range 


Mean 




Range 


Mean 




353-407 
35 7-460 

37- 1-4 16 
35 3-460 
.35 6-41 -4 


JR.fi (N *s 4) 
39-8 (N 48) 

396 (N - 24) 
39-6 (N 76) 
37-5 (N 4) 
calc 18-8 
13-5-1 5-3 (N = 
12-4 


1) 


49-8-53-8 
470-54- 1 

49-2-54-5 

470-54-5 


51-7 (N - 
50-7 (N = 

52-2 (N - 
51-3 (N 
calc. 48-6 
24-4 

calc. 1 7-5- 
calc 161 


3) 
23) 

14) 

40) 

19-8 



of Thylacoleo camifex, at all stages of develop- 
ment, there is no other tooth of similar size 
known. Also, the roots were not being resorbed. 
Accordingly, the easiest explanation is that it is 
a valid diminutive species. 

Thylacoleo hilli gives the impression of being 
more akin to Thylacoleo carm'fex. While there 
is an obvious similarity shown between the 
mandibles of Wakaleo and Thylacoleo camifex, 
the P :i of the former is of different proportions, 
being relatively shorter, while the molars are 
relatively larger and better developed (Clemens 
and Plane 1974). In contrast, the P ! of 
Thylacoleo hilli is proportionally and morpho- 
logically closely similar to T, camifex (sec Fig, 
I ). It is not yet possible to compare directly the 
premolars of Wakaleo and T. hilli, but estimates 
of the size of the unknown premolars can be 
made, assuming that a regular size relationship 
between the upper and lower premolars of T. 
camifex persists throughout the family, A large 
sample of premolars of T. camifex in the Aus- 
tralian Museum, mostly from the Wellington 
Caves, and a somewhat smaller collection from 
the Naracoorte Caves, held by the South Aus- 
tralian Museum, have been measured, and using 
also the data in Woods (1956), the mean lengths 
of the upper and lowers calculated. The 
assumption was then made that the ratio of 
these, two measurements (P :, :P ; ») has been more 
or less constant at about 1.3. Using this con- 
stant, the lengths of Pn of Thylacoleo hilli and 
1" of Wakaleo spp. have been calculated (see 
fable 1). It is seen that the premolar of: T. 
hilli is closer in size to Wakaleo than to T. 
camifex. However, as discussed above, its form 
is nearer to the latter. It is therefore more 
probably an ancestor of T. camifex, and closer 



in time to Wakaleo than 7. camifex, but 
unlikely to be a descendant of Wakaleo, Clemens 
and Plane (1974) consider Wakaleo probably 
was not directly ancestral to Thylacoleo camifex, 
and that thylacoleonid phylogeny was a plexus 
of lineages rather than a single line. Thylacoleo 
hilli would then represent a short twig near the 
axis of this plexus. 

Aget The age of T. hilli is unknown, though 
presumably late Tertiary. It is unlikely to be 
Pleistocene, as there is no indication of it in 
any of the rich Pleistocene faunas known from 
Australia, It is not the same as the Balladonia 
Thylacoleo (Merrilees 1968; Archer & Wade 
1976) which is regarded as Pleistocene. TS'or is 
it likely to be a dwarfed Pleistocene species, 
produced by insular isolation in the same way 
as the pigmy elephants of some Mediterranean 
islands (e.g. Kurt.'n 1968:135), for although 
Curramulka is in the middle of the low and 
elongate Yorke Peninsula, there is no evidence 
that this has been an island at any time during 
the Cainozoie, and certainly not during the 
Pleistocene. Furthermore T. camifex has been 
found in contiguous areas, such as Port Pirie and 
the Flinders Ranges, as well as in the Curra- 
mulka Town Cave itself and elsewhere on Yorke 
Peninsula. By comparison with the phylogenetic 
pattern of the Diprotodontidae (Stirton el, al. 
1967) with its Pleistocene gigantism, and its 
absence from the late Pliocene Chinchilla and 
Mampuwordu sands, f suggest that T. hilli lived 
in late Miocene or early Pliocene times. How- 
ever, this cannot be confirmed until more 
material and other associated species of the same 
age are found. Attempts to find the actual site 
within the cave, to collect more material, have 
so far been unsuccessful. 



A NEW SPECIES OF THYLACOLEO 



281 



THYLACOLEONIDAE 
IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA 

The discoveries of thylacoleonid fossils in 
South Australia are summarised In Table 2, and 
their distribution is shown in Fig. 4. 

Remains of Thylacoleo carnifex were first 
reported from South Australia by Waterhouse 
(1879) in his annual report to the South Aus- 
tralian Institute. These were found, with 
Diprotodon "Phascolomys" (Phascolonns gigas) 
and Macropus by Mr. R. M. Robertson in a 
spring bog deposit in Salt Creek near Norman- 
ville. This deposit continued to yield bones 
until Zictz (1907 ) apparently worked it out with 
the discovery of more 'ihylacoleo. Zictz (1889) 
had previously reported Thylacoleo with Dipro- 
todon from dam excavations at "Yam Creek, 
Bundaree". Gill ( 1954), unable to locate this 
place on a map. considered it a misspelling of 
Bungaree, but study of Museum reports shows 
(hat the site was at Bundey, about 40 km west 
of Morgan. 



In the early 1900's, a fragment of Thylacoleo 
carnifex was found with other bones on the 
gravel bars of the Warburton River, near (old) 
Kalamurina. The source of these bones is prob- 
ably the eroding channel deposits known as the 
Katipixi Sands (Stirton, Tedford & Miller 1961). 
This formation has yielded a single tooth at 
Lake Kanunka (idem) south of the Warburton 
River. Other open sites yielding Thylacoleo 
have been found in recent years: near Port Pirie. 
and at Lake Fowler, Yorke Peninsula. 

At the turn of the century, Thylacoleo was 
found in cave deposits when William Reddan. 
Curator of the Naracoorte Caves, started 
excavating there, particularly in Alexandra Cave. 

Zietz later undertook excavations in "Speci- 
men Cave" and found considerable quantities of 
material. In recent years, better specimens have 
been collected from several other caves in die 
Naracoorte area: Haystall Cave ( Pledge et al. 
unpubl.), Henschke's Quarry cave (Pledge in 
prep.), and particularly Victoria Cave (Smith 
1971:185). 



TABLE 2 
Summary of distribution and discoveries of Thylacoleonidae in South Australia. 



Locality 



Thylacoleo carnifex — 

Salt Creek, Normanville ... 

Salt Creek. Normanville 

Bundey, west of Morgan 

Kalamurina, Warhurton R. . 

Alexandra Cave (U3). Nara- 
coorte 

Specimen Cave (U35), Nara- 
coorte 

Moorak, Mount Gambier ... 

Dcrrington Street, Mount 
Gambier 

James Quarry (U29), Nara- 
coorte 

James Quarry (U29), Naracoorte 

Cathedral Cave (U 12 13). 
Naracoorte 

Town Cave (Y2). Curramulka 

Town Cave (Y2). Curramulka 

Haystall Cave (U23), Nara- 
coorte 

Quarry, Curramulka 

Fox Cave (U22), Naracoorte . 

Mairs Cave (F3), Buckalowie 
Creek 

Henschke's Quarry cave. Nara- 
coorte (U9 1/97) 

Victoria Cave (U I ), Naracoorte 

Port Pirie 

Lake Fowler. Yorke Peninsula 



Thylacoleo hilli — 
Town Cave (Y2), Curra- 
mulka 
Wakaleo ohtfielifl — 
Lear locality. UCMP V62I3, 
Lake Ngapakaldi 



Type of Deposit 



Collector 



Spring swamp 

Spring swamp ,...,.... 

Fluviatile (loam) 

Fluviatile (channel?). . . 

Cave earth 

Cave earth 

■'(Well) 

Cave 

Cave 



Cave , 

Cave earth 



Cave earth 
Cave earth 
Cave earth , . , 



Fissure bone breccia 

Cave earth 

Cave travertine ...... 



Cave earth 

Cave earth 

Fluviatile (channel) 
Gypsum lunette . . 



CiVe earth 



Wipajiri Formation, 
fluviatile (channel) 



R . M. Robertson 

A. H. R. Zietz 

E. A. King 

Wm. Reddan 

F. R. Zietz 

Campbell 

D. W. P. Corbett 

N. B, Tindale and P. F. 
Lawson 

B. Daily, P. Aitkcn.... 
B. Daily 

R. Sexton 

B. Daily 

N. Pledge el al. . 

G. Pretty and N. Pledge. 

F.W. Aslin 

B. Daily el al 

N. Pledge and F, Aslin . 

R T. Wells et al 

R, Elding 

J. McNamara 

A. Hill 

W. A. Clemens ft al. , . . 



Year 


Reference 


1878 
1907 
1889 
1905 

1900. 1907, 
1912 
1916 


Waterhouse (1879) 
Zietz (1907) 
Ziet?(1890) 
S.A. Museum Report 
(1905-1906) 


1913 
1963 




1956 ' 




1959 
1959 - 


Daily (1961) 


1958 
1959 
1964 




1967 
1968 
1968 




1969 




1969 

1973 
1975 


Smith (1971) 



1956 
1971 



This paper 

Clemens and Plane (1974) 



(Symbols such as UJ. Y2. etc. arc the official code numbers of caves as listed in the caves register of the Cave Exploration 
Group of South Australia. Inc.) 



282 



REC. S. AUST. MUS,. 17 (16): 261-267 



June, 1977 



r 



J 



) 



ft 



J x13 



3 e \ 



j 






r 






..' ! 



3T\ 







: i 

si 



| r.' 







Fig. 4. Occurrences of ThyUicolcoaidae speci- 
mens in South Australia. •: Thylacoleo camifex 
O* no record for the site. X: Wuknleo oldfieldi. 
1. Nornianville. 2. Bundcy, 3. Naracoorte, 4. Kala- 
murintt (Warburton River), 5. Curramulka, 
6. Lake Fowler, 7. Port Pine. S. Bueknlowie Caves, 
9. Ml. Oambier, 10. Lake Callabonna, 11. Rocky 
River, 12. Port Augusta, 13. Lake Ngapakakli. 



Partial skeletons were recovered from Cath- 
edral Cave and from the two small caves in 
James Quarry, Naracoorte (Daily, 1960). The 
quarry and Town Cave at Curramulka on Yorke 
Peninsula, and Mairs Cave on Buckalowie Creek 
in the Flinders Ranges have also yielded some 
good material of Thylacoleo camifex. Wakaleo 
old field i was found in the Miocene Wipajiri 
Formation channel deposits at Lake Ngapakaldi 
(Clemens & Plane 1974). 

Possibly more interesting than the occurrences 
outlined above are those richly fossiliferous areas 
where Thylacoleo camifex has not been found. 
The species is apparently rare in the channel 
deposits intersected by the Warburton River and 
Cooper Creek. It is absent from the rich (though 
as yet poorly investigated) swamp deposits at 
Rocky River, Kangaroo Island, (Tindale. Fenner 
& Hall 1935) and has not been found in any 
of the cave deposits nearby. Most notably, 
there has been no sign of it (or any other 
carnivore) in the vast Diprotodon "graveyard" 
of Lake Callabonna. At the Salt Creek (Nornian- 
ville) site, broken bones bearing distinct tooth 
or cut marks were recovered: these have been 
ascribed to Thylacoleo by A. Zietz (unpubl. 
note, 1907). No such indications have been 
reported from the Callabona fossils. No explan- 
ation has been offered for these apparent gaps 
in the range of Thylacoleo camifex, and none 
will be attempted here, save that the reason may 
have some bearing on the animals way of life, 
which is still speculative. 

ACKNOW LEDGEMENTS 

1 wish to thank Dr. A. Ritchie for allowing 
me access to study the Australian Museum 
material. Mr. P. F. Aitken and Drs. R. T. Wells 
and M. Archer provided constructive criticism 
of the manuscript. Figures 1 and 4 were drawn 
by Mrs. Linda Blesing, and Mrs. Joan Murphy 
typed the numerous draft manuscripts. 

REFERENCES 

Archer, M. (1^75). Abnormal dental development and 
its significance in dasvurids and other marsupials. 
Mem. Qd Mux. 17 (2)": 251-265. 

Archer, M., & Wade, M. (1976). Results of the Ray 
E. Lamley Fxpedilions. Part 1. The Allinghani 
Formation and a new Pliocene vertebrate fauna from 
northern Queensland. Mem. Qd Mux. 17 (3)) 3/9- 
397, pi. 54-58. 

Bartholomai. A. (1962). A new species of 'I hylacolca 
and notes on some caudal vertebrae of Paluicliexti-x 
azacl. Mem. Qd Mux. 14 (2), 33-40. 

Bartholomai. A. ( 1974). The Genus Protemnodou Owen 
( Marsupial ia: Macropodidae) in the Upper Caino/oic 
deposits of Queensland. Mem. Qd Mux, 16 (3), 309- 
363, pi, y-23. 

Broom. R. (1898). On the affinities and habits of 
Thylacoleo. Proc. Linn. Sac. N.S.W. 23: 57-74 



A NEW SPECIES OE TI1YLACOLEO 



283 



Clemens, W. A. & Plane, M. (1974). Mid-Tertiary 
Thylacoleonidae (Marsupialia, Mammalia). /. Paleon- 
tol. 48 (4), 652-660, pi. 1. 

Daily. B. (1960). Thylacoleo, the extinct Marsupial Lion. 
Austr. Mas. Meg, 13, 163-166. 

Encit. E. fl ( J7li, / hvlacoleo, marsupial lion or marsupial 
sloth? Austr. Nut. Hist. 17 (1), 7-11. 

Germcin, P. (1960). The Curramulka Caves. A list. 
Amateur Mineralogist 6 (4) 106-108. 

Gill, E. D. ( 1954). Ecology and distribution of the extinct 
giant marsupial, Thylacoleo. Vict. Nat. 71, 18-35. 

Kurten. B. (1968). "Pleistocene Mammals of Europe". 
(Weidenfeld & Nicolson: London). 

Merrilees, D. (1968). Man the Destroyer: Late Quaternary 
changes in the Australian marsupial fauna. J. R. Soc. 
W. Aim. 51 (1): 1-24. 

Owen R. (1859). On the fossil mammals of Australia. 
I. Description of a mutilated skull of a large marsupial 
carnivore (Thylacoleo carnifex, Owen) from a cal- 
careous conglomerate stratum, eighty miles S.W. of 
Melbourne, Victoria. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Loud. 149, 
309-322. 

Smith, M. J. (1971). Small fossil vertebrates from Victoria 
Cave, Naracoorte, South Australia. I. Potoroinae 
(Macropodidae), Petauridac and Burramyidae (Mar- 
supialia). Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 95: 185-198. 



Stirton, R. S., Tedford, R. H. & Miller, A. H. (1961). 
Cenozoic stratigraphy and vertebrate paleontology of 
the Tirari Desert, South Australia. Rec. S. Aust. Mils. 
14 (1), 19-61. 

Stilton, R. A., Tedford, R. H. & Woodburne, M. O. 
(1968). Australian Tertiary deposits containing terres- 
trial mammals. Univ. Calif. Puhl. Geol. Sci. 77 1-30. 

Stirton, R. A., Woodburne, M. O. & Plane. M. D. 
(1967). A phylogeny of the Tertiary Diprotodonlidae 
and its significance in correlation. Bur. Min. Resour. 
Aust., Bull. 85, 149-160. 

Tindale, N. B., Fenner, F. J. & Hall, F. J. (1935). 
Mammal bone beds of probable Pleistocene age, Rocky 
River. Kangaroo Island. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 59, 
103-106. 

