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Full text of "Sachi Sakhi - Sirdar Kapur Singh"

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Copyright 1972 KAPUR SINGH 






mfs cfi nfe ml n-tft, h ssfo h wfa >M'«1 1 

— 3i| cfjq Rffeg, ^H3S?) ( v, 25, 36. 

2. u^c? (R*Hfcj3or fcatj) 

3. 93 fe*3 T 3 (fefeJTfH5? 3 q'crta fcgq) 

4. HU3 Hjn (h^fs Hfesfctf) 

5. Sacred writings of the Sikhs, (et al, UNESCO) 

6. Parasharprasna (A thesis on the status and significance 
of Sikhism) 

7. Me Judice (A miscellany)-in Press 

500oRft, 1972. 



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(vi) , 



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fetra feu feu hhr?> sfei r t # fa feu yfesra §u?r $af *r tftn" §§ 
« T uj ^ul u#uf ffrRji to 1950 fa^ i*as feR fan <rni auu # 

els tTtT hs I 

^ HUH? Ul Hi fa S H r R: 3VU ^ I HgT ^ ^ HU'eH UH 
333, RU 5 fcScKie eS T 3 »B ETO ul tt §R2S § RljjH 33? €l RRl R 1 
R3I T U T fsr U fa §U HU T e3 e oPfH, >>f?l#H >H3U, § RH3 fg§ UUT §#, 

uu ayu fnuj I gV 3 ?f^ ^i i fen?! uluu fys w&l are feu u fa 

iflT HUe^U UUS H feu nfUSIf R H r ul 3lB r §tf, R T 3 fURRR^ feu 

fea fek gra-spgnt sftg a%, feu Hi #H??> ul Hi I 

fe^ Hi #H7S 5 H# feu R UUUU 3U fenl fa R: 3UU fHUl ff 
1 fa feu?^ eR-»f T 3U3 HWffew* feu UHle 1 " 7>uT S?l»r, feR SSl 
§R§ 'WTC3 feu ftPHTO' e 1 sggj MWW Rfe I 

feR fuOa?' § WS3 7tfU| ©1 HU5TO i. H'§ *PgL F&. >HR. feu' 
Hl#H 3UU feu MUW g-g^ feg ^g^i f BM T ^g fg^ ft*g y§ gigf 

?bu y>}ru § rur t 5 sras s 3uyu r^s r?s ue i 

RtT fHRuu #hu?> h§ fean 'feuuu' §r ua ne ru^tr fe 5 
fa >hwWh > far? e»puT tnus RTfeg wjlmaz § rr rs^ hs, §r 

| , feunS M^Rtg, g ng^ >^^ ^^ yrgslHT fau UH Ul S c?lHr >tf3 

fet* %j ^'? (lapse) u fzm, ira fui" sj #r^ h!^^ w u 55 
set, fug RU3TU ^, gu3^>H^ b! ru5t t u |, h3?^ fRgtuH au f nt fa 

feR # RR ^ 3?t ^r g y^rg f%^ g^ ^ g ^ ^ ^ g^^ 
'R^HT' €] 9UHB1 H?T 5ft 3 ] U; fen gg} Hgsfrg Hdd'^V fgH 5 W 

fef* »ran5 si* rt^ el ?f ira ft, ^r?u Ir?s I ggs"s>n* 

Hi Hfe3' 5 'RU' el $% §q^ g,^ 5^ fegt | g§ g 3 fe f HRS g 
#RU?> URrg feu g^ yggi ggi HUl^ ul Ufe ifi| UU R?5 >H§ feH HH^ 
feR §U RT53 3U HU faUR fagigft 133^ Ul 3UR UU, ul^ RRI W 
>HRHl 3H UJ? ?g ul 5?feT | feg fegrgft U53T5 Ul §U?T el 'R?JH5r 
R^ 7 ' Rl I 

(Vii) 



U*Sl c73U 3 Rtjfa 33U feu sHhI^t MUte* feu H 1 , f%RH era$, 

»^h t u, we!. Rt > HsHa § wms su? 33 Rcrel i (2) vet. r1 mr 

»1eRU 3?tf R3 ii fe Ul H»feH 7>uf «l3' =FP R3U' : ufos f §R E 

fefq ^r firo 3l3* fl^T ^T 5 it i (3) Ot^sr or€B?,u, ^ t ig| u t r 
yracpu fsiH u^l 3uu %! tfe | fan fa§ T 3fi U33'B wire, ^ T g 3H eras 
^t g^H tsu? s noret, »fflut "issT 1 3?b s^3s^3 tft fens w>R r u 
era rs£ as? i (4) # M tftr fen ureRU^u s s?u # »w ^nj £ H 

ggjji H7j H# 3^ §R S T §U 3l3 T £ H Mm!\ 3U 3 sfe Ufe>H' 
(duty) SU? RHfew ^t jq^^r )>f§ ^ Ul §3 #Tj MRU RH HSl 3WU 

M rfe g^ ^t >tffo?~d1 9 I fesf ffl ^ °M l^f 'few 32' ^ T fe'^ 

§ 1 ^ ofij^ 5h1>h3 ?kJ1 utrei ! (5) irr 3 T fps, ugfec? ru#ur fes- 
3»pfeut fe?, 1852 ^ 3fu3 r^f fepi fe^aft U33 t b isl u, tu 

>>faU 3T »rel. rft. >HR §3 ■&% tfi 3Ul* §R US fgt R T Uf fe^aft 
U33 T B #goP|s1 9 (t) feR M3U WJRra B% UR 1 ^ RUpFU | "5 Ha 

gu fy?5 T ^ ^R m^us 3us b t a*§^ »rfwu u mhs fWaft u33 T s 

3U^ T @5 ^ T I feU £h HB3JU fire ul 3 T §S »{?>H T U 3U R3Ut U I (7) 

t& h^ ftftra 3 ssflrel R^u! re! R3re3 ul £uf *rel spfl 3* hu 
feuu faui fiw j feg^ ct to 3fl3 T h t feu* u ? 

feU SR 3 firara o?T§st 15^3 »}§ W5oF 5U fe^OT ^^H. U'^l 

^^t ^3 hiJh ^U2 # feretf to ^u fe§ M# Mrel mr. fef 4 wi ^5 

TTS f ^^ 3U 3 UcT STR T ^ ^U^ fU3T I 

35 rh^ gl35 §MJ3 A^ 1962 ^ s^ 3#, ?re" fa h 1 spasms 
-& h^u as uV r 1 , 3w ail t! T ^R 1 ?uf3»f T fa left Utra fsg^u 
fe ^^1 Rl mr. m^ru, uiyiral ^mu. t 1 ! ur t si # fRy m H3j, rT 

UU3m |hu| §T St S y^Bf uei I Hi c73 _ | §R "3 t ^" § *f^q T ^' ^ 
XJ3T Hi, faHHt fa FTU-fe^ T fy»f T OTg U T F! ^U? »13 R10H 33?, HU 
fagq 3U UBt Rc5 I §R 5^ RU'U 7 H57, R) f <T H fHR2U »{TU. if. 3UU. 
»{ThT Rl ^R § HW3H 3i 5f3 fe3T >M3 @R S fafn €R »pfU5 ^33, 
felTgfl UB3 7 H SHl U t hT 3UU ^ T Tffl ^ feE$33 ^3 fe37 I 

feR gfe fa^fesf "fRUWUl" # fa3H fHRUa^ 3yU # RU>f c7UU 

feu wis ofM >H3 js^ fas §u i 3 r |?i1 5^3 &&? fRui fa h -5 
^rnral WRS5 >Hute f^u t s T #* T Rl i huTh 3UU i fu R'3 # R T 3 

( viii ) 



§ oTO^t Sc73 Sis? 3Hh1h oTU SS' >M3 fi-fHUB 3*[U We\. h! >HH. feU 

suro era te§ Bit >h§ us far»pa T h gustof* huIsj tos S bu" 

US I 

wra3 ht feys fey3-fy fen fsuu3 u, yu §h s wy §u 
us wHyJn 3bb set, fc7 >hhc7 c^H %u fen t? »ray feu ysu us i 
h t § feyTS feu ut feu fsB^ T ufew ufw u i 

hh?s t u t u)e for wra3 f >hhc7 fey^s »{$Hra ; i fu§ yy h3) 
i u T tTRUcrra feH faBura c?ub four § w$ y>H3H c7Bct 3 fe^Bft 
y^ro sru Bra^ T 3, wl h! >*h. ?uai1 hut rjfgns Frasrat serai feu' 
^re^ it, 3U fens fen ^t »f T fer»n fuu T u, yu u feu crra^ul M 
fay ny ftuj w u^ hb^tb feu ft} uiuu3l cwu feuy org cra T § 3B 

feU^S fHH ^t >H T fBI>H T SUT feU T I ^3^ 1 1 HI I feU feU HUU w^u 
BS : "feU'S W3 c?t§^ 3t fergf feu fey U U US, UU fan ^BT S^ §S f 
§3 WW cff3 f rFU 1 U, §U BR? BB tj I BIB afus ^1 BB 3 #( U 3 c7BS 

si uu, feu u T usM uf uuHCf 9 i" feus* ^ 51 >H3 "h^ui Hnft" feu 

HHHHW £ ftTS* §yfcW ^B Hc}3 fHSU US @US» UT HUT By B^ HH9S 

hht, feu nyy faui »rygT3l, >H3 ^ftop inn feu fsius uu ^ T fe»f3 ys 

tJBBl 3 »f^H HH5c7 UT feH yH3cT ^ gt^y 33^ 31$ US I 

fen ^nratel s Ryus eras but 35 3y uu eft us §fuu 

US i 

ttu 1 huJh ^bu s Hi Bujyul er|b ^ §h feu feu hs fe>H T fe 

fRU3 cTOST Sc73 H" >Hy^1 WtH feu ^S 1 ^ HS, §U Ul Sfa c?t^ 
3 fe^S U >H3 fe§" HUT § H T H T H»fet5t »f3 feHfHfHH ^U c?TSSt 3 

ulu-fey^^ fntj 5 gjHl, 3H huu^u urusn-r fHUf ut UH S HS 1965 
feu, u*r fe §u ytPH fey^ H¥ T u ^yulus ^ z?^u hs, fuu ^ 
yy T s hbJ hJ ^s guT^u h t h3J § fe fust feyt fe hsc? ^ ^^c 
Huu^u ofyg fnuf >H3 h^[ ojyu set fef fuu 1 u >H3 fec7 fuu T uT u^ T 
utuTu i fen set us fuu HUc^u u T ^uu y^u T u fe Huura c7ya 
fHuj, mh. yl s §h st Hral >>ret. h1. >hh b! 3sy T u M3 ysas u 

Hj HTB} rft S fS?c7 Uct f 3U fU3^ ! "fu^ HUofra Haf^Tg sjyg 

fnw s ^9 gl ^^ ^^t^ s fe»ira sut, ojs 1 s? T ss u §T ui h ui i" 

(ix) 



fen fast # »n^ g^, fo 1966 f%u >r fu hmIh stu? 075- 
»wte sftet fe us u) h"# h§, git ?ra uu ue dsr, h^ fen ws* uu irsl 
HA^'yl huT urI i 

'VrI H^T feR fau^r fHH£R fflOT # RiR gig fej ^rg 

wQ'rt u, fe *'Hfl^H r ^ § §u?r € fuR r t Hsy s§sr fe T *f#, »f3 f g 
R hrhhw § feor is IhJ *f^ ul htrtht Era?? fuw 3* §u sra feif % 

feH tfT agm^ feR RtW 3U 3 §y~B73 »fU-Hi3t § Uf t, ITSST § Wst 
M?ra RMS' »T HW W3 §5* § RUR? U R^OT fa hrskt^ § f HR3g 

ftTJTO r ©rfuR 3 hsir h?>, §u fsul usquvft m\r h1, rururrt §3 

fat* for "Rrgl h 1 ^" feR f^53 u, w u^h hus u^fe (ash, fe 
1 772) i a sit, g&TK #% tsutfi, >nufsrR, sra granqg f3Hof, aKray, § 
H^3Hr grot, (fH3 fe 1948) 33 fiw yfeor feRiur £ fuRHTOfeR 

U'H<^'R >m^ SHffifoHH § tlfiH § U BcS T fesl tu^ e» WU UU'3S 
fUf HHfet, nffaw^H^R >H3 3T33 W3 fUi WB\ R t ^fefl cTO f%R 

fenfe 3TU?hb1 c?g3%cT ut rT t nf h?> 1 947 feR rh H33U u few 

»f3 H7> 1950 te RR Ht RUU5 URl HofHl, rJ r^w STO sfu§ R 

us w bir! rr ?tfuR r? h ^33 r wfey i ^^s\ h>tr § >nni# s^te 

fe^BT 3 TOM WHRTR tt$ ot 3^2* 92 °ra fe3T I fej fe^rg § ggfoff 

§R H^ddl 5 1 f?J3q R7i fRR ^ fe fUR HthUB^^ £ fag^t ^ 'f^ R FTH 

^rtu is! ufy>H T Rt I 

>Hf3BTT |i^|) feST offeT U fcK&\ fof R3 1955 f%R^#3 ti^^JB WB 

sfei Ft»ft feens* i#n* 3 feR 1 ^ ^ 1 ujT njftPH^ c?g^, sterr feust 

^R* feWt aiHt Fft I 3"31{R feR oTfer R T fej d fe R flltlf ^h f%R 
RH'fe 3 RTRfe35r ^g J ^ ^t q^j sfeT W feF U, ^U fR RgU3t 
H T feilU 3 fcTd^ U fRRH WTO fURR3 T 3 rT^ U^-fel^hH* 3 aU-felS3t 
t R333 T FRTH fel ^USnTRV ^3?iJ# h?J I 

feR Bffe3 r fe^fl^g f^TR^T ^TH feU T few UT oTfes RT 133^ g|gr 

fei^ u, §u grs f srte 1 f?R ul offu»{ t r t r9^m* As. gTR feu ur h! 
tj^-r^ »i3 ^sra! r1 u^ugiH3T r^? ut suT i 

UU Mf35rr I pi i Bl UfU^t 3oT f^R, ^RS RR^, H^TOS", Rt q* 



fo»rui feg m ^ws w&\, wshs tm§ § fog ^uyut, 

SUSUS, U3J5 I UU § n-ra H3?-™? US : 'RW 3 SdV UR STR^T ! 
»}fe? T 1 13 1 1 §U Wig (*{R& >HUJut feu) U fHUSJt StR S S3R3T 

feu 6 fRugu, rs 1966 § uu T st hs* g^£ wz #£ feut Rt i fen 
Rotu feu fau^ ug u ^to ^u urs us, fus? feu' fee bt #j y^s 

fURJHUt, J$ UJHU^Ut 5TO S^, S feH Rlflu H* §H 55 #H SU? Rl ofe 1 " 
R3T fSUtf 3%t § fo g tf f^ ^ fof H 9*3 318t H sfe g$, U5 WV\ 
f i R3T U tut ^US ^ fa»FS 5^ §f*U3 U I feR Rljfa fe? UURTH 
3%, '3Ht§fcs M^U¥' U feR §3 fo§U5 cfl§ UU W 3 feu^ ^ 
fU57 UoTO. »ffetf3€T >HUT Ut US I feR set >fer H3II feH y_R33 

"R r ut Rnft" u t »fote wm ut RH5^f u^ule I 

>Hfer 1 181 1 feU feST >HUUl tf&m U T H3U U Ut U U fo "RTUt 

Rntf" feg fg»fH 3%* ^t ¥uuu if ^t huu* u, u 3 fesr ruuu hu^hu 

5 I fef 1 >#35F II8II Ft UR3c? "RTUl R'tJT 5* fee? >HUT ut U I 

Mfe^T || M |, sft ^f^r ,| 8 || ^igf feof fcf^ fl^gg flgr^g {fa ^g^T 

U, fUR 5W " R ^ HT yt" f%g 3^ g^V gjgj ^ ggyg yjggr g^t 

6 I fUR ^Tg^ fgg ^ ypj^ ^rt jftgy g^T f^T fgpjfT g | 



"f3StTH5", cTUU fHUI 

rraruiri 
l.flBTCt, 1972. 



