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Full text of "Sacred Books East Various Oriental Scholars with Index. 50 vols Max Muller Oxford 1879.1910."

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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



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£onvon 

HENRY FROWDE 

Oxford University Press Warehouse 

Amen Corner, E.C. 




MACMILLAN * CO., 66 FIFTH AVENUE 



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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



TRANSLATED 



BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 



AND EDITED BY 



F. 


MAX 


MOLLER 




VOL 


, IV 




Second 


Edition 



AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

1895 o. 



11 



[All rights reserved] 

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I HARVARD 
I UNIVERSITY 
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PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

BY HORACE HART, PRINTBR TO THB UN1VRRSITY 



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THE ZEND-AVESTA 



PART I 

THE VENDfDAD 



TRANSLATED BY 



JAMES DARMESTETER 



Second Edition 



AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1895 

[All rights reserved] 



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NOTE. 

The completion of this second edition of Professor 
Darmesteter's translation of the Avesta has been inter- 
rupted by the sudden and untimely death of the author. 
Fortunately, he had already revised the proof-sheets of his 
translation of the Vendidad, and completed his manu- 
script of the Introduction and Fragments. And, as the 
original manuscripts and collations, from which the text 
of the Fragments was derived, are mostly in my posses- 
sion, the revision of the remaining proof-sheets has been 
chiefly in my hands, but has been carried out strictly in 
accordance with the author's views, as ascertained from his 
French translation of the Avesta. I have only to add 
that, though differing from my lamented friend in some 
of his more speculative opinions, I am convinced that it 
would be difficult to find a sounder scholar, a more 
brilliant writer, and a more estimable man, all united in 
the same individual. 

E. W. WEST. 

May, 1895. 



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Chapter I. 


» 


II. 


>» 


III. 


»» 


IV. 


»» 


V. 


V 


VI. 


J» 


VII. 


» 


VIII. 


>» 


IX. 




X. 



CONTENTS. 

INTRODUCTION. 

PACK 

The Discovery of the Zend-Avesta . xiii 
The Interpretation of the Zend-Avesta xxvii 
The Formation of the Zend-Avesta . xxxi 
Parthian Elements in the Avesta . . xlvii 
BrAhmanical, Buddhist, and Greek Ele- 
ments li 

Jewish Elements in the Religion . . Ivii 

Achaemenian and Earlier Elements . lx 

Age and Growth of the Avesta . bciv 

Conclusions lxvii 

The Vend!dAd lxx 

TRANSLATION OF THE VENDiDAD. 
Fargard I. An enumeration of sixteen perfect lands 

CREATED BY AHURA MAZDA, AND OF AS MANY 

PLAGUES created in opposition by Angra Mainyu I 

Fargard II. Myths of Yima 10 

Fargard III. The Earth 21 

I (1-6). What comforts most the Genius of the Earth ? . 22 

II (7-1 1). What discomforts most the Genius of the Earth ? 24 
111(12-35). What rejoices the Earth most ? ... 26 
IV (36-42). A development forbidding the burial of the dead 32 

Fargard IV. Contracts and Outrages .... 34 

1(0 35 

I a (2). Classification of the contracts according to the 

value of their object 35 

(3-4). A contract is cancelled by paying the amount of 

the contract higher by one degree . . . -36 
(5-10). Religious responsibility of the family for the 

breach of a contract by one of its members ... 36 
(1 1- 16). Punishment of the Mihir-Druj" (one who breaks 

a contract) 38 

II a (17). Definition of the outrages known as agerepta 

(threatening attitude), avaoirirta (assault), aredur 

(blows) 39 

(18-21). Penalties for menaces 40 

(22-25). Assaults 41 



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CONTENTS. IX 



PAGE 

(26-39). Blows 42 

(50-33). Wounds 42 

(34-36). Wounds causing blood to flow ... 43 

(37-39). Broken bones 44 

(40-43). Manslaughter 44 

III a (44-45). Contract of charity to co-religionists . . 45 

IV a (46). Heinousness of false oath 46 

— Ill b (47-49 a). Dignity of wealth ; of marriage ; of phy- 
sical weal 46 ■ 

IV b (49 b-55). Heinousness of false oath. Ordeal . . 48 

Fargard V. 49 

I (1-7). If a man defile the fire or the earth with dead 
matter (Nasu) involuntarily or unconsciously, it is no sin . 50 

II (8-9). Water and fire do not kill 52 

III (10-14). Disposal of the dead during winter, when it is 

not possible to take them to the Dakhma .... 53 

IV (15-20). Why Ahura, while forbidding man to defile 
water, sends water from the heavens down to the Dakhmas, 
covered with corpses. How he purifies that water . . 54 

V (21-26). On the excellence of purity and of the law that 
shows how to recover purity, when lost . . 56 

VI (27-38). On the defiling power of the Nasu being 
greater or less, according to the greater or less dignity 

of the being that dies 58 

VII (39-44). On the management of sacrificial implements 
defiled with Nasu . 61 

VIII (45-62). On the treatment of a woman who has been 
delivered of a still-bom child ; and what is to be done 
with her clothes 62 

Fargard VI 67 

I (1-9). How long the earth remains unclean, when defiled 

by the dead 67 

11(10-25). Penalties for defiling the ground with dead matter 68 

III (26-41). Purification of the different sorts of water, 
when defiled by the dead 71 

IV (42-43). Purification of the Haoma .... 73 

V (44-51). The place for corpses ; the Dakhmas 74 

Fargard VII 76 

I (1-5). How long after death the Drug Nasu takes posses- 
sion of the corpse 76 

11(6-9). HowfarthedefilingpoweroftheDrug-Nasuextends 78 

III(io-22). Cleansing of clothes defiled by the dead . . 79 

IV (23-24). Eating of Nasu an abomination . . .81 

V (25-27). Bringing Nasu to fire or water an abomination 82 



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CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

VI (28-35). Cleansing of wood and corn defiled by the dead 83 

VII a (36-40). Physicians ; their probation ; . 85 

VII b (41-44). Their fees 86 

VIII (45-59). Purification of the earth, of the Dakhmas. • . 
The Dakhmas and the Daevas 87 ^ 

IX (60-72). Treatment of a woman who has brought forth 

a still-born child 91 

X (73-75). Cleansing of vessels defiled by the dead . . 92 

XI (76-77). Cleansing of the cow 93 

XII (78-79). Unclean libations 94 

Fargard VIII 95 

I (1-3). Purification of the house where a man has died 95 , 

II (4-13). Funerals 96 

III (14-22). Purification of the ways along which the ^ 
corpse has been carried 99 

IV (23-25). No clothes to be thrown on a corpse . . 102 

V (26-32). Unlawful lusts 103 

VI (33-34). A corpse when dried up does not contaminate 105 

\ VII (35-72). Purification of the man defiled by the dead . 105^/ 

'"' VIII (73-80). Purification of the fire defiled by the dead . 113 

IX (81-96). The Bahrain fire 115' 

X (97-107). Purification in the wilderness . . . . 1 19 / 

Fargard IX. The Nine Nights' Barashnom . . .122 
I a(i-n). Description of the place for cleansing the un- 
clean (the Barashnum-gah) 123 

lb (12-36). Description of the cleansing . . . .126 

11(37-44). Fees of the cleanser 132 - 

111(47-57). The false cleanser ; his punishment . .134"' 

Fargard X. Spells recited during the process of 

THE CLEANSING 136 

Fargard XI. Special spells for the cleansing of the 

SEVERAL OBJECTS 1 42 

Fargard XII. The Upaman: how long it lasts for 

DIFFERENT RELATIVES 1 48 

Fargard XIII. The Dog 155 

I (1-7). The dog of Ormazd and the dog of Ahriman . 155 

I a (1-4). Holiness of the dog Vanghapara ('the hedge-hog ') 155 

I b (5~7)* Hatefulness of the dog Zairimyangura ('the 
tortoise') 157 

II (8-16). The several kinds of dogs. Penalties for the 
murder of a dog 157 

III (17-19). On the duties of the shepherd's dog and the 
house-dog 159 



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CONTENTS. XI 

PACE 

IV (20-28). On the food due to the dog . . . .160 

V (29-38). On the mad dog and the dog diseased ; how 
they are to be kept, and cured 163 

VI (39-40). On the excellence of the dog .... 164 

VII (41-43). On the wolf-dog 165 

VIII (44-48). On the virtues and vices of the dog . .166 

IX (49). Praise of the dog 168 

X (50-56). The water-dog 168 

Fargard XIV. The atonement for the murder of a 

WATER-DOG . . 169 

Fargard XV 176 

I (1-8). On five sins the commission of which makes the 
sinner a Peshdtanu 176 

II a (9-12). On unlawful unions and attempts to procure 
miscarriage 178 

II b (13-19). On the obligations of the illegitimate father 
towards the mother and the child 179 

III (20-45). On the treatment of a bitch big with young . 180 

IV (46-51). On the breeding of dogs 184 

Fargard XVI 185 

I (1-7). On the uncleanness of women during their sickness 185 

11(8-12). What is to be done if that state lasts too long . 187 

III(i3-i8). Sundry laws relating to the same matter 188 

Fargard XVII. Hair and Nails 190 

Fargard XVIII 193 

I (1-13). On the unworthy priest and enticers to heresy . 193 

II (14-29). The holiness of the cock, the bird of Sraosha, who 
awakes the world for prayer and for the protection of Atar 196 

, III (30-59). On the four sins that make the Drug- pregnant 

^ with a brood of fiends 200 \ 

IV (60-65). On the evil caused by the Gahi(' the prostitute') 204 

V (66-76). How intercourse with a Dashtin woman is to 

be atoned for 206 

Fargard XIX 208 

I (1-3). Angra Mainyu sends the demon Buiti to kill 
Zarathtutra : Zarathurtra sings aloud the Ahuna-Vairya, 
and the demon flies away, confounded by the sacred words 

and by the Glory of Zarathurtra 209 

I a (4-10). Angra Mainyu himself attacks him and pro- 
pounds riddles to be solved under pain of death . .210 

II (11-16). How to destroy the uncleanness born from a 
contact with the dead 212 

III (17-19). How to promote the prosperity of the creation 214— 



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Xll CONTENTS. 



PACE 



IV(ao-25). How to purify man and clothes defiled by the dead 215 
V (26-34). On the remuneration of deeds after death; on the 

fate of the wicked and the righteous ; the A"invarf bridge 217 

I I a (35-42). A series of invocations 220 

VI (43-47). The demons, dismayed by the birth of the 

Prophet, rush back into hell 224 

Fargard XX. Thrita and the origin of medicine . 225 

Fargard XXI 230 

I (1). Praise of the holy bull . . . . . .331 

11(2-3). Invocation addressed to rain as a healing power . 231 

III a (4-7). Joint invocation addressed to the waters and 

to the light of the sun 231 

III b (8-1 1 ). Joint invocation addressed to the waters 

and to the light of the moon 233 

III c (12-17). J°i nt invocation addressed to the waters 
and to the light of the stars 233 

IV (18-23). Spells against disease 235 

Fargard XXII. Angra Mainyu creates 99,999 diseases : 
'Ahura Mazda applies for healing to the Holy 

Word and to Airyahan 236 

FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

I. Westergaard's Fragments 245 

II. Zend Fragments in the Zend-Pahlavi Farhang . 252 

III. Zend Fragments quoted in the Pahlavi Com- 

mentary of the Yasna 258 

IV. Zend Fragments quoted in the Pahlavi Com- 

mentary of the VendIdAd 260 

V. Tahmuras' Fragments 275 

VI. ErpatistAn and NIrangistAn 300 

VII. Sundry Fragments 369 

VIII. Aogemaide 372 



Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Transla- 
tions of the Sacred Books of the East 387 



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INTRODUCTION. 



CHAPTER I. 

The Discovery of the Zend-Avesta. 

The Zend-Avesta is the sacred book of the Parsis, that 
is to say, of the few remaining followers of that religion 
which reigned over Persia at the time when the second 
successor of Mohammed overthrew the Sassanian dynasty 
(642 A. c.) 1 , and which has been called Dualism, or Maz- 
deism, or Magism, or Zoroastrianism, or Fire-worship, 
according as its main tenet, or its supreme God *, or its 
priests, or its supposed founder, or its apparent object of 
worship has been most kept in view. In less than a century 
after their defeat, most of the conquered people were brought 
over to the faith of their new rulers, either by force, or 
policy, or the attractive power of a simpler form of creed. 
But many of those who clung to the faith of their fathers, 
went and sought abroad for a new home, where they might 
freely worship their old gods, say their old prayers, and 
perform their old rites. That home they found at last 
among the tolerant Hindus, on the western coast of India 
and in the peninsula of Guzerat s . There they throve and 
there they live still, while the ranks of their co-religionists 
in Persia are daily thinning and dwindling away *. 

1 At the battle of Nihftvand. ' Ahura Mazda. 

' They settled first at San^dn, not far from Damftn ; thence they spread over 
Sunt, Nows&ri, Broach, and Kambay ; and within the last two centuries they 
have settled at Bombay, which now contains the bulk of the Pars! people, 
nearly 90,000 sonls (89,887 according to the census in 1891). 

4 A century ago, it is said, they still numbered nearly 100,000 souls; but 



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xiv vendIdAd. 



As the Parsis are the ruins of a people, so are their 
sacred books the ruins of a religion. There has been no 
other great belief in the world that ever left such poor and 
meagre monuments of its past splendour. Yet great is the 
value which that small book, the Avesta, and the belief of 
that scanty people, the Parsis, have in the eyes of the his- 
torian and theologian, as they present to us the last reflex 
of the ideas which prevailed in Iran during the five cen- 
turies which preceded and the seven which followed the 
birth of Christ, a period which gave to the world the Gos- 
pels, the Talmud, and the Qur'an. Persia, it is known, had 
much influence on each of the movements which produced, 
or proceeded from, those three books ; she lent much to 
the first heresiarchs, much to the Rabbis, much to Moham- 
med. By help of the Parsi religion and the Avesta, we are 
enabled to go back to the very heart of that most mo- 
mentous period in the history of religious thought, which 
saw the blending of the Aryan mind with the Semitic, and 
thus opened the second stage of Aryan thought. 

Inquiries into the religion of ancient Persia began long 
ago, and it was the old enemy of Persia, the Greek, who 
first studied it. Aristotle 1 , Hermippus 8 , and many others* 
wrote of it in books of which, unfortunately, nothing more 
than a few fragments or merely the titles have come down 
to us. We find much valuable information about it, scat- 
tered in the accounts of historians and travellers, extending 
over ten centuries, from Herodotos down to Agathias and 
Procopius (from 450 B.C. to 550 A.c.) *. The clearest and 
most faithful account of the dualist doctrine is found in the 
treatise De hide et Osiride, ascribed to Plutarch. But 



there now remain no more than 8,000 or 9,000, scattered in Yazd and the 
surrounding villages (Dosabhoy Framji, History of the Parsis. — Houtnm- 
Schindler gave 8,499 in 1879 ; of that number there were 6,483 in Yazd, 1,756 
in Kirman, 150 in Teheran : see Z. D. M. G., 1882, p. 55). 

1 Diogenes Laertius, Frooemium 8. 

' Pliny, Hist Nat. XXX, 1, 2. Cf. Windischmann, Zor. Stud. p. 288. 

* Dinon, Theopompus (the 8th book of his Philippica), Hermodorus, 
Heraclides Cnmanns. 

* All this store of information has been collected by Brisson (see below), 
Klcuker (see below), and Windischmann (Zoroastrische Stadien, 360 seq.) 



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INTRODUCTION, I. XV 



Zoroastrianism was never more eagerly studied than in the 
first centuries of the Christian era, though without anything 
of the disinterested and almost scientific curiosity of the 
earlier times. Religious and philosophic sects, in search of 
new dogmas, eagerly received whatever came to them 
bearing the name of Zoroaster. As Xanthos the Lydian, 
who is said to have lived before Herodotos, had mentioned 
Zoroastrian Ao'yio \ there came to light, in those later times, 
scores of oracles, styled Adyta row ZiopoJurrpov, or ' Oracula 
Chaldalca sive Magica,' the work of Neo-Platonists who 
were but very remote disciples of the Median sage. As 
his name had become the very emblem of wisdom, they 
would cover with it the latest inventions of their ever- 
deepening theosophy. Zoroaster and Plato were treated 
as if they had been philosophers of the same school, and 
Hierocles expounded their doctrines in the same book. 
Proclus collected seventy Tetrads of Zoroaster and wrote 
commentaries on them a ; but we need hardly say that 
Zoroaster commented on by Proclus was nothing more or 
less than Proclus commented on by Proclus. Prodicus the 
Gnostic possessed secret books of Zoroaster s ; and, upon 
the whole, it may be said that in the first centuries of 
Christianity, the religion of Persia was more studied and 
less understood than it had ever been before. The real 
object aimed at, in studying the old religion, was to form 
a new one. 

Throughout the Middle Ages nothing was known of 
Mazdeism but the name of its founder, who from a Magus 
was converted into a magician and master of the hidden 
sciences. It was not until the Renaissance that real in- 
quiry was resumed. The first step was to collect all the 
information that could be gathered from Greek and Roman 
writers. That task was undertaken and successfully com- 
pleted by Barnabe Brisson 4 . A nearer approach to the 

1 See Nicolaus Damascenes, Didot, Fragm. Hist. Ill, 409. 
1 Fabricius, Graeca Bibliotheca, fourth ed. p. 309 seq. 

* Clemens Alexandrinus, Stromata I. Cf. Porphyrins, de vita Plotini, $ 16. 

* 'De regio Penarnm principatu libri tres,' Paris, 1590. The second book 
is devoted to the religion and manners of the ancient Persians. 



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xvi vendidAd. 



original source was made in the following century by 
Italian, English, and French travellers in Asia. Pietro 
della Valle, Henry Lord, Mandelslo, Ovington, Chardin, 
Gabriel du Chinon, and Tavernier found Zoroaster's last 
followers in Persia and India, and made known their exis- 
tence, their manners, and the main features of their belief 
to Europe. Gabriel du Chinon saw their books and recog- 
nised that they were not all written in the same language, 
their original holy writ being no longer understood except 
by means of translations and commentaries in another 
tongue. 

In the year 1700, a professor at Oxford, Thomas Hyde, 
the greatest Orientalist of his time in Europe, made the 
first systematic attempt to restore the history of the old 
Persian religion by combining the accounts of the Moham- 
medan writers with ' the true and genuine monuments of 
ancient Persia 1 .' Unfortunately the so-called genuine 
monuments of ancient Persia were nothing more than 
recent Persian compilations or refacimenti 2 . But not- 
withstanding this defect, which could hardly be avoided 
then, and a distortion of critical acumen s , the book of 
Thomas Hyde was the first complete and true picture 
of modern Parsiism, and it made inquiry into its history 
the order of the day. A warm appeal made by him to the 
zeal of travellers, to seek for and procure at any price the 
sacred books of the Parsis, did not remain ineffectual, and 
from that time scholars bethought themselves of studying 
Parsiism in its own home. 

1 'Veterum Peraaram et Parthomm et Medonim religionis historia,' 
Oxford, 1700. 

* The Saddar, an excellent text-book of Parsiism, of which he gave an 
incorrect edition (the only one still in existence) and an incorrect translation, 
superseded only lately by West's translation in the Sacred Books of the East. — 
A Persian metrical translation of the Pahlavi Antt Vtraf 's visit to hell.— -The 
Farhangi Jih&ngtrt, a Persian dictionary compiled in 1609 and explaining 
many Pahlavi and Pazend terms. 

* Being struck with the many analogies between the Zoroastrian and the 
biblical systems, he recognised in Abraham the first lawgiver of ancient Persia, 
in Magism a Sabean corruption of the primeval faith, and in Zoroaster 
a reformer, who had learnt the forgotten troth from the exiled Jews in 
Babylon. 



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INTRODUCTION, I. . XVU 



Eighteen years later, a countryman of Hyde, George 
Boucher, received from the Parsis in Surat a copy of the 
Vendidad Sada, which was brought to England in 1733 
by Richard Cobbe '. But the old manuscript was a sealed 
book, and the most that could then be made of it was to 
hang it by an iron chain to the wall of the Bodleian Library 1 , 
as a curiosity to be shown to foreigners. A few years later, 
a Scotchman, named Fraser, went to Surat, with the view of 
obtaining from the Parsis, not only their books, but also a 
knowledge of their contents. He was not very successful 
in the first undertaking, and utterly failed in the second. 

In 1754 a young man, twenty years old, Anquetil 
Duperron, a scholar of the Ecole des Langues Orientales 
in Paris, happened to see a facsimile of four leaves of the 
Oxford Vendidad, which had been sent from England, a 
few years before, to Etienne Fourmont, the Orientalist. 
He determined at once to give to France both the books 
of Zoroaster and the first European translation of them. 
Too impatient to set off, to wait for a mission from the 
government which had been promised to him, he enlisted 
as a private soldier in the service of the French East India 
Company ; he embarked at Lorient on the 24th of February, 
1755, and after three years of endless adventures and dan- 
gers through the whole breadth of Hindustan, at the very 
time when war was waging between France and England, 
he arrived at last in Surat, where he stayed among the 
Parsis for three years more. Here began another struggle, 
not less hard, but more decisive, against the same mistrust 
and ill-will which had disheartened Fraser ; but he came 
out of it victorious, and prevailed at last on the Parsis 
to part both with their books and their knowledge. He 
came back to Paris on the 14th of March, 1764, and de- 
posited on the following day at the Bibliotheque Royale 
the whole of the Zend-Avesta and copies of several tradi- 

1 It was entitled : ' Leges sacrae ritus ex liturgia Zoroastri, . . . scripsit nunc 
libram Tcbed Divdadi films,' Vendidad (£ut Dev Dat) being mistaken for 
a man's name. The manuscript was written in the year 1050 of Yazdgard 
(1680-1681 A.D.) 

• It is numbered nowadays, Orientalia, 332. 

[4] b 



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xviii vendIdAd. 



tional books. He spent ten years in studying the material 
he had collected, and published in 1771 the first European 
translation of the Zend-Avesta 1 . 

A violent dispute broke out at once, as half the learned 
world denied the authenticity of the Avesta, which it pro- 
nounced a forgery. It was the future founder of the Royal 
Asiatic Society, William Jones, a young Oxonian then, 
who opened the war. He had been wounded to the quick 
by the scornful tone adopted by Anquetil towards Hyde 
and a few other English scholars : the Zend-Avesta suf- 
fered for the fault of its introducer, Zoroaster for Anquetil. 
In a pamphlet written in French 8 , with a verve and in a 
style which showed him to be a good disciple of Voltaire, 
W. Jones pointed out, and dwelt upon, the oddities and 
absurdities with which the so-called sacred books of Zo- 
roaster teemed. It is true that Anquetil had given full scope 
to satire by the style he had adopted : he cared very little 
for literary elegance, and did not mind writing Zend and 
Persian in French ; so the new and strange ideas he had 
to express looked stranger still in the outlandish garb he 
gave them. Yet it was less the style than the ideas that 
shocked the contemporary of Voltaire 8 . His main argu- 
ment was that books, full of such silly tales, of laws and 
rules so absurd, of descriptions of gods and demons so 
grotesque, could not be the work of a sage like Zoroaster, 
nor the code of a religion so much celebrated for its sim- 
plicity, wisdom, and purity. His conclusion was that the 
Avesta was a rhapsody of some modern Guebre. In fact 
the only thing in which Jones succeeded was to prove in a 
decisive manner that the ancient Persians were not equal 
to the lumieres of the eighteenth century, and that the 
authors of the Avesta had not read the Encyclopedic 

Jones's censure was echoed in England by Sir John 



1 ' Zend-Avesta, ouvrage de Zoroastre, contenant les Idees Theologiques, 
Physiques et Morales de ce Legislatenr. . . . Traduit en Francois sur l'Original 
Zend.' Par M. Anquetil Du Perron, 3 vols, in 4 , Paris, 1771. 

* * Lettre a M. A* * * do P* * *, dans laqaelle est compris l'examen de sa 
traduction des livres attribnes a Zoroastre.' 

9 Cf. Voltaire's article on Zoroaster in the Dictionnaire philosopbique. 



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INTRODUCTION, I. XIX 



Chardin and Richardson, in Germany by Meiners. Richard- 
son tried to give a scientific character to the attacks of 
Jones by founding them on philological grounds 1 . That 
the Avesta was a fabrication of modern times was shown, 
he argued, by the number of Arabic words he fancied he 
found both in the Zend and Pahlavi dialects, as no Arabic 
element was introduced into the Persian idioms earlier than 
the seventh century; also by the harsh texture of the 
Zend, contrasted with the rare euphony of the Persian ; 
and, lastly, by the radical difference between the Zend 
and Persian, both in words and grammar. To these objec- 
tions, drawn from the form, he added another derived from 
the uncommon stupidity of the matter. 

In Germany, Meiners, to the charges brought against the 
newly-found books, added another of a new and unexpected 
kind, namely, that they spoke of ideas unheard of before, 
and made known new things. ' Pray, who would dare 
ascribe to Zoroaster books in which are found numberless 
names of trees, animals, men, and demons unknown to the 
ancient Persians ; in which are invoked an incredible num- 
ber of pure animals and other things, which, as appears 
from the silence of ancient writers, were never known, or at 
least never worshipped, in Persia ? What Greek ever spoke 
of Hdm, of Jemshld, and of such other personages as the 
fabricators of that rhapsody exalt with every kind of praise, 
as divine heroes * ? ' 

Anquetil and the Avesta found an eager champion in 
the person of Kleuker, professor in the University of Riga. 
As soon as the French version of the Avesta appeared, he 
published a German translation of it, and also of Anquetil's 
historical dissertations 8 . Then, in a series of dissertations 
of his own *, he vindicated the authenticity of the Zend 



1 ' A Dissertation on the Languages, Literature, and Manners of Eastern 
Nations,' Oxford, 1777. 

* • De Zoroastiis vita, institutis, doctrina et libris,' in the Novi Commentarii 
Sodetatis Regiae, Goettingen, 1778-1779. 

' ' Zend-Avesta . . . nach dem Franzoesischen des Herrn Anquetil Do Perron,' 
3 vols, in 4 , 1776. 

* > Anhang zum Zend-Avesta,' 1 vols, in 4 , 1781. 

b2 



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books. Anquetil had already tried to show, in a memoir 
on Plutarch, that the data of the Avesta fully agree with 
the account of the Magian religion given in the treatise on 
' Isis and Osiris.' Kleuker enlarged the circle of comparison 
to the whole of ancient literature. 

In the field of philology, he showed, as Anquetil had 
already done, that Zend has no Arabic elements in it, and 
that Pahlavi itself, which is more modern than Zend, does 
not contain any Arabic, but only Semitic words of the 
Aramean dialect, which are easily accounted for by the 
close relations of Persia with Aramean lands in the time 
of the Sassanian kings. He showed, lastly, that Arabic 
words appear only in the very books which Parsi tradition 
itself considers modern. 

'Another stanch upholder of the Avesta was the numis- 
matologist Tychsen, who, having begun to read the book 
with a prejudice against its authenticity, quitted it with 
a conviction to the contrary. ' There is nothing in it,' he 
writes, ' but what befits remote ages, and a man philo- 
sophising in the infancy of the world. Such traces of a 
recent period as they fancy to have found in it, are either 
due to misunderstandings, or belong to its later portions. 
On the whole there is a marvellous accordance between the 
Zend-Avesta and the accounts of the ancients with regard 
to the doctrine and institutions of Zoroaster. Plutarch 
agrees so well with the Zend books that I think no one 
will deny the close resemblance of doctrines and identity 
of origin. Add to all this the incontrovertible argument to 
be drawn from the language, the antiquity of which is 
established by the fact that it was necessary to translate 
a part of the Zend books into Pahlavi, a language which 
was growing obsolete as early as the time of the Sassanides. 
Lastly, it cannot be denied that Zoroaster left books which 
were, through centuries, the groundwork of the Magic reli- 
gion, and which were preserved by the Magi, as shown by a 
series of documents from the time of Hermippus. There- 
fore I am unable to see why we should not trust the Magi 
of our days when they ascribe to Zoroaster those traditional 



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INTRODUCTION, I. XXI 



books of their ancestors, in which nothing is found to indi- 
cate fraud or a modern hand V 

Two years afterwards, in 1 793, was published in Paris a 
book which, without directly dealing with the Avesta, was 
the first step taken to make its authenticity incontrovertible. 
It was the masterly memoir by Sylvestre de Sacy, in which 
the Pahlavi inscriptions of the first Sassanides were deci- 
phered for the first time and in a decisive manner. De 
Sacy, in his researches, had chiefly relied on the Pahlavi 
lexicon published by Anquetil, whose work vindicated itself 
thus — better than by heaping up arguments — by promoting 
discoveries. The Pahlavi inscriptions gave the key, as is 
well known, to the Persian cuneiform inscriptions, which 
were in return to put beyond all doubt the genuineness 
of the Zend language. 

Tychsen, in an appendix to his Commentaries, pointed 
to the importance of the new discovery : ' This,' he writes, 
' is a proof that the Pahlavi was used during the reign of 
the Sassanides, for it was from them that these inscrip- 
tions emanated, as it was by them — nay, by the first of 
them, Ardeshtr Babagan — that the doctrine of Zoroaster 
was revived. One can now understand why the Zend books 
were translated into Pahlavi. Here, too, everything agrees, 
and speaks loudly for their antiquity and genuineness.' 

About the same time Sir William Jones, then president 
of the Royal Asiatic Society, which he had just founded, 
resumed in a discourse delivered before that Society the same 
question he had solved in such an off-hand manner twenty 
years before. He was no longer the man to say, ' Sied-il a un 
homme ne* dans ce siecle de s'infatuer de fables indiennes ? ' 
and although he had still a spite against Anquetil, he spoke 
of him with more reserve than in 1771. However, his 
judgment on the Avesta itself was not altered on the 
whole, although, as he himself declared, he had not thought 
it necessary to study the text. But a glance at the Zend 
glossary published by Anquetil suggested to him a remark 

1 ' Comtncutatio prior observationes historico-criticas de Zoroastre ejusque 
script ia et placitis exhibens." Goettingen, in the Novi Comment. Soc. Reg. 1 791. 



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xxii VENDED. 



which makes Sir William Jones, in spite of himself, the 
creator of the comparative grammar of Sanskrit and Zend. 
'When I perused the Zend glossary,' he writes, 'I was 
inexpressibly surprised to find that six or seven words in ten 
are pure Sanscrit, and even some of their inflexions formed 
by the rules of theVyacaran 1 , as yushmacam, the geni- 
tive plural of yushmad. Now M. Anquetil most certainly, 
and the Persian compiler most probably, had no knowledge 
of Sanscrit, and could not, therefore, have invented a list of 
I Sanscrit words ; it is, therefore, an authentic list of Zend 
| words, which has been preserved in books or by tradition ; 
it follows that the language of the Zend was at least a dia- 
lect of the Sanscrit, approaching perhaps as nearly to it as 
the Pracrit, or other popular idioms, which we know to have 
been spoken in India two thousand years ago 8 .' This con- 
clusion, that Zend is a Sanskrit dialect, was incorrect, the 
connection assumed being too close; but it was a great 
thing that the near relationship of the two languages should 
have been brought to light 

In 1798 Father Paulo de St. Barthelemy further developed 
Jones's remark in an essay on the antiquity of the Zend 
language 8 . He showed its affinity with the Sanskrit by a 
list of such Zend and Sanskrit words as were least likely to 
have been borrowed, viz. those that designate the degrees 
of relationship, the limbs of the body, and the most general 
and essential ideas. Another list, intended to show, on a 
special topic, how closely connected the two languages are, 
contains eighteen words taken from the liturgic language 
used in India and Persia. This list was not very happily 
drawn up, as out of the eighteen instances there is not a single 
one that stands inquiry ; yet it was a happy idea, and one 
which has not even yet yielded all that it promised. His 
conclusions were that in a far remote antiquity Sanskrit 
was spoken in Persia and Media, that it gave birth to the 
Zend language, and that the Zend-Avesta is authentic: 
* Were it but a recent compilation,' he writes, ' as Jones 

1 The Sanskrit Grammar. * Asiatic Researches, II, § 3. 

* ' De antiquitate et affinitate linguae samscredamicae et germanicae,' Rome, 



1798. 



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INTRODUCTION, I. XX1U 



asserts, how is it that the oldest rites of the Parsis, that the 
old inscriptions of the Persians, the accounts of the Zoroas- 
trian religion in the classical writers, the liturgic prayers of 
the Parsis, and, lastly, even their books do not reveal 
the pure Sanskrit, as written in the land wherein the Parsis 
live, but a mixed language, which is as different from the 
other dialects of India as French is from Italian ? ' This 
amounted, in fact, to saying that the Zend is not derived 
from the Sanskrit, but that both are derived from another 
and older language. The Carmelite had a dim notion 
of that truth, but, as he failed to express it distinctly, it was 
lost for years, and had to be re-discovered. 

The first twenty-five years of this century were void of re- 
sults, but the old and sterile discussions as to the authenticity 
of the texts continued in England. In 1 808 John Leyden 
regarded Zend as a Prakrit dialect, parallel to Pali ; Pali 
being identical with the Magadhi dialect and Zend with the 
Sauraseni 1 . In the eyes of Erskine Zend was a Sanskrit 
dialect, imported from India by the founders of Mazdeism, 
but never spoken in Persia 2 . His main argument was that 
Zend is not mentioned among the seven dialects which 
were current in ancient Persia according to the Farhang-i 
Jehangiri 3 , and that Pahlavi and Persian exhibit no close 
relationship with Zend. 

In Germany, Meiners had found no followers. The 
theologians appealed to the Avesta in their polemics 4 , 
and Rhode sketched the religious history of Persia after 
the translations of Anquetil s . 

Erskine' s essay provoked a decisive answer 6 from Em- 
manuel Rask, one of the most gifted minds in the new 
school of philology, who had the honour of being a pre- 



1 Asiatic Researches, X. > Ibid. X. 

' A large Fenian dictionary compiled in India in the reign of Jehangir. 

* ' Erlauterungen zom Nenen Testament ans einer neueroflheten Morgenland- 
ischen Quelle, 1M /ufyu &ti h/aroXory,' Riga, 1 775. 

» ' Die Heilige Sage . . . des Zend- Voiles,' Francfort, i8ao. 

' ' Ueber das Alter und die Echtheit der Zend-Sprache nnd des Zend Avesta ' 
(UberseUt von F. H. von der Hagen), Berlin, 1836. Remarks on the Zend 
Language and the Zend-Avesta (Transactions of the Bombay branch of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, III, 534). 



