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the vAgasaneyi-saj/hitA-upanishad 


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' The general inclinations which are naturally implanted in my 
soul to some religion, it is impossible for me to shift off: but there 
being such a multiplicity of religions in the world, I desire now 
seriously to consider with my self which of them all to restrain these 
my general inclinations to. And the reason of this my enquiry is 
not, that J am in the least dissatisfied with that religion I have 
already embraced; but because 'tis natural for all men to have an '. 
overbearing opinion and esteem for that particular religion they are 
born and bred-up in. That, therefore, I may not seem biassed by the 
prejudice of education, I am resolved to prove and examine them all; 
that I may see and holdfast to that which is best. .... 

'Indeed there was never any religion so barbarous and diabolical, 
but it was preferred before all other religions whatsoever, by them that 
did profess it; otherwise they would not have professed it. .... 

'And why, say they, may not you be mistaken as well aswef Espe- 
cially when there is, at least, six to one against your Christian religion; 
all of which think they serve God aright; and expect happiness thereby 

as well as you And hence it is that in my looking out for the 

truest religion, being conscious to my self how great an ascendant 
Christianity holds over me beyond the rest, as being that religion 
whereinto I was born and baptized, that which the supreme authority 
has enjoined and my parents educated me in; that which every one 
I meet withal highly approves of, and which I my self have, by a long 
continued profession, made almost natural tome: J am resolved to be 
more jealous and suspicious of this religion, than of the rest, and be 
sure not to entertain it any longer without being convinced by solid and 
substantial arguments, of the truth and certainty of it. That, therefore, 
I may make diligent and impartial enquiry into all religions and so be 
sure to find out the best, I shall for a time, look upon my self as one not 
at all interested in any particular religion whatsoever, much less in the 
Christian religion; but only as one who desires, in general, to serve and 
obey Him that made me, in a right manner, and thereby to be made 
partaker of that happiness my nature is capable of.' 

Bishop Beveridge (1636-1707). 

Private Thoughts on Religion, Part I, Article a. 

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Preface to the Sacred Books of the East 



Program of a Translation of the Sacred Books of the 

East ......... xxxix 

Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets .... xlviii 

Approximate Pronunciation of the Roman Letters as 

representing the Sanskrit Alphabet . . . lv 

Introduction to the Upanishads 
A"Mndogya-upanishad . 
Talavakara-upanishad . 

Translation of the A^andogya-upanishad 

Translation of the Talavakara-upanishad 

Translation of the Aitareya-arajvyaka 

Translation of the KaushItaki-brahmaa'a-upamshad 

Translation of the VAgasaneyi-sajit hita-upanishad . 







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I must begin this series of translations of the 
Sacred Books of the East with three cautions : — 
the first, referring to the character of the original 
texts here translated ; the second, with regard to the 
difficulties in making a proper use of translations; 
the third, showing what is possible and what is im- 
possible in rendering ancient thought into modern 

Readers who have been led to believe that the 
Vedas of the ancient Brahmans, the Avesta of the 
Zoroastrians, the Tripi/aka of the Buddhists, the 
Kings of Confucius, or the Koran of Mohammed 
are books full of primeval wisdom and religious 
enthusiasm, or at least of sound and simple moral 
teaching, will be disappointed on consulting these 
volumes. Looking at many of the books that have 
lately been published on the religions of the ancient 
world, I do not wonder that such a belief should 
have been raised ; but I have long felt that it was 
high time to dispel such illusions, and to place the 
study of the ancient religions of the world on a 
more real and sound, on a more truly historical 
basis. It is but natural that those who write on 

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ancient religions, and who have studied them from 
translations only, not from original documents, 
should have had eyes for their bright rather than 
for their dark sides. The former absorb all the 
attention of the student, the latter, as they teach 
nothing, seem hardly to deserve any notice. Scholars 
also who have devoted their life either to the 
editing of the original texts or to the careful in- 
terpretation of some of the sacred books, are more 
inclined, after they have disinterred from a heap of 
rubbish some solitary fragments of pure gold, to 
exhibit these treasures only than to display all the 
refuse from which they had to extract them. I do 
not blame them for this, perhaps I should feel that I 
was open to the same blame myself, for it is but 
natural that scholars in their joy at finding one or 
two fragrant fruits or flowers should gladly forget 
the brambles and thorns that had to be thrown aside 
in the course of their search. 

But whether I am myself one of the guilty or not, 
I cannot help calling attention to the real mischief 
that has been done and is still being done by the 
enthusiasm of those pioneers who have opened the 
first avenues through the bewildering forest of the 
sacred literature of the East. They have raised 
expectations that cannot be fulfilled, fears also that, 
as will be easily seen, are unfounded. Anyhow they 
have removed the study of religion from that whole- 
some and matter-of-fact atmosphere in which alone 
it can produce valuable and permanent results. 

The time has come when the study of the ancient 
religions of mankind must be approached in a dif- 
ferent, in a less enthusiastic, and more discrimi- 
nating, in fact, in a more scholarlike spirit. Not 

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that I object to dilettanti, if they only are what by 
their name they profess to be, devoted lovers, and not 
mere amateurs. The religions of antiquity, must 
always be approached in a loving spirit, and the dry 
and cold-blooded scholar is likely to do here as 
much mischief as the enthusiastic sciolist. But true 
love does not ignore all faults and failings : on the 
contrary, it scans them keenly, though only in order 
to be able to understand, to explain, and thus to 
excuse them. To watch in the Sacred Books of 
the East the dawn of the religious consciousness 
of man, must always remain one of the most 
inspiring and hallowing sights in the whole history 
of the world; and he whose heart cannot quiver 
with the first quivering rays of human thought 
and human faith, as revealed in those ancient docu- 
ments, is, in his own way, as unfit for these studies 
as, from another side, the man who shrinks from 
copying and collating ancient MSS., or toiling 
through volumes of tedious commentary. What we 
want here, as everywhere else, is the truth, and the 
whole truth ; and if the whole truth must be told, 
it is that, however radiant the dawn of religious 
thought, it is not without its dark clouds, its chilling 
colds, its noxious vapours. Whoever does not 
know these, or would hide them from his own sight 
and from the sight of others, does not know and 
can never understand the real toil and travail of the 
human heart in its first religious aspirations; and 
not knowing its toil and travail, can never know the 
intensity of its triumphs and its joys. 

In order to have a solid foundation for a com- 
parative study of the religions of the East, we must 
have before all things complete and thoroughly 

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faithful translations of their sacred books. Extracts 
will no longer suffice. We do not know Germany, 
if we know the Rhine ; nor Rome, when we have 
admired St. Peter's. No one who collects and pub- 
lishes such extracts can resist, no one at all events, 
so far as I know, has ever resisted, the temptation 
of giving what is beautiful, or it may be what is 
strange and startling, and leaving out what is com- 
monplace, tedious, or it may be repulsive, or, lastly, 
what is difficult to construe and to understand. We 
must face the problem in its completeness, and I 
confess it has been for many years a problem to 
me, aye, and to a great extent is so still, how the 
Sacred Books of the East should, by the side of so 
much that is fresh, natural, simple, beautiful, and 
true, contain so much that is not only unmeaning, 
artificial, and silly, but even hideous and repellent 
This is a fact, and must be accounted for in some 
way or other. 

To some minds this problem may seem to be no 
problem at all. To those (and I do not speak of 
Christians only) who look upon the sacred books of 
all religions except their own as necessarily the out- 
come of human or superhuman ignorance and de- 
pravity, the mixed nature of their contents may 
seem to be exactly what it ought to be, what they 
expected it would be. But there are other and 
more reverent minds who can feel a divine afflatus 
in the sacred books, not only of their own, but of 
other religions also, and to them the mixed character 
of some of the ancient sacred canons must always 
be extremely perplexing. 

I can account for it to a certain extent, though 
not entirely to my own satisfaction. Most of the 

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ancient sacred books have been handed down by 
oral tradition for many generations before they were 
consigned to writing. In an age when there was 
nothing corresponding to what we call literature, 
every saying, every proverb, every story handed 
down from father to son, received very soon a kind 
of hallowed character. They became sacred heir- 
looms, sacred, because they came from an unknown 
source, from a distant age. There was a stage in 
die development of human thought, when the dis- 
tance that separated the living generation from their 
grandfathers or great-grandfathers was as yet the 
nearest approach to a conception of eternity, and 
when the name of grandfather and great-grandfather 
seemed the nearest expression of God 1 . Hence, 
what had been said by these half-human, half-divine 
ancestors, if it was preserved at all, was soon looked 
upon as a more than human utterance. It was 
received with reverence, it was never questioned 
and criticised. 

Some of these ancient sayings were preserved 
because they were so true and so striking that they 
could not be forgotten. They contained eternal 
truths, expressed for the first time in human lan- 
guage. Of such oracles of truth it was said in India 
that they had been heard, .sruta, and from it arose 
the word sruti, the recognised term for divine 
revelation in Sanskrit. 

But besides those utterances which had a vitality 
of their own, strong enough to defy the power of 

1 Bishop Callaway, Unkulunkulu, or the Tradition of Creation, 
as existing among the Amazulu and other tribes of South Africa, 
p. 7. 

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time, there were others which might have struck 
the minds of the listeners with great force under 
the peculiar circumstances that evoked them, but 
which, when these circumstances were forgotten, be- 
came trivial and almost unintelligible. A few verses 
sung by warriors on the eve of a great battle would, 
if that battle ended in victory, assume a charm 
quite independent of their poetic merit. They 
would be repeated in memory of the heroes 
who conquered, and of the gods who granted 
victory. But when the heroes, and the gods, and 
the victory were all forgotten, the song of victory 
and thanksgiving would often survive as a relic 
of the past, though almost unintelligible to later 

Even a single ceremonial act, performed at the 
time of a famine or an inundation, and apparently 
attended with a sudden and almost miraculous 
success, might often be preserved in the liturgical 
code of a family or a tribe with a superstitious awe 
entirely beyond our understanding. It might be 
repeated for some time on similar emergencies, till 
when it had failed again and again it survived only 
as a superstitious custom in the memory of priests 
and poets. 

Further, it should be remembered that in ancient 
as in modern times, the utterances of men who had 
once gained a certain prestige, would often receive 
attention far beyond their merits, so that in many 
a family or tribe the sayings and teachings of one 
man, who had once in his youth or manhood uttered 
words of inspired wisdom, would all be handed 
down together, without any attempt to separate 
the grain from the chaff. 

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Nor must we forget that though oral tradition, 
when once brought under proper discipline, is a 
most faithful guardian, it is not without its dangers 
in its incipient stages. Many a word may have been 
misunderstood, many a sentence confused, as it was 
told by father to son, before it became fixed in the 
tradition of a village community, and then resisted 
by its very sacredness all attempts at emendation. 

Lastly, we must remember that those who handed 
down the ancestral treasures of ancient wisdom, 
would often feel inclined to add what seemed useful 
to themselves, and what they knew could be pre- 
served in one way only, namely, if it was allowed to 
form part of the tradition that had to be handed 
down, as a sacred trust, from generation to genera- 
tion. The priestly influence was at work, even 
before there were priests by profession, and when 
the priesthood had once become professional, its 
influence may account for much that would other- 
wise seem inexplicable in the sacred codes of the 
ancient world. 

These are some of the considerations which may 
help to explain how, mixed up with real treasures of 
thought, we meet in the sacred books with so many 
passages and whole chapters which either never had 
any life or meaning at all, or if they had, have, in the 
form in which they have come down to us, com- 
pletely lost it. We must try to imagine what the Old 
Testament would have been, if it had not been kept 
distinct from the Talmud ; or the New Testament, 
if it had been mixed up not only with the spurious 
gospels, but with the records of the wranglings of 
the early Councils, if we wish to understand; to some 
extent at least, the wild confusion of sublime truth 

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with vulgar stupidity that meets us in the pages of 
the Veda, the Avesta, and the Tripi/aka. The idea 
of keeping the original and genuine tradition separate 
from apocryphal accretions was an idea of later 
growth, that could spring up only after the earlier 
tendency of preserving whatever could be preserved 
of sacred or half-sacred lore, had done its work, and 
wrought its own destruction. 

In using, what may seem to some of my fellow- 
workers, this very strong and almost irreverent lan- 
guage with regard to the ancient Sacred Books of 
the East, I have not neglected to make full allow- 
ance for that very important intellectual parallax 
which, no doubt, renders it most difficult for a 
Western observer to see things and thoughts under 
exactly the same angle and in the same light as they 
would appear to an Eastern eye. There are Western 
expressions which offend Eastern taste as much as 
Eastern expressions are apt to offend Western taste. 
A symphony of Beethoven's would be mere noise to 
an Indian ear, an Indian Sangtta seems to us with- 
out melody, harmony, or rhythm. All this I fully 
admit, yet after making every allowance for national 
taste and traditions, I still confidently appeal to the 
best Oriental scholars, who have not entirely for- 
gotten that there is a world outside the four walls 
of their study, whether they think that my con- 
demnation is too severe, or that Eastern nations 
themselves would tolerate, in any of their classical 
literary compositions, such violations of the simplest 
rules of taste as they have accustomed themselves to 
tolerate, if not to admire, in their sacred books. 

But then it might no doubt be objected that books 
of such a character hardly deserve the honour of 

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being translated into English, and that the sooner 
they are forgotten, the better. Such opinions have 
of late been freely expressed by some eminent 
writers, and supported by arguments worthy of the 
Khalif Omar himself. In these days of anthropo- 
logical research, when no custom is too disgusting 
to be recorded, no rules of intermarriage too com- 
plicated to be disentangled, it may seem strange 
that the few genuine relics of ancient religion which, 
as by a miracle, have been preserved to us, should thus 
have been judged from a purely aesthetic, and not from 
i an historical point of view. There was some excuse for 

1 this in the days of Sir William Jones and Colebrooke. 

The latter, as is well known, considered ' the Vedas 
as too voluminous for a complete translation of the 
whole,' adding that 'what they contain would hardly 
reward the labour of the reader ; much less that of 
the translator 1 .' The former went still further in 
the condemnation which he pronounced on Anquetil 
Duperron's translation of the Zend-avesta. Sir W. 
Jones, we must remember, was not only a scholar, 
but also a man of taste, and the man of taste some- 
times gained a victory over the scholar. His con- 
troversy with Anquetil Duperron, the discoverer of 
the Zend-avesta, is well known. It was carried on 
by Sir W. Jones apparently with great success, and 
yet in the end the victor has proved to be the 
vanquished. It was easy, no doubt, to pick out from 
Anquetil Duperron's translation of the sacred writings 
of Zoroaster hundreds of passages which were or 
seemed to be utterly unmeaning or absurd. This 
arose partly, but partly only, from the imperfections 

' Colebrooke's Miscellaneous Essays, 1873, vol. ii, p. 102. 
[33 b 

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of the translation. Much, however, of what Sir W. 
Jones represented as ridiculous, and therefore un- 
worthy of Zoroaster, and therefore unworthy of being 
translated, forms an integral part of the sacred code 
of the Zoroastrians. Sir W. J ones smiles at those who 
4 think obscurity sublime and venerable, like that of 
ancient cloisters and temples, shedding,' as Milton 
expresses it, 'a dim religious light 1 .' 'On posse- . 
dait deja,' he writes in his letter addressed to 
Anquetil Duperron, 'and composed in very good 
and sparkling French, ' plusieurs traites attribues a 
Zardusht ou Zeratusht, traduits en Persan moderne ; 
de pretendues conferences de ce legislateur avec 
Ormuzd, des prieres, des dogmes, des lois religieuses. 
Quelques savans, qui ont lu ces traductions, nous ont 
assur£ que les originaux etaient de la plus haute 
antiquitd, parce qu'ils renfermaient beaucoup de plati- 
tudes, de bevues, et de contradictions: mais nous 
avons conclu par les m£mes raisons, qu'ils etaient 
tres-modernes, ou bien qu'ils n'etaient pas d'un 
homme d'esprit, et d'un philosophe, tel que Zoroastre 
est peint par nos historiens. Votre nouvelle tra- 
duction, Monsieur, nous confirme dans ce juge- 
ment: tout le college des Guebres aurait beau 
nous l'assurer ; nous ne croirons jamais que le 
charlatan le moins habile ait pu ecrire les fadaises 
dont vos deux derniers volumes sont remplisV 
He at last sums up his argument in the following 
words : ' Ou Zoroastre n'avait pas le sens commun, 
ou il n'ecrivit pas le livre que vous lui attribuez : 
s'il n'avait pas le sens commun, il fallait le laisser 
dans la foule, et dans lobscurit6; s'il n'ecrivit pas 

1 Sir W. Jones's Works, vol. iv, p. 1 13. ' lb., vol. x, p. 408. 

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ce livre, il 6tait impudent de le publier sous son 
nom. Ainsi, ou vous avez insulte le gout du public 
en lui pr£sentant des sottises, ou vous l'avez trompe 
en lui donnant des faussetes : et de chaque c6te vous 
mentez son mepris '.' 

This alternative holds good no longer. The 
sacred code of Zoroaster or of any other of the 
founders of religions may appear to us to be full of 
absurdities, or may in fact really be so, and it may 
yet be the duty of the scholar to publish, to translate, 
and carefully to examine those codes as memorials 
of the past, as the only trustworthy documents in 
which to study the growth and decay of religion. 
It does not answer to say that if Zoroaster was what 
we believe him to have been, a wise man, in our 
sense of the word, he could not have written the 
rubbish which we find in the A vesta. If we are 
once satisfied that the text of the Avesta, or the 
Veda, or the Tripi/aka is old and genuine, and 
that this text formed the foundation *on which, 
during many centuries, the religious belief of millions 
of human beings was based, it becomes our duty, 
both as historians and philosophers, to study these 
books, to try to understand how they could have 
arisen, and how they could have exercised for ages 
an influence over human beings who in all other 
respects were not inferior to ourselves, nay, whom 
we are accustomed to look up to on many points as 
patterns of wisdom, of virtue, and of taste. 

The facts, such as they are, must be faced, if the 
study of the ancient religions of the world is ever 
to assume a really historical character ; and having 

1 Works, vol. x, p. 437. 

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myself grudged no praise to what to my mind is really 
beautiful or sublime in the early revelations of reli- 
gious truth, I feel the less hesitation in fulfilling the 
duty of the true scholar, and placing before historians 
and philosophers accurate, complete, and unembel- 
lished versions of some of the sacred books of the 
East. Such versions alone will enable them to form 
a true and just estimate of the real development of 
early religious thought, so far as we can still gain a 
sight of it in literary records to which the highest 
human or even divine authority has been ascribed 
by the followers of the great religions of antiquity. 
It often requires an effort to spoil a beautiful sen* 
tence by a few words which might so easily be 
suppressed, but which are there in the original, 
and must be taken into account quite as much 
as the pointed ears in the beautiful Faun of the 
Capitol. We want to know the ancient religions 
such as they really were, not such as we wish they 
should have been. We want to know, not their 
wisdom only, but their folly also; and while we must 
learn to look up to their highest points where they 
seem to rise nearer to heaven than anything we were 
acquainted with before, we must not shrink from 
looking down into their stony tracts, their dark 
abysses, their muddy moraines, in order to compre- 
hend both the heighth and the depth of the human 
mind in its searchings after the Infinite. 

I can answer for myself and for those who have 
worked with me, that our translations are truthful, 
that we have suppressed nothing, that we have 
varnished nothing, however hard it seemed some- 
times even to write it down. 

There is only one exception. There are in ancient 

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books, and particularly in religious books, frequent 
allusions to the sexual aspects of nature, which, 
though perfectly harmless and innocent in them- 
selves, cannot be rendered in modern language with- 
out the appearance of coarseness. We may regret 
that it should be so, but tradition is too strong on 
this point, and I have therefore felt obliged to leave 
certain passages untranslated, and to give the ori- 
ginal, when necessary, in a note. But this has been 
done in extreme cases only, and many things which 
we should feel inclined to suppress have been left in 
all their outspoken simplicity, because those who 
want to study ancient man, must learn to study him 
as he really was, an animal, with all the strength 
and weaknesses of an animal, though an animal that 
was to rise above himself, and in the end discover his 
true self, after many struggles and many defeats. 

After this first caution, which I thought was due 
to those who might expect to find in these volumes 
nothing but gems, I feel I owe another to those 
who may approach these translations under the 
impression that they have only to read them in 
order to gain an insight into the nature and character 
of the religions of mankind. There are philosophers 
who have accustomed themselves to look upon reli- 
gions as things that can be studied as they study the 
manners and customs of savage tribes, by glancing 
at the entertaining accounts of travellers or mis- 
sionaries, and then classing each religion under such 
wide categories as fetishism, polytheism, monotheism, 
and the rest. That is not the case. Translations 
can do much, but they can never take the place of the 
originals, and if the originals require not only to be 

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read, but to be read again and again, translations of 
sacred books require to be studied with much greater 
care, before we can hope to gain a real under- 
standing of the intentions of their authors or venture 
on general assertions. 

Such general assertions, if once made, are difficult 
to extirpate. It has been stated, for instance, that 
the religious notion of sin is wanting altogether in 
the hymns of the Rig-veda, and some important con- 
clusions have been based on this supposed fact. Yet 
the gradual growth of the concept of guilt is one of 
the most interesting lessons which certain passages 
of these ancient hymns can teach us \ It has been 
asserted that in the Rig-veda Agni, fire, was adored 
essentially as earthly sacrificial fire, and not as an 
elemental force. How greatly such an assertion has 
to be qualified, may be seen from a more careful 
examination of the translations of the Vedic hymns 
now accessible 2 . In many parts of the Avesta 
fire is no doubt spoken of with great rever- 
ence, but those who speak of the Zoroastrians 
as fire-worshippers, should know that the true fol- 
lowers of Zoroaster abhor that very name. Again, 
there are certainly many passages in the Vedic 
writings which prohibit the promiscuous communi- 
cation of the Veda, but those who maintain that 
the Brahmans, like Roman Catholic priests, keep 
their sacred books from the people, must have for- 

1 M. M., History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, second edition, 
1859, p. 540 seq. 

* Ludwig, Rig-veda, ubersetzt, vol. iii, p. 331 seq. Muir, Sanskrit 
Texts, voL v, p. 199 seq. On the later growth of Agni, see a 
very useful essay by Holtzmann, ' Agni, nach den Vorstellungen des 
Mahabharata,' 1878. 

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gotten the many passages in the Brihmawas, the 
Sutras, and even in the Laws of Manu, where the 
duty of learning the Veda by heart is inculcated for 
every Brahma/za, Kshatriya.Vaisya, that is, for every 
man except a .Sudra. 

These are a few specimens only to show how 
dangerous it is to generalise even where there exist 
complete translations of certain sacred books. It is 
far easier to misapprehend, or even totally to mis- 
understand, a translation than the original ; and it 
should not be supposed, because a sentence or a 
whole chapter seems at first sight unintelligible in 
a translation, that therefore they are indeed devoid 
of all meaning. 

What can be more perplexing than the beginning 
of the A"Mndogya-upanishad ? ' Let a man medi- 
tate,' we read, or, as others translate it, ' Let a man 
worship the syllable Om.' It may seem impossible 
at first sight to elicit any definite meaning from 
these words and from much that follows after. 
But it would be a mistake, nevertheless, to con- 
clude that we have here vox et prseterea nihil. 
Meditation on the^syllable Om consisted in a long- 
continued repetition of that syllable with a view 
of drawing the thoughts away from all other sub- 
jects, and thus concentrating them on some higher 
object of thought of which that syllable was made to 
be the symbol. This concentration of thought, eka- 
grata or one-pointedness, as the Hindus called it, is 
something to us almost unknown. Our minds are 
like kaleidoscopes of thoughts in constant motion ; 
and to shut our mental eyes to everything else, while 
dwelling on one thought only, has become to most 
of us almost as impossible as to apprehend one 

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musical note without harmonics. With the life we 
are leading now, with telegrams, letters, newspapers, 
reviews, pamphlets, and books ever breaking in upon 
Us, it has become impossible, or almost impossible, 
ever to arrive at that intensity of thought which the 
Hindus meant by ekagrata, and the attainment of 
which was to them the indispensable condition of all 
philosophical and religious speculation. The loss may 
not be altogether on our side, yet a loss it is, and if we 
see the Hindus, even -in their comparatively mono- 
tonous life, adopting all kinds of contrivances in 
order to assist them in drawing away their thoughts 
from all disturbing impressions and to fix them on 
one subject only, we must not be satisfied with 
smiling at their simplicity, but try to appreciate the 
object they had in view. 

When by means of repeating the syllable Om, 
which originally seems to have meant ' that,' or ' yes,' 
they had arrived at a certain degree of mental tran- 
quillity, the question arose what was meant by this 
Om, and to this question the most various answers 
were given, according as the mind was to be led 
up to higher and higher objects. Thus in one 
passage we are told at first that Om is the beginning 
of the Veda, or, as we have to deal with an Upanishad 
of the Sama-veda, the beginning of the Sama-veda, 
so that he who meditates on Om, may be supposed 
to be meditating on the whole of the Sama-veda. 
But that is not enough. Om is said to be the essence 
of the Sama-veda, which, being almost entirely taken 
from the Rig-veda, may itself be called the essence 
of the Rig-veda. And more than that. The Rig-veda 
stands for all speech, the Sama-veda for all breath 
or life, so that Om may be conceived again as the 

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symbol of all speech and all life. Om thus becomes 
the name, not only of all our physical and mental 
powers, but especially of the living principle, the 
Pra#a or spirit This is explained by the parable 
in the second chapter, while in the third chapter, 
that spirit within us is identified with the spirit in 
the sun. He therefore who meditates on Om, medi- 
tates on the spirit in man as identical with the spirit . 
in nature, or in the sun; and thus the lesson that 
is meant to be taught in the beginning of the 
A^andogya-upanishad is really this, that none of the 
Vedas with their sacrifices and ceremonies could 
ever secure the salvation of the worshipper, i.e. 
that sacred works, performed according to the rules 
of the Vedas, are of no avail in the end, but that 
meditation on Om alone, or that knowledge of 
what is meant by Om alone, can procure true salva- 
tion, or true immortality. Thus the pupil is led on 
step by step to what is the highest object of the 
Upanishads, viz. the recognition of the self in man 
as identical with the Highest Self or Brahman. 
The lessons which are to lead up to that highest 
conception of the universe, both subjective and 
objective, are no doubt mixed up with much that 
is superstitious and absurd ; still the main object is 
never lost sight of. Thus, when we come to the 
eighth chapter, the discussion, though it begins with 
Om or the Udgltha, ends with the question of the 
origin of the world; and though the final answer, 
namely, that Om means ether (akara), and that 
ether is the origin of all things, may still sound to 
us more physical than metaphysical, still the descrip- 
tion given of ether or akasa, shows that more is 
meant by it than the physical ether, and that ether 

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is in fact one of the earlier and less perfect names 
of the Infinite, of Brahman, the universal Self. 
This, at least, is the lesson which the Brahmans 
themselves read in this chapter l ; and if we look 
at the ancient language of the Upanishads as re- 
presenting mere attempts at finding expression for 
what their language could hardly express as yet, 
.we shall, I think, be less inclined to disagree with 
the interpretation put on those ancient oracles by 
the later Vedanta philosophers 2 , or, at all events, 
we shall hesitate before we reject what is difficult to 
interpret, as altogether devoid of meaning. 

This is but one instance to show that even behind 
the fantastic and whimsical phraseology of the sacred 
writings of the Hindus and other Eastern nations, 
there may be sometimes aspirations after truth 
which deserve careful consideration from the student 
of the psychological development and the historical 
growth of early religious thought, and that after 
careful sifting, treasures may be found in what at 
first we may feel inclined to throw away as utterly 

And now I come to the third caution. Let it 
not be supposed that a text, three thousand 
years old, or, even if of more modern date, still 
widely distant from our own sphere of thought, 
can be translated in the same manner as a book 

1 The Upanishad itself says : ' The Brahman is the same as the 
ether which is around us ; and the ether which is around us, is the 
same as the ether which is within us. And the ether which is 
within, that is the ether within the heart. That ether in the heart 
is omnipresent and unchanging. He who knows this obtains 
omnipresent and unchangeable happiness.' Kh. Up. Ill, 12, 7-9. 

* Cf. Vedanta-sutras I, 1, 22. 

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written a few years ago in French or German. 
Those who know French and German well enough, 
know how difficult, nay, how impossible it is, to 
render justice to certain touches of genius which 
the true artist knows how to give to a sen- 
tence. Many poets have translated Heine into 
English or Tennyson into German, many painters 
have copied the Madonna di San Sisto or the so- 
called portrait of Beatrice Cenci. But the greater 
the excellence of these translators, the more frank 
has been their avowal, that the original is beyond 
their reach. And what is a translation of modern 
German into modern English compared with a trans- 
lation of ancient Sanskrit or Zend or Chinese into 
any modern language ? It is an undertaking which, 
from its very nature, admits of the most partial 
success only, and a more intimate knowledge of the 
ancient language, so far from facilitating the task 
of the translator, renders it only more hopeless. 
Modern words are round, ancient words are square, 
and we may as well hope to solve the quadrature of 
the circle, as to express adequately the ancient 
thoughts of the Veda in modern English. 

We must not expect therefore that a translation 
of the sacred books of the ancients can ever be more 
than an approximation of our language to theirs, 
of our thoughts to theirs. The translator, however, 
if he has once gained the conviction that it is 
impossible to translate old thought into modern 
speech, without doing some violence either to the 
one or to the other, will hardly hesitate in his choice 
between two evils. He will prefer to do some 
violence to language rather than to misrepresent 
old thoughts by clothing them in words which do. 

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not fit them. If therefore the reader finds some 
of these translations rather rugged, if he meets with 
expressions which sound foreign, with combinations 
of nouns and adjectives such as he has never seen 
before, with sentences that seem too long or too 
abrupt, let him feel sure that the translator has had 
to deal with a choice of evils, and that when the 
choice lay between sacrificing idiom or truth, he has 
chosen the smaller evil of the two. I do not claim, 
of course, either for myself or for my fellow-workers, 
that we have always sacrificed as little as was 
possible of truth or idiom, and that here and there 
a happier rendering of certain passages may not be 
suggested by those who come after us. I only wish 
to warn the reader once more not to expect too 
much from a translation, and to bear in mind that, 
easy as it might be to render word by word, it is 
difficult, aye, sometimes impossible, to render thought 
by thought 

I shall give one instance only from my own 
translation of the Upanishads. One of the most 
important words in the ancient philosophy of the 
Brahmans is Atman, nom. sing. Atmi. It is 
rendered in our dictionaries by 'breath, soul, the 
principle of life and sensation, the individual soul, 
the self, the abstract individual, self, one's self, the 
reflexive pronoun, the natural temperament or dis- 
position, essence, nature, character, peculiarity, the 
person or the whole body, the body, the understand- 
ing, intellect, the mind, the faculty of thought and 
reason, the thinking faculty, the highest principle 
of life, Brahma, the supreme deity or soul of the 
universe, care, effort, pains, firmness, the sun, fire, 
wind, air, a son.' 

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This will give classical scholars an idea of the 
chaotic state from which, thanks to the excellent 
work done by Boehtlingk, Roth, and others, Sanskrit 
lexicology is only just emerging. Some of the mean- 
ings here mentioned ought certainly not to be 
ascribed to at man. It never means, for instance, 
the understanding, nor could it ever by itself be 
translated by sun, fire, wind, air, pains or firmness. 
But after deducting such surplusage, there still 
remains a large variety of meanings which may, 
under certain circumstances, be ascribed to atman. 

When atman occurs in philosophical treatises, 
such as the Upanishads and the Vedinta system 
which is based on them, it has generally been trans- 
lated by soul, mind, or spirit. I tried myself to use 
one or other of these words, but the oftener I 
employed them, the more I felt their inadequacy, 
and was driven at last to adopt self and Self as 
the least liable to misunderstanding. 

No doubt in many passages it sounds strange in 
English to use self, and in the plural selfs instead 
of selves ; but that very strangeness is useful, for 
while such words as soul and mind and spirit pass 
over us unrealised, self and selfs will always ruffle 
the surface of the mind, and stir up some reflection 
in the reader. In English to speak even of the 
I and the Non-I, was till lately considered harsh ; 
it may still be called a foreign philosophical idiom. 
In German the Ich and Nicht-ich have, since the 
time of Fichte, become recognised and almost 
familiar, not only as philosophical terms, but as 
legitimate expressions in the literary language of 
the day. But while the I ch with Fichte expressed 
the highest abstraction of personal existence, the 

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corresponding word in Sanskrit, the A ham or 
Ahankara, was always looked upon as a secondary 
development only, and as by no means free from all 
purely phenomenal ingredients. Beyond the A ham 
or Ego, with all its accidents and limitations, such 
as sex, sense, language, country, and religion, the 
ancient sages of India perceived, from a very early 
time, the Atman or the self, independent of all such 

The individual atman or self, however, was with 
the Brahmans a phase or phenomenal modification 
only of the Highest Self, and that Highest Self 
was to them the last point which could be reached 
by philosophical speculation. It was to them what 
in other systems of philosophy has been called by 
various names, to ov, the Divine, the Absolute. The 
highest aim of all thought and study with the 
Brahman of the Upanishads was to recognise his 
own self as a mere limited reflection of the Highest 
Self, to know his self in the Highest Self, and 
through that knowledge to return to it, and regain 
his identity with it. Here to know was to be, to 
know the Atman was to be the Atman, and the 
reward of that highest knowledge after death was 
freedom from new births, or immortality. 

That Highest Self which had become to the 
ancient Brahmans the goal of all their mental ef- 
forts, was looked upon at the same time as the 
starting-point of all phenomenal existence, the root 
of the world, the only thing that could truly be said 
to be, to be real and true. As the root of all that 
exists, the Atman was identified with the Brahman, 
which in Sanskrit is both masculine and neuter, and 
with the Sat, which is neuter only, that which is, 

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or Satya, the true, the real. It alone exists in the 
beginning and for ever ; it has no second. What- 
ever else is said to exist, derives its real being from 
the Sat. How the one Sat became many, how 
what we call the creation, what they call emanation 
(irpooSos), constantly proceeds and returns to it, has 
been explained in various more or less fanciful ways 
by ancient prophets and poets. But what they 
all agree in is this, that the whole creation, the 
visible and invisible world, all plants, all animals, 
all men are due to the one Sat, are upheld by it, 
and will return to it. 

If we translate Atman by soul, mind, or spirit, 
we commit, first of all, that fundamental mistake 
of using words which may be predicated, in place of 
a word which is a subject only, and can never be- 
come a predicate. We may say in English that 
man possesses a soul, that a man is out of his mind, 
that man has or even that man is a spirit, but we 
could never predicate atman, or self, of anything 
else. Spirit, if it means breath or life ; mind, if it 
means the organ of perception and conception ; 
soul, if, like /fcaitanya, it means intelligence in 
general, all these may be predicated of the Atman, 
as manifested in the phenomenal world. But 
they are never subjects in the sense in which the 
Atman is; they have no independent being, apart 
from Atman. Thus to translate the beginning of the 
Aitareya-upanishad, Atmi va idam eka evagra 
asit, by ' This (world) verily was before (the creation 
of the world) soul alone ' (Roer) ; or, ' Originally 
this (universe) was indeed soul only' (Colebrooke), 
would give us a totally false idea. M. Regnaud 
in his ' Materiaux pour servir a l'histoire de la philo- 

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sophie de l'lnde' (vol. ii, p. 24) has evidently felt 
this, and has kept the word atman untranslated, 
' Au commencement cet univers n'etait que l'atman.' 
But while in French it would seem impossible to 
find any equivalent for atman, I have ventured to 
translate in English, as I should have done in 
German, 'Verily, in the beginning all this was 
Self, one only.' 

Thus again when we read in Sanskrit, ' Know the 
Self by the self,' atmanam atmana pasya, tempt- 
ing as it may seem, it would be entirely wrong to 
render it by the Greek yvZOi veavrov. The Brahman 
called upon his young pupil to know not himself, 
but his Self, that is, to know his individual self as 
a merely temporary reflex of the Eternal Self. 
Were we to translate this so-called atmavidya, 
this self-knowledge, by knowledge of the soul, we 
should not be altogether wrong, but we should never- 
theless lose all that distinguishes Indian from Greek 
thought. It may not be good English to say to know 
his self, still less to know our selfs, but it would be 
bad Sanskrit to say to know himself, to know our- 
selves; or, at all events, such a rendering would 
deprive us of the greatest advantage in the study 
of Indian philosophy, the opportunity of seeing in 
how many different ways man has tried to solve the 
riddles of the world and of his soul. 

I have thought it best therefore to keep as close 
as possible to the Sanskrit original, and where I 
could not find an adequate term in English, I have 
often retained the Sanskrit word rather than use a 
misleading substitute in English. It is impossible, for 
instance, to find an English equivalent for so simple 
a word as Sat, to dV. We cannot render the Greek to 

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ov and to nn ov by Being or Not-being, for both are 
abstract nouns ; nor by ' the Being,' for this would 
almost always convey a wrong impression. In Ger- 
man it is easy to distinguish between das Sein, 
i.e. being, in the abstract, and das Seiende, to ov. 
In the same way the Sanskrit sat can easily be ren- 
dered in Greek by to ov, in German by das Seiende, 
but in English, unless we say ' that which is,' we are 
driven to retain the original Sat. 

From this Sat was derived in Sanskrit Sat-ya, 
meaning originally 'endowed with being,' then 'true.' 
This is an adjective ; but the same word, as a neuter, 
is also used in the sense of truth, as an abstract ; 
and in translating it is very necessary always to dis- 
tinguish between Satyam, the true, frequently the 
same as Sat, to ov, and Satyam, truth, veracity. 
One example will suffice to show how much the 
clearness of a translation depends on the right ren- 
dering of such -words as atman, sat, and satyam. 

In a dialogue between Uddalaka and his son 
•Svetaketu, in which the father tries to open his son's 
mind, and to make him see man's, true relation to 
the Highest Self (AT^andogya-upanishad VI), the 
father first explains how the Sat produced what we 
should call the three elements l , viz. fire, water, and 
earth, which he calls heat, water, and food. Having 
produced them (VI, 2, 4), the Sat entered into them, 
but not with its real nature, but only with its ' living 
self (VI, 3, 3), which is a reflection (abhasamatram) 
of the real Sat, as the sun in the water is a reflection 

1 DevatSs, literally deities, but frequently to be translated by 
powers or beings. Mahadeva Moreshvar Kunte, the learned editor 
of the Vedanta-sutras, ought not (p. 70) to have rendered devata, 
in Kh. Up. 1, 1 1, 5, by goddess. 

[3] c 

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of the real sun. By this apparent union of the Sat 
with the three elements, every form (rupa) and 
every name (naman) in the world was produced; 
and therefore he who knows the three elements is 
supposed to know everything in this world, nearly 
m the same manner in which the Greeks imagined 
that through a knowledge of the elements, every- 
thing else became known (VI, 4, 7). The same 
three elements are shown to be also the constituent 
elements of man (VI, 5). Food or the earthy ele- 
ment is supposed to produce not only flesh, but 
also mind ; water, not only blood, but also breath ; 
heat, not only bone, but also speech. This is more 
or less fanciful ; the important point, however, is 
this, that, from the Brahmanic point of view, breath, 
speech, and mind are purely elemental, or external 
instruments, and require the support of the living 
self, the /Ivatman, before they can act 

Having explained how the Sat produces pro- 
gressively heat, how heat leads to water, water to 
earth, and how, by a peculiar mixture of the three, 
speech, breath, and mind are produced, the teacher 
afterwards shows how in death, speech returns to 
mind, mind to breath, breath to heat, and heat to 
the Sat (VI, 8, 6). This Sat, the root of every- 
thing, is called para devata, the highest deity, not 
in the ordinary sense of the word deity, but as 
expressing the highest abstraction of the human 
mind. We must therefore translate it by the 
Highest Being, in the same manner as we translate 
devata, when applied to heat, water, and earth, not 
by deity, but by substance or element. 

The same Sat, as the root or highest essence 
of all material existence, is called a»iman, from 

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a«u, small, subtile, infinitesimal, atom. It is an 
abstract word, and I have translated it by subtile 

The father then goes on explaining in various 
ways that this Sat is underlying all existence, 
and that we must learn to recognise it as the root, 
not only of all the objective, but likewise of our 
own subjective existence. 'Bring the fruit of a 
Nyagrodha tree,' he says, 'break it, and what do 
you find ? ' ' The seeds,' the son replies, ' almost 
infinitesimal.' ' Break one of them, and tell me 
what you see.' ' Nothing,' the son replies. Then 
the father continues : ' My son, that subtile essence 
which you do not see there, of that very essence 
this great Nyagrodha tree exists.' 

After that follows this sentence : ' Etadatmyam 
ida*« sarvam, tat satyam, sa atma, tat tvam asi 

This sentence has been rendered by Rajendralal 
Mitra in the following way : ' All this universe has 
the (Supreme) Deity for its life. That Deity is 
Truth. He is the Universal Soul. Thou art He, 
O .Svetaketu V 

This translation is quite correct, as far as the 
words go, but I doubt whether we can connect any 
definite thoughts with these words. In spite of the 
division adopted in the text, I believe it will be 
necessary to join this sentence with the last words 
of the preceding paragraph. This is clear from 
the commentary, and from later paragraphs, where 
this sentence is repeated, VI, 9, 4,&c. The division 

1 Anquetil Duperron translates : ' Ipso hoc modo (ens) illud est 
subtile: et hoc omne, unus Itma est: et id verum et rectum est, 
O Sopatkit, tatoumes, id est, ille £tma tu as.' 

C 2 

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in the printed text (VI, 8, 6) is wrong, and VI, 8, 7 
should begin with sa ya esho 'wima, i. e. that which 
is the subtile essence. 

The question then is, what is further to be said 
about this subtile essence. I have ventured to 
translate the passage in the following way : 

' That which is the subtile essence (the Sat, the 
root of everything), in it all that exists has its self, 
or more literally, its self-hood. It is the True (not 
the Truth in the abstract, but that which truly and 
really exists). It is the Self, i. e. the Sat is what is 
called the Self of everything V Lastly, he sums up, 
and tells .Svetaketu that, not only the whole world, 
but he too himself is that Self, that Satya, that 

No doubt this translation sounds strange to 
English ears, but as the thoughts contained in the 
Upanishads are strange, it would be wrong to 
smoothe down their strangeness by clothing them 
in language familiar to us, which, because it is 
familiar, will fail to startle us, and because it fails 
to startle us, will fail also to set us thinking. 

To know oneself to be the Sat, to know that all 
that is real and eternal in us is the Sat, that all came 
from it and will, through knowledge, return to it, 
requires an independent effort of speculative thought. 
We must realise, as well as we can, the thoughts of 
the ancient Z?/shis, before we can hope to translate 
them. It is not enough simply to read the half-reli- 
gious, half-philosophical utterances which we find in 

1 The change of gender in sa for tad is idiomatic. One could 
not say in Sanskrit tad &tm&, it is the Self, but sa Stml By sa, 
he, the Sat, that which is, is meant. The commentary explains 
sa atmS by tat sat, and continues tat sat tat tvam asi (p. 443). 

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the Sacred Books of the East, and to say that they 
are strange, or obscure, or mystic. Plato is strange, 
till we know him ; Berkeley is mystic, till for a time 
we have identified ourselves with him. So it is with 
these ancient sages, who have become the founders 
of the great religions of antiquity. They can never 
be judged from without, they must be judged from 
within. We need not become Brahmans or Bud- 
dhists or Taosze altogether, but we must for a time, 
if we wish to understand, and still more, if we are 
bold enough to undertake to translate their doc- 
trines. Whoever shrinks from that effort, will see 
hardly anything in these sacred books or their 
translations but matter to wonder at or to laugh at ; 
"possibly something to make him thankful that he is 
not as other men. But to the patient reader these 
same books will, in spite of many drawbacks, open a 
new view of the history of the human race, of that 
one race to which we all belong, with all the fibres 
of our flesh, with all the fears and hopes of our soul. 
We cannot separate ourselves from those who be- 
lieved in these sacred books. There is no specific 
difference between ourselves and the Brahmans, the 
Buddhists, the Zoroastrians, or the Taosze. Our 
powers of perceiving, of reasoning, and of believing 
may be more highly developed, but we cannot claim 
the possession of any verifying power or of any 
power of belief which they did not possess as well. 
Shall we say then that they were forsaken of God, 
while we* are His chosen people ? God forbid ! 
There is much, no doubt, in their sacred books 
which we should tolerate no longer, though we must 
not forget that there are portions in our own sacred 
books, too, which many of us would wish to be absent, 

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which, from the earliest ages of Christianity, have 
been regretted by theologians of undoubted piety, 
and which often prove a stumblingblock to those 
who have been won over by our missionaries to the 
simple faith of Christ. But that is not the question. 
The question is, whether there is or whether there is 
not, hidden in every one of the sacred books, some- 
thing that could lift up the human heart from this 
earth to a higher world, something that could make 
man feel the omnipresence of a higher Power, some- 
thing that could make him shrink from evil and in- 
cline to good, something to sustain him in the short 
journey through life, with its bright moments of 
happiness, and its long hours of terrible distress. 

If some of those who read and mark these trans- 
lations learn how to discover some such precious 
grains in the sacred books of other nations, though 
hidden under heaps of rubbish, our labour will not 
have been in vain, for there is no lesson which at 
the present time seems more important than to learn 
that in every religion there are such precious grains ; 
that we must draw in every religion a broad distinction 
between what is essential and what is not, between 
the eternal and the temporary, between the divine 
and the human ; and that though the non-essential 
may fill many volumes, the essential can often be 
comprehended in a few words, but words on which 
'hang all the law and the prophets.' 

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I here subjoin the program in which I first put 
forward the idea of a translation of the Sacred 
Books of the East, and through which I invited the 
co-operation of Oriental scholars in this undertaking. 
The difficulty of finding translators, both willing 
and competent to take a part in it, proved far 
greater than I had anticipated. Even when I had 
secured the assistance of a number of excellent 
scholars, and had received their promises of prompt 
co-operation, illness, domestic affliction, and even 
death asserted their control over all human affairs. 
Professor Childers, who had shown the warmest 
interest in our work, and on whom I chiefly de- 
pended for the Pali literature of the Buddhists, was 
taken from us, an irreparable loss to Oriental scholar- 
ship in general, and to our undertaking in particular. 
Among native scholars, whose co-operation I had 
been particularly desired to secure, Rajendralal Mitra, 
who had promised a translation of the Vayu-pura«a, 
was prevented by serious illness from fulfilling his 
engagement. In other cases sorrow and sickness have 
caused, at all events, serious delay in the translation 
of the very books which were to have inaugurated 
this Series. However, new offers of assistance have 
come, and I hope that more may still come from 
Oriental scholars both in India and England, so 
that the limit of time which had been originally 

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assigned to the publication of twenty-four volumes 
may not, I hope, be much exceeded. 

The Sacred Books or the East, Translated, with Introduc- 
tions and Notes, by various Oriental Scholars, and Edited 
by F. Max Muller. 

Apart from the interest which the Sacred Books of all religions 
possess in the eyes of the theologian, and, more particularly, of the 
missionary, to whom an accurate knowledge of them is as indispen- 
sable as a knowledge of the enemy's country is to a general, these 
works have of late assumed a new importance, as viewed in the 
character of ancient historical documents. In every country where 
Sacred Books have been preserved, whether by oral tradition or by 
writing, they are the oldest records, and mark the beginning of 
what may be called documentary, in opposition to purely tradi- 
tional, history. 

There is nothing more ancient in India than the Vedas ; and, if 
we except the Vedas and the literature connected with them, there 
is again no literary work in India which, so far as we know at 
present, can with certainty be referred to an earlier date than that 
of the Sacred Canon of the Buddhists. Whatever age we may 
assign to the various portions of the Avesta and to their final 
arrangement, there is no book in the Persian language of greater 
antiquity than the Sacred Books of the followers of Zarathurtra, 
nay, even than their translation in Pehlevi. There may have been 
an extensive ancient literature in China long before Khung-fu-jze 
and Lao-jze, but among all that was rescued and preserved of it, 
the five King and the four Shu claim again the highest antiquity. 
As to the Koran, it is known to be the fountain-head both of the 
religion and of the literature of the Arabs. 

This being the case, it was but natural that the attention of the 
historian should of late have been more strongly attracted by these 
Sacred Books, as likely to afford most valuable information, not 
only on the religion, but also on the moral sentiments, the social 
institutions, the legal maxims of some of the most important nations 
of antiquity. There are not many nations that have preserved 
sacred writings, and many of those that have been preserved have 
but lately become accessible to us in their original form, through 
the rapid advance of Oriental scholarship in Europe. Neither 
Greeks, nor Romans, nor Germans, nor Celts, nor Slaves have 
left us anything that deserves the name of Sacred Books. The 

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Homeric Poems are national Epics, like the Ramayawa, and the 
Nibelunge, and the Homeric Hymns have never received that 
general recognition or sanction which alone can impart to the 
poetical effusions of personal piety the sacred or canonical cha- 
racter which is the distinguishing feature of the Vedic Hymns. 
The sacred literature of the early inhabitants of Italy seems to have 
been of a liturgical rather than of a purely religious kind, and 
whatever the Celts, the Germans, the Slaves may have possessed 
of sacred traditions about their gods and heroes, having been 
handed down by oral tradition chiefly, has perished beyond all 
hope of recovery. Some portions of the Eddas alone give us an 
idea of what the religious and heroic poetry of the Scandinavians 
may have been. The Egyptians possessed Sacred Books, and 
some of them, such as the Book of the Dead, have come down to 
us in various forms. There is a translation of the Book of the 
Dead by Dr. Birch, published in the fifth volume of Bunsen's 
Egypt, and a new edition and translation of this important work 
may be expected from the combined labours of Birch, Chabas, 
Lepsius, and Naville. In Babylon and Assyria, too, important 
fragments of what may be called a Sacred Literature have lately 
come to light. The interpretation, however, of these Hieroglyphic 
and Cuneiform texts is as yet so difficult that, for the present, they 
are of interest to the scholar only, and hardly available for histo- 
rical purposes. 

Leaving out of consideration the Jewish and Christian Scriptures, 
it appears that the only great and original religions which profess 
to be founded on Sacred Books 1 , and have preserved them in 
manuscript, are: — 

i. The religion of the Brahmans. 

2. The religion of the followers of Buddha. 

3. The religion of the followers of Zarathurtra. 

4. The religion of the followers of Khung-fu-jze. 

5. The religion of the followers of Lio-jze. 

6. The religion of the followers of Mohammed. 

A desire for a trustworthy translation of the Sacred Books of 
these six Eastern religions has often been expressed. Several have 
been translated into English, French, German, or Latin, but in 
some cases these translations are difficult to procure, in others they 
are loaded with notes and commentaries, which are intended for 

1 Introduction to the Science of Religion, by F. Max Mttller 
(Longmans, 1873), p. 104. 

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students by profession only. Oriental scholars have been blamed 
for not having; as yet supplied a want so generally felt, and so fre- 
quently expressed, as a complete, trustworthy, and readable transla- 
tion of the principal Sacred Books of the Eastern Religions. The 
reasons, however, why hitherto they have shrunk from such an 
undertaking are clear enough. The difficulties in many cases of 
giving complete translations, and not selections only, are very great. 
There is still much work to be done in a critical restoration of the 
original texts, in an examination of their grammar and metres, and 
in determining the exact meaning of many words and passages. 
That kind of work is naturally far more attractive to scholars than 
a mere translation, particularly when they cannot but feel that, 
with the progress of our knowledge, many a passage which now 
seems clear and easy, may, on being re-examined, assume a new 
import. Thus while scholars who are most competent to under- 
take a translation, prefer to devote their time to more special 
researches, the work of a complete translation is deferred to the 
future, and historians are left under the impression that Oriental 
scholarship is still in so unsatisfactory a state as to make any 
reliance on translations of the Veda, the A vesta, or the T4o-te 
King extremely hazardous. 

It is clear, therefore, that a translation of the principal Sacred 
Books of the East can be carried out only at a certain sacrifice. 
Scholars must leave for a time their own special researches in 
order to render the general results already obtained accessible to 
the public at large. And even then, really useful results can be 
achieved viribus unitis only. If four of the best Egyptologists 
have to combine in order to produce a satisfactory edition and 
translation of one of the Sacred Books of ancient Egypt, a much 
larger number of Oriental scholars will be required for translating 
the Sacred Books of the Brahmans, the Buddhists, the Zoroastrians, 
the followers of Khung-fu-jze, Lao-jze, and Mohammed. 

Lastly, there was the most serious difficulty of all, a difficulty 
which no scholar could remove, viz. the difficulty of finding the 
funds necessary for carrying out so large an undertaking. No 
doubt there exists at present a very keen interest in questions 
connected with the origin, the growth, and decay of religion. But 
much of that interest is theoretic rather than historical. How 
people might or could or should have elaborated religious ideas, is 
a topic most warmly discussed among psychologists and theolo- 
gians, but a study of the documents, in which alone the actual 
growth of religious thought can be traced, is much neglected. 

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A faithful, unvarnished prose translation of the Sacred Books of 
India, Persia, China, and Arabia, though it may interest careful 
students, will never, I fear, excite a widespread interest, or com- 
mand a circulation large enough to make it a matter of private 
enterprise and commercial speculation. 

No doubt there is much in these old books that is startling by 
its very simplicity and truth, much that is elevated and elevating, 
much that is beautiful and sublime ; but people who have vague 
ideas of primeval wisdom and the splendour of Eastern poetry will 
soon find themselves grievously disappointed. It cannot be too 
strongly stated, that the chief, and, in many cases, the only interest 
of the Sacred Books of the East is historical; that much in them is 
extremely childish, tedious, if not repulsive ; and that no one but 
the historian will be able to understand the important lessons which 
they teach. It would have been impossible to undertake a trans- 
lation even of the most important only of the Sacred Books of the 
East, without the support of an Academy or a University which 
recognises the necessity of rendering these works more generally 
accessible, on the same grounds on which it recognises the duty of 
collecting and exhibiting in Museums the petrifactions of bygone 
ages, little concerned whether the public admires the beauty of 
fossilised plants and broken skeletons, as long as hard-working 
students find there some light for reading once more the darker 
pages in the history of the earth. 

Having been so fortunate as to secure that support, having also 
received promises of assistance from some of the best Oriental 
scholars in England and India, I hope I shall be able, after the 
necessary preparations are completed, to publish about three 
volumes of translations every year, selecting from the stores of the 
six so-called 'Book-religions' those works which at present can be 
translated, and which are most likely to prove useful. All trans- 
lations will be made from the original texts, and where good 
translations exist already, they will be carefully revised by compe- 
tent scholars. Such is the bulk of the religious literature of the 
Brahmans and the Buddhists, that to attempt a complete translation 
would be far beyond the powers of one generation of scholars. 
Still, if the interest in the work itself should continue, there is no 
reason why this series of translations should not be carried on, 
even after those who commenced it shall have ceased from their 

What I contemplate at present, and I am afraid at my time of 
life even this may seem too sanguine, is no more than a Series 

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of twenty-four volumes, the publication of which will probably 
extend over eight years. In this Series I hope to comprehend the 
following books, though I do not pledge myself to adhere strictly 
to this outline : — 

i. From among the Sacred Books of the Brahmans I hope to 
give a translation of the Hymns of the Rig-veda. While I shall 
continue my translation of selected hymns of that Veda, a traduc- 
tion raisonne*e which is intended for Sanskrit scholars only, on 
the same principles which I have followed in the first volume ', 
explaining every word and sentence that seems to require elucida- 
tion, and carefully examining the opinions of previous commen- 
tators, both native and European, I intend to contribute a freer 
translation of the hymns to this Series, with a few explanatory 
notes only, such as are absolutely necessary to enable readers who 
are unacquainted with Sanskrit to understand the thoughts of the 
Vedic poets. The translation of perhaps another Samhita, one or 
two of the Brahraanas, or portions of them, will have to be included 
in our Series, as well as the principal Upanishads, theosophic trea- 
tises of great interest and beauty. There is every prospect of an 
early appearance of a translation of the Bhagavad-gita, of the most 
important among the sacred Law-books, and of one at least of the 
Pura«as. I should have wished to include a translation of some of 
the Gain books, of the Granth of the Sikhs, and of similar works 
illustrative of the later developments of religion in India, but there 
is hardly room for them at present. 

2. The Sacred Books of the Buddhists will be translated chiefly 
from the two original collections, the Southern in Pali, the 
Northern in Sanskrit. Here the selection will, no doubt, be most 
difficult. Among the first books to be published will be, I hope, 
Sutras from the Digha Niklya, a part of the Vinaya-pi/aka, the 
Dhammapada, the Divyavadana, the Lalita-vistara, or legendary 
life of Buddha. 

3. The Sacred Books of the Zoroastrians lie within a smaller 
compass, but they will require fuller notes and commentaries in 
order to make a translation intelligible and useful. 

4. The books which enjoy the highest authority with the fol- 
lowers of Khung-fu-jze are the King and the Shu. Of the former 
the Shu King or Book of History; the Odes of the Temple and 

1 Rig-veda-sanhiti, The Sacred Hymns of the Brahmans, trans- 
lated and explained by F. Max Mttller. Vol. i. Hymns to the 
Maruts or the Storm-Gods. London, 1869. 

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the Altar, and other pieces illustrating the ancient religious views 
and practices of the Chinese, in the Shih King or Book of Poetry; 
the Yl King; the LI Ki; and the Hsiio King or Classic of Filial 
Piety, will all be given, it is hoped, entire. Of the latter, the Series 
will contain the A'ung Yung or Doctrine of the Mean; the Tt Hsio 
or Great Learning; all Confucius' utterances in the Lun Yu or Con- 
fucian Analects, which are of a religious nature, and refer to the 
principles of his moral system; and Mang-jze's Doctrine of the 
Goodness of Human Nature. 

5. For the system of Ldo-jze we require only a translation of 
the TSo-teh King with some of its commentaries, and, it may be, 
an authoritative work to illustrate the actual operation of its 

6. For Islam, all that is essential is a trustworthy translation of 
the Koran. 

It will be my endeavour to divide the twenty-four volumes which 
are contemplated in this Series as equally as possible among the 
six religions. But much must depend on the assistance which I 
receive from Oriental scholars, and also on the interest and the 
wishes of the public. 

Oxford, October, 1876. 

The following distinguished scholars, all of them 
occupying the foremost rank in their own special 
departments of Oriental literature, are at present 
engaged in preparing translations of some of the 
Sacred Books of the East : S. Beal, R. G. Bhan- 
darkar, G. Biihler, A. Burnell, E. B. Cowell, J. 
Darmesteter, T. W. Rhys Davids, J. Eggeling, 
V. Fausboll, H. Jacobi, J. Jolly, H. Kern, F. Kiel- 
horn, J. Legge, H. Oldenberg, E. H. Palmer, R. 
Pischel, K. T. Telang, E. W. West. 

The works which for the present have been 
selected for translation are the following: 

I. Ancient Vedic Religion. 

Hymns of the Z?zg-veda. 
The .Satapatha-brahmawa. 

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The Upanishads. 

The Grz'hya-sutras of Hira#yakerin and others. 

II. Law-books in prose. 

The Sutras of Apastamba, Gautama, Baudhayana, 
VasishAfca, Vishmi, &c. 

III. Law-books inverse. 
The Laws of Manu, Ya/fiavalkya, &c. 

IV. Later Brahmanism. 

The Bhagavad-gita. 
The Vayu-purawa. 

V. Buddhism. 

i. Pali Documents. 

The Mahiparinibbana Sutta, the Tevigga Sutta, 
the Mahasudassana Sutta, the Dhammaiakkappa- 
vattana Sutta; the Suttanipata; the Mahavagga, 
the A!ullavagga, and the Patimokkha. 

2. Sanskrit Documents. 

The Divyavadana and Saddharmapuodartka. 

3. Chinese Documents. 
The Phu-yao King, or life of Buddha. 

4. Prakrit 6aina Documents. 

The Aiaranga Sutra, Daravaikalika Sutra, Sutra- 
kmdnga, and Uttaradhyayana Sutra. 

VI. Parsi Religion. 
1. Zend Documents. 
The Vendidad. 

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2. Pehlevi and Parsi Documents. 
The BundahLf, Bahman Yasht, Shdyast-14-shiyast, 
Dadistani Dint, Mainydi Khard. 

VII. Mohammedanism. 
The Koran. 

VIII. Chinese Religion. 

i. Confucianism. 

The Shu King, Shih King, Hsiao King, Yi King, 
Ll K\, Lun YU, and Mang-jze. 

2. T&oism. 
The T4o-teh King, ^Twang-jze, and Kan Ying 

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The system of transcribing Oriental words with 
Roman types, adopted by the translators of the 
Sacred Books of the East, is, on the whole, the 
same which I first laid down in my Proposals for 
a Missionary Alphabet, 1854, and which afterwards 
I shortly described in my Lectures on the Science 
of Language, Second Series, p. 169 (ninth edition). 
That system allows of great freedom in its appli- 
cation to different languages, and has, therefore, 
recommended itself to many scholars, even if they 
had long been accustomed to use their own system 
of transliteration. 

It rests in fact on a few principles only, which 
may be applied to individual languages according to 
the views which each student has formed for him- 
self of the character and the pronunciation of the 
vowels and consonants of any given alphabet. 

It does not differ essentially from the Standard 
Alphabet proposed by Professor Lepsius. It only 
endeavours to realise, by means of the ordinary 
types which are found in every printing office, what 
my learned friend has been enabled to achieve, it 
may be in a more perfect manner, by means of a 
number of new types with diacritical marks, cast 
expressly for him by the Berlin Academy. 

The general principles of what, on account of its 
easy application to all languages, I have called the 
Missionary Alphabet, are these : 

1. No letters are to be used which do not exist 
in ordinary founts. 

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2. The same Roman type is always to represent 
the same foreign letter, and the same foreign letter 
is always to be represented by the same Roman 

3. Simple letters are, as a rule, to be represented 
by simple, compound by compound types. 

4. It is not attempted to indicate the pronuncia- 
tion of foreign languages, but only to represent 
foreign letters by Roman types, leaving the pro- 
nunciation to be learnt, as it is now, from gram- 
mars or from conversation with natives. 

5. The foundation of every system of translitera- 
tion must consist of a classification of the typical 
sounds of human speech. Such classification may 
be more or less perfect, more or less minute, accord- 
ing to the objects in view. For ordinary purposes 
the classification in vowels and consonants, and of 
consonants again in gutturals, dentals, and labials 
suffices. In these three classes we distinguish hard 
(not-voiced) and sonant (voiced) consonants, each 
being liable to aspiration ; nasals, sibilants, and 
semivowels, some of these also, being either voiced 
or not-voiced. 

6. After having settled the typical sounds, we 
assign to them, as much as possible, the ordinary 
Roman types of the first class. 

7. We then arrange in every language which 
possesses a richer alphabet, all remaining letters, 
according to their affinities, as modifications of the 
nearest typical letters, or as letters of the second 
and third class. Thus Unguals in Sanskrit are treated 
as nearest to dentals, palatals to gutturals. 

8. The manner of expressing such modifications 
is uniform throughout. While all typical letters of 

[3] d 

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the first class are expressed by Roman types, modi- 
fied letters of the second class are expressed by 
italics, modified letters of the third class by small 
capitals. Only in extreme cases, where another class 
of modified types is wanted, are we compelled to 
have recourse either to diacritical marks, or to a 
different fount of types. 

9. Which letters in each language are to be 
considered as primary, secondary, or tertiary may, 
to a certain extent, be left to the discretion of 
individual scholars. 

10. As it has been found quite impossible to 
devise any practical alphabet that should accurately 
represent the pronunciation of words, the Missionary 
Alphabet, by not attempting to indicate minute 
shades of pronunciation, has at all events the 
advantage of not misleading readers in their pro- 
nunciation of foreign words. An italic /, for instance, 
or a small capital t, serves simply as a warning that 
this is not the ordinary t, though it has some affinity 
with it. How it is to be pronounced must be learnt 
for each language, as it now is, from a grammar 
or otherwise. Thus / in Sanskrit is the lingual /. 
How that is to be pronounced, we must learn from 
the Prati-yakhyas, or from the mouth of a highly 
educated »Srotriya. We shall then learn that its 
pronunciation is really that of what we call the 
ordinary dental t, as in town, while the ordinary 
dental t in Sanskrit has a pronunciation of its own, 
extremely difficult to acquire for Europeans. 

11. Words or sentences which used to be printed 
in italics are spaced. 

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- 3 

n n «> i a 



*\ * «10sJ 

^^ &/<K/ 

|v * * * 



- - UoJ-U 

- UoJU 

K» i» 

* 3 • 






r * v w Xf 



3 ^a - fi j* 



: i 














■a r «* 

v ai D ,2 

.3 03 ,S « ~ 



<M CO rJH U5 



l-( l-H i— I 

a s 



fj o« 





M 1^ 


4 .2 

g 1 

3 fc 

tD t-- 


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- 5 . • 

iv q .pr . »-»_r\ 

.9 D — M 

*b • 3 

*> • •*» 3-0 




<) * • 'i D—y 





?-S e->o 


le fr -ic-5, • I* |g |g . tr 


N c* 

«B»-S> » •» 

■o « 

a -• 

= 1 

to 3 





.a s 

o> o 

3 I 

» -a 

g. a 



3 8 

.5 3 
& s 
3 3 

S I 


tH CM 


3 3 

I . . 

- <U *. 

g <2 


Digitized by 




• ••••■ 


• *•••• 

| -s 

• • 

a » 

«• • 

a '• '. '■ '. r '. 

0i in pi n 

Q •' 

• «■* • • 

** ** \ ^ ' "* : 

■ : > : 

«_ • 

1 " : : 

-a j> • • * -> • 

3 > : > : 

o • 

•3 ^ : : 

: ? 

• n; 

N» • 

*>* : 

: :c^ : 3/^. : 


* :i : 


Mi . 

* K» *> *> W u • 


PC |r X 

v '• 

"• rl ? 

• •••••• 

• ••••• Op 

• •••••* 

t \ ' 

I . . . 

- 5 •« 'S * • *• 

. . . . « 

>. • • 

• • s < 




oo a o 

W W V 



s 3 
i-i e*i 










8 J 




a s 

a * J %- 


•1 * 
















CO tv 








Tt< ■* 








Digitized by 




as «s — <- 

I- M-l- 


* b !> 

— * 

* 3 I** 

3 <3 « « 9 




— • «> 



- «»\ 





p £ **-**- p is* |p p> » * • iv/kv 



© *» >o « «a — - a S X t S<» 



3 S3 

o g g 

:•» :- :3 :0 



5 £ 


£ a-s 

c8 > bo .5 d 

SP S S s 3d 

? .3 ° P a 

S JS 5 | B 

J3 .3 



I 3 

: :| 

3 & 


s § 


.2 es 







3 1 

3 3 



Digitized by 




Approximate Pronunciation of the Roman Letters 
as representing the sanskrit alphabet. 



T as in new 


V as in sam 



» yet 



„ psalm 



,, sharp 



„ knit 




„ neat 


w xi /tip of tongue rtrikfatev 
11 as in tin (the bone of the teeth ) 



» fiery 



„ lanthorn 



» ~~~ 



„ din 



„ friendly 



,, landholder 



» " 



„ nay 



„ fuU 



» let 



„ fool 



n ~~ 



„ date 



„ grass 



„ aisle 



„ note 


Z as in town (wg^Weofar'retfon) 



„ proud 



„ outhouse 



„ done 




„ rodhook 




„ no 


W as in kite 



„ red 



„ inkhorn 



„ shun 



» gate 




„ springhead 


H as in pan 


» sing 

P h 


„ topheavy 



„ hear 



». bed 




„ clubhouse 



as in church 



„ mill 



„ church-history 



„ live 



» jolly 



„ Anusvara (SlL') 



„ bridge-house 



„ ViSMga(b<whin e ) 

Proper names have frequently been left in their ordinary spelling, e.g. 
Rajendra, instead of Rajrendra. In words which have almost become 
English, the diacritical marks have often been omitted, e.g. Rig-veda, 
instead of Big-veda; Brahman, instead of Brahmana; Confucius, 
Zoroaster, Koran, &c. 

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First Translation of the Upanisiiads. 
DArA Shukoh, Anquetil Duperron, Schopenhauer. 

The ancient Vedic literature, the foundation of the 
whole literature of India, which has been handed down 
in that country in an unbroken succession from the earliest 
times within the recollection of man to the present day, 
became known for the first time beyond the frontiers of 
India through the Upanishads. The Upanishads were 
translated from Sanskrit into Persian by, or, it may be, for 
Dara Shukoh, the eldest son of Shah Jehan, an enlightened 
prince, who openly professed the liberal religious tenets of 
the great Emperor Akbar, and even wrote a book intended 
to reconcile the religious doctrines of Hindus and Moham- 
medans. He seems first to have heard of the Upanishads 
during his stay in Kashmir in 1640. He afterwards in- 
vited several Pandits from Benares to Delhi, who were to 
assist him in the work of translation. The translation 
was finished in 1657. Three years after the accomplish- 
ment of this work, in 1659, the prince was put to death by 
his brother Aurangzib 1 , in reality, no doubt, because he 
was the eldest son and legitimate successor of Shah Jehan, 
but under the pretext that he was an infidel, and dangerous 
to the established religion of the empire. 

When the Upanishads had once been translated from 
Sanskrit into Persian, at that time the most widely read 
language of the East and understood likewise by many 
European scholars, they became generally accessible to 

' Elphinstone, History of India, cd. Cowfbll, p. 610, 

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all who took an interest in the religious literature of 
India. It is true that under Akbar's reign (1556-1586) 
similar translations had been prepared \ but neither those 
nor the translations of Dara Shukoh attracted the attention 
of European scholars till the year 1775. In that year 
Anquetil Duperron, the famous traveller and discoverer 
of the Zend-avesta, received one MS. of the Persian trans- 
lation of the Upanishads, sent to him by M. Gentil, the 
French resident at the court of Shuja ud daula, and brought 
to France by M. Bernier. After receiving another MS., 
Anquetil Duperron collated the two, and translated the 
Persian translation 2 into French (not published), and into 
Latin. That Latin translation was published in 1801 and 
1803, under the title of ' OupnekTiat, id est, Secretum tegen- 
dum : opus ipsa in India rarissimum, contincns antiquam et 
arcanam, seu theologicam et philosophicam doctrinam, e 
quatuor sacris Indorum libris Rak baid, Djedjer baid, Sam 
baid, Athrban baid excerptam ; ad verbum, e Persico 
idiomate, Samkreticis vocabulis intermixto, in Latinum 
conversum: Dissertationibus et Annotationibus diffici- 
liora explanantibus, illustratum : studio et opera Anquetil 
Duperron, Indicopleustae. Argentorati, typis et impensis 
fratrum Levrault, vol. i, 1801 ; vol. ii, 1803 s .' 

This translation, though it attracted considerable interest 
among scholars, was written in so utterly unintelligible a 
style, that it required the lynxlike perspicacity of an intre- 

1 M. M., Introduction to the Science of Religion, p. 79. 

* Several other MSS. of this translation have since come to light ; one at 
Oxford, Codices Wilsoniani, 399 and 400. Anquetil Duperron gives the following 
title of the Persian translation : ' Hanc interpretationem tuv Oupnekhathai quo- 
rumvis quatuor librorum Beid, quod, designatum cum secreto magno (per 
secretum magnum) est, et integram cognitionem luminis luminum, hie Fakir 
sine tristitia (Sultan) Mohammed Dara Schakoh ipse, cum significatione recta, 
cum sinceritate, in tempore sex mensium (postremo die, secundo tow Schonbeh, 
vigesimo) sexto mensis tow Ramazzan, anno 1067 rod Hedjri (Christi, 1657) in 
urbe Delhi, in mansione nakhe noudeh, cum absolutione ad finem fecit pervenire.' 
The MS. was copied by Atma Ram in the year 1767 a.d. Anquetil Duperron 
adds: 'Absolutum est hoc Apographum versionis Latins r&» quinquaginta 
Oupnekhatha, ad verbum, e Persico idiomate, Samskreticis vocabulis inter- 
mixto, facts, die 9 Octobris, 1796, 18 Brumaire, anni 4, Reipublic. Gait 

' M. M., History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, second edition, p. 3*5. 

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pid philosopher, such as Schopenhauer, to discover a thread 
through such a labyrinth. Schopenhauer, however, not only 
found and followed such a thread, but he had the courage to 
proclaim to an incredulous age the vast treasures of thought 
which were lying buried beneath that fearful jargon. 

As Anquetil Duperron's volumes have become scarce, I 
shall here give a short specimen of his translation, which 
corresponds to the first sentences of my translation of the 
, /fAandogya-upanishad (p. i): — 'Oum hoc verbum (esse) 
adkit ut sciveris, sic rb maschghouli fac (de eo medi- 
tare), quod ipsum hoc verbum aodkit est; propter illud 
quod hoc (verbum) oum, in Sam Beid, cum voce alta, 
cum harmonia pronunciatum fiat. 

'Adkiteh porro cremor (optimum, select issimum) 
est: quemadmodum ex (prae) omni quieto (non mo to), 
et moto, pulvis (terra) cremor (optimum) est ; et e (prae) 
terra aqua cremor est; et ex aqua, comedendum (v ictus) 
cremor est ; (et) e comedendo, comedens cremor est ; et e 
comedente, loquela (id quod dicitur) cremor est; et e 
loquela, alfet rod Beid, et ex alet, rb si am, id est, cum har- 
monia (pronunciatum) ; et e Sam, rb adkit, cremor est ; 
id est, oum, voce alta, cum harmonia pronunciare, aokit, 
cremor cremorum (optimum optimorum) est. Major, ex 
(prae) adkit, cremor alter non est.' 

Schopenhauer not only read this translation carefully, 
but he makes no secret of it, that his own philosophy is 
powerfully impregnated by the fundamental doctrines of 
the Upanishads. He dwells on it again and again, and it 
seems both fair to Schopenhauer's memory and highly 
important for a true appreciation of the philosophical value 
of the Upanishads, to put together what that vigorous 
thinker has written on those ancient rhapsodies of truth. 

In his 'Welt als Wille und Vorstellung,' he writes, 
in the preface to the first edition, p. xiii : 

"If the reader has also received the benefit of the Vedas, the 
access to which by means of the Upanishads is in my eyes 
the greatest privilege which this still young century (1818) 
may claim before all previous centuries, (for I anticipate 
that the influence of Sanskrit literature will not be less pro- 

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found than the revival of Greek in the fourteenth century,) — if 
then the reader, I say, has received his initiation in primeval 
Indian wisdom, and received it with an open heart, he will 
be prepared in the very best way for hearing what I have 
to tell him. It will not sound to him strange, as to many 
others, much less disagreeable ; for I might, if it did not 
sound conceited, contend that every one of the detached 
statements which constitute the Upanishads, may be de- 
duced as a necessary result from the fundamental thoughts 
which I have to enunciate, though those deductions them- 
selves are by no means to be found there.' 

And again l : 

' If I consider how difficult it is, even with the assistance 
of the best and carefully educated teachers, and with all 
the excellent philological appliances collected in the course 
of this century, to arrive at a really correct, accurate, and 
living understanding of Greek and Roman authors, whose 
language was after all the language of our own predecessors 
in Europe, and the mother of our own, while Sanskrit, on 
the contrary, was spoken thousands of years ago in distant 
India, and can be learnt only with appliances which are as 
yet very imperfect ; — if I add to this the impression which 
the translations of Sanskrit works by European scholars, 
with very few exceptions, produce on my mind, I cannot 
resist a certain suspicion that our Sanskrit scholars do not 
understand their texts much better than the higher class of 
schoolboys their Greek. Of course, as they are not boys, 
but men of knowledge and understanding, they put together, 
out of what they do understand, something like what the 
general meaning may have been, but much probably creeps 
in ex ingenio. It is still worse with the Chinese of our 
European Sinologues. 

'If then I consider, on the other hand, that Sultan 
Mohammed Dara Shukoh, the brother of Aurangzib, was 
born and bred in India, was a learned, thoughtful, and 
enquiring man, and therefore probably understood his 
Sanskrit about as well as we our Latin, that moreover 

1 Schopenhauer, Parerga, third edition, II, p. 426. 

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he was assisted by a number, of the most learned Pandits, 
all this together gives me at once a very high opinion of 
his translation of the Vedic Upanishads into Persian. If, 
besides this, I see with what profound and quite appro- 
priate reverence Anquetil Duperron has treated that 
Persian translation, rendering it in Latin word by word, 
retaining, in spite of Latin grammar, the Persian syntax, 
and all the Sanskrit words which the Sultan himself had 
left untranslated, though explaining them in a glossary, 
I feel the most perfect confidence in reading that transla- 
tion, and that confidence soon receives its most perfect 
justification. For how entirely does the Oupnekhat breathe 
throughout the holy spirit of the Vedas ! How is every 
one who by a diligent study of its Persian Latin has 
become familiar with that incomparable book, stirred by 
that spirit to the very depth of his soul ! How does every 
line display its firm, definite, and throughout harmonious 
meaning 1 From every sentence deep, original, and sublime 
thoughts arise, and the whole is pervaded by a high and 
holy and earnest spirit. Indian air surrounds us, and 
original thoughts of kindred spirits. And oh, how thoroughly 
is the mind here washed clean of all early engrafted Jewish 
superstitions, and of all philosophy that cringes before thogs. 

superstitions ! In the whole world there is no study, except 
that of the originals, so beneficial and so elevating as that 
of the Oupnekhat. It has been the solace of my life, it 
will be the solace of my death ! 

' Though l I feel the highest regard for the religious and 
philosophical works of Sanskrit literature, I have not been 
able to derive much pleasure from their poetical composi- 
tions. Nay, they seem to me sometimes as tasteless and 
m6nstrous as the sculpture of India. ' 

' In 2 most of the pagan philosophical writers of the first 
Christian centuries we see the Jewish theism, which, as 
Christianity, was soon to become the faith of the people, 
shining through, much as at present we may perceive 
shining through in the writings of the learned, the native 

1 Loc. cit. II, pp. 425. ■ Loc. cit. I, p. 59. 

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pantheism of India, which is destined sooner or later to 
become the faith of the people. Ex oriente lux.' 

This may seem strong language, and, in some respects, 
too strong. But I thought it right to quote it here, be- 
cause, whatever may be urged against Schopenhauer, he 
was a thoroughly honest thinker and honest speaker, and 
no one would suspect him of any predilection for what has 
been so readily called Indian mysticism. That Schelling 
and his school should use rapturous language about the 
Upanishads, might carry little weight with that large class 
of philosophers by whom everything beyond the clouds 
of their own horizon is labelled mysticism. But that 
Schopenhauer should have spoken of the Upanishads as 
4 products of the highest wisdom ' (Ausgeburt der hochsten 
Weisheit) 1 , that he should have placed the pantheism 
there taught high above the pantheism of Bruno, Male- 
branche, Spinoza, and Scotus Erigena, as brought to light 
again at Oxford in 1681 2 , may perhaps secure a more con- 
siderate reception for these relics of ancient wisdom than 
anything that I could say in their favour. 

Rammohun Roy. 

Greater, however, than the influence exercised on the 
philosophical thought of modern Europe, has been the 
impulse which these same Upanishads have imparted to 
the religious life of modern India. In about the same year 
(1774 or 1775) when the first MS. of the Persian translation 
of the Upanishads was received by Anquetil Duperron, 
Rammohun Roy 3 was born in India, the reformer and 
reviver of the ancient religion of the Brahmans. A man 
who in his youth could write a book 'Against the Idolatry 
of all Religions,' and who afterwards expressed in so many 
exact words his ' belief in the divine authority of Christ *,' 
was not likely to retain anything of the sacred literature of 
his own religion, unless he had perceived in it the same 

' Loc. dt. II, p. 438. 

* Loc. cit. I, p. 6. These passages were pointed out to me by Professor Noire\ 

* Bom 1774, died at 1.30 A.M., on Friday, 28th September, 1833. 

* Last Days of Rammohun Roy, by Mary Carpenter, 1866, p. 135. 

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divine authority which he recognised in the teaching of 
Christ. He rejected the Purawas, he would not have been 
swayed in his convictions by the authority of the Laws of 
Manu, or even by the sacredness of theVedas. He was 
above all that. But he discovered in the Upanishads and 
in the so-called Vedanta something different from all the 
rest, something that ought not to be thrown away, some- 
thing that, if rightly understood, might supply the right 
native soil in which alone the seeds of true religion, aye, of 
true Christianity, might spring up again and prosper in India, 
as they had once sprung up and prospered from out the 
philosophies of Origen or Synesius. European scholars 
have often wondered that Rammohun Roy, in his defence 
of the Veda, should have put aside the Sawhitas and the 
Brahma«as, and laid his finger on the Upanishads only, as 
the true kernel of the whole Veda. Historically, no doubt, 
he was wrong, for the Upanishads presuppose both the 
hymns and the liturgical books of the Veda. But as the 
ancient philosophers distinguished in the Veda between the 
Karma-ka>ft/a and the (7nana-ka«^a, between works and 
knowledge ; as they themselves pointed to the learning of 
the sacred hymns and the performance of sacrifices as a 
preparation only for that enlightenment which was re- 
served as the highest reward for the faithful performance 
of all previous duties 1 , Rammohun Roy, like Buddha and 
other enlightened men before him, perceived that the time 
for insisting on all that previous discipline with its minute 
prescriptions and superstitious observances was gone, while 
the knowledge conveyed in the Upanishads or the Vedanta, 
enveloped though it may be in strange coverings* should 
henceforth form the foundation of a new religious life 2 . 
He would tolerate nothing idolatrous, not even in his 
mother, poor woman, who after joining his most bitter 
opponents, confessed to her son, before she set out on her 

1 M. M., History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 319. 

' 'The adoration of the invisible Supreme Being is exclusively prescribed 
by the Upanishads or the principal parts of theVedas and also by the Vedant' 
Rammohun Roy, Translation of the Kena-upanishad, Calcutta, 1816, p. 6. 
M. M., History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 320. 

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last pilgrimage to Juggernaut, where she died, that ' he was 
right, but that she was a weak woman, and grown too old 
to give up the observances which were a comfort to her.' It 
was not therefore from any regard of their antiquity or 
their sacred character that Rammohun Roy clung to the 
Upanishads, that he translated them into Bengali, Hindi, 
and English, and published them at his own expense. It 
was because he recognised in them seeds of eternal truth, 
and was bold enough to distinguish between what was 
essential in them and what was not, — a distinction, as he 
often remarked with great perplexity, which Christian 
teachers seemed either unable or unwilling to make 1 . 

The death of that really great and good man during his 
stay in England in 1833, was one of the severest blows that 
have fallen on the prospects of India. But his work has not 
been in vain. Like a tree whose first shoot has been killed 
by one winter frost, it has broken out again in a number of 
new and more vigorous shoots, for whatever the outward 
differences may be between the Adi Brahmo Samaj of De- 
bendranath Tagore, or the Brahmo Samaj of India of 
Keshub Chunder Sen, or the Sadharan Brahmo Samaj, 
the common root of them all is the work done, once for all, 
by Rammohun Roy. That work may have disappeared 
from sight for a time, and its present manifestations may 
seem to many observers who are too near, not very 
promising. But in one form or another, under one name 
or another, I feel convinced that work will live. 'In India," 
Schopenhauer writes, ' our religion will now and never strike 
root : the primitive wisdom of the human race will never be 
pushed aside there by the events of Galilee. On the con- 
trary, Indian wisdom will flow back upon Europe, and 
produce a thorough change in our knowing and thinking.' 
Here, again, the great philosopher seems to me to have 
allowed himself to be carried away too far by his enthu- 
siasm for the less known. He is blind for the dark sides 
of the Upanishads, and he wilfully shuts his eyes against 
the bright rays of eternal truth in the Gospels, which even 

> Last Days, p. 11. 

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Rammohun Roy was quick enough to perceive behind the 
mists and clouds of tradition that gather so quickly round 
the sunrise of every religion. 

Position of the Upanishads in Vedic Literature. 

If now we ask what has been thought of the Upanishads 
by Sanskrit scholars or by Oriental scholars in general, it 
must be confessed that hitherto they have not received at 
their hands that treatment which in the eyes of philo- 
sophers and theologians they seem so fully to deserve. 
When the first enthusiasm for such works as Sakuntala 
and Gita-Govinda had somewhat subsided, and Sanskrit 
scholars had recognised that a truly scholarlike study of 
Indian literature must begin with the beginning, the exclu- 
sively historical interest prevailed to so large an extent 
that the hymns of the Veda, the Brahmawas, and the 
Sutras absorbed all interest, while the Upanishads were 
put aside for a time as of doubtful antiquity, and there- 
fore of minor importance. 

My real love for Sanskrit literature was first kindled by 
the Upanishads. It was in the year 1844, when attending 
Schelling's lectures at Berlin, that my attention was drawn 
to those ancient theosophic treatises, and I still possess my 
collations of the Sanskrit MSS. which had then just arrived 
at Berlin, the Chambers collection, and my copies of com- 
mentaries, and commentaries on commentaries, which I 
made at that time. Some of my translations which I 
left with Schelling, I have never been able to recover, 
though to judge from others which I still possess, the 
loss of them is of small consequence. Soon after leaving 
Berlin, when continuing my Sanskrit studies at Paris under 
Burnouf, I put aside the Upanishads, convinced that for a 
true appreciation of them it was necessary to study, first of 
all, the earlier periods of Vedic literature, as represented by 
the hymns and the Brahma«as of the Vedas. 

In returning, after more than thirty years, to these 
favourite studies, I find that my interest in them, though 
it has changed in character, has by no means diminished. 

[3] e 

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V 1 


It is true, no doubt, that the stratum of literature 
which contains the Upanishads is later than the Sam- 
hitas, and later than the Brahmawas, but the first germs 
of Upanishad doctrines go back at least as far as the 
Mantra period, which provisionally has been fixed between 
iooo and 800 B. C. Conceptions corresponding to the 
general teaching of the Upanishads occur in certain hymns 
of the Rig-veda-sa/whita, they must have existed there- 
fore before that collection was finally closed. One hymn 
in the Sawhita of the Rig-veda (I, 191) was designated 
by Katyayana, the author of the Sarvanukramawika, as 
an Upanishad. Here, however, upanishad means rather 
a secret charm than a philosophical doctrine. Verses 
of the hymns have often been incorporated in the Upa- 
nishads, and among the Oupnekhats translated into Persian 
by Dara Shukoh we actually find the Purush'a-sukta, 
the 90th hymn of the tenth book of the Rig-veda 1 , 
forming the greater portion of the BarkTveh Soukt. In the 
Sawhita of the Ya^ur-veda, however, in the V^fasaneyi- 
jakha, we meet with a real Upanishad, the famous IjA or 
1 .ravasya-upanishad, while the 5ivasawkalpa, too, forms part 
of its thirty-fourth book 2 . In the Brahma«as several Upani- 
shads occur, even in portions which are not classed as 
Aranyakas, as, for instance, the well-known Kena or Tala- 
vakara upanishad. The recognised place, however, for the 
ancient Upanishads is in the Arawyakas, or forest-books, 
which, as a rule, form an appendix to the Brahmawas, but 
are sometimes included also under the general name of 
Brahmawa. Brahmawa, in fact, meaning originally the 
sayings of Brahmans, whether in the general sense of 
priests, or in the more special of Brahman-priest, is a name 
applicable not only to the books, properly so called, 
but to all old prose traditions, whether contained in the 
Sawmitas, such as the Taittiriya-sawhiti, the Brahmanas, 
the Aranyakas, the Upanishads, and even, in certain cases, 
in the Sutras. We shall see in the introduction to the 
Aitareya-ara«yaka, that that Arawyaka is in the beginning 

1 See Weber, Indische Studien, IX, p. I seq. 

% See M. M., History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 317. 

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a Brahmawa, a mere continuation of the Aitareya-brah- 
ma«a, explaining the Mahavrata ceremony, while its last 
book contains the Sutras or short technical rules explain- 
ing the same ceremony which in the first book had been 
treated in the style peculiar to the Brahmawas. In the same 
Aitareya-arawyaka, III, a, 6, 6, a passage of the Upanishad 
is spoken of as a Brahma*a, possibly as something like a 
Brahmama, while something very like an Upanishad occurs 
in the Apastamba-sutras, and might be quoted therefore 
as a Sutra 1 . At all events the Upanishads, like the 
Ara«yakas, belong to what Hindu theologians call Srati, 
or revealed literature, in opposition to Smr/ti, or traditional 
literature, which is supposed to be founded on the former, 
and allowed to claim a secondary authority only ; and the 
earliest of these philosophical treatises will always, I be- 
lieve, maintain a place in the literature of the world, among 
the most astounding productions of the human mind in any 
age and in any country. 

Different Classes of Upanishads. 

The ancient Upanishads, i. e. those which occupy a 
place in the Samhitas, Brahmawas, and Arawyakas, must 
be, if we follow the chronology which at present is com- 
monly, though, it may be, provisionally only, received 
by Sanskrit scholars, older than 6oo B. c, i.e. anterior 
to the rise of Buddhism. As to other Upanishads, and 
their number is very large, which either stand by them- 
selves, or which are ascribed to the Atharva-veda, it is 
extremely difficult to fix their age. Some of them are, 
no doubt, quite modern, for mention is made even of 
an Allah-upanishad ; but others may claim a far higher 
antiquity than is generally assigned to them on internal 
evidence. I shall only mention that the name of Atharva- 
jiras, an Upanishad generally assigned ' to a very modern 
date, is quoted in the Sutras of Gautama and Baudhayana 2 ; 

1 Apastamba, translated by Biihler, Sacred Books of the East, vol. ii, p. 75. 
* Gautama, translated by Biihler, Sacred Books of the East, vol. ii, p. 37a, 
and Introduction, p. lvi. 

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that the .SVetlsvatara-upanishad, or the Svetlrvatarawam 
Mantropanishad, though bearing many notes of later periods 
of thought, is quoted by -Sankara in his commentary on 
the Vedanta-sutras ' ; while the Nnsiwhottaratapaniya- 
upanishad forms part of the twelve Upanishads explained 
by Vidyarawya in his Sarvopanishad-arthanubhuti-prak&ra. 
The Upanishads comprehended in that work are : 

I. Aitareya-upanishad. 

a. Taittirlya-upanishad. 

3. .Oandogya-upanishad. 

4. Mun^aka-upanishad. 

5. Frama-upanishad. 

6. Kaushitaki-upanishad. 

7. Maitrayaaiya-upanishad. 

8. Ka/Aavalli-upanishad. 

9. .Svetlsvatara-upanishad. 

10. Brihad-arawyaka-upanishad. 

11. Talavakara (Kena)-upanishad. 

1 a. Nrtsi/whottaratapaniya-upanishad a . 
The number of Upanishads translated by Dara Shukoh 
amounts to 50 ; their number, as given in the Mahavakya- 
muktavali and in the Muktika-upanishad, is 108 8 . Pro- 
fessor Weber thinks that their number, so far as we know 
at present, may be reckoned at 235 4 . In order, however, 
to arrive at so high a number, every title of an Upanishad 
would have to be counted separately, while in several cases 
it is clearly the same Upanishad which is quoted under dif- 
ferent names. In an alphabetical list which I published in 
1865 (Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesell- 
schaft XIX, 137-158), the number of real Upanishads 
reached 149. To that number Dr. Burnell 5 in his Catalogue 

1 Ved&nta-sutras I. 1, II. 

' One misses the Is& or ts&v&sya-upanishad in this list. The Upanishads 
chiefly studied in Bengal are the Bnhad-aranyaka, Aitareya, JCAandogya, Taitti- 
rtya, tsa, Kena, KaMa, Prasna, Mundaka, and Manrfflkya, to which should be 
added the Svet&tvatanu M. M., History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 335. 

' Dr. Burnell thinks that this is an artificial computation, 108 being a sacred 
number in Southern India. See Kielhom in Gough's Papers on Ancient Sanskrit 
Literature, p. 193. 
• * Weber, History of Sanskrit Literature, p. 155 note. 

* Lidian Antiquary, II, 267. 

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(p. 59) added 5, Professor Haug (Brahma und die Brah- 
manen) 1 6, making a sum total of 1 70. New names, however, 
are constantly being added in the catalogues of MSS. pub- 
lished by Biihler, Kielhorn, Burnell, Rajendralal Mitra, and 
others, and I shall reserve therefore a more complete list of 
Upanishads for a later volume. 

Though it is easy to see that these Upanishads belong to 
very different periods of Indian thought, any attempt to fix 
their relative age seems to me for the present almost hopeless. 
No one can doubt that the Upanishads which have had 
a place assigned to them in the Samhitas, Brahmawas, and 
Ara»yakas are the oldest. Next to these we can draw a 
line to include the Upanishads clearly referred to in the 
Vedanta-sutras, or explained and quoted by Sankara, by 
Saya«a, and other more modern commentators. We can 
distinguish Upanishads in prose from Upanishads in mixed 
prose and verse, and again Upanishads in archaic verse from 
Upanishads in regular and continuous AnushAibh Slokas. 
We can also class them according to their subjects, and, at 
last, according to the sects to which they belong. But 
beyond this it is hardly safe to venture at present. Attempts 
have been made by Professor Weber and M. Regnaud to 
fix in each class the relative age of certain Upanishads, and 
I do not deny to their arguments, even where they conflict 
with each other, considerable weight in forming a preliminary 
judgment. But I know of hardly any argument which is 
really convincing, or which could not be met by counter 
arguments equally strong. Simplicity may be a sign of 
antiquity, but it is not so always, for what seems simple, 
may be the result of abbreviation. One Upanishad may 
give the correct, another an evidently corrupt reading, 
yet it does not follow that the correct reading may not be 
the result of an emendation. It is quite clear that a large 
mass of traditional Upanishads must have existed before 
they assumed their present form. Where two or three or 
four Upanishads contain the same story, told almost in the 
same words, they are not always copied from one another, 
but they have been settled independently, in different locali- 
ties, by different teachers, it may be, for different purposes. 

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Lastly, the influence of Sakhas or schools may have told 
more or less on certain Upanishads. Thus the Maitrayawlya- 
upanishad, as we now possess it, shows a number of irregular 
forms which even the commentator can account for only as 
peculiarities of the Maitrayawlya-jakha 1 . That Upanishad, 
as it has come down to us, is full of what we should call 
clear indications of a modern and corrupt age. It contains 
in VI, 37, a jloka from the M&nava-dharma-jastra, which 
startled even the commentator, but is explained away by 
him as possibly found in another Sakha, and borrowed from 
there by Manu. It contains corruptions of easy words which 
one would have thought must have been familiar to every 
student. Thus instead of the passage as found in the Khkn- 
dogya-upanishad VIII, 7, 1, ya atmapahatapapma 
vimr/tyur vlroko 'vjgighatso 'pipasaA, &c, the text of the 
Maitrayawiya-upanishad (VII, 7) reads, atmapahatapapma 
v\g aro vimr/tyur vuoko 'vi&kitso VipajaA. But here again 
the commentator explains that another Sakha reads V^-i- 
ghatsa, and that aviplsa is to be explained by means of 
a change of letters as apipasa. Corruptions, therefore, or 
modern elements which are found in one Upanishad, as 
handed down in one Sakha, do not prove that the same 
existed in other Sakhas, or that they were found in the 
original text. 

All these questions have to be taken into account before 
we can venture to give a final judgment on the relative age 
of Upanishads which belong to one and the same class. 
I know of no problem which offers so many similarities 
with the one before us as that of the relative age of the 
four Gospels. All the difficulties which occur in the Upa-> 
nishads occur here, and no critical student who knows the 
difficulties that have to be encountered in determining the 
relative age of the four Gospels, will feel inclined, in the 
present state of Vedic scholarship, to speak with confidence 
on the relative age of the ancient Upanishads. 

1 They are generally explained as Wandasa, but in one place (Mailr. Up. 
II, 4) the commentator treats such irregularities as etaiMakh&safiketapaMaA, a 
reading peculiar to the Maitr&yantya school. Some learned remarks on this point 
may be seen in an article by Dr. L. Schroeder, Uber die Maitiiyant Samhitft. 

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Critical Treatment of the Text of the 

With regard to a critical restoration of the text of the Upa- 
nishads, I have but seldom relied on the authority of new 
MSS., but have endeavoured throughout to follow that text 
which is presupposed by the commentaries, whether they are 
the work of the old .Sankara^arya, or of the more modern 
.Sankarananda, or Sayawa, or others. Though there still 
prevails some uncertainty as to the date of .Sankara£arya, 
commonly assigned to the eighth century A.D., yet I doubt 
whether any MSS. of the Upanishads could now be found 
prior to iooo A. D. The text, therefore, which 6ankara 
had before his eyes, or, it may be, his ears, commands, I 
think, a higher authority than that of any MSS. likely to 
be recovered at present. 

It may be objected that Sankara's text belonged to one 
locality only, and that different readings and different 
recensions may have existed in other parts of India. 
That is perfectly true. We possess various recensions of 
several Upanishads, as handed down in different £akhas of 
different Vedas, and we know of various readings recorded 
by the commentators. These, where they are of import- 
ance for our purposes, have been carefully taken into 

It has also been supposed that Sarikara, who, in writing 
his commentaries on the Upanishad, was chiefly guided by 
philosophical considerations, his chief object being to use 
the Upanishads as a sacred foundation for the Vedanta 
philosophy, may now and then have taken liberties with 
the text. That may be so, but no stringent proof of 
it has as yet been brought forward, and I therefore 
hold that when we succeed in establishing throughout 
that text which served as the basis of 5ankara's com- 
mentaries, we have done enough for the present, and have 
fulfilled at all events the first and indispensable task in a 
critical treatment of the text of the Upanishads. 

But in the same manner as it is easy to see that the text 

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of the Rig-veda, which is presupposed by Sayawa's com- 
mentary and even by earlier works, is in many places 
palpably corrupt, we cannot resist the same conviction with 
regard to the text of the Upanishads. In some cases the 
metre, in others grammar, in others again the collation of 
analogous passages enable us to detect errors, and pro- 
bably very ancient errors, that had crept into the text 
long before Sankara composed his commentaries. 

Some questions connected with the metres of the Upani- 
shads have been very learnedly treated by Professor Gilde- 
meister in his essay, 'Zur Theorie des .Sloka.' The lesson 
to be derived from that essay, and from a study of the 
Upanishads, is certainly to abstain for the present from 
conjectural emendations. In the old Upanishads the same 
metrical freedom prevails as in the hymns; in the later 
Upanishads, much may be tolerated as the result of con- 
scious or unconscious imitation. The metrical emendations 
that suggest themselves are generally so easy and so 
obvious that, for that very reason, we should hesitate before 
correcting what native scholars would have corrected long 
ago, if they had thought that there was any real necessity 
for correction. 

It is easy to suggest, for instance, that in the Va^asaneyi- 
samhita-upanishad, verse 5, instead of tad antar asya sar- 
vasya tadu sarvasyasya bahyataA, the original text may have 
been tad antar asya sarvasya tadu sarvasya bahyataA; yet 
Sankara evidently read sarvasyasya, and as the same 
reading is found in the text of the Vi^asaneyi-saiwhita, 
who would venture to correct so old a mistake ? 

Again, if in verse 8, we left out yathatathyataA, we 
should get a much more regular metre, 

Kavir mantshl paribhuA svyambhuA 

arthan vyadadh£fc kAisv&tibhysiA samabhya^. 

Here vyada forms one syllable by what I have proposed 
to call synizesis 1 , which is allowed in the Upanishads as 
well as in the hymns. All would then seem right, except 

1 Rig-veda, translated by M. M., vol. i, Preface, p. cxliii. 

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that it is difficult to explain how so rare a word as yatha- 
tathyata// could have been introduced into the text. 

In verse 10 one feels tempted to propose the omission of 
eva in anyad ahur avidyaya, while in verse 1 1, an eva inserted 
after vidyaw* ka would certainly improve the metre. 

In verse 15 the expression satyadharmaya dmhlaye is 
archaic, but perfectly legitimate in the sense of ' that we 
may see the nature of the True,' or ' that we see him whose 
nature is true.' When this verse is repeated in the Maitr. 
Up. VI, 35, we find instead, satyadharmaya vishwave, ' for 
the true Vishwu.' But here, again, no sound critic would 
venture to correct a mistake, intentional or unintentional, 
which is sanctioned both by the MSS. of the text and by 
the commentary. 

Such instances, where every reader feels tempted at once 
to correct the textus receptus, occur again and again, 
and when they seem of any interest they have been men- 
tioned in the notes. It may happen, however, that the 
correction, though at first sight plausible, has to be sur- 
rendered on more mature consideration. Thus in the 
Va^asaneyi-sawhita-upanishad, verse 2, one feels certainly 
inclined to write evam tve nanyatheto 'sti, instead of evaw 
tvayi nanyatheto 'sti. But tve, if it were used here, would 
probably itself have to be pronounced dissyllabically, while 
tvayi, though it never occurs in the Rig-veda, may well 
keep its place here, in the last book of the Va^asaneyi- 
samhita, provided we pronounce it by synizesis, i. e. as one 

Attempts have been made sometimes to go beyond 
vSankara, and to restore the text, as it ought to have been 
originally, but as it was no longer in .Sankara's time. It is 
one thing to decline to follow Sarikara in every one of his 
interpretations, it is quite another to decline to accept the 
text which he interprets. The former is inevitable, the 
latter is always very precarious. 

Thus I see, for instance, that M. Regnaud, in the Errata 
to the second volume of his excellent work on the Upani- 
shads (Matenaux pour servir a l'histoire de la philosophic 
de l'lnde, 1878) proposes to read in the Br*had-ara«yaka- 

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upanishad IV, 3, 1-8, sam anena vadishya iti, instead of sa 
mene na vadishya iti. 5ankara adopted the latter reading, 
and explained accordingly, that Ya^navalkya went to king 
(kanaka, but made up his mind not to speak. M. Regnaud, 
reading sam anena vadishya iti, takes the very opposite 
view, namely, that Yaj-navalkya went to king kanaka, 
having made up his mind to have a conversation with him. 
As M. Regnaud does not rest this emendation on the author- 
ity of any new MSS., we may examine it as an ingenious 
conjecture ; but in that case it seems to me clear that, if 
we adopted it, we should have at the same time to omit 
the whole sentence which follows. .Sankara saw clearly 
that what had to be accounted or explained was why the 
king should address the Brahman first, samrArf eva purvaw 
papra^Ma ; whereas if Yi^fiavalkya had come with the 
intention of having a conversation with the king, he, the 
Brahman, should have spoken first. This irregularity is 
explained by the intervening sentence, in which we are re- 
minded that on a former occasion, when (kanaka and Y^ffia- 
valkya had a disputation on the Agnihotra, Ya^-navalkya 
granted kanaka a boon to choose, and he chose as his boon 
the right of asking questions according to his pleasure. 
Having received that boon, Canaka was at liberty to 
question Ya^navalkya, even though he did not like it, 
and hence kanaka is introduced here as the first to ask a 

All this hangs well together, while if we assume that 
Ya^-Bavalkya came for the purpose of having a conversation 
with (kanaka, the whole sentence from 'atha ha ya^ ^anakaj 
ka.' to 'purvam papra^Ma' would be useless, nor would there 
be any excuse for Canaka beginning the conversation, when 
Ya#navalkya came himself on purpose to question him. 

It is necessary, even when we feel obliged to reject art 
interpretation of .Sankara's, without at the same time 
altering the text, to remember that .Sankara, where he is 
not blinded by philosophical predilections, commands the 
highest respect as an interpreter. I cannot help thinking 
therefore that M. Regnaud (vol. i, p. 59) was right in trans- 
lating the passage in the KA&nd. Up. V, 3, 7, tasmad u 

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sarveshu lokeshu kshattrasyaiva pr&rasanam abhut, by ' que 
le kshatriya seul l'a enseignee dans tous les mondes.' For 
when he proposes in the ' Errata ' to translate instead, ' c'est 
pourquoi l'empire dans tous les mondes fut attribue au 
kshatriya seulement,' he forgets that such an idea is foreign 
to the ordinary atmosphere in which the Upanishads move. 
It is not on account of the philosophical knowledge possessed 
by a few Kshatriyas, such as Ganaka or Pravaha»a, that the 
privilege of government belongs everywhere to the second 
class. That rests on a totally different basis. Such excep- 
tional knowledge, as is displayed by a few kings, might be 
an excuse for their claiming the privileges belonging to the 
Brahmans, but it would never, in the eyes of the ancient 
Indian Aryas, be considered as an argument for their claim- 
ing kingly power. Therefore, although I am well aware that 
praras is most frequently used in the sense of ruling, I have 
no doubt that Sankara likewise was fully aware of that, 
and that if he nevertheless explained prarasana here in the 
sense of prarastrc'tvam rishyawam, he did so because this 
meaning too was admissible, particularly here, where we 
may actually translate it by proclaiming, while the other 
meaning, that of ruling, would simply be impossible in the 
concatenation of ideas, which is placed before us in the 

It seems, no doubt, extremely strange that neither the 
last redactors of the text of the Upanishads, nor the com- 
mentators, who probably knew the principal Upanishads by 
heart, should have perceived how certain passages in one 
Upanishad represented the same or nearly the same text 
which is found in another Upanishad, only occasionally 
with the most palpable corruptions. 

Thus when the ceremony of offering a mantha or mash 
is described, we read in the ATAandogya-upanishad V, 2, 6, 
that it is to be accompanied by certain words which on the 
whole are intelligible. But when the same passage occurs 
again in the Brzhad-arawyaka, those words have been 
changed to such a degree, and in two different ways in the 
two .Sakhas of the Madhyandinas and Kawvas, that, though 
the commentator explains them, they are almost unintel- 

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ligible. I shall place the three passages together in three 
parallel lines : 

I. A'Aandogya-upanishad V, a, 6 

II. Br*had-ara«yaka, Madhyandina-jakha, XIV, 9, 3, 10 
III. Brzhad-arawyaka-upanishad, Ka«va-jakha, VI, 3, 5 
I. Amo namasy ama hi te sarvam idam sa hi^yesh/AaA 
II. amo 'sy amaw hi te mayi sa hi 

III. amawsy amawchi te mahi sa hi 

I. sreshtfto ra^-adhipatL4 sa ma jrai- 

II. ra^erino 'dhipatiA sa ma ra^erano 

III. ra^&rano 

I. shtkyztn ra^yam adhipatyam gamayatv aham evedaw 
II. 'dhipatiw karotv iti. 

III. 'dhipatiw karotv iti. 

I. sarvam asantti. 

The text in the /TAandogya-upanishad yields a certain 
sense, viz. ' Thou art Ama by name, for all this together 
exists in thee. He is the oldest and best, the king, the 
sovereign. May he make me the oldest, the best, the king, 
the sovereign. May I be all this.' This, according to the 
commentator, is addressed to Prawa, and Ama, though a 
purely artificial word, is used in the sense of Prawa, or 
breath, in another passage also, viz. Brchad-aranyaka-up. I, 
3, 22. If therefore we accept this meaning of Ama, the 
rest is easy and intelligible. 

But if we proceed to theBr*had-ara«yaka,in the Madhyan- 
dina-jakha, we find the commentator proposing the fol- 
lowing interpretation : ' O Mantha, thou art a full knower, 
complete knowledge of me belongs to thee.' This meaning 
is obtained by deriving amaJt from a+man, in the sense of 
knower, and then taking imam, as a neuter, in the sense of 
knowledge, derivations which are simply impossible. 

Lastly, if we come to the text of the Kawva-jakha, the 
grammatical interpretation becomes bolder still. Sankara 
does not explain the passage at all, which is strange, but 
Anandagiri interprets ama/wsi tvam by 'Thou knowest 

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(all),' and amawhi te mahi, by 'we know thy great 
(shape),' which are again impossible forms. 

But although there can be little doubt here that the 
reading of the ATAandogya-upanishad gives us the original 
text, or a text nearest to the original, no sound critic 
would venture to correct the readings of the Brthad- 
arawyaka. They are corruptions, but even as corrup- 
tions they possess authority, at all events up to a certain 
point, and it is the fixing of those certain points or chrono- 
logical limits, which alone can impart a scientific character 
to our criticism of ancient texts. 

In the Kaushitaki-brahmawa-upanishad Professor Cowell 
has pointed out a passage to me, where we must go beyond 
the text as it stood when commented on by the Saiikara- 
nanda. In the beginning of the fourth adhyaya all MSS. 
of the text read savasan, and this is the reading which 
the commentator seems anxious to explain, though not 
very successfully. I thought that possibly the commentator 
might have had before him the reading sa vasan, or so Va- 
san, but both would be very unusual. Professor Cowell in 
his Various Readings, p. xii, conjectured sawvasan, which 
would be liable to the same objection. He now, however, 
informs me that, as B. has sawtvan, and C. satvan, he 
believes the original text to have been Satvan-Matsyeshu. 
This seems to me quite convincing, and is borne out by the 
reading of the Berlin MS., so far as it can be made out 
from Professor Weber's essay on the Upanishads, Indische 
Studien I, p. 419. I see that Boehtlingk and Roth in 
their Sanskrit Dictionary, s. v. satvat, suggest the same 

The more we study the nature of Sanskrit MSS., the 
more, I believe, we shall feel convinced that their proper 
arrangement is one by locality rather than by time. I have 
frequently dwelt on this subject in the introductions to the 
successive volumes of my edition of the Rig-veda and its 
commentary by Saya«a>fcarya, and my convictions on this 
point have become stronger ever since. A MS., however 
modern, from the south of India or from the north, is 
more important as a check on the textus receptus of 

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lxxviii ' UPANISHADS. 

any Sanskrit work, as prevalent in Bengal or Bombay, 
than ever so many MSS., even if of greater antiquity, 
from the same locality. When therefore I was informed 
by my friend Dr. Biihler that he had discovered in 
Kashmir a MS. of the Aitareya-upanishad, I certainly ex- 
pected some real help from such a treasure. The MS. is 
described by its discoverer in the last number of the Journal 
of the Bombay Asiatic Society, p. 34 \ and has since heen 
sent to me by the Indian Government. It is written on 
birch bark (bhuiga), and in the alphabet commonly called 
.Sarada. The leaves are very much injured on the margin, 
and it is almost impossible to handle them without some 
injury. In many places the bark has shrunk, probably on 
being moistened, and the letters have become illegible. 
Apart from these drawbacks, there remain the difficulties 
inherent in the .Sarada alphabet which, owing to its nu- 
merous combinations, is extremely difficult to read, and 
very trying to eyes which are growing weak. However, 
I collated the Upanishad from the Aitareya-arawyaka, 
which turned out to be the last portion only, viz. the 
Sa/tthita-upanishad (Ait Ar. Ill, 1-2), or, as it is called 
here, Samhitara»ya, and I am sorry to say my expectations 
have been disappointed. The MS. shows certain graphic 
peculiarities which Dr. Biihler has pointed out. It is particu- 
larly careful in the use of the sibilants, replacing the Visarga 
by sibilants, writing s + s and s +' t s instead of A + s and 
h+s; distinguishing also the Gihvamullya and Upadhma- 
niya. If therefore the MS. writes antastha, we may be 
sure that it really meant to write so, and not antafetha, or, 
as it would have written, antasstha. It shows equal care in 
the use of the nasals, and generally carries on the sandhi 
between different paragraphs. Here and there I met with 
better readings than those given in Rajendralal Mitra's 
edition, but in most cases the commentary would have been 
sufficient to restore the right reading. A few various read- 
ings, which seemed to deserve being mentioned, will be found 

1 Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1877. Extra 
Number, containing the Detailed Report of a Tour in search of Sanskrit MSS., 
made in Kasmir, Rajputana, and Central India, by G. Biihler. 

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in the notes. The MS., though carefully written, is not 
free from the ordinary blunders. At first one feels inclined 
to attribute some importance to every peculiarity of a new 
MS., but very soon one finds out that what seems peculiar, 
is in reality carelessness. Thus Ait. Ar. Ill, i, 5, a, the 
Kashmir MS. has purvam aksharaw* rupam, instead of 
what alone can be right, purvarupam. Instead of pn^aya 
pasubhiA it writes repeatedly pra^aya parubhiA, which 
is impossible. In III, 2, 2, it leaves out again and again 
manomaya between /Wandomaya and vahmaya; but that 
this is a mere accident we learn later on, where in the same 
sentence manomayo is found in its right place. Such cases 
reduce this MS. to its'proper level, and make us look with 
suspicion on any accidental variations, such as I have 
noticed in my translation. 

The additional paragraph, noticed by Dr. Biihler, is very 
indistinct, and contains, so far as I am able to find out, 
janti verses only. 

I have no doubt that the discovery of new MSS. of the 
Upanishads and their commentaries will throw new light 
on the very numerous difficulties with which a translator 
of the Upanishads, particularly in attempting a complete 
and faithful translation, has at present to grapple. Some of 
the difficulties, which existed thirty years ago, have been 
removed since by the general progress of Vedic scholar- 
ship, and by the editions of texts and commentaries and 
translations of Upanishads, many of which were known at 
that time in manuscript only. But I fully agree with M. 
Regnaud as to the difficultes considerables que les 
meilleures traductions laissent subsister, and which 
can be solved only by a continued study of the Upanishads, 
the Arawyakas, the Brahmawas, and the Vedanta-sutras. 

Meaning of the word Upanishad. 

How Upanishad became the recognised name of the 
philosophical treatises contained in the Veda is difficult to 
explain. Most European scholars are agreed in deriving 

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upa-ni-shad from the root sad, to sit down, preceded by 
the two prepositions ni, down, and upa, near, so that it 
would express the idea of session, or assembly of pupils 
sitting down near their teacher to listen to his instruction. 
In the Trikiwrfajesha, upanishad is explained by samipasa- 
dana, sitting down near a person 1 . 

Such a word, however, would have been applicable, it 
would seem, to any other portion of the Veda as well as to 
the chapters called Upanishad, and it has never been ex- 
plained how its meaning came thus to be restricted. It is 
still more strange that upanishad, in the sense of session or 
assembly, has never, so far as I am aware, been met with. 
Whenever the word occurs, it has the meaning of doctrine, 
secret doctrine, or is simply used as the title of the philo- 
sophic treatises which constitute the^nanaki«</a, the know- 
ledge portion, as opposed to the karmaka«rfa, the work or 
ceremonial portion, of the Veda. 

Native philosophers seem never to have thought of deriv- 
ing upanishad from sad, to sit down. They derive it either 
from the root sad, in the sense of destruction, supposing 
these ancient treatises to have received their name because 
they were intended to destroy passion and ignorance by 
means of divine revelation 2 , or from the root sad, in the 
sense of approaching, because a knowledge of Brahman 
comes near to us by means of the Upanishads, or because 
we approach Brahman by their help. Another explanation 
proposed by Sarikara in his commentary on the Taittirfya- 
upanishad II, 9, is that the highest bliss is contained in the 
Upanishad (para*w sreyo 'sy&m nisha««am). 

These explanations seem so wilfully perverse that it is 
difficult to understand the unanimity of native scholars. 
We ought to take into account, however, that very 
general tendency among half-educated people, to ac- 
quiesce in any etymology which accounts for the most 
prevalent meaning of a word. The Arawyakas abound in 

1 Panini I, 4, 79, has upanishaUcrt'tya. 

* M. M., History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 318 ; Colebrooke, Essays, 
1, 93 ; Regnaud, Matenaux, p. 7. 

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such etymologies, which probably were never intended as 
real etymologies, in our sense of the word, but simply as 
plays on words, helping to account somehow for their 
meaning. The Upanishads, no doubt, were meant to 
destroy ignorance and passion, and nothing seemed more 
natural therefore than that their etymological meaning 
should be that of destroyers 1 . 

The history and the genius of the Sanskrit language 
leave little doubt that upanishad meant originally session, 
particularly a session consisting of pupils, assembled at a 
respectful distance round their teacher. 

With upa alone, sad occurs as early as the hymns of the 
Rig-veda, in the sense of approaching respectfully 2 : — 

Rig-veda IX, n, 6. Namasa ft upa sidata, 'approach 
him with praise.' See also Rig-veda X, 73, u ; I, 65, 1. 

In the A'^andogya-upanishad VI, 13, 1, a teacher says 
to his pupil, atha ma pratar upasidathaA, ' come to me (for 
advice) to-morrow morning.' 

In the same Upanishad VII, 8, 1, a distinction is made 
between those who serve their teachers (parL£arita), and 
those who are admitted to their more intimate society 
(upasatta, comm. samipagaA, antarangaA, priyaA). 

Again, in the ATAandogya-upanishad VII, 1, we read of 
a pupil approaching his teacher (upasasada or upasasada), 
and of the teacher telling him to approach with what he 
knows, i. e. to tell him first what he has learnt already 
(yad vettha tena mopastda 8 ). 

In the Sutras (Gobhiltya Grzhya-sutra II, 10, 38) upasad 
is the recognised term for the position assumed by a pupil 
with his hands folded and his eyes looking up to the 
teacher who is to instruct him. 

It should be stated, however, that no passage has yet 
been met with in which upa-ni-sad is used in the sense of 
pupils approaching and listening to their teacher. In the 

1 The distinction between possible and real etymologies is as modern as 
that between legend and history. 

* See M. M.'s History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 318. 

* See also JTAand. Up. VI, 7, 2. 