(xi) 



W $Q 



'oWlO A tt W&33' tJ fau-W* IS, HUl 3?53t IJ5, '3^ UQ fFM-tyfTOTO 
gf Q* H3t TO 1962 U S3[33T fflfw Hi I U3 feH BT WSP3 >>{U T U ;3*S* 

>hs uh 3j5 T ?u fgi»f T h! fcH ora^ fee §ee gij^ 3fo fai»r i ye feu fesr 
gu-H?5 T sy hT i few ? T Z5 fe^ st fen fee SIU3 fpb fefuiPH^ ?Tfsf»re 

# iut US f?H3 T 3 ?>TO »jt gi5 fit; ^ »jg} fen ^T^pgfig ^ »^ff fgg 

3^*3 &1 fj33 feu huh3 33 § uegie S3? tft ut, uh3 uy hh^ 3~ u 
33 Bwft ujiiari u ^pw ?> T # §?f uh usl out 53 ul tre §3" met 

FT"! >H§ 'FPUl H^fT HRT3 U H T 3H5 >tf T iTC U T HSP 55 f^PH 1 I fHH H?T 
feR H¥ § feST €tf3l UH3^ tft FJ33 feu IJ5PH3 9TO ^ ^ Ta ^fe 1 

fopx T u u^ uh ^fe»r 3 A s^w fare ufe»n 5 i 

feu ^W M3IH3 1932 to gBH^Iw H33T3 jggf ^fj U 3WI1 

335 set fu3 are 'ofHl^ss ^ T 33' ut «u t sT ul 33? irar f3^H3^ # 
^( #t ^3Hsr fegfoPH* fe% fWf3T5 W3 f?r eW ?y ^uutw 3 t uh1 

H3F f fygol3 U3 ¥l f *i T U'5S T ^§*# 5 »13 §33l f3t[H3^ feu 
HHBHW ^ T^fHSUl fe35 W 3I3-HH8HW fegq #g»$ »{§ 33cPEt 
i# '6Hd6 ^ »fa ?5 wt feH^T 5?3Ul 3 U 5$ 3J| »13TO »f3 3J| glfa^ 
fR«l tfl # R T ftraa T fe>HT BW HUfelnft ^T yy ^g^ yj| ^ f^j j} fpfyf 
>H3 HRJ5HW f€^ g 1 ^^ fee 38l»fT 3^^^ ^fgt ^ T y^ gqr | 

■^Fra lf T H fu^^T ^ TO f feU >H T U§ Hgift H TO3T B ?foH >H3 
HHBHVT 5 feeu <5SU3 >H3 HtJsl 1 ^ eJ >H^U Hi ftTH ofU^ U^ U T H? 
>Hf3 ^t H-feg'Ul Hi >H3 §U UTHHl 33 3 fe^S Slfl* H^ 3fe HS?U I 
HHHHW { ftPHTK H^ fe fu^ TO-felSSt §tS^ ^1 feR5 T Hl>H3 | UhI Ust 
B^3t W& ^§ >H3 y3H ^B^t gig" til U f UH OTS §f* Bl ?¥3l i% 
§ 93 T ^3^ y33T 3 I feH ftP>TS ul UTOt f5l HBr-H? 1 >H3 fe 3TH331- 
H^CJH-H^f-HUf >HTfe ^ >H^3jnfT ? ?33fT§ ^tfjt^ »B fTO* U H^^t ^^t 
fife ^1»F 33^ >H3 ^B^T^iT ^fe?^"^ >H3 feBcJ^BW SH 1 ^ 3* 
3^ Hi I firefcro AHAM ^3TH feu 3t S3-f3r23l ^t fTO-cfe H)33l 

1 



5P3TFT ^ T S aft HR?5HW § §3 f # 3 T 3H1 OW* 31 fctf yg} gry] p T ^g] S 

^jT hT 3»r H3 i fen 333 HjqfeH sfer 5 »P3j 3H fe3 wifeH go- 
fer^ ^ fofW f%3 HHfSH 3*3 ^ H^f yg ^ g^ ^ ^ H f gR ^ 
H T 3HS M3I3R] 333*3 I 55fS 5 s 9313 33 35?1 3*3' S T ?fe fuj»T I 

feH § ?3H 3t fecf U3 ?>1 3T& Hi f3R ??S fe HRHH^ $^§* ^3 
33 H?J W3 j§§ »ft # f^p U93HSI §3 Rl fa fe3^ £3 f^t § g#t 
3Hl W33 33 3 ¥*3l tP 30 R<S, fef fe?> $j* ?W HHte* »f3 H3^ 
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t fe fe3 oft 3J33 f33* Rt M3 §3 f3#* H3 33 H7J, feH 3* 59 3 
feiJ* SfU3 QrPH 3 3313 § fes*3 3 3 3f3»{* ^ ^tf f^g ^ gfo_ 
9*3 3^ 3 H33* 5 3 SifesUH § 91*P1 f?3 f3R 3* ^f 1 H$ *3*3 S3? 
^*333 33* f RW tf ^ ?SfTS 3^ f 3 r fagx tfgy ^ g^ gt^ feg ^ 

m 33- fa §3 feg Fd? i 33 ?§ 33 33^*3 ^*£ H3*s 3 nmfi ^33 

33*S 3 5 3fo* 5T3 3U RS I 5??5 ^3 fe fes?3 3l Heft 5^1 U3 R3 3 
feH 33t RS ; 

fe* : 3T #y 3T S3 H3H3 1 , fe^t fegj^T ^i ^l»ft ^^t u#B>H^ S I 
33 T : # >Hn^ ^ ^3t 35RT,.fest Hr^lmt § w t g] ^ gp^ § , 

3 R33' 3 f3S^ g fe33 39 HRSH 1 ?^ ^oftgt flt ^gr § gfet s^ 
3 39 W& 3f 33 Rfe»fT Q#, 3^ fHRSTVfl^r gr?^ »f3 31^3^1^ 3^3 
^33 Sft3ft fef^frggV 53 HTS-fet^T »^ flfe^fT H3 3 T RS RS 33 
US I 

URtet, R3U^ rh ( gsfeR3T^ >^§ fnq § fe^ feR^nft 3^3 fee 
R3lfe3 33S 3^ fy»TO Uf3H Uf33 R3 1930 fe3 TO33 R3 H3H3 
f333^5 ^ HRfeH sl3T 3 FP3HS »f UH W'rf 3TRS feg f33> Rl f3R 
§ HRfeH Sft31 >H3 HRHH^' 3! 93-f3IS3t I >H'U5 feoT feRf33 Hf^3R 
3 33 3 >HUS' fe»f T >H3 ^31 3 , 3 T fe^3->H r 3H , H3H3 »fsjl fROTJ Rrfeg 



I fen | wu5 T ^fl^?j-H^gg h^t few M3 fen uar ^? grs hs »b ^ih 

§3 H3H 313 I 

SMlt^H »f? T 33 3" UfeRT H5 1928 fey ft ^3^ W H^lHFJ 
5rfHH5 e H T 33 Urfe HH^ "5 HH^fafSW ^t fagg 3-3^ ^§ f TO ^rg ojyg 

fnuj s wus wi : Ms 3*h fey 35 i fen feg f^t g feg gfe fwh? 

ofH ^ oral 5 fof 3 1 M3333 1923 5 H£>H feg fHH33 FRre ^ HW 
S T HU3 3 T f? U3 S'SlW el H'3?fl fHStl^H *5 T fe»T few pf!, §0 §R 

is §y vine 3l <s# Hi ssfa e3 ira" ^h^ h3H5 U3 h! I §h h3 i 

§"3 el Heft #, >H T ?1. HI. UfeH fHR33 SfH?5c r S CPBfegr f ^?H 3?r 
f%3 UfrPEl Hi H fe5f ?Tg jj^t ^1 g5 ygl ggg} §°§ ^ ^f| yf| | fi^ 

fmnul 3 3* ^sl b 1 ^! ^srol ?! Hfi 8 h! i U3 fsn § fe^r h^t gfg^ 

H^ fe>X r fop** *m ST<## el VP3 e 7 ?T§ s fe3T few Rl >H§ #W h! 
el HH § yfeR elW SrelW el H'3 e 5P35 U?l efR»f T f3PH T I >HH?5 

fee sw h1 el H3 17 5ig3 } fes #3?? i hts ora^ 5el i fei feo 
i#5 fey 5Bt 3S*i* ?5u! A 3§gft fa feg asl ? T 3 >H3T3H ?# yj^rare e 

3*35 3-3^*3 3l TOc^H fi Oft I as 1 ^! >H3 Sf fetf (TO Hfe>H r 
W? 3* feg egi^t i^T^ 5?gst y^gft for >tf3RjR <F 3 f3333l 33 3 
>Hf3>H r H^l el 35 >M3 8F ul 35 3 H>3 I fctfi 33 3 >M3raiJ esW 
etW 03 ^oT W STS^ ffl»f r H T HaT , HT63I >M3 fedU'dl 35 I U3 
^fe 31 ^^1H3 i H^H ts yfeR l{§q Ff feR^H fHHe3 H5TT3 
Hi, feH 33^ VJU315T gg^r § H § fegg ^f 5>H T >^§ H'dtJ'd 3^13 fHUI 

^r T f H i fe^ rth! g fHRso HEre § fny f?3 f-istg (m&s 

H f 53H § ^3 fe3T I »TH feWS f?3 3l 5 fcT H^3H Hfa>H T 3^ 3UI3 

fnw i r^I el gfsl 5% r! «g g^ #s ^ §h§ rt31 9)313) 

»W£ fR3 H H3l Hi Wis gTFft ^ fgj^T h1 I 3313 fRUI § 
feH 3fe 5» >H3HH 3l f33T fof S*Hl ^S 3 : ufosr §3 MfH3 ^ SE? 
Hfe»fT f??H Fl §TO W3H fegT <j)3\ Hi »13 S^l 3SI]l3 fHW §<? fet 
HT33 H3S 3" f33 T 35 ? T ?5 HcS I 

1930 e 5#Q3 f?3 3?1 31H-HH 5f^^R #s H3 i 3 t Ht |f£r5H 

fnw ufe^^ el qgt ijgs fegr Rt, fe §^ ga ^ ^ 5 ^ ~ UT?5H 
f?3 ThV el ^el H^ sra FR5, »{§§utHHH- >Hnx5lgstdHl 

3^HHl U33T ^f§ g33TS?l H35JT3 ^t^ sftfen 35 35 Mng 



cW 7?& wfe? SU3 gy era s7 &$ ire rtrbb 3^ feur h7 f?f b7 

%T § ^B gr Ht >H3 R^tg ^^ ^^ ^ | feR ^fl^" yg 
HHT§3 5^ fe>HT H 55^ tf | feR ^ t fa ^ feT _^ ^ fgi>>{T , 
%H 3BT ^ft 3i^§ H fs 3T 3Bt igB Bt ?T #b| BfBt | 

TO 16 »raiHH 1932 § feBTHir § ipj fefeRBB fHRBB &rf 
H^W ^ 3h7§SH M^THH "^ fe^S Bfg fe> fgpif 3* HRHH^ 

>ht^)xt g #u ^ srefe»r fen J u^t^ ^g fatyt i hu t hh t wot 

Ht t ftf ^3^ § Bfa^re ?TO MI3T § ftrfW ^t y^g? f$tf H ?T?t 
fe»F I >H3 feu JTCsTO ^ tiiifS^I M fof # fKS^r | §h 3^ tfg ^ T 
3B mi BB KBIT 75Ft feof UH T 3* qHofW W3 ^B T t t?st iTO W3 

U^ 1 Ufiy ft ^HHrftW »13 Kopf^T f i ^q ? 5 ^f ofer >h§ HT3 t 
iff 53 feBre^T S ^ggjr | 5 f ^ ^g j^ ^ H5( §^ ^ 

fefe 3B5 UB ST fegr >H3 <pr 3BS gar st gfw I feu fee? M 
fBBt? ^Tjof gfo B § fugS iJtTO ^fg»ft §* H3 H3 mmO\ TF BBt 

^ »ft fW W. t$g »R HBTH ^) ggg| f^r ^g^R ^3 ^ yg ^f 

§3B R57 I 

feB^re guu few ;tf i fen 'Fret FpyY feB fen s^ of §3* 
3" si UdHT wfaw 1 for orHlt^H M^g^ i f%nn fe^ h fetra fm 
■stea' W f^Rjt iii^ 37 5tb bttibb ht vh^h fen ^7 h^b 3 s gu 

^ T »f§ ^f 4 BT55-gT3 fe^ fHH W TJofHT ^ fefegin BB u7 5 

ferr € fug- f fec57 fwr3 ts »f§ -^h 5 t^ 1 ! 3" ufus" r ?7 

>Mgr§T7 HB^ T B >H3 ffl^B H T fB5 fOU W^M 7 IPS FIH?3 T 57B?J S?7 
f3»ffB R^S I i H7 ?^7 3fe c5U7 Fit >M t UH feB Bfe-H^ 3?B^ ?TC5 5fB7 
>hW gff fe^TO tyTf^ H filMT, fHU 1 M3 HHSHW S H?)BB B 

tf^t fen ?ro >h^3 fey 7 >x§ hrhh^t ^w "WW w%~ u7 wfsw 
tt gB TP^Tnr, feu 7 ^fojt »fBHf uufexT ^^ ^^t >h§ #fef# 

if ST y'HutM 7 , W WB-W T ? §t^3H >H3 St Bt H^l BT?IFl7 Bt<53 
f^3B?7 I 

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@ 



z\ W3 &?1 »ffe Rfui tf, s T fuf fes/ yu f?3s T u sru ur rs s* 

HRSH'S I fUt? feU RH¥R RS fe fRbf fcfyg RRSR'St ?TO USot §?T 
W 14 T R T Wrgt 3 T 3U ^S, fen 8?1 §U fes* £ H^-SIP sfe? >H3 
SHRt HSH g^ feyi^ gjg faq ggsf §U HHHRW S t H $£} fjftft >H3 
RyR? gfe S' era Rf - I HRSHW § feu fw^ Ht fa W3 fes f s 

fo'w ?> T s us r 7 ^ u f?RS?1 fu cf?t huhu ws au^ »pu§ m t u 

I &F&& SU? TO grgs I tf foT§ flW HRSHW § THofe tW f^# 
fa §U Ws *pi| § feoT R3HU § fe^Utf fes?^ ^ f g § ^?R ^ 
URTRt yRU feU fW9?? T U^U # US, H f HRHHW § H? j f%g feg^r gg^ 
<5U? tf fife* I 

§5 frW* f fWB Rt fe R ? T f?U §c|t § cfararft ^g sfeg 

^ su us §u rrh as yi au fei i?sf t &sj sj feu afe f s 

3T?t fof yfeulRlWJ fSTR fea >MRS, ? T f?U »f§ 9BS 7P5 $3 U? ?5R? 
UfUR I yf«f?c7R srg* ut guu (uh!) feV ^t 3 fyfi 4 fe ^j feg 

fegfl»r is, w&z\w wfe ulu* § sre^ ?w a few r t r^ r ^ t u 
fflH 'U T fa fRU3 T w\ aV ^H W R T ? §u uf yfs?lfll>w3 Sc7, U!RRl 
sfesjj ?uh #§ us i feu ul gfe fun yYsifefte* g often i §h is 
ht ur ya^R # ?s ru ^ T f?e sraoi H# a? hhbh^t % yu 1 ^ iu gtu 
au T c? fiwt | sravp fei>fT ty§ fntft ^ ^^ ^^ gjp^ ^ ^j §^t xji^^ 

Ut ^U^ s?t >H§ RU #55 T Uy ftl>M T U^ ftf**fiS fHS^ §* ^^U RHUg} 

na utr u §k^r s^ yu 1 ^ gfi uu ^fefeM 1 € w^ Muy ytdttS r^ 
u cn§ »iu us! ast fesas ?s T Mi 31? I 

