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Full text of "Report & Transactions of the Devonshire Association Vol 13 (1881)"

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BEPOBT AND TRANSACTIONS 



DEVONSHIRE ASSOCIATION 



THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, LITERATURE, 
AND ART. 



[DAWLISH, JULY, 1881.] 






!V;OL.:-Xit£ 



PLYMOUTH : 
W. BKENDON & SON, 26, GEOKGE STREET. 



1881. 



All rights reserved. 



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(RECAP) 



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The Editor is requested by the Council to make it known to the 
Public, that the Committees and Authors alone are responsible for the 
facts and opinions contained in their respective Reports and Papers. 

It is hoped that Members will be so good as to send to the Editor, 
the Rev. W. Harplbt, Clayhanger Rectory, Tiverton, not later than 
16th January, 1882, a list of any errata they may have detected in 
the present volume. 



• • ■ • • 



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CONTENTS. 



List of Offters *.*,.. 
Table showing the Places and Times of Meeting, &c. 
Rules- . • . . . . 

Bye-Laws and Standing Orders . ... 

Report ....... 

Balance Sheet :..... 

Property ...... 

Resolutions appointing Committees . . . 

President's Address ..... 

Obituary Notices— W. Cann— Lord Clifford— P. O. Hingston— Dr, 
Hodgson ...... 

Sixth Report of the Committee on Scientific Memoranda. J. Brooking 

ROWO, F.8.A., F.L.8. . . . * . 

Fifth Report of the Committee on Devonshire Celebrities. Rev. 

Treasurer Hawker, m.a. . . . 

Fourth Report of the Committee on Devonshire Verbal Provincialisms. 

F. T. Elworthy ..... 

Third Report of the Committee on Barrows R. N. Worth, r.o.s. 
Second Report of the Committee on Land Tenures. E. Windeatt 
On the Early History of Dawlish. J. B. Davidson, m.a. 
Miscellaneous Devonshire Gleanings— Part II. W. Pengelly, F.it.s., &c. 
On the Geology of Dawlish. W. A. E. Ussher, f.g.s. 
The Trias at Dawlish. G. Wareing Ormerod, m.a., f.o.8. 
Notes on the Submarine Geology of the English Channel off the Coast 

of South Devon— Part II. A. Roope Hunt, m.a., f.o.s. 
The Prince of Orange in Exeter, 1688. T. W. Windeatt 
The Shipping and Commerce of Dartmouth in the Reign of Richard II, 

P. Q. fcarkeek ..... 

Devoniana— Part I. J. T. White .... 
Notes on some Devonshire Plant Names. Rev. Hilderic Friend . 



Page 
6 

fi 

14 

18 

23 

28 

29 

80 

33 

63 

69 

75 

78 
98 
102 
106 
131 
150 
159 

163 
173 

186 
191 
201 



AFR -2:919 4013' 



^yG00< 



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4 CONTENTS. 

Pag« 

The Potter's Art in Devonshire. J. Phillips . . . 214 

Art in Devonshire— Part I. G. Pycroft, m.r.c.s., f.o.s. . . . 218 

The Fauna of Devon— Ichneumonidce. E. Parfitt . . 241 
On the occurrence of Upper Devonian Fossils in the component frag- 
ments of the Trias near Tiverton. Rev. W. Downes, B.A., f.o.s. 293 
Well-Section at Stonehouse (Plymouth). W. Whitaker, B.A., F.o.s. . 298 
Notes on Slips connected with Devonshire — Part IV. W. Pengelly, 

F.B.8., F.o.s., &c . . ... 299 

Clouted Cream. Rev. Treasurer Hawker, m.a. . . 317 

On the Devonshire Pronoun Min, or Mun—Them. F. T. El worthy . 824 
Notes from the Autobiography of Dr. James Yonge, f.b.8. R. N. 

Worth, f.o.s. . . . ... 885 

On Exposures of the Submerged Forest Clays at Paignton and Blackpool 

Beaches, in April, 1881. A. Roope Hunt, m.a., f.o.s. • . 844 

On Glacial Conditions in Devon. R. N. Worth, F.o.s. . . . 851 

Notes on Recent Notices of the Geology and Palaeontology of Devon- 
shire—Part VII. W. Pengelly, F.E.S., F.o.s., &c. . . . 359 



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OFFICERS. 

1881-82. 



yrtftfflrnt. 
Rev. Professor CHAPMAN, m a. 



Vitt'$xt%totnt% 
H. W. DYKE ACLAND, Esq., 

M.A., M.D., P.B.8 , BTO. 

A. BAKER, Esq , m.d. 
Rev. R. H. D. BARHAM, b a. 
W. P. COLLIER, Esq., j.p. 
C. BALES. Esq., j.p. 
Rbv. O. MANLEY, b.a. 



G. PYCROFT, Esq., m.b.c.s. 

Mr. F. LEE. 

Libut.-Col. 8AVILLE, j.p. 

Mr. W. TAPPER. 

C. J. WADE. Esq , /.p. 

J. WHIDBORNE, Esq. 



lion, ZxtMuxtv. 
E. TITIAN, TEsq., m.a., Torquay. 

lion, local toraftttm. 
A. db WINTER BAKER, Esq , l.b.o.p., m.r.c.s. 

%on. Secretary. 
Rbv. W. HARPLEY, m a., p.c.p.s , Clayhanger, Tiverton. 

lion, local Secrrtatp. 
J. 8. WHIDBORNE, Esq. 



attftttor* of account*. 
E. APPLETON, Esq., f.r.i.b.a. C. WEEKS, Esq. 



ACLAND, H. W. D. 
AMBRY, J. 8. 
AMEBY P. F. 8. 
APPLETON, E. A. 
BAKER, A. ob WINTER 
BABNETT, 0. G. 
BATE, a 8PBNCE. 
OHAMPEBNOWNE, A. 
CHANTER, J. B. 
CHAPMAN, 0. 
COLERIDGE, LORD. 
COLLIER, 8nt B. P. 
COLLIER, W. P. 
COTTON, B. W. 
COTTON, W. 
CROFT, 0. W. 
DAVIDSON, J. B. 
DEVON, EARL OF 
D OB, Q. 
D0WNE8, W, 
DTMOND, B. 



Council. 

EARLE, ARCHDEACON 
ELWORTHY, F. T. 
EXETER, BISHOP OF 
FIBTH, F. H. 
FRIEND, H. 
FOX, 8. B. 
GAMLEN, W. 
GERVI8, W. 8. 
GILL. H. 8. 
GBEGOBY, A, 
HALL, T M. 
HAMILTON, A. H. A. 
HARPLEY, W. 
HAWKER, J. M. 
HUNT, A. B. 
HUTCHIN80N, P. O. 
JONES, WIN8L0W 
JORDAN, W. B. H. 
KABKEEK, P. Q. 
LAKE, W. 0. 
LEE, J. E. 



MARTIN, J. M. 
OBMEROD, G, W. 
PARFITT, E. 
PENGELLV, W. 
PHILLIPS, J. 
PYCBOFT. G. 
BISK, J. E. 
BOWE, J. B. 
BLADE-KING, E. J. 
BLADE-KING, MRS. 
TUCKER, B. 0. 
TUCKER, W. E. 
US8HEB, W. A. B. 
VABWELL, P. 
VIVIAN. E. 
WHIDBORNE, J. 8. 
WINDEATT, E. 
WINDEATT, T. W. 
WORTH, B. N. 
WOBTHY, 0. 



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RULES. 



1. The Association shall be styled the Devonshire Associa- 
tion for the advancement of Science, Literature, and Art. 

2. The objects of the Association are — To give a stronger 
impulse and a more systematic direction to scientific enquiry 
in Devonshire ; and to promote the intercourse of those who 
cultivate Science, Literature, or Art, in different parts of the 
county. 

3. The Association shall consist of Members, Honorary 
Members, and Corresponding Members. 

4. Every candidate for membership, on being nominated 
by a member to whom he is personally known, shall be 
admitted by the General Secretary, subject to the confirma- 
tion of the General Meeting of the Members. 

5. Persons of eminence in Literature, Science, or Art, 
connected with the West of England, but not resident in 
Devonshire, may, at a General Meeting of the Members, be 
elected Honorary Members of the Association ; and persons 
not resident in the county, who feel an interest in the 
Association, may be elected Corresponding Members. 

6. Every Member shall pay an Annual Contribution of 
Half-a-guinea, or a life Composition of Five Guineas. 

7. Ladies only shall be admitted as Associates to an Annual 
Meeting, and shall pay the sum of Five Shillings each. 

8. Every Member shall be entitled gratuitously to a lady's 
ticket 

9. The Association shall meet annually, at such a time in 
July and at such place as shall be decided on at the previous 
Annual Meeting. 



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RULES. 15 

10. A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, a General 
Treasurer, and one or more General Secretaries, shall be 
elected at each Annual Meeting. 

11. The President shall not be eligible for re-election. 

12. Each Annual Meeting shall appoint a local Treasurer 
and Secretary, who, with power to add to their number any 
Members of the Association, shall be a local Committee to 
assist in making such local arrangements as may be desirable. 

13. In the intervals of the Annual Meetings, the affairs of 
the Association shall be managed by a Council, which shall 
consist exclusively of the following Members of the Asso- 
ciation, excepting Honorary Members, and Corresponding 
Members : 

(a) Those who fill, or have filled, or are elected to fill, the 
offices of President, General and Local Treasurers, General 
and Local Secretaries, and Secretaries of Committees ap- 
pointed by the Council. 

(6) Authors of Papers which have been printed in extenso 
in the Transactions of the Association. 

14. The Council shall hold a meeting at fexeter in the 
month of January or February in each year, on such day as 
the General Secretary shall appoint, for the due management 
of the affairs of the Association, and the performing the 
duties of their office. 

15. The General Secretary, or any four members of the 
Council, may call extraordinary meetings of their body, to 
be held at Exeter, for any purpose requiring their present 
determination, by notice under his or their hand or hands, 
addressed to every other member of the Council, at least ten 
clear days previously, specifying the purpose for which such 
extraordinary meeting is convened. No matter not so speci- 
fied, and not incident thereto, shall be determined at any 
extraordinary meeting. 

16. The General Treasurer and Secretary shall enter on 
their respective offices at the meeting at which they are 
elected ; but the President, Vice-Presidents, and Local Officers, 
not until the Annual Meeting next following. 

17. With the exception of the Ex-Presidents only, every 
Councillor who has not attended any Meeting, or adjourned 
Meeting, of the Council during the period between the close 



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16 RULES. 

of any Annual General Meeting of the Members and the 
close of the next but two such Annual General Meetings, 
shall have forfeited his place as & Councillor, but it shall be 
competent for him to recover it by a fresh qualification. 

18. The Council shall have power to fill any Official vacancy 
which may occur in the intervals of the Annual Meetings. 

19. The Annual Contributions shall be payable in advance, 
and shall be due in each year on the day of the Annual 
Meeting. 

20. The Treasurer shall receive all sums of money due to 
the Association ; he shall pay all accounts due by the Asso- 
ciation after they shall have been examined and approved ; 
and he shall report to each meeting of the Council the balance 
he has in hand, and the names of such members as shall be 
in arrear, with the sums due respectively by each. 

21. Whenever a Member shall have been three months 
in arrear in the payment of his Annual Contributions, the 
Treasurer shall apply to him for the sama 

22. Whenever, at an Annual Meeting, a Member shall be 
two years in arrear in the payment of his Annual Contribu- 
tions, the Council may, at its discretion, erase his name from 
the list of members. 

23. The General Secretary shall, at least one month before 
each Annual Meeting, inform each member by circular of the 
place and date of the Meeting. 

24. Members who do not, on or before the day of the 
Annual Meeting, give notice, in writing or personally, to 
the General Secretary of their intention to withdraw from 
the Association, shall be regarded as members for the ensuing 
year. 

25. The Association shall, within three months after each 
Annual Meeting, publish its Transactions, including the 
Rules, a Financial Statement, a list of the Members, the 
Report of the Council, the President's Address, and such 
Papers, in abstract or in extenso, read at the Annual Meeting, 
as shall be decided by the Council. 

26. The Association shall have the right at its discretion 
of printing in extenso in its Transactions all papers read 
at the Annual Meeting. The copyright of a paper read 
before any meeting of the Association, and the illustrations 



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EULES. 17 

of the same which have been provided at his expense, shall 
remain the property of the Author ; but he shall not be at 
liberty to print it, or allow it to be printed elsewhere, either 
in extenso or in abstract amounting to as much as one-half of 
the length of the paper, before the first of November next 
after the paper is read. 

27. The Authors of papers printed in the Transactions 
shall, within seven days after the Transactions are published, 
receive twenty-five private copies free of expense, and shall 
be allowed to have any further number printed at their own 
expense. All arrangements as to such extra copies to be 
made by the Authors with the printers to the Association. 

28. If proofs of papers to be published in the Transactions 
be sent to Authors for correction, and are retained by them 
beyond four days for each sheet of proof, to be reckoned from 
the day marked thereon by the printers, but not including 
the time needful for transmission by post, such proofs shall 
be assumed to require no further correction. 

29. Should the Author's corrections of the press in any 
paper published in the Transactions amount to a greater sum 
than in the proportion of twenty shillings per sheet, such 
excess shall be borne by the Author himself, and not by the 
Association. 

30. Every Member shall, within three months after each 
Annual Meeting, receive gratuitously a copy of the Transac- 
tions. 

31. The Accounts of the Association shall be audited 
annually, by Auditors appointed at each Annual Meeting, 
but who shall not be ex officio Members of the Council. 



vol. xm. B 

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BYE-LAWS AND STANDING ORDERS. 



1. In the interests of the Association it is desirable that 
the President's Address in each year be printed previous to 
its delivery. 

2. In the event of there being at an Annual Meeting more 
Papers than can be disposed of in one day, the reading of the 
residue shall be continued the day following. 

3. The pagination of the Transactions shall be in Arabic 
numerals exclusively, and carried on consecutively, from the 
beginning to the end of each volume ; and the Transactions 
of each year shall form a distinct and separate volume. 

4. The General Secretary shall bring to each Annual 
Meeting of the Members a report of the number of copies in 
stock of each ' Part ' of the Transactions, with the price per 
copy of each 'Part' specified; and such report shall be 
printed in the Transactions next after the Treasurer's financial 
statement 

5. The General Secretary shall prepare and bring to each 
Annual Meeting brief Obituary Notices of Members deceased 
during the previous year, and such notices shall be printed 
in the Transactions. 

6. An amount not less than the sum of the Compositions 
of all existing life-Members shall be kept at Interest in the 
names of the Treasurer and General Secretary. 

7. The General Secretary shall, within one month of the 
close of each Annual Meeting of the Association, send to 
each Member newly elected at the said Meeting a copy of 
the following letter : — 

Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science, Literature, 
and Art 
Sib, — I have the pleasure of informing you that on the of 

July, you were elected a Member of the Association on the 

nomination of 



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BYE-LAWS AND STANDING ORDERS. 19 

The copy of the Transactions for the current year, which will be 
forwarded to you in due course, will contain the Laws of the Asso- 
ciation. Meanwhile I beg to call your attention to the following state- 
ments : — 

(1) Every Member pays an Annual Contribution of Half a Guinea, or 
a Life Composition of Five Guineas. 

(2) The Annual Contributions are payable in advance, and are due in 
each year on the day of the Annual Meeting. 

(3) Members who do not, on or before the day of the Annual Meeting, 
give notice in writing or personally to the General Secretary of their 
intention to withdraw from the Association are regarded as Members for 
the ensuing year. 

The Treasurer's Address is— Edward Vivian, Esq., Woodfield, Tor- 
quay. — I remain, Sir, your faithful Servant, 

Hon. Sec. 

8. The reading of any Report or Paper shall not exceed 
twenty minutes, or such part of twenty minutes as shall be 
decided by the Council as soon as the Programme of Reports 
and Papers shall have been settled, and in any discussion 
which may arise, no speaker shall be allowed to speak more 
than ten minutes. 

9. Papers to be read to the Annual Meetings of the Asso- 
ciation must strictly relate to Devonshire, and, as well as all 
Reports intended to be printed in the Transactions of the 
Association, and prepared by Committees appointed by the 
Council, must, together with all drawings intended to be used 
in illustrating them in the said Transactions, reach the 
General Secretary's residence not later than the 24th day of 
June in each year. The General Secretary shall, not later 
than the 7th of the following July, return to the authors all 
such Papers as he may decide to be unsuitable to be printed 
in the said Transactions, and shall send the residue, together 
with the said Reports of Committees, to the Association's 
printers, who shall return the same so that they may reach 
the General Secretary's residence not later than on the 14th 
day of the said July, together with a statement of the 
number of pages each of them would occupy if printed in the 
said Transactions, as well as an estimate of the extra cost of 
the printing of such Tables, of any kind, as may form part of 
any of the said Papers and Reports; and the General 
Secretary shall lay the whole, as well as an estimate of the 
probable number of Annual Members of the Association for 
the year commencing on that day, before the first Council 
Meeting on the first day of the next ensuing Annual Meeting, 
when the Council shall select not a greater number of the 
Papers thus laid before them than will, with the other 

B 2 



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20 BYE-LAWS AND STANDING ORDERS. 

documents to be printed in the said Transactions, make as 
many sheets of printed matter as can be paid for with 60 per 
cent, of the subscriptions, for the year, of the said probable 
number of Annual Members, exclusive of the extra cost of 
the printing of such aforesaid Tables, which have been 
approved and accepted by the Council, provided the aggregate 
of the said extra cost do not exceed 6 per cent of the said 
subscriptions ; exclusive also of the printers' charge for cor- 
rections of the press; and also exclusive of the cost of 
printing an Index, a list of Errata, and such Resolutions 
passed at the next Winter meeting of the Council, as may be 
directed to be so printed by the said Winter Meeting ; and 
the number of Papers selected by the Council shall not be 
greater than will, with the Reports of Committees, make a 
total of 40 Reports and Papers. 

10. Papers communicated by Members for Non-Members, 
and accepted by the Council, shall be placed in the Pro- 
gramme below those furnished by Members themselves. 

11. Papers which have been accepted by the Council 
cannot be withdrawn without the consent of the Council. 

12. The Council will do their best so to arrange Papers 
for reading as to suit the convenience of the authors ; but 
the place of a Paper cannot be altered after the Programme 
has been settled by the Council. 

13. Papers which have already been printed in exienso 
cannot be accepted, unless they form part of the literature of 
a question on which the Council has requested a Member or 
Committee to prepare a report. 

14 Every meeting of the Council shall be convened by 
Circular, sent by the General Secretary to each Member of 
the Council, not less than ten days before the Meeting is held. 

15. All Papers read to the Association which the Council 
shall decide to print in extenso in the Transactions, shall be 
sent to the printers, together with all drawings required in 
illustrating them, on the day next following the close of the 
Annual Meeting at which they were read. 

16. All Papers read to the Association which the Council 
shall decide not to print in extenso in the Transactions, shall 
be returned to the authors not later than the day next follow* 
ing the close of the Annual Meeting at which they were 
read; and abstracts of such Papers to be printed in the 



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BYE-LAWS AND STANDING ORDERS. 21 

Transactions shall not exceed one-fourth of the length of the 
Paper itself, and must be sent to the General Secretary on or 
before the seventh day after the close of the Annual Meeting. 

17. The Author of every Paper which the Council at any 
Annual Meeting shall decide to print in the Transactions shall 
be expected to pay for all such illustrations as in his judg- 
ment the said Paper may require ; but the Council may, at 
their discretion, vote towards the expense of such illustrations 
any sum not exceeding the balance in hand as shown by the 
Treasurer's Report to the said Meeting, after deducting all 
Life Compositions, as well as all Annual Contributions re- 
ceived in advance of the year to which the said Report 
relates, which may be included in the said balance. 

18. The printers shall do their utmost to print the Papers 
in the Transactions in the order in which they were read, and 
shall return every Manuscript to the author as soon as it is 
in type, but not before. They shall be returned intact, provided 
they are written on loose sheets and on one side of the paper 
only. 

19. Excepting mere verbal alterations, no Paper which has 
been read to the Association shall be added to without the 
written approval and consent of the General Secretary ; and 
no additions shall be made except in the form of notes or 
postscripts, or both. 

20. In the intervals of the Annual Meetings, all Meetings 
of the Council shall be held at Exeter, unless some other 
place shall have been decided on at the previous Council 
Meeting. 

21. When the Number of Copies on hand of any c Part ' of 
the Transactions is reduced to twenty, the price per copy 
shall be increased 25 per cent. ; and when the number has 
been reduced to ten copies, the price shall be increased 50 
per cent, on the original price. 

22. The Association's Printers, but no other person, may 
reprint any Committee's Report printed in the Transactions 
of the Association, for any person, whether a Member of the 
said Committee, or of the Association, or neither, on receiving, 
in each case, a written permission to do so from the Honorary 
Secretary of the Association, but not otherwise; that the 
said printer shall pay to the said Secretary, for the Association, 
sixpence for every fifty copies of each half sheet of eight 



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22 BYE-LAWS AND STANDING ORDERS. 

pages of which the said Report consists ; that any number of 
copies less than fifty, or between two exact multiples of fifty, 
shall be regarded as fifty; and any number of pages less than 
eight, or between two exact multiples of eight, shall be 
regarded as eight ; that each copy of such Reprints shall have 
on its first page the words " Reprinted from the Transactions 
of the Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science, 

literature, and Art for with the consent of the Council 

of the Association," followed by the date of the year in which 
the said Report was printed in the said Transactions, but 
that, with the exception of printers' errors, and changes in 
the pagination which may be necessary or desirable, the said 
Reprint shall be in every other respect an exact copy of the 
said Report as printed in the said Transactions, without 
addition, or abridgment, or modification of any kind. 

23. The General Secretary shall, within one month after 
each Annual General Meeting, inform the Hon. Local Treasurer 
and the Hon. Local Secretary, elected at the said Meeting, 
that, in making or sanctioning arrangements for the next 
Annual General Meeting, it is eminently desirable that they 
avoid and discourage everything calculated to diminish the 
attendance at the General and Council Meetings, or to disturb 
the said Meetings in any way. 

24 The Bye-Laws and Standing Orders shall be printed 
after the " Rules " in the Transactions. 

25. All resolutions appointing committees for special service 
for the Association shall be printed in the Transactions next 
before the President's Address. 



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REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 

As presented to the General Meeting, Dawlish, 1881. 



The Nineteenth Annual Meeting of the Association was held 
at Totnes, commencing on Tuesday, July 27th, and was 
eminently successful. Never has the Association been more 
hospitably received, both publicly and privately, than in this 
ancient borough and its locality. The number of Members 
enrolled, and papers read, exceeded that of any former occasion. 

At 2 p.m. a Council Meeting was held, when the usual 
formal business was transacted. At the conclusion of this 
meeting the members were met by the Mayor and Corporation 
at the Gate House, and marched in procession, headed by the 
mace-bearers, through the Parish Church to the Guildhall, 
where an address of welcome was read by the Town Clerk, 
and the whole of the party were most hospitably entertained 
in the Council Chamber. A General Meeting was held at 
4 p.m. ; and in the evening, at 8 p.m., in the Assembly Booms, 
Seven Stars Hotel, the President, Dr. W. H. Dyke Acland, 
who in the absence of the retiring President^ Sir R P. 
Collier, was introduced in befitting terms by the Eev. 
Treasurer Hawker, delivered his Introductory Address. The 
room was well filled, a large number of ladies being present. 

On Wednesday, at 11 a.m., the reading and discussion of 
the following programme of Papers was commenced. 



Fifth Report of the Committee on Devon 
shire Meteorology . 

Fifth Report of the Committee on Scien 
tific Memoranda 

Fifth Report of the Committee on Devon 
. shire Folk-Lore 

Fourth Report of the Committee on Devon- 
shire Celebrities 

Second Report of the Committee on Works J ^ Trea8Urer Hawk&r MiL 
of Art in Devonshire . ) ' 

Second Report of the Committee on Barrows R. N. Worth, F.o.8. 

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I Dr. Lake. 

J W. Pengelly, F.E.8., f.o.s., Ac 

\o. Doe. 

} Rev. Treasurer Hawker, m.a. 



24 REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

First Report of the Committee on Land \ ™ m- . •,„ 
Tenures J* **«*«"*- 



First Report of the Committee on the ) 



Domesday Book relating to Devon 
shire 



An Historical Sketch of Totnes 
The Gild Merchants of Totnes 



Ancient Documents relating to the Civil \ „ ru-~~~ j « « . 
History of Totnes . . . ;J^*»«*'^ 

The landing of the Prince of Orange at \ T jy jyinfcaa 
Brixham ...... J * " 

| F. Appleton, f.r.i.b.a. 



>J. Brooking Rowe, F.8.A., f.l.8. 

E. Windcatt. 
P. F. S. Amery. 



R. N. Worth, f.g.s. 

E. ParfiU. 

W. A, E. Ussher, f.g.s. 

Rev. Treasurer Hawker, M.A. 



Notice of a Wooden Effigy found at Dart- 
mouth, 1879 .... 

"Were there Druids in Devon ? . 

Meteorological Phenomena 

Physical Features of Devonshire 

River of Dart 

Devonshire Speech, the True Classic English F. T. Elworthy. 

Notes on the Submarine Geology of the 1 

English Channel off the Coast of South >A.R. Hunt, M.A., f.g.s. 
Devon ) 

Notes on Boulders and Scratched Stones ) nT t>_„ 7J- . . „ „ 

in South Devon . . . . J ^ *****, »•", F.o.s. 

The Fitting Out of Two Vessels against ) 

the Spanish Armada, at Dartmouth, > E. Windeatt. 
in 1588 ) 

The Accounts of the Receiver of the Cor- ) T ■> A 

poration of Totnes in the year 1654-5 { John S ' Amer V- 

Steven Borough, the Navigator . . Richard W. Cotton. 

Recent Geological Discoveries in the neigh- ) „ \ T m- ** „ 
bourhool of Plymouth . . .\ RN ' Worih > F ' a8 - 

Recent Discoveries in the Parishes of | „, » „ . _ . 

ChagfordandManaton, Devonshire . { W * P "WHy, F.R.S., F.o.s., &c 

Agriculture in North East Devon, Fifty \ w „ Q , 
to Sixty years ago . . . . J * 

The old Inns and Taverns of Exeter . R. Dymond, f.s.a. 

Memoranda on the Lucombe Oak, and ) nr . 7 T 
Governor Holwill . . . \ Winslow Jones. 

"Blackdown" Rev. W. Downes, B.A., F.o.s. 

On the Boring for Water and the Sinking \ 

of the two Wells at the two large I v D - .. 

Breweries, 'The City' and 'St. Anne?/ ( *• ^^ 

in Exeter ) 

Some Religious Houses of Totnes . . E. WindeaU. 

Datton Mill and Donitone . . . J. B. Davidson, m.a. 

An Exchequer Tally— A Barnstaple Record \ j R chanter 
ol 10*4 ••••..j 

On u The Exmoor Scolding " . . . F. T. Elworthy. 

John Lethbridge and his Diving Machine John S. Amery. 



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BBPOBT OF THE COUNCIL. 25 

A Totnes Scholar— Edward Lye, if. A. . E. WimdeaU. 
The Fauna of Devon— Aculeaia . . E. ParJUL 
The Myth of Brutus the Trojan . . R. N. Worth, F.o.s. 
Notes on the early history of Dartmouth, \ 

with especial reference to its com- 1 p q jra-fagi. 

merce, shipping, and seamen in the f • v * 

14th century ) 

Notes on Recent Notices of the Geology ) 

and Palaeontology of Devonshire — > W, Pengelly, F.R.8., F.o.s., kc 
Part VII ) 

The Font in Christ Church, Ilfracombe ) 

(communicated by the Rev. Treasurer > Miss Price, 
Hawker, m.a.) ) 

In the evening the annual dinner of the Association was 
held at the Seymour Hotel, when an excellent repast was 
served up to a party of ladies and gentlemen numbering 
about 130. Dr. A eland presided. 

There was afterwards a garden party on the Island, at the 
invitation of the Mayor and Local Committee, and although 
the weather proved somewhat unfavourable for such a gather- 
ing, still a large numl>er of members attended, and thoroughly 
appreciated the order of proceedings. The Island groves 
were prettily illuminated with Chinese and other coloured 
lamps, and refreshments were unsparingly supplied to the 
company. 

On Thursday, at 10 am., the reading of papers was resumed, 
and continued with unabated interest until the exceptionally 
long programme was exhausted at 3 p.m. A General Meeting 
and Council Meeting then followed, and brought to a close 
the formal business of the Meeting. 

Through the kind invitation of the Mayor of Totnes, 
J. Michelmore, Esq., a number of Members and Associates had 
an enjoyable excursion to Berry Pomeroy Castle, the grand 
old ruins forming a feature of no inconsiderable interest. 
On the road from Totnes the remains of the ancient paved 
way attributed to the Romans, and evidently of great 
antiquity, were pointed out; and on arriving at the Castle 
the Mayor escorted the party to the chief features of interest, 
describing the many historic incidents with which the ancient 
fortress is associated. The party subsequently returned to 
Berry House, where they were most hospitably entertained 
by his Worship and the Mayoress. By the invitation of A. 
Champernowne, Esq., another party, numbering upwards of 
one hundred, availed themselves of the opportunity of visiting 
Partington Hall, one of the most picturesque seats in the 
county ; the walk or drive through the Park alone affording 



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26 REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

infinite pleasure to the admirers of lovely scenery. On 
arriving at the Hall the visitors were most cordially welcomed 
by Mr. and Mrs. Champernowne, who took delight in pointing 
out the various portions of historical interest, and entertained 
the party with unbounded hospitality. 

On Friday, July 30th, there were excursions to the Moor 
and to Dartmouth. One party was conveyed in breaks and 
waggonettes to the Buckland Drives, New Bridge, Gallantry 
Bower, and Brook House, where Mr. Hamlyn of Buckfastleigh 
had kindly invited the excursionists to lunch. The Mine, 
with its recently erected ore dressing machinery, was inspected 
and explained by the local manager. The return journey 
was by Buckfast Abbey, under the joint guidance of the 
Mayor and Mr. Fabyan Amery. The party for Dartmouth 
started in a large boat drawn by a steam launch, and was 
conducted by Mr. Appleton and Mr. T. Windeatt. Heavy 
showers fell during the day, but the excursions in both 
directions were thoroughly enjoyed by all. 

It having been decided that the next Annual Meeting 
should be held at Dawlish, the following were elected officers 
for that occasion : 

President: Professor W. B. Hodgson, ll.d. Vice-Presidents : 
H. W. Dyke Acland, Esq., M.A., m.d., F.R.S., &c. ; A. Baker, 
Esq., m.d. ; Rev. R. H. D. Barham, b.a. ; W. F. Collier, Esq., 
j.p. ; C. Eales, Esq., J.P. ; Rev. O. Manley, b.a. ; G. Pycroft, 
Esq., M.R.c.8. ; Mr. F. Lee (Chairman of the Local Board of 
Health); Lieut.-Col. Saville, j.p.; Mr. W. Tapper; C. J. 
Wade, Esq., J.P.; J. Whidborne, Esq. Hon. Treasurer: E. 
Vivian, Esq., M.A., Torquay. Hon. Local Treasurer : A. De 
Winter Baker, Esq., L.R.C.P., m.r.c.s. Hon. Secretary: Rev. 
W. Harpley, m.a., f.cp.s., ClayhaTtger, Tiverton. Hon. Local 
Secretary : J. S. Whidborne, Esq. 

Shortly afterwards, on August 24th, Dr. Hodgson, whose 
loss the Association cannot cease to deplore, died suddenly. 
Your Council were thus called upon to exercise the duties 
and privileges they enjoy under the 13th rule of the Asso- 
ciation ; accordingly, at their winter meeting they proceeded 
to fill the void caused by Dr. Hodgson's decease. Their 
choice fell upon the Rev. T. R R. Stebbing, an old and 
valued member of the Association, who was duly elected. 
Again misfortune came. Early in April Mr. Stebbing 
announced the fact that his house had been destroyed by fire, 
and with it all his valuable notes and papers, the result of 
years of careful research and study. In consequence of this 
calamity he felt constrained to tender his resignation of the 



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EEPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 27 

office of President, which was accepted. At a meeting of 
the Council on May the 10th, specially convened for the 
purpose, the Rev. Professor Chapman, who had kindly and 
courageously, at so late a period, consented to be put in 
nomination, was duly elected, and thus the Association will 
meet on this occasion under his presidency. 

The Council have published the President's Address, to- 
gether with Obituary Notices of members deceased during 
the year preceding, and the Reports and Papers read before 
the Association ; also the Treasurer's Report, a list of Mem- 
bers, and the Rules, Standing Orders, and Bye-Laws ; they 
have since added an Index, kindly prepared by Mr. P. 0. 
Hutchinson. 

A Copy of the Transactions and Index has been sent to 
each Member, and to the following Societies: The Royal 
Society, Linnaean Society, Geological Society, Anthropological 
Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Royal Institution 
(Albemarle Street), The Society of Antiquaries, Devon and 
Exeter Institution (Exeter), Plymouth Institution, Torquay 
Natural History Society, Barnstaple Literary and Scientific 
Institution, Royal Institution of Cornwall (Truro), and the 
Library of the British Museum. 



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STATEMENT OF PROPERTY OP THE ASSOCIATION, 
July 26th, 1881. 















£ 9. d. 


Deposit at Interest 


in Torquay 


Bank 


(including Life 




Compositions of 


Sixty Members) 




. 


305 


Balance in Treasnrex 


's hand* (26th July, 1 881) 


65 4 11 


Arrears of Annual Contributions (valued at) 


. 


7 7 


"Transactions' 


in Stook, 1862 . . 


4 copies 


at 2s. Od. . 


8 


tt 


it 


1868 .. 


97 


tt 


2s. Od. . 


9 14 


tt 


tt 


1864 .. 


108 


tt 


3s. Od. . 


16 4 


tt 


tt 


1865 .. 


105 


tt 


2s. 6d. . 


13 2 6 


tt 


tt 


1866 .. 


82 


tt 


3s. Od. . 


12 6 


tt 


tt 


1867 .. 


79 


tt 


6s. Od. . 


23 14 


ft 


tt 


1868 .. 


68 


tt 


6s. 6d. . 


17 4 6 


tt 


tt 


1870.. 


80 


n 


6s. Od. . 


9 


tt 


tt 


1871 .. 


SO 


tt 


6s. 6d. . 


9 16 


tt 


ft 


1873.. 


87 


tt 


6s. Od. . 


11 2 


tt 


tt 


1874 ., 


40 


tt 


8s. 6d. . 


17 


tt 


ft 


1875 .. 


19 


tt 


10s. Od. . 


9 10 


ft 


» 


1876 .. 


22 


tt 


12s. Od. . 


13 4 


tt 


» 


1877 .. 


23 


tt 


6s. Od. . 


6 18 


tt 


tt 


1878 .. 


8 


n 


12s. Od. . 


4 16 


tt 


tt 


1879., 


31 


tt 


7s. Od. . 


10 17 


tt 


tt 


1880 .. 


26 


tt 


10s. Od. . 


13 


Due for "Transactions" sold 
(Synod) 











£665 6 11 










W. HARPLEY S 














Son. Secretary. 



" When the number of copies on hand of any Fart of the 'Transactions ' 
is reduced to twenty, the price per oopy shall be increased 26 per oent ; and 
when the number has been reduced to ten copies, the price shall be increased 
60 per cent"— Standing Order, No. $1. 

The " Transactions" in Stock are insured against fire in the sum of £200. 
The roll, published in 1869 and 1872 are out of print. 

• The balanoe in Treasurer's hand (£56 4s. lid.) is indebted to Capital to 
the amount of £61 19s. (—lire Compositions, £42 + Prepaid Annual Con- 
tributions, £18 7s. 6d.) 



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SELECTED MINUTES OF COUNCIL, APPOINTING 
COMMITTEES. 

Pasted at the Meeting at Date lis h, 
JULY, 1881. 



14. That Dr. H. W. Dyke Acland, Mr. C. Spence Bate, Eev. Pro- 
fessor Chapman, Ven. Archdeacon. Earle, Rev. W. Harpley, Rev. 
Treasurer Hawker, and Mr. W. Pengelly be a Committee for the 
purpose of considering at what place the Association shall hold its 
Meeting in 1883, who shall be invited to be the Officers at that 
Meeting, and who shall be invited to fill any official vacanpies 
which may occur before the Annual Meeting in 1882 ; that Mr. 
Pengelly be the Secretary ; and that they be requested to report to 
the next Winter Meeting of the Council. 

15. That Mr. George Doe, Rev. W. Harpley, Mr. N. S. Heineken, 
Mr. H. S. GUI, Mr. E. Parfitt, and Mr. J. Brooking Rowe be a 
Committee for the purpose of noting the discovery or occurrence 
of such Facts in any department of scientific inquiry, and con- 
nected with Devonshire, as it may be desirable to place on perma- 
nent record, but which may not be of sufficient importance in 
themselves to form the subjects of separate papers ; and that Mr. 
J. Brooking Rowe be the Secretary. 

16. That Mr. P. F. S. Amery, Mr. George Doe, Mr. R. Dymond, 
Rev. W. Harpley, Mr. P. Q. Karkeek, and Mr. J. Brooking Rowe 
be a Committee for the purpose of collecting notes on Devonshire 
Folk-Lore ; and that Mr. George Doe be the Secretary. 

17. That Mr. R. W. Cotton, Mr. R. Dymond, Rev. Treasurer 
Hawker, Mr. P. Q. Karkeek, Sir J. H. Kennaway, Mr. E Windeatt, 
and Mr. R. N. Worth be a Committee for the purpose of compiling 
a list of deceased Devonshire Celebrities, as well as an Index of 
the entire Bibliography having reference to them ; that the list 
consist exclusively of Celebrities born in Devonshire ; and that the 
Rev. Treasurer Hawker be the Secretary. 



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RESOLUTIONS APPOINTING COMMITTEES. 31 

18. That Mr. R Dymond, Mr. A. H. A. Hamilton, Mr. G. 
Pycroft, Rev. Treasurer Hawker, Mr. J. G. Templer, and Mr. R 
N. Worth be a Committee to prepare a Report on the Public and 
Private Collections of Works of Art in Devonshire ; and that Mr. 
Dymond be the Secretary. 

19. That Mr. J. S. Amery, Mr. C. Spence Bate, Mr. W. F. 
Collier, Mr. J. Divett, Mr. R. Dymond, Mr. F. H. Firth, Rev. W. 
Harpley, Rev. Treasurer Hawker, Mr. W. Lavers, Mr. G. W. 
Ormerod, Mr. J. Brooking Rowe, and Rev. W. H. Thornton be 
a Committee for the purpose of collecting information on all 
matters connected with Public Rights on Dartmoor ; that for the 
purposes of the said Committee " Dartmoor " shall be regarded as 
consisting inclusively and exclusively of the entire parishes of 
Ashburton, Belstone, Bovey Tracey, Bridestowe, Bridford, Buck- 
fastleigh, Buckland-in-the-Moor, Buckland Monachorum, Chagford, 

Cornwood, Dean Prior, Drewsteignton, Oidleigh, Harford, Holne, 
Islington, Lamerton, Lustleigh, Lyd/ord, Manaton, Mary Tavy, 
Heavy, Moretonhampstead, North Bovey, Okehampton, Peter Tavy, 
Sampford Spiney, Shaugh Prior, Sheepstor, Sourton, South Brent, 
South Taicton, Tavistock, Throideigh, Ugborough, WalJchampton, 
Whitchurch, and Widecombe-in-thfrMoor ; and that Mr. W. F. 
Collier be the Secretary. 

N.R Italics indicate Venville parishes. 

20. That Mr. J. S. Amery, Mr. G. Doe, Mr. R. Dymond, Mr. 
F. T. Elworthy, Mr. F. H. Firth, Mr. P. O. Hutchinson, Mr. P. Q. 
Karkeek, and Dr. W. C. Lake be a Committee for the purpose of 
noting and recording the existing use of any Verbal Provincialisms 
in Devonshire, in either written or spoken language, not included 
in the lists published in the Transactions of the Association ; that 
Mr. F. T. Elworthy be the Editor, and that Mr. F. H. Firth be the 
Secretary. 

21. That Mr. J. S. Amery, Mr. J. B. Davidson, Mr. G. Doe, Mr. 
R Dymond, Ven. Archdeacon Earle, Rev. W. Harpley, Mr. J. S. 
Hurrell, Mr. P. O. Hutchinson, Mr. J. Brooking Rowe, and Mr. R 
N. Worth be a Committee for editing and annotating such parts of 
Domesday Book as relate to Devonshire; and that Mr. J. Brooking 
Rowe be the Secretary. 

22. That Mr. C. Spence Bate, Mr. G. Doe, Mr. P. 0. Hutchin- 
son, Mr. E. Parfitt, Mr. J. Brooking Rowe, and Mr. R N. Worth 
be a Committee to collect and record facts relating to Barrows in 
Devonshire, and to take steps, where possible, for their investiga- 
tion ; and that Mr. R N. Worth be the Secretary. 



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32 RESOLUTIONS APPOINTING COMMITTEES. 

23. That Mr. J. S. Amery, Mr. G. Doe, Mr. R. Dymond, Mr. 
G. W. Onnerod, Mr. J. Brooking Rowe, and Mr. E. Windeatt be 
a Committee to obtain information as to peculiar tenures of land, 
and as to customs of Manor Courts, in Devonshire; and that 
Mr. E. Windeatt be the Secretary. 

24. That Mr. F. H. Firth, Rev. W. Harpley, Mr. H. Tozer, Mr. 
R. C. Tucker, and Rev. Preb. Smith be a Committee for the pur- 
pose of making the arrangements for the Association Dinner at 
Crediton in 1882 ; and that Mr. R C. Tucker be the Secretary. 

29. That Mr. T. H. Edmonds, Mr. H. S. Gill, Mr. E. E. Glyde, 
Mr. E. Parfitt, and Mr. P. F. S. Amery be a Committee to collect 
and tabulate trustworthy and comparable observations on the 
climate of Devon ; and that Mr. P. F. S. Amery be the Secretary, 



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PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 



Ladies and Gentlemen, — I appear before you to-day in the 
honourable position of President of this Association — neither 
because, on my part, of any conscious fitness for the dis- 
charge of the duties pertaining to the office, nor Irecause I 
see anything done in the past to merit your suffrages, but 
simply in obedience to the summons of those charged with 
the conduct of your affairs, whose judgment I am bound to 
respect even when it differs from my own. Had one of the 
calamities incidental to human life not fallen on a certain 
home, or had a valuable life been spared to enrich the world 
still further with vigorous thought and genial manners, you 
to-day would have been addressed by another voice, and I 
should have had the satisfaction of knowing that the Devon- 
shire Association was maintaining, as heretofore, its well- 
earned reputation by means of the learning and wisdom of 
its Presidential Address. No doubt, under the shadow of an 
event which must cause sincere grief to many, you will ex- 
tend to me a kind indulgence, as, in compliance with your 
wishes, at the eleventh hour, and at a season when, by reason 
of pressing ordinary duties, it is least possible for me to do 
justice to my theme, I endeavour to present for your con- 
sideration a few observations bearing, it is to be hoped, some 
obvious relation to the objects we all have in view on the 
present occasion. 

We are familiar with the truth, illustrated in so many 
fields of Science, that it is by the combination of varied 
forces that definite results are brought about, which, later on, 
form a distinct factor in the world's development, to be used 
up with other elements in new combinations for still higher 
and more perfect issues. It seems to me that the founders 
of this Association were acting on this strictly scientific 
principle when they first sought to bring together the scat- 
tered elements of intellectual activity in the county of 

VOL. XIII. o 



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34 PROFESSOR CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

Devon, so that, by convergence and interblending, these 
might annually issue in a distinct contribution to the Ad- 
vancement of Science, Literature, and Art, which in its turn 
should form a factor in a still wider development of Know- 
ledge and Culture To what extent this has been accom- 
plished, a perusal of the published Transactions of the 
Association will indicate. Obviously many valuable fruits 
of Scientific and Literary toil have been conserved and ren- 
dered available for use in prosecuting further researches; 
and, without indulging in that local vanity which is the 
besetting sin of the provincial mind, may we not hope that, 
on the basis of population and average capacity of educated 
men, in addition to those who in special departments have 
already won honour for themselves and their county, there 
are yet in Devonshire many vigorous intellects naturally or 
by education fitted to render good service to mankind by 
scientific discovery, or wise presentation of historic truth, or 
works of Art ? Moreover, if a Murchison was ultimately 
won over from the dubious joys associated with hunting and 
racing studs, to the pure pleasures and enduring honours of 
Science, by an incidental attendance on a scientific meeting, 
are we unreasonable in the supposition that, over and above 
the stimulus given to minds already intent on her aims, 
Science may throw her mighty spell around some of her 
erring children now unfortunately spending their intellectual 
substance, if not in riotous living, yet in things of no per- 
manent advantage to themselves or their kind ? 

Public assemblies are symptoms of the state and tendency 
of public life; and so we may regard the annual gathering 
of this and kindred Associations as a sign of the ever-deepen- 
ing and widening interest cherished in matters pertaining to 
the cultivation of Science, Literature, and Art* as also in 
these things themselves. Of course the interest is wider 
than the spheres filled by the real workers in these depart- 
ments of toil, and relates to matters not strictly technical. 
As far as we know, the interest in scientific questions is, for 
strength and range, far in excess of any human experience in 
the past When we reflect on the extreme antiquity and 
attested grandeur of certain kingdoms now in a state of deca- 
dence, or utterly gone, it becomes us to speak cautiously of 
our intellectual superiority; but the probability is that the 
world never was enriched with so many quiet investigators 
whose only desired recompense is the ascertainment of truth, 
and whose interest, while having a general outlook, is spe- 
cially concentrated on their own department of research. 



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PROFESSOR CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 35 

The ample subdivision of labour rendered necessary by the 
ever-widening range and complexity of investigations, and 
secured by the reduction of the interblended facts of obser- 
vation and experience into well-defined Sciences, has given 
impetus to zeal, and ensured success to toil. Whether we 
think of the standard or the periodical literature devoted to 
the advancement of Science, we cannot fail to observe a con- 
trast with the time when the issue of a scientific work, per- 
haps in the Latin tongue, was looked upon as a phenomenon, 
and when scientific terms and ideas were regarded by the 
public as out of all relation to the common life of the world. 
It is not to be doubted that much now offered to the public 
as Scientific Literature would fare ill if subjected to such 
criticisms as a severely scientific man, or one accustomed to 
rigorous exactitude of thought and presentation, might bestow 
upon it ; and one who traces the effect on the mental life and 
general temper of defective, one-sided, representations of ex- 
tremely difficult subjects, may well wish that the caterers for 
popular scientific interest would consider their responsibilities 
in this respect. But, be this as it may, there are inestimable 
advantages in this general awakening, and this endeavour to 
furnish the popular mind with such information as its con- 
dition of receptivity, and the nature of the subjects handled, 
render possible ; and we are able to fall back on the consola- 
tion that, in the necessary struggle for existence between the 
vague notions and inflated vanity which, on the one side, are 
fed on defective Science, and the exact thought, reverence, 
and sobriety which, on the other, are nourished by pure truth, 
the fittest to survive will certainly survive. 

The interest of the man of science in Science, and the 
scientific interest of the public, are, as I have intimated, to 
be kept distinct, and so, to some considerable extent, are the 
causes that create it. Among men of science of every age, 
from the early Greeks, with their defective induction, up to 
the most cautious observer under the conditions rendered 
possible by modern methods, there has been cherished an 
inexpressible delight in patient observation of facts, with the 
view of discovering their relation to other facts, and of ulti- 
mately formulating their laws. Science brings a pure and 
refreshing joy to all who sincerely woo her, and the clear 
light of her truthful eyes, to those who gaze upon it, is ample 
compensation for toil, and a stimulus to a more fervid zeal. 
But although the passion to know truth in Nature for the 
sake of what the truth is, irrespective of its bearing on the 
conveniences and comforts of life, is the real and primary 

c 2 



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36 PROFESSOR CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

spring of interest, other influences also, just now, tend to 
give it additional strength. Lord Bacon has said, "Scicntia 
et potentia humana in idem coincidunt, quia ignoratio causae 
destituit effectum. Natura enim rum nisi parendo vincitur: 
et quod in corUemplatione instar causae est, id in operatione 
instar regulae est" * Now, the enormous advances made of 
late years in the subjugation of Nature by interpretation and 
obedience ; the mastery obtained over even what were deemed 
the most subtle and unmanageable of forces; the wider range of 
vision thus gradually opened to the scientific eye, with multi- 
plied appliances for obtaining further conquests by yet more 
perfect obedience to Nature; the sense of the infinite com- 
plexity and subtlety, and yet underlying simplicity, of the 
processes by which the fabric of things is built up ; the con- 
sciousness, when the spirit is oppressed with the disparity 
between the work to be done and the limits of individual 
strength, that other labourers are devoting their energies to 
sections of the wide field of research, and the recurrence of 
opportunities for workers in various departments to contribute 
the results of their toil towards an attainment of that unity 
of scientific thought after which the man of science yearns, — 
all these things tend to nourish the interest of the present 
time. 

The influences that have combined to bring about the 
popular interest in scientific questions are also very varied. 
At the base we must recognize an effort of Nature. Man is 
born to know. "Havre? avdpwiroi tov eiSevai opeyovrai 
ff>v<rei " is the first sentence in Aristotle's Metaphysics. Science 
considered as organized knowledge of what is, is the ideal 
goal of the developed intellectual man. In the untutored 
peasant, as truly as in the philosopher, there lies a sense 
more or less defined of that essential unity of Nature which 
it is the object of scientific investigation to trace. The 
potential science thus hidden in human nature is brought 
into what Aristotle would call its first evepyeia by the im- 
proved general education of the people ; and coincident with 
this, Literature in agreeable form has been made subservient 
to the exposition of certain scientific views which, by reason 
of their novelty and their vast suggestiveness, have special 
charm for a certain order of mind. The craving created by 
the fascinating presentation of specific doctrines for more 
accurate information has, in part, been provided for by the 
issue from the ablest pens of elementary works, giving 
succinctly and accurately the principles and scope of the 
* Aphvrismi 3. 



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PROFESSOR CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 37 

various branches of scientific research, and thus there is 
being nourished in the more inquisitive and active minds of 
our population the pleasure inseparable from a wider view of 
life and its surroundings. Nor can we forget what reason 
the thrifty sons of commerce and the gay children of wealth 
and fashion have for turning a kindly face towards Science, 
seeing that by its conquests it tends to lessen the cost of 
production and render society more brilliant; while among 
the more sanguine and incautious, the recent triumphs of 
scientific research have a tendency to beget the vague notion 
that very soon perchance some startling revelations will be 
made, which shall revolutionize all our conceptions of life 
and its significance. 

But although these considerations may account for the 
general interest of the present time, both in the case of the 
investigator and the public, they do not explain altogether 
the keenness of the zest with which the leading lines of 
research are followed, and their results looked for. It will 
be found on fuller enquiry that the one fact which affects so 
deeply the learned and the unlearned is this : That Man has 
become the object on which all scientific research of the 
present time is seen to converge. It is impossible but that 
even the calm spirit of the investigator in a special branch of 
Science should be somewhat stirred by the reflection that the 
path he is treading will lead him up to a position that may 
reflect some light on his own nature and origin; and of 
course the reading public cannot but lend a ready ear to any 
scientific oracle concerning themselves. This intense interest, 
arising from the importance of the object itself, waxes 
stronger because of the claim put forth for the supreme 
authority of Science, and the consequent homage men are 
disposed to pay to its decisions. Whether or not much that 
is reputed to be Science is in the strict sense of the term 
really so, or whether or not there is a sufficient discrimination 
between Science in the abstract and Science in process -of 
formation by fallible judgments, I do not stay to determine. 
Unquestionably ideal Science is infallible ; for to know is to 
be above confutation. But the point we have to notice is 
'this, that there is a disposition on the part of multitudes to 
invest the conclusions put forth in the name of Science with 
the deference and even undoubted authority properly due to 
Science per se. The actual and the ideal are apt to be re- 
garded as one, and what belongs properly to abstract infalli- 
bility is unwittingly transferred to human fallibility. Such 
being the case, it is easy to see the reasonableness of the 



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38 PROFESSOR CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

intense interest with which ordinary readers await the con- 
clusions of the scientific on the question of Man ; and there 
is certainly a naturalness in this when we consider the 
circumstance that some writers, forgetting the caution proper 
to the treatment of the most complicated of all subjects, have 
ventured, in the name of Science, to affirm concerning the 
nature and origin of Man, and in terms as bold and dogmatic 
as could well be chosen, conclusions from which dissent is 
impossible, except on pain of ostracism from the scientific 
world.* 

Under these circumstances it may not be inappropriate to 
the present occasion if, without presuming to enter into 
details, and apart from polemical purpose, I submit a few 
observations bearing on the present position of the scientific 
question in relation to Man. There is perhaps peculiar fitness 
in this, inasmuch as Devonshire has contributed no mean 
part towards the creation of the interest now generally felt 
in the subject. 

The world to-day is the outcome of what the world was in 
days long gone by, and we cannot form a just estimate of its 
nature except in its relation to the past. This continuity also 
applies to our scientific views of the world. In the matter 
of knowledge we are born to a great inheritance. However 
much the present state of our scientific knowledge may, in 
extent and accuracy, give passing occasion for a smile at the 
modicum of defective truth enjoyed by our predecessors, we 
ought not to forget that we owe our position of advantage 
both to the successes and failures of the past. And especially 
is it true that Science in its relation to man is a development, 
and in order to discern and estimate its modern peculiarities 
— to form a just judgment on its differentia — it must be 
viewed in contrast with what passed as Science in former 
times, and in fact laid the foundations of its present merits 
and defects. In no age of mental activity has the scientific 
position of Man been altogether lost sight of; for although 
there have been long and dreary periods during which no 
original thinker struck out new paths in the great quest, yet 
even then the leaders of thought cherished and discussed in 
some measure the forms of expression used and the conclusions- 
arrived at by their more energetic ancestors. 

Naturally we must turn to Greece, the fountain head for 

the Western Nations of Science, Literature, and Art> and 

where, above all countries, Man was, in respect to personal 

form, the subject of Art; in respect to his emotions and aspira- 

• Vide Haeckel'8 History of Creation, vol. L p. 22, voL ii p. 347. 



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PROFESSOR CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 39 

tions, the subject of literature ; and in respect to his uature 
and origin, the subject of Science. But in so doing we must 
be on our guard against disappointment ; for it has happened, 
through the inevitable defects of tradition as a channel of 
transmission, and the loss of records subsequent to the era of 
tradition, that we are furnished with the conclusions arrived 
at by the early Greek investigators in far larger proportion 
than is desirable, as compared with the processes of combined 
induction and deduction on which those conclusions were 
evidently based. There is, however, both in record and well- 
tested tradition, enough to show that although these men, 
venturing almost singly, and without the aid furnished by an 
inheritance of accumulated knowledge, into the vast fields of 
scientific truth, were so impressed by the vastness of the great 
objective in its totality as to devote their chief strength to a 
solution of its development, yet they were led on by the 
logical necessities of their position to formulate some con- 
ception of the nature and origin of Man. By implication at 
least the Ionics regarded him as generated by a very gradual 
process out of the ap\ai, which, according to their respective 
systems, formed the material ground of existence. Heraclitus 
and Empedocles differed from the Ionics in the nature of the 
primary substances they postulated, but not in the resolution 
of Man- into the ultimates of which all things were formed. 
It was left to Anaxagorasla formulate the radical distinction 
between the material particles and the vov<?, the two factors, 
by the interaction of which the universe of things was, by a 
process of compounding ovyKpi<ri$ t generated out of the 
original commingled mass of homogeneous infinitesimals. 
The logic of his system required him, however, to regard the 
moving cause in every distinct segregation of infinitesimals 
as in some sense a part of the original vov?, and the superi- 
ority of Man lay in that part of the original pou$ which 
entered into his nature being allied with a superior organiza- 
tion. It is notorious, beyond the boundaries of scientific 
knowledge, that Leukippus and Demokritus promulgated 
that theory of atoms, which, after passing through the hands 
of the Stoics, and being invested with special interest by 
file poetic imagination of Lucretius, was revived in England 
and France during the last century, to be hailed in modified 
form with (may I not say) an enthusiasm rather alien to the 
calm dignity of Science by many of our own time. There 
was no hesitation on the part of Demokritus in working his 
way from the primitive atoms, under the influence of the 
mysterious amy/07, through a series of gradations up to Man, 



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40 PROFESSOR CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

whose differentia from a star or a stone was that, in his case, 
the collocation of atoms was more complicated. It will have 
been noticed by all who have studied these old-time thinkers 
that, although they agree in placing Man at the highest point 
in a series of material changes, they do not appear to have 
devoted much attention to the transitions by which, from 
simplicity to combination, and from one combination to 
another, there appeared at last the form now bearing the 
name and endowed with the capacities of Man. So far as 
my reading and memory serve there is in Aristotle but one 
passage of obscure meaning, and in which he seems to doubt 
Spontaneous Origin, bearing on this subject;* and, with this 
exception, only two men ventured to point out a definite link 
in the long chain of antecedents from which, according to 
their views, Man must have arisen. Tradition says that 
Anaximines held Man to be a development from the frog. 
Diogenes Laertius explicitly states that Archelaus, a teacher 
of Socrates, went still further back, and found his origin in 
slime (1X1/9), which, as a kind of milk, served the generative 
power of the heat of the earth, f 

Up to this point then, with the exception of Anaxagoras, 
but not of the more idealistic Pythagoreans, a Monistic view 
of the Universe prevailed ; for while admitting, and of 
necessity using, the popular distinction between Matter and 
Mind, and reasoning as though the phenomena of the two 
were sharply distinguished by characteristics indestructible 
and incommunicable, they nevertheless regarded the organism 
as a very high evolution of the apyri which entered into all 
lower things, and that which bore the designation of Mind, 
as not a distinct substance, but either a concomitant inter- 
action of some form of the apyri> or a resultant of the 
evolved combination which of itself made up the organism. 
In fact Mind was a name for the latest and highest evolution 
of the original apx^ 

The history of human speculation is a history of change, 
while the great facts of human experience and the primary 
convictions based thereon abide as of old. No scientific 
hypotheses appear to permanently shake men's faith in the 
fundamental convictions of the mind. The common belief 
of mankind, both in Greece and in the far East, had been, as 
it still is, distinctly Dualistic ; and so deeply had this belief 
entered into all forms of thought and language that the 
Ionic and Demokritic Monists must have known something 

• De QenercUime Animalium, lib. iii. 11. 

f repl pUav k.t.\. Ed. Stkphanus, 1570, p. 66. 



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PROFESSOR CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRE8S. 41 

of the uneasiness of men who use words in a non-natural 
sense, when, with their belief in Monism, they were under 
the necessity of using language which, in its natural sense, 
was obviously a flat denial of it Among the varied in- 
fluences which contributed to invest the Platonic system 
with a charm for the wise and the unwise, and to cause the 
preceding Monistic systems to sink into obscurity, was un- 
doubtedly this, that Plato, with an emphasis unmistakeable, 
and often with a reasoning hard to resist, asserted the 
essential distinction in ultimate substance of that in Man's 
Nature which entered into his organism, and that which con- 
stituted the thinking self. Popular and scientific thought 
once more became one; and perhaps the most important 
service Plato has rendered to posterity lies in the clearness 
and precision with which he has laid down the distinction 
between the Monistic and Dualistic conception of the 
Universe. Matter and Spirit to him were essentially distinct. 
There is a modern phrase which in some quarters has 
found ready acceptance, to this effect, " Mind a function of 
Organism/' An attempt has been made to show that Aristotle, 
dissenting from the Platonic Dualism, elaborated in his work 
entitled irept \lrvxw, a doctrine which can be thus formulated. 
I am no lover of the vagueness and obscurity of meaning 
which obviously go with this phrase, and as a matter of 
argument should be disposed to abstain from contention till 
more precision of thought and expression be secured. But 
as touching a matter of historic fact, it may be worth while 
to point out that this interpretation of the views of the great 
philosopher of Stageira may have arisen from a tendency to 
import into the words of another ideas of our own ; and, at 
all events, a more perfect acquaintance with the writings of 
Aristotle would have saved Mr. Lewes from the error of 
judgment The views of Aristotle cannot be properly esti- 
mated without remembering how in his treatment of Man 
the logical conception is sometimes predominant over the 
physical history. It was his habit to regard Man as a 
awoKop — a whole made up on the one side of the Material 
Cause, which in this case was some condition of Matter, and 
on the other of Form, to ri %v etvai, or essential nature, 
which, without entering into the question of its substance 
physically considered, was, with Aristotle, that specific differ- 
ence which lay at the base of the logical conception of the 
Species. It was the conjunction or implication of these two, 
brought about in the process of development by Cavsa 
Effieiem, that made up the total Man. The Material Cause, 



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42 PROFESSOR CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

in Aristotle's system, is a cause only so far as the Formal 
Cause coincides with it in the production of the <rwo\ov, the 
whole; and consequently the soul (\ffv)m) is simply the 
superior differentia of a certain generated organism. Here 
also he brought in his famous distinction between the Poten- 
tial and the Actual — to ov Sum/iei, and to op evepyeiqi. The 
soul is Potential (Swajxei) in the organism, and when in the 
process of development it, as Form, becomes implicated with 
the organism so that at a certain point the material organism 
may be said to assume its differentia; i.e. that which makes 
it different from all else — then, at that point, the soul be- 
comes Actual (ipepyeiy). Consequently he tells us it is vain 
to ask whether the body and soul are one. As well ask 
whether the wax and the impress are one, or whether Matter 
formative of an object and the object formed are one. The 
coexistence of the two, body and soul, make a live subject 
But in harmony with his doctrine of the production of higher 
types on the completed subjects of the lower — which germin- 
aJly is the doctrine of formation of new species — he, instead 
of speaking of Man as possessed of various faculties, repre- 
sents him as being constituted of various souls, developing as 
the complements the one of the other — the Nutritive, the 
Sentient, the Movent, the Appetitive, the Imaginative, and 
the Intelligent Now no doubt if we accept his statement 
that the coexistence, or rather implication, of body and soul 
make up one live subject — that the soul is the differentia in 
the development of organism — then, as the complement of 
the body and in some sense potential (Swa/xei) in the material 
out of which the organism arises, it can only be considered 
as logically distinct, and necessarily ceases with the breaking 
up of the body. But notwithstanding this it is remarkable 
that Aristotle's Dualism in reference to Man is as pronounced 
as well can be, and is thrown into bold relief by the repre- 
sentations to which I have just referred ; for he states con- 
cerning the origin of vou? t the Intelligent soul in Man, that 
it is superinduced on the Sentient and Imaginative soul from 
the supernal region* where the unclouded contemplative 
vow, which is there free from association with the lower 
forms of life, as here seen in material organisms, has its seat, 
and becomes a cause of located vov? on earth ; &e. of vow 
implicated with other pre-existing powers in Man. Tou may 
dispute his data, but you cannot dispute his Dualism. 

It. is a well-known fact that, between the decadence of 
Greece and the period subsequent to the Elizabethan era, no 

• Dt Qcneratumc An., iii. p. 736, Berlin Edition. 



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PROFESSOR CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 43 

substantial advance was made in the scientific study of Man. 
The transitory influence of the Stoics in favour of the Atomic 
Monism was overborne by the predominance in Alexandria 
of a modified Platonism, which, on the fall of Alexandria as 
a seat of intellectual influence, was supplanted in the West, 
more especially, by a perverted Aristotelianism. But on the 
reawakening of the human intellect, the old question of Man's 
Nature again came into prominence, and for a while Dualism 
had to invent metaphysical solutions for some of its admitted 
difficulties. A common impression has prevailed, the justness 
of which I may notice further on, that to hold to a Dualistic 
view of Man's Nature involves more difficulties of conception 
than to accept the Monistic, whether it be that which unifies 
all in ultimate matter, or, as in the case of Berkeley, in the 
non-materiaL At all events, such a man as Descartes, hold- 
ing, as he believed, on most indubitable grounds, the duality 
of Man's Nature, felt it incumbent on him to account, by a 
special hypothesis, for what was conceived to be the insuper- 
able difficulty of a non-material substance acting on, or being 
acted on, by a substance essentially material ; and therefore, 
to account for Jbhe observed apparent connection of the action 
of the one part of Man's Nature, on the other, Descartes adop- 
ted the doctrine of " Occasioned Causes," which means that 
for every action of the spirit, which, according to him,* had 
its seat in the Pineal Gland, there is brought about by the 
concurrent action and assistance of God a regular and corre- 
sponding action in the matter of the body, and vice versa, from 
the same cause, there arises a synchronous action of the mind 
with the action of the body ; that is to say, spirit and matter 
are the keys on which the Great First Cause produces notes 
respectively harmonious with those He produces on the other. 
The contribution made by Leibnitz to the solution of the 
question of Man's Nature has not received of late years the 
attention which, in my judgment, its suggestiveness and its pro- 
found anticipation of some of our modern doctrines demand. 
Dissatisfied with the Dualism of Descartes, rejecting the 
absolute Monism of Spinoza, and assuming as data the fact 
that our truest knowledge of power or force is that given in 
our own consciousness, and that all compounds are ultimately 
resolvable into ultimates in which Monadal activity is the 
real essence, he came to the conclusion that the universe, 
when worked down to its elements, consists of Monads — 
centres of activity, invisible, devoid of the material quality 
of extension, diverse in degree of activity, and, while not 

* Traits des Possums, 32. 



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44 PROFESSOR CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

acting by impact on one another, yet capable of acting each 
in relation to every other. The characteristic activity there- 
fore of these Monads is not the mere blind mechanical force 
which is treated of in our modern dynamics, but an internal 
quality, which, existing in various degrees, accounts for, in 
gradation, the unconscious semi-dormant substances (which 
have capacity of sustaining relations), the lowest form of 
consciousness, the more distinct perception in brutes and the 
highest eneigy of all, reason in Man. According to this, then, 
the universe consists of varied systems or segregations of 
graduated centres of activity, each centre, though acting from 
within in relation to every other, being nevertheless perfect 
and self-contained. "JSlles out en elles une certaine perfection " 
{exoxxn to eirreXeV) ; "il y a une mffisance " (avraptceia) " qui 
les rend sources de lews actions internes et pour ainsi dire des 
automates incorporeais"* 

This resolution of all things to Monads, endowed variously 
with the quality of activity, when received in relation to Man, 
necessitates that he be regarded as consisting of an aggrega- 
tion of Monads of the various grades below conscious activity 
— forming the physical organism — plus Monads of the sentient 
grade acting in relation to the aggregated inferior kinds, plus 
the highest created Monad, whose activity manifested in the 
form of reason constitutes the enduring personality. It will 
be found on examination of details that this Monism ap- 
proaches, in some of its postulates, very closely to that theory 
of a relative animation of all that bears the name of matter, 
which finds in our time very earnest advocates, f A reference 
to the words of Leibnitz J will show that he uses the term 
soul not to indicate an essentially distinct substance, but to 
denote those Monads in which a more distinct perception is 
accompanied by memory, and solely for the sake of distin- 
guishing their higher grade of activity. 

In taking this very brief review of the progress of opinion 
with reference to Man, it will have been noticed how very 
much of what was accepted was the result of speculation, 
how little was known of Man's natural history, and what 

* CEuvres de Leibnitz, Paris Ed. 1842. La Monadologie, 18. 

t Vide Haeckel's History of Creation, vol. i. p. 23. 

j Si nous voulons appeler dme tout ce qui a perceptions et appetits dans le 
sens general que je viens tfexpliquer, toutes Us substances simples ou Monodes 
criees pourraient Ure appeUes dmes; mais, comme le sentiment est quelque chose 
de plus qu' une simple perception, je consens que le nom general de Monodes et 
tfenUUehies suffise aux substances simples qui n'auront que cela, et qu* on 
appelle ames seulement celles dont la perception est plus distincte et accom- 
pagnde de menwire. Monadologie, 19. 



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PROFESSOR CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 45 

slight interest was awakened, beyond the limits of a small 
philosophical circle, in the discussions maintained and in the 
conclusions arrived at. A slight acquaintance with modern 
literature will suggest the contrast with the facts of the 
present time ; and the question naturally arises, How has it 
come to pass that the position of Man in relation to the 
Order of Nature has now come so much to the front, and is 
discussed on all sides with such intense interest? Apart 
from the considerations which must always yield interest 
to the study of Man, and to which I have already alluded, 
the general answer is, I think, to be found in the circum- 
stance that modern researches have, by a very natural 
process of enlargement and co-ordination, been observed to 
point in such a direction as to give occasion for the hypo- 
thesis of Evolution ; and so wide is the reach of this 
hypothesis that it is both logically and physically impossible 
to exclude the nature and origin of Man from its application. 
It is no new thing for a far-reaching hypothesis to be 
propounded as a solution of observed facts, as when the 
existence of luminiferous particles was assumed in days gone 
by to account for the phenomena of light, and the action of 
gravity to explain the movements of bodies towards one 
another. But the peculiarity of the hypothesis of Evolution 
in its effect on the public mind lies in the entire change it 
produces when applied to Man in our conceptions of his 
nature and origin. Men see themselves under the, shall I 
say light, or what? of this hypothesis as they never saw 
themselves before, and consequently the sensation produced 
is correspondingly profound. How this result has been 
brought to pass is familiar to all who have watched the 
development of modern Science, the tendency of which has 
been to put men in possession, by an analytic process, of the 
primitive condition of things out of which the harmonized 
Universe, as we now behold it, arose. As expounded by 
some, it professes to take the uninitiated by the hand, and lead 
them through strange and intricate paths up to the hypo- 
thetical starting-point of the varied changes which have 
culminated in what we now see and are. The geologist 
works continuously backwards to the time when the matter 
and forces now exposed to view in form of solid rock, fossil, 
sea, and soil, were, as such, non-existent, but only potential 
in a diffused indeterminate mass separated from other and 
probably similar masses of matter by the action of an inci- 
pient centripetal force. Others pushing research over a wider 
area, and stretching the scientific vision back to a still more 



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46 PROFESSOR CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

remote period, direct attention to the probability of other 
worlds being composed of substantially the same elements 
that enter into the structure of our own, and being under 
the one comprehensive law of gravity, as also to the proba- 
bility and, some would even say, the certainty that they all, 
in common with the matter now forming the earth, were 
existent at an inexpressibly remote period only in the form 
of a vast and highly attenuated Nebular Mass, within the 
mysterious folds of which all subsequent developments into 
starry worlds and organized bodies were potentially present 
in the most simple forms of Matter and Force. The con- 
clusions thus pointed to by those who study great masses 
obedient to their respective laws seem to be justified by the 
analysis and synthesis of the chemist, who can show us how 
to resolve some of the most closely-knit compounds into 
their elements, and also produce solid bodies out of elemental 
forms; and an ambition dwells in some minds even to be 
able to demonstrate that the elementary substances hitherto 
regarded as simple are but the product, by some primitive 
and unknown process, of a modification of one element. 
Now, confining exclusive attention to these tendencies of 
departments of Science, without considering what of fact 
may be otherwise obtainable or what breaks there may be 
observable in the line of supposed continuity, it is easy to 
see bow the scientific and the unscientific should lean alike 
toward the conclusion that the sum total of organized and 
unorganized bodies, liquids, and gases, is the simple outcome 
of the interaction from the beginning of ultimates of an 
exceedingly subtle character. 

Very naturally at this point the enquiry would arise 
whether there is any reason for including Man in the sweep 
of these scientific tendencies, or whether, seeing that he is 
the being who makes the investigations and endeavours to 
form an intellectual transcript of Nature, he is not by 
necessity, at least as a thinking being, excluded. As a 
matter of fact events have moved on in such a direction that 
it has become impossible to avoid the discussion involved in 
the alternative just stated, whatever be the issue of it in re- 
lation either to the organism or the mind of Man. Since the 
time when Oken and Kant suggested the possibility of Man's 
organization being connected by a long process of develop- 
ment with inferior animals, great attention has been devoted 
to questions touching the antiquity of the human race, the 
anatomical and physiological relations of Man to the lower 
orders, and the place of Man in the zoological succession; 



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PB0FES30R CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 47 

and as a consequence, it has been taught that, as truly as the 
geologist believes the solid rocks to be the steady and orderly 
outcome of the interaction of Matter and Force in differen- 
tiated existence when all was in a state of Nebulosity, — so 
Man, regarded as an organism superior to any other, is also the 
outcome of the interaction of differentiated Matter and Force, 
through a long line of more simple organisms, until at the 
point where living organism vanishes into an antecedent 
non-living condition of Matter, he is found to have his origin 
in the vast nebulous mass antedating the structure of the 
globe, which in its turn came forth from the interaction, 
through almost interminable ages, of the undifferentiated 
ultimates of Matter and Force. 

Of course this refers to Man considered as an organism, in 
which certain mechanical and chemical forces have concurred 
in producing a definite structure with appropriate functions. 
But the logic of the principle of Evolution so far as gathered 
from considerations just now stated is imperious, and the 
question naturally arose whether Life, as distinguished from 
the peculiar structure known as physical organism, was also 
something evolved out of a prior condition of things. Mr. 
Darwin, with the caution and discrimination for which he is 
so distinguished, has not presumed to deal scientifically with 
so subtle and remote a question, being content to trace, as he 
believes, the connection of Man's living organism with the 
early forms of life on earth. But others, feeling the pressure 
of the logical definition of Evolution as the getting of all 
differentiation out of that in which there is no differentiation, 
but the most absolute simplicity, have made manifold ex- 
periments to ascertain whether, in its lowest form, Life can 
be produced out of that which is not Life by what is, I must 
say, most unscientifically called ''spontaneous generation." 
Although researches in this direction have, on the admission 
of the greatest authorities, been utterly in vain, and although, 
as Haeckel candidly admits, failure here destroys the very 
principle of unbroken continuity which is involved in the con- 
ception of Evolution of all differentiations from one undiffer- 
entiated, yet he and others, with a daring more characteristic 
of the adventurer than of the calm man of science, have, in 
their desire to maintain a theoretic line of continuity with- 
out a single break from Man backwards to the original 
undifferentiated Matter and Force, by an extraordinary effort 
of the scientific imagination leapt at a single bound from the 
domain of organized Life right into that dim untraversed 
region where, before the faintest consciousness dawned in the 



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48 PROFESSOR CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

Universe, hard mechanical forces held undisputed sway among 
the particles of Matter ; and, what is most of all remarkable 
in this brilliant feat is, they have supposed that by its per- 
formance the Evolution of Life from dead unorganized 
Matter and Force has been scientifically established. 

But, note further, Man is more than organization animated 
by a Life which in its sensuous side bears affinity to other 
forms of Life. He is a Moral and Responsible being, 
conscious of a something which places him in a totally 
different category ; and of course the logic of the doctrine of 
Evolution forces on the enquiry as to whether that which we 
call Mind in Man — that which really constitutes his Per- 
sonality as a Moral and Responsible being — is not, also, the 
outcome of the interaction of the original undifferentiated 
Matter and Force. This enquiry has been pursued in a 
twofold direction. It has been the effort of some to show, 
from a comparison of Man's higher faculties with the grada- 
tions of reason said to be found in creatures beneath him, 
that, as his organism is relatively superior to theirs, and is 
evolved by a gradual process from them, so the higher nature 
of Man, his Mind, is a concurrent Evolution from Mind as 
existing in lower forms — Mind being in fact a resultant of 
superior physical organization, and not a distinct entity. 
This line of thought appears to have found encouragement in 
the researches of the Physiologist, who by a variety of ex- 
periments and acute observations has pointed out that the 
fact and the varieties of consciousness are determined pre- 
eminently by the condition of the grey matter of the cortex, 
and that certain functions of thought and action are probably 
correlated to definite parts of the brain. 

Thus I think it will be seen how it has come to pass that, 
in contrast with former times, the scientific investigations of 
our age, and the natural effect of the principles brought into 
prominence, should bring Man to the front, and create an 
interest hitherto unexampled. The broad issue raised by the 
line of thought to which I have referred is evidently this — 
whether Man in his totality of body and mind is simply the 
last link in a long chain of Evolution from an original con- 
dition of things in which undifferentiated Matter and Force 
were the sole existences ; or whether there is in Man a nature 
essentially distinct from, although always in association with, 
an organism which, whatever its origin as a specific form 
among other specific forms on the globe, is, in some very 
definite sense, the result of the interaction of molecular and 
chemical forces. In saying this it will be observed that I am 



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PROFESSOR CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 49 

stating the question in its broadest issue. It is Monism or 
Dualism in the most decisive . form — the Monism which 
consists of all that is human being the resultant of Matter 
and Force, as strictly as that the ocean is such a resultant, 
only that the human is in a later stage, and therefore the 
expression of greater complexities — the Dualism which 
claims for that which is said to constitute Personality a 
spiritual nature as distinct from the molecular intricacies 
which make up the rest of the man. Whether what is known 
as Matter and Force are in nature primarily dissimilar, or 
are but two faces of one reality, it is not necessary for our 
purpose to determine. Practically in this controversy, as a 
set-off against the spiritual nature of Mind, they are one. 

In thus setting forth what is regarded as the broad issue 
of the controversy concerning Man I would guard against 
doing injustice to many of the great labourers in this field of 
Science. There is a distinction to be drawn between the 
position taken by those who push the conception of Evolution, 
as a bare conception,* to its logical issue, and those who^ 
without troubling themselves with logical consequences and 
bold speculations beyond the ascertained facts of Science, are 
content to work on in their respective departments and hold 
judgment in suspense as to the ulterior questions. With 
respect to the actual conclusions arrived at in different fields 
of research it is not easy to speak with confidence, inasmuch 
as competent authorities are not fully agreed, while on the 
logic of Evolution as a bare conception, as I have said, many 
prefer not to speak. On the question of the Antiquity of 
Man much light has been thrown by researches in Europe 
and America. A vast accumulation of facts clearly points to 
times a long way beyond the first lines of history. But while 
a few here and there think they find evidence of the existence 
of Man even in the Miocene period, others, less eager for age, 
are content to place him in the Pliocene, while others, having 
as they think due regard to all the facts of the case, think 

* There can be no doubt but that Evolution as a conception means the 

Setting out of the strictly undifferentiated all that is in the slightest degree 
ifferentiated. It requires the minimum of original simplicity for all that is 
now complex. Those who entertain this conception are perfectly logical in 
working back all that now is to a something entirely free from differentiation. 
But a conception of Evolution as a form of thought arrived at by a process 
of abstraction and generalization is one thing : the existence of a fact in 
Nature answering to it is another. The fact that we have the conception 
does not warrant us to argue from its nature as a logical form to realities in 
the history of the Universe. The schoolmen of the Middle Ages were guilty 
of this unscientific practice, and is there not danger of others getting into 
the snare ? 



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50 PROFESSOR CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

that they are within the limits warranted by a just induction 
in assigning the most ancient traces to the Post- Glacial 
epoch, or 7000 or 8000 years ago. Then, also, in respect to 
Man's natural history, it is well known that Mr. Darwin 
believes there is sufficient evidence for converting the hypo- 
thesis of the Evolution of Man from the first forms of life 
on earth, by a process of Natural Selection, into a fairly 
es f ablished fact of Science, while there are others who, ad- 
mitting very wide degrees of variation in species, do, with all 
possible respect for his judgment, decidedly differ from him. 
The inchoate state of the whole question is perhaps seen also 
in this, that, while Mr. Wallace is regarded as joint pro- 
pounder with Mr. Darwin of the theory of Evolution by 
Natural Selection, he excludes the higher nature of Man 
from its operation. In the department of Physiology of the 
Brain a considerable variety of interesting facts have been 
noted by Maudsley, Ferrier, Carpenter, Bastian„and others, 
but the conclusions arrived at as to the Monism or Dualism 
of Man's nature are by no means identical It was owing to 
this acknowledged diversity of judgment in the interpretation 
of facts, combined with the result of independent research, 
that, before his lamented decease, and in the last production 
of his fertile pen, Agassiz expressed* his inability to accept 
the doctrine of Evolution as expounded by Darwin ; and for 
the same reasons Virchow confronted Haeckel's proposition 
that Evolution should be taught as an accepted doctrine in 
the public schools of Germany, by the declaration f that the 
Evolution of Man was not yet proved. 

The fact that so much energy of the scientific world is 
concentrated on this question cannot but arise from the 
presence in Nature of much that gives reasonableness at 
least to some form of a doctrine of Evolution. There is 
obviously so much in the structure of the earth, in the 
ascertained condition of the sun and stars, in the elaboration 
of complicated individual organisms from the most simple 
cellular conditions, in the incessant variations observable in 
animal and vegetable structures, in the graduated instincts 
and powers of observation in creatures below Man, and in 
the subtle character of matter when analysed into its simplest 
forms, to suggest a gradual process of world-building, — that it 
is conceivable enough how all this, when placed in a certain as- 
pect, excluding other important considerations, and when com- 
bined with a philosophic yearning after unity, should incline 

* Vide Atlantic Monthly, January, 1874. 

t Vide Freedom, of Science in the Modern Stale, p. 63. 



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PROFESSOR CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 51 

many to interpret the special facts relating to the Antiquity 
of Man, his anatomical and physiological relation to lower 
orders, and the dependence of Thought on a certain condition 
of the grey substance of the brain, in such a way as to see in 
man the outcome of a long continued process of evolution, 
even from the most undifferentiated forms of Matter and 
Force. But, on the other hand, when we remember that 
scientific research is yet in its infancy ; that although there 
are remarkable similarities of structure and function in 
graduated line between Man and inferior organisms, yet the 
theory proceeds on the tacit and unprovable assumption that 
if Evolution in this sense be not the law of the universe, 
such similarities would not or could not exist ; that though 
many great variations have been known to take place under 
domestication, no one case of actual formation of a new 
species has yet been established ; and that, considering the 
vast number of minute variations which, by hypothesis, must 
have occurred before definite permanent species were evolved, 
the traces of variation ought to be almost infinite in compari- 
son with the traces of species which at last survived in the 
struggle for existence, whereas, to take one instance for illus- 
tration, the tailless ape, which is said to have been the form 
that gave rise in the Pleiocene or Pleistocene period to a higher 
grade, from which at last, by still further minute variations, 
Man came, still exists, while, strange to say, no single trace 
is found of the countless host of superior creatures which 
must have lived to fill up the enormous gap of 28i inches of 
cranial capacity between it and the lowest man, — I say, when 
we remember such facts as these, it is not surprising that 
such men as I have named should hesitate to give their 
adhesion to so wide-reaching a conclusion. 

Let it be borne in mind that I have distinguished between 
two forms of the doctrine of Evolution in relation to Man- 
that which is concerned with his organism, in so far as it is 
related to lower forms of life on the globe, connecting him, 
through his Pithecanthropic ancestors, with the earliest form 
of life, and the other, which not content to stop at the earliest 
form of life on earth, deduces Man in his entirety from the 
same undifferentiated Matter and Force which by interaction 
make up all else in the universe. So far as the former and 
more moderate view is concerned, it is obviously a question 
of evidence to be gathered from a careful study of the past 
history of the globe, and one can well afford to wait for 
further information; but the resolution of Man in all that 
makes him what he is intellectually, morally, and physically, 

D 2 



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52 PROFESSOR CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRES8. 

into the simple interaction of molecular forces, so far trans- 
cends the sphere of observation, and, when closely examined, 
so puts speculation and mere conjecture in the place of 
scientific induction, and brings into doubt convictions hitherto 
regarded as lying at the base of all knowledge and practice, 
that many feel bound even to exclude its consideration from 
the circle of subjects strictly scientific. 

It is important to note exactly what this extreme view of 
the. nature and origin of Man really means and involves. It 
is Monism of the most absolute and uncompromising kind, 
since it is a denial of Mind as a real substance or nature 
distinct in essence from Matter under the action of Force. 
It is only a name foe the product of two cunningly implicated 
factors, Matter and Force, or, in stricter phrase, the name 
given to a fleeting succession of such products. There is 
something harsh beyond all expression, and I will venture to 
say utterly unscientific, in the assertion of Voght that 
" thoughts bear the same relation to the brain as the gall to 
the liver,"* and of Blichner, that "the same power which 
digests by means of the stomach thinks by means of the 
brain." f In all ages men have been accustomed to think 
and speak of their Personality, attaching to that term an idea 
more distinct and commanding than any other that enters 
into the sum of human knowledge. It is the Rational unity 
of our being amidst all the changes of our organism through 
a course of three-score years and ten, and from this, the only 
conception of our nature, as datum, we have been accustomed 
to think and speak of Personality beyond ourselves. But 
obviously if that which alone we call and know as Personality 
is simply the resultant of the action of molecular forces in 
the grey matter of the brain, and has no other reality ; if it 
thus has no essential permanence as an identifiable seat of 
conscious power, but is, in its very nature, as much a transi- 
tory effect as is the form of a leaf or the waving of a fan, 
then of course we can have no reason for thinking of any 
Personality, human or more than human, than as being of 
the same kind. If we suppose any other Personality to be 
different from ours — a seat of conscious power, a real being, 
and not a resultant of molecular forces — then we use words for 
which we have no corresponding idea in the whole range of 
human knowledge, or else we arbitrarily create an idea of 
Personality different from what we know Personality to be. 
They are keen, far-seeing, and logically thoroughgoing men 

* Lange's Hist. Materialism, vol. ii. p. 312. " 
t Vide Matter and Farce, p. 125. 



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PROFESSOR CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 53 

who, in getting rid of human Personality as a seat of con- 
scious power, admit that they clear out from the universe all 
Personal Power. 

Now I do not make these observations by way of reason- 
ing from consequences in favour of a certain theory, but to 
exhibit the essential distinction between the two views con- 
cerning the Evolution of Man — the moderate and the extreme, 
and to indicate the real question pushed into the foreground 
in the name of Science. Whether the more moderate view 
of the Evolution of Man leads up logically to this other I 
do not stay to consider, nor to indicate how far Science and 
the logic of theoretical views really differ and are independent 
the one of the other. That such a position should be taken 
by some in reference to Man, and be urged on public attention 
with much emphasis, certainly explains the tension of the 
public mind on the question, and may be accepted as a justi- 
fication for the few observations which, before I close, it is 
my desire to submit for your candid consideration. 

It is important, in pushing our researches into the nature 
and origin of Man, that we be exceedingly sure in the prin- 
ciples on which we proceed. There are, of course, definite 
principles of physical Science on which scientific men are 
supposed to proceed in all their researches into the constitu- 
tion of the physical universe ; and it may be supposed that 
the adoption of these in their application to the questions 
involved in the existence of Man will suffice. But that does 
not at all follow, because to do so is to assume beforehand 
that this is purely a physical question, or that no consider- 
ations apply here which do not apply to every other subject 
of investigation. A moment's reflection ought to show that 
this is a petitio principii viewed as an argument, and a random 
method viewed as a procedure. It will be in the knowledge 
of some here, that a few years since Du Bois Saymond raised 
in Germany the question of the Limits of Natural Science ; 
and at the present time there are profound thinkers who 
doubt whether it is at all possible to find a solution of the 
human problem by the observance of the rules of ordinary 
scientific procedure as applied to subjects indisputably phy- 
sical. The same admission is tacitly and unwittingly made 
by those who as physicists declare that they will accept 
nothing but what can be demonstrably shown to exist by the 
appliances usually in vogue. Now in dealing with the ques- 
tion of Man, such persons should ask whether they can as 
certainly establish the causal connexion of molecular changes 
and the phenomena of consciousness, as they can of mo- 



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54 PROFESSOR CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

lecular changes and the phenomena confessedly physical; 
whether these phenomena do not form a distinct class in the 
universe as against all other phenomena ; and whether, there- 
fore, the problem does not need for its solution a wider range 
of postulates than the ordinary problems of Science. 

In this connexion there is forced on our notice the question 
of our fundamental knowledge. Is it not often assumed that we 
know the physical best, and even that only ? Objective forms 
and forces are supposed to be the most real, and some would 
say the only real things. But I believe a more thorough 
examination of the contents of human knowledge will reveal 
the fact that our first, deepest, surest knowledge is not of the 
objective thing or being, but of self as a real being. Indeed, 
the very term u Physical," and the very conception of objec- 
tive physical reality, imply as their necessary correlate the 
non-physical subjective thing or being that knows. It ap- 
pears to me that as the obverse of a coin necessitates the 
existence of the reverse as an equal reality, so the existence of 
the physical thing or being as known implies, if language 
means anything, and the whole fabric of knowledge is not a 
delusion, the existence of a rum-physical thing or being AS 
knowing. Those who approach the question of Man from 
the side of physical observation exclusively, may feel the 
thrall of purely physical conceptions, and never be able to 
get beyond them ; but the corrective of this danger is to be 
found in a concurrent approach from the subjective side, 
which gives primary knowledge of self, and so furnishes the 
other pole in the sphere of truth. 

And now, having said this in reference to the principles 
appropriate to the investigation, let me further say that we 
may be quite fearless in our search after truth in relation to 
this question of Man. A true man does not fear what comes 
of finding truth. The very genius of Science is to ask what 
is true, and to hold it fast at any cost Here Morality and 
Science are at one. The investigator should go forth with a 
mind as untrammelled by fears as by preferences, keenly 
alive to the presence around him of Truth in various guise. 
Whatever consequences ensue they cannot but be right and 
good if truth be found, although it is a sound maxim that we 
may question our possession of truth when that we hold is 
inconsistent with fundamental facts of our nature. The 
history of knowledge shows us that hasty generalizations 
have had a charm for the human spirit, but what ascendency 
may be obtained by interpretations of the Universe which 
are not in accord with actual feet, will and can be only 



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PROFESSOR CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 55 

transitory. Things as they are will not be modified in the 
slightest by any human attempt to crystallize them into 
forms of conception which, because human, and therefore 
limited, are always disproportionate to the reality. If con- 
clusions arrived at by a process of observation and judgment 
are valid, succeeding ages of intelligence will only lay more 
bare the solid foundations on which they repose ; and should 
it happen that they clash with our wishes and traditional 
views of things, the inconvenience will be but temporary; 
our intellectual and emotional life will adjust itself to the 
order of Nature. No doubt erroneous judgments entertained, 
even though termed Scientific, exercise in their bearing on 
the mental and moral life a detrimental influence ; for it is 
the teaching of history that error as to fact, and false judg- 
ment in any degree, disturb to the extent of the error or 
falsity the balance of the man, and render the development 
of his nature imperfect. Nevertheless, there is this com- 
pensating consideration suggested by a careful study of the 
past, that what is or seems wrong and disturbing in the 
course of a tedious development towards perfect knowledge 
is, in due time, so marvellously manipulated by an all- 
controlling Power and Wisdom as to be wrought up into 
varied combinations with more powerful agents for the 
realization of results obviously good We may, therefore, 
with calm and fearless spirit, survey the efforts of all earnest 
workers in scientific fields, being assured that what is worth- 
less will perish, or will mediately contribute to more cautious 
observation ; and that any uneasiness which the transitory 
prevalence of strictly unscientific views may create will in 
the end render us more appreciative of the broader and more 
stable views into which the conflict of truth with error is 
sure to evolve. 

But Man is a creature of many necessities, and cannot 
afford to allow his nature to be thrown out of balance by the 
sole exercise of any one class of emotions, fieinembering 
that the area of knowledge is far wider than our keenest 
vision, that we necessarily see here and there only traces of 
the infinitely interwoven threads of fact and law, and that 
our discovery of what seems to be a hitherto concealed law 
tends to an emotional excitement dangerous in its influence 
on the judgment — it is clear that the fearlessness of the lover 
of truth should be accompanied by very much caution. We 
lay just claim to the designation scientific when a keen and 
wide observation of facts is conjoined with deliberateness and 
care in the arrangement and judgment of them. There is a 



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56 PROFESSOR CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

fascination in a far-reaching hypothesis, inasmuch as, being a 
mental creation, it carries with it all the charm attaching to 
our own offspring. The region of speculation so closely 
abuts on the usual lines of research that unless great care is 
used we may be freely traversing the one under the im- 
pression that we are within the limits of the other. Agassiz, 
not without reason I presume, expressed* his regret that 
many seemed disposed to deviate from the patient paths of 
research as though the purposes of Science were best pro- 
moted by hasty speculation. A scientific formula indicating 
the position of Man as the highest point of Evolution from 
original undifferentiated Matter and Force practically becomes 
a formula for the entire Universe, since it postulates the two 
poles of existence, and the law of their connection. Consider- 
ing how little we know of Matter itself, how almost inter- 
minable must have been the changes in its condition before 
forms known to us became cognizable, and not forgetting the 
fragmentary character of many of the facts which in relation 
to Man have actually come under observation — there is, at 
all events, some justification for the exercise of a cautious 
reserve in pronouncing a dogmatic judgment 

Whatever department of research you enter on it will be 
found that however certain facts may seem to point to the 
Evolution of Man, there are, as I have hinted, gaps and 
weaknesses which at least suggest a suspension of judgment. 
Thus, until great authorities are agreed as to the conditions 
under which human remains found their way into certain 
drifts and deposits, and also as to the time required for the 
formation in past ages of stalagmite and drifts, the question 
of less or more remote antiquity must remain to that degree 
a matter of debate ; while it should be observed that if you 
decide the fossil men to belong to the Pliocene period, you 
thereby weaken the force of other evidence for Evolution, 
inasmuch as the fossil men said to be of that remote period 
are proved by comparison of the relics of them with known 
relics of the historic period, to have been not less men than 
multitudes now living on the earth. Had more caution been 
shown in years gone by in reference to the deposits of the 
valley of the Somme, which had ascribed to them a very 
remote antiquity, Professor Huxley would have been saved 
the trouble of setting aside favourite conclusions by saying, 
at the Sheffield meeting of the British Association, "The 
question of time in this case could not be settled satisfactorily. 
Few persons except men of science were aware that there 
* Atlantic Monthly, January, 1874. 



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PROFESSOR CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 57 

had been enormous changes daring the last five hundred 
years in the North of Europe. The volcanoes of Iceland had 
been continually active, great floods of lava had been poured 
forth, and the level of the coast had been most remarkably 
changed. Similar causes might have produced enormous 
changes in the valley of the Somnie ; therefore any arguments 
based as to time upon the appearance of the valley were not 
to be trusted." Then if we turn to another branch of the 
same question there is equal reason for extreme caution. For 
although there is an unquestionable correspondence between 
the anatomy and physiology of the Ape and Man, yet, as I 
have already pointed out, there is enough to create, at least, 
a judicious reserve, in the fact that between the lowest Man 
and highest Ape there exists the enormous difference of 
28J inches of cranial capacity, which, unless we deny the 
whole theory of Evolution by saying that this gap was 
overcome at a bound, necessarily implies a long succession of 
crfeatures superior to existing Apes and inferior to the lowest 
Man; and yet if these did exist we have not the slightest 
evidence of the fact either alive in the forest or fossil in the 
rocks, so that, contrary to the law of Natural Selection, the 
least fitted to survive have survived, and the most fitted to 
survive have perished in the struggle for existence. And, 
finally, turning to the Physiology of the Brain, there can be 
no doubt that, although recent investigations are by no means 
complete, yet a real dependence of mental phenomena on the 
structure of the brain is established, and Dr. Ferrier has 
certainly shown that in reference to certain movements there 
are functional centres in the brain. But when you reflect on 
the essential distinction between thought or consciousness 
and any known effect of molecular action, how the one 
cannot be expressed in the terms of the other, and is not 
convertible quantitatively or in any other way into the other, 
is there not a truly scientific spirit in hesitating to pronounce 
mental phenomena as being simply the outcome of molecular 
action, as truly as, though more subtlely than, are phenomena 
distinctly physical ? I say, then, the area over which fact is 
to be found, and the extreme intricacy and delicacy of the 
questions involved in the scientific study of Man, necessitate 
a most cautious exercise of the judgment. 

There is, however, another consideration I would urge as 
very important in our study of the nature and origin of Man, 
and it is this — that we ought not to suffer ourselves to be mis- 
led by the supposition of getting rid of difficulties, or, by the 
adoption of the extreme view of Evolution, of reducing the dif- 



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58 PROFESSOR CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRKS& 

Acuities inherent in the subject, much less of obtaining for it 
the demonstration which Physical Science demands. 

The fact that a being attempts to solve the mystery of his 
own existence is itself the most wonderful of phenomena, 
and is suggestive of difficulty. There is, if I mistake not, a 
vague impression in scientific and unscientific circles that, by 
assigning to Man a duality of nature ; i.e. by speaking of him 
as consisting of, on the one side, a very elaborate organism 
in which molecular changes account for growth, movement, 
form, and function; and on the other side, a non-material 
entity, or being, a personal seat of power distinct from, though 
associated with, molecular action, we affirm that of which we 
can form no conception, for the existence of which we have 
no satisfactory evidence, and which, if admitted to exist, 
would destroy the equilibrium of the forces of nature. That 
is the supposed difficulty of the Dualistic view, whereas the 
Monist who regards what is termed Mind as a mere name, a 
symbol of the varied product of the interaction of the Matter 
and Force which has built up all else, is supposed simply to 
follow up his physical evidence, not going beyond it, and so 
rests in conceptions familiar and verified. 

Now, on the question of the possibility of conception of a 
substantive part of Man's Nature, which is not physical, nor 
a physical resultant, but a seat of knowledge and power ; all 
depends on what is meant by conception. It is true we 
largely think in figures derived from physical objects, and yet 
I venture to affirm that some of our most important concep- 
tions of things are never touched by any alloy of physical 
extension, colour, or form. A conception of an act of con- 
sciousness is familiar to all, and this is certainly free from 
physical alloy. A thinking process is also thinkable; we 
conceive it as truly a reality as is the shooting of stars, and 
yet under no form derivable from physical facts ; for what- 
ever element of time there may be in it is an element derived 
from the succession of pure acts of consciousness. No man, 
I imagine, will deny the reality of an act of consciousness on 
the ground that it is not thinkable under a physical image, 
or some form recognized by Physical Science. I say, then, no 
scientific man, who is true to facts, and is guided in his judg- 
ment by every class of fact, can maintain that no conceptions 
are valid except they be such as come within Physical Science 
proper, or are under form of physical image, and that conse- 
quently we are only t ) believe in the existence of that which 
we can conceive of under such a form. Nor indeed is it 
possible for the physical investigator to carry on his re- 



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PROFESSOR CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 59 

searches, and at the same time be consistent with this erroneous 
opinion; for obviously he who resolves all Matter into centres 
of Force would at once destroy his own theory, since he would 
be obliged to confess that a centre of Force being without ex- 
tension cannot exist, inasmuch as that is a thing of which 
we can form no conception. Moreover, the whole of our 
modern Science rests on the action around us of Force ; but 
though we know of the presence of Force by changes wrought 
in the relative position of bodies and particles, I venture to 
say that no one can form a conception of it that answers to 
the reality, unless in the same way, and on the same principle 
of being an invisible cause of visible effects, that we form a 
conception of an invisible non-material nature of Man as the 
cause of Thought and Volition. The Duality of Man's Nature, 
then, is not set aside because of the difficulty of conceiving 
of something devoid of the properties of extension, colour, 
and form. 

As to the evidence of the existence of such a nature, you 
do not get rid of difficulty by denial of evidence : for when 
the physiologist has completed his examination of the con- 
volutions of the brain, and the molecular changes of the grey 
matter of the cortex, what does he find ? He finds a certain 
physical structure and molecular movements — so far his 
Science goes, and no Further — but he does not find Thought 
or Consciousness; he neither sees Thought nor the nexus 
between a molecular change of the grey matter and Thought. 
The conscious Thought does not come under his tests. If he 
in his darkness infers that Consciousness is exclusively the 
resultant of certain molecular movements, he tacitly admits 
that the chain of demonstration there comes to an end, and has 
to confront the enormous difficulty of getting out of molecular 
movements, by mere inference, that which, in its very nature, 
is unique in the universe, being utterly unlike all else obtain- 
able from molecular changes. On the other hand, the diffi- 
culty in the evidence of the Monist is not nearly so formidable. 
For the most assured facts within the range of human know- 
ledge are above all demonstration by physical processes — 
such as our own existence and personal identity. Moreover, 
the fact that an invisible and undetectable ether — a some- 
thing never seen, never amenable to physical appliances — is 
assumed to exist in order to account for the phenomena of 
light, as a substitute for the old hypothesis of luminiferous 
particles, is certainly a justification for the assumption of an 
invisible, undetectable something, in excess of a correlated 
molecular arrangement, as the explanation of phenomena far 



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60 PROFESSOR CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

more subtle and mysterious than are the physical facts in- 
volved in the phenomena of light. It is an admitted prin- 
ciple in Scientific Induction, that when you have a whole 
class of phenomena — separated by their peculiarities from all 
other phenomena — and which are not demonstrated to pro- 
ceed from any given cause, you then are warranted in assum- 
ing as their cause the existence of something else; and 
therefore the Dualist, in ascribing the unique phenomena of 
Consciousness to a distinct non-physical cause, in correlation 
with a physical organ, on the ground that no physical cause 
can be shown to produce them, and that they are altogether 
dissimilar in qualities from all that is known to flow from 
physical causes, is acting strictly as a man of true Science, 
and, so far as evidence is concerned, is less encumbered with 
difficulty than is the Monist. 

There is just one other point of difficulty to which I must 
allude, because it is felt by many scientific men to be almost 
insuperable. It is a postulate of modern Science that Force 
is one and indestructible ; it admits of no increase, no dimi- 
nution. The forms of its action are infinitely variable and 
varying, but it keeps up amidst the bodies and particles of 
Nature its self-contained equilibrium, or rather readjustment 
If, then, in the nature of Man you admit Mind as something 
that is not Force and not Matter, or not the resultant of the 
interaction of these two, and which, by hypothesis, is a power 
that strikes in on the order of Nature, you practically intro- 
duce into the physical order another Force in the rear of that 
one Force which acts in and on the molecules — a Force too 
which is supposed to be inactive, except by fits of exertion. 
Now, obviously there is in this way of presenting the diffi- 
culty something rather embarrassing, when one overlooks a 
very subtle yet huge assumption. For you will observe that 
the objection to the Dualistic nature of Man proceeds on the 
supposition that Force, as known by the senses to act on and 
among particles of Matter, constitutes with that Matter the 
totality of Nature, and consequently all else that may be 
spoken of is to be conceived as outside Nature, and its sup- 
posed action as an impossible intrusion rib extra, which, of 
course, it is if Nature be complete without it. But here may 
it not be asked, Is not this the very question at issue ? With 
justice the Dualist may say, " I cannot allow you, if you 
want to prove that there cannot be such a thing as Mind 
Power, which is neither Matter nor Force nor their effect, to 
assume at the outset that Matter and Force constitute the 
totality of Nature." If the phenomena of Consciousness as 



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PROFESSOR CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 61 

seen in Thought and Will are such as cannot, on the principles 
of Physical Science, be clearly proved to come from or to 
consist in molecular action, then, as we have seen, some other 
sufficient cause must be assumed, and this necessity existing, 
that other cause is thereby shown to be in Nature, and a 
complement to that Force which in like manner we know not 
in itself, but from its peculiar effects. As to the conceivability 
of a Mind Power distinct in kind from the Force which acts 
in Matter, and both co-existing with it and able to modify its 
action, this, I imagine, will not be found so great a difficulty 
as the conceivability of Force, while acting in Matter, trans- 
muting itself into so marvellous and opposite a thing as 
Thought and conscious Volition, and yet, if the doctrine of 
Conservation of Force be true, remaining Force as really as 
before the transmutation. I submit this to the calm consider- 
ation of physical investigators, and would ask whether belief 
in a fton-physical being as cause is not a scientific necessity. 
The subject widens before our view ; but I must be content 
with these few observations, and a word or two in conclusion. 
We shall do well to bear in mind what I have indicated; 
namely, that the two parts of this great question of the 
scientific position of Man are to be kept distinct in respect to 
the kind of evidence admissible to their successful treatment. 
There are, I admit, some very significant indications pointing 
to the possibility of the human organism being allied by 
descent with other inferior organisms, and, although I think 
there are at present more counter indications pointing in 
another direction, yet the question at issue is fairly one of 
further scientific evidence, and we may welcome any patient 
investigator who can furnish us with additional facts on 
which to frame our judgment Should it be indisputably 
shown that the Great Author of all things has been pleased 
to exercise His creative energy in this way rather than any 
other, we shall not the less adore the Wisdom and the Power, 
and shall have no difficulty in modifying interpretations in 
another department of truth in harmony with modified 
interpretations of Nature. But in reference to the other 
part of this question, I do not see that we are to expect any 
further evidence in the domain of Physical Science ; for no 
research of a physical kind can add to or alter our con- 
ception of what Consciousness is as a something unique in 
the world of things, since it has been the same in all ages, 
and in all stages of cultured and uncultured life, and, from 
the nature of the case, cannot be otherwise. Nor can re- 
search of a physical kind bridge the chasm which cuts off 



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62 PROFESSOR CHAPMAN'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

consciousness from the nature of molecular action, and from all 
known effects of that action, since the chasm remains as wide 
to the philosopher as to the peasant, and is not, from the 
nature of the case, a question of degree. Nor, further, can 
it ever destroy the necessary antithesis of material and wow- 
material, since that lies at the base of all knowledge, and is 
the condition of all thinkable fact 

That a noo-material being who finds himself in a Universe 
of material arrangements of varied complexity, amidst which 
he is to act his part, should be conditioned in the develop- 
ment of his true self by an organism of more or less com- 
plexity, and should not be able to act independently of its 
health or weakness — this is in perfect harmony with all we 
know of subordination of means to ends and of mutual depen- 
dence ; and further, that in very diverse degree, from the dim 
sense of being barely alive experienced by the Amoebae up to 
the perfect animation of buoyant manhood, a Divine munifi- 
cence should so scatter the blessing of conscious existence as to 
make almost every inch on the globe an abode of delight — 
the delight of life — this is a conception in which human 
reason and beneficence can rejoice. Shadows, no doubt, there 
are over human existence which rob Man of much that he 
would otherwise enjoy as part of the natural heritage of 
sentient beings, and by reason of the disorder of his moral 
nature he, alone of all creatures, may, in his impatience of 
limitation, often turn the measure of light obtained to the 
torment rather than to the solace of his own spirit Never- 
theless, if conscious of, and rejoicing in, the fact of our 
distinct personality, and inspired by faith in a grand and 
interminable existence, we are content to press on in the 
pathway of knowledge, and are careful to keep ourselves 
calm amidst conflicting opinions, and pure in heart amidst 
incitements to evil, then we have reason to believe, on the 
best of testimonies, that, instead of being burdened with a 
sense of spiritual orphanage in a vast arena where stern 
necessity remorselessly crushes alike our hopes and our fears, 
we shall, as the offspring of the Great Father of Spirits, 
attain to a fair measure of truth for the present education of 
our nature, shall enrich our posterity with enduring treasures 
of wisdom and goodness, and, by the help of Him who is the 
Light of the World, rise to an elevation from which, with 
undimmed eye, we may look onward with eager desire to our 
future inheritance of knowledge, of purity, and of restful joy 
in the Eternal Source of all Good. 



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©bituarp Notices. 

COMPILED BT THE B.EV. W. HARPLBY, M.A., HON. SBORBTAB.T OF THE ASSOCIATION. 
(Bead at Dawlish, July, 1861.) 



I. 

W. Cann was a foundation member of the Association, and 
a Vice-President during the year 1875-6. 

So long as his health permitted he was a constant attender 
of the meetings of the Association. He died at Exeter, 
December 7th, 1880, at the age of 82 years. 

1L 

Charles Hugh Clifford, of Chudleigh, Baron, son of the 
7th Baron, and Count of the Holy Soman Empire, was born 
27th July, 1819, and died, after many months of patient 
suffering, on 5th August, 1880. He was educated at Stony- 
hurst and Prior Park, Bath ; and finally studied for two 
years at Munich. He then travelled in India and the East 
for about two years. He succeeded to the title in February, 
1858, having married Agnes Louisa Catherine, youngest 
daughter of William, Lord Petre, on September 30th, 1845. 

Lord Clifford joined the Devonshire Association in 1873, 
and was a Vice-President at the Teignmouth meeting, when 
the Earl of Devon presided. That was the only time Vhen 
Lord Clifford attended the meetings; but he always ex- 
pressed a warm interest in the Association, and would have 
been present at the Ilfracombe meeting if it had been 
possible. Those who knew the late Lord Clifford well, knew 
what was not so generally known from his simple and 
retiring habits, that his intelligence and reading eminently 
qualified him to enter into the subjects dealt with by the 
Devonshire Association for the promotion of Science, 



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64 OBITUARY NOTICES. 

Literature, and Art. Its members felt a just pride in having 
his name amongst them. 

And those, it may be permitted us to say, who had any 
opportunity of observing his inner life, could not, however 
they might differ from him, fail to see and admire the high 
religious tone which guided his daily conduct, and made all 
intercourse with him a privilege. For the great change, 
that came early to him, his family motto was eminently true, 
semper paratvs. 

ill. 

P. 0. Hingston, of Kingsbridge, became a member of the 
Association on the occasion of its visit to that town in 1877. 
Few men were held in higher esteem or were better known 
in his locality than he was. By his unostentatious charity, 
simplicity of manners, and good-will towards all, he endeared 
himself to every one with whom he was brought into com- 
munication. His success was that of character over circum- 
stances. Commencing as a clerk with the late Mr. W. Beer, 
he continued to rise higher by his conscientious devotion to 
duty, until he acquired a reputation that anyone might well 
aspire to obtain. No one in the locality was more trusted 
and more frequently applied to for advice, as well in public 
as in private matters ; indeed kindness may be said to have 
been the most prominent feature in his character. Unwilling 
at all times to give pain, he was ever ready to give advice, 
and bestow charity wherever it was needed, so that no one 
appealed to him in vain who was really in want Mr. 
Hingston profitably filled many public appointments, and 
was identified from their foundation with the disposal of the 
most prominent of the local charities. 

He died on the 26th March, 1881, at the comparatively 
early age of 54 years. 

IV. 

Dr. Hodgson was born at Edinburgh in 1815, and educated 
in the High School and University of that city, where he 
took his degree. From the first it was his intention to 
devote himself entirely to the work of education, and after 
having been engaged for some years as private tutor and in 
other capacities in his native town, he went to Liverpool in 
1839. Here, at the age of 23, he was engaged as secretary 
to the Liverpool Institute, of which important establishment 
he subsequently became principal. In this position he 
directed three day schools and evening classes, which 



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OBITUARY NOTICES. 65 

numbered more than 1,700 scholars. Besides the general 
direction which he gave to that exacting task, he also acted 
as head master of the High School, and there he first became 
known as a successful teacher and an eminent educational re- 
former. In 1846, in recognition of his labours in the cause of 
popular instruction, he had conferred on him the Edinburgh 
degree of LL.D. In 1847 he went to Manchester as principal 
of the Chorlton High School, and though his influence as a 
schoolmaster was extraordinary, yet it may be averred that 
during the four years in which he undertook this duty his 
services as a public man were even more remarkable ; for it 
was during this period that the Lancashire Public School 
Association was founded, a society now generally acknow- 
ledged as having given an impetus to the movement which 
resulted in the passing of the Elementary Education Act of 
1870. This association was established in the vestry of 
Lloyd Street Chapel by five gentlemen — Dr. Hodgson, Mr. 
Jacob Bright, Mr. Samuel Lucas, Mr. A. Ireland, and Mr. 
Thomas Ballantyne. The outline of a plan of local educa- 
tion was there laid, and this, when it was fully developed, 
was unanimously adopted at a public meeting in the 
Mechanics 1 Institution. How sagacious Dr. Hodgson was at 
that time in council, and how eloquent on the platform, there 
are many who will remember. In this connection it may be 
stated that he had long been an intimate friend of Dr. 
Andrew Combe and other pioneers of popular instruction, 
and that Mr. Cobden was one of his most cordial colleagues 
in the movement then initiated at Manchester. 