Watcrhouse, F. G. (1879). Appendix A. Report of the 
Curator of the South Australian Institute Museum on 
the progress of the Museum during the year ending 
30th September, 1879. South. Aust. Institute Ann. 
Report. 1878-9, 10, 11. 

Woods, J. T. (1956). The skull of Thylacoleo carnifex. 
Mem. Qd. Mus. 13 (2), 125-140. 

Zietz, A. (1890). (Exhibit of Thylacoleo, with Dipro- 
toclon, from Yam Creek, Bundaree). Abst. of Proc., 
Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 13, 245. 

Zietz, A. (1907). (Exhibit of Tliylacoleo carnifex and 
kangaroo bones found at Salt Creek, Normanville). 
Abst. of Proc, Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 31, 317. 



RECORDS of THE 
SOUTH AUSTRALIAN 

MUSEUM 



METASQUALODON HARWOODI 
(SANGER, 1881)— A REDESCRIPTION 



By NEVILLE S. PLEDGE 

and 

KARLHEINZ ROTHAUSEN 



SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 
North Terrace, Adelaide 
South Australia 5000 



VOLUME 17 

NUMBER 17 

8th August, 1977 



METASQUALODON HARWOODI (SANGER, 1881) - A REDESCRIPTION 



by Nevilles. Pledge and Karlheinz Roth ausen 



Summary 



The long-lost holotype and several undescribed paratype teeth of the squalodontid whale 
Metasqualodon harwoodi have been rediscovered, and form the basis for a more detailed 
description. Comparison is made with the teeth of other squalodontids from Australia and New 
Zealand, and based on Rothausen's revision of European Squalodontidae, an attempt is made to 
classify Metasqalodon more precisely. The teeth represent a valid genus. 



METASQUAl.ODON HARWOODI (SANGER, 1881)— A REDESCRH'TION 
By NEVILLE S. PLEDGE* AND KARLHEINZ ROTHAUSEN1- 



ABSTRACT 

PLEDGE, N. S. & ROTHAUSEN. K , 1977: M ■ vtuxqimloilon 
harwomd (Sanecr, I SKI) — a redescription. Rec. S. A»\t. 
Mux. 17 (17):" 285-297.' 

The long-lost holotype and several undescribed 
paratype teeth of the squalodontid whale Meta- 
squalodon harwoodi have been rediscovered, and 
form the basis for a more detailed description. 
Comparison is made with the teeth of other 
squalodontids from Australia and New Zealand, 
and based on Rothauscn's revision of European 
Squalodontidae, an attempt is made to classify 
Metasqauladon more precisely. The teeth repre- 
sent a valid genus. 

General tendencies in the evolution of squalo- 
dontid teeth make it more likely that Meta- 
squalodon is nearer to the evolutionary stage of 
longirostral Lower Miocene species of Sqnalodon 
in the Northern Hemisphere than to that of 
presently known brevi rostral genera of the 
Southern Hemisphere. Nevertheless, curvature 
of the crown and roots, and the denticles on the 
anterior-most buccal tooth indicate that the teeth 
probably belong to a brevirostral form. This 
would mean that there was a tendency in the 
evolution of the teeth of brevirostral squalo- 
dontids similar to that shown in the longirostral 
forms of Europe. 

In any case, this gives a supplementary indica- 
tion to the disputed age of the find since, on the 
grounds of preservation, it has been determined as 
coming from the uppermost part of the Ettrick 
Formation, and is therefore very late Oligocene. 

INTRODUCTION 

In 1880, Sanger f 1881 ) reported to the Lio- 
nean Society of New South Wales the discovery 
of a tooth and some fragments of a second at 
Wellington. South Australia. These he regarded 
as belonging to a new zeuglodont whale species 
H Zenglodun harwoodii". He figured and des- 
cribed a "molar'" tooth, consisting of a near- 
complete serrated crown and the upper, con- 
fluent part of the rootv 

Later. Hall (1911), in discussing the system- 
atic positions of Squolodon and "Zeuglodon" 
from Australia, compared "Z," harwoodi and 
Squalodon wilkinsoni McCoy (1867), and put 

" Soulh Australian Museum. Adelaide. South Australia. 

51100. 
i D-6500 Mai'"/. Geowissenschaftliches Institul der 

Univcrsital, Saaritr. 21, Federal Republic of 

Germany. 

Hlh Mu.viisi. 1977 
I 



both into new genera: viz. Mvtasquahd<»\ 
harwoodi (Sanger) and Parasqualodon wilkinsoru 
(McCoy). His treatment of M. harwoodi was 
necessarily only cursory and based on Sanger's 
rather inadequate paper, because the whereabouts 
of the type material was unknown. 

In 1948, Charles Fenner, then Honorary 
Curator of Fossils at the South Australian 
Museum, discovered a box of teeth recorded as 
P8446 in the Palacontological Register, and 
stored as a holotype. The box contained six 
teeth or fragments thereof, glued to a card 
labelling them as molars and canines. Two of 
the "molars" were also labelled as types. In 
addition, a slip bearing the legend ( in script) : 



Zeuglodon teeth 
(Notodanus tooth) 



separated 
100 1 



Wellington 



J. C. Harwood 



Sydnam Norwood 




and a cutting of the text figures from Sanger's 
paper were enclosed. Fenner realised that this 
box contained Sanger's type material and more 
besides. The pencilled addition "separated" 
referred to the "Notidanus" tooth, which was not 
present in the box. This tooth was later dis- 
covered ( 1972) elsewhere in the collection, and 
bears the additional information on its card: 

"Fossil shark tooth, Notidanus sp? 

River Murray Cliffs near Wellington. S. 
Austral. 

pres. by Mr. J. C. Harwood, December 
1881." 
The tooth is additionally labelled "Notidanus 
primigenius". 

However, the whereabouts of Zeuglodon 
harwoodi was not disclosed for some time, for 
it was not seen by Flynn ( 1948) when he min- 
utely described the nearly complete skull and 
mandibles of Prosqualodon davidi Flynn; nor 
was it seen by Glaessner ( 1955) when he estab- 
lished Squalodon gamhierensis, although he later 
rediscovered it. 

Rothausen (1968: pp. 85-86) established a 
terminology and some indices to standardise the 
description of squalodontid whales. Appendix 



2M 



RK. S. AUST. MIJS.. 17 (17): 285-2*7 



undalion 



. dentie. post. 



crenetation 




labial 



ram. prim — 




lingual 



— i Warn sec. (?) 



P8416 5 



P84166 




August, 


1977 


anterior 

-,- — denlit isA 




J -cr, rug. 




V denricb 


,s. a;il 


-_ / cingulum 





isthmus J P84461 



B 



Fig 1. Feature terminology in Squalodontoid teeth. Diagrams not to scale. A. Internal face of P8446.6, 

diagramalically showing crenelation, sysl. cr. rug. and undation B Anterior view Of P8446.5, showing basal 

region of anterior carina with ram, prim, and possible ram. sec. C. Lingual view of P8446.1, showing anterior 

and posterior denticles, and dentic. bas. ant. and post., sysl, cr. rue., and cingulum, 



1 gives a summary of this terminology, with 
additional terms used herein. A number of them 
are commonly applied in the text as Latin 



abbreviations. 



See Fig. 



HISTORY OF STUDIES ON AUSTRALIAN 
AND NEW ZEALAND SQUALODONTIDS 

Flynn ( 1948: p. 1 85 ) gave a precise and con- 
cise account of discoveries of and papers on 
Australasian archaeocctes and primitive odon- 
tocctcs, therefore only the time from 1 948 till 
now shall be considered except for a few refer- 
ences not mentioned by him. 

1939. Pritchard describes a partial skull and 
jaws of a new whale Mammaladon t»i1chardi. 
The preserved teeth are extremely worn, to the 
extent that comparison with other squalodontoid 
teeth is not possible, 

1942. Camp and Kellogg (in Camp 1942: 
p. 367) agree with Thomson ( 1905: p. 491) in 
contrast to Benham (1935a: p. 238) (who 
thought it a reptile as accepted by Neave 1940 
(b) : p. 395 in wrong spelling "Tangarosaunts") , 
that Tangaroasaurus kakunuiensis Benham, 1935 
represents the rostrum of a squalodontid; accepted 
also by Romer (1945: p. 624; 1966: p, 392) 
and Dechaseaux (1961: p. 860) both in wrong 
spelling (Tangarasaiirus), and by Rothausen in 
his revision (1965: pp. 656-658), who could 
verify it in detail. 

1948. Flynn published a full description of 
the near complete skull of Prosquulodon davidi 
Flynn, 1923 discovered by him at Wynyard, 
Tasmania, in September 1919 (vide Mahoney 
and Ride 1975: pp. 161-162). He first men- 
tioned it in 1920 and described and named it in 



1 923. An addendum by Carter (in Flynn 1 948 : 
pp. 192-193) gives a microscopic comparison of 
the enamel structure of P. davidi, "Zenglodon" 
osiris, several carnivores, a creodont, and an 
ungulate (Sim). The two whales show a closer 
affinity to the ungulate than to any carnivore. 
Flynn here discusses also — with other odonto- 
cetes — the position of Metasqualodon harwoodi. 

1948. Sanger's type material is rediscovered 
in Adelaide, but its importance is not fully 
realised, and its whereabouts arc not made known 
immediately. 

1955, Glaessncr describes a buccal tooth, 
probably a lower right, found in Oligocene 
bryozoal limestone at Mr. Gambier. It is of a 
form not previously recorded from Australasia, 
and is given the name Squalodon gatyibierense. 
(Fig. 3M,N), 

1961. Rothausen discusses the position of 
"Microcetus" hectori Benham 1935 (b) and he is 
sure that it at least belongs in another genus than 
the genotype M. ambiguus (v. Meyer, 1840), 

1964. Dickson describes Prosquulodon 
nuirplesi Dickson 1964 from Upper Oligocene 
beds in New Zealand. 

1965. Rothausen in a revision of European 
squalodontids also discusses the non-European 
forms in some detail. This part of his manuscript 
is not yet published, even in abstract form. 

1970. Rothausen discusses general aspects 
of some Squalodontoidea from Australia and 
New Zealand in connection with the question of 
the Oligocene- Miocene boundary. 

1972. Climo and Baker present an updated 
summary of studies on New Zealand squalodonts 



MET/tSQUALODON HARWOODI (SANGER. 1881)— A REDESCRIPT10N 



287 



and describe a new genus and species Austro- 
squalodon trirhizodonta based on a pair of 
edentulous mandibles collected in 1970 in Dun- 
troonian (Middle Oligocene) siltstone near 
Nelson, New Zealand. The genus is considered 
by these authors to be allied to Sqnulodon Grate- 
loup, but differs in having a small median third 
root on the molariform teeth. 

1972. Glaessner redescribes a cetacean tooth 
from New Zealand, previously described by Davis 
(1888) as Squalvdon serralus. It is from the 
same stratigraphic horizon as Kekenodon 
onomata Hector 1881 and shows some similari- 
ties with, but is considerably smaller than, that 
species. Glaessner also to some extent clarifies 
the rather uncertain situation concerning isolated 
teeth of squalodonloids in the Australian-New 
Zealand area. 

1973, Kcyes describes, but does not name, 
two buccal teeth of a "protosqualodontid" from 
the Lower Oligocene of Oamaru, New Zealand. 



He also revises the records of all known fossil 
Cetacea from New Zealand. 

1975. Mahoney and Ride, indexing the 
genera and species of Australasian fossil mam- 
mals, list fifteen species of fossil cetaceans, and 
inter alia note that the type of Metasqitalodon 
harwoodi had disappeared and that the cranium 
and much of the skeleton of the type of Pro- 
squalodon davidi Flynn had been lost in 1961 
during renovations of the Zoology Department, 
University of Tasmania. 

1976. Whitmorc and Sanders review the 
Oligocene Cetacea, but do not mention Meta- 
squalodon, apparently believing it to be a 
Miocene species. 

In this present paper, a summary of the strati- 
graphic occurrences of the squalodonts of 
Australia and New Zealand, in the light of cur- 
rent knowledge and interpretation, is given in 
Table 1 , This has been done in more detail for 
New Zealand species by Keyes ( 1973 ). 



Table I 
STRATIGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF AUSTRALASIAN SQUAf ODONTOIDFA 



Species 



Locality 



Formation 



Age 



Age Reference 



I HiiKuriKHiiiHHts kukanuiensis 
Ben ham, 19.15a 



Prosquulodon davidi Flynn, 1923 



Metasqualodoii harwoodi Sanger 
IXX1 

Parasqualodon '.' wilkmsoiti McCoy 
1867 

Sqnulodon ' undrewi Bcnham 1942 



"Prosqualdodon" liamilloni 

Benham 1937 
Prosquulodon nutrplesi Dickson 

1964 



"Mkrocelus" heclori Benham 
1935b 



Auslrosqualodon trirhiiondonta 
Climo and Baker 1972 

Sqnulodon ? xumbieremis 
Glaessner 1955 

Sqnulodon ? serralus Davis 1 888 . 



Unnamed squalodontoid 



Kakanui. Otago, 
N.Z. 



Fossil Bluff. 
Wynyard, Tas. 

Near Wellington. 

River Murray, 

S.A. 
Castle Cove, Loc. 

AW3, Aire Coast, 

Vic. 
Clarendon Lime- 
stone Quarry, 

Otago. N,Z. 
Caversham Quarry, 

Dunedin, N.Z. 
Near Trig. Z, 

Waitaki Valley. 

Otago, N.Z. 

Maerewhenua River. 
Waitaki Valley, 
Otago, N.Z. 



S.E. of Fossil Point. 

N.W. Nelson, 

N.Z, 
Prilchard's Quarry 

Mount Gambier, 

S.A. 
Karetu River. North 

Canterbury. N.Z. 



Gay's Limestone 
Quarry. Weston, 
Oamaru, N.Z. 



Blue clay 



Fossil Bluff Sand- 
slone 

Eltrick Formation. 



Calder River 
Limestone 



Caversham Sand- 
stone 

Waitoura Marl 
Member of 
Otekaikc Lime- 
stone 

Maerewhenua 
Glauconitic 
Limestone 
Member of 
Otekaike Lime- 
stone 

Glauconitic Sand- 
stone 

Gambier Limestone 



Weka Pass Stone 



McDonald Lime- 
stone 



Otaian-Altonian 
(Farly to Middle 
Miocene) or 
Waitakian (Late 
Oligocene) 

Early Ltmgfordian 
(very early 
Miocene) 

Janjukian (Late 
Oligocene) 

Janjukian (Late 
Oligocene to 
earliest Miocene) 

Waitakian (Late 
Oligocene) 

Waitakian (Late 

Oligocene) 
(Late Oligocene) 



Waitakian (Late 
Oligocene) 



Duntroonian 

(Middle 

Oligocene ) 
Early "Janjukian" 

(Early Middle 

Oligocene) 
Whaingaroan- 

Duntroonian 

(Early Middle 

Oligocene) 
Wliaingaroan (Early 
Oligocene) 



Keyes (1973) 
Climo and Baker 
(1972) 



Ludbrook(l973) 
This paper 



Carter (1958) 
Lud brook (19731 



Kcyes (1973) 
Jenkins (1974) p.292 
Glaessner (1972) 

Keyes (1973) 



288 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (17): 285-297 



Aumst, 1977 



TAXONOMY 

Squalodontoidea Simpson, 1945 

Squalodontidae Brandt, 1 873 

Squalodontinae Rothausen, 1968 

Metasqualodon Hall, 1911 

Metasqualodon harwoodi (Sanger 1881) 

Zeuglodon Harwoodi! Sanger 1881: 298-300, 
Fig. A, B. 