UfcPSt Sl3U H T R?g 3^Uf fRUI fll ht fen?j ?J T S Ut HUU MRS u 

9i? for §s/ u foTy T -y T 3u Rg?^ g^^ fnuf # § fuuRH T s s) iruut 
^RlU feat f?u sgfy>M T HHUl y^T f^ 3 T fgpMT i ug hkt gl^u R T ^ sth 
§s f § or? ^ RTs^f us war fy»r >h§ §s t ruottu fuu d fegy sr 
yuaiu aus* »p35 fu3 r yg us y^3 T ? oft u R5ru T r! rh ftr yu feW 

i RUT few Rt >MH '¥U U T g^1? |:f c7S g^i?' | fv^T 5^ HS H T 

fef" ?> T u#. »f T yu 5 pt ft^i ^ | 

R| u faw Hi 1 fe^1»fcS srss opujh z tsW ^ wq^ § ur u 

M 



nfw el us u?g^1 ^ »fR8 § fefefST ip=r S sf^fT ufw Hi I faR 

?h 1948 f^^EFS?* fetro g?r€te 8^1 wrasft isl s* s 1 ? 1 
uufaRS few ?fl s yiral Rg* gs<@^ =e 33 feu fe3 u^^ss A Plea 
for A Punjabi-Speaking Province fey i fen m t yH 
3l3 T h1 uu §h ^^ fen s fen gfe ?s fsl w t h fws s 1 fes 7 1 

y#f3 S T >tf£ feH §1 rJ3 feu R~£ T J5 §f5>H T 3' UH 1 ^ § »fUl>H T FWtftW, 
fu^J-RsrelW Di§ flS-HU(l>HT % feH ^ fe3 33 fe"dq 3B 1 >H3 feH U? 
33 |5 g??S 33 §33 WH fSf Ofl^l 3* R^sl H^-isl Ul SUl; UWfo 
§S T § fif^.^r^ H^-t^, yl>H T -y3U, fdWae'"d »i3 §U >nnj H#U if 
H'H 33 UJU >H3 S^UU, 3H 3*3 3, Uc'lw >M3 ?51T ?U'd BSl fa^H 
y?TOl I s U3 3^1 §5l 525^ Ul 3U? R5 >H3 ?> t Ul fSR 3" fe?> T §§» tfl 
3?1 U3 y#l 5 I RR T 3 5 fefeUfR f?3 H'fe^ ul 3^1 fcTRl 3H § 
gfe>Xi § ^t^ g? f >>f§ fe35 T yS 3 33 333 3%W 3# fa3S T fef 
WV& >H T U | IFUW 3fUrt ^ r Hl M T 3l>H T RRTR W3 >H3 && t2 MRS 
US 35 3^THU T U B3 T 5 3H T Sl W3 fey3l, *mj$'fefc5* feu, M T U^lM T 
HSTT 3* >H3 »f'U3l>H T WWU 1 M3 U3 foy3 T 3*3^ 3fe»f T W3 "03 
fu^tf* >H3 UUlf^ | fS 5H^ HSl l(fe>H r I 

feU fe3 >Jfto HyHH M3 ys 7 S3 Hi feR § §3Ul fU^H3 T ?> § 
H*3 83 3l f3f , 3l HflBHT^, 3l UUltTS DB &f SlH'Sl RsT TJ^i? Hi I 
fe^ 33 foT fe3 HHHVrS HAS £ feu i* RS 3 faV § ^US* H'few 
f3 "WT 5§ : >htU US S T §U S3 fe^* € fS ^fefeM* W? y-yfe»f^ 
§gfR>HT 3 3R? R 7 § 3 fe3^ r 3 SUl 1 Hi 3l3 r ^f3 >H^^ yU 7 ^ |gp g 3 
3HT fe>HT Hi JM3 S^ 7 feS f H5?J SUT £c? l" ^R 33H STS RfUW S»i 

3T feu fe3 m*$ U ! 

>HRS f?U fU^>M T f^U' ^ruW RH'rI >M3 §S* S* 3? flfe-H3I 
g i gl^r g? feu 9U^H3 Ul SUl' 3U R3^ T f3 fey y T UR3 3U 3 M 1 ^ ^^ 

s fuF nun i* »i^n^ uy R3S feu uul 3u r h^s u ws h t u^hr! ^u 

3 tiPttsW 3^1 ^yul>H T »i3 »Tf tl'H §H^I T >M3 >H T H T 5^1 UtiS I §U fiftf 
tlUM § fu^ yUH # fe3 feU3 §* ¥q SUV UfUS HS 7 ^igi >M3 IhV 
§ ^^Sl fe3 frft TTHB 3 A #1 5U? #^5* ^ B 3 T f3 UHt UBI feU 
fU^»T feU iTO3 U 3 fej Si ?yul UR3l ul R^ T BHl y3H U T?t§ | 

feu fe3 mi ^ RU5l u h >H3 ynft § Hfuail fy>HT 3U^1 d I 



fen 3tf f^ « H t^ H T H t' feg f^ ?r? j stfo? £ uu sn?l feforra 

fewW B5l R^t V t§^ f%g HU t ? 1 ^%^t i fe R |^r S? t » ff ft i H r§ 



29 gar, 1972. 



fefeR r^^ §^3 ^h f*§ mra^^ vHftrara »T3 §h >nftra T B 

§ I3W3I Ht 3^ty f%^ 'eWtfteS >H^33' ^ W$\ }$J3& 5 I R*§ 
fiWHd l <S §"""§ R, i^ R ?| »ftfe HTO c73 3, WloWl' R^t hIr^I # HQ 
f%3, R^ »JaTR ^H H* 3*71-0^ >Hl^ W $#*!* f WH Bit, 3^ f R 
vfa iJfft^TO ^ »f3H feg^ 1=3 (Htt'U'd 'c7Hl§?>S »i^W' 3t Rt, »f3 
feR S^ feR cfHl§<ro »P?W ^ »RQ Ui^ t? ^3?5^ § feR ^1»P 
Star ^ fcgJZ HScTRc? #1 3 t '»'sJc|i<j| 3t I 

>>{3§ ^t 3fe 5 fof "cTHlOcSW »f? T 33" W fSTR 
fJtJRd'Al 5?ttt fe iprzfe 3 IJ383 HURVf S3? § Rfe»T, 

fMf* fo s^-wOr?) (non-cooperation) 3 r fs^r 
few r1, U3 usb3 »f§ Ra^-FpqF^s fucr vw$ fcR ufew fng% 

33RW §33 ^rfeMT $ $1 3 fd^t ^fo»ft 3 eft, »f3St 3 RR%3 
3 Fpp*f* 3* RUrgT H it, orgs 3* H3S offer 3* R% U3 §R 3* 
frfe* fe3?7 #5T 3 Si-3RBteWH r1, fa f?3 ]j& ul fcf , 33RH* 

eras ^fcM< §, >xnj s Rf3»r, § fef §3 wnj ul »nf§ R93* 

§ *{3&3 & c73Rct 3 >HM 3*H t 3* »HR5t B93, 'oTHt&HB 

»{^33' (Communal Award) 3t sk 3TO 3 fere f%3, 

^333 33 i 

frJ5R3 r S § 3 I RRt <^d'<£d<± S, uTditldl IFaiw H), feH? UR^ 
fe3 §S99 ^ H3S ^ s offer I feR Bfrg^, fgs, f^, tj 5 ^ § 
BFcft r<JtfHd'6 hW ^h* feg '^Kffssr v>^g5' ot^ > w § 33^ 
|H f%tJ Ut IJW3 5 fiw 3 3fe>vr Hf§^T ^ 1 

feH^f M^ fed^'o/V CTT >H^RHT3R T H^r 3fc7RRWt 30RC? 
3 1 yrstRHF^r, fHSf ffe § §1/^} fsM ' dU'd ' utgft I 

"otr^sh" f%RR^ & cre-mr, 'oTH lQfo^T (community) 

d, fFTR €T ^i H* ^3 33^HT, »(39t f%3 "oTh" 3 RR%3fc*. "W3\" 



d i »ragt feR "oth" rh^r! feoreT ^ u, nrgfHor trawi st 3 ^tTRt 

fe»nT3 W WW* 5t ! H<FS fefdd'H'tf'dM, R3T3 IjfRTJ, feRfo-WJSfS 
(1332—1406), f fof fdOfAH S3IU (Tunis), ^tt^dlU'-tta, fe^ 

h^k^ § n^'fjdu, (Cairo), fwRU-^R, fcR fk3-i{TV3 ufe>n» f 

# ^f#ot, ©ret h i ffh ufuB*. rus ^§h ^ R?te sn# (Seville) 
R^Rfuu t <*H(Slc< rs, ftra* fa fa feRB*Ht 99$ did^ ' do (Granada) 

# *£R u^ ft, ere re"3 3i£ rs i fe^-wsrfs § ferret 

3^Ufa § y § fee? R^l f^WB VR33 »fggl ^Tgt (%g fgyj ^ f^ £ 

HutR feu §R S g^ 3 TFHW i §3*3 R3* r f 1 ^ U3S, ^ 
fHU'dcl cPUS* ^ foU2; T o?3S HT TT3?> offer ^ | foj HWJ, 'ShshstRHU'', 
fij^TT 3, T«HU'Ht 3?^' \IR3o7 W #tf3T gg^ f^j jq§^ yH35# <JU 
f?R \£3&3 U f3P>T, § fef U^ feu 'VSHoTCHu'', f^WR} grqyfl 
faqr^ Rt l£rete § RR3fSH RHt RRig gjj ^ | feu MSRoTRHU'' 

3 feRS^Ht ^uta, fegfs-irefs s, rus ^h fe§ L ru^s feR^Ht 3*r 

3 HH=Ji5cP t *|# § fecTO 3" IJW3 U | fey Fit, >H3 feR W&5, 

>HH T t UtFR § RU*S U*3Hfoo? sr^t, gi&gg Rg H3HH feojM'tt 

(1872—1934) S foRF 5 fo7, 

"WW S £?S3 tfldA'dU RR Wd^ ' t ! oft, 
fegfS-HHHS §fefe-S¥H S JgfuWR oft l" 

feR fR»f3 f?R "&J3 dldcVdd" RS^ fed'dA T^! 5 I bfaRt 3^ 3 

feR^fHl f^ti'du'd' feR, u™, ( state ) § d'H^H ( dynasty ) 
feo7 rhr ( concept ) 3 «ifej> us, ^? <f« ?*re, J333 3 fs**^ 

RSR iS# I fes* HU* RRU* BRt, feHWHt fetJ'dU'd' feR, feol RHR U, 
R fo? fegfe-MSfS ^ ?3f3»T 3M3 fRR ^^31 S^SfZ^ Rg HdH5 
fwya 3 sfte' 5, >H3 §XJ R^H u, *^?bu' t '^^wu' W '^?H3' f 
'#&3\ ^RT-iitr p ^R-gr^ ( f^ fg S j^gqi ^ j^RfeoT ire U 1 

«riH§fc5t' «» ?wu3 mbtq (denotation) $ 'rh^rot fe^t' j 

'RiR%3o7 fearet,' ^ l^fR3T lfU3 5P dMHd' WolMMe* R^ feR 

rot ^ ht#r suf, fc^ feot 3 1 ^cr, f#s fife srfHffceW &amt 

RH »ffW3 ^3, XjW D RoT#HJ US, R fo gfe>frel feRBml flftF3* 
^ fefq 5 M3 fR ^t fed'dU'd' ^ Vf3^3I, fRR § fa R>re c?gs 
^« 3 IJpTU o^?j ^Tg ^ feRB»HR3g US, 'HWfe^', ft?R S fe 

>mr otk mtiti feR m^Irr® (anti-social) 5?ftre us, >X3 m^btr! 
Rct3tBT feR r fe^feRfsR? (deviationist) 



feu 5TO5 5, 'srfH^S »^nj3' 3 ®&3 fas §HB* ?> jj RcT£ 
TT^, HH >HfOoTg 1£1J3, QoldM'd, fa£ fa?5 H'H%d<* »fS^ FFH*fac? 

fw«W s» fauro? *wik«til fog^ (constitutional affirm- 
ation), fJtWd'A 3 HHHHW ^t »THHT § FJtaf $ iS# ift W§ 

fed cT^S »fe J £g § f^rg ^r gfe W| fa^ fa WR^H H^T^ $3*, 
HUKH >HSft fflc9U, 3 fao' fa, ">*FF§ FF^t f~faT #3 £ y^g ^t £ 

fe§, ?r^ fu f nap ui u# 1 HHSHT) fn fag r§« °ra SS3f r § 3 

H3 \&\ 3*. f£^ f# g^ yr ^ gj tfrargT 5T3 HS3I l"* 

Hera (reasoning) irotus^ sss ^ § 'c?>fl§ss >>fr33' 
§ terete i^shh Hvfeg ?> Qw^'i? are ^ ^ ^ ^ sfew, 
33 (reason) fa 3 a fa»rf?p>r tF #p 9, fa 'ofwtto? >H^33 , 
»nre 33Q3ND (concrete) gu fag. ferwHl HH*fac? *nfad B^t 
^crmrgt ire u i 

t^fet RH%3 fag "SMt^S >X&33' V?W3 fU fa^ faf^ 33- 

HHfe»r ?> h* nfaw ? nttT-^B^ (causa prima) fen w §u 

3 3 fefWH W% tffo »f£ U', fa fat* HF3W, fWfaoT fe^ ' v/M 31 

^ ygrg Htere sra^t 5, us gi^as hm^ § Si5^^^ av fag, 
a hh*h fa ur?rat Scsruw ^ h^ 3 uu uaH-ujre! (summum 
genus) u^re u t, fan fag fa f afo fa<5 hh 1 ^ fecpnTw (com- 
munities ), §h #«* ?F3W (species) ire, sp Mkj^ ' dW 
(coordinate species), uijf, fayte (inverse) toW 

25 ffS, ftT# fa fewaTWt 58^ i I Wjt>H' faujH tF3>>f S»oWB3f 
fa^ fegWB* fef 1 U fa, HSgifa GWA'H3lj HT7H s r f>fe FfcfH, 
fa*$3 HVTtT ^cjt>HT Tirg^i gt^ a fap>M fefel»TO fa^ fad(Sl» fT felR 
d faf 4 S US, fu W^hW ?rat 7P R^reW l 

swKfoH-»f?i3sj fag fe"^ ^v^N (peoples) fa^HBrs fag 
>>%if 8; 3r?5^h cftsw to a fa fJt?Hd'^ fae Tjg-HH* (political 
sovereignty) h^<ss El»f ww-fwi *Hfe€l o^, fbf, hrbk 1 ^ 



* "Let the British, before they quit, make art award giving 
the muslims their own bit of country, however small it might be, 
and they would live there, if necessary on one meal a day." 

