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Full text of "Records of the South Australian Museum"

CONTENTS PAGES 

AHMAD, I & KAMALUDDJN, % 21-31 

A revision of the Australian genus Diemenia Spinola (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: 
Pentatominae) 

AHMAD, 1. & KAMALUDDIN, S« 33-38 

A new genus and species of the Diemenia group (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae) 
from Australia, with cladistic analysis of some related genera 

BERNDT, R. M. 59-68 

Aboriginal fieldwork in South Australia in the 1940s and implications for the present 

COPLEY, P. B., KEMPER, C. M. & MEDLIN, G. C. 75-88 

The mammals of north-western South Australia 

EBERMANN, E. 73-74 

Supplementary description oi" Heterodispus longisetosus (Womerslcy, 1955) (Acari: 
Tarsonemina) a scutacarid species from mutton bird nests in southern Australia 

EDMONDS, S. J. 127-133 

A list of Australian Acanthocephala and their hosts 

FJELDSA, J. & NIELSEN, B. 69-72 

Further evidence of the charadriid affinities of Peltohyas australis (Aves: Charadriidae) 

GOWLETT-HOLMES, K. L. 153 

Fossil mollusc type specimens in the South Australian Museum. Additions and correction 
to Pari 1. Polyplacophora 

GREENSLADE, P. 7-19 

Checklist of free-living marine nematodes from Australia, Macquarie Island and Heard Island 

HEMMING, S. I. 147-152 

The South Australian Museum's Aboriginal Family History Project 

HERCUS, L. A. 51-57 

Preparing grass witchetty grubs 

HIRST, D. B. 113-126 

A revision of the genus Pediana Simon (Heteropodidae: Araneae) in Australia 

LEE, D. C. 97-111 

Hemileius (Acarida: Cryptostigmata: Scheloribatidae) from South Australian soils 

MATTHEWS, E. G. & DOYEN, J. T. 39-50 

A reassessment of the Australian species of Menephilus Mulsant (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) 
with descriptions of two new genera and a larva and pupa 

SACKETT, L. 135-145 

"What about self-determination?' The DAA and Aboriginal drink rehabilitation programs 

SCOTT, G. G., RICHARDSON, K. C & GROVES C P. 1-5 

Skull morphometries of Lasiorhinus latifrons (Owen 1845) (Marsupialia: Vombatidae) 

WATTS, C. H. S. 89-95 

Revision of Australasian Sternolophus Solier (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) 

Volume 23(1) was published on 5 June 1989. 
Volume 23(2) was published on 11 December 1989. 

ISSN 0376-2750 



SKULL MORPHOMETRICS OF LASIORHINUS LATIFRONS (OWEN 1845) 

(MARSUPIALIA : VOMBATIDAE) 

byG. G. Scott, K. C. Richardson & C. P. Groves 



Summary 

Skull morphometries do not support the splitting of L. latifrons into two subspecies, one at each end 
of its geographic range. Measurements of wombat skulls from the Blanchetown region in the east of 
South Australia to Nullabor Station, approximately 1000 km to the west, do not show any clinal 
variation. Analysis of wombat measurements from intermediate geographic locations show little 
variation of the homogeneity within L. latifrons over its entire geographic range. 



SKULL MORPHOMETRICS OF LASIORHINUS LATUUOHS (OWEN lW5i 
(MARSH PI ALIA; VOMBAT1DAE) 

G. G. SCOTT, K. C. RICHARDSON & C. P. GROVES 

SCOTT, a G. RICHARDSON, K. C. & GROVES, C. P. 1989. Skull morphometry 
Lasiorhintv httfrans fQwwi, 1845) (MarMipialia: Vornhandac). ^ $ *UKfi VU» 2 ^ r) ' , " 5 - 

Skull morphometries do not support the splitting ol I tatifrons inlo two subspecies one m 
each end of us geographic range. Measurements of wombai skulls from the Blanchciown region 
in the east of South Australia to Nullarbor Station, approximately UXX) km to the wcst v do nol 
show any elinal variation. Analysis of wombat measurements horn intermediate geftgiapfltt 
locations show little variation o\ the homogeneity within /.. tatifrons over its entiie ideographic 
range. 

G.G. Scott Si K.C. RicfiarOsun, School o\' Veterinary Studies, Murdoch University, Murdoch, 
Western Australia 6150 and C P. Gioves, Depi or Anthropology, Australian National University. 
Canberra Australian Capital Territory 2600. Manuscript received 25 September 1987. 



South Australian hairy- nosed wombat taxonomy 
bc^aii in 1845, when Owen (1845) exhibited the skull 
Of a wombat at a meeting of the Zoological Society 
of London. He named the new species Phascolomys 
laiijrons. Owen (1849) gave a more detailed account 
in the Society's transactions of 1849, but the 
wombat's external anatomy remained unknown. 
IWelve years later Angas (1861) suggested a 
eonspecificity between Owen's >pecies and a 
wombat at that time living in the Adelaide Zoo. This 
suggestion was rejected by Gray (1863) because 
Owen had based his description of P. lufifrorw dfl 
a single skull. Gray subsequently created a new 
species, P. angassii) for the Adelaide Zoo wombat. 
Gray (1863) also rejected Gould's (1863) published 
plates of what he thought Owen's P. tatifrons might 
look like based on a large common wombat skin 
sent to the British Museum from South Australia. 
Gray named the skin P. setosus Subsequently 
Gould (1863) named the hairy-nosed species 
featured In another of his plates, P. lasiorhinus. 
Giay (1863) also disagreed with Gould's P. 
lasiorhinus for he added the name Lasiorhinus 
m'o'Yi to the taxonomic miasma. South Australian 
hairy-nosed wombat taxonomy was finally resolved 
when the skull of the animal described by Angas 
(1861) was shown to be a specimen of P. tatifrons 
Owen (Munc 1867). 

A distinction between the hairy-nosed wombat 
and the common wombat was made by Wood Jones 
(1924) who split the genus Phascolomys into 
Lasiorhinus Gray '863, the hairy-nosed wombat, 
and VomOutu* Geoffrey J803, the common 
wombat, on the basis of skeletal and external 
differences. 

South Australian hairy-nosed wombat taxonomy 
weis resurrected over a century later when Crowcroft 
(1967) hiiucd thai there might be more than one 
subspecies of L. lati/rons\ one at each end oi it- 
known geographic range i.e. Porr.ee in the east, and 



Nullarbor Station in the west. Although presenting 
an important zoogeographic question . no attempt 
has since been made to resolve Crowe roll's 
observation 

MATERIALS AND Mfc'THODS 

Specimens 

Skulls of Lasiorhinus tatifrons from their entire 
geographic range in South and Western Australia 
were examined in the collections oi the SourJi 
Australian Museum and British Museum (Natural 
History). Additional specimens were collected at 
Blanchelown, Roonka and Swan Reach in South 
Australia. 

Measurements 

Although both adult and juvenile specimens were 
examined for this study, osteological measurement-* 
were made, by vernier calipers, on adults only i e. 
on skulls in which all cranial sutures were closed, 
and all teeth fully erupted. 



Sk M // Measu re men fs 

1. Skull length: distance from the most rostral 
point of the incisive bones to the most caudal 
point of the parietal bones. 

2. Bitemporal breadth; distance across rbc 
temporal bones, losttal to the mastoid proccs- 
and caudal to the squamous root of rhc 
zygomatic. 

3. Frontal length; measured along the midline 
from the frontonasal suture to the coronal 
suture 

4. Bimalar breadth; distance across ihe malar 
bones opposite the maxilloincisive suture 

5. Nasal length: distar.ee along rhc midline from 
the most rostral poim of the nasals tu their 
junction with the frontonasal suture. 



ti. 6, SCOTT, K. C RICHARDSON & C. P. GROVES 




I IGURL I Simtk- ul iheskulJ measurements used on the 
skulls ol L. latifrons. This specimen was collected Ikhu 
Kvancutta, S.A U, bitemporal breadth; v, length from the 
Coronal suture to the lambdoidal suture; w, frontal length; 
x, bimalar breadth, y, nasal length; i, hi-meisive bread! h 



8. 
9. 
10. 



Hi-incisive breadth; distance between the nares. 

Bizygomatie breadth; distance across the skull 

between the lateral surfaces of the zygomatic 

bones. 

Combined upper incisor alveolar breadth. 

Upper diastema length. 

Mandible length; distance horn the most 

rostral point of the incisor alveoli to the most 

caudal point of the condyloid proo 



Ostcological terminology used is as in the 
'Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria* (Habcl eta/. 1983), 

Analysts 

Student's /-test, 2-*sided'and bivariate regression 
analysis (Simpson et a/. I960), and Coefficient 0/ 
Difference analysis (Mayr 1969) were used. As 
bivariate regression analysis showed no significant 
sexual dimorphism tor any skull < bai 
measurements of both sexes were combined. 



SVSIHMATKS 

Lasiorhiaus lutifrons (Owen 1845) 

1845 Phascolotnys latifrons Owen. South Australia. 

1863 Phascolomys angassii day. South Australia 

I 863 Pftasi n/nmys tasiorhmus Gou Id South 

Australia. 

1863 Utsiorfnnus m'coyi Gray. South Australia. 

Lasiarhinm kttiftrm$ } British Museum number 

40.338, skull, subadulr. South Australia. No specific 

location given 

Description 

Cranium: Iroruals lopflg nasal 8 shOCl with straight 



tips, nasals bend before rostral surface of incisives; 
incisive process reduced to a tubercle; frontonasal 
suture has a rostrocaudal amplitude of 0.5-1.0 mm; 
cranial vault is convex; occiput at Lhe nuchal crest 
is concave; there is no parietal pit; there is no 
process on the medial surface of the mandibular 
tossa. 

Mandible: articular surface is shon and does not 
overhang the inflected angle; rostral origin of the 
ascending ramus is opposite the third and fourth 
molar leeth; condyloid processs has a deep fossa 
on the rostral surface; masseteric fossa is shallow. 

Dentition: premaxillary incisor, occlusal surface 
is short. Mandibular incisor, occlusal surface is 
elongate. Maxillary premolar, occlusal surface is 
elongate, there is a longitudinal mesiolingual groove 
approximately 1 mm wide. Mandibular premolar, 
occlusal surface is quadrate. Mandibular molars, 
have a shallow groove on the distal surface of the 
J si molar and mcsiovestibular surface of the 2nd. 
3rd and 4th molars. 



Distribution 

The specimens were grouped on their geographic 
origin as coming from eastern, central and western 
regions. The eastern region included specimens 
from the Murray Valley and Yorke Peninsula. The 
central region had specimens from byre Peninsula 
and west Of I akc Harris to Fowlers Bay, The western 
region consisted of specimens from Yalata to 

tiglinu extending north to the Transcontinental 
Railway t.Marlow 1965, Lowty 1967, Wells 1968, 
Conquest J969, Ailkcn 1971. Mcllroy 1973). 

Analysis 

Metric differences 

Pooled measurements for wombats from their 
easiern distribution differ from those from their 
western distribution. Using mean and range values 
in millimetres thev are on average larger in skull 
length: 163.3(149.6-175.6) v; 162 A (150.5-175.7) and 
trontal length 63 (58 6-68.9) v. 59.9 (58.4-61 5). 

Their mean values show their bimalar breadth 
to be 47.9 (41.5-54.0) v: 51.2 (45.6-55.9), bitemporal 
breadth 64.2 (57.2-70 7) v. 72.7 (67.5-78.3), bi- 
incisive breadth Jjfc3 (33 9-41.8) v. 39.2(37.7-41.0), 
upper diastema length 38.3 (34.5-43.5) v. 39.7 
(35.5-43.7) and mandible length 120.4 (111.2-128.7) 
v. 122.1 (113.2-129.0). The means of easiern 
wombats are all smaller 

tji innate regression 

On the basis of cranial characters (Pigs 3-4), 
Nullarhor wombats generally have mean valuer 
I M than those of the eastern animals \b\ 
bitemporal breadth relative to skull length. 



SKULL OF LASIORHINUS 




FIGURE 2. Dorsal view of the cranium of male L. latifrons from (A) Blanchetown, and (B) Nullarbor Station, x, 
nuchal crest; y, cranial vault; z, arrowed, frontonasal suture. 



80 

Bitemporal 

70 

Breadth 
(mm) 

60 



55 




155 160 170 

Skull Length (mm) 



180 



FIGURE 3. Bitemporal breadth relative to skull length 
of adult specimens of L. latifrons. (-- • --), L. latifrons 
from locations at the eastern end of their range; (-A-) 
from Yardea; (-*-) from the western end of their range. 



Morphological differences 

Frontonasal sutures are directed rostrally into the 
nasals in wombats from their eastern distribution, 
but are directed caudally into the frontals in 
wombats from their western distribution. 
Additionally in the eastern wombats the nuchal 
crest at its midsagittal region is slightly concave cf. 



deeply concave. Also the nuchal crest is level with 
parietals cf. raised above parietals. 



Discussion 

Although Crowcroft (1967) was able to 
distinguish Portee wombat crania from those from 
Nullarbor Station, and the present authors could 
in many instances separate the two populations by 
the shape of the cranial vault, these features were 
found to be unreliable as diagnostic characters. 
Indeed, this study found that approximately 23% 
of crania examined from their eastern distribution 
could be confused with those from their western 
distribution when using the frontonasal suture 
direction characteristic. There was also a 30% error 
when cranial vault shape was used. 

Although the morphological differences are 
sufficiently great to invoke Mayr's (1969) 75% Rule, 
under which a population is deemed to be a 
subspecies when 75% of its members are 
distinguishable from all members of a previously 
recognised population, data from the few available 
wombat crania collected from their central 
distribution show intermediate features suggesting 
that the splitting of L. latifrons into two subspecies 
is premature. 

Clinal variation is suggested by the gradual 



G. G. SCOTT, K. & RICHARDSON & C. R GROVES 



TABLE 1. Skull measurements of adult Lasiorhinus latifrons. Values arc in millimetres. 

a, Mt Gambier; b, Portee, Blanchetown, Roonka and Swan Reach; c, Ybrke Peninsula; d, Eyre Peninsula; e, Yardea; 

f, Fowler's Bay; g. Great Australian Bight; h, Nullarbor Station. 



Geographic location 




a 


b 


c 


d 


e 


f 


g 


h 


Skull length 


n 


1 


80 


4 


2 


20 





1 


53 




x 


163.4 


163.3 


162.0 


174.9 


161.3 


— 


163.1 


162.4 




sd 


0.00 


5.87 


2.50 


0.00 


6.35 


— 


0.00 

1 


5.78 


Bimalar 


n 


1 


77 


3 


2 


16 


I 


14 


breadth 


X 


54.3 


47.9 


46.5 


47 


50.9 


51.8 


52.7 


51.2 




sd 


0.00 


3.11 


1.32 


0.00 


2.81 


0.00 


0.00 


2.91 


Bizygomatic 


n 


1 


76 


3 


1 


20 


1 


1 


52 


breadth 


X 


116.8 


120.2 


114.9 


130.7 


120.4 


128.3 


126.0 


120.4 




sd 


0.00 


4.34 


4.95 


0.00 


6.11 


0.00 


0.00 


4.64 


Bitemporal 


n 


1 


77 


4 


2 


16 





1 


13 


breadth 


* 


64.1 


64,2 


62.8 


68.4 


66.2 


— 


70.7 


72.7 




sd 
n 


0.00 

1 


2.86 
78 


1.51 


0.00 


3.57 


— 


0.00 


2.88 


Bi-incisive 


4 


2 


16 


1 


1 


14 


breadth 


x 


38.8 


38.3 


37.6 


39.7 


40.4 


39.8 


40.1 


39.2 




sd 


0.00 


1.85 


1.87 


0.00 


1.42 


0.00 


0.00 


1.13 


Nasal 


n 


— 


5 


— 





_ 








length 


x 


— 


56.4 


— 


— 











_ 




sd 


— 


3.91 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Frontal 


n 


1 


26 


2 











1 


3 


length 


X 


67.4 


63.0 


59.0 


— 


— 


— 


58.4 


59.9 




sd 

n 


0.00 


2.77 

15 


0.00 


— 


— 


— 


0.00 


1.55 


Combined 


— 


— 


— 





1 


1 


upper incisor 


X 


— 


23.9 


— 


— 


— 





24.6 


25.1 


breadth 


sd 


— 


1.01 


— 


2 


16 


1 


0.00 

1 


0.00 


Upper 


n 


1 


71 


4 


14 


diastema 


x 


40.1 


38.3 


38.8 


43.1 


38.2 


42.4 


40.0 


39.7 


length 


sd 


0.00 


2.03 


0.76 


0.00 


1.39 


0.00 


0.00 


2.3 


Mandible 


n 


1 


67 


3 


4, 


16 


1 





14 


length 


X 


121.00 


120.4 


119.4 


131.8 


120.5 


122.8 


— 


122.1 




sd 


0.00 


3.96 


1.28 


0.00 


4.07 


0.00 


— 


4.63 



46 



Biincisive 

42 

Breadth 
(mm) 

38 



35 




•» ♦ 



41 42 



46 



50 



54 



Bimalar Breadth (mm) 



58 



FIGURE 4. Biincisive breadth relative lo bimalar breadth of adull specimens ol A. tuttfrons. (--•--), L, latifrons 
from locations at the eastern end of iheir range; (-A-) from Yardea; (-•-) from the western end of their range. 



SKULL Ol r LASIORWNUS 



change in frontonasal suture shape and orientation, 
It is generally directed rostra lly into the nasals in 
wombats from the eastern regions of their range; 
straight across the nasals in those from their central 
distribution; and directed caudally into the Irontals 
in animals from the western reaches of their range 
(Crowcroff 1967). However, there is much variability 
evident within the entire wombat distribution. 

Analysis of the available data for L laiifrons 
show the species to be morphologically 
homogeneous over the extent of its geographic 
range. This conclusion, however, does not exclude 
the possibility of genetic drift, hence morphological 
divergence occurring within, and between, the 
various disjunct populations. 



ACKNOWI EDGMP.NTS 

We would like to thank Dr C. Kemper South 
Australian Museum > Adelaide, and I. Bishop, 
British Museum (Natural History), London, for 
making material available to us. We appreciate Lhc 
support and advice which Dr D. Horton gave 
unstintingly for the duration of the project. We wish 
to thank Mr G. Griffiths for photography and Ms 
D. Passmore for so carefully typing the paper. The 
project was primarily supported by an Austalian 
National LJntversitv Grant. 



RLfERENCFS 



AITKEN, P.F. 1971. The distribution of the hairy-nosed 

wombat iMsiorhinus lufifrons (Owen). Pt I: forks 

Peninsula, Eyre Peninsula, the Gawler Ranges and Lake 

Harris. S. Aust. Nat. 45: 93-103. 
ANGAS, G.F. 1861. Notes on the broad-tronted womlur 

of South Australia {Pha\colomys faf(frons). Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Loud. 1861: 268-271. 
CONQUEST, P. 1969. Ttie hairy-nosed wombat Wildlife 

in Aust. 6: 2-3. 
CROWCROFT, P. 1967. Studies on the hairy-nosed 

wombat l.usiorhinus laiifrons (Owen 1845). Rec. S. 

Aust. Mus. 15: 383-398. 
GEOFFROY, E. 1803. Note sur un nouveau mam m it ere 

decouvert a la Nouvelle Hollande, pa/ M. Bass, 

voyageur anglais. Bull. Sci. Soc. philom. Pari.;: 72: 185. 
GOULD, J. IS63. 'Mammals of Australia, Vol. 2.' Tayloi 

and Francis, London. 
GRAY, J.E. 1863. Notice of three wombats in the 

Zoological Gardens. Annals and Magazine of Nat. 

Hist. 11 457 459. 

HABEL. RE., FREWEIN. J., SACK. WO. (Eds) 1983. 

^Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria\ 3rd ed. International 

Committee on Veterinary Anatomical Nomenclature, 

Ithaca, New York. 
I X~)WRY. D.C. J967. An occurrence of wombats in Western 

Australia. West Aust. Nut. 10; 97-98. 



MARl.OW, B.J. 1965. Wombats. Aust. MUb W«g, IS. 

65-69. 
MAYR, E. 1969. 'Prim iples «»f Systematic Zoology' | 

edition. McGraw-Hill Inc., New York 
MdLROY, .1. 1973. Aspects ot i he ecology ot i he common 

wombat Vombatus ursmus (Shaw, 1800). Ph.D. thesis. 

Aust. Nat. Ulii», Canberra. 
MURIE, J. 1867. On the identity of (he hairy-nosed 

wombat (Phu\a>lr>rn\\ lasiorhtnus Gould) with the 

broad-nosed wombat (P. laiifrons owrn) Prm Zoo) 

Soc. Lond. 1865: 838-854. 
OWEN, R. 1845. Exhibition of wombat skulls. Proc. loot. 

Sue. Lond. 1845: 82-83. 
OWEN. R. 1849. On the osteology ot the Marsupialia II. 

Comparison of the skulls of the wombats of continents 

Australia and Van Dieman's Land, whereby their 

specific distinction is established. Trans. Zool. Soc. 

Lond. 3: 303-336. 
SIMPSON, G.G., ROE, A., & LEWONTJN, R.C. I960. 

'Quantitative Zoology'. Harcourt. Brace & World ln< . 

New York 
WELLS, R.T. 1968. Some aspects of the environmental 

physiology of the hairy-nosed wombat Lusiorhwus 

laiifrons (Owen). Zoology (Mons) thesis. University ot 

Adelaide, Adelaide. 
WOOD JONES, r 1924 the Mammals of South 

Australia*. Pt 2. Govt Printer, Adelaide. 



CHECKLIST OF FREE-LIVING MARINE NEMATODES FROM 
AUSTRALIA, MACQUARIE ISLAND AND HEARD ISLAND 

by Penelope Greenslade 



Summary 

A checklist is provided of all records of free-living marine nematodes from Australia together with 
the locality from which each was recorded and the relevant references. Species are listed using the 
curent available name and 263 species are recorded here in 1 19 genera belonging to 38 families. 



CHECKLIST OF FREE-LIVING MARINE NEMATODES FROM Al'STRM.IA. MAtQlARIE 

ISLAND AND HEARD ISLAND 



PENELOPE GREENSLADfc 



GREENSLADE, PPNEI-OPK I980L Checklisi Ifvitlg marine nematodes from \ustralia, 

Macquane Mand and Heard Island. Rec. S Ausi. Mus 23(1): 7-19 

A checklist is provided of all records Off tree living marine nematodes from Australia together 
with the locality from which each was recorded and the relevant references. Species are listed 
using the current available name and 263 species jr? recorded here in 110 Btftfft belonging to 
38 lam dies. 

PENLLOPE GREENSt.ADE, Department ot Zoplojjj! Austnlian National UsflVQWtt umK 
Australian Capital Territory. Present address. C . o CSIRO Division ol ghjomolbgy, GPO BdK 
1700, Canberra, Australian Capital IfefrttOtf 260J. Manuscript received 18 November 1987. 



The free-living marine nematode fauna of 
Australia has been little studied but recent 
collections have shown that u is extremely rich in 
species (H. Piatt pers, comrru W. Nicholas unpubl. 
results). It is clear that there is a need for 
considerable work on the taxonomy of the group 
based on surveys of the fauna of different regions 
and habitats in Ausiralia. Since most genet 
marine free-living nematodes appeat to be 
cosmopolitan in distribution, keys to genera 
produced overseas are useful and reJevant ro ihe 
Australian fauna. For instance pictorial keys 
published overseas by Tarjan (1980) and Piatt & 
Warwick (1983) and a recently developed computer 
key devised by Tarjan are relevant. However these 
Keys need to be given an Australian emphasis by the 
publication of records of genera from Australia and 
of lists of the genera likely to be found in different 
habitats. Consequently it was decided to collect all 
previously published records so that io formation on 
the taxa already known was easily accessible. Only 
those species collected in or near Australian coasts 
have been included and no attempt has been made 
to list species from other Antarctic Subantarciic or 
Pacific sublutoral localities 

The earliest collections were described by Cobb 
(1983, 1894, 1898, 1920), Irwin-Smith (1917) and 
Allgen (1927, 1929, 1930, 1951a, b). More recently 
Mawson (1953, 1957, 1958), and Inglis (3967, 1969, 
1970, 1971) have worked in Australia on the fauna. 
Further species have been described by Decraemer 
(1974; ]975a, b, c, d. e. 1976: 1977 a, b; 1978 a, b, 
c; 1979), Decraemer & Coomans (1978 Q, b), 
Nicholas & Stewart 1.1984), Stewart & Nicholas 
(1986) and Riemann (1986), while Hodda & 
Nicholas (1985, 1986a. 6) have published new 
records of genera in most cases w ithout identifying 
to species. A list of the type species in the South 
Australian Museum has been published by Smales 
(1983) although this list is not comprehensive. 



The first checklist ol murine free-living 
nematodes for Australia was produced by Johnston 
(1938) who listed 49 species in J3 genera and 20 
families. He recorded some genera arid families 
without described species Irom Australia. In the 
present list 263 species are recorded belonging ID 
119 genera in 38 families. This is only a shunt ly more 
than the number of species and genera collected 
from a single locality off the Tasmanian coast which 
contained many undcscribecl species and some new 
genera (H. Piatt St K. Martin pers, comm.) so that 
it is certain that this list represents only a small par r . 
of the whole Australian fauna. 

The recent revision of the higher classification 
ul l.oieri/.en {1981) has been followed and the 
families arc listed in the order in which he places 
them. For the Morthysleridae, the combinations of 
Jacobs (19871 have been followed Species are listed 
ii. alphabetical order within genus, and genera are 
placed in alphabetical order within each family. A 
specjes is listed under the most acceptable recent 
name and a synonomy and list ol names m earlier 
usage is provided if this relates ro publications on 
Australian faunas. It was nor considered necessary' 
to give a complete world synonymy as this can be 
found in Gerlach & Riemann 's (1973) exhaustive 
treatment of the group. Australian distribution 
rccorch are given in full where known, together with 
a reference to the relevant publication. The record 
of Hyman I quoted by Decraemer ts believed tu 
be Hay man Island and has been changed lo the 
correct spelling throughout. Also there arc 
inconsistencies in the spelling of Nymphc or Nymph 
<e former spelling is used here. Records of 
Specif in Australia published here for the first time 
are marked with an asterisk. It must be noted at$a 
tint Allgen\ records should be treated with caution 
because his descriptions and identifications are in 
some instances unreliable and little material was 
retained. Non-Australian records have not been 



R GRHENSLADE 



included sjnee 1 Key are available fur records up ro 
1973 jn Gerlach & Kiemann (1984) and species 
described since ihat date are, probably without 
exception, only known from Australia. 

All species included in ihe list are free- living and 
either from marine or brackish habitats. Records 
of genera without described species in Australia are 
given at the end of the species list. 



Checklist 

Adenopimrea 
( lirumudorid ue 
Actinonema longicaudutum (Steiner 1916) 

Lizard J. Q , Decraemer & Coo marts 1978a, b. 
Alrochromadora demiculuiu Wicser &. Hopper 
1967 

Lizard I. Q., Decraemer & Coomans 1978a; 
Davies Rcct Q., Alongi 1986. 
Afrochromadora microlauna (de Man 1889) 
^Chromadora microlaima de Man 1889 
-Chromadorina microlaima (de Man J 889). 
fas., Allgen 1927; Port Jackson N.S.W., Allgen 
1951a 
Atrochtomudora parva (de Man 1893) 

- Spiliphera parva de Man 1893. 

Tas., Allgen 1927. (Tasmanian record not in 

Gerlach & RiemaTin 197 I) 
Ai/Mranonw alii (Murphy J 965 ) 

Shark Bay W.A., Inglis J969. 
Austranema pectinatum (Wieser & Hopper J967) 

Lizard L Q. f Decraemer & Coomans !978a. 
Chromadoro mocmlaima de Man 1889 

^Chromadorina macroluima (de Man J 889). 

Tas., Allgen 1927 
Chromadoro macrolaimoides Steiner 1915 

Tas., Allgen 1927. Lizard J. Q., Decraemci A 

Coomans 1978a 
Chromadoro nudicapitata Bastian 1865 
-Chromadora siciiiana Wieser 1954. 

l.i/ard I Q., Deciaemer & Coomans »978a, 
Chromudorclla filiformis ( Bast i a n 1 865 ) 

Port Jackson N.S.W ., Allien 1951a., Davies 

Reef Q., Alongi 1986. 
Chromadorina germanica (Bulschli 1874) 

- Chromadora minor Cobb 1894 
Port Jackson N.S.W, Cobb 1894. 

Chromadorina pacifica (Allgen 1947) 
= Ch ro madora pucijua A I] gen 1 94 7 , 

Port Jackson N.S.W., Allgen I95fa. 
Chromadonia minor (Allgen 1927) 
= Hypodontolatmus minor Aiken I 

Tas., Allien 1927. 
Dichromadora opapillata Timni 1961 

Lizard 1 Q., Decraemer & Coomans 1978a 
Dichromadora geophila (de Man 1876) 

Lizard I. Q t > Decraemer & Coomans 1978a. 



Euchro madora eileenae Inglis 1969 

Radar Reef. Strickland Bay, Rottncsl 1., Shin k 

Bay, Chcyne Beach, nr Albany W.A., liwfis 

1969 
Euchromudora striata (Eberth 1963) 

Rottnest L. nr Albany, Cape Lmiwin W.A., 

Ujglis 1969. 
Graphonema georgei Inglis 1969 

Albany WA, Inglis 1969. 
Graphonema vufgare (vulgaris 9 y Cobb 1898 

Australian coasts NS,W„ Vic, Cobb 1898 
Graphonema amokurae (Ditlevsen 1921) 
- --Euchromudora amokurae (Ditlevsen 1921). 

Port Jackson N.S.W., Allgen 1951a. 
Neochro madora apud tec (a Gcilach 1951 

Lizard I. QL, Decraemer & Coomans 1978a; 

Davies Reet Q., Alongi 1986. 

Neochromadora watlint (Allgen J927) 
^Chromadora wallini Allgen 19 
Tas., Allgen 1927 
Parapinnanema wilsoni Inglis 1969 

Cape Leeu win, Geographic Bay W.A.. Inglis l%9. 
Prochromadortilu conicaudata (Allgen 1927) 
- Chromadora connaudatu Allgen 1927 
fas,, Allgen 1927. 
Prochromariorelta du/evseni (de Man 1922) 

Lizard L Q„ Decraemer & Coomans 1978a. 
Prochromodore/la paramucrodontu (Allgen 1929) 
-Chromadora put amucrodonla Allgen 1929. 
Macquarie I.. Allgen 1929; Port Jacks. m 
N.S.W., Allgen 1951a. 

Lizard L Q., Decraemer & Coomans 1978a; 
Davies Reef Q , Alongi 1986. 
Ptychohnmellus tizardiensis Decraemer & Coomans 
P/78 

Lizard I. Q„ Decraemer & Coomans 1978a. b. 
Ptycho/aittwllus slack smiihi (Inglis 1969) 
= Uypodontotaimus sluiksmiihi Inolis |9h9. 
Shark Bay, Cowaramup Bay W A.. Iritis 1969. 
Spiliphera dolichura de Man 1893 

Port Willunga, Brighton S.A., Mawson 1957. 
Spi/ophore//a campbelli Allgen 1928. 

Port Jackson N.S.W., Allgen 1951a. 
Spilophorelta paradoxa (dc Man 1888) 

I izard [. Q , Deciaemer & Coomans 1978a: 
Davies Reef Q., Alongi 1986 
Spilophorella lasman len.iis Allgen 1927 

Tas., Allgen 1927. 
Steincridora loricata (Steiner 1916) 

-Spiliphera loricata Steiner 1916 (or Spilophotu 
Johnston 1938) 

- 1 uchromadoru loncata (Steiner 19J6)- 
Tas., Allgen 1927; Port Jackson N.S.W . Allgen 
1951a. 

Lthmolainiidae 

>;i()/armu!> multipupiltutus Pararnonov 1926 
L i/ard 1. Q„ Decraemer tV: Coomans 1978a 



MARINE NEMATO I 



Neotonchidae 

i\eoionchus apud melotridus Wieser & Hopper 
J 966 

Lizard 1. Q., Decraemet & Coomans 1978a. 

1 yjilholaimidae 

Acunihomhus viviparus Cobb 1920 
-Seuratieila pedroensis All gen 1947. 
Port Jackson N.S.W., Allgcrt 1951a. 
Lon^icyaiholaimus heterurus (Cobb J 898) 
= Cvuiholaimus heterurus Cobb 1898. 
Port Jackson N.S.W ., Cobb 1898. 
Lon^icyutholaimus minor (Cobb 1898) 
^Cvatliolaimus minor Cobb 1898 
Port Jackson N.S.W Cobb [89$ 
Longicyutholuimus trichurus iCobb 1898) 
= Cyatholainws trichurus Cobb J898. 
Port Jackson N.S.W., Cobb 1K98, 
Metacyaiholaimus brevicollis (Cobb 1898) 
^Cyutholatmus brevicollis Cobb 1898. 
Port Jackson N.S.W., Cobb 1 898 
Purueonlhonchus coccus iBaslian 1865) (as coccus 
in Allgcn 1951a) 

Port Jackson N.S.W., Allgen IV5!a 
Ponicunfhonchus chcynci Inglis 1970 

Cheyne Beach, Radar Reel, Rottncst 1, W A .. 
JugJis 1970. 
Paracanlhonchus hurtogt Inglis 1970 

Shark Bay W.A., Inglis 1970. 
Paraccwthonchus kartunum (Mawson 1 9s 3) 
= >/<// veyjohnstonia kartunum M aMl SOU 1 953 . 
Pennington Bay, Kangaroo I. S.A., Mawson 
1953; Cheyne Beach, Goode Beach, Hall's 
Head, Bunker Bay W.A., Inglis 1970. 

Pnracanthonchus mutyaretue Inglis 1970 

Cheyne Beach, Windy Harbour, Bunker Bay, 

Cape Naturalist W.A., Inglis 1970, 
Paracanthonchus paruhurtoyi Decraemer & 
Cooinans 1978 

Lizard 1. Q., Decraemer & Ottomans 1978a, b 
ParacatUhomhus paramucrodon Allgen 1947 

Port Jackson N.S.W., Allgcn 1951a 
Parucyalholuimus cxilis (Cobb 1848) 
^Cyaiholaimus exilb Cobb 1898. 

Port Jackson N.S.W., Cobb lSS»& 
Paracyalholaimus proximus (Bulschli 1874) 
-Cvctho/uimwy proxtmus Buischli 1874. 

Tas.. Allgen 1927. 
Prueucanthonchus O&fljfc Inglis 1970 

Woodman's Point , nle W.A., Inglis 

1970. 
• 1 1 zors i n$ I is I W i c s c r & H o ppc r 1 96? 

I izard I. 0, Decraemer & Coomans 1978a. 



Selactmiematidae « Choniolaimidae 

Halichounoluimus australh Cobb I89.S 
Pfcrl Jackson N.S.W., Cobb 1898 



Halwhounoiuimus avails Ditlevsen I! 

Edithburg S.A, Mawson 1957. 
Halichounolaimus quattuordecimpapillai u 
Chit wood 1951 

Lizard I. Qm Decraemer & Coomans 1978a, h 
Jlalichoanolaimus robustus (Bashan 1865) 

Ouier Harbour, Port Adelaide S.A , Mawson 

1957. 

Desinndoridae 

Acanthopharynx distechei Decraemer & Coomans 

1978 

Lizard I. Q., Decraemer & Coomans 1978a, h. 
Desmodora (Pseudochromadora) cazca Gerlach 
1956 

Hunter R., Fullerton Covt N.SW, Hodda & 

Nicholas J985, 1986a, b. 
Desmodora (Croconema) cincia (Cobb 1920) 

Lizard I. Q., Decraemer & Coomans 1978a. 
Desmodora fZalonemaj mega/osoma Sterner 1918 

Lizard I. Q., Decraemer & Coomans 1978a. 
Laxus Ion a us Cobb 1894 

Port Jackson N.S.W., Cobb 1894 
Meluchromudora (Mj clavuta Gerlach 1957 

Lizard I. Q., Decraemer & Coomans 1978a. 
Onyx apud perfeclus Cobb 1 891 

Lizard I. Q., Decraemer A Coomans 1978a. 
Paradesmodora ca/npbelli (Allgcn 1932) 

Lizard I. Q., Decraemer & Coomans 1978a; 

Davies Reel Q., Alongi 1986. 
Pseudonchas Jensen i M u r p hy 1 964 

Bobbin Head N.S.W.. Mmphy 1964. 
Spirin ia (S.) loevioides Gerlach 1963 

lizard 1. Q.. Decraemer & Coomans 197m 
Spin ma sitmtts (Cobb 1898) 
=S/WW sum/is Cobb 1898. 

Port Jackson N.S.W., Cobb 1898. 

Drarontmniidat 

Draconema jalcaium I Irwin Smith 1918) 
= Chuen.*oma falcata Irwin-Smith 1918. 

Sydney and environs N.S.W., Irwin-Smith l91Jv 
Draconema has we/ 1 i (Irwin -Smith 1918) 
= Chaetosomu haswelli Irwin-Smith 1918. 

Svdiies and environs N.S.W., Irwin-Smith, 

1918. 
No/ochnttosoma t-rypiof\-f.'halurri Irwin-Smith lVi.S 

Sydney and environs N.SW '.. Irvvm-Smilh 1918. 
Notochaefosotna lenax Irwin-Smith 1918 

Sydney and environs N.S.W.. Irwin Smith 1918. 

Microlaimidae 

Acantlwmiirolutmu* /cnseni Stewart & Nicholas 
1987 

Broulce beach N.S.W. Stewart & Nicholas »8fJ 
Muroluimus problcmaiicus Allgen W32 

Lizard I. Q., Decraemer & Coomans 1978a. 
Mierolainnts capil/uris Gerlach 1957 

Clyde River NSW. Jensen tin press). 



10 



l J GKEENSl ADH 



Leptnlatmidap 

Camacolaimus exilis (Cobb 1920) 

Lizard I. Q., Decraemer & Coomans 1978a. 
Paraphanolaimus anisitsi (Daday 1905) 

Lizard I. Q., Decraemcr & Coomans 1978a 

Pleitidne 

Pleaus longicaudatus Butschli 1873 

Lizard J. Q., Decraemer & Coomans 1978;i. 

Tenilocephalidae 

Euteratocephalus paiusths (De Man 1880) 

Lizard 1. Q., Decraemer & Coomans 1978a. 

Mcinhysteridae 

Geomonhystera oust rolls (Cobb 1893) 
= Monhystera australis Cobb 1893. 
Port Jackson N.S.W., Cobb 1893. 
Monhystrella gracilis Khera 1966 

- Monhystrella a pud gracilis Khera 1966. 
Lizard I. Q., Decraemer & Coomans 1978a. 
Monhystrella marina Timm 1964 

Lizard J. Q., Decraemer 8c Coomans 1978a. 
Thalassomonhystera dip/ops (Cobb 1894) 
= Monhystera dip/ops Cobb 1894 
Port Jackson N.SW., Cobb 1894. 
Thalassomonhystera tasmaniensis (Allgen 1927) 
-Monhystera tasmaniensis Allgen 1927. 
Tas., Allen 1927. 

Xyalidae 

Dap/onema australis (Allgen 1951) 

-Theristus australis Allgen 1951, S p. inq 
Lorenzen 1977. 

Port Jackson N.S.W., Allgen 1951a. 
Dapionema lata (Cobb 1894) 

= Cylindrotheristus latus (Cobb 1894) 

= Monhystera lata Cobb 1894, sp. inq. Loren/en 

1977. 

Port Jackson N.S.W., Cobb 1894. 
Dapionema setosa (Butschli 1874) 

-Mesotheristus setosus Biii^jhli 1874, syn. 

Lorenzen 1977 
= Monhystera gmcilitmu Cobb 1894, 
Neutral Bay, Port Jackson N.S.W., Cobb 1894. 
Rhynchonemu cine turn Cobb 1920 
Davies Reef* Q., Alongi J986. 
Steineria a pud ampullacea Wieser Sl Hopper 1967 
Lizard L Q., Decraemer & Coomans 1978a. 
Steineria pulchra Mawson 1957 

Outer Harbour. Encounter Bay S.A., Mawson 
1957 
Steineria setosissima (Cobb 1894) 

- Monhystera setosissima Cobb 1894. 

Port Jackson N.S.W ., Cobb 1894. 

Theristus brevtcollis (Cobb 1894) 

^Monhystera brevicollis Cobb 1894. 

Port Jackson N.S.W., Cobb 1894. 



Theristus (Penzancia) flevensts Stekhoven 1935 

Lizard L Q. f Decraemer & Coomans 1978a; 

Davies Reef Q,. Alongi 1986 lapsus fl avis. 
Theristus intent itialis Warwick 1970 

Fullerton Cove, Hunrer River N.S.W, Hodda 

& Nicholas 1985, 1986a, b. 
Theristus macquanensis (Allgen 1929) 

-Monhystera macquanensis Allgen 1929, sp. 
mcerlae sedis Jacobs 1987. 

Macquarie I, Allgen 1929. 
Theristus (Penzancia) metaflevensis Gerlach 1955 

lizard I. Q.> Decraemcr & Coomans 1978a. 
Theristus paetfieus (Johnston 1938) 

- Monhystera pacifica Johnston 1938 

- Monhystera australis Cobb 1984. 
Port Jackson, N.S.W., Cobb 1893. 

Theristus quadripapil latus Decraemer &. Coomans 
1978 

Lizard J. Q„ Decraemcr & Coomans 1978a, b; 

Davies Reef Q., Alongi 1986. 

Sphaerolaimidae 

Sphaerolaimus hirticollis Cobb 1898 
Port Jackson N.S.W., Cobb 1898. 

Sphaerolaimus pap if latus Kreis 1929 

Clyde R. Estuary N.S.W., Nicholas, Goodehild 
& Stewart 1987. 

Desmoscoleeiriae 

Desmolorenzenia cooleni Decraemer 1978 

Low I. Great Barrier Reef Q. , Decraemer 1978b. 
Desmolorenzenia crassicauda (Timm 1970) 

Li/ard L Q., Decraemer 1977a. 
Desmoscolex asetosus Decraemer J 97 5 

800 m W of Lizard L, Nyrnphe 1. Q., 

Decraemer 1975b. 
Des/noscolex ausiralicus Decraemer 1975 

Yonge Reef Q., Decraemer 1975e. 
Desmoscolex brevisetosus Decraemer 1974 

Nyrnphe L, Lizard 1. Q., Decraemer 1974. 
Desmoscolex daconmukl Decraemer 1975 

Nyrnphe I, Yonge Reef Q„ Port Jackson 

N.S.W., Decraemer 1975c 
Desmoscolex dimorphus Decraemer 1974 

800 m W of Lizard !., Yonge Reef, Nyrnphe 

l. Q.> Decraemcr 1974a 
Desmoscolex falcat us Lorenzen 1972 

Lizard L, Yonge Reef Q., Decraemer I975e. 
Desmoscolex geraerti Decraemer 1974 

Yonge Reef Q., Decraemer 1974a. 
Desmoscolex zeriachi Timm 1970 

Lizard 1. Q., Decraemer 1975e. 
Desmoscolex gran u latus Decraemer 1975 

Yonge Reef, Lizard J Q, Decraemer 1975a. 
Desmoscolex laevis Kreis 1928 

Nyrnphe L, Yonge Reef, Lizard L Q., 

Decraemer 1975a, Decraemer & Coomans 

1978a. 



MARINL NEMATODES 



II 



Desmoscolex tepius Steiner 1916 

I km behind Yonge Reef Q., Decraemcr 1975b. 
Desmoscolex iongisetosus Timm 1970 

Yonge Reef Q., Decraemer 1975c. 
Desmoscolex memhranosus Decraemer 1975 

800 m W o\' Lizard !., Nymphe L, between One 

TreeL and Wistari Reef Q., Decraemer l97Se. 
Desmoscolex minutus Claparede 1863 

Nymphe 1. 0- Decraemer 1975a. 
Desmoscolex nudus Chit wood 1951 

800 m W of Lizard I., Decraemer 1975b, 
Desmoscolex nymphianus Decraemer 1974 

Nymphe 1. Q.. Decraemer 1974a. 
Desmoscolex porolep •/ US Decraemcr 1975 

Yonge Reef Q., Decraemer 1975b. 
Desmoscolex ntdolfi Sreiner 1916 

Broulee N.S.W.. det. W. Decraemer. 1986, 
Desmoscolex yongei Decraemer 1975 

Yonge Reef Q., Decraemer 1975e, 

Meyliidae 

Desmotimmia mirabilis (Timm 1961) 

Yonge Keef, Lizard I,, Three Isles, between 

Cairns and Hayman 1. Q„ Decraemer 1975d. 
Quadrieoma cobbi (Steiner 1916) 

Between Cairns and Hayman L, Lizard I. Q. f 

Decraemer 1978a. 
Quadrieoma crassicomoides Timm 1970 

Lizard L, Nymphe I. Q. t Decraemer 1978a. 
QuadncotrtQ freudenhamnieri Decraemer 1977 

JOO m W o\ Lizard 1. Q., Decraemer 1977b. 
Quadrieoma lizardiensis Decraemer 1977 

X00 m W of Lizard I. Q., Decraemer 1977b. 
Quadrieoma noffsingerac Decraemer 1977 

Three Isles, Lizard L> between One Tree L and 

Wistari Reef, between Cairns and Hayman L 

Q., Decraemer 1977b. 
Quadrieoma papillata Decraemer 1977 

800 m W of Lizard L, Three Isles, between 

Cairns and Hayman I, Q., Decraemer 1977b 
Quadricomoides alien i Decraemer 1976 

I jzarf Ut Nymphe J. t Three Isles, Yonge Reef 

Q., Decraemer 1976. 
Quudricomoides coomansi Decraemer 1976 

Between Cairns and Hayman L Q., Decraemer 

1976. 
Quudricomoides pedunculata Decraemer 1976 

Young Reef, between Caims and Hayman L 

Q„ Decraemer 1976. 
Proto tricoma dhcrdei Decraemer 1978 

Between Cairns and Hayman I. Q M Decraemer 

1978b. 
Tricoma aculeata Decraemer [978c 

Yonge Reef Q., Decraemer 1978c 
Tricoma nbsuiata lizardiensis Decraemer 1979 

Lizard L Q. T Decraemer 1979. 
Thcoma all gem Decraemer 1978 

Yonge Reef Q., Decraemer 1978c. 



Tricoma brevirostris (Southern 1914) 

Yonge Reef Q., Decraemer 1978c. 
Tricoma brevispicula Decraemer 1978 
Yonge Reef Q., Decraemer 1978c. 
Tricoma dimorphu Decraemer 1978 

Yonge Reef Q., Decraemer 1978c 
Dicoma fisheri Timm 1970 

Between One Tree I. and Wistari Reef Q,> 
Decraemer 1978c. 
TYicoma goJdeni Decraemer 1978 

Yonge Reef Q., Decraemer 1978c 
Tricoma hoplosloma Decraemer 1978 
Yonge Reef Q. f Decraemer 1978c. 
Tricoma happen auslralicnsis Decraemcr 1978 

Yonge Reef Q., Decraemer 1978c. 
Tricoma longispicula Decraemer i978 
Yonge Reef Q.. Decraemer 1978c. 
Tricoma pachycephula Decraemer 1978 

800 m W pi Lizard 1. Q., Decraemer 1978c. 
Tricoma p/atapophysa Decraemer 1978 
Yonge Reef Q., Decraemer 1978c; 
Broulee N.S.W.. det. "W. Decraemer 1986. 
Tricoma riemanni Decraemer 1978 

Yonge Reef Q., Decraemer 1978c. 
Tricoma rostral is Decraemer 1978 

Lizard L> Decraemer 1978c 
Tricoma sepfuaginta Stekhoven 1942 
Yonge Reef Q., Decraemer 1978c 
Tricoma similis Cobb 1912 

Yonge Reef Q.. Decraemer 1978c 
Tricoma rimmi Decraemer 1978 

800m \V of Lizard L Yonge Reef Q.. 
Decraemer 1978c. 

Siphonnlaitnidae 

Siphonolaimus purpureas (Cobb 1894) 
= Chromagaster purpurea Cobb !894. 
North Arm, Port Adelaide S.A., Cobb 1K94. 

Linhomoeidae 

Cryptolutmus pellucidus Cobb 1933 

North Arm. Port Adelaide S.A. Cobb 193.1. 
Eleutheroluimus fdkaudaia (Allgen 1929) 

= Morthvsterj Jdicaudaia Allgen 1929, va ini; 

Jacobs 1987. 

Davics Reef Q. f Alongi 1986. 
Megadesmoluimus iwcinatus Gerlach 1963 

Lizard L Q., Decraemcr & Coomans 1978a. 
Metalmhomoeus seiosus Chitwood 1951 

Lizard l . Decraemer & Coomans 1978a, 
Paralinhomoeus macquariensis (Allgen 1929) 
= Linhomoeu3 macquariensis Allgen 1929. 

Macquaric I., Allgen 1929. 
lerschellingia exilis Cobb 1898 

Port lackson N.S.W,, Cobb 1898. 
Terschellingia lonx'ieuudaw de Man 1907 

Hunter R„ Fullcrton Cove N.S.W. . Hodda .< 

Nicholas I985 v 1986a. b; Clyde R. Estuary 



12 



P. GREENSI.ADE 



N.S.W., Nicholas, Goodchild A Stewart 1987; 
Lizard I. Q.. Decraemer & Coomans 1978a, b; 
Davies Reef Q., Alongi 1986. 

Axonolaimidac 

Axonolaimus caudostriatus Boucher 1973 

Lizard I. Q., Decraemer & Coomans 1978a; 
Davies Reef Q., Alongi 1986. 

Nicascoloimus punctatus Riemann 1986 
Kjoloa Beach N.S.W., Riemann 1986. 

Comesomatidae 

Comesoma arenae Gerlach 1956 

Bobbin Head N.S.W., Murphy 1964. <?syn. 

'Comesoma simile' sensu Wieser 1954, Gerlach 

& Riemann 1973). 
Comesoma simile Cobb 1898 lapsus similis 

Port Jackson N.S.W. Cobb 1898; Davies Reef 

Q. Alongi 1986 lapsus similas. 
Paracomesoma dubium (Filipjev 1918] 

Lizard J. Q., Decraemer & Coomans 1978a, b; 

Davies Reef Q., Alongi J986. 
Sabatieria heterura (Cobb 1898) 
m Comesoma heterura Cobb 1898. 

Port Jackson N.S.W., Cobb 1898; Davies Reef 

Q-, Alongi 1986, 
Sabatieria filicauda Allgen 1951 

37*5' s, 150*05T. Allgen 1951a. 
Sabatieria jubata (Cobb 1898) 

- Comesoma jubatum Cobb 1898 lapsus jubaio. 

Port Jackson N.S.W. , Cobb 1898. 
Sabatieria wiesert Piatt J 985 

Clyde R Estuary N.S.W.. Nicholas, Goodchild 

& Stewart 1987. 

Dlplopeltidae 

Araeoiaimus elegans de Man 1888 

=Araeolaimus speclabitis Ditlevsen I92L 

Tas., Allgen 1927. 
Araeoiaimus tongicauda Allgen 1929 

Piort Jackson N.S.W., Allgen 1951a. 



Enoplicla 

Lnoplidae 

Enoplus alpha Inghs 1971 

Radar Reef, Stick land Bay, Rottncst I W.A., 

inglis 1971 
Enoplus heardensis Mawson 1958 

Heard I., Mawson 1958 
Enoplus meridionalis Stciner 1921 

= Enoplus communis meridionalis Sleiner 1921. 

Radar Reef, Stickland Bay, Rortnesf I. W.A., 

Inglis 1971; Port Willunga S.A., Mawson 195.1 
Enoplus michaelsent Linstow 1896 

Macquarie L, Mawson 1958. 



Enoplus micrognathia Allgen 1947 

Port Jackson NSW., Allgen 1951 a. 

Enoplus paraltltoralis Wieser 1953 

Heard [., Macquarie I., Mawson 1958. 

Thoracostomopsidae 

Enuplolaimus disusieri Allgen 1951 (listed as 
hnoplus by Allgen 1951a) 

Disaster Bay, N.S.W., Allgen 1951a. Incertae 

sedis (Wieser 1953). 
Epacanthion brevispicu/osum Mawson 1958 

Macquarie I., Mawson 1958. 
Epacanthion georgei Inglis 1971 

Cowaramup Bay W.A., Inglis 1971. 
Mesacanthion gracilisetosum (Allgen 1930) 
-Enoplolaimus gracilisetosus Allgen 1930. 

Macquane L, Allgen 1930; Wata Man N.S.W., 

Mawson 1953. 
Mesacanthton kerguelenense Mawson 1958 

Heard I, Macquarie L, Mawson 1958. 
Oxyonchus subuntatviicus Mawson 1958 

Macquarie L, Mawson 1958. 

Anoplostomatidae 

Anoplostoma campbelli Allgen 1932 
Macquarie I., Mawson 1958. 

Phunodermatidae 

Paraphanoderma robynae Inglis 1971 

Bunker Bay, Geographe Bay W.A., Inglis 1971. 
Phanoderma campbelli Allgen 1928 

Ban .Jackson N.S.W., Allgen 1951a; Macquarie 
l„ Mawson 1958. 
Phanoderma cocksi Bastian 1865 

~ Phanoderma filipjevt Micoletsky 1924. 
Macquane I., Mawson 1958. 
Phanoderma ocellatum (Cobb 1920) 

-'Phanoderma mediterranean? nee Micolerzky 
1923 sensu Allgen 1947. 
Lizard 1. Q . Decraemer & Coomans 1978a; 
Port Jackson N.S.W., Allgen 1951a, 
Phanoderma serratum Ditlevsen 1930 

Goode Beach, Sarge Bay, Bunker Bay. 
Geographe Bay W.A., Inglis 1971. 
Phanoderma wieser i Mawson 1956 
Macquarie 1., Mawson 1958. 

Anttcomatidae 

Anticoma acuminata Eberth 1863 
^Anticoma simths Cobb 1898. 

Port Jackson N.S.W., Cobb 1898; Allgen 195 la. 

Outer Harbour, Brighton Beach S.A., Mawson 

1957 
Anticoma campbelli Allgen 1932 

Macquarie I., Mawson 1958. 
Anticoma cobbi Inglis 1971 

Hall's Head, Mandnrah W A. Inglis 1971. 
Anticoma eolumba Wieser 1953 



MARINF NLMATODfcS 



I? 



-Anticoma uustruhs Mawson 1956. 

Heard I., Macquarie U Mawson 1958. 
Anticoma lata Cobb 1898 

Port .lack sou NSW, Cobb 1898. 
Anticoma subsimilis Cobb 1914 

Heard 1., Macquarie I , Mawson 1958. 

Anticoma trichuru Cobb 1898 

Port Jackson NSW. Cobb 1898. 

Platycomopsis gihboncnsis (Mawson 1953) 
=Anticomopsis gibbonensis Mawson 1953 
Port Gibbon N.S.W., Mawson 1953. 

Ironidae 

Thalassironus britannicus de Man 1889 

Lizard I., Q., Decraerner 8c Coomans 1978a. 

Thalassironus jungi Inglis 1964 

Lizard L Q., Decraerner 8c Coomans 1978a. 

Trissonchulus oceanus Cobb 1920 

Lizard \. Q , Decraerner & Coomans 1978a. 

Leplosomalidae 

Deontostoma antarcttcum (Linstow 1892) 
^Thoracostoma antarctieum (Linstow 1892) 

Heard [., Macquaiie 1., Mawson 1958. 
Deontostoma aucklandioe (Ditlevsen 192 J) 
-Thoracostoma aucklundiae Ditlevsen 1921. 

Port Jackson N.S.W., Allgen J95Ja. 
fjcptoxomo tides conisetosus Stckhovcn 8l Mawson 

1955 

Macquarie I,, Mawson 1958 
Leptowmatum urciicum Filipjev 3916 

Heard I., Macquarie !,, Mawson 1958 
Leptosomatum baci/fatum (E berth 1863) 

Port Jackson N.5.W., Allgen 1951a. 
Leptosomaium elon%atum Bastian 1865 

Port Jackson N.S.W., Allgen 1951a 
Leptosomatum micofetzkyi Inglis 1971 

Cowaramup Bay W.A., Inglis 1971. 
Leptosomatum sabangense Steiner 1915 

-Leptosomatum elongaium sabangese Steiner 
J 915 (lapsus sabangensis). 

Port Jackson N.S.W., Allgen 1951a. 
Leptosomella phausira Inglis 1971 

Sarge Bay, Cape Leuwin W A . Inglis 1971. 
Thoracostoma ant>ustifissulatum Mawson 1956. 

Heard I , Macquarie L Mawson 1958. 
7 horacosioma anocellaium Stekhoven & Mawson 
1955 

Heard 1.. Macquarie I., Mawson 1958. 
Thoracostoma urciicum Ssaveljev 1912 

Macquarie I . Mawson 1958. 
Thoracostoma ausirale Mawson 1953 

Port Gibbon, Port Hacking Wata Mutj N.S.W., 

Mawson 1953. 
I horacosioma campbelli Ditlevsen 1921 

Macquarie I., Heard I., Mawson 1958. 
Thorucostomu coronal urn (I: berth 186>l 

37°5'S\ I50'-05"E. 



Pseudocella panamaense (Allgen 1947) 
^Thoracostoma panamaense Allgen 1947. 
Macquarie 1., S.A., Mawson 1958. 
Pseudocella irichodes lleuckart 1849) 

=Thoracostoma irichodes (Leuekart 1849). 
Port Jackson N.S.W.. Allgen 1951a. 

Oxystominidae 

Hululaimus comutus Wieser 1953 

Heard 1., Macquarie L, Mawson 1958. 
Halalaimus flelchen Mawson 1958 

Macquarie [., Mawson 1958 
Halalaimus macquonensis Mawson 1958 

Macquarie L, Mawson 1958. 
Nemanema campbelli (Allgen 1932) 
^Oxystomatma campbelli Allgen 1932 

Macquarie U Mawson 1958, 
Oxystomina pellucida (Cobb 1898) 

.--Oxy stoma pellucidutn Cobb 1898 (lapsus 

pellucida), 

Port Jackson N.S.W., Cobb 16 

Oncholaimidae 

Adoncholaimus crassicaudus Wieser 1953 

Macquarie 1., Mawson 1958. 
Metonchofaimoides squalus Wieser,l953 

Macquaiie 1., Mawson 1958. 
Metonchotaimus brevispiculum Mawson 1957 

Brighton S.A., Mawson 1957. 
Metoncholaimus prist iurus \Z. Strassen 1894) 

Port River, S.A., Mawson 1953 
Mononcho/aimus tasmamensis Allgen 1927 

Mononcholaimus elegans tasmamensis Allgen 

1927 (the nominate species is recorded in 

Viscom by Piatt & Warwick 1983.) 

Tas r Allgen 1927. 
Oncholaimus brachycercus de Man 1889 

Lizard I Q., Decraerner 8l Coomans 1978a 
Oncholaimus dujardinit de Man 1876 (given as 

dujardmi by Allgen 1951a) 

Macquarie 1., Mawson 1958; Port Jackson 

N.S.W r ., Allgen 1951a. 
Oncholainws leptos Mawson I95S 

Heard L, Macquarie L, Mawson 1958. 
Oncholaimus apud opislhonchus Filipjev 1927 

Lizard L Q., Decraerner & Coomans 1978a. 
Oncholaimus paredron (Mawson 1958) 
-Oncholaimium paredron Mawson 1958. 

Macquarie L, Mawson 1958. 
Oncholaimus paralangrunen^is ( A I Igen 1 947) 
= Vis<ostu parulunxrurien+is Allgen 1947. 

Port Jack.sun N S.W, Allgen 1951a. 

Oncholaimus viridis Bastian 1865 

las.. Allgen 1^27: Port laekson N.S.W , Allgen 

1951a. 
Pelagonema oblusicaudum Filipjev 1 91 S (given gg 

obtusicauda by Allgen (951a] 

Port Jackson, Disaster Bay N.SAV., Allger 

1951a, b. 



H 



P GRfcLNSLADL 



Pelugonema lenue Kreis 1928 

Port Jackson N.S.W., Allgen 1951a. 
Pontonema cobbi Mawson 1956 

Macquarie L, Mawson 1958. 
Pontonema donsi (Allgen 1932) 

Lizard L Q., Dccraemer & Coornans 1978a. 
Pontonema hacking! Mawson 1953 

Port Hacking N.S,W.> Mawson 1953. 
Pontonema leidyi Mawson 1956 

Macquarie I., Mawson 1958. 
Pontonema serratodentaium Mawson 1956 

Heard 1., Macquarie I., Mawson 1958. 
Prooncholaimus mawsonae lnglis 1971 

Aquarium, Perth WA. ( (nglis 1971. 
Prooncholaimus megastoma (Fberlh 1863) 

Outer Harbour S.A.. Mawson 1957 
Viscosia glabra (Bastian 1865) 

Port Jackson, Disaster Bay N,S,W., Allgen 

1951a. 
Viscosia apud macramphida Chit wood 1951 

Lizard 1. Q., Decraemer & Coornans 1978a, 

Davies Reef Q., Alongi 1986. 
Viscosia peilucida (Cobb 1898) 

^Oncholaimus pellucidus Cobb 1898. 

Port Jackson N.S.W., Cobb 1898 
Viscosia w ie.se ri Mawson 1958 

Macquarie Li Mawson J958. 

Kchelidiidae 

Calyptronema mawson i Mawson 1958 

Heard L. Macquarie L, Mawson 1958. 

Enchelidium brevicaudaium Allgen 1947 
Port Jackson N.S.W., Allgen 1951a. 

Eurystomina cat if o mica (Allgen 1947) 
=Eurystomatina califomicum Allgen 1947 
Port Jackson N.S.W., Allgen 1 95 la. 

Eurvstomina eurylaima (Ditlevsen, 1930) 
=Martonella euylaima Ditlevsen 1930. 
Radar Reef, Strickland Bay, Rot t nest L, 
Woodmans Point, Cockburn Sound W.A., 
Inglu 1971. 

Eurystomina fenestella Weiser J 953 

Heard 1., Macquarie L, Mawson 1958. 

Eurystomina minucisculae Chitwood 1951 

Lizard I. Q. f Decraemer & Coornans 1978a. 

Eurystomina ornato (Eberth 1863) 

^Eurystomatina omata (Eberth 1863) (given as 
ornatum by Allgen J95J u 
Port Jackson N.S.W., Allgen 1951a. 

Ledovitia fallae Mawson 1958 
Macquarie L» Mawson 1958. 

Polygastrophora hexabulba (Fiiipjev 1918) 
= Bolbella pacifica Ditlevsen 1930. 
Port Jackson N.S.W., Allgen 1951a; Outer 
Harbour. Brighton, Port Willunga, Port 
Noarlunga S.A., Mawson 1957; Lizard L Q., 
Decraemer & Coornans 1978a; Davies ReefQ., 
Alongi 1986. 



Symplocostoma tenuuolie (Eberth 1863) 
- Enchelidium tenuicol/e Eberth 1863 
^Symplocostoma longicollis Bastian 1865. 
las., Allgen J 927; Port Jackson N.S.W., Allgen 
1951a; Pennington Bay, Kangaroo 1 S.A., 
Mawson 1953. 
Symplocostomella johnstoni Mawson 1953 
Point Gibbon N.S.W., Mawson 1953. 

Tripyloididae 

tfathylaimus australis Cobb 1894 

Port Jackson N.S.W., Cobb 1894; lizard I. Q.. 

Decraemer & Coornans 1978a, b. 
Tripyla tenukauda Cobb 1893 

Sydney N.S.W., Cobb 1893. 



fylenchida 

Crictfnematidae 

CrUonemella avicenniae Nicholas & Stewart 1984 
Hunter River Estuary N.S.W., Nicholas & 
Stewart 1984, Hodda & Nicholas 1986b. 

Hemicriconemoides cocophilus (Loof 1949) 
Lizard I. Q., Decraemer & Coornans 1978a. 

Khahdilidae 

Rhabditis marina Bastian 1865 
Guildcrton Beach, Herald Bay, Moore Bay, Dick 
Hartog 1. W.A., Inglis 1961 

Tylenchidae 

Eutylenchus qfricanus Sher, Corbet t & Colbran 
1966 
Lizard I. QC, Decraemer & Coornans 1978a. 

Dorylaimida 

Nordiidae 

Enchodelus coomansi Nicholas & Stewart 1984 
Hunter and Clyde River Estuary N.S.W., 
Nicholas & Stewart 1984, Hodda & Nicholas 
1986b. 

Dorylaimidae 

Prodorylaimus apud depressus Loof 1973 

Lizard I Q., Decraemer & Coornans 1978a. 

Leptonchidae 

Proleptonchus saccatus (Clark 1962) 

Lizard L Q., Decraemer & Coornans 1978a. 



The following generic records new to Australia 
were published by Johnston (1938) or Hodda & 
Nicholas ()985 r 1986, 1987) but without species 
records: 
Cyatholaimidac, Pomponema; 



MARINE NHMAIODF.S 



15 



Desmodoridac, Desmodorelia, 

Metachronwdnroides; 
Monoposrhidac, Nudoru, 
Molgolairnidae, Molgoluimus; 
Eeptolaimidae, Lep tola units, Deontoluimus; 
Haliplectidae, Ha/iptectus; 
Mon hyster idae. Diplolaime/la, DiploUntvcUoides; 
Hpsi loncmatidae, Epsilonematinu; 
Draconernat idat, Drepanonema; 
Desinoscoleadae, Gree/Jicliu; 
Xyalidae, Retrothehstus, Filipjeva 

Mctadesmotaimus, A mphy man hy stem; 



Comesomatidae, Hooper ia; 
Linhom oeidae, LainwUa; 
Axonolaimidae, Pnrodontophom, 
Diplopelttdae, Diplopelds; 
Dorylatmidac, Labronema, 
{ > vstormnidae, Thallassnlaimus. 
Tyleriehidae, lylnnchiis. 

ACKNQWLEDGMJ Nl 

This work was funded by a gram from the Australian 
Biological Resources Survey to W.L, Nicholas. 



Rl.l 1RLMI 



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ALLGEN, C. 1929. Ubet einige freileeheude marine 
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m i 

AL1GLN, C. 1930. Liber cine ncuc An cles Genus 
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ALLGFN, C. 1951a. Pacific freeliving marine nematodes 
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A I f.GEN, C. 1951b. Das Mannchen de.s Petapunemu 
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DECRAEMER, W. 1977b. Scientific report on the Belgian 
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DECRAEMER, "vY. 1978a. The genu.-, Quadncomu 
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Eilipjev 1922 (Nematoda. Desmosi olecidn). 



it 



P. GREBNSLALU: 



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the genus Proumicoma limm tNemai.'uU 

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DFCRAEMER, W 1979. Morphology of Trnoma 
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Sciences, University of Florida. 