Zeuglodon Harwoodi Sanger Stromer 1908: 
147. 

Metasqualodon harwoodi (Sanger) Hall 1911: 
257, 262, 263, pi. 36, Fig. 7A, B (not Fig. 
6). 

Microzeuglodon ? Harwoodi (Sanger) Abel 
1913: 220. 

Zeuglodon harwoodi Sanger Abel 1913: 209. 

S. harwoodi Sanger Winge 1919: 129. 

Metasqualodon harwoodi (Sanger) Kellogg 
1923: 20, 40. 

Zeuglodon harwoodi Pritchard 1939: 153, 155. 

Metasqualodon Hall 1911 Neave 1940: 133. 

Metasqualodon harwoodi Flynn 1948: 186. 

Metasqualodon harwoodi Glaessner 1955: 336. 

Metasqualodon Hall 1911 Rothausen 1958: 
372. 

Metasqualodon ( "Zeuglodon") harwoodi 
Thenius 1959: 273. 

Metasqualodon harwoodi (Sanger 1881) 
Rothausen 1965: 659. 

Metasqualodon harwoodi Rothausen 1970: 
Fig. I. 

Metasqualodon Hall 1911 Dubrovo 1971: 89. 

Metasqualodon harwoodi Sanger Climo and 
Baker 1972: 61. 

Metasqualodon harwoodi (Sanger) Glaessner 
1972: 185. 

Metasqualodon Keyes 1973: 384. 

Metasqualodon harwoodi Mahoney and Ride 
1975: 158. 

Zeuglodon harwoodi Sanger idem: 164. 

Holotype: A buccal tooth lacking only the 
distal parts of the roots, some points of the crown 
and part of the enamel at the labial face (Fig. 
3A-B; Sanger 1881: p. 298, Fig. A-B). South 
Australian Museum, Adelaide P8446.1. 

Paratypes: Five teeth or fragments of teedi 
(Fig. 3C-J). South Australian Museum. Ade- 
laide P8446.2-6. 



Type Locality: The teeth were found near 
Wellington, on the River Murray in South Aus- 
tralia (Fig. 2). ". . . in a bed of yellow 
calcareous clay, containing specimens of Echinus, 
Spatangus, Clypeaster, Pecten, Turritella, Corbis 
and Spondyhis." (Sanger 1881: p. 298). These 
accompanying fossils have been lost, so their 
modern identities are unknown. 

Age: Late Oligocene (see discussion below). 

Diagnosis: Typical squalodontoid teeth with 
the following characteristics: 

Posterior buccal teeth with many dentic. ant. 
and dentic. post, including dentic. bas. ant. and 
post, on antero-posterior carina. Labial face 
shows only few weak cr. rug., the lingual face 
stronger. Characteristic number of cr. rug. about 
14-15, ID with 18.6 is small. Low values for 
ant.-post. diameter of crown base, middle value 
for apical-angle, and not a very high degree of 
symmetry. Root with two fangs, confluent at 
top by thin isthmus extending for up to 10 mm 
(estimated) but often less in more posterior 
buccal teeth. 




Fig. 2. Locality map. 



MITASQUAlOhON HARWOOm (SANGER, 1881 I— A REDESCRIPTION 



289 



Cheek teeth of more anterior position are 
similar but with fewer denticles and longer 
isthmus. 

The anterior-most cheek teeth show one or 
two denticles. 

Rede.scriplion of Holotype: The Holotype 
( P8446.I ; Kig. 3 A, B) is a well preserved buccal 
tooth which lacks most of the roots, the points 
of several denticles, and part of the enamel from 
the labial face. The crown is laterally com- 
pressed, triangular in facial aspect, with a dis- 
tinct antero-posterior carina which is occupied 
with a number of well-detined. acutely-pointed 
denticles: three dentic. ant. and one dentic. bas. 
ant. as well as five dentic. post, and one dentic. 
bas. post. The dentic. bas. on each side is very 
small, and others are about the same size, some- 
what smaller than the apical point. All denticles 
bear an antero-posterior carina. 

The greatest length of this buccal tooth is 
above the base of the crown, at the level of the 
apices of the dentic. bas. Greatest width is in 
that part of the crown above the anterior root. 
The base of the enamel is visible only on the 
lingual face, and is straight except for a median 
V-shaped embaymeiit. Both faces show a wide 
"sulcus" in this position, which corresponds to 
the junction between the two roots. 

The labial face bears faint, near-vertical cr. 
rug. which appear to converge near the apex. 



some also diverging to enter the denticles. The 
enamel of the lingual face is more strongly 
decorated: above a smooth basal zone (the 
cingulum ) up to 4 mm wide, irregular stronger 
cristae rugae converge near the apex, some also 
diverging to enter the denticles. The cristae 
are most pronounced at their lower ends 
where they have developed small tubercular 
prominences bordering the cingulum, above 
which they are papillated, especially those of the 
posterior part of the crown. The cr. rug. die out 
without reaching the apex. 

In anterior profile, the crown is more convex 
on the labial face, but this only concerns the 
anterior part of the crown. The apical part is 
slightly incurved. The enamel is thickened at 
the base to form a smooth cingulum. 

The two roots are broken off about 6-7 mm 
below the crown. The anterior root is circular 
in section, the other is laterally compressed. The 
fracture shows the radial structure of the dentine, 
and shows that the pulp cavities of the two roots 
join within the thin isthmus which connects the 
proximal portion of the roots. Irregular, deep, 
vertical striations are seen on the parts of the 
roots nearest to the base of the crown, particu- 
larly on the labial face. 

Most characters and indices (Table 2) are in 
good accordance with B 9 ~"' dext. of European 
Squalodontinae, but with very small absolute 
dimensions. 



Table 2 
DIMENSIONS OF HYPOD1GM TEETH OF METASQUALODON HARWOODI 



(1) Max. ant. -post, diameter of crown . . . 

(2) Ant. -post, diameter at base of crown (a) 

(3) Apical-angle ... 

(4) Lai. diameter at base of crown (ant. in 

two-rooted teeth); (hi 

(5) Lat diameter at base of post, pari of 

crown in two-rooted teeth „ 

(fi) Number of dentic. ant. ,..,...,..,.. 

(7) Number of dentic. post. . . . 

(K| Ant.-post. diameter of largest dentic 
post, (atl) , ...... 

O) Index dentic. (in"-„) 

(10 Characteristic number of cr. rug 

(Ill Vertical width of cingulum in the pre- 
served parts 

(12) lnde\ bas, (in %) 

( 1 3) Number of roots 

(14) Extent of isthmus 

(15) Max. lat. diameter of ant wot or single 

root . 

( ifi) Max. lat. diameter of post root . . . 



Holotype 



Paratypes 



P8446.I 


P8446.2 


P8446.3 


P8446.4 


PS446.5 


PX446.5 


post B 


post.B 


post.B 


mid.B 


mid.B 


ant.B 


sup. ? 


fragm. 


inf. ? 
frugm. 


sup. ? 


sup. t 


sup. '/ 




T 2 



290 



REC. S. AUST. MUS.. 17 (17): 285-297 



Attgust, 1977 












■■ 



.--H 






4 





yuv^.^J 







Fig. 3. A-J, the hypodigm teeth of Metasqiialodon harwoodi (Sanger 1881). A. P8446.1. labial face; B. ditto, 

lingual; C. P8446.2, lingual; D. P8446.3. lingual; E. P8446.4. labial; R ditto, lingual; G. P8446.5, labial; H. ditto, 

lingual; 1. P8446.6, labial: J. ditto, lingual; K. Proxqualodon ilavidi Flynn, AUGD T857, labial; L. ditto, lingual; 

M. Squulodon ? gambierensis Glaessner, AUGD F15107, labial; N. ditto, lingual face. 

All approximately natural size. A, B, E-J stcreophotos and to the same scale. 



AtETASQt/ALQPON HARWVOni (SANGER, I8NN— A RFDESCRIPTION 



291 



Description of Paratypes; Sanger (1881: 
p. 298) mentioned a fragment of a second tooth 
in his original description. One fragment in 
the assemblage is labelled "type", and consists 
of the anterior internal quarter ol a cheek tooth, 
lacking the apex and most of the root (P8446.2; 
Fig. 3 C), 

Its features are similar to those of the holo- 
type, but >t displays some better. Three dentic. 
ant. are present or indicated, and also a very 
small dentic, bas. ant All are sharply pointed, 
and separated by deep grooves. The cr. rug. are 
very strongly developed, producing sharp-crested 
ridges converging towards the apex. A smooth 
2 mm high cingulum borders the root. 

Only a few millimetres of root arc present, 
but it has a roughly circular section, and is deep 
enough to indicate that the isthmus joining the 
roots did not extend very deeply — only 7*5 nun 
below the medial base of the crown enamel. 

Tt is not possible to say more than that its 
position is middle or posterior buccal. 

Another buccal tooth originally labelled as 
"canine tooth", is represented by the posterior 
internal quarter of the crown, and most of the 
posterior root (P8446.3; Fig. 3D). Tt is not 
part of the tooth represented by the foregoing 
fragment. The preservation of the crown is poor; 
only the apex and the topmost dentic. post., or. 
more likely, only the two topmost dentic. post., 
are present with their lingual parts, and both lack 
apices through wear or damage; the cr. rug. are 
relatively course, but appear worn. The 
cingulum is 3-4 mm high. 

The strongly incurved root is nearly complete, 
lacking only a short proximal portion and the 
labial part nearest to the crown, so exposing the 
pulp cavity. The isthmus is short, about 6-7 mm. 
In lateral view the root is straight. 

This latter characteristic is typical for lower 
buccals in European squalodontids and thus we 
probably have a fragment of a B inf. dext. of 
middle or posterior position. 

A more anterior cheek tooth is represented 
by a near-complete crown with a small portion 
of its root (P8446.4, Fig. 3 E, F). The crown 
is laterally compressed, is high-triangular in side 
view, and slightly incurved in profile. The 
anteroposterior carina bears one dentic. ant., 
near the base of the crown, and two widely 
spaced dentic. post. Small basal denticles may 
have been present, but are not preserved. The 
labial face is mainly smooth, having a few short, 



poorly developed cr. rug. near the base posterior 
to the median sulcus. The enamel of the lingua] 
face is preserved only in the anterior half, and 
shows strong irregular cr. rug. 

The root is preserved, poorly, only on the 
lingual side. The two roots are seen to be con- 
fluent, but the extent of the isthmus cannot be 
determined. The pulp cavity is obscured by 
matrix. 

In most quantitative characteristics (Table 2) 
and in the general appearance, it is similar to a 
left B 6 in European squalodontids, but with 
smaller absolute dimensions. 

Two teeth, originally labelled as canines, we 
deem to be anterior-most buccal teeth. 

The larger is a specimen lacking the crown 
apex and the distal portion of the single root 
(P84465; Fig. 3 G, H). The crown is a 
laterally compressed cone, incurved, with a pro- 
nounced antero-posterior carina. A small dentic, 
bas., with apex missing, is present at each end 
of the carina, and minute denticulations can just 
be perceived along the lingual side, a phenomenon 
in all anterior teeth of squalodontids for which 
one of the authors proposed the term "crenela- 
tion" (Fig. 1 A; Rothausen 1965: p. 26, Abb. 
1). The labial face is convex, and smooth 
except for a few short, poorly developed cr. rug. 
near the middle and in the posterior half. The 
lingual face IS concave in profile and is strongly 
decorated with cr. rug. converging in the direc- 
tion of the apex. The systems of cr. rug. die out 
in a narrow smooth cingulum in which the 
enamel is not thickened. The root is somewhat 
tumid just below the crown and is laterally 
compressed there. More distally it narrows and 
becomes circular in section. 

Most of its characteristics and indices, except 
its smaller absolute dimensions, arc similar to 
those of a B 4 dext. of European squalodontids. 
But there are some differences in habitus. For 
example, in European forms no tooth anterior to 
B% has any dentic. ant, or bas. ant. 

An upper buccal tooth is especially indicated 
here by a character that seems common to all 
anterior teeth of squalodontids — the carina 
divides into a main branch (ramus primus = 
ram. prim.) and another, weaker one (ramus 
secundus = ram. sec.) at its basal anterior part, 
and as far as it was possible to check this 
character, the ram. sec. branches off to the 
lingual side in upper teeth and to the labial side 
in lower teeth. (Fig. 1 B. Rothausen 19t>5. 



2v* 



REC. S. AUSI. MUS.. 17 (17); 2X5-Z97 



Augnxi, 1977 



Abb. 21-28, 53-56). Here it branches off to 
the lingual side. 

The sixth specimen is more complete and 
smaller, and from the opposite jaw or mandible 
(P8446.6; Fig. 3 I. J). Us identity is uncertain, 
as it shows the great length and curvature of 
root associated with canines and third incisors 
of squalodontids, and yet bears a distinct dentic. 
ant. near (4-7 mm) the anterior end of the 
carina. Although ihere are, in other squalo- 
dontids, similar teeth which belong to the most 
anterior of the buccal series, nevertheless even 
these do not show such a denticle. 

The crown is a compressed cone bearing a well 
developed antero-posterior carina. There is no 
discernable dentic. post. The labial face shows 
very weak. cr. rug. and only at the posterior part 
is there, other poorly developed sculpture: the 
crown shows weak undation here, 

The lingual face is slightly concave in pro- 
file, and bears strong cr. rug. These are fully 
visible only at the posterior part because only 
a small portion of enamel remains on that face, 
but the striations have left distinct traces on the 
underlying dentine. The cr. rug. arise from a 
smooth cingulum 1 '5 mm wide. 

The root is slightly compressed at the base 
of the crown and is a little tumid below this; this 
also is a character more or less developed in 
anterior teeth of squalodontids, but often also 
I less pronounced) in posterior teeth, for which 
the term "Basiswulsf (Rothausen 1965: p. 27) 
or "basal swelling"" has been proposed, ft may 
be that the teeth were implanted that far in the 
connective tissue. The root then narrows and 
becomes almost cylindrical. About 5-7 mm 
above the end there is a "sharp" bend, and the 
lingual side veers labial. There is a slight but 
distinct constriction 3 mm from the end. On 
the anterior side, a shallow groove extends from 
the open end of the root to the constriction. 

The position of this tooth is very uncertain. 
Because enamel is broken away at the lingual side 
of the crown there is only a possible vestige of 
a ram. sec. (Fig. IB) at the denticle. If this 
were the case it would be an upper right tooth. 
There is some similarity with B il in European 
squalodontids. but in far smaller dimensions. 
The development of a dentic. ant. on a tooth 
anterior to fi% is however of generic significance. 

DISCUSSION 

Hall (1911), making some invalid assumptions 
based on Sanger's rather inadequate description 



and figure, concluded that the faces of the lost 
teeth were smooth, and that a tooth from IVTt. 
Gambier (Hall 1911: pi. 36, Fig. 6), possessing 
a nearly complete root with fangs confluent for 
most of their length, was of the same species. 
This latter tooth, however, has the faces strongly 
ornamented with papillated cr. rug, Hall had 
disregarded this feature erroneously as being 
nontaxonomic, and based his two genera on the 
characters of the incomplete roots (1911: 
p. 262). which are of far less or even of no 
importance tn this regard, 

Kellogg (1923: p. 20) suggested the Mt. 
Gambier specimen was in reality closer to Para- 
sqtialodon '? wilkinsoni (McCoy 1867); this was 
tentatively endorsed by Flynn (1948: p. 186), 
but it certainly differs in habitus and some very 
significant points, (a) the apical angle is far 
smaller (40-5 ) than in a buccal tooth 
(P8446.4) of similar position (>47 ) of M, 
harwoodi. (b) the characteristic number of 
cr. rug. should be taken at a B 7 (see Appendix 
1), but one may be sure that, according to Hall's 
figure where the cr. rug. are much coarser, the 
characteristic number of this tooth is far smaller 
than in M. harwoodi (14-15 in the holotype) 

These differences clearly distinguish the Mt. 
Gambier tooth of Hall (1911: p). 36. Fig. 6) 
from M. harwoodi, and we are sure that this 
tooth should be consequently included in Pro- 
squalodon davidi Flynn because almost the 
same differences are found between the teeth of 
P. davidi and M. harwoodi. 