[3] f 

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only passage in which upanishasada occurs (Ait. Ar. II, 2, 
l), it is used of Indra sitting down by the side of VLrva- 
mitra, and it is curious to observe that both MSS. and 
commentaries give here upanishasasada, an entirely irre- 
gular form. 

The same is the case with two other roots which are 
used almost synonymously with sad, viz. as and vis. We 
find upa + as used to express the position which the pupil 
occupies when listening to his teacher, eg. Pa«. Ill, 4, 72, 
upasito gurum bhavan, 'thou hast approached the Guru,' or 
upasito gurur bhavata, * the Guru has been approached by 
thee.' We find pari + upa + is used with regard to relations 
assembled round the bed of a dying friend, KAknd. Up. 
VI, 15 ; or of hungry children sitting round their mother, 
and likened to people performing the Agnihotra sacrifice 
(.Oand. Up. V, 24, 5). But I have never met with upa-ni-as 
in that sense. 

We likewise find upa-vlr used in the sense of sitting 
down to a discussion (KA&nd. Up. I, 8, 2), but I have never 
found upa+ni+vLr as applied to a pupil listening to his 

The two prepositions upa and ni occur, however, with 
pat, to fly, in the sense of flying down and settling near a 
person, A'Aand. Up. IV, 7, 2 ; IV, 8, 2. And the same pre- 
positions joined to the verb sri, impart to it the meaning of 
sitting down beneath a person, so as to show him respect : 
Brth, Ar. I, 4, 11. 'Although a king is exalted, he sits 
down at the end of the sacrifice below the Brahman,' 
brahmaivantata upanirrayati. 

Sad, with upa and ni, occurs in upanishadin only, and 
has there the meaning of subject, e.g. Satap. Brahm. IX, 4, 
3, 3, kshatraya tad vLram adhastad upanishadinlw karoti, 
'he thus makes the Vis (citizen) below, subject to the 

Sometimes nishad is used by the side of upanishad, and so 
far as we can judge, without any difference of meaning l . 

All we can say therefore, for the present, is that upani- 

1 Mahibh&rata, Santiparva, 161 3. 

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shad, besides being the recognised title of certain philo- 
sophical treatises, occurs also in the sense of doctrine and 
of secret doctrine, and that it seems to have assumed this 
meaning from having been used originally in the sense of 
session or assembly in which one or more pupils receive 
instruction from a teacher. 

Thus we find the word upanishad used in the Upanishads 
themselves in the following meanings : 

i. Secret or esoteric explanation, whether true or false. 

a. Knowledge derived from such explanation. 

3. Special rules or observances incumbent on those who 
have received such knowledge. 

4. Title of the books containing such knowledge. 

I. Ait. Ar. HI, 1, 6, 3. 'For this Upanishad, i.e. in order 
to obtain the information about the true meaning of Saw- 
hiti, Tarukshya served as a cowherd for a whole year.' 

Taitt. Up. I, 3. ' We shall now explain the Upanishad of 
the Sawmita.' 

Ait. Ar. Ill, 2,5,1. ' Next follows this Upanishad of the 
whole speech. True, all these are Upanishads of the whole 
speech, but this they declare especially.' 

Talav. Up. IV, 7. "'As you have asked me to tell you the 
Upanishad, the Upanishad has now been told you. We 
have told you the Brahml Upanishad,' i.e. the true meaning 
of Brahman. 

In the Khknd. Up. Ill, 11, 3, after the meaning of 
Brahman has been explained, the text says : ' To him who 
thus knows this Brahma upanishad (the secret doctrine of 
Brahman) the sun does not rise and does not set.' In the 
next paragraph brahma itself is used, meaning either 
Brahman as the object taught in the Upanishad, or, by a 
slight change of meaning, the Upanishad itself. 

KA&nd. Up. I, 13, 4. ' Speech yields its milk to hhn who 
knows this Upanishad (secret doctrine) of the Samans in 
this wise.' 

Kh&nd. Up. VIII, 8, 4. When Indra and Viro£ana had 
both misunderstood the teaching of Pra^apati, he says : 
' They both go away without having perceived and without 
having known the Self, and whoever of these two, whether 

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Devas or Asuras, will follow this doctrine (upanishad), will 

II. In the Kkknd. Up. I, i, after the deeper meaning of 
the Udgltha or Om has been described, the advantage of 
knowing that deeper meaning is put forward, and it is said 
that the sacrifice which a man performs with knowledge, 
with faith, and with the Upanishad, i. e. with an under- 
standing of its deeper meaning, is more powerful. 

III. In theTaittiriya-upanishad, at the end of the second 
chapter, called the Brahmanandavalli, and again at the end 
of the tenth chapter, the text itself says : Ity upanishad, 
' this is the Upanishad, the true doctrine.' 

IV. In the Kaushttaki-upanishad II, i ; a, we read: 'Let 
him not beg, this is the Upanishad for him who knows this.' 
Here upanishad stands for vrata or rahasya-vrata, rule. 

Works on the Upanishads. 

Anquetil Duperron, Oupnek'hat, 1801, 1803. See page 

Rammohun Roy, Translation of Several Principal Books, 
Passages, and Texts of the Veds. Secdhd edition. London, 

Translation of the Moonduk-Oopunishud of the Uthnrvn Ved, p. 33. 
Translation of the Cena Upanishad, one of the Chapters of the Sims. Veda, 
p. 41. 
Translation of the Kut'h-Oopunishud of the Ujoor-Ved, p. 55. 
Translation of the Ishopanishad, one of the Chapters of theYajnrVdda, p. 81. 

H. T. Colebrooke, Miscellaneous Essays, in three volumes, 


K. J. H. Windischmann, Die Philosophic im Fortgange 
der Weltgeschichte, 1827-34. 

F. W. Windischmann, Sancara, seu de theologumenis 
Vedanticorum, 1833. 

E. Roer, The Taittirtya, Aitareya, .Svetlnratara, Kena 
Isk, Ka/^a, Prama, Mu»</aka, and Ma«</ukya Upanishads 
translated ; Bibliotheca Indica. Calcutta, 1 853. 

Rajendralal Mitra, The ATAandogya Upanishad, with 
extracts from the commentary of 5ankara ; Bibliotheca 
Indica. Calcutta, 1862. 

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E. B. Cowell, The Kaushltaki - brahmawa - upanishad, 
edited with an English translation ; Bibliotheca Indica. 
Calcutta, 1861. ~u/i» A / *v*->, '" & S<?ccSt<7~ 

E. B. Cowell, The Maitri Upanishad, edited with an >■■*"/■ / **^ 
English translation ; Bibliotheca Indica. Calcutta, 1870. 

A. Weber, Die Va^rasu^t des Arvaghosha. Berlin, i860. 

A. Weber, Die Rama-tapanlya Upanishad. Berlin, 1 864. 

A. Weber, Analyse der in Anquetil du Perron's Uber- 
setzung enthalten Upanishad ; Indische Studien, vol. i, 
p. 247 et seq. 

A. E. Gough, The Philosophy of the Upanishads ; Cal- 
cutta Review, CXXXI. 

P. Regnaud, Materiaux pour servir a l'histoire de la Phi- 
losophic de l'lnde. Paris, 1876. 

Editions of the Upanishads, their commentaries and 
glosses have been published in the Tattvabodhint patrika, 
and by Poley (who has also translated several Upani- 
shads into French), by Roer, Cowell, Rajendralal Mitra, 
Hara£andra Vidyabhushawa, Vuvanitha Sastrl, Rama- 
maya Tarkaratna, and others. For fuller titles see Gilde- 
meister, Bibliotheca Sanscrita, and E. Haas, Catalogue of 1 
Sanskrit and Pali Books in the British Museum, s. v. Upa- 1 

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The ATAandogya-upanishad belongs to the Sama-veda. 
Together with the Bnhad-ara«yaka, which belongs to the 
Ya^ur-veda, it has contributed the most important ma- 
terials to what may be called the orthodox philosophy of 
India, the Vedanta ', i. e. the end, the purpose, the highest 
object of the Veda. It consists of eight adhyayas or lec- 
tures, and formed part of a /(TAandogya-brahmawa, in which 
it was preceded by two other adhyayas. While MSS. of 
the A'Aandogya-upanishad and its commentary are fre- 
quent, no MSS. of the whole Brahma/ta has been met with 
in Europe. Several scholars had actually doubted its ex- 
istence, but Rajendralal Mitra 2 , in the Introduction to his 
translation of the .Oandogya-upanishad, states that in 
India ' MSS. of the work are easily available, though as 
yet he has seen no commentary attached to the Brahmawa 
portion of any one of them.' 'According to general accep- 

1 Vedanta, as a technical term, did not mean originally the last portions of 
the Veda, or chapters placed, as it were, at the end of a volume of Vedic 
literature, but the end, i.e. the object, the highest purpose of the Veda. 
There are, of course, passages, like the one in the Taittirtya-aranyaka (ed. 
Rajendralal Mitra, p. 820), which have been misunderstood both by native and 
European scholars, and where vedanta means simply the end of the Veda : — yo 
vedadau svara* prokto vedante *a pratish/AitaA, 'the Om which is pronounced 
at the beginning of the Veda, and has its place also at the end of the Veda.' 
Here vedanta stands simply in opposition to vedadau, and it is impossible to 
translate it, as Sayana does, by Vedanta or Upanishad. Vedanta, in the sense of 
philosophy, occurs in the Taittirtya-aranyaka (p. 8 1 7) , in a verse of the Narayantya- 
upanishad, repeated in the Mundaka - upanishad III, a, 6, and elsewhere, 
vedantavig-fianasunUiitarthaA, ' those who have well understood the object of the 
knowledge arising from the Vedanta,' not 'from the last books of the Veda;' 
and £vetajvatara-up.VI, 11, vedante paramam guhyam, 'the highest mystery in 
the Vedanta.' Afterwards it is used in the plural also, e. g. Kshurikopanishad, 
10 (Bibl. Ind. p. 310), punrfartketi vedanteshu nigadyate, ' it is called pundartka 
in the Vedantas,' i. e. in the ITAandogya and other Upanishads, as the com- 
mentator says, but not in the last books of each Veda. A curious passage is 
found in the Gautama-sutras XIX, 13, where a distinction seems to be made 
between Upanishad and Vedanta. Sacred Books, vol. ii, p. 173. 

1 fA&ndogya-upanishad, translated by Rajendralal Mitra, Calcutta, 1862, 
Introduction, p. 17. 

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tation,' he adds, ' the work embraces ten chapters, of which 
the first two are reckoned to be the Brahmawa, and the rest 
is known under the name of jOandogya-upanishad. In 
their arrangement and style the two portions differ greatly, 
and judged by them they appear to be productions of very 
different ages, though both are evidently relics of pretty 
remote antiquity. Of the two chapters of the ATAandogya- 
brahmana 1 , the first includes eight suktas (hymns) on the 
ceremony of marriage, and the rites necessary to be ob- 
served at the birth of a child. The first sukta is intended 
to be recited when offering an oblation to Agni on the 
occasion of a marriage, and its object is to pray for pros- 
perity in behalf of the married couple. The second prays 
for long life, kind relatives, and a numerous progeny. The 
third is the marriage pledge by which the contracting 
parties bind themselves to each other. Its spirit may be 
guessed from a single verse. In talking of the unanimity 
with which they will dwell, the bridegroom addresses his 
bride, " That heart of thine shall be mine, and this heart of 
mine shall be thine 2 ." The fourth and the fifth invoke 
Agni, Vayu, K andramas, and Surya to bless the couple and 
ensure healthful progeny. The sixth is a mantra for 
offering an oblation on the birth of a child; and the seventh 
and the eighth are prayers for its being healthy, wealthy, 
and powerful, not weak, poor, or mute, and to ensure a 
profusion of wealth and milch-cows. The first sukta of the 
second chapter is addressed to the Earth, Agni, and Indra, 
with a prayer for wealth, health, and prosperity; the 
second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth are mantras for offer- 
ing oblations to cattle, the manes, Surya, and divers minor 
deities. The seventh is a curse upon worms, insects, flies, 
and other nuisances, and the last, the concluding mantra of 
the marriage ceremony, in which a general blessing is 
invoked for all concerned.' 
After this statement there can be but little doubt that 

1 It begins, Om, deva savitaA, pra suva yayflam pra suva yafftapatim 
bhagaya. The second begins, yak prklry&m diii sarparaga esha te balU. 

* Yad etad dhridayam tava tad astu hri'dayam mama, Yad idam hn'dayam 
mama tad astu hn'dayam tava. 

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this Upanishad originally formed part of a Brahma»a. 
This may have been called either by a general name, 
the Brahmawa of the AT^andogas, the followers of the 
Sama-veda, or, on account of the prominent place occupied 
in it by the Upanishad, the Upanishad-brahmawa \ In 
that case it would be one of the eight Brihmanas of the 
Sama-veda, enumerated by Kumarila Bha//a and others 2 , 
and called simply Upanishad, scil. Brahmawa. 

The text of the Upanishad with the commentary of 
Sankara and the gloss of Anandagiri has been published in 
the Bibliotheca Indica. The edition can only claim the 
character of a manuscript, and of a manuscript not always 
very correctly read. 

A translation of the Upanishad was published, likewise 
in the Bibliotheca Indica, by Rajendralal Mitra. 

It is one of the Upanishads that was translated into 
Persian under the auspices of Dara Shukoh 3 , and from 
Persian into French by Anquetil Duperron, in his Oup- 
nekhat, i. e. Secretum Tegendum. Portions of it were 
translated into English by Colebrooke in his Mis- 
cellaneous Essays, into Latin and German by F. W. 
Windischmann, in his Sankara, seu de theologumenis 
Vedanticorum (Bonn, 1833), and in a work published 
by his father, K. J. H. Windischmann, Die Philosophie 
im Fortgang der Weltgeschichte (Bonn, 1827-34). 
Professor A. Weber has treated of this Upanishad in his 
Indische Studien I, 254 ; likewise M. P. Regnaud in his 
Matenaux pour servir a l'histoire de la philosophie de 
l'lnde (Paris, 1876) and Mr. Gough in several articles on 
•the Philosophy of the Upanishads/ in the Calcutta 
Review, No. CXXXI. 

I have consulted my predecessors whenever there was a 
serious difficulty to solve in the translation of these ancient 
texts. These difficulties are very numerous, as those know 

1 The same name seems, however, to be given to the adhyaya of the Talava- 
kara-br&hmana, which contains the Kena-upanishad. 

' M. M., History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 348. Most valuable 
information on the literature of the Sama-veda may be found in Dr. Burnell's 
editions of the smaller Brahmanas of that Veda. 

* M. M., History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 3*5. 

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best who have attempted to give complete translations of 
these ancient texts. It will be seen that my translation 
differs sometimes very considerably from those of my pre- 
decessors. Though I have but seldom entered into any 
controversy with them, they may rest assured that I have 
not deviated from them without careful reflection. 


THIS Upanishad is best known by the name of Kena- 
upanishad, from its first word. The name of brahmi- 
upanishad (IV, 7) can hardly be considered as a title. It 
means 'the teaching of Brahman,' and is used with reference 
to other Upanishads also 1 . Sankara, in his commentary, 
tells us that this Upanishad forms the ninth adhyaya of 
a Brahmawa, or, if we take his words quite literally, he says, 
'the beginning of the ninth adhyaya is "the Upanishad 
beginning with the words Keneshitam, and treating of the 
Highest Brahman has to be taught."' In the eight pro- 
ceeding adhyayas, he tells us, all the sacred rites or 
sacrifices had been fully explained, and likewise the medi- 
tations (upasana) on the pra»a (vital breath) which belongs 
to all these sacrifices, and those meditations also which 
have reference to the fivefold and sevenfold Samans. 
After that followed Gayatra-siman and the Va»«a, the 
genealogical list. All this would naturally form the subject 
of a Sama-veda-brahma»a, and we find portions corres- 
ponding to the description given by Sankara in the Khkn- 
dogya-upanishad, e.g. the fivefold Saman, II, 2 ; the seven- 
fold Saman, II, 8 ; the Gayatra-saman, III, ia, 1. 

Ananda^-Rana tells us that our Upanishad belonged to 
the Sakha of the Talavakaras. 

All this had formerly to be taken on trust, because 
no Brahmawa was known containing the Upanishad. Dr. 
Burnell, however, has lately discovered a Brahmaoa of the 
Sama-veda which comes very near the description given by 
Sankara. In a letter dated Tanjore, 8th Dec. 1878, he 

1 See before, p. Uxxiii. 

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writes : ' It appears to me that you would be glad to know 
the following about the Kena-upanishad, as it occurs in my 
MS. of the Talavakara-brahmawa. 

'The last book but one of this Brahmawa is termed 
Upanishad-brahmawa. It consists of 145 Vhandas treating 
of the Gayatra-saman, and the 134th is a Va»wa. The 
Kena-upanishad comprises the 135-145 khand&s, or the 
tenth anuvaka of a chapter. The 139th section begins : Ira 
va idam agra astt, &c. 

« My MS. of the Talavakara-brahma«a agrees, as regards 
the contents, exactly with what .Sankara says, but not in 
the divisions. He says that the Kena-upanishad begins the 
ninth adhyaya, but that is not so in my MS. Neither 
the beginning nor the end of this Upanishad is noticed 

' The last book of this Brahmawa is the Arsheya-brah- 
masa, which I printed last February. 

'Among the teachers quoted in the Brahmawa I have 
noticed both Tkndya. and .Satyayani. I should not be 
surprised to find in it the difficult quotations which are 
incorrectly given in the MSS. of Siyawa's commentary on 
the Rig-veda. The story of Apala, quoted by Sayawa in 
his commentary on the Rig-veda, VIII, 80, as from the 
•Safyayanaka, is found word for word, except some trivial 
var. lectiones, in sections 330-331 of the Agnishfoma book 
of the Talavakara-brahmawa. The Safyayanins seem to 
be closely connected with the Talavakara-jakha.' 

From a communication made by Dr. Burnell to the 
Academy (1 Feb. 79), I gather that this Talavakara-brah- 
ma«a is called by those who study it ' <7aiminiya-brahma«a,' 
after the Sakha of the Sama-veda which they follow. The 
account given in the Academy differs on some particulars 
slightly from that given in Dr. Burnell's letter to me. He 
writes : ' The largest part of the Brahmawa treats of the 
sacrifices and the Samans used at them. The first chapter 
is on the Agnihotra, and the Agnish/oma and other rites 
follow at great length. Then comes a book termed 
Upanishad-brahma«a. This contains 145 sections in four 
chapters. It begins with speculations on the Gayatra- 

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saman, followed by a Vatnsa. ; next, some similar matter 
and another Va»wa. Then (§§ 135-138) comes the Kena- 
upanishad (Talavakara). The last book is the Arsheya. 
The Upanishad forms the tenth anuvaka of the fourth 
chapter, not the beginning of a ninth chapter, as .Sankara 

The Kena-upanishad has been frequently published and 
translated. It forms part of Dara Shukoh's Persian, and 
Anquetil Duperron's Latin translations. It was several times 
published in English by Rammohun Roy (Translations of 
Several Principal Books, Passages, and Texts of the Veda, 
London, 183a, p. 41), in German by Windischmann, Poley, 
and others. It has been more or less fully discussed by 
Colebrooke, Windischmann, Poley, Weber, Roer, Gough, 
and Regnaud in the books mentioned before. 

Besides the text of this Upanishad contained in the 
Brahmawa of the Sama-veda, there is another text, slightly 
differing, belonging to the Atharva-veda, and there are 
commentaries on both texts (Colebrooke, Misc. Essays, 
1873, II, p. 80). 



IN giving a translation of the Aitareya-upanishad, I found 
it necessary to give at the same time a translation of that 
portion of the Aitareya-ara«yaka which precedes the Upani- 
shad. The Arawyakas seem to have been from the begin- 
ning the proper repositories of the ancient Upanishads, 
though it is difficult at first sight to find out in what relation 
the Upanishads stood to the Ara«yakas. The Arawyakas 
are to be read and studied, not in the village (grame), but 
in the forest, and so are the Upanishads. But the subjects 
treated in the Upanishads belong to a very different order 
from those treated in the other portions of the Arawyakas, 
the former being philosophical, the latter liturgical. 

The liturgical chapters of the Arawyakas might quite as 
well have formed part of the Brihmawas, and but for the 
restriction that they are to be read in the forest, it is diffi- 
cult to distinguish between them and the Brahmanas. The 

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first chapter of the Aitareya-arawyaka is a mere continua- 
tion of the Aitareya-brahma«a, and gives the description 
of the Mahavrata, the last day but one of the Gavama- 
yana, a sattra or sacrifice which is supposed to last a whole 
year. The duties which are to be performed by the Hotr* 
priests are described in the Aitareya-arawyaka ; not all, 
however, but those only which are peculiar to the Maha- 
vrata day. The general rules for the performance of the 
Mahavrata are to be taken over from other sacrifices, such 
as the Virva^it, ATaturviwwa, &c, which form the type 
(prakr/ti) of the Mahavrata. Thus the two xastras or recita- 
tions, called 4fya-praiiga, are taken over from the VLrvajit, 
the jastras of the Hotrakas from the ATaturviwwa. The 
Mahavrata is treated here as belonging to the Gavamayana 
sattra, which is described in a different .Sakha, see Tait- 
tirtya Sawhita VII, 5, 8, and partly in other Vedas. It is 
the day preceding the udayaniya, the last day of the sattra. 
It can be celebrated, however, by itself also, as an ekaha or 
ahtna sacrifice, and in the latter case it is the tenth day of 
the Ekadararatra (eleven nights sacrifice) called Pu«</artka. 

Saya«a does not hesitate to speak of the Aitareya- 
arawyaka as a part of the Brahmawa ' ; and a still earlier 
authority, Sankara, by calling the Aitareya-upanishad by 
the name of Bahvrc'£a-brahma«a- upanishad 2 , seems to 
imply that both the Upanishad and the Arawyaka may be 
classed as Brahma#a. 

The Aitareya-ara»yaka appears at first sight a miscella- 
neous work, consisting of liturgical treatises in the first, 
fourth, and fifth Arawyakas, and of three Upanishads, in 
the second and third Arawyakas. This, however, is not 
the case. The first Arawyaka is purely liturgical, giving 
a description of the Mahavrata, so far as it concerns the 
• Hotre priest. It is written in the ordinary Brahma*a style. 
Then follows the first Upanishad, Ara«yaka II, 1-3, showing 

1 Aitareyabrahmane 'sti kamfara aranyakabhidham (introduction), a remark 
which he repeats in the fifth Aranyaka. He also speaks of the Ara»yaka- 
vratarupam brahmaxam ; see p. cxiv, 1. 24. 

* In the same manner the Kaushftaki-npanishad is properly called Kanshitaki- 
brahmana-upanishad, though occurring in the Aranyaka ; see Kaushttaki-brah- 
mana-upanishad, ed. Cowell, p. 30. 

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how certain portions of the Mahavrata, as described in the 
first Arawyaka, can be made to suggest a deeper meaning, 
and ought to lead the mind of the sacrifker away from the 
purely outward ceremonial to meditation on higher subjects. 
Without a knowledge of the first Arawyaka therefore the 
first Upanishad would be almost unintelligible, and though 
its translation was extremely tedious, it could not well 
have been omitted. 

The second and third Upanishads are not connected 
with the ceremonial of the Mahavrata, but in the fourth 
and fifth Ara#yakas the Mahavrata forms again the prin- 
cipal subject, treated, however, not as before in the style 
of the Brahmawas, but in the style of Sutras. The fourth 
Ara»yaka contains nothing but a list of the Mahanamni 
hymns 1 , but the fifth describes the Mahivrata again, so 
that if the first Arawyaka may be looked upon as a portion 
of the Aitareya-brahmawas, the fifth could best be classed 
with the Sutras of A-svallyana. 

To a certain extent this fact, the composite character of 
the Aitareya-arawyaka, is recognised even by native scholars, 
who generally do not trouble themselves much on such 
questions. They look both on the Aitareya-brahmawa 
and on the greater portion of Aitareya-arawyaka as the 
works of an inspired R tshi, Mahidasa Aitareya 2 , but they 
consider the fourth and fifth books of the Arawyaka as 
contributed by purely human authors, such as A-svalayana 
and .Saunaka, who, like other Sutrakaras, took in verses 
belonging to other Sakhas, and did not confine their rules 
to their own .Sakha only. 

There are many legends about Mahidasa, the reputed 
author of the Aitareya-brahmawa and Arawyaka. He is 

1 See Boehtlingk and Roth, s.v. 'Neun Vedische Verse die in ibrem voll- 
standigenWortlaut abernoch nicht nachgewiesen sind.' Weber, Indische Stndien 
VIII, 68. How these hymns are to be employed we learn from the AsvalSyana- 
sfltras VII, ia, io, where we are told that if the Udg&tris sing the Sakvara 
Sftman as the Prtsh/Aastotra, the nine verses beginning with Vidfi maghavan, 
and known by the name of Mahanamnt, are to be joined in a peculiar manner. 
The only excuse given, why these Mahanamnts are mentioned here, and not in 
the Brahmana, is that they are to be studied in the forest. 

9 M. M., History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, pp. 177, 335. 

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quoted several times as Mahidasa Aitareya in the Arawyaka 
itself, though not in the Brahma«a. We also meet his 
name in the A'Aandogya-upanishad (III, 16, 7), where we 
are told that he lived to an age of 1 16 years \ All this, 
however, would only prove that, at the time of the compo- 
sition or collection of these Arawyakas and Upanishads, 
a sage was known of the name of Mahidasa Aitareya, 
descended possibly from Itara or Itara, and that one text 
of the Brahma«as and the Arawyakas of the Bahvrikas was 
handed down in the family of the Aitareyins. 

Not content with this apparently very obvious explana- 
tion, later theologians tried to discover their own reasons for 
the name of Aitareya. Thus Sayawa, in his introduction 
to the Aitareya-brahmawa *, tells us that there was once 
a Rishi who had many wives. One of them was called 
Itara, and she had a son called Mahidasa. His father 
preferred the sons of his other wives to Mahidasa, and once 
he insulted him in the sacrificial hall, by placing his other 
sons on his lap, but not Mahidasa. Mahidasa's mother, 
seeing her son with tears in his eyes, prayed to her tutelary 
goddess, the Earth (sviyakuladevata BhumiA), and the 
goddess in her heavenly form appeared in the midst of 
the assembly, placed Mahidasa on a throne, and on account 
of his learning, gave him the gift of knowing the Brahmawa, 
consisting of forty adhyayas, and, as Sayawa calls it, another 
Brahma»a, 'treating of the Arawyaka duties' (arawyakavra- 
tarupam brahmanam). 

Without attaching much value to the legend of Itara, 
we see at all events that Sayawa considered what we call 
the Aitareyarawyaka as a kind of Brahmawa, not however 
the whole of it, but only the first, second, and third Ara- 
ayakas (atha mahavratam Ityidikam &£arya a£ary& ityan- 
tam). How easy it was for Hindu theologians to invent 
such legends we see from another account of Mahidasa, 
given by Anandatirtha in his notes on the Aitareya-upani- 

* Not 1600 years, as I printed by mistake; for 14 + 44 + 48 make 116 years. 
Rajendralal Mitra should not have corrected his right rendering 1 16 into 1600. 
Ait. Ar. Introduction, p. 3. 

' M. M., History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 336. 

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shad. He, as Colebrooke was the first to point out, takes 
Mahidasa ' to be an incarnation of Nar&yawa, proceeding 
from VLyala, son of Ab^a,' and he adds, that on the sudden 
appearance of thisdeity at a solemn celebration, the whole 
assembly of gods and priests (suraviprasarigha) fainted, but 
at the intercession of Brahma, they were revived, and after 
making their obeisance, they were instructed in holy science. 
This avatara was called Mahidasa, because those venerable 
personages (mahin) declared themselves to be his slaves 
(dasa) \ 

In order properly to understand this legend, we must 
remember that Anandatirtha, or rather Viivervarattrtha, 
whose commentary he explains, treated the whole of the 
Mahaitareya-upanishad from a Vaish«ava point of view, and 
that his object was to identify Mahidasa with Narayawa. 
He therefore represents Nirayawa or Hari as the avatara 
of Vlrala, the son of Brahman (ab^usuta), who appeared 
at a sacrifice, as described before, who received then and 
there the name of Mahidasa (or Mahtdasa), and who taught 
this Upanishad. Any other person besides Mahidasa would 
have been identified with the same ease by VLrvervara- 
tirtha with Vishwu or Bhagavat. 

A third legend has been made up out of these two by 
European scholars who represent Mahidasa as the son of 
VLraia and Itara, two persons who probably never met 
before, for even the Vaish«ava commentator does not 
attempt to take liberties with the name of Aitareya, but 
simply states that the Upanishad was called Aitareyt, from 

Leaving these legends for what they are worth, we may 
at all events retain the fact that, whoever was the author of 
the Aitareya-brahmawa and the first three books of the 
Aitareya-arawyaka, was not the author of the two con- 
cluding Arawyakas. And this is confirmed in different 
ways. Sayawa, when quoting in his commentary on the 
Rig-veda from the last books, constantly calls it a Sutra of 
Saunaka, while the fourth Arawyaka is specially ascribed 

1 Colebrooke, Miscellaneous Essays, 1873, II, p. 42. 

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to Axvalayana, the pupil and successor of .Saunaka l . These 
two names of Saunaka and Arvalayana are frequently in- 
termixed. If, however, in certain MSS. the whole of the 
Aitareya-arawyaka is sometimes ascribed either to Arvala- 
yana or Saunaka, this is more probably due to the colophon 
of the fourth and fifth Arawyakas having been mistaken for 
the title of the whole work than to the fact that such MSS. 
represent the text of the Arawyaka, as adopted by the 
school of Ajvalayana. 

The Aitareya-arawyaka consists of the following five 
Ara»yakas : 

The first Arawyaka has five Adhyayas : 

1. First Adhyaya, Atha mahavratam, has four Khanrfas, 1-4. 

2. Second Adhyaya, A tva ratham, has four Khanrfas, 5-8. 

3. Third Adhyaya, Hinkarena, has eight* Khanrfas, 9-16. 

4. Fourth Adhyaya, Atha sfldadohiA, has three Khanrfas, 17-19. 

5. Fifth Adhyaya, Vasam samsati, has three Khanrfas, '20-22. 

The second Arawyaka has seven Adhyayas: 

6. First Adhyaya, Esha panthaA, has eight Khanrfas, 1-8. 

7. Second Adhyaya, Esha imam lokam, has four Khanrfas, 9-11. 

8. Third Adhyaya, Yo ha va atmanam, has eight (not three) 
Khanrfas, 13-10. 

Fourth Adhyaya, Atrna va idam, has three Khanrfas, 11-23. 
Fifth Adhyaya, Purushe ha va, has one Khanrfa, 24. 
Sixth Adhyaya, Ko 'yam atmeti, has one Khanrfa, 25. 
2. Seventh Adhyaya, Van me manasi, has one Khanrfa, 26. 





1 r 9- Fc 

f \ 10. Fi 

i L 11. st 

The third Arawyaka has two Adhyayas : 

13. First Adhyaya, Athataa samhitaya upanishat, has six Khanrfas, 


14. Second Adhyaya, Prano vamca iti sthaviraA SakalyaA, has six 

Khanrfas, 7-12. 

The fourth Arawyaka has one Adhyaya: 

15. First Adhyaya, Vidft maghavan, has one Khanrfa (the Maha- 


The fifth Arawyaka has three Adhyayas : 

16. First Adhyaya, Mah&vratasya paitfavimsatim, has six Khanrfas, 


17. Second Adhyaya, (GrtvaA) Yasyedam, has five Khanrfas, 7-11. 

18. Third Adhyaya, (Oru) Indragni, has four Khanrfas, 11-14. 

1 M. M., History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 235. 
' Not six, as in Rajecdralal Mitra's edition. 

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With regard to the Upanishad, we must distinguish 
between the Aitareya-upanishad, properly so-called, which 
fills the fourth, fifth, and sixth adhyayas of the second 
Arawyaka, and the Mahaitareya-upanishad \ also called by 
a more general name Bahvr;£a-upanishad, which comprises 
the whole of the second and third Ara«yakas. 

The Persian translator seems to have confined himself to 
the second Arawyaka 2 , to which he gives various titles, 
Sarbsar, Asarbeh, Antrteheh. That Antrteheh «j^j1 is a 
misreading of h^j! was pointed out long ago by Burnouf, 
and the same explanation applies probably to u>j~>\, asar- 
beh, and if to that, then to Sarbsar also. No explanation 
has ever been given why the Aitareya-upanishad should 
haye been called Sarvasara, which Professor Weber thinks 
was corrupted into Sarbsar. At all events the Aitareya- 
upanishad is not the Sarvasara-upanishad, the Oupnek'hat 
Sarb, more correctly called Sarvopanishatsara, and ascribed 
either to the Taittiriyaka or to the Atharva-veda 3 . 

The Aitareya-upanishad, properly so called, has been 
edited and translated in the Bibliotheca Indica by Dr. 
R6er. The whole of the Aitareya-arawyaka with Saya«a's 
commentary was published in the same series by Rajen- 
dralal Mitra. 

Though I have had several MSS. of the text and com- 
mentary at my disposal, I have derived little aid from 
them, but have throughout endeavoured to restore that 
text which -Sankara (the pupil of Govinda) and Sayawa 
had before them. Saya«a, for the Upanishad portion, fol- 
lows £ankara's commentary, of which we have a gloss by 

Colebrooke in his Essays (vol. ii, p. 42) says that he 

' This may have been the origin of a Uishi Mahaitareya, by the side of the 
Risbi Aitareya, mentioned in the Asvalayana Grihya-sQtras III, 4 (ed. Stenzler). 
Professor Weber takes Aitareya and Mahaitareya here as names of works, but 
he admits that in the S&nkhayana Grihya-sfltras they are clearly names of 
Xi'shis (Ind. Stud. I, p. 389). 

• He translates II, i-II, 3, 4, leaving out the rest of the third adhyaya ; 
afterwards II, 4-II, 7. 

' Bibliotheca Indica, the Atharvana-upanishads, p. 394. 

[33 g 

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possessed one gloss by NarAyawendra on Sankara's com- 
mentary, and another by Anandattrtha on a different gloss 
for the entire Upanishad. The gloss by Narayawendra \ 
however, is, so Dr. Rost informs me, the same as that of 
Ananda^-Hana, while, so far as I can see, the gloss contained 
in MS. E. I.H. 2386 (also MS. Wilson 401), to which Cole- 
brooke refers, is not a gloss by Anandattrtha at all, but a 
gloss by Vlrvervaratlrtha on a commentary by Anandattr- 
thabhagavatpadi^arya, also called Purwapra^fia^arya, who 
explained the whole of the Mahaitareya-upanishad from a 
Vaishwava point of view. 


the kaushItaki-brAhmaata-upanishad. 

The Kaushitaki-upanishad, or, as it is more properly 
called, the Kaushitaki-brahmawa-upanishad, belongs, like 
the Aitareya-upanishad, to the followers of the Rig-veda. It 
was translated into Persian under the title of Kokhenk, and 
has been published in the Bibliotheca Indica with .Sanka- 
rananda's commentary and an excellent translation by 
Professor Cowell. 

Though it is called the Kaushttaki-brahma#a-upanishad, 
it does not form part of the Kaushitaki-brahma«a in 30 
adhyayas which we possess, and we must therefore account 
for its name by admitting that the Arawyaka, of which it 
formed a portion, could be reckoned as part of the Brah- 
ma«a literature of the Rig-veda (see Aitareya-arawyalja, 
Introduction, p. xcii), and that hence the Upanishad might 
be called the Upanishad of the Brahma«a of the Kaushl- 
takins 2 . . . 

From a commentary discovered by Professor Cowell 
it appears that the four adhyayas of this Upanishad 

* A MS. in the Notices of Sanskrit MSS., voL ii, p. ijj, ascribed to Abhi- 
navanarayanendra, called Atmasha&abhashyarfka, begins like the gloss edited 
by Dr. Roer, and ends like Sayana's commentary on the seventh adhyaya, as 
edited by Rajendralal Mitra. The same name is given in MS. Wilson 94, 

' A Maha-kaushitaki-brahmana is quoted, but has not yet been met with. 

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were followed by five other adhyayas, answering, so far as 
we can judge from a few extracts, to some of the adhyayas 
of the Aitareya-ara«yaka, while an imperfect MS. of an 
Arawyaka in the Royal Library at Berlin (Weber, Catalogue, 
p. ao) begins, like the Aitareya-arawyaka, with a descrip- 
tion of the Mahavrata, followed by discussions on the uktha 
in the second adhyaya; and then proceeds in the third 
adhyaya to give the story of ^fitra Gangyayani in the same 
words as the Kaushttaki-upanishad in the first adhyaya. 
Other MSS. again adopt different divisions. In one MS. 
of the commentary (MS. A), the four adhyayas of the 
Upanishad are counted as sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth 
(ending with ityarawyake navamo 'dhyaya^) ; in another 
(MS. P) the third and fourth adhyayas of the Upanishad 
are quoted as the fifth and sixth of the Kaushltakyarawyaka, 
possibly agreeing therefore, to a certain extent, with the 
Berlin MS. In a MS. of the Sankhayana Ara«yaka in 
the Royal Library at Berlin, there are 15 adhyayas, 1 and 2 
corresponding to Ait. Ar. 1 and 5 ; 3-6 containing the Kau- 
shitaki-upanishad ; 7 and 8 corresponding to Ait. Ar. 3 l . 
Poley seems to have known a MS. in which the four 
adhyayas of the Upanishad formed the first, seventh, 
eighth, and ninth adhyayas of a Kaushitaki-brahmawa. 

As there were various recensions of the Kaushltaki-brah- 
ma»a (the J>ankhayana, Kauthuma, &c), the Upanishad 
also exists in at least two texts. The commentator, in 
some of its MSS., refers to the various readings of the 
.Sakhas, explaining them, whenever there seems to be 
occasion for it I have generally followed the text which is 
presupposed by Sankarananda's Dipika, and contained in 
MSS. F, G (Cowell, Preface, p. v), so far as regards the 
third and fourth adhyayas. According to Professor Cowell, 
Vidyarawya in his Sarvopanishadarthanubhutiprakaja fol- 
lowed the text of the commentary, while Sankara^arya, 
if we may trust to extracts in his commentary on the 
Vedanta-sutras, followed the other text, contained in MS. 
A (Cowell, Preface, p. v). 

1 See Weber, History of Sanskrit Literature, p. 50. 
g 2 

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The style of the commentator differs in so marked a 
manner from that of .Sankara&Lrya, that even without the 
fact that the author of the commentary on the Kaushitaki- 
upanishad is called Sankarananda, it would have been 
difficult to ascribe it, as has been done by some scholars, 
to the famous .Sahkara£arya. Sankarananda is called the 
teacher of Madhava£arya (Hall, Index, p. 98), and the dis- 
ciple of Anandatma Muni (Hall, Index, p. 116). 

I have had the great advantage of being able to consult 
for the Kaushitaki-upanishad, not only the text and com- 
mentary as edited by Professor Cowell, but also his excellent 
translation. If I differ from him in some points, this is but 
natural, considering the character of the text and the many 
difficulties that have still to be solved, before we can hope 
to arrive at a full understanding of these ancient philoso- 
phical treatises. 



The Va^asaneyi-sawmita- upanishad, commonly called ' 
from its beginning, tsk or IravAsya, forms the fortieth and 
concluding chapter of the Sawhita of the White Ya^ur-veda. 
If the Sawhitas are presupposed by the Brahma«as, at 
least in that form in which we possess them, then this 
Upanishad, being the only one that forms part of a 
Sarahita, might claim a very early age. The Sarahita of 
the White Ya^ur-veda, however, is acknowledged to be of 
modern origin, as compared with the Sawhita of the Black 
Ya^ur-veda, and it would not be safe therefore to ascribe 
to this Upanishad a much higher antiquity than to those 
which have found a place in the older Brahmawas and 

There are differences between the text, as contained in 
the Ya^-ur-veda-sa/whita, and the text of the Upanishad by 
itself. Those which are of some interest have been men- 
tioned in the notes. 

In some notes appended to the translation of this 
Upanishad I have called attention to what seems to me 

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its peculiar character, namely, the recognition of the 
necessity of works as a preparation for the reception of 
the highest knowledge. This agrees well with the position 
occupied by this Upanishad at the end of the Sawhita, in 
which the sacrificial works and the hymns that are to 
accompany them are contained. The doctrine that the 
moment a man is enlightened, he becomes free, as taught 
in other Upanishads, led to a rejection of all discipline 
and a condemnation of all sacrifices, which could hardly 
have been tolerated in the last chapter of the Ya^ur-veda- 
sawhita, the liturgical Veda par excellence. 

Other peculiarities of this Upanishad are the name Is, 
lord, a far more personal name for the highest Being than 
Brahman ; the asurya (demoniacal) or asurya (sunless) 
worlds to which all go who have lost their self; Mataruvan, 
used in the sense of pra»a or spirit ; asnaviram, without 
muscles, in the sense of incorporeal ; and the distinction 
between sambhuti and asambhuti in verses 12-14. 

The editions of the text, commentaries, and glosses, and 
the earlier translations may be seen in the works quoted 
before, p. lxxxiv. 

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First Khanda 1 . 

i. Let a man meditate on the syllable 2 Om, 

called the udgltha; for the udgttha (a portion of the 

Sama-veda) is sung, beginning with Om. 

The full account, however, of Om is this: — 

2. The essence 3 of all beings is the earth, the 

essence of the earth is water, the essence of water 

1 The JEMndogya-upanishad begins with recommending medi- 
tation on the syllable Om, a sacred syllable that had to be pro- 
nounced at the beginning of each Veda and of every recitation of 
Vedic hymns. As connected with the Sama-veda, that syllable Om 
is called udgttha. Its more usual name is prawava. The object 
of the Upanishad is to explain the various meanings which the 
syllable Om may assume in the mind of a devotee, some of them 
being extremely artificial and senseless, till at last the highest 
meaning of Om is reached, viz. Brahman, the intelligent cause of 
the universe. 

* Akshara means both syllable and the imperishable, i.e. Brahman. 

" Essence, rasa, is explained in different ways, as origin, sup- 
port, end, cause, and effect. Rasa means originally the sap of 
trees. That sap may be conceived either as the essence extracted 
from the tree, or as what gives vigour and life to a tree. In the 
former case it might be transferred to the conception of effect, in 
the latter to that of cause. In our sentence it has sometimes the 
one, sometimes the other meaning. Earth is the support of all 
beings, water pervades the earth, plants arise from water, man lives 
by plants, speech is the best part of man, the Rig-veda the best 
part of speech, the Sama-veda the best extract from the Rik, 
udgttha, or the syllable Om, the crown of the Sama-veda. 

[5] » 


the plants, the essence of plants man, the essence 
of man speech, the essence of speech the Rig-veda, 
the essence of the Rig-veda the Sama-veda \ the 
essence of the Sama-veda the udgltha (which is 

3. That udgltha (Om) is ifte best of all essences, 
the highest, deserving the highest place 2 , the 

4. What then is the Rik ? What is the Saman ? 
What is the udgltha ? This is the question. 

5. The Rik indeed is speech, Saman is breath, 
the udgltha is the syllable Om. Now speech and 
breath, or Rik and Saman, form one couple. 

6. And that couple is joined together in the 
syllable Om. When two people come together, 
they fulfil each other's desire. 

7. Thus he who knowing this, meditates on the 
syllable (Om), the udgltha, becomes indeed a ful- 
filler of desires. 

8. That syllable is a syllable of permission, for 
whenever we permit anything, we say Om, yes. 
Now permission is gratification. He who knowing 
this meditates on the syllable (Om), the udgltha, 
becomes indeed a gratifier of desires. 

9. By that syllable does the threefold know- 
ledge (the sacrifice, more particularly the Soma- 
sacrifice, as founded on the three Vedas) proceed. 
When the Adhvaryu priest gives an order, he 
says Om. When the HotW priest recites, he says 
Om. When the Udgatr* priest sings, he says Om, 

1 Because most of the hymns of the Sama-veda are taken from 
the Rig-veda. 

s Parftrdhya is here derived from para, highest, and ardha, place. 
The eighth means the eighth or last in the series of essences. 

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— all for the glory of that syllable. The threefold 
knowledge (the sacrifice) proceeds by the greatness 
of that syllable (the vital breaths), and by its essence 
(the oblations) K 

10. Now therefore it would seem to follow, that 
both he who knows this (the true meaning of the 
syllable Om), and he who does not, perform the 
same sacrifice 2 . But this is not so, for knowledge 
and ignorance are different. The sacrifice which 
a man performs with knowledge, faith, and the 
Upanishad 3 is more powerful. This is the full 
account of the syllable Om. 

1 These are allusions to sacrificial technicalities, all intended to 
show the importance of the syllable Om, partly as a mere word, 
used at the sacrifices, partly as the mysterious name of the Highest 
Self. As every priest at the Soma-sacrifices, in which three classes 
of priests are always engaged, has to begin his part of the cere- 
monial with Om, therefore the whole sacrifice is said to be de- 
pendent on the syllable Om, and to be for the glory of that syllable, 
as an emblem of the Highest Self, a knowledge of whom is the 
indirect result of all sacrifices. The greatness of the syllable Om 
is explained by the vital breaths of the priest, the sacrificer, and his 
wife ; its essence by rice, corn, &c, which constitute the oblations. 
Why breath and food are due to the syllable Om is explained by the 
sacrifice, which is dependent on that syllable, ascending to the sun, 
the sun sending rain, rain producing food, and food producing 
breath and life. 

* He who simply pronounces the syllable Om as part of his 
recitation at a sacrifice, and he who knows the hidden meaning of 
that syllable, both may perform the same sacrifice. But that per- 
formed by the latter is more powerful, because knowledge is better 
than ignorance. This is, as usual, explained by some comparisons. 
It is true that both he who knows the quality of the harttakl and he 
who does not, are purged alike if they take it. But on the other hand, 
if a jeweller and a mere clod sell a precious stone, the knowledge of 
the former bears better fruit than the ignorance of the latter. 

* Upanishad is here explained by yoga, and yoga by devattdi- 
vishayam uptsanam, meditation directed to certain deities. More 

B 2 

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Second Khaatda 1 . 

i. Whent he Devas and Asuras 2 struggled toge- 
ther, both of the race of Pra^apati, the Devas took 
the udgttha s (Om), thinking they would vanquish 
the Asuras with it. 

2. They meditated on the udgitha 3 (Om) as 
the breath (scent) in the nose 4 , but the Asuras 
pierced it (the breath) with evil. Therefore we smell 
by the breath in the nose both what is good- 
smelling and what is bad-smelling. For the breath 
was pierced by evil. 

3. Then they meditated on the udgitha (Om) as 
speech, but the Asuras pierced it with evil. There- 
fore we speak both truth and falsehood. For 
speech is pierced by evil. 

4. Then they meditated on the udgttha (Om) as 
the eye, but the Asuras pierced it with evil. There- 
likely, however, it refers to this very upanishad, i.e. to the udgttha- 
vidyt, the doctrine of the secret meaning of Om, as here explained. 

1 A very similar story is told in the Br»had-ara»yaka I, 1, 3, 1. 
But though the coincidences between the two are considerable, 
amounting sometimes to verbal identity, the purport of the two 
seems to be different. See Vedanta-sutra III, 3, 6. 

8 Devas and Asuras, gods and demons, are here explained by 
the commentator as the good and evil inclinations of man ; Pra- 
^apati as man in general. 

* Udgttha stands, according to the commentator, for the sacri- 
ficial act to be performed by the Udgttri, the .Sama-veda priest, 
with the udgitha hymns ; and as these sacrificial acts always form 
part of the (7yotish/oma &c, these great Soma-sacrifices are really 
intended. In the second place, however, the commentator takes 
udgttha in the sense of Udgitr/', the performer of the udgitha, 
which is or was by the Devas thought to be the breath in the 
nose. I have preferred to take udgttha in the sense of Om, and 
all that is implied by it. 

* They asked that breath should recite the udgttha. Comm. 

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fore we see both what is sightly and unsightly. For 
the eye is pierced by evil. 

5. Then they meditated on the udgttha (Om) as 
the ear, but the Asuras pierced it with evil. There- 
fore we hear both what should be heard and what 
should not be heard. For the ear is pierced by 

6. Then they meditated on the udgltha (Om) as 
the mind, but the Asuras pierced it with evil. 
Therefore we conceive both what should be con- 
ceived and what should not be conceived. For 
the mind is pierced by evil. 

7. Then comes this breath (of life) in the mouth 1 . 
They meditated on the udgltha (Om) as that breath. 
When the Asuras came to it, they were scattered, 
as (a ball of earth) would be scattered when hitting 
a solid stone. 

8. Thus, as a ball of earth is scattered when hit- 
ting on a solid stone, will he be scattered who wishes 
evil to one who knows this, or who persecutes him ; 
for he is a solid stone. 

9. By it (the breath in the mouth) he distinguishes 
neither what is good nor what is bad-smelling, for 
that breath is free from evil. What we eat and 
drink with it supports the other vital breaths (i. e. 
the senses, such as smell, &c.) When at the time 
of death he 2 does not find that breath (in the 

1 Mukhya pr&»a is used in two senses, the principal or vital 
breath, also called sre$h/A&, and the breath in the mouth, also called 

* According to the commentator, the assemblage of the other 
vital breaths or senses is here meant. They depart when the 
breath of the mouth, sometimes called sarvambhari, all-supporting, 
does no longer, by eating and drinking, support them. 

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mouth, through which he eats and drinks and lives), 
then he departs. He opens the mouth at the time 
of death (as if wishing to eat). 

10. Angiras x meditated on the udgitha (Om) as 
that breath, and people hold it to be Angiras, i. e. 
the essence of the members (anganaw rasa^) ; 

ii. Therefore Brzhaspati meditated on udgitha 
(Om) as that breath, and people hold it to be Brt- 
haspati, for speech is brzhatt, and he (that breath) is 
the lord (pati) of speech ; 

12. Therefore Ayasya meditated on the udgitha 
(Om) as that breath, and people hold it to be 
Ayasya, because it comes (ayati) from the mouth 
(asya) ; 

13. Therefore Vaka Dalbhya knew it He was 
the UdgatW (singer) of the Naimishiya-sacrificers, 
and by singing he obtained for them their wishes. 

14. He who knows this, and meditates on the 
syllable Om (the imperishable udgitha) as the breath 
of life in the mouth, he obtains all wishes by singing. 
So much for the udgitha (Om) as meditated on with 
reference to the body 2 . 

1 The paragraphs from 10 to 14 are differently explained 
by Indian commentators. By treating the nominatives angirSs, 
brthaspatis, and ayisyas (here the printed text reads ay&syam) 
as accusatives, or by admitting the omission of an iti after them, 
they connect paragraphs 9, 10, and 11 with paragraph 12, and thus 
gain the meaning that Yaka Dalbhya meditated on the breath in the 
mouth as Angiras, Bnhaspati, and Ay&sya, instead of those saints 
having themselves thus meditated ; and that he, knowing the secret 
names and qualities of the breath, obtained, when acting as Udg&trt 
priest, the wishes of those for whom he sacrificed. Ten a is diffi- 
cult to explain, unless we take it in the sense of tenanu.rish/a/4, 
taught by him. 

* AdhyStma means with reference to the body, not with refer- 
ence to the self or the soul. Having explained the symbolical 

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Third Khajvx>a. 

1. Now follows the meditation on the udgttha 
with reference to the gods. Let a man meditate 
on the udgltha (Om) as he who sends warmth (the 
sun in the sky). When the sun rises it sings as 
Udgitre for the sake of all creatures. When it rises 
it destroys the fear of darkness. He who knows this, 
is able to destroy the fear of darkness (ignorance). 

2. This (the breath in the mouth) and that (the 
sun) are the same. This is hot and that is hot. 
This they call svara (sound), and that they call pra- 
tyasvara 1 (reflected sound). Therefore let a man 
meditate on the udgitha (Om) as this and that (as 
breath and as sun). 

3. Then let a man meditate on the udgltha 
(Om) as vyana indeed. If we breathe up, that is 
pra«a, the up-breathing. If we breathe down, that 
is apana, the down-breathing. The combination of 
pri»a and apana is vyana, back-breathing or holding 
in of the breath. This vyana is speech. Therefore 
when we utter speech, we neither breathe up nor 

4. Speech is Rik, and therefore when a man utters 
a Rik verse he neither breathes up nor down. 

meaning of Om as applied to the body and its organs of sense, he 
now explains its symbolical meaning adhidaivatam, i.e. as applied 
to divine beings. 

1 As applied to breath, svara is explained by the commentator 
in the sense of moving, going out ; pratySsvara, as applied to the 
sun, is explained as returning every day. More likely, however, 
svara as applied to breath means sound, Om itself being called 
svara (Kh. Up. I, 4, 3), and prasv&ra in the Rig-veda-pr&tuikhya, 
882. As applied to the sun, svara and pratyisvara were probably 
taken in the sense of light and reflected light. 

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8 jthAndogya-upanishad. 

Rik is Saman, and therefore when a man utters a 
Saman verse he neither breathes up nor down. 

Saman is udgitha, and therefore when a man 
sings (the udgitha, Om) he neither breathes up 
nor down. 

5. And other works also which require strength, 
such as the production of fire by rubbing, running 
a race, stringing a strong bow, are performed with- 
out breathing up or down. Therefore let a man 
meditate on the udgttha (Om) as vyana. 

6. Let a man meditate on the syllables of the 
udgitha, i. e. of the word udgitha. Ut is breath 
(pra#a), for by means of breath a man rises (ut- 
tish/^ati). Gi is speech, for speeches are called 
gira^. Tha is food, for by means of food all 
subsists (sthita). 

7. Ut is heaven, gi the sky, tha the earth. Ut 
is the sun, gi the air, tha the fire. Ut is the 
Sama-veda, g! the Ya^ur-veda, tha the Rig-veda 1 . 

1 The commentator supplies explanations to all these fanciful 
etymologies. The heaven is ut, because it is high ; the sky is gf, 
because it gives out all the worlds (gira*at) ; earth is tha, because it 
is the place (sthana) of living beings. The sun is ut, because it is 
high. The wind is gl, because it gives out fire, &c. (girawat) ; fire 
is tha, because it is the place (sthana) of the sacrifice. The Sama- 
veda is ut, because it is praised as svarga; the Ya^ur-veda is 
gf, because the gods take the oblation offered with a Ya^us ; the 
Rig-veda is tha, because the Sama verses stand in it All this is 
very childish, and worse than childish, but it is interesting as 
a phase of human folly which is not restricted to the Brahmans 
of India. I take the following passage from an interesting article, 
' On the Ogam Beithluisnin and on Scythian Letters,' by Dr. Charles 
Graves, Bishop of Limerick. ' An Irish antiquary/ he says, ' writing 
several hundred years ago, proposes to give an account of the 
origin of the names of the notes in the musical scale. 

' " It is asked here, according to Saint Augustine, What is chant- 
ing, or why is it so called ? Answer. From this word caniahna; 

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Speech yields the milk, which is the milk of speech 
itself 1 , to him who thus knowing meditates on those 

and cantalena is the same thing as lenis canlus, i. e. a soft, sweet 
chant to God, and to the Virgin Mary, and to all the Saints. 
And the reason why the word puincc (puncld) is so called is be- 
cause the points (or musical notes) ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la, hurt the 
devil and puncture him. And it is thus that these points are to be 
understood : viz. When Moses the son of Amram with his people 
in their Exodus was crossing the Red Sea, and Pharaoh and his 
host were following him, this was the chant which Moses had to 
protect him from Pharaoh and his host — these six points in praise 
of the Lord : — 

'"The first point of these, Le. ut: and ut in the Greek is the 
same as liberal in the Latin; and that is the same as saer in 
the Gaelic; i. e. O God, said Moses, deliver us from the harm 
of the devil. 

' "The second point of them, i.e. re: and re is the same as saer; 
i. e. O God, deliver us from everything, hurtful and malignant. 

' "The third point, i. e. mi: and mi in the Greek is the same as 
militum in the Latin ; and that is the same as ridere (a knight) in 
the Gaelic ; i. e. O God, said Moses, deliver us from those knights 
who are pursuing us. 

'"The fourth point, i.e. fa: and fa in the Greek is the same as 
famulus in the Latin ; and that is the same as mug (slave) in the 
Gaelic; i.e. O God, said Moses, deliver us from those slaves who 
are pursuing us. 

'"The fifth point, i.e. sol: and sol is the same as grian (sun); 
and that is the same as righteousness ; because righteousness and 
Christ are not different ; L e. O Christ, said Moses, deliver us. 

' " The sixth point, i. e. la, is the same as lav; and that is the 
same as indail (wash); i.e. O God, said Moses, wash away our 
sins from us. 

'"And on the singing of that laud Pharaoh and his host were 

' "Understand, O man, that in whatever place this laud, i. e. this 
chant, is sung, the devil is bound by it, and his power is extirpated 
thence, and the power of God is called in." 

'We have been taught that the names of the first six notes 

1 The milk of speech consists in rewards to be obtained by the 
Rig-veda, &c. Or we may translate, Speech yields its milk to him 
who is able to milk speech. 


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syllables of the name of udgitha, he becomes rich 
in food and able to eat food. 

8. Next follows the fulfilment of prayers. Let 
a man thus meditate on the Upasara#as, i. e. the 
pbjects which have to be approached by meditation : 
Let him (the Udgatr?) quickly reflect on the Saman 
with which he is going to praise ; 

9. Let him quickly reflect on the Rik in which 
that Saman occurs ; on the Rtshi (poet) by whom 
it was seen or composed; on the Devata (object) 
which he is going to praise ; 

10. On the metre in which he is going to praise; on 
the tune with which he is going to sing for himself; 

1 1. On the quarter of the world which he is going 
to praise. Lastly, having approached himself (his 
name, family, &c.) by meditation, let him sing the 
hymn of praise, reflecting on his desire, and avoiding 
all mistakes in pronunciation, &c. Quickly x will the 
desire be then fulfilled to him, for the sake of which he 
may have offered his hymn of praise, yea, for which 
he may have offered his hymn of praise 2 . 

in the gamut were suggested by the initial syllables of the. first 
six hemistichs in one of the stanzas of a hymn to St. John : 

Ut queant laxis 

.fffsonare fibris 

Mira. gestorum 

/amuli tuorum, 

Solve polluti 

Zabii reatum, 

•Sancte ibannes.' 
1 Abhy&o ha yat, lit. depend on it that it will be fulfilled, but 
always explained by quickly. See Kh. Up. II, i, 4; III, 19, 4; 
V, 10, 7. Frequently, but wrongly, written with a dental s. 

* The repetition of the last sentence is always an indication 
that a chapter is finished. This old division into chapters is of 
great importance for a proper study of the Upanishads. 

Digitized by 



Fourth Khanda. 

1. Let a man meditate on the syllable Om, for 
the udgttha is sung beginning with Om. And this 
is the full account of the syllable Om : — 

2. The Devas, being afraid of death, entered 
upon (the performance of the sacrifice prescribed 
in) the threefold knowledge (the three Vedas). They 
covered themselves with the metrical hymns. Be- 
cause they covered (Mad) themselves with the 
hymns, therefore the hymns are called Pandas.- 

3. Then, as a fisherman might observe a fish in 
the water, Death observed the Devas in the Rik, 
Ya^us, and Saman-(sacrifices). And the Devas seeing 
this, rose from the Rik, Ya^us, and Saman-sacrifices, 
and entered the Svara ', i.e. the Om (they meditated 
on the Om). 

4. When a man has mastered the Rig-veda, he 
says quite loud Om ; the same, when he has mas- 
tered the Saman and the Ya^us. This Svara is the 
imperishable (syllable), the immortal, free from fear. 
Because the Devas entered it, therefore they be- 
came immortal, and free from fear. 

5. He who knowing this loudly pronounces (pra- 
«auti) 2 that syllable, enters the same (imperish- 
able) syllable, the Svara, the immortal, free from 
fear, and having entered it, becomes immortal, as 
the Devas are immortal. 

1 Cf. I, 3, 2. 

* Prawauti, he lauds, i. e. he meditates on. Comm. 

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Fifth Khajvda. 

i. The udgttha is the prawava 1 , the pra#ava is 
the udgttha. And as the udgttha is the sun *, so is 
the prawava, for he (the sun) goes sounding Om. 

2. ' Him I sang praises to, therefore art thou my 
only one/ thus said Kaushttaki to his son. ' Do thou 
revolve his rays, then thou wilt have many sons.' 
So much in reference to the Devas. 

3. Now with reference to the body. Let a man 
meditate on the udgltha as the breath (in the mouth), 
for he goes sounding Om s . 

4. ' Him I sang praises to, therefore art thou my 
only son,' thus said Kaushttaki to his son. ' Do thou 
therefore sing praises to the breath as manifold, if 
thou wishest to have many sons.' 

5. He who knows that the udgttha is the pra- 
«ava, and the pra«ava the udgttha, rectifies from 
the seat of the Hotrz priest any mistake committed 
by the Udgatr* priest in performing the udgttha, 
yea, in performing the udgttha. 

Sixth Khajvda. 

1. The Rik (veda) is this earth, the Saman (veda) 
is fire. This Saman (fire) rests on that Rik (earth) 4 . 
Therefore the Saman is sung as resting on the Rik. 

1 Prawava is the name used chiefly by the followers of the Rig- 
veda, udgltha the name used by the followers of the S&ma-veda. 
Both words are intended for the syllable Om. 

* Cf. Kh. Up. I, 3, 1. 

3 The breath in the mouth, or the chief breath, says Om, i. e. 
gives permission to the five senses to act, just as the sun, by 
saying Om, gives permission to all living beings to move about 

4 The Sama verses are mostly taken from the Rig-veda. 

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I PRAPArffAKA, 6 KHANDA, 8. 1 3 

Sa is this earth, a ma is fire, and that makes 
Si ma. 

2. The Rik is the sky, the Saman air. This 
Saman (air) rests on that Rik (sky). Therefore the 
Saman is sung as resting on the Rik. Sa is the sky, 
ama the air, and that makes Sama. 

3. Rik is heaven, Saman the sun. This Saman 
(sun) rests on that Rik (heaven). Therefore the 
Saman is sung as resting on the Rik. Sa is heaven, 
ama the sun, and that makes Sama. 

4. Rik is the stars, Saman the moon. This 
Saman (moon) rests on that Rik (stars). Therefore 
the Saman is sung as resting on the Rik. Sa is the 
stars, ama the moon, and that makes Sama. 

5. Rik is the white light of the sun, Saman the 
blue exceeding darkness ' (in the sun). This Saman 
(darkness) rests on that Rik (brightness). There- 
fore the Saman is sung as resting on the Rik. 

6. Sa is the white light of the sun, ama the blue 
exceeding darkness, and that makes Si ma. 

Now that golden % person, who is seen within the 
sun, with golden beard and golden hair, golden 
altogether to the very tips of his nails, 

7. Whose eyes are like blue lotus's 3 , his name is 
ut, for he has risen (udita) above all evil. He also 
who knows this, rises above all evil. 

8. Rik and Saman are his joints, and therefore 
he is udgttha. And therefore he who praises him 

1 The darkness which is seen by those who can concentrate 
their sight on the sun. 

2 Bright as gold. 

* The colour of the lotus is described by a comparison with the 
Kapy&sa, the seat of the monkey (kapipnshManto yena upavirati). 
It was probably a botanical name. 

Digitized by 



(the ut) is called the Ud-gat^' 1 (the out-singer). He 
(the golden person, called ut) is lord of the worlds 
beyond that (sun), and of all the wishes of the Devas 
(inhabiting those worlds). So much with reference 
to the Devas. 

Seventh Khawda. 
i. Now with reference to the body. Rik is speech, 
Siman breath 2 . This Siman (breath) rests on that 
Rik (speech). Therefore the Saman is sung as 
resting on the Rik. Si is speech, ama is breath, 
and that makes Sam a. 

2. Rik is the eye, Saman the self*. This Saman 
(shadow) rests on that Rik (eye). Therefore the 
Saman is sung as resting on the Rik. Si is the 
eye, ama the self.and that makes Sim a. 

3. Rik is the ear, Siman the mind. This Siman 
(mind) rests on that Rik (ear). Therefore the 
Siman is sung as resting on the Rik. Si is the 
ear, ama the mind, and that makes Sim a. 

4. Rik is the white light of the eye, Siman the 
blue exceeding darkness. This Siman (darkness) 
rests on the Rik (brightness). Therefore the Siman 
is sung as resting on the Rik. Si is the white light 
of the eye, ama the blue exceeding darkness, and 
that makes Sim a. 

5. Now the person who is seen in the eye, he is 
Rik, he is Siman, Uktha*, Ya^s, Brahman. The 
form of that person (in the eye) is the same 6 as the 

1 Name of the principal priest of the SSma-veda. 
1 Breath in the nose, sense of smelling. Comm. 

* The shadow-self, the likeness or image thrown upon the eye ; 
see Kh. Up. VIII, 9, 1. 

* A set of hymns to be recited, whereas the Saman is sung, and 
the Yag-us muttered. 

' Cf. Kh. Up. I, 6, 6. 

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I PRAPArffAKA, 8 KHANDA, 2. I 5 

form of the other person (in the sun), the joints of the 
one (Rik and Saman) are the joints of the other, the 
name of the one (ut) is the name of the other. 

6. He is lord of the worlds beneath that (the 
self in the eye), and of all the wishes of men. 
Therefore all who sing to the vi#a (lyre), sing him, 
and from him also they obtain wealth. 

7. He who knowing this sings a Saman, sings to 
both (the adhidaivata and adhyatma self, the person 
in the sun and the person in the eye, as one and 
the same person). He obtains through the one, 
yea, he obtains the worlds beyond that, and the 
wishes of the Devas ; 

8. And he obtains through the other the worlds 
beneath that, and the wishes of men. 

Therefore an Udgam priest who knows this, may 
say (to the sacrificer for whom he officiates) ; 

9. 'What wish shall I obtain for you by my 
songs ? ' For he who knowing this sings a Saman 
is able to obtain wishes through his song, yea, 
through his song. 

Eighth Khajvca. 

1. There were once three men, well-versed in 
udgitha 1 , 5"ilaka .Salavatya, Aaikitayana Dalbhya, 
and Pravaha»a Caivali. They said : 'We are well- 
versed in udgttha. Let us have a discussion on 

2. They all agreed and sat down. Then Prava- 
ha»a Caivali 2 said : ' Sirs, do you both speak first, 

1 Cognisant of the deeper meanings of udgttha, i. e. Om. 

* He, though not being a Brahmawa, turns out to be the only 
one who knows the true meaning of udgttha, i. e. the Highest 

Digitized by 


1 6 jthAndogya-upanishad. 

for I wish to hear what two Brahmarcas 1 have to 

3. Then .Silaka .Salavatya said to ATaikitiyana 
Dalbhya : ' Let me ask you.' 

' Ask,' he replied. 

4. 'What is the origin of the Saman?' 'Tone 
(svara),' he replied. 

' What is die origin of tone ? ' * Breath/ he 

' What is the origin of breath ? ' ' Food,' he 

' What is the origin of food ? ' ' Water,' he 

5. ' What is the origin of water ? ' ' That world 
(heaven),' he replied. 

' And what is the origin of that world ? ' — 
He replied : ' Let no man carry the Saman 
beyond the world of svarga (heaven). We place 
(recognise) the Saman in the world of svarga, for 
the Saman is extolled as svarga (heaven).' 

6. Then said .Sllaka .Salavatya to Aaikitayana 
Dalbhya : ' O Dalbhya, thy Saman is not firmly 
established. And if any one were to say, Your 
head shall fall off (if you be wrong), surely your 
head would now fall.' 

7. ' Well then, let me know this from you, Sir,' 
said Dalbhya. 

' Know it,' replied *Silaka .Salavatya. 

' What is the origin of that world (heaven) ? ' 
' This world,' he replied. 

' And what is the origin of this world ? ' — 

He replied: 'Let no man carry the Saman be- 
yond this world as its rest. We place the Saman 

1 In V,3,s, PravShawa (zaivali is distinctly called a r%anyabandbu. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

I PRAPArffAKA, 9 KHANDA, 4. 1 7 

in this world as its rest, for the Saman is extolled 
as rest.' 

8. Then said Pravaha#a (Jaivali to 511aka *Sala- 
vatya : * Your Saman (the earth), O 3alavatya, has 
an end. And if any one were to say, Your head 
shall fall off (if you be wrong), surely your head 
would now fall.' 

' Well then, let me know this from you, Sir,' said 

' Know it,' replied Gaivali. 

Ninth Kha^da. 

1. ' What is the origin of this world ? ' ' Ether 1 ,' 
he replied. For all these beings take their rise 
from the ether, and return into the ether. Ether 
is older than these, ether is their rest. 

2. He is indeed the udgitha (Om = Brahman), 
greater than great (parovarlyas), he is without end. 

He who knowing this meditates on the udgitha, 
the greater than great, obtains what is greater than 
great, he conquers the worlds which are greater 
than great. 

3. Atidhanvan 5aunaka, having taught this udgi- 
tha to Udara-.y&#dfilya, said : ' As long as they will 
know in your family .this udgitha, their life in this 
world will be greater than great. 

4. ' And thus also will be their state in the other 
world.' He who thus knows the udgitha, and 
meditates on it thus, his life in this world will be 
greater than great, and also his state in the other 
world, yea, in the other world. 

1 Ether, or we might translate it by space, both being intended, 
however, as names or symbols of the Highest Brahman. See 
Veddnta-sfttra I, i, 22. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 8 rhandogya-upanishad. 

Tenth Khawda. 
i. When the Kurus had been destroyed by (hail) 
stones ', Ushasti A"akriya»a lived as a beggar with 
his virgin* wife at Ibhyagr&ma. 

2. Seeing a chief eating beans, he begged of 
him. The chief said : ' I have no more, except 
those which are put away for me here.' 

3. Ushasti said : ' Give me to eat of them.' He 
gave him the beans, and said : ' There is something 
to drink also.' Then said Ushasti : * If I drank of 
it, I should have drunk what was left by another, 
and is therefore unclean.' 

4. The chief said : ' Were not those beans also 
left over and therefore unclean ? ' 

' No/ he replied ; ' for I should not have lived, 
if I had not eaten them, but the drinking of water 
would be mere pleasure V 

5. Having eaten himself, Ushasti gave the re- 
maining beans to his wife. But she, having eaten 
before, took them and put them away. 

6. Rising the next morning, Ushasti said to 
her: 'Alas, if we could only get some food, we 
might gain a little wealth. The king here is going 
to offer a sacrifice, he should choose me for all the 
priestly offices.' 

1 When they had been killed either by stone weapons, or by a 
shower of stones, which produced a famine in the land. Comm. 

* A/ikt is not the name of the wife of Ushasti, nor does it mean 
strong enough to travel. Sankara explains it as anupa^atapayo- 
dharadistrtvyail^ani, and Anandagiri adds, Svairasowiare 'pi na 
vyabhikararahketi darrayitum aTikyeti vueshanam. She was so 
young that she was allowed to run about freely, without exciting 
any suspicion. Another commentator says, Grih&d bahirgantu- 
marha anupa^atapayodhari. 

* Or, according to the commentator, ' water I can get whenever 
I like.' 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


7. His wife said to him : ' Look, here are those 
beans of yours.' Having eaten them, he went to • 
the sacrifice which was being performed 

8. He went and sat down on the orchestra near 
the Udgatrzs, who were going to sing their hymns of 
praise. And he said to the Prastotr? (the leader) : 

9. ' Prastotrz, if you, without knowing * the deity 
which belongs to the prastava (the hymns &c. of 
the Prastotrz), are going to sing it, your head will 

•fall off.' 

10. In the same manner he addressed the Udgatr* ; 
' Udgatrz, if you, without knowing the deity which 
belongs to the udgitha (the hymns of the Udgatr*), 

. are going to sing it, your head will fall off.' 

11. In the same manner he addressed the Pra- 
tihartr? ; * PratihartW, if you, without knowing the 
deity which belongs to the pratihara (the hymns of 
the Pratihartn), are going to sing it, your head will 
fall off.' 

They stopped, and sat down in silence. 

Eleventh Khanda, 

1. Then the sacrificer said to him: 'I should 
like to know who you are, Sir.' He replied : ' I am 
Ushasti Aakraya«a.' 

2. He said : ' I looked for you, Sir, for all these 
sacrificial offices, but not finding you 2 , I chose 

1 Tbe commentator is at great pains to show that a priest may 
officiate without knowing the secret meanings here assigned to 
certain parts of the sacrifice, and without running any risk of 
punishment Only, if another priest is present, who is initiated, 
then the uninitiated, taking his place, is in danger of losing his 

* Should it be avittva, as in I, a, 9 ? 

C 2 

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3. ' But now, Sir, take all the sacrificial offices.' 
Ushasti said : ' Very well ; but let those, with my 

permission, perform the hymns of praise. Only as 
much wealth as you give to them, so much give 
to me also.' 

The sacrificer assented. 

4. Then the Prastotr* approached him, saying: 
' Sir, you said to me, " Prastotr?, if you, without 
knowing the deity which belongs to the prastava, 
are going to sing it, your head will fall off," — which 
then is that deity?' 

5. He said: 'Breath (pra«a). For all these beings 
merge into breath alone, and from breath they arise. 
This is the deity belonging to the prastava. If, 
without knowing that deity, you had sung forth 
your hymns, your head would have fallen off, after 
you had been warned by me.' 

6. Then the Udgatr* approached him, saying : 
' Sir, you said to me, " Udgat/7, if you, without 
knowing the deity which belongs to the udgttha, 
are going to sing it, your head will fall off," — 
which then is that deity ? ' 

7. He said : ' The sun (aditya). For all these 
beings praise the sun when it stands on high. This 
is the deity belonging to the udgttha. If, without 
knowing that deity, you had sung out your hymns, 
your head would have fallen off, after you had been 
warned by me.' 

8. Then the Pratihartrz* approached him, saying : 
' Sir, you said to me, " Pratihartrz, if you, without 
knowing the deity belonging to the pratihara, are 
going to sing it, your head will fall off," — which 
then is that deity ? ' 

9. He said : ' Food (anna). For all these beings 

Digitized by 


I PRAPArffAKA, 12 KHAYJ5A, 5. 21 

live when they partake of food. This is the deity 
belonging to the pratihara. If, without knowing 
that deity, you had sung your hymns, your head 
would have fallen off, after you had been warned 
by me 1 .' 

Twelfth Khanda. 

1. Now follows the udgltha of the dogs. Vaka 
Dalbhya, or, as he was also called, Glava Maitreya, 
went out to repeat the Veda (in a quiet place). 

2. A white (dog) appeared before him, and other 
dogs gathering round him, said to him : ' Sir, sing 
and get us food, we are hungry.' 

3. The white dog said to them : ' Come to me 
to-morrow morning.' Vaka Dalbhya, or, as he was 
also called, Glava Maitreya, watched. 

4. The dogs came on, holding together, each dog 
keeping the tail of the preceding dog in his mouth, 
as the priests do when they are going to sing praises 
with the Vahishpavamana hymn \ After they had 
settled down, they began to say Hin. 

5. ' Om, let us eat ! Om, let us drink ! Om, may 
the divine Varuwa, Pra^apati, Savitr* 3 bring us food ! 
Lord of food, bring hither food, bring it, Om ! ' 

1 There are certain etymological fancies for assigning each 
deity to a certain portion of the Sama-veda ceremonial Thus 
pra«a is assigned to the prast&va, because both words begin 
with pra. Aditya is assigned to the udgitha, because the sun 
is ut. Anna, food, is assigned to the pratihara, because food 
is taken, pratihrj'yate, &c. 

1 This alludes to a ceremony where the priests have to walk 
in procession, each priest holding the gown of the preceding 

* The commentator explains Varvwa and Pra^pati as epithets 
of Savitr/j or the sun, meaning rain-giver and man-protector. 

Digitized by 



Thirteenth Khayda 1 . 

t. The syllable Hau 2 is this world (the earth), 
the syllable Hai 8 the air, the syllable Atha the 
moon, the syllable I ha the self, the syllable I* is 
Agni, fire. 

2. The syllable U is the sun, the syllable E is the 
Nihava or invocation, the syllable Auhoi 6 is the 
Virve Devas, the syllable Hin is Pra^apati, Svara* 
(tone) is breath (prawa), the syllable Ya is food, the 
syllable Vag T is Vir&f. 

3. The thirteenth stobha syllable, viz. the indis- 
tinct syllable Hun, is the Undefinable (the Highest 

4. Speech yields the milk, which is the milk of 
speech itself to him who knows this Upanishad 
(secret doctrine) of the Samans in this wise. He 
becomes rich in food, and able to eat food 8 , — yea, 
able to eat food 

1 The syllables here mentioned are the so-called stobhaksha- 
ras, sounds used in the musical recitation of the Saman hymns, 
probably to fill out the intervals in the music for which there were 
no words in the hymns. These syllables are marked in the MSS. 
of the Sama-veda, but their exact character and purpose are not 
quite clear. 

* A stobha syllable used in the Rathantara Saman. 

* Used in the Vamadevya Saman. 

4 The Saman addressed to Agni takes the syllable t as nidhana. 

* The stobha syllables used in the Saman addressed to the 
Vijve Devas. 

* See Kh. Up. I, 4, 4. 

' The commentator takes vag as a stobha, as a syllable 
occurring in hymns addressed to Vira^, and as implying either 
the deity Vira^ or food. 

* I.e. wealthy and healthy. 

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First Khajwja. 

i. Meditation on the whole 1 of the Saman is 
good, and people, when anything is good, say it is 
Saman ; when it is not good, it is not Saman. 

2. Thus they also say, he approached him with 
Saman, i.e. becomingly; and he approached him 
without Saman, i. e. unbecomingly. 

3. And they also say, truly this is Saman for us, 
i.e. it is good for us, when it is good; and truly 
that is not Saman for us, i. e. it is not good for 
us, when it is not good. 

4. If any one knowing this meditates on the 
Saman as good, depend upon it all good qualities 
will approach quickly, aye, they will become his 
own 2 . 

Second Khajvba. 

1. Let a man meditate on the fivefold Saman 3 
as the five worlds. The hinkara is the earth, the 
prastava the fire, the udgltha the sky, the pratihara 
the sun, the nidhana heaven; so in an ascending 

2. In a descending line, the hinkara is heaven, 

1 Hitherto meditation on certain portions only of the Sdma- 
veda and the SSma-sacrifice had been enjoined, and their deeper 
meaning explained. Now the same is done for the whole of the 

* Cf. Kh. Up. Ill, 19, 4. 

' The five forms in which the Sdman is used for sacrificial 
purposes. The S&man is always to be understood as the Good, 
as Dharma, and as Brahman. 

Digitized by 



the prastava the sun, the udgitha the sky, the 
pratihara the fire, the nidhana the earth. 

3. The worlds in an ascending and in a descend- 
ing line belong to him who knowing this meditates 
on the fivefold Saman as the worlds K 

Third Khanda. 

1. Let a man meditate on the fivefold Saman 
as rain. The hinkara is wind (that brings the 
rain) ; the prastava is, ' the cloud is come ; ' the 
udgitha is, 'it rains;' the pratihara, 'it flashes, it 
thunders ;' 

2. The nidhana is, ' it stops.' There is rain for 
him, and he brings rain for others who thus knowing 
meditates on the fivefold Saman as rain. 

Fourth Khajvda. 

1. Let a man meditate on the fivefold Saman 
in all waters. When the clouds gather, that is the 
hinkara ; when it rains, that is the prastava ; that 
which flows in the east 2 , that is the udgftha ; that 
which flows in the west : \ that is the pratihara ; the 
sea is the nidhana. 

2. He does not die in water 4 , nay, he is rich in 

1 The commentator supplies some fanciful reasons why each of 
the five S&mans is identified with certain objects. Earth is said to 
be the hinkira, because both always come first Agni is prast&va, 
because sacrifices are praised in the fire (prastuyante). The sky is 
udgttha, because it is also called gagana, and both words have the 
letter g in common. The sun is pratihara, because everybody 
wishes the sun to come towards him (prati). Heaven is nidhana, 
because those who depart from here are placed there (nidhf- 
yante), &c. 

* The Ganges, &c. Comm. 

3 The Narmada, &c. Comm. 

4 The commentator adds, ' unless he wishes to die in the 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

II PRAPA77fAKA, 7 KHANDA, 2. 25 

water who knowing this meditates on the fivefold 
Saman as all waters. 

Fifth Khajvca. 

1. Let a man meditate on the fivefold Saman as 
the seasons. The hihkara is spring, the prastava 
summer (harvest of yava, &c), the udgitha the 
rainy season, the pratihara autumn, the nidhana 

2. The seasons belong to him, nay, he is always 
in season (successful) who knowing this meditates 
on the fivefold Saman as the seasons. 

Sixth Khajvda. 

1. Let a man meditate on the fivefold Saman in 
animals. The hinkara is goats, the prastava sheep, 
the udgitha cows, the pratihara horses, the nidhana 

2. Animals belong to him, nay, he is rich in 
animals who knowing this meditates on the fivefold 
Saman as animals. 

Seventh Khaatda. 

1. Let a man meditate on the fivefold Saman, 
which is greater than great, as the prawas (senses). 
The hihkara is smell 1 (nose), the prastava speech 
(tongue), the udgttha sight (eye), the pratihara 
hearing (ear), the nidhana mind. These are one 
greater than the other. 

2. What is greater than great belongs to him, 
nay, he conquers the worlds which are greater than 

1 Pra/sa is explained by ghra«a, smell; possibly ghr&*a may 
have been the original reading. Anyhow, it cannot be the mukhya 
pra»a here, because it is distinctly represented as the lowest sense. 

Digitized by 



great, who knowing this meditates on the fivefold 
Saman, which is greater than great, as the pra»as 

Eighth Kham>a. 

i. Next for the sevenfold Saman. Let a man 
meditate on the sevenfold Saman in speech. 
Whenever there is in speech the syllable hun 1 , 
that is hinkara, pra is the prastava, a is the adi, 
the first, i. e. Om, 

2. Ud is the udgitha, pra the pratihara, upa the 
upadrava, ni the nidhana. 

3. Speech yields the milk, which is the milk of 
speech itself, to him who knowing this meditates on 
the sevenfold Saman in speech. He becomes rich in 
food, and able to eat food. 

Ninth Khanda. 

1. Let a man meditate on the sevenfold Saman 
as the sun. The sun is Saman, because he is 
always the same (sama) ; he is Saman because he 
is the same, everybody thinking he looks towards 
me, he looks towards me*. 

2. Let him know that all beings are dependent 
on him (the sun). What he is before his rising, 
that is the hinkara. On it animals are dependent. 
Therefore animals say hin (before sunrise), for they 
share the hinkara of that Saman (the sun). 

3. What he is when first risen, that is the pra- 
stava. On it men are dependent Therefore men 
love praise (prastuti) and celebrity, for they share 
the prastava of that Saman. 

1 These are again the stobhaksharas, or musical syllables used 
in the performance of the Saman hymns ; see p. 23. 
» Cf. Kh. Up. II, 2, 2. Coram. 

Digitized by 


II PRAPArtfAKA, 9 KHANDA, 8. 27 

4. What he is at the time of the sangava \ that 
is the adi, the first, the Om. On it birds are de- 
pendent. Therefore birds fly about in the sky 
without support, holding themselves, for they share 
the adi 2 (the Om) of that Saman. 

5. What he is just at noon, that is the udgftha. 
On it the Devas are dependent (because they are 
brilliant). Therefore they are the best of all the 
descendants of Pra^apati, for they share the udgt- 
tha of that Saman. 

6. What he is after midday and before afternoon, 
that is the pratihara. On it all germs are depend- 
ent Therefore these, having been conceived (pra- 
tuWta), do not fall, for they share the pratihara of 
that Saman. 

7. What he is after the afternoon and before 
sunset, that is the upadrava. On it the animals 
of the forest are dependent Therefore, when they 
see a man, they run (upadravanti) to the forest as 
a safe hiding-place, for they share the upadrava of 
that Saman. 

8. What he is when he first sets, that is the 
nidhana. On it the fathers are dependent There- 
fore they put them 8 down (nidadhati), for they 
share the nidhana of that Saman. Thus a man 
meditates on the sevenfold Saman as the sun. 

1 When the sun puts forth his rays, and when the cows are 
together with their calves, i.e. as Rajendralal Mitra says, after 
the cows have been milked and are allowed by the cowherds to 
suckle their young. 

* The tertium comparationis is here the a of Sdi and the 
& of adaya, i. e. holding. The d might have been added. 

* The cakes for the ancestral spirits, or the spirits themselves. 

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Tenth Khandx. 
i. Next let a man meditate on the sevenfold 
Saman which is uniform in itself 1 and leads beyond 
death. The word hinkara has three syllables, the word 
prastava has three syllables : that is equal (sama). 

2. The word adi (first, Om) has two syllables, 
the word pratihara has four syllables. Taking one 
syllable from that over, that is equal (sama). 

3. The word udgttha has three syllables, the 
word upadrava has four syllables. With three and 
three syllables it should be equal. One syllable being 
left over, it becomes trisyllabic. Hence it is equal. 

4. The word nidhana has three syllables, there- 
fore it is equal. These make twenty-two syllables. 

5. With twenty-one syllables a man reaches the 
sun (and death), for the sun is the twenty-first 2 from 
here ; with the twenty-second he conquers what is 
beyond the sun : that is blessedness, that is freedom 
from grief. 

6. He obtains here the victory over the sun 
(death), and there is a higher victory than the 
victory over the sun for him, who knowing this 
meditates on the sevenfold Saman as uniform in 
itself, which leads beyond death, yea, which leads 
beyond death. 

Eleventh Khajvda 8 . 
1. The hinkara is mind, the prastava speech, the 
udgitha sight, the pratihara hearing, the nidhana 

1 Atmasammita is explained by the commentator either as 
having the same number of syllables in the names of the different 
Samans, or as equal to the Highest Self. 

2 There are twelve months, five seasons, three worlds, then 
follows the sun as the twenty-first. Comm. 

3 After having explained the secret meaning of the whole Sama- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

II PRAPArffAKA, 13 KHAJVDA, 2. 29 

breath. That is the Gayatra Saman, as interwoven 
in the (five) pra«as 1 . 

2. He who thus knows this Gayatra interwoven 
in the pri#as, keeps his senses, reaches the full life, 
he lives long 2 , becomes great with children and 
cattle, great by fame. The rule of him who thus 
meditates on the Gayatra is, ' Be not high-minded.' 

Twelfth Khamja. 

1. The hink&ra is, he rubs (the fire-stick); the 
prastava, smoke rises; the udgltha, it burns; the 
pratihara, there are glowing coals ; the nidhana, it 
goes down; the nidhana, it is gone out. This is 
the Rathantara Saman as interwoven in fire s . 

2. He who thus knows this Rathantara inter- 
woven in fire, becomes radiant 4 and strong. He 
reaches the full life, he lives long, becomes great 
with children and cattle, great by fame. The rule 
is, ' Do not rinse the mouth or spit before the fire.' 

Thirteenth Khajvda. 

1, 2. Next follows the Vamadevya as interwoven 
in generation 6 . 

veda ceremonial, as it is to be understood by meditation only 
(dhy&na), he proceeds to explain the secret meaning of the same 
ceremonial, giving to each its proper name in proper succession 
(gayatra, rathantara, &c), and showing the hidden purport of 
those names. 

1 Cf. Kh. Up. II, 7, 1, where prdaa is explained differently. 
The Giyairi itself is sometimes called prawa. 

a The commentator generally takes ^yok in the sense of bright. 

5 The Rathantara is used for the ceremony of producing fire. 

4 Brahmavar£asa is the 'glory of countenance' produced by 
higher knowledge, an inspired look. Annada, lit able to eat, 
healthy, strong. 

6 Upamantrayate sa hihkaro, ^fiapayate sa prastava^, striyii saha 

Digitized by 


30 ktAndogya-upanishad. 

Fourteenth Khanda. 

i. Rising, the sun is the hinkara, risen, he is the 
prastava, at noon he is the udgltha, in the afternoon 
he is the pratihara, setting, he is the nidhana. That 
is the Brzhat Saman as interwoven in the sun *. 

2. He who thus knows the BWhat as interwoven 
in the sun, becomes refulgent 2 and strong, he 
reaches the full life, he lives long, becomes great 
with children and cattle, great by fame. His rule 
is, ' Never complain of the heat of the sun.' 

Fifteenth Khawda. 

i. The mists gather, that is the hinkara ; the 
cloud has risen, that is the prastava ; it rains, that 
is the udgltha ; it flashes and thunders, that is the 
pratihara; it stops, that is the nidhana. That is 
the Vairupa Saman, as interwoven in Parfanya, the 
god of rain. 

2. He who thus knows the Vairtipa as interwoven 
in Par^anya, obtains all kinds of cattle (virupa), he 
reaches the full life, he lives long, becomes great 
with children and cattle, great by fame. His rule 
is, ' Never complain of the rain.' 

Sixteenth Kha^a. 
i. The hinkara is spring, the prastava summer, 
the udgltha the rainy season, the pratihara autumn, 

jete sa udgith&i, pratistri saha sete sa pratiharaA, kalam gaAWati 
tan nidhanam, piraw gaiMati tan nidhanam. Etad vamadevyam 
mithune protam. 2. Sa ya evam etad vamadevyam mithune pro- 
tatn veda, mithanl bhavati, mitfaunln mithanat pra^ayate, sarvam 
ayur eti, gyc% ^tvati, mahin pra^rayi paxubhir bhavati, mahin 
ktrttya. Na kimiana pariharet tad vratam. 

1 The sun is br/hat. The Brthat Saman is to be looked upon 
as the sun, or the Bnhat has Aditya for its deity. 

x The same as brahmavar&sin. 

Digitized by 


II PRApArffAKA, 1 8 KMAtfDA, 2. 3 1 

the nidhana winter. That is the Vaira^a Saman, 
as interwoven in the seasons. 

2. He who thus knows the Vairi^a, as interwoven 
in the seasons, shines (vira^ati) through children, 
cattle, and glory of countenance. He reaches the 
full life, he lives long, becomes great with children 
and cattle, great by fame. His rule is, ' Never 
complain of the seasons.' 

Seventeenth Khajwja. 

1. The hinkara is the earth, the prastava the sky, 
the udgttha heaven, the pratihara the regions, the 
nidhana the sea. These are the .Sakvart Samans, 
as interwoven in the worlds K 

2. He who thus knows the .Sakvarls, as inter- 
woven in the worlds, becomes possessed, of the 
worlds, he reaches the full life, he lives long, be- 
comes great with children and cattle, great by fame. 
His rule is, ' Never complain of the worlds.' 

Eighteenth Kham>a. 

1. The hinkara is goats, the prastava sheep, 
the udgttha cows, the pratihara horses, the nidhana 
man. These are the Revatl Samans, as interwoven 
in animals. 

2. He who thus knows these Revatls, as inter- 
woven in animals, becomes rich in animals 2 , he 
reaches the full life, he lives long, becomes great 
with children and cattle, great by fame. His rule 
is, ' Never complain of animals.' 

1 The Sakvaris are sung with the Mahin&mnts. These are said 
to be water, and the worlds are said to rest on water. 
* Revat means rich. 

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Nineteenth Khajvda. 

i. The hinkara is hair, the prastava skin, the 
udgltha flesh, the pratihara bone, the nidhana 
marrow. That is the Ya^iiaya^tya Saman, as 
interwoven in the members of the body. 

2. He who thus knows the Ya^naya^iifya, as 
interwoven in the members of the body, becomes 
possessed of strong limbs, he is not crippled in any 
limb, he reaches the full life, he lives long, becomes 
great with children and cattle, great by fame. His 
rule is, ' Do not eat marrow for a year,' or ' Do 
not eat marrow at all.' 

Twentieth Khanda. 

i. The hinkara is fire, the prastava air, the ud- 
gltha the sun, the pratihara the stars, the nidhana 
the moon. That is the Ra^ana Saman, as inter- 
woven in the deities. 

2. He who thus knows the Ra^ana, as inter- 
woven in the deities, obtains the same world, the 
same happiness, the same company as the gods, he 
reaches the full life, he lives long, becomes great 
with children and cattle, great by fame. His rule 
is, ' Do not speak evil of the Brahma«as.' 

Twenty-first Kuanda. 

i. The hinkara is the threefold knowledge, the 
prastava these three worlds, the udgltha Agni (fire), 
Vayu (air), and Aditya (sun), the pratihara the stars, 
the birds, and the rays, the nidhana the serpents, 
Gandharvas, and fathers. That is the Saman, as 
interwoven in everything. 

2. He who thus knows this Saman, as interwoven 
in everything, he becomes everything. 

Digitized by 


II PRAPArflAKA, 22 KHANDA, 2. 33 

3. And thus it is said in the following verse : 
' There are the. fivefold three (the three kinds of 
sacrificial knowledge, the three worlds &c. in their 
fivefold form, i. e. as identified with the hinkara, the 
prastava, &c), and the other forms of the Saman. 
Greater than these there is nothing else besides/ 

4. He who knows this, knows everything. All 
regions offer him gifts. His rule is, 'Let him 
meditate (on the Saman), knowing that he is 
everything, yea, that he is everything 1 .' 

Twenty-second Khanda 2 . 

1. The udgitha, of which a poet said, I choose 
the deep sounding note of the Saman as good for 
cattle, belongs to Agni; the indefinite note belongs 
to Pra^apati, the definite note to Soma, the soft and 
smooth note to Vayu, the smooth and strong note to 
Indra, the heron-like note to Brzhaspati, the dull 
note to Varu«a. Let a man cultivate all of these, 
avoiding, however, that of Vanwa. 

2. Let a man sing 3 , wishing to obtain by his 
song immortality for the Devas. ' May I obtain by 
my song oblations (svadha) for the fathers, hope 
for men, fodder and water for animals, heaven for 
the sacrificer, food for myself,' thus reflecting on 
these in his mind, let a man (Udgatrz priest) sing 
praises, without making mistakes in pronuncia- 
tion, &c. 

1 Here ends the S&mopasana. 

* These are lucubrations on the different tones employed in 
singing the Saman hymns, and their names, such as vinardi, ani- 
rukta, nirukta, mri'du dakshna, dakshna balavad, krauB^a, apa- 

• It would be better if the first ity agayet could be left out. 
The commentator ignores these words. 

[3] D 

Digitized by LrOOQ IC 


3. All vowels (svara) belong to Indra, all sibilants 
(ushman) to Pra^apati, all consonants (sparra) to 
Mrrtyu (death). If somebody should reprove him 
for his vowels, let him say, ' I went to Indra as 
my refuge (when pronouncing my vowels) : he will 
answer thee.' 

4. And if somebody should reprove him for his 
sibilants, let him say, ' I went to Pra^apati as my 
refuge : he will smash thee.' And if somebody 
should reprove him for his consonants, let him say, 
4 1 went to Mrz'tyu as my refuge : he will reduce 
thee to ashes.' 

5. All vowels are to be pronounced with voice 
(ghosha) and strength (bala), so that the UdgatW 
may give strength to Indra. All sibilants are to be 
pronounced, neither as if swallowed (agrasta) 1 , nor 
as if thrown out (nirasta) 2 , but well opened 3 (vivWta), 
so that the UdgatW may give himself to Pra^a- 
pati. All consonants are to be pronounced slowly, 
and without crowding them together 4 , so that the 
Udgatr? may withdraw himself from Mn'tyu. 

1 Grasa, according to the Rig-veda-pratLrSkhya 766, is the 
stiffening of the root of the tongue in pronunciation. 

3 Nirasa, according to the Rig-veda-pr&tirakhya 760, is the with- 
drawing of the active from the passive organ in pronunciation. 

* The opening, vivnta, may mean two things, either the opening 
of the vocal chords (kha), which imparts to the ushmans their 
surd character (Rig. Prat 709), or the opening of the organs 
of pronunciation (karana), which for the ushmans is aspn'sh/am 
sthitam (Rig. Pr4t. 719), or vivn'ta (Ath. Prat. I, 31 ; TaitL Prat. 
II, 5). 

1 Anabhinihita, for thus the commentaries give the reading, is 
explained by anabhinikshipta. On the real abhinidhana, see Rig. 
Prat. 393. The translation does not follow the commentary. The 
genitive pra^&pateA is governed by paridadani. 

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Twenty-third Khaaba. 

1. There are three branches of the law. Sacrifice, 
study, and charity are the first \ 

2. Austerity the second, and to dwell as a Brah- 
ma^arin in the house of a tutor, always mortifying 
the body in the house of a tutor, is the third. All 
these obtain the worlds of the blessed ; but the 
Brahmasawstha alone (he who is firmly grounded 
in Brahman) obtains immortality. 

3. Pra/apati brooded on the worlds. From them, 
thus brooded on, the threefold knowledge (sacrifice) 
issued forth. He brooded on it, and from it, thus 
brooded on, issued the three syllables, BhM, Bhuva^, 

4. He brooded on them, and from them, thus 
brooded on, issued the Om. As all leaves are 
attached to a stalk, so is all speech (all words) 
attached to the Om (Brahman). Om is all this, 
yea, Om is all this. 

Twenty-fourth Khanda. 

1. The tpachers of Brahman (Veda) declare, as 
the Prata^-savana (morning-oblation) belongs to the 
Vasus, the Madhyandina-savana (noon-libation) to 

1 Not the first in rank or succession, but only in enumerating 
the three branches of the law. This first branch corresponds to the 
second stage, the iLrrama of the householder. Austerity is meant 
for the Vinaprastha, the third a:rrama, while the third is intended 
for the BrahrnaiSrin, the student, only that the naish/£ika or per- 
petual Brahmajfarin here takes the place of the ordinary student 
The Brahmasawzstha would represent the fourth Irrama, that of 
the Sannydsin or parivra^, who has ceased to perform any works, 
even the tapas or austerities of the Vanaprastha. 

D 2 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


the Rudras, the third Savana (evening-libation) to 
the Adityas and the Vlrve Devas, 

2. Where then is the world of the sacrificer? He 
who does not know this, how can he perform the 
sacrifice ? He only who knows, should perform it 1 . 

3. Before the beginning of the Prataranuvaka 
(matin-chant), the sacrificer, sitting down behind the 
household altar (garhapatya), and looking towards 
the north, sings the Saman, addressed to the 
Vasus : 

4. ' Open the door of the world (the earth), let 
us see thee, that we may rule (on earth).' 

5. Then he sacrifices, saying: 'Adoration to 
Agni, who dwells on the earth, who dwells in the 
world 1 Obtain that world for me, the sacrificer! 
That is the world for the sacrificer!' 

6. ' I (the sacrificer) shall go thither, when this life 
is over. Take this ! (he says, in offering the liba- 
tion.) Cast back the bolt!' Having said this, 
he rises. For him the Vasus fulfil the morning- 

7. Before the beginning of the Madhyandina- 
savana, the noon-oblation, the sacrificer, sitting down 
behind the Agnidhrlya altar, and looking towards 
the north, sings the Saman, addressed to the 
Rudras : 

8. ' Open the door of the world (the sky), let us 
see thee, that we may rule wide (in the sky).' 

9. Then he sacrifices, saying : ' Adoration to 

1 The commentator is always very anxious to explain that 
though it is better that a priest should know the hidden meaning 
of the sacrificial acts which he has to perform, yet there is nothing 
to prevent a priest, who has not yet arrived at this stage of know- 
ledge, from performing his duties. 

Digitized by 


II PRAPAr/TAKA, 24 KHAWDA, l6. 37 

Vayu (air), who dwells in the sky, who dwells in 
the world. Obtain that world for me, the sacri- 
ficer ! That is the world 'for the sacrificer ! ' 

10. ' I (the sacrificer) shall go thither, when this 
life is over. Take this! Cast back the bolt!' 
Having said this, he rises. For him the Rudras 
fulfil the noon-oblation. 

"11. Before the beginning of the third oblation, 
the sacrificer, sitting down behind the Ahavanlya 
altar, and looking towards the north, sings the 
Saman, addressed to the Adityas and Virve 
Devas : 

1 2. ' Open the door of the world (the heaven), 
let us see thee, that we may rule supreme (in 
heaven).' This is addressed to the Adityas. 

13. Next the Saman addressed to the Vi^ve 
Devas : ' Open the door of the world (heaven), 
let us see thee, that we may rule supreme (in 

14. Then he sacrifices, saying: 'Adoration to 
the Adityas and to the VLrve Devas, who dwell in 
heaven, who dwell in the world. Obtain that world 
for me, the sacrificer ! ' 

15. 'That is the world for the sacrificer! I 
(the sacrificer) shall go thither, when this life is 
over. Take this ! Cast back the bolt ! ' Having 
said this, he rises. 

16. For him the Adityas and the Viyve Devas 
fulfil the third oblation. He who knows this, 
knows the full measure of the sacrifice, yea, he 
knows it. 

Digitized by 


38 *t/andogya-upanishad. 


First Khaatoa 1 . 

i. *The sun is indeed the honey 2 of the Devas. 
The heaven is the cross-beam (from which) the sky 
(hangs as) a hive, and the bright vapours are the 
eggs of the bees 8 . 

2. The eastern rays of the sun are the honey- 
cells in front. The Rik verses are the bees, the 
Rig-veda (sacrifice) is the flower, the water (of the 
sacrificial libations) is the nectar (of the flower). 

3. Those very Rik verses then (as bees) brooded 
over the Rig-veda sacrifice (the flower) ; and from it, 
thus brooded on, sprang as its (nectar) essence, fame, 
glory of countenance, vigour, strength, and health 4 . 

4. That (essence) flowed forth and went towards 
the sun 6 . And that forms what we call the red 
(rohita) light of the rising sun. 

1 Alter the various meditations on the S&ma-veda sacrifice, the 
sun is next to be meditated on, as essential t othe performance of 
all sacrifices. 

* Everybody delights in the sun, as the highest reward of all 

* I am not certain whether this passage is rightly translated. 
Rajendralal Mitra speaks of an arched bamboo, whence the atmo- 
sphere hangs pendant like a hive, in which the vapours are the 
eggs. Apupa means a cake, and may mean a hive. In order to 
understand the simile, we ought to have a clearer idea of the con- 
struction of the ancient bee-hive. 

4 Annadya, explained as food, but more likely meaning power 
to eat, appetite, health. See III, 13, 1. 

* The commentator explains: The Rik verses, on becoming 
part of the ceremonial, perform the sacrifice. The sacrifice (the 
flower), when surrounded by the Rik verses (bees), yields its essence, 
the nectar. That essence consists in all the rewards to be obtained 
through sacrifice, and as these rewards are to be enjoyed in the 

Digitized by 



Second Khanda. 

1. The southern rays of the sun are the honey- 
cells on the right. The Ya^us verses are the bees, 
the Ya^ur-veda sacrifice is the flower, the water (of 
the sacrificial libations) is the nectar (of the flower). 

2. Those very Ya^us verses (as bees) brooded 
over the Ya^ur-veda sacrifice (the flower) ; and from it, 
thus brooded on, sprang as its (nectar) essence, fame, 
glory of countenance, vigour, strength, and health. 

3. That flowed forth and went towards the sun. 
And that forms what we call the white (sukla) light 
of the sun. 

Third Khanda. 

1. The western rays of the sun are the honey- 
cells behind. The Saman verses are the bees, the 
Sama-veda sacrifice is the flower, the water is the 

2. Those very Saman verses (as bees) brooded 
over the Sama-veda sacrifice ; and from it, thus 
brooded on, sprang as its (nectar) essence, fame, 
glory of countenance, vigour, strength, and health. 

3. That flowed forth and went towards the sun. 
And that forms what we call the dark (kWsh«a) 
light of the sun. 

Fourth Khajvda. 
1. The northern rays of the sun are the honey- 
cells on the left. The (hymns of the) Atharvangiras 
are the bees, the Itihasa-pura«a 1 (the reading of the 
old stories) is the flower, the water is the nectar. 

next world and in the sun, therefore that essence or nectar is said 
to ascend to the sun. 

1 As there is no Atharva-veda sacrifice, properly so called, we 
have corresponding to the Atharva-veda hymns the so-called fifth 

Digitized by 



2. Those very hymns of the Atharvarigiras (as 
bees) brooded over the Itihasa-pura#a ; and from it, 
thus brooded on, sprang as its (nectar) essence, fame, 
glory of countenance, vigour, strength, and health. 

3. That flowed forth, and went towards the sun. 
And that forms what we call the extreme dark 
(para^ krishnam) light of the sun. 

Fifth Khanda. 

1. The upward rays of the sun are the honey- 
cells above. The secret doctrines are the bees, 
Brahman (the Om) is the flower, the water is the 

2. Those secret doctrines (as bees) brooded over 
Brahman (the Om) ; and from it, thus brooded on, 
sprang as its (nectar) essence, fame, glory of coun- 
tenance, brightness, vigour, strength, and health. 

3. That flowed forth, and went towards the sun. 
And that forms what seems to stir in the centre of 
the sun. 

4. These (the different colours in the sun) are 
the essences of the essences. For the Vedas are 
essences (the best things in the world) ; and of them 
(after they have assumed the form of sacrifice) 
these (the colours rising to the sun) are again the 
essences. They are the nectar of the nectar. For 
the Vedas are nectar (immortal), and of them these 
are the nectar. 

Veda, the Itih&sa-puri*a. This may mean the collection of legends 
and traditions, or the old book of traditions. At all events it is 
taken as one Pura»a, not as many. These ancient stories were 
repeated at the A-rvamedha sacrifice during the so-called Pariplava 
nights. Many of them have been preserved in the Brthmawas ; 
others, in a more modern form, in the Mahabhirata. See Weber, 
Indische Studien, I, p. 258, note. 

Digitized by 


Ill PRAPArffAKA, 7 KHAJVDA, 3. 4 1 

Sixth Khaatda. 

1. On the first of these nectars (the red light, 
which represents fame, glory of countenance, vigour, 
strength, health) the Vasus live, with Agni at their 
head. True, the Devas do not eat or drink, but 
they enjoy by seeing the nectar. 

2. They enter into that (red) colour, and they 
rise from that colour 1 . 

3. He who thus knows this nectar, becomes one 
of the Vasus, with Agni at their head, he sees the 
nectar and rejoices. And he, too, having entered 
that colour, rises again from that colour. 

4. So long as the sun rises in the east and sets 
in the west 2 , so long does he follow the sovereign 
supremacy of the Vasus. 

Seventh Khajvda. 

1. On the second of these nectars the Rudras live, 
with Indra at their head. True, the Devas do not 
eat or drink, but they enjoy by seeing the nectar. 

2. They enter into that white colour, and they rise 
from that colour. 

3. He who thus knows this nectar, becomes one 
of the Rudras, with Indra at their head, he sees the 

1 This is differently explained by the commentator. He takes 
it to mean that, when the Vasus have gone to the sun, and see 
that there is no opportunity for enjoying that colour, they rest ; 
but when they see that there is an opportunity for enjoying it, 
they exert themselves for it. I think the colour is here taken 
for the colour of the morning, which the Vasus enter, and from 
which they go forth again. 

* 1. East: Vasus: red: Agni. a. South: Rudras: white: 
Indra. 3. West : Aditya : dark : Varuwa. 4. North : Marut : very 
•dark : Soma. 5. Upward : Sadhya : centre : Brahman, 

Digitized by 



nectar and rejoices. And he, having entered that 
colour, rises again from that colour. 

4. So long as the sun rises in the east and sets 
in the west, twice as long does it rise in the south 
and set in the north ; and so long does he follow 
the sovereign supremacy of the Rudras. 

Eighth Khajvda. 

1. On the third of these nectars the Adityas 
live, with Varu«a at their head. True, the Devas 
do not eat or drink, but they enjoy by seeing the 

2. They enter into that (dark) colour, and they 
rise from that colour. 

3. He who thus knows this nectar, becomes one 
of the Adityas, with Varu«a at their head, he sees 
the nectar and rejoices. And he, having entered 
that colour, rises again from that colour. 

4. So long as the sun rises in the south and sets 
in the north, twice as long does it rise in the west 
and set in the east ; and so long does he follow the 
sovereign supremacy of the Adityas. 

Ninth Kuanda. 

1. On the fourth of these nectars the Maruts live, 
with Soma at their head. True, the Devas do not 
eat or drink, but they enjoy by seeing the nectar. 

2. They enter in that (very dark) colour, and they 
rise from that colour. 

3. He who thus knows this nectar, becomes one 
of the Maruts, with Soma at their head, he sees the 
nectar and rejoices. And he, having entered that 
colour, rises again from that colour. 

4. So long as the sun rises in the west and sets 

Digitized by 


Ill PRAPA7'ffAKA, IO KHANDA., 4. 43 

in the east, twice as long does it rise in the north 
and set in the south ; and so long does he follow the 
sovereign supremacy of the Maruts. 

Tenth Khamda. 

1. On the fifth of these nectars the Sadhyas live, 
with Brahman at their head. True, the Devas do 
not eat or drink, but they enjoy by seeing the 

2. They enter into that colour, and they rise from 
that colour. 

3. He who thus knows this nectar, becomes one 
of the Sadhyas, with Brahman at their head ; he sees 
the nectar and rejoices. And he, having entered 
that colour, rises again from that colour. 

4. So long as the sun rises in the north and sets 
in the south, twice as long does it rise above, and 
set below ; and so long does he follow the sovereign 
power of the Sadhyas 1 . 

1 The meaning of the five KhaWas from 6 to 10 is clear, in so 
far as they are intended to show that he who knows or meditates 
on the sacrifices as described before, enjoys his reward in different 
worlds with the Vasus, Rudras, &c. for certain periods of time, till at 
last he reaches the true Brahman. Of these periods each succeed- 
ing one is supposed to be double the length of the preceding one. 
This is expressed by imagining a migration of the sun from east 
to south, west, north, and zenith. Each change of the sun marks 
a new world, and the duration of each successive world is com- 
puted as double the duration of the preceding world. Similar ideas 
have been more fully developed in the PurSwas, and the commen- 
tator is at great pains to remove apparent contradictions between 
the Pauramk and Vaidik accounts, following, as Ananda^fianagiri 
remarks, the DravMa£Srya (p. 173, 1. 13). 

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Eleventh Khajvda. 
i. When from thence he has risen upwards, he 
neither rises nor sets. He is alone, standing in the 
centre. And on this there is this verse : 

2. ' Yonder he neither rises nor sets at any time. 
If this is not true, ye gods, may I lose Brahman.' 

3. And indeed to him who thus knows this Brah- 
ma-upanishad (the secret doctrine of the Veda) the 
sun does not rise and does not set. For him there 
is day, once and for all 1 . 

4. This doctrine (beginning with III, 1, 1) Brah- 
man (m. Hira#yagarbha) told to Pra^&pati (Vira^ - ), 
Pra^apati to Manu, Manu to his offspring (Iksh- 
v&ku, &c.) And the father told that (doctrine of) 
Brahman (n.) to Uddalaka Aru»i. 

5. A father may therefore tell that doctrine of 
Brahman to his eldest son 2 , or to a worthy pupil. 

But no one should tell it to anybody else, even if 
he gave him the whole sea-girt earth, full of treasure, 
for this doctrine is worth more than that, yea, 
it is worth more. 

Twelfth Khanda. 

1. The Gayatrl 3 (verse) is everything whatsoever 
here exists. Gayatrl indeed is speech, for speech 

1 Cf. Kh. Up. VIII, 4, a. 

* This was the old, not the present custom, says Anandagiri. 
Not the father, but an a^Srya, has now to teach his pupils. 

* The G&yatrt is one of the sacred metres, and is here to be 
meditated on as Brahman. It is used in the sense of verse, and 
as the name of a famous hymn. The Giyatri is often praised as 
the most powerful metre, and whatever can be obtained by means 
of the recitation of Gayatri verses is described as the achievement 
of the Gayatrt The etymology of gayatrl from gai and tr4 is, of 
course, fanciful. 

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Ill PRAPArffAKA, 12 KHAWDA, 6. 45 

sings forth (gaya-ti) and protects (traya-te) every- 
thing that here exists. 

2. That Gayatrl is also the earth, for everything 
that here exists rests on the earth, and does not go 

3. That earth again is the body in man, for in 
it the vital airs (pra#as\ which are everything) 
rest, and do not go beyond. 

4. That body again in man is the heart within 
man, for in it the pra#as (which are everything) 
rest, and do not go beyond. 

5. That Gayatrl has four feet a and is sixfold 3 . 
And this is also declared by a Rik verse (Rig-veda 

X, 90, 3) :— - 

6. ' Such is the greatness of it (of Brahman, 
under the disguise of Gayatrl 4 ) ; greater than it is 
the Person 6 (purusha). His feet are all things. 
The immortal with three feet is in heaven (i. e. in 

1 The pr&ttas may be meant for the five senses, as explained in 
Kh. I, 2, 1 ; II, 1, 1 ; or for the five breathings, as explained im- 
mediately afterwards in III, 13, 1. The commentator sees in 
them everything that here exists (Kh. Up. Ill, 15, 4), and thus 
establishes the likeness between the body and the Gayatrt. As 
Gayatrl is the earth, and the earth the body, and the body the 
heart, Gayatrl is in the end to be considered as the heart 

* The four feet are explained as the four quarters of the Gayatrt 
metre, of six syllables each. The Gayatrt really consists of three 
feet of eight syllables each. 

* The Gayatrl has been identified with all beings, with speech, 
earth, body, heart, and the vital airs, and is therefore called sixfold. 
This, at least, is the way in which the commentator accounts for 
the epithet ' sixfold.' 

* Of Brahman modified as Gayatrt, having four feet, and being 

* The real Brahman, unmodified by form and name. 

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46 jthAndogva-upanishad. 

7. The Brahman which has been thus described 
(as immortal with three feet in heaven, and as Gaya- 
tri) is the same as the ether which is around us ; 

8. And the ether which is around us, is the same 
as the ether which is within us. And the ether 
which is within us, 

9. That is the ether within the heart That ether 
in the heart (as Brahman) is omnipresent and un- 
changing. He who knows this obtains omnipresent 
and unchangeable happiness. 

Thirteenth Khanda 1 . 

1. For that heart there are five gates belonging 
to the Devas (the senses). The eastern gate is the 
Pra»a (up-breathing), that is the eye, that is Aditya 
(the sun). Let a man meditate on that as brightness 
(glory of countenance) and health. He who knows, 
this, becomes bright and healthy. 

2. The southern gate is the Vyana (back- 
breathing), that is the ear, that is the moon. Let 
a man meditate on that as happiness and fame. 
He who knows this, becomes happy and famous. 

3. The western gate is the Apina (down- 
breathing), that is speech, that is Agni (fire). Let 
a man meditate on that as glory of countenance 
and health. He who knows this, becomes glorious 
and healthy. 

4. The northern gate is the Samana (on- 
breathing), that is mind, that is Parfanya (rain). 
Let a man meditate on that as celebrity and beauty. 

1 The meditation on the five gates and the five gate-keepers 
of the heart is meant to be subservient to the meditation on 
Brahman, as the ether in the heart, which, as it is said at the end, 
is actually seen and heard by the senses as being within the heart 

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Ill PRAPATffAKA, 1 3 KHAJV.DA, 8. 47 

He who knows this, becomes celebrated and beau- 

5. The upper gate is the Udana (out-breathing), 
that is air, that is ether. Let a man meditate on 
that as strength and greatness. He who knows 
this, becomes strong and great. 

6. These are the five men of Brahman, the door- 
keepers of the Svarga (heaven) world. He who 
knows these five men of Brahman, the door-keepers 
of the Svarga world, in his family a strong son is 
born. He who thus knows these five men of 
Brahman, as the door-keepers of the Svarga world, 
enters himself the Svarga world. 

7. Now that light which shines above this 
heaven, higher than all, higher than everything, 
in the highest world, beyond which there are no 
other worlds, that is the same light which is 
within man. And of this we have this visible 
proof 1 : 

8. Namely, when we thus perceive by touch the . , 
warmth here in the body 2 . And of it we have this Ct u (- 
audible proof: Namely, when we thus, after stopping 
our ears, listen to what is like the rolling of a car- 
riage, or the bellowing of an ox, or the sound of a 
burning fire 8 (within the ears). Let a man meditate 
on this as the (Brahman) which is seen and heard. 

1 The presence of Brahman in the heart of man is not to rest 
on the testimony of revelation only, but is here to be established 
by the evidence of the senses. Childish as the argument may 
seem to us, it shows at all events how intently the old Brahmans 
thought on the problem of the evidence of the invisible. 

s That warmth must come from something, just as smoke comes 
from fire, and this something is supposed to be Brahman in 
the heart 

* Cf. Ait Ar. Ill, 2, 4, 11-13. 


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He who knows this, becomes conspicuous and cele- 
brated, yea, he becomes celebrated. 

Fourteenth Kha#da. 

i. All this is Brahman (n.) Let a man medi- 
tate on that (visible world) as beginning, ending, 
and breathing 1 in it (the Brahman). 

Now man is a creature of will. According to 
what his will is in this world, so will he be when he 
has departed this life. Let him therefore have this 
will and belief: 

2. The intelligent, whose body is spirit, whose 
form is light, whose thoughts are true, whose nature 
is like ether (omnipresent and invisible), from whom 
all works, all desires, all sweet odours and tastes 
proceed ; he who embraces all this, who never 
speaks, and is never surprised, 

3. He is my self within the heart, smaller than a 
corn of rice, smaller than a corn of barley, smaller 
than a mustard seed, smaller than a canary seed or the 
kernel of a canary seed. H e also is my self within the 
heart, greater than the earth, greater than the sky, 
greater than heaven, greater than all these worlds. 

