THE SPECIAL COMMITTEE,
APPOINTED By THE LAST LEGISLATURE TO REPORT ON THE BEST
METHOD OF OBTAINING A COMPLETE
THE STATE OF OHIO.
JAMES B. GARDINER, PRINTER TO THE STATE.
To his EXCELLENCY, ROBERT LUCAS,
Governor of Ohio:
The undersigned, having been appointed a Committee, under a resolu-
tion of the Honorable Legislature of the State of Ohio, passed the 14th
day of March, A. D. 1836, " to- report to the next Legislature the best
method of obtaining a complete Geological survey of the State, and an
estimate of the probable cost of the same," have had the said resolution
under consideration, and report as follows :
In making any thing like a satisfactory report on so important a sub-
ject, as a Geological survey of a great territory like that of Ohio — embra-
cing a variety of soils, and such Various aspects of surface, your Com-
mittee were persuaded it would be necessary for them to visit, in person.,
the most interesting districts for valuable minerals and fossils; especially
those portions known to abound in iron ores, coal, and salt; the three
main staples on which the future millions of Ohio must depend for their
manufacturing wealth and greatness. — Far removed from the shores of
the ocean, and precluded from partaking in foreign commerce, that
boundless mean of riches to the Atlantic states, Ohio must depend on her
own resources, and seek, within her own bosom, for the supports of in-
dependence.. Her luxuriant and exhaustless soil — capable of yielding
bread-stuffs in greater quant' ties- than ancient Egypt — with cattle, wool,
and the productions of the dairy equal to those oi any other land, pos-
sesses, in addition to all ihese, Inexhaustable riches yet hidden in the
bowels of the earth. And although the surface ip yielding millions to the
plough-share, that below the surface is capable of furnishing still more
From the fact that Ohio possesses no elevated ranges of mountains, we
should at first sight be led to conclude that her rock strata contained few
or no. minerals; ana? it was in fact for manyyears afterits first settlement,,
supposed that the inhabitants would be always dependent, as they then
were, on the Atlantic states for the two great and indispensable articles to
an agricultural people, salt and iron. But as the country became cultiva-
ted, and its resources more developed, it was found that these two com-
modities were amongst the most abundant prpductions of the region
skirting the western declivities of the Alleghany ranges. The valley of
the Ohio, from the mouth of the Scioto river to the country above Pitts-
burgh, is composed of alternate strata, of sand rocks, lime stone, bitumi-
nous coal, iron ores and shales, resting on a stratum containing muriate
of soda, or marine salt; and extending to an unknown depth. From its
vast extent, we are led to conclude that it is deposited in exhaustless
quantities. These several series of strata were originally deposited in
nearly horizontal beds; but subsequently raised into mountain ranges on
the east, and south east borders of the valley; and into table lands, west
and north of the sand stone rocks in Ohio and Pennsylvania. Through
the most depending portion of this valley, the Ohio river now slowly and
calmly winds its.way, skirted by hills of an elevation of from two hun-
dred to three hundred and fifty feet. These hills, at some remote period,
were doutless united in continuous strata; from the well known fact, that.
beds of coal, iron ore, sand rocks, &c, found at a certain elevation in the
hills, on the right bank of the river, are also found at the same elevation,
on the left bank; demonstrating that the present hills were formed by the
wasting away, in the course of ages, from rains, floods, and frosts, of the
intermediate , rocks and earths; and leaving the residue of the strata in
their present form of hills, valleys, and deep ravines. This wasting of
the strata, has not only completely drained the country of the waters
which once covered it, and fitted it for cultivation and the residence of
man, but has also brought to light, under very favorable circumstances,
the different strata of coal. and iron ores, that would otherwise have been
concealed beneath the surface of the earth. This hilly, broken region, so
lightly esteemed by the agriculturalist, has been wisely prepared by the
Creator, in the most convenient and<accommodating manner, for the com-
fort and happiness of man; the coal and iron being so placed by the wast-
ing away of the original strata, as to be accessible with the least possible
labor and. expense — while we have every reason for believing that still
thicker and more rich deposites of mineral coal and iron ore are placed
deeper in the earth, to reward the industry, and supply the wants of man,
when this valley shall be thickly populated, and the wealth of the coun-
try adequate to the expense of deep, underground mining, such as is at
present practised in Germany and Great Britain.
With the view of ascertaining what the State really afforded in its min-
eral capacity — in order to render it desirable that a Geological survey
should be made, the Committee have personally visited some of the most
interesting portions, and particularly ascertained, from intelligent individ-
uals, the resources of such parts as they could not examine themselves^
IRON ORE DEPOSITES.
Commencing, then, with the iron ore beds of Scioto and Lawrence
counties, as paramount in importance to that of any other mineral depos-
ites in the state, we find the main beds commencing about fourteen miles
above Portsmouth, near the Ohio river, where the ore is seen cropping out
on the tops and sides of the hills; and was first brought into use about
the year 1828. The combined series of minerals, here associated, is so
interesting, and their present and future importance so vast and influ-
ential on the wealth and greatness of the state, that the committee have
thought it best to attach a diagram, illustrating animaginary section of the
region, extending from the mouth of the Scioto to Ice creek, a point be-
tween Burlington and Hanging-rock. It commences with the lowest
bed of iron ore, resting on a fine grained sand stone, which underlies all
this region; extending far up the Scioto to Waverly,,and bearing off north
easterly, across the counties of Fairfield and Licking; coming occasion-
ally to the surface, but lying under the coarser sand rocks, which are al-
ternately with the iron and coal of the hilly parts of the state. We shall
refer to this rock ag&in, in another place.