MARINE NEMATODES 



r 



Index Of Available Species Gkoup Names 
(valid names in italics, invalid name* in roman) 



uculeato 

acuminata 

africanus 

alii 

a lien i 

allgeni 

alpha 

anwkurue 

ampullacea 

angustijhsutatum 

anisitsi 

anoceliatum 

antarcticum 

apapillata 

arc (hum 

arcticum 

arenae 

asetosus 

uucklandiae 

australe 

australicus 

australiensis 

australis 

australis 

australis 

australis 

australis 

australis 

avicenniae 

bacillatum 

brachycercus 

brevicaudatum 

revival I is 

brevicollis 

brevirostris 

brevisetosis 

brevispicula 

brevispiculosum 

brevispiculum 

britannicus 

caecus 

catifornica 

campbelli 

campbelli 

campbelti 

campbelli 

campbelli 

camphelti 

campbelli 

capillaris 

cuudostriatus 

cazca 

cheynei 

cincta 

cinctum 

clavata 

cobbi 

cobbi 

cobbi 

cocksi 

cocophitus 



Tricoma 1! 
Anticoma 12 
Entylenchus 14 
Austranema 8 
Quadricomoides 1 1 
Tricoma II 
En op I us 12 
Graphonema 8 
Siemeriu 10 
Thoracostoma 13 
Paraphanolaimus 10 
Thoracostoma 13 
Dean lost oma 13 
Dichrornadora 8 
Leptosomatum 13 
Thoracostoma 13 
Comesoma 12 
Desmoscolex 10 
Deontostoma 13 
Thoracostoma 13 
Desmoscolex 10 
Tricoma II 
Anticoma 13 
Bathytaimus 14 
Dap ton em a 10 
Geomonhystera 10 
Ha/ichoanolaimus 9 
Theristuji 10 
Crlconemetlu 14 
Leptosomatum 13 
Oncholaimus 13 
Enchelidium 14 
Metacyatholaimus 9 
Therislus 10 
Tricoma 11 
Desmoscolex 10 
Tricoma 11 
Epacanthion 12 
Metoncholuimus 13 
Thalassironus 13 
Paracanthonchus 9 
Eurystomina 14 
Anoplostoma 12 
Anticoma 12 
Nemanema 13 
Paradesmodora 9 
Phanoderma 12 
Spilophorella 8 
Thoracostoma 13 
Microluimus 9 
Axonolaimus 1 1 
Desmodora 9 
Puracanthoncu.s 9 
Desmodora 9 
Rhynchonema 10 
Metachromudoru 9 
Anticoma 12 
Pontonema 14 
Quadricoma II 
Phanoderma 12 
tlemicriconemoides 14 



columba 
cumulus 
communis 
conieauduiu 

conisetosus 

cooleni 

coomansi 

coomansi 

coronutum 

crassicauda 

crassicaudus 

crassicomoides 

crypfocepha/um 

cy grits 

deconincki 

denticulata 

depress us 

dherdei 

dimorpha 

dimorphus 

diplops 

disasleri 

distechei 

dil/evseni 

dolichura 

donsi 

dubium 

dujardinii 

eileenae 

elegan.s 

elongatum 

eurytaima 

exilis 

exilis 

ex i /is 

Sulcatum 

fa I cat us 

Jallae 

fenestella 

filicauda 

filuaudata 

filiform is 

filipjevi 

J'isheri 

jletcheri 

freudenhammeri 

flevensis 

geophila 

georgei 

georgei 

geraerti 

gerlachi 

germanlca 

vibhnnensis 

glabra 

go I den i 

g rat it lima 

gracilis 

gracilisetosum 

granulatus 

hiickini'i 

harlnvi 



Anticoma 12 

Holulaimus 13 

Enoplus 12 
Pntchromudorrllu 8 

Leplosomatide*; 13 

pe&Tfl o /o re/; ce// to 1 1 ) 

Enchodelus 14 

Quadncomoides 1 1 

Thoracostoma 1 3 

Desmolenzenia 10 

Adonchotaimus 13 

Quadricoma 11 

Nolochaetosoma 9 

Praeacanthrmchus 9 

Desmoscolex 10 

Atrochromadora 8 

Prodorylaimus 14 

Prototricoma 1 1 

Tricoma II 

Desmoscolex 10 

ThalassiimvnhvMcro 10 

Enoptolaimus 12 

Acanthopharynx 9 

Prochromadorella 8 

Spitophera 8 

Pontonema 14 

Paracomesoma 1 2 

Oncholaimus 1 3 

Euchmmuduru 8 

Arueoluimus 12 

Leptosomatum 13 

Eurystomina 14 
Camacolaimus 10 
Paraeyatholuimus 9 
Terschetlingia 1 1 
Draconema 9 
Desmoscolex 10 
Ledovitia 14 
Eurystomina 14 
Sabatieria 12 
Eleutherolaimus 1 1 
Chromadorella 8 
Phanoderma 12 
Tricoma II 
Hulalaimus 13 
Quadricoma II 
Theristus 10 
Dichrornadora 8 
Epacanthion 12 
Graphonema 8 
Desmoscolex 10 
Desmoscolex 10 
Chromudurinu 8 
Plalvcomopsis 13 
Viscosia 14 
Tricoma 1 1 
Daplonema 10 
Monhyustrella 10 
Mesacanthion 12 
Desmoscolex 10 
Ponloncmu 14 
Paracanthnnchus 4 



18 



P. GRFFNSLADF 



has well i 


Draconema 9 


heardensis 


Enoplus 12 


heterura 


Sabatiena 12 


heterurus 


Longicyufholaimus 9 


hexabulba 


Polygastrophorura 1 4 


hirticollis 


Sphaerotaimus 10 


hoplostoma 


Tricoma 11 


inglisi 


Xyzzors 9 


inters! it ialis 


Theristus 10 


Jenseni 


Acan l homier olaimus 9 


Jensen i 


Pseudonchus 9 


Johnston i 


Symplocosiomella 1 4 


jubuta 


Sabatieria 12 


jungi 


Thalassironius 13 


kartanum 


Paracanthonchus 9 


kerguetense 


Mesacanihion 12 


laevioides 


Spirinia 9 


laevis 


Desmoscolex 10 


lata 


Anticoma 13 


lata 


Dap ion em a 10 


ltidyi 


Pontonema 14 


leptos 


Oncholaimus 13 


leptus 


Desmoscolex 11 


lizardiensis 


Ptycho/uimellus 8 


lizardiensis 


Quadricoma 11 


lizardiensis 


Tricoma 11 


longicaudu 


Araeoiaimus 12 


longicaudata 


Terschlingia 11 


longicaudatum 


Actinonema 8 


/ongicaudatus 


Plectus 10 


longisetosus 


Desmoscolex 11 


longispicula 


Tricoma 11 


longus 


Laxus 9 


loneuta 


Steineridora 8 


macquariensis 


Halalaimus 13 


macquariensis 


Paralinhomoeus 11 


macquariensis 


Theristus 10 


macramphida 


Viscosia 14 


macrolaima 


Chromadora 8 


macroluimoides 


Chromadora 8 


margaretae 


Paracanthonchus 9 


marina 


Monhysi re/la 10 


marina 


Rhabdifis 14 


mawsonae 


Prooncholaimus 14 


mawsoni 


Calyptronema 14 


Tnediterraneum 


Phanoderma 12 


mega/osoma 


Desmodora 9 


megastoma 


Prooncholaimus 14 


melotridus 


Neotonchus 9 


membranosus 


Desmoscolex U 


meridionalis 


Enoplus 12 


meta/levensis 


Theristus 10 


michaelseni 


Enoplus 12 


micoletzkyi 


Leptosomatum 13 


micrognathus 


Enoplus 12 


microlaima 


Atrochromadora 8 


minutisculae 


Eurystomina 14 


multipapillatus 


Ethmolaimus 8 


minor 


Chromaodina 8 


minor 


Chromadorita 8 


minor 


Longicyatholaimus 9 


minutus 


Desmoscolex 11 


mi rah His 


Desmotimmia 11 


nofjsingerae 


Quadricoma 11 



nudicaptata 

nudus 

nymphianus 

obtusicaudum 

oceanus 

ocellatum 

opislhonchus 

ornata 

ova/is 

pachycephala 

pacifica 

pacifica 

pacificus 

palustris 

panamaense 

papillata 

papillatus 

paradoxa 

paraharrogi 

paralangrunensis 

paraleptus 

paralittoralis 

paramacrodon 

paramucrodonta 

paredron 

parva 

peciinalum 

pedroensis 

pedunculata 

pellucida 

pellucida 

pellucidus 

per feet us 

phaustra 

platapophysa 

pristurus 

problematicus' 

proximus 

pulchra 

puneiatus 

purpureus 

quadripapillatus 

quattuordecimpa- 

pillatus 

riemanii 

robustus 

robynae 

rostralis 

rudolfi 

sabangense 

saccatus 

septuaginta 

serrotodematum 

serratum 

setosa 

setosissima 

setosus 

siciliana 

simile 

similis 

simitis 

simttfs 

slucksmithi 
spectabilis 



Chromadora 8 
Desmoscolex 11 
Desmoscolex 11 
Pelagonema 13 
Trissonchulus 13 
Phanoderma 12 
Oncholaimus 13 
Eurystomina 14 
Halichoanolaimus 9 
Tricoma 11 
Chromadorina 8 
Polygastrophora 14 
Theristus 10 
Euteratocephatus 10 
Pseudocella 13 
Quadricoma 11 
Sphaerolaimus 10 
Spilophorella 8 
Paracanthonchus 9 
Oncholaimus 13 
Desmoscolex 11 
Enoplus 12 
Paracanthonchus 9 
Prochmmadorelta 8 
Oncholaimus 13 
Airovhromadora 8 
Austranema 8 
Aeaninonchus 9 
Quadricomoides II 
Oxyslomina 13 
Viscosia 14 
Cryptolaimus 11 
O/j.v.v 9 

Leptosomella 13 
Tricoma 11 
Metoncholaimus 1 3 
Microlaimus 9 
Paracyatholaimus 9 
Steineria 10 
Nicascolaimus 12 
Siphono/aimus 1 1 
Theristus 10 

Halichoanolaimus 9 
Tricoma II 
Halichoanolaimus 9 
Puraphanoderma 12 
Tricoma 11 
Desmoscolex 1 1 
Leptosomatum 13 
Proleptonchus 14 
Tricoma II 
Pontonema 14 
Phanoderma 12 
Daptonema JO 
Steineria 10 
Metalinhomoeu.. | I 
Chromadora 8 
Comesoma 12 
Anticoma 12 
Spirinia 9 
Tricoma 11 
Ptycholalmelhis H 
Araeoiaimus 12 



MARINE NEMATODES 



19 



squalus 

striata 

subantarcticus 

subsimilis 

tasmaniensis 

tasmaniensis 

tasmaniensis 

tecta 

tenax 

tenue 

tenuicauda 

tenuicolle 

timmi 



Metoncholaimoides 13 
Euchromadora 8 
Oxyonchus 12 
Anticoma 13 
Mononcholaimus 13 
Spilophorella 8 
Thalassomonhystera 10 
Neochromadora 8 
Notochaetosoma 9 
Pelagonema 14 
Tripyla 14 
Symplocostoma 14 
Tricoma 11 



trichodes 

trichura 

trichurus 

uncinatus 

viridis 

viviparus 

vulgare 

wallini 

wieseri 

wieseri 

wieseri 

wilsoni 

youngei 



Pseudocella 13 
Anticoma 13 
Longicyatholaimus 9 
Megadesmolaimus 11 
Oncholaimus 13 
Acanthonchus 9 
Graphonema 8 
Neochromadora 8 
Phanoderma 12 
Sabatiera 12 
Viscosia 14 
Parapinnanema 8 
Desmoscolex 11 



A REVISION OF THE AUSTRALIAN GENUS DIEMENIA SPINOLA 
(HEMIPTERA : PENTATOMIDAE : PENTATOMINAE) 

byL Ahmad & S. Kamaluddin 



Summary 

Diemania immarginata (Dallas) and D. rubromarginata (Guerin-Meneville) are redescribed in 
addition to two new species grossi from Mt Buffalo and Mt Hotham, eastern Victoria and minuta 
from New England, Victoria, and from Green Hill Estate, South Australia, with special reference to 
their metathoracic scent auricles and male and female genitalia. D. rubromarginata rubromarginata 
sensu stricto and D. rubromarginata deyrollei Spinola, considered as two different subspecies of D. 
rubromarginata (Guerin-Meneville) by Gross (1976) are synonymised. A cladistic analysis of the 
taxa in the light of the above characters is also included. 



A REVISION OF THE AUSTRALIAN GENUS UIEMENIA SPINOLA (HEM1PTERA: 

PENTATOMIDAE: PENTATOMINAE) 



L AMHAD & % KAMALUDDIN 



AHMAD, I & KAMALUDDJN, S. 1989. A revision of the Australian genus Diemenia Spinola 
(Herniptera: Pentatomidac: Pentatominae) Rec. S. Aust Mas, 2J (I): 21-31 

Diemenia intmar^iniifu (Dallas) and O rnhr<jmur$inata (Guenn-Meneville) are redescribed 
in addition to two new .species gmssi from Ml Buffalo and Ml Hot ham, eastern Victoria and 
mimua from New England. Victoria, and from Green Hill Estate, South Australia, with special 
reference to their metathoracic scenl auricles and male and female genitalia. D, rubromunzinuiu 
ruhmmarxinutu sensu stneto and D. rubmmarginata deyrollei Spinola, considered as two different 
subspeices of D. rubromarginoiu (Guerin-Meiievtlle) by Gross (1976) arc synonymised. A cladistic 
analysis of the taxa in (he light of the above characters is also included. 

1. Ahmad, Department «>l Zoology Lmomology University of Karachi, Karachi-32, Pakistan 
■ltd S. kamaluddin, Deparrmciit pf Zoology, Federal Government Urdu Science ( "nlk^e. Karachi, 
P&fcfetaih Manuscript received 22 January 1988. 



Species of Diemenia Spinola are Australian in 
distribution. Gross (1976) speculated Lhat D. 
immarginata (Dallas) might reach New Zealand but 
wc did not find any material from there. Another 
species, £>. rubromorginata (Guerin-Meneville), is 
frequently found as adults and nymphs under 
eucalyptus bark in the wettest part of South 
Australia (Gross 1976). 

Kjrkaldy (1909) catalogued five species, viz. 
a/finis ( Dallas) , deyrollei Spinola, distinct us 
(Montandon), immargtnatus and rubromarginatus. 
Gross (op. cit.) examined the type material of the 
first tour and a series of specimens of the fifth, and 
on this basis considered affinis, deyrollei and 
distinctus to be junior synonyms of 
rubmmarginata. Gross (op. cit.) also described and 
illustrated the male genitalia (pygophore, paramerc 
and partly inflated aedeagus) of rubmmarginata, 
compared il with D, deyrollei, found no difference 
and theiefore suggested that both represented the 
subspecies of D. rubrornarginatus. The former {Lk 
rubmmarginata rubmmarginata sensu strkto was 
considered to be the low altitude eastern and 
southern Australian subspecies). 

In this paper D, rubmmarginata deyrollei is 
considered to be a junior synonym of £X 
rubmmarginata rubmmarginata. In addition to D. 
rubmmarginata and D. immarginata, two new 
species Q grossi and D minuta are described with 
reference to metathoracic scent complex and male 
and female genitalia. A key to the foin species is 
given and a cladistic analysis is presented. 
Dissection and inflation of the male genitalia 
utilised the technique of Ahmad (19K6). For the 
dissection of the fema'e genitalia, illustrations, and 
measurements, conventional procedures, especially 
those used by the present author* (VM), were 
generally followed. All the measurements arc in 
millimetres. 



Genus Diemenia Spinola 

Diemenia $>p'\no\;\, 1850, p. 35; Gross, 1976, p. 
356. 

Type-species: D. rubromorginata (Gue'rin 
Meneville) (by monotypy) 

Description 

Coloration: Generally body dark brown or black 
with ochraceous patches, 

Head: Distinctly broader than long; paraclypei 
much longer than clypeus but never enclosing the 
latter, produced into lobe-like structure just above 
the eyes; ar.teocular distance distinctly longer than 
remainder of head; antenniferous tubercles 
produced anteriad into spine-like process; antennae 
with basal segment longer than head apex, 2nd 
segment much longer than 3rd; labium reaching to 
hind coxae. 

Thorax: Pronotum distinctly more than 2x 
broader than long, humeral angles prominent, 
lateral margins serrate; mesosternum sulcate; 
metathoracic scent gland ostiolar peritreme lobe- 
like, evaporating area rugulose; scutellum longer 
than broad, triangular; hcmclytra with lateral 
margins sinuate, 

Abdomen- Connexwa completely exposed at 
repose, sometimes tergal sclerites also exposed V.J 
and 4th abdominal venter with Tugose vittae. 

Male gen 'folia: Pygophore quadrangular, lateral 
fobes remarkably lone; paramerc Y-shaped; 
aedeagus with pair of many lobed dorsal 
membranous conjunctival appendage penial lobe* 
short » about equal to length of vesica, 

Female genitalia, first gonoeoxae triangular; 9th 
puratergites lobe-like and shorter than I used eighth 
paratcrgites; proctiger with posterior margin 
concave; spermathecal bulb with finger-like 



22 



I- AHMAD & S. KAMAJ-UDDIN 



proccssess, flanges distinct, pump region longer longer than basal and slightly shorter than 3td, 

than bulb, proximal spermathecal duct muc*i longer length of segments, I 0.7 (0.7-0.8) II 1.1 (I 1-1. is/ 

than distal spermathecal duct. Ul 1.0 (1 0-1 L), IV 0.9; bead width 2.65 (2.6-2.6^/ 

interoeular distance 1.6; interocellar distance 0.6 

(0.6-0,7). 

Key to the: Sntcits or THE Gknus Diemhia, Thorax: Pronotal width 5.0 (4.9-5.0) distinctly 

more than VAx its length IS (1.7-1.9), entire 

1 — ParacJypeal lobe in from of the eyes small; lateral margins distinctly Serrate, anterior angJe 

pygophore with bifurcated dorsolateral spinoseand not reaching '/? length of eyes, humeral 

lobes; inner lobe of blade ol paramere with ***& acut ^ (4.9-5 0); sew ell um (length 3.5 S 3-3-4.5; 

a single seta rubrvrnarginaia "width 2.9, 2.9-3.0) with distinct apical lotv. 

(Guerin-Me'neville) meiarhoracic scent gland ostiolar pentreme (Fig. 

- Paraclypeal lobe in front of the eves more 2 SftP^ *?S acUyninate * "'ffSl^-S? - ^ 
prominent, pygophore with unilobed dorso- £•* baSe sc ^''^^pex clavus 2.7 (2.6-17); apex 

lateral lobes; inner lobe of blade of paramere SKR TT' *t?"*. 4, RS f 1 !} 1 " 1 '^ 

without seta 2 abdomen including membrane 1.5 (1.5-2.0); apex 

_ _ scutellum-apex abdomen including: membrane 3 

2 — Entire lateral margins of pronotum distinctly (3.0-3.5). 

serrate; tergites not exposed at repose; dorso- Abdomen; Posterolateral margin of 7th 

lateral lobes of pygophore laterally noi abdominal sternum sinuate; entire COMMft* 

produced; spermathecal bulb wiih two- exposed at repose, 

finger-like processes gross! sp. nov. M a f e genitalia: Pygophore (Fig. 9) as long as 

- Only anterolateral margins of pronotum broad, lateral lobe narrowed, elongate, inwardly 
serrate; tergnes exposed at repose, dorso- directed, postero-dorsal margin medially convex; 
lateral lobes of pygopnorc laterally produced; posteroventral margin medially shaliowiy concave; 
spermathecal bulb with three finger I i kt. paramere (Fig. 13) with inner margin of inner lobe 
processes J of blade convex, apex narrowed, aedeagus (Fig. 17) 

3 - Anteocular distance slightly longer than whh dorsal membranous conjunctival appendage 

remainder cf head, 2nd labial segment bllobcd at base ' each lobe tornied bv tour-lobed 

shorter than. 3rd; dorso-lateral lobes of ««*** with pair pi ventrolateral thecal 

pygophore beak-like appendages, vesica short, slightly shorter than 

..T.V immarginata iDM^) P*nial plates. 

A ... | ,. ,. Female genitalia (Fig. 2J); First gonoco.xae lar^ 

- Anteocular distance about VAx length of p i aTe -hke. somewhat triangular, medially close to 
remainder oi head; 2nd labial segment longer each olhcr . 2nd gonocoxac ' convcX- 9lh p aral e rg j lC s 
than 3rd; dorso-lateral lobes ol pygophore nano , vr(j , lobe-like; posterior margins of fused 
,obe " ,lkc mmuta sp. nov, paratergiies medially inpushed; spermatheca (Fig. 

25) with margins of pump region distinctly sinuate, 

Ihcmcfuj grossi sp.nov spermathecal bulb with two finger-like processes. 

(Fig*. 1. 5, 9. 13, J7 3 21, 25) 



Description 

Coloration: Body black, except lobe just above 
the eyes brown, thickly punctate; proximal [ A of 3rd 
and 4th antennal segments and anterolateral half 
of pronotum pale; a little anterobasal portion of 
corium, and each median connexival portion 
ochraceous; ocelli tinged reddish; eyes brownish 
black; membrane of hemelytra tight brown. Total 
length of male = 10.2; female = 10.3. 

Heatt Anteocular distance (1.1) slightly more 
than U& x remainder of head (0.7); paraclypeal 
lobe just above the eyes more prominent with 
rounded tips; antenniferous tubercles large with 
sharply pointed tips; antennae with 2nd segment 
distinctly more than 3x length of basal segment, 
length ol segments I 0.8 |0 8-0.85), II 2.7 (2.7-2.93). 
IM 1.6. IV 1.7 (1.5-1.7) labium with 4th segment 



Material examined 

Holotype male. New England National Park via 
Ebor, N.S.YV, 22,23-1-1966. B Cantrell, n. 
Queensland Museum, Brisbane (Reg. No. T. It, 
107). Paratype: 1 female. Green Hili Estate, Foot 
tut Is. savannah form Ra. S.A. 24-8-1958. Under 
hark Mt Lofty, T.F. Woodward, in Department ol 
Entomology, University of Queensland, Brisbane. 

Comparative note 

Diemenia grossi sp. nov i- moM closely related 
to immarginata (Dallas) and minuta sp. nov. in 
having paraclypeal lobe just above the eyes 
prominent, and inner Lobe oi" blade of paramere 
without seta but it can easily be separated from both 
by having entire lateral margin of pronotum 
distinctly denticulate, spermatheca) bulb with two 
finger-like processes and by other characters a> 
noted in the key and description. 



REVISION OP AUSTRAI IAN DBNUS iJlEMF.MA 



23 




riGURL- I Diewenfa grossi. m3lc, clors;il *ieto 



D if meruit immarninata (Call | 
(Figs 2. 6, 10, 14, 18, 22. 26) 



Platycohs mwiurginatus Dallas, 1 85 J, p. I 
Diemenia immarginutu Gross, 1976. p. M>3, 



Description 

i >i/oratnw and measurements: Body blackish 
brown iM<:klv punctate except narrow lateral 
margin of paradypei, antennae with little basal 
portion of basal and 3rd segment, anterolateral 
margin of pronotum, scutcllum with basal spot at 



u 



I. *HMAD*S KAMALUDDIN 




1.0 mm 



rfCiURE 2. Dientenia immargmata, mak 



each angle and apical little mar^n, al 
portion of each tibiae and median IUlf( portion of 
each conricxival joints light brown ,« i-ilj .'jtuwn; 
eyes brownish black; membrane ot tiemdvua 
brown. Total length of male = 9.0; female = 10.1. 

Head: Ar.teocular distance 0.9 (O.R-0 9) 
more than remainder of head 0.8 (0 
paraclypeal fobe just above the eyes prominent wiili 



'•red ups; anrennilcrous tubercles large with 
sharply pointed tips: antennae with 2nd segment 
about jx length of basal segment, length of 

fragments, l 0A (0.7-08). 11 2.3 (2.1-2.3), in 1.3 

1 3). IV mutilated, labium with 4th segment 

iiL'hily longer than basal and distinctly shorter than 

3rd, leflgth Clf segments, I 0.7 (0.6-0.7), I J 0.9, III 

I.J (1.0-1.1), IV 0.8 (0.7-0.3); head width 1,95 



rSlOM 01 -V.'Sl RM IAN l I MJS Of£MI 



25 




1,0mm 



FIGURE 3. Diemema mltMMt Mail dooal mow 



(J.95-2.15); internal Laiwe 1.6 11.4 

interned Lir distance 65-. 

Thorax: Pronoial width 4.6 (4.4-4.6 1 *J isti - 
more than 2Vix its length 2.7 (2.65-2.7). ail 
lateral margin ol pmnomrn dentaie. -lntcr^r ar^Je 
produced and passing more th.m n h ol es«< 

humeral angles acute:, soitellum < Icn^ti 3 2. 
2.85-32; width 2.7 2.65-2 7) with lev dklifrCI 
apical lobe; meiathoraeic seem gjand •> . I 



, 'i B) [ob€-li](e apex round and antero- 

laterals directed; length base sCtttetluftV-ape* elavus 

2,4 (l,:-2.*), 4pi>. ulciv us apex corinm 2.1 (1.8-2.1); 
apex conuni apex abdomen including membrane 1.1 
'8); apes scutelhim-apex abdomen including 
btaae 2 L8). 

lateral margin of 7th 
pi sinuate, entire connexiva and 
ias>. three tefjal seamen -, evposed ai repose. 



th 



• " S !>. KAMALUDDIN 




FIGURE 4. Oir'.tw.nu) ruhromarctnata, male, dorsal vie« 



Male genitalia: Pygophorc if 12. 10) sh- 
broader than long, lateral lobe narmsvt 
shaped, outsvardly directed, postero -dorsal margin 
sinuate; paramerc (Fi*;. 14) with inner margin Of die 
inner lobe of blade convex. a,v> n.r rowedj 
aedeagus (Fig. IB) witn dot5&l membra 
conjunctival appendage bdobed at base, each lobv 
formed by four-lobed .structure, with pair of ventro- 



)e t al nppendages, vesica short, slightly 
shorter than penial platen 

Female genitalia (F|g. 22): First gonocoxae large, 
plate like, somewhat triangular* medially close to 
eaih ether; 2nd gonocoxae concave; 9th paratergites 
broad, lube-like; posterior margins of fused 8th 
paraccrgitc* medially slightly concave; spermatheca 
(Fig. 2b) with margins of pump region s]ig)itly 



REVISION OF AUSTRALIAN GENUS DIEMENIA 



r 




FIGURBS 5-12. Diemenia species: 5-8, mefathoracie 
scent gland ostiules, ventral view, 5, grossi, 6, 
immarginata, 7, minute, 8, ntbromurginuia; 9-12, 
pygophore, dorsal view, 9, grossi, LI), immarginuta, 
H^m'mutu, 12, rubromarguu.ua. I lth, abd seg, (Li'levemh 
abdominal socmen i); dU; itlovso- lateral lobe): dms (dorso- 
median surface); e. (evaporatoria); o. (ostiole); per. 
(peril fcrnc); pre. (prot;|i»et •). 

sinuate, speraiathecal bulb with three finger-like 
processes. 

Material examined 

I male, Burnie Tas. Lea. det GF Gross 1987, \ 
female, Mt Kosciusko. B. Ingleby. det. G.F. Gross 
1987, jn South Australian Museum, Adelaide. 

Comparative note 

Diamenia immarginata (Dallas) is most closely 
related to mitiuta sp. nov. in having only antero- 
lateral margins of pronotum denticulate, tergitcs 
exposed at repose and sperrnatheeal bulb with three 
finger-like processes but it can easily be separated 
from the same by having anteocujar distance only 
slightly longer than remainder of head and lateral 
lobes of pygophore pointed into a beak-hke 
structure and by other characters as noted in the 
key and description. 

Diemenia mintita sp. nov. 
(Figs. 3, 7. Hi 15, 19,23, 27) 

Description 

Coloration and measurements- Body ochraxeous 
black, thickly punctate; except narrow lateral 



margins of paraclypei, antennae with 1st and 2nd, 
of proximal Vi of 3rd and 4th segments, 
anterolateral margins of pronotum, a small spot at 
each basal angle and on apical lobe of scutellum, 
anterolateral patch on conum, proximal Vi of 
femur, more than proximal M of portion of each 
tibia, median little portion of each connexival suture 
ochraceous; ocelli tinged red; eyes dark; membrane 
of hemelytra brown. Total length male = 8.30; 
female = 9.70. 

Head: Anteocular distance 0.9 (0.9-0.95) about 
I'/ix length remainder of head 0.6 (0.6-0.65); 
paraclypeal lobe just above eyes prominently 
developed with rounded tips; antenniferous 
tubercles moderale with blunt tips; antennae with 
2nd segment equal or slightly longer than 3x length 
o\' 1st segment, length of segments 1 7. 11 2.3 
(2.1-2 .3), III 14 (1.2-1.4), IV 1.5; lab.um with 4ih 
segment equal to 1st and distinctly shorter than 3rd. 
length of segments. I 0.6 (0.6-0.75), I J 1.05 
(1.0-1.05), lit 1.(1, IV 0.6 (0.6-0.75); width head 2.2 
(2.2-2.3); interocular distant <J.4, 1.4-1 5); 
interocellar distance 0.6. 

Thorax. Width of pronotum 4.1 (4.1-4J5), about 
2!-2x its length 1.6(1.6-1 ,8); anterolateral margin 
serrate, anterior angle blunt and not reaching X A 
length of eyes, humeral angles acute; scutel- 
lum (length 2.8, 2.8-3 J; width 2.5, 2.5-2.9) with 
less distinct apical lobe; metaihoracic scene 
gland ostiolar peritreme (Fig. 7) lobe-like, apex 
narrowed, anterolateralJy directed; length base 
scutellum-apex elavus 2,2 (2.2-2.6); apex elavus- 
apex conum 1.9 (1.9-2.1), apex corium-apex 
abdomen including membrane 0.8 (O.S-1.6); apex 
scutellum-apex abdomen including membrane 2.4 
(2.4-3.0). 

Abdomen- Posterolateral margin or* 7ln 
abdominal sternum sinuate; entire oonnexiva and 
last three tergal segments exposed at repose. 

Male genitalia' Pygophore (Fig. It) as long as 
broad, lateral lobe narrowed, elongate, outwardly 
directed, postero-dorsal margin medially sinuate, 
postero-veniral margin medially shallowly concave; 
paramere (Fig. 15) with inner margin of inner lobe 
of blade convex, apex narrowed and acuminate; 
aedeagus (Fig. 19) with dorsal membranous 
conjunctival appendage bJlobed at base, each lobe 
formed by trilobed structure, with pair of 
ventrolateral thecal appendages, vesica short, 
slightly shorter than penial plates. 

Female genual la (Fig. 23): First gonocoxae large 
plate-like, somewhat triangular, medially close to 
each other; 2nd gonocoxae straight; 9th paratcrgites 
broad, lobe-like; posterior margins of fused 8th 
pararergites medially slightly concave; spermatheea 
(Fig. 27) with margins of pump region medially 
notched, spermathccal bulb with three ringer-like 
processes. 



28 



I AHMAD St S. KAMALUDDIN 



Muterial examined 

Holotype male, Mr Buffalo National Park, east 
Victoria, 17-1-1966, B. Cantrell, in Queensland 
Museum, Brisbane (Reg. No. T.1I, 106). Paraiype; 
I female. Ml Hot ham, east Victoria 16-1-1966, T. 
Weir, Department of Entomology, University of 
Queensland, Brisbane, 

Comparative note 

Diamenia minuta sp. nov. is most closely related 
to D. immarginata (Dallas) as noted under the 
comparative note of that species, but it can easily 
be separated from the same by having 2nd labial 
segment longer than 3rd as compared to 2nd labial 
segment shorter than 3rd in D immarginata and 
by other characters as noted in the key and 
description, 



Diamenia rubromarginata (Guerin-Meneville) 

(Figs. 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28) 

Platycoris rubromarginatus Guenn-Meneville, 1830, 
p. 169. 

Diemenia rubromarginata Gross, 1976, p. 366. 
Platycohs distinctus Montaudon, 1903, p. 286. 
Platycoris a/finis Dallas, 1851, p. 154. 
Diemenia deyroltei Spinola, 1850, p. 91. 
Diemenia rubromarginata deyrollei Spinola {sic 
Stgnoret) 1S50, Gross, 1976, p. 366. 



Description 

Coloration and measurements: Body dark brown, 
thickly punctate, except narrow lateral margin of 
paraclypei, antennae with small basal arch of 1st 
proximal [ A of 4th and 5th. entire lateral margins 
of pTonotum, one spot at each basal angle o! 
scutellum, proximal half of lateral margin of 
conum, tibia excluding small diutal part, lateral 
connexival sutures pale; little distal portion of tibia 
and all tarsi light brown; ocelli tinged reddish; eyes 
dark brown; membrane of hemelytra brown Total 
length male 9.9 (9.15-10.0); female 9.is (9.4-9.6). 

Head: Anteocular distance 0.9 (0,85-0,9) slightly 
longer than remainder of head 0.8 (0 7-0.8); 
paraclypeal lobe just above the eyes poorly 
developed with rounded tips; antenniferous 
tubercles large with sharply pointed tips; antennae 
with 2nd segment more than 3x length of basal 
segment; length of segments, I 0.9 r II 2.9 (2.9-3.0), 
III 1.4 (1.4-1.6), IV 1.5; labium with 4ih segment 
distinctly shorter than basal and slightly shorter 
than 3rd, length of segments, [ t.l, 11 1,2, 111 1.0, 
fV 0.9; head width 2,5 1 2.35-2, 5); interocular 
distance 1.5 (1. 35-1.55), interocellar distance 0.7 
(0.7-0.75). 



Thorax: Width of pronotum 4,6 (4.3-4.8) 
distinctly more tban 2f/:x its length 1.6 (1.5-2.9); 
anterolateral margin serrate, anterior angles acute 
and much shorter than Vi length of the eyes, 
humeral angles sub-rounded, scutelium (length 3.1, 
2.9-3.3; width 3.0, 2.7-3.0) with distinct apical lobe; 
metathoracic scent gland ostiolar peritrerne (Rg. 
8) elongate, spatulate, apex narrowed, anteriorly 
directed; length base scutelium -apex clavus 2.4 
(2.0-2.5); apex clavus-apex corium 2.5 (2,1-2.6); 
apex corium-apex abdomen including membrane 
1.6 (1.4-1.9): apex scutellum-apex abdomen 
including membrane 3.2 (3.0-3.2). 

Abdomen: Posterolateral margin of 7th 
abdominal sternum somewhat straight; entire 
connexjva and last three abdominal rerga exposed 
at repose, 

Male genitalia: Pygophore (Fig. 12) much 
broader than long, lateral lobes narrowed at apex 
and shorter, postero-dorsal margin medially slightly 
convex, posteroventral margin deeply concave; 
paramerc (Fig. 16) wiih inner margin of* inner lobe 
of blade sinuate, apex broad, outer lobe curved 




^_ dmc. app. 

... \ \ gg? 

vlthapp. 










'• \ -". 




• 









,0-65mm ( 7a 





FIGURES 13-20. Parameres, inner view, 13, grossi, 14, 
immarginata, 15, minuta, 16, rubromarginata; 17-20, 
aedeagus, dorsal view, 17. £/&$#, 18. tmmar^inaru. \% 
minuta, 20, tvbromargmata. bl. (blade); dine. app. (dorsal 
membranous conjunctival appendage); gp. (gonopore); pi. 
(penial lobe); ram (srem); ih. (rheta), ves. (vesica); vl lh 
app, (vemro-'iateral ihecal appendage). 



IN | I \ ■ ! \ \ •.-■■ \(4 



» 



inward, beak-like; aedeagus II ig. 20) with dorsa) 
membranous eonjun nival appendage btlobed ai 
b.,\e t each lobe formed by bdobed structure, wilh 
pair Of ventral thecal appendages, vesica short, 
about equal to length ol peuial plates. 

Female genitalia ( ig. 24)' First gonocoxae lan?e, 
plate-like, somewhat triangular, medially wide 
apart; 2nd gonocoxae concave; 9rh paratergites 
i mi rOwfl& lobc-hkc; posterior margins of fused 8th 
paratergites medially in pushed, spcrmaiheca (Fig 
28) wilh margins ol pump region slightly sm.Mie, 
.spermathecal bulb with three fmeer like processes 

Material examined 

1 male, I female South .Australia. Horsnells Gully, 
I Hermitage, I7.10.t89K 14-18-5-1966, !\V 
Mclloi, J. Henidge. dct. G.P. Gross 1987; I male. 
I female Hobarf, Tasmania — J.J. Walker 
collection, m British Museum (Natural History), 
London; 1 female, Jasmann loan No. ML 702/84, 
in Zoological Museum Helsinki, Finland. 

Comparative note 

Diememu uihromar^tnata (Guerin-Nle'neville) 
resembles most D, immorginalo (Dallas) in having 
antenniterous tubercules remarkably developed and 
spine-like and paradypei much longer than clvpeus, 
but it can easily be separated from all the Diemenia 
species by having paraclypeal lobe just above I he 
ryes lc\s pn-minenr and inner lobe of I he blade of 
paramere with a single seta, and by other characters 
as noted In the key and description 

ClADlST!' AnMYSISDF Hit: INCLUDED T.W A 

Ahmad & Kamaluddin (1989) have presented a 
cladogjam of some genera of the Diemenia group 
of Gross (1976) including Diemenia and Nian'u\. 
Here a eJadistk analysis of Diemenia species is uiven 
based upon 14 characters. Polarity was detem 
on the basis of out-group comparison with the 
members of the superfamily Pentatomotdea •".! 
Triehopbora No homoplasy had to be invoked. 

Character and Character States 

i. i «nuw patch above ocelli (a) Ahmad & 

Kamaluddin (1989) examined representatives of a 
number of genera of the Diemenia group u\ Gross 
(1976) and considered it apomorpruc. It is a unique 
condition in the enure Family Pentatomidac and 
is only found in Diemenia and fsfiarius species and 
ineicfore is considered here to be their 
synapofjiorphy. 

2. Lateral lobe> c/ furactypei just aoo^e the '". 
lb) Ahmad & Kamaluddin U9S9) round Hfts 
condition in those of several genera of the Diemenia 
gjtmp and have considered it apomorpruc. 



hollowing their reasoning in giuv>i> immarfimto 
and m inula the rondmun ol mo»c prominent I. 

•< i .idered here to be a further derived stare 

ib., 

iter tor lobes of pronotum produced and 

daei teJ uriti . | ; | is a rare condition and is 
noticed In Nome UHrbdifi6S ,•] Phyil. .•.-^ i dfttim I 
Ahmad A Kamaluddin (19SB&) tafte considered H 
to be apomorpruc. KOIowitig dien reasottiflg LhtS 
character state in unmarpjnaia and uunma als»> 
reflects their synaponiorphy. In . • the 

3pe\ ol anterior ioK appears rrarrawei «nd moa* 
prominent and probably > i a more da 
state \c ? :ii Tig 29)' 

.'(era! margins ofprvnotum c&ttukite id) In 

hahmc.s and some asopi gg a portion of the lateral 
margin of prtmotum is eienuiate I -e af 

ta Dnpcaiin^S Wh\dl\ mjic was considered to be 
apomorphic by ! , ; . o. 

Dft -men ta and \Wr. hit chanfrcle) 

state looks apomorphic Id). Or. ' i 1 hand the 

entire lateral margin snowing marker 
in yjcSM lc>oks 10 be B (131316 d t rived stare fdg in fie. 
29). 

5. Patch r.n ait \ob$ QfsCUtoHUrt* W !l 

several t- roups ol PeuutMimuue \i\'.\n0in% (hose of 
Diemenia species (here is usually a spot on each 
basal angle of the SCUI but the spot on dtt 

flpkal lobe Of l|v HIH lj very rare and •' is 

certainly apomorphic nl mmuta. 

S Tibiae nucuie ( f): Su lea led tibiae rue cncutlOti 

in Some groups Of Trichophm H I 

was considered derived by Ahmad 1 1 •''»}. The 

Sillcated tibiae in Diemenia species arc al.ii 

i .•n-.idered here to he their auiap'-niorphy 

7 Tibiae flattened (g): I hi', ( ' i - , 

lemarkably rare in [HdlppbOfa a« c in 

some coreine Trichophora and it also appears 

an autapomoiphy i cs. 

H. $i</e$ of abdomen most <lf ihe 

PentatOfflinae only a small portion oi 

exposed but in Difmeniu npc-.ils 1)01 ••r l h it-e ej \\ 

connexiva are exposed but che sides o( |he BlrdOITlEn 

are also in some cases exposed Thil iff cerUinly 

autapomorphy of the gr« 

9, Dorsolateral lafbes o.i pygophot* remarkahl, 
pnmnnem l>r this, appears a jare OtllTBdU I 
I'entatommat. Ahmad ^ Kamah'd.Jn ||969| ,-ilsc 
considered it apomorphic in certain go^-'d Of ' J * ,t * 
Diemenia group. Laterally duo. ted lips ol 
lobes appear more derived m nnmarpmola and 
mmuta i\'A. In minnta however the laterally dirt' ltd 
port tdtt is remaik.iblv piv-nnnent and this 
appears 10 be further derived (i 3 |H E 

10. Outer Margin of paramere with an an h shaped 
tooth-like structure (0 Thfo h a raw uandliioB ui 

Peni; ll .id & Kam^Udtiifl (19S9) 



10 



arc. 




' AHM\D* S. kAMALUDDIN 
l3t. gox. 



0.65 mm. 



FIGURES 21-24 Female terminalia, ventral view, 21, 
grossi, 22, immarginata, 23, minuta, 24, ruhromanjjmita. 
1st gox. (first gonocoxae); 2nd. gox. (second gonocoxae); 
8th. pt. (eighth paratergite); 9th. pt. (ninth paratcrgite); 
arc. (arcus); pre. (proctigcr), 

also considered it synapomorphy or some genera 
of the Dlemenia group. In immarginata this lobe 
appears slender, more elongate and acute at the apex 
and reflects a more derived state (J2 in Fig. 29). In 
rubromarginata however the apex of the outer lobe 
is recurved which looks to be a further derived 
condition (j 3 in Fig. 29), 

1 1 . Base of inner lobe of para mere with a bristle 
(k): This is an extremely rare condition in 
Pematominae and is only found in D, 
rubromarginata which is considered here to be its 
autapomorphy. 

J 2. Dorsal membranous conjunctival apenclage 
multilobed (1): In most of the Pematominae the 
dorsal membranous conjunctival appendage is 
bilobed (Ahmad 1979). In rubromarginata each lobe 
is divided into two lobules which is certainly a 
derived state in this species. In grossi, immarginata 
and minuta each lobe is divided into several lobules 
which appears to be a further derived condiiion (I? 
En Fig. 29). 

13. Ovipositor parity concealed by 1st gonocoxae 
(rn): In Pyrrhocoroidea, Ahmad Sc Schaefer (in 
manuscript) have considered partly concealed 
external genitalia to be an apomorphic state because 
it is very rare in Trichophora. Following their 



reasoning in Niarius species the ovipositor partly 
concealed by the first gonocoxae is considered here 
to be an autapomorphy of the group 
14. Spermathecul bulb with Jinger-like processes 
(n): In some groups of Pentatominae the 
spermathecal bulb possesses finger-like processes 
which were considered to be apomorphic by Ahmad 
& Kamaluddin (1989). Following their argument, 
possession of three processes in most of the 
Diemenia species (one or two processes in Niarius 
species) is considered here to be a more derived 
condition (ng in Fig. 29). 
dis spd P r * fi 




prx. spd 



FIGURES 25-28. Spcrraalhcca. 25, grossi, 26, 
immarginata, 27, minuta, 2,K, rubromarginata, dis. f. 
(distal flange), <1is. spd (distal spermathecal duct); tndl. 
(median dilation); pr. spb. (process of spermaihccal bulb); 
prx. f. (proximal flange); pre spd. (proximal spermathecal 
duet); scl. md. (sclcrotized median duct); spb. 
(spermathecal bulb); sp.p. (spermathecal pump). 



rni 



•l.'-l 



D i g r r, i n t g spp 
irwrnorqinqtg grot , 



rubrumorqinata 



Niurni!, 



&»2 



d,i< 



-", 



cil 



2 .. 2 



kj|3 



',h,l.n z 



q.iti 



■.,. |,- 



lie .1 JRF 29. Cladoeram of relationships between species 
of Diemenia. 



REVISION OF AUSTRALIAN GENUS D1EMENIA 



31 



Discussion of Cladogram 

Ahmad & Kamaluddin (1989) also considered 
Niarius and Diemenia species to be sister groups. 
D, rubromarginata appears isolated among the 
Diemenia species in having sister group relationship 
with grossi, immarginata and minuta. On the other 
hand minuta and marginata appear most closely 
related, and grossi to be their sister group. The 
anteriorly directed anterior lobes of the pronotum 
and laterally directed dorsolateral lobes of the 



pygophore suggest that the two species are most 
closely related, and the complex multilobed dorsal 
membranous conjunctival appendages and more 
prominent lateral lobes of the paraclypei above the 
eyes, confirm the sister group relationship of grossi 
with immarginata and minuta. 

Acknowledgment 

This project was financially supported by USDA/FARC 
Research Project No. FG-Pa-361(PK-SEA-155). 



References 



AHMAD, I. 1979. A revision of the superfamilies 
Coreoidea and Pentatomoidea (Heteroptera: 
Pentatomomorpha) from Pakistan, Azad Kashmir and 
Bangladesh. Ent. Soc. Kar. Suppi. 1 (4): 1—1 13. 

AHMAD. 1. 1986. A fool-proof technique for inflation 
of male genitalia in Hemiptera (Insecta) Pakistan. J. 
ent Sac. Kar. 1 (2): 111-112. 

AHMAD, I. & KAMALUDDIN, S. 1981. A new species 
of the genus Catacanthus Spinola (Heteroptera: 
Petatomidae: Pentatorninae) from the New Hebrides 
with morphological notes on two other Australasian 
species and their relationships. Rec. S. Aust, Mas, 18 
(11): 227-233. 

AHMAD, I. & KAMALUDDIN, S. in press. A new tribe 
for phyllocephaline genera Ge/lia Stal and Tetroda 
Amyot ei Servillc (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and their 
revision. Annot. zool. boi. Bratislava. 

AHMAD, 1. & KAMALUDDIN, S. 1989. A new genus 
and species of the Diemenia group (Hemiptera: 
Pentatomidae: Pentatorninae) from Australia with 
cladistic analysis of some related genera. Rec. S. Aust. 
Mus. 23 (1): 33-38. 



GROSS, G.F. 1976. Plant-feeding and other bugs 
(Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera. Parts 
I — It- Government Printer, Adelaide. 

GUERIN-M^NEVILLE, F.E, 1830. Crustacea, Arachnida 
and Insecta of the Voyage, See France (voyages and 
c.-Coquille) Voyage Autour du Monde . . . sur la 
Coquille, pendant, 1822-25, and c. Zaologie 2 (2): 
9-302. Paris. 

KIRKALDY, G.W. 1909. 'Catalogue of the Hemiptera 
(Heteroptera) with Biological and Anatomical 
References, lists of Foodplants and Parasites, etc Vol. 
I Cimicidae.' Felix Dames, Berlin. 

MONTANDON, A.L. 1903. Hemipteres aquatiques notes 
synonymiques et geographiques, descriptions d'especes 
nouvelles. Bull. Soc. Bucarest. 12 (1-2): 97-121. 

SCHAEFFER, C.W., and AHMAD, I. 1987. A cladistic 
analysis of the genera of the Lestonocorini (Hemiptera: 
Pentatomidae: Pentatorninae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. 
Wash. 89 (3): 444-447. 

SPINOLA, M. 1850. Tavola sinnoticadei generi spettami 
alia classe degli inseui arthrodignati Hemiptera Linn., 
Latr. Rhyngato Fabr., Rhynchota Burnt. Mem. Matem. 
Fis. Soc. Ital. MQdena 25: 64-100. 



A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF THE DIEMENIA GROUP (HEMIPTERA 

: PENTATOMIDAE : PENTATOMINAE) FOM AUSTRALIA, WITH 

CLADISTIC ANALYSIS OF SOME RELATED GENERA 

byL Ahmad & S. Kamaluddin 



Summary 

A new genus and species from 'St Emlyn', Australia, are described with special reference to their 
metathoracic scent auricles and male and female genitalia. The new taxa are compared with their 
closest allies of Diemenia Spinola, and Niarius Stal in the Diemenia group of Gross (1976) and a 
cladistic anlysis of the genera of the above group is presented. 



A \IW GENUS AM) SPECIES OF THE DIEMENIA GROUP (HEMIPl'KKA: PENTATOMIDAE: 
PENTAT0M1NAE) fKOM AUSTRALIA, WITH CLADISTIC ANALYSIS OF SOMF RELATED 

GENERA 

!. AHMAD & S. KAMALUDDIN 

AHMAD, (. & KAMALLiDGlN. S. 1989 A new gen.r. ;<nd species of the Diemenia group 
iHemiptera: Pentatonndac: Pcntatominaei from Australia with cladistic analysis of some related 
genera, Rec. S. Aust. Mus & (1): 33-38. 

A new genus and species from 'Mt JEmlyn', Ausnalia, iiie described wirh special reference to 
their metat horacic seem auricles and male and female genitalia. The new taxa are compared 
with their closest allies of Diemetiia Spinola, and Nicnu.', Stjl in the Diemenia group of Gioss 
1 1976) and j dadistic analysis oi the related genera ot (be .ibmr group is presented. 

I Ahmad, Department of Zoology Entomology University of Karachi, Karachi- 32, Pakistan 
& S Kamaludrttft, Department of Zoology, Federal Government Urdu Science College. Karachi, 
Pakistan MffltKCllpl receiw-ri g i;;iu;u V n>88 



Gross (1976) described liis Diemenia group with 
the characteristic feature of strigose vittae form- 
ing a curved line laterally on ihe abdomen on seg- 
ments lf< 111, and IV, or 11 and III, or Hi and IV 
to accommodate aberrant croups like his Boocoris, 
Alphenor Seal and Caridophihalmits Assman along 
wiin Diemenia Spmola, Niarius Stal and Aplero- 
tus Dallas and four others with rive segmented an- 
tennae. Ahmed ei at. (J 982) suspected that the stri- 
gose vittae which link the members of Diemeniini 
Kirkaldy or the Dtemenia group arc shared by the 
memhers oS remarkably (SvgFSfl groups. Earlier 
Bergroth (1905) also recognised two different pat- 
terns ol strigose vittae, viz arranged in a single 
straight row in the members oi Commius Sial and 
Oneocoris Mayr and in two or three irregular rows 
in Diemenia and Niarins. Gross (1976) also consi- 
dered strigose vittae of Caridophihatmus species 
very different from those of Boocons. 

During a revision of Niaruts and Diemenia 
(present authors m manuscript), we examined a 
male and a female specimen from Ml Emlyn', Aus- 
tralia by the courtesy of Dr A. Neboiss, Museum 
of Victoria. These looked intermediate between 
Diemenia and Niarius in the characters as noted 
under the following comparative note and dadis 
tic analysis The resemblance to the above two 
genera was so sti iking that the male was identified 
as Nianus or an allied new genus and the female 
as Diemenia (sp nov.) by Dr G.F. Gross of the 
South Australian Museum. Adelaide. These arc 
described oelow as Grossimenta with its type spe- 
cies tuberculota with special reference to the 
metat horacic scent auricles and male and female 
geniialia, h is compared with its closest allies 
Diemenia Niarius and Afd&otus, and in the light 
of these characters a el&dtsCk analysis of related 
genera of ihe Diemenia group is also presented 

For the examination Of rhe male genitalia and 
especially for the inflation of the aedeagus, the 
techniques of Ahmad (1986) were used. Lor the 



examination of the female genitalia and for 
descriptions, illustrations and for measurements the 
conventional procedures especially those used by 
Ahmad etttl (1982) were generally followed. All the 
measurements are in millimetres, 

Genus fJrossimenia gen. nov, 
Type -species: Grossimenia tuberculata sp. nov. 

Description 

Coloration and general shape*. Generally dark 
bfDWH with ochraccous patches; elongate, covered 
with tubercle-: 

Head'. Slightly longer than broad; eyes nonsiy 
late, paraclypei shorter than clypeus, forming a 
lobe in front uf the eves, anteocular distance mucfl 
longer than remainder of head; antenmferous 
tubercles visible from above, laicrally slighth 
projected and pointed but not spinously produced; 
antennae four-segmented, with 1st segment short- 
er than head, 2nd segment longest and much longer 
than 3rd; labium very long, reaching to 7th abdomi 
nal venter. 

Thorax: Pronoturn slightly more than 2 * broad - 
than long, humeral angles sub-rounded, lateral 
margins serrate; scutellum elongate, much longer 
lhan broad; anterolateral margins of cot turn 
crenulate> meso-sternum sulcate; rnetathoracic scent 
auricles spaiulate, evaporating area distinctly 
rugulose; hind femora armed with several spine' 

Abdomen: Con nexiva exposed at repose 1 . 3rd and 
4th abdominal venter with strigose vtirae. 

Male genitalia: Pygophore quadrangular, latera. 
lobes large and narrowed at apex; paramere 1 
shaped; aedeagus with bilobed doTsal membranous 
conjunctival appendage, vesica short. 

Female xcniialia: First gonoensae somewhat 
triangular; 9th paratergitcs triangular with apices 
narrowed, much shorter than fused posterior 
margin of 8th paratergitcs. 



14 



J. AHMAD & S. KAMAtUDDJN 



Etymology 

The new genus is named Grossimenia in honour 
of Dr O.F Gross, South Australian Museum, who 
originally recognised the taxon to be near Diemenia 
and Niariuz. 

Comparative note 

Grossimenia is closely allied 10 Niarius in hav- 
ing only the connexiva exposed at repose and the 
outer lobe of the paramere sro&U, and to Dieme- 
nia in having the lateral margins of the pronotum 
always serrate, l! can be separated from both in 
having the body elongate, paraclypei shorter than 
the elvpeus and labium very long, read.n i- to Tib 
abdominal venter. 




fkiUKE I, Grossimvnw tuberculata. 

Grossimeah tuherculata sp; n 
(Fig, 1-6) 

Description 

Coloration and measurements: Dark brown ex- 
cept narrow lateral margins of paraclypei and later- 
al margins of pTonutum; three basal spOLs on seutel- 
lum; apex of femora, basal portion of U'bi3e and 
tarsi, ochraceous; eyes blackish brown; ocelli 
brownish, rnemorant of hernelytra IL&ht brown. To- 
tal length male = 7.35; female =» 8,45. 

Head. PaTactype? v»uh apex acuminate, 



paraclypeal lobe just above the eyes prominent, 
lobe-like; anteocular distance 1.15 (1.15-1.25) about 
dff more than 2Vi x length of remainder of head 
0.4 (0.4-0.5); width of head 1.5 (1.5-1.76); inter- 
ocular distance t.O (1.0-1.05), interoceliar distance 
0,5 (0.5-0.55); antennae with basal segment much 
shorter than head length and l A of 2nd, length of 
segments 1 0,55 (0,55-0,6), 11 1,9 (1.8-1.9), III 1.1 
(1.05-1.1), IV mutilated; labium with 2nd segment 
longest, 4th shortest, length of segments; 1 14; 11 
1.6 (1.6-1.9), 111 1.5 (1.5-1.6), IV 1.1 (1.0-1.1). 

Thorax: Pronotum with anterior and humeral 
angles broad, length 1.5 (1.5-1.6); width 3 I 
(3.1-3.4); scutellum laterally distinctly bilobed, 
apex acuminate, length 3.1 (3.1-3.7); width 1.9 
(19-2 0); meUthorack- scent gland ostiolar peri- 
trerne (Fig. 2) lobe-like, anterior margin sinuate, 
apex narrowed, acuminate, directed laterad; with 
spines; membrane of hernelytra shorter than ab- 
domen, distance base seutellum-apex clavus 1,9 
(1,9-2.1); apex clavus-apex corium 1.3 (1. 3-1. 7); 
apex corium-apex abdomen including membrane 
0.9 (0.9-1. 1); apex scutellum apex-abdomen in- 
cluding membrane 12 (1.2-1.4). 

Abdomen: Connexiva slightly exposed at repose; 
anterolateral margin of 7th abdominal sternum 
sub-rounded. 

Male genitalia: Pygophore (Fig.l) broader than 
long, dorso-median surface medially slightly 
produced and straight, ventro-posterior margin 
medially deeply inpushed, lateral lobes elongate 
with ape.v narrowed, lateral margins sinuate; para- 
mere (Fig. 4) with inner arm broad, apex narrowed, 
outer arm curved, spine-like* outer margin sinu- 
ate; aedeagus (Fig. 5) with tips of bilobed dorsal 
membranous conjunctival appendage sclerotized, 
penial lobes large, plate-like, vesica not reaching 
fused margin o\ bilobed dorsal membranous con- 
junctival appendage. 

Female genitalia (Fig. 6): First gonocoxae large, 
plate-like, posterior margin distinctly sinuate; 9th 
paratergires elongate; posterior margin of fused ar- 
cus and triangulin convex; 2nd gonocoxae posteri- 
orly concave, posterior margin of proctiger. 
straight, fused posterior margin of 8lh paratergites 
medially inpushed. 



Material examined: 

llolotype male. Australia l Mt Emlyn* — Q, 12.5. 
1937 in National Museum of Victoria. Paratype fe- 
male, same data, in National Museum of Victoria, 

Comparative note and etymology: 

At present it is the only known species of Gros- 
simenia gen nov. but its tubcrculatc body, from 
wiich its name is derived, should isolate it in its. 
genus. 



DtEMENIA ( PE NTATOM 1 DAK) 



elms. 




proc 
FIGURES 2-6. Grossimeniu iuherculaw: 2, melathorac- 
ic seem gland ostioles, ventral view; J, BSfgQpJjOSSi dorsal 
view; 4, paramere inner view; 5 r aedcagus, dorsal view; 
6, female genitalia, ventral view 1st gox. iMrsi gpTiOCCKr 
ae); 2nd gox (so umj ^..moc-oxae); 8th pt. (eighth naraier- 
gite); 8th Bpr, (eighth spiracle); 9th. pt (nifUll parater 
gile); arc. (arcus), bl I blade), dl. I (dorsal- lateral lobe), 
drnc app. (dorsal membranous conjunct jval appendage) 
dms. (dor.Sit-median surface), eyfl (evaporaiona). gp 
(gonopore); o (osiile); per. (prciireme); pi. (penial lobe); 
proc. (procti^er); stm. (stem); th (theci); vc-v (vesica). 



Clawstic Analysis of the T*xa Included 

The present authors have recently completed (in 
manuscript) a revision oi Diementu and Niarius. 
Earlier (3982) they have also revised Aplerotus of 
this group. Gross (1976) has described with beau- 
tiful illustrations the genera of Iris Diemenia group. 
In this light a cladistic analysis of those genera of 
the Diemenia group which have four-segmented an- 
tennae is presented. In all, 27 characters. The polar- 
ities of which could not unreasonably be deduced, 
arc analysed No homoplasy had Co be invoked. 

Characters and Character Stales 

1. Body patterned (a): Remarkably patterned body 
with a prominent tranivcise lutcous stripe at about 
the level of the apex of scutellum in the members 
ct Apletvtus is unique and it is certainly apomorptv 
ic, similar to the colour patterns encoun- 
tered in strachiine Pematominae which is also an 
apomorphic condition. 

2, Body obtongaie {b): Penraromidae are usually 
oval but elongate (e.g. Mecideo Stal) or oblongate 
(some halyine) - bodied species ate '-cry varc and 



we consider this character of Grossimenia 
apomorphic. 

3. Lateral margins of head produced in front of eyes 
(ck This appears to be a unique condition in the 
entire Penlatominae and is therefore certainly an 
apornorphy. In Diemenia,. Grossimenia, Niarius and 
Gilippus species it is very small and lies just in trout 
of the eye, but in Alphenor species it extends into 
an upwardly directed acute lobe lying from just In 
front of the eyes and thrown up into an erect trian- 
gular tooth-like process over the antennifers. The 
latter condition appears therefore to be a more der 
ived state (c? in Fig. 7). In Boocoris and Aplerotus 
species this process appears to have been secondarily 
lost (c.3 in Fig. 7). 

4. Eyes stylate (d) Throughout Heteroptera the 
eyes are usually nonstyhue, but pedunculate eyes do 
occur independently in some groups of Tnchophnni 
such as in geocorine Lygaeidae, in some largiim: 
Largidae and strachiine Pentatomidae This condi- 
tion is certainly apomorphic Boocoris and Apiero- 
tus species have slightly or distinctly stylate eyes and 
appear related, but remarkably pedunculate small 
cye i . also occur in Gilippus sp, which appear to be 
its autapomorph>\ hut it must have been developed 
independently. 

5 Antennifers prominent (e): In Pen ta to moidea the 
antennifers are usually unspinose but jn sonic 
groups of Podopini such as in Stonhecoris species, 
the antennifers arc spmose and prominent which 
is their apornorphy. Similarly all the genera treat- 
ed in the Deimenia group by Gross (1976) have 
prominent antennifers, mostly spino.se, which 
reflects their synapomorphy but in Alphenor spe- 
cies each antennifer is produced into a cordate flat 
process which appears to be a further derived con- 
dition (e? in Fig. 7). 

6. Lunate patch in frvni of ocelli ( f): Umcolourou* 
body is plesiomorpbic and rfl this light the marked 
dark lunate patch in front of ocelli in Diemenia and 
Niarius species is apomorphic 

7. Broad and medially notched apical margins of 
paraclypei <g|: Ln Pentatomidae the paraclypci arc 
round or acute, but broad, truncate or medially 
notched paraclypei are extremely rare and therefore 
wc consider it autapomorphy of Gilippus species 

8. Antennae four-segmented (by. (n Pentatomoidea 
the occurrence of five-segmented antennae is veiv 
common and must be regarded as plesiomorphic 
The occasional four-segmented antennae which oc 
cur in some halyines are considered neotenk and 
therefore apomorphic (Slater pers, comm ) 

9. Second antennnl segment remarkably longer 
than each of the other antennal segments (i): This 
\£ .ilso an extremely rare condition in Pematomi- 
nae and probably represents synapomorphies of the 
presently treated genera <Fig. 7) following Ahmad 
& Afzat (1988). 



\., 



I AHMAD XS KAMALUDDIN 









• 



'» i».--irUM " I. i 












l,,l 



• 



I l< .1 1KB 7. CladOgrarU o\ ihe genera included. 



LA. (Sasal unicnttuls cluvuie (|): In Trlehopho. 

Finals are usually t.ylmdrical but in some groups 
\futusca Stal of the Leptocorisinae and Aees- 
I alias of the Micrefylnnae af the Alydidae the 
re DQiiarkabl cap 

egmraiL in most of rhc Coreidae This unusual 
condition re Heels their apomorphy and ' 
m l<> ■ 

Hlt.il | M', 

11. /.<//.•/, - ■ .xih j/.ulontmal venter (k). 
In Pent a' I IbS labium usually reaches 10 the 
hind markably long labium reach- 

i he 7lh abdominal vc mci is eeitainly an apo 
morphi.. '-uictn GftoesimvniA 

12. Luierul . ■',/ pronoium crenulutc (I): 
Smooth lateral margins occur in ihe majority of 

PematafiiMae bugs and v^cace sercattocis are fo 

as in most asopme and Imlvine Pentatotmdac these 
reflcu tln-ir apomorphies following this iirytirnerit 
thi rresence of cremiUriou:, in /Viar/us frwmetitQ) 

tmcttiu and Alphenot speetes reflects their 
'.ynapomoiphiL^ but in Apferotus and Boocnns spc- 
i ics ft lotf ' lUtiofffl ' •T i r>.i'ontly a revcr- 

sa) oj tci and therefore b considered tow 

a further derived trail (I, in Rgi 7). 

13. Humeri angle* prooucett (m)« In Pentatdmv- 

due hu metals ;«te usually rounded but in sonic 
groups SUL'h a* ibe Asopiui and the Hulylin, the liu 
mcrak runy be spine-like re fleeing their apomor 
phy \hmed (1987), In 

8(M h ».•//•, ,|- | ; I ot the antcrolateial mar- 

gins Of the p» OchlCCd into a promi- 

nent, apicdlv bifid, flattened process, arising from 
i-i irid di rev-ied nul wards at abaill 45°. The 

posie- i ,'iu cc ■■■- bonleiing the bifiire&riao is the 

shorhri and eon leal pan. Tins condiik-f. CttlBJ I 
represents the autapomorphy ot the tBXOji 



1 4. Presence of transverse spines on lateral margins 
ofprnnotum (n): In the Pentatomidae the anterioi 
angle of the pronotum is usually rounded but in 
most groups of the Phylloeepliahnae ll is pointed, 
whuh appears derived. In Gilippus sp, the anterior 
angles are produced laterally into pronounced 
transverse spines. Similarly, slightly above anterior 
io humeral angles on either side of marked aeuic 
projections m Gilippus sp. reflect autapomorphy. 

15. Scutellum markedly acuminate- wiih posterior 
lobe remarkably narrow and e tony ate (o): In the 
f "in alomidae the apical lobe ol ihe scutel 
lum is usually h<ui and broad and this 
Condition b plesiomorphic. In Grossimcnia sp,. 
however, the apical lobe of the scutcllum is not only 
remarkably elongate but markedly nat row with apex 
aeuic. This condition is very rare and apomorphie. 

16. Pore-jemoro armed (p): In many groups of 
Pentatomidae such as in most Asopim usually the 
fore-lemora are spinose and this condil ion has also 
developed in some lygaeoid, pyrrhocoroid and 
eureoid -,pecies. It certainly reflects the 
.iijtjpornorphy of Alphenor species. 

J 7. Hind-femora surpassing np of abdomen (q): 
In Heteropiera the legs are usually normal in si/e 
in proportion to the si/e of the bod v. but in eertain 
groups such as in Gerndae and in some Alydidae, 
the hind legs are much longer than the abdomen 
v-hIi lemur sutpassiug the lip of Ihe abdomen. This 
is certainly theit apornurpfiy following this 
argument this state in Hoocotis sp. represents 
autapomorphy. 

IS. Each connexivum bearing spine (r): In Pen- 
tatomidae ihe eonnexiva are usually unspinose but 
m some pcntalomids spinose eonnexiva ate reasona- 
bly common (e.g. Alcaeus Dallas, Diaphyta Ber- 
groih, Morna Stal, Pefalaspis Uergroih and Poeci/o- 
metis Dallas). In all these taxa tins characicr (which 
could be of the same or different origin) appears 
to be apomorplue. In Boocons sp each lateroter- 
gile bears a strong, backwardly-directcd or reflexed 
spun: which is unique in the entire gruup and is cer- 
tainly apomorphie. 

t9< Sides of leruites exposed (sj: In the 
Pcnfatomidac the connoava .ire usually exposed at 
repose which is a pk-siomorphic naii v but in 
Diemenia species ma v»alv the orme\iva but the 
'dr- of tergites are also exposed, which is certainly 
an a pom Orphic state. 

20. Presence of \/ryi«>,v w// t /e It): Presence of 
singosc vidae is an unusual feature in the 
iVuLatomidae. These are present in only a lew 
groups such as the Diemema group ci Gross and 
in Kmyhtiella Ahmad & Khan and Mecidea. fn 
these genera ihey appear io be of different types 
bul In every case they reflect an apomorphie 
condition. 



UlLMENlA (F'ENTATOMIDAO) 



1 



2 1 Median pro jo. tiun o/'Pygvphore (uf The dor- 
soposterior margin of the pypophore in the major ity 
Of the Pematomidae is smoothly concave. The 
prominent trilobcd median projection in Aplero- 
tus species certainly reflects the autapomorphy of 
the genus. 

22. Dorsolateral processes of pvgophore prominent 
(v)- These processes are usually rounded In the 
FVnlatumidar l;>ui m some advanced Pentatominae, 
as »n -.unic halyines, these are prominent. In Niarius 
and Grossimenia species (and also probably in 
Alphertor species whose male genitalia are 

unknown), these prdcesses are warkedtj procaines 

and elongate which condition represents their 
synapomorphy. in Diemenia species, howevej. these 
processes are remarkably elongate and apically 
curved. This feature represent:: a further derived 
state (v? in Fig_ 7) 

23 . Paramere with outer spin? of the blade promi- 
nent (w). in the species of three genera viz. Cros- 
,unenia. Niarius and Diemenia, there is a spine on 
the outer surface of the blad? which is very rare in 
the Pentarominae and represents synapomorphy of 
the group. In Grossimenia sp the spine is trans- 
versely directed ami is sli.tiliily below the level of the 
apex ot the short blade which gives a T-hkc appear- 
and to tlie paramere. In Niarius and Diemenia spe- 
cies the BfciftC is arch-like and is at the lcveJ of the 
apex Of the blade, which is a more derived charac- 
ter and gives il an I.- or y- shape (Wv in Fig. 7), Jn 
Diemenia spears the spine (S distinctly more 
pronounced and gives the paramere a y- shaped ap- 
pearance, which js considered here to be further der- 
ived (\v 3 in Fig. 7). 

24 £ ^oniplex donul membranous and other sctero- 
tised conjunctival appendages (\): The dorsal mem 
branous conjunctival appendages in the majority of 
the Pentaiomidae is simple, and bilobed as in 
NlartUS and in Grossimenia species. In Dunn rite 
species it is usually very complicated., many- 
branched and reflects autapomorphy. In Aplerotus 
species the presence oi many sclerotiscd COfljUliC 
hval appendages reflects a further derived cor.d.- 
tion {x 2 in rig. 7). 

25. first gonoeoxae contvalinu most of ihe 
remaining pans of ovipositor (y): in the 
Tnohophora the genitalia are usually exposed but 
in i he Pyrrhocoroidea these appear concealed, 
Which condition was convdered apomorphic by 
Ahmad & Schaeler(iu inarm sen pi), following that 
ncnt ttie concealment of most of the oviposilor 



by the first gonocoxae in Nianus species is certain I > 
an apomorphic state. 

26. Spermathecal bulb markedly elongate (z): In 
the Pematomidae the spermathecal bulb is usual! , 
oval or obiong, which condition reflects 
plesiomorphy, but in Niarius species the 
spermathecal bulb is usually elongate and slende- 
which is certainly a derived state. 

27. Processes on the spermathecal bulb (aa); In 
primitive Pentatomoidea (Ahmad 1 979) Uie 
spermathecal bulb is usually simple \viihoui finger- 
like processes bat in some groups of advanced 
Pematomidac such as in Carpocorini and Halylnl, 
finger-like processes are preseni on the spermathecal 
bulb, which represents the apomorphic srate similar 
ro that in Diemenia and Niarius species, When the 
spermathecae of Grossimenia and Alphenor species 
become available they may also be found to possess 
these processes. 

Discussion of Cladogram (Figure 7) 

Gilippus (with five-segmented antennae) exhibit* 
sister group relationships with the above genera or 
the Diemenia group (having four-segmented anten- 
nae) in possessing lateral lobes On the head in front 
of the eyes. The cladogram predicts that the sper- 
matheea of Grossimenia, and also probably of Al- 
phenor, will be found to possess finger-like process - 
es on the spermathecal bulb. 

The genera Aplerotus and Boocoris apparently 
form a group in exhibiting loss of the lateral process 
of the head lit front of the eyes, and in the crenula 
tion of the lateral margins of the prouotum. Simi- 
larly the eyes in both are on upwardly and slightly 
outwardly directed peduncles. In Gilippus species 
the eyes are also pedunculate, bui here the eyes an: 
small and the stalk appears more prolonged and 
must be considered of a ditlcrcnt type. 

The cladogram shows Niarius, Diemenia and 
Grossimenia closely related and Alphenor to exhibit 
a sistct group relationship whh these genera. The 
male genitalia of Alphenor are unhi h the 

d&dogniiri predicts thai when these become avail- 
able they will be found to possess lateral lobes of 
the pygophore. 



\C KNOWLEOGMENT 

This ftf0jeOl WW iiiutii'-ialty supported hv PARC, I | 

Research Prttfeci No. fC-Pa-361 »PK-SfcA-l55). 



Rr-HkLNL .E.S 



AHMAD, I. [979. A revision ot the supcrlanulie:. 
i 'urctiiJey j.nJ Pciua louioi Uia (Hi-teropiera: 
IViitatomomorpha) from Pakistan. A2ad Kashmir and 
tiatmladKh, J&rf, Sbc Kar. Suffpl 1 f4fc Nil 



AHMAD, I: 1986. A I'ool-prool technique lor inflation 
0| male genitalia in Hemipiera (tnsccla). Pakistan J. 
E*l Kur t C): j|l-t):. 



38 



I. AHMAD & S. KAMALUDDIN 



AHMAD, I. & AFZAL, M. 1988. A revision of 
Myrocheini Stal from Indo-Pakistan areas. Oriental 
Insects 23: 

AHMAD, I., KHAN, N.A. & KAMALUDDIN, S. 1982. 
A revision of the genus Aplerotus Dallas (Heteroptera: 
Pentatomidae: Pentatominae) with description of a 
new species from South Australia. Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 
18 (23): 513-518. 

BERGROTH, E. 1905. On stridulating Hemiptera of the 
Subfamily Halyinae, with descriptions of new genera 
and new species. Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 2: 146-154. 



GROSS, G.E 1976. Plant-feeding and other bugs 
(Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera. Part II. 
Government Printer, Adelaide. 

SCHAEFER, C.W. & AHMAD, I. 1987. A cladistic 
analysis of the genera of the Lestenocorini (Hemiptera: 
Pentatomidae: Pentatominae) Proc. Entomol. Soc. 
Wash. 89 (3): 444-447. 



A REASSESSMENT OF THE AUSTRALIAN SPECIES OF MENEPHILUS 

MULSANT (COLEOPTERA : TENEBRIONIDAE) WITH DESCRIPTIONS 

OF TWO NEW GENERA AND A LARVA AND PUPA 

byE. G. Matthews & 7. T. Doyen 



Summary 

Among the Australian species previously assembled under the generic name Menephilus Mulsant 
are three natural genera. One is Tetragonomenes Chevrolat (Coelometopinae) with five named 
Australian species not revised here. Two are new and described as Kaszaba gen. nov. 
(Coelometopinae) and Bassianus gen. nov. (Tenebrioninbae), each with four named species. New 
combinations are : Tetra gonomenes aeneus (Carter), T. azuripennis (Carter) and T. ruficrnis 
(Champion); Kaszaba coerulescens (Haag-Rutenberg), K. corvina (Erichson), K. laeta (Carter) and 
K. pulchra (Carter) ; Bassianus colydioides (Erichson), B. humilis (Erichson), B. rectibasis (Carter) 
and B. Sydney anus (Blackburn). B. armstrongi (Carter) is newly synonymised with colydioides 
(Erichson). The affinities of the new genera are discussed and their species keyed and briefly 
reviewed. The larva of Bassianus rectibasis and the pupa of B. sydneyanus are described and 
compared with larvae of related genera and the tribe Heleini. 