The holotype of Parasqualodon 7 wilkinsoni 
(McCoy 1867) itself (Hall 1911: pi. 36, Fig. 
5) is similar in shape to the penultimate lower 
buccal of P. davidi. But we hesitate to include 
P. 7 wilkinsoni (only the holotype remains in 
this genus and species) in P. davidi without com- 
paring the material itself, since even Flynn 
accepted this taxon. and indeed there are some 
differences. We ate in doubt whether Ihe form, 
separation and kind of connection of roots are 
of any special taxonomic meaning. The 
occasional appearance of a third, lingual vestigial 
root (Flynn 1948: p. 183) in P. davidi is also 
of no laxonomic value, because this feature 
appears in most species of Squalodon Grate loup, 
1840 with irregular variability in the cheek teeth 
behind the B\ ( Note, however, Climb and 
Baker ( 1 972 ) The real third root they describe 
in lower cheek teeth of Austrosqualodon does- 
seem to be of taxonomic value at least at the 
generic level.) But there are some other differ- 
ences in the crown: in P. davidi only the anterior 



Ml.fASgHAlUOlIN H,U<W()Om (SANOfcR, INXI) — A KIOISl R1PTION 



Ifci 



carina is convex in lateral view, while in the 
holotype of P. '.' wilkinsoni it looks as if the 
posterior one also is convex, All comparable 
buccal teeth of the Tasmanian form bear three 
dentic. ant. while the tooth of P. ? wilkinsoni 
only bears two but with some spacing, as in P. 
davidi and in the species of Squalodon. The 
cr. rug., as far as it is possible to interpret from 
the figure of Hall (1911: pi. 36, Fig. 5), are 
finer and their characteristic number is larger 
than in P. davidi 

AH these differences however, compared with 
the differences between teeth within other squalo- 
don toid genera, seem not to be of generic 
significance, and it is more likely that this Ml. 
Gambier tooth represents only another species 
of Prosqualodon Lydekker 1893. Because the 
material is poor, and because there was no 
opportunity to compare the material itself, we 
cannot decide this question here finally, but 
the existence of the genus Parasqutdodon Hall 
1911 is questionable An isolated tooth ( AUGD 
T857) figured by Hall (1911: pi. 36, Fig. 4) 
as P. wilkinsoni was regarded by Flynn ( 1948.) 
to be Prosqualodon davidi. 

Thcnius (1959: pp. 272-273) even united 
the Tasmanian species with the Australian 
one, including both under "Parasqualodon 
wilkinsoni". But even if he were right — which 
seems possible — the fRZN would require this 
species to be named "Prosqualodon wilkinsoni 
(McCoy 1867)". 

Like S. gambierensis Glaessner. 1955 (the 
genus is not entirely certain) M. harwoodi has 
dentic. ant. and post, well-defined, large, sharp- 
pointed, and smooth-faced. In contrast, the 
denticles of P. davidi are short, obtusely pointed, 
thick, less well-defined, and bear on their own 
carinae a varying number of small nod. sec. But 
this last character occurs in most of the European 
longirostral Squalodontidae and seems not to be 
of special taxonomic significance. 

[n superficial ornamentation, Metasqualodon 
stands between the relatively smooth-faced 5 
gambierensis, and the rough-faced teeth of Para- 
squalodon '? and Prosqucdodon davidi which are 
both — somewhat differently — covered with papil- 
lated cr. rug. (see Fig. 3 K-N). 

What is the taxonomic significance of the 
ornamentation of teeth with syst. cr. rug.? 

The cr rug are only of a very limited import- 
ance in this regard, but it seems that beside a 
specific character, they show some general ten- 
dencies. For example, Middle Oligocene 



European Squalodontoidea have characteristic 
numbers of cr. rug. of about 7, as is also the 
case for the Upper Oligocene Micmceo's 
ambiguus (Meyer 1 840). Other Upper Oligocene 
European forms which are to be placed within 
Squalodontidae have characteristically 8-10 cr 
rug., while most species of Miocene Squalodon 
show 1 and more. Prosqualodon davidi and P 
australis Lydekker 1893 show characteristic 
numbers of about 7, which seems to be a primitive 
character, like other features of the teeth of this 
genus (small apical angle, good symmetry of 
crowns, three dentic. post, only, ID about 27- 
28 per cent). The same is the case with early 
Oligocene squalodontoid buccal teeth described 
from Oamaru, New Zealand by Keyes (1973). 
There is a characteristic number of 6-7 with 
relatively weak cr. rug. (beside this: good 
symmetry of crowns, three dentic. ant. and post., 
ID about 25 per cent and only a big apical angle 
as a specialised character similar to the mannei rjl 
Xcnorophus sloam Kellogg 1923). 

It should be noted that Keyes apparently did 
not realise that Rothausen's systematic concept 
is one of stages and not of clades. Therefore it 
is highly likely that the early paths of evolution 
of Squalodontidae and other odontocetes are 
embedded in the more primitive agoropbiid stage, 
so far known only from such specialised forms 
as those from the Oligocene upper part of the 
Jackson Group of South Carolina (Cooke and 
MacNeil 1952: p. 27). This part, the Cooper 
Marl, from which the cetacean fossils have been 
collected, has now been extended into the Upper 
Oligocene (Whilmore and Sanders 1976: 
p. 308), on the basis of new studies of the 
invertebrate fauna. Numerous odontocete skulls 
have been found there over the past five or six 
years. Complete skulls of Xenorophus sloani 
Kellogg 1923 have verified conclusions by Roth 
aasen (1965: p. 652) based on the holotype 
fragment, that it belongs not to the Agorophiidae 
but must be classed as "incertae sedis" at this 
time. (pers. comm. to K, R,. from Albert E, 
Sanders, Charleston, June 1976; Whitmore and 
Sanders 1976: p. 310). 

The teeth described by Keyes can only be 
placed in the superfamily Squalodontoidea with 
our present knowledge, and thus Keyes in his 
comparisons I 1973: p. 384, 385) is correct only 
in his opinion that the teeth cannot be placed in 
Prosqualodon. Parosqualodon. Mtcrocetus (con- 
trary to Keyes, buccals are furnished with dentic, 
ant.: Rothausen 1961) o* Metasqualodon. 



iy4 



RISC. S. AUST, MUS„ 17 (17) 283-277 



.•1H.V/-A/, 1977 



Concerning the intensity of development of 
cr. rug. in squalodontoids. there is a difference 
between Oligocene Squalodontidae and other 
Oligocene Squalodontoidea. There are very 
pronounced cr. rug. in the older Squalodontidae 
with a tendency to become weaker to varying 
degrees in Miocene forms. But there are only 
weak cr. rug. in many other Oligocene Squalo- 
dontoids — most Middle Oligocene and small 
forms — as far as we know them at present from 
material or useful figures These latter seem 
to offer more similarity, for instance, with 
Neosqualodon Dal Piaz 1904. 

In all these characters M. hanvoodi resembles 
very much the Aquitanian species of Squalodon, 
as well as in the high number of 6 dentic post, 
(including dentic, bas.), the loss of symmetry 
in lateral view, and the small ID. 

Six dentic. post, is the highest number found in 
Squalodontidae, known in Squalodon only very 
rarely in B' J ' '" (5. bclhmcnsis Dal Piaz 1916; 
variability left/ right: 6/ 5. Rothausen 1965. 
p. 316). Throe dentic. post, for B in middle 
and posterior positions are characteristic for a 
relatively ancestral stage in the evolution of 
squalodontoids. In one lineage of species of 
Squalodnn, 1-2 (3) deniic. post, were added 
later (catulli — group*. Rothausen 1968: p. 91) 
in connection with longitudinal stretching of the 
crown, resulting in a larger apical angle, bending 
of basal parts of post. cr. rug. in a posterior 
direction, loss of symmetry in lateral view, 
straight instead of convex posterior carina, and 
smaller ID. (In European Oligocene Squalo- 
dontidae ID is 23-27 per cent, in the Miocene 
the ID of the more conservative bariensis group 
of Squalodon is 20-23 per cent, while in the 
catulli group: less than 20 per cent is normally 
indicated.) 

Glaessner (1972) redescribed Squalodon 1 
serratus Davis 18X8. After a new preparation 
of the single buccal tooth that represents the 
holotype, he was able to show that Hall ( 191 I ) 
and Flynn (1948: p. 186) were wrong when 
they thought this form possibly belonged to M. 
hanvoodi, or that both were P, willunwni. 
Rothausen (1965: p. 660), expressing some 
doubt, had seen in the figure of Davis (1 888 
Fig. 9) at least some similarity with M. hanvoodi. 
Glaessner clearly showed it had a form of its own, 
but doubted whether it belonged to the genus 
Squalodon. We are sure now that this taxon 
should be placed in a group with Prosqualodon — 
Parasqiudodon '! —Squuhdou'~> andrewi Benham 



1942 and has nothing to do with Kekcnodon 
onomata Hector J 881 which Kellogg (1923: 
p. 27) had already placed outside the Squalo- 
dontoidea 

All these facts mentioned above make it seem 
very likely that M. hanvoodi belongs to another 
group with Squalodon — Phoberodon Cabrera 
1 926 — Squalodon'! gambierensis. 

The fact that most teeth of M. hanvoodi agree 
more with the teeth of longirostral squalodontids 
than those of brevirostral forms, as far as we 
know them, need not mean that it represents a 
longirostral taxon. It may be that these are teeth 
of a brevirostral species in which the dental 
evolution has reached a level similar to some 
Aquitanian Squalodon species in the northern 
hemisphere, but as yet unrepresented by complete 
skulls. The above-mentioned view has support 
in some aspects of the anterior buccal teeth of 
M. hanvoodi, such as deuticles on the most 
anterior B or curvature of crowns and roots of 
these anterior teeth. 

It should be mentioned that while the teeth 
of both good species of Prosqualodon, P. davidi 
and P. aitstralix, show primitive characters, in 
skull morphology they differ in similar manner as 
Eosqualodon Rothausen 1968 and Squalodon 
Grateloup 1840 (Rothausen 1965: pp. 552, 
5f>0): the taxonomic consequences should not 
be decided here. 

One should mention in this connection, as did 
Rothausen (1965: p, 763), that as in the 
Equidae, where modern equine characters are 
combined in different ways with ancestral ones 
(Tobien 1960: p. 581), so there are here 
such character pairs in different combinations 
in Squalodontidae (here considering the buccal 
teeth only): symmetry/asymmetry; original 
number of denticles/ increased number; relatively 
big denticles/ relatively small ones; coarse cr. 
rug. /weak cr. rug.: vestige of third root/no 
vestige, etc There must be similar split lines of 
evolution, but our knowledge of the Squalodon- 
toidea is far inferior to that of the Equidae. 
Thus it is still nearly impossible lo fix the posi- 
tion and taxonomic state of isolated squalodon- 
toid teeth if the species is not also known by 
complete or near complete dentitions and skulls. 
Rothausen in his revision therefore prefers to 
name such finds in open nomenclature which, 
however, is not possible if there is already a valid 
name, such as Metasqualodon hanvoodi (Sanger 
1881). 



,\HT,l!sQl!,-)LOI>ON HAHWOOIV (SANGER. )S«D— A KMlFSCRlPTION 



205 



As mentioned by Keyes (1973: p. 381 ), the 
numerous different very early squalodontoids in 
the southern hemisphere (see below; also new 
discoveries in New Zealand, pcrs. coinni. R. E. 
Fordyce, Christchurch, 1975, 1976) have so far 
been studied much less than those in the north. 
A revision of this material, as is now being done 
for a part by Fordyce, may help us to recognise 
clades as a base for a vertical classification 
system of the early Odontoceti. This will be the 
more significant, as brevi rostral squalodonts are 
so far known only from the southern hemisphere, 
and it is very likely that most modern odontocetes 
are derived from this group. 

STRATIGRAPHY 

Sanger (1881; pp. 298-299) reported the 
following macro-fossils as coming from the same 
beds as the teeth: (p. 298) "Echinus, Spatangits, 
C.lypeaster, Pevten, Turriiellu, Corbis, and 
Spondylus' and (p. 299) "Lamna elegans, 
Notidanus primigenius, Carcharodon angusiidens. 
Nautilus (Aturia) :ic-:,ac, Pecten Poulsoni, 
Crassatella alta, and Clypeaster ( Mortonia ) 
Rogers!". The latter group he interpreted as 
typically Eocene in age, according to the state 
of knowledge at that time. His passing des- 
cription of the source being "in a bed of yellow 
calcareous clay" fits many of these fossils which 
may be equated with Miocene species from the 
Mannum Formation, a sequence of yellow 
sandy limestones and marls. However, it is at 
variance with the state of preservation of the 
teeth, and with their accompanying label. The 
teeth of Metascpwlodon are black. The rare 
shark teeth from the Mannum Formation are 
ferruginised pinkish- or orange-brown. If the 
label is interpreted correctly, the teeth came from 
a depth of 100 feet (about 33 in), presumably 
in a bore or well. It must be admitted that the 
only direct evidence for this is the note "I00f 
on the label. However, considering the rarity 
of fossil whale material, the fact that the teeth 
seem to form part of a sequence, mainly from 
one jaw, and the absence of any bone, the dis- 
covery of Metasuuak'chn harwoodi during the 
sinking of a bore (rather than a well) seems 
rather likely. The boring method would explain 
the damaged teeth and loss of such a large part 
of the specimen. Such discoveries arc by no 
means unknown — several teeth and fragments 
of a marsupial were recently found at a depth of 
some 30 m in a bore in New South Wales 
(Pledge, in prep.). If the Metasqttalodon 
teeth were found in outcrop, their preservation 



would indicate that a more-or-less complete jaw 
or skull should have been discovered, artd it wa.s 
not. The possibility of such a jaw having dis- 
integrated before discovery does exist, but the 
teeth show no sign of erosion. 

A search through available records of the 
period has failed to produce any information oil 
such a bore. Two old wells of c. 1880 vintage 
arc known (Hundred of Brinkley, Sections 78 
and K.' ) but both are abandoned and full of 
sand, and nothing is known of their depths or 
stratigraphy, Another bore in tire area (Knight's 
Bore. Section 217, Hundred of Brinkley, com- 
pleted 1899) was accurately logged. In this 
bore, the interval around 100ft. was well within 
the Oligocene Ettrick Formation (O'Dnscoll 
1960: p. 230). 