Dr. Hodgson went abroad in 1851, and remained some time 
on the Continent. He visited, in the course of his prolonged 
tour, France, Germany, Italy, and Switzerland ; and it is 
needless to state that during the years he spent there he lost 
no opportunity of making himself intimately acquainted with 
the theory and practice of education in those countries. In 
1854 he returned to Edinburgh, and for several winters he was 
actively engaged in extending and improving the then exist- 
ing system of instruction in schools. To his efforts was 
mainly due the introduction of economic and what were then 
called " sanitary " subjects. His friend, Dr. Combe, had long 
advocated the teaching of physiology in schools as the means 
of promoting physical health, and Dr. Hodgson was enabled 
to prove the efficacy of a theory which was then almost an 
entire novelty. When in 1859 the Royal Commission on 
primary schools was appointed, Dr. Hodgson's long and 
valuable services marked him out to the government of the 

vol. xiu. E 



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66 OBITUARY NOTICES. 

day as one of its members, and his special report on the 
London district was appended to the Report presented by the 
Commission to Parliament. Between 1863 and 1870 Dr. 
Hodgson lived chiefly in London, and for five years he was 
Examiner in Political Economy in the University of London. 
He was elected in 1871 to the Chair of Commercial and 
Political Economy and Mercantile Law in the University of 
Edinburgh. The appointment was for seven years, and this 
period having expired, he was appointed for another term. 
His appointment excited the liveliest expectations, and a 
most cordial welcome was given to him. These were more 
than fulfilled, and the welcome accorded was repaid by a 
devotion to public service seldom displayed by university 
professors. But he did not confine his labours to the univer- 
sity. He sought to serve the citizens as well as the college. 
As a practical educationist, his counsel and guidance were 
freely placed at the disposal of the teachers' associations. 
The most memorable and stimulative speeches delivered at 
the meetings of the Educational Institute in Edinburgh were 
undoubtedly those of which the Professor of Political Econ- 
omy was the author. The Wate Institute and School of 
Arts also found him a most helpful and willing friend, and 
the advocacy of the interests of the People's College was to 
him a congenial task. The ladies who so gallantly struggled 
to open the doors of the Medical School to female students 
likewise found in him a powerful and fearless champion. 
He was not unwilling to fraternise with the people ; for his 
sympathies and convictions were essentially democratic ; but 
he never fraternised with the toiling masses without giving 
them a word of encouragement, and seeking to elevate their 
thoughts and aspirations. His labours as a member of the 
Chamber of Commerce will not soon be forgotten. He worked 
for the Chamber of Commerce as though it were a part of his 
professional duty to serve it, and through it the public, and 
his exertions were recognised by his elevation to the office of 
President. About three years ago he was President of the 
Co-operative Congress in Glasgow. 

Throughout his career Dr. Hodgson had always been an 
active member of the Liberal party. It is more than probable 
that had he been spared much longer he would himself have 
had an opportunity of serving his country in Parliament. 

As an author and professor, Dr. Hodgson's fame had long 
been secure. A series of eloquent and suggestive lectures, 
which he delivered during his residence in Manchester, in- 
cluded not merely social and political, but metaphysical and 



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OBITUARY NOTICES. 67 

aesthetic subjects. All these were treated with no less lucidity 
than insight, and the remarkable power of illustration, which 
must have struck all who have read Dr. Hodgson's books, was 
invariably conspicuous in his lectures and speeches. The 
catalogue of his works includes a Lecture on Education, 
1837 ; a translation of Bastial's, What is Seen and what is 
not Seen ; or, Political Economy in one Lesson, 1852 ; Classical 
Instruction: its Use and Abuse, 1853; The Conditions of 
Health and Wealth, educationally considered, two lectures, 
1860 ; Remarks on Report of Public School Commissioners, 
1864; Classical Instruction : Why, When, for Whom ? 1866; 
Exaggerated Estimates of Reading and Writing as means of 
Education, 1867; a translation of Count Cavour's Ireland, 
1868; What is Capital? 1868; two lectures " On the Edu-. 
cation of Oirls and the Employment of Women of the Middle 
Classes, 1869 ; lecture on the True Scope of Economic Science, 
1870; lecture on Competition, 1870; and two lectures on 
Turgot : his Life, Times, and Opinions, 1870. To this list of 
his writings may be added many contributions to journal- 
istic literature, including some admirable letters, signed 
" M.E.N.," which appeared in the Manchester Examiner and 
Times. 

Dr. Hodgson's reading was as wide as his criticism was 
searching and his memory retentive. Few could vie with 
him in his familiarity with general literature. His mind was 
stored with the best that has been said or thought, not only 
by great Englishmen, but great men of every age and every 
land ; and for purposes of illustration, the professor was ever 
ready to lay them aptly under contribution. In economics 
the extent of his reading was simply marvellous. Not a 
work remotely bordering on his subject but he knew it ; not 
an attempt to throw new light upon a doubtful question but 
he had seen and appraised it ; not an addition to the stock of 
economical fixed ideas but he had assimilated it; not an 
economist but he knew his theories and his crotchets and 
could point out the fallacies into which he had fallen. Nor 
was this close acquaintance confined to English economists 
only. With French writers on the subject he was equally 
familiar, and Bastial and Saye were quoted as frequently and 
freely as McCuUoch or Milt 

Dr. Hodgson joined this Association in 1867, and in the 
following year, at the meeting at Honiton, he read the paper 
mentioned above — " What is Capital ?" This was his only 
contribution to the pages of the Transactions of the Associa- 
tion. The rule which limits the subjects to be treated strictly 

e 2 



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68 OBITUARY NOTICES. 

to Devonshire soon after came into operation, and, although 
he admitted this rule had been wisely framed, yet it shut 
him out, as he said, from the list of authors. He did not 
cease, however, to take a lively interest in the work of the 
Association, but attended several meetings, and took part in 
the discussions that arose. At the annual meeting last year 
he was unanimously elected to the office of President of the 
Association, and had his life been spared, he would have 
been here on this occasion to win fresh laurels, and increase, 
if that were possible, the high estimation in which he was 
held. 

It is, of course, more difficult to refer to the private virtues 
and the delightful social qualities which endeared Dr. 
Hodgson to so large a circle of friends. Those who had 
known him longest, and most intimately, had the warmest 
regard for him. His nature was kindly and frank ; he was 
generous, high-minded, and disinterested; and both as a 
public and a private man he took advantage of many oppor- 
tunities for rendering assistance by counsel, and still more 
emphatic timely help to those who sought his advice. He 
was never more happy than in the midst of his friends at his 
delightful home, Bonaly Tower, on the slopes of the Pentland 
Hills, once the residence of Lord Cockburn; but, wherever 
he was, the charm of his conversation made him a welcome 
guest. With respect to his pupils in his class, he made it an 
especial object to acquaint himself personally with each of 
them, and to get nearer to them than could the professor at 
the head of the ordinary classes. The relation between Dr. 
Hodgson and his students was thus the more intimate one of 
friend with friend, than professor with student, and the 
regard which was entertained for him by them was warmer 
in kind than in perhaps any other instance, as there was in it 
something of filial affection in addition to the respect in 
which professors are usually held. It may, perhaps, be 
allowed to add one further word without risk of invading 
the sanctity of domestic life, and this merely to say that Dr. 
Hodgson was in the truest sense a religious and most reverent 
man; anyone who was intimate, with him, and anyone who 
had been his guest, could not doubt of his feelings and 
belief. He married a daughter of Sir Joshua Walmsley, for 
some time member for Leicester. 

He died suddenly at Brussels, on the night of Tuesday, 
the 24th of August* 1880, at the age of 65 years. 



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SIXTH REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON 
SCIENTIFIC MEMORANDA. 

Sixth Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. George Doe, 
Rev. W. Harpley, Mr. N. S. Htinekm, Mr. H. S. GUI, 
Mr. E. Parfitt, and Mr. J. Brooking Bowe (Secretary), 
for the purpose of noting the discovery or occurrence of such 
facts, in any department of scientific inquiry, and connected 
vrith Devonshire, as it may be desirable to place on perma- 
nent record, but which may not be of sufficient importance 
in themselves to form the subjects of separate papers. 

Edited by J. Brooking Rows, f.s.a., &c., Hon. Secretary of the Committee. 
(Read at Dawliah, July, 1881.) 



From unknown causes, the facts brought to the knowledge of 
the Committee during the past year have been very much 
fewer than hitherto. As usual, the Report includes Memoranda 
of facts which have been discovered, or observed, or have 
become known to members of the Committee, during the 
twelve months ending 31st May, 1881. 

I. ARCHAEOLOGICAL. 
RUSH RINGS. 

"Among the ancient title-deeds relating to the Long 
Bridge at Barnstaple, commencing 1303, is one dated 4th 
Edward IV. (1464, the earliest deed in English), which has a 
noticeable peculiarity worth recording. It purports to be a 
deed of award, whereby a tenement in Barnstaple is adjudged 
as belonging to several persons therein named for their lives, 
with the ultimate remainders: 'To the Wardyneys of ye 
long Brugge of the Town foresaid, and to their Heirs and 
Successors for ever, to the behove profite and mayntenaunce 
of the said Brugge. Sealed by John Pollard the Arbitrator, 
and also at his request for the preservation of the testimony 
of the document, sealed by John Denys, Gencier Boteler, 



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70 SIXTH REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE 

Simon Passlewe, Robert Pollard, John Wyggen, Richard 
Newcomb, and Walter Frost. Dated from Barnstaple, 1st 
May, 4th Edward IV/ Six of the seals are still attached to 
the document. The impressions are mostly monograms ; but 
two of them have the singular addition of rush rings appended 
to and forming parts of the seals. These rings are of the same 
size and appearance as were commonly used by the peasantry 
in early times in plight of matrimonial troth, being formed of 
woven or plaited rushes, the ordinary size of a finger. 

" The perfect rush ring of one <»f these seals still adheres to 
it, and was apparently placed on the wax while hot, and the 
seal then impressed through it. 

" On the circular margin of the other seal the impression 
of the rush ring is as distinct as the impression of the seal 
itself— the rushes being decayed or broken away. This is 
the only document among the many thousands examined 
which has seals of this character. 

u One of the Inspectors under the Historical Manuscripts 
Commission, J. Cordy Jeffreason, Esq., who visited Barn- 
staple some time since, and who has treated on the subject of 
' rush rings ' in one of his valuable antiquarian works, made 
the present discovery, and was especially interested in it, as 
an instance had never before come under his notice. He 
suggested that the ring may have been the familiar symbol 
of perpetuity, thus used to heighten the solemnity of the 
ceremony, and indicate the perpetuity desired, for the testi- 
mony of the instrument and the gift to the bridge. 

" Mr. Jeffreason writes me that since he left Barnstaple he 
has kept a sharp look-out for other instances of such seals ; 
but only at Ipswich had he seen any to be grouped with the 
Barnstaple specimens ; and even then there were only three 
among a collection of several thousand writings. Those he 
found were a deed of release of Edward III.'s reign, the seal 
gone, but a perfect rush ring hanging round the label, from 
which the seal had been broken ; a deed of Henry VL's time, 
with a cluster of rush ring seals, some retaining the rush 
annulet, and all the others with marks showing that such 
circlets had been there ; and another deed of Edward IV/s 
time similarly sealed. 

" It is singular that the only places in which this peculiar 
application of rush rings has hitherto been discovered 
should be two equally ancient burghs, placed at the extreme 
east and extreme west sides of England. It may be worth 
while to keep a look-out among ancient deeds for any similar 
instances of rush rings. 



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ON SCIENTIFIC MEMORANDA. 71 

" Two somewhat analogous instances of appendages to seals 
are given in Notes and Queries, viz. : 

" On a deed of sale of quit rents at Alnwick, in the year 
1655, is the following testatum : ' Signed, sealed, and delivered, 
with one single twopence of lawful money of England put 
into the seale, in token of the possession, lively, and seisin 
of the out rend or quit rent of 5s. by yeare within named in 
presence of, &c.' — N. and Q. t 2nd Series, ii. 129. 

" Stillingfleet, Orig. Brit., iii. 13, referring to a monkish 
chronicle, says : ' He observes one particular custom of the 
Normans, that they were wont to put some of the hair of 
their heads or beard into the wax of their seals/ — N. and Q. t 
1st Series, 317. (J. R. Chanter.) " 

"During the sinking of a well adjoining the site of the 
Priory at Plympton, in the month of August, 1880, a jetton 
or abbey-piece was found. It is almost identical with figure 
No. 24, plate ii, in Snelling's View of Jettons. Another, 
apparently an earlier form, with pellets and mullets, was also 
found, and a sixpence of Queen Elizabeth, 1573. 

" A short time before finding the counters and coins men- 
tioned above, a slab was discovered, buried face downwards, 
in the ground south of the refectory of the Priory. It is 
coffin-shaped, with incised floriated cross, probably early 
fourteenth-century work. 

"These are in my possession, and full descriptions, with 
drawings, will, I hope, appear in my projected History of the 
Deanery of Plympton. (J. Brooking Rowe.) " 



IL BOTANICAL. 

" The following list of shrubs and plants killed and injured 
during the past winter will show the severity of the weather 
in this usually mild climate : 

Plants Mled. 

Veronica Andersoni, and several Chinese Arbor- Vitae. Large plants 

others that generally stand our from twenty to thirty years 

winters in Devon. old, completely killed. This 

Clianthus punicius. is very general in this locality. 

Coronilla glauca. Thuja aurea. Generally killed. 

Escallonia micrantha. Philesia buxifolia. 

Escallonia rubra. Cupressus macrocarpa. Small 

Myrtus ugnii. plants killed ; old plants very 

Thuja orientalis. much injured. 

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72 SIXTH BEPORT OF THE COMMITTEE 

Plants very much injured. 

Laurel, common. Bays. 

Euonymus variegatus. Ceanothus azureus. 

Berberies, species. 

Plants injured. 

Rhododendrons. Hydrangeas. 

Aucuba Japonica. Tea Roses. 

Juniperus sabinL (E. PARFITT.) " 

III. NUMISMATICAL. 

"A seventeenth-century trade token was found in April 
last at Halberton, near Tiverton, being the only one known 
to have been issued there. 

" Obverse, « simon . hvssey . 1667 ; ' and in the field (for 
device), The Cloth-workers' Arms. 

" Reverse, ' of . halberton . in . DEV.(on) = s. d. h.' 

" It is well known by collectors that the second initial on 
these tokens is that of the issuer's wife; and I have since 
been informed by the vicar of Halberton that he found the 
following entry in his church register : ' Simon Hussey and 
Dorithy (sic) Osmond was married on the 6th darie of July, 
1659/ The vicar added that the name of Hussey still lingers 
in Halberton and its neighbourhood. 

u From the device it is obvious S. H. was engaged in cloth- 
making, then the staple trade of the county; and doubtless 
the token would be a great boon to his workmen and their 
wives, as by it they could obtain of the village shopkeeper (no 
small change less than a penny being in existence) the countless 
daily necessaries of life, and the trader could always, as the 
tokens accumulated, get them changed into silver by the issuer. 

"Two other farthing tokens belonging to Plymouth have 
been found since our last meeting. One reads thus : 

" Obv. ' maxemillian . bovsh.' A trefoil. 

" Rev. ' in . plymovth . 1659/ Thr? e stars. 

" This interesting token belongs to our member, Mr. R. N. 
Worth, who bought it at a shop in London, and who suggests 
it was issued by a foreigner, who at that period would have 
to pay yearly fines to the Corporation of Plymouth, not being 
a freeman, and yet in business. The other is by — 

" ' richard . hamlyn.' A bunch of grapes. 

" ' IN . PLYMOUTH . 1659. = R. P. H.' 

" This coin belongs to a gentleman in Limerick, but for- 
merly of Plymouth, from whence the description was also 
kindly sent to me by Mr. R. N. Worth. 



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ON SCIENTIFIC MEMORANDA. 73 

"When the Council of the Association met in Exeter, last 
February, one of our members showed me the following 
specimen. I tried to induce him to part with it, but the 
owner would not. 

" Obverse, s tho : powell . in . great.' The Mercers' Arms. 

" Reverse, ' torington . mercer . 71. = t. e. p.' 

"Eight tokens were issued there, and five of them have 
only one R in the town. (H. S. Gill.) " 

"A very thin copper coin, of Charles I. (Mionnet 4) — 
" Obverse, two sceptres in saltier behind a crown. 
• f Leg. ' car . d . g . m . a . g . bri.' 
" Keverse, Irish harp, crowned. 

" Leg. ' ET . H . I . B . R . E . X.' 

"Found in Mill Street, Sidmouth, September 11th, 1880. 
(N. S. Heinekbn.)" 

" Small copper coin (Mionnet 3) — 
" Ob. ' carolus . d . g . ma . BRi.' round a crown, and two 
sceptres in saltier. 

"Rev. A rose, crowned. 

"Leg. 'F.R.A.E.T...R.' 

" Found in October, in road near Cotmaton, 1880. 

" Guinea of George III. ; date 1785. In beautiful preser- 
vation, as if fresh from the mint Found in a field under 
Willoughby Cottage, Peak Hill, Sidmouth, March 11th, 1881. 

"Shilling of Elizabeth. Obverse and reverse nearly ob- 
literated. Found at Cottington, Sidmouth, April 5th or 6th, 
1881. 

"French liard— 

" Ob. Louis XIV., profile. Date 1655. 
" Eev. ' liard de France . a . 3 fleurs de lis/ 
" Found in the Western Field, Sidmouth, May, 1881. (P. O. 
Hutchinson.) " 

iv. zoological. 

AVES. 

"Avocete at Kingsbridge. — Mr. Henry Nicholls states, 
Zoologist, Nov., 1880, p. 486, that three Avocets (recurvirostra 
avocetta) were observed in the Kingsbridge Estuary October 
2nd, all of which were eventually obtained. They were a 
male and two females. The largest was the male, which 
weighed 10£ ounces; its length was 17 inches, breadth 30 
inches. One female weighed 9 ounces, and was 15} inches 
in length, and 29 inches in breadth. 



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74 ON SCIENTIFIC MEMORANDA. 

"In December, 1880, a Little Bustard was killed near 
North Tawton ; and later in the month a second specimen — 
like the first, a female — was obtained near Braunton. 

"The sixteenth instance of the occurrence of White's 
Thrush (Turdtts varius) is recorded by Mr. E. W. Holds worth 
in the Zoologist for March, 1881, p. 108. It was killed at 
Dene Wood, near Ashburton, in January, 1881. 



PISCES. 

" Eagle Ray off Plymouth. — I obtained in May a specimen 
of the Eagle Ray (Myliobatis aquila), caught off Plymouth. 
The measurements taken when fresh were : Length from 
snout to root*of tail, 9 inches; length of tail, 20 inches; 
breadth, 18 inches. 

"Maigre at Beer. — A specimen of the Maigre (Scicena 
aquila) was taken in August by the Beer fishermen in a 
pollack net, as recorded by Mr. W. S. M. D'Urban in the 
Zoologist for October. The measurements were : Length, 2 ft 
Si in. ; girth over pectoral fins, 1 ft. 4$ in. (J. Brooking 
Bowe.) " 



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FIFTH REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON 
DEVONSHIRE CELEBRITIES. 

Fifth Report of the Committee — consisting of Mr. R Dymond, 
Mr. P. Q. Karkeek, Mr. R N. Worth, Sir J. H. Kennaway 
(MJ>.) y Mr. Edward Windeatt, Mr. R. W. Cotton, and the 
Rev. Treasurer Hawker (Secretary) — to prepare Memoirs 
on Devonshire Celebrities. 

Edited by Rev. Treasurer Hawker, m.a., Hon. Sec of the Committee. 
(Bead at Dawlish, July, 1681.) 



A letter, kindly inserted by the editor of the Western 
Morning News in the beginning of the year, brought much 
valuable information from various quarters respecting Devon- 
shire Celebrities, and bibliographical notices of them. The 
thanks of the Committee are due to those who thus answered 
the appeal. All such information, whether entirely new or 
supplementary, adds greatly to the authority and usefulness 
of the Catalogue. 

A story is told of Dr. Routh, the learned President of 
Magdalen College, Oxford, that, when he was asked, between 
ninety and a hundred years of age, what was the chief lesson 
of his long life, he pondered for some time and then said 
gravely, " To verify your quotations." 

Your Committee hope that each year the additions and 
corrections made in their list, will help to facilitate the 
verification of statements about the Celebrities of Devon. 

A small acquaintance with the grammar of assent, teaches 
one how soon a mistake or a misstatement is perpetuated by 
the indolent acceptance of the public "They say," "it is 
always supposed," " there is no doubt/' and the like expressions, 
have covered a vast number of inaccuracies, and caused an 
immense amount of unnecessary labour in unravelling past 
entanglements of History. 



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76 FIFTH REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE 

The Committee trust that by annual supervision and kind 
help from friends, their list of Devonshire Celebrities and 
their works, with any literary notices of them, may smooth 
the path of future enquirers. The County is one that will 
bear thorough searching, both as to quality and quantity. 

The following additions, &c, are recommended : 

Borough, Steven : b at Northam, Sept 25th, 1525, d at Chatham, 
July 12th, 1584; navigator; discoverer of Northern Passage 
to Kussia ; one of the four masters of the navy, temp. Queen 
Elizabeth. 

Trans, Devon. Assoc, vol. xii. p. 332 ; R. W. Cotton. 

Borough, William: b at Northam, 1536, d 1599; navigator; 
author of work on the variation of the compass, &c. ; comp- 
troller of the navy, temp. Queen Elizabeth. 

Trans. Devon. Assoc, vol. xii. p. 359 ; R. W. Cotton. 

Carwithen, Rev. J. B. S., b.d. : b at Manaton (near Moreton 
Hampstead) April 10th, 1781, d at Sandhurst, 1832; Bampton 
Lecturer, 1809, subject, A view of the Brahminical Religion 
in its confirmation of the truth of the Sacred History and its 
influence on the moral character; (2.) Letters to Rev. Daniel 
Wilson; The History of the Church of England to the 
Restoration of the Church and Monarchy in 1660. 

Chidley (or Chudleigh) John : b at Chudleigh, d in the Straits of 
Magellan ; sailed from Plymouth in 1589 on a voyage round 
the world. 

Coleridge, Rev. John: b at Crediton, Jan. 21st, 1719, d 1781, 
buried at Ottery St. Mary ; father of Samuel Taylor Coleridge ; 
Chaplain Priest, and Vicar of Ottery St Mary, master of 
the Grammar School there; a great scholar; contributed to 
the Qentleman'8 Magazine learned papers between 1745 and 
1780, bearing his name or initials; by his knowledge of 
Hebrew aided Dr. Kennicott in his works. 
Gentleman's Magazine, 1836. 

Coleridge, James: b at Southmolton, Dec. 15th, 1760; a leading 
Magistrate for the County, and able administrator of its 
finances; an energetic organiser of Volunteers in the early 
part of the century, for which service he was eminently fitted 
by his training from 1775 to 1786 in the 8th regiment of 
infantry, where he attained the rank of captain ; he held the 
rank of lieutenant-colonel in the East Devon Militia; he 
married Frances Duke Taylor, of Otterton. 
Gentleman's Magazine, 1836. 

After notice of " Collins, Mortimer, &c," add, "author of Thoughts 
in my Garden, &c. M 

Dunn, Samuel : b at Crediton ; mathematician. 



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ON DEVONSHIRE CELEBRITIES. 77 

After notice of " Jewel," add, " author of An Apology for the 
Church of England, translated from the original Latin by 
Lady Bacon, daughter of Sir A. Cooke ;" also, "Jewel's Birth- 
place." 

Trans. Devon. Assoc, vol. xi p. 256 ; J. M. Hawker. 

Bennell, James, p.r.s. : b at Chudleigh, 1742, d Geographer, 

author of Geological System of Herodotus. 
Blewitt's Panorama of Torquay, 1832, p. 186. 

Blade, William: b d 1415; Abbot of Buckfastleigh ; 

theologian, artist, author of thirteen works. 

Edinburgh Review, Oct, 1880, article "Boase's Annals of Exeter 
College. Trans. Devon. Assoc, vol. viii. p. 851 ; J. Brooking Rowe. 

Towson, John Thomas: b at Devonport, 1804, d at Liverpool, 
Jan. 3rd, 1881; watchmaker; eminent for science and dis- 
coveries in the art of navigation, particularly in regard to 
" Great Circle Sailing." 

Athenmm, Jan. 8th, 1881, p. 59. 

J. Manley Hawker, 

Chairman and Hon. Secretary. 



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FOURTH REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON DEVON- 
SHIRE VERBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 

Fourth Report of the Committee—consisting of Mr. J. S. 
Amery, Mr. 0. Doe, Mr. R. Dymond, Mr. F. T. Elworthy 
Mr. F. H. Firth (Secretary), Mr. P. 0. Hutchinson, 
Mr. P. Q. Karkeek, and Dr. W. C. Lake— for the purpose 
of noting and recording the existing use of any Verbal 
Provincialisms in Devonshire, in either written or spoken 
language, not included in the lists published in the Trans- 
actions of the Association. 

Edited by F. T. Elworthy, Member of Council of the Philological Society. 
(Read at Dawlish, July, 1881.) 



L EXPLANATORY. 

Your Committee have, in the first place, to express their 
deep and unfeigned regret at the retirement of their old and 
valued friend, Mr. Pengelly, both from the work of the Com- 
mittee and from the Editorship. They feel that the very 
cordial thanks of the Society at large are due to him for the 
warm interest and indefatigable labour which he has bestowed 
upon it ; and they are deeply conscious that a loss has been 
sustained which cannot be replaced. 

Last year your Committee had no report to offer, and were 
compelled to seek another Editor ; probably as a consequence 
the interest in the work rather fell off, so that during the 
past year fewer members have contributed matter, and the 
report therefore contains fewer provincialisms. It is, however, 
the earnest hope of the Committee that its most valuable and 
important work may receive renewed and more vigorous help 
from the members of the Association, so that the immense 
advantage to be obtained from numbers of attentive observers 
may be fully realized. 



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ON DEVONSHIRE VERBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 79 

Your Committee recommend the continued use of the 
Eesolutions adopted and printed in their first report (see 
Trans. Dev. Assoc, ix. 1 23-142), except that they advise the 
omission of paragraph F ("To avoid all attempts at deri- 
vation "), because it is desirable to encourage individual and 
extended investigation, and because by promoting speculation 
as to the origin of the provincialisms, whether it be valuable 
or not, a greater interest is created, and thereby more pecu- 
liarities are likely to be observed. It is only the habit of 
accurate observation that is needed to insure a very rich 
harvest among the spoken dialects of this county. 

With the view of suggesting a more minute observation of 
the Devonshire speech, a few particulars are here subjoined, 
to which the attention of those willing to help is earnestly 
directed. 

RESOLUTIONS. 

1. That the members of this Committee be requested to observe 
the following regulations, with a view to uniformity of action : — 

(A) To regard the following as Devonshire Provincialisms, if 
used by a speaker or writer within Devonshire, irrespective of their 
being, or not being, used elsewhere : — 

(a) Every word not occurring in a good English dictionary of 
the present day. 

(b) Every word which, though occurring in a good English 
dictionary of the present day, is used in a sense differing from any 
definition of the word given in such dictionary. 

(c) Every provincial pronunciation of any word which is itself 
not a provincialism. 

(d) Every provincial phrase or expression. 

(e) Every provincial name of an animal, or vegetable, or other 
object. 

(B) To state where and when each recorded provincialism was 
heard in speech, or seen in writing; and to accept nothing at 
second-hand. 

(C) To state the sex, probable age and social status, and, if 
possible, the birth-place, residence, and occupation of the person 
using each recorded provincialism. 

(D) To give the meaning of each recorded provincialism within 
a parenthesis immediately following the provincialism itself; and 
to illustrate the meaning by incorporating the word or phrase in the 
very sentence employed by the person who used the provincialism. 

(E) To give, in all cases requiring it, some well-known word 
with which the recorded provincialism rhymes, so as to show its 
pronunciation ; or, where this is not practicable, to give a word or 
words in which the power of the vowel or vowels is the same as in 
the provincialism. 



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80 FOURTH REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE 

(F) To state of each provincialism whether it has been noted by 
Halliwell, or Nares, or any other recognized compiler of provincial, 
obsolete, or obsolescent words. 

(G) To write the communication respecting each recorded pro- 
vincialism on a distinct and separate piece of paper, to write on 
one side of the paper only, and to sign and date each communica- 
tion ; the date to be that on which the recorded provincialism was 
heard or read. 

(H) To make each communication as brief as possible, but not 
to sacrifice clearness to brevity. 

(I) To draw the communications so as to correspond as nearly 
as possible with the following examples : — 

" Fleeche8 ( = Large Flakes. Ehymes with Breeches). A servant 
girl, a native of Prawle, South Devon, residing at Torquay, and 
about 23 years of age, stated that the snow was 'falling mfleeches, 9 
meaning in large flakes. She added that the small flakes were not 
fleeches.— 19th March, 1877. XY." 

" Halse ( = Hazel The al having the same sound as in Malice, 
not as in False). A labouring man, a native of Ashburton, residing 
at Torquay, and about 55 years of age, stated in my hearing that 
he had put an' alse 'andle into his hammer ; meaning a hazel handle 
(see Halliwell and Williams).— 19th March, 1877. XY." 

2. That the Eeport of the Committee to be presented to the 
next Annual General Meeting of the members of the Association 
shall include all suitable communications received by the Secretary 
not later than the 1st of June next, and that all communications 
received after that date shall be held over for another year. 

3. That all meetings of the Committee shall be held at Exeter ; 
that the Secretary shall convene them by separate notices to each 
member, posted not less than seven clear days before the dates of 
the meetings ; and that two members shall be sufficient to form a 
quorum, with power to act 

4. That a meeting of the Committee shall be held not later than 
the 21st of June next, to receive and decide on a report to be 
prepared and brought up by the Secretary. 

It is desirable to call the attention of observers more 
particularly to — 

1. Pronunciation. To note more carefully — 
(a) Vowel sounds, as in the various qualities : 
Of a (as is found in shall, gate, father, wall). 
Of ay (as in day, pay, say, may, maid, &c), noting carefully 
whether it has the sound of a long as in English play, or 
whether it has the broad sound of long I, as in the Devon- 
shire ma-aid (maid). 

Of e (as in pet, glebe, where). 



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ON DEVONSHIRE VERBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 81 

Of % (as in pit, first, figJU). 

Of o (6is in top, done, gone, bone), noting carefully if there 
is any fracture approaching two syllables, as in the ordinary 
Devonshire bo-Un (bone), pd~ir (pair), &c. 

Of u (as in but, bull, church, use, &c). 

(b) To note more carefully the consonants ; i.e. if any are 
inserted, as infinedest for finest, smalldest, &c, or if any are 
omitted, as in ving-er for finger, the received pronunciation 
having two g's, fing-ger, and not one, as in singer. To note 
carefully what English words beginning with /or s are pro- 
nounced with v or z. Careful attention will show that the 
distinction between /and v, or between s and z, is as distinct 
in the dialect as in the literary language. Also to observe 
what words ending in / or v are peculiarly pronounced ; i.e. 
whether calf is not pronounced calv ; loaf, loav ; sheaf, sheav ; 
&c. Whether words ending in / drop or change them to 
other sounds, as in — Bailiff: is it pronounced baily t Plain- 
tiff: is it plaintyi Is not self, zulli Is not handkerchief, 
hangkecher, &c. ? Do words ending in v make any change ? 
Is give ever pronounced gee ? Are gave and given the same 
as spoken by peasants ? Are have, serve, above, active, abusive, 
and many others ending in ive, not changed ? Is r before a 
short vowel not transposed ? i.e. how are red, run, Richard, 
riddance, great, front, grin, aud many others pronounced ? 

2. To observe more carefully grammatical peculiarities. 

(c) How are plurals of nouns formed whenever they are 
not the same as in received English ; for instance, what is the 
plural of beast or priest 1 Are any plurals now made in en 
or n, as shoen, treen, housen t Are any made by change of 
vowel, as in man, men, tooth, teeth, &c. ? Are any plurals the 
same as in the singular, as in sheep, deer, grouse, &c. ? Or if 
sometimes the words are changed, and sometimes not, under 
what circumstances do they remain unaltered or otherwise ? 
For instance, " the frost will do good to the bud," is a common 
saying, and quite grammatical ; yet bud is essentially in the 
plural number. So we say a " ten pound note," " a six foot 
wall," " a five bar gate." These phrases are all good English, 
and the nouns are all plural, though in each case the noun 
has another plural in s, buds, pounds, feet, bars. What is there 
in the dialect of the same kind ? 

(d) How is the genitive or possessive case formed ? What 
circumstances would determine a speaker to say " his head!* 
or " the head o' un;" "JwrCsfatlwr? or " the father of Jim" ? 

vol. xin. F 



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82 FOURTH REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE 

(e) As to adjectives. How are the comparisons formed? 
Note every variation from literary English. 

Are particular similes used with certain adjectives, such as 
" It was so dark's a bag" ? Give all the words you hear used 
to express the absolute superlative, such as bag with dark, 
vanity with light (levis), &c. 

Note all distinguishing adjectives ; i.e. the cases in which 
this, thik, thicky, thicky there, that, that there, they (as in they 
pigs) are used. Is tliem (as in them apples) ever used ? 

(/) As to pronouns. Is there any variety in the first person 
sing, in the various cases of nom. ace. dak in which it is used ? 
Is the second person sing, used often ? If so, in what way ? 
How is the third person sing, used ? Is the pronoun it often 
heard? and is the word always used as in literary English? 

How are pronouns affected by the prepositions ? i.e. do you 
hear to, from, in, upon, of, with, I ox trie {i.e. to I, or to me) ? 
he, her, him, it, &c. (i.e. to he or to him) ? we or us ? they or 
them? 

(g) As to verbs. Are to see, grow, know, shear, swear, bear, 
begin, bleed, blow, breed, build, cleave, come, draw, drink, eat, 
fall, fling, fly, forsake, freeze, hang, meet, ring, run, see, shed, 
shoot, sing, sink, sling, spin, spring, sting, stink, strive, swim, 
swing, throw, weave, win, wring, all, or any of them, conjugated 
as in literary English ? 

Are to break, drive, speak, cleave, steal, tear, take, creep, raise, 
not very differently conjugated from book English ? Is the 
inflection eth much used ? Is it used with all the persons, 
sing, and plur. ? Is the full syllable sounded, as in eatethf or 
is it shortened, as in eatth ? Is the prefix to the past parti- 
ciple often used, as in " I Ve a-brokt my coat " ? 



CONTRIBUTIONS. 

Each Contribution is placed within inverted commas, and 
whatever is not so placed is editorial. 

The full address of each Contributor is given below, cor- 
responding with his initials at the foot of his Contribution. 
It must be fully understood that each Contributor is alone 
responsible for the statements he makes : 

F. T. E. = Mr. F. T. Eiworthy, Foxdown, Wellington. 

F. H. F. = Mr. F. H. Firth, Cator Court, Ashburton. 

P. Q. K. = Mr. P.Q. Karkeek, 1, Matlock Terrace, Torquay. 
W. C. L. = Dr. W. C. Lake, 2, West Cliff, Teignmouth. 

G. H. W. = Mr. G. H." White, Glenthorn, St. Mary church. 



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ON DEVONSHIRE VERBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 83 

REFERENCES. 

The following is a list of the authorities either quoted or 
who are referred to as illustrating the words contributed. A 
great number of others have been consulted, but those only- 
are referred to who have something to the point. 

Ash. Dictionary of the English Language. By John Ash, 
LL.D. 2 vols. London, 1775. 

Arms, A Gaelic Dictionary. By R. A. Armstrong. Lon- 
don, 1825. 

Blount. Glossographia ; or, a Dictionary interpreting all such 
hard words, whether Hebrew, Greek, &c, as are now used in our 
refined English tongue. By T. Bflount]. 8°. London, 1656. 

Bos. Anglo-Saxon and English Dictionary. By Rev. 
Joseph Bosworth, d.d. London, 1868. 

Brit Old Country and Farming Words. By James Brit- 
ten. English Dialect Society, 1880. 

Brit, and Hoi. A Dictionary of English Plant Names. 
By James Britten and Robert Holland. English Dialect 
Society. Parts I. 1878, II. 1879. 

Votg. A Dictionary of the French and English Tongues. 
Compiled by Randle Cotgrave. London, 1632. 

Crabb. Universal Technological Dictionary. By George 
Crabb. London, 1823. 

Couch. Glossary of Words used in East Cornwall. By 
Thomas Q. Couch. English Dialect Society, 1880. 

Court Glossary of Words used in West Cornwall. By 
Miss M. A. Courtney. English Dialect Society, 1880. 

Ex. Scold. An Exmoor Scolding and Courtship. Edited 
by F. T. Elworthy. English Dialect Society, 1879. 

Ger. Gerard's Herbal. 1636. 

Hal. A Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words. By 
James 0. Haliiwell. 2 vols. 8th Edition. London, 1874. 

Hampole. Pricks of Conscience. Edited by Dr. R Morris. 
Philological Society (Asher and Co.), 1863. 

Earle. English Plant Names from the Tenth to the Fif- 
teenth Century. By John Earle. Oxford, 1880. 

John. Dictionary of the English Language. By Samuel 
Johnson. 4 vols. 9th Edition. London, 1805. 

Jon. The Works of Ben Jonson. 1 vol. London (Moxon), 
1838. 

Lit Dictionaire de la Langue Francais. Par E. Iittr& 
4 vols. Paris, 1863-69. 

Nathan Hogg. Second Series of Nathan Hogg's Letters 
and Poems. London (J. R. Smith), 1866. 

F 2 



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84 FOUKTH BEPORT OF THE COMMITTEE 

Pea. Glossary of Words used in Manley and Corringham. 
By Edward Peacock. English Dialect Society, 1877. 

Pegge. An Alphabet of Kenticisms. By Samuel Pegge. 
English Dialect Society, 1876. 

Jen. The Dialect of the West of England, particularly 
Somersetshire. By James Jennings. 2nd Edition. London 
(J. E. Smith), 1869. 

Prior. Popular Names of British Plants. By R C. A. 
Prior. 3rd Edition. London (F. Norgate), 1879. 

Promp. Parv. Promptorium Parvulorum Sive Clericorum, 
Dictionarius Anglo-Latinus Princeps. Circa a.d. 1440. Edited 
by Albert Way. London (Camden Society), 1865. 

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 1695. 

Nares. A Glossary or Collection of Words, &c. New 
Edition. Edited by Halliwell and Wright. 2 vols. London 
(J. B. Smith), 1859. 

Put. Rustic Sketches. By G. P. R Pulman. 3rd Edition. 
London (J. R. Smith), 1871. 

O'BeUly. An Irish-English Dictionary. By Ed. O'Reilly. 
Dublin, 1821. 

Richards. A Welsh and English Dictionary. By the late 
Rev. Thomas Richards. Trefriw, 1815. 

Bob. of Olou. Reign of William the Conqueror. By 
Robert of Gloucester, A.D. 1298. Edited by Morris and 
Skeat Clarendon Press, 1873. 

Bob. Glossary of the Dialect of Mid- Yorkshire. By C. 
Clough Robinson. English Dialect Society, 1876. 

Rogers. History of Naaman the Syrian, his Disease and 
Cure. By Dr. Samuel Rogers. London, 1632. 

Sir Per. Sir Ferumbras, Old Charlemagne Romance of 
A.D. 1380. Early English Text Society, Ex. Series, 1879. 

Skeat. An Etymological Dictionary of the English Lan- 
guage. By Walter W. Skeat Oxford (Clarendon Press), 1879. 

Trevisa. Higden's Polychronicon, translated by John of 
Trevisa, a.d. 1387. Specimens of Early English. Edited by 
Morris and Skeat. Clarendon Press Series. Oxford, 1873. 

Tusser. Fiue Hundred Pointes of Good Husbandrie. a.d. 
1557. By Thomas Tusser. English Dialect Society, 1878. 

Walters. An English- Welsh Dictionary. By John Walters, 
No place of publication. 1794. 

Web. Webster's Unabridged Dictionary of the English 
Language. Revised by Goodrich and Porter. London. No 
date. 



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ON DEVONSHIRE VERBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 85 

A, prefix to past participle. See a-paid, Trans. Devon, 
Assoc, ix. p. 117 (3). 

The retention of this old inflection is one of the chief 
peculiarities of south-western provincialism. Sometimes in 
old writers it is written a, sometimes i, sometimes y ; but as 
it was always a short syllable, it was the same sound, what- 
ever vowel may have stood for it In Sir Fer. it is found in 
all three forms — 

L 74, " In pauylons rich and wel a buld." 
L 307, " for traysoun Jmy had ido." 
L 875, " well y-armed wiJ>out faille." 

In the Ex. Scold, the use of the prefix is almost the rule 
with every p. part. Had the author been more exact, and 
less literary, it is probable that it would have been quite the 
rule. He writes it throughout a. It would be easy to pro- 
duce endless quotations from old authors, not distinctly 
Devonshire, wliich would show how universal the inflection 
once was, though now it may be said to have disappeared 
from literature, and to exist only as a spoken provincialism. 

" Avore = until. February 12th, 1879, at Plymouth, the 
conductor of an omnibus from the Royal Hotel said to me, 
' Us can wait avore you be ready, sir.' F. T. E." 

Ex. Scold., 1. 108, "Avore zich Times as Neckle Halse 
comath about" See also 11. 122, 199, 261. In each instance 
the sense is distinctly until. Of course the commoner mean- 
ing is before, as given by Hal, Jen., PuL, and others. But it 
is strange that all have overlooked the much more curious 
but frequent use of the word as above. It is in common use 
throughout the county. 

"Battery = buttress. On February 14th, 1881, a shoe- 
maker, about 30 years of age, born and now living in the 
parish of Culmstock, said to me of a wall which was leaning 
dangerously, ' I think he 'd stand if was vor to put up a bit 
of a battery agin un.' F. T. E." See Hal. (Batter) Web. 

" Bay = to keep back. A young man, about 28, on January 
10th, 1880, a native of Thorverton, near Exeter, describing a 
flood that took place there about four or live years ago, said 
• The water rose — feet in half an hour, and now you would 
have to bay back the stream to get a bucket-full/ P. Q. K." 

This is now a common word throughout the West ; but as 
a verb, it is most probably of modern use, and is thtrefore 



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86 FOURTH REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE 

but another instance of the formation of verbs from nouns, 
which we see going on day by day. 

Hal. and Nares have it as a noun only. 

Promp. Parr, has " Bay, or wyth-stondynge," obstaculum. 

Ash gives it as " v. t. not much used, from bay, a dam." 

See Web., John., who only quote Blount, w to enclose." 

Pul. alone of modern glossarists gives the word as a verb. 
See Hal., Wares. 

Cotg. has "Moile f., an arch, damme, or bay of planks, 
whereby the force of water is broken." 

Crabb has " Bay (raech), or pen, a pond head, made very 
high, to keep in water for the supply of a mill. Stat. 27 JSliz" 

Skeat. has altogether overlooked the word in this sense. 

Littrt has the word only in the sense of the bay or harbour ; 
and in discussing the etymology, he quotes the dictum of 
Isidore (vi. cent.), " Portnm veleres a bajulandis mercibus 
vocabant baias ;" and then adds, "Mais bajulare ne peut 
donner baia" There is evidently much doubt about the 
word ; for though it looks so French, yet we find it in Irish. 

O'Reilly, u Badh, an opening, a bay, a harbour " 

Walters has u Bay [dam to stop water] argae i attal dwr." 
But there does not seem to be any word like Badh in Welsh. 

Armstrong, "Badh, baidh, a harbour, a bay, a creek, an 
estuary ; sronbkidh, stoi % noway, literally the nose of the bay. 
From this last it would seem as if in Gaelic the word implied 
the land rather than the water. In any case, it.is not " a far 
cry " from enclosed water to that which encloses it. 

" Been, with the present participle, used for the past tense. 
This form is very common in North Devon. Lynmouth, May 
30th, 1881, an elderly boatman, or old 'Cap'n/ said to me, 
'I've been shedding over two hundred pound/ meaning 'I 
have lost it' F. T. E." 

It is very usual to hear such phrases as "We've been 
killing a lot of fish in that water avore now." Such expres- 
sions by no means have a frequentative sense as they would 
elsewhere, but imply the simple past tense. 

"B(ftj)-MAKING= accepting an invitation to take refresh- 
ment. September, 1878, a farmer, about 60, born and bred 
in Devon, called on me, and on being offered some refresh- 
ment, said, ' Thank *ee, sir, if tid'n too bold making/ Very 
often, under similar circumstances, from labourers and* others 
I have heard ' Thank *ee for my bold making ;' i.e. for my 
boldness in accepting your hospitality. F. T. E." 



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ON DEVONSHIRE VERBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 87 

" Bonen = made of bone. A young woman of 20-30, 
born and resident in Teignmouth, spoke of something she 
was in the habit of using as a bonen one. W. C. L." 

This is another of the old inflections by which nouns be- 
come adjectives, still commonly retained in the West, but 
dying out of the literary language, and remaining only in 
wooden, leathern, perhaps iron; i.e. made of ire, and a few 
others. 

" a stryde voide }?er nas, 
J?at of J?at ilke hej?enene route al ful was euery plas." 

SirFer. 1.3221. (See Hal.) 

" Capooch. I heard a native of Torquay, who has never 
been out of the district, on May 29th, 1879, describe a dying 
child as, ' that child is going capooch. 1 This bears a remarkable 
resemblance to the German caput gehen, which may be 
anglicized by the expression ' to come to grief/ P. Q. K." 

Why may not this be the old word caloche i 

Promp. Parv. translates it " in curvo." 

Hal. " To bend." Hence, perhaps, to draw up the body, as 
in articulo mortis. 

Mr. Mowat (Bursar, Pembroke College, Oxford) tells me 
he has often heard the word used in Devonshire in the sense 
of collapsing. He says that a boy blowing out a paper bag, 
and then making it burst with a bang, would be said to make 
the bag go " capooch." 

According to Littri, capuce is a kind of cloth, cut to a 
point, and worn by Capucins ; while other orders, Benedictine, 
Bernardins, &c, wear a capuchon, " sous son capuce." 

Inasmuch as " Prendre le capuchon, se faire moine ;" i.e. to 
become dead to the world, so its use as above by the Torquay 
native may refer to the covering with a capuce, or face- 
cloth (?). 

" Clavel = clavel beam, the beam over the opening of a 
fireplace. March 5th, 1881, at Culmstock, a builder, a native 
of Sampford Peverell, about 60, in discussing details as to 
building a farm-house, asked me, ' Would you like to have a 
arch aturned, or a clavel?' He added, noticing that I was 
inclined to draw him out, 'You know, sir, we always calls em 
claa-ls, or else claa-1 beams/ F. T. E." 

Hal. is wrong. It does not mean a mantel-piece. It is as 
much the beam over the fire opening as the lintel is over the 
window opening. 

Pul. makes the same mistake in his Glossary, though in 



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88 FOURTH REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE 

his introduction (p. v.) he seems to be quite aware of the real 
meaning. Of course, if mantel-piece does not mean mantel- 
shelf, as it is generally understood, then both are right (See 
WU.) 

Walter, " Mantle-tree [chimney-beam], Cladde." The word 
is no doubt Celtic. Th or dh sounds, as in Welsh dd, would 
naturally be interchangeable with v. (Comp. thatches for 
vetches, Pul.) The I, which is very distinct, cannot be so 
easily accounted for; but for it, our dialect word would be 
modern Welsh. (See Richards.) 

"Done, rhyming with 'cone.' On the 16th August, 1879, 
a labourer, a native of Widecombe, about 60 years of age, 
said to me, ' Unless the hay be perfectly dry, a small matter 
of rain makes it done: F. H. F." 

"Doss, rhymes with 'loss' = dose. May 24th, 1881, a 
farmer, in the parish of Culmstock, said to me of the weather, 
' Twas a beautiful rain ; but we shall very zoon lack another 
such doss/ F. T. E." 

" Eaver, rhymes with ' savour.' In this county applied to 
a particular grass, of the Bromus family (Mollis ?) but known 
among seedsmen as ' Devon Eaver.' The word is also applied 
generally in the West to all grass seeds other than clovers. 
March 5th, 1881, a labourer, about 40, at Culmstock, said to 
me that to rive the seed was * to put it drue the rivin zeeve, 
vor to take out all the eaver,' meaning all the light grass 
seeds mixed with the clover. It is very common among 
Devon farmers, in speaking of ' seeding out ' a field, to say 
that nothing answers so well as c the old-fashioned clover and 
eaver.' F. T. E." 

Hal. spells it eever, and calls it ray-grass. (See Pul.) 

Court. " E-ver, a grass ; evergreen rye. Eaver is the darnel 
principally found in red wheat." 

Couch. "Eaver, in some parts pronounced hayver. The 
grass Lolium Permne." 

Haver (German 'hafer') usually means oats in other 
counties. (See John., Web., Robinson (' hawers '), Britten.) 

In Lincolnshire it means wild oats. (See Peacock; also 
Brit, and Hoi.) 

Prior says, " Haver means wild oats." 

The name seems to be applied to grass in the western 
counties only. 



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ON DEVONSHIRE VERBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 89 

"Frail = weak bodily. September 20th, 1879, widow of 
tradesman, about 60 years old, long resident in Teignmouth : 
' I'm so dreadful frail, I can't get vp and down stairs/ The 
use of this word, with this meaning, habitual at Teignmouth. 
W. C. L." 

See Ash. John^ Web., &c, a purely French word. 

Cotgrave, " Fraile, fraile, brittle, weake, easily broken." 

" Guttering = draining. June 5th, 1881, a labourer, aged 
45, native of Culmstock, said to me, ' I Ve a been guttering 
for down to Lane End/ F. T. E." 

This word has become thoroughly technical in both Devon 
and Somerset. (See Hal.) 

" High-by-day *= in broad daylight May" 29th, 1881, a 
man over 70, at Lynmouth, speaking of foxes in the woods 
around, said, 'A little while ago they came down and car'd 
off some chicken all high-by-day/ Soon after he said, ' They 
be bold, sure enough, vor to car off poultry high-by-day/ 
F. T. E." 

c< Hire-say, rhymes with ' wire/ December 3rd, 1880, a 
farmer's wife, native of Devon, and now living in the parish 
of Culmstock, age about 56, said to me in my own house, 
' What I do zay is true, sure enough. Tid'n no hire-say ; I 
yerd it my own zull/ Having some doubt, and to make 
quite sure, I led her on to repeat the word in two other 
sentences. F. T. E." 

See Hal^ Jen. — 

" Twull do your heart good to hire et." — Ex. Scold. 1. 444. 

See also Ibid, 11. 31, 139, 566, 617. 

" J>an stode Jms barouns of honour, and lokede J>yderward 
out of J>e tour, and al J>ys hyrej> and see]?." — Sir Fer. 1. 
3794. 

See Bos., A.S. ' hiran/ to hear. 

" Holm = holly. March, 1881, a labourer, about 40 years 
of age, in my employ at Culmstock, said, ' We ant a cut down 
none of thick holm bush/ F. T. E." 

The usual name in Devon and Somerset. 

Prornp. Parv. has " holme, or holy," Ulmus, hussus. 

Parkinson gives " holm " as the name of the holly. 

In the North it is called " hollin." It is said of St. Bernard, 
in the Golden Legend, that " he often made his pottage with 
leues of holm." 



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90 FOURTH REPOBT OF THE COMMITTEE 

In Norfolk the holly is called "hulver." (See Tusser, p. 86, 
v. 23, and p. 105, v. 10. See Wil., Jen., Hal., Web.) 
Ask says, " Holm is local for holly." 

" Hulk = seed or grain when mixed with the chaff; i.e. 
after being thrashed, but before it is winnowed. At Culm- 
stock, February 12th, 1881, a farmer, about 56 years of age, 
said to me, ' We draws in the hulk into the barn, eens we do 
drash it, fear o* the rain; F. T. E." See Hal., Pegge. 

"Linhay, rhymes with 'finny.' May, 1881, a builder, 
about 60, living at Sampford Peverell, said to me, ' I spose, 
sir, you 'd like to have a bit of a tallet up over the linhay/ 
F. T. E." 

(See Hal., Wil., Jen., Put) This is a thorough old west- 
country word. In the Phil. Trans, of Roy. Soe. for 1695, 
p. 30, is a letter from Mr. Zachary Mayne, concerning 
a spout of water that happened at Topshara, on the river 
between the sea and Exeter, in 1694 In it he says, " Back- 
ward in the court there was a linny that rested upon a wall." 

" Man-tie = a very common weed. May 18th, 1881, a 
gardener, about 40, born and bred in Devonshire, said to me, 
•About Exeter we always call it man-tie.' F. T. E." 

In Somerset this is generally called " tacker-grass," though 
it is well known as above. (Polygonum aviculare.) 

" Misk = mist. November 2nd, 1880, daughter of labourer, 
of 20 to 30, born and resident in Teignmouth, 'She could hardly 
find her way home, she felt in a misk.* This form not un- 
common ; also misky for misty. W. C. L." 

Common also in Somerset. (See Wil.) 

" Money-in-both-pockets = the plant 'Honesty ' (Lunaria 
biennis). July, 1876, a woman living at Tarr Steps (Somer- 
set), but a native of East Anstey, told me that the plant 
(very common) was ' always called money-in-both-pockets in 
that country/ because the seeds are found on both sides of 
the division in the transparent seed-pod. F. T. E." (See 
Brilten.) 

" Mun, min = them. A farmer, born and bred near 
Crediton, but who came to live near me in Somerset, always 
used this form. He constantly used such phrases as, 'I know'd 
mun well enough/ said of boys stealing apples ; * I gid mun 



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ON DEVONSHIRE VERBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 91 

all they asked ;' "Twas no good for mun to pretend/ The 
form is perfectly well known to all Devonshire men. F. T. E." 
Ex. Scold. 1. 224, " Tha wut spudlee out the Yemors, and 
screedle over mun" 
Nat. Hogg, p. 35 — 

u Kinveyinces wiz stannin thare — 
ee korridges, I think, an pair — 
Ta teake min vur a ride." 
This word is not to be confused with min, meaning man, 
as quoted by Put., Jen., Hal. 

Sir Fer. — 
" By J?at was araid duk Rolant \ and saw hy men away ward 

schake." (1. 928.) 
" J?an spak Florippe J?at burde brizt '. to hymyn euerechone." 

(L 2525.) 
" hy men wondrede wal J>e more \ J>at he therste hym profry 
to." (1. 291.) 
In these examples we find it used in nom., ace., and dat. ; 
and in the poem it is also used after of, till, with. 

" Nothing = not nearly. On March 2nd, 1881, the custo- 
dian of the Kent's Cavern, probably about 60, speaking of 
the Biixham Cave, said twice over, ' He idn nothing so large 
as this. F. T. E." 

" To Peck = to measure with a peck. July, 1879, in Culm- 
stock parish, I heard a middle-aged farmer say to a man in a 
barn, about some seed, ' Mind and peck it up careful like, ins 
might'n be no mistake. F. T. E." 

" Poached = to make pits with the hoof. On April 27th, 
1881, 1 saw some sheep eating off young corn, and asked a 
native of St. Marychurch, about 50, if they did no harm, and 
he replied, 'Young corn is all the better for being well 
poached ;' and, ' It is a good plan to turn in sheep to eat off 
and poach the young corn.' In reply to my question as to 
the meaning of poach, he explained that the pits or depressions 
caused by the hoofs of animals in soft land were called poached. 
I put the question to an agriculturist of good position, a 
native of Ilsham, near Torquay, about 35 or 40, what poached 
meant, and he said, ' When cattle walk over soft ground you 
will see that each hoof makes a pit; this pitting is called 
poaching/ I asked if the same expression applied to the 
footmarks of sheep in fields of young corn, and he replied 
in the affirmative. P. Q. K." 



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92 FOURTH REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE 

• See Hal., Nares (to poche), Web., Britten. 

Johnson has " poachy," damp, marshy. 

In Somerset " pawch " and " pauuch." (See Wil.) 

Cotg. has " pocb£," poched, thrust or digged out with the 
fingers; also blurred. Cotg. has also "poin$on," a bodkin. 
This rather agrees with the Somerset form, but in both the 
idea is to ptmch; i.e. to stab or pierce. 

Promp. Parv. has " pownson," puncto. 

" Properly = completely. February 27th, 1880, a domestic 
servant, about 30, born in Torquay, resident since in Teign- 
mouth, said, • You must have it a little warm ; you must not 
have it properly cold* The use of this habitual in Teign- 
mouth. W. C.L." 

Cotg. has " propre," unto the purpose. 

The meaning above is clearly, " Cold to the purpose." (See 
Hal.) 

" Rear = to rouse. September 19th, 1880, a nurse, 60 to 
70 years old, born and resident in Teignmouth, said, ' Her 
began to hollo ; her reared the whole house.' W. C. L." 

Cotg., " To rere," eslever, and " eslever, 9 * to raise. 

We have the same meaning in both modern French and 
English, as in the phrase, " to raise the whole neighbourhood," 
to raise a hue and cry. To reare and to raise were synony- 
mous. We have the former in " to rear a monument" 

Cotg. gives as the first meaning "cabrer;" i.e. to stand on 
the hind legs like a goat. 

Hal. says, " To mock, or gibe." (Dev.) 

" Eexens = rushes. June 5th, 1881, in the parish of 
Culmstock, a labourer, about 45 years of age, speaking of 
some land he had been 'guttering/ said, "Twas urned aU to 
ruin and rexens/ F. T. E." (See Hal., Wil., Bos.) 

Earh, " Juncus " = rise (p. 14), risce (p. 31). "Juncus" 
vel scyrpus, resce. " Hec papirio" = resche-busk (p. 52). 
"Hie cirpus, hie junccus" = a rysche (p. 59). The change 
from the Saxon sc into cs is quite natural. Compare ax; i.e. 
acs from ase. The forms rexen and raxen are quite common 
throughout the South-west A. S. " Eisce," rixe. 

"To ride = to be carried safely. June 3rd, 1881, the 
landlord of the Lyndale Hotel, native of Lynmouth, on 
placing a flower-pot with a plant in it in a certain position 
in the carriage, said, ' He 11 ride there, miss/ meaning that it 
would be carried safely. F. T. E." 



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ON DEVONSHIKB VERBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 93 

The word means " to be carried," but implies nothing as to 
safety in ordinary English. (See Web., John.) It is used 
constantly to imply safe carriage in Somerset. 

" Ripping = the act of stripping the bark from oak trees or 
coppice. May 24th, a labourer, about 45, said to me, ' I *ve a 
bin over to Holcombe (Bogus) ripping more 'n this vortnighV 
F. T. E." 

Oxon., " Barkin." 

"To Eive, to Reive = to pass seed or grain through a 
particular sieve in the process of winnowing. March 5th, 
1881, at Culmstock, a man of about 40, working in a barn, 
said to me, respecting some clover-seed, * I Wt a lived a 
good much o' it not eet.' " (See Hal) 

Cotg., " Fendre," to cleave, slit, rive, divide ; hence used as 
above to separate (t.e. by sifting) the seed from the chaff. 
Cf. "rift." 

"Riving sieve = a sieve used in winnowing. March 5th, 
1881, asking the man above what he meant by riving, he 
said, € To put it drue the rivin-zeeve, vor to take out all the 
eaver/ F. T. E." 

The idea is to separate, as much as to cleave or split. 

Promp. Parv. has " ry ve, or rake." (Rostrum.) 

Hampole, "And rogg J?am in sonder and ryue." (1. 1230.) 

" Saffron. August, 1880, a Devonshire farmer, living near 
Exeter, said to me of a certain farm, c 'Tis a very purty little 
place ; he M let so dear as saffron.' F. T. E." 

Earle, " Hiccrocus," safurroun (p. 52), sapherone (p. 57), 
safryn (p. 64). 

Promp. Parv., " Safrun." (Crocum.) 

Its value or dearness is given by Gerard, p. 152 : " It is 
also such a speciall remedie for those that have consumption 
of the lungs, and are, as wee terme it, at deaths doore, and 
almost past breathing, that it bringeth breath again." 

" Shords = pieces of broken earthenware. May 12th, 1879, 
a labourer, a native of Lydford, about 40 years of age, said 
to me, when moving some thin dense bits of stone with his 
shovel, « They ring like shords/ F. H. F." 

Cotg. ' Tais ' = ' a potshard/ c Tests ' = c a shard, or piece 
of a broken pot* (See Job ii. 8 ; Isaiah xxx. 14 ; Ezekiel 
xxiii 34.) 



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94 FOURTH REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE 

" Sloen = adjectival form of sloe. Summer of 1878, a 
nurse, between 60 and 70 years old; born at Ufifculme, long 
resident in Teignmouth, said, ' Her eyes were not quite a sloen 
black/ W,C ; L" 

This form is most interesting, and quite agrees with the 
usual adjectival inflection en, as in bonen, holmen, cloamen, 
oaken,, stonen, glassen, &c., but only remaining in standard 
Eng. in a few words like wooden, leathern, uoaxen. The sloe is 
a common comparative of blackness. " So black 's a sloe " is 
heard everywhere in the South. 

Earle, " Nigra spina = slag Jrorn." 

Prior, " Sloe," Prunus sjrinosa. 

"Spine-field = pasture field. May 24th, 1881, a farmer 
at Culmstock said to me, 'You main the fust o' they two 
spine-fields, don 'ee, sir?' F. T. E." (See Hal, Pul, Wil.) 
The word seems peculiar to the West. 

" Shroudy = branchy, bushy, covered with branches. 
February, 1881, at Culmstock, in giving orders for the 
' making ' of a hedge, I told the labourer (a Devonshire man) 
to save all the sticks suitable for peas or kidney beans. He 
said, 'They be come now vor to use all shroudy sticks vor 
kidney beans ; and I 'd so lay use shroudy sticks my zull as 
ever I would trimmed ones/ F. T. E." 

Cotg. Abri = a couvert, shrowd, shelter, or shadie place. 
Kefuge = a shrowd, shelter. 

Hence a shroudy tree is one with plenty of branches, 
affording shroud, or shelter. 

Web. " Affording shelter " [rare], Milton. 

" Tallet = a loft over a stable or shed. May, 1881, a 
builder (see Clavel), said to me, ' I spose, sir, you *d like to 
have a bit of a tallet up over the linhay.' F. T. E." (See 
Hal., Jen., Wil.) 

Pul. tries to explain its derivation, but not successfully. 
The word is not known beyond the western counties; and 
there can be scarcely a doubt of its being true Celtic. 
Modern Welsh, "Tajlod, a loft, commonly a hay loft" (see 
Richards), must be the same word. 

" Tame = prune (as a rose bush). March 12th, 1881, a 
lodging-house keeper, about 30 to 40, born and resident in 
Teignmouth, 'I tHink you have tamed him enough, sir/ 
W. C. L." 



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ON DEVONSHIRE VERBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 95 

(See Trans. Dev. Assoc., vol. xi., 115.) It is usual to say 
of a fast -growing shrub that it is rude growing; hence 
naturally bo prime it is to tame it. (See Sal., Put., WU.) 

"To = at. May, 1881, at Culmstock, a labourer, in reply 
to a question as to where some other men were, said, ' I zeed 
em playing to skittles/ R T. E." 

This form is the usual one throughout Devon and Somerset. 
To play at is modern English, and was no doubt midland in 
Chaucer's time ; but in his day the idiom in Devonshire was 
as now (viz., to play to). This is seen by the following from 
Sir Fer. L 2224 : " \>o J?at williej? to leue at hame '. pleyej> 
to ]>e eschekkere, and summe of hem to iew-de-dame' and 
summe to tablere." 

" to = of, in the sense of ' living at/ Used throughout 
the county, as 'Mr. White to Loxbeer Barton/ F. T. E." 
Compare modern Dutch, as in "Stads-Bank van Leening te 
Amsterdam." — Nineteenth Century, June, 1881, p. 988. This 
very curious grammatical form, so universal in Devon and 
Somerset, is (I believe) unknown in other counties. 

"To = to break. On 15th March, 1881, a 'hind/ about 
28 years of age, living in Lydford, used the following expres- 
sions when scolding his dog for being too ' Tough' with the 
sheep, 'Darn you, "Watch," you'n have yourn holders 
t'brock'd/ 'Watch,' the name of the dog; 'holders/ the 
canine teeth, the points of which are sometimes nipped off 
when a dog is too rough with the flock. F. H. F." 

An interesting survival of Old English — 

Judges ix. 53 : ' And a certain woman cast a piece of a 
millstone upon Abimelech's head, and all to brake his skull ' 
(or smashed)." 

Cf. " Sone J>ay had hit al to-clatryd f J?e peeces leye on J?e 
grounde." Sir Fer. 897. 

"And hure scheldes stronge and gretef J>ey were al to- 
hewe." Sir Fer. 676. So also — 

" To-falle " (i.e. knocked to pieces). Sir Fer. 5011. 

" To-flente " = flew in pieces. Sir Fer. 4940. 

" To-rente " = torn to pieces. Sir Fer. 675. 

" To-taar " = torn to pieces. Sir Fer. 4533. 

"And hor vantwarde was to-broke. Rdbt. of Gloucester, 155. 

" To-draw " = to rend. Robt. of QhmC&Ur, 287. 

See also Chaucer and Shakspeare. 



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96 FOURTH REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE 

" To try = to arbitrate, to act as umpire. December, 1879, 
a farmer of Alphington, in this county, with whom there was 
a misunderstanding, said to me, c I be safe o* t, be tried by 
other farmer in the county/ meaning, * I am sure of it, let it be 
decided by any farmer in the county. F. T. E." 

The umpire at a wrestling match is always called the 
" trier." See Web., Ash. 

" Un = him it At Culmstock a shoemaker said of a wall, 
' I think he'd stand nif was vor to put up a bit of a battery 
agin un.' F. T. E." See Hal, Jen. 

"Did you ever know un, goodman Clench?" Jon. Tale of a 
Titb, act i. scene 2. 

"Hotded tha yoe do, whan tha hadst a cort en by tha 
heend legs o' en ?" Ex. Scold., 1. 208. 

This form is not as generally said to be, a corruption, but 
is the remains of the true old English pronoun, Hin, hint, 
hen, hyn, and is still found in the modern German ihn. 

"To urn = to run. June 5th, 1881, a labourer, native 
of Culmstock, aged about 45, said to me of some land, 
' 'Twas urned all to ruin and rexens.' F. T. E." 

Bos. (A. S.) ' irnan/ to run, yraan. 

Ancren Riwle, p. 112, " J>et ilke blodi swot of his blisfule 
bodie, ]>et te streames vrnen adun to J>er eor}?e." 

Trevisa, p. 236, 1. 21, "Basilius seij> J?at \>e water J?at 
eorne}> and passe)?." (See Hal.) 

"Wandering Sailors = Ivy -leaved toad -flax (Linaria 
Cyrribalaria). June 1st, 1881, an old resident fisherman at 
Lynmouth, said in reply to a question as to the name of a 
creeper on a wall, common in North Devon, but very profuse 
at Lynmouth, 'We always call it "Wandering Sailors." ' 
F. T. E." 

"Winter-proud. January 3rd, 1881, a farmer at St. 
Marychurch, native and life-long resident in Devon, said 
that with such a mild December the 'wheat was apt to 
get winter-proud, as we say in these parts' (meaning too 
forward in growth), and then to be injured by cold or frosts 
in spring. G. H. W." 

(See Hal.) Comp. ' Proud-flesh/ said of a wound healing 
too quickly ; i.e. young flesh growing so fast as to cover the 
sore beneath. 



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ON DEVONSHIRE VERBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 97 

" Witch-halse = witch elm (Ulmus morUana). The com- 
mon name in the neighbourhood of Lynton, where the tree is 
very abundant. F. T. E." 

Hal. says witch-hazel is the mountain ash. This is wrong. 
(See Prior, Web.) 

" Wrastle, rhymes with ' castle ' = to wrestle. This is the 
usual pronunciation throughout North Devon. In West 
Somerset it is often sounded much broader, so as almost to 
rhyme with 'jostle.' Many also in both Devon and Somerset 
sound the w = vrastle, vrastling. F. T. E." 

Rogers, p. 332, " Such as have wrastled much with the Lord 
for a blessing." 

See Hal., " Wrastelynge." 

Rdbt. of Gloucester, p. 5, L 116— 
" Ac he ouercom J?e deuel and adoun him caste, 
To-gadere as hii wrastlede and bond is honden vaste." 

" Yanning time = lambing time. On March 3rd, 1880, by 
a native of St Marychurch, aged 25. P. Q. K" 
See Web., Hal., Bos. (A. S. eacan), Britten. 
Tusser, p. 73 v. 21— 

" Eawes readie to yeane 
Craeus ground red cleane." 



vol. xin. g 

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THIRD REPORT OF THE BARROW COMMITTEE. 

Third Report of the Committee — consisting of Mr. C. Spence 
Bate, Mr. 0. Doe, Mr. P. 0. Hutchinson, Mr. J. Brooking 
Boive, and Mr. It. N. Worth (Secretary) — to collect and 
record facts relating to Barrows in Devonshire, exclusive 
of Dartmoor as defined in the twelfth minute (of 1880), 
and to take steps where possible for their investigation. 

Edited by R. N. Worth, f.o.s., Hon. Secretary. 
(Bead at Dawlish, July, 1881.) 



The Barrow Committee are indebted to Mr. Francis Brent, of 
Plymouth, an old member of this Society, for an illustrated 
account of a singularly interesting discovery of an ancient 
grave — a kist-vaen with urn — associated with the remains of 
a kitchen-midden, beneath a house in one of the oldest parts 
of Plymouth. 

The Rev. Treasurer Hawker has called the attention of the 
Committee to some Barrows at Berrynarbor, permission to 
examine which has been kindly given. It is hoped that the 
group may be explored when the harvest is over in the 
ensuing autumn, and the results duly recorded in the next 
report 

The Committee beg to recommend that in their reappoint- 
ment the limitation of their operations with regard to 
Dartmoor be omitted. No adequate conclusions can be 
be formed by them concerning the Barrows of the county, 
if so large and peculiarly important an area is excluded 
from their investigation. 

J. Brooking Rowe, Chairman. 
R. N. Worth, Secretary. 

June llth, 1881. 



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THIRD REPORT OF THE BARROW COMMITTEE. 99 

DISCOVERY OF AN ANCIENT GRAVE IN STILLMAN STREET, 
PLYMOUTH. 

During alterations made by the Messrs. Pitts upon premises 
in Stillman Street, Plymouth, preparatory to the erection of 
a new malt-house, an interesting discovery was made of a 
little grave, containing an urn which once held the ashes of 
the burnt body of one of the ancient inhabitants of Devon- 
shire. The workmen in ^ the course of their excavations 
came upon some shells, mostly of the oyster, periwinkle, 
cockle, and mussel, all very much decayed from age, so that 
a few only could be preserved, and probably part of an 
ancient refuse heap or kitchen-midden. The actual quantity 
was not large, but similar shells were scattered throughout 
the adjoining soil, showing that the heap had been disturbed 
in former years. Two flat stones were then found, which at 
first were taken to be the covering of an old drain, each 
about three feet long by fifteen inches wide and three thick. 
They were whatsis locally called dunstone — a hard, green, 
gritty, trap rock, which had been brought from a distance, 
and seemed to have been weathered l>efore being used for this 
present purpose. 

The stones were placed at a right angle to each other, thus 
forming a roof, the gable ends of which were crossed by two 
pieces of stone, each about a foot long, of similar description 
to the cover stones. 

On raising the stones a large urn, composed of black ware, 
was discovered, placed in a small grave or cist, which was 
about eighteen inches deep, by two feet wide, and three feet 
in length ; this had been excavated in the native rock, which 
was here a soft and brittle shala 

Unfortunately no one was on the spot to record what I 
have since learnt from the workmen employed ; and soon the 
grave was cleared out, the urn destroyed, and the cUbris 
carted away to some ballast- heap, whence it has been taken 
on board ship and lost When 1 first saw the grave it had 
been completely emptied, and the west side destroyed. The 
grave lay nearly north and south ; the east and south ends 
had been built up of small slabs of dunstone, and were quite 
perpendicular, whilst the north end consisted of the native 
rock, sloping away at a considerable angle, and exceedingly 
decayed and shattered. It is not improbable that the north 
and west sides were originally as perpendicular as the rotten 
rock would admit, but that in excavating the soil the 
labourers had removed all the loose stuff, which was carted 

G 2 



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100 THIRD REPORT OF THE BARROW COMMITTEE. 

away with the rest, leaving the rock at the angle at which it 
had most readily broken. 

From the few fragments of the urn which I was able to 
preserve, the drawing of the restored figure has been prepared. 
This may not be absolutely correct, but at all events it will 
enable us to form some idea of what this interesting urn was 
like, wherein were placed the ashes of the cremated body of 
one of Plymouth's ancient forefathers. That it once contained 
ashes cannot I think be doubted ; the portions of the bottom 
still present a white appearance, which probably comes from 
the contact of the ashes with the clay. No human bones 
were, however, brought under my notice. 

It is much to be regretted that further excavations could 
not be made, which might have led to additional discoveries, 
and perhaps more careful observations than could now be 
recorded, but the nature of the new building would not 
admit of this ; much soil and soft rock were removed, but 
nothing of interest was discovered, although 1 visited the 
spot several times daily. 

The urn itself, in its restored figure, presents a somewhat 
unusual form, and differs from that of most vessels found in 
kist-vaens, or barrows, in its larger diameter at the mouth 
(13 inches) in proportion to its height ; it is also very thin. 
It was placed in the grave with the mouth upwards. A 
fragment of an urn, nearly allied to this, but smaller, was 
found by the Eev. Mr. Kirwan, July, 1868, in a large barrow 
on Broad Down, near Sidbury. A drawing of the fragments, 
as well as of the restored urn, are given in the Transactions 
of the Devonshire Association of this year. The barrow is No. 
57 of Mr. Hutchinson's list in the Second Report of the 
Barrow Committee. Mr. Kirwan's urn was about half the 
size of the Stillman Street one.* 

I am not aware that any grave similar to this has ever 
been recorded, and if not, this discovery may be considered 
as highly interesting. The Romano- British graves met 
with by Mr. Spence Bate on the hill at Fort Stamford, near 
Plymouth, were composed of slabs of stone, without roof 
cover, and contained many relics, but I think no cinerary 
urns, or other pottery, except what may be considered as 
food or water vessels. The barrows opened by Mr. Kirwan, 
near Sidmouth, rarely contained kist-vaens, but the urns 
weie usually enclosed with flint stones. The barrows opened 
and explored in Cornwall did not contain similar cists ; and 

* Vide Trans. Devon. Assoc, vol. ii. p. 641 ; vol. xii. p. 134, and illustra- 
tions. 



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THIRD REPORT OF THE BARROW COMMITTEE. 101 

none opened elsewhere, as far as I am aware, contained cists 
with roof stones placed at ri^ht angles to each other, as 
have been found in this Plymouth grave. The early Roman 



inhabitants of Britain, however, used tiled graves. One 
with eight roof tiles, placed in a similar manner to the 
Plymouth grave, and closed at each end with a tile in the 
same fashion, was found near York.* This contained no urn, 
but a layer of charcoal and burnt bones. Again, the Stillman 
Street urn is of somewhat finer ware than ordinary British, 
and seems to have been made on a potter's wheel, nor do the 
fragments show any sign of the lines or rude ornaments 
so common on British urns. It exhibits, however, every 
appearance of having been subjected to the funeral fire, and 
fragments of charcoal still adhere to the surface. 

In all probability, then, we have here the grave of one 
who lived in Devon after the Romans had visited our county, 
and introduced their mode of burial. 

Francis Brent. 

* Celt, Roman, and Saxon, p. 808. 



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SECOND REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE 

TO OBTAIN INFORMATION AS TO PECULIAR 

TENURES OF LAND, 

AND AS TO CU8TOM8 OF MANOR COURTS IN DEVONSHIRE, 
EXCLUSIVE OF DARTMOOR. 

Second Report of the Committee — consisting of Mr. R Dy- 
mond, Mr. O. Doe, Mr. A. W. Hurrell, Mr. 0. W. Ormeiod, 
Mr. J. Brooking Rowe, and Mr. Edward Windtatt (Secre- 
tary), on Peculiar Tenures of Land in Devonshire. 

Edited by Edward Windeatt, Honorary Secretary. 

(Read at Dawliah, July, 1881.) 



Your Committee have gleaned but little on which to report 
this year, but they would call especial attention to the 
reference to documents which have come to light relative to 
the manor courts and tenures of lands belonging to the 
Pomeroys, of Berry Castle, on which they hope to report 
fully next year. 

Your Committee trust that the definition of Dartmoor will 
be so altered as to admit of their next year reporting on 
several manor courts of peculiar interest. 

The contributor's name is appended to each note. 

Robert Dymond, Chairman. 
Edward Windeatt, Hon. Sec. 

COURT ROLLS OF POMEROYS. 

An account of some documents that have lately come to 
light relating to the manor courts and tenures of lands which 
belonged to the Pomeroys, of Berry Castle. 

By far the largest number belong to the manor courts of 
Berry Pomeroy and Bridgetown Pomeroy. One of the oldest 
of these, dated 7 Henry IV. (1405-6), has, under the head 
Pannage, a long list of persons who owned pigs ; opposite the 
names is the number of pigs kept, with the amount each 
person had to pay. Pannage was money paid to the lord of the 



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ON PECULIAR TENURES OF LAND. 103 

manor for leave to feed cattle on the masts in the woods. In 
some cases presentments .are made of cattle that have died of 
murrain. There were generally seventeen courts held in the 
year, being one every three weeks. 

The documents relating to Berry and Bridgetown Pomeroy 
extend, though not continuously, from 3 Henry IV. to 27 
Henry VIII. 

There are six that relate to the manor of Great Totnes, and 
give the names of holders of lands under Totnes Castle for 
military service. One dates 22 Henry VII., and the others 
from 15 to 30 Henry VIII. The following are a few of the 
names : — 

Lord de la Ware, for Hempston Cautelhoe, alias Broad- 
hempston. 

Lord Hastyngs, for Southpole and Scobehill. 

Lady Cecilia, Marchioness of Dorset, for Wodeford. 

Prioress of Corneworthy, for Tydworthy, Alleluy and 
Westcorneworthy. 

Prior of Plympton, for Shaugh (?) 

William Courtenay, miles, for Southuyshe and Galweton. 

Edward Pomeroy, miles, for Sydenham, Wagshen, and 
Colaton. 

Katherine Dudley, for Nbrthbovy. 

Antonius Worthe, for moiety of Wayshefyd. 

Adrian Fortescue. 

John Lord Fitzwaryn. 

Oliver Wyse. 

Six more relate to Stokeleigh Pomeroy, and date from the 
9th to 34th Henry VI. 

Four relate to Brixham, and one each to Fillegh, Lamerton, 
and Wear Gifford. 

I hope in a future report to give some longer and fuller 
extracts from these interesting papers. J. S. Amery. 

PECULIAR TENURE AT BICTON. 

Soon after the Conquest, the king appointed one of his 
followers to the office of door-keeper to the jail for malefac- 
tors ; and for this service the said door-keeper received a grant 
of the lands of Bicton, lying between Budleigh and Colyton 
Bawleigh, in the county of Devon. In the Exeter Domes- 
day, f. 472, and in the printed edition at p. 437, we have — 
Will'em 9 Portitor ht I. mans o^ uocat r Bechatona q, ten 
Ailf i 9 &c. This peculiar tenure of the lands at Bicton con- 
tinued in a succession of great families during the long space 
of seven hundred years, and, according to Lysons, was only 



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104 SECOND REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE 

abolished so late as 1787. Hence arose the names Portitor, 
De Porta, De la Porte, and Janitor, which these keepers of 
the jail bore at different periods. The last time I was in 
Normandy, making researches, I came upon an original charter 
of John Janitor at the archives at St Lo, dating about the 
end of King John, by the names of the subscribers, or the 
beginning of Henry III. The seal still remained, though 
much defaced. It was circular, and bore the words — " Sigill 
Johannis Janitoris," but only the last word is plain. The 
device consists of a hand and arm upholding a key, or two 
large keys back to back, before some object — perhaps a 
tower, or the gate of the jail.* Some very strange and, at 
the same time, very false impressions respecting the place of 
this jail have long existed among our old and respectable 
writers. There is a tradition still lingering in the neighbour- 
hood that at a remote period the jail of the county of Devon 
was situated first at Harpford (about ten miles east of Exeter), 
then at Bicton (the same distance south-east from the metro- 
polis of the county), and finally at the city of Exeter itself. 
Both the Isaacks, in their Histories of Exeter, at page 110 
in each History, have been misled by this popular but 
thoughtless belief. Westcote, page 239, says it was Henry I. 
who placed the jail at Bicton ; whereas, what Henry I. did 
was to confirm to John Janitor the keeping of the gate of 
Exeter Castle and of the jail ; that Joan, daughter and heir 
of the last of the Janitor blood, carried the manor of Bicton, 
with its mode of tenure, to Siccavilla, Sacheville, or Sackville, 
who removed the jail to Exeter. Lysons, Mag. Brit vi 47, 
writes: — "The county jail, which was formerly at Bicton, 
under the superintendence of the lord of this manor, was for 
greater security removed to Exeter in 1518. It was not till 
1787 that the Lord of Bicton was exonerated from the custody 
of the county jail." At page 256 he alludes to the tradition 
respecting Harpford. He says : — c< The ancient manor house 
[at Harpford, of which place he is now speaking], called 
Court Place, now a farm house, is the property of the Rev. 
Sydenham Peppin. There is a tradition, evidently ground- 
less, that it was in ancient times the county gaol, before it 
was removed to Bicton." I know this farm house well. It 
lies between Harpford Church and the river Otter. In or 
about the year 1860 it was accidentally burnt down ; but it 
has been rebuilt, and of course every feature is now modern. 
The Rev. Edmund Butcher, at the commencement of the 

* See also Journal Brit. Arch. Assoc for Sept, 1862, p. 257, for seal of 
Roger Janitor. 



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ON PECULIAR TENURES OF LAND. 105 

present century, brought out the first Sidmouth Guide, 
under the title of The Beauties of Sidmouth Displayed ; and, 
speaking of the adjoining parish of Harpford, he says: — 
•• The jail was removed from thence to Bicton by the family 
of the Eolles, and thence to Exeter, where it now remains." 
All this is an absurd jumble. These are our Historians! 
They seem to have thought that because the lord of Bicton 
held that manor for the service of keeping the county jail, 
that the jail was necessarily at Bicton ; whereas, in reality, 
it was never there at all. How it could ever have been 
placed at Harpford is still more unaccountable, and still more 
absurd. They seem all to have been content with a baseless 
tradition, and to have copied confidingly from one another. 
It is necessary, however, to hark back sometimes, and recur 
to the fountain head. The following is one of those fountain 
heads, and by referring to it we shall get correct information. 
I took it from the Hundred Rolls, temp. Edw. I., m. 9, 
dorsum, at that time preserved in the Chapter House at 
Westminster ; and it is expressly stated that the jail was at 
Exeter. 

IT \l tra de Buketon debej teneri de • r • in siauntia p svic 
c^tod Gaolam Exon. t nuc in manu dni r • roe c 9 todie filii 1 
hr Regin Le arbelestr • qui J inf* etatem. cui 9 c 9 todia ht Thom 
de pyn . a tpe q° fuit Escaetor • bienn elaps • sj nefciut q° 
Warent. 

The next I took from the Testa de Neville, compiled in 
the reigns of Henry III. and Edward I., Vol. I., page 837. 
It is equally explicit respecting the nature of this ancient 
tenure, as also the place of the jail. It runs thus : — 

w Joftes Janitor tenet Bukint cum ptin de dno Reg? p 
feriantiam cuftodiendi Januam Caft r Exon ^t gaiolam prifonu 
de dono • H.R. pW* anteceflbribj fuis p idem ferviciu. 

The above ought to be enough to clear up every obscurity. 
The descent of the manor of Bicton from the conquest down- 
wards may be briefly stated thus : — Ailsius the Saxon had it 
before the Domesday survey. Afterwards the Janitors had 
it for several generations; then the family of Balistarius, or 
Le Arbalister, had it for at leabt hvz descents, until the heiress 
Joan (though it is not quite clear which family she was heiress 
of) carried it to Siccavilla, whose heiress carried it to Copple- 
stou, who sold it to Robert Denis, whose heiress Anne carried 
it to Sir Henry Rolle of Stevenstone, from whom it descended 
to the late Lord Rolle. Since his lordship's death it has been 
held by trustees during Lady Rolle's life, for their relative the 
Hon. Mark [Trefusis] Rolle. P. 0. Hutcbinson. 



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ON THE EAELY HISTORY OF DAWLISH. 

BY JAMES BRIDGE DAVIDSON, M.A. 
(Read at Dawslih, July, 1881.) 



The history of Dawlish may be said to begin in the year 
1044, when King E&dweard the Confessor was on the throne; 
when the government of the southern counties, from Kent to 
Cornwall, was in the hands of Earl Godwine; whilst the 
Bishop of Devonshire still had his chair at Crediton ; and 
shortly after the sees of Devon and Cornwall had become 
united in the person of the existing Bishop, Lyfing. In this 
year seven manses of land at Dawlish were granted by the 
king to his " worthy (idoneo) chaplain," Leofric. 

Of Leofric's origin, all that is known is contained in two 
short phrases, one of Florence of Worcester (writing before 
1118), who says* that he was "Regis cancellarius " and 
" Britonicus ; " the other of William of Malmsbury, who 
(writing in about 1125) statesf that he was "apud Lothar- 
ingos altus et doctus." To this man then, of Saxon name, of 
British race, and of German education, who had come to be 
King's Chancellor^ (not Chancellor of England, as Prince§ 
has it) and Koyal Chaplain, || was granted this extensive and 

• Flor. Wig., sub anno 1046 ; M. H. B., 602 B. 

f De Oestis Pontificum, ii. 94 ; Rolls edition, p. 201. 

X This, Mr. Freeman thinks, is the first mention in English history of the 
office of Chancellor ; Norm, Conq. ii. 84. 

§ Worthies, ed. of 1810, p. 561. 

|| John Hoker, of Exeter, probably mistaking the meaning of " altos," and 
taking it to mean *'a man of high birth," or " nobleman" (an error into 
which Mr. N. E. S. A. Hamilton, the Rolls editor, has also inadvertently 
fallen, p. 536), improves upon Malmsbury's statement, and says that Leofric 
was " a man descended from the blood and line of Brutus, brought up in 
Loreine." This statement was imported by Godwin into his Lives of the 
Bishops, ed. of 1(?15, p. 395 ; and when that work was Latinized appeared as 
follows: "Vir nobili prosapia, in Burgundia natus" (ed. of 1743, p. 400), 
"Burgundia" being simply a rendering for "Lorraine." As Lothariugia, 
when Leofric was bom, which must have been somewhere about a.d. 1000, 



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ON THE EAKLY HISTORY OF DAWLISH. 107 

fertile tract of territory at the place, which " by the inhabi- 
tants of that region is called Doflisc."* Up to this date 
Dawlish had been " ancient demesne of the Crown ;" that is, 
had been part of the private possessions of the Kings of 
Wessex, probably since the first occupation of the country. 

Of Dawlish, this grant of 1044 contains the first known 
mention ; but the Dawlish of 1044 included, as will be pre- 
sently seen, the modern parish of Cast Teignmouth; and 
respecting Teignmouth, Camden has something to say in his 
Magna Britannia. In the edition of 1610,f the passage runs 
thus : " Then meet you with Teignemouth, a little village at 
the mouth of the river Teigne, whereof it hath also the 
name; where the Danes that were sent before to discover 
the situation of Britaine, and to sound the landing places, 
being first set ashore about the ) eere of Salvation, 800, and 
having slaine the governor of the place, tooke it as an 
ominous good token of future victorie ; which indeede after- 
ward they followed with extreme cruelty thorow the whole 
Hand." A story in Risdonf is to the same effect. Both 
these statements are manifestly erroneous in point of locality. 
The first landing of the Danes in England took place near 
Weymouth in the year 787, and the governor who was slain 
was the king's reeve at Dorchester, Dorset. § That a 
" governor " should have existed at Teignmouth in 800 is an 
historic impossibility. 

The valley of the Teign was no doubt invaded by the 
Danes in a.d. 1001. This appears from the Winchester 
Chronicle^ of which the following is a translation: "And 

was a district reaching from Basle to Ghent, and from Dijon to beyond 
Cologne, it may well be that part of its upper or southern portion was at 
sundry periods afterwards covered by portions of the shifting area of the 
duchy, Kingdom, and province of Burgundy. Prince, without any authority 
whatever, boldly claims Leofric as a native of Devon. Dr. Oliver, Lives of 
the Bishops, p. 6, follows the Latinized version of Godwin's narrative. 

* As this is the first extant form of the name, its spelling deserves atten- 
tion as a guide to the meaning. There can be no reasonable doubt that the 
signification is " Devil Water. ' The writer, however, no longer ( Trans. Dev. 
Assoc, x., 1878, 252 n.), supposes the word to be Saxon. For this it must 
needs be an adjective, but adjectives were never used as proper names. With 
greater probability the name is a compound of two Cornish words, " deawl," 
diabolus, and "isc," aqua. Of like origin are the names Dewlish, with its 
associated forms, in Dorset, and Dowlish ( Wake) in Somerset The theory is 
confirmed by the fact that in this parish tnere are a rivulet and hamlet called 
Dawlish Water. Whether or not this hamlet was the original nucleus of the 
settlement, it is highly probable that some impurity, natural or artificial, in 
this little brook gave a reproachful name to the whole stream and valley. 

t p. 208. 

I p. 143. 

§ A. 8. Chronicle, sub anno 787 ; "iEthelweard," M. H. B., p. 609 C. 

|| Sub anno mi. 



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108 ON THE EAKLY HISTORY OF DAWLISII. 

then" (i.e. after the fight with the men of Hampshire at 
-<Ethelinga-dene [Alton], where the king's high reeve, JEthel- 
weard,* was slain) " they " (the Danish host) " went westward 
till they catue to the Defenas " (men of Devon), " and there 
came to meet them Pallig, with the ships that he could 
gather. . . . And they burned Tegntuu, and also many other 
good hams" (homesteads) "which we cannot name; and 
peace was afterwards made there with them." It has been 
often assumed that this Tegntun was Teignmouth. f Professor 
Earlel was the first to point out that it was Kingsteignton. 
There is no positive statement that Teignmouth was burnt in 
1001, or indeed that there was anything at Teignmouth to be 
burnt. But it is highly probable that a fishery had been 
established there, and if so, there can be no doubt that the 
property of the inhabitants perished in the general destruc- 
tion. It is perhaps not too much to assume that the 
fortress-church of East Teignmouth was built as a result of 
this harrying. 

The charter of 1044 has been printed by Dr. 01iver,§ but 
without the Saxon boundaries; and as these have never 
hitherto, it is believed, appeared in print, the document is 
here produced in its entirety. || 

£ Regis cunctorum regum regimine reguntur omnia supera, 
ima, protundaque ; cuius quoque inmensa beuiuolentia subiude 
quem sibi obtemperantem perspexerit, et pnesentibus locup- 
letat habunde opibus, et post istius niiserae uite decursum 
facit euin pennis angelicis transcendere ad regna supernorum. 
gaudiorum. Qui etiam solus uoluntate seterni Patris disponit 
sceptra iuraque regnorum; est nempe dux ducum, rexque 
omnium proculdubio regum. Cuius rei autem gratia a nobis 
inchoatus sic hie donationis libellus consequenter manista- 
biturf in praecedente paginula. Igitur ego Eadvvardvs 
opitulante potentissimo Deo, possidens totius monarchiam 

* Mr. Freeman, N. C. i. 308, suggests that this was probably the Sheriff 
of Hampshire ; but from a charter printed by Kemble, C. D. t doxcviii. 
(iii. 304), it appears that he was Sheriff of Devon and Cornwall. 

f Thus Polwhele (i. 198) writes: "In 970 the Danes committed horrid 
devastations at West Teignmouth." This statement is not borne out by the 
English chronicles, which record, however, that in 981 Petrockstow, in 
Cornwall, was ravaged ; and great harm done everywhere by the sea-coast, 
both in Wales and Devonshire. 

% Sax. Chron. p. 334. 

§ Lives, p. 8. 

|| In this copy the first letters of proper names, where in small letters in 
the original, have been printed in capitals. All contractions have been 
extended, except "m," which has been printed for "minister" at the foot; 
and all stops have been supplied. 

% i.e. " manifestabitur. 



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ON THK EAKLY HISTORY OF DAWLISH. 109 

Angelicae* necne et Brittanniae telluris, haud modice 
concedemlo, concessit sum cuidam meo idoneo capellano, 
Leofrico onomate nuncupato, quoddam rus in uilla quae ab 
incolis regionis illius uocitatur Doflisc, scilicet, vil mansos 
illimet ad arandura, eo tenore quo omnibus diebus uitae suae, 
absque aliqua machina, sub illius bonorofice regatur dominio 
atque potestate, postque finem dierum illius habeat potestatem 
cuicumque placuerit tribuendi aut erogandi. Praecepimus 
autem ut antefatum rus sit liberuni ab omni fiscali tributo 
uel uectigali, cum omnibus ad se rite pertinentibus tarn in 
maximis quam in modicis rebus, cam pis, pascuis, pratis, 
siluisque: exceptis istis tribus, expeditione, pontis arcisque 
constructione. His itaque a nobis prout debuimus ceuque 
placuit reuerentiae nostrae et uoluntati stabilitis, adhuc quod 
minime est obliuioni tradendum, uolurous ut hie pnesens 
codicillus nodtrae licentiae scriptus, dampnet, conculcet, atque 
anathematizet cunctos emulorum, si qui contra eundem reperti 
fuerint, libellos. Si quis autem, quod futurum minime 
autumo, prsesumptione audaci instinctuque diabolico contra 
nostrum decretum hanc donationis karterulam adnihilare uel 
pro nibilo ducere temptauerit, in primis, quod grauius est, 
iram Dei ouinipotentis genetricisque eius uidelicet almae et 
intactae Mariae incurrat, dehinc meam omniumque satellitum 
meorum, noscatque se obnoxium atque reum omnibus horis 
atque momentis solorum, fiatque pars illius cum Datham et 
Abyron cumque tortuoso Beelzebub, Principe Muscarum, in 
baratro inferiori, et quod indigne seu procaciter reperit non 
eum dicet, sed cum dedecore multimodo expulsus sit a nobis, 
nisi prius hie digna penitudine studuerit, ultro, non coactus, 
emendare. Anno incarnationis dominicae in. xliiii., indictione 
xii, epactaque xviii., et concurrente vii., scilicet bissextili 
anno, karaxata est haec kartula, gubernante piisimo Anglonim 
cateruam rege feliciter Eadvvardo. 

Dys sindo tha landgemaero. ^Erest on Tenge mudan, upp 
and lang thaes fleotes on crampan steort ; and swa eft ongean 
be tham sealtemon on tha straete on west healfe Michaheles 
ciricean ; and swa nord andlang thaere straet on tha greatan 
die; thanon nord eft ongerihte on thone blindan will; on 
tham wille nord on gerihte on thone dunnan stan ; thanon 
eft nord rihte on tha ealdan die ; and swa and lang thaere die 
nord on gerihte ofer waetersceota cumb ; thanon up and lang 
thaere ealdan raewe on tha stapulas ; fram tham stapulon on 
gerihte and lang hricges on sand holcan; of sand holcan 
andlang strete on blacan penn; thanon andlang straete on 
•Sic, pro"Angli«." 



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110 ON THE EARLY HISTORY OF DAWLISH. 

bradan mores heafdon; and thanon on gerihte and lang 
straete od eord birig ; and swa nord and land straete on stan 
beorh ; and swa nider and lang straete on Doflisc ford ; and 
thanon nord of tham forda and lang thaere port straete on rise 
slaedes heafdon ; swa nider and lang streames on Cocc ford ; 
and swa and lang thaes fleotes ut on Exan ; nider eft and lang 
Exan thaer sciterlacu ut scit; and swa up and lang sciter 
lace on thaes fleotes heafod, thanon siddan sud on tha ealdan 
die ; and swa on gerihte to tham readan stane ; of tham 
stane sud ut on tha sae ; swa west be sae eft on Tenge mudan. 

Ego Eadwardvs rex totius Anglice gentis huius donationis 
libertatem hilari animo fieri concessi. 

Ego Eadsinus Christi aecclesiae archi-presul corroboraui 

Ego -*Elfricus Eboracensis aecclesiae archi-episcopus consoli- 
daui. 

Ego Iifingus Crydianensis aecclesiae pontifex rogatus a rege 
calomo (sic) scripsi 

Ego ^Eluuinus episcopus assensum praebuL 

Ego Brihtuuoldus episcopus confirmaui 

Ego Dodico episcopus consignauL 

Ego Ealdredus episcopus corroboraui. 

Ego ^Elfuuinus abba nouae aecclesiae. 

Ego iEgeluuardus abba Glestoniensis aecclesiae. 

Ego ^Ethelstanus abba. 

Ego Uulfuueardus abba. 
. Ego Goduuinus abba. 

Ego Goduuinus dux stabiliui 

Ego Leofricus dux. 

Ego Suuegen dux. 

Ego Sigeuuardus dux. 

Ego Haroldus nobilis. 

Ego Tosti nobilis. 

Ego Leofuuinus nobilis. 

Ego Odda nobilis. 

Ego Ordgarus nobilis. 

Ego ^Elfgarus nobilis. 

Ego Ordulfus nobilis. 

Ego Dodda nobilis. 

Ego Brihtricus nobilis. 

Ego Osgodus m. 

Ego iRlfstanus fh. 

Ego Ecglafus m. 

Ego iEthelmaerus m. 

Ego Karl m. 

I^o Atsorus m. 



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ON THE EARLY HISTORY OF DAWUSH. Ill 

Ego Qodricus m. 
Ego iElfuuinus m. 
Ego Ulfcytel m. 
Ego Osmarus ill 
Ego Ecgulfus m. 
Ego Goduinus m. 
Ego iElfricus m. 
Ego JSthelwerdus m. 
Ego Wulfwerdus m. 
Ego ^Ethelricus fn. 
Ego Liuingeus m. 
Ego Wulfgarus m. 
Ego Brihtwinus fii. 
Ego Uulfsige fh. 
Ego Thurkjrl fh. 
Ego Toui fh. 
Ego ^Ethelwinus fh. 
Ego Thurstanus fh. 
%> ^Elfgeatm. 
Ego Manni fh. 

The following is a translation : 

"All things — above, below, and in the deep — are governed 
by the sway of the King of all kings,* whose unmeasured 
favour, as soon as it has recognized the man who obeys Him, 
both enriches him abundantly with present wealth, and, after 
the course of this miserable life is ended, causes him to ascend 
on the wings of angels to the kingdoms of heavenly bliss ; 
who also alone, by the will of the eternal Father, regulates 
the sceptres and the laws of kings; for He is in truth the 
Lord of lords, and without doubt the King of all kings. For 
what purpose, therefore, this charter of donation has been com- 
menced by us will appear consequentially from the foregoing 
paragraph. Wherefore I, Eadward, by the aid of Almighty 
God, possessor of the monarchy of the land of all England, 
and moreover of Britain, have granted to a certain worthy 
chaplain of mine, named Leofric, a certain tract of land in 
the vill, which by the inhabitants of that region is called 
Doflisc ; that is to say, seven manses at that place, by the 
tenure that the same shall be governed in all honour, under 
his dominion and power, all the days of his life, without any 
machination, and that he shall have power of appointing or 
nominating the same, after the end of his days, to whomso- 

* Namely, Christ, whose name is indicated by the monogram at the be- 
ginning of the deed. 



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J. 12 ON THE EARLY HISTORY OF DA.WLISH. 

ever he may think fit. Moreover, we decree that the aforesaid 
land be free from every fiscal tribute or tax, together with all 
things rightly pertaining thereto, whether in great or in minor 
things — fields, pastures, meadows, and woods — except these 
three things — military service, and the building of bridges 
and castles. Having thus established these things as we have 
felt bound, or as it has been pleasing to our dignity and plea- 
sure to do, in order moreover that they may not be consigned 
to oblivion, we will that this present written testimony of 
our license may condemn, tread under foot, and anathematize 
all the charters of rivals, if any such shall be found in oppo- 
sition to this grant. And if any one, which I desire may 
never happen, shall attempt, with audacious presumption and 
by diabolical instigation, contrary to our decree, to annihilate 
or bring to nought this charter of grant, first of all, which is 
most serious, may he incur the wrath of Almighty God, and 
of his Mother, the pure and intact Virgin Mary ; then may 
he incur my wrath, and that of all my officers ; may he feel 
himself to be hostile and guilty during all hours and moments 
of his life, and may his lot be with Dathan and Abiram, and 
with the crafty Beelzebub, the Lord of Flies, in the lower gulf; 
and may that which he unjustly or insolently acquires not 
acknowledge him, but may he be with abundant disgrace 
expelled from our presence, unless by adequate repentance he 
shall, voluntarily and not under compulsion, labour to undo 
the evil 

" This charter was executed in the year of the Incarnation 
of the Lord, mxliv, the twelfth indiction, the eighteenth 
year of the epact, being bissextile, whilst the most pious King 
Eadward was happily governing the nation of the English. 

" These are the land boundaries. First at Teign mouth ; 
up along the estuary to crampansteort (anchor point) ; and so 
back again by the salterns along the street on the west side 
of St. Michael's church ; and so north along the street to the 
great dike; thence north back right on to the blind well; 
from the well north straight on to the Dun stone; thence 
back north right along the old dike ; and so along the dike 
north right on over Watershed comb ; thence up along the old 
row to the staples ; from the staples right on along the ridge 
to Sand holcan (the sand beds) ; from Sand holcan along the 
street to Black penn ; thence along the street to Broadmoor's 
head ; and thence right on along the street to the earth barrow; 
and so north along the street to the stone barrow; and so down 
along the street to Dawlish ford ; and thence north from the 
ford along the market street to Rushslade's head; so down 



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ON THE EARLY HISTORY OF DAWLISH. 113 

along stream to Cocc ford ; and so along the estuary out on 
Exe ; down back along Exe to Sciterlake's out-fall ; and so 
up along Sciterlake to the estuary's head; thenceforward 
south on the old dike ; and so right on to the red stone ; from 
the stone south out to the sea ; so west by the sea, back to 
Teign mouth." 

This grant, it will be observed, is of the most absolute 
kind ; both expressly and in terms it is without limit. No 
reference is made in it to any intended elevation of Leofric 
to a bishopric, nor is any obligation laid upon him to dispose 
of the land otherwise than he may think proper in any event 
whatsoever. 

The boundaries are easy to trace, and will be found to 
comprise a space corresponding almost exactly with the 
present parishes of Dawlish and East Teighmouth combined. 
The line begins at the mouth of the Teign, and follows the 
coast of the harbour to " crampan-steort." This word, not to 
be found in any of the dictionaries, is taken to mean the 
little promontory or spit of land thrown up by the silt of the 
small river Tame, which discharges itself into the harbour. 
Here, it is presumed, boats and vessels formerly anchored ; 
and here, for the old mooring place, a jetty is now substituted. 
The Tame still, for the greater part of its course, divides East 
and West Teignmouth, though its stream is for the most part 
covered by streets and buildings. The boundary of Dawlish 
in 1044 followed this rivulet back by the salterns.* The 

• Professor Skeat, of Cambridge, informs the writer that this early use of 
the word "saltern" in a piece of Old English writing is of considerable 
philological value. An "ern," or "aem," was literally a shed, or roofed 
structure, not originally designed for the dwelling of man. When we say 
► " cow-house, * "barley-house," our ancestors said "cow-teni," bere-sern," or 
"barn." So "win-aern," a wine cellar; "holm-fern," an ocean house, or 
ship. A saltern, then "salina," was a shed for the manufacture of salt. To 
this industry, besides the salt water, a stream of fresh water was necessary. 
As was the case until comparatively recent times in the Bay of Cancale, a 
saltern was a cabin with four clay walls, thatched, and having two openings 
in the roof to let out the smoke. There was a single door. The process was 
as follows : A heap was collected of sand, wliich had been thoroughly soaked 
in sea water by the action of the tide. This was placed on a floor of clay, and 
beaten flat with shovels ; then placed in a common wooden trough, where 
fresh water was allowed to trickle upon it. The water, impregnated with salt, 
wes drawn off as brine, and stored in casks or tubs, where it was tested by a 
rude instrument in the form of a float weighted with lead. The more fully 
the water was saturated with salt, the higher the float swam. From the casks 
the brine was drawn off by buckets, and poured into leaden vats, having fires 
under them, and turned into salt by evaporation. The dry salt was stored 
in the saltern itself, or in separate sheds or cellars. The Combe cellars, in 
Combe-in-Teign-head parish, on the south of the Teign estuary, were either 
salt cellars or clay cellars. Sometimes the vats began to overflow when the 
fire below was too brisk. Then the overflow was guided, and the edges of the 
VOL. XIIL H 



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114 ON THE EARLY HISTOEY OP DAWLISH. 

mention of these salterns shows that the sea formerly flowed 
and ebbed up and down this little stream. After the salterns 
the boundary left the bank of the Tame, and crossed over to 
the west of St Michael's Church, much in the course of the 
present main street of East Teignmouth. On its way it may 
have passed a cross, which formerly stood in the middle of 
the town.* Thus a strip of land between the church and 
the river Tame, now in East Teignmouth parish, was not in 
the ancient DawlisL This strip, in which the homestead of 
Brimley stands, was probably, in 1044, an outlying part of 
Kenton parish, f 

The mention of St. Michael's Church is especially interest- 
ing. Not only is a reference in Saxon boundaries to a church 
very rare, but proof of the existence of this venerable struc- 
ture as a Saxon edifice twenty-two years before the Conquest 
will be welcome to all antiquaries. I 

rats were shored up, by means of a flat stone. This dirty black stone was 
called the "mistress" or "lady" of the saltern, and every one who entered 
was supposed to salute the mistress. Generally, adds the French writer, the 
appearance of people who had visited a saltern testified to their politeness. 
There was also used an iron stamp, at the end of a rod, to crush down the 
blisters that rose upon the bottom of the vats when they were beginning to 
melt. Sometimes the saltmakers, male and female, slept in the saltern. "To 
smoke like a saltern " was a proverb ; and the workpeople were so blackened 
and begrimed with the smoke that they and their habitation resembled an 
abode of African negroes. (From Avranchin, by Le Hericher, 1845, vol. i. 
p. 342.) This industry, both in France and England, was severely taxed. In 
England a large quantity of salt was made by solar evaporation only ; but 
evaporation from leaden vats heated by wood fires was also practised, as 
appears abundantly from Domesday. At Bremesgraue (Brorasgrove), in 
Worcestershire, the loads of wood and leaden vats are enumerated; fol. 172 
(2). See Sir H. Ellis's Introduction, Salt Works. The important point is, 
that here we have undoubted evidence of the use at Teignmouth of " salterns," 
salt-houses (not mere ponds or pans), twenty-two years before the Conquest. 

* This cross was discovered not long since, and has come into the possession 
of G. W. Ormerod, Esq., by whom it has been presented to the Teignmouth 
Infirmary. 

t Polwhele, iii. 146 ; and see Dr. Lake's valuable paper, entitled "Sketch 
of the History of Teignmouth," published in the Transactions of the Asso- 
ciation for 1874 (vi. 381). 

J Leland's account is as follows : " There be two towns at this point of the 
haven by name of Teignemouth, one hard joining to the other. The southern 
of them is Teignmouth Regis, where is a market and a church of St. Michael, 
and a piece of an embattled wall again the shore ; and this is taken for the 
elder town." (Itiiu vol. iii. fol. 31.) 

Of old East Teignmouth church, one of the best descriptions is that given 
by Polwhele (i. 233) from a correspondent, whom, from Dr. Lake's paper, 
we know to have been the late Mr. R. Jordan, of Teignmouth. "This 
church," says Mr. Jordan, " is dedicated to St. Michael . . . and it is thought 
the oldest in the Dean of Exeter's jurisdiction. The first structure was small, 
and was built, according to the account of the ancient inhabitants, for the 
conveniency of the fishermen going to prayers before they went about their 
fishery ; and as an emblem thereof; several golden herrings were hung up in 
the church ; since which a large addition has been made to it on the north 



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ON THE EARLY HISTORY OP DAWLISH. 115 

From the east side of the church the boundary proceeds 
north along the street to the great dike ; in other words, half- 
part, much larger than the first building. In this church there is nothing 
remarkable, except the screen which parts the chancel from the body of the 
church, which is about seven feet high ; in the upper part of which there is a 



cornice, in the large hollow of which there is a rude hieroglyphical carving of 
several grotesque figures. . . . The construction of the roof of the original 
part of the church is worth the observation of the curious. Formerly this 
church, as appears by old deeds now in the church, had a large quantity of 
land belonging to it, and which maintained it in repairs, and part thereof 
was appropriated to provide candles to burn in the church, with several other 

H 2 



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116 ON THE EARLY HI8TORY OF DAWLISH. 

way up the hill, to the point where the road branches into 
two, the " great dike," or main road, continuing on the right 
The boundary takes the road on the left, and follows it past 
a place formerly called " blind well," and then turns north- 
wards to the " Dun " or •• down " stone. This stone no longer 
exists, but the meeting of roads where it once stood sufficiently 
indicates its locality, at the spot where the open ground of 

Romish ceremonies, as reading masses for the requiem of the souls of the 
deceased, &c. &c. , but is now irrecoverably lost by neglect or otherwise ; 
indeed, at this time it is not known where it lay. There are now a few houses 
and several closes of land belonging to the church vested in twelve trustees, 
chosen as those of West Teignmouth." 

An excellent engraving of old East Teignmouth church was published in 
the Gentleman's Magazine for September, 1798 (vol. lxiiL part ii. p. 785), 
with a letter by J. S. (the Rev. J. Swete), of Oxton House. From this 
drawing (of which we print a facsimile copy) it appears that the ancient part 
of the church consisted of two square blocks of building, placed side by side, 
west and east, the north and south walls being continuous. The western 
block was a tower, and its walls were twice as high as those of the eastern 
block, which was the chancel. The tower had a parapet, slightly overhang- 
ing, and sloping for a short distance inwards, as if intended as a stone found- 
ation for a pyramidal wooden roof. The parapet had ornamental supports in 
the shape of corbels, about five on each side, consisting of heads of men or 
animals. The windows of the tower shown in the drawing are four only — 
one on the ground floor, another on a level with the ton of the chancel wall, 
the other two near the top. All are small square-headed openings, without 
chamfers or relief of any Kind. At the south-west angle of the tower was a 
a cylindrical staircase, with a conical cap, resembling an Irish round tower, 
having corbels round the parapet. These corbels were slightly higher than 
the parapet of the tower. From the drawing they appear to be of the same 
character as the other corbels, but bolder. At the foot of the staircase was 
an entrance doorway, fronting south-east, and there were openings for light 
at intervals, drawn like arrow-slits. The chancel roof was a saddle-back, 
resting on a set-off in the east wall of the tower, and terminating in a gable. 
Only three windows are represented, two being small round-headed lights on 
a level with the ground-floor window of the tower, and the other in the gable, 
on a level with tine middle window of the tower. . Mr. Swete, in the article 
referred to, supposes that this structure was built for military purposes. It 
stood within an enclosure, which had a wall to protect it from tne sea. 

Mr. Polwhele says, " I consider the Church of East Teignmouth (or rather 
its towers) as the oldest in the county. The style of its architecture, or that 
of its towers, may be referred to the Saxons. . . . Take away the church from 
these towers, and they would favour more of a military than a religious struc- 
ture ; and probably they might have been appropriated to the purpose of 
defence, ana that part of the edifice which is the church (though very ancient) 
might have been added." (i. 238.) 

Dr. Oliver, in his Ecclesiastical Antiquities (ii. 140), also gives a litho- 
aphic view of this old church, copied from a print published by Edward 
roydon, at Teignmouth, in 1822. Dr. Oliver adds tnat this very ancient 
church being in a most dilapidated state, an Act of Parliament for enlarging 
and repairing it, received the royal assent on July 12th, 1815. On May 18th, 
1821, the parishioners resolved to rebuild it ; and on November 6th, 1822, 
the foundation of a larger edifice, in the Saxon style, from the designs of 
Andrew Patey, Esq., architect, was laid by the Rev. Charles Phillott This 
church was consecrated by Dr. William Carey, Bishop of Exeter, on October 
21st, 1823. 