A RJlASSESSMENT OF THE AUSTRALIAN SPECIES OF MESEPHIWS MULSANT 
(COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE) WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW GENERA AND A 

LAKVA AND PUPA 

fc. G. MATTHEWS & J. T. DOYEN 

MATTHEWS, E.G. & DOYEN, J.T. 1989. A reassert! lent of ihe Australian specie* o\ Menephihis 
Mulsanl (Colcoptcra: Tenebi umidac) with descriptions of iwo new genera and a larva and pupa. 
Rec. S. Ausi, Mus. 23(1): 59-50. 

Among the Australian species previously assembled under the generic name Menephilus Mulsant 
arc three nanus! genera. One is Tetragonamenes Chevrolat (Coclometopinae) with five named 
Australian species not revisea here, Two are new and described as Kuszobo gen nov. 
(Coelometopirme) aild Bas.siunus gen. nov. (Tenebrioninae), each with f'oui named species. New 
combinations are: Tetragonomenes aeneus (Carter), 7' azuripennix (Carter) and T rujicorms 
(Champion); Kaszaba loerutescens (Hmg-Rulenbetu,), K rorvina (JErtchson), K. laefa (Carter) 
and A*, pulchra (Carter); Bassianus colydioides tErichson), B. humilis (Eric-hson), B. rectibasis 
(Carter) and B sydneyanus (Blackburn). B armsimngi (Carter) is newly synonymised iv.tr. 
colydioides lErichsott). the a Trinities of the new genera are discussed and iheir species keyed 
and bi »cn> reviewed The larva or Bassianus reclibasis and the pupa of a sydneyanus an described 
and compared wiin (flfcfW Of related genera and the tribe Heleini 

EjG. Matthews, South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Austr&lia, 5tXX) & 
JT Doyen, Division of Entomology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 
Manuscript received .11 March I98& 



Confusion has attended the use of the generic 
name Menephilus Mukaiii in Australia from its first 
application by Macleay (1872) to his new purvulus 
(■ colydioides Erichson) and to mgemmus 
Boisduval (a nomen dubium possibly in the genus 
Zophophiius Fairmaire). Altogether, species 
belonging to five different genera have at one time 
or another been described in, or assigned to, 
Menephuusm Australia. None ol these ate currently 
considered to be congeneric with the European type 
species M. cylindncus Herbst. However. 
Zophophiius (= Teremenes Carter), with tour 
Australian species, is very close to Menephilus 
(Doyen et al in press). 

Carter's (1926) checklist of the Australian 
Tenebrionidac still contained element:, of three 
different genera in 'Menephitus' and it is our 
purpose in the present paper to sort out the species 
included and assign them to their correct genus. Two 
of the latter are new and are dealt with below. The 
third is Tetragonomenes Chevrolat (1878), 
subsequently redescribed as Obriomaia Gebien 
(1927) [see Kaszab (1983) for synonymy!. 

It is not our intention to revise the species of 
Tetragonomenes here and we have not examined the 
relevant types. It is clear from descriptions and 
identified material, however, that the following 
Australian specific names belong in this genus: 
aeneus Carter (3905), comb, nov., azuripennis 
Carter (1914), comb, nov., intervoxulis Kulzer (1951), 
frCtt/bras Kulzer (1951 1, and ruficornis Champion 
(1894). combs nov. It is unlikely lhal all of these 
names are valid. 



Tetragonomenes is an Indo-Malayan genus of 
Coelometopinae and like all Australian members 
of this subfamily it represents the 'younger northern 
element' of the Australian fauna [sensu Mackerras 
(1970)). Even so, it has penetrated the continent 
along the east coast as far south as Tasmania and 
along the south coast to Western Australia. 

The other two elements in Menephilus' include 
one other coeioinetopine. here named Kaszaba gen. 
iu>v., which has likewise reached Tasmania but 
which is not known west of central Victoria. It 
DCCiirs fa northern Australia but as yet we have not 
seen any Papuan or Indo-Malayan species which 
can be assigned to it. The trurd dement tit unrelated 
to the previous two and belongs to the 
Ibnebrioninae, Tenebnouim. In Australia the native 
Tenebriomrii are a Bassian group concentrated b 
the south-east but extending, with diminishing 
representation, as far north as New Guinea. We have 
named the tenebrionine genus Bassianus gen. nov. 
to highlight it$ southern origins. 

That suet, disparate elements could hitherto have 
been confused under a single generic name reflects 
external morphological convergence, probably due 
to a similarity of hahiiat. From scant label data and 
our own observations, it appears that 
Tetragonomenes. Kaszaba* and Bassianus are all 
found under the bark of fallen trees and rotten logs 
in forests, In some cases members of different 
genera share exactly the same label data, indicating 
that they were found together. 

We studied the original type material of all the 
U specific names in Kaszaba and Bassianus and 



41) 



MATI HEWS £ J. T DOYEN 



material from most major Australian collections. 

The following acronyms are used to identify the 

collections consulted: 

AMSA Australian Museum, Sydney 

ANIC Australian National Insect Collection, 

Canberra 
BMNH British Museum (Natural History), 

London 
EMUC Essig Museum, University of 

California, Berkeley 
HCOE Hope Entomological Collecaons, 

University Museum, Oxford 
MNHR Museum fur Naiurkur.de der 

Humboldt-Umversitat, Berlin 
MVMA Museum of Victoria, Melbourne 
QMBA Queensland Museum, Brisbane 
SAMA South Australian Museum, Adelaide 
UQBA Department of Entomology, University 

of Queensland, Brisbane 
ZSSM Zoologische Staatssarnlnng, Munid.. 



Systumatics 



Kaszaha gen, uov. 



Type-species: Tenebrio corv'mus Erichson, (1842). 

Description of adult 

General appearance: Obloug. Piteous, usually 
with metallic reflections. Total length 7-13 mm. 

Head: Episroma with anterior edge straight or 
feebly concave, its suture complete, indistinct, not 
impressed, arcuate. Eyes small to moderate, globose, 
separated by a distance equal to 2.5-5 eye widths, 
Canthus feebly developed. Head surface finely, 
densely punctate, glabornus. Bridge Of tentorium 
arcuate. Labrum transverse. Mandibles bidentate 
apically. Lacinia with uncus, Maxillary paJpi with 
terminal segment subtriangular or truncate-oval 
Merit urn UapezoidaU with a very prominent, 
rounded median longitudinal ridge. Antennae short, 
not reaching base of prothorax, segments gradually 
enlarging apically, with scattered tenebrioid organs 
(complex sensoria) on apieaJ segments, 

Prothorax: Subquadrate in outline, lateral edges 
feebly sinuate* Anterior angles broadly rounded, not 
prominent. Posterior angles subquadrate. Base 
feebly produced medially. Pronotum margined 
except along middle of anterior edge; disc convex, 
more so anteriorly, finely punctate, glabrous. 
Presternum without median keel, process only 
feebly expanded and rounded apically, not 
prolonged. Coxal cavities closed both externally and 
internally, 

Pteroihotax. Humeri wider than base of 
prothorax. Elytra with nine deep striae and 
scutellary striole; strial punctures deep, crenulating 



edges of intervals., which are conve\, smooth, 
extremely finely punctate and glabrous. Epi pleura 
narrow, terminating opposite penuJtirnate sternite 
where they bear a deep groove to receive edges of 
latter Mcsosternum shallow!."/ excavated, finely and 
densely setose. Mescpunera reaching rnid-euxal 
Ldvii.trs. Wings without subcubitaJ fleck, with 
normal tenebrionid venaijon (see Matthews 1986). 

Legs: Front femora of average proportions* 
Tibiae gradually expanded apically, not dentate, 
apical spurs very short, Ikrsal segments, except 
apical short, penultimate cupuliform, with long 
dense setae beneath, including claw segment. Claws 
unmodified. 

Abdomen: Intercostal process of basal sternite 
triangular. Upper edge of apical sternite grooved 
to receive elytra. Defensive reservoirs very lar>-e and 
reinforced by hebcai thickenings. Female genital 
tract of advanced coelometopine type (Tschinkel & 
Doyen 1980), without bursa and with globose 
spermatheca at apex of long spermathecal tube (Ffe 
3). Ovipositor very long, of coelometopine type 
with transverse paraprocts (Fig. 3). Aedeagus with 
paramcres slender and tapering, largely fused, 
comprising 7r of total aedeagal length, enveloping 
median lobe, without setae. 

Sexual dimorphism. Evident only on front femur, 
which in the male bears a small. Linear lenticular 
tomentosc patch in the middle of inside face. 

Remarks 

Kaszaha clearly belongs to the Coelomeropinac, 
especially in the structure of the female genital m 
(1%. 3), which is of the typical advanced 
coelometopine type (TschinkcJ & Doyen 1980), in 
the enlarged, annulate defensive reservoirs, and the 
transverse paraprocts of the ovipositor. Exteinallv 
coelometopines are difficult to distinguish from 
certain Tenebrioninae, especially theTenebrionim. 
Abuur the only consistent character is the presence 
of complex antennal sensona in the former and not 
in the latter 

Withm the Coclometopinae, Kitszaba is recog- 
nised by a combination of the incomplete elytra] 
epipleura, the feeble pro-tnesosternal locking 
mechanism, rounded antenoT pronotal angles 
cupuliform penultimate tarsal segments, and fjllv 
developed hind wings with normal tcnebnon:;! 
venation (not the 'coelometopine venation', see 
Matthews 1986). It comes closest to tspiles Pasco* 
in diagnostic Ltmraeters but has an elongate, 
Tenebrlo-hkc form and uniform coloration. 
.Superficially Kawabu most closely resemble* 
Tetrugonomenes, but tbe Latter does nor have 
cupuliform tarsal segments, the lateral pronotal 
margin is irregularly dentate, the pronotal disc U 
more convex and coarsely punctate, the median keeJ 
of the mentum Is sharp (not rounded) and less 



MLNLPMLUS (TENEBRlCNIpAE) 



41 



prominent, and in the male there is no setal patch 
on the inner front femoral surface. 

The species of Kaszaba are closely related and 
can be separated with difficulty only on the basis 
of superficial features of colour, proportions and 
si2e. No genilal differences could be found, 

The genus is named in honour of the late 
Dr Zoltan Kaszab in recognition of his important 
contribution to knowledge ot Pacific Tenebrionidae. 

Key to the Species or Kaszaba 
i. — Without or with only the faintest trace 
of metallic reflections; pronotum 
subquadrate, little broader anteriorly; 
eyes small, separated by about four times 
their width when seen from above (Fig. 
28), total length 7-11 mm. Victoria to 

Queensland 

coerulescens (Haag-Rutenberg) 

— With distinct blue, green or purple 
reflections; other characters not present 
in same combination 2 

2(1) — Pronotum subquadrate, length to width 
ratio about I : 1.2, little broader anter- 
iorly; eyes small, separated by about 
five times their width (Fig. 29); total 
length 10-15 mm. Tasmania to southern 
Queensland corvina (Erichson) 

— Pronotum transverse, about 1.4 times as 
wide as long; eyes larger; total length not 
over 1 3 mm 3 

3(2) — Total length 10-13 mm; pronotum 
slightly narrowing anteriorly; eyes 
separated by about four times their width 
(Fig. 30). Cairns district, Queensland 
laetu (Carter) 

— Total length 8-10 mm; pronotum slightly 
widened anteriorly; eyes larger, separated 
by 2.5-3 times their width (Figs 31, 32). 
Northern Queensland and Northern 
Territory pukhra (Carter) 



hus/.itb'j coerulescens (Haag-Rutenberg) comb. nov. 
digs. I, 3, 5, 28) 

Menephilus coerulescens Haag-Rutenberg 1878: 
100; Haag-Rutenberg 1879: 122; Carter 1914: 52, 53; 
Carter 1926: 146. 

Types 

The provenance of the species is given by Haag- 
Rutenberg (1878) as Cape York and New South 
Wales. The type series in ZSSM consists of six 
specimens, all the same species. The specimen 
bearing Haag's identification label 'coerulescens 
m.\ a female, is designated lectotype. It also bears 
the labels: 'cotype Meneph. coerulescens H.R.'and 
*N. Holl. Dolle\ The other five specimens are 



designated paralcctotypes and are labelled a* 
follows: \\ustr. bor. Godefr.' (Icy); TM.S. Wales 
Baulng^ (ley cry, *N. Holl. Par?..' (19); 4 Cp. York 
Tel Ping* (19). 

Distribution 

Coastal Victoria from the Melbourne area 
eastward, New South Wales mostly east of the Great 




FIGURES I ft %. \ Kaszabo coerulescens. venter. 2. 
Bassianus colydioides, venlei. 



ex 



i 




pp 






I 



Od 




SAQ 



FIGURES 3 ft 4. Female genital apparatus 3. Kaszaba 
coerulescens. 4, Bassianus sydneyanus. C\ — baeulus 
of eoxile; FP — Bacillus ofpajaprOCtJ Od — oviduct; SAG 
— spermathecal accessory gland; Sp — spermatheca. 



42 



E G. MATTHEWS & J T DOYEN 





1 mm 




FIGURES 5-9. 5> aedeagus of Kaszaba coerulescens, 
ventral (left) and dorsal (right). Aedeagi of Bassianuv 6, 
A sydneyanus. 7, & colydioides. 8, fl humilis. 9. B. 
rectibusis, dorsal (left) and lateral view (right). 

Dividing Range, south-eastern Queensland, and 
possibly isolated populations known from central 
Queensland at Eungella, west of Mackay, and the 
Atherton Tableland. The single specimen tn the type 
series labelled Cape York is the only one known 
from that area. 

Remarks 

This is by far the most frequently collected species 
in the genus and has always gone correctly under 
the name coerulescens in collections despite that it 
is not bluish as Haag implied in the name and 
stressed in the description and remarks. Jt shows 
only a very faint trace of blue colour when wetted. 
In all other respects the type specimens agree with 
the original description. 

Material examined 

Two hundred and eighteen specimens. Victoria: 
Bacchus Marsh district; Beaconsfield; fwe miles N 



Cann R., swamp forest; Chiltern; Gippsland; 
Kealesville; Lakes Entrance; Melbourne; Mitchell 
Gorge; Narracan; Noble Park; Ringwood; 
Traralgon; TVers; Victorian Alps; Warburton. 
Australian Capital Tcmtorv: Brindabella Range, 
Old Mill Rd> 2 775'. New South Wales: Bathurst; 
Black Heath; Blue Mts; Brown Mt; Bundjalong 
N.P., Black Rocks; Deep Creek; Dorrigo; Duggan's 
Gully, Upper Chichester; Eccleston; Forest Reefs; 
Galston; Gibraltar Range N.P; Gosford; Hastings 
River; Jenolan S.F.; Lilyvale; McArthur's Clearing 
nr. Kernpsey; 4-8 km SW Lake Cathie; Lowden 
Forest Park; Mittagong; 1 5. km NW Moruya; Mt 
Kaputar N.P., Dawsons Spi., 3 500-4 500'; Moss 
VaJe; National Park; Penrose S.F.; Poverty Point 20 
km SE Tenterfield; Richmond River; Seven Mile 
Beach; Sydney; Tweed River; Ulong; East Dorrigo; 
Upper William River; Uralla, I mile W of nver 
crossing; Walcha; Wentworth Falls; Yetholm. 
Queensland: Acacia Ridge; Bald Mt area via Emu 
Vale, 3-4 000'; Btackall Range; Broken River, 
Eungella; Bunya Mts,; Cunningham's Gap N.P., 
4 miles W Cunningham's Gap; Dunwich. 
N. Stradbroke 1.; Eukey; Gat ton; Kroombit Tbps> 
45 km SSW Calliope; 12 km N Kuranda; 
MacPherson's Range; Mapleton; Mt Tamborine; 18 
mi N Qtnnalow; Stanthorpe; Sugarloaf. Logs, open 
forest, rainforest, dry sclerophyll. All months of the 
year. AMSA, ANIC, EMUC, MVMA, QMBA, 
SAMA, UQBA. 

kassjiba corvinu (Enchson), comb. nov. 
(Fig, 29) 

Tenebrio corvinus Erichson, 1842: 175. 
Menephilus corvinus. Champion 1894; 390; Carter 
1914; 52; Carter 1926: 146. 
Tenebrio cyunipenn/s Hope 1843: 360; Hope 1845; 
111; Champion 1894: 390 (syn). 

JXpes 

0[cor\ina: Van Diemen's Land. A single female 
in MNHB hears the labels 'corvinus Er.' and Terr, 
van Diem. Schaye/\ and the number 45958. It is 
here designated lectotype. Of cyanipennis: a single 
male, somewhat damaged, bearing the labels TYPE 
r iOPE Proc. Ent. Soc 1842 p. 79 Coll. Hope Oxon' 
and 'cyanipennis Hope N Holl, "type Coll. 1102' 
(HCOE). The citation and date appearing on the 
first label is the one that is frequently quoted in 
catalogues but it is incorrect, since those 
Proceedings of the Entomological Society were not 
published until 1843. 

Distribution 

Tasmania, mountainous areas of Victoria, New 
South Wales, and extreme southern Queensland. 
The species was recorded from South Australia by 



MtNEPHfLUS (TENEBRIONIDAE) 



43 



Champion (1894) and Carter (1914, 1926), 
apparently on the basis of the title of Hope's 1845 
paper redescribing vyanipennis. However, in the 
latter work Hope described many species which 
were clearly not from Adelaide and there is no 
indication of where vyanipennis was collected We 
have not seen this species from west of Macedon, 
Victoria. 

Material examined 

Twenty- lour specimens. Tasmania: Brown's River; 
Hobart; Launceston; Mole Creek; Swansea. 
Victoria: Alps; Buffalo River Preserve; Macedon; 
Melbourne District. Australian Capital Territory: 
Brindabella Rge., Piccadilly Circus, 3 650'. New 
South Wales: Blue Mountains; Brown Mountain; 
Ebor; 30 km S Glen Innes; Tooloom Plateau via 
Urbenville. Queensland: Stanthorpe. Jan. Feb, Apr. 
Oct., Nov. AMSA, EMUC, MVMA, QMB\. 
SAM A, UQBA. 

Kaszaba laeta (Carter) comb. nov. 
(Fig. 30) 

Menephilus foetus Carter 1914: 69; Carter 1926: 146. 

Types 

Kuranda, North Queensland, MVMA. There are 
two specimens in the type series, a male and a 
female of the same species, both labelled 'Kuranda 
Dodd', and bearing the numbers T-4092 and T-4091 
respectively on separate red labels. The female also 
hears the label in Carter's hand 'Menephilus laetus 
Carter 10-11-12'. The female. No. 4091 (identified 
as a male) is in better condition and is hereby 
designated lectotype, and the male, allolectotype. 

Distribution 

Known only from [he Atherton Tableland in 
north Queensland 

Materia/ examined 

Eight specimens. Queensland: Cairns District; 
Mareeba, Ravenshoe. July (3). MVMA, QMBA, 
SAMA. 

Kaszaba pulchra (Carter), comb, nov, 
(Ffcfi 31, 32) 

Menephilus pulcher Carter 1924: 36; Carter 
1926: 146. 



imately halfway between Gordonvale and Babmda. 

Distribution 

Along the coast and on offshore islands, from 
Bowen (Port Denison) to Cairns, north Queensland 
and the northern end of the Northern Territory. 

Remarks 

Queensland specimens have the elytra green with 
the lateral three or four intervals golden, whereas 
the three Northern Territory specimens known have 
uniformly purple elytra. The latter also have slightly 
smaller eyes in dorsal view (Fig. 32). Material i.n 
insufficient for us to decide whether the Northern 
Territory form is a separate species. 




FIGURES 10-14. Bo&siunus reef (basis, larva. 10, head, 
dorsal aspect, mandibles and left antenna removed. 
Dashed line indicates eye spots. Inset shows apical view 
of 2nd antennal segment II, same, ventral aspect. 12, 
labrum (epipharynx), ental aspect. 13,14, right and left 
mandibles, ventral aspect, with normal view of molar 
surfaces below. 



l\>pe 

North Queensland; Deeral. J.F. II ling worth, 
scrub. AMSA K67235. A single female with the 
abdomen missing, designated holotype by Carter 
(1924). Deeral (17°13'S, 145°55'E) is a station on 
the railway which parallels Highway One, approx- 



Material examined 

Thirteen specimens. Queensland: Bowen; Cairns; 
Magnetic Island; Mary Creek; Palm Island; Port 
Denison. Northern Territory: Croote Eylandi; 
South Alligator Inn. May (i). AMSA, EMUC. 
SAMA, UQBA. 



44 



E G. MATTHEWS &. J. T. DOYEN 



Biissiatws gen. nov. 

Type-specie*: Tenebho colydioides Erichson. 1 842. 

Description oj adult 

General appearance: Oblong. Entirely plccous. 
Tola! length 6- 1 3 mm. 

Head: tipisloma with anterior edge shallowiy 
concave, suture ill-defined, arcuate. Eyes small, 
inwardly with a straighi edge, separated by distance 
equal to 3.5-5 eye widths, cant bus well devcloped. 
Head surface densely punctate, glabrous. Bridge of 
tentorium flat, straight. Labrum transverse. 
Mandibles bidentatc apically. Lacuna with uncus. 
Maxillary palpi with terminal segment oval or 
subtriaugular. Mentuni trapezoidal, without median 
keel or with feeble one. Antennae short, nut 
i caching base of prot borax, apical four or five 
segments somewhat widened, without complex 
sensoria. 

Prvthorajc. Subquadrate to trapezoidal in outline. 
Anterior angles strongly projecting forward. 
Posterior angles subquadrate or subacute, Base 
sinuate or straighi. Pronotum finely margined 
except along middle of anterior edge, disc evenly 
convex, finely to moderate punctate, glabrous. 
Presternum without median keel, process strongly 
expanded apically, not prolonged. Coxnl cavities 
closed externally, open internally. 

Pterothorax: Humeri little wider than base of 
prothorax, more or less grooved nasally to receive 
prothorax. Elytra with 9 shallow, coarsely punctate 
striaeandscurellary striole. Intervals feebly convex, 
impunctate and glabrous. Fipipleura narrow, 
complete to apices. Mesosternum strongly stepped 
Lo receive prosternum. Mesepimcra reaching mid- 
co.xal cavities. rvtetcmJosternite Y-shaped, without 
laminae. Wings with subcubttal Heck, sometimes 
faint 

Legs: Fjont femora relatively massive Tibiae 
gradually expanded and with dense setae apically, 
not dentine, apical spurs very short. Tarsal segments, 
except apical, short, not cupuliform. with long 
dense setae beneath all except claw segment, which 
has only sparse setae, claws unmodified. 

Abdomen: lnterco\al process of basal stcrnite U 
shaped or rounded-triangular, upper edge of apical 
sternite not grooved. Defensive reservoirs small, 
without annuli. Female genital tract of tenebrioninc 
type (Tschinkel & Doyen 1980), without bursa, with 
strongly coiled spcrmatheca at end of shori branch 
diverging from non-glandular basal portion of the 
accessory gland (Fig. 4). Ovipositor shon. 03 
tenebrionine type with longitudinal paraprocts (Fig. 
4) Aedeagus with parameres basally fused, slender 
and tapering, setose, comprising neatly half of total 
aedeagal length, enveloping median iobc. Median 
lobe with two reinforcing rods (Figs 6-9). 




■ i . 

! \ <18 
> 



9 16 mm 



1.35 n»l. 





, . 



20 



OJS mm 



9.35 mm 



. 



i 



21 



M 
22 



0.06 lltfl 



FIGUkbS 15-22. Hossiunus axtifwis; larva. 15. left 
maxilla, ventral aspect. 16, hypopharynx, dorsal. 17, IS, 
prolhoracic and mescahoracic legs, posterior aspect. 19, 
abdominal apex. \tf&ft\ 20, aWOaitnal apex, dorsal. 21, 
22. right mcsoihoracic and second abdominal spiracles 
CVeniiLifL- Margin is posterior. 

SeXual dimorphism'. Evident in shape of hind leg 
of male, with femut posteriorly concave in outline 
and bearing a small tooth or angle dtstally. 
trochanter usually dentate, and tibia sometimes 
apically bent. Male R sydneyanus also have a short 
lomentose hne on inner edges of all femora, and 
fore tibia apically bent. 

Description of late ins/ar larva (based on rectibasLs). 

General appearance: Body subcylindricaT. 
moderatety seleiuU/ed. Brownish. Total length 
12-14 mm 

Head: Slightly flattened, deflexed at rest, with 
mouthparts diiecied ant ero vent j ally. Cranium 
medium brown, coarsely punciaic. Epicranial stem 
length about O.J 5 times head width; frontal arms 
very hrielly bifurcate at apex, not reaching 
froptoclypeal suture (Fig, 10). endocarina akvem. 
Lateral ocelli consisting of three pigment spots 
arranged in vertical row just behind antennal 
articulation and single spot (or two poorly separated 
spots) posterodorsal to row of three; cuticle 
colorless above eyespots, but not modified as leas. 
Cranial setae consisting of one pair at corners of 
clypeus, one pair just behind clypeofromal suture. 



MENEPH1LUS (TENEBRIONIDAL) 



45 




23 



24 




i-,V 



0.? ri-.i 










,;.... 



27 



FIGURES 23-27. Bussianus Sydney amis, pupa. 23, dorsal 
aspect of pupa. 24, lateral aspect of pupa. 25, 26, right 
lateral lamellae (gin traps) of abdominal segment I and 
II. 27, abdominal apex, ventral. 

two dorsal pairs, lateroventral patches of about 7-8 
setae on each side and line of about five setae 
between eye spots and antennal base (Figs 10, II). 
Clypeus with posterior half rigidly sclerotized, 
pigmented; anterior half flexible, densely set with 
asperities. Gular sutures incomplete posteriorly; 
tentorial pits aligned horizontally (Fig. 11). Antenna 
three-segmented; articular membrane expansive, 
allowing partial antennal retraction, and set with 
minute asperities; antennal segment two slightly 
longer than first; sensorium broadly U-shaped, 
partially encircling base of peg-like third segment. 
Labium about 1.5 times broader than long, bearing 
transverse row of about six setae across middle and 
apical fringe of about 10 setae (Fig. 10); tormal arms 
slender, almost straight; epi pharynx with marginal 
row of eight bristles, two marginal peg-like setae, 
one pair of submarginal and four pairs of central, 
annular sensilla; single masticatory process on right, 
several smaller processes on left. Mandibles (Figs 
13, 14) with apices bifid; retinaculum a low carina 
on right mandible; bidentate, prominent process on 
left, separated from incisor lobe by deep cleft; molar 
lobes prominently elevated, right concave, lei t with 
prominent anteroventral tooth and strong dorsal 



ridge; ectal mandibular surfaces each with two 
setae. Maxilla (Figs 11, 15) with articulatory area 
elongate, clearly demarked from cardo; mala with 
double row of spines on medial surface, scattered 
finer, shorter setae on ectal surface. Labium with 
prementum trapezoidal, slightly broader than long, 
bearing seta at base of each palp, six setae dorsally 
and apically on ligula (Figs 11, 16); mentum 
irregularly hexagonal, about as long as wide; 
subrnentum not distinct from gula; hypopharyngeal 
sclerome with four-lobed anterior margin, dorsal 
surface very weakly concave. 

Thorax: With pronotum about twice as long as 
mesonotum, anterior sixth of prothorax slightly 
constricted, longitudinally striolate dorsally, 
becoming finely granulose ventral] y and continuous 
with sternite; posterior eighth of tergite forming 
finely granulose border; central portion of tergite 
coarsely, sparsely and shallowly punctate; 
laterotergite separated from tergite by carina, from 
sternal region by infolding, but continuous with 
anterior marginal region, finely granulose; sternite 
finely granulose, strongly involuted in anterior third, 




FIGURES 28-32. Dorsal uui lines 01 head and pronoinni 
Of Kaszohu 28, ffc coeru/escens. 29, K. corvina. 30, A' 
laela. 31, K pulchru, Queensland form. 32, K. pulchra. 
Northern Territory form. 



4t> 



r- Q MAI ih:.W:. & I. r. .. 



Umuu'ig subvertical suiJaee adjust which de flexed 
head rests. Tergite with row of about eight long, 
ku.JcT setae along Lateral margin, tew short setae 
on disc; laterotergite with about five setae in 
longitudinal tow; sternite with pair of anterolateral 
setae and one pair ccntraUy. Mesothorax and 
ntetaihor&s similar to prorhurux, but tergite without 
anterior striolate border. Prothoracic kg slightly 
larger, legs otherwise similar (Figs 17, 18), eoxa with 
row of setae along anterior and posterior borders 
of octal surface; femur and tibia with few Short setae 

on ectal surface; trochanter with two, femur with 
three and tibia with four short setae on entaJ 
surface. apical two on tibia stouter; c!:.w wiih pair 
of cntal setae. 

Abtktmen: Segments 1-7 similar to melathoruac 
tinf tergites with one interior and one posterior 
short seta r jr\ lateral margins; laterotergites with one 
short seta at anterior fifth, sternites with single 
aniciu-r i,i I i'.vu pos.criot setae near each lateral 
margin fuept sternite one, which has band of 
r 20 setae along anterior margin. Segment N 
•imilar. but with 2 posterolateral setae and one sets 
more dot sally near posterior margin (Fig. 19). 
Ttrgjie 9 very much larger than narrowly transverse 
stcrmtc (Fig. 19); deeply bifid posteriorly and 
produced as slightly upcurved prongs, and bearing 
pairs of nonartieuluied spm like processes on each 
-,ide (Figs 19, 20); shun setae situated near each 
process and around apices of prongs; long, slender 
setae distributed ventrolateral^ and laterali 

tergite and ac terciftG PygQpod* no' visible. 

-nr/ev: (Figs 21. 22> with posterior mao'.n'. 
crcnulati -suthoracic elliprJcal wht abaui dghj 

or, ckxfp erenularions; abdominals very broadly 
clhptieai with three or four distinct crcnuL ti 

bescnpmm of pupa < based usLsydneyafius) 
i n-nerji appearance: ruhp nly pak - 
Wii k. Total length 

id Bcni 

enna held below prottioi 

tlylral margin. |UM atti %s; segments 

distinguished by annua oi blunt, nun-ar lie nl 8l •! 
rleS] largest dorsally and on apical segments; 
segment II with tuberele." over entire sen lace. 

Rrrmotum- With few tubercles along lateral 
nraigins; hypomcron with r.vith like process 
en antenna and profc mm El 
held be I ween uueso- and 
mrtarhcrninc k*t I) :•> with nir.e striae. 

danietK Ttrgirc 1 7 produced as laryi- lateral 

'nm.lia-; lamella on segment I (Fig. ': ureafc 

Lin^ pListeiiai tooth; those on 

«egrr. bOtferidl 

teeth Ifttgil) minaicls serrate; lateral and 

iar^ins I ejlarly 9< 

Unmel -groenl Twill o i i 



then arcuately receding posteriory, with two 
marginal teeth, segment 8 wuh margin moderately 
explanate bur unarmed, Sternites 7 and 8 with few 
weak tubercles along poslcnor margins. Tergite 9 
produced as attenuate posterior processes; sternite 
9, as much shorter, blunter processes. 

Remarks 

The structure of the female genital apparatus 
(Tig. 4) places this genus unequivocally in the 
Tencbrtonini. It is in many respects similar to 
Tenebno Linnaeus but does not have the spinulose 
connecting membrane of the aedeagus which is the 
principal apomorphism of the tatter. As in some 
Je.nebno it has internally open procoxal cavities, a 
pie-Mornorphous feature shared with Heleini and 
Cypbalcini, with which it also shares (in part) the 
ples.Mai.nphous subcubilal fleck on the wings, 
absent in Tenebno. Most of the above characters 
are found in the other native Australian 
Tenebrionini: Menenstes Pascoe, Sioanea Carter, 
and Asp ha l us J'ascoe. Russian us may be 
distinguished From all of these by the combination 
of the absence of a longitudinal groove on the outer 
faces of the tibiae and smaller size, and from all 
but Menertstes by the presence of wings Separation 
of Tenebrionini > Heleini and Cyphaleim is discussed 
in Doyen et al. (in press) and in papers in 
preparation by the authors. 

From the superficially similar but unrelated 
coelomelopine genera Tetragonornenes and 
R'aszuba, with which it has been confused, adult 
Bassianus may be distinguished most easily by the 
abv>i!. -,. ..iT.nlcA antennal scrisona, advanced 
anterior pronotdl angles, dm/ally expanded 
prostcrnal process, and complete elytra! epiplcura. 

Wati tf974) Oiscinguished larval Heleini and 
i ileuw from oiher tribes of Tenebrionmae on 
i he basis of spiraculai aitictuffe Merit rcrnc crenalate 
in Heleini and tyfrtekJm, simply annular in other 
tubes. Hi marked that larvae of Merwristes 

«and Asphunts, iiiougn usually placed in 
mm. which the adults resemble, have 
crenulaie spiracles. Larvae of Bassianus have the 
spiracular petitreme erenulate, but only on the 
posterior side, and in the abdominal spiracles only- 
three or loi r . renulations are visible. 

An additional feature which may differentiate 
larval Heleini and Tenebnonim is the 
•t uet'jie d( abdominal segment nine. In 
rioniru tTenchriiK Near us Leconte, 
Alphauhius Stephens, Zaphobas Blanchard) 
sternite 9 is about one quarter as long as the tergite. 
and Urge pygopuds arc usually extruded in 

preserved specimen*, in Meie-im, as noted by 

Allsopp (1^79), the sicrnir.* is much smaller, usually 
aboin chv .ighih io DM! teinh as- long as the tergite. 
In Heleini pygopods are very small and rarely visible 



MENEPHILUS (TENEBRIONIDAE) 



47 



in preserved specimens. In these features Heleini 
more closely resemble Ulomini. 

Larval Heleini we have examined have the gular 
sutures very faint in the posterior half and not 
reaching the occipital foramen. In Tenebrio and 
Neatus the sutures may be somewhat faint 
posteriorly, but extend to the foramen. In 
Zophobas, however, the sutures are reduced to the 
tentorial pits, as in Bassianus. 

Other characteristics, such as the shape of the 
antennal sensorium, configuration of epipharyngeal 
sensory organs, or structure of tergite 9 (Doyen et 
al. in press), may prove to be of value for these 
larvae, but much more extensive comparisons are 
required. 

The genus most similar to Bassianus in larval 
features is Meneristes (Watt 1974). They share the 
large urogomphi on tergite 9, as well as exceedingly 
similar mouthpart and leg structures. In Bassianus, 
in addition to the large urogomphi, there are five 
other pairs of non-articulated spurs on the 
dorsolateral to ventrolateral surfaces of the tergite. 
In Meneristes there are only two lateral pairs of 
spurs. In Bassianus the antennal sensorium is U- 
shaped, whereas in Meneristes it is three-lobed. The 
epipharynx of Meneristes bears a pair of stout, 
short spines behind the patch of annular sensoria; 
in Bassianus the spines are absent. Finally, in 
Bassianus the legs are slightly more slender, with 
a comb of three or four tibial setae; in Meneristes 
there are five or more tibial setae, at least in later 
instars. 

The general pupal form and the shape of the gin 
traps of Bassianus are similar to those of 
Meneristes. However, in Meneristes the pupal 
antennae lack the annuli of tubercles present in 
Bassianus. Pupal antennae of Tenebrioninae are not 
known to be tuberculate. This feature has not yet 
been examined in enough Heleini or Cyphaleini to 
speculate on its uniqueness. 

The species of Bassianus are distinct and readily 
separated on external morphological characters. 
Minor genitalic differences could be found in the 
relative shape of the aedeagus (Figs 6-9). In 
addition, rectibasis bears long setae on the 
parameres, which in the other species are only 
minutely setulose. 

Key to the Species of Bassianus 

1. — Base of pronotum strongly sinuate, very 
shallow transverse basal depression often 
present on disc (Fig. 33), inflected 
portions wrinkled or smooth, 
shagreened, not pustulose; striae usually 
effaced near bases of elytra, margin of 
last abdominal sternite not grooved; with 
fore tibia abruptly curved and expanded 
apically and all femora with tomentose 



line on inner faces. Total length 9-12 
mm. Victoria, New South Wales, 

Queensland 

sydneyanus (Blackburn) 

— Base of pronotum straight or nearly so 
without transverse depression, inflected 
portions pustulose; elytral striae, except 
7 and 8, complete to bases; margin of last 
abdominal sternite deeply grooved, o* 
with hind femur more or less distorted, 
femora without tomentose lines 2 

2(1) — Underside of prothorax glabrous, 
prothorax often quadrate in outline (Fig. 
34); total length 6-10 mm. South 
Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, New 

South Wales and Queensland 

colydioides (Erichson) 

— Underside of prothorax, especially 
prosternal process, with long setae; 
prothorax narrowing anteriorly (Figs 35, 
36) 3 

3(2) — Prosternum pustulose, upper surfaces 
coarsely punctate and shagreened, matt; 
total length 12-13 mm. Tasmania 
humilis (Erichson) 

— Prosternum punctate only; upper 
surfaces finely punctate, nitid; total 
length 8-11 mm. Northern New South 

Wales, Queensland 

rectibasis (Carter) 

Bassianus sydneyanus (Blackburn), comb. nov. 
(Figs 4, 6, 33) 

Menephilus sydneyanus Blackburn 1893: 132; 
Carter 1914: 53; Carter 1926: 146. 

Type 

Near Sydney, N.SW. BMNH. A female on a card 
bearing the designation T 4515 Syd.\ with labels 
saying 'Menephilus sydneyanus Blackb.' and 
^Blackburn Coll. 1910-236', is designated lectotype. 

Distribution 

Eastern Victoria, New South Wales east of the 
Great Dividing Range, south-eastern Queensland, 
with a few individuals collected as far north as 
Kuranda. 

Material examined 

One hundred and ninety-two specimens. Victoria: 
Beaconsfield; Brighton; Cann River; 5 km N Cann 
River; Hurstbridge; Macedon; Mt Dom Dom [?] 
2,500'; Narracan; North Melbourne; 19 miles W of 
Tallangatta nr Koetong; Tyers River; Warragul. New 
South Wales: Acacia Creek; Barrington Tops via 
Salisbury; Bateman's Bay; Bellingen; Blue 
Mountains; Brooklana, Sydney; Carrai Plateau via 



E. G. MATTHEWS &. J f. DOVBN 



Kempsey; Chichester State Forest, Lagoon, Pinch 
Park; Comboyne, 9 km W of Coonabarabran, $33 m; 
Coopcrnook Creek nr Brook lana; I? km W of 
Coramba; Dingo Tops, 57 km NW Wingharn; 
Dorrigo; Forest Reefs; Gibraltar Range N.R; 
Gloucester River (Bar ring ton Tops), 30 km S Qlftfl 
Innes; Illawarra; 4-8 km SW Lake Cathie; I owden 
For. Park, 30 km NE Captain's Flat; Mmumurra 
Falls via Kiana; Monga; Mt Kosciusko; Mt Royal 
Range, 17 km 6 Moonany Fiat; Mt Wilson; Myall 
Lakes* Booloombayt.; 4 miles N of Nelligen; 
Poverty Point, 20 km SE of Tenter field; Styx R., 
Wattle Flat Camp; Swan Lake; Tenter field; Upper 
Hunter; Wcrrikerntn N.P., Cobcroft Camp; 
Wollornumbi Falls Queensland; Bald Mt area via 
Em i Vale; Barron River Falls; Binna Burra N.R, 
Boldcry Park, Cooyar; Bulburin ST.; Bunya 
Mountains; 26 km W Goomburra; Joalah N.R, 
Tamborine Mt; Kroombit Tops, 65 km SW of 
Gladstone, I 000-1 100m, Kuranda; 12 km N 
Kuranda; Larningtou N.R, McPherson Range N. P., 
Mt Spec; Mt Tamborine; National Park; 10 km NE 
of Queen Mary Falls; Springbrook; St3nthorpe. 
Underdid Under bark, rotten logs; fallen logs; 
open forest. All months of the year. AMSA T AN1C, 
EMUC, MVMA, QMBA. SAMA, UQBA 

One pupa and several larval ex u viae reared from 
larvae collected in Gibraltar Range N.P., New South 
Wales 27 .XI 1.1982, 



Baszianus colydioides (Erichson)> comb, nov, 

(Figs 2, 7, 34) 

Tenebrio colydioides Erichson IS42: 175. 

Menephilux colydioides. Carter 1914; 52; Carter 

1926 :146. 

Menephilus parvutus Maclcay 1872' 285; Carter 

1914: 53; Carter 1926; 146 <$yn>. 

Menephilus armstrongi Carter 1933. 171. New 

synonymy. 

types 

OF colydioides: Van Dicmcn's Land. A series of 
four female cotypes in MNHB, of which the 
specimen bearing the handwritten label 'cotydtouic^ 
Er. Terr. V Diem. Sehayer' and the number 45953 
is hereby designated lecloiype; the others labelled 
•Hist. Coll. Nr. 45943 Tern* van Dienr Schaycr'arc 
paraJeciotype.s. Of parvulusi Two specimens lij 
AMSA on an unmarked card, labelled Menephilus 
parvulus Mel. W. Gayndah in Madeay's hand, and 
bearing the number K34632. botn were apparently 
considered to be hoiolypes by McKeown (1948). It 
is therefore necessary to select one as lectotypc and 
the one on the left, a male, is hereby designated. 
The one on the right, a female is designated 
allolectotype. Three other specimens from Gayndah 



in the Madeay collection in AN1C, evidently from 
the type scries, are designated paralectotypes. Of 
armsirongi: Holotype 9, Nandewar Range, New 
South Wales, 6.XL32, J. Armstrong* ANIC. 

Distribution 

South Australia (the South East and Kangaroo 
Island), Tasmania, Victoria* New South Wales along 
and east of the Great Dividing Range, south-eastern 
Queensland as far as Bundaberg, and Heron Isla/id. 

Remarks 

M. armstrongi was distinguished from 
colydioides by Carter on features of puncturation, 
proportion and colour, but the type is a normal 
female colydioides. 

Material examined 

One hundred and forty- two specimens, South 
Australia; Lucindale; Wilson R., Kangaroo Island. 
Tasmania; Devonport; George Town; Hobart; King 
island; Lakes; Launcesfon; Lefroy; Long Bay; Mi 
Wellington; National Park; River Isis; St Patrick's 
River; Tyerma; Wilmot; Wynyard. Victoria: 
Brighton; Hastings; Lake Corangamite; Lome; 
Macedon; Moe: Nelson; Warburton; Warnarnbool; 
Warragul; Werribee; Yarra Junction, New South 
Wales; Blue Mountains; Congo, 8 km SE by E of 
Moruya; Forest Reefs; 30 km S Glen lnnes; Hanging 
Rock; Maitland; Mt Canobohs, 3 500-4 500'; Mt 
Wilson; MullaJy; Muswellbrook; Oberon; Sydney; 
6 km NE of Tenter I it- Id; Wahroonga; Worrigeeiu 
Nowra. Queensland: Brisbane; Bundaberg; 
Cunningham's Gap; Dunwich; Eukey; Heron 
Island; (ndooropilly; Mt Glorious; River Heads. !•* 
km SW of L'rangan; Stanthorpe; Tnowoomba, 
Yarraman S.F. Logs, dry sclcrophyll. All months of 
the year. AMSA. ANIC, EMUC, MVMA. QMB*. 
SAMA, UQBA 

Btesianus bumilis (Erichson) comb, no v. 
(Figs S, 35) 

Tenebrio humilis Erichson 1842: 174. 
Menephilus humilts, Carter 19J4; 53, Carter 1926: 
146. 

l\pe 

Van Diernen/s Land. Four female cotypes in 
MNHBs of which the specimen bearing the 
handwritten labels % humilis Er.'and Terra van Diem, 
and the number 45952, is hereby 
designated lectotype, The other three with recent 
labels Hist. Coll, Nr. 45952 Terra van Diem. Schayer' 
are paralectotypes. 

i but ion 
Tasmania. 



MENEPHfLUS (TENEBRIONIDAE) 



49 



Material examined 

Three specimens. T&smania: Brighton; 
River Isis. Nov. SAMA. 



Lakes; 



Basstanus recti basis (Carter) comb. nov. 
(Figs % 36) 

Menephiius rectibasis Carter 1914; 53, 70; Carter 
1926: 146. 





Type 

Dorrigo, Cox. T\vo males on a card in MVMA, 
The smaller left hand one has the letter T 1 written 
below it on the card and is here designated lectotype 
(T-4093). The other specimen (T-4094) is designated 
paralectotype. 

Distribution 

North-eastern New South Wales and south- 
eastern Queensland, with an apparently separate 
population in the area of the Atherton Tableland. 

Material examined 

Eighty specimens. New South Wales: Alstonville, 
Lumley Park; Barringron Tops, Allyn R. Forest; 
Cascade; Dorrigo; Dorrigo N.P,; Grafton; Lismore; 
New England N.P.; Richmond River; Tooloom 
Scrub via Woodenbong; Tooloom. Queensland: 
Brisbane; Bunya Mountains; Cairns District; 
Cooloola N.P. nr Poona Lake; Herberton; Joalah 
N.P., Tamborine; Lamington N.P., Malanda; Lever's 
Plateau via Rathdowney; Ml Glorious; Ml 
Tamborine; National Park; Ravenshoe. Rainforest, 
Apr.- Feb., mainly Sep.-Dec AMSA, ANIC, EMUC, 
MVMA, QMBA, SAMA, UQBA. 

Two mature larvae and several exuviae laboratory- 
reared from adults collected in New South Wales, 
Barrington Tops, Allyn River Forest, 9.XI.1982. 

Acknowledgments 
We thank the following curators of the collections 
consulted for the loan of material: Dr R Hieke (MNHB), 




FIGURES 33-36. Dorsal outlines o\ head and pronotum 
of Bassianus. 33, B. sydneyanus. 34. B. colydioides, 35, 
ft hutnitis. 36, R rectibasis. 



Mr G. Holloway (AMSA), Mr L. Jcssop (BMNH), 
Dr 1 Lansbury (HCOE) Dr J. Lawrence (ANIC), 
Dr D. McAlpine (AMSA), Dr G. Monteilh (QMBA), 
Dr A. Neboiss (MVMA), Dr G. Schcrer (ZSSM), and Ms 
M. Schneider (UQBA). We are grateful to Dr I. Lanshui y 
for help with literature references of Hope and Erichson, 
and to Dr O. Merkl of the Hungarian Natural History 
Museum for information on Z. Kaszab patronyms. 



REFERENCES 



ALLSOPP, P.G. 1979. Identification of false wircworms 

(Coleoptera, Tenebrionidac) from southern Queensland 

and northern New South Wales. J. Aust. ent. Soc, 18: 

277-286. 
BLACKBURN, T. 1893. Further notes on Australian 

Coleoptera, with descriptions of new genera and species. 

Thins. R. Soc. S. Aust. 1893: 130-140. 
CARTER, H. J. 1905. Descriptions of new species of 

Australian Coleoptera. Part I. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 

1905: 177-189. 
CARTER, H. J. 1914. Revision of the subfamily 

Tenebrioninae, family Tenebrionidae, Proc. Linn. Soc. 



N.S.W. 39: 44-86. 
CARTER, H. J. 1924. Australian Coleoptera — notes and 

new species. No. iii. Proc. Linn. Soc. IW.S.W: 49: 19-45. 
CARTER, H. J. 1926. A check list of the Australian 

Tenebrionidae. Aust. Zool. 4: 117-163. 
CARTER, H. J. 1933. Australian Coleoptera. Notes and 

new species, VII). Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W 5X: 159-180 
CHAMPION, G. C. 1894. On the Tenebrionidae collected 

in Australia and Tasmania by Mr James J. Walker, R.N., 

F.L.S. during the voyage o\ H.M.S. 'Penguin*. Wftll 

descriptions of new genera and species, Trans, ent. Soc. 

Land. 1894: 351-408. 



50 



E. G. MATTHEWS & J. T. DOYEN 



CHEVROLAT, A. 1878. Diagnoses de diape'rides 

nouveaux. Ann. Soc. ent. Belg. 21: CXLV1I-CLIII. 
DOYEN, J.T., MATTHEWS, E.G. & LAWRENCE, J.F. 

(in press). Classification and annotated checklist of the 

Australian genera of Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera). 

Invcrtebr. Taxon. 
ERICHSON, W. F. 1842. Beitrag zur Insecten-Fauna von 

Vandiemensland. Arch. Nat. 8: 83-287. 
GEBIEN, H. 1927. Fauna Sumatrensis, Tenebrionidae 

(Col.). Suppl. ent., Berlin 15: 22-58. 
HAAG-RUTENBERG, G. 1878. Diagnosen neuer 

Hetcromeren aus dem Museum Godeffroy. Verh. Ver. 

nat. Unterhaltung Hamburg (1876) 3: 97-105. 
HAAG-RUTENBERG, G. 1879. Neue Heteromeren aus 

dem Museum Godeffroy. J. Mus. Godeffroy 14: 

115-137. 
HOPE, F. W. 1843. Continuation of a memoir containing 

descriptions of new species of Coleoptera from Port 

Essington, in New Holland. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 12: 

35%361. 
HOPE, F W. 1845. Descriptions of some new species of 

Coleoptera from Adelaide in New Holland. Trans, ent. 

Soc. bond. 4: 100-113. 



KASZAB, Z. 1983. Synonymie indoaustralischer und 

neotropischer Tenebrioniden (Coleoptera). Acta Zool. 

Acad. Sci Hungaricae 24: 129-138. 
KULZER, H. 1951. Fiinftcr Beitrag zur Kenntnis der 

Tenebrioniden. Ent. Arb. Mus. Georg Frey 2: 461-573. 
McKEOWN, K. C. 1948. A reference list of types of 

Coleoptera in the Australian Museum. Rec. Aust. Mus. 

22: 95-139. 
MACKERRAS, I. M. 1970. Composition and distribution 

of the fauna. In The Insects of Australia'. CSIRO, 

Melbourne University Press, Melbourne. 
MACLEAY, W. 1872. Notes on a collection of insects from 

Gayndah. Trans, ent. Soc. New South Wales 2: 239-318. 
MATTHEWS, E.G. 1986. A revision of the troglophilic 

genus Brises Pascoe, with a discussion of the Cyphaleini 

(Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 19: 

77-90. 
TSCH1NKEL, W. R. & DOYEN, J. T. 1980. Comparative 

anatomy of the defensive glands, ovipositors and female 

genital tubes of tencbrionid beetles (Coleoptera). Int. 

J. Insect Morphoi. & Embryol. 9: 321-368. 
WATT, J.C. 1974. A revised subfamily classification of 

Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera). New Zealand J. Zool. 1: 

381-452. 



PREPARING GRASS WITCHETTY GRUBS 

L. A. Hercus 

Summary 

This paper presents information on cultural practices relating to food preservation and preparation 
of grass witchetty grubs among the Wangkangurru people of the Lake Eyre Basin of south-eastern 
Australia. 



PREPARING GRASS WITCHETTY GRUBS* 
LA. HERCUS 

HERCU& L. A. 1989. Preparing grass witchetly grubs. Hec. S. AusL Mus. IM\) 71 

This paper oiesenls information on cultural practices relating to food preservation and 
preparation of grass witchetly grubs among the Wangkangurru people of the Lake Byre Baslfl 
of south-eastern central Australia. 

L. A. Hcreus, Faculty of Asian Studies, The Australian National University, P.O. Box 4, Canberra, 
Australian Capital Territory 2601. Manuscript received 3 February 1988. 



It has long been known that Aboriginal people, 
particularly in the Lake Eyre Basin, stored dry food. 
The foods most commonly dried were those which 
were highly seasonal. There was sometimes a 
surplus of fish when lakes and waterholes were 
drying out. Rent her has mentioned how the Diyari 
people of the lower Cooper processed this fish, 
drying it and reducing it to powder: there are several 
references to this in his vocabulary (e.g. Reuther 
1981, IV: 3051, 3712). This procedure was also used 
among Arabana people on the western side of Lake 
Eyre: n even plays a part in myth. The Arabana Fish 
History relates how there were women at a birth - 
camp near Sunny Creek on Anna Creek Station. 
As was the custom, men threw over food for them 
to eat, and as fish was plentiful, they were given 
the most common type, bony bream, more and 
more of it. They could not eat it all and so they 
put it out in flat layers to dry. It turned into the 
slabs of rock at the famous Pulthirri Pilhi, the Anna 
Creek grinding stone quarry. 

Some grubs were similarly dried and powdered 
Reuther gives an account of how the Diyari 
Ancestor Dararia' (Reuther 1981, X: 10) by means 
of magic incantations collected grass witchetty 
grubs, called muluru in Diyari, and then dried and 
powdered them. The whole matter of food storage 
has recently been studied by Kimber (1984: 18), and 
the present paper gives further background to his 
comments on dried grubs. 

The term Svitchetiy grub' refers to the larvae o! 
a number of di Herein species of insects. N B 
Tindale has worked extensively on these (1953, 
1958), The distinctions made between grubs jn 
Aboriginal languages usually refer to the habitat 
(Johnston 1943). Thus in the Wangkangurru 
language of the Simpson Desert the green 
caterpillars that appear in large numbers after rain 
and feed on the fresh grass are called wadnhamarra 
(Lower Southern Aranda anhemare). Root grubs 
(larvae of buprestid beetles and cossid moths) are 
called pardi, and this word is also used as a general 
term for all caterpillar*. The grubs from box-trees 
have the special name piiha-kuputru (larvae o\ 
hepealid moths, Cleland 1966: 144). The very large 




F r GUR£ I. Dora Parker with her youngest child, Fabian. 

green caterpillars that live in foliage arc called 
yulinjungu. In the mythology too these differeu' 
types of grubs all have their separate stories. There 
is a major myth and song cycle about a big 'Grub- 
war'. Different groups of ancestral grub men 
coming trom the south, converge and have a battle 
on the grassy plains near New Crown in the extreme 
south of the Northern Territory 

Everyone was happy to eat the grubs from roots 
and trees, but it seems that the grass grubs were 
clued and stored. This was not only a matter of food 
storage: these grubs were not considered edible 
except in powder form. The preparation of the grubs 
was an elaborate process which was still carried ou: 
by Wangkangurru and Yarluyandi people living 
according to a semi-traditional life-style in the 1930s 
at Pandie Pandie and at Andrewilla south of 
Birdsville 

Dora Parker A Undo (Fig. 1) could recall the 
Pandie days and Mick McLean frinjili, her 
(classificatory) uncle (Fig. 2). had recollections of 
much earlier days in the Simpson Desert (Hercus 
J986). Speaking in a mixture of Wangkangurru and 
English I hey discussed the preparation of gras<- 
witchetty grub. 1 ;. Their conversation was recorded 
at Port Augusta in January 1%7.' 



52 



L.A. HERCUS 




FIGURE 2. Mick McLean and Jimmy Russell at Dalhousie, August 1967. 

Text 

1. M. They all go out in the green feed time, and they are singing then make'm breed up a bit more, them grass 

witchetty. They eat'm. I wouldn't. 

2, D. I wouldn't. I used to see old people digging a hole. 



3. M. 


mantarra, 
wattle, 


wirilti, 
sandhill wattle 


get*m like broom 






4. D. 


mapa-lhuku 
collect-HIST 


wirilti-ri 
wattle-INS 


wiri/ti-ri 
wattle-ERG 


nhangka-ma- 
Ihuku, 
alive-make- 
HIST, 


ilja-ma-lhuku. 

active-make- 
HIST. 


5. M. 


thukulu-nga 
Hole-LOC 


kudni-lhlku. 
put-HlST. 








6. D. 


maka-ra 
Fir-CAUS 


ngarda-ngura, 
burn-CONT, 


kanhangarda 
there 


wadnhi-lhiku. 
cook-HIST. 






Kids are not allowed to be there. 








7. 


mapa-lhuku 
build up-HIST 


maka thadlara 
fire frightened 


thangka-ngura. 
sit-CONT. 







8. M. Not there, we not allowed there when they are cooking, old ladies, boys are not allowed to come in there 



PREPARING WITCHETTY GRUBS 53 

9. D. They have their fire all ready. One, 

nhanhanga nguru-ru uka-nha maka thupu mapa-rna, 

There other-ERG he-ACC fire smoke collect-IMP 

partjarna thupungka-la-yira. 

all smoke-ALT-PUNC. 

10. One make a fire and they all make it same time. All level. 

11. D. kanhangarda kudna thanti-lhiku. 

There guts get out-HIST 

They tear it open and pick the grass out of them, 

kudna thanti-lhiku.. 

guts get out-HIST. 

12. L. There is grass inside? 

13. M.That green stuff. 

14. D. From when they eat grass. 

katharra-ma-rna, kudna thanti-lhiku. 

Torn 

open-make- 1 MP guts get out-HIST. 

15. M. Take the head off, chuck'm all hot then. 

16. D. thawi-lhiku kari-nha katharra-ma-rna.. 

Throw-HIST they-ACC torn up-make IMP 

17. M. thati-ma-lhuku, thingki-la-lhuku, 

dry-make-HIST, dry off-ALT-HIST, 

(in smoke) like from a motor-car (exhaust), but you are not allowed to see that, 

18. Boys not allowed. 

19. D. Girls not allowed to be there. 

yaka-yaka-rna kari-ri. 

Chase away-IMP they-ERG. 

one day. 



20. M. kari-ri 

They-ERG 


wadnhi-ngura pardi 
cook-CONT grub 


21. Might be a couple 


of days time, when he get dry, 


kari -ri 
they-ERG 


ngampa-lhuku pirda-ru 
pound-HIST beat-NAR. 


22. L. What about 


paya-paya? 
little birds? 



23. M.They got plenty to eat, they wouldn't come up.. 

24. ngampa-ru thaka-lhuku pirda-lhuku, 
nardoo stone-ERG strike-HIST beat-HIST 

pulhpa-ma-rna thaka-lhuku. 

powder-make-IMP, strike-HIST. 



54 L.A. HERCUS 

25. Some fellow filPm up in a bag. 

yakuta-nga thangka-ngura. pirda-yi-ngura. 

Bag-LOC stay-CONT. Beat-ACT-CONT. 

26. You are not allowed to see that too. Ha, Ha! They were very particular. 

27. D. And when they eat that, they get that paRu then, arkapa, they paint their mouth 2 with that. 

28. paRu, arkapa-ra untharna marna-ki-thi 
yellow ochre red ochre-CAUS, pipeclay mouth-EMPH 

pithi-rna-ya -Ihuku. 
paint-SP-TR-HIST. 

arkapa was the red one. 

29. M. untharna we call'm. untharna and miRaka. There is no warru in it, only yikurla. We get'm off west, from 

Musgrave Ranges, Antikirinja people. We got a place too where you get'm VRara, out from Granite Downs. 3 

30. L. When they put that paRu on, then they can eat it? 

31. D. After. (Or else they would get) a sore throat . . . 

32. M. They reckon it is good after it dries out, just the same as with fruit, you dry'm out and put'm through the 

machine, same way. 

33. pulhpa-ma-rna pirda-lhuku ngurngku-ma- 

Ihuku-ki-thi. 
Powder-make-IMP beat-HIST ash-make-HIST- 

EMPH. 

34. D. I don't like it when they smash'm up and fine and smooth'em, I hate the smell. Ugh! 

35. One day my old kadnhini 4 been tell me, 

thika-rnawu! anthunha mani-lhiku wirinja-nga pardi pulhpa! 

Return-IMPV! Mine get-PURP nest-LOC grub powder! 

36. I went home and I got this bag and I smelt it, 

pardi pulhpa. 
Grub powder. 

37. kawa-lhuku mathapurda! thawi thika-rna. 
vomit-HIST old man! Throw return-IMP. 

38. minha~ku untu thawi-ra, wadla-kunha- 

thu.? 5 
What-DAT you throw-PUNC, hungry-POS- 

EMPH? 

39. I didn't answer the old lady, I was too busy vomiting. 



PREPARING WITCHETTY GRUBS 55 



Translation 

Ii M. They would all go out in the green feed time, it was then that they would sing to make 
them breed up more, those grass witchetty grubs. They used to eat them, I wouldn't. 

2. D. I wouldn't. I used to see old people digging a hole. 

3. M. (Pieces of) wattle and sandhill wattle, they would use them like a broom. 

4. D. With this sandhill wattle they used to collect them together (those grass witchetty grubs), 

they would liven them up and make them move. 

5. M. They pushed them into this small hollow. 

6. D. They heated them up in a fire, they cooked them there. Children were not allowed to 

be there. 

7. They built up a fire and sat there secretly. 

8. M. We were not allowed to go there where they were cooking, the old ladies. Boys were 

not allowed to come near. 

9. D. They would have the fire ready. One did this while another got the smoke to go into 

one place. They smoked (the grubs). 

10. They (made a number of fires like that) all at the same time, all level. 

11. Then they would take the guts out (of the grubs). They tore them open and picked 
the grass out of them. They got the guts out, 

12. L. There is grass inside? 

13. M. That green stuff. 

14. D. From when they eat grass. They tore them open and got the guts out. 

15. M. They took the head off, and tossed them down, all hot. 

16. D. They threw them down after they had torn them open. 

17. M. They dried them out, they got all the moisture out (in a stream of smoke) like from 

a motor-car (exhaust), but you were not allowed to see that. 

18. Boys were not allowed. 

19. D. Girls were not allowed to be there either. They chased them off. 

20. M. They would cook all the grubs on one day. 

21. And then in a couple of days time when they were quite dry, they would pound them 
and smash them up. 

22. L. What about little birds? 

23. M. They had plenty to eat, they wouldn't go near there. 

24. They used to pound (the dry grubs) with a nardoo stone and beat them and smash 
them to powder. 

25. Then some (old women) would put them into bags. They kept (the grubs) in bags after 
they had ground them to powder. 

26. You were not allowed to see that either, ha ha! They were very particular. 

27. D. And when they came to eat that, they got yellow ochre and red ochre and painted their 

mouth with it. 



56 



LA. HERCUS 



28. They got red ochre and yellow ochre and pipeclay. They painted their mouth, 7 The 
red ochre we call urkupa. 

29. M. untharna is what we called the pipeclay, there was untharna and the red stuff. The 

(ordinary) white gypsum was not used, only the pipeclay which was also called yifcurla. 
We got ii from far away to ihc west, from the Musgrave Ranges, from Antikirinja people 
We had a place too where you could get it from, URara. that is out from Granite Downs. 3 

30. L After they had put Lhat ochre on, then, they could eat it7 

31. XX Yes, after, Or else ihey would get a sore throat. 

32. M. They reckon it is good after it has been dried out, just the same as with fruit, you can 

Ory it out and put it through a (mincing) machine, in exactly the same way. 

33. They pulped (the dry grubs), they turned them into a meal as fine as ash. 

34. D. I didn % t like it when they smashed up the grubs and made them into a powder, all fine 

3od smooth. I hated the smell. Ugh! 

35. One day my old maternal grandmother 4 said to me: 'Go back home and get my grub 
powder. I have got it in a *nest' (a type of head-band for carrying things).' 

36. I went home and got this bag and I smelt it. It was grub powder. 

37. I tell you old man, I vomited! I threw it down as 1 was walking back to her. 

38. (My grandmother said): *Why do you throw it away? It's perfectly good food!' 5 

39. I didn't answer the old lady, I was too busy vomiting! 



Conclusion 

In their book, The World of the First Australians' 
in a discussion of hunting and gathering, R.M. & 
C.H. Berndt state (1964: 104); Typically there is a 
magic associated with hunting, but not as a rule 
with food-col I ecting*. The collection and 
preparation of grass witchetty grubs was one of 
those exceptions to the general rule. There was 
magic and secrecy connected with it. In the Diari 
tradition quoted by Reuther it was a male ancestor 
who collected and prepared the grubs. Among 
Wangkangurru and Yarluyandi people, as shown by 
Dora Parker and Mick McLean, this activity was 
entirely restricted to old women: this is in keeping 
with general traditions, as it is usually women who 
collected smaller items and who do the tedious job 
of grinding. The fact that grass witchetty grubs only 
appear during very restricted periods no doubt 
brought about the feeling that this was a special 
occasion. It is not surprising that the preparation 
of the grubs came to be marked by prohibitions. 

In the Lake Eyre Basin there were very few sites 
that were secret/sacred and exclusively reserved for 
only men or only women at all times. Secrecy was 
not so much site-specific and in at least some cases 
it reflected an attempt by special groups of people 
to get away from ordinary camp life, to have some 
privacy and not to be disturbed. The ritual 



associated with the preparation of grass witchetiy 
grubs illustrates this. 

Endnotes 

1. The text transcribed in this paper was recorded in 
January 1967 as field-tape 65. A copy has been deposited 
with the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies mi 
Canberra. For ease of reference the text has been split into 
numbered sections. The divisions are on the whole in 
accordance with intervals in speech, fn the paper a 
practical orthography has been used for Wangkangurru: 
Plosive consonants other than the retroflex plosive have 
been written as unvoiced, (k, p, th. I), but prestopped 
consonants have been written with voiced plosives as this 
corresponds most closely to the pronunciations, hence: 
bm, dnh, dnj, dl, dlh. Retro flexes have been written as 
r + consonants, i.e.: rl is retroflex /; tn is retroflex n, rd 
is retroflex /. Interdentals have been written as consonant 
+ j, hence nh, th, Ih. Palatals have been written as 
consonant + j hence tj t nj, Ij. fcg'has been used for velar 
nasals. The three r-sounds have been transcribed as 
follows: r - the alveolar flap; rr = the trilled r; Ji — 
retroflex r. 

The following abbreviations for linguistic terms are used 
in the interlinear gloss: 



ABL 


Ablative case 


IMP 


I m perfective 


ACC 


Accusative case 


1MPV 


Imperative 


ACT 


Active stcm- 
forming suffix 


LOC 


Locative case 


CAUS 


Causative case 


NAR 


Narrative past 



PREPARING WITCHETTY GRUBS 



57 



CONT 


Continuous 
participle 


PAST 


Past tense 


EMPH 


Emphatic clitic- 


POS 


Possessive suffix 


PURP 


Purposive 


PUNC 


Punctiliar past 


ERG 


Ergative case 


SP 


Speed form, 
indicating action 
undertaken 


HIST 


Historical past 


TR 


Transitory aspect 



2. Painting of the mouth connected with the eating of 
particular items is also known from another ritual practice: 
people involved in the ritual cannibalism connected with 
one type of Ngamani rain-making ceremony painted their 
mouth black. Mick McLean corroborated Reuther's 
comments on this and said he had heard of it from older 
people, particularly from the distinguished old Ngamani 
rain-maker Dinta *Sandy' (for an account of an interview 
with Dinta, see Farwell 1950: 53). 

3. The Granite Downs area long ago was Aranda. 
However, when Antikirinja Western Desert people reached 



the area, there is reputed to have been a Var'. But, there 
was also gradual infiltration and ultimately there were no 
Aranda people left in the area. Mick McLean, through 
his Aranda grandmother, often identified himself with 
Aranda people. Naturally he still knew what the original 
boundaries were; this is why he said *we had a place'. There 
was also a pipeclay mine to the east of Lake Eyre at 
Powana Hill in Ngamani country. Since there were not 
many sources of pipeclay, it was a much more precious 
source of paint than powdered gypsum. 

4. Dora Parker's maternal grandmother was the last 
surviving full \arluyandi, Judy Trew Thantripilinha (Wall 
poisonous snake*), a woman famed for both her 
knowledge and courage (see Morton 1976: 17). 

5. The very common Wangkangurra expression: 'It's good 
food for someone who is hungry* does not imply that the 
food-stuff in question is inferior. It means simply that 
something is a normal, acceptable item of food. 



References 



BERNDT, R.M. & C.H. 1964. The World of the First 

Australians'. Ure Smith, Sydney. 
CLELAND, J.B. 1966. The Ecology of the Aboriginal in 

South and Central Australia. In 'Aboriginal Man in 

South and Central Australia'. RC. Cotton (Ed.). 

Government Printer, Adelaide. 
FARWELL, G. 1950. *Land of Mirage*. Adelaide. 
HERCUS, L.A. 1986. Leaving the Simpson desert. 

Aboriginal History 9: 22-43. 
JOHNSTON, T.H. 1943. Aboriginal names and utilisation 

of the fauna in the Eyrean region. Trans. R. Soc. S. 

Aust. 67(2): 249-270. 



KIMBER, R.G. 1984. Resource use and management in 
central Australia. Aust. Aboriginal Studies!: 12-23. 

MORTON, E. 1976. 'Nanna's Memoirs, Dedicated to 

Grandpa.' Adelaide. 
REUTHER, J.G. 1981. The Diari.' Translated by P. 

Scherer. AIAS, Canberra. 
TINDALE, N.B. 1953. On some Australian Cossidae 

including the moth of the Witjuti (Witchety) grub, 

Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 76: 56-65. 
TINDALE, N.B. 1958. Witchety Grub. Australian 

Encyclopedia 9, 339. 



ABORIGINAL FIELD WORK IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA IN THE 1940S AND 

IMPLICATIONS FOR THE PRESENT 

R. M. Berndt 



Summary 

This paper is a slightly revised version of a paper delivered to the Anthropological Society of South 
Australia on 17 November 1988 in Adelaide. Based on the author's fieldwork in the 1940s in South 
Australia, it looks at Aboriginal people and their changing circumstances in four major locations : 
Ooldea on the west coast, the northern region of South Australia centred on Oodnadatta, the 
Narrinyeri in the south-east and Aborigines in Adelaide. 



ABORIGINAL FIELDWORK IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA IN THE 1940S AND IMPLICATIONS FOR 

THE PRESENT 

R.M. BERNDT 

BERNDT, R.M. 1989. Aboriginal fieldwork in the 1940s and implications for the present. Rec. 
S. Aust. Mus.. 23(1): 59-68. 

This paper is a slightly revised version of a paper delivered to the Anthropological Society 
of South Australia on 17 November 1988 in Adelaide. Based on the author's fieldwork in the 
1940s in South Australia, it looks at Aboriginal people and their changing circumstances in four 
major locations: Ooldea on the west coast, the northern region of South Australia centred on 
Oodnadatta, the Narrinyeri in the south-east and Aborigines in Adelaide. 

R.M. Berndt, Department of Anthropology, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western 
Australia 6009. Manuscript received 17 November 1988. 



It gives me great pleasure to speak at this meeting 
of the Anthropological Society of South Australia: 
it must be well over 40 years since I last did so. In 
those days the Society was a closely knit one, 
although only a couple of its members had been 
trained in Anthropology. Moreover, there was some 
tension between the University of Adelaide's Board 
for Anthropological Research and the Sydney 
Department, then under the direction of Professor 
A. P. Elkin: it was the issue of amateur versus 
professional. 