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cursor of both Grimm and Burnouf. He showed that the 
list of the Jehangiri referred to an epoch later than that to 
which Zend must have belonged, and to parts of Persia 
different from those where it must have been spoken ; he 
showed further that modern Persian is not derived from 
Zend, but from a dialect closely connected with it ; and, 
lastly, he showed what was still more important, that Zend 
was not derived from Sanskrit. As to the system of its 
sounds, Zend approaches Persian rather than Sanskrit; 
and as to its grammatical forms, if they often remind one 
of Sanskrit, they also often remind one of Greek and Latin, 
and frequently have a special character of their own. Rask 
also' gave the paradigm of three Zend nouns, belonging to 
different declensions, as well as the right pronunciation of 
the Zend letters, several of which had been incorrectly 
given by Anquetil. This was the first essay on Zend 
grammar, and it was a masterly one. 

The essay published in 1831 by Peter von Bohlen on the 
origin of the Zend language threw the matter forty years 
back. According to him, Zend is a Prakrit dialect, as it 
had been pronounced by Jones, Leyden, and Erskine. His 
mistake consisted in taking Anquetil's transcriptions of the 
words, which are often so incorrect as to make them look 
like corrupted forms when compared with Sanskrit. And, 
what was worse, he took the proper names in their modern 
Parsi forms, which often led him to comparisons that would 
have appalled Manage. Thus Ahriman became a Sanskrit 
word ariman, which would have meant 'the fiend;' yet 
Bohlen might have seen in Anquetil's work itself that Ahri- 
man is nothing but the modern form of Angra Mainyu, 
words which hardly remind one of the Sanskrit ariman. 
Again, the angel Vohu-man6, or 'good thought,' was 
reduced, by means of the Parsi form Bahman, to the 
Sanskrit bahuman, ' a long-armed god.' 

At length came Burnouf. From the time when Anquetil 
had published his translation, that is to say, during seventy 
years, no real progress had been made in knowledge of the 
Avesta texts. The notion that Zend and Sanskrit are two 
kindred languages was the only new idea that had been 



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INTRODUCTION, I. XXV 



acquired, but no practical advantage for the interpretation 
of the texts had resulted from it. Anquetil's translation 
was still the only guide, and as the doubts about the 
authenticity of the texts grew fainter, the authority of the 
translation became greater, the trust reposed in the A vesta 
being reflected on to the work of its interpreter. The Parsis 
had been the teachers of Anquetil ; and who could ever 
understand the holy writ of the Parsis better than the 
Parsis themselves? There was no one who even tried 
to read the texts by the light of Anquetil's translation, 
to obtain a direct understanding of them. 

About 1 825 Eugene Burnouf was engaged in a course of 
researches on the geographical extent of the Aryan lan- 
guages in India. After he had defined the limits which 
divide the races speaking Aryan languages from the native 
non-brahmanical tribes in the south, he wanted to know if 
a similar boundary had ever existed in the north-west ; and 
if it is outside of India that the origin of the Indian lan- 
guages and civilisation is to be sought for. He was thus 
led to study the languages of Persia, and, first of all, the 
oldest of them, the Zend. But as he tried to read the texts 
by help of Anquetil's translation, he was surprised to find 
that this was not the clue he had expected. He saw that 
two causes had misled Anquetil: on the one hand, his 
teachers, the Parsi dasturs, either knew little themselves or 
taught him imperfectly, not only the Zend, but even the 
Pahlavi intended to explain the meaning of the Zend ; so 
that the tradition on which his work rested, being incorrect 
in itself, corrupted it from the very beginning ; on the other 
hand, as Sanskrit was unknown to him and comparative 
grammar did not as yet exist, he could not supply the 
defects of tradition by their aid. Burnouf, laying aside tradi- 
tion as found in Anquetil's translation, consulted it as found 
in a much older and purer form, in a Sanskrit translation of 
the Yasna made in the fifteenth century by the Parsi Nerio- 
sengh in accordance with the old Pahlavi version. The 
information given by Neriosengh he tested, and either con- 
firmed or corrected, by a comparison of parallel passages 
and by the help of comparative grammar, which had just 



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been founded by Bopp, and applied by him successfully 
to the explanation of Zend forms. Thus he succeeded 
in tracing the general outlines of the Zend lexicon and 
in fixing its grammatical forms, and founded the only 
correct method of interpreting the Avesta. He also gave 
the first notions of a comparative mythology of the Avesta 
and the Veda, by showing the identity of the Vedic Yama 
with the Avesta Yima, and ofTraitana with Thrafitaona and 
Ferldun. Thus he made his ' Commentaire sur le Yasna ' 
a marvellous and unparalleled model of critical insight and 
steady good sense, equally opposed to the narrowness of 
mind which clings to matters of fact without rising to their 
cause and connecting them with the series of associated 
phenomena, and to the wild and uncontrolled spirit of 
comparison, which, by comparing everything, confounds 
everything. Never sacrificing either tradition to comparison 
or comparison to tradition, he knew how to pass from the 
one to the other, and was so enabled both to discover facts 
and to explain them. 

At the same time the ancient Persian inscriptions at 
Persepolis and Behistun were deciphered by Burnouf in 
Paris, by Lassen in Bonn, and by Sir Henry Rawlinson in 
Persia. Thus was revealed the existence, at the time of 
the first Achaemenian kings, of a language closely con- 
nected with that of the Avesta, and the last doubts as to 
the authenticity of- the Zend books were at length removed. 
It would have required more than an ordinary amount of 
scepticism to look still upon the Zend as an artificial 
language, of foreign importation, without root in the land 
where it was written, and in the conscience of the people 
for whom it was written, at the moment when a twin lan- 
guage, bearing a striking likeness to it in nearly every 
feature, was suddenly making itself heard from the mouth 
of Darius, and speaking from the very tomb of the first 
Achaemenian king. That unexpected voice silenced all 
controversies, and the last echoes of the loud discussion 
which had been opened in 1771 died away unheeded 1 . 

1 The attacks of John Romer (' Zend : Is it an Original Language?' London, 

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INTRODUCTION, II. XXVU 



CHAPTER II. 

The Interpretation of the Zend-Avesta. 

The peace did not last long, and a year after the death 
of Burnouf a new controversy broke out, which still con- 
tinues, the battle of the methods, that is, the dispute 
between those who, to interpret the Avesta, rely chiefly or ' 
exclusively on tradition, and those who rely only on com- 
parison with the Vedas. The cause of the rupture was 
the rapid progress made in the knowledge of the Vedic 
language and literature: the deeper one penetrated into 
that oldest form of Indian words and thoughts, the 
more striking appeared its close affinity with the Avesta 
words and thoughts. Many a mysterious line in the 
Avesta received an unlooked-for light from the poems of , 
the Indian /?«his, and the long-forgotten past and the 
origin of many gods and heroes, whom the Parsi worships 
and extols without knowing who they were and whence 
they came, were suddenly revealed by the Vedas. Em- 
boldened by its bright discoveries, the comparative method 
took pity on its slower and less brilliant rival, which was 
then making its first attempts to unravel the Pahlavi tradi- 
tional books. Is it worth while, said the Vedic scholars '» 
to try slowly and painfully to extract the secret of the old 
book from that uncouth literature ? Nay, is there any hope 
that its secret is there ? Translating the Avesta in accord- 
ance with the Pahlavi is not translating the Avesta, but 
only translating the Pahlavi version, which, wherever it has 
been deciphered, is found to wander strangely from the 
true meaning of the original text. Tradition, as a rule, 
is wont to enforce the ideas of its own ages into the books 
of past ages. From the time when the Avesta was written 
to the time when it was translated, many ideas had under- 
gone great changes : such ideas, tradition must needs either 

1855) called forth a refutation only in Bombay (Dhanjibai Framji, ' On the 
Origin and the Authenticity of tbe Aryan Family of Languages, the Zend- 
Avesta and tbe Huzvarash,' 1861). 
1 Roth, Benfey, Hang. Cf. Revue Critique, 1877, II, 81. 



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misunderstand or not understand at all, and tradition is 
always either new sense or nonsense. The key to the 
Avesta is not the Pahlavi, but the Veda. The Avesta and 
the Veda are two echoes of one and the same voice, the 
reflex of one and the same thought : the Vedas, therefore, 
are both the best lexicon and the best commentary to the 
Avesta. 

The traditional school * replied that translating Zend by 
means of Sanskrit and the Avesta by means of the Vedas, 
because Zend and the Avesta are closely related to San- 
skrit and the Vedas, is forgetting that relationship is not 
identity, and that what interests the Zend scholar is not to 
know how far Zend agrees with Sanskrit, but what it is in 
itself: what he seeks for in the Avesta, is the Avesta, not 
the Veda. Both the Vedic language and the Vedas are 
quite unable to teach us what became in Persia of those 
elements, which are common to the two systems, a thing 
which tradition alone can teach us. By the comparative 
method, the Zend meregha, which means 'a bird,' would 
assume the meaning of 'gazelle' to accord with the San- 
skrit mrt'ga ; ratu, ' a part of the day,' would be extended 
to * a season' out of regard for r*'tu ; mainyu, ' a spirit,' and 
dahyu, 'a province,' would be degraded to 'anger' and to 
'a set of thieves,' and 'the demons,' the Da&vas, would 
ascend from their dwelling in hell up to heaven, to meet 
their philological brothers, the Indian Devas. The tradi- 
tional method, as it starts from matters of fact, moves 
always in the field of reality; the comparative method 
starts from an hypothesis, moves in a vacuum, and builds 
up a fanciful religion and a fanciful language. 

Such being the methods of the two schools, it often hap- 
pened that a passage, translated by two scholars, one of 
each school, took so different an aspect that a layman 
would have been quite unable to suspect that it was one 
and the same passage he had read twice. Yet the di- 
vergence between the two methods is more apparent than 
real, and proceeds from an imperfect notion of the field in 

' Spiegel, Jnsti. 

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INTRODUCTION, II. XXIX 



which each of them ought to work. They ought not to 
oppose, but assist one another, as they are not intended to 
instruct us about the same kind of facts, but about two 
kinds of facts quite different and independent. No Ian-" 1 
guage, no religion, that has lived long and changed much, 
can be understood at any moment of its development, 
unless we know what it was before and what it became 
afterwards. The language and religion of the Avesta record 
but a moment in the long life of the Iranian language and 
thought, so that we are unable to understand them, unless 
we know whence they came and what they became. What 
they became we learn directly from tradition, since the tradi- 
tion arose from the very ideas which the Avesta expresses ; 
whence they came we learn indirectly from the Vedas, be- 
cause the Vedas come from the same source as the Avesta. 
Therefore it cannot happen that the tradition and the Veda 
will really contradict one another, if we take care to ask 
from each only what it knows, from one the present, and 
from the other the past. Each method is equally right 
and equally efficacious at its proper time and in its right 
place. The first place belongs to tradition, as it comes 
straight from the Avesta. The second inquiry, to be suc- 
cessful, requires infinite prudence and care : the Veda is not 
the past of the Avesta, as the Avesta is the past of tra- 
dition ; the Avesta and Veda are not derived from one 
another, but from one and the same original, diversely 
altered in each, and, therefore, there are two stages of 
variation between them, whereas from the Avesta to tradi- 
tion there is only one. The Veda, if first interrogated, 
gives no valuable evidence, as the words and gods, common 
to the two systems, may not have retained in both the 
same meaning they had in the Indo-Iranian period : they 
may have preserved it in one and lost it in the other, or 
they may have both altered it, but each in a different way. 
The Veda, generally speaking, cannot help us in discovering 
matters of fact in the Avesta, but only in explaining them 
when discovered by tradition. If we review the discoveries 
made by the masters of the comparative school, it will be 
seen that they have in reality started, without noticing it, 



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from facts formerly established by tradition. In fact tradi- 
tion gives the materials, and comparison puts them in order. 
It is not possible, either to know the Avesta without the 
former, or to understand it without the latter. 

The traditional school, and especially its indefatigable 
and well-deserving leader, Spiegel, made us acquainted with 
the nature of the old Iranian religion by gathering together 
all its materials ; the comparative school tried to explain 
its growth. The traditional school published the text and 
the traditional translations, and produced the first Parsi 
grammar, the first Pahlavi grammar, and the first transla- 
tion of the Avesta which had been made since Anquetil. 
The danger with it is that it shows itself too apt to stop at 
tradition, instead of going from it to comparison. When it 
undertakes to expound the history of the religion, it cannot 
but be misled by tradition. Any living people, although 
its 'existing state of mind is but the result of various 
and changing states through many successive ages, yet, at 
any particular moment of its life, keeps the remains of its 
former stages of thought in order, under the control of the 
principle that is then predominant. Thus it happens that 
its ideas are connected together in a way which seldom 
agrees with their historical sequence : chronological order is 
lost to sight and replaced by logical order, and the past is 
read into the present Comparison alone can enable us to 
put things in their proper place, to trace their birth, their 
growth, their changes, their former relations, and lead us 
from the logical order, which is a shadow, to the historical 
order, which is the substance. 

The comparative school developed Indo-Iranian mytho- 
logy. Roth showed after Burnouf how the epical history 
of Iran was derived from the same source as the myths 
of Vedic India, and pointed out the primitive identity of 
Ahura Mazda, the supreme god of Iran, with Varuwa, the 
supreme god of the Vedic age. In the same direction 
Windischmann, in his ' Zoroastrian Essays ' and in his 
studies on Mithra and Anahita, displayed singular sagacity. 
But the dangers of the method came to light in the works 
of Haug, who, giving a definite form to a system still 



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INTRODUCTION, III. XXXI 

fluctuating, converted Mazdeism into a religious revolu- 
tion against Vedic polytheism, found historical allusions to 
that schism both in the Avesta and in the Veda, pointed 
out curses against Zoroaster in the Vedas, and, in short, 
transformed, as it were, the two books into historical 
pamphlets 1 . 

In the contest about the authenticity of the Avesta, one 
party must necessarily have been right and the other 
wrong; but in the present struggle the issue is not so 
clear, as both parties are partly right and partly wrong. 
Both of them, by following their principles, have rendered 
such services to science as seem to give each a right to 
cling to its own method more firmly than ever. Yet it is 
to be hoped that they will see at last that they must be 
allies, not enemies, and that their common work must be 
begun by the one and completed by the other. 

CHAPTER III. 
The Formation of the Zend-Avesta. 

§ I. The collection of Zend fragments, known as the 
Zend-Avesta *, is divided, in its usual form, into two parts. 

The first part, or the Avesta properly so called, contains 
the Vendidad, the Visp£rad, and the Yasna. The Ven- 
didad is a compilation of religious laws and of mythical 
tales ; the VispSrad is a collection of litanies for the sacri- 
fice ; and the Yasna is composed of litanies of the same 

1 It would be unjust, when speaking of Haug, not to recall the invaluable 
services be rendered in the second part of his career, as a Pahlavi scholar. 
He was the first who thought of illustrating the Pahlavi of the books by the 
Pahlavi of the inscriptions, and thus determined the reading of the principal 
elements in the manuscript Pahlavi. 

* A very improper designation, as Zend means ' a commentary or explana- 
tion,' and was applied only to explanatory texts, to the translations of the 
Avesta. Avesta (froni the old Persian abajtS, 'the law ;' see Oppert, Journal 
Asiatique, 187a, MarsLis the proper name of the original texts. What it is 
customary to call 'the Zend language' ought to be named 'the Avesta lan- 
guage ; ' the Zend being no language at all ; and, if the word be used as the 
designation of one, it can be rightly applied only to the Pahlavi. The ex- 
pression ' Avesta and Zend ' is often used in the Pahlavi commentary to 
designate ' the law with its traditional and revealed explanation.' 



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kind and of five hymns or Gathas written in a special 
dialect, older than the general language of the Avesta. 

These three books are found in manuscripts in two dif- 
ferent forms : either each by itself, in which case they are 
generally accompanied by a Pahlavi translation ; or the 
three mingled together according to the requirements of 
the liturgy, as they are not each recited separately in their 
entirety, but the chapters of the different books are inter- 
mingled ; and in this case the collection is called the 
Vendidad Sada or 'Vendidad pure,' as it exhibits the 
original text alone, without a translation. 

The second part, generally known as the Khorda 
Avesta or 'Small Avesta,' is composed of short prayers 
which are recited not only by the priests, but by all the 
faithful, at certain moments of the day, month, or year, and 
in presence of the different elements ; these prayers are 
| the five Gah, the thirty formulas of the Strdzah, the three 
Afrigan, and the six Nyayij. But it is also usual to include 
in the Khorda Avesta, though they are no real part of it, 
the Yarts or hymns of praise and glorification to the several 
' Izads, and a number of fragments, the most important of 
which is the Hadhdkht Nask. 

§ a. That trie extent of the sacred literature of Mazdeism 
was formerly much greater than it is now, appears not only 
from internal evidence, that is, from the fragmentary cha- 
racter of the book, but is also proved by historical evidence. 
In the first place, the Arab conquest proved fatal to the 
religious literature of the Sassanian ages, a great part of 
which was either destroyed by the fanaticism of the con- 
querors and the new converts, or lost during the long 
exodus of the Parsis. Thus the Pahlavi translation of the 
Vendidad, which was not finished before the latter end of the 
Sassanian dynasty, contains not a few Zend quotations from 
books which are no longer in existence : whole chapters 
also, or large quotations, of lost books are preserved in 
Pahlavi and Parsi tracts, like the Nirangistan and the 
Aogemaidfi ; and numerous quotations, from texts unknown 
before, have recently come to light in a Pahlavi Ravaet 
discovered in Bombay. It is a tradition with the Parsis, 



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INTRODUCTION, III. XXX1U 

that the Yarts were originally thirty in number, there 
having been one for each of the thirty Izads who preside 
over the thirty days of the month ; yet there are only 
eighteen now extant The BundahLr contains much matter 
which is not spoken of in the existing Avesta, but which 
appears to have been taken from Zend books that were still 
in the hands of its compiler. 

What helped to preserve the Avesta is obvious ; taken 
as a whole, it does not profess to be a religious encyclo- 
pedia, but only a liturgical collection, and it bears more 
likeness to a Prayer Book than to the Bible. It can be 
readily conceived that the Vendidad Sada, which had to 
be recited every day, would be more carefully preserved 
than the Yarts, which are generally recited once a month ; 
and these again more carefully than other books, which, 
however sacred they might be, were not used in the per- 
formance of worship. Many texts, no doubt, were lost in 
consequence of the Arab conquest, but mostly such as would 
have more importance in the eyes of the theologian than in 
those of the priest. But we are no longer in the dark as 
to the character and the contents of that larger literature 
of which our Avesta is a remnant : that literature is known 
to us, in its general outlines, through a Pahlavi analysis 
which was made in the ninth century, two centuries after 
the Arab conquest and at a time when the sacred literature 
of the Sassanian times was still in existence. West's trans- 
lation of that synopsis 1 is the greatest service rendered in 
the last twenty years in the field of Avesta scholarship, 
and has for the first time rendered a history of Avesta 
literature possible. 

§ 3. During the Sassanian period, while Zoroastrianism 
was the state religion, the collection of sacred writings was 
composed of twenty-one books or Nasks, distributed into 
three classes, each of seven Nasks; being called respec- 
tively the Gatha group (gasan), the group of the law (dat), 
and the group of the Hadha-mathra ; or the theological 
group, the legal group, and the mixed group. 

> Pahlavi Texts, IV (forming vol. xxxvii of the Sacred Books of the East). 
[41 C 



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The seven Gatha Nasks, thus named because they are 
mostly a development of the Gathas, are : — 

The Stdt Yart (Dk. VIII, 46) ; 

The Sutkar (Dk. VIII, a ; IX, a) ; 

The Vanrt-mansar (Dk. VIII, 3 ; IX, 24) ; 

The Bak (Dk. VIII, 4 ; IX, 47) 5 

The Vartag (Dk. VIII, is) ; 

The Hadhdkht (Dk. VIII, 45) ; 

The Spand (Dk. VIII, 14). 
We possess the St6t Yajt (in Zend Staota yfisnya) 
in its entirety : it is the core of the aggregate known as the 
Yasna, and the most holy part of the A vesta. It contains 
thirty-three chapters, of which twenty-two are metrical and 
written in an archaic style, these being the Gathas, properly 
so called, and the three chief prayers (Ahuna Vairya, 
Ashem Vohu, and Y&Nh6 hatam); eleven chapters are 
written in prose and in the common dialect *. 

The Sutkar, the Varjt-mansar, and the Bak contain 
each twenty-two chapters, answering to the twenty-two 
Gathas, of which they are mere commentaries or para- 
phrases. We possess small fragments of the Sutkar 2 and 
one chapter of the Varjt-mansar s . Three chapters of the 
Bak, which are commentaries to the three chief prayers 
aforesaid, have been incorporated in the Yasna *. 

Nothing is left of the Vartag, of which the Dinkart gives 
no analysis, as the author had neither its Avesta, nor its 
Zend (neither its original text, nor its Pahlavi translation), 
in an authentic form before him. 

Of the Hadhdkht we have three chapters counted as 
Yarts 6 , and one inserted in the Yasna °. 

The Spand, which is dedicated to the story of Zoroaster, 
has been indirectly preserved, in a modern form, in the 
Zardurt Nama and in An/a Viraf's visit to hell. 



1 Githas (Yasna XXVIII-LIV) and Yasna XIV-XVII, XXII-XXVH, LVI. 

* Fragments to Vd. II, 6 ; Tahmuras' Fragm. LXIV-LXVIII (?). 

* Westergaard's Fragm. IV ( = Farg. XXIII of the Varrt-mansar NaslO. 

* Chapters XIX, XX, XXI. 

* Yarts XI and XXI, XXII. 

* The so-called FshOsha-mtthra (Yasna LVIII). 



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INTRODUCTION, III. XXXV 

§ 4. The Legal group contains : — 

The Nlkatum (Dk. VIII, 16) ; 

The Ganba-sar-nLfat (Dk. VIII, 21) ; 

The Husparam (Dk. VIII, 28) ; 

The Sakatum (Dk. VIII, 38) ; 

The Vendldad (Dk. VIII, 44) ; 

The tfitradat (Dk. VIII, 13) ; 

The Bakan Yart (Dk. VIII, 15). 
Only the first five of these Nasks are strictly legal ; the 
last two deal with cosmogony and mythology. 

Of those five legal Nasks, one has been preserved in its 
entirety, the Vendldad 1 . The Nikatum, the Ganba- 
sar-ni^at, and the Sakatum are represented by a few 
fragments. An important section of the Husparam has 
been preserved, in text and translation, in the Pahlavi 
Erpatistan and Nirangistan 2 . 

The A"itradat, which gives an historical account of 
mankind and Iran from the creation of the world till the 
advent of Zoroaster, has been indirectly preserved in part 
of the BundahLr and in the Shahnama. 

The Bakan Yajt was a collection of prayers in honour of 
the several Yazatas. From that Nask are derived sixteen 
of our Yarts, to which may be added the H6m Yart (Yasna 
IX-XI) and the Srdsh Yart (Yasna LVII). 

§ 5. The third group of Nasks, the Hadhamithra, is the 
least known and the least well preserved. It contained : — 

The Damdat (Dk. VIII, 5) ; 

The Natar (Dk. VIII, 6) ; 

The Pa^-ag (Dk. VIII, 7); 

The Rat-dat-ltag (Dk. VIII, 8) ; 

The Bam (Dk. VIII, 9) ; 

The Karktsrav (Dk. VIII, 10) ; 

The Vtrtasp-sast (Dk. VIII, 11). 
The Damdat was the Zoroastrian Genesis; the cos- 
mogonic part of the BundahLr is derived from it. There 
remains one Zend fragment of it 3 . 

' See below, the Introduction to the Vendtd&d. 

• See below, p. 300 seq. » Fragm. Vd. H, ao c. 

C 2 



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We know nothing of the Natar, of which the Dinkart 
has no analysis. 

The Gah and Slr6za may be derived from the Pig ag 
that treats of the Gahanbars and of the relations between 
the liturgy and the divisions of time. 

The Rat-dat-ttag treats of the arrangement of the 
sacrifice. It is represented by two fragments '. 

The Barij is of an ethical character; the Kajkisrav 
teaches how to prevent the sacrifice being ill-managed and 
turning to the benefit of the demons. No fragment has 
been referred to either of these two Nasks with any 
certainty 2 . 

The Vijtasp-sast, or ' the Introduction of Vtrtasp,' 
treated of the conversion of Vtrtasp by Zoroaster and 
of his wars against Aigasp. It is represented by the 
Vtrtasp Yajt (Yt. XXIV) and the Afrin Paighambar 
Zartujt (Yt. XXIII). It is one of the sources of the 
Zardujt Nama. 

§ 6. From this rapid review we may draw the following 
conclusions : — 

(i) Out of the twenty-one Nasks of the Sassanian Avesta, 
we possess two in their entirety (the Vendldad and the 
St6t Yart) and the most important part of a third (the 
Bakan Yart). 

(a) We have a considerable part of four Nasks : the Bak, 
the Hadhdkht, the Vtrtasp-sast, and the Husparam ; and 
several fragments of most of the others. 

(3) We know indirectly, through the medium of Pahlavi 
translations or compilations, the contents of many Nasks 
of which we have few or no remnants in their original 
language: the Damdat, the Vtrtasp-sast, the ATitradat, 
and the Spand. In short we possess specimens, more or 
less considerable, of fifteen Nasks, and the complete text 
of the two Nasks which were considered all-important. 
For the Vendidad, being the book of purification; was to 
the priest the chief of the legal Nasks, and this is most 

* Tahmnras' Fragm. LVIII ; Fragm. to Vd. VII, 43. 

• The quotations in the Pahlavi Ntrangistan may be referred to the 
Kasktsrav. 



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INTRODUCTION, III. XXXVll 

likely the reason to which we owe its preservation. As to 
the Gathas, they were already to the Zoroastrians of the 
Sassanian age just what they are to the Parsis of to-day : 
their paramount sanctity was the same as it is now, and 
their extent was the same, as appears from the fact that 
the three Gathic Nasks which were developed around the 
Gathas, or artificially attached to them, are composed 
each of twenty-two Fargards, answering one by one to the 
twenty-two Gathas of our Yasna. Therefore the many 
losses that the Sassanian Avesta underwent in the last 
twelve centuries did not bear on the essential parts ; and 
the loss, however considerable it may be, is neither absolute, 
as much of the matter survived under a Pahlavi garb, nor 
perhaps irreparable, as the Zend finds made in the Pahlavi 
literature afford a hope for fresh and more important 
recoveries, when that deep quarry, only half opened, has 
been worked out through all its strata. 

§ 7. It is not only the general outlines of the Sassanian 
Avesta we find sketched in the Dinkart ; it furnishes us also 
with a history of its formation 1 , which may be summed up 
as follows : — 

The twenty-one Nasks were formed by Ahura Mazda 
himself out of the twenty-one words of the Ahuna Vairya. 
They were brought by Zoroaster to king Vfotasp. Two 
copies of the complete scriptures were written by order 
of the king : one was deposited in the treasury at Shapigan, 
the other in the Record Office 2 . 

When Alexander invaded Persia, the copy in the Record 
Office was burnt, and the one in Shapigan was carried 
off by the Greeks, who had it translated into their own 
language. 

One of the Parthian kings, Valkhash, ordered all the 
scattered remnants of the Avesta, which had been preserved, 
either in manuscript or by oral tradition, to be searched 
for and collected. 

1 In two different concordant documents, one at the end of Dinkart III 
(West, 1. 1. pp. zzx and xxxi), the other in the beginning of Dinkart IV (ibid. 

4«»-4«5)- 
" dez-t nipijrt, 'the fortress for books :' cf. the Hebrew ice nnp. 



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The founder of the Sassanian dynasty, Ardashir (21 i- 
241 ), called to his court the high-priest Tansar, gave him 
the commission to gather and complete the scattered frag- 
ments, and invested his work with official authority. 

Ardashlr's son, Shahpuhr I (241-273), ordered the docu- 
ments relating to profane sciences (medicine, astronomy, 
geography, philosophy), which were scattered amongst the 
Hindus and the Greeks, to be collected and embodied 
in the Avesta. 

At last Sh&hpuhr II, son of Auhrmazd (309-379), to 
check the sects that were distressing the religion, ordered 
a general disputation between them: the champion of 
orthodoxy, Adarbad, son of Mahraspand, submitting him- 
self to a fire-ordeal, went through it victoriously, and the 
king proclaimed : ' Now we have seen the true religion on 
earth, we will not suffer any false religion,' and he acted 
accordingly. 

§ 8. This account may be divided into two parts, one 
extending from the origin to the time of Alexander, the 
other relating to the restoration of the Avesta after the 
Greek invasion. These two accounts differ widely in 
character, the first being vague and legendary, the second 
being precise in its data and its dates, referring also to 
an historical period. We shall here have to do only with 
the second document, of which the import is that the 
Avesta is a collection that was formed on three occasions 
out of old fragments : the first edition emanating from 
a Parthian king, Valkhash: the second from the first 
Sassanian king, Ardashir Babagan (211-241); the third 
and last from king Shihpuhr I (241-272). Let us consider 
each of these three times, one by one. 

§ 9. One may be surprised, at first sight, by the part 
ascribed to an Arsacide prince in this religious evolution \ 
Most Byzantine, Parsi, and Muhammedan writers agree 
that it was the Sassanian dynasty which raised the Zoroas- 
trian religion from the state of humiliation into which the 
Greek invasion had made it sink, and, while it gave the 

1 Spiegel, Eranische Alteitbomskonde III, 783, n. 1. 



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INTRODUCTION, III. XXXIX 

signal for a revival of the old national spirit, made Maz- 
dcism one of the corner stones of the new establishment l . 
Therefore it seems strange to hear that the first step taken 
to make Mazdeism a state religion was taken by one of 
those very Philhellenic Parthian princes, who were fully 
imbued with Greek ideas and manners. Yet this view must 
not be accepted unreservedly. Ardashfr is nowhere men- 
tioned as professing a religion different from that of his 
predecessors. In the struggle between Ardavan and Arda- 
shir, there was no religious interest at stake, but only 
a political one ; and we are expressly told by Hamza s that 
Ardashfr and his adversaries belonged to the same con- 
fession. Nay, we shall see that one of the charges brought 
against him, by his adversaries, was his wanton infraction 
of the Zoroastrian laws. There is therefore nothing that 
makes it impossible to admit that in the time and at the 
court of a Parthian prince a Zoroastrian movement may 
have originated. 

§ 10. There were four kings at least 8 who bore the name 
of Valkhash : the most celebrated and best known of the 
four was Vologeses I, the contemporary of Nero. Now 
that Zoroastrianism prevailed with him, or at least around 
him, we see from the conduct of his brother Tiridates, who 
was a Magian (Magus) * ; and by this term we must not 
understand a magician 6 , but a Zoroastrian priest. That he 
was a priest appears from Tacitus' testimony • ; that he 
was a Zoroastrian is shown by his scruples about the wor- 



1 S. de Sacy, Memoires sur quelques antiquites de la Perse. Cf. Macoudi, 

U,i»5- 

* Hamzae Ispahensis Annates, ed. Gottwaldt, p. 31 (in the translation). 

* Perhaps five (see de Longperier, Memoire snr la Numismatique des Arsa- 
cides, p. III). 

* < Magus ad earn Tiridates venerat ' (Pliny, Nat Hist XXX, 6). 

* Pliny very often confounds Magism and Magia, Magians and Magicians. 
We know from Pliny, too, that Tiridates refused to initiate Nero into his 
art ; bat the cause was not, as he assumes, that it was ' a detestable, frivolous, 
and vain art,' but because Mazdean law forbids the holy knowledge to be 
revealed to laymen, much more to foreigners (Yart IV, 10; cf. Philostrati 
Vita Soph. 1, 10). 

* ' Nee recusaturum Tiridatem accipiendo diademati in urbem venire, nisi 
sacerdotii religione attineretur' (Ann. XV, 24). 



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xl vendidAd. 



ship of the elements. When he came from Asia to Rome 
to receive the crown of Armenia at the hands of Nero, he 
avoided coming by sea, and rode along the coasts 1 , ' because 
the Magi are forbidden to defile the sea *.' This is quite 
in the spirit of later Zoroastrianism, and savours much of 
Mazdeism. That. Vologeses himself shared the religious 
scruples of his brother appears from his answer to Nero, 
who insisted upon his coming to Rome also : ' Come your- 
self, it is easier for you to cross such immensity of sea V 
What we know moreover of his personal character quali- 
fies him for taking the initiative in a religious work. He 
seems to have been a man of contemplative mind rather 
than a man of action, which often excited the anger or 
scorn of his people against him ; he had the glory of break- 
ing with the family policy of Parthian kings by giving his 
brothers a share in the empire, instead of strangling them 
(Tacitus, Annales, XV, i, a). At that time the East was 
in religious fermentation ; Christianity was in its infancy ; 
gnostic sects were rife: moreover religion was fast becoming 
part of politics. Vologeses was called by the people of 
Adiabene against their king Izates, who had turned Jew 
(Josephus, Antiq. XX, 4, 2) and himself offered the help of 
his cavalry to Vespasian against Jerusalem. 

The namesakes of Vologeses I had too short or too 
uncertain a lease of power for any one of them to be likely 
to compete with him as the author of that first religious 
restoration. We shall therefore assume that the Valkhash 
of the Dtnkart is the same as Vologeses I *, and, in this 
hypothesis, we will ascribe the first collection of Zoroastrian 
fragments to the third quarter of the first century (50-75), 



1 He crossed only the Hellespont. 

1 ' Navigare noluerat, quoniam inspoere in maria, aliisqne mortalinm necessi- 
tatibns violare naturam earn fas non putant ' (Pliny, 1. 1. Cf. In trod. X, 8 seq.) 

3 Dio Cassias, LXIII, 4. The answer was mistaken for an insult by Nero, 
and, as it seems, by Dio himself. In fact Vologeses remained to the last 
faithful to the memory of Nero (Suet. Nero, 57). 

* This hypothesis, which was for the first time proposed in the first edition 
of this translation (1880), seems to have been generally accepted (Gntschmid, 
' Persia,' in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, XVIII, 603 ; West, Pahlavi Texts, 
IV, 413, note 5). 



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INTRODUCTION, III. xli 

which is nearly the time when the first evangelical narra- 
tives were written. 

§ ii. Between Vologeses and Ardashlr, for nearly two 
centuries, there is a blank in the religious history of Iran. 
With Ardashir, Zoroastrianism became the religion of the 
state. The founder of the new dynasty belonged, through 
his grandmother, to one of the local royal families of Persia, 
the Bazrangis, and through his grandfather, Sasan, to the 
sacerdotal race. Sasan had in his hands the management 
of the temple of Anahita (the Iranian Artemis) at Istakhar. 
By birth a king and a priest, Ardashir reduced to a formula 
the throne-and-altar theory : * Be aware, my son,' he wrote 
in his political testament, 'that religion and royalty are 
two brothers that cannot subsist one without the other ; 
for royalty rests on religion and religion has royalty to 
protect it V Agathias reports that Ardashir was initiated 
in the doctrine of the Magi and could himself celebrate 
their mysteries ; that, from his accession to the throne, 
their race, formerly little honoured, got the upper hand 
both in public and private affairs ; they became his constant 
counsellors, and had the management of justice in their 
hands. Whereas the Parthians boasted their title of Phil- 
hellenist, the Sassanian king styled himself Mazdayasn, 
' Worshipper of Mazda.' It seemed as if Ahura Mazda 
had ascended the throne with him. 