4. He from whom all works, all desires, all sweet 
odours and tastes proceed, who embraces all this, 
who never speaks and who is never surprised, he, 
my self within the heart, is that Brahman (n.) When 
I shall have departed from hence, I shall obtain him 
(that Self). He who has this faith 2 has no doubt; 
thus said .5a«dfilya 3 , yea, thus he said. 

1 (7alan is explained by ^a, born, la, absorbed, and an, breathing. 
It is an artificial term, but fully recognised by the VedSnta school, 
and always explained in this manner. 

1 Or he who has faith and no doubt, will obtain this. 

8 This chapter is frequently quoted as the <Sa»<ntya-vidy&, 
VedantasSra, init ; Ved&nta-sutra III, 3, 31. 

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Ill PRAPAWTAKA, 1 5 KHANDA, 5. 49 

Fifteenth Kha^da 1 . 

1. The chest which has the sky for its circum- 
ference and the earth for its bottom, does not 
decay, for the quarters are its sides, and heaven 
its lid above. That chest is a treasury, and all 
things are within it. 

2. Its eastern quarter is called 6\ihu, its southern 
Sahamana, its western Ra^ti!, its northern Subhuta 2 . 
The child of those quarters is Vayu, the air, and 
he who knows that the air is indeed the child of 
the quarters, never, weeps for his sons. ' I know the 
wind to be the child of the quarters, may I never 
weep for my sons.' 

3. ' I turn to the imperishable chest with such 
and such and such V ' I turn to the Pra«a (life) 
with such and such and such.' ' I turn to BhM 
with such and such and such.' ' I turn to Bhuva^ 
with such and such and such.' ' I turn to Sva£ 
with such and such and such.' 

4. 'When I said, I turn to Pra#a, then Pra«a 
means all whatever exists here — to that I turn.' 

5. 'When I said, I turn to Bhfl^, what I said 
is, I turn to the earth, the sky, and heaven.' 

1 The object of this section, the Karavigiiana, is to show how 
the promise made in III, 13, 6, 'that a strong son should be born 
in a man's family,' is to be fulfilled. 

* These names are explained by the commentator as follows : 
Because people offer libations (^uhvati), turning to the east, therefore 
it is called (7uhu. Because evil doers suffer (sahante) in the town 
of Yama, which is in the south, therefore it is called Sahamana. 
The western quarter is called RS^fit, either because it is sacred 
to king Varuwa (ra^an), or on account of the red colour (raga) 
of the twilight. The north is called Subhutt, because wealthy 
beings (bhutimat), like Kuvera &c, reside there. 

* Here the names of the sons are to be pronounced. 

[3] E 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

50 jhtAndogya-upanishad. 

6. ' When I said, I turn to Bhuva^, what I said 
is, I turn to Agni (fire), Vayu (air), Aditya (sun).' 

7. ' When I said, I turn to Sva^, what I said is, 
I turn to the i?«g-veda, Ya^ur-veda, and Sama-veda. 
That is what I said, yea, that is what I said.' 

Sixteenth Khanda 1 . 

1. Man is sacrifice. His (first) twenty-four years 
are the morning-libation. The Gayatrt has twenty- 
four syllables, the morning-libation is offered with 
Gayatrl hymns. The Vasus are connected with 
that part of the sacrifice. The Pra#as (the five 
senses) are the Vasus, for they make all this to 
abide (vasayanti). 

2. If anything ails him in that (early) age, let him 
say: 'Ye Pra«as, ye Vasus, extend this my morning- 
libation unto the midday-libation, that I, the sacrifices 
may not perish in the midst of the Prawas or Vasus.' 
Thus he recovers from his illness, and becomes whole. 

3. The next forty-four years are the midday- 
libation. The TrishAibh has forty-four syllables, 
the midday-libation is offered with TrishAibh hymns. 
The Rudras are connected with that part of it 
The Pra»as are the Rudras, for they make all 
this to cry (rodayanti). 

4. If anything ails him in that (second) age, let 
him say : ' Ye Pra»as, ye Rudras, extend this my 
midday-libation unto the third libation, that I, the 
sacrificer, may not perish in the midst of the 
Prazzas or Rudras.' Thus he recovers from his ill- 
ness, and becomes whole. 

5. The next forty-eight years are the third 

* The object of this Khamfe is to show how to obtain long 
life, as promised before. 

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Ill PRAPAlWAKA, 17 KHAVBA, 5. 5 1 

libation. The Gagatl has forty-eight syllables, the 
third libation is offered with <7agatt hymns. The 
Adityas are connected with that part of it. The 
Pra#as are the Adityas, for they take up all this 

6. If anything ails him in that (third) age, let him 
say: * Ye Pri«as, ye Adityas, extend this my third 
libation unto die full age, that I, the sacrificer, may 
not perish in the midst of the Pra#as or Adityas.' 
Thus he recovers from his illness, and becomes whole. 

7. Mahidasa Aitareya (the son of Itara), who 
knew this, said (addressing a disease) : ' Why dost 
thou afflict me, as I shall not die by it ?' He lived 
a hundred and sixteen years (i.e. 24 + 44 + 48). He, 
too, who knows this lives on to a hundred and six- 
teen years. 

Seventeenth Khawda 1 . 

1. When a man (who is the sacrificer) hungers, 
thirsts, and abstains from pleasures, that is the 
Dlksha (initiatory rite). 

2. When a man eats, drinks, and enjoys pleasures, 
he does it with the Upasadas (the sacrificial days on 
which the sacrificer is allowed to partake of food). 

3. When a man laughs, eats, and delights him- 
self, he does it with the Stuta-^astras (hymns sung 
and recited at the sacrifices). 

4. Penance, liberality, righteousness, kindness, 
truthfulness, these form his Dakshi»4s (gifts be- 
stowed on priests, &c.) 

5. Therefore when they say, 'There will be a 

1 Here we have a representation of the sacrifice as performed 
without any ceremonial, and as it is often represented when 
performed in thought only by a man living in the forest. 

E 2 

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birth,' and ' there has been a birth' (words used at 
the Soma-sacrifice, and really meaning, ' He will 
pour out the Soma-juice,' and 'he has poured out 
the Soma-juice '), that is his new birth. His death 
is the Avabhr/tha ceremony (when the sacrificial 
vessels are carried away to be cleansed). 

6. Ghora Angirasa, after having communicated 
this (view of the sacrifice) to Kr*'sh»a, the son of 
Devakt * — and he never thirsted again (after other 
knowledge) — said : ' Let a man, when his end ap- 

1 The curious coincidence between Krishna Devakfputra, here 
mentioned as a pupil of Ghora Angirasa, and the famous Krishna, 
the son of Devakf, was first pointed out by Colebrooke, MiscelL 
Essays, II, 177. Whether it is more than a coincidence, is difficult 
to say. Certainly we can build no other conclusions on it than 
those indicated by Colebrooke, that new fables may have been 
constructed elevating this personage to the rank of a god. We 
know absolutely nothing of the old Krishna Devakfputra except 
his having been a pupil of Ghora Angirasa, nor does there seem 
to have been any attempt made by later Brahmans to connect 
their divine Krishna, the son of Vasudeva, with the Krishna 
Devakfputra of our Upanishad. This is all the more remarkable 
because the author of the SaWilya-sutras, for instance, who is 
very anxious to find a xrauta authority for the worship of Krishna 
Vasudeva as the supreme deity, had to be satisfied with quoting 
such modern compilations as the Narayanopanishad, Atharvariras, 
VI, 9, brahmanyo devakfputro brahmanyo madhusudanaA (see 
.SaWilya-sutras, ed. Ballantyne, p. 36, translated by Cowell, p. 51), 
without venturing to refer to the Krishna Devakfputra of the 
A'Mndogya-upanishad. The occurrence of such names as Krishna, 
Vasudeva, Madhusudana stamps Upanishads, like the Atmabodha- 
upanishad, as modern (Colebrooke, Essays, I, roi), and the same 
remark applies, as Weber has shown, to the Gopilatapanf-upani- 
shad (Bibliotheca Indica, No. 183), where we actually find such 
names as .Srfkrishna Govinda, Gopf^anavallabha, Devakyam g&tsJi 
(p. 38), Ac. Professor Weber has treated these questions very 
fully, but it is not quite clear to me whether he wishes to go 
beyond Colebrooke and to admit more than a similarity of name 
between the pupil of Ghora Angirasa and the friend of the Gopfs. 

Digitized by 


Ill PRAPArflAKA, 1 8 KHANDA, 2. 53 

proaches, take refuge with this Triad * : " Thou art 
the imperishable," " Thou art the unchangeable," 
"Thou art the edge of Pra«a."' On this subject 
there are two Rik verses (Rig-veda VIII, 6, 30) : — 

7. ' Then they see (within themselves) the ever- 
present light of the old seed (of the world, the Sat), 
the highest, which is lighted in the brilliant (Brah- 
man).' Rig-veda I, 50, 10 : — 

' Perceiving above the darkness (of ignorance) 
the higher light (in the sun), as the higher light 
within the heart, the bright source (of light and 
life) among the gods, we have reached the highest 
light, yea, the highest light 2 .' 

Eighteenth Khajv-da 3 . 

1. Let a man meditate on mind as Brahman (n.), 
this is said with reference to the body. Let a 
man meditate on the ether as Brahman (n.), this is 
said with reference to the Devas. Thus both the 
meditation which has reference to the body, and the 
meditation which has reference to the Devas, has 
been taught. 

2. That Brahman (mind) has four feet (quarters). 

1 Let him recite these three verses. 

* Both these verses had to be translated here according to their 
scholastic interpretation, but they had originally a totally different 
meaning. Even the text was altered, diva being changed to divi, 
svaA to sve. The first is taken from a hymn addressed to Indra, 
who after conquering the dark clouds brings back the light of 
the sun. When he does that, then the people see again, as 
the poet says, the daily light of the old seed (from which the sun 
rises) which is lighted in heaven. The other verse belongs to 
a hymn addressed to the sun. Its simple meaning is: 'Seeing 
above the darkness (of the night) the rising light, the Sun, bright 
among the bright, we came towards the highest light.' 

* This is a further elucidation of Kh. Up. Ill, 14, 2. 

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Speech is one foot, breath is one foot, the eye is one 
foot, the ear is one foot — so much with reference to 
the body. Then with reference to the gods, Agni 
(fire) is one foot, Vayu (air) is one foot, Aditya (sun) 
is one foot, the quarters are one foot. Thus both 
the worship which has reference to the body, and 
the worship which has reference to the Devas, has 
been taught. 

3. Speech is indeed the fourth foot of Brahman. 
That foot shines with Agni (fire) as its light, and 
warms. He who knows this, shines and warms through 
his celebrity, fame, and glory of countenance. 

4. Breath is indeed the fourth foot of Brahman. 
That foot shines with Vayu (air) as its light, and 
warms. He who knows this, shines and warms through 
his celebrity, fame, and glory of countenance. 

5. The eye is indeed the fourth foot of Brahman. 
That foot shines with Aditya (sun) as its light, and 
warms. He who knows this, shines and warms through 
his celebrity, fame, and glory of countenance. 

6. The ear is indeed the fourth foot of Brahman. 
That foot shines with the quarters as its light, and 
warms. He who knows this, shines and warms through 
his celebrity, fame, and glory of countenance. 

Nineteenth Khanda. 

1. Aditya (the sun 1 ) is Brahman, this is the doc- 
trine, and this is the fuller account of it : — 

In the beginning this was non-existent 2 . It be- 

1 Aditya, or the sun, had before been represented as one of 
the four feet of Brahman. He is now represented as Brahman, 
or as to be meditated on as such. 

* Not yet existing, not yet developed in form and name, and 
therefore as if not existing. 

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came existent, it grew. It turned into an egg 1 . 
The egg lay for the time of a year*. The egg 
broke open. The two halves were one of silver, 
the other of gold. 

2. The silver one became this earth, the golden 
one the sky, the thick membrane (of the white) the 
mountains, the thin membrane (of the yoke) the 
mist with the clouds, the small veins the rivers, the 
fluid the sea. 

3. And what was born from it that was Aditya, 
the sun. When he was born shouts of hurrah arose, 
and all beings arose, and all things which they de- 
sired. Therefore whenever the sun rises and sets, 
shouts of hurrah arise, and all beings arise, and all 
things which they desire. 

4. If any one knowing this meditates on the sun 
as Brahman, pleasant shouts will approach him and 
will continue, yea, they will continue. 


First Khawba 2 . 

1. There lived once upon a time G&namiti Pau- 
traya«a (the great-grandson of Canarruta), who was 
a pious giver, bestowing much wealth upon the 

1 knda. instead of zndz. is explained as a Vedic irregularity. 
A similar cosmogony is given in Harm's Law Book, I, 12 seq. 
See Kellgren, Mythus de ovo mundano, Helsingfors, 1849. 

* VSyu (air) and Prawa (breath) had before been represented 
as feet of Brahman, as the second pair. Now they are repre- 
sented as Brahman, and as to be meditated on as such. This 
is the teaching of Raikva. The language of this chapter is very 
obscure, and I am not satisfied with the translation. 

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people, and always keeping open house. He built 
places of refuge everywhere, wishing that people 
should everywhere eat of his food. 

2. Once in the night some Hawsas (flamingoes) 
flew over his house, and one flamingo said to an- 
other : ' Hey, Bhallaksha, Bhallaksha (short-sighted 
friend). The light (glory) of C&namiti Pautraya»a 
has spread like the sky. Do not go near, that it 
may not burn thee.' 

3. The other answered him : ' How can you speak 
of him, being what he is (a rifanya, noble), as if he 
were like Raikva with the car 1 ? ' 

4. The first replied : ' How is it with this Raikva 
with the car of whom thou speakest ? ' 

The other answered : ' As (in a game of dice) all 
the lower casts 2 belong to him who has conquered 
with the Krz'ta cast, so whatever good deeds other 
people perform, belong to that Raikva. He who 
knows what he knows, he is thus spoken of by me.' 

5. (J&narruti Pautr£ya«a overheard this conversa- 
tion, and as soon as he had risen in the morning, he 
said to his door-keeper (kshattrz): ' Friend, dost thou 
speak of (me, as if I were) Raikva with the car?' 

He replied : ' How is it with this Raikva with the 

6. The king said : ' As (in a game of dice), all the 
lower casts belong to him who has conquered with 
the K*i'ta cast, so whatever good deeds other people 
perform, belong to that Raikva. He who knows 
what he knows, he is thus spoken of by me.' 

1 Sayugvan is explained as possessed of a car with yoked 
horses or oxen. Could it have meant originally, 'yoke-fellow, 
equal,' as in Rig-veda X, 130,4? Anquetil renders it by 'semper 
cum se ipso camelum solutum habens.' 

' Instea 1 of adhareySA, we must read adhare 'y$Ji. 

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IV PRAPA7"ffAKA, 2 KHAJVDA, 5. 57 

7. The door-keeper went to look for Raikva, but 
returned saying, ' I found him not' Then the king 
said : 'Alas! where a Brahma«a should be searched 
for (in the solitude of the forest), there go for him.' 

8. The door-keeper came to a man who was 
lying beneath a car and scratching his sores \ He 
addressed him, and said : ' Sir, are you Raikva with 
the car ? ' 

He answered : ' Here I am.' 
Then the door-keeper returned, and said : ' I have 
found him.' 

Second Khajtda. 

1. Then <7anamiti Pautraya»a took six hundred 
cows, a necklace, and a carriage with mules, went 
to Raikva and said : 

2. ' Raikva, here are six hundred cows, a neck- 
lace, and a carriage with mules ; teach me the deity 
which you worship.' 

3. The other replied : 'Fie, necklace and carriage 
be thine, O .Sudra, together with the cows.' 

Then £4na.rruti Pautr£ya«a took again a thou- 
sand cows, a necklace, a carriage with mules, and his 
own daughter, and went to him. 

4. He said to him : ' Raikva, there are a thou- 
sand cows, a necklace, a carriage with mules, this 
wife, and this village in which thou dwellest. Sir, 
teach me!' 

5. He, opening her mouth 8 , said: 'You have 

1 It is curious that in a hymn of the Atharva-veda (V, 22, 5, 8) 
takman, apparently a disease of the skin, is relegated to the Mahd- 
vr/'shas, where Raikva dwelt. Roth, Zur Literatur des Veda, p. 36. 

2 To find out her age. The commentator translates, ' Raikva, 
knowing her mouth to be the door of knowledge, i. e. knowing 
that for her he might impart his knowledge to Gdn&rruti, and that 

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brought these (cows and other presents), O *Sudra, 
but only by that mouth did you make me speak.' 

These are the Raikva-parwa villages in the country 
of the Mahawz'shas (mahapu»yas) where Raikva 
dwelt under him l . And he said to him : 

Third Khanda. 
i. 'Air (vayu) is indeed the end of all 2 . For 
when fire goes out, it goes into air. When the sun 
goes down, it goes into air. When the moon goes 
down, it goes into air. 

2. ' When water dries up, it goes into air. Air 
indeed consumes them all. So much with reference 
to the Devas. 

3. ' Now with reference to the body. Breath 
(pra#a) is indeed the end of all. When a man sleeps, 
speech goes into breath, so do sight, hearing, and 
mind Breath indeed consumes them all. 

4. ' These are the two ends, air among the Devas, 
breath among the senses (prawi^).' 

5. Once while 6aunaka Kapeya and Abhipra- 
tarin Kakshaseni were being waited on at their 
meal, a religious student begged of them. They 
gave him nothing. 

6. He said : ' One god — who is he ? — swallowed 
the four great ones s , he, the guardian of the world. 

franarruti by bringing such rich gifts had become a proper receiver 
of knowledge, consented to do what he had before refused/ 

1 The commentator supplies adat, the king gave the villages 
to him. 

* Saravarga, absorption, whence sa»»vargavidy&, not sawsarga. 
It is explained by samvaigana, samgrahana, and sawgrasana, in 
the text itself by adana, eating. 

* This must refer to Vayu and Pr£»a swallowing the four, as 
explained in IV, 3, 2, and IV, 3, 3. The commentator explains 

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O Kapeya, mortals see him not, O Abhipratarin, 
though he dwells in many places. He to whom this 
food belongs, to him it has not been given V 

7. tSaunaka Kapeya, pondering on that speech, 
went to the student and said : ' He is the self of the 
Devas, the creator of all beings, with golden tusks, 
the eater, not without intelligence. His greatness 
is said to be great indeed, because, without being 
eaten, he eats even what is not food 2 . Thus do we, 
O Brahmaiarin, meditate on that Being.' Then he 
said : ' Give him food.' 

8. They gave him food. Now these five (the 
eater Vayu (air), and his food, Agni (fire), Aditya 
(sun), Aandramas (moon), Ap (water)) and the 
other five (the eater Pra»a (breath), and his food, 
speech, sight, hearing, mind) make ten, and that 
is the Kma (the highest 8 ) cast (representing the 
ten, the eaters and the food). Therefore in all 
quarters those ten are food (and) Krita. (the highest 
cast). These are again the Vira^ 4 (often syllables) 

it by Pra^&pati, who is sometimes called Ka. In one sense 
it would be Brahman, as represented by Vayu and Prawa. 

1 The food which you have refused to me, you have really 
refused to Brahman. 

3 Saunaka wishes the student to understand that though ' mortals 
see him not,' he sees and knows him, viz. the god who, as 
Vayu, swallows all the gods, but produces them again, and who, 
as prana, swallows during sleep all senses, but produces them 
again at the time of waking. 

* The words are obscure, and the commentator does not throw 
much light on them. He explains, however, the four casts of 
the dice, the Kr»U=4, theTreta=3, the Dvapara=2, the Kali=i, 
making together 10, the Krita cast absorbing the other casts, 
and thus counting ten. 

4 Viraj', name of a metre of ten syllables, and also a name 
of food. One expects, ' which is the food and eats the food.' 

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which eats the food. Through this all this becomes 
seen. He who knows this sees all this and becomes an 
eater of food, yea, he becomes an eater of food. 

Fourth Khajvda 1 . 
i. Satyakama, the son of Cabala, addressed his 
mother and said : * I wish to become a Brahma^arin 
(religious student), mother. Of what family ami?' 

2. She said to him : ' I do not know, my child, 
of what family thou art. In my youth when I had 
to move about much as a servant (waiting on the 
guests in my father's house), I conceived thee. I do 
not know of what family thou art. I am Cabala by 
name, thou art Satyakama (Philalethes). Say that 
thou art Satyakama Cabala.' 

3. He going to Gautama Hiridrumata said to 
him, ' I wish to become a Brahmaiarin with you, 
Sir. May I come to you, Sir ? ' 

4. He said to him : ' Of what family are you, my 
friend ? ' He replied : * I do not know, Sir, of what 
family I am. I asked my mother, and she answered : 
"In my youth when I had to move about much as 
a servant, I conceived thee. I do not know of what 
family thou art. I am Cabala by name, thou art 
Satyakama," I am therefore Satyakama Gabala, Sir.' 

5. He said to him : ' No one but a true Brah- 
ma»a would thus speak out. Go and fetch fuel, 
friend, I shall initiate you. You have not swerved 
from the truth.' 

Having initiated him, he chose four hundred 
lean and weak cows, and said : ' Tend these, friend.' 

1 This carries on the explanation of the four feet of Brahman, 
as first mentioned in III, 18, 1. Each foot or quarter of Brahman 
is represented as fourfold, and the knowledge of these sixteen parts 
is called the Sho&rakal&vidya'. 

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He drove them out and said to himself, ' I shall not 
return unless I bring back a thousand.' He dwelt a 
number of years (in the forest), and when the cows 
had become a thousand, » 

Fifth Khanda. 

i. The bull of the herd (meant for Vayu) said to 
him : ' Satyakima ! ' He replied : ' Sir ! ' The bull 
said : ' We have become a thousand, lead us to the 
house of the teacher ; 

2. ' And I will declare to you one foot of Brahman.' 
' Declare it, Sir,' he replied. 

He said to him: ' The eastern region is one quar- 
ter, the western region is one quarter, the southern 
region is one quarter, the northern region is one 
quarter. This is a foot of Brahman, consisting of 
the four quarters, and called Praklravat (endowed 
with splendour). 

3. ' He who knows this and meditates on the foot 
of Brahman, consisting of four quarters, by the name 
of Prak&yavat, becomes endowed with splendour in 
this world. He conquers the resplendent worlds, 
whoever knows this and meditates on the foot of 
Brahman, consisting of the four quarters, by the. 
name of Praka^avat 

Sixth Khanda. 

1. 'Agni will declare to you another foot of 

(After these words of the bull), Satyakima, on 
the morrow, drove the cows (toward the house of 
the teacher). And when they came towards the 
evening, he lighted a fire, penned the cows, laid 
wood on the fire, and sat down behind the fire, 
looking to the east 

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62 *j?Andogya-upanishad. 

2. Then Agni (the fire) said to him : 'Satyakama!' 
He replied : ' Sir.' 

3. Agni said : ' Friend, I will declare unto you 
o§e foot of Brahman.' 

' Declare it, Sir,' he replied. 

He said to him : ' The earth is one quarter, the 
sky is one quarter, the heaven is one quarter, the 
ocean is one quarter. This is a foot of Brahman, 
consisting of four quarters, and called Anantavat 

4. 'He who knows this and meditates on the foot 
of Brahman, consisting of four quarters, by the name 
of Anantavat, becomes endless in this world. He 
conquers the endless worlds, whoever knows this 
and meditates on the foot of Brahman, consisting of 
four quarters, by the name of Anantavat. 

Seventh Khajvda. 

1. 'A Hawsa (flamingo, meant for the sun) will 
declare to you another foot of Brahman.' 

(After these words of Agni), Satyakama, on the 
morrow, drove the cows onward. And when they 
came towards the evening, he lighted a fire, penned 
the cows, laid wood on the fire, and sat down behind 
the fire, looking toward the east. 

2. Then a Ha/wsa flew near and said to him : 
' Satyakama.' He replied : 'Sir.' 

3. The Hawsa said : ' Friend, I will declare unto 
you one foot of Brahman.' 

' Declare it, Sir,' he replied. 

He said to him : ' Fire is one quarter, the sun 
is one quarter, the moon is one quarter, lightning is 
one quarter. This is a foot of Brahman, consisting 
of four quarters, and called Gyotishmat (full of light). 

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IV PRAPArjiTAKA, 8 KHAM>A, 3. 63 

4. ' He who knows this and meditates on the 
foot of Brahman, consisting of four quarters, by the 
name of Gyotishmat, becomes full of light in this 
world. He conquers the worlds which are full of 
light, whoever knows this and meditates on the 
foot of Brahman, consisting of four quarters, by the 
name of Gyotishmat. 

Eighth Khawda. 

1. 'A diver-bird (Madgu, meant for Pra#a) will 
declare to you another foot of Brahman.' 

(After these words of the Ha*«sa), Satyakfima, on 
the morrow, drove the cows onward. And when they 
came towards the evening, he lighted a fire, penned 
the cows, laid wood on the fire, and sat down be- 
hind the fire, looking toward the east. 

2. Then a diver flew near and said to him : 
'Satyakima.' He replied: 'Sir.' 

3. The diver said : ' Friend, I will declare unto 
you one foot of Brahman.' 

' Declare it, Sir,' he replied. 

He said to him : ' Breath is one quarter, the eye 
is one quarter, the ear is one quarter, the mind is 
one quarter. This is a foot of Brahman, consisting 
of four quarters, and called Ayatanavat (having a 

' He who knows this and meditates on the foot 
of Brahman, consisting of four quarters, by the 
name of Ayatanavat, becomes possessed of a home 
in this world. He conquers the worlds which offer 
a home, whoever knows this and meditates on the 
foot of Brahman, consisting of four quarters, by the 
name of Ayatanavat' 

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64 kwandogya-upanishad. 

Ninth Khajvda. 

i. Thus he reached the house of his teacher. 
The teacher said to him : ' Satyakama.' He re- 
plied: 'Sir.' 

2. The teacher said : ' Friend, you shine like 
one who knows Brahman. Who then has taught 
you 1 ? ' He replied : ' Not men. But you only, 
Sir, I wish, should teach me 2 ; 

3. ' For I have heard from men like you, Sir, 
that only knowledge which is learnt from a teacher 
(A/£arya), leads to real good.' Then he taught him 
the same knowledge. Nothing was left out, yea, 
nothing was left out. 

Tenth Khanda s . 

1. Upakosala Kamalayana dwelt as a Brahma- 
£arin (religious student) in the house of Satyakama 
£abala. He tended his fires for twelve years. But 
the teacher, though he allowed other pupils (after 
they had learnt the sacred books) to depart to their 
own homes, did not allow Upakosala to depart. 

2. Then his wife said to him : ' This student, who 
is quite exhausted (with austerities), has carefully 
tended your fires. Let not the fires themselves blame 
you, but teach him.' The teacher, however, went 
away on a journey without having taught him. 

3. The student from sorrow was not able to eat. 

1 It would have been a great offence if Satyak&ma had accepted 
instruction from any man, except his recognised teacher. 

* The text should be, bhagava>»s tv eva me k&me brftyit (me 
kame = mame&May £m). 

* The Upakorala-vidya teaches first Brahman as the cause, and 
then in its various forms, and is therefore called atmavidya" and 

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Then the wife of the teacher said to him : ' Student, 
eat ! Why do you not eat ?' He said : ' There are 
many desires in this man here, which lose themselves 
in different directions. I am full of sorrows, and 
shall take no food.' 

4. Thereupon the fires said among themselves : 

' This student, who is quite exhausted, has carefully' 
tended us. Well, let us teach him.' They said to 

5. ' Breath is Brahman, Ka (pleasure) is Brahman, 
Kha (ether) is Brahman.' 

He said : ' I understand that breath is Brahman, 
but I do not understand Ka or Kha V 

They said : ' What is Ka is Kha, what is Kha is 
Ka 2 .' They therefore taught him Brahman as 
breath, and as the ether (in the heart) 8 . 

Eleventh Khanda. 

1. After that the Garhapatya fire 4 taught him: 
' Earth, fire, food, and the sun (these are my forms, or 

1 1 do not understand, he means, how Ka, which means pleasure, 
and is non- eternal, and how Kha, which means ether, and is not 
intelligent, can be Brahman. 

* The commentator explains as follows : — Ka is pleasure, and 
Kha is ether, but these two words are to determine each other 
mutually, and thus to form one idea. Ka therefore does not 
mean ordinary pleasures, but pleasures such as belong to Kha, 
the ether. And Kha does not signify the ordinary outward ether, 
but the ether in the heart, which alone is capable of pleasure. 
What is meant by Ka and Kha is therefore the sentient ether 
in the heart, and that is Brahman, while Prawa, breath, is Brahman, 
in so far as it is united with the ether in the heart. 

* And as its ether, i. e. as the ether in the heart, the Brahman, 
with which prawa is connected. Comm. 

* The household altar. 

[3] F 

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66 wtAndogya-upanishad. 

forms of Brahman). The person that is seen in 
the sun, I am he, I am he indeed l . 

i. 'He who knowing this meditates on him, 
destroys sin, obtains the world (of Agni Garha- 
patya), reaches his full age, and lives long ; his 
descendants do not perish. We guard him in this 
world and in the other, whosoever knowing this 
meditates on him.' 

Twelfth Khawa. 

i. Then the Anviharya fire * taught him : 
' Water, the quarters, the stars, the moon (these 
are my forms). The person that is seen in the 
moon, I am he, I am he indeed. 

2. ' He who knowing this meditates on him, 
destroys sin, obtains the world (of Agni Anva- 
harya), reaches his full age, and lives long; his 
descendants do not perish. We guard him in this 
world and in the other, whosoever knowing this 
meditates on him.' 

Thirteenth Khajvda. 

i. Then the Ahavantya 3 fire taught him : ' Breath, 
ether, heaven, and lightning (these are my forms). 
The person that is seen in the lightning, I am he, 
I am he indeed. 

1 Fanciful similarities and relations between the fires of the three 
altars and their various forms and manifestations are pointed out 
by the commentator. Thus earth and food are. represented as 
Warmed and boiled by the fire. The sun is said to give warmth 
and light like the fire of the altar. The chief point, however, is 
that in all of them Brahman is manifested. 

* The altar on the right Anv&h&rya is a sacrificial oblation, 
chiefly one intended for the manes. 

• The Ahavantya altar is the altar on the eastern side of the 
sacrificial ground. 

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2. ' He who knowing this meditates on him, 
destroys sin, obtains the world (of Agni Ahava- 
nlya), reaches his full age, and lives long; his 
descendants do not perish. We guard him in this 
world and in the other, whosoever knowing this 
meditates on him.' 

Fourteenth Khanda. 

1. Then they all said : ' Upakosala, this is our 
knowledge, our friend, and the knowledge of the 
Self, but the teacher will tell you the way (to 
another life).' 

2. In time his teacher came back, and said to 
him : ' Upakosala.' He answered : ' Sir.' The 
teacher said : ' Friend, your face shines like that of 
one who knows Brahman. Who has taught you ? ' 

' Who should teach me, Sir ?' he said. He denies, 
as it were. And he said (pointing) to the fires : 
' Are these fires other than fires ? ' 

The teacher said : ' What, my friend, have these 
fires told you ? ' 

3. He answered : ' This' (repeating some of what 
they had told him). 

The teacher said : ' My friend, they have taught 
you about the worlds, but I shall tell you this ; and 
as water does not cling to a lotus leaf, so no evil 
deed clings to one who knows it.' He said : 'Sir, 
tell it me.' 

Fifteenth Khayba. 

1 . He said : ' The person that is seen in the eye, 
that is the Self. This is the immortal, the fearless, 
this is Brahman \ Even though they drop melted 

. * This is also the teaching of Pra# ipati in VIII, 7, 4. 

F 2 

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68 wtAndogya-upanishad. 

butter or water on him, it runs away on both 
sides x . 

2. ' They call him Sa/#yadvama, for all blessings 
(vama) go towards him (sawzyanti). All blessings 
go towards him who knows this. 

3. ' He is also Vamani, for he leads (nayati) all 
blessings (vama). He leads all blessings who 
knows this. 

4. ' He is also Bhamanl, for he shines (bhati) 
in all worlds. He who knows this, shines in all 

5. ' Now (if one who knows this, dies), whether 
people perform obsequies for him or no, he goes 
to light (ariis) 2 , from light to day, from day to 
the light half of the moon, from the light half of 
the moon to the six months during which the sun 
goes to the north, from the months to the year, 
from the year to the sun, from the sun to the moon, 
from the moon to the lightning. There is a person 
not human, 

6. ' He leads them to Brahman. This is the path 
of the Devas, the path that leads to Brahman. 
Those who proceed on that path, do not return 
to the life of man, yea, they do not return.' 

Sixteenth Khajvda 8 . 

1. Verily, he who purines (Vayu) is the sacrifice, 
for he (the air) moving along, purifies everything. 

1 It does so in the eye, and likewise with the person in the eye, 
who is not affected by anything. Cf. Kh. Up. IV, 14, 3. 

* The commentator takes light, day, &c. as persons, or devat£s. 
Cf. Kh. Up. V, 10, 1. 

9 If any mistakes happen during the performance of a sacri- 
fice, as described before, they are remedied by certain interjectiona| 

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TV PRAPArffAKA, l6 KHANDA, 5. 69 

Because moving along he purines everything, there- 
fore he is the sacrifice. Of that sacrifice there are 
two ways, by mind and by speech. 

2. The Brahman priest performs one of them 
in his mind 1 , the Hotrt, Adhvaryu, and Udgatr* 
priests perform the other by words. When the 
Brahman priest, after the Prataranuvaka ceremony 
has begun, but before the recitation of the Paridha- 
nlya hymn, has (to break his silence and) to speak, 

3. He performs perfectly the one way only (that 
by words), but the other is injured. As a man 
walking on one foot, or a carriage going on one 
wheel, is injured, his sacrifice is injured, and with 
the injured sacrifice the sacrificer is injured ; yes, 
having sacrificed, he becomes worse. 

4. But when after the Prataranuvaka ceremony 
has begunj and before the recitation of the Paridha- 
niya hymn, the Brahman priest has not (to break 
his silence and) to speak, they perform both ways 
perfectly, and neither of them is injured. 

5. As a man walking on two legs and a carriage 
going on two wheels gets on, so his sacrifice gets on, 
and with the successful sacrifice the sacrificer gets 
on ; yes, having sacrificed, he becomes better. 

syllables (vyaWti), the nature of which is next described. All this 
is supposed to take place in the forest. 

1 While the other priests perform the sacrifice, the Brahman 
priest has to remain silent, following the whole sacrifice in his 
mind, and watching.that no mistake be committed. If a mistake 
is committed, he has to correct it, and for that purpose certain 
corrective penances (prayarfltta) are enjoined. The performance 
of the Brahman priest resembles the meditations of the sages in 
the forest, and therefore this chapter is here inserted. 

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Seventeenth Khanda. 

i. Prafipati brooded over the worlds, and from 
them thus brooded on he squeezed out the essences, 
Agni (fire) from the earth, Vayu (air) from the sky, 
Aditya (the sun) from heaven. 

2. He brooded over these three deities, and 
from them thus brooded on he squeezed out the 
essences, the Rik verses from Agni, the Ya^-us 
verses from Vayu, the Saman verses from Aditya. 

3. He brooded over the threefold knowledge 
(the three Vedas), and from it thus brooded on he 
squeezed out the essences, the sacred interjection 
Bhus from the Rik verses, the sacred interjection 
Bhuvas from the Ya^us verses, the sacred inter- 
jection Svar from the Saman verses. 

4. If the sacrifice is injured from the Rig-veda. 
side, let him offer a libation in the Garhapatya fire, 
saying, Bhu^, Svaha ! Thus does he bind together 
and heal, by means of the essence and the power 
of the Rik verses themselves, whatever break the 
Rik sacrifice may have suffered. 

5. If the sacrifice is injured from the Ya^ur-veda 
side, let him offer a libation in the Dakshi«a fire, 
saying, Bhuva^, Svaha ! Thus does he bind together 
and heal, by means of the essence and the power 
of the Yafus verses themselves, whatever break the 
Ya^us sacrifice may have suffered. 

6. If the sacrifice is injured by the Sama-veda 
side, let him offer a libation in the Ahavaniya fire, 
saying, Sva^, Svaha ! Thus does he bind together 
and heal, by means of the essence and the power 
of the Saman verses themselves, whatever break the 
Siman sacrifice may have suffered. 

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IV PRAPAtT/AKA, 1 7 KHANDA, 9. 7 1 

7. As one binds (softens) gold by means of 
lava^a 1 (borax), and silver by means of gold, and 
tin by means of silver, and lead by means of tin, 
and iron (loha) by means of lead, and wood by 
means of iron, or also by means of leather, 

8. Thus does one bind together and heal any 
break in the sacrifice by means of (the Vyahrztis or 
sacrificial interjections which are) the essence and 
strength of the three worlds, of the deities, and of 
the threefold knowledge. That sacrifice is healed * 
in which there is a Brahman priest who knows this. 

9. That sacrifice is inclined towards the north 
(in the right way) in which there is a Brahman priest 
who knows this. And with regard to such a Brah- 
man priest there is the following Gatha 3 : ' Where- 
ever it falls back, thither the man * goes,' — viz. the 
Brah man only, as one of the Rhv'ig priests. ' H e saves 
the Kurus as a mare' (viz. a Brahman priest who 

1 Lavana, a kind of salt, explained by ksh&ra and /aftka or 
/ankana. It is evidently borax, which is still imported from the 
East Indies under the name of tincal, and used as a flux in chemi- 
cal processes. 

* Bhesha^akrita, explained by bhesha^ena 'iva krilaA sawskr/'taA, 
and also by iikitsakena surikshitena ' esha ya^Ho bhavati,' which 
looks as if the commentator had taken it as a genitive of 

' This GStha" (or, according to .Sankara, Anug&thd) is probably 
a Gayatrf, though Anandagiri says that it is not in the Gdyatrf 
or any other definite metre. It may have been originally ' yato 
yata avartate, tattad gaiMati manavaA, kurun arv&bhirakshati.' 
This might be taken from an old epic ballad, ' Wherever the army 
fell back, thither the man went ; the mare (mares being preferred 
to stallions in war) saves the Kurus.' That verse was applied to the 
Brahman priest succouring the sacrifice, whenever it seemed to waver, 
and protecting the Kurus, i. e. the performers of the sacrifice. 

4 Manava, explained from mauna, or manana, but possibly ori 
ginally, a descendant of Manu. 

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knows this, saves the sacrifice, the sacrificer, and all 
the other priests). Therefore let a man make him 
who knows this his Brahman priest, not one who 
does not know it, who does not know it 


First Khawba. 
i. He who knows the oldest and the best be- 
comes himself the oldest and the best. Breath 
indeed is the oldest and the best. 

2. He who knows the richest, becomes himself 
the richest. Speech indeed is the richest. 

3. He who knows the firm rest, becomes himself 
firm in this world and in the next. The eye indeed 
is the firm rest. 

4. He who knows success, his wishes succeed, 
both his divine and human wishes. The ear indeed 
is success. 

5. He who knows the home, becomes a home 
of his people. The mind indeed is the home. 

6. The five senses quarrelled together 2 , who was 
the best, saying, I am better, I am better. 

1 The chief object is to show the different ways on which people 
proceed after death. One of these ways, the Devapatha that leads 
to Brahman and from which there is no return, has been described, 
IV, 15. The other ways for those who on earth know the 
conditioned Brahman only, have to be discussed now. 

* The same fable, the pr£»asawv&da or prdwavidyS, is told in 
the Brthad&raayaka VI, 1, 1-14, the Aitareya Ar. II, 4, the Kaush. 
Up. Ill, 3, and the Prama Up. II, 3. The last is the simplest 
version of all, but it docs not follow therefore that it is the oldest. 
It would be difficult to find two fables apparently more alike, yet 
in reality differing from each other more characteristically than this 
fable and the fable told to the plebeians by Menenius Agrippa. 

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7. They went to their father Pra^apati and said : 
' Sir, who is the best of us ?' He replied : 'He by 
whose departure the body seems worse than worst, 
he is the best of you.' 

8. The tongue (speech) departed, and having 
been absent for a year, it came round and said : 
' How have you been able to live without me ? ' 
They replied : ' Like mute people, not speaking, but 
breathing with the breath, seeing with the eye, 
hearing with the ear, thinking with the mind. Thus 
we lived.' Then speech went back. 

9. The eye (sight) departed, and having been 
absent for a year, it came round and said : ' How 
have you been able to live without me ? ' They 
replied : ' Like blind people, not seeing, but breath- 
ing with the breath, speaking with the tongue, 
hearing with the ear, thinking with the mind. Thus 
we lived.' Then the eye went back. 

io. The ear (hearing) departed, and having been 
absent for a year, it came round and said : ' How 
have you been able to live without me ? ' They 
replied : ' Like deaf people, not hearing, but breath- 
ing with the breath, speaking with the tongue, 
thinking with the mind. Thus we lived.' Then 
the ear went back. 

11. The mind departed, and having been absent 
for a year, it came round and said : ' How have 
you been able to live.without me ? ' They replied : 
' Like children whose mind is not yet formed, but 
breathing with the breath, speaking with the tongue, 
seeing with the eye, hearing with the ear. Thus we 
lived.' Then the mind went back. 

12. The breath, when on the point of departing, 
tore up the other senses, as a horse, going to start, 

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might tear up the pegs to which he is tethered 1 . 
They came to him and said: 'Sir, be thou (our lord); 
thou art the best among us. Do not depart from us!' 

1 3. Then the tongue said to him : ' If I am the 
richest, thou art the richest.' The eye said to him : 
' If I am the firm rest, thou art the firm rest V 

14. The ear said to him : ' If I am success, thou 
art success.' The mind said to him : * If I am the 
home, thou art the home.' 

15. And people do not call them, the tongues, 
the eyes, the ears, the minds, but the breaths 
(pra«a, the senses). For breath are all these. 

Second Khajwa. 

1. Breath said : ' What shall be my food ? ' 
They answered : ' Whatever there is, even unto 
dogs and birds.' Therefore this is food for Ana 
(the breather). His name is clearly Ana 3 . To 
him who knows this there is nothing that is not 
(proper) food. 

2. He said : ' What shall be my dress ? ' They 
answered : ' Water.' Therefore wise people, when 
they are going to eat food, surround their food be- 
fore and after with water 4 .' He (prawa) thus gains 
a dress, and is no longer naked *. 

1 PaiMra, fetter, »■«'&;, pedica, a word now well known, but 
which Burnouf (Commentaire sur le Yacna, Notes, CLXXIV) 
tried in vain to decipher. 

* Burnouf rightly preferred pratish/Msi to pratish/Ao 'si, though 
the commentary on the corresponding passage of the Br»had£ra- 
wyaka seems to favour tatpratish/Ao 'si. 

* Ana, breather, more general than pra-ana=pr4»a, forth- 
breather, and the other more specified names of breath. 

* They rinse the mouth before and after every meal. 

* We expect, ' He who knows this ' instead of prSna, but as 

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3. Satyak&ma Cabala, after he had communi- 
cated this to Gomiti Vaiyaghrapadya, said to him : 
' If you were to tell this to a dry stick, branches 
would grow, and leaves spring from it.' 

4. If ' a man wishes to reach greatness, let him 
perform the Diksha 2 (preparatory rite) on the day of 
the new moon, and then, on the night of the full 
moon, let him stir a mash of all kinds of herbs 
with curds and honey, and let him pour ghee on the 
fire (avasathya laukika), saying, ' Svaha to the oldest 
and the best.' After that let him throw all that 
remains (of the ghee) 8 into the mash. 

5. In the same manner let him pour ghee on 
the fire, saying, ' Svaha to the richest.' After that 
let him throw all that remains together into the 

In the same manner let him pour ghee on the fire, 
saying, ' Svaha to the firm rest.' After that let him 
throw all that remains together into the mash. 

In the same manner let him pour ghee on the 
fire, saying, ' Svaha to success.' After that let him 
throw all that remains together into the mash. 

6. Then going forward and placing the mash 

prawa may apply to every individual pra»a, the usual finishing 
sentence was possibly dropt on purpose. 

1 The oblation here described is called mantha, a mortar, or 
what is pounded in a mortar, i. e. barley stirred in some kind of 
gravy. See (7aim. N. M. V. p. 406. 

* Not the real diksha, which is a preparatory rite for great 
sacrifices, but penance, truthfulness, abstinence, which take the 
place of diksha with those who live in the forest and devote 
themselves to upasana, meditative worship. 

* What is here called sampatam avanayati is the same as 
sawsravam avanayati in the Brih. Ar. VI, 3, 2. The commentator 
says : Sruvavalepanam %yam mantham sawsravayati. 

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in his hands, he recites : ' Thou (Pra#a) art Ama l 
by name, for all this together exists in thee. He 
is the oldest and best, the king, the sovereign. 
May he make me the oldest, the best, the king, 
the sovereign. May I be all this.' 

7. Then he eats with the following Rik verse at 
every foot : ' We choose' that food ' — here he swal- 
lows — 'Of the divine SavitW (pra«a)' — here he 
swallows — ' The best and all-supporting food ' — here 
he swallows — ' We meditate on the speed of Bhaga 
(Savitn, pra#a)' — here he drinks all. 

8. Having cleansed the vessel, whether it be a 
kawsa or a £amasa, he sits down behind the fire on 
a skin or on the bare ground, without speaking or 
making any other effort. If in his dream he sees a 
woman, let him know this to be a sign that his 
sacrifice has succeeded. 

9. On this there is a .Sloka: 'If during sacri- 
fices which are to fulfil certain wishes he sees in 
his dreams a woman, let him know success from 
this vision in a dream, yea, from this vision in 
a dream.' 

Third Khajvda 2 . 

1. vSVetaketu Aru»eya went to an assembly 3 of 
the Panialas. Pravaha»a ^aivali * said to him : 
' Boy, has your father instructed you ? ' ' Yes, Sir,' 
he replied. 

2. ' Do you know to what place men go from 
here ? ' ' No, Sir,' he replied. 

1 Cf. Brih. At. I, 1, 3, 23. 

* This story is more fully told in the Bnhadara»yaka VI, 2, 
-Satapatha-brShtnawa XIV, 8, 16. 

* Samiti, or parishad, as in the Brih. At. 

* He is the same Kshatriya sage who appeared in 1, 8, i, silencing 
the Brahmans. 

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v prapAthaka, 3 khanda, 6. 77 

'Do you know how they return again?' 'No 
Sir/ he replied. 

' Do you know where the path of Devas and the 
path of the fathers diverge ? ' ' No, Sir,' he replied. 

3. ' Do you know why that world 1 never becomes 
full?' 'No, Sir,' he replied. 

' Do you know why in the fifth libation water is 
called Man 2 ?' 'No, Sir,' he replied. 

4. 'Then why did you say (you had been) in- 
structed ? How could anybody who did not know 
these things say that he had been instructed ? ' 
Then the boy went back sorrowful to the place of his 
father, and said : ' Though you had not instructed 
me, Sir, you said you had instructed me. 

5. ' That fellow of a Ri^anya asked me five 
questions, and I could not answer one of them.' 
The father said : 'As you have told me these 
questions of his, I do not know any one of them 3 . 
If I knew these questions, how should I not have 
told you 4 ? ' 

6. Then Gautama went to the king's place, and 
when he had come to him, the king offered him 
proper respect. In the morning the king went out 
on his way to the assembly 6 . The king said to him : 

1 That of the fathers. Comm. 

* Or, according to others, why the water has a human voice ; 
purushav£4a£ in Br*h. Ar. XIV, 9, 3. 

* I doubt whether the elliptical construction of these sentences 
is properly filled out by the commentator. In the Brthadaranyaka 
the construction is much easier. ' You know me well enough to 
know that whatever I know, I told you.' 

* I read avedishyam, though both the text and commentary 
give avadishyam. Still viditavan asmi points to an original 
avedishyam, and a parallel passage, VI, i, 7, confirms this 

» CLKfi.Vp.V, 11, 5. 

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' Sir, Gautama, ask a boon of such things as men 
possess.' He replied : ' Such things as men possess 
may remain with you. Tell me the speech which 
you addressed to the boy.' 

7. The king was perplexed, and commanded 
him, saying : ' Stay with me some time.' Then he 
said : 'As (to what) you have said to me, Gautama, 
this knowledge did not go to any Brahma«a before 
you, and therefore this teaching belonged in all 
the worlds to the Kshatra class alone. Then he 

Fourth Khajvba 1 . 

1. ' The altar (on which the sacrifice is supposed 
to be offered) is that world (heaven), O Gautama ; 
its fuel is the sun itself, the smoke his rays, the 
light the day, the coals the moon, the sparks the 

2. 'On that altar the Devas (or pri«as, repre- 
sented by Agni, &c.) offer the tfaddha libation 
(consisting of water). From that oblation rises 
Soma, the king * (the moon). 

Fifth Khan da. 

1. 'The altar is Paiganya (the god of rain), O 
Gautama; its fuel is the air itself, the smoke 
the cloud, the light the lightning, the coals the 
thunderbolt, the sparks the thunderings s . 

1 He answers the last question, why water in the fifth libation 
is called Man, first 

* The sacrificers themselves rise through their oblations to 
heaven, and attain as their reward a Soma-like nature. 

* Hriduni, generally explained by hail, but here by stanayitnu- 
xabd&A, rumblings. 

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V PRAPArffAKA, 9 KHAJVDA, 2. 79 

2. ' On that altar the Devas offer Soma, the king 
(the moon). From that oblation rises rain *. 

Sixth Khanda. 

1. 'The altar is the earth, O Gautama; its fuel 
is the year itself, the smoke the ether, the light 
the night, the coals the quarters, the sparks the 
intermediate quarters. 

2. ' On that altar the Devas (pra«as) offer rain. 
From that oblation rises food (corn, &c.) 

Seventh Kuanda. 

i. 'The altar is man, O Gautama; its fuel 
speech itself, the smoke the breath, the light the 
tongue, the coals the eye, the sparks the ear. 

2. 'On that altar the Devas (pra»as) offer food. 
From that oblation rises seed. 

Eighth Khanda. 

1. 'The altar is woman, O Gautama*. 

2. ' On that altar the Devas (pri#as) offer seed. 
From that oblation rises the germ. 

Ninth Khanda. 

1. ' For this reason is water in the fifth oblation 
called Man. This germ, covered in the womb, having 
dwelt there ten months, or more or less, is born. 

2. ' When born, he lives whatever the length of 
his life may be. When he has departed, his friends 
carry him, as appointed, to the fire (of the funeral 
pile) from whence he came, from whence he sprang. 

1 The water, which had assumed the nature of Soma, now 
becomes rain. 

* Tasya upastha eva samid, yad upamantrayate sa dhftmo, 
yonir ar&r, yad antaA karoti te 'ngarS abhinanda vishphulingSA. 

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80 *j?Andogya-upanishad. 

Tenth Khaatoa. 

i. 'Those who know this 1 (even though they 
still be grz'hasthas, householders) and those who in 
the forest follow faith and austerities (the vana- 
prasthas, and of the parivra^akas those who do not 
yet know the Highest Brahman) go 2 to light (ariis), 
from light to day, from day to the light half of the 
moon, from the light half of the moon to the six 
months when the sun goes to the north, from the 
six months when the sun goes to the north to the 
year, from the year to the sun, from the sun to the 
moon, from the moon to the lightning. There is 
a person not human 3 , — 

2. ' He leads them to Brahman (the conditioned 
Brahman). This is the path of the Devas. 

3. ' But they who living in a village practise (a life 
of) sacrifices, works of public utility, and alms, they 
go to the smoke, from smoke to night, from night 
to the dark half of the moon, from the dark half of 
the moon to the six months when the sun goes to 
the south. But they do not reach the year. 

4. ' From the months they go to the world of the 
fathers, from the world of the fathers to the ether, 
from the ether to the moon. That is Soma, the 
king. Here they are loved (eaten) by the Devas, 
yes, the Devas love (eat) them 4 . 

1 The doctrine of the five fires, and our being born in them, 
i. e. in heaven, rain, earth, man, and woman. 

» Cf. Kh. Up. IV, 15, 5. 

' Instead of m&nava, human, or am&nava, not human, the Br«b. 
Ar. reads minasa, mental, or created by manas, mind. 

4 This passage has been translated, ' They are the food of the 
gods. The gods do eat it.' And this is indeed the literal meaning 
of the words. But bha# (to enjoy) and bhaksh (to eat) are often 

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5. ' Having dwelt there, till their (good) works 
are consumed, they return again that way as they 
came 1 , to the ether, from the ether to the air. Then 
the sacrificer, having become air, becomes smoke, 
having become smoke, he becomes mist, 

6. ' Having become mist, he becomes a cloud, 
having become a cloud, he rains down. Then he 
is born as rice and corn, herbs and trees, sesamum 
and beans. From thence the escape is beset with 
most difficulties. For whoever the persons may be 
that eat the food, and beget offspring, he hence- 
forth becomes like unto them. 

used by theosophical writers in India, in the more general sense of 
cherishing or loving, and anna in the sense of an object of desire, 
love, and protection. The commentators, however, as the use of 
bhaksh in this sense is exceptional, or as it has no support in 
the use of the ancients, warn us here against a possible mis- 
understanding. If those, they say, who have performed sacrifices 
enter at last into the essence of Soma, the moon, and are eaten by 
the Devas, by Indra, &c, what is the use of their good works? 
No, they reply, they are not really eaten. Food (anna) means 
only what is helpful and delightful; it is not meant that they 
are eaten by morsels, but that they form the delight of the Devas. 
Thus we hear it said that men, women, and cattle are food for 
kings. And if it is said that women are loved by men, they are, in 
being loved, themselves loving. Thus these men also, being loved 
by the Devas, are happy and rejoice with the Devas. Their body, 
in order to be able to rejoice in the, moon, becomes of a watery 
substance, as it was said before, that the water, called the •Sraddha' 
libation, when offered in heaven, as in the fire of the altar, becomes 
Soma, the king (Kh. Up. V, 4, 1). That water becomes, after 
various changes, the body of those who have performed good 
works, and when a man is dead and his body burnt (Kh. Up. V, 
9, 2), the water rises from the body upwards with the smoke, and 
carries him to the moon, where, in that body, he enjoys the fruits 
of his good works, as long as they last. When they are consumed, 
like the oil in a lamp, he has to return to a new round of 
1 But only to a certain point. 

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82 jmtAndogya-upanishad. 

7. ' Those whose conduct has been good, will 
quickly attain some good birth, the birth of a Brah- 
ma«a, or a Kshatriya, or a Vaiyya. But those whose 
conduct has been evil, will quickly attain an evil 
birth, the birth of a dog, or a hog, or a A'aWala. 

8. ' On neither of these two ways those small crea- 
tures (flies, worms, &c.) are continually returning of 
whom it may be said, Live and die. Theirs is a 
third place. 

' Therefore that world never becomes full 1 (cf. 
V, 3, 2). 

1 In this manner all the five questions have been answered. 
First, why in the fifth oblation water is called man ; secondly, to 
what place men go after death, some by the path of the, Devas, 
others by the path of the fathers, others again by neither of these 
paths ; thirdly, how they return, some returning to Brahman, others 
returning to the earth ; fourthly, where the paths of the Devas and 
the fathers diverge, viz. when from the half-year the path of the 
Devas goes on to the year, while that of the fathers branches off 
to the world of the fathers; fifthly, why that world, the other 
world, does never become full, viz. because men either go on to 
Brahman or return again to this world. 

Many questions are raised among Indian philosophers on the 
exact meaning of certain passages occurring in the preceding para- 
graphs. First, as to who is admitted to the path of the Devas ? 
Householders, who know the secret doctrine of the five fires 
or the five libations of the Agnihotra, as described above, while 
other householders, who only perform the ordinary sacrifices, with- 
out a knowledge of their secret meaning, go by the path of the 
fathers. Secondly, those who have retired to the forest, and whose 
worship there consists in faith and austerities, i. e. Vanaprasthas 
and Parivra^akas, before they arrive at a knowledge of the true 
Brahman. The question then arises, whether religious students 
also enter the path of the Devas ? This is affirmed, because 
Puranas and Smr/'tis assert it, or because our text, if properly 
understood, does not exclude it. Those, on the contrary, who 
know not only a conditioned, but the highest unconditioned Brah- 
man, do not proceed on the path of the Devas, but obtain Brahman 

Again, there is much difference of opinion whether, after a man 

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' Hence let a man take care to himself 1 ! And thus 
it is said in the following 61oka a : — 

9. 'A man who steals gold, who drinks spirits, 

has been in the moon, consuming his works, he can be born again. 
Birth is the result of former works, and if former works are alto- 
gether consumed, there can be no new birth. This, however, is 
shown to be an erroneous view, because, besides the good sacrificial 
works, the fruits of which are consumed in the moon, there are 
other works which have to be enjoyed or expiated, as the case 
may be, in a new existence. 

The great difficulty or danger in the round of transmigration 
arises when the rain has fructified the earth, and passes into herbs 
and trees, rice, corn, and beans. For, first of all, some of the rain 
does not fructify at once, but falls into rivers and into the sea, to be 
swallowed up by fishes and sea monsters. Then, only after these 
have been dissolved in the sea, and after the sea water has been 
attracted by the clouds, the rain falls down again, it may be on 
desert or stony land. Here it may be swallowed by snakes or 
deer, and these may be swallowed by other animals, so that the 
round of existence seems endless. Nor is this all. Some rain 
may dry up, or be absorbed by bodies that cannot be eaten. 
Then, if the rain is absorbed by rice, corn, Sec, and this be 
eaten, it may be eaten by children or by men who have renounced 
marriage, and thus again lose the chance of a new birth. Lastly, 
there is the danger arising from the nature of the being in whom 
the food, such as rice and corn, becomes a new seed, and likewise 
from the nature of the mother. All these chances have to be met 
before a new birth as a Br4hma»a, Kshatriya, or Vairya can be 

Another curious distinction is here made by .Sankara in his 
commentary. There are some, he says, who assume the form of 
rice, corn, &c, not in their descent from a higher world, as described 
in the Upanishad, but as a definite punishment for certain evil 
deeds they have committed. These remain in that state till the 
results of their evil deeds are over, and assume then a new body, 
according to their work, like caterpillars. With them there is also 
a consciousness of these states, and the acts which caused them to 

1 Let him despise it Comm. 

* Evidently an old Trish/ubh verse, but irregular in the third 
line. See Manu XI, 54. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

84 mtandogya-upanishad. 

who dishonours his Guru's bed, who kills a Brah- 
man, these four fall, and as a fifth he who associates 
with them. 

10. ' But he who thus knows the five fires is not 
defiled by sin even though he associates with them. 
He who knows this, is pure, clean, and obtains the 
world of the blessed, yea, he obtains the world 
of the blessed.' 

Eleventh Kha/wa 1 . 

i. Pra£tna$ala Aupamanyava, Satyaya^fia Paulu- 
shi, Indradyumna Bhallaveya, (Sana .Sarkarakshya, 
and Buafila A^vatararvi, these five great house- 
holders and great theologians came once together 
and held a discussion as to What is our Self, and 
what is Brahman 2 . 

2. They reflected and said: 'Sirs, there is that 
Udd&laka Arum, who knows at present that Self, 

assume this or that body, leave impressions behind, like dreams. 
This is not the case with those who in their descent from the 
moon, pass, as we saw, through an existence as rice, corn, ftc. 
They have no consciousness of such existences, at least not in their 
descent. In their ascent to the moon, they have consciousness, as 
a man who climbs up a tree knows what he is about. But in their 
descent, that consciousness is gone, as it is when a man falls down 
from a tree. Otherwise a man, who by his good works had de- 
served rewards in the moon, would, while corn is being ground, suffer 
tortures, as if he were in hell, and the very object of good works, 
as taught by the Veda, would be defeated. As we see that a man 
struck by a hammer can be carried away unconscious, so it is in 
the descent of souls, till they are born again as men, and gain 
a new start for the attainment of the Highest Brahman. 

1 The same story is found in the .Satapatha-br&hmawa X, 6, i, i. 
' Atman and Brihman are to be taken as predicate and subject 

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called VaLrvanara. Well, let us go to him.' They 
went to him. 

3. But he reflected: 'Those great householders 
and great theologians will examine me, and I shall 
not be able to tell them all ; therefore I shall 
recommend another teacher to them.' 

4. He said to them: 'Sirs, A-rvapati Kaikeya 
knows at present that Self, called Vawvanara. Well, 
let us go to him.' They went to him. 

5. When they arrived (the king) ordered proper 
presents to be made separately to each of them. 
And rising the next morning 1 he said : ' In my 
kingdom there is no thief, no miser, no drunkard, 
no man without an altar in his house, no ignorant 
person, no adulterer, much less an adulteress. 1 2 
am going to perform a sacrifice, Sirs, and as much 
wealth as I give to each Jiitvlg- priest, I shall give 
to you, Sirs. Please to stay here.' 

6. They replied : ' Every man ought to say for 
what purpose he comes. You know at present that 
VaLyvanara Self, tell us that' 

7. He said : ' To-morrow I shall give you an 
answer.' Therefore on the next morning they ap- 
proached him, carrying fuel in their hands (like 
students), and he, without first demanding any pre- 
paratory rites 3 , said to them : 

1 The commentator explains that the king, seeing that they would 
not accept his presents, and thinking that they did not consider him 
worthy of bestowing presents on them, made these remarks. 

2 When they still refused his presents, he thought the presents 
he had offered were too small, and therefore invited them to a 

' He was satisfied with the humility of the Brahmans, who, being 
Brahmans, came to him, who was not a Brahman, as pupils. Gene- 

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Twelfth Khanda. 

i. ' Aupamanyava, whom do you meditate on as 
the Self ? ' He replied : ' Heaven only, venerable 
king.' He said: 'The Self which you meditate on 
is the Vai^vinara Self, called Sute,fas (having good 
light). Therefore every kind of Soma libation is 
seen in your house l . 

2. ' You eat food, and see your desire (a son, &c), 
and whoever thus meditates on that Vai^vanara Self, 
eats food, sees his desire, and has Vedic glory (arising 
from study and sacrifice) in his house. That, how- 
ever, is but the head of the Self, and thus your 
head would have fallen (in a discussion), if you had 
not come to me.' 

Thirteenth Khajvda. 

i. Then he said to Satyaya,fna Paulushi : ' O Pra- 
^lnayogya, whom do you meditate on as the Self ? ' 
He replied : ' The sun only, venerable king.' He 
said: 'The Self which you meditate on is the Valrva- 
nara Self, called VLrvarupa (multiform). Therefore 
much and manifold wealth is seen in your house. 

2. ' There is a car with mules, full of slaves and 
jewels. You eat food and see your desire, and who- 
ever thus meditates on that VaLyvanara Self, eats 
food and sees his desire, and has Vedic glory in 
his house. 

' That, however, is but the eye of the Self, and 
you would have become blind, if you had not come 
to me.' 

rally a pupil has first to pass through several initiatory rites before 
he is admitted to the benefit of his master's teaching. 

1 Soma is said to be suta in the Ekaha, prasuta in the Ahtna, 
asuta in the Sattra-sacrifices. 

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Fourteenth Khaaba. 

1. Then he said to Indradyumna Bhallaveya : ' O 
Vaiyaghrapadya, whom do you meditate on as the 
Self ?' He replied : 'Air only, venerable king.' He 
said : ' The Self which you meditate on is the Vai- 
.rvanara Self, called Przthagvartman (having various 
courses). Therefore offerings come to you in various 
ways, and rows of cars follow you in various ways. 

2. 'You eat food and see your desire, and who- 
ever thus meditates on that Vairvanara Self, eats 
food and sees his desire, and has Vedic glory in 
his house. 

'That, however, is but the breath of the Self, and 
your breath would have left you, if you had not 
come to me.' 

Fifteenth Khaatoa. 

1. Then he said to Gana .Sarkarakshya: 'Whom 
do you meditate on as the Self ?' He replied : ' Ether 
only, venerable king.' He said : ' The Self which 
you meditate on is the Vai-yvanara Self, called. Bahula 
(full). Therefore you are full of offspring and wealth. 

2. ' You eat food and see your desire, and who- 
ever thus meditates on that Vai-rvanara Self, eats 
food and sees his desire, and has Vedic glory in 
his house. 

' That, however, is but the trunk of the Self, and 
your trunk would have perished, if you had not 
come to me.' 

Sixteenth Khanda. 
1. Then he said to Budfila Arvatarasvi, 'O Vaiya- 
ghrapadya, whom do you meditate on as the Self?' 
He replied : ' Water only, venerable king.' He said : 

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88 jthAndogya-upanishad. 

' The Self which you meditate on is the Vairvanara 
Self, called Rayi (wealth). Therefore are you 
wealthy and flourishing. 

2. ' You eat food and see your desire, and who- 
ever thus meditates on that Vai^vanara Self, eats 
food and sees his desire, and has Vedic glory in 
his house. 

1 That, however, is but the bladder of the Self, and 
your bladder would have burst, if you had not come 
to me.' 

Seventeenth Khajv$a. 

i. Then he said to Auddalaka Aruni : ' O Gau- 
tama, whom do you meditate on as the Self?' He 
replied: 'The earth only, venerable king.' He said : 
' The Self which you meditate on is the VaLrvanara 
Self, called PratishMa (firm rest). Therefore you 
stand firm with offspring and cattle. 

2. ' You eat food and see your desire, and who- 
ever thus meditates on that VaLrvanara Self, eats 
food and sees his desire, and has Vedic glory in his 

' That, however, are but the feet of the Self, and 
your feet would have given way, if you had not 
come to me.' 

Eighteenth Khajvda. 

i. Then he said to them all: 'You eat your 
food, knowing that VaLrvanara Self as if it were 
many. But he who worships the VaLrvanara Self 
as a span long, and as 1 identical with himself, he eats 
food in all worlds, in all beings, in all Selfs. 

1 The two words praderamatra and abhivimdna are doubtful. 
The commentator explains the first in different ways, which are all 
more or less fanciful He is measured or known (matra) as Self, 

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V PRAPArHAKA, 19 KHAiVDA, 2. 89 

2. 'Of that Vai^vinara Self the head is Sute/as 
(having good light), the eye Vwvarupa (multiform), 
the breath Pr/thagvartman (having various courses), 
the trunk Bahula (full), the bladder Rayi (wealth), 
the feet the earth, the chest the altar, the hairs the 
grass on the altar, the heart the Garhapatya fire, 
the mind the Anvaharya fire, the mouth the Ahava- 
nlya fire. 

Nineteenth Khanda. 

1 . ' Therefore 1 the first food which a man may 
take, is in the place of Homa. And he who offers 
that first oblation, should offer it to Pra«a (up- 
breathing), saying Svaha. Then Pra«a (up-breath- 
ing) is satisfied, 

2. 4 If Pri«a is satisfied, the eye is satisfied, if the 
eye is satisfied, the sun is satisfied, if the sun is 
satisfied, heaven is satisfied, if heaven is satisfied, 
whatever is under heaven and under the sun is satis- 
fied. And through their satisfaction he (the sacri- 
ficer or eater) himself is satisfied with offspring, 
cattle, health, brightness, and Vedic splendour. 

by means of heaven as his head and the earth as his feet, these being 
the prSderas; or, in the mouth and the rest, which are instruments, 
he is known as without action himself; or, he has the length from 
heaven to earth, heaven and earth being called pr&dera, because 
they are taught. The interpretation, supported by the (Jabala- 
miti, that pr&dera. is the measure from the forehead to the chin, 
he rejects. Abhivimana is taken in the same meaning as abhimana 
in the VedSnta, seeing everything in oneself. Vauvinara is taken 
as the real Self of all beings, and, in the end, of all Selfs, and as 
thus to be known and worshipped. 

1 The object now is to show that to him who knows the VaLrvS- 
nara Self, the act of feeding himself is like feeding VaifWtnara, and 
that feeding Vauv&nara is the true Agnihotra. 

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Twentieth Khajtoa. 

i. ' And he who offers the second oblation, should 
offer it to Vyana (back-breathing), saying Svaha. 
Then Vyana is satisfied, 

2. ' If Vyana is satisfied, the ear is satisfied, if the 
ear is satisfied, the moon is satisfied, if the moon is 
satisfied, the quarters are satisfied, if the quarters 
are satisfied, whatever is under the quarters and 
under the moon is satisfied. And through their 
satisfaction he (the sacrificer or eater) himself is 
satisfied with offspring, cattle, health, brightness, 
and Vedic splendour. 

Twenty-first Khaatda. 

i. 'And he who offers the third oblation, should 
offer it to Apana (down-breathing), saying Svaha. 
Then Apana is satisfied. If Apana is satisfied, the 
tongue is satisfied, if the tongue is satisfied, Agni 
(fire) is satisfied, if Agni is satisfied, the earth is 
satisfied, if the earth is satisfied, whatever is under 
the earth and under fire is satisfied. 

2. 'And through their satisfaction he (the sacri- 
ficer or eater) himself is satisfied with offspring, 
cattle, health, brightness, and Vedic splendour. 

Twenty-second Khanda. 

i . ' And he who offers the fourth oblation, should 
offer it to Samana (on-breathing), saying Svaha. 
Then Samana is satisfied, 

2. ' If Samana is satisfied, the mind is satisfied, 
if the mind is satisfied, Paiganya (god of rain) is 
satisfied, if Par^anya is satisfied, lightning is satisfied, 
if lightning is satisfied, whatever is under Par^anya 
and under lightning is satisfied. And through their 

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satisfaction he (the sacrificer or eater) himself is 
satisfied with offspring, cattle, health, brightness, 
and Vedic splendour. 

Twenty-third Khanda. 

1. 'And he who offers the fifth oblation, should 
offer it to Udana (out-breathing), saying Svaha. 
Then Udlna is satisfied, 

2. ' If Uddna is satisfied, Vayu (air) is satisfied, if 
Vayu is satisfied, ether is satisfied, if ether is satis- 
fied, whatever is under Vayu and under the ether 
is satisfied. And through their satisfaction he (the 
sacrificer or eater) himself is satisfied with offspring, 
cattle, health, brightness, and Vedic splendour. 

Twenty-fourth Khajtda. 

1. 'If, without knowing this, one offers an Agni- 
hotra, it would be as if a man were to remove the 
live coals and pour his libation on dead ashes. 

2. ' But he who offers this Agnihotra with a full 
knowledge of its true purport, he offers it (i. e. he 
eats food) 1 in all worlds, in all beings, in all Selfs. 

3. 'As the soft fibres of the Ishlka reed, when 
thrown into the fire, are burnt, thus all his sins 
are burnt whoever offers this Agnihotra with a full 
knowledge of its true purport. 

4. ' Even if he gives what is left of his food to a 
A"a«aiala, it would be offered in his (the ATawdala's) 
Valrvanara Self. And so it is said in this .Sloka : — 

'As hungry children here on earth sit (expect- 
antly) round their mother, so do all beings sit round 
the Agnihotra, yea, round the Agnihotra.' 

1 Cf.V, 18, 1. 

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92 jthAndogya-upanishad. 


First Khamca. 

i. Hari^, Om. There lived once 6vetaketu 
Aru^eya (the grandson of Aru«a). To him his 

)/ father (Uddalaka, the son of Aruwa') said : ' 5veta- 
/ ketu, go to school ; for there is none belonging to 
our race, darling, who, not having studied (the 
Veda), is, as it were, a Brahma«a by birth only.' 

2. Having begun his apprenticeship (with a 
teacher) when he was twelve years of age \ .Sveta- 
ketu returned to his father, when he was twenty- 
four, having then studied all the Vedas, — conceited, 
considering himself well-read, and stern. 

3. His father said to him : ' .SVetaketu, as you 
are so conceited, considering yourself so well-read, 
and so stern, my dear, have you ever asked for 
that instruction by which we hear what cannot be 
heard, by which we perceive what cannot be per- 
ceived, by which we know what cannot be known ?' 

4. ' What is that instruction, Sir ? ' he asked. 
The father replied : ' My dear, as by one clod of 

clay all that is made of clay is known, the dif- 
ference.^ .-being only a name, arising from speech, 
but the truth being that all is clay ; 

5. 'And as, my dear, by one nugget of gold 8 

1 This was rather late, for the son of a Brahman might have 
begun his studies when he was seven years old. Apastamba-sutras 
1, 1, 18. Twelve years was considered the right time for mastering 
one of the Vedas. 

*. Vikara, difference, variety, change, by form and name, develop- 
ment, cf. VI, 3, 3. 

3 The commentator takes lohamam here as suvarwapiWa. 

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all that is made of gold is known, the difference 
being only a name, arising from speech, but the 
truth being that all is gold ? 

6. ' And as, my dear, by one pair of nail-scissors 
all that is made of iron (karsh«ayasam) is known, 
the difference being only a name, arising from 
speech, but the truth being that all is iron, — thus, 
my dear, is that instruction.' 

7. The son said: 'Surely those venerable men 
(my teachers) did not know that. For if they had 
known it, why should they not have told it me ? 
Do you, Sir, therefore tell me that' ' Be it so,' 
said the father. 

Second Khajvzja 1 . 

1. 'In the beginning,' my dear, 'there was that 
only which is (to oV), one only, without a second. 
Others say, in the beginning there was that only 
which is not (to m oV), one only, without a second; 
and from that which is not, that which is was 

a. ' But how could it be thus, my dear ?' the 
father continued. ' How could that which is, be 
born of that which is not ? No, my dear, only that 
which is, was in the beginning, one only, without a 

3. 'It though^/ may I be many, may I grow 
forth. It sent forth fire 8 . 

1 Cf. Taitt. Up. II, 6. 

(^Literally, it saw. This verb is explained as showing that the 
Sat is conscious, not unconscious (bewusst, nicht unbewusst). 

* In other Upanishads the Sat produces first £ka sa,, ether, then 
v£yu, air, and then only te^as, fire. Fire is a better rendering 
for te^as than light or heat See Jacobi, Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgenl. Gesellschaft, XXIX, p. 242. The difficulties, however, of 

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' That fire 1 thought, may I be many, may I grow 
forth. It sent forth water*. 

' And therefore whenever anybody anywhere is 
hot and perspires, water is produced on him from 
fire alone. 

4. ' Water thought, may I be many, may I grow 
forth. It sent forth earth 8 (food). 

' Therefore whenever it rains anywhere, most 
food is then produced. From water alone is eatable 
food produced. 

Third Khanda. 

1. 'Of all living things there are indeed three 
origins only 4 , that which springs from an egg 
(oviparous), that which springs from a living being 
(viviparous), and that which springs from a germ. 

2. • That Being 6 (i. e. that which had produced 
fire, water, and earth) thought, let me now enter those 
three beings 5 (fire, water, earth) with this living 
■ — ^— 

accurately translating te^as are not removed by rendering it by 
fire, as may be seen immediately afterward in VI, 4, 1, where 
teg-as is said to supply the red colour of agni, the burning fire, 
not the god of fire. See also VI, 8, 6. In later philosophical 
treatises the meaning of te^as is more carefully determined than 
in the Upanishads. 

1 Really the Sat, in the form of fire. Fire is whatever burns, 
cooks, shines, and is red. 

* By water is meant all that is fluid, and bright in colour. 

* By anna, food, is here meant the earth, and all that is heavy, 
firm, dark in colour. 

* In the Ait. Up. four are mentioned, aWa^a, here anda^a, g&mga 
(i.e. ^ariyu^a), here ^tva^a, sveda^a, and udbhigya, sveda^a, born 
from heat, being additional. Cf. Atharva-veda I, 12, 1. 

* The text has devata, deity ; here used in a very general sense. 
The Sat, though it has produced fire, water, and earth, has not yet 
obtained its wish of becoming many. 

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Self (^lva atma) 1 , and let me then reveal (develop) 
names and forms. 

3. ' Then that Being having said, Let me make 
each of these three tripartite (so that fire, water, 
and earth should each have itself for its principal 
ingredient, besides an admixture of the other two) 
entered into those three beings (devata) with this 
living self only, and revealed names and forms. 

4. ' He made each of these tripartite ; and how 
these three beings become each of them tripartite, 
that learn from me now, my friend ! 

Fourth Khajvba. • 

1. 'The red colour of burning fire (agni) is the 
colour of fire, the white colour of fire is the colour 
of water, the black colour of fire the colour of earth. 
Thus vanishes what we call fire, as a mere variety, 
being a name, arising from speech. What is true 
(satya) are the three colours (or forms). 

2. ' The red colour of the sun (aditya) is the 
colour of fire, the white of water, the black of earth. 
Thus vanishes what we call the sun, as a mere 
variety, being a name, arising from speech. What 
is true are the three colours. 

3. ' The red colour of the moon is the colour 
of fire, the white of water, the black of earth. Thus 
vanishes what we call the moon, as a mere variety, 
being a name, arising from speech. What is true 
are the three colours. 

4. 'The red colour of the lightning is the colour 
of fire, the white of water, the black of earth. Thus 

1 This living self is only a shadow, as it were, of the Highest Self; 
and as the sun, reflected in the water, does not suffer from the 
movement of the water, the real Self does not suffer pleasure or 
pain on earth, but the living self only. 

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96 jthAndogya-upanishad. 

vanishes what we call the lightning, as a mere variety, 
being a name, arising from speech. What is true 
are the three colours. 

5. ' Great householders and great theologians of 
olden times who knew this, have declared the same, 
saying, " No one can henceforth mention to us any- 
thing which we have not heard, perceived, or known 1 ." 
Out of these (three colours or forms) they knew all. 

6. ' Whatever they thought looked red, they knew 
was the colour of fire. Whatever they thought 
looked white, they knew was the colour of water. 
Whatever they thought looked black, they knew 
was the colour of earth. 

7. 'Whatever they thought was altogether un- 
known, they knew was some combination of those 
three beings (devata). 

4 Now learn from me, my friend, how those three 
beings, when they reach man, become each of them 

Fifth Khayda. 

1 . ' The earth (food) when eaten becomes three- 
fold ; its grossest portion becomes feces, its middle 
portion flesh, its subtilest portion mind. 

2. 'Water when drunk becomes threefold; its 
grossest portion becomes water, its middle portion 
blood, its subtilest portion breath. 

3. ' Fire (i. e. in oil, butter, &c.) when eaten be- 
comes threefold ; its grossest portion becomes bone, 
its middle portion marrow, its subtilest portion 
speech 2 . 

' This reminds one of the Aristotelian &A yap ravra xai <V rovraw 
rcEXXa yvapifcrai, aXX* ov ravra tia rm> inoKttftixav. 

* Food, water, and fire are each to be taken as tripartite ; hence 
animals which live on one of the three elements only, still share in 
some measure the qualities of the other elements also. 

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VI PRAPArffAKA, 7 KHAVDA, 3. 97 

4. ' For truly, my child, mind comes of earth, 
breath of water, speech of fire.' 

' Please, Sir, inform me still more,' said the son. 
' Be it so, my child,' the father replied. 

Sixth Khanda. 

1. ' That which is the subtile portion of curds, 
when churned, rises upwards, and becomes butter. 

2. ' In the same manner, my child, the subtile 
portion of earth (food), when eaten, rises upwards, 
and becomes mind. 

3. 'That which is the subtile portion of water, 
when drunk, rises upwards, and becomes breath. 

4. ' That which is the subtile portion of fire, when 
consumed, rises upwards, and becomes speech. 

5. ' For mind, my child, comes of earth, breath 
of water, speech of fire.' 

' Please, Sir, inform me still more,' said the son. 
' Be it so, my child,' the father replied. 

Seventh Khanda. 

1. ' Man (purusha), my son, consists of sixteen 
parts. Abstain from food for fifteen days, but 
drink as much water as you like, for breath comes 
from water, and will not be cut off, if you drink 

2. ■Svetaketu abstained from food for fifteen days. 
Then he came to his father and said : ' What shall I 
say ?' The father said : ' Repeat the Rik, Ya^us, 
and Saman verses.' He replied : ' They do not occur 
to me, Sir.' 

3. The father said to him : ' As of a great lighted 
fire one coal only of the size of a firefly may be left, 
which would not burn much more than this (i. e. very 

[3] h 

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little), thus, my dear son, one part only of the sixteen 
parts (of you) is left, and therefore with that one part 
you do not remember the Vedas. Go and eat! 

*4. ' Then wilt thou understand me.' Then Sve- 
..taketu ate, and afterwards approached his father, 
i And whatever his father asked him, he knew it all 
^by heart. Then his father said to him : 

5. 'As of a great lighted fire one coal of the 
size of a firefly, if left, may be made to blaze up 
again by putting grass upon it, and will thus burn 
more than this, 

6. ' Thus, my dear son, there was one part of the 
sixteen parts left to you, and that, lighted up with 
food, burnt up, and by it you remember now 
the Vedas.' After that, he understood what his 
father meant when he said: ' Mind, my son, comes 
from food, breath from water, speech from fire.' He 
understood what he said, yea, he understood it 1 . 

Eighth Khanda. 

1. Uddalaka Aru»i said to his son .Svetaketu : 
' Learn from me the true nature of sleep (svapna). 
When a man sleeps here, then, my dear son, he 
becomes united with the True 2 , he is gone to his 

1 The repetition shows that the teaching of the Trivr»'tkara»a, 
the tripartite nature of things, is ended. 

* The deep sushupta sleep is meant, in which personal con-> 
sciousness is lost, and the self for a time absorbed in the Highest 
Self. Sleep is produced by fatigue. Speech, mind, and the senses 
rest, breath only remains awake, and the ^rva, the living soul, in 
order to recover from his fatigue, returns for a while to his true 
Self (atma). The Sat must be taken as a substance, nay, as the 
highest substance or subject, the Brahman. The whole purpose 
of the Upanishad is obscured if we translate sat or satyam by truth, 
instead of the True, the true one, to Svr»t S*. 

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VI PRAPArffAKA, 8 KHAYDA, 4. 99 

own (Self). Therefore they say, svapiti, he sleeps, 
because he is gone (aptta) to his own (sva) \ 

2. 'As a bird when tied by a string flies first 
in every direction, and finding no rest anywhere, 
settles down at last on the very place where it is 
fastened, exactly in the same manner, my son, that 
mind (the ^iva, or living Self in the mind, see VI, 
3, 2), after flying in every direction, and finding no 
rest anywhere, settles down on breath 2 ; for indeed, 
my son, mind is fastened to breath. 

3. 'Learn from me, my son, what are hunger 
and thirst. When a man is thus said to be 
hungry, water is carrying away (digests) what has 
been eaten by him. Therefore as they speak of 
a cow-leader (go-naya), a horse-leader (asva-naya), a 
man-leader (purusha-naya), so they call water (which 
digests food and causes hunger) food-leader (ara- 
naya). Thus (by food digested &c), my son, know 
this offshoot (the body) to be brought forth, for 
this (body) could not be without a root (cause). 

4. ' And where could its root be except in food 
(earth) 3 ? And in the same manner, my son, as 

1 This is one of the many recognised plays on words in the 
Upanishads and the Ved&nta philosophy. Svapiti, he sleeps, stands 
for sva (his own), i.e. the self, and aptta, gone to. 

* The commentator takes prSwa here in the sense of Sat, which 
it often has elsewhere. If so, this illustration would have the same 
object as the preceding one. If we took pra>»a in the sense of 
breath, breath being the result of water, this paragraph might be 
taken to explain the resignation of the living Self to its bondage to 
breath, while on earth. 

* That food is the root of the body is shown by the commen- 
tator in the following way : Food when softened by water and 
digested becomes a fluid, blood (jonita). From it comes flesh, 
from flesh fat, from fat bones, from bones marrow, from marrow 
seed. Food eaten by a woman becomes equally blood (lohita), 

H 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


food (earth) too is an offshoot, seek after its root, 
viz. water. And as water too is an offshoot, seek 
after its root, viz. fire. And as fire too is an off- 
shoot, seek after its root, viz. the True. Yes, all 
these creatures, my son, have their root in the True, 
they dwell in the True, they rest in the True. 

5. ' When a man is thus said to be thirsty, fire 
carries away what has been drunk by him. There- 
fore as they speak of a cow-leader (go-naya), of a 
horse-leader (arva-naya), of a man-leader (purusha- 
naya), so they call fire udanya, thirst, i. e. water- 
leader. Thus (by water digested &c), my son, 
know this offshoot (the body) to be brought forth : 
this (body) could not be without a root (cause). 

6. ' And where could its root be except in 
water ? As water is an offshoot, seek after its 
root, viz. fire. As fire is an offshoot, seek after its 
root, viz. the True. Yes, all these creatures, O son, 
have their root in the True, they dwell in the True, 
they rest in the True. 

• And how these three beings (devata), fire, water, 
earth, O son, when they reach man, become each of 
them tripartite, has been said before (VI, 4, 7). When 
a man departs from hence, his speech 1 is merged 

and from seed and blood combined the new body is produced. 
We must always have before us the genealogical table : — 
Sat, t6 3v. 

Tegas (fire)=Va* (speech). 

Ap (water) =Prd«a (breath). 

Anna (earth) = Manas (mind). 
1 If a man dies, the first thing which his friends say is, He 
speaks no more. Then, he understands no more. Then, he 
moves no more. Then, he is cold. 

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in his mind, his mind in his breath, his breath in 
heat (fire), heat in the Highest Being. 

7. ' Now that which is that subtile essence (the 
root of all), in it all that exists has its self. It is the 
True. It is the Self, and thou, O .Svetaketu, art it.' 

• Please, Sir, inform me still more/ said the son. 

' Be it so, my child,' the father replied. 

Ninth Khanda. 

1. 'As the bees \ my son, make honey by col- 
lecting the juices of distant trees, and reduce the 
juice into one form, 

2. 'And as these juices have no discrimination, 
so that they might say, I am the juice of this tree 
or that, in the same manner, my son, all these crea- 
tures, when they have become merged in the True 
(either in deep sleep or in death), know not that 
they are merged in the True. 

3. ' Whatever these creatures are here, whether 
a lion, or a wolf, or a boar, or a worm, or a midge, 
or a gnat, or a musquito, that they become again 
and again. 

4. ' Now that which is that subtile essence, in it 
all that exists has its self. It is the True. It is 
the Self, and thou, O .Svetaketu, art it.' 

' Please, Sir, inform me still more,' said the son. 
' Be it so, my child,' the father replied. 

1 At the beginning of each chapter the commentator supplies 
the question which the son is supposed to have asked his father. 
The first is: All creatures falling every day into deep sleep (su- 
shupti) obtain thereby the Sat, the true being. How is it then 
that they do not know that they obtain the Sat every day ? 

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Tenth Khanda 1 . 
i. 'These rivers, my son, run, the eastern (like the 
Ganga) toward the east, the western (like the Sindhu) 
toward the west. They go from sea to sea (i. e. the 
clouds lift up the water from the sea to the sky, and 
send it back as rain to the sea). They become indeed 
sea. And as those rivers, when they are in the sea, 
do not know, I am this or that river, 

2. ' In the same manner, my son, all these crea- 
tures, when they have come back from the True, 
know not that they have come back from the True. 
Whatever these creatures are here, whether a lion, 
or a wolf, or a boar, or a worm, or a midge, or a 
gnat, or .a musquito, that they become again and 

3. ' That which is that subtile essence, in it all 
that exists has its self. It is the True. It is the 
Self, and thou, O .Svetaketu, art it.' 

' Please, Sir, inform me still more,' said the son. 
' Be it so, my child,' the father replied. 

Eleventh Khanda *. 

1. 'If some one were to strike at the root of this 

large tree here, it would bleed, but live. If he were 

to strike at its stem, it would bleed, but live. If he 

were to strike at its top, it would bleed, but live. 

1 The next question which the son is supposed to have asked is : 
If a man who has slept in his own house, rises and goes to another 
village, he knows that he has come from his own house. Why 
then do people not know that they have come from the Sat? 

* The next question is : Waves, foam, and bubbles arise from the 
water, and when they merge again in the water, they are gone. 
How is it that living beings, when in sleep or death they are 
merged again in the Sat, are not destroyed? 

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Pervaded by the living Self that tree stands firm, 
drinking in its nourishment and rejoicing ; 

2. ' But if the life (the living Self) leaves one of 
its branches, that branch withers; if it leaves a 
second, that branch withers ; if it leaves a third, that 
branch withers. If it leaves the whole tree, the 
whole tree withers \ In exactly the same manner, 
my son, know this.' Thus he spoke : 

3. ' This (body) indeed withers and dies when the 
living Self has left it ; the living Self dies not. 

' That which is that subtile essence, in it all that 
exists has its self. It is the True. It is the Self, 
and thou, .Svetaketu, art it.' 

' Please, Sir, inform me still more/ said the son. 

4 Be it so, my child,' the father replied. 

1 The commentator remarks that according to the Veda, trees 
are conscious, while Buddhists and followers of Ka«ada hold them 
to be unconscious. They live, because one sees how their sap 
runs and how it dries up, just as one sees the sap in a living body, 
which, as we saw, was produced by food and water. Therefore 
the simile holds good. The life, or, more correctly, the liver, the 
living Self, pervades the tree, as it pervades man, when it has 
entered the organism which produces breath, mind, and speech. 
If any accident happens to a branch, the living Self draws himself 
away from that branch, and then the branch withers. The sap 
which caused the living Self to remain, goes, and the living Self goes 
away with it. The same applies to the whole tree. The tree dies 
when the living Self leaves it, but the living Self does not die ; it 
only leaves an abode which it had before occupied. Some other 
illustrations, to show that the living Self remains, are added by the 
commentator : First, with regard to the living Self being the same 
when it awakes from deep sleep (sushupti), he remarks that we 
remember quite well that we have left something unfinished before 
we fell asleep. And then with regard to the living Self being the 
same when it awakes from death to a new life, he shows that crea- 
tures, as soon as they are born take the breast, and exhibit terror, 
which can only be explained, as he supposes, by their possessing a 
recollection of a former state of existence. 

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Twelfth Khayda 1 . 

i. ' Fetch me from thence a fruit of the Nyagrodha 

' Here is one, Sir.' 

' Break it.' 

' It is broken, Sir.' 

' What do you see there ? ' 

' These seeds, almost infinitesimal.' 

' Break one of them,' 

' It is broken, Sir.' 

' What do you see there ? ' 

4 Not anything, Sir.' 

2. The father said : ' My son, that subtile essence 
which you do not perceive there, of that very 
essence this great Nyagrodha tree exists. 

3. ' Believe it, my son. That which is the subtile 
essence, in it all that exists has its self. It is the 
True. It is the Self, and thou, O .Svetaketu, art it' 

' Please, Sir, inform me still more,' said the son. 
' Be it so, my child,' the father replied. 

Thirteenth Khajvta*. 

1. ' Place this salt in water, and then wait on 
me in the morning.' 

The son did as he was commanded. 

The father said to him : ' Bring me the salt, which 
you placed in the water last night' 

1 The question which the son is supposed to have asked is : 
How can this universe which has the form and name of earth &c. 
be produced from the Sat which is subtile, and has neither form 
nor name ? 

1 The question here is supposed to have been : If the Sat is the 
root of all that exists, why is it not perceived ? 

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The son having l ooked for it, found it not, for, 
of course, it was melted. '. 

2. The father said: 'Taste it from the surface 
of the water. How is it ? ' 

The son replied : 'It is salt.' 

' Taste it from the middle. How is it ? ' 

The son replied : 'It is salt.' 

' Taste it from the bottom. How is it ? ' 

The son replied : ' It is salt.' 

The father said : ' Throw it away 1 and then wait 
on me.' 

He did so ; but salt exists for ever. 

Then the father said : ' Here also, in this body, 
forsooth, you do not perceive the True (Sat), my 
son; but there indeed it is. 

3. ' That which is the subtile essence, in it all that 
exists has its self. It is the True. It is the Self, 
and thou, O .Svetaketu, art it.' 

' Please, Sir, inform me still more,' said the son. 
' Be it so, my child,' the father replied. 

Fourteenth Khamja 2 . 
1. 'As one might lead a person with his eyes 
covered away from the Gandharas 8 , and leave him 

1 Read abhiprSsya, which is evidently intended by the com- 
mentary: abhiprayasya paritya^ya. See B. R. Sanskrit Dic- 
tionary, s. v. 

* The question here asked is: The salt, though no longer per- 
ceptible by means of sight or touch, could be discovered by taste. 
Then how can the Sat be discovered, although it is imperceptible 
by all the senses ? 

" The Gandharas, but rarely mentioned in the Rig-veda and 
the Ait. Brahmafla, have left their name in Kavdapoi and Candahar. 
The fact of their name being evidently quite familiar to the author 
of the Upanishad might be used to prove either its antiquity or its 
Northern origin. 


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then in a place where there are no human beings ; 
and as that person would turn towards the east, or 
the north, or the west, and shout, " I have been 
brought here with my eyes covered, I have been 
left here with my eyes covered," 

2. 'And as thereupon some one might loose his 
bandage and say to him, " Go in that direction, it 
is Gandhara, go in that direction ; " and as there- 
upon, having been informed and being able to judge 
for himself, he would by asking his way from village 
to village arrive at last at Gandhara, — in exactly the 
same manner does a man, who meets with a teacher 
to inform him, obtain the true knowledge l . For him 

1 Tedious as the commentator is in general, he is sometimes almost 
eloquent in bringing out all that is implied or supposed to be implied 
in the sacred text He explains the last simile as follows : A man 
was carried away by robbers from his own country. After his eyes 
had been covered, he was taken to a forest full of terrors and dangers 
arising from tigers, robbers, &c. Not knowing where he was, and 
suffering from hunger and thirst, he began to cry, wishing to be de- 
livered from his bonds. Then a man took pity on him and removed 
his bonds, and when he had returned to his home, he was happy. 
Next follows the application. Our real home is the True (Sat), the 
Self of the world. The forest into which we are driven is the 
body, made of the three elements, fire, water, earth, consisting of 
blood, flesh, bones, &c, and liable to cold, heat, and many other 
evils. The bands with which our eyes are covered are our desires 
for many things, real or unreal, such as wife, children, cattle, &c, 
while the robbers by whom we are driven into the forest are our 
good and evil deeds. Then we cry and say : ' I am the son of so 
and so, these are my relatives, I am happy, I am miserable, I am 
foolish, I am wise, I am just, I am born, I am dead, I am old, 
I am wretched, my son is dead, my fortune is gone, I am undone, 
how shall I live, where shall I go, who will save me?' These and 
hundreds and thousands of other evils are the bands which blind 
ns. Then, owing to some supererogatory good works we may 
have done, we suddenly meet a man who knows the Self of 
Brahman, whose own bonds have been broken, who takes pity 
on us and shows us the way to see the evil which attaches to all 

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there is only delay so long as he is not delivered 
(from the body) ; then he will be perfect 1 . 

3. ' That which is the subtile essence, in it all 
that exists has its self. It is the True. It is the 
Self, and thou, O .SVetaketu, art it.' 

' Please, Sir, inform me still more,' said the son. 

4 Be it so, my child,' the father replied. 

Fifteenth Khanda 2 . 
1. ' If a man is ill, his relatives assemble round 
him and ask : " Dost thou know me ? Dost thou 
know me ? " Now as long as his speech is not 

that we love in this world. We then withdraw ourselves from all 
worldly pleasures. We learn that we are not mere creatures of 
the world, the son of so and so, &c, but that we are that which is 
the True (Sat). The bands of our ignorance and blindness are 
removed, and, like the man of Gandh&ra, we arrive at our own 
home, the Self, or the True. Then we are happy and blessed. 

1 The last words are really — ' for him there is only delay so long 
as I shall not be delivered ; then I shall be perfect' This requires 
some explanation. First of all, the change from the third to the 
first person, is best explained by assuming that at the point where 
all individuality vanishes, the father, as teacher, identifies himself 
with the person of whom he is speaking. 

The delay (the £ira or kshepa) of which he speaks is the time 
which passes between the attainment of true knowledge and death, 
or freedom from the effects of actions performed before the at- 
tainment of knowledge. The actions which led to our present 
embodiment must be altogether consumed, before the body can 
perish, and then only are we free. As to any actions performed 
after the attainment of knowledge, they do not count ; otherwise 
there would be a new embodiment, and the attainment of even true 
knowledge would never lead to final deliverance. 

* The question supposed to be asked is : By what degrees a man, 
who has been properly instructed in the knowledge of Brahman, 
obtains the Sat, or returns to the True. To judge from the text 
both he who knows the True and he who does not, reach, when they 
die, the Sat, passing from speech to mind and breath and heat (fire). 
But whereas he who knows, remains in the Sat, they who do not 

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merged in his mind, his mind in breath, breath in 
heat (fire), heat in the Highest Being (devata), he 
knows them. 

2. ' But when his speech is merged in his mind, 
his mind in breath, breath in heat (fire), heat in the 
Highest Being, then he knows them not. 

' That which is the subtile essence, in it all that 
exists has its self. It is the True. It is the Self, 
and thou, O 3vetaketu, art it.' 

4 Please, Sir, inform me still more,' said the son. 

' Be it so, my child,' the father replied. 

Sixteenth Khaatoa 1 . 

i. ' My child, they bring a man hither whom they 
have taken by the hand, and they say : " He has 
taken something, he has committed a theft" (When 

know, return again to a new form of existence. It is important to 
observe that the commentator denies that he who knows, passes at 
his death through the artery of the head to the sun, and then to the 
Sat. He holds that with him who knows there is no further cause 
for delay, and that as soon as he dies, he returns to the Sat. 

1 The next question is : Why does he who knows, on obtaining 
the Sat, not return, while he who does not know, though obtaining 
the Sat in death, returns? An illustration is chosen which is 
intended to show how knowledge produces a material effect. The 
belief in the efficacy of ordeals must have existed at the time, and 
appealing to that belief, the teacher says that the man who knows 
himself guilty, is really burnt by the heated iron, while the man 
who knows himself innocent, is not. In the same manner the man 
who knows his Self to be the true Self, on approaching after death 
the true Self, is not repelled and sent back into a new existence, 
while he who does not know, is sent back into a new round of 
births and deaths. The man who tells a falsehood about himself, 
loses his true Self and is burnt ; the man who has a false concep- 
tion about his Self, loses likewise his true Self, and not knowing 
the true Self, even though approaching it in death, he has to suffer 
till he acquires some day the true knowledge. 

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he denies, they say), " Heat the hatchet for him." 
If he committed the theft, then he makes himself to 
be what he is not. Then the false-minded, having 
covered his true Self by a falsehood, grasps the 
heated hatchet — he is burnt, and he is killed. 

2. ' But if he did not commit the theft, then he 
makes himself to be what he is. Then the true- 
minded, having covered his true Self by truth, 
grasps the heated hatchet — he is not burnt, and he 
is delivered. 

' As that (truthful) man is not burnt, thus has all 
that exists its self in That It is the True. It is 
the Self, and thou, O .Svetaketu, art it.' He under- 
stood what he said, yea, he understood it. 


First Kha^da. 

1. Narada approached Sanatkumara and said, 
' Teach me, Sir ! ' Sanatkumara said to him : ' Please 
to tell me what you know; afterward I shall tell you 
what is beyond.' 

2. Narada said : ' I know the ^??g-veda, Sir, the 
Ya^ur-veda, the Sama-veda, as the fourth the Athar- 
va»a, as the fifth the Itihasa-pura»a (the Bharata) ; 
the Veda of the Vedas (grammar) ; the Pitrya (the 
{ ules for the sacrifices for the ancestors) ; the Rixi 
(the science of numbers) ; the Daiva (the science of 
portents); the Nidhi (the science of time); the 
Vakovakya (logic); the Ekayana (ethics); the Deva- 
vidya (etymology) ; the Brahma-vidya (pronunciation, 
siksha, ceremonial, kalpa, prosody, Mandas); the 
Bhuta-vidya (the science of demons) ; the Kshatra- 

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vidyi (the science of weapons) ; the Nakshatra-vidya 
(astronomy) ; the Sarpa and Deva^ana-vidya - (the 
science of serpents or poisons, and the sciences of 
the genii, such as the making of perfumes, dancing, 
singing, playing, and other fine arts) 1 . All this 
I know, Sir. 

3. ' But, Sir, with all this I know the Mantras only, 
the sacred books, I do not know the Self. I have 
heard from men like you, that he who knows the 
Self overcomes grief. I am in grief. Do, Sir, help 
me over this grief of mine.' 

Sanatkumara said to him : ' Whatever you have 
read, is only a name. 

4. 'A name is the i?*g-veda, Ya^ur-veda, Sama- 
veda, and as the fourth the Atharva«a, as the fifth 
the Itihasa-pura«a, the Veda of the Vedas, the 
Pitrya, the R&ri, the Daiva, the Nidhi, the Vako- 
vakya, the Ekayana, the Deva-vidya, the Brahma- 
vidya, the Bhuta-vidya, the Kshatra-vidya, the Na- 
kshatra-vidya, the Sarpa and Deva^ana-vidya. All 
these are a name only. Meditate on the name. 

5. 'He who meditates on the name as Brahman 2 , 

1 This passage, exhibiting the sacred literature as known at the 
time, should be compared with the Brthad4ra»yaka, II, 4, 10. The 
explanation of the old titles rests on the authority of Sankara, 
and he is not always consistent. See Colebrooke, Miscellaneous 
Essays, 1873, II, p. 10. 

8 Why a man who knows the Veda should not know the Self, 
while in other places it is said that the Veda teaches the Self, is 
well illustrated by the commentary. If a royal procession ap- 
proaches, he says, then, though we do not see the king, because 
he is hidden by flags, parasols, &c, yet we say, there is the king. 
And if we ask who is the king, then again, though we cannot see 
him and point him out, we can say, at least, that he is different 
from all that is seen. The Self is hidden in the Veda as a king 
is hidden in a royal procession. 

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is, as it were, lord and master as far as the name 
reaches — he who meditates on the name as Brah- 

' Sir, is there something better than a name ? ' 
' Yes, there is something better than a name.' 
' Sir, tell it me.' 

Second Khajvda. 

i. ' Speech is better than a name. Speech makes 
us understand the 7?/g-veda, Ya^ur-veda, Sama-veda, 
and as the fourth the Atharva»a, as the fifth the 
Itihasa-pura#a, the Veda of the Vedas, the Pitrya, 
the Rlri, the Daiva, the Nidhi, the Vakovakya, the 
Ekayana, the Deva-vidya, the Brahma-vidya, the 
Kshatra-vidya, the Nakshatra-vidya, the Sarpa and 
Deva^ana-vidya ; heaven, earth, air, ether, water, 
fire, gods, men, cattle, birds, herbs, trees, all 
beasts down to worms, midges, and ants ; what is 
right and what is wrong ; what is true and what 
is false ; what is good and what is bad ; what is 
pleasing and what is not pleasing. For if there 
were no speech, neither right nor wrong would be 
known 1 , neither the true nor the false, neither the 
good nor the bad, neither the pleasant nor the 
unpleasant. Speech makes us understand all this. 
Meditate on speech. 

2. ' He who meditates on speech as Brahman, is, 
as it were, lord and master as far as speech reaches — 
he who meditates on speech as Brahman.' 

' Sir, is there something better than speech ? ' 

' Yes, there is something better than speech.' 

* Sir, tell it me.' 

1 The commentator explains vya^Kapayishyat by av^Batam 
abhavishyat Possibly hr/'daya^tto stands for hndaya^aam. 

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Third Khanda. 

i. ' Mind (manas) is better than speech. For as 
the closed fist holds two amalaka or two kola or two 
aksha fruits, thus does mind hold speech and name. 
For if a man is minded in his mind to read the 
sacred hymns, he reads them ; if he is minded in 
his mind to perform any actions, he performs them ; 
if he is minded to wish for sons and cattle, he 
wishes for them; if he is minded to wish for this 
world and the other, he wishes for them. For mind 
is indeed the self 1 , mind is the world, mind is Brah- 
man. Meditate on the mind. 

2. ' He who meditates on the mind as Brahman, 
is, as it were, lord and master as far as the mind 
reaches — he who meditates on the mind as Brahman.' 

' Sir, is there something better than mind ? ' 

' Yes, there is something better than mind.' 

' Sir, tell it me.' 

Fourth Khanda. 

i. 'Will 2 (sahkalpa) is better than mind. For 
when a man wills, then he thinks in his mind, then 
he sends forth speech, and he sends it forth in a 
name. In a name the sacred hymns are contained, 
in the sacred hymns all sacrifices. 

2. ' All these therefore (beginning with mind and 

1 The commentator explains this by saying that, without the 
instrument of the mind, the Self cannot act or enjoy. 

1 Sahkalpa is elsewhere defined as a modification of manas. 
The commentator says that, like thinking, it is an activity of the 
inner organ. It is difficult to find any English term exactly corres- 
ponding to sahkalpa. Rajendralal Mitra translates it by will, but it 
implies not only will, but at the same time conception, determina- 
tion, and desire. 

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ending in sacrifice) centre in will, consist of will, 
abide in will. Heaven and earth willed, air and 
ether willed, water and fire willed. Through the 
will of heaven and earth &c. rain wills ; through 
the will of rain food wills ; through the will of food 
the vital airs will ; through the will of the vital airs 
the sacred hymns will; through the will of the sacred 
hymns the sacrifices will ; through the will of the 
sacrifices the world (as their reward) wills ; through 
the will of the world everything wills \ This is will. 
Meditate on will. 

3. ' He who meditates on will as Brahman, he, 
being himself safe, firm, and undistressed, obtains 
the safe, firm, and undistressed worlds which he has 
willed; he is, as it were, lord and master as far as 
will reaches — he who meditates on will as Brahman.' 

' Sir, is there something better than will ? ' 

' Yes, there is something better than will.' 

' Sir, tell it me.' 

Fifth Khajvaa. 

1. ' Consideration (iitta) 2 is better than will. For 
when a man considers, then he wills, then he thinks 
in his mind, then he sends forth speech, and he 

1 This paragraph is obscure. The text seems doubtful, for 
instance, in samak/ZpatSm, samakalpetam, and samakalpatatn. 
Then the question is the exact meaning of samk/tptyai, which 
must be taken as an instrumental case. What is intended is that, 
without rain, food is impossible &c. or inconceivable ; but the text 
says, ' By the will of rain food wills,' &c. Will seems almost to be 
taken here in the sense in which modern philosophers use it, as a 
kind of creative will. By the will of rain food wills, would mean, 
that first rain wills and exists, and afterwards the vital airs will 
and exist, &c. 

' iPitta, thought, implies here consideration and reflection. 

[3] I 

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sends it forth in a name. In a name the sacred 
hymns are contained, in the sacred hymns all 

2. 'All these (beginning with mind and ending 
in sacrifice) centre in consideration, consist of con- 
sideration, abide in consideration. Therefore if a 
man is inconsiderate, even if he possesses much 
learning, people say of him, he is nothing, whatever 
he may know; for, if he were learned, he would not be 
so inconsiderate. But if a man is considerate, even 
though he knows but little, to him indeed do people 
listen gladly. Consideration is the centre, considera- 
tion is the self, consideration is the support of all 
these. Meditate on consideration. 

3. 'He who meditates on consideration as Brah- 
man, he, being himself safe, firm, and undistressed, 
obtains the safe, firm, and undistressed worlds which 
he has considered ; he is, as it were, lord and master 
as far as consideration reaches — he who meditates 
on consideration as Brahman.' 

' Sir, is there something better than consideration ?' 
'Yes, there is something better than considera- 

' Sir, tell it me.' 

Sixth Khajvda. 
I. ' Reflection (dhyana) 1 is better than considera- 
tion. The earth reflects, as it were, and thus does 
the sky, the heaven, the water, the mountains, gods 
and men. Therefore those who among men obtain 

1 Reflection is concentration of all our thoughts on one object, 
ekagratS. And as a man who reflects and meditates on the highest 
objects acquires thereby repose, becomes firm and immovable, so 
the earth is supposed to be in repose and immovable, as it were, by 
reflection and meditation. 

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greatness here on earth, seem to have obtained a 
part of the object of reflection (because they show 
a certain repose of manner). Thus while small and 
vulgar people are always quarrelling, abusive, and 
slandering, great men seem to have obtained a part 
of the reward of reflection. Meditate on reflection. 

2. ' He who meditates on reflection as Brahman, 
is lord and master, as it were, as far as reflec- 
tion reaches — he who meditates on reflection as 

' Sir, is there something better than reflection ?' 

' Yes, there is something better than reflection.' 

' Sir, tell it me.' 

Seventh Khajvda. 

1. ' Understanding (vi^iiana) is better than reflec- 
tion. Through understanding we understand the 
i?zg-veda, the Yafur-veda, the Sama-veda, and as 
the fourth the Atharva»a, as the fifth the Itihasa- 
purawa 1 , the Veda of the Vedas, the Pitrya, the 
Rail, the Daiva, the Nidhi, the Vakovakya, the 
Ekayana, the Deva-vidya, the Brahma-vidya, the 
Bhuta-vidya, the Kshatra-vidya, the Nakshatra-vidya, 
the Sarpa and Devagana-vidya, heaven, earth, air, 
ether, water, fire, gods, men, cattle, birds, herbs, trees, 
all beasts down to worms, midges, and ants; what is 
right and what is wrong ; what is true and what is 
false ; what is good and what is bad ; what is pleas- 
ing and what is not pleasing ; food and savour, this 
world and that, all this we understand through under- 
standing. Meditate on understanding. 

2. 'He who meditates on understanding as Brah- 
man, reaches the worlds where there is understanding 

1 See before, p. 109. 

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1 16 jthAndogya-upanishad. 

and knowledge ' ; he is, as it were, lord and master 
as far as understanding reaches — he who meditates 
on understanding as Brahman.' 

' Sir, is there something better than understanding ? ' 
'Yes, there is something better than understanding.' 
' Sir, tell it me.' 

Eighth Khajvda. 

i. ' Power (bala) is better than understanding. 
One powerful man shakes a hundred men of under- 
standing. If a marl is powerful, he becomes a rising 
man. If he rises, he becomes a man who visits 
wise people. If he visits, he becomes a follower of 
wise people. If he follows them, he becomes a 
seeing, a hearing, a perceiving, a knowing, a doing, 
an understanding man. By power the earth stands 
firm, and the sky, and the heaven, and the moun- 
tains, gods and men, cattle, birds, herbs, trees, all 
beasts down to worms, midges, and ants ; by power 
the world stands firm. Meditate on power. 

2. ' He who meditates on power as Brahman, 
is, as it were, lord and master as far as power 
reaches — he who meditates on power as Brahman.' 

' Sir, is there something better than power ?' 

' Yes, there is something better than power.' 

' Sir, tell it me.' 

Ninth Khajvda. 

i. ' Food (anna) is better than power. Therefore 
if a man abstain from food for ten days, though he 
live, he would be unable to see, hear, perceive, 
think, act, and understand. But when he obtains 

' The commentator takes v^a&na here as understanding of 
sacred books, gUSita. as cleverness with regard to other subjects. 

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VII PRAPATtf AKA, 1 1 KHAtfDA, 9. 1 1 7 

food, he is able to see, hear, perceive, think, act, 
and understand. Meditate on food. 

2. 'He who meditates on food as Brahman, 
obtains the worlds rich in food and drink; he is, 
as it were, lord and master as far as food reaches — 
he who meditates on food as Brahman.' 

' Sir, is there something better than food ? ' 

' Yes, there is something better than food.' 

' Sir, tell it me.' 

Tenth Khanda. 

1. 'Water (ap) is better than food. Therefore if 
there is not sufficient rain, the vital spirits fail from 
fear that there will be less food. But if there is 
sufficient rain, the vital spirits rejoice, because there 
will be much food. This water, on assuming dif- 
ferent forms, becomes this earth, this sky, this 
heaven, the mountains, gods and men, cattle, birds, 
herbs and trees, all beasts down to worms, midges, 
and ants. Water indeed assumes all these forms. 
Meditate on water. 

2. ' He who meditates on water as Brahman, 
obtains all wishes, he becomes satisfied; he is, as 
it were, lord and master as far as water reaches — 
he who meditates on water as Brahman.' 

' Sir, is there something better than water ? ' 
' Yes, there is something better than water.' 
' Sir, tell it me.' 

Eleventh Khajvda. 

1. ' Fire (te^as) is better than water. For fire 
united with air, warms the ether. Then people say, 
It is hot, it burns, it will rain. Thus does fire, after 
showing this sign (itself) first, create water. And 

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Il8 jtj?Andogya-upanishad. 

thus again thunderclaps come with lightnings, flash- 
ing upwards and across the sky. Then people say, 
There is lightning and thunder, it will rain. Then 
also does fire, after showing this sign first, create 
water. Meditate on fire. 

2. ' He who meditates on fire as Brahman, 
obtains, resplendent himself, resplendent worlds, 
full of light and free of darkness ; he is, as it were, 
lord and master as far as fire reaches — he who 
meditates on fire as Brahman.' 

' Sir, is there something better than fire ?' 

' Yes, there is something better than fire.' 

' Sir, tell it me.' 

Twelfth Khajvda. 

i. ' Ether (or space) is better than fire. For in 
the ether exist both sun and moon, the lightning, 
stars, and fire (agni). Through the ether we call, 
through the ether we hear, through the ether we 
answer 1 . In the ether or space we rejoice (when 
we are together), and rejoice not (when we are 
separated). In the ether everything is born, and 
towards the ether everything tends when it is born 2 . 
Meditate on ether. 

2. 'He. who meditates on ether as Brahman, 
obtains the worlds of ether and of light, which are 
free from pressure and pain, wide and spacious 8 ; 
he is, as it were, lord and master as far as ether 
reaches — he who meditates on ether as Brahman.' 

' Sir, is there something better than ether ? ' 

1 Cf. Kh. Up. IV, 5, i. 

* The seed grows upwards towards the ether ; not downwards. 

8 Cf.KSA5.Up.II,n. 

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' Yes, there is something better than ether.' 
' Sir, tell it me.' 

Thirteenth Khavaa. 

1. ' Memory 1 (smara) is better than ether. There- 
fore where many are assembled together, if they 
have no memory, they would hear no one, they 
would not perceive, they would not understand. 
Through memory we know our sons, through 
memory our cattle. Meditate on memory. 

2. ' He who meditates on memory as Brahman, 
is, as it were, lord and master as far as memory 
reaches — he who "meditates on memory as Brahman.' 

' ' Sir, is there something better than memory ?' 
' Yes, there is something better than memory.' 
' Sir, tell it me.' 

Fourteenth Khanda. 

1. 'Hope (4*a) is better than memory. Fired 
by hope does memory read the sacred hymns, per- 
form sacrifices, desire sons and cattle, desire this 
world and the other. Meditate on hope. 

2. ' He who meditates on hope as Brahman, all 
his desires are fulfilled by hope, his prayers are 
not in vain; he is, as it were, lord and master 
as far as hope reaches — he who meditates on hope 
as Brahman.' 

' Sir, is there something better than hope ?' 
' Yes, there is something better than hope.' 
« Sir, tell it me.' 

1 The apparent distance between ether and memory is bridged 
over by the commentator pointing out that without memory every- 
thing would be as if it were not, so far as we are concerned. 

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1 20 jcjfandogya-upanishad. 

Fifteenth Khanda. 

1. 'Spirit 1 (pra#a) is better than hope. As the 
spokes of a wheel hold to the nave 2 , so does all 
this (beginning with names and ending in hope) hold 
to spirit. That spirit moves by the spirit, it gives 
spirit to the spirit. Father means spirit, mother 
is spirit, brother is spirit, sister is spirit, tutor is 
spirit, Brahrnawa is spirit. 

2. ' For if one says anything unbecoming to a 
father, mother, brother, sister, tutor or Brahma»a, 
then people say, Shame on thee ! thou hast offended 
thy father, mother, brother, sister, tutor, or a 

3. ' But, if after the spirit has departed from 
them, one shoves them together with a poker, and 
burns them to pieces, no one would say, Thou of- 
fendest thy father, mother, brother, sister, tutor or 
a Brahmawa. 

4. ' Spirit then is all this. He who sees this, 
perceives this, and understands this, becomes an 
ativadin 8 . If people say to such a man, Thou 

1 Prana is used here in a technical sense. It does not mean 
simply breath, but the spirit, the conscious self (pra^Mtrnan) 
which, as we saw, enters the body in order to reveal the whole 
variety of forms and names. It is in one sense the mukhya prina. 

* The commentary carries the simile still further. The felloe, 
he says, holds to the spokes, the spokes to the nave. So do the 
bhutamatras hold to the pra^liamatras, and these to the prawa. 

* One who declares something that goes beyond all the declara- 
tions made before, beginning with the declaration that names are 
Brahman, and ending with the declaration that hope is Brahman; — 
one who knows that prima, spirit, the conscious self, is Brahman. 
This declaration represents the highest point reached by ordinary 
people, but N&rada wishes to go beyond. In the Mu»</aka, III, 
1, 4, an ativadin is contrasted with one who really knows the 
highest truth. 

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art an ativadin, he may say, I am an ativadin ; he 
need not deny it.' 

Sixteenth Khajvm 1 . 

i. ' But in reality he is an ativadin who declares 
the Highest Being to be the True (Satya, to oVtwj 

' Sir, may I become an ativadin by the True ?' 

' But we must desire to know the True.' 

' Sir, I desire to know the True.' 