The shark tooth (SAM PI 0867) mentioned 
on the original label was relocated by one of us 
(N.S.P. ) recently. It seems referable to 
Hesanclius agassir.i (Cappetta 1976) although 
larger. It has a similar preservation to the 
Mctascjucdodan teeth — dark grey to black. — 
which is typical of bone and teeth from 
glauconitic or other reducing sediments. The 
label with the tooth gives the additional infor- 
mation; *'R. Murray Cliffs near Wellington", 

The beds Sanger (1881) describes would seem 
to be part of the Mannum Formation (see Lud- 
brook 19bl). This forms a large part of the 
cliffs at Tailem Bend, only 14 km upstream from 
Wellington, but it disappears from outcrop only 
a few kilometres downstream, having been 
stripped oil' and replaced by the Pliocene Nor- 
west Bend Formation, a yellow calcareous sand 
unit with abundant bivalves (notably Ostrea, 
with Spondylus and various pectinids). Some of 
Sanger's assemblages could conceivably have 
been derived from this younger formation. It is 
in this same area, just south of Tailem Bend, 
that (he Ettrick Formation makes one of its few 
surface appearances, as a hard, pale greenish - 
grey, finely glauconitic marl (Ludbrook 196 1 : 
p, 38), occurring as a bench at present pool 
level of the river. This pool level is largely 
artificial, following the installation of barrages 
at the mouth of the river, in the I930\s, 10 con- 
trol depth and salinity. It is therefore probable 
that the extent of outcrop of the Ettrick Forma 
tion was far greater circa 1 880. Being glau- 
conitic, and therefore of a somewhat reducing 
origin, the Ettrick Formation would yield teeth of 
a decidedly dark grey-black, colouration. 

Interestingly, a tooth ol the Oligocene shark 
Carcharodon angusiidens. collected at Tailem 



296 



KC. S. A US I MUS.. 17 (17): 285 2'»7 



August. IV77 



Bend id 1936, has the same dark preservation 
as the Mctasqualodon and He.vanchus teeth, and 
other shark teeth from redueing sediments, and 
adds support for the provenance of M etasqtudo- 
da\\ being the Ettrick Formation. 

Hie conclusion is that, whatever the source 
of l he invertebrates allegedly associated with 
them, the teeth of Metasqualodau were obtained 
from the Ettrick Formation, either in a bore or 
well or from outcrop. The top of this unit is 
believed to be equivalent to the end of the 
Oligocene (Ludbrook 1973: Table 1). Hence 
the age of Metasqttalodn/i horn audi (Sanger 
1881) is Late Oligocene, possibly even Latest 
Oligocene. since it probably came from near the 
top of the formation. The younger age is also 
indicated cm the basis of the form of the teeth 
in relation to the general tendencies and similari- 
ties seen in Lower Miocene species of Squatodon 
in Europe. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

We arc grateful to Emeritus Prof, M. F. 
Glacssner for bringing the material to our atten- 
tion and arranging our collaboration, and also 
for critically reading the manuscript. Mr. J. M. 
Lindsay gave advice on certain straligraphic 
matters, Mrs. L. Ble.sing drew figures I and 2, 
Mrs. J. Murphy and Miss F. Gommers typed the 
manuscripts. 

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Sanger, E, B, 1881. On a Molar Tooth of Zeuglodon from 
Ihe Terliary Beds on the Murray River near 
Wellington, S.A. Proc. Linn. Sot: N.S.W. 5: 298-300. 

Simpson, G. G. 1945. The principles of classification and a 
classification of mammal*. Bull Am. Max. nut J/ist. 
85: 1-350. 

Stromer. E. 1908. Die Archacoccti des Aegyptischen 

Eoziins. Beitr. Pultiont. Gcol. Oster.-Ung. 21; 106- 
178. 

'Olenitis, E. 1959. Terliar. Wirbcltierfauncn. flandb. 
Sltut- Gcol. 3 (3j! 1-328. 

Thomson, .1. A. 1905. The Gem Gravels of Kakanui; wilh 
remarks on the geology of the district Trans. Pme. 
A 1 ./. Inst. 38: 482-495. 

Tobien, H. I960, Zur Geschiehte der pferdeartigen 
Unpaarhufer fm rertiiir Europas. Z. dt. gcol. Ges. 
112. 580-581. 

Wingc. H. 1919. Udsigl over Hvalernes Slaegtskab, 
Videnxk. Meddr. dansk. natitrh. Forcn., 70: 59-142. 

Wriilniore. F. C, Jr. and Sanders, A. E. 1976. Review of 
the Oligoccnc Celaeca. Syst. Znol 25: 304-320. 

Zigno. A. de 1876. Sopra i resti di uno squalodonle scopcrli 
nell'itieriaria minccna del Ucllunenre. Memorle 1st. 
Vcn. Sci. Lett. Art, 20: 17-33. 



APPENDIX 1 

STANDARDISED TERMINOLOGY 
SQUALODONTOID TEETH 



FOR 



Buccal tooth— <B>. Rothausen (1965: p 718; 1968: 
pp. 86, 100) slated thai there was no way of determining 
the premolar — molar division and homology in most 
squalodontoids and proposed this more neutral term, similar 
to Ihe sense of Dal Piaz (1916; p. |7) and Kellogg (T928: 
p. 53). The term is equivalent lo the informal "cheektooth" 
(buccu: Lat cheek) also used herein. Buccal teeth are 
numbered consecutively from the front, i.e. BH, B%, 
R ;i 3 . . . B"/,,. 

Denliculus anterior: d, posterior — Dentic. ant., dentic 
poxt. (denticulus: Lat, Utile tooth, denticle) small conical 
extensions on the anterior and posterior cutting edges 
(carinae) of the Rattened buccal crowns 

lientifuln.i basis — Dentic. has. Basal denticle — it small 
cusp at the base of the crown on (he anteuor or posterior 
edges. They have special significance in some cases and 
therefore are mentioned separately 

Nodnlns primus* — Nod. prim. Small lubercular extensions 
of the main carina, c.f. nod. see. Both are to be strictly 
separated from "denudes". 

Nodttlus secundus — Nod sec. Small tubercle-like 
extensions on the carinae of denticles. 

Cingttlum A smooth encircling /one of thickened enamel 
at ihe base of the crown. 

Crista rugosa — Cr rug. {eristrp Lab ridge I Enamel 
ridges, mostly irregular, that may be more or less coveted 
with enamel papillae 

Systema cristarum rtigosarum — Syst. cr. rug. Viewing 
the apical end of a cr. rug. as the stem or trunk, one sees 
il divide into branches towards the base of the crown. 
These branches may anastomose with olhers from the same 
irunk. but not wilh those from another "stem". They 
belong to closed systems. These syst. cr. tug. die out 
at the cingulum (Fig. 1). This observation seems to be 
true for all squalodontid teeth. 

IJjulariou (unda: Lat. wave). Common, weak, relatively 
broad, longitudinal, Wave-form surface relief on the crown 
face following the curvature of (he crown of anterior 
iceth. (Fig. 1: Rothausen 1965: p. 26, Abb. 4). 

Crenelation Minnie serralion on the carinae of anterior 
teeth of squalodontids (Fig- I: Rothausen 1965; p. 26, 
Abb. 4), 

Ramus primus- Ram prim. The main branch of Ihe 
carina when il divides. (Fig. I). 

Ramus secundus — Ram. sec- A weaker, secondary 
branch at Ihe basal end of the anterior carina in antcriui 
teeth of squalodontids. (Fie. I). 

Apical angle The angle enclosed by lines from the 
apex to the anterior and posterior end points of the base 
of the crown; gives an index of the anlero-posterior 
diameter (a) to the height of the crown 

Index deniiculorum — [ID). Expresses the relationship 
between the basal diameter of the largest dentic. post. (ad), 
measured in the direction of the carina, and (he anteriv 
posterior diameter of the crown (a). 
1 00 ad 

i.e. ID — per cent 

a 
For hest comparison of species, the ID should be calculated 
only for Ft* (o B" (Rothausen 1965: p. 32). 

Index basalts — tjft), Expresses ihe flattening of the 
100b 

crown. B = where b is the Iransverse diameter 

a 
of the crown (above the anterior root in two-rooted teeth). 

Cristas density — Cr diaxity. The characteristic number 
pf cr, rug. The number of cr. rug counted in 5 mm just 
posterior of the middle of the labial face about 5 mm 
above the base of the crown, preferably of a B". 



RECORDS of THE 
SOUTH AUSTRALIAN 
MUSEUM 



PROTURA (INSECTA) OF 
THE NEW HEBRIDES 



By S. L. TUXEN 



SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 
North Terrace, Adelaide 
South Australia 5000 



VOLUME 17 

NUMBER 18 

10th September, 1977 



PROTURA (INSECTA) OF THE NEW HEBRIDES 



BY S. L. TUXEN 



Summary 



Protura collected in the New Hebrides in 1971 are described. Nine species were found, four of 
which are described as new, viz. Eosentomon penelopae and insularum, Isoentomon pumilioides 
and Berberentulus tannae. The species composition compares well with the known fauna or the 
Bismarck Archipelago and the Solomon Islands. 



PROTURA (INSECTA) OF THE NEW HEBRIDES 

By S. L. TUXEN* 

ABSTRACT 1975a), Ms Penelope Greenslade of the South 

Australian Museum, Adelaide, separated out the 

TUXEN, S. L. 1977. Protura (Insecta) of 1he New _, ,- ., „ , , „ . , . ., 

Hebrides. Rec s. Ausi. Mus., 17 (18): 299-307. Protura trom the Berlese samples collected in the 

New Hebrides by the Royal Society — Percy Sladen 
Protura collected in the New Hebrides in 1971 Expedition to these islands in 1971 which are 

are described. Nine species were found, four of,,,.,,,,,,,..,,,. x . ■ 

7. . , •■_ _, ■ r . lodged in the South Australian Museum and 

which are described as new, viz. Eosentomon ° *. 

penehpae and insulanmK Isoentomon pumilioides forwarded them to me for identification, 

and Berberentulus tannae. The species com- Although only a small collection of 52 specimens, 

position compares well with the known fauna of the material contains some highly interesting 

the Bismarck Archipelago and the Solomon representatives of no less than nine species which 

Islands. are ^ Q subject of this paper. 

INTRODUCTION J v v 

Following the publication of our paper on the I am grateful to Ms Greenslade for giving me the 

Solomon Island Protura (Tuxen & Imadate opportunity to study this material. 



SYSTEMATIC TREATMENT 
I. Key to the Known Protura of the New Hebrides 

J. Spiracles present; all three pairs of abdominal legs two-segmented (Eosentomoidea) 2 

Spiracles absent; only the first pair of abdominal legs two-segmented (Acerentomoidea) 8 

2. Sensilla e in foretarsus missing, sensilla g spiniform fsoentomon pumilioides n. sp. 

Sensillae e and g in foretarsus spatulate (Eosentomon) 3 

3. b'l absent in foretarsus; abdominal sterna 1-V11 with central posterior seta; tergal seta p 2 displaced 

anteriorly on abd. II- VI Eosentomon noonadanae Tx. & Imad. 

b'l present ; abdominal sterna I- VII with an even number of setae; tergal p 2 not displaced 4 

4. t 1 in foretarsus close to a 3; f 1 and b short; stern. VIII with two anterior setae , . Eosentomon insidarum n.sp. 
t 1 midway between a 3 and a 3' ; f 1 and b long; stern. VIII without anterior setae 5 

5. Seta p I' on abd. terg. VI short and on line with p I and 2, close to p 2; terg. X-XI with eight setae 

Eosentomon oceaniae Tx. & lmad, 



Seta p I ' on abd. terg. VI long, placed in row with p 2' on hind margin 



6. Terg. X-XI with eight setae; p 1' on terg. VII on line with p 2' .i Eosentomon penehpae n.sp 

Terg. X with less than eight selae; p 1' on terg. VII on line with p 1 and 2 and close to p 2 7 

7. Terg. X with four setae, no, I and 4 Eosentomon sakura Imad. & Yos. 

Terg. X with two setae (No. 4) or none Eosentomon wygndzinskyi Bon. 

8. Sensilla a' in foretarsus broadly vase-shaped, short, only reaching S 3; sensilla f midway between e and g; 

terg. VII with six anterior setae; stern. XI with six setae Berberentulis capensis (Worn.) 

Sensilla a' longer, sword-shaped, reaching S 4; sensilla f close to e; terg. VII with two anterior setae; 
stern. XI with four setae Berberentulus tannae n.sp. 

* Zoological Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark. 
1 — 10/// September, 1977 



300 



REG S. AUST. MUS.. 17 (.18): 299-307 



September, 1 977 



1 1, Synopsis of the Species 

1 . Eosentomon oceaniae Tuxen & 

lmadate 1975a: p.350 

Three specimens are present of this species 
which is easily recognisable among the Eoseiitomon 
species of the swani group by the position of seta 
p 1' on terg. VI. 

Occurrence on the New Hebrides: Efate Island, 
Point Narabau, 1 00 m from high water mark on 
old beach surface. 17 c 45' S, 168° 24'£. Simple 
mesophyll notophyll vine forest, in soil of 0-8 cm 



depth. Coll. no. NH 19. K. E. Lee leg. July 13. 
1971. One $, one maturus junior. 

Aneityum Island, near top of steep slope 
above E side of Anelcauhat Bay, 20° 15'S, 
169' 46'E. Disturbed coastal forest with Acacia 
spirorbis, in soil of 4-6 cm depth. Coll. no. 
NH 26. K. E. Lee leg. July 23, 1971. One ?. 

Further distribution: Bismarck Archipelago 
and Solomon Islands, widely distributed (Tuxen & 
lmadate 1975a: p.352). Australia: North 
Queensland (Tuxen 1967: p,6 and Tuxen Sc 
lmadate 1975b: p. 195). 




Figs. 1-3: luisviitonwn penelopue n.sp. I: Pseudoculus. 2: Foretarsus in ventral-exterior view. 3: Foretarsus in 
dorsal-interior view. Figs. 4-5: Eoseiitomon wygod&rtskyi Bon. froai the New Hebrides. Foretarsus in exterior 

.ij-wl intiarijir vim».c 



and interior views. 



2. Eoseiitomon penelopae n.sp. 
Figs. 1-3 
This species is related to E. solomonense 
Tx. & Imad. 1975 from the Solomon Islands, 
but it is smaller, pseudoculus is smaller, p 4' is 
missing on terg. Il-lll and terg. VII has four setae 
instead of two. 

Length of body 750 /um, of foretarsus without 
claw 75 /xm. 

Mouthparts normal, clypeal apodeme not 
visible (specimen seen in directly lateral view). 
Pseudoculus oval, small, PR — 12-5 (Fig. I). 
Labral setae present. 

Foretarsus (Figs. 2-3). All setae inclusive of 
b'l present, position and size as in solomonense. 



f and g spatulate, t 1 midway between a 3 and 3', 
BS =1.1. Tarsus small, TR =6.0. Empodium 
shorter than claw, EU 0-9. 

Empodium of middle and hind leg short. 

Chaetotaxy: On thorax p 1' on segment III 
long, behind the line p 1-2; the abdominal 
chaetotaxy set out in Table I— p 4' absent on 
terg. JI-IJI. — a 3 present on terg. IV; a 4 and 5 
present on terg. V-VTI. — p 1' short, on line with 
p 2', on terg. VII. — p I "-2 not anteriorly dis- 
placed on terg. VIII. — no. I and 2 on terg. XI 
extremely small. 

Female squama genitalis unknown. 

Holotype and only known specimen: o from 
Erromanga Island, New Hebrides, 8 km SW of 



PROTURA (INSECTA) OF THE NEW HEBRIDES 



301 



TABLE J 

Abdominal chaetotaxy of Eosentomon penelopae n.sp. Numbers above a line refer to the number of setae in the anterior row, 
numbers below the same line refer to the number of setae in the posterior row. 



segment 



tergum 



sternum 



I 

4 
8C) 

4 

4 



11-111 
10 
14 
6 
4 



IV 
10 
16 
6 
10 



V-Vl 
4 
16 
6 
10 



VII 
4 
16 
6 
10 



vni ix-x 

6 8 

9 



XI Telson 



12 



(') The presence or absence of the very small p 5 is very difficult to determine in most species. 