§ i a. Ardashir had a man of the name of Tansar to help 
him in his work of religious restoration. He had been one 
of those petty local sovereigns called Muluk ut-tavaif, 
' Kings of provinces,' among whom the Iranian empire 
was divided under the nominal suzerainty of the Parthian 
emperor. ' Belonging to the Platonic sect V he had given 
up his throne to his son and embraced a religious life. 
When Ardashir rose up against the Multik ut-tavaif, Tansar 
welcomed him as the saviour of the empire, became his 
missionary, preached submission to him, and sent preachers 
in his interest through the provinces 8 . He had written an 

1 Mayondi, Les prairies d'or, II, 162. * Ma?oudi, II, 161. 

' Kitib et-tanbth, ed. de Goeje, 99. CC S. de Sacy, in Majoudi, IX, 339. 



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xlii VENDtDAD. 



apology of Ardashtr in answer to a reproachful letter from 
one of the princes threatened by Ardashtr's ambition, 
6*asnasf, king of Tabaristan. Tansar's letter, translated 
from the original Pahlavi into Arabic by Ibn al-Muqaffa, 
in the middle of the eighth century, and nearly five cen- 
turies later (iaio A. D.) from Arabic into Persian by Mu- 
hammad bin ul-Hasan, author of a history of Tabaristan, 
has come down to us in its secondary form, not free from 
interpolations which are easily detected, so that the original 
authentic text is clearly recognisable under the modern 
accretions l . 

That letter, which is the oldest and most important record 
of the religious history of Zoroastrian Persia, sets in a 
strong light the moral forces that made the success of the 
Sassanian revolution. Ardashir was the happy leader of 
a necessary reaction against the political anarchy of the 
Parthian system, and against the moral, social, and religious 
anarchy that was the outcome of the political one. 

The Parthian kings, in the last two centuries of the 
dynasty, had been hardly more than feudal chiefs, only 
so far recognised by the local princes (the Muluk ut-tavaif) 
as they had strength to make themselves recognised. Each 
province had its own dynasty, old or new. The legend ran 
that Alexander, on his death-bed, fearing lest Persia, after 
his death, should revenge her wrongs on Greece, listened 
to the perfidious advice of his vizier Aristotle and divided 
Iran between ninety petty sovereigns, to weaken her for 
ever. Such was at any rate the condition of Iran in the 
beginning of the third century a.d. It was in order to 
restore the unity of the Iranian empire that Ardashtr rose. 
He suppressed those of the Muluk ut-tavaif who declined 
to recognise him as king of kings, and sent their heads 
as trophies to Anahita's temple 2 . It was decided by a 
council of Magi that those Muluk who would come and 
deposit their crowns at the feet of the Shahinshah, to receive 



1 See the text and translation of that letter (Lettre de Tansar an Roi de 
Tabaristan) in the Journal Asiatique, 1894, 1, 185-350, 503-555. 
* Tabari. 



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INTRODUCTION, III. xliii 

them again from his hands, would retain their title of 
Shah 1 . At the time when Tansar wrote, fourteen years 
had elapsed since Ardashir had begun his work : a part 
of it was done, the unity of the empire was restored : the 
only political task that remained to be performed was to 
avenge Dara's murder on Alexander's successors, and to 
exact from them the old tribute they had formerly paid 
to Persia for Egypt and Syria 2 . 

§ 13. Then remained the work of moral restoration. The 
Shahinshah's second task is to re-establish ' the law of the 
Ancients' (^L-JJl il» 3 ). How shall that ideal of the 
past be brought again to light? There lay the difficulty, 
as the Avesta was all but lost, and the tradition of the law 
had been obliterated by revolutions and anarchy. • You 
know that Alexander burnt in Istakhar 4 our sacred books 
written on twelve thousand ox-hides. There remained 
something of it in memory, but it was only legends and 
traditions 8 : nothing more was known of the religious laws 
and ordinances • ; and at last, by the corruption of the men 
of those times, by the disappearance of the law, the love of 
novelties and apocrypha 7 and the wish for notoriety, even 
those legends and traditions passed away from the memory 
of the people, so that there was not a particle authentic 



1 Journal Asiatiqoe, 1. 1. 513-514. 

' ' Now the Sb&hinshah intends to go to war against Rum and he will not 
rest till he has avenged Dara's blood on the Alexandrides, enriched his own 
treasury and the treasury of the state, and restored the towns which Alexander 
spitefully destroyed in Firs. He must exact from them the tribute which they 
always paid to our kings for the Coptic country and Syria, which our kings had 
formerly conquered in the land of the Hebrews, at the time of the invasion of 
Bokht-Nasr' (1.1. pp. 548-549). — Ardashtr's pretensions are expressed by 
Herodian in terras remarkably concordant with those in Tansar's letter : ' He 
pretended to have unquestionable rights to the possession of all the provinces 
in Asia lying between the Euphrates, the Aegean sea, and the Propontis : as 
all those countries, as far as Ionia and Caria, had always been governed by 
satraps of their nation from the days of Cyrus, who transferred the empire from 
the Medes to the Persians, to the time of Darius, who was conquered by 
Alexander : therefore by entering into possession of the old heritage of his 
ancestors he would not wrong the Romans.' (Journal Asiatique, 1894, p. 549.) 

* The Paoiryo afkaero in the Avesta. * Persepolis. 

7 \+>yii j OW> u^»* 



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xliv VENDiDAD. 



left. Therefore we must absolutely have an upright and 
honest man to revise the Religion 1 .' Tansar himself con- 
fesses that Ardashir does not pretend to re-establish the 
old order in its entirety, nor even to keep it free from the 
admixture of new elements. He takes liberties with it, 
and, whereas he comes forward to correct the new order 
(sunnati akhirin) by the light of the older one, he does 
not waive the right of correcting what may be wrong in the 
old law. Therefore, by his own confession, his restoration 
is an adaptation. How little he was embarrassed in his 
work by the authority of authentic written texts, Tansar 
lets us easily guess, ' When the Shahinshah wants to sup- 
press any iniquity of the Ancients, which does not suit the 
necessities of the present, they say : " This is the old 
custom, it is the rule of the Ancients." Iniquity, past or 
present, is a thing to be reproved, whether it comes from 
the Ancients or from the Moderns. But the Shahinshah 
has power over the Religion, and God is his ally 2 ; and in 
this destroying and changing of the order of tyranny, I see 
him better armed and adorned with more virtues than the 
Ancients. No king attempted what he did. The Religion 
being lost and history forgotten, what man could judge 
him? Besides, even in the times when men had perfect 
knowledge of their religion and were closely attached to it, 
they felt the need of a powerful and wise king in times of 
doubt ; for if the Religion is not enlightened by reason, it 
has no steadiness 8 .' 

It is no wonder therefore that Zoroastrians of the time 
may have considered Ardashir a sacrilegious heretic. One 
of his acts that created the greatest indignation was that he 
had the sacred fires of the Muluk ut-tavaif extinguished : 
a crime that would have cost any other man his life : ' no 
man before him,' exclaimed king Gasnasf, 'had ventured 
on such a sacrilege.' Tansar threw back the charge of 
sacrilege on the shoulders of the Mulftk ut-tavaif : they 

1 Lettre de Tansar, 1.1. p. 212. 

* X) .1 b <jf«. j iji* j Cwil Jn !....» »Ll ^jjl «. 

* AiltJ ^>]fi ±& gW*. tf]> I* ]f yi*- 



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INTRODUCTION, III. xlv 

had no right to have a second fire of their own : ' it was a 
bad innovation, contrary to the custom of the old kings.' 
It is more likely that the unity of the royal fire was a new 
dogma, invented on the spur of the moment to serve the 
usurper's political devices ; and Atar himself, when found 
to favour anarchy, was treated like any other rebel. In 
fact many were the laws, introduced by Ardashir, that were 
disapproved by public opinion as unwarranted innovations : 
such were the laws on the strict division of the people into 
classes with their functions, rights, and distinctive marks ; 
and the laws on heredity. His restoring the Law of the 
Ancients, said Gasnasf, is nothing else than destroying the 
real Law 1 . 

§ 14. How far these reforms were represented as resting 
on the mere will and reason of the king, or on the authority 
of religious texts, we do not know. As to the religious 
texts themselves, and their collection into a body of doc- 
trines, the Dlnkart has the following : * Ardashir had all 
the scattered teaching (amdk-i pargandak) brought together 
to the capital under the high authority of Tansar ; Tansar 
came ; him alone he accepted (fra^- patiraft) ; and from all 
the others he took away authority.' In other words, among 
theZoroastrian schools, there were current several collections 
of religious texts, more or less authentic, and it was the one 
taught by Tansar that was stamped by Ardashir with an 
official character. From another text in the Dinkart it 
appears that the Ardashir compilation contained two classes 
of texts : texts that were incorporated as they were, and 
other texts that were conjecturally restored by Tansar, 
the Pdrydtkej, so as to make a collection that should be an 
exact reproduction of the Vtrtasp Avesta, the lost treatise 
of Shaplgan * : which is as much as saying that the Arda- 
shir Avesta is a compound of texts anterior to Tansar and 
texts emanating from Tansar, the whole being an ideal 
restoration of a primitive Avesta, of the 'old law' or of 
what was supposed to be the old law, in the time of 
Ardashir. 

1 Journal Asiatiqne, 1894, No. 3, p. 514. 

* See the text in the Guimet Zend-Avesta, III, p. zxxi, note a. 



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xlvi vend!dAd. 



§ 15. Ardashtr's collection was not a canon closed. His 
successor Shahpuhr I (241-373), the conqueror of Valeri- 
anus, had, we are told, the scientific and philosophic frag- 
ments, scattered in India and Greece, collected and 
embodied in the Avesta. This is a confession that part of 
the Avesta was translated or imitated from foreign sources : 
but it is a confession that a Zoroastrian might easily make, 
as it was an accepted legend that Alexander had the Avesta 
translated into Greek, so that they could borrow back from 
the Greeks without being indebted to them. To us it tells 
a different tale, namely, that the scientific Nasks of the 
Avesta 1 , of which unfortunately very little is left 2 , were 
written under Shahpuhr I, in imitation of Greek and San- 
skrit scientific treatises. 

§ 16. It was not to be expected that a body of Scriptures, 
formed so recently and with such visible accretions, should 
obtain at once sufficient authority to command universal 
respect and check the sectarian spirit. In vain did Ardashir 
put the secular arm at the service of the new orthodoxy s : 
the inquisition disgusted the older generation and could 
not ensure the triumph of one particular system. The old 
free believers, not yet confined in the immovable limits of 
orthodox dogma, went on growing and branching off into 
independent heresies. One of these, Manicheism, became 
at one moment powerful even at the court of Shahpuhr. 
The execution of Manes under Shahpuhr' s successor, 
Bahram I (373-376), did not stop the prog»ess of the 
heresies, and it was only under Shahpuhr II (309-379) 
that, through Adarbad Mahraspand's devotion, the ortho- 



1 The fragments treating of medicine and astronomy, time and space, nature 
and creation, generation and corruption (yahvQnishn vinasishn; flvtva mi 
<p0apais ; jL»J ^ ^^5 jjl*, Tansar, p. 10 b). 

* Of the Hadha-mfttbra Nasks the contents of only one are sufficiently known 
(the Damdad). 

* ' The ShShinsh&h has ordered that if a man swerve from the Religion he 
should be put in prison, and that for a whole year without ceasing the clergy 
should read to him, and admonish him, and give him proofs and dissipate his 
doubts. If he repent and confess his error, he is set at liberty; if through 
obstinacy and pride he harden in infidelity, he is put to death.' (Letter of 
Tansar, fol. it a.)— Cf. Vd. XVIII, 9, 10; Minokhard XV, 22-15. 



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INTRODUCTION, IV. xlvii 

dox doctrine prevailed in a decisive way. After a public 
controversy with his opponents, he appealed to God's judg- 
ment and had molten brass poured on his breast : he went 
through the ordeal unscathed, and confounded the heretics. 
During the ordeal he may have repeated the Gatha lines : — 

' O Good Spirit, Ahura Mazda, by thy fire thou decidest 
between the opponents, according to the greater degree of 
piety and sanctity ; and many of those who see it believe 
in thy law* (Yasna XLVII, 6). 

The king announced that the true religion having mani- 
fested itself in a visible way, any false religion (ag-dlnlh) 
could be tolerated no more. That great religious event 
must have taken place about the year 330 ; for the perse- 
cution of the Christians began in that year. It was about 
the time when the Fathers at Nicaea organised Christianity 
into an orthodox state religion. 

After Adarbad the canon was closed. Whether he 
added his contribution to the bulk of the sacred texts, 
like his predecessors under Ardashir and Shahpuhr, there 
is no evidence either to prove or disprove : in any case, the 
Avesta after him underwent no change of any sort. The 
Parsi tradition makes him the last of the founders of 
the religion, and, forgetting the teachers between Zoroaster 
and Adarbad, makes these two names the Alpha and 
Omega of the Avesta history *. 

CHAPTER IV. 

Parthian Elements in the Avesta. 

§ I. From the preceding it appears that the Sassanian 
Avesta, as fixed by Adarbad Mahraspand in the beginning 



1 The Patet sums op the religions tradition as follows : — 

' I keep steady in the religion which the Lord H6rmezd and the Amshaspands 
taught the worshipped Frdhar of Zartnsht, the Spitamide ; 

* which Zartusht taught Vtrtasp ; 

' which Vtrtasp taught Frashoshtar, Jamasp, and Isfandyar ; 

' which the latter taught the faithful in this world ; 

' which by a continuous tradition came down to the ordainer of the holy law, 
Adarbad Mahraspand, who for its sake submitted to the ordeal and came out 
of It victoriously.' 



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xlviii vend}dAd. 



of the fourth century, represents three successive accretions 
at least, the first due to Vologeses in the middle of the 
first century, the second to Ardashtr and Tansar in the 
middle of the third century, and the third to Shahpuhr I, 
at the end of the same. Now we must inquire whether the 
texts of these successive editions belong, all or in part, 
to an older Avesta, anterior to the Greek conquest The 
evidence in the Dlnkart and in Tansar's letter prepares us 
to suppose that the post-Alexandrian element, at least as 
far as the form goes, must be considerable. The internal 
evidence allows us to give greater precision to that in- 
ference. 

§ 2. One of the best-known and most brilliant pieces of 
the Avesta, the H6m Yart, appears to contain an allusion 
to Alexander. It is said of Haoma, the plant-god, whose 
worship is the centre of the Mazdean liturgy, that 'he 
overthrew the usurping Keresani who arose, longing for 
sovereignty, and said : henceforth no priest will go at his 
wish through the country to teach the law.' Now, the 
only persecutor of religion of whom Parsi tradition makes 
mention before the Arabs is Alexander. He is the third 
in that trinity of tyrants created by Ahriman, who desired 
to have made them immortal for the destruction of the 
world. But the first two, Zohak and Afrasyab, were born 
and died before Zarathartra was born, so that Alexander 
alone of the three could appear as an anti-Zoroastrian 
persecutor; which makes us wonder whether the usurper 
confounded by Haoma might not be the Greek conqueror. 
Now that epithet Keresani, literally a bandit, is translated 
or transcribed in Pahlavi by Kilisyak, which is the name 
given in the Pahlavi literature to the infidels of Rum. 
Therefore, for the old mediaeval tradition the Keresani 
usurper was neither a dev nor a Turanian, he was a Greek. 
If the Keresani persecutor were a Greek, he could be no 
other than Alexander. A mediaeval Pahlavi apocalypse, 
the Bahman Yart (II, iy), passing in review the restorers 
of religion, begins with the Arsacide who destroyed ' the 
impious Alexander, the Kilisyak.' 

If the Keresani is Alexander, the passage quoted and the 



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INTRODUCTION, IV. xlix 

whole of the H6m Yart, which forms a coherent whole, 
cannot have been written before the death of Alexander or 
more accurately before the fall of the Greek domination in 
Persia. It was about 150 B.C. that Mithridates the Great 
(b.c. i 71-137) dealt the last blow to the Kilisyak. There- 
fore the Hdm Yart could hardly have been written before 
the middle of the second century before our era. 

§ 3. If the Avesta, or part of it, were composed under 
the Arsacidae, an important fact, otherwise unaccounted 
for, is explained ipso facto : namely the fact that the 
Avesta seems to ignore the existence of an Iranian empire. 
The highest political unity is the dahyu, a name which in 
the inscriptions of Darius denoted the satrapies, the pro- 
vincial kingdoms of Media, Bactriana, Sogdiana, Arachosia, 
Aria, Parthia, &c. The highest political power is the 
daNhupaiti, the chief of a dahyu. The one universal daNhu- 
paiti, the one daNhupaiti of all dahyus, is Mithra x . This 
refers to a time when there was no real daNhupaiti of all 
dahyus, no Shihinshah, when the real power was in the 
hands of the independent local kings. This is the period of 
the Provincial kings, the Muluk ut-tavaif; and this very 
name, Muluk ut-tavaif, is nothing less than a literal transla- 
tion of the Zend daNhupaiti. 

§ 4. At the time when the Avesta took its definitive 
form, Chaldaea was inhabited by Arab tribes, it was 
already a sort of Iraq Arab!. To the writer of the Avesta, 
Babylon (Bawri) is the residence of Kz\ Dahaka 2 , and A^i 
Dahaka represents the Arab race. It is not only in 
the later Shahnama that he is made the son of an Arab 
king; both the Bundahif, which reproduces old Avesta 
documents 8 , and the Avesta book of the Genealogies 
itself, made him a descendant of T&g, the eponym of the 



1 Yasnal.Ti. 

* Yt. V, 39.— Elsewhere, Yt. XV, 19, Asi is described as offering up a sacri- 
fice to Vayn in the inaccessible Kvirinta. We know from Hamza (p. 3a) that 
this was the name of a palace (the Knlang palace, the fortress of the Stork) 
which Ari Dahaka had built in Babylon. 

* Son of Kbrfltfisp (corrupted to Mard&s in Firdansi), son of Zalnigfiy, spn of 
Vtrafchang, son of T3g (Bund. XXXI, 6). 

[4] d 



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1 vendIdad. 



Ta^-ik 1 . Now the oldest period known when the Arabs settled 
along the Euphrates and Tigris is the second half of the 
Arsacide period. We know that at that time Holwan was on 
the frontier between the Iranians and Arabs. The region 
east of Holwan ' was in the hands of the Provincial kings 
(Muluk ut-tavaif = daNhu-paitis) who were all Persians, 
and did not recognise the authority of the Arabs. Iraq 
and Savad remained in the hands of the Arabs, who were 
waging a perpetual war with one another, as they are used 
to do V Therefore the texts in which the Arab Ari Dahaka 
appears as reigning in Babylon belong to a time when 
Arabs were already settled in Mesopotamia. 

A certain Zaini-gaur or Zainigav 8 is mentioned once in 
the Avesta as being conquered and killed by Frangrasyan 4 
who on that one occasion was invested with the royal 
/foarend and who, accordingly, in the Shahnama, is credited 
with having delivered Iran from an Arab invasion : in the 
absence of Kai-Kaus, it says, invaders flowed over Iran 
from every side, both Turanians and Arabs: 'the Arabs 
were conquered by the Turanians.' Perhaps the key to the 
Afrisyab enigma is here. One can hardly understand how 
the Turanians beyond the Oxus, whom Afrasyab is sup- 
posed to represent, could repel the Arabs coming from over 
the Euphrates. But one must bear in mind that Afrasyab's 
career ends on the banks of the Ka&kasta. lake, in Adar- 
ba(gan*, north of Mesopotamia. On another side, the 
legendary history of Yemen tells of the Tubba'h Abu 
Kurrub's invasions into Mesopotamia and his struggles with 



1 Tig, a brother of Hdshang and the ancestor of the Tajiks ( AThradad Nask, 
in Dtnkart VIII, 13, 8). 

* Tabari, tr. Zotenberg, II, 8-9. The Hatra, Htra, and Ghassaniau king- 
doms were already flourishing in the first century of our era. The Ghassanians 
reigned at Damas when Paulus was a prisoner there. 

* Bearing the same name as Asi Dahaka's grandfather (p. xlix). 

* Yt. XIX, 93. The translation in the Sacred Books of the East is to be 
corrected as follows : 'that glory that Frangrasyan, the Turanian, bore, when 
the wicked Zainigau was killed.' (Cf. Greater BundahLr : ' There was a fiend 
called Zintgav who had poison in his eye : he had come from the country of 
the Arabs to reign on Iran-Shahr : any man he gazed at with his evil eye, he 
killed. The Iranians called Frasyftv into their country, he killed that Ztnigav.') 

» Yt. XVII. 42. 



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INTRODUCTION, V. H 



the Turanians of Adarbai^an * ; so that the wars of Fran- 
grasyan and Zainigau may be an echo of the predatory 
struggles between the Arabs from the south and those 
Turanians of north-western Iran who were for centuries the 
plague of that country, and whom Khusrd Ndshirvan tried 
at last to imprison in the Caucasus. 



CHAPTER V. 
BrAhmanical, Buddhist, and Greek Elements. 

§ I. The political and social circumstances which the 
Avesta reflects being those of the Parthian time, one may 
easily expect to find in its doctrine the reaction of those 
civilisations, or religions, which flourished during that period 
either in Iran or in the neighbouring countries. In fact, { 
we find in the Avesta either polemics against, or loans j 
from, the great contemporary systems, the Brahmanical, ; 
the Buddhist, the Greek, and the Jewish. 

§ 2. The true Zoroastrian is called a Mazdayasna, ' a 
worshipper of Mazda V in contradistinction to the Da€va- 
yasna, ' the worshipper of the Daevas.' Daeva is generally 
understood as ' a demon,' and that is the meaning it has in 
the derived dfiv and in most of the Zend texts generally; 
as it is applied to the evil forces of nature, like the Wind- 
Daeva, or to the evil forces of the soul, like Aeshma, 
•Wrath;' Akem Mand, ' Bad Thought;' Tardmaiti, « Pride.' 
But it must also have applied to false gods, for the Daeva- 
yasna is not a bad Zoroastrian, it is a man who does not 
belong to the Zoroastrian system, it is a foreigner, an 
Anaryan. Doctors must practise on Daevayasnas before 
treating Mazdayasnas, which is a rule clear and practical 
only if the Daevayasna is a worshipper of the false gods, 
of Indian, Assyrian, or Greek idols ; for the test is simple 
enough. The word may have applied first and more 



1 Tabari, I, 505 ; Hamza, tr. p. 98. 

* The Sassanian kings took on their coins the title of Mazdayasn, instead 
of the Philhellen of the Arsacidae. 

d2 



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Hi VENDiDAD. 



especially to the Indian religions and to the worshippers 
of Devas. 

§ 3. The disparaging meaning of the word Deva in 
Zoroastrianism was formerly interpreted as a sign that 
Zoroaster's religion was born in an Indo-Iranian period, 
from a moral reaction against Vedic polytheism, which sent 
to hell the former gods. This theory, as far as I can see, 
has no longer any supporter : it has been seen that it all 
rests on a few lexicographical particularities, not on inner 
historical evidence. In fact Zoroastrianism has much in 
common with the Vedic Pantheon ; its supreme God, 
Ahura Mazda, is not more different from the great Asura, 
Varu«a, than Zeus is from Jupiter ; the Zoroastrian Apollo, 
Mithra, answers exactly to the Vedic Mitra. The worship 
is centred on both sides around the sacred plant (Soma — 
Haoma) and the sacred fire (Agni — Atar). The mythological 
struggle between the God of the Lightning, Indra, and the 
serpent Ahi is transferred to Atar (the Fire) and A^i. 
Yama, son of Vlvasvat, and Traitana revive in Yima, son of 
Vivanghawt, and Thraetaona. How those analogies are to 
be accounted for, whether they are the relics of an old 
Indo-Iranian religion, or whether they have been, entirely or 
partly, borrowed from either side by the other, remains an 
open question, which we are neither prepared to answer in 
the negative, nor to answer at all. But thus much is clear that 
there is not the slightest evidence or symptom of any such 
inner upheaval, rejecting a Vedic or quasi- Vedic religion, as 
was supposed to have taken place in prehistoric periods. 

§ 4. This only remains, that when Zoroastrianism, with 
the exclusive character which belongs to moral religions, 
wanted to brand and condemn the most dangerous rival 
it encountered amongst its neighbours, it found no more 
characteristic name to designate the false gods and the 
demons than the name given to divine beings in the false 
religions of India which had so many followers in the 
eastern provinces of the empire. It went so far as to take 
the names of three Indian devas to designate those arch- 
demons which it opposes artificially and systematically 
to the Amesha-Spewtas ; they are Iwdra, Saurva, and 



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INTRODUCTION, V. IHi 



Nminghaithya, given as counterparts to Asha Vahlfta, 
' Perfect Righteousness ;' Khshathra Vairya, 'Good Govern- 
ment ; ' and Spewta Armaiti, * Humility.' There is nothing 
in their A vesta character that reminds one of Indra the 
Storm God, of Sarva a name of .Siva, or of Nasatya the 
Asvin ; they are Wickedness, Tyranny, and Pride, by the 
mere fact of their opposition to the three Amshaspands, and 
it appears clear thereby that their present character is not 
the result of a prolonged evolution in the inner circle of 
Zoroastrianism. 

§ 5. The Daeva Buiti who, by order of Angra Mainyu, 
tries to kill Zarathurtra on his being born, is according 
to the Greater Bundahij 'the demon who resides in the 
idols' (but), and is the same as Butasp worshipped in India. 
Butasp, the founder of the Samanean or Buddhist sect, is 
no less a personage than the Bodhisattva, from which it 
follows that Buiti is nothing but the object of the Buddhist 
worship, the Buddha, or better the Bodhi. In fact once 
Buiti is called Buidhi \ Therefore, at the time when the 
legend of Zarathurtra was written down, Buddhism was 
one of the religions with which he was supposed to have to 
struggle. The composer of the nineteenth Fargard of the 
Vendidad, therefore, knew of Buddhism, and this accounts 
for the striking analogies between the legend of Zarathuf- 
tra's temptation by Angra Mainyu and .Sakya's temptation 
by Mara. The Zoroastrian writer thought it fair to 
borrow such an edifying legend from the very religion he 
opposed. 

§ 6. Another passage in the Yarts mentions contro- 
versies victoriously carried on by Zoroastrians against that 
impostor Gaotema. Here, again, it is striking to find 
Zoroastrians engaged in religious warfare with an enemy 
who bears one of the names of Buddha, Gotama. Contro- 
versies were to the taste of both sects : Gotama, in the 
<7atakas, seems to pass all his life in confounding heretics ; 
and late tradition ascribes to Zoroaster, as one of his most 



Fwg. XI, 9. 

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liv vend!dAd. 



glorious feats, the defeat and conversion of a great Indian 
sage ATangraga£a. 

§ 7. Buddhism was brought beyond the Indus as early 
as Aroka's reign, though it was only under the Graeco- 
Bactrian kings (250-125 B.C.) and under the Indo-Greeks 
(first century before Christ) that it spread widely in the 
eastern provinces of Iran. One of the greatest Indo- 
Greeks, Menander — Milinda, was revered as a Buddhist 
saint. In the middle of the first century B.c. Bactriana 
was famed for its Buddhist priests, the Saftavaiot, the 
Shamans. In the first century of our era, Kanishka's coins 
present, in an instructive eclecticism, all the deities of the 
Indo-Scythian empire, Greek gods, Brahmanical devas, 
Buddha, and the principal yazatas of Mazdeism. If there- 
fore the alleged allusions to Buddhism are accepted, the 
Avesta passages where they occur cannot have been written 
earlier than the second century before our era, though they 
may bear a later date, as Buddhism was uprooted from 
Eastern Iran only by Islam. 

§ 8. We have already seen that Alexander was known to 
the composer of the H6m Yart, nay more, that it must be 
posterior to the fall of the Greek domination in Iran (about 
150 B.C.). There was time enough for Greek influence 
to permeate the Zoroastrian schools, and so it did. 

§ 9. The doctrine of the Magi on the duration of the 
world prevalent during the Achaemenian period is known 
from Theopompus, a writer contemporary with Philip and 
Alexander. The existence of the world is divided into 
periods of three thousand years. During the first two 
periods Ormazd and Ahriman reign alternately; during 
the third period they struggle, and destroy each other's 
work ; at the end, Ahriman is conquered and men live 
happily, needing no food and casting no shadow. 

This same doctrine is found in Zoroastrian books, but 
with a characteristic difference. The world lasts four periods 
of three thousand years each : the third period is filled, as 
in Theopompus, with the mixture and conflict of the two 
principles; the fourth period, that opens with the apparition 
of Zoroaster and the true religion, ends with the ruin of 



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INTRODUCTION, V. lv 

Ahriman, the resurrection and future life. But in the first 
two periods the agreement ceases. In the pre-Alexandrian 
conception, each period belongs to each of the two princi- 
ples in turn ; the spirit of the Zoroastrian doctrine is quite 
mystical. During three thousand years the world had only 
a spiritual, unseen form, and it remained uncorrupted, 
unmoving, not perceptible In the next period of three 
thousand years, it received material form and began to 
move, though it was still free from Ahriman. 

§ 10. That period of spiritual, ideal existence of the 
world, preceding its material and sensible apparition, re- y 
minds one strikingly of the Platonic ideas, and it can 
hardly have entered Zoroastrianism before Greek philo- 
sophy penetrated the East. This hypothesis will seem less 
bold than it does at first sight, if we remember that, on the 
confession of old Parsi tradition itself, texts on ' generation 
and corruption' (yahvGnishn u-vinasishn), recovered 
from the Greeks, were embodied in the sacred books as late 
as the end of the third century of our era ; and that the 
high-priest Tansar, the man who played so important ] 
a part in Ardashlr's religious revolution, was expressly 
represented as a member of the Platonic sect. Without \ 
pressing conclusions too hard as to facts and dates, this 
much can be safely inferred from the preceding, that ,' 
Platonic doctrines had found their way to Persia in the L 
first centuries of the Christian era. 

Platonism of course means Neo-Platonism, that is to say 
that philosophic compound, inspired by the spirit of Plato, 
which permeated all the speculations of the centuries before 
Christ and long after, and which finds its first and most 
influential expression in Philo Judaeus. In Philo is found, 
as far as I know, the first exact parallel to the Avesta 
doctrine mentioned above. As God perceived that no work 
can be beautiful but from a beautiful model, and that any 
sensible object needs an ideal archetype, ' when he wanted 
to create this visible world, he first drew the intelligible 
one' (fiovkifdtls rbv bparbv rovrovl koo/xop btjiuovpyjja-ai, irpo- 
t£ervirav rbv vor\rov). The bparbs K6<rfios is the gaethya sti, 
the varpr6s is the mainyava. 



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Ivi vend!dAd. 



§ ii. The first Genius under Ahura is Vohu Mand, 
' Good Thought,' who is his first spiritual creation and the 
moving principle of the world. He was created first of all 
beings ; through him in the beginning Ahura created the 
world and the religion ; and Ahura takes his advice before 
proceeding to any of his acts. Besides being his first 
creation and the instrument of his other creations, he is the 
type of mankind. At last, in the next world, he is the 
intercessor between Ahura and man. 

When we define Vohu Mand in the words of the Avesta, 
we define the Logos : and inversely Vohu Mand may be 
defined in the same terms as Philo's Aoyos 0«os : ' as the 
first manifestation of the divine powers, he is the first-born, 
the first archangel of God; as an ideal type of human 
nature, he is the perfect man.' Like Vohu Mand in the 
Gathas and still more, the Logos is the instrument of 
creation. Like him, he is the perfect intercessor, for he 
applies to the Father to obtain for men the forgiveness 
of sins and plenty of benefits. As Zarathartra applies to 
Vohu Mand for his first instruction, so is the Logos the 
messenger of God, his elect, the transmitter of his revela- 
tions. Both Philo's Logos and the Avesta Vohu Mand are 
God's first-born and first instrument, the ideal man, the 
intercessor, the revealer. 

§ 12. If Vohu Mand is a Zoroastrian adaptation of the 
Logos, it will follow that the Amshaspands themselves 
are a post-Alexandrian development; for Vohu Mand is 
the type of the Amshaspands. As Vohu Mand was chosen 
to represent mankind, so there grew up round this initial 
ideal divine abstractions that might be attached, somehow, 
to the other departments of nature to help like Vohu 
Mand, and with him, in the creation of the world. This is 
the series of the six Amesha Spewtas : 

Vohu Man6, Good Thought, reigning over Man (and cattle). 

Asha Vahirta, Perfect Righteousness, „ Fire. 

Khshathra Vairya, Good Royalty, „ Metals. 

Spewta Armaiti, Pious Modesty, „ Earth. 

Haurvatat, Health, „ Waters. 

Ameretat, Immortality, „ Plants. 

Here again Philo presents us with a striking parallel. 



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INTRODUCTION, VI. Ivii 

Between God and the world, the Logos is only the first 
of a series of divine abstractions or powers (Xoyot, or bvvi- 
ftetf) : in one passage, unfortunately mutilated, he enu- 
merates six of them, the &«ios koyos being the first. The 
third, q jSao-tXuci), ' the Royal virtue,' answers literally to the 
third member of the Zoroastrian series, Khshathra, Vairya. 
The other members of the Philonian series ironyrurf t ' the 
Creative virtue;' &e»?, 'the power of Mercy;' vopaQtriKri, 'the 
Legislative virtue,' have no counterpart in the A vesta 
series, which prevents our attributing any particular his- 
torical importance to the coincidence of Khshathra Vairya 
with the ficurtXiKrj : yet the coincidence is not quite acci- 
dental : it was made possible only by the fact that both 
Philo and the organisers of the A vesta system moved in a 
common atmosphere of moral and metaphysical abstractions. 
In fact lk( <us, though not one of the Amesha Spentas, might 
have become one, and in fact is consecrated and invoked 
with Khshathra Vairya under the name of Mar&sdika 1 , 
' Mercy.' The vofnodtTticq is sanctified in rfka&ya, ' the Law,' 
or in Mathra Spewta, ' the Holy Word.' 

This is the Gnostic atmosphere, and the Gathas, which 
are, on the whole, a poem to the glory of the Amesha 
Spewtas and the virtues they impersonate, may be termed 
the first monument of Gnosticism, but of practical, purely 
ethic Gnosticism, permeated by a strong sense of reality 
and a deep pre-occupation with morality : abstraction here 
is only a means of edification. Philo is nearer the true 
Gnostics than the writers of the Gathas : they were mere 
moralists, with no metaphysical instinct. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Jewish Elements in the Religion. 

§ i. The Jewish influence, less visible in the doctrine 
than the Greek, is prominent in the general views and the 
form of the book. 

» Yt. II, 2, 7. 