In the year 1875 the church was again rebuilt 



crap] 
Croy 



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OK THE EARLY HISTORY OF DAWL1SH. 117 

Holcombe Down formerly began. Thence the boundary pro- 
ceeds, again north, to the " old dike." This old dike exists to 
this day. Upon it is constructed the modern road to Little 
Haldon, and it has on its western or left side the deep ditch 
from which it was constructed. The next station, still on this 
same road, is w Water-shoot Coomb," a name now seemingly 
lost, but probably designating the very steep-sided valley of 
Lidwell, which lies to the right. Thence along the old row 
to " the staples." This spot, " the staples," was probably the 
boundary of the open land of Little Haldon. Thence the 
boundary ran along the ridge to the " sand holcan," the veins 
or beds of sand ; thence along the street to the " black penn," 
or "top;" thence along the street to Broadmoor's head; 
thence straight on along the street to the " earth barrow." 
The sand-beds, the black top, and Broadmoor's head, can 
perhaps no longer be identified ; but it is with the utmost 
interest that we find mention in these boundaries of the small 
circular camp on Little Haldon. From the earthwork the 
boundary proceeds to the " stone-barrow." This station can 
only be supplied conjecturally. From the stone-barrow it 
goes down, along the street, to Dawlish ford, precisely follow- 
ing the modern parish boundary. Thence it proceeds along 
the "port" or market street to Rush slade's head. This seems 
rather a summary description of a line reaching from Dawlish 
ford, past the four cross roads, through the hamlet of Gulli- 
ford, as far as the middle of the west valley, or rather 
"slade."* From this point the boundary proceeds to Cock 
ford, now Cofford ; thence along the estuary out on the Exe ; 
thence down and back along the Exe to the outfall of Sciter 
lake, now Shutterton or Shutton ; thence to the head of the 
estuary; thence to the "old dike," on which the present 
Teignmouth and Dawlish road was constructed; thence to 
the " red stone ;" thence south to the sea, and from the sea 
back again to the mouth of the Teign. 

From the map which accompanies this paper these stations 
will be shown more distinctly than is possible by verbal 
description. 

The charter is purported to be signed t by Eadsine (Eadsig), 
Archbishop of Canterbury; JElfric, Archbishop of York; 
Lifing, Bishop of Crediton; ^Elwine (^Elfwine), Bishop of 
Winchester; Brihtwold, Bishop of Ramsbury, and Dodico 

* This is a good specimen of a "slade," namely a shallow basin of land 
with an outfall, without a spring, and so without a stream of water except 
from rainfall. 

t It may be added that the indiction, epact, and concurrent, are all correct. 



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118 ON THE EABLY HISTOBY OF DAWLISH. 

(Dudeca), Bishop of Wells ; also by JElfwine, Abbot of New- 
minster; -fligelward, Abbot of Glastonbury; ^Ethelstan, 
Abbot of Bamsey ; Wlfweard, abbot,* and Godwine, Abbot 
of Winchcombe. 

It will be seen that there is no exception to the generality 
of this grant. It purports to convey seven manses, and the 
area is shown by the line of boundary to coincide with the 
modern parishes of Dawlish and East Teignmouth (4980 
acres together), all but the Brimley valley. 

The next noteworthy event is the death of Lyfing, which 
took place on the 23rd of March, 1046, perhaps at Tavistock, 
where he was buried. Leofric, the chaplain and chancellor of 
King Eadweard, and lord of Dawlish, now became, at Credi- 
ton, bishop of the united sees of Devon and Cornwall This 
union, commenced in the person of Lyfing in 1026, has at 
length in our day been again severed, with the happiest 
auspices, after a duration of 850 years.! 

Next came, in 1050, the transfer of the united sees from 
Crediton to Exeter, accompanied by the often described cere- 
mony of the installation of Leofric in his new chair by the 
personal assistance of King Eadweard and Queen Eadgyth. 
The church in which the bishopstool was thus newly set up 
was the church of the monastery of St. Mary and St. Peter 
at Exeter. 

There is good documentary evidence to show that this 
monastery of St. Mary and St. Peter was founded by 
iEctelstan. It was in 926, probably, that King iEdelstan, 
having defeated the Cornu- Welsh, having expelled the 
British from Exeter, having taken the government of Devon- 
shire into his own hands, and committed that of Cornwall to 
Howel, as his viceroy, began to build the walls of the city, 
and also began to construct the church of this monastery, 
sending abroad for relics for its enrichment; and it was 
probably at the great gem6t, held at Exeter, on the Wednes- 
day after Easter, the 16th of April, 928, that ^Edelstan's 
laws were promulgated, and this church consecrated. Tra- 
dition states that the site occupied that of the east part of 
the present Lady Chapel. J It must have been in this build- 
ing, restored under Eadgar in 965, and almost entirely rebuilt 
under Cnut in 1019, that Leofric was installed. That Leofric 

• This abbot's name appears in several contemporary charters, but his see 
s not mentioned. 

t The Order in Council, constituting the bishopric of Truro, is dated the 
15th of December, 1876. 
{ Godwin, Ed. of 1615, p. 890 ; Archdeacon Freeman, Arch. Hist., p. 12. 



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ON THE EARLY HISTORY OF DAWLISH. 119 

himself ever built a cathedral church is, considering the state 
of his revenues, extremely unlikely. In all probability what 
Bishop Warelwast found, when he set to work in 1112, was 
no other than this old re-edified Saxon church. An idea of 
its outward appearance may, as Arch- 
deacon Freeman suggests,* be derived 
from a seal of the Bishop and Chapter, 
figured by Dr. Oliver,! of which a copy 
appears in the margin of the page. 

King ^Edelstan is said to have en- 
dowed the church of St. Mary and St. 
Peter with six and twenty cotlifs, or 
manors, and with one third of the relics 
which he had collected. Of these 
manors the names of four appear from 
the testimony of charters, or copies of charters, still extant ; 
namely, Topsham, Monkerton in Pinhoe, Stoke Canon, and 
Culmstock. Those of two others— Sidbury and Branscombe 
— are furnished by the Hundred Roll. J Two others are 
mentioned by Godwin § (following Hoker) — Morkshut (i.e. 
Morchard) and Treasurer's Beare, now Traysbere, in Honiton 
Clist. Polwhele furnishes another ; namely, Ide.|| The rest 
can be gathered only conjecturally from the list of Leofric's 
acquisitions, from Domesday, and from the remote traditions 
of the see. 

Of this vast rent-roll, however, such had been the spolia- 
tion and loss, that Leofric found, when he took to the minster, 
no more land in possession than two hides at Ide, with no 
more live stock thereon than seven head of cattle. To 
remedy this enormous deficiency, and to recover these lost 
properties, became one of the most constant occupations of 
the bishop's life and his first temporal care.1T 

Leofric, on his arrival at Exeter, is said to have found three 

• p. 68. 

t Lives of the Bishops* P- 168 > Seals, No. 14. 

t pp. 66a, 66b. 

§ Ed. of 1615, p. 391. 

|| He says : " I have a copy of King Athelstane's grant of Ide to the church 
of Exeter. It is written on a parchment 14 inches by 9. Dated 937." (i. 221.) 
And then he refers to an appendix, which was amongst the things that were 
not to be. What has become of this parchment copy ? — 

1T An entry in Leofric's missal (fo. 3a) describes him as a man temperate 
in life and manners, a learned preacher to the people, a teacher of doctrine to 
the clergy, a builder of churches, and a strenuous administrator of the duties 
of his office. Domesday states expressly that at the death of King Eadweard, 
6th January, 1066, Leofric, as bishop, was the holder of eleven manors in 
Cornwall, of which the principal were St Germans, Tregel, Pawton-in-St.- 
Breock, Lawhitton, and St. Winnow. 



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120 ON THE EARLY HISTORY OF DAWLISH. 

monastic establishments, all within what afterwards became 
St. Peter's Close. The first, according to Godwin (following 
Hoker), was a house of nuns, where the dean's house and 
(according to Eisdon, p. 108) the Calendar Hay, or vicars' 
close, then stood (1615). The second was a monastery for 
monks, supposed to have been founded by King iEdelred, 
third son of King ^Edelwulf, and immediate predecessor of 
Alfred the Great, in about 868. The third was the Monas- 
tery of St. Mary and St. Peter, of which we have been 
speaking, "for monks of the order of St. Benet" (says 
Godwin), founded by ^Edelstan. The narrative goes on to 
state that, in terror of the ravages of the Danes, the monks 
fled, and the house remained destitute, until King Eadgar, 
taking pity on its forlorn condition, re-established it in about 
968.* Then, in all probability, it was that the Benedictine 
rule was adopted, under the influence of the king and Arch- 
bishop Dunstan. A second period of affliction passed over 
the house, on that darkest day in the history of Exeter, when 
the city was betrayed by the French traitor, Hugh, reeve of 
Queen Emma-^Elfgifu, to the Danish tyrant, Swegen, in 1003. 
The buildings were demolished and the ancient charters 
burnt. Moreover, the king's reeves (regis praepositi), in- 
cluding no doubt this same Hugh, had " imposed the yoke of 
servitude on the manors of the Church of St Mary and All 
Saints, in Exeter" (imponebant iugum seruitutis praediis 
sanctae Mariae, etc.), a difficult expression, which perhaps 
means that they had reduced to a condition of serfdom many 
tenants who before were free. From these disasters the 
monastery was restored by the piety of Cnut, to whose zeal a 
charter of restoration to Abbot iEdelwold in 1019,t and a re- 
grant of Stoke Canon in 1031,1 bear testimony.§ The latter 
is purported to be made to a thegn named Hunuwine, but 
was really for the benefit of the episcopal church. 

For the nature of Leofric's reforms we have the excellent 
authority of William of Malmsbury. He says that Leofric 
expelled the nuns (not mentioning any monks) and estab- 
lished canons, who were made subject to the Lotharingian 
rule, enjoining that they should eat at a common table and 
sleep in a common dormitory. The historian adds that the 
rule was transmitted to their successors, but owing to the 

• See N. M. ii. 525. 

t K. C. D., dccxxix. ; iv. 8. 

X Not printed. 

§ Risdon says (p. 81) that a representation of Cnut, wearing a triple 
crown, was, not long before 1620, to be seen in a window of Stoke Canon 
Church. 



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ON THE EARLY HISTORY OP DAWUSH. 121 

luxury of the age had (in 1125) become relaxed; and the 
clerks then had a steward, appointed by the bishop, who 
provided them their food daily and their clothing each year.* 
Godwin (following Hoker) adds that the expelled monks (not 
saying what became of the nuns) were sent to Westminster, 
and that the buildings of the nunnery and of ^Edelred's 
monastery were pulled downf and added to Leofric's own 
church. In the later Latin edition of Godwin, it is further 
stated that of the Lotharingian rule not a shadow or vestige 
at that date (1725) remained, and that there were then 
twenty-four resident canons, each of whom had a separate 
house, large enough to entertain a party of guests in good 
style if other means were forthcoming. 

On the 5th of January, 1066, occurred the death of 
Leofric's patron, King Eadweard ; and in the same memorable 
year came the battle of Hastings, with its momentous results. 
To the first Bishop of Exeter, however, neither the terri- 
torial nor the legal conquest of England seems to have 
brought any change. It was no part of the policy of 
William to disturb the possessions of the Church, and 
Leofric obtained the support of the Conqueror just as he had 
enjoyed the favour of the Confessor. 

Two years afterwards, in 1068, the West of England was 
subdued by the Normans, Exeter was besieged and taken, 
and Eougemont Castle was built. 

In the following year the defences of the new fortress were 
put to their first proot A band of insurgents, espousing the 
cause of the sons of the unfortunate Harold, assailed the 
walls ; but were easily beaten off by the Norman garrison, 
aided probably by the citizens of Exeter themselves. 

In this same year, 1069, King William made another grant to 
the Church of St. Peter at Exeter. This deed is also printed 
by Dr. 01iver,j but also without boundaries. It cannot, 
however, be said that they have never appeared in print; 
for Dr. Hickes, in his letter to Sir Bartholomew Shower, 
prints the whole document. § This is now reproduced. 

£ MVNDO ACCRESCENTIA MALA MINANTVR ETIAM MVNDI 
APPROPINQVARE EXCIDIA ET BEATIVS EST HOMINEM mortalem 

illuc mentis passibus tendere ubi post finem huius uitse beatis 
datur perenniter uiuere. Hoc enim uiuere beatissimum 
oportet regent Christianum omni mentis conamine sibi alac- 
riter emere, quia miserabile est regem hoc seBculo coronari, et 

• De Pont. p. 201. t Ed. of 1615, p. 391. 

% Lives, p. 10. § Diss. Epist. 77, 8. 

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122 ON THE EARLY HISTORY OP DAWLISH. 

in futuro aeternis poenis mancipari. Haec uero uigili mente 
iutuens, his quoque ne succumbam precauens, Ego Wil- 
HELMV8 uictoriosus Anglorum basileus concessi fidelem meum 
Leofricvm episcopum septem mansos terra in priuatis locis, 
hoc est apud Bemtvn et Esttvn et Ceommanyg, ac Hoia- 
cvmb aecclesiae sancti Petri apostoli in Exonia ubi eius 
episcopalis sedes est, donare, et canonicorum euisdem aecclesiae 
uictum ampliare, hereditario iure, tam in magnis quam in 
modicis rebus ad se rite pertinentibus, uidelicet, agris, siluis, 
pratis, pascuis, cultis et incultis exitibus et reditibus, eo 
tenore ac concessu ut prefata terra ab omni censu sit libera, 
excepta expeditione, pontis ac urbis constructione et restau- 
ratione. Si quis autem, quod absit, diabolo instigante, meum 
regalem concessum presumat euertere et beneficia predicts 
aecclesiae et canonicis data detrahere, uel in aliquo minuere, 
nisi conuersus reddendo et dupliciter restituendo sanctae Dei 
aecclesiae satisfaciat, in resurrectione beatorum diuina uoce 
damnatus fiat socius omnium demoniorum. 

Anno dominicae incarnationis Millesimo lxviiil, consen- 
tiente Wilhelmo rege data est haec terra aecclesiae sancti 
Petri apostoli in Exonia ciuitate a uenerabili presule 
Leofrico sub testimonio eorum qui subscripti sunt. 

Dis synd tha landgemaero thaes landes the Eadwig cyning 
ageaf tham halgan were aet Bemtune, and tham hyrede, and 
siddan Leofric bisceop, be Willhelmes cynges unnan, let* 
gebocyan into sancte Petres mynstre on Exancestre. JJrest 
thaer ceoman lace ut scytt; and lang ceoman lace thaet hit 
cymed on Temese; anlang Temese westward; swa West- 
sexena gemaere is and Myrcena ; thaet hit cymed up to tham 
gemydan; thonne went hit on da norderan ea; thaet hit 
cymed to anre lace ; betwix berhtulfingyge and hrisyge ; 
thaet on da nord ea ; thaet anlang thaere ea ; thaet hit cymed: 
efc to ceomanlace; and thaet land aet cyngbrycge nord and 
lang broces thaet hit cymd thaer holanbroc ut scytt ; and lang 
broces up to tham wege be nordan cynstanes treowe; and 
lang weges to fulan broces heafdon ; andlang broces on tha 
stanbricge ; of thaere stanbricge andlang weges on burg dye ; 
andlang dye on thone broc; andlang broces eft on cyng- 
bricge ; a onecnisse into sancte Petres mynstre on Exancestre, 
and ealle tha teodunga thaes cyninges. 

* Sic, though from a slight inaccuracy in the writing of the "1," one is 
inclined to think that the scribe was copying from a MS. which rightly read 
"het," and that he was at first disposed to copy correctly ; but not under- 
standing the word, substituted the inferior reading "let" Afterwards he 
writes "let" without hesitation. 



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OK THE EARLY HISTORY OF DAWLI3H. 123 

1J1 This synd tha landgemaero thaere anre hyde and thaere 
oderhealfan gyrde set Holacumbe the laeg into Doflisc, the 
Leofric bisceop let gebocyan for his sawle into sancte Petres 
mynstre on Exancestre. uErest on crampansteort ; of cram- 
pansteorte on floraheafdo; and of floraheafdo up on thone 
weg be westa daere cyrcan up to tha ferngara ; of tham fern- 
gara to tham dunnastane ; of dam dunnastane up to thsere 
dye; and swa east andlang thsere dye to than waetere; of 
tham waetere nord on thaes crohtes heafod ; and swa nord on 
tha smala pade ; swa on dun to thaere thwirsc die ; and swa 
to Dofolisces landscore adun to arietes stane; and swa 
andlang strandes to crampansteorte. 

* Ego Wilhelmvs Dei gratia rex Anglorum hanc dona- 
tionem perpetuae memoriae mandaui. 

* Mathilda regina adiuui. 

* Ego Stigandvs archiepiscopus Christi aecclesiaee Con- 
firmaui 

9 Ego Odo episcopus consolidaui. 

* Ego Herimannvs episcopus corroboraui. 

* Ego Leofricvs episcopus concessi and subscripsi. 

* Ego Gosfredvs episcopus consensi. 

* Ego Gyso episcopus assensi. 

* Ego Wilhelmvs episcopus confortaui. 

* Ego Baldwinvs abbas dignum duxi 

* Ego Eodbertvs comes. * Ego Wilhelmvs uicecomes. 

* Ego Wilhelmus comes. 9 Ego Rodbertus uicecomes. 

* Ego Brient comes. * Ego Rocgerius uicecomes. 

* Ego Eduuinus comes. * Leofnodus minister. 

* Ego Morkerinus comes. * Ego Ricardus minister. . 

* Ego Raulfus comes. * Ego Folco minister. 

* Ego Arfastus cancellarius. * Ego Hugo minister. 

* Ego Angelricus presbiter. * Ego Raulfus minister. 

The following is a translation : 

" The increase of evil in the world warns us that the end 
of the world is approaching ; and it is better that man who 
is mortal should by the footsteps of his mind strive to attain 
to that region where after the close of this life it is given to 
the blessed to live everlastingly. To this most blessed life 
it behoves a Christian king with all the energy of his mind 
diligently to attain ; for it is a miserable thing that a king 
should be crowned in this world, and himself suffer eternal 
punishment in the future. Viewing these things, then, with 
watchful mind, taking precaution that I may not be over- 
whelmed by these evils, I, William, the victorious kiug of 



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124 OK THE EARLY HISTORY OP DAWLISH. 

the English, have agreed to grant to my faithful bishop, 
Leofric, seven manses of land in private localities * that is, 
Bemtun, and Esttun, and Ceommanyg, and Holacumb, to 
the Church of St Peter the Apostle, in Exeter, where his 
episcopal see is, and to increase the maintenance of the 
canons of the same church, by hereditary right, as in great, 
so in minor things thereto rightly appertaining, to wit, woods, 
meadows, pastures, cultivated lands and wastes, outgoings 
and rents, by the tenure and grant that the land aforesaid 
shall be free from every tax, except military expedition, and 
the building and repair of bridge and castle. But if any 
one, which may Heaven forbid, shall presume, at the instiga- 
tion of the devil, to overthrow my royal grant, and to detract 
from or in any way diminish the benefits granted to the 
aforesaid church and canons, unless, being converted, he shall, 
by restoration and double restitution, satisfy the holy church 
of God, may he, in the resurrection of the just, be condemned 
by the divine voice to become the companion of all demons. 

" In the year of our Lord's incarnation 1069, with the con- 
sent of King William, this land was granted to the church of 
St. Peter the apostle, in the city of Exeter, by the venerable 
bishop Leofric, by the testimony of those whose names are 
subscribed. 

"These are the land boundaries of the land which King 
Eadwig gave to the holy men at Bemtune, and to the convent; 
and (which) since then bishop Leofric, by command of King 
William, has caused to be conveyed by charter to Saint Peter's 
minster, at Exeter." 

(Then follow the boundaries of the Bampton lands.) 

* " These are the land boundaries of the one hide, and of 
the yard and a half at Holcombe, adjoining Dawlish, which 
bishop Leofric caused to be conveyed by charter, for his soul, 
to Saint Peter's minster at Exeter. 

"First at crampan steort (anchor-point); from crampan 
steort to the floraheafdo (floor-heads) ; and from floraheafdo 
up along the way by the west of the church up to the ferngara 
(fern-gores); from the ferngara to the Dun stone; from the 
Dun stone up to the dike ; and so east along the dike to the 
water ; from the water north to the head of the croht (croft) ; 
and so north to the small path; so upon the down to the 
thwart dike ; and so to the land boundary of Dawlish down to 
Ariet's stone ; and so along the strand to crampan steort" 

This grant, it will be observed, differs materially from the 
former, in that it is not simply a donation to Leofric pereon- 
* Manors of ancient demesne. 



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ON THE EAELY HISTORY OF DAWLISH. 125 

ally ; it is a grant to him as bishop, for the benefit of the 
episcopal church of St. Peter, and also for the maintenance 
of the canons ; and further it is a re-grant by the bishop to 
the church of St. Peter, this re-conveyance being the thing 
which was witnessed by the persons whose names are sub- 
scribed. Then when the Saxon portion is examined (this 
being evidently framed by a different hand than the author 
of the Latin part), the Oxfordshire lands are represented as 
re-conveyed by the king's command, whereas the Holcombe 
lands are re-conveyed voluntarily. It seems as if the docu- 
ment was intended to be held by the chapter of Exeter as an 
evidence of title as against both king and bishop. 

The boundaries in this instance are not very easily followed. 
Beginning at the " crampan-steort " or promontory in the 
harbour, the line proceeds to the " floor-heads," a name which 
the writer is unable to explain. The corresponding station in 
the Dawlish boundary is "the salterns." Thence the line 
proceeds to the west of the church, as before ; then mounts 
the hill about half-way, and, as before, proceeds to the "fern- 
gores," which here take the place of the " blind well," and 
thence, as before, to the Dun stone and to the dike. From 
the dike the line proceeds to " the water." Here, it is pre- 
sumed, the line breaks off from the former boundary, which 
went ''north right on over Watershed comb," and now descends 
into the valley. From the water the line proceeds north to 
the head of the " croht," a word which Professor Skeat thinks 
may possibly be an early form of w croft," thence north to the 
small path, then along the down to the thwart dike, and so 
to the boundaries of Dawlish, down to Ariet's stone. 

No express mention is made of an important object, Gor- 
way Cross, which was standing until comparatively recent 
times. Gorway, formerly Godaway, Cross marked the 
boundary of Dawlish, so far as it was separate from Hol- 
combe, and hence the boundary must have passed this spot 
On the meaning of "Ariet's stone," the writer is unable to 
throw light. This boundary, which cannot be traced with the 
same certainty as the former, is marked with a yellow line 
on the accompanying map. Roughly speaking it corresponds 
with East Teignmouth parish, which was doubtless made up 
out of it, with certain additions and subtractions. Its area 
would be about 600 acres. 

Amongst the signatories to the deed are King William 
and Matilda his queen ; Stigand, Archbishop of Canterbury ; 
Odo, Bishop of Bayeux; Hermann, of Sherborne; Leofric 
of Exeter ' (the donee and donor) ; Geoffrey of Coutances ; 



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126 ON THE EARLY HISTORY OF DAWLISH. 

Gyso of Wales; and William of London. The Abbot Bald- 
win, who signs, was probably the Abbot of St Edmund's 
Bury. Amongst the rest, Rodbertus comes is Robert Duke of 
Normandy ; Wilhelmus uicecomes, William Rufus ; and Wil- 
helmus comes and Brient comes represent William Fitz- 
Osborn, governor of Winchester, and Brian of Brittany, who 
in this year, 1069, relieved the garrison of Exeter, thus 
holding the new castle of Rougemont in the interest of the 
king, as above mentioned* Next come Edwin comes, and 
Morcar comes, the two handsome sons of Algar, and grandsons 
of Leofwine, younger son of Earl Godwin, and of Leofwine's 
wife, the famed Lady Godiva, foundress of Coventry Abbey. 
In the year 1066 Edwin and Morcar had rebelled against 
William ; finding the issue of the contest doubtful, had by 
submission been admitted, " to all appearance," says Orderic, 
to the king's favour.f Amongst the rest appears a "chan- 
cellor," "Arfastus cancellarius." This was the Herfast, who 
in 1070 was made bishop of Elmham, and in 1075 transferred 
his see to Thetford, dying at an advanced age in 1084. 

So far as the Oxfordshire lands at Bampton, Aston, and 
Chimney are concerned — Aston and Chimney being hamlets 
in the parish of Bampton — this grant is stated to be a confir- 
mation of a former donation by King Eadwig. But as to 
the Holcombe land there is no reference to any former grant 
Why it was that King E&dweard's grant of 1044 was not 
referred to in this deed does not appear, nor why a new grant 
of Holcombe to Leofric should have become necessary. Pos- 
sibly Holcombe, like Topsham, had been appropriated by 
Earl Harold, and unlike Topsham, which was never recovered, 
was by this act of King William, restored. 

On the 10th of February, 1073,J Bishop Leofric died, and 

• Ord. Vit. iv. 5. 

f " Gratiam regis petierunt, et specie tenus obtinuerunt," iii. 4. 

i Or 1072, according to the reckoning of the commencement of the year. 
If the year is taken as beginning on the 1st of January, it was in 1073 ; if 
on the 25th of March, it was 1072. As to this date there is some contrariety 
of statement. The entry in Leofric's own missal (Bodl. MSS. 579, fo. 3 b) 
is to the effect that he died in 1071, which is clearly wrong ; but it also states 
that the death was on the 10th of February, in the twenty-sixth year of his 
episcopacy, which is probably right Now Lyfing died on the 23rd of March, 
1046 ; hence the 10th of February in the twenty-sixth year of Leofric's 
episcopacy must have been in 1073. With this agrees the epitaph set up by 
John Hoker in the Cathedral in the year 1569, the last two lines of which, 
according to Prince ( Worthies, ed. of 1810, p. 563), were as follows : 

" Quatuor adde decern lustra, et tres insuper annos 
Mille, Leofricum mors tremebunda petit." 

The statement in the Exon. EccL Chronicon, Laud MSS. Bodl, No. 627, is 
to the same effect. 



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ON THE EABLT BISTORT OF DAWLI8H. 127 

was succeeded by Osbern, the Norman. As to his place of 
burial there has been some doubt Archdeacon Freeman* 
points out the discrepancy. In Leofric's missal the state- 
ment is, " Sepultus est in criptam ejusdein secclesiae ;" i.e. in 
the crypt of his own church. Hoker, on the other hand, as 
cited in Godwin, f says he "was buried in the cemetery or 
churchyard of his own church, under a simple and a broken 
marble stone, which place, by the sithence enlarging of this 
church, is now within the south tower of the same." The 
matter is cleared up by an entry in the Codex ExoniensiaJ 
In that marvellous old book it is recorded that a certain serf 
was manumitted from the land at Bishop's Teignton by 
Bishop William Warelwast, "on the day on which the 
remains of Bishop Leofric and Bishop Osbern were removed 
from the old monastery into the new." In other words, Hoker 
must have been mistaken, and Leofric was never buried in the 
cemetery. He and Osbern were buried in the crypt of the 
Saxon church; and when William of Warelwast had com- 
pleted his church, including its two noble towers, the bodies 
of the bishops were moved into the southern tower, Leofric's 
being placed against the eastern wall, and Osbern's against 
the southern. There, to his honour, " that painful antiquary," 
as Prince calls him,§ John Hoker, in 1569, raised to the 
memory of Leofric a monument, at the charges, as he himself 
says, of the Dean and Chapter; but ds Prince says, chiefly of 
Bishop William Alley. 

Of the famous bequest of Leofric to the minster of St. 
Peter, the seat of his bishopric, the original is entered on the 
first leaf of his copy of the gospels, now in the Bodleian. || 
Another original, hardly second in value, is the copy which 
is entered on the first page of the Codex Exoniensis. Of 
the opening sentences of this bequest we here, for the sake 
of completing our narrative, give a translation, though the 
passage has been often before printed.1T 

"Here is declared, upon this Christ's book what bishop 
Leofric hath given to Saint Peter's minster at Exeter, where 
his bishop's stool is. That is, that he haw, by God's support, 
and by his own pleading, and by his own treasure, recovered 
that which before was alienated — that is, first the land at 

• Arch. Hist. pp. 2, 3. 
t Ed. of 1615, p. 396. 

X Fol. 6 b ; Hickes, Diss. EpisL p. 16 ; Thorpe, Dipl. p. 646. 
§ Pago 563. 

| Now Auct. D. ii. 16 ; see Wanley, p. 80. 

IT See Dugdale, N. M. ii. 526 ; Kbmble, C. D. dccccxl. (iv. 274) ; Pedleb 
(with translation), pp. 136, 138 ; Thorpe (with translation), p. 428. 



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128 ON THE EARLY HISTORY OF DAWL18H. 

Culm3tock, and the land at Branscombe, and at Salcombe, 
and the land at St Mary church, and the land at Staverton, 
and at Sparkwell,* and the land at Morchard, and Sidwell 
Huish, and the land at Brixton (and the land at Tops- 
ham, although Harold unlawfully, took it away f), and the 
land at Stoke, I and the land at Sidbuiy, and the land at 
Newton,§ and at Norton, || and the land at Clist,1T that Wid 
had. Then, this is the addition, in lands of his own, with 
which he has endowed the minster, for the souls of his lords, 
and for his own, for the sustenance of God's servants, who 
have to intercede for their souls — that is, first the land at 
Bampton, and at Aston, and at Chimney; and the land at 
Dawlish, and at Holcombe, and at South wood.** And when 
he took to the minster, he found no more land (of) that (which) 
had been given thereto, than two bides of land at Ide, and 
there were thereon of cattle no more than seven oxen/' 

The bishop, it will be observed, makes a distinction be- 
tween the lands which had anciently been the property of St. 
Peter's, and lands of his own with which he himself was en- 
dowing the minster. This distinction agrees with what we 
know of iEdelstan's grants, and with the above extracted 
deeds of King Eadweard and King William. The land at 
Dawlish was a free gift to Leofric, and is disposed of by him 
as his own. So is the land at Holcombe, and the land at 
Southwood. It would almost seem as if Southwood came to 
him by virtue of King William's above-stated grant of 
Holcombe. The boundaries rather negative this, but the 
point is doubtful, ft 

• A separate manor in Staverton parish. 

t The words in brackets are, in both originals, an insertion over the line of 
the main writing. This looks as if both the entries were by the same hand, 
possibly that of Leofric himself. The expression forcibly speaks the mind of 
the bishop, lamenting the spoliation which his church has suffered. At first 
the writer seems to have forgotten all about Topsham ; but after both entries 
had been made, he remembers that Topsham also, the gift of JESelstan, had 
been recovered, but lost again, by the unlawful act of Harold. See Mr. 
Freeman's remarks, N. C. li. 562 (App. E.) and iv. 166. The supi>osition 
that Topsham was needed for the defence of the coast will not commend 
itself to any one acquainted with the locality. Exmouth would have been 
more to the purpose. The weirs and salmon pools of Topsham, and possibly 
also its haven dues, were doubtless irresistible temptations. 

t Stoke Canon. } Newton St Cyres. 

y Query, a manor in the parish of Newton St. Cyres. 

IT Afterwards Treasurer's Beare, now Traysbere, in Honiton Clist 

** Southwood, in Dawlish, is here spoken of as a separate manor. 

ft Two ancient chapels existed until lately in Dawlish, one on the east side 
of the parish, at Cockton, now Cofton, the other in the upper part of the 
Southwood valley, at Lidwell. Both are described by Polwhele (iii. 153), 
and by Dr. Oliver (EccL Antiqq. ii. 142). Further particulars respecting each 
are highly to be desired. 



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ON THE KAKLY HISTORY OF DAWLISH. 129 

In 1086 came the Domesday Survey, when it is found that 
out of the manors which Lsofric had recovered —ten, namely, 
Newton St. Cyres, Culmstock, Branscombe, Salcombe, the 
church and a small portion of the land of Marychurch, 
Staverton, Brixton, Stoke Canon, Sidbury, and Ide — and out 
of the manors which had been granted to him personally, 
one — namely, Dawlish — was still in the hands of his suc- 
cessor. To one of these properties, namely, Newton St. Cyres, 
Bishop Osbern had to establish his claim by legal process. 
One would have supposed that Leofric\s devise would have 
been sufficient, but Osbern seems to have preferred to rest his 
title on proof that Newton was a manor appurtenant to 
Crediton. At any rate he succeeded, on production of his 
charters.* Out of the rest four, namely, I)awlisb, Ide, 
Staverton,t and the church of Marychurch, were now (1086) 
set apart "de victu canonicorum, n for the maintenance of 
Leofric's and Osbern's canons. Of the remainder, five, namely, 
Sparkwell, Morchard, St. Sidwell's, Norton, and Treasurer's 
Beare had been temporarily alienated. Sparkwell in Staver- 
ton had become the property of Baldwin the sheriff. This 
was owned in 1066 by Brihtric; had probably passed to 
Queen Matilda, and probably by her been bestowed upon the 
see at Leofric's request ; but after his death his successor, it 
seems, was unable to hold it. Morchard Bishop had gone to 
Queen Matilda, or rather to her estate, she having died some 
three years before, on the 3rd November, 1083. This also 
was part of the lands of Brihtric. St. Sidwell's was probably 
in lay hands. Norton had, strangely enough, become the 
property of the Abbot of Buckfast. Beare in Clist lloniton, 
was no longer in the hands of the bishop. All these five, 
however, returned like lost sheep to the fold, and remained 
the property of the Dean and Chapter for centuries. Not so 
Topsham, of which only the church continued to belong to 

* The charters showed that the Bishop of Exeter's church was seized of 
Newton before the reign of King Eadweard. As to this the Exon entry, p. 
107, is clear : " De hac mansions (Niuuentona) ostendit Osbertns episcopus 
cartas snas quae testantur ecclesiam suam esse inde saisitam antequam 
regnaret rex Eduuardus." The Exchequer Domesday introduces confusion by 
substituting "ecclesiam Sancti Petri, for "ecclesiam suam." The church of 
the bishop to which Newton belonged before King Eadweard's reign was not 
St Peter's at Exeter, but the Church of tho Holy Cross, at Crediton ; and 
Newton went over, along with the manor of Crediton, to St. Peter's, in 1050. 

t Risdon, p. 257, confuses the name of this manor, called in the Exon. 
p. 110, Stouretona, and in the Exch. fo. 101 (4) Sovretone, with Sourton 
parish, in Lifton hundred. A sorry sustenance would the canons have 
gleaned from the heaths and moorlands of Sourton ! This hungry place be- 
longed in 1066 to a king's thane named Aluric, under the name of Siredone. 
(Exch. D. fo. 118-3.) 

VOL. XIL I 



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130 ON THE EARLY HISTORY OF DAWLISH. 

the chapter. Of the lands which had been conveyed to 
Leofric personally, Dawlish, with Southwood, remained 
annexed to the see, and Holcombe — that is to say, East 
Teignmouth — after an interval, followed. In the mean time 
a portion of it had been appropriated by the powerful baron 
Ralph de Pomerei, to whom it yielded six shillings and five 
pence, as the produce of four salinae * the amount of land 
held with the salt-works being inconsiderable. Tn these 
salinae we recognize, almost without doubt, the salterns, 
which are shown to have existed on the bank of the Tame 
brook at East Teignmouth in the year 1044 ; and Ralph de 
Pomerei's Holcombe it probably was which was afterwards 
known as the manor of Teignmouth Courtenay.t 

• Exxm. D. p. 815 ; Exck. D. fo. 114 (1). 
f See Polwhele, iii. 146. 



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MISCELLANEOUS DEVONSHIEE GLEANINGS. 
Part LL 

BT W. PENGELLY, F.B.8., ETC. 
(Bead at Dawliah, July, 1881.) 



Prefatory: — It will be found that some of the Gleanings 
which make up this Paper are said to have been " copied 
from the Note Book of Mr. 0. Blewitt." The following facts 
are offered in explanation : — In the winter of 1880-1, Mr. 
Octavian Blewitt, author of the Panorama of Torquay, was 
so good as to lend me his MS. Note Book, with permission to 
copy and utilize anything I found in it ; and I have taken the 
earliest opportunity of availing myself of the privilege. Some 
of the members of the Association will be pleased to be 
referred to an interesting Biographical Sketch of Mr. Blewitt 
in the Biograph for February, 1881 (v. 170-185). 

I. "Boneshave." 

Every one acquainted with the Glossaries of the Dialects 
of the south-western counties of England, is aware that the. 
word Boneshave (= Sciatica) occurs in the famous Exmoor 
Scolding as well as in its companion, the Exmoor Courtship ; 
in Mr. Kock's Jim and Nell, written in the dialect of North 
Devon; in Mr. Palmer's Glossary to A Dialogue in the 
Devonshire Dialect, (but, so far as I have been able to find, not 
in the Dialogue itself); and in A Glossary of Provincial 
Words and Phrases in use in Somersetshire, by Mr. W. P. 
Williams and Mr. W. A. Jones. It is equally well known 
that, though there are several other valuable Glossaries in 
the counties just specified the word does not occur in any of 
them. In short, Boneshave appears to be now restricted to 

I 2 



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132 MISCELLANEOUS DEVONSHIRE GLEANINGS. 

Exmoor and the immediately adjacent parts of Devon and 
Somerset shires. 

Nevertheless, that this, instead of being one of the autoch- 
thones of Exmoor, is probably a survival there of a word 
once used in other districts, I have been led to believe from 
the following fact : — The Rev. Thomas P. Wadley, of Naunton 
Beaucharap, Worcestershire, writing to Berrows Worcester 
Journal for August 3Uth, 1879, said " I send you a few 
extracts from a " [MS.] " book of Receipts written, it would 
seem, at various times from the reign of Henry VII. until 
the end of that of his successor, or a little further on." 

Amongst the Receipts is the following :— 

" ffor the boneshawe — 
"Take the hyldyr beryse, & a boles or a oxes galle & ij 
p'tys of hony & seth he* to gedre & scome it clene, & set it 
down & put it in a glas & anoynt ye y'wt a yens ye fire."" 

It will be observed that, as written in the Receipt, the 
word is Bone&hawe not Boneshave ; but, as the letters u and v, 
as well as u and w, are constantly exchanged for each 
other throughout the Receipts, the two words may, no doubt* 
be accepted as variations of one and the same. 

The following noteworthy instance of the substitution of to 
for v occurs in the Faerie Queene (B. II. C. xii. St. 4, Gilfillan's 
ed. 1859), to meet the emergencies of rhyme : — 

" For, whiles they fly that Gulfs devouring jaws, 
They on the rock are rent, and sunk in helpless wawes." 

Mr. Wadley writes me that the Receipts " would appear 
to have been written for the most part by members of the 
medical profession, in more than one part of the country." 
Direct mention is made of " Worcestre," Gloucester, Chepstow, 
and "lyttyl tynterne;" thus connecting, apparently, some of 
the writers, at least, with the country near which the Severn 
and the Wye enter the Sea. Norwich is also spoken of, but 
there is no allusion to Devon or Somersetshire ; nor are there 
any dialectical finger-posts pointing distinctly to either of 
these counties. 

Further, the Receipt for the Boneshave is strictly medical ; 
it is not a charm, though charms are found, and by no means 
sparingly, amongst the Receipts. The prescribed ingredients 
are " hyldyr beryse," a " a boles or a oxes galle," and " hony ;" 
and the compound is to be applied externally. It is well 
known, however, that the Exmoor treatment for Boneshave is 



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MISCELLANEOUS DEVONSHIRE GLEANINGS. 133 

the following charm : — " The patient must lie on his back on 
the bank of a river or brook of water, with a straight staff by 
his side, between him and the water; and must have the 
following words repeated over him : — 

' Bone-shave right ; 
Bone-shave straight ; 
As the water runs hy the stave. 
Good for bone-shave.' (See Exmoor Scolding.) 

In short, I have little or no doubt that the word was 
formerly used far away from Exmoor, and do not despair of 
detecting it, sooner or later, in Glossaries of ultra-south- 
western dialects. 



II. Brockedon, William. 

Mr. Octavian Blewitt's Panorama of Torquay, 2nd edition, 
1832, p. 271, contains a Biographical Sketch of the late Mr. 
W. Brockedon, who, as is well known, was a native of Totnes. 
From the character of the sketch, as well as from a foot-note, 
I concluded that it had been submitted to the artist — then 
in his 45th year, — that it had met his approval, and that its 
publication had been sanctioned by him. 

To leave no room for doubt on the point I wrote Mr. 
Blewitt, who, in his reply, dated " Nov. 9, 1880," after re- 
marking " Brockedon was one of my dearest friends," says 
" My Biography in the Panorama was drawn up, as you have 
correctly inferred, from information given to me by himself ; 
but as you may like to have bis own words, I enclose a copy 
of extracts from two letters which he wrote me in 1832 in 
reference to his work as a watchmaker. 

" The second extract is interesting as showing how proud 
he was of the share he had in making the Church clock — a 
fact which I have often heard him mention, and in the 
presence of many friends, from whom he had no desire to 
conceal the fact that he had been a working watchmaker. 

" He was a fine noble-minded fellow, above all the pride 
which would have made a mystery of his early life." 

The following are the extracts mentioned by Mr. Blewitt : — 

Extract, (1) from a Letter from Mr. Brockedon, dated "Aug. 
29, 1832," addressed to "Octavian Blewitt Esq.":— 

. " ' My Father was a man of singularly fine and powerful 
understanding. His natural talents I have never seen surpassed, 
and whatever turn my own character may have taken,. if the 



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134 MISCELLANEOUS DEVONSHIRE GLEANING& 

world thinks highly of it, it grew under his instruction and 
advice, and the impressions they made upon me before I was 
15, for prior to this age I had the severe misfortune to lose 
him (in Sept 1802). 

" ' He bad instructed me in his business, and the taste then 
acquired for mechanical pursuits has never left me. During 
his long illness, nearly 12 months, young as I was, I con- 
ducted his business. After his death, in accordance with an 
arrangement made by him whilst he was living, I spent 6 
months in London in the house of a watch manufacturer to 
perfect myself in what I expected would have been my 
pursuit in life. On my return from London I continued to 
carry on my business for my mother for 5 years.' " 

Extract (2) from a letter dated 'Nov. 17, 1832/ from Mr. 
Brockedon to Mr. 0. Blewitt 

w • In the mention of my early pursuits in life which still so 
much influence me, Mechanics, you will smile, perhaps, at my 
calling to mind and mentioning what I recollect with such 
pleasure, — the hand I had in making the present Parish Clock 
in the church at Totnes. 

" * Ad order was given to my Father to make a new Church 
Clock a short time before the Accident by lightning which, 
in Feb. 1799, struck the Tower, threw down the S. E. Pinnacle, 
and did so much damage to the Church as to require nearly 
3 years to repair. This accident prevented the clock being 
put up until the Summer of 1802, during my father's last 
illness; .... 

" ' I was set to do some of the work, though only about 13 
years of age, particularly cutting the fly pinion out of the 
solid steel.' " 

It will be found that the substance of the first of the fore- 
going extracts has been faithfully incorporated in Mr. 
Blewitt's biographical sketch in the Panorama of Torquay, 
mentioned above. 

The following extract from a letter from the late Governor 
A. EL Holdsworth to Mr. Blewitt, dated "Brookhffl" [Kings- 
wear, Dartmouth] " Feb. 20, 1837 * will not be considered out 
of place here 5 — 

" I am daily expecting Brockedon, he has come down to 
bury his mother, who has been carried off by the Influenza. 
He has been very ill himself & I hope he will benefit by 
the air of this place." 



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MISCELLANEOUS DEVONSHIRE GLEANINGS. 135 

III. Colton, Rev. Caleb C. 

{Copied from the Note Book of Mr. 0. Blevritt.) 

"Mr. Dickinson of Knightshayes, Tiverton, who afterwards 
took the name of Walrond, on succeeding to the Estate of 
Bradfield near Collumpton, .... told me that Caleb Colton, 
the author of 'Lacon,' was considered the best shot in the 
county. 

" When Colton lived at Tiverton, he had apartments in a 
house which overlooked the Exe. One day, a friend of Mr. 
Dickinson called on him, and found him sitting in the window, 
with pistols lying on the table, and a row of empty bottles 
by his side. He asked him what he was doing. ' Practising 
with the pistol/ replied Colton ; and, taking up a bottle, he 
threw it out of the window, and seizing a pistol smashed the 
bottle to pieces before it reached the river. 

" On another occasion, Mr. Dickinson said, Sir John Tre- 
velyan, of Nettlecombe Court, Somerset, had a dispute with 
a neighbouring farmer, who finding it impossible to bring Sir 
John to terms, wrote off to Colton, and promised him a good 
day's sport if he liked to come over from Tiverton. Colton 
was only too glad to accept the invitation, and on his arrival 
the Farmer took him out to some of his land adjacent to Sir 
John Trevelyan's preserves, and contrived to frighten the 
birds so as to make them fly over his fields. Colton, of course, 
had rare sport ; and when the Gamekeeper, alarmed by the 
incessant firing, came out to see what it meant, he was so 
amazed at the destruction going on, that he ran into the house 
and told his master that the Farmer had got a man in his fields 
who brought down everything that flew across them, and that 
not a bird would be left at Nettlecombe at the end of the day. 
Sir John Trevelyan immediately went out and looked over 
the hedge, when he exclaimed, as he saw bird after bird fall 
under the gun of the stranger, ' If that is not Caleb Colton it 

is the devil. Go round to Mr. and say that if he will 

stop the firing I will agree to his terms/ 

" The ' Mysterious Disappearance of the Bev. Caleb Colton' 
was almost a standing heading of paragraphs in Devonshire 
Papers for many years after this occurrence. He died in 
Paris by his own hand. 0. B." 

IV. Cookworthy, William and the Divining Hod. 

The late Mr. William Cookworthy, a native of Kingsbridge, 
but popularly connected with Plymouth on account of his 



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136 MISCELLANEOUS DEVONSHIRE GLEANINGS. 

long residence there, takes a well-won place amongst Devon- 
shire Celebrities, mainly, perhaps, on account of his discovery 
of the existence, in England, of the China Clay and China 
Stone ; and of his connexion with the Plymouth China 
Factory. 

Mr. Cookworthy was, it is well known, a firm believer in 
the Divining rod, and left a treatise on its uses. (See Trans. 
Devon. Assoc, viii. 481, 1876.) Though it is not necessary to 
add anything to the evidence already before the world on this 
belief of Mr. Cookworthy, it appears to be desirable to give a 
place in the Transactions of this Association to the following 
anecdotes, which I have recently met with — one in a some- 
what scarce volume, and one in manuscript. 

Topographical and Historical Sketches of the Boroughs of 
East and West Looe in the County of Cornwall. By Thomas 
Bond (1823), contains the following paragraph : — 

" Though no metallic Ore of any kind has been discovered 
near Looe, yet if confidence may be given to the Virguia 
Divina, a load of some kind of metal passes under the houses 
near the Conduit in East Looe. This I was informed of by 
the late Miss Elizabeth Debell, of East Looe, who stated that 
her cousin Wm. Cookworthy (the late celebrated Chemist of 
Plymouth), made several trials with the rod outside her Quay 
door, at the back of her house near the Conduit, and who 
was persuaded from his trials that such was the fact. Mr. 
Cookworthy always put great confidence in the divining-rod." 
p. 141. 

(Copied from the Note Book of Mr. 0. Blewitt.) 

" My great uncle, Bartholomew Dunsterville, was serving 
his time as a Pupil of Dr. Mudge." [John Mudge, M.D. 
1720-1793], " when Dr. Johnson arrived at Plymouth, on a 
visit to the Doctor. 

" Old Mr. Cookworthy, who professed to have discovered 
a Divining Bod by which he could detect the existence of 
metal underground, begged Dr. Mudge to allow him to show 
the powers of his Bod in the presence of Dr. Johnson, if the 
latter could be induced to witness the operation. 

" Dr. Johnson was so much amused with the idea that he 
suggested that they might take advantage of the opportunity 
to play Mr. Cookworthy a trick by burying an iron * crock' in 
the garden, and seeing if he could find it by his Divining Bod. 
Dr. Mudge agreed ; and, on the evening before the appointed 
day, an iron vessel was buried, and the ground above made 



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MISCELLANEOUS DEVONSHIRE GLEANINGS. 137 

smooth. When Mr. Cookworthy arrived next day, he walked 
about the garden testing it in different parts with his Rod, 
until he came to the place where the iron vessel had been 
buried ; when he at once stuck the Rod into the ground, and 
exclaimed that there was metal underneath. The Gardener 
was ordered to dig away, when the iron crock made its ap- 
pearance, to the great amusement of Dr. Johnson, while Mr. 
Cookworthy was very angry with Dr. Mudge at allowing such 
a trick to be practised on him, declaring at the same time that 
the result, though intended to throw ridicule on him, had really 
proved the efficacy of his Divining Rod. 0. B." 

We learn from Boswell (ed. 1851, vol. i., ch. 11, p. 245) 
that Dr. Johnson, and Sir Joshua Reynolds visited Devonshire 
during the summer of 1762, and were the guests of Dr. 
Mudge during their stay at Plymouth. Johnson was then 
about 53 years of age, Reynolds 39, and Mudge 42, whilst 
Cookworthy was 57. 

Boswell makes no mention of Cookworthy or the rod ; but 
he had not at that time made the acquaintance of Dr. Johnson, 
and he states that he was obliged to Sir Joshua for the infor- 
mation concerning the excursion. Perhaps neither of the 
travellers was tempted to mention the clumsy trick. 

V. Lethbridge, John, Inventor of a Diving Apparatus. 

In their sketch of Mr. John Lethbridge, of Newton Abbot, 
who invented early in the 18th century a very successful 
Diving apparatus, it is stated by the Lysonses that " The 
apparatus, about twenty years ago, was at Governor Holds- 
worth's, at Dartmouth, but it was then in a decaying state." 
(Devonshire, p. 569) 

The authors just quoted state in a foot-note (p. 570) that 
their sketch of the clever and successful machinist was "from 
the information of Capt. Thomas Lethbridge, of the navy, a 
grandson of Mr. John Lethbridge." The Lysonses' Devon- 
shire was published in 1822, so that, assuming that Capt. 
Thomas Lethbridge furnished the information not long before 
that date, the apparatus would appear to have been in the 
keeping of Governor Holdsworth about the end of the 18th 
century, that is fully 40 years after the death of the inventor, 
which occurred in December, 1759. 

It seems somewhat strange that Capt. Lethbridge's curiosity 
had not been sufficiently ardent to enable him to speak with 
certainty respecting the actual fate, at the time he wrote, of a 



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138 MISCELLANEOUS DEVONSHIRE GLEANINGS. 

machine which made his grandfather famous, and had been 
very beneficial in its effect on the history of his own family. 
He seems, however, to have had no doubt that about twenty 
years ago it was at Governor HoldswortKs, and was in a de- 
caying state ; and it must be admitted that his statement on 
the matter ought to be trustworthy. 

It was accordingly copied by Mr. 0. Blewitt, in the second 
edition of his Panorama of Torquay, published in 1832 
(p. 261), and, in substance, by Mr. J. S. Amery in 1880, in 
his interesting paper on John Lethbridge and his Diving- 
Machine. {Trans. Devon. Assoc. xiL 495.) 

The letter from the late Governor A. H. Holdsworth to 
Mr. O. Blewitt, whence a passage respecting Mr. Brockedon 
was quoted above (p. 134), contains the following paragraph : — 
" Of the history of Leathbridge " [sic] " or his diving bell I 
know nothing, and am, therefore, led to believe that you have 
mixed me up with some other person when you ask * whether 
I still possess the machine/ I should like to get at anything 
connected with that affair." 

At first sight we appear to have here a Slip connected with 
Devonshire — " The apparatus," says Captain Thomas Leth- 
bridge, "was at Governor Holdsworth's at Dartmouth." 
Governor Holdsworth, writing at Dartmouth, in February, 
1837, replied, " Of the history of Leathbridge or his diving 
bell I know nothing." 

The solution of the problem lies probably in the suggestion 
made by Governor A. H. Holdsworth, in his letter just quoted. 
" I am led," he says, " to believe that you have mixed me up 
with some other person." The "some other person" was 
probably his own father, as the following statements appear 
to show. 

Dr. Newman, in his Paper On the Antiquity of Dartmouth, 
{Trans. Devon. Assoc, iii. 130), says, "In 1725 the office of 
Governor" [of Dartmouth Castle] "was given to Fort-Major 
Arthur Holdsworth, and it continued in that family till 1860. 
When the late Governor died it became extinct The last 
Governor held the office just fifty years, though since 1832 no 
pay has been attached to the office." {op. cit. p. 134) 

The last Governor — Arthur Howe Holdsworth — died at 
Torquay in 1860, and, accepting Dr. Newman's statement 
that he " held the office just fifty years," he must have sue* 
ceeded his father in 1810 — about twelve, not " twenty years " 
before the publication of the Lysonses' Devonshire. The 
Governor Holdsworth they mentioned as being in possession 
of the machine, was, from the facts before us, not Mr. Blewitt's 



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MISCELLANEOUS DEVONSHIBE GLEANINGa 139 

correspondent, but his father. According to the Gentleman's 
Magazine (vol. 77, Pt 2, p. 1053, 1807.) A. M. Holdsworth, 
Esq., was appointed Governor of Dartmouth Castle, vice 
Arthur Holdsworth, deceased. 

It can scarcely be supposed that had the last Governor 
Holdsworth ever seen the machine, or understood its character, 
he would have called it a " Diving Bell " — a name to which it 
seems to have been by no means entitled. Moreover, he is 
known to have taken so much interest in machinery that one 
is prepared to find him writing, as he did to Mr. Blewitb in 
the passage quoted above, " I should like to get at anything 
connected with that affair." Such was his enthusiasm on 
kindred topics, that, in the letter now under notice, he writes 
to Mr. Blewitt, " I wish I could give you any information 
about Newcomen, as I have long taken a great interest about 

him I confess to you that it is with real regret that 

I have often heard such things said of Watt, who after all 
was but an improver ; and the Inventor of that instrument 
now so common thro' the world totally forgotten. I have 
expressed that feeling in public in every way that has come 
within my means ; but it is of little use, for ignorance gives 
to Watt the credit, and few take the pains to search beyond 
the surface of anything." 

It cannot be supposed that a man of such tastes and feelings 
as the writer of these paragraphs could have utterly forgotten 
that he was at one time the possessor of a diving apparatus 
with which its inventor, born in a neighbouring part of the 
same county as himself, " had recovered from the bottom of 
the sea, in different parts of the globe, almost £100,000 for 
the English and Dutch merchants which had been lost by 
shipwreck." (See Trans. Devon. Assoc. xiL 495). 

VI. Teignmouth visited by the Danes, a.d. 787 ? 

Mr. S. H. Slade, of Torquay, has favoured me with the loan 
of an oblong pamphlet, 6.5 x 4.25 inches, and consisting of 
6 unnumbered pages only, the first of which is occupied by 
a quaint map of Devonshire, whilst the remaining five are 
devoted to ten numbered paragraphs. It bears neither date 
nor author's name, is headed " Devonshire Chapter ix," and 
the bottom of the last page has the word " Cornwall" so 
placed as to show that it was to be the first word on an im- 
mediately succeeding paga In short, there can be no doubt that 
it is the Devonshire Section of a work descriptive of England, 
or perhaps of Britain. It contains internal evidence of having 



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140 MISCELLANEOUS DEVONSHIRE GLEANINGS. 

been written before 1676, and is said by experts to be the 
work of John Speed (1542-1629). See P.S., p. 149. 
The following statement occurs in it :— 

"The Danes at Teigne-mouth first entred for the invasion 
of this Land, about the year of Christ 787, unto whom 
Britrick King of the West Saxons sent the Steward of his 
house to know their intents, whom resistantly they slew : 
yet were they forced back to their Ships by the Inhabitants, 
though long they stayed not, but eagerly pursued their begun 
enterprises." (par. 4.) 

The Anglo-Saxon Chr&nicle (Bohn's ed., 1859, p. 341) has 
the following statements: — 

"A. 781 This year . . . Bertric obtained the kingdom 
of the West-Saxons, and he reigned sixteen years, and his 
body lies at Wareham." 

" A. 787. This year king Bertric took to wife Eadburga, 
King Offa's daughter ; and in his days first came three ships 
of Northmen, out of Haeretha-land [Denmark]. And then the 
reve* rode to the place and would have driven them to the 
king's town, because he knew not who they were : and they 
there slew him. These were the first ships of Danish-men 
which sought the land of the English nation." 

There can be no doubt that the " Britrick " of the one 
passage is identical with the " Bertric " of the other. Teign- 
mouth in Devonshire and Tynemouth in Northumberland 
are often confounded ; and this is not surprising, at least in 
the present day, since each of the names is popularly pro- 
nounced Tin-mouth. Speed clearly understood the place 
mentioned to be the Devonshire town. It may be of interest, 
therefore, to see what mention is made of the incident by 
other writers. 

Ethelwerd, whose Chronicle is usually assigned to the 10th 
century, says, " Whilst the pious king Bertric was reigning 
over the western parts of the English, and the innocent 
people spread through their plains were enjoying themselves 
in tranquility and yoking their oxen to the plough, suddenly 
there arrived on the coast a fleet of Danes, not large, but of 
three ships only: this was their first arrival. When this 
became known, the king's officer, who was already stopping 
in the town of Dorchester, leaped on his horse and galloped 
forwards with a few men to the port, thinking that they 

* "Since called sheriff; i.e. the ret*, or steward, of the shire. — Ingram." 

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MISCELLANEOUS DEVONSHIRE GLEANINGS. 141 

were merchants rather than enemies, and, commanding them 
in an authoritative tone, ordered them to be made to go 
to the royal city; but he was slain on the spot by them 
and all who were with him. The name of the officer was 
Beaduherd." (Ethelwerd's Chronicle. Ed. by Dr. Giles. Bohn, 
1866, p. 19.) 

According to William of Malmesbury, whose Chronicle was 
probably written between 1095 and 1143, "After Cynewolf, 
king of the West Saxons, " for sixteen years, reigned Bertric: 
more studious of peace than of war, skilful in conciliating 
friendship, affable with foreigners, and giving great allowance 
to his subjects, in those matters which at least could not 
impair the strength of his government ... he had 
already begun to indulge in indolent security, when a 
piratical tribe of the Danes, accustomed to live by plunder, 
clandestinely arriving in three ships, disturbed the tranquility 
of the kingdom. This band came over expressly to ascertain 
the fruitfulness of the soil, and the courage of the inhabitants, 
as was afterwards discovered by the arrival of the multitude 
which overran almost the whole of Britain. Landing then, 
unexpectedly, when the kingdom was in a state of profound 
peace, they seized upon a royal village, which was nearest 
them, and killed the superintendent, who had advanced with 
succours; but losing their booty through fear of the people, 
who hastened to attack them, they retired to their ships." 
( William of Malmesbury' 8 Chronicle of the Kings of England. 
Ed. by Dr. Giles. Bohn, 1866, p. 40.) 

We learn from Florence of Worcester, who died in 1118, 
that in ad. 787, "Brihtric, king of Wessex, married 
Eadburga, King Offa's daughter ; in his time, Danish pirates 
came to England with three ships. The king's reeve hear- 
ing of their arrival, hastened to meet them with a few 
followers, and being in entire ignorance who they were, or 
whence they came, tried to drive them, unwilling as they 
were, to the royal vill, but they presently slew him. These 
were the first Danes who landed in England." (Chronicle of 
Florence of Worcester. Ed. by T. Forester. Bohn, 1854, 
p. 46) 

Henry of Huntingdon, whose Chronicle was written in 
instalments from 1135 to 1154, states that in a.d. 787, 
" In the fourth year of his reign, Bertric took to wife Eadburga, 
daughter of Offa, King of Mercia, by which alliance the 



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142 MISCELLANEOUS DEVONSHIRE GLEANINGS. 

king's power was strengthened and his arrogance increased. 
In those days the Danes landed in Britain, from three ships, 
to plunder the country. The king's officer descrying them, 
set upon them incautiously, making no doubt that he should 
carry them captives to the king's castle ; for he was ignorant 
who the people were who had landed, or for what purpose they 
had come. But he was instantly slain in the throng. He 
was the first Englishman killed by the Danes, but after him 
many myriads were slaughtered by them, and these were the 
first ships the Danes brought here." {Chronicle of Henry of 
Huntingdon. Ed. by T. Forester. Bohn, 1853, p. 138 ) 

Roger de Hoveden (a.d. 1189-1201) makes the following 
statements respecting this first Danish landing in England: — 
"In the fourth year of his reign, Brithric took to wife 
Eadburga, the daughter of Offa, king of Mercia. Strengthened 
on the throne by this alliance, he gave way to pride. In 
these days, the Danes came to Britain, with three ships, for 
the sake of plunder ; the king's reeve in that province, seeing 
this, went to meet them without taking due precautions, in 
order that, having captured them, he might carry them to the 
king's town ; for he was ignorant who they were, or for what 

Eurpose they had come ; but, being immediately surrounded 
y them he was slain. He was the first person of the English 
nation slain by the Danes .... these too were the 
first ships of the Danes that arrived here." (Annals of 
Soger de Hoveden. Ed. by Henry T. Biley. Bohn, 1853, 
L28.) 

Soger of Wendover, who died 6th May, 1237, gives the 
following version of the incident : — " In the year of our Lord 
790, Brithric, king of the West Saxons .... married 
the daughter of Offa, king of the Mercians, who was at that 
time in the height of his power; strengthened by whose 
alliance, he drove into France Egbert, the only one remaining 
of the royal race. .... On his expulsion the king 
lived in security, when a piratical band of Danes arrived in 
three vessels and disturbed the peace of that province. It is 
to be suspected that they came to spy out the fertility of 
the country; and this is made clearer than light by the 
subsequent arrival of a multitude of Danes, who filled the 
whole of Britain. But at this time they landed stealthily, 
and, attacking a royal vill in the neighbourhood, slew the 
king's bailiff, who gave them battle. He was the first of 
the English nation that was slain, but afterwards many 



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MISCELLANEOUS DEVONSHIRE GLEANINGS. 143 

thousands of them felL At last a multitude of people 
attacked the Danes, and drove them, with the loss of their 
spoil, to their ships." {Roger of Wendover's Flowers of History, 
Ed. by Dr. Giles. Bohn, 1849, i 157.) 

Coming down to later times, we find that Camden, in his 
Britannia, the first edition of which appeared in 1586, 
described Teignmouth, in South Devon, as " a little village 
at the mouth of the river Teign, whence its name ; at which 
the Danes, who were sent before to discover the situation 
and approach to Britain, first landed about A.D. 800, and, 
having killed the commanding officer of the place, took 
it for an omen of future victory, which they afterwards 
pursued with the most horrid cruelty over the whole island." 
(Britannia. By William Camden. Eichard Gough's Transla- 
tion, 2d ed., in 4 vols., 1806, i. 35.) 

KB. — The passage here cited is not from Gough's 
"Additions." 

Bisdon (1560-1640), in his Survey of Devon, tells the story 
thus : — " West Teignmouth, is an haven . . . remarkable 
for the Danes first arrival for the invasion of this kingdom, a 
nation accustomed to piracy upon the coast of France and 
Normandy. Here, in the year 970 " [sic], " they landed out 
of their ships to discover the country for a greater force to 
follow; whereof the king's lieutenant, more hasty than 
advised, demanded their name, and cause of coining and 
arrival, and attempted to seize on them by force, to have 
presented them to the king, was himself slain. After which 
they so prosecuted their begun attempt in this island, with 
inhuman and unheard of cruelty; even unto the Norman 
conquest ; that the very clift here red, seems yet to memorize 
the bloodshed and calamities of their times according to these 
verses: — 

In memory whereof, the clift exceeding red, 
Doth seem thereat again full fresh to bleed." 

(The Ohorographicai Description or Survey of the County of 
Devon. By Tristram Eisdon. 1811, p. 143.) 

Eapin, whose History of England appeared first in 1724, 
alludes incidentally to the question now under consideration, 
in the following few sentences : — 

" Whilst Egbert was enjoying the fruits of his victories, 
the Danes, who had before made two descents on England, 
arrived at Charmouth with thirty-five vessels." 



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144 MISCELLANEOUS DEVONSHIRE GLEANINGS. 

In a foot-note on the previous " two descents," the author 
says " the first was in 789, at Portland." {History of England. 
By M. Rapin de Thoyras. Translated, with additional Notes, 
by N. Tindal, M.A., 4th ed., 1757, i. 290.) 

Hume writing, in 1761, of the Danes, says, "Their first 
appearance in this island was in the year 787, when Brithric 
reigned in Wessex. A small body of them landed in that 
kingdom, with a view of learning the state of the country ; 
and when the magistrate of the place questioned them con- 
cerning their enterprise, and summoned them to appear before 
the king, and account for their intentions, they killed him, 
and, flying to their ships, escaped into their own country." 
{History of England, voL L chap, i.) 

Mr. Sharon Turner having (1807) described the murder of 
Cynewulf, king of Wessex (a.d. 784), says, " This melancholy 
catastrophe produced the dignity of Brihtric. He was of the 
race of Cerdic, and married Eadburga, the daughter of Ofifa. 
The year of his accession was distinguished as that in which 
the Danes first landed on the English shore. The gerefa of 
the place went out to see the strangers, who had arrived with 
three vessels, and was instantly killed. Their incursion was 
repeated on other parts of the island." {History of the Anglo- 
Saxons, 2d ed., 1807, i. 174) 

According to the Lysonses (1822), "Both Camden and 
Risdon say that the Danes first landed in England at West 
Teignmouth, in 787 ; but it appears to have been mistaken 
for Tynemouth, in Northumberland, which is certainly the 
Tinemutha of the Saxon Chronicle." {Magna Britannia. By 
Eev. Daniel Lysons, A.M., F.R.S., f.a.l.8., and Samuel Lysons, 
F.K.&, F.A.S. Vol. vi. Devonshire, p. 489.) 
J3ee also a passage on the question, p. v. of the same authors. 

It will be seen that, with the exception of Risdon only, 
all the writers quoted above concur in placing the event 
under notice in the reign of Bertric — known also as Brihtric, 
or Brithric — King of Wessex, which extended from 784 to 
800 A.D. Risdon's statement of "970 a.d." as the date, 
may probably be a clerical or typographical error in which 
the 9 and 7 have been transposed, so that for " 970 " we 
should, perhaps, read " 790." 

It is noteworthy, perhaps, that the Lysonses fall into the 



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MISCELLANEOUS DEVONSHIRE GLEANINGS. 145 

error of saying that both Camden and Risdon say the date 
was 787; instead of which they give different dates, and 
neither of them gives 787. Camden's statement is "about 
a.d. 800," whilst Risdon says "970," but probably means 
" 790." 

There is not a corresponding approach to unanimity of 
opinion amongst the various writers respecting the exact spot 
at which the landing took place, as the following brief 
recapitulation of the foregoing quotations show : — 

1. With the exception of the Lysonses, of whom more sub- 
sequently, all the writers, either explicitly or by implication, 
place the landing within the dominions of Bertric — the 
Wessex of the eighth century. 

2. With the exception of Ethelwerd, no writer before the 
latter part of the 16th century gives auy clue or opinion as 
to the exact spot at which the landing took place. 

3. Ethelwerd, who, with the exception of the compiler of 
the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, seems to have been the first to 
mention the event, and wrote within 200 years of its occur- 
rence, states by implication that it occurred not far from 
Dorchester. 

4. Some of the writers towards the close of the 16th 
century — but no one before that date — name Teignmouth as 
the place of landing. 

5. Camden, Risdon, and Speed concur in the opinion that 
the Teignmouth spoken of was the town of that name on the 
coast of South Devon, whilst the Lysonses contend that it was 
Tynemouth ip. Northumberland. 

6. M. Rapin de Thoyras states that the landing took place 
at Portland. 

In attempting to adjudicate on the rival claims of Tyne- 
mouth, Teignmouth, and Portland — assuming that one of 
them was the exact spot — there seems no need for hesitation 
in dismissing Tynemouth. It is probably true that, as the 
Lysonses state, " Tynemouth in Northumberland is certainly 
the Tinemutha of the Saxon Chronicle ;" but to this it is 
enough to reply that neither the Saxon nor any other 
Chronicle says that the landing took place at Tinemutha. 
Indeed, with the exception of Ethelweras Chronicle, not one 
of them ventures to give any name. 

We have seen, moreover, that it was in Wessex, and there- 
fore not in Northumbria, but certainly on the south coast, 
somewhere in Hampshire or west of that county. 

VOL. XIII. K 



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146 MISCELLANEOUS DEVONSHIRE GLEANINGS. 

It is to be feared that the Wessex test is scarcely less fatal 
to Teign mouth in Devonshire, inasmuch as there seems to be 
no reason to believe that the Wessex of the eighth century — 
Bertric's Wessex — included a foot of coast west of the river 
Axe. 

We learn from Ethelwerd's Chronicle, written, it will be 
remembered, much" sooner after the event than any other of 
the Chronicles, except the Anglo-Saxon only, and with fuller 
detail of the circumstances, that the place of landing was a 
port such as merchants might be expected to visit ; that it 
was within a comparatively easy gallop of Dorchester ; that 
Dorchester was, apparently, a royal city ; and that the king's 
officer wished to take the visitors thither. 

It must not be forgotten, however, that there are two 
Dorchesters, one in Dorset, the other in Oxfordshire. The 
Dorsetshire town was certainly in the Wessex of the eighth 
century, but whether its namesake was also included in that 
kingdom is anything but certain. The county of Oxford is 
always regarded as having formed a part of the kingdom of 
Mercia. 

Be this as it may, the fact that the Oxford Dorchester is 
at least 60 miles from the coast, whilst that in Dorsetshire is 
barely 6, is, no doubt, conclusive in favour of the Dorset 
town, inasmuch as a ride of 6 miles, but not of 60, har- 
monizes well with Ethel word's statement, that "the king's 
officer, who was already stopping in the town of Dorchester, 
leaped on his horse and galloped forwards with a few men to 
the port" 

It will not be out of place to remark here that the Dorset- 
shire town was called " Villa Regalis," whilst that in Oxford- 
shire was called " Villa EpiscopaJis," it having been given to 
Bishop Birinus, there to settle his see. (Bede's Eccles. Hist. 
Ed. by Dr. Giles, 3d ed. Bohn, 1859, p. 119.) 

That part of the coast to which Dorchester is nearest, is 
about a mile east of Weymouth, and therefore in the neigh- 
bourhood of Portland, where Bapin says the landing was 
made. 

With the evidence at present to hand, it seems certain that 
the first landing of the Danes was not at Tynemouth in 
Northumberland, improbable that it was at Teignmouth in 
South Devon, but in all probability it occurred at some spot 
on the western shore of Weymouth Bay. 



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MISCELLANEOUS DEVONSHIRE GLEANINGS. 14? 



VII. Wolcot, Dr. John = " Peter Pindar." 

(Copiid/rom the Note Book of Mr. 0. BlewiU, where it is said to have been 
"Written by Walter Prideaux, of Kingsbridge" ) 

" Doctor John Wolcot, commonly called Peter Pindar, was 
born in Dodbrooke, in the county of Devon, it is believed in 
the year 1739, but the Kegister of the Parish of Dodbrooke 
having been in the custody of Mr. Gillard, the Churchwarden, 
when his house at Well was burnt, the register was unfor- 
tunately destroyed, by which means the exact period of his 
birth cannot be found. His father was a surgeon and apothe- 
cary of considerable eminence in his day, and gave his son 
a good classical education under a Mr. John Morris, an* 
exceedingly clever man, who kept a large boarding and 
grammar school in the town of Kingsbridge, which adjoins 
the village of Dodbrooke, where the Doctor was born. The 
house in which that event took place, on the death of his 
father, became his property, and was sold by him 30 years 
since to the Rev. Nath 1 Wells, who resided in it till his 
death .... 

"When he had finished his education, the Doctor was 
placed as an apprentice with his uncle, who was a surgeon 
of great respectability and large practice at Fowey, in Corn- 
wall, with whom he served out his time, and" [then] "attended 
the hospitals to complete himself in his profession. Amongst 
his uncle's patients was the Trelawny family " [residing, no 
doubt, at Trelawny, in the parish of Pelynt, about 6 miles 
E.N.E. from Fowey], " with whom the Doctor was very inti- 
mate, and of whose abilities they had a high opinion. 

" Not long after the completion of his studies, and when 
he was not fixed as to the place in which he should settle 
in business, Sir W m Trelawny was appointed Gov r of Jamaica. 
Wolcot, on hearing it, applied to him to be taken out as his 
Surgeon, when Sir William expressed great regret at having 
before engaged to take out another young man in that 
capacity, but told him if he could get a diploma, of which 
Sir William had little doubt, he would most willingly take 
him out as his Physician. 

" Upon this Wolcot immediately applied to Doctors Hux- 
ham of Plymouth and another Physician there, from whom 
he obtained the necessary certificate of his capability, and 
immediately procured a diploma as an m.d. On being 
asked by an intimate friend and old schoolfellow of his (in 
the presence of the writer of this), who was acquainted with 

K 2 



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148 MISCELLANEOUS DEVONSHIRE GLEANINGS. 

Huxham, how he had contrived to prevail on old Dr. Hux- 
ham to sign the certificate, 'Oh/ says Wolcot, 'I found 
Huxhara fond of flummery, I gave it to him liberally, he 
swallowed it greedily, and signed the certificate readily/ 

"On obtaining his diploma he accompanied the Gov r 
to Jamaica, but being a very young man, and several old 
men, who had settled there, running away with all the 
practice, he found his success did not answer his expectat 11- , 
and expressed thoughts of returning to England, when the 
Gov. said to him one day, * Doctor, I wish you was a Parson, 
as I should then most likely soon have it in my power 
to provide for you handsomely. 9 Wolcot asked him if he 
was serious, and upon his saying he really was, replied, 
4 Then I will go to England, get ordained directly, and return 
to Jamaica;' and he did accordingly come to England, 
applied to the Bishop of Loudon, and after being examined, 
the Bishop ordained him to preach the gospel in foreign 
parts; upon which he returned to Jamaica in full hopes 
and expectation of the promised living, but here again he 
was disappointed, as almost immed? after his return the 
Governor died, before he had an opportunity of presenting 
him with the promised preferment 

"On the death of the Governor the Doctor returned to 
England, and settled at Truro, where he would have had a 
large practice, but unfortunately for his prospects, Truro was 
a Borough Town, and the members were returned through the 
influence of Lord Falmouth, whose interest being opposed by 
Sir Fra" Basset, Wolcot took the part of Lord Falmouth, 
and giving way to his poetic vein, he held up the opposite 
party, who were the most numerous and proved successful in 
overthrowing his lordship's interest in the Borough, in a most 
caustic satire, which the writer of this has seen in manuscript, 
and been almost convulsed with laughter at reading it. 

" The consequence of this talent for rhyming at Falmouth " 
[*tc ? Truro] " was the loss of his practice, two of the most 
prominent characters attacked by him, being medical men in 
large practice as Surgeons and Apothecaries, did everything 
in their power to destroy it Finding his business gone, he 
then removed to London, and soon after published his Ode 
to the Bevietoers, as a prelude to his Lyric Odes addressed to 
the painters, which were his first publications, and finding 
after a little time that his satires took with the public, he 
afterwards gave himself up entirely to writing and publishing 
his poetic pieces, which speak for themselves ; and although 
some of them are coarse, and perhaps not to be defended as 



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MISCELLANEOUS DEVONSHIRE GLEANINGS. 149 

to their propriety, still the genuineness and originality of 
their wit are undeniable. 

" The Doctor never afterwards left London, except now and 
then to visit his uncle at Dartmouth, and his sisters at 
Fowey ; but those visits weTe of short duration, London being 
the only place in which he could find and enjoy the society 
he delighted in, and have his relish for music, to which he 
was much devoted, sufficiently gratified. 

" He lived to a very advanced age, and died at Somers- 
town : and at his own earnest desire was buried at St. Paul's, 
Covent Garden, close to the remains of Butler, the author of 
Hudibras." 

P.S. — Since this Paper was in type, I have obtained a copy 
of the work of which the u pamphlet," mentioned and quoted 
on pp. 139-140 above, is a Section. It is entitled " England 
Wales Scotland and Ireland Described and Abridged With 
y e Historic Relation of things worthy memory from a farr 
Larger Voulume Done by John Speed Anno Cum privilegio 
1627." 



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THE GEOLOGY OF DAWLISH. 

BY W. A. B. U8SHER, F.O.S. 

(WITH TBI PERMISSION OP THE DIRSCTOR-GBKRRAL OP THK QKOLOOICAL 8URTBT.) 

(Read at DawliA, July, 1881.) 



In a previous paper " On the Mouth of the Eiver Exe," read 
at Paignton, 1878, a brief allusion was made to the Triassic 
rocks of the Dawlish district, but no detailed description of 
the geology of this most interesting neighbourhood, as exem- 
plified in the fine railway cliff coast sections, was attempted 
beyond the Post Tertiary phenomena. I now propose to 
supply this deficiency, devoting some preliminary remarks to 
the gravels. 

Gravels. — Upon Langstone Point the relics of an old river 
deposit are observable. The gravel is finely exposed in the 
railway cutting for nearly 50 chains from the Point toward 
Dawlish. It has been mentioned by De la Beche and God- 
win-Austin, and figured by Mr. Parfitt. The composition of 
the deposit where best exposed was given in my paper above 
referred to. The coarser detritus, consisting of subangular 
and well-worn fragments derived from Cretaceous and Triassic 
rocks, is invariably overlain by red sand, generally with an 
intervening bed of ancient alluvial loam. The sand over- 
lapping the gravel and loam, and resting directly upon soft 
Triassic sandstones, renders the termination of the gravel 
patch toward Dawlish exceedingly indefinite. The cliffs 
range from 80 to 120 feet in height At a gully in the 
upper part of the cliff, near the termination of the gravel, 
the surface is at 125 feet above the sea. Near Langstone 
Point the gravel occupies an eroded hollow in the Trias 
between two faults, giving it the appearance of a faulted 
displacement. At about 38 chains, and at 20 chains from 



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THE GEOLOGY OF DAWLI8H. 151 

Dawlish Station, gravels cap the cliff, which is about 80 feet 
in height. 

The low cliff, extending for 12 chains from the Hotel 
opposite the Kail way Station, is composed of rounded and 
subangular stones of grit, &c, flint and chert, often of large 
size and, seemingly, unstratified. The exposure behind the 
Hotel is from 15 to 20 feet in height. Similar gravel occurs 
on the S. margin of the Dawlish-water alluvium, resting on 
Triassic sandstones. 

Apart from its thickness and extent, the gravel patch 
near Langstone Point is of interest, owing to the preservation 
of the old alluvial loam upon it. The regenerated Triassic 
sand upon the alluvial deposits may be a Head of materials 
washed from higher ground by rains, &c. Although the con- 
figuration of the ground in the immediate vicinity of the 
gravel does not lend itself readily to this idea, yet it is diffi- 
cult, on the one hand, to account for the absence of signs of 
fluviatile deposition in it, which would be likely to produce a 
discolouration of the material ; and on the other, to believe 
that the friable alluvial deposits on the gravel would have 
escaped denudation in an exposed site without some such 
covering as the shedding of atmospheric ddbris would be 
likely to have afforded. 

On the hill between Dawlish and Cliff Cottage a patch of 
gravel occurs at a height of about 160 feet above the sea. It 
is exposed by the road to Teignmouth, and consists of sub- 
angular and well-worn fragments derived from the Triassic 
breccia, with flint and chert, resting unevenly upon the 
Triassic rocks. 

By the stream gully E. of Country House, old river gravel, 
consisting of flint, chert, grit, and igneous fragments in brown 
loam, caps the cliff, which is about 140 feet high. At the 
end of the road to the beach from Lower Holcombe, near 
the mouth of the Clerk Eock Tunnel, a trace of old river 
gravel occurs, at 60 to 70 feet above the sea. 

The positions of the higher gravel patches, in sites totally 
distinct from the present lines of drainage, and at such 
height above the sea, indicate a date of deposition sufficiently 
remote to have permitted the obliteration of their connection 
with the present stream valleys, and to have enabled the sea 
to cut back the ancient coast line (breached by their embou- 
chures) to the present line of cliffs. 

There is no means of correlating such gravels with the 
raised beaches, as the soft secondary rocks between Portland 
Bill and Hope's Nose have been cut back too far to allow of 



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152 THE GEOLOGY OF DAWLISH. 

the preservation of any portion of the coast line of the raised 
beach period. It is not improbable that the higher gravel 
patches may be of older date than the raised beaches, whilst 
the Dawlish gravel may have been, roughly speaking, con- 
temporaneous. The Dawlish gravel indicates the selection of 
the present line of drainage, and during the raised beach 
period the streams appear to have flowed in the valleys now 
tenanted by them. 

The gravels on Langstone Point cliffs seem to mark the site 
of an old line of drainage subsequently deserted for sites 
marked by the present valleys to N. and S. of it. 

Similarly, the higher gravels on S. of Dawlish may repre- 
sent a deserted line of drainage in part roughly coincident 
with that taken by the principal tributary of the Dawlish- 
water. 

The present alluvial flat bordering the Dawlish-water 
represents the erosion of the old bed, of which the bordering 
gravels formed a part, during an elevation, possibly that 
which carried up the old beaches ; and likewise denotes the 
decreasing volume and force of the stream. 

The presence of large boulders of igneous and other rocks 
in the beds or gravels of the Dawlish-water or its tributaries, 
no matter how far up stream (as at Ashcombe, vide paper by 
Mr. Pycroft) they may be found, are plainly referable to the 
disintegration of the Triassic breccia in which the stream 
courses are situated. The common occurrence of boulders of 
large size in the breccia near Haldon, and its rubbly and 
friable character, afford especial facilities for the manufacture 
of boulder stream gravels. 

Upper Greensand Area. — The conspicuous landmarks of 
Great and Little Haldon are the remnants of an old plain of 
Cretaceous rocks, which may have abutted on the flanks of 
Dartmoor on the west, and was continuous with the Black- 
down Range on the east. Standing upon either summit 
and gazing over the fertile vales and grassy knolls of the 
Triassic area at one's feet to the horizon line of the Black- 
downs, some idea of the extensive denudation from which 
the country has suffered in Post Cretaceous times cannot 
fail to be suggested. The broad valley excavated by the 
Exe and its tributaries lies mapped out at the observer's 
feet, and beyond, the elevated range of Woodbury Common, 
forming the feature of the Lower Keuper Pebble Beds, sepa- 
rates the drainage of the Exe from that of the Otter. 

The Haldons are capped by that remarkable accumulation 
of loam and clay, with broken unworn flint and chert stones, 



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THE GEOLOGY OF DAWLISH. 153 

which cover the summit levels of the Blackdowns. But 
besides this, waterworn materials are here and there scat- 
tered over Haldon ; schorlaceous fragments, which may have 
been transported from the Dartmoor area at a time when 
the Cretaceous tableland abutted against its flanks, and 
well-worn flints, probably due to the reassortment of the 
clay with flints in the stream courses of that long bygone 
time. These waterworn materials appear to have been 
attributed by Mr. Godwin-Austen to marine action. There 
can be little doubt that the Cretaceous high-lands of Devon 
are portions of a great plain of marine denudation, whether 
the uplifted bed of the Cretaceous sea, or the result of a 
depression of Cretaceous strata in tertiary times, I do not 
pretend to say; if the latter, the waterworn materials in ques- 
tion may be the relics of Tertiary deposits. 

The presence of such quantities of flint as occur on Haldon 
affords an excellent proof of the westerly overlap of the 
Cretaceous subdivisions. If they are the relics of chalk with 
flints, disintegrated by atmospheric and other causes, in situ, 
which appears almost certain, we have a hiatus between them 
and the greensands on which they rest, of the lithological 
equivalents of the chalk without flints and the upper beds of 
the Upper Greensand, although the chloritic marl may be in 
part represented by the coarser grained beds forming the 
uppermost part of the Haldon greensand. 

By this extension of chalk ddbris the presence of flints 
in the old and more modern gravels is amply accounted 
for. 

Lower Trias. — In the railway cutting between Langstone 
Point and Dawlish no less than 30 faults ar^ visible. The 
amount of downthrow can in most cases be estimated, as seams 
of breccia are of frequent occurrence in the most part of the 
sandstone cliffs, and beds of sandstone occur in the parts of 
the cliff in which breccia prevails. 

Langstone Point is composed of red-brown sand rock, 
closely studded with subangular fragments of grit, jaspideous 
rock, quartz, &c, and analagous to the breccia in Exmouth 
Shrubbery. A nearly vertical fault line, having a direction 
N. 20° W. and S. 20° R, throws similar breccia, but with bands 
and beds of sand rock, against the breccia of Langstone 
Point. 

For 13 chains from Langstone Point the cliff is composed 
of breccia with intercalated seams and beds of sandstone, 
disturbed by 5 faults, at 1, 4, 5, 2 chains apart, respectively. 
The downthrow of the first of these faults cannot be estimated ; 



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154 THE GEOLOGY OF DAWLI8H. 

it is probably small. The respective amounts of throw of the 
other faults are 6 inches, 1 foot, 5 feet to S.E., and 4 feet 
to&E. 

At from 13 to 21 chains from the Point the intercalation 
of sandstone with breccia becomes more evenly balanced, the 
former finally prevailing. In this distance of 8 chains, no 
less than 8 faults are observable, with north-easterly down- 
throws of from 2 to 6 feet, with the exception of 2 small 
faults with 8-inch shifts in an opposite direction. 

At 21 chains from the Point the cliff is composed of red 
sand rock, with irregular beds of breccia. 

At from 28 to 54 chains from the Point, red sand rock 
forms the cliff, breccia being very occasionally represented by 
impersistent seams. 

At 25 chains from the Point, a crack intersects the cliff; 
it may be a reversed fault, in which case its downthrow would 
be on S.E. side and about 5 feet; but there is nothing to 
negative the idea that its hade may be normal and its down- 
throw very considerable. Below the gorge, near the top of 
the cliff, at about 43 chains from the Point, the sandstones 
contain corrugated slabs of black ironstone [pan], and are 
intersected by a crack, which may mark a fault of considerable 
amount 

At 5 chains from the last-mentioned spot, near the termi- 
nation of the old river gravel patch on the cliff, a crack or 
fault traverses the sandstones. In this, as in the two pre- 
ceding cases, owing to the homogeneous character of the sand 
rock, and the impersistent indications of its bedding planes, 
no clue as to the effect of the faults (if such) is afforded. It 
seems very probable that one of the cracks, at least, may be a 
fault of importance, tending to repeat the sandstone beds for 
a considerable distance ; but it might reasonably be asked, 
if such were the case, would not the dislocation have a 
marked visible effect on the relations of the sandstones and 
breccias in inland localities? To this objection the very 
unstable lithological character of the Lower Triassic rocks is 
a sufficient answer ; for, with the exception of the Langstone 
Point fault, which acts as a general lithological boundary line 
for 2 miles from the coast, no faults can be traced with cer- 
tainty in inland localities, where the upper beds of the Lower 
Trias are alone affected. 

At 50 chains from the Point, 2 tiny faults of 6 inches 
counteract one another. From this spot to a bridge over the 
railway, 4 chains further on, the sandstones contain a bed of 
breccia and a seam of loam, displaced by 2 faults apparently 



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THE GEOLOGY 07 DAWLISH. 155 

from 2 to 5 feet in downthrow. At the bridge the section is 
wholly composed of rock sand. 

At from 3 to 10 chains from the bridge, the presence of 
marked beds of breccia and seams of pan render the smallest 
faults distinguishable. Eleven small faults are visible in a 
distance of 6 chains, but the majority are subsidiary cracks, 
so that they may be embraced in 5 or 6 distinct faults with 
dowBthrows of from 1 to 3 feet. Near this, at from 24 to 
36 chains from Dawlish Station, the railway cutting is con- 
cealed by grass and scrub. The beds concealed appear to be 
sandstones, with beds of breccia and seams of pan. 

At from 12 to 15 chains from Dawlish Station, the cliff is 
chiefly composed of breccia, with intercalated beds of sand- 
stone. In this part of the cliff 2 faults occur with north- 
easterly throws ; one of them may be of some importance, as 
sandstone is thrown down by it, but the other has a down- 
throw of 2} feet only. Indications of another fault are 
visible at about 16 chains from Dawlish Station, of the same 
indefinite character as in the case of the three cracks, distant 
respectively 25, 44, and 48 chains from Langstone Point 

On crossing the alluvium of Dawlish Water, cliffs composed 
of red sand rock are visible behind the houses and for some 
distance southward ; they are intersected by a fault in ooe 
spot 

A nearly N. and S. fault cuts across the tunnel-mouth on 
the S. of Dawlish beach, the seaward face of the cliff- 
promontory, in which the tunnel has been excavated, being 
thrown down by it An interesting section is afforded in 
the cliff at the gentlemen's bathing-place ; a small projection 
from the promontory has been thrust up between converging 
faults, and forms a cliff more than 100 feet in height, com- 
posed of breccia with a conical capping of sandstone ; sand- 
stones upon breccia being let down against it on the K, 
and massive bedded red sandstones, let down on the S., are 
exposed in the fine railway-cutting cliff, the south entrance to 
tbe tunnel being in a receding cliff face along the hade of the 
fault This fault has a downthrow of 100 feet or more. A 
thick bed of sandstone, about half-way up the cliff on the 
downthrown side, exhibits false bedding on a large scale. 
The next tunnel is driven through a promontory of breccia, 
which dips under the sandstones. From this point to Clerk 
Bock continuous examination of the cliffs is almost impos- 
sible^ owing to the numerous tunnels and tbe high sea wall, 
wWch precludes observation of the cliffs from the beach. 

A fault at the S. entrance to the second tunnel from 



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156 THE GEOLOGY OF DAWLISH. 

Dawlish throws the breccia against an irregularly intercalated 
series of sandstones and breccia (somewhat similar to that 
near Langstone Point), much cut up by faults between the 
tunnels. Twelve faults are visible, but owing to the varia- 
bility of the beds affected, their downthrows can seldom be 
ascertained with any degree of certainty. In a distance of a 
quarter of a mile, proceeding from N. to S., we have breccia 
with a thick mass of sandstone, faulted against sandstone (or 
sand rock), with a thick bed of breccia displaced by a fault, 
which appears to have a downthrow of about 20 feet. The 
next fault brings on breccia upon a thick stratum of sand- 
stone resting upon breccia with intercalated beds of sand- 
stone, faulted against sandstone upon sandstone partly 
brecciated upon breccia with beds of sandstone upon breccia; 
here we have a gradual downward passage into breccia. By 
the next faults a mass of breccia is thrust up, breccia upon 
sandstone being thrown down against it. What appears to 
be the base of the last-mentioned sandstone, resting on breccia, 
is next brought up by fault, being cut off against sandstone 
with a thick bed of breccia, faulted against an intercalated 
series of breccia, upon sandstone, upon breccia, upon sand- 
stone, upon sandstone with beds of breccia. The next fault 
brings on sandstones upon sandstones with beds of breccia 
upon breccia; a succession slightly disturbed by a fault and 
cut off against the most southerly patch of recognisable sand- 
stone in this part of the Lower Trias, which rests upon breccia 
containing no further distinguishable masses of sandstone. 
The breccia affords, N.E. to N.N.E., dips, of from 7° to 10°. It 
is affected by 3 or more faults near the entrance to the tunnel 
on N. of Clerk Rock. 

From the sections between Clerk Rock and the gentlemen's 
bathing-place, one would be inclined to regard the transition 
from sandstone to breccia as gradual and irregular, presenting 
some such downward succession as the following: — Sand- 
stone, breccia, sandstone, breccia, sandstone, sandstone with 
beds of breccia, or breccia with beds of sandstone, breccia. 
But the distinction between the beds of sandstone and breccia 
might at any time be lost through irregularity of intercala- 
tion. 

It now becomes very difficult to assign their true place to 
the sandstones faulted down at the gentlemen's bathing cove; 
they are either represented by the intercalated series just 
described, which would then be a modified continuation of 
them repeated by fault ; or the sandstones rest upon a mass 
of breccia, separating them from a downward succession of 



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THE GEOLOGY OF DAWLISH. 157 

intercalated sandstones and breccias, before the breccia finally 
prevails. It seems probable that the sandstones and breccias 
with intercalated sandstone beds, may be faulted representa- 
tives of the lower part of the beds between Dawlish and 
Langstone Point. In the Langstone and Dawlish section, 
were we to judge by lithological analogy, the parts of the 
cliff composed wholly of sandstone would appear to be the 
uppermost, and the intercalated sandstones and breccias a 
downward passage into breccia, regarding the breccia of 
which Langstone Point is composed as the lowest But 
this does not appear to be the case ; for on tracing the rocks by 
lithological characters, we find that the Langstone Point 
breccia terminates, forming a kind of outlier on sandstones, 
at Kenton, which appearance could not be entirely accounted 
for by faults. The faulted patches of Lower Trias by the Exe 
at Lympstone are associated with breccia, and there is every 
reason to think that they form the upper beds of the Lower 
Trias, which is almost entirely composed of sandstone between 
Honiton's Clist and Topsham. Impersistent bands of breccia 
occur in the upper part of the Lower Trias near St. George's 
Clist and Bishop's Clist ; so that there may be a considerable 
amount of breccia in the upper part of the sandstones 
between Powderham and Exmouth, and no hard and fast 
stratigraphical boundaries can be inferred from the occur- 
rence of breccia in mass in the sandstone area. 

In South Devon the deposition of breceia (during the later 
stages of the Lower Trias) may have been irregularly protracted 
at various periods leading to its inosculation with the sand- 
stones, such appearances being mainly due to variable sources 
of derivation and the facilities afforded for the spread of 
coarser materials outward from the then existing coasts. 

In endeavouring to arrive at an estimate of the thick- 
ness represented by the coast section between Dawlish and 
Langstone Point, a distance of a mile and a quarter, 25 of the 
faults mentioned may be ignored as too insignificant to affect 
the results. It is quite possible that the effect of one or 
more of the remaining faults may be such as to reduplicate 
the beds, in which case the distance would have to be reduced 
to one-half, or 50 chains ; but, as we have seen, there is no 
means of distinguishing the displacements produced. 

If the whole distance, li mile, be taken, an average dip 
of 8° would give a thickness of more than 900 feet, ignoring 
faults. If, however, we take half the distance, to allow for 
possible reduplication by fault, a dip of 8° would give a 
thickness of about 460 feet, and a dip of 10° a thickness of 



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158 THE GEOLOGY 07 DAWLI8H. 

more than 600 feet The former (460 feet) estimate appears 
to me to be the least open to objection, because the low dips 
furnished by the sandstones of the Honiton's Clist district do 
not seem to argue any great thickness for the upper part of 
the Lower Trias, where sand prevails. 

The breccia thrown against Middle Trias marls by fault, at 
the end of the Shrubbery at Exmouth, as well as that which 
forms Langstone Point, may belong to the uppermost beds of 
the Lower Trias, and pass into pure sandstones northward 



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THE TEIAS AT DAWLISH. 

BT G. WAREING ORMBROD, M. A., F.G.8. 
(Read at Dawliah, July, 1881.) 



The continuous line of Trias that forms the cliffs bordering 
a considerable part of the southerly sea coast of Devon has 
been described by various authors (see Appendix), so that a 
memoir relating to it would for the most part repeat a well- 
known tale. Within the last few years, however, " Pseudo- 
morphous Crystals" of salt were discovered near Sidmouth by 
myself; bones of a " Labyrinthodon " near Sidmouth by Mr. 
Johnston La vis; bones of the "Hyperodapedon" at the mouth 
of the Otter by Mr. Whittaker ; and that " Murchisonite " was 
the characteristic of certain beds near Dawlish by myself. 

The "Keuper" crops out from under the chalk near 
Branscombe Mouth and extends to Exmouth, where the 
" Bunter " appears, and extends thence to near Babbacombe 
Bay; the portion of this district that lies between the Ex 
and the Teign will be the subject of this memoir. 

At the western end of the Beacon at Exmouth a bed, 
consisting mostly of small angular and subangular fragments 
of hard brown rock, Lydian stone, and porphyry crops out 
from below soft red and grey sandy beds ; this conglomerate 
so closely resembles one at Cockwood, on the right bank of 
the Ex, and also the conglomerate overlying a red sandy 
rock where the road from Cofton to Kenton crosses that from 
Staplake to Mowlish, that there can scarcely be a doubt that 
the Beacon beds are a portion of those just mentioned, and 
that they form the upper part of the Bunter. 

Between Cofton Chapel and Cofton Cross a soft red rock 
crops out from under this conglomerate, and may be traced 
from Staplake brook, on the north-west, to the cliffs west of 
Langstone Point. Near Mowlish, and in a cutting by the 
roadside about half a mile to the south-west of Cofton 
Chapel, detached crystals of Murchisonite occur in this 



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160 THE TRIAS AT DAWLISH. 

sandstone. The existence of Murchisonite at Dawlish has 
been known for many years; it has also been found at 
Heavitree near Exeter, and at Arrau. It is an opalescent 
felspar, possessing a third cleavage, in addition to the two at 
right angles to each other, of Orthoclase ; and it is upon this 
third cleavage plane that the opalescent play of light is 
observable. This mineral, as found at Dawlish, according to 
the analysis of Mr. E. Phillips as given in Greg and Letsorae's 
Mineralogy, consists of silica 68*6, alumina 166, potash 
14*8. A fault running in a northerly direction passes to the 
west of Langstone Point, but I have not been able to decide 
the exact position in the Bunter beds of the rock at that 
point. Soft sandy beds, in which Murchisonite has not been 
detected, form the cliffs between Langstone Point and the 
steps at the Dawlish Coastguard Station, where they are 
succeeded by a soft sandy conglomerate, containing small 
angular and subangular fragments of rocks and Murchisonite, 
which can be traced along the line of strike by Gatehouse, 
Gulliford, and Newhouse, for a distance of about two miles 
and a half, to the entrance to the grounds of the parsonage 
at Mamhead and the cross roads at Whistlade, where the 
lower part of the bed may be seen ; Dawlish Water may, as 
a general line, be considered its western boundary. Below 
this bed a soft sandy rock with Murchisonite occurs, as 
shown in the cliffs to the south of Dawlish. Up to this 
place Murchisonite is found mostly in small detached crystals, 
in soft rock ; but the underlying rocks are of a more compact 
nature than those that have been described. These rocks, 
being those between the Second Tunnel and Smuggler's Lane, 
consist of a conglomerate composed of angular and subangular 
fragments of hard shale, black siliceous rock, quartz, carbonate 
of lime, porphyry, granite, limestone with and without 
organic remains, and Murchisonite both in the porphyritic 
and granitic pebbles, and in detached crystals. Between 
Smuggler's Lane to within a short distance of the Teignmouth 
Eailway Tunnel,, the cliffs consist of an alternation of soft 
marly and pebbly beds, with in some places grey bands ; in 
the conglomerate of the low cliff to the south of the tunnel 
mouth, Murchisonite may be found occasionally, and large 
rounded blocks of various descriptions of rock, some three 
feet in length, occur. The level part of Teignmouth is built 
for the most part on gravel from the sea, but the Trias may 
be traced on the rising ground at the back, and in the low 
cliffs by Bitton and the northerly end of Shaldon Bridge. 
At the Ness, on the south side of the Teign, and from thence 



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THE TRIAS AT DAWUSH. 161 

to Maidencombe, the upper beds are of a conglomerate very 
similar to that at Shaldon Bridge; below these there are beds 
of soft red rock, and these lie upon a coarse conglomerate 
containing large rounded fragments of limestone and granitoid 
rocks. Near Petit Tor the nearly continuous cliff exposure 
of the Trias ceases, giving place to the Devonian beds of 
Mary Church and Babbacombe. A bed of recompensed Trias, 
containing fragments of flint and other rocks, overlies the 
Trias, at the station at Dawlish and the cliffs between that 
place and Langstone Point; it also occurs near Beavis Bridge, 
Spratford, Rixtail, and Ideford, to the west of the Exe, and 
between Otterton and Ladram Bay to the east of that river. 
The inland exposure of the Trias between the Exe and the 
Teign is bounded by Carbonaceous beds; these, for the greater 
part of the distance between Exeter and the Belvidere on 
Great Haldon, contain beds of porphyry, and near Bishops- 
teignton beds of greenstone ; a considerable area of the 
Trias is capped by the Greensand on Great and Little 
Haldon. 

APPENDIX. 

LI8T OF THE CHIEF MEMOIRS AND OTHER. PUBLICATIONS RELATING 
TO THE TRIA8 OF SOUTH DEVON. 

From tlie Publications of the Geological Society. 

Austen (R. A. C. Godwin). " On the part of Devonshire between 
the Exe and Berry Head, and the coast and Dartmoor." 
Vol. ii. Pro. p. 414. 

" On the Geology of the south-east of 

Devonshire." VoL vi Trans. 2nd series, p. 433 ; voL ii. 
Pro. p. 584. 

Buokland (Rev. Prof.) "On the occurrence of Keuper Sandstone 
in the Upper Region of the New Red Sandstone formation 
or Poikilitic System in England and Wales." VoL ii 
Pro. p. 453. 

" On the excavation of Valleys by Diluvial 

Action, as illustrated by a succession of Valleys which 
intersect the south coast of Dorset and Devon." VoL L 
Trans. 2nd series, p. 95. 

Davidson (T.) "Notes on the Brachiopoda hitherto obtained from 
the * Pebble Bed ' of Budleigh Salterton, near Exmouth, 
in Devonshire." VoL xxvL Q. /. p. 70. 

De la Beghe (Sir H. T.) "Remarks on the Geology of the south 
coast of England from Bridport Harbour, Dorset, to Babba- 
combe Bay, Devon." VoL i. Trans. 2nd series, p. 40. 

"On the Geology of Tor and Babba- 
combe Bays, Devon." VoL iii. Trans. 2nd series, p. 31 ; 
voL L Pro. p. 31. 
VOL. XIII. L 



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162 THE TRIAS AT DAWUSH. 

De la Bechb (Sir H. T.) " Note on Trappean Rocks associated 
with the New Red Sandstone of Devonshire." VoL ii. 
Pro. p. 196. 

Edgell (A. W.) " Notes on some Lamellibranchs of the Budleigh 
Salterton Pebbles." VoL xxx. Q. J. p. 45. 

Holl (H. B.) " On the older Rocks of South Devon and East 
Cornwall." VoL xxiL Q. /. p. 400. 

Johnston-Lavis (H. J.) "On the Triassic Strata which are ex- 
posed in the cliff sections near Sidmouth ; and a note on 
the occurrence of an Ossiferous Zone containing Bones of a 
Labyrinthodon." VoL xxxii. & J. p. 274. 

Morchison (Sir R. J.) and Sedgwick (Prof) "On the Physical 
Structure of Devonshire, and on the Subdivisions and 
Geological relations of its old Stratified Deposits." VoL 
v. Trans. 2nd series, p. 633 ; voL L Pro. p. 556. 

Ormkrod (G. W.) "On the 'Waterstone Beds' of the Keuper, 
and on Pseudomorphous Crystals of Chloride of Sodium 
in Somersetshire and Devon." VoL xxiv. Q. /. p. 546 ; 
vol. xxv. Q. J. p. 50. 

■ " On the Murchisonite Beds of the Estuary of 

the Exe, and an attempt to classify the beds of the Trias 
thereby." VoL xxxi. Q. J. p. 346. 

Usshbr (W. A. E) "On the Triassic Rocks of Somerset and 
Devon." VoL xxxii. Q. J. p. 367. 

— ^— — " On the Chronological Value of the Triassic 

Strata of the South Western Counties." VoL xxxiv. 
a /. p. 459. 

Whitaker (W.) "On the succession of Beds in the 'New Red' 
on the south coast of Devon, and on the locality of a 
new specimen of Hyperodapedon." VoL xxv. Q. J. p. 152. 

Reports of the Plymouth Institution. 

Pbnoellt (W.) "The Red Sandstones and Conglomerates of 

Devonshire." Part I. 1861-2, p. 13. 
— — — — " The Red Sandstones, Conglomerates and Marls 

of Devonshire." Part IL 1862-3, p. 13. 

" The Red Sandstones, Conglomerates and Marls 



of Devonshire." Part ILL 1864-5, p. 13. 

Report of Devon Association, 1863. 

Pbngellt (W.) "On the Chronological Value of the New Red 
Sandstone System of Devonshire." p. 31. 



Contbbare (W. D.) and Phillips (W.) " Outlines of the Geology 
of England and Wales, 1822." pp. 293-295. 

Db la Bechb (H. T.) "Report on the Geology of Cornwall, 
Devon, and West Somerset, 1839." pp. 204-208. 



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NOTES ON THE SUBMARINE GEOLOGY OF THE 

ENGLISH CHANNEL OFF THE COAST OF 

SOUTH DEVON. 

Part II. 

BY ARTHUR R. HUNT, M.A., P.G.8. 
(Read at Davlish, July, 1881.) 



Since the last meeting of this Association, I have been again, 
indebted to Mr. Walter M. Baynes and the intelligent crew 
of his trawler, the Pelican, for additional specimens of stones 
from the English Channel. Though not numerous, being 
only four in number, without reckoning a set of flints, two of 
them are of considerable interest, and will, I think, justify 
my resuming my notes on the submarine geology of the 
English Channel without waiting for further material. 

15 and 16. On the 27th September, 1880, I accompanied 
Mr. W. M. Baynes to Brixham, to see two stones, numbers 
15 and 16, that had been taken — No. 15 on the 22nd of 
that month, No. 16 on the 24th, and both in the same 
locality; viz., about 16 miles south of the Start. Thinking 
it better to preserve these stones entire, instead of keeping 
only hand specimens, I agreed with the crew to land them 
at Torquay; this was done the same morning, and they 
were conveyed to my own residence, Southwood. The largest 
(No. 15) is fairly symmetrical in shape, its greatest dimensions 
being about 2 feet 8 inches x 1 foot 8 inches x 1 foot 6 inches ; 
whilst in form it approaches an oblique rhomboidal prism* 
As will be seen in Mr. Tawney's description in the appen- 
dix, it is a gabbro, a purplish and green mottled rock 
with opaque white spots. An interesting feature in this 
stone is a small patch of a sedimentary slaty rock attached 
to one of its sides, and described by Mr. Tawney, who 
saw a piece of it, as "killas." So that this comparatively 

L £t 



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164 THE SUBMARINE GEOLOGY OF THE ENGLISH CHANNEL 

small block, brought up in a fishing-net from the bottom of 
the sea, is an instance of what is not always easy to get even 
on land ; viz., a good specimen in small compass of a junction 
between a stratified and a non-stratified rock. The smaller 
stone (No. 16) is of irregular shape, and its greatest dimen- 
sions 2 feet 6 inches x 1 foot 10 inches x 1 foot 2 inches. Its 
chief component seems to be actinolite. It was taken in the 
same locality as the stone previously described, viz., 16 
iniles south of the Start. 

17. On the 30th September, 1880, the Pelican's crew took 
another stone (No. 17), whose weight they estimated at 7 or 
8 cwt, and whose form they described as being " more three- 
cornered " than the gabbro first described. This stone (No. 
17) Mr. Tawney pronounces to be "a diabase of ordinary 
type." It was trawled some 17 or 18 miles S.W. by W. of 
the Start. 

18. In the same locality, on the 28th September, some 
flints were trawled. Three were sent to me; the largest 
(No. 19), weighing I lb. 94 oz., now exhibited, shows no sign 
of the rolling action of water, and the condition of the 
other two is similar. 

The stones I have now described add little to the know- 
ledge we already possessed. The three blocks were all 
detached, and therefore of uncertain origin, and the flints 
are similar to Nos. 14 and 14a, taken in the same neigh- 
bourhood, and described last year. 

19. We now come to a specimen (No. 19) trawled on the 
12th October, 1880, 20 miles south-west of the Eddystone, 
and which is of great interest as affording good evidence of 
the rock that forms the bed of the Channel in that locality. 
Shortly after it was taken, Mr. Baynes informed me that his 
crew had recently brought up in their trawl a small piece of 
granite, which they had given to him just as they found it ; 
that is to say, they had not broken it off a larger stone, as 
they usually do when saving hand specimens for me. This 
piece of news was not only not satisfactory to me, but quite 
the reverse, as I felt sure that such a small stone was either 
a piece of ballast, or that at any rate nobody would believe 
to the contrary. Through my lack of interest this stone 
remained on board Mr. Baynes's yacht for about a fortnight, 
and it was not till the 1st of November that I possessed 
myself of it 

My first glance at it convinced me that it was no ballast, 
and that, whatever the crew of the Pelican might say to 
the contrary, they had broken it off a larger mass. This 



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OFF THE COAST OF SOUTH DEVON. 165 

was very disquieting, as, unless the inconsistency could be 
explained, my faith in the reliability of the statements of the 
fishermen must necessarily be greatly shaken. On asking 
Mr. Baynes for further particulars, he reminded me of a fact 
that had escaped my memory; viz., that when the stone was 
taken, the Pelican had been fast some hours in what the crew 
supposed to be a wreck, and that on heaving up the trawl, 
the stone was found in it just as it was when sent on shore. 
On hearing this, the conclusion seemed inevitable that the 
trawl of the Pelican had been fast in a rock, not in a wreck, 
that the small stone with its one clean fracture had been torn 
off the parent rock by the foot-rope of the trawl, and that 
thus the fishermen had broken it off a larger mass without 
knowing it From the state of the fragment, and the circum- 
stances of its capture as described to me, the evidence of 
granite in situ at the bottom of the Channel seemed un- 
answerable; but everything depended on the accuracy of 
the statement that the stone had not been broken on board 
the Pelican. In order to get this information direct from the 
crew, at my request the master and first hand signed a certifi- 
cate as to the facts. It is as follows : — 

" This is to certify that the piece of granite stone taken in 
the trawl of the Pelican, about 20 miles S.W. of the Eddy- 
stone, on Tuesday, October 12th, 1880 (after the trawl had 
been fast for some hours in what we supposed to be a wreck), 
was not broken on board, but handed to Mr. W. M. Baynes 
just as we found it. 

"George Hayden.* 
a Witness— W. M. Baynes, J. Dyer. 

" Owner of the Pelican" 

This certificate will probably be accepted as conclusive 
evidence that the fragment of granite in question was torn 
off a larger mass at the sea bottom ; but it may possibly be 
objected that there is nothing to show that the larger mass 
was in situ, and that it was not a detached block too large 
for the trawler to move. An examination of the fragment 
will throw some light on this point. The dimensions are 
about 10i x 44 x 2£ inches, and it has all the appearance of 
having formed part of a flat ledge of rock. It shows no 
signs of having been either rolled by waves, or scoured by 
sands, pebbles, or other agency, and in this it differs from 
all the detached blocks that I have seen, all of which have 



* Master of the Pelican. 



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166 THE SUBMARINE GEOLOGY OF THE ENGLISH CHANNEL 

their angles rounded in a greater or less degree. Further, 
it is thin and slab-like, and in this respect differs from the 
trawled blocks, which have been, as a rule, so massive that 
it has been a matter of difficulty to knock off hand speci- 
mens. Accustomed as I am to get my own dredge fast in 
the sedimentary rocks of Torbay, and either to part the rope 
or bring away a piece of the rock in the net, the evidence 
of this fragment in the trawl, with its one clean fracture, 
is conclusive both as to the nature of the rock when it 
was taken, and as to the manner in which it was taken. 
But with those unaccustomed to this sort of geologising, a 
scrap of broken stone brought up in a net will, in all 
probability, not carry the same weight. 

This stone is of especial interest for several reasons. It 
appears to have been taken in situ, and therein differs from 
all the detached blocks, which, for all we know to the. con- 
trary, may have been carried by the trawlers from one spot 
to another from time to time before being finally brought 
away; for it is well known the blocks frequently break 
through the nets when brought to the surface, and after the 
vessel has drifted many miles during the process of heaving 
the trawl. 

When we examine the composition of this stone, we find 
that we at last have a rock from the Channel that is not 
totally different from all previously obtained from the 
same source of supply ; for although by no means iden- 
tical, it is not unlike the block (No. 2) that forms the 
doorstep of the Brixham Orphanage, and described last 
year. 