In the late 1930s, I was appointed an honorary 
assistant in Ethnology at the South Australian 
Museum. This appointment represented the turning 
point of my career. Aborigines from many areas 
regularly visited the Museum, and it was possible 
for me to make friends with many of them. 1 was 
interested in living people, and less inclined to 
devote my attention solely to material objects. It 
was in this context that I first met Albert Karloan, 
who became my spiritual father and mentor. 
Through myself, Karloan wished to fulfil his 
primary concern of recording all he knew about the 
traditional life of the Narrinyeri, and the changes 
that had taken place over the years. I began working 
with him in 1939 at Murray Bridge. Other 
Aborigines also made claims on my time. Ted 
Vogelsang at the South Australian Museum, for 
instance, introduced me to Dieri speakers; and, 
through Karloan, I was able to work with Ngadjuri 
and other men. In a sense, the field was so wide 
I had difficulty in selecting cultural areas for 
concentration. 

In that same year, I was invited to accompany 
a University of Adelaide Anthropological 
Expedition to Ooldea on the west coast of South 
Australia. This was an exciting and crucial event that 
firmed up my ideas of devoting my career to 
anthropological research. First, however, I needed 
professional training. With the encouragement of 
J.B. Cleland, T. Harvey Johnson and C.P. 



Mountford, I went to Sydney to arrange matters 
with Professor Elkin. The Department of 
Anthropology at the University of Sydney was then 
the only place in Australasia where Social 
Anthropology was taught to graduate level. It was 
there in Elkin's room, at the beginning of the 1940 
academic year, that I met Catherine, who had come 
from New Zealand to study Anthropology. In the 
following year we were married in Adelaide and 
went to Ooldea. 

In the early 1940s we returned to South Australia 
to attempt what I would now regard as virtually an 
impossible task — of getting to know the different 
socio-cultural traditional and near-traditional 
Aboriginal lifestyles, together with an assessment 
of the magnitude of changes that had been imposed 
on these people. Of necessity, we had to be selective, 
but we travelled quite widely throughout the state 
before deciding on which areas to concentrate. We 
settled on four main ones. We would have liked to 
look at these in the form of a gradation, or range 
— from outback to urban, from low-risk to high- 
risk alien contact; but that was not practicable. 
Ooldea was included because we had already 
obtained detailed research material there. We had 
a deep-seated commitment to the lower River 
Murray-Point McLeay areas, and we had not yet 
fulfilled our promise to Karloan to settle down with 
him, and at the same time to meet many of the 
Narrinyeri people. That took priority. It introduced 
us also to Narrinyeri 'outliers' within the city of 
Adelaide. That, in turn, helped us to meet people 
from Point Pierce, and the mid-north generally, as 
well as other far northern areas. Most of our work 
in Adelaide was carried out in the homes of our 
Narrinyeri and other friends, as well as at my 
father's place in Rose Park. But also 1 was able to 
spend long periods with transient visitors to 
Adelaide, as well as local people, in Light Square, 
Whitmore Square and, occasionally, Victoria 
Square. We also met at the South Australian 



60 



KM BfcRNDT 



Museum or; where elderly men v%^re concerned* at 
the Magjll Old Folks' Home In passing I should 
mention thai, at Professor ElkuVs insistence, we 
concentrated on the collection of detailed 
genealogies This was particularly the case witfl tf<e 
Narrinyeii, Point Pierce and mid-north people 
Knowing the background of so many people had 
a considerable bearing on our research, and on 
acceptance by Aborigines on the basis of knowing 
and being friendly with a number of their relatives. 
We also intended to continue our research over 
several years. However, late in 1944 we were involved 
in a survey of Aboriginal labour on pastoral stations 
in the Northern Territory, a survey that was urgently 
required. Moreover, this was during the World War 
II period, and we were the only anthropologists 
working in the field at that time. 

Port Augusta was also an important centre for 
local Aborigines, as well as those from rhe mid- 
north* and Kokata people who had originally 
occupied areas north of Eyre Peninsula, and Rnxby 
Downs and who travelled along the transcontinental 
railway to Ootdea. Many of them visited Adelaide. 
The other area centred on Oodnadatta, with its own 
local setting, but with direct linkages to Ernabella 
and the Southern Aranda, as well as along the 
north-south railway. 

Before embarking on the survey, we sent 
questionnaires to missionaries and Aboriginal 
Protectors (police); arranged through the Director 
of Education (Dr Charles Fenner) for essays to be 
written by school-children in all country and city 
areas; and spent a certain amount of time in the 
South Australian Archives to obtain something of 
the slate's historical perspective Moreover, we had 
access to early police records for all the main areas 
in which we worked. 

The following is a brief summary of each of out 
main research areas. I restrict myself to two features: 
one, with reference to rhe Aboriginal socio-cultural 
heritage; the other, relating to the changes that had 
taken place, and the impact of these on 
contemporary Aboriginal living. 1 recognise, of 
course, that to make a lump' from the 1940s to the 
late 1980s i> an indefensible procedure Nevertheless, 
on a number of occasions 1 have held that, at any 
particular period oi the life of an identified group 
of people, the Suiting is on the wall' for those who 
wish to read it. The sad fact i.s that many do not 
— even those who are directly involved. 



Ooldi 
Ooldea was a time-honoured meeting place k>t 
many Western Desert people, long befoic a tytafofl 
station was projected into its perspective Jn the 
early 1930s and 1940s* family groups from various 
parts of the so-called Desert were making their way 



to the fringe settlements— not just because of bad 
seasons, but out of curiosity. Traditional 
communication networks had oeen spreading 
stones of a different people with a multitude of 
possessions. Ooldca, established in 1933, was one 
of their objectives. When we were working there in 
1941 (Fig. I), that process was continuing. It was 
their first experience of Europeans: not only 
missionaries, but gangers and fet tiers, as well as 
passengers on the transcontinental railway, 
including Army personnel The mission attracted 
Kokata people from the east, and some Aborigines 
from Zanthus and Kalgoorlie 

At Ooldea, the main missionary's task was to 
Christianise and Europeanise the Aborigines, but 
he had no knowledge of the *ocal language. So he 
concentrated on other associated activities. As new 
arrivals appeared on the horizon, he and his helpers 
rushed to Clothe the naked savage*; he tried to 
disperse initiation camps; and he collected ritual 
boards, that were then sold in Adelaide, This caused 
considerable strife and resentment, but did not 
detract, then, fiom the continuation of ritual life. 
On the other hand, people's introduction to a new 
diet did have considerable ramifications, and not 
solely in *rte sphere of health Rations were 
distributed, especially to children and adults who 
attended church services. In 1941 the local people 
relied heavily on introduced food in contrast to bush 
foods. Gathering of indigenous food resources was 
severely diminished. Nevertheless, people talked 
incessantly about every aspect of it. Both Catherine 
and I weie told literally hundreds of stories and 
firsthand accounts regarding such activities. They 
were useful in learning the Andingari and 
Yangandjara dialects, but they did not reflect the 
reality of what was then the present scene — 
although they were intended to do so. lb 
supplement what wa* available at the mission, 
people began begging for food or for money from 
the train passengers or selling tourist items. In such 
ci-cum stances, the«r traditional socio-economtc 
system was not only undermined but crumbling.. 
The dice were ahead) loaded, and almost total 
dependence was not far off. 

The missionaries had only mixed success in 
tackling the belief system of the adults, so they 
concentrated on the children. Almost every thing 
taught within ilic rather primitive school was of 
non-Aboriginal derivation. Children were often free 
to wander about (Fig. 2), around the settlement, and 
their interests in this other kind of living were 
gradually enveloping them. That, in turn, widened 
the gap between themselves and their parents and 
adult relatives. Increasingly, knowledge or 
information that should have been passed on 
normally to tbd youth of the community was being 
limited, or in many cases withheld. 



ABORIGINAL FIELDWORK IN S.A. 



61 







#i : ^^ir* : 



FIGURE 1. One of R. Berndt's Svorking camps' at Ooldea, western South Australia, 1941. (Photo R. Berndt 
WU/P18542.) 







FIGURE 2. School children digging a soak at Ooldea U.A.M. settlement. (Photo courtesy H. Green, 1941.) 



6;. 



K M BLi- 



Adults vvere ourspoken regarding ihcr 
iM>v,r.on. Most of them emphasised that they were 
not tied to the mission, nor w ■. r, 
they could return to their home ten -i juries without 
effort 0^ tbdl part. Bui Mich was nor really the ca*c, 
Moreoever, the South Australian Aborigines' 
Protection Board decided in 1942 to move the 
Ooldea people. We opposed ilris on several 
no avail. Additionally, a hid* lalet 
Maralinga was being established, and thai rcvricied 
Aboriginal movement ihrouchout a k nod deal of 
the Western Desert If an enlightened Aboriginal 
ri.licv had been in operation, with named 
anthropologics] staff. it could have been possible 
to Entire stemmed the steady drift ol the Ooldea 
ie toward virtually an anorrtic situation, and 
to have reconstructed a viable eommii 
Eventually, they found themselves at Yalata. The 
story, as most off you will know, does USA did tl 
more recently, some of them have returned p 
area within the vicinity of Ooldea 

Northern South Australia 
The northern area straddled, socio-cjlUt rally, 
parts of south and central Ausliaha, with 
Oodnadatta as the focal township Its 
heterogeneous population consisted of a residue of 
local people drawn from areas around Marree north 
to the Finke, supplemented by Southern Aranda 
and Western Desert people. 

Three groups or categories o\' Ahori£ine_s were 
distinguished, hierarchically positioned below the 
Europeans. The first, speaking only English 
in reasonably pleasant houses and weie usually 
employed on a more or less regular basis — but were 
reluctantly accepted by the European townsfolk 
(Fig, 3). The second consisted mainly of women 
married to or living with European men. Their style 
of living did not dirrei markedly from member* of 
the first group, but their houses did. These women 
spoke Aboriginal dial* et ,. bin did not iKWr 
attend camp eereme . fraction with 

other groups was minimal. 

On the open plain, on the outskirts Of 
Oodnadatta, were Western Desert and Southern 
Aranda people arranged spatially BS i>vo 
overlapping camps: they were supplemented by 
Aborigines coming in from ErnabeHa to the north- 
west and beyond, even though ErnabeUa was 
originally established as a buffer between so-called 
'bush' people and those working on pastoral Nations 
and in the town (Fig. 4). Members of this third 
group were primarily regarded j 
traditionally-oriented and maintained their r.nnJ 
and other responsibilities. Howoer, among 
were station Aborigines spendino n . ids 'here, 

Windbreaks and t^\t : bUlfl Ol Q Id .run. tagging Ct& 
were the normal shelters, with no artKflitka e.\cej>l 



tor the p ■ jltey were 

employed on menial tasks in the township and on 
the sui rpfflldfllS sLal '' ' The people were 

dependent on lJilruduccd canHUOdfytaS because 
food- Pg 3"d punr'ng l-ad bee.: me difficult 

Oti account of the cattle and sheep pollution of the 

I >halei si d the & i A d tlan of Lite 

countryside as a result of a ate- running. 

these ' hree groups werL -'ly Isolated : 

one another, and the posi: 
Oodnadaita "s rompartnicn ta [«i 
conditional on thei* measure of Abori | u I a - ' "• The 

.- it a , '.he more grudgingly aecep 
one was to the dominant European group, 

Beyond Eruabella an.1 wiifm ihecenual tan. 
many 'bush* Aborigines read raid Utile or no alien 
contact. Certainly. -.raid have visited 

f-.rnahella. bui many had not. However, the long 
arm of the •civilising' process stretched Out in the 
shape of the Oodnadatta poliee. who had 

' 'intry. \n ihe 

1930s and early 1940s, cattle and sheep spearing was 
nk, with damage i :y, and 

occasional murders and theft There were no 
examples of liquor-related offences at this 
Mostly, Aborigines were reacting aga.mst the 
intrusion ol Europeans into their country, the 
depletion of food resources, bad treatmenr do the 
stations, and interpret. re with women. The police 
expeditions traversed wk untry in 

search of witnesses arid culputs, Prisoner*' were 
usually available, whether or not they were the 
primary instigators in a particular incident They 
vvete brought back to Oodnadatta, sometimes with 
neck chains. If the eha-gc^ m us, they would 

be sent down to Port Augusta; otherwise they were 
tried locally .and tf found wanting were retained at 
the police station fa* uardcnirg or other odd jobv. 
i nude 1 1 tally. : this a/ca had experienced the 

severity ol punitive measures that had been wound 
by the 1940- jkl be expected, these 

mi uicJ illciucss anions Abori^ id fear of 

ihe poliee wh jrauJtaiieousty TiotectoTS of 

Aborigines'. I should mention that we were able to 
record in writing most of the eariy and recent nip 
to |944}C&£60 that were entered In the police books 
hcM at Oodnadatta and Port Augusta. However, we 
heard later that most of the more detailed 
unci! mentN had been destroyed m a lire at far! 
Augusta. We had tried to persuade the police i 
to have these lodged 10 thr_ South Australian 
Archives. 

The third group of Afcornimes i mentioned, who 
lived on the outskirts of Oodnadatra, *as originally 
n2cruited from such 'bush' people. Many did HOC 
rctflrn !•> i he peittfl ii rial time 1 

brou.irM vvila then i .-.r ir-idilional WsJ of 

into Miftfeined i ifual 



ABORIGINAL FIELDWORK IN S.A. 



63 




FIGURE 3. Race meeting at Oodnadatta, 1944. (Photo R. Berndt WU/P18543.) 




■« 









FIGURE 4. Ernabella Presbyterian Mission station, 1944 (Photo R. Berndi WU/P18543.) 



„4 



ft.M BHRMti 



into the 1940s and beyond* was dooms! to he 
drastically changed. Aborigines who were pan of 
UfG other two groups Had no use for it 

The NXRWOTfiW 

In contrast to the other two areas 01 our survey, 
we have the Namnyen, who originally occupied the 
Encounter Bay, Lakes, Coorong and lower Rls^r 
Munay areas; people who had experienced alien 
contact prior to the foundation of this state. 1 call 
them Narrmyeri, although traditionally they were 
referred to as the Kukabrag, and within that widei 
group several different dialects were spoken. 
Moreover, on the eastern shore of Si Vincent's Gulf 
they interacted with the Adelaide Aborigines. 

initially, sealers from their stronghold on 
Kangaroo Island sought women from the mainland. 
The local people were powerless to act against tbem. 
Their hatred of these intruders engendered altitudes 
that had not diminished in the 1940s. They were also 
exposed to two primary "waves' of smallpox prior 
to European settlement to their area, that decimated 
a large number of the people — to such an extern 
that they were unable to utilise adequately their own 
land and its natural resources as they had done 
before. Nor were they in a position to defend then 
homeland and themselves from external incursions. 
Isolated incidents of resistance did occur, but 
nothing on a wide scale, Some form of 
independence was possible away from European 
settlements' traditional lift continued there, albeit 
in a modified way 

Point McLeay mission station was established in 
1859 by George Taplin in the heartland of the 
Nardnycri. In the face of hostile or disinterested 
outsiders, it was the only place within the whole 
area that constituted a reasonably safe refuge. In 
general terms, the presence of the mission provided 
a breathing space for the Aborigines; without it, 
disintegration of their traditional lifestyle would 
have been more rapid, and their ultimate chance 
for re-adaptation slender. It ensured 'heir survival 
as an identifiable people, with long-term territorial 
associations. I will not go into the history ot the 
mission, except to say that* on the negative side, 
Taplin's Influence was directly and indirectly 
responsible for the breakdown in many features of 
traditional life. The elders — hoth men and women 
in authority, since equality of the sexes was a 
marked characteristic of NaTiiivyen society — 
continued to resist blatant interference in their own 
affairs. However, they did not turn their backs oil 
what Europeans had to offer, especially in reunion 
to material goods and liquor. 

The younger members of the community were 
under the direct influence of the mission, and a 
number rebelled against their ciders; but many did 
not. It was possible in I8SZ, against the rxpressed 



wishes of Tapltn, for the last widely-attended 
initiation ritual sequences to be held. This was 
probaoh tne last public attempt on the part of the 
knowledgeable leaders to impart traditional 
i it formation rci selected members of the younger 
generator.. Albert Karloan was among the narambi 
novices. 

The formal Narnnyen yiwarumi. a unique 
Aboriginal court in which both men and women 
participated, was winding down by 1860, when its 
punitive functions gave way to the European 
mounted police. It struggled on, however, 
attempting to resolve mattes ul an internal nature, 
ur.r-l the death of King P^ct Pulami in 1888. He 
would have been ceded by his son, John 

1 1 me/el i — but Lehndjen had come increasingly 
under the influence of the mission. 

The break with traditional culture became a 
reality with the passing of The old people'— the 
parents of, for example, Karloan, notably his father 
Tararnindjeri; or the mother of Pinkie Mack (Fig. 
6), Louisa Karpcny; and many others. The years 
between 1858 and the mid-l92()s saw most of them 
eorte. Of course, it was not a complete 'cut-off, 
since fragmentary knowledge survived. But in terms 
of living according to Namnyeri conventions, it was. 
Overwhelmingly, that background was being 
crowded QUI by European elements; and the impact 
ot whaf came across as mainsworn Australian 
society and culture had priority in contemporary 
Bvfcg (Fig. 7). There were, however, special persons 
(men and women) who were concerned about the 
retention of their historic heritage: their survival 
continued only into the mid- 1 940s, or a few years 
beyond. 

There are two crucial features that sustained 
Narrinycri identity. One, even though Narrmyeri 
Dnd women contracted unions with non- 
Narnnycri people and non-Aborigines from 
different areas (and that in itself was no recent 
occurrence), tht Narrinyeri 'family 'circle persisted* 
wirh the retention of the old personal and family 
npnrei flerfved from their traditional past. Two, 
while people had been moving out of their home 
territories over a number of years, establishing 
branches in the dry of Adelaide and elsewhere, they 
did B0I lose tOUch with theii own kin or with their 
country otongin. White this does not mean detailed 
knowledge of dialectal and clan territories, along 
with the relevance of mythic site! and so forth, h 
dQflti involve blowing Vthcre they belong, and 
something of the available resources within their 
land. This is, in fact, a remarkable achievement on 
their part, in the- face of heavy pressures toward 
absolute assimilation into the wider system 

•i -LAIDE 

The situation in Adelaide in the early 1940s v._ 
complex Most Aborigines Uved in the 'West End', 



ABORIGINAL FIELDWORK IN S.A. 



65 




FIGURE 5. Aboriginal stockmen at Macumba, northern South Australia, 1944. (Photo R. Berndt WU/P18535.) 







FIGURE 6. Mrs Pinkie Mack, Piltindjeri clan, Yaraldi 
dialect, with two of her grandchildren. A daughter of 
Louisa Karpeny, she lived at Brinkley on the lake entrance 
to the River Murray in 1943. She was a close friend of 
R. & C. Berndt. (Photo R. Berndt WU/P18537.) 



which was not the most salubrious of the city's 
areas. Also, its mixed population included other 
non-Europeans as well as Aborigines. The 
permanently resident Aborigines interacted with 
Aboriginal transients drawn from the mid-north 
and elsewhere. There was less negative 
discrimination and prejudice between people in all 
these 'groups' than between, for example, 
Aborigines and Europeans living outside the 
precincts of the inner city, who were mostly 
categorised as being economically better off. 
Aborigines who did live outside the city in the 
suburbs, generally severed connections with their 
kin living in the West End'. Many of them were 
virtually lost within the wider society, to emerge 
later as identified Aborigines when recognition of 
Aboriginally became politically acceptable. 

Apart from these people, internal relations 
between Aborigines themselves were on the whole 
amicable, although arguments tended to flare when 
alcohol came into the picture. During this period 
Aborigines were forbidden to obtain liquor — 
although there were many avenues of access to it. 
Men who had been (or who were still) in the Army 
were strongly critical of this prohibition. This was 
a profitable field for police action: raids were 
constantly being made. Non-Aborigines talking to 
Aborigines were also a target — as I was on several 
occasions when drinking lemonade with my friends. 
We were forced to open any bottle we had, to enable 
plain-clothes officers to smell and even taste what 
was in it. Most Aborigines lived under the shadow 



66 



R.M. BERNDT 










FIGURE 7. Seasonal grape-picking at McLaren Vale, South Australia, in 1944. The people participating were 
of Narrinyeri descent. (Photo R. Berndt WU/P18536.) 




FIGURE 8. Barney Waria (or Warrior) and Jim Mooney, 
both men of Ngadjuri descent, 1943. They were close 
friends of R. Berndt and, when they were in Adelaide, 
spent much time with him. (Photo R. Berndt 
WU/P18534.) 



of 'offences' of one kind or another, most of a 
minor nature, and resented doing so. Women, 
particularly, read the local newspapers regularly to 
search for references to relatives and friends who 
had been unfortunate enough to appear before a 
court of law. External relations, on the other hand, 
were focused primarily on the Aborigines' 
Protection Board, that was used as a butt for all 
kinds of controversial matters. Constant visits were 
made to complain about the indifferent social 
conditions and/or to extract government aid. The 
Chief Protector was, with good reason, disliked by 
all Aborigines and by ourselves. Violent quarrels 
often resulted from trivial affairs that could have 
been resolved by the Board without too much 
difficulty. 

While many Aborigines aligned themselves with 
Europeans and with the government, in general 
terms, many — the majority — did not. Bitterness 
and discontent were most marked because of the 
rebuffs they experienced as being 'coloured' people. 
Those Aborigines who did sever their ties with 
relatives in order to 'disappear' within the wider 
community, hoped to avoid what was then regarded 
by so many Europeans and Aborigines alike as the 
stigma of being 'coloured'. On the other hand, many 
resented the fact that their own traditions and 
culture had been more or less deliberately destroyed. 



ABORIGINAL nELOWtlfcK IN 5LA. 



6T 



. letters n! intere*! id 1 loci appeared 

e Adelaide Advertiser, the first on 26 January 
1944 un.t tht oc I februatv 1944. George 

Ranking a Naninyeri descendant, made a plea to 
tlte general puhLiL ..■.-,. it a tome jut 

sympathy am sanding'. He mentioned the 

j'Si-uctiun of Aborts I i] Ute cuipliasising that 
nothing could compensate For its loss. Material 
benefit* w-r. i ! v ry well, he said ftui we seed 
something which Australian-European society. 

all if s umest. its inequalities and .h intolerance, has 
not been able to provide'. 'Wc arc hoping', he 
commucd, 'that the future may brin£ something 
better'. Barney Warrior (Fig S) supported Rankine's 
letter, adding that "people are too readv to judge 
without understanding, and most like to think that 
anyone with a dai k skin cannot possibly be as good 
as they are themselves'. Continuing, he said, Those 
of us in the city are living the same way as- white 
people, yel because Of out col out and descent tin 
which thei f -r all a Jot of wake blood) m are 

not socially :alk about equal 

opportunities- and treatment, and >et we ourselves 
know very w. - thai aie said about us, 

• biy people Who pn -. kindly toward its'. 

In a nutshell, Lli£U iwu letter] provided a 
summary or AV. r Adelaide in the 

: out ijtey also strike a co iteftipowy chord. 

I hrv were .sufficien: io sti:nuiate us to Wife Tn jrn 

li to White in South Australia*, which we 

entitled Tins way 10 freedom!' — 

although the publisher preferred the 01 Iter title. It 

Join Ittitf they wanted* 10 it -row Ctfl the 

shackles of obsolete ond ethnocentric rules and 

regulations. Aborigines at tha! time were talking 

H the abolition of exemption cc • and 

the need to reoog Jse them as Aihualten clilftgru 

— weren't iliey the only fro/ Australians'? 
Moreover, they wanted to manage their own reserves 
as independent s neve this they set 
up srna3l committees, many of which were doomed 
to failure Since some Aborigines feared the 
repercussions of the Abo- Mnecfion Board, 
and the power to withhold benefits or do harm u> 
mdfivnhials (The two letters I mentioned above 
uigendei bd some dl-feeling among members of the 
Boards Suggestions svere aNo made b> Aborigines 
\h.n (he Board should 'nmittees 

— or, at least, appoint an Abet, gj rtaj representative. 
But t i no response. Approaches were made 
to the gover tl rfuean i r * • iA bon%tnat Act 

vitt.oul an\ positive result. 
Interaction with Aborigines of differing 
backgrounds and experiences visiting Adelaide from 
as far a field a< \ 'ictoria and New South Wales, 
JHdudffia SOtroe Hbf) had beer* a» ached io the Army, 
produced lively dtSCll WCTC b*$ed Wl 

ides aod tfews which had not occn generally 



l.rji.l before, or not so explicitly, by the majority 
of* local Aborigines, The vvar had irrevocably altered 
L-n-irh^r, in me city, trill not to any extent in 
country areas. The catalysis were thusc persons who 
bad travelled and mixed widely with non- 
Abongmes. What they iiad to say was not far 
beneath the surface of the thinking of local people: 
they simply provided the opportunity for them to 
express their views Within this context, the issue 
of land was raised. The richest land was taken away 
from us and no compensation was offered': that was 
Often repeated. Economic security was the keynote, 
but many people recognised that without adequate 
education that aim could not be achieved. 'If w* 
get money, we'll be all right!' was noied by several 
men. The thing to do is to be cunning like a white 
man and beat him at his own .game! Aborigines had 
to stand up for themselves, otherwise government 
policy would not change!* Many Europeans 
regarded such views as revolutionary, promulgated 
by rabble ro users'. But that was far from the truth 
of the matter. The climate of Aboriginal affairs was 
about to change, just as drastic changes were taking 
plflCt LD post-war Australian society in general. 



Finally, il would seem clear that in the early 
1940s, social conditions for Aborigines generally 
were far from satisfactory. In the north of the state 
and at Ooldea, ine only means of rescuing 
traditional ways of living was to remain away from 
European settlements. That, however, was virtually 
impossible, Ik-ln* laced with an enforced adaptation 
to away of life they knew little or nothing about, 
confused the issues. Guidelines were not available- 
It was z matter of doing what they could, on their 
OWO initiative, as a mailer oi survival: the 
implications ql such actions were unclear or 
unknown to [hem. Government iiiteiveinion was 
negligible. Any positive policies that had been 
formulated were not enacted Until W I after the 
cessation of the war: and their implementation wa.\ 
a ioru-.T rvviwut business. 

The 'orig history of Narnnyen contact with nun 
Aborigines placed them in a special position vis-a- 
vis adaptation to changing wavs. But that did not 
save i hem from losing Their living traditional culture 
and social imperatives. Jn a different respect, they 
.vblc to retain their unique identity as a people 
with recognised rights and obligations. That wn-. 
possible through their high degree of acceptance of 
Australian-European living patterns and values. 

Adelaide provided opportunities for a diversity 
Of opin on and action, thai had the potential for 
achieving their expectations of fairer treatment and 
eventual equality with other members of the wider 
community, without loss of identity. 



68 



R.M. BERNDT 



There are two points I should mention here. One, 
Aborigines all over the country, whether or not they 
are traditionally oriented, are becoming increasingly 
committed to an Australian-European type of 
lifestyle and belief system, in varying degrees. Two, 
a growing awareness of the uniqueness of their own 
heritage is being counter-balanced by the 



construction of an overall, generalised, Aboriginal 
heritage, that could override the survival prospects 
of particular regional heritages relevant to many 
different Australian Aboriginal cultures. This is a 
crucial point — but it is one about which 
Aborigines themselves must make up their minds. 



FURTHER EVIDENCE OF THE CHARADRIID AFFINITIES OF 
PELTOHYAS AUSTRALIS (AVES : CHARADRIID AE) 

/. Fjeldsa & B. Nielsen 



Summary 

The Australian dotterel Peltohyas australis (Gould, 1841) was originally placed in the plover genus 
Eudromias. Sharpe (1896 : 307) erected a monotypic genus Peltohyas and subfamily for it, but kept 
it in the Charadriidae. Mathews (1913-14) suggested that it was a courser (Glareolidae) and Lowe 
(1931) supported this view with anatomical evidence. This taxonomic shift was accepted by Peters 
(1934). Jehl (1968) found that the Peltohyas chick was similar to those of Cursorius and Rhinoptilus 
africanus in colour, pattern and feather structure. Lowe's arguments were, however, refuted in the 
thorough anatomical studies by Bock (1964), Yudin (1965,1978), Burton (1974) and Strauch 
(1978), who all concluded that Peltohyas has the anatomy of a typical plover. Evidence from 
behaviour (Maclean 1973, 1976) and ectoparasites (Emerson & Price 1986) point in the same 
direction. However, no one has reconsidered the arguments of Jehl, and no one has discussed where 
this peculiar desert fits into the phylogeny of plovers. 



FURTHER EVIDENCE OF THE CHARADRIJD AFFINITIES OF PELTOHYAS AVSTRAUS 

(AVFS: CHARADRIiriAE) 



The Australian dotterel Peltohyas aus-trotis 
(Gould, 1841) was originally placed in (he plover 
genus Eudromws. Sharpe (1896: 307) erected a 
monutypic genus Peliahyas and subfamily for it, 
but kept it in the Charadriidae. Mathews (1913-14) 
suggested that it was a courser (Glareolidae) and 
Lowe (1931) supported this view with anatomical 
evidence. This taxonomic shift was accepted by 
Peters (1934). WW 0968) found that the Peltohyas 
chick was similar to (hose of Cursorius and 
Rhmoptilus af heart us in colour, pattern and feather 
structure. Lowe's arguments were, however, refuted 
in the thorough anatomical studies by Bock (1964), 
Yudin (1965, 1978), Burton (1974) and Sirauch 
(1978), who all concluded (hat Peltohyas has the 
anatomy of a typical plover. Evidence from 
behaviour (Maclean 1973, 1976) and ectoparasites 
(Emerson & Price 1986) poinf in the same direction. 
However, no one has reconsidered the arguments 
of Jehl, and no one has discussed where this 
peculiar desert bird fits into the phytogeny of 
plovers, 

Wc examined the poorly-made specimen of a 
downy chick on which jehl based his view 
(Australian Museum reg. no. 6!0162) t and have also 
studied two new and better-preserved chicks (South 
Australian Museum reg. nos B 37686 and 38525.) 
and colour slides provided by Mr J. Hobbs and 
slides in the Photographic Index of Australian Birds, 
National Library, Canberra. On the basis of 
comparison with downy young of practically all 
other shorebirds of the World, and some anatomical 
specimens, we hope to reach a more precise 
conclusion concerning the systematic position of 
the Australian dotterel. The anatomical terminology 
follows Baumel (1979), 



The down of Cursorius and Rhinophlus 
(Glareolidae) is very different, resembling down of 
sandgrouse, Pteroclididae (Fjeldsa 1976). In these 
groups, the flattening of the basal portion of the 
ramus continues to (he proximal part of the 
pennulum; the barbules are therefore stiff and nc« 
twisted as in normal avian down. The barbules are 
also packed exceptionally closely, so that each 
ramus with its radii forms a distinct single-plane 
structure resembling a rrunute contour feather. The 
ventral down is, in some of the coursers, very thick 
with extremely long terminal filaments. 

Many plovers of hot and arid climates have short 
down with a somewhat scale-like appearance, which 
apparently misled Jehl (J 968). The SEM study 
shows thai the natal down of Peltohyas is not 
speciaJised in the way shown in coursers. 



Colour Pattern oi the Downy Plumage 

The Peltohyas chick is light pinkish-buff to bght 
fawn with some whitish areas on the hinderown. 
laterally on the dorsal tract, throat and belly, and 
with numerous black markings, the largest of which 
have tawny-buff centres. The general coloration arid 
expression of a pattern resembles that of certain 
coursers, especially Cursorius cursor, and differs 
from that of most plovers. Because of the perfect 
erypais of these chicks, however, we judge the colour 
hues and presence of a pattern a-s such to be 
unreliable as clues of systematic affinity. The precise 
organisation of rhe pattern is less likely DO be 
adaptive, and may instead indicate the genealogical 
affinity (Fjeldsa in press). 



ULT RESTRUCTURE OF THE NATAL DOWN 

Down from the dorsal rraci of three Peltohyas 
chicks was examined by Scanning Electron 
Mkioscope (SEM), and was compared with 
Corresponding down of 72 other species of 
shorebirds. Figure 1 shows SEM micrographs of 
down of Pluvial is, Peltohyas and Cursorius, The 
Peltohyas down closely resembles that of typical 
charadriids, with moderately dense, basally twisted 
radii that alternately turn vent tally and dorsally to 
the ramus, and possess marked nodes near the cell 
borders oi the pennulum, which is relatively long 
(apomorphy of the Charadriidae) There is no 
dextral twisting of the rami, as seen in many 
Ncolupacidae. 








FIGURE I. Drawings made from SEM photos of the 
middle portion of a radius of dorsal natal down ot (impt 
left to right) Pluviahs upnearia. Pelmhyus uusirtilts and 
Cursorius loromnmldtLus. Note thai ihe Pluviahs down 
has been partly turned, to show how alternating pairs of 
cilia turn dorsally and vemrally. 



70 



J. FJELDSA & B NIMStN 



Although the pattern of (he PeUofm 
2 and 3) is lll-dcTined and sorriewiiai variable 
amongst individuals, if generally resemble*; th.n of 
plover „ v ith no indications, of the two big 
patches of RhinopMus etnetus tot the pecuhar latria 
pattern of the chicks of at least Four other courser 
species, Plover-like trails comprise ihe kind of 
sporting, the transverse bands of the hindcrnwn Olid 
the organisation Of markings along the dorsal tract. 
The whitish crescent on the posterior crown is found 
only in a small part of the Chaiadriidae (and in 
PtUYiOMti (Wgypiius). The crescent is pamo 
conspicuous, contrasting with a dork 
Charadr;u> wianops and tncol/ans (fjeldsa in 
press. Fig. 1), Hoplosypterus cayanus and 
Pluviamu', the pattern being less clearly outlined 
lH Pel/ohyas^ C modestus, lirvthrogony.s etnetus 
and probably in Phegornis m'Kchp.Hn and 
Oreophoius ruftcollis, and vciv weak in C 
m '-'''leseefandJae and Anarhynchus jronfaiis. The 
typical sand- and ringed plovers QJ hock 1 1964) have 
instead a white nucha' coll.tr situated below the 
occiput, wtnk- most Pluviatts forms and the desert 
plovers Cttartdriwi mw$nfctftti& HriffJfrv$ venous, 
teseh&tmtftil and mocttunus, the appaientlv i elated 
T'hn\<>r/]yiujiuy\rhscurus\ as well as the lapwing 
Cto&twAa gregiiriu. combine hind-crown crescent 
and nuchal collar. 

The finer details of the paiiern of the Pzltohyu\ 
chick are hard to recognise in other species, but 
indication ue found in several of the at< vc 
mentioned species. The clover- like mark on the 
crown seems unique, bur is possibly indicated in £. 
ufHdts. Such differences 3.s the pebbled appearance 
Of C metQntjp* (reduced marks on the dorsum, 
reinforced black side-line and strong 
countershading), a more disrupted pattern of E. 
',v, 3nd the less regular speckling tn other 



species, are ftte represent 

ed by diffeieW liahll 



modifications 



SOMfc Fl-ATUKbSOF THE A.0111 1 PUUMAOI 

Pettohyux closely resembles the courser 
Rhinopti/us drums in its general desert colours', 
but is more Churmtrius-Wc fa pattern. The unique 

ped breast-band could correspond to the 
ftedtefl oij:-'""V of the breast hand BnH is spebat 
to C melanops, Pei/ohyas agrees with some of the 
plovers that it resenu natal characters, ami 

wnh coursers, .stone-cuili -'.vs. oystereatchers, stilts 

ome other groups in having pale undcrdown 
and a very shu/l UU&I&I aptcnurn 0( \Uc orcv Tru si- 
ate probably primitive character states. Smal] 
•species such as C metunops, iricolluris, and 
tujvatsectnndnir and Eryfhrogonys cine t us agree 
with other plovers {viz. the majority of species) in 
these ffcSpeCts. Because these characters may be 
involved in heat regulation, parallelisms air hkdv 
to oceui- 



Evil komSkei B7AI i 

Jn order ro examine whether the affin 
suggested by plumage characters are compatible 
with airier character sets, vvc examined skeJetons of 
a number of shorebirds, arid used published skeletal 
data. The review of 70 skeletal characters by Sirauch 
(I978) showed very liitk variation within the 
th;»radriidae. Owing to some apparent reversibility, 
and lo rfoUbtfi about Ihe correctness of certain 
os between primitive and derived character 
states, vei v tew Lfiaracters provide hints about the 
relationship oi Pcftohw ro other Charadnidac, 









f K.l ikT 1. HMd* of three Mtohyas ch 



PEIWHYAS ArriNITlI- 



r » 




FIGURE 3. Dorsal colour paikrns of newly-hatched Cfeiclft "' A Chamdrius morineDui, & C Ifes C £ 

cinclus. D. Peffohy^ iMWrtjftfc f. tihtnopulus africanus and fc /?. cinctiu. 



Lack of supraoccipital foramina in Peltohy 
shared by stonc-cuilews, shcathbills, >eedsmpcs, 
certain lapwings, all gulls and curlews. This may 
be a primitive stale, bur may also be conditioned 
by a rather solid construction of the skull. Mtohyas 
shares a somewhat restricted attachment oi 
Musculus rectus capiti with a number ol -.mall 
plovers, including Rrythoetmys unt tus t CkffFOdrkiS 
melanops and nova wee land we and Anarhyrn/uo 
frontalis, It shares a long suprameark process 
(derived state) with several ot i lie plovers with which 
it shares natal characters. \ peculiar broad 
triangular shape of the quadrate bone ot" Peltohyas 
(Bock 1964, Fig. l) we found to be matched 
in Charadhus melanops, bill |l U approached in C 
iricollaris and Hoploxypterm cayanus. The general 
shape of the mandibles of PeitQhyaS is Chamdrius- 
hke (Bock 1964), and paniculaity resembles those 
of C. melanops and irwolluriy 

The systematic unity of the species which 
Peltohyas resembles in natal characters is supported 
by a lack of a certain mavilkipalatine strut in 
Charadrius Iricollaris, marine I Im, duhius and 



Mnilmr. .'/. <:ayanus> Phezomis mttcMi 
Oreoptwius rn/icoltis ami several Vanellus sp 
and by an almost perfect agreement in Strauch 
skeletal characters between the aberrant 
Eryftirogonys cine fits and C melanops. In the 
absence o\' our own anatomical material of E. 
anctus wc have been unable to nmke fWtiTCf 
compaiisons. Bunon (1974) and Straucn (*\r«. c. ) 
present evidence for transferring. H. cayanus from 
the lapwings KG near C haradrim, 

Conclusion 

Our study fails to corroborate J:h!'-, argumen' 
that Peltohvas h.-ts a courser- 1 ike natal plumage. We 
lind n plover-like in all respects, hut fail to find 
indications ol close affinities with the large species 
groups of desert , sand- and ringed plovers, or with 
lapwings, These can be defined by I heir own 
apomorphies, and may represent rather recenl 
radiations. J^el/ohyay shares two unique chaiactci 
stares with C melanops (V- shaped pectoral band 
and triangular quadTatc hone) Yet, we hesitate to 



rl 



1 FJELDSA & B. NIELSEN 



suggest that these are sister caxa within the 
Charadriidae, for all those species with which. 
Feftohyax shares some peculiarities arc rather 
aberrant merabefs of the family, and do not form 
a closely knit group. Some are traditionally placed 
in monotypie genera, ami of those previously 
lumped in Chorodrius, cmctus has now been 
separated in Erythrogonys (Condon 1975), 
melanops in Etseyornis (Schodde 1982), 
novoeseelandiae in Thinornts (OSNZ 1970). The 
distnounon of these aberrant forms covers 
Australia* New Zealand. South Africa and South 
America u. the GondwanaJand comments. Jt seems 
possible, then, that PeJtohyas belongs in a 
paraphyletic .group of species representing an early 
radiation of Charadrius-tiVe birds. 

Our data support the conclusion of Phillips 
(1980), based on behavioural data, that Chamdnus 
bkwetus, C obscurus and C atexandnnus belong 
to the large desert- and sand-plover groups of 
Charadhus. However, Anarhynchus frontalis could, 
in our opinion, belong in the above-mentioned 
ancient assemblage of aberrant southern plover,. 



ACKNO W LEDCMENTTS 

We I hank LP. Poller. J. Rcid and K. Casperson for 
collecting I he two downy chicks of Mtohyas justrutis now 
in the South Australian Museum, and Mr Shane Parker 
tor providing these specimens as i loan, and fot 
commenting on the manuscript. Wc aJso thank the 
curators of birds ai the following institutions for their 
courtesy to connection with museum visits or loans of 
specimens: Ameiiuan Museum of NaturaJ History (New 
York). Academy of Natural Sciences (Philadelphia), 
Australian Museum (Sydney), British Museum (Natural 
History) (Tring)» Carnegie Museum (Pittsburgh), CSIRO 
Australian National Wildlife Collection (Canberra), 
Denver Museum (Ocnvct, Colorado), Field Museum 
(Chicago), Louisiana State University Zoological Museum 
(Baton Rouge), Museed'Histoire Naturclle (Paris), Museo 
de Histofia Natural 'Javier Prado* fLima). Museo de 
Histona NaturaJ 'Bernadino Ricadavia* (Buenos Anes). 
Museo de Histuna Natural (Santiago dc Chile), Royal 
Ontario Museum (Toronto), South Australian Museum 
(Adelaide), Swedish Museum of Natural History 
(Stockholm), and the Zoological Museums of Moscow and 
Oslo. Slides of wader chicks were kindly supplied by V. 
Drifter, IN. Dreyer, J. Hobhs, A.C, Kemp, GL. Maclean. 
G. Moon and E. Tbom.w 



REfERENOlS 



BAUMEL. L 1979. Nomina anatomic* avium. Academic 

Press, London. 
BOCK1, Wj, 1964. The systematic position of the 

Australian dotterel, Pettohyas austratis. Emu 63 

383-404. 
BURTON, RJX 1974. "Feeding and the feeding 

Apparatus in Waders: a Study of Anatomy and 

Adaptations in the Charadrii' British Museum (Nat 

Hist.), London. 
CONDON, N.H. J975 Checklist of the Birds of Australia. 

J, Non-Passerines \ RAOLf, Melbourne 
EMERSON. JCT. & PRICE. R,D. 1986. Two new spcc.es 

Df Quadriceps (Mallophaga. Phitoptcndae) from 

Australia Proc Entomol. Soc. Wash. 38: 93-97 
FJELDSA, J. 1976. The systematic affinities ol 

sandgrouscs. Pteroclididac. VUlensk. Meddr. dartsk 

noiurh Foren. 139: 179-243. 
FJELDSA 1 in press. Slow evolution of neossoptlle 

plumages. Proc, XIX tni, Orn. Congr. Ottawa. 1986. 
JEHL, Mt, Jr. 1968. Relationships of the Charadrii 

(shorebirds); a faxonomic study based on color 

patterns of the downy young Mem. S. Diego Soc, nal 

Hisf. No. 3: J-53. 
LOWE. PR. 193 L An anatomical review of (he Naders* 

(Tc)matomorphae), with special reference to tl.e 

families, subfamilies, and genera within the suborders 

Lirnicolae, Grui Limicolae and Lan-Limu joJ« Ibis 

1931: 712-771, 
MA< LEAN. G.l. 1973 A review of the biology of the 

Australian desert waders, SMtiaand Peltohvas. Emu 

73:61-70. 



MACLEAN. O L. 1976. A field study of the Australian 

dotterel. Emu 76: 207-215 
MATHEWS, G.M. I9LV The Bird?: of Australia 3' H T. 

and G Witherby, London. 
OSNZ (Ornithological Society of New Zealand) 197U. 

•Annotated Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand* 

A.H & A-W Reed, Wellington. 
PETERS. J.L. 1934. "Check-list of Birds of the World, Vol, 

2/ Harvard Unix Press, Cambridge, Mass 
PHILLIPS, R.E 1980. Behaviour and systematic* of New 

Zealand plovers. Emu 80 177-197. 
SCHODDE. R J9S2. Origin, adaptation and evolution 

or birds in arid Australia. In W.R, Barker & P.J.M. 

Grmisdale (Eds) "Evolution of the Flora and Fauna 

of Arid Australia', Pp. 193 224. Peacock Publications 

Adelaide. 
SHARPE. R.B. (Ed.) 1896, "Catalogue of the Birds in ih<- 

Collections of the British Museum, Vol. 24 ' British 

Museum, London 
STRAUCH, J.C., Jr. 1978. The phylogeny of the 

Charadrii formes (Aves): a new estimate using the 

method or character compatibility analysis. Trans. 

root. Soc. Umd 34: 263-345. 
YUDJN, K A 1965. (Phytogeny and classification of the 

Charadriiformes). Muna SSSR fN.S.) No. 91. Birds 

U, Part J, No. I (in Russian). 
YUD1N. KA 1978. Sistetnatitcheskoje polozheni>e 

Pelwhyas auslralis Gould i jestestvjennaja gran] 

me*hdu gruppami Linncnl.-je i Laro-Limicofac 

(Charadriiformes, Aves). Sistematika, Morfoligija i 

Biolopiia Puts. Leningrad: 1-34. 



J. FJELDSA, Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen, Un.versitetsparken 15, DK-2100 
Copenhagen, Denmark and R NIELSEN. .Spireavej 4, Havnbjerg, DK-6430 Nordborg, Denmark 
Rec, S Ans(. StUi 23(1). 69-72, 1989. 



SUPPLEMENTARY DESCRIPTION OF HETERODISPUS LONGISETOSUS 

(WOMERSLEY, 1955) (ACARI: TARSONEMINA) A SCUTACARID SPECIES 

FROM MUTTON BIRD NESTS IN SOUTHERN AUSTRALIA 



E. Ebermann 



Summary 



Examination of the type series of the scutacarid mite Heterodispus longisetosus (Womersley,1955), 
showed that important morphological details were neglected in the original description. It is thus 
appropriate to publish a supplementary description of the well-preserved material. I should like to 
express my thanks to Dr David C. Lee, South Australian Museum, for putting the type series at my 
disposal. 



SUPPLEMENTARY DESCRIPTION OF HETERODISPUS UMGISETOSUS WOMTMSLEW 1955) 
(ACARI: TARSONEM1NA) A SCUTACARID SPECIES FROM MUTTON BIRD NESTS IN 

SOUTHERN AUSTRALIA 



Examination of the type series of the scutacarid 
mile Heterodispus longisetosus (Womersley, J955), 
showed that important morphological details were 
neglected in the original description. It is thus 
appropriate to publish a supplementary description 
of the weJ I -preserved material. 1 should like la 
express my thanks to Dr David C. Lee, South 
Australian Museum, for putting the type series at 
my disposal. 

Material examined: 9 -Holotype and 39 
9-paratypes. In all there are 10 slides; slide no. 
N1987155: holotype- 9 (marked) as well as further 
499; slide no. N1987J56: 299; slide no. N1987I57: 
5 99 ; slide no, N 1 9871 58: 4 99 ! slide no. N1987J59: 
499 ; slide no. N1987160: 5 99 ; slide no. NI987161: 
499, slide no. N1987162: 499 I slide no. N1987163: 
3 99; slide no. NI987164: 499. 



Heterodispus longisetosus (Womersley, 1955) 

Variatipes longisetosus Womersley, 1955: 429, Fig. 

10A-B 

Heterodispus longisetosus (Womersley, 1955): 

Mahunka 1965: 363, 381, Table 4, Fig. 13, 14; 

Mahunka 1967: 1299; Mahunka 1977: 96. 

Supplementary description 

Body size and integument; Owing to preparation, 
the animals are in different degrees of extension; 
for this reason, body length will be neglected. 
Clypeus width in iffii: 177-247 (holotype 222); x 
(q- 35) 207; s-20, 25;v = 9, 78. Width of posterior 
sternal plate in pm ( measured on the widest part 
m rhc region of setae 3c: 90-127 (holotype 110); x 
(n = 37) 106; s = 10, 03; v~9, 46. Entire body surface 
is finely punctated. 

Dorsum (Fig. 1): Free edge of clypeus with radial 
stripes. Setae cl and c2 with hair tubes. Cupulae 
ia and ip rounded. 

Venter (Fig. 2, a): Illustration shows relative 
length of the ventral setae and their pinnation. 
Posterior genital sclente is distinctly wider than 
long. 

Setae: Setae psl and ps2 are pinnate; ps3 is 
present, at least half as long as psl and pb2, smooth 
(Fig. 1). TVichobothnum has a thin stalk and 
clubbed end with fine scales; trichobothrial setae 
are ihe same length (Fig. 3, a). 

Legs: Leg I (Fig. 2, b-e): Formula of setae 
(solemdia in parentheses): trochanter J. femur 2, 
genu 4, tibiotarsus 16 (4) Tibiotarsus distal wiih 
two setae sockets, no claw. Solcnidia 
V2>^i>^2=^i- Leg H (Fig. 3, b): Formula of 





V 




UIQJ I: 





FIGURE I, Heterodispus longisetosus, 9 (holotype). 
dorsal view; setae psl psi in higher magnification. 

setae: trochanter I, femur 3, genu 3, tibia 4(1), 
Tarsus 6(1). Tarsus with small claws and pulvillus. 
Leg III (Fig. 3, c); Formula of setae: trochanter 1, 
femur 2, genu 2, tibia 4(1), Tarsus 6. Tarsus with 
small claws and pulvillus. Leg IV (Fig. 3, d): 
Formula of setae: trochanter 1, femur 2 ? genu 1 T 
tibia 3, tarsus 4. Tibia and tarsus almost completely 
fused. Tarsus shortened; praetarsus strongly 
reduced, claw absent. 

Variability: The material examined is not 
significantly variable for systematically relevant 
characteristics. 

Systematic position 

Heterodispus longisetosus resembles, mainly due 
to the rudimentary tarsi IV, the species H. 
conquassatus Mahunka, 1972, H. mussardi 
Mahunka, 1975 and H. reduetus Mahunka, 1971. 
but differs from the first two in different positions 
of the setae 4a as well as in the relative length of 
the body setae H, longisetosus differs from H 



74 



E LBLRMANN 



. '"v 1 







ZQim 









Kfl 



• I 




I . 



FIGURE 2, Heterodispus longisctosus, «;• ; a, ventral >elae 
(holotype); b, leg 1 in ventrolateral view; c-e, tibiotarsus 
I in different views (only distal setae are drawn) 

reducius in the form of setae ps3 as well as in body 
and leg setae. 

Re murks 

Although the genus Heterodispus has only 26 
species, the taxonomic problems are substantial, for 
the same reasons given by Ebermann (1988) for the 
genus Impanpes. The problem for I he student of 
these species is the difficulty in differentiating new 
species from known material, The mam reason lor 
this is (he lack of necessary details in the original 
descriptions. A first step to improving this situation 
would be generic revisions and, in some cases, 
supplementary descriptions of uncertain species are 
urgently needed. A further problem, which could 
also affect the genus Heterodispus, is that female 

R ii BR 

EBERMANN, E. 1988. Imparipes (Imparipes) 
pstlaphidorum n. sp., a new scutacarid species phoreiic 
upon African beetles (Acari, Scutacaridae, Coleoptera, 
Pselaphidae). Acaro/ogia 29: 34 42. 

MAHUNKA, S. 1965. Identification key lor the species 
of the family Scutacaridae (Acan: Tarsonemini). Acta 
/.not. Acad. Sci. Hung. 11; 353-401. 

MAHUNKA, S. 1967. A survey of ihe seutacand ( 'Acari 
Tarsonemini) fauna o\' Australia. Aust.. J. Zoo!. 15. 
J299-1323. 

MAHUNKA, S. 1971. Tarsonemina (Acari) species from 
India. The scientific results of Dr. Gy. T6pal% 
....'Meetings in India. 4. Acta Zool AmJ S. ■ i. h'u/ig, 
17: 11-49. 

MAHUNKA, Jy. 1972. Ttos Rt» survey of the Tarsonemid 

£ L'BFRMANN, Instltut fur Zoologie der 1. 1 niver.it at Gra/, 
UrtiversilflLsplau 2, A-8010 Graz. Austria. Rec. S. Aust. 




figure t\ tteierofttspus longfsefostis, 9; a, 

tncliobothrium; b, leg U (ventral); c, leg III (ventrolateral); 
d. leg IV (ventiolateral.l. (h, c and d are drawn from various 
specimens.) 

polymorphism occurs in scutacarids, first 
demonstrated by Norton (1977). New work of mine 
involving, among other things, the variation in the 
claws of leg I as well as in the setation o\^ body and 
legs, has already shown a gradual and varying 
female dimorphism for various species of several 
genera (Ebermann in prep.). Female dimorphism 
in the genus Heterodispus has not yet, however, been 
demonstrated. 

LNCLS 

(Acan) r.iun:i u! New Guinea, I. Acta Zool. Acad. Sci. 

Hunt. 18: 41-92. 
MAHUNKA, S. 1975. Neue und interessante Milben aus 

dem Genfer Museum XV. Beitrag zur Tarsonemiden- 

Fauna von Sudinditii (Acari). Rev. Suisse de Zool. 82; 

495 506. 
MAHUNKA, S. 1977. Beitrage zur Kenntnix der 

Systematic Taxonomic, Ontogenic, Ukologie und 

Verb rei lung der Tarson em iden, III. Fol Em. Hung 

(8fC uov.) 30: 85-97. 
NORTON, R.A. 1977. An example of phoretomorphs in 

the mire family Scutaeaiidac. J. Georgia Entomol. Soc. 

12: 185-186. 
WOMERSLEY, H. 1955. The Acarina fauna of Mutton 

bird's nests on a Bass Strait Island. Aust J. Zool 1; 

412-438 

Abteilung fur Morphologie/Okologie, 
Mui, 23(1 1: 73-74, 1%9. 



* « 




VOLUME 23 PART 1 
MAY 1989 
ISSN 0081-2676 

CONTENTS: 
ARTICLES 



- t 



■ I 



A 




._ i 



** 



¥ r 



1 G. G. SCOTT, K. C. RICHARDSON & C. P. GROVES 

Skull morphometries of Lasiorhinus latifrons (Owen 1845) (Marsupialia: 
Vombatidae) 






P. GREENSLADE 

Checklist of free-living marine nematodes from Australia, Macquarie Island and 
Heard Island 

I. AHMAD & S. KAMALUDDIN 

A revision of the Australian genus Diemenia Spinola (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: 

Pentatominae) 



33 I. AHMAD & S. KAMALUDDIN 

A new genus and species of the Diemenia group (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: 
Pentatominae) from Australia, with cladistic analysis of some related genera 

39 E. G. MATTHEWS & J. T. DOYEN 

A reassessment of the Australian species of Menephilus Mulsant (Coleoptera: 
Tenebrionidae) with descriptions of two new genera and a larva and pupa 

51 L. A. HERCUS 

Preparing grass witchetty grubs 

59 R. M. BERNDT 

Aboriginal fieldwork in South Australia in the 1940s and implications for the 
present 



NOTES 



69 J. FJELDSA & B. NIELSEN 

Further evidence of the charadriid affinities of Peltohyas australis (Aves: 
Charadriidae) 

73 E. EBERMANN 

Supplementary description o( Heterodispus longisetosus (Womersley, 1955) (Acari: 
Tarsonemina) a scutacarid species from mutton bird nests in southern Australia 





Published by the South Australian Museum, 
North Terraee, Adelaide, South Australia 5000 



THE MAMMALS OF NORTH-WESTERN SOUTH AUSTRALIA 



P. B. Copley, C. M. Kemper & G. C. Medlin 



Summary 

In 1985 a three- week survey was made in parts of north-western South Australia to ascertain which 
species of mammals occurrred in the region in the past and which of these are still present. Trapping 
and mist-netting yielded four species of small ground mammals and eight species of bats. Another 
11 species were observed or their recent signs recorded. Taphozous hilli was collected and recorded 
for the first time in the state. Aboriginal names for mammals were recorded and verified from older 
published information. The Aboriginal people confirmed that many species no longer inhabited the 
region. Approximately 23 species of mammals were identified in owl pellets and surface bone 
deposits. Pseudantechinus macdonnellensis was recorded for the first time in South Australia but 
only in the oldest deposit which contained several species believed to be extinct in the state. The 
remains of Mus domesticus were found in owl pellets and loose material at all four collection sites. 



THE MAMMALS OF NORTH-WESTERN SOUTH AUSTRALIA 

B COPLEY, i M. KEMPER & G C MEDi IN 

COPl.fc'Y. PH., KLMI'KP.t M.&MLDI IN Ci.C imThomifl I "• '"<■>' ** '.n-n Boilltl 
Australia. AV, v 4ttfi Mta 13(2); 7M& 

In IP85 y three -week survey was made m parts of north-western South Australia to ascertain 
which species of mammals occurred in rhe region in rhc past and which of these are still present. 
Tapping rod i.ust -netting y.rliU -j lour species of small ground mammals and eight species of 
bats Another M species were observed or iheir recent signs recorded. hiphozous hilti was collected 
and recorded for rJlC ti.M time in the state Aboriginal n«mes for mammals were recorded and 
vf.iticd from older published .niunnanon. The Aboriginal people confirmed that many species 
no longer inhabited the region. Approximately 23 species of mammals were identified in owl 
pellets and surface biSne dflpo«rs, Pseudaniecfiintia rftucdonHelteflffi was recorded foi the Brat 
iime in South Australia bui onfe ft Che 'fides! deposit which contained -.ew.al species believed 
to be extinct I tt£ 1 he remains of KfUS domesiicus were found in owl pellets and loose 

ituterial ai all foil! eollec!n»n sites 

Forty-three species of indigenous RtAJlWVkb have now been rccoicled from the north-west of 
South Auat&lft bfUf only 20 (46':; ) of these are eonsideied extant. Petrogale lulcra/i? appears 
io he declining in numheis. v»iih Ofltj a few populanom. remaining. "We recommend that these 
be monitored closely and thai step* be taken to protect them. 

Rft Copley, National Park*, and Wildlife Service. Oepartmem of Lnvtronment and Planning. 
55Grenre)j Stmt, Adelaide South Aushaha 5000; CM. Kemper. South Australian Museum, 
Nonh Terrace Adelaide, South Australia 5000 and G.C. Mcdlin. MawioTJ High School, C olion 
Avenue, Move, South Australia 5048. Manuscript received 29 March 19KS. 



Many and /one mammal species have undergone 
drastic changes in distribution and star 
• :,nn -n man first settled Australia (Jones 
1923-25, l tnlaysoa 1961; Burbidge & Fuller 1979, 
1984 Sirahan 1983; Bui nui.ee et a!. 1987; Burbidce 
et al. 198$. I he magnitude ul '.his decline will 
not be fully realised until the original 
faunas become better known through more studies 
i.l sui Ue hone deposit fl and owl pellets. From these 
sources, Morton & Bayncs (I1MJS) have concluded 
that the ex ram species, at least among rodents and 
pOlypcdtcdotll marsupials, are much reduced in 
both distribution and abundance when compared 
with pre-Furopeau times. 

As early as the mid -1920s, Jones (1923-25) 
documented the alarming decline of many South 
Australian species and in 1961 Fintayson concluded 
that the decline was continuing. At the present, time 
22 (21%) o( die 103 non-marine, native mammal 
species tecorded in South Australia are presumed 
extinct in the stair | Aslin 1985). Much of our 
know ledge of the mammals of north -wester n South 
Australia (and m fact much of central Australia) 
is due to the work of Finlayson 0935. 196J). He 
last recofdfid many ot he species now believed 
extinct in the state iff] the period from 1 ( '31 to 1933, 

Otbet Sllldl^ :-!:n-. -od since I" lnlayson's tunc 
have reported on the mammals of the norlh-we .t. 
These include 'i... BUkl Expedition of 1891-1892 
(Stirling $ 7iei.' 1892), tbe Government NoithAVest 
Expedition of WM (Basedow 1915), the White 



Expedition of 1914 (White 1915) and the records of 
I'hilpott & Smyth (1967). 

Fiulayson often documented the Aboriginal 
names for the mammal species he discussed. More 
recently. Burbidge & Fuller 0979, 1984), Burbidge 
et ai (1987) and Burbidge el at. (1988), have sought 
information on the past and present status of 
mammals in the desert regions of central Australia 
in general and Western Australia in particular. 
Museum skins, to which the Aborigines could 
immediately relate, consistently elicited the names 
reported by FWaysoa il%n. This survey technique 
was also adopted by Friend el ai (1982) when 
looking for numbats (Afyrmecobius fascial as) and 
by Southgate (in press) when carrying out research 
OH bilbics {Macrons fagot is). 

In September 1985 we visited the Pitjantjatjara 
lands of north-western South Australia to conduct 
a rapid survey of the region's mammal fauna. The 
survey utilised three different methods: 1) collecting 
skeletal remains from owl roosts and surface bone 
deposits; 2) observing and/or capturing extant 
Species; and Jj obtaining information from local 
Aborigines. The results of the survey were then 
compared with previous records from Australian 
museums and published literature. 

Materials: ano MFIHoIj 

Figure I illustrates the route taken, sites sampled. 
Aboriginal communities visited and other features 



76 



P. B. COPLEY, C. M. KEMPER & G. C MEDLIN 



I* 



lOMH-V 



mSO« 



W.A. 




SOUTH AUSTRALIA 



Ml II IRIUfl 



-,r 



FIGURE 1. Area surveyed Tor mammals during the September 1985 trip to the north-west of South Australia. 

areas searched for museum records; route taken; ▲ mountain; • collection/observation site. Aboriginal 

communities visited ( ■ ) were Mimili (Evcrard Park), Amata (Musgrave Park), Pipalyatjara (Ml Davies Camp), 
Iwantja (Indulkana), Pukaija (Ernabella) and Kalka. Numbers are collection/observation sites and refer to localities 
listed in Table L 



of interest in the survey area. Table 1 lists and 
describes the localities where our specimens were 
collected or where important observations were 
made. 

Museum collections at the Australian Museum 
(AM), Western Australian Museum fWAM), Central 
Wildlife Collection of the Northern Territory 
Museum of Arts and Sciences (NTM) and South 
Australian Museum (SAM) were searched for 



previous mammal records from the area delineated. 
However, only the most recent specimens are 
referred to in the 'Results' section. 

Owl pellets and surface bone deposits 

Skeletal material was collected from five owl 
roosts at four sites in the study area. Whole or 
fragmentary pellets were dissected in the manner 
described by Medlin (1977). Their contents and the 



TABLE I. Localities where mammals or mammal remains were recorded during the 1985 survey. Locality numbers 
1-19 are shown on Fig, I. Aboriginal names refer to general region when applicable 



Site 
no. 



Locality 



Lat./long. 



L Warkarrecoordinna Roekhole, S.A. 

2. 1 km N Victory Well, S.A. 

3. 3 km SE Betty Well, S.A. 

4. 0.5 km E Betty Well, S.A. 

5. Eteamerta Hill, S.A, 

6. 25 km N Artoonanna Hill. S.A. 

7. 7 km SE Mt Cuthbert, S.A. 

8. II km SSW Mt Woodroffc, S.A. 

9. 18 km SE Mt Davenport, S.A 

10. 8 km SW Mt Davenport, S.A 

11. 4 km NNW Mt Woodward, S.A. 

12. 2 km 1 Mt Caroline, S.A. 

13. 3 km NW Mt Crombie, S.A. 

14. 8 km ENE Njungunja Roekhole. S.A. 

15. 4 km W Kapi Kanbina Roekhole, S.A. 

16. 6 km W Kapi Kanbina Roekhole, S.A 

17. Katjawara Soak, S.A. 

18. 15 km E Ml Davies Camp, S.A. 

19. 7 km NW Mt Cockburn, NX 



Aboriginal 
name 



26 59 'S 133 15' E 


War karri kurti-nya 


27'0VS 132' 30' E 




27-03'S 132' 27 'E 




27'02'S 132' 26 F. 




27 08 'S 132 '13 " E 




26 44'S 132' 38' E 




26 (F'S 132'06'E 


Wamikata 


26'24'S 13T42" R 


near 


26'21'S 131' 28' E> 
2617'S 131 15 F; 


Erlywanjawanja 


Roekhole 


26 OI'S 131 04 E 




26-21 'S 130 51 ' E 


Ulkiya 


26' 38 'S 130*48 J L 


Ulpurra 


26 n lO'S 130' 30' E 




26'08'S 130*04' 1 


Kapi Kanpi 


1U OS'S 130 V 1 


Kapi Kanpi 


2h 02 S 129 '40' E 




26 US 129 17 E 




25'55'S 129 21 ' E 





MAMMAI S I 'I NOKTH-WESTERN S \ 



n 



loose bones collected from roosr floors Hmt 
identified using museum reference material as well 
as published descriptions of cranial AJenrary 
measurements and features Counts of left or right 
dentaries or maxillae yielded minimum numbers of 
individuals. No attempt was made to identify hair. 

Mammal capture and observiifioii 

Small lerrcstnal mammals were captured in pitfall 
hui>s and/or baited, metal box traps (Elliott 
1 1. tic Company. 9 < 9 > 30 cm) set at six sites 
(I 2, JO, 13, 15/16; r-'ig. I). Six nights qf box 
trapping gave 675 trapnights and seven nights of 
pitfall trapping gave 17U pumglus. 

Mist-nets and harp traps were set at nine sites 
(total of 12 nights) in likely bai fly ways u- along 
creek beds* over tanks and dams ttf around 
ilowei lug trees Specimens were collected by hand 
from caves at three sites (4, 7. 18; Tig 1) 

Animals were killed with nembutal then weighed 
and measured before tissues (liver, kidney, heart) 
were removed for later isozyme electrophoresis. 
Specimens were fixed m K)% tomiaLin and later 
translened to 70% ethanol for storage. Identi- 
fications were verified by isozyme electrophoresis 
for the following species; Taphuzous hdti t 
Scotorepens balsiuni, Epiesicus baverstocki, Epte- 
sieus final ysotii. Sminfhopsis ooldea, Nmguui ndei, 
Psertdomys het mannsburgensis, 

Observations were made of medium to large 
mammals and their scats and tracks were noted. 

Aboriginal knowledge 

Interviews were held at sis Aboriginal 
communities (Fig. I) where (lie languages u .cd were 
primarily Piijarujatjara and Yankunytjaljara, with 
some Ngaanyatjarra and Ngaaijatjana. At each 
community wc showed the people museum skins 
of a range of mammal species, as well as a portion 
of a suck-nest rat's riesn with a view to learning, the 
local name(s) of each species, its habits and its past 
and present status in the region. Elder community 
members usually contributed the most information. 
These included IWTP men .m-l one woman who acted 
as guides for jjfittB o\ the survey 

Orthography o! \borf$lnal names follows that 
used by Burbidge tt uL I W8). 



Rrsntrs 

Owl pellets and surface bime deposits 

Twenty- 1 hree species of mammals were identified 
from owl pellets and *tfl [&Ci tone deposits (Table 
2). ()t these species, 17 wcivin loose material only, 
three were in pellets only ami i .o wee In tolh types 
of samples. Two spi da.;yurid marsupial-, 

{Sminthopsis ooldea and Nin&tui "dcf) and two 



species of rodents {Mus clomest icus and Pseudomys 
cf. hermanmburgensis) dominated the samples in 
terms of abundance of individuals and representa- 
tion ai three or four sites, Inverse proportions o 
\f domesticus and P. cf. hermannsburgensis were 
noted at sites 9 and 12. Dasyunds were less 
numerous than rodents. In addition, at least five 
species pf hais were recorded; however only CtHtfi- 
nolobus gouhHi. Epiesicus finlaysoni and E. ba\>&- 
stocki were found in pellets. Those bats occurring 
in loose material (including a further two specie:- 1 
may not have been the prey of owK 

Owl pellets from sites 6, 9 and 12 were, at the 
time of collection, intact > black and svith the shiny, 
mucous c..:ii still relatively unchanged. The pellets 
were lourid on the surface — not partly buried — 
and had not been trampled or crushed by anm 
which had access to the sites. In addition, on return, 
pcllcrs in sealed plastic bags were found later in 
contain adults of rhc clothes moth, Tirieuli? 
bisselliellu. These factors together support our view 
that the pellets were of relatively recent origin t\c, 
probably deposited with in the past 12 months. On 
this basis, Pseudomys desctior, which was present 
in pellet material 1 2, as well as in loose 

material at sites G and 12, is probahly Still enam 
in the region 

Conversely, we believe that the deposit of surface 
bone material at site 6, north of Artoonanna Hill, 
is the oldest that we sampled All material found 
there was fragmentary and imbedded in sediment. 
Four extinct species — Chaeropus ecaudaius, 
Pseudomys gouldti, Lepordlus apiculis and 
Nofomys longicmtdmus — were identified in this 
material. A further five species were recorded there. 
but not at other sites (see Table 2). 

Mus domesticus remains were found at all sites* 
including site 6. The minimum number of specicv 
in loose material was 33, that m pellets was 9. Site 
9 near Mt Davcnpon, was the richest site for b*t 
remains The 'minimum number ot .:,pccie^has been 
used m summaiising the owl pellet data as skull 
material referable to Pseudomys hen turn usburpemis 
and Nofomys alexis is often difficult to (listing) i>---<> 
from skull characteristics of similar-sized 
Pseudomys or Noiomys species {e.g. P bolomi and 
/V. Jusniv). In these- instances known distributions 
and captures of live animals close to the sites were 
taken into account in making the linal determina- 
tion. This also applies to the tentative identification 
o f Smtnt h op:, is cf. h ir t ipes, ffa t w h i c h o n I y a s i n gfe 
denrarv was found 

Captures and observations 

Four species oj small ground mammals and e 
species ol bats were captured during I he surv< 
These arc detailed in the annotated species lisi whk a 
foil" 



78 



P. B. COPLEY, C. M. KEMPER & G. C. MEDLIN 



TABLE 2. Mammal species recorded in whole or broken owl pellets (right) and loose bone material (left) from owl 
roosts in north-western South Australia. Values are minimum number of individuals. All samples from site 6 were 
loose material; all from site 19 were whole pellets. See Table 1 and Fig. 1 for location of sites. 



Species 


6 


9 


Site 


no. 




12 




19 


DASYURfDAE 


















A n let h in omys Ian ig er 


1 





















Dasycercus cristicauda 


2 





















Ningaui ridei 


1 


1 


9 




4 




9 


-> 


Pseudan lech in us macdon nellens is 





2 

















Sminthopsis cf hirtipes 























S. ooldea 


i 


10 














1 



PERAMELIDAL 

Chaeropus ecaudulus 



CHIROPTERA Gn. sp. 
Chulinolobus sp. 
C. gouldii 

Eplesicus finiuysoni 
E. ba vers toe ki 
Mortnopterus sp. 
Nyctophilus geoffroyi 

MURIDAE 

Lcggadina forresti 

Leporillus apicahs 

Mus domesticus 

Noiomys sp. 

Notomys cf alexis 

N, longicaudatus 

Pseudomys desert or 

P. gouldii 

Pseudomys sp./Notomys sp. 