These several deposites of iron ores, extending to six or more distinct
beds, lie at an inclination of about thirty feet to the mile, dipping to the
east, south east; and are seen, as we travel easterly, cropping out at suc-
cessive, but irregular intervals, on the surface of the highest hills, at a
few miles back from the river, and gradually sinking deeper in the earth,
are finally lost at the base of the hills, disappearing beneath the beds of
the streams. The diagram •will illustrate the descriptions which follow,
and is true, as it relates to the order of superposition, or succession of the
Commencing, then, with ore bed No. one, we find it at the Franklin
furnace, in Scioto county, sixteen miles above Portsmouth, resting on
the main, fine grained sand rock, at an elevation of one hundred feet
above the bed 1 of the Ohio river. The hills here are estimated to attain an
elevation of three hundred feet. It is a porous silicious ore, two feet in
thickness, resembling, in external appearance, that variety called "Bog-
ore;" and is probably the same deposite which is found on the west
side of the Scioto river, in Adams county, and worked at the steam and
marble furnaces. It is not at present in use at this place, from the
circumstance of a much richer ore being found here in abundance. It
will however, without doubt, be brought into use at a future day. Its
comparative value, as a workable ore, may be seen in the appendix, with
the analysis of the several ores, where it is found to afford per cent.
Reposing on ore bed No. one, is found a deposite of sand rock, sixty
feet in thickness; the upper portion of which is nearly white, fine grain-
ed; and found to be a valuable material in constructing the furnace
hearths — sustaining a great degree of heat without fusion or fracture. It
often contains imbedded fragments of pure mineral charcoal; rendering
it porous when burnt, and in some respects resembling the composition
of the portable furnaces in use for culinary purposes; which resist frac-
ture, from the action of heat, by having a portion of saw dust mixed in
the composition; this burning out when heated, leaves them to shrink
and expand without injury. It is a very valuable material to the furnace
holders, as they thus find on the spot, an article which in many places,
has to be transported from considerable distances. Resting on the sand
rock, is a bed of bituminous coal, from two to three feet in thickness;
varying in this respect at different places. It is worked for the purpose
of supp'ving fuel to the steam engines in use at the furnaces, to keep up
the blast. The roof of the coal bed is composed of slate and bituminous
shale, six feet in thickness. Reposing on the shale, we find a bed of
coarse sand rock, containing considerable mica; this bed is about fifty feet
in thickness — on this sand rock, lies ore bed No. two. This is also a sili-
cious ore; containing a few fossil shells. It is less porous, and more com-
pact and heavy than No. one. The bed is about twenty inches thick at
this spot; and is extensively worked at Darlington's furnace, in Kentuc-
ky, four miles westerly from the Franklin furnace. It affords one of the
best metals for bar iron, and is remarkably malleable and tough. By those
who have made the experiment, it is said to exceed the far-famed Juni-
ata bar iron, in tenacity and strength.
By analysis this ore yields per cent, of iron. The roof of this bed
is a coarse grained silicious sand rock— which becomes coarser as we ap-
proach the summits of the hills, eighty feet in thickness. Resting on the
sand rock, is found a deposit of lime stone, wasted and gone, -near the
surface of the earth, but becoming solid and compact as the stratum de-
scends deeper beneath the rocks. Some miles farther east, it is found to
be eight or ten feet in thickness, and filled with fossil shells of a marine
origin, whose species and genera are now no longer found living in the
Reposing on this deposit of lime stone, is found ore bed No. three — call-
ed by the workmen "Block ore," from the fact of its being found in ob-
long, cubic fragments, nearly continuous, and resembling, when first un-
eovered, the largest tiles of a brick hearth. This bed is from one to three
feet in thickness, composed of two or three layers, when very thick; the
upper ones being considerably thinner than the lower or main bed, and
separated by thin layers of elate. It is a rich Calcareous ore, abounding
in carbon, and affording one of the finest- metals for eastings; being not
only very toughj but klso exhibiting a lustrous surface, as if recently coat-
ed over with a solution of black lead. Articles manufactured from this
ore are very beautiful, and the metal in great demand for stoves, and cast-
ings for domestic uses. At the close of each blast, there is found lying
on the hearth of the furnace, where this ore is used, a slag of six of
eight hundred pounds weight, containing a metal of high specific gravity.-
Its fracture and metalic lustre is very similar to 'that of specular' oxyde of
iron, from the primitive rocks onLakeChamplain, and affords an, illustra-
tion of the theory that the ores of primitive rocks have once been, and
that for a considerable period of time, in a state of fusion. It leaves a:
streak similar to that of Graphite, or black lead, and soils the fingers when
handled. The analysis of this mineral is given in the appendix. The
ore No. three, or "Block ore," is a rich calcareous ore, yielding, by the*
common process of smelting and cold blast, about fifty per cent, of iron.
When dug and exposed to the atmosphere, it separates into thin concen-
trio layers, of a rich broWn color, and when roasted, preparatory to smelt-
ing, it assumes a deep, bright red tint, in some instances approaching the
hue of vermillion. It also contains many rare and beautiful casts of fossil
shells replaced by the purest ore, and affording an exhaustless supply of
specimens for the naturalist, and future students, of organic remains in
Ohio. This deposit crowns the sammits of the hills, in the vicinity of
the Franklin furnace, coming up on to the surface, a few miles north-
westerly, and disappears or runs out as we approach within a few miles
of the Scioto river — while to the east, and south east, it is found gradual-
ly descending to the base of the hills, as high up the Ohio as Storms creek,-
in LaWrence county, occupying a space of more than ten miles in width,
and finally disappearing under the beds of the streams, in a thick depos*
it, ready to reward the future miners of Ohio, when the surface beds are?
exhausted.' Its extent north easterly is at present unknown; but there
are many reasons for believing that this deposit streatches in a broad belt,
diagonally across the state, to the vicinity of Lake Erie, or at least as far
as the coal measures are found in that direction.