No. 19, under consideration, is a true granite. The slice, 
as Mr. Tawney tells us, shows neither hornblende nor schorl, 
but the components are black and white micas, a little 
tricliuic felspar in addition to the orthoclase, quartz with 
fluid enclosures containing bubbles, and apatite. Now, on 
reference to Mr. Tawney's analysis of No. 2, published last 
year, it will be seen that the composition of the two rocks is 
almost identical, the only difference being that whilst certain 
" microlite needles, and hair-like delicate crystals of undeter- 
mined nature," are stated to be present in No. 2, no mention 
is made of them in No. 19. The similarity of these rocks 
is interesting, as No. 2 is one of the pair which, as stated 
last year, cannot be referred to any British rock above 
water. It would seem now that if not of British extraction, 
we can, at any rate, assign it a place under the waters of the 
English Channel. 



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OFF THE COAST OF SOUTH DEVON. 167 

In a paper read to the Association last year, Mr. R N. 
Worth described several varieties of the rock on which the 
new Eddystone Lighthouse has been built, and stated that 
the area, though small, had "afforded examples, in every 
stage of gradation, from what we may regard as the typical 
gneiss of the ' house-rock ' to pieces which in hand specimens 
cannot be distinguished from the common red granitic veins 
of Dartmoor." . . . Mr. Worth has been kind enough to 
supply me with characteristic specimens of the above- 
mentioned varieties from the new Lighthouse rock. One is 
a good example of gneiss ; a second is a piece of that part 
of the rock that has been for a long time considered granitoid, 
if not granite ; and Mr. Worth informs me that " no part of 
of the reef has produced more decidedly granitic rock " than 
this specimen ; two others are portions of the rock compared 
to the " red granitic veins of Dartmoor." All these specimens 
were sent to Mr. Tawney for examination. He pronounced 
the red rocks as similar to the veins in the Malvern gneiss, 
and being veins, scarcely worth slicing for the microscope. 
However, one of the pieces was so treated, and proved to be 
" a clastic rock," consisting " nearly entirely of quartz and 
felspar." The two gneisses, when put to the test of the 
microscope, turned out to be almost identical, both containing 
the same minerals, though differing a little in their arrange- 
ment. Thus it appears that the theory so long held, that the 
Eddystone reef is more or less granitoid, except in so far as 
gneiss itself is considered granitoid, is not borne out by the 
four specimens kindly presented to me by Mr. Worth. 
Passing on from the subject of the Eddystone reef, Mr. 
Worth, in the paper referred to (Devon. Assoc. Trans., voL 
xii. p. 362), proceeded to make the startling announcement 
that the Shovel Eock, inside Plymouth Breakwater, on which 
a fort had been built 12 years previously, was also gneiss, and 
as such, conclusive proof "that the Eddystone reef is no 
isolated phenomenon." .... Mr. Worth was kind 
enough to send me a piece of this rock also, with per- 
mission to make any use of it. Of this permission I have 
gratefully availed myself to the fullest extent. The rock 
has been submitted to Mr. Tawney, and, as will be seen by 
his microscopic analysis appended, it is not only gneiss, but 
"a typical gneiss; in appearance and structure very like 
that from the Eddystone rock (No. 1)." 

In a paper such as the present, whose primary object is 
to record notes of observed facts, it is well to defer drawing 
deductions for as long a time as possible, lest the deductions 



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168 THE SUBMARINE GEOLOGY OF THE ENGLISH CHANNEL 

of one year be demolished by the discoveries of the next 
But it may, perhaps, be permissible briefly to indicate the 
direction in which our recently acquired knowledge seems 
to point. We find a large tract of sea-bottom off the south 
coast of Devon where large blocks of stone abound ; and to 
such an extent that the fishermen are greatly inconvenienced 
by them. In proof of this assertion, I need only mention 
what Hayden, the master of the Pelican, told me last Sep- 
tember ; viz., that on Monday, the 20th of that month, some 
40 smacks shot their trawls together, and that only about five, 
of which the Pelican was one, escaped being brought up by 
stones or " pick-ups." But though she escaped that day, we 
have seen that she was not so lucky during the rest of the 
week, as she trawled a stone on the Wednesday and another 
on the Friday. But if the number of these detached blocks 
is remarkable, their character is equally so. Of all the 
Channel stones received hitherto, only one is a simple sedi- 
mentary rock ; viz., the fragment of sandstone (10) presumed 
to have been broken off the parent rock by the trawl. All 
the others, thirteen in number, are eruptive, granitic, or meta- 
morphic, with perhaps one exception, viz., the conglomeratic 
grit (5); and even that one Mr. Tawney cannot pronounce free 
from alteration. To these thirteen we may add the gneisses of 
the Eddystone and Shovel reefs, making in all fifteen speci- 
mens of Channel rocks, none of which are, strictly speaking, 
sedimentary. As already stated, many varieties are repre- 
sented. Out of the present total of fifteen, we have at least 
thirteen different rocks, which the meagre evidence available 
suffices to prove to be of several different ages. The collec- 
tion may be roughly grouped into granites, gneisses, syenitic 
rocks, both igneous and metamorphic, serpentine, diorite, 
diabase, gabbros, and conglomeratic grit. 

The granites appear to agree in one thing; viz., to dis- 
claim any connection with the family of the same name on 
shore. On this point, and more especially with reference to 
the typical granite (No. 19), Mr. Tawney speaks without 
hesitation. Closely connected in mineral composition with 
these typical granites (Nos. 2 and 19), and presumably of 
the same age, we have the Eddystone and Shovel gneisses 
and the fine-grained rock No. 3. The same minerals occur 
in all; viz., orthoclase, plagioclase, biotite, muscovite, and 
quartz, but no hornblende and no schorl. Moreover, in all 
these rocks, excepting the Shovel gneiss, the quartz contains 
fluid enclosures. Now it so happens that the Eddystone 
rock is as nearly as possible S.W. (magnetic) of Plymouth, 



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OFF THE COAST OF SOUTH DEVON. 169 

and as the granite No. 19, which we believe to be in situ, 
was trawled 20 miles S.W. of the Eddystone, we find 
these three rocks, the Shovel, the Eddystone, and the granite, 
so like in mineral composition, almost in line with each 
other. Now, if we are right so far, I think we shall be able 
to show that, given the contemporaneity of these gneisses 
and granites, they are all much older than the granites of 
Dartmoor, from which mineralogically they differ so much. 
The facts are as follows : — About 31 miles S.W. of Plymouth 
we have typical granite, composed of mica, quartz, and 
felspar; 20 miles to the N.E. of this rock we find the same 
minerals in the metamorphic rock of the Eddystone reef, " a 
well characterised gneiss ; 11 miles further to the N.E. we 
find the same minerals reappearing in Plymouth Sound in 
the Shovel Kock, " a typical gneiss .... very like that from 
the Eddystone. 1 ' But though we find these indications of 
intense metamorphic action extending from 30 miles sea- 
ward right up to the Devonian rocks of Plymouth Sound, we 
find these Devonian rocks, though undoubtedly much con- 
torted, quite unaltered, and exhibiting no trace of the 
immediate neighbourhood of such a large area of granites and 
. gneisses. The fair inference seems to be that the Devonian 
rocks of Plymouth were not in existence when these gneisses 
were formed, or, in other words, that the Shovel and Eddy- 
stone gneisses and their corresponding granites are of pre- 
Devonian age. Nor are these gneisses and granites quite 
alone in their evidence of the antiquity of certain of the 
Channel formations ; for the conglomeratic grit No. 5 has 
been thought by more than one geologist to be of great 
antiquity; and Dr. Uicks, writing on the pre-Cambrian rocks 
of the British Isles, speaks of the specimens I exhibited to 
the Geological Section of the British Association at Swansea 
in the following terms : — " I have seen some of the speci- 
mens .... and believe that among them are types only 
known in pre-Cambrian rocks in this country." (Proceedings 
of Geological Association, vol. vii. No. 1.) 

If these typical granites and gneisses are of the age 
suggested, they can clearly have no claim to having had any- 
thing to do with the metamorphosis of the more modern 
Devonian slates of the Start and Bolt district, and it is 
equally clear they can have nothing to do with the Dartmoor 
granites, which have long been known to be of Post-Carbo- 
niferous age. But these typical granites and gneisses apart, 
there remain many other rocks from the Channel to whose 
age we have no clue. Such are the hornblendic granite (4), 



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170 THE SUBMARINE GEOLOGY OP THE ENGLISH CHANNEL 

the 8yenitic rocks, igneous (7), and metamorphic (?) (9), the 
gabbros (8, 15), the diabase (19), and the diorite (?) (17; 
sufficient indications of igneous action of unknown date off 
the south coast of Devon to enable us to dispense with the 
typical granites and gneisses, supposing these can be proved 
to be of greater antiquity than the period of metamorphosis 
of the mica-schist of the Bolt and Prawle. 

In my papers on the Submarine Geology of the Channel I 
have endeavoured, by giving full details of persons, times, 
and places, to enable any other worker in the same field to 
verify and, if requisite, to correct my statements. One such 
statement recorded, on the authority of others, in my first 
paper, from further information, I have reason to believe 
incorrect in two particulars, and I take this opportunity to 
correct it 

In pp. 316 and 317 of vol. xi. of the Tram. Devon. Assoc. 
the reader is informed that a certain block of granite, now 
the foundation-stone of St. Peter's Mission Chapel, at Brix- 
ham, was trawled by a fisherman named George Eden, that 
a builder had declared it to be artificially cut, and that he 
could see the marks of the chisel upon it. When on board 
the Pelican, on the 27th of September, 1880, to see the two 
stones, Nos. 15 and 16, her new master, George Hayden, in 
the course of conversation, volunteered the information that 
some people fancied that the large stone in St. Peter s Chapel, 
which was brought on shore by his father, was worked — an 
idea which he, George Hayden, ridiculed. Much surprised, 
I asked him whether his name was not Eden, for I had been 
told that that particular stone had been trawled by a George 
Eden. He assured me to the contrary, and I then saw clearly 
that the mistake in the name must have arisen through a 
confusion caused by the ordinary Devonshire pronunciation. 
To test this point, I enquired of a relative living in a Devon- 
shire village how she would spell the name of a Devonshire 
man who announced himself as Hayden. Without any 
hesitation she replied, "Eden." But, on the other hand, 
should a man's name really be either Hayden or Heyden, 
there is no room for variation in pronunciation, except as 
to the aspirate, which would vary in different speakers. This 
discrepancy of the name is thus explained, and I am very 
glad to have the opinion of the son of the supposed George 
Eden that the block in St. Peter's Chapel was not artificially 
worked when first found ; a supposition, however, which no 
one who has studied the detached blocks from the Channel 
,could entertain for a moment. 



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OFF THE COAST OF SOUTH DEVON. 171 



NOTES OF MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF FOUR SPECIMENS 
OF ROCKS TRAWLED IN THE CHANNEL, THREE SPECIMENS 
OF THE EDDYSTONE ROCK (NEW LIGHTHOUSE), AND ONE 
SPECIMEN OF THE SHOVEL ROCK. 

BY E. B. TAWNEY, M.A., F.O.8. 

Trawled Rock*. 

15. Trawled about 16 miles S. of Start Point, 22nd September, 
1880. Gabbro, a purplish and green mottled rock, with opaque 
white spots. Some " killas " is said to have been adherent to the 
block, so that its not very characteristic appearance may be due to 
the junction with the sedimentary rock. 

The- diallage scarcely retains its own physical properties ; much 
of it has become altered to an aggregate of diverging fibrous, colour- 
less or pale greenish crystals, which may probably belong to the 
actinolite group. The plagioclase is in places opaque from decom- 
position, and is everywhere much penetrated by the pale green 
actinolite microlites. 

This gabbro is no longer in its original condition, the diallage 
being seen changing to actinolite. 

16. Trawled about 16 miles S. of Start Point, September 24, 
1880. A sap-green coloured rock, in which the large actinolite 
crystals chiefly catch the eye; it is coarsely crystalline. The 
microscope shows the long actinolite crystals, green in colour, and 
at the borders often connected with diverging bundles and needles 
of pale green crystals, also actinolite, which penetrate the felspars. 

The plagioclase still preserves its twinning for the most part, but 
much of it is attacked by decomposition, and it is everywhere 
permeated by long actinolite fibres and particles. Apatite is 
present Secondary quartz has been deposited in little veins and 
interstices. The rock, if a diorite, is evidently much altered. 

17. Trawled September 30, 1880, 17 to 18 miles S.W. by W. of 
the Start. A dark green rock of medium grain, with minute 
specks of pyrites. A diabase of ordinary type. The plagioclase is 
much decomposed, the twinning being often lost. Quartz has been 
secondarily deposited. The augite has also been partly attacked 
by decomposition, and chloritic matter has resulted thereby. A 
little apatite is present Magnetite or black oxide is much more 
abundant than the pyrites. 

19. Broken off by the trawl, about 20 miles S.W. of Eddy- 
stone, 12th October, 1880. Granite of coarse grain. The slice 
shows neither hornblende nor schorl, but both white and black 
micas are present; so that the rock comes under granite proper, 
of which it is a good example. A little triclinic felspar is present 
in addition to the orthoclase. The quartz contains large fluid 
enclosures with bubbles, and in some smaller ones moving bubbles 
were noticed. Apatite is abundant in rather large crystals. 



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172 THE SUBMARINE GEOLOGY OP THE ENGLISH CHANNEL. 

Eddy stone Rock (New Lighthouse ). 

E. 1. The hand specimen is a grey rock, a well characterised 
gneiss, with distinct foliation; small garnets of salmon colour, 
visible to the naked eye. 

The microscope shows that it contains two micas ; the brown one 
strongly dichroic ; the second has sometimes a delicate straw tint, 
sometimes colourless. This mica shows much brighter colours, but 
is noticeable chiefly for in some cases containing long needle 
prisms, crossing at an angle of 60°, reminding us of the phlogopite, 
from Grand Burgess, Canada. Other minerals present are garnet 
of pinkish colour, titanite, and another mineral which does not 
often show good crystal outlines, but which we are inclined to 
refer to zircon. Of felspars, both orthoclase and triclinic are 
present, their condition fresh ; both contain flakes of mica. The 
quartz is clear, contains scattered fluid enclosures, in which, how- 
ever, no motion was detected. 

E. 2. The second specimen has the same grey colour, but is less 
distinctly foliated, the quartz being rather more in lumps ; garnets 
present in less quantity. 

The microscope shows that all the minerals of the former slide 
are present, and it is the same rock with a little different arrange- 
ment merely of components. There are the two felspars, both 
full of mica at times : the quartz over a part of the slide is very 
full of capillary crystals ; garnet, titanite, and the mineral referred 
provisionally to zircon are present. 

E. 3. The third specimen is quite a different rock in appear- 
ance ; a mixture of colourless quartz, red felspathic portions with 
chloritic veins and patches between the other materials. 

The microscope shows that it consists almost entirely of quartz 
and felspar, with in parts what we might call a pseudofelsitic arrange- 
ment of these factors ; it is traversed in numerous directions by 
strings and veins of brownish ferric matter. There are also vermi- 
form collections of clinochlore (Helminth?) The quartz is very 
dirty-looking, from the abundance of minute enclosures. It is 
evidently a clastic rock, but its alteration has resulted in a structure 
of great confusion. 

Shovel Rock. 

S. 1. Gneiss from the Shovel Bock, at the foundation of Iron- 
cased Fort, within the Plymouth Breakwater. This is a well- 
foliated rock, a typical gneiss ; in appearance and structure very 
like that from the Eddystone Rock (No. 1). The felspar is 
mostly triclinic; it encloses frequently a great number of oval 
and bar-shaped minute pale green crystals, which are probably 
mica. Both white and brown mica are present, the former being 
more abundant. Quartz layers, alternating with mica and felspar 
bands, are of the usual type. Pink garnet occurs, and may be 
seen in the rock with a hand lens. Titanite is chiefly mixed up in 
the mica layers. A well characterised gneiss. 



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THE PRINCE OF ORANGE IN EXETER, 1688. 

BY T. W. WINDKATT. 
(Read at Dawlish, July, 1881.) 



In the paper I read at the meeting of this Association at 
Totnes, on " The Landing of the Prince of Orange," founded 
mainly on Whittle's Diary, I followed the Prince on his 
march to Newton, postponing an account of bis subsequent 
proceedings in Devon to a future occasion. 

While I cannot profess to have gathered very much ad- 
ditional information, the account in Whittle's Diary is so 
complete, graphic, and interesting, and the book itself so 
scarce, that extracts from it would alone form ample material 
for another paper. 

It will be remembered that the Prince, having landed at 
Broxholme (Brixham), on Monday, November 5th (old style), 
arrived at Ford House, Nwton Abbot, on Wednesday, 7th, 
Dr. Burnet and Lord Morcfeunt, with a troop of horse, having 
gone on in advance to Exeter, to prepare for the Prince's 
advent there. They arrived at the West Gate of the city on 
the morning of Thursday, 8th. This gate had been closed by 
order of the Mayor and Aldermen, who were for the King ; 
but, as I find stated in an account* of the Prince's actions, 
published in 1690, "without barricading or fastening, so 
that being soon opened, an advance party entered, and was 
joyfully received by the inhabitants, a great many of them 
having before their coming listed themselves for the service of 
the Prince." This enlistment had been made by Captain 
Hicks, the son of Mr. John Hicks, deceased, a Nonconfor- 
mist divine, for which he had been committed to prison by 
the Mayor. The concourse of people, however, about the 
Guildhall was so great that he could not be removed there- 

* An Histvrictil Account of the Memorable Actions of the Most Glorious 
Monarch, William III., King of England, <fec London, 1690. 



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174 THE PRINCE OF ORANGE IN EXETER, 1688. 

from, so had to be kept there in the custody of two 
oonstables. Lord Mordaunt on entering the city went first 
to the Guildhall and set the captain at liberty, and finding on 
enquiry that he had been well treated by the Mayor, gave 
the attendants a guinea. 

The Bishop (Lamplough) and the Dean had both fled, and 
the Bishop's palace and the deanery being both viewed, the 
deanery was thought to be the more convenient place for the 
accommodation of the Prince, and was therefore prepared for 
his reception. The Mayor, Sir Thomas Jefford, had recently 
been knighted by King James, and had been continued in 
office for a second year by the mandate of the King, the 
charter having been purposely surrendered. * It is evident, 
from the fact of the mandate dispensing with his taking any 
oath for the execution of his office, that he was a Papist. 
Burnet and Mordaunt pressed him to meet the Prince at the 
gate, but he excused himself, and said that he was under the 
obligation of an oath to his lawful sovereign, James II., and 
hoped the Prince would lay no commands upon him pre- 
judicial to his conscience. The army proceeded to march 
from Newton to Exeter, crossing the Teign at or near Newton, 
and passing over Haldon. Whittle thus refers to the march 
of the army from Newton to Exeter, and some of its 
incidents : 

" The Army moved toward Exeter, some Regiments being at one 
Town, and some in another : And as they were marching over the 
Heath, or Common, between Newton Abbot and Exeter, about five 
miles off the City, sundry companiesrfci' young Men met them, with 
each a Club in his Hand ; and as thfcy approached near they gave 
sundry Shouts and Huzza's, saying, God bless the Prince of Orange, 
and grant him victory over all his Enemies; We are his true 
Servants, and come to fight for him as long as we are able : So we 
all bid them welcome. Here the Army passed by a Popish Lady's 
House, which was cruel to all her Protestant Tenants ; she forced 
some to turn Papists or Apostates : But had the French King's 
Army passed thus by a Protestant House, it should soon have been 
fired, the People put to the Sword, or burnt : But we have not so 
learn'd Christ, nor been thus taught by his Minsters in our Land ; 
for no Man molested this House, nor did any visit it unless a 
Captain and some Gentlemen, which would have bought themselves 
Horses there, having lost their own at Sea, and so constrained to 
walk on foot till they could supply themselves with more. 

" It must needs be acknowledged by all People that his Highness 
took special care in marching of the Army, that no Disorders should 

* Oliver's History of Exeter. 



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THE PBINCB OF ORANGE IK EXETER, 1688. 175 

be committed ; and never better Order could be kept in any Army 
than in this, as all sorts of Men confess : Kay, they told us at 
Exeter, that when we were there, the City was more quiet in the 
Night, and freer from debauched and disorderly Persons than 'twas 
before. The poor Souldiers began now to grow lame, and so 
marched slip-shod, which was irksome. " 

The "Heath or Common," referred to by Whittle, is un- 
doubtedly Haldon, and the Popish lady's house was probably 
Ugbrooke. 

The* remarks of Whittle as to the good order kept by the 
army are borne out by other authorities, and this fact is one 
which must always reflect credit on the expedition. 

The Prince, who had remained at Ford House two nights, 
arrived at Exeter, somewhat in advance of the main army, on 
Friday, November 9th, and made his entry into the city 
through the West Gate. The following is Whittle's account 
of it: 

" After the Prince of Orange had tarried two or three Nights at 
Sir Will. Courtney's, he, with a brave Train of Nobles, Knights, 
and Gentlemen to attend him, rode unto Exeter; they long'd 
much for his coming. It was a very wet and rainy Day when he 
came into Exeter with his Army. The manner of his coming into 
this City, being so glorious, was long since published, so that I 
shall not speak much about it : The Guards rode, some before and 
some behind him, with their Swords drawn, their Coluurs flying, 
Kettle-Drunis beating, and trumpets sounding joyfully, their 
Officers courteously bowing unto the People; all sorts and con- 
ditions of Men thronging on each side the Streets making great 
" Acclamations and Huzza's as the Prince passed by. The Windows 
of every House were extremely crowded and beautified ; the bells 
ringing. The Foot souldiers did not appear well, because they 
were sorely weather-beaten, and much dabled in marching in the 
Dirt and Rain, and look'd very pale and thin after such a hard 
days march which made some people conjecture that they were dull 
sluggish Men. 

" As the Prince of Orange was riding thus towards the Deanary 
through the City, attended with Mareschal Schomberg, Count 
Solms, Count Nassau, Heer Zulustein, Heer Bentein, the Earl of 
Shrewsbury, the Earl of Macclesfield, Lord Viscount Mordant, 
Lord Wiltshire, Earl of Argile, Colonel Sidney, Sir Rowland 
Guyn, and divers other Lords, Knights and Gentlemen ; Such was 
the Resolution and Desire of an old woman to see the Prince that 
she throng'd in amongst the Horse Guards, and tho she was 
divers times in Jeopardy of her Life, yet for all, says she, I will 
see him though it cost me my Life : so coming at length to him, 
she touched his Hand and said, I pray God bless you, Sir, and so 



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176 THE PRINCE OF ORANGE IN EXETER, 1688. 

was thrust away by the Guards : but as she was going from him, 
she put her Hand to her Heart and spake out aloud, Now my very 
Soul within me is the better for seeing him ; at which speech 
and humour of this Woman his Highness himself seem'd to 
smile." 

In the British Museum there is a broadside, apparently 
published at the time, entitled, " A True and Exact Eelation 
of the Prince of Orange His publick entrance into Exeter," 
which gives a detailed account of the Prince's cavalcade, and 
the order in which it entered the city. This account, with 
the exception of a few words at the commencement and at 
the close, is almost word for word the same as that given in 
the pamphlet entitled, " An account of the Expedition of His 
Highness the Prince of Orange for England," referred to in 
my previous paper, and quoted by Mr. Pengelly in his 
" Miscellaneous Devonshire Gleanings," read at the Torring- 
ton meeting, though he omits this very interesting portion of 
it. It must have been one of these papers to which Whittle 
refers, and on account of the previous publication of which 
he refrains from going more into detail, with reference to the 
manner of the Prince's entry. 

I venture therefore to set out the paper in the British 
Museum in full, as follows : 

"A TRUE AND EXACT RELATION OF THE PRINCE OF ORANGE, 

HIS PUBLICK ENTRANCE INTO EXETER. 

" Since the foundation of Monarchy, Imperial Orations or the 
triumphs of the Gmsars, in the Manner, Grandeur and magni- 
ficence of their most sumptuous cavalcades, there was never any 
that exceeded this of the most Illustrious Hero the Prince of 
Orange his Entrance into Exeter, which was in manner and form 
following : 

" 1. The Right honourable the Earl of Macclesfield with 200 
horse, the most part of which were English Gentlemen, Richly 
mounted on Flanders Steeds, manag'd and us'd to war in Head- 
pieces, Back and Brest, Bright Armour. * 

" 2. 200 Blacks brought from the plantations of the Netherlands 
in America, Imbroyder'd Caps lined with white Fur and plumes of 
white Feathers to attend the Horse. 

" 3. 200 Finlanders or Laplanders in Bear Skins taken from 
the Wild Beasts they had slain, the common Habbit of that cold 
Climat, with black Armour and Broad Flaming Swords. 

* In a MS. Treatise on Armour, written about 1792 by Thomas Barrett, a 
Manchester antiquary, it is stated that " armour was last worn in England on 
the March of the Prince of Orange to Exeter." 



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THE PRINCE OF ORANGE IN EXETER, 1688. 177 

" 4. 50 Gentlemen, and as many Pages to attend and support 
the Princes Banner, bearing this inscription god and the Protes- 
tant religion. 

" 5. 50 Led Horses all Managed and brought up to the Wars, 
with 2 Grooms to each Horse. 

"6. After these Rid the Prince on a Milk White Palfrey. 
Armed Cap a Pee. A Plume of White Feathers on his head. 
All in Bright Armour, and 42 Footmen Running by him. 

"7. After his Highness followed likewise on Horseback 200 
Gentlemen and Pages. 

" 8. 300 Switzers with Fuzies. 

" 9. 500 Voluntiers each 2 led Horses. 

" 10. His Captain and Guard 600 Armed Cap a Pee. The rest 
of the Army in the rere, his Highness with some Principal officers 
entered the Town, where they were not only Received but 
entertained with Loud Huzzas Ringing of Bells, Bonfires, and such 
acclamations of joy as the conveinence of the place, and their 
abilities cou'd afford. 

" FINIS.' 

It is stated in Blewitt's Panorama of Torquay, published 
in 1832, that the flag placed in the bow of the first barge 
in the procession at the opening of the Exeter Canal was the 
identical banner under which William landed at Brixham, it 
having become the property of a member of the Watson 
family ) who was engaged in his retinue. 

Whittle's Diary continues as follows : 

" After the Prince was come unto the Deanary, and had refreshM 
himself, with all his Lords and Gentlemen, then was he pleased to 
go and render his hearty Thanks to Almighty God in the Cathedral 
Church for his safe Arrival and the whole fleet. The People thronged 
the Streets to see him as he went, and crowded the Quire where he 
was to come very much. Now there were sundry Men with Hol- 
bards who cleared the way, besides Sentinels ; so being conducted 
to the Bishop's Seat, he sat down with about six of his Life-Guard 
men on his Right hand, and many more before him and about him 
in the Quire. As he came all along the Body of the Church the 
Organs played very sweetly, though 'twas not the right Organist 
himself, he being gone aside on purpose, as I was informed there. 
And being sat the quire began, and sung Te Deum for the save 
Arrival of the Prince of Orange and his Army in England (as also 
for his whole Fleet) : After the Collects were ended, the Reverend 
Dr. Burnet began to read the Declaration of his Highness : William 
Henry, by the Grace of God, Prince of Orange, &c. Of the Reasons 
inducing him to appear in Arms in the Kingdom of England, for 
preserving of the Protestant Religion, and for the restoring the 
Laws and Liberties of England, Scotland, and Ireland, &c. At the 

VOL. XIII. M 



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178 THE PRINCE OF ORANGE IN EXETER, 1688. 

very beginning of which Declaration the Ministers of the Church 
there present rushed immediately out of their seats, and bustled 
through all the Crowd going out of the Church ; the people remained, 
and were very attentive to the Doctor's reading, and the Declaration 
being ended, he said, God save the Prince of Orange, unto which 
the major part of the Multitude answered, Amen. So his High- 
ness return'd to the Deanary, the People echoing forth Huzza's as he 
went along. Another Evening at Service, one of the Ministers 
reading that Prayer for the pretended Prince of Wales, a certain 
Noble-Man or two being present, stood up at the same and put on 
their Hats, kneeling down to all the other Collects ; and this they 
did to demonstrate their abhorrence of it. The Right Reverend 
Bishop of this place and Diocess as soon as he learn'd (for certain) 
that the Prince of Orange was landed with an Army at Tor-Bay, in 
Devonshire, took his Coach and came up to give the late King 
James Information thereof, for which he gave him the Bishoprick 
of York. The Reverend * Dean likewise took his Coach and went 
about six or seven Miles in the Country, where he remain'd some 
days, but returned unto his own House or Deanary before the Prince 
came away; for we tarried at Exeter many days to refresh the 
Army after it had been so long x>n shipboard, and to recover the 
Horses to their former strength, as also for the Gentlemen of the 
Country thereabout to come and joyn his Highness there. The 
Train of Artillery Magazine and the whole Baggage of the Army 
was brought hither by Water ; there were one and twenty good 
Brass Pieces for the Field, divers of which were too heavy for 
those Roads, and more than sixteen Horses could draw. Arms for 
sundry thousand Men were now given out here, which we brought 
with us out of Holland. The first Sunday after the Prince was 
come unto Exeter, being Novemb. 11, the Reverend Dr. Burnet 
preached before him at the Cathedral Church in the Morning, the 
Quire and Body thereof being extreamly throng'd with People 
which came to see his Highness, some placing themselves in Seats 
by eight in the Morning. When his Highness came he was for to 
sit in the Bishop's Seat in the Body of the Church as he had done 
in the Quire before : Sundry Sentinels stood just behind him, two 
just before him, and many more in the Church-Isle ; the Doctor's 
Text was Psalm 107. 43. Whoso is wise and will observe those 
things, even they shall understand the loving Kindness of the 
Lord. The Doctor very accurately shewed the loving Kindness of 
the Lord unto the Prince of Orange, and his Fleet ; how he caused 
the Winds to turn at Tor-Bay where the whole fleet was to tack 
about to come into the Bay ; and then shew'd the upright Design 
of the Prince to promote the Glory of God, and good of his 
Church in England, Scotland, and Ireland; having ended his 
Sermon, he read the Prayer for the Expedition, and so concluded 
with the Blessing, &c. Some time was passed here before the 
* The Honourable Richard Annesley. 



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THE PKINCE OF ORANGE IN EXETER, 1688. 179 

Gentlemen of the West joyned his Highness, but when once they 
did begin to come in, then they came daily: The Mayor and 
Aldermen of the City came to visit the Prince, and were busie in 
their Consultations among themselves. The late King James we 
heard now was advanc'd as far towards us as Salisbury, with a very 
brave Army, of about thirty five thousand Men, and a prodigious 
great Train of Artillery, which made the poor Country People 
tremble. Moreover we heard, that he was fully resolved to en- 
camp his Army about Sarum, in the Plain, where he intended to 
fight us. Some of our men, being of the Van-guard were advanc'd 
as far as Wincaunton to provide Carriage, at which place there was 
a small Skirmish or Action between 26 of our Souldiers, and about 
150 of the late King's Party ; which you shall have a particular 
account of by and by. We soon received information of the 
Skirmish at Exeter : Order was now given to get Waggons to 
carry the Magazine and Baggage of the whole Army, together 
with all sorts of Utensils fit and convenient for War, and Horses 
to draw the Artillery, and for the Country People round to bring 
in their Horses to be sold at Exeter, that so the loss of our Horses 
might be made up here: According to which Order the Country 
People came daily in with their Horses to sell, and the Officers 
gave great Prices for them, because they must have them there or 
nowhere. The Souldiers were ordered to keep themselves and 
their Arms in good order, and to get everything here which they 
wanted. Much Money was laid out in this City for all sorts of 
Commodities which the Officers or Souldiers lacked. Here at first 
the People were scrupulous about the Dutch Money, and many 
Country People refused it, but were forc'd to take it, because all 
the Army had little else, but Guineas and Dutch Money. The 
People of the City began now to be more and more inclin'd 
towards our Army, and all fear almost of the other Army was 
banish'd out of their thoughts, so that they would discourse more 
freely now than at the first. The Drums beat for Volunteers, and 
every Regiment of English or Scotch which wanted any Men, was 
now compleated: The Eegiment of Sir John Guyes, and Sir 
Robert Peyton fill'd up very fast; for Men came into the City 
daily from all Parts to list themselves, insomuch that many 
Captains pick'd and chose their Souldiers. Very great crowding 
was here at the Deanary, (it being the Prince of Orange's Court) 
by all sorts of People : Many coming 20 Miles on purpose to see 
him, and all the People of the adjacent Places were waiting there 
daily ; insomuch that the Sentinels could hardly keep them out. 
The Guard was before the entrance into the Deanary, and sundry 
Sentinels two at each door. Now his Highness received Infor- 
mation, that the late King James was gone back from Sarum 
towards London, (with his whole Army) by reason of the false 
Report of some Tumult in the City, made by the Apprentices, 
which News did not in the least discompose us. The weather 

M 2 



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180 THE PRINCE OF ORANGE IN EXETER, 1688. 

being somewhat favourable, the Prince of Orange, with all his 
Lords and Gentlemen attending him, was pleased to ride and view 
the City, and Castle ; and this Day the Deanary was embroidered 
with the Officers in their Gold and Silver-Lace Coats. The 
Country People brought all sorts of Provisions in abundance 
because it yielded them Money, and went off welL 

"We heard here that our Friends were up in the North of 
England, as the Lord Delamore, Earl of Devonshire, Earl of 
Stamford, Earl of Danby, Sir Scroop How, Sir William Russel 
with divers others : By this time the Gentlemen of Somersetshire 
and Dorsetshire were coming in to join his Highness; and on 
Thursday, November 15, they waited on him at Exeter, upon 
which he was pleased to speak to them as follows : 

" ' Tho we know not all your Persons, yet we have a Catalouge 
of your Names, and remember the Character of your Worth and 
Interest in your Country. You see we are come according to your 
Invitation and our Promise. Our Duty to God obliges us to 
protect the Protestant Religion ; and our Love to Mankind, your 
Liberties and Properties. We expected you that dwelt so near the 
place of our Landing, would have join'd us sooner, not that it is 
now too late, nor that we want your Military Assistance so much 
as your Countenance and Presence, to justify our declared Pre- 
tensions, in order to accomplish our good and gracious Design. 
Tho we have brought both a good Fleet, and a good Army, to 
render these Kingdoms happy, by rescuing all Protestants from 
Popery, Slavery, and Arbitrary Power ; by restoring them to their 
Rights and Properties established by Law, and by promoting of 
Peace and Trade, which is the Soul of Government, and the very 
Life-Blood of a Nation ; yet we rely more on the Goodness of God, 
and the justice of our Cause, than on any Humane Force and 
Power whatever. Yet since God is pleased we shall make use of 
Humane means, and not expect Miracles for our Preservation and 
Happiness ; let us not neglect making use of this gracious Oppor- 
tunity, but with Prudence and Courage put in Execution our so 
honourable Purposes. Therefore, Gentlemen, Friends, and Fellow 
Protestants, we bid you and all your Followers most heartily 
Welcome to our Court and Camp. Let the whole World now 
judg, if our Pretensions are not Just, Generous, Sincere, and 
above Price since we might have even a Bridg of Gold to Return 
back ; but it is our Principle and Resolution, rather to dye in a 
Good Cause, than live in a Bad one, well knowing that Vertue 
and True Honour is its own Reward, and the Happiness of Man- 
kind Our Great and Only Design/" 

It was after this interview with the Prince that, at the 
suggestion of Seymour, the country gentlemen of Devon 
formed themselves into an association, and publicly and 



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THE PRINCE OF ORANGE IN EXETER, 1688. 181 

formally pledged themselves to the Prince's cause by signing 
a declaration drawn up by Burnet. 

The following is a copy of the declaration from one in my 
own possession, purporting to have been " printed at Exon in 
1688:" 

"The General 

ASSOCIATION, 

Of the Gentlemen of Devon, to his Highnefs 

THE 

Prince of Orange. 

We Whofe Names are hereunto Subfcribed who have now joyned 
with the Prince of Orange, for the Defence of the Proteftant 
Religion, and for maintaining the Antient Government, Laws and 
Liberties of England, Scotland, and Ireland, do ingage in 
Almighty God, to his Highnefs the Prince of Orange; and to 
one another, to ftick firm to this Caufe, and to one another, in 
the Defence of it ; and never to depart from it, until our Religion, 
Laws, and Liberties are so far fecured to us, in our Free Parlia- 
ment; that we shall be no more in danger of falling under 
Popery and Slavery: And as we are Ingaged in this common 
caufe, under the Protection of the Prince of Orange; by which 
means his Perfon may be expofed to Dangers, and Defperate, 
and Curfed Attempts of Papifts and other Bloody Men ; we do 
therefore Solemnly Ingage both to God and one another ; that if 
any fuch Attempts are made upon him, we will purfue not only 
thofe who make them, but all their Adherents, and all that we 
find in Arms against us, with the utmost Severity of a juft 
Revenge to their Ruin and Destruction ; and that Execution of 
fuch attempts, which God of his Mercy forbid, shall not prevent 
us from Profecuting this Caufe, which we now undertake, but 
that it shall ingage us to carry it on, with all the Vigor that fo 
Barbarous a Practice f hall deferve." 

Whittle continues : 

" The late King James coming up towards London, the Regi- 
ment of Dragoons belonging to Lord Cornbury came away from 
him to join the Prince of Orange, and the Lord Cornbury with 
many other Lords, Knights, and Gentlemen, came unto Exeter, and 
attended on his Highness, which made all the Army to rejoice. 
The Prince rode about five miles out of Exeter, to view some new 
Regiment of Horse which were just come into His Service. He 
gave the Officers and Souldiers a courteous Reception, and made a 
Speech unto them, upon which the whole Regiment shouted and 
Huzzad for Joy." 



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182 THE PRINCE OF ORANGE IN EXETER, 1688. 

In the Seventh Keport of the Historical Manuscripts 
Commission, there is published a letter from Exon referring 
to the Prince's visit to the troops, and containing a list of 
some of those who had joined the Prince. Among them we 
recognize names of men whose descendants still hold a 
leading position in the county. It is noticeable that in this 
list occurs the name of Mr. Roope, whom I stated in my 
first paper to have been by his own account the first to join 
the Prince. The fact that the name of the Dean also occurs 
there confirms Whittle's statement of his having returned to 
the deanery. 

The following is a copy of this letter : 

"1688 Nov. 21st. 
" To Mr. Richard Musgrave, at the Chancery Office in Chancery 
Lane. 

" Saturday last the Prince went 8 miles to view the Lord 
Cornbury's and the other Troops which came to him, and ordered 
them their pay, which is in arrear, and a month's advance. This 
morning his Highness marched towards Salisbury; the baggage 
and artillery marched yesterday. Our town hath been full of 
gentlemen from many counties ; Dorset and Somerset came in very 
briskly. Most of ours have offered their service to his Highness. 
They are provided with all things that can be useful in such an 
expedition in abundance, especially with the sinews of war. Coll. 
Lutterell hath a regiment, which is to be here with some others ; 
Mr. Sp. Seamor another, and is one of the Council. Since you 
desire a list, take it in part as underneath : the Prince being gone 
there 's little more at this time. E. of Abbington, £. of 
Montrose, Capt Burrington, Major Northcote, Mr. Edm Cary, 
Mr. ffulford, Mr. Lee, Sir William Drake, ffr. Drake, Capt. 
Cholwick, Dean of Exeter, Mr. Beavis, Coll. Port, Mr. Elwill, 
Capt. Martyn, Capt. D. Rolle, Mr. Northleigh, Sir Wm. Portman, 
ColL Lutter[ell] and his brother, Major Palmer, Mr. Speak. 
Seamor, Mr. Th. Seamor, Capt. Rodd, Mr. Hatton Compton, 
Capt. Brewer, Mr. Row, Mr. Wharton, Mr. Russell, ColL Bamp- 
field, ColL Tho. Wyndham, and his son, Capt. Est, Sir J. Fowell, 
ColL Rolle, Mr. Champernown, ColL Cooke, Sir Tho. Lear, Mr. 
Stawell, Mr. Mallett, Capt. Tydecomb, Capt. Braddon, Sir Rob. 
Pye's son, Sir Rob. Peyton, Mr. Geo. Courteny, Sir fir. Northcote, 
Mr. Roope, Coll. Godfry, Capt Osbourn, Capt. Hooper, Capt 
Colman, Sir P. Prideaux, Sir B. Wray, Sir H. Carew, cum multis 
dMa." 

(Endorsed by Tempest A letter from Exon containing a 
list of several in the Prince of Orange's army.) 

Accompanying the Prince there were doubtless also many 



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THE PBINCE OF ORANGE IN EXETER, 1688. 183 

English Protestants who had fled from England owing to 
the persecutions, and returned again in his fleet Among 
these was one Robert Hodge or Hodges, a physician, who 
with his brother Elaxander, had sought a refuge in Protestant 
Holland. Robert Hodge had studied in Holland, and been 
employed as a physician about the Court, and is said to have 
come over in the same ship with the Prince. He doubtless 
must have felt a peculiar interest in the old city and its 
neighbourhood; for from the Church of St. Thomas his brother 
had been ejected in 1662. A lady resident at Ashburton, 
descended from another brother, has large portraits of three 
of the family, two of them being those of Elaxander and 
Eobert In the latter portrait is a sea view in the back- 
ground, with ships and land in the distance, with a town on 
the sea-shore, which resembles Torbay, and a church with a 
square tower. The lady has some pieces of old Dutch 
china, supposed to have been brought over at this time by 
Eobert Hodge. 

There are several other letters set out in the same report 
of the Commission, more or less interesting, and confirmatory 
of the facts stated by Whittle. To set them all out would 
occupy too much space, I therefore quote the following only, 
which is too interesting to be passed over : 

" 1688, Nov. 17th. Letter from Exon. The Prince hath ap- 
pointed Commissioners for the managing the revenue which are 
my Lord Wiltshire, Mr. Herbert, and Mr. Roe. Yesterday they 
collected the monthly duty of excise for this city and say they will 
have the whole revenue. They have been with me about ours 
and said they would have all the money that was received here, 
but I being a Deputy, and Mr. Parsons wanting, Mrs. Parsons hath 
persuaded Mr. Roe, (who is her kinsman) to suspend the matter till 
Mr. Parsons comes home, she having sent for him. The Prince is 
gone this morning to Ottery with a great number of English and 
foreign noblemen and gentlemen to view some of my Lord 
Cornbury's dragoons, and some horse of my Lord of Oxfords, who 
are come to his assistance, and returns at night. Several gentlemen 
of the county come in every day to him ; but our magistrates are 
suspended during the Prince's stay here, they not complying with 
him. The army is so great that I am told Sir William Waller's 
regiment, that was almost full of new raised men is disbanded. 
Some time next week the Prince marches from hence, but will 
leave two or three regiments here." 

The next portion of Whittle's Diary is interesting, on 
account of its referring to a personal incident 



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184 THE PRINCE OF ORANGE IN EXETER, 1688. 

"I preached at St. Canon's Church in Exeter, November 18. 
My Text being in Isa. viii, 12, 13, 14. Neither fear ye their fear, 
nor be afraid. Sanctify the Lord of Hosts himself, and let him 
be your fear, and let him be your dread, and he shall be for a 
Sanctuary. Now the Church Wardens of this Parish, altho there 
was no Minister to preach, were unwilling to give the keys (because 
they were no true friends of our good cause) insomuch that I was 
forc'd to threaten them for their great rudeness. The Clerk of the 
Parish going along with me the Day before for the Key, one of the 
Church Wardens very rudely broke his Head in Sundry places, for 
which intolerable Action I immediately had him brought before 
the Honourable Colonel Cutts for this bold Fact, who upon a due 
submission and acknowledgment of his faults, dismissed him with 
a sharp reprehension. For Modesty-sake I conceal his name, 
hoping that he's reformed with the Times." 

Whittle, after referring to the news that King James had 
returned to Sarum, with a view of giving battle, continues : 

" The Army being now well refreshed, and one Man as good as 
two when we were at Torbay, Order was given for the Army to 
march in three Lines : The first Line march'd out of the City as far 
as St Mary Ottrie, and were quartered in and near that Place: 
The next day the second Line march'd forth of Exeter to the same 
place, and the first Line advanc'd to Axminster : The third Day 
the last line march'd, as before, to St. Mary Ottrie, the first Line 
advancing some to Beminster, and some to Crookhorn, the second 
to Axminster and the adjacent towns ; and the Regiments march'd 
some one road and some another ; as the first Line advanced, so 
the whole Army moved, which was according to the Motion of our 
great Master : For when he remained any where, then did the 
whole Army abide in the same Quarters. The City of Exeter was 
now freed of all its Souldiers, only the Regiment of Sir John 
Quyes (which was new raised) was order'd to keep the City, and he 
made Governour thereof. Now many Oxen being brought into 
this town to draw the Artillery, and many Horses being come to 
carry the Ammunition, and all things necessary for War appertain- 
ing to our whole Army; we then were soon on the March; A 
Captain with some other Officers and about a hundred Men, came 
along with it to guard it Here at Exeter was a certain Person 
kept in custody some Days, for speaking very threatening Words 
against his Higness the Prince of Orange ; but within a while was 
released. Another was apprehended for a Spy because he said he 
had a Commission from the late K. James to go into any Man's 
House, to search for Goods : This Man was also accused for 
stealing about ten pound from the People of the House where he 
lodged, but no money could be found about him, whereupon he also 
was dismissed in few Days. I suppose our Army was now in 



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THE PRINCE OF ORANGE IN EXETER, 1688. 185 

Circumference between 20 and 30 Miles. The Prince with all his 
Lords, Knights, and Gentlemen attending him rode from Exeter 
unto St. Mary Ottrie; the Weather was very Eainy, and the 
Roads bad for Marching; however we had time enough, for our 
Stages were not far distant one from the other : The Places where 
we Quarter'd were scarce able to receive us, insomuch that every 
House was crowded. n 

The remainder of the Diary, though very interesting, 
refers to what transpired after the Prince and his army had 
passed beyond this county. 



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THE SHIPPING AND COMMERCE OF DARTMOUTH 
IN THE REIGN OF RICHARD II. 

BT PAUL Q. KARKBKK. 
(BMd at Dawliah, July, 1881.) 



Among the many valuables in that vast collection of treasures, 
the Record Office, is a series of Rolls extending from Edward 
L to James I., which give the returns of the officers appointed 
to collect the customs at the various ports. By the kind 
assistance of Mr. Walford Selby, and Mr. J. H. Greenstreet, 
I have become possessed of accurate copies of such rolls as 
relate to Dartmouth during the early part of the reign of 
Richard II. The reprinting of these intact would be a rather 
bulky contribution to the pages of the Devonshire Association, 
and I shall therefore content myself with extracts only. 

These Rolls are among the so-called "Ancient Miscellanea" 
of the Queen's Remembrancer's side of the Exchequer. 
Generally the information contained is the class and name 
of the vessel, the name of the master, the date of the sailing, 
and the description of such portions of the cargo as were 
liable to duty. 

There was a great variety of ships in use at this period, 
and some of the species are not now easy to recognise. In 
these lists the following are to be found, "Navis," "Cog," 
" Barge" "Craiera," " Trygo," " Batell," "Carvela," "Balingera," 
and " Scapho." Even when these terms are employed, the name 
of the ship sometimes implies a contradiction of the recorder's 
accuracy, or knowledge of nautical matters. For instance, in 
^ is the following: in the column where the species of 
vessel is given is the word " Balingera," and in that for the 
name, is " Seint Mary Cogge." Now it is very evident that 
the owner believed his vessel to be a Cog or Cogge, but the 
government officer describes her as a Balinger; thus con- 
founding two distinct varieties of vessels. 

The Cog, or Cogge, was the first-class vessel of the 14*th 
century, and was sometimes as much as 200 tons burden ; 



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THE SHIPPING AND COMMERCE OF DARTMOUTH. 187 

nearly round in shape, having very broad bow and stern, 
somewhat resembling a cockle-shell, from which the word 
cog is supposed to be derived. The Barge was a small 
edition of the Cog. The Navis, or Nef, was a small coaster. 
The Craiera, or Crayer, was a small trading vessel of between 
30 and 60 tons burden. The Trygo, or Trier, is supposed to 
have been a miniature of the Genoese Carack, which was a 
large vessel but little known in these waters until later in 
the 15th century. The word Trier is said to be a corruption of 
Trireme. The Batell resembled a large boat more than a ship. 
The build of the Carvela at this period is somewhat uncertain, 
but it was probably the original and predecessor of the 
Caravella, such as Columbus sailed in on his celebrated 
voyage of discovery. The Balinger was about the same size 
as a barge, it had a rounded bow, a high built stern, and 
bulging sides. All that is known of the Scaffa or Scapha is 
that it was very long in proportion to its breadth. 

The names given to the ships do not show that variety 
which might be expected. In one list of thirteen entries 
there are no less than three " Christophers," two of which 
were Crayers and one a Barge. In the same list were also 
three "Marys," and all apparently of the same class. Among 
the names are "Trinitie," "Kobynet" "Jovet," "Clere" 
"Welfare," "Johan," "Alianore," "Michiel," "Seinte Marie," 
"Katerine," "Bartholomew," "Mary Ffitzwaryn," "Mary sauns 
"Pere," "Nicholas," "Mary Bower," "Alisot," "George," 
"Margerete," "Leonard," "Elizabeth," "Elinor," "Lydenard," 
" Peter," " Chenawe," and " Magdeleine." 

In the paper on the "Early History of Dartmouth," 
contributed by me to the Transactions of the Devonshire 
Association, 1880, allusion was made to the description by 
Chaucer of the Dartmouth Shipman — 

" Hig barge y-cleped was the Maudelayne." 

Among the names of the vessels in these lists are two 
Magdeleines. Both are described as Navis, or Nef, and there 
is every reason to believe that the Nef was a small coasting 
vessel. The original "Maudelayne" was a barge; one cal- 
culated to go such expeditions as Chaucer's Shipman is 
described as making. Too much importance must not be 
ascribed to the description of vessels in these government 
returns, as has already been pointed out in the case of " St. 
Mary Cogge," which is described as a Balinger. If therefore, 
there had been only one " Magdeleine," or " Maudelayne," we 
might have jumped to the conclusion that this was a mistake 



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188 THE SHIPPING AND COMMERCE OF DARTMOUTH 

in the description only. It is of course possible that this 
" Magdeleine," which is entered in the second and ninth years 
of Richard II., may have been one and the same ship, and 
that between the two dates she may have changed owners. 

If this is to be taken as a solution of the difficulty, then 
either George Coventre or Peter Eisshenden — the names of 
the masters in the two entries — may have been the Dart- 
mouth Shipman who rode a pilgrimage to Canterbury with 
the thirty-one companions, whose portraits are shewn in 
that famous gallery of speaking likenesses — the Prologue to 
the Canterbury Tales. 

- The entries in respect to the cargoes simply relate to those 
portions only which were liable to duty. This is evident from 
the fact that some vessels are recorded as paying on such 
small quantities as four and six pieces of cloth, which by 
themselves would be but small shipments. The King had 
the right to levy a tax on wool, but his officers argued that 
the King ought to have the same from cloth made in the 
kingdom and exported, as from wool exported, according to 
the total amount of cloth made from a sack of wooL This 
was eventually fixed by Parliament at sixpence per pound 
on the value of the cloth exported. (Stat. 2, 5 Rich. II. c. 3.) 
Some of the entries relating to the payment of this tax 
appears as follows. No. ¥i* A* 8. (Rich. II.) 

Carvela, "le Mary Ffitzwaryn," Walter Cok, sailed 24 Nov. 

pro 15 pann' alb' strict' 17s. 6d. 

Carvela, "le Mary sauns pere," John Harrye, sailed 24 Nov. 

pro 18 pann' alb' strict' 18s. 8d. 

pro 5 „ „ „ 9s. 4<L 
Navis, "le Trinite," Walter Culvercock, sailed 13 Jan. 

pro 10 pann lat sine color lis. 8d. 
Navis, " le Mary," Roger Abraham, sailed 3 Jan. 

pro 15 pann' strict 17s. 6d. 

The word pann', or pannus, cloth, is sometimes qualified 
by adjectives, and on some rolls these are quite omitted. 
The various sorts of pannus, or cloth, mentioned in these 
rolls are — 

pro 4 pann' alb' strict' . . white, stretched. 

pro 4 pann' russett . . . dingy brown. 

pro 1 pann' de kersey 

pro 3 pann' strict' color sine . stretched, but not dyed. 

pro 12 pann' lat' . . . latus = broad. 

pro 6 pann' sine g d no 

pro panno' de blankett 

pro pann' de Galeys . . . Welsh flannel 



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IN THE BEIGN OF RICHABD II. 189 

Most rulers have from time to time endeavoured to fill 
their exchequers by taxing that necessary of life, common 
salt ; Richard II. was no exception to this rule. 

pro 15 charges Sal . . . vaL £5 

A Charge of Salt was some mode of measurement, query 
Load. 
. Fish seems to have contributed to the revenue, for instance, 
pro j last allec' alb . . . vaL 30s. 

One last (twelve barrel, or 20,000, Halliwell) of White 
Herrings. 

pro ij m de Brodefysshe . . value £20 

What these two thousand Brode or Broadfish were, is not 
easy to say, perhaps Hay; they certainly were not Hakes, as 
the following entry in the same list testifies — 

pro vijc. Hakes . . . value 46s. 8d. 

These entries of 2000 Brodefysshe and 700 Hakes testify 
to what was probably an important industry having died 
out. The fish must have been salted, smoked, sun-dried, or 
otherwise preserved ; and certainly there is but little done in 
the way of fish-curing in Dartmouth now. In the days 
when the fasts of the Church were rigidly observed, there 
was a large demand for cured fish; indeed most of the 
pilchards caught and cured on the Cornish coast to day are 
exported to and consumed by the Roman Catholic nations 
on the shores of the Mediterranean, and the market was 
much more extensive prior to the Reformation. 

Other articles of food, beside fish, were taxed. 

Pro figes & Raisons . . . val 33s. 4d. 

pro fabis (broad beans) . . val 13s. 4d. 

pro 1 dol' fab' . . . val 13s. 4d. 

This seems to imply that the beans were either packed in 
barrels (dol' = dolium, a tim, or barrel) or had been measured. 
If we consider that the real value of 13/4 at this period was 
probably eight to ten times as much, then we must conclude 
that beans were very dear in those days. 

Wine, of course, was liable to duty then as now, and a 
special subsidy was raised on its importation, and entered on 
the rolls as distinct from the ordinary customs levied. 

Here is one ship's cargo in wine. 

Pro 15 dol 7 vini . . . (subsidy) 45s. 

„ 15 „ „ . . „ 458. 

i*o„„. . . ,, loS. 



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190 THE SHIPPING AND COMMERCE OF DARTMOUTH. 



Pro 3 dol & 1 pip vini 
„ 18 doliis vini . 
„ 12 dol' & 1 pip vini 



(subsidy) 



10a 6d. 
54s. 
37s. 6d. 



Three shillings a tun on all wines, irrespective of quality, 
good, bad, or indifferent ; a very simple method, but some- 
what unfair. 

In 1390, Dartmouth was the port from which all the tin 
raised in the country was shipped, but this absurd arrangement 
had expired prior to the period to which these records relate. 
It still was convenient for some mining districts, doubtless 
those on Dartmoor, to send their produce to Dartmouth for 
shipment In Vtf An. 2-3 Rich. II. are the following entries : 



„ 3o 


IttUUi IJ 

» 


*> • 


vtuuu 
• n 


£3 


„ 2o 


>» 


» • 


» 


40s. 


„ 4c 


» 


»* • ■ 


• » 


£4 


„ 1 M 


>» 


>» • • 


91 


£10 


„ 5o 


it 


>» • « 


• ft 


£5 



In S^ the record of tin exported is made somewhat 
differently. 

pro 10 pecis stanni . . . pecis=peciis or pieces. 

I can find no clue to the word griddl; doubtless it means 
the shapes or blocks into which the tin was run after it had 
been smelted ; in the second quotation from V^ they are 
simply described as pieces. 

There is only one mention of lead ; viz., *tf • 

pro 8 o Plumbi : val £8. Eight hundredweight of lead. 

In the same roll is the following — 

pro 1 o de pewtr' vesselT val 20s. Pewter vessels. 

In V** is the following allusion to iron — 

pro ferro . . val £16 

„ £8 



ti 



„ £8 

„ 106s. 8<L 

„ 53s. 4d. 

„ £4 

The only entries of interest remaining to be noted are — 
pro 8 duoden' pell' vitulanor' . . val 26s. 8d. 

8 duodenis pellium vitulanorum = 8 doz. calves skins, 
pro 2 tables de Alabast' val 40s. Alabaster. 



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DEVONIANA. 
Past I. 

BY J. T. WHITE. 
(Bead at Dawlisb, July, 1881.) 



Under this title I venture to offer the following notes for the 
Transactions of the Devonshire Association for the Advance- 
ment of literature, Science, and Art. In the first I have 
endeavoured to show that a tradition current at Paignton, 
relating to Miles Coverdale, Bishop of Exeter, is unsupported 
by reliable testimony. The second relates to the domestic 
economy of Torwood Grange, a manor house that existed in 
Torquay several years ago, but about which very little is 
known beyond the fact that it was the residence of the 
Ridgeways, one of whom, the first Earl of Londonderry, was 
born in it. 

I. Did Miles Coverdale Translate the Scriptures at 
Paignton ? 

It would be rank heresy to answer this question in the 
negative in the presence of some of the inhabitants of Paign- 
ton, where it is firmly believed that not only did Miles Cover- 
dale, Bishop of Exeter, live at the Episcopal Palace, the remains 
of which still exist in that town, but that in it he undertook 
the translation of the Scriptures. It is useless to explain to 
such people that the story is erroneous, for they say, " It has 
been handed down by tradition, and therefore must be true." 
Those who have read the chronicles of the Reformation are 
aware that the so-called " tradition " has no warrant what- 
ever, and it might be passed over unnoticed were it confined 
only to village gossip. But unfortunately it is gravely stated 
in the London papers from time to time, and, as a consequence, 



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192 DEVONIANA. 

many visitors to Torquay make a pilgrimage to the spot 
where the good bishop is supposed to have done such excel- 
lent work. Only last year, one of the London high-class 
weeklies, in a leaderette, referring to the visit of the Prince 
of Wales during the Torbay Regatta, said :— " The Prince 
slept on board his yacht, which was anchored within sight 
and almost beneath the shadow of the Palace tower where 
Miles Coverdale translated the Scriptures." Under these 
circumstances it may, perhaps, be allowable to set forth, how- 
ever briefly, a few facts showing the entire absence of ground- 
work for such a tradition. 

Miles Coverdale was born (1487) in Yorkshire. His con- 
version to the reformed faith took place about 1530. Owing 
to his attachment to the principles of the Reformation, he was 
compelled to take refuge in Germany, where, it is said, he 
assisted Tindal in his translation of the Bible ; but this has 
been questioned. Tindal suffered martyrdom, but Coverdale 
followed up the object in pursuit of which his colleague had 
surrendered his life, and in 1534 the translation was not only 
completed, but was dedicated to Henry VIII. When Edward 
VI. ascended the throne, Miles Coverdale returned to England, 
and having been appointed chaplain to his patron, Lord 
Russell, he accompanied that nobleman in his expedition 
(1549) to the West for the suppression of the rebels in 
Devon. This service did not last many weeks. We know 
from the public records the route Lord Russell's force took, 
and at no time did it approach this part of the county. For 
his piety and zeal, Miles Coverdale was raised to the see of 
Exeter in 1550, when he was at least 63 years of age. The 
bishop had been in office less than three years when Mary 
came to the throne. Coverdale was imprisoned ; his life was 
threatened ; indeed, it was only by the intercession of the 
King of Denmark that, after two years' confinement, he was 
permitted to go into exile. He retired to Geneva, where he 
was soon busy at work in aiding other English refugees in 
producing the Geneva Bible, which made its appearance in 
1560. 

It is a question whether Miles Coverdale ever visited 
Paignton. He occupied the see less than three years ; the 
times were troublous ; there were few facilities for travelling ; 
it therefore appears unlikely that the bishop, at the age of 
63, visited this portion of his diocese ; for at that time the 
only means of travelling was by horse or mule. 

Again, the probability is that the Bishop's Palace did not 
at that time belong to the Bishops of Exeter, because we 



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DBVONIANA. 193 

know that Bishop Coverdale's predecessor, Bishop Voisey, 
kept such great state that he wasted the revenues of the 
diocese. " Out of twenty-five lordships and manors, enjoyed 
and left by his predecessors, of great yearly income, he left 
but three, and these leased out; of fourteen houses, well 
furnished, and the demesnes well stocked with cattle, deer, 
&c., he left to his successor only one, and that plundered of 
its furniture and charged with several annuities." This 
solitary house is understood to be the Palace at Exeter. In 
the Antiquarian Itinerary, vol. v. [ed. 1817], there is a 
notice of the Bishop's .Palace at Paignton, in which this 
passage occurs : — " Tradition, as well as history, is silent as 
far as respects the last bishop who lived here." 

In the above an endeavour has been made, very shortly, 
to proved — 

1. That Coverdale's translation of the Bible (a great 
portion of* which was TindaTs work) was completed before 
he was made Bishop of Exeter, during his first exile, and 
therefore could not have been accomplished at Paignton. 

2. That his later translations were made after his depo- 
sition, and during his second exile. 

3. The extreme improbability of his ever having visited 
Paignton. 

It may be remembered that the Rev. Treasurer Hawker 
read an excellent paper on Miles Coverdale at the Paignton 
Meeting of this Association, in 1878, but very little was said 
with regard to the bishop's connection with Paignton. 
Perhaps some member of the Devonshire Association who 
has the privilege of access to the archives of Exeter Cathe- 
dral may be able to throw further light on the subject 

II. Torwood Grange. 

About forty years ago there stood a large building, known 
as Torwood Grange, on an eminence in the Babbacombe Road, 
Torquay. It was at one time the residence of the Ridge- 
ways, the lords of the manor of Tormohun. One of these, 
Thomas Ridgeway, was knighted in 1600, was created a 
baronet in 1612, a baron in 1616, and Earl of Londonderry 
in 1622. The Grange, together with the rest of the pro- 
perty, passed into the hands of the Earl of Donegal, on his 
marriage with Lucy, the heiress of the last of the London- 
derrys ; and after his death the building was used as a farm- 
house. There is very little known of the house, or of the 

VOL. XIII. N 



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19* 



DEVONIAN A. 



home-life of the Ridgeways while they were there; but 
possibly the following fragment, narrating certain domestic 
economies during the last days that the Ridgeways held the 
property, will interest many of the members of this Asso- 
ciation. The original is a quaint old document, covering 
both sides of four sheets of letter paper (sixteen pages) 
closely written. It was brought to light in a curious manner. 
Several years ago a solicitor had occasion to clear out a box 
which contained old deeds, letters, aud other papers, some 
of which related to Torwood Grange. The deeds were pre- 
served, but the " old letters " and papers were thrown aside 
as worthless. Amongst these presumedly worthless papers 
was the document referred to. Mr. S. Johnson, of Torquay, 
seeing that it possessed a local interest, asked that he might 
preserve it, and it is now in his possession.* 

"An Account of John Blotch for disboursments since he made 
up his last account with my Lord London Derry. 1712. 

for a Shoulder of Mutton 
for a Leg of Mutton 
for Bacon 

for mending A Wanning pan 
for Seven hogsheads of Cyder drankt att Tor- 
wood during my L^ stay there 
for a Man and two horse's when my L d went away 
for a Letter from my L d 
for Letters to my L d after he was gone . 
for the Land Tax for the mills 
for A Letter from Mr Holwell 
for A Letter from my L d 
for Charges when M r Holwell was att Torwood 
for Sendeing my Son to Plymouth 
p d Mary Blatch by my L d order 
p d the Window Tax 

p d Margaret & Betty Blatch by my L d order 
A Letter from my L d 
for Nailes for the Windmill . 
p d Dearing for 2 Dayes worke on foxes house 
for drawing a tree to the Windmill 
A Letter from Mr. Manscome 
Charges when Mr. King was at Torwood 
A Letter from my L d 
Renewing the Bounds 
pay 4 Mr. Cowell for making the Windmill Sailes 

* Since the above was written, Mr. Johnson has presented the original 
document to the Torquay Natural History Society. 



. 


1 


2 


. 


1 


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. 





8 


. 





11 


. 7 








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. 





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. 





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DBVONUNA. 



195 



p d for glazing the Windows of the Windmill 

A Letter from my L d 

October — Mr. Holwell was at Torwood Charges 

October — my Son went to Plymouth 

A quarter of a : 100 : of Reed by order for 

Job: Dining 
Halfe A Quarter for Ann ffoxes house 
Michlemas Court Charges 
Lime and Nailes for the Windmill 
Nailes & Worke on Ann ffoxes house 
Swifts for the Barnes Doore . 
halfe a: 100: of Nailes 
p d Mr. Baker for his help to carry the beds to 

Sarcross 
for my horses and Labor about the Beds 
three: 100: of Lafts 
for fore hogsheads of Lime 
for A Hooke for the Barnes Doore 
for mending the Key of my L d Chamber doore 
A Letter from my L d 

p d for fetching of Stones for the Garden wall 
p d for Nailes and mending the Gate 
A Letter from M r Holwell 
p d for Lafts & Nailes 
p d Ann ffox for keepeing the oar 
payed to the Land tax for the Yeare: 1712 

due the 25 of March 1713 
payed to the Window Tax: 1712 
the Church & poore Bates: 1712 
for Blatch Sallary for gott is put under . 

For the Year 1713. 

Charges at the Court 

p* 1 to Margaret ffox for keeping the ore 

for carrying timber to the Windmill 

for Six: 100: of Lafts & Nailes 

for making A Doore to Coles Sellar 

A Letter from my L d 

for Carrying twenty pounds to Darth mo 

for Rideing twise to Bogams . 

p4 for Nailes & Spooks 

p d for fetching the Spooks & Nailes from Exon 

p d for 6 : Hogsheads & A halfe of Lime 

A Letter from M r Holwell . 

for Renewing the Bounds 

A Letter from my L d 

p d to Tho: Jeffryes for the Barnes floore 

Sending A Letter to my L d . 

N 2 



02 
01 
05 
12 



05 
02 
16 
02 
02 
00 10 
00 8 








03 
18 
03 
16 
00 
00 



00 10 



02 
00 



00 10 



01 
05 



10 18 

01 10 
07 03 4 

02 00 



17 
05 
01 
10 
03 



00 10 
02 



04 
09 
05 
18 
00 




9 

6 
6 

10 
00 10 
13 
00 2 



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196 



DBVONIANA. 



Charges att Michlemas Coart . 

for halfe 100: of board nailes 

for M r Clarke & his horse 

for three: 1000: Laft Nailes . 

for three: 1000: Laft Nailes . 

for A: 100: Board Nailes 

for two bushells of hair & fetching 

for halfe: 100: board Nailes • 

for : 1000 Lafte nailes 

A Letter from my Lord 

for two Locks & Keys 

for halfe : 100 : Board Nailes 

for 2000 : & A Quarter of Laft Nailes 

for Mr Kings Clarke 

A Letter from my L d 

for drawing of Timber for the house 

for one hogshead & halfe of Lime 

p d for pantils & fetching 

p d Bouchers for Slats 

for ploughing for my L d trees 

p d for making the pigs house doores 

lor Sending A Letter to my L d 

March 2 th for glazeing the Windows 

for making the lafts 

p d Tho. Jeflryes for Selling the Timber 

for carrying my L d Survey books to Exon 

A Letter from my L d 

p d Tho : Jeflryes for building the house 

p d the mason in parte • 

ReC 1 three Letters from my Ladye 

for Four hogsheads of Cyder . 

p d for 22000 of Slatts 

for fetching Sand & water for the house 

for one to Cleare the Rubble 

p4 Walter Dealing for Heyling the Bruehouse 

for one : 1000 : stones 

payed to the Land Tax for the Tear 1713 due the 

25 : of March 17U 
payed to the Window Tax 1713 
the Church and poor Rates : 1713 
my Sallary 

For the Year 17 U 
p d Tho. JefFrye8 for Laying the Barns floore 
p d him more for takeing up the Seats for my L d 

burying . - . 

October the 28 p d Walt Dearing for Healing . 
p d margaret flfox for keeping the ore . 



18 


6 


00 


8 


14 


6 


03 


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01 


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01 


7 


00 


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01 


3 


00 


10 


01 


6 


00 


8 


03 





01 





00 


10 


3 10 





04 


6 


14 


6 


1 08 





02 


8 


09 





00 


2 


06 





1 10 





15 





03 








10 


13 





01 04 





00 02 


6 


05 00 





08 05 





03 


6 


02 


6 


03 02 


6 


00 08 





05 09 





01 10 





05 17 


5 


02 00 






1 04 

04 8 

7 04 6 

05 



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DEVONIANA. 



197 



19 
15 00 
06 
18 
03 



April the 29 th Charges for the Court . . . 1 01 6 

two letters from my Ladye . . . . 01 8 

for Renewing the Bounds . . . 10 

p d the Glazer in parte . . . 08 

A Letter from my Ladye . . . 00 10 

p d Hydon the mason . . . . 2 00 

Charges att the Court October the : 25 : 

p d M r King October 25 ... 

p d for Laf ts <fe Nailes & Lock & Key . 

p d for : 6 : hogsheads of Lime 

for fetching Water & Sand . ... 

for : 1000 : & Quarter of board nailes } 100 hatch 

nails . . . . . . 02 

for : 3000 : of Lefts nailes . . . . 03 9 

p d Philip Stooke for Iron Work . . . 06 4 

A Letter from M r Holwell . . . . 00 6 

p d the Glazer in part . . . 1 12 11 

p d Tho: Jeffryes for Staning A Ladder . . 02 6 

payed to the Land Tax for the Yeare 1714 due the 

25 of March 1715 . . . . 5 09 

payed the Window Tax 1714 . . . 1 10 

the Church & poor Rates : 1714 . . .9112 

my Sallary . . . . 2 00 

For the Tear 1716 : 

p d Taylor the Glazier in part . . . 12 

Charges at Michlemas Coart . • » , 17 6 

for the Survey att Torwood for Vitreys Estate . 15 6 

p d the Poor fcate for y 6 mills . . .0128 

for two men to mend the mill hedge . • • 02 

A Letter from my Ladye . . . 00 10 

for carrying Jeffry Bickforde Leas to Mr. Holwells . 02 6 

for carrying Timber to Torkey . . . 01 6 

for carrying the Becits to be sent to London . . 02 6 

A Letter from M r Holwell . . . 00 6 

for A hogshead of Lime . . . 02 6 

for halfe 1000 of Laft Nailes . . . 00 8 

for one Hogshead & halfe of lime . . . 03 9 

for two hogshead of Cyder to London . . . 2 00 

A Letter from my Ladye . . . 00 10 

for : 2000 : Laft nailes . . . . 02 8 

flfeb. m r Holwell was at Torwood Charges . • 12 

for drawing of Stones to the Water Mil . . 10 

for a Line for the Jack . . . 01 8 

for 7 Lobsters att the Court . . . . 03 8 

p d for Glazing the Windows . . . 2 03 3J 

p d for hookes and swifts for the pigs loose door . 01 

A Letter from my Ladye . . . . 00 10 



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198 



DEV0N1ANA. 



payed to the Land Tax for the year 1718 due the 25 

of March 1716 . . . 

payed to the Window Tax 1715 
the Church and poore Rates 1718 
my Sallary . . . 

For the Yeare 1716 

p d for carryage of the box from London to Exon 

for fetching the box from Exon 

p* Will m Baker the miller for 2 days worke . 

for A man & horse to carry freth 

for A man one day . ... 

To the mason for one day Ripping stones for the Stable 

for two Load of Straw to make Cob for the stable to the 

mill . . 

for A man & A horse to Cary Earth to y 6 Stable 
p d for two Letters brought to Tor Abby for m r Holwell 
April 27 th Court Charges 
p* margaret ffox . 
two pounds of Wooll for the mill 
p d for : 1000 : of Slatts • . 
p d in part for Holies Estate . 
Drawing of Timber to the' mill stable . 
one : 100 : of Lafts 
one : 1000 : of Laft Nailes . 
p d for 4 hogshead & A halfe of Lime . 
fetching water to temper the Lime 
A Letter from M r Holwell . 
M* Holwell at Torwood Charges 
when my Son carryed the money to M r Holwells 
for two : 100 : of Lafts 
one : 1000 : Laft Nailes 
for A new Ladder . 

for Crying the mill at Totness & Nuton 
for two hogsheads of Lime . 
A Letter from m r - Holwell . 
Renewing the bounds 
Drawing of timber for the mills 
October Court Charges 
Nouember : p d for planke and Board sawing 
Wooll for the mill 
to Baker the Glazier 

October : p d for makeing A house of office 
for painting it . 

for nailes for it 
one : 1000 : of Laft Nailes . 
for 4 Spookes 
for Board Nailes & Hatch Nailes 



5 9 

1 10 
8 16 10 

2 00 



05 
03 
02 
01 
01 
01 



02 
03 
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18 
05 
00 
08 
00 
03 
01 
01 
11 
01 
00 
03 
02 
02 
01 
06 
01 
05 
00 
10 
07 
19 
19 
01 
00 
07 
07 
02 
01 
00 
00 








6 



8 
6 

6 


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1 

3 

3 

6 

6 

6 



2 

3 







6 



6 

6 





6 

3 

4 

3* 

3 

8 

6 



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DEVONIANA. 199 

malt & Hops for the Survey . . . 06 (> 

p d to George Jonson for the thatchin Spears & Hope 

Yarn 
for one : 100 & A Quarter of Reed 
p d June the twelft to Tho : Jeffres for things done when 

my Lord was hear by his order 
June 10 th p d John Hydon for makeing the steps to the 

forgate 
p d to Tho: Cowell for Lime to the Water Mill . 
A parte of Will m Curtese's Tax 
p d to Tho : Jeffryes for Worke on Coles celler 
for Nailes . . . 

for nailes for the house of office 
to the Carpenter one day on the pound doore . 
To S r Bradwardine Jackson by his Bill given to jne is 
p d to Amy Baker for drinke at the Court 
for mending A Lock 8s Key . ... 

for Tronworke for the Gates . ... 

for Cleansing the Jack . ... 

for Iron worke for the Gate . ... 

for mending three Locks & Keys 
for mending A pair of Jemmes 

for makeing two Scrapers . ... 

for makeing A new Lock & Key 
for makeing A new Key . ... 

for makeing the Ireworke of the pound doore 
bought : 21 ; Apple trees in 1715 
bought : 10 ; more in 1716 . ... 

p d the workemen on the Key . ... 

p* S r Bradwardine Jackson . ... 

p d to the Land Tax for the year : 1716 due the 25 : of 

March : 1717 . * . 

payed to the Window Tax : 1716 
the Church and poore Rates : 1716 
my Sallary as Bayliffe 

An Account of the Charges at my L A London Berry's funerall not 
mentioned in the Accounts : 17 IS. 

for Beer att the Church house 
for makeing three Graues 
for three Women to Carry Eearth 
for Lime Sand & Labor 
to Tho : Jeffryes 
for Beer att Sandy Gate 
for Beer att Joan Cowells 

for meat & Drinke & Wine att Tor towne for the 
Beares & Gentlemen . ... 

for A murning Suit for my Self e by order 



01 02 


6 


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200 



DEVONIAN A. 



An Account of John Blotches Disboursements by my Lady London 
Derryes order when my Lord Dunnigall was at Torwood in 
August 1716. 
for three j** of Cloath to mend & Couer the beds 

for : 12 : y^ of poledany to Cotter : 2 : beds 

for two White Chamber p-ts 

for j** of Canvas for the beds 

To A Taylor for two Days Work and thread 

for two White porrengers 

for two muggs 

for Wood for the fire 

for three Geese 

for Butter 

for milk & Cream at times 

for one pound of Loaf Sugar 

f or : 5 pi* of powdered Sugar 

for spice 

for : 11 : Chicken at 5 d p piece 

for : 6 : Ditto att 3} p. piece 

for Tinning A Sauce pan 

for A brush for the Chambers 

for A mopp 

for Onions 

for fish at times . 

for two bed Cords . 

for A dozen Lobsters 

for Capers 

for Bread & Slower 

for Beer 

for A man fetching Wine from Topeham 

for one fetching Wine from Darth 1110 

for two men Cleansing the Court 

for a man & two horses to fetch Sande 

for 2 women for. Cleaning the house 

for Beefe & mutton 

for A man & horse to fetch Wine from Totnees 

for Soape & Washing the Linniug 

for Candles 

for Eggs 

for : 2 : Dozen of Wine from Totness 

f or : 2 : bottles of Clarett from Ditto 

for two Dozen of Wine from Topsham 

for one Dozen of Wine from Darth m0 

for A Woman makein beds & Washing 

for Glasses 

for meat for ten horses : 5 : dayes 

for Beer at Joan Cowells 

June the 29 : 1717 p d the Land Tax 



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NOTES ON SOME DEVONSHIRE PLANT NAMES. 

BT REV. HILDBRIO FRIEND. 
(Read at Dairliah, July, 1881.) 



In my wanderings np and down the country I have been 
struck with the want of definiteness in the application of 
local names to our commonest plants and flowers. At the 
same time, many names are preserved in the most distant 
parts of the country, which help to throw light on each 
other, though they are applied to different plants in different 
localities. My meaning will be made plain as we proceed. 
The present collection of names makes no pretension to being 
complete. The notes have been made up during country 
rambles taken within the past few weeks, but it was thought 
that some good might result from placing them before the 
Association, since other collectors, with more leisure, more 
scientific knowledge of botany, more familiarity with the local 
dialect, and with a better knowledge of the names used in 
other parts of the country, could be thereby stimulated to take 
up the work. I have not yet seen the Glossary of Plant 
Names by Mr. Britten, but have no doubt it would prove very 
helpful to collectors. One of the incidental advantages of a 
study like this is the aid it gives to the study of philology, 
especially the philology of the English tongue and of our 
local dialects.* An illustration of this will be afforded under 
such words as Eglet, Maiden's Ruin, and Slones. 

1. Arb-ralbit. 

This word is a corruption of "Herb-Robert" (Qeraninm 
Robertianum). I was passing through some fields near 

* See " English Plant Names from the Tenth to the Fifteenth Century. Bv 
John Earle, if. A. Oxford ; At the Clarendon Press, mdccclxxx." This is 
a valuable little work, with an Introduction of more than 100 pages, teeming 
with information. There is also an Index for the Latin names, another for 
English and Saxon, and a third for French, by means of which the value of 
the book as a work of reference is greatly enhanced. 



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202 NOTES ON SOME DEVONSHIRE PLANT NAMES. 

Newton Abbot one day with a friend, plucking flowers, and 
discussing them, when a woman who was passing by volun- 
teered the following information : " Us calls that Arb-rabbiL 
The oal people gathers it, an* lays'en up for winter, to make 
arb tea." The flowers are called by various names, as e.g. 
"Bird's-eye,"! or "Little Robins;" and by the peasants in 
Sussex " Little Bachelor Button." Herb-Robert is also known 
as " Stinking Crane's-bill " (the name, as in many other cases, 
being given to the flower on account of the shape of the 
seed-pods), the whole plant emitting a very unpleasant smell 
on being bruised. I extract the following note from Frag- 
merits of Two Essays on Philology, by Rev. J. C. Hare, M.A. : 

"Herb-Robert, Robertskraut or Rupreckts-kraut, a sort of 
wild geranium, flowers in April, the 29th of which was con- 
secrated to St Robert. Adelung deduces the German name 
from a certain disease, which used to be called Sanct 
RuprecJUs-plage, and against which this plant was held to be 
a powerful remedy. But how then did the disease get this 
name? Far more probably was it so called because St. 
Robert cured it by means of his herb." 

I may here add a note on the curious provincialism con- 
tained in this word. In Sussex we have a word " robert " or 
" robbut," a corruption of " rabbit." Thus, whilst in Devon- 
shire "robert" becomes "rabbit," in Sussex the change is 
just the other way, and "rabbit" becomes "robert." The 
Sussex form, however, is really more near the old form 
(compare Dutch robbe, robbeken) of the word for rabbit. 

2. Aver ; see Tver. 

3. Archangel. 

In some parts of Devonshire the Dead-nettle (Lamium 
album, " White Dead-nettle ; " or, as it is often called, " Blind- 
nettle " and " Dumb-nettle ") is called Archangel. The name 
properly belongs to the Yellow Weasel-snout (Oaleobdolon 
luteum). Bentham places this among the Lamiums, however, 
so that it is quite possible that the name Archangel may be 
found to be given to each of the Lamiums (red, white, and 
yellow) of Bentham. In some parts of England the Arch- 
angel (Lamium) is eaten as a pot herb; so in Sweden. 

4. Bird!s~eye. 

This is a very vague term, being applied to several flowers, 
the names of which are not otherwise known. Thus the 
various kinds of wild geranium are called "Bird's-eye." 
There is also a pretty little blue flower (see " Cafs-eye ") 



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NOTES ON SOME DEVONSHIRE PLANT NAMES. 203 

which is so called. The garden flower commonly known as 
London Pride, Prince's Feather, or Garden-gates (which see), is 
sometimes called Bird's-eye in South Devon, and possibly 
► elsewhere. The Campion (see " Robin " below) is frequently 
so called. In Sussex the wild geranium (see " Arb-rabbit "), 
and the Lychnis diurna (or L. dioica ; Linnaeus), are generally 
called Bachelor Buttons. (See Bull's-eye " below.)* 

5. Bluebell 
Here we have another very ill-defined term, the name being 
applied variously to the wild Hyacinth and the Campanula. 

6. Boy's Love. 

This* is one of the names by which Southernwood 
(Artemisia abrotanum) is known. In Sussex it is called 
Lad's Love. Other names are "Old Man" and "Maiden's 
Ruin," which see. 

7. Bugloss. 

As this word occurs in some botanical works, it may be 
said not to be, strictly speaking, a Devonshire name ; but it is 
introduced here on account of the fact that whilst you will 
often hear the word used by the common people of Devon, it 
is unknown in many parts of the country. There are two 
flowers which bear this name; viz., (1) Echium vulgare, 
u Common Viper's Bugloss;" and (2) Lycopsis arvensis, " small 
Bugloss." In Devonshire the Forget-me-not is called Bugloss. 

8. BulCs-eye. 

This name (like " Piskies " below) is limited to some parts 
of the county. It is applied by some to the Campion or 
Lychnis diurna. (See under " Robin-flower.") 

9. Buttercup. 

A common name for the Marsh Marigold (Galtha palustris), 
which it resembles. (See under "Cowslip.") The name 
"Gold Cup" often takes the place of Buttercup for the 
Meadow Ranunculus. (See "Drunkard" below.) 

10. Butter and Eggs. 

An expressive name for the Narcissus (N. bijlorus), the 
petals of which are white and the nectary yellow. In Sussex 

* In Somersetshire the name "Bird's-eye" is applied to quite another 
flower ; yiz., the Pansy, Heartfs-ease, or Violet Thus a large yellow Pansy 
will be pointed out by the expression, " Look at thik yellow Bird's-eye !" 



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204 NOTES ON SOME DEVONSHIRE PLANT NAMES. 

" Butter-and-eggs" is the name for Cypripedium. (See "Lady's 
Boots 1 ' below.) The Narcissus is also called "Hen-and- 
chickens." 

11. Cat-mint. 

The Nepeta or ground-ivy. This plant (known as Nepeta 
glechoma or Olechoma hederacea) is called " Lion's Mouth " by 
the Sussex peasantry. Compare " Weasel-snout " and other 
names for Labiatce, compounded of words with mouth. The 
Snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus and A. Orontium) are in 
some places called " Rabbit's Mouth." (See " Babbit's Flower " 
below.) 

12. Cats-eye. 

The common Speedwell (Veronica) sometimes receives this 
name. The flower is a bright blue, and though it is often 
called Bird's-eye (which see), the term Cat's-eye is much 
more appropriate. 

13. Cat's-tail. 

A common name for the Reed-mace (Typha latifolia); 
but to a native of Sussex the word "Cat's-tail" would 
suggest quite a different thing, that name being applied to 
the male blossom of the Hazel or Willow, and to a cultivated 
flower common in cottage gardens. 

14. Cheese. 

In Devonshire, as in Sussex, the Mallow (Malva sylvestris) 
is known by this name, on account of its peculiar cheese-like 
fruit. In both these counties the White-thorn is also called 
" Bread-and-cheese tree," the leaves, and especially the early 
buds, being eaten by the children. (See " Cuckoo-flower.") 

15. Chibble. 

Small green onions are called Chibbles. This is a most in- 
teresting word, on account of its renowned family connections. 
In the diminutive form we find it represented by the following 
words : German Zuriebel, Spanish cebolla, Italian cipolla, and 
with double diminutive suffix cipalletta. On the other hand, 
we find the simple form in Anglo-Saxon ciepe, cipe ; Latin 
ccepa, &c. With this are connected the words chives, cives, 
&c. In Mrs. Whitcombe's Bygone Days in Devon and Corn- 
wall we read (p. 47), " The fairies had even their musicians ; 
hautboys were sy ves (i.e. chives) : 

" Excepting one, which pufte the player's face, 
And was a chibolt, serving for the base." 



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NOTES ON SOME DEVONSHIRE PLANT NAMES. 205 

16. Chickens. 

See "Garden-gates," and compare " Hen-and-chickens." 
Also see " Bird's-eye " above. The London Pride is sometimes 
so called. 

17. Cowslip. 

The Meadow Eanunculus (Ranunculus acris), commonly 
known as Buttercup or Gold-cup (Somerset, " Go'-cup "), is 
called Cowslip in some parts of Devon, where the Cowslip 
proper (Primula veris) is seldom seen. The same name is 
also applied to the Foxglove. 

18. Cress. 

This word is used with others in cases which are unknown 
in some parts of the country. Thus " Swine's-cress " and 
"Wart-cress" are the common names of the Senebiera; 
4t Water-cress" for Nasturtium (shortened to Stertion) officinale; 
" Mustard-cress " for Sinapis nigra ; and " Garden-cress," or 
" Pepper-cress " (or " Pepper- wort ") for Lepidium campestre. 
The Thlaspi arvense is called "Penny-cress," and the Car- 
damine " Bitter-cress," &c. &c. The word (as in some other 
places) is often pronounced crease. 

19. Cuckoo-fiower. 

To deal fully with the subject of " Cuckoo-flowers " would 
be to write quite a treatise. I may refer to the Folklore 
Record, ii. 78, seq. for a valuable collection of notes, but this 
work will only be in the hands of members of the Folklore 
Society, and is not quite exhaustive. The Cuckoo's Garland 
(says Mr. Hardy) consists of several ingredients. The true 
Cuckoo-flower is Cardaminepratensis, known as "Bitter-cress" 
and " Lady's Smock ; " and on the Borders as Pinks or Wild 
Rocket Gerard, in his Herball (p. 261), says: "These 
flower for the most part in April, when the cuckowe doth 
begin to sing her pleasant notes without stammering." (See 
" Milkmaid " below.) Miss Baker thinks that the " Cuckoo- 
flower of Clare is the red-flowered Campion {Lychnis diurna, 
see " Robin ") ; a name which is given it in some parts of 
Devon. According to Halliwell's Archaic Dictionary the 
Hare-bell is called " Cuckoo." But there is some confusion 
respecting what flower is really meant by the Hare-bell. (See 
below.) By some the Campanula rotundifolia (or Bell- 
flower, sometimes called^ " Blue-bell ") is so called ; whilst 
others call the Agraphis nutans (or Wild Hyacinth) Hare- 



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206 NOTES ON 80MB DEVONSHIRE PLANT NAMES. 

bell, others Blue-bell. * Now it is true that the latter 

{Agraphia nutans) is called "Cuckoo-flower" in Devon, 

although this is probably on account of the similarity this 

flower bears to the Orchis, which is specially known in this 

county as the Cuckoo-flower. (See under " Ramsey/') But it 

is not in Devonshire alone that the Orchis mascula is thus 

known,, as Mr. Hardy (loc. cit. p. 79) has showa In Bucks 

and Essex any spring-flowering plant which has no other 

name is called " Cuckoo/ 1 and in Devonshire the term is not 

much more definite. In Sussex the White-thorn is called 

"Cuckoo's bread-and-cheese tree." (See "Cheese" above.) 

There is an old proverb — 

" When the cuckoo comes to the bare thorn, 
Sell your cow and buy your corn." 

In reference to the Orchis mascula, we find that instead of 
being called " Cuckoos," they in some places, as in Sussex, 
bear the name of "Long-purples," which reminds us of Shakes- 
peare's words — u k , , 

M And long-purples, 
That liberal shepherds give a grosser name." 

20. Damzel. 

The small black plum which grows wild in hedgerows, 
called Scads in some parts of England. Damzel is probably 
connected with " Damson," the change of n to I being quite 
common, and may be taken as a diminutive form, meaning 
" the little damson " (from Damascus, Damascene). 

21. Dog-violet. 

Not peculiarly local. The wild violet is so called in many 
parts of the country, although not universally known by that 
name, any more than the wild or hedge rose is known every- 
where as Dog-rose. But the name Dog-violet is intelligible in 
the face of the Latin Viola canina. I draw attention to the 
word in order to show that the word " dog," as a synonym of 
"wild" in plant names, is not peculiar to ourselves. We 
have the following names (among others) in illustration — 

Dog-violet and Wild-violet, 
Dog-rose and Wild-rose, 
Dog-wood and Wild-cornel, 
Dogs-mercury and Wild-mercury, 

which latter is termed MercuriaU sauvagc, or chou de chien, 
by the French, and by the Greeks Kwo-Kpafx^. 

* Also known as ffyacinthus nonxriptus, the Sussex " Blue-bottle." 



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NOTES ON SOME DEVONSHIRE PLANT NAMES, 207 

21a. Drunkard. 

As already stated, the Marsh Marigold is often called 
" Buttercup." But another name for it is " Drunkard." When 
I was told this by a young person in South Devon, I asked 
why it had received such a name. " They say that if you 
gather them you will get drunk, and so they are called 
Drunkards," was the prompt reply. The true explanation 
lies in their fondness for water. 

22. Eglet. 

The fruit of the White-thorn. A long list might be formed 
of the names used in various places. We have the following : 
" Gazels " (French Oroseiller, a currant tree), " Gogs," " Hog- 
gazels," " Alves " (or " Halves " from) " Agarves," " Hogarves," 
" Hads-and-halves," " Hazles," &c. 

23. Floptop. 

The Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) ; also called " Flox," 
"Babbit's Flower," "Flapdock," "Cowflop," and "Cowslip." 

24. Flox. 
The foxglove. (See "Floptop" and "Babbit's Flower.") 

25. French Pink. 

The Armeria Maritima, Thrift, Sea-pink, or Sea-gilliflower, 
which grows in the cliffs by the sea-shore, and forms a very 
pretty border for gardens. The flowers are sometimes white, 
more generally red (pink). In Somerset known as "Cushions." 

26. Garden-gates. 

" What do you call that flower ?" I enquired of a woman at 
Bovey Tracey one day as I pointed to a clump of Saxifrage, 
the flower elsewhere known as London Pride, Prince's Feather, 
and Pink. " We call it Garden-gates" was her reply. Other 
names for the flower in Devon are " Bird's-eye," and " Chickens'* 
(which see), and also " Kiss-me-quick." 

27. Harebell. 

The white Hyacinth (Orchis mascula, or Orchis mascidata) 
is sometimes called Harebell in this county. But, as before 
remarked (see "Cuckoo-flower"), there is considerable con- 
fusion on the subject ; and this not merely among the vulgar. 



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208 tfOTES ON SOME DEVONSHIRE PLANT NAMES. 

Thus, in his Handbook of the Torquay Flora, Mr. Stewart 
gives us, under Campanulas — 

"campanula; bell-flower. 

Campanula rotundifolia (round-leaved Bell-flower, or Hare- 
bell)'' Turning to Folklore Record, ii 79, we read: "In 
Devonshire, according to Mr. Halliwell (Archaic Dictionary), 
the Harebell (Agraphia nutans) is called Cuckoo." Now it 
is true, as shown above, that Agraphia nutans is called 
Cuckoo, but not Harebell ; and turning again to Handbook of 
Torquay Flora, we find Agraphis nutans described as the 
wild Hyacinth or Blue-bell What we wish to notice is, that 
the Orchis is sometimes called Harebell in Devonshire. The 
Hyacinth (or hyercind, as it is vulgarly pronounced in Devon) 
is called Blue-bottle in some places. 

28. Hazle. 
See " Eglet," above. 

29. Hen-and-chickens. 
The name by which a hybrid kind of Daisy is known. It 
is also applied to other flowers, one of which is the Narcissus. 

30. Horse-daisy. 

The Ox-eye or Chrysanthemum leucanthemum. Probably 
Horse-daisy is as common a name in other parts as is Ox-eye; 
but it is strange that people should suppose it is so called 
because the horse is fond of it, seeing cattle will not eat it 
while green. Sir Thomas Brown long since remarked, in his 
Vulgar Errors: "And so are they deceived in the name of 
Horse-radish, Horse-mint, Bull-rush, and many more; con- 
ceiving therein some prenominal consideration, whereas that 
expression is but a Grecism, by the prefix of "nnros or f}ovs ; 
that is, Horse and Bull, intending no more than great. 
According whereto the great Dock is called Hippolapaihum" 
&c. In Somerset the Ox-eye is called " Thunder-daisy." 

31. Iver. 

This word is variously pronounced as Aver, Iver, &c. The 
farmers in this neighbourhood speak of "Clover and Iver," 
with which they sow their fields. The "Iver" forms what 
would in some parts of England be called " Seed-hay ;" the 
word being a corruption of "Eaver" Rye-grass, or Zolium 
perenne. In Somersetshire, if the farmers require Rye or 
Ray-grass, they ask for " Devon ewer." 



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NOTES ON SOME DEVONSHIRE PLANT NAMES, 209 

32. Jack-by-ihe-hedge. 

In Devonshire the Garlic-mustard (Alliaria officinalis) is 
thus known, another name being "Sauce-alone." But in 
some parts of England (as in Sussex for instance) " Jack-in- 
the-hedge" is the name given to Lychnis diurna (or L. 
diaica, Linnaeus), the Campion or Red Robin. (See " Bobin " 
below.) 

33. Lady's Boots. 

It has been often remarked that what was formerly con- 
secrated to Venus, was often transferred in the middle ages to 
the Virgin Mary. Among the Scandinavians Freya used to 
occupy the place now taken up by the Virgin. (See Hare's 
Essays, vol. i p. 21. Farrer, Primitive Manners and Customs, 
p. 313.) " Our Ladies Slipper, so called from the shape of 
the flower, is the Calceolus Marias, or Cypripedium; in 
Germany the same plant is Venusschu h, sometimes Marienschuh, 
Marienpantoffel." Hence the form " Lady's Boots " stands for 
"Our Lady's Boots;" and it is interesting to find this word 
preserved in Devon, now that it has in some other places 
given way to such forms as " Shoes and Stockings," " Pattens 
and Clogs," "Butter and Eggs." There seems to be some 
confusion between the Cypripedium and Lotus corniculatus. 
The flowers of the latter are very like those of Hippocrepis 
comosa, or the Horse-shoe Vetch, which grows very freely and 
prettily in our hedgerows. (See " Lady's Smock " below.) 

34. Lady's Smock. 

Contracted from " Our Lady's Smock ; " referring, as in the 
last case, to the Virgin Mary. But it is strange that in 
Devonshire the Lady's Smock is called " Milkmaid " (which 
see); many of the common people never using the name 
Lady's Smock at all. 

35. Lammint. 

A corruption of "lamb-mint," or mint for lamb. Does 
this indicate that in Devonshire lamb is a commoner article 
of diet than in some parts ? The word mint is differently 
used in Devon to what it is in some other places. What is 
here called peppermint is called spare (for spear) mint else- 
where ; whilst the word lamb-mint is unknown in many 



36. Maiden's Ruin. 

Southernwood {Artemisia abrotanum) \ also called " Old 
Man," and "Boy's Love." The form here used should be 
VOL. xiil o 



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210 NOTES ON SOME DEVONSHIKE PLANT NAMES. 

observed One will often hear the words " Boy's Love and 
Maiden's Ruin" joined as one name. In Devonshire a 
" maid," or " maiden," means a " girl ; " but you will never 
hear such a phrase as "They have three boys and two 
maidens " in some counties. 

Archbishop Trench has said, " Words not a few were once 
applied to both sexes alike, which are now restricted to the 
female ; it is so even with girl, which once meant a young 
person of either sex. Compare the word virgin, and the fact 
that in Sussex the word maid is still sometimes used for a 
child of either sex who is too young to work." 

37. May. 

The lilac is called May in this part, though the word May 
is elsewhere applied to the White-thorn. Some people apply 
the name to both Lilac and White-thorn. 

38. Milkmaid; Milkymaid. 

This name is given to the Lady's Smock (Cardamine 
pratensis), also called Bitter-cress and Cuckoo-flower (which 
see). In some places the Lotus comiculatus, or Bird's-foot 
trefoil, is so called ; and the flowers of the Convolvulus sepium 
(or "Old Man's Night-cap)," also bear the name of Milkmaids 
in some parts. 

39. Old Man. 

Southernwood : see " Boy's Love " and " Maiden's Ruin." 

40. Pink. 

The following flowers among others bear this name. (1) 
The Garden Pink (Dianthus); (2) Thrift (Armeria, see 
"French Pink"); (3) London Pride (see "Garden-gates"). 
Any flower with a pink or red blossom, whose name is not 
easily remembered, is frequently spoken of under this name. 

41. Piskies. 

The flowers (Stdlaria holostea, Stitchwort), which are 
usually called Snappers, or Snapjacks, are known as Piskies 
in some parts of Devon. 

41a. Prince's Feather. 

The name given to Pampas Grass, though London Pride is 
called Prince's Feather in some places. Also applied to Love- 
lies-bleeding. 



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NOTES ON SOME DEVONSHIRE PLANT NAMES. 211 

42. Babbit's Florver. 

The Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea), also called Flop-top 
and Flox (which see). The Snapdragon is likewise so called. 

43. Ramsey. 

One form of Ramsons or Rarnsins ; another form into 
which it is corrupted being "Bansom." The Broad-leaved 
Wild Garlic (Allium ursinum), which emits a very strong 
smell when in blossom. A curious illustration of the way 
in which plant names get confused is afforded by this word. 
In Sussex the children gather the Orchis and call it Earns' 
Horns, which is, I believe, only another corruption of 
Ramsons. See Anglo-Saxon Hramse. In Aubrey's Gentilisrne 
and Judaisme, 1686, we read : 

"The Vulgar in the West of England doe call the month of 
March, Lide. (They have) a proverbiall ryhthme — 

" ' Eats Leekea in Lide, and Ramsins in May, 
And all the yeare after Physitians may play/ " 

This reminds us of another Devonshire proverb — 

" Eat an apple as you go to bed, 
Physicians then may beg their bread. " 

43a. Bobin-Jlower. 

The different kinds of Campion (Lychnis) are known as 
Red Robin, Ragged Robin, and White Robin (including the 
Bladder Campion). In some places the Red Robin (Lychnis 
diurna or diaica) is called " Jack-in-the-Hedge," the White 
Robin being " Grandmother's Night-cap." Some Devonshire 
folk call Herb-Robert by the name Robin-flower, just as in 
Sussex it, in common with the Campion, is called Bachelor 
Button. The Red Campion is also called Bull's-eye in some 
parts of Devon. In Somerset it is " Robin Hood." 

44. Shaking-grass. 

Quaking-grass (Briza media) ; known in the North as 
"Doddering Dick," and in the South as "Doddle-grass," or 
" Toddling-grass," because it is constantly in motion. 

44a. Shepherd 's Needle. 

Venus' Comb (Scandix pectens) is often so known ; but in 
some places this flower is called " Hedgehog." 

o 2 



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212 NOTES ON SOME DEVONSHIRE PLANT NAMES. 

45. Stones. 

The fruit of the Black-thorn — a small sour plum. The 
Anglo-Saxon word was sld. We now form the plural Sloes ; 
but the Devonshire form is very interesting, as it preserves 
the Anglo-Saxon plural ending. The plural of sld (sldg or 
ddh) was sldn, ddgan, so that Stones is a double-plural. 
Does the name Slagthorn (sloe-thorn) still survive in the sense 
of Black-thorn ? In Sussex the Sloe is called " Winterpick." 

46. Snapjack. 

The Stitch wort (stellaria) ; also called Snappers — because 
when the seed-pod is ripe it will snap on being pressed — and 
Piskies. 

47. Strawberry. 

The Cinquefoil (PoterUilla reptans and other varieties), 
with blight yellow flowers ; which with the leaves have much 
the appearance of wild strawberries, though they are easily 
distinguishable. It is not in Devon alone that this name is 
given to Cinquefoil. 

48. Sweet Alice. 

Belongs to the Cruciferse or Brassicacse. A small white 
flower, which blossoms in April, and is lately used in garden 
borders. It is also called Snow-in-Summer, and Snow-on- 
the-Mountain ; and in some parts Milk-and- Water, from the 
colour of the blossom. On account of its use as a border 
plant, it is frequently known only by the name " Seedling " or 
"Bordering." 

49. Traveller's Joy. 

This is the name here given to the Clematis, but in various 
parts of the country the plant affords joy in another way ; 
for the lads cut up the young wood and smoke it. Hence a 
common name is Boys' Bacca, Tombacca, and Smoking-cane. 
In Sussex, on account of its climbing tendency, it is called 
Beihwine. 

50. Water My. 

The Iris (fatidissima, stinking, in common with the 
pseudacorus, Yellow Water Iris, or Corn Flag) is so called. 
In an old book we read : 

" His cloake was of the velvett flowres, and lynde 
With flotore-de-lices of the choicest kinde." 

Some write flower-de-luce, others fleur-de-lis. It is also 
called Flag-flower, Dragon-flower, and Dagger-flower. 



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NOTES ON SOME DEVONSHIRE PLANT NAMES. 213 

51. VFind-Jloiver. 

The Anemone (vulgar nemony and enemy) is sometimes called 
" Wind-flower, because it is so delicate that it almost succumbs 
to a gust of wind/ 1 Such was the information once given me in 
Devonshire. Is it possible that this was a lingering tradition 
to account for the etymology ? The Anemones are said to 
have received their name from an old opinion that they 
never blossomed except when the wind blew ; they do in fact 
flower in the rough March winds, and will thrive in exposed 
and elevated situations. 



Note. — The list of Plant Names is continually swelling, and 
the writer earnestly solicits the hearty co-operation of Members, 
that a more perfect list may be presented to the Society next year. 
Will those who have [leisure kindly send the smallest items of in- 
formation to me as early as possible, that time may be afforded for 
arranging and re-writing ? 



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THE POTTER'S ART IN DEVONSHIRE. 

BY J. PHILLIPS. 
(Read at Dawliah, Julj, 1881.) 



At the Ashtrorton meeting of this Association I called atten- 
tion, in a paper on "The Ashburton Urn," to the evidence 
which the pottery found in the parish church afforded of 
skilled potters having worked in Devonshire during the 
Roman occupation. 

There is in the possession of the Messrs. Watts, of Newton, 
a very unique piece of Anglo-Roman pottery, with a " twist" 
handle, which demonstrates the great plasticity of the clay of 
which it was made ; for it is improbable that the artificial 
method of amalgamating the clay with gum was applied 
during that period, and the local clays, or some of them, have 
sufficient plasticity to admit of this twist 

Numerous specimens of pottery exhumed in Devonshire, 
being of well-known types, are certified by antiquaries as 
coming from the chief site where that type of pottery has 
been found. Thus, much is classed as Durobrivian most 
illegitimately; good pottery having been made in Devonshire 
at the same period as at Castor. And while the best speci- 
mens of the so-called Samian, were no doubt imported, and 
are probably Gallo-Romaine, numerous specimens, which may 
easily be distinguished, and which were made on the wheel, 
are unquestionably of Devonshire manufacture, and clay. 

The next evidences — chronologically — of uncommon 
pottery which we find in the county are in the form of tiles 
used in church floors ; and, so far as can be traced, the chief 
seat of this manufacture was in the Bideford district. An 
unpleasant feature of many of these tiles is the unevenness of 
the surface. The pattern on them is sometimes in considerable 
relief > as notably the fleur-de-lis on the tiles of Down St. 
Mary Church; while some in the collection of Mr. Harry 



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THE POTrEB'S ART IN DEVONSHIRE. 215 

Hems — fourteenth century — are as good encaustic as those 
which are now made. 

Coming to later times, it is interesting to find the date of 
1609 on the top of the chimney of the Bideford Pottery; 
and in this North Devon district, specimens of pottery are 
often turning up, much of it good, in its quaint simplicity of 
form and decoration. Only in North Devon do we find that, 
until quite recent times, the usual mode of obtaining artificial 
light was by burning oil in pottery lamps quite similar to those 
in modern use in Algeria. Many persons living, remember no 
other light being used in the country cottages, and have a 
keen remembrance of the "sniitch" which they emitted. 
" Bideford ovens " have been known all through the West of 
England and South Wales from time immemorial. 

A simple method of sgraffito decoration appears to have 
been practised in this county from very early times, and 
specimens of this abound in North Devon,* and of a more 
advanced type at Bovey Tracey, where also domestic pottery 
(ordinary earthenware) has been made for over 150 years. 
Originally, only local clays and local fuel — lignite — were used. 

A few years since, a new direction was given to the 
sgraffito pottery of North Devon by Mr. Fishley, of 
Freming ton, t whose acquaintance I then made, and sub- 
sequently, on his application, had the pleasure of accompany- 
ing him through some of the best collections of pottery in 
London, which were likely to be useful to him, including Dr. 
Schlieman's, many pieces of which he sketched, and very 
cleverly reproduced. 

The late Mr. Brannam, of Barnstaple, exhibited some of 
his pottery in this style in the Great Exhibition of 1851, 
where it was classed as stoneware — obviously in error — and 
now his son is producing some most excellent work in this 
true Devon style of pottery decoration. 

Mr. Webber, of Honiton, has also, in this same style, pro- 
duced highly-decorated and quaint pottery. 

With some examples of the Barnstaple pottery before 
him, Professor Church, in his recent lectures at the Society 
of Arts, thus speaks of this style of pottery : 

"The productions of this old Barnstaple pot- work stand 
quite alone in the material, decoration, and manner of their 
execution. They are decorated with washes of white clay, 

* Mr. Rock, of Boutport Street, Barum, has a jug with this decoration, 
bearing date 1733. 

t Fremington appears to be the source of the clay for all the North Devon 
Potteries. 



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216 THE POTTER'S ART IN DEVONSHIRE. 

with incised patterns and coloured glazes of flowing and 
pulsating lines. This ' Barum ware 1 reminds one at once of 
the rare Italian sgraffito ware, and of some of the quaintest 
English work of the 17th century." 

Turning into an altogether different direction, we have the 
highly-finished and completely artistic work of the Torquay 
Art Potteries, on which neither time nor expense is spared. 

The great revival which has of late taken place in the 
potter's ait in Devonshire, is so fresh in everyone's mind 
that it is needless here to say much. 

The two potteries at Torquay have performed a work far 
beyond the mere fabricating of things of beauty in red 
earth. They have created, and, by the facilities which they 
afford, have fostered, a keen appreciation of ceramic art 

In 1868 there were some good pieces of terra-cotta work, 
and of amateur pottery painting, in the Art Exhibition held 
that year in the townhall at Bovey Tracey. But amateur 
work in that direction did not fairly take root and become 
general in the county (and specially in South Devon) till 
some years after, when it became first extensively practised 
in Torquay and neighbourhood, and then both in Plymouth 
and Exeter. 

Since the Bovey Exhibition of 1868, four other potteries 
have sprung into existence in the same district, and now are 
in full and extensive work. 

Elsewhere in the county, extensive pottery work has been, 
and is being, largely practised. 

In 1835 fire-bricks were first made in the West of England 
at the Morley Clay Works, and subsequently stoneware 
socket pipes. Some years later, the manufacture of stoneware 
pipes was commenced at Annery, near Bideford, the clay 
being had from Peter's Marland, where, now that a light 
railway has been constructed, very extensive pottery works 
exist, producing glazed bricks and tiles of excellent quality. 

By this recital it will be seen that the natural advantages 
which Devonshire possesses over every other county, by 
her geological formations in respect of clays, are more highly 
appreciated, and turned to much more practical account, than 
is generally supposed, or than Devonshire people themselves 
have allowed. 

Opportunities have been presented in the county, during 
this year, for those who are interested in any way in the 
potter's art to study some of the most rare and beautiful 
specimens which exist; and the very considerable show of 
amateurs' work seen at the recent exhibitions in Exeter, 



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THE POTTER'S ART IN DEVONSHIRE. 217 

Newton, and Plymouth, speaks for the widespread interest 
in this art, and the widespread practice of pottery decoration 
in Devonshire. 

If any apology were needed — which I am sure is not the 
case — for bringing this art work before the notice of the 
Association, it would be found in the large number of persons 
who are interested in and now practising it in Devon. 

The exhibition held during Easter week of this year at 
Newton has given an impetus to amateur ceramic art work in 
the county, and much is looked for as resulting from it, and 
from the work of the Art School at Newton. The Princess 
Louise (Marchioness of Lome), in granting her patronage to 
the Newton Exhibition, was pleased to express her interest 
in it, and the hope that it might be instrumental in giving an 
impetus to ceramic art work in Devonshire. 

There are in the county numerous and most valuable 
collections of art pottery in the possession of private persons, 
containing rare examples of the most perfect work of the 
potter's art ; also numerous choice pieces of simple decora- 
tion from the South of France and elsewhere. A very great 
service indeed may be rendered to Devonshire art by the 
loan of such, for specified periods, to responsible bodies, such 
as art school committees, for the purposes of study by the 
students of the schools. 

If in the past Devonshire, groping in the dark, and 
oblivious to what was doing elsewhere, has yet produced 
meritorious work, and in fact developed a special school of 
pottery decoration, what may not be anticipated for the 
future, with all the aids and opportunities now at command, 
not for a moment overlooking the fostering care which 
associations of this nature are designed to afford ? 

Looking through the catalogues of the painted pottery 
exhibitions in London, the eye meets on every page familiar 
Devonshire names ; and last year, one of the best pieces of 
design and decorated vases so exhibited was by a Devonshire 
lady, and both in design, adaptation, and execution, was in 
all ways excellent Painting on the biscuit is a more 
advanced stage of pottery decoration than on the enamel, and 
we find it largely practised in this county. 

It surely will be a most legitimate work, for this Associa- 
tion to take full cognizance of the special development of the 
potter's art which claims Devonshire for its home, and which 
is becoming so worthily represented by the North Devon 
potters, and is taken up in a higher degree by the Art 
potteries of Torquay. 



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ART IN DEVONSHIRE. 
Part L 

BT GEORGE PYOBOPT. 
(Bead at Dawliih, July, 1881.) 



Inquiry leads men to doubt. To hold fast our belief in any- 
historical fact we should ask no questions about it If there 
is a well-grounded faith, say our fellow-countymen, it is, first, 
that Devonshire has produced more artists than any other 
county in England; secondly, that the inspiration proceeds 
from the ever-changing atmospheric effects, and the inex- 
haustible variety of the Devonshire climate and scenery. It 
is so pleasant a faith that I approached the inquiry into the 
subject with something like dread, lest the belief should 
prove to be the product of the warping effect of a patriotic 
bias. 

I find that it is true that more artists can claim Devonshire 
for their birthplace than any other county, but that it is not 
true that this fact is due to the inspiriting effects of the 
climate and scenery. There are thirty-three Devonshire 
artists who have died and left a name behind them. This 
seems a very small number for so large a county, and for a 
period ranging from Henry VIII. to Queen Victoria ; but we 
must remember that there was hardly any art in England 
before the days of the great Sir Joshua. 

In carefully analyzing Redgrave's English School of 
Painting, I find that there have been 1,127 painters whose 
names have been preserved. Of these he has been able to 
trace the birthplaces of only 438, leaving 689 unaccounted 
for. These 438 have been distributed among the English 
counties in the following manner : 



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ABT IN DEVONSHIBK. 