P. cf. hermunnsburgensis 

Ratius vi/losissimus 

LEPORIDAE 

Orycto tag us cun icu /us 

No. of whole pellets 
Total no. of individuals 
Min. no. of species/site 






3 

















1 


























1 











l 

















J 














2 

















1 


Q 


o 


o 





2 


o 














2 

















26 


1072 


204 


163 


512 


4 


116 




















2 








3 





7 


o 





o 








I 





o 


3 


9 


o 


23 





o 











66 

















35 


123 


44 


15 


239 


3 


2 


















286 
14 



M 



48 


ISO 


19 259 


188 773 


ii 5 


7 6 







Annotated list of mammal species 

The following list summarises information 
obtained from all available sources. It includes (he 
Aboriginal namc(s) for each species and, where 
possible, Aboriginal knowledge about each species' 
past and present distribution. Species marked with 
an asterisk were not shown to Aborigines as either 
museum skins or live-caught individuals. The last 
known record for each species within the study area 
— either as a museum specimen or as an 
observation referred to in the literature — is also 
given. 



MONOTREMATA 

Tachyglossidae 

*Tachyg/ossus aeuleatus, short-beaked echidna 
Aboriginal names; tjilkamaria, tjirdya 
Last record: 1966 (Philpott & Smyth 1967); this 
survey (droppings, diggings) 
Comments: We found echidna diggings and 
droppings on nearly every hill we climbed during 
our travels. However we did not encounter the 
animal itself. Aborigines from Mimili and Amata 
used both names but tjilkamarta was used 
elsewhere. A woman from Mimili told us how the 



MAMMALS OL NORTH WFSTLRN S.A 



' 



animal was killed and the meat was then removed 
Irom the ventral surface. 
Regional status: widespread 



MARSUPIAMA 

POLVPROTODONTA 

Pasyuridae 

*Antechinomys Ioniser, kultarr 
Aboriginal name* mingkiri (see Sminf/wpsis spp.) 
(Burbidge ei al. 1988) 

Last record: 1933 (SAM); this survey (loose bone 
material) 

Comment This is another Species recorded 
recently in adjoining areas to the south-east, west 
and north h is probably extant in the north-west 
Of the state. 
Regional status; indeterminate 

Dasycercus cristicauda, mulgara 
Aboriginal names: murrtja. nyalurii (Finlayson 
l%l, Burbidge el al. J 988), mingkiri (this survey. 
Burbidge & Fuller 1979, Burbidge et al. 1988). 
last record: <I933 (SAM), this survey (loose bone 
material) 

Comments: A1J people we spoke with used the 
word mingkiri for most small dasyunds and 
Todents. However, specimens with brush Tails were 
usually given other names as wdl. Unfortunately, 
there was no consistency with the use of these other 
names and we have to rely on Finlayson (1961) and 
Burbidge et al. (1988) as indicators of accuracy. 
We were told the name murrtja at Mimili and 
Amata in reference to a specimen of Dasyuroides 
byrnei and at Kalka (he name nyaturh was applied 
to a specimen of Pseudantechinus macdonnel- 
lensis. Both names Finlayson <!9M) referred to 
Dasycercus cristicauda and this has been 
supported by the work of Burbidge el al. (1988) 
At Kalka and Pipalyatjara* our specimen o\ D. 
cristicauda elicited the name anoxia which 
Finlaysori referred to Pseudomys (Leggadina) 
waitet (- Leggadina /orresti). Thus it would 
appear that the names are still known but are now 
no longer applied accurately, either because the 
animals no longer exist in the region or because 
they are no longer hunted and/or encountered by 
the local people. 

Regional status: Although not recorded for the 
region for more than 50 years, this species has been 
recorded nearby, to the south-east, west and north 
in the past 15 years. Most recently u lias been 
captured near Avers Rock in Uhiru National Park 
(Master 1989), il is therefore likely that more 
detailed survey work will find this species within 
i he survey area. Us status is therefore inde- 
terminate. 



*Dasyurus geojjruii, western quoll 
Aboriginal name: parrtjarta 
Last record: <1931 ISAM) (see also Johnson & 
Roff 1982) 

Comments: At Mimili the name was included 
(unsolicited) in a list o\" the kuka ( - meat animals) 
which an informant's father used to hunt. At 
Pipalyatjara one old man told us that he used to 
catch parnjana by spearing them while they were 
cornered in a hollow in a ttee. Both informants 
said that this species had been gone lor a long time 
Regional status: extinct 

Ningaui ridei, wongai ningaui 
Aboriginal name; mingkiri {see Sminthopm spp ,i 
Last record. 1974 (WAM); this survey (captured! 
Comments: This species was captured in pitfall 
traps at sites 2, 13 and 16 (Fig. 1). Single specimen* 
were captured at sites 2 and 16 and five individuals 
were captured at site 13. They were caught in 
habitats ranging from tussock and hummock 
grassland to desert shrubland, on. sandy or rubbley- 
loam soils. Triodiasp. hummocks were present at 
each site. 

Regional status: widespread and probably 
common 

Pseudantechinus macdonneltensis, fat-tailed 
antechinus 

Aboriginal name: nyulurtiC?) (Buxbidge & Fuller 
1979) 

Last record: this survey (loose bone material) 
Comments: This species was First recorded in 
South Australia from owl pellet deposits at sites 
9 and 12 (this study). As it was found only in loose 
skeletal material (rather than intact pellets) it is 
likely that these are old specimens. Aborigines at 
Kalka used the name nyalurii lor this species and 
probably confused it with D. crisiicauda. 
Regional status. As this species is common in rocky 
ranges of adjoining parts ot Western Australia and 
the Northern Territory, further detailed survev 
work may find it in the survey area. Its status is 
therefore indeterminate 

Sminlliopsis spp.. dunnarts 

Aboriginal name, mingkiri — a generic term for 

all small dasyurids and mice 

*Sminthopsis hirtipes, hairy- footed dunnart 
Last record this survey (loose bone material) 
Comment. No previous record from the region but 
recorded recently from the Great Victoria Desei | 
to the south and west and Uluru National Park 
to the north 

Regional status: indeterminate, but probably 
present in. sandy habitats across the study area. 
(The recently described desert dunnart, S. 



80 



R H. COPLEY. C. M KEMPER & G. C. Ml i i t 



youngsoni, which occur* with & hirnpes in sandy 
areas of Uluru National Park, may also eventually 
he found in north-western South Australia). 

*$Onnlhopsis macrourci. stripe-faced dunnart 
Last record: <1975 (SAM owl pellet material) 
Regional status: indeterminate, but probably 
locally common in suitable habitats 



Sminthopsis auldeu, Ooldea dunnart 
Last record: < 1 975 (SAM owl pellet material); this 
survey (captured) 

Comments: Three individuals were captured in 
pitfall traps at sue 15 (near Kapi Kanpi, Pig. I). 
They were trapped in .?n open woodland of Hakea 
ivoryi and Acacia v^trophtolaiu with 
understorcy oi Aristida sp. The two males captured 
both had enlarged prostate glands (evidence of 
mating condition) and the female showed signs oi 
having mated recently, btl! had no pouch young. 
Regional status: probably widespread and common 

Myrmocotriidae 

Myrmecobitis fasciatus\ n u m bat 
Aboriginal name: watpurti 
Last record: <J936 (SAM) 
Comment: The numbat is a widely known species 
in the Pitjantjatjara Lands, mostly through 
association with dreaming stones, especially in the 
Lvcrard Ranges. However, with the exception of 
observations from a lew older men, first-hand 
accounts of This animal were difficult to obtain. 
One old man at Kalka (about 70 years of agei told 
us that he knew it from an area south of the Mann 
Ranges, but had only seen it when he was a boy. 
Other old men at Mimili could remember the 
watpurti but also only from theu childhood They 
said that it used to occur around Mmtabjc and 
Mimili. All who knew u said that it was good kuko 
(meat). 

Friend ei at. (1982) have summarised the natural 
history of this species related to them by central 
Australian Aborigines. In this they concluded thai 
the deseit populations of the rusty numbat {M. 
fuse tutus rufus) are almost certainly extinct and 
gave the lime of the last Aboriginal sighting as the 
late 1960s. 
Regional statu-., extinct (see Friend et al 1982) 

\M<oryc?idae 

Notoryctes rypHfopS, marsupial mole 

Aboriginal name, a far if ian 

Last record: 1986 (SAM) 

Comment: Most people recognised this ammnl 

immediately and many said that they t,..l ,vn it 

recently. All said rhar it lives in sandhill iv.iim 

Regional status: Although recorded InfreflUfirttly, 



this species is likely to be widespread in sandy areas 
or" the region 

JViamrlidat' 

'Chaeropus ecaudatus, pig- footed bandies! 
AboriginaJ name kanytjilpa (Finlayson 1961) 
Last record: 1901 (SAM); this survey (loose bone 
material) 

■ « i mi We did noi show a skin of this species, 
nor did we hear the people using the name - 
ktmytjifpa — that Finlayson (1961) and Burbidgc 
el ut. U98S) have reported for it. A lower jaw nl 
this species was found in a surface bone deposit 
in an old owl roosr at site 6 during our survey. 
Regional staui.v e •» i i » : i 

fsoodort aura/us, golden bandicoot 
Aboriginal names: wwturru nvurfu, makurra 
Last record: 1933 (SAM) 

Comment: Many middle-aged and older people at 
each community readily recognised this species by 
referring to the coarse texture of its fur and the 
appearance of its head, feet and tail, ft waselearJy 
a fonner food item and the informants rook great 
delight in demon how they captured it. The 

bandicoo) .hcltercd in a nest of grass situated 
between grass tussocks When this was located the 
people crept up on it and immobilised the 
upatit by placing a hand or foot firmly on top 
of it, Ml informants stated that this species was 
now Mii)i-.hid\ finlayson (1961) noted that the 
Pitiantjarjara names for this bandicoot were 
wmtaroo i = wintarru) and nyurtoo ( * nyurtu) and 
that the N^aatjatjarra from further west call it 
makoora(- makuni,). We were eivcn the lirsl LwO 
names only at Lmabclla, and the latter name only 
at kalka, Hiscw here, all three names were provided. 
Regional status, extinct 

Macro! is lm>otis y greater hi I by 
Aboriginal names: fjarfku, nimu. marrura 
Last record: HBJ (SAM) 

Comment This species was well known to all 
groups with whom we spoke. The name tjartku was 
used at lndulk;ina. Mimili and Aunata; riiruu at 
Mimili, finabella, Aiiiala, J J ipalyatiara and Kalka; 
and marrura at Liuabcllu. At Pipalyatjara one old 
man inlj us that rurrtu (ails used to be worn 
ecremoniallv in mm\ beards. None of our 
informants knew of n 1 1 y extant population- in 
Spilth sH-i«.m\i. The nearest they knew of (at 
PipaJyatjara and Kalka) was in the Kintoie Raniics 
m rhc Northern JferritDI •• (<v MO km to the north) 
Regional i >• probably extinct 

*Perameles eremiana desert bandicoot 
Last r;t«.,rd < L93G (SAM) 
?'c-tunie/es bou%ai?n'ill>_u western barred bandicoot 
Last record: 1931 (SAM) 



MAMMALS OF NORTH-WESTLJIN S.A 



HI 



Aboriginal name: walilya 
Comment The South Australian Museum has 
three specimens of Pemmcles bougamvilte from 
*south of Mi Crombic' registered in 1931- Mt 
Crombie is situated 'south of the Musgrave and 
Mann Range', a location F.nlayson 1 1960 cited for 
P. eretmunu, not P. bougainville, At Pipalyatjara 
and Kalka, our specimen of P. bougainville was 
readily recognised by the name walilya However, 
at other communities the responses of our 
Informants wctc mostly indecisive and cord used. 
Some said that it was a small win/arru or nyurlu 
{Le. I. auratus), Others simply did nut know it. 
Regional status: extinct (both species) 



DIPROTODONTA 

Phalangeridae 

Trichosurus vulpecula, common brushtail possum 
Aboriginal names: wavttrra, munguwuyurru 
Last record. 1966 (SAM, mummified remains); this 
survey (old seals) 

Comments: Most older people recognised this 
species and claimed lhat il used 10 be common. 
No-one knew of its existence in this part ol South 
Australia, and most thought that it was 'finished* 
many years ago. However, some people at Kalka 
and Pipalyatjara thought they still occurred m the 
gum-lined creeks in ihe Petermann Ranges in the 
south-west of the Northern Territory. The only 
signs ol possums we found were old droppings 
which were in caves where they had been protected 
trom weathering. These were found near Betty 
Well in I he Lveiard Ranges, and 01^ Mr Kintore, 
.ihout 80 km south-west of Amata. Ait ken 
(unpublished notes, 1966) also found dropping 
and Skeletal remains 'at a small cave opposite 
Kumbi Rock Hole . . . approximately 4 miles south 
of the main road 1 (presumably near Piltardi at ihe 
eastern end of the Mann Ranges). 

Several common btushtail possums were 
released near Einabella in the early lM70s (R 
Henderson, S.A. National Parks and Wildlife 
Service, pers. cornm.). Unfortunately, they have not 
been recorded in the area since and are considered 
by many to be extinct However, they are known 
[0 occur in very low densities in a small area of 
the Petermann Ranges, only 100 km north of the 
South Australian /Northern Territory border and 
detailed surveys may locate them again south of 
the border. 

Regional status: apparently extinct bin more 
intensive surveys needed (see Foulkes & kei Ic 198$ 

Potoroidae 

tiettongia lesueur, burrowing bettong 
Aboriginal name- milika 3 umgku 
Last record. <I93I (SAM) 



Comment: A few older men at Indulkana and 
Mirnili recognised this species and each used both 
names. They stated that ir bad not been seen for 
a long tune. It was unclear as to whether the word 
rungku (which means short and siuuipy) was their 
name for ir or simply a description of the animal 
Regional status; extinct [see Rurbidge el at. 1 988) 

*Bettongiti peniciltata, brush-tailed bettong 
Aboriginal name karrpitji (Rnlayson 1961, 
Burbidge et ol. I986J 
last record 71930s limlayson 1961) 
Comments: Wc did not obtain information about 
this species However, Finlayson (1961 169) 
recorded that this bet Long was, 'still extant in very 
small numbers on both sides of the South 
Australian (Notthern "Territory) border in 193? 33 
where specimens were obtained by the black 
Regional status, extinct i$4e BUfbtdgeif 0£ 1988) 



Macropudidae 

*luigoFche*tes hirsulus* rufous hare- wallaby 
Aboriginal name: mala 
Last record- 1933 (SAM) 
Comment. Many of the middle-aged and especially 
older people we spoke with pointed out that hare 
wallabies used to occur in spinifex country in the 
region and that they were good meat. However, 
none of them knew of any remnant population 
Attken noted in 1966 (unpublished journal) that 
they were 'now extinct, apparently 
Regional status: extinct |Burbidge ef at. (19»8) give 
the most recent Aboriginal sighting pf this specie* 
in the region as 30 years ago near Amata.) 

A Mnempus robustus\ euro 
Aboriginal name: kanyala 
Last record: this survey (sighted) 
Comment: The euro is widespread and common 
in all rocky country. It is hunted by the locaJ 
people, but red kangaroos and perenties ( Varanus 
giganteus) appear to be favoured. 
Regional status; widespread and common 

Macropus rufus, red kangaroo 
Aboriginal name: marlu 

Last record: 7 this survey (specimen and sighted) 
Comment: Red kangaroos are fairly common in 
mulga country, especially where ground cover is 
tussock grass rather than spirit fcx. They are keenly 
hunted by the local people using rifles. As a 
consequence they were uncommon around 
settlements and were nowhere abundant in areas 
we iraversed. We collected one specimen, a pouch 
young (M12724), 15 km NNF of Mt Crombie. 
Regional status: widespread at low densities 



- 1 



P. B. COPL1V, C VI. MiMPLR <& G. C. Ml Dl IN 



*Onychoga!ea lunata, crescent nail-iadcd wallaby 
Aboriginal name: tjawa/pu 
Last record: 1891 (SAM) 
Comment: Aboriginal people at Indulkana and 
Mimili used this species' name and claimed to have 
eaten it when they were younger. All stated thai 
it was no longer around. Aitken noted Id his 
journal records during a itjp to the region in 
February 1966 (unpublished): 

One of* the main reasons lor guing to Man [f)CAi 
Dry HSlii and aboui 40 km BHSl uf Mi Lindsay] wa.s 
in Qiecl <>" the report- ol'a wallaby still living in the 
area. These may quife well still he ilUa i,,,i ... 
nOI in tact 10 Ibeate theni ... the wallnr, duin 
description is obviously QnypHogtitfti luftuio the 
Crescent Nail-tail [mi], frfijcil in fife i r>i lltrs lue- 
by burrowing under a shady shrub or irec durine the 
day and pariially covctju^ ii*ieh vviih wind and <J. :m 
It ventures forth u\ rj|gft| i<> levfi IHeieMiK 

vegetation was predominantly rnulga with pal 
sparse rnallee. the undergrowth wus of spimhv.. 
naiiw m.r-.so., bunyevno ImcJ, tlircc-eonieied jack and 
bindyi. 

Regional status: extinct 

Petrogute lateralis, black- footed rock-wallaby 
Aboriginal name: warm 

Last record: 1966 (Philpott & Smyth 1967). this 
survey (sighted) 

Comment: We observed three black-footed rock- 
wallabies in the vicinity of a large cave at Wamikata 
(site 7, Fig. J) in the Musgrave Ranges. The 
entrance to the cave was mostly blocked by fallen 
boulders behind which were two large chambers. 
Rock-wallaby faecal pellets littered the floors of 
both of these. We collected skeletal remains of one 
wallaby (Ml 2555) in the cave. 

We also found fresh rock-wallaby faecal pellets 
at one site (5) in the Everard Ranges and two sites 
(14, 17) in the Mann Ranges, We found old ro< 4 
wallaby faecal pellets in caves near; 
J) Warkarrecoordinna Rockhole (site 1) 

2) near Betty Well (sties 3, 4) 

3) Mt Rintore (26° 34 S. I ?<r 30 E) 

4) Mt Caroline (26 n 21 S, 130' 51'E) and 

5) un-named hill (26- OS'S. 130- 00'E> about 
10 km west of Kapi Kanpi Rockhole. 

Local people told us that rock -wallabies ,iK.. still 
occur at. 

I) an un-named hill near New Well <appro\ 2o 

07 S. 132 12 Ej aboul 8 km east of the 

Wamikata sue 
i n un-named hill on the eastern side ot the 

Emabella airstrip (appros. 26 If,' S. \yi i|'[> 
3) Mt Harriet (20 }2 'S, HI 05 I >..; >.... (5 foil 

south of Amata 



4) some un-named hilLs (26° 24 S, 130° 50'E) 
about 8 km south if Mt Caroline: and 

5) an unspecified area north west ot Angatja 

homeland and probablv to the NNE of Mt 
Winham (appro*. 16 02 S, 13CP 16'E). 
Unfortunately, we W€|t Unable to include these in 
our itinerary. 

Aboriginal informants told us that when they 
were children, rock -wallabies used to be more 
widespread and abundant and that they frequently 
killed them fol food. One man from Amaca 
showed us how he used lo sit in a strategic place 
amongst some rocks and w histJe quietly ro lure the 
inquisitive rock-wallabies our of their hiding place 
so that ho could spear them. Thar numbers have 
apparent lv declined dttmdftaally and we were told 
of numerous places from which they have 
disappeared. 

Regional status; declining populations; probably 
endangered by predahom especially by 
introduced fox {see Kinnear 1989) 



I XTMEKIA 
CHIROFEERA 

Aboriginal names. Aboriginal people we spoke 
with constant ly used one word — pit/ant/arru — 
to describe all bats. However, they distinguished 
c-jve-d welling bats with the additional name — 
patupiri At Kalka. the name ulpurulpuri (also 
recorded by fin lay son <l%l) as oo/poo/parrie] was 
also given lot a special t live-dwelling 'bat' which 
roosted in a small mud nest. The nests, which were 
shown to us, were those oi fairy martins, but it 
was not possible to ascertain whether the name 
;»< 'nally icle.s to [H« bird, or to a small bat which 
used deserted nests. Goddard (1986) concluded 
thai the name poiupiri also applied to fairy 
man ins. The name is ih err- fore probably used in 
a general way by many people lo refer to & 
dwelling fauna Another name, ijinytjinylji, has 
been recorded by Bmtadge &c Fuller (1979) and 
Burbidge er ai (19$8) as a general word for bats 
bui we were told that it referred to an insect 
(probably a cricket). The name may therefore also 
be used in a general way to mimic the high-pitched 
noises of both bats and crickets. 

Megadcrma t i d ae 

Macmderma ftigas. ghost bat 

Aboriginal name: tjutku-tjalku (Burbidge el til. 

1988) — the only bal of the region with a unique 

name 

last record: cv 1920 tFinlayson l^ol) 

Comment: This most distinctive bat was 

recognised bv the Aborigines with its own name. 

Older men yi Amata tu!d us ol two localities for 

large, white bats [Macrodcrtna vivas?) but we 



MAMMALS OF NORTH-WESTERN S.A. 



K3 



could not determine whether the animals still 
occur red (here The localities were Aparina Creek 
(- Apari-nya Kai u. J. Willis pers, comm.), near sue 
II (Fig. I» VHq I.) and Cave Hill (26* 92'S. 13) c 
21 r E) about 24 km NE of* Arnata. 
Regional status: probably extinct (see Burbidge el 
ai 1988) 

Kmballonuridae 

Tuphozous hillt, UilLs sheaf htail-bai 

Last record: this survey (captured) 

Comment: This species was Firs! recorded For 

SOUlh Australia during the 1 C >S5 survey. \\ was 

found in l wo cave roosts, one at site 4 in the 

Everard Ranges, the other at site 7 in the Musgrave 

Ranges (see Fig. II At bolh roosts, the bats were 

located in narrow crevices off the main chambers. 

Two specimens were collected at site 4, and three 

(ol five captured) at site 7. 

Regional status: probably locally eomrmni 



Molossidae 

'Mormoptcrus ploniceps, little mast i FK - bat 
Last record: this stirvev (loose hone material) 
t ornment: Two skulls ol fhis small bat were 
recorded in loose bone material from an owl roost 
at site 9 on the south side of the Musgrave Ranges 
(see Fig. I) during this survey. This species is very 
adaptable in its feeding and roosting habits 
(Richards, in Strahan 1983] and is probably- 
widespread in the region. 
Regional status: probably widespread and common 

*Tadarida uustralis, white-striped mastiff-bat 
Last record: <I961 (AM); this survey (captured) 
Comment. This high-flying bat was only captured 
over water at site 8, on the south side of the 
Musgrave Ranges, where 10 individuals were misi- 
netted (four retained) 

Regional status: probably widespread and 
common 



Vespertilionidac 

*Chalinolobus gouldii, Gould's wattled bat 
I as| record: 1963 (SAM); this survey (captured and 
owl pellets) 

Comment: This common species was mist-netted 
at sites I (rive captured, two retained), 2 (six 
captured, two retained), 8 (five captured, three 
retained) and 1 1 (one captured and retained) during 
the survey. All captures were made either over or 
adjacent to waterholes in gum-lined creeks of the 
Everard and Musgrave Ranges. Two of the females 
eaptured each had two small embryos. 
Regional status; probably widcspicad and 
common 



*Chalinolobus mono, chocolate wattled bat 
Last record: this survey (captured) 
Comment: Before this sutvey, this common 
southern species was only known in central 
Australia from a cave-dwelling population near 
Alice Springs. However, it was mist-netted at h\e 
sites during the survey — the four where C gouldi, 
was captured, plus site 15. a waterhole-ereekiinc 
habitat in the Mann Ranges. Several of the females 
captured were pregnant with either one or two 
embryos. One specimen was eaptured and retained 
at site 1, 20 (two reiained:- at site 2, three at both 
sites 8 and 11 (all reiained), and one (released) ai 
site 15 

Regional status: probably widespread and 
common 

*Epteswus baverstocki, inland eptesicus 
Last record: this survey (captured and owl pellets) 
Comment: A single specimen of this newly 
described species, was captured (and retained) 
during the survey It was rmst-ficited over water 
at site 1, south of Indulkana. 
Regional status: indeterminate, probably wide- 
spread 

*tptesicus fintaysom, little brown bat 
Last record: 1984 ISAM); this survey (captured and 
owl pellets) 

Comment: This newly described species was mist- 
jtetted over water at -.ires 2 (two specimens, both 
retained) and 8 (one specimen, letained) ami 
captured in cave roosis at sites 7 (18, four retaincdl 
and 18 (one, reiained) (Fig. I) 
Regional status: probably widespread and common 
in the vicinity of range country 

fsyctophtlus geojfrayi, lesser long-eared bat 
Last record: <1961 (AM); this survey (capLured 
and loose bone material) 

Comment: This common species was captured at 
seven of the ten sites where bab. were caught durinu 
the survey. Most oi the females captured were 
found to be pregnant with '.wo embryos. Nin». 
specimens were captured at site I (three retained), 
one (retained) at she 2. (wo (retained) at sue 8, one 
at both sites U and 12 (retained), and five at hot It 
sues 13 and 15 (ali retained). 
Regional status, widespread and common 

*Seoiorcpen\- halstom. western broad-nosed bat 
Lasr record: this survey (captured) 
Co'iiinent: A single specimen of this specie- WJU 
captured (and retained) in a mist-ncr at sue II (Fie 

I), 

Regional status; indeterminate, probably wide- 
spread 



;-■! 



P. B. COPLEY, C. M. KLMPER ft G C. MEDL1N 



* Sco lore pens grey i, little broad-nosed bat 
Last record: 1966 (SAM) 

Comment; Probably occurs throughout the range 
country, 

Regional status: indeterminate, probably wide- 
spread 

RODENTIA 

Muridae 

*Leggadina forresti, Forrest's mouse 

Aboriginal name: mingkiri 

Last record* 1975 (SAM, owl pellet material); this 

survey (loose bone material) 

Comment: Since a recent (1984) specimen was 

collected on Granite Downs station just outside 

the study area to the east, it is quite likely thai this 

rare species is extant in the north-west. 

Regional status: indeterminate 



Leponllus apicalis, lesser stick- nest rat 
(Leporiiius candiior, greater stick- nest jat?) 
Aboriginal name tjuyalpi 
Last record: 1933 (SAM); this survey (loose bone 
material) 

Comment: Although both species ol stick-nest rat 
(LeporllltiS apicalis and L vondiior) have been 
recorded from semi -arid and arid areas of South 
Austral ia, only L apicalis has been collected in the 
north-west of the state. This was by anthropologist 
Norman Tindale and physician C.S. Hackett in 
1933. Tindale (pers. cornm.) states that: 



On 18 July 1933 while Iravellmt' wiih a clan like 
group of Pitjandjatjara |sic| tfMftW&nJ lYOtfl 
Wflutrtlula, a native Watering place and camp west 
of Mount C rcmbie on the south bide ol" the MusgmVC 
tengeSi ty$ pu-^ed I'mm a fKHlaapInt grassed plain 
with tow undergrowth between widely spaced chJl I - 
of ihe grass into low malice &u nb uouniry vMih snnie 
outcrop-, ol kOnkot limestone «md » scaik-n.ig <->i 
kurrajong trees. Almost immediately we -.aw the first 
of several twjg mounds nl" a l|QU*£-&UU4Jnd ral. ll 
was sheltered under $ km-r;«jone Lrec and was tccnte 
S feel [1 5 in! m diameter and 4 feci \\.l m) high, I he 
.iboiigines wVio were uidepenuY'i', since we were 
observers only, tok fire tti if but the inhabitant had 
already k\\ Wc saw several me-re of these nests walun 
the nest Half mile or so [J km| oneol which »vas under 
a spreading rnallee. All weie set on I "ire. Pires drove 
out sevet.il o! ific Tjuijalnr |\u.| I'rnm (heir 'nguia 
Ijuijalbi* |sie| and | these were] seized by the dogs ot 
i lie hunieis. Two ol Ihe animals were secured by us 
tor the South Ausifalian Museum eollo:imn. 



Part of this sequence of events was recorded on 
him (Tvlann Ranges — 1933'), copies of which are 
held by the Board for Anthropological Research, 
University of Adelaide 



ReW people at the communities we visited 
showed any signs or recognition of the stick-nest 
ml specimen (of the similar L. condi(or) we had 
with us. However, more people responded to 
cm&tiQtlS about the origins ot" portions of a stick- 
nest wc showed them. They used the name tjuyalpi 
for the animals which built the ncsis which they 
said had a burrow beneath the pile of sticks. 
Opinion was divided as to whether the nests were 
built in caves or in the open, but one old man at 
Kalka told us ihat they were buih in either 
situation. If they were out in the open the nests 
were placed amongst a lot of vegetation \p.g. 
around a bush), but not amongst spinifex clumps. 
The Name informant told us that ihe nests 
contained an adult male and an adult female and 
up lo four young. The nests measured about 1 m 
by 0.5 m, which he traced in the sand lo 
demonstrate. Some old people had seen stick-nest 
rats when they were young, mostly abou' 45 to 50 
yeap> ago. All said that they ate the rats and that 
they were 'good meat', 

We searched for stick-nests in the numerous 
caves and rock overhangs we explored, but only 
found three ^ruall, burnt remnants — two near 
Betty Well (sites J, 4) in the Cverard Ranges and 
one in the north-western Mann Ranges (19), 
During our survey we also collected skeletal 
remains of two L, apicalis Irom an old owl roo*i 
at site 6. However, we found no signs of stick-m .. 
rats or theii nests in the country which Tindak 
(pers. cornm.) described west of Mt Crombte 
RegionaJ status: extinct 



Mu& domesitcus, house mouse 

Aboriginal name: mingkiri 

Last record: 1972 (SAM); ihis survey (captured and 

owl pelleis) 

Comment: Finlayson (1961) noted th-at there wen 

considerable numbers ot house mice in the study 

area in 1932-35. During our survey they were only 

captured in close proximity to human settlements 

at sites 2 and 10 (Fig, I). However, large 

proportions of this species were also recorded in 

old and recent owl pellet deposits at sires 6, 9. 12 

and 19 (Tabic 2) 

Regional status; widespread and locally common 



Nowmys alcxis, spinifex hopping-mouse 
Aboriginal name: (ar r kawura, tningkin 
last record: 1966 (SAM); this survey (owl pellets; 
Comment; This species is well-known by the 
majority o! Aboriginal people we talked with. 
However, many confused it with other specimen* 
we had with us which had brush rails o> 
Dasycercus crist icauda, Dusy urn ides byrn ei ) . 



MAMMALS OF NORTH WESTERN S.A. 



• 



Noiomys sp. tracks were pointed out to us on 
sandhill areas, on the north side of Mt Crombie 
and on the Northern Territory-South Australian 
border north of Kalka. "We also collected many 
skeletal remains of Notomys vf. alexis and 
Notomvs sp. in owl pellet deposits at sites 6, 9, and 
12 — those at site 12 occurring in intact Yecenf 
pellets. 
Regional status: widespread and common 

Noiomys longwnudatus, long-tailed hopping-mouse 
Aboriginal name: ' 

Last record: this survey (loose surface bone 
material) 

Comment: Not previously recorded from north- 
western South Australia. Skull fragments of at least 
seven individuals were found in an old owl roost 
at site 6 just north of the Everard Ranges. 
Regional status, extinct 

*Pseudomys desertor, desert mouse 
Aboriginal name: mingkiri 
Last record: 1933 (SAM); <1961 (AM); this survey 
(owl pellets) 

Comment: This liulc-known mouse has recently 
been captured (1987 and 1988) at two sites in Uluru 
National Park (Kcrlc & Morton 1988), Along with 
the Yecent 1 remains found in intact owl pellets at 
site 12, it seems likely that this species may still 
occur in suitable habitats within the survey area. 
Kcrlc & Morton (1988) suggest that these suitable 
habitats Include areas of dense grass, 
Regional status: indeterminate, probably still 
extant 

*Psei4damys gouldiu Gould's mouse 
Aboriginal name: mingkin 
Last record: this survey (loose bone material) 
Comment: This small mouse had not previously 
been recorded from north-western South Australia. 
In this survey, we found the skeletal remains of 23 
individuals in an old surface bone deposit at sue 
6, just north of the Everard Ranges. 
Regional status: extinct 

Pseudomys hermannsburgensis, sandy inland 
mouse 

Aboriginal name; mingkin' 

I ?st record; 1972 (SAM); this survey (captured.) 
Comment: Single specimens of this mouse were 
captured in pitfall traps at sites 2, 13 and 15 (Fig. 
i). The first two specimens were caught in 
hummock grasslands on sandy soils. The last was 
< eight in an open woodland habitat of Hakea 
IVQfyi and Acacia estrophiolata with an 
understorey of Aristida tussock grasses. Numerous 
skeletal remains were also found at sites 6, 9, 12 
and 19, with many of those at sites 9. 12 and 19 



coming from recent intact owl pellets (Table 2). 
Regional status: widespread and common 

*Ruttus villosissimus, long-haired rat 
Aboriginal name: ? mingkiri 
I usi record: 1975 (SAM, owl pellei material V. this 
survey (loose bone material) 
Comment This species has probably only invaded 
this region in extreme plaguing, situations (see 
Redhead 1983). The owl pellet material it has been 
found in docs not appear to be oi' recent origin 
— skull fragments of only two individuals having 
been found at site 6 during tins survey. 
Regional -.tat us. extinct 



LAGOMORPHA 
lepnridae 

*Orycfolagus cuniculus, European rabbit 
Aboriginal names: rapita, nam 
Last record- this survey (sighted and loose bone 
material) 

Comment: The European rabbit is common in the 
north-west of South Australia; however, its 
numbers appear to be concentrated along drainage 
lines and on stony alluvial plains fringing the 
ranges and outlying hills. In I985> few signs oi 
rabbits were seen more than 5 km from the ranges 
and they appeared to be absent from sandhill areas. 
They are a major food source for Aborigines 
Maurice & Murray {in Pirtlayson 1961) recorded 
rabbits as already plentiful in the Musgrave Range--, 
in 1901 

Regional status: widespread and common especi- 
ally in drainage areas 



CARN1VORA 
Canidae 

*Cank Jamil iaris dingo, dingo 
Aboriginal name: papa 

Last record: 1957 (SAM), tins survey (sighted) 
Comment: Dingoes arc another widespread and 
common species in the region. Tracks were seen 
in most areas visited and individuals or pairs were 
observed on many occasions, mostly in open 
country near the ranges where rabbits were most 
abundant. 
Regional status: widespread, in low densities 

4 v u I pes Mil pes, fox 

Aboriginal name: ?. Wto' according to 1 inlavson 
(1961) 

Last record: this survey ». sigh ted) 
Comment: Finlaysou (1961) observed that dm me 
Ins field work of 1932, foxes Vere found to be well 
known (0 natives and whik doggers in the Ewiakl 
and Musgrave Ranges, though still in quite 



86 



K H ( OPIFY, C M. KEMPfk .* i; < ML DUN 



numbers'. By the 1950s their numbers had 
increased significantly 10 the point where Yiative 
hunters interrogated in 1956, stated thai fa the area 
immediately to the south of the Musgrave. Maim 
and Tomkrnson Ranges (which yields most .if their 
dog scalps), the fn\ now out numbeis the dingo', 
Regional siatus: widespread, piobably in low 
densities 

Fcltdiie 

Vlslh cotus, c;it 

Aboriginal name: ? 

Last record, this survey (sighted) 

Comment: Only one cat was seen during our 

survey, near Kapi Kanpi (site 15). However, local 

Aborigines claimed that they were seen frequently. 

Regional status: widespread, probably in low 

densities 

PFRISSODACTYLA 
Kquidae 

Equus cuhullus, wild horse (brumby) 

Aboriginal name J 

Last record: this survey (sighted) 

Comment; Wild horses were seen onlv on (he 

south side of the Musgrave Ranges where they were 

concentrated around the few remaining waterholcs. 

Regional status: locally common 

ARTIODACTYLA 
( amdidae 

Camelus drontedunu.s, one- humped camel or 
dromedary 

Aboriginal name: camela 
Last record, this survey (sighted) 
Comment: Camels are widespread in the north- 
west of South Australia and we encountered | heir 
distinctive pads and droppings in all ; 
visited Wc made several sightings of small group; 
ol camels including cows with young calves'. The 
largest group consisted of 12 individuals 
Regional status: widespread 

Discussion 

The Pitjantjatjara lands of north-western South 
Australia offer a unique opportunity to sludy am! 
compare recent past and preseni mammal 
assemblages lor the following reasons- (|) the 
environment is a combination of two vastly 
different form* — sand plain/dune systems and 
rocky ranges; (2) The ranges provide good shelier 
for owls and thus surface bone deposits are 
probably common; (3) many species now befteuGd 
extinct in South Australia were last recorded ihere: 
(4) there is good documentation of the. nmmg of 
these declines (Finlayson 1%1); and (5; the lands 
are now under conrrol of the Pitjantjatjara 



Aboriginal people and have mostly not been grazed 
by domestic stock for many years — if at all. 

The preseni survey recorded 16 indigenous 
mammal specie..; by observation or capture. Anothei 
nine species piobablv still occur in the region. A 
compilation of all known reeurds tor the north-west 
a total mammal species list of 50, seven of 
which are noi indigenous <o Australia. Compared 
with other regions of arid Australia for which lists 
have been made, this figure is high McKenzie & 
Robinson (1987) listed 41 and 37 species, including 
mirodnccd forms, Ibr the Nullarbor Plain and Great 
Victoria Desert, respectively. Burbidgc &. Mckenzie 
(198?) reported 42 species m the Great Sandy 
Desert. Sixteen species were listed during a recent 
survey of the Mabel Creek area of South Australia 
(Kemper et ai 1985). 

Reasons for the richness of the mammal fauna 
of nonh west Souih Australia are related to poinis 
1-5 listed above. Since there are two quite different 
Litvironments, sand plain/dune and rocky ranges, 
thcie are elements of the faunas adapted to bnLli. 
For example, Pelragale lateralis and Pseudan- 
teihtnas macdonrtellensrs are inhabitants of rocky 
ou i- rops mid Chalinolohus morio, Epic. 
fintaysont and liiphozous hillt are cavc-d welling 
bats. On the othei hand, Nororytfes typhiops, 
Du^'cercus <:risiiauu1a and Sminthopsis ooldea % 
among others, live m sandy country. 

Ihe early work of Finlayson (I96l, museum 
collections) documented many mammal species 
Which now no longer occur in South Australia 
Fortuitously, his work coincided with 'heir 
population declines in the 1920s and 1930s. 
Finlayson often used Aboriginal knowledge of the 
species to augment his own findings and he also 
obtained many .'Specimens from these people (bat 
only two species of bats). The present survey 
iucused on collecting bats with the result that this 
part of the fauna is now reasonably well known. 
iMcsent survey included two sources or 
information nut normally used in mammal survey 
— Aboriginal knowledge and surface bone 
deposiiN-mv! pellets The latter was particularly 
important because 11 added several species not 
recorded by cither means and one species, 
Pseudantechitws mucdortneltensis, not previously 
nfod Id South Australia. The problem wiih 
L-e remains and very old pellets is that it is 
difficult to date such deposits, it is presumed that 
if MusdomestiLus .-. present (hen the material has 
been deposited smce Ifuropean settlement ie. during 
the last 200 years, lor example. Johnson St. Baynes 
11982) found a good correlation between species 
compositions in surface deposits and early whole- 
specimen collections from the same area. 

As a result of our invest k\Uion>; and others (Jones 
1923-25, Finlayson 1961, Philpott & Smyth 1967, 



MAMMALS OF NORTH WFSTFRN SA 



S7 



Watts 1969, liurtudge & FUlUr 1979, I -ricnd ei .//. 
1982. Southgare in press, BUrbJdge ei at. (987, 
Burbidue ei at. 1988) we conclude thai only 20 
I46 1 ; | of the 43 indigenous mammal species still 
occur in the north-west o( South Australia. These 
are genciallv (he small J<40 g > and laiee sized 
(>7.5 kg) specie*; a Irend in keeping wiih results 
obtained in the arid zone in general (Morton <& 
Baynes 1985, Burbidgc & MeKen/je 1987). 

Morton Sl Baynes (49851 compared mammal 
assemblages of surface bone deposits with extant 
species in the western and zone. The\ Concluded 
that only 4! % and 44'; nl the original 
polyprotodont marsupial and rodent faunas. 
respectively remained today. Comparable hcures 
of aboul 4V.,. and 38% were obtained lor the 
present study Watts & Ashn (1981) compared 
recently (t.v. not fossil) extinct rodent species with 
those still extant and concluded that 25 60', 
remained 

More survey work is clearly needed to determine 
the distribution and status of extant species in the 
Pit. jamjatjara lands, Particular emphasis should be 
placed on rare species such as the black-footed rock- 
wallaby Pelrogale lateralis, the desert mouse 
Pseudomys desertor, and possibly the kuharr 



AntechifHjnns laniger and mulgara Dasycercus 
iristicauda. A comprehensive vegetation survey 
would aid in understanding the biology and 
distribution of extant forms as would a report OH 
the status of non-indigenous species. We 
recommend that further survey work be of a multi- 
diseiplmary nature and that predator scats and 
stomachs be investigated as a possible means oi" 
recording rare species. 



A( KNf'KVI. LOOM IMS 

We wish to thank Jill Tideman and Kevin Jordan for 
• heir enthusiasm: JssKiance 111 the Held. We also wish to 
thank the many eager Aboiiginal informants and 
community advisers ai each of the communities we visited 
[for their invaluable help and advice. We are grateful tO 
the community councils for granting permission for out 
visit and allowing us to trap for small mammals on their 
lands. Mr Ion Willis, Pitjanrjaijara Council, kindly made 
helpful comments on the manuscript. The Mammal Club 
ol the Picld Naturalists Society of South Australia and 
other volunteers assisted wirh the huge task of dissecting 
owl pellets and sorting surface remains and for this we 
l hunk the hi, Terry Reardon ol' r lie FvoluhnnHry Riology 
Unit of the South Australian Museum did the 
eleuirophmcM.s to verify some niniiunal ideritdicauons 



RtVLPT-tv t ; 



aitkrsj, p.r. 1966, Personal imirnalufa fT»ld trip. made 

to ihe Mann and Musgrave K:ni^'\ I ebruary 1966- 
Unpublished journal held hy '\\<: South Aum r.iliun 
Museum. Adelaide 

ASI IN, H.J. (Id.) 19S5. A Li l of Mm- Verlebran :-. Of 

South Australia* Biolagtpal Survey Ctooftltnetinji 

' nmrniliee and the Department of F neitoiuneni and 
Planning, South An n alia, Adelaide. 

HVSLDOW, H. |')I5, Journal of the government ritfrfl 
west expedition (March Jflth \ovemoer 5rh, IMOJ) 
Ptvc. R. Qeogmpk S<>< $ Ahm. 15: 5 7 242 

HI RBllKT, A. A. k I IMJ t'K, ftj. 1979 Manii.MK ol 
Ihfi Watburlrm r\ l'o-m We^o-tri Ausuaha. Rec, H. 
Ausf. (Witt H VI 

lUJRUIUC.h, A. A & ♦ Ul LLK, P J i%4 rind..,, QUI 

about desert mammal*. S W I N& 14: 9-1.1 

&URIWX.I-:. A A. & McKLN/IL. N i IfirSl W.ldl-k 
of Ihe i -real Sandy De-o n\ Australia. H itdl 

AVv bull., It. Aust 12: • i 

BURBIIXir, \.A. £ M,KfNJ/l» \J t 19X7. 

Conservation imphe.ni:> ri paucins in reeoni lIccIIhg 
Oi Western \tf$tr alia 'fen Q ITauu Ui&f* Mammal 

Soc: .Vrwsl. Winter I9G7 (ab-anu, p. i 

ffl IRBIDGE, A A . IULLLK, P.J., JOHNSON, K.A.& 
SOUTHGATP, R 19«7. Van i-.f.mu desert dweller,. 

Aboriginal knowledge ol 'he mammal.'- ol ihe central 
desert- rjj Austral^ I.atirhcopc 1: 7-12. 



BURB1DGE, A.A.. JOHNSON, K A., ! Ul I ER, P.J., & 
SOU I HOATE, R. 1988. Aboriginal knowledge of the 
mammals of the central deserts of Australia. Auu 
Hi/dt. Res. 15: 9-39 

F1NL.AYSON, H.H 1935. On ihe mammals of the lake 
Eyre Basin Pari II - the Peramelidae. Trans ft. Soc 
&Aust. Sf\ 227-236. 

I-INI.AYSON, H.H. I9M On ecnnal Australian 
mammals. Pan IV — Itie diMnbmion and status of 
central AOsfraliWi -\^^^ Rei S. 4ush Mur M: 

141-191 

I OUI KCGs J N..VKFFU.I:, (A. IUHU. Scat analysis and 
the I'e.isihilny Ol i i i>di>.''|.< htMHlu^il possM.ir 
i >m, lur-unr, \MjpVCUta) M Uluru Nalional Park. PfVV. 
AW. Momnvtl Soc M0gfWB, Alio: Springs. Apiil 
P>89 || <jhsirael). 

t-RIENO. \.\-. n [ .LJ:R, »'..l. & UAVIS \.\ L9R3 The 

n.unbal in cenh-.d \usi».-dia \l\.A.!\'.S. 12 21 2P. 

(.OUHARI), C 1980. \ankunyi,:.||a.H bind nam.. 
<] v 1(;iI1 | k.oiLiL-,, South AusiraJiai The ln--.nu.t- qj 
Aboriginal Stnilkx, Alice Spring*. 

JOIINSON.K.A.& BA> \Ls, A. 1982, Mammal (CTHata 
from a pave iP tte Maenoimcll Rirj . '-J bah. Mm. 
Mamrffai &»<■ 7: J3 (absira^i). 

IOMNSONL K \ & RO£l A.o LMS2. ihe Wcsieoi QuoH 

Do .,->/;,-o/; (U^-.viindae. Mai^.ipialia). i'i % 

Nnnin.'i'i rcimory! hWorwal rocord • fr^m ^citcrabk 



88 



P. B. COPLEY, C. M. KEMPER & G. C MEDLIN 



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REVISION OF AUSTRALASIAN STERNOLOPHUS SOLIER 
(COLEOPTERA: HYDROPHILIDAE) 

C. K S. Watts 



Summary 

The Australasian members of the hydrophilid genus Sternolophus Solier are revised and redescribed 
and a key to species is given. Three species are recognised: S. australis sp. nov., S. immarginatus 
d'Orchymont and S. marginicollis (Hope). The following names are synonymised with S. 
marginicollis (Hope, 1842): Hydrobius artensis Montrouzier, 1860 and Sternolophus tenebricosus 
Blackburn, 1888. 



REVISION* OF AUSTRALASIAN STERSOLOPHVS SOL1ER 
(COLKOPTKRA: fttYDROPIIIMDAR) 

C H. S. WAITS 

WATTS C.H.S. 1989. Revision of Australasian Sremolnphus Soli<r (Colenptera: Hvilroplnli<1«) 
Rec S. Aust. Mus. 1M2Y 89-95. 

The Australasian members of the hydrophilid genus Stvrnohphus Solier are revised and 
rede'jeribed and a key to specie* is given. Tluee species are recognised: & uusiruti* *p nov., .S. 
imtmir\>(nu1w d'Orchymonl and 5. rnurfiinicottis (Hope). 

The following names are synonymised with S. nu/ruimcni/is (Hope, 1842): llvdmhtus urimsis 
Montrouzier, 1X60 and Stemolophtti lenrbncosus Blackburn.. 1888. 

C.H.S. Watts, South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 50f)0. 

Manusuipt received 21 June 1988. 



Among the most common of Australasian 
hydrophilids, especially in the warmer regions, are 
members of the genus Stemo/ophus Solier. At times 
in drying river bed pools it is possible to collect 
hundreds of individuals in a short time, Despite 
rheir abundance Ihcy have received (irile attention 
since d'Orchymont (1912). 

Five Australian forms have been named. Of these 
I consider only two to represent valid species: 5. 
marginico//is (Hope, 1842), and .S. immarginams 
d'Orchymont, 1912. I describe a further one, S. 
australis sp. nov. All occur broadly sympatrically 
across northern and inland Australia. They appear 
lo be absent from the wetter coastal fringes of the 
south-west and the south-east and from Tasmania. 
S. murginicoilis also occurs in New Guinea and New 
Caledonia. The genus itself consists of about a 
dozen species found in Africa, tropical Asia and 
Australasia. 

I do not recognise the subgenus (or genus) 
Neosternolophus Zait2ev, 1909 used for the 
Australian and some African species (Knisch 1924, 
Smetana 1980). since 1 have found the main 
disiinction, the extent of cmargination of the 
clypeus, tO vary -sen within species A full study 
ot all the species in the genus is required before the 
validity of the genet tc separation is established. 



Systlmaiio; 

The genus Sternotophus belongs to the subfamily 
Hydrophilinac, characterised by a continuous 
median longitudinal keel on the underside which 
is prolonged into a spine between the hind coxae. 
Within the Australasian members of this subfamily, 
Sternotophus is characterised by having the front 
o\ the ventral keel notched, the prosternal pillar not 
hooded lo receive the front end of the ventral keel, 
the basal portions of all femora densely punctate- 
pubescent, and only lour rows of serial punctures 



on each elytron />, lacking the fifth sublateral row 
of punctures present in most species of other 
genera. In most species the front margin of the 
clypeus has a central notch (Fig. 2). 

Type species as follows: Sternotophus: S. solien 
Caslelnau, 1840, 'Africa' Neosternolophus: 
Hydrobius artensis Montrouzier, i860, Australia. 
The collections from which specimens were 
examined are listed under the following abbrev- 
iations: 

Australian Museum, Sydney 
Australian Narional Jnsect Collection. 
Canberra 

British Museum (Natural History),. 
London 

Private collection of author 
Instirut Royal des Sciences Naturelles 
de Bclgique, Bruxelles 
Museum o\' Victoria, Melbourne 
New South Wales Department of 
Agriculture, Sydney 
Museum and Art Galleries of the 
Northern Territory, Darwin 
Museum National dTUstoire Naturelle, 
Paris 

South Australian Museum, Adelaide 
Western Australian Museum, Perth 
Queensland Department of Primary 
Industries, Mareeha 
QM Queensland Museum, Brisbane. 



AM 
ANIC 

BMNH 

CW 

RIB 

NMV 
NSW DA 

NTM 
MNHP 

SAMA 
WAM 

QDPIM 



Key To At si km asian Sternolopiius 

— Sternal spine long, reaching 10 from edge 

of third abdominal sternite 

ntfipes rabricius* 

— Sternal spine not reaching beyond first 
abdominal sternite 2 



W) 



C. H. S. WATTS 








6 



FIGURES 1-6, 1, from nf head of S austmlis\ 2, dilto, S. margirnLtilli<>: 3, labial palpus of S. marf>inicollis\ 4, ditto, 
S. aus tralis; 5, apex of sternal spine in 5. immarginatus; 6, ditto, fir. marginicollis. 



im — 



W 



Maxillary palpi stout, same length as 
antennae, second segment noticeably 
shorter than apical (Fig. 4); row of 
punctures on outer face of protibia 9-10, 

largest al apex. . , oust rolls sp, nov. 

— Maxillary' palpi elongate, longer than 
antennae, second segment almost as long 
as apical (Fig. 3); more than 15 punctures 
in a row on outer face of protibia, largest 
towards base , . , , 3 



3(2) 



Last abdominal sternite entire; sternal spine 
short, not reaching beyond metatrochanters 

(Fig. 5) immarginatus d'Orchymont 

Last abdominal sternite notched at apex; 
sterna] spine reaching to about middle of 
first abdominal sternite or beyond (Fig, 6) 
marginicollis (Hope) 



*Not yet recorded from region but reaches Java. 

Sternolophus australis sp. nov. 

Description (number examined 82) (Figs 1, 4) 

Length 11.5-14.5 mm. Oval, black. Head covered 
in small unevenly sized punctures evenly spread, 
stronger and denser along rear margin, a group of 
much larger punctures just inwards from eyes, and 
a semicircle of large punctures on frons forward 
from eyes, a few large punctures In line in middle 
of elypeus. Front margin oi' frons entire or only very 
weakly emarginate in centre. Pronotum covered in 



fine punctures as on head, each side with two 
slanting rows of much larger punctures inwards 
from edge and to about 14 width; sharply incised 
groove just inwards of lateral edge and along front 
edge to about level of inner margin of eye. Fine 
punctures on elytra weaker than on head, serial 
punctures much larger, well-marked, in four lines, 
punctures uneven in size and distribution, those in 
inner three striae generally in a single line, those 
in lateral series widely scattered particularly towards 
shoulder, a row of small punctures immediately 
inwards from lateral margin. Sternal carina thin, 
produced backwards in spine reaching a little way 
beyond hind coxal plates. Maxillary palpi a little 
shorter than antennae, stout, apical segment a little 
longer than penultimate, labial palpi stout, apical 
segment about half length of penultimate. Outer 
surface of protibia with row of 12-15 large seta- 
bearing punctures which, apart from some smaller 
ones close to knee, are even in size. Apical margin 
of last abdominal sternite complete. 

Male 

There is little difference between the sexes. The 
male has the claws on the front tarsi more sharply 
bent. Tips of parameres extend beyond tips of 
aedeagus, 

Types 

Holotype. M. 'Vaughan Springs, NT. 4/68. C. 
Watts', in SAMA. 



STERNOLOPHUS (HYDROPHILIDAE) 



91 




FIGURE 7. Distribution of S. marginicollis. 



Paratypes. Same data as Holotype, 6 in SAMA 
in CW. 



15 



Distribution (Fig. 8) 

NT _ 19°58'S 129'39'E, ANIC; 13°02'S 
133°05 ' E, QM; Alice Springs, SAMA; 30 miles W 
Alice Springs, CW; 38 km SSE Alice Springs, 
ANIC; Edith Falls, ANIC; Gove, NMV; Hart 
Range, NMV; John Hayes Rockhole E Mac. Rng., 
SAMA; Kakadu NP, CW; Koongarra, ANIC; 15 
miles N Mt Cahill, ANIC; Palm Ck, NMV; 
Standley Chasm, CW, ANIC; Tallipatta Gorge, 
NMV. 



WA — Carson Escarpment, ANIC; 50 miles S 
Giles, WAM; Gill Pinnacle, WAM; 10 miles W Halls 
Ck, WAM; Hammersley Range, WAM; 23 km N 
Millstream, SAMA; Mitchell Plateau, CW; 
Pincombe R., WAM; Synnott Rng., WAM; Upper 
Ord R., SAMA; Walsh Pt., CW; Walter James Rng., 
WAM; White Mountain, WAM. Wittenoon Gorge, 
WAM; 26 miles W Wittenoon, ANIC; Wotjulum, 
WAM. 

QLD — Enasleigh R. via Mt Surprise, QDPIM; 
Kennedy Ck, QDPIM; Laura, QDPIM; Townsville, 
QM. 

SA — Everard Rng., SAMA. 



n 




FIGURE 8. Distribution of 5. immarginafus (•) and S. australis (O). 



Sternolophus immarginatus d'Orchymont 

Sternolophus immarginatus d'Orchymont, 1912, 
p. 56. 

Sternolophus oceanicus Zaitzev, 1910, p. 225, syn. 
Knisch 1924, p.227. 

Description (number examined 261) (Figs 4, 5) 

Length 10.6-12.5 mm. Oval, black. Head covered 
in small but well-marked punctures of variable size,, 
stronger and denser along rear margin, a patch of 
much larger seta-bearing punctures inward from eye 
and a ragged semicircle of some 12-15 similar 
punctures on frons forward of eye, a row of about 
12 large seta-bearing punctures together with a 
scattering of similar punctures towards rear of 



clypeus. Front margin of frons emarginate showing 
yellow membrane beneath, central portion not, or 
only slightly, triangularly edentate. Punctures on 
pronotum as on head, a slanting straight line of 
single large seta-bearing punctures on side near 
middle and a similar, but curved, row near front 
margin on each side, well-marked groove along 
lateral edge extending in much weaker form across 
front margin. Elytral punctures as on pronotum but 
somewhat weakened, a row of small punctures 
along lateral margin with some scattered small 
elongate punctures inwards. Serial punctures weak, 
in four rows, punctures erratically placed, those in 
lateral rows widely scattered. Sternal carina narrow, 
spine short, blunt, reaching only to about margin 
of hind coxal plates, mesosternal keel relatively 



$T£BMOU)PHU& (HYDfeQMlJI 1 1 > A. I ) 






Short with a mil of very lojig setae on from angle. 
Rugose portions on femora weakly resineied to very 
small area at bite. Maxillary palpi elongate, larger 
than antennae, apical segment same length or 
slightly lodger than penultimate, labial palpi 
elongate, apical segments slightly more than halt 
length or penultimate. Outer surface of protibia 
with row of 20-30 seia-beanng punctures, those at 
base largQ, becoming progressively smaller towards 
Apical margin ol last abdominal segmenl 
complete. 

Mule 

'.laws on male protarsi more sharply bin l Ihan 
i,i Female with lane basal lobe. Tips of paramorcs 
and aedeagu* level. 

types 

StetnolopbHS intmotginatua d 'Orchymom 
Holoiype. VI. 'Northern Territory S. (Neosi .) 
immarginatus, On h, Type, Dr dC>rehymont Dot' in 
RIB Seen. 

Sternolophus ocvanhus Zaitzev. Borneo. Type not 
located, synonymy after Kmsch 1924, p. 227. 

Distribution (Fig. 8) 

QLD - Blaekdown Tableland, QM; Brisbane, 
SAM A; Bundaberp, ANIC, Burnett R. } ANIC; 
Canns, ANIC. QM; Calliope K., ANIC; 12 km 
NNW Camerons Corner, ANIC; Carnarvon Rng., 
AM, Clcmionl R-. AMC; Cooktown, NMV; 
•: . unnamulla, SAMA; Dalby. SAVIA; Eidsvold, 
QM. Home Hill, CW; Ingham, ANIC QDPIM; 
Iron Rug., ANIC, 15 km WNVV Johnstone K., 
QDPIM; Rowanyama, QM, Lake Broadwater via 
Dalby, QM. Laura, QDPIM; I oekyer Valley, 
SAMA; 31 km NNW LoJlSTCftch, ANJC; Mackay. 
CW; Marina Plains, QDPIM, 7 miles S 
Marlborough NMV; Mary Ck, ANIC, 40 Mile 
r., NO. ANIC, Normarnon, SAMA Stewart 
Rng., SAMA: Townsviltc, ANIC. QDPIM; 
W.udorah, AMC. k O km W by N Wmdorah. 
ANIC. 

NT _ so miles N\V Alice $p» CW, It km SW 
Borraloola. ANU '. Dai R SAMA, Humpfy DqO, 
ANIC, QDPIM; Kathciine. NMV, AMC, 
Maiaranka, ANIC: Nabarlck Dam, SAMA. 17 
miles t^Nr Ncwcasilc Waters, ANIC. Barrow L k, 
SAMA, P&tOll ' MV: South Alligator R., 

NMV; lennanr Ck. NMV; 15 miles N Tcnnant Ck., 
ANIC; Ttndal AMC. 50 miles N Vaughan 3p.< 
CW; Vuendunm, CW. 

NSW — 20 miles SSW Bourke. SAMA; Byroek, 
ANIC; bS km W in|>a., NMV; Demhqinn, ANk . 
Duhbi., AM; GfifclagOUg, NMV; 37 km F. Hay. 
SAMA; M.aaranka, ANK Iraneir, AMC, 
W.lcanma, SAMA; Yass, NMV 

SA - Claynm ( ro sAMA; Coopers Ck 



ClttNlOA SAMA; Deep Creek, SAMA; 20 rflitft N 
Koonamore Sin., L. Pinpa, SAMA, Lake I 
SAMA; Lake Frome, SAMA; Moomba, NMV. 15 
km W Stun Vale. SAMA 

VIC — Irymplc, NMV. 

\VA— 16 4<»'S 125 2 C CE, WAM. Argvle Do 
WAM; Beverley Sp. Stn, WAM; Cane R. HS, Al 
Drysdale R., ANIC; Fit/roy Crossing. AM-: Oil 
Pinnacle, SAMA; Kalumburu. WAM, Kununurra. 
ANIC; Minilya R,, ANIC; Did River, WAM. 
Wyndham, ANIC. 

Sttnutloplius inxrainicoHfc (HO 

ffvdrobius murzmicotlis Hope. 184?., p. 

SrertwtophUS marQinicollis (Hope), Kmscli l''24, p, 

227. 

Hvdrobius assimtlis Hope. 1842, p. 428 I Itfecft 

1924. p. 227 

Sternolaplms mnduluy Macleay, 1871. p i IS 

Kmsch 1924, p 227; d'Orchvtnont, 1912, p. 56: 

Blackburn, 1888. p. BI4, 

Hyilrobius urtensis Moi.cou/ier. 1860. p. 247, syn. 

■ mv -., ZaitZCV, 1910, p, 225; crOrclTymont, 1912, p. 54. 

Sternolophus wrwbricosm Blackburn, 13X8, p 813 

syn. n.-.\ : /aii/sv, 1910, p. 225; dOrchvmom, 1912. 

p. 55; d*Orehymont, I92>, p. 420 

ripuon (number examined 390) (figs 2, 3. 6] 
Ijcngth 10.0- 13,5 mm. Narrowly ovah black. 
Head evenly covered with small unevenly sized 
punclures strongly impressed, much larger and 
denser along rear margin, a group seta- 

benring punctures fUBt inwards from eye, uneven 
semicircle of about 1 5 large seta bearing punct ures 
on Irons forward bom eyes, a row Dl about 15 
sjinilar punetures along rear of clypeiis; from 
margin of I'rons cmargmale exposing underlying 
membrane, central portion of margin more deeply 
incised in broad rrutngular shape. Pronoiu n 
eovered in punctures similar to but a little smaller 
than I hose on head, each side with iwu slanting rows 
of large seta-bearing puncture. (OWS USually more 
than one row ot * puncuires thick, ^luupty ii 
groove adjacent to la l era I margin and a tyedkd 
groove along front m r y weak or lacking m 

ccrnral poriion. I tvoon uiili scattei--- -mall 

punctures, setose serial punct ures. in four rows, 
dt^trinution of i.uiv'Ltivsalotig ffiWS tmesen iboSC 
in inner Ihree r»)v\s o\ou: or |c I W line » lb0« 
in lateral stria widely seatteied partkttlarly to'w^rd^ 
5hj 'alder, a row of small puncture 1 along e\n 
lateral margin of clytnm wuh seattercd elon>$alv 
punctures ol roughly the same SIM nomcdiai'. ! 
inward. Ooni them along elytron GRCCpl humc.. 
uigU Sternal carina qaite stoui for ^. 
parlicularlv n'r-.'-u ' 1.1I ]h.' iiUS gum: large 

reaching wcli 0..v<hil1 edge of OOTOl plfltft, reaching 



!M 



C« K. S. WATTS 



nearly lo second abdominal segment, and usually 
ending in sharp point. Outer surface of pronbia 
with a row ol 14-30 small seia-beariny punctures 
which tend to get smaller towards apex. Apical 
margin of L*£J abdominal segment with small IKftJ h 
in nnddJe 

Claw on male protarsi more sharply bent than 
in female. Tips of para meres level W'ith tip at 
aedea^us. 

l}pes 
Hydrobius trwrginkolfis Hope. Port EsfifogtOtl. 

Holotype (by inonolypy) in Hope Department of 
Entomology, University of Oxford. Seen 

HydrohiUS usstmilis Hope. Port LssmizCm 
Holotype ibv numorypy) in Hope Depart mi:i.i <n 
Entomology. University of Oxford. Seen 

Hydrobius attensis IVf on trouper. There are three 
specimens in Bedel's collection now in MNHP Irom 
New Caleaotlifi labelled 'Hydrohius Anc-u-C..' 
Mi-r, Ton/. Nile Caled'. one of which bears a type" 
laU '! t hereby designate the specimen bearing the 
type? label as lectotypc Seen. 

Sternotapkus nittdulus Macleay. lour symypc 

specimens in ANJC on permanent loan from 
MacLcay Museum (abutted 'Gayndah* I spa 

in '\AMA labelled 'Gayndah Queensland Masters* 
with a SAM A label in Lea's handwriting 
'Sternolophus nilidulus MncL Queensland CorypC; 
2 specimens in AM labelled Holotype' which are 
presumably the two listed by Mckeowu (PH8). 1 
nominate the specimen labelled Sieriioloplius 
nilidulus Me LAV. Buniett River' in AM as the 
lectotypc and the other five specimens para 
leetotypcs. Seen. 

\({'/no!uf>/m\ (i-ficbric ifcUS Blackburn. N< 
Territory. Holotype (by monotypy), collected by LP 
Tepper in SAM A. Seen. 

Dl&tntbuitbM (Pig. 7) 

QLD — Ashgrove, QM Vt \NK; Babinda, 
AM, SAMA; Bfeffffrgfl QM; a) km s I'l.n.mijcld. 

cvv. Bilble i.. anic, Brisbane; QM: Bundabtf& 

QM; Cairns. A NIC? Call, ope R„ ANIC. 
La mi on vale, ANJC; Canungra Ck, QM; Cape 
ry, QDPIM; Cape Tribulation. QM, QDPIM 
15 km W Captain Billy Ck, QM; 75 km S 

{ ardsrone. ANIC Card well. ANIC, Charters 
CCS, CW; Clcrmonr, AM: Cocn, NMV; 40 km 
pCJfo CW; 60 km S Cacn t CW, c ..okiown. 

ANIc. roli, QM: D..ir,trcc. QDPIM. 

Dalhunty R. r CW. QM; 3d km W Fan view, QM, 

riyin.e fish PL, QM; IS mites S Qpttpk ANIC, 

Helens* . ■ • ■ Kccp< Vale 

Mission. ANh . Innisfa.l. \NM ' bun Kug., ANIC; 
15 km VVNW S .Johnston R., ANIC. Jundah, 



ANIC; 2 miles, 5 miles E Kamna, ANIC, Kennedy 
Ck S o! I aura, QDPIM; Kingaroy, ANIC: Kirrama 
Rng., QM; Kowonyama, ANIC ; Ku.anda, ANJC, 
SAMA; 5 miles N Kuranda, ANIC; lakeland 
Downs, CW; J2 km N Laura, CW; 70 km N Laura, 
ANIC; Little Laura R., QDPIM; J km E I Octerbic, 
QM; Malanda. CW; Maieeba. ANIC; 26 km E 
Mareeba. QM, Manna Plains, ANIC: Mary Ck, 
ANIC: McJIwraith Rng,. QDPIM; 21 miles S 
Miriam Vale, ANIC; 2 miles W Mission Beach, 
ANIC; Moa I., QM; Mornington L, SAMA; 
Mossman. QDPIM, ANIC. 15 km NW Mossman, 
QM, Ml Cook Nt. Pk . ANIC; Mt Coolum. ANIC; 
Mt Finnigan, ANIC, Ml Moffat, QM; Mi 
Tambourine, QM; Mr Webb, ANK ; Ma seravc, QM: 
Old Laura Stn.. QDPIM; Peach ( k ~NQ, CW; 
Pew hester, QM, 40 Mile Scrub, QDPIM: Shiptons 
Plat, ANK :. Silver Plains lis, ANIC; Stannary 
Hills. ANIC, Stanihorpc, QM; Tolga, QDPIM: 
Town>ville, NMV; Tally Palls, QM; Walk..,*;,, 
ANIC; Yeppoon, AM, ANIC; 9 km SE Yeppoon, 
ANIC. 

NT - 80 miles NW Alice Springs, CW; 
Basof Ck. NMV" Bcny Sp.. ANIC. 45 km SW 
Borroloola, ANIC, Cape Crawford, ANIC; Daly 
R Mission, ANIC; Darwin. CW, NMV, Ellery Ck, 
NMV; Glen Helen, NMV, Howard Sp., ANIC. I.m 
Jim Ck . ANIC. SAMA; Karnbolgie Ck CW, 
Maiaranka. ANIC; McArihur R., ANIC; 19 km 
NEE Ml t ahill, ANIC; Mudginberry HS. ANJC ; 
Naburlck Dam, SAMA. II "km SW Nunbuwah 
R kHi . ANIC; Pine Ck, CW; Sth Alligator R., NMV; 
lindal, ANIC; Vaughan Sp., CW; Wes.sel Jsl., 
ANIC, Yuendumu. CW 

T - Black Mi. ANIC. 

NSW — Brunswick Heads, ANIC; Bulla Bulla 
tank, CW; ColTs Harbour, ANIC; Corowa, ANIC 
Deniliquin, NMV; Porrigo. ANIC; Ecclestom AM 
Gilgntidra, CW; K'empscv. QM. Kerupsey, SAMA 
Wbm ANJC; Orange, ANIC ; Pillijra. ANIC 

': i •<■•.: ii, ANIC; Stephens Ck, SAMA 
Mrhemille, QM; Vallcry. ANIC. 12 km N 
Wooden bone,, QM. 

VIC - Dtmboola, ANJC. fehuca, NMV; 
I -.kdaie. NMV; Irymplc, NMV: Kulkyne. CW; Little 
Descrr, SAMA Naiiambie, ANh: 

WA W ^0'S lift 50 L, WAM; 23 km WSW 
Rarrailale. ANK , 1 7 km N Cane R. HS. ANli . 
I --inhale WAM; Kununurra, ANIC; Millsrreafn. 
ANIC; 13 km NE Newman. ANIC; ibodvav, 
ANIC; Warbunon Ru., SAMA; Warne R , WAM 

Wctiulqflj, wam, 

SA — Coopers Ck Crossing, SAMA; Fromt R., 
SAMA; rs5 km S Radium Hill. SAMA, Rcnmark. 
ANIC, 24 km N Ml Serlc, SAMA 

PNC - Amboin, ANIC; feifefa, /\NK\ Lirrch 
Haven, SAMA, tn>rok:i, ANIC; Mt C*.yilnc. 
SAMA. Nenutsado. CW; P( Moresby, SAMA; Uiai 



STERNOLOPHUS (HYDROPHILIDAE) 



95 



ANIC; NE Wau, ANIC; Wau, ANIC. 

New Caledonia — Grotte de Ninnin-Rev, SAMA. 



Acknowledgments 

The curators of the collections listed earlier are thanked 



for the free and rapid access to specimens in their care. 
Dr E. Matthews kindly read and improved the manuscript. 
Mrs D. Brunker typed successive versions. Miss J. Thurmer 
drew the illustrations and the maps. Mrs M. Anthony, 
Librarian, SA Museum, ferreted out references with 
practised speed, ease and good grace. All are thanked for 
their support and help. 



References 



BLACKBURN, T. 1888. Australian Coleoptera, with 
descriptions of new species. Proc. Lin. Soc. N.S.W. (2) 
3: 805-875. 

D'ORCHYMONT, A. 1923. Neue oder interessante 
Sphaeridiinen und Hydrophilinen der Malayischen 
Region. Treubia 3(3-4): 416-421. 

D'ORCHYMONT, A. 1912. Contribution a l'etude des 
genres Sternolophus Solicr, Hydrophilus Leach, 
Hydrous Leach (Fam Hydrophilidae). Mem. Soc. Enl. 
Belg. 19: 53-72. 