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lviii VENDtDAD. 



The Avesta and the Pentateuch are the only two reli- 
gious books known in which legislation descends from the 
heavens to the earth in a series of conversations between 
the lawgiver and his God. Without attaching undue 
importance to this correspondence, we shall be more im- 
pressed .with the fact that both books have the same object, 
viz. to write the history of the creation and mankind ; and 
in mankind, more especially, the history of the elect race 
(the Iranians here, the Hebrews there), and in that race the 
history of the true religion (the religion of Mazda, revealed 
by Mazda to Zarathartra, and the religion of Jehovah, 
revealed by Jehovah to Moses). The ultimate end of both 
books is to teach the faithful the rule of life. 

§ a. Here is a series of particular concordances that show 
more clearly the unity of their plan : 

(i) Creation of the world. — Jehovah creates the world in 
six days ; he creates successively the light, the heaven, the 
sea, the earth and the plants, the lights in the firmament, 
the animals, and lastly man. 

Ahura Mazda creates the world in six periods ; he 
creates successively the heaven, the water, the earth, the 
plants, the animals, and man. 

(a) Creation of man. — All the human race, in Genesis, is 
descended from one couple, man and woman, Adam and Eve 
(Adam means ' man '). 

AH the human race, in the Avesta, is descended from one 
couple, man and woman, Mashya and Mashyana (Mashya 
means ' man '). 

(3) The Deluge. — Jehovah intends to destroy the human 
race, on account of its wickedness, and to renew it He 
brings about the deluge, but saves one just man, Noah, 
with his family and a couple of each species of animals. 
Noah, on his advice, builds an ark, in which he takes 
refuge, with his people, and from which he goes out after- 
wards to repeople the earth. 

In course of time, the earth shall be laid waste by the 
snows and rains of three long winters, the Mahrkusha 
winters. Ahura, in order to repeople his earth with 
superior races, orders kind Yima to build an underground 



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INTRODUCTION, VI. Hx 

palace, the Var of Yima, where the finest specimens of 
human, animal, and vegetable species will live till the 
moment when, the evil days being over, they shall 
open the doors of the Var and repeople the earth with 
a better race. 

(4) Division of the Earth. — Noah has three sons, Shem, 
Ham, and Japhet, the ancestors of the three races between 
which the earth is divided. 

Thraetaona, the avenger and successor of Yima, has 
three sons, Airya, Sairima, and Tura, between whom the 
earth is divided : Airya receives Iran, the centre of the 
earth's surface, Sairima receives the West, and Tura 
the East. 

Putting aside the legend of Airya, killed by his brothers, 
which reminds one, but not closely enough, of Joseph 
persecuted by his brethren, we arrive at the fact that is the 
central interest of the two books : 

(5) The Revelation. Zarathurtra converses with Ahura, 
as Moses with Jehovah, and receives, like him, the revelation 
of the laws of every description, on the Mountain of the 
Holy Conversations, as Moses did on Sinai. 

(6) Both Moses and Zarathurtra had forerunners. 
A first covenant was made by Jehovah with Noah. 

The Iranian Noah, Yima, had been first offered to act I 
the part of a lawgiver, which he modestly declined. 

Moses was preceded by three patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, 
and Jacob. So Zarathurtra was preceded by three great 
saints, who practised before him the worship of Haoma : 
Vlvanghawt, Athwya, and Thrita. 

§ 3. Certainly it would not be safe to affirm that the 
coincidences between Genesis and the Avesta are due to 
a direct action of one on the other. The newly-recovered 
fragments of a Chaldaean Genesis leave room open for 
a third medium. However, the myths of the creation and 
the deluge, the only part of the Biblico-Chaldaean myth- 
ology which has, in a rather mutilated form, come down to 
us, differ so widely in the Bible and the Babylonian tablets, 
that it is only out of scientific scruple that we leave the 
Chaldaean door open. For the other points of comparison, 



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Ix VENDtDAD. 



we are obliged, for want of any Chaldaean remains, to let 
the Bible and the A vesta alone stand face to face. 

If the Mazdean Genesis rests on a Chaldaean basis, the 
date of the loan remains indefinite, as it may virtually have 
taken place at any date between the time when Iran came 
into contact with Chaldaea and the time when the Chaldaean 
mythology died out. If it rests on the Biblical tradition, 
the loan can hardly have taken place earlier than the time 
when Judaism began to spread beyond Palestine, that is to 
say, the first century before Christ and the first after. 
There were at that time Jewish communities in Media, 
Parthia, Susiana, and Mesopotamia ; the king of Adiabene, 
Izates, was converted to Judaism about 58 A.D.; and Jewish 
schools were flourishing in Babylonia and in the Greek 
towns. So the Magi could meet with doctors of Judaism 
as well as with teachers of Platonism. 



CHAPTER VII. 

ACHAEMENIAN AND EARLIER ELEMENTS. 

§ i. From the preceding disquisitions we assume that 
the A vesta doctrine is not one and self-sufficient: but it 
contains elements borrowed from foreign systems, from 
India, Greece, and Judaea. It directs its polemic against 
India and borrows from her, though in a hostile spirit It 
owes to Greece some of its teaching, and to Judaea its 
historical views. And all these foreign elements were 
borrowed in the Parthian period. 

But these elements, however important they may be, do 
not constitute the whole of Zoroastrianism, for there are 
essential doctrines in it, the existence of which can be 
traced back far beyond the Parthian period and the Greek 
conquest, with historical evidence. One may, with certain 
accuracy, distinguish in Zoroastrianism what is old, pre- 
Alexandrian, or Achaemenian from what is late, or post- 
Alexandrian. 

§ 2. The fundamental basis of Mazdeism, the belief in 
a supreme God, the organiser of the world, Ahura Mazda, 



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INTRODUCTION, VII. Ixi 

is as old as anything we know of Persia. Darius pro- 
claims Auramazda, the greatest of all gods, a powerful 
God, who made this earth, who made that heaven, who 
made man, who made Darius king. 

The gods invoked with the Persian Zeus (Auramazda) 
are, according to Herodotos, the Sun, the Moon, the Earth, 
the Wind, the Waters, that is to say, natural Deities. The 
two greatest gods, next to him, according to Artaxerxes 
Mnemon, are Mithra and Anahata (Anahita), that is to say, , 
a God of the Light and a Goddess of the Waters. There ( 
is no allusion to, no mention, no indication whatever, of the 
Amesha Spewtas, nor of that crowd of abstract divinities so 
characteristic of the later Mazdeism. This is no wonder ; 
as we have seen already that the Amesha Spewtas are '> 
a Platonic development. 

§ 3. The principle of dualism is pre-Alexandrian. This 
is implied, in the time of Darius, by the great king stating 
that Ahura ' created welfare (shiyatim) for man * ; ' in the 
time of Herodotos, by the religious war waged by the Magi 
against the ants, snakes, and other noxious creatures, which 
shows that the distinction of Ormazdian and Ahrimanian V 
creatures was already in existence. Moreover, at the end 
of the Achaemenian period, Aristotle knows of a Good 
Spirit and the Evil One, Zeus — Oromazdes and Ades — 
Areimanios. 

§ 4. Already in the Achaemenian Mazdeism, the exis- 
tence of the world was limited to twelve thousand years, 
distributed into four periods, the character of which was 
altered in the post-Alexandrian period, to humour the Neo- 
Platonic tendencies of the age. It was already an estab- • 
lished dogma that Ahriman would be conquered at last 
and that men would live again. The belief in resurrection 
and a future life implies the correlative belief in future '. 
rewards and punishments, which plays a great part in the ' 
post-Alexandrian religion, but must have belonged to the ' 
older stratum. 



1 See Rawlinson, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. x, p. 291 ; 
Benfey, Die Petsischen KeilinschriftcD, pp. 63, 95. 



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lxii vend!dAd. 



§ 5. The practical and utilitarian morality of the Avesta 
was one of the older traits of the national character. 
In the eyes of king Darius and the contemporaries of 
Herodotos, as in those of the writer of Vendidad III, and 
of all good Parsis of the present day, the two greatest 
merits of a citizen were the begetting and rearing of 
a numerous family, and the fruitful tilling of the soil. 
Truthfulness was already considered the paramount virtue, 
and the balance of merits and demerits was already known 
at least to the earthly judge. 

§ 6. The worship of the elements, water, fire, and earth, 
and respect for their purity were already in practice. It 
was forbidden to sully the waters or the fire, to throw 
a corpse into the fire, or to bury it in the earth until 
reduced to a fleshless, incorruptible skeleton. 

§ 7. There were two sorts of sacrifices : the bloody 
sacrifice, of which a survival has lingered to this day in the 
Atash zohr, and the bloodless sacrifice, consisting essen- 
tially of the Haoma-offering and libations, of which there 
is no direct mention in the classics, but which indirect 
evidence obliges us to ascribe to the older religion. 

§ 8. Thus the principles of the Achaemenian religion 
may be summed up as follows : 

(1) As far as dogma goes: the existence of two con- 
flicting supreme powers, one good and the other evil, 
Ormazd and Ahriman ; the final defeat of Ahriman after 
twelve thousand years ; and the resurrection. Also a num- 
' ber of naturalistic deities, amongst which were Mithra and 
Anahita. 

(a) Morals : veneration of truth, family, and agriculture. 

(3) Liturgy : a bloody sacrifice and a bloodless sacrifice 
(Haoma). Certain laws of purity extending to the waters, 
the fire, and the earth. Burning or burying corpses for- 
bidden. 

§ 9. The Achaemenian religion was practised in the 
south as well as in the north of Iran, in Persia as well 
as in Media. It had its centre in Media and its sacerdotal 
class belonged to a Median tribe, the Magi. The priest- 
hood was hereditary — as it still is nowadays amongst the 



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/ 



INTRODUCTION, VII. lxiii 

Parsis — and the Magi were to Mazdeism what the Levites 
and Cohanim were to Judaism. The sacerdotal tribe 
spread wherever Mazdeism extended ; and in spite of the 
intense provincial hatred which the Persians bore to the 
Medians, their former masters, and which the Pseudo- 
Smerdis' usurpation was not sufficient to smother, still 
the Magi were in the Persian idea the only true, authorised 
priests. No sacrifice was of any value which had not been 
performed by a Magus : only a Magus could make himself 
heard by the gods. 

§ 10. The supposed founder of the religion was named 
Zarathurtra, a personage that must have been known to 
the pre-Alexandrian religion, as Dino mentions him, and 
his protectors, king Vtrtaspa (T<jr<i<nn}s) and Vlrtaspa's 
brother Zairivairi (Zapi&bpr\$), were already, in the time of 
Alexander, heroes of epic songs which were current in 
Asia. As to the birthplace of Zarathurtra, all Zoroastrian 
texts agree with the old classic tradition in placing it in 
Media. Whether Zarathurtra was an historical or a legen- 
dary personage it is difficult to decide, and to some extent 
useless, as Zoroastrianism no longer appears to be one 
homogeneous religious monument, since we are confronted 
with two Zoroastrianisms, one anterior and the other |/ 
posterior to Alexander. The Pseudo-Xanthos, which is 
at any rate anterior to the first century B.C., and may be 
much older, makes Zarathurtra the founder of Magism and 
the first of a series of grand chiefs of Magism who succeeded 
one another till Alexander's time. Zarathurtra would 
therefore be an old chief of the priestly caste, a Mobedan- 
Mobed, a Zarathurtrdtema «cot' i£o\rjv, whether historical or 
legendary. As his legend is known to us only from Avesta 
sources, we have no means of distinguishing in it what may 
be older from what may be a later development. 

§ 1 1. Zoroastrianism, whether prior to Alexander or in its 
post-Alexandrian form, was never a simple religion ; it was 
the result of an historical elaboration of complex materials. 
It was a growth in which one easily discerns Aryan ,' 
elements, which it has in common with India, and new 
original elements. Its Aryan elements may be termed : 



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lxiv vendIdAd. 



the supreme God, the God of the Heaven, Ahura Mazda ; 
the God of the heavenly light, Mithra ; the worship of the 
elementary divinities, Waters, Fire, and Earth ; a number 
of storm myths and mythical legends ; and the worship of 
Haoma. Purely Iranian are: the dualistic conception of 
the world, its limited duration of twelve thousand years 
with its four periods ; the continual conflict of Ormazd and 
Ahriman, and the latter's defeat ; the resurrection of the 
dead, the notion of purity carried to the extreme, the 
prohibition of burning or burying the dead, and the throw- 
ing away of corpses to dogs and birds of prey. 

§ i a. Some of the new dogmas may be the independent 
development of Aryan elements : for instance, the dualistic 
conception may have grown out of the mythical struggles 
between gods and demons. But the Great year and the 
resurrection are things quite new, which seem to betray 
external influences. Of the Scythian origin of Zoroastrianism 
it will be idle to speak, till the advocates of the system 
have brought something like historical or rational evidence 
in its favour. The only civilisation of which we know in 
the neighbourhood of Media was that of the Assyro-Chal- 
daeans, which in many things was the instructor of the 
Medes and taught them their art, their writing, and their 
political organisation. Unfortunately, too little is known 
of the inner aspects of the Chaldaean religion. One may 
wonder if the Frashd-kereti, that renewal of the world that 
is to take place at the end of the Great year of twelve 
millennia, was derived from the Semitic myths of the annual 
revival of Adonis and Tammuz. Even the idea of resur- 
rection seems to be attested on the so-called Cyrus' cylinder 
of Babylon. If these hypotheses turn out to be correct, 
older Magism may be defined as an Aryan growth under 
Chaldaean influences. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Age and Growth of the Avesta. 

§ i. The internal evidence of the doctrines has thus 
confirmed the half-historical evidence of the texts, and 



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INTRODUCTION. VIIT. lxv 

led us to believe that the Avesta is the embodiment and 
the fusion of two teachings, one of which belonged to the 
Achaemenian age, whereas the other could not be older ; 
than the fall of the Greek domination in Iran. One might 
therefore divide the Avesta. so far as the doctrine goes, 
into pre- Alexandrian and post- Alexandrian texts. The ' 
Vendidad may be taken as the best specimen of the texts 
imbued with the pre-Alexandrian spirit, as its general 
laws are Achaemenian in tone, and a great part of it may 
be interpreted by means of classical testimonies regarding ' 
the Achaemenian age. The Gathas may be taken as the 
best specimen of the post-Alexandrian spirit, as they are 
filled with ideas of post-Alexandrian growth. 

§ 2. The date of the Gathas, if not exactly determinable, 
may yet be fixed between rather narrow limits. They can ' 
hardly be older than the first century before our era, or 
even before Philo of Alexandria ; for the neo-Platonic ideas 
and beings are found in them just in the Philonian stage. 
They cannot be dated later than the time of the Scythian 
kings, Kanishka and Huvishka, who reigned in India 
between 78 and 130 A.D., and who left on their coins 
records of many of the Zoroastrian divinities, not only the 
old elementary ones, like M«po— Mithra, T«po— Tighri, 
Oodo— Vata, Moo — Moungha; but also the new abstract 
deities, like Oowv&a— Vanaiwti, Opkayvo — Verethraghna, and 
the Amshaspand Sooprjoap — Khshathra Vairya. If it is 
assumed . that the idea Vohu Mand was inspired by Philo 
or his school, the Gathas will be thereby ascribed to the 
first century of our era. It is just the period when we 
find Vologeses and the first historical mention of an 
attempt to form a systematic religious code. 

The Gathas present therefore this apparent contradiction, 
that, being the oldest part of the Avesta, they represent, at 
the same time, the latest growth of the Zoroastrian spirit. | 
This is contradictory only to those who in a text confound ' 
the date of its composition with the date of the ideas it 
expresses. The Vendidad may be at the same time later 
than the Gathas in its composition and older in its material. 
The writer of the Vendidad had the Gathas before his eyes, 
[4] e 



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Ixvi vendIdAd. 



i 



though he expressed ideas and facts far anterior to the time 
when the Gathas could have been written or thought of. 

But if the Gathas were written in the first century of our 
era, it follows that they must have been written in a dead 
language. Names like Vaninda, Oado, .Saorevar, on the 
Indo-Scythian coins, show that at the end of that century 
the Zend was no longer a living language, but had already 
been brought to the level of the popular Pahlavi stage. 
Though the possibility remains that what we call the 
Philonian concept may be older than Philo, its best-known 
exponent ; and that the Gathas may therefore be brought 
back as far as the first or second century before Christ, an 
epoch when we find already the neo-Platonic spirit in 
the later productions of Jewish ethics, like the Proverbs 
and Ecclesiastes. In this hypothesis, the Zend might have 
been still a living, or rather a dying, language, judging 
fiom its state of decomposition. As to the country to 
which it belonged, only one thing can be safely affirmed : 
it was not Persia. It may have been Media, which re- 
mained to the last the centre of Zoroastrianism and the 
Zoroastrian priesthood ; it may have been the eastern part 
of Iran, where a modern dialect, the Afghan, appears to be 
a lineal descendant of the Zend. 

One question remains to be settled. Allowing that 
a part of the Avesta is post- Alexandrian, is there a part 
of it which belongs to the pre-Alexandrian age, namely, 
that part which, so far as its contents go, belongs to the 
old religious stratum ? 

Certainly it would be most hazardous to deny the exis- 
tence of a sacred literature under the Achaemenian kings, 
though no historical evidence can be brought forward to 
support its assumption. Nay more, if the Gathas are 
supposed to have been written in a dead language, we are 
obliged to assume the existence of an old literature and 
the survival of fragments of it ; for it is impossible to write 
in a dead language unless one has under one's eyes models 
composed at a time when the language was living. But if 
there has ever been such a thing as an Achaemenian 
Avesta, and even if fragments of it were in the hands of the 



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INTRODUCTION, IX. lxvii 

post- Alexandrian Diaskeuasts, one thing is certain ; there is 
not one page of that older A vesta that is literally reproduced 
in the newer A vesta. Those theogonies which the Magi 
in the time of Herodotos sang at the sacrifice have nothing 
to do with our Gathas, since our Gathas contain elements 
which did not enter the Iranian mind till Iran was over- 
whelmed by the Greek conquest Neither were they like 
our Y&rts, because the composition of our Yarts was 
directed by an historical and chronological principle, of 
biblical origin. Only the laws of the Vendidad, which, 
most of them, are as old as the older Zoroastrianism, may 
be supposed to be a partial reproduction of an Achae- 
menian Avesta ; but even they are presented in a form that 
implies the new evolution. A Magus of the old days was as 
energetic as an Avesta Athravan in protecting the purity 
of the earth against any defilement ; but he would not 
have spoken of the earth as Spenta Armaiti. 



CHAPTER IX. 

Conclusions. 

§ i. Zoroastrianism is an historical religion, that is to 
say, one that has changed in course of time, not only by 
an inner evolution, but also under the reaction of foreign 
schools and political events. 

§ 2. In the remotest period, the Median priests, the 
Magi, elaborated on a naturalistic basis, not different from 
what is found in Indian, Greek, and Italian paganisms, 
an original system, not free from Semitic elements. Its 
characteristics are: dualism, the limited duration of the 
world, the resurrection, the worship of pure elements, and 
the ethics of labour. That system spread from Media to i 
Persia, and was dominant under the Achaemenians. It is 
Zoroastrianism proper ; no direct documents of it are left ; 
but it is known indirectly through the inscriptions, through 
the testimony of the classics, and through the documents of 
the neo-Zoroastrianism, which received its dogmas and 
gave them a new form. 

e 2 



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lxviii vendIdAd. 



§ 3. Alexander's invasion brought in its wake political 
and moral anarchy. Zoroastrianism did not perish ; its 
dogmas, its worship, and part of its mythology survived ; 
but for want of a sacred authoritative book, there was no 
Zoroastrian orthodoxy. At the same time, the barriers 
between East and West being broken, all religions and 
systems were brought face to face. The religious question 
became the order of the day. Buddhism and Brahmanism 
pushed from the East, Judaism from the West, Hellenism 
ruled all over Iran. In the systems that from all the four 
points of the compass spread into Iran, either with a con- 
scious propagandist spirit, or through the slow, blind influ- 
ences of every-day contacts, Zoroastrianism found both 
what repelled and what attracted it Its practical and 
moral ideal revolted against the inert asceticism of Bud- 
dhism, the ethical indifference of Brahmanism, and the 
superstitious, low worship of immoral Devas. 

§ 4. Greece and Palestine, on the contrary, brought to it 
novel, fascinating, and edifying thoughts. How far and 
deep Hellenism made its influence felt is symbolically 
expressed on the coins of the Philhellen Arsacidae. Not 
that I think that Zeus impressed in any active way the 
worshippers of Ahura, though Herodotos and Aristotle had 
recognised their affinities, as the Sassanians did later on. 
It was Greek philosophy that reacted on the Zoroastrian 
schools. Platonism was there, as it was in Western Asia, 
* the bond between the East and Greece.' What struck the 
Mazdean sages most in it was what at the same time 
impressed the Hellenist Jews so much : the idea of the 
Logos, that divine intelligence abstracted from God and 
interposed between him and the world ; also the concept 
of an ideal world, the heavenly unseen prototype of the 
material one. After the Iranian Logos, Vohu Mand, rose 
the Amshaspands, to share with him the government of the 
soul and the world. Then came a host of divine abstrac- 
tions, to impersonate all the spiritual and material forces 
of nature. In spite of the dryness and scholastic rigour with 
which the doctors invested Mazdeism, one cannot help 
admiring the practical good sense and idea of proportion 



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INTRODUCTION, IX. lxiX 

which presided over the choice of these divine abstractions 
and represented their impulses; and when one contrasts 
them with the Eons of the Gnostics and the Sephiroth of 
the Cabbalists, which starting from the same point, the 
First Intelligence, fell .engulfed in mystical nihilism, one can 
understand why and how Mazdeism was, next to Christi- 
anity, the only one among the religious systems inspired 
with Plato's spirit that lived and deserved to live. 

§ 5. Judaism inspired Zoroastriantsm in a different, 
though not less powerful, way. It answered certain ques- 
tions of which Mazdeism had not thought. Its sacred 
book supplied the Mazdean doctors with its solutions 
of those questions. It gave them even its historical and 
chronological framework. The creation, the deluge, the 
genealogies, the patriarchs, the division of races, the Reve- 
lation were all told in a Zoroastrian spirit. Perhaps the 
very idea of an Avesta was suggested by the Bible. The 
very divisions of the Bible were adopted in the Avesta : 
the classification of the Nasks into Data (the Law), Gatha 
(metaphysics) and Hadha-mathra, is the classification of the 
Biblical texts into Thora (Law), Nebiim (Prophets), and 
Ketubim. When Islam assimilated the Zoroastrians to the 
People of the Book, it evinced a rare historical sense and 
solved the problem of the origin of the Avesta. 

§ 6. Thus, in the centuries about the Christian era, was 
elaborated in Iran a new religion, not differing essentially 
from the old one, which, in fact was nothing more than this 
old religion, adapted to the new necessities of its spiritual 
and political surroundings, better armed against rivals and 
made stronger by borrowing from every one of its com- 
petitors. All these novelties Zoroastrianism could adopt 
and assimilate to itself without losing its own physiognomy, 
and there are few instances of foreign elements and concepts 
so freely borrowed by a religion and so harmoniously 
blended in the original mould. 



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lxx vendIdAd. 



CHAPTER X. 
The VendIdAd. 

§ i. According to Pars! tradition the Vendidad ' is the 
only Nask, out of the twenty-one, that was preserved in its 
entirety 2 . This is a statement to which it is difficult to 
trust ; for, if there is anything that shows how right the 
Parsis are in admitting that the Avesta is only a collection 
of fragments, it is the fragmentary character of the Vendi- 
dad that strikes us most. 

The Vendidad has often been described as the book of 
the laws of the Parsis ; it may be more exactly called the 
code of purification, a description, however, which is itself 
only so far correct that the laws of purification are the 
object of the largest part of the book. 

The first two chapters deal with mythical matter, with- 
out any direct connection with the general object of the 
Vendidad, and are remnants of an old epic and cosmogonic 
literature. The first deals with the creations and counter- 
creations of Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu ; the second 
speaks of Yima, the founder of civilisation. Although 
there was no particular reason for placing them in the 
Vendidad, as soon as they were admitted into it they were 
naturally put at the beginning, because they referred to 
the first ages of the world. Three chapters of a mythical 
character, about the origin of medicine, were put at the 
end of the book, for want of any better place, but might 
as well have been kept apart 3 , as was the so-called Ha- 
dhokht Nask fragment. There is also another mythical 
Fargard, the nineteenth, which, as it treats of the revelation 
of the law by Ahura to Zarathurtra, would have been more 
suitably placed at the beginning of the Vendidad proper, 
that is, as the third Fargard. 



1 The word Vendidad isacorruption of Vida£\r6-datem (ditem), the 'anti- 
demoniac law." It is sometimes applied to the whole of the law (Vendtdad 
Sada). 

1 See above, p. xzxiL 

' As an introduction to a code of laws on physicians; see Farg.VII, 36-44. 



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INTRODUCTION, X. lxxi 



The other sixteen chapters deal chiefly with religious 
observances, although mythical fragments, or moral digres- 
sions, are met with here and there, which are more or less 
artificially connected with the text, and which were most 
probably not written in connection with the passages which 
they follow *. 

§ a. A rough attempt at regular order appears in these 
sixteen chapters: nearly all the matter contained in the 
eight chapters from V to XI.I deals with impurity arising 
from the dead and the way of dispelling it ; but the subject 
is again treated, here and there, in other Fargards 2 , and 
matter irrelevant to the subject has also found its way into 
these same eight Fargards 3 . Fargards XIII and XIV are 
devoted to the dog, but must be completed with a part of 
the XVth. Fargards XVI, XVII, and most part of XVIII 
deal with several sorts of uncleanness, and their proper 
place should rather have been after the Xllth Fargard. 
Fargard III is devoted to the earth * ; Fargard IV stands by 
itself, as it deals with a matter which is treated only there, 
namely, civil and penal laws 5 . 

No better order prevails within these several parts: 
prescriptions on one and the same subject are scattered 
about through several Fargards, without any subject being 
treated at once in a full and exhaustive way; and this 
occasions needless repetitions 6 . 

The main cause of this disorder was, of course, that the I 
advantage of order is rarely felt by Orientals ; but it was • 
further promoted by the very form of exposition adopted by 
the first composers of the Vendldad. The law is revealed 
by Ahura in a series of answers to questions put to him by 



1 For instance, Farg. V, 15-ao; III, »4-*9» 3»-3»; 33! IV, 47-49. 

* III, 14-ai ; 36 seq. ; XIX, 11-15. 

' The passages on medicine (VII, 36-44), and on the sea Vonrn-kasha (V, 
15-ao). 

* It contains two digressions, the one on funeral laws, the other on hus- 
bandry. See Farg. Ill, Introd. 

* It contains one digression on physical well-being, which most have belonged 
originally to Farg. III. See Farg. IV, Introd. 

* V, 27-30- VII, 6-9; V, 45-54-VII, 60-69; V, 57-6a-VII, 17-**. 



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Zarathurtra 1 ; and as these questions are not of a general 
character, but refer to details, the matter is much broken up 
into fragments, each of which, consisting of a question with 
its answer, stands by itself, as an independent passage. 

We shall treat in the following pages, first of the laws of 
purification, then of the civil laws, and, lastly, of the 
penalties both religious and civil. 

A. 

§ 3. The first object of man is purity, yatojsdaa : ' purity 
is for man, next to life, the greatest good V 

Purity and impurity have not in the Vendidid the 
exclusively spiritual meaning which they have in our lan- 
guages : they do not refer to an inward state of the soul, 
but chiefly to a physical state of the body. Impurity 
or uncleanness may be described as the state of a person 
or a thing that is possessed of the demon ; and the object 
of purification is to expel the demon. 

The principal means by which uncleanness enters man 
is death, as death is the triumph of the demon. 

When a man dies, as soon as the soul has parted from 
the body, the Dru^- Nasu or Corpse-Dru^ falls upon the 
dead from the regions of hell, and whoever thenceforth 
touches the corpse becomes unclean, and makes unclean 
whomsoever he touches 3 . 

The Dnjg- is expelled from the dead by means of the 
Sag-did, 'the look of the dog:' 'a four-eyed dog' or 
' a white one with yellow ears ' is brought near the body 
and is made to look at the dead ; as soon as he has done 
so, the Dru^- flees back to hell 4 . 

1 The outward form of the Vendldad has been often compared with that of 
the Books of Moses. Bat in reality, in the Bible, there is no conversation 
between God and the lawgiver : the law comes down unasked, and God gives 
commands, but gives no answers. In the VendidSd, on the contrary, it is the 
wish of man, not the will of God, that is the first cause of the revelation. 
Man must ask of Ahura, who knows everything, and is pleased to answer 
(XVIII, 13 seq.) ; the law is ' the question to Ahura,' fihuiri frashn6. 

* Farg. V, ai, from Yasna XLVIII (XLVII), 5. • Farg. VII, 1 seq. 

* In the shape of a fly. ' The fly that came to the smell of the dead body 
was thought to be the corpse-spirit that came to take possession of the dead in 
the name of Ahriman ' (Justi, Pcrsien, p. 88). 



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INTRODUCTION, X. lxxiii 

The Drqf is expelled from the living, whom she has 
seized through their contact with the dead, by a process of 
washings with ox's urine (gdmez or ntrang) and with 
water, combined with the Sag-did \ 

The real import of these ceremonies is shown by the 
spells which accompany their performance : « Perish, O 
fiendish Dru^l Perish, O brood of the fiend! Perish, O 
world of the fiend I Perish away, O Dn\g- ! Rush away, 
O Drug ! Perish away, O Dn\f ! Perish away to the I, 
regions of the north, never more to give unto death the 
living world of the holy spirit ! ' 

Thus, in the death of a man, there is more involved than 
the death of one man : the power of death, called forth 
from hell, threatens from the corpse, as from a stronghold, 
the whole world of the living, ready to seize whatever may 
fall within his reach, and ' from the dead defiles the living, 
and from the living rushes upon the living.' When a man 
dies in a house, there is danger for three days lest some- 
body else should die in that house 2 . 

The notion or feeling, out of which these ceremonies grew, 
was far from unknown to the other Indo-European peoples : 
what was peculiar to Mazdeism was that it carried it to an 
extreme, and preserved a clearer sense of it, while elsewhere 
it grew dimmer and dimmer, and faded away. In fact, 
when the Greek, going out of a house where a dead man 
lay, sprinkled himself with water from the ipbdviov at the 
door, it was death that he drove away from himself. The 
Vedic Indian, too, although his rites were intended chiefly 
for the benefit of the dead, considered himself in danger 
and, while burning the corpse, cried aloud: 'Away, go 
away, O Death ! injure not our sons and our men ! ' (Rig- 
veda X, 18, i.) 

§ 4. As to the rites by means of which the Dru.g- is 
expelled, they are the performance of myths. There is 
nothing in worship but what existed before in mythology. 
What we call a practice is only an imitation of gods, an 
ofiounxTis 0«<j>, as man fancies he can bring about the things 

1 Faig.VIII, 35-71; IX, H-36. * Saddar 78. 

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he wants, by performing the acts which are supposed to 
have brought about things of the same kind when practised 
by the gods. 

The Parsis, being at a loss to find four-eyed dogs, inter- 
pret the name as meaning a dog with two spots above the 
eyes * : but it is clear that the two-spotted dog's services 
are only accepted for want of a four-eyed one, or of a white 
one with yellow ears, which amounts to saying that there 
were myths, according to which the death-fiend was driven 
away by dogs of that description. This reminds one at 
once of the three-headed Kerberos, watching at the doors 
of hell, and, still more, of the two brown, four-eyed dogs of 
Yama, who guard the ways to the realm of death 2 . 

The identiiy of the four-eyed dog of the Parsi with 
Kerberos and Yama's dogs appears, moreover, from the 
Parsi tradition that the yellow-eared dog watches at 
the head of the Kinvat bridge, which leads from this to the 
next world, and with his barking drives away the fiend 
from the souls of the holy ones, lest he should drag them 
to hell 8 . 

Wherever the corpse passes by, death walks with it ; 
all along the way it has gone, from the house to its last 
resting-place, a spirit of death is breathing and threatening 
the living. Therefore, no man, no flock, no being whatever 
that belongs to the world of Ahura, is allowed to pass by 



1 In practice they are still less particular : * The Sag-dtd may be performed 
by a shepherd's dog, by a house-dog, by a Vohunazga dog (see Farg. XIII, 
19, n.), or by a young dog (a dog four months old),' Comm. ad Farg. VII, a. 
As birds of prey are as fiend-smiting as the dog, they are Nasu-smiters like 
him, and one may appeal to their services, when there is no dog at hand (see 
Farg. VII, 3, n. 3). 

* Rig-veda X, 14, 10 seq. 

* Gr. Rav. p. 591. Allusions to this myth are fonnd in Farg. XIII, 9, and 
XIX, 3a The Commentary ad Farg. XIII, 17 has: 'There are dogs who 
watch over the earthly regions ; there are others who watch over the fourteen 
heavenly regions.' The birth of the yellow-eared dog is described in the 
Rav&et (1. c.) as follows : ' Ormazd, wishing to keep the body of the first man, 
Gaydmart, from the assaults of Ahriman, who tried to kill him, cried out : 
" O thou yellow-eared dog, arise 1" and directly the dog barked and shook his 
two ears; and the unclean Satan and the fiends, when they saw the dreadful 
looks of the yellow-eared dog, and heard his barking, were sore afraid and fled 
down to hell.' 



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INTRODUCTION, X. lxXV 

that way until the deadly breath, that blows through it, has 
been blown away to hell \ The four-eyed dog is made to 
go through the way three times, or six times, or nine times, 
while the priest helps the look of the dog with his spells, 
dreaded by the Dru^. 

§ 5. The use of gdmdz in cleansing the unclean is also 
derived from old mythic conceptions 2 . The storm floods 
that cleanse the sky of the dark fiends in it were described 
in a class of myths as the urine of a gigantic animal in the 
heavens. As the floods from the bull above drive away 
the fiend from the god, so do they from man here below, 
they make him 'free from the death-demon' (franasu), 
and the death-fiend flees away hellwards, pursued by 
the fiend-smiting spell : ' Perish thou, O Drug . . . , never 
more to give over to Death the living world of the good 
spirit ! ' 

§ 6. As uncleanness is nothing else than the contagion 
of death, it is at its greatest intensity when life is just 
departing. The Nasu at that moment defiles ten persons 
around the corpse 8 : when a year is over, the corpse defiles 
no longer *. Thus the notion of uncleanness is quite the 
reverse of what it is elsewhere : the corpse, when rotten, is 
less unclean than the body still all but warm with life ; 
death defiles least when it looks most hideous, and defiles 
most when it might look majestic. The cause is that in 
the latter case the death-demon has just arrived in the 
fulness of his strength, whereas in the former case time has 
exhausted his power. 