No. four is a thin bed of "kidney ore," in concentric masses, lying"
from a few inches to a few feet above the " Block ore," in a bed of argil-
laceous shale; as the two beds descend deeper into the earth, they finally
become united into one. The ore also becomes more compact, and
changes its broWn hue into a dove color, or pale blue. This is doubtless
its original tint, but has been changed by gradual oxydation, as the depos-
it approached the surface of the earth, and became partially exposed to
atmospheric influence, from the degradation and wasting away of the
superincumbent strata in the long lapse of ages. The same deposit with
No. four, or an equivalent one, is believed to be found near Zoar, in Tus-
carawas county, and at several intermediate places, as noticed in the
American Journal of Science, vol. 31, page 16. The analysis of ore
No; four, is given in the appendix.
Ih progressing easterly with the development of the successive strata,
we find reposing on ore bed No. four a coarse grained sand-rock; often
containing fossil remains of trees, and vegetable relics, lying in different
deposites and beds of variable thickness, the whole amounting to about
eighty feet. Besting on the sand stone is another bed of lime stbhe, eleven
feet in thickness. ' It is a dark colored, compact rock, containing fossi
-shells, and affording a suitable material for fluxing the iron ores About
three miles south east from the Franklin furnace, ore bed No^ five, come
to the surface, and is found crowning the tops of the adjacent hills. Thie
bed rests immediately on the, lime rock, a few miles further east, and
deeper in the earth; but at its first cropping out reposes on a bed of silr-
cious rock, much resembling that, found in Jackson and Muskingum
counties, and is probably a spur or lateral branch of the great silicious de-
posit, to be noticed hereafter. The deposit of ore is here from three to
four feet in thickness, and of a, cellular, rough aspect; and is known to
the workmen by the name of "rough ore." As it progresses south east,
the bed dips deeper into the earth, and changes its aspect to a light dove
color, becoming more compact, and requiring to be blasted with gun
powder, to separate it from its rocky bed, instead of being raised with
pecks, or iron bars, as is common when it Hes near the surface. The rock
on which it lies, soon changes to a firm, compact limestone, and looses its
silicious character. When found in detached masses near the tops and
sides of hills, it is ochery, or orange colored, With numerous cavities lined
with mamillary processes, of chrystalized carbonate of iron, some of which
are very beautiful, and afford nice specimens for the cabinet. The ore is
from two to five and six feet in thickness; the upper surface of the bed
being undulated, but the under surface resting on the lime ro6k is smooth
and uniform. It also improves in quality as it increases in thickness. — ■
This bed is easily traced to the distance often or twelve miles in a south
easterly direction, and finally disappears beneath the bed of the river, at
"coal grove," above Hanging Rock. It is extensively worked at all the
upper furnaces in Lawrence county, and also in Kentucky^ Its extent,
in the line of its bearing, is yet unknown; but is probably continuous
with number three, as a similar ore is believed to be found and workf d
below Zpar, in Tuscarawas county. It may probablybe reached by shafts
many miles further east, and afford exhaustless supplies to the future
manufacturers of the west. When smelted, it yields about fifty per cent,
of very fine iron- The analysis is given in the appendix at No,
Reposing on No. 5, lies a deposit of brown argillaceous shale, nine feet
in thickness, resting on which is a bed of fine white clay, three feet in
thickness, of a quality suitable for pottery, or as a material for fire bricks.
It is ajready extensively used in the manufacture of stone ware; and has
also been found to yield with dilute sulphuric acid, a fine sulphate of al-
umina, or allum. The white clay forms the floor of a bed of bituminous
coal, four or five feet in thickness. It is said to burn freely, and is thought
will be exceedingly valuable in the smelting of ores, when the "hot blast"
shall be brought into use, as it already is at some of the furnaces, and must
soon be at them all. If its success is equaj to the statements made in. the
European journals, as noted in the appendix [A[ a new era will com-
mence in trje iron manufacture; and not only a larger amount be obtained
with a less quantity of fuel, but also a better article of iron. The immedi-
ate roof of the coal is composed of a chocolate colored shale, reposing on
which rests a bed of sand stone, sixty feet in thickness. The lower por-
tions of this rock contain numerous imbedded fragments of coal. Rest-
ing on the sand rock is found a thin bed of yellowish, or cream colored
limestone, probably tinged by ore bed No. six, which here crowns the tops
of the hills. It is a calcareous ore and needs no addition of lime in fluxing.
The structure of this ore is very different from that of the other, beds; re-
sembling a mass of aglutinated pebbles, or a closely aggregated pudding
stone. It affords about fifteen or twenty per cent, of iron, but is as yet
little used by the furnaces. The bed is three feet in thickness, and
Would prdbably afford more than four thousand tons of ore to the acre. It
is apparently either the same, or an equivalent bed to that described as No'
one, at Dillon's furnace, in Muskingum county. This deposit is the last
of the series of orrs yet noticed on the Ohio side of the river; but on the
Big Sandy river, a few miles, from the mouth, are extensive beds of lime-
stone iron ore, from eight to ten feet in thickness. This ore has been used
at the "Oakland furnace," and yields about thirty-three per cent, of iron.
It will, without doubt,, be found in Ohio, in a similar parallel whenever a
regular survey of the State shall be made.
With these immense, and apparently exhaustless supplies of iron at her
command, what shall prevent Ohio from becoming one of the first manu-
facturing states in the Union? Cincinnati, emphatically called "the queen
of the West," has within her reach all the means of wealth and greatness.
The Ohio river, washing with its gentle current the ores and the coal as
they lie slumbering along her shores, is ready to waft on her bosom, at all
seasons of the year, andat the cheapest rates, aregularsupply of materials
to the door of the manufacturer. Her proximity to the iron will, give her a
decided advantage over Pittsburgh in the cost of the article; while the in-
creased number of coal beds opening* an4 to be opened, willsoon furnish
coal at as cheap a rate as it is now furnished at the latter place.
LIST OF FURNACES IN SCIOTO AND LAWRENCE COUNTIES.