Ipotak, 18° 54'S, 169" 13'E. In soil of remnant 
grove of Podocarpus imbricatus, 0-4 cm depth. 
Coll. no. NH 36. K. E. Lee leg. Aug. 9, 1971. 
In the South Australian Museum, Adelaide. 

Named in honour of Ms Penelope Greenslade. 

3. Eosentomon wygodzinskyi Bonet 1950: 122 

Figs. 4-8 

Syn. E. solare Tuxen & Imadate 1975a: p. 356. 

This species was described by Bonet in 1950 
from two females from ltaguai, Brazil, and 
redescribed by Tuxen (1964: 137). In 1975 



/ \ 






Imadate and Tuxen described the new species 
solare from a fairly large series from the Bismarck 
Archipelago and Solomon Islands. We men- 
tioned that "the difference, such as the relative 
length of the filum processus of the female 
squama genitalis and of the foretarsal scnsilla c', 
may be significant, although these two forms 
closely resemble each other". In 1976, after a 
renewed examination of the type of wygodzinskyi 
now in the Zoological Museum, Copenhagen, I 
concluded that "perhaps we did the wrong thing 
in describing solare" and the new material from 
the New Hebrides has convinced me of the 
synonymy. 





0,01 mm 



Figs. 6-8: Eosentdmon wygodzinskyi Bon. from the New Hebrides. 6: Clypeal apoderne. 7: Pseudoculus. 
8: Female squama genitalis in ventral view. Figs. 9-13: Eosentomon insularum n.sp. 9: Clypeal apodeme. 
10: Pseudoculus. 11: Female squama genitalis in ventral view. 12-13: Foretarsus in exterior and interior 

views. 
*1 



302 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (18): 299-307 



September, 1977 



Female squama genitalis, Fig. 7. 



Whereas the material of "solare" from the Foretarsus without claw 77 /tm, BS = 1-2, 

Bismarck and Solomon Islands showed no TR - 5-0. Length and position of sensillae as 

variation, the present material varies in chaetotaxy in "so/are" (Fig. 5-6). 
and so 1 give a short description with drawings of 
a typical specimen from Aneityum, New Hebrides. 

Labral setae present, clypeat apodeme with The usual abdominal chaetotaxy is tabulated in 

broad "'clubs", pseudoculus oval, PR 13 Table 2— terg. V with anterior setae a 4, 5.— terg. 

(Fig. 4). VI-VII only a 5.— terg. X with setae no. 4 or none 

TABLE 2 
Usual abdominal chaetotaxy of Eosentomon wygodzinskyi Bonct Numbers above a line refer to the number of setae in the 



anterior row, numbers below the same 1 


ne refer to the number of setae in the posterior 


row. 










segment I 


11-111 


IV 


V 


VI VII 


V1I1 


IX 


X 


XI 


Telson 


4 


10 


10 


4 


2 2 


6 


s 





4 


9 


8 


16 


16 


16 


16 16 


9 










4 


6 


6 


6 


6 6 


7 


4 


4 


8 


12 


sternum , — 

4 


4 


10 


10 


10 10 













at all.— terg. XI with setae no. 3 and 4 and one or However, this is not exactly identical lo the 
two medial microchactae.-seta p V on line with chaetotaxy of the type specimens of either 

wygodzinskyi or solare. The chaetotaxy of 
p 1-2 and close to p 2 on terg. VIL— p 1 -2 not important abdominal segments in all known 

displaced on terg. VIII. specimens of the species is set out in Tabic 3. 



TABLE 3 
Comparison of abdominal chaetotaxy for selected segments of all known examples of Eosentomon wygodzinskyi Bonct and 
Eosentomon solare Tuxen & Imidate. 



terg IV V 

wygodzinskyi from Brazil 10 4 

"'solare" from Bismarck Archipelago and Solomon Islands 10 4 

6 wygodzinskyi from Aneityum, New Hebrides 10 4 

2 wygodzinskyi from Erromanga, New Hebrides 10 4 

1 wygodzinskyi from Erromanga. New Hebrides 10 4 

2 wygodzinskyi from Malckula. New Hebrides 4 4 



VI 
4 

2 
2 

4 
4 



Vll 

2 
2 

2 

2 

2 

2 



X 

2 
2 

Q 



XI 

4 

4 

4 (8) var.a. 

6 (8) var.a. 

4 I'.prine. 

4 var. b. 



In one specimen from Aneityum seta no. 4 was 
present on one side of terg. X. The medial 
microchaetae on terg. XI may all be present, or 
there may be only two of them or none at all. 
They are so small that they arc very hard to see. 

I deduce from this survey that the principal 
form is found in Brazil and all over the Bismarck 
Archipelago and Solomon Islands in all 27 adult 
specimens, as well as in one specimen on 
Erromanga. The var. a with reduction of 
anterior setae on terg. VI and X is found on 
Aneityum and Erromanga (eight specimens). 
The var. b with reduction of anterior setae on 
terg. IV is found on Malekula (two specimens). 

Occurrence on the New Hebrides; Malekula 
Island, Toro, terrace-like surface on mountain 
side ca. 2 km NN W of summit of Mount Yang' 
abate. 16° 16'S, 167° 26'E, Complex mesophyll 
vine forest, in soil of 0-4 cm depth. Coll. no. 
NH 57-58. K. F. Lee leg. Oct. 1, 1971. One 9, 
one mat. jun., one larva Tl. 



Erromanga Island, 1-2 km NNE of Nuangkau 
River bridge, 10-11 km WSW of Ipotak. 
18" 53'S, 169° 12'E, resp. 18° 54'S, 169° ll'E. 
Mixed mesophyll evergreen vine forest, in soil 
of 0-4 cm depth. Coll. no. NH 34-35. K. £. Lee 
leg. Aug. 3-7, 1971. Two 3, one $, one mat. jun. 
and one larva I. 

Aneityum Island 4 km NE by N of Anclcauhat 
20 J 11'S, 169 U 47 'E. Mixed rainforest, in soil 
of 0-4 cm depth. Coll. no. NH 22. K. E. Lee 
leg. July 20, 1971. One ?.— Near top of steep 
slope above E side of Analcauhat Bay 20" 15'S, 
169 46 'E. Coastal forest with Acacia spirorbis, 
in soil of 0-6 cm depth. Coll. no. NH 26. 
K. E. Lee leg. July 23, 1971. One $ % one ?, one 
mat. jun. 

Further distribution: Bismarck Archipelago and 
Solomon Islands (Tuxcn & Imadate, 1975a) and 
Brazil (Tuxen, 1976). 



I'ROTURA (1NSECTA) OF THR NEW HEBRIDES 



mi 



4. Eosentomon sakura Imadate & Yosii 1959: 7 

This species is described in detail by Imadate, 
1974 and is easily recognised by the chaetotaxy 
of terg. X where only setae no. 1 and no. 4 are 
present. 

Occurrence in the New Hebrides: Malekula 
Island, 500 m E of SE corner of Lambubu Bay, 
16 I2'S, 167 23'E. Complex mesophyll vine 
forest, in soil of 0-4 cm depth. Coll. no. NH 61. 
K. E. Lee leg. Oct. 4, 1971. One 6*, one °, one 
mat. jun. Lamdorr, 3 km NNE of Wintua 
village, SW Ray, 16° 28'S, 167 J 27 'E, Mixed 
mesophyll vine forest, in soil of 0-4 cm depth. 
Coll. no. NH 67. K. E. Lee leg. Oct. II, 1971. 
One &. 

Further distribution: In Japan this species is the 
commonest Eosentomon and has been found at 
almost all collecting sites, rarest on Hokkaido. 
Further afield it occurs in Formosa (Taiwan) 
(Imadate 1964), Bismarck Archipelago and 
Solomon Islands (Tuxen & Imadate 1975). 

5. Eosentomon insula rum n. sp. 

Figs. 9-13 

This species is distinguishable from other New 
Hebrides Protura in the position of sensilla t 1 in 



foretarsus (near a 3) and in the presence of two 
anterior setae on stern. VIII. It seems to be 
most closely related to E. asuhi Imad. from Japan, 
but differs in many respects, is much smaller, has a 
different position of t 1 on foretarsus as well as 
differences in chaetotaxy. 

Length of body 560 pva, of foretarsus without 
claw 58/u.m, 

Mouthparts and clypeal apodemc of common 
shape (Fig. 8), labial setae present. Pseudoculus 
small, with three small "lines" (Fig. 9), 
PR = 12-13. 

Foretarsus (Figs. 10-11) with all sensillae 
present inch b'l . t I near a 3, BS — 0-85. e and g 
spatulate, f 1 small, seta-like, f 2 knob-like, a' 
weakly broadened basally, b'l nearer to 8 3' than 
to S 4', c' short. Tarsus small. TR 7-0. 

Empodium of middle and. hind leg short, one- 
fifth the claw. 

Chaetotaxy: On thorax p I ' on segment 111 
long, behind the line p 1-2; abdominal chaetotaxy 
set out. in Table 4 — a 3 missing on terg. V-VI and 
a 1 and 3 on terg. VII— terg. XI with setae no. 3 
and 4, but in one case with all setae 1-4. — p 1 ' long 
on all terga 1-VI, short and on line with p 2' on 
terg. VII, — p l"-2 not displaced on terg. VIII. 



TABLE 4 

Abdominal chaetotaxy of Eosentomon inxularum n.sp. Numbers above a line refer to the number of setae in the anterior row. 
numbers below the same line refer to the number of setae in the posterior row. 



segment 

tergum .. . 

sternum 



I [Mil IV V-VI VJI 

4 10 10 8 6 

8 16 16 16 If, 

4 6 6 6 6 

4 4 JO 10 10 



VIII 1X-X XI Tclson 
6 8 4 9 

9 

2 4 8 12 

7 



Female squama genitalis (Fig. 12) of the swani 
or kumei type. 

Holotype: <J from Erromanga Island, New 
Hebrides, I km WSW of Nuangkau River bridge, 
1 1 km WSW of Ipotak, 18 ^54'S, 169 I I 'E. 
Large grove of Agathis, in soil of 0-4 cm depth. 
Coll. no. NH 35. K. E. Lee leg. Aug. 7, 1971. 
In the South Australian Museum, Adelaide. 

Occurrence in the New Hebrides: Erromanga 
Island (sec above). Tanna Island, 8 km E of 
Lcnakcl near summit of main W-E road, 19" 30'S, 
169 20'E. Primary tropical rain forest, in soil 
of 0-4 cm depth. Coll. no. NH 30. K.E.Lee 
leg. July 27, 1971. One rf-, one larva II, one 
larva I. 



Aneityum Island, near top of steep slope above 
East side of Anelcauhat Bay, 20° 15'S, 169 " 46'E. 
Coastal forest with fire induced Jmperata, in 
soil of 0-8 cm depth. Coll. no. NH 27. K. E. 
Lee leg. July 23, 1971. Two ?. 

6. Eosentomon noonadanae Tuxen & 
Imadate 1975: p. 367 

This species is in many respects different from 
all other Eosentomon species, most evident is the 
presence of a central posterior seta on abdominal 
sterna 1-V11, see Tuxen & Imadate 1975a. The 
specimen from the New Hebrides agrees in all 
details with the holotype. 



304 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (18): 299-307 



September, 1977 



Occurrence on the New Hebrides: Malekula 
Island, Werimia, 2 km NE of Wintua village, SW 
Bay, 16° 28 'S, 167° 27 'E, Mixed mesophyll vine 
forest, in soil of 0-4 cm depth. K. E. Lee leg. 
Oct. 11, 1971. One maturus junior. 

Further distribution: Valoka, New Britain, 
Bismarck Archipelago: the holotype and only 
previously known specimen. 




Isoentomon pumiliodes n. sp. 

Figs. 14-17 

The genus Isoentomon was erected by Tuxen in 
1975 on species of "Eosentomon" with spini-or 
setiform sensillae e and g. It contained nine 
species, two of which differed from the others in 
missing sensilla e. To this group belongs the 
new species. 



>. 



o 

16 




18 



i — i 

0,01 mm 




19 





0,01 mm 

Figs. 14-17: Isoentomon pumiliodes n.sp. 14-15: Foretarsus in exterior and interior views. 16: Pseuduculus. 
17: Female squama genitalis in oblique lateral view. Figs. 18-20: Berberentuhis tannae n.sp. 18: Pseudoculus. 



19: Labial palp in side view. 

Length of body 530 /xm, of foretarsus without 
claw 50 jim. 

Mouthparts of the common shape, but the 
specimen is seen directly from the side. 
Pseudoculus small, circular, without "distinctions" 
(Fig. 13), PR = 14. Labral setae absent. 

Foretarsus (Figs. 14-15). t 1 closest to a 3, 1 2 
lanceolate as are also b'2 and f 1, t 3 fairly long. 



20: Canal of maxillary gland. 

b broad, e missing, g short seta-like, a' sword- 
shaped, placed anterior to t I (!). b' 1 present, c' 
absent (?). BS = 0-9, EU - 0-9, TR - 6-0. 

Empodium of middle and hind leg short, one- 
fifth the claw. 

Chaetotaxy: On thorax p I' on segment III 
fairly long, behind the line p 1-2, abdominal 
chaetotaxy set out in Table 5 — a 3 missing on 



TABLE 5 

Abdominal chaetotaxy of Isoentomon pumilioides n.sp. Numbers above a line refer to the number of setae in the anterior row, 
numbers below the same line refer to the number of setae in the posterior row. 



segment 
tcrgum 

sternum 



1 


II-II1 


IV-VI 


VII 


VIII 


1X-X 


XI 


Telson 


4 


8 


8 


6 


6 


8 


4 


9 


8 


12 


14 


14 


9 








1 


6 

4 


6 
10 


6 
10 


7 


4 


8 


12 



PROTURA (1NSECTA) OF THE NEW HEBRIDES 



305 



terg. 11-VI, on terg. VII also a 1. — p 4' missing on 
terg. 11-VI I, on terg. 1I-III also p 5. — On terg. 
VII p 1 ' is as long as on the other tergites (a 
feature I do not remember having noticed on any 
other eosentomid) — On terg. VIII p 1 "-2 are 
displaced anteriorly. 

Female squama genitalis (Fig. 16) seen in lateral 
view, but resembles that of pumilio Bon. 

Holotype and only known specimen: $. New 
Hebrides, Tanna Island, on hillside above Bethel 



village, 4 km S of Lenakel, 19° 33'S, 169° 13'E. 
Disturbed coastal forest, in soil of 0-4 cm depth. 
Coll. no. NH 31. K. E. Lee leg. July 28, 1971. 
In the South Australian Museum, Adelaide. 

Three species of Isoentomon without sensilla e 
are now know, in only one specimen each: the 
present one from the New Hebrides, /. pumilio 
(Bon. 1950) from Mexico and /. pluviale Tx. 
1975 from Brazil (Amazonia). They agree in 
many details, but the chaetotaxy of the present 
one is closest to that of pumilio — hence the name. 





0,01 mm 



Figs. 21-24: Berberentulus tannae n.sp. 21-22: Foretarsus 
in exterior and interior views (from different specimens). 
23: Right half of abdominal tergite VIII. 24: Female 
squama genitalis in ventral view. 