219 



Middlesex 


166 


Cornwall 


7 


Devon 


33 


Kent 


5 


York 


22 


Hertford 


4 


Somerset 


22 


Cheshire 


4 


Lancashire 


17 


Lincoln 


2 


Norfolk 


27 


Surrey 


7 


Cumberland . 


9 


Derby 


8 


Northumberland 


11 


Dorset 


3 


Stafford 


9 


Suffolk 


5 


Essex 


7 


Leicester 


2 


Shropshire 


7 


Wilts 


5 


Westmoreland 


5 


Berks 


3 


Sussex 


6 


Nottingham . 


4 


Hants 


5 


Cambridge 


2 


Durham 


5 


Worcester 


6 


Northampton 


1 


Gloucester 


1 


Hereford 


5 


Isle of Wight 


1 



Thus, leaving London -bearing Middlesex out of the ques- 
tion, we find that our county really heads the list as an art- 
producing land. 

Of all English provincial cities, Plymouth and its neigh- 
bourhood stands first, as the parent of six painters of the 
highest order, whose works have been held worthy of a 
place in our National Gallery; viz., Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
Prout, Eastlake, Haydon, Northcote, and Solomon Hart, and 
also of Sogers and Johns, the landscape painters. 

In the first class of painters may be ranked fifteen out of 
our thirty-three artists ; viz., Brockedon, Cosway, John Cross, 
Eastlake, James Gandy, Gendall, Haydon, Hart, Hilliard, 
Northcote, Prout, Reynolds, Lee, Traies, and Johns ; a goodly 
band, of whom any country might be proud. 

Our historical painters are nine in number — Brockedon, 
John Cross, Eastlake, Haydon, Hart, Jenkins, King, and 
Northcote. 

The portrait painters number fifteen, and among them, first 
in order of time, and in merit second to none, stands Nicholas 
Hilliard, the portrait and miniature painter of Queen 
Elizabeth's reign; second, James Gandy, of Exeter; third, 
Hudson, who, if he did not paint as well as his pupil, Sir 
Joshua, painted more portraits than almost any man, and was 
the first fashionable painter of high life in England ; fourth, 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, than whom, if our county had pro- 
duced no other, she might have sat down in her self-com- 
placency for ever, for he not only produced works of the 
highest art, but by his eloquent lectures, teaching, and 



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220 ART IN DEVONSHIRE. 

example, was the cause of art in others ; fifth, the eccentric 
and vain Cosway, of Tiverton, with his unrivalled miniatures; 
sixth, Downman, with his delicately- handled portraits of 
our grandmothers in their prime; seventh, Northcote, B.A-; 
eighth, Leaky, with his miniatures in oil; and then came 
Thomas Mogford, cut off too early in life for his fame, and 
William Mineard Bennett, R A. Clack, R. Crosse, J. King, 
and W. Score. 

Among our thirty-three artists it is remarkable that only 
seven practised landscape, and among these but five can be 
said to have drawn their inspiration from Devonshire scenery; 
viz : John Gendall, Thomas Mogford, Fred. R Lee, Traies, and 
Johna It is also worthy of note that all these practised their 
art within the last fifty years, and that previous to this time 
the seasons might change, the clouds and haze might give 
their beautiful atmospheric effects, the granite lichen-covered 
boulders might break the glistening moor streams into cas- 
cades ; it was all lost upon the Devonshire men, who slept 
like the inhabitants of the Lotos islands, unmoved by the 
surrounding loveliness, never dreaming of fixing it on canvas. 
This is the more remarkable, because at the same period, in 
fiat unpicturesque Holland, and in that English Holland, 
Norfolk, landscape painters abounded. 

We have changed all this now. The classical school of 
landscape is dead, I trust, for ever. We have no longer 
compositions for real transcripts from nature; we have no 
more Roman temples in the middle distance and nymphs 
and philosophers in the foreground. Our artists no longer 
work in garrets, like Wilson, but in daylight face to face with 
nature. They are to be met with by the moor streams, and 
among the granite boulders, catching the tints as they fly, 
and giving to their work an air of reality, and a degree of 
daylight, that is not to be found among the works of men 
of old time. On our Devonshire painters' canvasses the sun- 
light now dances upon the broken stream ; the moss, lichen, 
and ivy grow on the rock, and you can tell what rock it is ; 
the anatomy of trees is correctly given ; the season of the 
year is depicted with its delicate greens, or its golden russets; 
the very time of day is seen at a glance, and instead of fancy 
shepherds or bald-headed sages in the foregrounds, we find 
sleek cattle knee-deep in ferns and wild flowers, seeking the 
water or the shade. Moreover, our eyes are charmed with 
that endless variety of hue which always exists in nature, 
but which is seldom, if ever, found in the work of the old 
masters, because our artists endeavour to hold the mirror up 



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AKT IN DEVONSHIRE. 221 

to nature, and not that gloomy substitute, the Claude Lorraine. 
JSo work Widgery of Exeter, the two Dingles, father and son, 
of Plymouth, Pike of the same town, Philip Mitchell, 
Morrish, of Chagford, Mary Isabella Grant, of Hillersden, 
Cullompton, and some others. We may therefore reasonably 
hope that we shall ere long possess a school of landscape 
painters of our own, owing their inspiration to that loveliness 
of the earth, the air, and the water, with which Devonshire is 
endowed before all the counties of our land. 

There is one branch of art not yet referred to, which is 
represented in our county by one man — I mean mezzotint 
engraving. It is one of those branches of the art that has 
flourished most in England during the last hundred years, 
and our island can boast of many excellent professors, notably 
Lupton and C. Turner, in pure mezzotint, and C. Landseer, 
and our county man, Samuel Cousins, in a mixed style. 
There is no man of whom his native city is more proud than 
of Samuel Cousins, who has added a lustre to the county of 
Devon by his unrivalled works. He stands without cavil the 
greatest engraver in his style and in his age. 

The information contained in the following biographies I 
have gathered from Walpole's Anecdotes of Painters, Bryant's 
Dictionary of Painters, Ottley's Dictionary of Painters, Eed- 
grave's English School of Painters, obituaries from the Art 
Union and the Times, and from notes of my own, which 
I have made during many years : 

AsHWORTH, Edward, architect, born at Colleton, near Chumleigh, 
Devon, in 1814. His father, the son of a barrister, followed 
agricultural pursuits ; but from failing health left that part of the 
country in 1822. Turning his attention to architecture, Edward 
Ashworth was first articled to Mr. Cornish, of Exeter, and after- 
wards became a pupil of Mr. Charles Fowler, of 1, Gordon Square, 
London. After passing some time in other London offices, he 
went, in 1842, to New Zealand, then in a languishing state. From 
thence he proceeded to Hong Kong, where he was employed in 
carrying out works in that rising place in 1844 and 1845. 

Returning to England in 1846, he wrote for the Architectural 
Publication Society an essay on Chinese Architecture, also from 
time to time, between 1847 and 1877, papers on Church Architec- 
ture, which were read before the Exeter Diocesan Architectural 
Society. He rebuilt the churches of Dulverton, Tiverton, Bideford, 
Lympstone, Eomansleigh, and East Anstey. He built the new 
church at Withecombe, Exmouth, Topsham, and St. Mary Major, 
Exeter, and partially restored the churches of Seaton, Axminster, 
Shute, Wooton Courtney, Selworthy, Cheriton Fitzpaine, Somerset. 



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22*2 ART IN DEVONSHIRE. 

Bennett, William Mineard, a miniature painter, was born in 
Exeter, studied art under Sir Thomas Lawrence, and attained 
reputation in London as a miniature and portrait painter. He 
exhibited at the Academy in 1812, sending oil portraits and 
miniatures, in 1813, 1815, 1816, and again in 1834 and 1835. 
He then settled in Paris, where he was decorated by Louis XVIIL 
He attained also proficiency in music, and cultivated a taste for 
literature. In 1844 he returned to Exeter, and pursued art only 
as an amusement He died in his native city October 17th, 1858, 
aged 80. 

Brockedon, William, subject and history painter, bom at 
Totnes, October 13th, 1787. His biography has already appeared 
in our Transactions from the pen of Mr. Windeatt, vol. ix. p. 243, 
and was read at Kingsbridge in July, 1877. We merely therefore 
give a list of his works. He exhibited in 1812 two portraits, and 
the next year one of Miss Booth, the actress, which gained him 
notice. In 1814 he again exhibited, and sent in a plaster model 
of Adam and Eve, in competition for the Academy medaL In 
1815 he visited France for the purpose of study, and on his return 
painted the large picture of the " Acquittal of Susannah," now in 
the Exeter Castle. In 1818 he again competed in sculpture for the 
Academy medal, and painted "The Resurrection of the Widow's 
Son," now at the parish church, St. Saviours, Dartmouth. In the 
ancient Guildhall of Dartmouth is a large picture by him from a 
scene taken from Ossian's poems, another in Dartington parish 
church of a scene in the life of St. Peter, and a Crucifixion in the 
parish church of Cornwurthy. From the number of very large 
canvases he presented to churches and public institutions, it is 
perhaps fair to conclude that, like B. R. Haydon, he lived to find 
that such works are not marketable. In 1822, after spending a 
winter in Rome, he settled in London, and painted more saleable 
pictures of popular subjects and of smaller size, " Pifferari," " Psyche 
borne by Zephyrs," " L' Allegro," "Galileo visited by Milton in 
Prison," "Burial of Sir John Moore," "Raphael and the Fornarina." 
Between 1828-30 he published Illustrations of the Passes of the 
Alps ; Journals of Excursions on the Alps ; wrote the literary part 
of Finden's Illustrations of the Life of Byron in 1833-4; the 
Road Book from London to Naples in 1835 ; Italy \ Classical and 
Picturesque, 1842-3 ; Egypt and Nubia, from drawings by David 
Roberts, R.A., 1846-9. He died, August 29th, 1854, in his 67th 
year, and was buried in the cemetery of St George-the-Martyr, 
Bloomsbury. 

Clack, Richard Augustus, portrait painter, the son of a 
Devonshire clergyman. He studied at the Royal Academy, and 
exhibited from 1830 to 1845. He practised portrait painting in 
Exeter for many years, and died in 1881. 



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ART IN DEVONSHIRE. '223 

Collier, The Eight Hon. Sir Robert, amateur landscape 
painter, was born in 1817. He is the son of John Collier, Esq., 
of Grimstone, m.p. for Plymouth from 1832 to 1841. He was 
educated at Trinity College, Cambridge (a a. 1841), was called to 
the bar at the Inner Temple in 1843, and was made q.o. in 1854. 
He was sometime Recorder of Penzance ; was Judge- Advocate for 
the Fleet* and Counsel to the Admiralty, from 1859 to 1863 ; 
appointed Solicitor- General in 1863, and as Attorney-General 
served from 1868 to 1871. He was appointed a Justice of 
Common Pleas in November, 1871, and a few days subsequently a 
Judge of the Judicial Committee of Privy Council. He represented 
Plymouth in Parliament from 1852 to 1871 ; was created k.b. in 
1863, p.c. in 1871. Sir Robert is a devoted lover of art, and has 
practised it with so much success that it is fair to say of him, that 
had he followed painting as a profession he would probably have 
attained as great eminence in it as he has in the law. He was 
President of the Devonshire Association in 1879 at the Ilfracombe 
meeting, and delivered an address on art, than which no better 
essay on the subject has appeared since the publication of the 
Modem Painters. An excellent and representative specimen of 
his work — in his case, holiday work — may be seen in the Alpine 
landscape presented by him to the Plymouth Athenaeum. 

Condt, Nicholas Matthews, marine painter, born at Plymouth. 
Exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1842-44. Some views on the 
Thames by him were published. He died at Plymouth, May 20th, 
1851, aged 52 years. He was an artist of great merit 

Cosway, Richard, ra., portrait and miniature painter, was born 
at Tiverton, where his family had been long settled, and where his 
father was master of the public school To any one at all familiar 
with the history of art in the reign of George III., the career of Cos- 
way is well known. He was so prominent a figure, from his amusing 
vanity, self-conceit, and eccentricity that he kept himself much 
before the public. He was a little man in person, and gave him- 
self the greatest airs. His portrait may be seen in Zoffany's 
portraits of the Royal Academicians. He married at St George's, 
Hanover Square, in 1781, Maria Hadfield, a handsome, clever 
woman, and an artist, and set up house on the verge of Carlton 
Gardens, and afterwards in Stratford Place. Here they lived 
sumptuously; the Prince was their visitor, and they made them- 
selves the mark for satirists and caricaturists. He believed in 
Swedenborgianism, in animal magnetism, professed to be able to 
raise the dead, and declared that the Virgin Mary had sat to him 
several times for the half-length portrait of the Virgin which he 
had just finished. He felt himself greater than he was, and he 
left a request that his remains should be carried to Antwerp, and 
deposited near the bones of Rubens; the vaults of Mary le bone 
Church had, however, to serve his turn. 



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224 ART IN DEVONSHIRE. 

With all his foppery and eccentricity, which amused him and 
injured no man, he had great talent He was an admirable 
draughtsman. Two large oil paintings by him are to be seen at 
Powderham Castle, and one at Haldon House. He is chiefly 
esteemed as a miniature painter, an art in which he had no rival. 
His works are eagerly sought for at the present day, and command 
large prices. The lovely Mrs. Fitzherbert, and the beauties of the 
court, sat to him, and he sailed along in the full tide of courtly 
favour. Ivory was the medium on which he generally worked; 
but he sometimes drew whole lengths in blacklead pencil, and 
painted the faces in miniature, somewhat after the manner of 
Downman. 

In 17*55 he gained the premium for drawing at the Society of 
Arts ; in 1766 became a member of the Incorporated Society of 
Artists; in 1769 was admitted as student of the Academy; in 
1770 as associate, and 1771 as full member of that body. He 
died July 4th, 1821. In him, and in Hilliard, Devonshire may boast 
of two of the best miniature painters our island has produced. 

Cousins, Samuel, the greatest mezzotint engraver of the English 
school, born at Exeter, May 9th, 1801. He showed a talent for 
drawing at a very early age, and at the age of eleven he gained in 
competition the silver palette given by the Society of Arts for a 
copy in pencil of Heath's engraving of the " Good Shepherd," after 
Murillo, and in the following year received the silver medal of the 
same society for a drawing in black and white. 

Mr. Cousins was taken notice of by that generous patron of 
struggling or youthful talent the late Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, 
Bart, and was sent to London, and articled to S. W. Reynolds, 
the best mezzotint engraver of the day. With him he served his 
apprenticeship, and remained as his assistant for three years after, 
and during this time Mr. Cousins's name appears upon many plates 
in conjunction with that of Reynolds. He started in business on 
his own account late in 1828. 

Sir Thomas Dyke Acland gave him his first commission, to en- 
grave the picture by Sir Thomas Lawrence, of Lady Acland and 
her sons, and this plate is the first upon which Mr. Cousins's name 
appears alone. Sir Thomas Lawrence was so pleased with his work 
that he wished to engage him to engrave in future for him alone ; 
but this he would not agree to. Mr. Cousins tells me as an 
anecdote, at which he can now afford to smile, that when a boy 
under fourteen years of age, he drew many portraits in pencil from 
nature, for which his charge was five shillings each. I here exhibit 
a series of photographs taken from these early portraits, sent to me 
by Mr. Cousins. On examining the face of the old man in the 
wig, who was a builder employed by the Earl Ashburnham, I 
doubt not you will agree with me that no artist of any age, or at 
any age, could have modelled a face better. 



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ART IN DEVONSHIRE. 



225 



Subjoined is a chronological list of his works : 



ElfOftAYBD 

1826. Lady Acland and her sons 
Master Lambton 

Prince Metternich 
Doctor Brown 

1827. La Surprise 

Sir Stamford Raffles 

Vice-Admiral Lord Collingwood . 

Miss Croker 

Sir M. Shaw Stewart, Bart. 

Earl Grey 

Pope Pius the Seventh . 

1828. Duke of Wellington 

Rt. Hon. J. Wilson Croker 

Davies Gilbert, p.r.8. 

Eev. Mr. Cogan 

Sir Joseph Banks (statue) 

Michael Faraday 

Mr. John Bell 

Sir James Moncrieff 

Bishop Heber 

Lord Jeffrey 

1830. Sir Thomas Munro 
Mrs. Woolff 

Lady Grey and Children , 
Sir Thomas Lawrence, P.R.A. 
Lady Dover 
Miss Macdonald 

1831. Lady Gower and child . 
Lady Peel 

The Earl of Aberdeen . 
Robert Burns 
Dr. Croft 

1832. Dr. Buckland 
Dr. Sedgwick 
Miss Peel 
Lady Grosvenor 
Thomas Campbell 
Mr. Vaughan 
Mr. Grenfell 

Miss Juliana Homfray . 

1833. The Rev. James Tate . 
William Wilberforce, m.p. 

Rt. Hon. George Canning (marble 

statue) 
Christ in the Garden 

1834. Dr. Sumner 

VOL. xm, P 



Sir T. Lawrence, p.r.a. 
ditto 
ditto 

Dubuffe. 

Sir F. Chantrey, R.A. 

F. Howard. 

Sir T. Lawrence, P.R.A. 

Sir H. Raeburn. 

Sir T. Lawrence, P.R.A. 

ditto 
Sir T. Lawrence, P.R.A. 

ditto. 
H. Howard, r.a. 
T. Phillips, R.A. 
Sir F. Chantry, R.A. 
W. H. Pickersgill, m.a. 
Thos. Stewardson. 

ditto 
T. Phillips, R.A. 

Sir M. Shee, p.r.a. 
Sir T. Lawrence, p.ra. 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 
Sir T. Lawrence, P.R.A. 
Alex. Nasmyth. 
Mrs. Carpenter. 
T. Phillips, r.a. 

ditto 
Sir T. Lawrence, p.r.a. 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 
Sir M. Shee, p.r.a. 
Sam. Lane. 

G. Richmond, R.A. 

Sir F. Chantrey, r.a. 

Correggio. 

Sir M. Shee, p.ila. 



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226 



ART IN DEVONSHIRE. 



BXOMATKD 

1834. Lord Canterbury 
Mrs. Lister 
Duchess of Rutland 
Mr. Bridge 
William Pitt (statue) 

1835. Dr. Jones 
Beatrice Cenci 
Nature 
Master Hope 
Dr. Gilbert 

The Key. Edward Bather. 
The Orphan 
The Visionary 
Pet Babbits 
Lady Bavensworth and Daughter 
Bev. Wm. Stanley Goddard, d.d. 
John Milford, Esq. 

Mr. Biddle 

1836. The Maid of Saragossa . 
Lady Bolle 

Lady Lyndhurst 
Earl of Durham 
"The Letter" 
Mr. Hallam (bust) 
Mr. Mclean, jlp. 

Interior of the old House of Com- 
mons • . 

1837. Bolton Abbey in the Olden Time 
Lady Blessington 

The Abercorn Family 
Sir Wm. Knighton 
Sir J. T. Coleridge 
Mr. Justice Patteson 
J. Andrew Knight 

1838. Queen Victoria 

Beturn from Hawking . 
Mr. Joseph Neeld, M.P. . 
Mr* Earl (bust) 
Dr. Copplestone 

1839. LadyClive 

Sir John Malcolm (statue) 
Dr. Sumner 

1840. Duke of Wellington 

Lady Eveline Gower and Marquis 
of Stafford 

Queen Victoria receiving the Sac- 
rament at her Coronation 
(commenced this year) 



W. Pickersgill, R.A. 
G. S. Newton, ra. 
G. Sanders. 
John Jackson, ra. 
Sir F. Chantrey, ha. 
T. Phillips, ra. 
Guido. 
Sir T. Lawrence, p.ra. 

ditto 
T. Phillips, ra. 
W. Etty, ra. 
H. Leversedge. 

ditto 
Miss Corbaux. 



W. Owen, ra. 

Thoa Sully. 

Sir D. Wilkie, r.a. 

Mrs. Robertson. 

Sir T. Lawrence, p.ra. 

ditto 
Baoux. 

Sir F. Chantrey, ha. 
John Bridges. 



Sir E Landseer, ra. 
Sir T. Lawrence, p.ra. 
Sir E. Landseer, ra. 
Sir T. Lawrence, p.ra. 
Mrs. Carpenter. 

ditto 
S. Cole. 

Alfred Chalon, ra. 
Sir E. Landseer, ra. 
Sir M. Shee, p.ra. 



Sir T. Lawrence, p.ra. 
Sir F. Chantrey, ra. 
Mrs. Carpenter. 
J. Lucas. 

Sir E. Landseer, ra. 



C. B. Leslie, ra. 



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ABT IN DSVONSHIBE. 



227 



Emokaykd 

1841. Dr. Selwyn 

Earl BtowbIow 

Queen Victoria receiving the Sac- 
rament at her Coronation 
(finished) 

Lady Durham 

Sir Charles Forbes (statue) 

The Queen and two Children 

Early Dawn 

Head of Napoleon I. 

Dr. Blackall 

Mr. Keble 

Mr. Robert Bateson 

Christ Weeping over Jerusalem . 

Beauty's Bath 

Duke of Wellington 

Mrs. Braddyl 

The Prince of Wales as a Sailor 
Boy 

Group of Royal Family (com- 
menced this year) . 

Rev. Mr. Marker 

Shakespeare . 

Mrs. Elizabeth Fry 

Dr. Pindar 

Mr. Hodgson . • 

Rt. Hon. Sir Robert Peel* Bart. . 

Viscount Palmerston 

Mr. Adams * 

" The first of May n 

Bishop of Moray and Ross 

Peter Barlow 4 

Dugald Stewart 

Mr. Ledsham 

The Infant Samuel 

Samuel Taylor Coleridge . 

The Emperor of the French 

The Order of Release . 

The Infant Timothy 

" Comedy " 

"Tragedy" 

Rev. Mr. Griffiths 

Empress of the French . 

Princess Royal of England 

A Midsummer Nights Dream 

Rosa Bonheur 

Sir Bartle Frere . . 

Saved 

P 2 



1842. 



1843. 
1844. 



1845. 
1846. 

1847. 



1848. 



1849. 
1850. 



1851. 



1852. 



1853. 



1854. 



1855. 



1856. 

1857. 
1858. 



G. Richmond, R.A. 
Sir M Shoe, p.rjl 



C. R Leslie, r.a. 

Sir T. Lawrence, p.r,a» 

Sir F. Chantrey, b,a. 

Sir E. Landseer, B.A. 

ChristaL 

Mansion. 

R R Reinagle, r.a. 

G. Richmond, r.a. 

Sir C. Eastkke, P.R.A. 
Sir E, Landseer, r.a. 
Sir T. Lawrence, p.ra. 
Sir J. Reynolds, p.b.a. 

F. Winterhalter. 

ditto 
J. P. Knight, ra. 
Unknown. 

G. Richmond, R.A. 
Sir Wm. Boxall, b,a. 
Partridge. 

Sir T. Lawrence, p.r.a» 
Jno. Partridge. 
T. Mogford. 

F. Winterhalter. 

G. Richmond, R.A. 
Sir Wm. Boxall, b,a. 
Sir David Wilkie, R.A. 

E. U. Edis. 
J. Sant, ra. 
Alston. 

F. Winterhalter. 
J. E Millais, r.a. 
J. Sant, R.A. 

ditto 
ditto 

G. F. Watts, ra. 
F. Winterhalter. 

ditto 
Sir E. Landseer, r.a. 
Dubuffe. 
W. Phillips. 
Sir E. Landseer, r,a. 



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ABT IN DKVONSHIBK 



228 
Emoratsd 

1859. Mrs. Naylor 

The Mitherless Bairn 
Mr. Frederick Huth 

1860. Duke of Northumberland 
Sir Henry Rawlinson 
Dr. Beasley 

Abel Smith 
Lord Winmarleigji 

1861. Marie Antoinette. 

Lord Clyde . 

The Maid and Magpie . 

1863. ERE the Princess of Wales . 
From Dawn to Sunset , 

The Rev. J. C. Woodhouse 

1864. "Whittington" . 
W. Gibbs, Esq. 

Duchess of Northumberland 

1865. Piper and Pair of Nutcrackers . 
Lady Mary Hamilton , 

"My First Minuet" 

1867. "The Connoisseurs" 
Earl Spencer, k.g, 

1868. Mater Dolorosa t 
Sir Thos. Watson, 
Mater Purissima . , 

J. Pemberton Heywood, Esq. 
1870. "The Queen" . 

1873. The Strawberry Girl 
"Yes or No" 

1874. The Age of Innocence t 
New-laid Eggs 
Penelope Boothby , 
Simplicity 

1875. Miss Bowles 
Picture of Health 

Lady Caroline Montague as 
"Winter" 

1876. Lady Ann Fitzpatrick as "Sylvia" 
"No" 

Moretta, a Venetian Girl . 
The Countess Spencer 
The Hon. Ann Bingham . 

1877. Lavinia Countess Spencer 
Playmates 

Lady Spencer and her Son, Lord 

Althorp 
The Dauphin, son of Louis XVI. 
Miss Rich 



Sir F. Grant, p.ra. 

T. Faed, ra. 

Sir Wm. Boxall, ra. 

Sir F. Grant, p.ra. 

W. Phillips. 

H. T. Wells. 

F. R. Say. 

G. Richmond, a.ra. 

E. M. Ward, ra. 
SirF. Grant, p.ra. 
Sir E. Landseer, r.a. 

T. Faed, ra. 

Wyndham Phillips. 

J. Sant, r.a. 

Sir W. Boxall, ra. 

WeigalL 

Sir E. Landseer, ra. 

F. Winterhalter. 
J. E. Millais, R.A. 
Sir E. Landseer, R.A. 
H. T. Wells, R.A. 

F. Goodall, R.A. . 

G. Richmond, r.a. 

F. Goodall, r.a. 

G. Richmond, R.A. 
Lowes Dickenson. 

Sir J. Reynolds, P.R.A. 
J. K Millais, R.A. 
Sir J. Reynolds, p.ra. 
J. E. Millais, r.a. 
Sir J. Reynolds, P.R.A. 

ditto 

ditto 
J. E. Millais, R.A. 

Sir J. Reynolds, p.ra. 

ditto 
J. E. Millais, R.A. 
F. Leighton, p.ra. 
Sir J. Reynolds, P.R.A. 

ditto 
Sir J. Reynolds, p.&a. 
H. Merle 

Sir J. Reynolds, p.ra. 

Greuze. 

W. HogartL 



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ABT IN DEVONSHIRE. 



2291 



1877. 


Duchess of Rutland 


, 


Sir J. Reynolds, P.R.A. 




"Yes" 


# 


J. E. Millais, r.a. 


Since 








1877. 


Duchess of Devonshire . 


, 


Sir J. Reynolds, P.R.A. 




The Princes in the Tower 


, 


J. E. Miliais, r.a. 




The Princess Sophia of Gloucester 


Sir J. Reynolds, P.R.A. 




" Muscipula " 


. 


ditto 




Mrs. Brown 


. 


Edwin Long, ra. 




" Imprisoned " 


, 


Briton Riviere, R.A. 




Cardinal Newman 


. 


Lady Coleridge. 




Ninette 


, 


Greuze. 




Benedicta 


. 


Frank Dicksee, A.R.A. 




Head of Italian Girl 


. 


Sir F. Leighton, p.ra. 




Cherry Ripe 


. 


J. E. Millais, R.A. 



Mr. Cousins is still working on, more to the advantage of the 
public than of himself, His eye has not grown dim, nor his hand 
unsteady. His heart is kind and generous as ever, and many persons 
who have no personal claim on him can show precious gifts from 
him of his handicraft, kindly and thoughtfully presented, solely 
because he has observed that they love and appreciate them. 

He was elected by the Royal Academy an associate engraver in 
1835, and was transferred to the new class of associate engravers 
in 1854, and was the first to receive (1855) the honours of the 
newly-created rank of academician engraver. 

Cranoh, John, was born at Kingsbridge, Devon, October 12th, 
1757. Self-taught as a boy, he made progress in drawing, then 
went to London, where he was befriended by Sir Joshua Reynolds. 
He never gained excellence. His best picture was a " Death of 
Chatterton." He excelled in what are called Poker pictures. He 
died at Bath in February, 1821. He published two works, one on 
The Economy of Testaments, and the other, Inducements to 
Promote the Fine Arts of Great Britain. 

Cross, John, historical painter, a native of Tiverton, born in 
1819. His father, who was superintendent of the lace factory 
at that place, removed to St. Quentin, to become foreman of 
the English factory established there. Here young John Cross 
worked at the factory in the machinery department; but as he 
showed a strong disposition for art, he was admitted into the 
School of Design, founded by Delatour. Here he worked so well 
that at the end of the last year but one he was presented with a 
medal. From this place he removed to Paris, and entered the 
studio of M. Picot, a painter of the classical school, and acquitted 
himself so well that he was appointed treasurer and director of the 
studio, and won several medals. At the time of the completion of 
his studies at M. Picot's, the British Government offered prizes for 
the best cartoons portraying subjects from English history or 



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230 ABT IN DEVONSHIRE, 

poetry, the competing cartoon to be exhibited in Westminster 
Hall. To this Cross sent a cartoon, the subject of which was 
" The Assassination of Thomas a Becket ; " bat owing to certain 
conditions not haying been complied with, he did not obtain a 
prize. The picture, however, was very highly approved, and 
had been much admired when previously exhibited at the hall at 
Fervaques. A second competition, two years later, opened by the 
same authority, took place at Westminster Hall, and to this Cross 
sent a picture, representing " Richard Cceur de Lion, at the Siege of 
Chaluz, pardoning the archer who had wounded him." This paint- 
ing obtained the first premium of £300, and it was thought so 
highly of that it was purchased by the Government at £1,000, and 
placed in the hall of the Fine Arts Commissioners in the Palace of 
Westminster. He had now gained early in life the summit of his 
reputation. Everything looked well with him, and for a time he 
was sought after and looked upon as the rising historical painter of 
the day. The Fine Arts Commissioners engraved the picture at 
their own expense, and he received a commission to repeat it in 
reduced size for Mr. Heathcot, of Tiverton, together with an order 
for a new picture, " Lucy Preston, imploring the pardon of her 
father from Queen Mary IL" His health unfortunately began to 
fail, and to this circumstance must be attributed ihe fact that he 
did nothing after to sustain his reputation. He painted pictures 
certainly which showed great talent, but nothing which took with, 
the public as his early ones did. He. received commissions to 
paint two pictures, "Edward the Confessor naming Harold his 
successor," and "William of Normandy swearing Harold on the 
reliques." These have been well spoken of. He next took to 
teaching drawing and portrait painting for a livelihood. His 
paintings became weak and feeble, and in 1860 two pictures which 
he sent to the Academy were actually rejected. His last works of 
any note were a picture from his prize cartoon, " The Assassination 
of a Becket," and "The Coronation of William the Conqueror," 
which was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1858. Both 
remained unsold at the time of the artist's death, which took place 
on the 26th February, 1861. The paintings he left were exhibited 
at the Society of Arts, and a subscription was raised to a small 
amount for his family. His Mends purchased his " Murder of a 
Becket," and placed it in Canterbury Cathedral ; and his Devonshire 
friends purchased " The Burial of the two Princes in the Tower," 
and presented it to the Albert Memorial Museum at Exeter. 

Crossb, Richard, miniature painter, born in Devonshire. He 
received a premium at the Society of Arts in 1758. In 1763 he 
was a member of the Free Society of Artists. He exhibited 
miniature and water-colour portraits at the Royal Academy. In 
1790 he was appointed enamel painter to the King. He died at 
Knowle, near Cullompton, in 1810, aged 65 years. 



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AM TS DKVbNSHtRR 231 

Davjby, Robert, portrait painter, born at Cullompton, Devon* 
He commenced as a portrait painter, and studied at Rome. On 
his return he settled in London, but met with little success. He 
taught drawing at Woolwich and other schools. He died Septem- 
ber 28th, 1793. 

Downman, John, a.r.a., portrait and subject painter, born in 
Devonshire, was a student of the Royal Academy in 1769, and an 
associate in 1795. He studied under Benjamin West, p.r.a. His 
portraits, almost of a miniature size, may be found not unfrequently 
in the country houses of Devon. They are in pencil, generally in 
profile, and slightly coloured. Two or three good specimens are at 
Sir John Duntze's house, Exeleigh, Starcross, and an excellent 
example of full-length portraiture at the mansion of Mr. Henn 
Gennys, Plymouth. He exhibited at the Academy a kitcat portrait 
of "A Lady at Work" in 1770, and in the following year a painting 
of " The Death of Lucretia." In 1777 he practised portrait painting 
at Cambridge, visited Plymouth in 1806, and in 1807-8 set up 
at Exeter. He then returned to London, and after some years 
residence, during which time he continued to exhibit, he removed 
to Chester, and died at Wrexham, in Denbighshire, on Christmas- 
eve, 1824. One of his best works was " Rosalind," which he painted 
for the Shakespeare Gallery. He worked chiefly in water-colour, 
and his pictures, though low in tone, were gracefully designed and 
delicately painted. 

Eastlakb, Sir Charles Lookb, was born at Plymouth on the 
17th of November,. 1793. He was the youngest son of Mr. 
George Eastlake, solicitor to the Admiralty, and Judge Advocate 
General. He began his education at the Borough School, but was 
soon moved to the Charter-house. Here, stimulated by the ex- 
ample of Hay don, who in 1807 exhibited his first picture, 
" Riposo," he begged his father to allow him to follow painting as 
a profession. He was then 15 years old. 

He became a student of the Royal Academy in 1809. Mr. 
Jeremiah Harman, a connoisseur, gave him the commission for his 
first picture, " The Raising of Jairus's Daughter ; " and after he had 
painted several others, generously sent him to Paris. Here he studied 
till compelled to leave on the return of Napoleon from Elba. 

Young Eastlake now returned to his native town, and painted 
some portraits. It so happened that the BeUerophon put into 
Plymouth with Napoleon on board. Eastlake was fortunate 
enough to get a sight of him, and painted the well-known picture 
of " Napoleon at the Gangway of the Bellerophon." This picture 
gained him much reputation, and the sale of it assisted him in his 
tour to Italy and Greece. Returning home, after a brief visit to 
Plymouth, he visited the Netherlands, Germany, and then repaired 
to Rome, where he remained twelve years, and where he must have 



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232 ART IN DEVONSHIRE. 

acquired that knowledge of Italian art for which in after life he 
was so esteemed. 

In 1823 he exhibited at the Academy his first contribution, 
consisting of three views of Rome. 

In 1825 he sent from Rome "A Girl of Albano leading a Blind 
Woman to Mass." 

In 1827 he exhibited "The Spartan Isadas rushing undraped 
from the Bath to meet the Enemy/' and was elected Associate. 

In 1828, " Pilgrims in Sight of Rome." 

In 1829, " Byron's Dream." 

In 1830, " Una delivering the Red Cross Knight," and was 
elected a full member of the Academy. 

Eastlake now returned to England, and in 1831 exhibited two 
Italian subjects, with " Haidee, a Greek GirL" 

In 1833 his famous " Greek Fugitives." 

In 1834, "The Escape of Francesco da Carrara" and the 
" Martyr." 

In 1839 his picture, " Christ Blessing Little Children." 

In 1841, " Christ Weeping over Jerusalem." 

These comprise his best works, and the greater number of them 
have been engraved. 

In the same year his knowledge of art and his attainments in 
letters, combined with great aptitude for business, caused him to be 
selected for the honourable post of Secretary to the Commission, 
presided over by Prince Albert, for the decoration of the new Palace 
of Westminster. 

In 1842 he was appointed the Librarian of the Royal Academy ; 
in 1843 Keeper of the National Gallery; and in 1850 was 
elected President of the Royal Academy, and received the honour 
of knighthood. 

In 1855 he received the appointment of Director to the National 
Gallery. It was his duty now to travel year by year on the 
Continent in quest of pictures for that institution, and it is univer- 
sally acknowledged that from his taste and knowledge of the Italian 
school he added greatly to our national collection. He had now 
little leisure for the practice of his art, and having exhibited a 
replica of the " Escape of Francesco da Carrara," which is now in 
the National Gallery, he did not again exhibit. 

He wrote Materials for a History of Painting, 1847 ; The 
Schools of Painting in Italy, translated from Kugler, 1851; 
Kugler's Handbook of Painting, 1855; and some treatises and 
addresses of his own. 

The University of Oxford conferred on him the degree of d.o.l., 
and he was decorated with the Cross of the Legion of Honour. 
Sir Charles married, in 1849, Miss Rigby, authoress of the Baltic 
Letters and other works. 

He died at Pisa, of a malady from which he had long suffered, 
on December 23rd, 1865. 



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ART IK DEVONSHIRE. 233 

Fowlhr, Charles, architect, bom at Collumpton, May, 1792, 
served his apprenticeship with a builder and surveyor at Exeter. 
His first work was the Court of Bankruptcy, in Basinghall Street He 
competed successfully for the design of Loudon Bridge, and gained 
the first premium, although the design was not carried out He 
built Covent Garden Market, Hungerford Market, Exeter Lower 
Market, restored and built additions to Powderham Castle, built 
churches at Charmouth, Buckley, and Honiton, and the Devon 
County Lunatic Asylum. He died at Great Marlow, September 
26th, 1867, in his 67th year. 

Gandt, Jambs, portrait painter, born in Exeter in 1619. He is 
said to have been a good painter, and his name has been handed 
down by tradition as one of our best Devonshire artists. The 
greater part of his works remain in Ireland, whither he went with 
the Duke of Ormond ; his portraits are rare in this country. He 
received instruction from Vandyke ; and as Sir Joshua Eeynolds 
owned to the impression made upon him by this painter, it is fair 
to conclude that he deserved his fame. He is sometimes credited, 
to his disadvantage, with works performed by his son William, an 
artist inferior to himself. The portrait of Sir Edward Seaward, 
Kt, at the Exeter Workhouse, and that of John Patch, sen., at 
the Exeter Hospital, are by his son. He died in Ireland in 1689. 

Gendall, John, landscape painter, born in Devonshire in 1790. 
In early life, having shown a talent for drawing, the gentleman in 
whose house he was living as a lad sent him to London, with a 
letter of recommendation to Sir John Soane. Having shown him 
some drawings, Sir John was much pleased, and gave him his first 
commission — a drawing of one of the windows of Westminster 
Abbey. He next introduced him to the house of Ackerman, the 
well-known print-seller and publisher in the Strand. Here, while 
improving himself in art, he made himself useful in many ways to 
his employer. At one time he had the management of the mattriel 
in the house ; at another he was employed in carrying out and per- 
fecting the new art of lithography, which had just then made its 
appearance. He was sent on a sketching tour through Normandy, 
to illustrate the river scenery of that country, and the water-colour 
drawings he then made gained him great credit when exhibited 
very many years after. Indeed one of them was shown by a friend, 
at a meeting of the Society of Arts, as a genuine " Turner," and it 
passed as such till the critics were undeceived. He also illustrated 
views of country seats, with Westall and T. H. Shepherd. After 
leaving Mr. Ackerman's house, Mr. Gendall resided in Exeter, 
joining business with Mr. Cole ; and in the picturesque timber- 
built house in the Cathedral Close, formerly known as Moll's 
Coffee-house, a true artist's home, he continued to reside till his 
death, in March, 1865. Mr. Gendall possessed a great knowledge 



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234 ART IK DEVONSHIRE. 

of pictures, and his opinion on works of the old masters was 
much prized. In early lite he worked in water-colour, contenting 
himself with a sketch rather than a finished picture, bnt the 
success he gained in oils made his admirers regret that he did not 
commence that branch of the art earlier. His oil-paintings are 
chiefly of Devonshire scenery, of the Avon and Teign more 
particularly. He delighted in the calm and quiet repose of nature, 
the still, dark pool, and the moss-covered boulder; the rippling 
streamlet, and die dewy weeds growing by its banks. He never 
attempted the high tone of colour. He exhibited at the Eoyal 
Academy from 1846 to 1863. He was much honoured in Exeter, 
not only as an artist of whom the citizens were proud, but because 
in everything where taste was required he was at hand to lend his 
aid, not only to objects of public interest, but also to such private 
individuals as might seek his help. There were few men employed 
in carrying out works of decorative art who have not had his 
refined taste to assist them ; and most of the young artists of the 
neighbourhood sought, and never sought in vain, his friendly 
guidance. 

Gendall worked to the last Even while suffering from the illness 
which brought him to the grave, he struggled on till his strength 
failed him, and he could do no more. A lady sent him a commis- 
sion to illustrate a little work of her own. Gendall looked at it, 
took his small bit of pencil, which he always carried in his waist- 
coat pocket, and thought a few minutes ; then lifting it up in the 
air, he opened his hand and let it fall " It is all over/' said he, 
and he never used pencil more. To stamp for ever the name of 
John Gendall as a true artist, it is only necessary to say that his 
paintings were highly esteemed by that greatest of all landscape 
painters, living or dead, J. W. M. Turner. He died March 1st, 
1865, aged 75. 

Hart, Alexander Solomon, r.a., historical painter, born at 
Plymouth in 1806, the son of Samuel Hart, who, while serving 
his apprenticeship to a goldsmith, studied art, and painted 
under Northcote in 1785. Solomon Hart entered the Royal 
Academy as a student in 1823, and exhibited his first work, a 
miniature of his father, in 1826. He practised miniature painting 
for a livelihood, but showed his first painting, " Instructions," at 
the British Institution in 1628, and " The Elevation of the Law," 
which noble picture was purchased by Mr. Vernon, was engraved 
in the Art Union and is now in the National Gallery. Subse- 
quently he painted " Isaac of York in the Donjon of Front-de- 
Boeuf," 1830 ; " English Nobles privately receiving the CathoHft 
Communion early in the 16th century," 1831 ; " Giaoopo Guerini 
refusing to enter into the compact with Boemondo Theopolo to put 
to death the Doge Gradenigo," 1832 ; " Wolsey and Buckingham/' 
1834; "Richard and Saladin," 1835, which last two pictures 



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AST Df DEVONSHIRE. 235 

secured him the honour of election as associate. He afterwards 
painted "Milton visiting Galileo in Prison," 1847; the "Three 
Inventors of Printing/' 1852; and many interiors of cathedrals 
and ecclesiastical buildings. Of still later works, " Manasseh ben 
Israel pleading with Oliver Cromwell for the admission of the 
Jews," was the most successful. Great pains were taken with this 
work, which was designed by the artist as an offering to the 
memory of the great Protector, by whose wise statesmanship the 
ancestors of the painter had been permitted to settle in England. 
The head of the Lord Protector was copied from a photograph of 
the portrait in Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. The picture 
was hung in the Academy, and purchased by the late Sir Francis 
Goldsmid. Mr. Hart also painted landscapes and portraits, and 
contributed to the AthencBum, the Jewish Chronicle, and other 
periodicals. He served repeatedly on the Hanging Committee of 
the Royal Academy. In 1857 he succeeded Mr. Leslie as Pro- 
fessor of Painting in the Royal Academy, and in 1865 was 
appointed by the Queen Librarian of that body, in which capacity 
he took part in the librarians' Conference in London in 1877. He 
died in London in June, 1881, aged 75 years.* 

Haydon, B. R, historical painter,, born at Plymouth, January 
26th, 1 786, and died June 26th, 1846. His biography has already 
appeared in our Transactions, voL vi, p. 7 3,. from the graphic pen 
of the Rev. Treasurer Hawker, M.A., I will therefore merely give a 
list of his best paintings. 

His first picture was "Joseph and Mary." He exhibited in 
1809, "Dentatus;" 1810, "Lady Macbeth;" also painted 
"Judgment of Solomon;" 1820, exhibited "Christ entering 
Jerusalem," at the Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly ; 1823, " Raising of 
Lazarus ; " 1826, " Venus appearing to Anchises." He also painted 
at various times "Alexandra Taming Bucephalus," "Euclus," 
" Mock Election," and " Chairing the Member," " Waiting for the 
Times; 9 "The Reform Banquet," "The Retreat of the Ten 
Thousand," "Napoleon at St Helena," "Pharaoh dismissing 
Moses," "Wellington at Waterloo," "Banishment of Aristides," 
" Nero playing on the Lyre," " Curtius plunging into the Gulf," 
" Alexander the Great encountering a Lion." 

Haitian, Francis, historical painter, born in Exeter in 1708. 
He was pupil of Robert Brown, a portrait painter, went to London 
while young, and was employed by Fleetwood, the manager of 
Drury Lane, as scene painter. He also decorated the alcoves of 
YauxhalL The booksellers employed him as an illustrator, and his 

* Solomon Hart failed very much in his later pictures, and was the subject 
of much ridicule and facile criticism ; but the members of the Academy, says 
a critic in the Magazine of Art, were never blinded to the utility and worth 
of a painter whose scholarship, intellectual capacity, and theoretical know- 
ledge were as fine, as his later pictures were unworthy of his earlier powers. 
He was a lecturer on art of uncommon ability. 



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236 ART IK DEVONSHIRE. 

designs may be found in Hanmer's editions of Shakespeare, 
Milton, Pope, and Cervantes. He was considered the first historical 
painter of his day, the best in England before the arrival of 
Cipriani. He was the first librarian of the Royal Academy, a 
member of the St Martin's Lane Academy, and President of the 
Incorporated Society of Artists. He was of a very convivial turn, a 
member of the Beef-steak and Old Slaughter, and several other clubs. 
A jolly fellow, in fact — a Mend of Hogarth, and fast men about 
town. He presented his picture, " The Finding of Moses," to the 
Foundling Hospital ; . and there is a portrait of himself in the 
National Portrait Gallery. He died February 2nd, 1776, in Dean 
Street, Soho, London. 

Hiluard, Nicholas, portrait and miniature painter, and one of 
the first-class, who, though born in Exeter in 1547, and practising 
his art during the reign of Elizabeth and James I., is still regarded 
as inferior to few who have succeeded him. His father was high 
sheriff of Exeter in 1560. 

He was apprenticed to a goldsmith, and afterwards studied 
miniature painting, taking for his example the work of Hans 
Holbein, and the best models he could follow. He was appointed 
goldsmith, carver, and portrait painter to Queen Elizabeth, and 
painted her portrait several times; and the same office was con- 
tinued to him by the patent of James I., who also gave him during 
twelve years the exclusive privilege " to mint, make, engrave, and 
imprint any pictures of our image or our royal family." 

He painted several pictures of Queen Elizabeth, a portrait of 
Mary Queen of Scots at the age of 18, and many of the nobility 
and celebrities of the age. In the collection of the Duke of 
Buccleuch are miniatures by him of Edward, seventeenth Earl of 
Oxford, a portrait of himself, of his wife Alicia Brandon, of 
Robert, Earl of Southampton, four of Lady Arabella Stuart, 
famous for her beauty and misfortunes, seven of Queen Elizabeth, 
also of George Clifford, third Earl of Cumberland, his father 
Richard Hilliard, Sir Philip Sidney, Edward Seymour, Duke of 
Somerset, and many others. Mr. W. H. Pole Carew has a portrait 
of Sir Gawen Carew, Kt ; Sir John Salusbury Trelawny, one of 
Queen Elizabeth ; the Earl of Portsmouth has two by his hand — 
Sir Henry Wallop, Kt, and Sir Oliver Wallop, Kt.; and the 
Marquis of Salisbury has a portrait of Mary Queen of Scots. 

He engraved the Great Seal of England in 1587. He painted a 
view of the Spanish Armada, and a curious jewel containing the 
portraits of Henry VII., Henry VIIL, Edward VL, and Queen 
Mary. On the top was an enamelled representation of the battle 
of Bosworth, and on the reverse the red and white rosea 

Peacham On Limning says: "Comparing ancient and modern 
painters brings the comparison to our own time and country ; nor 
must I be ungratefully unmindful of my own countrymen, who 



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ABT IN DEVONSHIRE. 237 

have been, and are still able to equal the best if occasion served, as old 
Hilliard, Mr. Isaac Oliver, inferior to none in Christendom for the 
countenance in small," &c. Kichard Heydock, of New College, 
Oxon, in his translation of Domazzo on Painting, published in 
1598, speaks of the "rare perfection we now see by the most 
ingenious, painful, and skilful master, Nicholas Hilliard." Of him 
Dr. Donne said, in his poem of The Storm — 

" An hand or eye 
By Hilliard drawn is worth a historye 
By a worse painter made." 

His works are still held in high esteem, and a collection of them 
was exhibited at the Exhibition of Old Masters at Burlington 
House, in 1879. He died January 6th, 1619, and was buried at 
St. Martin-in-the-Fields. 

Hoskino, William, architect, born at Buckfastleigh in 1808. 
In early life was taken to New South Wales, where he learned the 
elements of his business at the hands of a builder. Later in life 
he became Professor of Architecture at King's College. He wrote 
many treatises on the principles and practice of his profession, and 
the articles on architecture, building, and masonry, in the Ency- 
clopcedia Britannica. He died in London, August 2nd, 1861, and 
was buried in Highgate Cemetery. 

Hudson, Thomas, portrait painter, born in Devonshire in 1701. 
He studied under Jonathan Richardson, a leading portrait painter 
of the day, and married his daughter. He became a member of 
the Incorporated Society of Artists, and for many years was the 
fashionable portrait painter of the day. He is said to have merely 
painted the faces of his sitters, and to have left the figure and 
drapery to an assistant. It is impossible to class him among the 
great painters. There certainly was considerable grace in some 
of his figures. A portrait of a lady in Powderham Castle is as 
dignified and as graceful as ever was drawn ; but taken as a whole 
his pictures are weak, and not worthy of the fame he enjoyed 
during his day of fashion. They are so numerous as to be seen in 
the mansions of most country families. His paintings are not 
valued at the present day, and Hudson is chiefly spoken of as the 
master of the great Sir Joshua Reynolds. He died at Twickenham, 
January 26th, 1779. 

Excellent specimens of his work are to be found at Powderham 
Castle. In the board-room of the Exeter Hospital are portraits of 
John Tuckfield, Ralph Allen (whom Fielding copied for Squire 
Allworthy), and William Lee Dicker, and in the Exeter Guildhall 
are portraits of Sir Charles Pratt and George IL 

Jackson, William, amateur, born in Exeter in 1730. He was 
a friend of Gainsborough, and painted some clever landscapes. 
He died July 12th, 1803. 



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.238 ART IN DEVONSHIRE. 

Jenkins, Thomas, historical painter, born in Devonshire, a 
pupil of Hudson's. He went to Home, and studied historical 
subjects. He traded in antiquities, and amassed a large fortune, 
becoming the chief English banker at Borne. Through his means 
many works of antique sculpture were acquired by his countrymen. 
He died at Yarmouth in 1798. 

Johns, Ambrose Bowdbn, born in Plymouth in 1766. This 
excellent artist practised as a landscape painter. He was originally 
a bookseller, carrying on his trade in his native town, but his 
intelligence and agreeable manners procured him the friendship of 
the first gentlemen of Plymouth, among whom several took great 
interest in the young bookseller's progress in art Johns employed 
all his leisure in sketching, and in process of time he gave up 
business, built a cottage close to Plymouth, and started in life as a 
landscape painter. There he was constantly encouraged by the 
society of his art friends, among whom were Northcote, brother of 
the portrait painter, Haydon, Bidlake, Rogers, R. King, Ball, Sir 
Chas. Eastlake, early in his career, and Prout, Opie, Mitchell, and 
Cook, somewhat later. 

The great Turner sketched by his side, and spent a few days at 
the cottage. Indeed Turner and Johns frequently worked together, 
and our artist must have caught some of his fellow-student's style, 
for in after years one of his pictures was engraved by Turner's 
favourite engraver, John Cousen, and published with Turner's 
name to it in one of the old "Annuals." Johns was very angry 
when informed of the occurrence (a great mistake on his part, for 
a higher compliment could not have been paid him), and he wrote 
to the publisher, who behaved in a very handsome manner. This, 
however, gave rise to a coolness between the two painters ; not an 
actual rupture, but a cessation of intercourse. This engraving was 
taken from a picture in the possession of S. C. Hall, and after 
passing out of his hands was being offered for sale at Christie's as 
a genuine Turner, when a gentleman present stepped up to the 
auctioneer and named Johns as the artist Mr. Christie immediately 
mentioned the fact to the audience, but added, " Whether it be by 
Turner or not I know not ; one thing I do know, that I have not 
had a sweeter thing pass through my hands for a long time." This 
picture was sold by Mr. Palmer to Dr. Yonge, at whose house it 
hangs, almost spoiled (I am told) by cleaners or daubers. At 
another time a large canvas was publicly exhibited in Plymouth as 
a Turner, which his family at once recognized as the work of their 
father. After his death a gentleman of York purchased a picture 
as a Turner at Christie's for £600, which the Johns' family proved 
to be the work of their father, by producing the original sketch. 

Some of his pictures are at Saltram ; many are in the hands of 
the widow of Dr. Yonge, at Plymouth, and of Mr. Fisher, of 
Taunton. One of his finest works is in the gallery of Lord 



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AST IN DEVONSHIRE. 239 

Darnley of Cobham, and this picture was singled out for high 
praise by the art critic Waagen. 

Unfortunately, from his great carelessness as to medium, and 
from his having used asphalte too freely, many of his pictures have 
blackened sadly. 

Johns had no regular art education. He exhibited at the 
Academy, "Evening — Pirates landing their Cargo and a Female 
Captive/' and views in the neighbourhood of Plymouth. He died 
at Plymouth, December 10th, 1858. 

Kino, John, history and portrait painter, born at Dartmouth in 
1788. He studied at the Academy, and first exhibited in 1817. 
He painted historical subjects for several years, but obtained 
scant encouragement Latterly he tried portrait painting. He con- 
tinued to exhibit till 1845, and died at his native town on the 12th 
July, 1847. 

Leaky, James, portrait and miniature painter, born in Exeter, 
1773. He established himself in Exeter, and judging from the 
number of his pictures still to be found in Devonshire houses, 
must have had considerable practice. His miniatures were in oil, 
well coloured, and finished with great care. He was much esteemed 
as an artist. He resided in London in 1821-22, and exhibited at 
the Academy, " The Marvellous Tale," "The Fortune Teller," and 
two Devonshire landscapes. In 1838 he sent from Exeter three 
portraits and two landscapes to the Academy. He died in Exeter, 
February 16th, 1865, aged 92 years. There are two of his 
portraits in Exeleigh House, Starcross. 

Lee, Frederick Richard, b.a., landscape painter, born at 
Barnstaple in 1799. He was in his day one of the leading 
landscape painters of the English school, with such eminent men as 
Linnel, Creswick, Francis Danby, and Sidney Cooper. His career 
is especially interesting as showing the advance of a genuine 
nature-taught painter, for he began as an amateur, continued 
his study when he was serving as a young officer in the 56th 
Regiment, and leaving the army on account of weak health, 
entered as a student at the Academy in 1818. He soon attracted 
notice by his pictures contributed to the British Institution, and the 
directors awarded £50 as a mark of his merit. Born at Barnstaple, 
he was from his boyhood to old age a lover of the sea, and he 
painted almost as many sea pictures as landscapes. His pictures 
were for many years taken from the rich pastoral and river scenery 
of Devon, in several of which the cattle were painted by his 
friend, Sidney Cooper, who survives him ; and in one, " The Cover 
Side," painted in 1839, just after he was made a full Academician, 
the dogs, figure, and game were painted by Sir Edwin Landseer. 
This, with three other works, is in the National Gallery, the bequest 
of Mr. Vernon and Mr. Jacob BelL During the next decade of 



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240 ART IN DEVONSHIRE. 

his work be was a constant contributor of Devonshire landscapes, 
in which he distinguished himself as a painter of trees in the rich, 
full foliage of summer and autumn, bending over some shady 
shallow of the river, where the cows come to enjoy the cool stream, 
or some " silver pool," where the trout lie watching for the fly, or 
hiding the old mill, with its wheel and tumbling stream rushing 
among the rocks. One of his largest and best works was "A 
Summer Morning," with cattle by Sidney Cooper, exhibited in 
1848, which was recently sold at Christie's for £798. His passion 
for yachting led him to paint sea subjects, and in these he was even 
more happy than in his favourite Devonshire valleys. In 1859 he 
astonished his old admirers with a most spirited sea piece, " The 
Coast of Cornwall near the Land's End," with a dismasted ship 
tossed on a wild sea under a stormy sky being rescued by a steamer ; 
and "The Bay of Biscay, March 11th, 1857," his own little 
yacht struggling bravely with the huge dark waves — a scene of 
danger which he contrasted by a charming little picture of his 
" Cottage by the Brook," in the same exhibition. Again, in 1861, 
he had not only two remarkable views of Gibraltar, but a fine sea 
piece of the Plymouth Breakwater, which was compared favourably 
with Stanfield's " Homeward Bound," in the same exhibition. In 
the following year his large picture of " The Pont du Gard," the 
ancient Roman aqueduct near Nismes, another fine view of 
Gibraltar, and two or three of his pastorals, showed what a true 
artist he was in the versatility and vigorous exercise of his pencil. 
In 1864 he paid a visit to Garibaldi in his island home at Caprera, 
and painted many sketches, from which he did the picture of the 
General's house looking across the Straits of Bonifacio towards 
Corsica, exhibited next year along with one of his yacht, King- 
fisher, in a gale off the coast of Malaga. He was now, however, 
naturally losing his power with advancing years, and though he 
contributed a few more pictures to the exhibition, and had no less 
than six pictures in the first exhibition at Burlington House, in 
1869, he retired as honorary Academician in 1871, and died at 
Vlees Farm, Cape Colony, aged 81 years. 



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THE FAUNA OF DEVON. 

ORDER HYMENOPTERA. 

FAMILY ICHNEUMONIDJE. SECTION PUPIVORA. 

BY EDWARD PARFITT. 

(Bead at Dawliah, July, 1881.) 



In my contribution to the Fauna of Devon, last year, I 
enumerated the various species belonging to the first section 
of the order Hymenoptera ; namely, the Aculeata. This year 
I have done my best, by the aid of friends and my own 
collections, to continue the order in the division Ichneu- 
monidse. We saw in the first section that the habits both 
of the parasites and of their hosts, and their modes of life, 
were very peculiar, and also that the extraordinary order, 
arrangement, and the degrees of intelligence displayed by 
the industrious ants, surpass anything known amongst insect 
life. 

The present section of the great order Hymenoptera, so far 
as is known, is entirely parasitic ; that is, the larvae of the 
Ichneumons subsist either on the caterpillars of butterflies or 
moths, or on the pupae of the order Lepidoptera, and are 
termed, from their habits, pupivora, and I may add larvivora, 
or pupae and larvae eaters, both of which are strictly true. 
They may also be denominated anatomists and vivisectionists, 
both of which are likewise true. The application is particu- 
larly true as regards the latter, for they are the most persistent 
vivisectionists known ; their own lives, in fact, depend upon 
their skill as operators in this apparently disgusting and 
cruel work of torturing, and ultimately destroying, the lives of 
those caterpillars which they may fix upon as their hosts or 
victims. This, seen from a vivisectionists point of view, is 

VOL. XIIL Q 



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242 THE FAUNA OF DEVON. 

a merciless and cruel act ; that the beautiful caterpillars of 
the most gorgeous of the insect world should be tortured and 
tormented and eaten up piecemeal by these silent workers of 
their destruction. They might be termed the "teeth and 
claws" of nature. 

The insects of this section cannot, so far as is known, be 
traced further back in time than the Upper Miocene forma- 
tion, and in this they are found associated with the gnats and 
Hies of most of the families now living, as also with ants 
and bees and a few Lepidoptera. Considering that these 
insects are mostly parasitic on the larvae of Lepidoptera, they 
were probably not introduced much before them. At the same 
time, they are not entirely confined to the butterflies and 
moths, as one new species, or one unknown to science, will 
be found described in this list ; it was bred from the pupa 
case of the small whirligig-beetle, Oyrinus natator, found by 
the Eev. J. Hellins. I have named it, from its habit, 
Hemitelcs gyrini. I have bred species from the larvae of the 
beetle which infests our houses and furniture, the different 
species of Anobium; also from the larvae and pupae of 
Dipterous insects, and from the nests of spiders, on whose 
nests of eggs the larvae of the parasites feed ; so that it will be 
seen that their habits range over most of the great orders of 
the insect world. In some cases the parasite, so far as is 
known, is attached to one species of insect ; and as there is 
never a rule without an exception, we have others which 
seem to attack butterflies and moths indiscriminately. To 
understand the habits of these various species it is necessary 
to collect the larvae of such Lepidoptera or other orders and 
feed them and keep them separate and watch the result. 
My friend Mr. Bignell, of Stonehouse, and the late Mr. 
D'Orville and myself have been very successful in rearing 
some new and interesting species, which will be found 
enumerated further on, with their hosts. 

The development of these parasites from the larvae or 
pupae, as the case may be, was a great source of speculation 
amongst the earlier philosophers, who conceived it possible 
that one animal had occasionally the power of being abso- 
lutely transformed into another ; and Swammerdam records 
as a thing very wonderful that 545 flies of the same species 
were produced from four chrysalides of a butterfly; so that 
the life of the four seemed to have transmigrated into that 
of the 545 others. And we may still say with Swammerdam 
that it is wonderful that a creature should go on living, 
with so many lesser creatures living and fattening on its 



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HYMBNOPTERA— ICHNEUMON IDiE. 243 

flesh, without directly taking its life. This fact alone is very 
significant, and shows that the life, whatever that may be, is 
not equally distributed throughout the animal, but that it is 
confined to certain nervous systems in the structure of the 
animal, termed " vital organs." Hence these parasites can, 
and do, feed upon the adipose or fatty flesh, if I may so call 
it, of the victim, without taking its life. 

Dean Swift may well exclaim, in the following lines 
(although his verses do not run so smoothly as the modern 
version of them), that — 

* " The vermin only teaze and pinch 
Their foes superior by the inch ; 
So nat'ralists observe, a flea 
Hath smaller fleas that on him prey, 
And these have smaller still to bite 'em, 
And so proceed ad infinitum" 

This is literally true, as these parasitic Ichneumons have 
parasites which live in them and destroy them ; the lesser 
ones are called hyper-parasites, the Pteromali, and others too 
numerous to mention here. 

In the larva state the Ichneumons subsist entirely on the 
fluids and adipose matter of other insects, and are either 
attached singly to the external surface of the bodies of their 
victims, or are located internally between the tissues: they 
drink up the life-blood prepared for another without entirely 
destroying the means of its production. 

The larvae, writes Mr. George Newport,t undergo the same 
mode of growth, the casting of the skin, and gradual develop- 
ment, as a common Lepidopterous larva ; the chief difference 
between the larvae of the parasites and other larvae is in their 
earlier stage, when their digestive apparatus is merely a simple 
sac, or bag, rounded and closed at its larger extremity, with 
an imperforated intestine proceeding from it without an 
outlet. 

Very little undigested substance remains after the assimi- 
lation of the nourishment imbibed, and consequently no 
excretory outlet to the organ is required. This is a beautiful 
adaptation to the creature's mode of life, that the assimilation 
of the one should be so exactly adapted to the wants of 
another, so equally balanced, that nothing remains over and 
above. No change in the economy or in the development of 
the internal organisation of the creature takes place, so far 
as is known, until the individual is replete with nourishment, 

• Swifts Works, v. viL, p. 268. 

t Linncean Society* 8 Transactions, voL xxi. p. 61, partim. 
Q 2 



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244 THE FAUNA OF DEVON. 

or, in other words, full fed and ready to undergo its change 
into a pupa. 

" When this period of its existence has arrived, it is first 
necessary that the unassimilated portion of food, together 
with the worn-out materials of the body, should be removed, 
and this necessitates the change from a closed receptacle to a 
canal" 

It would appear from this that the old or worn-out mate- 
rials of the internal organs, the epithelial cells, &c, of the 
bag-like stomach, could not be digested, and therefore accu- 
mulated, and consequently necessitated a cloacal arrangement 

Professor Owen says, speaking of the habits of the larvae, 
that "they avoid penetrating the alimentary canal, but 
evidently destroy many of the minute branches of the tracheae 
which ramify in the adipose tissue ; such wounded tracheae 
probably permit the escape of sufficient air for the respiration 
of the parasitic larvae ; for though the caterpillars so infested 
survive and go into the pupa state, they are uneasy and 
evidently diseased ; the loss of the adipose store of nutriment 
prevents the completion of the metamorphosis ; they perish, 
and instead of a butterfly, a swarm of small Ichneumons 
emerge from the cocoon,"* 

The marvellous instinct or knowledge displayed by the 
parent Ichneumons in searching out the victims for their 
oviposition is something to be seen, but not understood. 
We cannot, with all our knowledge of the habits and pecu- 
liarities of insects, divine how it is that certain species of 
Ichneumons should know, out of the numerous larvae of 
butterflies and moths, to say nothing of the wood-boring 
beetles, &c, the special ones for the purpose of depositing 
their eggs, and, of course, at the same time seeking their 
destruction. The caterpillars, at the early stage at which 
they are generally sought, are so much alike in a great many 
instances that they are with difficulty distinguished by the 
student ; and yet these keen-sighted (if it be sight) Ichneu- 
mons are able to distinguish them. Do they, I wonder, 
reason to themselves, when passing by those that are nearly 
like the ones they are looking for, and say, "Am I right?" 
This selection passes our comprehension. We call it instinct ; 
but this does not help us to a knowledge of what it really is. 
This power of discrimination is quite as great, if not greater, 
in the lower forms of life than it is even in man himself. 
Take the oviposition of a moth or # a butterfly: the greater 
number of moths are nocturnal in their hours of flight, and 
* Invertebrates, p. 432, 2nd edit. 



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HYMENOPTERA— ICHNEUMONID^J. 245 

yet they are able to distinguish one plant from another, and 
select the one proper for the food of their progeny, so that 
when these leave the egg they shall not have to search for 
food. 

We may apply this same reasoning to the minute Ichneu- 
mons, which are parasitic on the eggs of certain butterflies 
and moths. The eggs of insects, of course, are extremely 
small, but even they are subject to the attacks of minute 
creatures, which deposit an egg in each egg of the insect on 
which the young larva is to feed : it does not eat or injure 
the shell of the moth's egg until it is full fed and ready to 
undergo its transformation, and in most they even make the 
egg-shell a kind of protecting covering, for they undergo their 
pupation inside, and only emerge when they are ready to fly 
away to perform the same round as did their parent. 

To pursue this instinctive peculiarity of the Ichneunionidse 
further, there are certain kinds attached to some species 
of Aphis, the tete noire of the gardener, and especially the 
rose cultivator. It may be observed, by those who will take 
the trouble to investigate this subject, that generally amongst 
a number of Aphides, say feeding on a rose tree, there are 
many with bodies much swollen, which have changed from a 
green colour to nearly white. These Aphides have been (so- 
called) stung by the Ichneumons ; that is, an egg has been 
deposited in each of their bodies, and has hatched ; the young 
larva has devoured the contents of the Aphis, and has 
utilised its body as a protection for its own thin pupa skin. 
By collecting these white-looking Aphides, and keeping them 
under a glass, the Ichneumons may be seen to emerge. 
These, when once ascertained, should be encouraged as bene- 
factors to man. 

The same may be said of those species of Ichneumons that 
attack the larvae of several species of Dipterous insects, so 
destructive to the growing crops of wheat and barley. The 
larva of the fly, when feeding inside the growing plant, and 
in the early stage, is not discoverable by man until it has 
eaten away some of the centre of the corn plant, when its 
presence may be discovered by the young blades growing 
pale and yellow ; but prior to this a little Ichneumon, called 
Cephus pygmceus, has had his eyes on this so-called diseased 
plant, and has deposited, by some means not exactly under- 
stood, an egg in this devouring larva. But the mystery is, 
how did this Ichneumon know that there was a larva in this 
growing wheat plant, and how did she know whereabouts to 
perforate the plant so as to deposit her egg in the larva 



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246 THE FAUNA OF DEVON. 

feeding inside unseen by human eye ? The egg could not 
have been dropped in at the top, for the closely-sheathing 
leaves of the plant would preclude this; she must, there- 
fore, have perforated the stem with her ovipositor, but we are 
left entirely in the dark as to her knowledge of ascertaining 
its whereabouts. The probability is that some, if not all, 
these internal feeding insects may give off a scent, which 
although imperceptible to us, is perceptible to the Ichneu- 
mons ; for, whenever they are on the search for victims in 
which to deposit their eggs, they are constantly vibrating 
their antennae, waving them to and fro, as if beating the air. 
Nearly all these insects are provided with very long antennae, 
but the sense of smell in insects is still an open question. 
Various experiments have been tried to prove or negative 
this sense, but it is still doubtful how insects obtain the 
knowledge which they possess ; they certainly know how to 
apply it. 

Some of the Ichneumons have a veiy peculiar, an inde- 
scribable kind of scent or smell when handled, the larger 
ones more especially. Many insects have a disagreeable 
smell ; the plant bugs, for instance, the Oil Beetle, &c. The 
Devil's Coach-horse Beetle, Staphyliniis olens, however, has 
a very agreeable smell to us, which may be very objectionable 
to insects or animals which might attack it The scent 
given off by the Ichneumons may probably serve as a means 
of defence to repel the attacks of other parasites to which 
these insects are liable. 

One of the most remarkable things in the history of these 
insects is recorded by Messrs. Kirby and Spence, under the 
head of "Affection of Insects for their Young." These accu- 
rate observers remark, on the selection the parent Ichneumon 
makes when searching for a proper caterpillar in which to 
deposit her eggs: — "Perhaps, however, she discovers by a 
sense, the existence of which we perceive, though we have 
no conception of its nature, that she has been forestalled 
by some precursor of her own tribe that has already buried 
an egg in the caterpillar she is examining. In this case 
she leaves it, aware that it would not suffice for the sup- 
port of two, and proceeds in search of some other yet 
unoccupied." This, it must be admitted, is very wonderful, 
and how she obtains the knowledge is entirely beyond human 
ken. 

Much more might be said upon this interesting and at the 
same time difficult subject, did time and space permit. The 
vast field of study of insect life is one that ought to attract 



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HYMBNOPTERA — ICHNEUMONIDjK. 247 

more attention than it does. The present section is one, 
perhaps, of the least known of any in this country, and it has, 
perhaps, fewer workers in it than in almost any other. In 1872 
the Rev. T. A. Marshall catalogued all the species, so far 
as was then known, in the United Kingdom, and they only 
amounted to 1,654. Since then many have been discovered ; 
but still the list does not represent half the number that 
ought to, and, I believe, does exist in this country. Of this 
number I have enumerated 342 species, and I have many yet 
undetermined. 

In conclusion, I have much pleasure in tendering my best 
thanks to E. Fitch, Esq., of MaTdon, Essex ; and J. B. Bridg- 
man, Esq., Norwich ; for their kind assistance in determining 
some difficult species ; and also to Mr. Bignell, of Stonehouse, 
for the good work he has done in breeding so many interesting 
insects of this group. 



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248 THE FAUNA OF DEVON. 



CATALOGUE. 

WITH NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Gravenhorst, Ichneumonologia Europea. 1829. 

Nees ab Esenbeck, Hymenopterorom Ichneumonibus Affinium Monographic. 

18S4. 
Haliday, in Annals of Natural History. 1839. 
Newport, G. f in Linnsean Society's Transactions. 1845. 
Stephens, Illustrations of British Entomology. 1835. 
Curtis, J., Farm Insects. 1860. 
Devices, Catalogue British Ichneumon idse. 1856. 
Marshall, Catalogue British Hyraenoptera. 1872. 
Donovan, British Insects. 
Curtis, J., British Insects. 

Marshall, Rev. T. A., in Entomologist's Annual. 1874. 
Westwood, Introduction to the Modern Classification of Insects. 1840. 
Messrs. E. Fitch and J. B. Bridgman, in Litt. 1881. 
Owen, Prof., Lectures on the Invertebrate Animals. 1855. 
Goss, H., Fossil Entomology, Ent Mont. Mag. 1879-80. 

Order, HYMENOPTERA. 

Family, ICHNEUMON ID JE, Leach. 

Section, PUPIVORA, Latreille. 

Genus, ICHNEUMON, Linrueus. 

(Scutellum and abdomen black) 
BILINEATUS, Oml. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., i. p. 127; Steph., IU., v. vii. p. 133, 
This has been bred by Mr. Bignell, from Bryophila glan- 
difera, and also from the Gooseberry Moth, Abraxas 
grossulariata. 

LINEATOR, Fab. 

Qrav., Ich. Europ., i. p. 120 ; Steph., 111., v. vii. p. 190. 

Captured on Prawle Point, in August. Variety of female, 
with abdomen entirely castaneous red. 

comitator, Linn. 

Qrav., Ich. Europ. i. p. 108 ; Steph., VI. v. vii. p. 127. 

Taken on heads of umbelliferous flowers, frequently near 
woods, &c. 



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HYMENOPTERA— ICHNEUMONID^ * 249 

NlGRiTARius, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., i p. 113 ; Steph., v. viL p. 128-132. 

Beaten from hedges in June, and bred by Mr. Bignell 
from Abraxas grossidariata. 

coruscator, Linn. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., i p. 133 ; Steph., 111., v. vii. p. 133. 

Taken on flowers near woods in June. 

MACULIFRONS, Steph. 
ILL, v. vii. p. 133. 

Very rare; taken near Exeter in April This varies a 
little from the type, in having the base of the antennae 
black. 

(Scutellum pale or with pale spots, abdomen black.) 

ochropus, Oml. 

Orav. t Ich. Europ., i. p. 182 ; Steph., ILL, v. vii. p. 143. 

This appears to be very scarce; I have seen only one 
female. Stephens says the larvae feed on that of Abraxas 
grossulariata. 

FABRICATOR, Fab. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., L p. 185 ; Steph., I1L, v. viL pp. 187, 143, 196. 

The females of this species are so extremely variable in 
size and colouration that they have been named by 
naturalists as so many different species. It is one of 
our handsomest insects, and is generally distributed. 

OSCILLATOR, Holmg. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., L p. 233. (/. Pallipes.) 

Taken by Mr. Bignell near Plymouth. 

MTJLTIANNULATUS, OraV. 

Ich. Europ., i. p. 223 ; Steph., 111., v. viL p. 151. 

Frequent, by the sides of roads, on flowers of the large 
umbelliferae, in June and July. 

fuscipes, Gmd. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., L p. 224 ; Steph., 111., v. vii. p. 151. 

Not very common ; taken by Mr. D'Orville and myself. 
fuscipes, var. bubguttatus, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., v. p. 449 ; Steph,, v. vii p. 187. 

This was taken by Mr. D'Orville at Alphington, and I 
have bred it from pupae dug up at the roots of trees. 



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250 THE FAUNA OF DEVON. 

languidus, Wesm. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., i. pp. 200-218. 

This is very closely related to the one above, so much so 
that they require veiy nice discrimination. I have 
taken it on umbelliferous flowers in July. 

TRILINEATUS, Qmd. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., I p. 173 ; Steph., 111., v. vii. p. 142. 
Bred by Mr. Bignell from Abraxas grossulariata. 

(Scutdlum white or dotted with white, abdomen blacky the ultimate 
segments spotted with white.) 

SATURATORIUS, Linn. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., i. p. 237; Steph, 111., v. vii p. 154. 
By no means a common species, but widely distributed. 

anator, Fab. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., i. p. 250 ; Steph, 111., v. vii. p. 150. 
Not common, but generally distributed. . 

compatoeius, MiUl. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., i. p. 256 ; Steph, JXL, v. vii. p. 158. 
Common and generally distributed, 

cingulipes, Steph. 

VI., v. vii. p. 157. 

A fine but scarce insect; captured on flowers of umbellifera. 

LEUC0MELA8, QrCLV. 

Ich. Europ., i p. 255 ; Steph, 111., v. vii. p. 156. 

Stephens says captured in Devonshire in June. 

SUBMARGINATUS, GtTWO. 

Ich. Europ., i. p. 244 ; Steph, 111., v. vii p. 155. 
Taken by Mr. Bignell near Plymouth. 

GRACILENTUS, Wem,. 

Nov. Mem. Ac Brux, 1844, p. 47. 

Taken by Mr. Bignell in the Plymouth district 

(Scutdlum pale or spotted with white, abdomen of three colours, black, red, 
and white or yellow and white.) 

confusorius, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., i. p. 276 ; Steph., W., v. vii. p. 160. 

So far as my observation goes, this does not seem an 
abundant species. 



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HYMENOPTERA — ICHNEUMOtfID.E. 251 

RUDIBUNDUS, GrdV. 

Ich. Europ., i. p. 229. 

Taken at Laira by Mr. Bignell. 
suspiciosus, Wesm. 

Grav. f Ich. Europ., i p. 281 (?) ; Steph., Ill, v. vii p. 161 (?) 
This conspicuous insect is not uncommon on flowers of 
umbellifene. It is, however, rather uncertain whether 
this is the true Suspicioms of Wesmael. I have a 
specimen named by Mr. Marshall, but he adde£ a note 
of interrogation to it. 

(Scutellum pale, abdomen black, the middle belted or spotted with yellow or 
white, apical segments black.) 

VAGINAT0R1US, Linn. 

Grow., Ich. Europ., i p. 357; Steph., I1L, v. vii p. 174. 

An abundant species, and very variable in its markings ; 
found generally on flowers of the umbellifera, on the 
borders of woods, in July. 

XANTHORIUS, Forst. 

Qrav., Ich. Europ., i p. 361 ; Steph., IE, v. vii p. 173. 

Taken by Mr. D'Orville and myself; generally and sparsely 
distributed in July. 



(Scutellum pale, abdomen either with pale marks or the segments yellow, 
with the apical one black.) 

SUGILLATORIUS, Linn. 

Qrav., Ich. Europ., i p. 440 ; Steph., I1L, v. vii p. 186. 

Of this I have seen but one specimen only. 
luctatorius, Linn. 

Qrav., Ich. Europ., i p. 411 ; Steph., VI. , v. vii p. 182. 
A common species, parasitic on Triphama pronuha and 
other noctuidee ; a very variable insect as regards both 
size and colouring. 

inquinatus, Wesm. 

Ich. Europ., i p. 418 ; I. luctatorious, var. i. ; I. crassorious, of 
Desvigne's Catalogue. 

This fine insect would seem to be very rare ; one only has 
fallen to my net. 



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252 THE FAUNA 0? DEVON. 

LEUCOSTIGMUS, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., L p. 446. 

Captured by Mr. Bignell in the Plymouth district. 
jugatus, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., i. p. 452. 
Bred by Mr. Bignell from Tephrosia extermria. 

(ScuUllum pale, abdomen either entirely red or red and black,) 

LANTUS, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., i. p. 499 ; Steph, DL, v. vii. p. 192. 

This little species was taken by Mr. D'Orville, probably at 
Alphington. 

FUSC0CA8TANEUS, Grav. 
Ich. Europ., i p. 486. 

Of this I have only seen one ; it was presented to me by 
the late Mr. Style, who purchased the Eaddon Collection. 
I presume, therefore, that this was taken in North 
Devon. 

vacillatorius, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., i. p. 500 ; Steph., I1L, v. vii p. 192. 

Bred by Mr. Bignell from larvae of Depressaria Heradeana, 
August 12, 1878. 

(Scutellum blade, abdomen either entirely red or red and black.) 

CULPATOB, Schr. 

Orav., Ich. Europ., i. p. 548 ; Steph, 111., v. vii. p. 194. 

A scarce species with us, so far as my experience goes. 

CASTANEIVENTRIS, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., i. p. 556 ; Steph, 111., v. vii. p. 

I bred this from pupae dug up at the roots of trees, but am 
not sure what they were. 

LATRATOR, Fab. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., L p. 572; Steph., IU., v. viii. pp. 200, 206. 
I bred this from pupae of Orthosia staMlis in March, 1857. 

ROTATOR, Steph. 

111., v. viL p. 201. 

Captured by Mr. W. G. Woollcombe, near Hatherleigh, 
North Devon. 



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HYMENOPTERA— ICHNEUMONIDiE. 253 

GASTERATOR, Stephens. 

111., v. vii. p. 199. 

This species was named for Mr. D'Orville by Mr. Marshall, 
but he had some doubt as to the correctness. So far as 
the description given by Stephens goes, it agrees very 
closely. I have three specimens of it Mr. D'Orville 
bred this from Depressaria Heraclcana. 

Genus, EXOPHAHES, Wesmael. 
occupator, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., i. p. 425. 

Taken by Mr. Bignell in the Plymouth district. 

Genus, AKBLTTELE8, Wesmael. 

(Scutellum and abdomen black.) 
CASTIGATOR, Fab. 

Orav., Ich. Europ., i. p. 124 ; Steph., I1L, v. vii. p. 181. 

Captured by Mr. Bignell near Plymouth. 

(Scutellum pale or spotted with white, abdomen black.) 
SUBSERICANS, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., i. p. 161 ; Steph., HI., y. vii. p. 139. 

Captured at Ide on August 3rd, 1880. 
fossorius, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., i. p. 164 ; Steph., IU., v. vii. pp. 139, 140. 

Not common, so far as my experience goes ; taken in July. 

FUNEREUS, FoUTC. 

Orav., Ich. Europ., i. p. 206 ; Steph., IU., v. vii. p. 148. 

This was captured by Mr. D'Orville, probably in his garden 
at Alphington ; taken also by Mr. Bignell near Plymouth. 

PROTEUS, Christo. 

Orav., Ich. Europ., i. p. 217; Steph., 111., v. vii. p. 150. 

This fine insect has been bred both by Mr. D'Orville and 
Mr. Bignell from the Elephant Hawk Moth, Deilephila 
elpenor. 

(Scutellwm pale or spotted with pale colour, abdomen of three colours.) 

VADATORIUS, Rom. 

Orav., Ich. Europ., p. 304 ; Steph., IU., v. vii. p. 166. 

Captured on flowers of the umbelliferse, on the borders of 
woods, in July. 



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254 THE FAUNA OF DEVON. 

GRAVENHOitsni, Wesm. 

Orav., Ich. Europ., i. pp. 266, 321. 

This pretty insect is widely distributed, but not common. 

(Scutellwm pale, abdomen black, the middle belted or spotted with yellow or 
white, the apex black.) 

palliatorius, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., i. p. 385 ; Steph. I1L, v. vii. p. 177. 

This is one of the most abundant of the whole group, found 
on the large heads of umbelliferae. 

infbactoeius, Panz. 

Orav., Ich. Europ., L p. 368; Steph, , III, v. vii. p. 172. 
A widely distributed species, found on flowers by wood 
sides in July. 

OBATORIUS, Fab. 

Orav., Ich. Europ., i pp. 394-397; Steph., 111., v. vii. p. 179. 
Not common ; found near woods and thick hedges in July. 
Bred by Mr. Bignell from Aplecta nebulosa. 

ARMATORIUS, Forst. 

Orav., Ich. Europ., i. p. 870 ; Steph., 111., v. vii. p. 175. 

A common and widely distributed species ; the males are 
frequently to be met with on flowers by wood sides in 
June and July* This is parasitic on many kinds of butter- 
flies and moths. See Entomologist, vol. xiv. p. 110. 

(Scutellum pale, abdomen either with gale marks or the segments generally 
yellow, with the apical always black.) 

NOTATOEIUS, Fab. 

Orav., Ich. Europ., i. p. 429 ; Steph., 111., v. vii. p. 184. 

I have only seen one specimen, a female, of this very hand- 
some insect ; this I took near Lydford, in August, 1868. 

Gbnus, TROGU8, Panzer. 
LUTORIUS, Fab. 

Orav., Ich. Europ., i p. 374 ; Steph., 111., v. vii. p. 270. 

This has been bred by Mr. Bignell from pupae of Sphinx 
Ligustri, the Privet Hawk Moth. 

ALBOGUTTATUS, OrOV. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 373 ; Steph., 111., v. vii. p. 269. 

I have not seen a Devonshire specimen, but Stephens 
records it as taken in the country. Mr. Bignell has 
bred this from Orgyia pudibunda. 



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HYMBNOPTERA. — ICHNEUMONlDiE. 255 

PLATYURI, Wesmael. 
Gbnus, EURYLABU8, Wesmael 

DIRUS, Wesm. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., L p. 137 (Itristes). 

Taken by Mr. Bignell in the Plymouth district. 



Genus, PLATYLABU8, Wesmael. 
ORBITALIS, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., i. p. 490 ; Steph., I1L, v. vii p. 191. 
This appears to be rare with ua Mr. D'Orville captured 
one, and I have taken another. Var., with the face 
black, the inner orbits of the eyes alone pale yellow. 
Bred from a larva that was feeding on leaves of citron, 
in a greenhouse at Coaver, Exeter, March, 1852. 

PNEUSTICI, Wesmael. 
Genus, HERPBSTOMUS, Wesmael 

BRUNNICORNIS, Wesm. 

Ich. Europ., L p. 145 ; Steph., 111., v. vii. p. 136. 
I have only seen one specimen, which I captured some 
years ago. 

Genus, PHJEOGEHE8, Wesmael. 

MELANOGONUS, Omd. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., L p. 581. 
Taken by Mr. Bignell. 

ISOHIOMELINUS, Orav. 
Ich. Europ., i. 608. 

Also taken by Mr. Bignell near Plymouth. 

CANDIDATUS, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., i p. 193 ; Steph., 111., v. vii. p. 145. 
Bred by Mr. Bignell from Tortrix viridana. 

trepidus, Wesm. 

This is new to the British Fauna. Captured by Mr. 
Bignell, at Widswell Farm, in August, 1880. 

Genus, ALOMYIA, Panzer. 
DEBELLATOR, Fob. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., ii. p. 401. 

Captured. 



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256 THE FAUNA OF DEVON. 

Family, CRYPTIDJE, Shuckard. 
Genus, BTCLPHUS, OravenhorsU 
GAGATES, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., p. 667 ; Steph., IlL, v. vii. p. 209. 

Beaten out of trees near Exeter in June ; not common. 

PAVONLE, Scop. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., L p. 672 ; Steph. y W., v. vii p. 209. 

Beaten out of oak trees in June ; apparently scarce. 



Genus, PHYGADEMOH, OravenhorsU 
(Scutellum pale, abdomen red and black) 

CINCTORIUS, Fab. 

Orav., Ich. Europ., ii. p. 480 ; Steph., DL, v. vii p. 281. 

Taken in Devonshire, as recorded by Stephens. 
labvatus, Orav. . 

Ich. Europ., ii p. 662 ; Steph., 111., v. vii. p. 297. 

Captured on flowers of umbelliferse. 

(ScutcUum black 9 abdomen red or red and black.) 
vagans, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 758. 

Taken at Plymbridge by Mr. Bignell. 
bitinctus, Omel. 

Orav., Ich. Europ., ii p. 576 (Oryptus bitinctus) ; Steph., 111., v. vii. 
p. 290. 

erythrinus, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 621 ; Steph., I1L, v. vii. p. 294. 

Apparently rare ; I have seen only one specimen. 
variabilis, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 705. 

Captured at Lydford by beating hedges in June. 

OVATUS, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 668 ; Steph., Ill, v. vii. p. 298. 
Captured by Mr. D'Orville, probably in his garden at 
Alphington. 



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HYMENOPTERA— ICHNEUMONIDiE. 257 

PROFLIGATOR, Fab. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., ii. p. 729 ; Curtis, Fam. Ins., p. 414 ; Steph., 
111., v. vii. p. 303. 

A common species. Curtis says the female deposits her 
eggs in the larvse of Depressaria dauedla, the Carrot 
Moth. 

fumator, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 687; Steph., Ill, v. vii. p. 300. 

Bred from pupae of Mame&tra brassicce, the Cabbage Moth, 
and taken near Plymbridge. 

FUMATOR, var. 

galactinus, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 682 ; Steph., 111., v. vii. p. 299. 

This appears to be a rare insect with us ; taken on flowers 
in June. 

Genus, CBYPTU8, Fabricius. 
(Scutellvm and abdomen black.) 

TARSOLEUCUS, Sckr. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., ii. p. 447; Steph., 111., v. vii. p. 277. 
This is a rare insect with us. Stephens says the " larva 
subsists on that of Achatia juniperda" the Pine Moth. 
The Pine Moth is very rare in Devonshire, so far as I 
have been able to ascertain. 

MOSCHATOR, Fab. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., ii. p. 457; Steph., 111., v. vii. p. 277. 
Bare, so far as my experience goes ; taken in July. 

porrectorius, Fab. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., i. p. 642 (Ischnus porrecUrrius) ; Steph., IU., v. 
vii. p. 208. 

This was bred by Mr. D'Orville from Depressaria nervosella, 
and may sometimes be taken from flowers of umbelliferae 
in June. 

spiralis, Fourc. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., p. 454 ; Steph., Til., v. vii. p. 278. 

Captured in August near Lydford. 
lugubris, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 456. 

Taken near Plymouth by Mr. Bignell. 

VOL. XIII. R 



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258 THE FAUNA OF DEVON. 

(Scutellum spotted with white, abdomen red or red and black) 
tricolor, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 514 ; Steph., IU., v. vii. p. 293. 

Bred by Mr. D'Orville from Simyra venosa ; and I have 
bred it from pupae of Pcecilocampa popvli, the Poplar 
Moth; also from Leucania. There are several Ichneumon 
larvae in the larva of the moth. Thus, in P. populi 
there were six or seven; these, when full fed, spin a 
strong silken cocoon ; the silk is bound together with a 
white glaze; they are placed on each side of the old 
skin of the caterpillar, which occupies the centre of the 
pupa case. The Ichneumons came out August 6th, 1867. 
I have also bred this insect from cocoons of Trichiosoma 
leucorum, a large Saw-fly, on Whitethorn. 

ARROGANS, Qrav. 

Ich. Europ., ii p. 494 ; Steph,, 111., v. vii. p. 281. 

Captured on flower heads of the umbelliferae in July. 

ALBATORIUS, Vill. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., ii p. 536 ; Steph., 111., v. vii, p. 285. 

This appears to be a scarce species. 
bufiventris, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 497; Steph, 111., v. vii. p. 282. 

Captured by Mr. Bignell in the Plymouth district. 

(Scutellum blacky abdomen red or red and black.) 

TITILLATOR, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 564 ; Steph, I1L, v. vii. p. 289. 

Taken by sweeping in July. 

IHNATOR, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 556 ; Steph, 111., v. vii. p. 288. 
Not very common ; beaten from trees in July. 

OBSCURUS, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 548 ; Steph., IU., v. vii p. 287. 
Bred by Mr. D'Orville from Dianthcecia capsincola. The 
pupa case of this species is nearly cylindrical, with 
rounded ends, coriaceous, and of a dark, shining, 
mahogany colour. This is, perhaps, the commonest 
insect of all the genus. 



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HYMBNOPTERA-— ICHNEUMONIDjE. 259 

analis, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 560 ; Steph., 111., v. vii. p. 289. 

Captured both by Mr. DOrville and myself in June; 
taken also in the Plymouth district. 

migrator, Fab. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., ii. p. 592 ; Steph., 111., v. vii. p. 291. 
Bred from Bombyx quercus; and Mr. Stephens says the 
larva feeds on that of Spilosoma erminea; the Oak 
Egger and the Ermine Moth. 

PEREGRINATOR, Linn. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., ii. p. 605 ; Steph., Ill, v. vii. p. 283. 
Apparently a scarce species ; taken in July. 

(Abdomen with the apex entirely white.) 

SIGNATORIES, Fab. 

Grav.y Ich. Europ., p. 892. 
Mr. Bignell bred this from an old bramble stem ; came out 
in May, 1878. 

Genus, ME808TEH US, Gravenhorst. 
obnoxius, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 763. 
This has been bred from Zygoma JUipendulce, by Mr. 
Bignell, Plymouth. 

Genus, HEMITELE8, Gravenhorst. 
(Thorax and abdomen black.) 
TRISTATOR, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 787. 
Taken by sweeping the banks of the South Devon Railway 
near Dawlish, in July and October. 

SIMILIS # Grav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 793. 
Taken both by Mr. D'Orville and myself; rather common; 
generally distributed. 

melanarius, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 790. 
Apparently scarce ; captured at Fordlands in June. 

R 2 



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260 THE FAUNA OF DEVON. 

tenebricosus, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 785. 
Taken at Plymbridge 1880. Mr. Bignell. 



{Thorax black, abdomen red and black.) 

jESTIVALIS, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 805. 
Captured at Ide, near Exeter, in August ; apparently rare. 

MELANGONUS, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 816. 
Captured by sweeping grass in the Exeter district in the 
end of May. 

OXYPHYMUS, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 815. 
I dug this species out of an old post in which were both 
larvae of coleoptera and hymenoptera; which this is 
the parasite of I cannot say. 

floricolator, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 841. 
Captured by sweeping clover fields on Stokehill in May. 
Apparently rare. 

decipiens, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 825. 
Taken by sweeping rank hedges in the Duryard Estate, 
near Exeter, in August. Apparently rare. 

SCRUPULOSUS, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 817. 
Beaten out of larch in Fordlands Wood, Ide, near Exeter, 
April 16, 1881 ; one female only. 

imbecillus, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., ii p. 813. 
Beaten from oak in a field on Rollston's Farm, in May. 

formosus, Desv. 

Trans. Ent Soc, liv. 2, v. v. p. 211. 
This handsome species is figured on Plate xii. f. BB. 
Blackwall's British Spiders ; it is parasitic on Agelena 
brunTiea. I captured my specimen by sweeping in a 
hilly grass-field near Exwick, the end of May. 



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HYMENOPTBRA.— ICHNEUMONIDjE. 261 

TENEKRIMUS, GrdV. 

Ich. Europ.,ii. p. 831. 
This species, when full fed, makes a large gregarious 
mass of cocoons, similar to a microgaster ; the mass is 
white, ovate, as large as a robin's egg, and attached to 
a blade of grass. 1 could not find the larvae on which 
these had been. Some of the specimens were apterous, 
but most of them winged. Taken on Dartmoor. 

crassicornis, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 847. 
This was taken by Mr. D'Orville, but where I do not 
know, probably at Alphington. 

GYRINI, Parft. 

Male. Length, 2 lines. 

Head, thorax, and scutellum black ; head somewhat square* 
wider than the thorax ; mouth ferruginous ; palpi pale 
straw-colour. 

Antennae black above, piceous beneath; the basal joint 
large and inflated, with a deeply impressed annulus near 
the apex; second joint pale yellow at the base; all 
densely pubescent ; half the length of the abdomen. 

Thorax smooth in front, the rest clothed in a yellowish 
pubescence. 

Wings, ample, hyaline, iridescent; stigma and nerves, 
dark, piceous ; base and scale, pale yellowish. 

Legs, pale reddish straw-colour ; the claws of the anterior 
pair, and the intermediate and posterior tarsi, dark 
fuscous. 

Abdomen longer than the head and thorax, fusiform- 
clavate ; peduncle very narrow, black ; the first, second, 
and third segments red, the rest black ; the first seg- 
ment depressed in front, having two black dots on the 
dorsal surface, near the middle; inferior surface the 
same colour as the superior, clothed in rather a dense 
pale pubescence. 

Female. Length, 2 lines. 

Head, thorax, and scutellum, shining black ; mouth black ; 
prothorax with two deeply impressed lines ending at the 
base of the scutellum. 

Scutellum, small cordate, with a deep impressed line run- 
ning round it. 

Antennae, a facsimile of the male, except that these are 
black, length If lines. 



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262 THE FAUNA OF DEVON. 

Wings ample, iridescent ; stigma and nervures black ; base 
pale, scale whitish. 

Legs, bright red; anterior claws, middle tarsi, the base 
and apex of the posterior tibia, and tarsi, entirely dull 
black. 

Abdomen, ovato-elliptical ; peduncle, shining black, with 
two longitudinal impressed lines ; the first, second, and 
third segments red, the latter with a black fascia ; the 
rest black, with their extreme apices whitish. 

Ovipositor $ line in length, black. 

This distinctly marked species has been submitted to the 
best authorities in this country, and, so far as can be 
ascertained, it is undescribed; it was bred from the 
pupae of Qyrinus natator, found by the Rev. J. Hellins 
attached to the tops of rushes growing by the side of the 
Exeter Canal, in July, 1880, and again this year at the 
beginning of July. The Ichneumons came out on the 
20th. Three new species of the Ichneumonidae have 
now been bred from these pupae, and one hyperparasite, 
a species of Petromalus, apparently new. 

It would be interesting to know whether the parasites 
attack the larva of the Gyrinus before it leaves the 
water, or whether the larva is attacked in ascending the 
rush stems, or before it has entirely covered itself in its 
case. The Ichneumon is provided with a sufficiently 
long ovipositor to reach the larva inside the case, and 
probably this is the mode of attack; at the same time, 
it is not improbable that the larvae are attacked while 
still in the water. The parasite is rather thickly covered 
with hairs, which would entangle sufficient air to enable 
the insect to breathe for some little time under water. 
Be this as it may, the discovery of this species, and the 
knowledge of its habits, so far, is very interesting, and 
opens up a field of investigation most inviting to the 
entomologist 

{Thorax red and black.) 
CINGULATOK, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 858. 
Captured by Mr. D'Orville, of Alphington, and also by Mr. 
Bignell, in the Plymouth district. 

areator, Pan*. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., ii. p. 865. 
Taken both by Mr. D'Orville and myself; not common. 



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HYMENuPTERA — ICHNEUMONIDjB. 263 

AREATOR, Var. i. 

Grav.y Ich. Europ., ii. p. 856. 
I captured this variety by sweeping clover on Stokehill, in 
May. The fascia on the wings are obsolete, and the 
base of the abdomen is black instead of red. 



Gbnub, OBTHOPELMA, Taschmberg. 

LUTEOLATOR, GrCLV. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 826. 

Bred from the pupa of Rhodites rosce, the Rose Gall Maker. 
This insect varies a good deal in the colour of the abdo- 
men, and also in the markings; sometimes these are 
entirely wanting. 

Gehus, CBEMMODES, Foster. 

ATRICAPILLUS, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 888. 
Captured by sweeping herbage ; not common ; in Septem- 
ber. My two specimens are quite apterous. 

Genus, AGROTHEREUTES, Ffrster. 
HOPEI, Orav. 

Ich. Europ. Supp., p. 715 ; Curtis, Brit. Ent d. ixxvi. 

Taken by Mr. Bignell in the Plymouth district. 

Genus, APTESIS, Ffrster. 

nigrocincta, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 880. 
Taken by sweeping ; July; rare. 

BRACHTPTERA, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., il p. 876. 

Apparently very scarce; I have seen only one specimen. 

Genus, HEMHIACHU8, Ratzeburg. 

PALPATOR, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., ii p. 818. 
Taken in Stoke Wood by beating larch trees in October. 

fasciatus, Fab. 

Grav.y Ich. Europ., il p. 889. 
I bred this from a nest of the brown spider, Agdena brm- 
nea; it is one of the most common species of this group. 
Taken in the Plymouth district. 



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264 THE FAUNA OF DEVON. 

bufocinctus, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., iL p. 811, 892. 
Taken by sweeping herbage on Langs tone Cliff in July; 
not uncommon. 



Genus, PEZOMACHUS, Gravenhorst. 
VAGANS, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., iL p. 890. 
Apparently rare ; taken at Dawlish in June. 

NIGBICORNIS, Fdrst. 

Ich. Europ., iL p. 895. P. Agilis, var. 2. "Antennis nigris femoribus 
fusco maculatis. 

Not common ; taken by sweeping in July. 

AGiLis, Forst 

Weigm, Arch., 1850, p. 171. 
Taken by sweeping herbage near woods in July. * 

VIDUUS, Ford. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., iL p. 909. P. hortensis, var. 3. Rufofulvus, 
capite et antennis nigris, abdominis apice fusco aut nigro, fern. 

Captured in Stoke Wood in October; not common. 

VULPINUS, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 914. 
An uncommon species ; taken by sweeping in October. 

ANTHRACINUS, Forst. 

Weigm, Arch., 1850, p. 123. 
Apparently rare; taken by sweeping rank herbage in 
August, near Exeter. 

pumilus, Forst. 

Weigm, Arch., 1850, p. 131. 
Captured running among Formica nigra, but not in the 
nest, at Dawlish, June, 1880. 

MICRURUS, Ford. 

This species is new to the British list, and it is certainly 
one of the handsomest of the whole genus. I took it by 
sweeping in July, near Ide. 

zonatus, Forst. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., iL p. 1096. (P. aranearum.) 
This has been bred from spider's eggs, Agelena brunnea, 
taken in Cann Wood by Mr. Bignell. 



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HYMENOPTERA — ICHNEUMON IDiE. 265 

PROCDRSORIUS. 

This is new to the British list ; it was bred from a larva 
found feeding on oak in Cann Wood, by Mr. Bignell, in 
1880. 

rufulus, For&t. 

Weigm, Arch., 1860, p. 148. 
Taken in the Plymouth district. 

OFElOmDE8,ffolmgren. 
Genus, HENIC08PILUS, Stephens. 

RAMIDULUS, Linn. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., iii. p. 699 ; Steph., 111. Supp., pi. xl. f. 4. 

Taken by Mr. Bignell in the Plymouth district. 

Genus, OPHIOH, Fabricius. 
OBSCURUM, Fab. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., iii. p. 689. 
A common species, met with in woods, by beating trees 
and thick hedges, and on Exmouth Warren, in July and 
August. 

luteum, Linn. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., iii. p. 692. 
This is parasitic on the Puss Moth larva, Cerura vinula, 
and common everywhere. 

ventricosum, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 702 ; Curtis *s Brit Insects, pi. d., c. 
Kecorded by Curtis as taken in North Devon. 

minutum, Kriech. 

This is new to Britain ; it was captured at.Laira by Mr. 
Bignell. 

Genus, SCHIZOLOMA, Wesmael. 
AMICTA, Fab. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., iii. p. 650 ; Curtis, Brit Ent, d. ccxxxvi. 
Bred from larvae of Fupithecia linariata, taken at Laira 
by Mr. BignelL 

Genus, EXOCHILUM, Wesmael. 
CIRCUMFLEXUM, Linn. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., iii p. 643 ; Donov., Brit. Ins.,y. iii. pi. 93, f. 2. 
Captured in the Plymouth district. 



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266 THE FAUNA OP DEVON. 

Genus, AN0MAL0N, Jurine. 
XANTHOPUS, Schr. 

Grav.y Ich. Europ., iii., p. 652. 

Bred by Mr. D'Orville from pupae of Agrotis ripce. This 
is common on the sandhills on Exmouth Warren in 
July; taken also at Bickleigh. 

ruficorne, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 655. 

This has been bred by Mr. Bignell from the half-grown 
larvae of the Drinker Moth, Odonestis potatoria. 

cerinops, Orav. 

Ich. Eurep., iii. p. 658. 

This has also been bred from Agrotis ripce, found on 
Exmouth Warren. 

CLANDESTINUM, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 670. 
This was bred by Mr. D'Orville from larvae of Eupithecia 
albipunctata ; bred also from Hemithea tkymiaria, by 
Mr. Bignell. 

bellicosum, Wesm. 

Bui. Acad., Bnix, 1849, p. 124. 
Taken by Mr. Bignell in the Plymouth district. 

Genus, AGBYP01T, Fdrster. 
flaveolatdm, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., iii p. 664. 
This is by no means a common species; taken in the 
woods at Dunsford in July. 

Genus, TRICHOKXA, Wesmael. 
ENECATOR, Rossi. 

Grav^ Ich. Europ., iii. p. 641. 
Taken in the Plymouth district. 

Gb*U8, OPHELTS8, Holmgren. 

GLAUCOPTERUS, Linn. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., iii. p. 632. 

Apparently very rare. I have a specimen that was pre- 
sented to me by the late Mr. S. Style, from the Raddon 
Collection; so that it was probably taken in North 
Devon. 



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HYMENOPTERA — ICHNEUMONIDiE. 267 

Ghnus, PAVI8CUS, Sckrank. 
CEPHALOTES, Holmg. 

Taken by Mr. D'Orville and myself, but not common ; also 
taken in the Plymouth district. 

virgatus, Faurc. 

Grav.y Ich. Europ., iii. p. 625; Newporty Trans. Linn. Society, xxi., 
p. 71. 
This species is parasitic on the larvae of the Broom Moth, 
Mamestra pisi, and probably 6n some other species, as 
it is rather common. 

tarsatus, BrischJce. 

New to Britain ; bred from Eupithecia abbreviata, by Mr. 
Bignell. 

testaceus, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 626. 
Bred from pupae dug up at the roots of trees. Gravenhorst 
says it is parasitic on Noctua artemisiat. Mr. Bignell 
says it is parasitic on Dicranura vintda. 

inquinatus (?), Orav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 631. 
Taken at Lydford. 

Genus, CAMFOPLEX, Gravenhorst. 
mixtds, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., iii p. 601. 

Captured in woods in August, but not common ; generally 
distributed. 

pugillator, Linn. 

Grav.y Ich. Europ., iii 606. 
One of the most frequent of all the Ichneumonidse, on the 
flower heads of the umbelliferse in July and August. 
Bred by Mr. Bignell from Corycia temerata. 

anceps, Holmg. 

Grav.y Ich. Europ., iii. p. 610. (C. pugillator, var. 6.) 
Captured in Devonshire. Eev. T. A. Marshall, in Ent. 
Annual, 1874, p. 143. 

NITTDULATOR, Holmg. 

This little species was bred by Mr. D'Orville from pupae 
of JEuptihecia venosata. 



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268 THE FAUNA OP DEVON. 

Genus, CASINABIA, Holmgren, 
vidua, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 532. 
This has been bred from the pupae of the Gooseberry Moth, 
Abraxas grossulariata. 

tenuiventris, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 482. 
Bred by Mr. Bignell from Hemithea thymiaria. 



Genus, LIMNEBIA, Holmgre'n. 

{Abdomen and antennae Hack.) 
ALBIDA, Gmd. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., Hi. p. 474. 
Bred from the pupae of the Brimstone Butterfly, Oonopteryx 
rhamni, by Mr. Bignell, Plymouth, and by myself. It 
made a large cocoon, for the size of the insect, inside the 
skin of the dead caterpillar, leaving the head and tail of 
it free. The cocoon has a shining, whitish appearance, 
and set all over with minute spines, which is the old skin 
of the larva. 

ANNULATA, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 493. 
Taken by sweeping long grass and nettles at Duryard, near 
Exeter, May 6th, 1866, male and female. 

deficiens, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 474. 
Bred from Eupiifiecia jmlchellata. 

DIFFORMIS, Gmel. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., iii. p. 458. 
Taken by Mr. D'Orville, on flowers ; not common. 

MAJALis, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 462. 
Captured by beating trees in Heavitree Lane, in May, and 
bred by Mr. Bignell from an old oak gall. 

sordidus, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., iii p. 466. 
Taken on flowers of umbelliferae ; one specimen only. 



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HYMENOPTERA— ICHNEUMONIDiE. 269 

fenistralis, Holmg. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., iii. p. 464. (C. majalis, var. 4.) 
Bred by Mr. Bignell from Botys verticalis. 

(Abdomen Mack, first joint of antennas pale beneath.) 

fitchii, Bridgman. 

Catalogue British Ichneumonidae, p. 137, fig. 13. 
This was bred by Mr. Bignell from Nola albulalis. This 
does not spin a cocoon, but emerges from the long-haired, 
pale-coloured larva of its host. 

CARBONARIA, BrischJce. 

Bred by Mr. Bignell from Cidaria pyruliata. 

sericea, Holmg. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., iii. p. 515. (C. consumator.) 
This species makes a coriaceous cocoon, which is white 
on the outside, and ornamented with elongated black 
spots. 

erucator, Zett. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., iii p. 458 (part.) 
Taken at Lydford in June ; apparently scarce. 

faunus, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 517. 
I bred this from pupae of Gdechia paupella. Came out 
May, 1866 ; but it appears to be rare. 

tristis, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 492. 
This is one of the most abundant of the genus with us ; it 
is taken by sweeping grass and clover fields in May ; 
but up to the end of May females only have been taken. 
I have one small variety of this species, taken near 
Pinhoe ; it measures only 1 \ lines in length, whereas the 
typical ones measure 2£ to 3 lines. The variety differs 
in no respect in the colouring, except that it has a narrow 
orange-coloured band on the apical portion of the basal 
segment, and the posterior legs are paler than in the 
larger specimens. 

dumetorum, Holmg. 

Captured by sweeping rank herbage at Won ford, in May. 



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270 THE FAUNA OF DEVON. 

(Abdomen red and black, first joint of antenna pale beneath.) 

BICINGULATA, Qrav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 527. 
Not common; captured by Mr. D'Orville and myself in 
June. 

MELANOCINCTUS, Grav. 
Ich. Europ., iii. p. 539. 
Bred from the pupa case of Incurvaria (?). 

ALTEKNANS, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 537. 
Taken on heads of umbellifer® in June. 

CLAUSA, Brischke. 

Bridgman, Catalogue, p. 161. 
Bred by Mr. Bignell from Hybernia progemmaria. 

ujsicinctus, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., iii p. 529. 
Bred from Bupithecia rectangulata and Lomaspilis mar- 
ginata, by Mr. Bignell. 

(Abdomen red or red and black, antenna blacky rarely red beneath.) 

INSIDIATOR, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., iii p. 562. 
Captured by sweeping in Wonford Marshes in June; 
apparently rare. 

crassicobnis, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 565. 
Captured on flowers in June ; apparently scarce. 

floricola, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 600. 
The commonest of all the species, on flowers, generally 
distributed. 

MOS&TA, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 599. 
Bred by Mr. Bignell from ffiberma progemmaria and 
defoliaria. 

obscurella, Holmg. 

Bred from Hemithea thymiaria. 



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HYMENOPTERA— ICHNEUMONID.fi. 271 

Gbnus, ATBACTODES, Gravenhorst. 
VESTALIS, Hal. 

Ann. Nat. Hist, 1839, p. 118. 
This insect I bred. 

Genus, EXOLYTUS, F&rster. 
LiEVIGATUS, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 111. 
A widely distributed species, but not common ; taken in 
May and June. 

Gbnus, MBSOCHOBUS, Gravenhorst. 

SPLENDTDULUS, Grav. 

Var. 1. Grav., Ich. Europ., ii. p. 966. 
Taken by Mr. D'Orville, probably at Alphington. 

thoracictjs, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., ii p, 971. 
Captured by beating hedges on Eed Hills, Exeter, in Juna 

sericans, Curtis. 

Brit. Ins., pi. 464 
This has been bred by Mr. Bignell ; it is hyperparasitic on 
Exorista vulgaris, a Dipteron, out of the Gooseberry 
Moth larvae. 

FULGUKANS, Halt. 

In Ann. Nat. Hist, 1839, p. 114. 
Also bred by Mr. Bignell ; it is hyperparasitic on Casinaria 
vidua. The Casinaria larvae had fed on those of Abraxas 
grossulariaia. 

OLERUM, Curtis. 

Brit. Ins., p. 464 ; Hal., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, 1839, p. 114. 
This has been reared from Cassinaria vidua,a.n& has exactly 
the same habits as mentioned above. 

semirufus, Eolmg. 

So. Ak. HandL, 1860, n. s., p. 125. 
Bred from Eupithecia castigata, by Mr. Bignell. 

SYLVARUM, Hal. 

In Ann. Nat Hist, 1869, p. 114 
Bred from Apenteles cocoons, out of Vanessa atalanta. I 
bred it also from Pterophorus galactodactylus. 



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272 THE FAUNA OF DEVON. 

aciculatus, Bridgman. 

Catalogue, p. 162, pi. viii. fig. 11. 

This species is hyperparasitic on an Apanteles, probably 
A. glomerulus. Bred by Mr. Bignell. 



Genus, POBIZON, Fatten. 
HARPURUS, Schr. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., iii. p. 758. 
Taken by sweeping grass and nettles at Duryard, in May. 

Genus, THEBSILOCHTJS, Holmgren. 

SALTATOR, Fab. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., p. 777 ; Nees ab Esenb., L p. 224. 
Captured by sweeping herbage on the banks of the South 
Devon Eailway, between Starcross and Dawlish, in 
August. 

truncorum, Holmg. 

Grav.y Ich. Europ., iii p. 771. (P.jocator, var. 4.) 
Captured by sweeping rank herbage in June ; very rare. 