In order to aid informing a correct estimate of the value and importance
of the iron business to Ohio, in its present infant state, the Committee have
subjoined a list of the furnaces in operation the past season, the amount of
iron smelted, with its present value per year.
NAMES OF FURNACES;
Franklin, Junior, Scioto, Bloom and Clinton, in Scioto county.
Union, Pine Grove, iEtna, Vesuvius, Hecla, Lawrence, Mt. Vernon,
and Buck Horn, in Lawrence county.
In addition to "these, are two forges; the Lafayette arid Hanging Bock.
The furnaces make an average amount of one thousand tons of pig iron
per year; some of them' making more than this quantity and others less.
During the past season, pig iron has been worth forty dollars per ton at the
landing, where the metal is delivered to purchasers. Producing an amount
of iron worth five hundred and twenty thousand dollars per year — one
half of this quantity is made into castings and stoves, directly as the metal
flows from the furnace, worth sixty dollars per ton, which will add one
hundred and thirty thousand dollars more to the gross amount; making
the sum of 65Q,000 dollars as the product of these 13 furnaces. The num-
ber of furnaces is steadily on the increase, several new ones going into op-
eration the present year. In addition to which, the bar iron manufactur-I
ed at the forges will swell the present amount to a considerable larger
sum. Each furnace employs, on an average, about one hundred men,
and fifty yoke of oxen — all' which are fed from produce grown in these
counties and those lying higher up the country on the Ohio and Musking-
um rivers; affording an extensive homemarket for large quantities of eorn,
oats, flour, and bacon, and already nearly as important as that of Cincin-
nati, to many of the river counties. The furnaces on the Kentucky side'
of the Ohio river, in the iron ore region, are quite as numerous as those in
this State, and assist in giving permanency and value to this new market-
When the number of furnaces is quadrupled, as they in a short time must
be, from the regularly increased demand for iron in rail roads, steam en-
gines, &c, the value of the iron manufacture will be swelled to several
2— G R
millions, and the market for the productions of the soil be proportionally
increased. So true it is, that agribulture and manufactures are twin sis-
ters, and go hand in hand, affording mutual benefit and assistance to each
IRON ORE BEDS IN MUSKINGUM COUNTY.
The probability of finding the same beds stretching m continuous de-
posits, nearly across the State, with only partial interpositions, is so great
that the ore beds in Muskingum county, were also visited. How far this
opinion is strengthened by the examination, will be shown in the section
of strata given below. Every new fact leading to this conclusion, would
add to the inducements for entering into a thorough geological survey of
the State. Although at the first view, it may appear visionary to suppose
that such vast and extensive deposits of ore can be found in any region of
the earth, yet when we reflect that the operations of nature have been
carried on in the valley of the Mississippi, of which Ohio is a part, with a
grandeur and magnificence unknown to most parts of the earth, it will
not be so difficult to believe. Having personally visited both the north
and the south sides of the valley of the Ohio, and examined the different
strata, we have come to the conclusion that the coal beds and iron Ores,
are systematically placed between vast and extensive deposits of sand
rocks, shale, or clay slate and lime stone- 1 — which several strata were ori-
ginally formed in a vast basin, covered with water, the gradual filling up
of which has changed it to dry land. In the most depending part of this
basin, the Ohio river now flows. Subsequent to this period, or during
its progress, the Allegheny ranges were thrown up from below, and the
table lands on the heads of the streams between Lake Erie and the Ohio,
were also raised. Many of these deposits are doubtless extended entirely
across the valley, as we are led to suppose from the productsof the borings
of salt wells, and from finding similar rocks on the two opposite sides of
the basin, especially red sand stone, and millstone grit, as at the falls of
the Cuyahoga,and in the Gaula and Laurel mountains, as well as at other
points around the margin of the coal basin. Both these rocks are known
to underlie those deposits. From this raising of the borders of the valley,
those strata which lie at the depth of several hundred feet in the centre of
the basin, appear on the surface at the margin — while those which are at
a less depth come to the surface in Succession as we travel towards the
centre of the basin, as is partially shown in the section of strata in Scioto
and Lawrence counties. The same order as is there exhibited, varying,
however, in thiokness, quality, &c, it is more than probable, is continued
all round the western and northern portions of the coal region. The
rocks containing fossil salt, lay deeper than the bituminous coal, as the
strongest and best wafer is found on the shores of the large streams, some
distance from their heads, and after penetrating the upper coal deposits —
although it is not unphilosophical to suppose that beds of anthracite may
be found below the salt rocks, from the fact of sulphurated hydrogen and
petroleum being discharged from the bottoms of the deepest wells, both
of which are supposed to be the products of coal.
With these remarks, we now proceed to notice the arrangement of the
strata, at a point about one mile west of Dillon's furnace. The section be-
low, will assist in rendering it more plain.
BED oe LICKING.
Stratum No. 1.— Iron ore, four feet in thickness, crowning the tops of
the hills. It is in separate nodules, and kidney shaped masses, beded in
a yellowish, ochery clay. In external character, and order of location, it
corresponds with ore No. six, in Lawrence county. Those which lie be-
low, crop out on the surface north and west of this bed, as they would of
course do, being deeper in the earth. The ore is but sparingly used at
present, from the circumstance of the metal not separating easily, and the
workmen being as yet ignorant of a suitable flux. It is a heavy ore.
Analysis in the appendix.
?d. — Bed of coarse sand rock, on which the ore rests, ten feet.
3d.— Lime stone, 4 feet.
4th. — Coal, rather poor in quality, one foot.
5th. Shale and slaty clay, eighty feet.
6th. — Iron ore, in a continuous bed — breaking up into blocks. To ev=j
ery appearance it is the same, or an equivalent deposit with that of No. h,
a few miles east of the Franklin furnace, called "rough ore."
Analysis in the appendix, 1 foot.