HOPE, F.W. 1842. Observations on the Coleoptera of 
Port Essington in Australia with descriptions of the 
following new species. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 9: 
423-430. 

KNISCH, A. 1924. Hydrophilidae. Pp. 1-306 in S. 
Schenkling (Ed). Coleopterorum Catalogus. Vol XIV. 
Dryopidae-Dermestidae'. W. Junk, Berlin. Pt. 79. 

MACLEAY, W. 1871. Notes on a collection of insects from 
Gayndah. Trans. Ent. Soc. N.S.W. 2: 79-205. 

MCKEOWN, K.C. 1948. A reference list of types of 
Coleoptera in the Australian Museum. Rec. Aust. Mils. 
22(1): 95-139. 



MONTROUZIER, P. 1860. Essai sur la faune 
enlomologique de la Nouvelle Caledonie (Balade) et 
des iles des Pins, Art, Lifu, etc. Coleopteres. Ann. Soc. 
Entomoi Fr. (3)8: 233-308. 

SMETANA, A. 1980. Revision of the genus Hydrochara 
Berth. (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae). Mem. Entomoi. 
Soc. Cand No. Ill, 100 pp. 

SOLIER, AJ.J. 1834. Observations sur la tribu des 
Hydrophiliens, et principalement sur le genre 
Hydrophilus de Fabricius. Ann. Soc. Entomoi. Fr. 3: 
233-308. 

ZA1TZEV, P. 1909. Analytische Ubersicht der mir 
bekannten Arten der Gattung Sternolophus Solier 
nebst Bemcrkungen uber die andern Arten dieser 
Gattung (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae). Rev. Russe 
Entomoi. 8: 228-233. 

ZA1 1 ZEV, P. 1910. Coleopteres aquatiques nouveaux ou 
peu connus. Rev. Russe Entomoi. 10: 223-226. 



HEMILEIUS (ACARIDA: CRYPTOSTIGMATA: SCHELORIBATIDAE) 

FROM SOUTH AUSTRALIAN SOILS 

a C. Lee 



Summary 

Hemileius Berlese, 1916 is rediagnosed and compared with other genera of Scheloribatidae. Three 
new species; H. (H.) biclavulus, H. (H.) copectus and H. (H.) rectus, are grouped in the nominate 
subgenus. Two new species, H. (T.) minimus (type species) and H. (T.) paratenuis, are placed in a 
new subgenus, Tenuileius. These mites occurred most commmonly in the litter and soil at the semi- 
arid, mallee-broombush and mallee-heath sites, but also at three others of the nine florally diverse 
South Australian sites studied. This is the first record of Hemileius from Australia. A key is given to 
distinguish the species described. 



HEMJLKIUSi AGAR IDA: CRYPTOSTIGMATA: SCHEU3K1BATIDAK) 
FROM SOUTH AUSTRALIAN SOILS 

D. C. LEE 

LEE, D- C, 1989 Hrmiltuus (Acarida: t ivplostigmaia ScheliHihjiudae/ trorn South Australian 
M lis. &£ S. iusf. Mus. 23(2): 97-111 

Hernileius Berlese, 1916 is rediagnosed and compared with Dlfecr genera ot SchelonbaUdae. 
Three new species; //, (J/), biclavulus. H (Hj Cppedu* and //. <H.) rfcrus, are grouped in the 
nominate subgenus. Two new species, H. (T.) minimus (type -,pecies) and H. ('('.) furuiomu^, 
placed in a new subgenus, hmmlcius. These mites occurred most commonly m the liiiet 
soil at the '.rni <ruj. maltee-broombush and mallee-heath sites, but also a\ three others ol the 
mne Morally diverse South Australian sites studied- This is the first record of Hernileius from 
Australia. A key is given to distinguish (he specie:, described. 

D.C. Lee, South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000. Manuscnpi 
received J Augu.\l 1988. 



This is a further part of an ongoing study of 
sarcopuform mites in South Australian soils, 
sampled from nine floraJly diverse sites, and for 
which an introduction to the relevant work on the 
advanced oribate mites (PUnofissurac) has been 
published (Lee 1987). Hernileius is grouped here in 
the Scheloribaiidae Grandjean, 1933, although it 
is the nominotype of Hemileiidae Balogh &. 
Balogh, 1984, a family without generally accepted 
validity and based on an arbitrary division in the 
character state series between the absence and 
presence of pteromorphs, which is also used in a 
questionable delineation of Hemilieus and 
Schelonbotes (see under 'Remarks' on Hernileius). 
A new subgenus, TenuHeius* is established for 
species with a hysteronotal shield that is strongly 
tapered anteriorly, leaving the anterior two setae (Zi 
and Z2) close to its lateral margin. The 
Schcloribatidae is considered further in a paper (Lee 
& Pajak in press) on this family, which particularly 
considers Schetoribates Berlese, 1908 and a new 
genus. The only other scheloribatid genus so far 
known from Australia is Setobates Balogh, 1962 
(Lee Sl Pajak 1988). 

Whilst all legs (femur-tarsus) have been 
illustrated in parts of this study, for Hernileius il 
has been considered sufficient to illustrate only leg 
II, except for one species {H. rectus), Measurements 
are in micrometres (^m). The mites examined were 
all collected by the author and are mainly deposited 
in the South Australian Museum (SAM A), but also 
in the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago 
(l-'MNH) and the New Zealand Arthropod 
Collection, D.S.LR.. Auckland (NZAC). 



NutAllON 

The morphological notation is as that used for 
Schcloribatidae by Lee & Pajak (in press), but the 



following elaborations have been made to terms 
defining external soma I ridges. A humeral tectum 
is distinguished from the larger pteromorph by its 
width being only subequal to or less than the 
diameter of the bothr'tdium (base to seta ^2). This 
is an arbitrary division of a character expressed as 
a continuous series of states through from no 
recognisable structure, an inconspicuous ridge, to 
a large wing-like flange or pteromorph. A ridge is 
considered partial if it extends only along part o\ 
the usual length covered. Ridges are linear it* they 
form a narrow, superficial line; costaie if they form 
a rib-like thickening; laminar if the thickening bears 
a Range. Ridge (or carina) A/Tvee* Grandjean 1953, 
Fig. 2A) is here termed the subtutorium* a linear 
or costate proteropleural ridge level with aceta- 
bulum L The subtiiionum is not homologous with 
the tutorium since they can occur together as in 
Muliercula ngoyensis [Coelzer, 1968 Fig. 10), the 
tutorium Tunning along part of a line between setae 
yl-.:2. So far in this study no tutona have been 
recognised. 



Systlmaiics 

GeTtUS Hernileius Berlese 

ffemileius Berlese, 1916, p. 322. Type species 
(original designation): 'Pmloribates (Schelorihates) 
iniualis Berl.' Grandjcan, 1953, p, 119. Coctzcr. 
1968, p. 23. C PerezThigo, 1984. p. 170. 

Diagnosis 

Schcloribatidae. Rysteronotum with 10 pairs of 
medium length or short setae (no mjcrosetael. 
Pteromorph absent, humeral tectum may be 
present. Proterunotul setae /2-y2 separated by gap 
1.25 * or "less distance J2-z\. Dorsosejugai furrow 






\> K Mr 



oomplete and curved forward between lamellae, not 
straight. Femurs I and tl with shun stall, 
encompassed by collar and recess m caput so that 
pedestal and caput nearly tfbllfc Wae without 
proximovcntral cutieular spurs, tarsus I usually with 
three (u\>\ % pv\< v2) pro.vi ni oven fra I setuc. latclv v 2 
absent. Solenidia on tibiae 111 and IV tapci disially 
(no rnieroglobuiar Op;. Pre tars us usually with tbrcc, 
Wdy with two (central and anterior] claw.--, laicrui 
..laws without sub terminal looih grid slimmer ih.m 

central blawi bul ai loaa a* stow as carnal seiao fW 
ai hallwav along their lennth 

dene fa I axtrphob^y <>/ .Australian SpeCffl 

General appearance bulbifonn or subrettangular 
with somal setae, except for proteronoial Hies y and 

I, fine and short, and legs short and stout or oi 
medium -girth. Anterior margin of h>steronotai 
shield not obscuring aperture of bothridium to sela 
c2. Four pairs of normal (not fissuriform) speculate 
hystcronotal foramina and smooth (without 
tubercles or longitudinal stuac) integument. 
Prnferonotal sensory se«a (zl) capitate, lanceolate 
01 fusiform, not setiform. Translamellar line 
(between cJ-cJ) absent Frelamella. (between MQ9 
/]-;.! ot rostral margin-r.l) costate or lineate, iM 
may be partial. Lamella and sublanvli.t w- 
laminar, bothridium abut? onto lamella. 
Siif-rutoriuni straight or curved, linear or costatc. 
Somal chuetotaxy ?j, '::., Is: 2/ 6Z t 2S; 3/, t// t Stfi 
<rarely 2), 3/1 ; 4J2& Lfijg; 2JZa, 3.S'i/; one lateral 
coxite seta {MX) may be nm rOttta {H, copeaa), 
note its absence on H. (TJ tenuis . Piscidium 
rudimentary, cither costatc or flange height less than 
twite width of serai base /K3. Ciieumpedal ridge 
either absent or, fl present, noi reaching margin of 
opisthosternal shield. Mid-coxisternaJ groove 
present or absent. Leg chaetotaxy usuallv I — Tr 
J. Fe 5, Ge 2 II 90)i 1 1 I' 4 (2 ..0, Ta IS or 19 (Zso}; 
II — Tr I, Fe 5, Ge 2 (I Sttfc Ti 4 (I so), Ta J5 (2 
m)\ J r J — Tr 2. k- 3. tie l n sflj ft 3 (I to), la 
L.v IV — Ti L Fe 2, Ge 2, Ti 3 (I soh Ta Jl 
Variaeion on tarsus I because se'a i2 present or 
ahscnl. Order ol diminishing leg length — I, IV, 

II. Ill; pf diminishing maximum tibial height — 
i (V, 111 (or 111 = IV). Fiances on lemurs (even 

lemur 11) small or absent. Poiose aieas either 
present or absent on femurs and trochanters J I J and 
IV. but absent on tibiae aod tarsi Trochanter IV 

i.ii bequaj tq fU height i urvej 

il surlav.'. : ; iubglobttfai fe p^t'tle. CX0WH 
forms a |j ventral crescen I -shaped flange 
ftflficffmes weakly bilobed, 

mirhi 

Ffemltoliti rs vecj siiriflal io &:heloribates as 
suggested by Grandjeau (IftlS), die BlHJOl 

recognised difference being the presence or absence 



of a pteromorph. Despite this, BaJogh <& BaJogh 
(1984) established the Hemileiidac, delineating it 
from the Seheloiibatidae on the basis of this 
character. But the recognition of a pteromorph is 
subjective (Norton & PaJacios -Vargas I9&7), 
although arl'.lKlallv del'intvl heir ysce under 
4 Notation'). The Hemileiidae is therefore to be 
synonymiscci (Lee & Pa/ak in press) with 
Sehcluribatidae until a convincing delineating 
diagnosis iS provided. Jt is also arguable that 
Hvrfiileius should be regarded as a junior synonym 
i-i Vr'//'/, ;,-</>>,/c, T | m. ause there is a strong SUHilatltJr 
between Henutents recius sp. nov. and a small 
species j}\ Scheloribates trom the mailee-heath site 
[see Lee Sl Pajak in prvssi and HemHeius tmtiulL\ 
(type >pcci. si ,-. -.imilar to some larger SchetonbairK 
species 

In relation to other members o( the Schclon 
batidae, HemHems fs also superficially very similar 
to other members of the Hernileiinae Balogh /t 
Balogh. l u K4, as well as live genera (Crvptoze/es 
Hammer, l%2; Dometorina Grand jean, 1^51; 
Metaleius Iravt, 1%0. Puatletus Travc, J 960 a . J 
SfCukibatQ Grandjean, 1953) o.ci Innked by Bdloch 
& Balogh (1984) En their review of iheOripodn id i 
(as 'Oribaiuloidea'). Memhers of these five genera 
ore jdequatcly described, but their relationships W 
ajiccitam. Crypiuze(t j \ Qumetorina and Siculobafa 
are principally epiphytic or saxicolous mites and 
their relationships are discussed by Nnrton A: 
Palacios-Vargas <1%7) in terms of bpeeiahsatiufe.. 
often regresMve synapoinorphus, for being 
epiphytic and derived from character states of 
edaphic geneia such as Henuleius. It should be 
acted i hat whilst ptcromorphs, pleural recesses 
delineated by circumpejal ridges or processes, and 
angular leg segment : ;liapeb are derived in the 
MnpocloioVa, the loss of hysierontvtal setae by 
Henu/eius suggesis that its lack of such character 
.slates may rcpresem regressive syr.apomorpl n . 
possibly Bar living in deeper soil layers, and 
sometimef ii may also be saxicolous or epiphytic. 
The five species described here illusttate the 
problems of defining sUielorihalid genera and 
y nosing a genus such as Hemiklus. They are 
smaller than ihe established species and also differ 
in lacking porose areas on the tibiae and tarsi The 

-'MAii-. inuM Hipci ,; » •■ •• " n ,! r ■ ■■■'■ • : 

H. biclavuli a differs in bavmg cmly two preta. >.ai 
claw. k arid it also lacks a potsiiriov r cnrral seta on 
tarsus I as for Crypioz.eles, Ooffistorinu and 
tiabato* Another species. H rectUS i shows 
similarities to Schetonbtttes, whilst H. copecTUS is 
inter mediate in lorm. Two ...pecics, //. minimus and 
H. para ten v i i \q the- previously 

established //. teflUts Aoki. l c >82. rua> represent a 
lineage adapted for deeper -ami layers, and are 
referred to a new subgenus JkmtRa&B If i here >* 



,i IfCLORIBATID MITES, HLM1LEIVS 



«w 



more confidence in the similarity between its 
members not reflecting convergence, then it might 
be better regarded as 3 genu*. The formal diagnosis 
of Hemilnus used by Coetzer (19*8), that implied 
by the couplets in the keys of Balogh & Balogh 
()984) ;r, well as thai provided here, may not 
indicate relationships. 

To establish the number of known species in 
Henuleius is .Jilticuh. Initially the genus (as a 
subgenus fcrf Qrihalula) included eight species, of 
which one had a subspecies (as a variety), and Tor 
which the descriptions had limited value. Time Ol 
these species became the types of euhci 
tknnetflrirm, Siculobutu cm- UebStti&fas whilst the 
oilier four species have rarely been referred to since. 
Coctzer (1968) excluded four species from 
Uemileius, that had previously been in Liebziadia 
(rnultiporose rather than sacculate foramina) or 
Schcloribafes (pteromorph present), Of the seven 
species newly combined with Hanuieim by Coet/.er 
(1968), C, Perez-lingo (1984) excluded one and 
suggested that the other six, as well as the four rarely- 
referred to species grouped in Hemileius VfbsSR h was 
established, should probably also be excluded. The 
15 spec'es grouped here in Hemileiu* are listed 
under the two subgenera. 

K\ i ro South Ai mkai... 
/// Y////RS See- i h (ATJUI is) 

1 — Setal dislance :2 /I B> Ot less distance 

:2 J2. Hvsuronntal humeral inaiein cblffl 
with tectum. II pedoteaum II extends laterally 
furthei than I, then humeral reel urn extends 

rurlher still 

. Hcmi/eius (Hemilcwi Berime. 2, 

Setkl dlstfltiee ,:,'-/t suhequal to distance 

J ,?.. I lysleronoial humeral margin concave, 

without linmeial tectum. Pcdou:etuin extend:- 

l.tteuiliv farther than I 

ffe'ttukuu; (li-'nuilcius) subgen. i)0\ , 4. 

2 — tnlcfla.nellar se'a 1/2) medium-length, able ro 

reai-h 'I Selal distance fl-/| about 2- 
distance il\-If\. Sbotl 'injaemal apodeme 

level wiih saae fl\ and ///I, - 

H (Hetwlctu .' i qpe< '"'• $P- nov. 

— lmerlamellar $eta ifi) long, ibfc io reach /I. 

,,nec /I -/I suhequal to distance 
//l [j], \. - 'imi ap..-i erne «3 

3 _ Prelarsi with IwocIj^, BumCWl lectnm widih 

abqui f'.> diameter of ItothridiUfli CbaW tfl 

seta £21 HvMu-osoma bulbifbnft. Pedoiectum 

II noi extended laterally W ftlf a- I 

. . . ;/. fHewtteiusi bTctuVuiuS $p, nov* 

— prci i a iii '•'"•-•.: ,U'\,. Humeral tetwm 

width siibcqual »o diame:-i ol both rid fum 

(base \u -.el a _ 2) Myslerovoma naiallcl-sided. 



Pcdotecium II extends laterally lutthcr than I 

AY. (Hcniilnh--.) MCtVS -V nov. 

4 —Sensory seia til caput sub-globose. 
Subtutorium extends forward io near seta z\ 
Hysu-nniotal shield veiy narrow, seta Z2 as 
close tO margin as diameter ol n- bftSfc Gap 
between genital otifice and anterior sternal 
margin t,5> Ol more distance between genital 

and anal on tiee 

H /Il'iiwUius) minimus sp new. 

Sensory seia :? caput fusifoim. Subtutorium 
\vA extended forward to near seta r\. 
Hystcronotal shield narrow, seta 71 more than 

us length away from margin- 
between genital orifice and anterior stcrn.il 
margin less than 1.5- ili.si.mee between gC 

and anal orifice 

//, (Tenuilein^) paraienuis sp. nov 

Subgenus Hemileius (Hccmlcins) Berlese 

Diagnosis 
Hemileius, Hysteronotal seta Z\ near io anterior 
in ol hysteronotal shield (distance z2 Z) 0,8 « 
or less distance z2-j2), Hysteronotal shield wide 
with convex humeral tectum dorsally obscuring 
pleural striated cuticle and leaving seia Z2 more 
than its length away from margin Pedoteetum tl 
usually not extending laterally further than I; o fl 
docs, then humeral tectum extends furlher still. 

t/Vv/e/v// morphology of Ausiralum specu-s 

ColOfUI Ann? brown or yellowish-brenvn, Sjmallei 
than established species (247-447 compared to 
450-710). legs short (mean femur-tarsus length: 
36-40 '.,;. oi .omal length) and tibiae medium- girth 
to stout (mean maximum height: 38-49% of mean 
length). Humeral tectum and linibus widths between 
0.3 x and subequal Io diameter of bothndium, but 
not correlated (ag. H. biclavulus with incon- 
spieuous humeral tectum and broad limbus), limbus 
cneonipassing entire hysteronotum behind humeral 
tectum. Sacculate foramina with slit-shaped or 
round pores. 

Distribution 

Although some species from the Southern 
Hemisphere have been grouped in HemUeius, 
previously established species currently US this genus 
all appear to be Known only from the Nonhern 
Hemisphere. Records and speeies numbers are 
greatest from southern parts ol 'nonhern temperate 
'us, either around the Mediterranean and 
Lanary Islands (Pm) or in the United States of 
America (Nr, Nat and Hawaii (Ap). Records from 
furiher norrh (Pe, Nni are limited to HfPfltieus 
init talis m Turope and io //. quadnpihs and an 
uruderiufied species in Canada (Marshall, Reeves 
&. Norton 1987). 



too 



DC. Ill 



The three new species of HemUeius (HemUeius^ 
from South Australia appear to be ihc only 
Southern Hemisphere records. Two species a 
in large enough numbers at relatively dry semi-and, 
mallec-broombush and malJeeheath sites to 
support their ecological categorisation as 
hemiedaphic or, in the case of the smaller species, 
as possibly being euedaphiu The other species, 
Hnmleiuseopectus, is mainly found (32 adults) at 
the sem<-arid site, but is also represented hy a single 
■specimen at both selerophyll forest and pine forest 
sues, suggesting that an edaphic species at a drier 
site m.v, be savicolous or epiphytic at the moister 
sites and so poorly represented in soil and Itttfl 
samples 

Remarks 

Hetnitetus (HemUeius), the nominate subgenus, 
includes a heterogeneous majority of species in ihe 
genus [t ranges m form from the type, which is 
somewhat like H biclavulus and hat similarities to 
the epiphytic Dotoeturina for example, to H rectus 
with similarities 10 some Scheloributes. 

The following 12 species are grouped in 
HemUeius (HemUeius/: H. (H) hklovulus gp. now; 
H. (Hj comatus Berlese, 1920. H, fH./eopeciussp. 
nov.; H ftl) efcwatusE. rera-lnigo, 1978; // (Hj 
>resstiti Balogh ft Balogh, M3; H. (ft, h-r,. 
(Higgms & Woolley. 1975); H (H) hierre.nsis C. 
Peree.-lnigo, 1984; H (HJ initial® (Berlese, 19(18), 
type species; H (H.) nicki Denmark & Woodring, 
1965; H, (H) quudripitis Fitch, 1356 {syn. polfida 
IwniK, 1909); H (H.J rectus sp. nav (> H ,H..> 
robustus C. Pere2-lfugo, 1969, 

The generic placement of//, (H.J quodnpilis is 
problematic {see Marshall. Reeves & Norton 1987), 
hut (t$ synonymy with H (H.J pallida Ewing, 1909 
»s accepted, although H. fHJ pallida Ewing; 
Hummer, I952 from Canada (Nn) may not be 
conspecific with it, having substantially shorter 
hysieronotal setae. 



HemUeius (HemUeius) bictovulus np. nov. 
Figs I, 2 and 8 

Female 

Dorsal profile usually bulbiform, sometimes 
more parallel-sided than illustrated <Fi&. 1), 
[.JnvsomaJ length, 404 (25. 380-447). Leg lengths 
(femur-tarsus for idiosomal length 411); t — 19S, 
II — 161, III — I3fc IV - 163. Tibial maximum 
heights (for 4l1fc ( - 23. I) - 18, JU - 15, IV 
- 15. 

Proteronoturn with incomplete prelamella 

extending from sela>l only Halfway towards zi. 

Lamella and sublamella cost ate, suhUmclla less 

" 'ii i, runs close ro lamella along ajltcrioi ii:ill, 

bothridium (base c2) closer to lamella. Subtutorium 



linear and straight, with alveolate sculpturing 
posterior and ventral to it. Setae j\, /Zj zl 
inconspicuously filiate, interlamellar (/2) and 
lamellar U\) setae long, J2 reaching to \e\cl of jU 
and z\ reaching beyond rostral apex. Sensory seta 
\:2\ long, reaching z\\ exposed stalk slightry longer 
than caput {appear??- shorter in Fig. 1 because 
sloping dorsal waTds); caput fusiform, three files of 
cilia, maximum of* seven cilia in any file, parallel- 
sided when viewed dorsal ly {Fig. ]), umeonvex 
viewed laterally, Seta si length about twice diameiet 
of boihridia! ipeiture. 

Hysteronotal setae subequal in length, but 76, 26, 
$6 slightly longer. Humeral tectum small but limbic 
substantial, width about v0.3 and subequal to 
diameter of hothndium respectively* Two pairs of 
unnamed pores (usually anterior pair between seta 
Z2-foramen F3, posrerior pair between sera 
S5-rnirJ!ine; rarely anterior pair between foramen 
F3 -midline or third pair between Z4- midline). Sit 
like pore feO short, approximately iransvcr.se; t\fA 
'I'd h/5 parallel lo lateral margin, visible ventral! s 
(no( illustrated in fig. 2, too near margin), /j/6 
oblique, adaxtal end posterior. Sacculate foramina 
wuh sJir-shaped ports. 

• lo.iermim with medium gap (about 0.66 ■•• 
setal distance /1-//1) between apodemes L Adaxjal 
end of apodeme fll base latitudinally level with 
genital seta .fc\ and longitudinally level with coxite 
seta /n i ustodial ridge present. Discidium forms 
shallow Hap (depth about twice diameter of setal 
bale /F3). Cirvumpedal ridge reaching forward to 
merge with disadial ridge and backward so that half 
of its length lies posterior to aperture to acetabular 
cavity IV, Alveolate sculpturing along rmdcoxjte 
region {fig. 2, illustrated only on coxite JV). No 
midstemal apodeme. Lateral coxite setae longer 
than those around genital shield. 

Opisthosternum with genital setae less than half 
length of anal setae. Eggs subcylmdrical 189 * 85 
(2 eggs, 47<7r of soma! length 401), rugose 
exochorion. Number of eggs in female (number of 
females) as follows: none (12), one (3), two (12>, 
three (9), four (4). 

Legs short (mean femur-tarsus length; 40% of 
soma). Dorsal porose area on all lemurs and 
trochanter* III and tV, Rugae posteriorly on femurs 
III and JV. Shallow ventral flanges on keels of 
femurs If, 111 and IV. Solenldium sol on tarsus [ 
subequal in diameter to base of seta </3, and 
reaching setae d4. Only five ventral setae on tarsus 
I, proximovcntral sera v2 absem, proximal three 
with 8 to 10 cilia (longest cilium longer than setal 
base diameter). Pretarsi with two claws (anterior 
slim and central stout claw). 

Mate 
M female, oxept protcronotal setae in rllcsy and 



SCHHLORIBATID MITES, HEMILEIUS 



101 




FIGURES I AND 2. Hemileius (Hemileius) hiclavulus sp. nov., female soma. 1, notum; 2, idiosternum. 



z may be slightly longer. Soma smaller, idiosomal 
length 367 (mallee-heath, 25, 339-373) and 362 
(mallee-broombush, 1). 

Materia/ examined 

Holotype: 9(N198887), sand, litter, under banksia 
shrubs (Banksia ornata), Tamboore Homestead 
(35 57 S, 140 29 h), 4.viii. 1974. 

Paratypes: 27 9 9 (N198888-N1988114), 72a a 
(N1988I15-N1988186), same data as holotvpe; 
2 9 9» 2orcr — FMNH; 2 9 9 , 2a or — NZAC. 

Undesignated: 1209 9, 309cro\ same data as 
holotype. Single cr (N1988187), sand, litter, sparse 
moss, under ridge- fruited mallee {Eucalyptus 
incrassata) amongst broombush shrubs {Melaleuca 
uncinala), Ferries-McDonald Reserve (35 15 S, 
139 09 'F), 20.vi.l974. 



Distribution 

Australia (Aa). South Australia. Malice- 
broombush, open scrubland (Ferries-McDonald 
Reserve), Murray-Darling basin, loVl of 8x 
25 cnr. Mallee-heath, tall open shrubland (Tam- 
boore Homestead, near Mt Rescue Conservation 
Park), Murray-Darling basin, 148 9 9 , 381 <y cr/8 
of 8 x 25 cm 2 . 



Remarks 

H. hiclavulus is the largest South Australian 
species of Hemileius with similar facies to the 
slightly bigger type species, H. initialis. On the other 
hand, H. hiclavulus is unique in the subgenus in 
having only two pretarsal claws and five ventral 
setae on tarsus 1 (a reduced ventral setation on 



io; 



D. C. LEE 



tarsus I is also recorded for the epiphytic 
Cryptozetes, Dometorina and Sicu/obata). 
Although given a minor weighting here, these two 
characters have been used to diagnose oripodoid 
genera. 



Hemileius (Hemileius) copectus sp. nov. 
Figs 3, 4 and 9 

Female 

Dorsal profile ovoid. Idiosomal length, 278 (semi- 
arid shrubland, 10, 262-288) and 270 (sclerophyll 
forest, 1). Leg lengths (femur-tarsus for idiosomal 
length 276, semi-arid shrubland): I — 123, II — 108, 



III — 95, IV — 111. Tibial maximum heights (for 
276): I - 15, II — 13, IN - 12, IV — 12. 

Proteronotum with complete prelamella (seta 
y'l-d-roslral margin), costate near/1, rest linear. 
Lamella laminar, sublamella costate, runs close to 
lamella along anterior half (may appear more 
robust from some angles because more refractile), 
bothridium (base of seta z2) closer to lamella. 
Subtutorium semicircular, linear. Setae yl, y'2, z\ 
inconspicuously ciliate, interlamellar (/2) and 
lamellar (d) setae medium-length; fl reaching d, 
d reaching yl. Sensory seta (z2) long, reaching z\\ 
exposed stalk slightly shorter than caput (appears 
even shorter in Fig. 4 because sloping dorsalwards); 
caput fusiform, three files of cilia, anterior file on 




FIGURES 3 AND 4. Hemileius (Hemileius) copectus sp. nov., temalc soma. 3, notum; 4, idiosternum. 



SCHELORIBATID MITES, HEM1LEIUS 



103 



straight margin with 14-16 cilia along caput and 
stalk, other files with 6-8 cilia confined to caput. 
Seta 52 length subequal to diameter of bothridial 
aperture. 

Hysteronotal setae subequal in length, but 76, Z6, 
56 slightly larger. Humeral tectum and limbus small, 
width of both x0.3 diameter of bothridium. 
Unnamed pores not located. Slit-like pore /i/3 
oblique, adaxial end posterior, hfA and hf5 parallel 
to lateral margin, visible ventrally (not illustrated 
in Fig. 4, too near margin), hfS oblique, adaxial end 
anterior Sacculate foramen F3 with round pore, 
whilst F4, F5, F6 with slit-shaped pores. 

Podosternum with wide gap (subequal to 71-/71) 
between apodemes 1. Adaxial end of apodeme III 
base latitudinally level with coxite seta 7771 and on 
longitudinal line closer to coxite seta IV2 than IV\. 
Midsternal apodeme between setal pairs 771 and 
7771. No custodial ridge. Discidial ridge without 
discidium. No circumpedal ridge. Pcdotectum II 
short, not extending as far laterally as pedotectum 
I. No midcoxite sculpturing or midsternal apodeme. 
Coxite setae all short, 771 and 7771 particularly short, 
seta 7773 inconspicuous microseta. 

Opisthosternum with genital setae more than half 
length of anal setae, but adanal setae Sa2, So3 
longer. Eggs subcylindrical, 157 x 82 (1 egg, 55% 
of somal length 285), granulate exochorion. 
Number of eggs in female (number of females) as 
follows: none (9), one (3). 

Legs short (mean femur- tarsus length: 40 % of 
soma). Indistinct porose area on femurs and 
trochanters III and IV. Indistinct rugae on femurs 
III and IV. No ventral flanges on keels (not 
discernible from lateral aspect) of femurs II, III, 
IV. Solenidium sol on tarsus I subequal in diameter 
to base of setae rf3, and reaching setae d\. Six 
ventral setae on tarsus I, proxi movent ral seta v2 
present, proximal four with three or four cilia 
(longest cilium longer than setal base diameter). 
Pretarsi with three claws (central stout claw, lateral 
slim claws). 

Male 

As female, except soma smaller, idiosomal length, 
259 (semi-arid shrubland, 18, 252-271) and 262 
(pine forest, 1). 

Material examined 

Holotype: 9 (N1988188); soil, litter, moss and 

other low growth plants under bladder saltbush 

{Atriplex vesicaria) amongst sparse false 

sandalwood (Myoporum platycarpum), Koonamore 

Vegetation Reserve (32°07'S, 139°21 'E), 27.vi.1974. 

Paratypes:99 9 (N1988189-N1988197), 18a or 
(N1988198-N1988215), same data as holotype. 

Undesignated: 29 9 and 20*0* lost, same data 
as holotype. Single 9 (N1988216), soil, litter, sparse 



moss, under sclerophyllous shrubs amongst 
messmate stringybark (Eucalyptus obliqua)> nr 
summit of Mt Lofty, Cleland Conservation Park, 
34°59'S, 138°45'E, 9.V.1974. Single a (N1988217), 
soil, litter, under Pinus pinea, Kuitpo Forest Reserve 
(35°12'S, 138°41'E), 22.V.1974. 

Distribution 

Australia (Aa), South Australia. Semi-arid low 
shrubland (Koonamore Vegetation Reserve), Lake 
Eyre Basin, 129 9, 20o-o-/6 of 8 x 25 cm 2 . 
Sclerophyll forest (Mt Lofty, Cleland Conservation 
Park), South gulfs, 9/1 of 8 x 25 cm 2 , 
Cultivated pine forest (Kuitpo Forest Reserve), 
South gulfs, oVl of 8 x 25 cm 2 . 

Remarks 

H. copectus is distinguishable from non- 
Australian species in the nominate subgenus by its 
small size and only medium-size proteronotal setae 
z\ and j2. It is similarly distinguishable from 77. 
biclavuluSy whilst 77. rectus, which is of a similar 
size, has long proteronotal setae and a more 
substantial humeral tectum. Ventrally, coxite seta 
7773 is reduced to a microseta, drawn slightly larger 
in illustration (Fig. 4) so that it is recognisable, and 
there is a short midventral apodeme anterior to the 
genital shield, both unique character states for the 
genus. 



Hemileius (Hemileius) rectus sp. nov. 

Figs 5-7 

Female 

Dorsal hysteronotal profile subrectangular, partly 
due to humeral tecta. Idiosomal length, 280 (25, 
260-300). Leg lengths (femur-tarsus for idiosomal 
length 293): I — 121, II — 105, III — 85, IV — 
113. Tibial maximum heights (for 293): I — 18, II 
— 15, III — 13, IV — 14. 

Proteronotum with complete prelamella (seta 
yl-zl), costate nearyl, rest linear. Lamella mainly 
laminar, costate near z2. Sublamella costate, runs 
close to lamella along anterior half, bothridium 
(base seta z2) closer to lamella. Setae j\, y"2, z\ 
inconspicuously ciliate, interlamellar (J2) and 
lamellar (d) setae long;y"2 reaching level ofy'l, z\ 
reaching beyond rostral apex. Sensory seta (z2) 
medium-length, reaching beyond y'2; exposed stalk 
shorter than caput; caput fusiform, three files of 
cilia, anterior file with 16-18 cilia along caput and 
stalk, medium file with 8-9 cilia and posterior file 
with 11-13 cilia confined to caput. Seta s2 length 
about 1.5 x diameter of bothridial aperture. 

Hysteronotal setae subequal in length, but 76 and 
Z6 slightly longer. Humeral tectum conspicuous, 
width about 0.25 x distance Z1-Z2; limbus small, 



104 



D. C. LEE 




FIGURES 5 AND 6. Hemileiu.s (Hemileius) rectus »p. nov., female soma. 5, notum; 6, idiosternum. 



width about 0.1 x distance Z1-Z2. Unnamed 
circular pores present between and near setae Z2 
and S4. Slit-like pore hJ3 oblique, with adaxial end 
anterior, sometimes transverse, rarely adaxial end 
posterior (one side only), hf4 and /?/5 visible 
dorsally (Fig. 5), h/6 oblique with adaxial end 
anterior. Sacculate foramina with round pores. 

Podosternum with medium gap (about two thirds 
/1-/71) between apodemes 1. Adaxial end of 
apodeme III base latitudinally level with point 
anterior to genital shield and longitudinally level 
with point closer to coxite seta /Fl than IV2. 



Custodial ridge present. Discidium forms a shallow 
flap (depth about twice diameter of setal base IV3). 
Short straight circumpedal ridge separate and well 
behind other subpodal ridges. Weak alveolate 
sculpturing along mid-coxitc region (Fig. 6, 
illustrated only on coxite IV). No midsternal 
apodeme. Pedotectum II robust, long, extending 
further laterally than pedotectum I. Lateral coxite 
setae longer than those around genital shield. 

Opisthosternuin with genital setae about two- 
thirds length of anal setae. One female with 6JZg 
on one side (extra seta halfway between JZg2-JZf>3). 



SCHELORIBAT1D MITES, HEMILEIUS 



105 



50jum 






FIGURE 7. Hemileius (Hemileius) rectus sp. nov,, posterior aspect to femur-pretarsus of right legs showing only one seta. 



Eggs oval, 139 x 80 (1 egg, 50% of somal length 
278), granular exochorion. Number of eggs in 
female (number of females) as follows: none (30), 
one (36), two (5). 

Legs short (mean femur-tarsus length: 36% of 
soma). Porose areas on femurs and trochanters 111 
and IV. Indistinct or no rugae on femurs I and II, 
distinct rugae on femurs III and IV. Shallow ventral 
flanges on femurs II, III, IV. Solenidium so\ on 
tarsus 1 subequal in diameter to base of seta d3 and 
reaching setae d4. Ventral setae on tarsus I with six 
or seven cilia (longest cilium subequal in length to 
seta base diameter) along two thirds of length. Six 
ventral setae on tarsus 1, proximoventral seta v2 
present, all of them with 8 or 10 cilia, longest 
subequal to setal base in diameter. Pretarsi with 
three claws (central stout claw, lateral slim claws). 



Male 

As female, except smaller soma, idiosomal length 
247 (25, 226-265). 

Material examined 

Holotype: 9 (N1988218); soil, litter and sparse 
moss under ridge-fruited mallee (Eucalyptus 
incrassaia) clumps amongst broombush shrubs 
(Melaleuca uncinata), Ferries-McDonald 
Conservation Park (35°15'S, 139°09'E), 20.vi.1974. 

Paratypes: 66 9 9 (N1988219-N1988277 and 
N1989148-N1989154), 40o»o* (N1988278-N1988311 
and N1989155-N1989160), same data as holotype; 
2 9 9, 20-0- — FMNH; 2 9 9,2a <? — NZAC. 

Distribution 

Australia (Aa). South Australia. Mallee- 



106 



D. C. LEE 



broombush, open scrubland (Ferries- McDonald 
Reserve), Murray- Darling basin, 71 9 9, 44 cr cr/1 
of 8 x 25 cm 2 . 

Remarks 

H. rectus is distinguishable from non-Australian 
species in the nominate subgenus by its smaller size. 
It has the largest humeral tectum for the genus, 
which, with the parallel-sided hysteronotum and 
long interlamellar and lamellar setae, makes it 
appear similar to some small species of 
Scheloribates. But the humeral tectum in lateral 
view is substantially smaller than the pteromorphs 
of Scheloribates as is the ventral flange on femur 
II, although the similarities may reflect a close 
relationship. 



Subgenus Hemileius (Tenuileius) subgen. nov. 

Type species: Hemileius (Tenuileius) minimus sp. 
nov. 



Diagnosis 

Hemileius. Hysteronotal seta Z\ distant from 
anterior margin of hysteronotal shield (distance 
Z2-Z1 subequal to z2-jl\ Hysteronotal shield 
narrow anteriorly with humeral margin strongly 
tapered, linear and without tectum, so that seta Zl 
less than its length from margin. Striated cuticle that 
separates hysteronotum from ventral shields clearly 
visible from above, reaching as far forward as seta 
z2. Pedotectum II extends laterally further than I. 



50xjm 




>*-S 



FIGURES 8-11. Right legs II, posterior aspect to femur-pretarsus. 8, Hemileius (Hemleius) biclavulus sp. nov.; 9, 
Hemileius (Hemileius) copectus sp. nov.; 10, Hemileius (Tenuileius) minimus sp. nov.; 11, Hemileius (Tenuileius) 
paratenuis sp. nov. 



SCMLLOKIBAXJD MITES, HtiMtLtWS 



107 



General morphology of Austral ion species 

Colour, shiny yellowish- brown. Smallest species 
in genus (175-298). Legs short (mean femur-tarsus 
length: 37-38% of soma! length) and tibiae very 
stout (mean maximum height: 52-59% of mean 
length). Limbus restricted to margin of hysteronotal 
shield behind slit-like pore h/4. narrow, width about 
0.3 -: diameter of hothudiurn. Speculate foramina 
with round pores. 

Distribution 

Currently Temoleius appears to be confined to 
regions around the Pacific species being recorded 
from Australia (Aa), Japan (Pc) and possibly 
Hawaii (Ap). 

Remarks 

Tenuiltius includes two Australian species in 
which the hysteronotal shield is strougly tapered 
anteriorly, with TO marginal thickening, and leaving 
the pleural striated cuticle, which extends unusually 
well forward, visible from above. Associated with 
this, seta Z\ is transposed backwards from the 
anterior margin of the hysteronotal shield and 
sometimes towards the mid-line, The anterior 
narrowing of the hysteronotal shield may have been 
overlooked in the past since it lies above a region 
including the highly retractile structures around the 
sejugal division. Therefore,//, tenuis • Aoki, 1982 is 
included in the subgenus on 'he basis of other 
similarities to H. paratenuis Also, it is noted that 
whilst H, gressittt Balogh & Balogh, 1983 is left in 
ihe nominate subgenus, it should be regarded as a 
potential candidate for inclusion in Tenui/etus that 
awaits further examination. As pointed out in the 
Remarks' on the genus, members of this subgenus 
ifUft be adapted to live m the deeper soil layers, If 
the adaptations ate apomorphic, TZnutlcius might 
be better reiunked to be a genus. The following three 
species are grouped in Hemileius (Jenuileius): H. 
(T) minimus sp. nov., type-species; H. (TJ 
paratenuis sp. nov.; H ft) tenuis Aoki, 1982. 



HemMeius (Tttwileius) minimum p. nov. 
figs 10, 12 and 13 

Female 

Dorsal hysteronotal profile slim, oval. liposomal 
length, 190(6, 185-200). I eg lengths (fcmur-iarsus. 
for'idiosomal length 187). I — 82. II — 67, l!f — 
59, IV — 69 Tibial maximum heights (tor 187): 
I - 15, l( - 19. !!! - 12 t IV - i: 

Pioteronotur.i with complete prelaineJla vseia 
yi— rostral margin), costate neat j\. rest linear. 
Lamella mainly laminar, linear near .?2. Stibiamella 
costate, runs close to lamella along anterior half, 
bothridium (base of seta z2) close to lamella 



Subtutoi ium present, costate, dorsally extending to 
near seta z\\ Setae v't,y2, ?} inconspicuously abate, 
interlamellar (/2) and lamellar (zi) setae medium- 
length, both only reaching level oi z\ and J\ 
respectively. Sensory seta shon. not reaching j2; 
exposed stalk shorter than caput, caput subglobosc 
{laterally compressed), two ranks of cilia in six or 
seven files. Seta 52 length about 2« diameter of 
bothndial aperture. 

Hysteronotal setae short (but nearly as long a< 
jQ), subequal in length, peripheral (/6, Z3, S6, Z6) 
setae slightly longer. Slit-like pore HJ3 nearl;. 
transverse, adaxial end anterior; h/4 and h/S near 
lateral margin, visible dorsally, /t/6 partially visible 
dot salty, 

Podostenmm with moderately wide gap (slightly 
less than IX-IJ\) between apodemes I. Genital shield 
substantially closer to anal shield than antetic 
podosternal margin. Adaxial end of apodeme HI 
base latitudinally level wiih cnxite seta ///I, and 
longitudinally k\v\ with eoxite seta fl'7. Custodial 
ndgc present. Discidial ridge with inconspicuous 
discidium. No cncumpedal ridge. Pcdotecturn 11 
slnn. but long, extending laterally beyond 
pedotectum I. No midcoxite sculpturing. Lateral 
coxite setae longer than those around mid-line 

Opisthosternum with genital setae evenly spaced 
and less than hall length of anal setae, No eggs 
observed 

Legs short (mean rcmur- tarsus length; 37"W oi 
soma). Dorsal poro.se areas nor evident on femurs 
and trochanters. Rugae posteriorly on femurs J!l 
and 1V L No ventral keels or flanges on femurs 
Solenidium sol on tarsus I fatter than seta rf.l, 
reaching pretarsal claws. Six ventral setae on tarsus 
J, proximuventral seta v2 present, proximal i'om 
with 3 or 4 cilia (longest ahum longer than sctal 
base diameter). Preiarsi with three claws (central 
stout claw, lateral slim claws). 

Male 

As female, except soma smaller, idiosocnal length, 
177 f2, 175-178). 

Material examined 

Holotype: v (NlSW3l2Jj sand, litter, uncirr 

bankjsia ihtubs {Baftksia ornata), TainbpoK 

Homestead (35 57 'S, 140 29'F), 4.vni.l974. 
Paraiypcs; 5 9 9 (Nt9W3| .VNJ98S3I7), 2 
(N1988318, N19883I9); sjtrit data as helot:-... 



Distribution 

Australia (Aa), South Australia- Malice-heath, 
tall open shrubland flamboore Homestead, near Ml 
Rescue Conservation P&fkt Murray-Darling basin. 
t>g 9,2o , C / I Of 8 ,• 25 Bin 



D. C. LEE 




50 urn 




FIGURES 12 AND 13. Hemileius (Tenuileius) minimus sp. nov., female soma. 12, notum; 13, idiosternum. 



Remarks 

H. (Tenuileius) minimus is the smallest, slimmest 
species oi \ Hemileius so far known. It has a relatively 
large podosternal region, the shortest legs recorded 
for Hemileius, with short, stout tarsi, and extensive 
pleural striated cuticle, suggesting adaptation for 
burrowing, probably in a euedaphic habitat. 



Hemileius (Tenuileius) paratenuis sp. nov. 
Figs 11, 14 & 15 

Female 

Dorsal hysteronotal profile oval. Idiosomal 
length, 296 (3, 293-298). Leg lengths (femur-tarsus 
for idiosomal length 298): I — 136, II — 108, 111 



SCHELOR1BATID MITES, HEM1LEIUS 



lO) 




100>um 




FIGURES 14 AND 15. Hemileius (Tenuileius) paratenuis sp. nov., female soma. 14, nolum; 15, idioslernum. 



— 90, IV — 113. Tibial maximum heights (for 298): 
1 - 23, 11 — 15, III — 12, IV — 14. 

Proteronotum either without prelamella or it is 
incomplete and lineate (Fig. 14). Lamella mainly 
laminar, linear near z2. Sublamella laminar, runs 
close to lamella along anterior half, bothridium 
(base of seta z2) close to lamella. Subtutorium 
present, costate, crescent-shaped. Setae 71, j2, zl 
inconspicuously ciliate, interlamellar (/2) and 
lamellar (zl) setae medium-length, ft reaching 
beyond level of zl and zl beyond level of/l. Sensory 
seta (z2) medium length, reaching beyond y'2; 
exposed stalk longer than caput; caput fusiform, 



three files of cilia, median file with 7-8 cilia along 
caput and stalk, anterior and posterior files with 
5-7 cilia confined to caput. Seta 52 length about 
2.5 * diameter of bothridial aperture. 

Hysteronotal setae, subequal in length but 
posterior rank (/6, Z6, 56) longer, sometimes 
sinuous. Slit-like pore hfl oblique, abaxial end 
posterior; on right side of one female, longitudinal 
slit-like pore between setae Z2-Z3, presumed hfl\ 
hfA and A/5 near lateral margin, visible laterally (not 
illustrated); only half of A/6 visible dorsally (Fig. 
14). 

Podosternum with moderately wide gap (slightly 



)l) 



C. LEE 



less than f\-ll\) between apodemes ]. Genital shield 
closer to anal shield than anterior podostcrnal 
margin. Adaxia) end of apodeme [I] base 
latitudinally level with point between coxite setae 
///1-/M and longitudinally level with point midway 
between coxite setae IW-TVT,, Custodial ridge 
present. Discidium forms a shallow flap (depth 
subequal to diameter of setal base JV\), 
Cireumpedal ridge absent. Weak alveolate 
sculpturing along mideoxite region (Fig. 15, 
illustrated only on coxite IV), Pedotectum 11 
medium-breadth, long, extending further laterally 
Ulan pedotectum I. 

Opisrhostctnum with genital setae about two 
thirds length of anal setae. Genital .haeioiaxy very 
variable, commonest pattern illustrated (Fig. 15), 
but also 2J2& 3JZ& and $JZg s missing setae JZg2 
and JZg3, extra seta between JZg3~JZg4 t confined 
to one side; spacing varies for AJZg, usually even, 
sometimes central space (JZg2-JZg3>) extensiveso 
that setae in two groups. No eggs observed 

Legs short (mean femur-tarsus length; 38% of 
soma). Porosc areas on femurs and trochanters III 
and IV. Indistinct rugae on femurs 1 and H, distinct 
tugae on lemurs Ell and IV. Keel with shallow 
flange on femur 11. Solcnidium sol on tarsus I 
subequal in diameter to base of seta r/3 and reaching 
to setae d4. Five ventral setae on tarsus I, 
proximoventral seta v2 absent, only one (v3) ciliatc, 
with six or seven cilia (longest cilium subequal in 
length to setal base diameter) along two-thirds of 
length. Pretarsi with three claws (central stout claw, 
lateral slim claws). 

Male 

As female, except smaller soma, idiosomal length, 
273 (5. 262-285). 



Material examined 

Holotype 9 (N 1988320); soil, litter and sparse 
grass under coasial wattle (Acacia sophorae), 
Piccaninnie Ponds Conservation Park (38 03'S, 
l40 a 57'E), 3.vii.i974. 

Paratypes: 2? 9 (NJ988321, N1988322), 5acr 
(N1988323-N1988327), same daia as holotype. 

Distribution 

Australia (Aa). South Australia. Coastal closed- 
scrubland (Piccanirmie Ponds Conservaiion Pari:). 
SE coastal, 3 9 9 > 5cr o* / 2 of 8 v 25 am 1 

Remarks 

H. (Tenuileius) paratemus differs from the other 
two species of Tenuileius in having a fusiform 
sensory seta (.:2). It is intermediate in size between 
these species. In details such as the circular pore 
to the hysteronotal foramina and presence of lateral 
coxite setae it resembles ft. (TJ minimus, whilst in 
its general broader shape it more closely resembles 
H, (T) tenuis. It is assumed here that H. (T.) tenuis 
has a narrow hysteronotal shield anteriorly, but this 
is nor commented on in its description (Aoki 1982). 



ACKNOW'UilX-.MENTS 

I am indebted to Miss Carolyn Birehby for preparing 
most or the drawings, to Mr George Pajak tor some 
preliminary drawings, and to the Australian Biological 
fteseurcfcs Study for funding their salaries. Thanks Are also 
due to Ms Kathy Bowshall for the notation and 
i>rt cnialion of the figures and Mrs Debbie Brunker for 
typing i he manuscript. 



RuLREr-u t 



AQK1 J I9S2. New species of onbatid mites Iron, ihe 
southern island of Japan. Bull. Inst. Envir. Set. 
Technot. Yokohama Nam. Univ. S: 173-188. 

BALOGH, J. I%2. Acari onbatcs. A mils A/w.v. r 4/fc cent 
Ser LXXV, 110: 90 lil. 

UALOGK I. & BALOGH, P. 1983. Nov onb;uids < Acari) 
Irt.m ihe Pacific region. Acta tool, hung. 29: 103-325. 

BALOGH, J. k BALOGH. P. 1984. Review of ihe 
Orihatuloidea Thur. 1929 (Acari: Oribatej). Acta zool. 
hung 30 257-113. 

BERLESb, A. J 908. F-leneo di generi c specie nouvi di 
Acari. Redia 5: I -1 5. 

BERLESE, A. NI6 Centuria terza di Acari nouvi. Rpclia 
12: 28Mri. 

itl Kl J-SE, A. 1920 Cemuria quinta di Aean •Mtiivi Redia 
14: 143-195. 



COLTZER. A. \m, New Oribatulidae Thor, 1929 
(Oribatci, Acari) from .South Africa, new combinations 
and a key to the genera of the family. Aflp/fltf. Inst, 
Invest, ciem Mocarnh., Se'r. A, 9 15-126, 

DENMARK, H.A. <fc WOODKING. J.R 1965. Feeding 
habits of Hemtleitis new species {Au'm: 
Cryptosiigmata: Oribatulidae) on Honda orchids. Rh 
cm. 48: 9-16. 

EW1NC. HE 1909. New American Onbatoidea. .// N. Y. 
enf. Sue. 17: II6-J36. pis 2-h. 

FITCH, A. 1856. Third (Annual) report on the noxious 
and other .ns.vis of the state of New York. Trans. N.Y 
St agric. Soe. 16: 315-490 [not seen]. 

ORANDJEAN, I. 1933 Eludes sur le dcveloppement des 
Onbatcs. Bull. Soc. Zooi. frame 58: 30-61. 



SCHELORIBATID MITES, HEM1LEIUS 



III 



GRANDJEAN, F. 1951. Sur deux especes du genre 
Dometorina n.g. et les moeurs de D. plantivaga (Berl.). 
Bull. Soc. Zool. France 75: 224-242. 

GRANDJEAN, F. 1953. Sur les genres 'Hemileius' Berl 
et 'Siculobata'n.g. (Acariens, Oribates). Mem. Mus. 
nat. Hist, natur. (n.s.J, ser. A. Zool. 6: 117-138. 

HAMMER, M. 1952. Investigations on the microfauna 
of northern Canada. Pt I: Oribatidae, Acta arct. 4: 
1-108. 

HAMMER, M. 1962. Investigations on the oribatid fauna 
of the Andes Mountains. III. Chile. Biol. Skr. 13(3): 
1-37, pis 1-11. 

HIGGINS, H.G. & WOOLLEY, T.A. 1975. New mites 
from the Yampa Valley (Acarina: Cryptostigmata: 
Oribatulidae, Passalozetidae). Gt Basin Nat. 36: 
496-500. 

LEE, D.C. 1987. Introductory study of advanced oribate 
mites (Acarida: Cryptostigmata: Planofissurae) and 
a redescription of the only valid species of 
Constrictobates (Oripodoidea). Rec. S. Aust. Mus. 21: 
35-42. 

LEE. D.C. & PAJAK, G.A. 1988. Setobates (Acarida: 
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Berlese and Megascheloribates gen. nov. from south- 
eastern Australia, with comments on Scheloribatidae 
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MARSHALL, V.G., REEVES, R.M. & NORTON, R.A, 
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new arboreal Scheloribatidae, with ecological notes on 
epiphytic oribatid mites of Popocatepetl, Mexico. 
Acarologia 28: 75-89. 

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(1). Vie Milieu 11: 209-232. 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS PEDIANA SIMON (HETEROPODIDAE: 

ARANEAE) IN AUSTRALIA 

D. B. Hirst 



Summary 

Australian species of the genus Pediana Simon, 1880; P. horni (Hogg, 1896), P. occidentalis Hogg, 
1903, P. regina (L. Koch, 1875), type species and P. tenuis Hogg, 1903 are revised. Males of those 
species are described for the first time. Specimens which Thorell, 1881 attributed to Polydamna 

(=Pediana) regina are not that species. Two groups are recognised. 



A REVISION OF THE GENUS PEDIANA SIMON 
(HETEROFODIDAK; ARANEAE) IN AUSTRALIA 

D. B. HIRST 

HIRST, O.B. 1989. A revision nf ibe genus Pediana Simon (Heieropodidue: Araiteae) in \uMk.Ii:. 
toe. ftrfutt A/f/.v 23(2): IU-126. 

Auslialum species of the *enus ftta Simon, 1880; fl /jorn/ (Hogg, 1896). P occidental 
Hogg, 190?. P regina (\ JCdcIl IK75>, type species, and r&wtfl Hogg. 1903 arc revised Males 
ol' those species are described for the first lime. Specimens which Thorell, 1881 atlrihutcd to 
potydanma (> Pediana) rn'ina, are not thai species. Two groups &JE reco&ni.-.cd. 

0. H. HinU, South Australian Museum, North Terrace. Adelaide South Australia, 5000. Manuscript 
received 23 January 1989. 



The genus Pediana has received very Utile attcn- 
tion in literal urc apart from the original descriptions 
o\ the species. L. Koch (1875) described the first 
species as Hetempoda regina from Queensland. 
Both Thorell and Simon proposed a new genus for 
this species. Simon (1880) with Pediana, preceded 
Thorell (1881) who proposed the name Polydamna 
when describing specimens he considered to be 
regina from Yule b. (the cable on p. 698 gives 
'Pnlydora regina r ), Hogg (18%) described fsopeda 
harm from South Australia, which he transferred 
to Pediana in 1903, at the same time describing two 
new species* P. accidentally Wftl A tenuis from 
Western Australia. 

All were originally described from females, males 
being unknown in literature except for Thorell 's 
description of the male of Polydamna regina. 
Examination oi (hat male shows that it is not regina 
but a possible new species which requires 
comparison with P. auhchelis Strand, 1907 from 
Java, the last species added to the genus. Types of 
[he tatter arc lost (Rentier. Stadtliehes Museum fur 
Naturkunde, pers. comm.) and the species is not 
considered here. The male palp of Thorcll's 
specimen is illustrated and the species briefly 
discussed. 

Pediana has remained an obscure genus judging 
by literature records jnd Museum collections. 
SnrjMii (1908) redescribed a specimen correctly 
attributed to P. it-nut's, while Strand (1913) gave a 
description of P. hurni under the name ol P regina 
(var.?) [neither of those specimens have been 
examined]. Specimens of P. tenuis from Everard 
Ranges (in the South Australian Museum), were 
mis-identified as Jsopeda leishmanni by Rainbow 
(1915). Many specimens deposited in Museums have 
been identified as hopeda species, particularly P. 
hurni and P. tenuis, in winch the larger si/.e and 
similat genitalia shape can be confusing. In the only 
other discussion of Pediana, Mascord (1970) gave 
brief notes on rhe genus giving some habitat 
preferences. 



Mailkials and Methods 

These notes supplement those given by HirM 
(1989). Spination and colour common to all species 
are given under 'Remarks'. Colour in alcohol is 
given from recently preserved material Eye 
measurements, given as relative to the diameter of 
an AME, are made on a horizontal plane, except 
PLE which arc on the lateral declivity and measured 
on a vertical plane. Larger body and leg 
measurements are taken to the nearest 0.1 mm as 
most segments required more than one measure 
using an eyepiece graticule. This problem was 
compounded by the difficulty in positioning 
segments ol brittle specimens perfectly horizontal 
for the required accuracy. Abbreviations are; AL 
abdomen length, AW - abdomen width, CL = 
carapace length, CW - carapace width, L = 
length. W - width Other abbreviations standard 
for Araneae, Acronyms: AM — Australian 
Museum. Sydney; BMNH — British Museum 
(Natural History), London; BYM — Dt BY. Main. 
Zoology Department, University of Western 
Australia, Perth. MCG — Museo Civico di Storia 
Natural 'Giacomo Doha', Genoa, MUZ — 
Museum Zoologic/ne Wroctawskiego, Wroclaw; 
NMV — Museum of Victotia. Melbourne; NTM 

— Northern Territory Museum, Darwin; QM — 
Queensland Museum, Brisbane; SAMA — South 
Australian Museum, Adelaide; SMNS — 
Stadtliehes Museum fur Naturkunde, Stuttgart; 
WAM — Western Australian Museum, Perth; ZMH 

— Zoologisches Museum, Hanibui^.. 

Pediana Simon 

Pediana Simon, 1880: 258. Type specie-,. 

lleteropoda regina L. Koch 1875, by original 

designation and monotypy. 

Polydamma Thorell, 1881 299. Type specie^: 

Polydamna regina by original designation and 

monotypy. o", Penultimate Q, Yule Island, MCG f 

examined, 



114 



a d. niksT 



Heteropoda [part) Koch, !875: 716. 
fsopeda [part| ftogg, 1896: UO 

Diagnosis 

Carapace about three to four times longer t.Vm 
high. Lateral eyes raised on low common mound. 
Anterior row recurved, posterior row procurved. 
MOQ longer than wide. Anterior legs of equal 
IcngiJi or leg J subeqtial to leg II. Abdomen 
elongate, pointed posteriorly, up to twice as long 
a.s wide. Male palp with embolus coiled 2 !/i-5 limes, 
coil slack wide and of low profile. Palpal tibia with 
large retrotateral distal apophysis havine, a dl 
basal ridge 

Description 

Medium to large spiders. Two groups arc 
recognised One contains Pregina. P occtdtntutis 
and TU, roll\ speCi&i (retina li'-ivo, Ihc other, ft 
hornt and /! tenms (harm group! . Carapace length 
3-9 mm [retina group I or 6-12 mm \horm group), 
longer than wide, highest pusierior to ocular region 
ALE larger PME dome shaped, clearly visible in 
lateral view, Clypeus l : to K wiuih of AME, 
Chelieeral groove with two promarginal teeth, three 
or four retromarginal teeth, rarely five. Labium 
baiely wider than long, with rounded apex. Stern h u, 
longer than wide, truncate anteriorly, narrowing 
from second coxae to a short poinl postern >r I v 
Three pairs of ventral spines on tibiae of the horni 
group with distal pair adjacent to articulation with 
metatarsi. Distal spine pair often absent in the 
retina group Juveniles o\ both groups lack (he 
disial pair. Patella tV equal m length tp patella III, 
both may be without reirolateraJ spines. Scopula 
on metatarsi IV largely replaced by lone bnsiles. 
Abdomen up io twice as loiu tdg (except in 

gravid females), pointed posteriorly, wiih palteni 
of black spots comprised of short adpressed seme 
which point po.steiiorly and inwards towards centre 
line ni cfi.li &po! Ventrally with two black patches 
one posterior t< I epigastric furrow, the other anterior 
to spinnerets. The latter patch may be Taint or 
jKjensionally absent Male tibial apopln m 5 HJU&I in 
length to palpal tibia with basal dorsal ridge, 
pointed apically. Embolus coiled it. diMal hall" ot 
cymbmm 2-A (retina group) or 5 firm.-, « 
group) with the terminal poitinn ot" Lhfi embolus 
resting in groove of a Diodififed looseh. spiralled 
umductoi. Coil slack broad at first, then o\ 
decreasing width, profile low. Female epigynum 
large, oblong with WJOrWJiai ^aralkl sides to 
broadlv nianguku. fossa large, wh.hsri, slightly' 
translucent ot'ien allowing the spcrmaihecae or 
spcrmalhecal ttuft to be seen beneath dlj 
concave, smouttt e.xcepi posteriorly, laterally 
overhung by broad scleiotised latctaJ tun. Tossu and 
sclerotiscd rim lacking -.ctae. Vulva paired. 



insemination duets coded two to three times {repjnu 
group) or 5 ro 6 times (horni group) around 
spennatheeae leading back to adjacent anterior 
margin $f fossa with gentle arc (horni group) or 
with large spermatnecai vacs extending to median 
ventral position [rrxirn group) befoie looping back 
anterior to fossa, continuing as fertilisation ducts 
under lateral rims to po-u^o. margin. 

Remarks 

Mascord (1970) Slated Pediana was rather shorter 
in the legs than most huntsman spiders, but this 
is a visual interpretation effected by the relatively 
longci abdomen and anterior legs being of equal 
length. Leg J ratio (leg length divided by carapace 
length) is torn parable, with that of many other 
Australian huntsman spiders particularly Neo- 
sparassus and some .vpecies presently in Isopcda 
However, leg H ot females is relatively shorter than 
\u most other Australian Wcicropodidae. 

In his key CD speeies included in Pediana^ Hogg 
11903) slated there were no dorsal spines on the 
posterior tibiae of f. hnrni. This contradicts his 
original description of one spine on each, which 
the syntypc and other material examined possesses. 
Tibiae of aLl species usually with one dorsal spine 
bur horni group most often with two on anterior 
pairs ThorcIT' species, while placed here in the 
retina ^jvnp, has a similar spination to the harm 
group. Usual spination of the horni group 
follows palps, h d3 pi rl (all detail, pa pi rl, ti 
d! p3 r2 (male rl), to p3 r variable between 1-3 (male 
p0 r0). leg I and tt, fe d2 p3 r3, pa pi rl, ti d2 p2 
r2 v6, me p2 a v4; leg HI. fe d2 p3 r3, pa pJ rl, 
o dl p2 e2 v5, me p2 rl v4; kg tV, fe d2 p3 rl, pa 
pi, ti dl p2 t2 v6 T me p4 r4 v4. 

The regina group as stated above, differs rn 
having one dorsal spine on anterior tibiae (again 
with the exception of TborelTs species) and olten 
onlv I wo spine pairs ventrally on tibiae, lacking the 
extreme distal pair This may be represented as a 
stout bristle, particularly in males, or as a pro- 
venttal spine on anterior tibiae. Rcrrolateral patellae 
-pines are usually absent on leg 1 1 J as well as IV. 

Coloration of Pediona species is similar. Colour 
photographs of P. regina (in life) can be found in 
Mascord (1970! 39, Figs 55, 56). Colour in alcohol 
is paler, or reddish and yellow -brown hues suffused 
with blaek. Carapace is reddish -brown, caput 
darker. Dense adpressed, yellow, orange or whitish 
setae, interspersed with black Clumps of blaek 
setae often form spots along sides. A thick line of 
black sciae just above posterio-lateral margin runs 
slightly into posterior edge. Blaek setae around 
fovea occasionally extend in a line towards caput. 
Cneliccrac reddish, basal half with adpTessed while 
and orange setae Distal half with erect long sclae 
only Maxillae and labium blackish, pale anterioi 



PEDIANA (HETEROPODIDAE) 



115 



margins. Sternum yellowish to dark brown, margins 
paler. Legs red-brown proximally to tibia then dark 
brown or blackish distally to tarsi. Setae similar to 
carapace, femora ventrally spotted with clumps of 
white or orange-red setae. Abdomen dorsally 
yellow-brown to olive-grey with setae as on carapace. 
Median stripe of black setae usually faint, 
occasionally vivid. Ventrally yellowish to orange 
with black spots. Two large black patches, one 
behind epigastric furrow, the other anterior to 
spinnerets. Sclerotised area around fossa often 
bright orange-red. 

The tegulum of the unexpanded male palp is 
largely covered by a disc-shaped embolar base (Fig. 
1) where a sclerotised plate, which may be part of 
the median apophysis, is incorporated. The embolar 
base in the regina group is ridged prolaterally on 
the distal margin with an indented area proximally 
to this. A small median apophysis is adjacent to the 
embolus origin. In the horni group the embolar base 
is larger with a low ridge distally and lacks an 
indented area proximal to this. A swollen, well- 
developed median apophysis is somewhat removed 
from the embolus origin. The embolus itself begins 
on the retrolateral side. The membranous conductor 
rises pro-distal from the embolar base in the regina 
group but proximally in the horni group. 

Distribution (Fig. 11) 

Although widespread, these spiders do not 
appear to be common. P. regina is known from the 
north-east coast of Queensland to southern New 
South Wales. While P. horni is found in arid areas 
across the centre of the continent, P. tenuis is found 
in the arid areas of Western Australia and western 
South Australia. P. occidentalis is known from semi- 
arid areas of southern Western Australia. One 
record of a female from the Flinders Ranges of 
South Australia is tentatively placed in that species 
(see later). P. regina has a distribution disjunct from 
the other species, while P. tenuis overlaps P horni 
in the northern part of its range and P. occidentalis 
in Western Australia on the southern part of its 
range. 



Key to the Australian Species of Pediana 

1 —Anterior tibiae usually with 1 dorsal spine and 

2 ventral spine pairs. Male with embolus coiled 
2Vi times 2 

— Anterior tibiae usually with 2 dorsal spines 
and 3 ventral spine pairs. Male with embolus 
coiled 5 times 3 

2 — Venter of abdomen with orange setae. Male 

embolar base with small median apophysis 
regina (L. Koch) 

— Venter of abdomen with yellow setae. Male 
embolar base with broad median apophysis 
occidentalis Hogg 

3 —Anterior femora with white spots. Male with 

curved dorsal basal ridge on palpal tibial 
apophysis horni (Hogg) 

— Anterior femora with reddish spots. Male with 
straight-sided dorsal basal ridge on palpal 
tibial apophysis tenuis Hogg 

The Regina Group 

Comprises P. regina, R occidentalis and Thorell's 
species from Yule Island. Males with about 2Vi 
embolar coils, conductor beginning adjacent distal 
pro-margin of embolar base. Embolar base indented 
prolaterally, median apophysis small and adjacent 
origin of embolus. Portion of division between 
subtegulum and tegulum visible on retrolateral side 
when viewed ventrally. Females with large 
spermathecal sacs. Insemination ducts coiled 2-2 Vi 
times. 

Pediana regina (L. Koch) 
(Figs 1-5, Table 1) 

Heteropoda regina L. Koch, 1875: 716. One of two 
known syntype females from Peak Downs, 
Queensland, 22°56'S, 148°05'E, ZMH (Mus. 
Godeffroy Nr 14602), examined. L. Koch (1875) 
mentions material from Bowen, Peak Downs and 



TABLE 1. Leg measurements of Pediana regina (L. Koch) syntype female with male QM S7196 in parentheses. 



Leg 


Femur 


Patella 


Tibia 


Metatarsus 


Tarsus 


Total 


1 

II 

III 

IV 

Pa 


8.4 (9.7) 
8.8 (10.1) 

6.7 (7.2) 
8.0 (9.0) 

2.8 (2.4) 


3.6 (3.2) 
3.6 (3.2) 
2.8 (2.2) 
2.8 (2.2) 
1.4 (1.0) 


7.1 (9.5) 
7.5 (10.0) 
5.5 (6.5) 
6.4 (8.3) 
1.7 (1.0) 


7.2 (9.2) 

7.3 (9.3) 
5.1 (5.9) 
6.9 (9.0) 


2.3 (2.3) 
2.2 (2.3) 
1.9 (1.8) 

2.0 (2.1) 

3.1 (2.8) 


28.6 (32.9) 
29.4 (34.9) 

22.0 (23.6) 

26.1 (30.6) 
9.0 (7.2) 



116 



D. B. HIRST 




FIGURES 1-5. Pediana regina (L. Koch). I & 2, left palpal tibia and tarsus of male QM S7196: 1, ventral; 2, retrolatcral 
3, epigynum of syntype female. 4 & 5, vulva of SAM A N1988471: 4, ventral; 5, dorsal. Scale line 0.5 mm. c, conductor 
e, embolus; eb, embolar base; ma, median apophysis; st, subtegulum; t, tegulum. 



PEDIANA (HETEROPODIDAE) 



111 



Cape York without stating the number pf 
specimens. One female in NMV (K-0873) examined, 
with the same number (14602) as the symype above, 
but with no other data, is a possible symype. A. 
female from Bo wen (not examined) is in the 
BMNM. The Cape York material, deposited in the 
Bradley Collection, may have found its way to MUZ 
(Wroclaw) in which case, was probably lost during 
World War 11 ot possibly is in the Macleay Museum, 
Sydney, but has not yet been found 
Pedlana regino Simon, 1880: 258. 

Diagnosis 

Anterior femora blackish with while spots, 
orange-yellow venter of abdomen. Females with 
broad, triangular-shaped fossa. Male palp with 
broad tibial apophysis, bulb with small median 
apophy 

Svntvpe female 
' CL 7.9, CW 7 4 AL 13.2, AW 9.2 

Colour in alcohol: In addition to that under 
'Remarks', carapace with orange and white setae, 
white setae grouped on anterior lateral corner of 
carapace and on basaJ half of cbelieerae, 
particularly below boss. Anterior femora ventrally 
blackish with clumps of white setae. Abdomen 
yellow-brown laterally with orange spots towards 
venter. Venrrally with orange setae. May have short 
transverse mark of brown setae between epigymim 
and pedicel. 

Eyes; AM B diameter 0.58. AME:ALE:PMh PLE 
= 1:1.17.0.83:0.86. Interspaces; AMK-AME 0.30. 
AME -ALE 0.10, PMfc-PME 1.20. PME-PLE 1.14, 
AME-PME I 52, ALE-PLE 1.20. MOQ, anterior 
width, posterior width: length - 2.62:2.84.3.17 
Clypeus half width of AME, Chelicerae: 
Retromargin of right chelicera with 4 teeth, 5 on 
left. Labium- l. 1.2, W L5. Stenumi L 3.9, W 3.5. 