Genus, COLLYBIA, Schiikiie. 

calcitratob, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 727 ; Steph. y III, pi. 39, f. 2. 
Taken by Mr. D'Orville at Alphington. This insect is, 
according to Curtis, parasitic on Cephus pygmcew, the 
Com Saw-fly, which is in some seasons very destructive 
to corn crops. The Collyria, therefore, should be 
encouraged as far as possible. 

Genus, BXETASTBS, Gravenhorst. 

FORNICATOR, Fab. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., iii. p. 402. 

Not common ; taken on flowers in June. 

OSCULATORIUS, Fab. 

Grav.y Ich. Europ., iii p. 405 ; E. davator y 473. 
A frequent species on flowers of umbelliferse ; taken by Mr. 
D'Orville and myself. This varies a great deal both in 
size and colouration ; in some the abdomen is quite 
black, and in others red ; in some the scutellum is yellow 
or dotted with that colour, or quite black. The posterior 
legs also vary in the same degree. Mr. Bignell has bred 
it from the Cabbage Moth. 



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HYMENOPTERA— ICHNEUMONIDJE. 273 

albitarsus, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 430. 
Apparently scarce. I have only taken one specimen. It 
has also been taken in the Plymouth district. 

calobatus, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 405. 
Captured in the Plymouth district. 

Genus, ABOTES, Gravenhorst. 

albicinctus, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 448 ; Steph., 111., supp., pi. 36, f. 4, p. 2. 

This rare insect is said to be parasitic on Clytus arcuatus — 
a beetle, so far as I am aware, not found in Devonshire ; 
but an allied species, G. arietis, is very common, and it 
is probable it is parasitic on this also. I captured the 
only specimen I have seen near Lydford ; it is a female. 

Genus, BAHCHUS, Fabricius. 

piotus, Fab. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., iii p. 880 ; Donovan, Brit. Ina, v. zii p. 413. 

A scarce insect with us. I have a specimen from the 
Kaddon collection ; I presume it was captured in North 
Devon. Mr. Bignell has bred it from Selenia illunaria. 

FALCATOR, Fab. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., iii. p. 385 ; Curtis, Brit Ins., pi. 588. 

Also scarce, I have a specimen captured a few years ago, 
I think, at Fordlands. It has likewise been taken near 
Plymouth. 

VAMEGATOR, Fab. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., iii p. 377. (B. comprmus.) 

This pretty little species is scarce with us. Taken on 
flowers in June. 

TRYPHONIDES, Holmgrtou 
HOMALOPI, Holmgr&n. 
Genus, MESOLEPTTJS, Gravaihorst. 
TESTACEUS, Fdb. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., ii. p. 28 ; Steph., 111., v. vii. p. 216. 
Bred by Mr. Bignell from Ewpithecia castigata. 

fugax, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 56 ; Steph., 111., v. vii p. 220. 

Apparently scarce. I have only seen one specimen. 

VOL.XIH. S 



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274 THE FAUNA OF DEVON. 

TYPHiE, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 62 ; Stcph., 111., v. vii. p. 221. 

According to Stephens, this has been taken in Devonshire. 

VENTRAUS, Curtis. 
Brit. Ent, p. 644. 
I bred this from a rather short oval cocoon, black, with a 
broad whitish band running round it This band is 
ornamented near the margins, with a row of angular 
black spots; that is to say, the black cocoon is seen 
through these openings in the white band, which have 
the appearance of black spots. 

Genus, CATOGLYPTUS, Fbrslcr. 
fokhpes, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 86 ; Steph., 111., v. vii. p. 225. 

Captured by the side of the Creedy, on aquatic plants, in 
June. Taken also by Mr. D'OrviUe. 

fuscicornis, Omel. 

Grav.t Ich. Europ., ii p. 87 ; SUph. } 111., v. vii p. 226. 

An uncommon insect. Stephens had it from Devon, and 
I have taken it. 

Genus, EURYPBOCTUS, Holmgrtn. 
mundus, Grow. 

Ich. Europ., ii p. 78 ; StepK, 111., v. vii. p. 224. 
Stephens had this species from Devonshire, as recorded 
in the Illustrations. Taken in June. 

Genus, PEBHISSTJS, FfrsUr. 

vernalis, Grav. 

Ich-. Europ., ii. p. 294. 

Captured by sweeping grass and clover on Stoke Hill in 
May. 

filicornis, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., ii p. 94. 

Beaten out of hedges in various parts of the country in 
June. 

Genus, EC1YTUS, Holmgrin* 
OBNATUS, Holing. 

Sv. Ak. Handl., 1855, p. 127. 
Bred by Mr. Bignell from pupae of Tartric heparana. 



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HYMBNOPTERA— ICHNEUMONIDiE. 275 

Genus, KBSOLEIUS, Holmgrtn. 
hamulus, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 322. 

Captured on Maker in June, 1880, by Mr. BignelL 

MESOLBIUS BRACHYACANTHUS, Parft. 

Length, 2 J lines; expanse of wings, 4£ lines; antennae, 
2i lines. 

Black; head wider than the thorax; mouth and palpi, 
straw-yellow; antennae, black above, ferruginous be- 
neath ; basal joint very small ; the second rather large, 
with an arched protuberance above. 

Thorax, gibbous, smooth, shining black, very finely punc- 
tured; mesothorax with two short lateral concave spines ; 
the metathorax with two raised lines crossing each other 
nearly at right angles, forming a St. Andrew's cross. 

Wings, ample, with a faint smoky tinge, beautifully irides- 
cent; stigma and nerves, testaceous, all growing paler 
towards the base, where they are pale straw-yellow ; scale, 
pale yellow ; cellule, 4 — angular, irregular, oblique. 

Legs: anterior coxa, testaceous; the trochanters of the 
first and second part, pale sulphur-yellow; posterior 
coxa, black, tipped with pale sulphur. 

Anterior and median femora, testaceous yellow ; posterior, 
piceous, with a dark stain on the inside, towards the 
base, where it is pale yellow. 

Anterior tibia and tarsi, pale yellow; the apical joints, 
fuscous, or nearly black ; posterior, testaceous ; the apex 
and tarsi nearly black. 

Abdomen, black, cylindrical, but growing gradually larger 
towards the apex; finely, but not deeply, punctured; 
the basal segment with two testaceous yellow spots ; the 
rest, with their apices, pale testaceous. 

bignellh, Bridgmwtu 

Cat, pL 8. t 12. p. 163. 

Taken by Mr. Bignell in the Plymouth district 
Genus, TBEMAT0PYGUS, Holmgrtn. 

vellicans, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., ii p. 268. 

Captured at Widewell Farm, Tavistock Road, August, 1880, 

by Mr. Bignell. 
I have one specimen, taken at Ide in August, 1880. This 

appears to be a rare insect 
8 2 



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276 THE FAUNA OF DEVON. 

Genus, TBYPHOJT, FalUti. 
RTJTILAT0R, Linn. 

Orav. t Ich. Europ., iL p. 305 ; Steph., 111., v. vii. p. 262. 

Captured near Exeter, in June. Not common. 

TROCHANTERATUS, Holmg. 

Qrw., Ich. Europ., iL p. 308 (T. rutilator, var. 2). 

Taken at Lydford by beating hedges on the border of 
Dartmoor, in June. 

albipes, Grew. 

Ich. Europ., iL p. 221. 
Taken by sweeping among grass and clover in May. 

BRACHYACANTHUS, Ghfld. 

Qrav., Ich. Europ., ii. p. 242 ; SU})h. y I1L, v. vii. p. 250. 

Not common. Taken on flowers of umbelliferae, in June. 

Genus, EUMESIU8, Westwood. 
ALBITARSUS, Curtis. 
Brit. Ent pL 660. 

Captured on flowers near woods in June. 
Genus, POLTBLA8TU8, Hastig. 

varitarsus, Qrav. 

Ich. Europ., iL p. 222 ; Steph., 111. v. viL p. 247. 

Taken on flowers of umbelliferae in June. 
Var. L Taken by sweeping herbage on Stoke Hill, in May. 

hilaris, Holmg. 

Bred by Mr. D'Orville from pupae of Eupithccia succentu- 
riata. The pupa case of this insect is about the size of 
a caraway seed, and is very much like one, only this is 
strongly ribbed. 

Genus, CTBVI8CUS, Holiday. 
L1TURATORIUS, Lmn. 

Qrav., Ich. Europ., ii. p. 149; SUph. y 111., v. vii. p. 235-37. 
Captured by sweeping among grass and clover on Stoke 
Hill, Exeter, the end of May. 

Genus, 8PHECOPHAGA, Westwood, 
VESPARUM, Cwii8. 

Brit Ent, pL 198. 

I bred several of both sexes of this insect from a wasps' 
nest; they came out in July, 1866. It appears to be 
scarce, as these are the only specimens I have seen. 



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HYMENOPTERA— ICHNEUMONIDjB. 277 

Gbntjs, EXOCHU8, Gmverihord. 
(Anterior wing* with a small cellule.) 
CURVATOR, Fab. 

Orav.,, Ich. Europ., ii. p. 335; Steph., 111., v. vii. p. 265. 

Taken on flowers, and by sweeping herbage in June. This 
has been bred by Mr. D'Orville from pupae of EupUhecia 

assimilata. 

(Anterior wings without a cellule.) 
mansuetor, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 839; Steph., ILL, v. vii. p. 265. 

Common, and generally distributed, in June and July. 

Gbntjs, CHORIHAEUS, Holmgren. 
cristator, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 352 ; Steph., DL, v. vii. p. 267. 
Captured on the cliffs at Exmouth in May. 

Genus, ORTHOCEETRU8, OravenhoreU 
AFFINIS (?), Zett. 

Insecta Lapp., p. 379. 

Captured by sweeping nettles in Wonford Marshes in 
April; apparently rare. 

SCHIZODONTES. 
Gbntjs, BA88U8, Fabridus. 
KfiTATORIUS, Fob. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., ill. p. 358. 

Not very common ; taken by sweeping rank herbage, near 
Exeter, in July. 

EXSULTANS, Orwv. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 328. 

Frequent on flowers of umbelliferse by wood sides in June 
and July ; generally distributed. 

festivus, Fab. 

Orav., Ich. Europ., iii. p. 814. 

Taken by Mr. Bignell near Plymouth. 

ALBOSIGNATUS, Chav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 848. 

Apparently rare ; taken by sweeping in June. 
insignis, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., iii p. 349. 

Taken by sweeping nettles, &c., in Duryard, Exeter, in 
August. 



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278 THE FAUNA OF DEVON. 

LATERALIS, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., iiL p. 342. 

Beaten from a hedge at Exwick — also in hedges at Lydford, 
but rare — in June. 

STRIGATOH, Fab. 

Orav. t Ich. Europ., iii. p. 330. 

Taken by Mr. D'Orville in his garden in June. 

NIGRITABSUS, Gmv. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 338. 

Bred by Mr. Bignell from Bombyx quercus. 

GRACILENTUS, Holmg. 

Sv. Ak. Handl., 1855, p. 868. 

Taken by Mr. D'Orville on flowers in June ; rare. 
dorsalis, Holmg. 

Desvignes, in Trans. Ent Soc., 1862, p. 216. 

Taken at Lydford in June ; scarce. 
cinctus, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 327. 

Taken in the Plymouth district by Mr. Bignell; I have 
also taken it at Lydford in Juna 

PICTUS, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., iii p. 336. 

In the Plymouth district. 
pulchellus, Holmg. 

Qrav., Ich. Europ. iii., p. 321 (B. mlcator), var. 1-4. 

Captured in the Plymouth district. 

cognatus, Holmg. 
Captured by Mr. Bignell near Plymouth. 

ASPIDOPI. 
Genus, MSTOPIU8, Panzer. 
MICRAT0RIUS, Fab. 

Qrav., Ich. Europ., iii p. 299. 

A scarce insect with us. Captured on flowers of umbel- 
liferce on wood sides in July ; taken also in the Plymouth 
district. 

DISSECT0RITJS, Panz. 

Oram., Ich. Europ., iii p. 291. 

This was captured by Mr. Curtis in North Devon* 



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HYMENOFRRA— IOBNEUMONIIXS. 279 

DENTATUS, Fab. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., iii p. 804. 
I bred this from pupae of Lasiocampa quercifolia. Curtis 
says it is parasitic on Bonibyx trifolii. 

PI MPLIDE S. 
Genus, A0AHITU8, Latreille. 
FULVICORNIS, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 809. 

Apparently rare ; taken by sweeping in Wonford Marshes 
in June. 

Genus, BHYB8A, OravenhorsL 
persuasoria, Linn. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., iii p. 267 ; SUph., I1L, vii pi 89, male; Don., 
Brit. Ins., xv. p. 222. 

This fine insect is not very common; it is generally met 
with flying round old posts or wood-ricks. It is gene- 
rally distributed. 

leucographa, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 274. 

Bare ; I have only seen one specimen, and this was given 
me from the Kaddon collection. 

Genus, EPHIALTES, GravenhorsL 
imperatoe, Kriech. 

Orav., Ich. Europ., iii p. 282. 

Not common ; taken flying round old posts and wood-ricks 
in July. Sparsely distributed. 

rex, Kriech. 

Orav., Ich. Europ., iii p. 282. 

The females of this are frequently met with, but I have 
not taken the mala The females are to be found in June. 

TUBERCULATUS, Fw/TC. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., iii p. 228. 
Taken by Mr. Bignell at Plymbridge. 

Genus, PX&ITHOTO, Holmgren. 
MEDIATOR, Fab. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., iii p. 256. 

I bred this from bramble-sticks which were perforated by 
one of the small wasps. 



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280 THE FAUNA OF DEVON. 

DIVINATOR, Rom. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., iil p. 252. 

I bred several of this species from perforated bramble- 
sticks; the sticks had been bored by one of the small 
wasps. Came out in June, 1860. 

varius, Qrcuo. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 354. 

Bred from an old bramble-stem by Mr. BignelL 

Genus, PIMPLA, Fabricius. 
(Abdomen black, or segments edged with red, scutellum black.) 
abdominalis, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 150. 

Captured near Exeter, August, 1877. 

(Thorax black, scutellum spotted with white, abdomen black, banded with 

white or reddish-brown.) 
RUFATA, Omel. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., iii. p. 166, var. i. 

Captured by sweeping clover when in blossom in June on 
Bed Hills, near Whitstone. 

FLAVONOTATA, Holmg. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., iii p. 164. 

Taken by Mr. D'Orville on flowers in July. Mr. Bignell 
has bred this from Tortrix viridana. 

(Thorax, scutellum, and abdomen black, the latter with castaneous bands, 

posterior coxa red.) 
CALOBATA, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., iii p. 176. 

Taken on flowers by wood sides, June and July. 

STERCORATOR, Fab. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., iii. p. 186. 

Common ; taken by sweeping rank herbage in July. 
taurionella, Linn. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., iii. p. 192. 

Very common ; I have bred this from pupae of Betinxa 
buolinana. 

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HYMENOPTKRA— ICHNEUMONIDiE. 281 

(Scutellwm and abdomen blacky the latter sometimes with reddish bands; 

thorax and posterior coxa Hack.) 
SCANICA, VUl. 

Ghrav., Ich. Europ., iii p. 204. 
This has been bred from pupse of Hybemia progemmaria ; 
came out July, 1880. It is also parasitic on Tortrix 
viridana. 

didyma, Qrav. 

Ich. Europ., iii p. 172. 

Captured by sweeping long grass, &c, in June. 

EXAMINATOR, Fdb. 

Qrav., Ich. Europ., iii p. 207. 

Taken by Mr. D'Orville and myself. Gravenhorst says 
this is parasitic on Tinea padella, and also in pupae of 
Bombyx fidiginosa ; and Mr. Marshall says on Cyma- 
tophora ocularis and Noctua plecta. Mr. Bignell has 
reared it from Tortrix viridana. 

brevicornis, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., iii p. 211. 
Bred by Mr. Bignell from Uvpithecia linariata. It is also 
taken in the Exeter district 

INSTIGATOR, Fab. 

Qrav., Ich. Europ., iii p. 216. 
Very common everywhere. It is parasitic on the laige 
Cabbage Butterfly, Pieris brassicce, and on Sphinx 
ligustri, the Privet Hawk Moth. Mr. Marshall, in 
Entomologists 1 Annual (1874), p. 125, enumerates six 
species of butterflies and moths on which this is 
parasitic. 

nucum, Batz. 

FVrsL, Ichn., i p. 115. 

Taken by Mr. D'Orville at Alphington. 

Gintts, ACBODACTYLA, Holiday. 
DBOENEB, Hal. 

In Ann. Nat. Hist., 1839, p. 117. 

I bred this from a reddish larva, found feeding on a small 
spider. The body of the spider was not large enough to 
contain the larva, so that part of it was exposed. The 
spider lived until the larva was ready to undergo its 



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282 THE FAUNA OF DEVON. 

change into pupa. It then spun a cocoon, fusiform and 
angular, attached at both ends to the glass cover of the 
box, after the manner of a hammock. It remained in 
pupa about a fortnight, and came out September 19th, 
1874 

Gbnus, CLI8T0PYGA, Gravenhorst. 
INCITATOB, Fab. 

Gfrav., Ich. Europ., iii. p. 184. 

Taken in the Exeter district 

Genus, GLTPTA, Gravenhorst. 
(Posterior coxa black) 
teres, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., iii p. S. 

Common on flowers by wood sides in July. 

ttfiSITATOR, Grew. 

Ich. Europ., iii p. 12. 

Taken by Mr. D'Orville in his garden ; also captured in the 
Plymouth district, and at Lydford in June. 

(Posterior coxa red.) 
FRONTICORNIS, Orav. 

Not common ; captured in the Exeter district in August 
scalaris, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 24. 

Taken by Mr. Bignell near Plymouth. 

FLAVOLINEATA, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 27. 
Bred by Mr. D'Orville from pup® of Minoa euphorbiata. 

ceratites, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 18. 

Taken in the Plymouth district 

Genits, LI880N0TA, Gravenhorst. 
(Scutellum and abdomen black, the latter occasionally chestnut-coloured.) 
VARIABILIS, Holmg. 

Grav. f Ich. Europ., iii p. 47. (L. hortorvm.) 

Taken by Mr. D'Orville and myself on flowers of urn- 
belliferae. It appears to be generally distributed. 

BELLATOR, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 106, partim. 

Common, and generally distributed. 



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HYMEZfOPTEKA — IOHNEUHONIDJE. 28S 

connkxa, Grav. 

Ich. Europ., iii p. 106, partim. 

Taken on flowers by wood sides ; scarce. 

PARALLELA, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., iii p. 79. 
Captured on umbellifere, by wood sides, in July. 

caugata, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 88. 
Bred by Mr. Bignell from Anticlea badiata. 

(Scutellwn with pale mots or lines, abdomen with red or yellow bands, 
which are sometimes obsolete.) 
DEVEBSOB, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 69. 

I have a male and female I believe to be this species; 
captured on flowers in the Exeter district. 

(Scutelbm black, abdomen red, with the base and apex black, some of 
the segments banded with red.) 

CYLINDRATOR, VOL 

Orav., Ich. Europ., iii. p. 102. 

Taken by sweeping in clover fields in August. 

Gbnto, KEHI8CU8, SchftdU. 
CATENATOR, Panz. 

Orav., Ich. Europ., iii. p. 45. 

Bather common ; taken by Mr. D'Orville and myself near 
Exeter in June. 

impressor, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 60. 

Taken in the Exeter district. 
murinus, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., iii. p. 99. 

Apparently a scarce species, captured on flowers by wood 
sides in June. 

Ghntjs, PHYTODIAETUS, OravenhorsU 

coryphaeus, Orav. 

Ich. Europ., ii. p. 945. 

Bred by Mr. Bignell from Tortrix viridana. 



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284 THE FAUNA OF DEVON. 

BRACONIDA 
BRACONIDES, Wcstwood. 
Genus, BEACON, Fabricius. 
LARVICIDA, Wesm. 

Nouv. Mem. Ac Brux, 1838, p. 41, female. 
Taken near Barnstaple ; recorded by the Rev. T. A. 
Marshall in Ent. Ann., 1874, p. 144. 

SPATHIIDES. 
Genus, SPATHIXTS, Nees von Estnbcck. 

clavatus, Nees. 

Grav., Ich. Europ., iii. p. 1027. 

I bred this insect from pupae of Anobium striatum. It is 
not uncommon in old buildings in June and July. 
Specimens vary very much in size, especially the males, 
and might easily be mistaken for different species. 

rhogadides. 

Genus, HETEROGAMY, JPesmael. 

dispar, Curtis. 

Brit Ent, p. 512. 

This appears to be a scarce species. Only one specimen 
has fallen to my lot, and this was taken in August, 1859. 

Genus, RH0GA8, Nees von Escnbcck. 

dissector, Nees. 

Monog. Ich. Brae., i p. 208. 

Captured by sweeping, but rare. 
reticulator, Nees. 

Monog. Ich. Brae., L p. 211. 

This has been bred by Mr. Bignell and myself from young 
larvae of Odonestis potataria, the Drinker Moth. The 
larva of the parasite makes a pupa case of the skin of 
the victim. The latter, when about to change its skin, 
attaches itself to a stem of grass, by clasping it firmly 
with its feet In this position I found it. The larva of 
the Ichneumon had finished its work of destruction, and 
in July the perfect insect came out. 

BICOLOR, Spin. 

Nees, Monog. Ich. Brae, i. p. 213. 

I bred this from a caterpillar (?). It, like the above, 
uses the skin of the victim for a pupa case. When 
it comes out, it eats or cuts a round hole at one 
end, through which it makes its exit. Came out May 
29th, 1866, 



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HYMENOPTERA — ICHNEUMONIDiE. 285 

CIRCUMSCR1FTUS, Nees. 

Monog. Ich. Brae, i. p. 216. 

Bred from larvae of Epunda viminalis, the Osier Moth. 
This makes a semi-transparent oval cocoon, over which 
is reticulated a brownish silken thread, forming an open 
network. 

GENICULATOR, Nees. 

Nees, Monog. Ich. Brae., L p. 211. 

Bred from a small frosted silver-white cocoon, covered 
with fine silk-like material. The insect escapes by cut- 
ting off one end of the case except a sipall portion, 
which is left as a hinge, on which the top falls back. I 
found two of these cases attached to a leaf, but do not 
know on what it is parasitic. 

RHYSSALIDES. 
Genus, C0LASTE8, Haladay. 
BRACONIUS, Hal 

Ent Mag., iv. p. 57. 

This was bred by Mr. D'Orville from larvaB of Lithocolletis 
lautella. 

SIGALPHIDES. 
Genus, SIGALPHU8, LcUricllc. 

caudatus, Nees. 

Monog. Ich. Brae., i. p. 268 ; Curtis, Farm Ins., Fron. pi. H: f. 20, 
p. 244. 

Mr. Curtis says he bred this species from pupae of a fly 
which feeds on stems of barley, Oscinis vastator. I have 
taken it here, but it does not appear to be common. 

ambiguus, Nees. 

Monog. Ich. Brae., i. p. 272. 

Taken by sweeping among nettles at Wonford, April 27th. 
obscurellus, Nees. 

Monog. Ich. Brae, i. p. 270. 

Captured at Exwick in August 

CHELONIDES. 
Genus, CHBL01TO8, Jurine. 
OCULATOR, Fab. 

Nees, Monog Ich. Brae., i. p. 290. 

Taken by sweeping Tank herbage in August 



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286 THE FAUNA OF DEVON. 

INANITUS, Nees. 

Monog. Ich. Brae, i. p. 289. 

Also captured by sweeping herbage in July and August ; 
not common. 

sulcatus, Jurine. 

Nees, Monog. Icb. Brae., i. p. 293. 

Taken by sweeping on Langstone Cliff in July. 

Genus, ASCO0A8TEB, Wesmael. 
rufipes, Latr. 

Nees, Monog. Ich. Brae., i. p. 283. 

Captured by sweeping herbage in June ; not common. 

MICROGASTERIDES. 
Genus, APAJTTELES, Ftorster. 
FALCATUS, Nees. 

Monog. Ich. Brae., i. p. 175. 

I bred this from larvae of Ewpithecia mccenturiata. The 
larva of the parasite, when about to undergo its transfor- 
mation, eats its way out of its victim through the ninth 
segment of the body; it then begins to construct a 
cocoon for itself. The cocoons are pale brownish and 
shining, longitudinally eight ribbed, the ribs obtuse and 
paler than the rest These cocoons are made to stand 
up on the plant to which they are attached; namely, 
the common mugwort, Artemisia vulgaris, on which the 
larva of the moth feeds, and the seeds of which these 
cocoons very closely resemble; sometimes they are 
attached to the back of their victims. 

albipennis, Nees. 

Monog. Icb. Brae, i. p. 186. 

I bred this from larvae of Swammerdamia griseocapitella, 
var. Prmi; came out in August* 1858. 

lacteus, Nees. 

Monog. Ich. Brae, i. p. 187. 
I bred this from larvae of LUhocoUetis vacciniella, and Mr. 
D'Orville has taken specimens. 

juniperata, Bouche. 

Nees, Monog. Ich. Brae, L p. 184 (M, Serieeus), 

Bred by Mr. D'Orville from Melitwa artemis. 



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HYMENOPTERA— ICHNBUMONIDiE. 287 

laterat.tr, Hal. 

In Ent Mag., ii p. 248. 

Bred by Mr. D'Orville from lame of Eupithecia assimilata. 
glomeratus, Linn. 

Westwood, in Lond. Mag., in. p. 52, f. a.-q. 

Bred from Pontia brassicce. 
rubripes, Hal. 

Curtis, Fann Ins., p. 97. 

Parasitic on the larvae of the large Cabbage Butterfly, 
Pontia brassicce. 

Genus, MICR0PLITI8, FOrster. 
DOR8ALIS, Spin. 

Hal, Ent. Mag., ii. p. 235 (M. mediator). 

Bred by Mr. D'Orville from larvae of Eupithecia subfidvata. 
spectabilis, Hal. 

Ent. Mag., ii. p. 236. 

Taken by sweeping in July. Mr. D'Orville has bred it, but 
omitted to keep the name of the larva on which it is 
parasitic. It is a variable species, both in size and 
colour. I have four specimens, named by Mr. Marshall. 

alvearia, Fab. 

Nees, Monog. Ich. Brae., i. p. 172; West., Int,ii. pi. 76, fig. 17, pp. 
140, 148. Mass of cocoons only. 

Bred by Mr. Bignell, Mr. D'Orville, and myself from 
larvae of Boarmia rhsnriboidaria. Very abundant ; it has 
a great attachment for the twigs of jessamine, to which 
it fixes its masses of cocoons. 

Genus, MICROGASTER, Latreille. 

nigricans, Nees. 

Monog. Ich. Brae, i. p. 167. 

Apparently rare. Beaten out of bushes in Stoke Wood in 
July. 

tibialis, Nees. 

Monog. Ich. Brae, i p. 168 ; Stcph., 111. Supp., t. 37, I 2. 

Taken by sweeping the railway banks between Starcross 
and Dawlish, in August. 

NIGRIVENTRIS, Nees. 

Monog. Ich. Brae., L p. 178. 
Taken by sweeping rank herbage in July; 



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288 THE FAUNA OF DEVON. 

GLOBATUS, Linn. 

Nees, Monog. Ich. Brae., i. p. 163. 

Taken by beating hedges in June. 
SPlNOLiE, Nees. 

Monog. Ich. Brae., i. p. 166. 

Captured on a wall of the Institution in August 
difficilis, Nees. 

Monog. Ich. Brae, i. p. 182. 
Bred from a Noctua larva. From twenty to thirty of the 
larvae of the parasite came out through the skin of the 
caterpillar of the moth; each spun a yellowish cocoon, 
covered with a short whitish silk. I also bred this species 
from the larvae of Zyccena alexis in August, 1865. 

posticus, Nees. 

Monog. Ich. Brae., i. p. 172. 

Apparently rare. Taken in the Exeter district 

AGATHIDIDES. 
Genus, AGATHIS, LatreilU. 
nigra, Nees. 

Monog. Ich. Brae., i. p. 12S. 

Taken at Plym Bridge, 5th May, by Mr. RgnelL 

Genus, EABIHU8, Wesmacl. 
NITIDULUS, Nees. 

Monog. Ich. Brae., i. p. 144. 

Beaten from trees in Stoke Wood, near Exeter, in May. 
Apparently rare. 

APHIDIIDES. 
Genus, EPHEDBUS, Holiday. 
plagiator, Nees. 

Monog. Ich. Brae., L p. 16; Curtis, Farm Ins., p. 290, woodcut, f. 14. 

This is one of the useful insects to the farmer, as it is 
parasitic on the aphis of the wheat* and consequently 
destroys great numbers of this pest. 

Genus, APHIDIUS, Nees von Escnbeck. 

picipes, Nees. 

Monog. Ich. Brae., i. p. 18 ; Curtis, Farm Ins., p. 290, woodcut 39, f. 12. 
This insect was bred by Mr. Curtis from Aphis avencc, on 
which it is parasitic. 



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HYMENOPTERA — ICHNEUMONIDiE. 289 

rosarum, Nees. 

Monog. Ich. Brae, i. p. 19. 
I bred this insect from the aphis of the rose ; it c .me out 
June 12, 1880. 

parcicornis, var. B, Nees. 
Monog. Ich. Brae, i p. 16. 

Taken by sweeping on Eed-hills in April. 

Genus, LY8IPHLEBU9, F&rster. 
dissolutus, Nees. 

Monog. Ich. Brae, i. p. 23. 

Taken by sweeping herbage on Eed-hills in May. 

EUPHORIDES. 
Genus, WESKAELIA, F&rster. 

cremasta, Marsh. 

In Ent Mon. Mag., viii. p. 257. 

Mr. Marshall captured a female of this species in a wood 
in North Devon ; and he remarks that the English insect 
is more highly coloured than the one from the Spanish 
Pyrenees. 

PERILITIDES. 
Genus, ZEMI0TE8, Forster. 
ALBIDITARSUS, Curtis. 

Brit Ent, pi. 415; Nees, Monog. Ich. Brae., i. p. 34. 
Taken by Mr. D'Orville and myself in May; by no means 
common. 

Genus, PERILITTJS, Nees von Esenbeck. 
PENDULATOR, LaL 

Nees, Monog. Ich. Brae., i. p. 38; Curtis, Brit. Ent, p. 415. 
Taken by Mr. D'Orville in his garden at Alphington. 

ATRATOR, Curtis. 

Brit Ent, p. 415. 
Taken in the Plymouth district. 

MEDIANUS. 

Bred by Mr. Bignell from Agrotis tritici. I have taken a 
specimen in this neighbourhood. This is new to Britain. 

Genus, HOMOLOBUS. 
discolor, Wesm. 

Mr. Bignell bred this new British insect from Cdbera 
pusaria, 24th September, 1880. 

VOL. XIII. t 



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290 THE FAUNA OF DEVON. 

MACROCENTRIDES. 
Genus, ZELE, Curtis. 
TESTACEATOB, Curtis. 

Brit. Ent, p. 415 ; Nees, Monog. Ich. Brae, L p. 201. 
Taken occasionally in woods. It is by no means common. 

Genus, MACROCENTRUS, Curtis. 
LINEARIS, Nee8. 

Monog. Ich. Brae., i. p. 200 (Rogas linearis). 
This has been bred by Mr. Bignell from pupae of Botys 
verticalis, Plymouth. I have taken it. Not uncommon 
in the Exeter district. 

thoracicus, Nees. 

Monog. Ich. Brae., L p. 204. 
Taken both by Mr. D'Orville and myself. 

OPIIDES. 
Genus, OPITTS, Wesmad. 
APICULATOR (?), Ne€8. 

Monog. Ich. Brac.,i. p. 66. 
Captured by sweeping in Stoke Wood, near Exeter, in July. 

TACITUS, Hal. 

Nees, Monog. Ich. Brae., L p. 64 (B. circulator 1). 
I bred this from some Dipterous larvae feeding on boletus, 
September 22nd, 1867. 

ALYSIIDES. 
Genus, CHAflMODON, Holiday. 
apterus, Nees. 

Monog. Ich. Brae, i. p. 264 ; Curtis, Brit Ent, p. 289. 
Apparently rare; I have only seen one specimen, taken 
by myself, in sweeping herbage. 

Genus, 0ONIARCHA, Forster. 
TIPULA, Scop. 

Nees, Monog. Ich. Brae, i. p. 246. 
Captured by sweeping hedges at Exwick, near Exeter, in 
July. 

truncator, Nees. 

Monog. Ich. Brae, i. p. 246. 
This does not appear to be a common insect with us. 
Taken by sweeping in July. 



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HYMENOPTEBA— ICHNEUMONIDjK. 291 

MANDIBULATOR, NeeS. 

Monog. Ich. Brae, i. p. 242. 
Beaten from hedges at Lydford, on the border of the 
Moor, June. 

Genus, ALY8IA, Latridle. 
CINGULATOR, Nee8. 

Mouog. Ich. Brae., L p. 2*9. 
I bred this from holly leaves, in which had been feeding 
the larvae of a small Dipteron. This came out in June, 
1865. 

MANDUCATOR, Panz. 

Nees, Monog. Ich. Brae., i. p. 239 ; Curtis, Farm Ins., p. 144. 
Captured in the north of Devon by Mr. W. C. Woollcombe. 

Gbkto, DAPSILABTHRA, Fbrster. 
APII, Curtis. 

Brit Ent, pL 141. 

Common ; taken by sweeping rank herbage, from May to 
July. 

DACNUSIDES. 
Genus, 8YHA1DI8, Fdrster. 
CONCOLOR, Nets. 

Monog. Ich. Brae., L p. 254. 

Taken in Stoke Wood, near Exeter, in April and September. 

Genus, SYMPHA, Fdrtter. 
hians, Nees. 

Monog. Ich. Brae., i. p. 273. 
Captured by sweeping coarse herbage, in May and July. 

Genus, CQSLIHIUS, Nees von Esenbeck. 
NIGER, Nees. 

Monog. Ich. Brae, i. ; Curtis, Farm Ins., woodcut 34, I 8, p. 234. 

I bred this from pupae of Cldorops tceniopus, August, 1865. 
The larvae of the fly live in and are^destructive to barley, 
causing what is called gout in the stems. They also 
attack the wheat plant, causing in some seasons great 
destruction to the crop of plants. The parasite, there- 
fore, is of great benefit in keeping in check this destruc- 
tive little fly. 

* t2 



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292 THE FAUNA OF DEVON. 

Gbrus, BHIZABCHA, Ffrrster. 
AEEOLARIS, Nm. 

Monog. Ich. Brae., i. p. 262. 
An abundant species on flowers of grasses and carices in 
July and August ; generally distributed. 

EVANIIIXffl. 
EVANIIDES. 
Gbkus, HYPTIA, IUiger. 
MINUTA, Fdb. 

Nees y Monog. Ich. Brae., i. p. 312 ; Steph., 111., vil p. 119 ; Curtis, 
Brit Ent, pL 257. 

Very scarce ; I have only seen one specimen, which I took 
several years ago. 

Genus, FU3VU8, Fabricius. 
JACULATOE, Linn. 

Steph., 111., vii. p. 120 ; Nees, Monog. Ich. Brae., L p. 307. 
A very uncommon insect with us. 

ASSECTATOfi, Linn. 

Nees, Monog. Ich. Brae., L p. 308; Curtis, Brit Ent, pL 423; 
Steph., HL viL p. 121. 

Taken in Devon, on the authority of Stephens, in IUu*- 
trations. 



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ON THE OCCURRENCE OF UPPER DEVONIAN 

FOSSILS IN THE COMPONENT FRAGMENTS 

OF THE TRIAS NEAR TIVERTON. 

BY THE REV. W. DOWNES, B.A., P.G.8. 
(Bead at Dawliah, July, 1881.) 



For some years past there has been exhibited, in the Albert 
Memorial Museum at Exeter, a specimen of Palaeozoic grit, 
brought, as the label attests, from the Trias " near Tiverton/' 
and containing the well-known and characteristic Upper 
Devonian fossil, Strophalosia caperata (Sow.)* 

Although the words "near Tiverton" are somewhat inde- 
terminate as to locality, it may be safely assumed that the 
place in which this fragment was found must have been 
many miles to the southward of any exposure of Upper 
Devonian beds. Tiverton lies very near to the junction of 
the Trias with the Culm measures, some eight miles (super- 
ficies) of the latter separating the Trias from the nearest 
Upper Devonian beds. I have heard this specimen adduced 
as evidence of Triassic currents having set from north to 
south, in opposition to the contrary evidence very prevalent 
elsewhere. But this supposition will presently appear to be 
inadmissible. 

Again, in the autumn of last year I was invited by the Rev. 
C. S. Bere, rector of Uploman, to inspect some specimens of a 
similar character found in his parish, very near to his house. 
The specimens had been sent to Mr. Etheridge, who had 
reported the included fossils to be Strophalosia caperata 
(Sow.), Spirifera disfuncta (Sow.), Ehyncoriella pleurodon 
(Phillips), Actinocrinus (?) sp., Cucullella (?) sp., Retepora (?) 
sp. Another fragment from the same locality (one which 
had not been sent to Jermyn Street) contained, I believe, 
Streptorhynchus crenistria (Phillips). 

* Syn. Strophalosia productoidcs, Leptctna productoides. 



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294 UPPER DEVONIAN FOSSILS. 

The character of the Trias in which these fossils were 
found, as exhibited in a pit upwards of thirty feet in depth, 
is a loose rubbly aggregation of angular and subangular frag- 
ments of grit of all sizes confusely intermixed in a sandy 
matrix. The whole mantles round the Palaeozoic slopes, and 
gives the impression that the component fragments have been 
derived from adjacent rocks. That they have not travelled 
far is attested by the absence of complete attrition, as well as 
by the non-separation of coarse and fine material. 

If we analyse the above list of fossils, it will be found that 
8trophcUo8ia caperaia (Sow.) and Spirifera di&juncta (Sow.) 
are regarded as characteristically Upper Devonian. 

Rhynconella pleurodon (Phillips) and Streptorhynchus ere- 
nistria (Phillips) are Devonian and Carboniferous. The latter 
especially has a very wide range.* But in Devonshire neither 
have been, so far as I can discover, hitherto referred to any 
but Devonian and " passage " beds. 

The remainder, not being specifically determinable, may be 
disregarded. The whole, however, has a decidedly Devonian 
fades. 

It was certainly not a thing to be expected that fossils 
characteristically Devonian, whose in situ localities are 
"Baggy," "Marwood," "Pilton," "Petherwin," "Torquay," 
and "Druid, near Ashburton," should be found in the 
Tiverton Trias, adjoining the heart of the Culm measures, 
in a comparatively untravelled state. 

My own first impulse naturally was to picture to myself 
some hypothetical fold in the rocks, which by repetition 
should invert the beds, and bring the earlier beds locally 
nearer to the surface than the later ones. The same idea 
seems to have occurred to Mr. Etheridge, who sketched upon 
his letter to Mr. Bere a rough diagram illustrative of such an 
hypothetical fold. 

I scarcely imagine, however, that Mr. Etheridge, or any 
other competent authority, would, after an examination of 
the locality, seriously and deliberately advocate the theory of 
a fold as a vera causa for the fossils. The area which it would 
underlie, if anything adequate be supposed, is of such extent 
as to demand a great regional disturbance extending over 
many miles ; the out-crop of the nearest Devonian beds being 
fully eight miles to the northward. To postulate a fold of this 
extent in the entire absence of evidence would be to assume 
a good deal. 

My next hypothesis was, paleeontologically speaking, rather 

* Baily's Characteristic British Fossils, vol. i. p. 111. 



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UPPER DEVONIAN FOSSILS. 295 

a revolutionary one. £hynconella pleurodon and Strepto- 
rhynchus crenistria have elsewhere an extended range ; and 
though their presence may not have been hitherto detected 
in the Carboniferous rocks of Devonshire, there is (I argued) 
nothing improbable in the idea that they might be found in 
them. Nay, more, in spite of the text books, why (I asked) 
might not even Spirifera disjuncta and Strophalosia caperata 
range into the Culm measures ? If it were so, and if the 
fact could be attested by confirmatory evidence in situ, it 
would be a palaeontological discovery of no little importance. 
No such evidence, however, was forthcoming, and, as the 
sequel will show, it was not needed. 

I further took into consideration the present drainage 
system of the locality, which (being from north to south) 
might be supposed capable of bringing down southward frag- 
ments of parent rocks situated far to the northward. But 
independently of the subangular form of the fragments, 
clearly distinguishable from the more rounded river pebbles, 
they were found not in alluvium nor in a river terrace, but in 
a deep pit near the top of a hill, where recent drainage could 
have in no way affected them. 

Subsequently I paid several visits to the new railway now 
in the course of construction between Tiverton and Dulver- 
ton, and in the cuttings between Tiverton and the hamlet of 
Bolham, about two miles to the north of the town, I found, I 
believe, the solution to the problem. 

On the first visit which I paid to these cuttings I was 
accompanied by Mr. Spring,* of Tiverton, when we began by 
going through the customary formula of questioning the 
workmen. This we did in the first cutting going northward 
from Tiverton, where a gang of men happened to be working, 
and in reply to our enquiry whether any fossils had been 
found, or anything else in any way remarkable, we received 
the unpromising reply, " No ; it is just the same kind o' dirt 
all along/' 

We resolved, however, to see the " dirt " for ourselves, and 
as the result of this and of some subsequent visits to the five 
short cuttings between Tiverton and the hamlet of Bolham, 
two miles to the north of the town, the following description 
may be offered. 

Cutting No. 1. — Nearest cutting to Tiverton. Maximum 
depth about nine feet Sand rock, with partings of chocolate 
marl, and with a shallow capping of drift and soiL 

* The samegentleman afterwards went with me over the ground between 
Bolham and Washfield. 



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296 UPPER DEVONIAN FOSSILS. 

Cutting No. 2. — At the southern end this is of a similar 
character to the above, but merges gradually northward into 
an aggregation of small angular and subangular fragments of 
grit. The change is more apparent than real ; for at a little 
distance it is difficult to distinguish the cuboidal weathering 
of the marl from grit fragments ; but the grit fragments are 
present nevertheless, and increase in number northward. 
Maximum depth about fourteen feet. 

Cutting No. 3. — Maximum depth about twenty-five feet 
The small fragments of grit, such as those above mentioned, 
occur again, and increase in size northward very perceptibly. 
They are confusely mixed in a sandy or marly matrix, with- 
out regard to the relative size of the fragments. 

Cuttivg No. 4. — Maximum depth about twenty feet. Of 
the same character as the last, but fragments still increasing 
in size northward. Near the bottom of this cutting I found 
a subangular piece of trap, about eight inches along the major 
axis, similar in character to the trap in situ at Washfield, 
about a mile distant in a westerly direction. Here also are 
a few lumps of a soft brown substance, appropriately termed 
"rotten stone" by the navvies, and prized by them as ser- 
viceable for burnishing the brass on the harness of their 
horses. 

Cutting No. 5. — Close to Bolham. Maximum depth about 
twenty-five feet Fragments still increasing in size north- 
ward; many might rather be described as boulders. "Kotten 
stone " plentiful, and in larger pieces, but unaltered grit still 
predominant. The steady increase in the size of th& fragments 
clearly indicates an approach to an old shore line, while the 
confused, unstratified conditions of deposit, no less than the 
subangular character of the fragments, exclude the idea of 
distant travel. 

I have above used the one term "rotten stone" for the soft 
brown substance found in this place; but there can, I think, be 
little doubt but that there are two kinds of it — the one probably 
of directly igneous origin, a very light pumiceous substance, 
which I have found on comparison to agree pretty closely 
■with some specimens in situ at Washfield ; the other unques- 
tionably altered Palaeozoic grit, of indirectly igneous origin. 
The former only would be available for burnishing. The 
latter is found under various degrees of alteration, and I even 
saw a boulder of which one half was grey and hard, and the 
other half brown and "rotten." Fossiliferous fragments either 
were exceptional or the fossils in most cases had been de- 
stroyed. Nearly the first fragment, however, which I attacked 



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UPPER DEVONIAN FOSSILS. 297 

with my hammer showed abundant organic matter. As may 
be supposed, the fossils were not in a good state of preserva- 
tion, and from their soft friable nature required very delicate 
handling. Some pieces forcibly reminded me of the altered 
Silurian shale at Tortworth, in Gloucestershire, found in con- 
tact with the greenstone of Damory Bridge. 

The fossils are encrinites, three species of Brachiopoda, and 
a spiral univalve. Among the Brachiopoda Spirifera dis- 
juncta and Strophalosia caperata are unmistakably and 
numerously present. The third brachiopod is most probably 
Productvs prcelongus (Sow.). The univalve might be one of 
the species of Loxonenia figured by Phillips, but with the 
distinctive strife obliterated. 

Here then again occur Devonian fossils in the Trias of this 
district, increasingly associated with igneous traces as we 
approach the igneous outburst at Washfield. That igneous 
disturbance will account for everything. The subjacent rocks 
must have been bent and shifted by its deep-seated forces, 
which would have brought deep-seated rocks to the surface, 
at least in a fragmentary condition. It is worthy of note that 
while the undisturbed Palaeozoic rocks are seen just north of 
Lythe Court, dipping about 35° E.S.E., the next exposure in 
the direction of Washfield, the last exposure visible, shows 
them in a vertical position. To my mind no other hypothesis 
is needed to account for the presence of Devonian fossils in 
the Trias of this district than that of which we have clear, 
ocular, and tangible confirmation; viz., an active volcano 
upon the coast of the early Triassic sea. 

P.S. — Since writing the above I have learned that frag- 
ments containing Rhyncondla pleurodon have been found in 
the Trias at Silverton, at a considerable distance from the 
above-mentioned localities, but upon the same line of igneous 
disturbance. 



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WELL-SECTION AT STONEHOUSE, PLYMOUTH. 

BY W. WHITAKKR, B.A., F.O.S. 
(Bart at Bawliih, July, 1881.) 



Thb following account of the section given by the sinking of 
a well, lately finished, at the Anchor Brewery, Stonehouse, 
may be of interest to the Association. The well was made 
for Mr. A. H. Butcher by Messrs. Legrand and Sutcliff, of 
London, who have kindly given me the particulars. The 
water-level is 7± feet below the surface of the ground, and 
the yield is 12 gallons a minute. 

I should much like to see other records of this character 
in the Transactions of the Association, the fit publication for 
the notice of such local matters. 



[Surface-deposits, 
13J feet.] 



[Middle Devonian. 

Limestone, with 

occasional layers 

of Shale, 

98} feet] 



J Stony Clay . 
\ Black Pebbles 

Rock 

Shaly stone . 

Hard black stone 

Hard shaly stone 

Grey stone . 

Shaly rock . 

Hard blue shale-stone 

Clay 

Blue shaly stone 

Hard blue stone 

Clay 

Hard blue stone 

Clay 

Hani blue stone and white spar 

Clay 

Hard blue stone and white spar 

Shaly blue clay 

Total 



Feet 
lOf 

t 
7 
3 
4 

H 
51 

t 

* 
5 

i 

45 

_!* 
112 



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NOTES ON SLIPS CONNECTED WITH DEVONSHIRE. 

BT W. PENQELLY, F.R.8., F.G.8., FTO. 

Paet IV. 

(Bead at Dawliah, July, 1881.) 



This, fourth, batch of Slips connected with Devonshire, has 
been culled from my Memoranda of Slips noted during the 
two years since the last batch was read. 

I. Ashburton Gkowytte Keve, 1533-4. 

A Pamphlet, of 50 octavo pages, entitled " The | Parish of 
Ashburton | in the | 15th and 16th Centuries ; | as it appears 
from | Extracts | from the | Churchwardens' Accounts, A.D. 
(1479-1580) | With Notes and Comments. | Published by 
Bequest | London: | Printed by Yates and Alexander, 
Symonds Inn, | Chancery Lane. | 1870," contains the 
following statement, under the heading " Expenses/ 1 during 
the year "1533-4 ":— 

w vi 8 for a growytte (great) keve (key) made by John 
Aysshetrege." 

The two words "(great)" and "(key)" which, in parentheses, 
follow respectively "growytte" and "keve" are, no doubt, 
interpolations by the anonymous editor, and intended to 
signify that the passage, put into nineteenth century English, 
would read thus : — 

" Six shillings for a great key made by John Aysshetrege." 

I venture to believe that the editor slipped into an error in 
each case. 

Six shillings make a suspiciously large sum to be paid for 
even a " great key " in the sixteenth century, especially when 
the same "Accounts" contain the following entries : — 



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300 NOTES ON SLIPS CONNECTED WITH DEVONSHIRE. 

"1532-3 .... iiii d for a loke and corde for churche 
yette." 

" 1536-7 . . . . vi d for lokyn of the stocke to make Saynt 
Cristoffer." 

"1548-9 .... ii 8 for a new lock and key for the poor 
mens' box." 

" 1563-4 . viii d to Ryxtaylle for ii Keys." 

Should it be asked " If a keve be not a key, what is it ? I 
would reply that, though the word does not occur in Johnson 
(ed. 1784) or Walker (ed. 1833), every native of the four 
south- western counties ought to know that a Kieve is a large 
wooden tub, and that in the local Glossaries it is thus 
defined : — 

Barnes \— Dorset Dialect, 1863: — "Keeve, or Kive. (A.S. 
cyf, a vat) A large tub, used for the wort to work in at 
brewing." 

Jennings : — Dialect of West of England, particularly 
Somerset, 1869. "Keeve. A large tub or vessel used in 
brewing. A mashing-tub is sometimes called a keeve'* " To 
Keeve. To put the wort in a keeve for some time to 
ferment" 

Palmer : — Glossary to Dialogue in Devonshire Dialect, 
1837. " Keive or Keeve. The mashing tub or vat used in 
brewing." 

Pulman : — Rustic Sketches in the Dialect of S. W. Somerset, 
West Dorset, and E. Devon, 1817. " Keeve. A tub used for 
fermenting beer." 

Rock: — Jim and Nell. Dialect of N. Devon, 1867. 
"-Kieve. A large tub used for fermenting beer." 

Williams and Jones: — Dialect of Somersetshire, 1873. 
"Keeve, or Kive. A large tub used in brewing or cider 
making." To Keeve or Kive. " To put the wort or cider in 
a keeve to ferment." 

The word does not occur in any Cornish or S.W. Devon- 
shire Glossary which I have seen; nevertheless I was perfectly 
familiar with its use in S.E. Cornwall in my boyhood, and 
were I to see such a tub anywhere I should certainly call it 
a Kieve. 

The late Mr. R. J. King {Murray's Handbook for Travellers 
in Devon and Cornwall, ed. 1872), when describing the water- 
fall known as St. Knighton's Keive, near Boscastle, N. Corn- 
wall, says, "The stream is hurried to a fall, and tumbles 
about 30 feet into a circular basin, or Keive" 

Halliwell, (ed. 1874), has " Keeve. A large tub or vessel 
used in brewing. West." 



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NOTES ON SLIPS CONNECTED WITH DEVONSHIKE. 301 

Webster, 1864, has " Keeve. A laige vessel for fermenting 
liquors ; a beer tub ; a mashing-tub." " To Keeve. To set 
in a keeve or tub, for fermentation." "Keever. The same 
as keeve." * Kive. A mashing vat ; a keeve. Obs" 

The word does not occur in Nares (ed. 1876), or in Bailey 
(ed. 1726) ; but the latter has " Keever. A Brewing Vessel 
for the Drink to work in before it is tunn'd ;" and Haluwell 
has "Keever. A tub. MS. Lansd. 1033." 

As defined above, a Keeve seems to be used for no other 
purpose than that of making fermented liquor, but in S.E. 
Cornwall its use was by no means restricted to any definite 
purpose. 

I have no doubt that the Keve mentioned in the Ashburton 
Accounts, in 1533-4, and for making which John Aysshetrege 
was paid vi 8 , was a large wooden tub, and not a Key. 

Turning now to Growytte, which the editor supposes to 
signify Great, but is probably neither more nor less than the 
Grout of English Dictionaries and Glossaries, and defined as 
follows : — 
Johnson (ed. 1784) " Grout. (1) Coarse meal ; pollard. 
(2). That which purges off. 
(3). A kind of wild apple." 
Bailey (ed. 1726) "Grout. (1) The great of, or lai^e 
Oatmeal. 

(2). Wort of the last running, new Ala N.C." 
[ = North Country.] 
Webster (ed. 1864). " Grout (1) Coarse meal ; pollard. 

(2) Liquor with malt infused for ale or beer 
before it is fully boiled ; a kind of thick -ale. 

(3) Lees; grounds; dregs; sediment 

(4) A thin, coarse mortar, used for pouring into 
the joints of masonry and brick-work; also a 
finer material, used in finishing the best ceilings. 

(5) A kind of wild appla" 

Walker (ed. 1833) "Grout. Coarse meal, pollard; that 
which purges off; a kind of wild apple." 

Halliwell (1874). "Grout (1) Ground malt Bay explains 
it, wort of the last running, and Pegge adds that 
it is drunk only by poor people, who are on 
that account called grouters. Kennet says, 'In 
Leicestershire, the liquor with malt infused for 
ale or beer, before it is fully boiled, is called 
grout, and before it is tunned up in the vessel is 
called wort. They have in the west a thick sort 



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302 NOTES ON SLIPS CONNECTED WITH DEVONSHIRE. 

of fat ale which they call grout-dU / The grout- 
ale is sweet and medicated with eggs. In Dean 
Milles MS. Glossary, p. 136, in my possession, is 
given the best account of grout-ale, — 'a kind of 
ale different from white ale, known only to the 
people about Newton Bussel ' [sic] * who keep the 
method of preparing it as a secret; it is of a 
brownish colour. However, I am informed by a 
physician, a native of that place, that the pre- 
paration is made of malt almost burnt in an iron 
pot, mixed with some of the barm which rises on 
the first working in the Keeve, a small quantity 
of which invigorates the whole mass, and makes 
it very heady.' 

" (2) A masonic process of filling up the inter- 
stices between bricks or stones, by pouring fluid 
mortar, which is the grout, over each course or 
two to saturation. Hence jocularly applied to 
one who may happen to take anything fluid late 
in a meal. Var. dial. 

"(3) To bore with the snout, or dig up like a 
hog. Yorksh. 

H Grouts. Dregs; lees; Var. dial. Thick muddy 
liquor is grouty" 
It may be well to add that Kennett, quoted by Mr. Halli- 
well, was White Kennett; born in Kent in 1660 ; bishop of 
Peterborough from 1718 to 1728, when he died; author of 
several works, including Parochial Antiquities, having a use- 
ful Glossary. (Pen. Cyclo. xiii. 180.) 

Dean Milles, also quoted by Halliwell, was born in 1714; 
Dean of Exeter from 1762 to 1782, when he died. Whilst 
Dean, he is said to have formed a large collection of materials 
for a History of Devonshire (Ibid. xv. 224-5.) 

The "physician a native of" Newton Bussell, or Bushel 
(for the name appears to have been written anciently either 
way; after the family of Bussell or Bushell to whom the 
town belonged in the 13th and 14th centuries. See Morris 
and Co.'s Directory, 1870) was perhaps Hugh Downman, 
M.D., who was born in 1740, in or about that town as some 
say (Stirliry's Hist, of Newton, 1830, p. 63) ; or at Alphing- 
ton, according to Dr. Oliver, or at Newton St. Cyres, according 
to the Lysonses. He was physician of the Devon and Exeter 
Hospital, whilst Dr. Milles was Dean. (See Trans. Devon. 
Assoc, xi. 114) 
Though the word Grout does not occur in any South- 



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NOTES ON SLIPS CONNECTED WITH DEVONSHIRE. 303 

western Glossary known to me, there appears to be little or 
no doubt that the Keve paid for by the Ashburton Church- 
wardens in 1533-4 was for the reception of one or other of 
the substances known by that name ; that is to say, Coarse 
meal ; or pollard ; or wild apples ; or Some kind of fermented 
liquor; or lees; grounds; dregs; sediment; or a liquid 

J reparation used by builders; and as we learn from Dean 
lilies that a beverage known as Qrout-AU was a popular 
drink within seven miles of Ashburton, and that White ale, 
(well known at later times at Ashburton I am told) in which 
Grout was an indispensable ingredient, was at least equally 
popular in most of the South Hams, I have no hesitation in 
expressing the belief that the Orowytte Keve which John 
Aysshetregge made, was not a Great Key, but a large wooden 
vessel, or tub, or vat, to be used in brewing Orout ale, or 
White ale, or both. 

It is, perhaps, worthy of note that Dean Milles in his 
description speaks of the Grout-ale working, that is ferment- 
ing, in the Keeoe. 

Those who are familiar with old parish accounts will not 
be surprised to find that such a payment had been made by 
the Churchwardens. The Accounts now under notice prove 
that ale of some kind was regularly brewed in the " Church 
house/' and sold for the benefit of the church, or some of its 
officers; that wardens were annually appointed for this 
work; that private persons, on making suitable payment, 
might brew their own ale in the said house, or might hire, at 
least, some of the brewing utensils, and especially the 
chetell, or cauldrpn, or cacabua. Thus, we find the following 
entries, amongst many others of the same kind : 
1482-3 "v M xiii iiii d received for ale of the aforesaid 

parishioners" [of the Parish Church of Aysber- 

ton] "sold by the hands of William Halewyll, 

John Ferreys, John Ollysbrome, and Thomas 

Perry this year. 
" For mending the chetell of the said church iiii d ." 
1489-90 "xxi d received for sale of ale and brewing in the 

house of the church." 
1495-6 u iiii" viii d from different men for the church chetell 

and brewing in the church house." 
1501-2 " x d from Thomas Cole because he did not assist 

the brewers for the brewing when they were 

elected." 
1505-6 " iii" iiii d received for the chetell." 
1524-5 " xii d for one cleansing sieve for the ale." 



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304 NOTES ON SLIPS CONNECTED WITtf DEVONSHIRE. 

It will scarcely be thought foreign to the object of this 
Note to remark that, whilst, according to his interesting paper 
on White Ale (Trans. Devon. Assoc, ix. 188-197), Mr. Karkeek 
is of opinion that Grout Ale is the same as White Ale, w from 
the fact that grout is still the name for the ferment used in 
its manufacture" (Ibid. pp. 191-2), Dean Milles, in the 
passage quoted by Halliwell, and reproduced above, states 
distinctly that it was " a kind of ale different from white 
ale, known only to the people about Newton Bussell, who 
keep the method of preparing it a secret ; " and he adds " it 
is of a brownish colour." 

II. Printing at Torquay, Mr. R. N. Worth on the 
History of. 1879. 

Mr. E. N. Worth says, in his Notes 07i the History of 
Printing in Devon, read to the Devonshire Association, July 
1879, and printed in the Transactions of that body (xi. 
497-515), "Printing was introduced into Torquay by an 
amateur. The Rev. Mr. Fayle, incumbent of Trinity 
Church, brought from Somerset a schoolmaster named Lane, 
and he was the first who practised the printing art within the 
rising watering place. Not only did he print, but he tried 
his hand at casting types, though his efforts in that direction 
were not marked by any great success. The earliest pro- 
fessional printers in Torquay were Messrs. Cockrem and 
Elliott, who established an office there about 1834. Mr. 
Cockrem had served his time at Totnes, with Mr. Hannaford ; 
and Mr. Elliott his at Plymouth Dock (Devonport) with 
Mr. Congdon." pp. 513-4. 

The passage just quoted, appears calculated, if not in- 
tended, to convey, explicitly or implicitly, the following 
propositions : — 

1. That the Rev. Mr. Fayle, or Mr. Lane the schoolmaster, 
or both, came from Somersetshire to Torquay. 

2. That Mr. Lane was the first who practised the art of 
printing at Torquay. 

3. That Messrs. Cockrem and Elliott were partners, as 
printers, at Torquay. 

4 That neither Mr. Cockrem, nor Mr. Elliott, had begun 
business as a printer, at Torquay, before 1834 

5. That Mr. Cockrem, or Mr. Elliott, or both as partners, 
opened the first professional printing office at Torquay. 

On reading the quotation I felt very sceptical about each 



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NOTES ON SLIPS CONNECTED WITH DEVONSHIRE. 305 

of the propositions; and investigation has shown that they 
are all incorrect 

1. Through the kindness of a member of his family, I am 
able to state that the late Rev. R. Fayle, as well as the late 
Mr. Lane, the schoolmaster, resided not in Somersetshire, but 
at Wareham in Dorsetshire, of which parish Mr. Fayle was 
Rector ; and that they left Wareham for Torquay. 

Mr. Fayle bought Trinity Church, Torquay, in 1837, but 
did not resign the ltving of Wareham, nor settle permanently 
at Torquay, before 1840, probably not before 1841. 

Mr. Lane, a Serjeant retired from the army, had been the 
schoolmaster at Wareham ; and after his Rector left, he 
requested that he might follow him; and this being con- 
sented to, he became Master of the school connected with 
Trinity Church, Torquay, where he arrived, it is believed, in 
1841, but certainly not before 1840. 

2. It is obvious, therefore, that even if Mr. Cockrem's 
office was not opened until 1834, as Mr. Worth states, Mr. 
Lane could not have been the first who practised the art of 
printing at Torquay. 

3. Mr. Elliott, on whom I called on 22nd September 1880, 
authorized me to state that he was never in partnership with 
Mr. Cockrem, either as a printer or in any other business; 
that he began business at Torquay, as Bookseller, Stationer, 
and Librarian, in 1837, but as a printer not before 1839; and 
that Mr. Cockrem was in business as a Bookseller, Stationer, 
and Printer, at Torquay, some years before the earlier date. 

4 It is certain, however, that Mr. Cockrem had established 
a printing office at Torquay before 1834; certain that he had 
established it in 1829 ; and eminently probable that it was 
as early as 1828. 

Mr. John L Narracott, now in business as a Bookseller, 
Stationer, and Bookbinder, at Torre, Torquay, on whom I 
called, on 27th September 1880, informed me that Mr. 
Cockrem, on the expiration of his apprenticeship at Totnes, 
came to Torquay as an assistant to Mrs. Cole, who was in 
business there as a Bookseller, Stationer, and Librarian, but 
never engaged in Printing ; that in 1829, he — Mr. Narracott 
— was apprenticed to Mr. Cockrem at Torquay; that, according 
to his Indenture, dated 21st June 1829, which he submitted 
to my inspection, he was " to be instructed in the Art Trade 

vol. xm. u 



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806 NOTES OK SLIPS CONNECTED WITH DEVON8HIBE. 

or mystery of a Stationer Bookbinder and Printer in all its 
branches ; " that Mr. Cockrem, whilst in Mrs. Cole's employ, 
commenced business as a printer, "in a small way," on his 
own account, in what was then called Mill Street, Torquay, 
where he had taken two rooms ; that he did what printing 
came in his way "before hours in the morning and after 
hours in the evening;" that before he, Mr. Narracott, was 
apprenticed to Mr. Cockrem, he was with Mr. T. N. Hay- 
ward, grocer at Totnes, with a view to learning that business ; 
and that he remembered distinctly that, not later than 1828, 
Mr. Cockrem, then at Torquay, printed " trade lists " for the 
said Mr. Hayward. 

That Mr. Cockrem's printing business soon became a 
thriving one is indicated by the fact that, to say nothing of 
Hand-bills, circulars, &c., he printed, at least, four books in 
1830. One of these was an octavo pamphlet of 48 pages, of 
which through the Author's kindness, I possess a copy. 
Omitting two poetical quotations, the title-page runs thus : — 

"TheJ Swallow's Repast, | A | Series of Poems. | By H. 
Dart, | Torquay : | Printed and Published for the Author, | 
By E. Cockrem, | and sold by all other Booksellers. | 1830 : " 

Mr. Dart, who is still residing at Torquay, informs me that 
his Poems were printed in August 1830 ; that in the same 
year, but in an earlier part of it, Mr. Cockrem printed, first 
a small volume of Poems for Mrs. Emery, wife of Captain 
Emery, then resident at Torquay ; and, next, a volume of 
Poems for Mrs. Isaac S. Prowse, wife of a Torquay merchant. 

1 have not seen a copy of Mrs. Emery's work ; but Mr. S. 
H. Slade, of Torquay, has recently presented a copy of Mrs. 
Prowse's book to the Torquay Natural History Society. It 
is an octavo volume of 184 pages, entitled " Poems by Mrs. 
I. S. Prowse," dated MDCCCXX, and having at the bottom 
of the last page the words " Cockrem, Printer Torquay." 

The fourth work which, as already stated, Mr. Cockrem 
printed in 1830, was the First Edition of the Panorama of 
Torquay, by Mr. Octavian Blewitt ; who, writing me on 1st 
October 1880, said "It was a small 12mo of less than 100 
pages, 'printed by Edward Cockrem for the Author,' and 
published in 1830." I have not seen a copy of this edition. 
The second and larger edition of The Panorama, of which I 
have a copy, was printed in 1832, by Mr. Cockrem. 

Mr. Narracott informed me that Mr. Cockrem's business in 
1830 required him to keep a journeyman, as well as an 
apprentice ; and he directed my attention to the fact that the 
" List of Subscribers " at the end of Mr. Dart's volume con- 



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NOTES ON SLIPS CONNECTED WITH DEVONSHIRE. 307 

tained the names of " Mr. J. L. Narracott, Mr. E. Cockrem, 
and Mr. J. W. Taylor," or, as he told me, first the apprentice, 
then the master, and last of all the journeyman. This was 
confirmed by Mr. Dart. 

5. There seems to be satisfactory evidence that Mr. Cock- 
rem was not the first professional printer in Torquay. I 
reynember perfectly being told in 1836 that a Mr. Lusooipbe,, 
whom I knew by sight, had come from Newton to Torquay, 
where he endeavoured to establish himself as a printer before 
Mr. Cockrem opened his office there, but was unsuccessful* 
This was recently confirmed to me by Mr. J. L. Narracott, 
already mentioned, who added that, according to a tradition 
in Mr. Cockrem's office, Mr. Luscombe was wont to express 
the opinion that he, rather than Mr. Cockrem, should have 
become the Torquay printer, as he was in the field before him.* 

Some of the older inhabitants of the town not only con- 
firm the priority of Luscombe's attempt, but add that the late 
Mr. Thomas Pitts, who became a Yorkshire Hector, was a 
still earlier Torquay printer, and that he disposed of his 
business, as such, to Luscombe before proceeding to Cam- 
bridge preparatory to entering the Church. 

The only definite information I have been able to obtain on 
the matter was kindly furnished by Mr. Charles Way, the 
well-known Artist and Drawing Master at Torquay, who, 
writing me on 13th October 1880, stated that he began 
residence at Torquay in 1827 ; that at that time Mr. Thomas 
Pitts and his father were in business there as printers ; that 
soon after that, and before Mr. Cockrem arrived, Mr. Lus- 
combe opened his printing office there ; that he was unable to 
say whether or not the latter " took to " Mr. Pitta's business ; 
and that he knew nothing of any Torquay printer earlier than 
the Messrs. Pitts. 

Mr. Luscombe's printing business was apparently not very 
long-lived, for in "Cockrem's Directory of Tradesmen at 
Torquay and Tor,* appended to the second edition of Mr. 
Blewitt's Panorama of Torquay, published in 1832, the 
names of four " Booksellers and Stationers " are given — 
" Luscombe, K." being one of them ; and it is added of 
" Cockrem, E." — another of the four — but not of any of the 
others, that he was also a " Printer." 

* Since this Paper was read, Mr. J. T. White, of Torquay, has shown me 
a copy of a printed placard, announcing a Sale, dated "February 11, 1829," 
and having at the foot "Luscombe, Printer, Binder, &c Torquay." This, 
however, does not prove priority to Mr. Cockrem. 

U 2 



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308 NOTES ON SLIPS CONNECTED WITH DEVONSHIRE. 

I have not been able to ascertain whether Mr. Pitts was 
the first Torquay printer, or when his business was estab- 
lished; but there is reason to believe that there was no 
Erinter in the town in 1810, for Mr. G. E. Hearder has kindly 
mt me a printed sermon, of which the following is a copy of 
the title page : — 

" A | Sermon, | preached | in the Parish Church of Tor, | 
on Thursday the 13th day of September, 1810, AX. 5810. | 
On the Consecrating the Lodge of | St. John, No. 216, at 
Torquay. | By the Rev*- William Cockburn, M.A. | Late 
Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. | Published at the 
particular Bequest of | the Brethren of the Lodge of St. 
John ; | and of the neighbouring Lodges. | Dartmouth : | 
Printed by J. Salter. | 1810." 

It can scarcely be supposed that a Sermon preached at 
Torquay, would have been sent elsewhere to be printed, had 
there been a printer there at the time. 

I have reason to believe that for several years after 1810 
inhabitants of Torquay, having no one in the trade in their 
own town, were wont to employ a printer, named Bowden, 
resident at Paignton, aud that this was the practice as late as 
1819. 

III. Raleigh, Sir Walter, Birthplace of. 

The Monthly Magazine, or British Register, for 1st August 
1804 (xviii. 44), contains a copy of a letter addressed by " Sir 
W. Ealeigh" to "Mr. Duke." There is nothing in the 
Magazine to show where, when, or how the Editor obtained 
the copy, what was the Christian name of Mr. Duke, or 
where he resided. The letter, however, if trustworthy, 
settles completely the somewhat disputed question of Sir 
Walter's birth place. 

A paper by the Bev. H. 6. J. Clements, M.A., F.B.O.8., of 
Sidmouth, in the Transactions of the Devonshire Association 
(1873, vi 225), contains a copy of the same letter ; but as 
the two copies are not identical, there are clearly Slips some- 
where. 

Mr. Clements has been so good as to inform me that the 
letter, as printed in his Paper, was copied from The Life of 
Sir Walter Raleigh. By Edward Edwards, (Macmillan, 
1868) II. 26 ; and Mr. B. W. Cotton, of Newton Abbot, 
having kindly favoured me with the loan of the said " life," 
I find that Mr. Clements's copy differs from that in Edwards 
in the following particulars only : — 



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NOTES ON SUPS CONNECTED WITH DEVONSHIRE. 309 

1. Mr. Clements substitutes "than" for "then" in one 
instance. 

2. He introduces italics, whilst there are none in Edwards ; 
— this was done, he says, "merely to illustrate the ortho- 
graphy." 

3. He dispenses with capitals, in one or two cases, where 
they are used by Edwards. 

4. He omits two brief foot-notes. 

The two copies are printed below, side by side, precisely as 
they appear in the Life and in the Magazine already men- 
tioned, in order that the Slips, by whomsoever made, may be 
seen at a glance. 



Mr. Edwards's Copy : 

" To Mb. Richard Duke 
of Otterton, in Devon- 
shire. 

"As transcribed from the 
original by John Aubrey. 
MS. Aubrey iv. £ 47. (Bod- 
leian Library, Oxford.) 

" The original letter was, 
for a time, kept at Hayes, 
and was shown to visitors. 
Its present abode is not 
known. 

"Mr. Duke 

" I wrote to Mr. 
Prideaux to move yow 
touchinge the purchase of 
a farme 1 sometime in my 
Fathers posession. I will 
most willingly give whatso- 
ever in your conscience you 
shall deeme it worth; and 
if at any time you shall 
have occasion to use me 
yow shall fynd me a thanke- 
full frind to yow and yours. 

" I am resolved, if I can- 
not entreat yow, to build 
at Colliton. But for the 
naturall disposition I have 



Monthly Magazine Copy : 



"Mr. Duke, 

" I wrote to Mr. Prideaux 
to move you for the pur- 
chase of Hayes, a farm 
sometime in my father's 
possession. I will most 
willingly give you what so- 
ever in your conscience you 
shall deem it worth ; and if 
you shall, at any time, have 
occasion to use me, you 
shall find me a thankfoll 
friend to you and yours. I 
am resolved, if I cannot 
intreat you, to build at 
Colliton; but for the na- 
turall disposition I have to 
that place, being born in 



" * Hayes Barton, in the parish of East Budleigh, Devonshire. See vol. i, 
chap. 1." 



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'3l0 NOTES ON SLIPS CONNECTED WITH DEVONSHIRE. 



' to that place, a being borne 
in that house, I had rather 
seate my sealf there then 
any where els. So I take 
my leve, readie to counter- 

' vaile all your courtesies to 
the uttermost of my power. 
From the Court, the xxvi 
of July, 1584 

" Your very willing frind 
in all I shalbe able 

"W.Ralegh." 



that house, I had rather 
seat myself there than any 
where else. I take my 
leave, resting ready to 
countervail all your cour- 
teseyes to the utter of my 
power. 

"Court, the xxvi of July, 
1584. 

"Your very willing friend, 
in all I shall be abla 
"Walter Raleigh." 



"■ Namely, Hayes." 

The differences in the two copies, though, perhaps, not very 
considerable at first sight, are by no means unimportant. The 
foot-notes given, or quoted, by Edwards can scarcely be re- 
garded as part of the original, but must, in all probability, be 
looked upon as originating with Aubrey or some later copyist. 
It is obvious, however, that without them there is nothing in 
Edwards's copy to identify the "farme" with "Hayes," or to 
suggest where it lay ; nothing, in short, beyond the simple 
implication that it was, at the time, the property of Mr. 
Duke, and was not at " Colliton." 

On the other hand, the Monthly Magazine copy explicitly 
states that the property was " Hayes, a farm ;" and thus, if it 
be trustworthy, settles the entire question of the birthplace, 
which the other copy fails to touch. 

John Aubrey, whose copy, printed by Edwards, was "trans- 
cribed from the original " by himself, was born in Wiltshire, 
on 12th March 1625-6, as some say, but on the 3rd of the 
following November, according to others. In other words, he 
could have had no personal knowledge of Ralegh, who was 
beheaded at least seven years before Aubrey was born. 

The original letter cannot, unfortunately, be appealed to, 
for, though Mr. Clements spoke of it as " in existence " (See 
Trans. Devon. Assoc., vi. 224) in 1873, the statement in 
Edwards, quoted above, that "its present abode is not 
known," showed that in 1868 there was no evidence of its 
existence. We are therefore reduced to speculation on the 
• relative trustworthiness of the two copies under notice. 

The Monthly Magazine copy has clearly been " doctored " 

or "improved," for, 1st, the orthography of the text has been 

.modernized, in most instances ; the copyist being apparently 

vain enough to believe that his readers were less capable 



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NOTES ON SLIPS CONNECTED WITH DEVONSHIRE. 311 

than himself to understand English words in a sixteenth 
century dress. 

2nd. The signature "Walter Raleigh" looks also sus- 
piciously modern. Considerable license was, no doubt, used 
during Sir Walter's lifetime, in spelling his surname. Thus 
Manningham, his contemporary, has in his Diary (1602-3), 
"Rawley" (p. 33), "Rhaleigh" (p. 58), "Rhaley" (p. 109), 
and "Rhaly" (p. 174). (See also Trans. Devon. Assoc, vii 
385-6) ; nevertheless, Sir Walter, as well as other members 
of his family, wrote " Ralegh," at least occasionally ; for an 
acknowledgment of receipt of money, dated 1616, and 
signed by Sir Walter, his lady, and their son, bears the 
names "W. Ralegh 

E. Ralegh 
W. Ralegh." 

(See Notes and Queries, 1st S. xL 262 ; or Trans. Devon. 
Assoc, viii. 733.) That is to say, the knight's signature 
differs from that in the Monthly Magazine, but is in every 
particular identical with that in Edwards. It is " W." not 
" Walter ; " and " Ralegh," not "Raleigh." 

Being ignorant as to who he was, we cannot appeal to the 
character of the Magazine copyist, and it is to be feared 
that Aubrey's character, as sketched by his contemporary and 
co-worker, Anthony k Wood, is not calculated to inspire 
much confidence. " He was," says Wood, " a shiftless person, 
roving and magotie-headed, and sometimes little better than 
erased : and being exceedingly credulous, would stuff his 
many letters sent to A. W. with folliries " [sic] " and misin- 
formations which sometimes would guide him into the paths 
of error." The writer of the article " Aubrey, John," in the 
Penny Cyclopaedia (IIL 75), whence the foregoing quotation 
has been copied, says he was "certainly a man of good 
natural parts, considerable learning, and indefatigable ap- 
plication — a great lover of, and diligent searcher into, 
antiquities. He . . . was considered one of the best 
naturalists of the day, though credulous (as Wood has 
remarked) and very strongly tinctured with superstition." 

If it be allowable to venture so far, I would express the 
feeling — scarcely amounting to belief— that the copy of the 
letter in Edwards is more trustworthy than that in the 
Monthly Magazine; but it must not be forgotten that this 
view deprives the letter of any value as evidence that Sir 
Walter Ralegh was born at Hayes, in the parish of East 
Budlegh. It proves that he was born in a farm house that 
was the property of Mr. Duke in 1584, and was not at 



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312 NOTES ON SLIPS CONNECTED WITH DEVONSHIRE. 

Colliton; but it does not prove or indicate what was the 
name of the house, or in what parish it stood. 

In this Note we have encountered numerous Slips, but by 
whom they were made, or what was their precise character, 
there is nothing to show. 

IV. Eegnal Years of King John of England. 

In his Historical Sketch of Totnes (Trans. Devon. Assoc. 
xii. 159-178) Mr. E. Windeatt says "King John, in the 
seventeenth year of his reign, 10th May, 1215 (some 
authorities say seventh year of his reign, and which is 
correct cannot be determined), granted to the borough its 
earliest known charter." p. 163. 

The passage just quoted is not free from ambiguity, as it 
does not clearly show what was the exact point on which the 
" authorities " differed. In any case, however, there is a Slip 
somewhere. Assuming that the point which "cannot be 
determined" is whether the date of the year was 1215 or 
1205, it is certain that the 10th of May in 1205 was not in 
the " seventh " year of John's reign, and equally certain that 
the 10th May 1215 was not in his "seventeenth " year. Or 
assuming that the undeterminable point is whether the event 
was on the 10th of May in the seventeenth, or in the 
seventh, year of John's reign, then it is certain that it was 
neither in 1215, nor in 1205. 

Richard 1. died on 6th April 1199, but John's reign did 
not begin until the 27th of May ; in other words, England 
was without a recognized king for 51 days. The legal maxim 
that " the king never dies " did not exist in England until 
the death of Henry VIII. From the Conqueror to Henry 
III. inclusive, each king began his reign on the day of his 
coronation — not on the day of his predecessor's decease ; and 
it will be found that the intervals between two consecutive 
reigns varied from 59 days between Henry II. and Richard I., 
to 3 days between William II. and Henry I., and averaged 
31| days. 

There is, however, a further noteworthy fact in the case of 
John's reign. He was crowned, as already stated, on 27th 
May, 1199, which being Ascension day, the years of his reign 
were calculated, not from 27th May to 27th May, but from 
Ascension day to Ascension day — a moveable feast. The 
result was that his Regnal years began not only on different 
days in May, but in one instance in June ; they fluctuated, in 



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NOTES ON SLIPS CONNECTED WITH DEVONSHIRE. 313 

fact, from 3rd May, in 1201 and 1212, to 3rd June, in 1204. 
His " seventh" year, instead of including the 10th May 
1205, began on the 19th of that month and ended on 10th 
May 1206. Nor did his " seventeenth " year include 10th 
May 1215, for it began on the 28th of that month and ended 
on the 18th May 1216. 

The fact that the custom of dating public instruments 
in the year of the king's reign — not in the year of our Lord 
— was in existence in John's time, is sufficient to protect this 
Note from the charge of Chronological trifling. 

Those desirous of pursuing the subject will find much 
valuable and interesting information in Sir Harris Nicolas's 
Chronology of History {Cab. Cyclo.), to which I was much 
indebted when preparing this Note. 

V. "Rendyvoo" as an English Word. The Saturday 
Review on. 1879. 

An article in the Satwrday Review for 22nd November 
1879 (No. 1256. vol. 48, pp. 627-8), entitled Devonshire 
Ftovincialisms, contains the following paragraph : — 

"We do not know whether in former Reports" [i.e. prior to 
vol. xi.] " of the Devonshire Association, any one has taken 
the trouble to collect the words and phrases which survive as 
relics of the time when the French prisoners of war were 
kept at Princetown. It is still not uncommon to hear one 
village child, threatening another, say, ' I '11 make 'ee holloa 
out morblew;' and 'a proper rendyvoo* is used to express a 
gathering of people." p. 628. 

The article was anonymous, and I have no intention of 
attempting to name the author, which it would probably be 
easy to do. I gather from the paragraph, quoted above, 
however, that he believes the word rendyvoo was first brought 
into England by the Frenchmen who, as prisoners of war, 
were kept at Princetown, on Dartmoor. In this belief he has 
certainly made a remarkable Slip. 

As Princetown prison was erected in 1809 for the reception 
of French prisoners (Murray's Handbook for Travellers in 
Devon and Cornwall, 8th ed., 1872, p. 216), it would seem 
that England must have been quite in need of the word, and 
adopted it instantly, inasmuch as it was in common use in 
my native Cornish village, 30 miles from the prison, as long 
ago as my memory takes me; that is to say, within a very few 
years of the arrival of the first French captives on Dartmoor, 



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314 NOTES OK SLIPS CONNECTED WITH DEVONSHIRE. 

If, however, the author had only consulted his dictionaries 
he would have found it not only in Webster (ed. 1864) and 
Walker (ed. 1833), but in Johnson (ed. 1784) and in Bailey 
(ed. 1726). Johnson, moreover, would have told him that the 
word was not only a recognized member of spoken and written 
English, but that it had at least three distinct shades of 
meaning as a noun (besides being used as a verb), one of which 
may now be regarded as obsolete; and, further, that it had been 
used in the Elizabethan era, by some of the writers who have 
shed a lustre on our literature. 

The following is a verbatim copy of all that Johnson says 
on the word : — 

" Rendezvo6s. n. s. [rendez vous, Fr.] 

"1. Assembly; meeting appointed. 

"2. A sign that draws men together. 

"The philosophers-stone and a holy war are but the rendez- 
vous of cracked brains, that wear their feather in their head 
instead of their hat. Bacon 9 * [1561-1626.] 

" 3. Place appointed for assembly. 

u A commander of many ships should rather keep his fleet 
together, than have it severed far asunder ; for the attendance 
of meeting them again at the next rendezvous would consume 
time and victual. Raleigh's Apology" [1552-1618]. 

" The king appointed his whole army to be drawn together 
to a rendevouz at Marlborough. Clarendon " [1608-1674]. 

"This was the general rendezvous which they all go to, and, 
mingling more and more with that oily liquor, they sucked it 
all up. Burnet's Theory of the Earth " [1691]. 

" To Rendezvous, v. n. [from. the noun] to meet at a place 
appointed." 

If the Saturday Reviewer, moreover, had taken the trouble to 
refer to Notes and Queries, he would have found, in the following 
v Notes, further examples of the early English use of the word : — 
K " Rendez-vous . . . appears to have been a very favourite 
expression of Oliver Cromwell's. In one of his earliest 
letters, dated 3rd May, 1643, and addressed to ' The Honour- 
able the Committee at Lincoln/ I find it used no less than 
four times, and in the later part of his correspondence it 
frequently occurs. R. Passingham." 

5th S. II., Aug. 29, 74. p. 169. 
Again : " I do not find an instance of this word older than 
Hakluyt" [1553-1616] "(Voyages, IL 285). 

Charles F. S. Warren, M.A." 

Ibid, Sept 26,74, p, 255. 



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NOTES ON SLIPS CONNECTED WITH DEVONSHIRE. 315 

Farther: — " ... It will be found four times in the plays" 
[of Shakspere]. w l Henry IV. Act iv. sc. 1, line 57; 
Henry V. Act ii. sc. 1, line 15, and Act v. sc. 1, line 76; 
Hamlet, Act iv. sc. 4, line 4 

" Several examples of the use of the word could be given 
from other plays; for instance Chapman's" [1557-1634], 
"Jonson's" [1574-1637], "and Marston's" [1575 ?-1634 ?], 
"Eastward Hoe" [1599], "opens thus :— Touchstone. And 
whether with you now ? what loose actio are you bound for ? 
Come what corades are you to meete withal? where the 
supper? wheres the randeuous ? — Edition 1605. 

Sparkes Henderson Williams, 
Kensington Crescent." 
Ibid, Deer. 5th, 74. p. 458." 

The following are the passages in Shakspere mentioned 
by Mr. Williams, taken in the order in which he gives 
them : — 

u A comfort of retirement lives in this. 
A rendezvous, a home to fly unto/' 

" And when I cannot live any longer, I will do as I may : that is my rest, 
that is the rendezvous of it." 

" News have I that my Nell is dead i' the spital 
Of malady of France ; 
And there my rendezvous is quite cut off." 

" Go, captain, from me greet the Danish king ; 
Tell him, that by his licence, Fortinbras 
Claims the conveyance of a promis'd march 
Over his kingdom. You know the rendezvous" 

To the foregoing examples of the use of the word I may 
add the following from the Survey of Cornwall. By Eichard 
Carew, of Antonie, which, though in Cornwall, may almost 
be called a Suburb of Devonshire : — 

Speaking of Plymouth, Carew says, " Here, mostly, have 
the troops of aduenturers, made their Rendez votes, for 
attempting newe discoueries or inhabitances." Ed. 1769. 
p. 114. (1 st Ed. in 1602.) 

Again, speaking of Bodmin, the same writer says, " Perhyn 
Warbecke, after his landing in the West parts of Cornwall, 
made this towne the Rendez vous of his assembling forces." 
Ibid, p. 124 

It is obvious, therefore, that " JRendyvoo" instead of being 
a " relic of the time when the French prisoners of war were 



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316 NOTES ON SLIPS CONNECTED WITH DEVONSHIRE. 

« 

kept at Princetown," from 60 to 70 years ago, has been a 
recognized English word for at least 300 years. 

But if the naturalization of the word had been much less 
ancient, the long continued and active smuggling intercourse 
between France and Devonshire, as well as Cornwall, would 
have frilly explained its prevalence in the current speech of 
the people of the two counties. Indeed, " Randy voo," 
" Morbleu," " Parlyvoo," and sundry other such words, were 
recognized parts of the language spoken around me as long 
ago as I remember; that is to say, at a period too early to allow 
me to believe that the French prisoners on Dartmoor had 
anything to do with their introduction. 

P.S. : Since the " Proof" of this paper was corrected, Mr. 
Blewitt has kindly presented me with a copy of the first 
edition (1830) of his Panorama of Torquay, mentioned on 
page 306 above. It must be needless to say that it confirms 
Mr. Blewitt'8 statement respecting its date, as well as the 
place in which it was printed, and the printer by whom the 
work was done. W. P. 



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CLOUTED CREAM. 

BT REV. TREASURER HAWKER, M.A. 
(Rmd at Dawliah, July, 1881). 



It is, I know, a vexed question whether Devon or Cornwall 
ought to have the high honour of originating clouted or 
clotted cream. They are by some supposed to be the same 
words; by others not; the latter deriving "clouted or 
clowted" from its being spread over the milk like a "clout" 
or piece over the sole of a shoe, whence " clouted shoon." 
In the Shepherd's Calendar Spenser says "clouted" — 

" Ne would she scorn the simple shepherd swain, 
For she would call him often heam, 
And give him curds and clouted cream." 

Devonians occasionally have flung at their heads the 
Phoenicians as its introducers into the West Country, when 
they visited for tin the Cassiterides or Scilly Islands. 

I am disposed to reply, as the master of my old college 
(Balliol) did, when inconveniently pressed for his authority, 
after a bold ecclesiastical assertion, "Tradition, Ward, 
tradition." 

For myself, I am content to rest upon Fuller's old maxim, 
"Non ubi nascor, sed ubi pascor;" and I take it that far 
more of the cream consumed is from Devon than from 
Cornwall. 

Besides, I conclude that Cornwall has virtually given up 
the article by its proverb, " Cream upon pilchards ;" meaning 
that cream has no business, and is an incongruity, on tables 
where such food as pilchards are common, as they once were 
in Cornwall. 

But it is altogether a mistake to suppose that any county 
is debarred by soil or otherwise from making clouted cream. 
It is merely a question of the way in which the richness of 
the milk is separated from it 



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318 CLOUTED CREAM. 

I have eaten it frequently in Hampshire at a friend's 
house, whose cook understood the Devonshire fashion. 
There, however, it was served up with a becoming reverence, 
as sufficient for itself, in a side dish * 

The manner of producing clouted cream is as follows: 
The milk is strained into shallow pans, each containing 
about half-a-pint of water to prevent the milk from adhering 
to the sides. In these it is allowed to remain undisturbed 
for twelve or twenty-four hours, according to the weather. 
It is then scalded, and often in Devonshire farmhouses by a 
wood fire (which gives the butter made from it the smoky 
taste that some like and some dislike), or better, according to 
modern usage, by warm water. In the former case it is 
moved slowly towards the fire so as to become gradually 
heated, and in about forty or fifty minutes the cream is 
formed. This is indicated by bubbles, and takes place at a 
temperature of 180° Fahrenheit. The milk is then removed 
from the fire, and skimmed from twelve to thirty-six hours 
afterwards. 

Now, indeed, there is a machine for dividing cream from 
milk, invented by a Mr. Lamm, a Swede, which claims to 
separate the milk and cream far more speedily and perfectly 
than the natural rising of the substanca It runs, so it is 
said, 6,000 revolutions in a minute, and will separate thirty- 
two Imperial quarts of fresh milk and cream per hour. 

"The creameries of Northern Illinois and Iowa," again, 
"set in very cold water, often using ice," and they get in 
America the highest market quotations. 

There are sundry derivations of the word. I do not quite 
know where 1 found cream derived from the Greek vpjj/xa, 
kreima, " cream of the thing," with the quotation from K^ats's 
EndymioUy perverted or parodied thus — . 

u A thing of cream, sir, is a joy for ever." 

That derivation sounds a little fanciful and forced. 
Richardson, in his dictionary, says, French, "cr&nie ;" Italian, 
"creme;" Anglo-Saxon, " ream ; " Dutch, " room ; " German, 
"ram or rahm;" all, says Skinner, from the Latin "cremor," 
the thick juice proceeding from corn when pressed, so that, 
supplying "lactis" to "cremor," it would be the thick juice 
of milk. 

* In the Heart of Midlothian the Duke of ArgyU is, so Jeannie Deans 
writes her father, " enamoured of Devonshire kye ; ' and Mrs. Dolly Dutton's 
passage across the Frith of Clyde, to her new home and dairy at Koseneath, 
is a scene of delightful humour. 



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CLOUTED CREAM. 319 

And Vossius derives "cremor" from "cern-ere," because it 
is that fatness which is separated (secernittur) from the milk. 

Scaliger thinks " cremor " to be an old French word, sig- 
nifying the juice expressed from any grain or seed.* 

In Devon, as Lye says, " ream " is still used for the rich 
part of milk, not clotted; and Anglo-Saxon *hrim" is 
" pruina," superficial hoar-frost 

Under "Verbal Provincialisms of South -West Devon- 
shire/' in vol. vii. pp. 530-31 of the Reports of the Devonshire 
Association, a.d. 1875, under the initials of W. P., from 
Notes and Queries, there is a dissertation on raw milk, raw 
cream, raw milk. 

But it is not material from what the name is derived so 
long as we possess the thing itself; any more than it is of 
importance from what particular breed of cows the delicious 
substance proceeds, if it is ours, and we have enough of it. 

Dr. Johnson is said to have complained once that he had 
never had enough of wall-fruit ; and if we judged of the 
antiquity of clotted cream by the infinitesimal quantity some 
people give one, it would be a young discovery indeed from 
being, as Foote said of his small glass of old Curagoa, so 
little of its age. 

I should hold that the Channel Islands' cows give the best 
cream, from the superior richness of their milk ; at least, that 
is my experience; and the yellow tinge they impart is 
thought by dairy-keepers a recommendation, although it is 
not the colour Shakspere was thinking of when he makes 
Macbeth say — 

" Thou cream-fac'd loon, 
Where got'st thou that goose look ? " 

and yet I am not sure whether he did not mean something 
more than white in the scolding Rosalind gives to Phoebe in 
As you like it. 

u "fis not your inky brows, your black silk hair, 
Your bugle eyeballs, nor your cheek of cream, 
That can entame my spirits to your worship." 

But, as I have said, it is not of much consequence from 
what the name "cream" is derived if we have the thing 
itself. 

I remember how in my boyhood all the previous materials 
of a feast — the soup, the fish, the roast and boiled — were 

* One of the most beautiful of our provincialisms is " reaming out one's 
heart to another," as if the heart was being strained or torn asunder to bring 
to the surface some deeply-seated inner feeling. 



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320 CLOUTED CREAM, 

nought, even as derivations or any other uninteresting pre- 
liminaries, whilst I waited impatiently, hardly restrained by 
parental presence from violent clamour, until the apple, or 
currant, or cherry-pie arrived with its accompaniment of 
thick cream, the better half indeed. 

And how we children hated that imaginary cat* who was 
threatened as a demolisher of that unmannerly morsel, which 
we slily kept in one corner of our plates for the last luscious 
mouthfuL 

Perhaps Shakspere had reminiscences of a like early date 
when he put into Falstaflfs mouth — 

" I am as vigilant as a cat to steal cream." 

Some not unworthy verses in praise of this admirable 
creature have been written by a remarkable man, Wm. Barry 
Peacock. He was, my friend, the late Professor Hodgson, 
our exceeding loss, told me, a tailor and clothier in Man- 
chester. Professor Hodgson gave me the verses, an eulogy 
on a can of cream sent by a lady to Peacock from Exeter. I 
have since seen them in print in the North Devon Journal of 
September 4th, 1879. They express alike the sentiments of 
my youth, mid-life, and old age. The writer having declared 
that — 

" Nothing on earth or in poet's dream 
Is so ricn and rare as your Devonshire cream," 

proceeds to describe it to perfection : 

" Its orient tinge, like spring-time morn, 
Or baby-buttercups newly-born ; 
Its balmy perfume, delicate pulp, 
One longs to swallow it all at a gulp, 
Sure man had ne'er such gifts or theme 
As your melt-in-mouthy Devonshire cream." 

The audacity of the new coinage, " melt-in-mouthy," is, I 
think I may say, justified by the facts of the case : nothing 
succeeds like success. He goes on with a recital of its 
properties, which, although I have eaten a good quantity of 
it, I cannot absolutely vouch for in my own person — 

" Oh, it makes me fat and it makes me fair, 
And were I not bald, it would curl my hair ! 
It makes me sleek and soft and slippery ; 
It turns my thoughts from French-cook frippery ; 
It rises daily in my esteem, 
Though sinking fast is this Devonshire cream." 

From the date of the poem, 1853, the author having died 
only in 1878, he must have been far from an old man when 



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CLQUTED CREAM. 3231 

he wrote it, and his adoration is certainly that of a young 
man in his first love, like Florizel's burst of admiration for 
Perdita in the Winter's Tale — 

" Good sooth, she is 
The queen of curds and cream." 

Charles Lamb has hardly written more ardently of the 
delights of a sucking-pig in his charming essay. . 

I pass over some gibes at the clergy of old time, although 
Wordsworth's description of a clerical fop in the pulpit 
might have been drawn from his having seen the effect on 
the palate of a first taste of cream — 

"And, winding up his mouth, , 
From time to time, into an orifice 
Host delicate, a lurking eyelet, small, 
And only not invisible, again 
Opens it out, diffusing thence a smile 
Of rapt irradiation exquisite." 

I prefer to take the testimony of the well-known "Red 
lions " of the British Association, who from their scientific 
and pre-hi8toric tastes aie better judges even than the clergy 
of what is good and pleasant. 

The verses, of which I quote the first stanza, smack of 
the racy style of a distinguished member of the company, 
whose roar is not unknown to our Devonshire Association, 
and, I may add, is always welcome. 

The title is "The Red Lions in the West in 1877"— 

"The lions went to the west countree, 

The land of the clotted cream, 
Where they found a home in a spacious cave, 

Very near the Tamar stream, 
When they saw the cave they wagged their tails, 

And they roared with might and main ; 
They buried their whiskers in the cream, 

And they wagged and roared again." 

Let us hope that when they return, which they certainly 
will ; for after they had dipped their mouths in the cream-* 

"They recorded a vow with a mighty roar 
That they *d visit the West again," 

the manufacture of the delicious substance may still be 
going on in increasing quantities under* the care of many & 
fair dairymaid or comely matron, even if their resources are 
not so large as those of the lady of whom the song says — . 

" Dame Durden has three serving-men 
To follow the milking pail." , 

vol. xni. x 



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322 CLOUTED CREAM. 

Then, when 

" Steep'd grain and curdlet milk with dulcet cream, 
Soft temper' d in full merriment they quaff, 

they may echo the not extravagant rhapsody of the same 
poet from whom I have quoted — 

"Talk not of 'worlds of chrysolite, 
Talk not of ' seas of sapphire ' bright ; 
I don't desire on such to float, 
The boat I seek is a butter-boat ; 
In this let me launch on an ocean stream — 
A mighty sea of Devonshire cream. 

44 It matters not, then, if I sink or swim ; 
It matters not what may be my whim ; 
Whether I float on the buoyant wave, 
Or in its deeps my limbs do lave : 
For oh ! what a sensuous joy supreme 
Would drowning be in this Devonshire cream." 

I am not so sure that I agree with this last stanza, re* 
membering, as I do, the sensation of sinking in a Dartmoor 
mire. No doubt it is preferable to perish in an agreeable 
substance rather than the reverse. Clarence certainly 
showed his taste by choosing a butt of malmsey for his 
drowning instead of muddy beer ; but ne quid nimis. You 
may have too much of a good thing, and the idea of being 
suffocated in Devonshire cream rather chokes one. Indeed 
its delights are, I contend, better elucidated by contrasts, as 
people are said to marry their opposites ; by being used with 
fruit or wedded to its connection, if not close relation, 
junket, than when it is taken pure and simple. 

Nor am I quite sure that a full diet of perpetual cream 
would produce so many good results, mental and physical, as 
the poet asserts. 

Visions of biliousness pass before one's eyes, although I 
remember hearing of an old lady with a fair complexion, a 
plump figure, and a youthful elasticity, being asked by what 
means she had preserved her freshness so well, and replying 
with Demosthenic brevity, " Butter, butter, butter." 

It is said also that clouted cream has all the health-giving 
properties of codliver oil, with the difference of taste thrown 
in ; and a dear friend of mine, who came to Ilfracombe for 
his health, told me that his London doctor, in sending him 
there for the winter, said, " And fill up your tea or coffee-cup, 
whenever you can, with their thick cream so that your spoon 
will stand upright in it" 



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CLOUTED CREAM. 323 

However, I will give the stanza, which states the writer's 
theory — 

" But still, whilst my pen runs on so swift, 
Let me think of the giver, as well as the gift. 
There 's a smile in her eye would make any man sigh, 
A place in her heart where all good things lie ; 
And gentle and pleasant her thoughts do seem, 
For hasn't she lived on Devonshire cream ? " 

Certainly if Devonshire cream will give us smiles, and 
make our thoughts gentle and pleasant, the sooner we begin 
to order up some buckets of it, the better for ourselves and 
our neighbours. 

Climate, however, I believe, has as much or more to do 
with longevity than cream, and self-restraint will do more for 
people's tempers than diet. 

Nevertheless, I so thoroughly share in the writer's 
eulogium about the donors and manufacturers of cream, that 
I perfectly echo his concluding wish, and will say the same 
of anyone who will favour me with a can. 

" May she still go on lapping, still go on napping ; 
Like Sterne's kindly soul the flies ' only flapping," 
Years fall like dew on her heart and her heaa 
'Till the fruit shall have ripened, the last leaf be shed, 
Then with ' folding of hands ' may her spirit-dream 
Be soft and sweet as her Devonshire cream." 



x 2 



ON THE DEVONSHIRE PRONOUN MIN, OR 
MUN = THEM. 

BT FREDERIC THOMAS ELWORTHY, 
Member of Council of the Philological Society. 

(Read at Dawlith, July, 1881.) 



One of our Devonshire provincialisms has hitherto been an 
unsolved problem to philologists. Being a pronoun, and thus 
entering into the very construction and grammar of the 
language, it has had great attention paid to it — far more than 
would have been given to a mere word, expressing the name 
or quality of something, or implying some action. 

The form of. pronoun I allude to is well known throughout 
this county, and in the middle as well as in the northern 
part it is the regular objective case plural, and occasionally 
in the singular also. 

All modern writers in the Devonshire dialect use it, and it 
was common in its present form early in the last century. 
How much earlier it was so used, or when the present form 
was first spoken, is not yet known, though, as we shall see, 
modern inquisitiveness and research may yet unearth some 
documents to make this certain. 

The Exmoor Scolding and Courtship is, so far as is known 
at present, the earliest piece of writing in which the word 
is found, as spoken now. There it is spelt both mun and 
min. Wilmot, in twitting her sister about saying her 
prayers, says : " And whan tha dest zay mun, tis bet whilst 
tha art scrubbing, hewstring, and rittling abed. And nif by 
gurt hap tha dest zay mun at oil, thy marrabones shan't 
kneelee." In the Courtship, Andrew says of his property at 
Parracomb Down: "Tes wor twonty Nobles a year and a 
Puss to put min in/ 9 

See also mun in the Report of Provincialisms by your 
committee this year. 



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ON THE DEVONSHIRE PRONOUN MIN. 325 

Nathan Hogg spells the word min, and uses it very 
frequently. In "Mai Brown's Crinalin" he says: "Hur 
pitch'd irt inter min, an pummild tha lot" (of boys). I need 
not quote instances of its use. The word must be well known 
to every Devonshire man ; but out of this county it is not 
heard at all, unless spoken by Devonshire men. Hitherto its 
history has been a great puzzle. The first editor of the 
Exmoor Scolding, in 1771, about 30 years after the dialogue 
first appeared, was evidently quite ignorant, though he was 
beating about for a meaning, for he mentions it in his Glossary 
in the same paragraph with mun, the common form of man, 
(as in the e very-day expression, "A'11 tell thee what, mun !") 
and learnedly tells us that " it seems rather to mean mannus, 
for which the Saxon word was also man." 

Being so obviously a pronominal form, it has hitherto been 
considered to represent the German indefinite pronoun man, 
but how it represents it, or how it got to its present form, or 
how it so entirely changed its meaning from the indefinite to 
the definite, no one has, so far, done more than make the 
merest guesses. It is a usual thing, when there is a similarity 
in the sound, or an approach in the spelling, of two words, 
to connect them in meaning. I remember a gentleman, who 
has much reputation for learning, asking me if I knew the 
origin of the word sheriff. I replied that I had understood 
it to mean shire-reeve, " Nothing of the sort," was the con- 
fident reply ; " it is an Arabic word ; ' shereef' is the head- 
man." On another occasion, by another gentleman, I was 
asked if I knew our common word soce, and what it came 
from. Upon giving the explanation which seemed to me 
most probable, I was in this case also most confidently con- 
tradicted, and was told by the gentleman that his uncle was 
a great scholar, and that " he always said that soce came from 
the Greek zoos." Again, a well-known writer once pointed 
out to a friend of mine that yarrow was a frequent name 
for river ; " doubtless," as he said, " from the Anglo-Saxon 
earewe, an arrow, because they run straight and fast." " Thus," 
said he, "we have the Farrow in Scotland, the Yarra in 
Africa, the Yarra-yarra in Australia I" How Anglo-Saxons 
could have gone and induced negroes and New Hollanders to 
give to their rivers the Anglo-Saxon name for an arrow he 
had never considered, nor did he seem to think that it was 
of any practical moment. He was not the only man who 
treats words and names as if they were fungus spores, or 
cholera germs, travelling about in the air and fixing them- 
selves on to congenial subjects without human intervention ! 



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326 ON THE DEVONSHIRE PRONOUN MIN. 

To what absurdities a little knowledge may lead us ! But 
many of our etymological problems are at present in the 
process of solution. The great Dictionary of tbe English 
Language now in course of preparation, under the auspices of 
the Philological Society and tbe University of Oxford, through 
the Clarendon Press, has acquired such a mass of information 
as never before was got together; so tbat in the end, by 
means of quotations from the writings of authors, beginning 
at the early days of the language, down to our own time, 
we shall see at a glance all the history of every word in 
it ; how the word was first used, how it developed in both its 
pronunciation and in its meaning, until it finally dropped 
out of use, or, on the other hand, became part of our modern 
vocabulary. Dr. Murray, the editor of this great work, 
whose name will, without doubt, be much more of a house- 
hold word among our children than that of either Dr. 
Johnson, Walker, Webster, or of any other lexicographer, 
has ever been among us, says, in a letter to the Academy, 
December 24, 1880 : — " I am sure that if literary men and 
students of English in any department had the faintest con- 
ception of the amazing and enormous light which the 
dictionary is going to throw upon the history of words and 
idioms, they would work with enthusiasm to hasten its 
appearance. To myself, I may say, the handling of the 
materials — the two and a-half million quotations which the 
labours of more than a thousand readers and nearly a quarter 
of a century have amassed — afford an endless succession of 
surprises ; every day I learn therefrom things which I had 
never dreamed of, and of which I know nobody else has 
dreamed. I never turn over the pages of Notes and Queries 
without finding men laboriously elucidating, or partially 
elucidating, points of which the full explanation lies ready in 
our pigeon-holes, waiting to be edited and published. Will 
not more scholars help us to hasten this coming illumination 
by each thinking of the dictionary in his daily reading and 
research, and sending us notes of every point likely to con- 
duce to its completeness, of every isolated fact which will 
combine with other facts already in our hands into perfect 
wholes of word history ? No single student can hope, even 
in the case of a single word, to glean all the facts which a 
thousand readers and a quarter of a century's work have 
brought together; but every student may swell the store 
which we are eager to lay open to all. We are doing for 
England and the English tongue a work which will be built 
upon and extended and completed, but will itself never grow 



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ON THE DEVONSHIRE PRONOUN MIN. 327 

old; generations of Englishmen will rejoice in our light, 
and bless the workers who gave the light in which men 
shall see to do better work; will not more deserve the 
blessing?" 

Among the books read for the purposes of this great work 
is one which has but lately come to the light of day. It is 
one of the publications of the Early English Text Society, 
printed for the first time in 1879, from a MS. in the Bodleian 
Library. The book is a translation into English of an old 
French romance, and is entitled Sir Ferumbras. It is, in fact, 
one of the old Charlemagne romances, chiefly about the doings 
of the famous Roland and Oliver, and was translated about 
the year 1380. Apart from the main point on which I now 
bring it before you — that is, the light it throws on our 
modern dialect mtm t and to which I shall return — the work 
is of great interest locally, and I cannot do better than 
quote to you Mr. Black's account of the Ashmole MS., 33 
in his catalogue — i.e. Sir Ferumbras : — 

"The book is not more curious than its antient covers, 
which are now preserved in a case with it They are a 
triple invelope of parchment flapping over the right-hand 
cover, and consist of 2 sheets. The outer one is a letter 
executory of a bull of pope Innocent VI. for the presentation 
of Thomas de Silton to the vicarage of Culompton, in the 
diocese of Exeter, then vacant by the death of Peter Moleyns ; 
which bull, being addressed to the Abbots of Schirbourne and 
Cerne, and to John de Silvis, dean of S. Agricola at Avignon, 
was executed (by the last named) in the present letter 
addressed to the Bishop of Exeter. The foot containing the 
date is cut off; but the bull is dated at Villa-Nova, did 
Maij, anno 5, which is 1357. 

"The inner cover is a very long and imperfect (Latin) 
instrument, stating that before mass on the 7th Sunday after 
Trinity, in 1377, in the chapel of Holne, in the diocese of 
Exeter, Boger Langeman, rector of Lydelynche (dioc. Schirb.), 
publicly read and expounded an instrument which cites the 
proceedings and final sentence in the Court of Bome, in con- 
sequence of the consecration of a burial ground adjoining the 
said chapel, which was prejudicial to the rights of John 
Bryge, the vicar of Buckfastleigh, to whose parish church the 
right of burial belonged, the said chapel being a member 
thereof. [But] these covers are most remarkable for having 
preserved a curiosity not equalled in any collection of MSS., 
and that for antiquity is unique of its kind, namely, a part of 
the author's original corrected draught of this poem [of 



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328 OK - THE DEVONSHIRE PRONOUN MIN. 

'Ferumbras'] written on the. back of the documents already 
described." 

Black concludes that " the author was a clergyman, lived 
in the diocese of Exeter (probably in that city), and composed 
his work shortly after 1377, or early in the reign of Richard 
II." 

There is no doubt whatever that the poem was written by 
a Devonshire man, in his own native tongue ; but, at the same 
time, it is evident that he had, either by travel or, more likely, 
by long residence, become so familiar with, and so practised 
in the use of, Northern forms of speech, that he even uses 
both Northern and Southern typical forms in one and the 
same line; for example, in 1L 1976-7 — 

w k er sche cam strauU in-to halle '. neuere heo ne stente, 
& forp sche praste among hem alle I & to her fader ri)t heo wente." 

For all this the man wrote mainly in his native speech, and 
that clearly was Devonshire. 

Inasmuch as the poem is metrical throughout, and in 
rhyme, we are much helped towards the correct pronuncia- 
tion, and especially the correct accentuation, which, as we 
shall see further on, is of the greatest importance to our 
present purpose. 

In spelling he was, as was usual in his day, on the ifrhole 
phonetic. The pronunciation was by no means fixed, and 
hence we find him spelling the same word in three or four 
different ways. 

"We find the author of Sir Ferumbras constantly and very 
frequently writing a for he, as in 11. 126-8 — 

" panne pe kyng gan waxe wrop ! & aboute him gan beholde, 
& by seynt dynys a swer is op f pat after pat tyme a nolde 
Ete ne drynke no more pat day! for none kynnes pynge." 

Compare this with 1. 210 of the Exmoor Scolding — 

" Tha hast no Stroil nor Docity, no Vittiness in enny keendest thing ;" 

also L 293. 

-4, spelt ha (1L 159, 167), is used for he in the Scolding, and 
we all know how common it is now in Devonshire speech. 

Again he uses to for at with the word to play, at any kind 
of games, as in the following : 11. 2224-5 — 

" po pat williep to leue at hame I pleyep to pe eschekkere, 
& somme of hem to iew-de-dame J & somme to tablere." 

In this example we note the word live is spelt leue> which 
both the spelling and the metre show must have been pro- 
nounced leev. A modern Devonshire man still says : — " I do 
leev to Beesh-Nymp'm hon I be horn." 



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ON THE DEVONSHIRE PRONOUN MIN. 329 

Farther, our author repeatedly drops the e in the inflection 
eth 9 in such words as comth, bringth, fallth or valih : — 

"God him spede for his mi3ti now he takp ys waye," 1. 252 
"Wan he saw erld Olyuer ; a tornp him pat oper side." 1. 348 
" k hef vp ys swerd, k til him a gop I k smot to ClyuM©." L 621 

So we find also }n/nk]>, fop]>, calp, gif\>, and probably many 
others. 

It would be easy to multiply quotations to any extent, but 
the instances I have given are enough to prove that none but 
a Devonshire man could have written the poem, inasmuch as 
they are still the true marks to know him by, and because 
they are found nowhere east of this county, either in modern 
speech or, I believe, in mediaeval writings. Besides these 
typical forms, there are very numerous peculiarities, all 
pointing in the same direction, such as the invariable use 
of ago for gone, bame for balm, be for been, dude for did, 
he for it; as in 1. 4309 

" Mantrible pe Oitee ys y-called I Wyp marbre fyn ys he walled. 1 ' 

Thus making- the modern description of us true for 500 
years agone; viz., that "everything is he excepting a Tom 
Cat, and that is a she.* 9 

Moreover, we find vores for furrows, thuse for those, op for 
up, and a vast number of other forms written in the four- 
teenth century, which are still quite familiar to "West Country 
ears. Having, then, proved to demonstration that the poem 
is Devonshire, the remainder of our task is easy. 

The author uses five forms to express the plural pronoun 
them ; viz., hymen, hymyn or hemen, hyme, hem, em, and 
Jraym or }>eym. For the last I am indebted to the editor, 
as I cannot find it after reading the poem over veiy care- 1 
fully. Of these forms, hymen and hem are the most frequent* 
and it is with the former of these that we have now to do. 
The word Kymen, meaning them, occurs not less than 96 
times in the poem, and probably much oftener. The rhythm 
shows, as we shall see later on, that the first syllable was not 
accented, while in many cases the line will not scan unless 
the syllable is dropped altogether. 