In smelting it affords about fifty per cent of iron.
7th. — Black flint, or horn stone. The iron ore rests on this deposit of
flint, and is in some measure incorporated with it. Six inches.
8th. — Cannel coal. This is a bituminous coal, but more compact, and
conchoidal in its fracture than common coal. It has been most probably,
subject to a greater heat after being deposited, from its proximity to the
flint rock. It burns freely, and will afford a fine article in smelting of
iron, when charcoal becomes scarce. Two and ahalf feet.
9th. — Sand rock and limestone, forty feet.
10th. — Argillaceous iron ore, resting on a thin bed of black earth, ber
neath which is clay.
This ore contains fossil shells, of the Fame species as those in beds No. 3
and 4, in Scioto county. It separates into scales,, when exposed to the air,
assumes the same hues when roasted, and in every respect appears to be
a similar ore to the " block ore " — many of the fragments after roasting
shew a columner structure like the ore at Zoar. It is a rich, fine ore, and
affords the larger portion of the material used at this furnace.
Analysis in the appendix — 2 feet.
In smelting it yields from 40 to 50 per cent, of iron.
11th — Sand rock and slaty clay 30 feet.
12th — Calcareous iron ore — This ore is at present brought from a dis-
tance of three miles, up the Muskingum, in a N. E. direction, and may
possibly be a continuation of the argillaceous ore, changing its character
as it dips deeper into the earth — although it is most probably a distinct
bed. It is mixed with the ore from the bed above at the furnace, and af-
fords a fine article of iron H feet.
Analysis in the appendix.
13th— Sand rock — which brings us to the bed of Licking — 30 feet.
The furnace here has been in operation, since the year 1808. There is
no lack of ores at present — on the contrary, recent examinations have dis-
covered new beds sufficient for several furnaces. The zone, or belt of
ores, is here ten or twelve miles in width, and the works at Granville are
supplied from the western border of these deposites — a regular surve
would throw great light on the subject of exploration, for ores, and discov-
er many rich beds, where iron has as yet not been sought for. Furnaces
in the western states have heretofore used charcoal for smelting; but
with the hot blast, bituminous coal will soon supply its place ; with a sa-
ving of labor, wood, and money.
Proceeding up the Ohio, after leaving Lawrence County, no additional
depositee of iron ore have as yet been noticed, sufficient to attract the at-
tention of the manufacturer; but we find that which is equally valuable,
fine beds of coal, without which, in a few years after the forests are de-
stroyed, ores cannot be smelted. A few miles below Gallipolis, fine beds
of coal' are found on both sides of the river, known as "Semple's coal
mines." It is extensively worked, and affords an abundance of fine coal.
The most important deposit, however, is found stretching along the bor-
ders of the Ohio, from the mouth of Leading creek to two miles above
Carr's run, a distance of eight or ten miles by the course of the river. It
is generally known by the name of the " Pomeroy coal beds." A north-
erly bend in the Ohio, has thrown these rich deposites immediately on to
the brink of the river. Although the early settlers of the country, looked
with an evil eye on the rocky narrows of the Ohio, and considered lands
thus situated as nearly worthless, yet we are led to admire the kind band
of Providence, which, by causing the river to flow in sweeping curves, has
thus brought the most valuable beds of iron, coal, and sand rock, immedi-
ately on to the shores of a navigable stream ; and instead of the lengthy
rail roads across wide bottoms, which would be necessary Were both
shores alluvious, the workmen can now transfer the products of the mine,
almost immediately from its month, into the boat which floats it to mar-
ket. The mural precipices of sand rocks which line the right bank of the
Ohio, not only afford a safe roof to the mines, but also offer an exhaustless
store of free stone for architectural purposes, in the erection of the future
cities and manufactories, that will spring up along the shores of the river.
The coal at these beds is from four to six feet in thickness, and of the best
quality for manufacturing purposes, affording a large per cent, of carbon.
By a recent analysis it is found to be composed as follows — charcoal or
carbon 60 parts — bituminous matter and earth 40 parts — specific grav-
The enterprizing individuals who at present own the larger moiety of
these beds, have overcome difficulties in transporting a regular supply of
fuel to the markets below, which in other parts of the United States, have
required the united energies of incorporated companies to conquer. A
large steam-boat built expressly for the purpose, tows from four to six load-
ed barges, carrying each from five to seven thousand bushels of coal to
Cincinnati and back again empty ; performing the trip in five or six days
—at this spot, which three years since looked like a neglected wilderness
a smart village has sprung up, filled with an industrious race of men.
Steam sawTmills, shops, and a large boat-yard are in active operation.
The colliers are chiefly experienced miners from Wales, with their fami-
lies. A church, and a school-house are about being built from the fine
sandstone, for the cultivation of the rising intellect, and encouraging the
growth of morality and religion amongst the miners. A spot which afew
ago was considered by the neighboring inhabitants as almost worthless,
and parcels of the coal lands often actually sold for less than a dollar and
a half per acre, is now worth an incalculable sum. How often a commu-
nity is indebted for its wealth and comfort to the foresight and intellectu-
al greatness of a single individual The lands of the whole surrounding
country for many miles, contiguous to the coal beds, have been trebled in
value, and an extensive market opened for their surplus, produce. Coal
will now be supplied with regularity, and in quantity to the inhabitants of
Cincinnati, instead of by uncertain boat loads, and at irregular intervals
■as heretofore. It will also be of a better quality, as the coal improves,
when the beds are followed far under the rocks. "With these large sup-
plies of coal, and iron in exhaustless beds, lying directly on a navigable
stream, but a short distance above, for steam shortens space, as well as
time, "the Queen of the West," is destined to become, and that in a few
brief years, the emporium of manufactures ; and nothing but a lack of en-
terprize and inattention to the immense resources heaped up in her vicin-
ity can prevent her taking the lead in the fabrication of all articles manu-
factured from iron. Enough has been said to awaken the attention of
the community to the subject; and a liberal policy in our 'legislators, au-
thorizing a scientific geological survey of the State, can hardly fail in de-
veloping resources before unknown and unthought of, leading to an em-
inence of wealth and greatness, -equal, if not superior to that of any oth-
er state in the Unien.