Seventeenth Khajvda. 

i. 'When one understands the True, then one 
declares the True. One who does not understand 
it, does not declare the True 2 . Only he who under- 
stands it, declares the True. This understanding, 
however, we must desire to understand,' 

' Sir, I desire to understand it.' 

Eighteenth Khanda. 

i. 'When one perceives, then one understands. 
One who does not perceive, does not understand. 
Only he who perceives, understands. This percep- 
tion, however, we must desire to understand.' 

' Sir, I desire to understand it.' 

1 As Narada asks no further, whether there is anything better, 
higher, truer than prana, he is supposed to be satisfied with his 
belief that prana is the Highest Being. Sanatkumara, however, 
wishes to lead him on to a still higher view ; hence the paragraphs 
which follow from 16 to z6. 

* He would, for instance, call fire real, not knowing that fire is 
only a mixture of the three elements (cf. VI, 4), the rupatraya, a 
mere variety (vikara), and name (naman). 

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Nineteenth Khaatda. 

i. ' When one believes, then one perceives. One 
who does not believe, does not perceive. Only he 
who believes, perceives. This belief, however, we 
must desire to understand.' 

' Sir, I desire to understand it.' 

Twentieth Khaawa. 

i. ' When one attends on a tutor (spiritual guide), 
then one believes. One who does not attend on 
a tutor, does not believe. Only he who attends, 
believes. This attention on a tutor, however, we 
must desire to understand.' 

' Sir, I desire to understand it' 

Twenty-first Kham>a. 

i. 'When one performs all sacred duties 1 , then 
one attends really on a tutor. One who does not 
perform his duties, does not really attend on a tutor. 
Only he who performs his duties, attends on his 
tutor. This performance of duties, however, we 
must desire to understand.' 

' Sir, I desire to understand it.' 

Twenty-second Kham>a. 

i. ' When one obtains bliss (in oneself), then one 
performs duties. One who does not obtain bliss, 
does not perform duties. Only he who obtains bliss, 
performs duties. This bliss, however, we must 
desire to understand.' 

' Sir, I desire to understand it.' 

1 The duties of a student, such as restraint of the senses, concen- 
tration of the mind, &c. 

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VII PRAPArffAKA, 25 KHAtfDA, I. I 23 

Twenty-third Khanda. 

1. ' The Infinite (bhuman) 1 is bliss. There is no 
bliss in anything finite. Infinity only is bliss. This 
Infinity, however, we must desire to understand.' 

' Sir, I desire to understand it' 

Twenty-fourth Kha^da. 

1. 'Where one sees nothing else, hears nothing 
else, understands nothing else, that is the Infinite. 
Where one sees something else, hears something 
else, understands something else, that is the finite. 
The Infinite is immortal, the finite is mortal.' 

' Sir, in what does the Infinite rest V 

'In its own greatness — or not even in greatness 2 .' 

2. 'In the world they call cows and horses, 
elephants and gold, slaves, wives, fields and houses 
greatness. I do not mean this,' thus he spoke ; 
'for in that case one being (the possessor) rests 
in something else, (but the Infinite cannot rest in 
something different from itself.) 

Twenty-fifth Khanda. 

1. 'The Infinite indeed is below, above, behind, 
before, right and left — it is indeed alt this. 

' Now follows the explanation of the Infinite as 

1 B human is sometimes translated by grandeur, the superlative, 
the akme. It is the highest point that can be reached, the infinite 
and the true. 

* This phrase reminds one of the last verse in the No sad asld 
hymn, where, likewise, the expression of the highest certainty is 
followed by a misgiving that after all it may be otherwise. The 
commentator takes yadi va in the sense of, If you ask in the 
highest sense, then I say no ; for the Infinite cannot rest in any- 
thing, not even in greatness. 

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the I : I am below, I am above, I am behind, before, 
right and left — I am all this. 

2. ' Next follows the explanation of the Infinite 
as the Self: Self is below, above, behind, before, 
right and left — Self is all this. 

' He who sees, perceives, and understands this, 
loves the Self, delights in the Self, revels in the 
Self, rejoices in the Self — he becomes a SvarA^ - , 
(an autocrat or self-ruler); he is lord and master 
in all the worlds. 

' But those who think differently from this, live 
in perishable worlds, and have other beings for their 

Twenty-sixth Khaatda. 

1. ' To him who sees, perceives, and understands 
this \ the spirit (prawa) springs from the Self, hope 
springs from the Self, memory springs from the 
Self; so do ether, fire, water, appearance and dis- 
appearance 2 , food, power, understanding, reflection, 
consideration, will, mind, speech, names, sacred 
hymns, and sacrifices — aye, all this springs from 
the Self. 

2. ' There is this verse, " He who sees this, 
does not see death, nor illness, nor pain ; he who 
sees this, sees everything, and obtains everything 

'"He is one (before creation), he becomes three 

1 Before the acquirement of true knowledge, all that has been 
mentioned before, spirit, hope, memory, &c, on to names, was 
supposed to spring from the Sat, as something different from one- 
self. Now he is to know that the Sat is the Self. 

8 In the preceding paragraphs appearance and disappearance 
(birth and death) are not mentioned. This shows how easy it was 
in these treatises either to omit or to add anything that seemed 

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(fire, water, earth), he becomes five, he becomes 
seven, he becomes nine ; then again he is called the 
eleventh, and hundred and ten and one thousand 
and twenty 1 ." 

' When the intellectual aliment has been purified, 
the whole nature becomes purified. When the 
whole nature has been purified, the memory becomes 
firm. And when the memory (of the Highest Self) 
remains firm, then all the ties (which bind us to 
a belief in anything but the Self) are loosened. 

' The venerable Sanatkumara showed to Narada, 
after his faults had been rubbed out, the other side 
of darkness. They call Sanatkumara Skanda, yea, 
Skanda they call him.' 


First Khajwa 2 . 

1. Hari^, Om. There is this city of Brahman 
(the body), and in it the palace, the small lotus (of 

1 This too is meant as a verse. The commentary says that the 
various numbers are intended to show the endless variety of form 
on the Self after creation. Cf. Mait Up. V, 2. 

* The eighth Prapa/^aka seems to form a kind of appendix to 
the Upanishad. The highest point that can be reached by specu- 
lation had been reached in the seventh Prapd/tfaka, the identity 
of our self and of everything else with the Highest Self. This 
speculative effort, however, is too much for ordinary people. They 
cannot conceive the Sat or Brahman as out of space and time, as 
free from all qualities, and in order to help them, they are taught 
to adore the Brahman, as it appears in space and time, an object 
endowed with certain qualities, living in nature and in the human 
heart The Highest Brahman, besides which there is nothing, and 
which can neither be reached as an object, nor be considered as 

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1 26 jt#Andogya-upanishad. 

the heart), and in it that small ether. Now what 
exists within that small ether, that is to be sought 
for, that is to be understood. 

2. And if they should say to him : ' Now with 
regard to that city of Brahman, and the palace in it, 
i. e. the small lotus of the heart, and the small ether 
within the heart, what is there within it that deserves 
to be sought for, or that is to be understood ? ' 

3. Then he should say: 'As large as this ether 
(all space) is, so large is that ether within the heart. 
Both heaven and earth are contained within it, both 
fire and air, both sun and moon, both lightning and 
stars; and whatever there is of him (the Self) here 
in the world, and whatever is not (i. e. whatever has 
been or will be), all that is contained within it V 

4. And if they should say to him : ' If everything 
that exists is contained in that city of Brahman, all 
beings and all desires (whatever can be imagined 
or desired), then what is left of it, when old age 
reaches it and scatters it, or when it falls to pieces ?' 

5. Then he should say : ' By the old age of the 
body, that (the ether, or Brahman within it) does 
not age ; by the death of the body, that (the ether, 
or Brahman within it) is not killed. That (the Brah- 

an effect, seems to ordinary minds like a thing which is not. 
Therefore while the true philosopher, after acquiring the know- 
ledge of the Highest Sat, becomes identified with it suddenly, like 
lightning, the ordinary mortal must reach it by slow degrees, and 
as a preparation for that higher knowledge which is to follow, the 
eighth PrapaMaka, particularly the first portion of it, has been 
added to the teaching contained in the earlier books. 

1 The ether in the heart is really a name of Brahman. He is 
there, and therefore all that comes of him when he assumes bodily 
shapes, both what is and what is not, i. e. what is no longer or not 
yet ; for the absolute nothing is not intended here. 

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man) is the true Brahma-city (not the body *). In 
it all desires are contained. It is the Self, free from 
sin, free from old age, from death and grief, from 
hunger and thirst, which desires nothing but what 
it ought to desire, and imagines nothing but what it 
ought to imagine. Now as here on earth people 
follow as they are commanded, and depend on the 
object which they are attached to, be it a country or 
a piece of land, 

6. ' And as here on earth, whatever has been ac- 
quired by exertion, perishes, so perishes whatever is 
acquired for the next world by sacrifices and other 
good actions performed on earth. Those who de- 
part from hence without having discovered the 
Self and those true desires, for them there is no 
freedom in all the worlds. But those who depart 
from hence, after having discovered the Self and 
those true desires *, for them there is freedom in all 
the worlds. 

Second Khazvda. 

1. 'Thus he who desires the world 8 of the fathers, 
by his mere will the fathers come to receive him, 
and having obtained the world of the fathers, he is 

2. 'And he who desires the world of the mothers, 
by his mere will the mothers come to receive him, 

1 I translate this somewhat differently from the commentator, 
though the argument remains the same. 

* True desires are those which we ought to desire, and the ful- 
filment of which depends on ourselves, supposing that we have 
acquired the knowledge which enables us to fulfil them. 

' World is the nearest approach to 1 ok a: it means life with the 
fathers, or enjoying the company of the fathers. 

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and having obtained the world of the mothers, he is 

3. 'And he who desires the world of the brothers, 
by his mere will the brothers come to receive him, 
and having obtained the world of the brothers, he is 

4. ' And he who desires the world of the sisters, 
by his mere will the sisters come to receive him, 
and having obtained the world of the sisters, he is 

5. 'And he who desires the world of the friends, 
by his mere will the friends come to receive him, 
and having obtained the world of the friends, he is 

6. 'And he who desires the world of perfumes and 
garlands (gandhamalya), by his mere will perfumes 
and garlands come to him, and having obtained the 
world of perfumes and garlands, he is happy. 

7. 'And he who desires the world of food and 
drink, by his mere will food and drink come to him, 
and having obtained the world of food and drink, he 
is happy. 

8. ' And he who desires the world of song and 
music, by his mere will song and music come to him, 
and having obtained the world of song and music, 
he is happy. 

9. 'And he who desires the world of women, by 
his mere will women come to receive him, and 
having obtained the world of women, he is happy. 

' Whatever object he is attached to, whatever 
object he desires, by his mere will it comes to him, 
and having obtained it, he is happy. 

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VIII PRAPArffAKA, 3 KHAtfDA, 4. 1 29 

Third Khanda. 

1. ' These true desires, however, are hidden by 
what is false ; though the desires be true, they have 
a covering which is false. Thus, whoever belonging 
to us has departed this life, him we cannot gain 
back, so that we should see him with our eyes. 

2. ' Those who belong to us, whether living or 
departed, and whatever else there is which we wish 
for and do not obtain, all that we find there (if 
we descend into our heart, where Brahman dwells, 
in the ether of the heart). There are all our true 
desires, but hidden by what is false 1 . As people who 
do not know the country, walk again and again over 
a gold treasure that has been hidden somewhere in 
the earth and do not discover it, thus do all these 
creatures day after day go into the Brahma-world 
(they are merged in Brahman, while asleep), and yet 
do not discover it, because they are carried away by 
untruth (they do not come to themselves, i. e. they 
do not discover the true Self in Brahman, dwelling 
in the heart). 

3. ' That Self abides in the heart. And this is the 
etymological explanation. The heart is called h«d- 
ayam, instead of hWdy-ayam, i. e. He who is in the 
heart. He who knows this, that He is in the heart, 
goes day by day (when in sushupti, deep sleep) into 
heaven (svarga), i.e. into the Brahman of the heart. 

4. ' Now that serene being 2 which, after having 

1 All the desires mentioned before are fulfilled, if we find their 
fulfilment in our Self, in the city of Brahman within our heart. 
There we always can possess those whom we have loved, only we 
must not wish to see them with our eyes ; that would be a false 
covering to a true desire. 

• Cf. Kh. Up. VIII, 12,3. 

[3] K 

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1 30 w/Andogya-upanishad. 

risen from out this earthly body, and having reached 
the highest light (self-knowledge), appears in its true 
form, that is the Self,' thus he spoke (when asked 
by his pupils). This is the immortal, the fearless, 
this is Brahman. And of that Brahman the name 
is the True, Satyam, 

5. This name Sattyam consists of three sylla- 
bles, sat-tl-yam \ Sat signifies the immortal, t, the 
mortal, and with yam he binds both. Because he 
binds both, the immortal and the mortal, therefore 
it is yam. He who knows this goes day by day 
into heaven (svarga). 

Fourth Khanda. 

1. That Self is a bank 2 , a boundary, so that these 
worlds may not be confounded. Day and night do 
not pass that bank, nor old age, death, and grief; 
neither good nor evil deeds. All evil-doers turn back 
from it, for the world of Brahman is free from all evil. 

2. Therefore he who has crossed that bank, if 
blind, ceases to be blind ; if wounded, ceases to be 
wounded ; if afflicted, ceases to be afflicted. There- 
fore when that bank has been crossed, night becomes 
day indeed, for the world of Brahman is lighted up 
once for all 8 . 

3. And that world of Brahman belongs to those 

1 We ought probably to read Sattyam, and then Sat-tl-yam. 
The t in tf would then be the dual of an anubandha I. Instead of 
yaddhi, I conjecture yatti. See Ait. Arawyaka II, 5, 5. 

* Setu, generally translated by bridge, was originally a bank of 
earth (mndldiraaya), thrown up to serve as a pathway (pons) 
through water or a swamp. Such banks exist still in many places, 
and they serve at the same time as boundaries (maryadS) between 
fields belonging to different properties. Cf. Mait. Up. VII, 7; 
K47A. Up. Ill, 2 ; Talav. Up. comm. p. 59 ; Mwtd. Up. II, 2, 5. 

8 JK. Up. Ill, n, 3. 

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only who find it by abstinence — for them there is 
freedom in all the worlds. 

Fifth Khajvda. 

1. What people call sacrifice (ya^na), that is really 
abstinence (brahmaiarya). For he who knows, 
obtains that (world of Brahman, which others obtain 
by sacrifice), by means of abstinence. 

What people call sacrifice (ish/a), that is really 
abstinence, for by abstinence, having searched (ish- 
Ara), he obtains the Self. 

2. What people call sacrifice (sattraya#a), that is 
really abstinence, for by abstinence he obtains from 
the Sat (the true), the safety (tra»a) of the Self. 

What people call the vow of silence (mauna), that 
is really abstinence, for he who by abstinence has 
found out the Self, meditates (manute). 

3. What people call fasting (anasakayana), that 
is really abstinence, for that Self does not perish 
(na nayyati), which we find out by abstinence. 

What people call a hermit's life (ara»yayana), that 
is really abstinence. Ara x and Nyz. are two lakes in 
the world of Brahman, in the third heaven from hence ; 
and there is the lake Airammadiya, and the Asvattha 
tree, showering down Soma, and the city of Brahman 
(Hirawyagarbha) Aparifita 2 , and the golden Prabhu- 
vimita (the hall built by Prabhu, Brahman). 

Now that world of Brahman belongs to those who 
find the lakes Ara and jVya in the world of Brahman 
by means of abstinence ; for them there is freedom 
in all the worlds *. 

1 In the Kaush. Br. Up. I, 3, the lake is called Ara, at least 
according to the commentator. 

* In the Kaush. Br. Up. Apar&^ita is not pu£, but fyatanam. 

* The fifth khanda. is chiefly meant to recommend brahma&uya 

K. 2 

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132 jthAndogya-upanishad. 

Sixth KHAiw>A. 

i. Now those arteries of the heart consist of a 
brown substance, of a white, blue, yellow, and red 

or abstinence from all worldly enjoyments, enjoined on the brah- 
ma^arin, the student, as a means of obtaining a knowledge of 
Brahman. But instead of showing that such abstinence is indis- 
pensable for a proper concentration of our intellectual faculties, we 
are told that abstinence is the same as certain sacrifices ; and this 
is shown, not by arguments, but by a number of very far-fetched 
plays on words. These it is impossible to render in any transla- 
tion, nay, they hardly deserve being translated. Thus abstinence 
is said to be identical with sacrifice, ya^fia, because yo g&ili, 
'he who knows,' has a certain similarity with ya^fla. Ish/a, 
another kind of sacrifice, is compared with esha«&, search ; sattrS- 
ya«a with Sat, the True, the Brahman, and tr&yawa, protection ; 
mauna, silence, with manana, meditating (which may be right); 
an&iaklyana, fasting, with nax, to perish, and ara/tyigana, a 
hermit's life, with ara, »ya, and ayana, going to the two lakes 
Ara and Nyz, which are believed to exist in the legendary world 
of Brahman. Nothing can be more absurd. Having once struck 
the note of Brahmanic legends, such as we find it, for instance, in 
the Kaushftaki-brahmana-upanishad, the author goes on. Besides 
the lakes Ara and iVya (in the Kaushrtaki-brihmawa-upanishad we 
have only one lake, called Ara), he mentions the Airammadiya 
lake, and explains it as aira (iri annam, tanmaya airo manias, 
tena pur»am airam) and madtya, delightful. The Ajvattha tree, 
which pours down Soma, is not tortured into anything else, except 
that Soma is explained as the immortal, or nectar. AparS^ita 
becomes the city of Brahman, because it can be conquered by no 
one except those who have practised abstinence. And the hall 
which elsewhere is called Vibhu-pramita becomes Prabhu- 
vimitam, or Prabhu-vinirmita, made by Prabhu, i.e. Brahman. 
AU the fulfilled desires, as enumerated in khawrfas 2-5, whether 
the finding again of our fathers and mothers, or entering the 
Brahmaloka with its lakes and palaces, must be taken, not as 
material (sthula), but as mental only (m4nasa). On that account, 
however, they are by no means considered as false or unreal, as 
little as dreams are. Dreams are false and unreal, relatively only, 
i. e. relatively to what we see, when we awake ; but not in them- 
selves. Whatever we see in waking, also, has been shown to be 

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substance, and so is the sun brown, white, blue, 
yellow, and red. 

2. As a very long highway goes to two places, to 
one at the beginning, and to another at the end, so 
do the rays of the sun go to both worlds, to this 
one and to the other. They start from the sun, 
and enter into those arteries ; they start from those 
arteries, and enter into the sun. 

3. And when a man is asleep, reposing, and at 
perfect rest, so that he sees no dream \ then he has 
entered into those arteries. Then no evil touches 
him, for he has obtained the light (of the sun). 

4. And when a man falls ill, then those who sit 
round him, say, ' Do you know me ? Do you know 
me ?' As long as he has not departed from this 
body, he knows them. 

5. But when he departs from this body, then he 
departs upwards by those very rays (towards the 
worlds which he has gained by merit, not by know- 
ledge); or he goes out while meditating on Om 2 
(and thus securing an entrance into the Brahma- 
false ; because it consists of forms and names only ; yet these 
forms and names have a true element in them, viz. the Sat. Before 
we know that Sat, all the objects we see in waking seem true ; as 
dreams seem true in dreaming. But when once we awake from 
our waking by true knowledge, we see that nothing is true but the 
Sat. When we imagine we see a serpent, and then discover that 
it is a rope, the serpent disappears as false, but what was true in 
it, the rope, remains true. 

1 Svapna in Sanskrit is both somnus and somnium. Hence 
one might translate also, ' so that he is not aware that he is asleep,' 
which in some respects would seem even more appropriate in our 
passage ; cf. VIII, 1 1, 1. 

1 According to the explanation given of the Om in the Upani- 
shads, and more particularly in the Dahara-vidya contained in this 

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loka). And while his mind is failing, he is going to 
the sun. For the sun is the door of the world (of 
Brahman). Those who know, walk in ; those who 
do not know, are shut out. There is this verse 1 : 
' There are a hundred and one arteries of the heart ; 
one of them penetrates the crown of the head ; 
moving upwards by it a man reaches the immortal ; 
the others serve for departing in different directions, 
yea, in different directions 8 .' 

Seventh Khajvda 3 . 

i. Pra^apati said : ' The Self which is free from sin, 
free from old age, from death and grief, from hunger 
and thirst, which desires nothing but what it ought 
to desire, and imagines nothing but what it ought to 
imagine, that it is which we must search out, that it 
is which we must try to understand. He who has 
searched out that Self and understands it, obtains 
all worlds and all desires.' 

2. The Devas (gods) and Asuras (demons) both 
heard these words, and said : ' Well, let us search 
for that Self by which, if one has searched it out, 
all worlds and all desires are obtained.' 

Thus saying Indra went from the Devas, Viro^ana 
from the Asuras, and both, without having com- 
municated with each other, approached Pra^apati, 

1 Prajna Up. II, i. 

* The same verse occurs in the Ka/Aa 6, 16, and is frequently 
quoted elsewhere, for instance, Mait. comm. p. 164. For vishvaiih, 
the right reading would seem to be vishvak. In the Mait. Up. VI, 
30, the Trish/ubh are reduced to Anush/ubh verses. See also 
Prarna Up. Ill, 6-7 ; Mvw</. Up. II, 2. 

s Here the highest problem is treated again, the knowledge of 
the true Self, which leads beyond the world of Brahma (masc), and 
enables the individual self to return into the Highest Self. 

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Vlir PRAPAl*.ffAKA, 7 KHAJVDA, 3. I35 

holding fuel in their hands, as is the custom for 
pupils approaching their master. 

3. They dwelt there as pupils for thirty-two 
years. Then Pra^apati asked them : ' For what 
purpose have you both dwelt here ?' 

They replied : ' A saying of yours is being re- 
peated, viz. "the Self which is free from sin, free 
from old age, from death and grief, from hunger 
and thirst, which desires nothing but what it ought 
to desire, and imagines nothing but what it ought to 
imagine, that it is which we must search out, that it 
is which we must try to understand. He who has 
searched out that Self and understands it, obtains all 
worlds and all desires." Now we both have dwelt 
here because we wish for that Self.' 

Pra^ipati said to them : ' The person that is seen 
in the eye l , that is the Self. This is what I have 
said. This is the immortal, the fearless, this is 

They asked : ' Sir, he who is perceived m the 
water, and he who is perceived in a mirror, who 
is he?' 

He replied : ' He himself indeed is seen in all 
these V 

1 The commentator explains this rightly. Pra^apati means by 
the person that is seen in the eye, the real agent of seeing, who is 
seen by sages only, even with their eyes shut His pupils, however, 
misunderstand him. They think of the person that is seen, not of 
the person that sees (Yoga-sutras II, 6). The person seen in the 
eye is to them the small figure imaged in the eye, and they go on 
therefore to ask, whether the image in the water or in a mirror is 
not the Self. 

8 The commentators are at great pains to explain that Pra^apati 
told no falsehood. He meant by purusha the personal element in 
the highest sense, and it was not his fault that his pupils took 
purusha for man or body. 

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1 36 jthAndogya-upanishad. 

Eighth Khanda. 

1. ' Look at your Self in a pan of water, and 
whatever you do not understand of your Self 1 , 
come and tell me.' 

They looked in the water-pan. Then Pra^ipati 
said to them : ' What do you see ? ' 

They said: 'We both see the self thus altogether, 
a picture even to the very hairs and nails.' 

2. Pra^apati said to them: 'After you have 
adorned yourselves, have put on your best clothes 
and cleaned yourselves, look again into the water- 

They, after having adorned themselves, having 
put on their best clothes and cleaned themselves, 
looked into the water-pan. 

Pra/apati said : ' What do you see ? ' 

3. They said : ' Just as we are, well adorned, 
with our best clothes and clean, thus we are both 
there, Sir, well adorned, with our best clothes and 

Pra^apati said : ' That is the Self, this is the im- 
mortal, the fearless, this is Brahman.' 

Then both went away satisfied in their hearts. 

4. And Pra^apati, looking after them, said : 'They 
both go away without having perceived and without 
having known the Self, and whoever of these two 2 , 
whether Devas or Asuras, will follow this doctrine 
(upanishad), will perish.' 

Now Viro^ana, satisfied in his heart, went to the 
Asuras and preached that doctrine to them, that the 
self (the body) alone is to be worshipped, that the 

1 I take atmanaA as a genitive, governed by yad, not as an 
accusative plural. 
* The commentator reads yatare for yataA. 

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self (the body) alone is to be served, and that he 
who worships the self and serves the self, gains 
both worlds, this and the next. 

5. Therefore they call even now a man who does 
not give alms here, who has no faith, and offers no 
sacrifices, an Asura, for this is the doctrine (upani- 
shad) of the Asuras. They deck out the body of 
the dead with perfumes, flowers, and fine raiment by 
way of ornament, and think they will thus conquer 
that world \ 

Ninth Khajvda. 

1. But Indra, before he had returned to the 
Devas, saw this difficulty. As this self (the shadow 
in the water) 2 is well adorned, when the body is 
well adorned, well dressed, when the body is well 
dressed, well cleaned, if the body is well cleaned, 
that self will also be blind, if the body is blind, 
lame, if the body is lame 3 , crippled, if the body is 
crippled, and will perish in fact as soon as the body 
perishes. Therefore I see no good in this (doctrine). 

2. Taking fuel in his hand he came again as a 
pupil to Pra^apati. Pra^apati said to him : ' Ma- 
ghavat (Indra), as you went away with Viro^ana, 
satisfied in your heart, for what purpose did you 
come back ? ' 

1 This evidently refers to the customs and teaching of tribes 
not entirely conforming to the Brahmanic system. Whether the 
adorning of the dead body implies burial instead of burning, seems 

* The commentator remarks that though both Indra and Viro- 
£ana had mistaken the true import of what Pra^Spati said, yet 
while Viro>fena took the body to be the Self, Indra thought that 
the Self was the shadow of the body. 

s Srama, lame, is explained by the commentator as one-eyed, 

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He said : ' Sir, as this self (the shadow) is well 
adorned, when the body is well adorned, well dressed, 
when the body is well dressed, well cleaned, if the 
body is well cleaned, that self will also be blind, if 
the body is blind, lame, if the body is lame, crippled, 
if the body is crippled, and will perish in fact as 
soon as the body perishes. Therefore I see no 
good in this (doctrine).' 

3. ' So it is indeed, Maghavat/ replied Pra^apati ; 
'but I shall explain him (the true Self) further to 
you. Live with me another thirty-two years.' 

He lived with him another thirty-two years, and 
then Pra^apati said : 

Tenth Khanda. 

1. ' He who moves about happy in dreams, he is 
the Self, this is the immortal, the fearless, this is 

Then Indra went away satisfied in his heart. But 
before he had returned to the Devas, he saw this 
difficulty. Although it is true that that self is not 
blind, even if the body is blind, nor lame, if the 
body is lame, though it is true that that self is not 
rendered faulty by the faults of it (the body), 

2. Nor struck when it (the body) is struck, nor 
lamed when it is lamed, yet it is as if they struck 
him (the self) in dreams, as if they chased him *. 

1 I have adopted the reading vU/Mayayanti, because it is the 
most difficult, and therefore explains most easily the various cor- 
ruptions, or it may be emendations, that have crept into the text. 
■Saftkara explains vi£Madayanti by vidravayanti, and this shows 
that he too must have read vUMayayanti, for he could not have 
explained vUAiadayanti, which means they uncover or they deprive 
of their clothing, by vidrivayanti, they drive away. It is true that 
vi^^ayayanti may be explained in two ways ; it may be the causa- 
tive of kh&, to cut, but this meaning is not very appropriate here, 

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He becomes even conscious, as it were, of pain, and 
sheds tears. Therefore I see no good in this. 

3. Taking fuel in his hands, he went again as a 
pupil to Pra^pati. Pra^ipati said to him : ' Ma- 
ghavat, as you went away satisfied in your heart, for 
what purpose did you come back ? ' 

He said : ' Sir, although it is true that that self 
is not blind even if the body is blind, nor lame, if the 
body is lame, though it is true that that self is not 
rendered faulty by the faults of it (the body), 

4. Nor struck when it (the body) is struck, nor 
lamed when it is lamed, yet it is as if they struck 
him (the self) in dreams, as if they chased him. 
He becomes even conscious, as it were, of pain, and 
sheds tears. Therefore I see no good in this.' 

'So it is indeed, Maghavat,' replied Pra^ipati; 
'but I shall explain him (the true Self) further to 
you. Live with me another thirty-two years.' 

He lived with him another thirty-two years. Then 
Pra^ipati said : 

and quite inadmissible in another passage where vWMayayati 
occurs, whereas, if derived from ■nkh (ofgo/uu) in a causative sense, 
.Sankara could hardly have chosen a better explanation than vidra- 
vayanti, they make run away. The root viAA, vUMayayati is 
recognised in Panini III, 1, 28, and in the Dhatupd/ia 28, 129, 
but it has hitherto been met with in this passage only, and in 
Bnhadarawyaka Up. IV, 3, 20. Here also the author speaks of 
a man who imagines that people kill him or do him violence, or 
that an elephant chases him or that he falls into a pit Here we 
have hastiva vLWAayayati, and .Sankara, at least as printed by 
Dr. Roer, explains this by vi^apayati, vi&Madayati, vidravayati ; 
dhavattty arthaA. Much better is Dvivedaganga's commentary, as 
published by Dr. Weber, .Satap. Brahm. p. 11 45, Kadaiid enact 
hast! vWAiayayativa vidravayattva ; vi/Ma gatau, gupudhupaviAM- 
panipanibhya aya iti (Paw. Ill, 1, 28) svartha SyapratyayaA. In the 
Dictionary of Boehtlingk and Roth the derivation from Mi, to 
cut, is preferred ; see Nachtrage, s. v. &A&. 

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Eleventh Khanda. 

i. 'When a man being asleep, reposing, and at 
perfect rest 1 , sees no dreams, that is the Self, this is 
the immortal, the fearless, this is Brahman.' 

Then Indra went away satisfied in his heart. But 
before he had returned to the Devas, he saw this 
difficulty. In truth he thus does not know himself 
(his self) that he is I, nor does he know anything 
that exists. He is gone to utter annihilation. I see 
no good in this. 

2. Taking fuel in his hand he went again as a 
pupil to Pra^apati. Prafipati said to him : * Ma* 
ghavat, as you went away satisfied in your heart, 
for what purpose did you come back ? ' 

He said : ' Sir, in that way he does not know 
himself (his self) that he is I, nor does he know 
anything that exists. He is gone to utter annihila- 
tion. I see no good in this.' 

3. ' So it is indeed, Maghavat,' replied Pragapati ; 
' but I shall explain him (the true Self) further to 
you, and nothing more than this 2 . Live here other 
five years.' 

He lived there other five years. This made in all 
one hundred and one years, and therefore it is said 
that Indra Maghavat lived one hundred and one 
years as a pupil with Pra^apati. Pra^apati said to 
him : 

Twelfth Khazwja. 

1. ' Maghavat, this body is mortal and always 
held by death. It is the abode of that Self which is 

1 SeeXA. Up. VIII, 6, 3. 

8 Sahkara explains this as meaning the real Self, not anything 
different from the Self. 

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immortal and without body 1 . When in the body (by 
thinking this body is I and I am this body) the Self 
is held by pleasure and pain. So long as he is in 
the body, he cannot get free from pleasure and pain. 
But when he is free of the body (when he knows 
himself different from the body), then neither pleasure 
nor pain touches him 2 . 

2. 'The wind is without body, the cloud, light- 
ning, and thunder are without body (without hands, 
feet, &c.) Now as these, arising from this heavenly 
ether (space), appear in their own form, as soon as 
they have approached the highest light, 

3. ' Thus does that serene being, arising from this 
body, appear in its own form, as soon as it has 
approached the highest light (the knowledge of 
Self 3 ). He (in that state) is the highest person 
(uttama purusha). He moves about there laughing 
(or eating), playing, and rejoicing (in his mind), be it 
with women, carriages, or relatives, never minding 
that body into which he was born 4 . 

. ' According to some, the body is the result of the Self, the 
elements of the body, fire, water, and earth springing from the 
Self, and the Self afterwards entering them. 

* Ordinary, worldly pleasure. Comm. 

9 The simile is not so striking as most of those old similes are. 
The wind is compared with the Self, on account of its being for a 
time lost in the ether (space), as the Self is in the body, and then 
rising again out of the ether and assuming its own form as wind. 
The chief stress is laid on the highest light, which in the one case 
is the sun of summer, in the other the light of knowledge. 

4 These are pleasures which seem hardly compatible with the 
state of perfect peace which the Self is supposed to have attained. 
The passage may be interpolated, or put in on purpose to show 
that the Self enjoys such pleasures as an inward spectator only, 
without identifying himself with either pleasure or pain. He sees 
them, as he says afterwards, with his divine eye. The Self per- 

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'Like as a horse attached to a cart, so is the 
spirit 1 (pra*a, pra^-fiatman) attached to this body. 

4. ' Now where the sight has entered into the 
void (the open space, the black pupil of the eye), 
there is the person of the eye, the eye itself is the 
instrument of seeing. He who knows, let me smell 
this, he is the Self, the nose is the instrument of 
smelling. He who knows, let me say this, he is the 
Self, the tongue is the instrument of saying. He 
who knows, let me hear this, he is the Self, the ear 
is the instrument of hearing. 

5. ' He who knows, let me think this, he is the 
Self, the mind is his divine eye 2 . He, the Self, 
seeing these pleasures (which to others are hidden 
like a buried treasure of gold) through his divine 
eye, i. e. the mind, rejoices. 

' The Devas who are in the world of Brahman 
meditate on that Self (as taught by Pra^apati to 
Indra, and by Indra to the Devas). Therefore all 
worlds belong to them, and all desires. He who 
knows that Self and understands it, obtains all 
worlds and all desires.' Thus said Pra^tpati, yea, 
thus said Pra^apati. 

ceives in all things his Self only, nothing else. In his commentary 
on the Taittiriya Upanishad (p. 45) Sankara refers this passage 
to Brahman as an effect, not to Brahman as a cause. 

1 The spirit, the conscious self, is not identical with the body, 
but only joined to it, like a horse, or driving it, like a charioteer. 
In other passages the senses are the horses; buddhi, reason, the 
charioteer; man as, mind, the reins. The spirit is attached to the 
cart by the £etana ; cf. Ananda^fiinagiri. 

* Because it perceives not only what is present, but also what 
is past and future. 

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Thirteenth Khanda. 1 . 

1. From the dark (the Brahman of the heart) I 
come to the nebulous (the world of Brahman), from 
the nebulous to the dark, shaking off all evil, as a 
horse shakes his hairs, and as the moon frees herself 
from the mouth of Rahu 2 . Having shaken off the 
body, I obtain, self made and satisfied, the uncreated 
world of Brahman, yea, I obtain it 

Fourteenth Khanda. 

1. He who is called ether 3 (akasa) is the revealer 
of all forms and names. That within which these 
forms and names are contained is the Brahman, the 
Immortal, the Self. 

I come to the hall of Pra/apati, to the house ; I 
am the glorious among Brahmans, glorious among 
princes, glorious among men 4 . I obtained that 
glory, I am glorious among the glorious. May I 
never go to the white, toothless, yet devouring, 
white abode 8 ; may I never go to it. 

1 This chapter is supposed to contain a hymn of triumph. 

1 Rahu, in later times a monster, supposed to swallow the sun 
and moon at every solar or lunar eclipse. At first we only hear of 
the mouth or head of Rahu. In later times a body was assigned to 
him, but it had to be destroyed again by Vishwu, so that nothing 
remained of him but his head. Rahu seems derived from rah, to 
separate, to remove. From it raksh, to wish or strive to remove, 
to keep off, to protect, and in a different application rakshas, a 
tearing away, violence, rakshas, a robber, an evil spirit. 

* Ak&ra, ether or space, is a name of Brahman, because, like 
ether, Brahman has no body and is infinitely small. 

4 Here the three classes, commonly called castes, are clearly 
marked by the names of brahmawa, ra£an, and vis. 

* YonLrabditam pra^ananendriyam. 

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144 jthandogya-upanishad. 

Fifteenth Khanda. 

i. Brahma (Hira#yagarbha or Paramesvara) told 
this to Pra^apati (Ka-ryapa), Prafipati to Manu (his 
son), Manu to mankind. He who has learnt the 
Veda from a family of teachers, according to the 
sacred rule, in the leisure time left from the duties 
to be performed for the Guru, who, after receiving 
his discharge, has settled in his own house, keeping 
up the memory of what he has learnt by repeating 
it regularly in some sacred spot, who has begotten 
virtuous sons, and concentrated all his senses on 
the Self, never giving pain to any creature, except 
at the tfrthas 1 (sacrifices, &c), he who behaves thus 
all his life, reaches the world of Brahman, and does 
not return, yea, he does not return. 

1 The commentator says that even travelling about as a mendi- 
cant causes pain, but that a mendicant is allowed to importune 
people for alms at tirthas, or sacred places. Others explain this 

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First Khamja. 

i. The Pupil asks: 'At whose wish does the 
mind sent forth proceed on its errand ? At whose 
command does the first breath go forth ? At whose 
wish do we utter this speech ? What god directs 
the eye, or the ear?' 

2. The Teacher replies : ' It is the ear of the ear, 
the mind of the mind, the speech of speech, the 
breath of breath, and the eye of the eye. When 
freed (from the senses) the wise, on departing from 
this world, become immortal \ 

3. ' The eye does not go thither, nor speech, nor 
mind. We do not know, we do not understand, how 
any one can teach it. 

4. 'It is different from the known, it is also 
above the unknown, thus we have heard from those 
of old, who taught us this 2 . 

5. ' That which is not expressed by speech and 

1 This verse admits of various translations, and still more various 
explanations. Instead of taking v££am, like all the other words, 
as a nominative, we might take them all as accusatives, governed 
by atimufya, and sa u pr&wasya priwa^ as a parenthetical sen- 
tence. What is meantbytI!e™ear™of the ear is very fully explained 
by the commentator, but the simplest acceptation would seem to 
take it as an answer to the preceding questions, so that the ear of 
the ear should be taken for him who directs the ear, i. e. the Self, 
or Brahman. This will become clearer as we proceed. 

* Cf. tra Up. 11; 13. 

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by which speech is expressed, that alone know as 
Brahman, not that which people here adore. 

6. ' That which does not think by mind, and 
by which, they say, mind is thought \ that alone 
know as Brahman, not that which people here 

7. ' That which does not see by the eye, and by 
which one sees (the work of) the eyes, that alone 
know as Brahman, not that which people here 

8. ' That which does not hear by the ear, and by 
which the ear is heard, that alone know as Brahman, 
not that which people here adore. 

9. ' That which does not breathe by breath, and 
by which breath is drawn, that alone know as Brah- 
man, not that which people here adore.' 

Second Khanda. 

1. The Teacher says : ' If thou thinkest I know 
it well; then thou knowest surely but little, what is 
that form of Brahman known, it may be, to thee' 2 -?' 

2. The Pupil says : * I do not think I know it 
well, nor do I know that I do not know it. "He 

1 The varia lectio manaso matam (supported also by the com- 
mentary) is metrically and grammatically easier, but it may be, for 
that very reason, an emendation. 

\£ In order to obtain a verse, we must leave out the words tvam 
yad asya deveshv atha nu mima/Hsyam eva. They were probably 
inserted, as an excuse for the third khaWa treating of the relation 
of Brahman to the Devas. There is considerable variety in the 
text, as handed down in the Sama-veda and in the Atharva-veda, 
which shows that it has been tampered with. Daharam for dabhram 
may be the older reading, as synezesis occurs again and again in 
the Upanishads. 

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Ill KHANDA, I. I49 

among us who knows this, he knows it, nor does he 
know that he does not know it \ 

3. ' He by whom it (Brahman) is not thought, by 
him it is thought ; he by whom it is thought, knows 
it not. It is not understood by those who under- 
stand it, it is understood by those who do not 
understand it. 

4. * It is thought to be known (as if) by awaken- 
ing, and (then) we obtain immortality indeed. By 
the Self we obtain strength, by knowledge we obtain 

5. 'If a man know this here, that is the true (end 
of life) ; if he does not know this here, then there is 
great destruction (new births). The wise who have 
thought on all things (and recognised the Self in 
them) become immortal, when they have departed 
from this world' 

Third Khanda 1 . 

1. Brahman obtained the victory for the Devas. 
The Devas became elated by the victory of Brah- 

1 This verse has again been variously explained. I think the 
train of thought is this : We cannot know Brahman, as we know 
other objects, by referring them to a class and pointing out their 
differences. But, on the other hand, we do not know that we know 
him not, i. e. no one can assert that we know him not, for we want 
Brahman in order to know anything. He, therefore, who knows 
this double peculiarity of the knowledge of Brahman, he knows 
Brahman, as much as it can be known; and he does not 
know, nor can anybody prove it to him, that he does not know 

1 This kha»<fe is generally represented as a later addition, but 
its prose style has more of a BrShmawa character than the verses 
in the preceding kha»</as, although their metrical structure is 
irregular, and may be taken as a sign of antiquity. 

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man, and they thought, this victory is ours only, 
this greatness is ours only. 

2. Brahman perceived this and appeared to them. 
But they did not know it, and said : ' What sprite 
(yaksha or yakshya) is this ?' 

3. They said to Agni (fire) : * O GStavedas, find 
out what sprite this is.' ' Yes,' he said. 

4. He ran toward it, and Brahman said to him: 
'Who are you?' He replied: 'I am Agni, I am 

5. Brahman said: 'What power is in you?' Agni 
replied: 'I could burn all whatever there is on 

6. Brahman put a straw before him, saying: 
' Burn this.' He went towards it with all his might, 
but he could not burn it. Then he returned thence 
and said : ' I could not find out what sprite this is.' 

7. Then they said to Vayu (air) : ' O Vayu, find 
out what sprite this is.' ' Yes,' he said. 

8. He ran toward it, and Brahman said to him : 
' Who are you ?' He replied : ' I am Vayu, I am 

9. Brahman said: 'What power is in you?' Vayu 
replied : ' I could take up all whatever there is on 

10. Brahman put a straw before him, saying: 
' Take it up.' He went towards it with all his 
might, but he could not take it up. Then he re- 
turned thence and said : ' I could not find out what 
sprite this is.' 

11. Then they said to Indra : ' O Maghavan, find 
out what sprite this is.' He went towards it, but it 
disappeared from before him. 

12. Then in the same space (ether) he came 

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IV KHANDA, 4. 151 

towards a woman, highly adorned : it was Uma, the 
daughter of Hima vat 1 . He said to her: 'Who is 
that sprite?' 

Fourth Khajvda. 

1. She replied : 'It is Brahman. It is through 
the victory of Brahman that you have thus become 
great' After that he knew that it was Brahman. 

2. Therefore these Devas, viz. Agni, Vayu, and 
Indra, are, as it were, above the other gods, for they 
touched it (the Brahman) nearest 2 . 

3. And therefore Indra is, as it were, above the 
other gods, for he touched it nearest, he first 
kne w it. . ■ ; 

4. This is the teaching of Brahman, with regard ^*^*7 
to the gods (mythological) : It is that which now 

1 Um& may here be taken as the wife of .Siva, daughter of 
Himavat, better known by her earlier name, Pirvatt, the daughter 
of the mountains. Originally she was, not the daughter of the 
mountains or of the Himalaya, but the daughter of the cloud, just 
as Rudra was originally, not the lord of the mountains, giriura, but 
the lord of the clouds. We are, however, moving here in a secon- 
dary period of Indian thought, in which we see, as among Semitic 
nations, the manifested powers, and particularly the knowledge and 
wisdom of the gods, represented by their wives. Um& means originally 
flax, from v£, to weave, and the same word may have been an old 
name of wife, she who weaves (cf. duhitr/', spinster, and possibly 
wife itself, if O. H. G. wlb is connected with O. H. G. we"ban). It is 
used almost synonymously with ambika, Taitt. Ar. p. 839. If we 
wished to take liberties, we might translate uma' haimavatt by an 
old woman coming from the Himavat mountains ; but I decline all 
responsibility for such an interpretation. 

* The next phrase was borrowed from § 3, without even changing 
the singular to the plural. As Indra only found out that it was 
Brahman, the original distinction between Indra and the other gods, 
who only came near to it, was quite justified. Still it might be y 
better to adopt the var. lect. sa hy etat in § 2. 

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flashes forth in the lightning, and now vanishes 

5. And this is the teaching of Brahman, with re- 
gard to the body (psychological) : It is that which 
seems to move as mind, and by it imagination 
remembers again and again 1 . 

6. That Brahman is called Tadvana 2 , by the 
name of Tadvana it is to be meditated on. All 
beings have a desire for him who knows this. 

7. The Teacher: 'As you have asked me to 
tell you the Upanishad, the Upanishad has now 

1 I have translated these paragraphs very differently from San- 
kara and other interpreters. The wording is extremely brief, and 
we can only guess the original intention of the Upanishad by a 
reference to other passages. Now the first teaching of Brahman, 
by means of a comparison with the gods or heavenly things in 
general, seems to be that Brahman is what shines forth suddenly 
like lightning. Sometimes the relation between the phenomenal 
world and Brahman is illustrated by the relation between bubbles 
and the sea, or lightning and the unseen heavenly light (Mait Up. 
V I> 35)- I n another passage, Kh. Up. VIII, 12, 2, lightning, when 
no longer seen, is to facilitate the conception of the reality of things, 
as distinct from their perceptibility. I think, therefore, that the first 
simile, taken from the phenomenal world, was meant to show that 
Brahman is that which appears for a moment in the lightning, and 
then vanishes from our sight. 

The next illustration is purely psychological. Brahman is proved 
to exist, because our mind moves towards things, because there is 
something in us which moves and perceives, and because there is 
something in us which holds our perceptions together (sahkalpa), 
and revives them again by memory. 

I give my translation as hypothetical only, for certainty is ex- 
tremely difficult to attain, when we have to deal with these enigma- 
tical sayings which, when they were first delivered, were necessarily 
accompanied by oral explanations. 

* Tadvana, as a name of Brahman, is explained by ' the desire of 
it,' and derived from van, to desire, the same as v&tlM. 

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IV KHAJVDA, 9. .153 

been told you. We have told you the B rah mi 

8. ' The feet on which that Upanishad stands are 
penance, restraint, sacrifice ; the Vedas are all its 
limbs 1 , the True is its abode. 

9. 'He who knows this Upanishad, and has 
shaken off all evil, stands in the endless, uncon- 
querable 2 world of heaven, yea, in the world 
of heaven.' 

1 It is impossible to adopt .Sankara's first rendering, ' the Vedas 
and all the Aftgas,' i.e. the six subsidiary doctrines. He sees 
himself that sarv&ngani stands in opposition to pratish/M and 
Syatana, but seeing Veda and Ahga together, no Brahman could 
help thinking of theVed&ftgas. 

* Might we read a^yeye for ^yeye ? cf. -Satap. Brahm. XI, 5, 7, 1. 

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First Khandk. 

i. Now follows the Mahavrata ceremony. 

2. After having killed Vntra, Indra became 
great. When he became great, then there was 
the Mahavrata (the great work). This is why the 
Mahavrata ceremony is called Mahavrata. 

3. Some people say: ' Let the priest make two 
(recitations with the offering of the) a^ya (ghee) on 
that day,' but the right thing is one \ 

4. He who desires prosperity should use the 
hymn, pra vo deviyagnaye (Rv. Ill, 13, 1). 

5. He who desires increase should use the hymn, 
viso viso atithim (Rv. VIII, 74, 1). 

1 That it should be one only is proved from the types, i. e. from 
other sacrifices, that have to be followed in the performance of the 
Mahtvrata. The first type is the Agnish/oma, where one sastra is 
enjoined as a^yarastra, viz. pra vo dev&ySgnaye. In the Vuva^it, 
which has to follow the Agnish/oma, another hymn is put in its 
place, viz. agnuw naro dldhitibhL4. In the Mahavrata, which has 
to follow the Vwva^it, some people recommend the use of both 
these hymns. But that is wrong, for there must be in the sacri- 
fices which follow the Agnish/oma twelve xastras altogether; and 
if there were two here, instead of one, we should get a total of 

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158 aitareya-Arajvyaka. 

6. The people (vi^a^) indeed are increase 1 , and 
therefore he (the sacrificer) becomes increased. 

7. But (some say), there is the word atithim (in 
that hymn, which means a guest or stranger, asking 
for food). Let him not therefore take that hymn. 
Verily, the atithi (stranger) is able 2 to go begging. 

8. ' No,' he said, ' let him take that hymn. 

9. ' For he who follows the good road and obtains 
distinction, he is an atithi (guest) 3 . 

10. 'They do not consider him who is not so, 
worthy to be (called) an atithi (guest). 

11. 'Therefore let him by all means take that 

12. If he takes that hymn, let him place the 
(second) tristich, aganma vn'trahantamam, 'we came 
near to the victorious,' first. 

1 3. For people worship the whole year (perform- 
ing the Gavamayana sacrifice) wishing for this day 
(the last but one) — they do come near. 

14. The (next following) three tristichs begin 
with an AnushAibh *. Now Brahman is Gayatrlr 
speech is Anush/ubh. He thus joins speech with 

15. He who desires glory should use the hymn, 
abodhy agni^ samidha ^ananam (Rv. V, 1, 1). 

1 The word vijaA, which occurs in the hymn, means people. 
The commentator says that because the Vaijyas or tradespeople 
increase their capital, therefore they are called increase. 

8 Able, or liable; cf. Ait. Ar. II, 3, 5, 7. 

9 Atithi is here explained by yo bhavati, and bhavati is explained 
as walking on the good road. One expects yo v& atati. The 
obtaining of distinction is probably derived from ati, above, in 

* In the first and second the Anush/ubh is followed by two 

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1 6. He who desires offspring and cattle should 
use the hymn, hota^anish/a £etana^ (Rv. II, 5, 1). 

Second Khanda. 

1. He who desires proper food 1 should use the 
hymn, agnim naro dtdhitibhi^ (Rv. VII, 1, i) a . 

2. Verily, Agni (fire) is the eater of food. 

In the other (recitations accompanying the) offer- 
ings of a^ya (where Agni is likewise mentioned) the 
worshippers come more slowly near to Agni (because 
the name of Agni does not stand at the beginning 
of the hymn). But here a worshipper obtains proper 
food at once, he strikes down evil at once. 

3. Through the words (occurring in the second 
foot of the first verse), hasta^yuti ^anayanta, ' they 
caused the birth of Agni by moving their arms,' the 
hymn becomes endowed with (the word) birth. 
Verily, the sacrificer is born from this day of the 
sacrifice, and therefore the hymn is endowed with 
(the word) birth. 

4. There are four metrical feet (in the Trish/ubh 
verses of this hymn). Verily, cattle have four feet, 
therefore they serve for the gaining of cattle. 

5. There are three metrical feet (in the Vira^ - 
verses of this hymn). Verily, three are these three- 

1 AnnSdyam is always explained as food, here as annaw tad 
adyaw £a. It must be so translated here and elsewhere (I, 2, 10), 
though it is often an abstract of annada, an eater of food, a healthy 

* This hymn is prescribed in theVwva^it sacrifice, and taken 
over to the Mahavrata, according to rule. It is used, however, 
both as obligatory and as optional at the same time, i. e. it is an 
essential part of the sacrifice, and at the same time to be used by 
those who wish for proper food. 

Digitized by 



fold worlds. Therefore they serve for the conquest 
of the worlds. 

6. These (the Trish/ubh and Vira^ - verses of the 
hymn) form two metres, which form a support (pra- 
tish/M). Verily, man is supported by two (feet), 
cattle by four feet. Therefore this hymn places the 
sacrificer who stands on two feet among cattle which 
stand on four. 

7. By saying them straight on there are twenty- 
five verses in this hymn. Man also consists of 
twenty-five. There are ten fingers on his hands, 
ten toes on his feet, two legs, two arms, and the 
trunk (atman) the twenty-fifth. He adorns that 
trunk, the twenty-fifth, by this hymn. 

8. And then this day (of the sacrifice) consists of 
twenty-five, and the Stoma hymn of that day con- 
sists of twenty-five 1 (verses); it becomes the same 
through the same. Therefore these two, the day 
and the hymn, are twenty-five 2 . 

9. These twenty-five verses, by repeating the 
first thrice and the last thrice, become thirty less 
one. This is a Vira^ - verse (consisting of thirty 
syllables), too small by one. Into the small (heart) 
the vital spirits are placed, into the small stomach 
food is placed 3 , therefore this Vira^ - , small by one, 
serves for the obtainment of those desires. 

10. He who knows this, obtains those desires. 

11. The verses (contained in the hymn agnim 
naro dldhitibhi/*) become the Brzhati 4 metre and 

1 Cf. Ait. Ar. I, 1, 4, 21; II, 3, 4, 2. 

* The plural after the dual is explained by the fact that the 
hymn means the twenty-five verses. 

3 Cf. I, 3, 7, 5. 

* The hymn consists of eighteen VirS^ and seven Trish/ubh 

Digitized by 



the Vira^- metre, (they become) the perfection which 
belongs to that day (the mahavrata). Then they 
also become Anush/ubh \ for the offerings of a/ya 
(ghee) dwell in Anush/ubhs*. 

Third Kha^da 3 . 

1. Some say: ' Let him take a Gayatri hymn for 
the Pra-uga. Verily, Gayatri is brightness and glory 
of countenance, and thus the sacrificer becomes 
bright and glorious.' 

2. Others say: 'Let him take a Ush»ih hymn for 
the Pra-uga. Verily, Ush«ih is life, and thus the 
sacrificer has a long life.' 

Others say : ' Let him take an AnushAibh hymn 

verses. Therefore the eighteen Vii% verses remain what they 
are, only that the first is repeated three times, so that we have 
twenty Vira£ verses. The seven Trish/ubhs, by repeating the last 
three times, become nine. We then take eight syllables away from 
each verse, thus changing them into nine B/ihati verses. The 
nine times eight syllables, which were taken off, give us seventy- 
two syllables, and as each Brrhatf consists of thirty-six syllables, 
two Brtnatfs. 

1 The change of the first verse, which is a Vii% of thirty-three 
syllables, into an Anush/ubh is produced by a still easier process. 
The first Vira# consists here of thirty-three syllables, the Anu- 
sh/ubh should have thirty-two. But one or two syllables more 
or less does not destroy a metre, according to the views of native 
metricians. The VitSg itself, for instance, should have thirty syl- 
lables, and here has thirty-three. Therefore if changed into an 
Anush/ubh, it simply has one syllable over, which is of no conse- 
quence. Comm. 

* Cf. Ait. At. 1, 1, 1, 4. 

* Thus far the hymn which has to be recited by the Hotn! 
priest, after the eating of the nhigrahas, has been considered. 
What follows next is. the so-called Pra-uga hymn, consisting of 
seven trt'Aas, which the Hotr» has to recite after the Virvedeva- 
graha. Different Sakhas recommend hymns of different metres, 
our Sakha fixes on the Gayatri. 

[3] M 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


for the Pra-uga. Verily, Anush/ubh is valour, and 
it serves for obtaining valour.' 

Others say : ' Let him take a Brshatl hymn for 
the Pra-uga. Verily, Brz'hatt is fortune, and thus 
the sacrificer becomes fortunate.' 

Others say: 'Let him take a Pankti hymn for 
the Pra-uga. Verily, Pankti is food, and thus the 
sacrificer becomes rich in food.' 

Others say: ' Let him take a Trish/ubh hymn for 
the Pra-uga. Verily, Trish/ubh is strength, and thus 
the sacrificer becomes strong.' 

Others say: ' Let him take a (Sagatl hymn for the 
Pra-uga. Verily, cattle is (Jagatl-like, and thus the 
sacrificer becomes rich in cattle.' 

3. But we say: 'Let him take a Gayatrl hymn 
only. Verily, Gayatrl is Brahman, and that day 
(the mahavrata) is (for the attainment of) Brahman. 
Thus he obtains Brahman by means of Brahman. 

4. ' And it must be a Gayatrl hymn by Madhu- 

5. ' For Madhu^^andas is called Madhufc&iandas, 
because he wishes (^andati) for honey (madhu) for 
the ^'shis. 

6. ' Now food verily is honey, all is honey, all 
desires are honey, and thus if he recites the hymn 
of MadhuiMandas, it serves for the attainment of 
all desires. 

7. 'He who knows this, obtains all desires.' 
This (Gayatrl pra-uga), according to the one-day 

(ekaha) ceremonial 1 , is perfect in form 2 . On that day 
(the mahavrata) much is done now and then which 

1 It is copied from the Vifva^it, and that from the Agnish/oma. 
* Nothing is wanting for its performance, if one only follows the 
rules given in the Agnish/oma. 

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i Arazvyaka, i adhyAva, 4 khanda, 4. 163 

has to be hidden \ and has to be atoned for (by reci- 
tation of hymns). Atonement (santi) is rest, the 
one-day sacrifice. Therefore at the end of the year 
(on the last day but one of the sacrifice that lasts 
a whole year) the sacrificers rest on this atonement 
as their rest. 

8. He who knows this rests firm, and they also 
for whom a Hotri priest who knows this, recites 
this hymn. 

Fourth Khanda*. 

1. Rv. I, 2, 1-3. Vayav a yahi daryateme soma 
aram Vrix&h, ' Approach, O Vayu, conspicuous, these 
Somas have been made ready.' Because the word 
ready occurs in these verses, therefore is this day 
(of the sacrifice) ready (and auspicious) for the 
sacrificer and for the gods. 

2. Yes, this day is ready (and auspicious) to him 
who knows this, or for whom a Hotrz priest who 
knows this, recites. 

3. Rv. I, 2, 4-6. Indra vayu ime suta, a yitam 
upa nishkrztam, ' Indra and Vayu, these Somas are 
prepared, come hither towards what has been pre- 
pared.' By nishkWta, prepared, he means what has 
been well prepared (samskrttB.). 

4. Indra and Vayu go to what has been prepared 
by him who knows this, or for whom a Hotri priest 
who knows this, recites. 

1 Dastnrrtya-bahubhutamaimuna-birahmaiaripuwjfalisamprava- 
dadikam. See Rajendralal Mitra, Introduction to his edition of the 
Aitareya-ara»yaka, p. 25. It might be better to join ekahai with 
jantyam, but even then the argumentation is not quite clear. 

* Next follows a list of the verses which form the seven triias 
(groups of three verses) of the Pra-uga hymn, with occasional 
remarks on certain words. 

M 2 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


5. Rv. I, 2, 7. Mitraw huve putadaksham, dhiya*# 
ghrit&Mm sadhanta, ' I call Mitra of holy strength ; 
(he and Varuwa) they fulfil the prayer accompanied 
with clarified butter/ Verily, speech is the prayer 
accompanied with clarified butter. 

6. Speech is given to him who knows this, or for 
whom a Hotrt priest who knows this, recites. 

7. Rv. I, 3, 1. Asvina ya^varlr isha^, 'O 
Axvinau, (eat) the sacrificial offerings.' Verily, the 
sacrificial offerings are food, and this serves for the 
acquirement of food. 

8. Rv. I, 3, 3. A yataw rudravartant, ' Come 
hither, ye Rudravartant.' 

9. The A.yvinau go to the sacrifice of him who 
knows this, or for whom a Hotrt priest who knows 
this, recites. 

10. Rv. I, 3, 4-6. Indri yahi iitrabhino, indri 
yahi dhiyeshita^, indra yahi tutu^ana, 'Come hither, 
Indra, of bright splendour, Come hither, Indra, called 
by prayer, Come hither, Indra, quickly!' Thus he 
recites, Come hither, come hither! 

11. Indra comes to the sacrifice of him who 
knows this, or for whom a HotW priest who knows 
this, recites. 

12. Rv. I, 3, 7. Omasas £arsha«ldh?7to vLrve 
devasa a gata, 'Vwve Devas, protectors, sup- 
porters of men, come hither!' 

1 3. Verily, the Visve Devas come to the call of 
him who knows this, or for whom a Hotrt priest 
who knows this, recites. 

14. Rv. I, 3, 7. Dlrvawso da^ushai sutam, 
' Come ye givers to the libation of the giver ! ' By 
da^usha^ he means dadusha^, i. e. to the libation 
of every one that gives. 

Digitized by 


i Arajvyaka, i adhyAya, 4 kham>a, 21. 165 

15. The gods fulfil his wish, with whatever wish 
he recites this verse, 

16. (The wish of him) who knows this, or for 
whom a Hotrt priest who knows this, recites. 

17. Rv. I, 3, 10. Pivaka na^ sarasvatl yagHam 
vash/u dhiyavasu^, ' May the holy Sarasvatl accept 
our sacrifice, rich in prayer!' Speech is meant by 
'rich in prayer.' 

18. Speech is given to him who knows this, or 
for whom a Hotrt priest who knows this, recites. 

1 9. And when he says, ' May she accept our 
sacrifice!' what he means is, 'May she carry off our 
sacrifice ! ' 

20. If these verses are recited straight on, they 
are twenty-one. Man also consists of twenty-one. 
There are ten fingers on his hands, ten toes on his 
feet, and the trunk the twenty-first. He adorns that 
trunk, the twenty-first, by this hymn. 

21. By repeating the first and the last verses 
thrice, they become twenty-five. The trunk is the 
twenty-fifth, and Pra^apati is the twenty-fifth. There 
are ten fingers on his hands, ten toes on his feet, 
two legs, two arms, and the trunk the twenty-fifth. 
He adorns that trunk, the twenty-fifth, by this 
hymn 1 . 

Now this day consists of twenty-five, and the 
Stoma hymn of that day consists of twenty-five : it 
becomes the same through the same. Therefore 
these two, the day and the hymn, are twenty-five, 
yea, twenty-five. 

• Cf. 1, 1,2, 7; 1,3.5,7- 

Digitized by 


1 66 aitareya-Ara/tyaka. 


First Khanda 1 . 

i. The two trifas, Rv. VIII, 68, 1-3, a tva 
ratha/w yathotaye, and Rv. VIII, 2, 1-3, idam vaso 
sutam andha^, form the first (pratipad) and the 
second (anu&tra) of the Marutvatiya hymn. 

2. Both, as belonging to the one-day ceremonial 2 , 
are perfect in form. On that day much is done 
now and then which has to be hidden, and has to 
be atoned for. Atonement is rest, the one-day 
sacrifice. Therefore at the end of the year the 
sacrificers rest on this atonement as their rest. He 
who knows this rests firm, and they also for whom 
a Hotri priest who knows this, recites this hymn 3 . 

3. In the second verse of (the Pragatha*), indra 
nediya ed ihi, pra su tira $a£tbhir ye ta ukthina^ 
(Rv. VIII, 53, 5, 6), there occurs the word ukthina^, 
reciters of hymns 6 . Verily, this day (the mahivrata) 
is an uktha (hymn), and as endowed with an uktha, 
the form of this day is perfect. 

4. In the first verse (of another Pragatha) the 
word vlra, strong, occurs (Rv. I, 40, 3), and as 
endowed with the word vtra, strong, the form of 
this day is perfect. 

' In the first adhy&ya the two hymns to be recited by the Hotr«' 
priest at the morning-libation (the a^ya and pra-uga jastra) have 
been considered. Now follows the Marutvatiya hymn, to be 
recited by the Hotrt priest at the noon-libation. 

* Taken from the Agnish/oma. 
» Cf. I, 1, 3, 7-8- 

4 All these Pragathas consist of two verses expanded into a 

* Hotr&daya ukthin&A rastrinaA. • 

Digitized by 



5. In the second verse (of another Pragatha) the 
word suviryam, strength, occurs (Rv. I. 40, 1), and 
as endowed with the word suvirya, strength, the 
form of this day is perfect. 

6. In the first verse (of another Pragatha) the 
word ukthyam, to be hymned, occurs (Rv. I, 40, 5). 
Verily, this day is an uktha, and as endowed with an 
uktha, the form of this day is perfect. 

7. In the (Dhayya) verse agnir neta (Rv. Ill, 20, 
4) the word wztraha, killer of Vn'tra, occurs. The 
killing of Vn'tra is a form (character) of Indra, this 
day (the mahavrata) belongs to Indra, and this is 
the (perfect) form of that day. 

8. In the (Dhayya) verse tvaw soma kratubhi^ 
sukratur bhM (Rv. I, 91, 2) the word vrz'sha 1 , 
powerful, occurs. Powerful is a form (character) of 
Indra, this day belongs to Indra, and this is the 
(perfect) form of that day. 

9. In the (Dhayya) verse pinvanty apa^ (Rv. I, 
64, 6) the word vifinam, endowed with food, occurs. v 
Endowed with food is a form (character) of Indra, 
this day belongs to Indra, and this is the (perfect) 
form of that day. 

10. In the same verse the word stanayantam, 
thundering, occurs. Endowed with thundering is a 
form (character) of Indra, this day belongs to Indra, 
and this is the (perfect) form of that day. 

11. In (the Pragatha) pra va indraya brz'hate (Rv. 
VI 1 1, 89, 3) (the word brzhat occurs). Verily, brthat 
is mahat (great), and as endowed with mahat, great, 
the form of this day (mahavrata) is perfect. 

12. In (the Pragatha) brzhad indraya gayata (Rv. 
— — — — ' 7 

1 Cf. I, 2, 2, 14. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1 68 aitareya-Arajvyaka. 

VIII, 89, 1) (the word brzhat occurs). Verily, brzhat 
is mahat (great), and as endowed with mahat, the 
form of this day is perfect 

13. In (the Pragitha) naki^ sudaso ratham pary 
asa na rlramad (Rv. VII, 32, 10) the words paryasa 
(he moved round) and na rtramad (he did not enjoy) 
occur, and as endowed with the words paryasta and 
ranti the form of this day is perfect \ 

He recites all (these) Pragithas, in order to obtain 
all the days (of the sacrifice), all the Ukthas *, all 
the PWsh^as 3 , all the .Sastras*, all the Pra-ugas 6 , 
and all the Savanas (libations). 

Second Khanda*. 

1. He recites the hymn, asat su me g&ritaA sdbhi- 
vega^ (Rv. X, 27, 1), (and in it the word) satya- 
dhwztam, the destroyer of truth. Verily, that day 

1 Because the performance of the MahSvrata sacrifice moves the 
worshipper round to another world and gives him enjoyment. 
Comm. It is difficult to surpass the absurdity of these explana- 
tions. Na rtramat means no one stopped the chariot of Sudis. 
But even if it meant that no one rejoiced through the chariot of 
Sudas, it would be difficult to see how the negative of enjoyment, 
mentioned in the hymn, could contribute to the perfection of a 
sacrifice which is to confer positive enjoyment on the worshipper. 

* The stotras following after the YagtAy&g&tya. Siman, serving 
for the ukthya-kratus. 

3 The stotras of the noon-libation, to be performed with the 
Rathantara, Br/hat, and other Samans. 

4 The xastras, recitations, accompanying the oblations of a^ya. 

5 The pra-ugas, a division of fastras, described above. 

• The type after which the Marutvatfya-jastra is to be performed 
is the Aaturvunsa day. Hitherto (from & tva ratham to naki/t 
sudasaA), all that is taken over from the type to the modification, 
i. e. the Marutvattya, has been explained. Now follow the verses 
which are new and peculiar to the Marutvattya of the Mahavrata. 

Digitized by 



is truth, and as endowed with the word satya, truth, 
the form of this day is perfect \ 

2. That hymn is composed by Vasukra. Verily, 
Vasukra is Brahman, and that day is Brahman. Thus 
he obtains Brahman by means of Brahman 2 . 

3. Here they say: 'Why then is that Marutvatiya 
hymn completed by the hymn of Vasukra ?' Surely 
because no other J&shi but Vasukra brought out a 
Marutvatiya hymn, or divided it properly 3 . There 
fore that Marutvatiya hymn is completed by the 
hymn of Vasukra. 

4. That hymn, asat su me, is not definitely ad- 
dressed to any deity, and is therefore supposed to be 
addressed to Pra^apati. Verily, Pra^apati is indefinite, 
and therefore the hymn serves to win Pra^apati. 

5. Once in the hymn (Rv. X, 27, 22) he defines 
Indra (indraya sunvat) ; therefore it does not fall off 
from its form, as connected with Indra. 

6. He recites the hymn (Rv. VI, 17, 1) piba 
somam abhi yam ugra tarda& 

7. In the verse urvam gavyam mahi grmana 
indra the word mahi, great, occurs. Endowed with 
the word mahat, the form of this day is perfect. 

8. That hymn is composed by Bharadva^a, and 
Bharadva^a was he who knew most, who lived 
longest, and performed the greatest austerities among 
the .tfzshis, and by this hymn he drove away evil. 
Therefore if he recites the hymn of Bharadva^a, 

1 The commentator endeavours to make the meaning more 
natural by taking in the word prahanta, he who kills the destroyer 
of truth. But considering the general character of these remarks, 
this is hardly necessary. 

* Cf. 1, 1, 3, 3. 

* By separating the first trih, from the second, and so forth. 

Digitized by 



then, after having driven away evil, he becomes 
learned, long-lived, and full of austerities. 

9. He recites the hymn kaya Jubha savayasa^ 
sanill* (Rv. I, 165, 1). 

10. In the verse a jasate prati haryanty uktha 
(Rv. I, 165, 4) the word uktha occurs. Verily, that 
day (the mahavrata) is uktha (hymn). Endowed with 
the word uktha, the form of this day becomes perfect 

11. That hymn is called Kaylrubhlya 1 . Verily, 
that hymn, which is called Kaya^ubhiya, is mutual 
understanding and it is lasting. By means of it 
Indra, Agastya, and the Maruts came to a mutual 
understanding. Therefore, if he recites the Kayi- 
.mbhtya hymn, it serves for mutual understanding. 

1 2. The same hymn is also long life. Therefore, 
if the sacrificer is dear to the Hotr*, let him recite 
the Kay&Aibhiya hymn for him. 

13. He recites the hymn marutva# indra vrishabo 
rawaya (Rv. Ill, 47, 1). 

14. In it the words indra wz'shabha (powerful) 
occur. Verily, powerful is a form of Indra 2 , this 
day belongs to Indra, and this is the perfect form 
of that day. 

1 5. That hymn is composed by VLrvamitra. Verily, 
Viyvamitra was the friend (mitra) of all (vlrva). 

16. Everybody is the friend of him who knows 
this, and for whom a Hotri priest who knows this, 
recites this hymn. 

17. The next hymn, ^anish/Aa ugra^ sahase tu- 
raya (Rv. I, 73, 1), forms a Nividdhana 3 , and, 

1 Cf. Ait Brahm. V, 16. * Cf. Ait. Ar. II, 2, 1, 8. 

* The hymn consists of eleven verses. In the middle, after the 
sixth verse, nivids or invocations, such as indro marutv&n, are in- 
serted, and therefore it is called a nividdhana hymn. 

Digitized by 


I ARAJVYAKA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 KHAW2)A, 1 8. 171 

according to the one-day (ekaha) ceremonial, is perfect 
in form. On that day much is done now and then 
which has to be hidden, and has to be atoned for 
(by recitation of hymns). Atonement is rest, the 
one-day sacrifice. Therefore at the end of the year 
(on the last day but one of the sacrifice that lasts a 
whole year) the sacrificers rest on this atonement as 
their rest. 

He who knows this rests firm, and they also for 
whom a Hotri priest who knows this, recites this 
hymn \ 

1 8. These, if recited straight on, are ninety-seven 
verses 2 . The ninety are three Vir&f, each consisting 
of thirty, and then the seven verses which are over. 
Whatever is the praise of the seven, is the praise of 
ninety also. 

1 With this hymn the Marutvatfya-jastra is finished. All the 
hymns from & tvS ratham to asat su me ^aritar are simply taken 
over from the A'aturvuw.ra ceremonial, the rest are peculiar to the 
Mahdvrata day, the day preceding the Udayaniya or final day of 
the Gavamayana sattra. All this is more fully described in the fifth 
Arawyaka (V, 1, 1, 8), containing the Sutras or rules of iaunaka, 
while the earlier Ara«yakas are reckoned as Brahmawas, and are 
therefore mixed up with matters not actually required for the per- 
formance of the sacrifice. 
* The first Stotriya and Anurupa 

trikas = . . . . 6 (1, 2, 1, 1). 
The six Pragathas, each of 2 verses 

raised to 3 (but the text gives 

seven Prag&thas) = 

Three DhSyySs = 
Asat su = . 
Pibi somam = 
Kayi jubha = 
Marutvi* indra = 
Ganish/M ugraA = 

18 (1,2,1,354; 5; 6; n; 12; 13). 

3 (I, 2, 1, 7; 8; 9). 
24 (I, 2, 2, 1). 
15 (1, 2, 2, 6). 

15 (I» 2. 2, 9)- 
5 (I, 2, 2, 13). 
_ii(I, 2, 2,17). 


Digitized by 


1 72 aitareya-Arajvyaka. 

19. By repeating the first and last verses three 
times each, they become one hundred and one 

20. There are five fingers, of four joints each, two 
pits (in the elbow and the arm), the arm, the eye, the 
shoulder-blade ; this makes twenty-five. The other 
three parts have likewise twenty-five each \ That 
makes a hundred, and the trunk is the one hundred 
and first. 

21. Hundred is life, health, strength, brightness. 
The sacrificer as the one hundred and first rests in 
life, health, strength, and brightness. 

22. These verses become TrishAibh 2 , for the 
noonday-libation consists of TrishAibh verses. 

Third Khajvda 3 . 

1. They say: 'What is the meaning of prenkha, 
swing ?' Verily, he is the swing, who blows (the 
wind). He indeed goes forward (pra + inkhate) in 
these worlds, and that is why the swing is called 

2. Some say, that there should be one plank, 
because the wind blows in one way, and it should 
be like the wind. 

3. That is not to be regarded. 

4. Some say, there should be three planks, be- 
cause there are these three threefold worlds, and it 
should be like them. 

1 The left side as well as the right, and then the left and right 
side of the lower body. Thus we have twenty joints of the five toes, 
a thigh, a leg, and three joints, making twenty-five on each side. 

' Approach the TrishAibh metre of the last hymn. Comm. 

* After having considered the Marutvattya, he proceeds to con- 
sider the Nishkevalya. This has to. be recited by the Hotr»' while 
sitting on a swing. 

Digitized by 


1 ARAtfYAKA, 2 ADHYAYA, 4 KHAJV0A, 3. 1 73 

5. That is not to be regarded. 

6. Let there be two, for these two worlds (the 
earth and heaven) are seen as if most real, while the 
ether (space) between the two is the sky (antariksha). 
Therefore let there be two planks. 

7. Let them be made of Udumbara wood. Verily, 
the Udumbara tree is sap and eatable food, and thus 
it serves to obtain sap and eatable food. 

8. Let them be elevated in the middle (between 
the earth and the cross-beam). Food, if placed in 
the middle, delights man, and thus he places the 
sacrificer in the middle of eatable food. 

9. There are two kinds of rope, twisted towards 
the right and twisted towards the left. The right 
ropes serve for some animals, the left ropes for 
others. If there are both kinds of rope, they serve 
for the attainment of both kinds of cattle. 

10. Let them be made of Darbha (Kusa grass), for 
among plants Darbha is free from evil, therefore 
they should be made of Darbha grass. 

Fourth Khajvzja. 

1. Some say: ' Let the swing be one ell (aratni) 
above the ground, for by that measure verily the 
Svarga worlds are measured.' That is not to be 

2. Others say : ' Let it be one span (pradera), for 
by that measure verily the vital airs were measured.' 
That is not to be regarded \ 

3. Let it be one fist (mush/i), for by that measure 
verily all eatable food is made, and by that measure 

1 They rise one span above the heart, and they proceed one 
. span from out the mouth. Comm. 

Digitized by 



all eatable food is taken ; therefore let it be one fist 
above the ground. 

4. They say: 'Let him mount the swing from 
east to west, like he who shines; for the sun 
mounts these worlds from east to west' That is 
not to be regarded. 

5. Others say : ' Let him mount the swing side- 
ways, for people mount a horse sideways ', thinking 
that thus they will obtain all desires.' That is not 
to be regarded. 

6. They say: 'Let him mount the swing 2 from 
behind, for people mount a ship from behind, and 
this swing is a ship in which to go to heaven.' 
Therefore let him mount it from behind. 

7. Let him touch the swing with his chin (M\i- 
buka). The parrot (raka) thus mounts a tree, and 
he is of all birds the one who eats most food. 
Therefore let him touch it with his chin. 

8. Let him mount the swing with his arms 5 . The 
hawk swoops thus on birds and on trees, and he is of 
all birds the strongest. Therefore let him mount 
with his arms. 

9. Let him not withdraw one foot (the right or 
left) from the earth, for fear that he may lose his 

10. The Hotrt mounts the swing, the Udg&tW 
the seat made of Udumbara wood. The swing is 
masculine, the seat feminine, and they form a union. 
Thus he makes a union at the beginning of the 
uktha in order to get offspring. 

1 Here we have clearly riding on horseback. 
1 While the swing points to the east, let him stand west, and 
thus mount. 
* The fore-arms, from the elbow to the end, the aratnt. Comm. 

Digitized by 



11. He who knows this, gets offspring and 

12. Next the swing is food, the seat fortune. 
Thus he mounts and obtains food and fortune. 

13. The Hotrakas (the Prayastrz, Brahma»a- 
iMawsin, Potrt, Nesh/ri, Agntdhra, and A^Mavaka) 
together with the Brahman sit down on cushions 
made of grass, reeds, leaves, &c. 

14. Plants and trees, after they have grown up, 
bear fruit. Thus if the priests mount on that day 
altogether (on their seats), they mount on solid and 
fluid as their proper food. Therefore this serves 
for the attainment of solid as proper food \ 

1 5. Some say : ' Let him descend after saying 
vasha/ 2 .' That is not to be regarded. For, verily, 
that respect is not shown which is shown to one 
who does not see it 8 . 

16. Others say: ' Let him descend after he has 
taken the food in his hand.' That is not to be re- 
garded. For, verily, that respect is not shown 
which is shown to one after he has approached 
quite close. 

1 7. Let him descend after he has seen the food. 
For, verily, that is real respect which is shown to 
one when he sees it. Only after having actually 

1 One expects ishaA before tng&A, but it is wanting in both text 
and commentary, and in other MSS. also. 

* The word by which the Hotn invites the Adhvaryu to offer 
the oblation to the gods. The descending from the swing belongs, 

: of course, to a later part of the sacrifice. 

* It is supposed that the Hotr* rises from the swing to show 
respect to the sacrificial food, when it is brought near. But as it 
is not brought near, immediately after the Hot/Y has finished his 
part with the word vasha/, the food could not see the Hotr* rise, and 
this mark of respect, intended for the food, would thus be lost. 

Digitized by 


176 aitareya-Arajvyaka. 

seen the food (that is brought to the sacrifice), let 
him descend from the swing. 

18. Let him descend turning towards the east, 
for in the east the seed of the gods springs up 1 . 
Therefore let him rise turning towards the east, 
yea, turning towards the east. 


First Khaatoa. 

1. Let him begin this day 2 with singing 'Him,' 
thus they say. 

2. Verily, the sound Him is Brahman, that day 
also is Brahman. He who knows this, obtains 
Brahman even by Brahman. 

3. As he begins with the sound Him, surely 
that masculine sound of Him and the feminine 
Rik (the verse) make a couple. Thus he makes 
a couple at the beginning of the hymn in order 
to get offspring 3 . He who knows this, gets cattle 
and offspring. 

4. Or, as he begins with the sound Him, surely 
like a wooden spade, so the sound Him serves to 
dig up Brahman (the sap of the Veda). And as a 
man wishes to dig up any, even the hardest soil, 
with a spade, thus he digs up Brahman. 

5. He who knows this digs up, by means of the 
sound Him, everything he may desire. 

6. If he begins with the sound Him, that sound 
is the holding apart of divine and human speech. 

1 Should it be devaretaA sampra^ayate, or devaretasam pra^ayate ? 
* The Nishkevalya-fastra, of the noon-libation; cf. I, 2, 2, 1. 
» Cf. I, 2, 4l 10. 

Digitized by 



Therefore, he who begins, after having uttered the 
sound Him, holds apart divine and human speech 1 . 

Second Khajvba. 

1. And here they ask: 'What is the beginning 
of this day?' Let him say: 'Mind and speech*.' 

2. All desires dwell in the one (mind), the other 
yields all desires. 

3. All desires dwell in the mind, for with the 
mind he conceives all desires. 

4. All desires come to him who knows this. 

5. Speech yields all desires, for with speech he 
declares all his desires. 

6. Speech yields all desires to him who knows this. 

7. Here they say: ' Let him not begin this day 
with a Rik, a Ya^us, or a Saman verse (divine 
speech), for it is said, he should not start with a 
Rik, a Ya^s, or a Saman V 

8. Therefore, let him say these Vyalmtis (sacred 
interjections) first. 

9. These interjections Bhus, Bhuvas, Svar are 
the three Vedas, Bhus the .tfzg-veda, Bhuvas the 
Yafur-veda, Svar the Sama-veda. Therefore (by 

1 Human speech is the ordinary speech, divine speech that of 
the Veda. Thus between the hymns, or the divine speech, and 
the ordinary language of conversation the sound Him is inter* 
posed as a barrier. 

1 Mind, to think about the hymns which have to be recited ; 
speech, to recite them without a flaw. 

* It is doubtful whether ney&d rikah and apagaAMet can have 
this meaning. However, what is intended is clear, viz. that the 
priest, even after having uttered the sound Him, should not imme- 
diately begin with verses from the Vedas, but should intercalate 
the three syllables bhur bhuvaA svar, or, if taken singly, bhus, 
bhuvas, svar. 

[3] N 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1 78 aitareya-Arajvyaka. 

intercalating these) he does not begin simply with a 
Rik, Yafus, or Saman verse, he does not start with 
a Rik, Ya^us, or Saman verse. 

Third Khawda. 

1. He begins with tad, this, (the first word of the 
first hymn, tad id asa). Verily 'this, this' is food, 
and thus he obtains food. 

2. Pra^apati indeed uttered this as the first word, 
consisting of one or two syllables, viz. tata and tata 
(or tat) 1 . And thus does a child, as soon as he 
begins to speak, utter the word, consisting of one 
or two syllables, viz. tata and tata (or tat). With 
this very word, consisting of tat or tatta, he begins. 

3. This has been said bya-^/shi (Rv. X,7i, 1)*: — 

4. ' O Brzhaspati, the first point of speech ;' — for 
this is the first and highest point of speech. 

5. 'That which you have uttered, making it a 
name ;' — for names are made by speech. 

1 Tata and tata are used both by children in addressing their 
parents, and by parents in addressing their children. If tat is 
call d the very same word, eva is used in the sense of iva. 

2 The verse is cited to confirm the meaning of tat, the first word 
of the first hymn (tad id asa), as explained before. It was said 
that tat was the first name applied to a child. Now, according to 
Ajvalayana Gr/hya-sutra 1, 16, 8, a name is given to a child at the 
time of its birth, a name which no one knows except father and 
mother, till the time when he is initiated by a Guru. This is called 
the abhivadantya name. In allusion to this custom it is said here 
that tata is the secret name of the child, which becomes publicly 
known at a later time only. Of course the interpretation of the 
verse in that sense is unnatural, but quite in keeping with the 
general character of the Arawyaka. I doubt whether even the com- 
mentator understood what was intended by the author, and whether 
the gods who enter the body are supposed to know the name, or 
whether the name refers to these gods, or, it may be, to tad, the 

Digitized by 


i Araivyaka, 3 adhyAya, 4 khajvda, 9. 1 79 

6. ' That (name) which was the best and without 
a flaw ;' — for this is the best and without a flaw. 

7. ' That which was hidden by their love, is made 
manifest;' — for this was hidden in the body, viz. those 
deities (which enter the body, Agni as voice, entering 
the mouth, &c.) ; and that was manifest among the 
gods in heaven. This is what was intended by the 

Fourth Khajwa 1 . 

1. He begins with : ' That indeed was the oldest 
in the worlds V — for that (the Brahman) is verily the 
oldest in the worlds. 

2. 'Whence was born the fierce one, endowed 
with brilliant force;' — for from it was born the fierce 
one, who is endowed with brilliant force. 

3. 'When born he at once destroys the enemies; ' — 
for he at once when born struck down the evil one. 

4. 'He after whom all friends rejoice;' — verily all 
friends are the creatures, and they rejoice after him, 
saying, ' He has risen, he has risen 3 .' 

5. ' Growing by strength, the almighty 4 ;' — for he 
(the sun) does grow by strength, the almighty. 

6. 'He, as enemy, causes fear to the slave;' — for 
everything is afraid of him. 

7. ' Taking the breathing and the not-breathing;' — 
this means the living and the lifeless. 

8. ' Whatever has been offered at feasts came to 
thee;' — this means everything is in thy power. 

9. 'All turn their thought also on thee 6 ;' — this 

1 He now explains the first hymn of the Nishkevalya, which is 
called the Ra^ana. 

' Rv. X, 1 20, 1. * The sun and the fire. 

4 Rv. X, 120, 2. • Rv. X, 120, 3. 

N 2 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

180 aitareya-Araatvaka. 

means all these beings, all minds, all thoughts also 
turn to thee. 

10. ' When these two become three protectors;' — 
i.e. when these two united beget offspring. 

ii. He who knows this, gets offspring and cattle. 

12. 'Join what is sweeter than sweet (offspring) 
with the sweet (the parents) ;' — for the couple (father 
and mother) is sweet, the offspring is sweet, and he 
thus joins the offspring with the couple. 

13. 'And this (the son, when married) being very 
sweet, conquered through the sweet;' — i.e. the couple 
is sweet, the offspring is sweet, and thus through 
the couple he conquers offspring 1 . 

14. This is declared by a ifo'shi 2 : 'Because he 
(Pra^ipati) raised his body (the hymn tad id asa 
or the Veda in general) in the body (of the sacri- 
ficer)' (therefore that Nishkevalya hymn is praised); 
— i. e. this body, consisting of the Veda, in that cor- 
poreal form (of the sacrificer). 

15. 'Then let this body indeed be the medicine 
of that body;' — i. e. this body, consisting of the Veda, 
of that corporeal form (of the sacrificer). 

16. Of this (the first foot of Rv. X, 120, 1) the 
eight syllables are Gayatrl, the eleven syllables are 
Trish/ubh, the twelve syllables are ^agatl, the ten 
syllables are Vira^. The Virif, consisting of ten 
syllables, rests in these three metres 8 . 

17. The word purusha, consisting of three sylla- 
bles, that indeed goes into the Vira^ 4 . 

1 All these are purely fanciful interpretations. 
1 Not to be found in our iakha of the Rig-veda. 

* These metres are obtained by a purely arbitrary counting 
of syllables in the hymn tadidasa, which really consists of Tri- 
sh/ubh verses. 

* If we simply count syllables, the first and second feet of the 

Digitized by 


i Arajvyaka, 3 adhyAya, 5 khanda, 2. 18 r 

1 8. Verily, these are all metres, these (Gayatri, 
Trish/ubh, £agati) having the Vira^ - as the fourth. 
In this manner this day is complete in all metres to 
him who knows this. 

Fifth Khanda. 

1. He extends these (verses) by (interpolating) 
the sound 1 . Verily, the sound is purusha, man. 
Therefore every man when he speaks, sounds loud, 
as it were. 

2. At the end of each foot of the first verse of 
the hymn tad id asa, he inserts one foot of the 
second verse of hymn Rv. VIII, 69, nadaw va 
odatinam, &c. Thus the verse is to be recited as 
follows : 

Tad id asa bhuvaneshu ^yesh/^am pu 

nadaw va odattnam, 
Yato gagra. ugras tveshannmwo ru 

nadaw yoyuvattnam, 
Sadyo ^affiano ni ri»ati .ratrun 

patiw* vo aghnyanam, 
Anu yaw vlsve madanti uma^ sho 

dhenunam ishudhyasi. 

first verse consist of ten syllables only, the fourth of nine or ten. 

In order to bring them to the right number, the word purusha 

is to be added to what is a VirS^, i. e. to the first, the second, 

and fourth feet. We thus get : 

tad id asa bhuvaneshu ^yesh/iam pu 
yato gzgfta. ugras tveshanrrinwo ru 
sadyo gzgft&ao ni riwati ratrun 
anu yam vuve madanti umaA shai. 

Cf. Ait. Ar. V, 1, 6. 

1 The sound, nada, is really a verse beginning with nadam, 

and which is interpolated after the syllables pu ru shaA. 

Digitized by 


1 82 aitareya-Arajvyaka. 

In nadam va odatlnam (Rv. VIII, 69, 2), odati * 
are the waters in heaven, for they water all this ; 
and they are the waters in the mouth, for they 
water all good food. 

3. In nadaw yoyuvattnam (Rv. VIII, 69, 2), yo- 
yuvatl are the waters in the sky, for they seem to 
inundate ; and they are the waters of perspiration, for 
they seem to run continually. 

4. In patiw vo aghnyanam (Rv. VIII, 69, 2), 
aghnya are the waters which spring from the smoke 
of fire, and they are the waters which spring from 
the organ. 

5. In dhenunam ishudhyasi (Rv. VIII, 69, 2), 
the dhenu (cows) are the waters, for they delight 
all this ; and ishudhyasi means, thou art food. 

6. He extends a TrishAibh and an Anush/ubh 2 . 
Trish/ubh is the man, Anush/ubh the wife, and 
they make a couple. Therefore does a man, 
after having found a wife, consider himself a more 
perfect man. 

7. These verses, by repeating the first three times, 
become twenty-five. The trunk is the twenty-fifth, 
and Pra^apati is the twenty-fifth 3 . There are ten 
fingers on his hands, ten toes on his feet, two legs, 
two arms, and the trunk the twenty-fifth. He adorns 
that trunk as the twenty-fifth. Now this day con- 
sists of twenty-five, and the Stoma hymn of that 
day consists of twenty-five : it becomes the same 

1 The nasal pluta on iti is explained as padapratikagrahane 
'tyantamddarSrthaA. Cf. Ait. Ar. II, 1, 4, 3. 
* Tad id &sa is a Trish/ubh, nadaw v&A an Anush/ubh. 
' Cf. I, 1, 2, 7; I, 1,4, 21. 

Digitized by 



through the same. Therefore the two, the day and 
the hymn, are twenty-five '. 

Sixth Khanda. 

This is an exact repetition of the third kharaaa. 
According to the commentator, the third khaWa 
was intended for the glory of the first word tad, 
while the sixth is intended for the glory of the 
whole hymn. 

Seventh Khanda. 

1. He begins with the hymn, Tad id isa bhuva- 
neshu £yesh/>fcam (Rv. X, 120). Verily, jyeshMa, 
the oldest, is mahat, great Endowed with mahat 
the form of this day is perfect. 

2. Then follows the hymn, Taw su te ktrtim 
maghavan mahitvi (Rv. X, 54), with the auspicious 
word mahitvi. 

3. Then follows the hymn, Bhuya id vavndhe 
vlryiya (Rv. VI, 30), with the auspicious word 

4. Then follows the hymn, Nrin&m u tva nrt- gobhir ukthai^ (Rv. I, 51, 4), with the aus- 
picious word uktha. 

5. He extends the first two padas, which are too 
small, by one syllable (Rv. X, 120, 1 a, and Rv. VIII, 
69, 2 a) 2 . Into the small heart the vital spirits are 
placed, into the small stomach food is placed. It 

1 The number is obtained as follows: 

1. Tad id &sa (Rv. X, 120)= . 9 verses 

2. Taw su te ktrtim (Rv. X, 54)= . 6 „ 

3. Bhuya id vavrz'dhe (Rv. VI, 30)= 5 „ 

4. NrMm u tva (Rv. I, 51, 4)= 3 „ 

23 + 2 = 25 

1 Cf. I, 1, a, 9. 

Digitized by 


1 84 aitareya-Arayyaka. 

serves for the attainment of these desires. He who 
knows this, obtains these desires. 

6. The two feet, each consisting of ten syllables 
(Rv. X, 120, 1 a, b), serve for the gaining of both 
kinds of food J , of what has feet (animal food), and 
what has no feet (vegetable food). 

7. They come to be of eighteen syllables each 2 . 
Of those which are ten, nine are the pra»as (openings 
of the body) 3 , the tenth is the (vital) self. This 
is the perfection of the (vital) self. Eight syllables 
remain in each. He who knows them, obtains what- 
ever he desires. 

Eighth Khawja. 

1. He extends (these verses) by (interpolating) 
the sound 4 . Verily, breath (pra«a) is sound. There- 
fore every breath when it sounds, sounds loud, as it 

2. The verse (VIII, 69, 2) nadaw va odatinam, 
&c, is by its syllables an Ush»ih 8 , by its feet an 
Anush/ubh*. Ush«ih is life, Anush/ubh, speech. He 
thus places life and speech in him (the sacrificer.) 

3. By repeating the first verse three times, they 

1 Because Vira^-, a foot of ten syllables, is food. 
1 Rv. X, 120, 1 a= . 10 

Rv.VIII, 69, 2 a= 7 

Syllable pu= . . 1 


s Seven in the head and two in the body ; sapta vai sfrshaayivi 
pr£«a dvAv avafl/iav iti. 

4 Cf. I, 3, 5, 1. 

5 Each p£da has seven syllables, the third only six; but a 
seventh syllable is gained by pronouncing the y as i. Comm. 

* Because it has four padas. 

Digitized by 


I Aranyaka, 3 adhyAya, 8 khanda, 8. 185 

become twenty-five. The trunk is the twenty-fifth, 
and Pra^-apati is the twenty-fifth. There are ten 
fingers on his hands, ten toes on his feet, two legs, 
two arms, and the trunk the twenty-fifth. He 
adorns that trunk as the twenty-fifth. Now this day 
consists of twenty-five, and the Stoma hymn of that 
day consists of twenty-five : it becomes the same 
through the same. Therefore the two, the day and 
the hymn, are twenty-five. This is the twenty-fifth 
with regard to the body. 

4. Next, with regard to the deities : The eye, the 
ear, the mind, speech, and breath, these five deities 
(powers) have entered into that person (purusha), 
and that person entered into the five deities. He is 
wholly pervaded there with his limbs to the very 
hairs and nails. Therefore all beings to the very 
insects are born as pervaded (by the deities or 
senses) 1 . 

5. This has been declared by a J?/shi (Rv. X, 

6. 'A thousandfold are these fifteen hymns ;' — for 
five arise from ten 2 . 

7. ' As large as heaven and earth, so large is 
it;' — verily, the self (^tvatman) is as large as heaven 
and earth. 

8. 'A thousandfold are the thousand powers 8 ; ' — 

1 The commentator takes this in a different sense, explaining 
atra, there, as the body pervaded by the person, yet afterwards 
stating that all beings are born, pervaded by the senses. 

* The commentator explains ukthi, hymns, as members or organs. 
They are the five, and they spring from the ten, i. e. from the five 
elements (earth, water, fire, wind, and ether), forming part of the 
father and mother each, and therefore called ten, or a decade. 
Darata^ is explained by bhutadarakat. 

* The application of the senses to a thousand different objects. 

Digitized by 


1 86 aitareya-Aranyaka. 

by saying this the poet pleases the hymns (the 
senses), and magnifies them. 

9. ' As far as Brahman reaches, so far reaches 
speech ; ' — wherever there is Brahman, there is a 
word; and wherever there is a word, there is Brah- 
man, this was intended. 

10. The first of the hymns among all those 
hymns has nine verses. Verily, there are nine 
pra«as (openings), and it serves for their benefit. 

n. Then follows a hymn of six verses. Verily, 
the seasons are six, and it serves to obtain them. 

12. Then follows a hymn of five verses. Verily, 
the Pankti consists of five feet. Verily, Pankti is 
food, and it serves for the gaining of proper food. 

13. Then follows a tristich. Three are these 
threefold worlds, and it serves to conquer them. 

14. These verses become Brzhatis 1 , that metre 
being immortal, leading to the world of the Devas. 
That body of verses is the trunk (of the bird repre- 
sented by the whole jastra), and thus it is. He who 
knows this comes by this way (by making the verses 
the trunk of the bird) near to the immortal Self, 
yea, to the immortal Self 2 . 

1 Each foot of the Trish/ubh has eleven syllables, to which seven 
are added from the Nada hymn. This gives eighteen syllables for 
each pdda. Two padas therefore give thirty-six syllables, and this 
is a Brthati. In this manner the twenty-three verses of the hymns 
yield forty-six Br*hatfs. Comm. 

2 He obtains a birth among the gods by means of this MahS- 
vrata ceremonial, if performed with meditation and a right under- 
standing of its hidden meaning. 

Digitized by 




First Khandk. 

1. Next comes the Sudadohas 1 verse. Suda- 
dohas is breath, and thereby he joins all joints with 

2. Next follow the neck verses. They recite 
them as Ushwih, according to their metre 2 . 

3. Next comes (again) the Sudadohas verse. 
Sudadohas is breath, and thereby he joins all joints 
with breath. 

4. Next follows the head. That is in Gayatrl 
verses. The Gayatrl is the beginning of all metres 3 ; 
the head the first of all members. It is in Arkavat 
verses (Rv. I, 7, 1-9)*. Arka is Agni. They are 
nine verses. The head consists of nine pieces. He 
recites the tenth verse, and that is the skin and the 
hairs on the head. It serves for reciting one verse 
more than (the nine verses contained in) the Stoma 6 . 

1 The Nishkevalya-jastra is represented in the shape of a 
bird, consisting of trunk, neck, head, vertebrae, wings, tail, and 
stomach. Before describing the hymns which form the neck, 
another hymn has to be mentioned, called Sudadohas, which has 
to be recited at the end of the hymns, described before, which form 
the trunk. Sudadohas is explained as ' yielding milk,' and because 
that word occurs in the verse, the verse is called Sudadohas. It 
follows on the Nada verse, Rv. VIII, 69, 3. Cf. Ait. Ar. I, 5, 1, 7. 

* They occur in another s&kh&, and are to be recited such as 
they are, without any insertions. They are given by Saunaka, 
Ait. Ar. V, 2, 1. 

* It was created from the mouth of Pra^Spati. 

4 They are called so, because the word arka occurs in them. 

6 The chanters of the Sima-veda make a TrivrA Stoma of 
this hymn, without any repetitions, leaving out the tenth verse. 
The reciters of the Rig-veda excel them therefore by reciting a 
tenth verse. This is called atiramsanam (or -na). 

Digitized by 



These form the Trivn't Stoma and the Gayatrl 
metre, and whatever there exists, all this is pro- 
duced after the production of this Stoma and this 
metre. Therefore the recitation of these head- 
hymns serves for production. 

5. He who knows this, gets offspring and cattle. 

6. Next comes the Sudadohas verse. Verily, 
Sudadohas is breath, and thereby he joins all joints 
with breath. 

7. Next follow the vertebrae x (of the bird). 
These verses are Viri^f (shining). Therefore man 
says to man, 'Thou shinest above us;' or to a stiff 
and proud man, ' Thou earnest thy neck stiff.' Or 
because the (vertebrae of the neck) run close toge- 
ther, they are taken to be the best food. For Virif 
is food, and food is strength. 

8. Next comes the Sudadohas verse. Sudadohas 
is breath, and thereby he joins all joints with breath. 

1 Vi^avas may be a singular, and the commentator seems to 
take it as such in his first explanation. The text, ti" virago bha- 
vanti, proves nothing, because it could not be sa virago bhavanti, 
nor even sa virarf bhavati. Possibly the word may occur in both 
forms, v^u, plural vi^avaA, and vi^avaA. In a somewhat similar 
way we find grM and gitv&A, folia and la feuille. On p. 109, 
the commentator speaks of vi^-avabhiga, and again, p. no, pa- 
kshamularupS vi^ava abhihit&A. He, however, explains its meaning 
rightly, as the root of the wings, or rather the lower bones of the 
neck. GrtvSA, plural, were originally the vertebrae of the neck. 
The paragraph, though very empty, contains at least some inter- 
esting forms of language. First vi^u, vertebrae, then the partici- 
ples duta and samba/Aatama, and lastly the verb pratyai, the last 
probably used in the sense of to bring near, to represent, with the 
superlative adverb annatamim {Pin. V, 4, 1 1), i. e. they are repre- 
sented as if they brought the best food. 

Digitized by 


- i Araayaka, 4 adhyAya, 2 khanda, 3. 189 

Second Khawda. 

1. Next follows the right wing. It is this 
world (the earth), it is this Agni, it is speech, it is 
the Rathantara \ it is Vasish/>fca, it is a hundred 2 . 
These are the six powers (of the right wing) s . The 
Sampata hymn (Rv. IV, 20) serves indeed for ob- 
taining desires and for firmness. The Pankti verse 
(Rv. I, 80, 1) serves for proper food. 

2. Next comes the Sudadohas verse. Sudadohas 
is breath, thereby he joins all joints with breath. 

3. Next follows the left wing. It is that world 
(heaven), it is that sun, it is mind, it is the Brzhat, it 

1 Rathantara is the name of the whole number of 

hymns to 

be recited at this part of the sacrifice. It was made by 


and consists of one hundred verses. 

1 1. 

Stotriya, abhi tv& jura nonumaA (Rv. VII, 32, 22) 



Anurupa, abhi tvS purvapltaye (Rv. VIII, 3, 7) 

2 (3) 


Indrasya nu (Rv. I, 32) 



Tve ha (Rv. VII, 18, 1-15) 



Yas tigma (Rv. VII, 19) 



UgTO gagfte (Rv. VII, 20) . 



Ud u (Rv. VII, 23) . 



A te mahaA (Rv. VII, 25) . 



Na somaA (Rv. VII, 26) . 



Indraw naraA (Rv. VII, 27) 



Brahmi taA (Rv. VII, 28) . 



Ay aw somaA (Rv. VII, 29) 



A na indraA (Rv. IV, 20) . 


98 (100) 


Ittha hi (Rv. I, 80, 1) .... 



These hymns and verses are given Ait. Ar. V, 2, 2, 1. Here we 
also learn that hymn Rv. IV, 20, is called Sampata, and that the 
last verse is a Pankti. 

* The six powers are earth, Agni, speech, Rathantara, Vasish/fo, 
and a hundred. 

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is Bharadvttfa, it is a hundred \ These are the 
six powers (of the left wing). The Sampata hymn 
(Rv. IV, 23) serves indeed for obtaining desires 
and for firmness. The Pankti verse (Rv. I, 81, 1) 
serves for proper food. 

4. These two (the right and the left wings) are 
deficient and excessive \ The Brzhat (the left wing) 
is man, the Rathantara (the right wing) is woman. 
The excess belongs to the man, the deficiency to the 
woman. Therefore they are deficient and excessive. 

5. Now the left wing of a bird is verily by one 
feather better, therefore the left wing is larger by 
one verse. 

1 The hundred verses are given Ait. Ar. V, 2, 


1. Stotriya, tvam id dhi (Rv. VI, 46, 1) 

• 2(3) 

2. Aniirupa, tvaw hy ehi (R v. VIII, 61, 7] 

» • » (3) 

3. Tarn u sh/uhi (Rv. VI, 18) 

• 15 

4. Suta it tvam (Rv. VI, 23) . 

IO - 

5. Vr«'sh& madaA (Rv. VI, 24) 


6. YatautU(Rv.VI, 25) 

• 9 

7. AbhurekaA(Rv.VI, 31) . 

• 5 

8. Apurvyi (Rv. VI, 32) 

• 5 

9. Ya ogish/A&A (Rv. VI, 33) 

• 5 

10. Saw *a tve (Rv. VI, 34) 

• 5 

1 1. Kadd bhuvan (Rv. VI, 35) . 

• 5 

12. SatrS madasaA (Rv. VI, 36) 

• 5 

13. ArvSg ratham (Rv. VI, 37) 

• 5 

14. Apad (Rv. VI, 38), . 

• 5 

15. Katha mahSn (Rv. IV, 23) 



16. Indro madaya (Rv. I, 81, 1) 



Though there are said to be 100 verses before the Pankti 
(No. 16), I can get only 99 or 101. See the following note. 

* The right wing is deficient by one verse, the left wing exceeds 
by one verse. I count 99 or 101 verses in the right, and 100 or 102 
in the left wing. 

Digitized by 



6. Next comes the Sudadohas verse. Sudadohas 
is breath, and thereby he joins all joints with 

7. Next follows the tail. They are twenty-one 
Dvipada verses \ For there are twenty-one back- 
ward feathers in a bird. 

8. Then the Ekaviwwa is the support of all 
Stomas, and the tail the support of all birds 2 . 

9. He recites a twenty-second verse. This is 
made the form of two supports. Therefore all birds 
support themselves on their tail, and having sup- 
ported themselves on their tail, they fly up. For 
the tail is a support. 

10. He (the bird and the hymn) is supported by 
two decades which are Vira^. The man (the sacri- 
ficer) is supported by the two Dvipadas, the twenty- 
first and twenty-second. That which forms the bird 
serves for the attainment of all desires ; that which 
forms the man, serves for his happiness, glory, 
proper food, and honour. 

11. Next comes a Sudadohas verse, then a 
Dhayya, then a Sudadohas verse. The Sudadohas 
is a man, the Dhayya a woman, therefore he recites 
the Dhayya as embraced on both sides by the Suda- 
dohas. Therefore does the seed of both, when it is 
effused, obtain oneness, and this with regard to the 

1 These verses are given Ait. Ar. V, 2, 2, 9. 

1. Ima* nu kam (Rv. X, 157) .... 5 

2. Ayahi (Rv. X, 172) 4 

3. Pra va indriya &c. (not in the .S£kalya-samhit&) 9 

4. Esha brahma &c. (not in the .Sakalya-saOThita) 3 


* The other Stomas of the Agnish/oma are the Trivrrt, Paflte- 
d&ra, Saptadara, the Ekavima being the highest. Cf. I, 5, 1, 3. 

Digitized by 



woman only. Hence birth takes place in and from 
the woman. Therefore he recites that Dhayya in 
that place '. 

Third Khanda. 

i. He recites the eighty tristichs of Gayatrls 2 . 
Verily, the eighty Gayatrl tristichs are this world 
(earth). Whatever there is in this world of glory, 
greatness, wives, food, and honour, may I obtain it, 
may I win it, may it be mine. 

2. Next comes the Sudadohas verse. Sudadohas 
verily is breath. He joins this world with breath. 

3. He recites the eighty tristichs of Bnhatis. 
Verily, the eighty BWhatl tristichs are the world of 
the sky. Whatever there is in the world of the sky 
of glory, greatness, wives, food, and honour, may I 
obtain it, may I win it, may it be mine. 

4. Next comes the Sudadohas verse. Sudadohas 
verily is breath. He joins the world of the sky 
with breath. 

5. He recites the eighty tristichs of Ush»ih. Ve- 
rily, the eighty Ush»ih tristichs are that world, the 
heaven. Whatever there is in that world of glory, 
greatness, wives, food, and honour, also the divine 
being of the Devas (Brahman), may I obtain it, may 
I win it, may it be mine. 

6. Next comes the Sudadohas verse. Sudadohas 
verily is the breath. He joins that world with 
breath, yea, with breath. 

1 Asmin vi^avabhage. Comm. 

* These and the following verses form the food of the bird. 
Comm. The verses themselves are given by <Saunaka in the fifth 

Digitized by 


i Araayaka, 5 adhyAya, i khanda, 7. 193 


First Kuanda. 

1. He recites the Vara. hymn 1 , wishing, May 
everything be in my power. 

2. They (its verses) are twenty-one 2 , for twenty- 
one are the parts (the lungs, spleen, &c.) in the belly. 

3. Then the Ekavi#«a is verily the support of all 
Stomas, and the belly the support of all food. 

4. They consist of different metres. Verily, the 
intestines are confused, some small, some large. 

5. He recites them with the pra»ava 8 , according 
to the metre *, and according to rule 8 . Verily, the 
intestines are according to rule, as it were ; some 
shorter, some longer. 

6. Next comes the Sudadohas verse. Sudadohas 
verily is breath. He joins the joints with breath. 

7. After having recited that verse twelve times he 

* ' Having recited the verses which form the body, neck, head, 
wings, and tail of the bird, also the food intended for the bird, 
he now describes the Vara hymn, i.e. the hymn composed by 
Vara, Rv. VIII, 46. That hymn takes the place of the stomach, 
which receives the food intended for the bird. Cf. Ait Ar. V, 2, 5. 
In I, 5, 2, 4 it is called a Nivid. 
1 Verses 1-20 of the Va*a hymn, and one Sudadohas. 

* Pranavam means ' with pranava,' i. e. inserting Om in the 
proper places. 

4 According as the metres of the different verses are fixed by 
•Saunaka, Ait Ar. V, 2, 5, who says that verse 15 is Dvipada, and 
that the last four words, nunam atha, form an Ekapada. 

• According to rule, i.e. so that they should come right as 
Ajvalayana has prescribed the recitation of Dvipada and Eka- 
padi verses. In a Dvipada there should be a stop after the first 
foot, and Om at the end of the second. In an Ekapada there 
should be Om at the beginning and at the end. 

[3] o 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

194 aitareya-aravyaka. 

leaves it off there. These pra»as are verily twelve- 
fold, seven in the head, two on the breast, three 
below. In these twelve places the pri«as are con- 
tained, there they are perfect. Therefore he leaves 
it off there \ 

8. The hymn indragnt yuva*» su naA (Rv. VIII, 
40) forms the two thighs (of the bird) belonging to 
Indra and Agni, the two supports with broad bones. 

9. These (verses) consist of six feet, so that they 
may stand firm. Man stands firm on two feet, 
animals on four. He thus places man (the sacri- 
ficer), standing on two feet, among four-footed 

10. The second verse has seven feet, and he 
makes it into a Gayatri and Anush/ubh. Gayatrl is 
Brahman, Anush/ubh is speech ; and he thus puts 
together speech with Brahman. 

1 1. He recites a Trish/ubh at the end. Trish/ubh 
is strength, and thus does he come round animals 
by strength. Therefore animals come near where 
there is strength (of command, &c); they come to 
be roused and to rise up, (they obey the commands 
of a strong shepherd.) 

Second Khaivca. 

1. When he recites the Nishkevalya hymn ad- 
dressed to Indra (Rv. X, 50), pra vo mahe, he inserts 
a Nivid 2 (between the fourth and fifth verses). Thus 
he clearly places strength in himself (in the rastra, 
in the bird, in himself). 

2. They are Trish/ubhs and Cagatts. 

1 He repeats the Sfldadohas verse no more. Comm. 
* Sentences like indro deva^ somam pibatu. 

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i Araatyaka, 5 adhyAya, 2 khawda, 8. 195 

3. There they say : ' Why does he insert a Nivid 
among mixed Trish/ubhs and Gagatls * ?' But surely 
one metre would never support the Nivid of this 
day, nor fill it: therefore he inserts the Nivid 
among mixed Trish/ubhs and Gagatts. 

4. Let him know that this day has three Nivids : 
the Vara hymn is a Nivid, the Valakhilyas 2 are a 
Nivid, and the Nivid itself is a Nivid. Thus let 
him know that day as having three Nivids. 

5. Then follow the hymns vane na va (Rv. X, 
29) and yo gtta. eva (Rv. II, 12). In the fourth 
verse of the former hymn occur the words anne 
samasya yad asan manlsha^, and they serve for the 
winning of proper food. 

6. Then comes an insertion. As many Trish/ubh 
and Gagatl verses 8 , taken from the ten Ma»dalas 
and addressed to Indra, as they insert (between the 
two above-mentioned hymns), after changing them 
into Brzhatts, so many years do they live beyond 
the (usual) age (of one hundred years). By this 
insertion age is obtained. 

7. After that he recites the Sa/antya hymn, 
wishing that cattle may always come to his off- 

8. Then he recites the Tarkshya hymn*. Tir- 
kshya is verily welfare, and the hymn leads to wel- 
fare. Thus (by reciting the hymn) he fares well 6 . 

1 According to the Prakn'ti of the Agnish/oma they ought to 
be all Trish/ubhs. Comm. 

* These hymns occur in the eighty Brrhatf tristichs. 

* From the Samhitd, which consists of ten thousand verses. 

* Rv. X, 178. Tarksha Ganu/a being the deity of the hymn, 
it is called Tarkshya. 

* Cf. I, 5, 3> 13- 

O 2 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

196 aitareya-Arawyaka. 


9. Then he recites the Ekapada (indro vLrvaw 
vi ra/ati), wishing, May I be everything at once, 
and may I thus finish the whole work of metres 1 . 

10. In reciting the hymn indraw vlrva avtvrz- 
dhan (Rv. I, 11) he intertwines the first seven verses 
by intertwining their feet 8 . There are seven pra«as 
(openings) in the head, and he thus places seven 
pra«as in the head. The eighth verse (half-verse) 
he does not intertwine 8 . The eighth is speech, 
and he thinks, May my speech never be intertwined 
with the other pra»as. Speech therefore, though 
dwelling in the same abode as the other pra»as, is 
not intertwined with them. 

11. He recites the Viri^ - verses*. Verily, Vira^ - 
verses are food, and they thus serve for the gaining 
of food. 

12. He ends with the hymn of VasishMa 8 , 
wishing, May I be VasishMa! 

13. But let him end with the fifth verse, esha 
stomo maha ugraya vahe, which, possessing the 
word mahat, is auspicious. 

14. In the second foot of the fifth verse the word 
dhuri occurs. Verily, dhu^ (the place where the 
horse is fastened to the car) is the end (of the car). 
This day also is the end (of the sacrifice which lasts 
a whole year) 6 . Thus the verse is fit for the day. 

1 The Ekapadi forms the last metre in this ceremony. 

* The first and last half-verses of the hymn are not to be 
intertwined. Of the remaining fourteen half-verses he joins, for 
instance, the fourth foot of the first verse with the second foot 
of the second verse, and so on. Comm. 

8 Because nothing more follows. Comm. 

4 Rv. VII, 22, 1-6. • Rv. VII, 24. 

' The last day is the udayanry&tir&tra. Comm. 

Digitized by 


I Araotaka, 5 adhyAya, 3 khanda, 3. 197 

15. In the third foot the word arka is auspicious. 

16. The last foot is: 'Make our glory high as 
heaven over heaven.' Thus wherever Brahmanic 
speech is uttered, there his glory will be, when he 
who knows this finishes with that verse. Therefore 
let a man who knows this, finish (the Nishkevalya) 
with that verse. 

Third Khajvda 1 . 

1. Tat savitur vrintmahe (Rv. V, 82, 1-3) and 
adya no deva savitar (Rv. V, 82, 4-6) are the 
beginning (pratipad) and the next step (anu&tra) of 
the VaLsvadeva hymn, taken from the Ekaha cere- 
monial and therefore proper 2 . 

2. On that day 8 much is done now ahd then 
which has to be hidden, and has to be atoned for. 
Atonement is rest, the one-day sacrifice. Therefore 
at the end of the year the sacrificers rest on this 
atonement as their rest. He who knows this rests 
firm, and they also for whom a Hotri priest who 
knows this, recites this hymn. 

3. Then (follows) the hymn addressed to Savi- 
trt, tad devasya savitur varyam mahat (Rv. IV, 53). 
Verily, mahat, great, (in this foot) is the end 4 . 
This day too is the end. Thus the verse is fit for 
the day. 

1 After finishing the Nishkevalya of the noon-libation, he explains 
the valrvadevarastra of the third libation.. 

* The norm of the Mahavrata is the Vuvagit, and the norm 
of that, the Agnish/bma Ekaha, The verses to be used for the 
Vaixvadeva hymn are prescribed in those normal sacrifices, and 
are here adopted. 

' Cf. Ait At. I, a, 1, a. 

4 Nothing higher than the great can be wished for or obtained. 

Digitized by 



4. The hymn katara purva katara parayo^ (Rv. 
I, 185), addressed to Dyavapmhivl, is one in which 
many verses have the same ending. Verily, this day 
also (the mahivrata) is one in which many receive 
the same reward 1 . Thus it is fit for the day. 

5. The hymn anaxvo ^ito anabhlsur ukthya^ (Rv. 
IV, 36) is addressed to the .tfsbhus. 

6. In the first verse the word tri (kakrafi) occurs, 
and trivat * is verily the end. This day also is the 
end (of the sacrifice). Thus the verse is fit for the 

7. The hymn asya vamasya palitasya hotu^ (Rv. 
I, 164), addressed to the Vi^vedevas, is multiform. 
This day also is multiform a . Thus the verse is fit 
for the day. 

8. He recites the end of it, beginning with gaurlr 
mimaya (Rv. I, 164, 41). 

9. The hymn a no bhadra^ kratavo yantu vLrvata>fc 
(Rv. I, 89), addressed to the Visvedevas, forms the 
Nividdhana, taken from the Ekaha ceremonial, and 
therefore proper. 

10. On that day much is done now and then 
which has to be hidden, and has to be atoned for. 
Atonement is rest, the one-day sacrifice. Therefore 
at the end of the year the sacrificers rest on this 
atonement as their rest. He who knows this rests 
firm, and they also for whom a Hotrz priest who 
knows this, recites this hymn. 

1 1. The hymn valrvanaraya dhishawam rita.- 

1 All who perform the ceremony obtain Brahman. Cf. § 12. 

* The third wheel, in addition to the usual two wheels, forms 
the end of a carriage, as before the dhuA, cf. I, 5, 2, 14. This 
day also is the end. 