By the kindness of my good friend, Dr. Murray, who has 
lent me the MS. of his article for the new Dictionary on 
this pronoun hymen, together with those on Him, Hin, Hi, 
Hem, and Em, I shall be able to clear up in the most con- 
clusive manner the vexed problem of the Devonshire mdn 
or mun. 



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330 ON THE DEVONSHIRE PRONOUN MIX. 

And here I may state that I have his permission to 
quote "in part or in full." I have, of course, chosen the 
latter, and in doing so, have to congratulate this Society in 
being able to present to the world not only the solution of 
this most interesting question, now first worked out by Dr. 
Murray, but also on being first to give the public a fair 
d&mple of the grand work now in progress, thereby fore- 
stalling by some two or three years the regular appearance of 
the article in its proper place. 

I have further to congratulate this Society upon the subject 
matter of these articles, inasmuch as they will be the first to 

Eublish such a piece of compressed essence of word-history as 
as never before been worked out — such word-history as only 
the mass of information collected by the Philological Society, 
and by Dr. Murray's 750 special volunteer readers, could have 
made possible, and such as, perhaps, no other man than the 
editor would have so digested and compressed. I may add 
that reading and re-reading will be necessary to the mastery of 
these articles, and that finally, when they see daylight in 
their perfect shape, they will be supplemented by apt quota- 
tions to illustrate each historical period referred to under the 
different divisions. Thus : the figures 1-4 represent centuries, 
dropping the thousand, as in Italian — 1 = 11th century, 2 = 12, 
and so on ; 1-4= 11th to 14th century. 

I give here the articles on Him, &c, leaving that on hymen 
for convenience till last. 

Him (him) pers. pron. 3 sing. m. dat.-acc. Forms : — 

[1. Orig. dak sing. masc. and neut. of Hb, It ; cogn. with O. Fris, 
him, (?) O. Sax. imu, imo, (?) O. H. G. im (mod Germ, ihm, mod. 
Du. hem), (?) Goth, imma. 2. In 10th c. him began to be used 
for the ace. hinb in midL dial. ; by 1150 him had entirely sup- 
planted hine in midL, and was encroaching on it in the south, in 
which, however, hin was still written iu 15th c. ; it is still, as 'n, 
en, un, the regular form in southern dialect speech, as we twold-en, 
' we told him.' 3. While him thus became both dak and accus. in 
the masculine, in the neuter the dative him was disused, and its 
place taken by the accus. hit, it, as in ' give it a push.' Thus from 
being originally dative masc. and neut., him is now dak and accus. 
masculine, having received extension in case, restriction in gender. 
Cf. mod. Germ, restriction of ihm to living being9.] 

Hin, hine, pers. pron. 3 sing. ace. m. Obs. or dial. Forms : 
1 (i.e. 11th century), hiene; 1-2, hyne; 1-4, hine; 2-3, hin; 
4, hen ; 5, hyn ; 9, dial, en, un. 



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ON THE DEVONSHIRE PRONOUN MIN. 331 

[The original ace. sing, masc of He ; cogn. with O. Fries, hine, 
hini, Norse hann, 0. Sax. and Goth. ina, 0. H. G. in, inan (mod. 
G. ihn). Already before 100(1 the midl. dial, had begun to substi- 
tute the dak him for the ace. nine, and before 1150 hine was quite 
lost in the north and midl It was still common in Kentish in 
1340, but is rare in literature after 1400, though still the ordinary 
form in S. W. dialects, as We teed 'n gwayn, * We saw him going/ 
See Elworthy, W. Sam, Oram. p. 36.] 

Hi, pers. pron. 3 pi. n. and ace. Obs. Forms : 1, hia, hiae ; 
1-3, hie, hea, hio, hi? ; 1-5, hi, hy ; 1-4, heo ; 2, hyo, y, i ; 
2-3, ho ; 2-4, ha ; 2-5, he ; 3-4, hii, hue ; 4, hiu ; 3-5, hee, a, 

[1. The original pi. nom. and ace. in all genders of He, q.v.; 
cogn. with O. Fris. hia, (?) Goth, ei-s, ijo-s, ij-a (obs. in O. Sax. 
and O. H. G., and replaced by the corresponding case (sia) of the 
demonsk be, q.v.). 2. In 10th c. the accus. hi began to be sup- 
planted by the dak heom, hem, q.v., in the midl. dial., and became 
obs. before 1150 ; it was retained in south, dial, till 1330, but was 
obs. in 1350. 3. Already in 950 the north, dial, had begun to 
use, as equivalent to hi, the demonstrative tha, \a, plur. of that ; 
before 1200 the cognate form \e$$, they, adopted from Norse, had 
quite displaced hi, nom., in N. midland; by 1300 thei, they, had 
become the only form in the midl. generally; by 1400 thei, thai, 
was used along with hi even in S.W., and after 1450 hi disappears 
from literature. One of its latest forms, a, still lingers in S.W. 
dial speech. 4. Thus the accus. hi was supplanted between 10th 
and 14th c. by the dative hem, which was in turn supplanted 
between 12th and 16th by the demonstrative them; the nominative 
hi was superseded between the 12th and 15th c. by the demonst. 
they.] 

Hem, 'em (em), pers. pron. 3 pi. dat.-aec. Forms : 1-3 (i.e. 
11th to 13th cent.), him, hem; 1-2, hym; 2-5, hom, ham; 
2-7, hem ; 3-4, -m, -em ; 3-4, am ; 4, hyme ; 6-9, 'em. 

[1. Orig. dak pi. all genders of He; cogn. with O. Fris. him, 
hiam, (?) O. Sax. and Goth, im, (I) O. H. G. im, in (mod. Ger. 
ihn-en, mod. Du. hen, hun). 2. In 10th c. it began in midl. dial, 
to be substituted for the accus. pi. hi, heo, &c; by 1150 hem had 
quite supplanted hi in midl., and was encroaching on it in the 
southern; and by 1350 it entirely superseded hi in southern also, 
the dak and accus. becoming alike hem. (Cf. the history of him, 
me.) 3. In 10th c. thoem, dat. pi. of the demonst. the, that, often 
took the place of hem, heom in the north (perhaps as more em- 
phatic) ; before 1200 we find theym, J)e|m (Norse form of thoem), 
used for hem in north midL, and thaim as the only northern form ; 
in 15th c. them and hem are used together by Caxton, as more and 



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332 ON THK DEVONSHIRE PRONOUN MIN. 

less emphatic. After 1500 them is the recognized form, hem sur- 
viving only (written 'em) as a subordinate form, chiefly conver- 
sational, in which capacity it is still used. As early as 3 hem was 
combined as -m with other pronouns, as him = hi'm, ie. hirhem ? 
and in 4, appended as -m, -em, to verbs, as sendem, which is iden- 
tical with modern send 'em. In some S.W. dialects them has not 
yet encroached upon hem, em ; but in the north no trace of hem 
has been left for 700 years. In the form hym, him, this word was 
identical with the dative (and subsequently accus.) sing., a confu- 
sion which was curiously remedied in S.W. dialect in 4 by making 
the pL hym-en, hem-en, whence the min, mun = them, now used in 
Devonshire.] 

Em, 'em Cem), pers. pron. 3 pi. dat-acc. 

[A contracted form of the M. E. Hem, already in 14th c added 
enciitically to verbs, and still used in speech and familiar writing 
as 'em, which spelling may have originated in the opinion that it 
was a contraction of them, the pronoun which has superseded hem. 
Cf. it for hit] 

= Thbm. 

Hymen, hymyn, hemen, 3 pers. pron. jpl. dot. and ace. 

[An interesting S.W. form found in end of 14th c. (as yet only 
in Sir Ferumbras, see infra.) alongside of hym(e), hem, em, as a 
more distinctive plural; the dat-acc. sing, being also him, hym, 
hem, 'em, the plural forms were specialized by an affixed -en, a 
plural ending common to nouns and verbs, in some of which it is 
moreover, as in hym-en, so far as form goes, a pleonastic or addi- 
tional affix. Cf. childr-en, brethr-en, ky-en, later plurals for earlier 
chUdre, brether, ky, 0. R cildru, brtfSer, cy ; also O. E sind-on, 
bti&-on, 'are,' formed for greater distinction on sind, WS; and 
especially Mid. and Mod. High Ger. in-en, ihn-en, * to them.' O. 
H. G. im, in, where the pL affix -en has been similarly added to 
distinguish it from ace. sing. ihn. Hym-en is thus an almost exact 
analogue of ihn-en. It is the original of the still common Devonian 
mtn, mun, 'them, to them;' the enclytic hymyn, hemen, having 
become myn, men, just as hine, hin, has become en, 'n, and the 
ordinary pL hem has become em, 'm.] 

= Thbm, to them. 

Sir Ferumbrcu: 
Line 1898— 

M Wan pay had ete & dronke ynow I pe bord sche bet were, 
Ryche garnyment? forp sche drowi & by-tok hymen for to were." 

Line 1569— 

" Hit semep sarasyns as be sttte 5 pat prikeap as wynd & rayn ; 
Willep we wip hymen mete & fijte i oper to wollap turne agayn ?" 



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ON THE DEVONSHIBE PRONOUN MIN. 333 

Line 1567 — 

" Wan pey come to-gadre neJ f k Moradaa pe kyng hem mette ; 
A cryede to hymen welan he) \ k pus he hymen grette :" 

Line 1963— 

" k so pou schalt hemen alle achewe i pat pay bap al my a- went." 

line 2526— 

" pan apak Florippe pat burde bri3t I to hymyn enerechone ;" 

lane 3542— 

" And had ordeynt him per to lyn Wip xxx* ponsant of Sarajyn 
To holde hymen po with-inne." 
Line 5048— 

" y-come ache ys ajen wel sone, & afforn hem per ache hit hap oundone 
k achewed hymen Aparenly." 

At line 3022 we find the most interesting and probably 
conclusive illustration of all : "Ac hymen douste don on J>e 
fon;" i.e., "But they threw them (selves) down on the foe." 
Here we have our Devonshire pronoun almost in its modern 
form written quite 500 years ago. It is well known that 
contractions in pronouns were common in the South for 150 
years before our pronoun was written. Such as he and hem 
became hem ; he and him became him. Just as now we con- 
tract they-am, into they-m> thty-have into tJiey-ve, so in the 
text it would have been, if not so contracted, "Ac hy hymen 
douste;" but, dropping the unaccented syllable, we have 
" Ac hy 'men douste don on J>e fon," which might have been 
written by Nathan Hogg or any modern Devonshire poet. 
"We find that in another place our author wrote : — 

" So harde hy hem panne quajte f fleoying toward hure host, 
pat pe moat part of hem hy ca)te *. and aone ahatede hure boat." 

(L 2981-2.) 

Here we have precisely the same grammatical construction, 
only that he uses hem instead of 'men for his accusative case. 

These examples, which might be multiplied more than 
twelve-fold from the poem, are quite sufficient for our pur- 
pose, and we see from them, especially from the two first and 
two last, that even at the date when they were written the 
word was beginning to lose its first syllable, and to be sounded 
much as it now is, m'n. We see this, because if we distinctly 
pronounce the syllable, we destroy the rhythm ; while in the 
two last examples, which occur in the second part of the 
poem, and after a change in the metre, we find that we must 
drop the hy altogether, or else the metre, which otherwise is 
smooth and flowing, becomes halting at once. 

A very curious circumstance about the pronouns in this 
poem is that the sing, hin or 'en (i.e. him), is not once used by 



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334 ON THE DEVONSHIRE PRONOUN M1N. 

the author. We see by Dr. Murray's history of hin, that before 
his day it had disappeared from Northern speech, and we can 
only account for his (a Devon man) not using it by presuming 
that he had acquired the Northern form so entirely as to dis- 
place his native speech in that particular, so far as writing it 
went; while, as we all know, the former remains still in 
common use in our South-west country spoken tongue, as in 
the common sentence, "I told'n to be sure and take care 
o* un;" or, as in the Exmoor Scolding (1. 219), where Wilmot 
is speaking of the "Natted Yeo," and says to her sister: 
" Bather than tha wudst ha enny more Champ, and Hoster, 
and Tanbast wi* un, tha tokst en and dest wetherly bost 
tha neck o* en." This form is so thoroughly familiar that 
I need not quote further. It is one of our West Country 
provincialisms which is usually set down to bad grammar, 
but which Dr. Murray now proves to be the true descendant 
of good old English, thus adding one more proof to my 
contention before you last year, that Devonshire speech is 
the true classic English * This fact of the author of Sir 
Ferumbras not using it is the more curious, inasmuch as from 
beginning to end the poem is so bristling with Devonshire- 
isms that no one who knew West Country talk could fail to 
claim the author as a neighbour. 

In conclusion, I would repeat that in the fourteenth cen- 
tury, when this poem was written, the usual form in the 
northern and midland districts for dat. ace. sing, was, as now 
in literary English, him ; while in the plural the dative and 
accusative were hem and heom. It was only our forefathers 
who then in the south-west oonfounded both singular and 
plural in the same word, him ; hence they only needed to 
make a distinction, and so added en to form a plural, thus 
developing the hymen of Sir Ferumbras, which, as we have 
seen by Dr. Murray's history and analogy, lost the hy, and 
has curiously come down to us in the unique Devonshire 
pronoun men or m'n. 

There is so much of interest in Sir Ferumbras that, unless 
you are already tired of " him," I shall hope to have some- 
thing further to say on the subject when we meet again. 

• See Trans. Devon. Assoc 1880. 



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NOTES FKOM THE AUTOBIOGKAPHY OF 
DK. JAMES YONGE, F.E.S. 

BY B. N. WORTH, P.O. 8. 
(Bead at Dawlish, July, 1881.) 



The Library of the Plymouth Institution contains a manu- 
script autobiography by Dr. James Yonge, the ancestor of 
the Yonges of Puslinch, written in the closing years of the 
seventeenth and the opening years of the eighteenth cen- 
turies. Amidst much matter that is purely of personal, and 
more that is of strictly local interest, there are scattered fre* 
quent topographical and other references to matters affecting 
the county at large. The more important of these I propose 
to extract ; but a brief biography of the writer, a Devonshire 
celebrity in his day of some little note, and one of the early 
members of the Eoyal Society, may fittingly be prefaced. 

James Yonge was born at Plymouth, February 27th, 1647, 
and after a couple of years at the Grammar School was 
bound by his father, who practised medicine, "for eight yeares 
to Mr. Silvester Kichmond, chyrurgeon of the Constant War- 
wick. 99 This was on the 14th February, 1657, and three days 
afterwards he sailed on his first voyage. In May, 1660, he 
became surgeon's assistant on board the Montague, and took 
part in the expedition to Algiers. A few graphic touches 
depict the miseries of the young naval surgeon in those days ; 
for he states that the whole drudgery of attending to the 
injured men fell upon his hands, "besides often emptying 
the bucketts they went to stool in — a nasty and mean em- 
ployment, but such as usually chyrurgeons mates formerly 
did in y e navy." On the return of the Montague he was 
discharged at Portsmouth with five shillings in his pocket, 
walked to London, and acted for some time as assistant to an 
apothecary named Clark. 



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336 AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF DR. JAMES YONGE, F.R.S. 

When he returned to Plymouth, his father bound him 
apprentice to himself for seven years more, the former in- 
dentures, of which five years were expired, being given up. 
His next trip was to Newfoundland in the Reformation; and 
subsequently he went voyages in the Mdbart Bonadventure, of 
the captain whereof he says : " Hee was a quaker that had 

been a ranter, and soe high that hee had lost his nose 

— a fro ward, cross, ill-conditioned fellow as ever lived." 
In May, 1666, this vessel was captured by a Dutch vessel, 
and Yonge carried prisoner to Holland. Here he remained, 
finding the Dutch " damnably insulting," part of the time on 
parole, until exchanged in March, 1667. 

Returning to Plymouth, and picking up some little practice, 
he took two voyages with the fishing fleet to Newfoundland. 
In his first he was the only surgeon in the fleet except 
Edward Cape, of Dartmouth, who, being a very " mean " one, 
and having no business of his own, was compelled to accept 
£12 to be assistant to Yonge, the latter clearing altogether 
about £100. This was in 1668 ; in 1669 he again sailed the 
Newfoundland voyage. It was so cold, that he entered in his 
journal : " I am resolved It shall be the last time I will 
hazard being frozen to death on y 6 sea ; " but he follows this 
up with the naive admission that at " Bay Bulls " he lived a 
"jolly life with Mr. Rich d Munyon, R d Avent, Caleb Hall, 
and Mr. Hingston, all chyrurg of plym°, and in o r mutual 
caressings spent all o r liquor and good things designed for 
the whole voyage." As the fleet was attacked by the small* 
pox, this voyage proved well-nigh as profitable as that of the 
preceding year. Nevertheless it was, as he had resolved, his 
last. 

Once more in Plymouth, he married in 1671 an old flame, 
Jane Crampporne (whose only fault was that she " went to 
conventicles"), and fought his way into practice, notwith- 
standing the " private arts " of his rivals. When war broke 
out with the Dutch, he became surgeon of the hospital esta- 
blished at Plymouth. This was a very profitable post while 
it lasted. He had 5s. a day, 3s. for each man for medicine, 
and 2s. 6d. a day for each mate. One mate being allowed to 
every thirty men, sometimes he drew pay for four, and only 
kept one ! while there was a good profit also out of the 
capitation allowance, some of the men running away as soon 
as they came, and the " scurvy cases " costing little 1 When 
the war ended the hospital was given up; but it was not 
long ere Yonge was appointed deputy to the surgeon-general 
of the navy — James Pearse — whom he had obliged with 



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AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF DR. JAMES YONGE, F.R.S. 337 

credit, the pay being 6s. 8d. a man, and Is. a day for victuals. 
When, in August, 1677, Charles II. came to Plymouth, and 
touched for the evil in St. Andrew Church, Yonge by that 
and "other business recomended to me by y e Serjeant 
[Knight, the king's surgeon] . . . gott above 50 lb besides some 
secrets in chirurgery." 

Not long after this — 1678 — Yongo went to London, being 
six days on the road, his coach fare from Exeter costing him 
30s. At this date there was no stage-coach, apparently, below 
the western city. Three years later he took his wife to 
London — she in a coach, and he riding a "Goonhilly" pony — 
and amusingly records how at Windsor he saw the Duchess 
of Portsmouth ushered by a French " abbot* — his rendering 
of abbi. " She seems an elegant lady, round face, but noe 
great beauty." He ungallantly adds: "The Queen came 
wadling like a duck." 

Year by year Yonge's practice grew, and he did some 
notable cures. Thus in November, 1684, he "was sent for 
to S r Arthur Harris, whoe had run his man thro* the body 
with a rapier, which God be praised I cured." In 1685 he 
became surgeon of a regiment of militia raised by the Earl 
of Bath. Four years later he gave up the surgeoncy of the 
hospital ; but when the Dockyard was established at Devon- 
port (Dock), he obtained the surgeon's place there. It was 
not until then that he obtained a diploma at Surgeons' Hall — 
"free gratis, and without examination, which was never 
granted to any one before." He did not become a Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians until 1703. He had written 
several medical works, of interest and value for their day, 
but when it was suggested that he should be made a licentiate, 
rejoined that he was licensed already by the Bishop (!) ; that 
it would only be a feather in his cap that would cost more 
than it was worth ; and that he was too old to be catechised. 
However, being told — reasonably enough — that the Bishop's 
license was nothing without the College's, that the catechising 
should be plain and the fees low, he consented, and paid in 
all £11 158. 6d. In November of the same year he was 
made a fellow of the Eoyal Society. 

Yonge's practice was not only very extensive, covering 
great part of the Two Counties, but highly remunerative, 
and he records fees ranging up to a hundred guineas ! He 
amassed a good estate, filled the chief public offices in his 
native town, including that of Mayor; but finally fell upon 
evil days. Death removed nearly all his relatives and friends. 
In 1708, which he calls Annus tenebrosus, he lost his only 

vol. xm. Y 



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338 AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF DR. JAMES YONGE, F.RA 

grandson, his daughter-in-law, and his wife. In the previous 
year he lost a son-in-law and brother ; and he had lost sons 
and daughters previously. With the notice of the deaths of 
several other dear friends the manuscript closes abruptly : 

"How it will end God knows. I am not Faneyfull nor 
have I any opinion of these critical times [it was his grand 
climacteric] as some men have, but Its remarkable that this 
yeare hath proved a troublesome one to me to this 23rd Aug." 

He died July 25th, 1721, aged 75. 

It only remains to add that Yonge was a sturdy Church 
and King man, and a sound hater. His opinion of those 
who differed from him is recorded in such terms as these — 
"crafty spightfull"— " peevish, talkative Idiot "— " fopp "— 

"fanatick"— "meer merchant"— "shuffler"— "k and 

hypocrite " — " tool and fool." When Cromwell passes away 
he "goes to the divell in a tempest." Judge Jeffries is 
"famously loyal;" and when the Sir Francis Drake of that 
day dies " a Lingering and tormenting death," Yonge piously 
adds : " I wish he be not punished worse in y e other life." 

I first proceed with the Topographical notes. 

Lundy. — " Lunday is a very high smooth Hand, good pas- 
turage, many wild fowle and Rabbets. Its inaccessible but 
one way, and that narrow and in some places wynding, soe as 
one man could keep out 1000. It had only a pretty strong 
house like a Castle, wherein lived a gentleman that retyped 
from England on acc° of Loyalty." [1659.] 

Tarrington. — "Its a fyne country town, built on a hill 
stands high, and is mayntayned cheifly by the woole trade." 

Barnstaple. — "An ancient corporation lying on a fyne River 
of late somewhat choaked. Its one of the pleasants towns I 
ever saw being round on a plaine fayr, streight broad streets 
and many good houses of old fashion. It was lately a place 
of very great Trade and hath now many rich men In It, but 
Bideford hath stoln It all away since the river hath grown 
shallow, y* ships cannot well come up. theyre is a fine bridge 
passeth over the River, and cooms to y e town." [1674] 

Hatherleigh. — "A small country town or village." 

Bideford.—" Its a narrow Creek, hath a deep River and 
very rapid, and a good strong Bridge. y e town lyeth on y e 



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AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF DB. JAMBS YONGE, F.R.S. 339 

side of a Hill is a place of great trade, hath many ships of 
good bignes and force from 16 to 24 guns, they trade mostly 
to Newfoundland, thence to Portugall and the Streights. 
they send a few to Virginia, Newengland, W. India, Ireland, 
many to Wales and Bristoll ; which are theyre great marketts." 
[1674.] 

Lydford. — " A small town where is an old Castle, w* 1 In 
the late Rebellion was made a prison, but a sad one, God 
wott ; many men perishing there, the people are Rude and 
ill bread, formerly it was a burrough, sent members to 
parliament and kept court, but after such a prejudicial way, 
as it became a saying, like Lydford law, hang first and judge 
him afterwards." 

Brent Tor [Tarr]. — " Its a church on a very High hill I 
beleeve nearest heaven of any church in England, the 
people are very rude and brutish, though not so 111 as fame 
and Dr. Fuller (English worthyes) makes them viz that 
they are savage, go naked, lye in vaults on straw, promis- 
cuously like Hoggs, &c." 

Nutwell Court — " Nutwell S r Henry Fords house, a large 
stately one a fayre chapell. Its situate on y e Eiver Ex about 
2 myle below Topsham." 

Topsham. — "A fyne little town pleasant and y e place 
where ships and goods are generally embarqued or unladen 
for or from Exon." 

Torquay. — Riding to * Tarr Key " between Newton Bushell 
and Haldon " we ryde over y e Longest bridge in England. Its 
called Tynebridge, and Is above halfe a myle long." 

In a map of Torbay "Tarr" is shown as consisting of a 
row of five houses. "Tarrkey" has a little pier close by, 
with two houses adjoining. The pier is directed across the 
bay. 

Paignton. — "Paynton a town on the bottom of Tarrbay 
was anciently a Borrough town, and as Is sayd held her 
charter by a whitepot (whence Devonshire men are soe 
called) which was to be 7 yeares making, 7 baking, and 7 
eating." 

Totnes. — " A fyne town seated on a Hill by a River hath a 
fayre delicate church, and a pretty small library of old bookes." 

Y 2 



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340 AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF DR. JAMES YONGB, F.R.S. 

Honitorv. — "A fyne country town, sends burgesses, hath a 
great trade in making lace." Passing through Honiton, April 
23rd, 1702, he "saw a very pretty procession of 3 hundred 
women and girles In good order 2 and two march with three 
women drummers beating, and a guard of 20 young men on 
horseback, each of y e females had a white Bod in her hand 
on the tipp of w** was Tossil made of white and blew 
Sibband (w cb they said was the Queenes colours) and bone 
lace the great manufacture of the town, thus they had 
marched In and about the town from ten in the morning [it 
was then 8 in the evening] Huzzaing every now and then, 
and then weaving their Kodds. then they returned at 9 
and then break up very weary and hungary." This was on 
the Coronation day of Queen Anne, and in celebration 
thereof. 

Stow. — "I waited on my Lord of Bathe to his delicious 
house Sloive. It lyeth on y e ledge of y* north sea of Devon, 
a most curious fabrick beyond all description." 

Axminster. — " A fyne kinde of village pleasantly scittuate 
on a hilL" 

Some of Yonge's most interesting notes are connected with 
the old Newfoundland fish trade, of which Devonshire in his 
days enjoyed a practical monopoly, and of which he gives us 
the best description now extant. His first voyage was in 
1663, in the Reformation. In 22 days they reached the 
"false bank," and saw many icebergs. He describes a 
" pretty way" of catching "noddys." "They take a round 
peece of corke as bigg as a trencher and fasten a peece of 
lead to Itt and with a fishing lyne let it swim off; to the 
edges of this cork are fastned divers small hookes with some 
bayt, as pork flesh &c. this the noddyes swallow and are 
drawn in. they are good meat and eat but a little fishy." 

Monday morning, April 3rd, saw the land, and made for 
Benoose harbour. 

"Found noe ship there, but divers possessors; we pre- 
sently hyred a sloop from a planter, and sent the mate with 
divers men, along shore, to get possessions, (as they call It) 
the manner is thus, they put a man on shore at every 
harbour, and at last according to theyre turnes, they take the 
best place they can of all theyre possessions ; there were 4 at 
Benoose befor us. only one stuck theyre w 011 was m r thomas 



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AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF DR. JAMES YONGE, F.R.S. 341 

Waymouth of Dartmouth, whoe kept 18 boats, In the 
Dorcas, soe o* master resolved to be his vice admiral, besides 
us there fished m r thomas Hammett of Barnstaple, with 12 
boats, m r frances martyn of plym° 4 boats, m P Scott of 
barnstaple 6 boats." The planters had 9 boats. 

The admiral always wore d flagstaff, Sundays a flag, and 
was called " my lord ;" the vice admiral " my lady." 

"Those vessels that had no suTgeon agreed with me and 
gaue l-6 d 20 d or 2/ a man for the season, which the master 
paid in fish at the end of the summer/' Yonge agreed to 
share with Cutt, Weymouth's surgeon ; and not only arranged 
for Renoose, but with seven Barnstaple men at Firmoose, four 
miles off, who had no surgeon, at 2s. a man, to visit twice a 
week, Wednesdays and Sundays. If any great occasion 
arose, the men were to be sent to them. The two went 
alternately. Yonge had a bottle of brandy hid behind a tree, 
which he marked, and took a dram on his way. 

The Barnstaple men preferred Renoose above any other 
harbour. 

"As soon as wee resolved to fish here, y e ship is all un- 
rigged, and in the snow and cold all y e men goe into the 
wodds, to cutt timber (firr spruce birch being here plentiful) 
with this they build stages flakes cookeroome and houses, 
the houses are made of a frythe of Bowes, ceeled inside with 
rindes, w 01 * look like planed deales, and covered with the 
same, and turfs^of earth upon to keep the sun from Eaning 
them, the stages are begun on the edge of the shore, and 
built out Into y e sea, a floor of round timbers supported with 
posts and shores of great timber. y e boates lye at y e head of 
y m as at a key, and throw up theyre fish, w 011 is splitt salted 
&c, they throw away the heads and sound bone." 

Boats had five men, three to catch fish, and two to save 
them. Boats of three to four tons would carry 1000 or 1200 
cod. The master of the boat rowed at the stem against the 
other two, not only rowing, but steering ; and thus the three 
would row the boat a long way. The masters generally were 
able men, the midship and foreship men striplings. When 
they came to the stage head, the foreshipman went to boil 
their kettle, the other two threw up the fish to the stage with 
"pews." A pew was a staff with a prong of iron. When 
thrown up, a boy laid the fish on a table, and they were thus 
treated : 



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342 AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF DR. JAMBS YONGE, F.R.S. 

"On one side of w 011 stands a header, whoe opens the 
belly, takes out the liver and twines off y e head and gutts 
( w <* foil thorough y e stage in to y e sea) with notable dexterity 
and suddenness, the liver runes thorough a hole in y e table, 
into a coale or great tubb, w ch is thrown into the trayn fatt 
This is a great square chest the corners of which are frythed 
athwart through this the oil soaks and is by tapps drawn out 
into casks." 

The "header" having done, pushed the fish across the 
table to the " splitter," who with a strong knife split the fish 
abroad, and with a back stroke cut off the bone, which fell 
into the sea through a hole. Some would split twenty-four 
score in half an hour (!) As the fish were split they fell into a 
" drooge barrow," which when full was drawn to one side of 
the stage. Here boys piled the fish, and they were salted in 
heaps three feet high — the Salter being a "skilful officer." 
The fish so lay two or three days ; if bad weather, sometimes 
eight or ten ; then they were washed by the boys in salt or 
fresh water, and laid by them in piles skin upwards on a 
platt of beach stones, which was called a " horse." After a 
day or thereabout the fish were next laid on "flakes" — 
boughs thinly placed on a frame like that of a table. Here 
they dried. By night or in wet weather they were put up in 
" faggots " — four or five fishes with the skin upwards, and a 
broad fish on top. When well dried, the fish were made up 
into "press pile" where the salt sweated out, and "kerning" 
made them look white. Next they were dried one day on 
the ground, and put up in " dry pile," three times as big as 
the "press pile." Thus they lay until shipped off, when they 
were dried part of a day, weighed, carried on board, laid and 
pressed snug with great stones. 

The men had no fixed wages, but the owners of the ship 
had two-thirds, and the men one-third of the proceeds, which 
-was divided into shares according to the men in the ship. 
Some men had money above the share from the master, 
but others had much less. 

" Soe y* I beleive in o r ship, y e master might have 9 shares 
cleare, the mate 2 shares, and 40 s ; spilters [or splitters] 
1 share & 3 or 4 lb., header 1 share 20/ Salter 5 pounds, 
sometymes less boats master 1 share and 6 or 7 lb. midship- 
man share and twenty or 30 8 foreshippman 3 lb. or half a 
share and tenn shillings, boyes Lurgins and such 20 s 30 s or 
40 8 . the manner of paving y e chyrurgeon is the owners give 
5 6 7 or 9 pounds in y e hand towards the chest, the master 
giveth him a share, and every man giveth half a crown out 



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AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF DR. JAMES YONGE, F.R.S. 343 

of his share, besides yrhich he hath one hundred of poore 
Jack from y e whole." 

Breaking out of the " ann wrists," coughs, colds, and scurvy 
were the chief diseases. Dry scurvy was often mortal ; acute 
scurvy was soon caught, and soon cured by a " few vegitives " of 
the country. It was caused partly by the great mutation of 
the weather, which when they came was very cold, and in 
July intolerably hot, partly from " aqueous and crude nourish- 
ment, colds after hard labour, but mostly from the crude and 
foggy ai r »" Eating the livers of the cods, which were very 
delicious, produced bleeding at the nose. It is quite clear 
that Yonge attached no medicinal value to cod liver oil. 

In July "y 6 muscetoes (a litle biting fly) and garnippers 
(a larger one) will much vex us sometymes the boyes soe 
tyred with labour will steale off, and hide under y e flakes, or 
get into the woodes, and sleep 3 or 4 hours soe hearty that 
they feel not y e muscatoes, when by y e tyme hee wakes, 
shall have swoln him blind and y n hee knowes not how to 
get out." 

" When the fishermen lade Its hard work for the shoremen 
who rest not above 2 hours a night." Nor were the fishermen 
better off; they rowed hard, and fished all day, and every 
second night took nets and drove to catch herrings for bait. 
The first bait was mussels, then herrings, which generally 
lasted all the year; at the middle or end of June they had 
capling ; then squid. 

In the winter the planters [i.e. the residents] got fish, 
sawed deal boards, made oars, caught beavers, and fowled. 

Such was the way in which Devonshire men fished for cod 
at Newfoundland a couple of centuries since. 



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ON EXPOSURES OF THE SUBMEEGED FOREST 

CLAYS AT PAIGNTON AND BLACKPOOL 

BEACHES IN APRIL, 1881. 

BY ARTHUR ROOPE HUNT, M.A., F.G.8. 
(Read at Dawlish, July, 1881.) 



The beach at Blackpool, near Dartmouth, has been the subject 
of more than one paper read to this Association, descriptive 
of the gold coins found there some years ago, and of the 
submerged forest that has been from time to time laid bare 
when the sands have been removed by violent gales. 

So far as I am aware, the portion of the submerged forest 
that has hitherto come under notice has been confined to the 
western end only. In his paper on the subject, Mr. Pengelly 
expressly states that "it (the forest clay) occupied a rec- 
tangular area, extending from the small river or stream at the 
western end of the inlet, about one furlong eastward."* Quite 
recently, for the first time in my life, I have had an oppor- 
tunity of seeing the eastern end of the beach denuded of its 
covering of sand, and exposing what I believe* to be the 
eastern limit of the forest beds, about midway between the 
extreme points of the beach ; and though very unwilling to 
burden the Transactions of this Association with an 
unnecessary communication, I have with some hesitation 
come to the conclusion that the exposure of the Blackpool 
forest in 1881 should be recorded. On the 19th April, 1881, 
in company with Mr. G. F. Whidborne, f.o.s., I visited the 
beach, approaching it by the regular road that terminates in 
a slipway about midway between the headlands that bound 
the sands on the east and west. The tide was about half ebb, 
and the sea, moderately rough, was dashing up against the 
eastern sea-wall, and further on against the cliffs themselves, 
rendering it quite impossible to move more than a few yards 

• Trans. Devon. Assoc vol. iii. p. 128. 



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1 '■ > ■ i ■ ■ ■ . ... / / ' . < { * / ■ 

c-nev clay 4^* 






p i.. ■■■: CLAV 






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THE SUBMERGED FOREST CLAYS AT PAIGNTON. 345 

from the slipway in that direction. This fact alone will be 
sufficient to prove to anyone acquainted with the locality 
what an enormous amount of sand had been removed from 
that quarter. For my own part, I have known Blackpool for at 
least a quarter of a century, and had never supposed that such a 
vast expanse of sand could be anything but practically perma- 
nent, or that a time would come when the eastern half of the 
strand would be impassable at half tide, as was now the case. 

Now as to the amount of temporary denudation. The 
wall alluded to, running from the slipway eastwards, is four- 
teen feet high ; a few weeks previously a lady could easily 
step off the top on to the beach, now it was laid bare to the 
foundations, breached in two places, and damaged throughout. 
Owing to the state of the tide, I could see little of the strand 
to the eastward, but in the extreme eastern corner I could 
distinguish a patch of sand high up among the rocks, a 
remnant of an old high level of the beach, but now appearing 
.to have as little to do with the then present strand as though 
it had been an ancient raised beach. According to one of the 
local coastguardsmen, the sand from the eastern end had 
been piled up at the western end, and distributed in the little 
coves beyond ; and we agreed that the enhanced height, when 
we stood at the western end not far from ordinary low-water 
mark, was at least sixteen feet ; but this is a guess, and a 
guess only. 

Let us now turn to the forest beds exposed on this occasion. 
The exposure commenced a few yards to the westward of the 
slipway, and this seems to be the eastern limit of the Black- 
pool submerged forest. In a well-defined section, projecting 
from under the sands of the beach, about a foot of fine grey 
clay rested on a similar thickness of the forest bed, emerging 
from the sand, and both these beds abutted against, and to a 
certain extent rested on, a mass of red shaly clay. In this 
particular section the grey clay had scattered throughout it 
much carbonaceous matter ; but so far as I could judge, com- 
posed entirely of grass. In the peaty clay of the section 
there was a good-sized branch of a tree, but the vegetable 
ddbris seemed, if I may use the term, to be much muddled 
together, though lower down on the beach, close at hand, was 
the stump of a tree, standing as it grew. (See sketch No. 1.) 
In portions of the forest deposits further west, the verging 
clay sometimes contained the carbonized grass, and some- 
times did not. 

The overlying clay was sometimes buff, and sometimes 
grey, difference so far as I could judge, of colour only, and 



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346 THE SUBMERGED FOREST CLAYS AT PAIGNTON. 

not of age, though on this point I cannot be positive. The 
carbonized grass occurred in the grey clay only, and not in 
the buff. The section seems to me an important one, as 
affording proof positive that the forest beds containing 
remains of trees are occasionally overlaid by clays of a 
different age not containing such remains, a fact difficult to 
prove; for when deposits of various characters occur at 
different points in a beach, it is quite impossible to be sure as 
to their relative positions, or to judge of the beds at one point 
by the sections found at another. 

In 1869 Mr. Pengelly observed that "the lower or seaward 
portion of the forest area, occupying about two-thirds of 
its entire breadth, consisted of a brownish drab-coloured clay, 
which was crowded with vegetable ddbris, such as small 
twigs, leaves, and nuts. There were also numerous prostrate 
trunks and branches of trees lying partly imbedded in the 
clay, without anything like a prevalent direction." " Towards 
the uppermost or landward margin of the area, the clay was 
of a bluish lead-colour. .... If a conjecture may be 
hazarded on this point, I would suggest that the blue clay is 
perhaps the substratum on which the brown clay lies, and 
that the latter with its vegetable debris has been stripped off 
the landward belt of the old forest ground." * This was written 
in 1869 of a western exposure of the beds, and there is no 
certainty that either of the beds mentioned could be corre- 
lated with the 1881 section. 

Here may be introduced a note, made on the 19th of February, 
1873, when I visited Blackpool, for the purpose of enquiring if 
any more coins had been found than to examine the beach. 

" West (Mr. Newman's gardener) tells me that the beach up 
to the last gales was uncovered much more than in 1869, so 
much so that it was bare from the lane to the sands up to 
the west end. Under the leaf-bed, which was about two feet 
thick, was a layer of sand a few inches thick, under which 
lay the clay of unknown depth. The sea undermining the 
sand destroyed the leaf-bed to a considerable extent Ever 
since November the sea has been gradually carrying off the 
sand, so that latterly, as stated above, half the beach was 
bare. The gales of February 1st and 2nd brought it nearly 
all back. Previous to that the clay had been more or 
less exposed for nearly three months. No coins turned up. 
To-day many logs of wood, upwards of nine feet in length, 
were lying under the cliffs, and pieces of the leaf-bed more than 
I could lift West said cartloads of wood had been carried away." 

• Loc. cU. p. 129. 



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THE SUBMERGED FOREST CLAYS AT PAIGNTON. 347 

Now in this note we have an account of the following 
series of beds at Blackpool : (1) Clay of unknown depth ; 
(2) a few inches of sand; (3) two feet of leaf-bed. This 
leaf-bed was very remarkable, and from the large masses 
scattered about I think West's explanation of the way the 
sea removed it, by eating away the underlying sand, very 
probable. To the best of my recollection it was of a light- 
brown colour, and looked much more modern than the forest 
peat. Any attempt to correlate the four beds here recorded, 
and the two observed by Mr. Pengelly, must froin the slender 
evidence at our disposal be unsatisfactory ; but it would seem 
quite clear that we cannot dismiss the Blackpool submerged 
forest as nothing more than a deposit of clay, containing 
vegetable remains overlying a clay destitute of such remains ; 
but that there are at least two different deposits of vegetable 
ddbris ; viz., the leaf-bed, and the clay with remains of trees ; 
and that there are at least two other deposits to be accounted 
for; viz., the overlying grey clay of my 1881 section, and the 
sand bed mentioned by West. None of the facts observed 
are inconsistent with the following ascending order ; viz., (1) 
the forest clay with trees; (2) the clay with or without 
carbonized grass; (3) West's sand bed; and (4) the leaf- 
bed. 

The apparent termination of the forest deposits coincides 
with the spot where the cliffs begin to rise towards the east. 
From the nature of the case the forest could not be looked 
for beyond this point, unless it were possible that there had 
been no retrogression of the coast-line since the forest era, 
and it is not possible, as the work is even now in progress. 
The forest deposits coincide with the embouchure of 
Blackpool vale ; and the rocky platform that forms the base 
of the eastern part of Blackpool beach is more modern than 
the forest deposits. 

Mr. F. Teage informed me that the sand, a few days 
before my visit, had been completely removed from the 
eastern end of the beach, leaving bare a strand of stones and 
loose rocks, but no " living" rock. Nothing could be more 
decisive as to the entire denudation of the sand ; but what 
Mr. Teage said was in singular contrast with a piece of 
information given me by the coastguardsman ; viz., that 
during the past winter so much sand was accumulated at 
the eastern end that he could walk right out to the point. 
In so short a time had this portion of the beach passed from 
a state of extreme accumulation to one of perfect 
denudation, so far as the sand was concerned. 



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348 THE SUBMERGED FOREST CLAYS AT PAIGNTON. 

The week after my visit to Blackpool, observing from the 
sea that the late gales had extensively breached the sea-wall 
under Redcliff House, I landed for the purpose of examining 
the submerged forest beds at Paignton Sands, in the hope 
that some section similar to that at Blackpool might be found 
to settle the question as to the relative positions of the clays 
containing remains of trees, and the barren clay occasionally 
exposed close to the field between Preston Lane and RedclifF 
House. In 1873 I described an exposure of this bed in a 
paper to the Torquay Natural History Society. In 1878 Mr. 
Pengelly and Mr. Ussher referred to it in papers read to this 
Association. There were three possible opinions on the sub- 
ject; viz., that the peaty clay rested on the barren clay; that the 
barren clay rested on the peaty clay ; and lastly, that there 
was no evidence as to their relative positions. These three 
opinions were expressed respectively by Mr. Pengelly, Mr. 
Ussher (as I understand him), and myself. As these beds are 
being rapidly destroyed, and observations are becoming yearly 
more difficult, I will quote what I wrote of the good ex- 
posure visible on the 4th February, 1873 : " Under the Red 
House the sea had to a considerable extent washed away the 
sand, and laid bare a broad shelf of red sandstone. The 
north-eastern end of this shelf, that towards Hollowcombe, 
was covered with a grey tenacious clay, alternating with a 
blue-black clay, containing remains of trees, as at Torre 
Abbey. The latter in one place unquestionably rested 
immediately on the rock, but I could not distinguish any 
decided superposition between the grey and blue clays 
relative to each other. Out of the blue clay here I took 
several angular flints. From the Red House, towards 
Hollowcombe, the grey clay bed occupied the extreme left, 
close up to the margin of the fields, whilst the blue was 
exposed lower down the beach, and soon disappeared beneath 
the sand. The grey, on the contrary, could be traced con- 
tinuously to the south-western bank of Preston Lane, where 
it terminated in a bank about four inches thick. About two- 
thirds of the distance between the Red House and the lane, 
the breadth of this bed from the field to the sands was about 
twelve yards. Further on towards its termination it rises 
from the level of the sands, and is well seen in a low bluff a 
few yards from the said lane. Here the bed seems to lie on 
a red Triassic breccia,* and has over it about two feet and a 
half of red earth. Near this spot I extracted from it two 

* This is an error. Mr. Pengelly has since pointed out the nature of this 
breccia. {Tram, Devon. Assoc vot x. p. 201.) 



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THE SUBMERGED FOREST CLAYS AT PAIGNTON. 349 

pieces of flint and a small pebble, seemingly composed of 
felspar and quartz crystals." (See sketch No. 2.) 

Mr. Pengelly refers in 1878 to this clay and its dip as 
follows {Trans. Devon. Assoc. voL x. p. 201) : "... At about 
100 feet south of the lane this dip has carried the clay down 
to the level of the tidal strand, as well as the bed of stones 
below it. . . . Though the clay becomes gradually thicker, 
its character is not strongly pronounced until at and beyond 
40 feet south of its first appearance at Preston Lane end. 
. . . From about 100 feet to upwards of 380 feet south of 
Preston Lane, the clay forms the landward margin of 
the tidal strand, with a covering of sand and shingle at 
intervals ; but at the distance just mentioned a peaty bed is 
found overlying the clay. That this bed of vegetable matter 
extends continuously beneath the sand and shingle, to at 
least low-water line, and for considerable distances south- 
ward, has been placed beyond any doubt, not only by 
exposures after heavy gales, but also by excavations made by 
workmen at various times. . . ." On the following page Mr. 
Pengelly tells us that "on the 24th September, 1877, he was 
shown an excavation 4 feet deep immediately north of 
Eedcliflf Tower in which the bed of peat, 2*75 feet thick, 
was lying on the characteristic clay." 

Mr. W. A. E. Ussher, F.G.S., in a paper immediately fol- 
lowing Mr. Pengelly's, speaks of the same locality as follows : 
"The Pleistocene deposits" (of Paignton) . . . "consist of 
(a) old fluviatile deposits capping the low cliffs between 
Livermead and Preston Sands ; of (6) peat, with traces of a 
submerged forest associated with bluish clay which is exposed 
on Preston Sands. The peaty matter slopes seaward from 
under the recent alluvial deposits of Paignton Marsh." 

I gather from this description that in Mr. Ussher's opinion 
the blue clay and peat slopes seaward from under the grey 
clay, which is alluvial, instead of the grey clay being under 
the peat ; but as he does not specify the exact locality of the 
alluvial deposits referred to, I may be putting a wrong 
construction on his words. 

On the occasion of my examination of Paignton beach, on 
the 28th April, 1881, it was in a totally different condition 
from that obtaining in 1873. The heavy seas that at Black- 
pool had swept the sands clean away had at Paignton re- 
moved them from the lower levels only. The sand was 
washed high up, leaving the strand at and above low-water 
mark comparatively leveL Thus the higher beds exposed in 
1873 were now covered up, whereas the lower portion of 



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350 THE SUBMERGED FOREST CLAYS AT PAIGNTON. 

the beach, then covered with sand, was now laid bare. I was 
again unable to satisfy myself as to the relative ages of the 
true forest clays and the bed of angular stones that caps the 
Trias at Preston Lane, and to the northward thereof, and on 
which, as already stated, rests the doubtful grey clay. 

From the Eed House to Preston Lane the red Triassic rocks 
were exposed here and there for the whole distance. At places 
the forest clays were exposed, but seemed much worn away. 
In our place clay with organic remains might be seen over 
what appeared to be a small patch of the stone bed, and at 
others under it. The clays exposed were red, blue, and grey, 
and it was difficult to distinguish their relations to each other. 
In no case was there anything like so good a section visible 
as the one seen at Blackpool 

There is a singular coincidence between the eastern ex- 
tremity of the forest beds at Blackpool and of those at 
Preston. In each case the beds are observed at a point where 
the land on which they lie rises from under them to much 
higher levels. At Blackpool the beds in the section observed lie 
on the eastern side of an old valley of unknown depth, against 
one of whose rapidly rising sides they rest At Preston also 
they lie in a depression, though a shallow one, abutting 
against its north-eastern side as it rises toward Hollowcombe 
Point. In each case the beds on which they immediately 
rest consist of unrolled stones in a red and more or less 
clayey matrix, beds in all probability of like character. The 
highest bed observed at Blackpool, abutting against the 
rising ground, is a nearly barren grey clay ; the only bed so 
observed at Preston is of a similar character. I cannot help 
thinking that this bed at Preston bears the same relation to 
the peat as does the similar one at Blackpool ; and that it is 
of more recent origin than the peat. In this case the clay ob- 
served by Mr. Pengelly in the excavation near the Red House 
must have been a different bed altogether, and older than either 
the peat or the grey clay under consideration. That this is 
possible, I gather both from my own observation, and from 
the fact that Mr. Pengelly distinctly states that at the time 
he saw the exposure he describes, the clay forming the land- 
ward margin of the tidal strand was overlaid " with a covering 
of sand and shingle at intervals," which sand and shingle 
would render it quite impossible for two clays similar in 
colour to be distinguished from each other in the absence 
of a section in which both could be seen together. 



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ON GLACIAL CONDITIONS IN DEVON. 

BT B. N. WORTH, F.G.8. 
(Read at Dawliah, July, 1881.) 



Of late years the current of geological enquiry and research 
has run strongly in the direction of the more recent forma- 
tions, stimulated largely by the interest which attaches to 
everything associated with the question of the antiquity of 
man. Apart from this special connection, no period of recent 
geology has attracted so much attention as that which is 
commonly known as the glacial. The relation of Devonshire 
to this period, or rather the conditions contemporary in Devon 
with the glacial era of Britain generally, have had their share 
of notice, but without leading to any very definite con- 
clusions. There appears indeed to be a general agreement 
that neither in Devon nor in Cornwall are the more pro- 
nounced marks of the glacial era to be found. We have, so 
far as known, no distinctly identifiable scratched or moutonnees 
rocks, no unquestionable moraines, no certain boulder clays ; 
and therefore it is generally assumed that, during the glacial 
epoch, the conditions of our land surface were not such as to 
favour the formation of glaciers. This, however, is a very 
different thing from assuming that we have no evidence of 
the existence here of glacial climate; and I wish to bring 
together what seem to me to be abundant proofs of glacial 
conditions in this county, quite apart from the more marked 
phenomena of glaciation, which may, or with greater likeli- 
hood, may not, exist.' There are two ways of accounting for 
this absence of striae, moraines, and boulder clays. First, 
the non-existence of a mountain range of sufficient magni- 
tude to develope a glacier system ; second, the submergence 
of what is now Devon during the glacial epoch. The latter 
hypothesis is untenable for two reasons. First, because there 
are,, as I hope to show, proofs of glacial conditions incon- 



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352 ON GLACIAL CONDITIONS IN DEVON. 

sistent with the idea of submergence. Second, since in the 
case of submergence we should hardly fail to have had a 
number of erratics scattered over the county, whereas only 
in the North of Devon, in the neighbourhood of Barnstaple, 
is there any erratic block which can be conclusively attri- 
buted to the agency of floating ice. 

The class of phenomena to which my attention has chiefly 
been directed as affording proof of former glacial conditions 
in Devon, is that connected with certain terminal curvatures 
of our slate rocks. There are many places in the south of 
Devon (to which these observations specially apply), and 
particularly in the neighbourhood of Plymouth, in which the 
slates are seen to be bent over in the opposite direction to 
their dip, for two or three feet, and sometimes more, from 
their upper edges, preserving at the same time in many 
instances so much cohesion and regularity, that if the upper 
part of the section only were visible, the rocks would be read 
in reverse order. This is no merely isolated phenomenon, but 
one which occurs at frequent intervals over a large area, and 
generally under closely allied conditions. The best examples 
I have seen are on the slopes of hills (where our deep sunken 
Devonshire lanes afford excellent opportunities of observing 
surface sections), the slates dipping with the hill, and having 
their edges turned forward, as if by the action of a force 
which was exerted down the slope, and yet was modified so 
far— so slow and steady in its operation— that the laminae 
were simply curved, rarely broken, and left pretty much in 
situ instead of being carried to the hill-foot. 

That such an effect could not be produced by any violent, 
still less by any cataclysmal action was evident ; and this at 
once disposed of the idea that there had been any torrential 
rush of water. Such a rush would not have simply curved 
and then passed over the laminae, but would have swept the 
surface smooth and clear of all loosened portions. Moreover, 
the main pressure of the water would be exerted down the 
valleys — along the axes — and not transversely, towards them. 
Much the same reasoning would apply to what is commonly 
understood as glacial action. The pressure of a glacier would 
also be chiefly exerted in the line of the valley, but its force 
would be such that instead of merely bending or breaking 
the slaty laminae, it would crush and grind them into mud. 
Neither to the action of water, nor to that of ice, in its more 
usual form, can this phenomenon be attributed. 

So far back as 1867, Mr. D. Mackintosh, f.g.s., called the 
attention of the Geological Society to "some striking in- 



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ON GLACIAL CONDITIONS IN DEVON. 353 

stances of Terminal Curvature in West Somerset." In his 
paper he pointed out that among the Quantocks and upon 
Exraoor he had found numerous instances in which "the 
laminae of the . . . slate " were u very regularly and distinctly 
curved backwards;" the most important fact in connection 
with these sections being : " The bending and curving-back 
over extensive areas has taken place on perfectly level 
ground, with a depression instead of an elevation on the side 
whence the movement must have come. There are indeed 
instances in which the curving-back has been forced up a 
slight acclivity." Mr. Mackintosh traced this phenomena " to 
a powerful and uniformly operating cause," but did not 
indicate his opinion as to the actual nature of that cause 
beyond the statement : " It is sometimes difficult to resist the 
impression that a great weight of solid matter, powerfully 
propelled in a southerly direction, must have curved back the 
slaty laminae, and, with an almost geometrical exactness, 
rounded the forms of the limestone and other eminences of 
the South- West of England." The natural inference is that 
the word " solid " points to a preference in Mr. Mackintosh's 
mind for some form of ice action. The progression south- 
ward was deduced by him from the fact that he only found 
the phenrmenon affecting summit levels or southern declivities. 
He suggested also that the "uniform curving-back would 
only occur when the laminae leaned toward the moving agent 
(or at least did not lean away from it), so as to afford a certain 
degree of resistance to its action. In other places the 
planing-off of the edges of the laminae would either leave 
them cleanly cut or very irregularly shattered." 

In a paper on " The Evidences of Glacial Action in South 
Devon," read at the Honiton meeting of this Association, 
Mr. E. Vivian, reasoning on the same lines, cited in evidence 
"a section of the Devonian slate near Torquay, with the 
deposits in the Torwood valley ; " and also " the condition of 
the stalagmitic floor and successive fillings in Kent's Cavern." 
The section was in the Torwood valley. In a deep excavation 
for buildings " on the summit the laminae are curved over to 
the uniform depth of about six feet, in the line of least 
resistance. . . . This has been assigned by Mr. Godwin- 
Austen, and other writers, to the action of ice during the last 
glacial period." The deposits in Kent's Cavern Mr. Vivian 
suggested had been acted upon by flood water, " on the break- 
ing up of the last glacial period, when the valley .... was 
filled with a glacier or compact snow, the water being derived 
from the bursting of debacles or ice lakes, and heavy rains at 

VOL. XIII. Z 



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354 ON GLACIAL CONDITIONS IN DEVON. 

higher levels." * I think, however, the evidence of torrential 
glacial action in Devon generally of a doubtful character ; at 
all events so far as South Devon is concerned. 

The arguments of Mr. Mackintosh were examined by Mr. 
Ussher, in a paper read before the Geological Society in 
1877,t in which, accepting the evident leaning of Mr. 
Mackintosh towards a land-ice theory, Mr. Ussher assailed it 
on three principal grounds. First, because the hypothesis 
ignored the great Pleistocene surface waste of the South- 
West; second, because instances of terminal curvature 
occurred in situations which during the glacial epoch must 
have been too far removed from the suppositional ice bed to 
have sensibly felt its pressure; third, because the survival 
of glaciated shales would be inconsistent with the absence of 
harel rocks presenting moutonnees or striated surfaces. 

Nevertheless, Mr. Ussher was " inclined to think, that the 
absence of deposits commensurate with the great Pleistocene 
denudation experienced by the South- Western Counties may 
be due in the first place to some powerful denuding agent in 
the form of a local ice sheet or glacier system, and, in the 
second, to the great force and volume of surface water likely 
to be liberated at a close of Arctic severity." 

It seems to me that in these suggestions Mr. Ussher 
himself thus admits the possible existence of sufficient 
glacial conditions for the production of the phenomenon under 
review. I agree with him in believing that the glacial epoch 
in Devon was not one of total submergence, t Indeed if it 
had been, as already noted, we should have had no terminal 
curvature, assuming that curvature in any way to be due to 
land ice action. 

I agree with Mr. Ussher, too, in rejecting the idea that this 
phenomena was produced by any oceanic current, water-rush 
or land slips ; for reasons which have been already stated. 

Mr. Ussher's own hypotheses of the origin of terminal 
curvature are three in number. 

First he instances "the great and oft-repeated internal 
movements to which the Palaeozoic rocks were subjected." 
The cause is adequate to produce the most gigantic distor- 
tions; but the peculiarly exterior character of terminal 
curvature, its regularity, and its general correspondence 

* Trans. Devon. Assoc, vol. ii. pp. 357-60. 

f Quarterly Journal Geo. Soc. xxxiv. pp. 49-55. 

% The granite boulder at Saunton ana its neighbours prove the submer- 
gence in glacial time of part of North Devon ; but the absence of similar 
erratics elsewhere in the district is good negative evidence that this 
submergence was not general. 



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ON GLACIAL CONDITIONS IN DEVON. 355 

with contour, point to a less deeply-seated and less remote 
origin. 

The second cause assigned is " the intrusion of wedging 
frosts between the laminae of shales, leaving earthy matter 
filling up the gaps between them, on the approach of 
summer." 

The third " the intrusion of roots acting as wedges." 

As I believe the first of these three causes to be too 
remote ; so I must consider the second and third inadequate 
to account for a phenomenon of such a persistent and ex- 
tensive kind. They are too partial and irregular in their 
operation to explain physical changes so extensive and so 
consistent. I accept Mr. Ussher's arguments against floating 
ice, ocean current, or cataclysmic action as conclusive. There 
is left, therefore, only the "land ice" theory; and as Mr. 
Ussher does not " deny its applicability to some instances of 
terminal curvature within three or four feet of the surface in 
glaciated districts," its adequacy is admitted. His objections 
to its wider acceptance seem to me rather to rest upon a tacit 
assumption that glacial phenomena invariably proceed in 
sequence or companionship; and in part may be met by 
chronological considerations. The relation of terminal cur- 
vature to Pleistocene waste depends very much upon the 
portion of the glacial epoch to which it belongs. 

While I use the phrase u land ice theory," it is in a certain 
modified sense. Many of the objections which apply to the 
attribution of "terminal curvature" to bodies so ponderous 
as glaciers, apply also to " ice caps " as usually understood. 
They do not seem, however, to militate against the operation 
of a consolidated snow cap slowly moving down the faces of 
the hills, as the climate of the glacial period gradually 
ameliorated. I am, therefore, disposed to find in " terminal 
curvature" a phenomenon allied to some described by Dr. 
Geikie in his Prehistoric Europe* Noting the fact that 
"sheets of coarse gravel and detritus .... spread often 
continuously over wide districts in Southern England," with 
little or no relation to present drainage systems, " frequently 
very coarse and rudely bedded . . . confused and troubled," 
he quotes the suggestion of Mr. Darwin, that during the com- 
mencement and height of the glacial period, great beds of 
frozen snow accumulated, and that during the summer gravel 
and stones were washed from the higher land over its surface, 
and in superficial channels, the larger streams cutting through 
the snow, and leaving their gravel in lines. Each autumn 

♦ pp. 140, 141. 

z 2 



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356 ON GLACIAL CONDITIONS IN DEVON. 

the lines of drainage would be filled up, and it would be a 
mere chance whether the next deposit would follow the same 
course. Thus, he proceeds, " alternate layers of frozen snow 
and drift in sheets and lines would ultimately have covered 
the country to a great thickness, with lines of drift probably 
deposited in various directions at the bottom of the larger 
streams." These beds would melt slowly, and the elongated 
pebbles arrange themselves more or less vertically, and the 
drift " be deposited almost irrespective of the outline of the 
underlying land." 

I am not at all sure that I have not seen deposits on 
certain South Devon hill sides — somewhat akin to, but 
differing from, that commonly known as "head" — in which 
clayey loam is thickly interspersed with angular fragments 
of slate, which might, with great probability, be attributed 
to some such process as this. Be that as it may, I believe 
that in such a consolidated snow cap we have the true cause 
of the disputed phenomenon of terminal curvature. 

May we not find in the same direction a sufficient explana- 
tion of the presumably transported blocks of South Devon, 
to which attention has been directed by Mr. Pengelly, at 
Waddeton, Englebourne,* Druid, East Leigh, t Dipt ford, 
Morleigh, and Tamerton FoliottJ; of the boulders in the 
Dawlish and Ashcombe valleys noted by Mr. Pycroft§; and 
of similar blocks observable elsewhere ? 

That the granite boulder at Saunton, on the shore of 
of Barnstaple Bay, dealt with by Mr. Pengelly in our 
Transactions || was carried by floating ice there is now no 
question; and Mr. T. M. Hall has shown the existence 
of other granite boulders, leading to a similar conclusion, at 
Bickington f ; but these I think belong to quite another 
division of the glacial epoch from that with which we have 
now to deal. Mr. Pengelly has proved ** that the Saunton 
block is older than the raised beach, which is itself older 
than our submerged forests, and the accumulation known as 
"head." The glacial epoch represented by the Saunton 
boulder is, therefore, separated from the present day by an 
enormous interval of time, characterised in part by inter- 
glacial conditions. The relations of terminal curvature to 
present surface contour, and more recent deposits, forbid our 
carrying back its origin to so remote a date. Are there then 
any indications of an Arctic climate in this county, apart 



* Trans. Devon. Assoc vii. pp. 154-161. t Ibid. ix. pp. 177-183. 

t Ibid. xii. pp. 304-11. § Ibid. v. " ~" ..«.-. — — 

IT Ibid. xi. pp. 428-9. ** Loc. cU. 



Ibid. xii. pp. 304-11. § Ibid. v. pp. 75-81. || Ibid, vi pp. 211-222. 



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ON GLACIAL CONDITIONS IN DEVON. 357 

from the phenoraenou under consideration, more recent than 
the North Devon boulders, to which also terminal curvature 
may be assigned ? We shall find that there are. 

The deposit known as "head/ 1 to which reference has 
already been made, and which has been the subject of 
lengthened investigation by Mr. Godwin -Austen, has long 
been recognized as indicating "a period of great subserial 
waste, a more rigid climate," which Mr. Ussher, in his 
Cornish Post-Tertiary Geology, correlates with the second 
glacial period, and characterises with " considerable snowfall 
and penetrating frosts,"* the elevation of the land "perhaps 
culminating in continental conditions" — a state of affairs 
closely approximating to that which he suggests as the intro- 
duction of the glacial period proper, when there were " great 
quantities of snow accumulating on the highlands (possibly 
giving rise to a local glacier system) " ; the two periods being 
separated by an epoch of subsidence. To me it seems clear 
that while the Saunton boulder dates from the older glacial 
era, probably from its close; terminal curvature with the 
"head" belongs to the later, possibly originating when the 
glacial conditions were beginning to lessen in severity. 

The " head " of the Bovey Heathfield deposits has distinct 
Arctic if not precisely glacial characteristics. In association 
with it, there have been found remains of leaves " from which 
the dwarf birch (Betula Nana) and three species of willow 
(Salix cinerea, S. repens, aud S. amygdalina) have been 
determined. These plants betoken a climate much colder 
than that which at present obtains in Devonshire. Indeed, 
the little birch is an Arctic plant, which has at present no 
British habitat south of Scotland," and takes us back 
" apparently quite to the modern verge of the glacial era."t 

We have then absolute and not merely inferential proof, of 
the existence of an Arctic climate here during the formation 
of the " head." To the same period I assign the older " clitters " 
of the Dartmoor Tors — a true "head," peculiar indeed in 
form, but not in cause, nor essentially in character. 

Mr. C. Spence Bate has expressed the opinion that the 
" clitter " " is formed of masses of granite that have been 
rent by the action of frost from the surface of the Tor ; " and 
that the peculiar distribution of the blocks of the "clitter" 
" heaped one upon another, or lodged in the side of the valley 
at various distances from the Tor," is due to the action of ice 
" of a character somewhat peculiar to Dartmoor, and of a 

♦ p. 50. 

f Mr. Pengelly's Presidential Address, Trans. Devon, Assoc. voL ii. pp. 24-6, 



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858 ON GLACIAL CONDITIONS IN DEVON. 

sub-glacial character" — ice coating of the kind known as 
Hamel or Ammil, enabling the liven blocks to glide u more 
or less rapidly down the side of the hills until, meeting with 
an obstruction, many of them were gathered together." * 

The " snow-cap " to which reference has been made would, 
however, supply all the required conditions for the distribu- 
tion of the " clitters " ; and I have seen quite recent instances 
on the Moor of the rending asunder of granite blocks by the 
wedging influence of ice between the weathered joint faces. 
If modern winters can produce these results, those under 
which the "head" accumulated must have been far more 
potent ; yet, if not in the " clitters," they have left little other 
trace behind. 

There are still two further indices of Arctic conditions in 
Devon, both associated with our cavern phenomena. Dr. 
Geikie holds that " the cavern breccia and the numerous large 
limestone blocks, which overlie the Pleistocene fossiliferous 
strata in many caves, owe their origin in chief measure to the 
action of severe frost, and pertain for the most part to the 
close of the Pleistocene."! Beyond this we have the presence 
in our cave fauna of such undoubted northern forms as the 
reindeer, glutton, and cave pika, with the mammoth and 
woolly rhinoceros. 

The evidence as to the condition of Devon during the first 
glacial period is not as yet very clear; we have proof of 
partial submergence in the Saunton boulder, but none of 
general submergence on the one hand, or of the existence of 
a glacier system on the other. With regard to the second 
glacial period, however, I think we have proof in the 
phenomena recited, and particularly in the terminal curva- 
tures of our slate rocks, not indeed of glaciers, but of the 
existence of a "snow-cap" of great density spreading over 
the whole surface of the country, and presenting an appear- 
ance akin to that of the northern portions of the Hudson's 
Bay Territory bordering upon the Arctic Circle. 

I have been induced to lay this stress upon facts which, to 
a certain extent, are not only familiar but accepted, because 
I think that the common incredulity concerning the glacial 
period in Devon has arisen from too exclusive regard being 
paid to the more pronounced phenomena, the existence of 
which in this district has never yet been proved. That the 
"snow-cap" may have developed in specially favourable 
localities into small local glaciers is indeed possible, but 
unlikely. 

* Trans. Devon. Assoc, iv. pp. 518-19. f Prehistoric Europe, p. 543. 



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NOTES ON RECENT NOTICES OF THE GEOLOGY 
AND PALAEONTOLOGY OF DEVONSHIRE. 

Part VIII. 

BY W. PKNGELLY, F.R.8., F.O.S. 
(Read at Davlish, July, 1881.) 



This, the Eighth, set of Notes on Notices of the Qtdogy and 
Palaeontology of Devonshire will be found to traverse — in 
many cases very briefly — almost all the deposits of the 
county, from the Devonian System to the Submerged Forests 
on our tidal strands. 

I. handbook of Devonshire {Murray's, 9th Edition, 1879) 

ON THE GEOLOGY OF DEVON. 

It is, no doubt, generally well known that, at least, the 
seventh and eighth editions of Murray*s Hand Book for 
Travellers in Devon and Cornwall were prepared for the press 
by a late President of the Devonshire Association, whose loss 
we all deplore. He appears to have been strongly impressed 
with the feeling that, notwithstanding all his care, the book 
might not be quite accurate, and he requested earnestly that 
those who might detect errors or omissions would send notes 
of them to the care of the publisher. (See Introductory 
Notice to 8th edition, 1872.) In a conversation with him 
soon after the 8th edition appeared, I directed his atten- 
tion to certain geological statements which appeared to be 
certainly or probably inaccurate ; and it was arranged between 
us that, instead of preparing Notes on them, as on the present 
occasion, I should give him my opinion on the said statements 
when he prepared the next edition. 

A ninth edition, devoted to Devonshire exclusively, was 
published in 1879. Whether it was prepared by him I am 



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360 NOTES ON RECENT NOTICES OF THE GEOLOGY 

not aware ; but as the passages referred to remain unchanged, 
I propose to take each of them as it occurs in the volume, 
together with subsequent passages to the same effect, and, 
having offered a few remarks, to proceed thus to the end. It 
is not my intention to comment on passages which do not 
strictly relate to Devonshire. 

Should it be suggested that it is scarcely necessary to 
correct errors on scientific questions in a work of a professedly 
popular character, and intended for the million, I would reply, 
firstly, that whatever is worth doing is worth doing well, and 
that such books should either be silent on such topics, or 
should be accurate; secondly, that errors of this kind are 
most likely to be harmful when they occur in popular books, 
the majority of their readers being at the mercy of the editor 
or compiler, whilst most readers of works on special branches 
of science are able to take care of themselves ; thirdly, that 
in correcting these errors I am, under the circumstances, 
doing my best to carry out the wishes of my departed friend, 
the editor ; fourthly and lastly, that in making these correc- 
tions I am discharging a duty to myself, inasmuch as the 
editor stated that to my Address on the Qeology of Devonshire, 
delivered in 1867, his notice of the geology of the county was 
largely indebted. (See Hand Book, 9th ed., 1879, p. xxvi.) 

The, Metamorphic Schists of South Devon. 

Quotation I. A.: — "The metamorphic schists forming 
the southern angle of Devonshire, the Prawle and the Bolt. 
These, which consist of mica and chlorite slates, belong most 
probably to the Cambrian series; the most ancient sedi- 
mental rocks which exist. Eocks of the same series are 
found at the Lizard in Cornwall, at St. David's Head in S. 
Wales, in parts of N. Wales, and forming the Longmynd 
hills in Shropshire." p. xxvi. 

B. " The Cambrian rocks of the Prawle and the Bolt form 
.... a singularly wild and romantic coast line, and abut, at 
no great distance inland, on the Devonian rocks. Gneiss is 
chiefly noticeable near the Prawle, and mica-slate near the Bolt 
Head!* p. xxvii. 

C. " The Prawle is principally composed of gneiss rock." 
p. 172. 

(The passage I have italicised in Quot. I. B. is almost 
identical with one in the 1st ed. — Mr. Paris s — of the Hand- 
book, 1850, p. vii. ; and Quot I. C. was copied by the editor 
verbatim from that edition.) 



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AND PALAEONTOLOGY OF DEVONSHIRE. 361 

There are in the foregoing passages three topics on which 
remark seems called for: — (a) The age of the Metamorphic 
Schists forming the southern angle of Devonshire. 

(b) The place of the Camhrian series amongst gedimentary 
Bocks. 

(c) The alleged occurrence of Gneiss at> and near, the 
Prawle Point. 

(a) The Age of the Metamorphic Schists forming the southern 
angle of Devonshire : — Three distinct hypotheses on this ques- 
tion have been submitted to geologists: — 1st, That which may 
be conveniently and, so far as I am aware, justly ascribed to 
Sir H. De la Beche, who, in his Report on the Otology of 
Cornwall, Devon, and West Somerset (1839), says, in his 
Chapter (II.) on Mica Slate, Hornblende Slate, and Associated 
Bocks, " If we consider our planet as a cooling mass of matter, 
the present condition of its surface being chiefly due to such 
a loss of its original heat by long-continued radiation into 
the surrounding space, that, from having been wholly gaseous, 
then fluid and gaseous, and subsequently solid, fluid, and 
gaseous, the surface at last became so reduced in temperature, 
and so little affected by the remaining internal heat, as to 
have its temperature chiefly regulated by the sun, there must 
have been a time when solid rock was first formed, and also 
a time when heated fluids rested upon it. The latter would 
be conditions highly favourable to the production of crystal- 
line substances We could scarcely expect that there 

would not be a mass of crystalline rocks produced at first, 
which, however they may vary in minor points, should still 
preserve a general character and aspect, the result of the first 
changes of fluid into solid matter, crystalline and sub-crystal- 
line substances prevailing, intermingled with detrital portions 
of the same substances, abraded by the movements of the 
heated and first-formed aqueous fluids. 

" In the gneiss, mica slate, chlorite slates, and other rocks 
of the same kind associated together in great masses, and 
covering large areas in various parts of the world, we seem to 
have those mineral bodies which were first formed supporting 
others in some localities .... which contain, as far as we 
yet know, the remains of animals and plants created when the 
surface of our planet was fir3t fitted for their existence." p. 33. 

The author, without pretending to ignore the hypothesis of 
metamorphosis, concludes thus : — 

" In the absence of any contradictory evidence, it would 
appear fair to infer that these rocks 1 ' [i.e. the Schists of the 



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362 NOTES ON RECENT NOTICES OF THE GEOLOGY 

Prawle and other southern headlands of Devon] " belong to 
that class which is more ancient than the grauwacke series " 
[i.e. the Silurian and Cambrian] ; " and though the mica and 
chloritic slates of the district may be associated with rocks 
possessing an arenaceous aspect, even supposing they may be 
detrital, that they form no part of that series which adjoins 
them on the north." p. 36. 

Whatever may be the value of Sir Henry's cosmological 
views, it is scarcely necessary to say that, so far as the Schists 
in question are concerned, his hypothesis finds very few sup- 
porters in the present day, and the Editor of the Handbook 
was certainly not one of them. 

2. The second hypothesis was, that instead of being in the 
condition in which they existed at the beginning, the Schists 
under consideration have undergone metamorphosis; and, 
though, therefore, of less antiquity than De la Beche sup- 
posed, they were of Lower Silurian age, and, perhaps, 
contained primarily organic remains, all traces of which had 
been obliterated in the transformation. So far as I am aware, 
this hypothetical chronology originated with me in 1864. No 
longer ago than 1877 I sketched briefly the hypothesis, and 
recorded the fact that I had abandoned it. (See Trans. Devon. 
Assoc, ix. 410.) This, no doubt, is the hypothesis adopted by 
the Editor of the Handbook, who, however, uses the phrase 
Lower Silurian as equivalent to Cambrian, which, as is well 
known, some writers are wont to do. 

3. The third, and last, hypothesis, was, it is believed, first 
proposed by Dr. Harvey Holl, and the late Mr. J. Beete 
Jukes, independently, but almost simultaneously, in 1868. 
(See Trans. Devon. Assoc, ix. 411.) It adopts Metamorphism ; 
but makes the Crystalline Schists of the same age as the 
Slates, Limestones, and Grits immediately on their north and 
else where in Devonshire, and which, whilst they belong to 
the Devonian System of most geologists, are of Carboniferous 
age according to Jukes. Waiving this question of classi- 
fication, I have no doubt that this is the true solution of 
the problem. " About the headland, to the westward of Start 
Point," says Jukes, " the dark grey or black slate was to all 
appearance the ordinary Carboniferous (or Devonian) slate of 
the country. . . . We had not time to visit Prawle Head, 
but felt certain, from what we saw of the cliffs stretching 
towards it, that the mica-schist could be nothing more than 
metamorphosed (Devonian or) Carboniferous slate, as we 
afterwards found Bolt Head to be." (Notes on Parts of South 
Devon and Cornwall, 1868, p. 44.) 



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AND PALEONTOLOGY OF DEVONSHIRE. 363 

(5) The Place of the Cambrian Series among Sedimentary 
Bocks: — The Editor of the Handbook pronounces "The 
Cambrian Series the most ancient sedimental rocks which 
exist ; " and, in doing so, either forgets the Laurentian Series 
altogether, or denies their sedimentary character. I venture 
to assume that it was a case of forgetfulness. The Laurentian 
System, however, is a good deal to forget. In America, it lies 
north of the river St. Lawrence; consists of crystalline rocks of 
gneiss, mica-schist, quartzite, and limestone ; is divisible into 
an Upper and a Lower Series, of which the Upper is more 
than 10,000 feet thick, and the Lower about 20,000 feet; it 
covers 200,000 square miles— or more than three times the 
area of Great Britain ; and, beginning at the Cambrian era — 
the Editor's most ancient sedimentary era — stretches, it is 
believed, backwards into antiquity almost, if not quite, as far 
as the Cambrian system does from the present day. Upper 
Laurentians occur in the Hebrides ; but there is no known 
British equivalent of the Lower Series. 

(c) The alleged occurrence of Gneiss at, and near the Prawle 
Point: — There can be little doubt that the Editor of the 
Handbook borrowed the statements that " Gneiss is chiefly 
noticeable near the Prawle," and that " the Prawle is princi- 
pally composed of Gneiss rock," from Sir H. De la Beche. 
1 had occasion to call attention to this statement in 1879, 
and to remark that no one else appeared to have detected it 
there. {Trans, Devon. Assoc, x. 322.) The late Mr. John 
Prideaux, so far from believing in the gneissoid character of 
the Prawle, observed, when speaking of the Eddystoue reef, 
"One rock, on which the light- house stands, and that one only, 
is gneiss ; . . . this single rock of gneiss being the only one I 
have heard of in England." (Trans. Plym. Inst. 1830, p. 40). 

Mr. Worth, writing on this question in 1880, said "Although 
Mr. Prideaux was mistaken in supposing that the gneiss of 
the Eddystone was the only gneiss in England, it has usually 
been regarded as the only occurrence of that rock in the 
West of England. I have recently ascertained, however, 
through the fortunate preservation of portions of the rock 
removed from the Shovel Eeef when the Breakwater Fort was 
built [immediately within the Plymouth Breakwater], that 
the rocks there are gneissic also." (Trans. Roy. Geol. Soc. 
Cornw. x. 104.) 

The Polperro Fossil Fish. 

Quotation II.: — "The so-called * Polperro fossils/ which 



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364 NOTES ON RECENT NOTICES OP THE GEOLOGT 

were long held to be sponges, have been shown by Mr. 
Pengelly himself to be true fish ('Trans. Devon. Assoc.* 
1868)," p. xxviii 

The credit of showing that the " Polperro fossils " were not 
sponges, but true fish, does not, as the Editor supposes, belong 
to me ; but to the Kev. W. S. Symonds, f.g.s., of Pendock, 
Herefordshire. I told the story of this determination as long 
ago as 1868 (Trans. Devon. Assoc, ii. 423-442), and have 
now nothing to add but the expression of regret that arrange- 
ments made in 1869 for figuring and describing the numerous 
specimens in my private collection, have up to the present 
time produced no result. 

The Minor Patches of Granite. 

Quotation III.: — "Granite occurs in Devonshire and 
Cornwall in six distinct patches. . . . These six principal 
bosses are connected with smaller patches, apparently out- 
lying fragments, or links which unite the great bosses. . . . 
These minor patches are all marked by ruggedness and eleva- 
tion above the neighbouring slate, and form the eminences of 
Boringdon Park new Plymouth, Kit Hill and Uingston Down 
near Callington," &c. &c, p. xxx. 

The Editor is undoubtedly in error, (a) in speaking of the 
"smaller patches" of granite as "outlying fragments;" and 

(b), probably also, in stating that granite forms the emi- 
nence pf Boringdon Park. 

(a). An "outlier" is a portion of rock lying, in situ, 
detached, or out, from the main body of the same character 
and age ; to which it belongs ; with which it was primarily 
connected in unbroken continuity; but from which it has 
become separated through the removal, by denudation, of the 
portion which once covered the entire intermediate space. 
The term is only applicable to rocks formed on the surface, 
such as strata, and overflows of lava ; and cannot be applied, 
under any circumstances, to granite, or any other nether- 
formed rock. 

If, as the Editor states, and no doubt quite correctly, the 
smaller patches of granite are links which unite the great 
bosses of the same kind of rock, the union, though sub- 
terranean, is actual, and still as existent as it ever was ; and 
would be laid bare by the denudation of the overlying beds 



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AND PALEONTOLOGY OF DEVONSHIRE. 365 

in the interjacent country. In fact, such denudation, were it 
completed, would destroy the isolation, but not the previously 
isolated mass. 

Small visible portions of nether-formed rocks may be 
termed exposures or inliers, not outliers. 

(b) The Editor, in the passage quoted above, places one of 
his minor patches of granite in Boringdon Park, in the parish 
of Plympton St. Mary, about 4'5 miles KE. from Plymouth 
harbour, but omits to state on what authority he does so. Sir 
H. De la Beche {Report on Cornwall, Devon, and W. Somerset, 
1839), Mr. John Prideaux (Geol. Surv. of some parts of the 
Country near Plymo., 1830), and Mr. J. C. Bellamy (Nat 
Hist. S. Devon, 1839), are all silent as to the occurrence of 
granite there, and nothing of the kind is figured on the Map 
of the Geological Survey. The statement occurs in the first 
edition (Mr. Paris's, 1850) and still retains its place, but 
there can be no doubt that it needs confirmation. 

Since this Paper was read, I have been confidently assured 
by a gentleman living near Boringdon Park, and well 
acquainted with, at least, its economic geology, that there is 
no granite rock there. 

The Granites of Dartmoor. 

Quotation IV.: — "There are . . . three distinct kinds of 
granite found on Dartmoor alone ; and these three are by no 
means contemporaries. It has been conclusively shown that 
the order in which these granites were projected is : 1, the 
Schorlaceous Variety ; 2, the Porphyritic ; and 3, the Elvan. 
The Porphyritic granite cuts through the Schorlaceous in 
dyke-like forms, and is itself similarly traversed by the 
Elvan," p. xxxi. 

There is no doubt that the passage quoted above was 
compiled — almost copied — from me (Trans. Devon. Assoc, ii. 
16). In 1877 I reopened the question; stated the circum- 
stances under which I had been led to believe in the three- 
fold age of the Granites of Dartmoor ; read my recantation ; 
and concluded with the remark, " So far, therefore, as I am 
aware, the evidence justifies the statement, not that 'the 
Dartmoor granites are of three periods/ but of two periods. 
The Elvan is undoubtedly more modern than the common 
granitoid rock of Dartmoor, whether the latter be schorlaceous, 
or porphyritic, or both." (Ibid. ix. 412.) 



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366 NOTES ON HECENT NOTICES OF THE GEOLOGY 

Fragments of Granite near Crediton. 

Quotation V.: — A. "The" [New] "Red rocks are more 
modern thau the era of the disturbance of the Carboniferous 
deposits. This disturbance is generally attributed, and with 
reason, to the intrusion of the granite. In 1861 Mr. Vicary 
(whose paper on the subject will be found in ' Trans. Devon. 
Assoc.' for 1862) detected pebbles of each of the three kinds 
of granite in the Bed Conglomerate at the base of Haldon. 
They have been found elsewhere in the New Red rocks, 
especially near Crediton." p. xxxi. 

B. "The New Red sandstone in the neighbourhood of 
Crediton contains numerous boulders and fragments of granite 
slightly changed." p. 212. 

Though not prepared to say whether or not boulders of 
granite may be found in the New Red Sandstone near 
Crediton, 1 am not aware on whose authority the assertion 
was made, and cannot but express the opinion that it needs 
confirmation. 

The New Red Rocks of Devonshire. 

Quotation VI.: — "Mr. Pengelly considers that the New 
Red rocks of Devonshire belong to the Triassic series, and to 
the Keuper, or uppermost group of the Trias." p. xxxiii. 

This passage is not quite a correct rendering of my pub- 
lished opinion, which may be briefly stated thus: — The 
typical Triassic System, of Continental Europe, is divisible 
into three sub-systems — Keuper or uppermost, the Mnschel- 
kalk t and the BwrUer or lowermost. Britain is supposed to 
have no representative of the Muschelkalk. The Upper New 
Red rocks of Devon, between the Otter and Dorsetshire, are 
undoubtedly Keuper; and as there appears to be no physical 
break in the entire series of Red rocks so largely developed 
on the coast of south-eastern Devonshire, from Torbay to 
the confines of Dorset, I incline to the opinion that our Red 
rocks taken as a whole belong to the Keuper ; or, if not, 
that all three sub-systems of the Trias are represented in 
Devon. Such was my opinion in 1867, and such it remains. 
{Trans. Devon. Assoc, ii. 21.) 

Devonshire Lias. 

Quotation VII. :— A. " The Lias found at the base of the 
cliff E. from Axmouth . . . but not really occurring in Devon- 
shire or Cornwall." p. xxvi 



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AND PALAEONTOLOGY OE DEVONSHIRE. 367 

B. " The Lias ... is not, in fact, found in Devonshire." 
p. xxxiv. 

The Editor was no doubt in error here, as lias really occurs 
in Devonshire ; being not only found in situ on the tidal 
strand immediately east of the mouth of the Axe, but yield- 
ing fine characteristic fossils. I have little or no doubt of a 
great " fault," more or less parallel with the existing line of 
cliff, which has let down the Lias sea- ward there. 

Greensand Outliers. 

Quotation VIII. : — A. "Outlying patches" [of Green- 
sand] u cover the eminences of Haldon and the lower grounds 
between Chudleigh and Newton, and a small patch occurs on 
the Black Hill near Exmouth, and another of a few acres 
near Bideford." p. xxxiv. 

B. At "Orleigh Court" [near Bideford, there aTe] "a few 
isolated acres of greensand" p. 253. 

The first of the foregoing quotations is a verbatim copy 
of a passage in the 1st edition of the Handbook (p. xiv.), and 
the second is almost identical with another (p. 99). 

The Greensands of the Haldons, and of Milber Down be- 
tween Torquay and Newton Abbot, are well known ; but I 
venture to repeat what I said in 1867 : — " It may be doubted 
whether all the localities so represented in the Map of the 
Geological Survey are really true Greensand localities. For 
example, it is, at least, difficult to find any beds of this age 
or character at Woodbury Common, near Exmouth, or at 
Orleigh Court, near Bideford. In each of these districts there 
is a Supracretaceous gravel, rich in flint and other Cretaceous 
debris, but probably nothing more." (Trans. Devon. Assoc, ii. 
22.) I subsequently came to the same conclusion respecting 
the so-called Greensand "outliers" S. and W. of Newton 
Abbot, and am not surprised to find Mr. H. B. Woodward of 
that opinion. (Geol. of Eng. and Wales. Foot-note, p. 236.) 

The Lignite Formation of Bovey Tracey. 

Quotation IX. : — " The Bovey Deposit is very remarkable 
and interesting. It belongs to the Lower Miocene Series, 
which, before Mr. Pengelly had determined the age of the 
Bovey formation, was believed to be unrepresented in Eng- 
land." p. xxxiv. 



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368 NOTES ON RECENT NOTICES OF THE GEOLOGY 

Here, again, I must disclaim the credit which the Editor 
gives me. The determination of the age of the Bovey for- 
mation was achieved by the Rev. Professor Heer, of Zurich, 
not by me. The investigation carried on at Bovey Tracey in 
1860 may be said to consist of two parts — Geological and 
Palseophytological ; the first was mine, the second, Professor 
Heer's. He identified the fossils, and by them was enabled 
to say that the deposit was on the same geological horizon as 
certain well-known Continental deposits, usually ascribed to 
the Lower Miocene era. (See Trans. Devon. Assoc. L 29-39, 
ii. 21.) The decision arrived at by Heer as to the horizon 
to which the Bovey Lignites and their Continental contem- 
poraries should be referred has recently beeu questioned, and 
may be said to be at present before the Courts. (See Geol. 
Mag. April, 1879, New Series, Dec. ii. vol. vi. pp. 152-153; 
also The British Eocene Flora. By John Starkie Gardner, 
F.G.S., M.G.S. France, &c, and Constantin Baron Ettinghausen, 
PH.D. Parts I. and II. Pal. Soc. 1879, 1880.) 

? Contorted Limestone Strata near Exminster. 

Quotation X. : — Mr. Paris said, in the first edition of the 
Handbook, "Exminster. In this neighbourhood are stone 
quarries, and contortions of the strata, which may be observed 
in the cuttings of the road," pp. 25-6. 

In the fifth edition (1865) the words '^limestone quarries " 
are substituted for " stone quarries," and the whole passage, 
without further change, is repeated (p. 53) ; and in this 
" amended " form it reappears in the ninth edition, p. 77. 

The passage had escaped me until the autumn of 1880, 
when my attention was directed to it by a gentleman long 
and intimately acquainted with the district, and who stated, 
what I knew very well, and what the map of the Geological 
Survey confirmed, that there was no limestone in the locality. 

To remove the possibility of doubt, Mr. Vicary of Exeter 
and I made a visit of inspection on 28th of April, when we 
proceeded to all the quarries and road- cuttings at and near 
Exminster, Kenn, and Kennford, and found, as we expected, 
the entire district occupied with the Sandstones and " Con- 
glomerates " of the Triassic System, without a trace of a 
limestone bed anywhere. 

There were no such things, moreover, as "contortions of 
the strata " to be found. The writer was probably misled by 
thin layers of " Pan," or concreted sand and iron, which occur 



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AND PALEONTOLOGY OF DEVONSHIRE. 369 

in the fine road-sections near the entrance of the asylum at 
Exminster ; but even these could boast of nothing more than 
a few diminutive plaits, and were provokingly free from the 
grotesque foldings often seen near Dawlish, and in other 
Triassic localities, but never to be mistaken for " contortions 
of the strata." 

Kent's Cavern. 

Quotation XL: — "Permission to view it" [Kent's Cavern] 
" must be obtained at No. 1, Victoria Cottages, Abbey Road " 
[Torquay], " and a guide with a torch will be required. (The 
charge is 3s., and visitors who desire a good light should 
provide their own.) . . . There are two entrances to the 
cavern. . . . The whole may be explored for a distance of 
650 ft., when it terminates in a pool of water. The inner 
chambers are reached by a squeeze through the Great and 
Little Oven. The floor . . . was covered with stalagmite 
about 3 in. thick. ... In 1864 the British Association 
appointed a committee to make a thorough and systematic 
exploration of the cavern. This committee . . . will pro- 
bably continue their work until the cavern is quite emptied 
of its contents. . . . Above the stalagmite is a surface of 
black mould, containing relics of human art, ranging through 
the Roman and pre-Roinan periods to a date which corres- 
ponds with the earlier state of civilization in the Swiss lake- 
dwellings — spindle whorls, bone combs, amber beads, and 
lumps of native copper being common to both. The floor of 
stalagmite varies from a few inches to 3 ft. in thickness. 
Under the stalagmite is a depth of red clay. ... In this clay 
the bones of the following animals have been found — great 
horse-shoe bat (the only bat which now frequents the cavern), 
shrew, bear (ursus priscus and ursus-spelaeus), badger, stoat, 
wolf, fox, hyaena (spelaea), cave-tiger (there is some doubt 
whether this Felis spelcea was a lion or a tiger), wild cat, 
Machairodus latidenSy&yevy large and destructive feline animal, 
3 voles, hare, rabbit (Layomys spelccus), mammoth, rhinoceros 
(tichorhinus), fossil-horse, hippopotamus (major), great Irish 
deer, gigantic round-antlered deer, and red-deer. Of these 
the remains of bears and hyaenas are most numerous, and a 
quantity of faecal remains . . . besides marks of gnawing on 
many of the bones indicate that the cave was frequented at 
one time, perhaps, by bears, and at another by hyaenas. . . . 
Arrow heads and knives of fliut (all of the palaeozoic type) 
occur in all parts of the cave, and throughout the entire 
thickness of the clay. In what was called the Vestibule, near 

vol. xiu. 2 A 



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370 NOTES ON RECENT NOTICES OF THE GEOLOGY 

one of the external entrances, occurs (under the stalagmite) 
a layer of black soil . . . called the Black hand. In this 
have been found more than 326 flint implements, chips, and 
bone tools. . . . The whole of the relics, human and animal, 
belong to the Post-pleiocene period." pp. 155-157. 

The somewhat lengthy quotation just given incites me to 
offer a few remarks on the following topics : — 

(a) Permission to view the Cavern. 

(b) The Cavern Entrances. 

(c) The Extent of the Cavern. 

(d) The Pool of Water. 

(e) The Ovens. 

(/) The Extent of the Eesearches by the Kent's Cavern 
Committee appointed by the British Association. 

(g) The Civilization denoted by certain relics found in the 
Cavern, compared with that indicated by objects 
found in the Swiss Lake-dwellings. 

(A) "Native Copper." 

(i) The Cavern Deposits. 

(/) Animal Eemains in the Cave Earth. 

(k) The most prevalent Animals. 

(I) Occupancy of the Cavern by Bears and Hyaenas. 

(m) Flint Implements. 

(ri) Implements in the " Black Band." 

(a.) Permission to View Kent's Cavern: — The history of 
guide-book information to those desirous of "permission to 
view the Cavern " is not a little amusing. In 1846, the late 
Sir L. V. Palk gave, and restricted, to the Torquay Natural 
History Society, during their brief exploration of it, power 
of granting permission to view Kent's Hole. This was duly 
announced in the local newspaper, and finally, after the power 
had ceased, found its way into the guide-books, and remains 
in the latest editions of some of them to this day. Indeed, 
guide-book-instructed visitors apply still, and in no incon- 
siderable numbers, at the Society's rooms, for " permission to 
view," though the power to grant it expired in 1846. 

A very efficient guide was appointed many years ago, who 
lived at No. 1 Victoria Cottages, Torquay. He died, however, 
as long ago as 1871, and since that date no one dwelling at 
the address just given has had any thing whatever to do with 
the Cavern. Nevertheless, the latest edition of the Handbook 
under notice, published no longer ago than 1879, continues 
to send would-be visitors to No. 1 Victoria Cottages. 



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AND PALAEONTOLOGY OF DEVONSHIRE. 371 

Without pursuing this subject further, it may be of service 
to state that the existing arrangement (1881) is this : — Kent's 
Cavern may be seen on applying at the Cavern itself any 
time between 10 and 5 o'clock, daily. The guide, who is in 
constant attendance, will provide lighfe. Arrangements for 
visits before or after these hours, can be made with the guide, 
George Smerdon, 2 Happaway Place, Torquay. Mr. Smerdon 
was for many years the foreman of the labourers who, under 
the Committee, explored the Cavern. 

(b) The Cavern Entrances : — The Cavern was always 
known to have two entrances, both of them on the eastern 
side of the Cavern-hill, not far apart, and both available. 
During the researches by the Exploring Committee appointed 
by the British Association, three additional entrances were 
discovered and reported in 1871 (See Hep. Brit. Assoc. 1871, 
p. 7), and in 1879 two others were discovered and re- 
ported (See Rep. Brit. Assoc. 1879, p. 145). The five thus 
newly- discovered are all closed with rubbish, so that 
practically it is still the fact that there are two, and only 
two, available Entrances to the Cavern. 

(c) The Extent of the Cavern : — The statement that " the ' 
whole may be explored for a distance of 650 feet" may be 
taken as a rough estimate if the principal Chambers and 
Galleries only are contemplated. 650 feet, however, will fall 
very far short of the truth if all the oflf-shoots and ramifica- 
tions — some of them of great importance and interest — are 
included. 

(d) The Pool of Water: — The Handbook makes the 
Cavern terminate in a pool of water, but why the said pool 
should be supposed to be the termination it is not easy to 
make out, as a chamber at some distance from it is certainly 
further from the Entrances, and more decidedly on the 
opposite side of the hill. The pool, it may be added, ceased 
to exist as long ago as February, 1869, as was duly reported 
(See Sep. Brit. Assoc. 1869, pp. 196-9). 

(e) The Ovens: — Instead of "The inner chambers are 
reached by a squeeze through the Great and Little Oven," 
the Handbook might have said The inner chambers may be 
reached by a squeeze through the Great and Little Oven. 
There never was the least occasion to go through the Ovens. 
Not one out of every five visitors ever went through either 

2 A 2 



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372 NOTES ON RECENT NOTICES OF THE GEOLOGY 

of them probably, and certainly not one out of fifty went 
through the Little one. One of the results of the recent ex- 
ploration, however, is to render it eminently improbable that 
one out of ten thousand will go through either of them in 
future. 

(/) The Extent of the Researches by the Kent's Cavern 
Committee appointed by the British Association: — When the 
Exploring Committee began their researches it was hoped 
that they would be able to continue their work until the 
Cavern was quite emptied of its contents. This hope, how- 
ever, was based on the assumptions that the extent of the 
Cavern was less, and that the deposits were not so deep, as 
they proved to be. On the 19th June, 1880, after the 
continuous daily labour of nearly sixteen years, and the 
expenditure of very nearly £2,000, the work was discontinued, 
not because the Cavern was quite emptied of its contents — 
for to do this would probably require another period of 
sixteen years, as well as £2,000 more — but because it was 
feared there would be a difficulty in raising funds ; and also 
because the low-lying deposits yielded but few specimens of 
any kind. 

(g) The Civilization denoted by certain relics found in the 
Cavern, compared with that indicated by objects found in the 
Swiss Lake-dwellings : — According to the Handbook some of 
the articles found in the Black Mould above the Stalagmite 
belong " to a date which corresponds with the earlier state of 
civilization in the Swiss Lake-dwellings — spindle whorls, bone 
combs, amber beads, and lumps of native copper being 
common to both." I have met with this conclusion else- 
where, but it has always appeared to me that it was not borne 
out by the evidence. When it is remembered that at the 
date of the Swiss Lake-dwellings, intercourse between 
different parts of Europe must have been more difficult and 
less frequent than between the antipodes in the present day, 
that the comparatively high civilization of Greece and Italy 
coexisted with gross barbarism on their very borders, that, as 
beads and in other forms, amber has not yet ceased to be 
used for ornamental purposes, that, without entering at present 
into the question whether anything of the kind was ever 
found in Kent's Cavern, native copper would be gladly used 
by existing British coppersmiths, and that spindle whorls 
were used in the British Isles up to a late period of the last 
century, if not in the present, it seems most unsafe to infer 



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AND PALEONTOLOGY OF DEVONSHIRE. 378 

contemporaneity from the presence of such articles in Swit- 
zerland and in Devonshire. In fact the arguments, if 
"trusted home," might awkwardly prove the Swiss Lake- 
dwellers contemporaries of savages in various parts of the 
world in the present day. Be all this as it may, it must not 
be forgotten that the spindle-whorls and other articles 
mentioned in the Handbook belonged to the most modern 
deposit in the Cavern, and did not extend back to the times 
of extinct mammals. 

(h) " Native Copper " : — It is, no doubt, true that Mr. Mae 
Enery, the early and famous explorer of Kent's Hole, says, 
" In the same stuff " [= the Black Mould] was picked up a 
lump of copper ore much oxydised which the late Mr. 
P " [hilips] " analyzed and found to be pure virgin ore." 
{Trans. Devon. Assoc, iii. 220.) 

Again, he says " 2 lumps of virgin copper ore were pressed 
together into a cake on a large flat stone." (Ibid. 296.) 

Again, the Cavern Committee appointed by the British 
Association, speaking of objects they had met with in the 
Black Mould, say in their First Report, " In this connection 
may be mentioned a lump of metal which, from its general 
appearance, would be termed copper ore, but from its interior, 
a small portion of which has been exposed accidentally, it is 
probably native copper, or a mass of metal which has been 
smelted." (Rep. Brit. Assoc. 1865, p. 20.) 

There is probably little or no doubt that the lumps of 
copper mentioned by Mr. Mac Enery were of the same 
character as that found by the Committee. Nevertheless, I 
am satisfied that they were not native, but smelted, copper. 
It will be observed that the Committee speak of their " find " 
doubtfully. After the Report just quoted was published, 
they submitted their specimen to experts, who at once pro- 
nounced it to be smelted; and when recapitulating the 
substance of their First Report, the following year, the 
Committee speak of it as " a large fragment of a plate of 
smelted copper." (Ibid. 1866, p. 2.) A smaller specimen 
was subsequently found. 

(i) The Cavern Deposits: — According to the Handbook 
the Cavern Deposits were, in descending order, Black Mould, 
Stalagmite, and Red Clay (= Cave-earth). These were, no 
doubt, the only Deposits known in the Cavern for some time 
after the late exploration was begun; but as long ago as 
1868 the Committee reported the existence of two lower and 



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374 NOTES ON RECENT NOTICES OF THE GEOLOGY 

older Deposits — a Crystalline Stalagmite underlying the 
Cave-earth, and a mechanical accumulation, to which they 
gave the name of Breccia, which in its turn underlay the 
Crystalline Stalagmite. (Rep. Brit. Assoc. 1868, p. 51.) These 
older beds disclosed a more ancient Fauna of which Man was 
also a member, but, judging from his Industrial Remains, a 
Man ruder far than his descendants or successors, as the case 
may be, of the Cave-earth. 

(J) Animal Remains in the Cave Earth: — The list of 
animals, of which relics were found in the Cave-earth, given 
in the Handbook, includes those mentioned by Professor 
Owen (Hist. Brit Foss. Mam. 1846), and was obviously 
copied by the editor from a list I compiled thence in 1868. 
(Trans. Devon. Assoc, ii. 502-3.) So far as is known, how- 
ever, no relics of the Great Horse-shoe Bat, the Shrew, the 
Stoat, the Rabbit, or the Hippopotamus were found in the 
recent exploration. It is not intended to cast any doubt on 
any of the foregoing forms, with the exception of the Hippo- 
potamus, which I believe may be safely stated not to have 
belonged to the Cavern fauna. Indeed, it is, to say the least, 
very doubtful whether there is satisfactory evidence that 
remains of Hippopotamus major have been found anywhere in 
Devonshire. (Ibid. iii. 485-6.) 

With regard to the Bat, Col. Montagu was of opinion that 
there were two species of Horse-shoe Bat — the Larger and 
the Lesser ; and that both occurred in considerable abundance 
in Kent's Hole, which the Colonel spoke of as a " dark and 
frightful region." (Ibid. ii. 475.) 

Few palaeontologists, it is believed, would say, with the 
Handbook, that "there is some doubt whether . . . Felis 
spelaea was a lion or a tiger," or hesitate to pronounce it a 
lion; indeed, there is great reluctance to admit that it 
differed specifically from the existing Felis leo. 

Current opinion set3 also against the idea that the so-called 
Fossil horse was separated by any sharp line from the exist- 
ing horse, Equus cabalhvs. 

The Handbook list is also defective. It was known as long 
ago as 1869, that remains of Glutton, Brown Bear, Wild Bull, 
Bison, Reindeer, and Beaver had also been met with in the 
Cave-earth. 

(k) The most prevalent Animals : — The statement of the 
Handbook that " the remains of bears and hyaenas are most 
numerous," requires amplification to be made true. When 



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AND PALAEONTOLOGY OF DEVONSHIRE. 375 

corrected it would stand thus : — The remains of Bears were 
most numerous in the Breccia — the most ancient of the 
Cavern deposits with which we are acquainted ; but the 
remains of Hyaenas were most prevalent in the Cave-earth. 
In fact, no traces of Hyaena occurred in the older deposit 

(l) Occupancy of tlie Cavern by Bears and Hyamas: — Taken 
in the sense stated in the immediately preceding Note it is 
true, no doubt, "that the cave was frequented at one time 
... by bears, and at another by hyaenas ; " but this was not 
the sense intended by the Handbook, the editor of which 
appears to have had the idea that during the Cave-earth era 
the Bear and Hyaena took " turn and turn about " in their 
Cavern home. It cannot be doubted that the Cavern was 
the home of Hyaenas during the Cave-earth period; that, 
with the exception of Man, no other large animal occupied it 
during any part of that time ; that when Man left it he took 
possession, and was expelled whenever the Human occupant 
returned. (Trans. Devon. Assoc, xii. 641-2.) 

(m) Flint Implements : — According to the Handbook, 
"Arrow heads and knives of flint (all of the palaeozoic type) 
occur in all parts of the cave, and throughout the entire 
thickness of the clay." This statement contains an incautious 
expression and a positive blunder. It may be very much 
doubted whether a single flint "arrow-head" was found in 
the Cave-earth. "Flint tool," or "Flint implement" is a 
safer term, and is amply sufficient as evidence of Human 
Antiquity. Moreover, the "Arrow-head" assumes the exist- 
ence of contemporary bows and arrows. 

The blunder spoken of is the word "palaeozoic," which was 
no doubt a slip of the pen, being written where the writer 
meant " palaeolithic." Yet this slip has appeared in at least 
two editions. 

(n.) Implements in the Black Band ;— ." In this " [the Black 
Band], says the Handbook, " have been found more than 326 
flint implements, chips, and bone tools." The truth is, how- 
ever, in the Black Band were found 366 flint and chert im- 
plements, chips, and cores ; and 3 bone tools. 

Windmill Hill Cavern, at Brixham. 

Quotation XII. : — " The results " [of the exploration of 
Windmill Hill Cavern, at Brixham] "no doubt prove the 
very high antiquity of the human race in this district— flint 



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376 NOTES ON KECENT NOTICES OF THE GEOLOGY 

implements, similar to those found in the drift, having been 
discovered in the loam at the lowest levels, associated with 
the remains of hippopotamus, cave lion, hyaena, and other 
subtropical animals. Deeply imbedded in the stalagniitic floor 
was found a fine pair of antlers of the reindeer, showing a vast 
change in the climate between these periods. . . . The ex- 
ternal entrances are high above the present bottom of these " 
[adjacent] " valleys ; but there is little doubt that the valleys, 
when the wild animals and as wild ' cave men ' frequented 
the district, were filled to a considerable height by a blue clay, 
in which grew a forest, affording shelter and protection. The 
specimens found in this cavern are at present in the apart- 
ments of the Geological Society, London." p. 163. 

The foregoing quotation invites remark on — 

(a) The Flint Implements ; 

(b) The Hippopotamus ; 

(c) The Cave Lion and Hyaena ; 

(d) The Reindeer Antlers ; 

(e) The Blue Clay and the Forest ; and 

(/) The Present Whereabouts of the Specimens. 

(a) The Flint Implements: — With one probable exception, 
the flint implements found in the Brixham Cavern were not, 
as the Editor says, similar to those found in the drift. They 
were ,/faAe-implements, not nodule-implements, and, though as 
certainly palaeolithic, were somewhat less ancient than the 
drift specimens. 

The excepted tool belonged primarily, it is believed, to the 
oldest of the Cavern beds — known as the Gravel bed, or 
Fourth bed— and had been dislodged and redeposited in the 
less ancient bed — known as the Third bed — in which, with 
this exception, all the tools were flake-tools. (See Trans. 
Devon. Assoc, vi 833, 849. Nos. 6 and 8.) 

(b) The Hippopotamus: — No trace of Hippopotamus was 
found in the Brixham Cavern. Nor did the labour of al- 
most sixteen years disclose any relic of it in Kent's Cavern. 
Indeed, it must be admitted that there is at present no satis- 
factory evidence that this great Pachyderm ever existed in 
Devonshire. (Ibid, iii 485-6.) 

(c) The Cave Hon and Hycena : — Though both the Cave 
Lion and the Cave Hyaena were met with in the Brixham 
Cavern neither of them occurred "at the lowest levels," that 



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AND PALEONTOLOGY OF DEVONSHIRE. 377 

is, as I understand the phrase, in the lowest of the Cavern 
beds — known as the Oravel bed, or Fourth bed. The bones 
found in this lowest bed were exclusively those of Bear, 
Horse, Ox, and Mammoth. (Ibid, vi. 814.) 

The Hippopotamus would, no doubt, be good evidence of a 
subtropical climate, but in his absence, the species that were 
actually represented cannot be held to betoken necessarily a 
climate warmer than that which obtains at present in Devon- 
shire ; and it may be doubted whether they are inconsistent 
with a colder one, especially as the Eeindeer and Grizzly 
Bear were amongst them. (Ibid. vi. 828). 

(d.) The Reindeer Antlers : — When the Handbook spoke of 
" a fine pair of antlers " it doubled the truth. It was not a 
pair of antlers, but one antler only ; no doubt a " fine " one. 

Again, it was not deeply imbedded in the stalagmite, but, 
to repeat the description I gave of it in 1874, " it was found 
lying on the Stalagmite, firmly attached to, but not embedded 
in, it ; indeed, some portions of it were completely free from 
more than the slightest incrustation." (Ibid. 809.) 

(e) The Blue Clay and the Forest : — The speculations that 
the Brixham Valleys in the era of the Cave men were filled 
to a considerable height ; that Blue Clay was subsequently 
deposited in, at least, the principal — " the east-and-west " — 
valley ; and that a Forest once grew in this Blue Clay, as a 
soil, in the said principal valley, are, I believe, exclusively 
mine ; but the Handbook has distorted my views ; as it makes 
the Forest, the Blue Clay, and the Cave Men all belong to one 
and the same period, whereas the Forest was certainly, and 
the lodgement of the Blue Clay probably, not only subsqeuent 
to the era of the Cave men, but subsequent to the excavation, 
or, probably, re-excavation of the valleys. Perhaps, I cannot 
set forth my opinion better than by repeating the words 
which, according to the shorthand writer, I employed in a 
lecture at Manchester in 1875, in an attempt to take the 
audience, by successive steps, back into antiquity from the 
present day: — "At least two thousand years ago the relative 
level of sea and land in Britain was the same as now. Prior 
to that was a period during which the whole of Western 
Europe subsided, at least, sixty-seven" [I can now say seventy- 
five] "feet — even supposing that trees grew at high-water 
level. Prior to that was the growth of the forest. Prior to 
that was possibly — but I will not insist on this" [order] — 
"the era of the deposition of the blue clay in which the 



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378 NOTES ON RECENT NOTICES OF THE GEOLOGY 

forest grew. Prior to that was the period of the re-excavation 
of the valleys to a depth of from seventy to a hundred feet 
lower than it was when the Cave earth " [ = Third bed] " was 
carried into the Cavern. Prior to the commencement of this 
excavation men were living in Devonshire. That is, step by 
step, the conclusion to which I have come respecting the 
changes in the local geography since the Cave men of Devon- 
shire lived." (Science Lecture delivered in Manchester. Seventh 
Series, p. 155.) 

(/) The Present Whereabouts of the Specimens: — The 
specimens— both archaeological and palseontological — found 
in the Brixham Cavern, were lodged " in the apartments of 
the Geological Society, London," as soon as the exploration 
was finished, that is to say in the summer of 1859. There 
they remained until 1872, when the Report of the Cavern 
Committee was read to the Royal Society, after which, but 
how long after I cannot definitely state, the osseous remains 
were sent to the British Museum ; and the Human Industrial 
remains, to the * Christy Museum," 103, Victoria Street, 
Westminster. Those at the British Museum were temporarily 
lodged in an underground cellar, where I saw them in Jan- 
uary, 1875. What has been their subsequent history I am 
unable to state ; but I have no doubt that they are still at the 
Museum, and not in the apartments of the Geological Society. 

Since this Paper was read, I have seen many of the bones, 
well-displayed for public investigation, in the New Museum, 
South Kensington. 

The Ash Hole, near Brixham. 

Quotation XIII. :—" Nearer the old barracks" [on Berry 
Head, South Devon] " is the cavern called the Ash Hole . . . 
Below the stalagmite here the bones of hyaenas and other 
animals have been discovered." p. 163. 

Having transcribed and reprinted every thing, so far as I 
am aware, that has been written on the Ash Hole (Trans. 
Devon. Assoc, iv. 73-77) I feel assured that the Editor slipped 
into an error when he assigned hysenas to that Cavern. The 
only mammals represented by the bones found in it appear 
to be Man, Mammoth, Badger, Pole-Cat, Stoat, Water Vole, 
Rabbit, and Reindeer. 

Quotation XIV.:— "The" [Submerged] " forest and the" 
[Raised] " beaches " [of Barnstaple Bay] " indicate that there 



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AND PALEONTOLOGY OF DEVONSHIRE. 379 

have been two distinct movements of the coast — a subsidence, 
and an upheaval. It seems probable that the elevation pre- 
ceded the depression ; but this is not quite certain." p. 256. 

In various papers I have discussed the question of the 
relative ages of the Raised Beaches and Submerged Forests of 
Devonshire, and as long ago as 1865 expressed the belief that 
the Beaches were the older, stating at the same time the 
grounds on which the belief rested (Tram. Devon. Assoc, i. 
pt. iv. 33.) Still, it remained to be no more than a belief 
until 1878, when I produced what was regarded as "proof 
of what had previously been considered probable by most, 
that in Devonshire the Submerged Forests are more recent 
than the Raised Beaches." (Ibid. x. 202.) It must be admitted 
that the proof applied strictly to Torbay only, but on the 
assumptions that all the Raised Beaches in Devonshire are of 
one and the same age, and all the Submerged Forests of the 
county are also of one and the same age — and the organic 
remains found in them respectively are in harmony with 
this — it may now be said that it is certain that the last eleva- 
tion preceded the last depression. 