The Pomeroy beds, alone, will 'probably in another year furnish a mil-
lion of bushels of coal to the markets on the shores of the Ohio ; and oth-
er beds seated along its borders can supply additional amounts equal to
the demands of the manufacturer and for domestic purposes:
As we proceed up stream, no other considerable beds are found near
the river for the distance of one hundred and forty miles, or until we
reach Pipe creek, sixteen miles below Wheeling. Here the coal which
has traversed the higher strata along the adjacent hills, bordering the riv-
er, for many miles above Wellsburgh, gradually dips below the bed of the
river, and is seen no more in thick beds until it appears at Carr's run.
In Ohio, opposite to Wheeling, and in the counties of Belmont and
Jefferson, coal is found in three distinct deposites and in exhaustless
quantities; but those beds near a. navigable stream, must ever be deemed
much the most valuable and important. It is also .discovered as far north
as Portage and the S. E. corner of Medina county, in considerable quan-
tities--,but the main deposites are south and east of these lines and in
fact all round the inner margin of the sand stone basin, especially in the
counties of Athens, Perry, Muskingum, Coshocton, Tuscarawas, Carroll,
and Columbiana. Canals and rail-roads will in a few years make these
deposits available to those portions of Ohio, which lie without the coal
FINE GRAINED SAND EOCKS.
In describing the iron ore deposits of Scioto county, it will be recollect-
ed that the bed No. one is noted as resting on a fine grained Band stone.
This rock forms the upper surface of a very extensive deposit, underly-
ing the iron ores and the coarser sand rocks, and coal, mentioned in the
commencement of the Report. As this rock descends deeper into the
earth it becomes more argillaceous; and at the depth of one hundred, feet
changes, to or rather rests on, a bed of clay state, of a light dove color,
easily decomposing, when exposed to the wrather. Underlying this
rock, at the depth of 340 feet, there are many reasons for believing, there
is a bed of coal twelve f< et in thickness. It has been pierced at two dif-
ferent points in boring for salt water. So certain and plain were the evi-
dences of its actual existence, that a shaft, eight or nine feet in diameter
was sunk to the depth of one hundred and fifty feet in search of the cOal
in the year 1833. But untoward events happening to the company, the
further, progress was laid aside, with the intention of resuming the work
at a more favorable period. In a conversation, with one of the original
occupant^ of the salt well, bored at this spot, the evidences of a coal bed
pf this thickness were very satisfactory. Salt water was found below the
coal of unusual strength, but would not rise to the surface in the usual
manner, common at other wells and was therefore abandoned. Should
this coal be ultimately obtained, it will be of incalculable benefit to the
iron manufactures of this vicinity. The shaft was sank near the mouth
of Man's creek four miles above Portsmouth, on the Ohio. On the dia-
gram, the supposed position of this bed is laid down.
On the west side of the Scioto, near its mouth, the upper beds of this
fine sand rock have been extensively opened, and the rock sawn into
slabs and other forms useful in architecture, by a mill moved by water
power, supplied from the canal. The stone is just rising into notice, and
the demand for columns, capitals, plinths, &c. is already far beyond the
means of the proprietor to supply. Some of the whiter varieties, when
wrought by the chisel and ornamented, furnish an article which vies with
white marble in beauty. It is sufficiently firm to allow of the most deli-
cate execution, in raised ornamental figures; and is said to bear the vi-
cissitudes of our climate withot decomposition. Its termination westerly
is not yet ascertained; but it extends up the Scioto for many miles, and
the beds at Waverly are already known, at Columbus, and in some of our
principal inland towns, as affording a most beautiful and durable material
for architectural purposes. In a country destitute of marble this fine
grained sand rock will furnish an equivalent, of immense value and im-
portance. It will be the duty of the geologist to point out the various
spots where this rock may be found, at localities far beneath the surface,
and which may be reached by shafts, in the manner pursued at Paris
and many other places in Europe.
The western and central divisions of Ohio, beyond the coal measures,
are based on horizontal beds of lime-stone, supporting rich prairies. The
deeper strata' from the absence of hills, are as yet but little known; but
may possibly contain valuable beds of anthracite. This supposition is
strengthened, from observations made by the chairman of the committee
in a visit last summer to the Delaware Sulphur Springs. In breaking frag-
ments of the lime rock about Delaware, he noticed a strong bituminous
effluvia ; and in a conversation with an old quarry-man, he learnt that
small cells are found in the rocks filled with petroleam, or "spring oil."'
The gas discharged from the spring is sulphurated Hydrogen, both which
products are known to be furnished by coal. From these indications it
will be worthy the attention of the Geologist, should a survey be directed
by the state, to cause borings to be made through the lime-stone rocks, to
the depth of several hundred feet, similar to those made in search of salt
water, at various points in the interior, where no indications of coal, are
noticed on the surface. It may also bring to light other valuable minerals.
The time is not distant when all that portibn of the state occupied by prai-
ries, will need more fuel than can be furnished by the forests, and could
coal be found at a moderate depth, the value to the inhabitants would be
SALT WATER AND SALT.
This article, so indispensable in the economy of civilized man, and so
abundantly procured at various points through the hilly, sandstone region,
has not yet been found in any considerable quantity, beyond the limits of
the coal measures. Within these boundaries it has been discovered and
manufactured, at Leading creek, Hockhocking, Muskingum, Wills creek,
Duck creek, and Yellow creek. It is highly probable that a scientific
survey would discover indications of this mineral at points now little
thought of in the N. Western portions of the State. This supposition is
strengthened from the fact of Sulphate of Lime, or " Plaister of Paris," a
well known concomitant of fossil salt, being found at Sandusky bay ; and
a'sofrom the curious circumstance of the Moravian Missionaries, having
made salt from springs, found near the outlet of Lake St. Clair as early as
the year 1783, as noted in Loskiel's history of the Moravian Missions.