— noted by R. P. Masani, in Britain in India, Oxford, 1960 

p. 2:1 



t fiftf I ffe# § HRWHW grg^ f 1 ^ feu* ?F U> U fsf §# ^ 

Hfe W3VF ^r ^nt^H »^ w ^fo, >H »q i d dd ^ (postulate) 7F8 

<ff %gg Rt, fe ftftfflras ^t urtrI i^-hut Rug-R*§ £oruu feg >mfe 

a#, VU fiftji grg fe§* <suf fs^F ^ h^^t | pptf § »{t^ ^p^nr gj 
ffowt fec<H'dd' U* fe| US) ^ ftj^ j^r^ § feHHTHt RH^ tf 
»f r 3H5f, H'H^c*, HRR^ § UR^ W ft fcU3U Rfuw, fay UUH 

i hV hh^ u?j i iran sw, m >xur?j &z ^ ^ feg j^ jg 

"HHS>re HHfec? U#, MOT 5ft HH feS § #, TOlM^I 3 )*»# &§, 
fa§ 3RH ITO fiiif vpor ugr" (ht^, S3.3.<^), >HUEP3, HRHH^S 

fe^, | fe>W tS § feFTHTH § 3U-fTOH, 55F, Hft HH^. 5[U^r, 

§Q3ht, ^gi^ Wfe 3T^ ^t feg H ^ 5^5, >*§ fro st w^t 

RHRft f»TfH, ddlfdW) f 7>3U3 fe»fUr t HRSHW g fef- y^ 

RHre H# fsr, |s; tfu, ftnf § tasw § FreT-ufe^ nfew u^ 3 i 
fen frro huh # yuusr ^ren* (dynamism) u i eg wre faust 
Rfu^ uru? (coexistence), snt^fe fcrera ^ uu^-btw^ 
(presupposition), u, ffl # dd^W (validity) fe* fiw 
guH h fir feu ut not to! uwf u, uu fat 1 <*# i 

3 fe§* u u* fntft $ irfirgt fee 'owt§<ro »*?W ^t gnt 

^W5f|H 1 IJUHH HURR* fef 4 ^ 5ffer r- g 5ng S feR ^? RS I 
fe^ feu fa ^Ht^SH >H^U3 feu URTRt RU* ^f % ^t i^t^ frrai 
UT feHt Rt, 3 fa »i T BH-did^d' r >H3 feH feHT feg IW5 H3 

^th >W5 s^t utu ot u^ fen gut h1, f HuyH 1 ^t >>fH w §^ 
} H3 T ^ j ot oPB3 r feu fe fes Htn^t s^er) feu f >>rarar ^ froHH^ 
§ g^ feU feH^t o^ijttl ofM frm u ijJubtuh «S* s^ fus 

W5, ciret f?W ofUST fHU ttlsJd" HHt >HH¥? U fuW f >H§ §U fiw 
OUH ^ Ij^H HU^ 3 H8c*'d<i § ^oT fS t, fm H^uty ^ fU-oHU5, 

fu^ ireH^tuw, f utfw f fwt ^ T »{fe^ T uci-5ra^ (causa sine 
qua-non) h?> $, ?> ^s >hu^ u^H-firo >nfq5rru, r^h ijirV 
(political right of self-determination) § ut ur^ 
IS, m"- frot ^ ylHojTdi § wkh^, FFHt »f3Kf h nfucr »F3Kr ^ 

HHHfeST 3^5HS, ^H* ^t fife iu HS W fef 4 5fU, fe )^HHg 5^ t£ I 
fe& ^FU ^g^i cft$ f^y )>f T 3H T ^ gt oTHt^SH »1^3 | oTHH 5fU 
Reft § <S TO; U fef^ fRV ^ feH R^F W c^'McJcj^c-i HTORf 3 sfeT | 



TO <^83 f* fvi ; , H33^ 3*33 feU ftfy >HH^ U UW 33 3*3 
5* HUl feH&TO »ff TO Ht&P feu VS>ft UTFH feU faV OT5 ^vg) 
U33T31 5§ HB ^35, o(H\&S8 nf^W f feu fagoT3, 3 tR? 
»jf3oraH HWfe»f' Ut, 5te 33 § ^U W H3U TO, >X3 fe^ feU 1 ^ 
5TKlto5 »^33 Ut HW o^t ?J 3^5 TO3UST zfl 5, H3T 3UFP*HUl ^ I 

TO <^00 ?ftfet feU, H1H3 fesfoP aTHUSt, fUH £ (of 3*33 fe"3 

tf-arat ffh^h Fra r u3 ofer, sl ?n-u #5 ^ i fen efa3 fesfru 1 
wind, fsasil fe M? y i u ^ ^ ^^ feuw rh^t tf, uW tre* 

feB ul H&$\ Hfg^F 3^feH 3^->Mftra^ £ feu ?^Ht>3p £ htj^ 

ut h?^ 1 huu nt i '?W3 grofu HBren}' 3* y^$ pfHw ir 43W 

ul Rt, U3 ^W3 UW3* 3 T UK3* 4^ ^ U3U^ ute feVW SHM^ 

15 a) »wgnj3 a^i 1 fun 3hto1 >h^ t feiF35f £nw § FoVho-o 7re 
3W3 aro u MfcRra, feanre i wepu $ H3cr<3t 33 ft i f, 
feu fonfuu s?3 feu* fa fu^Hd'tt ?re > >T3ra1 dri'dd »fara u^ftu 

srau ut feu re 3, fafi* fen £hu?3 ui ^farsft wzwz ^w hu^u! 

TOU3J W3 feR § »WU T »ffacP3 ^cTU^, fan W^ fa f*33 fe3 

ate I h§3. is feu, feuu h3, uu >hhh fenafe^p^fe 
nrara fuupnro feu >Hfaarg ipnft ^ »raw uVu to »b feH ^ 

US Uvrt^ U tFUsTO TO 1 TO <={£& *fc?t feU, i HfetFS U3, 

(charter) >>furat tospu ^ feR ^nrot | uyfe»r. §h feu feu 

l{^3 ^tur fgw ^ fe <?HTOt fuUTO 1 ^ feu totuW. fkwfew 
>H3 TO Ut Hfe? U >H3 feH | WtiHd'A feu BWHl, UUt oTTO 3 
^HfUTOTH 5TU^ U »Wf3»fU US I fef* fwfe^T, W U fUUH3^ 

^3 u^^ sraa # Biucf ^srfei^, fen wra hsw # hh fun* 

5W >Hfet^f 10* 3 »ff i ut U I 

feU M^ofJ^ >H3 Z, ^3 Otd, TO "HtBt $H?t feu, »tf%» U 
fO^Hd^ f^ hi 5 ^ °^ U 3U feU 1J3I3 UUl I 

feu $m fe3t»fT $w$ u^ uw-i^al feaw (tree of 
porphyry) u* ^uuh u^ust ut, to HtfB^ feu, fguafl^ u 

fe f ^Hd 'S J 53 tT5 Ǥ feHUr cPHsl , dI fU^Hd'6W S W ?5 ? 
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^3 



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fR0 T 35f fui5f3 Rl 3, fRR Rt fg ^^^ 33 »Pt R 7 ! 



*H.G. Rawlinson, The British Achievements in India, London, 
p. 20-2 1 . 

,3« 



vftaw 3* fe* { UAtftited aus et hh u?t i ?**U3 isfes £ §w 

RH* ftTUS* fesN*-f3H fefef? V38l>re fe^ UH afe?, §R Bt i{53» 
RHUQ?> feiST R 3*875 §R ?> f^H 1 , ffa f?3 feu 1 :— 

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wri ua* ^ gfw »+3 Mfe^gt ^ ^33* ^j fo^Hd '?> 
feustu feu a far §h el RfRurft lg jfer^ 

ydd'Atv U 5 T i i feu H3 1 s^-ydd'csl^ H ug 

fa^ 37 »fBt, w# se! fen bt fe>HTgi sra?jt g^ 

»fH3? U I feH TJ|-H3* # l[GF3! ofUS ^t 

**H»si ibI 3^ l^S ?jr at U#, W# 75Ht fen ?} 
RWu au?5? »f^g 3 g^r I 1 |^T H3?, fU ^Hd'^W 
£ W3 § W§US c?^ffg3 5 3J 1 5, >HH 3ltT, 
f£dJ&'o* H fU3* ^ Hf5oTU i R7J URU* g^ 31 

faHH3T^>>ft £^3* »f§ fedJ8"s* tf f{fet fes f?>33U 
3THHS U, »f3,c7Hl 5?f?JWt fegtf ?>#"* 

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R?> ^3 Rtel f?U, H^Hl URf?31R, fUH ^ dKd<Sd- tl???8 

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§h 3 yfust «ru, ruru rsht feu, feu feu*u ipr? «#§, fo fgg fea 
»mu T »f£$f a#* fa •>{%? must 3WHS! 5TO, fu ^Rd ' 6 ^t d'HHd' 
fu^H3»5fo*i I R^l a, UU iregj 1 w^ foal spfegt feg §r fgfy»fr 

(**o Hel, *»tf^t) fa, 

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»WS »PV UJ, R3 SM f?Urg ^ f fg^ d 't WV f f3»T3F 

^ ht Ra?w st33it i f^gj fa >hr* o!g tilg iju fest 

gf?lu f^u^ ^, ajus ^u ?5fI 3 Mt fiw h ??u^ 

te'fiftl 3 ^, >hr is »(R r i m\ »fR3^ g^ ^ u i" 

Rut sfo feu u, >h§ feu >H3hf ^ feuaR?> gtrl »f§ ^UHH? 

el >H^ij^ ufafusj? *)Mo?f^>jr ^ br rh 1 feu.a^sH" a^H 

rthutr^ 1 ^ wra §tfk>^ 3t r^ 1 fen afe et u^r! 3U^ bu us, fa 

M3FtF e 1 fueU3f?5 § y 3 URWt »ffqa*U JrefelSUT* UU3T 3 SUt Ufu^ 1 



*Hansard, XXV, p. 709-54 



unfit ! H3-§^ ^5 fen gfe §"ra W^fefej >Hfq^g KfeHd' flta * 

HO'ctsH, UsoidS foTljfo^, (1865—1936) ty$§ HWH H 1 

trara-ijfHq 7&\ nt >H3 fen fphut^ ^t »fraHc7 ^g^ ^ H^re §mz$ i 

§H £ >>W^t feo? U3T3-feftP>f3 srf^r f%g ( foj fegrg i^r ^ 
TO* : 

">>fu h - ^, ^dtfd'9 hw' feu Here wf hhu^ ii »reii u uu to i 

5H *>HW f?U wt S^ft ^y>Ht ^b*T h^jt ^ft ■&& jjgr g^»{t g^ } 
»f3 W #§, WPsft f§3EfGf IfZ^Zmft HTH^fte^ fe°7 f&t feRU* VP^S? 

Hff <*t^3 ^ H3[?3T, fesf >H^J »fst. Ht. >HH. £, UPWW 

ufo 3, fee? vhhcT &^?> feu 5U?^ Ht, 77/e Z,o^r Dominion. 
fen uhhc? ^t B37 ifu crcral (argumentum ad populum) feu itf 
fsr >>fiu* 5?r futjjre^ 3?# fen gra ut wrc ^w u, forffu mist 

f >w£ M'U §*§ H-HtF I »P3H-fejFH ut SU? U I H WcjU fe§' 
IS >fa*> to? to £ fireHHT^ §3 oTSTF U^Sfe ?P?5 sfe' 5 »B 
MU^l UBH *7U3^ U33l Eul HF HH^ fet TO, W3 WH? fef' 
offijf 3 H?& fc7 §7jT § fueiT3Ts HHUtU f UU o^ fe»T tj >H§ 

?»«■<* t hs ?> T & ul fen § »fus *»pii at^gr, 3* fd^Hd'6 ^ 
tfara* § uc us vrc #. fpife fer^r ottj'ftid 7i ue\ i 

3U3ictf»P 3 fUBF?3T?> £ Ur^r^ ^f ^rgi f g fjftt »{if§ ugt feg 

flTHt Dfe>H» f §H fe^ feu 1&& IW: ** 

"ftfeRcPJ^H* ^ WHU^ feg »{R^t Herat, §^J t£ 

3H^t feg wr^t g M fcf»f >H3 fs* ^ P^dd i md ' fegf 

* See. " Recessional", originally published in The Times, London, 
on the 17th July, 1897, on the occasion of Queen Victoria's 
Second Jubilee: 

"Far-called our navies melt away — 
On dune and headland sinks the fire — 
Lo, alt our pomp of yesterday. 
Is one with Nineveh and Tyre." 

** "In their prosperity will be our strength, in their content- 
ment our security and in their gratitude our best reward." 



OT3* R3?3H fe 5 ?*?^ 5 i"t 

rs ^tg'i feu f§3)»ra strs >3yu y*R ufe»f, fRR H>my* 

fafeTraratw f Ry^y yog f*! (local self— government) 

grRyJjy ^s^s # wfyyu fei git i to st^d f%3, y? 

fuVRd»<sW >«3 ijrafo3sr wjtef* 3 fey jtoI wry, sfau fsWte 

>HRhT£RS, 8^3 feu SHTCt, fRR H* fy wy W3?, fgUR^sW £ 
D5f feu y^grg yu^T »f3 §?>i £ fegq 143353 gi^gfaHtw § SB 

sra^f r1 1 to ^tte feu, 3&«f§ feu 'scras star' gst M3 §r 

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ynlffe »f^g3 fat 1 fUR HSoft ?%t§ u T yyifey yfeM^ feu 

*hrt# feR foyy tB> MRHt fen T d 1 

fe"s!>TO 3TO& yJgjR S* uTr* ?fgRBT RH'tflH RU RUgrR fel 

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9, fRR ^ ?rgj_f g f^ yg-fgrasf ^ ^ feg gf , HRHRW ^1 

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yfg^a3?> «1 yrgg^t |y-gyr &%* fazst wvfm >h§ ^^-^33 
fyf" ^ 3?, ^R3^ f?3 feu fue utr ut u#gi r i^: feu feurg y, 



f "In their prosperity will be our strength, in their content- 
ment our security and in their gratitude our best reward." 

feu Hi, fe fb^ ffln M H*w1mi i^ f& ^ fg 9 f^ ^fgB5 u'ti § jfap 



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fcfe greg* ngil/3 ^t sra fe3 T ^# i 

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>H3 ^H W igmW 3t 3* jft ^jfe^r flf fa fe3t»fff SHS3 cfafH 
feu hhs! §8 fee >HHHife <jut I 

f8?t»f?> £hsh cF3Tr £ vtafosr rrw te mrsh'5 
estate we£ uje^, 3 go ir ^r> ufu ai§, >*3 hs ^o£ fee 

HRHH^ Hteg* £, >>WS dof HUffcT»f3 Sfgs fU3, »P5 fe^tw 
HHBK #ter Hi cSfTJ W f53t I 

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P MfuRTR, fen hh" fcif- §3ife ufe»ff, Hi" mw feo 5, fe fen 

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H5t ^ HHT 5313 ^B MB\ ftTH >HHU fqt »f§ 3§H£' ^t fR> 
HHof ©I ^T3T f ^gn SW fof HRHH^' »{§ fRyr gi y^ ? %^ S y 



fu«vj(i § »jij^ ^g§ gggft aq 1 -3^3' § HSt W% 3 #0 -*fe?5i B33t§ $(%", 



% 



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3R53t e fw" orfu i at e 1 "® Ww I 

fee fee ^^H-^feH^ et |U— 3tfT HHH3 5T3?> 2551, §H HH* 
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m ^tfoo fee wzw sraes frorrerc e* areesg $64$ 
?te e t »rfe»f T »f§ wars m §e i arfgt cre kdfH<fl e 

tJ'Httd et UH>H3 fee, WU5 ar'A^HA-STO fee feu HWe c?d: 

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>ht3Ht ^ elu fei 1 eaneter 9 i fee wstt sra^%cr 

for wit 1 §^ ?^ ?jhs § wfgrcr HTear ^s tp^ 1, 3Eft£ 
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#g* 5, | »rat fi^iTT u i feu fee^e tfete tfesr Hsena atel e^ 
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feaci *3[9 wm, faene^ fee era f* e?> i fed goraron^rfap 
ffe fee T awT el taral M^afeee e au fee ijaie eel el, M3 
prune § far iP€s sees e^ feHtgr f ?H fee^cre 1 >*§ faq H f^ 
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fee c7e?JT gf ^aT SS# W*FJS? | U g % R orTsf^H^-^Tj^r fegg, 

9eue »(§ ee? fe>HTift #y^ foe^f fee fs y^ nfew, fen fee 
h mmmml e*M ?aal efaa gal -^gr ^ H r H3 g ^ , gH ^ 3f> 
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£iT?welHe1 e^H'et ust erulet e! fei feeafe ee ^js ^Ht 

e, fe cTTfesrrHT^i »{§ ^ T g H H t^t § |^g |-y |^^ ^ ^ 

t "We have hardly learned how to light the lamp of the soul 

We have to save the rising generation from walking in false paths 
and to guide them into right ones." 

m 



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§^t § oft br u ? 

f8R RH Bl ^BfR SRfefeSH ^1 3U B t S3 1 , ^5 UfUT^a 



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(political society) 3\ ?gu T m§ R3\ 5, ^a fen^'H e 1 
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3D 



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*"According1y, the leading noble (Sheikh Farid) having 
been sent by the others as their representative, came to the 
prince (Salim) and promised in their names to place the King- 
dom in his hands, provided that he would swear to defend the 
Law of Mohamet."— Du Jarric, Father Pierre, Akbar and the 
Jesuits, London, 1626, p. 204. 

**Maktubat. I. No. 81. p. 106. — (Letter written to Jahangir 
Qulikhan, alias Lalla Beg of 4000 military rank). Urdu, op. cit. 

■\Ibid. I. No. 193. (Letter written to Murtza Khan). Urdu, op. cit. 

U -^j}^ ^ju^ /jJf^ &*X* y& 

l "Occasional outbursts of bigotry on the part of Jehangir and 
his anti-Hindu sentiments may ultimately be traced to the 
influence of Mujaddid on the fickle minded emperor." 

— Dr. Mohd. Yasin, M.A., Ph., D., 
A Social History of India, Lucknow, 1958; p. 171. 