" Consisting of Vedic hymns and dances, &c. Comm. 

Digitized by 


I ARAtfYAKA, 5 ADHYAYA, 3 KHAATOA, 1 4. 1 99 

vrtdhe (Rv. Ill, 2) forms the beginning of the 
Agnimaruta. Dhishawa, thought, is verily the end, 
this day also is the end. Thus it is fit for the 

12. The hymn praya^yavo maruto bhra^adWsh/a- 
ya^ (Rv. V, 55), addressed to the Maruts, is one in 
which many verses have the same ending. Verily, 
this day also is one in which many receive the same 
reward. Thus it is fit for the day x . 

13. He recites the verse ^atavedase sunavama 
somam (Rv. I, 99, 1), addressed to Gatavedas, before 
the (next following) hymn. That verse addressed to 
Gatavedas is verily welfare, and leads to welfare. 
Thus (by reciting it) he fares well a . 

14. The hymn ima*» stomam arhate ^atavedase 
(Rv. I, 94), addressed to Gatavedas, is one in which 
many verses have the same ending. Verily, this day 
also (the mahivrata) is one in which many receive 
the same reward. Thus it is fit for the day, yea, it 
is fit for the day. 

1 Cf. § 4. ■ Cf. I, 5, a, 8. 

Digitized by 




'^ z First Khanda. 

V C y ' ' With the second Ara»yaka the Upanishad begins. It comprises 

^-ZZ^Z the second and third Ara»yakas, and may be said to consist of 

',''•-, / three divisions, or three Upanishads. Their general title is BahvriXa- 

/■■"'■ ' upanishad, sometimes Mahaitareya-upanishad, while the Upanishad 

generally known as Aitareya-upanishad comprises the 4th, 5th, and 

6th adhy&yas only of the second Arawyaka. 

The character of the three component portions of the Upanishad 
can best be described in .Sahkara's own words (Ar. Ill, 1, 1, Introd. 
p. 306) : ' There are three classes of men who want to acquire 
knowledge. The highest consists of those who have turned away 
from the world, whose minds are fixed on one subject and col- 
lected, and who yearn to be free at once. For these a knowledge 
of Brahman is intended, as taught in the Ait. Ar. II, 4-6. The 
middle class are those who wish to become free gradually by at- 
taining to the world of Hiranyagarbha. For them the knowledge 
and worship of Prawa (breath and life) is intended, as explained in 
the Ait. Ar. II, 1-3. The lowest class consists of those who do 
not care either for immediate or gradual freedom, but who desire 
nothing but offspring, cattle, &c. For these the meditative worship 
of the Sawhiti is intended, as explained in the third Arawyaka. 
They cling too strongly to the letter of the sacred text to be able to 
surrender it for a knowledge either of Pr&wa (life) or of Brahman.' 

The connexion between the Upanishad or rather the three 
Upanishads and the first Aranyaka seems at first sight very slight. 
Still we soon perceive that it would be impossible to understand 
the first Upanishad, without a previous knowledge of the Mah&- 
vrata ceremony as described in the first Arawyaka. 

On this point too there are some pertinent remarks in Sankara's 
commentary on the Arawyaka II, 1, 2. ' Our first duty,' he says, 
' consists in performing sacrifices, such as are described in the first 
portion of the Veda, the SawhitSs, Brihmamis, and, to a certain 
extent, in the Aranyakas also. Afterwards arises a desire for 
knowledge, which cannot be satisfied except a man has first attained 

Digitized by 



complete concentration of thought (ek&gratl). In order to acquire 
that concentration, the performance of certain up&sanas or medita- 
tions is enjoined, such as we find described in our Upanishad, viz. in 
Ar. II, 1-3/ 

This meditation or, as it is sometimes translated, worship is of 
two kinds, either brahmop&sana or pratfkop&sana. Brahmo- 
pSsana or meditation on Brahman consists in thinking of him as 
distinguished by certain qualities. Pratikop&sana or meditation 
on symbols consists in looking upon certain worldly objects as if 
they were Brahman, in order thus to withdraw the mind from the 
too powerful influence of external objects. 

These objects, thus lifted up into symbols of Brahman, are of 
two kinds, either connected with sacrifice or not. In our Upanishad 
we have to deal with the former class only, viz. with certain por- 
tions of the Mah&vrata, as described in the first Aranyaka. In order 
that the mind may not be entirely absorbed by the sacrifice, it is 
lifted up during the performance from the consideration of these 
sacrificial objects to a meditation on higher objects, leading up at 
last to Brahman as prana or life. 

This meditation is to be performed by the priests, and while they 
meditate they may meditate on a hymn or on a single word of it as 
meaning something else, such as the sun, the earth, or the sky, but 
not vice versS. And if in one .Sakhi, as in that of the Aitareyins, for 
instance, a certain hymn has been symbolically explained, the same 
explanation may be adopted by another S^kha" also, such as that of 
the Kaushttakins. It is not necessary, however, that every part of 
the sacrifice should be accompanied by meditation, but it is left 
optional to the priest in what particular meditation he wishes to 
engage, nor is even the time of the sacrifice the only right time 
for him to engage in these meditations. 

i. This is the path : this sacrifice, and this Brah- 
man. This is the true 1 . 

2. Let no man swerve from it, let no man trans- 
gress it. 

1 Comm. The path is twofold, consisting of works and know- 
ledge. Works or sacrifices have been described in the Samhitd, 
the Brahma*a, and the first Aranyaka. Knowledge of Brahman 
forms the subject of the second and third Arawyakas. The true 
path is that of knowledge. 

Digitized by 


202 aitareya-Arajntyaka. 

3. For the old (sages) did not transgress it, and 
those who did transgress, became lost. 

4. This has been declared by a Rishi (Rv. VIII, 
101, 14): 'Three (classes of) people transgressed, 
others settled down round about the venerable 
(Agni, fire); the great (sun) stood in the midst of 
the worlds, the blowing (Vayu, air) entered the 
Harits (the dawns, or the ends of the earth).' 

5. When he says : 'Three (classes of) people trans- 
gressed,' the three (classes of) people who trans- 
gressed are what we see here (on earth, born again) 
as birds, trees, herbs, and serpents *. 

6. When he says : ' Others settled down round 
about the venerable,' he means those who now sit 
down to worship Agni (fire). 

7. When he says : ' The great stood in the midst 
of the worlds,' the great one in the midst of the 
world is meant for this Aditya, the sun. 

8. When he says : ' The blowing entered the 
Harits,' he means that Vayu, the air, the purifier, 
entered all the corners of the earth *. 

Second Khamda. 

1. People say: ' Uktha, uktha,' hymns, hymns! 
(without knowing what uktha, hymn 3 , means.) The 

1 Vang&A is explained by vanagatA yriksh&h ; avagadhM is ex- 
plained by vrihiyavSdya oshadhayaA; irapdd&A is explained by uraA- 
pad&4 sarpaA. Possibly they are all old ethnic names, like Vahga, 
A"era, &c. In Anandattrtha's commentary vayiwsi are explained 
by Pua£a, Vang&vagadhas by Rakshasa, and Irapadas by Asuras. 

* Three classes of men go to Naraka(hell); the fourth class, full 
of faith and desirous of reaching the highest world, worships Agni, 
Vayu, and other gods. Coram. 

* The Coram, explains uktha as that from whence the favour 
of the gods arises, uttish/4aty anena devat&prasada iti vyutpatte/i. 

Digitized by 



hymn is truly (to be considered as) the earth, for 
from it all whatsoever exists arises. 

2. The object of its praise is Agni (fire), and the 
eighty verses (of the hymn) are food, for by means 
of food one obtains everything. 

3. The hymn is truly the sky, for the birds fly 
along the sky, and men drive following the sky. 
The object of its praise is Vayu (air), and the eighty 
verses (of the hymn) are food, for by means of food 
one obtains everything. 

4. The hymn is truly the heaven, for from- its gift 
(rain) all whatsoever exists arises. The object of its 
praise is Aditya (the sun), and the eighty verses are 
food, for by means of food one obtains everything. 

5. So much with reference to the gods (mytholo- 
gical) ; now with reference to man (physiological). 

6. The hymn is truly man. He is great, he is 
Pragupati. Let him think, I am the hymn. 

7. The hymn is his mouth, as before in the case 
of the earth. 

8. The object of its praise is speech, and the 
eighty verses (of the hymn) are food, for by means 
of food he obtains everything. 

9. The hymn is the nostrils, as before in the 
case of the sky. 

10. The object of its praise is breath, and the 
eighty verses (of the hymn) are food, for by means 
of food he obtains everything. 

1 1. The slight bent (at the root) of the nose is, as 
it were, the place of the brilliant (Aditya, the sun). 

The object is now to show that the uktha or hymn used at the 
Mahavrata ceremony has a deeper meaning than it seems to have, 
and that its highest aim is Brahman ; not, however, the highest 
Brahman, but Brahman considered as life (prawa). 

Digitized by 



1 2. The hymn is the forehead, as before in the 
case of heaven. The object of its praise is the 
eye, and the eighty verses (of the hymn) are food, 
for by means of food he obtains everything. 

13. The eighty verses (of the hymn) are alike 
food with reference to the gods as well as with 
reference to man. For all these beings breathe and 
live by means of food indeed. By food (given in 
alms, &c.) he conquers this world, by food (given 
m sacrifice) he conquers the other. Therefore the 
eighty verses (of the hymn) are alike food, with refer- 
ence to the gods as well as with reference to man. 

14. All this that is food, and all this that con- 
sumes food, is only the earth, for from the earth 
arises all whatever there is. 

15. And all that goes hence (dies on earth), 
heaven consumes it all ; and all that goes thence 
(returns from heaven to a new life) the earth con- 
sumes it all. 

16. That earth is thus both food and consumer. 
He also (the true worshipper who meditates on 

himself as being the uktha) is both consumer and 
consumed (subject and object '). No one possesses 
that which he does not eat, or the things which do 
not eat him 2 . 

1 As a master who lives by his servants, while his servants live 
by him. Coram. 

* I have translated these paragraphs, as much as possible, accord- 
ing to the commentator. I doubt whether, either in the original or 
in the interpretation of the commentator, they yield any very definite 
sense. They are vague speculations, vague, at least, to us, though 
intended by the Brahmans to give a deeper meaning to certain 
ceremonial observances connected with the Mahavrata. The uktha, 
or hymn, which is to be meditated on, as connected with the 
sacrifice, is part of the Mahavrata, an important ceremony, to be 

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ii Aravyaka, i adhyAya, 3 khaaba, 2. 205 

Third Khanda. 

1. Next follows the origin of seed. The seed 
of Pra^apati are the Devas (gods). The seed of 
the Devas is rain. The seed of rain are herbs. 
The seed of herbs is food. The seed of food is 
seed. The seed of seed are creatures. The seed 
of creatures is the heart The seed of the heart 
is the mind. The seed of the mind is speech (Veda). 
The seed of speech is action (sacrifice). The action 
done (in a former state) is this man, the abode of 

2. He (man) consists of food (ira), and because 
he consists of food (iramaya), he consists of gold 
(hira»maya *). He who knows this becomes golden 
in the other world, and is seen as golden (as the 
sun) for the benefit of all beings. 

performed on the last day but one (the twenty-fourth) of the 
Gavamayana sacrifice. That sacrifice lasts a whole year, and 
its performance has been fully described in the BrShma«as and 
Aranyakas. But while the ordinary performer of the Mahavrata 
has simply to recite the uktha or nishkevalya-iastra, consisting of 
eighty verses (trifa.) in the Gayatri, Bnhatf, and Ushmh metres, 
the more advanced worshipper (or priest) is to know that this 
uktha has a deeper meaning, and is to meditate on it as being 
the earth, sky, heaven, also as the human body, mouth, nostrils, 
and forehead. The worshipper is in fact to identify himself by 
meditation with the uktha in all its senses, and thus to become 
the universal spirit or Hirawyagarbha. By this process he becomes 
the consumer and consumed, the subject and object, of everything, 
while another sacrificer, not knowing this, remains in his limited 
individual sphere, or, as the text expresses it, does not possess 
what he cannot eat (perceive), or what cannot eat him (perceive 
him). The last sentence is explained differently by the com- 
mentator, but in connexion with the whole passage it seems to 
me to become more intelligible, if interpreted as I have proposed 
to interpret it. 

1 Play on words. Comm. 

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206 aitareya-Aranyaka. 

Fourth Khanda. 
i. Brahman (in the shape of pra»a, breath) entered 
into that man by the tips of his feet, and because 
Brahman entered (prapadyata) into that man by 
the tips of his feet, therefore people call them the 
tips of the feet (prapada), but hoofs and claws in 
other animals. 

2. Then Brahman crept up higher, and therefore 
they were (called) 1 the thighs (uru). 

3. Then he said : ' Grasp wide,' and that was 
(called) the belly (udara). 

4. Then he said : ' Make room for me,' and that 
was (called) the chest (uras). 

5. The .Sarkarakshyas meditate on the belly as 
Brahman, the Aru«is on the heart 2 . Both (these 
places) are Brahman indeed 8 , 

6. But Brahman crept upwards and came to the 
head, and because he came to the head, therefore 
the head is called head *. 

7. Then these delights alighted in the head, 
sight, hearing, mind, speech, breath. 

8. Delights alight on him who thus knows, why 
the head is called head. 

9. These (five delights or senses) strove to- 
gether, saying : ' I am the uktha (hymn), I am the 
uktha 6 .' ' Well,' they said, ' let us all go out from 

1 These are all plays on words. Comm. 
1 This does not appear to be the case either in the Kh. Up. V, 
>5> 17, or in the ■Satapatha-br&hmana X, 6, 1. 

* The pluti in t&3i is explained as x&strtyaprasiddhyarthd. 

* All puns, as if we were to say, because he hied up to the head, 
therefore the head was called head. 

* Each wished to be identified with the uktha, as it was said 
before that the human body, mouth, nostrils, forehead were to be 
identified with the uktha. Cf. Kaush. Up. Ill, 3. 

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n Arajvyaka, i adhyAya, 4 khanda, 17. 207 

this body ; then on whose departure this body shall 
fall, he shall be the uktha among us 1 .' 

10. Speech went out, yet the body without 
speaking remained, eating and drinking. 

Sight went out, yet the body without seeing re- 
mained, eating and drinking. 

Hearing went out, yet the body without hearing 
remained, eating and drinking. 

Mind went out, yet the body, as if blinking, re- 
mained, eating and drinking. 

Breath went out, then when breath was gone out, 
the body fell. 

11. It was decayed, and because people said, it / 
decayed, therefore it was (called) body (yarira). / 
That is the reason of its name. ' 

12. If a man knows this, then the evil enemy 
who hates him decays, or the evil enemy who hates 
him is defeated. 

1 3. They strove again, saying : ' I am the uktha, 
I am the uktha.' ' Well,' they said, ' let us enter 
that body again ; then on whose entrance this body 
shall rise again, he shall be the uktha among us.' 

14. Speech entered, but the body lay still. Sight 
entered, but the body lay still. Hearing entered, 
but the body lay still. Mind entered, but the body 
lay still. Breath entered, and when breath had 
entered, the body rose, and it became the uktha. 

15. Therefore breath alone is the uktha. 

16. Let people know that breath is the uktha 

17. The Devas (the other senses) said to breath: 
' Thou art the uktha, thou art all this, we are thine, 
thou art ours.' 

1 Cf. Kh. Up. V, 1; Bnh. Up. VI, 1; Kaush. Up. II, 12-14; 
III, a; Pr&ma Up. II, 1. 

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208 aitareya-Araatyaka. 

i 8. This has also been said by a J&shi (Rv. 
VIII, 92, 32): 'Thou art ours, we are thine/ 

Fifth Kha^da. 

1. Then the Devas carried him (the breath) 
forth, and being carried forth, he was stretched out, 
and when people said, ' He was stretched out,' then 
it was in the morning ; when they said, ' He is gone 
to rest,' then it was in the evening. Day, therefore, 
is the breathing up, night the breathing down \ 

2. Speech is Agni, sight that Aditya (sun), mind 
the moon, hearing the DLr (quarters) : this is the 
prahitaw sawyoga *, the union of the deities as sent 
forth. These deities (Agni, &c.) are thus in the 
body, but their (phenomenal) appearance yonder is 
among the deities — this was intended. 

3. And Hirawyadat Vaida also, who knew this 
(and who by his knowledge had become Hira»ya- 
garbha or the universal spirit), said : ' Whatever 
they do not give to me, they do not possess them- 
selves.' I know the prahitiw sawyoga, the union of 
the deities, as entered into the body 8 . This is it 

1 All these are plays on words, pritar being derived from 
pr&t&yi, sSyam from samagdt. The real object, however, is to 
show that breath, which is the uktha, which is the worshipper, is 
endowed with certain qualities, viz. time, speech, &c. 

1 The meaning is, that the four deities, Agni, Aditya, Moon, 
and the Dis proceed from their own places to dwell together in 
the body of man, and that this is called the prahitiVn samyogaA. 
Prahit is explained as prahita, placed, sent. It is probably formed 
from hi, not from dhiL PrahitoA sajnyogzna.ra is the name of a 
S&man, Ind. Stud. Ill, 225. As Devas or gods they appear each 
in its own place. The whole passage is very obscure. 

' All this is extremely obscure, possibly incorrect For yam, 
unless it refers to some other word, we expect yan. For dadyuA 
one expects dady&t. What is intended is that Hirawyadat had 

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ii Arajvyaka, i adhyAya, 6 khajvba, 4. 209 

4. To him who knows this all creatures, without 
being constrained, offer gifts. 

5. That breath is (to be called) sattya (the true), 
for sat is breath, ti is food, yam is the sun 1 . This is 
threefold, and threefold the eye also may be called, 
it being white, dark, and the pupil. He who knows 
why true is true (why sattya is sattya), even if he 
should speak falsely, yet what he says is true. 

Sixth Khajvda. 

1. Speech is his (the breath's) rope, the names the 
knots 2 . Thus by his speech as by a rope, and by his 
names as by knots, all this is bound. For all this are 
names indeed, and with speech he calls everything. 

2. People carry him who knows this, as if they 
were bound by a rope. 

3. Of the body of the breath thus meditated on, 
the Ush»ih verse forms the hairs, the Gayatri the 
skin, the Trish/ubh the flesh, the Anush/ubh the 
muscles, the the bone, the Pankti the mar- 
row, the BWhatt the breath* (pra»a). He is covered 
with the verses (Pandas, metres). Because he is 
thus covered with verses, therefore they call them 
Mandas (coverings, metres). 

4. If a man knows the reason why Pandas are 
called Pandas, the verses cover him in whatever 
place he likes against any evil deed. 

through meditation acquired identity with the universal spirit, and 
that therefore he might say that whatever was not surrendered to 
him did not really belong to anybody. On Hirawyadat, see Ait 
BrShm. Ill, 6. 
*a.Kh. Up. VIII, 3, 5. 

* The rope is supposed to be the chief rope to which various 
smaller ropes are attached for fastening animals. 

* Here conceived as the air breathed, not as the deity. Comm. 

[3] P 

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5. This is said by a JUsbi (Rv. 1, 164, 13): — 

6. ' I saw (the breath) as a guardian, never tiring, 
coming and going on his ways (the arteries). That 
breath (in the body, being identified with the sun 
among the Devas), illuminating the principal and 
intermediate quarters of the sky, is returning con- 
stantly in the midst of the worlds.' 

He says: 'I saw a guardian,' because he, the 
breath, is a guardian, for he guards everything. 

7. He says : ' Never tiring,' because the breath 
never rests. 

8. He says : ' Coming and going on his ways,' 
because the breath comes and goes on his ways. 

9. He says : ' Illuminating the principal and in- 
termediate,' because he illuminates these only, the 
principal and intermediate quarters of the sky. 

10. He says : ' He is returning constantly in the 
midst of the worlds,' because he returns indeed 
constantly in the midst of the worlds. 

11. And then, there is another verse (Rv. I, 55, 
81): 'They are covered like caves by those who 
make them,' 

1 2. For all this is covered indeed by breath. 

1 3. This ether is supported by breath as Br/hatt, 
and as this ether is supported by breath as Brihatl, 
so one should know that all things, not excepting 
ants, are supported by breath as Brzhatt. 

Seventh Khanda. 

1. Next follow the powers of that Person 1 . 

2. By his speech earth and fire were created. 

1 The purusha, as described before in the second chapter, is the 
Pra<f Spati or universal spirit with whom the worshipper is to identify 
himself by meditation. The manifestations of his power consist in 
creating the earth, fire, the sky, the air, heaven, the sun. 

Digitized by 


ii Arajvyaka, i adhyAya, 7 khamda, 6. 211 

Herbs are produced on the earth, and ■ Agni (fire) 
makes them ripe and sweet ' Take this, take this,' 
thus saying do earth and fire serve their parent, 

3. As far as the earth reaches, as far as fire 
reaches, so far does his world extend, and as long as 
the world of the earth and fire does not decay, so 
long does his world not decay who thus knows 
this power of speech. 

4. By breath (in the nose) the sky and the air 
were created. People follow the sky, and hear 
along the sky, while the air carries along pure scent. 
Thus do sky and air serve their parent, the breath. 

As far as the sky reaches, as far as the air 
reaches, so far does his world extend, and as long as 
the world of the sky and the air does not decay, so 
long does his world not decay who thus knows this 
power of breath. 

5. By his eye heaven and the sun were created. 
Heaven gives him rain and food, while the sun 
causes his light to shine. Thus do the heaven and 
the sun serve their parent, the eye. 

As far as heaven reaches and as far as the sun 
reaches, so far does his world extend, and as long 
as the world of heaven and the sun does not decay, 
so long does his world not decay who thus knows 
the power of the eye. 

6. By his ear the quarters and the moon were 
created. From all the quarters they come to him, 
and from all the quarters he hears, while the moon 
produces for him the bright and the dark halves for 
the sake of sacrificial work. Thus do the quarters 
and the moon serve their parent, the ear. 

As far as the quarters reach and as far as the 

P 2 

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moon reaches, so far does his world extend, and as 
long as the world of the quarters and the moon does 
not decay, so long does his world not decay who 
thus knows the power of the ear. 

7. By his mind the water and Varu«a were 
created. Water yields to him faith (being used for 
sacred acts), Varu«a keeps his offspring within the 
law. Thus do water and Vanma serve their parent, 
the mind. 

As far as water reaches and as far as Varu»a 
reaches, so far does his world extend, and as long 
as the world of water and Varu»a does not decay, 
so long does his world not decay who thus knows 
the power of the mind. 

Eighth Khanda 1 . 

1. Was it water really ? Was it water ? Yes, 
all this was water indeed. This (water) was the root 
(cause), that (the world) was the shoot (effect). He 
(the person) is the father, they (earth, fire, &c.) are 
the sons. Whatever there is belonging to the son, 
belongs to the father ; whatever there is belonging to 
the father, belongs to the son. This was intended*. 

2. Mahidasa Aitareya, who knew this, said : ' I 
know myself (reaching) as far as the gods, and I 
know the gods (reaching) as far as me. For these 

1 Having described how Pr£«a, the breath, and his companions 
or servants created the world, he now discusses the question of 
the material cause of the world out of which it was created. 
Water, which is said to be the material of the world, is explained 
by the commentator to mean here the five elements. 

* Cause and effect are not entirely separated, therefore water, 
as the elementary cause, and earth, fire, &c, as its effect, are one ; 
likewise the worshipper, as the father, and the earth, fire, &c. as his 
sons, as described above. Mfila and tula, root and shoot, are evi- 
dently chosen for the sake of the rhyme, to signify cause and effect. 

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ii Arajvyaka, i adhyAya, 8 khajvda, 12. 213 

gods receive their gifts from hence, and are sup- 
ported from hence.' 

3. This is the mountain 1 , viz. eye, ear, mind, 
speech, and breath. They call it the mountain of 

4. He who knows this, throws down the evil 
enemy who hates him ; the evil enemy who hates 
him is defeated. 

5. He (the Pra«a, identified with Brahman) is the 
life, the breath ; he is being (while the ^tvatman 
remains), and not-being (when the^ivatman departs). 

6. The Devas (speech, &c.) worshipped him 
(pri»a) as Bhuti or being, and thus they became 
great beings. And therefore even now a man who 
sleeps, breathes like bhurbhu^. 

7. The Asuras worshipped him as Abhuti or not- 
being, and thus they were defeated. 

8. He who knows this, becomes great by himself, 
while the evil enemy who hates him, is defeated. 

9. He (the breath) is death (when he departs), 
and immortality (while he abides). 

10. And this has been said by a .tfishi (Rv. I, 
164, 38) :— 

11. ' Downwards and upwards he (the wind of the 
breath) goes, held by food ; ' — for this up-breathing, 
being held back by the down-breathing, does not 
move forward (and leave the body altogether). 

12. ' The immortal dwells with the mortal ; ' — for 
through him (the breath) all this dwells together, 
the bodies being clearly mortal, but this being (the 
breath), being immortal. 

1 Pra«a is called the giriA, because it is swallowed or hidden by 
the other senses (gira»$t). Again a mere play of words, intended 
to show that Brahman under the form of Pribra, or life, is to be 
meditated on. 

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13. ' These two (body and breath) go for ever in 
different directions (the breath moving the senses of 
the body, the body supporting the senses of the 
breath : the former going upwards to another world, 
the body dying and remaining on earth). They 
increase the one (the body), but they do not increase 
the other,' i. e. they increase these bodies (by food), 
but this being (breath) is immortal. 

14. He who knows this becomes immortal in that 
world (having become united with Hira«yagarbha), 
and is seen as immortal (in the sun) by all beings, 
yea, by all beings. 


First Khaot>a. 

1. He (the sun), who shines, honoured this world 
(the body of the worshipper, by entering into it), in 
the form of man 2 (the worshipper who meditates on 
breath). For he who shines (the sun) is (the same 
as) the breath. He honoured this (body of the 
worshipper) during a hundred years, therefore there 
are a hundred years in the life of a man. Because 
he honoured him during a hundred years, therefore 
there are (the poets of the first Mawoala of the Rig- 
veda, called) the *Satar>£in, (having honour for a 

1 In the first adhyaya various forms of meditating on Uktha, 
conceived as Prawa (life), have been declared. In the second some 
other forms of meditation, all extremely fanciful, are added. They 
are of interest, however, as showing the existence of the hymns 
of the Rig-veda, divided and arranged as we now possess them, 
at the time when this Arawyaka was composed. 

* The identity of the sun and of breath as living in man has 
been established before. It is the same power in both, conceived 
either adhidaivatam (mythological) or adhydtmam (physiological). 

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hundred years.) Therefore people call him who is 
really Pra»a (breath), the <Satar£in poets l . 

2. He (breath) placed himself in the midst of all 
whatsoever exists. Because he placed himself in 
the midst of all whatsoever exists, therefore there 
are (the poets of the second to the ninth Ma«</ala of 
the Rig-veda, called) the Madhyamas. Therefore 
people call him who is really Pra#a (breath), the 
Madhyama poets. 

3. He as up-breathing is the swallower (gmsa), as 
down-breathing he is delight (mada). Because as 
up-breathing he is swallower (gmsa) and as down- 
breathing delight (mada), therefore there is (the 
poet of the second Ma«dala of the Rig-veda, called) 
Grstsamada. Therefore people call him who is 
really Pra»a (breath), Gr/tsamada. 

4. Of him (breath) all this whatsoever was a 
friend. Because of him all (vLrvam) this whatsoever 
was a friend (mitram), therefore there is (the poet of 
the third Ma#dala of the Rig-veda, called) Vwva- 
mitra. Therefore people call him who is really 
Pra#a (breath), VLrvdmitra. 

5. The Devas (speech, &c.) said to him (the 
breath) : ' He is to be loved by all of us.' Because 
the Devas said of him, that he was to be loved 
(v&ma) by all of them, therefore there is (the poet 
of the fourth Maadala of the Rig-veda, called) Vama- 
deva. Therefore people call him who is really 
Pra»a (breath), Vamadeva. 

6. He (breath) guarded all this whatsoever from 
evil. Because he guarded (atrayata) all this whatso- 

1 The real ground for the name is that the poets of the first 
Mandala composed on an average each about a hundred Rik 

Digitized by 


2 1 6 aitareya-Arajvyaka. 

ever from evil, therefore there are (the poets of the 
fifth Ma»afala of the Rig-veda, called) Atraya^. 
Therefore people call him who is really Prawa 
(breath), AtrayaA 

Second Khajvca. 

i. He (breath) is likewise a Bibhradv%a (bringer 
of offspring). Offspring is va^a, and he (breath) 
supports offspring. Because he supports it, there- 
fore there is (the poet of the sixth Ma»<fela of the 
Rig-veda, called) Bharadva^a. Therefore people 
call him who is really Pra#a (breath), Bharadva^a. 

2. The Devas (speech, &c.) said to him : 'He it 
is who chiefly causes us to dwell on earth.' Because 
the Devas said of him, that he chiefly caused them 
to dwell on earth, therefore there is (the poet of the 
seventh Ma#dkla of the Rig-veda, called) VasishAfta. 
Therefore people call him who is really Pra#a 
(breath), VasishMa 1 . 

3. He (breath) went forth towards 8 all this what- 
soever. Because he went forth toward all this what- 
soever, therefore there are (the poets of the eighth 
Ma«oiala of the Rig-veda, called) the Pragathas. 
Therefore people call him who is really Pra»a 
(breath), the Pragathas. 

4. He (breath) purified all this whatsoever. Be- 
cause he purified all this whatsoever, therefore there 

1 I translate in accordance with the commentator, and probably 
■with the intention of the author. The same etymology is repeated 
in the commentary on II, 2, 4, 2. It would be more natural to 
take vasish/Aa in the sense of the richest. 

* This is the interpretation of the commentator, and the pre- 
position abhi seems to show that the author too took that view 
of the etymology of pragatha. 

Digitized by 



are (the hymns and also the poets ' of the ninth 
Mawdala of the Rig-veda, called) the Pavamanls. 
Therefore people called him who is really Pra#a 
(breath), the Pavamanis. 

5. He (breath) said : ' Let me be everything 
whatsoever, small (kshudra) and great (mahat), and 
this became the Kshudrasuktas and Mahasuktas.' 
Therefore there were (the hymns and also the poets 
of the tenth of the Rig-veda, called) the 
Kshudrasuktas (and Mahasuktas). Therefore people 
call him who is really Pra»a (breath), the Kshu- 
drasuktas (and Mahasuktas). 

6. He (breath) said once : ' You have said what 
is well said (su-ukta) indeed. This became a Sukta 
(hymn).' Therefore there was the Sukta. There- 
fore people call him who is really Pra#a (breath), 
Sukta 2 . 

7. He (breath) is a Rik (verse), for he did 
honour s to all beings (by entering into them). 
Because he did honour to all beings, therefore there 
was the Rik verse. Therefore people call him who 
is really Pri#a (breath), Rik. 

8. He (breath) is an Ardharia (half-verse), for he 
did honour to all places (ardha) *. Because he did 
honour to all places, therefore there was the Ar- 
dhar^a. Therefore people call him who is really 
Pra*a (breath), Ardharia. 

1 It seems, indeed, as if in the technical language of the 
Brahmans, the poets of the ninth Maadala were sometimes called 
Pavamants, and the hymns of the tenth Maw/ala Kshudrasuktas and 
Mahisuktas (raasc.) Cf. Arsheya-brdhmana, ed. Burnell, p. 43. 

1 The poet also is called Sukta, taddrash/api suktan&mako 'bhut. 

' I translate according to the commentator. 

* Ardha means both half and place. 

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2i8 aitareya-Ara^yaka. 

9. He (breath) is a Pada (word) \ for he got into 
all these beings. Because he got (padi) into all 
these beings, therefore there was the Pada (word). 
Therefore people call him who is really Pri«a 
(breath), Pada. 

10. He (breath) is an Akshara (syllable), for he 
pours out (ksharati) gifts to all these beings, and 
without him no one can pour out (atiksharati) gifts. 
Therefore there was the Akshara (syllable). There- 
fore people call him who is really Pra#a (breath), 
Akshara 2 . 

11. Thus all these Rik verses, all Vedas, all 
sounds 8 are one word, viz. Pra«a (breath). Let 
him know that Prawa is all Rik verses. 

Third Khavda. 

1. While VLrvamitra was going to repeat the 
hymns of this day (the mahavrata), Indra sat down 
near him*. VLrvamitra (guessing that Indra wanted 
food) said to him, ' This (the verses of the hymn) is 
food,' and repeated the thousand Brihatt verses 8 . 

1 It may also be intended for pSda, foot of a verse. 
1 The PrSwa (breath) is to be meditated on as all hymns, all 
poets, all words, &c. Comm. 

* All aspirated sonant consonants. Comm. 

* Upanishasasada, instead of upanishasada. The mistake is 
probably due to a correction, sa for sha ; the commentator, how- 
ever, considers it as a Vedic license. Sakaro 'dhiluu AAindasaA. 

6 These are meant for the Nishkevalya hymn recited at the 
noon-libation of the Mahavrata. That hymn consists of ten 
parts, corresponding, as we saw, to ten parts of a bird, viz. its 
body, neck, head, root of wings, right wing, left wing, tail, belly, 
chest, and thighs. The verses corresponding to these ten parrs, 
beginning with tad id isa bhuvaneshu gyeshth&m, are given in the 
first Ara*yaka, and more fully in the fifth. Ara»yaka by .Saunaka. 

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By means of this he went to the delightful home of 
Indra (Svarga). 

2. Indra said to him : ' Hishi, thou hast come to 
my delightful home, JZisbi, repeat a second hymn V 
Virvamitra (guessing that Indra wanted food) said 
to him, ' This (the verses of the hymn) is food,' and 
repeated the thousand Brzhatt verses. By means 
of this he went to the delightful home of Indra 

3. Indra said to him : ' .fo'shi, thou hast come to 
my delightful home. jRtshi, repeat a third hymn.' 
Virvamitra (guessing that Indra wanted food) said 
to him, ' This (the verses of the hymn) is food,' and 
repeated the thousand Bnhati verses. By means 
of this he went to the delightful home of Indra 

4. Indra said to him : ' ^'shi, thou hast come to 
my delightful home. I grant thee a boon.' VLrva- 
mitra said : 'May I know thee.' Indra said : ' I am 
Pra«a (breath), O 7?/shi, thou art Pr£»a, all things 
are Pra»a. For it is Pra»a who shines as the sun, 
and I here pervade all regions under that form. 
This food of mine (the hymn) is my friend and my 
support (dakshi«a). This is the food prepared by 
VLrvamitra. I am verily he who shines (the sun).' 

Though they consist of many metres, yet, when one counts the 
syllables, they give a thousand Bnhati verses, each consisting of 
thirty-six syllables. 

1 Although the Nishkevalya is but one hymn, consisting of 
eighty traias, yet as these eighty trikas were represented as three 
kinds of food (see Ait. Ar. II, 1, 2, 2-4), the hymn is represented 
as three hymns, first as eighty Gayatrt trtfas, then as eighty 
Bnnatt tri&is, lastly as eighty Ushwih irifas. 

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Fourth Khajvca. 

i. This then becomes perfect as a thousand of 
Br/hatt verses. Its consonants * form its body, its 
voice* (vowels) the soul 8 , its sibilants 4 the air of 
the breath. 

2. He who knew this became VasishMa, he took 
this name from thence 8 . 

3. Indra verily declared this to Virvamitra, and 
Indra verily declared this to Bharadva^a. There- 
fore Indra is invoked by him as a friend *. 

4. This becomes perfect as a thousand of Brthati 
verses 7 , and of that hymn perfect with a thousand 
Bnhati verses, there are 36,000 syllables 8 . So 
many are also the thousands of days of a hundred 
years (36,000). With the consonants they fill the 
nights, with the vowels the days. 

5. This becomes perfect as a thousand of Brzhati 
verses. He who knows this, after this thousand of 
Brzhatts thus accomplished, becomes full of know- 
ledge, full of the gods, full of Brahman, full of the 
immortal, and then goes also to the gods. 

6. What I am (the worshipper), that is he (sun) ; 
what he is, that am I. 

1 Vyafi^an&ni, explained by k&dini. 

1 Ghosha, explained by aspirated sonant consonants. 

* AtmS, explained by madhyarartram. 
4 SashasahSA. Comm. 

* He became Pr£»a, and because PrSwa causes all to dwell, or 
covers all (v&sayati), therefore the Hishi was called VasishMa. 
Comm. Cf. Ait. Ar. II, 2, 2, 2. 

* At the Subrahmanyi ceremony in the Soma sacrifices, the 
invocations are, Indra & ga££Aa, hariva a gal£ia. 

7 Cf. Ait. Ar. II, 3, 8, 8. 

8 Each Br&atf has thirty-six syllables. 

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7. This has been said by a jfo'shi (Rv. I, 115, i) : 
' The sun is the self of all that moves and rests.' 

8. Let him look to that, let him look to that ! 


First Khanda. 

1. He who knows himself as the fivefold hymn 
(uktha), the emblem of Pra»a (breath), from whence 
all this springs 2 , he is clever. These five are the 
earth, air, ether, water, and fire (fyotis). This is 
the self, the fivefold uktha. For from him all this 
springs, and into him it enters again (at the dissolu- 
tion of the world). He who knows this, becomes 
the refuge of his friends. 

2. And to him who knows the food (object) and 
the feeder (subject) in that uktha, a strong son is 
born, and food is never wanting. Water and earth 
are food, for all food consists of these two. Fire 
and air are the feeder, for by means of them s man 
eats all food. Ether is the bowl, for all this is 
poured into the ether. He who knows this, be- 
comes the bowl or support of his friends. 

3. To him who knows the food and the feeder 
in that uktha, a strong son is born, and food is 
never wanting. Herbs and trees are food, animals 
the feeder, for animals eat herbs and trees. 

4. Of them again those who have teeth above 

1 In this adhyaya some more qualities are explained belonging 
to the Mahavrata ceremonial and the hymns employed at it, which 
can be meditated on as referring to Prana, life. 

* Because the world is the result or reward for performing a 
meditation on the uktha. Comm. 

* The digestive fire is lighted by the air of the breath. Comm. 

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and below, shaped after the likeness of man, are 
feeders, the other animals are food. Therefore 
these overcome the other animals, for the eater is 
over the food. 

5. He who knows this is over his friends. 

Second Khajtoa 1 . 

1. He who knows the gradual development of 
the self in him (the man conceived as the uktha), 
obtains himself more development. 

2. There are herbs and trees and all that is ani- 
mated, and he knows the self gradually developing 
in them. For in herbs and trees sap only is seen *, 
but thought (iitta) in animated beings. 

3. Among animated beings again the self de- 
velops gradually, for in some sap (blood) is seen 
(as well as thought), but in others thought is not 

4. And in man again the self develops gradually, 
for he is most endowed with knowledge. He says 
what he 1 has known, he sees what he has known 3 . 
He knows what is to happen to-morrow, he knows 
heaven and hell. By means of the mortal he desires 
the immortal — thus is he endowed. 

5. With regard to the other animals" hunger and 
thirst only are a kind of understanding. But they 
do not say what they have known, nor do they see 

1 This treats of the gradual development of life in man, parti- 
cularly of the development of a thinking soul (laitanya). 

1 In stones there is not even sap, but only being, satta. Comm. 

' What he has known yesterday he remembers, and is able 
to say before men, I know this. And when he has known a 
thing he remembers it, and goes to the same place to see it again. 

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what they have known. They do not know what 
is to happen to-morrow, nor heaven and hell. They 
go so far and no further, for they are born according 
to their knowledge (in a former life). 

Third Khajv^a. 

1. That man (conceived as uktha) is the sea, 
rising beyond the whole world 1 . Whatever he 
reaches, he wishes to go beyond 2 . If he reaches the 
sky, he wishes to go beyond. 

2. If he should reach that (heavenly) world, he 
would wish to go beyond. 

3. That man is fivefold. The heat in him is fire; 
the apertures (of the senses) are ether; blood, mucus, 
and seed are water ; the body is earth ; breath is air. 

4. That air is fivefold, viz. up-breathing, down- 
breathing, back-breathing, out-breathing, on-breath- 
ing. The other powers (devatas), viz. sight, hearing, 
mind, and speech, are comprised under up-breathing 
and down-breathing. For when breath departs, they 
also depart with it. 

5. That man (conceived as uktha) is the sacrifice, 
which is a succession now of speech and now of 
thought. That sacrifice is fivefold, viz. the Agni- 
hotra, the new and full moon sacrifices, the four- 
monthly sacrifices, the animal sacrifice, the Soma 
sacrifice. The Soma sacrifice is the most perfect of 
sacrifices, for in it these five kinds of ceremonies 
are seen : the first which precedes the libations (the 
Diksha, &c), then three libations, and what follows 
(the Avabhrztha, &c.) is the fifth. 

1 Bhuloka. Comm. 

* Should it not be aty enan manyate ? 

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Fourth Khandx. 

i. He who knows one sacrifice above another, 
one day above another, one deity above the others, 
he is clever. Now this great uktha (the nishke- 
valya-Jastra) is the sacrifice above another, the day 
above another, the deity above others \ 

2. This uktha is fivefold. With regard to its 
being performed as a Stoma (chorus), it is Trivm, 
Paniadasa, Saptadara, Ekavi»«a, and PafLfcaviwsa. 
With regard to its being performed as a Saman 
(song), it is Gayatra, Rathantara, Brzhat, Bhadra, 
and Ri^ana. With regard to metre, it is Gayatrt, 
Ush»ih, Brzhati, Trish/ubh, and Dvipada. And the 
explanation (given before in the Ara#yaka) is that it 
is the head, the right wing, the left wing, the tail, 
and the body of the bird 2 . 

1 The uktha is to be conceived as prit«a, breath or life, and 
this prtbta was shown to be above the other powers (devat&s), 
speech, hearing, seeing, mind. The uktha belongs to the Mahi- 
vrata day, and that is the most important day of the Soma 
sacrifice. The Soma sacrifice, lastly, is above all other sacrifices. 

1 All these are technicalities connected with the singing and 
reciting of the uktha. The commentator says: The stoma is 
a collection of single Rik verses occurring in the trt'£as which 
have to be sung. The TrivrA stoma, as explained in the Sima- 
br&hmana, is as follows : There are three Suktas, each consisting 
of three verses, the first being upismai gayata, S. V. Uttar&rAika 
I, i, i=Rv. IX, n. The UdgStn first sings the first three verses' 
in each hymn. This is the first round. He then sings the three 
middle verses in each hymn. This is the second round. He 
lastly sings the last three verses in each hymn. This is the third 
round. This song is called Udyatt. 

The Pafiviadara stoma is formed out of one Sukta only, con- 
sisting of three verses. In the first round he sings the first verse 

* Hihkrt with dative is explained as gai with accusative. 

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3. He performs the Prastava in five ways, he 
performs the Udgttha in five ways, he performs the 

three times, the second and third once. In the second round he 
sings the middle verse three times, in the third round he sings 
the last verse three times. This song is called Vish/uti. 

The Saptadaxa stoma is formed in the same manner, only that 
in the first round he sings the first verse three times, in the second 
the middle verse three times, in the third round the middle and last 
verses three times. This song is called Darasapta. 

The Ekaviaua stoma is formed in the same manner, only that in 
the first round he sings the last verse once, in the second the 
first verse once, in the third the middle verse once, while the 
other verses are each repeated three times. This song is called 

The Patt£avi»ira stoma is formed in the same manner, only 
that in the first round he sings the first verse three times, the 
second four times, the last once; in the second round the first 
once, the second three times, the third four times ; in the third 
round the first five times, the second once, the last three times ; 
or he sings in the third round the first verse four times, the 
second twice, the last three times. 

Sayana in his commentary on the Ait. An takes the Trivr/'t 
stoma to be formed out of three hymns, each consisting of three 
verses, while he says that the other stomas are formed out of 
one hymn only. B. and R., s.v. trivrrt, state that this stoma 
consists of verses 1, 4, 7 ; 2, 5, 8 ; and 3, 6, 9 of the Rig-veda 
hymn IX, 11, but, according to Saya»a, the stoma consists (1) of 
the first verses of the three Suktas, upasmai gayata, davidyutaty£, 
and pavamanasya at the beginning of the S&ma-veda-UttararMa, 
(2) of the second, (3) of the third verses of the same three hymns. 
Mahfdhira (Yv. X, 9) takes the same view, though the MSS. seem 
to have left out the description of the second paryaya, while 
Sayawa in his commentary to the TaWya~br£hma»a seems to 
support the opinion of B. and R. There is an omission, however, 
in the printed text of the commentary, which makes it difficult 
to see the exact meaning of Sayawa. 

The Pa&v&adaxa stoma is well described by Sdyana, T&ndya Br. 
II, 4. Taking the Sukta agna i yahi (UttarSr/Kka 1, 1, 4=Rv. VI, 
16, 10- 12), he shows the stoma to consist of (1) verse 1 x 3, 2, 3 ; 
(2) verse 1,2x3,3; (3) verse 1, 2, 3 x 3. 

The five S&mans are explained by the commentator. The 

[3] Q 

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Pratihara in five ways, he performs the Upadrava in 
five ways, he performs the Nidhana in five ways *. 
All this together forms one thousand Stobhas, or 
musical syllables 8 . 

4. Thus also are the Rik verses, contained in the 
Nishkevalya, recited (by the Hot*-*') in five orders. 
What precedes the eighty trifeis, that is one order, 
then follow the three sets of eighty tri/fas each, and 
what comes after is the fifth order \ 

GSyatra is formed out of the Ri\ (III, 62, 10) tat savitur vare«yam. 
The Rathantara is formed out of the Rit (VII, 33, 22) abhi tva" 
jura nonuma. The Bnhat is formed out of the RikQJl, 46, 1) 
tv&m id dhi hav&mahe. The Bhadra is formed out of the Rik 
(X, 157, 1) imi nu kam. The Rl^ana is formed out of the 
Rik (VII, 27, 1) indraft? naro nemadhitl. 

The metres require no explanation. 

In identifying certain portions of the Nishkevalya hymn with a 
bird, the head of the bird corresponds to the hymns indram id 
g&thinaA, &c. ; the right wing to the hymns abhi tva* xura, &c. ; 
the left wing to the hymns tv&m id dhi, &c. ; the tail to the hymns 
ima" nu kam, &c ; the body to the hymns tad id isa, Ac. All 
this was explained in the first Arawyaka. 

1 The Samagas sing the Ra^ana at the Mahivrata, and in that 
Saman there are, as usual, five parts, the Prast&va, Udgitha, 
Pratihara, Upadrava, and Nidhana. The Prastotn, when singing 
the Prastiva portions, sings them five times. The Udgitr* and 
Pratihartr* sing their portions, the Udgitha and PratMra, five 
times. The Udgatr; again sings the Upadrava five times. And 
all the UdgStm together sing the Nidhana five times. 

' The Stobha syllables are syllables without any meaning, added 
when verses have to be sung, in order to have a support for the 
music. See Kh. Up. 1, 13. In singing the five Sfimans, each five 
times, one thousand of such Stobha syllables are required. 

• There are in the Nishkevalya hymn, which the Hotri' has to 
recite, three sets of eighty tn&ts each. The first, consisting of 
G&yatrts, begins with mah£» indro ya qgasS. The second, consist- 
ing of Bnhatis, begins with mi £id anyad. The third, consisting of 
Ush/rihs, begins with ya indra somap&tama. These three sets form 
the food of the bird, as the emblem of the jastra. The hymns 

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ii Araatyaka, 3 adhyAya, 5 kha^da, 5. 227 

5. This (the hymns of this .Sastra) as a whole (if 
properly counted with the Stobha syllables) comes to 
one thousand (of Brihatt verses). That (thousand) 
is the whole, and ten, ten is called the whole. For 
number is such (measured by ten). Ten tens are a 
hundred, ten hundreds are a thousand, and that is 
the whole. These are the three metres (the tens, 
pervading everything). And this food also (the 
three sets of hymns being represented as food) is 
threefold, eating, drinking, and chewing. He obtains 
that food by those (three numbers, ten, hundred, and 
thousand, or by the three sets of eighty trifas). 

Fifth Khaiwa. * 

1. This (nishkevalya-xastra) becomes perfect as a 
thousand of Bf/hati verses. 

2. Some teachers (belonging to a different .Sakha) 
recognise a thousand of different metres (not of Bri- 
hatls only). They say : 'Is another thousand (a 
thousand of other verses) good ? Let us say it is 

3. Some say, a thousand of TrishAibh verses, 
others a thousand of verses, others a thou- 
sand of Anush/ubh verses. 

4. This has been said by a JZishi (Rv. X, 124,9) : — 

5. ' Poets through their understanding discovered 
Indra dancing an Anush/ubh.' This is meant to 
say : They discovered (and meditated) in speech 
(called Anush/ubh) — at that time (when they wor- 

which precede these, form the body, head, and wings of the bird. 
This is one order. Then follow the three sets of eighty trifcts 
each ; and lastly, the fifth order, consisting of the hymns which 
form the belly and the legs of the bird. 


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228 aitareya-Arayyaka. 

shipped the uktha) — the Pra«a (breath) connected 
with Indra. 

6. He (who takes the recited verses as Anush- 
/ubhs) is able to become celebrated and of good 

7. No ! he says ; rather is such a man liable to 
die before his time. For that self (consisting of 
AnushAibhs) is incomplete. For if a man confines 
himself to speech, not to breath, then driven by his 
mind, he does not succeed with speech x . 

8. Let him work towards the Brihatt, for the 
BWhatt (breath) is the complete self. 

9. That self (^vatman) is surrounded on all sides 
by members. And as that self is on all sides sur- 
rounded by members, the Brzhatl also is on all sides 
surrounded by metres *. 

10. For the self (in the heart) is the middle of 
these members, and the Br/hatl is the middle of the 

11. ' He is able to become celebrated and of good 

1 This passage is obscure, and probably corrupt. I have 
followed the commentator as much as possible. He says: 'If 
the Hotn" priest proceeds with reciting the rostra, looking to the 
Anush/ubh, which is speech, and not to the thousand of Brihatfs 
which are breath, then, neglecting the Br/natt (breath), and 
driven by his mind to the Anush/ubh (speech), he does not by his 
speech obtain that rostra. For in speech without breath the Hotrt 
cannot, through the mere wish of the mind, say the rostra, the 
. activity of all the senses being dependent on breath.' The com- 
mentator therefore takes vagabhi for va£am abhi, or for some old 
locative case formed by abhi. He also would seem to have read 
pr£»e na. One might attempt another construction, though it is 
very doubtful. One might translate, 'For that self, which is speech, 
is incomplete, because he understands if driven to the mind by 
breath, not (if driven) by speech.' 

* Either in the rostra, or in the list of metres, there being some 
that have more, others that have less syllables. 

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report, but (the other) able to die before his time,' 
thus he said. For the Brthatt is the complete self, 
therefore let him work towards the Brthatl (let him 
reckon the xastra recitation as a thousand Bnhatis). 

Sixth Khanba. 

1. This (nishkevalya-^astra) becomes perfect as 
a thousand of Brzhati verses. In this thousand of 
Brehatis there are one thousand one hundred and 
twenty-five AnushAibhs. For the smaller is con- 
tained in the larger. 

2. This has been said by a i?*shi (Rv. VIII, 76, 

I2): ~ 

3. ' A speech of eight feet ; ' — because there are 

eight feet of four syllables each in the Anush/ubh. 

4. ' Of nine corners ; ' — because the Brzhatl be- 
comes nine-cornered (having nine feet of four sylla- 
bles each). 

5. ' Touching the truth ; ' — because speech (Anu- 
sh/ubh) is truth, touched by the verse (BnTiatt) *. 

6. ' He (the Hotn) makes the body out of Indra;' — 
for out of this thousand of BWhati Verses turned 
into AnushAibhs, and therefore out of Prawa as 
connected with Indra 2 , and out of the Bre'hati (which 
is Pra#a), he makes speech, that is AnushAibh, as a 
body 8 . 

7. This Mahaduktha is the highest development 

1 V&A, speech, .taking the form of AnushAibh, and being joined 
with the Rik, or the Br/hatt, touches the true, i. e. Piiwa, breath, 
which is to be meditated on under the form of the Br/hatt. Comm. 

* Cf. Ait. Ar. II, 2, 3, 4. 

* Because the AnushAibh is made out of the Br/hatt, the Br/hatt 
being breatli, therefore the AnushAibh is called its body. 

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of speech, and it is fivefold, viz. measured, not mea- 
sured, music, true, and untrue. 

8. A Rik verse, a gatha 1 , a kumbya 2 are mea- 
sured (metrical). A Ya^us line, an invocation, and 
general remarks s , these are not measured (they are 
in prose). A Saman, or any portion (parvan) of it, is 
music. Om is true, Na is untrue. 

9. What is true (Om) is the flower and fruit of 
speech. He is able to become celebrated and of 
good report, for he speaks the true (Om), the flower 
and fruit of speech. 

10. Now the untrue is the root 4 of speech, and as 
a tree whose root is exposed dries up and perishes, 
thus a man who says what is untrue exposes his 
root, dries up and perishes. Therefore one should 
not say what is untrue, but guard oneself from it. 

11. That syllable Om (yes) goes forward (to the 
first cause of the world) and is empty. Therefore if 
a man says Om (yes) to everything, then that (which 
he gives away) is wanting to him here 8 . If he says 
Om (yes) to everything, then he would empty him- 
self, and would not be capable of any enjoyments. 

12. That syllable Na (no) is full for oneself*. If 
a man says No to everything, then his reputation 

1 A gatha is likewise in verse, for instance, prataA pr&tar 
aim'taw te vadanti. 

* A kumbya' is a metrical precept, such as, brahma&ryasySpo- 
s&najn karma kuru, diva ma svSpsiA, &c. 

' Such as arthav&das, explanatory passages, also gossip, such as 
is common in the king's palace, laughing at people, &c. 

4 As diametrically opposed to the flowers and fruits which 
represent the true. Comm. 

5 Then that man is left empty here on earth for that enjoyment. 

* He who always says No, keeps everything to himself. 

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would become evil, and that would ruin him even 

1 3. Therefore let a man give at the proper time 
only, not at the wrong time. Thus he unites the 
true and the untrue, and from the union of those 
two he grows, and becomes greater and greater. 

14. He who knows this speech of which this (the 
mahaduktha) is a development, he is clever. A is the 
whole of speech, and manifested through different 
kinds of contact (mutes) and of wind (sibilants), it 
becomes manifold and different. 

15. Speech if uttered in a whisper is breath, if 
spoken aloud, it is body. Therefore (if whispered) 
it is almost hidden, for what is incorporeal is almost 
hidden, and breath is incorporeal. But if spoken 
aloud, it is body, and therefore it is perceptible, for 
body is perceptible. 

Seventh Khanda. 

1. This (nishkevalya-sastra) becomes perfect as 
a thousand of Br/hatls. It is glory (the glorious 
Brahman, not the absolute Brahman), it is Indra. 
Indra is the lord of all beings. He who thus knows 
Indra as the lord of all beings, departs from this 
world by loosening the bonds of life ' — so said Mahi- 
disa Aitareya. Having departed he becomes Indra 
(or Hira»yagarbha) and shines in those worlds 2 . 

1 The commentator explains visrasi by ' merging his manhood 
in the identity with all,' and doing this while still alive. Visras 
is the gradual loosening of the body, the decay of old age, but 
here it has the meaning of vairagya rather, the shaking off of all 
that ties the Self to this body -or this life. 

* The fourteen worlds in the egg of Brahman. Comm. Some 
hold that he who enters on this path, and becomes deity, does not 

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2. And with regard to this they say: 'If a man 
obtains the other world in this form (by meditating 
on the pra»a, breath, which is the uktha, the hymn 
of the mahavrata), then in what form does he obtain 
this world 1 ?' 

3. Here the blood of the woman is a form of 
Agni (fire); therefore no one should despise it And 
the seed of the man is a form of Aditya (sun) ; 
therefore no one should despise it. This self (the 
woman) gives her self (skin, blood, and flesh) to 
that self (fat, bone, and marrow), and that self 
(man) gives his self (fat, bone, and marrow) to this 
self (skin, blood, and flesh). Thus 2 these two grow 
together. In this form (belonging to the woman 
and to fire) he goes to that world (belonging to the 
man and the sun), and in that form (belonging to 
man and the sun) he goes to this world (belonging 
to the woman and to fire 3 ). 

Eighth Khanda. 

1 . H ere (with regard to obtaining H irawyagarbha) 
there are these .Slokas : 

arrive at final liberation. Others, however, show that this identifica- 
tion with the uktha, and through it with the prawa (breath) and 
Hirawyagarbha, is provisional only, and intended to prepare the 
mind of the worshipper for the reception of the highest knowledge 
of Brahman. 

1 The last line on page 246 should, I think, be the penultimate 
line of page 247. 

* The body consists of six elements, and is hence called sha7- 
kaurika. Of these, three having a white appearance (fat, bone, 
and marrow), come from the sun and from man; three having 
a red appearance, come from fire and from the woman. 

* It is well therefore to shake off this body, and by meditating 
on the uktha to obtain identity with Hirawyagarbha. Comm. 

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ii Arayyaka, 3 adhyAya, 8 khanda, 6. 233 

2. The fivefold body into which the indestructible 
(prawa, breath) enters, that body which the harnessed 
horses (the senses) draw about, that body where the 
true of the true (the highest Brahman) follows after, 
in that body (of the worshipper) all gods 1 become 

3. That body into which goes the indestructible 
(the breath) which we have joined (in meditation), 
proceeding from the indestructible (the highest 
Brahman), that body which the harnessed horses 
(the senses) draw about, that body where the 
true of the true follows after, in that body all gods 
become one. 

4. After separating themselves from the Yes and 
No of language, and of all that is hard and cruel, 
poets have discovered (what they sought for) ; de- 
pendent on names they rejoiced in what had been 
revealed *. 

5. That in which the poets rejoiced (the revealed 
nature of pra«a, breath), in it the gods exist all 
joined together. Having driven away evil by means 
of that Brahman (which is hidden in pra»a), the 
enlightened man goes to the Svarga world (becomes 
one with Hira«yagarbha s , the universal spirit). 

6. No one wishing to describe him (pra»a, breath) 
by speech, describes him by calling him 'woman,' 
' neither woman nor man,' or ' man ' (all such names 
applying only to the material body, and not to pra»a 
or breath). 

1 The worshipper identifies himself by meditation with pra»a, 
breath, which comprehends all gods. These gods (Agni and the 
rest) appear in the forms of speech, &c. Comm. 

' The prana, breath, and their identity with it through meditation 
or worship. Comm. 

* Sarvahammant hiranyagarbha iti jruteA. Comm. 

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7. Brahman (as hidden beneath pra«a) is called 
the A; and the I (ego) is gone there (the worshipper 
should know that he is uktha and pra«a). 

8. This becomes perfect as a thousand of Bri had 
verses, and of that hymn, perfect with a thousand 
Brz'hatt verses, there are 36,000 syllables. So many 
are also the thousands of days of human life 1 . By 
means of the syllable of life (the a) alone (which is 
contained in that thousand of hymns) does a man 
obtain the day of life (the mahavrata day, which com- 
pletes the number of the days in the Gavamayana 
sacrifice), and by means of the day of life (he 
obtains) the syllable of life. 

9. Now there is a chariot of the god (pra«a) 
destroying all desires (for the worlds of Indra, the 
moon, the earth, all of which lie below the place of 
Hira»yagarbha). Its front part (the point of the 
two shafts of the carriage where the yoke is fastened) 
is speech, its wheels the ears, the horses the eyes, 
the driver the mind. Pra#a (breath) mounts that 
chariot (and on it, i. e. by means of meditating on 
Prawa, he reaches Hira«yagarbha). 

10. This has been said by a ^t'shi (Rv. X, 39, 1 2) : — 

11. 'Come hither on that which is quicker than 
mind,' and (Rv. VIII, 73, 2) 'Come hither on that 
which is quicker than the twinkling of an eye,' yea, 
the twinkling of an eye 2 . 

' Cf. II, 2, 4, 4- 

1 The commentator remarks that the worship and meditation on 
the uktha as prawa, as here taught, is different from the prawavidya, 
the knowledge of pra«a, taught in the JSTAandogya, the Br/hadara- 
«yaka, &c, where pra«a or life is represented as the object of 
meditation, without any reference to the uktha or other portions 
of the Mahavrata ceremony. He enjoins that the meditation on 

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ii Arayyaka, 3 adhyAya, 8 khajvda. ' 235 

the uktha as prawa should be continued till the desired result, the 
identification of the worshipper with prina, is realised, and that 
it should afterwards be repeated until death, because otherwise the 
impression might vanish, and the reward of becoming a god, and 
going to the gods, be lost. Nor is the worship to be confined to the 
lime of the sacrifice, the Mahavrata, only, but it has to be repeated 
mentally during life. There are neither certain postures required for 
it, nor certain times and places. At the time of death, however, he 
who has become perfect in this meditation on uktha, as the emblem 
of pra«a, will have his reward. Up to a certain point his fate will be 
the same as that of other people. The activity of the senses will 
be absorbed in the mind, the activity of the mind in breath, breath 
in the activity of life, life with breath in the five elements, fire, &c, 
and these five elements will be absorbed up to their seed in the 
Paramatman or Highest Self. This ends the old birth. But then 
the subtile body, having been absorbed in the Highest Self, rises 
again in the lotus of the heart, and passing out by the channel of 
the head, reaches a ray of the sun, whether by day or by night, 
and goes at the northern or southern course of the sun to the 
road of Ar£is or light. That Ar&s, light, and other powers carry 
him on, and led by these he reaches the Brahma-loka, where he 
creates to himself every kind of enjoyment, according to his wish. 
He may create for himself a material body and enjoy all sorts 
of pleasures, as if in a state of waking, or he may, without 'such 
a body, enjoy all pleasures in mind only, as if in a dream. And as 
he creates these various bodies according to his wish, he creates 
also living souls in each, endowed with the internal organs of 
mind, and moves about in them, as he pleases. In fact this world 
is the same for the devotee (yogin) and for the Highest Self, 
except that creative power belongs truly to the latter only. At 
last the devotee gains the highest knowledge, that of the Highest 
Self in himself, and then, at the dissolution of the Brahma-loka, 
he obtains complete freedom with Brahman. 

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First Khajvda. 

With this adhy&ya begins the real Upanishad, best known under 
the name of the Aitareya-upanishad, and often separately edited, 
commented on, and translated. If treated separately, what we 
call the fourth adhyaya of the second Arawyaka, becomes the first 
adhyiya of the Upanishad, sometimes also, by counting all adhyiyas 
from the beginning of the Aitareya-irawyaka, the ninth. The 
divisions adopted by Siyawa, who explains the Upanishad as part 
of the Arawyaka, and by .Sankara, who explains it independently, 
vary, though Siyawa states that he follows in his commentary on 
the Upanishad the earlier commentary of .Sahkara. I have given 
the divisions adopted by Siyawa, and have marked those of .Sankara' s 
by figures in parentheses, placed at the end of each paragraph. 
The difference between this Upanishad and the" three preceding 
adhyiyas is easily perceived. Hitherto the answer to the question, 
Whence this world ? had been, From Priwa, priwa meaning breath 
and life, which was looked upon for a time as a sufficient explana- 
tion of all that is. From a psychological point of view this priwa 
is the conscious self (pra^fSatman) ; in a more mythological form it 
appears as Hirawyagarbha, ' the golden germ,' sometimes even as 
Indra. It is one of the chief objects of the pr&wavidyi, or life- 
knowledge, to show that the living principle in us is the same as 
the living principle in the sun, and that by a recognition of their 
identity and of the true nature of pram, the devotee, or he who has 
rightly meditated on priwa during his life, enters after death into 
the world of Hirawyagarbha. 

This is well expressed in the Kaushttaki-upanishad III, 2, where 
Indra says to Pratardana : ' I am Priwa ; meditate on me as the 
conscious self (pra^flatman), as life, as immortality. Life is priwa, 
priwa is life. Immortality is priwa, priwa is immortality. By 
priwa he obtains immortality in the other world, by knowledge 
(pra^fia) true conception. Priwa is consciousness (pra^fii), con- 
sciousness is priwa.' 

This, however, though it may have satisfied the mind of the 
Brahmans for a time, was not a final solution. That final solution 
of the problem not simply of life, but of existence, is given in the 
Upanishad which teaches that Atman, the Self, and not Priwa, 
Life, is the last and only cause of everything. In some places this 

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doctrine is laid down in all its simplicity. Our true self, it is said, 
has its true being in the Highest Self only. In other passages, 
however, and nearly in the whole of this Upanishad, this simple 
doctrine is mixed up with much that is mythological, fanciful, and 
absurd, arthavada, as the commentators call it, but as it might 
often be more truly called, anarthavada, and it is only towards the 
end that the identity of the self-conscious self with the Highest 
Self or Brahman is clearly enuntiated. 

Adoration to the Highest Self. Hari, Om ! 

1. Verily, in the beginning 1 all this was Self, one 
only ; there was nothing else blinking 2 whatsoever. 

2. He thought : ' Shall I send forth worlds ?' (i) 
He sent forth these worlds, 

3. Ambhas (water), Marl^i (light), Mara (mortal), 
and Ap (water). 

4. That Ambhas (water) is above the heaven, and 
it is heaven, the support. The Marliis (the lights) are 
the sky. The Mara (mortal) is the earth, and the 
waters under the earth are the Ap world 3 . (2) 

1 Before the creation. Comm. 

1 Blinking, mishat, i. e. living ; cf. Rv. X, 190, 2, vuvasya mishato 
varf, the lord of all living. Saya»a seems to take mishat as a 
3rd pers. sing. 

* The names of the four worlds are peculiar. Ambhas means 
water, and is the name given to the highest world, the waters above 
the heaven, and heaven itself. Mari£is are rays, here used as a 
name of the sky, antariksha. Mara means dying, and the earth 
is called so, because all creatures living there must die. Ap is 
water, here explained as the waters under the earth. The usual 
division of the world is threefold, earth, sky, and heaven. Here it 
is fourfold, the fourth division being the water round the earth, or, 
as the commentator says, under the earth. Ambhas was probably 
intended for the highest heaven (dyaus), and was then explained 
both as what is above the heaven and as heaven itself, the support. 
If we translate, like .Sankara and Colebrooke, 'the water is the 
region above the heaven which heaven upholds,' we should lose 
heaven altogether, yet heaven, as the third with sky and earth, is 
essential in the Indian view of the world. 

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5. He thought: 'There are these worlds; shall I 
send forth guardians of the worlds ? ' 

He then formed the Purusha (the person) 1 , taking 
him forth from the water *. (3) 

6. He brooded on him *, and when that person had 
thus been brooded on, a mouth burst forth * like an 
egg. From the mouth proceeded speech, from 
speech Agni (fire)*. 

Nostrils burst forth. From the nostrils pro- 
ceeded scent (pra«a) •, from scent Vayu (air). 

Eyes burst forth. From the eyes proceeded 
sight, from sight Aditya (sun). 

Ears burst forth. From the ears proceeded hear- 
ing, from hearing the Dis (quarters of the world). 

Skin burst forth. From the skin proceeded hairs 
(sense of touch), from the hairs shrubs and trees. 

The heart burst forth. From the heart proceeded 
mind, from mind Aandramas (moon). 

The navel burst forth. From the navel proceeded 
the Apana (the down-breathing) 7 , from Apana death. 

1 Purusha ; an embodied being, Colebrooke; a being of human 
shape, RSer ; purushakaram vir&tpindaxn, Sayawa. 

* According to the commentator, from the five elements, begin- 
ning with water. That person is meant for the Vir&#. 

* Tap, as the commentator observes, does not mean here and in 
similar passages to perform austerities (tapas), such as the Krikkhn, 
the .ffandrayawa, &c, but to conceive and to wifl and to create by 
mere will. I have translated it by brooding, though this expresses 
a part only of the meaning expressed by tap. 

4 Literally, was opened. 

* Three things are always distinguished here — the place of each 
sense, the instrument of die sense, and the presiding deity of the 

' PrSna, i.e. ghrawendriya, must be distinguished from the 
prawa, the up-breathing, one of the five prav»as, and likewise from 
the praaa as the principle of life. 

T The Apana, down-breathing, is generally one of the five vital airs 

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The generative organ burst forth. From the 
organ proceeded seed, from seed water. (4) 

Second Khanda. 

1. Those deities (devata), Agni and the rest, after 
they had been sent forth, fell into this great ocean \ 

Then he (the Self) besieged him, (the person) 
with hunger and thirst. 

2. The deities then (tormented by hunger and 
thirst) spoke to him (the Self) : 'Allow us a place 
in which we may rest and eat food V (1) 

He led a cow towards them (the deities). They 
said : ' This is not enough.' He led a horse towards 
them. They said : ' This is not enough.' (2) 

H e led man 3 towards them. Then they said : ' Well 
done *, indeed.' Therefore man is well done. 

3. He said to them : ' Enter, each according to 
his place.' (3) 

4. Then Agni (fire), having become speech, en- 
tered the mouth. Vayu (air), having become scent, 
entered the nostrils. Aditya (sun), having become 
sight, entered the eyes. The Dw (regions), having 
become hearing, entered the ears. The shrubs and 
trees, having become hairs, entered the skin. Aan- 
dramas (the moon), having become mind, entered 

which are supposed to keep the body alive. In our place, however, 
apina is deglutition and digestion, as we shall see in II, 4, 3, 10. 

1 They fell back into that universal being from whence they had 
sprung, die first created person, the Vu%. Or they fell into the 
world, the last cause of which is ignorance. 

' To eat food is explained to mean to perceive the objects which 
correspond to the senses, presided over by the various deities. 

* Here purusha is different from the first purusha, the universal 
person. It can only be intended for intelligent man. 

* Sukrrta, weH done, virtue ; or, if taken for svakn'ta, self-made. 


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the heart. Death, having become down-breathing, 
entered the navel. The waters, having become 
seed, entered the generative organ. (4) 

5. Then Hunger and Thirst spoke to him (the 
Self ) : ' Allow us two (a place).' He said to them : 
' I assign you to those very deities there, I make 
you co-partners with them.' Therefore to whatever 
deity an oblation is offered, hunger and thirst are 
co-partners in it. (5) 

Third Khaatoa. 

1. He thought : ' There are these worlds and the 
guardians of the worlds. Let me send forth food 
for them.' (1) 

He brooded over the water 1 . From the water 
thus brooded on, matter 8 (murti) was born. And 
that matter which was born, that verily was 
food 8 . (2) 

2. When this food (the object matter) had thus 
been sent forth, it wished to flee 4 , crying and turn- 
ing away. He (the subject) tried to grasp it by 
speech. He could not grasp it by speech. If he 
had grasped it by speech, man would be satisfied by 
naming food. (3) 

He tried to grasp it by scent (breath). He could 
not grasp it by scent. If he had grasped it by scent, 
man would be satisfied by smelling food. (4) 

He tried to grasp it by the eye. He could not 

1 The water, as mentioned before, or the five elements. 

* Murti, for murtti, form, Colebrooke; a being of organised form, 
R6er ; vrihiyavadirupi mushakidirupa iamurtiA, i.e. vegetable food 
for men, animal food for cats, &c. 

* Offered food, i. e. objects for the Devatis and the senses in 
the body. 

* Atyajigh&msat, atuayena hantuw gantum ziiiA&t. SSyawa. 

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n Ara^yaka, 4 adhyAya, 3 khanda, 6. 241 

grasp it by the eye. If he had grasped it by the 
eye, man would be satisfied by seeing food. (5) 

He tried to grasp it by the ear. He could not 
grasp it by the ear. If he had grasped it by the ear, 
man would be satisfied by hearing food. (6) 

He tried to grasp it by the skin. He could not 
grasp it by the skin. If he had grasped it by the 
skin, man would be satisfied by touching food. (7) 

He tried to grasp it by the mind. He could not 
grasp it by the mind. If he had grasped it by the 
mind, man would be satisfied by thinking food. (8) 

He tried to grasp it by the generative organ. 
He could not grasp it by the organ. If he had 
grasped it by the organ, man would be satisfied by 
sending forth food. (9) 

He tried to grasp it by the down-breathing (the 
breath which helps to swallow food through the 
mouth and to carry it off through the rectum, the 
payvindriya). He got it 

■ 3. Thus it is Vayu (the getter x ) who lays hold of 
food, and the Vayu is verily Annayu (he who gives 
life or who lives by food). (10) 

4. He thought : ' How can all this be without me ?' 

5. And then he thought : ' By what way shall I 
get there * ?' 

6. And then he thought : ' If speech names, if 
scent smells, if the eye sees, if the ear hears, if the 
skin feels, if the mind thinks, if the off-breathing 
digests, if the organ sends forth, then what 
am I?' (11) 

1 An attempt to derive vlyu from vt, to get. 

■ Or, by which of the two ways shall I get in, the one way being 
from the top of the foot (cf. Ait Ar. II, 1, 4, 1), the other from 
the skull? Coram. 

[3] R 

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7. Then opening the suture of the skull, he got 
in by that door. 

8. That door is called the VidWti (tearing asun- 
der), the Nandana (the place of bliss). 

9. There are three dwelling-places for him, three 
dreams ; this dwelling-place (the eye), this dwell- 
ing-place (the throat), this dwelling-place (the 
heart) 1 . (12) 

10. When born (when the Highest Self had en- 
tered the body) he looked through all things, in 
order to see whether anything wished to proclaim 
here another (Self). He saw this person only (him- 
self) as the widely spread Brahman. ' I saw it/ thus 
he said 2 ; (13) 

Therefore he was Ida»*-dra (seeing this). 

11. Being Idawdra by name, they call him Indra 
mysteriously. For the Devas love mystery, yea, 
they love mystery. (14) 

1 Passages like this must always have required an oral interpreta- 
tion, but it is by no means certain that the explanation given in 
the commentaries represents really the old traditional interpretation. 
Sayawa explains the three dwelling-places as the right eye, in a state 
of waking ; as the throat, in a state of dreaming ; as the heart, in a 
state of profound sleep. Sahkara explains them as the right eye; 
the inner mind, and the ether in the heart SSya»a allows another 
interpretation of the three dwelling-places being the body of the 
father, the body of the mother, and one's own body. The three 
dreams or sleeps he explains by waking, dreaming, and profound 
sleep, and he remarks that waking too is called a dream as com- 
pared with the true awakening, which is the knowledge of Brahman. 
In the last sentence the speaker, when repeating three times ' this 
dwelling-place,' is supposed to point to his right eye, the throat, 
and the heart. This interpretation is supported by a passage in 
the Brahma-upanishad, Netre g&gaiiuim vidyat kawMe svapnara 
samSdiret, sushuptaw hndayasya tu. 

* In this passage, which is very obscure, Sahkara fails us, either 
because, as Ananda^flSna says, he thought the text was too easy to 
require any explanation, or because the writers of the MSS. left out 

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ii Arawyaka, 5 adhyAya, i khanda, 4. 243 


First Khajwja. 

1 . Let the women who are with child move away ' I 

2. Verily, from the beginning he (the self) is in 
man as a germ, which is called seed. 

3. This (seed), which is strength gathered from 
all the limbs of the body, he (the man) bears as self 
in his self (body). When he commits the seed to 
the woman, then he (the father) causes it to be 
born. That is his first birth. (1) 

4. That seed becomes the self of the woman, as 

the passage. Ananda^fi&na explains: 'He looked through all 
creatures, he identified himself with them, and thought he was 
a man, blind, happy, &c.; or, as it is elsewhere expressed, he 
developed forms and names. And how did this mistake arise? 
Because he did not see the other, the true Self; ' or literally, ' Did 
he see the other Self ? ' which is only a figure of speech to convey 
the meaning that he did not see it The particle iti is then to 
be taken in a causal sense, (i.e. he did so, because what else could 
he have wished to proclaim ?) But he allows another explanation, 
viz. ' He considered all beings, whether they existed by themselves 
or not, and after having considered, he arrived at the conclusion, 
What shall I call different from the true Self?' The real difficulties, 
however, are not removed by these explanations. First of all, we 
expect vSvadisham before iti, and secondly* unless anyam refers to 
itm&nam, we expect anyad. My own translation is literal, but 
I am not certain that it conveys the true meaning. One might 
understand it as implying that the Self looked about through all 
things, in order to find out, ' What does wish to proclaim here 
another Self?' And when he saw there was nothing which did 
not come from himself, then he recognised that the Purusha, the 
person he had sent forth, or, as we should say, the person he had 
created, was the developed Brahman, was the Atman, was him- 
self. SSyaaa explains v&vadishat by vadishyimi, but before iti the 
third person cannot well refer to the subject of vyaikshat 

1 Some MSS. begin this adhy&ya with the sentence apakrd- 
mantu garbhwya^, may the women who are with child walk away I 
It is counted as a paragraph. 

K 2 

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if one of her own limbs. Therefore it does not 
injure her. 

5. She nourishes • his (her husband's) self (the 
son) within her. (2) She who nourishes, is to be 

6. The woman bears the germ. He (the father) 
elevates the child even before the birth, and imme- 
diately after *. 

7. When he thus elevates the child both before 
and after his birth, he really elevates his own self, 

8. For the continuation of these worlds (men). 
For thus are these worlds continued. 

9. This is his second birth. (3) 

10. He (the son), being his self, is then placed in 
his stead for (the performance of) all good works. 

11. But his other self (the father), having done 
all he has to do, and having reached the full 
measure of his life, departs. 

12. And departing from hence he is born again. 
That is his third birth. 

13. And this has been declared by a Rishi (Rv. 
IV, 27, 1): (4) 

14. 'While dwelling in the womb, I discovered 
all the births of these Devas. A hundred iron 
strongholds kept me, but I escaped quickly down 
like a falcon.' 

15. Vamadeva, lying in the womb, has thus de- 
clared this. (5) 

And having this knowledge he stepped forth, 
after this dissolution of the body, and having ob- 
tained all his desires in that heavenly world, became 
immortal, yea, he became immortal. (6) 

1 By nourishing the mother, and by performing certain cere- 
monies both before and after the birth of a child. 

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n Arajvyaka, 6 adhyAya, i khanda, 6. 245 


First Khanda. 

1. Let the women go back to their place. 

2. Who is he whom 1 we meditate on as the Self? 
Which Ms the Self? 

3. That by which we see (form), that by which 
we hear (sound), that by which we perceive smells, 
that by which we utter speech, that by which we 
distinguish sweet and not sweet, (1) and what comes 
from the heart and the mind, namely, perception, 
command, understanding, knowledge, wisdom, seeing, 
holding, thinking, considering, readiness (or suf- 
fering), remembering, conceiving, willing, breathing, 
loving, desiring ? 

4. No, all these are various names only of know- 
ledge (the true Self). (2) 

5. And that Self, consisting of (knowledge), is 
Brahman (ni.) 8 , it is Indra, it is Pra^apati 4 . All 
these Devas, these five great elements, earth, air, 
ether, water, fire, these and those which are, as 
it were, small and mixed 5 , and seeds of this kind 
and that kind, born from eggs, born from the womb, 
born from heat, born from germs •, horses, cows, 
men, elephants, and whatsoever breathes, whether 
walking or flying, and what is immoveable — all that 
is led (produced) by knowledge (the Self). 

6. It rests on knowledge (the Self). The world 

1 I read ko yam instead of ko 'yam. 

* Or, Which of the two, the real or the phenomenal, the ninipa- 
dhika or sopidhika ? 

* Hirawyagarbha. Comm. * V'aSg. Coram. 

* Serpents, &c, says the commentary. 

* Cf. Kh. Up. VI, 3, i, where the sveda^a, born from heat or 
perspiration, are not mentioned. 

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is led (produced) by knowledge (the Self). Know- 
ledge is its cause l . 

7. Knowledge is Brahman. (3) 

8. He (Vamadeva), having by this conscious self 
stepped forth from this world, and having obtained 
all desires in that heavenly world, became immortal, 
yea, he became immortal. Thus it is, Om. (4) 


First Khawda. 
1. My speech rests in the mind, my mind rests in 
speech 8 . Appear to me (thou, the Highest Self) ! 
You (speech and mind) are the two pins* (that hold 
the wheels) of the Veda. May what I have learnt 
not forsake me 8 . I join day and night with what I 
have learnt ". I shall speak of the real, I shall speak 
the true. May this protect me, may this protect 
the teacher I May it protect me, may it protect the 
teacher, yea, the teacher 1 

1 We have no words to distinguish between pra^fiS, state of 
knowing, and pra^Sina, act of knowing. Both are names of the 
Highest Brahman, which is the beginning and end (pratish/M) of 
everything that exists or seems to exist 

* This seventh adhySya contains a propitiatory prayer (j&ntikaro 
mantra*). It is frequently left out in the MSS. which contain the 
Aitareya-upanishad with Sahkara's commentary, and Dr. R6er has 
omitted it in his edition. SSya»a explains it in his commentary on 
the Aitareya-&ra»yaka ; and in one MS. of Sankara's commentary 
on the Aitareya-upanishad, which is in my possession, the seventh 
adhyaya is added with the commentary of M£dhavfim&tya, the 
A^fl&palaka of Vtrabukka-mah&rd^a. 

* The two depend on each other. 

* Ant, explained by the commentator as dnayanasamartha. 

* Cf. Kh. Up. IV, 2, 5. 

* I repeat it day and night so that I may not forget it. 

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First Khaatda. 

i. Next follows the Upanishad of the Sawhita ". 

2. The former half is the earth, the latter half 
the heaven, their union the air 8 , thus says MdMi- 
keya ; their union is the ether, thus did Makshavya 
teach it. 

3. That air is not considered 4 independent 6 , 
therefore I do not agree with his (Manuka's) 

4. Verily, the two are the same, therefore air is 

1 This last portion of the Upanishad is found in the MS. As- 
covered by Dr. Buhler in Kashmir, and described by him in the 
Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1877, 
p. 36. I have collated it, so far as it was possible to read it, 
many lines being either broken off altogether, or almost entirely 

" SawhitS is the sacred text in which all letters are closely 
joined. The joining together of two letters is called their samhita ; 
the first letter of a joined group the purvarupa (n.), the second the 
uttararftpa. For instance, in agnim He the m is purvarupa, the 
f uttararupa, and ml their sawhita or union. 

* As in worshipping the Salagrama stone, we really worship 
Vishwu, so we ought to perceive the earth, the heaven, and the air 
when we pronounce the first and the second letters of a group, 
and that group itself. 

* Mene has here been taken as 3rdpers. sing. perf. passive. The 
commentator, however, explains it as an active verb, nLr&tavan. 

* Because it is included in the ether, not the ether in the air. 

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248 aitareya-Aranyaka. 

considered independent, thus says Agastya. For it 
is the same, whether they say air or ether l . 

5. So far with reference to deities (mythologically) ; 
now with reference to the body (physiologically) : 

6. The former half is speech, the latter half is 
mind, their union breath (pra«a), thus says .Suravtra 2 

7. But his eldest son said: The former half is 
mind, the latter half speech. For we first conceive 
with the mind indeed 3 , and then we utter with speech. 
Therefore the former half is indeed mind, the latter 
half speech, but their union is really breath. 

8. Verily, it is the same with both, the father 
(Ma#dukeya) and the son 4 . 

9. This (meditation as here described), joined s 
with mind, speech, and breath, is (like) a chariot 
drawn by two horses and one horse between them 

10. And he who thus knows this union, becomes 
united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of coun- 
tenance, and the world of Svarga. He lives his 
full age. 

1 1. Now all this comes from the Ma«</ukeyas. 

Second Khanda. 

1. Next comes the meditation as taught by 

1 Both views are tenable, for it is not the actual air and ether 
which are meditated on, but their names, as declared and explained 
in this peculiar act of worship. We should read akir&f £eti, a reading 
confirmed both by the commentary and by the Kashmir MS. 

' The man among heroes. Comm. 
. * The Kashmir MS. reads manasaivagre. 

* Both views are admissible. Comm. 

I Pr&sasambitaA, Kashmir MS. 

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2. The first half is the earth, the second half 
heaven, their uniting the rain, the uniter Par^anya l . 

3. And so it is when he (Par^anya) rains thus 
strongly, without ceasing, day and night 2 , 

4. Then they say also (in ordinary language), 
' Heaven and earth have come together.' 

5. So much with regard to the deities ; now with 
regard to the body: — 

6. Every man is indeed like an egg 3 . There are 
two halves * (of him), thus they say : * This half is 
the earth, that half heaven.' And there between 
them is the ether (the space of the mouth), like the 
ether between heaven and earth. In this ether there 
(in the mouth) the breath is fixed, as in that other 
ether the air is fixed. And as there are those three 
luminaries (in heaven), there are these three lumi- 
naries in man. 

7. As there is that sun in heaven, there is this 
eye in the head. As there is that lightning in the 
sky, there is this heart in the body ; as there is that 
fire on earth, there is this seed in the member. 

8. Having thus represented the self (body) as 
the whole world, .Sakalya said: This half is the 
earth, that half heaven. 

9. He who thus knows this union, becomes 
united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of coun- 

1 If i is followed by a, the i is changed to y, and both are united 
as ya. Here a is the cause which changes i into y. Thus Par- 
janya, the god of rain, is the cause which unites earth and heaven 
into rain. Comm. 

1 When it rains incessantly, heaven and earth seem to be one in 

* Andam, Comm. 

4 The one half from the feet to the lower jaw, the other half 
from the upper jaw to the skull. Comm. 

Digitized by 



tenance, and the world of Svarga. He lives his full 

Third Khaatoa 1 . 

1. Next come the reciters of the Nirbhu^a 2 . 

2. Nirbhufa abides on earth, Pratr?»«a in heaven, 
the Ubhayamantare»a in the sky. 

3. Now, if any one should chide him who recites 
the Nirbhu^a, let him answer : ' Thou art fallen from 
the two lower places 8 .' If any one should chide 
him who recites the Pratruraa, let him answer: 
' Thou art fallen from the two higher places V But 
he who recites the Ubhayamantarewa, there is no 
chiding him. 

4. For when he turns out the Sandhi (the union 
of words), that is the form of Nirbhuga 6 ; and when 
he pronounces two syllables pure (without modifica- 
tion), that is the form of Pratr*##a 6 . This comes 

1 Cf. Rig-veda-prMt&khya, ed. Max Mtlller, p. iii, and Nach- 
trage, p. ii. 

* Nirbhu^a(n) is the recitation of the Veda without intervals, 
therefore the same as Sawhita. Pratrtma is the recitation of each 
word by itself (pada-pa/Aa) ; Ubhayamantarena, the between the 
two, is the intertwining of Samhita and Pada-paV/ra, the so-called 
Krama-pa/Aa. By reciting the Samhiti inattentively, one may use 
forms which belong to the Pada-text ; and by reciting the Pada in- 
attentively, one may use forms which belong to the Sawhita-text. 
But in reciting the Krama both the Samhiti and Pada forms are 
used together, and therefore mistakes are less likely to happen. 

* From earth and sky. Cf. Kh. Up. II, 2 a, 3. 
4 From the sky and from heaven. 

* Nirbhu^a may mean without arms, as if the arms of the 
words were taken away, or with two arms stretched out, the two 
words forming, as it were, two arms to one body. 

* PratrtVun means cut asunder, every word being separated from 
the others. 

Digitized by 


in Arajvyaka, i adhyAya, 3 kbanda, io. 251 

first \ By the Ubhayamantara (what is between 
the two) both are fulfilled (both the sandhi and the 

5. Let him who wishes for proper food say the 
Nirbhu^a ; let him who wishes for Svarga, say the 
Pratrwma ; let him who wishes for both say the 

6. Now if another man (an enemy) should chide 
him who says the Nirbhuga, let him say to him : 
' Thou hast offended the earth, the deity; the earth, 
the deity, will strike thee.' 

If another man should chide him who says the 
PratW»»a, let him say to him : ' Thou hast offended 
heaven, the deity; heaven, the deity, will strike 

If another man should chide him who says the 
Ubhayamantare»a, let him say to him : ' Thou hast 
offended the sky, the deity; the sky, the deity, will 
strike thee.' 

7. And whatever the reciter shall say to one who 
speaks to him or does not speak to him, depend 
upon it, it will come to pass. 

8. But to a Brahma«a let him not say anything 
except what is auspicious. 

9. Only he may curse a Brahmawa in excessive 
wealth 2 . 

io. Nay, not even in excessive wealth should he 
curse a Brahma»a, but he should say, ' I bow before 
Brahmatfas,' — thus says .Suravlra MaWilkeya. 

1 The words were first each separate, before they were united 
according to the laws of Sandhi. 

* He may curse him, if he is exceeding rich ; or he may wish 
him the curse of excessive wealth; or he may curse him, if some- 
thing great depends on it. 

Digitized by 


252 aitareya-Aravyaka. 

Fourth Khajvda. 

1. Next follow the imprecations 1 . 

2. Let him know that breath s is the beam (on 
which the whole house of the body rests). 

3. If any one (a Brihma»a or another man) 
should chide him, who by meditation has become that 
breath as beam s , then, if he thinks himself strong, 
he says : ' I grasped the breath, the beam, well ; 
thou dost not prevail against me who have grasped 
the breath as the beam.' Let him say to him : 
' Breath, the beam, will forsake thee.' 

4. But if he thinks himself not strong, let him 
say to him: .'Thou couldst not grasp him who 
wishes to grasp the breath as the beam. Breath, 
the beam, will forsake thee.' 

5. And whatever the reciter shall say to one who 
speaks to him or does not speak to him, depend 
upon it, it will come to pass. But to a Brahma»a 
let him not say anything except what is auspicious. 
Only he may curse a Brahmawa in excessive wealth. 
Nay, not even in excessive wealth should he curse a 
Brahma«a, but he should say, 'I bow before Brah- 
ma»as,' — thus says .Suravlra Marafokeya. 

1 The commentator explains anuvyahara, not as imprecations, 
but as referring to those who teach or use the imprecations, such 
imprecations being necessary to guard against the loss of the 
benefits accruing from the meditation and worship here described ; 
such teachers say what follows. 

2 Breath, the union of mind and speech, as explained before. 
This is the opinion of Sthavira .Sakalya, cf. Ill, 2, 1, 1. 

8 If he should tell him that he did not meditate on breath 

Digitized by 



Fifth Khayda. 

1. Now those who repeat the Nirbhufa say: 

2. * The former half 1 is the first syllable, the latter 
half the second syllable, and the space between the 
first and second halves is the Sa*»hit4 (union).' 

3. He who thus knows this Sawhita (union), be- 
comes united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of 
countenance, and the world of Svarga. He lives 
his full age. 

4. Now Hrasva MaWukeya says : ' We reciters 
of Nirbhufa say, " Yes, the former half is the first 
syllable, and the latter half the second syllable, but 
the Sa/whita is the space between the first and 
second halves in so far as by it one turns out the 
union (sandhi), and knows what is the accent and 
what is not 9 , and distinguishes what is the mora 
and what is not." ' 

5. He who thus knows this Sawhita (union), be- 
comes united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of 
countenance, and the world of Svarga. He lives 
his full age. 

6. Now his middle son, the child of his mother 
Pratlbodhl 8 , says : ' One pronounces these two syl- 
lables letter by letter, without entirely separating 

1 As spoken of before, III, 1,1,1. 

1 In agnim f/e, f/e by itself has no accent, but as joined by 
sandhi with. agnim, its first syllable becomes svarita, its second 
praftta. In tava it, the vowel i is a short mora or matra ; but 
if joined with va, it vanishes, and becomes long e, tavet. -Comm. 

* Pratibodhtputra, the son of Pratibodhf, she being probably one 
out of several wives of Hrasva. Another instance of this metro- 
nymic nomenclature occurred in Krishna. Devakfputra, Kh. Up. 
Ill, 1, 6. The Kashmir MS. reads Pra>«bodhf, but Pratibodha is 
a recognised name in Gana Vidadi, and the right reading is 
probably Pratibodhf. The same MS. leaves out putra aha. 

Digitized by 


254 aitareya-Arajtyaka. 

them, and without entirely uniting them '. Then 
that mora between the first and second halves, which 
indicates the union, that is the Soman (evenness, 
sliding). I therefore hold Saman only to be the 
Sawhita (union). 

7. This has also been declared by a JZishi (Rv. 
II, 23, 16):— 

8. ' O Br«haspati, they know nothing higher than 

9. He who thus knows this Sawhita (union), be- 
comes united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of 
countenance, and the world of Svarga. He lives 
his full age. 

Sixth Khayba. 

1. Tarukshya 2 said: 'TheSa«whiti(union) is formed 
by means of the Brzhat and Rathantara 3 Samans.' 

2. Verily, the Rathantara Saman is speech, the 
Br?hat Saman is breath. By both, by speech and 
breath, the Sa»/hita is formed 4 . 

3. For this Upanishad (for acquiring from his 
teacher the knowledge of this Sawhita of speech 
and breath) Tarukshya guards (his teacher's) cows 
a whole year. 

4. For it alone Tarukshya guards the cows a 
whole year. 

1 So that the e" in tavet should neither be one letter e, nor two 
letters a + i, but something between the two, enabling us to hear 
a+i in the pronunciation of £. 

1 The Kashmir MS. reads Tirkshya, a name used before as the 
title of a hymn (Ait. Ar. I, 5, 2, 8). Here Tarukshya seems prefer- 
able, see V&n. IV, 1, 105. 

• See Ait. Ar.'I, 4, 2, 1-4. 

4 These two, the BrAat and Rathantara, are required for the 
PrtshMastotra in the Agnish/oma, and they are to remind the wor- 
shipper that speech and breath are required for all actions. 

Digitized by 


in Arajvyaka, i adhyAya, 6 khanda, 13. 255 

5. This has also been declared by a JZishi (Rv. 
X, 181, 1; and Rv. X, 181, 2): — 

6. 'VasishMa carried hither the Rathantara; 
'Bharadva^a brought hither the Brzhat of Agni.' 

7. He who thus knows this Sawhiti (union), be- 
comes united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of 
countenance, and the world of Svarga. He lives 
his full age. 

8. Kau#/Aaravya said : ' Speech is united with 
breath, breath with the blowing air, the blowing air 
with the VLrvedevas, the VLnredevas with the hea- 
venly world, the heavenly world with Brahman. 
That Sa*»hita is called the gradual Sawhita.' 

9. He who knows this gradual Sawhita (union), 
becomes united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of 
countenance, and the world of Svarga, in exactly the 
same manner as this Sawhita, i. e. gradually. 

10. If that worshipper, whether for his own sake or 
for that of another, recites (the Sawhita), let him know 
when he is going to recite, that this Sawhita went up 
to heaven, and that it will be even so with those who 
by knowing it become Devas. May it always be so ! 

11. He who thus knows this Sawhita (union), be- 
comes united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of 
countenance, and the world of Svarga. He lives 
his full age. 

12. Paniala£a«<fe said : ' The Sawhita (union, 
composition) is speech.' 

13. Verily, by speech the Vedas, by speech the 
metres are composed. Friends unite through speech, 
all beings unite through speech ; therefore speech is 
everything here 1 . 

1 Everything can be obtained by speech in this life and in the 
next. Comm. 

Digitized by 



14. With regard to this (view of speech being 
more than breath), it should be borne in mind that 
when we thus repeat (the Veda) or speak, breath is 
(absorbed) in speech; speech swallows breath. And 
when we are silent or sleep, speech is (absorbed) in 
breath; breath swallows speech. The two swallow 
each other. Verily, speech is the mother, breath 
the son. 

15. This has been declared also by a JZishi (Rv. 
X, 114, 4): — 

16. ' There is one bird; (as wind) he has entered 
the sky; (as breath or living soul) he saw this whole 
world. With my ripe mind I saw him close to me 
(in the heart) ; the mother (licks or) absorbs him 
(breath), and he absorbs the mother (speech).' 

17. He who thus knows this Sawmiti (union), 
becomes united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of 
countenance, and the world of Svarga. He lives his 
full age. 

18. Next follows the Pra^apati-Sawhita. 

19. The former half is the wife, the latter half 
the man ; the result of their union the son ; the act 
of their union the begetting ; that Sa*»hita is Aditi 

20. For Aditi (indestructible) is all this whatever 
there is, father, mother, son, and begetting. 

21. This has also been declared by a Hishi (Rv. 
I, 189, 10):— 

22. 'Aditi is mother, is father, is son.' 

23. He who thus knows this Sawhita (union), 
becomes united with offspring, cattle, fame, glory of 
countenance, and the world of Svarga. He lives 
his full age. 

Digitized by 




First Khajvda. 

1. Sthavira .Sakalya said that breath is the beam 3 , 
and as the other beams rest on the house-beam, thus 
the eye, the ear, the mind, the speech, the senses, 
the body, the whole self rests on this 3 breath. 

2. Of that self the breathing is like the sibilants, 
the bones like the mutes, the marrow like the 
vowels, and the fourth part, flesh, blood, and the 
rest, like the semivowels*, — so said Hrasva Ma#afa- 

3. To us it was said to be a triad only 5 . 

4. Of that triad, viz. bones, marrow, and joints, 
there are 360 (parts) on this side (the right), and 360 
on that side (the left). They make 720 together, 
and 720 '• are the days and nights of the year. Thus 
that self which consists of sight, hearing, metre, 
mind, and speech is like unto the days. 

5. He who thus knows this self, which consists of 
sight, hearing, metre, mind, and speech, as like unto 
the days, obtains union, likeness, or nearness with 
the days, has sons and cattle, and lives his full age. 

1 In the first adhyaya meditations suggested by samhita, pada, 
and krama have been discussed. Now follow meditations sug- 
gested by certain classes of letters. 

* Ait. Ar. Ill, 1, 4. 

8 The Kashmir MS. reads etasmin pr£«e. The self here is 
meant for the body, and yet it seems to be different from farfra. 

4 The Kashmir MS. writes antastha without visarga, while it is 
otherwise most careful in writing all sibilants. 

5 Sakalya, as we saw, told his disciples that there were three 
classes only, not four. Comm. The Kashmir MS. reads trayaw 
tv eva na ityetat proktam. 

' The Kashmir MS. reads sapta vimsztis k& jatani. 

[3] S 

Digitized by 


258 aitareya-Arayyaka. 

Second Khaatoa. 

1. Next comes Kau«/^aravya : 

2. There are 360 syllables (vowels), 360 sibilants 
(consonants), 360 groups. 

3. What we called syllables are the days, what 
we called sibilants are the nights, what we called 
groups are the junctions of days and nights. So far 
with regard to the gods (the days). 

4. Now with regard to the body. The syllables 
which we explained mythologically, are physiologi- 
cally the bones; the sibilants which we explained 
mythologically, are physiologically the marrow. 

5. Marrow is the real breath (life), for marrow is 
seed, and without breath (life) seed is not sown. Or 
when it is sown without breath (life), it will decay, it 
will not grow. 

6. The groups which we explained mythologically, 
are physiologically the joints. 

7. Of that triad, viz. bones, marrow, and joints, 
there are 540 (parts) on this side (the right), and 
540 on that side (the left). They make 1080 to- 
gether, and 1080 are the rays of the sun. They 
make the B/Vhatt verses and the day (of the Ma- 
havrata) K 

8. Thus that self which consists of sight, hearing, 
metre, mind, and speech is like unto the syllables. 

9. He who knows this self which consists of 
sight, hearing, metre, mind, and speech, as like unto 
syllables, obtains union, likeness, or nearness with 
the syllables, has sons and cattle, and lives his full 

1 There are in the Mah&vrata eighty tristichs of Brthatfs, and as 
each Bnhatf is decreed to consist of thirty-six syllables, ten would 
give 360 syllables, and three times ten, 1080. Comm. 

Digitized by 


ill arajvyaka, 2 adhyaya, 3 khanda, io. 259 

Third Khawda. 

1. Badhva 1 says, there are four persons (to be 
meditated on and worshipped). 

2. The person of the body, the person of the 
metres, the person of the Veda, and the Great 

3. What we call the person of the body is this 
corporeal self. Its essence is the incorporeal con- 
scious self. 

4. What we call the person of the metres is this 
collection of letters (the Veda). Its essence is the 
vowel a. 

5. What we call the person of the Veda is (the 
mind) by which we know the Vedas, the i??g-veda, 
Yafur-veda, and Sama-veda. Its essence is Brah- 
man a (m.) 

6. Therefore let one chose a Brahman-priest who 
is full of Brahman (the Veda), and is able to see any 
flaw in the sacrifice. 

7. What we call the Great person is the year, 
which causes some beings to fall together, and causes 
others to grow up. Its essence is yonder sun. 

8. One should know that the incorporeal con- 
scious self and yonder sun are both one and the 
same. Therefore the sun appears to every man 
singly (and differently). 

9. This has also been declared by a .tfzshi (Rv. 
I, 115, 1):— 

10. ' The bright face of the gods arose, the eye of 
Mitra, Varu«a, and Agni; it filled heaven and earth 

1 Instead of B&dhya, the commentary and the Kashmir MS. read 

* Hiraayagarbha, with whom he who knows the Veda becomes 
identified. Comm. 

S 2 

Digitized by 


260 aitareya-Araivyaka. 

and the sky, — the sun is the self of all that rests 
and moves.' 

ii. 'This I think to be the regular Samhita as 
conceived by me,' thus said Badhva. 

12. For the Bahw?£as consider him (the self) 
in the great hymn (mahad uktha), the Adhvaryus in 
the sacrificial fire, the .Oandogas in the Mahavrata 
ceremony. Him they see in this earth, in heaven, 
in the air, in the ether, in the water, in herbs, in 
trees, in the moon, in the stars, in all beings. Him 
alone they call Brahman. 

13. That self which consists of sight, hearing, 
metre, mind, and speech is like unto the year. 

14. He who recites to another that self which 
consists of sight, hearing, metre, mind, and speech, 
and is like unto the year, 

Fourth Khajvda. 

1. To him the Vedas yield no more milk, he has 
no luck in what he has learnt (from his Guru) ; he 
does not know the path of virtue. 

2. This has also been declared by a ifo'shi (Rv. 
X, 71, 6) :— 

3. ' He who has forsaken the friend (the Veda), 
that knows his friends, in his speech there is no luck. 
Though he hears, he hears in vain, for he does not 
know the path of virtue.' 

4. Here it is clearly said that he has no luck in 
what he has learnt, and that he does not know the 
path of virtue. 

5. Therefore let no 'one who knows this, lay the 
sacrificial fire (belonging to the Mahavrata) for an- 
other, let him not sing the Samans of the Mahavrata 

Digitized by 



for another, let him not recite the ^Sastras of that 
day for. another. 

6. However, let him willingly do this for a father 
or for an Aterya; for that is done really for 

7. We have said that the incorporeal conscious 
self and the sun are one \ When these two become 
separated a , the sun is seen as if it were the moon s ; 
no rays spring from it ; the sky is red like madder ; 
the patient cannot retain the wind, his head smells 
bad like a raven's nest : — let him know then that his 
self (in the body) is gone, and that he will not live 
very long 4 . 

8. Then whatever he thinks he has to do, let 
him do it, and let him recite the following hymns : 
Yad anti ya^ ka. durake (Rv. IX, 67, 21-27) ; Ad it 
pratnasya retasaA (Rv. VIII, 6, 30); Yatra brahmi 
pavamana (Rv. IX, 113, 6-1 1); Ud vaya*» tamasas 
pari (Rv. I, 50, 10). 

9. Next, when the sun is seen pierced, and seems 
like the nave of a cart-wheel, when he sees his own 
shadow pierced, let him know then that it is so (as 
stated before, i. e. that he is going to die soon). 

10. Next, when he sees himself in a mirror or in 
the water with a crooked head, or without a head 8 , or 
when his pupils are seen inverted* or not straight, 
let him know then that it is so. 

1 Ait Ar. Ill, a, 3, 8. 

* This separation of the self of the sun and the conscious self 
within us is taken as a sign of approaching death, and therefore 
a number of premonitory symptoms are considered in this place. 

* iJXiot fafvott^t, Xen. Hist. gr. 4, 3, 10. 
4 The Kashmir MS. reads ^ivayishyati. 

* The Kashmir MS. reads jihmarirasaw virartram fitm&nam. . 

* A white pupil in a black eye-ball. Comm. 

Digitized by 


262 aitareya-Arajvyaka. 

ii. Next, let him cover his eyes and watch, then 
threads are seen as if falling together *. But if he 
does not see them, let him know then that it is so. 

12. Next, let him cover his ears and listen, and 
there will be a sound as if of a burning fire or of a 
carriage *. But if he does not hear it, let him know- 
then that it is so. 

13. Next, when fire looks blue like the neck of a 
peacock 3 , or when he sees lightning in a cloudless 
sky, or no lightning in a clouded sky, or when he 
sees as it were bright rays in a dark cloud, let 
him know then that it is so. 

14. Next, when he sees the ground as if it were 
burning, let him know that It is so. 

15. These are the visible signs (from 7-14). 

16. Next come the dreams *. 

17. If he sees a black man with black teeth, and 
that man kills him; or a boar kills him; a monkey 
jumps on 5 him; the wind carries him along quickly ; 
having swallowed gold he spits it out 6 ; he eats 
honey; he chews stalks ; he carries a red lotus; he 
drives with asses and boars ; wearing a wreath of 
red flowers (naladas) he drives a black cow with 
a black calf, facing the south 7 , 

18. If a man sees any one of these (dreams), let 

1 The Kashmir MS. reads ba/irakam sampatantfva. 

1 See Kh. Up. Ill, 13, 8. The Kashmir MS. and the com- 
mentary give the words rathasrevopabdis, which are left out in the 
printed text. 

' The Kashmir MS. reads mayuragrtva ameghe. 

* The Kashmir MS. reads svapnaA. 

* The Kashmir MS. reads dskandati. 
' The Kashmir MS. reads avagirati. 

7 The commentator separates the last dream, so as to bring 
their number to ten. 

Digitized by 


Ill ArAJVYAKA, 2 ADHyAyA, 5 KHANDA, 4. 263 

him fast, and cook a pot of milk, sacrifice it, accom- 
panying each oblation with a verse of the Ratrl 
hymn (Rv. X, 127), and then, after having fed the 
Brahmawas, with other food (prepared at his house) 
eat himself the (rest of the) oblation. 

19. Let him know that the person within all 
beings, not heard here \ not reached, not thought, 
not subdued, not seen, not understood, not classed, 
but hearing, thinking, seeing, classing, sounding, 
understanding, knowing, is his Self. 

Fifth Khajvca 2 . 

1. Now next the Upanishad of the whole speech. 
True all these are Upanishads of the whole speech, 

but this they call so (chiefly). 

2. The mute consonants represent the earth, the 
sibilants the sky, the vowels heaven. 

The mute consonants represent Agni (fire), the 
sibilants air, the vowels the sun. 

The mute consonants represent the i?*g-veda, the 
sibilants the Ya^-ur-veda, the vowels the Sama-veda. 

The mute consonants represent the eye, the sibi- 
lants the ear, the vowels the mind. 

The mute consonants represent the up-breathing, 
the sibilants the down-breathing, the vowels the 

3. Next comes this divine lute (the human body, 
made by the gods). The lute made by man is an 
imitation of it. 

4. As there is a head of this, so there is a head 
of that (lute, made by man). As there is a stomach 

1 The Kashmir MS. reads sa yatar smto. 

* After having inserted the preceding chapter on omina and 
the concluding paragraph on the highest knowledge, he now 
returns to the meditation on the letters. 

Digitized by 



of this, so there is the cavity 1 (in the board) of that. 
As there is a tongue of this, so there is a tongue 2 
in that. As there are fingers of this, so there are 
strings of that 3 . As there are vowels of this, so 
there are tones of that. As there are consonants 
of this, so there are touches of that As this is 
endowed with sound and firmly strung, so that is 
endowed with sound and firmly strung. As this 
is covered with a hairy skin, so that is covered with 
a hairy skin. 

5. Verily, in former times they covered a lute with 
a hairy skin. 

6. He who knows this lute made by the Devas 
(and meditates on it), is willingly listened to, his 
glory fills the earth, and wherever they speak Aryan 
languages, there they know him. 

7. Next follows the verse, called vagrasa, the es- 
sence of speech. When a man reciting or speaking in 
an assembly does not please, let him say this verse : 

8. ' May the queen of all speech, who is covered, 
as it were, by the lips, surrounded by teeth, as if 
by spears, who is a thunderbolt, help me to speak 
well.' This is the vagrasa, the essence of speech. 

Sixth Khanda. 

1 . Next Kr ishwa-Harita * confided this Brahma»a 5 
concerning speech to him (his pupil) : 

1 The Kashmir MS. reads udara evam, &c. 

* V&danam, what makes the instrument speak, hastena. Comm. 
8 Here the order is inverted in the text. 

* One of the sons of Harita, who was dark. Comm. 

6 Brahmawa, in the sense of Upanishad, this secret doctrine or 
explanation. It forms an appendix, like the svish/akrst at the end 
of a sacrifice. ' Iva,' which the commentator explains as restrictive 
or useless, may mean, something like a Brahmawa. 

Digitized by 


in Arawyaka, 2 adhyAya, 6 kuanda, 8. 26$ 

2. Pra^apati, the year, after having sent forth all 
creatures, burst. He put himself together again by 
means of &Aa.nda.s (Vedas). Because he put himself 
together again by means of £&andas, therefore (the 
text of the Veda) is called Sa/«hita (put together). 

3. Of that Sawmita the letter n is the strength, 
the letter sh the breath and self (atman). 

4. He who knows the Rik verses and the letters 
n and sh for every Sawmiti, he knows the Sawhita 
with strength and breath. Let him know that this 
is the life of the Sa*whit4. 

5. If the pupil asks, ' Shall I say it with the 
letter n or without it ? ' let the teacher say, 'With 
the letter «.' And if he asks, ' Shall I say it with 
the letter sh or without it ?' let the teacher say, 
' With the letter sh V 

6. Hrasva Ma«afukeya said : ' If we here recite 
the verses according to the Sawhita (attending to 
the necessary changes of n and s into n and sh 2 ), 
and if we say the adhyaya of Ma«afukeya (Ait. Ar. 
Ill, 1), then the letters n and sh (strength and 
breath) have by this been obtained for us.' 

7. Sthavira ■Sakalya said: ' If we recite the verses 
according to the Sawhita, and if we say the adhyaya 
of Ma#dtokeya, then the letters n and sh have by 
this been obtained for us.' 

8. Here the /?/shis, the Kavasheyas 8 , knowing 

1 The letters n and sh refer most likely to the rules of watva and 
shatva, i. e. the changing of n and s into n and sh. 

1 If we know whenever n and s should be changed to « and sh 
in the SawhitS. 

* The Kavasheyas said that, after they had arrived at the highest 
knowledge of Brahman (through the various forms of meditation 
and worship that lead to it and that have been described in the 
Upanishad) no further meditation and no further sacrifice could be 

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266 aitareVa-Arajvyaka. 

this, said: 'Why should we repeat (the Veda), 
why should we sacrifice ? We offer as a sacrifice 
breath in speech, or speech in breath. What is 
the beginning (of one), that is the end (of the 

9. Let no one tell these Sawhitas (Ait. Ar. Ill, 1- 
III, 2) to one who is not a resident pupil, who has 
not been with his teacher at least one year, and who 
is not himself to become an instructor 1 . Thus say 
the teachers, yea, thus say the teachers. 

required. Instead of the morning and evening stoma they offer . 
breath in speech, whenever they speak, or speech in breath, when 
they are silent or asleep. When speech begins, breathing ceases; 
when breathing begins, speech ceases. 

1 The strict prohibition uttered at the end of the third Araayaka, 
not to divulge a knowledge of the Sa»ihita-upanishad (Ait. Ar. 
Ill, 1-2), as here explained, is peculiar. It would have seemed 
self-evident that, like the rest of the jruti or sacred literature, the 
Ara»yaka too, and every portion of it, could have been learnt from 
the mouth of a teacher only, and according to rule (niyamena), i. e. 
by a pupil performing all the duties of a student (brahmaiarin 1 ), 
so that no one except a regular pupil (antevasin) could possibly 
gain access to it. Nor can there be any doubt that we ought 
to take the words asamvatsaravasin and apravaktr/' as limitations, 
and to translate, ' Let no one tell these Samhitas to any pupil who 
has not at least been a year with his master, and who does not 
mean to become a teacher in turn.' 

That this is the right view is confirmed by similar injunctions 
given at the end of the fifth Aranyaka. Here we have first some 
rules as to who is qualified to recite the Mahavrata. No one is 
permitted to do so, who has not passed through the Diksha, the 
initiation for the Agnish/oma. If the Mahavrata is performed as a 
Sattra, the sacrificer is a Hotrt priest, and he naturally has passed 
through that ceremony. But if the Mahavrata is performed as an 
Ekaha or Ahfna ceremony, anybody might be the sacrificer, and 
therefore it was necessary to say that no one who is adikshita, un- 
initiated, should recite it for another person; nor should he do so, 

* Apastamba-sutras, translated by BubJer, p. 18. 

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when the Mahavrata is performed without (or wilfr) an altar, or if it 
does not last one year. In saying, however, that one should not 
recite the Mahavrata for another person, parents and teachers are 
not to be understood as included, because what is done for them, 
is done for ourselves. 

After these restrictions as to the recitation of the Mahivrata, 
follow other restrictions as to the teaching of it, and here we read, 
as at the end of the Upanishad : 

4. ' Let no one teach this day, the Mahavrata, to one who is 
not a regular pupil (antevasin), and has been so for one year, cer- 
tainly not to one who has not been so for one year; nor to one who 
is not a brahma&lrin and does not study the same Veda 1 , certainly 
not to one who does not study the same Veda ; nor to one who 
does not come to him. 

5. ' Let the teaching not be more than saying it once or twice, 
twice only. 

6. ' One man should tell it to one man, so says Gatukarnya. 

7. ' Not to a child, nor to a man in his third stage of life. 

8. ' The teacher and pupil should not stand, nor walk, nor lie 
down, nor sit on a couch; but they should both sit on the 

9. 'The pupil should not lean backward while learning, nor 
lean forward. He should not be covered with too much clothing, 
nor assume the postures of a devotee, but without using any of the 
apparel of a devotee, simply elevate his knees. Nor should he 
learn, when he has eaten flesh, when he has seen blood, or a 
corpse, or when he has done an unlawful thing*; when he has 
anointed his eyes, oiled or rubbed his body, when he has been 
shaved or bathed, put colour on, or ornamented himself with flower- 
wreaths, when he has been writing or effacing his writing 8 . 

10. 'Nor should he finish the reading in one day, so says <?atu- 
karwya, while according to Galava, he should finish it in one day. 
Agniveryayana holds that he should finish all before the Trikaritis 4 , 
and then rest in another place finishing it 

11. 'And in the place where he reads this, he should not read 

1 See Gautama-sutras XIV, 21, and Bflhler's note. 

3 Navratyam akramya is explained by the commentator by 

* This, if rightly translated, would seem to be the earliest mention 
of actual writing in Sanskrit literature. 

4 See Ait Ar. I, 4, 3, 1-4. 

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anything else, though he may read this (the Mahavrata) where he 
has read something else. 

12. 'No one should bathe and become a snataka 1 who does not 
read this. Even if he has read many other things, he should not 
become a snataka if he has not read this. 

13. ' Nor should he forget it, and even if he should forget any- 
thing else, he should not forget this. 

14. 'No, he should never forget this. 

15. 'If he does not forget this, it will be enough for himself (or 
for acquiring a knowledge of the Self). 

16. 'It is enough, let him know this to be true. 

17. 'Let him who knows this not communicate, nor dine, nor 
amuse himself with any one who does not know it' 

Then follow some more rules as to the reading of the Veda in 
general : 

18. ' When the old water that stood round the roots of trees is 
dried up (after about the month of Pausha, January to February') he 
should not read ; nor (at any time) in the morning or in the after- 
noon, when the shadows meet (he should begin at sunrise so soon 
as the shadows divide, and end in the evening before they fall to- 
gether). Nor should he read * when a cloud has risen ; and when 
there is an unseasonable rain (after the months of SrSvawa and Bhl- 
drapada, August and September 4 ) he should stop his Vedic reading 
for three nights. Nor should he at that time tell stories, not even 
during the night, nor should he glory in his knowledge. 

19. ' This (the Veda thus learnt and studied) is the name of that 
Great Being; and he who thus knows the name ef that Great Being, 
he becomes Brahman, yea, he becomes Brahman.' 

1 Apastamba-sutras, translated by Buhler, p. 92 (I, 2, 30, 4). 

* Apastamba-sutras, translated by Buhler, p. 33 (I, 3, 9, 2). 

* Apastamba-sutras, translated by Btthler, p. 44 (1, 3, 11, 31). 

* Apastamba-sutras, translated by Buhler, p. 33 (I, 3, 9, 1). 

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First AdhyAya. 

i. ATitra Gangyayani 1 , forsooth, wishing to per- 
form a sacrifice, chose Aru#i (Uddalaka 2 , to be his 
chief priest). But Aru«i sent his son, ►Svetaketu, 
and said : ' Perform the sacrifice for him.' When 
6vetaketu 3 had arrived, Kitra. asked him: 'Son of 
Gautama*, is there a hidden place in the world - 
where you are able to place me, or is it the other 
way, and are you going to place me in the world 
to which it (that other way) leads • ? ' 

1 It is difficult to determine whether Antra's name was Gangyi- 
yani or Gdrgy&yara. Professor Weber adopted first Girgy&yam 
(Indische Studien I, p. 395), afterwards Gangyilyani (ibid. II, 395). 
Professor Cowell adopts Gangy&yani, but he tells us that the Telugu 
MS. reads Gdrgylyaw throughout, and fee other MSS. B, C do so 
occasionally. The commentator explains Gingylyani as the 
descendant (yuvapatyam) of Gingya. I confess a preference for 
GSrgySyani, because both Gangd and G&hgya are names of rare 
occurrence in ancient Vedic literature, but I admit that for that 
very reason the transition of GSngyiyani into G&rgy&yam is perhaps 
more intelligible than that of G&rgy£ya»i into G&hgydyani. 