Legs (Table 1): Anterior leg ratios - (leg IJ 3 6, 
(leg II) 3 7 Fossa broad posteriorly Vulva (of 
SAMA N1988471) with insemination ducts coiled 
about 2Vi times. 

XfateQM S7I96 

CL 5.7, CW 5.3 AL 7 0, AW 3.8, 
Colour in alcohol: Yellow setae somewhat 
clustered on anterior half and laterals of carapace. 
Median cluster ot yd low setae on basal half of 
chelicerae, whitish laterally Sternum orange-brown 
suffused with black. 

Eyes: AME diameter 0.41. AME.ALE:PME:PLE 
= 1:1.07:0.85 0.90, Interspaces; AME AME 0.39, 
AME-ALE0.10, PME-PME 1.17, PME-PLE 1.12, 
AMfc-PME 1.56, ALE-PLE 1.07 MOQ, anterior 
width: posterior width: length 2. 0O*2. 83:3.41. 
' ivpeus equals width of AME. 



Chelicerae: Retrolateral teeth 5 Labium: L 0.9, W 

1.0. Sternum: L 2 h\ W 2.6. 

Legs (Table I): Anterior leg ratios - (I) 5.8, 01) 

6.1. Tibial index (leg I) = 7.6. 
Palp: Embolus with 2 1 i 

Variation 
Carapace length of females range from 5.0-8.5 
23, mean - 6.7). Males; 3.5-6.0 (n - 9. mean 
= 5.2). Tibial index of Leg J of males; 6.7-9.1 (ri 
- 9, mean - 7.9), Most often with 4 retrolateral 
cheliceral teeth 

Comments 

Thorell's Polydamna re%mo material of one male 
and a penultimate female from Yule Island, differs 
from regina in its larger size, blackish caput, and 
less patterned abdomen with yellowish venter L<r 
proportions and spination resemble the harm 
group. The male further differs in the apex of the 
dorsal ridge on the palp tibial apophysis resembling 
thai of P. horni (Figs 12-13). 

Other material examined 

Queensland- I ; , Bell. Darling Downs 26 56* S. 
151 27'E, QM S7188| 2 o*o\ Black Duck Creek 
27*54'$, 152 HE, QM S72I4; I Q, Black 
Mountain, '15 40 S, 145 "14'E. QM S719I; J 
Black Mountain, kurandu area, AM KS20I95; 1 y . 
Byfield. 22 50'S, 150^38'E, AM KS19724; 1 
Calamvale. 27'37'S, 153 02 L:, QM S7IS7; I V> 
Camira, Brisbane, QM Sn563; 1 o\ Cooloola. 
2M2S, I53°05'E, QM S7196; I juv. Enlicld 
Station, 27 06 s. 151 02£, QM S7202; I y\ 
RmntnS River Sin, 19 -US. 146*26' E, AM 
KSl%69; 1 a. same daia, AM KS20203, \ 9 . Sill 
Gin. 25 '00'S, ISIWJE, SAMA N198347), 1 cr. 
Gnicerncre. 23' 26 S, I5(T 27 L, AM KS16650; I ft, 
lpsvvkh, 27 37 S, 152'47't. QM S7197; 1 v. 
Koah f 16 r 49'S. 145*31 H, AMKS20I96; 1 cr, Lake 
Broadwater, 27 2) '£ 151 06'E, QM S7185; 2 9 
Ufa Nuga Nuga : . 25 01 'S, 148 42' b. QM 
S7215, J or, Marlaybrook, 26 54 S. 151-36 E.QM 
S7186; I 9. Miriam Vale, 24 "20 S. LS1 34'(% AM 

KS20IB7; l juv., Mr Coot-iha, 27- 28 S, i^'5s'r, 

QM S720O; I 6, same locality. QM S72I": I &\ 
Mi Molloy. 16 41 S. 145 -20' E, QM S71^2, I y 
Ml Ncbo, Brisbane, QM S7I89; I fi . Nankin Crefck, 

Rockhampuwi, 23 24'S, tsQ«39'£, am KS19730; 

I O. North Booval. 25 13 5, 153 '02 'E, QM S7216; 
I 9, Peach Creek. 13 41 S. 143 09'E, QM S7193; 
I v. Proserpine. 20 "24 S, 148 35 'H, QM S7I84; 
1 o\ Roehedale. Brisbane. QM S7190; 1 o\ same 
locality, QM S7201. 2 iuv same locality, QM S7203; 
1 9, Rundle Range, 23 40 S. 151 00 'P.. QM S7I99; 
. The Fork-Mi Moffai aica, 25 04' S. 148 03 E . 
QM S6&S2J 1 y . Wymmrn, 27' 27 S, J53 10'E, QM 
S7194; 1 v 5 Yeppoon, 23 08 S. i 50 44 E\ QM 



N 



D. B. HIRST 



S7198. New South Wales: I 9 . Cessnoek, 32'50'S, 
IfllVGi AM KS20199; I g, .lenolan Caves, 
3349'$, 150X)2'E, AM KS2()I»J3; I cr , J 9. 
Pitt water, Sydney, AM KS20J98; I 9, Sydney, 
3-V53'S, 151 13'E, AM KS20192; I 9. Wesi 
Pymble, Sydney, AM KS20J94. 



Pediana occidental!* Hog& 
(Figs 6-10, Table 2) 

Pediana occidentalis Hogg, 19()3 ; 461. Two syntype 
females, Perth, Western Australia, 31"57'S. 
U5°5rE, H.W.J. Turner. Pinned specimen:; in 
alcohol, BMNH. 1893.7.4.47-100 part, examined. 

Diagnosis 

From regina; femora without black ventrally, 
abdomen yellowish ventrally. Males with relatively 
shorter, thicker legs, broader median apophysis and 
narrower palp tibia! apophysis. 

Syniype female (largest) 

CL 6.6, CW 6.0. AL 8.5, AW 6,0. 

Colour in alcohol; Anterior femora reddish- 
yellow suffused with black but not as darkly as in 
regina. More white setae on carapace. Abdomen 
yellowish ventrally. 

Eyes: AME diameter 0.45. AME:ALE:PME:PLb 
= 1:1.33:1.00:1.11. Interspaces; AME-AME 0.48, 
AME-ALE 0.20, PME-PME 1.24, PME-PLE 1. 38, 
AME-PME 1.69, ALE-PLE 1.33. MOQ, anterior 
width: posterior width: length = 2.44:3.16:3.33. 
Clypeus equals % width of AME, 
Chelicerae: Retromarginal teeth 3. Labium: L 0.9, 
W 1.3. Sternum: L 3.3, W 2.8. 

Legs (Table 2): Anterior leg ratio = 3.8. 
Fossa broad posteriorly but relatively narrower than 
in regina. Vulva (of WAM 88/945) with 
insemination ducts coiled 2-2 Vi times. Sperma- 
thecal sacs may be relatively larger than in regina 



Male WAM 88/940 

CL 5.8, CW 4.7. AL 5.5, AW 3.3. 

Colour in alcohol: With more white setae on 
lateral edges of carapace and chelicerae. Anterior 
femora lightly suffused with black, less conspicuous 
white spots. 

Eyes: AME diameter 0.35. AME:ALE;PME:PLE 

- 1:1.20:0.91:1.09. Interspaces; AME-AME 0.46, 
AME-PLE O.OCs PME-PME 1.20, PME-PLE JJ4, 
AME-PME L89, ALE-PLE 1.14. MOQ, anterior 
width: posterior width: length - 2.46:3.03:3.26. 
Clypeus equals M width of AME. 
Chelicerae: Left cnehcera with 3 retrolateral teeth, 
4 on right. Labium: L 0.7, W 0.9. Sternum: L 2.6, 
W 2,4. 

Legs (Table 2): Anterior leg ratios - (1)4.6, (II) 
4.7. Tibial index (leg I) = 9.1. 

Palp: Embolus with Wfi coils. Median apophysis 
broader than in regina, tibial apophysis narrower. 

Variation 

Carapace length of females range from 5.8-6.6 
(n = 4, mean - 6.3). Males, 4.6-5.3 (n = 3, mean 

- 4,9), Tibial index of leg 1 of males; 9.3-10.6 (n 

- 3, mean = 9.7). Often with 4 retrolateral 
cheliceral teeth, 

Comments 

A female from the Flinders Ranges in South 
Australia is tentatively included in this species 
although the differences in the cpigynum and vulva 
shape (narrower posteriorly than occidentalis with 
insemination ducts positioned more anteriorly) are 
comparable with that of regina and occidentalis 
Clarification of this specimen's affinities will remain 
uncertain until male specimens from the region 
become available. 

Other material examined 

Western Australia: 1 o\ Darlington, 31 55'S, 
U6°04'E, WAM 88/940; 1 o\ Coongarrie, 
29*55 'S, 121°15'E, WAM 88/942; I 9, Mt 
Pleasant, 33 U 49'S, 115 °50'E. WAM 88/944; I CT. 



TABLE 2. Leg measurements oi Pedumo QCCtdentQltS Hogg, syntype female (largest) with male WAM 88/940 in 
parentheses. 



Leg 



Femur 



Patella 



Tibia 



Metatarsus 



Tarsus 



Total 



I 


7.5 (7.9) 


3.2 (2.7) 


6.3 (7.2) 


6.2 (7.1) 


1.9 (1.9) 


25.1 (26.8) 


11 


7J (8.2) 


3.2 (2.7) 


6.3 (7.6) 


6.2 (7.1) 


1.9 (1.9) 


25.! (27.5) 


111 


6.0 (6.2) 


2.5 (2.1) 


5.0 (5.5) 


4.4 (5.0) 


1.4 (1.5) 


19.3 (20.3) 


IV 


7.4 (7.8 | 


2.5 (2.2) 


5.8 (6.5) 


6.1 (7.4) 


1.6 (1.8) 


23.4 (25.7) 


Pa 


2.2 (2.1) 


1.1 (0.9) 


1.5 (L0) 


— •— 


2.7 (2.5) 


7.5 (4.5) 



PEDJANA (HETEROPODIDAE) 



119 






10 



FIGURES 6-10. Pediana occidentals Hogg. 6 & 7, left palpal tibia and 
tarsus of male WAM 88/940: 6, ventral; 7, retrolateral; 8, epigynum of 
syutype female. 9 & 10, vulva of female WAM 88/945: 9, ventral; 10, 
dorsal. Scale line 0.5 mm. 







O 



FIGURE 11. Distribution of Pediana in Australia: • Pediana regina (L. Koch); ▲ P. oceidentalis Hogg; o P. horni 
(Hogg); A P. tenuis Hogg. 



120 



D. B. HIRST 



12 



13 





FIGURES 12 & 13. % Polydamma reginaThoreW. Left palpal tibia and tarsus of syntype male: 12, ventral; 13, retrolateral. 
(Distal part of embolus missing.) Scale line 0.5 mm. 



14 





FIGURES 14 & 15. Pediana horni (Hogg). 14, epigynum of syntype female. BM(NH); 15, vulva of female SAM A 
N1988462, ventral. Scale line 0.5 mm. 



F'F.DIANA (HETEROPODJDAE) 



1:1 



Murchison RiVCT, CU 27' 31 S, 115 43'E, BYM 
I962/A22; I Q, Nedlands, 31 59 S, IJ5 48'E, 
WAM 88/945; I v. VValyunga, ca 31'50'S. 
116 10' E, AM KS14975. Souih Australia; 1 v. 
WiJpena Pound, 31 30'S, 139 19'E, SAMA 
N 1988472. 



The Horni Croup 

Comprising P. horni and P. tenuis, this group is 
characterised in having more numerous long setae 
(ca 1.5) ventrally on leg four, males with about 5 
embolar coils, conductor beginning in the proximal 
area of the embolar base, embolar base convex 
prolateralty, median apophysis large and slightly 
removed from origin of embolus, Females lack 
spermathecal sacs. Insemination ducts with 5 coils, 



Pediana horni (Hogg) 

(Figs 14-18, Table 3) 

Isopeda horni Hogg, 1896: 340. Two syntype 
females, Oodnad.ma. South Australia, 27"33'S, 
135 27' H, Horn Expedition, BMNH. 1871.1.18.2 
and NMV K-0S72, examined. 
Pediana horni: Hogg, 1903: 462. 

Diagnosis 

Anterior femora with conspicuous while spots 
ventrally, male with curved apical point on dorsal 
ridge of palp tibial apophysis. 

Syntype female BMNH 

CL 9.8, CW 9.3. AL 19.5, AW 13.0. 

Colour in alcohol: As in Hogg (1903) and above. 
Eyes: AME diameter 0,64, AME:ALE:PME:PL£ 
- 1:1.16:0.86:0.97. Interspaces; AME-AME0.47, 
AME-AEE0.16, PME-PME 1.09, PME-PLE 1.41, 
AME-PME 1.47, ALE-PLE 1.19. MOQ, anterior 
width: posterior width: length = 2.34:2.75:3.03. 
Clypeus width more lhan V2 A ME Chelicerae: 



Retrolateral teeth 3. Labium: L 1.5, W 1.9. Stet num: 
L 4.8, W 4.2. 

Legs (Table 3); Anterior leg ratio - 3.5. 

Fossa with somewhat parallel lateral sides. 

Male SAM A N 1988458 

CL 9.2, W 8.3. AL 9.7, AW 6.0. 

Eyes: AME diameter 0.6. AME:AL.E:PME:PLE 

- 1:1.07:0.83:0.93. Interspaces; AME-AME 0.33, 
AME-AI.EO.H, PME-PME 1.17, PME-PLE 1.27, 
AME-PME 1.49, ALE-PLE 1.17. MOQ, anterior 
width: posterior width: length - 2.33:2.83:3.17 
Clypeus width V. of AME. Chelicerae: Retrolateral 
teeth 3. Labium: L 1.4, W 1.6. Sternum: L 4.2, W 
3.5. 

Legs (Table 3): Anterior leg ratio = 4.5. Tibial 
index (leg I) = 10.3. 

Palps: Tibial apophysis with curved apical poini 
on basal ridge. Embolus with 5 coils. 

Variation 

Carapace lengths of females range Irom 6.1-12.5 
(n = 23, mean = 9.5). Males; 6.9-9.8 (n - 5, mean 
= 8.3). Tibial index of leg I of males, 8.4-10.6 (n 

- 5, mean ■ 9.5). A vivid black streak is 
sometimes present dorsally on the abdomen. Fossa 
may be slightly wider or narrower posteriorly. Two 
of four females examined from Ambathala, 
Queensland, are smallish with decidedly elongated 
abdomens and relatively smaller epigync but there- 
is no justification for removing them to anothet 
taxa. 

Other material examined 

South Australia: 1 c\ Clifton Hills, 27' 03 S. 
138 59'E, SAMA N1988458; J 9, Finke River, 40 
km from Abminga, ca 26 03 'S, 135 53 E. AM 
KS20191; 1 juv. ofympie Darn. 3027'S, 136 53 'E, 
SAMA N1988463; J 9, The Peake Mt Denison 
area, 28-09 'S. 135"57'E, SAMA NI988461; 1 9, 
Road ro Oodnadatla, 28 35 S, 135 °53'E, SAMA 
N1988462. Western Australia: 2 juv Canning Stock 
Route, 22°32'S. 124 24'H. WAM 88/1483-4; I juv. 



TABLE 3 Leg measurement* oi Pediana horni (Hogg) syntype female HM(NH|, wiih male SAM N1988458 in 
pa 1 en theses. 



Leg 



Femur 



Patella 



Tibia 



Metatarsus 



Tarsus 



Total 



I 


10.3 (12.0) 


4.6 (4.6) 


8.3 (11.0) 


8.3 (109) 


i5 (2.9) 


34.O (41.4) 


II 


10.3 (12.0) 


4.5 (4.5) 


8.4 (11.1) 


8.3 (10.9) 


- (2.9) 


- (41.4) 


III 


7.7 (9.0) 


3.7 (3.6) 


6.3 (7.9) 


5.4 (7.1) 


2.2 (2.2) 


25.3 (29.8) 


IV 


9.8 (117) 


3.5 (3.5) 


7.5 (9.7) 


8.3 (10.8) 


- (2.5) 


- (38.2) 


Pa 


3 6 (3 5) 


1.8 (1.4) 


2,2 |1.6) 


— — 


3 4 (4 0) 


11.0(10.5) 



122 



D. B. HIRST 






18 



FIGURES 16-18. Pediana horni (Hogg). J6 & 17, right palpal tibia and tarsus of male SAMA N1988458 (reversed 
drawing): 16, ventral; 17, retrolateral. 18, vulva of female SAMA N1988462, dorsal. Scale line 0.5 mm. 



PEDfANA (HhTEROPODIDAE) 



123 



same locality but 22"20'S, I24°45'fc WAM 
88/1485; 1 V, Lower Carawinc Gorge, 21 '29 S, 
121 02'E, WAM 88/1485; I 9, Mundabullagana 
Station, 20° 31 'S, 118 WE, SAMA N1988468; 1 9, 
Windy Corner, 23 34 '5, 125 12 E, WAM 88/2905; 
I 9, Witicnoom, 22 Pl4% 1IS"20'E, WAM 
86/1491; I 9, Woodstock Station, 21 37'S, 
11S57'E. WAM 88/2133; 1 V. Wine locality but 
21°.3n 34"S. 118 58 28"F. WAM 88/2533j 1 - r . 
same locality but 21' 36' 40*3. IIW 23 "E, WAM 
:i32; I a, same locality, WAM 88/2133. 
Northern Territory: 1 9. Alice Springs, 23 42'S, 
13 V 52' E, NTM A 5 2, 1 9. Frewena Road House, 
I9°25'S, 135 24H. NTM, J 9. Hcirnannsburg, 
2.V57'S. 132-46 E, SAMA N1988465. 1 &* 
Idmeowra Station, 25*00 'S, 133'47'E, SAMA 
NI988464; ! 9, Ligertwood Cliffs, 23 39 S, 
I2«> 30'E, WAM 88/1494, Queensland: 1 9, 
Ambathala, 25' -58 'S, 145 *19 , E, QM S7I74; I 9v 
same locality, QM 57179s I 9. WW locality, QM 
S7219; 1 9, same locality. QM S7220; 2 9 9, 

Boroota (45 km E of), m 25*45'$, Ul°l0' e. QM 

S7183; Eggsac and flrsi instate same locality, QM 
S7218; 1 o\ Cbarlpv.lle, 26 r -'24'S, 146 15 H, QM 
S7221; 1 v, Dimraven Station, 20" '28 'Ss U3°57'E, 
QM S7IS0; I v. Lake Muncoome. 25 12'S, 
I38' J 40'E, QM S71H2; 2 juv. same locality, QM 
S7I78; 1 juv. same locality, QM S7J81; 1 9. 
Longreaeh, 23 "27'S, I44 f 15'E, QM S7179; 1 9, 
Montara Bore, Suudiingham Stn, 23 56 S 
138 : 47'E, AM KSI5282; J 9, Mt Mm.ro, 22 I r 
50"S, 142-28' 50 "E, QM S7I75; 1 V, Split 
Rock, Camooweal, 19-54 'S, 138 : '39'E, AM 
KS20200; 1 9, Winton, 2223'S. 143 J 02'E, QM 
S7I77. New South Wales; 2 V V, Springs Creek, 
3l°43'S, 142°4rE, SAMA N1988466-7. 



Pediana tenuis Hogg 

(Figs 19-22, Table 4) 

Pediana tenuis Hogg, 1903: 462 Simon, J 908: 441. 
Holotype female, dried specimen. Western Austra- 
lia [BMNH1 lost 



Diagnosis 

P. tenuis can be distinguished from R ho/m by 
the presence of reddish setae in place of while on 
the anterior femora pro-ventrally. Males with 
relatively longer, thinner legs and straight-edged, 
triangular-shaped apex on dorsal basal ridge of palp 
tibial apophysr 

Female WAM 88/958 

CL 8.5, CW 7.4. AL 16.9. AW 9 5. 

Colour in alcohol: Similar to fi horni but 
carapace dark red-brown with more white than 
yellow 1 setae. Black setae may be more numerous. 
Dark blackish-brown setae on sternum. Coxae 
orange-brown, prolaterally black-brown. Legs 
reddish-brown, dark brown-black patches. Femora 
retro-dorsally blackish occasionally forming a dark 
stripe. Clumps of reddish setae pro-ventrally on 
anterior pairs, whitish setae in clumps on posterior 
pairs. Abdomen green-grey with a black median 
streak and black spots formed of selae, Ventraliy 
with orange setae. 

Eyes: AME diameter 0.54. AME.ALEPMErPLE 
= I: L33:0.93: 1,04 Interspaces; AME-AME 0.41. 
AME-ALE0.15. PME-PME I. II, PME-PLE 1.48, 
AME-FME 1.55, ALE-PLE 1.30. MOQ, anterior 
width; posterior width: length = 241: 2,91: 3.15. 
Clypeus more than half diameter of AME 
Chelicerae: Retrolateral teeth 3. Labium: L 1,3, W 
U6i Sternum: L 3.9, W 3.3. 

Legs (Table 3): Anterior leg ratio = 3.7. 

Epigynum similar to horni but fossa relatively 
narrower posteriorly, 

Male WAM 88/957 
CL 7.3. CW 6.5 AL 9.0, AW 4.5, 
Colour in alcohol: Paler than female. Venter ul 
abdomen with smaller faint brown patches behind 
epigastric furrow and anterior to spinnerets. 

Eyes; AME diameter 0.50. AME:ALE:PME:PLE 

- 1:1. 24:0.90: 1. 00. Interspaces; AME-AME 0.24, 

AME-ALE0.04, PME-PME 0.96, PME-PLE 1.24, 

AME-PME 1.56, ALE-PIE 1.00. MOQ, anterior 

width: posterior width: length = 2.24: 2.76: 3.20. 



TABLE 4. Leg measurements ot l\><tiuna tenuis Hogg, female WAM 88/958 with male WAM SK/957 m parenthese- 



Leg 


Femur 


Patella 


Tibia 


Metatarsus 


Tarsus 


Total 


I 

11 

III 

IV 

Pa 


9.4 (12.9) 

9.5 (12.9) 

7.0 (9.1) 
9.2 (12.1) 

3.1 (3.1) 


3.9 (4.2) 
3.8 <4.2) 
3.1 (3.0) 
11 <3 0) 
1.6(1.3) 


7.8 (12.1) 
7 9 (12.0) 
5.8 (7.9) 
7.0 (10.0) 
1.8 (1.5) 


8.1 (12.6) 
8.0 (12.7) 

5.0(7 3] 
7.8 (11.9) 


2.2 (2.9) 
2.2 (2.9) 
1.9 (2 .!> 
2.2 (2,6) 
3.1 (3.3) 


11 4 (44.7) 
31.4(447) 
22.8 <29.4) 
29 3 (39.6) 
9J (9.2) 



124 



D. B. HIRST 






22 




FIGURES 19-22. Pediami tenuis Hogg. 19 & 20, left palpal tibia and tarsus of male WAM 88/957: 19, ventral; 20, 
retrolatcral. 21 & 22, vulva of female WAM 88/958: 21, ventral; 22, dorsal. Scale line 0.5 mm. 



PED1ANA (HLTEROPODIDALj 



I 



Ciypeus half width of AME. Chelicerae: 
Retrolateral teeth 3. Labium: L 1.1, W 1.2. Sternum: 
L 3.4, W 2.8, 

Legs (Table 4): Anterior leg ratio - 6.L Tibial 
index (leg 1) - 7.4. 

Palps: Triangular-shaped dorsal basaJ ridge on 
tibial apophysis. Embolus with 5 coils. Median 
apophysis smaller than in horni. 

Variation 

I irapaee lengths of females range from 6.6-10.5 
in II, mean 8 . 8) t Mates; 6.6-7.3 (n - J, mean 

- 7.0). Tibial mdex Q( leg 1 0\ male:-,, 7.4 4 >.2 (n 
3, mean - 9.7). Epigyruim parallel-sided and, 
as in horni; oftfcn slightly wider Ol narrower towa r ds 
pi >mci ii Iff but several specimens of tenuis examined 
are considerably narrower posteriorly (Kg, 21). 

Comments 

As this species is recognisable I'rom Hoggs des- 
cription, designation of a neotype \i unnecessary. 

Material examined 

Western Australia 1 ■■/, Banjiwarn, 27°48'05"S. f 
121 "40 '05*E , WAM 88/9.S7; I Pc% Charles Knob, 
25'03'S., 124 *S9 '»:... WAM 88/1486; 1 9, 
CoottdCWandy, 25' 36'S., 115 58 'E. f WAM 88/1487; 
I $, Gill Pinnacle, 24 S4'&, 128 46' E., SAMA 
N19S8469; I ,, GoODganie, 29 '55 25 'S. 
I.:i n J5 I ,. WAM 88/958; I y , I vndon Station, 
2,V 38'S, 15-14 F., WAM 88/1488; I 9, Messengers 
Patch, 28°4!'S ( II6°57'E, WAM 88/1489; 2 cr Cf, 
Thevenard Island, 21*28'S, H4°59'E, WAM 
88/2012-3; I v. Warburton Ranges, 26-06'S, 
126 39' E, WAM -SX/1490; 1 9, same locality, 
SAMA N 1988470; 2 inv. same locality but N.W. of, 
25 10'S, 124 40 E, WAM 88/1491-2; I 9. 
Yuimnerv, 28 32' 00 "S, 119 05' 45 "E, WAM 



88/2110. South Australia: I y, 1 la. Rack Holi 
Fverard Ranges, 27'06'S, 132 °2<5 "E 
N1985P 1 *: 1 v, lake Phillipson, 29 28S, 
134^27'E, SAMA N1988460, I y. Wynhnnr. 
30' 34 S. 133 32'£, SAMA N198845A 

Si<t>futntlv placement 
Pedlana was originally placed by Simon 11897) 

in his Heleropodcae (- I teiempodinac) on the 

criteria of its long© Chan broad ocular quadrangle. 

Hogg (1903) included il in In (> 

Deleninae) with other Australian gmrert base.! 
largely on male genitalia structure Simon (1903) 

enlarged the Deleninae subfamily, includmp man;* 
more geneta. Jam (1914) restricted iU ivl-i 
again (o Australian .eeneia bill Pctrunkevitch (I92X) 
included the subfamily in the Puspaiassniac Furvi, 
1912. Gravelly (1931) recognised the Helentnae I 
also included genera ('torn both IVmink.-vin ;.'• 
Eusparassinae and Mirronimaimae (.larvi 19121 
Finally, Hirsi (1989) n ■ -nora o\ 

Deleninae to [hose originally included bv Hogg, BulC 
of which was Pedlana, 



ACKNOWI RDGMI I 



l wish to ifoiuN the following Ito i] I loai I tfi 
information concerning, I yjie* und i - ; 

in this widy; Df 0. Doria (ftf< O), i>' M. Gtj 
Horseman (AM), Mr P.O. Hillyaid |BMiNih| I 
Horning (Maeleay M \C McPh« [NMV), D\ M 

MaiiKBwn. Di Mfllipahl (MM). Dt Rack t/\in.. 
Dr K.J. Raven (QM). W » : Rennei ; vins>, Ms JM 

VVaidOCH (WAM), ;uid l>i WfeSttfOWrtl 'Ml'/.). I undini! 

wax provided i>. ii gram from the Vutfi iliaP Biol' i 

Resources Study. 



REFFRhNfLS 



GRAVLILY. FJL 192). Sum, Indian Spiders of the 

Ptoiilics CtcnWac enopidae ind 

CluWonidae. Ret. Ind. Kfus. 330): 211 

IIIR.Sl, IJ.Ii. I9K9. A new genus ot huntsman spider 
(Hcteropodidae; Arancac) fioiu south eastern 

Australia Ttons, R .w. 5 W/. M t v 7 n. 

HOGG, MR. 18% Araoeidae/rt Rep. Horn Expedition 
i > Central Australia, Pi 2, Zootomy: 309-3$$. Oniau 

A CO., London 

i !<><.(, h.r. 1903. On hi. Australasian spiders of the 
snhtanu, fitfnac /><>. /W Soc.bond 1902(2): 

416-466, 



IARVI, I.H l u i: anuwiden. 

|, AIIlm -in. -iik-i [HI. 4»rt, 46S91 "•• 

i |3J 

JARVI. Ill IV14 Uas Vau.ii.al' 

u.Spc/ic-Hsi tcil Am \nd M I 

K(JC M, i i Dl« Araeli. h df 

\:Uur Ik-m JlllCbCC L||)fj ri>, 1815: 

[VIAS< i | '" •■A.rji ; .li:M.S,>.n.-r.u,« 'oil I ! 



126 



D. B. HIRST 



PETRUNKEVITCH, A. 1928. Systema Aranearum. 
Trans. Connect. Acad. Arts Sci. 29: 1-270. 

RAINBOW, W.J. 1915. Arachnida [collected in north- 
western South Australia]. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 39: 

772-793. 

SIMON, E. 1880. Revision de la famille des Sparassidae 
(Arachnides). Act. Soc. Linn. Bord. 34: 223-351. 

SIMON, E. 1897. Histoire naturelle des Araignees. Paris 
Vol. 2(1): 1-192. 

SIMON, E. 1903. Histoire naturelle des Araignees. Paris 
Vol. 2(4): 669-1080. 



SIMON, E. 1908. Araneae. Premiere partie: 359-446. In 
W. Michaelsen & R. Hartmeyer (Eds) 'Die Fauna 
Sudwest-Australiens' 1(12). Fischer, Jena. 

STRAND, E. 1907. Einige Spinnen aus Kamerun, Java 
und Australien. Jahrb. nassau. Ver. Naturk. 60- 
177-219. 

STRAND, E. 1913. Uber einige australische Spinnen des 
Senckenbergischen Museums. Zoo/. Jb. y (Syst.) 35: 
599-624. 

THORELL, T. 1881. Studi sui Ragni Malesi e Papuani. 
Part III. Ragni delPAustro-Malesia e del Capo York, 
conservati nel Museo civico di storia naturale di 
Genova. Ann. Mus. civ. stor. nat. Genova. 17: 1-720. 



A LIST OF AUSTRALIAN ACANTHOCEPHALA AND THEIR HOSTS 

S. J. Edmonds 

Summary 

A list of Acanthocephala known from Australia and their hosts is given and records are included. 



A LIST OF AUSTRALIAN ACANTHOCEPHALA AND THEIR HOSTS 

S. J. EDMONDS 

t DMONOS, S, J, 1989. A list of Australian Acanthocephala and their hosts. Rec S, Am V/m. 
23(2): 127-133. 

A list of Acanthocephala known from Australia and their hosts is given and records aic included. 

S.J. Edmonds, South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000. 
Manuscript received 8 February 1989. 



Although during the 1980s two checklists were 
published that contained references to Australian 
Acanthocephala, one (Beumet et al 1982) on the 
parasites of Australian fishes and the other 
(Mawson el ul. 1986) Oi\ the parasites of Australian 
birds, no complete list of parasites and hosts of 
Australian Acanthocephala has appeared since l hat 
of Johnston & Dcland (1929). In the meantime new 
species have been described, new records published 
and changes made Lo the systcmaiies and nomen- 
clature of the phylum. The aim of the present paper 
is to bring up to date as far as is possible infonna- 
(ion about the Australian species. 

The scheme o\ classification followed is that 
outlined by Amin (1985), which is based on the 
Meyer-Van Cleave taxa, Archiacanthocephala, 
Palaeacanthocephala and Eoaeanthoeephala. 

Specimens of many of the species are to be found 
in the Australian Helminthologieal Collection, now 
housed in the South Australian Museum, Adelaide, 
South Australia. The location of some type material 
is given in Smales (1983 ) 

The following abbreviations are used in the paper; 
N.S.W. (New South Wales), Q. (Queensland), V. 
(Victoria), T. (Tasmania), S.A. (South Aiisiralia), 
W.A. (Western Australia), N.T. (Northern Territory). 



Pakasiiis and H< 

(lass Wit III AM AN I IKK KPHA1 A 

Gtganlorhynchidat 

1. Mediorhym hus alccturac (Johnston & 
Edmonds, 1947) 
Echinorhynchus (Ciguntorhynchus) sp. Johnston, 
1912a: 106; Johnston & Deland. 1929a: 148. 
Empodius alecturae Johnston & Edmonds, 1947b: 
557-561, figs 11-21. 

Mcdiorhvnchus alecturae: Golvan, 1962: 29; Byrd 
$ Kellogg, 1971; 137-142. 

Host: Alcctura luthumi Gray. 

Locality: Q. 



2. Mcdiorhvnchus corcorach (Johnston &. 
Edmonds, 1951) 
Echinorhynchus sp. Johnston & Deland, 1929a: 151. 
Mcdiorhynchus corcorucis Johnston & Edmonds, 
1951: 1-3. Figs 2-9; Yamaguti, 1963: 117. 

Hosts: Corcorax mclunothumphos (Vieillot) 
Corvus lusmunicus Mathews, ( OHW oudlori 
Mathews, Corvus hennetti North. 

Localities: NT., Q., N.S.W., V., T., S.A. 



Monililormidae 

3. Moniliformis moniliformis (Brcmser, 1811) 
Echinorhynchus moniliformis Urcmser, JKU: 1-31. 
Moniliformis moniliformis: Travassos, 1915: 377: 
Johnston, 1909: 583; 1912b: S}\ Southwell & Macfie, 
1925: 171; Johnston & Dcland, 1929a: 147 
Moniliformis duhius: Johnston & Edmonds. 1952; 
20-21, Figs 8-9; Amin, 1985- 33. 

Hosts: Rutl us raitus (Linnaeus), R. norvcgicu.s 
(Berkenliout), R. fuscipes (Waicrhouse). 
I ocalities: Q., N.T, N.S.W., S.A. 

4, Australiformis semoni (I instow, 1898) 
Echinorhynchus scmom Linstow, 1898: 468. 
Moniliformis semoni: Johnston & Edmonds, 1952: 
18 20,' Figs 10-17; Yamaguli, 1963: 132. 
Australiformis semem. Schmidt & Edmonds, 1989- 
215-217. 

Hosts: Isuodon obeSHlhtS (Shaw), /. macrourus 
(Gould), Pcrumeles gunni Gray, P. nasuta Geo! froy. 
Localities: Q., N.S.W.. V., T. 



OligacanUiorhynchidae 

5, Macracanihorhynclius hirudinaccus (Pallas, 
1781) 
Tucniu hirudinaccus Pallas, 1781. 39. 
Macracanthorhynchw; hirudinaccus: Travassos, 
1917; 1-61; Johnston & Deland. 1929a: 147; 
Yarnagnn. 1953: 141 

Host: Sus scrofu I inmitu 

Localities: Q., N.S.W . V, S.A 



US 



S .». EDMONDS 



6. Oncicola pomam.stomi i Johnston & Cleiand, 

ma 

norhynchus pomaiostomi [ohnston & cl-i I 
!1J | 14m Figs i 4. JohnsiuncV behind, 1929a: 

■ .nw.mi, 1963: IV). 

tcobtty. Bank*, 1957: \m- Bdraonds, 1957a 

Gnacolu pomatosromi: Schmidt. [9S* .W-399, 
Tigs l o. 

Inlcnncdiafc hosr not known. 

> : . •. ■■■.■• pi dally in the tissues of the 

neck ol the following birds- larrux (usiuriolu 
(Gould). /. VtfoX (fjQXlld), Pcdionomus lorquatus 
I i'Otfkt, Anlhus novucstwlandiac (Gmelin), Ullage 

leucomela (Vigors & Horsffefd), Zooihera duunw 

(Latham), Melanodryas cncul/aia (La/hum). 

Microeca few \(Latham} % Orfatca gidturetts 

DfS & IImisIii:((I», Cincloso/na caslanolum 

Gould; < btnnamon&um Gould, Pachyccphaia 

inornuta Gould, P rufiventftB (Latham), 
( olluncincla harmonica (Latham), Pomafosiontus 

■oralis (Vigors & Horsfieid), /' superciliosite 
(Vigors & Horafield), ft ruflcep$ (Hortlaub), 

A in vi om is p urnclli M a t h c u . S BfiCO m i & 

pyrrhopygiUS fVigOIS & Hoislicld), .S. can/us 

ild), S. hrunncu.s (Gould), S fuliginosus 

ns & HorsliHd), Acanlhiza chrysonhiv (Quoy 

a Gaimard), [phftoceptktki Isucop&is (Gould), 

Duffhoi'ttoMtta chrvsopiera (1 at ham). ( Tnnacfcns 

kucophaea (Latham). C ptcumnts ifemftiiuck, c 

niclanuru Gould, Anlhochacru canon ulaia (White), 
Manorina JTavigula (Gould), Lichcnosfo/nus 

v'mscerfo (Vidtot), /. plumulus \Gow\l\), Pbephfla 
cmcia (Gould), Grallina cvunolcuca (Latham), 

A noma'; supervtHosus (C iould), OymnofHina tibicen 

(Latham). 

1 1 tiuitive hosts: feral cats (felts cuius I uuiaeiu,), 

Q \('ont> familiarly (lingo Blurnenhaeh). 
I.a;;duics: Q„ N - W , S.A., \VA ., V, i- I 

< lass I'AI U \r\NlHOOrnvi a 
n f/e/£P aplagusterum (NicMi 1972) 

hmmunihus ffiinifiius'ioiurum Nickol, I 
■ I ! 5. 

ttcicmscntis pamplat>io<iari,nr. Amin. t9&5: 39, 

Host; Paraplafittsh guttata M&cteay, 

'lie-, o. 

taseftfJd&C 

8. Pamrhado^ | f , N ton & 

PorOfhatiino' An rfittgUi QllTlStOil & 

I947h: 13 17, I igs 10 I ^ Bdaiondv, 
Pigs fi - 

• &1 I ' '//i/.'t.'v 1 nmacus. 

Locality: s.A. 

nchm v&unm#en u ■ I dmonds, 

m 



Pararha<lmoi!t\>nchits coOfOhgensis ldmonds, 197V 
19-21, Pigs 1-5. 

Host: Ahlnchellu forsicn (Cuvici & Valen 
cicnnes). 

Locality: S.A. 



Pchinorhyiiclmlue 

10. Acanthoccplwhr* crnnac Snow, [97] 
A< un/hiHV/fhu/NScnmucSuow, 1971: 145-149, Pigs 
I V 

Hosts: Crtniu fusoia/ornsis (Guuther), Q 
siyjujeru Girard, C faffVfc (Gumhrr). 

locality: T. 

IL Acanthoccphulus hastuc Baytis, 1944 
LGuttoihvnchus irultae: Southwell & Macfie, 1925: 
ISO. 

Pcfwu>r/h'nchus clavula: Soulhwoll A: Maclle, 192: 
ISO. 

U (oittunvpha/us hastae Bavlis, 1944: -U>V 4fr(>, I jg 
I. 

Host: Pomudusys liusfa (Bloth). 

Locality; Q. 

12. Pseudoucandiocephalus penhensis Ldmonds, 
1971 
Pscudocanlhoccphalus pertki *n 5 f5 EdmOttd S, 1 97 1 : 
55, Figs i - 

HOSM! l norm nioorei fC0PCland) ( I n»n<> 
dvnasles dorsu/is ( ... 

I CM Hits W.A. 

HypoechbiorhyncUdiifi 

I I flypt'cclunorhvnchu; alacopis \mnaguti, 19.W 
tlypocchinorhynchus alaropis Vaiuaf.ul i, |939; 

317-351: JohnatonA Ldmonds, 1947a: 13- 15, i tgfi 

1-9; Vamav.uli, 1965: 56, 

Host: OailionymUfi oaimtfypomus Richardson. 
Pxendotabrus tetrieus kiVhardsou 

Locality !vA. 
Illinscnhdiu- 

M. TcRorhvnchus cdmom/si (Qofvan, I960) 

llltoscmis fun. Edmonds, r957fe; 94 9s". Figs 
llliosentis edmo/idti Gotoan. IS60: 159; Golvan 

1969: 21. 

IcKorhvnchus cdtnondsi. Amui, 19S5: 47. 

Host; Upt'tncltdiv\ porosw, (( nviei 6l Valen- 
ciennes). 

Locality: W,A. 

15. Tcloscntis uusfni/iensis I dnionds. 1964 
li'losenlis ausiralii *nsb I d 1 1 . « - 1 1 d , . I vx » I J I a i . fags 
I v 

Hi'sc Anxoollu rcudiard/u Siciudacliii.j 

I ocality: Q. 



AUSTRALIAN ACANTHOCEPHAI A 



w 



Pomphorbynchidae 

16. Longicollum edtnondsi OoJvan. 1969 
Longicollum pagmsomi: Johnston & Edmonds. 
1951: 1-3, Pfe* t-9. 

Longicollum edtnondsi, Golvan, 1969: 321 322. 
Ho.sC Acunihopagrus butcheri (Monro) 
Locality: Q., S.A. 

Rhadinnrhynchidae 

17. Austraiorhynchus tetramorphacanihus 
Lcbedcv, 1967 

Australorhynchus letraniorphacant bus Lebedev, 
1967: 279-282, Figs 1-2. 

Hosts Seriofa grand is Castelnau, Trachurus 
tun uezetandiae Quay &. Gaimard, Paratrigla papilio 
Cuvier &. Valenciennes. 

Locality: Tasman Sea; Great Australian Bight. 

18. Gorgorhynchuscelebesensis (Yamaguti, 1954) 
Rhadtnorhvncbus cclcbcsensts Yamaguii, 1954: 407, 
Fig U 

Gorgorhynchus celebesensts Golvan, 1969: 10; 
Hooper, 1983: 22, 

Host* Pfaivcrphulus bassensts (Cuvier), ft 
ricbanisoni Casidnau. RfidSChaCwAtf, £ arenarius 
Ramsay & Ogilvy, P longispinis Maeleay. 

locality N.S.W. 

19. Microcanihorhynchina betnirbampbi Baylis> 
1944 

Micracanlbocepbalus bemirbamphi Baylis, 1944- 
422-426, Fig. I: Johnston & Edmonds, 1952. 17 18, 
Edmonds, 1957b. 96; Nickol, 1972: 778-780. 

Host: Reporhamphus melanochit Cuvier & 
Valenciennes. 

Localities: S.A., I 

20. Purucanlhorhytubus \saht.\iusus Edmonds, 
1967 

Puracanthurhynchus galaxutsus Edmonds, IflBS 
41-44, FJgs 1-6. 

Host: (iuluxias atlenuatus (Jeuyns). 

i pcality S.A. 

21. SclerocoUum robustum (Edmonds. 1964) 
Neogorxorhy tubus robustus Edmonds 1964: 
43-45, Rgs 6-9. 

SclerocoUum robuslum: Schmidt & Papcrna, 1978: 

846 

HQSt! Sigatius bncaius (C uvier & Valenciennes). 
Locality* Q, 

22. Rhadinorhym bus bicircumspmus Hooper, 
1983 

Rhadinorhynchtis bicircumspinus Hooper. 1983: 

23-26, Figs 8.V.V 
Host: Platycephalic bassensis: (Cuvier). 
i .iiealiiv: N.SAV. 



23. Rhudmorhytiehu\ cumulus Yamaguii, tSdW 
Rbadinorhyncbus carangis Yamagud, 1939: 341. 
Nipporhynchus catangis: Edmonds, 1982: 71-73 t 
Figs 1-3: Amin, 1983: 51. 

Host: Irucbinolus russelli (Cuvier). 
Locality: Q. 

24. Rhudinor hyncbus jobnsfoni Golvan, 1969 
Rhadinorhynchus pristts: Johnston & Edmonds 
1947a: 17-19. 

Rhadinorhynchus johnstoni Golvan, 1969 73 
Host: Ihunnus tbynnus muccoyi (( 'astelnau). 
Locality S,A, 

25. Serrusentis sugillifer (Linton 1889) 
Ecbinorhynchus sagittifer. Linton 1889' 494. 
Serrasentis social is: Southwell & Mac He 1925, 160; 
Johnston & Dcland, 1929a: 152. 

Serrasentis saxit lifer: Van Cleave, 1924: 326; 
Hooper, 1983: 21-22. 

Paratenie hosts: Platycephalus bassensis tCuvier]> 
fi arenarius Ramsay & Ogilvy, fi nchardsom 
Caslelnau, P. fuscus, Cuvier. 

Locality: Q.. N.SW 

Centrorhynehidae 

26. Cenirorln tubus usturinu\ (Johnston, 191?) 
Gigantorhynchus aslunnus Johnston. 1913: 93. 
Cetitrorhyncbus usturinus (Johnston, 1918 : 21 5) 
Echinorhvnchus bazae Southwell & MftCffc 1925! 
177-178. 

Ponorchislulconis ibftfiaiftftA Best, 1943: 229-230. 

Fig 18. 

Cenirorbynchus falconis Yamaguti, 1963: 123. 

Hosts: Accipiter cinhocephulus (Vieillot), .4. 
fusciutus (Vigors 8c Horslield), A. novaehoilandus 
(Gmelin), Aviceda subct isiata Ciould, Ealco betigora 
Vigors &. Hors field, P. cencbroides Vigors & 
Hors field, Circus approximates Peaks. 

I ocahties: NT,, Q, t N.S.W., V . S.A. 

27. Ccnfrorhynchus hancrofh : (Johnston & Besi. 
1943) 

Gordiorhyncbus bancrofu Johnston & Besi . 194 J 

226-228, Figs 9 In, 

Centrorhvrubus bancrofti Yarnaguti, 1963 121. 

Hosts: Ninox tunaeseelandiae (Gmelin), Nino*, 
strenua (c lould). 

I in alines: Q.. N.S.W.. S.A. 

28. Cenirorbynchus horndus (Linsiow. 1X97) 
Ecbinorhynchus horndus LinstOWi 1X97: 281-291. 
Cenirorbynchus horndus: Meyer, 1932. 119 (2Q; 
Johnston Si Edmonds. 1948: 70. 

Hosts: Halcyon sancia Vigors £ HOrSfidtf, 
Oacelo novaeguineae (Hermann). 
Localities: (J.. N.S.W. 



1 M) 



S J EDMONDS 



Plauiorhvnchidat 

29. Plagiorhynchus churudrii (Yatnagini, 1939) 
Prosthorhynchus churudrii: Yarna^uti, 1939: 
316-361; Johnston & Edmonds, 1947: 561-562, Figs 
25-30. 

Plug iorh vn chits charadni: Sc h in i cli & K u n | / , I 966: 
526. 

Hosts: Churadrius rubricollis Gmclin, C. 
ru/icupillus Temminck. 

Localities: S.A., T. 

30. Plav.iorhynchus menurac (Johnston, J 91 2) 
EchmorhynchUS menurac. Johnston, 1912b: 83, Figs 
39-40. 

Prosthorhynchus mcnurnc: Johnston & Best, 1943: 

226, Figs 1-8. 

Plagiorhynchus menunw Schmidt Sc Kuntz, 1966: 

521. 

Host- Menuru novuehollandiue La t h a m 

Localities: Q. s V., N.S.W. 

31. Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus (Goe/.e. 1782) 
Echinotinnchus cylindraceus Goc/c, 1782. 
Pmsihorhynchus cylindraceus: Yamagufi. 1963: 152; 
Edmonds* 1982: 72-74, Figs 4-5. 
Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus: Schmidt & Ktinr/:, 
1981, 597-39®: Smales, 1988: 1062-1064. 

Host: Tardus mender Linnaeus, Acridolhcrcs 
iristis Linnaeus. Hydromyschrysogastvr (GeoffYoy), 
fsoodon obesulus (Shaw), Pe.rumeles gun nii (Gray). 

Localities: V.. T. 

12. Porrorchis hyluc (Johnston, 1914) 
hxhinorhynchus hyluc Johnston, 1914: 83-84 
hxhinorhynchus bulhocuudatus Southwell & 
Macl'ie. 1925: 178-179. 

Gordiorhvnchus hvlae; Johnston & Edmonds, 1948: 
74-76, Figs 10- 20. 

P\cudoporrorchi\ hyluc: Edmonds, 1957a: 76-77. 
Porrorchis hyluc: Schmidt Sc Kunt/, 1967: 133-135, 
Figs 5-7. 

larntcnic hosts: Hyla spp. y Limitodynastes spp. y 
ftufo marinas. 

Definitive hosts: Centropus phasiantnus 
(1 atham), Podargus strigoides (La(ham). 

Localities: Q, NT.. S.A. 

}$. Porrorchis hydromuris (Edmonds, 1957) 
Pseudoporrorchis hydromuris Edmonds, 1957a: 
77-78, Figs 1-4. 
fun-orchis hydromuris: Schmidt^ kum/. 19671 141. 

Host: Hydmmvs chrysoguster GeoHroy. 

Locality: Q. 

34, Sphmvcchiuorhynchu-i totundfjcupi!un<y 
(.).>!. nsinn, 1912) 
i\chmorh\mhus roiundocapitaius Johnston, 1912b: 

83*84, fig. 5. 



Sphucrcchmorh ynchus roiundocapituius Johnston 
& Deland, 1929b: 155-166, Figs 1-34. 

Host; Pseudechis porphyria us (Shaw), Pseu- 
dechis gu(tatu\ De Vis, 

Localities: N.S.W., (,)., V. 



Polymorphidae 

35 Arhythmorhymhiv jvhnsioni Golvan, 19n0 
Arhydimorhynchus frussom: Johnston & Edmonds, 
1951: 3, Fig 1. 

Arhydimorhynchus johnstoni Got van, 1960; 384; 
Edmonds, 1971: 60, Fig. 10. 

1 lost: Numenius madagascunensis (Linnaeus). 

Locality: Q. 

36. Arhythmorhynchus limosoe Edmonds, I97t 
Arhythmorhynchus limosue Edmonds, 1971: 58-60, 
Figs 11-15. 

Host: LimosQ lappomca (Linnaeus) 
Locality! Q. 

37. Bolbosomu capital urn (Linslow, 1 8X0) 
tlhinorhxnchus capitutus Linstow, 1880. 49-50. 
Bolbosomu cupitutum: Meyer, 1932' 89; Edmonds. 
1957a: 78; Edmonds. 1987: 327. 

Host: Pseudorca erassidens Owen. 
Localities: S.A., W.A. 

38. Bolbosomu balaenae iGmelin, 1790) 
Echinorhynchus balaenac Gmchn, 1790. 
Bolbosomu buluenae: Meyer, 1932: 85; Am in, 1985: 
60. 

Hoihosoma porrigens- Meyer, 1932: 85; Johnston 
&. Dcland, 1929a: 147, 

Host: Megaprera nodosa Bonnaterre. 

Locality: N.S.W. 

39. Corynosomu aust rale Johnston, 1937 
Corynosoma ausirah lohnston, 1937: 13-16, 1 \ms 
8-12; Smales, 1986. 94-96, Figs 7-1 L 23. 

Most: Neophoca cinerea (Pcron & Leseuer). 
Locality: S.A. 

40. Corynosomu cluvatum Goss, 1940 
Corynosomu ctavufum Cmss, 1940: 12-13, FfgS 
33-38; Johnston .V Best, 1942: 250; Johnston & 
Edmonds, 1952: 16-17, Rgjs 1-3 Hooper, 1983: 
29- 30. 

Parxuenic hosts: Platycephalus bassensis (Cuvier), 
P. fuscus Cuvier, P arcnarius Ramsay & Ogilvy, P. 
nchurdsoni CasteJnau, P. lon^rspinis Macleay. 

Del 'ir.it ivc hosts: fhalacrocorax vurius (Gmelin), 
f sulamsrris (Hraiicit), P. mekmoleucos (Viellni . 
I cu< nmrbo Juscescens ( Viellot ). 

Localities: S A.. W.A., N.S.W. 



AUSTRALIAN ACANTHOCEPHALA 



in 



41. Corynosoma Stanley i Smales, 1986 
Corvnosoma stanleyi Smales, 1986: 92-94, Figs 1-6, 

21. 

Host: Hydromys chrysogasler Geoff roy. 
Locality. T., V. 

42. Polymorphic orctocephuli Smales, 1986 
Polymorphic urctocephali Smales, 1986: 97-99> 
Figs 12-16, 24. 

Host: Arctocephalus pusillus dor if ems 
(Schreber). 
Locality: V. 

43. Polymorphs biziurae Johnston & Esmonds, 
194K 

Polymorphic biziurae Johnston & Ldmonds, 1948: 
71-74, Figs 1-9. 

intermediate Host: Cherux destructor Clark. 

Definitive hosts: Hiziura lobala (Shaw), Pelicanus 
conspicillatus Tctnminck, Threskiomis aefhiopica 
(Latham), Platulca fluvipes Gould. 

localities: S.A,, T., N.S.W. 

44. Polymorphs ceiuceus (Johnston & Best, 
1942) 

Corynosoma cetaceum Johnston & Best, 1942 

250-252, Figs I LQ 

Polymorphic celoceus: Schmidt A. Dai ley, 1971: 137. 

Hosts: Delphmc delphis Linnaeus, Tursiops 
truncatus ( Monia^ ue). 

Locality: S.A. 

CtH&fl ft UCANTHOC EPIIAI A 

Neoechinorhynchidae 

45. Neoechinorhynchus agilis (Rudolphi, 1819) 

Echfnorhynchus agilis RuJoiphi, 1819. 

Neoechinorhynchus agilis: Van Cleave, 1919: 250; 
Yamaguti, 1963: 18; Edmonds, 1982: 75-76, Figs 
7-8. 

Hosts: Crenimugil crenilabis (Forskal). Mugtl 
cephalus Linnaeus, 

Locality: Q. 



46. Neoechinorhynchus aldrkhettae Edmonds, 
1971 

Neoechinorhynchus aldrtchettae Edmonds, 1971: 
55-58, Figs 6-9. 

Host: Aldrichetia forsteri (Cuvier & Valen- 
ciennes). 

Locality: S.A. 

47. Neoechinorhynchus magtuts Southwell & 
Macfie 1925 

Neoechinorhynchus magnus Southwell &. Maefic, 
1925: 149. 

Host: unknown fish. 

Locality: Q. 

The only record is that of 1925. Edmonds (1982: 
74) re-examined the holotype and found it to be a 
defective specimen. He considered it a species 
inquirenda. 

48. Neoechinorhynchus tylosuri Yamaguti, 1939 
Neoechinorhvchus tylosuri Yamaguti, 1939: 347: 
Edmonds, 1982: 74-75, Fig. 6. 

Host: Tylosurus sp, 
Locality; Q. 



OTHER RECORDS 

I hxhinorhynchus gadi Zoega was reported from 
'haddock' in Queensland by Soulhwell & Mache 
(1925: 179). Johnston & Deland (1929: 153) reported 
that Gadus does not occur in Australia and 
considered that the record 'should be omitted from 
the Australian list '. 

2. Hall (1974) listed some birds from which the cysts 
of Oncicola pomatostomi had been obtained. The 
information is included in the list given on page 128. 

3. TW record of Mediorhynchus garni li given in 
Mawson et al. 1982 is doubtful. The record came 
from the Commonwealth Institute of Health, 
Sydney but no specimen was available for checking. 



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AUSTRALIAN A< ANTUOCEPIIAI A 



m 



NICKOU B.B. 1972. Two spedfifil ol l A..;inilioccphala from 
Australian fishes with a description ot 
Arhythniacunthus puruplutiusiarum sp. n. ./. Parasit. 
58: 778-780. 

PALLAS, P.S. 1781. Bermerkungc-n Liber die Bandwiirmer 
in Mcnschen und 1 'hieren. In 'Meuc nordischcr 
Bcvtrage /ur phvsikilisehen und ocogruphischen Erd 
— und Volkeibeschreib'. ,\W//r«. k Ockon. 1: 39-112. 

RUDOLPH1, C.A. IH19. Entoz.oorum synopsis, cui 
acceduot mantissa duplex ei indices locuplelissima. 
Berolini. 8: I 811, 

SCHMIDT, G.D. 1983. what is Eckinorhynchui 
pomatostomt Johnston & CldaiKJ, 19127 / Pun 

69 397-399. 

SCHMIDT. G.D. &. DAll TV. Ml). 1971. Zoogeography 

and the generic status oi Polym<>q>hus (Polymorphs! 
Cetaceus (Johnston & Beat, 1942) comb. n. 
(Acanthocephala). Proc. Helm Sac, Wash. 38: 13? 
SCHMIDT, CD. & EDMONDS, S.J. 1989. Austruhjonm; 
semoni (] himow, 1898) n. $en., n. comb 
(Acanthocephala: Monlli formulae) from marsupials 

Of Australia and New Gum. HL / Parasit. 75: 215-217. 
SCHMIDT, (.1) A KLJN I/, k.L. f966, New and little 

known Plagiojhynchfcl Acanthocephala from Taiwan 
and the Pescadores Islands. ./. Puntsit. 52: 520-527 

SCHMIDT, G.D. & KUNTZ, K.L.. {967. Revision ot the 
Porrorchinae (Acanthocephala: Plagiorhynchidac) 
with descriptions o( two new genera and three new 
Species. I Parusit. 53: 130-141. 

SCHMJDT, G.D. & KLIM /, R.L. 1981. Pla^torhynchus 
farmoMS Van Cleave, 1 9 1 K . a synonym Of 
Playjorhynehas i-vhndmceus (Gocze. 1782) Schmidt 
& KuuiA 1966. ./. Parasil. 67: 597 

SCHMIDL (,.D. & PXPERNA, I. L97f Sderocollum 
ruhrimorts gen. el. sp n. <Rhadinorhyiichid;ie: 
(..orgorhynchmae) and other Ar.miluKC-phala from 
marine Fishes from (Mae!. .1. Parasil 64- 846-850. 

SMALES, L.R. 1983. Helminth type .specimens in the 
South Australian Museum. II. Acanthocepfialfl and 
( c.nmIcs. Rec. S. Aust. A/;/.s IK: 493-501. 



SMALES, L.R. 1986. Polymorphidae (Acanthocephala) 
from Australian mammals with descriptions of new 
species. Syst. Parasil. 8: 91-100. 

SMALES, L.R, 1988. Plugiorhynchus (Prosthorhynchus) 
cylindruceus (Goeze, 1782) Schmidt & Kuntz, 1966 
from Australian bandiccots. J. Parasit. 74: 1062-1064 

SNOW, J. 1971. Acunthocephalus eriniae n. sp. 
(Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae) from the cricket 
frog, Crinia tasmaniensis (Gunther). Pap. Proc. R. 
Sue. Tasm. 105: 145-149. 

SOUTHWELL, T. & MACTTF, l.W. 1925. On a collection 
pf Acanthocephala in the Liverpool School of Tropical 
Medicine, ,4 nn. Trap. Med. Parasit. 19: 141-184. 

TRAVASSOS, L. 1915. Revisao dos Acantocefalos 
brazileiros. 11. lamilia Echinorhynchidae Hamann, 
1892. Brazil. Medic. Rio de Janeiro 48: 377. 

TRAVASSOS. I . 1917. Contributes para o 
conhecimento da fauna helmintologica brazileira. VI. 
Revisao dos Acantoeefalos brazileiros. Familia 
Gigantorhynchidae Hamann, 1892. Mew. fnst. Oswal. 
Cruz- 9. 1 61. 

VAN CLEAVE, H.J. 1919. Acanthocephala from the 
Illinois River, with descriptions of species and synopsis 
of the family Neoechinorhynchidae. Bull. III. Nat. 
Hist. Surv, 13: 225-227. 

VAN CLEAVE, H.J. 1924. A critical study of the 
Acanthocephala described and identified by Joseph 
lci.lv. Pmc. Acad. Nat. Set. 76: 279-334, 

YAMAGUTL S. 1935. Studies on the helminth fauna of 
Japan. Part 8. Acanthocephala, i. Jap. J, Zool. 6: 

247-27N. 

YAMAGUTL S. 1939. Studies on the helminth fauna of 
Japan. Part 29. Acanthocephala, !l. Jap. ./. ZoOl 13: 

317 ^1. 

YAMAGUTI, S. 1954. Parasitic worms mainly from 
Celebes. Part 8. Acanthocephala. Acta. Med. Okayama 
8: 406 413. 

V-VMAGUTl. S. 1963. Acanthocephala. In *Syslema 
Helminthum 1 , vol. 5, pp. 1-423 Wiley Interseicncc, 
New York and London. 



WHAT ABOUT SELF-DETERMINATION?' THE DAA AND ABORIGINAL 

DRINK REHABILITATION PROGRAMS 

L. Sackett 



Summary 

Focusing on Aboriginal drink rehabilitation programs in Adelaide, South Australia, this paper 
examines the two-edged nature of the self-determination/self-management policy. Blacks use it to 
construct claims and make demands. At the same time it serves the state. To assist groups and 
organisations, government allocates funds, but on a competitive basis. This creates and maintains 
divisions in the recipient Aboriginal population, leading to squabbling and 'politicking' between 
rival bodies. The infighting makes it appear as though Blacks are incapable of getting 'their act 
together'. Moreover, it establishes the conditions and justification for continued state intervention; 
Aborigines must be 'helped' until such time as they are able to operate unaided. 



-WHAT ABOUT SELF-DETERMINATION V THE DAA AND ABORIGINAL 
DRINK REHABILITATION PROGRAMS 

I SACKETT 

SACktlf. U IWi WJial annul seir-delcrmination7* The DAA anc Aboriginal Uimt 
rehabilitation pmurams. Rec. S. Ausi. Mux. 23(2): I35-H5. 

focusing on Aboriginal drink rehabilitation programs in Adelaide. South Australia, this paper 
examines the iwo-edged nature of the self-dclerminaikui/scll-managerneni policy. Black* use 
ii Id construct claims and make clemandv At thti same lime n serves • tic state To artist groups 
and organisations, L'overnment allocates funds, but on a competitive basis. This creates and 
maintains divisions in thetcciptenl Aboriginal population, leamne, 10 squabbling and •politickiitg* 
between rival bodies. The infighting makes it appear as though Blacks are incapable of gating 
'then • avi loyriher* Moreover h establishes the conditions and juslificaiion lor continued slate 
intervention; Aborigines must be 'helped' until such lime as ihey are able to operate unaided. 

L SackeU. Discipline of Anthropoloey. I uivrmry of Adelaide. North Terrace, Adelaide. SA 
SflOff Manuscript leceived 9 December 198*8. 



One might be forgiven lot thinking the iwenly- 
Etfie itW aUOd thfi 1967 Referendum mark the 
COQliQS ol age ol Aboriginal-state relations in 
AUStWlia. Certainly this is widely acclaimed and 
generally accepted as a period of tremendous 
change. It began with the Tederal Government, 
hacked by a huge majority of the country's citizenry, 
moving to assume overall responsibility for the well- 
being, of the nation's indigenous population, 
f ollowing this the 'hodge-podge'of assimilalioriisl 
and inicgraiionisi policies and practices were 
scrapped, to be gradually replaced by a collection 
o\ more innovative, Welfare State initiatives, These 
include irnplemenling Aboriginal legal aid 
programs, Aboriginal health organisations, special 
Ahorigmal educational and training grants. 
Aboriginal housing projects, Land Rights, 
economic improvements arid so forth. 

Government maintains that its support of these 
measures has been and remains primarily assistive, 
aimed at counteracting the history of injustices and 
facilitating Aboriginal self-determination and self 
management. The idea behind this strategy is that 
wiTh the proper kind of aid, Abongjnes, as 
individuals, organisations and entire communities, 
will be well-placed to make decisions on their own 
bchall about their future [see 'Aboriginal Affairs 
Background Notes: Aboriginal Self- Management' 
1983). The days of outsiders intervening in and 
directing Aboriginal affairs supposedly are almost 
over. That they are not quite at an end stems, in 
part at least, from the fact that, as many Whites 
remark and many Blacks readily admit, group alter 
group is riddled with gossip and rife with 
politicking* As part of this there is divergence of 
thought and inf'ightmg concerning the direction 
people should take, the best road to travel and the 
most proficient driver. From 'he administrative 
viewpoint this lack ol unity — this* as one 



government employee put it, 'manifestation of the 
Aborigines' inability to get their act together' — 
provides the rationale or justification for continued 
(allegedly reluctant) intervention by outsiders in 
Aboriginal affairs, Aborigines must be helped until 
such time as they overcome their differences and 
are in a position to cope on their own. 

But is the policy in practice so benign and 
enabling? As researchers like Offe (1972) and Galper 
(t978) have observed, although ii is undoubtedly the 
case that some recipients of government largesse 
would be even worse off than they are had the 
ameliorative steps not been taken, the moves 
themselves impose new problems. In Australia these 
arise from the fact that while the kind of aid 
currently provided docs constitute a new surface 
configuration in the ongoing Aboriginal-state 
assemblage, the underlying structure of associations 
stands unaltered. Non-Aboriginal BQCfeQ ill general 
and i he state in particular, remain in control; the 
regulation of money having replaced oppressive laws 
and blatantly paternalistic treatment as the exclusive 
manipulative mechanism. In this, again as Galper 
has noted, the allocation of (limited) revenue on an 
essentially competitive basis i.e. the manner said to 
be the fairest (and most democratic), is by its very 
nature divisive. 

This means that at the same moment government 
seeks to promote community it simultaneously 
generates discord and enmity. That is, the divisions 
and disputes are not pre-existing, surmountable, 
nuisances; rather they are creaJons of the overall 
developmental scheme [see Beckett 1987, Howard 
1982, Sdckett n.d.). So \1 Aboriginal people are in 
some sense inherently etler off than they were 
(wilh somewhat more e . the nations weal l h now 
flowing I heir way). Ib.eir corresponding heightened 
dependence on state patronage militates againsl I Im- 
possibility Lhey may ■ w the type of solidarity 



136 



i • \. >• t I ' 



which would cause the state to cease direct fag 
Aboriginal affairs. Simply put, \horigincs arc 
CraUgJlt in ft vortex wherein what is perceived as a 
lack bf unity and consequent inability n> dim i inch 
own affairs, the product of prfivfpus unremitting 
L-ovcrnrncnt interference, VlCOISSJidtsm^ 4 further 
intervention. Nu..h a 'mo- wis | . ,. i [g clearly 
shown by the predicament laced by Nurigas 
(Aboriginal people) working in drink rebabiliiatwui 
ptOgrama in and around Adelaide, South Australia 

Background 

The original inhabitants of what is now The 
Adelaide area were introduced 10 imexieatji, 1 
beverages even before the official founding of the 
Colony of South Australia JD 1836. Sealers, whalers 
and intending settlers are reported to have used 
alcohol in. among other things, their negotiations 
with Blacks — the aim frequently being to secure 
Aboriginal women as sexual panuen tt)e 
establishment ol Adelaide town brought about an 
increase in the incidence of such transactions 
(Berndt & Berndl fSSfj <V7). But if a number ul 
individuals sought to profit in this manner, at least 
a few influential Europeans perceived both personal 
and social costs. These people soon began 
expressing concern!, about what they mrerpreteu as 
a conjunction of Aboriginal drinking and drunken 
disorder, prostitution, bothetsonie begging, 
unsightly fringe camps, and The like {see 
contemporary issues of the 'South Australian 
Gazette and Colonial Register'! This not only 
served to contribute to the most widespread and 
enduring ol Aboriginal stereotypes, Thar ol the 
Aborigine as a problem drinker, it aj$0 supplied a 
reason for the direct involvement ol Whiles in the 
lives of local Aborigines. 

The authorities' initial and. as it happens, long- 
lasting reply was to, in 1837. impose a prohibition 
upon (he supply of hquoi to Aborigines (dale l9J2i 
59). This was later coupled with a set ul sam 
directed at those Black men and women found m 
possession of macIi liquor Aborigines, (Wb \0x d-.eir 
own gtiDd and for the >■ got ••<•■ • v as a 

whole, needed to be controlled; in large part 
through being 'protected 1 from what were 
"obviously* potentially deleterious items. Ah hough 
these moves combined to form only one of the 
many types of discrimiuatoi y legistaii »u levelled at 
Aborigines over the years, rhey neatly summarised 
the state of play between fhem and a number of 
colonial and post <>i.>hi. : i administrations While 
the various licencing laws operated to confirm 
reeonfimi the Lmropcan viev.- oi AfoO .'Uii^asa 
people incapable towing either to geneiin or oilHins! 
factors) of hand! iol ''and, more generally. 

other products and features of EllfDJ 



l! iviljsaiiou), they did utile to stern the flow ot the 
banned liquid (Berndt & Berndt |951i 68j Millar 
& Leuric I9fl 92)t. At the same time, the 
impediment, by denying Aborigines free access to 
a commodity widely, openly and routinely enjoyed 
by Fairopcaus, HOI only marked and maintained a 
- i ii distance between White- and Bla<i El 
mcenscd the latter, 

Eventually, in the immediate pre-World War II 
pi. nod, this less than Effective approach was 
amended Under the new arrangements South 
Australian Abonemcs were o tiered inducements, 
the possibility pf u o test rie'ed access to alcohol 
among Ihese. lo modify certain of their behavioural 
patterns, abandon others and by-and-laige adop: 
:i Western-oriented life-style. Those judged to have 
passed muster were exempted from the provisions 
of the special ads, enabling them legally to emci 
preancts formerly exclusive to the nomAbonemal 
community — especially I he previously off-limits 
bars or public hotels. But just as prohibition and 
punishment had failed to halt Aboriginal dunking 
or resolve the problems' associated with Aboriginal 
alcohol consumption, so the st-leelivc granting of 
privileges was found wanting. In fad the alterations, 
lathei than redressing the prevailing situation, 
rXirher complicated matters. The relatively few 
Ahorigim •• BWIUXlcd \ >'i/enship'had many relatives 
wii.. remained wards ol the state — unable fo 
purchase liquor 1 . These km, rather than continue 
transacting in procuring and intercourse or payiuy 
exorbitant prices to Whites for illicit alcohol, fa 
pre'.uilin.e, upon theii mote fortunate relatives to 
purchase it on their behalf. Needles?; to say. this 
in-.|!ienlly rtrouiml those with rights lo (he attcnlnui 
of the police and led to diem spending periods m 

Recently a suceev,!.-., "I faUth Austiatian State 
i i have moved to smkc Irom the statutes 

.•ill edict - ilsed w dfcadvam*ginfl Aboriginal 
people. iizpludfllg those coyciuis? liquor ; . Surpris- 
ingly. Uti-s apparent C ►! mise was not the 
product of bi'-»i ii is it genctatcil) a restsscHmpnl dS 
iKe • .ntrenched belief that Aboneincs have a drmk 
Mem, I In tbf I '• I '•'"-' Whiles <he 
prusem unobstructed avuda^ihty an.J occasionally 

public use of liquor by a portion of I 
Abo ri I «ui(ujnily merely demonstrates lhat 
ue 10 terms wuh di ink Hut 

if a 'problem 1 lemalus, its cause has been redefined; 
i as! ji ihc official level, lor example ihc 

HonuiimhU- CJyd? Holclme, when Kdrml Mill 

i • »i. n..i' \fft&\ -, oiu..u feed that heavy 

..mgajid d res »on "^ part ol Aborlgin i 

to us t he .eearded 'as the •.••...•; u- ,»., .,1 d«€pt1 
problems', u !• :..-; tin Mfvcrs of disc- 

.the extreme disruption ol Aboriginal 
:>,(.» housing and low self-esteem'. Wfe 



MiClklttlNAl DRINK KFIIAULLI TATJON 



1*7 



need to attack these, he said, not 'opt tor ilie easy 
solution, of blaming the victim' (1964; 1i). Com- 
monwealth and South Australian administrations 
not only have set out (in their own way) to do battle 
with the underlying causes, they have gone on to 
underwrite measures designed to help Black people 
overcome more immediate difficulties ihey may race 
with drink. 