§ 7. As the focus of the contagion is in the corpse, it 
must be disposed of so that death may not spread abroad. 
On this point the old Indo-European customs have been 
completely changed by Mazdeism. The Indo-Europeans 
either burnt the corpse or buried it : both customs are held 
to be sacrilegious in the A vesta. 

§ 8. This view originated from the notion of the holiness 

• Farg.VIII, i4-»». 

1 Orm. Ahr. { 124. The use of gdm£z has been lately found to be known in 
Basse-Bretagne (Luzel, Le Nirang des Parsis en Basse-Bretagne, Melusine, 493). 
» Farg. V, »7 ; cf. n. 5. * Farg. VIII, 33-34. 



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1XXV1 VENDiDAD. 



of the elements being pushed to an extreme. The elements, 
fire, earth, and water are holy, and dining the Indo-Iranian 
period they were already considered so, and in the Vedas 
they are worshipped as godlike beings. Yet this did not 
prevent the Indian from burning his dead ; death did not 
appear to him so decidedly a work of the demon, and the 
dead man was a traveller to the other world, whom the fire 
kindly carried to his heavenly abode ' on his undecaying, 
flying pinions, wherewith he killed the demons.' The fire 
was in that, as in the sacrifice, the god that goes from earth 
to heaven, from man to god, the mediator, the god most 
friendly to man. In Persia it remains more distant from 
him ; being an earthly form of the eternal, infinite, godly 
light I , no death, no uncleanness can be allowed to enter it, 
as it is here below the purest offspring of the good spirit, 
the purest part of his pure creation. Its only function is to 
repel the fiends with its bright blazing. In every place 
where Parsis are settled, an everlasting fire is kept, the 
Bahram fire, which, 'preserved by a more than Vestal care*,' 
and ever fed with perfumes and dry well-blazing wood, 
whichever side its flames are brought by the wind, goes 
and kills thousands and thousands of fiends, as Bahram 
does in heaven 8 . If the necessities of life oblige us to 
employ fire for profane uses, it must be only for a time 
an exile on our hearth, or in the oven of the potter, and it 
must go thence to the Right-Place of the fire (Daity6 
Gatu), the altar of the Bahram fire, there to be restored to 
the dignity and rights of its nature *. 

At least, let no gratuitous and wanton degradation be 
inflicted upon it : even blowing it with the breath of the 
mouth is a crime s ; burning the dead is the most heinous 



1 Ignem coelitus dclapsura (Ammian. Marcel. XXVII, 6); Cedrenns; 
Elisaens ; Recogn. Clement. IV, 39 ; Clem. Homil. IX, 6 ; Henry Lord. 

* J. Fryer, A New Account of East India and Persia, 1698, p. 265. 
» Farg. VIII, 81-96; 79-80. 

4 Extinguishing it is a mortal sin (Ravaets ; Elisaens ; c£ Strabo XV, 14). 

* A custom still existing with the T&zlk, an Iranian tribe in Eastern Persia, 
(de Khanikoff, Ethnographie de la Perse). Strabo XV, 14. Manu has the 
same prescription (IV, 53). Cf. Farg. XIV, 8, n. 10. 



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INTRODUCTION, X. lxxvii 



of sins: in the times of Strabo it was a capital crime 1 , and 
the Avesta expresses the same, when putting it in the 
number of those sins for which there is no atonement 8 . 

Water was looked upon in the same light. Bringing 
dead matter to it is as bad as bringing it to the fire 8 . The 
Magi are said to have overthrown a king for having built 
bath-houses, as they cared more for the cleanness of water 
than for their own *. 

§ 9. Not less holy was the earth, or, at least, it became 
so. There was a goddess who lived in her, Spe«ta Armaiti ; 
no corpse ought to defile her sacred breast : burying the 
dead is, like burning the dead, a deed for which there 
is no atonement 6 . It was not always so in Persia: the 
burning of the dead had been forbidden for years 6 , while 
the burying was still general. Cambyses had roused 
the indignation of the Persians by burning the corpse of 
Amasis : yet. years later, Persians still buried their dead. 
But the priests already felt scruples, and feared to defile 
a god. Later on, with the ascendancy of the Magian reli- 
gion, the sacerdotal observances became the general law 7 . 

§ 10. Therefore the corpse is laid on the summit of a 
mountain, far from man, from water, from tree, from fire, 
and from the earth itself, as it is separated from it by a 
layer of stones or bricks 8 . Special buildings, the Dakhmas, 



• Strabo XV, 14; cf. Herod. Ill, 16. 

• Farg. I, 17; cf. Farg.VHI, 74. 

• Farg. VII, 35-»7; Strabo XV, 14; Herod. I, 138. 

• King Balftsh (Jomi le Stylite, traduction Martin, J xx). It seems as if 
there were a confusion between Balash and Kavat ; at any rate, it shows that 
bathing smacked of heresy. Jews were forbidden to perform the legal ablutions 
(Fiirst, Cnlturgeschichte der Jnden, 9). 

• Farg. I, 13. * From the reign of Cyrus. 

7 Still the worship of the earth seems not to have so deeply penetrated 
the general religion as the worship of fire. The laws about the disposal of the 
dead were interpreted by many, it wonld seem, as intended only to secure the 
purity of water and fire, and they thought that they might be at peace with 
religion if they had taken care to bury the corpse, so that no part of it might 
be taken by animals to fire or water (Farg. Ill, 41, n. 7). 

" Farg. VI, 44 seq. ; VIII, 10 seq. Cf. IX, 11, n. 5. Moreover, the Dakhma 
is ideally separated from the ground by means of a golden thread, which is 
supposed to keep it suspended in the air (Ravaet, ap. Spiegel, Uebersetzung des 
Avesta II, XXXVI). 



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lxxviii vendidAd. 



were erected for this purpose *. There far from the world 
the dead were left to lie, beholding the sun 2 . 

§ II. Not every corpse defiles man, but only those of 
such beings as belong to the world of Ahura. They are 
the only ones in whose death the demon triumphs. The 
corpse of an Ahrimanian creature does not defile ; as its 
life was incarnate death, the spring of death that was in 
it is dried up with its last breath: it killed while alive, it 
can do so no more when dead; it becomes clean by dying*. 
None of the faithful are defiled by the corpse of an Ashe- 
maogha or of a Khrafstra. Nay, killing them is a pious 
work, as it is killing Ahriman himself. 

§ 12. Not only real death makes one unclean, but partial 
death too. Everything that goes out of the body of man 
is dead, and becomes the property of the demon. The 
going breath is unclean, it is forbidden to blow the fire with 
it 4 , and even to approach the fire without screening it from 
the contagion with a Pendm *. Parings of nails and cut- 
tings or shavings of hair are unclean, and become weapons 
in the hands of the demons unless they have been protected 
by certain rites and spells 6 . Any phenomenon by which 
the bodily nature is altered, whether accompanied with 
danger to health or not, was viewed as a work of the demon, 
and made the person unclean in whom it took place. One 
of these phenomena, which is a special object of attention 



1 'The Dakhma is a round building, and is designated by some writers, 
" The Tower of Silence." A round pit, about six feet deep, is surrounded by an 
annular stone pavement, about seven feet wide, on which the dead bodies are 
placed. This place is enclosed all round by a stone wall some twenty feet 
high, with a small door on one side for taking the body in. The whole is 
built up of and paved with stone. The pit has communication with three 
or more closed pits, at some distance, into which the rain washes out the liquids 
and the remains of the dead bodies' (Dadabhai Naoroji, The Manners and 
Customs of the Parsees, Bombay, 1864, p. 16). Cf. Farg. VI, 50. A Dakhma 
is the first building the Parsis erect when settling in a new place (Dosabhoy 
Framji). 

9 The Avesta and the Commentator attach great importance to that point : 
it is as if the dead man's life were thus prolonged, since he can still behold the 
sun. ' Grant us that we may long behold the sun,' said the Indian A'jshi. 

5 Farg. V, 35 seq. 4 See above, p. lxxvi. 

• See Farg. XIV, 8, n. 10. • Farg. XVII. 



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INTRODUCTION, X. lxXlX 

in the Vendidad, is the uncleanness of women during their 
menses. The menses are sent by Ahriman 1 , especially 
when they last beyond the usual time : therefore a woman, 
as long as they last, is unclean and possessed of the demon : 
she must be kept confined, apart from the faithful whom 
her touch would defile, and from the fire which her very 
look would injure ; she is not allowed to eat as much as she 
wishes, as the strength she might acquire would accrue to 
the fiends. Her food is not given to her from hand to 
hand, but is passed to her from a distance 2 , in a long 
leaden spoon. The origin of all these notions is in certain 
physical instincts, in physiological psychology, which is the 
reason why they are found among peoples very far removed 
from one another by race or religion 3 . But they took in 
Persia a new meaning as they were made a logical part 
of the whole religious system. 

§ 13. A woman that has just been delivered of a child 
is also unclean *, although it would seem that she ought to 
be considered pure amongst the pure, since life has been 
increased by her in the world, and she has enlarged the 
realm of Ormazd. But the strength of old instincts over- 
came the drift of new principles. Only the case when the 
woman has been delivered of a still-born child is examined 
in the Vendidad. She is unclean as having been in contact 
with a dead creature ; and she must first drink g6m£z to 
wash over the grave in her womb. So utterly unclean is 
she, that she is not even allowed to drink water, unless she 
is in danger of death; and even then, as the sacred element 
has been denied, she is liable to the penalty of a Peshd- 
tanu *. It appears from modern customs that the treatment 
is the same when the child is born alive: the reason of 
which is that, in any case, during the first three days after 
delivery she is in danger of death •• A great fire is lighted 



« Farg. 1,18-19; XVI, 11. Cf. Bund. III. 

« Farg. XVI, 15. • Cf. Leviticus. See Pliny VII, 13. 

* Faig. V, 45 seq. * Farg. VII, 70 seq. 

* 'When there is a pregnant woman in a house, one must take care that there 
be fire continually in it; when the child is brought forth, one must bum 



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1XXX VENDED. 



to keep away the fiends, who use then their utmost efforts 
to kill her and her child l . She is unclean only because the 
death-fiend is in her. 

§ 14. Logic required that the sick man should be treated 
as an unclean one, that is, as one possessed. Sickness, 
being sent by Ahriman, ought to be cured like all his other 
works, by washings and spells. In fact, the medicine of 
spells was considered the most powerful of all 1 , and 
although it did not oust the medicine of the lancet and 
that of drugs, yet it was more highly esteemed and less 
mistrusted. The commentator on the Vendtdad very 
sensibly observes that if it does not relieve, it will surely 
do no harm 3 , which seems not to have been a matter of 
course with those who heal by the knife and physic. It 
appears from the last Fargard that all or, at least, many 
diseases might be cured by spells and Barashnum washing. 
It appears from Herodotos and Agathias that contagious 
diseases required the same treatment as uncleanness : the 
sick man was excluded from the community of the faithful 4 , 
until cured and cleansed according to the rites s . 

§ 15. The unclean are confined in a particular place, 
apart from all clean persons and objects, the Arme\rt-gah *, 
which may be described, therefore, as the Dakhma for the 
living. All the unclean, all those struck with temporary 
death, the man who has touched dead matter, the woman 
in her menses, or just delivered of child, the leper 7 , or the 
man who has made himself unclean for ever by carrying 
a corpse alone 8 , stay there all the time of their un- 
cleanness. 

§ 16. Thus far for general principles. From the diversity 

a candle, or, better still, a fire, for three days and three nights, to render the 
Devs and Drqjs unable to harm the child ; for there is great danger daring those 
three days and nights after the birth of the child ' (Saddar 16). 

1 ' When the child is being bom, one brandishes a sword on the four sides, 
lest fairy Aal kill it ' (Polack, Persien I, 333). In Rome, three gods, Interci- 
dona, Pilnmnus, and Deverra, keep her threshold, lest Sylvanus come In and 
harm her (Angnstinus, De Civ. D. VI, 9). 

• Farg. VII, 44. » Ibid. 

4 Herod. I, 138. » Agathias II, 33. 

• The Arm&rt-g&b for women in their menses is called Dashtanist&n. 

• Herod. 1. 1. ; Farg. H, 39. • Farg. Ill, 19. 



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INTRODUCTION, X. lxxxi 

of circumstances arises a system of casuistry, the develop- 
ment of which may be followed first through the glosses to 
the Vendtdad, in which the labours of several generations 
of theologians are embodied, and, later on, through the 
Ravaets. We will give a few instances of it, as found in 
the Vendtdad itself. 

The process of the cleansing varies according to the 
degree of uncleanness ; and, again, the degree of unclean- 
ness depends on the state of the thing that defiles and the 
nature of the thing that is defiled. 

The uncleanness from the dead is the worst of all, and it 
is at its utmost when contracted before the Nasu has been 
expelled from the corpse by the Sag-did 1 : it can be cured 
only by means of the most complicated system of cleansing, 
the nine nights' Barashnum 2 . 

If the Nasu has already been expelled from the corpse, 
as the defiling power was less, a simple washing once made, 
the Ghosel, is enough 3 . 

The defiling power of the Nasu reaches farther, if the 
death has just taken place, and if the dying creature occu- 
pied a higher rank in the scale of beings * ; for the more 
recent the victory of the demon, or the higher the being he 
has overcome, the stronger he must have been himself. 

Menstruous women are cleansed by the Ghosel *. 

As for things they are more or less deeply defiled ac- 
cording to their degree of penetrability : metal vessels can 
be cleansed, earthen vessels cannot 6 ; leather is more easily 
cleansed than woven cloth 7 ; hard wood than soft wood *. 
Wet matter is a better conductor of uncleanness than dry 
matter, and corpses cease to defile after a year 9 . 

1 Farg. VIII, 36-36 ; 98-99 ; cf. VII, 29-30, and n. 6 to 30. 

1 Farg. IX. The Barashnum, originally meant to remove the uncleanness 
from the dead, became a general instrument of holiness. Children when putting 
on the K&stt (Farg. XVIII, 9, n. 3) perform it to be cleansed from the natural 
uncleanness they have contracted in the womb of their mothers. It is good for 
every one to perform it once a year. 

• Farg. VIII, 36. * Farg. V, Vj seq. ; VII, 1 seq. 

» Farg. XVI, la. • Farg. VII, 73 seq. 

1 Farg. VII, 14 seq. • Farg. VII, 38 seq. 

•Farg. VIII, 33-34. 

W f 



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lxxxii vendJdAd. 



B. 

§ 17. In the cases heretofore reviewed, religious purposes 
are alone concerned. There is another order of laws, in 
which, although religion interferes, yet it is not the root 
of the matter; namely, the laws about contracts and 
assaults, to which the fourth Fargard is devoted, and 
which are the only remains extant of the civil and penal 
legislation of Zoroastrianism. 

The contracts were divided into two classes, according 
to their mode, and according to the valve of their object K 
As to their mode they are word-contracts or hand-con- 
tracts : as to their object, they are sheep-contracts, ox- 
contracts, man-contracts, or field-contracts, which being 
estimated in money value are contracts to the amount of 
3, 1 a, 500 isttrs, and upwards a . 

No contract can be made void by the will of one party 
alone; he who breaks a contract is obliged to pay the value 
of the contract next higher in value. 

The family and the next of kin are, it would seem, 
answerable for the fulfilment of a contract, a principle of 
the old Indo-European civil law \ 

§ 18. Assaults are of seven degrees : igerepta, avaoirlrta 4 , 
stroke, sore wound, bloody wound, broken bone, and man- 
slaughter. The gravity of the guilt does not depend on 
the gravity of the deed only, but also on its frequency. 
Each of these seven crimes amounts, by its being repeated 
without having been atoned for, to the crime that imme- 
diately follows in the scale, so that an igerepta seven times 
repeated amounts to manslaughter. 

C. 
§ 19. Every crime makes the guilty man liable to two 
penalties, one here below, and another in the next world. 



1 See p. 35. »• 3- 

* An isttr (<mrrt}/>) is as much as four dirhems {Ipaxtdj)- The dirhem is 
estimated by modem tradition as a little more than a rnpee, but the authority 
is doubtful (see Sacred Books of the East, vol. xviii, p. 180, n. a). 

' Farg. IV, 5 seq. * Two different sorts of menaces; see TV, 17. 



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INTRODUCTION, X. IXXxiH 

The penalty here below consists of a certain number of 
stripes with the Aspahe-artra or the Sraosh6-£arana \ 

The unit for heavy penalties is two hundred stripes ; the 
crime and the criminal thus punished are called Peshd- 
tanu or Tanu-peretha (Parsi: Tanafuhr). The two words 
literally mean, 'one who pays with his own body,' and 
'payment with one's body,' and seem to have originally 
amounted to ' worthy of death, worthiness of death ; ' and 
in effect the word Peshd-tanu is often interpreted in the 
Pahlavi Commentary by margarzan, 'worthy of death.' 
But, on the whole, it was attached to the technical meaning 
of ' one who has to receive two hundred strokes with the 
horse-whip *.' The lowest penalty in the Vendtdad is five 
stripes, and the degrees from five stripes to Peshdtanu are 
ten, fifteen, thirty, fifty, seventy, ninety, two hundred. For 
instance, agerepta is punished with five stripes, avaoirirta 
with ten, stroke with fifteen, sore wound with thirty, 
bloody wound with fifty, broken bone with seventy, man- 
slaughter with ninety ; a second manslaughter, committed 
without the former being atoned for, is punished with the 
Peshdtanu penalty. In the same way the six other crimes, 
repeated eight, or seven, or six, or five, or four, or three 
times make the committer go through the whole series 
of penalties up to the Peshdtanu penalty. 

1 The general formula is literally, ' Let (the priest ; probably, the Sraosha- 
varez) strike so many strokes with the Aspahe-artra, so many strokes with the 
Sraosho-iarana.' Artra means in Sanskrit ' a goad,' so that Aspahe-artra may 
mean ' a horse-goad ; ' bat Aspendiarji translates it by d n rra, ' a thong/ which 
snits the sense better, and agrees with etymology too (' an instrument to drive 
• horse, a whip;' astra, from the root az, 'to drive;' it is the Aspah£-artra 
which is referred to by Sozomenos II, 13 : l/uunr ii/mt x«^«»«'* airrur ifiaai- 
rurar of /lArfOt (the Sraosha-varez), fkatfiurot wpoanvyijaat rir jKtov). Sraoshd- 
jtarana is translated by £&buk, 'a whip,' which agrees with the Sanskrit trans- 
lation of the st-srdsh&Aaran&m sin, 'yat tribhir go/burmasa/aghatiis prayar- 
jKtyam bhavati tavanmatram, a sin to be punished with three strokes with 
a whip.' It seems to follow that Aspab£-artra and Sraosho-*arana are one and 
the same instrument, designated with two names, first in reference to its shape, 
and then to its use (Sraosho-£arana meaning ' the instrument for penalty,' or 
'the instrument of the Sraosha-varez?'). The Aspahe-ajtra is once called a Jtra 
m airy a, ' the artra for the account to be given,' that is, 'for the payment of the 
penalty* (Farg. XVIII, 4). 

» Farg. IV, ao, ai, 34, 35, 38, 39, 3*, 33, 35, 36, 38, 39, 41, 43 ; V, 44 ; VI, 
5, 9, 19, 48, &c 

f 2 



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lxxxiv vend!dAd. 



§ ao. If one reviews the different crimes described in the 
Vendidad, and the respective penalties prescribed for them, 
one cannot but wonder at first sight at the strange inequality 
between crime and penalty. Beccaria would have felt un- 
comfortable while reading the Vendidad. It is safer to kill 
a man than to serve bad food to a shepherd's dog, for the 
manslayer gets off with ninety stripes, whereas the bad 
master is at once a Peshdtanu 1 , and will receive two 
hundred stripes. Two hundred stripes are awarded if one 
tills land in which a corpse has been buried within the 
year 2 , if a woman just delivered of a child drinks water 8 , if 
one suppresses the menses of a woman *, if one performs 
a sacrifice in a house where a man has just died ', if one 
neglects fastening the corpse of a dead man so that birds 
or dogs may not take dead matter to trees and rivers 6 . 
Two hundred stripes if one throws on the ground a bone 
of a man's corpse, or of a dog's carcase, as big as two ribs ; 
four hundred if one throws a bone as big as an arm bone, 
six hundred if one throws a skull, one thousand if the 
whole corpse 7 . Four hundred stripes if one, being in a 
state of uncleanness, touches water or trees 8 , four hundred 
if one covers with a cloth a dead man's feet, six hundred 
if one covers his legs, one thousand if the whole body 9 
be so covered. Five hundred stripes for killing a whelp, 
six hundred for killing a stray dog, seven hundred for 
a house-dog, eight hundred for a shepherd's dog, one 
thousand stripes for killing a Vanghapara dog 10 , ten 
thousand stripes for killing a water-dog 11 . 

Capital punishment is expressly pronounced only against 
the false cleanser M and the ' carrier alone 13 .' 

Yet any one who bethinks himself of the spirit of the old 
Aryan legislation will easily conceive that there may be in 



I Farg. IV, 40, and XIII, 24. » Farg. VI, 5. 

» Farg. VII, 70 seq. * Farg. XVI, 13 seq. 

' Farg. V, 39-44. • Farg. VI, 47 seq. 

' Farg. VI, 18 seq. • Farg. VIII, 104 seq. 

» Farg. VIII, J3 seq. » Farg. XIII, 8 seq. and 4. 

II Farg. XIV, 1 seq. u Farg. IX, 47 seq. 

" Farg. Ill, 14 acq. Yet there were other capital crimes. See below, $ 13. 



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INTRODUCTION, X. IxXXV 

its eyes many crimes more heinous, and to be punished 
more severely, than manslaughter: offences against man 
injure only one man ; offences against gods endanger all i 
mankind. No one should wonder at the unqualified cleanser 
being put to death who reads Demosthenes' Neaera ; the 
Persians who defiled the ground by burying a corpse. were 
not more severely punished than the Greeks were for de- 
filing with corpses the holy ground of Delos \ or than the 
conquerors at Arginousae ; nor would the Athenians, who 
put to death Atarbes 8 , have much stared at the awful 
revenge taken for the murder of the sacred dog. There is 
hardly any prescription in the Vendtdad, however odd and 
absurd it may seem, but has its counterpart or its explana- 
tion in other Aryan legislations: if we had a Latin or a 
Greek Vendtdad, I doubt whether it would look more 
rational. 

§ ai. Yet, if theoretically the very absurdity of its prin- 
ciples is nothing peculiar to the Mazdean law, nay, is a 
proof of its authenticity,' it may be doubted whether it 
could ever have been actually applied in the form stated 
in the texts. It may be doubted whether the murder of 
a shepherd's dog could have actually been punished with 
eight hundred stripes, much more whether the murder of 
a water-dog could have been really punished with ten thou- 
sand stripes, unless we suppose that human endurance was 
different in ancient Persia from what it is elsewhere, or 
even in modern Persia herself 8 . Now as we see that in 
modern tradition bodily punishment is estimated in money 
value, that is to say, converted into fines, a conversion 
which is alluded to in the Pahlavi translation 4 , it may 
readily be admitted that as early as the time of the last 
edition of the Vendtdad, that conversion had already been 
made. In the Ravaets, two hundred stripes, or a Tanafflhr, 
are estimated as equal to three hundred istlrs or twelve 
hundred dirhems, or thirteen hundred and fifty rupees ; 

1 Diodor. XII, 58. • Aelianus, Hist. Var.V, 17. 

* In the time of Chardin, the number of stripes inflicted on the guilty never 
exceeded three hundred ; in the old German law, two hundred ; in the Hebrew 
law, forty. * Ad Farg. XIV, 2. 

f.3 



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lxxxvi vend!dAd. 



\ 



a stripe is therefore about equal to six rupees J . How far 
that system prevailed in practice, whether the guilty might 
take advantage of this commutation of his own accord, 
or only with the assent of the judge, we cannot decide. It 
is very likely that the riches of the fire-temples came for 
the most part from that source, and that the sound of the 
dirhems often made the Sraoshd-£arana fall from the hands 
of the Mobeds. That the system of financial penalties 
did not, however, suppress the system of bodily penalties, 
appears from the customs of the Parsis who apply both, 
and from the Pahlavi Commentary which expressly dis- 
tinguishes three sorts of atonement : the atonement by 
money (khvastak), the atonement by the Sraoshd-£arana, 
and the atonement by cleansing. 

§ 22. This third element of atonement is strictly religious. 
It consists in repentance, which is manifested by avowal 
of the guilt and by the recital of a formula of repentance, 
the Patet. The performance of the Patet has only a 
religious effect: it saves the sinner from penalties in the 
other world, but not from those here below ; it delivers him 
before God, but not before man. When the sacrilegious 
cleanser has repented his sin, he is not the less flayed and 
beheaded, but his soul is saved 2 . Yet, although it has no 
efficacy in causing the sin to be remitted, the absence of it 
has power to cause it to be aggravated 3 . 

§ 23. Thus far for sins that can be atoned for. There 
are some that are anaperetha, 'inexpiable,' which means, 
as it seems, that they are punished with death here below, 
and with torments in the other world. 

Amongst the anaperetha sins are named the burning 
of the dead, the burying of the dead *, the eating dead 
matter 6 , unnatural sin 6 , and self-pollution 7 . Although 

1 In later Parstism every sin (and every good deed) has its value in money 
fixed, and may thus be weighed in the scales of Rashnu. If the number of the 
good-deed dirhems outweigh the number of sin dirhems, the soul is saved. 
Herodotos noticed the same principle of compensation in the Persian law of 
his time (1, 137 ; cf. VII, 194). 

* Farg. IX, 49, n.; cf. Ill, 20 seq. ' Karg. IV, 20, 34, 28, 32, 35, &c. 

• Farg. I, 13, 17; Strabo XV, 14. s Farg. VII, 23 seq. 
4 Farg. I, 1 2 ; cf. VIII, 32. ' Farg. VIII, 27. 



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INTRODUCTION, X. lxxxvii 

it is not expressly declared that these sins were punished 
with death, yet we know it of several of them, either from 
Greek accounts or from Parsi tradition. There are also 
whole classes of sinners whose life, it would seem, can be 
taken by any one who detects them in the act, such as the 
courtezan, the highwayman, the Sodomite, and the corpse- 
burner 1 . 

§ 24. Such are the most important principles of the 
Mazdean law that can be gathered from the Vendidad. 
These details, incomplete as they are, may give us an idea, 
if not of the Sassanian practice, at least of the Sassanian 
ideal. That it was an ideal which intended to pass into 
practice, we know from the religious wars against Armenia, 
and from the fact that very often the superintendence of 
justice and the highest offices of the state were committed 
to Mobeds. 

We must now add a few words on the plan of the fol- 
lowing translation. As to our method we beg to refer to 
the second chapter above. It rests on the Parsi tradition, 
corrected or confirmed by the comparative method. The 
Parsi tradition is found in the Pahlavi Commentary *, the 
understanding of which was facilitated to us first by the 
Gujarati translation and paraphrase of Aspendiarji 8 , and 
by a Persian transliteration and translation belonging to 
the Haug Collection in Munich 4 , for the use of which we 
were indebted to the obliging kindness of the Director of 
the State Library in Munich, Professor von Halm. The 



■ See p. 113, o. 4', Farg. XVIII. 65. 

' Our quotations refer to the text given in Spiegel's edition, but corrected 
after the London manuscript. 

* Bombay, 1 842, 2 vol*, in 8yo. 

' Unfortunately the copy is incomplete : there are two lacunae, one from 
I, 11 to the end of the chapter; the other, more extensive, from VI, a6 10 IX. 
The perfect accordance of this Persian translation with the Gujarati of Aspen- 
diarji shows that both are derived from one and the same source. Their 
accordance is striking even in mistakes; for instance, the Pahlavi avastar 
)m^pMf t a transliteration of the Zend a-vastra, ' without pastures' (VII, 26), 
is misread by the Persian translator Av&stkr, U „ r l,i- ' he who wishes,' owing 
to the ambiguity of the Pahlavi letter f» (av or Av), and it is translated by 
Aspendiarji tkh&n&r, ' the wisher.' 



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lxxxviii vendJdAd. 



Ravaets and the Saddar 1 frequently gave us valuable 
information as to the traditional meaning of doubtful pas- 
sages. As for the works of European scholars, we are 
much indebted to the Commentary on the Avesta by Pro- 
fessor Spiegel, and to the translations in the second edition 
of Martin Haug's Essays. 

We have followed the text of the Avesta as given by 
Westergaard ; the division into paragraphs is according to 
Westergaard; but we have given in brackets the corre- 
sponding divisions of Professor Spiegel's edition. The 
singularly exact analysis of the Vendidad contained in the 
Dinkart has proved of great value. For the first chapter 
we owe much to the Commentary in an unpublished 
chapter of the Great Bundahij. The analyses of the 
Nasks in the Dinkart, the Great Bundahw and the essay 
of Jiwanji Modi on the funeral customs of the Parsis have 
thrown valuable light on many points of detail. 

Many passages in the Vendidad Sada are mere quota- 
tions from the Pahlavi Commentary which have crept into 
the Sada text : we have not admitted them into the text. 
They are generally known to be spurious from their not 
being translated in the Commentary * : yet the absence of 
a Pahlavi translation is not always an unmistakable sign of 
such spuriousriess. Sometimes the translation has been lost 
in our manuscripts, or omitted as having already been given 
in identical or nearly identical terms. When we thought 
that this was the case, we have admitted the untranslated 
passages into the text, but in brackets 3 . 

We have divided the principal Fargards into several 
sections according to the matter they contain : this divi- 
sion, which is meant as an attempt to resolve the Vendidad 
into its primitive fragments, has, of course, no traditional 



1 The prose Saddar (as found in the Great Ravaet), which differs considerably 
from the Saddar in verse, as translated by Hyde. 

' Without speaking of their not being connected with the context See 
Farg. I, 4, 15, so; II, 6, ao; V.4; VII, 53-54. 

' Farg. VII, 3; VIII, 95. Formulae and enumerations are often left untrans- 
lated, although they must be considered part of the text (VIII, Ji ; XI, 9, 1 a ; 
XX, 6, &c.) 



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INTRODUCTION, X. lxxxix 



authority, the divisions into paragraphs being the only ones 
that rest upon the authority of the manuscripts. 

The translation will be found, in many passages, to differ 
greatly from the translations published heretofore *. The 
nature of this series of translations did not allow us to give 
full justificatory notes: but we have endeavoured in 
most cases to make the explanatory notes commend to 
scholars the new meanings we have adopted ; and, in some 
instances, we hope that the original text, read anew, will 
by itself justify our translation. 

We must not conclude this introduction without ten- 
dering our warmest thanks to Mr. E. W. West, who kindly 
revised the MS. of the translation before it went to press, 
and who has, we hope, succeeded in making our often 
imperfect English more acceptable to English readers. 

JAMES DARMESTETER. 
Paris : 



October, 1894. 



1 Complete translations of the Vendldad have been published by Anquetil 
Buperron in France (Paris, 1771) ; by Professor Spiegel in Germany (Leipzig, 
1852) ; by Canon de Harlez in Belgium (Louvain, 1877). The translation of 
Professor Spiegel was translated into English by Professor Bleeck, who added 
useful information from inedited Gujarati translations (Hertford, 1864). 



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A LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL ABBREVIATIONS 
USED IN THIS VOLUME. 

Asp. = Aspendiirji's translation. 

Bund. = Bundahw; Arabic numbers refer to the chapter (accord- 
ing to Justi's edition); Roman numbers refer to the page and 
line. 

Comm. = The Pahlavi Commentary. 

Gr. Rav. = Le Grand Rav&et (in the Bibliotheque Nationale in 
Paris, Supplement Persan, No. 47). 

Orm. Ahr. = Ormazd et Ahriman, Paris, Vieweg, 1877. 



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VENDIDAD. 



Fargard I. 

This chapter is an enumeration of sixteen perfect lands created 
by Ahura Mazda, and of as many plagues created in opposition by 
Angra Mainyu. 

Many attempts have been made, not only to identify these six- 
teen lands, but also to draw historical conclusions from their order 
of succession, as representing the actual order of the migrations 
and settlements of the old Iranian tribes 1 . But there is nothing in 
the text to support such wide inferences. We have here nothing 
more than a geographical description of Iran, seen from the reli- 
gious point of view. 

Of these sixteen lands there are nine, as follows : — 



ZEND NAME. 

Sughdha(2> 
Mduru (3) 
Bakhdhi (4) 
Hardyu (6) 
Vehrkana (9) 
Harahvaiti (10) 



OLD PERSIAN. GREEK. 

Suguda 2oy&iavij 

MargU Mapyiavr) 

Bakhtri Biicrpa 
Haraiva 'Kptla 
¥arkina 'tpnaria 



MODERN NAME. 

Soghd ii-, (Samarkand) 



Marv 



J/* 



Balkh Jb 

Har6(rud) ^ 

Gurgan, Goxgzn yU^jW/ 



Harauvati 'Apaxturia Ar-rokha^ j*\ 



Ha&umawt (11) 
Ragha (12) 



Raga' 



Arghand-(ab) i^Tj^I 
'Erifiaripot Helmend Sljjt 
'Payai RaV («, 

'l»8oi' 



Haptahi»du(i5) Hwdava 'htoi Hind siu (Pa%ab), 

which can be identified with certainty, as we are able to follow their 



* Rhode, Die heilige Sage des Zendvolks, p. 61 ; Heeren, Ideen 
zur Geschichte, I, p. 498 ; Lassen, Indische Aiterthumskunde I, 
p. 526; Haug in Bunsen's work, Aegypten's Stellung, V, 2nd part, 
p. 104; Kiepert, Monatsberichte der Berliner Akademie, 1856, 
p. 621. Cf. the mythological interpretation by M. Bre"al, ' De la 
geographic de l'Avesta' (in the Melanges de mythologie et de 
linguistique, p. 187 seq.) 

* See however § 16, note 3. 

[4] B 



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vendIdAd. 



names from the records of the Achaemenian kings or the works of 
classical writers down to the map of modern Iran. 

For the other lands we are confined for information to the 
Pahlavi Commentary, from which we get : 

ZEND NAME. PAHLAVI NAME. MODERN NAME. 

VaSkereta (7) Kapul JilTKibul 

Urva (8) Mgshan Mesene 

Varena (14) Patashkhvargar orDailam Tabaristan or Gtlan 

Rangha (16) Arvastani Rum Eastern Mesopotamia 

The identification of Nisaya (5) and JTakhra (13) remains an 
open question, as there were several cities of that name. We 
know, however, that Nisaya lay between Balkh and Marv. The 
first province Airyanem Vae^d, or Ir&n-V&g, we identify with the 
mediaeval Arran (nowadays known as Karabagh). 

There must have been some systematical idea in the order 
followed, though it is not apparent, except in the succession of 
Sughdha, Mduru, Bakhdhi, Nisaya, Haroyu, Vafekereta (numbers 2-7), 
which form one compact group of north-eastern provinces ; the last 
two provinces, Hindu and Rangha (numbers 15-16), are the two 
limitroph provinces, east and west (Indus and Tigris) ; and the 
Rangha brings us back to the first province, Iran-Ve^-, whose 
chief river, the Vanguhi Daitya, or Aras, springs from the same 
mountains as the Rangha-Tigris. 