» Cf. Kh. Up. V, 11, 2 ; Brih. Ar. VI, 2, 1. 

■ Cf. Kh. Up. V, 3 ; VI, 1. * Bnh. Ar. VI, 2, 4. 

• The question put by .Xitra to Svetaketu is very obscure, and 
was probably from the first intended to be obscure in its very 
wording. What Kitxa. wished to ask we can gather from other 
passages in the Upanishads, where we see another royal sage, Pra- 
vahawa Gaivali (Kh. Up. V, 3 ; Br»h. Ar. VI, 2), enlightening SVeta- 
ketu on the future life. That future life is reached by two roads; 

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272 kaushItaki-upakishad. 

He answered and said : ' I do not know this. 
But, let me ask the master.' Having approached 
his father, he asked : ' Thus has JCitra. asked me ; 
how shall I answer ? ' 

one, the Devapatha, leading to the world of Brahman (the con- 
ditioned), beyond which there lies one other stage only, represented 
by knowledge of and identity with the unconditioned Brahman ; 
the other leading to the world of the fathers, and from thence, 
after the reward of good works has been consumed, back to a 
new round of mundane existence. There is a third road for 
creatures which live and die, worms, insects, and creeping things, 
but they are of little consequence. Now it is quite clear that the 
knowledge which king JTitra possesses, and which 5vetaketu does 
not possess, is that of the two roads after death, sometimes called 
the right and the left, or the southern and northern roads. These 
roads are fully described in the .Oandogya-upanishad and in the 
Brjhad-ara»yaka, with certain variations, yet on the whole with the 
same purpose. The northern or left road, called also the path of 
the Devas, passes on from light and day to the bright half of the 
moon; the southern or right road, called also the path of the 
fathers, passes on from smoke and night to the dark half of the 
moon. Both roads therefore meet in the moon, but diverge after- 
wards. While the northern road passes by the six months when 
the sun moves towards the north, through the sun, (moon,) and the 
lightning to the world of Brahman, the southern passes by the six 
months when the -sun moves towards the south, to the world of the 
fathers, the ether, and the moon. The great difference, however, 
between the two roads is, that while those who travel on the former 
do not return again to a new life on earth, but reach in the end 
a true knowledge of the unconditioned Brahman, those who pass 
on to the world of the fathers and the moon return to earth to be 
born again and again. 

The question therefore which JTitra addresses to Svetaketu can 
refer to these two roads only, and though the text is very corrupt, 
and was so evidently even at the time when the commentary was 
written, we must try to restore it in accordance with the teaching 
imparted by A"itra in what follows. I propose to read: Gautamasya 
putra, asti sawvrriaw loke yasmin ma dhasyasy anyatamo vadhva* 
tasya (or yasya) ma" loke dhasyasi, « Is there a hidden place in the 
world where you (by your sacrificing and teaching) are able to 

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I ADHYAYA, 2. 273 

Arutfi said : ' I also do not know this. Only after 
having learnt the proper portion of the Veda in 
Altra's own dwelling, shall we obtain what others 
give us (knowledge). Come, we will both go.' 

Having said this he took fuel in his hand (like 
a pupil), and approached KiXxa. Gangyayani, say- 
ing : ' May I come near to you ? ' He replied : 
'You are worthy of Brahman 1 , O Gautama, because 
you were not led away by pride. Come hither, I 
shall make you know clearly.' 

2. And A'itra said : All who depart from this 
world (or this body) go to the moon 2 . In the former, 
(the bright) half, the moon delights in their spirits ; 
in the other, (the dark) half, the moon sends them on 

place me, or is it the other way, and will you place me in the 
world to which it leads?' Even thus the text is by no means 
satisfactory, but it is better than anyam aho v&dhva^ adopted by the 
commentator and explained by him : Is there a hidden place in that 
world in which you will place me as another, i. e. as different from 
the whole world or identical with the whole world, and, if as dif- 
ferent, then having bound me (vSdhv^=baddhvd) and made me a 
different person? We may read anyataro for anyatamo v&dhvi. The 
commentator sums up the question as referring to a hidden or not 
hidden place, where JTitra should be placed as another person 
or not another person, as bound or not bound; or, as Professor 
Cowell renders it, ' O son of Gautama, is there any secret place in 
the world where thou canst set me unconnected, having fixed me 
there (as wood united with glue) ; or is there some other place 
where thou canst set me?' The speculations on the fate of the 
soul after death seem to have been peculiar to the royal families of 
India, while the Brahmans dwelt more on what may be called the 
shorter cut, a knowledge of Brahman as the true Self. To know, 
with them, was to be, and, after the dissolution of the body, they 
looked forward to immediate emancipation, without any further 

1 Worthy to know Brahman, or, as the commentator, who reads 
brahmargha, thinks, to be honoured like Brahman. 

1 Both roads lead to the moon, and diverge afterwards. 

[3] T 

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to be born again *. Verily, the moon is the door of 
the Svarga world (the heavenly world). Now, if a 
man objects to the moon (if one is not satisfied with 
life there) the moon sets him free *. But if a man 
does not object, then the moon sends him down as 
rain upon this earth. And according to his deeds 
and according to his knowledge he is born again 
here as a worm, or as an insect, or as a fish, or as a 
bird, or as a lion, or as a boar, or as a serpent *, or 
as a tiger, or as a man, or as something else in dif- 
ferent places *. When he has thus returned to the 
earth, some one (a sage) asks: 'Who art thou?' 
And he should answer : ' From the wise moon, who 
orders the seasons 6 , when it is born consisting of 
fifteen parts, from the moon who is the home of our 
ancestors, the seed was brought. This seed, even 
me, they (the gods mentioned in the ParUagnividya 6 ) 
gathered up in an active man, and through an active 

1 I should like to read aparapakshe pra^-anayati, instead of 
aparapakshena, or aparapakshe na. The negative is out of the 
question, for pra^anayati, he sends into a new life, is exactly what 
the moon does to those who do not proceed on the Devapatha to* 
the Brahmaloka. Therefore if the reading aparapakshena must be 
retained, it should be rendered by ' the moon with the dark half 
sends them into a new life.' 

* This is supposed to be the hidden place, or rather the way to 
it, when the departed leave the moon, and pass on to lightning 
and to the world of Brahman. This is in fact the Devay&na, as 
opposed to the Pitn'y£*a, described in the i?Mndogya-upanishad. 

* Paraxvi, dandajukavireshaA. There is no authority for trans- 
lating it by dog ; cf. Indische Studien I, 396. 

4 This might even include naraka or hell. 

• If n'tavaA is here the genitive of rrtu, its meaning would be 
the ordainer of the seasons; cf. Hibbert Lectures, p. 347. Vtfa- 
ksha»a is applied to the moon again, II, 9, and die throne of 
Brahman also is called vi£aksha»2, 1, 3. 

• Kh. Up. V, 4-8. 

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I ADHYAYA, 3. 275 

man they brought me to a mother. Then I, growing 
up to be born, a being living by months, whether 
twelve or thirteen, was together with my father, who 
also lived by (years of) twelve or thirteen months, 
that I might either know it (the true Brahman) or 
not know it Therefore, O ye seasons \ grant that 
I may attain immortality (knowledge of Brahman). 
By this my true saying, by this my toil (beginning 
with the dwelling in the moon and ending with my 
birth on earth) I am (like) a season, and the child 
of the seasons.' ' Who art thou ? ' the sage asks 
again. ' I am thou,' he replies. Then he sets him 
free 2 (to proceed onward). 

3. He (at the time of death), having reached 
the path of the gods, comes to the world of Agni 
(fire), to the world of Vayu (air), to the world of 
Varu*a, to the world of Indra, to the world of 
Pra^ipati (Vir&f), to the world of Brahman (Hira- 
»yagarbha). In that world there is the lake Ara 8 , 
the moments called Yesh/iha*, the river Vi^ari 
(age-less), the tree Ilya 8 , the city Sdla^ya, the palace 
Aparifita (unconquerable), the door-keepers Indra 

1 The commentator takes rrtavaA as an accusative. I take it as 
a vocative, and as used in a sense analogous to the Zend ratu, an 
epithet of Ahura. Darmesteter, Ormazd, p. 12, n. 3. 

* If a person fears heaven (svarga) as much as hell, because 
neither gives final liberation, then he is fit to proceed to a know- 
ledge of Brahman.^ It would seem that after this, this person is in 
the same position as the other who, objecting to remain in the 
moon, was set free at once. 

3 Consisting of ari's, enemies, such as love, anger, &c. In the 
Kh. Up. VIII, 5, 3, it is called Ara. 

4 Explained to mean, killing the sacrifice, which consists in a 
desire for Brahman. 

* The same as the arvattha/S somasavanaA in Kh. Up. VIII, 5, 3. 

T 2 

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and Pra^apati, the hall of Brahman, called Vibhu 1 
(built by vibhu, egoism), the throne Vi£aksha»& 
(buddhi, perception), the couch Amitau^as (endless 
splendour), and the beloved Manasi (mind) and her 
image A'akshusht (eye), who, as if taking flowers, are 
weaving the worlds, and the Apsaras, the Ambis 
(yruti, sacred scriptures), and Ambayavls (buddhi, 
understanding), and the rivers Ambayas (leading 
to the knowledge of Brahman). To this world he 
who knows this (who knows the Paryanka-vidya) 
approaches. Brahman says to him : ' Run towards 
him (servants) with such worship as is due to myself. 
He has reached the river Vi^ara (age-less), he will 
never age.' 

4. Then five hundred Apsaras go towards him, one 
hundred with garlands in their hands, one hundred 
with ointments in their hands, one hundred with per- 
fumes in their hands, one hundred with garments in 
their hands, one hundred with fruit * in their hands. 
They adorn him with an adornment worthy of Brah- 
man, and when thus adorned with the adornment of 
Brahman, the knower of Brahman moves towards 
Brahman (neut.) s He comes to the lake Ara, and he 
crosses it by the mind, while those who come to it 
without knowing the truth *, are drowned. He comes 
to the moments called Yesh/iha, they flee from him. 

1 Vibhun&makam pramitaw sabh&sthalam. 

* Some MSS. read phawahastaA, and the commentator explains 
pha«a by abhara«a. 

' Though brahman is used here as a neuter, it refers to the 
conditioned Brahman. 

4 Samprativid is here explained as brahmavidy&runya, ignorant, 
while in other places (Ait Ar. II, 3, 1) it stands for samyagabh^fia. 
If the latter is the true meaning, we might read here tam itvSsam- 

Digitized by 


i adhyAya, 5. 277 

He comes to the river Vizard, and crosses it by the 
mind alone, and there shakes off his good and evil 
deeds. His beloved relatives obtain the good, his 
unbeloved relatives the evil he has done. And as a 
man, driving in a chariot, might look at the two 
wheels (without being touched by them), thus he 
will look at day and night, thus at good and evil 
deeds, and at all pairs (at all correlative things, such 
as light and darkness, heat and cold, &c.) Being 
freed from good and freed from evil he, the knower 
of Brahman (neut.), moves towards Brahman. 

5. He approaches the tree Ilya, and the odour 
of Brahman reaches him. He approaches the city 
Salafya, and the flavour of Brahman reaches him. 
He approaches the palace Apara/ita, and the splen- 
dour of Brahman reaches him. He approaches the 
door-keepers Indra and Pra^apati, and they run 
away from him. He approaches the hall Vibhu, and 
the glory of Brahman reaches him (he thinks, I am 
Brahman). He approaches the throne Vi£aksha«a. 
The Saman verses, BWhad and Rathantara, are the 
eastern feet of that throne 1 ; the Saman verses, .Syaita 
and Naudhasa, its western feet ; the Saman verses, 
Vairupa and Vaira^a, its sides lengthways (south 
and north) ; the Saman verses, .Sakvara and Raivata, 
its sides crossways (east and west). That throne is Pra- 
^M, knowledge, for by knowledge (self-knowledge) he 
sees clearly. He approaches the couch Amitau^as. 
That is Prawa (speech). The past and the future are 
its eastern feet ; prosperity and earth its western feet ; 
the Saman verses, Brz'had and Rathantara, are the 
two sides lengthways of the couch (south and north) ; 

1 Cf. Atharva-veda XV; Aufrecht, in Indische Studien I, p. 122. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

. 278 kaushJtaki-upanishad. 

the Saman verses, Bhadra and Ya^niyafniya, are 
its cross-sides at the head and feet (east and west) ; 
the Rik and Saman are the long sheets 1 (east and 
west); the Ya/us the cross-sheets (south and north); 
the moon-beam the cushion ; the Udgitha the (white) 
coverlet; prosperity the pillow 2 . On this couch sits 
Brahman, and he who knows this (who knows him- 
self one with Brahman sitting on the couch) mounts 
it first with one foot only. Then Brahman says to 
him : ' Who art thou ? ' and he shall answer : 

6. ' I am (like) a season, and the child of the 
seasons, sprung from the womb of endless space, 
from the light (from the luminous Brahman). The 
light, the origin of the year, which is the past, which 
is the present, which is all living things, and all ele- 
ments, is the Self 3 . Thou art the Self. What thou 
art, that am I.' 

Brahman says to him : ' Who am I ?' He shall 
answer : ' That which is, the true ' (Sat-tyam). 

Brahman asks : ' What is the true ?' He says to 
him : ' What is different from the gods and from 
the senses (pra#a) that is Sat, but the gods and the 

1 Sheets or coverings seem more applicable here than mere 
threads forming the woof and warp ; cf. Aufrecht, Indische Studien 
I, p. 131. 

* I read udgitha uparnA, .rnr upabarhanam. The Atharva text 
has udgitho 'parrayaA. 

s This passage is corrupt, and the various readings and various 
interpretations of the commentators do not help us much. One 
view, which I have followed, as far as possible, is that it had to be 
explained how the same being could be the child of the seasons, 
or living from year to year, and, at the same time, born of the 
light. The answer is, Because light is the seed or cause of the 
year, and the year the cause of everything else. I take no respon- 
sibility for this view, and I see no way of discovering the original 
reading and the original meaning of these sentences. 

Digitized by 


i adhyAya, 7. 279 

senses are Tyam. Therefore by that name Sat- 
tya (true) is called all this whatever there is. All 
this thou art' 

7. This is also declared by a verse : ' This great 
Rishi, whose belly is the Ya^us, the head the Saman, 
the form the Rik, is to be known as being imperish- 
able, as being Brahman.' 

Brahman says to him : ' How dost thou obtain 
my male names ?' He should answer : ' By breath 

Brahman asks : ' How my female names ?' He 
should answer : ' By speech (vai).' 

Brahman asks: 'How my neuter names?' He 
should answer : ' By mind (manas).' 

'How smells?' 'By the nose.' 'How forms?' 
' By the eye.' ' How sounds ? ' 'By the ear.' 
' How flavours of food ? ' 'By the tongue.' ' How 
actions?' 'By the hands.' 'How pleasures and 
pain ? ' 'By the body.' ' How joy, delight, and 
offspring ? ' 'By the organ.' ' How journeyings ? ' 
' By the feet.' ' How thoughts, and what is to be 
known and desired ?' ' By knowledge (pra^fia) alone.' 

Brahman says to him : ' Water indeed is this my 
world 1 , the whole Brahman world, and it is thine.' 

Whatever victory, whatever might belongs to 
Brahman, that victory and that might he obtains 
who knows this, yea, who knows this 2 . 

1 It sprang from water and the other elements. Comm. Pro- 
fessor Weber proposes to translate ipzA by Erlangungen, acquisi- 
tions, with reference to apnoshi, 'how dost thou acquire my 
names?' in what precedes. 

* -Who knows the conditioned and mythological form of Brah- 
man as here described, sitting on the couch. 

Digitized by 


280 kaush!taki-upanishad. 

Second AdhyAya. 

i. Pra»a (breath) 1 is Brahman, thus says Kau- 
shltaki. Of this pra#a, which is Brahman, the mind 
(manas) is the messenger, speech the housekeeper, 
the eye the guard, the ear the informant He who 
knows mind as the messenger of pra#a, which is 
Brahman, becomes possessed of the messenger. He 
who knows speech as the housekeeper, becomes 
possessed of the housekeeper. He who knows the 
eye as the guard, becomes possessed of the guard. 
He who knows the ear as the informant, becomes 
possessed of the informant. 

Now to that pra«a, which is Brahman, all these 
deities (mind, speech, eye, ear) bring an offering, 
though he asks not for it, and thus to him who 
knows this all creatures bring an offering, though he 
asks not for it. For him who knows this, there is 
this Upanishad (secret vow), ' Beg not ! ' As a man 
who has begged through a village and got nothing 
sits down and says, ' I shall never eat anything 
given by those people,' and as then those who for- 
merly refused him press him (to accept their alms), 
thus is the rule for him who begs not, but the 
charitable will press him and say, ' Let us give to 

2. Pra«a (breath) is Brahman, thus says Paingya. 
And in that pra«a, which is Brahman, the eye 

1 In the first chapter it was said, 'He approaches the couch 
Amitau^as, that is prawa, breath, spirit, life. Therefore having 
explained in the first adhyaya the knowledge of the couch (of 
Brahman), the next subject to be explained is the knowledge of 
pra»a, the living spirit, taken for a time as Brahman, or the last 
cause of everything,' 

Digitized by 


ii adhyAya, 3. 281 

stands firm behind speech, the ear stands firm 
behind the eye, the mind stands firm behind the 
ear, and the spirit stands firm behind the mind 1 . 
To that pr4«a, which is Brahman, all these deities 
bring an offering, though he asks not for it, and 
thus to him who knows this, all creatures bring an 
offering, though he asks not for it. For him who 
knows this, there is this Upanishad (secret vow), 
' Beg not 1 ' As a man who has begged through a 
village and got nothing sits down and says, ' I shall 
never eat anything given by those people,' and as 
then those who formerly refused him press him 
(to accept their alms), thus is the rule for him who 
begs not, but the charitable will press him and say, 
' Let us give to thee.' 

3. Now follows the attainment of the highest 
treasure (scil. pra#a, spirit 2 ). If a man meditates 
on that highest treasure, let him on a full moon or 
a new moon, or in the bright fortnight, under an 
auspicious Nakshatra, at one of these proper times, 
bending his right knee, offer oblations of ghee with 
a ladle (sruva), after having placed the fire, swept 
the ground 8 , strewn the sacred grass, and sprinkled 
water. Let him say : ' The deity called Speech is 

1 I translate vakparastSt, lakshuAparast&t, mana^parast&t as 
compounds, and read jrotraparastdt. The commentator requires 
this. He says that speech is uncertain, and has to be checked 
by the eye. The eye is uncertain, taking mother of pearl for 
silver, and must be checked by the ear. The ear is uncertain, and 
must be checked by the mind, for unless the mind is attentive, 
the ear hears not. The mind, lastly, depends on the spirit, for 
without spirit there is no mind. The commentator is right in 
reading rundhe or runddhe instead of rundhate. 

* The vital spirits are called the highest treasure, because a man 
surrenders everything to preserve his vital spirits or his life. 

3 Cf. BnTi.Ar.VI, 3 , 1. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

282 kaushJtaki-upanishad. 

the attainer, may it attain this for me from him (who 
possesses and can bestow what I wish for). Svahi 
to it!' 

' The deity called pra#a (breath) is the attainer, 
may it attain this for me from him. Svahi to it ! ' 

' The deity called the eye is the attainer, may it 
attain this for me from him. Svihi to it ! ' 

' The deity called the ear is the attainer, may it 
attain this for me from him. Svahi to it ! ' 

' The deity called mind (manas) is the attainer of it, 
may it attain this for me from him. Svihi to it' 

' The deity called pra^ria (knowledge) is the 
attainer of it, may it attain this for me from him. 
Svahi to it!' 

Then having inhaled the smell of the smoke, and 
having rubbed his limbs with the ointment of ghee, 
walking on in silence, let him declare his wish, or 
let him send a messenger. He will surely obtain 
his wish. 

4. Now follows the Daiva Smara, the desire to 
be accomplished by the gods. If a man desires to 
become dear J to any man or woman, or to any men 
or women, then at one of the (fore-mentioned) 
proper times he offers, in exactly the same manner 
(as before), oblations of ghee, saying : ' I offer thy 
speech in myself, I (this one here 4 ), Svihi.' ' I offer 
thy ear in myself, I (this one here), Svihi.' ' I offer thy 

1 As dear as prdna or life. 

* The commentator explains these mysterious utterances by: 
' I offer, I throw, in the fire, which is lit by the fuel of thy indiffer- 
ence or dislike, in myself, being the object of thy love, speech, 
the organ of speech, of thee, who art going to love me. This 
one, i. e. I myself, or my love, may prosper. Sviha, my speech, 
may grant approval to the oblation of me, the lover.' 

Digitized by 


n adhyAya, 6. 283 

mind in myself, I (this one here), Svaha.' ' I offer thy 
pra^Tia (knowledge) in myself, I (this one here), Svaha.' 
Then having inhaled the smell of the smoke, and 
having rubbed his limbs with the ointment of ghee, 
walking on in silence, let him try to come in contact 
or let him stand speaking in the wind, (so that the 
wind may carry his words to the person by whom he 
desires to be loved). Surely he becomes dear, and 
they think of him. 

5. Now follows the restraint (sa/wyamana) insti- 
tuted by Pratardana (the son of Divodasa) : they 
call it the inner Agni-hotra. So long as a man 
speaks, he cannot breathe, he offers all the while 
his pra«a (breath) in his speech. And so long as a 
man breathes, he cannot speak, he offers all the 
while his speech in his breath. These two endless 
and immortal oblations he offers always, whether 
waking or sleeping. Whatever other oblations 
there are (those, e. g. of the ordinary Agnihotra, 
consisting of milk and other things), they have an 
end, for they consist of works (which, like all works, 
have an end). The ancients, knowing this (the best 
Agnihotra), did not offer the (ordinary) Agnihotra. 

6. Uktha 1 is Brahman, thus said .Sushkabhrai- 
gara. Let him meditate on it (the uktha) as the 
same with the Rik, and all beings will praise him 
as the best. Let him meditate on it as the same 
with the Ya^us, and all beings will join before him 

1 Uktha, a Vedic hymn, has been identified with pr£»a, breath, in 
the Ka«va and other .Sakhas (Brih. Ar. V, 13, 1 ; Ait. Ar. II, i, 2). 
Here uktha, i. e. the pra»a of the uktha, is further identified with 
Brahman. As uktha (the hymn) is prawa, and as the sacrifice is 
performed with hymns, the sacrifice, too, is uktha, and therefore 
prawa, and therefore Brahman. Comm. 

Digitized by 


284 kaushItaki-upanishad. 

as the best. Let him meditate on it as the same 
with the Saman, and all beings will bow before 
him as the best 1 . Let him meditate on it as the 
same with might, let him meditate on it as the same 
with glory, let him meditate on it as the same with 
splendour. For as the bow is among weapons the 
mightiest, the most glorious, the most splendid, thus 
is he who knows this among all beings the mightiest, 
the most glorious, the most splendid. The Adhvaryu 
conceives the fire of the altar, which is used for the 
sacrifice, to be himself. In it he (the Adhvaryu) 
weaves the Ya^s portion of the sacrifice. And in 
the Ya£"us portion the Hotri weaves the Rik portion 
of the sacrifice. And in the Rik portion the Ud- 
gktri weaves the Saman portion of the sacrifice. 
He (the Adhvaryu or pra«a) is the self of the 
threefold knowledge; he indeed is the self of it 
(of pra#a). He who knows this is the self of it 
(becomes pri»a 2 ). 

1 The verbs ar/i, yug, and sannam are not used idiomatically, 
but with reference to the words rik, ya^iis, and s&man. 

* The commentator explains this somewhat differently. He 
takes it to be the object of the last paragraph to show that the 
Prawa-vidya can ultimately produce final liberation, and not only 
temporal rewards. The Adhvaryu priest, he says, takes what is 
called uktha, and has been identified with Rik, Ya^us, and Saman 
hymns, all contained in the mouth, as being outwardly the sacri- 
ficial fire of the altar, because that fire cannot be lighted without 
such hymns. Thus the self of the Adhvaryu priest becomes iden- 
tified, not only with the uktha, the hymns, but also with the sacrificial 
fire, and he meditates on himself as fire, as hymn (uktha), and as 
breath (pra»a). I read sa esha sarvasyai trayyai vidyaya atma, 
esha u evasyitma. Etad&tma bhavati ya evam veda. But if we 
read asyatma, we cannot with the commentator explain it by asya" 
ukttyds trayya' &tm&, but must refer asya to pr4»a, breath, life, 
which is here to be identified with Brahman. 

Digitized by 


ii adhyAya, 8. 285 

7. Next follow the three kinds of meditation of 
the all-conquering (sarva^it) Kaushitaki. The all- 
conquering Kaushltaki adores the sun when rising, 
having put on the sacrificial cord \ having brought 
water, and having thrice sprinkled the water-cup, 
saying : ' Thou art the deliverer, deliver me from 
sin.' In the same manner he adores the sun when 
in the zenith, saying : ' Thou art the highest de- 
liverer, deliver me highly from sin.' In the same 
manner he adores the sun when setting, saying : 
' Thou art the full deliverer, deliver me fully from 
sin.' Thus he fully removes whatever sin he com- 
mitted by day and by night. And in the same 
manner he who knows this, likewise adores the sun, 
and fully removes whatever sin he committed by day 
and by night. 

8. Then (secondly) let him worship every month 
(in the year) at the time of the new moon, the moon 
as it is seen in the west in the same manner (as 
before described with regard to the sun), or let him 
send forth his speech toward the moon with two 
green blades of grass, saying : ' O thou who art 
mistress of immortal joy, through that gentle heart 
of mine which abides in the moon, may I never 
weep for misfortune concerning my children.' 

The children of him (who thus adores the moon) 
do not indeed die before him. Thus it is with a man 
to whom a son is already born. 

Now for one to whom no son is born as yet. He 
mutters the three Rik verses. ' Increase, O Soma ! 
may vigour come to thee' (Rv. I, 91, 16 ; IX, 31, 4). 

1 This is one of the earliest, if not the earliest mention of the 
ya^fiopavita, the sacred cord as worn over the left shoulder for 
sacrificial purposes; cf. Taitt. Brahm. Ill, 10, 19, 12. 

Digitized by 




'May milk, may food go to thee* (Rv. I, 91, 18) ; 
•That ray which the Adityas gladden.' 

Having muttered these three Rik verses, he says : 
' Do not increase by our breath (pra»a), by our off- 
spring, by our cattle; he who hates us and whom we 
hate, increase by his breath, by his offspring, by his 
catde. Thus I turn the turn of the god, I return 
the turn of Aditya 1 .' After these words, having 
raised the right arm (toward Soma), he lets it go 
again 2 . 

1 This refers to movements of the arm, following the moon and 
the sun. 

* It is extremely difficult to translate the Vedic verses which are • 
quoted in the Upanishads. They are sometimes slightly changed 
on purpose (see §11), frequently turned from their original purport 
by the authors of the Upanishads themselves, and then again sub- 
jected to the most fanciful interpretations by the various commen- 
tators on the Upanishads. In our paragraph (§ 8) the text followed 
by the commentator differs from the printed text. The commen- 
tator seems to have read : Yat te sustmam hrtdayam adhi fcuidra- 
masi xrrtam, tenamrriatvasycrane maham pautram aghaw rudam. 
I have translated according to the commentator, at least up to 
a certain point, for, as Professor Cowell remarks, there is an under- 
current in the commentator's explanation, implying a comparison 
between the husband as the sun or fire, and the wife as the moon, 
which it would be difficult to render in an English translation. 
The same or a very similar verse occurs in § 10, while other modi- 
fications of it may be seen in Ajval. Grthya-sfitras 1, 13, 7, and else- 
where. The translation of the verses in full, of three of which the 
Upanishad gives the beginnings only, would be according to the 
commentator : ' (O goddess of the moon) who hast obtained im- 
mortal joy through that which is a beautiful (portion of the sun) 
placed in the moon, and filling thy heart (with pleasure), may 
I never weep for misfortune concerning my children.' 

Rv. I, 91, 16; IX, 31, 4. 'O goddess of the moon, increase 1 
may the vigour from everywhere (from every limb of the fire or the 
sun) go to thee ! Help us in the attainment of food.' Rv. I, 91, 
18. 'O goddess of the moon, may the streams of thy milk go 
well to our sons, those streams of milk which are invigorating, and 

Digitized by 


ii adhyAya, io. 287 

9. Then (thirdly) let him worship on the day of 
the full moon the moon as it is seen in the east in 
the same manner, saying : ' Thou art Soma, the 
king, the wise, the five-mouthed, the lord of crea- 
tures. The Brahma#a is one of thy mouths ; with 
that mouth thou eatest the kings (Kshatriyas) ; 
make me an eater of food by that mouth ! The 
king is one of thy mouths ; with that mouth thou 
eatest the people (Vaisyas) ; make me an eater of 
food by that mouth ! The hawk is one of thy 
mouths ; with that mouth thou eatest the birds ; 
make me an eater of food by that mouth ! Fire is 
one of thy mouths; with that mouth thou eatest this 
world ; make me an eater of food by that mouth ! 
In thee there is the fifth mouth ; with that mouth 
thou eatest all beings ; make me an eater of food by 
that mouth ! Do not decrease by our life, by our 
offspring, by our cattle ; he who hates us and whom 
we hate, decrease by his life, by his offspring, by his 
cattle. Thus I turn the turn of the god, I return 
the turn of Aditya.' After these words, having 
raised the right arm, he lets it go again. 

10. Next (having addressed these prayers to 
Soma) when being with his wife, let him stroke her 

help to conquer the enemy. O Soma-goddess, increasing for im- 
mortal happiness (for the birth of a son), do thou place the highest 
glory (the streams of thy milk) in the sky.' ' That ray (sushumna) 
which (as a woman) the Adityas gladden, that Soma which as im- 
perishable the imperishable Adityas drink, may the guardian of 
the world (Pra^apati), Bnhaspati, and king Varuwa gladden us 
by it. 1 

The translations are made by the commentator regardless of 
grammar and sense : yet they command a certain authority, and 
must be taken into account as throwing right on the latest develop- 
ment of Indian mysticism. 

Digitized by 



heart, saying : ' O fair one, who hast obtained 
immortal joy by that which has entered thy heart 
through Pra^apati, mayest thou never fall into sor- 
row about thy children V Her children then do not 
die before her. 

ii. Next, if a man has been absent and returns 
home, let him smell (kiss) his son's head, saying : 
' Thou springest from every limb, thou art born from 
the heart, thou, my son, art my self indeed, live thou 
a hundred harvests.' He gives him his name, 
saying : ' Be thou a stone, be thou an axe, be thou 
solid * gold; thou, my son, art light indeed, live thou 
a hundred harvests.' He pronounces his name. 
Then he embraces him, saying : ' As Pra^apati (the 
lord of creatures) embraced his creatures for their 
welfare, thus I embrace thee,' (pronouncing his name.) 
Then he mutters into his right ear, saying: 'O thou, 
quick Maghavan, give to him' (Rv. Ill, 36, 10 s ). 
'O Indra, bestow the best wishes' (Rv. II, 21, 6), 
thus he whispers into his left ear. Let him then 
thrice smell (kiss) his head, saying : ' Do not cut off 
(the line of our race), do not suffer. Live a hun- 
dred harvests of life ; I kiss thy head, O son, with 
thy name.' He then thrice makes a lowing sound 
over his head, saying : ' I low over thee with the 
lowing sound of cows.' 

1 2. Next follows the Daiva Parimara 4 , the dying 
around of the gods (the absorption of the two 

1 Cf. Afval&yana Gr/hya-sfltras 1, 13, 7. 

* Widely scattered, everywhere desired. Comm. Professor 
Cowell proposes unscattered, hoarded, or unconcealed. 

9 The original has asme, to us, not asmai, to him. 

* Cf. Taitt. Up. Ill, 10, 4 ; Ait. Br&hm. V, »8 ; Colebrooke, 
Miscellaneous Essays (1873), II, p. 39. 

Digitized by 


n adhyAya, 13. 289 

classes of gods, mentioned before, into pra#a or 
Brahman). This Brahman shines forth indeed 
when the fire burns, and it dies when it burns not. 
Its splendour goes to the sun alone, the life (pra«a, 
the moving principle) to the air. 

This Brahman shines forth indeed when the sun 
is seen, and it dies when it is not seen. Its splendour- 
goes to the moon alone, the life (pr4«a) to the air. 

This Brahman shines forth indeed when the moon 


is seen, and it dies when it is not seen. Its splen- 
dour goes to the lightning alone, its life (pra#a) to 
the air. 

This Brahman shines forth indeed when the 
lightning flashes, and it dies when it flashes not. 
Its splendour goes to the air, and the life (pra»a) 
to the air. 

Thus all these deities (i. e. fire, sun, moon, light- 
ning), having entered the air, though dead, do not 
vanish ; and out of the very air they rise again. So 
much with reference to the deities (mythological). 
Now then with reference to the body (physiolo- 

1 3. This Brahman shines forth indeed when one 
speaks with speech, and it dies when one does not 
speak. His splendour goes to the eye alone, the life 
(pra«a) to breath (pra#a). 

This Brahman shines forth indeed when one sees 
with the eye, and it dies when one does not see. Its 
splendour goes to the ear alone, the life (pra«a) to 
breath (pra»a). 

This Brahman shines forth indeed when one hears 
with the ear, and it dies when one does not hear. 
Its splendour goes to the mind alone, the life (pra#a) 
to breath (pra#a). 

[3] u 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

290 kaush!taki-upanishad. 

This Brahman shines forth indeed when one 
thinks with the mind, and it dies when one does 
not think. Its splendour goes to the breath (pra«a) 
alone, and the life (pr£#a) to breath (prA#a). 

Thus all these deities (the senses, &c), having 
entered breath or life (pri»a) alone, though dead, do 
not vanish ; and out of very breath (pra«a) they rise 
again. • And if two mountains, the southern and 
northern, were to move forward trying to crush him 
who knows this, they would not crush him. But 
those who hate him and those whom he hates, they 
die around him. 

14. Next follows the NiArreyasadana 1 (the accept- 
ing of the pre-eminence of pra#a (breath or life) 
by the other gods). The deities (speech, eye, ear, 
mind), contending with each for who was the best, 
went out of this body, and the body lay without 
breathing, withered, like a log of wood. Then 
speech went into it, but speaking by speech, it lay 
still. Then the eye went into it, but speaking by 
speech, and seeing by the eye, it lay still. Then the 
ear went into it, but speaking by speech, seeing by 
the eye, hearing by the ear, it lay still. Then mind 
went into it, but speaking by speech, seeing by the 
eye, hearing by the ear, thinking by the mind, it lay 
still. Then breath (pra»a, life) went into it, and thence 
it rose at once. All these deities, having recognised 
the pre-eminence in pra«a, and having comprehended 
pri«a alone as the conscious self (pra^fiatman) 9 , went 
out of this body with all these (five different kinds of 

1 For other versions of this story see Kh. Up. V, 1, note 2 ; Ait 
Ar. II, 1, 4, 9 ; Brill. Ar. VI, 1, 1-14 j and Kaush. Up. Ill, 3. 
* Cf. Kh. Up. VII, 15, note. 

Digitized by 


II ADHYAYA, 1 5. 59 1 

pra«a), and resting in the air (knowing that pra«a 
had entered the air), and merged in the ether (aka$a), 
they went to heaven. And in the same manner he 
who knows this, having recognised the pre-eminence 
in pr4#a, and having comprehended pra»a alone as 
the conscious self (prafMtman), goes out of this 
body with all these (does no longer believe in 
this body), and resting in the air, and merged in 
the ether, he goes to heaven, he goes to where those 
gods (speech, &c.) are. And having reached this 
he, who knows this, becomes immortal with that 
immortality which those gods enjoy. 

15. Next follows the father's tradition to the son, 
and thus they explain it *. The father, when going 
to depart, calls his son, after having strewn the 
house with fresh grass, and having laid the sacrificial 
fire, and having placed near it a pot of water with a 
jug (full of rice), himself covered with a new cloth, 
and dressed in white. He places himself above his 
son, touching his organs with his own organs, or he 
may deliver the tradition to him while he sits before 
him. Then he delivers it to him. The father says: 
' Let me place my speech in thee.' The son says : 
* I take thy speech in me.' The father says : ' Let 
me place my scent (pra»a) in thee.' The son says : 
' I take thy scent in me.' The father says : ' Let 
me place my eye in thee.' The son says : ' I take 
thy eye in me.' The father says : ' Let me place 
my ear in thee.' The son says : ' I take thy ear in me.' 
The father says : ' Let me place my tastes of food in 
thee.' The son says : ' I take thy tastes of food 
in me.' The father says : ' Let me place my actions 

1 Cf. Br/liad4ra»yaka I, 5, 17. 
U 2 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

292 kaush!taki-upanishad. 

in thee/ The son says : ' I take thy actions in me.' 
The father says : ' Let me place my pleasure and 
pain in thee.' The son says: ' I take thy pleasure 
and pain in me.' The father says : ' Let me place 
happiness, joy, and offspring in thee.' The son says : 
' I take thy happiness, joy, and offspring in me.' The 
father says : ' Let me place my walking in thee.' 
The son says : ' I take thy walking in me V The 
father says : ' Let me place my mind in thee.' The 
son says: ' I take thy mind in me.' The father says: 
' Let me place my knowledge (pra^ria) in thee.' The 
son says : ' I take thy knowledge in me.' But if the 
father is very ill, he may say shortly: ' Let me place 
my spirits (praoas) in thee,' and the son : ' I take 
thy spirits in me.' 

Then the son walks round his father keeping his 
right side towards him, and goes away. The father 
calls after him: ' May fame, glory of countenance, and 
honour always follow thee.' Then the Other looks 
back over his left shoulder, covering himself with his 
hand or the hem of his garment, saying : ' Obtain 
the heavenly worlds (svarga) and all desires.' 

If the father recovers, let him be under the 
authority of his son, or let him wander about (as 
an ascetic). But if he departs, then let them 
despatch him, as he ought to be despatched, yea, 
as he ought to be despatched 2 . 

1 Another s&kh& adds here dhiyaA, the thoughts (active), vg-fi&ta- 
vyam, their object, and kam&A, desires. 

, * I have taken samapayati in the sense of performing the last 
duties towards a dead person, though I confess I know of no 
parallel passage in which samapayati occurs in that sense. Pro- 
fessor Cowell translates : ' If he dies, then let them cause the son 
duly to receive the tradition, as the tradition is to be given.' The 
text itself varies, for the reading presupposed by the commentator 
is enam (putram) samapayati, instead of enatn samapayeyuA. 

Digitized by 


Ill ADHYAYA, I. 293 

Third AdhyAya 1 . 

1. Pratardana, forsooth, the son of Divodasa 
(king of Kari), came by means of fighting and 
strength to the beloved abode of Indra. Indra said 
to him : ' Pratardana, let me give you a boon to 
choose.' And Pratardana answered: 'Do you your- 
self choose that boon for me which you deem most 
beneficial for a man/ Indra said to him : ' No one 
who chooses, chooses for another ; choose thyself 
Then Pratardana replied : ' Then that boon to 
choose is no boon for me.' 

Then, however, Indra did not swerve from the 
truth, for Indra is truth. Indra said to him : ' Know 
me only; that is what I deem most beneficial for man, 
that he should know me. I slew the three-headed 
son of Tvashtri ; I delivered the Arunmukhas, the 
devotees, to the wolves (salavrzka) ; breaking many 
treaties, I killed the people of Prahlada in heaven, 
the people of Puloma in the sky, the people of K&la- 
kafi^a on earth 2 . And not one hair of me was 
harmed there. And he who knows me thus, by no 
deed of his is his life harmed, not by the murder of 

1 The object now is to explain the true Brahma-vidyl, while the 
first and second chapters are only introductory, treating of the 
worship of the couch (paryankop£san&) and of the worship of 

* This refers to heroic deeds performed by Indra, as represented 
in the hymns of the Rig-veda. See Rig-veda V, 34, 4, and SSyawa's 
commentary; Ait. Brabm. VII, 38. Weber, Indische Studien I, 
410-418, has tried to discover an original physical meaning in the 
heroic deeds ascribed to Indra. A curious remark is made by 
the commentator, who says that the skulls of the Arunmukhas were 
turned into the thorns of the desert (karfra) which remain to 
this day, — a very common phase in popular tradition. 

Digitized by 


294 kaushItaki-upanishad. 

his mother, not by the murder of his father, not by- 
theft, not by the killing of a Brahman. If he is 
going to commit a sin, the bloom * does not depart 
from his face.' 

2. Indra said : ' I am pri»a, meditate on me as 
the conscious self (praffiatman), as life, as immor- 
tality. Life is pra#a, pra#a is life. Immortality is 
pra#a, pra#a is immortality. As long as pra//a 
dwells in this body, so long surely there is life. By 
pra»a he obtains immortality in the other world, by 
knowledge true conception. He who meditates on 
me as life and immortality, gains his full life in this 
world, and obtains in the Svarga world immortality 
and indestructibility.' 

(Pratardana said) : ' Some maintain here, that the 
pra#as become one, for (otherwise) no one could at 
the same time make known a name by speech, see 
a form with the eye, hear a sound with the ear, 
think a thought with the mind. After having 
become one, the prawas perceive all these together, 
one by one. While speech speaks, all prawas speak 
after it While the eye sees, all pr£#as see after it. 
While the ear hears, all pra#as hear after it. While 
the mind thinks, all prawas think after it. While the 
prawa breathes, all pra#as breathe after it.' 

' Thus it is indeed,' said Indra, ' but nevertheless 
there is a pre-eminence among the pra#as a . 

3. Man lives deprived of speech, for we see dumb 
people. Man lives deprived of sight, for we see 

1 Professor Cowell compares Taittirtya-Sawhita III, 1, 1, n&sya 
nitaw na haro vyeti. 

1 Prints, in the plural, is supposed to stand for the five senses 
as modifications of breath. It would be better if we could read 
pranasya nifcreyasam. See before, II, 14. 

Digitized by 


Ill ADHYAVA, 3. 295 

blind people. Man lives deprived of hearing, for 
we see deaf people. Man lives deprived of mind, 
for we see infants. Man lives deprived of his arms, 
deprived of his legs, for we see it thus. But pra«a 
alone is the conscious self (pra^fiatman), and having 
laid hold of this body, it makes it rise up. There- 
fore it is said, Let man worship it alone as uktha x . 
What is pra»a, that is praffia (self-consciousness); 
what is pra^ria (self-consciousness), that is pra«a, for 
together they (pra/fia and pra«a) live in this body, 
and together they go out of it. Of that, this is the 
evidence, this is the understanding. When a man, 
being thus asleep, sees no dream whatever, he be- 
comes one with that prawa alone 2 . Then speech 
goes to him (when he is absorbed in pra«a) with 
all names, the eye with all forms, the ear with all 
sounds, the mind with all thoughts. And when 
he awakes, then, as from a burning fire sparks 
proceed in all directions, thus from that self the 
pra#as (speech, &c.) proceed, each towards its place ; 
from the pra«as the gods (Agni, &c), from the gods 
the worlds. 

Of this, this is the proof, this is the understanding. 
When a man is thus sick, going to die, falling into 
weakness and faintness, they say: 'His thought has 
departed, he hears not, he sees not, he speaks not, 
he thinks not' Then he becomes one with that 
prawa alone. Then speech goes to him (who is 
absorbed in pra#a) with all names, the eye with all 

1 Uktha, hymn, is artificially derived from ut-thipayati, to raise 
up, and hence uktha, hymn, is to be meditated on as prawa, breath, 
which likewise raises up the body. See Ait. Ar. II, 1, 15. 

* He is absorbed in pra«a. Or should it be primA as 
nominative ? 

Digitized by 


296 kaushItaki-upanishad. 

forms, the ear with all sounds, the mind with all 
thoughts. And when he departs from this body, he 
departs together with all these 1 . 

4. Speech gives up to him (who is absorbed in 
pri/za) all names, so that by speech he obtains all 
names. The nose gives up to him all odours, so 
that by scent he obtains all odours. The eye gives 
up to him all forms, so that by the eye he obtains 
all forms. The ear gives up to him all sounds, so 
that by the ear he obtains all sounds. The mind 
gives up to him all thoughts, so that by the mind he 
obtains all thoughts. This is the complete absorp- 
tion in prawa. And what is pri«a is pra^na (self- 
consciousness), what is pra^iia (self-consciousness) is 
pra«a. For together do these two live in the body, 
and together do they depart. 

Now we shall explain how all things become one 
in that praffia (self-consciousness). 

5. Speech is one portion taken out 2 of pra^nd 
(self-conscious knowledge), the word is its object, 
placed outside. The nose is one portion taken out 
of it, the odour is its object, placed outside. The 
eye is one portion taken out of it, the form is its 
object, placed outside. The ear is one portion taken 
out of it, the sound is its object, placed outside. The 
tongue is one portion taken out of it, the taste of 
food is its object, placed outside. The two hands 

1 According to another reading we might translate, ' Speech 
takes away all names from that body ; and prSna, in which speech 
is absorbed, thus obtains all names.' 

* I read udMam or udu<ftam, instead of adudiam, explained 
by the commentator as aduduhat. Professor Cowell translates, 
' Speech verily milked one portion thereof,' which may have been 
the original purport of the writer. 

Digitized by 


ni adhyAya, 7. 297 

are one portion taken out of it, their action is their 
object, placed outside. The body is one portion 
taken out of it, its pleasure and pain are its 
object, placed outside. The organ is one portion 
taken out of it, happiness, joy, and offspring are its 
object, placed outside. The two feet are one portion 
taken out of it, movements are their object, placed 
outside. Mind is one portion taken out of it, thoughts 
and desires are its object, placed outside. 

6. Having by pra^fia (self-conscious knowledge) 
taken possession of speech, he obtains by speech all 
words. Having by pra^fta taken possession of the 
nose, he obtains all odours. Having by pra^fia 
taken possession of the eye, he obtains all forms. 
Having by pra^fia taken possession of the ear, he 
obtains all sounds. Having by pra/fia taken posses- 
sion of the tongue, he obtains all tastes of food. 
Having by pra^iia taken possession of the two 
hands, he obtains all actions. Having by praffia 
taken possession of the body, he obtains pleasure 
and pain. Having by pra^fia taken possession of 
the organ, he obtains happiness, joy, and offspring. 
Having by pra^fia taken possession of the two feet, 
he obtains all movements. Having by praffia taken 
possession of mind, he obtains all thoughts. 

7. For without pra^fii (self-consciousness) speech 
does not make known (to the self) any word 1 . ' My 

1 Professor Cowell has translated a passage from the com- 
mentary which is interesting as showing that its author and the 
author of the Upanishad too had a clear conception of the 
correlative nature of knowledge. ' The organ of sense,' he says, 
' cannot exist without pra^fli (self-consciousness), nor the objects 
of sense be obtained without the organ, therefore — on the princi- 
ple, that when one thing cannot exist without another, that thing is 
said to be identical with the other — as the cloth, for instance, being 

Digitized by 


igS kaush!taki-upanishad. 

mind was absent,' he says, ' I did not perceive that 
word.' Without praffia the nose does not make 
known any odour. ' My mind was absent,' he says, 
' I did not perceive that odour.' Without pra^M 
the eye does not make known any form. ' My mind 
was absent,' he says, ' I did not perceive that form.' 
Without pra^ria the ear does not make known any 
sound. ' My mind was absent,' he says, ' I did not 
perceive that sound.' Without pra^fti the tongue 
does not make known any taste. ' My mind was 
absent,' he says, 'I did not perceive that taste.' 
Without praffia the two hands do not make known 
any act. ' Our mind was absent,' they say, ' we did 
not perceive any act' Without pra^fli the body 
does not make known pleasure or pain. ' My mind 
was absent,' he says, ' I did not perceive that 
pleasure or pain.' Without praffii the organ does 
not make known happiness, joy, or offspring. ' My 
mind was absent,' he says, ' I did not perceive that 
happiness, joy, or offspring.' Without pra^ria the 
two feet do not make known any movement. ' Our 
mind was absent,' they say, 'we did not perceive 
that movement' Without pra^fti no thought suc- 
ceeds, nothing can be known that is to be known. 

8. Let no man try to find out what speech is, let 
him know the speaker. Let no man try to find out 
what odour is, let him know him who smells. Let no 
man try to find out what form is, let him know the 
seer. Let no man try to find out what sound is, let 

never perceived without the threads, is identical with them, or the 
(false perception of) silver being never found without the mother of 
pearl is identical with it, so the objects of sense being never found 
without the organs are identical with them, and the organs being 
never found without pra^fia (self-consciousness) are identical with it. 

Digitized by 


in adhyAya, 8. 299 

him know the hearer. Let no man try to find out 
the tastes of food, let him know the krtower of 
tastes. Let no man try to find out what action is, 
let him know the agent. Let no man try to find 
out what pleasure and pain are, let him know the 
knower of pleasure and pain. Let no man try to 
find out what happiness, joy, and offspring are, let 
him know the knower of happiness, joy, and offspring. 
Let no man try to find out what movement is, let him 
know the mover. Let no man try to find out what 
mind is, let him know the thinker. These ten objects 
(what is spoken, smelled, seen, &c.) have refer- 
ence to pra^fia (self-consciousness), the ten subjects 
(speech, the senses, mind) have reference to objects. 
If there were no objects, there would be no subjects ; 
and if there were no subjects, there would be no 
objects. For on either side alone nothing could be 
achieved. But that (the self of praffia, conscious- 
ness, and pra#a, life) is not many, (but one.) For as 
in a car the circumference of a wheel is placed on 
the spokes, and the spokes on the nave, thus are 
these objects (circumference) placed on the subjects 
(spokes), and the subjects on the pra#a. And that 
prawa (breath, the living and breathing power) in- 
deed is the self of pragftk (the self-conscious self), 
blessed, imperishable, immortal. He does not in- 
crease by a good action, nor decrease by a bad 
action. For he (the self of pra«a and pra.fM) makes 
him, whom he wishes to lead up from these worlds, 
do a good deed ; and the same makes him, whom 
he wishes to lead down from these worlds, do a bad 
deed K And he is the guardian of the world, he is 

' The other text says, ' whom he wishes to draw after him ; and 
whom he wishes to draw away from these worlds.' RSmatirtha, in 

Digitized by 


300 kaushItaki-upanishad. 

the king of the world, he is the lord of the universe, — 
and he is my (Indra's) self, thus let it be known, 
yea, thus let it be known! 

Fourth Adhyaya 1 . 

i. There was formerly Gargya Balaki*, famous as 
a man of great reading ; for it was said of him that 
he lived among the Urinaras, among the Satvat- 
Matsyas, the Kuru-Panialas, the Kid -Videhas 3 . 
Having gone to Afatasatru, (the king) of Klrf, he 
said to him : ' Shall I tell you Brahman ? ' A^ata- 
satru said to him : ' We give a thousand (cows) for 
that speech (of yours), for verily all people run away, 
saying, " kanaka (the king of Mithila) is our father 
(patron)." ' 

2. 4 Bk/had-Arajvyaka- Kaush!taki-brAhmaya- 
upanishad. upanishad. 

i. Aditye purusha^. i. Id. 

atishMa^ sarvesham brzhat pa#*/aravas& 

his commentary on the Mait. Up. 3, 2, quotes the text as translated 

1 Prana, breath or life, has been explained in the preceding 
chapter. But this pri»a is not yet the highest point that has to 
be reached. Prawa, life, even as united with pra^ftS, consciousness, 
is only a covering of something else, viz. the Self, and this Highest 
Self has now to be explained. 

1 The same story is told in the Br/had-arawyaka II, 1 seq., but 
with important variations. 

* I take iti to depend on samspash/a, and read satvanmatsyeshu, 
though the commentary seems to have read so 'vasan, or sa vasan, 
for savasan. See Introduction, p. lxxvii. 

4 The second paragraph forms a kind of table of contents for 
the discussion which is to follow. I have given instead a fuller 
table of contents, taken from the Brthad-araayaka II, as compared 
with the Kaushitaki-upanishad in its two texts. The variations of 
text A are given in small letters. In text B, the table of contents 
is given at the end of the discussion, in § 18. 

Digitized by 




bhtitanam mflrdha 

ii. Aandre purushaA 
bWhat pa«darav&sa^ 
somo ra#&. (N4- 
syannaw* kshlyate, 
is the reward.) 
ill- Vidyuti purushai. 

iv. Aklye purushaA. 
pflrwam apravarti. 

v. Viyau purusha^. 
indro vaikim^fco 'pa- 
r4fit4 sena. 
vi. Agnau purushaA 


vii. Apsu purushaA. 


viii. Adarce purusha^. 

ix. Yantampaf>§ai^ab- 

( pdnduravdtd) atish- 

th&h sarvesham 
bhdtanam mflrdha. 
ii. ^andramasi. 

somo rkgk, annasya- 

tma. Only annasydtmd. 

iii. Id. 

te^asy atma. tatya- 


iii b . stanayitnau puru- 
iv. Id. (5) 

ptiraam apravarti 
brahma. apramtti. 
v. Id. ( 4 ) 

vi. Id. 

vii. Id. 

namnasyatma. tegasa 


viii. Id. 

viii b . pratimitkayam pu- 
rusha^. (9) 

dvitlyo 'napagaA a- 


ix. YaA jabda^ purus- 
ham anveti.(io)sa4<fc. 

Id. mri/yuh. 

Digitized by 




x. Dikshu purushaA 

dvitiyo 'napagaA. 
xi. .Oayamaya^ puru- 
xii. Atmani purushaA 





AT^ayipurusha^. (8 b ) 

Id. dvitiyo 'napugah. 

.Sarlra^ purushaA. 

(12) aarire puruskah. 


Ya^ pi^ffia atma, 
yenaitat supta^ 
svapnaya ^arati. 

Yamo t&gH. (n) pwu- 

thah svapnayd karat* 
yamo rdgd. 

Dakshi«e Icshan pu- 

namna (vdka) atma, 
agner atmi, £yoti- 
sha atma. 
xiv. Savye 'kshan puru- 
atma, te^-asa atmi. 
3. Balaki said: ' The person that is in the sun, 
on him I meditate (as Brahman).' 

A^atasatru said to him : ' No, no ! do not chal- 
lenge me (to a disputation) on this \ I meditate on 
him who is called great, clad in white raiment *, the 
supreme, the head of all beings. Whoso meditates 

1 The king means to say that he knows this already, and that he 
can mention not only the predicates of the person in the sun thus 
meditated on as Brahman, but also the rewards of such meditation. 

' This is properly a predicate of the moon, and used as such in 
the B?Thad-&ra»yaka-upanishad, in the second paragraph of the 

Digitized by 


iv adhyAya, 8. 303 

on him thus, becomes supreme, and the head of all 

4. Balaki said: 'The person that is in the moon, 
on him I meditate.' 

A^ataratru said to him : ' Do not challenge me on 
this. I meditate on him as Soma, the king, the self, 
(source) of all food. Whoso meditates on him thus, 
becomes the self, (source) of all food.' 

5. Balaki said: 'The person that is in the 
lightning, on him I meditate.' 

A^ataratru said to him • 'Do not challenge me on 
this. I meditate on him as the self in light. Whoso 
meditates on him thus, becomes the self in light.' 

6. Balaki said: 'The person that is in the 
thunder, on him I meditate/ 

A^at&yatru said to him : ' Do not challenge me 
on this. I meditate on him as the self of sound *. 
Whoso meditates on him thus, becomes the self of 

7. Balaki said : ' The person that is in the ether, 
on him I meditate.' 

A^atayatru said to him : ' Do not challenge me 
on this. I meditate on him as the full, quiescent 
Brahman. Whoso meditates on him thus, is filled 
with offspring and cattle. Neither he himself nor 
his offspring dies before the time.' 

8. Balaki said: 'The person that is in the air, 
on him I meditate.' 

A^atarattru said to him : ' Do not challenge me 
on this. I meditate on him as Indra Vaiku»^a, as 
the unconquerable army. Whoso meditates on him 
thus, becomes victorious, unconquerable, conquering 
his enemies.' 

1 This is not mentioned in the Bn'had-&ra»yaka. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


9. Balaki said: 'The person that is in the fire, 
on him I meditate.' 

A^ataratru said to him : ' Do not challenge me 
on this. I meditate on him as powerful. Whoso 
meditates on him thus, becomes powerful among 
others V 

10. Balaki said : ' The person that is in the 
water, on him I meditate.' 

A/ataratru said to him : ' Do not challenge me on 
this. I meditate on him as the self of the name. 
Whoso meditates on him thus, becomes the self 
of the name.' So far with regard to deities (my- 
thological) ; now with regard to the body (physio- 

11. Balaki said: 'The person that is in the 
mirror, on him I meditate.' 

A^atawttru said to him: ' Do not challenge me on 
this. I meditate on him as the likeness. Whoso 
meditates on him thus, to him a son is born in his 
family who is his likeness, not one who is not his 

1 2. Balaki said : ' The person that is in the 
echo, on him I meditate.' 

A^tasatru said to him : 'Do not challenge me on 
this. I meditate on him as the second, who never 
goes away. Whoso meditates on him thus, he gets 
a second from his second (his wife), he becomes 
doubled 2 . 

13. Balaki said: 'The sound that follows a 
man, on that I meditate. 

A^ata^atru said to him : ' Do not challenge me on 

1 Instead of anyeshu, the second text, as printed by Professor 
Cowell, has anv esha. 
* This paragraph does not occur in the Br«had-&ra»yaka. 

Digitized by 


iv adhyAya, i 8. 305 

this. I meditate on him as life. Whoso meditates 
on him thus, neither he himself nor his offspring 
will faint before the time.' 

14. Balaki said: 'The person that is in the 
shadow, on him I meditate.' 

Afat&ratru said to him : ' Do not challenge me on 
this. I meditate on him as death. Whoso medi- 
tates on him thus, neither he himself nor his off- 
spring will die before the time.' 

15. Balaki said: 'The person that is em- 
bodied, on him I meditate.' 

A^atasatru said to him : ' Do not challenge me 
on this. I meditate on him as Lord of creatures. 
Whoso meditates on him thus, is multiplied in off- 
spring and cattle.' 

16. Balaki said: 'The Self which is conscious 
(pra^tia), and by whom he who sleeps here, walks 
about in sleep, on him I meditate.' 

A^atasatru said to him : ' Do not challenge me on 
this. I meditate on him as Yama the king. Whoso 
meditates on him thus, everything is subdued for 
his excellencies.' 

17. Balaki said: 'The person that is in the 
right eye, on him I meditate.' 

A^atasatru said to him : ' Do not challenge me on 
this. I meditate on him as the self of the name, as 
the self of fire, as the self of splendour. Whoso 
meditates on him thus, he becomes the self of 

18. Balaki said: 'The person that is in the 
left eye, on him I meditate.' 

A^utasatru said to him : ' Do not challenge me 
on this. I meditate on him as the self of the true, 
as the self of lightning, as the self of light. Whoso 
[3] x 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

306 kaush!taki-upanishad. 

meditates on him thus, he becomes the self of 

19. After this Balaki became silent A^ataratru 
said to him : ' Thus far only (do you know), O 
Balaki ? ' ' Thus far only,' replied Balaki. 

Then A^ata^atru said to him : 'Vainly did you 
challenge me, saying : ' Shall I tell you Brahman ? 
O Balaki, he who is the maker of those persons 
(whom you mentioned), he of whom all this is the 
work, he alone is to be known.' 

Thereupon Balaki came, carrying fuel in his hand, 
saying : ' May I come to you as a pupil ?' A^ata- 
ratru said to him : ' I deem it improper that a 
Kshatriya should initiate a Brahma»a, Come, I 
shall make you know clearly.' Then taking him by 
the hand, he went forth. And the two together 
came to a person who was asleep. And A^ltayatru 
called him, saying : ' Thou great one, clad in white 
raiment, Soma, King V But he remained lying. 
Then he pushed him with a stick, and he rose at 
once. Then said A^tasatru to him : ' Bilaki, 
where did this person here sleep ? Where was he ? 
Whence came he thus back ? ' Balaki did not 

20. And A^ataratru said to him : ' Where this per- 
son here slept, where he was, whence he thus came 
back, is this : The arteries of the heart called Hita 
extend from the heart of the person towards the 
surrounding body. Small as a hair divided a thou- 
sand times, they stand full of a thin fluid of various 
colours, white, black, yellow, red. In these the 
person is when sleeping he sees no dream. 

1 See § 3 init. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

IV ADHYAYA, 20. 307 

Then he becomes one with that pra#a alone. 
Then speech goes to him with all names, the eye 
with all forms, the ear with all sounds, the mind 
with all thoughts. And when he awakes, then, as 
from a burning fire, sparks proceed in all directions, 
thus from that self the prawas (speech, &c.) proceed, 
each towards its place, from the pra#as the gods, 
from the gods the worlds. And as a razor might 
be fitted in a razor-case, or as fire in the fire-place 
(the ara»i on the altar), even thus this conscious 
self enters the self of the body (considers the body 
as himself) to the very hairs and nails. And the 
other selfs (such as speech, &c.) follow that self, as 
his people follow the master of the house. And 
as the master feeds with his people, nay, as his 
people feed on the master, thus does this conscious 
self feed with the other selfs, as a master with his 
people, and the other selfs follow him, as his people 
follow the master. So long as Indra did not under- 
stand that self, the Asuras conquered him. When 
he understood it, he conquered the Asuras and 
obtained the pre-eminence among all gods, sove- 
reignty, supremacy. And thus also he who knows 
this obtains pre-eminence among all beings, sove- 
reignty, supremacy, — yea, he who knows this. 

x 2 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by 





Digitized by 


Digitized by 



i. All this, whatsoever moves on earth, is to 
be hidden in the Lord (the Self). When thou hast 
surrendered all this, then thou mayest enjoy. Do 
not covet the wealth of any man ! 

2. Though a man may wish to live a hundred 
years, performing works, it will be thus with him ; 
but not in any other way : work will thus not cling 
to a man. 

3. There are the worlds of the Asuras 1 covered 
with blind darkness. Those who have destroyed 
their self (who perform works, without having ar- 
rived at a ( knowledge of the true Self), go after 
death to those worlds. 

4. That one (the Self), though never stirring, is 
swifter than thought. The Devas (senses) never 
reached it, it walked 2 before them. Though 
standing still, it overtakes the others who are 
running. MatarLrvan (the wind, the moving spirit) 
bestows powers 8 on it. 

1 Asury&,V$g\ SawhitS ; asuryS, Upan. Asurya in the Upanishads 
in the sense of belonging to the Asuras, i. e. gods, is exceptional. 
I should prefer asurya, sunless, as we find asurye" tamasi in the 
Rig-veda, V, 32, 6. 

* Purvam ar^at, V&g. Sarah. ; purvam arshat, Upan. Mahfdhara 
suggests also arcat as a contraction of a-rirat, not perishing. 

* Apas is explained by karmini, acts, in which case it would be 
meant for apas, opus. But the Va#. Sawhita accentuates apas, i. e. 

Digitized by 



5. It stirs and it stirs not ; it is far, and likewise 
near 1 . It is inside of all this, and it is outside of 
all this. 

6. And he who beholds all beings in the Self, and 
the Self in all beings, he never turns away from it 2 . 

7. When to a man who understands, the Self has 
become all things, what sorrow, what trouble can 
there be to him who once beheld that unity? 

8. He a (the Self) encircled all, bright, incor- 
poreal, scatheless, without muscles, pure, untouched 
by evil ; a seer, wise, omnipresent, self-existent, he 
disposed all things rightly for eternal years. 

9. All who worship what is not real knowledge 
(good works), enter into blind darkness : those who 
delight in real knowledge, enter, as it were, into 
greater darkness. 

10. One thing, they say, is obtained from real 
knowledge; another, they say, from what is not 
knowledge. Thus we have heard from the wise 
who taught us this 4 . 

11. He who knows at the same time both know- 
ledge and not-knowledge, overcomes death through 
not-knowledge, and obtains immortality through 

1 2. All who worship what is not the true cause, 

aquas, and Anandagiri explains that water stands for acts, because 
most sacrificial acts are performed with water. 
1 Tad v antike.VS^. Sa»»h.; tadvad antike, Upan. 

* Viflkitsati, V&g. Sawh. ; vjfugupsate, Upan. 

* Sankara takes the subject to be the Self, and explains the 
neuter adjectives as masculines. Mahfdhara takes the subject to 
be the man who has acquired a knowledge of the Self, and who 
reaches the bright, incorporeal Brahman, &c. Mahtdhara, however, 
likewise allows the former explanation. 

4 Cf.Talayak.Up.1, 4; vidy&y&A,a.vidy&y&A,V$g. Samh.; vidyay&, 
avidyayft, Upan. 

Digitized by 



enter into blind darkness : those who delight in the 
true cause, enter, as it were, into greater darkness. 

13. One thing, they say, is obtained from (know- 
ledge of) the cause ; another, they say, from (know- 
ledge of) what is not the cause. Thus we have 
heard from the wise who taught us this. 

14. He who knows at the same time both the 
cause and the destruction (the perishable body), 
overcomes death by destruction (the perishable 
body), and obtains immortality through (knowledge 
of) the true cause. 

15. The door of the True Is covered with a 
golden disk 1 . Open that, O Pushan, that we may 
see the nature of the True 2 .. 

16. O Pushan, only seer, Yama (judge), Surya 
(sun), son of Pra^apati, spread thy rays and gather 
them ! The light which is thy fairest form, I see it. 
I am what He is (viz. the person in the sun) 3 . 

1 7. Breath * to air, and to the immortal ! Then 
this my body ends in ashes. Om ! Mind, remem- 
ber! Remember thy deeds! Mind, remember! 
Remember thy deeds 6 ! 

18. Agni, lead us on to wealth (beatitude) by a 
good path, thou, O God, who knowest all things ! 

1 Mahldhara on verse 17 : ' The face of the true (purusha in the 
sun) is covered by a golden disk.' 

■ Cf. Maitr.Up.VI, 35. 

9 Asau purushaA should probably be omitted. 

4 These lines are supposed to be uttered by a man in the hour 
of death. 

• The Va^asaneyi-sa/whiti reads : Om, krato smara, k/»be smara, 
kri'um smara. Uva/a holds that' Agni, fire, who has been wor- 
shipped in youth and manhood, is here invoked in the form of 
mind, or that kratu is meant for sacrifice. ' Agni, remember me ! 
Think of the world I Remember my deeds V 

Digitized by 



Keep far from us crooked evil, and we shall offer 
thee the fullest praise! (Rv. I, 189, r.) 

This Upanishad, though apparently simple and intelligible, is in 
reality one of the most difficult to understand properly. Coming 
at the end of the Va^asaneyi-sawhitit, in which the sacrifices and 
the hymns to be used by the officiating priests have been described, 
it begins by declaring that all has to be surrendered to the Lord. 
The name ts, lord, is peculiar, as having a far more personal colour- 
ing than Atman, Self, or Brahman, the usual names given by the 
Upanishads to what is the object of the highest knowledge. 

Next follows a permission to continue the performance of sacri- 
fices, provided that all desires have been surrendered. And here 
occurs our first difficulty, which has perplexed ancient as well as 
modern commentators. 

I shall try, first of all, to justify my own translation. I hold that 
the Upanishad wishes to teach the uselessness by themselves of all 
good works, whether we call them sacrificial, legal, or moral, and 
yet, at the same time, to recognise, if not the necessity, at least the 
harmlessness of good works, provided they are performed without 
any selfish motives, without any desire of reward, but simply as a 
preparation for higher knowledge, as a means, in fact, of subduing 
all passions, and producing that serenity of mind without which 
man is incapable of receiving the highest knowledge. From that 
point of view the Upanishad may well say, Let a man wish to live 
here his appointed time, let him even perform all works. If only 
he knows that all must be surrendered to the Lord, then the work 
done by him will not cling to him. It will not work on and produce 
effect after effect, nor will it involve him in a succession of new 
births in which to enjoy the reward of his works, but it will leave him 
free to enjoy the blessings of the highest knowledge. It will have 
served as a preparation for that higher knowledge which the Upani- 
shad imparts, and which secures freedom from further births. 

The expression * na karma lipyate nare ' seems to me to admit 
of this one explanation only, viz. that work done does not cling to 
man, provided he has acquired the highest knowledge. Similar 
expressions occur again and again. Lip was, no doubt, used 
originally of evil deeds which became, as it were, engrained in man ; 
but afterwards of all work, even of good work, if done with a 
desire of reward. The doctrine of the Upanishads is throughout 
that orthodoxy and sacrifice can procure a limited beatitude only, 

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and that they are a hindrance to real salvation, which can be 
obtained by knowledge alone. In our passage therefore we can 
recognise one meaning only, viz. that work does not cling to man 
or stain him, if only he knows, L e. if he has been enlightened by 
the Upanishad. 

.Sankara, in his commentary on the Vedanta-sutras III, 4, 7 ; 
13; 14, takes the same view of this passage. The opponent of 
Badarayawa, in this case, Gaimini himself, maintains that karma, 
work, is indispensable to knowledge, and among other arguments, 
he says, III, 4, 7, that it is so 'Niyamat,' 'Because it is so laid 
down by the law.' The passage here referred to is, according to 
.Sankara, our very verse, which, he thinks, should be translated as 
follows : ' Let a man wish to live a hundred years here (in this 
body) performing works ; thus will an evil deed not cling to thee, 
while thou art a man ; there is no other way but this by which to 
escape the influence of works.' In answer to this, Badarayawa says, 
first of all, III, 4, 13, that this rule may refer to all men in general, 
and not to one who knows; or, III, 4, 14, if it refers to a man who 
knows, that then the permission to perform works is only intended 
to exalt the value of knowledge, the meaning being that even to a 
man who performs sacrifices all his life, work does not cling, if 
only he knows ; — such being the power of knowledge. 

The same .Sankara, however, who here sees quite clearly that 
this verse refers to a man who knows, explains it in the Upanishad 
as referring to a man who does not know (itarasyandtma^aatayit- 
magrahawlraktasya). It would then mean : ' Let such a one, while 
performing works here on earth, wish to live a hundred years. In 
this manner there is no other way for him but this (the performance 
of sacrifices), so that an evil deed should not be engrained, or so 
that he should not be stained by such a deed.' The first and 
second verses of the Upanishad would thus represent the two paths 
of life, that of knowledge and that of works, and the following verses 
would explain the rewards assigned to each. 

Mahfdhara, in his commentary on the Va^asaneyi-sawhita, steers 
at first a middle course. He would translate : ' Let one who per- 
forms the Agnihotra and other sacrifices, without any desire of 
reward, wish to live here a "hundred years. If thou do so, there 
will be salvation for thee, not otherwise. There are many roads that 
lead to heaven, but one only leading to salvation, namely, perform- 
ance of good works, without any desire of reward, which produces 
a pure heart. Work thus done, merely as a preparation for salvation, 
does not cling to man, i. e. it produces a pure heart, but does not 

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J 1 6 vAgasaneyi-saj* hita-upanishad. 

entail any further consequences.' So far he agrees with Uva/a's 
explanation 1 . He allows, however, another explanation also, so 
that the second line would convey the meaning: ' If a man lives thus 
(performing good works), then there is no other way by which an 
evil deed should not be engrained; i.e. in order to escape the 
power of sin, he must all his life perform sacred acts.' 

Next follows a description of the lot of those who, immersed in 
works, have not arrived at the highest knowledge, and have not 
recovered their true self in the Highest Self, or Brahman. That 
Brahman, though the name is not used here, is then described, and 
salvation is promised to the man who beholds all things in the Self 
and the Self in all things. 

The verses 9-14 are again full of difficulty, not so much in 
themselves as in their relation to the general system of thought 
which prevails in the Upanishads, and forms the foundation of the 
VedSnta philosophy. The commentators vary considerably in their 
interpretations. 5ahkara explains avidyS, not-knowledge, by good 
works, particularly sacrifice, performed with a hope of reward; 
vidyS, or knowledge, by a knowledge of the gods, but not, as yet, 
of the highest Brahman. The former is generally supposed to lead 
the sacrificer to the pitrrioka, the world of the fathers, from whence 
he returns to a series of new births ; the latter to the devaloka, the 
world of the gods, from whence he may either proceed to Brahman, 
or enter upon a new round of existences. The question then 
arises, how in our passage the former could be said to lead to 
blind darkness, the latter to still greater darkness. But for that 
statement, I have no doubt that all the commentators would, as 
usual, have taken vidya" for the knowledge of the Highest Brahman, 
and avidya for orthodox belief in the gods and good works, the 
former securing immortality in the sense of freedom from new 
births, while the reward of the latter is blessedness in heaven for 
a limited period, but without freedom from new births. 

This antithesis between vidyi and avidya seems to me so firmly 
established that I cannot bring myself to surrender it here. Though 
this Upanishad has its own very peculiar character, yet its object is, 
after all, to impart a knowledge of the Highest Self, and not to 
inculcate merely a difference between faith in the ordinary gods 
and good works. It was distinctly said before (ver. 3), that those 
who have destroyed their self, i.e. who perform works only, 

1 Uva/a explains ^ishivisheA for ^givishet as a purusha- 

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and have not arrived at a knowledge of the true Self, go to the 
worlds of the Asuras, which are covered with blind darkness. If 
then the same blind darkness is said in verse 9 to be the lot of those 
who worship not-knowledge, this can only mean those who have 
not discovered the true Self, but are satisfied with the performance 
of good works. And if those who perform good works are opposed 
to others who delight in true knowledge, that knowledge can be 
the knowledge of the true Self only. 

The difficulty therefore which has perplexed Sankara is this, 
how, while the orthodox believer is said to enter into blind dark- 
ness, the true disciple, who has acquired a knowledge of the true 
Self, could be said to enter into still greater darkness. While 
•Sahkara in this case seems hardly to have caught the drift of the 
Upanishad, Uva/a and Mahidhara propose an explanation which is 
far more satisfactory. They perceive that the chief stress must be 
laid on the words ubhayam saha, ' both together,' in verses 1 1 and 
14. The doctrine of certain VedSnta philosophers was that works, 
though they cannot by themselves lead to salvation, are useful as a 
preparation for the highest knowledge, and that those who imagine 
that they can attain the highest knowledge without such previous 
preparation, are utterly mistaken. From this point of view there- 
fore the author of the Upanishad might well say that those who 
give themselves to what is not knowledge, i. e. to sacrificial and 
other good works, enter into darkness, but that those who delight 
altogether in knowledge, despising the previous discipline of works, 
deceive themselves and enter into still greater darkness. 

Then follows the next verse, simply stating that, according to 
the teaching of wise people, the reward of knowledge is one thing, 
the reward of ignorance, i.e. trust in sacrifice, another. Here 
Mahidhara is right again by assigning the pitrtloka, the world of 
the fathers, as the reward of the ignorant; the devaloka, the 
world of the gods, as the reward of the enlightened, provided that 
from the world of the gods they pass on to the knowledge of the 
Highest Self or Brahman. 

The third verse contains the strongest confirmation of Maht- 
dhara's view. Here it is laid down distinctly that he only who 
knows both together, both what is called ignorance and what is 
called knowledge, can be saved, because by good works he over- 
comes death, here explained by natural works, and by knowledge 
he obtains the Immortal, here explained by oneness with the gods, 
the last step that leads on to oneness with Brahman. 
Uva/a, who takes the same view of these verses, explains at once, 

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and even more boldly than Mahidhara ', vidyS, or knowledge, by 
brahmavi^ fiana, knowledge of Brahman, which by itself, and if not 
preceded by works, leads to even greater darkness than what is 
called ignorance, i. e. sacrifice and orthodoxy without knowledge. 

The three corresponding verses, treating of sambhuti and asam- 
bhuti instead of vidyl and avidyd, stand first in the Va£asaneyi- 
santhita. They must necessarily be explained in accordance with 
our explanation of the former verses, i.e. sambhuti must correspond 
to vidya, it must be meant for the true cause, i. e. for Brahman, 
while asambhuti must correspond with avidyd, as a name of what 
is not real, but phenomenal only and perishable. 

Mahidhara thinks that these verses refer to the Bauddhas, which 
can hardly be admitted, unless we take Buddhist in a very general 
sense. Uva/a puts the LokSyatas in their place*. It is curious 
also to observe that Mahidhara, following Uva/a, explains 
asambhuti at first by the denial of the resurrection of the body, 
while he takes sambhuti rightly for Brahman. I have chiefly fol- 
lowed Uva/a' s commentary, except in his first explanation of 
asambhuti, resurrection \ In what follows Uva/a explains sam- 
bhuti rightly by the only cause of the origin of the whole world, 
i.e. Brahman 4 , while he takes vinlra, destruction, as a name of 
the perishable body *. 

■Saftkara sees much more in these three verses than Uva/a. He 
takes asambhuti as a name of Prakrrii, the undeveloped cause, sam- 
bhuti as a name of the phenomenal Brahman or Hirawyagarbha. 
From a worship of the latter a man obtains supernatural powers, 
from devotion to the former, absorption in Prakriti. 

Mahidhara also takes a similar view, and he allows, like Sankara, 
another reading, viz. sambhutim avinltam £a, and avinlrena mri- 
tyu»» tlrtvS. In this case the sense would be : ' He who knows 
the worship both of the developed and the undeveloped, overcomes 

1 Mahidhara decides in the end that vidya and amrrtam must 
here be taken in a limited or relative sense, tasmSd vidyopasanl- 
mrtiam A&pekshikam iti dik, and so agrees on the whole with 
•Sahkara, pp. 25-27. 

* Sha</ anush/ubhaA, lokayatiklA prastuyante yesham etad 

' Mrrtasya sataA punaA sambhavo nSsti, ataA rariragraha»dd 
asmakam muktir eva. 
4 Samastasya #agata/5 sambhavaikahetu brahma. 

* Vinlram vinari kz vapuA jariram. 

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death, i. e. such evil as sin, passion, &c, through worship of the 
undeveloped, while he obtains through worship of the developed, 
i. e. of Hirawyagarbha, immortality, absorption in PrakrAi.' 

All these forced explanations to which the commentators have 
recourse, arise from the shifting views held by various authorities 
with regard to the value of works. Our Upanishad seems to 
me to propound the doctrine that works, though in themselves 
useless, or even mischievous, if performed with a view to any 
present or future rewards, are necessary as a preparatory discipline. 
This is or was for a long time the orthodox view. Each man was 
required to pass through the irramas, or stages of student and 
householder, before he was admitted to the freedom of a SannySsin. 
As on a ladder, no step was to be skipped. Those who attempted 
to do so, were considered to have broken the old law, and in some 
respects they may indeed be looked upon as the true precursors 
of the Buddhists. 

Nevertheless the opposite doctrine, that a man whose mind had 
become enlightened, might at once drop the fetters of the law, 
without performing all the tedious duties of student and house- 
holder, had strong supporters too among orthodox philosophers. 
Cases of such rapid conversion occur in the ancient traditions, and 
BadarSy a«a himself was obliged to admit the possibility of freedom 
and salvation without works, though maintaining the superiority of 
the usual course, which led on gradually from works to enlighten- 
ment and salvation '. It was from an unwillingness to assent to 
the decided teaching of the IsaMipanishad that .Sarikara attempted 
to explain vidyi, knowledge, in a limited sense, as knowledge of the 
gods, and not yet knowledge of Brahman. He would not admit 
that knowledge without works could lead to darkness, and even to 
greater darkness than works without knowledge. Our Upanishad 
seems to have dreaded libertinism, knowledge without works, more 
even than ritualism, works without knowledge, and its true object was 
to show that orthodoxy and sacrifice, though useless in themselves, 
must always form the preparation for higher enlightenment 

How misleading .Sankara's explanation may prove, we can see 
from the translation of this Upanishad by Rammohun Roy. He 
followed 5ankara implicitly, and this is the sense which he drew 
from the text : — 

'9. Those observers of religious rites that perform only the 
worship of the sacred fire, and oblations to sages, to ancestors, 

1 Veddnta-sutras III, 4, 36-39. 

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to men, and to other creatures, without regarding the worship of 
celestial gods, shall enter into the dark region : and those practisers 
of religious ceremonies who habitually worship the celestial gods 
only, disregarding the worship of the sacred 'fire, and oblations to 
sages, to ancestors, to men, and to other creatures, shall enter into 
a region still darker than the former. 

' 10. It is said that adoration of the celestial gods produces one 
consequence ; and that the performance of the worship of sacred 
fire, and oblations to sages, to ancestors, to men, and to other 
creatures, produce another : thus have we heard from learned men, 
who have distinctly explained the subject to us. 

'ii. Of those observers of ceremonies whosoever, knowing that 
adoration of celestial gods, as well as the worship of the sacred 
fire, and oblation to sages, to ancestors, to men, and to other 
creatures, should be observed alike by the same individual, per- 
forms them both, will, by means of the latter, surmount the 
obstacles presented by natural temptations, and will attain the state 
of the celestial gods through the practice of the former. 

' 1 2. Those observers of religious rites who worship Prakrtti 
alone (Prakr/'ti or nature, who, though insensible, influenced by the 
Supreme Spirit, operates throughout the universe) shall enter into the 
dark region : and those practisers of religious ceremonies that are 
devoted to worship solely the prior operating sensitive particle, 
allegorically called Brahma, shall enter into a region much more 
dark than the former. 

'13. It is said that one consequence may be attained by the 
worship of Brahma, and another by the adoration of Prakrrti. 
Thus have we heard from learned men, who have distinctly ex- 
plained the subject to us. 

'14. Of those observers of ceremonies, whatever person, know- 
ing that the adoration of Prakrtti and that of Brahma should be 
together observed by the same individual, performs them both, 
will by means of the latter overcome indigence, and will attain the 
state of Praknti, through the practice of the former.' 

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Introduction to Apastamba ...... ix 

Introduction to Gautama x\ix 

APASTAMBA'S Aphorisms on the Sacred Law. 

General Rules J 

Initiation . . 2 

Studentship . 7 

A Student who has returned Home 2 9 

The Study of the Veda 3 2 

A Student who has returned Home 48 

Saluting 5 1 

Purification 54 

Eating, and Forbidden Food 59 

Lawful Livelihood . . . . • • • 7 1 

Penance 75 

Rules for a Snataka 9* 

The Duties of a Householder 99 

Inheritance 13° 

Funeral Oblations 137 

The Four Orders 153 

The King 161 

GAUTAMA'S Institutes of the Sacred Law. 

Initiation »75 

Purification '79 

Studentship '82 

The Ascetic '9* 

The Hermit »95 

The Householder J 9 6 

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Saluting 207 

Times of Distress 211 

A King and Brahmawa versed in the Vedas . .214 

The Duties of a SnStaka 218 

Lawful Occupatio ns and L ivelihood . ^c -*■ — >- —v^.^ _~. ■ ^*32__ 

The Duties of a King 234 

Civil and Criminal Law 238 

Witnesses .......... 246 

jmpur ity „ . __?Ji> 

Funeral Obl ations 255 

The Study of the Veda 259 

Eating, and Forbidden Food 265 

Women ..... ..... 270 

Penances ..... ..... 274 

Inheritance .... ..... 302 

Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Trans- 
lations of the Sacred Books of the East . . . 3 11 

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For all students of Sanskrit philology and Indian history 
Apastamba's aphorisms on the sacred law of the Aryan 
Hindus possess a special interest beyond that attaching to 
other works of the same class. Their discovery enabled 
Professor Max Miiller, forty-seven years ago, to dispose 
finally of the Brahmanical legend according to which 
Hindu society was supposed to be governed by the codes 
of ancient sages, compiled for the express purpose of tying 
down each individual to his station, and of strictly regu- 
lating even the smallest acts of his daily life l . It enabled 

1 Max Miiller, History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 133 seq. 

The following letter, addressed to the late W. H. Morley, and published 
by him in his Digest of Indian Cases, 1850, may be of interest as connected 
with the first discovery of the Apastamba-sfitras : — 

9, Part Place, Oxford, July 39, 1849. 
My dear Morley, — I have been looking again at the law literature, in 
order to write you a note on the sources of Mann. I have treated the subject 
fully in my introduction to the Veda, where I have given an ontline of the dif- 
ferent periods of Vaidik literature, and analysed the peculiarities in the style 
and language of each class of Vaidik works. What I consider to be the sources 
of the Manava-dharma .rastra, the so-called Laws of Mann, are the Sutras. 
These are works which presuppose the development of the prose literature of 
the Brahmanas (like the Aitareya-brihmana, Taittiriya-brfihma*a, &c.) These 
BrShma«as, again, presuppose, not only the existence, but the collection and 
arrangement of the old hymns of the four Samhit&s. The Sutras are therefore 
later than both these classes of Vaidik works, but they mnst be considered at 
belonging to the Vaidik period of literature, not only on account of their 
intimate connection with Vaidik subjects, but also because they still exhibit the 
irregularities of the old Vaidik language. They form indeed the last branch 
of Vaidik literature ; and it will perhaps be possible to fix some of these works 
chronologically, as they are contemporary with the first spreading of Buddhism 
in India. 

Again, in the whole of Vaidik literature there it no work written (like the 
Manava-dharma-jastra) in the regular epic .Sloka, and the continuous employ- 
ment of this metre is a characteristic mark of post- Vaidik writings. 

One of the principal classes of Sutras is known by the name of Kal pa-sutras, 

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him not only to arrive at this negative result, but also to 
substitute a sounder theory the truth of which subsequent 
investigations have further confirmed, and to show that the 
sacred law of the Hindus has its source in the teaching of 
the Vedic schools, and that the so-called revealed law codes 
are, in most cases, but improved metrical editions of older 

or roles of ceremonies. These are avowedly composed by human authors, 
while, according to Indian orthodox theology, both the hymns and Brahma»as 
are to be considered as revelation. The Sutras generally bear the name of 
their authors, like the Sutras of Afvalayana, Katyayana, &c, or the name of the 
family to which the Sutras belonged. The great number of these writings is to 
be accounted for by the fact that there was not one body of Kalpa-sutras bind- 
ing on all Brahmanic families, but that different old families had each their own 
Kalpa-sutras. These works are still very frequent in our libraries, yet there is 
no doubt that many of them have been lost. Sutras are quoted which do not 
exist in Europe, and the loss of some is acknowledged by the Brahmans them- 
selves. There are, however, lists of the old Brahmanic families which were in 
possession of their own redaction of Vaidik hymns (Samhitas), of Brahmanas, 
and of SUtras. Some of these families followed the Rig-veda, some the Ya£Vr- 
veda, the Sama-vcda, and Atharva-veda ; and thus the whole Vaidik literature 
becomes divided into four great classes of Brahmanas and Sutras, belonging to 
one or the other of the four principal Vedas. 

Now one of the families following the Ya£ ur-veda was that of the Manavas 
(cf. A"ara»avyuha). There can be no doubt that that family, too, had its own 
Sutras. Quotations from Manava-sutras are to be met with in commentaries on 
other Sutras ; and I have found, not long ago, a MS. which contains the text of 
the Manava-jrauta-sutras, though in a very fragmentary state. But these Sutras, 
the .Srauta-sutras, treat only of a certain branch of ceremonies connected with 
the great sacrifices. Complete Sutra works are divided into three parts : I. the 
first (irauta), treating on the great sacrifices; 2. the second (Gr»hya), treating 
on the Sawskaras, or the purificatory sacraments ; 3. the third (SamayaHrika 
or Dharma-sutras), treating on temporal duties, customs, and punishments. 
The last two classes of Sutras seem to be lost in the Manava-sutra. This loss is, 
however, not so great with regard to tracing the sources of the Manava-dharma- 
f astra, because whenever we have an opportunity of comparing Sutras belonging 
to different families, but following the same Veda, and treating on the same 
subjects, the differences appear to be very slight, and only refer to less important 
niceties of the ceremonial. In the absence, therefore, of the Manava-samaya£a- 
rika-sutras, I have taken another collection of Sutras, equally belonging to 
the Ya^ur-veda, the Sutras of Apastamba. In his family we have not only 
a Brahmana, but also Apastamba .Srauta, Grthya, and SamaySiarika-sutras. 
Now it is, of course, the third class of Sutras, on temporal duties, which are 
most likely to contain the sources of the later metrical Codes of Law, written 
in the classical .Sloka. On a comparison of different subjects, such as the 
duties of a BrahmaAarin, a Grthastha, laws of inheritance, duties of a king, 
forbidden fruit, &c, I find that the Sutras contain generally almost the same 
words which have been brought into verse by the compiler of the Manava- 

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prose works which latter, in the first instance, were destined 
to be committed to memory by the young Aryan students, 
and to teach them their duties. This circumstance, as well 
as the fact that Apastamba's work is free from any suspicion 
of having been tampered with by sectarians or modern 
editors, and that its intimate connection with the manuals 
teaching the performance of the great and small sacrifices, 
the .Srauta and Grihya-sutras, which are attributed to the 
same author, is perfectly clear and indisputable, entitle it, 
in spite of its comparatively late origin, to the first place in 
a collection of Dharma-sutras. 

The Apastambiya Dharma-sutra forms part of an enor- 
mous Kalpa-sutra or body of aphorisms, which digests the 
teaching of the Veda and of the ancient Rishis regarding 
the performance of sacrifices and the duties of twice-born 
men, Brahmawas, Kshatriyas, and Vauyas, and which, being 
chiefly based on the second of the four Vedas, the Ysujur- 
veda in the Taittiriya recension, is primarily intended for 
the benefit of the Adhvaryu priests in whose families the 
study of the Ya^nr-veda is hereditary. 

The entire Kalpa-sutra of Apastamba is divided into 

dharma-.rastra. I consider, therefore, the Sutras as the principal source of the 
metrical Smritis, such as the Manava-dharma-jastra, Yajrflavalkya-dharma- 
rastra, &c, though there are also many other verses in these works which may 
be traced to different sources. They are paraphrases of verses of the Samhitfts, 
or of passages of the Brahmanas, often retaining the same old words and 
archaic constructions which were in the original. This is indeed acknowledged 
by the author of the Manava-dharma-jastra, when he says (B. II, v. 6), ' The 
roots of the Law are the whole Veda (Samhitas and Brahmanas), the customs 
and traditions of those who knew the Veda (as laid down in the Sutras), the 
conduct of good men, and one's own satisfaction.' The Manava-dharma- 
<astra may thus be considered as the last redaction of the laws of the Manavas. 
Quite different is the question as to the old Mann from whom the family 
probably derived its origin, and who is said to have been the author of some 
very characteristic hymns in the Rig-veda-samhita. He certainly cannot be 
considered as the author of a Manava-dharma-jastra, nor is there even any 
reason to suppose the author of this work to have had the same name. It is 
evident that the author of the metrical Code of Laws speaks of the old Mann 
as of a person different from himself, when he says (B. X, v. 63), 'Not to kill, 
not to lie, not to steal, to keep the body clean, and to restrain the senses, 
this was tile short law which Manu proclaimedajBflngst_the four castes.' — 

Yours truly, MM. ^^S OP )>Xs 

I T ^S3i^ G #s ,e 


thirty sections, called Pramas, literally questions 1 . The 
first twenty-four of these teach the performance of the 
so-called Srauta or Vaitanika sacrifices, for which several 
sacred fires are required, beginning with the simplest rites, 
the new and full moon offerings, and ending with the 
complicated Sattras or sacrificial sessions, which last a whole 
year or even longer 2 . The twenty-fifth Prarna contains 
the Paribhashas or general rules of interpretation 3 , which 
are valid for the whole Kalpa-sutra, the Pravara-khawafe, 
the chapter enumerating the patriarchs of the various 
Brahmanical tribes, and finally the Hautraka, prayers to 
be recited by the Hotraka priests. The twenty-sixth 
section gives the Mantras or Vedic prayers and formulas 
for the Grihya. rites, the ceremonies for which the sacred 
domestic or Grihya. fire is required, and the twenty-seventh 
the rules for the performance of the latter 4 . The aphorisms 
on the sacred law fill the next two Pramas ; and the .Sulva- 
sutra*, teaching the geometrical principles, according to 
which the altars necessary for the .Srauta sacrifices must be 
constructed, concludes the work with the thirtieth Prarna. 

The position of the Dharma-sutra in the middle of the 
collection at once raises the presumption that it originally 
formed an integral portion of the body of Sutras and that 
it is not a later addition. Had it been added later, it would 
either stand at the end of the thirty Pramas or altogether 
outside the collection, as is the case with some other 
treatises attributed to Apastamba 6 . The Hindus 
doubt, unscrupulous in adding to the works of famous 
teachers. But such additions, if of considerable extent, 
are usually not embodied in the works themselves which 
they are intended to supplement. They are mostly given 

1 Bumell, Indian Antiquary, I, 5 seq. 

' The .Srauta-sutra, Pr. I-XV, has been edited by Professor R. Garbe in the 
Bibliotheca Indica, and the remainder is in the press. 

' See Professor Max Muller's Translation in S. B. E., vol. xxx. 

* The Grj'hya-sutra has been edited by Dr. Wintemitz, Vienna, 1887. 
» On the ^ulva-sutras see G. Thibaut in 'the Pandit/ 1875, p. 29a. 

* Bornell, loc. cit. 

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as jeshas or paruish/as, tacked on at the end, and generally 
marked as such in the MSS. 

In the case of the Apastamba Dharma-sutra it is, how- 
ever, not necessary to rely on its position alone, in order 
to ascertain its genuineness. There are unmistakable 
indications that it is the work of the same author who 
wrote the remainder of the Kalpa-sutra. One important 
argument in favour of this view is furnished by the fact 
that Pr&nia XXVII, the section on the Grihya. ceremonies, 
has evidently been made very short and concise with the 
intention of saving matter for the subsequent sections on 
the sacred law. The Apastambrya Grthya-sutra contains 
nothing beyond a bare outline of the domestic ceremonies, 
while most of the other Gr/hya-sutras, e.g. those of 
Axvalayana, .Sankhayana, Gobhila, and Paraskara, include 
a great many rules which bear indirectly only on the 
performance of the offerings in the sacred domestic fire. 
Thus on the occasion of the description of the initiation of 
Aryan students, Ajvalayana inserts directions regarding 
the dress and girdle to be worn, the length of the student- 
ship, the manner of begging, the disposal of the alms 
collected, and other similar questions *. The exclusion of 
such incidental remarks on subjects that are not immedi- 
ately connected with the chief aim of the work, is almost 
complete in Apastamba's Gr*hya-sutra, and reduces its 
size to less than one half of the extent of the shorter ones 
among the works enumerated above. It seems impossible 
to explain this restriction of the scope of Prajna XXVII 
otherwise than by assuming that Apastamba wished to 
reserve all rules bearing rather on the duties of men than 
on the performance of the domestic offerings, for his 
sections on the sacred law. 

A second and no less important argument for the unity of 
the whole Kalpa-sutra may be drawn from the cross-refer- 
ences which occur in several Prajnas. In the Dharma-sutra 
we find that on various occasions, where the performance 

1 Afvalayana GWhya-sAtra I, 19, ed. Stenzler. 

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of a ceremony is prescribed, the expressions yathoktam, ' as 
has been stated,' yathopad&ram, 'according to the injunction,' 
or yatha purastat, ' as above,' are added. In four of these 
passages, Dh. I, i, 4, 16; II, a, 3, 17; a, 5, 4; and 7, 17, 
16, the Gr/hya-sutra is doubtlessly referred to, and the 
commentator Haradatta has pointed out this fact. On the 
other hand, the Gr/hya-sutra refers to the Dharma-sutra, 
employing the same expressions which have been quoted 
from the latter. Thus we read in the beginning of the 
chapter on funeral oblations, Grzhya-sutra VIII, ai, 1, 
maslrraddhasyaparapakshe yathopadeja/w kalaA, ' the times 
for the monthly funeral sacrifice (fall) in the latter (dark) 
half of the month according to the injunction.' Now as 
neither the Gr/hya-sutra itself nor any preceding portion 
of the Kalpa-sutra contains any injunction on this point, it 
follows that the long passage on this subject which occurs 
in the Dharma-sutra II, 7, 16, 4-aa is referred to. The 
expression yathopad&yam is also found in other passages 
of the Gr/hya-sutra, and must be explained there in a like 
manner 1 . There are further a certain number of Sutras 
which occur in the same words both in the Prarna on 
domestic rites, and in that on the sacred law, e. g. Dh. I, 1, 
1, 18 ; I, 1, a, 38 ; I, 1, 4, 14. It seems that the author 
wished to call special attention to these rules by repeating 
them. Their recurrence and literal agreement may be 
considered an additional proof of the intimate connection 
of the two sections. 

Through a similar repetition of, at least, one Sutra it is 
possible to trace the connection of the Dharma-sutra with 
the Srauta-sutra. The rule ritve va ^ayam, ' or (he may 
have conjugal intercourse) with his wife in the proper 
season,' is given, Dh. II, 2, 5, 17, with reference to a house- 
holder who teaches the Veda. In the Srauta-sutra it 
occurs twice, in the sections on the new and full moon 
sacrifices III, 17, 8, and again in connection with the 
/ifaturmasya offerings, VIII, 4, 6, and it refers both times 

1 See the details, given by Dr. Winternitz in his essay, Das altindische 
Hochzeitsritnell, p. 5 (Denkschr. Wiener Akademie, Bd. 40). 

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to the sacrifice! - . In the first passage the verb, upeyat, is 
added, which the sense requires ; in the second it has the 
abbreviated form, which the best MSS. of the Dharma- 
sutra offer. The occurrence of the irregular word, ritve for 
r*tvye, in all the three passages, proves clearly that we 
have to deal with a self-quotation of the same author. If 
the Dharma-sutra were the production of a different person 
and a later addition, the Pseudo-Apastamba would most 
probably not have hit on this peculiar irregular form. 
Finally, the Gr*hya-sutra, too, contains several cross- 
references to the .Srauta-sutra, and the close agreement of 
the Sutras on the Vedic sacrifices, on the domestic rites, 
and on the sacred, both in language and style, conclusively 
prove that they are the compositions of one author 1 . 

Who this author really was, is a problem which cannot 
be solved for the present, and which probably will always 
remain unsolved, because we know his family name only. 
For the form of the word itself shows that the name Apa- 
stamba, just like those of most founders of Vedic schools, 
e.g. Bharadva^a, A-rvalayana, Gautama, is a patronymic. 
This circumstance is, of course, fatal to all attempts at an 
identification of the individual who holds so prominent 
a place among the teachers of the Black Ya^ur-veda. 

But we are placed in a somewhat better position with 
respect to the history of the school which has been named 
after Apastamba and of the works ascribed to him. Re- 
garding both, some information has been preserved by 
tradition, and a little more can be obtained from inscrip- 
tions and later works, while some interesting details re- 
garding the time when, and the place where the Sutras 
were composed, may be elicited from the latter themselves. 
The data, obtainable from these sources, it is true, do not 
enable us to determine with certainty the year when the 
Apastambiya school was founded, and when its Sutras 
were composed. But they make it possible to ascertain 
the position of the school and of its Sutras in Vedic litera- 

1 See Dr. Winternitz, Ioc cit. 

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xvi Apastamba. 

ture, their relative priority or posteriority as compared 
with other Vedic schools and works, to show with some 
amount of probability in which part of India they had 
their origin, and to venture, at least, a not altogether 
unsupported conjecture as to their probable antiquity. 

As regards the first point, the ^Tarawavyuha, a supple- 
ment of the White Ya^ur-veda which gives the lists of the 
Vedic schools, informs us that the Apastambiya school 
formed one of the five branches of the Kha«rfikiya school, 
which in its turn was a subdivision of the Taittiriyas, one 
of the ancient sections of Brahmawas who study the Black 
Ya^-ur-veda. Owing to the very unsatisfactory condition 
of the text of the ^farawavyuha it is unfortunately not 
possible to ascertain what place that work really assigns 
to the Apastambtyas among the five branches of the 
Khawdfikiyas. Some MSS. name them first, and others 
last. They give either the following list, i. Kaleyas 
(Kaletas), 2. Safyayanins, 3. Hirawyakerins, 4. Bhara- 
dva^ins, and 5. Apastambins, or, 1. Apastambins, 1. Bau- 
dhayanins or Bodhayanins, 3. SatyasharfAins, 4. Hirawya- 
kerins, 5. Aukheyas 1 . But this defect is remedied to 
a certain extent by the now generally current, and probably 
ancient tradition that the Apastambiyas are younger than 
the school of Baudhayana, and older than that of Satya- 
shkdha. Hirawyak&rin. Baudhayana, it is alleged, composed 
the first set of Sutras connected with the Black Ya^fur- 
veda, which bore the special title 'prava£ana,' and he 
was succeeded by Bharadva^a, Apastamba, and Satya- 
shkdha. Hira«yake.rin, who all founded schools which bear 
their names 2 . 

1 Max Miiller, Hist. Anc. Sansk. Lit., p. 371. A MS. of the Aarawavyfiha 
with an anonymous commentary, in my possession, has the following passage : 

*fndir«rraf An «^t mifir ■ vnra-tf *nvrc*ft hwwi«"» ^w.istft 

* Max Miiller, Hist. Anc. Sansk. Lit., p. 194. These statements occtir in 
the introduction of MahSdeva's commentary on the -S'ranta-sQtra of Hiranya- 
kerin (Weber, Hist. Sansk. Lit., p. no, and ed.) and in an interpolated 
passage of Bharadva^a's GnTiya-sfltra (Winternitz, op. cit., p. 8, note 1), as 
well as, with the omission of BhSradva^a's name, in interpolated passages of 

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\ This tradition has preserved two important pieces of 

information. First, the Apastamba school is what Pro- 
fessor Max Miiller appropriately calls a Sutra£ara»a, i. e. 
a school whose founder did not pretend to have received 
a revelation of Vedic Mantras or of a Brahmawa text, but 
merely gave a new systematic arrangement of the precepts 
regarding sacrifices and the sacred law. Secondly, the 
Sutras of Apastamba occupy an intermediate position be- 
tween the works of Baudhayana and Hirawyakerin. Both 
these statements are perfectly true, and capable of being 
supported by proofs, drawn from Apastamba's own and 
from other works. 

As regards the first point, Professor Max Miiller has 
already pointed l out that, though we sometimes find a 
Brahma«a of the Apastambiyas mentioned, the title Apa- 
stamba-brahmawa is nothing but another name of the 
Taittiriya-brahmawa, and that this Brahmawa, in reality, 
is always attributed to Tittiri or to the pupils of Vaijam- 
payana, who are said to have picked up the Black Ya^ur- 
veda in the shape of partridges (tittiri). The same remark 
applies to the collection of the Mantras of the Black Ya^fur- 
veda, which, likewise, is sometimes named Apastamba- 
sawhita. The Aarawavyuha states explicitly that the five 
branches of the KhaWikiya school, to which the Apa- 
stambiyas belong, possess one and the same recension of 
the revealed texts, consisting of 7 Ka«</as, 44 Prasnas, 651 
Anuvakas, 2198 Pannasis, 19390 Padas 2 , and 353,868 
syllables, and indicates thereby that all these five schools 
were Sutra£arawas. 

If we now turn to Apastamba's own works, we find still 

Baudhayana's Dharma-sutra (II, 5, 9, 14) and of the same author's GWhya- 
stitra (Sicred Books of the East, vol. xiv, p. xxxvi, note 1). Adherents of 
a Prava£ana-sutra, no doubt identical with that of Baudhayana, the Prava- 
£anakarta (Sacred Books of the East, vol. xiv, p. xxxvi), are mentioned in 
a land grant, originally issued by the Pallava king Nandivarman in the beginning 
of the eighth century A. D., see Hultzsch, South Indian Inscriptions, vol. ii, 
p. 361 seqq. ; see also Weber, Hist Sansk. Lit, p. no, and ed. 

1 Max Miiller, op. cit, p. 195. 

' See also Weber, Ind. Lit, p. 98, and ed. 

[2] b 

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clearer proof that he laid no claim to the title J?*'shi, or 
inspired seer of Vedic texts. For (Dharma-sutra I, 2, 5, 
4-5) he says distinctly that on account of the prevalent 
transgression of the rules of studentship no .tf/shis are born 
among the Avaras, the men of later ages or of modern 
times, but that some, by virtue of a residue of the merit 
which they acquired in former lives, become similar to 
.AVshis by their knowledge of the Veda. A man who 
speaks in this manner, shows that he considers the holy 
ages during which the great saints saw with their mind's 
eye the uncreated and eternal texts of the Veda to be past, 
and that all he claims is a thorough acquaintance with the 
scriptures which had been handed down to him. The 
same spirit which dictated this passage is also observable 
in other portions of the Dharma-sutra. For Apastamba 
repeatedly contrasts the weakness and sinfulness of the 
Avaras, the men of his own times, with the holiness of the 
ancient sages, who, owing to the greatness of their ' lustre,' 
were able to commit various forbidden acts without dimin- 
ishing their spiritual merit K These utterances prove that 
Apastamba considered himself a child of the Kali Yuga, 
the age of sin, during which, according to Hindu notions, 
no J?*'shis can be born. If, therefore, in spite of this 
explicit disclaimer, the Sawhita and the Brahmawa of the 
Black Ya^nr-veda are sometimes called Apastamba or 
Apastambiya, i.e. belonging to Apastamba, the meaning 
of this expression can only be, that they were and are 
studied and handed down by the school of Apastamba, not 
that its founder was their author, or, as the Hindus would 
say, saw them. 

The fact that Apastamba confined his activity to the 
composition of Sutras is highly important for the deter- 
mination of the period to which he belonged. It clearly 
shows that in his time the tertiary or Sutra period of the 
Ya.g-ur-veda had begun. Whether we assume, with Pro- 
fessor Max Miiller, that the Sutra period was one and the 
same for all the four Vedas, and fix its limits with him 

1 Dharma-sutra II, 6, 13, 1-10; II, 10, 27, 4. 

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between 6oo-aoo B.C., or whether we believe, as I am 
inclined to do, that the date of the Sutra period differed 
for each Veda, still the incontestable conclusion is that 
the origin of the Apastambiya school cannot be placed 
in the early times of the Vedic period, and probably falls in 
the last six or seven centuries before the beginning of the 
Christian era. 

The correctness of the traditional statement that Apa- 
stamba is younger than Baudhayana may be made very 
probable by the following considerations. First, Bau- 
dhayana's and Apastamba's works on Dharma have a 
considerable number of Sutras in common. Thus in the 
chapter on Penances not less than seven consecutive Sutras, 
prescribing the manner in which outcasts are to live and to 
obtain readmission into the Brahmanical community for 
their children, occur in both treatises 1 . Besides this passage, 
there are a number of single Sutras* which agree literally. 
Taken by itself this agreement does not prove much, as it 
may be explained in various ways. It may show either 
that Baudhayana is older than Apastamba, and that the 
latter borrowed from the former, or that the reverse was 
the case. It may also indicate that both authors drew 
from one common source. But if it is taken together with 
two other facts, it gains a considerable importance. First, 
Apastamba holds in several cases doctrines which are of 
a later origin than those held by Baudhayana. With 
respect to this point the puritan opinions which Apastamba 
puts forward regarding the substitutes for legitimate sons 
and regarding the appointment of widows (niyoga), and 
his restriction of the number of marriage-rites, may be 
adduced as examples. Like many other ancient teachers, 
Baudhayana permits childless Aryans to satisfy their 
craving for representatives bearing their name, and to allay 
their fears of falling after death into the regions of torment 
through a failure of the funeral oblations, by the affiliation 

1 Baudh. Dh. II, I, 3, i8-23 = Ap. Dh. I, 10, 39, 8-14. 
* E. g. Ap. Dh. I, 1, 2, 30 ; I, 2, 6, 8-9 ; I, 5, 15, 8 correspond respectively 
to Bandh. Dh. I, 3, 3, 39-40 ; I, 3, 3, 38 ; I, 3, 3, 29. 


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of eleven kinds of substitutes for a legitimate son. Illegiti- 
mate sons, the illegitimate sons of wives, the legitimate 
and illegitimate offspring of daughters, and the children of 
relatives, or even of strangers who may be solemnly adopted, 
or received as members of the family without any ceremony, 
or be acquired by purchase, are all allowed to take the 
place and the rights of legitimate sons 1 . Apastamba 
declares his dissent from this doctrine. He allows legiti- 
mate sons alone to inherit their father's estate and to follow 
the occupations of his caste, and he explicitly forbids the 
sale and gift of children 2 . 

In like manner he protests against the custom of making 
over childless widows to brothers-in-law or other near 
relatives in order to obtain sons who are to offer the funeral 
oblations to the deceased husband's manes, while Baudha- 
yana has as yet no scruple on the subject 3 . Finally, he 
omits from his list of the marriage-rites the Yais&ka. vivaha, 
where the bride is obtained by fraud 4 ; though it is re- 
luctantly admitted by Baudhayana and other ancient 
teachers. There can be no doubt that the law which 
placed the regular continuance of the funeral oblations 
above all other considerations, and which allowed, in order 
to secure this object, even a violation of the sanctity of the 
marriage-tie and other breaches of the principles of morality, 
belongs to an older order of ideas than the stricter views 
of Apastamba. It is true that, according to Baudhayana's 
own statement 6 , before his time an ancient sage named 
Aupa^anghani, who is also mentioned in the Satapatha- 
brahmawa, had opposed the old practice of taking sub- 
stitutes for a legitimate son. It is also very probable that 
for a long time the opinions of the Brahmawa teachers, 
who lived in different parts of India and belonged to 
different schools, may have been divided on this subject. 
Still it seems very improbable that of two authors who 
both belong to the same Veda and to the same school, the 

1 Baudh. Dh. II, a, 3, 17 seqq. * Ap. Dh. II, 5, 13, 1-2, II. 

Ap. Dh. II, 10, 37, 2-7. * Ap. Dh. II, 5, 11 and 12. 

• Baudh. Dh. II, a, 3, 33. 

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earlier one should hold the later doctrine, and the later 
one the earlier opinion. The contrary appears the more 
probable assumption. The same remarks apply to the 
cases of the Niyoga and of the Paija£a marriage '. 

The second fact, which bears on the question how the 
identity of so many Sutras in the two Dharma-sutras is 
to be explained, affords a still stronger proof of Apa- 
stamba's posteriority to Baudhayana. For on several 
occasions, it appears, Apastamba controverts opinions 
which Baudhayana holds, or which may be defended with 
the help of the latter's Sutras. The clearest case of this 
kind occurs in the chapter on Inheritance, where the 
treatment of the eldest son on the division of the estate by 
the father is discussed. There Apastamba gives it as his 
own opinion that the father should make an equal division 
of his property ' after having gladdened the eldest son by 
some (choice portion of his) wealth,' i. e. after making him 
a present which should have some value, but should not 
be so valuable as to materially affect the equality of the 
shares 2 . Further on he notices the opinions of other 
teachers on this subject, and states that the practice advo- 
cated by some, of allowing the eldest alone to inherit, as 
well as the custom prevailing in some countries, of allotting 
to the eldest all the father's gold, or the black cows, or the 
black iron and grain, is not in accordance with the pre- 
cepts of the Vedas. In order to prove the latter assertion 
he quotes a passage of the Taittiriya Samhita, in which it 
is declared that ' Manu divided his wealth among his sons,' 
and no difference in the treatment of the eldest son is pre- 
scribed. He adds that a second passage occurs in the 
same Veda, which declares that * they distinguish the eldest 
son by (a larger portion of) the heritage,' and which thus 
apparently countenances the partiality for the first-born. 
But this second passage, he contends, appealing to the 

1 For another case, the rules, referring to the composition for homicide, 
regarding which Apastamba holds later views than BandMyana, see the Fest- 
gruss an R. von Roth, pp. 47-48. 

* Ap. Dh. II, 6, 13, 13, and II, 6, 14, I. 

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xxii Apastamba. 

opinion of the Mimaw*sists, is, like many similar ones, 
merely a statement of a fact which has not the authority 
of an injunction \ If we now turn to Baudhayana, we 
find that he allows of three different methods for the 
distribution of the paternal estate. According to him, 
either an equal share may be given to each son, or the 
eldest may receive the best part of the wealth, or, also, 
a preferential share of one tenth of the whole property. 
He further alleges that the cows, horses, goats, and sheep 
respectively go to the eldest sons of Brahmawas, Kshatriyas, 
Vauyas and Sudras. As authority for the equal division 
he gives the first of the two Vedic passages quoted above ; 
and for the doctrine that the eldest is to receive the best 
part of the estate, he quotes the second passage which 
Apastamba considers to be without the force of an injunc- 
tion 2 . The fact that the two authors' opinions clash is 
manifest, and the manner in which Apastamba tries to 
show that the second Vedic passage possesses no authority, 
clearly indicates that before his time it had been held to 
contain an injunction. As no other author of a Dharma- 
sutra but Baudhayana is known to have quoted it, the con- 
clusion is that Apastamba's remarks are directed against 
him. If Apastamba does not mention Baudhayana by 
name, the reason probably is that in olden times, just as in 
the present day, the Brahmanical etiquette forbad a direct 
opposition against doctrines propounded by an older teacher 
who belongs to the same spiritual family (vidyavawwa) as 

A similar case occurs in the chapter on Studentship 3 , 
where Apastamba, again appealing to the Mimawsists, 
combats the doctrine that pupils may eat forbidden food, 
such as honey, meat, and pungent condiments, if it is given 
to them as leavings by their teacher. Baudhayana gives 
no explicit rule on this point, but the wording of his 
Sutras is not opposed to the doctrine and practice, to 
which Apastamba objects. Baudhayana says that students 

' Ap. Dh. II, 6, 14, 6-13. ' Baudh. Dh. II, 2, 3, 2-j. 

» Ap. Dh. I, 1,4,5-7. 

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shall avoid honey, meat, pungent condiments, &c. ; he 
further enjoins that pupils are to obey their teachers 
except when ordered to commit crimes which cause loss 
of caste (patantya) ; and he finally directs them to eat the 
fragments of food given to them by their teachers. As 
the eating of honey and other forbidden substances is not 
a crime causing loss of caste, it is possible that Baudha- 
yana himself may have considered it the duty of a pupil 
to eat any kind of food given by the teacher, even honey 
and meat. At all events the practice and doctrine which 
Apastamba blames, may have been defended by the 
wording of Baudhayana's rules 1 . 

The three points which have been just discussed, viz. 
the identity of a number of Sutras in the works of the two 
authors, the fact that Apastamba advocates on some points 
more refined or puritan opinions, and, especially, that he 
labours to controvert doctrines contained in Baudhayana's 
Sutras, give a powerful support to the traditional state- 
ment that he is younger than that teacher. It is, however, 
difficult to say how great the distance between the two 
really is. Mahadeva, as stated above, places between them 
only Bharadva^a, the author of a set of Sutras, which as 
yet have not been completely recovered. But it seems 
to me not likely that the latter was his immediate pre- 
decessor in the vidyavawja or spiritual family to which 
both belonged. For it cannot be expected that two 
successive heads of the school should each have composed 
a Sutra and thus founded a new branch-school. It is 

1 Cases, in which Apastamba's Grihya-sfltra appears to refer to, or to 
controvert, Baudhayana's Gr«hya-sutra, have been collected by Dr. Wintemitz, 
op. cit., p. 8. Dr. Burnell, Tanjore Catalogue, p. 34, too, considers Baudhayana 
to be older than Apastamba, because his style is so much simpler. With this 
remark may be compared Dr. Wintemitz' s very true assertion that Baudhayana's 
style resembles sometimes, especially in the discussion of disputed points, that 
of the Brahmanas. On the other hand, Dr. R. G. BhaWirkar, Second Report 
on the Search for Sanskrit MSS., p. 34, believes Baudhayana to be later than 
Apastamba and Bharadva^a, because he teaches other developments of sacrificial 
rites, unknown to the other two Sutrakaras. This may be true, but it must not 
be forgotten that every portion of Bandh&yana's Sutras, which has been 
subjected to a critical enquiry, has turned out to be much interpolated and 
enlarged by later hands. 

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more probable that Baudhayana and Bharadva^a, as well 
as the latter and Apastamba, were separated by several 
intervening generations of teachers, who contented them- 
selves with explaining the works of their predecessors. 
The distance in years between the first and the last of 
the three Sutrakaras must, therefore, I think, be measured 
rather by centuries than by decades 1 . 

As regards the priority of Apastamba to the school of 
Satyashid^a Hiravyakejin, there can be no doubt about 
the correctness of this statement. For either Hirawyakexin 
himself, or, at least, his immediate successors have appro- 
priated' Apastamba's Dharma-sutra and have inserted it 
with slight modifications in their own collection. The 
alterations consist chiefly in some not very important 
additions, and in the substitution of more intelligible and 
more modern expressions for difficult and antiquated 
words 2 . But they do not extend so far as to make the 
language of the Dharma-sutra fully agree with that of 
the other sections of the collection, especially with the 
Grzhya-sutra. Numerous discrepancies between these two 
parts are observable. Thus we read in the Hirawyake^i 

1 The subjoined pedigree of the Sutrakaras of the Black Ya^ur-veda will 
perhaps make the above remarks and my interpretation of the statements of 
Mah&deva and the other authorities mentioned above more intelligible : — 
KhaWika, taught the Taittirtya recension of the Black Ya^ur-veda. 