3t 



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w 

3 ^ Social History of India, op. cit^p. 177. _ ^ „„ 

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^fe>HT feU" Hi, ftTH feq^ ^ fegW, foTCfTHt RH r fl |, R3H^ 
RW* f »>, era-feHBTHW | HHHH T 5t # l^qfe 5U?5^ Hi I feH, 

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fUSW Stffta I, HUUfe^r >H3Tf?t »rfe « ^ R^Ul f 

30 



hw% ^x foefotfiV, f# fee fen fuel 'eoV e fatre el 
3h! Uopg fewfawr aM eel o, fe "orw el em R3 1 e T uje fe^ H 
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tRpe aos i" rifc «*sg<i fear, v T ?>lu3 e He 1 ^ fee, ^e^l >ne 
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e fee v ee r e' e feire e wrsl >nege^ e 7 el fee 1 el 1 fee is 
fey cFe wea el tfsvftnlH* s^-'ira rr§3 e faw 3* fen e 
fees weye eore § ^ T e aecs ^s t , Here »ifoRe eesrel h! 
fmm for rs st^M 3* i a to nt^ 35?, frfy em e JW feee fee, 
33| yrfe 1 fee r W3 >H3 § .9 Hel, fe stss § swse e 
HanH fee ywr ie ^5 b^sT fee Hle^ fw i fee kw 
»ffeHe etn^l, r*o ^l^fsm e ye^, MWHMele e 7 e^ we 
Heee e 7 ho* ro^ egre el >h§ fuel feRBW e a^g* »t3 
tm ciecT, fatf feerj, etre e^ #* ipec? W3 Hd'tta el i t 

r?j «*tip fei' ee 1 wal em, w% w ^ee §*3 UV 
e fgpjf 3+, ael eVel eel giss ftfs fee rhrsp m f 3l fe 
fe^R3Tsl>jf g en el em H3 T fee fuReie e^few tf# 1 §r ts 
ee* feklw; ^rsk srtgren el ?eo M, eiel 3* Re Rcre >nfeHe 
(^tto— ^Tztft) hr*5H t ?t ? e £ fee gfswel fe eft? 
fe fee* el fuiS3l e >HTjre 3 Rynj3 ofew em hrbhw ?ra 
q^' o W3 fee fe?^ f ae^ee y&z ?kjT eteiT 1 feeHd'6 e 
Ree» ee w Re ecie »ffeHe ufes 1 ^3^ e fee ^ fe feR fRW 
w ^ere cft3T fe foe >H3 hrh)-fs, ? T e3 fee ^eelw, e ?y 
^Velw anr e3 1 2 'Toe 3 hrsh'3 fd'eee 1 ?^) ej3l el>^ e 
^yr e^," ro Rsie >nfeHe e T g^ ufiw ue?e^ 1 f?sT fe^t', 
mm§ e fea ugfea tthr fee 3c7ele crefe^*, >h3trt ^ gg^ 



^'(Syed Ahmed Brelvi s) Jihad was directed originally against 

the Sikhs in the tradition of Indian Islam References to the 

British rule in India in Brelvi's letters to the rulers of Bokhara 
and Afghanistan and the invitation to them to re-establish 

Islamic rule in India are of secondary importance but the 

primary objective explained in them is still the Jihad against 

the Sikh tyranny." Aziz Ahmed, Islamic Culture in the 

Indian Environment, Oxford, 1964, p. 215. 

2 Hussain B. Ty a bji, Badruidin Tyabji, Bombay, 1954, p. 203. 



3^ 



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howh fe.orgT5 (vz^-^at) § ut to hs§ as I hs h^3o 
f%g, ufus 1 yfus, fe.orgrs § hh^h stai § ^ftra towi §3 

ftf ^rg B fe^ fgrjrgr H f fetfgrg ^31 faa3 fa §3 3 TO? r 3 »<3 
tP&JHaWfd TO'U3T ^1 Wsfe 5^fe, fog 1 t? % 93 I 2 H T 33 Pd, 
<\£SO § ?FTO f^, HHfoH #31 f ^afH^ HH'31'H § y §, feH 

ufew 3 1 feu to HUH5 fe.orarK, jpk3 "€ u3 Oa^'g i eura to 

»if Hife^ J, fuel's f%3, fHHS'H f W3H5T MH H r qgj?-3'| T 
TO^ TOH^B TO I 4 



1 Quoted in R. C. Majumdar's, Three Phases of India's 
Struggle for Freedom, Bliartiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay, 1960, 
p. 20. 

2 "The religious Order of Islam is organically related to the 
social Order which it has created. The rejection of the one 
will eventually involve the rejection of the other. Therefore, the 
construction of a polity on Indian national lines, if it means a 
displacement of the Indian Islamic principle of solidarity, is 
simply unthinkable to a Muslim." 

3 "For the setting up of sovereign Muslim states in the North- 
western and Eastern Zones of the subcontinent, where the Muslims 
constitute the majority of the population." 

-** " " - " . i 

JU3I £ as f) S jj-a; £ ^*>-Jf £ yt@it* ^-^ us** 5 * &J u)"r 

3^ 



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VH TO, W3 feH W^ I HUfHH feu fH$ ^ §TC 1 fefua'R 
?Kfe»fT fgp>fT § l£?T3 uf3>H T I 

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sul d3 i 2 

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^U 3t e d r ?'f d HcTet»l^ do, VU feH feu f5f3 3dV fa q'dfHtf 
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UdH J33, ? r fdcli| >H5ffS Udtf el >Hdf T q OUq 1 ¥d[3l, n fe H_^l HU 

elsl'u el»{r e yfdsW {&*? ds, dT?du huhh H T fdg i nynt 

tTte fa dl WCPd3 do" I Ued3 HUHe H'fdg Mm. dd ?|, »H 

e ^3, - fdd r ' 3 t h1 ht^t feg t fcj^T^ hh t q1 e r t q?^ h^I wfew 
gue H5, >H3 §3 f et fen) HHffie feu ^ nuu § hrhh^ n ; g, 

'Wfdfe tf&\ f^^H dyu HS, fas* 5 fe RH^d S* Ud3 f3»f T dI 

after ufe»f nl >H3 ^u feo" d T 3 ^ e fg>H'o sajgj feu sis 
uf3e rs I uudu Hune R r fdg e u^u ^s 1 ^ feu", e, >na eu fdfeu 

(fK3, dU^) ^3 UUrfeS 1 (fH3 ^U^) fq^f^-uOV FFH ufRtJ RSI 



J . Dr. Jagannath Rao, M. A., Ph.D., in his review of The Persian 
Sufis, by Cyprian Rice. O.P., London, 1965, in the August, 1965 
issue" of the Astrological Magazine. Bangalore, p. 741. 

33 



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feR ^T3H3 fRyT3 Hf3 < ^UU3Z : 5^5 , "d MRS ?tnft HS* US I 

feyfe-»fugt § ^Tgnfeor feq^3 f r "^t fte 3 1 hu^ r>i^ 

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miw t{&iM& |h! si ?igi3-yjRq ^^-uus t , "Hys^T',- 



t Printed in Bulaq, 1274 A.H., and in Cairo, 1329 A.H. 
ft Printed with Abdur Razaq Kasbani's Commentary, in 
Cairo, 1309-132 1 A. H. 
* ftW 3 ; "y«TH3 6c eta, '^?tn?r «i>fl gjpS ^ Pass!, ps ^^mo ^ vfe 

*»|jiX-r^Ai*l ))l ^v* ^>JJ ^JliJj ^^^^ A^^ 1 

3M 



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** Nicholson, 5/m<//« m &femfii Mysticism, p, 59, 



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1 Muhy-d-din, lbn-Arabi, La Sagesse des Prophetes, translated 
by Titues Burckhardt, Paris, 'Editions, Albin' Michel, 1955, p. 25. 

2 w^fe-wraal, §131, ^, Hgq ^o? (wafal 3ggwi) 



3i? 



H3u & nm\ wm i\ fen ni\ X3 i ^3^us f v § ul fousa 
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at 



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1 "The policy of His Majesty's Government, with which the 
Government of India are in complete accord, is that of increasing 
association of Indians in every branch of the administration and 
the gradual development of self-governing institutions with a view to 
the progressive realisation of responsible Government in India as an 
integral part of the British Empire-" 

m 



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2 . "For years— it may be for generations— patriotic and loyal 
Indians have dreamed of Swaraj for their Motherland. Today, 
you have the beginning of Swaraj within my Empire " 



MO 



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fsp 3 ?" 

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145 



"%r ww ?ii U35T fefen mf&m b1 oft u Ro?^ 
3 fsf mhT- fecf »fu m ssfo (a half naked fakir) 

?> T S fe<3 HF § to 3 R?5 T U RR^U 3Ut£ ?" 

f?R b t §^ e^ff 3 t ?>£r f%u Ruureml ru t utr t ffiit?; fRu; 

fesr rut ua akuofRS &r r HR, btuu, ^1 ftftf >wrr1§rs ^t y^t, 
wg^T |fu? fnur § , fau^ fsr htuu §^§ ^ H a f HBS ^ 3 t 

§?>i R T § 318' Ufei f^U feu' : 

'fUHRB^ feu nfflUt ?'■ 3R33 3733* fel 33 TJUl" ufe 3 
fUHM', RRSRW, fRV 3 §R] faM T R3f ^1 f<5?RR3 US 575'Bt f?U Ue1 

M 9 ; h ; 3^ »f'yst fH3 afel § y 3 ts* ^ ^ b^~^\ yu fiftft ^*i 

5?H) R=? t $F U >H'f'e1 3^ Hdl »P3R r § 33T 3RSl U^t I US 3 
fFftf RJ HTU^RWU fK9 SS 3f R" ^Ms^ fifyt hh) H|U srel 
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feu' *ngr <H r S f f;qur H T Ut ®S "Rl I U3, Rfe&, 3U't >HoTO! Sfea 
Ug U I R3 ful UH U§UiTI&U H3 Tj\ SfMusfof H'fiMlftB- 
SffU3 feu U> SO)", UH fel ^fufe-jfi ^glfflV S« 33 Sdl'R'UH' I 
SU R3 SU7> HHTcT? GT^ Briar |"* 

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t ;: i atr^iw »i j 3' ft ?,t, feu ftsl ^ *«%(£? wmqt«3, 'clai ffslmi,* f?"g sm ft^i w3 
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— ■ — — C 

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t f l rtTu dt(t dlFl 3i fl tt,3l 31q3 ? W|3i t' feu riHfe«J~#'?jE5 "fit I 
f^R RH RU'BIR' |fil5cl ffl"^ MfeWB' S'tH f 5-^23 Wg35f3 § WSl M3j 

t;i 1st §s' Rtlcpa ofd feftji si r si' wve ?i« wf3 R 7 3lmi « ffiV ^ nwnfl 
aid? ^q n^f i va ^e rvi : fyi"" sftojsja wS'^5-3 >«3 ^sjk! s^s^I f^s'u ?^ wnu 
tiat H3i3 1 d g fe 3'5?^d wSssia stf ©h§ r^Iw « fpwl 3 : §yiH3i eras ^"3 

f5Fl vȤ flfi 1 gv| ^q^3 f^g q?a of3 few I f?S' R3oi ^ fe^al, 



k feu gfe TO^anwa ffw, wstea, *m ujW, iww$ 3 4 
fucrfu^Bai, "feuafo a gsfl 3 1 H r R?a (3^ fAui r1), sfu^afRui 

§ fW V $tfi& 3tTfa3 RS5 § f3>X'3 SUl 4 § R»R?3 | $#i 

^sfe gs»5 3 fewa sal 4 I ug ^ gjg a 1 **' 1" 

wr 3M,8o ?§ fgs* gf»T oe!*Hf s sfe f# us ua feu hs 

crs ?5T me), fg r! fea^e'al SRfe^aft & hhb 1 1 feR rh : ifasl 
? T 3 >*f 3 s'31^ 1 ?s 4 t$*al SHTfsaft el Am ate! are!, § fe§ 4 
R3 s HfuRH ate' fg fR3?> 4 faa cpaiR h t hs rf 1 cftel yfcft t %3& 
faa 5 ft iiojt us fen was st s%^ t w u i 

fe§ 4 sril a r f 2 3 ?g» stssr ^1 j^ho #s1 1 mH fea?s ite 
rs itf^ fm ufew, ftTR c? T as ateafR? SR3GT3iu i Ifels^ 

fe3, ?R» U§ H3H T 5 R3 fe§ § oT'aTR-SR'© SPSS ^ T UR # S§ I 
SPcflR § 3 1 ! *S 533 oTSSR f%g jjfHS US H^l a r U R*g U fdl>H' I 

fl'S «J^ HU'H § i3 3* H 1 3l 3**5 tf j^ yg 5 ^ ^ H 1lf 
3fe>H' I fHRefRS'U §B* H§ URRS3 TO § §5\ 3 f R ^ fug% R 4 
fR § S?Sl ^ufRfotyr >H3 UHR' §R t"l BR WSJsl si feV, §R t3l 
»{'3R qqr |-%R^ R3GT fu^Cf >tf# §R ^1 feg^eS fjzft 3" >H3l 
*J3*S3 Ufe^T jfiftt grgfeg fe s uu^gf § y § fi| feus : "fRV b' 
RH' US feRgiH S gf3>rt' Ufe^ 1 U 3 ¥3' fog^f S, U3 fiw RU UU 
#S fUW ?«: R5t 3%i US f H 4 fcTO', 'feu >Mf3Rof 1# SU?, 

fef3u j Ro? aBlu" (rt is not a spiritual trait but a historical 
pre-disposition) irs 3 fRRea fas'u srs fua fu %m Ra^au, 
3 #a r^' n ^fus gar, "| gst f# afs e?M 3" (you have 

fe i<i« feB, fs^ fcfi bV1313 aisi^a? ? vagw f?^ 1st Hi fe R^tjg fifca 

fifui ^BlTBj W3?§2, 3181332, ^ ^3 W§ HWg» S*IBgwS feu 5?^ 5^1^ f^, 
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f?3 WT U § 31^1, F-a^a gg S1M f^u, ^ $,„_% ^jjjj ^ fia^ (gig^^2 flf fl ), 

i ^ f« up 1 wstkJ wiajwt f?g ftra<?g HS> $&■■ f HR ^m^i p bu! 
&-& yfew 3 i iraB^ua^M Pw si pf33$&: "§s ij fert ? 3155 s rl 
hh? S3i : 1 i c?§3 vag3 ftTM ^^t ^, ?asji3 H'feg f gfew f ? S3l§ ?" f?§ : s 

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331 $3'33 S 3f3H?3 P'feq fea ?3^ S3l*" pi ^31 fowl t 



spoken profoundly), 3&, 3$s 3*5 § §§ 99 irel 9^1 

fU>«T«g» |" €tft 9*$^ §9*5 5TOgHdfU5 f feg UlfHHS fiWU, 9*H- 

fa a, fag f9 h" fefew^gl Hi, fesr B993 ^5 ws i w$tem£\ § 

£fe*H*1TO»£ §5» 3 f«feH3'5 # HFTSHW ^t 3^1 fe?H9 T 9 T § 

H993 fefew fsruT : 'fw' h1 uiflas fan cjoral fscpcr m?^ 
rhssI 95?> 3 1 §3 39 ?qa1 5?h h Hard 3?j ua fae>H t § us 59 

95 9 31351*1' KH5HW 3W 25s? r §5l>H' B38 35 I 93 H f93 95I 
fayi 5' $#5M5 tflsa 35 T !" (It is difficult to understand the 
position of the Sikhs by logic or justice. They claim the rights 
of a separate nation but are determind to do down the 
Muslims at the instigation of Hindus. Ah, the Sikh leader- 
ship !) H~ 3 H3e T 3 933'3 fifo« g'gl 1933 fa 33l<313 gf9H33 
HS, 99 35 3T9 U3l 99'3 3T§ US, 3H WW tTSH f^f s § y 5 W | 
§H feS FPH I H 1 fHH33 fiWU f 33S f?3 fH5 9 fafE* 3I31 
fo f S f ?> fffd" Htsa* S r § fs3'33l 5§ ^tsr f9§' 93, 3* §3 9f35 B3T : 
**jffe>X f , #1 3tI3gi 33 tfitTU § 3 T 3?>l39H9 99 33 I H3l>X f 31*5* 
& fQWS ?> T ?5 R3 § 93 93 fl 3H75' 3 3' I 9# 9t^§ HUlW OT 
§& H3 93 wfsgfitoT l" (Young man, sentiment and emotion 
are not the same thing as political insight. Consider my 
remarks dispassionately and if you can do something, do it. 
When you grow mature, you will mark my words.) 