II. Newton, Mr. E. T., on British Gluttons (=Gnlo 
luscus). 1880. 

In a Paper entitled Notes on the Vertebrata of the Pre- 
Olacial Forest Bed Series of the East of England. By E. T. 
Newton, F.G.S., Part II. Carnivora y in the Geological Magazine 
for September 1880, Decade II. VoL vii., pp. 424-7, the 
author remarks, " The occurrence of the Glutton in Britain 
was first intimated by MM. Boyd Dawkins and Sanford in 
the year 1866 (Pal. Soc.), but it was not until 1871 (Q. J. 0. S. 
vol. xxvii. p. 406) that the former gentleman described the 
lower jaw of this species, which had been obtained by M. M. 
Hughes and Heaton from the cave at Plas Heaton. Prof. 
Busk subsequently recognised the remains of the Glutton 
among the bones found by the Rev. J. M. Mello in the 
Cresswell Crag Caves (Q. J. Q. S. vol. xxxi. 1875, p. 687)," 
pp. 424-5. 

The following is the passage by MM. Boyd Dawkins and 
Ayshford Sanford to which Mr. Newton, no doubt, refers : — 
" Genus Oulo. Species Oulo luscus, linn. — The wolverine or 
glutton (Oulo luscus), the great pest of the fur-hunters of 
North America and Siberia, has left traces of ita presence in 



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380 NOTES ON RECENT NOTICES OP THE GEOLOGY 

Britain in Banwell and Bleadon Caverns " [in Somersetshire], 
"and also in a cavern at Gower" [in Glamorganshire]. 
British Pleistocene Mammalia. Part I. (Pal Soc.) pp. xxi- 
xxii. 1866. 

It will be seen, therefore, that this intimation of the 
Glutton in Britain, which Mr. Newton believed to be the 
" first," points to the Mendips and to South Wales as the 
localities in which the " finds " were met with. There was, 
however, an earlier intimation of a British Glutton ; and it 
was made by a native of Devon, and of a Devonshire fossil, 
as I propose now to show : — 

Tlie Natural History of South Devon, by J. C. Bellamy, 
Surgeon, 1839, contains a description of the famous Ossi- 
ferous Cavern at Yealm Bridge, about seven miles E.S.E. from 
Plymouth, and not more than one mile from Mr. Bellamy's 
residence at Yealmpton. "In the summer of 1835," says 
Mr. Bellamy, " having casually heard of certain bones, met 
with in the progress of working a limestone quarry at Yealm 
Bridge, I undertook to investigate their value, and the cir- 
cumstances under which they occurred." p. 86. 

When it is remembered that the author was not ooly 
describing his own observations and discoveries, but that he 
was a surgeon and a practised naturalist, it will be seen that 
his statements have more than ordinary value. 

When enumerating the various kinds of animals repre- 
sented by the relics he investigated, he says, "Next in 
frequency of occurrence to the bones of the hycena and fox 
were those of the horse, ox, deer, sheep, and rabbit. After 
these ranks the rhinoceros, whilst the bones of the elephant, 
wolf, pig, glvMon, bear, and duck were extremely rare." p. 89. 

Again, when writing of the bones of mice amongst the 
remains, he remarks, " Looking also to the wise provisions of 
Nature in regard of food, we see that these small creatures 
would hold a decided relation to the predaceous habits of 
the animal I have ventured to designate glutton, from its 
evident similarity to our mustelo gulo " [= Oulo luscus\ p. 94. 

Finally, in his Catalogue, he places the Glutton amongst 
the Carnivora of the cavern, p. 102. 

Mr. J. C. Bellamy, m.r.c.s., was born at Plymouth in 1812, 
and died 1854 (Mr. Worth, in Trans. Plym. Inst. iv. 294) ; 
and, so far as I am aware, was the first to identify, as well as 
to announce, the remains of Glutton amongst British fossils. 

The cavern at Yealm Bridge, it may be added, is not the 

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AND PALEONTOLOGY OF DEVONSHIRE. 381 

only one in Devonshire which has yielded a relic of the 
Glutton, as is shown by the following passage in the Keport, 
in 1869, by MM. Boyd Dawkins and Ayshford Sanford, on 
the animals found in Kent's Hole, by the Committee to 
whom the exploration of that famous mausoleum was en- 
trusted. Speaking of Gulo luscus, the authors just named 
remark, "A single os innominatum of a nearly full-grown 
Glutton indicates the presence of this rare mammal in the 
Cave-earth. Although it belonged to an animal not quite 
adult, it agrees almost exactly in size with that of a fully- 
grown male from Sweden." {Rep. Brit. Assoc. 1869, p. 207.) 

This statement was not so early by three years as that by 
the same authors, mentioned by Mr. Newton, and quoted 
already ; but it was earlier, by two years, than the announce- 
ment of the discovery of relics of Glutton in the cave at 
Plas Heaton, near St Asaph, North Wales. 

It must not be supposed that the whole, or anything like 
a tithe, of the Kent's Hole relics have been finally examined. 
It is, therefore, possible that the os innominatum may not be 
the only indication of Glutton amongst them. 

in. geikie (Br. James) on Kent's cavern, 1881. 

Prehistoric Europe, A Geological Sketch, by James Geikie, 
LL.D., F.R.S., 1881, contains a few brief Notices of Kent's 
Cavern, some of which invite Quotations and Notes. 

A Bone Pin. 

Quotation I: — "A bone pin (3f inches long), which was 
found in Kent's Cave, is supposed by Dr. Evans to have been 
employed as a fastener of the dress. It bears a high polish, 
he says, as if from constant use/' p. 17. 

The description of the pin alluded to by Dr. Geikie will be 
found, with a good figure of the specimen, in Dr. J. Evans's 
Ancient Stone Implements, Weapons, and Ornaments of Great 
Britain, p. 460 (1872). Dr. Evans, however, compiled it, no 
doubt, from the following passage in the Third Report of the 
Committee for Exploring Kent's Cavern, Devonshire, which I 
drew in 1867 : " The second bone-tool from the Cave-earth is 
a well-finished pin, 3j inches in length. It was found on the 
3rd of January, 1867. The pin is well made, almost per- 
fectly round, tapers uniformly from the head to the point, and 
has a considerable polish. It is, perhaps, more than probable 
that it was an article of the toilet, and hence the polish it 



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382 NOTES ON RECENT NOTICES OF THE GEOLOGY 

bears, instead of having been designed, may have been the 
result of the constant use to which it was put. It may pro- 
bably be said of its original possessor, as it has been said of 
a more modern savage, 

' The shaggy wolfish skin he wore, 
Pinned by a polished bone before.' " 

{Rep. Brit. Assoc. 1867, p. 31.) 
In copying from Dr. Evans, Dr. Geikie slipped into a little 
error; the pin, as stated in the Eeport, as well as by Dr. 
Evans, was 3£, not " 3f " inches long. 

The Main Result of the Recent Exploration of Kent's Hole. 

Quotation II.: — "After such caves as that at Brixham 
(Torbay), and the still more famous cavern near Torquay, 
called Kent's Hole, had been subjected to long and careful 
examination under the auspices of the Royal and Geological 
Societies, and the British Association, even the most sceptical 
hammerer threw aside his doubts. But while giving all due 
credit to the Exploration Committees for their admirable and 
exhaustive work, we must not forget that the main result of 
their labours has been merely to verify and confirm the con- 
clusions arrived at by the earlier investigators. It is need- 
less to say that those who have taken the most active share 
in cave-exploring are the readiest to admit this ; and none 
more willingly than Mr. Pengelly, who has personally super- 
intended the investigations carried on in the two famous 
Devonshire Caves." pp. 76-77. 

Dr. Geikie says in effect, in the passage just cited, " that 
those who have taken the most active share in Cavern 
exploring are the readiest to admit " that " the main results 
of their labours has been merely to verify and confirm the 
conclusions arrived at by the earlier investigators." If by 
" the conclusions arrived at " he mean the simple proposition 
that man dwelt in Britain, and in Western Europe generally, 
at the same time as the Mammoth and his extinct con- 
temporaries, I, for one, am amongst " the readiest to admit 
this ; " but if he mean that during the recent exploration of 
Kent's Hole no new facts were discovered which of necessity 
enhanced the value of human antiquity as inferred from any 
previous exploration of that Cavern, or, indeed, of any other 
in Devonshire, I not only decline "to admit this," but feel 
called on to show that it is incorrect 

At the beginning of the exploration in 1865, it was 
neither known nor suspected that there was any deposit in 



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AND PALEONTOLOGY OF DEVONSHIRE. 383 

the Cavern of greater antiquity than that termed the Cave- 
earth, which was everywhere rich in remains of Mammals — 
some extinct and others not — the Hyaena being the most 
prevalent form; and that with them were found flint 
implements and other relics of human industry. In 1868, 
however, the explorers began a series of discoveries which 
ultimately disclosed a much earlier chapter of the Cavern 
history, and enabled them to announce — 

1. That underlying the Cave-earth was a very thick sheet 
of stalagmite, which from its peculiar structure was termed 
The Crystalline Stalagmite. 

2. That underneath this again was an older Cave-earth, to 
which the name of The Breccia was given. 

3. That these previously unknown and unsuspected 
deposits — and especially the Breccia — contained remains of 
mammals, almost exclusively Bears, but without any trace or 
indication of Hyaenas. 

4. That in this pre-hyaenine Breccia there were undoubted 
flint implements, but comparatively rude, massive, and. 
unsymmetrical, and unaccompanied by any other indication 
of man. 

In short, the recent exploration of Kent's Hole informed 
the world that men vastly more ancient than those known to 
the most advanced of "the earlier investigators" of the 
Devonshire caverns had lived in that region; and that, 
judging from the facts, they were much ruder, and belonged to 
an earlier British fauna. 

Dwration of Rev. J. Mac Entry* 8 Kent* 8 Cavern Researches. 

Quotation III : — " The Eev. J. Mac Enery, who between 
the years 1825 to 1841, seems to have explored Kent's 
Cavern with great assiduity." p. 77. 

We learn from Mr. Mac Enery's MSS. that his first visit 
to the Cavern was made "in the summer of 1825" {Trans. 
Devon. Assoc, iii. 208), and that he began his systematic 
researches " towards the close of 1825." {Ibid. 444.) It was 
unfortunately not his practice to date his visits, memoranda, 
or discoveries ; but he did record a visit " On the 14 Aug*. 
1829." {Ibid. 295.) There is reason for believing that all his 
important discoveries were made considerably before that 
date. His "Plate F" states that the famous canines of 
Machairodus latidens were found "Jan y . 1826 in diluvial 
Mud mix'd with Teeth and gnaw'd Bones of Rhinoceros, 



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384 NOTES ON RECENT NOTICES OF THE GEOLOGY 

Elephant, Horse, Ox, Elk, and Deer with Teeth and Bones 
of Hyeenas, Bears, Wolves, Foxes, &c." 

The following brief summary of facts compiled from the 
Literature of the Cavern, shows not only the progress of the 
work in 1826, but that during that year Mr. Mac Enery 
made presents of specimens with a liberality which neces- 
sarily betokened very numerous discoveries: — 

Amongst the papers of the late Sir (then Mr.) W. C. 
Trevelyan, the following two memoranda occur : — " Torquay, 
27th February, 1826. Saw Mrs. Cazalet's collection of bones 
from Kent's Hole. Very fine. Bear, Tiger, Wolf, Hyaena, 
Elk, Ox, Horse, Elephant, Rhinoceros, Flint Knives. Mr. 
Mac Enery's bones. Very fine. Horse and Bhinoceros 
numerous. ..." 

" 28th. Spent 7 hours in Kent's Hole with four men, and 
found bones and teeth of Bear, Tiger, Bhinoceros, Elephant, 
Hyaena, Horse, Deer, Elk, and Flint Knives, under Tufa ; i.e. 
Stalagmite from the side or wall of Cavern." (Trans. Devon. 
Assoc, x. 146.) 

Mrs. Cazalet, mentioned above, was a co-religionist and 
friend of Mr. Mac Enery ; and her fine collection is known 
to have been made up, at least, very largely of the presents 
he made her from time to time. 

The Baron Cuvier, writing Mr. Mac Enery, on 6th March 
1826, said "My co-worker, Dr. Buckland" [then in Paris] 
" has remitted to me the fossil bones from Kent's Cavern that 
you have much wished to send me." (Ibid. iv. 475-6.) 

Later in the same month, Dr. Buckland, writing from 
Paris, said, " I have sent the gnawed fragments you gave me 
to Scotland." (Ibid. iv. 475.) 

In May 1826, Mr. Mac Enery presented a series of the 
Cavern specimens to the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, 
and in a letter addressed to the President, on the 3rd of that 
month, he said " similar collections to the one now forwarded 
have been transmitted to Cuvier for the Paris Museum, to 
Professor Buckland for the London G " [eological] " Society, 
and to Bristol." (Ibid. iv. 472-5.) 

Writing Sir W. C. Trevelyan, on "19 June 1826," he said, 
" I have found, ten feet below the surface, a perfect skull, with 
teeth entire, processes perfect, of a full grown Hyaena. . . . 

" I have added considerably to my Elephants, Rhinoceros, 
Elks, Deer, and Bears. I have some teeth of the last of 
great size. A large Tiger's, perhaps Lion's, jaw now em- 
bellishes my collection. 



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AND PALAEONTOLOGY OF DEVONSHIKB. 385 

" The open chamber, where you excavated so successfully, 
has long been exhausted. In my Idol Cave" [which he 
called sometimes the Wolfs Cave] "I have made the most 
important discoveries, which I am daily following up with 
ardour. 

"Some plain account I intend to publish when the Pro- 
fessor " [Buckland] " returns. Mrs. Buckland proposes doing 
us the honour of a visit, when I hope to have collected 
abundant materials for her pencil." {Ibid. x. 144.) 

On "December 6th, 1826," Dr. Beeke, the Dean of Bristol, 
who resided frequently at Torquay, wrote Sir W. C. Trevelyan 
as follows : 

" Mr. Mac Enery has arranged his Kent's Hole collection 
very neatly. ... He appeared to think that very little re- 
mains worth digging for. He has prepared the materials for 
an account of the Cave, so far as his own observations extend, 
but waits for Dr. Buckland's advice and assistance, and no 
drawings have yet been made of the most important bones." 
{Ibid. x. 145.) 

Mr. Mac Enery issued a circular announcing his intention 
to publish his Cavern Researches, in one volume quarto, to be 
illustrated with thirty plates ; and he stated that specimens 
of the plates might be seen at Cole's Library, Torquay. This 
circular is unfortunately not dated ; but Mr. Northmore, 
writing on " 4th June, 1832," mentioned a prospectus which 
Mr. Mac Enery had circulated " about five years since," thus 
giving 1827 as, at least, its approximate date. (See Blewitt's 
Panorama of Torquay, 2nd ed., 1832, p. 110, or Trans. Devon. 
Assoc, ii. 480.) This harmonizes with the previous state- 
ments and dates, and the whole appear to leave little room to 
doubt that the bulk of Mr. Mac Enery's Kent's Cavern work 
was done, and all his important discoveries were made, by 
the end of 1826. That he visited the Cavern occasionally, 
perhaps not unfrequently, after that date there can scarcely 
be a doubt. Many an uncertain point would require verifica- 
tion or reconsideration ; and he might be not disinclined to 
treat his friends to a day's digging, as he probably did " on 
the 14th August, 1829," when he "visited the cave accom- 
panied by Master Aliffe." He may even from time to time 
have devoted a few consecutive days to small recesses over- 
looked here and there, but I am strongly of opinion that after 
1826 such labours as he undertook in the Cavern were of a 
very desultory character. 

Be all this as it may, I am confident that when I visited 
Kent's Hole first, about Midsummer, 1834, his researches had 

VOL. XIII. 2 B 



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386 NOTES ON BECENT NOTICES OF THE GEOLOGY 

been for some time abandoned. Mr. Mac Enery died on 
18th February, 1841, and I venture to suggest that in the 
quotation from Dr. Geikie which I have placed at the head 
of this Note, the words 4< between the autumn of 1825 and 
the end of 1833" may with safety and advantage be sub- 
stituted for the words " between the years 1825 to 1841." 

Th$ first discovery of Flint Implements associated with extinct 
Mammals in Caverns. 

Quotation IV. — " It was in . . . Kent's Hole that the first 
discovery in cave deposits of the association of human im- 
plements with the remains of the extinct Mammalia was 
made. This important 'find* occurred to the Rev. J. Mac 
Enery." p. 77. 

The following is Mr. Mac Enery's statement respecting the 
first " flint blade " he found in Kent's Hole : " In the summer 
of 1825 Dr. Buckland, accompanied by Mr. Northmore of 
Cleve [near Exeter] visited the Cave of Kent's Hole in search 
of bones. I attended them. Nothing remarkable was dis- 
covered that day excepting the tooth of a Ehin " [oceros] " and 
a flint blade. This was the first instance of the occurrence 
of British relics being noticed in this or I believe any other 
cave; both these relics 'twas my good fortune to find, but it 
was not the first case of the discovery of organic remains. 
... I am assured that at a still earlier period Mr. N " [orth- 
more] " had collected some single teeth of Hyaena, To this 
ardent inquirer therefore the priority of discovery belongs. 

. . Dr. Buckland had also on two former occasions made a 
search there, but owing to the want of leisure for pushing 
his inquiries, nothing new was developed." {Trans. Devon. 
Assoc, iii. 441. See also p. 443.) 

Mr. Northmore states that the first discovery of Mammalian 
remains in Kent's Cavern — that to which Mr. Mac Enery 
refers — was made by him on "21st of September, A.D. 1824" 
(see Blewitt's Panorama of Torquay, 2nd ed. 1832, p. 116 ; 
or Trans. Dev. Assoc, ii. 482); and he adds soon after, "I 
should mention that Professor Buckland some short time 
afterwards (for I immediately communicated to him my dis- 
covery) continued the search in the same spot, and found a 
British flint-knife, and some bones and teeth, if I recollect 
right, of the bear and rhinoceros." 

In the absence of further evidence, it might be concluded 
that the flint which, as we have seen, Mac Enery claims to 



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AND PALAEONTOLOGY OF DEVONSHIRE. 387 

have found, and that which, according to Mr. Northmore, Dr. 
Buckland discovered, were, perhaps, one and the same. The 
following fact, however, shows that they were distinct 
•' finds," and that Dr. Buckland's was the earlier. There is in 
the Monthly Magazine, or British Register, for March, 1825, 
under the heading of Provincial Occurrences, Devonshire, an 
article entitled, Organic Remains in Kent's Hole and Chudleigh 
Cave, in which the following statements occur : " Mr. Buck- 
land has been on a visit to Lord Clifford, in company with 
Sir Thomas Acland, and has examined the cave at Chudleigh. 
. . . The Professor has also visited Kent's Hole, and com- 
menced his operations in the two caves where Mr. Northmore 
had made his original discoveries ; among other treasures we 
hear that Mr. Buckland discovered the blade of a knife be* 
longing to the ancient Britons, made of flint, about two inches 
and a half long, and half an inch broad." (Op. cit. lix. 190-1 ; 
see also Trans: Dev. Assoc, iii. 194.) 

This, no doubt, was the " British flint knife " which, accord- 
ing to Mr. Northmore, in the passage cited from him above, 
was found by Dr. Buckland. Indeed, I am not without strong 
suspicions that Mr. Northmore was the writer or inspirer of 
the article in the Monthly Magazine. As the Magazine was 
published on the first of each month, it is clear that Dr. 
Buckland's "flint knife" was found in February, 1825, or 
earlier, and could not have been the " blade " mentioned by 
Mr. MacEnery, as he states that his first visit to Kent's Hole 
was made in the " summer of 1825 " (Trans. Dev. Assoc, iii 
208), and he adds that it was his " first visit to a scene of 
this nature." 

It is clear therefore that he was in error in supposing that 
his " flint blade " was the first instance of the occurrence of 
what he called "British relics being noticed in" any cave; 
Dr. Buckland had certainly anticipated him. 

All this, however, may be utterly foreign to Dr. Geikie's 
idea ; for, returning to the first passage quoted above from Mr. 
MacEnery, it will be observed that it does not state in what 
deposit the " flint blade M was found, or whether or not it was 
met with beneath a sheet of stalagmite, or whether or not it 
was found lying with, or near, or under the same conditions as, 
the tooth of rhinoceros found during the same visit. In short, 
the statement under notice does not justify the assertion that 
it was a " discovery in cave deposits of the association of 
human implements with the remains of the extinct mam- 
malia," and the " find " may not be that to which Dr. Qeikie 
alluded. 

2 B 2 



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388 NOTES ON RECENT NOTICES OF THE GEOLOGY 

That Mr. Mac Enery met with flint implements soon after 
beginning his systematic researches, "towards the close of 
1825," may be inferred from Sir Walter C. Trevelyan's 
Memorandum of 27th Feb., 1826 (quoted on page 384 above), 
where " flint knives " are mentioned as forming part of Mrs. 
Cazalet's collection, and which had, no doubt, been given to 
her by Mr. Mac Enery. Sir Walter's Memorandum of the 
following day shows, 1st, that he also found flint knives during 
his seven hours' work ; and, 2nd, that they occurred under 
the stalagmite. All this, however, does not necessarily imply 
an "association of human implements with the remains of 
extinct mammalia," and I am by no means convinced that 
Mr. Mac Enery was himself a believer in such an association 
as I understand Dr. Geikie to mean. 

His mention of flint implements is frequent, but it is not 
always easy to determine his exact meaning. The following is 
at once Iris fullest and clearest statement on the question : 

" I first discovered them " [the flint implements], he says, 
" mixed with Human bones in loose carbonaceous mould 
within half foot of the surface near the mouth — the crust " 
[of stalagmite] "had been broken up and its remains were 
visible in flakes scattered through the mould— When we 
descended about three feet the loose black mould gave place 
to a firm bed of a dirty red color the surface of which dis- 
played the singular phenomenon of flint instruments inter- 
mingled with fossil bones ! — About 1 foot lower down they 
disappeared, but the fossil bones continued constant to the red 
marl " [= Cave-earth]. " Thus far their existence in the pre- 
sent state of the cavern was determined — Still the difficulty 
remained unsolved — viz. whether the flint did actually occur 
under the unbroken floor of stalagmite — and whether they 
originally co-existed before their position was invaded. In 
this spot the crust " [of stalagmite] " was confessedly dis- 
turbed and removed, and in the other localities, tho there was 
no doubt of their existence under the crust and touching the 
mud " [=Cave-earth], " there was still a doubt whether the 
crust had been dug thro for ovens and pits, the stalagmite in 
those places assuming rather the character of a conglomerate, 
than a regularly stratified bed ; but now there is no longer a 
question of their actual presence under the stratified un- 
broken floor of stalagmite. All along the lobby-like passage 
it has been already remarked that they abounded, but under 
ambiguous circumstances ; it now became imperative to con- 
tinue on excavating towards the end till we should fall in 
with the crust at its undisturbed point, and we succeeded 



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AND PALAEONTOLOGY OF DEVONSHIRE. 389 

• . . Having cleared away on all sides the loose mould and 
all suspicious appearances, I dug under the regular crust — 
and flints presented themselves to my hand — this electrified 
me. I called the attention of my fellow laborers (Master 
Aliffe) and in his presence extracted from the red marl" 
[=Cave-earth] "arrow and lance heads. I instantly proceeded 
to the excavation inside, which was only a few feet distant in 
the same continuous line, and formed part of the same plate" 
[of stalagmite] ; " the crust is about 2 ft thick steady, the 
clay" [= Cave-earth] "rather a light red, about 3 in" [ches] 
"below the crust the tooth of an ox met my eye — I called the 
people to witness the fact — which I extracted before M. 
Aliffe — and not knowing the chance of finding flints, I then 
proceeded to dig under it, and at about a foot I dug out a 
flint arrow head. This confirmation I confess it startled me. 
I dug again, and behold a second, of the same size and color 
(black). I struck my hammer into the earth a third time, 
and a third arrow head (but white) answered to the blow. 
This was evidence beyond all question. I then desisted, not 
wishing to exhaust the bed, but in case of cavil leaving others 
an opportunity of verifying my statements . . . This is the 
region of the flints — Here they were deposited before the 
addition of the plate " [of stalagmite] "above." (Trans. Devon. 
Assoc, iii. 328-330.) 

There can be no doubt that Mac Enery had fairly satisfied 
himself that the flint implements occurred below the sheet of 
stalagmite. The following passages from him will show what 
was his opinion respecting their depth in the Cave-earth 
immediately underlying. 

"The crust" [of stalagmite], he says, "is thickest in the 
middle ; towards the sides it thins away. For opening the 
excavation the same means were employed as to break up a 
mass of ancient masonry. Flint blades were detected in it 
at all depths even so low as to come in contact with the fossil 
bones and their earthly matrix " [= Cave-earth] " but never 
below them." (Ibid. p. 247.) 

Again, " Having described the form of these singular flints 
... it is our next duty to state the position they occupied in 
the caves under consideration. Excepting the solitary instance 
of their occurrence in the disturbed shingly covering of the 
loam" [= Cave-earth] ..." their uniform situation is inter- 
mediate between the bottom of the stalagmite and the upper 
surface of the loam " [= Cave-earth] " forming a connecting 
link between both ; one extremity has been generally found 
inserted in the loam, the other protruding upwards into the 



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390 NOTES ON KECENT NOTICES OF THE GEOLOGY 

stalagmite above. . . . They have likewise been found, tho 
rarely, at a still lower depth dispersed irregularly thro the 
loam promiscuously with the other relics . . . but the greatest 
depth that I have been able to trace them down has been no 
more than a few inches below the surface of the mud" 
[= Cave-earth] thro which while it was yet in a state of 
fluidity they sank down." (Ibid. 326-7.) 

Again, " Dr. Buckland is inclined to attribute these flints 
to a more modern date, by supposing that the anc*. Britons 
had scooped out ovens in the stalagmite, and that through 
them the knives got admission to the diluvium " [= Cave- 
earth] "... Without stopping to dwell on the difficulty of 
ripping up a solid floor, which, notwithstanding the advantage 
of undermining and the exposure of its edges, still defies all 
our efforts, tho commanding the apparatus of the quarry, I 
am bold to say that in no instance have I discovered evidence 
of breaches or ovens in the floor, but one continuous plate of 
stalagmite diffused uniformly over the loam" [= Cave-earth]. 
(Ibid. p. 334) 

Finally, Mr. Mac Enery, in the following citation, closes 
what he had to say respecting the Flints: — "Thus have I 
given the result of long and anxious investigation of the 
circumstances of these curious relics. It cannot be urged 
that I have been from the commencement indifferent or in- 
attentive to their localities; the circumstance of my dis- 
covering one on the occasion of my first visit with Dr. B. 
and Mr. Northmore " [See p. 386 above] " forcibly called my 
attention, and ever afterwards directed it to the examination 
of their situation in the ground. Nor can it be with justice 
objected that in my present explication of this anomaly I 
have been influenced by a desire to advance or support a 
favorite Theory. Those from whom I have the misfortune to 
dissent on this subject are aware of my reserve and re- 
puguance I long showd to admit their artificial origin ; the 
clearest evidence exhibited by the uniformity of their shape 
and fracture, and thus differing from natural flints, and their 
I had almost said identity with the Mexican and Druidical 
Seliques determined my assent. From this period more 
especially, March 1827, 1 attached still greater importance to 
their presence, carefully, cautiously, and deliberately scru- 
tinized and noted their localities, and looked for fixed and 
settled grounds for building my opinion upon, but this 
evidence is not perhaps yet complete ; future inquirers may 
hereafter light on some more decided document to define 
their epoch/' (Ibid. p. 339.) 



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AND PALAEONTOLOGY OF DEVONSHIRE. 391 

I believe the following to be a fair and correct summary of 
Mr. Mac Ener/s opinion respecting the various .points in 
the history of the Cavern from the time of the extinct 
mammals whose relics were found in it, down to the close of 
the formation of the sheet of stalagmite. It is not necessary 
for me to say here whether I believe the said opinion to bo 
correct: — 

1. That the Cavern was tenanted by various species of 
carnivorous mammals, some of which are now extinct 

2. That bones of the said mammals, as well as of others 
taken in by the tenants, lay strewed on the Cavern floor, 
which consisted of the limestone rock in situ, with accumu- 
lations, here and there, of fallen fragments of the same 
rock. 

3. That the waters of the Noachic Deluge rushed into the 
Cavern, carrying with it a vast quantity of mud and stones, 
in which the bones already mentioned, as well as the bodiai 
of the living animals it surprised in the Cavern, were con- 
fusedly entombed. 

4. That there was but one such rush of water. 

5. That after the waters had abated, men, who made and 
used flint implements, entered the Cavern, leaving some of 
the said implements here and there, almost all of which lay 
on the surface of the mud, whilst a very few sank below the 
surface, but never to a depth exceeding one foot, and rarely 
more than three inches. 

6. That after this, came a period during which man, as well 
infra-human animals, rarely entered the Cavern, and a sheet 
of Stalagmite was formed, covering up the mud with the 
bones lodged throughout its entire depth, and the flints lying 
on, or but little below, the surface. 

7. That no remains of extinct mammals occurred in the 
Stalagmite. 

If this summary be' accepted, it will follow that, as hinted 
already, Mr. Mac Enery did not believe in such an 
"association of human implements with the remains of 
extinct mammalia " as implied the contemporaneity of man 
and the said mammalia. According to his view, the mammals 
were antediluvian, the men were postdiluvian, and the 
association, if such it can be called, of the bones of the one 
with the tools of the other was very partial and merely 
accidental 

The first to announce explicitly the thorough inosculation 
of Human Industrial Remains with the bones of extinct 



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392 NOTES ON RECENT NOTICES OF TBE GEOLOGY 

mammals in Kent's Cavern, was Mr. Godwin- Austen, so far 
as I am aware. He had made some independent researches 
in the Cavern, and states that they " were constantly con- 
ducted in parts of the cave which had never been disturbed." 
In a Paper On the Bone Caves of Devonshire, read to the 
Geological Society of London in 1840, and incorporated 
subsequently in his Geology of the South-east of Devonshire, 
he says, " Human remains and works of art, such as arrow- 
heads and knives of flint, occur in all parts of the cave and 
throughout the entire thickness of the clay ; and no distinc- 
tion founded on condition, distribution, or relative position 
can be observed, whereby the human can be separated from 
the other reliquiae. 

" The obvious inference from this fact is at variance with 
the opinions generally received . . . there is not a single 
appearance which can suggest that the cave has been used as 
a place of sepulture." {Trans. Qeol. Soc. Lond. 2nd Ser. Vol. 
vi Part 2, p. 444 ; or Trans. Devon. Assoc, ii. 498.) 

The A mount of Time represented by the Stalagmites of 
Kent's Cavern.. 

Quotation V : — When speculating on the amount of time 
represented by the Stalagmites of Kent's Cavern, Dr. Geikie 
says, " At present the rainfall near Torquay is about 35 inches, 
but in former times it may have been three or four times as 
much, or even greater still. With a rainfall of 140 inches 
the stalagmites would accrete, other things being equal, four 
times as rapidly." p. 82. 

Dr. Geikie has somewhat understated the present rainfall 
at Torquay. My rain-gauge, kept ever since 1st January, 
1864, has been examined daily at 9 a.m., the rain it contained 
has been carefully measured and registered, and the annual 
aggregate has averaged 3855 inches. 

But let this pass ; and let us, without discussion, accept 
the hypothesis that in former times the Torquay rainfall may 
have been four times greater than it is now. The conclusion 
Dr. Geikie arrives at thence, presupposes, 

1st That the rainfall being four times greater the water 
entering the Cavern would also be four times greater. 

2nd. That four times as much Cavern-water would pre- 
cipitate four times as much carbonate of lime. 

I demur to each of these propositions, and for the following 
reasons : — 



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AND PALEONTOLOGY OF DEVONSHIRE. 393 

1. The annual number of " wet-days " at Torquay ever 
since 1st January, 1864, has averaged 189, or more than 
half the number of days in the year. It is obvious, therefore, 
that the hypothetical four-fold increase in the amount of rain 
could not be attended by even a two-fold increase in the 
number of wet days ; hence the mean wet-day rate of rain 
would be greatly increased, and, instead of being '20 inch as 
at present, could not under any circumstances be less than 
•41 inch, and would probably be much more than that; in 
other words, the rains would be much more violent than at 
present. 

Meteorologists will, I believe, endorse the proposition that, 
all other things being the same, gentle rains have a much 
greater power of penetrating the earth than those of a com- 
paratively violent character. I visited Kent's Cavern almost 
every day during nearly sixteen years, and the ample oppor- 
tunities there afforded of testing it satisfied me that this 
principle is perfectly trustworthy. One example, however, 
must suffice at present. In 1875 there was a very wet period, 
extending from 16th September to 18th November, with very 
few rainless days. Before October began the ground was 
thoroughly saturated with water, and there was a considerable 
drip into the Cavern. On the 19th of that month the rainfall 
was no less than 1*78 inch, a very heavy fall for the district, 
but especially noteworthy from the fact that it all fell in two 
hours; yet this fall produced no appreciable effect on the 
amount of water which entered the Cavern. It happened, 
however, that on the 26th of the same month there was almost 
as great a fall — one amounting to 1-67 inch — but it differed 
from the former in that it occupied the entire twenty four , 
hours, falling all the time at a sensibly-uniform rate. The i 
augmentation of the quantity of water entering the Cavern 
in this case was very markfed. The violent rain of the 19th - 
did external work, its principal effect being to furrow the ' 
surface; the gentler rain of the 26th scarcely affected the 
exterior, it penetrated the soil and did internal work. With, 
such facts before me I must decline to admit that if the rain-j 
fall were four times greater the water entering the Cavern 
would be anything like four times greater, especially as, from 
the configuration of the surrounding country, the Cavern 
water must be entirely supplied by the small Cavern hill. 

2. But if four times as much water did enter the Cavern, 
would it necessarily or probably precipitate four times as 
much stalagmite ? Before attempting to answer this question, 



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894 NOTES ON BECENT NOTICES OF THE GEOLOGY 

consideration must be given to the character of the water, and 
its behaviour after its ingress ; and to these ends I venture 
to submit the following propositions, which, it is believed, 
will be at once admitted : 

1. That the water entering the Cavern takes in the carbon- 
ate of lime, of which, at least mainly, the stalagmite is 
formed. 

2. That the water obtains the carbonate of lime from 
the roof and walls of the Cavern whilst passing through 
them. 

3. That the water holds the carbonate of lime in solution, 
not in suspension. 

4. That pure water is practically incapable of dissolving 
carbonate of lime. 

5. That a definite volume of water can hold in solution 
only a definite limited quantity of carbonic acid. 

6. That this power of dissolving acid increases with an 
increase of the pressure to which the water is subjected, but 
that the operation of pressure need not be regarded in the 
case of Kent's Cavern. 

7. That the power of dissolving acid decreases with an 
increase of the temperature to which the water is exposed. 

8. That a definite volume of acidulated water can hold 
only a definite limited quantity of carbonate of lime in 
solution, which quantity is a maximum when the water is 
saturated with the acid. 

9. That acidulated water saturated with carbonate of lime 
passes into a supersaturated state on exposure to heat, or a 
dry current of air, or both. 

10. That rain water acquires carbonic acid from the atmos- 
phere, and from decomposing vegetable matter on or in the 
soil. 

11. That at the moment of entering the Cavern the water 
is not supersaturated with carbonate of lime. 

12. That whilst within the Cavern the water, in order to 
form stalagmite, must become supersaturated with carbonate 
of lima 

13. That the stalagmite is formed exclusively of the 
supersaturating surplus of carbonate of lime, which is pre- 
cipitated in various solid forms. 

14. That all the water entering the Cavern finally leaves it 
again. 

15. That the escaping water carries out of the Cavern all 
the carbonate of lime it is capable of holding in solution. 

16. That water holding carbonate of lime in solution, but 



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AND PALJSONTOLOGY OF MVON8HIRB. 398 

not in sufficient quantity to cause saturation, may pass 
through a Cavern without precipitating any stalagmite. 

17. That water saturated with carbonate of lime on enter- 
ing a Cavern, would pass through it without precipitating 
any stalagmite, provided the internal atmosphere were 
humid, and also colder than that of the exterior. 

To the foregoing propositions I venture to add the follow- 
ing, for which my own long-continued observations and 
experiments enable me to vouch : — 

18. That the temperature of Kent's Cavern remains 
constant through day and night, summer and winter, from 
year to year, and stands at 51-°5 Fahr. the mean annual 
temperature of the exterior. 

19. That there is not at present, nor was there during the 
formation of the less ancient, or the more ancient, Stalagmite, 
any current of air passing through the Cavern. 

20. That the atmosphere of the Cavern is always humid ; j 
the most careful observations with the most delicate I 
thermometers having always failed to disclose the least J 
difference between the wet and dry bulbs. 

But now to return. Four times as much water, all other 
things being the same, would require for saturation four 
times as much carbonic acid; and without this the water 
might enter the Cavern and escape from it without precipi- 
tating any carbonate of lime. It is necessary, therefore, to 
show that the requisite amount of carbonic acid was, at 
least, probably forthcoming during the hypothetical pluvial 
period, and this, so far as I am aware, has not been done or 
attempted. 

But apart from this; four times the quantity of water 
entering the Cavern would probably, at times, cause a stream 
to flow through it, and thus a great portion of the carbonate 
of lime, even if sufficient for saturation, would be carried out 
just as fast as it was taken in. 

If, however, the water were never sufficiently abundant to 
form such a stream, it would rarely succeed in being so small 
in amount as to allow of that slow and intermittent drip which 
is essential to the formation of the sub-conical bosses— to say 
nothing of the long thin pillars, and thinner " paps " — which, 
both in the more ancient or Crystalline, as well as in the less 
ancient or Granular, Stalagmite, is so marked a feature in 
Kent's Cavern. The ingress of so much water would compel 
any stalagmite which might be precipitated to take the form 
of approximately horizontal sheets. 

In short, I decline to admit that a fourfold rainfall would 



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396 NOTES ON RECENT NOTICES OP THE GEOLOGY 

send four times more water into the Cavern; or to admit 
that four times as much Cavern- water would precipitate four 
times as much stalagmite. 

If my readers are not tired with reading it, it may be well 
to repeat here what I have often said and written elsewhere ; 
viz., "I have always abstained from, and cautioned others 
against, insisting that the thickness of the stalagmite is a 
trustworthy chronometer." 

It will be seen from the 20th proposition, enunciated 
above, that there can be no evaporation of water in Kent's 
Cavern, except in the chambers into which the external 
entrances open; and yet this is commonly regarded as, at 
least, the principal cause of the formation of stalagmite. 
Thus, Professor Tyndall, in the first of his Course of Six 
Lectures "On Water and Air," delivered at the Royal 
Institution, at Christmas, 1879, says, " If you wander, as I 
have done, in limestone caves, you will usually find in each 
cave a stream of water which has washed out the limestone 
and produced the cavern ; and sometimes you see from the 
roofs of those caverns .... stalactites hanging down. These 
are due to the water which has entered into the fissures in 
the roof above, and percolated through the roof and dissolved 
some of the limestone, and made its way into the cavern, 
where the water is in part evaporated ; and in consequence 
of the evaporation, the solid matter has been deposited, and 
you find that, as it evaporates, these beautiful stalactites 
grow longer and longer from the roof towards the floor. 
Then drops of water fall from the end of the stalactites 
upon the floor, and there the water is still further evaporated, 
and a heap is produced called a stalagmite." (Joum. of Science. 
Third Series, ii. 51, 1880.) This is, of course, strictly 
applicable to all caverns through which a current of air 
passes, but it is not applicable to Kent's Hole, where there is 
no such current, and the air is always humid. 

Unless I have misread the phenomena, the formation of 
stalagmite is there confined mainly, if not exclusively, to the 
winter months, when the Cavern temperature being above 
that of the exterior, the expulsion of carbonic acid gas from 
the water which enters is the result ; and this, in its turn, 
causes the precipitation of the carbonate of lime. 

A Recent Cake of Stalagmite in KenVs Hole, six inches in 

thickness. 
Quotation VI.: — [In Kent's Cavern], "overlying a super- 
ficial layer containing remains of Romano-Saxon times, we 



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AND PALEONTOLOGY OF DEVONSHIRE. 397 

find a thin interrupted cake of stalagmite which nowhere 
exceeds six inches in thickness aud is generally much thinner, 
or absent altogether." p. 82. 

Suspecting that Dr. Geikie had quoted from memory when 
he wrote the words just cited, I directed his attention 
to the passage, and requested to be informed whence it wa9 
taken. In his reply, dated " 19th April, 1881," he stated that, 
being away from his books and papers, he could not at that 
time say what authority he had for the statement. 

The only explanation that occurs to me is that he had, 
when writing, allowed his memory to mix a passage from the 
First Report by the Cavern Committee with one from their 
Third Report The following are the passages alluded to : — 
" Even of those " [blocks of limestone which have fallen from 
the roof, and] " which lie on the surface, there is conclusive 
evidence that in some cases a considerable interval of time 
must have elapsed between the fall of two blocks lying one 
on the other — an interval sufficiently great for the formation 
of the cake of stalagmite between them, and which is some- 
times fully 6 inches thick." {Rep. Brit Assoc. 1865, p. 19,) 

Again, after describing several objects of interest, and 
especially a bone comb, the Third Eeport says, " This inter- 
esting object, the two fragments of combs, the grit spindle- 
whorl previously mentioned, a cockle shell, several potsherds, 
and a bone cut with some keen edged tool, were found in the 
south-eastern portion of the Great Chamber, where the over- 
lying Black Mould was itself overlaid by a cake of stalagmite, 
which was attached to the wall of the cavern, from 1 to 2 
inches thick, and which measured 7 feet from north to south, 
by 6 from east to west. In many instances stalagmite, fully 
as thick, had been found on the large blocks of limestone 
lying on the Black Mould ; but this was the first, and, indeed, 
is at present the only example of such a cake formed im- 
mediately on the Black deposit itself." (Ibid. 1867, p. 28.) 

The "cake of stalagmite" mentioned in the passage just 
quoted from the " Third Report " was the only one found in 
the Cavern overlying the " Black Mould," that is the only 
deposit containing comparatively recent objects; and was, 
therefore, presumably the " cake " to which Dr. Geikie alluded. 
He, however, spoke of the objects found immediately beneath 
it as "remains of Romano-Saxon times." This he did, I 
believe, on his own responsibility, no one else having so 
characterized them, so far as I am aware. 

The noteworthy point in Quotation VI., however, is the 



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398 NOTES ON RECENT NOTICES OF THE GEOLOGY 

statement to the effect that the cake of stalagmite was 
occasionally "six inches in thickuess," whilst the passage 
quoted from the Third Keport makes it " from 1 to 2 inches 
thick." The fact is it was nowhere so much as two inches. 
The " six inches," I suspect, really belonged to the cake men- 
tioned in the First Report, which cake is not spoken of as 
having any artifical or other objects of interest beneath it, 
and had nothing whatever to do with the "cake" of the 
Third Report. This is the supposed mixing which not im- 
probably took place in the author's memory. 

The error — for such I must regard it — though not im- 
portant in itself, is made to be so by Dr. Geikie, who bases 
on the alleged " six inches " a calculation as to the possible 
amount of time represented by the Cavern Stalagmites. I 
have elsewhere, and frequently, expressed my belief that such 
calculations were not very trustworthy, but, allowing that to 
pass, it will be seen that the rate of accretion being taken at 
six, instead of two, inches in 2,000 years, as Dr. Geikie 
supposes, the time arrived at must be three times too small. 

Cause of the fall of Fragments from Cavern Roof and Walls. 

Quotation VII. — "Throughout all the cave deposits occur, 
more or less frequently, large and small angular fragments of 
limestone that have evidently fallen from the sides and roof. 
Sometimes these are scattered pretty equally through the 
floor accumulations, at other times they are perhaps more 
numerous at some levels than at others. They seem also to 
be present most abundantly in the chambers or galleries that 
open directly to the day, or which can be shown to have 
formerly had some direct connection with the external 
atmosphere 

" The fragments may have been detached from the roof in 
various ways. It cannot be doubted that, as Mr. Pengelly has 
pointed out (Trans. Devon. Assoc, vol. vii., 1875, p. 315), the 
gradual widening of the joints in limestone by the corrosive 
action of percolating water must occasionally loosen large 
blocks, and allow these to fall away ; and as percolation is 
always going on, such accidents as the sudden dislodgment 
of fragments may take place at any moment, in any part of 
a cave, and under any condition of climate. Again, it is not 
improbable, as some have suggested, that the tremor of the 
ground during an earthquake might shake down many half- 
loosened blocks and fragments. But such will hardly account 
for all or even for any great proportion of the scattered 



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AND PALEONTOLOGY OF DEVONSHIRE. 399 

blocks and thick aggregations of limestone dibris that are 
met with in so many caves. I am inclined to believe that 
very many of these fragments may have been dislodged by 
the action of frost, which at some epochs daring the Pleisto- 
cene Period was certainly more intense in our latitude than 
it is now. This would account for the more abundant pre- 
sence of fallen blocks and dibris at and near the entrances of 
caves, for in the deeper recesses the cold would necessarily be 
less intense, and less capable therefore of rupturing the lime- 
stone and detaching angular fragments. If the dislodgment 
of all these fragments had been due solely to the corrosive 
action of percolating water or to the vibrations of earth- 
quakes, we should be at a loss to understand why the greatest 
falls should have so frequently taken place in those portions 
of the caves that are most accessible to the influence of the 
external atmosphere." pp. 85-6. 

The foregoing somewhat lengthy quotation contains two 
statements to which it seems desirable to call attention : 

1. That angular fragments of limestone that have fallen 
from the roof seem " to be present most abundantly in the 
chambers or galleries that open directly to the day, or which 
can be shown to have formerly had some direct connection 
with the external atmosphere." 

2. That very many of the fragments were dislodged by 
frost during periods of greater cold than is now experienced 
in Devonshire. 

1. With regard to the first, I can only say that the state- 
ment does not apply to Kent's Hole, nor to any Devonshire 
Cavern I have studied. Whilst it is true that blocks were 
numerous and large in "The Great Chamber" and "The 
Vestibule," into which the two entrances to Kent's Hole open 
respectively, it is equally true that they were still more 
numerous and, at least, equally large, in Chambers far in the 
interior ; and there is not the shadow of a doubt that that 
part of " The Long Arcade," whence " Underhay's Gallery " 
and " The Labyrinth " branch off — that is to say the most 
central portion of the Cavern — surpassed all other parts in 
the number and the size of the blocks it contained. " The 
Labyrinth itself was also crowded with them; indeed, it 
took its name from the difficulty which visitors had in finding 
their way between them Further, were I asked to name the 
mass in the Cavern which is at present most likely to fall, it 
would certainly be that which divides partially " The Laby- 



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400 NOTES ON RECENT NOTICES OP THE GEOLOGY 

rinth" from "The Long Arcade," where there never could have 
been any " direct connection with the external atmosphere." 

Again, there is adjacent to the churchyard at Buckfastleigh, 
a large disused quarry termed " Baker's Pits," where, many 
years ago, the workmen, having removed many thousand tons 
of limestone, broke iuto a large cavern. I visited it on 22nd 
April, 1859, and amongst my memoranda, made at the time, 
the following occurs : — u Huge masses of limestone, which had 
fallen from the roof, lay in the wildest confusion " (see Trans. 
Devon. Assoc, vi. 72). Here, again, there certainly never had been 
any " direct communication with the external atmosphere." 

2. The temperature of Kent's Hole is at present, as stated 
already, invariable throughout the year, and from one year to 
another, and stands at 51°5 Fahr. — the existing mean 
annual temperature of the surrounding district. The visitor 
steps into a hot or a cold bath — and that within five feet of 
the entrance — according as his visit is made in the depth of 
winter or in the height of summer. It need not be said that 
this is precisely what everyone would expect who has paid 
attention to the question of underground temperature. It 
would be absurd to doubt that during certain geological times 
the mean annual temperature of Devonshire has been lower, 
and at others higher, than at present ; but whatever it may 
have been, that was, for that time, the minimum invariable 
temperature of Kent's Hole. I say the minimum because if, 
since that time, the Cavern Hill has lost any considerable 
portion of its summit, the Cavern temperature, though 
invariable for the period, would exceed the mean annual 
temperature of the immediate exterior — the excess being in 
proportion to the depth below the surface in the ratio of 1° 
Fahr. for every (say) 60 feet. 

In order, therefore, for frost to have existed in the interior 
of Kent's Ifole the Torquay district must have been on the 
isotherm of 32° Fahr., or on a still lower one ; that is to say 
it must have had a mean annual temperature at least 20° 
Fahr. below that which obtains at present. According to 
Johnston's Physical Atlas the isotherm of 32° Fahr. passes, 
at present, through the White Sea, a very little south of the 
North Cape, along the north coast of Iceland, a very little 
south of Cape Farewell, through mid Labrador and Hudson's 
Bay. It is for the student of Geological Climatology to say 
whether he is prepared to assign such a climate to the shores 
of Torbay. 

It must be borne in mind that frost does the work of break- 



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AND PALEONTOLOGY OF DEVONSHIRE. 401 

ing up rocks largely through the action of successively and 
frequently freezing and thawing, owing to frequent, perhaps 
diurnal, fluctuations of temperature ; but that in the Cavern 
the condition would be "once a frost always a frost" until a 
sufficient rise took place in the mean annual temperature of 
the district, when the Cavern frost would cease for ever. I 
am somewhat doubtful whether we are well acquainted with 
the physical action of ice under such conditions, and whether 
it would be disintegrating. 

Before closing this Note, I will add that there can be no 
doubt that some of the large blocks of limestone found in 
Kent's Hole fell within historic times, when ice must have 
been as unknown there, even at a yard within the entrance, 
as it is at present. 

I cannot take leave of Dr. Geikie's work without thanking 
him very cordially for so valuable a contribution to Geological 
Literature. 

IV. Carter, Mr. H. J., on the Budleigh Salterton Triassic 
Pebbles. 1881. 

Mr. Davidson, F.R.S., F.L.S., f.o.s., &c. in his Monograph of 
the British Fossil Brachiopoda, Vol. iv., Part iv., published by 
the Palceontographical Society in 1881, quotes an interesting 
statement prepared by Mr. H. J. Carter, F.R.S., of Budleigh 
Salterton, in which the following paragraph occurs : — 

u The Cove of Budleigh Salterton is about two and a half 
miles long, confronted by a narrow pebble beach, bordered by 
the sea on one side, and for the most part by high cliffs of the 
New Eed Sandstone series, capped by a thin detrital layer of 
the flinty remains of the Cretaceous, which formerly overlaid 
it, on the other. The pebbles of this beach, which are 
derived from the sources just mentioned, are of all sizes 
below a foot in diameter; and from the prevalence of the 
south-west wind on this coast, they are chiefly gathered 
together at its eastern end, although kept from extending 
further on either side by the presence of reefs of New Bed 
Sandstone conglomerate projecting into the sea'* p. 317. 

There appears to be no room to doubt that, by the words I 
have italicised in the foregoing quotation, Mr. Carter intended 
to state that the famous Budleigh Salterton pebbles are not 
transported beyond Otterton Head on the east, or beyond 
the Straight Point on the west. 

vol. xni. 2 c 



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402 GEOLOGY AND PALAEONTOLOGY OF DEVONSHIRE. 

It is well known that there is a famous bed of pebbles, 
chiefly quartzites, fcnd some of them fossiliferous, in the 
Triassic, or New Eed Sandstone, cliff immediately west of 
the village of Budleigh Salterton. The attention of the 
scientific world was first directed to them, I believe, by Mr. 
W. Vicary, f.g.s., of Exeter, who, in 1863, read a paper on 
them to the Geological Society of London. (See Quart Journ. 
Geol. Soc. xx. 283.) It can scarcely be doubted that others 
had previously observed that the pebbles yielded occasional 
fossils, but, so far as I know, the observations, if made, were 
barren. 

Mr. Vicary and I had, from time to time during some years, 
traversed systematically all the beaches from the mouth of 
the Exe eastward to the confines of Dorsetshire, and in a 
paper read to the Devonshire Association in 1864, I stated 
that the said quartzite pebbles of Budleigh Salterton were 
"easily detected at Sid mouth, Branscombe, Seaton, and 
Charton and Finney Bays," a distance of fully eighteen miles 
eastward. (See Trans. Devon. Assoc, vol. i. part iii. pp. 52, 53.) 

As long ago as 1849, however, Mr. Godwin Austen had 
announced that pebbles "derived from the older rocks of 
South Devon" might be collected on the Chesil Bank or 
Beach connecting the Isle of Portland with the mainland of 
Dorsetshire, and therefore farther eastward still (see Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc. vi. 73) ; whilst in 1853 Mr. J. Coode, M.LC.E., 
had pointed explicitly to Budleigh Salterton as the source 
whence some of the Chesil Bank pebbles had travelled. (See 
Min. of Proc. of Inst, of G. Engineers, xii 520-546.) 

In 1870 Mr. Vicary and I made a careful study of the 
Chesil Beach in order to satisfy ourselves on this point, and 
were rewarded by finding at least one undoubted Budleigh 
Salterton quartzite pebble in every square yard of beach, and 
sometimes as many as three per square yard. Our search ended 
with Portland, but I have little doubt that pebbles of the 
same kind are to be met with on still more easterly beaches. 
(See Trans. Devon. Assoc, iv. 195-205.) 

Proceeding now to the coast west of Budleigh Salterton, 
I am not prepared to say whether or not the quartzite pebbles 
are to be found on the strand immediately west of Straight 
Point ; but Mr. Vicary writes me that on the left bank of the 
Exe, between Topsham and Exmouth, and also on the banks 
of the Clyst, a tributary of the Exe, they occur in great 
numbers. 



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LIST OF MEMBERS, 
v 

, * Indicates Life Members. 

t Indicates Honorary Members. 
\ % Indicates Corresponding Members. 

The Names of Members of the Council are printed in small capitals. 

Notice of Changes of Residence and of Decease of Members should be sent to the 

General Secretary, Bey. W. Harpley Olayhanger Rectory, Tiverton. 



Tear of 
Election. 

1879*Acland, H. W. D., m.a., m.d., ll.d., f.r.8., F.R.G.&, Broad 

Street, Oxford. 
1880 Acland, Rev. Preb., m.a., Broadclyst, Exeter. 
1875 Adams, James, m.d., Ash burton. 

1877 Adams, James, jun., Kingsbridge. 

1872tAdams, John Couch, m.a., d.c.l., p.r.s., f.r.a.s, Director of 
Observatory and Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and 
Geometry in the University of Cambridge, The Obser- 
vatory, Cambridge. 

1880 Adams, S. P., Bridgetown, Totnes. 

1878 Alexander, James, m.d., Paignton. 

1874 Alsop, R., Teignmouth Bank, Teignmouth. 
1877 Amery, Jasper, Glena, Kingsbridge. 
1869 Amery, J. S., Druid, Ashburton. 

1869 Amery, P. F. S., Druid, Ashburton. 
1875*Andrew, T., f.g.s., Southernhay, Exeter. 
1877 Andrews, R., Modbury. 

1880 Anthony, Rev. F. Evans, Woodland Terrace, Plymouth. 
1863 Appleton, Edward, f.r.i.b.a., 1, Vaughan Parade, Torquay. 

1880 Armstrong, L., St. Bernard's, Newton Abbot. 

1870 Arnold, G., Dolton. 

1877 Arthur, Edward, Mounts, R.S.O., South Devon. 

1868 Ashley, J., Honiton. 

1874 Ayerst, J. S. A., m.d , 2, Belgrave Terrace, Torquay. 

1881 Baillie, Rev. J., 20, Upper Camden Place, Bath. 
1881 Baker, A., m.d., 31, High Street, Dawlish. 

1880 Baker, A. db Winter, l.r.o.p., m.r.c.s. (Hon. Local 
Treasurer), 2, Lawn Terrace, Dawlish. 
2 c 2 



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404 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

877 Balkwill, B., Devon and Cornwall Bank, Kingsbridge. 

871 Banghum, Joseph, Torringtun. 

881 Barham, Rev. R. H. D., a a., 11, West Cliff, Dawlish, 
President Teign Naturalists' Field Club. 

878 Baring-Gould, Rev. S., M.A., Lew Trenchard, Lewdown. 
862 Barnes, Rev. Preb., m.a., The Vicarage, Heavitree, Exeter. 

879 Babnbtt, C. G., Hfracombe. 

879 Baron, Rev. J., d.d., f.s.a., Rectory, Upton Scudamore, 
Warminster, Wilts. 

877 Bartlett, Rev. J. M., Manor House, Ludbrooke, Modbury, 
Ivybridge. 

876 Bastard, B. J. P., Kitley, Yealmpton, South Devon. 

862 Bate, C. Spence, f.rs., &c, 8, Mulgrave Place, Plymouth. 

872 Bate, James, J. R., Bampton Street, Tiverton. 

873 Batten, J. Hallett, p.r.g.8., h.ra.8., 2, Manston Terrace, 
Exeter. 

866 Bayly, John, Seven Trees, Plymouth. 
871*Bayly, Robert, Torr Grove, Plymouth. 

876 Beatty, W., Buckfastleigh. 
875 Bedford, Admiral E I., R.N., Fairlawn, Paignton. 

878 Benbow, V., Torbay Mount, Paignton. 

875 Bennett, C, 5, Victoria Terrace, Mount Radford, Exeter. 

877 Bennett, E Gasking, 10, Woodland Terrace, Plymouth. 

877 Berry, J., 18, Belgrave Terrace, Torquay. 

879 Berthon, Miss, Southcombe, Paignton. 

876 Bickford, J., Bank, Ashburton. 

880 Birch, Rev. W. M., M.A., Vicarage, Ashburton. 
879 Birkmyer, J., 13, Lower Terrace, Mount Radford, Exeter. 
876 Bishop, E, 4, Lancaster Terrace, Regent's Park, London, N. W. 

878 Blackmore, Rev. R, m.a., Probua, Cornwall. 

872 Borlase, W. C, p.s.a., m.p., Laregan, Penzance. 
876 Bovey, Edward, Baddaford, Staverton, Buckfastleigh. 

873 Bowring, L. B., c.s.i., Lavrockbeare, Torquay. 

874 Bowring, Lady, 7, Baring Crescent, Exeter. 
876fBray, Mrs., 40, Brompton Crescent, South Kensington. 

869 Brendon, William, George Street, Plymouth. 

872 Brent, F., 19, Clarendon Place, Plymouth. 

873 Brewin, R., Bearsden, Ide, Exeter. 
872 Bridges, W. T., d.o.l., Torwood, Torquay. 

878 Bridgman, G. Soudon, Brampton, Torquay. 

870 Briggs, T. R. A., p.l.s., 4, Richmond Villas, Saltash Road, 
Plymouth. 

872 Brodrick, W., B.A., LittlehiU, Chudleigh. 

879 Brown, D., m.d., Pen y Graig, KingskerswelL 
878 Brown, H., Greystone, Teignmouth. 
878 Brown, James, Goodrington House, Paignton. 
876 Brown, M. G., Stanmore House, Dawlish. 
881*Bryant, Wilberforce, -Southbank, Surbiton, Surrey. 



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LIST OF MEMBERS. 



405 



879*Bryce, J. B., Bystock, Exmouth. 
872 Buckingham, W., 12, Southemhay, Exeter. 
874 Bulteel, C, f.r.0 8., Durnford Street, Stonehouse. 
871 Burch, Arthur, 5, Baring Crescent, Exeter. 
873*Burdett-Coutts, Right Hon. Baroness, 1, Stratton Street, 
Piccadilly, London. 

879 Butcher, L. G., Manor House, Hfracombe. 

881 Cann, F. M., m.r.c.s., l.s.a., Sefton House, Dawlish. 

874 Carew, W. H. Pole, Antony, Torpoint 
866*Carpenter-Garnier, J., m.p., Mount Tavy, Tavistock. 

880 Carter, S. S., Noland Park, South Brent, Ivybridge. 

881 Cartwright, H. A., Heavitree, Exeter. 

878 Cary, R. S. S., Tor Abbey, Torquay. 

880 Cary, Stanley K, j.p., Follaton House, Totnes. 

879 Cater, S., North Devon Place, Tavistock Road, Plymouth. 
866*Champernowne, A., M.A., p.g.s., Dartington House, Totnes. 

876 Champernowne, Rev. R, m.a., Dartington, Totnes. 
866 Chanter, J. R, Fort Hill, Barnstaple. 

877 Chaplin, R P., Earlham, Torquay. # 

881 Chapman, Rev. Professor, m.a. (President), Western College, 

Mannamead, Plymouth. 
871 Charlewood, Admiral E. P., R.N., Porthill, Northam, Bideford. 
876*Chatto, W. P., The Daison, St. Mary Church, Torquay. 
881 Clare, Capt., a.b., r.n., St James's Square, London, S.W. 
869*Clark, R A., Wentworth, Torquay. 

871 Clements, Rev. H. G. J., m.a., Vicarage, Sidmouth. 

872 Clifford, CoL Morgan, St. Ronan's, Torquay. 

881 Clifford, Right Hon. Lord, Ugbrooke, Chudleigh. 

875 Clinton, Right Hon. Lord, Heanton Satchville, Beaford. 
874 Coffin, J. R Pine, Portledge, Bideford. 

870 Coffin, T.jSljQueen'sCrescentjHaverstock Hill, London, N.W. 
868*Coleridge, Right Hon. Lord, m.a., 1, Sussex Square, London, 

873 Coleridge, W. R, Salston, Ottery St. Mary. 

879 Collier, Arthur Bevan, Carthamartha, Callington. 

876 Collier, Right Hon. Sir R., m.a., Bigod's Hall, Dunmow, 

Essex. 

866 Collier, W. F., Woodtown, Horrabridge. 

871 Cook, Rev. Precentor, m.a., The Close, Exeter. 

879 Cooke, L. R, Lauriston Hall, Torquay. 

880 Corni8h-Bowden, F. J., Blackhall House, Ivybridge, S. Devon. 

877 Cornish, J. F., Stancombe, Kingsbridge. 
881*Cornish, Rev. J. F., Christ's Hospital, London, E.C. 

867 Cotton, R. W., Woodleigh, Newton Abbot 
866 Cotton, W., p.s.a., The Close, Exeter. 

878 Cranford, R, Directory Office, Dartmouth. 
877 Crimp, W. A., Kingsbridge. 

880 Croft, C. W., Devon and Cornwall Bank, Totnes. 



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406 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

881 Crossing, W., Splatton, South Brent, Devon. 

877 Cubitt, W., j.p., Fallapit, Mounts, R.S.O., South Devon. 

881 Darby shire, C, Riversdale, Ilfracombe. 
875 David, Kev. W., Colleton Crescent, Exeter. 

875 Davidson, J. B., Secktor House, Axminster. 

877 Davies, W., Kingsbridge. 
881 Davies, F., Dawlish. 

878 Davson, F. A., m.d., Dartmouth. 

878 Davy, A. J., Fleet Street, Torquay. 

880 Dawkins, Admiral, Maisonette, Stoke Gabriel, Totnes. 

870 De Larue, P. F., m.r.o.8., 40, Ker Street, Devonport 

879 Dennis, J. C, Ilfracombe. 
873 Devon, Right Hon. the Earl of, Powderham Castle, Exeter. 

881 Discombe, W., The Strand, Dawlish. 
862 Divett, John, M.A., Bovey Tracey. 
867 Doe, G., Castle Street, Great Torrington. 
869*Douglas, Rev. R, m.a., Manaton, Moretonhampstead. 
873*Dowie, J. M., Wetstones, West Kirby, Birkenhead. 

876 Downes, Rev. W., ra., f.g.&, Kentisbeare, Collumpton. 

880 Drake, Sir W. R, 12, Prince's Gardens, South Kensington, 
London. 

878 Dredge, Rev. J. Ingle, Buckland Brewer, Bideford. 

877 Dumbleton, Rev. E. N., M.A., St. James's Rectory, Exeter. 

879 Dymond, A. H., Castle Chambers, Exeter. 

871 Dymond, F. W., 3, Manston Terrace, Exeter. 

872 Dymond, R, p.s.a., Bampfylde House, Exeter. 

877 Eady, Mrs., Coombe Royal, Kingsbridge. 

881 Eales, C, j.p., Eastdon, Starcross. 

876 Earle, Venerable Archdeacon, West Alvington, Kingsbridge. 

878 Edgelow, F., Hermosa, Teignmouth. 

880 Edmonds, T. H., Bridgetown, Totnes. 

879 Edmonds, Rev. W. J., m. a., High Bray Rectory, Southmolton. 

873 Ellacombe, Rev. H. T., p.s.a., m.a., Clyst St. George. 

877 Elliot, J., Tresillian, Kingsbridge. 

877 Elliot, R L., Tresillian, Kingsbridge. 

878 Elworthy, F. T., Foxdown, Wellington, Somersetshire. 

881 Ermen, P. A., Ermenville, Dawlish. 

869*Evans, J., d.c.l., ll.d., f.r.s., p.8.a., p.g.s., Nash Mills, Hemel 

Hempstead, Herts. 
877 Evans, J. L., Moreton House, TyndalTs Park, Bristol. 

880 Evans, Parker N., 23, Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol 
880 Everett, Rev. A. J., M.A., Berry Pomeroy, Totnes. 
871*Exeter, Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of, The Palace, Exeter. 

1869*Farley, H. W., C.E., Devon County Surveyor's Office, Post 
Office Chambers, Queen Street, Exeter. 



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LIST OF MBMBEBS. 407 

1879 Featherstone, Rev. S., M.A., Whitchurch Vicarage, Tavistock. 
1864 Finch, T., m.d., p.r.a.s., Westville, St. Mary Church, 

Torquay. 
1875 Firth, F. H., Cator Court, Ashburton. 
1873 Fisher, Edward, Blackmore Hall, Sidmouth. 

1875 Fisher, G., High Street, Torrington. 

1876 Fisher, Thomas, m.d., 

1880 Fixsen, Kev. J. F., m.a., Ugborough Vicarage, Ivybridge. 
1876 Fleming, J., Bigadon, Buckfastleigh. 

1876 Foaden, J. H., Ashburton. 

1867 Fortescue, Right Hon. Earl, Castle Hill, Southmolton. 

1867*Foster, Rev. J. P., m.a., The Vicarage, Mirfield, Normanton, 

Yorkshire. 
1878 Foster, Samuel, Abergeldie, Torquay. 
1876 Fouracre, J. T., Chapel Street, Stonehouse, Plymouth. 

1875 Fowler, C., Villa Mentone, Torre, Torquay. 
1876*Fowler, Rev. W. W., Repton, Burton-on-Treni 

1876 Fox, Charles, Kingsbridge. 

1877 Fox, George, Kingsbridge. 

1863 Fox, S. B., 7, Southernhay, Exeter. 

1880 French, W., North Tawton. 

1881 Friend, Rev. Hilderic, 3, Alma Terrace, Newton Abbot 
1881 Friend, H. L., Dawlish. 

1874tFroude, J. A., M.A., 5, Onslow Gardens, London. 
1876 Fulford, F. D., Exmouth. 

1880 Furneaux, J., Hill Crest, Buckfastleigh. 

1872 Galton, J. C, m.a., f.l.8., New University Club, St. James's 

Street, London, W. 
1862 Gamlbn, W. H., Brampford Speke, Exeter. 

1881 Garland, T. G. T., 2, Stafford Villas, Heavitree, Exeter. 
1881 Gastrell, Major-General, 7, Lansdown Place, Wimbledon, 

Surrey, 
1876*Gaye, Henry S., M.D., 3, Courtenay Terrace, Newton 

Abbot. 
1872*Geare, J. G., Exeter. 
1881 Germon, Col, Gortlee, Dawlish. 
1871*Gervis, W. S., m.d., 7.G.8., Ashburton. 
1872 Gidley, Bartholomew C, M.A., Hoopern House, Exeter. 
1865 Gill, H. S., j.p., Tiverton. 
1881 Gill, W., 1, West Street, Tavistock. 

1875 Glubb, P. B., Potacre Street, Torrington. 
1877*Glyde, E. E., f.m.s., Kirkham, Babbacombe, Torquay. 
1868*Goldsmid, Sir Julian, Bart, m.a., m.p., 105, Piccadilly, 

London, W. 
1880 Gosset, F., Lieut., he., 9, Moles worth Terrace, Stoke, 
Devonport. 

1876 Goodrick, G., 11, Greorge Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 



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408 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

1878 Gregory, A., Bank, Paignton. 

1878 Gregory, Kev. E. L, m.a., Halberton Vicarage, Tiverton. 

1881 Gregory, A. T., Gold Street, Tiverton. 

1877 Gretton, Rev. W. H., m.a., Alvanley, Torquay. 

1875 Groser, A., North Hill Villa, Plymouth. 

1873 Grundy, T., Beetlands, Sidmouth. 

1878 Grundy, Rev. T. R., Elbury Lodge, Newton Abbot 

1876 Guenett, Rev. J. F., Point-in-View, Lympstone, Exeter. 
1875 Guille, Rev. G. de Carteret, Rectory, Little Torrington. 

1874 Gulson, J. R., East Cliff, Teignmouth. 
1873*Guyer, J. B., f.o.s , 1, Lisburne Cottages, Torquay. 

1880 Hacker, S., Newton Abbot. 

1870 Haddy, Rev. J. P., 61, Chapel Street, Devonport 
1880 Hains, J., j.p., Bridgetown, Totnea 

1862 Haldon, Right Hon. Lord, Haldon House, Exeter. 
1867*Hall, Townsend M., F.o.s., Pilton, Barnstaple. 
1873*Halliday, W. H., m.a., j.p., Glenthom, Lynmouth, Barnstaple. 
1862 Hamilton, A. H. A., m.a., Fairfield Lodge, Exeter. 
1880 Hamlyn, James, Bossell Park, Buckfastleigh. 
1880 Hamlyn, John, Toll Marsh, Buckfastleigh. 
1880 Hamlyn, Joseph, Park View, Buckfastleigh. 

1880 Hamlyn, W., Cropping Park, Buckfastleigh. 
1878 Hamlyn, W. B., 4, Abbey Crescent, Torquay. 
1873*Hanbury, S., Bishopstowe, Torquay. 

1868 Harper, J., L.R.C.P., Bear Street, Barnstaple. 

1874 Harpley, R R, West Hartlepool. 

1862 Harplby, Rev. W., m a., p.o.p.s. (Hon. General Secretary), 

Clayhanger Rectory, Tiverton. 
1878 Harris, Rev. K, m.a., Grammar School, Exeter. 

1877 Harris, Rev. S. G., m.a., High week, Newton Abbot 
1873*Harvey, J. T., Aberfeldie, Torquay. 

1881 Hatcher, W., Dawlish. 
1875*Hatt-Cook, Herbert, Hartford Hall, Cheshire. 

1869 Hawker, Rev. Treasurer, M.A., Berry narbor Rectory, Ilfra- 

combe. 
1869*Hayne, C. Seale, Kingswear Castle, Dartmouth. 
1872 Hay ward, P., Cathedral Yard, Exeter. 
1862 Hearder, G. K, Chelston Cottage, Cockington, Torquay. 
1865 Hearder, W., Rocombe, Torquay. 
1868*Heberden, Rev. W., m.a., 14, Gloucester Place, Portman 

Square, London. 

1875 Hedgeland, Rev. Preb., m.a., Penzance. 

1871 Heineken, N. S., Sidmouth. 

1880 Hewetson, T., Wear, Staverton, Buckfastleigh. 

1876 Hill, H. S., Cornish Telegraph, Penzance. 

1872 Hill, J., j.p., Pitt House, Moretonhampstead, Exeter. 
1862 Hine, J., f.r.i.b.a., 7, Mulgrave Place, Plymouth. 



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LIST OF MEMBERS. 409 

869 Hingston, R, Dartmouth. 

873 Hodge, B. T., m.d., High Street, Sidmouth. 

881 Hodgson, Mrs., Bonaly ToVer, Colinton, Scotland. 

880 Holman, W., Bridgetown, Totnes. 

877 Holt, Major, Ogbeare Hall, Holsworthy, Devon. 
872 Hooper, B., Bournbrook, Torquay. 

878 Hooper, J. f Kingsbridge. 

879 Hooper, S., Hatherleigh. 

872 Horniman, W. H., Coombe Cliff House, Croydon, Surrey. 
871 Hounsell, H. S., M.D., Woodlands, Torquay. 
868*Hdnt, A. R, m.a., P.G.8., Southwood, Torquay. 

878 Hunton, T., ra., Bronshill, Torquay. 

877 Hurrell, A. W., B.A., The Knowle, Kingsbridge. 

877 Hurrell, Henry, ll.r, 1, New Court, Middle Temple, 

London. 
876 Hurrell, J. S., Buttville, Kingsbridge. 

876 Hurrell, R, The Knowle, Kingsbridge. 

873 Hatchings, Bey. H., M.A., The Clintons, Teignmouth. 

868 Hutchinson, P. 0., Sidmouth. 

877 Ilbert, Bev. P. A., m.a., Thurlestone Bectory, Kingsbridge. 
877 Hbert, W. R, Bowringsleigh, Kingsbridge. 

869 Inskip, Bev. R M., m.a., R.N., o.b., 1, Houndiscombe Place, 

Plymouth. 

877 Jackson, G., f.r.c.8., Si George's Terrace, Plymouth. 

877 Jane, Bev. J., Upton Pyne Bectory, Exeter. 

862 Jones, Winslow, Office of Messrs. Follett and Co., Cathedral 

Close, Exeter. 
871 Jordan, W. R H., Bitton Street, Teignmouth. 

874 Karkesk, P. Q., 1, Matlock Terrace, Torquay. 
880*Keeling, F., p.r.g.8., St Mary's Terrace, Colchester. 
879*Kelland, W. H, 110, Jermyn St, Piccadilly, London, S.W. 
877*Kellock, T. C, Totnea 

872*Kennaway, Sir John H., Bart , m.a., m.p., Escot,Ottery St Mary. 

880 King, C. B. li, 35, Oakley Square, London, N.W. 

878 Kitson, R, m.a., Hengrave, Torquay. 

865*Kitson, W. H., Hemsworth, Barton Boad, Torre, Torquay. 

880 Knight, S., p.r.i.b.a., Cornhill Chambers, 62, Cornhill, 

London, KC. 

869*Laidley, Bev. W., M.A., Ware. 

879 Lake, R, Chairman of Local Board of Health, Ilfracombe. 
871 Lake, W. C, m.d., p.m.8., 2, West Cliff Terrace, Teignmouth. 

881 Lane, John, 2, Bannercross, Abbey Boad, Torquay. 

873 Lavers, W., President Torquay Natural History Society, 
Upton Leigh, Torre, Torquay. 



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410 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

1871 Lee, Godfrey Robert, Timaru Cottage, Teignmouth. 

1881 Lee, F., Chairman of the Local Board of Health, Dawlish. 

1872 Lee, J. K, f.o.8., F.8.A., Villa Syracusa, Torquay. 

1873 Lethaby, R., Market Place, Sidmouth. 

1878 Lewis, J., Winner Street, Paington. 
1877 Lidstone, J., Kingsbridge. 

1880 Lilly, Rev. P., Collaton Vicarage, Paignton. 

1872 Linford, W., Elstow, Old Tiverton Road, Exeter. 

1879 Loosemore, R F., Tiverton. 

1873 Loveband, M. R, Torrington. 

1879 Loveband, Rev. W. G, m.a., West Down Vicarage, Hfra- 

combe. 
1877 Luscombe, John, Alvington, Torquay. 
1877 Luskey, J., Vine Terrace, Kingsbridge. 

1869 Luttrell, G. F., Dunster Castle, Somerset 

1881 Luxton, G. H., Queen Street, Dawlish. 

1863*Lyte, F. Maxwell, f.o.s., Cotford, Oak-hill Road, Putney, 
London. 

1881 McCasland, A., Stonelands, Dawlish. 

1865 Mackenzie; F., f.r.o.8., Tiverton. 

1877 Mallock, R, Cockington Court, Torquay. 

1881 Maniey, Rev. 0., b.a., Vicarage, Dawlish. 

1873 Marsh Dunn, R M., Carlton Lodge, Teignmouth. 

1881 Marshall, H. W., Reed Vale, Teignmouth. 

1879 Marshall, Miss S. (Care of Mrs. Miller, 30, Girdler Road, 

Brook Green, London). 

1871 Marshall, W., 12, Cornwall Street, Plymouth. 
1871*Martin, John Mat, o.e., f.m.8., Bradninch House, Exeter. 

1870 May, J., m.r.o.8., j.p., 1, Nelson Villas, Stoke, Devonport 
1867*Merrifield, J., ll.d., f.r.a.8., Gascoigne Place, Plymouth. 

1880 Michelmore, H., 11, Higher Summerlands, Exeter. 

1880 Michelmore, J., Berry House, Totnes. 

1879 Milligan, J., The Library, Ufracombe. 
1870 Mogg, W., Stafford's Hill, Devonport. 

1873 Mogridge, Robert Palk, Withycombe House, Wiveliscombe, 

Somerset. 
1862 Moore, W. F., The Friary, Plymouth. 

1872 Mortimer, W., 14, Bedford Circus, Exeter. 

1881 Moss, H., Bellevue, Dawlish. 

1874*Mount Edgcumbe, Right Hon. Earl of, Mount Edgcumbe, 
Devonport. 

1881 Nankivell, C, M.D.,Layton House, Torquay. 

1880 Newton, H. Cecil, 24, Finborough Road, London, S.W. 
1876 Nosworthy, W., Ford, Manaton, Moretonhampstead. 

1862 Ormerod, G. W., m.a , f.g.8., f.m.8., Woodway, Teignmouth. 

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LIST OF MEMBERS. 411 

1872 Paige-Browne, J. B., m.a., Great Englebourne, Harberton, 

South Devon. 
1869*Pannell, C, Walton Lodge, Torquay. 
1862 Parfitt, Edward, Devon and Exeter Institution, Exeter. 
1872 Parker, C. E., 13, Scarborough Terrace, Torquay. 
1872 JPeach Charles, W., a.s.l., 30, Haddington Place, Leith Walk, 

Edinburgh. 

1877 Pearce, F. D., Brook House, Kingsbridge. 

1876 Pearse, W. E. G., m.d., 24, Bessborough Gardens, London, 
S.W. 

1874 Pearse, W. H., m.d., 1, Alfred Place, Plymouth. 
1872*Peek, Sir H. W., Bart., m.p., Rousdon, Lyme, Dorset. 
1862 Pbngellt, W., f.r.8., p.g.s., &c, Lamorna, Torquay. 

1872 Pershouse, F. , jun. , Tor Mohun House, Newton Road, Torquay. 
1879 Petherick, W. J., 8, Southernhay, Exeter. 
1864 Phillips, J., Moor Park, near Newton Abbot 

1867 Pick, Joseph Peyton, Castle Street, Barnstaple. 
1876 Pitt-Lewis, G., 1, Elm Court, Temple, London, E.C. 
1881 Plumptre, RC.K, Darlington Street, Wolverhampton. 

1879 Plymouth Free Library. 

1880 Pode, T. D., Slade, Ivybridge. 

1862 Pollard, W., m.r.c.8., Southland House, Torquay. 

1868 Porter, W., M.A., Hembury Fort, Honiton. 
1878*Powell, W., m.b., f.r.c.s., Hill Garden, Torquay. 
1876 Power, Rev. J., m.a., Altarnun Vicarage, Launceston. 
1876 Powning, Rev. J., b.d., Totnes. 

1879 Price, Right Rev. Bishop, m.a., Hoone Villa, Ilfracombe. 

1875 Price, W. E., South Street, Torrington. 

1878 Pring, James H., m.d., Elmfield, Taunton. 
1874 Proctor, W., Elmhurst, Torquay. 

1867 Prowse, A. P., Horrabridge. 

1878 Pulliblank, Rev. J., m.a., St. Mary's Lane, Walton-on-the-Hill, 
Liverpool. 

1880 Punchard, W. H., Springville, Totnes. 
1862 Pycroft, G, m.r.c.s., p.g.s., Kenton, Exeter. 

1869»Radford, I. C. 

1868*Radford, W. T., m.b., p.ra.s., Sidmount, Sidmouth. 

1876 Radford, Rev. W. T. A., Down St Mary Rectory, Bow, 

North Devon. 
1872 Ramsay, H., m.d., Duncan House, Torquay. 
1873*Rathbone, T., m.a., Backwood, Neston, Cheshire. 

1877 Rayer, W. C, j.p., Holcombe Court, Wellington, Somerset 
1880 Reed, T. C, Clifton Villa, Launceston, Cornwall. 

1872 Reichel, Rev. Oswald J., B.O.L., Sparsholt, Wantage, Berks. 

1873 Remfry, G. F., Firsleigh, Torquay. 

1869 Ridgway, Colonel, Sheplegh Court, Blackawton, South Devon. 
1862 Risk, Rev. J. R, m.a., St. Andrew's Chapelry, Plymouth. 



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412 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

1879 Bobbins, W. M., High Street, Ilfracombe. 

1877 Roberts, I., f.q.s., Kennessee, Maghull, Lancashire. 

1867 Rock, W. F., Hyde Cliff, Wellington Grove, Blackheath. 
1870 Rolston, G. T., m.r.c.8., Stoke, Devonport 

1878 Rooker, W. S., Bideford. 

1872 Rossall, J. H., m.a., Norwood, Torquay. 

1865 Row, W. N., j.p., Cove, Tiverton. 

1862 Rows, J. Brooking, f.&a., f.l.8. (President Elect), 
Plymouth. 

1866 Russell, Lord Arthur J. E., m.f., 10, South Audley Street, 

London. 
1869*Ryder, J. W. W., j.p., 5, Tamar Terrace, Stoke, Devonport 

1869 Sanford, W. A., f.g.s., Nynehead Court, Wellington, Somerset. 
1881*Saunders, E. Symes, Devon County Asylum, Exminster. 
1877 # Saunders, J. Symes, m.r, Devon County Asylum, Exminster. 

1880 Saunders, W. S., 3, Rougemont Terrace, Exeter. 

1881 Savile, Lieut-Colonel, j.p., Langdon, Dawlish. 
1876 Scott, T. A. Sommers, Reay Cottage, Reigate, Surrey. 
1865 Scott, W. B., Chudleigh. 

1876 Sharman, Rev. W., f.g.s., 20, Headland Park, Plymouth. 
1881 Sharp, Rev. G. W., Plantation House, Dawlish. 

1879 Shelly, J., 20, Princess Square, Plymouth. 

1868 Sidmouth, Right Hon. Viscount, Upottery Manor, Honiton. 

1876 Sinclair, J. B., 13, Park Road, Southborough,Tunbridge Wells. 
1869*Sivewright, J., The Grove, Torquay. 

1878 Slade, S. H., Simla, Goodrington, Paignton. 

1878 Slade-King, E. J., m.d., L. San. Sc, Croft Side, Ilfracombe. 

1879 Slade-King, Mrs., Croft Side, Ilfracombe. 
1874 Smith, E., f.c.8., Strand, Torquay. 

1879 Smith, Rev. Preb., m.a. (Hon. Local Secretary Elect), 

Crediton. 
1873*Sole, Major W. H., Hareston, Torquay. 
1874*Somerset, His Grace the Duke of, Stover, Newton Bushel. 

1879 Spencer, Rev. T., The Presbytery, Ilfracombe. 
1864*Spragge, F. H., The Quarry, Paignton. 
1874*Spragge, F. P., The Quarry, Paignton. 

1877 Square, J. Harris, Barnfield, Kingsbridge. 

1878 Square, W., f.r.c.8., Plymouth. 
1874 Standerwick, R.. Chagford. 

1868 Stebbing, Rev. T. R. R, m.a., Kensington House, Calverley 

Park, Tunbridge Wells, Kent 
1876 Stevens, H., Hazeldene, Ashburton. 

1876 Stentiford, C. D., Western Morning News Office, Plymouth. 
1872*Stewart-Savile, Rev. F. A., m.a., Kilmorie, Torquay. 

1880 Stockdale, W. Colebrooke, Bridgetown, Totnes. 
1876*Stone, J., Leusdon Lodge, Ashburton. 

1879 Stoneham, P., f.r.c.8., Ilfracombe. 



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LIST OF MEMBERS. 413 

875 Strangways, Rev. H. Fox, Silverton Rectory, Collumpton. 

869 Studdy, H., Waddeton Court, Brixham. 
875*Sulivan, Mis3, Broom House, Fulham. 

876 Tanner, E. Fearnley, Hawson Court, Buckfastieigh* 
881 Tapper, W., Dawlish. 

877 Taylor, H., M.D., Ellerton, Torre, Torquay. 

880 Taylor, R. W., m.a., Kelly College, Tavistock. 

881 Tebbitt, W., Brooklands, Dawlish. 
876*Templer, J. G. J., m.a., Lindridge, Teignmouth. 

877 Thomas, Henry Drew, Dix's Field, Exeter. 
872 Thomas, J. L., New Hayes, St Thomas, Exeter. 
872 Thomson, Spencer, m.d., Ashton, Torquay. 

868 Thornton, Rev. J. H., b.a., North Bovey Rectory, Moreton- 
hampstead. 

878 Tippetts, G. E., The Mount, Mannamead, Plymouth. 
878 Tomlinson, Rev. J. P., Rooklands, Torquay. 
869*Tothill, W., Stoke Bishop, BristoL 

872 Tozer, Henry, Ashburton. 

876 Tozer, J., Ashburton. 

876 Tozer, Solomon, East Street, Ashburton. 

876 Trehane, James, Wanbro*, Torquay. 

880 Trehane, John, St. David's Hill, Exeter. 

876 Tucker, Edwin, Ashburton. 

876 Tucker, R C, Ashburton. 

878 Tucker, W. Edward, Paignton. 

872 Turnbull, Iieut-CoL J. R., The Priory, Torquay. 

877 Turner, Miss EL, Coombe Royal, Kingsbridge. 

880 Turner, T., j.p., p.m.s., Cullompton. 

876 Ubsdell, H., Buckfastleigh. 

875 Ussher, W. A. E., F.o.a, 28, Jermyn Street, London, S.W. 

870 Vallack, C, 5, St Michael's Terrace, Stoke, Devonport 

881 Yarwell, H. B., Melrose, Exeter. 
872 Varwell, P., Melrose, Exeter. 

881 Veysey, Rev. J., 3, Plantation Terrace, Dawlish. 
862*Vicary, W., p.o.s., The Priory, Colleton Crescent, Exeter. 
862 Vivian, E., m.a. (General Treasurer), Woodfield, Torquay. 

881 Wade, C. J., j.p., Knowle, Dawlish. 

879 "Wainwright, T., Grammar School, Barnstaple. 

880 Walker, W. H., Princess Place, Plymouth. 
880 Walrond, H., Dulford House, Cullompton. 

878 Warner, Rev. G. T., ica., The College, Newton Abbot. 
878 Watkins, Rev. W., Bridgetown, Totnes. 

880 Watts, F., Newton Abbot. 



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414 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

1864 Weeks, G, 83, Union Street* Torquay. 
1877 Were, H. B., Woodland Vicarage, Ashburton. 
1870* Were, T. K., m.a., Cotlands, Sidmouth. 
1866*Weymouth, R. F., d. lit., m.a., Mill Hill, Middlesex, K W. 

1877 Weymouth, T. W., Woolston House, Kingsbridge. 

1878 Whidborne, G. F., M.A., p.g.s., Charante, Torquay. 

1880 Whidborne, J. S., (Hon. Local Secretary), 1, Cleveland 

Terrace, Dawlish. 

1881 Whidborne, J., Gorway, Teignmouth. 

1872J Whitaker, W., b.a., p.o.a, Geological Survey Office, 28, 
Jerymn Street, London, S.W. 

1880 White, Rev. F. Gilbert, Leusdon Vicarage, Ashburton. 
1876 White, G. T., Glenthorne, St. Mary Church, Torquay. 
1864 White, J. T., Myrtle Villa, Torquay. 

1867 White, Richard, Instow, Barnstaple. 

1875 White-Thomson, Col., Broomford Manor, Exbourne, North 

Devon. 

1871 Whiteway, J. H., Brookfield, Teignmouth. ' 

1870 Whitley, N., Penarth, Truro. 

1872 Wilcocks, H., Spurbarne, St Leonard's, Exeter. 
1878 Wilks, G. F. A., M.D., Stanbury, Torquay. 

1876 Willan, L., M.D., The Library, Penzance. 

1881 WiUcocks, F., m.d., King's College Hospital, Lincoln's Inn 

Fields, London, W.C. 

1877*Willcocks, Rev. E. J., M.A., The School House, Warrington, 
Lancashire [Teignmouth]. 

1877*Willcocks, G. W., A.I.O.B., 34, Great George Street, West- 
minster [Teignmouth]. 

1877*Willcocks, R. H., lub., 34, Great George Street* West- 
minster [Teignmouth]. 

1876*Willcocks, W. K., m.a., 52, Scarsdale Villas, Kensington, 
London. W. [Teignmouth]. 

1871 Willett, J. S., Monkleigh, Tornngton. 

1871 Wills, Joseph, Haven Bank House, St Thomas, Exeter. 
1881 Wills, Rev. J., 21, Grayland Villa, Stony Lane, Catford, S.E. 
1875 Wiltshire, Rev. T., m.a., p.g.s., p.l.s., f.r.a.8., Hon. Sec. 

Pakeontological and Ray Societies, 25, Granville Park, 

Lewisham, London. S.W. 
1875 Windbatt, Edward, Totnes. 
1866 Windeatt, John, Woodland House, Plymouth. 

1872 Windbatt, T. W., Totnes. 

1872*Winwood, Rev. H. H., m.a., f.g.8., 11, Cavendish Crescent, 

Bath. 
1878 Wolfe, Rev. Preb., m.a., Arthington, Torquay. 

1880 Wolfe, J. K, Arthington, Torquay. 

1881 Wood, Charles William, B.A., q.c, Gerston House, Paignton. 
1872 Worth, R. K, p.gs., President Plymouth Institution, 

4, Seaton Avenue, Plymouth. 



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LIST OF MEMBERS. 



415 



1876 Worthy, Charles, 17, Kyecroft Terrace, Kyecroft Road, 

Lewisham, London. E.C. 
1870 Wren, A.B., Lenwood, Bideford. 
1881 Wright, Miss F. C, Beaconsfield, Exmouth. 
1876 Wright, W. H. K, 7, Headlands Park, Plymouth. 

1880 Yonge, Rev. Duke, m.a., Puslinch, Yealmpton, S. Devon. 



The following Table shows the progress and present state of the Association 
with respect to the number of Members. 





Honorary. 


Corresponding. 


Life. 


Annual. 


Total. 


July 27th, 1880 .. 

Since elected 

Since deceased .... 
Since withdrawn • • 
Since erased 


3 


2 


61 
9 


442 

46 

4 

66 
11 


508 

65 

4 

66 
11 


July 28th, 1881.... 


3 


2 


70 


408 


483 



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INDEX 

TO 

THIBTEBNTH VOLUME OF THE TRANSACTIONS OF THE DEVONSHIRE A880CIATION 
FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, LITERATURE, AND ART. 



A, prefix ; as a-paid, &c, 86. 

Address of President, 33. 

Amery, J. 8., Court Bolls of Pome- 
roy, 103. 

Art in Devonshire. By G. Pycroft, 
218. 

Athelstan in Exeter, 118. 

Aubrey, John, the Antiquary, 311. 

Avooets at Eiugsbridge, 78. 

Barrows, 98. 

Bellamy, J. 0., m.b.c.8 , 380. 

Birds, 73. 

Blackpool, and Submerged Forest, 
344. 

Blewitt, Octavian, 131, 306, 316. 

Boneshave— sciatica, 131. 

Borough, Steven and William, 76. 

Boulders and Glacial action, 356, 367. 

Bovey Lignite, 367. 

Brent, F., Urn burial at Plymouth, 99. 

Brixham Caverns, 375, 378. 

Brockedon, W., 133. 

Bustard captured, 74. 

Bye Laws and Standing Orders, 18. 

Gann, W., Obituary Notice of, 63. 

Oarwithin, Rev. J. B. S., 76. 

Caverns, 363, 369, 376, 378, 880, 387. 

Chanter, J. R., Rush Rings, 69. 

Chapman, Rev. Professor, m. a., reads 
President's Address, 33; general 
remarks on Science, 34 ; quotes 
Lord Bacon on Soienoe ; and Aris- 
totle, 36, 41; theories on the origin 
of Man, 38 ; in Greece, 39 ; Mo- 
nistic theory, 40 ; Dualistic theory, 
41 ; Descartes' view, 43 ; and that 
of Leibnitz, 44; the theory of 
Evolution, 46; and the evolution 

VOL. XIIL 2 



of the Mental Principle, 48; the 
Antiquity of Man, 49 ; the views 
of Darwin, Wallace, and others, 
60 ; the gap from the tailless Ape 
to Man, 51, 67; mentions the 
opinions of Voght and Buchner, 
62 ; Personality, 62 ; the Physical 
and the Non-physical, 54 ; assails 
the theory of Natural Selection, 
67; unravels the intricacies of 
Dualism, 60. 

Chidley, John, 76. 

China clay, 136. 

Chudleigh cave, 387. 

Clifford, Lord, Obituary Notice of, 63. 

Clock in Totnes Tower, 133. 

Clouted cream, 817. 

Coffin lid at Plympton, 71. 

Coins, 71, 72, 73 

Cold destroying plants, 71. 

Coleridge, John and James, 76. 

Colton, Rev. C. C, 136. 

Committees appointed, 30. 

Contents, 3. 

Cookworthy, W., 135. 

Coverdale, Miles, 191. 

Cream, 317. 

Danes at Teignmouth, 139, 143; at 
Dorchester, 140; at Charmouth, 
143 ; at Portland, 144. 

Danish invasions, 107. 

Dart, Mr., his poems, 306. 

Davidson, J. B., m.a., On the early 
History of Dawlish, 106 ; Danish 
invasions, 107; grant of the Manor, 
108; description in Saxon, 109; 
names of Signatories, 110; the 
Saltern, 113; view of old East 



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418 



INDEX. 



Teignmouth church, 116; Blade, 
and derivation, 117; map of Daw- 
lish, 117; AtheLrtan at Exeter, 118; 
seal representing Saxon church, 
119 ; charter of William the Con- 
queror, 121 ; Saxon boundaries, 
122; translation, 128; Leofricand 
his epitaph, 126; and place of 
burial, 127; Leofric's bequest of 
land, 127. 

Dawlish, Hist, of, 106; old boun- 
daries, 109, 112. 

Dawlish, The Geology of. By W. 
A. £. Ussher, p.o.s., 160. 

Devonia, Part I. By J. T. White, 
191. Did Miles Coverdale trans- 
late the Scriptures at Paignton \ 
191. II. Torwood Grange, 198. 

Dickinson, of Enightshayes, 136. 

Divinp apparatus, 137. 

Divining rod, 136, 136. 

Downes, Rev. W., b.a., p.o.s., On 
the occurrence of Upper Devonian 
fossils in the component fragments 
of the Trias near Tiverton, 293; 
Devonian fossils. 294; cuttings 
near Tiverton, 296; oonduding 
theory, 297 

Dunn, Samuel, 76. 

Eddystone reef of rocks, 167. 

Elworthy, F. T., On the Devonshire 
pronoun min or mun— them. Cites 
difficulties of derivation, 326 ; New 
Dictionary, 326; Sir Ferumbras, 
827 ; is a Devonshire poem, 329 ; 
him, hin, as personal pronouns, 330 ; 
hi, hem, 331 ; em, them, hymen, 
332 ; him, hem, heom, en, 334. 

Emery, Mrs , Poems printed for, 306. 

Faults in Dawlish cliffs, 163. 

Fauna of Devon. Hymenoptera. By 
E. Parfitt, 241. 

Fish caught off Plymouth and Beer, 
74. 

Flint implement, 386-88. 

Fossils near Tiverton, 293. 

Friend, Rev. H., Notes on some 
Devonshire plant names,201; Aver, 
or Iver, 208; Archangel, Bird's- 
eye, 202; Bluebell, Boys' Love, 
Bugloss, Bull's-eye, Buttercup, 
Butter and Eggs, 203; Cat-mint, 
Catfs-eye, Oaf s-tail, Cheese, Ohib- 
ble,204; Chickens, Cowslip, Cress, 
Cuckoo-flower, 206 ; Damzel, Dog- 
violet, 206; Drunkards, Eglet, Flop- 
top, Flox, French Pink, Garden- 
gates, Harebell, 207; Campanula, 
Hazle, Hen-and-chickens, Morse- 
daisy, 288; Jack-by-the-Hedge, 



Lady's Boots, Lady^s Smock, Lam- 
mint, Maiden's Ruin, 209 ; Girl, a 
term once applied to both sexes* 
May, Milkmaid, Old Man, Pink, 
Pieties, Prince's Feather, 210; 
Rabbif s Flower, Ramsey, Robin- 
flower, Shaking-grass, 8hepherd's- 
needle, 211; Slones, Snapjack, 
Strawberry, Sweet Alice, Travel- 
ler's Joy, Water Lily, 212 ; Wind- 
flower, 213. 

Geology of Dawlish By W. A. E. 
Ussher, f g.s., 160. 

Geology of Dawlish. By G. W. 
Ormerod, m a , p.o s., 169. 

Geology, Submarine. By A. R. 
Hunt, M.A., p.o.s., 163. 

Geology and Palaeontology of Devon- 
shire. By W. Pengelly, p.b s., &c. 
Part viii., 369. 

Geology of the Prawle, 360. 

Gill, H. S , Coins and Tokens re- 
corded, 72. 

Glacial conditions in Devon. By 
R. N. Worth, 361. 

Glutton (Gulo) in Devon, 379, 380; 
Os innominatum, the only bone 
found, 381 

Grammatical peculiarities, 80. 

Hawker, Rev. Treasurer, ma., The 
mischief of misstatements, 76. 

Hawker, Rev.Trea6urer } M a., Clouted 
Cream, 317; can be made any- 
where, 317; mode of making, 
Lamm's machine for making it, 
derivation of the word Cream, 318 ; 
W. B. Peacock's panegyric on it, 
320; quotes Wordsworth, and The 
Red Lions in the West in 1877, 321. 

Hayes Farm and Sir Walter Raleigh, 
308. 

Heineken, N. S., Coin found, 73. 

Hingston, P. O , Obituary Notice of, 
64. 

Hodge, Robert, with the Prince of 
Orange, 183. 

Hodgson, Dr., ll.d., Obituary Notice 
of, 64. 

Holdsworth, Governor of Dartmouth, 
134, 137, 138. 

Hunt, a.b., m a., p.o.s., Notes on the 
Submarine Geology of the English 
Channel off the Coast of South 
Devon, 163 ; Stone No. 16, gabbro, 
with killas, dredged up, 163; No. 
16, actinolite, 164 ; No. 17, a dia- 
base, 164; No 18, flints; No. 19, 
granite ; Eddystone reef, 167; kinds 
of rock dredged up, unlike those 
on shore, 168; Devonian rock at 



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INDEX. 



419 



Plymouth unaltered by the neigh- 
bouring marine granites, 169; 
altered slate at Bolt Head, 169; 
the Dartmoor granite is post-Car- 
boniferous, 169; unknown age of 
some of the specimens, 169; cor- 
rection touching one block, 170; 
Mr. Tawney's Appendix, 171. 

Hunt, a.r., m.a. , f. O.8., On Exposures 
of the Submerged Forest at Paign- 
ton and Blackpool Beaches in 
April, 1881, plate 344; describes 
the appearances at Blackpool, 345 ; 
and at Paignton, 348. 

Hutchinson, P. O., Coins found, 73. 

Hutchinson, P O., Peculiar ancient 
tenure of the Manor of Bicton, 
103. 

Ichneumons are pupivorous, 241. 

John, King of England, 312. 

Johnson, Dr., at Plymouth, 136, 137; 
on wall fruit, 319. 

Karkeek, P. Q., The Shipping and 
Commerce of Dartmouth in the 
reign of Bichard II., 186 ; species 
of ships, 186; and their names, 187; 
Chaucer's Shipman, 187 ; varieties 
of woollen cloth, 188 ; a " charge" 
of salt, 189; wine, tin, lead, pewter, 
iron, skins, 190. 

Kent* s Cavern, 369, 381; its tempera- 
ture 5l°-6, 400. 

Leofric, his origin, 106 ; his epitaph, 
126. 

Lethbridge, J., and his Diving Ap- 
paratus, 137. 

List of Members, 403. 

Looe, E and W., History of, 136. 

Lundy Island, 338. 

MacEnery, Rev. J., 383. 

Man's origin, 38; among the Greeks, 
39. 

Members, List of, 403. 

Navy temp. Richard II., 186. 

Obituary Notices, 63. 

Officers of the Association, 5. 

Orange, Prince of, in Exeter, 173. 

Ormerod, G. W., m.a., f.g.b , Trias 
at Dawlish, 169; Places Upper 
Bunter bet ween Exmouth and Cock- 
wood, 159; Murchisonite crystals, 
159; Recomposed Trias containing 
flints and other rocks on cliffs be- 
tween Dawlish and Langstone 
Point; at Beavis Bridge, Sprat- 
ford, Rixtail, Ideford, Otterton, 
and Ladram Bay, 161; List of 
Authors on S. Devon geology, 161. 

Paignton Submerged Forest, 344, 348. 

Parfitt, E., Plants killed by cold, 71. 



Parfltt, £., The Fauna of Devon, 
Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidre, Pu- 
pivora, 241 ; Have not been traced 
further back than the Upper Mio- 
cene, 242 ; new species, 242, 261 ; 
quotes Dean Swift, 243; aphides 
on rose trees, 246 ; smell in insects 
uncertain, 246; catalogue of Spe- 
cies, 261 ; Mesoleius brachyacan- 
thus, 276. 

Pengelly, W., f.r.s., &o., Miscel- 
laneousDevonshire Gleanings, Part 
II., 131; Boneshave— sciatica, 131; 
Octavian Blewitt and Brookedon, 
133; Totnes church tower struck 
by lightning, 134 ; Rev. C. Colton, 
Dickinson of Knightshayes, Sir J. 
Trevelyau, and Cook worthy, 135 ; 
Divining Rod and Dr. Johnson, 
136; Lethbridge and his Diving 
Apparatus, 137 ; Governor Holds- 
worth, 138; Teignmouth and the 
Danes, 139; Recapitulation, 145; 
Wolcot- Peter Pindar, 147. 

Pengelly, W., frs, &c, Notes on 
Slips connected with Devonshire, 
Part IV., 299 ; Growytte Keve ex- 
plained, 299 ; Brewing Church Ale, 
303; Printing at Torquay, 304; 
Poems by Mr. Dart, 306; Sir 
Walter Raleigh, 308 ; Regnal years 
of King John of England, 312; 
Rendyvoo, 313. 

Pengelly, W., f.r.s., &c, Notes on 
recent Notices of the Geology and 
Palaeontology of Devonshire, Part 
VIIL, 359; The Prawle Point, 
360 ; and Bolt Head, 362 ; Lauren- 
tian system 30,000 feet thick, 363 ; 
Eddystone and Gneiss, 363; Pol- 
perro fossil fish, 363 ; three kinds 
of Granite on Dartmoor, corrected, 
366 ; New Red Sandstone Section 
on the south coast, 366 ; Lias in 
Devon, 367 ; Greensand in Devon, 
367 ; age of the Bovey beds, 367 ; 
Exminster stone quarries, 368; 
Kent's Cavern, 369, 381; order 
and nature of the Deposits, 378, 
383; animals found in them, 369, 
374 ; flint implements found, 376, 
386; Brixham Cavern, 375; no 
Hippopotamus in Devon, 376 ; Ash 
Hole Cavern, 378; Tealm Bridge 
Cavern, 380 ; Bone pin, 381 ; Rev. 
J. MacEnery's researches, 383; 
summary of MacEnery's theories, 
391; Godwin -Austen' s evidence, 
392; Stalagmite, 392, 396; sum- 
mary of propositions, 394 ; thick- 



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420 



INDEX. 



new of Stalagmite not a trust- 
worthy chronometer, 396; Ro- 
mano-Saxon sheet of Stalagmite 
of Geikie, 896; fragments fallen 
from the roof, 398 ; Kent's Cavern 
temperature, 400 ; Budleigh Pebble 
Bed, 401; Pebbles traced eastward 
to Portland, 402. 

Peter Pindar, 147. 

Phillips, J., The Potter's Art in 
Devonshire, 214; Twisted clay 
vessel handle at Newton, 214; 
tiles of local make, 214; Bide- 
fbrd, Bovey, and Barnstaple pot- 
tery, 215; Torquay, Morley, and 
Annery works, 216 ; Exhibition at 
Newton, 217. 

Plant names, By Rev. H. Friend, 
201. 

Plants killed by cold, 71.' 

Plymouth, Urn Burial at, 99. 

Plymouth china clay, 136. 

Potter's Art in Devonshire, By J. 
Phillips, 214. 

Prawle Point, No gneiss at, 868. 

President's Address, 33. 

Prince of Orange in Exeter, 173. 

Pronunciation of English, 80. 

Provincialisms, 78 ; books on, 83. 

Prowse, Mrs., her poems, 306. 

Pycroft, G., Art in Devonshire, 218 ; 
Artists and Painters of Devon, 
219; Engravers, 221, 222; Archi- 
tects, 221, 233, 237; Bennet, 
Brockedon, Clack, 222; Sir R. 
Collier, Condy, Cosway, 223; S. 
Cousins, 224 ; list of Engravings 
by Cousins, 225 ; Cranch, who ex- 
celled in Poker pictures; Cross, 
229 ; R. Crosse, 230 ; Davey, Down- 
man, Sir C. Eastlake, 231 ; List of 
EasUake's pictures, 282; Fowler, 
Gandy, Gendall, 233; A. 8. Hart, 
234; B. R. Haydon, F. Hayman, 
235: N. Hilliard, 286; Moskin, 
Hudson, Jackson, 237 ; T. Jenkins, 
A. B. Johns, 288; King, Leaky, 
Lee, 239. 

Raised Beaches, 356, 378. 

Raised Beach Period, 162. 

Raleigh, Sir W., 308. 

Rennell, James, 77. 

Report of the Council, 23. 

Report of the Treasurer, 28. 

Report, Sixth, on Scientific Memo- 
randa, 69. 

Report, Fifth, on Devonshire Celeb- 
rities, 75. 

Report, Fourth, on Verbal Provin- 
cialisms, 78. 



Report, Third, of Barrow Committee, 
98. 

Report, Second, on Tenures of Land, 
102. 

Ridgeway Family, 198. 

Rowe, J. B., Corns found, 71 ; rare 
birds, 73; rare fish, 74* 

Rules, 14. 

Rules of Report on Devonshire Pro- 
vincialisms, 79. 

Rush rings, 69. 

Seals and Rush rings, 69. 

Seals and money, 71. 

Seals and hair, 71. 

Slade, William, 77. 

Speed, John— his book, 140, 149. 

Stalagmite, 892. 

Submerged Forest at Paignton, and 
Blackpool, 344; at Barnstaple, 378. 

Table showing places of meeting, 6. 

Tawney, E. B., ma*, r.o s, Notes on 
Trawled rocks, 171. 

Teignmouth and the Danes. 139. 

Token of Halberton, Unique, 72. 

Tokens and Coins, 71, 72. 

Torquay, Printing at, 804. 

Totnes church tower, 133. 

Towson, J. T., 77. 

Trias at Dawlish, 160, 169. 

Ussher, W. A. E., F.o.s.,The Geology 
of Dawlish, 160 ; Langstone Point, 
and old Gravels westward, 161; 
Raised Beach Period, 152; Dawlish 
Water boulders, 162; Greensand 
of Haldon and Blaokdown, 152; 
schorlaceous fragments from Dart- 
moor on Haldon, 163; uncertain 
age of Cretaceous plateau, 163; 
faults in the Dawlish cliffs, 153, 
166 ; difficult to traoe inland, 164 ; 
section between Clerk Rock and 
Gentlemen'sbathing-place at Daw- 
lish, 166; probable arrangement 
of strata, 167 ; thickness of the 
strata, 167; Middle Trias at Ex- 
mouth and Langstone Point, or 
upper Lower Trias, 168. 

Well section at Stonehouse, near 
Plymouth. By W. Whitaker, 298. 

Whitaker, W., b a., f.o.s., Well sec- 
tion at Stonehouse, near Plymouth, 
298. 

White, J. T., Devonia. Part I. Did 
Miles Co verdale translate the Scrip- 
tures at Paignton ? 191. II. Tor- 
wood Grange and the Ridgeway 
family, 193 ; House expenses, 194. 

Whittle's Diary, 173. 

Windeatt, T. W., The Prince of 
Orange in Exeter, 173; Captain 



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INDEX. 



421 



Hicks released from prison, 174 ; 
the Prince arrives at Exeter, 175 ; 
old Broadside description, 176; the 
Flag displayed to the Prinoe, and 
subsequently on the Exeter canal, 
177; service in the Cathedral, 177; 
the Prince's speech, 180 ; Associa- 
tion of Gentlemen, 181; list of 
Gentlemen, 182; Robert Hodge, 
188 ; march of the army, 184. 

Worth, R. N., f.o.s., Notes from the 
Autobiography of Dr. JamesTonge, 
p.ius., 386. 

Worth, R. N., p.o.s, On Glacial 
Conditions in Devon, 351 ; Devon 
not submerged during the Glacial 
period, 351 ; terminal curvature 
near Plymouth, 862; in West 
Somerset and near Torquay, 363 ; 
theories examined by Mr. Ussher, 
364; Geikie on^>lacial conditions, 



365 ; terminal curvature due to a 
consolidated snow cap, 366; and 
dating in the later Glacial period, 
867 ; summary, 868. 
Yonge, Dr. James, f.b.s., Notes from 
the Autobiography of. By R. N. 
Worth, f.o s., 336 ; quotes Yonge' s 
Journal, 336 ; Tonge*s practice as 
a surgeon, 336; coach travelling 
temp. Charles II., 337; Topographi- 
cal Notes on Lundy Island, Tor- 
rington, Barnstaple, Hatherleigh, 
Bideford, 338; Lydford, Brent 
Tor, Nutwell Court, Topsham, 
Torquay, Paignton, Totnes, 339; 
Homton, Stowe, Festival on the 
coronation of Queen Anne, Ax- 
minster, 340 ; voyages to Newfound- 
land, 840; curing cod fish, 341; 
life and labours of the Fishermen, 
343. 



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* -. 



LIST OP CORRECTIONS REQUIRED IN "TRANSACTIONS OP 
THE DEVONSHIRE ASSOCIATION," VOL. XIH,, 1881. 



Page 5, insert "Smith, Pbib.," and " White, J. T.," in the List of the 
Council. 

„ 28, line 7, omit the word "enrolled." 

„ 29 „ 36, for "£61 19j." read "£64 1j." 

„ „ „ 87, for " £18 7*. 6<f." read " £22 1j." 

„ 77 „ 7, for "Geological" read "Geographical." 

„ 100 „ 29, for "thia" read "that." 

„ 108 „ 2, for '? masts" read "mart." 

„ „ M 18, for "Oautelhoe" read "Cantelhoe." * 

„ 126, last line, for " 1073 " read " 1072." 

„ „ 3rd note, cancel first sentence. 

„ „ 3rd note, line 7 from bottom, for " 1073 " read " 1072." 

„ 160, line 17, for " Austin " read "Austen." 
Pages 161 and 162, pastim for "Exe" read "Ex." 
Page 196, line 11, for "Swifts" read "Twists." 

„ „ „ 14, for "Sarcross" read "Tarcross." 

„ „ „ 39, for "Bogams" read "Bogans." 

n 196 „ 26, for "Sefling" read "felling." 

„ 197 „ 46, for "swifts* read "Twists?' 

„ 200 „ 22, for "mopp" read "mapp." 

„ 222 „ 24, for "Dartmouth" read "Totnes." 

„ 806 „ 32, for "mdcooxx." read "mdoocxxx." 

„ 360 „ 9, for "our" read "one." 



THE ANNUAL MEETING IN 1882. 



THE ANNUAL MEETING AT CREDITON 

WILL COMMZXCB 

ON TUESDAY, JULY 25th, 1882. 



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1^623.2976 (1881) v.13 

Devonshire assocition for the 
advancement of science, litera- 
ture, and art 

Report and transactions 



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