(Successors of KMnrfika, number unknown, down to) 
Baudhayana, Pravaianakarta, i. e. 1st Sutrakira, and founder of Baudha- 
(Successors of Baudhayana down to fellow-pupil of BharadvS^a, number unknown.) 
(Successors of Baudhayana after the schism down to the present day.) 
Bharadva^ia, 2nd Sutrakara, and founder of Bharadva£a-£ara«a. 

(Successors of Bharadvaja down to fellow-pupil of Apastamba, number unknown.) 
(Successors after the schism down to the present day.) 
Apastamba, 3rd SutrakSra, and founder of Apastamba-£ara»a. 

(Successors of Apastamba down to fellow-pupil of SatyashaiMa Hiranyakerin, number 
(Successors of Apastamba down to the present day.) 

BatyashftaWa Hixanyakexin, 4th Sutrakara, and founder of Hirawyakeri- 
(Successors of Satyash&Ma Hiraxyakenn down to the present day.) 
After the schism of SatyashaaVia Hiranyakerin the pedigree has not been con- 
tinued, though Mahadeva asserts that several other Sutrakaras arose. But to 
work it out further would be useless. 

9 See Appendix II to Fart I of my second edition of Apastamba's Dharma- 
sutra, p. 117 seqq. 

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Grihya-siitra that a Brahma»a must, ordinarily, be initiated 
in his seventh year, while the rule of the Dharma-sutra, 
which is identical with Ap. Dh. I, i, 1, 18, prescribes that 
the ceremony shall take place in the eighth year after 
conception. The commentators, Matralatta on the GWhya- 
sutra and Mahadeva on the Dharma-stitra, both state that 
the rule of the Grmya-sutra refers to the seventh year 
after birth, and, therefore, in substance agrees with the 
Dharma-stitra. They are no doubt right. But the differ- 
ence in the wording shows that the two sections do not 
belong to the same author. The same inference may be 
drawn from the fact that the Hirawyakcri Gnhya-sutra, 
which is much longer than Apastamba's, includes a con- 
siderable amount of matter which refers to the sacred law, 
and which is repeated in the Dharma-sutra. According to 
a statement which I have heard from several learned Brah- 
ma«as, the followers of Hira«yakerin, when pronouncing 
the sawkalpa or solemn pledge to perform a ceremony, 
declare themselves to be members of the Hirawyake^i 
school that forms a subdivision of Apastamba's (apastam- 
bintargatahirawyakejuakhadhyayi . . . aham). But I have 
not been able to find these words in the books treating of 
the ritual of the Hirawyakenns, such as the Maherabha/rf. 
If this assertion could be further corroborated, it would be 
an additional strong proof of the priority of Apastamba, 
which, however, even without it may be accepted as a fact l . 
The distance in time between the two teachers is probably 
not so great as that between Apastamba and Baudhayana, 
as Mahadeva mentions no intermediate Sutrakara between 
them. Still it is probably not less than 100 or 150 years. 

The results of the above investigation which show that 
the origin of the Apastamba school falls in the middle 
of the Sfitra period of the Black Ya^ur-veda, and that 
its Sutras belong to the later, though not to the latest 
products of Vedic literature, are fully confirmed by an 

1 Compare also Dr. Wintemitz's remarks on the dependence of the Grihya- 
sfltra of tie Hira«yake.rins on Apastamba's, op. cit., p. 6 seqq., and the second 
edition of the Ap. Dh., Part I, p. xi. 

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examination of the quotations from and references to Vedic 
and other books contained in Apastamba's Sutras, and 
especially in the Dharma-sutra. We find that all the four 
Vedas are quoted or referred to. The three old ones, the 
Kik, Ya^us, and Saman, are mentioned both separately 
and collectively by the name trayi vidya, i. e. threefold 
sacred science, and the fourth is called not AtharvangirasaA, 
as is done in most ancient Sutras, but Atharva-veda \ The 
quotations from the Rik and Saman are not very numerous. 
But a passage from the ninth Mawrfala of the former, which 
is referred to Dh. I, i, a, a, is of some extent, and shows 
that the recension which Apastamba knew, did not differ 
from that which still exists. As Apastamba was an ad- 
herent of the Black Ya^ur-veda, he quotes it, especially in 
the .Srauta-sutra, very frequently, and he adduces not only 
texts from the Mantra-sawhita, but also from the Taittiriya- 
brahmawa and Arawyaka. The most important quotations 
from the latter work occur Dh. II, a, 3, 16— II, a, 4, 9, where 
all the Mantras to be recited during the performance of 
the Bali-offerings are enumerated. Their order agrees 
exactly with that in which they stand in the sixty-seventh 
Anuvaka of the tenth Prapa/^aka of the recension of the 
Arawyaka which is current among the Andhra Brahmawas 2 . 
This last point is of considerable importance, both for the 
history of the text of that book and, as we shall see further 
on, for the history of the Apastambiya school. 

The White Ya^ur-veda, too, is quoted frequently in the 
.Srauta-sutra and once in the section on Dharma by the 
title Va^-asaneyaka, while twice its Brahmawa, the Va^a- 
saneyi-brahma«a, is cited. The longer one of the two 
passages, taken from the latter work, Dh. I, 4, ia, 3, does, 
however, not fully agree with the published text of the 
Madhyandina recension. Its wording possesses just suf- 
ficient resemblance to allow us to identify the passage 
which Apastamba meant, but differs from the .Satapatha- 

1 Ap. Dh. II, 11, 29, ia. 

* The Taittirtya Ara«yaka exists in three recensions, the Kar«a/a, DravWa, 
and the Andhra, the first of which has been commented on by S&ya»a. 

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brahmawa in many details '. The cause of these discrepancies 
remains doubtful for the present 2 . As regards the Atharva- 
veda, Apastamba gives, besides the reference mentioned 
above and a second to the Angirasa-pavitra s , an abstract 
of a long passage from Atharva-veda XV, io-i 3, regarding 
the treatment of a Vritya, i.e. a learned mendicant 
Brahmawa, who really deserves the title of an atithi, or 
guest 4 . It is true that Apastamba, in the passage referred 
to, does not say that his rule is based on the Atharva- 
veda. He merely says that a Brahma«a is his authority. 
But it seems, nevertheless, certain that by the expression 
a Brahma«a, the Brahmana-like fifteenth book of the 
Atharva-veda is meant, as the sentences to be addressed 
by the host to his guest agree literally with those which 
the Atharva-veda prescribes for the reception of a Vratya. 
Haradatta too, in his commentary, expresses the same 
opinion. Actual quotations from the Atharva-veda are not 
frequent in Vedic literature, and the fact that Apastamba's 
Dharma-sutra contains one, is, therefore, of some interest. 

Besides these Vedic texts 8 , Apastamba mentions, also, 
the Angas or auxiliary works, and enumerates six classes, 
viz. treatises on the ritual of the sacrifices, on grammar, 
astronomy, etymology, recitation of the Veda, and metrics •. 
The number is the same as that which is considered the 
correct one in our days 7 . 

As the Dharma-sutra names no less than nine teachers 
in connection with various topics of the sacred law, and 
frequently appeals to the opinion of some (eke), it follows 
that a great many such auxiliary treatises must have 
existed in Apastamba's time. The A^aryas mentioned 
are Eka, Kawva, Ka«va, Kunika, Kutsa, Kautsa, Push- 

1 Compare on this point Professor Eggeling's remarks in Sacred Books of 
the East, vol. xii, p. xxxix seqq. 

2 See the passage from the ATaranavyfthabhashya given below, ver. 10. 
» Ap. Dh. I, a, a, a. 4 Ap. Dh. II, 3, 7. »-'7- 

* Some more are quoted in the .Srauta-sutra, see Professor Uarbe in the 
Gurop%akaumudi, p. 33 seqq. 

• Ap. Dh. II, 4. 8. >o. 

' See also Max Miiller, Hist. Anc. Sansk. Lit., p. III. 

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xxviii Apastamba. 

karasidi, Varshyaya«i, Svetaketu, and Harita 1 . Some of 
these persons, like Harita and Kawva, are known to have 
composed Sutras on the sacred law, and fragments or 
modified versions of their works are still in existence, 
while Ka«va, Kautsa, Pushkarasadi or Paushkarasadi, as 
the grammatically correct form of the name is, and 
Varshyayawi are quoted in the Nirukta, the Pratirakhyas, 
and the Varttikas on Pacini as authorities on phonetics, 
etymology, and grammar 2 . Ka«va, finally, is considered 
the author of the still existing Kalpa-sutras of the Ka«va 
school connected with the White Ya^ur-veda. It seems 
not improbable that most of these teachers were authors of 
complete sets of Ahgas. Their position in Vedic literature, 
however, except as far as Ka«va, Harita, and .Svetaketu are 
concerned, is difficult to define, and the occurrence of their 
names throws less light on the antiquity of the Apas- 
tambiya school than might be expected. Regarding 
Harita it must, however, be noticed that he is one of the 
oldest authors of Sutras, that he was an adherent of the 
Maitr&yawiya Sakha s , and that he is quoted by Baudhayana, 
Apastamba's predecessor. The bearing of the occurrence 
of Svetaketu's name will be discussed below. 

Of even greater interest than the names of the teachers 
are the indications which Apastamba gives, that he knew 
two of the philosophical schools which still exist in India, 
viz. the Ptirva or Karma Mtmdwzsa and the Vedanta. As 
regards the former, he mentions it by its ancient name, 
Nyaya, which in later times and at present is usually 
applied to the doctrine of Gautama AkshapAda. In two 
passages * he settles contested points on the authority of 
those who know the Nyaya, i.e. the Pflrva Mim£»*s&, and 

1 Ap. Dh. 1, 6, 19, 3-8 ; 1, 10, 28, 1-2 ; I, 4, 13, 10 ; 1, 6, 18, 2 ; 1, 6, 19, 12 ; 

I, 10, 28, 5, 16; I, 10, 29, 12-16. 
' Max MUller, loc. cit., p. 142. 

* A Dharma-sutra, ascribed to this teacher, has been recovered of late, by 
Mr. Vaman Shastrt Islampurkar. Though it is an ancient work, it does not 
contain Apastamba's quotations, see Gnradiiss d. Indo-Ar. Phil, und Altertnmsk., 

II, 8, 8. 

* Ap. Dh. 11,4,8,13; 11,6,14,13. 

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in several other cases he adopts a line of reasoning which 
fully agrees with that followed in 6aimini's Mima;//sa-sutras. 
Thus the arguments \ that ' a revealed text has greater 
weight than a custom from which a revealed text may be 
inferred,' and that ' no text can be inferred from a custom 
for which a worldly motive is apparent,' exactly correspond 
with the teaching of Caimini's Mimawsa-sutras I, 3, 3-4. 
The wording of the passages in the two works does not 
agree so closely that the one could be called a quotation 
of the other. But it is evident, that if Apastamba did not 
know the Mimaw*sa-sutras of Gaimini, he must have pos- 
sessed some other very similar work. As to the Vedanta, 
Apastamba does not mention the name of the school. 
But Khawafas 22, 23 of the first Pa/ala of the Dharma-sutra 
unmistakably contain the chief tenets of the Vedantists, and 
recommend the acquisition of the knowledge of the Atman 
as the best means for purifying the souls of sinners. 
Though these two Kha«</as are chiefly filled with quota- 
tions, which, as the commentator states, are taken from an 
Upanishad, still the manner of their selection, as well as 
Apastamba's own words in the introductory and concluding 
Sutras, indicates that he knew not merely the unsystematic 
speculations contained in the Upanishads and Arawyakas, 
but a well-defined system of Vedantic philosophy identical 
with that of Badarayawa's Brahma-sutras. The fact that 
Apastamba's Dharma-sutra contains indications of the ex- 
istence of these two schools of philosophy, is significant 
as the Purva Mima#zsa occurs in one other Dharma-sutra 
only, that attributed to VasishMa, and as the name of the 
Vedanta school is not found in any of the prose treatises 
on the sacred law. 

Of non-Vedic works Apastamba mentions the Purawa. 
The Dharma-sutra not only several times quotes passages 
from ' a Pura«a ' as authorities for its rules 2 , but names in 
one case the Bhavishyat-purawa as the particular Purawa 
from which the quotation is taken 3 . References to the 

1 Ap. Dh. I, 1, 14, 8, 9-10. ' A p. Dh. I, 6, 19, 13; 1, 10, »9, 7. 

• A p. Dh. II, 9, 14, 6. 

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Pura#a in general are not unfrequent in other Sutras on 
the sacred law, and even in older Vedic works. But 
Apastamba, as far as I know, is the only Sutrakara who 
specifies the title of a particular Purawa, and names one 
which is nearly or quite identical with that of a work 
existing in the present day, and he is the only one, whose 
quotations can be shown to be, at least in part, genuine 
Paurawic utterances. 

Among the so-called Upa-pura«as we find one of con- 
siderable extent which bears the title Bhavishya-pura«a 
or also Bhavishyat-purawa l . It is true that the passage 
quoted in the Dharma-sutra from the Bhavishyat-pura«a 
is not to be found in the copy of the Bhavishya-pura«a 
which I have seen. It is, therefore, not possible to assert 
positively that Apastamba knew the present homonymous 
work. Still, considering the close resemblance of the two 
titles, and taking into account the generally admitted fact 
that most if not all Purawas have been remodelled and 
recast 2 , it seems to me not unlikely that Apastamba's 

1 Aufrecht, Catalogus Catalogorum, p. 400. 

2 Max Miiller, Hist. Anc. Sansk. Lit., pp. 40-43. Weber, Literaturgeschichte, 
pp. 206-208. Though I fully subscribe to the opinion, held by the most illus- 
trious Sanskritists, that, in general, the existing Pura«as are not identical with 
.the works designated by that title in Vedic works, still I cannot believe that 
they are altogether independent of the latter. Nor can I agree to the assertion 
that the Pura«as known to us, one and all, are not older than the tenth or 
eleventh century A. D. That is inadmissible, because Berflni (India, I, 131) 
enumerates them as canonical books. And his frequent quotations from them 
prove that in 1030 A. D. they did not differ materially from those known to us 
(see Indian Antiquary, 19, 382 seqq.). Another important fact bearing on 
this point may be mentioned here, viz. that the poet Ba«a, who wrote shortly 
after 600 A. D., in the -SWharsha&irita, orders his Paurawika to recite the 
Pavanaprokta-purawa, i.e. the Vayu-pura»a (Harsha&irita, p. 61, Calcutta ed.). 
Dr. Hall, the discoverer of the life of Marsha, read in his copy Yavanaprokta- 
purana, a title which, as he remarks, might suggest the idea that Ba»a knew 
the Qreek epic poetry. But a comparison of the excellent Ahmadabad and 
Benares Devanagart MSS. and of the Kajmtr iarada copies shows that the 
correct reading is the one given above. The earlier history of the Purinas, 
which as yet is a mystery, will only be cleared up when a real history of the 
orthodox Hindu sects, especially of the .Slvites and Vishwuites, has been written. 
It will, then, probably become apparent that the origin of these sects reaches 
back far beyond the rise of Buddhism and Jainism. It will also be proved 

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authority was the original on which the existing Upa- 
purawa is based. And in favour of this view it may be 
urged that passages, similar to Apastamba's quotation, 
actually occur in our Paurawic texts. In the Cyotish- 
pra^ara section of several of the chief Purawas we find, 
in connection with the description of the Path of the 
Manes (pirWyawa) \ the assertion that the pious sages, 
who had offspring and performed the Agnihotra, reside 
there until the general destruction of created things 
(a bhutasa»zplavat), as well as, that in the beginning of 
each new creation they are the propagators of the world 
(lokasya sawtanakara^) and, being re-born, re-establish 
the sacred law. Though the wording differs, these passages 
fully agree in sense with Apastamba's Bhavishyat-purana 
which says, * They (the ancestors) live in heaven until the 
(next) general destruction of created things. At the new 
creation (of the world) they become the seed.' In other 
passages of the Purawas, which refer to the successive 
creations, we find even the identical terms used in the 
quotation. Thus the Vayup., Adhy. 8, 23, declares that 
those beings, which have gone to the 6analoka, ' become the 
seed at the new creation ' (puna// sarge . . . bij^arthaw ta 
bhavanti hi). 

These facts prove at all events that Apastamba took his 
quotation from a real Pura«a, similar to those existing. 
If it is literal and exact, it shows, also, that the Pura«as of 
his time contained both prose and verse. 

Further, it is possible to trace yet another of Apastamba's 
quotations from ' a Purawa.' The three Pura«as, mentioned 
above, give, immediately after the passages referred to, 
enlarged versions of the two verses 2 regarding the sages, 
who begot offspring and obtained ' burial-grounds,' and 

that the orthodox sects used Puranas as text books for popular readings, the 
PuranapaMana of our days, and that some, at least, of the now existing Furanas 
are the latest recensions of those mentioned in Vedic books. 

1 Vayup., Adhy. 50, ao8 seqq.; Matsyap., Adhy. 123, 96 seqq. ; Vish*up. II, 
8. 86-89 : H H - Wilson, Vishwup., vol. ii, pp. 263-368 (ed. Hall). 

' ip. Dh. II, 9, 23, 4-5- 

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regarding those who, remaining chaste, gained immortality 1 . 
In this case Apastamba's quotation can be restored almost 
completely, if certain interpolations are cut out. . And it 
is evident that Apastamba has preserved genuine Paurawic 
verses in their ancient form. A closer study of the unfortu- 
nately much neglected Purawas, no doubt, will lead to 
further identifications of other quotations, which will be 
of considerable interest for the history of Indian literature. 

There is yet another point on which Apastamba shows 
a remarkable agreement with a theory which is prevalent 
in later Sanskrit literature. He says (Dh. II, n, 29, 
11-ia), 'The knowledge which Sudras and women possess, 
is the completion of all study,' and ' they declare that this 
knowledge is a supplement of the Atharva-veda.' The 
commentator remarks with reference to these two Sutras, 
that ' the knowledge which Sudras and women possess,' is 
the knowledge of dancing, acting, music, and other branches 
of the so-called Artha^astra, the science of useful arts and 
of trades, and that the object of the Sutras is to forbid 
the study of such matters before the acquisition of sacred 
learning. His interpretation is, without doubt, correct, as 
similar sentiments are expressed by other teachers in parallel 
passages. But, if it is accepted, Apastamba's remark that 
'the knowledge of Sudras and women is a supplement 
of the Atharva-veda,' proves that he knew the division of 
Hindu learning which is taught in Madhusudana Sarasvati's 
Prasthanabheda 2 . For Madhusudana allots to each Veda 
an Upa-veda or supplementary Veda, and asserts that the 
Upa-veda of the Atharva-veda is the Artharastra. The 
agreement of Apastamba with the modern writers on this 
point, furnishes, I think, an additional argument that he 
belongs to the later Vedic schoolmen. 

In addition to this information regarding the relative 
position of the Apastambiya school in ancient Sanskrit 
literature, we possess some further statements as to the 

1 An abbreviated version of the same verses, ascribed to the Pauranikas, 
occurs in .SankaraAarya's Comm. on the AHndogya Up., p. 336 (Bibl. Ind.). 
• Weber, Ind. Stud. I, i-a 4 . 

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part of India to which it belongs, and these, as it happens, 
are of great importance for fixing approximately the period 
in which the school arose. According to the Brahmanical 
tradition, which is supported by a hint contained in the 
Dharma-sutra and by information derivable from inscrip- 
tions and the actual state of things in modern India, the 
Apastamblyas belong to Southern India, and their founder 
probably was a native of or resided in the Andhra country. 
The existence of this tradition, which to the present day 
prevails among the learned Brahmans of Western India 
and Benares, may be substantiated by a passage from the 
above-mentioned commentary of the ATarawavyuha 1 , which, 

1 Xaranavydhabhishya, fol. 15*, 1. 4 seqq. : — 

H^f% 1 Trrafatapr^nnfttreft fijunif (?) Tnrarni^farft; *tv 
m&m: (?) 1 ^rr^^ ^rrannftHKr wrk i * ^ n*rtfa i 
trfaan *ruit*n ^ t^t trfbirrfihn i 
<r«j<!i"liuift<3i?l ^imi^im [t^\ v*jk 11 s 11 

H*i<l ^fa^o HOT (sic) WMW**MlHlrtlWl I 

tw i mnl fvmrt i ^ T?w^rtf%»nf»nT: 11 * n 
Hi«ir«5«il ^rwr[?(rrffT]Trtft *r*j»fl ^im*! inn i 

^jfj ^*sn ir»n ift^T srirrfjf^rwcnfv i 

qrhftireft [f*] maui ^ $rr«T ^rrfprar Hunt im » 
ws^rrf^jftpn^ft^n^RrnR «iifi (sic) i 

iRnf^itirttwTfipri tfanrarnm^ (sic) i 

f*TW%$ft[fj»]*!T?»T TJ^tWW (sic) fffcnd H*ll 
H*jj.Mlrt l ^ HWgJi<.^M t I 

«mn sii[^T]*(ai^?ii i g »nrrutft Hfirftnn lib n 
^ttff^rrfg 1 !^ vrrfon (?) jprtrcniT (sic) i 

^rwft'i [%u] ^*» inmr *rcF»[*n*]$r?ftfir it^on 

W c 

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though written in barbarous Sanskrit, and of quite modern 
origin, possesses great interest, because its description of 
the geographical distribution of the Vedas and Vedic 
schools is not mentioned elsewhere. The verses from 
a work entitled Maharwava, which are quoted there, state 
that the earth, i. e. India, is divided into two equal halves 
by the river Narmada (Nerbudda), and that the school of 
Apastamba prevails in the southern half (ver. 2). It is 
further alleged (ver. 6) that the Ya^-ur-veda of Tittiri and 
the Apastambiya school are established in the Andhra 
country and other parts of the south and south-east up to 
the mouth of the Godavari (godasagara-avadhi). According 
to the Mahar«ava the latter river marks, therefore, the 
northern frontier of the territory occupied by the Apa- 
stambiyas. which comprises the Mara/^a and Kawara 
districts of the Bombay Presidency, the greater part of the 
Nizam's dominions, Berar, and the Madras Presidency, 
with the exception of the northern Sirkars and the western 
coast. This assertion agrees, on the whole, with the actual 
facts which have fallen under my observation. A great 
number of the Derastha-brahmawas in the Nasik, Pu«a, 
Ahmadnagar, Satara, Sholapur, and Kolhapur districts, 
and of the Kawara or Kar«a/aka-brahma#as in the Belgam, 
Dharvarf, Kaladghi, and Karv&f collectorates, as well as 
a smaller number among the .AT ittapavanas of the Konkawa 
are Apastambiyas. Of the Nizam's dominions and the 
Madras Presidency I possess no local knowledge. But 
I can say that I have met many followers of Apastamba 
among the Telingana-brahmawas settled in Bombay, and 
that the frequent occurrence of MSS. containing the Sutras 
of the Apastambiya school in the Madras Presidency 
proves that the ^Tarawa there must count many adherents. 
On the other hand, I have never met with any Apastam- 
biyas among the ancient indigenous subdivisions of the 
Brahmanical community dwelling north of the Mara/^a 
country and north of the Narmada. A few Brahmawas of 
this school, no doubt, are scattered over Gujarat and 
Central India, and others are found in the great places of 

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pilgrimage in Hindustan proper. The former mostly have 
immigrated during the last century, following the Mara7//a 
chieftains who conquered large portions of those countries, 
or have been imported in the present century by the 
Mari/M rulers of Gwalior, Indor, and Baroda. The settlers 
in Benares, Mathura, and other sacred cities also, have 
chiefly come in modern times, and not unfrequently live on 
the bounty of the Mara/M princes. But all of them 
consider themselves and are considered by the Brahma«as, 
who are indigenous in those districts and towns, as aliens, 
with whom intermarriage and commensality are not per- 
mitted. The indigenous sections of the Brahma«as of 
Gujarat, such as the N&garas, Khe</avals, Bhargavas, 
Kapilas, and Motalas, belong, if they are adherents of the 
Ya^ur-veda, to the Madhyandina or Ka«va schools of the 
White Yag-ur-veda. The same is the case with the Br&h- 
mawas of Ra^put&na, Hindustan, and the Pa^ab. In 
Central India, too, the White Ya^-ur-veda prevails; but, 
besides the two schools mentioned above, there are still 
some colonies of Maitraya«»yas or Manavas 1 . It seems, 
also, that the restriction of the Apastamblya school to the 
south of India, or rather to those subdivisions of the Brah- 
manical community which for a long time have been settled 
in the south and are generally considered as natives of the 
south, is not of recent date. For it is a significant fact that 
the numerous ancient landgrants which have been found all 
over India indicate exactly the same state of things. I am 
not aware that in any grant issued by a king of a northern 
dynasty to Brahma/zas who are natives of the northern half 
of India, an Apastambiya is mentioned as donee. But 
among the southern landgrants there are several on which 
the name of the school appears. Thus in a jasana of king 
Harihara of Vidyanagara, dated Sakasawvat 131 7 or 
1395 A.D., one of the recipients of the royal bounty is 
'the learned Ananta Dikshita, son of Ramabhatta, chief 

1 See Bhafl DS^t, Jonrn. Bombay Br. Roy. As. Soc. X, 40. Regarding the 
Maitriya»tyas in Gujarat, of whom the A"ara»avy<ma speaks, compare my 
Report on the Search for Sanskrit MSS., 1879-80, p. 3. 

C 2 

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xxxvi Apastamba. 

of the Apastambya (read Apastambiya) s&khti, a scion of 
the Vasish/j&a gotra 1 .' Further, the eastern A'alukya king 
Vjgayiditya II 2 , who ruled, according to Dr. Fleet, from 
A.D. 799-843, presented a village to six students of the 
Hira«yakeri-sutra and to eighteen students of the Apa- 
stamba, recte the Apastamba-sutra. Again, in the above- 
mentioned earlier grant of the Pallava king Nandivarman s 
there are forty-two students of the Apastambha-sutra 8 
among the 108 sharers of the village of Udaya^andra- 
mahgalam. Finally, on an ancient set of plates written in 
the characters which usually are called cave-characters, and 
issued by the Pallava king Siwhavarman II, we find among 
the donees five Apastambhiya Brahmawas, who, together 
with a Haira«yakesa, a Va^usaneya, and a Sama-vedt, 
received the village of Mahgadur, in Vengorash/ra *. This 
inscription is, to judge from the characters, thirteen to 
fourteen hundred years old, and on this account a very 
important witness for the early existence of the Apastam- 
biyas in Southern India. 

Under the circumstances just mentioned, a casual remark 
made by Apastamba, in describing the .Sraddhas or funeral 
oblations, acquires considerable importance. He says (Dh. 
II, 7, 17, 17) that the custom of pouring water into the 
hands of Brahmawas invited to a Sr&ddha prevails among 
the northerners, and he indicates thereby that he himself 
does not belong to the north of India. If this statement 
is taken together with the above-stated facts, which tend 
to show that the Apastambiyas were and are restricted to 
the south of India, the most probable construction which 
can be put on it is that Apastamba declares himself to be 
a southerner. There is yet another indication to the same 
effect contained in the Dharma-sutra. It has been pointed 

1 Colebrooke, Essays, II, p. 364, ver. 24 (Madras ed.) 

1 See Hultzsch, Sooth Indian Inscriptions, vol. i, p. 31 seqq., and Indian 
Antiqnary, vol. xx, p. 414 seqq. 

3 Apastambha may be a mistake for Apastamba. But the form with the 
aspirate occurs also in the earlier Pallava grant and in Devapala's commentary 
on the KaMaka Grthya-sfltra. 

* Ind. Ant. V, 135. 

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out above that the recension of the Taittirfya Arawyaka 
which Apastamba recognises is that called the Andhra 
text or the version current in the Andhra country, by 
which term the districts in the south-east of India between 
the Godavarl and the Kr*'sh«a have to be understood '. 
Now it seems exceedingly improbable that a Vedic teacher 
would accept as authoritative any other version of a sacred 
work except that which was current in his native country. 
It would therefore follow, from the adoption of an Andhra 
text by Apastamba, that he was born in that country, or, 
at least, had resided there so long as to have become natu- 
ralised in it. With respect to this conclusion it must also 
be kept in mind that the above-quoted passage from the 
Maharcava particularly specifies the Andhra country 
(andhradi) as the seat of the Apastambiyas. It may be 
that this is due to an accident. But it seems to me more 
probable that the author of the Maharcava wished to mark 
the Andhra territory as the chief and perhaps as the 
original residence of the Apastambiyas. 

This discovery has, also, a most important bearing on the 
question of the antiquity of the school of Apastamba. It 
fully confirms the result of the preceding enquiry, viz. that 
the Apastambiyas are one of the later ATarawas. For the 
south of India and the nations inhabiting it, such as 
Kalingas, Dravu/as, Andhras, A!blas, and Pa«//yas, do not 
play any important part in the ancient Brahmanical tra- 
ditions and in the earliest history of India, the centre of 
both of which lies in the north-west or at least north of the 
Vindhya range. Hitherto it has not been shown that the 
south and the southern nations are mentioned in any of the 
Vedic Sawhitas. In the Brahmawas and in the Sutras 
they do occur, though they are named rarely and in a not 
complimentary manner. Thus the Aitareya-brahma«a 
gives the names of certain degraded, barbarous tribes, and 
among them that of the Andhras 2 , in whose country, as 

1 See Cunningham, Geography, p. 527 seqq. ; Bumell, South Ind. Pal., p. 14, 

note 3. 
' Aitareya-brahma»a VII, 18. 

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has been shown, the Apastambiyas probably originated. 
Again, Baudhayana, in his Dharma-sutra I, i, quotes some 
verses in which it is said that he who visits the Kalingas 
must purify himself by the performance of certain sacrifices 
in order to become fit for again associating with Aryans. 
The same author, also, mentions distinctive forbidden prac- 
tices (a/fcara) prevailing in the south (loc. cit.). Further, 
Pacini's grammatical Sfttras and Katyayana's Varttikas 
thereon contain rules regarding several words which pre- 
suppose an acquaintance with the south and the kingdoms 
which flourished there. Thus Pawini, IV, a, 98, teaches the 
formation of dakshi//atya in the sense of ' belonging to or 
living in the south or the Dekhan,' and a Varttika of 
Katyayana on Pawini, IV, 1, 175, states that the words 
Ko\a. and Pawrfya are used as names of the princes ruling 
over the ATola and Ykndya countries, which, as is known 
from history, were situated in the extreme south of India. 
The other southern nations and a fuller description of the 
south occur first in the Mahabharata \ While an acquain- 
tance with the south can thus be proved only by a few 
books belonging to the later stages of Vedic literature, 
several of the southern kingdoms are named already in the 
oldest historical documents. Asoka in his edicts 2 , which 
date from the second half of the third century B.C., calls 
the .Kolas, Pa«*/yas, and the Keralaputra or Ketalaputra 
his pratyantas (pra^anta) or neighbours. The same 
monarch informs us also that he conquered the province 
of Kalihga and annexed it to his kingdom 3 , and his. 
remarks on the condition of the province show that it was 
thoroughly imbued with the Aryan civilisation 4 . The same 
fact is attested still more clearly by the annals of the Keta 
king of Kalinga, whose thirteenth year fell in the 165th 
year of the Maurya era or about 150 B.C. 6 The early 

1 Lassen, Ind. Alterthumsknnde, I, 684, and ed. 

' Edict II, Epigraphia Indica, vol. ii, pp. 449-450, 466. 

* Edict XIII, op. cit., pp. 462-465, 470-472. 

4 See also Indian Antiquary, vol. xxiii, p. 346. 

5 Actes du 6'* m « Congres Int. d. Orient., vol. iii, 2, 135 seqq., where, however, 
the beginning of the Maurya era is placed wrongly in the eighth year of Axoka. 

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spread of the Aryan civilisation to the eastern coast- 
districts between the Godavari and the Kmhwa is proved 
by the inscriptions on the Bhatfiprolu relic caskets, which 
probably belong to the period of 200 B.C. 1 Numerous 
inscriptions in the Buddhist caves of Western India 2 , as 
well as coins, prove the existence during the last centuries 
before, and the first centuries after, the beginning of our 
era of a powerful empire of the Andhras, the capital of 
which was probably situated near the modern Amaravati 
on the lower Krj'shwa. The princes of the latter kingdom, 
though great patrons of the Buddhist monks, appear to 
have been Brahmanists or adherents of the ancient orthodox 
faith which is founded on the Vedas. For one of them is 
called Vedisiri (vedLrri), ' he whose glory is the Vedi,' and 
another Yawasiri (ya.fwarrl), 'he whose glory is the sacri- 
fice,' and a very remarkable inscription on the Nanaghat 3 
contains a curious catalogue of sacrificial fees paid to 
priests (dakshiwa) for the performance of 5rauta sacrifices. 
For the third and the later centuries of our era the informa- 
tion regarding Southern India becomes fuller and fuller. 
Very numerous inscriptions, the accounts of the Buddhist 
chroniclers of Ceylon, of the Greek geographers, and of the 
Chinese pilgrims, reveal the existence and give fragments, 
at least, of the history of many kingdoms in the south, and 
show that their civilisation was an advanced one, and did 
not differ materially from that of Northern India. 

There can be no doubt that the south of India has been 
conquered by the Aryans, and has been brought within the 
pale of Brahmanical civilisation much later than India 
north of the Vindhya range. During which century pre- 
cisely that conquest took place, cannot be determined for 
the present. But it would seem that it happened a con- 
siderable time before the Vedic period came to an end, and 
it certainly was an accomplished fact, long before the 

1 Epigraphia Indica, vol. ii, p. 323 seqq. 

* See Burgess, Arch. Surv. Reports, West India, vol. iv, pp. 104-114 and 
vol. v, p. 75 seqq. 

3 Op. cit., vol. v, p. 39 seqq. Its date probably falls between 150-140 B.C. 

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xl Apastamba. 

authentic history of India begins, about 500 B. c, with the 
Persian conquest of the Paw^ab and Sindh. It may be added 
that a not inconsiderable period must have elapsed after 
the conquest of the south, before the Aryan civilisation had 
so far taken root in the conquered territory, that, in its 
turn, it could become a centre of Brahmanical activity, and 
that it could produce new Vedic schools. 

These remarks will suffice to show that a Vedic ATarawa 
which had its origin in the south, cannot rival in antiquity 
those whose seat is in the north, and that all southern 
schools must belong to a comparatively recent period of 
Vedic history. For this reason, and because the name 
of Apastamba and of the Apastamblyas is not mentioned 
in any Vedic Work, not even in a Kalpa-sutra, and its 
occurrence in the older grammatical books, written before 
the beginning of our era, is doubtful 1 , it might be thought 
advisable to fix the terminus a quo for the composition of 
the Apastambiya-sutras about or shortly before the begin- 
ning of the era, when the Brahmanist Andhra kings held 
the greater part of the south under their sway. It seems 
to me, however, that such a hypothesis is not tenable, as 
there are several points which indicate that the school and 
its writings possess a much higher antiquity. For, first, 
the Dharma-sutra contains a remarkable passage in which 
its author states that Svetaketu, one of the Vedic teachers 
who is mentioned in the Satapatha-brahma#a and in the 
ATMndogya Upanishad, belongs to the Avaras, to the men 
of later, i. e. of his own times. The passage referred to, 
Dh. I, a, 5, 4-6, has been partly quoted above in order to 
show that Apastamba laid no claim to the title Rishi, or 
seer of revealed texts. It has been stated that according 
to Sutra 4, 'No i?zshis are born among the Avaras, the 
men of later ages, on account of the prevailing transgression 
of the rules of studentship ; ' and that according to Sutra 5, 

1 The name Apastamba occurs only in the ga»a vidadi, which belongs to 
Panini IV, I, 104, and the text of this ga»a is certain only for the times of 
the Kasika, abont 650 A. D. The .Srauta-sfitra of Apastamba is mentioned in 
the nearly contemporaneous commentary of Bhartrihari on the Mahabhashya, 
see Zeitschr. d. Deutschen Morg. Ges., vol. xxxvi, p. 654. 

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'Some in their new birth become similar to i?/shis by 
their knowledge of the Veda (jrutarshi) through a residue 
of merit acquired in former existences.' In order to give 
an illustration of the latter case, the author adds in Sutra 6, 
'Like .SVetaketu.' The natural, and in my opinion, the 
only admissible interpretation of these words is, that Apas- 
tamba considers .SVetaketu to be one of the Avaras, who 
by virtue of a residue of merit became a .Srutarshi. This 
is also the view of the commentator Haradatta, who, in 
elucidation of Sutra 6, quotes the following passage from 
the A!"Mndogya Upanishad (VI, I, 1-2): 

' 1 . Verily, there lived .SVetaketu, a descendant of Aruwa. 
His father spake unto him, " O Svetaketu, dwell as a 
student (with a teacher) ; for, verily, dear child, no one 
in our family must neglect the study of the Veda and 
become, as it were, a Brahmawa in name only." 

'Verily, he (Svetaketu) was initiated at the age of 
twelve years, and when twenty-four years old he had 
learned all the Vedas; he thought highly of himself and 
was vain of his learning and arrogant.' 

There can be no doubt that this is the person and the 
story referred to in the Dharma-sutra. For the fact which 
the Upanishad mentions, that .SVetaketu learned all the 
Vedas in twelve years, while the Smritis declare forty- 
eight years to be necessary for the accomplishment of 
that task, makes Apastamba's illustration intelligible and 
appropriate. A good deal more is told in the ATAandogya 
Upanishad about this .SVetaketu, who is said to have been 
the son of Uddalaka and the grandson of Aruwa (aruweya). 
The same person is also frequently mentioned in the 
•Satapatha-br&hmaKa. In one passage of the latter work, 
which has been translated by Professor Max Muller 1 , it 
is alleged that he was a contemporary of Ya^»avalkya, the 
promulgator of the White Ya^ur-veda, and of the learned 
king kanaka of Videha, who asked him about the meaning 
of the Agnihotra sacrifice. Now, as has been shown above, 
Apastamba knew and quotes the White Ya^ur-veda and 

1 Hist Anc. Sansk. Lit., p. 421 seq. 

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xlii Apastamba. 

the .Satapatha-brahmawa. The passage of the latter work, 
which he quotes, is even taken from the same book in 
which the story about Svetaketu and Canaka occurs. 
The fact, therefore, that Apastamba places a teacher whom 
he must have considered as a contemporary of the pro- 
mulgator of the White Ya^-ur-veda among the Avaras, is 
highly interesling and of some importance for the history 
of Vedic literature. On the one hand it indicates that 
Apastamba cannot have considered the White Ya^ur-veda, 
such as it has been handed down in the schools of the 
A"a«vas and Madhyandinas, to belong to a remote antiquity. 
On the other hand it makes the inference which otherwise 
might be drawn from the southern origin of the Apa- 
stambiya school and from the non-occurrence of its name 
in the early grammatical writings, viz. that its founder 
lived not long before the beginning of our era, extremely 
improbable. For even if the term Avara is not interpreted 
very strictly and allowed to mean not exactly a contem- 
porary, but a person of comparatively recent times, it will 
not be possible to place between Jvetaketu and Apas- 
tamba a longer interval than, at the utmost, two or three 
hundred years. Svetaketu and Ya£-«avalkya would 
accordingly, at the best, find their places in the fourth 
or fifth century B. C, and the Satapatha-brahmawa as well 
as all other Vedic works, which narrate incidents from 
their lives, must have been composed or at least edited 
still later. Though little is known regarding the history 
of the Vedic texts, still it happens that we possess some 
information regarding the texts in question. For we know 
from a statement made by Katyayana in a Varttika on 
Pacini IV, 3, 105, and from Patawgali's commentary on 
his words that the Brahmawa proclaimed by Ya^«avalkya, 
i. e. the .Satapatha-brahmawa of the White Ya.g ur-veda, was 
considered to have been promulgated by one of the 
Ancients, in the times of these two writers, i.e. probably 
in the fourth and second centuries B. c. 1 

1 This famous Varttika has been interpreted in various ways ; see Max Miiller, 
Hist. Anc. Sansk. Lit., pp. 360-364 ; Goldstiicker, Pa»ini, pp. 132-140; Weber, 

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These considerations will show that it is necessary to 
allow for Apastamba a much higher antiquity than the 
first century B.C. 

The same inference may also be drawn from another 
series of facts, viz. the peculiarities of the language of his 
Sutras. The latter are very considerable and very remark- 
able. They may be classed under four heads. In the 
Apastambiya Dharma-sutra we have, first, archaic words 
and forms either occurring in other Vedic writings or 
formed according to the analogy of Vedic usage ; secondly, 
ancient forms and words specially prescribed by Pawini, 
which have not been traced except in Apastamba's Sutras ; 
thirdly, words and forms which are both against Vedic 
usage and against Pawini's rules, and which sometimes 
find their analogies in the ancient Prakrits; and fourthly, 
anomalies in the construction of sentences. To the first 
class belong, kravyadas, I, 7, 21, 15, carnivorous, formed 
according to the analogy of rts&das; the frequent use 
of the singular dara, e.g. II, 1, 1, 17-18, a wife, instead of 
the plural dkrkA; salavrz'ki, I, 3, 10, 19, for salavr/'ki; 
the substitution of / for r in plenkha, I, 11, 31, 14; occa- 

Ind. Stud. V, 65-74 ; XIII, 443, 444. As regards the explanation of Katya- 
yana's and Patari^ali's words, I side with Kaiya/a and Professor Goldstucker. 
But I am unable to follow the latter in the inferences which he draws from the 
fact, that Katyayana and Patan£ali declare Ya#«avalkya and other sages to be 
as ancient as those whose Brahmanas and Kalpas are designated by the plural 
of adjectives formed by the addition of the affix in to the names of the promul- 
gators. Though Panini asserts, IV, 3, 105, that only those Brahmanas which 
are known by appellations like Bhslllavinan, KaushitakinaA, &c, have been 
proclaimed by ancient sages, and though Kat)ayana and the author of the 
Great Commentary add that this rule does not hold good in the case of 
the work called Ya^flavalkSni Brahmanani, it does not necessaiily follow, as 
Professor Goldstiicker thinks, that an extraordinarily long interval lies between 
Panini and Katyayana — so long a period that what Panini considered to be 
recent had become ancient in Katyayana's time. Professor Weber has rightly 
objected to this reasoning. The difference between the statements of the two 
grammarians may have been caused by different traditions prevailing in different 
schools, or by an oversight on the part of Pacini, which, as the scene of 
Yl^Savalkya's activity seems to have been Videha in eastern India, while Panini 
belonged to the extreme north-west, is not at all improbable. As regards the 
two dates, I place, following, with Professor Max Miiller, the native tradition, 
KStyayana in the fourth century B. C, and Patan^ali, with Professors Goldstucker, 
Kem, and BhaWarkar, between 178-140 B.C. 

Digitized by 


xliv Apastamba. 

sional offences against the rules of internal and external 
Satidhi, e.g. in agr*hyamanakara»a^, I, 4, 12, 8; in 
skuptva, I, 11, 31, 22, the irregular absolutive of skubh 
or of sku; in paduna, I, 1, 2, 13; in adhajanai-ayin, 

I, 1, 2, 21 ; and in sarvatopeta, I, 6, 19, 8 ; the neglect 
of the rule requiring vrj'ddhi in the first syllable of the 
name Pushkarasadi, I, 10, 28, 1; the irregular instru- 
mental vidya, I, 11, 30, 3, for vidyaya, and ni^jreyasa, 

II, 7, 16, 2, for ni^jreyasena ; the nominatives dual 
avam, I, 7, 20, 6, for ava m, and kru#£akrau«£a, I, 5, 17, 
36 for °krau«£au ; and the potentials in ita, such as prak- 
shalaytta, I, 1, 2, 28; abhiprasaraytta, I, 2, 6, 3, &c. 

Among the words mentioned by Pawini, but not traced 
except in the Dharma-sutra, may be enumerated the verb 
strj'h, to do damage, I, 11, 31, 9; the verb srihkh, to 
sneeze, from which jrt'nkhanika, I, 5, 16, 14, and ni^- 
jr*nkhana, II, 2, 5, 9, are derived ; and the noun veda- 
dhyaya, I, 9, 24, 6 ; II, 4, 8, 5, in the sense of a student 
of the Veda. Words offending against rules given by Pawini, 
without being either archaic or Prakritic, are e.g. sar- 
vannin, I, 6, 18, ^, one who eats anybody's food, which, 
according to Pacini V, 2, 9, should be sarvannina; 
sarpajirshin, I, 5, 17, 39; annasawskartr*', a cook, II, 
3,6, 16; dharmy a, righteous, for dharmya, I, 2, 7, 21, 
and elsewhere; divitr*', a gambler, II, io, 25, 13, for 
devitr*', the very remarkable form pr&snkti, I, 1, 4, 1, for 
prajnati, finds an analogy in the Vedic jnyaptre for 
jnaptre 1 and in Pali, pa«ha from prajwa for pra^na; 
and the curious compounds avahgagra, 1, 1, 2,38, paran- 
gavr/tta, II, 5, 10, 11, where the first parts show the forms 
of the nominative instead of the base, and pratisurya- 
matsya^, I, 3, 11, 31, which as a copulative compound is 
wrong, though not without analogies in Prakrit and in later 
Sanskrit 2 . The irregular forms caused by the same ten- 
dencies as those which effected the formation of the 

1 Wackemagel, Altindische Grammatik, vol. i, p. xxxiii. 
* See Zeitschr. d. Deutschen Morg. Ges., vol. xl, p. 539 seq. ; Epigraphia 
Indica, vol. i, p. 3. 

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Prakrit languages, are, aviprakramiwa, II, 2, 5, 2, for 
aviprakramawa, where an a standing in thesi has been 
changed to *',• s&mvrittiA, II, 3, 6, 13, sawvartete, 
II, 5, is, 20, and paryanta, I, 3, 9, 21, and I, 3, 11, 33 
(compare Mara/^1 atnt for anta^), in each of which a 
standing before a nasal has been lengthened ; awika, I, 6, 
19, 1, the initial a of which stands for ri, if it really has 
the meaning of rinika, as some commentators asserted ; 
anulepana, 1,3, 11, 13; I, n, 32, 5, with the Prakritic 
change of na to «a; vyupa^ava, I, 2, 8, 15, with va for 
pa ; ritve for rj'tvye, where,?' seems to have been absorbed 
by the following e; apa^aytta, I, n, 32, 16, for apajra- 
yita, and bhatr/vyatikrama, I, 10, 28, 20, where r has 
been assimilated to the preceding, or has been lost before the 
following consonant. The irregularities in the construction 
are less frequent But in two Sutras, 1, 3, 10, 2, and I, 3, 11, 
31, some words which ought to stand in the locative case 
have the terminations of the nominative, and it looks as 
if the author had changed his mind about the construction 
which he meant to use. In a third passage II, io, 26, 20, 
sisnakkhcdanam savr*'sha«asya, the adjective which 
is intended to qualify the noun sisna has been placed in 
the genitive case, though the noun has been made the 
first part of a compound. 

The occurrence of so many irregularities 1 in so small 
a treatise as the Dharma-sfltra is, proves clearly that the 
author did not follow Pacini's grammar, and makes it very 
unlikely that he knew it at all. If the anomalous forms 
used by Apastamba all agreed with the usage of the 
other Sutrakaras, known to us, it might be contended that, 
though acquainted with the rules of the great grammarian, 
he had elected to adopt by preference the language of the 
Vedic schools. But this is by no means the case. The 
majority of the irregular forms are peculiar to Apastamba. 
As it is thus not probable that Apastamba employed his 
peculiar expressions in obedience to the tradition of the 

1 Many more may be collected from the other divisions of the body of 
Sfltras. See Winternitz, op. cit., p. 13 seqq. ; Gurup%akaumudl, p. 34 seq. 

Digitized by 


xlvi Apastamba. 

Vedic schools or of his particular school, he must have 
either been unacquainted with Pawini or have considered 
his teachings of no great importance. In other words, he 
must either have lived earlier than Pawini or before Pacini's 
grammar had acquired general fame throughout India, and 
become the standard authority for Sanskrit authors. In 
either case so late a date as 150 B. C. or the first century 
B.C. would not fit. For Pataw^ali's MahabhAshya furnishes 
abundant proof that at the time of its composition, in the 
second century B.C., Pawini's grammar occupied a position 
similar to that which it holds now, and has held since the 
beginning of our era in the estimation of the learned of 
India. On linguistic grounds it seems to me Apastamba 
cannot be placed later than the third century B.C., and 
if his statement regarding Svetaketu is taken into account, 
the lower limit for the composition of his Sutras must be 
put further back by 150-200 years. 

But sufficient space has already been allotted to these 
attempts to assign a date to the founder of the Apastambiya 
school, the result of which, in the present state of our 
knowledge of the ancient history of India, must remain, 
I fear, less certain and less precise than is desirable. It 
now is necessary to say, in conclusion, a few words about 
the history of the text of the Dharma-sutra, and about its 
commentary, the U^vala VWtti of Haradatta. The 
oldest writer with a known date who quotes the Apastam- 
biya Dharma-sQtra is Sankara&hya \ c. 800 A.D. Even 
somewhat earlier Kumarila, c. 750, refers repeatedly to 
a law-book by Apastamba 2 . But it is improbable that he 
had our Dharma-sutra before him. For he says, p. 138, 
that Apastamba expressly sanctions local usages, opposed 
to the teaching of the Vedas, for the natives of those dis- 
tricts where they had prevailed since ancient times. Now, 
that is just an opinion, which our Dharma-sutra declares 
to be wrong and refutes repeatedly 3 . As it seems 

1 See Deussen, Vedanta, p. 3;. 

* Tantravarttika, pp. 138, 139, 143, 174, 175, 179, Benares ed. 

* Ap. Dh. I, 1, 14, 8, 9-10; II, 6, 14, 10-13; II, 6, 15, 1. 

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hazardous to impute to a man, like Kumarila, ignorance or 
spite against Apastamba, I am inclined to assume that the 
great Mimawssaka refers to some other work, attributed to 
Apastamba, perhaps the metrical Apastamba-snWti which 
Apararka quotes very frequently 1 . Among the commen- 
tators on Smr/'tis the oldest, who quote the Dharma-sutra, 
are Medhatithi, the author of the Manubhashya, and 
Vjf«anervara, who composed the Mitakshara. the well- 
known commentary on Ya^wavalkya's Dharma-jastra during 
the reign of the A'alukya king Vikramaditya VI, of 
Kalyawa towards the end of the eleventh century. From 
that time downwards Apastamba is quoted by almost 
every writer on law. But the whole text, such as it is 
given in my edition 2 , is vouched for only by the com- 
mentator Haradatta, who wrote his IJggvala Vrrtti, at the 
latest, in the fifteenth century A.D. or possibly 100 years 
earlier 3 . Haradatta was, however, not the first commen- 
tator of the Dharma-sutra. He frequently quotes the 
opinions of several predecessors whom he designates by 
the general expressions anyaA or apara//, i. e. another 
(writer). The fact that the \Jggv3\k was preceded by 
earlier commentaries which protected the text from cor- 
ruption, also speaks in favour of the authenticity of the 
latter, which is further attested by the close agreement 
of the Hirawyak&ri Dharma-sutra, mentioned above. 

As regards the value of the U^vala for the explanation 
of Apastamba's text, it certainly belongs to the best com- 

1 A p. Dh., In trod., p. x. 

* Apastambtya Dharma-sfltmm, second edition, Part i, Bombay, 1892 ; 
Part ii, Bombay, 1894. 

3 It seems not doubtful that Haradatta, the author of the U^gvala, is the 
same person who wrote the Anakula VWtti on the Apastambtya Gr/'hya-sutra, 
an explanation of the Apastambtya GWhya-mantras (see Burnell, Ind. Ant. 1, 6), 
and the Mitakshara Vr/'tti on the Dharma-sutra of Gautama. From the 
occurrence in the latter work of Tamil words, added in explanation of Sanskrit 
expressions, it follows that Haradatta was a native of the south of India. I am 
not in a position to decide if our author also wrote the Padamajjgari VWtti on 
the Kirika of VSmana and Cayaditya. This is Professor Aufrecht's opinion, 
Catalogus Catalogorum, p. 754 seq. See also my remarks in the Introd. to 
the second ed., p. viii. 

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x lviii APASTAMBA. 

mentaries existing. Haradatta possessed in the older 
Vrzttis abundant and good materials on which he could 
draw ; he himself apparently was well versed in Hindu law 
and in Sanskrit grammar, and distinguished by sobriety 
and freedom from that vanity which induces many Indian 
commentators to load their works with endless and useless 
quotations. His explanations, therefore, can mostly be 
followed without hesitation, and, even when they appear 
unacceptable, they deserve careful consideration. 

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Compared with the information collected above regard- 
ing the origin and the history of Apastamba's Dharma- 
sutra, the facts which can be brought to bear on Gautama's 
Institutes are scanty and the conclusions deducible from 
them somewhat vague. There are only two points, which, 
it seems to me, can be proved satisfactorily, viz. the con- 
nection of the work with the Sama-veda and a Gautama 
ATara«a, and its priority to the other four Dharma-sutras 
which we still possess. To go further appears for the 
present impossible, because very little is known regard- 
ing the history of the schools studying the Sama-veda, 
and because the Dharmarastra not only furnishes very few 
data regarding the works on which it is based, but seems 
also, though not to any great extent, to have been tampered 
with by interpolators. 

As regards its origin, it was again Professor Max Muller, 
who, in the place of the fantastic statements of a fabri- 
cated tradition, according to which the author of the 
Dharmasastra is the son or grandson of the sage Utathya, 
and the grandson or great-grandson of Uranas or Sukra, the 
regent of the planet Venus, and the book possessed generally 
binding force in the second or Treta Yuga 1 , first put forward 
a rational explanation which, since, has been adopted by 
all other writers on Sanskrit literature. He says, Hist. 
Anc. Sansk. Lit, p. 134, 'Another collection of Dharma- 
sutras, which, however, is liable to critical doubts, belongs 

1 Mann III, 19; Colebrooke, Digest of Hindu Law, Preface, p. xvii 
Madias ed.); Anantaya^van in Dr. Burnell's Catalogue of Sanskrit MSS., 
(p. 57 ; ParS«tra, Dharma^Utra I, 22 (Calcutta ed.) 

[2] d 

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to the Gautamas, a A"ara«a of the Sama-veda.' This 
assertion agrees with Kumarila's statement, that the 
Dharmajastra of Gautama and the GWhya-sutra of 
Gobhila were (originally) accepted (as authoritative) by 
the ■A'&mdogas or Samavedins alone 1 . Kumarila certainly 
refers to the work known to us. For he quotes in other 
passages several of its Sutras 2 . 

That Kumarila and Professor Max Miiller are right, may 
also be proved by the following independent arguments. 
Gautama's work, though called Dharmajastra or Institutes 
of the Sacred Law, closely resembles, both in form and 
contents, the Dharma-sutras or Aphorisms on the Sacred 
Law, which form part of the Kalpa-sutras of the Vedic 
schools of Baudhayana, Apastamba, and Hirawyakarin. 
As we know from the /fara«avyuha, from the writings of 
the ancient grammarians, and from the numerous quotations 
in the Kalpa-sutras and other works on the Vedic ritual, 
that in ancient times the number of Vedic schools, most of 
which possessed 6"rauta, Grihya., and Dharma-sutras, was 
exceedingly great, and that the books of many of them 
have either been lost or been disintegrated, the several 
parts being torn out of their original connection, it is not 
unreasonable to assume that the aphoristic law-book, 
usually attributed to the i?*shi Gautama, is in reality a 
manual belonging to a Gautama Tarawa. This conjecture 
gains considerably in probability, if the fact is taken into 
account that formerly a school of S&ma-vedJs, which bore 
the name of Gautama, actually existed. It is mentioned 
in one of the redactions of the Aarazzavyuha 8 as a sub- 
division of the Raw&yaniya school. The Va»«a-brahma«a 
of the Sama-veda, also, enumerates four members of the 
Gautama family among the teachers who handed down 
the third Veda, viz. Gatr* Gautama, Sumantra Babhrava 

1 Tantrav&rttika, p. 179 (Benares ed.), TUTTT 'llJItfl^'flfWe^ft (ft^l'l*^ 

' Viz. Gautama I, 2 on p. 143; II, 45-46 on p. 112, and XIV, 45-46 on 
p. 109. 

3 Max Miiller, Hist. Anc. Sansk. Lit., p. 374. 

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Gautama, Sawkara Gautama, and Radha Gautama \ and 
the existing .Srauta and Grmya-sutras frequently appeal to 
the opinions of a Gautama and of a Sthavira Gautama 2 . 
It follows, therefore, that at least one, if not several Gau- 
tama Karanas, studied the Sama-veda, and that, at the 
time when the existing Sutras of La/yayana and Gobhila 
were composed, Gautama .Srauta and Gr*hya-sutras formed 
part of the literature of the Sama-veda. The correctness 
of the latter inference is further proved by Dr. Burnell's 
discovery of a Pitr/medha-sutra, which is ascribed to a 
teacher of the Sama-veda, called Gautama s . 

The only link, therefore, which is wanting in order to 
complete the chain of evidence regarding Gautama's 
Aphorisms on the sacred law, and to make their connection 
with the Sama-veda perfectly clear, is the proof that they 
contain special references to the latter. This proof is not 
difficult to furnish. For Gautama has borrowed one entire 
chapter, the twenty-sixth, which contains the description of 
the Krt&k/iras or difficult penances from the Simavidhana, 
one of the eight Brahma«as of the Sama-veda 4 . The 
agreement of the two texts is complete except in the 
Mantras (Sutra 12) where invocations of several deities, 
which are not usually found in Vedic writings, have been 
introduced. Secondly, in the enumeration of the purifica- 
tory texts, XIX, 12, Gautama shows a marked partiality 
for the Sama-veda. Among the eighteen special texts 
mentioned, we find not less than nine Samans. Some of 
the latter, like the Brmat, Rathantara, GyeshtAa, and 
Mahadivakirtya chants, are mentioned also in works 
belonging to the Rig-veda. and the Ya^ur-veda, and are 
considered by Brahmawas of all schools to possess great 
efficacy. But others, such as the Purushagati, Rauhiwa, 
and Mahavaira^a Samans, have hitherto not been met with 
anywhere but in books belonging to the Sama-veda, and 

1 See Burnell, Va»«a-brahma»a, pp. 7, 9, 11, and 12. 
* See the Petersburg Dictionary, s. v. Gautama; Weber, Hist. Ind. Lit., 
p. 77 (English ed.) ; Gobhila Grihya-sfltra III, io, 6. 
5 Weber, Hist. Ind. Lit., p. 84, note 89 (English ed.) 
4 See below, pp. 392-296. 


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do not seem to have stood in general repute. Thirdly, in 
two passages, I, 50 and XXV, 8, the Dharma^astra pre- 
scribes the employment of five Vyahrttis, and mentions in 
the former Sfltra, that the last Vyahrzti is satyam, truth. 
Now in most Vedic works, three Vyahrztis only, bhM, 
bhuvaA, sva^, are mentioned ; sometimes, but rarely, four 
or seven occur. But in the Vyahn'ti Saman, as Haradatta 
points out \ five such interjections are used, and satyam is 
found among them. It is, therefore, not doubtful, that 
Gautama in the above-mentioned passages directly borrows 
from the Sama-veda. These three facts, taken together, 
furnish, it seems to me, convincing proof that the author of 
our Dharma^astra was a Sama-vedi. If the only argument 
in favour of this conclusion were, that Gautama appropriated 
a portion of the Samavidhana, it might be met by the fact 
that he has also taken some Sfttras (XXV, 1-6), from the 
Taittiriya Arawyaka. But his partiality for Samans as 
purificatory texts and the selection of the VyalWtis from 
the VyahMi Saman as part of the Mantras for the initia- 
tion (I, 50), one of the holiest and most important of the 
Brahmanical sacraments, cannot be explained on any other 
supposition than the one adopted above. 

Though it thus appears that Professor Max Miiller is 
right in declaring the Gautama Dharmajastra to belong to 
the Sama-veda, it is, for the present, not possible to posi- 
tively assert, that it is the Dharma-siltra of that Gautama 
A"ara«a, which according to the Afarawavyuha, quoted in 
the .Sabdakalpadruma of Radhikanta, formed a subdivision 
of the Ra«aya«iyas. The enumeration of four A^aryas, 
bearing the family-name Gautama, in the Vawja-brahma«a, 
and Lafyayana's quotations from two Gautamas, make it 
not unlikely, that several Gautama ATarawas once existed 
among the Sama-vedi Brahmawas, and we possess no 
means for ascertaining to which our Dharmafastra must 
be attributed. Further researches into the history of the 
schools of the Sama-veda must be awaited until we can do 
more. Probably the living tradition of the Sama-vedis of 

1 See Gautama I, 50, note. 

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Southern India and new books from the South will clear 
up what at present remains uncertain. 

In concluding this subject I may state that Haradatta 
seems to have been aware of the connection of Gautama's 
law-book with the Sama-veda, though he does not say it 
expressly. But he repeatedly and pointedly refers in his 
commentary to the practices of the A^andogas, and quotes 
the Grzhya-sutra of the (7aimintyas l , who are a school of 
Sama-vedte, in explanation of several passages. Another 
southern author, Govindasvamin (if I understand the some- 
what corrupt passage correctly), states directly in his 
commentary on Baudhayana I, i, 2, 6, that the Gautamiya 
Dharmaj&stra was originally studied by the ATAandogas 
alone z . 

In turning now to the second point, the priority of Gau- 
tama to the other existing Dharma-sutras, I must premise 
that it is only necessary to take into account two of the 
latter, those of Baudhayana and VasishMa. For, as has 
been shown above in the Introduction to Apastamba, the 
Sutras of the latter and those of Hira#yak&rin Satyasharf/za 
are younger than Baudhayana's. The arguments which 
allow us to place Gautama before both Baudhayana and 
Vasish/Aa are, that both those authors quote Gautama as 
an authority on law, and that Baudhayana has transferred 
a whole chapter of the Dharmajastra to his work, which 
Vasish/^a again has borrowed from him. 

As regards the case of Baudhayana, his references to 
Gautama are two, one of which can be traced in our 
Dharm&yastra. In the discussion on the peculiar customs 
prevailing in the South and in the North of India (Baudh. 
Dh. I, a, 1-8) Baudhayana expresses himself as follows : 

1 A G>ihya-stitra of the Caimintyas has been discovered by Dr. Burnell with 
a commentary by .Srinivasa. He thinks that the Gaiminiyas are a Sutra-.takha 
of the .Sa/yayana-Talavakaras. 

* My transcript has been made from the MS. presented by Dr. Bumell, the 
discoverer of the work, to the India Office Library. The passage runs as 
follows: YathS va bodhayantyam dharmarastra»» kaij*id eva paMyamanaw 
sarvadhikaram bhavati tatha gantamtye gobhiltye (?) Mandogair eva paMyate |[ 
vasishMa»* tn bahvr»'*air eva || 

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' i. There is a dispute regarding five (practices) both in 
the South and in the North. 

' a. We shall explain those (peculiar) to the South. 

' 3. They are, to eat in the company of an uninitiated 
person, to eat in the company of one's wife, to eat stale 
food, to marry the daughter of a maternal uncle or of 
a paternal aunt. 

'4. Now (the customs peculiar) to the North are, to 
deal in wool, to drink rum, to sell animals that have teeth 
in the upper and in the lower jaws, to follow the trade of 
arms and to go to sea. 

' 5. He who follows (these practices) in (any) other 
country than the one where they prevail commits sin. 

' 6. For each of these practices (the rule of) the country 
should be (considered) the authority. 

'7. Gautama declares that this is false. 

'8. And one should not take heed of either (set of 
practices), because they are opposed to the tradition of 
those learned (in the sacred law 1 ).' 

From this passage it appears that the Gautama Dharma- 
sutra, known to Baudhayana, expressed an opinion adverse 
to the authoritativeness of local customs which might be 
opposed to the tradition of the .Sish/as, i. e. of those who 
really deserve to be called learned in the law. Our Gau- 
tama teaches the same doctrine, as he says, XI, 20, ' The 
laws of countries, castes, and families, which are not 
opposed to the (sacred) records, have also authority.' 

1 Treqt frniii qfaf fajujH w utauji : niu 
uifti ^ft^trirerrfq «n^rwiw; inn 

qwfafil 11 8 11 
S^tf^refwft^rTTJ 11 mii 

■fanhrf^fn miW: HSU 

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As clear as this reference, is the case in which Baudha- 
yana has borrowed a whole chapter of our Dharmajastra. 
The chapter in question is the nineteenth, which in Gau- 
tama's work forms the introduction to the section on 
penances and expiation. It is reproduced with a number 
of various readings 1 in the third Prama of Baudhayana's 
Dharma-sutra, where it forms the tenth and last Adhyaya. 
Its contents, and especially its first Sutra which connects 
the section on penances with the preceding ones on the 
law of castes and orders, make it perfectly clear that its 
proper position can only be at the beginning of the rules 
on expiation, not in the middle of the discussion, as Bau- 
dhayana places it 2 . This circumstance alone would be 
sufficient to prove that Baudhayana is the borrower, not 
Gautama, even if the name of the latter did not occur in 
Baudhayana's Dharma-sutra. But the character of many 
of Baudhayana's readings, especially of those in Sutras 2, 
io, 11, 13, and 15, which, though supported by all the MSS. 
and Govindasvamin's commentary, appear to have arisen 
chiefly through clerical mistakes or carelessness, furnishes 

1 Baudhayana's various readings are the following : Gaut. XIX, 1 = 
Baudh. Ill, 10, 1, *€lfaT°. Gaut. XIX, 2=Baudh. Ill, io, 2, *Ffart 
fasjJT 1M<jlMI5<f W <J|Sim(MHfliyiflW *T nffl'J (^I^HI^l^^ 
IWHIKI't^fftH TT Ttfff. Gaut. XIX, 4 left out. Gaut. XIX, 
6 = Baudh. Ill, 10, 5, ^thfifOT . Gaut. XIX, 7 = Baudh. Ill, : o, 6, 
Ssreftfa TTOTT ; fsnyprjfr left out. Gaut. XIX, 8 left out. Gaut. 
XIX, 9 = Baudh. Ill, 10, 7, tJvn^T^t^T IK?*. Gaut. XIX, 10= 
Baudh. Ill, 10, 8, °»ft tt^TT. Gaut. XIX, 12 = Baudh. Ill, 10, 10, 
^I5*ft fy VH K ; ^*rnjq:. Gaut. XIX, 13= Baudh. Ill, 10, n, 
^qg a il ^ q intonnn. Gaut. XIX, 14= Baudh. Ill, 10, 12, ^W>{- 
^iPTTfil ; iftwhrcft? . Gaut. XIX, 15= Baudh. Ill, 10, 13, *rf?«T 

Gaut. XIX, i7 = Baudh. Ill, 10, 15, *»I^1<HW*I^ ffW <M<*|:. Gaut. 
XIX, i8=Baudh. Ill, 10, 16, ft«B^r left out. Gaut. XIX, 20=Bandh. 

in, 10, 18, flfoflifafir:. 

* Baudhayana's treatment of the subject of penances is very un- 
methodical. He devotes to them the following sections : II, 1-2 ; 
II, 2, 3, 48-53 ; II, 2, 4 ; III, 5-10 ; and the greater part of Prasna IV. 

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even an additional argument in favour of the priority of 
Gautama's text. It must, however, be admitted that the 
value of this point is seriously diminished by the fact that 
Baudhdyana's third Pra^na is not above suspicion and may 
be a later addition 1 . 

As regards Baudhayana's second reference to Gautama, 
the opinion which it attributes to the latter is directly 
opposed to the teaching of our Dharmajastra. Baudha- 
yana gives II, 2, 4, 16 the rule that a Brahmawa who is 
unable to maintain himself by teaching, sacrificing, and 
receiving gifts, may follow the profession of a Kshatriya, 
and then goes on as follows 2 : 

' 1 7. Gautama declares that he shall not do it. For the 
duties of a Kshatriya are too cruel for a Brahmawa.' 

As the commentator Govindasvamin also points out, 
exactly the opposite doctrine is taught in our Dharma- 
jastra, which (VII, 6) explicitly allows a Brahma»a to 
follow, in times of distress, the occupations of a Kshatriya. 
Govindasv&min explains this contradiction by assuming 
that in this case Baudhayana cites the opinion, not of the 
author of our Dharma;astra, but of some other Gautama. 
According to what has been said above 3 , the existence of 
two or even more ancient Gautama Dharma-sutras is not 
very improbable, and the commentator may possibly be 
right. But it seems to me more likely that the Sutra of 
Gautama (VII, 6) which causes the difficulty is an inter- 
polation, though Haradatta takes it to be genuine. My 
reason for considering it to be spurious is that the per- 
mission to follow the trade of arms is opposed to the sense 
of two other rules of Gautama. For the author states at 
the end of the same chapter on times of distress, VII, 25, 
that ' even a Brahmawa may take up arms when his life is 
in danger.' The meaning of these words can only be, that 
a Brahmawa must not fight under any other circumstances. 

1 See Sacred Books of the East, vol. xiv, p. xxxiv seq. 
• Baudh. Dh. II, a, 4, 17. 

' See p. Mi. 

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But according to Sutra 6 he is allowed to follow the occu- 
pations of a Kshatriya, who lives by fighting. Again, in 
the chapter on funeral oblations, XV, 1 8, those Brahmanas 
' who live by the use of the bow ' are declared to defile 
the company at a funeral dinner. It seems to me that 
these two Sutras, taken together with Baudhayana's asser- 
tion that Gautama does not allow Brahmawas to become 
warriors, raise a strong suspicion against the genuineness, 
of VII, 6, and I have the less hesitation in rejecting the 
latter Sutra, as there are several other interpolated passages 
in the text received by Haradatta 1 . Among them I may 
mention here the Mantras in the chapter taken from the 
Samavidhana, XXVI, it, where the three invocations 
addressed to .Siva are certainly modern additions, as the 
old Sutrakaras do not allow a place to that or any other 
Paurawic deity in their works. A second interpolation will 
be pointed out below. 

The Vasish/Aa Dharma-sutra shows also two quotations 
from Gautama ; and it is a curious coincidence that, just 
as in the case of Baudhayana's references, one of them only 
can be traced in our Dharmarastra. Both the quotations 
occur in the section on impurity, Vas. IV, where we read 
as follows * : 

' 3$. If an infant aged less than two years, dies, or in the 
case of a miscarriage, the impurity of the Sapi«</as (lasts) 
for three (days and) nights. 

' 34. Gautama declares that (they become) pure at once 
(after bathing). 

' 35. If (a person) dies in a foreign country and (his 
Sapi/ft/as) hear (of his death) after the lapse of ten days, 
the impurity lasts for one (day and) night. 

' 36. Gautama declares that if a person who has kindled 
the sacred fire dies on a journey, (his Sapi«</as) shall again 

1 In some MSS. a whole chapter on the results of various sins in a second 
birth is inserted after Adhyaya XIX. But Haradatta does not notice it ; see 
Stenzler, Gautama, Preface, p. iii. 

* In quoting the VasisbMa Dh. I always refer to the Benares edition, which 
is accompanied by the commentary of Krtshttapanrfta Dharm&dhikarin, called 

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lviii GAUTAMA. 

celebrate his obsequies, (burning a dummy made of leaves 
or straw,) and remain impure (during ten days) as (if they 
had actually buried) the corpse.' 

The first of these two quotations or references apparently 
points to Gautama Dh. XIV, 44, where it is said, that 
' if an infant dies, the relatives shall be pure at once.' 
For, though Vasish/Aa's Sutra 34, strictly interpreted, 
would mean, that Gautama declares the relatives to be 
purified instantaneously, both if an infant dies and if 
a miscarriage happens, it is also possible to refer the 
exception to one of the two cases only, which are mentioned 
in Sutra 33. Similar instances do occur in the Sutra style, 
where brevity is estimated higher than perspicuity, and 
the learned commentator of Vasish/Aa does not hesitate 
to adopt the same view. But, as regards the second 
quotation in Sutra 36, our Gautama contains no passage 
to which it could possibly refer. Govindasvamin, in his 
commentary on the second reference to Gautama in Bau- 
dhayana's Dharmasastra II, a, 71, expresses the opinion 
that this Sutra, too, is taken from the 'other' Gautama 
Dharma-sutra, the former existence of which he infers 
from Baudhayana's passage. And curiously enough the 
regarding the second funeral actually is found in the 
metrical VWddha- Gautama * or Vaishwava Dharma-sastra, 
which, according to Mr. Vaman Shastri Islampurkar 2 , forms 
chapters 94-1 15 of the A^vamedha-parvan of the Maha- 
bharata in a Malayalam MS. Nevertheless, it seems to 
me very doubtful if Vasish/^a did or could refer to this 
work. As the same rule occurs sometimes in the Srauta- 
sutras 3 , 1 think it more probable that the Srauta-sutra of 
the Gautama school is meant. And it is significant that 
the VWddha-Gautama declares its teaching to be kalpa^o- 
dita ' enjoined in the Kalpa or ritual.' 

Regarding Gautama's nineteenth chapter, which appears 
in the Vasish/Aa Dharmajastra as the twenty-second, I have 

1 Dharmaj&stra sawgraha (Cibanand), p. 627, Adhy. 20, 1 seqq. 

2 Parirara Dharma Sawhita (Bombay Sansk. Series, No. xlvii), vol. i, p. 9. 
8 See e. g. Ap. Sr. S<L 

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already stated above that it is not taken directly from 
Gautama's work, but from Baudhayana's. For it shows 
most of the characteristic readings of the latter. But a few 
new ones also occur, and some Sutras have been left out, 
while one new one, a well-known verse regarding the 
efficacy of the Vaijvanara vratapati and of the Pavitreshri, 
has been added. Among the omissions peculiar to Va- 
sishMa, that of the first Sutra is the most important, as it 
alters the whole character of the chapter, and removes One 
of the most convincing arguments as to its original position 
at the head of the section on penances. Vasishtfta. places 
it in the beginning of the discussion on penances which are 
generally efficacious in removing guilt, and after the rules 
on the special penances for the classified offences. 

These facts will, I think, suffice to show that the 
Gautama Dharma^astra may be safely declared to be the 
oldest of the existing works on the sacred law 1 . This 
assertion must, however, not be taken to mean, that every 
single one of its Stitras is older than the other four Dharma- 
sutras. Two interpolations have already been pointed out 
above 2 , and another one will be discussed presently. It is 
also not unlikely that the wording of the Sutras has been 
changed occasionally. For it is a suspicious fact that 
Gautama's language agrees closer with Pacini's rules than 
that of Apastamba and Baudhayana. If it is borne in 
mind that Gautama's work has been torn out of its original 
connection, and from a school-book has become a work of 
general authority, and that for a long time it has been 
studied by Pandits who were brought up in the traditions 
of classical grammar, it seems hardly likely that it could 
retain much of its ancient peculiarities of language. But 
I do not think that the interpolations and alterations can 
have affected the general character of the book very much. 
It is too methodically planned and too carefully arranged 
to admit of any very great changes. The fact, too, that in 

1 Professor Stenzler, too, had arrived independently at this conclusion, see 
Gnindriss der Indc-Ar. Phil, nnd Altertumsk., vol. ii, Pt. 8, p. 5. 
* See p. lvii. 

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the chapter borrowed by Baudhayana the majority of the 
variae lectiones are corruptions, not better readings, favours 
this view. Regarding the distance in time between Gautama 
on the one hand, and Baudhayana and Vasish^a on the 
other, I prefer not to hazard any conjecture, as long as the 
position of the Gautamas among the schools of the Sama- 
veda has not been cleared up. So much only can be said 
that Gautama probably was less remote from Baudhayana 
than from Vasish/^a. There are a few curious terms and 
rules in which the former two agree, while they, at the 
same time, differ from all other known writers on Dharma. 
Thus the term bhikshu, literally a beggar, which Gautama l 
uses to denote an ascetic, instead of the more common 
yati or sannyasin, occurs once also in Baudhayana's Sutra. 
The same is the case with the rule, III, 13, which orders 
the ascetic not to change his residence during the rains. 
Both the name bhikshu and the rule must be very ancient, 
as the Gainas and Buddhists have borrowed them, and have 
founded on the latter their practice of keeping the Vasso, 
or residence in monasteries during the rainy season. 

As the position of the Gautamas among the Saman 
schools is uncertain, it will, of course, be likewise inad- 
visable to make any attempt at connecting them with the 
historical period of India. The necessity of caution in 
this respect is so obvious that I should not point it out, 
were it not that the Dharmarastra contains one word, the 
occurrence of which is sometimes considered to indicate the 
terminus a quo for the dates of Indian works. The word 
to which I refer is Yavana. Gautama quotes, IV, 21, an 
opinion of ' some,' according to which a Yavana is the off- 
spring of a Sudra male and a Kshatriya female. Now it is 
well known that this name is a corruption of the Greek 
'laFuav, an Ionian, and that in India it was applied, in ancient 
times, to the Greeks, and especially to the early Seleucids 
who kept up intimate relations with the first Mauryas, as 
well as later to the Indo-Bactrian and Indo-Grecian kings 
who from the beginning of the second century B. C. ruled 

1 Gaut. Dh. Ill, 3, u ; see also Weber, Hist Ind. Lit., p. 327 (English ed.) 

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over portions of north-western India. And it has been 
occasionally asserted that an Indian work, mentioning the 
Yavanas, cannot have been composed before 300 B.C., 
because Alexander's invasion first made the Indians ac- 
quainted with the name of the Greeks. This estimate 
is certainly erroneous, as there are other facts, tending to 
show that at least the inhabitants of north-western India 
became acquainted with the Greeks about 200 years 
earlier 1 . But it is not advisable to draw any chrono- 
logical conclusions from Gautama's Sutra, IV, 21. For, as 
pointed out in the note to the translation of Sutra IV, 18, 
the whole section with the second enumeration of the 
mixed castes, IV, 17-21, is probably spurious. 

The information regarding the state of the Vedic litera- 
ture, which the Dharmaiastra furnishes, is not very ex- 
tensive. But some of the items are interesting, especially 
the proof that Gautama knew the Taittiriya Arawyaka, 
from which he took the first six Sutras of the twenty-fifth 
AdhySya ; the Samavidhana Brahmawa, from which the 
twenty-sixth Adhyaya has been borrowed ; and the Athar- 
v&yiras, which is mentioned XIX, 12. The latter word 
denotes, according to Haradatta, one of the Upanishads of 
the Atharva-veda, which usually are not considered to 
belong to a high antiquity. The fact that Gautama and 
Baudhayana knew it, will probably modify this opinion. 
Another important fact is that Gautama, XXI, 7, quotes 
Manu, and asserts that the latter declared it to be impossible 
to expiate the guilt incurred by killing a Brahma«a, 
drinking spirituous liquor, or violating a Guru's bed. 
From this statement it appears that Gautama knew an 
ancient work on law which was attributed to Manu. It 
probably was the foundation of the existing Manava 
Dharmayastra z . No other teacher on law, besides Manu, 
is mentioned by name. But the numerous references to 
the opinions of * some ' show that Gautama's work was not 
the first Dharma-sutra. 

1 See my Indian Studies, No. iii, p. 26, note 1. 

' Compare also Sacred Books of the East, vol. xxv, p. xxxiv seq. 

Digitized by 


lxii GAUTAMA. 

In conclusion, I have to add a few words regarding the 
materials on which the subjoined translation is based. 
The text published by Professor Stenzler for the Sanskrit 
Text Society has been used as the basis 1 . It has been 
collated with a rough edition, prepared from my own 
MSS. P and C, a MS. belonging to the Collection of the 
Government of Bombay, bought at Belgam, and a MS. 
borrowed from a Pu«a Sastrt. But the readings given by 
Professor Stenzler and his division of the Sutras have 
always been followed in the body of the translation. In 
those cases, where the variae lectiones of my MSS. seemed 
preferable, they have been given and translated in the 
notes. The reason which induced me to adopt this 
course was that I thought it more advisable to facilitate 
references to the printed Sanskrit text than to insist on the 
insertion of a few alterations in the translation, which would 
have disturbed the order of the Sutras. The notes have 
been taken from the above-mentioned rough edition and 
from my MSS. of Haradatta's commentary, called Gau- 
tamiya Mitakshara, which are now deposited in the India 
Office Library, Sansk. MSS. Biihler, Nos. 165-67. 

1 The Institutes of Gautama, edited with an index of words by A. F. Stenzler, 
London, 1876. 

Digitized by 




Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Digitized by 





i. Now, therefore, we will declare the acts pro- 
ductive of merit which form part of the customs of 
daily life, as they have been settled by the agree- 
ment (of those who know the law). 

2. The authority (for these duties) is the agree- 
ment of those who know the law, 

3. And (the authorities for the latter are) the 
Vedas alone. 

4. (There are) four castes — Brahma#as, Kshatri- 
yas, Vai$yas, and 3udras. 

5. Amongst these, each preceding (caste) is supe- 
rior by birth to the one following. 

6. (For all these), excepting .Sudras and those 
who have committed bad actions, (are ordained) the 
initiation, the study of the Veda, and the kindling of 

1. 1. Samaya, 'agreement, decision,' is threefold. It includes 
injunction, restriction, and prohibition. 

Dharrna, ' acts productive of merit,' usually translated by ' duty 
or law,' is more accurately explained as an act which produces 
the quality of the soul called apurva, the cause of heavenfy bliss 
and of final liberation. 

2. Manu II, 6, 12 ; Y&gH. I, 7 ; Gautama I, 1. 

6. Manu II, 35. 

[2] B 

Digitized by 



the sacred fire ; and (their) works are productive of 
rewards (in this world and the next). 

7. To serve the other (three) castes (is ordained) 
for the .Sudra. 

8. The higher the caste (which he serves) the 
greater is the merit. 

9. The initiation is the consecration in accordance 
with the texts of the Veda, of a male who is desirous 
of (and can make use of) sacred knowledge. 

10. A Brahma»a declares that the Gayatrf is learnt 
for the sake of all the (three) Vedas. 

11. (Coming) out of darkness, he indeed enters 
darkness, whom a man unlearned in the Vedas, 
initiates, and (so does he) who, without being learned 
in the Vedas, (performs the rite of initiation.) That 
has been declared in a Brahmawa. 

12. As performer of this rite of initiation he shall 
seek to obtain a man in whose family sacred learning 
is hereditary, who himself possesses it, and who is 
devout (in following the law). 

13. And under him the sacred science must be 

7. Manu I, 91, VIII, 410, and IX, 334; Y§Lg%. I, 120. 

9. The use of the masculine in the text excludes women. For 
though women may have occasion to use such texts as ' O fire, 
lord of the dwelling,' &c. at the Agnihotra, still it is specially 
ordained that they shall be taught this and similar verses only just 
before the rite is to be performed. 

10. The object of the Sutra is to remove a doubt whether the 
ceremony of initiation ought to be repeated for each Veda, in case 
a man desires to study more than one Veda. This repetition is 
declared to be unnecessary, except, as the commentator adds, in 
the case of the Atharva-veda, for which, according to a passage of 
a Brihma«a, a fresh initiation is necessary. The latter rule is given 
in the Vaitana-sutra I, 1, 5. 

13. Haradatta: 'But this (latter rule regarding the taking of 

Digitized by 



studied until the end, provided (the teacher) does not 
fall off from the ordinances of the law. 

14. He from whom (the pupil) gathers (a^inoti) 
(the knowledge of) his religious duties (dharman) (is 
called) the Aiarya (teacher). 

15. Him he should never offend. 

16. For he causes him (the pupil) to be born (a 
second time) by (imparting to him) sacred learning. 

1 7. This (second) birth is the best. 

18. The father and the mother produce the body 

19. Let him initiate a Brahma«a in spring, a 
Kshatriya in summer, a Vawya in autumn, a Brah- 
mawa in the eighth year after conception, a Kshatriya 
in the eleventh year after conception, (and) a Vai$ya 
in the twelfth after conception. 

20. Now (follows the enumeration of the years 

another teacher) does not hold good for those who have begun 
to study, solemnly binding themselves to their teacher. How so ? 
As he (the pupil) shall consider a person who initiates and 
instructs him his Ai&rya, and a pupil who has been once initiated 
cannot be initiated again, how can another man instruct him ? For 
this reason it must be understood that the study begun with one 
teacher may not be completed with another, if the first die.' Com- 
pare also Haradatta.on I, 2, 7, 26, and the rule given I, 1, 4, 26. 
In our times also pupils, who have bound themselves to a teacher 
by paying their respects to him and presenting a cocoa-nut, in 
order to learn from him a particular branch of science, must not 
study the same branch of science under any other teacher. 

14. Manu II, 69 ; Y&gfi. I, 15. 

15. Manu II, 144. 

16. Manu II, 146-148. 

17. 'Because it procures heavenly bliss and final liberation.' — 

1 8. Manu II, 147. 

19. Ya^fl. I, 14; Manu II, 36; Ajvalayana Gri. Su. 1, 19, 1,4; 
Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 20 seq. 

B 2 

Digitized by 


APASTAMBA. I, i, i. 

to be chosen) for the fulfilment of some (particular) 

21. (Let him initiate) a person desirous of excel- 
lence in sacred learning in his seventh year, 

22. A person desirous of long life in his eighth 

23. A person desirous of manly vigour in his 
ninth year, 

24. A person desirous of food in his tenth year, 

25. A person desirous of strength in his eleventh 

26. A person desirous of cattle in his twelfth year. 

27. There is no dereliction (of duty, if the initia- 
tion takes place), in the case of a Brahma«a before 
the completion of the sixteenth year, in the case of 
a Kshatriya before the completion of the twenty- 
second year, in the case of a Vai^ya before the 
completion of the twenty-fourth year. (Let him be 
initiated at such an age) that he may be able to 
perform the duties, which we shall declare below. 

28. If the proper time for the initiation has 
passed, he shall observe for the space of two months 

2i. Manu II, 37. 

22-26. Asv. Grt. Su. I, 19, 5, 7; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 21. 

27. The meaning of the Sutra is, that the initiation shall be 
performed as. soon as the child is able to begin the study of the 
Veda. If it is so far developed at eight years, the ceremony must 
then be performed; and if it be then neglected, or, if it be 
neglected at any time when the capacity for learning exists, the 
expiation prescribed in the following Sutras must be performed. 
The age of sixteen in the case of Brahmawas is the latest term 
up to which the ceremony may be deferred, in case of incapacity 
for study only. After the lapse of the sixteenth year, the expiation 
becomes also necessary. Manu II, 38 ; Y&gii. I, 37. 

28. The meaning is, he shall keep all the restrictions imposed 
upon a student, as chastity, &c, but that he shall not perform 

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the duties of a student, as observed by those who 
are studying the three Vedas. 

29. After that he may be initiated. 

30. After that he shall bathe (daily) for one year. 

31. After that he may be instructed. 

32. He, whose father and grandfather have not 
been initiated, (and his two ancestors) are called 
'slayers of the Brahman.' 

33. Intercourse, eating, and intermarriage with 
them should be avoided. 

34. If they wish it (they may perform the follow- 
ing) expiation ; 

35. In the same manner as for the first neglect 
(of the initiation, a penance of) two months (was) 
prescribed, so (they shall do penance for) one year. 

36. Afterwards they may be initiated, and then 
they must bathe (daily), 

Pkasna I, Pafala 1, Khan da 2. 

1. For as many years as there are uninitiated 
persons, reckoning (one year) for each ancestor (and 
the person to be initiated himself), 

2. (They should bathe daily reciting) the seVen 

fire-worship or service to a teacher, nor study. Manu 11,39; XI» I 9 2 > 
Ya^». I, 38; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 101. 

30. ' If he is strong, he shall bathe three times a day — morning, 
midday, and evening.' — Haradatta. 

32. Brahman, apparently, here means ' Veda,' and those who neg- 
lect its study may be called metaphorically ' slayers of the Veda.' 

33. Manu II, 40 ; As v. Gri. Sfi. 1, 1 9, 8, 9 ; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 2 1 . 
35. Compare above, I, 1, 1, 28. 

2. 2. The seven Pavamanis are seven verses which occur Hig-veda. 
IX, 67, 21-27. Ya J gushpavitra=Taitt. Sawh. I, 2, 1, 1. The Sama- 
pavitra is found Sama-veda I, 2, 2, 3, 5. Angirasapavitra=i?*'g-veda 
IV, 40, 5- 

Digitized by 



Pavamanls, beginning with ' If near or far,' the 
Ya,f ushpavitra, (' May the waters, the mothers 
purify us,' &c.) the Samapavitra, ( c With what help 
assists,' &c), and the Arigirasapavitra (' A swan, 
dwelling in purity '), 

3. Or also reciting the Vyahrztis (om, bhM, 
bhuva^, suva^). 

4. After that (such a person) may be taught (the 

5. But those whose great-grandfather's (grand- 
father's and father's) initiation is not remembered, 
are called ' burial-grounds.' 

6. Intercourse, dining, and intermarriage with 
them should be avoided. For them, if they like, the 
(following) penance (is prescribed). (Such a man) 
shall keep for twelve years the rules prescribed for 
a student who is studying the three Vedas. After- 
wards he may be initiated. Then he shall bathe, 
reciting the Pavamants and the other (texts men- 
tioned above, I, I, 2, 2). 

7. Then he may be instructed in the duties of 
a householder. 

8. He shall not be taught (the whole Veda), but 
only the sacred formulas required for the domestic 

9. When he has finished this (study of the Grzhya.- 
mantras), he may be initiated (after having performed 
the penance prescribed) for the first neglect (I, 1, 

10. Afterwards (everything is performed) as in 
the case of a regular initiation. 

10. The commentator observes that for those whose great-great- 
grandfather or remoter ancestors were not initiated, no penance is 
prescribed, and that it must be fixed by those who know the law. 

Digitized by 



ii. He who has been initiated shall dwell as a 
religious student in the house of his teacher, 

12. For forty-eight years (if he learns all the four 

13. (Or) a quarter less (i.e. for thirty-six years), 

14. (Or) less by half (i. e. for twenty-four years), 

15. (Or) three quarters less (i.e. for twelve years), 

16. Twelve years (should be) the shortest time 
(for his residence with his teacher). 

1 7. A student who studies the sacred science shall 
not dwell with anybody else (than his teacher). 

18. Now (follow) the rules for the studentship. 

19. He shall obey his teacher, except (when 
ordered to commit) crimes which cause loss of 

20. He shall do what is serviceable to his teacher, 
he shall not contradict him. 

21. He shall always occupy a couch or seat lower 
(than that of his teacher). 

11. Manu II, 164. 

12. Manu III, 1, and YSgS. I, 36; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 125. 

1 6. The commentator declares that in Manu III, 1, the expression 
' until he has learnt it,' must be understood in this sense, that the 
pupil may leave his teacher, if he has learnt the -Veda, after twelve 
years' study, never before. But compare also Asv. Gri. Su. I, 22, 3. 

17. The commentator states that this rule refers only to a 
temporary, not to a professed student (naish/Aika). He also gives 
an entirely different explanation to the Sutra, which, according to 
some, means, 'A student who learns the sacred science shall 
not fast in order to obtain heaven.' This rendering also is ad- 
missible, as the word para may mean either a 'stranger' or 
' heaven,' and upavasa, ' dwelling ' or ' fasting.' 

19. Regarding the crimes which cause loss of caste (pataniya), 
see below, I, 7, 21, 7. 

20. Manu II, 108, and Y&g%. I, 27. 

21. Manu II, 108, 198; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 123 and 124. 

Digitized by 


8 Apastamba. i, i, 2. 

22. He shall not eat food offered (at a sacrifice to 
the gods or the Manes), 

23. Nor pungent condiments, salt, honey, or 

24. He shall not sleep in the day'time. 

25. He shall not use perfumes. 

26. He shall preserve chastity. 

27. He shall not embellish himself (by using oint- 
ments and the like). 

28. He shall not wash his body (with hot water 
for pleasure). 

29. But, if it is soiled by unclean things, he shall 
clean it (with earth or water), in a place where he is 
not seen by a Guru. 

30. Let him not sport in the water whilst bathing; 
let him swim (motionless) like a stick. 

31. He shall wear all his hair tied in one braid. 

32. Or let him make a braid_ of the lock on the 
crown of the h ead, and shave the rest of the hair. 

23. Regarding the meaning of ksMra, 'pungent condiments,' see 
Haradatta on II, 6, 15, 15. Other commentators explain the term 
differently. — Manu II, 177; Ya#S. I, 33; and Weber, Ind. Stud. 
X, 1 83. Asv. Gri. Su. I, 22, 2. 

25. Manu II, 177; Y&g#. I, 33, 

26. Manu II, 180. 

27. Manu II, 178; Y&gil. I, 33. 

29. ' Here, in the section on the teacher, the word guru desig- 
nates the father and the rest also.' — Haradatta. 

30. Another version of the first portion of this Sutra, proposed 
by Haradatta, is, ' Let him not, whilst bathing, clean himself (with 
bathing powder or the like).' Another commentator takes Sutra 28 
as a prohibition of the daily bath or washing generally ordained 
for Brahmawas, and refers Sutra 29 to the naimittika sn&na or 
' bathing on certain occasions,' and takes Sutra 30 as a restriction 
of the latter. 

31. Manu II, 219. 

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33. The girdle of a Brahmawa shall be made of 
Muwga grass, and consist of three strings; if possible, 
(the strings) should be twisted to the right. 

34. A bowstring (should be the girdle) of a 

35. Or a string of Mu«£a grass in which pieces 
of iron have been tied. 

36. A wool thread (shall be the girdle) of a 

37. Or a rope used for yoking the oxen to the 
plough, or a string made of Tamala-bark. 

38. The staff worn by a Brahma#a should be 
made of Palasa wood, that of a Kshatriya of a 
branch of the Banian tree, which grows downwards, 
that of a Vai-yya of Badara or Udumbara wood. 
Some declare, without any reference to caste, that 
the staff of a student should be made of the wood of 
a tree (that is fit to be used at the sacrifice). 

39. (He shall wear)a cloth (to cover his nakedness). 

40. (It shall be made) of hemp for a Brahma«a, 
of flax (for a Kshatriya), of the skin of a (clean) 
animal (for a Vai^ya). 

41. Some declare that the (upper) garment (of a 
Brahma»a) should be dyed with red Lodh, 

33. Manu II, 42-44; Migfl. I, 29; Asv. Gri. Su. I, 19, 12; 
Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 23. 

38. Manu II, 45; Ya^fl. I, 29; Asv. Gri. Su. I, 19, 13 ; 20, 1 ; 
Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 23. 

Haradatta gives no commentary on this Sutra, but refers back 
to the Gnhya-sutra, 11, 16-17, where the same words occur. 

39. The word forms a Sutra by itself, in order to show that 
every one must wear this cloth. 

40. Manu II, 41. 'Clean' means here and everywhere else, if 
applied to animals or things, ' fit to be used at the sacrifice.' 

41. Ajv. Gri. Su. I, 19, 11 ; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 22. 

Digitized by 



PRASNA I, PA7ALA 1, Khanda 3. 

1 . And that of a Kshatriya dyed with madder, 

2. And that of a Vai^ya dyed with turmeric. 

3. (The skin) worn by a Brahmawa shall be that 
of a common deer or of a black doe. 

4. If he wears a black skin, let him not spread it 
(on the ground) to sit or lie upon it 

5. (The skin worn) by a Kshatriya shall be that 
of a spotted deer. 

6. (The skin worn) by a Vaisya shall be that of a 

7. The skin of a sheep is fit to be worn by all 

8. And a blanket made of wool. 

9. He who wishes the increase of Brahma#a 
power shall wear skins only ; he who wishes the in- 
crease of Kshatriya power shall wear cloth only ; he 
who wishes the increase of both shall wear both 
(skin and cloth). Thus says a Brahma#a. 

10. But (I, Apastamba, say), let him wear a skin 
only as his upper garment. 

1 1. Let him not look at dancing. 

1 2. Let him not go to assemblies (for gambling, 
&c), nor to crowds (assembled at festivals). 

3. 3. Manu II, 41 ; Y&gti. I, 29; Asv. Gri. Sfi. I, 19, 10. 

9. See also Gopatha-br&hmawa I, 2, 4. 

10. According to I, r, 2, 39 — I, 1, 3, 10, the rule of dress for 
students is the following: — According to Apastamba, a student 
shall wear a piece of cloth to cover his nakedness (lango/i), and 
a skin as upper garment. Other teachers allow, besides, an upper 
dress of cloth, coloured differently for the different castes, with or 
without the addition of a deer-skin. 

ir. Manu II, 178. 

12-13. Manu II, 179; YigH. I, 33. 

Digitized by 


I, I, 3. STUDENTSHIP. 1 1 

13. Let him not be addicted to gossiping. 

14. Let him be discreet. 

15. Let him not do anything for his own pleasure 
in places which his teacher frequents. 

16. Let him talk with women so much (only) as 
his purpose requires. 

1 7. (Let him be) forgiving. 

18. Let him restrain his organs from seeking 
illicit objects. 

19. Let him be untired in fulfilling his duties ; 

20. Modest; 

2 1 . Possessed of self-command ; 

22. Energetic; 

23. Free from anger ; 

24. (And) free from envy. 

25. Bringing all he obtains to his teacher, he shall 
go begging with a vessel in the morning and in the 
evening, (and he may) beg (from everybody) except 
low-caste people unfit for association (with Aryas) 
and Abhisastas. 

15. 'Anything for his own pleasure,' i.e. keeping conversations 
with friends, making his toilet, &c. 

19. The explanations of the last two terms, ranta (Sutra 18) 
and danta (Sutra 19), are different from those given usually. <Sama 
is usually explained as ' the exclusive direction of the mind towards 
God,' and dama as ' the restraining of the senses.' 

23. Manu II, 178. 

25. Regarding the explanation of the term Abhuasta, see below, 

I, 7, 21, 17. Haradatta: ' Apapitras are called those born from a 
high- caste mother and a low-caste father, such as washermen. For 
their cooking vessels &c. are unfit for the use of the four castes. . . . 
Since Apastamba says, " In the evening and in the morning, food 
obtained in the evening must not be used for the morning meal, 
nor food obtained in the morning for the eveni ng m eal." ' Manu 

II, 182, 183, 185; ksv. Gri. Sa. \. ^S^Sge^al^St^ 
brahma«a I, 2, 6. /^nfLr*^ *" ^&> 

■"<y' union 7 ^ N 


1 2 Apastamba. I, I, 3. 

26. A Brahma#a declares : Since a devout stu- 
dent takes away from women, who refuse (to give 
him alms, the merit gained) by (6"rauta)-sacrifices, 
by gifts, (and) by burnt-offerings (offered in the 
domestic fire), as well as their offspring, their cattle, 
the sacred learning (of their families), therefore, in- 
deed, (a woman) should not refuse (alms) to the 
crowd of students ; for amongst those (who come to 
beg), there might be one of that (devout) kind, one 
who thus (conscientiously) keeps his vow. 

27. Alms (shall) not (be considered) leavings (and 
be rejected) by inference (from their appearance), but 
on the strength of ocular or oral testimony (only). 

28. A Brahmawa shall beg, prefacing (his request) 
by the word ' Lady ' ; 

29. A Kshatriya (inserting the word) ' Lady' in 
the middle (between the words ' give alms ') ; 

30. A VaLyya, adding the word * Lady ' (at the end 
of the formula). 

31. (The pupil) having taken those (alms) shall 
place them before his teacher and offer them to him. 

32. He may eat (the food) after having been 
ordered to do so by his teacher. 

27. To eat the residue of the meal of any person except that 
left by the teacher and other Gurus, is not permitted to a student ; 
see also below, I, 1, 4, 1 seq.; Manu II, 56 ; Ya^fl. I, 33. 

28. The formula to be used by a Brahma«a is, ' Lady, give alms ; ' 
that to be used by a Kshatriya, 'Give, lady, alms;' and that used 
by a Vawya, ' Give alms, lady.' Manu II, 49 ; Ya#«. I, 30 ; Ajv. 
Gri. Su. I, 22, 8. 

31. The words with which he announces the alms are, Idam 
ittham ahn'tam, 'this much have I received.' Manu II, 51 ; Ya^tf. 
I, 27; Asv. Gri. Su. I, 22, 10. 

32. The answer of the teacher is, Saumya tvameva bhuhkshva, 
'friend, eat thou.' 

Digitized by 


I, I, 3. STUDENTSHIP. 1 3 

33. If the teacher is absent, the pupil (shall offer 
the food) to (a member of) the teacher's family. 

34. If the (family of the teacher) is (also) absent, 
the pupil (may offer the food) to other learned 
Brahmawas (.Srotriyas) also (and receive from them 
the permission to eat). 

35. He shall not beg for his own sake (alone). 

36. After he has eaten, he himself shall clean his 

37. And he shall leave no residue (in his dish). 

38. If he cannot (eat all that he has taken in 
his dish), he shall bury (the remainder) in the 
ground ; 

39. Or he may throw it into the water ; 

40. Or he may place (all that remains in a pot), 
and put it down near an (uninitiated) Arya ; 

41. Or (he may put it down) near a Sudra slave 
(belonging to his teacher). 

42. If (the pupil) is on a journey, he shall throw 

34. Regarding the term .Srotriya, see below, II, 3, 6, 4. 

35. ' The meaning of this Sutra is, that the rule given, Sutra 42 
(below), for a pupil who is on a journey, shall hold good also for 
a pupil who is at home, if (in the absence of his teacher) no 
.Srotriyas are to be found (from whom he can receive the per- 
mission to eat).' — Haradatta. 

36. 'He commits no sin, if he has the alms-pot cleaned by 
somebody else. Some say that the Sutra refers to both vessels 
(the alms-pot and his own dish).' 

40. An Arya is a person belonging to one of the first three 
castes (see below). The Arya must be a boy who is not initiated, 
because children are kamabhakshaA, i.e. allowed to eat what they 
like, even leavings. 

42. This rule holds good if no .Srotriyas are near. If .Srotriyas 
are to be found, Sutra 34 applies. Agni, the god of fire, is con- 
sidered to be of the Brahminical caste, and hence he takes the 
place of the teacher or of the .Srotriyas. See also Manu II, 247, 

Digitized by 


14 Apastamba. I, i, 4. 

a part of the alms into the fire and eat (the re- 

43. Alms are declared to be sacrificial food. In 
regard to them the teacher (holds the position 
which) a deity (holds in regard to food offered at a 

44. And (the teacher holds also the place which) 
the Ahavanlya fire occupies (at a sacrifice, because 
a portion of the alms is offered in the fire of his 

45. To him (the teacher) the (student) shall offer 
(a portion of the alms), 

Prasna I, PArALA 1, Khayda 4. 

1. And (having done so) eat what is left. 

2. For this (remnant of food) is certainly a rem- 
nant of sacrificial food. 

3. If he obtains other things (besides food, such 
as cattle or fuel, and gives them to his teacher) as 
he obtains them, then those (things hold the place 
of) rewards (given to priests for the performance of 
a sacrifice). 

4. This is the sacrifice to be performed daily by 
a religious student. 

5. And (the teacher) shall not give him anything 
that is forbidden by the revealed texts, (not even as) 

6. Such as pungent condiments, salt, honey, or 
meat (and the like). 

248, and the passages collected from the Brahma«as, by Prof. 
Weber. Ind. Stud. IX, 39. 

44. Manu II, 231. 

4. 6. See above, I, 1, 2, 23. 

Digitized by 


I, I, 4. STUDENTSHIP. 1 5 

7. By this (last Sutra it is) explained (that) the 
other restrictions (imposed upon a student, such as 
abstinence from perfumes, ointments, &c, are like- 
wise not to be broken). 

8. For (explicit) revealed texts have greater force 
than custom from which (the existence of a permis- 
sive passage of the revelation) may be inferred. 

9. Besides (in this particular case) a (worldly) 
motive for the practice is apparent. 

7. See above, 1, 1, 2, 24 seq. : — According to Haradatta, teachers 
were in the habit of giving ointments and the like forbidden sub- 
stances to their pupils, and Apastamba gives this rule in order 
to show his dissent from the practice. 

8. ' AnumSnika means " proper to be inferred from." For the 
existence of a text of the revelation or tradition (Smr/ti) is 
inferred from custom. A visible text of the revelation is (how- 
ever) of greater weight than a custom from which the existence 
of a text may be inferred. It is impossible to infer (the existence 
of a text) which is opposed to such (a visible text), on account of 
the maxim " an inference (can be made only, if it is) not opposed 
(by ocular proof)." (Apastamba), by speaking thus, (" For revealed 
texts," &c.,) shows that the rule forbidding a student to eat pun- 
gent condiments, salt &c. is based on the existing text of a 
Brahma«a.' — Haradatta. 

9. ' Though the text forbidding the use of pungent condiments, 
salt, and the like refers to such substances if they are not leavings, 
still it is improper to assert, on the ground of the custom from 
which a permissive text may be inferred, that it (the existing text), 
which is general, must be restricted (to those cases only) where the 
forbidden substances are not leavings given by the teacher. (If 
an opponent should answer that) certainly there are also texts 
which contradict each other, such as " he takes " and " he does 
not take," and that therefore there is no reason why a text restricted 
(to the case in which forbidden substances are leavings of the 
teacher) should not be inferred. In order to answer (that plea), 
he (Apastamba) says (Sutra 9), " True, that would be right if no 
motive whatever could be discovered for that custom (to eat for- 
bidden food which is given by the teacher). But a reason for this 
course of action exists." ' — Haradatta. 

Digitized by 


1 6 Apastamba. I,i,4- 

10. For pleasure is obtained (by eating or using 
the forbidden substances). 

11. A residue of food left by a father and an elder 
brother, may be eaten. 

12. If they act contrary to the law, he must not 
eat (their leavings). 

13. In the evening and in the morning he shall 
fetch water in a vessel (for the use of his teacher). 

14. Daily he shall fetch fuel from the forest, and 
place it on the floor (in his teacher's house). 

15. He shall not go to fetch firewood after 

16. After having kindled the fire, and having 
swept the ground around (the altar), he shall place 

10. 'What is that (reason)? [Sutra 10] For to eat pungent 
condiments, salt, &c. gives pleasure to the eater, and therefore 
according to the maxim, I, 4, 12, 11, "That in case a custom has 
pleasure for its motive, there is no text of the holy law to authorise 
it," no text restricting (the prohibition of forbidden substances to 
the case in which a BrahmaMrin does not receive them as leavings 
from his teacher) can be inferred (from the practice of eating such 
leavings).' — Haradatta. 

12. Another explanation of this Sutra is given by Haradatta: 
' If by eating their leavings he should commit a sin (because the 
food contains salt &c), he shall not do it.' 

13. Manu II, 182. 

14. The reafon for placing the fuel on the ground is, according 
to Haradatta, the fear lest, if placed on some shelf or the like, it 
should tumble down and injure the teacher's children. Others, 
however, are of opinion that the wood which the pupil fetches 
daily, is not to be used by the teacher for cooking, but for the 
performance of the pupil's daily fire-offering. The reason for this 
interpretation is, that in the Gnhya-sutra, n, 24, the daily offering 
of fuel is enjoined with the same words. See Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 
123; Manu II, 186. 

16. Some explain, instead of 'after having swept the ground 
around the altar,' &c, 'after having raked the scattered brands 
into a heap.' — Haradatta. 

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I, I, 4. STUDENTSHIP. 1 7 

the sacred fuel on the fire every morning and 
evening, according to the prescription (of the 

17. Some say that the fire is only to be wor- 
shipped in the evening. 

18. He shall sweep the place around the fire after 
it has been made to burn (by the addition of fuel), 
with his hand, and not with the broom (of Kusa. 

19. But, before (adding the fuel, he is free to use 
the broom) at his pleasure. 

20. He shall not perform non-religious acts 
with the residue of the water employed for the 
fire-worship, nor sip it. 

21. He shall not sip water which has been stirred 
with the hand, nor such as has been received into 
one hand only. 

22. And he shall avoid sleep (whilst his teacher 
is awake). 

23. Then (after having risen) he shall assist his 
teacher daily by acts tending to the acquisition of 
spiritual merit and of wealth. 

24. Having served (his teacher during the day 
in this manner, he shall say when going to bed) : I 
have protected the protector of the law (my teacher ). 

18. Ap. Gn. Su. 11, 22. 

20. During the fire-worship water is wanted for sprinkling the 
altar in various ways. 

23. Acts tending to the acquisition of merit are here — collecting 
sacred fuel, Kara grass, and flowers for sacrifices. Acts tending 
to the acquisition of wealth are — gathering fuel for cooking, &c. 
Manu II, 182 ; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 123 and 124. 

24. Another explanation of the words spoken by the student is, 
' O law, I have protected him ; protect thou me.' See also Gopatha- 
brahmawa I, 2, 4. 

[2] c 

Digitized by 


1 8 Apastamba. i, 2, 5. 

25. If the teacher transgresses the law through 
carelessness or knowingly, he shall point it out to 
him privately. 

26. If (the teacher) does not cease (to transgress), 
he himself shall perform the religious acts (which 
ought to be performed by the former) ; 

2 7. Or he may return home. 

28. Now of him who rises before (his teacher) 
and goes to rest after (him), they say that he does 
not sleep, 

29. The student who thus entirely fixes his mind 
there (in the teacher's family), has thereby performed 
all acts which yield rewards (such as the £yotish- 
/oma), and also those which must be performed by 
a householder. 

Pra-sna I, Papala 2, Khajvda 5. 

1 . The word ' austerity ' (must be understood to 
apply) to (the observance of) the rules (of student- 

2. If they are transgressed, study drives out the 
knowledge of the Veda acquired already, from the 
(offender) and from his children. 

26. Compare above, I, 1, 1, 13. 

29. The Sutra refers to a naish/Aika brahmaiSrin or professed 
student, who never leaves his teacher's family, and never enters 
any other order ; and it declares his merit to be equal to that of 
one who becomes a householder. Manu II, 243, 244 ; Y&gfi. 

I, 49. So- 

5. 1. Manu II, 164. 

2. The meaning of the phrase, ' Study drives out the Veda, 
which has already been learnt from him who studies transgressing 
the rules prescribed for the student,' is, ' The Veda recited at the 
Brahraaya^tfa (daily study), and other religious rites, produces no 
effect, i.e. gains no merit for the reciter.' Manu II, 97. Hara- 

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I, 2, 5. STUDENTSHIP. 1 9 

3. Besides he will go to hell, and his life will be 

4. On account of that (transgression of the rules 
of studentship) no .tfzshis are born amongst the men 
of later ages. 

5. But some in their new birth, on account of a 
residue of the merit acquired by their actions (in 
former lives), become (similar to) ^z'shis by their 
knowledge (of the Veda), 

6. Like ^Svetaketu. 

7. And whatever else, besides the Veda, (a stu- 
dent) who obeys the rules learns from his teacher, 
that brings the same reward as the Veda. 

8. Also, if desirous to accomplish something (be 

datta gives also the following three explanations of this Sutra, 
adopted by other commentators : — 

a. If these (rules) are transgressed, he loses his capacity for 
learning, because the Brahman forsakes him, &c. 

b. If these rules are transgressed, the capacity for learning and 
the Brahman leave him, &c. 

c. From him who studies whilst transgressing these rules, the 
Brahman goes out, &c. 

4. ' Amongst the avaras means " amongst the men of modern 
times, those who live in the Kaliyuga." No /?»'shis are born 
means " there are none who see (receive the revelation of) Man- 
tras, Vedic texts." ' — Haradatta. 

5. 'How is it then that men in our days, though they trans- 
gress the rules prescribed for students, learn the four Vedas with 
little trouble? (The answer is), By virtue of a residue of the 
reward (due) for the proper observance of those rules (of student- 
ship) in a former Yuga. Therefore Apastamba says, Sutra 6, 
"But some," &c. New existence means "new birth (life).'" — 

6. An example of this (follows, Sutra 6): 'Like 6vetaketu. 
For .SVetaketu learned the four Vedas in a short time; as we read 
in the A/iandogya Upanishad (PrapSMaka VI, 1).' — Haradatta. 

7. 'Whatever else besides the Veda, such as poison-charms 
and the like.' — Haradatta. 

C 2 

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20 APASTAMBA. I, 2, 5. 

it good or evil), he thinks it in his mind, or pro- 
nounces it in words, or looks upon it with his 
eye, even so it will be ; thus teach (those who 
know the law). 

9. (The duties of a student consist in) acts to 
please the spiritual teacher, the observance (of 
rules) conducive to his own welfare, and industry 
in studying. 

10. Acts other than these need not be performed 
by a student. 

11. A religious student who retains what he has 
learned, who finds pleasure in the fulfilment of the 
law, who keeps the rules of studentship, who is 
upright and forgiving, attains perfection. 

12. Every day he shall rise in the last watch of 
the night, and standing near his teacher, salute him 
with (this) salutation : I, N. N., ho ! (salute thee.) 

13. And (he shall salute) before the morning 
meal also other very aged (learned Brahmawas) who 
may live in the same village. 

14. If he has been on a journey, (he shall salute 

9. 'Acts to please the teacher are — washing his feet and the 
like; observance (of rules) conducive to welfare are — obedience 
to the prohibition to cross a river swimming, to eat pungent con- 
diments, and obedience to the injunction to beg.' — Haradatta. 

10. ' Acts other than these, such as pilgrimages and the like.' — 

11. 'What this "perfection" is has been declared in Sutras 
•j, 8/ — Haradatta. 

12. Manu II, 122 and 124. 

14. This salutation is to be performed only when the occasion 
requires it. The formerly-mentioned salutation (Sutras 12, 13) is 
to be performed daily. In the next Sutra follows that by which 
the fulfilment of a wish may be obtained. — Haradatta. Manu II, 
121 ; Y&gfi. I, 26. 

Digitized by 


1, 2, 5. STUDENTSHIP. 2 1 

the persons mentioned) when he meets them on his 

15. (He may also salute the persons mentioned 
at other times), if he is desirous of heaven and long 

16. A Brahmawa shall salute stretching forward 
his right arm on a level with his ear, a Kshatriya 
holding it on a level with the breast, a Vaisya 
holding it on a level with the waist, a Sudra holding 
it low, (and) stretching forward the joined hands. 

17. And when returning the salute of (a man be- 
longing) to the first (three) castes, the (last syllable 
of the) name (of the person addressed) is produced 
to the length of three moras. 

18. But when he meets his teacher after sunrise 
(coming for his lesson), he shall embrace (his feet). 

19. On all other occasions he shall salute (him in 
the manner described above). 

20. But some declare that he ought to embrace 
the (feet of his) teacher (at every occasion instead of 
saluting him). 

21. Having stroked the teacher's right foot with 
his right hand below and above, he takes hold of it 
and of the ankle. 

22. Some say, that he must press both feet, each 
with both hands, and embrace them. 

23. He shall be very attentive the whole day 

16. 'A Vaisya shall salute stretching forth his arm on a level 
with his middle, i.e. the stomach ; others say, on a level with his 
thigh ; the .Sudra stretching it forth low, i.e. on a level with his 
feet.' — Haradatta. 

17. See also Manu II, 125. 

18. Manu II, 71. 

22. Manu II, 72. 

23. Manu II, 191. 

Digitized by 


22 APASTAMBA. I, 2, 6. 

long, never allowing his mind to wander from the 
lesson during the (time devoted to) studying. 

24. And (at other times he shall be attentive) to 
the business of his teacher. 

25. And during the time for rest (he shall give) 
his mind (to doubtful passages of the lesson learnt). 

26. And he shall study after having been called 
by the teacher (and not request the teacher to begin 
the lesson). 

Prasna I, Pafala 2, Khanda. 6. 


1. Every day he shall put his teacher to bed 
after having washed his (teacher's) feet and after 
having rubbed him. 

2. He shall retire to rest after having received 
(the teacher's permission). 

3. And he shall not stretch out his feet towards 

4. Some say, that it is not (sinful) to stretch out 
the feet (towards the teacher), if he be lying on a 

5. And he shall not address (the teacher), whilst 
he himself is in a reclining position. 

6. But he may answer (the teacher) sitting (if the 
teacher himself is sitting or lying down). 

7. And if (the teacher) stands, (he shall answer 
him,) after having risen also. 

26. Y&gH. I, 27; Manu II, 191. 
6. 1. Manu II, 209. 
2. Manu II, 194. 

4. ' But, in Apastamba's opinion, it is sinful even in this case.' — 

5. Manu II, 195. 

6. Manu II, 196. 

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8. He shall walk after him, if he walks. 

9. He shall run after him, if he runs. 

10. He shall not approach (his teacher) with shoes 
on his feet, or his head covered, or holding (imple- 
ments) in his hand. 

1 1. But on a journey or occupied in work, he may 
approach him (with shoes on, with his head covered, 
or with implements in his hand), 

1 2. Provided he does not sit down quite near (to 
his teacher), 

13. He shall approach his teacher with the same 
reverence as a deity, without telling idle stories, 
attentive and listening eagerly to his words. 

14. (He shall not sit near him) with his legs 

15. If (on sitting down) the wind blows from the 
pupil towards the master, he shall change his place. 

16. (He shall sit) without supporting himself with 
his hands (on the ground), 

1 7. Without leaning against something (as a wall 
or the like). 

18. If the pupil wears two garments, he shall 
wear the upper one after the fashion of the sacred 
thread at the sacrifices. 