8. Berberentulus tannae n. sp. 

Figs. 18-24 

This species is closely related to B. rennellensis 
Tx. & Imad. 1975, in fact it only differs in 
abdominal chaetotaxy. On terg. VI the anterior 
seta a 1 is present in tannae, absent in rennellensis. 
This may seem a minor difference, perhaps on 
subspecies level only, but as long as the importance 
of differences in chaetotaxy is not clearly under- 
stood it should be accorded specific rank. The 
difference in chaetotaxy is constant in both 



306 



REC. S. AUST. MUS., 17 (IS): 299-307 



September, 1977 



species. B. huchi Tx, & I mad. which is different 
in chaetotaxy from both differs also in the sensilla e 
in foretarsus being much smaller than c. 

Length of body 670 ^m, of foretarsus without 
claw 70 fj.m. 

No rostrum. Labial palp with three setae and a 
sausage-like sensilla (Fig, 17). Pscudoculus 
circular (Fig. 18), PR = 13. Canal of maxillary 
gland of normal shape except for some small 
dilatations (not excrescences) distal to calyx, 
proximal part fairly short, end dilatation bipartite 
(Fig. 19). 

Foretarsus (Fig. 20) with sensillae of shape and 
length as in rennellensis. b-c-d may be on line or d 
placed a little distal to c. c and d close to each 



other. Sensillae a, b and f extremely long, 
b' missing, a' long and sword-like reaching 
almost to a 4. BS = 0-5, Claw with a small 
flap which is said to be missing in rennellensis but 
this flap may be visible or not and is no good as 
distinguishing character. TR 4-0. EU —0-14. 

Abdominal appendages II-III with two setae, 
the apical one less than half the subapical. 

Striate band reduced, no striae. Comb on 
terg VIII oblique, with 10-11 small teeth (Fig. 22). 

Female squama genitalis (Fig. 23) with pointed 
acrostylus. 

Abdominal chaetotaxy set out in Table 6 — on 
terg. II-VI a 1, 2, 5 are present, on terg. VII only 
a 5. 



TABLE 6 

Abdominal chaetotaxy of Berberentulua tannae n.sp. Numbers above a line refer to the number of setae in the anterior row, 
numbers below the same line refer to the number of setae in the posterior row. 





I 


ll-ill 
6 


IV-VI 
6 


VII 

2 


VIII 

4 


IX 
14 


X 

12 


XI 

6 


Tclson 




6 


9 


tergum 






















12 


16 


16 


16 


15 












3 


3 


3 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 


6 


sternum ,,., 





— 


— 


— 














2 


5 


8 


8 













Holotype: g from the New Hebrides, Tanna 
Island, on hillside above Bethel village, ca. 4 km S 
of Lenakel, 19° 33'S, 169° 13'E. Coastal forest, 
in soil of 0-4 cm depth. Coll. no. NH 31. 
K. E. Lee leg. July 27, 1976. In the South 
Australian Museum, Adelaide. 

Further material : seven ?, four,.;?, three mat. jun., 
one larva II (?) from the same locality and date. 

The specific name is derived from the name of 
the island. 

9. Berberentulus capensis (Womersley 1931) 
Berberentulus capensis Worn,, Tuxen 1964: 
p. 311. 

This species is easily distinguished from tannae 
in the shape and size of sensilla a' in foretarsus 
which is short, only reaching 3 3, and broadly 
vase-shaped; furthermore sensilla f is placed 
midway between e and g and e is only a little 
more than half the length of c. In chaetotaxy 



the following characters are important: terg. VI 
with eight anterior setae (1, 2, 4, 5), V1J with six 
(1, 2, 5) and stern XI with six setae (1, I ', 2). 

Occurrence on /he New Hebrides: Tanna 
Island, on hillside above Bethel village, ca. 
4 km S of Lenakel 19° 33'S, 169° 13'E. Coastal 
forest, in soil of 0-4 cm depth. Coll. no. NH 31. 
K. E. Lee leg. July 27, 1971. Two ?, one larva II. 

Aneityum Island, near top of steep slope 
above E side of Anelcauhat Bay 20 15'S, 169° 
46'E. Coastal forest with Acacia spirorbis, in 

Coll. no. NH 26. K. E. 
One V : . 

South Africa, South-west 
Australia (Tuxen 1967). 
Berberentulus capensis (Worn.), travassosi (Silv.) 
from Brazil, and nelsoni Tx. from Brazil (both 
Sao Paulo) form a group of their own, related 
to B, renne/lenis Tx. & fmad., buclii Tx. & I mad. 
and the above new species tannae, all three from 
Melanesia. See the key in Tuxen (1977). 



soil of 4-6 cm depth. 
Lee leg. July 23, 1971. 

Further distribution: 
Europe (Tuxen 1964); 



PROTURA (INSECTA) OF THE NEW HEBRIDES 



307 



REFERENCES 

Imadate, G., 1964. Formosan Proturan collected by Dr. 

K. Baba. Kontyu 32: 236-38. 
Imadate, G., 1974. Protura (Insecta). Fauna Japonica. 

Tokyo. 351 pp. 
Tuxen, S. L., 1964. The Protura. A revision of the species of 

the world. With keys for determination. Hermann, 

Paris. 360 pp. 
Tuxen, S. L., 1967. Australian Protura, their phylogeny and 

zoogeography. Z. zool. Syst. Evol.-forsch. 5: 1-53. 

Tuxen, S. L., 1975. Isoentomon, a new genus within the 
Eosentomoidea (Protura: Eosentomidae). Ent. scand. 6: 
89-101. 



Tuxen, S. L., 1976. The Protura (Insecta) of Brazil, especially 
Amazonas. Amazoniana 5: 417-463. 

Tuxen, S. L., 1977. The genus Berberentulus (Insecta, Protura) 
with a key and phylogenetical considerations. Rev. Ecol. 
Biol. Sol. (in press). 

Tuxen, S. L. & Imadate, G., 1975a. The Protura of the 
Bismarck Archipelago and Solomon Islands. Bull. Br. 
Mus. not. Hist. (Ent.) 31 : 333-375. 

Tuxen, S. L. & Imadate, G., 1975b. Corrections to S. L. 
Tuxen's "Australian Protura" (1967). /. Aust. Ent. 
Soc. 14: 193-195. 

Womersley, H., 1931. A South African species of Protura. 
Ann. South Afr. Mus. 30: 89-91. 



RECORDS OF THE 
SOUTH AUSTRALIAN 
MUSEUM 



BRACHINA METEORITE- 
A CHASSIGNITE FROM 
SOUTH AUSTRALIA 



By J. E. JOHNSON, JUNE M. SCRYMGOUR, 
EUGENE JAROSEWICH and BRIAN MASON 



SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 
North Terrace, Adelaide 
South Australia 3000 



VOLUME 17 

NUMBER 19 

2nd November, 1977 



BRACHINA METEORITE -A CHASSIGNITE FROM SOUTH AUSTRALIA 



by J. E. Johnson, JuneM. Scrymgour, Eugene Jarosewich and Brian Mason 



Summary 



A small, achondritic stony meteorite, the second recorded chassignite, was found near Brachina, 
South Australia (31 ° 18' S, 138° 23' E) on 26 th May, 1974. It was in two pieces with a combined 
weight of 202. 85g. The form of the frontal surface and the types and distribution of the fusion crusts 
are indicative of oriented flight. The meteorite, which consists of unshocked subhedral grains of 
olivine (Fa33) with minor amounts of diopside and plagioclase and accessory chromite, troilite and 
pentlandite, is compared with the mineralogically and chemically analogous Chassigny meteorite. It 
is, however, unshocked in contrast to the original Chassigny which was severely shocked. 



BRACH1NA METEORITE— A CHASSIGNITE FROM SOUTH AUSTRALIA 

by 

J. E. JOHNSON 1 . JUNE M. SCRYMGOUR*, EUGENE JAROSEWICHf AND 

BRIAN MASONt 



ABSTRACT 

JOHNSON, J. E.. SCRYMGOUR, J. M., JAROSEW1CH, 
E. and MASON. B.. 1977. Bnichina melcorile — A 
Chassignite from South Australia. Bee. S. A int. Mux. 17 
(19): 309-319. 

A small, achondritic stony meteorite, the 
second recorded chassignite, was found near 
Brachina, South Australia (31 18' S, 138 
23' E) on 26th May, 1974. It was in two 
pieces with a combined weight of 202-85 g. 
The form of the frontal surface and the types and 
distribution of the fusion crusts are indicative of 
oriented flight. The meteorite, which consists of 
unshocked subhedral grains of olivine (Fa^i) 
with minor amounts of diopside and plagioclase 
and accessory chromite, troilite and pentlandite, 
is compared with the mineralogically and 
chemically analogous Chassigny meteorite. It 
is, however, unshocked in contrast to the original 
Chassigny which was severely shocked. 

* South Australian Museum. Adelaide 5000. Australia. 

t Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, U.S.A. 



INTRODUCTION 

The discovery of the Brachina meteorite was 
made at about 7.30 a.m. on Wednesday, 26th 
May, 1974 by Mr. Brian Eves, Senior Inspector 
for the South Australian National Parks and 
Wildlife Service, who noticed a shining black 
object lying on a small pedestal of soil with the 
frontal surface facing west-south-west. There 
had been rain during the night and Mr. Eves 
was attracted first by the wet shining surface of 
the fusion crust and thought he had found a 
large australite. A smaller piece lying close by 
was also recovered. 

On his return to Adelaide Mr. Eves brought 
the specimen to the South Australian Museum 
where it was recognised by one of us (JEJ) as a 
chassignite. 

The meteorite was found at approximately 
31 18' S, 138 23' E on the floodplain of 
Brachina Creek on the eastern side of the 
Flinders Ranges (Fig. 1). 




Adelaide 




1 3 8 ' 1 5 



PARACHILNA R.S. 



MORALANA R. 



J^ Meteorite Find 




• 
BRACHINA R.S. 



BLINMAN 

— < r 



i 

\ 

'"'7 ' 

S 

i 

ST. MARY'S V.^- 
PEAK ▲ 



/ 



— r 
to 



KM. 



20 



Fid. 1- locality map. 



I_2;k/ November, 1977 



II, , 



RFC. S. AUST. MUS.. 17 09): JD9-319 



Orlohtr. 1977 



DESCRIPTION 

Weight and External Form 

The main mass weighed 195 -30 g and the 
small detached fragment 7-55 g, the total 
recovery being 202-85 g. Both pieces retained 
a distinct black fusion crust. The core of 
granular, greyish-brown, achondritic stony 
material could be seen where the crust was 
broken. 

The main mass has a complete smooth fusion 
crust on the asymmetrically-domed frontal 
surface. The edges of this surface form an 
irregular five-sided polygon with rounded corners 
and one broken edge. Slightly off-centre from 
the apex is a very small depression from which 
radiate numerous striae and one shorter, broader 
groove (see Fig. 4). The maximum length is 
62-4 mm and the minimum width about 10 mm 
less. Thickness from the apex of the domed 
anterior surface to the crest of the posterior cen- 
tral ridge is 41-3 mm. 

The posterior surface is covered by a finely 
vesicular to scoriaceous fusion crust (see Fig. 
6). When the detached fragment was replaced 
it was seen to form part of a longitudinal ridge 
coincident with the maximum lateral dimension 
which is flanked by subparallel "facets", two on 
each side, the two outermost and narrowest being 
aligned with polygon edges "a" and "c". These 
bear the most highly scoriaceous crusts and are 
separated from the rather smoother inner facets 
by a distinct line of raised glassy material. The 
smooth fused crust of the frontal surface 
encroaches slightly on to these facets, and where 
this occurs the onlapping frontal crust is distinctly 
grooved at right angles to the edge of the outer 
facet (see Figs. 7, 8 and 9). The smooth 
(frontal), grooved (lateral) and scoriaceous 
(rear) crust types have the distribution relative 
to the domed frontal surface of a meteorite which 
was oriented in flight. 

It is suggested that the faceting may be the 
result of the longitudinal ridge acting like a "fin" 
during atmospheric flight causing the stone to 
oscillate laterally just after entry but later acting 
as a stabiliser in generating the domed frontal 
surface. 



Chemical composition, mineralogy, petrology 

The chemical analysis of the Brachina 
meteorite is given in Table I , along with the 
calculated CIPW norm, and an analysis of the 
Chassigny meteorite for comparison As can 
be seen, the analyses of the two meteorites are 



closely comparable; the principal differences are 
the higher Al-O^ and Na-jO in Brachina, a 
reflection of the higher plagioclase content in this 
meteorite, and the presence of sulfide in Brachina 
(a little sulfide is present in Chassigny, but was 
not determined in the analysis). 

tabu: i 
chemical analysis and cipw norm of the 

BRACHINA METEORITE 

With analysis of Chassigny (McCarthy ,-r «l. 1974) fur 
comparison, 

Brachina Chassigny 



SiO : . 


38 04 


37-00 


noj 


0-13 


0-067 


AliAl 


2 12 


0-36 


Cr^O;, 


U 58 


0-83 


FeO 


23 69 


Z7-44 


MnO 


0-34 


0-533 


MgP 


27-27 


32-83 


CaO 


2- 10 


1-99 


Na.O 


0-63 


0-15 


K26 


08 


0-033 


P 2 Or, 


0-27 


0-041 


H,04 


nd* 





H-O 


0-26 





C 


0-07 


— 


1 eS 


3-59 





NiS 


0-56 


— 


CoS 


05 


— 




99-77 


10] -27 


Total Fe 


20-70 


21-34 


m* s 


67 


676 


S.G. 


3-51 


3-57 



Brachina norm 




( weigh I per ci 


ait) 




Olivine 


77 


•0 


Diopside. 


4 


■8 


Hypersthene 


2-y 


Albitc 


5 


3 


Anorlhilc 


2 


7 


Orlhoclase 





4 


Chromite 





'» 


Apatite 





6 


llmenite 





2 


(Fe. Ni. Co) S 


4 


2 



f nd not determined 
: -"■ Ifl 100 Mg/IMg -I- Mn + Fe) atomic 

Olivine (Fa:u) is the dominant mineral in 
Brachina; it also contains minor amounts of 
diopside ( WoiaEnioFsi..,) and plagioclase (An--), 
and accessory chromite, troilite, and pentlandite. 
The 0-27% P^O- indicates the presence of 
phosphate minerals (apatite and/or merrillite), 
but these were not identified in microscopic and 
microprobe examination. The mineralogical com- 
position corresponds very well with the CIPW 
norm (Table 2). Hypersthene is absent or 
present only in traces in the meteorite; normative 
hypersthene is present in solid solution in the 
diopside, which has a CaO content (18-7%) 
considerably lower than the theoretical content 
( 25 -9% ) used in calculating normative diopside. 

Trace elements in Brachina, in parts per 
million, determined by spark source mass spec- 
Irometry, (figures for Chassigny (Mason et al. 
1976) in parentheses) are: Rb 2-0 (0-4). 
Sr 15-00 (7-2), Y 2-4 (0-64), Zr 2-7 (1-5). 
Nb 0-28 (0-32). Cs 0-20, Ba 12-00 (7-1). 



hrachina mf- 1 fori 1 1- —a cmassignitf from south australia 

tabu: 2 
mineral compositions (microprobe analyses) in the hra( hina meieorite 

And a ctitnparison of the calculated hulk composition with the analytical rcMills in Table I, 



in 



» 










Calculated 


Analysis. 