991 #3 vfU8% § >Jffi §3, fe3 aiV H§ 93 W8JW 3S 1 
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S'?5 3l, f *H8j£ f?9 U3S H?> I #5®! 3f3H3 M8T, »{HS ftl 9Tf9- 
HHt?5 Si 99*95* # H9l 35 M3 f 3. §®J fe&f feu WfawSPZS €) 
99*931 HT 33U3 9^3 93 33 Hi § 9^9' >ng?j5 g^ H (wet. Hi. 
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f?3 RHt3» 93 t f3?H3'5 f H^t 93T3 H3 ?5?lH I fjq33 T HH?3^ g 5 
MRl' 93t§, f H ^1 HSH31 3 fH § fo§ 9f#g ®t f3H?'3l §1 >H9 
31 fHS tP#afl r §3 §§* H 99 HRSH T ?i §"9931 33$$f uH3l»i' i 
3^H H9 § 99 3i§H »TS H'3^3 f 3'§H m$ 9»HSH ^ 9T3H9 
H i 93* ^ 3^H S3 I H' ?9 3lV 9'3* $3fop 9 § flH^T § ®§ ef3^ 1 
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abater is!, 5?sl HASH'S stea § M^J 313*^5, MJW gl c?3^H?il 
V3 #3 tea jf 1 fen afegrs § fR§ g*jjs ^ fatfB^ £s i 4 fe© 4 

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♦"Hindu considers political matters and their implications 
years ahead. The Musalman tries to tackle them just in time. 
But the Sikh never thinks of them unless the time is actually 
past and the matter is well settled. The Sikh brain is intoxicated 
and obscured with the memory that once they ruled over Punjab, 
and they quite forget that the tail of the Sikh lion has been 
twisted by the British." 

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**The da-ly Hindustan Times, Delhi, 27th April, 1942. 



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frulgw, "feu frfa* gsl oft au Rae us ? (fogf el teal 

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RfW ul SUl\ R3T fSF HOT* 3 fUR f?B ^ HU-f31£3l P?3 SU? I 
feU fffV el RU'fec* faU3 3'U S'S 335' 8UH 03 ?" R3 Rfafea' 
fffUJ 5fte H^., "U'faR3'S £ ^?RS §3 yfeffH 7 ?, 5??S fej" 3'U 

fntp d Hato & so> >h§ s at feu 3i| el f^g* §tr 5 i 3 , 
ftfV R^a foeH3»s W3 fu?»re uh ^ ynyu us fc7§fc7 faew*s»*5. 
r*§ Rga g§ |u/ § qyrf =■ us 1 uu fffe^jf s fnV e F Rks hus 
fUHR^S H HHSHW § feRSTH S'H &| 33 feV U I feR feg §1 
cfelggl 33 U ! WRBfcflS* €? feal WE c 3 333, >HR? S fa**H* Q* 

3U3 as R?ig prat uf >h§ s fu5R3's el as) egu T r? 1 i hrs- 
htst s T s Rfutnai of3^, frfy, s a^3 rrhh 1 ^' eW fesfeyg i^V 

(exclusiveness) >H§ fo^ H#R R3'>H § Ui 3a U 7 RSH US R3? 
fuew § HFTHHfSJ M§ irraff3 f S § fu^RHfS f?Ua : 3 M§g §3 T 3Bl 
3^ Hi fedttdlldl a3 Ra§ US I fef s § feu fRU^ fRU3 7 h t SH 3 

wte fu5H3 T s giai', §u fuaul? § saw uiaiT, 2S# 3* fo^ 

RSffTU 1 #3, ife U^a a3a a^ U3 (premature and caesarian 
birth) U § US, f'U HR 1 U tT?3ll I fe5 fRcft 3 fffyt ^t ^r^"} 

fHss §1 I h 3j|w s wfs Hfuw ui" Tr fau', "3R? r afu 

33 U .feR STf5 H3 HS MH3 a? tf HSfffU |U, U5 ?'H 3'RR*I 4W 9'3 
H^ US, f3fftf feff ITR H3» RS, HS ^ 35, 5 4 ^ a§ TPHt fgur 

5 i if 3urs ^nrelijit anaf3R hW ^serffST, fen f?R §§ sr 
ul #n u» i ira aete fwffs ?«{b>ht ^ $ $$ f eH , gt H ^ 3 ^ 

o%» u fa S3l s ?" f-33 fe3 s, "suV, >xr Hal ael Rf?R3'3 
afe q>3 fen fen i f st s t h suV usl i U3 f u hu s^h sis 
s?*3 ass ^h^ fesrwTs us, feu h§ as? ur fW taiw u i 

t3 






3*£ 3RV '*&& «* U^r gg g^gj, g g g ^j, fa m ^ ^Jg, 

£ »fn4s 1113 grn 5 «r§ §3 OTssraiT i fH b»s ft gl r§ sth 

3»3 tfj ?fg 33 H^gj] , fr ^ (^ jj§ fgu f8er ^ »ft{3R3 gl 
'TO* #R 33 T i 

pr fes h- R?a fwtf § *r m fi few ai fRw ^ s? 

3T §0 HJHJ5 UJ3 3 3g3«3 feg Ul JET5 fRS | H3 S*« 93 53 
m fea 3'? R*J 0?3 4 3t! 3 H3 Og ggig| | | H fgg u- 

"sratf 3*ite to s's \w tr-a ae) gig- q<3 sras ^ 
>Hftra»a us en* agV 3 i aaai 3' »,^i S 1 ^5 satgi R3l 3dl 
eaan 1 fawisl 33U'3 1'ri.u*. r'hs! Merest 53 

fej U3 3 R' IN 333 §51 faO» I 33 fiH 4 fug* R3 Rf<Jl't?3' 
Trui M'U ol TO, "H§ iff MR %i? im <?1 3? R?» R3Sl 3t 
R 4 3J3UB1 fe3 R_3«3 3 3 fl'S' I fed MS'sIm' § M3" R3 3 fa 
"* f '■ 5*T «52 TOl !.flR3fe? 3^*5 

f#3 33S fi0T #e» 3'3V 1 R3W 3£ &,33l»|T HRig| §H3I« S3)- 
flfo 3is1»f* I ;.* &s e' 3 1 ! 33 

R3t" Rl I £3 RU foe?B Rt#9H 3 Scfa 3f3 H'Sai) I M313R fejl 
3S 3 1 fatf S • §3 fa« Hdl53? 3* fefl S 32' S3) 1 I 



•Yon aw ,.,tl. ff ised talk with Cabmcr jM.ssion bv Pairtb, 

Kariar S.ngh Steam 

ifofln* 

m w« 
IN w u 2 m # 



ra 



*to5 u) >«Rgs a^T ft§ to i ^ Rft 5»al uar craS 4 pel Hfa 

fifr 5K* Udf •HO'^5) }'sr f* aft €$§ tftf a I U3» Si 

nfeaja ^ al w& ?33e» 5 i" 



• 



99te fHHff e R»UH5 Ufagr 3 Hjig) aSH foj Rl fa fa 

^feRa-S «) waniafe? arrs, ee ^ steal § HS10 j^ - 

ea f?cFS qiss c?» sreRsigiire was] gg»ei w Raart 1 wur'i 
hhs3» tel Efc?vw»al stea* S* s» a> ey 3 agte funs s 
3H?la ate) for £ HT3a ofaitF? e, fas; feg fea >hb3 a^, u 
HRfsH slai s, fea fRy, fear ifragj 3 fea fcreR3'al siWl. sis 

3 ^feRarS 31 <TRS a?H5l «43 feR 3R¥fa £ ^1 of^R 

9f[S a* aly I 

faw i 

feR fers ay] rr sal- did (aw* h1 fa >naraa <pt» tf»3? 
luV. set fa»ss 3 feR s rt?c ae'i 

v a«aia'j-i ia 

fed rWtf .j-3 .., I • jrP e| 

i 

R 3'SedRfea, 

ftea to 
M» ua*9»». 

M*^ Bff^ EJc-d 

S uIrh (Sovereign Co 

AS K» 3* 9*5,5 ofoRTa tf rfl 3 .- , . n fej 

N»5 Si5*fs 3 a'r? 3'j: , 



«1 H»a1 3^3 fm*$ ijtas f^ sufe3\ ft^sl fa fs^. sfifo l : 
ug gs) wel h1 wf HH5H T 5 fesas" f?^B 3 san u rFBHo ; 
a T s1 u^ fais3l an f «r 3» 3th gj fe qw* qwf s % T et afe a? 
5#^ Hi 1 feu §*3l 3 fes ^M s fe al, fan f i^fej-i s^gi 1$ 

# s ^l 3* «53Hl 33*1 I fef* fe3 T 3 a Hflfow Bfel 3 §H8 T 3J5' 

fsr sa, 'da* f$ a^few *la1 fka ?5 T "Ofe 1' feu aate fnes v ;: 

tteffrf $M olU* 3 RlVP St?BS gl 3% $» tl u„'€l 3' 5i |"f" 
QHcft « HfUf tfl & f53l §U ul fO^H3'o t! T €3*3* *si#0 aj^S 
SHI 5P5l Hi » g2 3«f HRfeH sfa, ftW S if Fp3>H* HHfeH Hlc* 
HSUS DfflSBl ^ l^f ^ fS3 BSl# R;5, feu Hotl 9l| »r 

uul Hi fa fan s 1 fan fu feu RjBHBfS si fe'aHs JHtep, f*- 
3*Si8 fete ngsre t? p feu a*fevi afasl f «n u ■ ii%? tes f. 
hsIh si feu Wufcw r-il »f§ fen nci1n § wnfsH *&$ 8 #3 fsul- 
S T B eras few Hi I HHfeH 5l<B £l Q3J fes* feu r% fa fen a^o'- 
Huatu an asl »ffiu »iftra'u & £te fast ^#a T gar, wnfe*? ao 
fai^3l § ut-?* feu, fzraajfH s> u^aa'tJ wtoa ss> fw 3 fey 

'HH75H^f3 3Ul 51 a ! 3£ 35 !* Sfl, gfl«1 H5J ill It WM 'tC : $.J 
mW feu HHHHW t? r U3* fe3(^ 'Is? Si 15 fi% TRU, €iw! 

3 ipuhI h t 3 tea sO. ^ §3 ap 3^ s t u mz i feu ?a 
wnsH r R* § au?> f1 3la"s 33 3* us), faf A a fw, £??** s na f sr 
ugH^ fu*e ^ HFisif aufai53l i fes^faw f<?u 3^3 s» nw* b!, 

@u ^ fu sw ^« % 3? taV ^-'| 3 3 hhh^^' €s Uc h' 

MHBJPS 9 1 ? U F't 7 Hi, HUH? ^^ U^l fj^»i T $ ^ !;n i ^o3 v T 

feHRP au fa H3 i ff fas ff!« feo >^1s v^ T kj5 fa fa ^ni? 
»jtu I fea H33u 3 foauy fea^-il RH3 i, en i a'snl *e fe 

f-?«lJ5T ^«jg 35, 3* HHBH^ t Ho kU fe?iJ U^a SuT r10^ 

3 f u m # ?>u ^h, feSr fV^n33 3a c ( fj »r fag, ffi ; i ; fa 

* •*. . . .the Muslims fear that if the provinces are not free and 
autonomous, there will always be a danger of undue and unwarran- 
ted interference from the Centre, which will be dominated by Hindi."- 

sofar as the Hindu majority provinces are concerned, the> 

will be *on velvet' the whole lime." — Speech by Punjab Premkr.. 
Sir Sikandar Hyat Khan in debate on Demands for Grants in Punjab 
Legislative Assembly, on II March y 1941. 



1# i % | 3?3m fgf fevfe^ faifejsta a, for yaalitoa, 

4M iTO, wh, rr ctohIcJ, s>y § faR^s ^R ( ^"f? H r S ^ 

» 8 gRSHQStjg* *a t ? r %W-| **?£ TOf p f 8u ^ 3lsr 3 
f£ #8 t i§5'3 €l RfS ftfH^Si R f§W ^{Hg^y fe R ? g_ 
«2S» Ft RW feferl fifai # feg «ff$ § I <?gte f K RS Hi R^R 
fit* feafSOT ^ 3 r fai»fT jfl f? oT^3l Rcfe?rg fa §fe 3 %[^ 

tffcfW (Defence) we'W3 (Communications) 3 fgfurg 
(Commerce) fs#al $& (Foreign Policy) we # ^fr^ig 
at afas 3 s r c?1 H»vr \jgq e rs Mfacra ^3* as afe 1 fe^ 

tfBSmS RR5H Rl fa f?£f f 3 f5? r aofdJS3l 57= 533* tf<*» ^« 

•43 Rf# 1 sfaa h1 i feR g flgrei ^t S i tf R sra^ fe* 
asraft f>ra\ for "sfe gftw" u s§r1 sTsfl** , "gp3*w3", feu 
•3 wn&ave^ m? VGi tef § aft Mag 3% "jfe? #ftp#* 

S$ fc?U3 fc?03 »>ffgc7'3 ahggj RgcTg qg, ftH9 ^ 5 g 
%| s 'Of **§$ 5t3t" r "c^re^" «*fe E>rg Hj fen ^t % h 

twa* aft, f€trs tj$m at sraaiT } f H>1 & gr ^ p^g f gCT H ) f g 
!%qp$ ifto fea f#f ggfe3l r feens §r gr a r a feaH3 33 

St 3 R »ffa3>3 gj srgg) Rgsfg | §g* gig § £<f , H ^ r -g 
ofoa Rl 1 MRSHJR* 3 33 U(£ fossfejt £, fg# S tg, g^g ^ 
■•■iUHi m f%& fa, «?|{* # <3& W8 yr fuf '• gr* fog S f~^ f 

gt Hffst &m i$&&. f ^?j? T 3p^a fe1 sdJ* i fea 31? feR ^*hs ^ T 
ft! f? ^Hl ngg B-t al ^Ff9 d, mkotI fecrrssr qrgs e r ^ 
i$mi % gr | i1B T f- } ^ mfmsl «t«^ R#4e^ ufSR'a gggj], 
^f 1 fe^nHRfe, feauu w 3H r u ae (reasonable men) Sfg g) gfg^ 
i3 3 m* fsas* RHe^-5 i{H'5^ *^v (accepted meanings} 
fi g] #5 1 *i:fsr3 R^'ua c5T« sfba ?eaiT f?g?T S) ^^^ § 

I, ua §*# s rr f?a w^ 3 ^ T ^y^-j U3y -g Hgf?33l § wis 

M3 Ro, ?1H, cToH 8cT g^> t f "a M f gaH Ua3t ?5Ht, R STg 

sfay al i feR rr 1 feg^ §4 a feg M gg ^ fe3CES§ azsilf 

RilfSH St3! i RHt I 

c?) ^faa tft % RHf3»iT st fsr a ag §3 gfo ag g?5 fa fef 4 
^1 m wm mf d ? m fea fe ; f s^ § fegrg f?g »}? far 
el f?a r aa r a' >HSR»a, R33a faeR3's fe^ fea sat ; Mfe«T T^t^ 



fec{TG{ats fsaau wan 1 una* § ol 5, feal aafa!53l § sol* 
>H3 »wd hscj 7 § »faa rbI? Maua i § ua^s t> wfls g;i as. 
a^nl H3» W faa % # i <saT i fl sfaf tfl e j , atari* «', § 

faW ^t to yg fei H3"§ HS*§feiJ 3, 3* $n$S 3 pWB € 

nm al as! <sa? afa ^ ,te£ sh £ fa figvs 3 spss 

gt^cp ^ fo30[t3 aB^H'S H -feS' 3* 01 ftP 7PH D I feR 

afow §3 3* aet ara cp wro ana* faa wfes at sa? 3fa 
pas' i U3 %a feara fw is hh fen sfof *$ | 3dY 19 a?§ 
>H3 3 as f # § hs >fea Ht fa §f £ fa?) - * B*aiHua § ho 4 
<re faa* i ua £ aa »tob1 fe#f fiigtf I RS 3* hhbhw bs! 
oa a>a at al afa few Rl fa fa wus 1 <ra ^ai ^a* i'£» 
b^ ? 