The product of this article in Ohio, has become so great, that it may be
accounted one of its staple commodities. The nett annual amount of all
the works cannot be less than half a million of dollars.
"BEST METHOD OF CONDUCTING THE SURVEY."
In the opinion of your committee, the better mode of conducting the
survey, will be by constituting a Geological Board, of three members;
who should direct the manner of proceeding; employ suitable geologists
&c. with power to draw on the Treasurer, or the depdsites annuully ap-
propriated for this purpose: or otherwise, the present Board of Public
Works, might perform this duty, as might be deemed most expedient.
"COST OF THE SURVEY."
From a correspondence held by the chairman with several distinguish-
ed and practical men in geology, your committee are led to believe that
the sum of $12,000 dollars, for four years would cover the cost of a regu-
lar scientific survey. It would require the services of one head, or prin-
cipal geologist, and five assistant geologists. One draughtsman, one nat-
uralist. Their salaries, travelling expenses, and other incidental charges
would amount to nearly this sum. The survey to be complete, and most
useful to the community, ought not only to embrace the simple geology,
but also the topography, botany, so far as to include a list of the plants
found in the State, forest trees, river and land shells, fishes, birds, quadru-
peds, and reptiles — and last, not least, a regular survey and description of
all the remnants of ancient works, yet spared" by the hand of the destroy-
er within the state. These relics of a departed and more than half civil-
ized race, it is our duty to preserve for those who come after us, in the
only way now left for many of them, by accurate drawings and descrip-
tions of all such as can be distinctly traced. It should also be enjoined
on the surveyors to collect all the remains of art belonging to this race,
whom we have many reasons for believing were the ancestors of the
Mexicans, such as pottery, sculpture in stone, offensive weapons, orna-
ments &c. to be placed in a cabinet in the State Library Hall — with speci-
mens of all the rocks, minerals, fossils &c. in a regular geological series,
not only for the State, but also a suit for each of the collleges. These
Collections would be of immense value to the student of geology, miner-
alogy, and the practical miner; as well as to the future historians of the
Although many things yet remain unnoticed, such as the marls of
Wayne and Stark counties ; the silicious or Burrh millstone deposits,
stretching diagonally across the State, with several other important sub-
jects, yet your committee trust and believe that they have pointed out suf-
ficient motives to render a survey of the state an object of deep impor-
tance to he welfare of the citizens of Ohio. The increased value of real
estate, or the additional revenues derived from the canals and rail roads,
from new articles of transport brought to light by the survey, would in a
single year, probably more than repay the cost of accomplishing it. Sev-
eral of the eastern States, whose territories contain far less mineral treas-
ures than Ohio, have already either accomplished, or are now entering'
upon, geological surveys. That^great and public spirited! State,- New
York, ever amongst the foremost in the march of improvement, has taken
up the subject with a zeal and an outlay, commensurate with so noble an
object. Virginia, our next neighbor, is on the alert ; searching with all the
aids of science not only amidst her mountain ranges of auriferous rocks,
and golden sands, but also her ferruginous, salt, and coal deposits, the
counterparts of our own. And shall Ohio, already the third' state in the
Union for physical power, remain behind her sisters in the scientific im-
provements of the age?
S. P. HILDRETH, Chairman.
Postscript. — The other members of the committee, Mr. Riddle and Mr.
Lapham, being both absent from the state, and Dr. Lock occupied with
his duties as Professor in the Medical College of Ohio, has necessarily pre-
vented the signature of their names to the report.
Mr. Riddle, in the course of the last summer, made a tour of explora-
tion through the north western and central portions of the state, and col-
lected many valuable geological facts, which have not yet come into the
hands of the chairman. Dr. Locke, who kindly undertook the analysis of
the iron ores, referred to in the report, has been prevented, by unexpec-
ted events, from accomplishing the task in due time; they will however,
be furnished in a few weeks, and will be very valuable to" persons enga-
ged in the manufacture of iron, as well as to general science.
ANALYSIS OF THE LIME-STONE OF CINCINNATI AND DAYTON.
BY JOHN LOCKE, M: D.
One hundred grains of the grey lime-stone from the hills of Cincinnati,
yielded the following ingredients :
1. Carbonate of Lime, - - - - 90,93
2. Peroxide of Iron, - - - 3,15
3. Matter insoluble in Muriatic acid, - - 1,80
4. Carbonate of Magnesia, - - - - 1,11
5. Silex from solution, - 0,77
6. Water, &c. expelled by red heat, - - 1,13
Loss, - - - 1,11
One hundred grains of the cream colored lime-stone from Dayton, yield-
ed the followtng ingredients :
1. Carbonate of Lime, .... 92,40
2. Peroxide of Iron, - - - 0,53
3. Matter insoluble in Muriatic acid, - - 1,70
4. Carbonite of Magnesia, - - - - 1,10
5. Selix from solution, - 0,90"
6. Small crystals of iron Pyrites, - 0,10
7. Water, &c. expelled by red heat, - ■< 1,08
Loss, - - - 2,19
The matter, in the Cincinnati Limestone, insoluble in Muriatic acid is
of a dark lead color. It is evidently silex and alumine, not combine*
with the carboniate of Lime, but mechanical interposed between the nat-
ural joints of the crystals, and there giving the color to the whole stone.