The several plagues created by Angra Mainyu to mar the native 
perfection of Ahura's creations give instructive information on the 
religious condition of several of the Iranian countries at the time 
when this Fargard was written. Harat seems to have been the 
seat of puritan sects that pushed rigorism to the extreme in the 
law of purification. Sorcery was prevalent in the basin of the 
Helmend river, and the Paris were powerful in Cabul, which is 
a Zoroastrian way of saying that the Hindu civilisation prevailed in 
those parts, which in fact in the two centuries before and after 
Christ were known as White India, and remained more Indian than 
Iranian till the Musulman conquest, 

I. Ahura Mazda spake unto Spitama 1 Zarathiutra, 
saying : 



1 Or Spitamide. Zarathurtra was descended from Spitama at 
the fifth generation. 



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FARGARD I. 



I have made every land dear (to its people), 
even though it had no charms whatever in it 1 : had 
I not made every land dear (to its people), even 
though it had no charms whatever in it, then the 
whole living world would have invaded the Airyana 
Vae>d*. 

3 (5). The first of the good lands and countries 
which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the Airyana 
Vae£6 3 , by the Vanguhi Daitya 4 . 

1 ' Every one fancies that the land where he was born and has been 
brought up is the best and fairest land that I have created ' (Comm.) 

* Greater Bundahish : ' It is said in the Sacred Book : had I not 
created the Genius of the native place, all mankind would have 
gone to Eran-Ve£, on account of its pleasantness.' — On Airyanem 
Vae^fd or Er&n-Ve^, see following note. — Clause 2 in the Ven» 
dfdid SSda is composed of Zend quotations in the Commentary 
that illustrate the alternative process of the creation : ' First, Ahura 
Mazda would create a land of such kind that its dwellers might 
Hke it, tod there could be nothing more delightful. Then he who 
is all death would bring against it a counter-creation.' 

* Airyanem Vae£6, Iran-Ve£, is the holy land of Zoroastrianism : 
Zoroaster was bom and founded his religion there (Bund. XX, 32 ; 
XXXII, 3) : the first animal couple appeared there (Bund. XIV, 4 ; 
Z&d Sparam, IX, 8). From its name, ' the Iranian seed,' it seems to 
have been considered as the original seat of the Iranian race. It has 
been generally supposed to belong to Eastern Iran, like the provinces 
which are enumerated after it, chiefly on account of the name of 
its river, the Vanguhi Daitya, which was in the Sassanian times 
(as V&h) the name of the Oxus. But the Bundahish distinctly states 
that Iran-Ve^- is 'bordering upon Adarbai^an' (XXIX, 12) ; now, 
Adarbai^an is bordered by the Caspian Sea on the east, by the 
Rangha provinces on the west, by Media proper on the south, and 
by Arran on the north. The Rangha provinces are out of question, 
since they are mentioned at the end of the Fargard (§ 20), and the 
climatic conditions of IrSn-Vlg' with its long winter likewise ex- 
clude Media and suit Arr&n, where the summer lasts hardly two 
months (cf. § 4, note 6). The very name agrees, as the country 



4 For this note see next page. 
B 2 



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VENDfDAD. 



Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, 
and he counter-created the serpent in the river 6 and 
Winter, a work of the Da£vas e . 

4 (9). There are- ten winter months there, two 
summer months 7 ; and those are cold for the waters 8 , 
cold for the earth, cold for the trees *. Winter falls 
there, the worst of all plagues. 

5 (13). The second of the good lands and 
countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the 
plain 10 which the Sughdhas inhabit 11 . 

Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, 

known as Arran seems to have been known to the Greeks as 
'Apuwta (Stephanus Byz.), which brings it close to our Airyanem. 
On the Vanguhi Daitya, see following note. 

4 The Vanguhi Daitya, belonging to Arran, must be the modern 
Aras (the classic Araxes). The Aras was named Vanguhi, like the 
Oxus, but distinguished from it by the addition Daitya, which made 
it ' the Vanguhi of the Law ' (the Vanguhi by which Zoroaster 
received the Law). 

• ' There are many Khrafstras in the Daitfk, as it is said, The 
Daitfk full of Khrafstras' (Bund. XX, 13). Snakes abound on 
the banks of the Araxes (Morier, A Second Journey, p. 250) 
nowadays as much as in the time of Pompeius, to whom they 
barred the way from Albania to Hyrcania (Plut.) 

• Arran (Karabagh) is celebrated for its cold winter as well as 
for its beauty. At the Naurdz (first day of spring) the fields still lie 
under the snow. The temperature does not become milder before 
the second fortnight of April; no flower is seen before May. 
Summer, which is marked by the migration of the nomads from 
the plain to the mountains, begins about the 20th of June and 
ends in the middle of August. 

7 Vendidad Sada : ' It is known that [in the ordinary course 
of nature] there are seven months of summer and five of winter ' 
(see Bund. XXV). 

" Some say : ' Even those two months of summer are cold for 
the waters . . .' (Comm. ; cf. Mainy6-i-khard XLIV, 20). 

• Vend. Sada: ' There reigns the core and heart of winter.' 
10 Doubtful. u Old P. Suguda ; Sogdiana. 



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FARGARD I. 



and he counter-created the locust 1 , which brings 
death unto cattle and plants. 

6 (17). The third of the good lands and countries 
which I, Ahura Mazda, created; was the strong, holy 
Mduru ». 

Thereupon came Angra Mainyu.who is all death, 
and he counter-created plunder and sin 3 . 

7 (21). The fourth of the good lands and coun- 
tries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the beautiful 
Bakhdhi 4 with high-lifted banners. 

Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all 
death, and he counter-created the ants and the ant- 
hills 8 . 

8 (25). The fifth of the good lands and countries 
which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was Nisaya e , that 
lies between M6uru and Bakhdhi. 

1 ' The plague that fell to that country was the bad locust : it 
devours the plants and death comes to the cattle ' (Gr. Bund.) 

* Margu ; Mapyuaf) ; Marv. 

* Doubtful.— The Gr. Bd. has: 'The plague that fell to that 
country was the coming and going of troops : for there is always 
there an evil concourse of horsemen, thieves, robbers, arid heretics, 
who speak untruth and oppress the righteous.' — Marv continued 
to be the resort of Turanian plunderers till the recent Russian 
annexation. 

4 Bakhtri; Bdxrpa; Balkh. 

* ' The corn-carrying ants ' (Asp. ; cf. Farg. XIV, 5). 

" By contradistinction to other places of the same name. There 
was a Nisaya, in Media, where Darius put to death the Mage 
Gaumata (Bahistun I, 58). There was also a Nisi in Firs, 
another in Kirm&n, a third again on the way from Amol to Marv 
(Tabari, tr. Noeldeke, p. 101, 2), which may be the same as Nurara, 
the capital of Parthia (nap&nwura ap. Isid. of Charax 12) ; cf. Pliny 
VI, 25 (29). One may therefore be tempted to translate, ' Nisaya 
between which and Bakhdhi Mduru lies ; ' but the text hardly admits 
of that construction, and we must suppose the existence of another 
Nisiya on the way from Balkh to Marv. 



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VENDiDAD. 



Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is aH death, 
and he counter-created the sin of unbelief 1 . 

9 (29). The sixth of the good lands and countries 
which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the house- 
deserting Hardyu 2 . 

Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, 
and he counter-created tears and wailing 3 . 

10 (33)' The seventh of the good lands and 
countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was 
Va6kereta *, of the evil shadows. 

Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, 
and he counter-created the Pairika KnSthaiti, who 



clave unto Keresaspa •. 



1 There are people there 'who doubt the existence of God' 
(Comm.) 

* Hardyu, Old P. Haraiva (transcribed in Greek and Latin 'hptta 
Aria instead of 'Aptia Haria, by a confusion with the name of the 
Aryans); P. Harfi (in Firdausi and in Har6-rud ; Harat is an Arabi- 
cised form. — ' The house-deserting Hare" : because there, when a 
man dies in a house, the people of the house leave it and go. 
We keep the ordinances for nine days or a month : they leave 
the house and absent themselves from it for nine days or a month ' 
(Gr. Bd.) Cf.Vd.V, 42. 

* ' The tears and wailing for the dead,' the voceros. The 
tears shed over a dead man grow to a river that prevents his cross- 
ing the ATinvat bridge (Saddar 96 ; Arda" Viraf XVI, 7, 10). 

* Valkereta, an older name of Kabul (Kapul : Comm. and Gr. 
Bd.) ; perhaps the Ptolemeian Bayipda in Paropanisus (Ptol. VI, 18). 

6 The Pairika, in Zoroastrian mythology, symbolises idolatry 
(uzd£s-parastih). The land of Kabul, till the Musulman in- 
vasion, belonged to the Indian civilisation and was mostly of Brah- 
manical and Buddhistic religion. The Pairika KhnSthaiti will 
be destroyed at the end of the world by Saoshyaflt, the unborn son 
of Zarathurtra (when all false religions vanish before the true one ; 
Vd. XIX, s). — Sama Keresaspa, the Garshasp of later tradition, is 
the type of impious heroism : he let himself be seduced to the 
DaSva-worsbip, and Zoroaster saw him punished in hell for his con- 
tempt of Zoroastrian observances. 



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FARGARD I. 



1 1 (37). The eighth of the good lands and 
countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was Urva 
of the rich pastures *. 

Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, 
and he counter-created the sin of pride 2 . 

12 (41). The ninth of the good lands and countries 
which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was Khne»ta which 
the Vehrkanas 8 inhabit. 

Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, 
and he counter-created a sin for which there is no 
atonement, the unnatural sin 4 . 

1 3 (45)' The tenth of the good lands and 
countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the 
beautiful Harahvaiti 6 . 

Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, 
and he counter-created a sin for which there is no 
atonement, the burying of the dead •. 

14 (49). The eleventh of the good lands and 
countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the 
bright, glorious Haetuma»t 7 . 



1 Urva, according to Gr. Bd. MSshan, that is to say Mesene 
(M«<np>i}), the region of lower Euphrates, famous for its fertility 
(Herodotos I, 193) : it was for four centuries (from about 
150 b.c. to 225 a.d.) the seat of a flourishing commercial state. 

* ' The people of Meshan are proud : there are no people worse 
than they ' (Gr. Bd.) 

* ' Khne»ta is a river in Vehrkina (Hyrcania) ' (Comm.) ; con- 
sequently the river Gorg&n. 

* See Farg.VIII, 31-32. 

* Harauvati; 'Apaxtxrta; corrupted into Ar-rokha^ (name of 
the country in the Arabic literature) and Arghand (in the modern 
name of the river Arghand-ab). 

« See Farg. Ill, 36 seq. 

1 The basin of the 'Ervpartyxw or Erymanthus, now Hermend, 
Helmend, that is to say, the region of Saistftn. 



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Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all 
death, and he counter-created the evil work of 
witchcraft 

15 (53). And this is the sign by which it is known, 
this is that by which it is seen at once : wheresoever 
they may go and raise a cry of sorcery, there * the 
worst works of witchcraft go forth. From there they 
come to kill and strike at heart, and they bring 
locusts as many as they want 2 . 

J 6 (59)' The twelfth of the good lands and 
countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was 
Ragha 8 of the three races*. 

Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, 
and he counter-created the sin of utter unbelief*. 

17 (63). The thirteenth of the good lands and 
countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the 
strong, holy ATakhra 6 . 

Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, 



1 In Hafitumawt. — ' The plague created against Saistan is abun- 
dance of witchcraft : and that character appears from this, that all 
people from that place practise astrology : those wizards produce . . . 
snow, hail, spiders, and locusts ' (Gr. Bd.) Saistan, like Kabul, was 
half Indian (Macoudi, II, 79-82), and Brahmans and Buddhists 
have the credit of being proficient in the darker sciences. 

* This clause seems to be a quotation in the Pahlavi Commentary. 
8 Ragha, transcribed Rdk and identified by the Commentary 

with Adarbai^an and 'according to some 'with Rai (the Greek 
'Payai in Media). There were apparently two Raghas, one in 
Atropatene; another in Media. 

* ' That means that the three classes, priests, warriors, and 
husbandmen, were well organised there ' (Comm. and Gr. Bd.) 

• 'They doubt themselves and cause other people to doubt' 
(Comm.) 

• There were two towns of that name (JSTarkh), one in Khorasan, 
and the other in Ghaznin. 



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FARGARD I. 



and he counter-created a sin for which there is no 
atonement, the cooking of corpses '. 

18 (67). The fourteenth of the good lands and 
countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the 
four-cornered Varena 2 , for which was born Thra£- 
taona, who smote Asi Dahaka. 

Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, 
and he counter-created abnormal issues in women 8 
and barbarian oppression 4 . 

19 (72). The fifteenth of the good lands and 
countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the 
Seven Rivers 8 . 

Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, 
and he counter-created abnormal issues in women 
and excessive heat. 

20 (76). The sixteenth of the good lands and 
countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the 
land by the sources (?) of the Rangha •, where people 
live who have no chiefs 7 . 

1 ' Cooking a corpse and eating it. They cook foxes and weasels 
and eat them ' (Gr. Bd.) See Farg. VIII, 73-74. 

1 Varn, identified by the Comm. either with Patashkhvargar 
or with Dailam (that is to say Tabaristan or Gtlfin). The Gr. 
Bd. identifies it with Mount Damavand (which belongs to Patash- 
khvargar) : this is the mountain where Asi Dahaka was bound 
with iron bonds by Thra&aona. — 'Four-cornered:' Tabaristan 
has rudely the shape of a quadrilateral. 

* Farg. XVI, u seq. 

4 The aborigines of the Caspian littoral were Anarian savages, 
the so-called 'Demons of Mazana.' 

* Hapta hindava, the basin of the affluents of the Indus, the 
modern Pa^ab (=the Five Rivers), formerly called Hind, by 
contradistinction to Sindh, the basin of the lower river. 

* ' Arvastan-i-Rum (Roman Mesopotamia) ' (Comm.), that is to 
say, the basin of the upper Tigris (Rangha = Ar van d = Tigris). 

T ' People who do not hold the chief for a chief ' (Comm.), which 



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Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, 
and he counter-created Winter 1 , a work of the 
Daevas *. 

2i (81). There are still other lands and countries 8 , 
beautiful and deep, longing and asking for the good, 
and bright. 



Fargard II. 

Yima (<7amsh&/). 

This Fargard may be divided into two parts. 

First part (1-20). Ahura Mazda proposes to Yima, the son of 
Vfvanghat, to receive the law from him and to bring it to men. 
On his refusal, he bids him keep his creatures and make them 
prosper. Yima accordingly makes them thrive and increase, keeps 
death and disease away from them, and three times enlarges the 
earth, which had become too narrow for its inhabitants. 

Second part (21 to the end). On the approach of a dire winter, 
which is to destroy every living creature, Yima, being advised by 
Ahura, builds a Vara to keep there the finest representatives of 
every kind of animals and plants, and they live there a life of 
perfect happiness. 

It is difficult not to acknowledge in the latter legend a Zoroastrian 
adaptation of the deluge, whether it was borrowed from the Bible 
or from the Chaldaean mythology. The similitude is so striking 
that it did not escape the Musulmans, and Macoudi states that 
certain authors place the date of the deluge in the time of GamsheVf. 
There are essential and necessary differences between the two 
legends, the chief one being that in the monotheistic narration the 

is the translation for asraosha (Comm. ad XVI, 18), ' rebel 
against the law,' and would well apply to the non-Mazdean people 
of ArvastSn-i-Rum. 

1 The severe winters in the upper valleys of the Tigris. 

1 TheVendfd&d SSda has here: tao>y£4a danh;u; aiwinSra, 
which the Gr. Bd. understands as : ' and the Tajik (the Arabs) are 
oppressive there.' 

• ' Some say : Persis ' (Comm.) 



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FARGARD II. II 



deluge is sent as a punishment from God, whereas in the dual is tic 
version it is a plague from the Daevas : but the core of the two 
legends is the same : the hero in both is a righteous man who, 
forewarned by God, builds a refuge to receive choice specimens of 
mankind, intended some day to replace an imperfect humanity, 
destroyed by a universal calamity. 

I. 

I. Zarathujtra asked Ahura Mazda : 

O Ahura Mazda, most beneficent Spirit, Maker 
of the material world, thou Holy One! 

Who was the first mortal, before myself, Zara- 
thurtra, with whom thou, Ahura Mazda, didst 
converse 1 , whom thou didst teach the Religion of 
Ahura, the Religion of Zarathustra ? 

2 (4). Ahura Mazda answered : 

The fair Yima, the good shepherd 2 , O holy Zara- 
thurtra! he was the first mortal, before thee, 
Zarathurtra, with whom I, Ahura Mazda, did con- 
verse, whom I taught the Religion of Ahura, the 
Religion of Zarathustra. 

3(7). Unto him, O Zarathurtra, I, Ahura Mazda, 
spake, saying : ' Well, fair Yima, son of Vtvanghat, 
be thou the preacher and the bearer of my 
Religion ! ' 

And the fair Yima, O Zarathustra, replied unto 
me, saying : 

* I was not born, I was not taught to be the 
preacher and the bearer of thy Religion.' 

4 (1 1). Then I, Ahura Mazda, said thus unto him, 
O Zarathustra: 



1 ' On the Religion' (Comm.) 

* ' His being a good shepherd means that he held in good con- 
dition herds of men and herds of animals ' (Comm.) 



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4 Since thou dost not consent to be the preacher 
and the bearer of my Religion, then make thou my 
world increase, make my world grow: consent thou 
to nourish, to rule, and to watch over my world.' 

5 (14). And the fair Yima replied unto me, O 
Zarathurtra, saying : 

' Yes ! I will make thy world increase, I will make 
thy world grow. Yes ! I will nourish, and rule, and 
watch over thy world. There shall be, while I am 
king, neither cold wind nor hot wind, neither disease 
nor death.' 

7 (17) 1 . Then I, Ahura Mazda, brought two 
implements unto him : a golden seal and a poniard 
inlaid with gold *. Behold, here Yima bears the 
royal sway ! 

8 (20). Thus, under the sway of Yima, three 
hundred winters passed away, and the earth was 
replenished with flocks and herds, with men and 
dogs and birds and with red blazing fires, and there 
was room no more for flocks, herds, and men. 

9. Then I warned the fair Yima, saying : ' O fair 
Yima, son of Vlvanghat, the earth has become full 
of flocks and herds, of men and dogs and birds 
and of red blazing fires, and there is room no more 
for flocks, herds, and men.' 

1 § 6 is composed of unconnected Zend quotations, which are 
no part of the text and are introduced by the commentator for the 
purpose of showing that ' although Yima did not teach the law and 
train pupils, he was nevertheless a faithful and a holy man, and 
rendered men holy too (?).' See Fragments to the Vendtdad. 

* As the symbol and the instrument of sovereignty. ' He reigned 
supreme by the strength of the ring and of the poniard ' (Asp.) Thus 
Faridftn gives royal investiture to Ira^ ' with the sword and the 
seal, the ring and the crown ' (Firdausi). — The king is master ' of 
the sword, the throne, and the ring.' 



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FARGARD II. 1 3 



10. Then Yima stepped forward, in-light 1 , south- 
wards 8 , on the way of the sun 8 , and (afterwards) he 
pressed the earth with the golden seal, and bored it 
with the poniard, speaking thus : 

' O Spe#ta Armaiti 4 , kindly 5 open asunder and 
stretch thyself afar, to bear flocks and herds and 
men.' 

1 1. And Yima made the earth grow larger by 
one-third than it was before, and there came flocks 
and herds and men, at their will and wish, as many 
as he wished. 

12 (23). Thus, under the sway of Yima, six 
hundred winters passed away, and the earth was 
replenished with flocks and herds, with men and 
dogs and birds and with red blazing fires, and there 
was room no more for flocks, herds, and men. 

13. And I warned the fair Yima, saying: ' O fair 
Yima, son of Vlvanghat, the earth has become full 
of flocks and herds, of men and dogs and birds 
and of red blazing fires, and there is room no more 
for flocks, herds, and men.' 

14. Then Yima stepped forward, in light, south- 

1 That is to say, his body being all resplendent with light. Cf. 
Albfruni's Chronology (tr. by Sachau, p. 20a): 'Jam rose on 
that day (Nauroz) like the sun, the light beaming forth from him, 
as though he shone like the sun.' 

* The warm South is the region of Paradise (Yasht XXII, 7) : 
the North is the seat of the cold winds, of the demons and hell 
(Vd. XIX, 1 ; VII, 2). 

* Thence is derived the following tradition recorded by G. du 
Chinon : ' lis en nomment un qui s'allait tous les jours promener 
dans le Ciel du Soleil d'ou il aportait la sciance des Astres, aprez 
les avoir visites de si prez. lis nomment ce grand personnage 
Gemachid ' (Relations nouvelles du Levant, Lyon, 1671, p. 478). 

4 The Genius of the Earth. 

6 « Do this out of kindness to the creatures ' (Comm.) 



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wards, on the way of the sun, and (afterwards) he 
pressed the earth with the golden seal, and bored it 
with the poniard, speaking thus : 

'O Spe»ta Armaiti, kindly open asunder and 
stretch thyself afar, to bear flocks and herds and 
men.' 

1 5. And Yima made the earth grow larger by 
two-thirds than it was before, and there came flocks 
and herds and men, at their will and wish, as many 
as he wished. 

16 (26). Thus, under the sway of Yima, nine 
hundred winters passed away 1 , and the earth was 
replenished with flocks and herds, with men and 
dogs and birds and with red blazing fires, and there 
was room no more for flocks, herds, and men. 

1 7 (28). And I warned the fair Yima, saying : 
' O fair Yima, son of Vlvanghat, the earth has be- 
come full of flocks and herds, of men and dogs and 
birds and of red blazing fires, and there is room no 
more for flocks, herds, and men.' 

18 (31). Then Yima stepped forward, in light, 
southwards, on the way of the sun, and (afterwards) 
he pressed the earth with the golden seal, and bored 
it with the poniard, speaking thus : 

' O Spe»ta Armaiti, kindly open asunder and 
stretch thyself afar, to bear flocks and herds and 
men.' 

19 (37). And Yima made the earth grow larger 
by three-thirds than it was before, and there came 



1 Yima, according to Yt. IX, 10, made immortality reign on the 
earth for a thousand years. The remaining century was spent in 
the Vara (' for a hundred years, Gira was in the Var,' says the Gr. 
Bund.) On Yima's fall, see Yt. XIX, 34 ; cf. Yt. V, 25-31. 



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FARGARD II. 1 5 



flocks and herds and men, at their will and wish, as 
many as he wished. 

II. 

21 (42) \ The Maker, Ahura Mazda, called to- 
gether a meeting of the celestial Yazatas in the 
Airyana Vae^d of high renown, by the Vanguhi 
Daitya 2 . 

The fair Yima, the good shepherd, called together 
a meeting of the best of the mortals 8 , in the Airyana 
Vae^6 of high renown, by the Vanguhi Daitya. 

To that meeting came Ahura Mazda, in the 
Airyana Vae^d of high renown, by the Vanguhi 
Daitya ; he came together with the celestial Yazatas. 

To that meeting came the fair Yima, the good 
shepherd, in the Airyana Vae^o of high renown, by 
the Vanguhi Daitya ; he came together with the 
best of the mortals. 

22 (46). And Ahura Mazda spake unto Yima, 
saying: 

'O fair Yima,son of Vtvanghat! Upon the material 
world the evil winters are about to fall, that shall 
bring the fierce, deadly frost; upon the material 
world the evil winters * are about to fall, that shall 



1 § 20 belongs to the Commentary. See Fragments to the 
Vendidad. 

* See Farg. I, notes to § 2. 

* The best types of mankind, chosen to live in the Var during 
the Malkfodn and repeople the earth when the Var opens. 

* The Commentary has here Malk6.ran, a word wrongly identified 
with the Hebrew Malq6f, which designates the beneficent autumn 
rains. Malkdxin are the winters let loose by a demon or wizard 
named Malk&r, in Zend Mahrkusha 'the death-causing' (see 
Westergaard's Fragments, VIII). 



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make snow-flakes fall thick, even an aredvt deep on 
the highest tops of mountains l . 

23 (52). 'And the beasts that live in the wilder- 
ness 2 , and those that live on the tops of the 
mountains 8 , and those that live in the bosom of the 
dale * shall take shelter in underground abodes. 

2 4 (57)' ' Before that winter, the country would 
bear plenty of grass for cattle, before the waters 
had flooded it Now after the melting of the snow, 
O Yima, a place wherein the footprint of a sheep 
may be seen will be a wonder in the world. 

25 (61). 'Therefore make thee a Vara, long as 
a riding-ground on every side of the square 5 , and 
thither bring the seeds of sheep and oxen, of men, 
of dogs, of birds, and of red blazing fires •. 

' Therefore make thee a Vara, long as a riding- 
ground on every side of the square, to be an abode 
for men ; a Vara, long as a riding-ground on every 
side of the square, for oxen and sheep. 

26 (65) ' There thou shalt make waters flow in a 
bed a hlthra long ; there thou shalt settle birds, on 
the green that never fades, with food that never 
fails. There thou shalt establish dwelling-places, 
consisting of a house with a balcony, a courtyard, 
and a gallery 7 . 



* * Even where it (the snow) is least, it will be one Vitasti two 
fingers deep ' (Comm.) ; that is, fourteen fingers deep. 
1 The Comm. has, strangely enough, ' for instance, Ispahdn.' 
' ' For instance, Apars£n (the UpairisaSna or Hindu-Kush).' 
4 ' For instance, Khoras tan (the plain of Khorasan).' 
e 'Two halhras long on every side' (Comm.) A hathra is 
about an English mile. 
' That is to say, specimens of each species. 
T The last three words are Strai Xty6/uva of doubtful meaning. 



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FARGARD II. 1 7 



27 (70). 'Thither thou shalt bring the seeds of 
men and women, of the greatest, best, and finest 
on this earth 1 ; thither thou shalt bring the seeds of 
every kind of cattle, of the greatest, best, and finest 
on this earth. 

28 (74). 'Thither thou shalt bring the seeds of 
every kind of tree, of the highest of size and sweetest 
of odour on this earth * ; thither thou shalt bring the 
seeds of every kind of fruit, the best of savour and 
sweetest of odour a . All those seeds shalt thou bring, 
two of every kind, to be kept inexhaustible there, so 
long as those men shall stay in the Vara. 

29 (80). ' There shall be no humpbacked, none 
bulged forward there ; no impotent, no lunatic ; no 
one malicious, no liar ; no one spiteful, none jealous ; 
no one with decayed tooth, no leprous to be pent 
up 4 , nor any of the brands wherewith Angra Mainyu 
stamps the bodies of mortals 6 . 

30 (87). ' In the largest part of the place thou 
shalt make nine streets, six in the middle part, three 
in the smallest. To the streets of the largest part 
thou shalt bring a thousand seeds of men and 
women ; to the streets of the middle part, six hun- 

1 The best specimens of mankind, to be the origin of the more 
perfect races of the latter days. 

* ' The highest of size, like the cypress and the plane-tree ; the 
sweetest of odour, like the rose and the jessamine ' (Comm.) 

* ' The best of savour, like the date ; the sweetest of odour, like 
the citron ' (Comm.) 

4 ' A man, afflicted with leprosy, is not allowed to enter a town and 
mix with the other Persians ' (Herod. I, 138 ; he was supposed to 
have sinned against the sun). Ctesias has a tale of how Megabyzes 
escaped his enemies by simulating leprosy. 

* In order that the new mankind may be exempt from all moral 
and physical deformities. 

[4] C 



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dred ; to the streets of the smallest part, three 
hundred 1 . That Vara thou shalt seal up with thy 
golden seal, and thou shalt make a door, and a 
window self-shining within.' 

31 (93). Then Yima said within himself: ' How 
shall I manage to make that Vara which Ahura 
Mazda has commanded me to make ? ' 

And Ahura Mazda said unto Yima : ' O fair 
Yima, son of Vivanghat! Crush the earth with 
a stamp of thy heel, and then knead it with thy 
hands, as the potter does when kneading the potter's 
clay V 

[32. And Yima did as Ahura Mazda wished; 
he crushed the earth with a stamp of his heel, he 
kneaded it with his hands, as the potter does when 
kneading the potter's clay 8 .] 

33 (97). And Yima made a Vara, long as a riding- 
ground on every side of the square. There he 
brought the seeas of sheep and oxen, of men, of 
dogs, of birds, and of red blazing fires. . He made 
a Vara, long as a riding-ground on every side of 
the square, to be an abode for men ; a Vara, long as 
a riding-ground on every side of the square, for 
oxen and sheep. 

34 (101). There he made waters flow in a bed 
a hathra long ; there he settled birds, on the green 
that never fades, with food that never fails. There 

1 This division of the Var into three quarters very likely answers 
the distinction of the three classes. 

* In the Shah NSmah Gamshid teaches the Dtvs to make and 
knead clay 'by mixing the earth with water;' and they build 
palaces at his bidding. It was his renown, both as a wise king 
and a great builder, that caused the Musulmans to identify him 
with Solomon. 

» From the Vendlddd Sida. 



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FARGARD II. 1 9 



he established dwelling-places, consisting of a house 
with a balcony, a courtyard, and a gallery. 

35 (106). There he brought the seeds of men and 
women, of the greatest, best, and finest on this 
earth ; there he brought the seeds of every kind of 
cattle, of the greatest, best, and finest on this earth. 

36 (no). There he brought the seeds of every 
kind of tree, of the highest of size and sweetest of 
odour on this earth ; there he brought the seeds of 
every kind of fruit, the best of savour and sweetest 
of odour. All those seeds he brought, two of every 
kind, to be kept inexhaustible there, so long as 
those men shall stay in the Vara. 

37 (116). And there were no humpbacked, none 
bulged forward there ; no impotent, no lunatic ; no 
one malicious, no liar ; no one spiteful, none jealous ; 
no one with decayed tooth, no leprous to be pent 
up, nor any of the brands wherewith Angra Mainyu 
stamps the bodies of mortals. 

38 (123). In the largest part of the place he made 
nine streets, six in the middle part, three in the 
smallest. To the streets of the largest part he 
brought a thousand seeds of men and women ; to 
the streets of the middle part, six hundred ; to the 
streets of the smallest part, three hundred. That 
Vara he sealed up with the golden ring, and he 
made a door, and a window self-shining within. 

39 (129). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! What are the lights that give light in 
the Vara which Yima made ? 

40(131). Ahura Mazda answered: 'There are \ 
uncreated lights and created lights 1 . The one j 

1 The endless light, which is eternal, and artificial lights. The i 
Commentary has here the following Zend quotation: 'The un- 

C 2 



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\ 



thing missed there is the sight of the stars, the moon, 
and the sun l , and a year seems only as a day *. 

41 (133). 'Every fortieth year, to every couple 
two are born, a male and a female s . And thus it 
is for every sort of cattle. And the men in the 
Vara which Yima made live the happiest life*.' 

42 (137). O Maker of the material world, thou \ 
Holy One ! Who is he who brought the Religion \ 
of Mazda into the Vara which Yima made ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' It was the bird Kar- 
shipta 5 , O holy Zarathaytra ! ' 

43 (140). O Maker of the material world, thou 

created light shines from above ; all the created lights shine from 
below.' 

1 The people in the Var cannot see them, since the Var is 
underground. That is why the Var has lights of its own. 

* As there is no daily revolution of the sun. 

* Cf. the description of Iran-ve^ according to a later source, the 
Mainy6-i-khard (as translated by West) : ' Hdrmezd created .fira-vfes 
better than the remaining places and districts ; and its goodness 
was this, that men's life is three hundred years; and cattle and 
sheep, one hundred and fifty years; and their pain and sickness are 
little, and they do not circulate falsehood, and they make no 
lamentation and weeping ; and the sovereignty of the demon of 
Avarice, in their body, is little, and in ten men, if they eat one loaf, 
they are satisfied ; and in every forty years, from one woman and 
one man, one child is born ; and their law is goodness, and religion 
the primeval religion, and when they die, they are righteous 
( = blessed); and their chief is Gdpatsh&h, and the ruler and king 
isSrosh'(XLIV, 24). 

* 'They live there for 150 years; some say, they never die 
(Comm.) 

'The bird Karshipta dwells in the heavens: were he living on 
the earth, he would be the king of birds. He brought the Religion 
into the Var of Yima, and recites the Avesta in the language of 
birds' (Bund. XIX and XXIV). The Comm. identifies the Kar- 
shiptan with the A'akhravak, that is the A'akravaka of poetical 
reputation in India. 



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FARGARD III. 21 



Holy Onel Who are the Lord and the Master 
there ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Urvatadf-nara 1 , Zara- 
thurtra 1 and thyself, Zarathurtra.' 



Fargard III. 
The Earth. 



' Les Guebres,' says Chardin (ed. Langles, VIII, 358), ' regardent 
l'agriculture,non seulement comme une profession belle et innocente, 
mais aussi comme meritoire et noble, et its croient que c'est la 
premiere de toutes les vocations, celle pour quoi le Dieu souverain 
et les dieux infeneurs, comme ils parlent, ont le plus de complaisance 
et qu'ils recompensent le plus largement Cette opinion, toumee 
en crdance parmi eux, fait qu'ils se portent naturellement a travailler 
a la terre et qu'ils s'y exercent le plus : leurs prStres leur enseignent 
que la plus vertueuse activite* est d'engendrer des enfants (cf. Farg. 
IV, 47) et apres de cultiver une terre qui serait en friche (cf. infra, 
§ 4), de planter un arbre soit fruitier, soit autre.' 

The classical writers (Xenophon, Oeconomica, IV, 4 seq. ; 
Polybius, X, 28, quoted § 4, note) express themselves to the same 
effect, and their testimony has been lately corroborated, in a most 
unexpected way, by a Greek inscription *, emanating from no less 
an authority than King Darius himself, who congratulates his 
satrap in Asia Minor, Gadates, ' for working well the King's earth 
and transplanting in lower Asia the fruits of the country beyond 

1 Zarathurtra had three sons during his lifetime, Isaa'-vastra, 
Hvare-Aithra, and Urvatarf-nara, who were respectively the fathers 
and chiefs of the three classes, priests, warriors, and husbandmen. 
Urvatarf-nara, as a husbandman, was chosen to be the ahu or 
temporal Lord of the Var, on account of the Var being under- 
ground. Zarathurtra, as a heavenly priest, was, by right, the ratu 
or Spiritual Lord in Airyana Vae^-6, where he founded the Religion 
by a sacrifice (Bund. XXXIII and Introd. Ill, 15). 

* Discovered at Deremendjik, near Magnesia, on the Maeander : 
by Cousin and Deschamps (Bulletin de Correspondance helle'nique, 
XIII, 529). 



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22 VENDtDAD. 