*»*$, itfeg i 3la ass, Hflfew 3^a 3 ftftf oa aas 

(Direct Action) S* H3' Mm aa fe3« § flVWK 3 H*H*PH* 
£ Sapfow fa §a n£ »ra?R3, s^eg | f$P g a aas tP f es 

H7»^f3 I 

vraa,^? T s a H3aa <^a3 3a § fes* tea. Baikal ua 
tw. faa frfa HHSvrs, Has, >Ha3* 3 aa, f 3. ush! fas fe3 
3 §3PH fea a3H ala ar§ i faa bu a*rat»p i h? #ai as 3 
qaH gte 3§ i mo sW »t^h1 >hus fu^aul *sh waa^ tea* 
as? aiS 3 uia 4 au;a a£ i >«3 ^oo >naa au ?! a^ ng^?a a'sl 
a a l i tea ^5 nl, feR farjtg h ^faa f9 f> fpiu^e ^» fe» feot?^ 
na^ »(3 a^sl nani t >^aa aa far^l § MS? wn»a3 3 
faa ^ qa f w$s 9S, 5a apl p3^, pftfti, BW^^g >»faa 
ura5 ea^ I, fa , fRS' § aa, 3^3*, fRO 1 t?1 te^ § 
nfa'a 3, wf s ? f al a, wavs fas, soT Hfssi i fef* fras r , 
ffli 1 fa sfaa al S RfewF, ^^Har h% ua fef" Ra a fa afas<, 
^ ag sfai tf i faror, fa a'e ifl wh^i m i aan ft a^3 aaHT 
s h aaHa aaan 33 i 

fen asa§ ^bI ^R sns^R ^ * fu i fll * ®** 1 ^ * 
wa^al s>ffeTe»H* a^a? fnV § fea sb 1 ?' fe3T : 

»4m # Ho^a frfy w nsa ^ a v as>a as i ft ms^ a' 



ta fo^H3 T s % §33 feg fgg >n^n to »*§ fears re T g^^i 

9, faff fe^ fffq* f V § feR 33 ^ ^T 31 3% ('** 

gu'Ha, foasn 3 fen*3 y»s ?^H fay f?sj gas* f , rs vmc 

3a, feSoPH R3 ^^sl H^^ 33 I 

3U jp^, <*tf8£ § fetre ^ HH ^ g^f § ft£ fo^ 1 

fgfeff fg?N* f ^3* ?b' ^tfd ?>H*fe§ fift|«Hi #gs ?rc h?>, §3 
h t § i R13. ( £ wztf &3 § ) snafu § TOwffi aii 1 3t 

HRfeH h1<t fe§*, HRfeH Sfor, 53 fr[3 3ist I 3 fef" a^R*! giof) 
R'fuw % feas HcPgH fl ¥t, gig) gufaT53t f?3 R3 I fen fetre 

q]R5 f?3, (SfilH tfi £3 aB?> ofl3 fRH'Bt >tf?JFI 7 3, ^ feg'S g^tf 

>H§ §r feqr S g"§ j*$|* w ^ ggi n\ fu fan gig gfgf n t h?1 

=it 33R 1 e? 1 ^ S3? Hi, HHHHW SS' 3* ffftp af33 Hi I 

^Q >W3TH3 § 5»feH9T§ £ 5*afR § Ut^3H § a*€3l 3£P33 SS'S 

51 f3H35 F#0 I ^d >H3TR3 S HRSHW 3, *»W5 39? WU5 T WU 

<fi a'?r R? T alH/ ^ H3 T ^'a § § »ms was fe3t i gara § fg3*a 

f?3 f»i ful HHfeH SH T ? »f§? 3 3TU W3 ff3!>& § HRfeH sfei! 

Htf H31, R0d»£*l**1 £ WSTO 5ra fc?3 T fa H a'tJJ R35P3 epaTH ^ 

52 3T5l 3 r g3FH R33 §H g£T £53? ;jt#3P 1 p h#H § ^f«Hd'2 
3 >MU5l S# >Haraafa^ a'RH 0^813* R3 H5>3 >HfUHB ITS §H 
£?3, HRfeH ?5l3T t?t H3^1 #* fa**, R'HH U^ H?5 I §R § feHH § 59 

^a fee, ^57 ht^ ^ ? m'fes era fe3» f3i>H' i s»s $ bsb! § >HfaH5 T 9 T e 

%B y<t fo\ HRfeH 5PPH W3 3 31P 135 3Pqt ?fl ^ HfS»P fa 
fU5H3^ "yWfl3l1 ^ HU 35 V y3* 5" I 

fen r>t sfo| ifl ^ *3?> al3» fa, hb^ rn^, tret ^W 39 spb- 
?1>ht yi ^ g 5 i f^§ HT5 1 §^t ^ ms^ al3T fa fea^ ijfe^ fe^ 
Irs R3?RH3t c^s g#§, sg-f3T53l i ^ s^s so? 1 ug fen 
S's u^ ^agal uet mhbh bIbi ^1 3Rfel fag u^l ol i fa?nu ^ 
i"33 fee faa% "Hal fife fee s?a T h^sw f3W 3, 53 hsh gal 
^1 3, fHST-H* fHSW afe* 5l S3? " ( I have been stabbed and 
kind words will not stop the bleeding.) 



* The brave Sikhs of the Punjab are entitled to special 
consideration. I see nolhing wrong in an area and a set-up in the 
North wherein the Sikhs can also experience the glow of freedom. 



t£ 



°?3 wr^S3 } i£&£ § fgg e« sr, fa ?'f?H^§ g, 'tfaraafe^ 
aire fee, a*afR £ s# « m as, HRfsH slar ^ apqg ifo tH* 
3rs R^laig srg se, fas* fee fa fia >Hg3, af#£ s*g feH, ggpg 
3m1 hI i HRfeH sfar 3, aFnai Raa j g e wsg ^3 it tl, uiaR3>o 
ffl35 el 83*81 a»al alfl i uggt Ira fee S3 wst SR>e u gig, yg 
Mares f5eH3is § ggl 3* £b\ tm*% es ssl §3'<?s ys di rs i fen 
hh! ^'feRg*e ?> feres ipse ?1 ttea asis fa3 f3H3^ U3^ " c 
stag I "-Rtgl erg fe§ § t! eRgg, nfesl te e* fes f^Rfgg 

3 ^RHT] oT9te fHH3 el FRlH feg fH3 fee^T offer faffil j% fa 

feires ulRe e, t$& e - mfifew ^ fee' j*jSH«a, ^gi ^ as m% 
351 fef^, r ggro I uR»g § «rsh t s wrfee g f ge 3* wj8 
if3t s 1 ?yg r feres g^^sel, ra* fee ii is Rae rs 1 os 
?3i3' feg gfe 3 few fa al gtgn fes Iss so&o* aiagW 
mu£ fetres gg RK3l ts's, ga Rcrggftw ? a*gTR afgel r1, fa 

£# s §# § >HU5 fetres* el >M3H H?Sf3l, H»# 3 R'3 fep3 tfb@ 

i s ssl utgfl i feR s» rur? w% feg r1 fa gg forest § HRfsH 
fes*fa»f €^3 st, as) ferres >wfag T sa? y^'s 3 #51', fsRel 
wfoi»n fge gg rh3| s #i i fef' feg f3e-HR8H 5313' feg 1 

3JW Rl, WH UfHr % R3 f ^ gt J^ 1 ¥3^ gfg>HT | 

h RH?3»^g R^ r 3' ^fi T g*g «^s yw-Rafl e ? gl r1, ug 
fnRgg r?5'g £ h*# gfgfe3' fe gs fg^w p® rh§3' »!R3s 
g i 

rs ntfsd @ Rge1>n' i f?s r^ 3 fHR?g fFR'g fer e 
feo» ss! s'ga »f§ gs r?> I Pt fs* | r« t h ssbk fa.? fMf»»-; T , 
§ afsT gfst"* feg% »'sr1* sptfl st 3 sfga si s'5 te a ael R» J o 
R^ f 8l si g»g fcf to! : s^e ?" r§ #5 $<[swz i S 3'fa^ T 3 

fagT, "hrhr's s sr e f '4 T 3-g« eras* g»f^ g^ i * fl^<s , ^ i 
?y fe 1 fg?RR5MT^ | sns fa?: sgY' i^ 1 3<^'«r§ HBageg aas' 
sge gsi >H ! f^ ^ rh ; feg foguy 3 r g1ye'3 na few eT# 

el URel ag^3I T' (Muslims niether desire division of the 
country nor separation from Hindus. The Hindus do 
not wish to defile themsehss by the Muslim touch and 
are determined to turn them out of the country. 
Tfae future historian will support me in this). 



SiF i wfew u" (Whenever Gandhi has met me, he has done 
*o with the intention to cheat): 

fureu fa?s'u g# mmzwcrs* Wb m, fcf§ sua! ?'g, gif* 
f*R §fl§ si, mfm, fiM afe h"u f§ hto fisi 

feir^ 3 C sp fgg 3} fag* tl sfe u fc? fas'U s y^l m sfel 

fc*, "* >H9ige M fU5R3*S f?g i feofS^gl gif % g S 3fHR5HW 

| r qus* gu3 ^e s* 3'3i e H5?# us, # 3 £ fl^ , 3 

SaS* flWT 3* Hq^M'S, $3* 331 M yr 3 g} gj^gr S g ^ " 

^ fei; %#* 9? sel afe feu use! s §y 3, Saggf w r§c 

S Ssg? MS'S 5feT fa f£g gfgf H ^ T 3*flf§"eT § %fa H R75 HBiSl 
5* W^S *pfs 3t 3 fu^H^S *?t giflnj ggg g^5 §, fe -g ^ 

33W ^3S ofe* ?Pi i ^feflgi§ H ig^ §Sg § J^g fgg^ fa gjjp 

ffltp ^ SH'fe?' eft qs'ST gt^i i 

fef\ ffWt Si fu^R^S f?U, WJ§ FW) § W3G? >tfT3KT feUc?Tg 

feus us § &3, h»§ £sN* 3 htpu ffH, ^ W3H3 3 RfetpU'Ue? 
gta?3' a, fg ^otb 1 s <3'Rr! ifeg f w § fessr sto § mm, 

H3 ^S 33 SSl J feH $! 9*3 feU fll, fa fU^Ro'S feu RS331 
iJU'fe* W3H5T feof»e1w (dynamic spiritual entities) fis, § 
3?8 f3?5 Ul, US', * fa fu^^ff Si UiflHl R3» ^»P HUl 3 Uoft 

^ur us i uu fny slsu* f?u, f r ^^, feH guncj § m&* 

SB 

^^ 3 feR f v 3 fRy g»fTSM fit »{rmg gy^ ^i 5 t 9 §g] ^g_ 

t? a al 3 f?H'K-fal slag h^uhs suT fR i 

gu^ rh» ufusT ut, ru fifgic' f#| el w^. aag g 55^ 

fRW tfl ^fHHU^ # ^rarasfc? 3 i R5 f?U, fflV ?i3 i '':n U^ RS 1 

m w:o $ §3B' feu, $mm) A* feR fussra ft fsjsro gfe 

9'3 SH3% 3 f 3fOS SUI, ' ; feR IPH HU< HS 5o" rTHfoW J f R %B HUl 
3S1 W3l #s1 §Ho 3 3«?^ ^1 SUV R\ § H3 HS f - 3 € Ul 
VJ'^ RS, »^«1 93 m 39T3 US >>{3 gfgTRt 53 §^, ' 3I -P I H J 
5 ; gfR £ Ug'r US' Ul, fRV & 8 r 3 RK5€* 3 fe3^' fou» l 



r fas U3 1 u>, fe* Rfetf S *m§ s T s fe| a sgji| § "*S3, 

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•\So as to enable the Sikhs to have political feet of their own 
on which they may walk into the current of World-History." 

tf3 



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* "Adequate safeguards would be provided for minorities 

ft was a declaration, a pledge and an undertaking before the world, 
a coftaact with millions of Indians and, therefore, in the nature of 
an oath which we must keep." 

t!8 



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"In handing over the Government of India to these, so called, 
political classes we are handing over to men of straw, of whom, in a 
few years, no trace will remain." 



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3&1 ?Hp 3 3f3M T Fft >H3 R3l feR ^^^3^ fey 3^3 %%7& 3 R§ 
§5* H5fr ^r g^i feRT^T g^T fggT § feg gftgf |§ fe g H^i 

>H3y t § *F3J 335 UH 1# 33 FR I 33l STS 1 H FKFS f3t ?TO iftra 
^t ^3^3 f^l t^TPZft | RH3^ 3J fegT ? T^ I §Bf 3 ^gt j »f y^ 
§3& ?xjY 33 R33 T 3 S VT ot3 R33* R' fe§33 K" fe3 MRU 1 " 
ijtcra Rt fl3ST 5 T 33 R35T3 M3 feH § W ^ S5f3 T tft, 3^3 fe3|, 
WR3 3 ^fe3 f€RT ljf3 fRH5f fesl 5fB ^^5^ W I fesf frw 
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(5) )TOiH3f cN^ 3SHl3 frfui OTR R35T3 3 fe^f R3j R?J | 
§ST ^ »fof3H3, 1947 feg y^RTSr ^ R3^31 ^3T ofty I ffft ^ 
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fK53 ftlSH 33 I #3 §S" f S R 1 } 5^3 R^3 T Uffo^ 1 " fe ^3 RT§ 
%3' feR § ^ ?J3T fkff R3H? I feR R3j fl} W wi 7?& MR3CT 
fe^F3 3T fft 3l, feR 3" fef ^cSJ § fgs T »ffe^ T 3!>Hr | 3U33 3l5f 
feUH ^ 3f¥M T I fiTH W W Wfqopgt 33 3 H T 3 R3T fe3 ?J r yRaT^g 
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SR, 3 ^H 3 ^S S3f?T UR^ f i K5^3T R°3j rft § R3 f?3y feR 



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fortes U5 i feu ur £uu g u r fen-3R3 r i fen ta feu fen 

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HffofBUSJ f%R | feR 3H t?1 £fete (waifufeu ifl. 3S8GT. 2(«)I15) feu H 1 ^ 

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feg* ^ *fw ^fe> H r § fa<r fa 3$ Nana ^. ^ m3H Fra ^ ? - H,? ^ 

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liiU SS^st §3 »{tu^ jflf^Hl ul UUl 33* HUl ^ I H'U W | URWS ^ 
§U ^U £u feu U r § Htf H3l S MTU^ fetf3l S? feU HST3 Sfer U, feq§ 755 t 
fe^T yW rt U ^t g i f ? R f%g f^T UT HU fe#l §U ^ U 3 feu M^sfegT ^t 

for m| w?! h! >mh. uu 3^ fea uh h t u i u T u ^u fuV rnt 1 fea 
su Uott 3 afiw^ ul MoftsfHT feu u^l ug f htu yr wv u 1 f§ yruuu 

futru u ; s?h «tu»i T wfcHiT gife»r u fa sras fe^fua Hu^ra as fesr hV 
feu ?1 u fun ^'Mtut feu »i T u uuu u^h tfuI au hhuI u, a^ J 

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5Ut S HoTUl 1 lu. ^TUU fe^Ua HU3TU feu HfU3 HUUl fscrfHU H3 T 
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H5B I feR §§a H?l f3lfe 6(17 Hi, H3T ; feR Ul fgf U^l dU 

rt |-j gi^ @ q^ ^t 3 ^31 Rf^i s , &g ^T §3 sal btuu 

u^ u o?iur f?^-^^ HUcTTg si hhIsu! I cua alul uyu^us i 
mrut fa fan yjTy ^sr-te sel ^ft* H<jr mm feu feul ^a u 
>nTiru 3 o?uu a?? i feo ^u^s b^ fu feu Hua^ul uhut^u uu 

feUBl u^R-e: ^g» ?l7rU? R3TUI UlTTJ, oUUU fe^Uo? HUUTU B^? 

fu»f ul ?1 ub' uaul i u^ u feu feR H^sfe ul uu ui; ul Mufgu ua cr 

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fwh fsfirs fe#* si iW I sre5 #f hh wot, teis r^ q* 