The similar substance of the Dayton Limestone is of a cream color; and
that fromaspecimen of saccharine white marble from Italy, was in very
small quantity and white. The dark color of the Cincinnati Limestone
•when slacked, and which renders it unfit for white washing, is caused by
the superior quantity of iron which it contains. This analysis will serve
to settle one point of some consequence in Cincinnati. Our masons have
formerly pleaded that the Cincinnati Lime is of so 'hot a nature' that they
■were compelled to use loam in their mortar. The introduction of this loam
in large quantity when they furnished the materials, was obviously to
their advantage; and in some cases it almost excluded the more expen-
sive materials, lime and sand. When masons do not pay for materials,
but are employdd to perform the labor merely, the temptation to introduce
the loam (a species of clay,) is not so obvious to the employer. , The temp-
tation is this: when the mortar is a large proportion of it mud, it does not
harden ('set') so soon, and the mason can throw on a 'run' of perhaps ten
bricks which he can lay in succession without being interrupted by lay-
ing mortar; while with mortar composed of pure lime and sand not more
than two or three bricks could be laid at once. It is on account of the
use of this imperfect mortar that the tops of our chimneys and copings of
walls are so soon dilapidated. Now as the pure chymical principle of
Lime is every where the same, and our Lime contains at least 93 parts in
a hundred of it, this 'hot quality' is imaginary. Many of our best masons
are now building with pure lime and sand to the exclusion of loam; — an
improvement which I hope will be encouraged. The analysis shows the
presence of Magnesia, but in too small a proportion to injure it in the least
for agricultural or other uses, The Magnesian carbonate of Lime con-
tains 45 per cent, of Carbonate of Magnesia, while ours has only about 1
per cent. The specific gravity of both the Dayton and Cincinnati speci-
mens was 2.7. Very few specimens of Lime stone are known purer
than those subjected to the above analysis.
On the application of the Hot Blast, in the Manufacture of Casl Iron, by
Thomas Clark, M. D. ( Trans, of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.) —
Copied from the Amer. Jour. Sci. for Oct. 1836.
"The substitution of hot for cold air, in the blast furnaces of the iron
manufactory, is an improvement which suggested itself to the ingen-
ious Mr. Neilson, of Glasgow, at a most seasonable period, when the great
demand for iron in the construction of rail-ways, is daily, nay, hourly, in-
"The original process consisted in introducing a charge of coke, lime-
stone, and burned iron stone, into the top of the furnace; and this mixture
was excited to combustion by air forcibly driven in, at about forty feet
from the top, through pipes from a blowing apparatus. The iron was thus
separated from carbonic acid, alumina and silica — and was allowed to run
off at the bottom.
"Mr. Neilson improved this process, by substituting for air at the tem-
perature of 4 the atmosphere, air heated up to 300 degrees, and upwards,
3 — G R
This is effected by posing the air through the cast iron pipes, by which'
the former passed, kept at a red heat.
During the first six months of the year 1829, when the cast iron in the
Clyde iron works was made by means of the cold blast, a single ton of cast
iron required for fuel to reduce it, 8 tons 14 cWt. of coal converted into
coke. The saving amounts to 2 tons 18 cwt. on the making of one ton of
cast iron — but from that saving comes' to be deducted the coal used in
heating the air, which was nearly eight hundred. The nett saving was
thus 2i tons of coal on a single ton of cast iron. But during the year 1830,
the air was heated no higher than 300 degrees Farenheit. The great suc-
cess, however, of these trials, encouraged Mr. Dunlop, and other iron
masters, to try the effect of a still higher temperature. The saving of coal
was greatly increased, insomuch that about the beginning of 1831, Mr.
Dixon, proprietor of the Calder iron works, substituted raw coal, for the
coke before in use. Proceeding on the ascertained advantages of the hot
blast, the attempt was entirely successful; and since that period, the use
of raw coal has extended so far as to be adopted in the majority of 1 the
Scotch iron works. The temperature of the air under blast, had now been
raised so as to melt lead, and sometimes zinc, and therefore Was above
600 degrees Farenheit, instead of 300 degrees, as in the year 1830. '
"During the first six months of the year 1833, when all these changes
had been fully brought into operation, one ton of cast iron was made by
means of 2 tons and 54 cwt. of coal, which had not previously been con-
verted into coke — add to this 8 cwt. for heating the air, and we have 2
tons 134 cwt. of coal required to make one ton of iron: whereas, in 1829,
with the cold blast, 8 tons 14 cwt. of coal had to be used. This being
three times as much, we have from the change of the cold blast to the hot,
combined with the use of coal instead of coke, three times as much iron
made from any given weight of splent coah
"The furnaces at Clyde iron works, which were at first three, have
increased to four; and the blast machinery being still the same, the follow-
ing were the successive weekly products of iron during the periods al-
ready named and the successive weekly consumption of fuel put into the
furnace apart from what was used in heating the blast: —
Tons. Tons. Tons.
In 1829, from 3 furnaces 111 iron from 403 coke, from 888 coal.
In 1830, from 3 furnaces 162 iron from 376 coke, from 836 coal.
In 1833, from 4 furnaces 245 iron from 554 coal.
"Comparing the product of 1829 with that of 1833, it will be observed,
that the blast in consequence of being heated, has reduced more than
double the quantity of'iron. The fuel consumed in these two periods' we
cannot compare, since in the former coke was burned, and in the latter
coal. But in comparing the consumption of coke in the years 1829 and
1830, we find that although the product of iron in the latterperiod was in-
creased, yet the consumption of coke was rather diminished. Hence the
increased efficacy of the blast appears to be expected, from the dimin-
ished fuel that had become necessary to smelt a given quantity of iron.
Materials constituting a Charge at the Clyde Works.
Coke, 5 cwt. qr. lbs.
Roasted iron stone, 3 cwt. 1 qr. 14 lbs.
Lime stone, cwt. 3 qrs. 16 lbs.
In 1833: with the hot blast:—
Coal, 5 cwt. qrs. lbs.
Roasted iron ore, 5 cwt. qrs. lbs.
Lime stone, 1 cwt. O qrs, lbs,