THE ADiiAtut Abork.in ai. Drink 

RlHABU .1TATION ARENA 

Subsidised and self-sustained treatment and 
support facilities for drinkers had operated lot some 
time around Adelaide, as they had in other 
Australian cities. However, from the point of view 
ot both Aborigines and White bureaucrats and 
SQCial workers these all shared a critical 
shortcoming. None of them were particularly 
sympathetic to the needs ol the minority Black 
population. Aborigines were said, ar.d themselves 
claimed, to feel socially excluded in gatherings 
organised and attended almost exclusively by Whites 
('Conference on "Drink Related" Problems 
Amongst Aboriginal People' 1975: Appendix A; 
Aboriginal Resources Division nxL: 10). It was 
suggested that Alcoholics Anonymous (A A I, the 
Salvation Army and the like, with their continual 
references to and weighty reliance upon the 
I : rmstian deitv, were antithetical to Aboriginal 
culture, including thai of urban Blacks What was 
needed was \Aboriginalisation\ at Ihe level of 
personnel and approach . 

The first formal steps in Tins direction were taken 
in i he latter half of 1972 by the South Australian 
Department for Community Welfare (DCW) when, 
with the strategy shift by Aboriginal Affairs and 
accompanying marked increase in the availability 
ol funds, it sponsored a research project on 
'Aboriginal alcoholism'* •• The results pf this 
igaoon not only 'confirmed' that Bin. "■.■-. 
indeed were alienated from existing services, they 
highlighted the fact thai one organisation — the 
Adelaide Cent ml Mission (ACM) — indicated a 
willingness 10 adapt its pfQgWftf 'o meet the needs 
of Aboriginal 1 people t 'Conference on "Drink 
Related" Problems Amongsi Aboriginal People' 
1975; Appendix A) Hit ACM, a i 1 1 i headquarters 
near rhe heart ol rhe city, mum mined a drop-in 
centre it called the Crypi. when: stnxr people could 
get out of the cold or tain, ha^c B cup of coffee 
and, if so inclined, seek aid and advice Irom wellaTe 
workers, As this was tfu only pl.nv r..\ its type, and 
because little reformist pressure was put on u 
a luige number of people, including a feft 
Aborigines, passed through its doors. That .• . , : 
members oi what had come to be designated as a 



shockingly needy section of Australia's most 
deserving group used a facility run by a body 
expressing a preparedness to address the special 
requirements of that group, led to the ACM quickly 
being singled out as a potential conduit for relief. 

By the early months o\ 1973 the ACM, aided by 
government money, had employed an Aboriginal 
man who had just completed a nine-month st.n ai 
its tecupet alive colony in the Adelaide Hills. Ke. 
alone or in the company of an Aboriginal employee 
of the Prisoners Aid Association, regularly visited 
the local gaol, parks and squares, encouraging 
( <oM'le to abandon drink and their 'wasteful* 
drunken life-style. Additionally, these two, plus two 
non -Aborigines, one from the ACM and the qJUb 
I rum rhe DCW, began devising a rehabilitation 
program they hopcu would mesh with the 
Aboriginal Sucio-cultural system (Aboriginal 
Resource.'- Division nd : 13) The expectation was 
thai this would be tested and, where nceessarv. 
extended or transformed a;, other Aborigines who 
had been consumed by the the quest tor liquor used 
ft as a vehicle to 'attain sobriety' 

A promising extension of these Aborigmahsaiioti 
effort', occur red later in 197? when the reformed 
drinker I nun the ACM joined with a lev, otfict 
Nungas to begjn the Aboriginal Sobriety Group 
(ASG). This body, modelled roughly on AA, firs! 
assembled wherever Aboriginal drinkers gathered. 
Later it came to hold regular weekly meetings at 
the Aboriginal Community Centre- At these the 
five, to ten, to twenty, or so in attendance would 
talk through their drink histories, discuss the 
devastating effect 5 alcohol had bad and was having 
on Aborigines' lives and Aboriginal culture, and 
muiuully encourage one another to continue 
residing the- temptations ol liquor {sec K-ary ei ul. 
1975: 21; Coaby 1976 96; Milera 1980: 15-18; 
Sumner 1984: 3*3). 

Begun as an aspect of one campaign, the ASG. 
<>r a least a segment ol ibe croup, .soon determined 
to go its own way Wltfl the Government's new 
liberal approach offering a ripe opportunity to 
Continue expanding the provisions and faeilhi.: ■ 
Aborigines interested in gelling oft rhe grog', some 
regulars sounded out ot were sounded our irlu 
details are nuclear) by Ihc- .ujtlioiiiics OH the 

possibility ot the A$fi getting funds [Q open a 

■ el and insi nine a totally Aboriginal-controlled 
scheme. Having positive indications in hand, the> 
put it la ihtii fellow members that if drink 
i ehabilitarion was to be trulv Abonginalised. then 
(Jtl line with both grassroots demands and pub Im- 
policy) Aborigines alone, not Whiter, and 
Abo<-i ' I't.uld be making all piiiU and 

decision'. That is, it was ncctssaiv lb Wfc|J beyond 
i he essentially ACM-parromsed frame. Further, the 
ASCI should and could lead Ite wa\ in this pursuit 



138 



L. SACKm 



While this WW proved popular with the 
majority, it perlurbed those mast cioscK associated 
with the ACM. Hie latter responded by both 
defending Lhe involvement of white* and issuing 
warnings concerning what they claimed was the 
rhetoric or 'educated' Blacks (i£. the kind of talk 
supposedly emanating from those supporting the 
proposition and said to be characteristic of people 
having little familiarity with, or lurk in common 
with, the bulk of Aboriginal people) When it 
became evident these rejoinders fyejfe falling on 
hostile ears, the ACM supporters departed. 

The emergent rift between Aborigines linked to 
the ACM and rhose involved in the ASC» ? which at 
the time was attributed to simple personality 
clashes, caused immediate concern. There was a real 
worry that those confronting a pressing issue would 
end up bickering over methods* and thereby be 
diverted from their urgent lask Indeed, it wis soon 
being said that the programs of the two 
organisations actually were working against one 
another ("Conference on "Drink Related" Problems 
Amongst Aboriginal People* 1975: 2 and Appendix 
A) This, plus the growth of rehabilitative 
developments in South Australian couatty areas, 
sparked calls for mediation. A report by the DCW 
Aboriginal Resources Division (undated, though 
produced during 1973 74), lor instance, reeom 
mended the: 

development of an overall strategy tor itie treatment 
Aboriginal -alcoholism through |hf meUmrn uf 
ii two da} ^etninaj attended by 'epresenfativo 1 from 
Sll bodies who have cornact vvith Aboriginal 
alcoholics (n.d.r 32). 



and 



the establishment ot aa VWtflOfJ Committee on 
Research into Aboriginal Alcoholism' to undertake 
and direct epidemiological, psychological, 
•sociological jnd phUosoplucat research, to pffer 
direction 10 preventive and Treatment oncnlaieU 
agencies in rhe deve1o£in?n| ol prOai^if > ( ?iild (0 
1 ordinate research material obtained fftflti 
overseas and inrtrM ik- protjrarn< fn.d.: JZjfe 



The resulting convocation of December 1975 
formed the Wo ma (said to mean 'bad diink r ; 
Committee, made up of. among others, repres- 
entatives Prom the various Aboriginal drink rehabi- 
litation programs operating throughout the 
The idea was that this overarching council would 
control the flow of funds from government to ii 
constituent parties. It was expected this iH (urn 
would give the body the power to coordinate all 
Aboriginal drink rehabilitation activities and 
1 hereby pteveni dissension and unnecessaty 
duplication. Such a representative forum also would 



be ideally placed to marshal and proffer compelling 
arguments Tor additional funding, with the result 
that the entire endeavour would expand and evolve. 
Indeed, the Department of Aboriginal Affairs 
(DA A) representative bluntly stated thai her organ- 
isiifion did not want to support individual groups 
but rather lo see a unified and coordinated 
approach' ('Conference on "Drink Related" 
PtOb!ettl$ Amongst Aboriginal People' 1975: 2) 

Following its birth, the Committee quickly 
succeeded in gaining DA A suppou. This money 
weni towards creating and maintaining the Woma 
Secretariat, a unit of four permanent staff whose 
purpose — in line with the aspirations behind 
Woma's origin — was twofold. On the one hand, 
it was to constitute an administrative centre, HalSlDg 
between Government and the many rehabilitation 
operations, arranging Woma Commit EC meetings, 
taking minutes, distributing information, disbursing 
■ces. and 50 loith. On the other hand, the 
Secretariat was to be something of a resource centre. 
It was 10 ma surveys T evaluate programs, collate 
data, set up training schemes, make manpower 
suggestions etc, {see S.A. Woma Newsletter »979: X) 

While Woma, through its Secretariat, did seek to 
function as a pressure group (Smith 187ft 108), it 
never became the granting and regulating body lf£ 
founders envisaged From the outset its annual 
funding only ever covered its own ongoing wage 
and travel expenses Consequently, its employees 
were never able to intervene in the operations of the 
various rehabilitate efforts. That is, they OQUld 
never execute many of the duties they had been hired 
to perform. They lacked The 'clour' io do so. 

Having prodded people into fashioning Woma, 
the government of The day declined to assent to its 
funding scheme. It responded in this manner 
because it found itself caught in a bind as to how 
to proceed, not simply in the drink rehabilitation 
arena but in Aboriginal affairs more generally. Just 
OS ii wanted rn be seen To be enabling Aboriginal- 
isaiion it also had to appear responsible, especially 
in regard to its constituents' tax dollars. Granting 
money to organisations like Woma could be 
advertised as being in tune with the first objective; 
it also* as I he state was discovering, could be 
interpreted, as being nut of harmony with the 
second. At thiz same time government was 
sponsoring the composition of Woma, it was 
coming under increasing criticism from non- 
Aborigines over the apparent lack of accounting 
procedures in its funding of Aboriginal projects. 
Sinric-- of wastages and misappropriation were 
common (v<r Howard 1979: I1-J2). To both rectify 
the situation and protect itself, the DAA 
implemented stringent guidelines about gram 
disbursements. These, among other things, 
endorsed direct funding procedures, whkh. when 



IG1NA1 »RIN1 






pin ii, u Ibfcvcl 

riodici ©nghl to be intermediate 

ui.s m the •:'>- 1 1 i button pTOC SSS 

Fui i .....-: >;v .-. in the ! i Woma'scmt^u 

'.|UL-Minns concerning ><scd. 

• 1 by the medical din 
Uroliql and Drug Addicts Tre&ri 
d (the Board). I' i thai Lhecfeanon Qi 

a (separate) man < I and insm i mal bod)i foi 

Aborigm Wasteful in Mini it duplicated 

services alreadj offered dsenhcie. More 

dangerously, such fragmei (along E8K ial ii 

tkened v, ii.n hMurJ;- i< a strong, collaborative 

;iff;j,i ■■,■!,,. HI | The IrfVWI I ianuury 197& 17). 

The criticisms aucd initially 1>\ the Board's 
medical afflcei ttnplifted by othei 

\n.11 i>;niiil bureutfcraLs into a major attack. litis 
ur most pari focpsed hi on an Alleged disparity 
between vvlm.ki's role and i mptishment*. Om 
M port, iin instance, obfesd that: 

■ •■ 

I i' 11 : t ■ 

• ire' 






.. ■ igrfl 

!, the rep - ' 1 

. <.rmel not only haJ been unsuccessful 

in pr ; n lbc2 

* I expertise in di lofe >l-l l&l - ami, 

omitam bet qualified noi 

'competent to ' se ibe i ilati 1 1 111 eds > 

,1 iii. I irew 1 - >s 1 : 33). 

in Mil end iii- d i \l d thai the 

1 . 1 .. ( 1 Hi Board . , 

would bi ppropri i\ - to undei Lata 

l i (I5*8li \% and Lhai nick an 
, !., n 1 thi 1 oiniiin. 

,-.r the • • ■ Qrua t OffliftUtt e (1981) 36) 

i Ti . being n n u -,n |n rsing 'ii.' 

ing iii-. in iuj ti] i I Aborigiti il 

ill hlr | I LfOll 

| . . 

while Wrjma 

leij by examining I nding 
levels oi - tl - another. In 

78. the Ihm period W aIhJi tb El 
ill |jiU) \<- M wa'. tti 916 

| D I (9* | .in' ' tGG »49 

■■\ | i,l . 

rving.il m litan area. By 1*98 ht last 

lime all ifiree rtmetioi M received $IG<5 265 

(44.32 ' Irtd WbmaS65 134 

ajoi 5246 B9 



Th' 

I hey. 

along ••• H' ' ,l0n 

Ol Add,, 

h i 

i, i . tl ' -..I 

Adefoi 

hand 

, | m 
workers 
in tarttn 
made am 

initial detox ' 

, ( a,Mi, in i, .-..•■ 
.i i.i ■ N 

v in;, in ndt 

. ai iii.-- n 
sought to * -;ii i i the 

eventual!) rei 
Hk asii, alsi 
■ 
of five or si ;• M>Hp kiti 

lb fo : - 
,n Blael- .. 

lhe organisation 1 

pnnel viewed du i 
noi as prwidei n • 
continued to hold n 
,ii, the Aboriginal W 
employees helped i 
i It 
l he group also, in ■ ■ nji i 
Hostels i ta, malntato 

mghi sh ttOB'l 

rs (OUC fOJ ll 

learning h w ■■ 

Sumnci l9»4) 

i he W •■ i 

( ..niiiiiiini^ < enn 

. .. . , 

Oti 

vortasrs who ' •■ thci 

irrni ■in.. 
line oi v islan 

of v its 

• Ml 



1 1 , li AH1I 

Whll 

1 1 hii'-ii..,! i b 






I UkLTT 



jfton ot Wbnia and Its Secrer&i iai, 

■■ nv.fd Ahm ue.n •■."•"- -T ilic ur.y.atio.anom 
ih.-se mtt neilhet reported DZH u-,cd EC vippmi 
CDIK • ' BVld recommendieinns '_ Ruthd 
1 iiM.iuiL'v cited Vhjeet.ve' : idi un a supposed 

ol paper qualil'icalum-. nf vt.-ifl ,-nnl ,111 Di 
poor 0O5l effectiveness of ihe Utlfl. Perhaps I hey 
MMKcvded as Ihey did because Ah<n fginal 
disapprobation ..'' Woma. like fin- jenunV. AC VI 
afld \SG MiL'iii.riv. wca . Sk nd lo have made aboul 
'.M<.-li otlici earlier, ordinal ily were com hed ill terms 
dI" What was nrj i as personalities, not in terms 

ol >u , i C I ■ ■ .■[-•eiar i, m.., • . o / ':. ( m ■■. I VS7; 

2Wft > I.m i o J willt 'he dillctem 

.•[•'Jiaur !\ unhealed lo oiil unulhcr. to 

lul'I. ro investfgatoM and tntereaced 
DUtsideYfc ihStlhi iric tsl the Woitui retinue 

shu'ild :m hes l -aded a.-. .* joke A mmr •< 

tj ili.ii lnnd> diffiClfid EOWtfrdfi tin 

.(anal were being totally squandered; they won 

not being invested s.i a& 10 produee any conceivable 

leiuin The Scctriaiiat was supposed lo I- 

Mrnbn II... COvertUfi all M.LMtn/uli'.xr,' Bui the 

<•• -lines Yemnin[cd| quite mdepen- 

ii w.i 1 -. .i .-, i the people on the Seertiarfai 

ied 'eul sharp. w<»i ked behind rheu desks Iron* 

eielu io live atul never ventured near the Bqo 

Of pqbS 1 On. : pU| i! Il( Q MMi-iiell when lie 

an ployed irbuitd doing 

«i link- hi; of papei wotk', vvhffc A< M and ASG 

i Im- help' (i.e. in urpeni need of 

dii !■ i i'T) 

■ileua 1 1» •■■'.<:, Lhe BtbMSREa ol . nv obvii 
M"'in»inal input into the bureaus 3 IIS i 

di ated deprecations ni Wonra allowed tiiacks 

|!<at MH'h oticisms tailed tO reflect tv 
lino,, tfl follow an ms embodied 

ui the appraisal., vvniild wv.i. . n I1&3 new pow<-.- 
Brmi Of] •■ L larm pernmicd peo|. 

daavrjur* :.. pJafe Aboriginal drink 
I -I.- ini.L' ilk- aaihm h ■ • ' I • 

t>. Sir h g move, 1 h^y ..ad. vvonld I 

h wuul.j bi fC I-"! i" i, 

.a .\t„ , -, ,. i 

I :C||ll) .'an vd jnlonm.1 

if,!-- :.:o- mal I i • - . I 6 I! 

i • '■ "• i omnussi i nhei 

Ed Elf all Wouia opeooionv fl 

i he M VI ind ASO |et|t i u :i tbc> had 

\ \\ , i. piaim . . , ,.,,,._. 

I idle. ,.! fOlid 

: < I || i irt| FH All || ' I I 

nvi i ■ i. n n m Aboi i i ti 
H sankinij for Tin- Board srarusd H n it 
com lusii I i 

• II. 1 ' ' thai 'hi Won*., i on jffO . id 

i <r>bc disbanded <\\^ tiV 



b0rfl the 't.u : ' of Ahoiitutud workers and 

eoordination o! lhe various Aboriginal dunk 
ttfon i « ! •(v\, l h,h 19x3, 1984) 

irehers before her, diseovered thai .Aborigines 
involved in dunk Khabil.Lioou aelivilies I'rnni 
ilinnt^lioin the 9taCG weie detidiuu Womi 
Moreovei, .-die mekuled some ol fheir rein.nl. 1 n. 
her repori She quoted peoph ,i-, henej a^amsl lhe 
bi»dv heeause '[l|he Chairman lived loo far aw.i\ v 
'Ihe Stale C'ouuniitee didn't meet enough' and 11 
( aeled as Mm... h.h an einployee' (Walsh 1984: 17) 
In ;i sinulat vein -die noted thai people alleged (hey 
faith in fhe Seeretanat '; lhal 'pfrsonahty 
■•■mis led commumlies lo separaie from the 
Sfir(rtftftrnH\ and it needed 1u he rental led' ( Walsh 
P-/XI: po. Al lhe same nmc inter viewee--. VV0TC '-••'i ( 
tO I'" '' nl I' in favour iUN.nne type ol proguun 
Ol h'iiual m>;-,i|ioji;iI eduuaiMMi. As one person 
declared, '|i|rauunp is a must /(Walsh M>. 
lhe support ioi a proposed icaehinp mm w,., 
eom|de(el>' consisfenl with ihe vritieism o\' Wbltia 
< he. ,\,i . precisely the aiea where Woma reputedly 
had let rehabililalion workers dtnvu' . 

( iirii>ii'-.ly. although Walsh hiehliuhieJ 
Aboriginal uibe:. al W-mei, sneh sniping was by nu 
niSDOS '.Iiif-aed exelusivcly at Ihe Secretarial, nor 
was i D drink rehabilitation endeav 

On die eontrary, it radiated oui io include LhC ! VkA 

Ujorigiruil Legal Aid, the Aboriginal Task Fm-, 

H >ki, Aid and Rehabiliiatitm Service, the 
Department p>f Sacfttl Seeurny, and so on. h 
simplv par taenia! I v eoneeniraled within the drink 
rehabilitation aWlta. ROi e.sample, l| was said lhe 
A«. Al AhorejiiKs ically had no eonsohd,< i d 
'..•ampaieii, Sure, they were se<-ii jinnnd ihe puik\ 
tun whai else did they do 7 I lu v\cw they 

(dependmu OH Ihe CXlgttK i©Qf aVfltJaWc 'bed's, 
ijlStead Of individual needs) senl clients here . .1 
there, did inn run a support grriMp fur ex-di ui! 
and W3 Ibflh. b was held that they aeiually v, | 
consii.nn.-vl trojri doing QlUCh lhal u;e e«.ni.sOu.. 
live', fhe IIAA g ran ted money to fhe ACM, 

illy :1 Wh||,;-| ui| ( » r-/' , . . ■ | n |||J mium 

M 1. 1 ibe <Vb 'A i • oi ted uncle • i 
root orders ftom a WJihc p nu extem thai 

VbOl -" ■■•■ i i ■! lv liad io !,cek pel mViun from 

i \Ihm I- ui.. -. \u use a iai pliruhMMul vviili l>\A 
lu. A«: M w.e. a lu-n all \v,e- 
Hfld 'I ' C lii isJari miSSiOU. As one ohmi'., I 

lUHCd !'.-• -al. nruniiies liom fhe reccot hisniry 

rti Bla-.k While i.'l.'iiimr,, Mii'h nrt!or,i ^nu.ns Ml 
th 'Alnn eo,il. . | cd tO uiail 

i , i .. . 

bl in. H\\, ... • rvei, uwiclct ■ 

ip, but vtiould divert all 

. i ■ I. • iht. \c M <>' the 

•!' ••'.■ l' d 'I'll .1 i . I ::: • | '. ■ ,i • I- 'i 

IJ 



ABOKM.INAI DRINK KFHAWl I TAI l< ' >N 






The ASG, lor ftflSOUS HOI t'fihkc those 
s iv| in conjunction \vi(h the ACM, BlSO WAS *ajd 
to lack u coherent program. Indeed. |l was alleged 
that sometimes, Mislead Of coping wilh prob! 

asc. members rang ih€ Aboriginal wafl bi the 

ACM for adviee and a El addition i ASG 

members were labelled 'secretive', 'iiepotistic' BUld 
"uncooperative. \ Hovvevel, the mOfil persislen! and 
damiiiiiv indictment revolved around ASGNah 
lack ol* prominence in ifo '••omnumily. Comments 

were Hi. .1. "Vba fitti don't seethem around, and Lhai 

ihey spend all (or at tea&1 tOO much ol) Ihen tttDC 
'sitting in the office, waiting faj people IP come to 
Mum . 1 1' it was suggested, was thai 

lo had little o« iim knosvledgeor ASCi labilities. 

Why did \Si :i this 

su.t? The icpK was that they were moie 

Interested in fenipin budding than in the people they 
[vyelre supposed to he desrfing wilh and serving'. 
;; i 10b simply :. tying tO get I 
cmsequently, thc$ needed looking into' 

u- hinds c.irmath^ | won 'd Is; betid -.peril 

elsewhere. 

Although the com i reported by Walsh 

nly scorned Worn., 
idani wl mi . m >|« lot change 

Sow were ir lilme 01 

slimline ot Worn,, in tlU h .1 w< 

overcome ' ■ w»ds 

(Walsh 19&4: 5), This would tilQty fitoUpS tC : 

M I, . . ,i, J ' , I I 'mull f ' WO! 

Pull, irity -irucluiesand DJ OTIC 

. , Ml 1. and lo decide their own further education. 
» )| I ici s advocated placing' ft IpS within 

folds Of a larea fabric, like the Board 01 tht 

Aboriginal H Organisation, which w 

iiutmc activities and Schooling (Walsh 1984: 5). It 

,1 claimed lhai those holding the latter type 

oi view were undei extreme pressure rronj people 

..,;,,!,!,. iiu lomin position to • tcp beyond ifteu 

ig sta 1 and jbtti m opposing q 

, , ,1 twaisii 1^84; 1 K) findings permitted 

nvestlgator lo recommend that 1 



ilu ■ 1 " 'HTiincc 

, . . H • , I 1 ■ 

.,» m 1 ftemalivc 

nif loyt .; i • • I 



-nioindU •.; ■ 1 fl 



. lhai 1 1 propon 1 ' 

1 1 1 : . ■ nurce Utii to to 

; •• 1 > . ,.1 1 I i 

• i. . > ■ .' I • 1 lOi 



Bm she proposed: 

. ,!<:<! iiw xu^inj .i.h.i 1 :•, ,,:• \<iuv 1 h. utuetti 
gourd be contracted to ladm ilsn 1 11 

Intertill tducai ■'■>" tcniri to uv< riw the 1 ' ■ 

1 ram; iimn ,n imC (Walsll l$>84 !) 

Remarkably, I ! 

Aborigines from the ACM 

sanat were allowed to see lla I ctcd 

■ lo, mncni. A 'Wall memher of the Scco.i 

indicated thai . i i 

1 r , ,-i ,;, enflj bad 

1 e( wi-h itie tame 

recommend a 1 c still b< 

in any event the drink rehabilitation 1 1 
, ivas based on tbeu ■ i 
v. this v operated u i ike !ti«* 

he subject af i 1 if also 

aggravated the level of fa 
Pur tag the long period of 1 

The niols ol invcvhvc mid innu | 
ensure that hey ntfliui 

I i iljgll do 11 1 , 1 

However, at the samp lime the fissures 
groui ' ,;i val 

loped b 

'ronii' ' I 

II I pen* I ll IflK 

rehab 1 ■ < . > v ad rif b i 

present «'d ro cx>mmun i— mJ*i 

(wrong m to Ihe DAA 
•A her the rev icw eventii ft lub 

Ol a vwifl and JOtil icception - frcni A("M 
laid \c rki well -' 

Representatives lrwn each ol i -dies qh 

gathered 10 discuss the repot 1 
implications. I hOM at |ii D ie of lb: 

continuing b strateg) adopted some - 

previously, attributed their many dirpei 
gOVtl iimnii nuserlniL 

had been hamstrung by eovcinn, idinp. 

arrangements. These v provnied tlte 

Committee afl rrorti doing whai ihc 

andeomnuiis /hett by \BIC) the;. 

|we]re divided by the (iC( WOO! • • 1 

Aboriginal Altar 

Wbtna nmitrt the F 

Aboriginal \'i.-r, 7 November I-' 

Advertise! [ > Mi , '•< M • ||; ' 1 

ASCI employ ; " ltl - l>AA. th 1 

financial and oil > - 1 an.' 

,,1, 1 liial 

many oil he Wal 1 "Ion*, 

and totally unsupported by Wie v 

spoke 
th'.. body u( whldtsl 

i ,,■ tipnarii : h :d 1; though 






'Ill 



led wuh the continuance u! Woma 

i.. v weft wuh preserving i heir own 

.. !!.._ v.l, J TO<rtnd« was lhal the 

CCled 1101 I hf V.tW'S of AbOll-K.: , 

mi Aboriginal workers but caitei those oi Whitu 

"iiircaui. rd t sand Lhenun Abune.mal nut hot. H v .. 

lainioincj thai the inquiry should have been 

h an AiKMi-iinal person knowledgeable 

If) ttiepn I drink rehabilitation. Hife beiqg 

i . ■• those present resolved to appeal ro the 

\ to tii&eUEl l he situation ai an emergency 

- .ji i he Woma Commit n 

. i , rOffl the da a torc.aw lluie prom. 

rll — or the Ahoii ;ii ik coaeeiHed, 

I such a ntcvt'iie . h was declared thai the 'upro.ii % 

j|.rio,dh*SN Although "people from the 

i • • ■ claiming th ■ pQ ItiOfl was nol 

.uiv : m i i . .r, was 'amply demonstrated* in 

i ii.o ileelij (hey had been consulted for year* 

• I nj 'lamed about Woma. Now -i , 

I iamo weft heme t.iUn ,mwim,l ttti v^i.i 

.ii-n... MinrAjioriN. The DA A, it - had 

•leeuUJ 10 act in line with the repuri's 

mi mdatitiflfl — at least as hi as these related 

la the dismembering of Won. a and locating 

I i •■ ' J dtei !o aceis ol 1 tie Board. 

lot i nine i tie Aboriginal workers conflnid 

i selves io iobb> iu.u. agalnsi rhc moon.e 

lakeovcr*. When iheir cffort> to move UNA officials 

I- 'i p D CCCdcd to more concerted action In 

cm her 1984, ihey umvened a two-day 

sonlcreucc of (he Wonia Oouunuicc. The first day 

.' tins , ITflS .-,; ICtM venting anget and <leb.it i ne plans 

i i flu SecietarUrt Jays realty 

aid (hey allow the ACM. ASC 

md bt t •ime pari of the Board oi should 

. to be meiged wiOi the \boHgbtal Health 

s would these ^nd 
g< iu.;i have lOT local 

rhes disi NAiJona ptocecded id 

v i. . I OV I W N H I 1m, tn Iht 1 

m I i i a, lie the dt ii i new '•-. 

i Ciimm • I I i 'I ■ • tttl -.crceiicd, 

ndi- kirdll [pOfl I ll n fb I* perceived slight 

> I ! ii'iilic i nation So much so » J . a i 

i ttU ■ .em ITglied thai .ill m 

match 01 H IC office •>! ihcDAA 

• '• I ■ I I I ruling*. In the end tins 

lephouc to i he I.XAA. was 

rfiougli 03 utii ilic pledge of government rcpic- 

| ! | | .. 

Hie so m began witn tile tfftftffaed 

. i 

i pUiftLi and n >n i tendati i i 

;i i familiar, had resolved that as 

riding stops*. 

I uuoutjeemenr rhc floor wa* 

noK discus ..ii.ui rhc decision 



httd been made. The Woma Committee could not 
Ch&ng# this, although its member were free to Li.sk 
how this WOtild efteet their respective program-, f he 
immediate and only question raised was \vhat about 
II rrtiinationT In elaboration it was charged 

that the judgement had been made not by The 
Aboriginal people 1 bm lather horn on high' and 
then passed down to Aboog.ucs. The DAA 
employe, did not respond CO this. As tic departed 
people bemoaned what Lhcy saw as the injustice ol 
the situation. 

Wmai ,\m<< I S! U-OMIkMIN\TR)N? 

In (he hours, days and weeks following tfa 
dissohTDDH n\ il.c ;»:cre'.ni:it, people volunteered 
a rar ■ planaiions for \i-> fate. As might be 

CXpeCted, lliesc lor the most pan homed m .»n 
pcrsonalUy fe^torS That !hc t»cople involved wcic 

le to see >n es,:ape the fetters ot (he 
conli-ii'.uhsn in which they were embedded, and 

1 up throwing verbal rocks at one another*, 
I .i ■■•lelv lent support to the notion that Aboriuiin-- 
wen- incapable of sorting out their differences and 
.leiiuie on wuh flu jeftj <>t dealing with the drink 
problem faced by their fellows 

No dcubt il would be possible ro ana V, il., 
backbiting by Nuti^as embroiled in the Adelaide 
dunk tehabilitanon arena in much the same way 
as Cokon (1953) and Gluckman (1961) Mewed 
material on gossip and scandal among the Makah 
Indians I ike the Makah, the Nungas operated 
within a contest of dispossession and subjugation 
Further, rhey too had endured heavv and sustained 
p abandon then socio-cuh umi -.vstem and 

.ilorm with ttie beliefs Ain\ practices of the 

ml dt\d poat colonial societies in which rhev 

came q bt locme^l, Ami. .-,-, ..mii, che Makah, win i 

•at }>eople 'would array themselves 

i n • »i • !■- ' to m.niii. \ ui ilteir independence and 

nded up bcm.u 'nnn by internal 

luekman P.'OV J|0>. But, in line with 

( i'Im.'h ,,i,..j Gtricknran it outd be argued tfeaj ihc 
inicn.al strife experienced b\ ine original 

Aum.. I u was for the indigenous 

fcmeiicau*) wfirhei ^. djvj$tvc aor as detclmenUil 

Bfl Imi e t.-earances would indicate. On ifu omrary. 
shared knowledge Oi the cxb,l»nce and R5G Ol 
dispai ... i i- ommenW III itself served to '.leliueand 

nea. Tt be a WC I lfe q of the group om- 
taUM bl bbk ithegos .knian \%} 

ioup. Conversely, ©utslder^twuld nol 
:inj wm nii\ allowed ib panii*fpyg thegoitifi 

i II iluisc who j'.uvsipo- ,.id abottl 

inn. another consumied ■ nit. 

11 ■ «e« the material m this ritaunet 

tel examine i< in a pni i n i stiidu It 
i IscaOvei and atfnbui 10 .•<>■.-. i}l 



•MJORKilNA.1 DKINk KIHAHII ItAllON 






'important positive virtue<'(GUiCr . KW>, 

and promptly rest 'Tie\ case Cfeatl) it in essential 
that we also gauge 1|v - Wrf implications of 

eMra-group factors — especially wtol investigating 

ihc ^Imacton ol I burth Wfarld people ' to fo wt 

must consider how backbiting iiiay be generated 
tptif manipulated by outsiders. Fbi H personal 

attacks and counrcr-iitiaek^ mail off and link 
group members in some way, they simultaneously 

result m people being pitted against one another 

— quite possibly to (heir collective del n men I. 
External aspects are evident in the Makah d.ua in 
the form of the state-legislated economic benefits 
•■• li.li Rowed to group member:, Basically it was 
h c&se ol people i ri large part tyg the 

manifold mechanisms of gossip, to keep tneir 
numbers low. in order to maximise individual shares 
of" revenue (.«r Cluck man 196.V 310). The Nunga 
Case contains parallel associations between 
scandalmongering and eompetJlion for access a 
es of a derived monetary *pic 
Year alter year the ACM, \SG. Woma and other 

Aboriginal drink rehabilitation tntit^ tbrougkout 

South Australia had to approach 'he U\A for funds 
to continue. As time went oil, it became 

accepted, whether accurately ot not. that money 
earmarked tor rehabilitation exercise \w; extremely 
limited. In these circumstances each oiganisation 
came to regard its ability to maintain en increase 
its respective entei prise as dependent upon, on tbc 
one hand, the positive claims it might make lor itsell 
and, on the other hand, anything nefiatfvi il m 
succeed in having accepted about its ijV&k This 
two pronged approach was particularly appropriate 
av none ol" the bodies found it possible to 
•demonstrate success' in 'heir rehabilitative efforts. 
Unlike Aboriginal Housing Association^ ;vhi. . h 
were able to cite the purchase or ;onsi ruction o\' 
dwellings and consequent shekettug of Abot igiaal 
families; Aboriginal I men schemes, which 

could boasl about enhanced Job -kills and re | 
unemployment figures, or even I eval Wd set 
wlneli '.sere able ro submit slatytllCS oti the way 
had been insttumental in securing the 'basic human 
ftghll til Mn>rigines\ Aboriginal drink 
rehabilitatio'i ' nt W ' to Bhaw that 

their endeavours got and kepi Aborigines til I 
iT-VM \ The best they CQIlld dO W5 ' M ,if c evidence 
ol heavy iuvolvemcm w»H. n- l-n.-.i '- ' I" \CYI. 
lor instance, requited its worker* to keep ImeT •! 
i lie number and type of coruacis rtiev haO n i 
clients (i.e. by Storing luugagc, assisting in providing 
medical at tern ion. formal coo tisel ling) Similarly, 
ASG maintained records on the calls It made 
i he rravel assisran.v [| oifeail. the meals D supplied, 
and the occupancy nac- at its houel facilities. 

But providing set vices t^ peopfc i r,o\ the same 
as hinging about their rehabiluan.. ' In- in,imlil> 



Of the various drink program pedfi : 

how niaii\ people " •• h ideneoiira,', ' kit a i 

(jo 'kick' the alcohol habit, tel b ■ n ' IMi 

• y single organisation to thfl 

a more efficient and competent rehab il \\o\ tl 
i .adversaries, did HOI dampen compel M 
inflamed »l. As Calper nor 

In the ftfeseilfc "' Hb|Aft*lfV< lm ■ tor I 
prinntles, thi? planning meLtauteitij Oi 

.in.. c-Uuhlisb a 5el 
inlercM -group eompentmn. VI ■■ ,■■ 

. ups tlCSrl iblll tl '-' mpe'e in Lfte !"■■' • I 
trtrTg; 15). 

In this sphere ACM, ASG and Woma routme'v 
accused one another and in tut It WflC I 

of not deserving the lunti- -'•• : I ivci and 

over the message was one q] .vaaae- (Jjj • hers v. 
needs (of fhc Aboriginal commumiy) jj - i 
and the like. By and lar.ie Me i H . pj . ; •Tin,|;nf 

and thrown at ACM and AS« j -tot 

helped deline what seemed to be diacnli. ' itu 
Of the two organisations. The one. in Cfllll I '' 
ith missionary tradition,, appeared to prt 

while the other, in aeeoidanee l^lth tt '"- 

notions o\' both I he acceptance of lite lift 
Others and generalised hospi r airo 

something o\ an open house V»m *hile prnpL 
questioned ACM and ASC tacrUs - '•>. 
interested bureaucrats, nonetheless ',■ 
grudgingly) allowed that these i 
respective, though possibly limned wavs weif 
working towards, if not a sol ' l ^ : "-' 

tin amelioration o\ the Aboriviiuo dl Inl i rphlcm 
People from the ACM and I he VSCi talked Ul 
members ol" the wider commumtv b{DUI alcohol, 
befriended drinkers who either ask^l i ••» til r 
relief and, crucially, had clients * \\ • .. . i ■■ 
publicly recounted tiow (hey owed »! 
continued well-being to assi-.tan.e received 
ACM and A.SG energetically ^""l ' :f "" MUM 

clientele and eagerly used any information 
by disgruntled ClHtOmdS ot" rheir ■: I 15 ill 
developing ntiensive critiques was U 
overlooked. Woma and its Sc ^6 

absolutely no clientele to tutn to in OtTtJci 
their praises sung (more accuralep then 
clientele |ACM and ASG staff! wcp 
harshest dctracroTs). making the conormed rritinsm 
snmularlv Jev;iMa<iue 

■ in- Stale, through the ins ■• of tbf 

daa. Interpreted the Intense ■ ; > i dMtrt 

rehabilitation arena not as Die ^TOdUCl I 
enduring, inter ten n^ prilronage but as ^ iden- 
Aboricunes requited continued <:.\i grriM i-er-J 
And as in the pa rattier than ■ ■ i 

addressing Uie ^vay il> 
relationship operated tn maim an 



U4 






•. ■ .■ , i p ■ 

i fa , >nngai 

imGting 'new miLinhvcs', none of which 

ttifcatpiKd the busk strj Hhi ailed w 

intajned tnuch a* they had been, 
itself a finely and 

■ro.ly seeking lo assi.sl Aboi mines, and 
Aim, -uinuly unable 01 (pCTVCrscly) 

miivs illmi' Iu make 'lie tmisi jrf 'lie aid h 

•aoN 
The history ol government invokemcni in aspects 

■ i iiquoi use and abu 

J I is also, eotuiaiv Io iccenl ihetoiic, remarkably 

mm policy iOUfihl lb 
safeguard White the 

beta i be euro it detengiiiaikHi 

or sell-managemem phase is an extension of this 

rr&truci certain claims 

nake linuled demands. Ai the same lime the 

•i i s able to contini* inltsrvaning In Aboi \\ \m I 

Mies. This is veiled by being maoV io loot ■'"•• 
Munich Lj iS an nccoinmoduline response Io 
A-bOriglnal requests; whereas actual I v V 
• I ; • 1 1 1 1 i - ' Mi: in i i >>t the 

Don! hip between Abi and the stati . 



A< K.INOW! I i)e\li IM1 ■ 

A Ji.jl.| M! I .., .[,,- f ,|l|. 

' lumimj and Gail 

i i . (C iiam'-o, i i |9R) i would like 

Dl \<\ Roisbooui, ki-n I oIMih.l'. Lin.- ( M I' 

. ... . M| I' | 
, ' I > ' I . 



En i.i N- □ 

1. The fact that in 80RIC -ireas e.g. Western Australia, 
incentives to assimilate were officially linked with the term 
'citizenship', plus rhe fact thai whai Hg held uut 

to Blacks were rights equal lo those taken for granted by 
Whites, combined to produce a situation wherein 
Aborigines used the plua-.t-s 'drinking rights' and 
Viii/i-.r-.lnp rights' inicrvhangeably. 

2 for in.iny Whites i be lives of people like the Northern 
Lory artist Albert Namatjira and actor Robefl 
ludawab, men alleged (<> have !>< -..-n 'caught between two 
cultures', epitomise the (unintended) impact of the new 
approach. Both fell foul of the law for supplying liquoi 
to kin; both WCP8 ,..n-,ic<i >m drunkenness charges; and 
the use Olid abuse of liquor by both is said to have 
contributed heavily towards their early < 

3. The last restrictions were removed in 1968. 

4. Set Peterson (1985) for a thought provoking 
interpretation ol foe CCOflOfufc conditions which 
imderwTOte ihia increased expenditure on things Aboriginal 
and the consequences ii had for Land Rights 

5. This process of government sponsorship being a 
precursor \e :i Chalfl of official enquiries (which ji 
various types and degrees of intervention) parallels the 
history o\ what began as the National \hoi itun.il 
Consultative Committee (Weaver 198.1). 

(>. aHii--..hiis im ii,.; 1 1 t .-i. i<-, , i ;: ( , t - , r a 1 1 1 1 1 1 g of workers were 
made by bursaucrah and program employee 

•"-•■' 1 1 m o Far or explaining the 'overall tact ol success' 

nf rhe rchabllitaitoci endeavour. 

1 1 1 could be argued thi: is not evidence of a Mailing in 
K-habilitation programs, but the COIlSetpieilCe Of ihe 
absence Ol cflflJ f level of Ihe supposed underlying 

causes Of Aboriginal drinking. 



Rf It M • 



AHOKK.INAI Kl Mil DIVISION 

'Prcftmi i ol qj\ ActkHV 

tor Aboi jgjnol W . 
Cieril b>r Community Welfflt^ Adelaide, 
m < ICETT, i 1987 Toi lodero i. i 

I aiiversiiy Press, Cambridge 
KhRNHT. R.,\ rr,C 1«&1 I . . lOvWMle 

h u lia 1 . i \\. Melbourne 

UY,C 1976. Hi* role ufan Aboriginal educatnr and 
oho&w ■ ouHscMor. National Alcohol and / 
Dependence Mulndi titutf iu 95 99, 

■ - 1 son, E 19S3 Tfte Maid fern 1 I n 

Mil lifli 1 '."la. 

• '• 1 1 rb*n Aboi 

1 , . 

CiAl PfeK 1 1 

I . 1 \ 1 1 fi 1 : • 



QUTCfCMAN, m. i%3 Goki^ and *c*ndfll e^/r/i/ 
inthropofogy 4< W7 116. 

HOI hl\< t , ( |984, •Aboriginal 1'asi. ,\u a .oh.., '• I ami 
Australiun Government Publishing Servji berrS. 

HOWARD, M 1979 Ihe perpelualiou ol d«. 

among Australian \borigines. Survival inte/nun* 
Review i 0. 14. 

Howard. M 1982. Abou r .nji i-.,,,k..:i^ an Ipd 

deveiopmem io SOU ill ^CMWU ^41 Lralia MM. HtW 

(Bd i 'Ab \0-.L1 ohon :•;■ 

I .MlVvM - 1 1 > O! I I,k;,. RSI LOl I 1 I [}< lj 

1 1 :akv ; DODSON, p.,riiMf omka. v, & Bl 

I.. 197S. Al0Ob04(ym atld Aboricineo A Report* 

Mil MCA l> 1980. W.M 

Found \\ ...1 and Drug DepeiwJciicc 

1 



ABORIGINAL DRINK REHABILITATION 



145 



MILLAR. C. & LEUNG, J. 1971. Aboriginal Alcohol 

Consumption in South Australia. In R. Berndt (Ed.). 

'A Question of Choice'. University of Western 

Australia Press, Nedlands. 
OAKES, W. & DREW, L. 1981. 'Evaluation of Aboriginal 

Alcohol Programs in South Australia'. Unpublished 

manuscript. 
OFFE, C. 1972. Advanced Capitalism and the Welfare 

State. Politics and Society 2: 479-488. 

PETERSON, N. 1985. Capitalism, culture and land rights: 
Aborigines and the State in the Northern Territory. 
Social Analysis 18: 85-101. 

SACKETT, L. (in prep.) Developing divisions: welfare 
colonialism in a Western Desert Community. 



SMITH, N. 1976. Alcohol abuse and crime. National 
Alcohol and Drug Dependence Multidisciplinary 
Institute 76: 106-109. 

SUMNER, B. 1984. The Aboriginal Sobriety Group of 
South Australia Inc. Aboriginal Health Worker 8(3): 
33-36. 

WALSH, P. 1983. 'Proposal for an Independent 
Aboriginal Training and Resource Unit'. Unpublished 
manuscript. 

WALSH, P. 1984. 'Report on Restructuring of Woma'. 
Unpublished manuscript. 

WEAVER, S. 1983. Australian Aboriginal Policy: 
Aboriginal pressure groups or Government advisory 
bodies? Oceania 54: 1-22, 85-108. 



THE SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM'S ABORIGINAL FAMILY HISTORY 

PROJECT 

S. J. Hemming 



Summary 

As part of the South Australian Museum's responsibility to record and preserve items of Aboriginal 
heritage, Museum staff have been collecting photographs of Aboriginal people from as early as the 
end of last century - some of the photographs date from the 1860s. In the 1930s, Norman Tindale, 
the Museum's anthropologist, began systematically photographing Aboriginal people at different 
locations around the country. This was part of a larger research project funded by Harvard 
University and the University of Adelaide's Board for Anthropological Research. By the end of the 
1950s, Tindale had not only photographed Aboriginal people from all around Australia (Table 1) 
but had also gathered detailed genealogies of the people in these photographs (Table 2). 



IHB SOUTH ALSTRALIAN MUSEUM* 
ABORIGINAL FAMILY HISTORY PROJECT 



\; p ..i I the South Austr.Miar. Museum's 
isif-iiitv ha record and preserve irem- ot 
Aboriginal heritage. Museum staff have 
Collecting photographs of Aboriginal people from 
as early as I he end Of last century — SPUe o\' the 
photographs Arte from the 1860s. In the 19905, 
Nnirnan ! iuduie. the Museum's anthropologist, 
began :-y^teniaticall> photographing Aborie. 
people at different locations around the count t v. 
This was part of a larger research project tUndfid 
by Harvard University and the University of 
Adelaide's Board Tor An ih Topological Research. By 
ihr cud ol the lM50s, Tindale had not only 
itiiMtngraphed Aboriginal people from all around 
Australia (table I) but had also gathered detailed 
alogics of the people in these photographs 

In the late 1970s, the Museum employed an 

archivist and an awosfant to reorganise and itofe 

-cw archive the targe collection ijf photographs, 

fid recordings, docu'nents | including gene 

a logics; Jiid Otfofl materials The Museum's archival 

collection is an invaluable resource Pel ■ t0 th€ 

At ui iL'inal ln-.iMiv of South Austral. ;< and ol the 

Whole country. Over ihc last seven vears. the 

Mivcn 00] ' irs photographs to 

individuals and communities, especially in the 

SOUtfl^ril parts ol the slate. As a lesilb. 

d.HumrTuahon relating to the photographs has 

; hrcn obtained and old phutogn.iphs have been 

given L0 the Museum by '\boriginal people lot 

•opvme. 

tn the 1980s, \borigJnal people began t" use Ihe 
• ■ igii Kud up Iked by J inidafle. Doreen Kartuxyoi 

jrrir.dj'jri tustorian, was the first Aboriginal 

i South Visiraii.1 it. n',<- iJtli r.'s.iiucc By 

i w.'ih an increase ol Aboriginal im.-o-.i m the 

Mi.- urn - ■. sMiir.es, Tindale gave pei mission fat 
photographs and genealogical infcrmsiiicm tj 
died f" \bbi iglnal people from his unpublished 

hi 1981 nu J-ommd fat access KG the Muslim's 

leal a id ; hi..' graphic resources becnm 

rj tor existing stall and Museum funds. To 

alleviate tflta suiMiion, a formal project called the 

'Aboriginal Family History Project' was established. 

Dk major aim of this project was to make Uie 

Mu -.riuu 's ;uvtnv:il resources available to Aboriginal 

pie 

Ms Doreen Kartmyeri was welt kltOWU 10 'be 

M.i-..iim at tbfll time and her employment on rhe 

project was seen as essential. Hei knowledge of 

50Ut] I IMll Australian Aboriginal families i? 

vi «. Jet^lod BUld her famihaiitv with EH1 v 



photographs an invaluable skill when dealing Witt 
the Museum's large colled ion. Ms Kartmsen 
been working towards publi shine e en ea logics of all 
Ihe souther a South Australian Aboriginal families 
.and bad already published the gencaloeies o( thf 
Rigney and Wangancen families. Her skills and her 
research plans complemented the resources the 
Museum had tO offcf the Aboriginal community 
It was therefore decided to employ her as an 
Aboriginal Research Officer with the Muse. 
Aboriginal Family History Project. The Museum 
would piovade support for her research arid use her 
skills to Upgrade (he MuseunVs resources and mal. 
them available to Aboriginal people. 

In early 1988, the Australian Institute of 
Aboriginal Studies provided the initial financial 
support to the project, enabling the Museum to 
employ Ms Karlinyeri for three months. However, 
for the Museum to meet the demand from the 
Aboriginal eommunitv. afld US provide propel 
support for her research and publication program, 
[| was decided that a research assistant and a pfttftt ' 
officer were also required The Museum was able 
10 fill 'hese positions at ihe beginning of ihe 
I988/JKI na ll <<•>> With substantial funding 
from the C. om rnon wealth Department nf 
Aboriginal Affair* 

Ml Barry Craig, an anthropologist, is now the 
project officer and Ms Neva Gr/yk.wi, /. who has 
-irorui linko with the Koorubba Aboru 
.•ouuininitv, is the project's icseaieh :^.M.vai.i. Mi 

Otalg assists with developing publications and 

reports relating tO ttlC project. He also I '-.irdmatcs 
i l.hly running Ms ( .r/vbowu;/ i -r>i \\; 
K.i.iu'vori and (S accuniulaou,L' maienal io pnlm'sh 

i :xW\ iTuiteiial frfflll dn wcM ,oasi Di StUittl 
Australia 

There ait also a number of permanent Museum 
-i,im playing sigtiito&fd roles in rhe project, Tbey 
j m '-nice BuL'kskrn Ms K^yt Clark, Da i i 
Andejjoii, Mi Ph.hp Ctarfc^ ^nd it.vselt as |\p tt 
\i muL" ■« Mj Bii.ksk n. \b Clark and L> Audi 

theeianta'unded stall witli CHqy»ne& arid Mi 
I ,..>,::.,. , ..•npmer d ! 

hiisc- ii.ii im.i.l :hc rcsuurces more readilv 

..livable li-t i - luvph all rhe named Tindale 
,a.Hinvi, ( |-»»s have rmw heen entered onto COAlpUtCi 
ami a eompnicr mdes <d peqpk mentioned in llu- 

.Irn-ic-, tuts been started. Dr Deanc lerer 
working nn Lite Museum's I ;ike tyre Hasm Ptt 
.- . in. | ii. mi the demt'grapliie history of the region 

: 1. 1 wulll iheivlv-iL also be conin'-iuiiie q sigoificanj 

i i ir.i nl material ro Lhc Mu-.enm'-. Ahoria.nal 

. , i « ■ v hioor, data-base 



148 



S. J. HEMMING 



TABLE 1. Expeditions organised by Norman H, Tindale on which photographs of Aboriginal 
people held by the South Australian Museum were taken. BAR/SAM - expeditions by Norman 
B, Tindale funded jointly by the Board for Anthropological Research, University of Adelaide, 
and the South Australian Museum, 1932-57. HAL expeditions by Norman B. Tindale funded 
jointly by Harvard University and the University of Adelaide, 1938-39. UCAU - expeditions 
by Norman B. Tindale, J. B. Birdsell and P. 1. Epling, funded jointly by the University of California 
at Los Angeles and the University of Adelaide, 1952-54. 









Number 








of 








photos 


Location 


Source 


Dates 


held 


South Australia 








1. Bookabic 


UCAU 


Dec. 1952 


18 


2. Colona 


UCAU 


Dec 1952 


12 


3. Erliwanjawanja 


BAR/SAM 


May-July 1933 


10 


4. Ernabella 


BAR/SAM 


May July 1933 


110 


5. Koonibba 


BAR/SAM 


August 1928 


57 


Koonibba 


HAU 


1938-1939 


88 


Koonibba 


UCAU 


Dec 1952 


44 


6. Mirramitta 


BAR/SAM 


August 1934 


12 


7. Nepabunna 


BAR/SAM 


May 1937 


9 


8. Nullarbor Station 


HAU 


June 1939 


6 


9. Ooldea 


BAR/SAM 


August 1939 


95 


10. Pandi Pandi 


BAR/SAM 


August 1934 


61 


11. Point McLeay 


HAU 


1938-1939 


118 


12. Point Pearce 


HAU 


1938-1939 


83 


13. Poka Gap 


BAR /SAM 


May-July 1933 


23 


Poka, Mann Range 


BAR/SAM 


May-July 1933 


30 


14. Port Augusta 


HAU 


June 1939 


15 


15. Swan Reach 


HAU 


1938 


26 


16. Umbukulu 


BAR/SAM 


May-July 1933 
Total 


17 




834 


Western Australia 








17. Albany 


HAU 


April 1939 


14 


18. Anna Plains 


UCAU 


July 1953 


13 


19. Balgo 


UCAU 


August 1954 


69 


20. Borden 


HAU 


April 1939 


25 


21. Brooking Springs 


UCAU 


July 1954 


4 


22. Broome 


UCAU 


August 1953 


41 


23. Christmas Creek 


UCAU 


May 1954 


83 


24. Collie 


HAU 


March 1939 


7 


25. Cookes Creek 


UCAU 


April 1953 


6 


26. Cosmo Newberry 


UCAU 


Feb. 1953 


62 


27. Cundeelee 


UCAU 


Jan. 1953 


24 


28. Derby 


UCAU 


1953-1954 


74 


29. Fitzroy Crossing 


UCAU 


July 1954 


29 


30. Flora Valley 


UCAU 


Oct. 1953 


36 


31. Forrest River 


UCAU 


March 1954 


153 


32. Gnowangerup 


HAU 


March-April 1939 


40 


33. Gogo 


UCAU 


June 1954 


60 


34. Gordon Downs 


UCAU 


April 1954 


75 


35. Hall's Creek 


UCAU 


October 1953 


21 


36. Jigalong 


UCAU 


March 1953 


76 


37. La Grange 


UCAU 


July 1953 


73 


38. Laverton 


HAU 


May 1939 


29 


39. Leopold 


UCAU 


July 1954 


19 



ABORIGINAL FAMILY HISTORY 



149 









Number 








of 








photos 


Location 


Source 


Dates 


held 


Western Australia 








40. Liveringa 


UCAU 


Sept. 1953 


22 


41. Mandora 


UCAU 


July 1953 


34 


42. Marble Bar 


UCAU 


April 1953 


116 


43. Margaret River 


UCAU 


May 1954 


36 


44. Meda 


UCAU 


August 1953 


22 


45. Meekatharra 


UCAU 


Jan. 1953 


10 


46. Moola Bulla 


UCAU 


1953-1954 


295 


47. Moore River 


HAU 


April 1939 


75 


48. Mount Barker 


HAU 


April 1939 


33 


49. Mount Margaret 


HAU 


May 1939 


118 


Mount Margaret 


UCAU 


Feb.-March 1953 


91 


50, Mulga Queen 


UCAU 


Feb. 1953 


30 


51. Narrogin 


HAU 


April 1939 


15 


52. Noonkanbah 


UCAU 


July 1954 


22 


53. Norseman 


HAU 


June 1939 


27 


54. Pilgangoora 


UCAU 


May-June 1953 


369 


55. Quanbun 


UCAU 


June 1954 


15 


56. Roebourne 


UCAU 


June-July 1953 


73 


57. Southern Cross 


HAU 


May 1939 


31 


58. Sturt Creek 


UCAU 


May 1954 


94 


59. Thangoo 


UCAU 


August 1953 


14 


60. Warupuju 


BAR/SAM 


August 1935 


43 


61. Wiluna 


UCAU 


January 1953 


34 


62. Wotjulum 


UCAU 


June-July 1954 


118 


63. Yeeda 


UCAU 


August 1953 
Total 


5 




2775 


Northern Territory 








64. Cockatoo Creek 


BAR/SAM 


August 1931 


85 


65. Darwin 


UCAU 


Feb.-March 1954 


8 


66. Granites 


BAR/SAM 


August 1936 


38 


67. Hermannsburg 


BAR/SAM 


August 1929 


91 


68, Invervvay 


UCAU 


April 1954 


59 


69. Mac Donald Downs 


BAR/SAM 


August 1930 


57 


70 Mount Liebig 


BAR /SAM 


Aug.-Sept. 1930 
Total 


93 




431 


Queensland 








71. Cherbourg 


HAU 


Nov.- Dec. 1938 


152 


72. Mona Mona 


HAU 


Aug.-Sept. 1938 


148 


73. Palm Island 


HAU 


Oct. -Nov. 1938 


246 


74. Woorabinda 


HAU 


Nov. 1938 


140 


75. Yarrabah 


HAU 


Sept .-Oct. 1938 
Total 


267 




953 



150 



S. J. HEMMING 



Location 



Source 



Dates 



Number 
Of 

photos 
held 



New South Wales 




76. Boggabilla 


HAU 


77. Brewarrina 


HAU 


78. Cummerangunja 


HAU 


79. Kcmpscy 


HAU 


80. Menindee 


HAU 


81. Pilliga 


HAU 


82. Walgett 


HAU 


83 Wallaga Lakes 


HAU 


84. Woodenbong 


HAU 



July 1938 
June-July 1938 
1938 1939 
Dec. 1938 
June 1939 
1938-1939 
1938-1939 
1938-1939 
August 1939 

Total 



65 

118 

54 

3 

9 

39 

2 

23 

62 



375 



Victoria 

85. Lake Tvers 



HAU 



1938-1939 



52 



Tasmania 

86. Cape Barren Island 



HAU 



1939 



129 



Total number of photographs, all states 5549 



The specific objectives of the project are as 
follows: 



the number of enquiries should be greatly 
reduced. 



a) to provide a computer index of names 
appearing in the Tindale genealogies for each 
locality throughout Ausiralia. 

b) to establish a complete set of negatives and 
copy prints of the Tindale photographs. This 
is as yet incomplete for some states. 

c) to support Ms Kartinycri's publication 
program, involving the publication of the 
genealogies of almost 40 Aboriginal families 
from southern South Australia. She has 
published three so far — the Rigney, 
Wanganeen and Kartinyeri families — and 
another five are almost ready for publication. 
Considerable work has already been done on 
the others. 

d) to publish Tindale's South Australian material 
in a form easily accessible to the Aboriginal 
community. Once material is published, then 



e) to encourage organisations in other states to 
take on the project for their regions and to 
work towards publishing the material in an 
accessible form. 



Access to family history information has to be 
provided cautiously. Information which may offend 
people must be identified and dealt with according 
to the wishes of those concerned. Aboriginal 
researchers with detailed knowledge of their 
communities are therefore essential in a project like 
this. A publishing program is the best way to make 
the edited information available and is essential to 
deal with the potentially open-ended nature of this 
project. However, publication first requires extensive 
consultation and Aboriginal research involvement. 
South Australia is fortunate to have an experienced 
Aboriginal family history' researcher such as Ms 
Kartinyeri and it is hoped that a permanent position 
can be secured for her in the South Australian 
Museum. 



S. J. HEMMING, Project Manager, Aboriginal Family History Project, South Australian Museum, 
North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000. Rec. S, Ami Mus. 23(2), 147-152, 1989. 



ABORIGINAL FAMILY HISTORY 



51 



TABLE 2. Listing of genealogies of Aboriginal people held by the South Australian Museum, 
and obtained on expeditions organised by N. B. Tindale. Expedition abbreviations as tor Table 1. 



Location 


Source 


Year 


Volume 


Page Nos 


Total 


South Australia 












L Koonibba 


HAU 


1939 


6 


105-163 


57 


2. Nullarbor 


HAU 


1939 


7 


211-213 


3 


3. Point Mcl.eay 


HAU 


1939 


i 


1-66 


70 


4. Point Pearce 


HAU 


1939 


69-104 


35 


5. Poonindec 


BAR/SAM 


1940 




1-2 


2 


& Port Augusta 


HAU 


1939 


6 


164-172 


10 


7. Swan Reach 


HAU 


1939 


6 


104a- 104j 


10 



Total 



187 



Western Australia 












8. Albany 


HAU 


1939 


7 


26-31 


6 


9. Anna Plains 


UCAU 


1953 


2 


203-210 


8 


10. Balgo 


UCAU 


1954 


5 


863-886 


24 


11. Borden 


HAU 


1953 


7 


19-25 


7 


12. Brooking Springs 


UCAU 


1954 


5 


859-862 


4 


13. Broome 


UCAU 


1953 


3 


254-277 


24 


14. Christmas Creek 


UCAU 


1954 


4 


659-697 


39 


15. Collie 


HAU 


1939 


7 


1-5 


5 


16. Cookes Creek 


UCAU 


1953 


2 


35-37 


3 


17. Derby 


UCAU 


1953 


3 


278-303 


26 


Derby 


UCAU 


1954 


5 


798-817 


20 


18. Fitzroy Crossing 


UCAU 


1954 


5 


828-831 


4 


Fitzroy Mission 


UCAU 


1954 


5 


846-855 


10 


Fitzroy Police Stn 


UCAU 


1954 


5 


856-858 


3 


19. Flora Valley 


UCAU 


1953 


3 


483-502 


20 


20. Forrest River 


UCAU 


1954 


4 


503-537 


35 


21. Gnowangerup 


HAU 


1939 


7 


6-18 


13 


22. Gogo 


UCAU 


1954 


4 


698-729 


32 


23. Gordon Downs 


UCAU 


1954 


4 


556-598 


43 


24. Hall's Creek 


UCAU 


1953 


3 


474-482 


9 


25. Jigalong 


UCAU 


1953 


1 


25-32, 62-73 


20 


26. La Grange 


UCAU 


1953 


2 


211-228 


18 


La Grange 


UCAU 


1953 


3 


229-245 


17 


27. Laverton 


HAU 


1939 


7 


189-196 


7 


28. Leopold Downs 


UCAU 


1954 


5 


832-845 


14 


29. Liveringa 


UCAU 


1953 


3 


324-334 


11 


30. Mandora 


UCAU 


1953 


2 


191-202 


12 


31. Marble Bar 


UCAU 


1953 


2 


1-34, 38-41 


55 


32. Margaret River 


UCAU 


1954 


4 


646-658 


1 ! 


33. Meda 


UCAU 


1953 


3 


304-318 


15 


34. Moola Bulla 


UCAU 


1953 


3 


335-473 


139 


35. Moore River 


HAU 


1939 


7 


46-107 


61 


36. Mount Barker 


HAU 


1939 


1 


32-41 


10 


37. Mount Flora nee 


UCAU 


1953 


2 


182-185 


4 


38. Mount Margaret 


HAU 


1939 


1 


124-188, 197 


65 


Mount Margaret 


UCAU 


1953 


1 


33-61 


28 


39. Narrogin 


HAU 


1939 


7 


42-45 


5 


40. Noonkanbah 


UCAU 


1954 


5 


818-827 


ic 


41. Norseman 


HAU 


1939 


7 


198-210 


12 


42. Pilgangoora 


UCAU 


1953 


2 


42-143 


101 


43. Port Headland Hosp. 


— 


1949-53 


2 


1-2 


2 


Port Headland 


UCAU 


1953 


2 


144-151 


7 


44. Quanbun 


UCAU 


1954 


1 


730-739 


10 



152 



S. J. HEMMING 



Locations 


Source 


Year 


Volume 


Page- Nos 


Total 


Western Australia 












45. Roebourne 


UCAD 


1953 


2 


167-181 


15 


Roebourne 


UCAU 


1953 


2 


186-190 


5 


46. Southern Cross 


HAU 


1939 


7 


108-123 


16 


47. Sturt Creek 


UCAU 


1954 


4 


599-645 


47 


48. Thangoo 


UCAU 


1953 


3 


246-253 


8 


49. Warupuju 


BAR/SAM 


1935 


— 


1-24 


24 


50. Wiluna 


UCAU 


1953 


1 


1-24 


24 


51. Wotjulum 


UCAU 


1954 


A 


740-797 


58 


52. Yandeyarra 


UCAU 


1953 


2 


152-166 


16 


53. Yeeda 


UCAU 


1953 


3 


319-322 
Total 


4 




1188 


Northern Territory 












54. Haast Bluff 


BAR/SAM 


1956-57 


— 


1-117, 1, 1-9 


128 


55. Inverway 


UCAU 


1954 


4 


538-555 


18 


56. Mount Liebig 


BAR/SAM 


1932 


— 


1-8 


8 


57. Yuendumu 


BAR/SAM 


1951 




1-90 
Total 


91 




245 


Queensland 












58. Cherbourg 


HAU 


1918-38 


4 


i-xv 


15 


Cherbourg 


HAU 


1938 


4 


1-110 


110 


59. Mona Mona 


HAU 


1938 


2 


1-47 


47 


60. Palm Island 


HAU 


1938 


3 


1-245 


245 


61. Woorabinda 


HAU 


1938 


4 


1-114 


114 


62. Yarrabah 


HAU 


1938 


2 


1-98 
Total 


98 




629 


New South Wales 












63. Boggabilla 


HAU 


1938 


1 


1-18 


21 


64. Brewarrina 


HAU 


1938 


1 


la-40 


43 


65. Cummeragunja 


HAU 


1938 


1 


la- 13 


36 


66. Kempsey 


HAU 


1938 


5 


1-2 


2 


67. Maloga Mission, 












Echuca 


HAU 


1879 


1 


43-44 


2 


68. Menindee 


HAU 


1939 


6 


173-179 


8 


69. Pilliga 


HAU 


1938 


1 


1-12 


12 


70. Wailaga Lake 


HAU 


1939 


5 


1-9 


9 


71. Woodenbong 


HAU 


1938 


2 


1-20 
Total 


20 




153 


Victoria 












72. Lake TVers 


HAU 


1939 


5 


1-26 


26 


Tasmania 












73. Cape Barren Island 


HAU 


1939 


5 


1-36 


37 


74. Emita, Flinders Is. 


HAU 


1949 


5 


27, 29 
Total 


2 




39 










Total, all states 


2467 



FOSSIL MOLLUSC TYPE SPECIMENS IN TIM SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM, 
ADDITIONS AND CORRECTION TO I'AKT I, POLYPLACOPHORA 



I he South A i- -.:.i -r \1ii--_-ji:i ..ulL'CtiOD ffif fo^L 

chiton types is the largest in the southern 
hemisphere, and was described in detail by Cowlett- 
Holmes & Me Henry (1988), However, a printer's 
error in this paper removed the first three lines of 
the description of the type material of Cryptaptax 
mem Ashby & Cotton, 1939, rendering this 
description unless, The opportunity is taken here 
lo correct this error, to present the description of 
the type material of rhis species in full, and to 
include a description of the type material of an 
additional species added to I he collection since the 
publication of GowLcii -Holmes & McHenry (1988). 
The specimens art all individual valves, and arc 
listed as 'complete 1 when the insertion plates and 
sutural lamina are present, or as Incomplete' when 
these are missing oi the valve slightly damaged. "The 
specuSS are arranged alphabetically in families under 
che originaJ name at the time of description. For 
further information on the stratigraphy of these 
species, refer to the *St rati graphical Notes' in 
Gowlctt-Holmes & McHenry (1988). The follow mg 
abbreviations are used in the text: S,A, = South 
Australia; Vac. - Victoria. 

Family ACA NTH QC H HON 1DAE 
Genus Nolopl&x. H. Adams, 1861 



Notophx t'Notopiax) arenaria Ciowlett-Holmc i £ 

McHenry, 1988. 

Trans. R r Soc. S, Aust. 112(2): 81, Fig, L 
Hobtype: I 1 12839, ] complete median valve, from 
100.9 m (331 feet), Angas Home Bore, Paraficld 
Gardens, Adelaide, S.A., (34-47 'On 'S, 
LJI 36 '26 "Eh Dry Creek Sands, late Pliocene 
(Vara Ian),, collector unknown, 1940. 
Paratype: P2^04, 1 incomplete median valve, with 
same collection data as holotype. 

Fami ly CRY PTOP I AC 1 1 > \ I 
Genus Crypfoplaii Blainville, 1818 

Cryptoptax stem Ashby & Cotton, 1939 
Rec. S. Ausl Mm ft{3): 219, PL 19, Fig. 17. 

Holotype: P4336, 1 incomplete median valve, from 

MacDonalds (Bank), Muddy Creek, Hamilton, 

Vic, Grange Burn Formation, early Pliocene 

(Kalimnan), collected by W. Greed, date of 

collection unknown. 

Paratypes: P12H29, I incomplete anterior valve and 

I incomplete median valve, with same collection 

data as holotype. 

Note: The anterior valve in lot P 12529 is Ashby & 

Cotton's (1939) "Hypo type'. 



References 



ASHKY, £. &. COmON, B. C. 1939. New fossil chitons 
from the Miocene and Pliocene of Victoria, flee. 5. 
Aust. Mus. 6(3}: 209-242, pis 19-21. 



GOWLETT-HOLMBS , K. L. & McHI NRV, B. I. I.98K. 
Fossil mollusc type specimens in the South Australian 
Museum, l r Potyplacophora. Rec. S, AusL Mas. 22{1): 
1-11. 



K. L. GOWLETT-HGI..\U-:S, .South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 
>000, Rt>v S. Ausi. Mm, IM.2): 133. m 




"-, 



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VOLUME 23 PART 2 
NOVEMBER 1989 

ISSN 0081-2676 



CONTENTS: 



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it.* 



■ 



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M ■ 






I 



31. 



I 4 



.<- 



iT- 



?^ 






_ f 



i'O, 









ARTICLES 



it 



75 P. B. COPLEY, C. M. KEMPER & G. C. MEDLIN 

The mammals of north-western South Australia 



_J C. H. S. WATTS 

Revision of Australasian Sternolophus Solier (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) 

97 D. C. LEE 

Hemileius (Acarida: Cryptostigmata: Scheloribatidae) from South Australian 
soils 

113 D. B. HIRST 

A revision of the genus Pediana Simon (Heteropodidae: Araneae) in Australia 

S. J. EDMONDS 

A list of Australian Acanthocephala and their hosts 

135 L. SACKETT 

"What about self-determination?' The DAA and Aboriginal drink rehabilitation 
programs 

NOTES 

S. J. HEMMING 

The South Australian Museum's Aboriginal Family History Project 

153 K. L. GOWLETT-HOLMES 

Fossil mollusc type specimens in the South Australian Museum. Additions 
and correction to Part 1. Polyplacophora 






Published by the South Australian Museum, 
North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000. 






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