1 9. But, if he wears a (lower) garment only, he 
shall wrap it around the lower part of his body. 

20. He shall turn his face towards his teacher 
though the latter does not turn his towards him. 

21. He shall sit neither too near to, nor too far 
(from the teacher), 

15. Manu II, 203. 

18. At sacrifices the sacred thread passes over the left shoulder 
and under the right arm. Manu II, 63, and Taitt. Ar. II, 1, 3. 
20. Manu II, 197. 

Digitized by 


24 APASTAMBA. I, 2, 6. 

22. (But) at such a distance, that (the teacher) 
may be able to reach him with his arms (without 

23. (He shall not sit in such a position) that the 
wind blows from the teacher, towards himself. 

24. (If there is) only one pupil, he shall sit at the 
right hand (of the teacher). 

25. (If there are) many, (they may sit) as it may 
be convenient. 

• 26. If the master (is not honoured with a seat 
and) stands, the (pupil) shall not sit down. 

27. (If the master is not honoured with a 
couch) and sits, the (pupil) shall not lie down on 
a couch. 

28. And if the teacher tries (to do something), 
then (the pupil) shall offer to do it for him, if it is in 
his power. 

29. And, if his teacher is near, he shall not 
embrace (the feet of) another Guru who is inferior 
(in dignity) ; 

30. Nor shall he praise (such a person in the 
teacher's presence) by (pronouncing the name of) 
his family. 

31. Nor shall he rise to meet such an (inferior 
Guru) or rise after him, 

32. Even if he be a Guru of his teacher. 

2,2). But he shall leave his place and his seat, (in 
order to show him honour.) 

23. See Sutra 15 and Manu quoted there. 

29. The term Guru includes a father, maternal uncle, &c. (see 
above), and these are inferior to the teacher. Manu II, 205. 

31-32. 'The pupil is not to show the mentioned marks of 
respect to any of his own inferior Gurus, even if the person is the 
Guru, e.g. the maternal uncle, of his teacher.' — Haradatta. 

Digitized by 


I, 2, 7. STUDENTSHIP. 25 

34. Some say, that (he may address) a pupil of 
his teacher by (pronouncing) his name, if he is also 
one of his (the pupil's) own Gurus. 

35. But towards such a person who is generally 
revered for some other reason than being the teacher 
(e.g. for his learning), the (student) should behave as 
towards his teacher, though he be inferior in dignity 
to the latter. 

36. After having eaten in his (teacher's) presence, 
he shall not give away the remainder of the food 
without rising. 

37. Nor shall he sip water (after having eaten in 
the presence of his teacher without rising). 

38. (He shall rise) addressing him (with these 
words), ' What shall I do ? ' 

Prasna I, Pafala 2, Khanda 7. 

i. Or he may rise silently. 

2. Nor shall he (in going away) move around his 
teacher with his left hand turned towards him ; he 
shall go away after having walked around him with 
his right side turned towards him. 

3. He shall not look at a naked woman. 

4. He shall not cut the (leaves or flowers) of 
herbs or trees, in order to smell at them. 

34. 'But Apastamba's own opinion is that he ought not to 
address by name a (maternal uncle or other) Guru (who visits his 
teacher).' — Haradatta. 

36. According to I, i, 3, 40 seq., a student shall give what he 
is unable to eat to a child, or to a slave. If he has eaten in 
the presence of his teacher, he shall not give the food away 
without rising for the purpose. 

7. 3. Manu IV, 53; Ya^». I, 135. 

4. Gopatha-brahma/za I, 2, 2. 

Digitized by 


26 Apastamba. I, 2, 7. 

5. He shall avoid (the use of) shoes, of an 
umbrella, a chariot, and the like (luxuries). 

6. He shall not smile. 

7. If he smiles, he shall smile covering (the 
mouth with his hand) ; thus says a Brahma#a. 

8. He shall not touch a woman with his face, in 
order to inhale the fragrance of her body. 

9. Nor shall he desire her in his heart 

10. Nor shall he touch (a woman at all) without 
a particular reason. 

11. A Brahmawa declares, ' He shall be dusty, he 
shall have dirty teeth, and speak the truth.' 

1 2. Those teachers, who instructed his teacher in 
that science which he (the pupil) studies with him, 
(are to be considered as) spiritual teachers (by the 


13. But if (a teacher), before the eyes of his 
(pupil), embraces the feet of any other persons, then 
he (the pupil also) must embrace their feet, (as long 
as he remains) in that (state of studentship). 

5. Manu II, 178. 

10. Manu II, 179. 

11. 'Though both (these first two precepts) have been given in 
Sutra I, 1, 2, 27, still they are repeated, in order to show that a 
•Srauta penance for the breach of them, is enjoined by a revealed 
text.' — Haradatta. 

12. The term va»wya, 'ancestor,' for the teacher's teacher is 
explained by the circumstance, that Hindus consider a 'school,' 
consisting of a succession of teachers and pupils, as a spiritual 
family, and call it a vidy£va«.ra, vidyaparampara. Manu II, 205. 

13. 'Another (commentator) says, " He, the pupil, must embrace 
their feet (at every meeting) from that time (when he first saw 
his teacher do it)." Because the word "but" is used in the Sutra, 
he must do so even after he has returned home (on completion of 
his studies).' — Haradatta. 

Digitized by 


1,2,7- STUDENTSHIP. 27 

14. If (a pupil) has more than one teacher, the 
alms (collected by him) are at the disposal of him to 
whom he is (just then) bound. 

15. When (a student) has returned home (from 
his teacher), he shall give (whatever he may obtain 
by begging or otherwise) to his mother. 

16. The mother shall give it to her husband ; 

1 7. (And) the husband to the (student's) teacher. 

18. Or he may use it for religious ceremonies. 

19. After having studied as many (branches of) 
sacred learning as he can, he shall procure in a 
righteous manner the fee for (the teaching of) the 
Veda (to be given to his teacher), according to his 

20. But, if the teacher has fallen into distress, he 
may take (the fee) from an Ugra or from a Sudra. 

21. But some declare, that it is lawful at any 
time to take the money for the teacher from an 
Ugra or from a .Sudra. 

14. ' More than one teacher,' i.e. several, who have taught him 
the several Vedas. Each Brahman generally knowing one Veda 

This passage shows, that the young Brahmans in olden time, 
just as now, went from one teacher to the other, learning from 
each what he knew. The rules, which seemingly enjoin a pupil 
to stay with one and the same teacher, refer only to the principle, 
that the pupil must stay with his teacher, until he has learnt the 
subject which he began with him. 

18. 'Religious ceremonies, i.e. the wedding and the like. For 
them he may use it optionally. He, i.e. on failure of the teacher; 
the father, on failure of the father ; the mother, on failure of all 
(the pupil) himself.' — Haradatta. 

19. Manu II, 245 and 246; Ya£#. I, 51; Weber, Ind. Stud. 
X, 125. 

20. ' The word Ugra denotes either the offspring of a Vauya 
and of a .Sudra woman, or a twice-born man, who perpetrates 
dreadful deeds.' — Haradatta. 

Digitized by 


28 Apastamba. I, 2, 7. 

22. And having paid (the fee), he shall not boast 
of having done so. 

23. And he shall not remember what he may 
have done (for his teacher). 

24. He shall avoid self-praise, blaming others, 
and the like. 

25. If he is ordered (by his teacher to do some- 
thing), he shall do just that. 

26. On account of the incompetence of his 
teacher, (he may go) to another (and) study (there). 

27. He shall behave towards his teacher's wife 
as towards the teacher himself, but he shall not 
embrace her feet, nor eat the residue of her food. 

28. So also (shall he behave) towards him who 
teaches him at (the teacher's) command, 

29. And also to a fellow-student who is superior 
(in learning and years). 

30. He shall behave to his teacher's son (who is 
superior to himself in learning or years) as to his 
teacher, but not eat the residue of his food. 

31. Though he may have returned home, the 

24. Manu II, 179. 

26. See above, I, 1, 1, 13, and note. Here also Haradatta 
9tates that the permission to leave the teacher is to be restricted to 
those who have not solemnly bound themselves to their teacher by 
allowing him to perform the ceremony of initiation. 

27. Manu II, 208-212. 

28. ' The use of the present " adhyipayati," shows that this rule 
holds good only for the time during which he is taught by such 
a man.' — Haradatta. 

29. ' Because (an older fellow-student) is of use to him, accord- 
ing to the verse: One-fourth (of his learning) a pupil receives 
from his teacher, one-fourth he acquires by his own intelligence, 
one-fourth from his fellow-students, one-fourth he is taught by 
time.' — Haradatta. 

30. Manu II, 207-209. 

Digitized by 



behaviour towards his (teacher and the rest) which 
is prescribed by the rule of conduct settled by the 
agreement (of those who know the law, must be 
observed by him to the end), 

Prasna I, Pafala 2, Khanda 8. 

1. Just as by a student (actually living with his 

2. He may wear garlands, anoint his face (with 
sandal), oil his hair and moustaches, smear his eye- 
lids (with collyrium), and (his body) with oil, wear a 
turban, a cloth round his loins, a coat, sandals, and 
wooden shoes. 

3. Within the sight of his (teacher or teacher's 
relations) he shall do none of those (actions, as 
putting on a garland), nor cause them to be done. 

4. Nor (shall he wear garlands &c. whilst per- 
forming) acts for his pleasure, 

5. As, for instance, cleaning his teeth, shampoo- 
ing, combing the hair, and the like. 

6. And the teacher shall not speak of the goods 
of the (pupil) with the intention to obtain them. 

7. But some declare, that, if a pupil who has 
bathed (after completing his studies) is called by his 
teacher or has gone to see him, he shall not take off 

8. 1. Haradatta does not connect this Sutra with the preced- 
ing one. He explains it by itself: ' (We will now declare) how a 
student (who has left his teacher, but is not married) ought to 

6. ' If the teacher comes to the house of his (former) pupil (who 
has become a householder), he shall, for instance, not say, "Oh, 
what a beautiful dish ! " in such a manner, that his desire to obtain 
it becomes apparent.' — Haradatta. 

7. This opinion is contrary to Apastamba's view given in 
Sutras a and 3 above. 

Digitized by 


30 apastamba. T, 2, 8. 

that (garland or other ornaments) which he wears 
according to the law at the time (of that ceremony). 

8. He shall not sit on a seat higher (than that of 
his teacher), 

9. Nor on a seat that has more legs (than that 
of his teacher), 

10. Nor on a seat that stands more firmly fixed 
(on the ground than that of his teacher), 

1 1. Nor shall he sit or lie on a couch or seat 
which is used (by his teacher). 

12. If he is ordered (by his teacher), he shall on 
a journey ascend a carriage after him. 

1 3. (At his teacher's command) he shall also enter 
an assembly, ascend a roller (which his teacher drags 
along), sit on a mat of fragrant grass or a couch of 
straw (together with his teacher). 

14. If not addressed by a Guru, he shall not 
speak to him, except (in order to announce) good 

15. He shall avoid to touch a Guru (with his 
finger), to whisper (into his ear), to laugh (into his 
face), to call out to him, to pronounce his name or to 
give him orders and the like (acts). 

10. 'When he gives to his teacher a wooden seat (with legs), 
he shall not sit on a cane-seat (without legs), for the latter touches 
the ground on all sides.' — Haradatta. 

11. Manu II, 119. , 

12. This rule is an exception to I, 2, 7, 5. Manu II, 204. 

13. 'The roller is an implement used by husbandmen, with 
which the ploughed land is made even. If one person ascends it 
and another drags it along, the ground becomes even. If that is 
dragged by the teacher, the pupil shall ascend it at his command. 
He shall not disobey from fear of the unseemliness of the action.' — 

15. Manu II, 199; regarding the term Guru, see above, 1, 2, 6, 29. 

Digitized by 



16. In time of need he may attract attention (by 
any of these acts). 

17. If (a pupil) resides (in the same village) with 
(his teacher after the completion of his studies), he 
shall go to see him every morning and evening, 
without being called. 

18. And if he returns from a journey, he shall 
(go to) see him on the same day. 

19. If his teacher and his teacher's teacher meet, 
he shall embrace the feet of his teacher's teacher, 
and then show his desire to do the same to his 

20. The other (the teacher) shall (then) forbid it. 

21. And (other marks of) respect (due to the 
teacher) are omitted in the presence of the (teacher's 

22. And (if he does not live in the same village), 
he shall go frequently to his teacher's residence, in 
order to see him, and bring him some (present), with 
his own hand, be it even only a stick for cleaning 
the teeth. Thus (the duties of a student have been 

23. (Now) the conduct of a teacher towards his 
pupil (will be explained). 

24. Loving him like his own son, and full of 
attention, he shall teach him the sacred science, 
without hiding anything in the whole law. 

25. And he shall not use him for his own pur- 
poses to the detriment of his studies, except in times 
of distress. 

17. This and the following Sutras refer to a person who has 
finished his studentship, while the preceding ones, from Sutra 8, 
apply to the time of studentship also. 

24. Weber, Ind. S:ud. X, 126. 

Digitized by 


32 APASTAMBA. I, 3, 9. 

26. That pupil who, attending to two (teachers), 
accuses his (principal and first) teacher of ignorance, 
remains no (longer) a pupil. 

27. A teacher also, who neglects the instruction 
(of his pupil), does no (longer) remain a teacher. 

28. If the (pupil) commits faults, (the teacher) 
shall always reprove him. 

29. Frightening, fasting, bathing in (cold) water, 
and banishment from the teacher's presence are the 
punishments (which are to be employed), according 
to the greatness (of the fault), until (the pupil) leaves 
off (sinning). 

30. He shall dismiss (the pupil), after he has 
performed the ceremony of the Samavartana and 
has finished his studentship, with these words, 
' Apply thyself henceforth to other duties.' 

PRASNA I, PArALA 3, Khajvda 9. 

1. After having performed the Upakarma for 
studying the Veda on the full moon of the month 
6"riva»a (July-August), he shall for one month not 
study in the evening. 

26. 'Another commentator says, "That pupil who offends his 
teacher in word, thought, or deed, and directs his mind impro- 
perly, i.e. does not properly obey, does not (any longer) remain a 
pupil." ' — Haradatta. 

29. But see also Manu VIII, 299, where corporal punishment 
is permitted. 

9. 1. The Upakarma is the ceremony which is performed every 
year at the beginning of the course of study. It is in fact the 
solemn opening of the Brahmanic term. ' Because Apastamba 
uses the word evening (i.e. first part of the night) it is not sinful to 
study later in the night.' — Haradatta. Manu IV, 95 ; Y&gn. 1, 142, 
143; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 130 and 134. 

Digitized by 



2. On the full moon of the month of Pausha 
(December-January), or under the constellation 
Rohi«i, he shall leave off reading the Veda. 

3. Some declare, (that he shall study) for four 
months and a half. 

4. He shall avoid to study the Veda on a high-road. 

5. Or he may study it (on a high-road), after 
having smeared (a space) with cowdung. 

6. He shall never study in a burial-ground nor 
anywhere near it within the throw of a .Samya. 

7. If a village has been built over (a burial- 
ground) or its surface has been cultivated as a field, 
the recitation of the Veda (in such a place) is not 

8. But if that place is known to have been (a 
burial-ground), he shall not study (there). 

2. The term lasts therefore for five months ; (i. e. latter half of 
£rava»a, Bhadrapada, Axvina, Karttika, MSrgaiirsha, and the first 
half of Pausha.) The Rohi»f-day of Pausha is meant. 

3. 'According to this latter opinion the Upakarma should be 
performed on the full moon of Bhadrapada, as has been taught in 
another work (Manu IV, 95) ; the (time of the) Utsar^ana, (the 
solemn closing of the term) should be advanced ; and after the 
Utsar^ana has been performed, one may study the Veda during 
the light nights of each month until the full moon of «S'rava«a, 
in order to fix in one's mind the part learned already ; and in the 
dark fortnight of each month one may study the Vedangas, i.e. 
grammar and the rest (Manu IV, 98). On the full moon of Sr&vana. 
the Upakarma should be performed once more, and that part of 
the Veda should be studied which has not yet been learned.' — 

4. NigamaA, ' high-roads,' are squares and the like. — Haradatta. 
6. The .SamyS is either the pin in the bullock's yoke or the 

round stick, about a foot and a half in length, which is used for 
the preparation of the Vedi. Manu IV, 1x6; Yagrt. I, 148. 

8. ' Nor anywhere near it within the throw of a .Samya.'' This 
must be understood from Sutra 6. 

[2] D 

Digitized by 


Apastamba. I, 3, 9. 

9. A vSttdra and an outcast are (included by the 
term) burial-ground, (and the rule given, Sutra 6, 
applies to them). 

10. Some declare, that (one ought to avoid only, 
to study) in the same house (where they dwell). 

1 1 . But if (a student and) a .Sudra woman merely 
look at each other, the recitation of the Veda must 
be interrupted, 

12. Likewise, if (a student and) a woman, who 
has had connexion with a man of a lower caste, 
(look at each other). 

13. If he, who is about to study the Veda, wishes 
to talk to a woman during her courses, he shall first 
speak to a Brahmawa and then to her, then again 
speak to a Brahma«a, and afterwards study. Thereby 
the children (of that woman) will be blessed. 

14. (He shall not study in a village) in which a 
corpse lies ; 

15. Nor in such a one where A'awdalas live. 

16. He shall not study whilst corpses are being 
carried to the boundary of the village, 

1 7. Nor in a forest, if (a corpse or A!aWala) is 
within sight. 

18. And if outcasts have entered the village, he 
shall not study on that day, 

9. Yigfi. I, 148. 

13. The last part of the Sutra may also be interpreted : ' Thus 
she will be blessed with children.' — Haradatta. 

14. Manu IV, 108; Y&§-«. I, 148. 

18. Haradatta explains Bahya, ' outcasts,' by ' robbers, such as 
Ugras and Nishadas.' But, I think, it means simply such outcasts 
as live in the forest or outside the village in the Vidi, like the 
DAers, Mahars, Mangs of the present day. Most of these tribes, 
however, are or were given to thieving. See Kulluka on Manu X, 
28, and the Petersburg Diet. s.v. 

Digitized by 



19. Nor if good men (have come). 

20. If it thunders in the evening, (he shall not 
study) during the night. 

21. If lightning is seen (in the evening, he shall 
not study during that night), until he has slept. 

22. If lightning is seen about the break of dawn, 
or at the time when he may distinguish at the dis- 
tance of a 6amya-throw, whether (a cow) is black or 
red, he shall not study during that day, nor in the 
following evening. 

23. If it thunders in the second part of the third 
watch of the night, (he shall not study during the 
following day or evening). 

24. Some (declare, that this rule holds good, if it 
thunders), after the first half of the night has passed. 

25. (Nor shall he study) whilst the cows are pre- 
vented from leaving (the village on account of thieves 
and the like), 

26. Nor (on the imprisonment of criminals) whilst 
they are being executed. 

27. He shall not study whilst he rides on beasts 
(of burden). 

28. At the new moon, (he shall not study) for 
two days and two nights. 

19. Y&gB. I, 150. 

20. Manu IV, 106; Yagn. I, 145. 'This rule refers to the 
rainy season. (For thunder) at other (seasons) he orders below 
a longer (cessation).' — Haradatta. 

27. Manu IV, 120; Y&gti. I, 151. 

28. ' "For two days," i.e. on the day of the new moon and 
the preceding one, the fourteenth of the half month.' — Haradatta. 
Manu IV, 113; YzgR. I, 146. 

D 2 

Digitized by 


36 Apastamba. i, 3, 10. 


i. (Nor shall he study) on the days of the full 
moons of those months in which the .A'aturmasya- 
sacrifice may be performed (nor on the days pre- 
ceding them). 

2. At the time of the Vedotsarga, on the death of 
Gurus, at the Ash/aka-Sraddha, and at the time of 
the Upakarma, (he shall not study) for three days ; 

3. Likewise if near relations have died. 

4. (He shall not study) for twelve days, if his 
mother, father, or teacher have died. 

5. If these (have died), he must (also) bathe for 
the same number of days. 

6. Persons who are younger (than the relation 
deceased), must shave (their hair and beard). 

10. 1. The three full-moon days are Phalgunf (February-March), 
AstedM (June-July), KSrttikt (October-November). 

2. The construction is very irregular, the first noun standing 
in the nominative and the rest in the locative. A similar irre- 
gularity occurs below, 1, 3 , 1 1 , 3 1 . The Vedotsarga is the ceremony 
which is performed at the end of the Brahmanic term, in January. 
' In the case of the death of a Guru, the vacation begins with the 
day on which the death occurs. On the other occasions men- 
tioned he shall not study on the day preceding (the ceremony), on 
the day (of the ceremony), nor on the day following it.' — Haradatta. 
Manu IV, 119; Yagn. I, 144. 'The Gurus' intended here, are 
fathers-in-law, uncles, &c. 

3. 'This rule applies to a student only. It is known from 
another work that those who have been infected by impurity (on 
the death of a relation), must not study whilst the impurity lasts.' — 
Haradatta. YagTi!. I, 144. 

6. The word anubhlvinaA, interpreted by Haradatta as ' persons 
who are younger than the deceased,' is explained in different ways 
by others ; firstly, as ' the mourners,' and secondly, as ' Samano- 
dakas or gentiles beyond the sixth degree.' In the latter case the 
Sutra ought to be translated thus : ' On the death of gentiles beyond 
the sixth degree, (the head) ought to be shaved.' 

Digitized by 


I, 3, 10. THE STUDY OF THE VEDA. 37 

7. Some declare, that students who have returned 
home on completion of their studentship, shall never 
shave, except if engaged in the initiation to a 6rauta- 

8. Now a Brahmawa also declares, ' Verily, an 
empty, uncovered (pot) is he, whose hair is shaved 
off entirely ; the top-lock is his covering.' 

9. But at sacrificial sessions the top-lock must be 
shaved off, because it is so enjoined in the Veda. 

10. Some declare, that, upon the death of the 
teacher, (the reading should be interrupted) for three 
days and three nights. 

11. If (he hears of) the death of a learned Brah- 
ma»a (Srotriya) before a full year (since the death) 
has elapsed, (he shall interrupt his reading) for one 
night (and day). 

12. Some declare, (that the deceased 6rotriya 
must have been) a fellow-student. 

13-14. If a learned Brahma#a (.Srotriya) has 
arrived and he is desirous of studying or is actually 
studying, (or if he is desirous of teaching or is teach- 

7. Regarding the Diksha 'initiation,' see Aitareya-brahma»a 
I, 1, and Max Mailer's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, 
p. 309 seq. 

8. Hence it follows that the top-lock should not be shaved off, 
except in the case mentioned in the following Sutra. 

9. Sattras, * sacrificial sessions,' are sacrifices which last longer 
than twelve days. 

10. 'But in his opinion it should be twelve days, as declared 
above, Sutra 4.' — Haradatta. It appears, therefore, that this Sutra 
is to be connected with Sutra 4. 

11. ' Because the word "death" is used here, death only is the 
reason (for stopping the reading), in the case of Gurus and the 
rest (i.e. the word "died" must be understood in Sutra 2 and 
the following ones).' — Haradatta. 

Digitized by 


38 Apastamba. i, 3, 10. 

ing,) he may study or teach after having received 
permission (to do so from the 3rotriya). 

15-16. He may likewise study or teach in the 
presence of his teacher, if (the latter) has addressed 
him (saying), ' Ho, study ! (or, Ho, teach !) ' 

17. When a student desires to study or has 
finished his lesson, he shall at both occasions em- 
brace the feet of his teacher. 

1 8. Or if, whilst they study, another person comes 
in, he shall continue his recitation, after those words 
(' Ho, study ! ') have been pronounced (by the new- 

19. The barking of (many) dogs, the braying of 
(many) asses, the cry of a wolf or of a solitary jackal 
or of an owl, all sounds of musical instruments, of 
weeping, and of the Saman melodies (are reasons 
for discontinuing the study of the Veda). 

20. If another branch of the Veda (is being recited 
in the neighbourhood), the Saman melodies shall not 
be studied. 

21. And whilst other noises (are being heard, 
the recitation of the Veda shall be discontinued), if 
they mix (with the voice of the person studying). 

15-16. Manu II, 73. 

17. Manu II, 73. 

18. Haradatta states rightly, that the plural ('they study') is 
useless. According to him, the use of the verb in the singular 
may be excused thereby, that the advice is addressed to each of 
the persons engaged in study. Manu IV, 122. 

19. The ekas/Yka, 'solitary jackal,' is now called Balu or 
Pheough, and is considered to be the constant companion of a 
tiger or panther. Its unharmonious cry is, in the present day also, 
considered to be an evil omen. YigH. I, 148; Manu IV, 108, 
115 and 123. 

21. Manu IV, 121. 

Digitized by 



22. After having vomited (he shall not study) 
until he has slept. 

23. Or (he may study) having eaten clarified 
butter (after the attack of vomiting). 

24. A foul smell (is a reason for the discon- 
tinuance of study). 

25. Food turned sour (by fermentation), which 
he has in his stomach, (is a reason for the dis- 
continuance of the recitation, until the sour rising 

26. (Nor shall he study) after having eaten in the 

27. Nor as long as his hands are wet 

28. (And he shall discontinue studying) for a day 
and an evening, after having eaten food prepared in 
honour of a dead person (for whom the Sapi#dfi- 
kara«a has not yet been performed), 

29. Or until the food (eaten on that occasion) is 

30. But he shall (always) eat in addition (to the 
meal given in honour of a dead person), food which 
has not been given at a sacrifice to the Manes. 

22. Manu IV, 121. 

24. Manu IV, 107 ; Yign. I, 150. 

25. Manu IV, 121. 

26. ' Therefore he shall sup, after having finished his study.' — 

27. Manu IV, 121 ; Y&gii. I, 149. 

28. Manu IV, 112; YagH. I, 146. 

29. ' If that food has not been digested by the end of that 
time (i.e. in the evening), he shall not study until it has been 
digested.' — Haradatta. 

30. ' Because in this Sutra the expression " food not given at 
a ^"rdddha" occurs, some think that the preceding Sutra refers 
to " food eaten at a .Sraddha." ' — Haradatta. This explanation is 
not at all improbable. 

Digitized by 


40 APASTAMBA. I, 3, 11. 


1. (The recitation of the Veda shall be interrupted 
for a day and evening if he has eaten), on beginning 
a fresh Ka«da (of his Veda), food given by a mother- 
less person, 

2. And also if he has eaten, on the day of the com- 
pletion of a Ka#da, food given by a fatherless person. 

3. Some declare, that (the recitation shall be inter- 
rupted for the same space of time), if he has eaten 
at a sacrifice offered in honour of gods who were 
formerly men. 

4. Nor is the recitation interrupted, if he has 
eaten rice received the day before, or raw meat 
(though these things may have been offered in 
honour of the dead), 

5. Nor (if he has eaten at a funeral dinner) roots 
or fruits of herbs and trees. 

6. When he performs the ceremony for beginning 
a Kawda, or when he studies the index of the Anu- 

11. 1. The Black Ya^ur-veda, to which Apastamba belongs, is 
divided throughout into books called K&nd&s. 

3. Haradatta names as such gods, Nandwvara and Kubera. 
Other commentators, however, explain Manushyaprakmi by Manu- 
shyamukha, 'possessing human faces.' A similar rule occuss 
Gautama XVI, 34, where a Manushyaya^«a is mentioned as 
a cause for discontinuing the recitation of the Veda. In his com- 
mentary on Gautama, also, Haradatta is in doubt. He first refers 
the term to the sacraments like the Simantonnayana, and then adds, 
that some explain it to mean ' a sacrifice to gods who formerly 
were men.' 

4. This Sutra is an exception to I, 3, 10, 28. 

6. Haradatta's commentary on this Sutra is very me?gre, and 
he leaves the word anuvakyam unexplained. I am not certain 
that my explanation is correct. But it is countenanced by the 
statements of the Gr/'hya-sutras regarding the order of studying. 
Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 132. 

Digitized by 


1,3.11- THE STUDY OF THE VEDA. 41 

vakas of a (Kawda), he shall not study that (Ka«rfa) 
on that day (nor in that night). 

7. And if he performs the ceremonies prescribed 
on beginning or ending the recitation of one entire 
Veda, he shall not study that Veda (during that day). 

8. If the wind roars, or if it whirls up the grass 
on the ground, or if it drives the rain-drops forward 
during a rain-shower, (then the recitation shall be 
interrupted for so long a time as the storm lasts). 

9. (Nor shall he study) on the boundary between 
a village and forest, 

10. Nor on a highway. 

11. If (some of his) fellow-students are on a 
journey, he shall not study during that day, (the 
passage) which they learn together. 

1 2. And whilst performing acts for his pleasure, 

13. Such as washing his feet, shampooing or 
anointing himself, 

14. He shall neither study nor teach, as long as 
he is thus occupied. 

7. Y&gii. I, 145. This Sutra is a GMpaka or 'such a one 
which indicates the existence of a rule not expressly mentioned.' 
Above (I, 3, 9, 1) the yearly performance of the Upakarma and 
Utsarga ceremonies for the beginning and end of the Brahmanic 
term has been prescribed. In this Sutra the performance of the 
Upakarma and Utsarga at the beginning and completion of the 
Pirayawa or the vow to go through a whole Veda is incidentally 
mentioned. Thence it may be inferred that these ceremonies must 
be likewise performed on the latter occasions, though no absolute 
rule to this effect has been given. Such Gtfapakas are of frequent 
occurrence in all Sutras, and constitute one of the chief difficulties 
of their interpretation. 

8. Yagn. I, 149; Manu IV, 102, 122. 

1 1. Others explain the Sutra thus : ' If he meets fellow-students, 
after they have come home from a journey, he shall not study with 
them on that day.' 

Digitized by 


42 Apastamba. I, 3, II. 

15. (He shall not study or teach) in the twilight, 

16. Nor whilst sitting on a tree, 

1 7. Nor whilst immersed in water, 

1 8. Nor at night with open doors, 

19. Nor in the day-time with shut doors. 

20. During the spring festival and the festival (of 
Indra), in the month of Ashaa^a (June-July), the 
study of an Anuvaka is forbidden. 

21. (The recitation) of the daily portion of the 
Veda (at the Brahmaya^wa is likewise forbidden if 
done) in a manner differing from the rule (of the 

22. (Now follows) the rule (for the daily recita- 
tion) of that (Brahmayaf»a). 

23. Before taking his morning-meal, he shall go 
to the water-side, and having purified himself, he 
shall recite aloud (a portion of the Veda) in a pure 

15. Y&gn. I, 145 ; Manu IV, 113. 

16. Ya,f#. I, 151 ; Manu IV, 120. 

20. According to Haradatta, Apastamba uses the word Anuv&ka 
in order to indicate that smaller portions of the Veda may be 
studied. Others think, that by Anuvaka, the Sawhita and the 
Br&hmawa are meant, and that the study of the Angas is per- 
mitted. The Vasantotsava, or spring-festival, which, according to 
the Dramas, was, in olden times, kept all over India, falls, according 
to Haradatta, on the thirteenth of the first half of A'aitra, about 
the beginning of April. 

21. 'Hence, if one has forgotten it and eaten one's breakfast, a 
penance, not the Brahmayag'tfa, must be performed.' — Haradatta. 

23. See Taittirfya Arawyaka II, 11, 1 and 11 ; Ajv. Gri. Su. Ill, 
2, 1-2. In our days this rule is usually not observed. Brahmawas 
mostly recite at the daily Brahmaya^wa, ' Veda-offering,' one par- 
ticular formula, which symbolically comprises the whole Veda. 
A few learned Brahma«a friends, however, have assured me, that 
they still recite the whole of their .SakM every year according to 
this rule of Apastamba. 

Digitized by 



place, leaving out according to (the order of the) 
texts (what he has read the day before). 

24. If a stoppage of study is enjoined (for the 
day, he shall recite the daily portion) mentally. 

25. If lightning flashes without interruption, or, 
thunder rolls continually, if a man has neglected to 
purify himself, if he has partaken of a meal in honour 
of a dead person, or if hoarfrost lies on the ground, 
(in these cases) they forbid the mental recitation (of 
the daily portion of the Veda). 

26. Some forbid it only in case one has eaten a 
funeral dinner. 

27. Where lightning, thunder, and rain happen 
together out of season, the recitation shall be inter- 
rupted for three days. 

28. Some (declare, that the recitation shall stop) 
until the ground is dry. 

29. If one or two (of the phenomena mentioned 
in Sutra 27 appear, the recitation shall be interrupted) 
from that hour until the same hour next day. 

30. In the case of an eclipse of the sun or of the 
moon, of an earthquake, of a whirlwind, of the fall of a 
meteor, or of a fire (in the village), at whatever time 
these events happen, the recitation of all the sacred 
sciences (Vedas and Angas) must be interrupted 
from that hour until the same hour next day. 

31. If a cloud appears out of season, if the sun or 
the moon is surrounded by a halo, if a rainbow, a 
parhelion or a comet appears, if a (high) wind (blows), 

25. Yagii- 1, 149 ; Manu IV, 106, 120, 127 ; Taitt. Ar. II, 15, 1. 

26. Manu IV, 109, 116. 

27. Manu IV, 103 and 104. 

30. Ya^tff. I, 145; Manu IV, 105, 118. 

31. Manu IV, 104, and see above. 

Digitized by 


44 APASTAMBA. I, 3, n. 

a foul smell (is observed), or hoarfrost (lies on the 
ground, at all these occasions (the recitation of all 
the sacred sciences must be interrupted) during the 
duration (of these phenomena). 

32. After the wind has ceased, (the interruption 
of the recitation continues) for one muhurta. 

33. If (the howl of) a wolf or of a solitary jackal 
(has been heard, he shall stop the reading) until he 
has slept. 

34. At night (he shall not study) in a wood, where 
there is no fire nor gold. 

35. Out of term he shall not study any part of 
the Veda which he has not learnt before. 

36. Nor (shall he study during term some new 
part of the Veda) in the evening. 

37. That which has been studied before, must 
never be studied (during the vacation or in the 

38. Further particulars (regarding the interruption 

32. One muhurta = 48 minutes. 

36. Other commentators interpret the Sutra in a different sense. 
They take it to mean : ' And during the night (from the twelfth 
to the thirteenth of each half of the month, he shall not study 
at all, be it in or out of term).' 

37. ' What has been studied before, must not be studied (again) 
at any time in the vacation nor in the evening.' — Haradatta. 

38. Haradatta thinks that by ' Parishad,' Manu's and other Dhar- 
ma-.rastras are meant. This explanation is, however, not exact. 
Parishad, 'assemblage,' means, in the language of the .Sastras, 
either a Paaf£, an assemblage of learned Brahmans called together 
to decide some knotty point of law, or a Brahminical school, which 
studies a particular redaction of the Veda (see the Petersburg 
Diet. s. v.) The latter meaning is that applicable to this Sutra. 
By ' ParishadaA ' are here intended the Vedic schools, and their 
writings and teaching. Gautama also says, XVI, 49, Pratividyawt 
y&n smaranti smaranti, '(he shall observe the stoppages of the 

Digitized by 


1,4,12- THE STUDY OF THE VEDA. 45 

of the Veda-study may be learnt) from the (teaching 
and works of other) Vedic schools. 

Prasna I, PArALA 4, Khajvda 12. 

1. A Brahma«a declares, ' The daily recitation (of 
the Veda) is austerity.' 

2. In the same (sacred text) it is also declared, 
' Whether he recites the daily portion of the Veda 
standing, or sitting, or lying down, he performs aus- 
terity thereby ; for the daily recitation is austerity.' 

3. Now the Vi^asaneyi-brahmawa declares also, 
' The daily recitation is a sacrifice at which the Veda 
is offered. When it thunders, when lightning flashes 
or thunderbolts fall, and when the wind blows vio- 
lently, these sounds take the place of the exclama- 
tions Vasha/ (Vausha/ and Svaha). Therefore he 
shall recite the Veda whilst it thunders, whilst light- 
ning flashes and thunderbolts fall, and whilst the 
wind blows violently, lest the Vasha/ (should be 
heard) in vain.' 

Veda-study) which they teach in (the writings belonging to) each 
of the Vedas.' 

12. 1. 'It procures as much reward as penance.' — Haradatta. 
Manu II, 166; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 113. The phrase occurs 
frequently in the Brahma»as, e.g. Taitt. Ar. II, 14, 3. 

2. Regarding the proper position at the 'Veda-offering,' or 
daily recitation, see above, I, 3, 11, 23, and Taitt. Ar. II, 11, 3. 
Passages similar to the first part of the sentence quoted in this 
Sutra occur Taitt. Ar. II, 12, 3, and 15, 3. It ought to be observed, 
that the Taitt. Ar. in both places has the word ' vra^an,' which is 
also read in the P. and P. U. MSS. The second part is taken 
apparently from the same work, II, 14, 2. 

3. See .Satapatha-brahmawa XI, 5, 6, 8, where a passage very 
similar to that quoted by Apastamba occurs. Vasha/ and the other 
exclamations, which are pronounced by the Hotri'-priest, serve as 
signals for the Adhvaryu to throw the oblations into the fire. 

Digitized by 


46 Apastamba. i, 4, 12. 

4. The conclusion of the passage from that (Va^fa- 
saneyi-brahma«a is found) in another Sakha (of the 

5. ' Now, if the wind blows, or if it thunders, or 
if lightning flashes, or thunderbolts fall, then he 
shall recite one ^'k-verse (in case he studies the 
Rzg-veda), or one Ya^us (in case he studies the 
Ya^r-veda), or one Saman (in case he studies the 
Sama-veda), or (without having regard to his par- 
ticular Veda, the following Ya^us), " BhM Bhuva^, 
Suva^, in faith I offer true devotion." Then, indeed, 
his daily recitation is accomplished thereby for 
that day.' 

6. If that is done, (if the passage of the Va^a- 
saneyi-brahma#a is combined with that quoted in 
Sutra 5, the former stands) not in contradiction with 
the decision of the Aryas. 

7. For they (who know the law) teach both the 
continuance and the interruption (of the daily re- 
citation of the Veda). That would be meaningless, 
if one paid attention to the (passage of the) Va^a- 
saneyi-brahma#a (alone). 

8. For no (worldly) motive for the decision of 
those Aryas is perceptible ; (and hence it must have 
a religious motive and be founded on a passage of 
the Veda). 

9. (The proper interpretation therefore is, that) 
the prohibition to study (given above and by the 

5. ' Some suppose that the words BhuA BhuvaA and SuvaA &c. 
(are to be used only) if one studies the Brahmawa portion of the 
Veda, not everywhere.' — Haradatta. 

6. Haradatta explains Aryas by virish/aA, ' excellent ones,' i. e. 
persons who know the law, and he gives Manu as an instance. 

8. See above, I, 1, 4, 9 and 10, and notes. 

Digitized by 


1,4,12- THE STUDY OF THE VEDA. 47 

Aryas generally) refers only to the repetition of the 
sacred texts in order to learn them, not to their 
application at sacrifices. 

10. (But if you ask, why the decision of the Aryas 
presupposes the existence of aVedic passage, then I 
answer) : All precepts were (originally) taught in the 
Brahmawas, (but) these texts have been lost. Their 
(former existence) may, however, be inferred from 

11. But it is not (permissible to infer the former 
existence of) a (Vedic) passage in cases where plea- 
sure is obtained (by following a rule of the Smriti 
or a custom). 

12. He who follows such (usages) becomes fit 
for hell. 

1 3. Now follow (some rites and) rules that have 
been declared in the Brahmawas. 

14. By way of laudation they are called 'great 
sacrifices ' or ' great sacrificial sessions.' 

15. (These rites include): The daily Bali-offering 

10. How then is their existence known? ' They are inferred 
from usage.' ' " Usage " means the teaching of the law-books 
and the practice. From that it is inferred that Manu and other 
(authors of law-books) knew such texts of the Brahmawas. For 
how could otherwise (.tfrshis like Manu) teach in their works or 
practise (such customs) for which no authority is now found? 
And certainly they were intimately connected with the revealed 
texts (i.e. saw them).' — Haradatta. 

11. Compare above, I, 1, 4, 8-10. 

13. The consequence of the introduction of these rules into 
a Smr/ti work is, that their omission must be expiated by a Smarta 
penance and not by a Srauta one. 

14. The commentator observes, that, as these rites are called 
'great sacrifices," by way of laudation only, the particular laws 
binding on performers of real Soma-sacrifices cannot be trans- 
ferred to the performers of these ceremonies. Regarding the 

Digitized by 


48 APASTAMBA. I, 4, 13. 

to the (seven classes of) beings ; the (daily) gift of 
(food) to men according to one's power; 

PRASNA I, PArALA 4, Khajvda 13. 

1. The oblation to the gods accompanied by the 
exclamation Svaha, which may consist even of a piece 
of wood only ; the offering to the Manes accompanied 
by the exclamation Svadha, which may consist even 
of a vessel with water only ; the daily recitation. 

2. Respect must be shown to those who are 
superior by caste, 

3. And also to (persons of the same caste who are) 
venerable (on account of learning, virtue, and the like). 

4. A man elated (with success) becomes proud, a 
proud man transgresses the law, but through the 
transgression of the law hell indeed (becomes his 

5. It has not been declared, that orders (may 
be addressed by the teacher) to a pupil who has 
returned home. 

6. The syllable ' Om ' is the door of heaven. 

term 'great sacrifices,' see also Taitt. Ar. II, 11, 10, 1 seq., and 
«Satapatha-brahma«a XI, 5, 6, 1. 

13. 1. Taitt. Ax. II, 10, 2 and 3, and .Satapatha-br. loc. cit. 2. 
Haradatta observes, that some consider the Devaya^a, mentioned 
in the Sutra, to be different from the Vauvadeva, but that he holds 
it to be the same. Further he mentions, that some prescribe this 
Vauvadeva to be performed even if one has nothing to eat. 

2. 'Namely, by allowing them to walk in front on the road and 
by giving them perfumed garlands and the like at festive occasions.' 
— Haradatta. 

5. Haradatta gives as an example the order to fetch water, and 
adds that a voluntary act on a former pupil's part ought not to be 

6. Compare also Taitt. Ar. I, 2, 4, and Manu II, 74. 

Digitized by 



Therefore he who is about to study the Veda, shall 
begin (his lesson) by (pronouncing) it. 

7. If he has spoken anything else (than what 
refers to the lesson, he shall resume his reading by 
repeating the word ' Om '). Thus the Veda is sepa- 
rated from profane speech. 

8. And at sacrifices the orders (given to the 
priests) are headed by this word. 

9. And in common life, at the occasion of cere- 
monies performed for the sake of welfare, the sen- 
tences shall be headed by this word, as, for instance, 
' (Om) an auspicious day,' ' (Om) welfare,' ' (Om) 

10. Without a vow of obedience (a pupil) shall not 
study (nor a teacher teach) a difficult (new book) 
with the exception of (the texts called) Tri/forava#a 
and Tri^sahava^ana. 

11. Harlta declares, that the (whole) Veda must 
be studied under a vow of obedience until there is 
no doubt (regarding it in the mind of the pupil). 

9. The example given in the Sutra is that of the Pu#yahava£ana, 
which precedes every Gr*hya ceremony, and at which the sacrificer 
requests a number of invited Brahmanas to wish him success. The 
complete sentences are, The sacrificer: Om karma»a/4 puwyaham 
bhavanto bruvantviti, ' Om, wish that the day may be auspicious 
for the performance of the ceremony.' The Brahmawas: Om 
pu«yaha*» karmawa iti, 'Om, may the day be auspicious for the 
ceremony.' In the same manner the Brahmawas afterwards wish 
' welfare,' svasti, ' prosperity,' vr*ddhi, to the sacrificer. 

10. Manu II, 112. 

11. The meaning of H&rita is, that the vow of obedience is 
required for the Trifaravawa and Tri^sahava/fcana, which Apastamba 
exempted in the preceding Sutra. It follows from this rule that 
the Ahgas or works explanatory of the Veda need not be studied 
under a vow of obedience. 

[2] E 

Digitized by 


50 APASTAMBA. 1, 4, 13. 

12. No obedience is due (to the teacher for teach- 
ing) works which do not belong to the Veda. 

1 3. (A student) shall embrace the feet of a person, 
who teaches him at the request of his (regular 
teacher), as long as the instruction lasts. 

14. Some (declare, that he shall do so) always, (if 
the substitute is) a worthy person. 

1 5. But obedience (as towards the teacher) is not 
required (to be shown towards such a person). 

16. And (pupils) older (than their teacher need 
not show him obedience). 

17. If (two persons) teach each other mutually 
(different redactions of) the Veda, obedience (towards 
each other) is not ordained for them. 

18. (For) the (wise) say, ' The Veda-knowledge 
(of either of them) grows.' 

19. vSvetaketu declares, 'He who desires to study 
more, after having settled (as a householder), shall 
dwell two months every year, with collected mind, 
in the house of his teacher,' 

20. (And he adds), ' For by this means I studied 
a larger part of the Veda than before, (during my 
studentship.) ' 

2 1 . That is forbidden by the *Sastras. 

22. For after the student has settled as a house- 
holder, he is ordered by the Veda, to perform the 
daily rites, 

13. This rule is a supplement to I, 2, 7, 29. 

14. '"A worthy person," i.e. on account of his learning or 
character.' — Haradatta. 

16. 'According to some, this rule refers only to the time after 
the instruction has been completed; according to others, to the 
time of studentship.' — Haradatta. But see Manu II, 151 seq. 

Digitized by 



Prasna I, Patala 4, Khaatja 14. 

i . (That is to say) the Agnihotra, hospitality, 

2. And what else of this kind (is ordained). 

3. He whom (a student) asks for instruction, shall 
certainly not refuse it ; 

4. Provided he does not see in him a fault, (which 
disqualifies. him from being taught). 

5. If by chance (through the pupil's stupidity the 
teaching) is not completed, obedience towards the 
(teacher is the pupil's only refuge). 

6. Towards a mother (grandmother and great- 
grandmother) and a father (grandfather and great- 
grandfather) the same obedience must be shown as 
towards a teacher. 

7. The feet of all Gurus must be embraced (every 
day) by a student who has returned home ; 

8. And also on meeting them, after returning 
from a journey. 

9. The feet of (elder) brothers and sisters must be 
embraced, according to the order of their seniority. 

10. And respect (must) always (be shown to one's 
elders and betters), according to the injunction 

14. 1. The Agnihotra, i.e. certain daily oblations of clarified butter. 
3. Manu II, 109-115. 5. ManuII, 218. 

6. Manu II, 228, 235. 

7. The word Gurus, 'venerable persons/ includes besides the 
teacher and persons mentioned in the preceding Sutra, an elder 
brother, a maternal uncle, and all others who are one's betters 
or elders. See above, I, 2, 6, 29-35. 

8. ' That is to say, whether he himself or " the venerable persons" 
undertook the journey.' — Haradatta. 

9. Manu II, 133. 10. See above, I, 4, 13, 2. 

E 2 

Digitized by 


52 APASTAMBA. 1, 4, 14. 

(given above and according to the order of their 

11. He shall salute an officiating priest, a father- 
in-law, a father's brother, and a mother's brother, 
(though they may be) younger than he himself, and 
(when saluting) rise to meet them. 

1 2. Or he may silently embrace their feet. 

1 3. A friendship kept for ten years with fellow- 
citizens (is a reason for giving a salutation, and so 
is) a friendship, contracted at school, which has lasted 
for five years. But a learned Brihma«a (known) for 
less than three years, must be saluted. 

14. If the age (of several persons whom one 
meets) is exactly known, one must salute the eldest 

15. He need not salute a person, who is not a 
Guru, and who stands in a lower or higher place 
than he himself. 

1 6. Or he may descend or ascend (to the place 
where such a person stands) and salute him. 

17. But every one (Gurus and others) he shall 
salute, after having risen (from his seat). 

18. If he is impure, he shall not salute (any- 
body) ; 

1 9. (Nor shall he salute) a person who is impure. 

11. Manu II, 130. 

12. The commentator adds that the mode of salutation must 
depend on their learning and virtue. 

13. Manu II, 134. 

16. This Sutra, like the preceding, refers to those who are 
not 'Gurus.' 

17. Manu II, 120. 

18. ' Impure,' i.e. unfit for associating with others on account 
of the death of relations or through other causes, see below, I, 5, 
15, 7 seq. 

Digitized by 


1,4,14. SALUTING. 53 

20. Nor shall he, being impure, return a saluta- 

21. Married women (must be saluted) according 
to the (respective) ages of their husbands. 

22. He shall not salute with his shoes on, or his 
head wrapped up, or his hands full. 

23. In saluting women, a Kshatriya or a Vaisya 
he shall use a pronoun, not his name. 

24. Some (declare, that he shall salute in this 
manner even) his mother and the wife of his 

25. Know that a Brahmawa of ten years and a 
Kshatriya of a hundred years stand to each other in 
the relation of father and son. But between those 
two the Brahmawa is the father. 

26. A younger person or one of equal age he 
shall ask, about his well-being (employing the word 

27. (He shall ask under the same conditions) 
a Kshatriya, about his health (employing the word 
anamaya) ; 

28. A Vaisya if he has lost anything (employing 
the word anash/a). 

23. He shall say, ' I salute,' not ' I, N. N., salute.' ManuII, 123. 

24. Apastamba, of course, holds the contrary opinion. Manu 
II, 216. 

25. This verse, which is found with slight variations in most 
Smrz'tis, contains, according to Haradatta, an instruction given by 
a teacher to his pupil. Manu II, 135. 

26. Of course, in case the person addressed is a Brahman. 
Manu II, 127. Kulluka quotes under this verse the above and 
the following Sutras. But his quotation has only a faint resem- 
blance to our text. 

28. That is to say in these terms : ' I hope you have not lost 
any cattle or other property ! ' — Haradatta. 

Digitized by 


54 Apastamba. 1, 5, 15. 

29. A .Sudra, about his health (employing the 
word arogya). 

30. He shall not pass a learned Brahma»a with- 
out addressing him ; 

31. Nor an (unprotected) woman in a forest (or 
any other lonely place). 

Prasna I, Pafala 5, Khanda 15. 

1. When he shows his respect to Gurus or aged 
persons or guests, when he offers a burnt-oblation 
(or other sacrifice), when he murmurs prayers at 
dinner, when sipping water and during the (daily) 
recitation of the Veda, his garment (or his sacrificial 
thread) shall pass over his left shoulder and under 
his right arm. 

2. By sipping (pure) water, that has been col- 
lected on the ground, he becomes pure. 

3. Or he, whom a pure person causes to sip water, 
(becomes also pure). 

31. He shall address a woman in order to re-assure her, and 
do it in these terms : ' Mother, or sister, what can I do for you ? 
Don't be afraid ! ' &c. — Haradatta. 

15. r. Taitt. Ar. II, 1, 2 seq.; Manu IV, 58. 

2. Pure water is that which a cow will drink. "VkgH. I, 192; 
Manu V, 128. 

3. The ceremony of ' sipping water ' may be performed in two 
ways; either the 'person sipping' may take the water out of a 
river, pond, &c, or he may get the water poured into his hand by 
another person. But, according to Apastamba, he must not take 
a pot or gourd in his left hand and pour the water into his right, 
as some Smri'tis allow. The reason for this rule is, that Apa- 
stamba considers it essential that both hands should be used in 
conveying the water to the mouth; see also above, I, 1, 4, 21. 
This agrees with the custom now followed, which is to bend the 
right hand into the form of a cow's ear, and to touch the right 
wrist with the left hand while drinking. 

Digitized by 


1,5,15. PURIFICATION. 55 

4. He shall not sip rain-drops. 

5. (He shall not sip water) from a (natural) cleft 
in the ground. 

6. He shall not sip water heated (at the fire) 
except for a particular reason (as sickness). 

7. He who raises his empty hands (in order to 
scare) birds, (becomes impure and) shall wash (his 

8. If he can (find water to sip) he shall not remain 
impure (even) for a muhurta. 

9. Nor (shall he remain) naked (for a muhurta if 
he can help it). 

10. Purification (by sipping water) shall not take 
place whilst he is (standing) in the water. 

11. Also, when he has crossed a river, he shall 
purify himself by sipping water. 

12. He shall not place fuel on the fire, without 
having sprinkled it (with water). 

4. ' Some think, that this Sutra is intended to forbid also 
the drinking of rain-water. Other commentators declare that, 
according to this Sutra, it is allowed to use for "sipping" drops 
of water which fall from a vessel suspended by ropes [because the 
Sutra emphatically excludes " rain-drops " only].' — Haradatta. 

6. Manu II, 61. 'Because the term "heated by fire" is used, 
there is no objection to water heated by the rays of the sun. In 
the same manner the use of " hot " water only is usually forbidden 
in the Smrnis.' — Haradatta. 

7. ' Because the phrase " with empty hands " is used, he commits 
no fault if he raises his hand, holding a stick or a clod. Some 
declare, that the term "touching water" (rendered by "washing") 
means " sipping water." ' — Haradatta. 

11. The translation given above is based on the interpretation 
of Haradatta, who considers that Apastamba holds 'crossing a 
river ' to cause impurity. The natural and probably the right inter- 
pretation, however, is that rejected by Haradatta, ' But he shall sip 
water after having come out (of the river or tank).' 

12. ' " On the fire used for Vedic or Smarta sacrifices or for 

Digitized by 


56 Apastamba. I, 5, 15. 

1 3. (If he is seated in company with) other unclean 
persons on a seat consisting of a confused heap 
of straw, and does not touch them, he may consider 
himself pure. 

14. (The same rule applies, if he is seated) on 
grass or wood fixed in the ground. 

15. He shall put on a dress, (even if it is clean,) 
only after having sprinkled it with water. 

16. If he has been touched by a dog, he shall 
bathe, with his clothes on ; 

17. Or he becomes pure, after having washed 
that part (of his body) and having touched it with 
fire and again washed it, as well as his* feet, and 
having sipped water. 

18. Unpurified, he shall not approach fire, (so 
near that he can feel the heat). 

19. Some declare, that (he shall not approach 
nearer) than the length of an arrow. 

20. Nor shall he blow on fire with his breath. 

21. Nor shall he place fire under his bedstead. 

household purposes." . . . Some declare, that (the fuel need not be 
sprinkled with water) if used for the kitchen fire.' — Haradatta. 

14. Haradatta's commentary is of little use, and I am not quite 
certain that my translation is correct. 

15. Manu V, 118. 

17. This second proceeding is adopted in case the dog has 
touched the hands or the lower parts of the body, as may be learnt 
by the comparison of a verse of Manu. 

18. Manu IV, 142; YzgH. I, 155. 

20. Manu IV, 53. Haradatta mentions other explanations of 
this Sutra. Some say, that the .Srauta fire may be kindled by 
blowing, because that is ordained particularly in the Va^asaneyaka, 
but that the domestic fire is not to be treated so. Others again 
consider the rule absolute, and say, that a hollow reed or bellows 
must be used for kindling the fire, lest drops of saliva should fall 
upon it. 

21. Manu IV, 54. 

Digitized by 


1, 5, 16. PURIFICATION. 57 

22. It is lawful for a Brahmawa to dwell in a 
village, where there is plenty of fuel and water, 
(and) where he may perform the rites of purification 
by himself. 

23. When he has washed away the stains of urine 
and faeces after voiding urine or faeces, the stains of 
food (after dinner), the stains of the food eaten the 
day before (from his vessels), and the stains of 
semen, and has also washed his feet and afterwards 
has sipped water, he becomes pure. 

Prasna I, Pafala 5, Khanda 16. 

1. He shall not drink water standing or bent 

2. Sitting he shall sip water (for purification) 
thrice, the water penetrating to his heart. 

22. The last condiiion mentioned in the Sutra indicates, that 
the place must have a river or tank, not wells only, as the purifi- 
cation by sipping water cannot be performed without help, with 
water from wells. 

23. Manu V, 138. 

16. 1. Haradatta takes a&im here to mean 'to drink water,' and 
thinks that it is forbidden to do this standing or in a bent position. 
Others refer the prohibition to 'sipping water for the sake of 
purification,' and translate, ' He shall not sip water standing or in 
a bent position (except in case of necessity),' i.e. if the bank of the 
river is so high that he cannot reach the water sitting down, and 
in this case he shall enter it up to his thighs or up to his navel. 

2. Manu II, 60 and 62; V, 139; and Ya^#. I, 20 and 27; 
Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 165. Haradatta observes, that the further 
particulars regarding purification by sipping water must be supplied 
from other Smrriis. The rule quoted by him is as follows : ' The 
performer should be sitting in a pure place, not on a seat, except 
when sipping water after dinner, and should sip thrice from his 
hand water which is free from bubbles and foam, and which he 
has attentively regarded, in such a quantity as would cover a Masha- 

Digitized by 


58 Apastamba. 1,5,16. 

3. He shall wipe his lips three times. 

4. Some (declare, that he shall do so) twice. 

5. He shall then touch (his lips) once (with the 
three middle fingers). 

6. Some (declare, that he shall do so) twice. 

7. Having sprinkled water on his left hand with 
his right, he shall touch both his feet, and his head 
and (the following three) organs, the eyes, the nose, 
and the ears. 

8. Then he shall wash (his hands). 

9. But if he is going to eat he shall, though pure, 
twice sip water, twice wipe (his mouth), and once 
touch (his lips). 

10. He shall rub the gums and the inner part of 
his lips (with his finger or with a piece of wood) and 
then sip water. 

11. He does not become impure by the hair (of 
his moustaches) getting into his mouth, as long as 
he does not touch them with his hand. 

12. If (in talking), drops (of saliva) are perceived 
to fall from his mouth, then he shall sip water. 

13. Some declare, that if (the saliva falls) on the 
ground, he need not sip water. 

bean. The water sipped by a Brahman should reach his heart, 
that sipped by a Kshatriya the throat, and that sipped by a Vawya 
the palate. A .S'udra sips once as much as to wet his tongue.' 

7. The eyes are to be touched with the thumb and the fourth 
finger, either at once, or one after the other, the nostrils with the 
thumb and the second finger, the ears with the thumb and the 
small finger. 

9. Manu V, 138. 

11. Haradatta observes that this Sutra shows, that every other 
foreign substance brought with the food into the mouth, makes the 
food 'leavings' and the eater impure. Manu V, 141. 

12. Manu V, 141 declares sipping to be unnecessary in this case. 

Digitized by 


1-5,16. purification; eating. 59 

14. On touching during sleep or in sternutation 
the effluvia of the nose or of the eyes, on touching 
blood, hair, fire, kine, a Brahmawa, or a woman, and 
after having walked on the high road, and after 
having touched an impure (thing or man), and after 
having put on his lower garment, he shall either 
bathe or sip or merely touch water (until he con- 
siders himself clean). 

1 5. (Or he may touch) moist cowdung, wet herbs, 
or moist earth. 

16. He shall not eat meat which has been cut 
with a sword (or knife) used for killing. 

17. He shall not bite off with his teeth (pieces 
from) cakes (roots or fruits). 

18. He shall not eat in the house of a (relation 
within six degrees) where a person has died, before 
the ten days (of impurity) have elapsed. 

19. (Nor shall he eat in a house) where a lying- 
in woman has not (yet) come out (of the lying-in 

20. (Nor in a house) where a corpse lies. 

14. Manu V, 145. 

18. ' The term " ten days" is used in order to indicate the time 
of impurity generally. In some cases, as that of a Kshatriya, this 
lasts longer. In other cases, where the impurity lasts thirty-six 
hours only, (the abstention from dining in such houses is 
shorter.)' — Haradatta. Manu IV, 217. 

19. A lying-in woman is impure, and must not be touched 
during the first ten days after her confinement. During this time, 
she exclusively occupies the Sutikagr/ha or lying-in chamber. 
Manu IV, 217. 

20. Haradatta remarks that in the case of the death of a person 
who is not a relation, it is customary to place at the distance of 
' one hundred bows ' a lamp and water-vessel, and to eat (beyond 
that distance). 

Digitized by 


60 APASTAMBA. 1, 5, 16. 

21. Food touched by a (Brahma#a or other high- 
caste person) who is impure, becomes impure, but 
not unfit for eating. 

22. But what has been brought (be it touched or 
not) by an impure .Sttdra, must not be eaten, 

23. Nor that food in which there is a hair, 

24. Or any other unclean substance. 

25. (Nor must that food be eaten) which has been 
touched with an unclean substance (such as garlic), 

26. Nor (that in which) an insect living on impure 
substances (is found), 

27. Nor (that in which) excrements or limbs of 
a mouse (are found), 

28. Nor that which has been touched by the foot 
(even of a pure person), 

29. Nor what has been (touched) with the hem 
of a garment, 

30. Nor that which has been looked at by a dog 
or an Apapatra, 

31. 'Food which is simply impure, may be purified by putting 
it on the fire, sprinkling it with water, touching it with ashes or 
earth, and praising it.' — Haradatta. 

22. Others say, that the food becomes unfit for eating, only, if 
in bringing it, the .Sudra has touched it. — Haradatta. 

23. Manu IV, 207; Y&gH. I, 167. 'But this rule holds good 
only if the hair had been cooked with the food. If a hair falls into 
it at dinner, then it is to be purified by an addition of clarified 
butter, and may be eaten.' — Haradatta. 

24. Haradatta quotes a passage from Baudhayana, which enu- 
merates as 'unclean things' here intended, 'hair, worms or beetles, 
nail-parings, excrements of rats.' The rule must be understood 
as the preceding, i.e. in case these things have been cooked with 
the food. 

26. Manu IV, 207; Ya#». I, 167, 168. This Sfitra must be 
read with Sutra 23 above. 

30. Manu IV, 208 ; Y&gn. I, 167. Apapatras are persons whom 

Digitized by 



31. Nor what has been brought in the hem 
of a garment, (even though the garment may be 

32. Nor what has been brought at night by a 
female slave. 

33. If during his meal, ■ 

Prasna I, PArALA 5, Khaauja 17. 

1. A 6"udra touches him, (then he shall leave off 

2. Nor shall he eat sitting in the same row with 
unworthy people. 

3. Nor shall he eat (sitting in the same row 
with persons) amongst whom one, whilst they eat, 
rises and gives his leavings to his pupils or sips 
water ; 

4. Nor (shall he eat) where they give him food, 
reviling him. 

one must not allow to eat from one's dishes, e.g. UTajtdihs, Patitas, 
a woman in her courses or during the ten days of impurity after 
confinement. See also above, I, 1, 3, 25. 

32. Haradatta thinks, that as the Sutra has the feminine gender, 
dast, it does not matter if a male slave brings the food. But 
others forbid also this. 

17. 1. 'Some say, that this Sutra indicates that the touch of a 
.Sudra does not defile at any other time but at dinner, whilst others 
hold that a Sudra's touch defiles always, and that the Sutra is 
intended to indicate an excess of impurity, if it happens at dinner- 
time.' — Haradatta. 

2. 'Unworthy people are those who are neither of good family, 
nor possess learning and virtue.' — Haradatta. 

3. According to Haradatta a person who misbehaves thus, is 
called ' a dinner-thorn.' This point of etiquette is strictly observed 
in our days also. Manu IV, 2 1 2. 

4. Manu IV, 212 ; Yagn. I, 167. 

Digitized by 


62 Apastamba. I, 5, 17. 

5. Nor (shall he eat) what has been smelt at by 
men or other impure (beings, as cats). 

6. He shall not eat in a ship, 

7. Nor on a wooden platform. 

8. He may eat sitting on ground which has been 
purified (by the application of cowdung and the 

9. (If he eats) out of an earthen vessel, he shall 
eat out of one that has not been used (for cooking). 

10. (If he can get) a used vessel (only, he shall 
eat from it), after having heated it thoroughly. 

11. A vessel made of metal becomes pure by 
being scoured with ashes and the like. 

12. A wooden vessel becomes pure by being 

13. At a sacrifice (the vessels must be cleaned) 
according to the precepts of the Veda. 

14. He shall not eat food which has been bought 
or obtained ready-prepared in the market. 

1 5. Nor (shall he eat) flavoured food (bought in 
the market) excepting raw meat, honey, and salt. 

16. Oil and clarified butter (bought in the market) 
he may use, after having sprinkled them with water. 

17. Prepared food which has stood for a night, 
must neither be eaten nor drunk. 

5. ' As the text has avaghrata, " smelt at," it does not matter if 
they smell the food from a distance.' — Haradatta. 

11. 'It must be understood from other Smrz'tis, that brass is to 
be cleaned with ashes, copper with acids, silver with cowdung, and 
gold with water.' — Haradatta. Manu V, 114. 

12. Manu V, 115. 

16. 'Having sprinkled them with water and purified them by 
boiling; or, according to others, mixing them with so much water 
as will not spoil them.' — Haradatta. 

17. The Sanskrit has two terms for 'eating;' the first ' kMd' 

Digitized by 



1 8. Nor (should prepared food) that has turned 
sour (be used in any way). 

19. (The preceding two rules do) not (hold good 
in regard to) the juice of sugar-cane, roasted rice- 
grains, porridge prepared with whey, roasted yava, 
gruel, vegetables, meat, flour, milk and preparations 
from it, roots and fruits of herbs and trees. 

20. (Substances which have turned) sour with- 
out being mixed with anything else (are to be 

21. All intoxicating drinks are forbidden. 

22. Likewise sheep's milk, 

23. Likewise the milk of camels, of does, of 
animals that give milk while big with young, of those 
that bear twins, and of (one-hoofed animals), 

24. Likewise the milk of a cow (buffalo-cow or 
she-goat) during the (first) ten days (after their 
giving birth to young ones), 

25. Likewise (food mixed) with herbs which serve 
for preparing intoxicating liquors, 

26. (Likewise) red garlic, onions, and leeks, 

applies to hard substances, the second 'ad' to soft substances. 
Manu IV, 211 ; Ya£#. I, 167. 

18. Manu IV, 211 ; V, 9; High. I, 167. 

19. Manu V, 10, 24 and 25. 

20. According to Haradatta, Apastamba returns once more to 
the question about sour food, in order to teach that dishes pre- 
pared with curds and other sour substances may be eaten. 

22. Manu V, 8 ; Y&gn. I, 170. 

23. Manu V, 8, 9; Yagii. I, 170. 'Sandhinf, translated by 
"females that give milk while big with young," means, accord- 
ing to others, " female animals that give milk once a day." ' — 

24. Manu V, 8. 

26. Manu V, 5; Ya#*. I, 176. 

Digitized by 


64 Apastamba. 1.5,17- 

27. Likewise anything else which (those who are 
learned in the law) forbid. 

28. Mushrooms ought not to be eaten ; that has 
been declared in a Brahmawa ; 

29. (Nor the meat) of one-hoofed animals, of 
camels, of the Gayal, of village pigs, of .Sarabhas, 
and of cattle. 

30. (But the meat) of milch-cows and oxen may 
be eaten. 

31. The Va^asaneyaka declares ' bull's flesh is fit 
for offerings.' 

32. Amongst birds that scratch with their feet for 
food, the (tame) cock (must not be eaten). 

33. Amongst birds that feed thrusting forward 
their beak, the (heron, called) Plava (or .Saka/abila, 
must not be eaten). 

34. Carnivorous (birds are forbidden), 

35. Likewise the swan, the Bhasa, the Brahma#i 
duck, and the falcon. 

36. Common cranes and Saras-cranes (are not to 

27. Haradatta observes that Apastamba, finding the list of for- 
bidden vegetables too long, refers his pupils to the advice of the 
-Sish/as. The force of this Sutra is exactly the same as that of 

I, 3. ", 38- 

28. Y%#. I, 171. 

29. The camel, Gayal, and .Sarabha are mentioned as ' forbidden 
animals,' «Satapatha-br. I, 2, 1, 8; Aitareya-br. II, i, 8; see also 
Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 62; Manu V, 11, 18; Ya^S. I, 172, 176. 

32. Ya^tf. I, 176. 

33. Manu V, 12 ; Ya^«. I, 172. 

34. Manu V, 11 ; Ya£«. I, 172. 

35. Ya^«. I, 172. 

36. Manu V, 12 ; Y&gii. I, 172. Other commentators take the 
whole Sutra as one compound, and explain it as an exception to 
Sfltra 34. In that case the translation runs thus : (' Carnivorous 
birds are forbidden) except the Kruftta, Krauaf&i, Vardhr£«asa, 

Digitized by 



be eaten) with the exception of the leather-nosed 

37. Five-toed animals (ought not to be eaten) 
with the exception of the iguana, the tortoise, the 
porcupine, the hedgehog, the rhinoceros, the hare, 
and the Putikhasha. 

38. Amongst fishes, the Kzta. ought not to be 

39. Nor the snake-headed fish, nor the alligator, 
nor those which live on flesh only, nor those which 
are misshaped (like) mermen. 

PRASNA I, PArALA 6, Khajvda 18. 

1. Honey, uncooked (grain), venison, land, roots, 
fruits, (a promise of) safety, a pasture for cattle, a 
house, and fodder for a draught-ox may be accepted 
(even) from an Ugra. 

2. Harlta declares, that even these (presents) are 
to be accepted only if they have been obtained by 
a pupil. 

and Lakshnuuta.' — Haradatta. This translation is objectionable, 
because both the Kru&Sas, now called Kulam or KM£, and the 
Krau#£a, the red-crested crane, now called S&ras (Cyrus), feed on 
grain. Kru££akrau££a is a Vedic dual and stands for krudla- 
kraun^a or kru&£akrau»f£au. 

37. ManuV, 18; Y&gH. 1, 177. Putikhasha is, according to Hara- 
datta, an animal resembling a hare, and found in the Himalayas. 

39. Haradatta closes this chapter on flesh-eating by quoting 
Manu V, 56, which declares flesh-eating, drinking spirituous liquor, 
and promiscuous intercourse to be allowable, but the abstinence 
therefrom of greater merit. He states that the whole chapter must 
be understood in this sense. 

18. 1. Manu IV, 247. 'Ugra denotes either a bad twice-born 
man or the offspring of a Vairya and of a i'udra-woman. Other 
persons of a similar character must be understood to be included 
by the term.' — Haradatta. 

[2] F 

Digitized by 


66 Apastamba. 1, 6, 18. 

3. Or they (Brahmawa householders) may accept 
(from an Ugra) uncooked or (a little) unflavoured 
boiled food. 

4. (Of such food) they shall not take a great 
quantity (but only so much as suffices to support 

5. If (in times of distress) he is unable to keep 
himself, he may eat (food obtained from anybody), 

6. After having touched it (once) with gold, 

7. Or (having touched it with) fire. 

8. He shall not be too eager after (such a way of 
living). He shall leave it when he has obtained a 
(lawful) livelihood. 

9. (A student of the Brahmanic caste) who has 
returned home shall not eat (in the house) of 
people belonging to the three tribes, beginning with 
the Kshatriya (i. e. of Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and 

10. He may (usually) eat (the food) of a Brah- 
mana on account of (the giver's) character (as a 
Brahmawa). It must be avoided for particular 
reasons only. 

4. Also this rule seems to belong to H&rita, on account of its 
close connection with the preceding two. 

8. Haradatta quotes, in support of the last Sutras, a passage of 
the .ffMndogya Upanishad, I, io, 1, and one from the .ffzg-veda, 
IV, 18, 13, according to which it would be lawful to eat even 
impure food, as a dog's entrails, under such circumstances. Other 
commentators explain this and the preceding three Sutras differently. 
According to them the translation would run thus : ' If he himself 
does not find any livelihood (in times of distress, he may dwell even 
with low-caste people who give him something to eat, and) he 
may eat (food given by them) paying for it with (some small gift 
in) gold or with animals.' This second explanation is perhaps 

9. Manu IV, 218, 219, and 223. 

Digitized by 



11. He shall not eat in a house where (the host) 
performs a rite which is not a rite of penance, whilst 
he ought to perform a penance. 

12. But when the penance has been performed, 
he may eat (in that house). 

13. According to some (food offered by people) 
of any caste, who follow the laws prescribed for 
them, except that of .Sudras, may be eaten. 

14. (In times of distress) even the food of a 
*Sudra, who lives under one's protection for the sake: 
of spiritual merit, (may be eaten). 

15. He may eat it, after having touched it (once) 
with gold or with fire. He shall not be too eager 
after (such a way of living). He shall leave it when 
he obtains a (lawful) livelihood. 

16. Food received from a multitude of givers 
must not be eaten, 

17. Nor food offered by a general invitation (to 
all comers). 

18. Food offered by an artisan must not be 

19. Nor (that of men) who live by the use of 
arms (with the exception of Kshatriyas), 

11. ' If a Brahma»a who has been ordered to perform a penance, 
performs a Vauvadeva or other rite without heeding the order of 
his spiritual teacher, then a student who has returned home ought 
not to eat in his house, until the enjoined penance has been per- 
formed.' — Haradatta. 

12. ' The use of the part. perf. pass. " performed " indicates that 
he must not eat there, whilst the penance is being performed.' — 

14. Y&gft. I, 166. 15. Manu IV, 223. 

16. Manu IV, 209. 17. Manu IV, 209; Y&gH. I, 168. 

18. Manu IV, 210, 215; YigH. I, 162-164. 

19. Y%#. I, 164. 

F 2 

Digitized by 


68 Apastamba. 1, 6, 18. 

20. Nor (that of men) who live by letting lodgings 
or land. 

21. A (professional) physician is a person whose 
food must not be eaten, 

22. (Also) a usurer, 

23. (Also) a Brahma#a who has performed the 
Dlksha«!yeshri (or initiatory ceremony of the Soma- 
sacrifice) before he has bought the king (Soma). 

24. (The food given by a person who has per- 
formed the Dlksha«lyeshri may be eaten), when the 
victim sacred to Agni and Soma has been slain. 

25. Or after that the omentum of the victim 
(sacred to Agni and Soma) has been offered. 

26. For a Brahma«a declares, ' Or they may eat 
of the remainder of the animal, after having set 
apart a portion for the offering.' 

27. A eunuch (is a person whose food must not 
be eaten), 

28. (Likewise) the (professional) messenger em- 
ployed by a king (or others), 

29. (Likewise a Brahma#a) who offers substances 
that are not fit for a sacrifice, 

30. (Likewise) a spy, 

21. Manu IV, 212; Yigk. I, 162. 

22. Manu IV, 210; YigH. I, 161. 

23. 'That is to say, one who has begun, but not finished a 
Soma-sacrifice.' — Haradatta. Manu IV, 210, and Gopatha-bnth- 
mana III, 19. 

25. Aitareya-brahma»a II, 1, 9. 

27. Manu IV, 211 ; Y£gfi. I, 161. 

28. The village or town messengers are always men of the 
lowest castes, such as the Mahirs of Maharashtra. 

29. 'For example, he who offers human blood in a magic 
rite.' — Haradatta. 

30. Haradatta explains £art, translated by 'spy,' to mean 'a 

Digitized by 



31. (Also) a person who has become an ascetic 
without (being authorized thereto by) the rules (of 
the law), 

32. (Also) he who forsakes the sacred fires 
(without performing the sacrifice necessary on that 

33. Likewise a learned Brahmawa who avoids 
everybody, or eats the food of anybody, or neglects 
the (daily) recitation of the Veda, (and) he whose 
(only living) wife is of the .Sudra caste. 

PRASNA I, PArALA 6, Khanda 19. 

1. A drunkard, a madman, a prisoner, he who 
learns the Veda from his son, a creditor who sits 
with his debtor (hindering the fulfilment of his 
duties), a debtor who thus sits (with his creditor, 
are persons whose food must not be eaten) as long 
as they are thus engaged or in that state. 

2. Who (then) are those whose food may be eaten ? 

secret adherent of the Sakta sect ' (g&Ma/Sari, siktzA). The exist- 
ence of this sect in early times has not hitherto been proved. 

31. Haradatta gives the £akyas or Bauddhas as an instance. 
But it is doubtful, whether Apastamba meant to refer to them, 
though it seems probable that heretics are intended. 

32. Y&gfl. I, 160. 

33. ' Who avoids everybody, i.e. who neither invites nor dines 
with anybody.' — Haradatta. 

19. 1. ManuIV, 207; Ya##. 1, 161, 162. Another commentator 
explains awika, translated above ' he who learns the Veda from his 
son,' by 'a money-lender,' and combines pratyupavish/aA with 
this word, i.e. 'a money-lender who sits with his debtor hindering 
him from fulfilling his duties.' This manner of forcing a debtor 
to pay, which is also called A^arita (see Manu VIII, 49), is, though 
illegal, resorted to sometimes even now. 

2. ' The object of this Sutra is to introduce the great variety of 
opinions quoted below.' — Haradatta. 

Digitized by 


7<d Apastamba. I, 6, 19. 

3. Ka#va declares, that it is he who wishes to 

give * 

4. Kautsa declares, that it is he who is holy. 

5. Varshyayam declares, that it is every giver (of 

6. For if guilt remains fixed on the man (who 
committed a crime, then food given by a sinner) may 
be eaten (because the guilt cannot leave the sinner). 
But if guilt can leave (the sinner at any time, then 
food given by the sinner may be eaten because) he 
becomes pure by the gift (which he makes). 

7. Offered food, which is pure, may be eaten, 
according to Eka, Kumka, Ka#va, Kutsa, and 

8. Varshyayawi's opinion is, that (food) given 
unasked (may be accepted) from anybody. 

9. (Food offered) willingly by a holy man may be 

10. Food given unwillingly by a holy man ought 
not to be eaten. 

11. Food offered unasked by any person what- 
soever may be eaten, 

12. ' But not if it be given after an express pre- 
vious announcement ; ' thus says Harita. 

13. Now they quote also in a Purawa the follow- 
ing two verses : 

4. 'Holy' means not only 'following his lawful occupations,' 
but particularly 'practising austerities, reciting prayers, and offering 
burnt-oblations.' — Haradatta. 

10. Another commentator explains this Sutra thus : ' He need 
not eat the food offered by a righteous man, if he himself does not 
wish to do so.' — Haradatta. 

13. See Manu IV, 248 and 249, where these identical verses 

Digitized by 



' The Lord of creatures has declared, that food 
offered unasked and brought by the giver himself, 
may be eaten, though (the giver be) a sinner, 
provided the gift has not been announced before- 
hand. The Manes of the ancestors of that man who 
spurns such food, 'do not eat (his oblations) for fifteen 
years, nor does the fire carry his offerings (to the 

14. (Another verse from a Pura»a declares) : ' The 
food given by a physician, a hunter, a surgeon, a 
fowler, an unfaithful wife, or a eunuch must not be 

15. Now (in confirmation of this) they quote (the 
following verse) : ' The murderer of a Brahma«a 
learned in the Veda heaps his guilt on his guest, an 
innocent man on his calumniator, a thief set at liberty 
on the king, and the petitioner on him who makes 
false promises.' 

Prasna I, Patala 7, Khand\ 20. 

i. He shall not fulfil his sacred duties merely in 
order to acquire these worldly objects (as fame, gain, 
and honour). 

2. For when they ought to bring rewards, (duties 
thus fulfilled) become fruitless. 

3. (Worldly benefits) are produced as accessories 
(to the fulfilment of the law), just as in the case of a 
.mango tree, which is planted in order to obtain fruit, 
shade and fragrance (are accessory advantages). 

14. Manu IV, 211, 212. 

15. Regarding the liberation of the th : ef, see Apastamba I, 9, 
25, 4. A similar verse occurs Manu VIII, 317, which has caused 
the confusion observable in many MSS., as has been stated in the 
critical notes to the text. 

Digitized by 


72 Apastamba. I, 7, 20. 

4. But if (worldly advantages) are not produced, 
(then at least) the sacred duties have been fulfilled. 

5. Let him not become irritated at, nor be de- 
ceived by the speeches of hypocrites, of rogues, of 
infidels, and of fools. 

6. For Virtue and Sin do not go about and say, 
' Here we are ; ' nor do gods, Gandharvas, or Manes 
say (to men), ' This is virtue, that is sin.' 

7. But that is virtue, the practice of which wise 
men of the three twice-born castes praise ; what they 
blame, is sin. 

8. He shall regulate his course of action according 
to the conduct which in all countries is unanimously 
approved by men of the three twice-born castes, 
who have been properly obedient (to their teachers), 
who are aged, of subdued senses, neither given to 
avarice, nor hypocrites. 

9. Acting thus he will gain both worlds. 

10. Trade is not lawful for a Brahmawa. 

11. In times of distress he may trade in lawful 
merchandise, avoiding the following (kinds), that are 
forbidden : 

12. (Particularly) men, condiments and liquids, 
colours, perfumes, food, skins, heifers, substances 

20. 7. The Sutra is intended to show how the law should be 
ascertained in difficult cases. Haradatta quotes here the passage of 
Y&gn. I, 9, on Parishads, and states that the plural aryaA shows 
that three or four must be employed to arrive at a decision. See 
also Manu XII, 108 seq. 

8. Manu I, 6. 

11. This Sfttra, which specifies only one part of a Vawya's occu- 
pations as permissible for Brahmawas in distress, implies, according 
to Haradatta, that his other occupations also, as well as those of a 
Kshatriya, are permissible. Manu IV, 6 ; X, 82 ; Ya##. Ill, 35. 

12. Manu X, 86-89; Ya^w. III. 36-39. 

Digitized by 


1, 7, 21. LAWFUL LIVELIHOOD. 73 

used for glueing (such as lac), water, young corn- 
stalks, substances from which spirituous liquor may 
be extracted, red and black pepper, corn, flesh, arms, 
and the hope of rewards for meritorious deeds. 

13. Among (the various kinds of) grain he shall 
especially not sell sesamum or rice (except he have 
grown them himself). 

14. The exchange of the one of these (above- 
mentioned goods) for the other is likewise unlawful. 

15. But food (may be exchanged) for food, and 
slaves for slaves, and condiments for condiments, and 
perfumes for perfumes, and learning for learning. 

16. Let him traffic with lawful merchandise which 
he has not bought, 


1. With Muw^a-grass, Balba^a-grass (and articles 
made of them), roots, and fruits, 

2. And with (other kinds of) grass and wood which 
have not been worked up (into objects of use). 

3. He shall not be too eager (after such a live- 

4. If he obtains (another lawful) livelihood, he 
shall leave off (trading). 

13. The exception stated above, is given by Haradatta on the 
authority of Manu X, 90 ; Ya^fl. Ill, 39. 

15. 'From the permission to exchange learning for learning, it 
may be known that it is not lawful to sell it.' — Haradatta. Manu 
X, 94. 

21. 2. ' Since it is known that MuBga. and Balba^a are kinds 
of grass, it may be inferred from their being especially mentioned 
(in Sutra 1) that objects made of them (may be also sold).' — 

4. Ya^». Ill, 35. 

Digitized by 


74 APASTAMBA. I, 7, 21. 

5. Intercourse with fallen men is not ordained, 

6. Nor with Apapatras. 

7. Now (follows the enumeration of) the actions 
which cause loss of caste (Pataniya). 

8. (These are) stealing (gold), crimes whereby one 
becomes an Ablmasta, homicide, neglect of the 
Vedas, causing abortion, incestuous connection with 
relations born from the same womb as one's mother 
or father, and with the offspring of such persons, 
drinking spirituous liquor, and intercourse with per- 
sons the intercourse with whom is forbidden. 

9. That man falls who has connection with a female 
friend of a female Guru, or with a female friend of a 
male Guru, or with any married woman. 

10. Some (teachers declare), that he does not fall 
by having connection with any other married female 
except his teacher's wife. 

11. Constant commission of (other) sins (besides 
those enumerated above) also causes a man to lose 
his caste. 

12. Now follows (the enumeration of) the acts 
which make men impure (Asu^ikara). 

13. (These are) the cohabitation of Aryan women 
with .Sudras, 

14. Eating the flesh of forbidden (creatures), 

5. Manu XI, 180. 

6. Regarding the definition of the word Apapatra, see above, I, 
5, 16, 29. 

8. The crimes by which a person becomes Abhwasta are enu- 
merated below, I, 9, 24, 6 seq., where an explanation of the term 
will be given. 

9. Regarding the ' male Gurus ' see above. By ' female Gurus ' 
their wives are meant. 

10. I.e. he need not perform so heavy a penance. 

Digitized by 



1 5. As of a dog, a man, village cocks or pigs, car- 
nivorous animals, 

16. Eating the excrements of men, 

17. Eating what is left by a .Sudra, the cohabita- 
tion of Aryans with Apapatra women. 

18. Some declare, that these acts also cause a man 
to lose his caste. 

19. Other acts besides those (enumerated) are 
causes of impurity. 

20. He who learns (that a man has) committed 
a sin, shall not be the first to make it known to 
others ; but he shall avoid the (sinner), when per- 
forming religious ceremonies. 

Prasna I, PArALA 8, Khanda 22. 

1. He shall employ the means which tend to the 
acquisition of (the knowledge of) the Atman, which 
are attended by the consequent (destruction of the 
passions, and) which prevent the wandering (of the 
mind from its object, and fix it on the contemplation 
of the Atman). 

2. There is no higher (object) than the attain- 
ment of (the knowledge of the) Atman. 

3. We shall quote the verses (from the Veda) 

20. ' That is to say, he is not to invite the sinner to dinners, 
given at the occasion of religious ceremonies.' — Haradatta. 

22. 1. The knowledge of the Vedanta and the means which pre- 
pare men for the knowledge of the Atman, the ' Self, the universal 
soul,' are placed in this Pa/ala at the head of the penances, because 
they are most efficacious for the removal of all sin. The means 
are absence of anger &c, which are enumerated I, 8, 23, 6. 

2. Haradatta gives in his commentary a lengthy discussion on 
the Atman, which corresponds nearly to .Sankara's Introduction to 
and Commentary on the first Sfltra of Badaraya«a. 

3. According to Haradatta, the following verses are taken 
from an Upanishad. 

Digitized by 


76 Apastamba. i, 8, 22. 

which refer to the attainment of (the knowledge 
of) the Atman. 

4. All living creatures are the dwelling of him' 
who lies enveloped in matter, who is immortal and 
who is spotless. Those become immortal who wor- 
ship him who is immovable and lives in a movable 
dwelling. . 

5. Despising all that which in this world is called 
an object (of the senses) a wise man shall strive after 
the (knowledge of the) Atman. 

6. O pupil, I, who had not recognised in my own 
self the great self-luminous, universal, (absolutely) 
free Atman, which must be obtained without the 
mediation of anything else, desired (to find) it in 
others (the senses). (But now as I have obtained 
the pure knowledge, I do so no more.) Therefore 
follow thou also this good road that leads to welfare 
(salvation), and not the one that leads into misfor- 
tune (new births). 

7. It is he who is the eternal part in all creatures, 
whose essence is wisdom, who is immortal, unchange- 
able, destitute of limbs, of voice, of the (subtle) body, 

4. The spotless one &c. is the Paramatman. The spots are 
merit and demerit which, residing in the Manas, the internal organ 
of perception, are only falsely attributed to the Atman, ' the soul.' 
To become immortal means ' to obtain final liberation.' 

5. It seems to me that Haradatta's explanation of the words 
' idam idi ha idi ha ' is wrong. They ought to be divided thus, 
' idamid, iha id, iha loke.' The general sense remains the same, 
and there is no necessity to assume very curious and otherwise 
unknown Vedic forms. 

6. The verse is addressed by a teacher to his pupil. My trans- 
lation strictly follows Haradatta's gloss. But his interpretation is 
open to many doubts. However, I am unable to suggest anything 

7. The Sutra contains a further description of the Paramatman. 

Digitized by 


1,8,23. penance; knowledge of the atman. 77 

(even) of touch, exceedingly pure ; he is the uni- 
verse, he is the highest goal ; (he dwells in the 
middle of the body as) the Vishuvat day is (the 
middle of a Sattra-sacrifice) ; he, indeed, is (accessi- 
ble to all) like a town intersected by many streets. 

8. He who meditates on him, and everywhere 
and always lives according to his (commandments), 
and who, full of devotion, sees him who is difficult 
to be seen and subtle, will rejoice in (his) heaven. 

Prasna I, Pafala 8, Khanda 23. 

i. That Brahmawa, who is wise and recognises 
all creatures to be in the Atman, who pondering 
(thereon) does not become bewildered, and who re- 
cognises the Atman in every (created) thing, shines, 
indeed, in heaven. 

2. He, who is intelligence itself and subtler than 
the thread of the lotus-fibre, pervades the universe, 
and who, unchangeable and larger than the earth, 
contains the universe ; he, who is different from the 
knowledge of this world, obtained by the senses 
and identical with its objects, possesses the highest 
(form consisting of absolute knowledge). From him, 
who divides himself, spring all (created) bodies. 
He is the primary cause, he is eternal, he is 

8. Haradatta explains the word vish/ap, 'heaven,' by 'pain- 
freed greatness,' apparently misled by a bad etymology. The 
heaven of the Atman is, of course, liberation, that state where the 
individual soul becomes merged in the Brahman or Paramatman, 
which is pure essence, intelligence and joy. 

23. 2. This Sutra again contains a description of the Para- 
matman. The translation strictly follows the commentary, though 
the explanation, given in the latter, is open to objections. 

Digitized by 


7^ APASTAMBA. I, 9, 24. 

3. But the eradication of the faults is brought 
about in this life by the means (called Yoga). A wise 
man who has eradicated the (faults) which destroy 
the creatures, obtains salvation. 

4. Now we will enumerate the faults which tend 
to destroy the creatures. 

5. (These are) anger, exultation, grumbling, covet- 
ousness, perplexity, doing injury, hypocrisy, lying, 
gluttony, calumny, envy, lust, secret hatred, neglect 
to keep the senses in subjection, neglect to con- 
centrate the mind. The eradication of these (faults) 
takes place through the means of (salvation called) 

6. Freedom from anger, from exultation, from 
grumbling, from covetousness, from perplexity, from 
hypocrisy (and) hurtfulness ; truthfulness, moderation 
in eating, silencing slander, freedom from envy, self- 
denying liberality, avoiding to accept gifts, upright- 
ness, affability, extinction of the passions, subjection 
of the senses, peace with all created beings, con- 
centration (of the mind on the contemplation of the 
Atman), regulation of one's conduct according to 
that of the Aryas, peacefulness and contentedness ; 
— these (good qualities) have been settled by the 
agreement (of the wise) for all (the four) orders ; he 
who, according to the precepts of the sacred law, 
practises these, enters the universal soul. 

Prasna I, Pafala 9, Kiianda. 24. 

I. He who has killed a Kshatriya shall give a 
thousand cows (to Brahmawas) for the expiation of 
his sin. 

24. i. ManuXI, 128; Y&gH. Ill, 266. Others explain the phrase 
vairayatan&rtham, ' for the expiation of his sin/ thus : ' He, who is 

Digitized by 


1, 9, 24. PENANCE. 79 

2. (He shall give) a hundred cows for a Vawya, 

3. Ten for a .Sudra, 

4. And in every one (of these cases) one bull 
(must be given) in excess (of the number of cows) 
for the sake of expiation. 

5. And if women of the (three castes mentioned 
have been slain) the same (composition must be paid). 

6. He who has slain a man belonging to the two 
(first-mentioned castes) who has studied the Veda, 
or had been initiated for the performance of a Soma- 
sacrifice, becomes an Abhi^asta. 

7. And (he is called an Abhisasta) who has slain 
a man belonging merely to the Brahmawa caste 
(though he has not studied the Veda or been initi- 
ated for a Soma-sacrifice), 

slain by anybody, becomes, in dying, an enemy of his slayer (and 
thinks), " O that I might slay him in another life," for the removal- 
of this enmity I ' — Haradatta. I am strongly inclined to agree with 
the other commentator, and to translate vairayatanartham, ' in order 
to remove the enmiiy.' I recognise in this fine a remnant of the 
law permitting compositions for murder which was in force in 
ancient Greece and among the Teutonic nations. With the expla- 
nation adopted by Haradatta, it is impossible to find a reasonable 
interpretation for prayaf&ttarthaA, Sutra 4. Haradatta, seduced 
by the parallel passage of Manu, takes it to be identical with vai- 
rayatanartham. I propose to translate our Sutra thus : ' He who 
has killed a Kshatriya shall give a thousand cows (to the relations 
of the murdered man) in order to remove the enmity.' According 
to Baudhayana I, 10. 19. 1 (compare Zeitschr. d. D. Morg. Ges., 
vol. 41, pp. 672-76 ; Festgruss an Roth, pp. 44-52), the cows are 
to be given to the king. 

2. Manu XI, 130; Ya^fl. Ill, 267. 

3. Manu XI, 131 ; Ya##. Ill, 267. 

6. Manu XI, 87. Abhuasta means literally ' accused, accursed,' 
and corresponds in Apastamba's terminology to the mahapatakin of 
Manu and Ya^Savalkya, instead of which latter word Manu uses it 
occasionally, e.g. II, 185. 

Digitized by 


80 APASTAMBA. 1, 9, 24. 

8. Likewise he who has destroyed an embryo of a 
(Brahma#a, even though its sex be) undistinguishable, 

9. Or a woman (of the Brahma«a caste) during 
her courses. 

10. (Now follows) the penance for him (who is an 

11. He (himself) shall erect a hut in the forest, 
restrain his speech, carry (on his stick) the skull (of 
the person slain) like a flag, and cover the space 
from his navel to his knees with a quarter of a piece 
of hempen cloth. 

12. The path for him when he goes to a village, 
is the space between the tracks (of the wheels). 

1 3. And if he sees another (Arya), he shall step 
out of the road (to the distance of two yards). 

14. He shall go to the village, carrying a broken 
tray of metal of an inferior quality. 

15. He may go to seven houses only, (crying,) 
' Who will give alms to an Abhwasta ? ' 

16. That is (the way in which he must gain) his 

17. If he does not obtain anything (at the seven 
houses), he must fast. 

18. And (whilst performing this penance) he must 
tend cows. 

19. When they leave and enter the village, that is 
the second occasion (on which he may enter) the 

9. ' Others interpret atreyi, " during her courses," by "belonging 
to the race of Atri."' — Haradatta. 

11. Others say that he may carry the skull of any corpse. 
This Sutra is to be construed with Sutra 14, Sutras 12 and 13 
being inserted parenthetically.— Haradatta. Manu XI, 72-78 ; 
Yagn. Ill, 243. 

Digitized by 


I, g, 24. PENANCE. 8 1 

20. After having performed (this penance) for 
twelve years, (he must perform) the ceremony known 
(by custom), through which he is re-admitted into 
the society of the good. 

21. Or (after having performed the twelve years' 
penance), he may build a hut on the path of robbers, 
and live there, trying to take from them the cows of 
Brahma«as. He is free (from his sin), when thrice 
he has been defeated by them, or when he has van- 
quished them. 

22. Or he is freed (from his sin), if (after the 
twelve years' penance) he bathes (with the priests) 
at the end of a horse-sacrifice. 

23. This very same (penance is ordained) for him 
who, when his duty and love of gain come into con- 
flict, chooses the gain. 

24. If he has slain a Guru or a Brihmawa, who 
has studied the Veda and finished the ceremonies of 
a Soma-sacrifice, he shall live according to this very 
same rule until his last breath. 

25. He cannot be purified in this life. But his 
sin is removed (after death). 

20. 'I.e. after having performed the penance, he shall take 
grass and offer it to a cow. If the cow approaches and confidingly 
eats, then one should know that he has performed the penance 
properly, not otherwise.' — Haradatta. Manu XI, 195 and 196. 

21. Manu XI, 81. — Thus Haradatta, better, 'when thrice he 
has fought with them,' see the Pet. Diet. s. v. ridh. 

22. Manu XI, 83 ; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 67. 

23. 'Or the Sutra may have reference to unrighteous gain 
acquired by false testimony and the like.' — Haradatta. 

24. ' Guru means "the father and the rest." ' — Haradatta. 

25. 'His sin is removed after death. Hence the meaning is 
that his sons or other (relations) may perform the funeral cere- 
monies and the like. But others think that the first part of the 
Sutra forbids this, and that the meaning of pratyapattiA (can be 

[2] G 

Digitized by 


82 Apastamba. I, 9, 25. 

Prasna I, Patala 9, Khanda 25. 

1. He who has had connection with a Guru's wife 
shall cut off his organ together with the testicles, 
take them into his joined hands and walk towards 
the south without stopping, until he falls down 

2. Or he may die embracing a heated metal 
image of a woman. 

3. A drinker of spirituous liquor shall drink ex- 
ceedingly hot liquor so that he dies. 

4. A thief shall go to the king with flying hair, 
carrying a club on his shoulder, and tell him his 
deed. He (the king) shall give him a blow with 
that (club). If the thief dies, his sin is expiated. 

5. If he is forgiven (by the king), the guilt falls 
upon him who forgives him, 

6. Or he may throw himself into the fire, or 
perform repeatedly severe austerities, 

7. Or he may kill himself by diminishing daily 
his portion of food, 

8. Or he may perform ~Krikkhrz. penances (un- 
interruptedly) for one year. 

purified) is " connection by being received as a son or other rela- 
tion." ' — Haradatta. 

25. 1. Haradatta's explanation of a 'Guru's wife' by 'mother' 
rests on a comparison of similar passages from other Smr/tis, where 
a different ' penance ' is prescribed for incestuous intercourse with 
other near relations. Manu XI, 105; YigH. Ill, 259. 

2. Manu XI, 104 ; Y£g%. Ill, 259. 

3. Manu XI, 91, 92 ; Y&gft. Ill, 253. 

4. I.e. who has stolen the gold of a Brdhmawa. Manu VIII, 
314, 316; XI, 99-101; Y£g%. Ill, 257. 

5. Manu VIII, 317. 6. Manu XI, 102. 

8. According to Haradatta this Sutra refers to all kinds of sins, 

Digitized by 


I, 9, 25. PENANCE. 83 

9. Now they quote also (the following verse) : 

10. Those who have committed a theft (of gold), 
drunk spirituous liquor, or had connection with a 
Guru's wife, but not those who have slain a Brih- 
ma«a, shall eat every fourth meal-time a little food, 
bathe at the times of the three libations (morning, 
noon, and evening), passing the day standing and 
the night sitting. After the lapse of three years 
they throw off their guilt 

11. (A man of any caste) excepting the first, who 
has slain a man of the first caste, shall go on a 
battle-field and place himself (between the two 
hostile armies). There they shall kill him (and 
thereby he becomes pure). 

1 2. Or such a sinner may tear from his body and 
make the priest offer as a burnt-offering his hair, 
skin, flesh, and the rest, and then throw himself into 
the fire. 

13. If a crow, a chameleon, a peacock, a Brahma#t 
duck, a swan, the vulture called Bhasa, a frog, an 
ichneumon, a musk-rat, or a «dog has been killed, 
then the same penance as for a .Sudra must be per- 

and it must be understood that the KrikkAn penances must be 
heavy for great crimes, and lighter for smaller faults; see also 
below,. I, 9, 27, 7 and 8. 

9. Haradatta states that the verse is taken from a Pura«a. 

n. Manu XI, 74; Y&gn. Ill, 248. 

12. The Mantras given in the commentary, and a parallel 
passage of VasishMa XX, 25-26, show that this terrible penance 
is not altogether a mere theory of Apastamba. Ya^S. Ill, 247. 

13. 'According to some, the penance must be performed if all 
these animals together have been slain ; according to others, if only 
one of them has been killed.' — Haradatta. Manu XI, 132, 136; 
Ya#*. Ill, 270-272. 

G 2 

Digitized by 


84 Apastamba. i, 9, 26. 

Prasna I, Pafala 9, Kuanda 26. 

1. (The same penance must be performed), if a 
milch-cow or a full-grown ox (has been slain), without 
a reason. 

2. And for other animals (which have no bones), 
if an ox-load of them has been killed. 

3. He who abuses a person who (on account of 
his venerability) ought not to be abused, or speaks 
an untruth (regarding any small matter) must ab- 
stain for three days from milk, pungent condiments, 
and salt. 

4. (If the same sins have been committed) by a 
•Sudra, he must fast for seven days. 

5. And the same (penances must also be per- 
formed) by women, (but not those which follow). 

6. He who cuts off a limb of a person for whose 
murder he would become an Abhisasta (must per- 
form the penance prescribed for killing a .Sudra), 
if the life (of the person injured) has not been 

26. 1. 'A reason ' for hurting a cow is, according to Haradatta, 
anger, or the desire to obtain meat. 

2. Manu XI, 141; Yagn. Ill, 269. That 'animals without 
bones,' i.e. insects or mollusks, are intended in the Sutra is an 
inference, drawn by Haradatta from the parallel passages of Gau- 
tama, Manu, and YSgtfavalkya. 

3. ' A person who ought not to be abused, i. e. a father, a teacher, 
and the like.' — Haradatta. 

5. The same penances, i. e. those prescribed I, 9, 24-I, 9, 26, 4. 
According to Haradatta this Sutra is intended to teach that women 
shall not perform the penances which follow. Others, however, 
are of opinion that it is given in order to indicate that the pre- 
ceding Sutras apply to women by an atid&ra, and that, according 
to a Smarta principle, applicable to such cases, it may be inferred, 
that women are to perform one-half only of the penances pre- 
scribed for men. 

Digitized by 


I, 9, 26. PENANCE. 85 

7. He who has been guilty of conduct unworthy 
of an Aryan, of calumniating others, of actions con- 
trary to the rule of conduct, of eating or drinking 
things forbidden, of connection with a woman of the 
.Sudra caste, of an unnatural crime, of performing 
magic rites with intent (to harm his enemies) or 
(of hurting others) unintentionally, shall bathe and 
sprinkle himself with water, reciting the (seven) 
verses addressed to the Waters, or the verses 
addressed to Varu»a, or (other verses chosen from 
the Anuvaka, called) Pavitra, in proportion to the 
frequency with which the crime has been com- 

8. A (student) who has broken the vow of chas- 
tity, shall offer to Nimti an ass, according to the 
manner of the Pakaya^wa-rites. 

9. A 6"udra shall eat (the remainder) of that 

10. (Now follows) the penance for him who trans- 
gresses the rules of studentship. 

11. He shall for a year serve his teacher silently, 
emitting speech only during the daily study (of the 
Veda, in announcing necessary business to) his 
teacher or his teachers wife, and whilst collecting 

1 2. The following (penances) which we are going 
to proclaim, may be performed for the same sin, and 

7. The Anuvaka intended is Taitt. Sa«h. II, 5, 12. 

8. Taitt. Ar. II, 18, and Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 102 ; Manu XI, 
119 seq.; and Y&gfi. Ill, 280. Regarding the Pakaya^a-rites, 
see Afv. Gri. Su. I, 1, 2, and Max Miiller's History of Ancient 
Sanskrit Literature, p. 203. 

12. Regarding the Pataniya-crimes which cause loss of caste, 
see above, I, 7, 2 1, 7 seq. 

Digitized by 


86 Apastamra. 1, 9, 27. 

also for other sinful acts, which do not cause loss of 

13. He may either offer oblations to Kama and 
Manyu (with the following two Mantras), ' Kama 
(passion) has done it ; Manyu (anger) has done it.' 
Or he may mutter (these Mantras). 

14. Or, after having eaten sesamum or fasted on 
the days of the full and new moon he may, on the 
following day bathe, and stopping his breath, repeat 
the Gayatri one thousand times, or he may do so 
without stopping his breath. 

Prasna I, Pafala 9, Kvianda 27. 

1. After having eaten sesamum or having fasted 
on the full moon day of the month .Sravawa (July- 
August), he may on the following day bathe in the 
water of a great river and offer (a burnt-oblation of) 
one thousand pieces of sacred fuel, whilst reciting 
the Gayatri, or he may mutter (the Gayatri) as many 

2. Or he may perform Ish/is and Soma-sacrifices 
for the sake of purifying himself (from his sins). 

3. After having eaten forbidden food, he must 
fast, until his entrails are empty. 

4. That is (generally) attained after seven days. 

5. Or he may during winter and during the dewy 

13. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 102. According to the greatness of 
the crime the number of the burnt-oblations must be increased and 
the prayers be repeated. 

27. 1. 'The oblations of sacred fuel (samidh) are not to be 
accompanied by the exclamation SvahaV — Haradatta. 

2. Ish/is are the simplest forms of the -Srauta-sacrifices, i.e. of 
those for which three fires are necessary. 

3. For some particular kinds of forbidden food the same penance 
is prescribed, Manu XI, 153-154. 

Digitized by 


I, 9, 27. PENANCE. 87 

season (November-March) bathe in cold water both 
morning and evening. 

6. Or he may perform a "Krikkhra. penance, which 
lasts twelve days. 

7. The rule for the Kri&Mra. penance of twelve 
days (is the following) : For three days he must not 
eat in the evening, and then for three days not in the 
morning ; for three days he must live on food which 
has been given unasked, and three days he must not 
eat anything. 

8. If he repeats this for a year, that is called a 
Kri&Mra. penance, which lasts for a year. 

oi Now follows another penance. He who has 
committed even a great many sins which do not 
cause him to fall, becomes free from guilt, if, fasting, 
he recites the entire .Sakha of his Veda three times 

10. He who cohabits with a non-Aryan woman, 
he who lends money at interest, he who drinks 
(other) spirituous liquors (than Surd), he who praises 
everybody in a manner unworthy of a Brahma«a, 
shall sit on grass, allowing his back to be scorched 
(by the sun). 

11. A Brahmawa removes the sin which he com- 
mitted by serving one day and night (a man of) the 
black race, if he bathes for three years, eating at 
every fourth meal-time. 

7. The same penance is described, under the name Pri^ipatya 
Yrikkhrz, the KrikkAra, invented by Pra^apati, Manu XI, 212, and 
Yagii. HI, 320. 

9. Manu XI, 259. 

1 1. The expression kmh«a varwa, ' the black race,' is truly 
Vedic. In the i?j*g-veda it usually denotes the aboriginal races, 
and sometimes the demons. Others explain the Sutra thus: 

Digitized by 


88 APASTAMBA. I, 10, 28. 

PRASNA I, PaTALA 10, KHAiVflA 28. 

1. He who, under any conditions whatsoever, 
covets (and takes) another man's possessions is a 
thief; thus (teach) Kautsa and HArlta as well as 
Ka»va and Pushkarasadi. 

2. Varshyayam declares, that there are exceptions 
to this law, in regard to some possessions. 

3. (E.g.) seeds ripening in the pod, food for a 
draught-ox ; (if these are taken), the owners (ought) 
not (to) forbid it. 

4. To take even these things in too great a quan- 
tity is sinful. 

5. Hclrlta declares, that in every case the per- 
mission (of the owner must be obtained) first. 

6. He shall not go to visit a fallen teacher or 
blood relation. 

7. Nor shall he accept the (means for procuring) 
enjoyments from such a person. 

8. If he meets them accidentally he shall silently, 
embrace (their feet) and pass on. 

9. A mother does very many acts for her son, 
therefore he must constantly serve her, though she 
be fallen. 

10. But (there shall be) no communion (with a 
fallen mother) in acts performed for the acquisition 
of spiritual merit. 

A Brahma«a removes the sin, which he committed by cohabiting 
for one night with a female of the .Sudra caste, &c. — Haradatta. 
The latter explanation has been adopted by Kulluka on Manu 
XI, 179. 

28. 3. The same rule Manu emphatically ascribes to himself, 
Manu VIII, 339. But see also VIII, 331. 

7. Haradatta remarks, that this Sutra implicitly forbids to accept 
the heritage of an outcast. 

Digitized by 


I, IO, 28. PENANCE. 89 

1 1. Enjoyments taken unrighteously he shall give 
up ; he shall say, ' I and sin (do not dwell together).' 
Clothing himself with a garment reaching from the 
navel down to the knee, bathing daily, morn, noon, 
and evening, eating food which contains neither milk 
nor pungent condiments, nor salt, he shall not enter a 
house for twelve years. 

12. After that he (may be) purified. 

13. Then he may have intercourse with Aryans. 

14. This penance may also be employed in the 
case of the other crimes which cause loss of caste 
(for which no penance has been ordained above). 

15. But the violator of a Guru's bed shall enter a 
hollow iron image and, having caused a fire to be lit 
on both sides, he shall burn himself. 

16. According to Harlta, this (last-mentioned 
penance must) not (be performed). 

17. For he who takes his own or another's life 
becomes an Abhisasta. 

18. He (the violator of a Guru's bed) shall per- 
form to his last breath (the penance) prescribed by 
that rule (Sutra 11). He cannot be purified in 
this world. But (after death) his sin is taken 

19. He who has unjustly forsaken his wife shall 
put on an ass's skin, with the hair turned outside, 
and beg in seven houses, saying, ' Give alms to him 
who forsook his wife.' That shall be his livelihood 
for six months. 

20. But if a wife forsakes her husband, she shall 

1 1. A similar but easier penance is prescribed, Manu XI, 194. 

15. ' (This penance, which had been prescribed above, 1, 9, 25, 1), 
is enjoined (once more), in order to show that it is not optional 
(as might be expected according to Sutra 14).' — Haradatta. 

Digitized by 


90 APASTAMBA. I, 10, 29. 

perform the twelve-night Kri&Mra. penance for as 
long a time. 

21. He who has killed a Bhru»a (a man learned 
in the Vedas and Vedangas and skilled in the 
performance of the rites) shall put on the skin of a 
dog or of an ass, with the hair turned outside, and 
take a human skull for his drinking-vessel, 

Prasna I, Patala 10, Khanda 29. 

i . And he shall take the foot of a bed instead of 
a staff and, proclaiming the name of his deed, he 
shall go about (saying), 'Who (gives) alms to the 
murderer of a Bhru«a ? ' Obtaining thus his liveli- 
hood in the village, he shall dwell in an empty house 
or under a tree, (knowing that) he is not allowed to 
have intercourse with Aryans. According to this 
rule he shall act until his last breath. He cannot 
be purified in this world. But (after death) his sin 
is taken away. 

2. He even who slays unintentionally, reaps never- 
theless the result of his sin. 

3. (His guilt is) greater, (if he slays) intentionally. 

4. The same (principle applies) also to other sin- 
ful actions, 

5. And also to good works. 

6. A Brahma«a shall not take a weapon into his 
hand, though he be only desirous of examining it. 

7. In a Pura«a (it has been declared), that he who 

29. 5. Haradatta gives, as an example, the case where a war- 
rior saves the property of a traveller from thieves. If the traveller 
turns out to be a Brahmawa, and the warrior did not know his 
caste before rescuing his property, his merit will be less than if he 
had rescued knowingly the property of a Brahmana. 

Digitized by 


1,10,29. PENANCE. 91 

slays an assailant does not sin, for (in that case) 
wrath meets wrath. 

8. But Abhiiastas shall live together in dwellings 
(outside the village) ; considering this their lawful 
(mode of life), they shall sacrifice for each other, 
teach each other, and marry amongst each other. 

9. If they have begot sons, let them say to them : 
' Go out from amongst us, for thus the Aryas, (throw- 
ing the guilt) upon us, will receive you (amongst 
their number). 

10. For the organs do not become impure together 
with the man. 

11. (The truth of) that may be learned from this 
(parallel case) ; a man deficient in limbs begets a son 
who possesses the full number of limbs. 

12. Harlta declares that this is wrong. 

1 3. A wife is similar to the vessel which contains 
the curds (for the sacrifice). 

14. For if one makes impure milk curdle (by 
mixing it with whey and water) in a milk-vessel and 
stirs it, no sacrificial rite can be performed with (the 
curds produced from) that. Just so no intercourse 

9. It is impossible to agree with Haradatta's explanation of the 
words to be addressed by Abhijastas to their children. No Vedic 
license can excuse the use of the second person plural instead of 
the third. I propose the following : ' Go out from among us ; for 
thus (leaving the guilt) to us, you will be received (as) Aryas.' It 
is, however, not improbable that our text is disfigured by several 
very old corruptions, compare Baudh&yana II, 1, 2, 18. 

ir. 'In like manner a man who has lost his rights, (can) beget 
a son, who possesses the rights (of his caste). For the wife is also 
a cause (of the birth of the son), and she is guiltless.' — Haradatta. 

13. The statements now following are those with which Apa- 
stamba agrees. Those contained in Sutras 8-1 1 are merely the 

Digitized by 



can be allowed with the impure seed which comes 
(from an Abhwasta). 

15. Sorcery and curses (employed against a Brah- 
mawa) cause a man to become impure, but not loss 
of caste. 

16. Hartta declares that they cause loss of caste. 

17. But crimes causing impurity must be ex- 
piated, (when no particular penance is prescribed,) 
by performing the penance enjoined for crimes caus- 
ing loss- of caste during twelve months, or twelve 
half months, or twelve twelve-nights, or twelve 
se'nnights, or twelve times three days, or twelve 
days, or seven days, or three days, or one day. 

18. Thus acts causing impurity must be expiated 
according to the manner in which the (sinful) act 
has been committed (whether intentionally or un- 

Prasna I, Patala 11, Khanda 30. 

1. Some declare, that a student shall bathe after 
(having acquired) the knowledge of the Veda, (how- 
ever long or short the time of his studentship may- 
have been). 

2. (He may) also (bathe) after having kept the 
student's vow for forty-eight, (thirty-six or twenty- 
four) years, (though he may not have mastered the 

3. Some declare, that the student (shall bathe) 
after (having acquired) the knowledge of the Veda 
and after (the expiration of) his vow. 

30. 1. The bath is taken at the end of the studentship, and forms 
part of the Samavartana-ceremony. From this rite a student who 
has completed his course of study derives the name Snataka, ' one 
who has bathed.' See also Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 125. 

Digitized by 



4. To all those persons who have bathed (in 
accordance with any of the above rules must be 
shown) the honour due to a Snataka. 

5. The reverence (shown to a Snataka) brings, 
however, different rewards according to the degree 
of devotion or of learning (possessed by the person 

6. Now follow the observances (chiefly to be kept) 
by a Snataka. 

7. He shall usually enter the village and leave it 
by the eastern or the northern gate. 

8. During the morning and evening twilights, he 
shall sit outside the village, and not speak anything 
(referring to worldly matters). 

9. (But an Agnihotri, who is occupied at home by 
oblations in the morning and evening, must not go 
out ; for) in the case of a conflict (of duties), that 
enjoined by the Veda is the more important. 

10. He shall avoid all dyed dresses, 

11. And all naturally black cloth. 

12. He shall wear a dress that is neither shining, 

13. Nor despicable, if he is able (to afford it). 

14. And in the day-time he shall avoid to wrap 
up his head, except when voiding excrements. 

15. But when voiding excrements, he shall en- 
velop his head and place some (grass or the like) 
on the ground. 

16. He shall not void excrements in the shade (of 
a tree, where travellers rest). 

10. The rule to wear white garments is given YagH. I, 131 ; 
Manu IV, 35. 

13. Manu IV, 34. 
ij. Manu IV, 49. 

Digitized by 


94 APASTAMBA. I, n, 31. 

17. But he may discharge urine on his own 

18. He shall not void excrements with his shoes on, 
nor on a ploughed field, nor on a path, nor in water. 

19. He shall also avoid to spit into, or to have 
connection with a woman in water. 

20. He shall not void excrements facing the fire, 
the sun, water, a Brahmawa, cows, or (images of) 
the gods. 

21. He shall avoid to clean his body from ex- 
crements with a stone, a clod of earth, or with 
(boughs of) herbs or trees which he has broken 
off, whilst they were on the tree and full of sap. 

22. If possible, he shall not stretch out his feet 
towards a fire, water, a Brahmawa, a cow, (images 
of) the gods, a door, or against the wind. 

23. Now they quote also (the following verse) : 

Prasna I, Yatala. 11, Khanda. 31. 

1. He shall eat facing the east, void faeces facing 
the south, discharge urine facing the north, and 
wash his feet turned towards the west. 

2. He shall void excrements far from his house, 
having gone towards the south or south-west. 

3. But after sunset he must not void excrements 
outside the village or far from his house. 

4. And as long as he is impure he (shall avoid) 
to pronounce the names of the gods. 

18. Manu IV, 45, 46 ; Ya^/af. I, 137. 

19. Manu IV, 56. 

20. Manu IV, 48, 52; Yagft. I, 134. 

22. The prohibition to stretch the feet towards a fire occurs also 
Manu IV, 53; Ya^«.I, 137. 

31. 2. Manu IV, 151 ; YigS. I, 16. 

Digitized by 


1, 11,31. RULES FOR A SNATAKA. 95 

5. And he shall not speak evil of the gods or of 
the king. 

6. He shall not touch with his foot a Brahma«a, 
a cow, nor any other (venerable beings). 

7. (Nor shall he touch them) with his hand, except 
for particular reasons. 

8. He shall not mention the blemishes of a cow, 
of sacrificial presents, or of a girl. 

9. And he shall not announce it (to the owner) 
if a cow does damage (by eating corn or grass in 
a field). 

10. (Nor shall he call attention to it) if a cow 
is together with her calf, except for a particular 

1 1 . And of a cow which is not a milch-cow he shall 
not say, ' She is not a milch-cow.' He must say, 
' This is a cow which will become a milch-cow.' 

12. He shall not call 'lucky' that which is lucky. 
He shall call it ' a mercy, a blessing.' 

13. He shall not step over a rope to which a calf 
(or cow) is tied. 

14. He shall not pass between the posts from 
which a swing is suspended. 

15. (In company) he shall not say, 'This person 

5. Manu IV, 163. 

8. 'In the section on transcendental knowledge (I, 8, 23, 5), 
" speaking evil " has been forbidden, in connection with the means 
of salvation. And below (Sfitra 25) the (author) will declare that 
the sins which destroy the creatures are to be avoided. But this 
precept (is given in order to indicate that) in the case of cows and 
the rest an extra penance must be performed.' — Haradatta. 

12. Manu IV, 139. 13. Manu IV, 38. 

14. 'Or according