Mineral 


Olivine 


Plagioclase 


Diopside 


Chroniile 


composition 


data 


Weight % 


77 


8 


8 


M 






SiO^ 


37-4 


63 -J 


54-7 


— 


38- A 


38 04 


AlaQta 





23 1 


ii n 


X-5 


1 99 


2-12 


Pet: 


28-6 


o<iii 


8 6 


28-8 


22-9 


23 -65 


MnO 


0-29 


— 


0-16 


0-32 


0-25 


0-34 


MgO 


33 • S 


— 


15-7 


5-8 


27-1 


27-27 


CaO 


o 2"; 


4 71 


18-7 


— 


2-ri7 


2 10 


Na-jO 


— 


X-92 


— 




(>7l 


0-63 


K a O 


_ 


0-2(. 


— 


— 


0-02 


08 


TiO^ 


— 


11-05 


0-34 


2 94 


05 


0-12 


CrsPs 


o-tm 


— 


0-94 


53-2 


0-57 


0-58 



La 0-95 (0'3')), Ce 1-6 (1-12), Pr 0-J9 
(0-13), Nd 0-86 (0-54), Sm 0-27 (0-11). 
Eu 0-1 I (0-038). Gd 0-27 (0-11), Tb 0-05 
(0-02), Dy 0-32 (0- 12). Ho 0-07 (0-03), 
Er 0-19 (0-09). Yb 0-18 (0- 10), Pb 0-60 
( I • ) , Th • 1 3 ( • 057 ) . As can be seen, for 
most trace elements the content in Brachina is 
approximately twice that in Chassigny, A com- 
parison of the rare earth (REE) abundance is 
presented in Fie. 2, The distribution patterns 
are quite similar, showing a rapid decline in 
relative abundances for the light REE (La-Sm) 
followed by a slight positive Eu anomaly and 
practically uniform relative abundances for the 
heavy REE (Gd-Yb). This distribution pattern 
may be unique to Brachina and Chassigny; 
the only comparable pattern among meteorites 
is that for Nakhla, an achondrite consist- 
ing of approximately 753$ clinopyroxene 
(Ca;s'fMg;iNFe-:(). 15% olivine (Fa.*), minor 
plagioclase ( An.m ) . and accessory magnetite and 
sulfides. The REE distribution pattern for 
Nakhla. however, shows a uniform decline in 
relative abundances from La to Yb, and no Eu 
anomaly. Nakhla is classified as a calcium-rich 
achondrite and Chassigny and Brachina are 
calcium-poor achondrites, but a genetic relation- 
ship may exist between them. 

The texture of the Brachina meteorite can be 
described as subhedral-granular (Figs. 10 and 
15). Individual grains of the silicate minerals 
range from 0-05-0-7 mm in greatest dimension, 
the average being about 0«2 mm. This is in 
marked contrast to Chassigny (Fig. 14), which is 
much coarser-grained, the range for the silicate 
minerals being 0-3-1 -8 mm and the average 
0'7 mm; Chassigny is also a shocked meteorite 
(evidenced by the cxtTcme fracturing of the 
silicate grains), in contrast to the unshocked 
nature of Brachina. In Brachina chromitc and 



the sulfide minerals (troiiite and pentlanditc) 
are interstitial to the silicate minerals. A small 
amount of limonite produced by terrestial 
weathering permeates the meteorite below the 
fusion crust. 

The texture of Brachina suggests the slow 
crystallisation under static conditions of a body 
of magma of essentially the same composition. 
This composition in the MgO- FeO-SiO- system 
would be completely molten at about 1 600 'C 
( Bowen and Schairer. 1 935 ) ; the presence of 
minor components such as CaO, AKOa, and 
Na.O would lower this temperature somewhat. 
The first phase to crystallise would be olivine, 
followed at about 1 400 C by clino- and/or 
orthopyroxene. and plagioclase at about 
I 200 C; an immiscible sulfide melt would be 
present in small amount, and would crystallise 
intcrslitially to the silicates at considerably lower 
temperatures ( I 000 C or less), 

Brachina is a somewhat friable meteorite — 
individual silicate grains were detached from a 
smaller piece by gentle rubbing, although this 
fragment was removed from the main mass only 
with considerable difficulty. The friability is due 
to the non-interlocking nature of many of the 
grains, and the presence of microscopic voids. 
The porosity is clearly seen in scanning electron 
micrographs (Figs. 12 and 13), as is the sub- 
hedral to euhedral nature of many of the grains; 
these features suggest the presence during crystal- 
lisation of a vapour phase. 

The Brachina meteorite has a well-preserved 
fusion crust, a fortunate feature since without it 
the identification as a meteorite might have been 
difficult, in view of its mineralogical and textural 
similarity to a terrestrial peridotite, This is 
clearly seen in Fig. 10 and magnified in Fig. 1 1 
Three distinct zones can be recognised. An outer 



312 



REC. S. AUST. MUS.. 17 I 19): 



309-319 



October. 1977 




FIG. 2. Rare earth distribution, normalised to chondrilic abundances, for (1) Hrachina. (2) Chassigny (Mason 
<•/ til., 1976), and (3) Nakhla (Nukamura and Masuda, 1973). 



zone (up to 0-5 mm thick) consists of highly 
vesicular dark glass with small skeletal olivine 
crystals; in places this zone has been partly or 
wholly removed, probably by terrestrial abrasion. 
A median zone (averaging 0-4 mm thick) con- 
sists largely of skeletal olivine with interstitial 
glass and olivine. This skeletal olivine is notably 
more magnesian (Fos-t) than the olivine (Foot) 
of the main mass of the meteorite; the formation 
of the fusion crust results in the precipitation of 
some of the iron in the meteoritic olivine as 
FeaOi. A very thin (~0*03 mm) inner zone 
records the beginning vitrification of the silicate 
minerals, with the appearance of a dusting of 
magnetite (?) grains. Immediately below the 



fusion crust the silicate grain boundaries have a 
thin sulfide coating, evidently developed from the 
fusion of sulfide grains, the least refractory of 
the meteorite phases. 



DISCUSSION 

Although classified as achondrites, Chassigny 
and Brachina are chemically comparable to the 
chondrites, specifically the L and LL chondrites, 
as has been pointed out by Dr. R. A. Schmitt 
(pers. comm. — see below). Using the criteria 
developed by Van Schmus and Wood (1967), 
we see the following analogies: 



L 

Total Fe/SiO^ 0-55 ± 0-05 

Olivine composition (% Fa) 24 

SiOVMgO 1-59 



LL 


Brachina 


0-49 ± 0-03 


0-54 


29 


33 


1-58 


1-39 



BRACHINA METEORITE— A CHASSIGNITE FROM SOUTH AUSTRALIA 



313 



Unlike the chondrites. Brachinu contains no 
free nickel-iron metal, and its SiO^/MgO ratio 
is lower than most chondrites. However, some 
carbonaceous chondrites have SiOVMgO ratios 
similar to that of Brachina, e.g. Allende (1-39). 
The relatively high Fa content of the olivine in 
Brachina is similar to that in the LL and C3 
chondrites. The classification of Brachina and 
C'hassigny as achondritcs is determined essentially 
by their granular non-chondritic textures: it 
should be remarked that chondritic structure is 
practically absent in the L chondrite Shaw, and 
texturally it resembles Brachina closely (Fred- 
riksson and Mason. 1967). However, the 
distinctive rare-earth distribution pattern in 
Brachina and Chassigny does indicate that if 
those meteorites are related to the chondrites, 
some chemical fractionation has taken place. 

Dr. R. A. Schmilt of Oregon State University 
(pers. coram.) has supplied the following 
additional information based on his analysis of 
a small sample of Brachina meteorite, 

"Bulk and trace elements were determined 
in an aliquant of a powdered sample 
obtained from Brian Mason. The sample 
was analysed via instrumental neutron 



activation analysis by Drs. A. V. Murali 
and M.-S. Ma. The results are listed 
below. 

Per cent 



Al.O, 


2-05 




FeO 


26-5 (all Fe i 
FeO) 


:alcujated as 


MgO 


26-6 




CaO 


2-2 




Na.O 


0-74 




MnO 


0-33 




Ct-jO, 


0-63 




Sc 


8-2 


ppm 


V 


77 


ppin 


Co 


265 


ppm 


(equivalent to 0-04l f ./ C'oS) 




Ni 


4180 


ppm 


(equi 


valent to 0-64^ NiS) 




La 


0-38 0-04 


ppm 


Sm 


0-20 


ppm 


Eu 


0-05 : 0-02 


ppm 


Yb 


0-24 ± 0-06 


ppm 


Lu 


0-07 I 0-02 


ppm 


Ir 


111 


ppb 


Au 


15 ! 2 


ppb 




■"-A. 



FIG. Ja. Looking east towards the Flinders 
Ranges fromthe site of the find. The 
speeimen was found in the small open 
space at the ranger's feet. 

*2 



FtG. 3b. Closer view of the site. The meteorite was 
lying on a small pedestal of soil within the ring 
of sTones by the ranger's right fool. 




3 i .^ : : ■ 



BRACHINA METEORITE— A CHASSIGN1TE FROM SOUTH AUSTRALIA 



315 



From our analysis, we must conclude that 
essentially all abundances fall within the 
range for L- or LL-chondrites. The 
deficiency of free nickel-iron metal as 
reported by B. Mason accounts for the 
lower Co, Ni, Ir and Au abundances in 
Brachina. Perhaps the significant differ- 
ences between REE patterns observed by 
B. Mason and us may be attributed to 
sampling problems. This would suggest 
that some trapped interstitial liquid may be 
responsible for these observations. Such a 
hypothesis would be consistent with current 
studies by cur group on ten small (50 nig) 
chips of Chassigny." 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

We thank Mr. J. Nelen for the microprobe 
analyses of the minerals, Mr. W. Brown for the 
scanning electron microphotographs and Dr. 
S. R. Taylor and Ms. P. Muir for assistance with 
the spark source mass spectrometric analyses for 
trace elements. Thanks are also due to Dr. R. A. 
Schmitt for permission to reproduce in full the 
results of a chemical analysis by Drs. A. V. 
Murali and M.-S. Ma. 



Mr. R. Ruehle of the S.A. Museum took the 
photographs and Ms. F. Gommers drew the 
locality map. 

The South Australian Museum gratefully 
acknowledges the generosity of Mr. Brian Eves 
in donating the Brachina meteorite to the State 
Collections. 

REFERENCES 

Kmven, N. L., and Schairer. J. F.. 1935. The system 
MgO-FeO-SiO-. Am. Jour, Sci. 29: 151-217. 

Fredriksson. K. and Mason, B., 1967. The Shaw 
meteorite. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 31: 1705-1709. 

McCarthy, T. S., Frlank, A. J. Willis, J. P.. and Ahrens. 
L. H.. 1974. New chemical analyses of six achondriles 
and one chondrite. Meteoritics 9: 215-221. 

Mason, t).. Nelen, J. A.. Muir, P.. and Taylor. S. R„ 1976. 
The composiiton of the Chassigny meteorite. Meteor- 
itics 11: 21-27. 

Nakamura. N„ and Masuda, A., 1973. Chondrites with 
peculiar rare-earth patterns. Earth Planet, Sei. Letters 
19: 429-437. 

Schmitt, R. A., (pers. comm. I letter dated 9th June. 1976, 
on file. S.A. Museum. 

Van Schmus, W. R., and Wood, J. A.. 1967. A chemical 
pelrologic classification of the chondritie meteorites. 
Geocltint. Cosmochim. Acta 31: 747-765. 



FIG. 4. Brachina meteorite. Scale in centimetres. Oriented anterior surface with striae. Edge "e" is a broken 
surface. 

FIG. 5. Side elevation of edge "b" showing almost triangular outline with continuous fusion crust to the 
base of the ridge. 

FIG. 6. Plaster cast. Posterior surface with detached piece restored to its original position, showing flattened 
longitudinal ridge, subparallel "facets" and scoriaceous fusion crust. 

FIG. 7. Plaster cast. Side elevation of edge "c". showing grooved smooth crust of the frontal surface encroaching 
on to a scoriaceous "facet". 

FIG. 8. Side elevation of edge "a". 

FICi. 9. As for Fig. 7 but tilted down slightly towards viewer. 






•jh^U"! 



BRACHINA METEORITE— A CHASS1GNITE FROM SOUTH AUSTRALIA 317 



FIG. 10. Photomicrograph (transmitted light) of portion of a thin section of the Brachina meteorite illustrating 
the subhedral granular texture. Fusion crust is present at one edge (x23). 

FIG. 11. Photomicrograph (transmitted light) of the fusion crust of Brachina meteorite. Total thickness of 
fusion crust is approximately 1 mm. 

FIG. 12. Scanning electron micrograph of euhedral olivine crystal in a void (x675). 

FIG. 13. Scanning electron micrograph of octahedral chromite crystal in a void (x400). 



mpm 



■»*** '.US',: 



■ J \ a: : ** ** Sjj«*| 



it *w * * 



fe&j 




^ If* * | . 






*»* ,, if 1 












'St, 




BRACHINA METEORITE— A CHASSIGNITE FROM SOUTH AUSTRALIA 319 



FIG. 14. Photomicrograph (transmitted light) of a thin section of the Chassigny meteorite (x27). Most of the 
grains are olivine and show extreme fracturing due to shock. 

FIG. 15. Photomicrograph (transmitted light) of a thin section of the Brachina meteorite at a higher magnifica- 
tion (x83). Most of the white grains are olivine, with minor pyroxene. Plagioclase is present as larger 
interstitial grains. 



RECORDS OF THE 
SOUTH AUSTRALIAN 
MUSEUM 



AUSTRALITES OF MASS GREATER THAN 
100 GRAMS FROM SOUTH AUSTRALIA 
AND ADJOINING STATES 



By W. H. CLEVERLY and JUNE M. SCRYMGOUR 



SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 
North Terrace, Adelaide 
South Australia 5000 



VOLUME 17 

NUMBER 20 
20th February, 1978 



AUSTRALITES OF MASS GREATER THAN 100 GRAMS FROM SOUTH 
AUSTARLIA AND ADJOINING STATES 



by W. H. Cleverly and JuneM. Scrymgour 

Summary 



The 17 australites of mass exceeding lOOg known from eastern Australia are round, oval and 
dumbbell-shaped cores. They were found within a belt extending from Charlotte Waters, N.T. to 
western Victoria, and divergent south-ward from a more populous belt of unusually massive 
australites in Western Australia. There is a suggestion of radiation of australite distribution pattern 
from central Australia. 



AUSTRAL1TES OF MASS GREATER THAN 100 CRAMS FROM SOUTH AUSTRALIA 

AND ADJOINING STATES 



by 
VV, H. CLEVERLY* and JUNE M. SCRYMGOURt 



Cl.EVbRlY. W. H. and SCRYMGOLIR, J. M. 1977. 
Ausiriiliies of mass greater than 100 grams from South 
Australia and adjoining States, lice. 8. Atixt. Mux. 17 (20): 
^2 I 330. 



ABSTRACT 

The 17 auslralitcs of mass exceeding J 00 g 
known from eastern Australia are round, oval 
and dumbbell-shaped cores. They were found 
within a belt extending from Charlotte Waters, 
N.T. to western Victoria, and divergent south- 
ward from a more populous belt of unusually 
massive australitcs in Western Australia. There 
is a suggestion of radiation of australite distribu- 
tion pattern from central Australia. 



INTRODUCTION 

Only one australite in about 2 000 has mass 
1 00 grams or more. The purposes of this paper 
are to describe several such rare specimens from 
eastern Australia and to collate information on 
others known from the region. The methods and 
manner of presentation of Cleverly (1974) are 
followed. 

The sites of find and some physical details of 
the specimens arc presented in Figure 3 and 
Table I. The numbe