Euphrates (Sri n)* ip)p> taropttt yrp>, tow rripav Eix/>/>drov Kapiroit «rl 
T«k Kara* rijs 'Aaiat p*pt) Karafyvrtvav). 

The third Fargard may serve as a Commentary to those texts. 
The principal subject is, as the Dinkard has it : 

What comforts most the Genius of the Earth (§§ 1-6) ? 

What discomforts most the Genius of the Earth (§§ 7-1 1)? 

What rejoices the Earth most (§§ 12-35)? 
In each of these three developments a series of five objects is con- 
sidered. Series I and II, though expressed in symmetrical terms, 
do not answer one another : there is greater symmetry, as to the 
ideas, between the second series and the third. Series I and II 
are a dry enumeration. The third series contains two interesting 
digressions, one on the funeral laws (§§ 14-21), and the other on 
the sanctity of husbandry (§§ 24-33). 

The Fargard ends with a development forbidding the burial of 
the dead (§§ 36-42) : it is a sort of commentary to § 8. 

The subject of this chapter has become a commonplace topic 
with the Parsis, who have treated it more or less antithetically in 
the Mainy6-i-khard (chaps. V and VI) and in the Ravaets (Gr. 
Rav. pp. 434-437)- 

I. 

i. O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One ! Which is the first place where the Earth l 
feels most happy ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' It is the place whereon 
one of the faithful steps forward, O Spitama Zara- 
thurtra ! with the log in his hand *, the Baresma 8 in 
his hand, the milk* in his hand, the mortar 6 in his 

1 'The Genius of the Earth' (Comm.) 

* The wood for the fire altar. 

' The Baresma (now called barsom) is a bundle of sacred 
twigs which the priest holds in his hand while reciting the 
prayers. (See Farg. XIX, 18 seq. and notes.) 

* The so-called ^tv or g\\&m, one of the elements of the 
Haoma sacrifice. 

' The Havana or mortar used in crushing the Haoma or 
H6m. 



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FARGARD III. 23 



hand, lifting up his voice in good accord with reli- 
gion, and beseeching Mithra 1 , the lord of the roll- 
ing country-side, and Rama /fpastraV 

2, 3 (6-10). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! Which is the second place where the 
Earth feels most happy ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' It is the place whereon 
one of the faithful erects a house with a priest 
within s , with cattle, with a wife, with children, and 
good herds within ; and wherein afterwards the 
cattle continue to thrive, virtue to thrive *, fodder to 
thrive, the dog to thrive, the wife to thrive, the 
child to thrive, the fire to thrive, and every blessing 
of life to thrive.' 

4 (1 1). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! Which is the third place where the 
Earth feels most happy? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' It is the place where 
one of the faithful sows most corn, grass, and fruit, 
O Spitama Zarathurtra ! where he waters ground 
that is dry, or drains ground that is too wet 5 .' 



1 Mithra, the Persian Apollo, sometimes like him identified with 
the Sun, is invoked here as making the earth fertile. ' Why do not 
yon worship the Sun ? asked king Yazdgard the Christians. Is he 
not the god who lights up with his rays all the world, and through 
whose warmth the food of men and cattle grows ripe ? ' (Elisaeus.) 

* The god that gives food its savour: he is an acolyte to 
Mithra. 

* With the domestic chaplain (the Panthakt). 
4 By the performance of worship. 

* Under the Achaemanian kings countrymen who brought water 
to places naturally dry received the usufruct of the ground for five 
generations (Polybius, X, 28). But for those underground canals 
(called Kan&ts), which bring water from the mountains all through 
the Iranian desert, Persia would starve. 



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24 vendIdAd. 



5 (15). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! Which is the fourth place where the 
Earth feels most happy ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' It is the place where 
there is most increase of flocks and herds.' 

6 (18). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! Which is the fifth place where the 
Earth feels most happy ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : 'It is the place where 
flocks and herds yield most dung.' 

II. 

7 (21). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! Which is the first place where the 
Earth feels sorest grief? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' It is the neck of Are- 
zura \ whereon the hosts of fiends rush forth from 
the burrow of the Druf V 

8 (25). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! Which is the second place where the 
Earth feels sorest grief? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' It is the place wherein 
most corpses of dogs and of men lie .buried ».' 

1 The neck of Arezftra (Arezflrahfi grtva) is 'a mount at the 
gate of hell, whence the demons rush forth' (Bund. XII, 8; 
Dadistin XXXIII, 5); it is also called 'the -head of Arezftra ' 
(Farg. XIX, 45), or 'the back of Arezftra' (Bund. XII, 2). 
Arezftra was a fiend, son of Ahriman, who was killed by the first 
man, Gaydmarrf (Mainyd-i-khard XXVII, 15). The mount named 
from him lies in the North (which is the seat of the demons) : it 
seems to belong to the Alborz chain, like the Damavand (Bund. 
XII, 8), where Ad Dahaka was bound (Farg. I, 18, notes). 

* Hell, the T>rvg being assimilated to a burrowing Khrafstra. 
Cf. Farg. VII, 24. 

* ' It is declared in the good religion, that, when they conceal 



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FARGARD III. 2«> 



9 (28). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! Which is the third place where the 
Earth feels sorest grief ? 

Ahura Mazda answered: * It is the place whereon 
stand most of those Dakhmas on which the corpses 
of men are deposited V 

10 (31). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! Which is the fourth place where the 
Earth feels sorest grief? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' It is the place wherein 
are most burrows of the creatures of Angra 
Mainyu V 

1 1 (34). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! Which is the fifth place where the 
Earth feels sorest grief? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' It is the place whereon 

a corpse beneath the ground, Spendarmad, the archangel, shudders ; 
it is just as severe as a serpent or scorpion would be to any one in 
a sleeping-garment, and it is also just like that to the ground. 
When thou makest a corpse beneath the ground as it were 
apparent, thou makest the ground liberated from that affliction ' 
(Saddar XXXIII, tr. by West, in the Sacred Books of the East, 
XXIV). Cf. Vd. VI, 51 ; VII, 45. 

1 With regard to Dakhmas, see Farg. VI, 45. ' Nor is the 
Earth happy at that place whereon stands a Dakhma with corpses 
upon it ; for that patch of ground will never be clean again till the 
day of resurrection ' (Gr. Rav. 435, 437). Although the erection 
of Dakhmas is enjoined by the law, yet the Dakhma in itself is as 
unclean as any spot on the earth can be, since it is always in 
contact with the dead (cf. Farg. VII, 55). The impurity which 
would otherwise be scattered over the whole world, is thus brought 
together to one and the same spot. Yet even that spot, in spite of 
the Ravaet, is not to lie defiled for ever, as every fifty years the 
Dakhmas ought to be pulled down, so that their sites may be 
restored to their natural purity (see Farg. VII, 49 seq. and this 
Farg. § 13). 

* 'Where there are most Khrafstras' (noxious animals). 



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26 vendIdAd. 



the wife and children of one of the faithful 1 , O 
Spitama Zarathustra ! are driven along the way of 
captivity, the dry, the dusty way, and lift up a voice 
of wailing.' 

III. 

12 (38). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! Who is the first that rejoices the 
Earth with greatest joy ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' It is he who digs out 
of it most corpses of dogs and men *.' 

13 (41). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! Who is the second that rejoices the 
Earth with greatest joy ? 

Ahura Mazda answered: 'It is he who pulls 
down most of those Dakhmas on which the corpses 
of men are deposited V 



14 (44). Let no man alone by himself 4 carry 
a corpse 6 . If a man alone by himself carry a corpse, 

1 Killed by an enemy. 

1 This joy answers the second grief of the earth (§8; cf. note). 
There is no counterpart given to the first grief (§ 7), because, as the 
Commentary naively expresses it, 'it is not possible no w so to dig out 
hell,' which will be done at the end of the world (Bund. XXX, 32). 

* This answers the third grief (§ 9; cf. note). 

* No ceremony in general can be performed by one man alone. 
Two Mobeds are wanted to perform the Vendldid service, two 
priests for the Barashnum, two persons for the Sag-did (Anquetil, 
II, 584 n.) It is never good that the faithful should be alone, as 
the fiend is always lurking about, ready to take advantage of any 
moment of inattention. If the faithful be alone, there is no one to 
make up for any negligence and to prevent mischief arising from it. 
Never is the danger greater than in the present case, when the 
fiend is close at hand, and in direct contact with the faithful. 

' A corpse from which the Nasu has not been expelled by the 
Sag-did ceremony (described Vd. VIII, 14-32). 



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FARGARD III. 2 J 



the Nasu 1 rushes upon him, to defile him, from the 
nose of the dead, from the eye, from the tongue, 
from the jaws, from the sexual organs, from the 
hinder parts. This Dru,f Nasu falls upon him, 
[stains him] even to the end of the nails, and he is 
unclean, thenceforth, for ever and ever. 

J 5 (49)- O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! What shall be the place of that man 
who has carried a corpse [alone] * ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' It shall be the place 
on this earth wherein is least water and fewest 
plants, whereof the ground is the cleanest and the 
driest and the least passed through by flocks and 
herds, by the fire of Ahura Mazda, by the conse- 
crated bundles of Baresma, and by the faithful ».' 

16 (55). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! How far from the fire ? How far from 
the water ? How far from the consecrated bundles 
of Baresma ? How far from the faithful ? 

17 (57). Ahura Mazda answered : ' Thirty paces * 
from the fire, thirty paces from the water, thirty 
paces from the consecrated bundles of Baresma, 
three paces from the faithful. 



1 The word Nasu has two meanings : it means either the corpse 
(nasti), or the corpse-demon (the Dru^ Nasu, that is to say the 
demon who takes possession of the dead body and makes his 
presence felt by the decomposition of the body and infection). 

* He cannot purify himself like the Nasi-salSr (Vd. VIII, 13). 
' He who carries a man, knowing that the man is dead and that 
the Sag-did has not been performed, commits a sin worthy of 
death (margarzdn).' As the absence of Sag-did makes the in- 
fection worse, it is the same crime as if a man were to introduce 
a plague into the country. 

* To avoid any contact of that man with pure beings. 

* A pace (gam a) is as much as three feet (padha; Vd. IX, 8). 



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28 VENDtDAD. 



1 8, 19 (58-63). 'There, on that place, shall the 
worshippers of Mazda erect an enclosure 1 , and 
therein shall they establish him with food, therein 
shall they establish him with clothes, with the 
coarsest food and with the most worn-out clothes. 
That food he shall live on, those clothes he shall 
wear, and thus shall they let him live, until he has 
grown to the age of a Hana, or of a Zaurura, or of 
a Pairista-khshudra 8 . 

20, 21 (64-71). ' And when he has grown to the 
age of a Hana, or of a Zaurura 8 , or of a Pairi^ta- 
khshudra, then the worshippers of Mazda shall 
order a man strong, vigorous, and skilful *, to cut the 
head off his neck 8 , in his enclosure on the top of 
the mountain : and they shall deliver his corpse unto 
the greediest of the corpse-eating creatures made by 
the beneficent Spirit, unto the vultures, with these 
words : " The man here has repented of all his evil 
thoughts, words, and deeds. If he has committed 
any other evil deed, it is remitted by his repentance': 
if he has committed no other evil deed, he is absolved 
by his repentance, for ever and ever." ' 

1 The Armeft-gah, the place for the unclean; see Inlrod. V, 15. 

* Hana means, literally, 'an old man;' Zaurura, 'a man 
broken down by age;' Pairifta-khshudra, 'one whose seed is 
dried up.' These words have acquired the technical meanings of 
' fifty, sixty, and seventy years old.' 

* When he is near his death. The carrier alone (6vak-bar), 
being margarzan (see p. 27, n. 2), ought to have been put to death 
at once. The rigour of theory was abated in practice and delayed 
to the moment when the guilty man was to have paid to nature the 
debt due to religion. 

* ' Trained to operations of that sort ' (Comm.) ; a headsman. 

* Perhaps: ' to flay him alive and cut off his head.' Cf. Farg. IX, 
49, text and note. 

* By the performance of the Patet 



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FARGARD III. 29 



22 (72). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! Who is the third that rejoices the 
Earth with greatest joy ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' It is he who fills up 
most burrows of the creatures of Angra Mainyu V 

2 3 (75)« O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! Who is the fourth that rejoices the 
Earth with greatest joy ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' It is he who sows most 
corn, grass, and fruit, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! who 
waters ground that is dry, or drains ground that is 
too wet 2 . 

24 (79). ' Unhappy is the land that has long lain 
unsown with the seed of the sower and wants 
a good husbandman, like a well-shapen maiden who 
has long gone childless and wants a good husband. 

25 (84). ' He who would till the earth, O Spitama 
Zarathurtra ! with the left arm and the right, with 
the right arm and the left, unto him will she bring 
forth plenty of fruit : even as it were a lover sleep- 
ing with his bride on her bed ; the bride will bring 
forth children, the earth will bring forth plenty of 
fruit s . 

26, 27 (87-90). ' He who would till the earth, 
O Spitama Zarathurtra ! with the left arm and the 
right, with the right arm and the left, unto him thus 
says the Earth : " O thou man ! who dost till me 
with the left arm and the right, with the right arm 
and the left, here shall I ever go on bearing, bring- 

1 This joy answers the fourth grief of the earth (§ 10). 

* This is identical with § 4, which is developed in the following 
clauses (§§ 24-34)- 

' The text has : ' she brings either a son or plenty of fruit,' she 
being either the woman or the earth. 



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30 VENDtDAD. 



ing forth all manner of food, bringing corn first to 
thee 1 ." 

28, 29 (91-95). ' He who does not till the earth, 
O Spitama Zarathurtra ! with the left arm and the 
right, with the right arm and the left, unto him thus 
says the Earth : " O thou man ! who dost not till 
me with the left arm and the right, with the right 
arm and the left, ever shalt thou stand at the door 
of the stranger, among those who beg for bread ; 
the refuse and the crumbs of the bread are brought 
unto thee 2 , brought by those who have profusion of 
wealth.'" 

30 (96). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! What is the food that fills the Religion 
of Mazda 8 ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' It is sowing corn again 
and again, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! 

31 (99). ' He who sows corn, sows righteousness : 
he makes the Religion of Mazda walk, he suckles 
the Religion of Mazda ; as well as he could do with 
a hundred man's feet, with a thousand woman's 
breasts 4 , with ten thousand sacrificial formulas 5 . 

32 (105). 'When barley was created, the Da£vas 

1 ' When something good grows up, it will grow up for thee 
first' (Comm.) Perhaps: 'bringing to thee profusion of corn' 
(• some say, she will bring to thee 15 for 10 ; ' Comm.) 

* 'They take for themselves what is good and send to thee 
what is bad ' (Comm.) 

* Literally, ' What is the stomach of the law ? ' 

* ' He makes the Religion of Mazda as fat as a child could be 
made by means of a hundred feet, that is to say, of fifty servants 
walking to rock him ; of a thousand breasts, that is, of five hundred 
nurses ' (Comm.) 

* With the recitation of 10,000 YSnghe" hatam, that is to say, as 
if one had performed for his weal as many sacrifices as contain 
10,000 YSnghS h&tam. 



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FARGARD III. 3 1 



started up 1 ; when it grew*, then fainted the Daevas' 
hearts ; when the knots came 8 , the Daevas groaned; 
when the ear came, the Daevas flew away 4 . In that 
house the Daevas stay, wherein wheat perishes 5 . 
It is as though red hot iron were turned about in 
their throats, when there is plenty of corn •. 

33 (1 1 1). ' Then let people learn by heart this holy 
saying : " No one who does not eat, has strength to 
do heavy works of holiness *, strength to do works 
of husbandry, strength to beget children. By eating 
every material creature lives, by not eating it dies 
away. 

34 (116). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! Who is* the fifth that rejoices the 
Earth with greatest joy ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' [It is he who kindly 
and piously gives 8 to one of the faithful who tills 
the earth,] O Spitama Zarathurtra ! 

35 (1 18). ' He who would not kindly and piously 
give to one of the faithful who tills the earth, O 
Spitama Zarathurtra! Spe»ta Armaiti 9 will throw 
him down into darkness, down into the world of woe, 
the world of hell, down into the deep abyss 10 .' 

1 John Barleycorn got up again, 

And sore surpris'd them all. 

* Doubtful. * Doubtful. 

4 The general meaning of the sentence is how the D£vs are 
broken down ' by the growing, the increasing, and the ripening of 
the corn ' (Dinkard, 1. 1. § 10). 

• Doubtful. • Doubtful. 

7 'Like the performance of the dvazda hdmast' (the longest 
and most cumbersome of all Zoroastrian ceremonies). 

* The Ashd-dad or alms. The bracketed clause is from the 
Vendfdad Sada. 

• The Genius of the Earth offended 
,0 Conjectural translation. 



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32 vendJdAd. 



IV. 

36 (122). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man shall bury in the earth either 
the corpse of a dog or the corpse of a man, and if 
he shall not disinter it within half a year, what is 
the penalty that he shall pay ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Five hundred stripes 
with the Aspahe^-a-rtra \ five hundred stripes with 
the Sraoshd-^arana V 

37 (126). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man shall bury in the earth either 
the corpse of a dog or the corpse of a man, and if 
he shall not disinter it within a year, what is the 
penalty that he shall pay ? 

Ahura Mazda answered: 'A thousand stripes 
with the Aspah6-astra, a thousand stripes with the 
Sraosh6-Xarana.' 

38 (130). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man shall bury in the earth either 
the corpse of a dog or the corpse of a man, and if 
he shall not disinter it within the second year, what 
is the penalty for it ? What is the atonement for 
it ? What is the cleansing from it ? 

39 ( x 35)' Ahura Mazda' answered : 'For that 
deed there is nothing that can pay, nothing that can 
atone, nothing that can cleanse from it; it is a 
trespass for which there is no atonement, for ever 
and ever.' 

40 (137). When is it so ? 

' It is so, if the sinner be a professor of the 

1 See Introduction. 



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FARGARD III. 33 



Religion of Mazda, or one who has been taught 
in it 1 . 

' But if he be not a professor of the Religion of 
Mazda, nor one who has been taught in it 2 , then his 
sin is taken from him, if he makes confession of the 
Religion of Mazda and resolves never to commit 
again such forbidden deeds s . 

41 (142). 'The Religion of Mazda indeed, O 
Spitama Zarathurtra! takes away from him who 
makes confession of it the bonds of his sin 4 ; it takes 
away (the sin of) breach of trust 8 ; it takes away (the 
sin of) murdering one of the faithful'; it takes away 
(the sin of) burying a corpse 7 ; it takes away (the 
sin of) deeds for which there is no atonement ; it 
takes away the worst sin of usury 8 ; it takes away 
any sin that may be sinned. 



' A born Zoroastrian or a catechist : in both cases, he must have 
known that he was committing sin. 

* He did not know that he was committing sin. 

* He makes Patet and says to himself, 'I will never henceforth 
sin again ' (Comm.) 

4 If not knowingly committed ; see § 40 and the following notes. 

' Doubtful. From the Commentary it appears that draosha 
must have meant a different sort of robbery : ' He knows that it is 
forbidden to steal, but he fancies that robbing the rich to give to the 
poor is a pious deed ' (Comm.) 

* Or better, * a Mazdean,' but one who has committed a capital 
crime ; 'he knows that it is allowed to kill the margarzan, but he 
does not know that it is not allowed to do so without an order 
from the judge.' Cf. VIII, 74 note. 

7 ' He knows that it is forbidden to bury a corpse ; but he fancies 
that if one manages so that dogs or foxes may not take it to the fire 
and to the water, he behaves piously ' (Comm.) — He fancies that the 
prohibition of burying the dead is meant only for the protection of 
the fire and the water, not of the earth herself. 

* Or, possibly, ' the sin of usury.' ' He knows that it is lawful 

[4] D 



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34 vendJdAd. 



42 (149). ' In the same way the Religion of 
Mazda, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! cleanses the faith- 
ful from every evil thought, word, and deed, as 
a swift-rushing mighty wind cleanses the plain *. 

' So let all the deeds he doeth be henceforth good, 
O Zarathurtra! a full atonement for his sin is 
effected by means of the Religion of Mazda.' 



Fargard IV. 
Contracts and Outrages. 

This Fargard is the only one in the Vendidsld that deals strictly 
with legal objects. 

I a. Classification of the contracts according to the value of their 
object (§ 2). — A contract is cancelled by paying the amount of the 
contract higher by one degree (§§ 3-4). 

Religious responsibility of the family for the breach of a contract 
by one of its members (§§ 5-10). 

Punishment of the Mihir-Dru^ (one who breaks a contract), 
(§§ 11-.6). 

II a. Definition of the outrages known as igerepta (threatening 
attitude), avaoiruta (assault), aredm (blows), (§ 1 7). 

Penalties for menaces (§§ 18-21); for assaults (§§ 22-25); for 
blows (§§ 26-29) ! f° r wounds (§§ 30-33) ; for wounds causing 
blood to flow (§§ 34-36) ; for broken bones (§§ 37-39) ; for man- 
slaughter (§§ 40-43). 

III a. Contract of charity to co-religionists (§§ 44-45). 

IV a. Heinousness of false oath (§ 46). 

Mb. Dignity of wealth; of marriage; ofphysicalweal(§§47-49a). 

IV b. Heinousness of false oath. Ordeal (§§ 49 b-55). 

Part of this Fargard has been made unduly obscure by the trans- 
position of § 46, wrongly inserted between the clause on charity 
(§§ 44-45) and the corresponding development on the dignity of 
material goods. This transposidon is found in all known manu- 
scripts and belonged to the older text from which they are derived. 

to take high interest, but he does not know that it is not lawful to 
do so from the faithful ' (Comm.) 
1 'From chaff' (Comm.) 



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FARGARD IV. 35 



I. 

I. He that does not restore a loan to the man 
who lent it, steals the thing and robs the man \ This 
he doeth every day, every night, as long as he keep 
in his house his neighbours property, as though it 
were his own 2 . 

la. 

2 (4). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One ! How many in number are thy contracts, O 
Ahura Mazda ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' They are six in num- 
ber, O holy Zarathurtra s . The first is the word- 
contract * ; the second is the hand-contract 8 ; the 
third is the contract to the amount of a sheep 6 ; the 

1 ' He is a thief when he takes with a view not to restore ; he is 
a robber when, being asked to restore, he answers, I will not ' 
(Comm.) 

* Every moment that he holds it unlawfully, he steals it anew. 
' The basest thing with Persians is to lie ; the next to it is to be in 
debt, for this reason among many others, that he who is so, must 
needs sink to lying at last' (Herod. I, 183). The debtor in ques- 
tion is of course the debtor of bad faith, ' he who says to a man, 
Give me this, I will restore it to thee at the proper time, and he 
says to himself, I will not restore it ' (Comm.) 

8 At first view it seems as if the classification were twofold, the 
contracts being defined in the first two clauses by their mode of 
being entered into, and in the last four by their amount. Yet it 
appears from the following clauses that even the word-contract and 
the hand-contract are indicative of a certain amount, which, however, 
the commentators did not, or were unable to, determine. 

4 The word-contract may be a contract of which the object are 
words: the contract of j a dang6i (ukhdh6-va£ah), by which one 
offers to speak and intervene for some one's benefit, or the contract 
between master and pupil (for teaching the sacred texts). 

* The contract for hiring labour (?). 

* * Viz. to the amount of 3 isttrs [in weight],' (Comm.) An 
istir (rrrarqp) is as much as 4 dirhems (ipaxnn)- 

D 2 



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36 vendIdad. 



fourth is the contract to the amount of an ox ' ; the 
fifth is the contract to the amount of a man 2 ; the 
sixth is the contract to the amount of a field 3 , a field 
in good land, a fruitful one, in good bearing V 

3 (13). The word-contract is fulfilled by words of 
mouth. 

It is cancelled by the hand-contract ; he shall give 
as damages the amount of the hand-contract. 

4 (16). The hand-contract is cancelled by the 
sheep-contract ; he shall give as damages the amount 
of the sheep-contract. 

The sheep-contract is cancelled by the ox-con- 
tract ; he shall give as damages the amount of the 
ox-contract. 

The ox-contract is cancelled by the man-contract ; 
he shall give as damages the amount of the man- 
contract 

The man-contract is cancelled by the field-con- 
tract ; he shall give as damages the amount of the 
field-contract. 

5 (24). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One 1 If a man break the word-contract, how many 
are involved in his sin s ? 



1 'To the amount of 12 istfrs ( = 48 dirhems),' (Comm.) 

* 'To the amount of 500 dirhems.' The exact translation 
would be rather, 'The contract to the amount of a human being' 
(promise of marriage). 

8 'Upwards of 500 istirs.' 

4 A sort of gloss added to define more accurately the value of 
the object, and to indicate that it is greater than that of the pre- 
ceding one. 

• Literally, how much is involved ? The joint responsibility of 
the family was a principle in the Persian law : ' Leges apud eos 
impendio formidatae, et abominandae aliae, per quas ob noxam 
unius omnis propinquitas perit ' (Am. Marcellinus XXIII, 6). 



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FARGARD IV. 37 



Ahura Mazda answered: 'His sin makes his 
Nabanazdirtas * answerable for three hundred 
(years) V 

6 (26). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One ! If a man break the hand-contract, how many 
are involved in his sin ? 

Ahura Mazda answered: 'His sin makes his 
Nabanazdirtas answerable for six hundred (years) V 

7 (28). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One ! If a man break the sheep-contract, how many 
are involved in his sin ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' His sin makes his Na- 
banazdirtas answerable for seven hundred (years) *.' 

8 (30). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One! If a man break the ox-contract, how many 
are involved in his sin ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' His sin makes his Na- 
banazdirtas answerable for eight hundred (years) •.' 



1 The next of kin to the ninth degree. 

* See § 1 1. This passage seems to have puzzled tradition. 
The Commentary says, ' How long, how many years, has one to 
fear for the breach of a word-contract ? — the NabSnazdutas have to 
fear for three hundred years ; ' but it does not explain farther the 
nature of that fear; it only tries to reduce the circle of that liability 
to narrower limits : ' only the son born after the breach is liable for 
it ; the righteous are not liable for it ; when the father dies, the son, 
if righteous, has nothing to fear from it.' And finally, the Ravaets 
leave the kinsmen wholly aside ; the penally falling entirely upon 
the real offender, and the number denoting only the duration of his 
punishment in hell : ' He who breaks a word-contract, his soul shall 
abide for three hundred years in hell ' (Gr. Rav. 94). 

* See § 12. ' His soul shall abide for six hundred years in hell' 
(Gr. Rav. 1. 1.) 

* See § 13. ' His soul shall abide for seven hundred years in 
hell' (Gr. Rav. 1. 1.) 

* See § 14. ' His soul shall abide for eight hundred years in hell.' 



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38 vendJdAd. 



9 (32). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One ! If a man break the man-contract, how many 
are involved in his sin ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' His sin makes his Na- 
banazdbtas answerable for nine hundred (years) \' 

10 (34). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man break the field-contract, how 
many are involved in his sin ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' His sin makes his Na- 
banazdirtas answerable for a thousand (years) V 

11 (36). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! If a man break the word-contract, 
what is the penalty that he shall pay ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Three hundred stripes 
with the Aspah^-aJtra, three hundred stripes with 
the Sraosh6-iarana V 

12 (39). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man break the hand-contract, what 
is the penalty that he shall pay ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Six hundred stripes 
with the Aspah6-artra, six hundred stripes with the 
Sraosh6-£arana *.' 

13 (42). O Maker of the material" world, thou 
Holy One! If a man break the sheep-contract, 
what is the penalty that he shall pay ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Seven hundred stripes 
with the Aspahd-artra, seven hundred stripes with 
the Sraoshd-iarana *.' 



1 See § 15. ' His soul shall abide for nine hundred years in 
hell.' 

' See § 16. ' His soul shall abide for a thousand years in hell/ 

* One tartafuhr and a half, that is 1800 dirhems. See Introd. 

* Three tanafuhrs, or 3600 dirhems. 

* Three tanafuhrs and a half, or 4200 dirhems. 



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FARGARD IV. 39 



14 (45). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man break the ox-contract, what 
is the penalty that he shall pay ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Eight hundred stripes 
with the AspahG-aytra, eight hundred stripes with 
the Sraosh6-£arana V 

15 (48). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man break the man-contract, what 
is the penalty that he shall pay ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : 'Nine hundred stripes 
with the Aspahfi-artra, nine hundred stripes with 
the Sraoshd-^arana V 

16 (51). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man break the field-contract, what 
is the penalty that he shall pay ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' A thousand stripes ' 
with the Aspah6-artra, a thousand stripes with the 
Sraoshd-^arana V 

II a. 

1 7 (54). If a man rise up with a weapon in his 
hand, it is an Agerepta*. If he brandish it, it is 

1 Four tanafuhrs, or 4800 dirhems. 

* Four tanafuhrs and a half, or 5400 dirhems. 

* Five tanifuhrs, or 6000 dirhems. 

4 In this paragraph are defined the first three of the eight out- 
rages with which the rest of the Fargard deals. Only these three 
are defined, because they are designated by technical terms. We 
subjoin the definitions of them found in a Sanskrit translation of 
a Patet (Paris, Bibl. Nat. f. B. 5, 154), in which their etymological 
meanings are better preserved than in the Zend definition itself : — 

Agerepta, ' seizing,* is when a man seizes a weapon with a view 
to smite another. 

Avaoirirta, 'brandishing,' is when a man brandishes a weapon 
with a view to smite another. 

Areduj is when a man actually smites another with a weapon, 



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40 vendJdAd. 



an Avaoiruta. If he actually smite a man with 
malicious aforethought, it is an Aredu$. Upon the 
fifth Aredur 1 he becomes a Pesh6tanu*. 

1 8 (58). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! He that committeth an Agerepta, what 
penalty shall he pay ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : 4 Five stripes with 
the Aspah6-a?tra, five stripes with the Sraoshd- 
£arana ; 

* On the second Agerepta, ten stripes with 
the Aspahd-artra, ten stripes with the Sraoshd- 
/6arana ; 

' On the third, fifteen stripes with the Aspahe^artra, 
fifteen stripes with the Sraoshd-^arana. 

1 9 (63)- 'On the fourth, thirty stripes with the 
Aspah£-artra, thirty stripes with the Sraosho-iarana ; 

* On the fifth, fifty stripes with the AspahS-artra, 
fifty stripes with the Sraoshd->£arana; 

' On the sixth, sixty stripes with the Aspah6-astra, 
sixty stripes with the Sraoshd-iarana ; 

' On the seventh, ninety stripes with the Aspahd- 
artra, ninety stripes with the Sraosh6-£arana.' 

20 (67). If a man commit an Agerepta for the 
eighth time, without having atoned for the preced- 
ing 8 , what penalty shall he pay ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' He is a Pesh6tanu : 
two hundred stripes with the Aspah6-a?tra, two hun- 
dred stripes with the Sraosh6-£arana/ 



but without wounding him, or inflicts a wound which is healed 
within three days. 

1 Viz. on the sixth commission of it, as appears from § 28. 

* He shall receive two hundred stripes, or shall pay 1200 dirhems 
(see Introd.) 

* Literally, ' without having undone the preceding.' 



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FARGARD IV. 4 1 



2 1 (70). If a man commit an Agerepta 1 , and refuse 
to atone for it 2 , what penalty shall he pay ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : 'He is a Peshdtanu : 
two hundred stripes with the Aspah6-artra, two hun- 
dred stripes with the Sraosho-iarana.' 

22 (73). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man commit an Avaoirirta, what 
penalty shall he pay ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Ten stripes with the 
Aspah£-artra, ten stripes with the Sraosho-iarana ; 

* On the second Avaoirirta, fifteen stripes with the 
Aspahfe-artra, fifteen stripes with the Sraoshd-iarana. 

2 3 (75)- 'On the third, thirty stripes with the 
Aspah€-artra, thirty stripes with the Sraosho-^arana ; 

' On the fourth, fifty stripes with the Aspah£-artra, 
fifty stripes with the Sraoshd-£arana ; 

'On the fifth, seventy stripes with the Aspah£- 
artra, seventy stripes with the Sraoshd-^arana ; 

'On the sixth, ninety stripes with the Aspah£- 
artra, ninety stripes with the Sraoshd-^arana.' 

24 (76). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man commit an Avaoirirta for the 
seventh time, without having atoned for the pre- 
ceding, what penalty shall he pay? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' He is a Peshdtanu : 
two hundred stripes with the Aspah£-artra, two 
hundred stripes with the Sraosh6-£arana.' 

2 5 (77)- O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man commit an Avaoirirta, and 
refuse to atone for it, what penalty shall he pay ? 

1 Even though the Agerepta has been committed for the first 
time. 

1 Literally, ' and does not undo it/ If he does not offer himself 
to bear the penalty, and does not perform the Patet (see Introd.) 



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42 vend!dad. 



Ahura Mazda answered : 'He is a Peshdtanu : 
two hundred stripes with the Aspah£-a.rtra, two 
hundred stripes with the Sraoshd-^arana.' 

2 6 (79)- O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! If a man commit an Aredus, what 
penalty shall he pay? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Fifteen stripes with the 
Aspah£-artra, fifteen stripes with the Sraoshd-^arana. 

27(81). 'On the second Areduy, thirty stripes 
with the Aspah£-artra, thirty stripes with the 
Sraosh6-iarana ; 

' On the third, fifty stripes with the Aspah6-artra, 
fifty stripes with the Sraosh6-£arana ; 

' On the fourth, seventy stripes with the Aspah£- 
artra, seventy stripes with the Sraoshd-iarana ; 

' On the fifth, ninety stripes with the AspahG- 
artra, ninety stripes with the Sraoshd-/6arana.' 

28. O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One ! If a man commit an Areduy for the sixth 
time, without having atoned for the preceding, what 
penalty shall he pay ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' He is a Pesh6tanu : 
two hundred stripes with the Aspah6-artra, two 
hundred stripes with the Sraoshd-^arana.' 

29 (82). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man commit an Areduj, and re- 
fuse to atone for it, what penalty shall he pay ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' He is a Peshdtanu : 
two hundred stripes with the Aspah£-artra, two 
hundred stripes with the Sraoshd-^arana.' 

30 (85). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man smite another and hurt him 
sorely, what is the penalty that he shall pay? 

31 (87). Ahura Mazda answered : ' Thirty stripes 



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FARGARD IV. 43 



with the Aspah£-artra, thirty stripes with the 
Sraoshd-iarana ; 

"The second time, fifty stripes with the Aspah£- 
artra, fifty stripes with the Sraosho-^arana ; 

' The third time, seventy stripes with the Aspah£- 
artra, seventy stripes with the Sraoshd-iarana ; 

' The fourth time, ninety stripes with the Aspah£- 
artra, ninety stripes with the Sraosh6-£arana.' 

32 (89). If a man commit that deed for the fifth 
time, without having atoned for the preceding, what 
is the penalty that he shall pay? 

Ahura Mazda answered : 'He is a Peshdtanu : 
two hundred stripes with the Aspahd-artra, two 
hundred stripes with the Sraoshd-iarana.' 