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6. fen H^^ai h\1 (srie's ostfe fifa) W fee? S3 S* fOH3- 
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Hi ssgfe c?o ofo>n r yft 1 !W' fsr WJ #w i »ph oht §0 
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fe^ ^r RS T Ol ^1 *1 ?m\ 1 U"0 00, fH"Q 00 SfR^ 
§ Mil S T fH3l I fOR ^318' ? r »l 0^3 H O05T3 1 §R fo^ 
USH M?RO | X0$ 30 3 35T31 3 TRoft^ 3R5l feol 3 fH S fl 

ots oo fRyT § Rgtrs oroc? »rfy»n ; ^irffwi uooo^o o ^a T t i 
3Rt fHtr 1 foo rh? ofy>MT d fsr ur t o fen 3rY sft 5^ y T ^ o 1 

3RT HO^flT yfO»i T S T I WU^ >X r aT 005 00 O I or set mrT fOH, 
HUrg>(T ^O^lW 3 SH 3TRr J U0' r Q"B5fl 33/ "dSO 00^01 l"* 

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now,' you will know the real Hindu when he becomes your master and you 
become his slave." fej 313 fi| f>r. fa.vzj % foTftn^?, fw. ^3?^ OHle, nntfl. 
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HTmra 3 wy h^ 5 m\ m\ v&&$ 53 s^t §? h§ ^gl 

3^ fee? 3H WW3& 333 OTt Hi >MR. S U^ 3 1 33333 33 fe^r Tlfe I 

gi^ h§ N>fe5 3 93333 33?> £* >Hfac7oTTS W9 R33 T 3 § §of> 53) R5 I 

7. fc73 R33 »RR T 3 R33*3 Ijfe, H3* fe3tj 33 fotf 3W3 

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§3 feR fRy § ^ #y^ b* §3 fu^T §yR T § R3ir m^th c?3- 
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fe»H T 3fe fe feR hfeed fea ^st 3J^ s# i yl ^ysg. rr^ 33 ?3 T 3l ( d 



fa HH75 SS H75, 75 i$SSS* U37H ajfetf fa ^H MJsV §HQ fa ?>#, 313 

zripft su § aW si W3 Tflono as set i fen is cssts! ush s fa§q 
wife atsi aitf I tm h t b * s*$ aus te «$ ^ul § §335* feu 

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1948 cT# ufaWJ UH MS ^^ fe^ ^ fe ^ MT ^ ?^ T3rg ^^ ^ 

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c7S75 %m I |?jW §H f ? r H sy feys> z\a»? 1 §h § far_ggfs als 1 nrfew 

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O^h 33533 % Ire epf$ w T yH3 *?at to sfgs ^ ^ hto 3 #£ 
fel 1 f^ 7^33 ^g^ «3 fe R33 f 3l im ef 3h1>H3 fe3 
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ars^ u3hi?3i suf u f 1 irafm f uel § y 3u 5 >H T fe»r 1 feu uf/ 

feu HUU U^5 UU UU 7 tFUt ^BHS UU UTfe»f T »B HU fy© 1 ^ ^U?, 

fuul % wmrtf 'u »fffffte ©y feuur ufunr 1 f u yy h$ u huut 
u 7 huu fugf uTumt for uuu feir feci »ruu r fu>>i T fes T nfunuu u ^ HdoCd 
^m ^^ul^ u fwg sslw fuuuuT fuur uuut u 1 h^ fe^ T uuum 
?ruu ~^ t h sy f u te^ u T §u »f5>ru cuu^ur uu?? u 7 hu t fuu 1 yg 



urra swa §m %$ w0 >*#**# got i iet ul feu srfktfw 

^H feg^ 33Shfr J ^rsf-f.j §^ R gs y^ q £ fg^g" ^ 
Sfe»F »fH U^S f 53^ §Ff £ ^fW fa f R J Mfw 3 Iff ^ 
^H FTWJraT ofaTffi lfe3 #?M H T 5J S3 f IflTO fe1 #i# & I FT 
feH 3fe #® HH^H HT fqW5 ^ttjrfe'tf | tf3 fl35nH g H3 ?v& 3§ 

is. Hal?^ trs^, 1948 fee fn. fifi 3gi P&fc& sur ajfew i fen 
yp ye ms su s?t sar efa»r l s|f e^ fee §g g fe? fu? *M- 

U^ fH3l 28 ^WS\, 1948, £: 11 201-1 3-WT.gl(§UHte) #ftT»T I fee 

f?e §h ^ fij^T HftTR^ § e^ten* #rfh>n for fag fe^sldTe %r 
set He^e h! wjt§ hhbI g 1 fe?r ue T e irafo? jfel JtfflTS § ^gg* 

fee 7? fSW^ ^rf i ^ ^j^rg f^Tj fefy^r (^gy j^) fa »,^r a^ H 

©*°7 T Uf05|TSst a fe^fe jtfiTHSee £ oTFf H3fte gUH >tfgU fcSRfeH »J§ 
M33 5ft§ ae Uo faff* ^ SJflgg ^ E# I TOel »f3 hui? fan f 3^sl 

»fg? T sr«gte»i fe^ msr^ 5ra» ^hh whI *ra*i pi l-ne fee *F*Tfll35 i 

f^fjHt^^^ I ^ s ofrg^ofrgt FT35T'3^^e1 3JUH U^^ WJTe 3 f?H 
HSee Ut Jfeff STU RoTFt U, W3 # He^TH e^iel 5 fef££* Ue oief >HHS 

^3?5 r Herat 9 i ufs vthSI ffi fe sfvmsfe^, Mcira^fe? 3 

finQIsHdl H fof iTOcTf^ B fe?> USUcP^f M3T as §J^ ^\w 

s?u 03 for fam 3Z 3, fW. f#§, § HTcreH hh 3 u>h ngsrrg 

S MfuiW^ ?H W WS 1? f ^tPJp ^ f#^ 3Ht ^1 HV M3T- 

ioTfe? rraora j ul te* fen orjest i{%nr ^ h\t fe'sfw 1 uh fen 
u#r ^s >h§ >«ar#o7f?? jjfgngt % f^sT Hfen^t 1 3^3 fey^t 3 irar^ 
>H T esjf ^s orfcw irfew fe h ^el fe"3u T H ^f ui T §r ^T fen sru^et 
§ 5! ^ T ^?i H r feuu HHf?»r rPigF, ' §u yy h^J b~ sot ftsot hToT Fra^n 
i U3TH § 3#ur", (frRJ T for Hut ^ets §3 ^e" r # wne f) 1 »mu 
Q^orggqj | egcrrat Sc7ut # sra fe3T wtuF forfTcT fen q€ f 
'aas i i^ut' g^^^T ^ 1 fn. t%§ >hhut g^f ^fgH3 T S T S MSg^ 
^u^ 1 1 (itf ^cts 2(6)115) 1 h 1 et fee? u^ht, 1942 ^ 'uifegsH 

S##, ^ H foT >HHHto«^ 6 oc cJ^ u, 3 U5; (l948 fei ^gS§ 



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ZF I ^3 VFUU, 1942 £ nfeu^ feu feci -&W fg* UU 1 t ftJR fee 

3 T 3uu ulfeyHR fey^ u •— 

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srus t" Ihht sru few 5 S 5 fe^r 07*53 h 1 rs* fe^ 

3 fe ^ srss afefeH? fRCTHf § ni §h § f* aiu ^ feu 1 Rfe 

>MH? §75* I »{U§ org oTUS But S^i vtfTqrg H^H I 

Hcidlc^ddlB rl fe fSW H3J5 ? T §U R^UU 0, HUfr-F qTFW 

gs3W § feu wy i ssrur fuV ufuw 5 for feu orss-fefy us i 

feu >*f*Qra W3I c7t§S 75TH §3yS 3fe T S*i I 

^su^h hht ^t pflsut rut W^^i^^iW H^^U y^fewu^ l" 

feU ^ T oT2U ^Jfeg^H ^ feU'H, H§ fe#3 ITFTW RU5TU % Rc?33- 

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fowtw urfew otus dtfTfc* u RoTe* u for fst yu 

H3T3UT tfi UTH IfH W 3? feftPH T ufe»F U? § feu fey3 foTR feuutf 
fsute S TH3T 3 Ui I HcJ ^3 fUc? feyUT U fe 1947 §*, y*R 3U § 

urmre f^i^l § ute Rcfuu ru§?, gp Rcf3U fe§ § uu feau w0w 

t?»FUT fotftnp fP fetfW TF cJUl»F U5 5* yur U I %$Wn RUc7 r U 3 

R5T33 3 WU3 R'§ fey3l S^ f § fee T 3T § ^oTg § 'mfew^R ^rfegttr' 
TO3Td H fecT HUd^yU^ »ifycTTUl t^T THr^g^gj ^3 fjfn^rg fey^ gT 

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fee full fesBmit s^ ?5ui yfew rt fe tyfe fen s T s oft i^yu^! u, 
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y3 T u fe Hut yusr §* ul f?>Hfu3 usi ngyl urpg r©73§3 ^tw fey^>>rt 
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BRyU, 1948 feu DfR^UyU »fU >H§ f^t £ HS 35 »iH0 su fey ^ § HS 
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fe RUoTU B 1 e^f^ UcTH Ulu cUSSt U, >HKoTT R3T3U BIJ53 U5TH ttl 
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tF^tw US "3 ^£3Ul W'l §5* § U5t US >H3 >WS »fgR3 T «t ftfel 
f^rf"^ US I feR 3d/ Ro73UT ^1 UlS3 r Uul U l" R 1 frpfw, 
"oft WITH HU 1 " W ?>uf Udi? ?" f^t Hpftpqr, "A' HS 
%W #*€* H UTWS 33 §£| H3t H3 1 H3T3 S flptf' UU^ |" 
£p fi 1 SoTUt IJHt US 3' VUSf Ut Ute r feu US* Hfai»P UU Hfcf H3} 
S H§ >H T fw fa toffixP oTUST "^R § fer feu Suf" U I W3 feu 

hs 1947 few, spat*! Bteu T ^f, £3 ?a§ sh" t"u >nfel Rt. mr, 

»pfe >HgR3t S, fes* ^USlfeUP ^ W8 feu URrfs gjg^ f^ W g^ 
^fe# s"te1 h! I fgH 3' ius fusr, B sTT^U 3*331? S HS U5?H 
ifrW, feu U3TH HUt H>H3Sl ^ itf i fa fa^H 373 oTSSt, 
3TU feq<ScT US § g T ?US €1 U r U R r ?5 &$ &$ ufU»P | | H5TU3 
»WSW 3R53l»H* BSftW* tPS>>P SUf 1 U r 5?, 3 f 'H3J fs r Sf H5Tfe3» 
foT§ 4 5TU UU US ? >T WS fa©"* HfrTFISel 3 »fS¥? -T fef? ^ 
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SPSS*. 5P33? r Sl oT6S SSl HUUU US. § §U ofef U r USf3o? HU3? 
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H^1»P HSl wf&W U^t U I feH 5?1 fu feR 33* $ RsTP ijFP feu 
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»f T ^»fT ^W u^s'f Muls'r s ^fajs* ?Tai ng titt ^e fsr huottuI >h^hu 

^USt ^h oTt|^ 3 fS^TH >tfSHTR US r f '^ UUS, >H3 ^U3 RU3FU f^i 
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V(U fe|q RUo]Tg ^ gi^r^ § sre^te SUU3 HT ^t^^ gfe>>fT 1 ^^^t. 
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for Mara^fe? ruottu fe#' uu uu '-3c??lulRfsa[ w? fey#qn mjuu?T' 
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16. fuB T ufe^Tuyu feu '§few' s t h1 fus feu gpqt mtruh s f ^t 

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§ feu Rqq f st § 1947 feu Hy hbJ ass 3l5f gfsw ufu»r 1 feu 

HR ^rfenfT fel>H T Rl fe »TUfR3 1947 ?1w UI^H^t f^ »f3 HUtU 4 ? 
feR »TRUH B T HSTIU, HRH) PS RUU^ ^1 3g2 >rU U^ UtF HU^ ufo»fT U, 



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til fs5foT3l 33S ?53T T-rfHM T i h" &h ^ n r & n?FS t^ U33 T & wis fenl I 

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founl Hn = 3t s Ma era fes 1 fa #$ t! fen yio^ 3 ^ei ?n fe t 
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feof Hadn't 1133 f«fa»f T I H fe nfete fee HI'HHU, (ll g\ §. 
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fef 3^: fees S3 Sfor f ^H^ ftf? Hi 3 §H f 3'HfaHS ^1 ^ObI n 3H 

feg §fe n antf s^th | # 3^3fa fen e^ta oH3 T aifew r1 i fen 

U3^ VT, feH Hi fe3H 3h te, HfffaW Hi frfH ^a >n^fae 

nsns s ns wfw a for fen s^5 T sn? if I 

n. H3 Hacm' fenra 3? >r q) W3t f^i tft a T 93 biot ^hs # 

^^ TF I fen 531M31 tU^cdl, 1948 fen nfa»P3U3 WS3 Tre^ h 1 §s* 

s »fu3 'f^usl c7fns3 re 1 S'H nl w fe>x T »fus ntfw nn hs 
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orgit nfn ssl, fafn Qx wz nfaa nl «g# nfew 5fe>x^ # »fg^ 
fen^) hs »t3 h§ ^g§ ynn T n wns ^1 n§s nfes ^m snT hs i 
feoT an ^ths nnr fen is nu nfns ^ nt i fen 3* Hn^n ^ nn te*fn 
^ <shiQ<: ^1 fai5 r t fnat, fe§^ Hfen h! fefisf fi* f^n f n »ffe- 
stoImt ppnHS M^m ?5mr snf h^ 3 fs/ Ht>HT ^tnt»f f ^ na s> snt^ 
g^^r rt forf^f^r »wu T ^ras T wal HHln, srss § HS3of sM § f?u- 
nte Ht i fen hhI wz HTfeg § fs*- # m\ hs hs's! s'r §s^ 
| tpjpg 5ras T snn hs i 

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h! >hh. >h?h3t I hht ng T n^ #e ^ T ss f ^t feunM § fscmr i 
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h' l& Qfof fe^V nlslMn >m^. h! >hh. nrnnn h^ ^ f 5? fes^ ^g^ 
fnsr fen feT nfennn H9i T nfe»r h^ nnl »fHH3l unai2 n mnt >H3 
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»W5 'n fe»pfs ift nn ?|i # insra tfeM^ s^s ^n us ^ns 



w uu ~3Zj § HHETcit srea M3 ot ^ fgg*g u ^rfe»f T i s?gu t 9 
1949 § ugat wa ^ wel hI »1h. h^ t ^ t »rsiul 17333 
hs t 3* »[fa? i H # *?, unst uVg # HHsrra § fesr i?si feuq ^f 
fast fetre T u 1 fast ~& fau&tf o, "qg tft# u T Hsf33 u^t^t 3135 
§3us w^ra »re giite HRfsw hM 1" few fast fag fp?t ^ nyir 

fee 1 "^ H T "qg^T u I feH feu t<fa»f T HllW 3 fa far M^l. Ht. #3, 
WHUifeU 5>fflUfa»i T t?t 3 r £S T 0^ r U TT5 ^ gr^tg yggr § 3 ifo 3 g^r 
U I feH fasl fau Hsf T '§ fltife^i €T' 3UiW r St 33fe>H' »i T ftf»f ^lfe>HT 3 
fa HUa^ ^5^' S WU T 3t H3S Sst Hriag 3U 3ut U I H"3o?Tg yg yg, 

#$ cpfanf gife»r 9 fa ijgqcrai ire^W feg $gf 3g*^# feq grrfafeor 

f^HUfe 3" Ht3 "31H US I H 1 H T Ut feSl SuY fe>, faf'fa SU3 BhI 

3^h : >H^?3e fisus § is3t OT31 1 fa §3 feu fast ^uuut fe^ 
uh o?us i 

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S T H Sfaf tfi § 0^3 US ! fit W£, 5 HFt, 1950 ? fs#eS-y33 

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¥U?Ut, 1949, fa^ lffl T H HU3 T H S H§ fe~dU f H 3jU3 VJ3U ^ oil oft ftr§ 

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Ht, fR ^ T »fflO r §% ^5 Hf FS3' W# fvRI5 T SoT qTg gy^ | y>g 



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feig <fe, fea st3t fa"F-fRy gflfie* ^ ugj § u?r f $$ ^ •§ 

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3 T fea1»ft r r fe fen §TH # ffefe f t ph as, feR Rfual y§ iM wa 

#OT FRt?W R5 I U>4 FtH53 f€3 fej fespg UtT3< h! fe fes* 

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