33 (9°)- If a man commit that deed and refuse to 
atone for it, what is the penalty that he shall pay ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' He is a Peshdtanu : 
two hundred stripes with the Aspahd-aytra, two 
hundred stripes with the Sraoshd-^arana.' 

34 (93)- O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! If a man smite another so that the 
blood come, what is the penalty that he shall pay? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Fifty stripes with the 
Aspah€-artra, fifty stripes with the Sraosh6-£arana ; 

* The second time, seventy stripes with the Aspahd- 
artra, seventy stripes with the Sraoshd-iarana ; 

' The third time, ninety stripes with the Aspah£- 
artra, ninety stripes with the Sraoshd-^arana.' 

35 (95). If he commit that deed for the fourth 
time, without having atoned for the preceding, what 
is the penalty that he shall pay ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' He is a Peshdtanu : 
two hundred stripes with the Aspahd-astra, two 
hundred stripes with the Sraosh6-£arana.' 



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44 vendIdad. 



36 (96). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! If a man smite another so that the 
blood come, and if he refuse to atone for it, what is 
the penalty that he shall pay ? 

Ahura Mazda answered: 'He is a Peshdtanu: 
two hundred stripes with the Aspahd-astra, two 
hundred stripes with the Sraosh6-/6arana.' 

37 (99)- O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man smite another so that he 
break a bone, what is the penalty that he shall pay ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Seventy stripes with 
the Aspah£-artra, seventy stripes with the Sraoshd- 
iarana; 

• The second time, ninety stripes with the Aspahd- 
artra, ninety stripes with the Sraosh6-£arana.' 

38 (102). If he commit that deed for the third 
time, without having atoned for the preceding, what 
is the penalty that he shall pay? 

Ahura Mazda answered : 'He is a Peshdtanu : 
two hundred stripes with the Aspah£-artra, two 
hundred stripes with the Sraoshd-^arana.' 

39 (104). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! If a man smite another so that he 
break a bone, and if he refuse to atone for it, what 
is the penalty that he shall pay? 

Ahura Mazda answered : 'He is a Peshdtanu : 
two hundred stripes with the Aspah6-a.rtra, two 
hundred stripes with the Sraosh6-£arana.' 

40 (106). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! If a man smite another so that he 
give up the ghost, what is the penalty that he shall 
pay? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Ninety stripes with the 
Aspahd-artra, ninety stripes with the Sraoshd Parana.' 



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FARGARD IV. 45 



41 (109). If he commit that deed again, without 
having atoned for the preceding, what is the penalty 
that he shall pay ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' He is a Peshdtanu : 
two hundred stripes with the Aspahd-artra, two 
hundred stripes with the Sraoshd->6arana.' 

42 (112). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! If a man smite another so that he 
give up the ghost, and if he refuse to atone for it, 
what is the penalty that he shall pay? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' He is a Peshdtanu : 
two hundred stripes with the Aspahd-artra, two 
hundred stripes with the Sraosh6-£arana.' 

43(115). And they shall thenceforth in their 
doings walk after the way of holiness, after the 
word of holiness, after the ordinance of holiness. 

Ilia 1 . 

44 (1 18). If men of the same faith, either friends 

or brothers, come to an agreement together, that 

one may obtain from the other, either goods', or 

a wife 3 , or knowledge 4 , let him who desires goods 

1 We return here to contracts; the logical place of §§ 44-45 
would be after § 16. 

* The analysis of the Vendfdid in the Dfnkard has here : ' a proof 
that one professes the Religion well is to grant bountifully to the 
brethren in the faith any benefit they may ask for.' 

* Woman is an object of contract, like cattle or fields : she is 
disposed of by contracts of the fifth sort, being more valuable than 
cattle and less so than fields. She is sold by her father or her 
guardian, often from the cradle. ' Instances are not wanting of the 
betrothal of a boy of three years of age to a girl of two ' (see 
Dosabhoy Framjee's work on The Parsees, p. 77; cf. *A Bill to 
Define and Amend the Law relating to Succession, Inheritance, 
Marriage, &c.,' Bombay, 1864). 

4 On the holiness of the contract between pupil and teacher, see 
Yt. X, 116. Cf. above, p. 35, n. 4. 



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46 vendJdAd. 



have them delivered to him ; let him who desires 
a wife receive and wed her; let him who desires 
knowledge be taught the holy word, 

45 (123). during the first part of the day and the 
last, during the first part of the night and the last, 
that his mind may be increased in intelligence and 
wax strong in holiness. So shall he sit up, in devo- 
tion and prayers, that he may be increased in in- 
telligence : he shall rest during the middle part of 
the day, during the middle part of the night 1 , and 
thus shall he continue until he can say all the words 
which former Aethrapaitis 2 have said. 

IV a. 

46 (128). Before the boiling water publicly pre- 
pared 3 , O Spitama Zarathurtra! let no one make 
bold to deny having received [from his neighbour] 
the ox or the garment in his possession. 

Illb. 

47 (130)*. Verily I say it unto thee, O Spitama 
Zarathurtra! the man who has a wife is far above 
him who lives in continence 6 ; he who keeps a 
house is far above him who has none ; he who has 



1 He sleeps ' the third part of the day and the third part of the 
night '(YasnaLXII, 5). 

* A teaching priest (Parsi HSrbad). 

8 This clause is intended against false oaths taken in the so-called 
Var-ordeal (see § 54 n.) It ought to be placed before § 49 bis, 
where the penalty for a false oath is given. 

4 §§ 47~49 are a sort of commentary to the beginning of § 44. 

B What king Yazdgard found most offensive in Christianity was 
' that the Christians praise death and despise life, set no value upon 
fecundity and extol sterility, so that if their disciples would listen to 



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FARGARD IV. 47 



children is far above the childless man * ; he who 
has riches is far above him who has none. 

48 (134). And of two men, he who fills himself 
with meat receives in him Vohu Man6 * much better 
than he who does not do so * ; the latter is all but 
dead ; the former is above him by the worth of an 
Asperena 4 , by the worth of a sheep, by the worth of 
an ox, by the worth of a man 5 . 

49 ( I 37)- This man can strive against the onsets 
of Astd-vidhdtu • ; he can strive against the well- 
darted arrow; he can strive against the winter 

them, they would no longer have any intercourse with women and 
the world would end ' (Elisaeus). 

1 'In Persia there are prizes given by the king to those who 
have most children* (Herod. I, 136). 'He who has no child, the 
bridge (of Paradise) shall be barred to him. The first question the 
angels there will ask him is, whether he has left in this world a sub- 
stitute for himself; if the answer be, No, they will pass by and he will 
stay at the head of the bridge, full of grief and sorrow ' (Saddar 18; 
Hyde 19). The primitive meaning of this belief is explained by 
Brahmanical doctrine; the man without a son falls into hell, because 
there is nobody to pay him the family worship. 

* Vohu Mand is at the same time the god of good thoughts and 
the god of cattle. 

8 'There are people who strive to pass a day without eating, 
and who abstain from any meat; we strive too and abstain, namely, 
from any sin in deed, thought, or word : ... in other religions, they 
fast from bread; in ours, we fast from sin' (Saddar 83). — 'The 
Zoroastrians have no fasting at all. He who fasts commits a sin, 
and must, by way of expiation, give food to a number of poor 
people' (Alblrunl, Chronology, p. 217). 

4 A dirhem. 

5 Or : ' is worth an Asperena, worth a sheep, worth an ox, worth 
a man,' which means, according to the Commentary : ' deserves the 
gift of an Asperena, of a sheep's value, an ox's value, a man's 
value.' 

• Ast6-vtdh6tu, the demon of death (Farg. V, 8). The man who 
eats well has greater vitality. 



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48 VEND^DAD. 



fiend, with thinnest garment on; he can strive 
against the wicked tyrant and smite him on the 
head; he can strive against the ungodly fasting 
Ashemaogha 1 . 

IV b. 

49 (bis). On the very first time when that deed 8 
has been done, without waiting until it is done 
again, 

50(143). down there* the pain for that deed 
shall be as hard as any in this world : even as if 
one should cut off the limbs from his perishable 
body with knives of brass, or still worse ; 

51 (146). down there the pain for that deed shall 
be as hard as any in this world : even as if one 
should nail * his perishable body with nails of brass, 
or still worse ; 

52 (149). down there the pain for that deed shall 
be as hard as any in this world : even as if one 
should by force throw his perishable body headlong 
down a precipice a hundred times the height of 
a man, or still worse; 

53 ( J 5 2 )- down there the pain for that deed shall 
be as hard as any in this world: even as if one 
should by force impale 8 his perishable body, or 
still worse. 

54 (154). Down there the pain for his deed shall 
be as hard as any in this world : to wit, the deed of 



1 The Commentary has: 'like Mazdak, son of BdmdaV the 
communistic heresiarch who flourished under Kobid (488-531) 
and was put to death under Noshirvan. 

* The taking of a false oath. Cf. § 46. s In hell. 

4 Doubtful. • Doubtful 



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FARGARD V. 49 



a man, who, knowingly lying, confronts the brim- 
stoned, golden \ truth-knowing water with an appeal 
unto Rashnu * and a lie unto Mithra 8 . 

55 US 6 )- O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! He who, knowingly lying, confronts 
the brimstoned, golden, truth-knowing water with 
an appeal unto Rashnu and a lie unto Mithra, what 
is the penalty that he shall pay 4 ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Seven hundred stripes 
with the Aspahd-artra, seven hundred stripes with 
the Sraoshd-£arana.' 



Fargard V. 

This chapter and the following ones, to the end of the twelfth, 
deal chiefly with uncleanness arising from the dead, and with the 
means of removing it from men and things. 

The subjects treated in this Fargard are as follows : — 

I (1-7). If a man defile the fire or the earth with dead matter 
(Nasu), involuntarily or unconsciously, it is no sin. 

II (8-9). Water and fire do not kill. 

III (10-14). Disposal of the dead during winter when it is not 
possible to take them to the Dakhma. 

IV (15-20). Why Ahura, while forbidding man to defile water, 
sends water from the heavens down to the Dakhmas, covered with 
corpses. How he purifies that water. 

1 The water before which the oath is taken contains some incense, 
brimstone, and one danak of molten gold (Gr. Rav. 101). 

1 The god of truth (Yt. XII). The formula is as follows: ' Be- 
fore the Amshaspand Bahman, before the Amshaspand Ardibehesht, 
here lighted up . . . &c, I swear that I have nothing of what is 
thine, N. son of N, neither gold, nor silver, nor brass, nor clothes, 
nor any of the things created by Ormazd ' (1. 1. 96). Cf. above, § 46. 

* He is a Mithra-dru^, ' one who lies to Mithra.' 

4 In this world. 

[4] E 



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50 VENDtDAD. 



V (21-26). On the excellence of purity and of the law that 
shows how to recover purity, when lost. 

VI (27-38). On the defiling power of the Nasu being greater or 
less, according to the greater or less dignity of the being that dies. 

VII (39-44). On the management of sacrificial implements de- 
filed with Nasu. 

VIII (45-62). On the treatment of a woman who has been 
delivered of a still-born child ; and what is to be done with her 
clothes. 

la. 

1 . There dies a man in the depths of the vale : 
a bird takes flight from the top of the mountain 
down into the depths of the vale, and it feeds on 
the corpse of the dead man there : then, up it flies 
from the depths of the vale to the top of the 
mountain : it flies to some one of the trees there, 
of the hard-wooded or the soft-wooded, and upon 
that tree it vomits and deposits dung. 

2 (7). Now, lo! here is a man coming up from 
the depths of the vale to the top of the mountain ; 
he comes to the tree whereon the bird is sitting ; 
from that tree he intends to take wood for the fire. 
He fells the tree, he hews the tree, he splits it into 
logs, and then he lights it in the fire, the son of 
Ahura Mazda. What is the penalty that he shall 
pay 1 ? 

3 (11). Ahura Mazda answered : ' There is no sin 
upon a man for any Nasu that has been brought by 
dogs, by birds, by wolves, by winds, or by flies. 

4 (12). ' For were there sin upon a man for any 
Nasu that might have been brought by dogs, by 

1 For defiling the fire by bringing dead matter into it (see Farg. 
VII, 25 seq.) contrarily to the rule, 'Put ye only proper and 
well-examined fuel (in the fire).' For the purification of unclean 
wood, see Farg. VII, 28 seq. 



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FARGARD V. 5 1 



birds, by wolves, by winds, or by flies, how soon all 
this material world of mine would be only one 
Peshdtanu 1 , bent on the destruction of righteous- 
ness, and whose soul will cry and wail 2 ! so 
numberless are the beings that die upon the face 
of the earth.' 

lb. 

5 (15). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One! Here is a man watering a corn-field. The 
water streams down the field ; it streams again ; it 
streams a third time ; and the fourth time, a dog, 
a fox, or a wolf carries some Nasu into the bed of 
the stream : what is the penalty that the man shall 
pay 3 ? 

6 (19). Ahura Mazda answered : 'There is no sin 
upon a man for any Nasu that has been brought by 
dogs, by birds, by wolves, by winds, or by flies. 

7 (20). ' For were there sin upon a man for any 
Nasu that might have been brought by dogs, by 
birds, by wolves, by winds, or by flies, how soon all 
this material world of mine would be only one 
Peshdtanu, bent on the destruction of righteousness, 
and whose soul will cry and wail ! so numberless are 
the beings that die upon the face of the earth.' 



* * People guilty of death ' (Coram.) Cf. Yasna LIII, 9 b. 

* After their death, 'When the soul, crying and beaten off, is 
driven far away from Paradise' (Comm.) This is imitated from 
the Gathas (Yasna XLVI, 1 1 c ; LI, 1 3 b ; cf. Vd. XIII, 8-9). 

* For defiling the earth and the water : ' If a man wants to irri- 
gate a field, he must first look after the water-channel, whether 

there is dead matter in it or not If the water, unknown to 

him, comes upon a corpse, there is no sin upon him. If he 
has not looked after the rivulet and the stream, he is unclean' 
(Saddar 75). 

£ 2 



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II a. 

8 (23). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One 1 Does water kill l ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Water kills no man : 
Ast6-vldh6tu binds him, and, thus bound *, Vayu s 
carries him off; and the flood takes him up 4 , the 
flood takes him down 6 , the flood throws him ashore ; 
then birds feed upon him. When he goes away 6 , it 
is by the will of Fate he goes.' 

lib. 

9 (29). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One ! Does fire kill ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Fire kills no man : 
Astd-vldhdtu binds him, and, thus bound, Vayu 
carries him off; and the fire burns up life and 
limb. When he goes away, it is by the will of 
Fate he goes.' 

1 Water and fire belong to the holy part of the world, and come 
from God: how then is it that they kill? 'Let a Gueber light 
a sacred fire for a hundred years, if he once fall into it, he shall be 
burnt.' Even the Mobeds, if we may trust Elisaeus, complained 
that the fire would burn them without regard for their piety, when 
to adore it they came too near (Vartan's War, p. 2 1 1 of the French 
translation by l'Abbe* Garabed). The answer was that it is not 
the fire nor the water that kills, but the demon of Death and Fate. 
• Nothing whatever that I created in the world, said Ormazd, does 
harm to man; it is the bad Nai (read Vai) that kills the man' (Gr. 
Rav. 124). 

* ' Astl-vahit is the bad Vai who seizes the life (of man) : when 
his hand strokes him, it is lethargy; when he casts his shadow 
upon him, it is fever ; when he looks in his eyes, he destroys life 
and it is called Death' (Bund. XXVIII, 35). Cf. Farg. IV, 49;' 
XIX, 29. 

* 'The bad VSi' (Comm.) Vai (Vayu) being the Genius of 
Destiny, good or evil. 

* To the surface. * To the bottom. • When he departs. 



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FARGARD V. 53 



III. 

10 (34). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If the summer is past and the winter 
has come, what shall the worshippers of Mazda do 1 ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : 'In every house, in 
every borough, they shall raise three rooms for 
the dead 8 .' 

11 (37). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! How large shall be those rooms for 
the dead ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Large enough not to 
strike the skull of the man, if he 8 should stand 
erect, or his feet or his hands stretched out : such 
shall be, according to the law, the rooms for the 
dead. 

12 (41). 'And they shall let the lifeless body lie 
there, for two nights, or for three nights, or a 
month long, until the birds begin to fly 4 , the plants 
to grow, the hidden floods * to flow, and the wind to 
dry up the earth*. 

1 In case a man dies during the snowy season, while it is 
difficult or impossible to take the corpse to the Dakhma, which 
usually stands far from inhabited places. The same case is treated 
again in Farg. VIII, 4 seq. 

* One for men, another for women, a third for children. As 
not every house is considerable or rich enough to have these three 
accommodations, there will be a common Z&d-marg for the village. 
The Z&d-marg is a small mud house where the corpse is laid, to 
lie there till it can be taken to the Dakhma (Anquetil, Zend-Avesta 
II, 583). The Z&d-marg is still used in Persia, and in the Gu^arati 
provinces (where it is called Nasi-kh&na, 'house for corpses'). 
In Bombay they use the simpler and more economical method 
given in Farg. VIII, 8. 

* ' Being in life ' (Comm.) 4 To come back. 

* They were hidden under the earth. 

* ' Until the winter is past ' (Comm.) 



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i 3 (44). ' And as soon as the birds begin to fly, 
the plants to grow, the hidden floods to flow, and 
the wind to dry up the earth, then the worshippers 
of Mazda shall lay down the dead (on the Dakhma), 
his eyes towards the sun. 

14 (46). ' If the worshippers of Mazda have not, 
within a year, laid down the dead (on the Dakhma), 
his eyes towards the sun, thou shalt prescribe for 
that trespass the same penalty as for the murder of 
one of the faithful 1 ; until the corpse has been rained 
on, until the Dakhma has been rained on, until the 
unclean remains have been rained on, until the 
birds have eaten up the corpse.' 

IV. 

15 (49). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! Is it true that thou, Ahura Mazda, 
seizest the waters from the sea Vouru-kasha * with 
the wind and the clouds ? 

16 (51). That thou, Ahura Mazda, takest them 
down to the corpses 8 ? that thou, Ahura Mazda, 
takest them down to the Dakhmas ? that thou, 
Ahura Mazda, takest them down to the unclean 
remains? that thou, Ahura Mazda, takest them 
down to the bones ? and that then thou, Ahura 
Mazda, makest them flow back unseen ? that thou, 
Ahura Mazda, makest them flow back to the sea 
Puitika 4 ? 

1 See Farg. Ill, 41, note; cf. below, §§ 21-26. 

* Vouru-kasha or FrSkh-kart, the Ocean, wherefrom all 
waters come and whereto they return (Farg. XXI, 4). 

8 Zoroaster wonders that Ormazd fears so little to infringe 
his own laws by defiling waters with the dead. In a Raviet, he 
asks him bluntly why he forbids men to take corpses to the water, 
while he himself sends rain to the Dakhmas (Gr. Rav. 125). 

4 The sea where waters are purified before going back to their 



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FARGARD V. 55 



17 (53). Ahura Mazda answered: * It is even so 
as thou hast said, righteous Zarathustra I I, 
Ahura Mazda, seize the waters from the sea Vouru- 
kasha with the wind and the clouds. 

*8 (55). 'I, Ahura Mazda, take them to the 
corpses; I, Ahura Mazda, take them down to the 
Dakhmas ; I, Ahura Mazda, take them down to the 
unclean remains ; I, Ahura Mazda, take them down 
to the bones; then I, Ahura Mazda, make them 
flow back unseen; I, Ahura Mazda, make them 
flow back to the sea Puitika. 

J 9 (56). 'The waters stand there boiling, boiling 
up in the heart of the sea Puitika, and, when 
cleansed there, they run back again from the sea 
Puitika to the sea Vouru-kasha, towards the well- 
watered tree 1 , whereon grow the seeds of my 
plants of every kind by hundreds, by thousands, by 
hundreds of thousands. 

20 (60). ' Those plants, I, Ahura Mazda, rain 
down upon the earth 1 , to bring food to the faithful, 
and fodder to the beneficent cow ; to bring food to 



gathering place, the sea Vouru-kasha (see § 19). ' All the thickness, 
salt, and impurity of the sea Puttk wishes to go to the Frakh-kart 
sea; but a mighty high wind, blowing from the Var SatvSs, drives 
it away : whatever is clean and movable passes to the Frakh-kart 
sea, and the rest (the unclean element) flows back to the Putik ' 
(Bund. XIII, 10). 

1 The tree of all seeds (Harvisptokhm), which grows in the 
middle of the sea Vouru-kasha; the seeds of all plants are on it. 
There is a godlike bird, the Sinamru, sitting on that tree ; when- 
ever he flies off the tree, there grow out of it a thousand boughs ; 
whenever he alights on it, there break a thousand boughs, the seeds 
of which are scattered about, and rained down on the earth by 
Tirtar (Tutrya), the rain-god (Yt. XII, 17; Minokhired LXII, 37 
seq. ; Bundahu XXVII ; cf. Farg. XX, 4 seq.) 



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my people that they may live on it, and fodder to 
the beneficent cow.' 

V. 

2 1 (63). ' This * is the best, this is the fairest of 
all things, even as thou hast said, O pure [Zara- 
thustra]!' 

With these words the holy Ahura Mazda rejoiced 
the holy Zarathustra 2 : ' Purity is for man, next to 
life, the greatest good 8 , that purity, O Zarathustra, 
that is in the Religion of Mazda for him who 
cleanses his own self with good thoughts, words, 
and deeds 4 .' 

22 (68). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! This Law, this fiend-destroying Law 
of Zarathustra 8 , by what greatness, goodness, and 
fairness is it great, good, and fair above all other 
utterances ? 

23(69). Ahura Mazda answered: -As much 
above all other floods as is the sea Vouru-kasha, 
so much above all other utterances in greatness, 
goodness, and fairness is this Law, this fiend- 
destroying Law of Zarathustra. 

24 (71). 'As much as a great stream flows swifter 
than a slender rivulet, so much above all other 
utterances in greatness, goodness, and fairness is 
this Law, this fiend-destroying Law of Zarathustra. 



1 The cleansing, the purification. 

* ' When Zoroaster saw that man is able to escape sin by per- 
forming good works, he was filled with joy ' (Comm.) 

» Quotation from the Githas (Yasna XLVIII, 5 c). 
4 That is to say, 'Who performs the rites of cleansing according 
to the prescriptions of the law.' 

• The Law (DStem), that part of the religious system of 



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PARGARD V. 57 



'As high as the great tree 1 stands above the 
small plants it overshadows, so high above all other 
utterances in greatness, goodness, and fairness is 
this Law, this fiend-destroying Law of Zarathurtra. 

2 5 (73)- 'As high as heaven is above the earth 
that it compasses around, so high above all other 
utterances is this Law, this fiend-destroying Law of 
Mazda. 

' [Therefore], he will apply to the Ratu *, he will 
apply to the Sraosha-varez 8 ; whether for a draona- 
service* that should have been undertaken* and has 
not been undertaken • ; or for a draona that should 
have been offered up and has not been offered up ; 
or for a draona that should have been entrusted 
and has not been entrusted 7 . 



which the Vendtd&d is the specimen, and the object of which is 
the purification of man. 
1 ' The royal cypress above small herbs ' (Comm.) 

* ' To take the rule ' (Comm.), which probably means, ' to know 
what sort of penance he must undergo;' as, when a man has 
sinned with the tongue or with the hand, the Dastur (or Ratu) must 
prescribe for him the expiation that the sin requires. The Ratu is 
the chief priest, the spiritual head of the community. 

* * To weep for his crime ' (Comm.), which may mean, ' to recite 
to him the Patet, or, to receive at his hand the proper number of 
stripes.' The Sraosha-varez is the priest that superintends the 
sacrifice. He receives the confession of the guilty man and very 
likely wields the Sraoshd-larana. 

* The Srdsh-darun, a service in honour of any of the angels, 
or of deceased persons, in which small cakes, called draona, are 
consecrated in their names, and then given to those present to eat. 

* When it ought not to be. 

* When it ought to be. 

T The meaning of the sentence is not certain. The Com- 
mentary has: 'Whether he has thought what he ought not to 
have thought, or has not thought what he ought to have thought; 
whether he has said what he ought not to have said, or has not 



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26 (81). 'The Ratu has power to remit him one- 
third of his penalty ' : if he has committed any other 
evil deed, it is remitted by his repentance ; if he has 
committed no other evil deed, he is absolved by his 
repentance for ever and ever V 

VI. 

27 (82). O Maker' of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If there be a number of men resting 
in the same place, on the same carpet, on the same 
pillows, be there two men near one another, or five, 
or fifty, or a hundred, close by one another ; and of 
those people one happens to die; how many of 
them does the Dru£ Nasu 8 envelope with corrup- 
tion, infection, and pollution ? 

28 (86). Ahura Mazda answered : ' If the dead 
one be a priest, the Druf Nasu rushes forth 4 , 
O Spitama Zarathurtra! she goes as far as the 
eleventh and defiles the ten*. 

said what he ought to have said ; whether he has done what he ought 
not to have done, or has not done what he ought to have done.' 

1 When the Ratu remits one-third of the sin, God remits the 
whole of it (Saddar 29). 

* Cf. Farg. Ill, 41. 

* Nasu (wW) designates both the corpse and the corpse-demon 
(the Dn#- that produces the corruption and infection of the dead 
body). 

4 In opposition to the case when the dead one is an Ashe- 
maogha (§ 35), as no Nasu issues then. 

4 Literally, * If she goes as far as the eleventh, she defiles the 
tenth.' That is to say, she stops at the eleventh and defiles the 
next ten. In the Raviets, the Avesta distinctions are lost, and 
the defiling power of the Nasu is the same, whatever may have 
been the rank of the dead : ' If there be a number of people sleep- 
ing in the same place, and if one of them happen to die, all those 
around him, in any direction, as far as the eleventh, become unclean 
if they have been in contact with one another' (Gr. Rav. 470). 



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FARGARD V. 59 



' If the dead one be a warrior, the Druf Nasu 
rushes forth, O Spitama Zarathurtra! she goes as 
far as the tenth and defiles the nine. 

' If the dead one be a husbandman, the Drug - 
Nasu rushes forth, O Spitama Zarathurtra! she 
goes as far as the ninth and defiles the eight 

2 9 (9 2 )- ' If it be a shepherd's dog, the Drug* 
Nasu rushes forth, O Spitama Zarathurtra! she 
goes as far as the eighth and defiles the seven. 

' If it be a house-dog, the Drug - Nasu rushes 
forth, O Spitama Zarathurtra! she goes as far as 
the seventh and defiles the six. 

30 (96). ' If it be a Vohunazga dog *, the Drug - 
Nasu rushes forth, O Spitama Zarathurtra! she 
goes as far as the sixth and defiles the five. 

' If it be a Tauruna dog 8 , the Drug" Nasu rushes 
forth, O Spitama Zarathurtra! she goes as far as 
the fifth and defiles the four. 

31 (100). 'If it be a porcupine dog, the Drug- 
Nasu rushes forth, O Spitama Zarathurtra! she 
goes as far as the fourth and defiles the three. 

' If it be a Gazu dog 8 , the Drug' Nasu rushes 
forth, O Spitama Zarathurtra! she goes as far as 
the third and defiles the two. 

32(104). 'If it be an Aiwizu dog, the Dru^ - 
Nasu rushes forth, O Spitama Zarathurtra! she 
goes as far as the second and defiles the next. 

' If it be a Vlzu dog, the Dnif Nasu rushes forth, 
O Spitama Zarathurtra ! she goes as far as the next, 
she defiles the next.' 

1 A dog without a master (see Farg. XIII, 19). 
1 A hunting-dog. 

' This name and the two following, Aiwizu and Vfzu, are left 
untranslated in the Pahlavi translation. 



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33 (io8). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If it be a weasel l , how many of the 
creatures of the good spirit does it directly defile, 
how many does it indirectly defile ? 

34 (no). Ahura Mazda answered : ' A weasel 
does neither directly nor indirectly defile any of the 
creatures of the good spirit, but him who smites 
and kills it ; to him the uncleanness clings for ever 
and ever 2 .' 

35 ( IT 3) 8 « O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One 1 If the dead one be such a wicked, two- 
footed ruffian, as an ungodly Ashemaogha 4 , how 
many of the creatures of the good spirit does he 
directly defile, how many does he indirectly defile ? 

36(115). Ahura Mazda answered: 'No more 
than a frog does whose venom is dried up, and that 
•has been dead more than a year 8 . Whilst alive, 
indeed, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! such a wicked, two- 
legged ruffian as an ungodly Ashemaogha, directly 
defiles the creatures of the good spirit, and indi- 
rectly defiles them. 

37(119). 'Whilst alive he smites the water 8 ; 
whilst alive he blows out the fire 7 ; whilst alive he 



1 A weasel. The weasel is one of the creatures of Ahura, for ' it 
has been created to fight against the serpent garza and the other 
khrafstras that live in holes' (Bund. XIX, 27). 

* Not that the unclean one cannot be cleansed, but that his un- 
cleanness does not pass from him to another. 

' §§ 35-38 ; cf. Farg. XII, 21-24. 
4 Ashemaogha, a heretic. 

8 The frog is a creature of Ahriman's, and one of the most 
hateful. Cf. Farg. XIV, 5. 

* By defiling it (a capital crime ; see Farg. VII, 25). 

7 He extinguishes the Bahram fire (a capital crime ; cf. Farg. 
VII, 25). 



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FARGARD V. 6 1 



carries off the cow ' ; whilst alive he smites the 
faithful man with a deadly blow, that parts the soul 
from the body 2 ; not so will he do when dead. 

38 (120). 'Whilst alive, indeed, O Spitama Zara- 
thurtra ! such a wicked, two-legged ruffian as an un- 
godly Ashemaogha robs the faithful man of the full 
possession of his food, of his clothing, of his wood, 
of his bed, of his vessels 8 ; not so will he do when 
dead 4 .' 

VII. 

39 (122). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! When into our houses here below we 
have brought the fire, the Baresma, the cups, the 
Haoma, and the mortar 6 , O holy Ahura Mazda ! if 
it come to pass that either a dog or a man dies 
there, what shall the worshippers of Mazda do ? 

40 (125). Ahura Mazda answered: 'Out of the 
house, O Spitama Zarathu^tra ! shall they take 
the fire, the Baresma, the cups, the Haoma, and the 
mortar ; they shall take the dead one out to the 
proper place 6 whereto, according to the law, corpses 
must be brought, to be devoured there.' 

41 (128). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! When shall they bring back the fire 
into the house wherein the man has died ? 



1 As a cattle-lifter. " As an assassin. 

* By defiling them, he deprives the faithful of their use. 

* ' When a wicked man dies, the Ting who was with him during his 
lifetime, seizes him and drags him down to Ahriman ; therefore, 
his body, as the Dru^ is no longer with it, becomes pure. On the 
contrary, when it is a righteous man that dies, the Amshaspands 
take his soul to Ormazd and the Dru^ settles in the house of the 
body and makes it impure ' (Gujastak Abalish). 

* In order to perform a sacrifice. * The Dakhma. 



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42 (129). Ahura Mazda answered: 'They shall 
wait for nine nights in winter, for a month in sum- 
mer 1 , and then they shall bring back the fire to 
the house wherein the man has died.' 

43 (131). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! And if they shall bring back the fire 
to the house wherein the man has died, within the 
nine nights, or within the month, what penalty 
shall they pay ? 

44(134). Ahura Mazda answered: 'They shall be 
Pesh6tanus : two hundred stripes with the Aspahe- 
artra, two hundred stripes with the Sraosho-^arana.' 

VIII. 

45 ( I 35) 8 - O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If in the house of a worshipper of 
Mazda there be a woman with child, and if being a 
month gone, or two, or three, or four, or five, or six, 
or seven, or eight, or nine, or ten months gone 8 , she 
bring forth a still-born child, what shall the wor- 
shippers of Mazda do ? 

46 (139)- Ahura Mazda answered : ' The place in 
that Mazdean house whereof the ground is the 
cleanest and the driest, and the least passed through 
by flocks and herds, by the fire of Ahura Mazda, 
by the consecrated bundles of Baresma, and by the 
faithful;'— 

47 ( J 43)- O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! How far from the fire ? How far from 

1 Corruption being worse in summer. 

* §§ 45-54=Farg. VII, 60-69. 

* The pregnancy, without lasting more than nine calendar 
months (9 times 30 days), generally extends along ten months on 
the calendar (for instance from January 10 to October 10). 



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FARGARD V. 63 



the water ? How far from the consecrated bundles 
of Baresma ? How far from the faithful ? 

48 (144). Ahura Mazda answered : ' Thirty paces 
from the fire ; thirty paces from the water ; thirty 
paces from the consecrated bundles of Baresma ; 
three paces from the faithful ' ; — 

49 (145). ' On that place shall the worshippers of 
Mazda erect an enclosure 8 , and therein shall they 
establish her with food, therein shall they establish 
her with clothes.' 

50 (147). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! What is the food that the woman shall 
first take ? 

51(148). Ahura Mazda answered: 'G6m£z 8 
mixed with ashes, three draughts of it, or six, 
or nine, to send down the Dakhma within her 
womb 4 . 

52(151). 'Afterwards she may drink boiling 6 
milk of mares, cows, sheep, or goats, with pap or 
without pap 9 ; she may take cooked milk without 

1 The carrier alone is kept thirty feet from the faithful (Farg. Ill, 
18), as he is cut off from the community : his food is not brought 
to him, he has a store prepared for him. The woman, when 
armgjt, is only temporarily isolated; she stays in the house and 
her food is brought to her all but from hand to hand (Farg. 
XVI, 6). 

* The place for the man or woman in state of uncleanness, or 
ArmSft-gah. 

* Urine of the ox: the so-called Ntrang-dtn; cf. Farg. VIII, 
37; XIX, 21. 'Three cups, or six, or nine, according to her 
strength ' (Asp.) 

4 Her womb is a Dakhma, as it contained a dead body. — These 
nine draughts of gdm£z mixed with ashes are like an interior 
Barashnum, as the Barashnum consists of nine successive purifica- 
tions with gOmez and dust. 

* Doubtful. • Doubtful. 



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water, meal without water, and wine without 
water V 

53 (154). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! How long shall she remain so ? How 
long shall she live thus on milk, meal, and wine ? 

54 ( I 55)- Ahura Mazda answered : ' Three nights 
long shall she remain so ; three nights long shall she 
live thus on milk, meal, and wine. Then, when 
three nights have passed, she shall wash her body, 
she shall wash her clothes, with g6mez and water, 
by the nine holes s , and thus shall she be clean.' 

55 (157). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! How long shall she remain so ? How 
long, after the three nights have gone, shall she sit 
confined, and live separated from the rest of the 
worshippers of Mazda, as to her seat, her food, and 
her clothing ? 

56 (158). Ahura Mazda answered : ' Nine nights 
long shall she remain so : nine nights long, after the 
three nights have gone, shall she sit confined, and 
live separated from the rest of the worshippers of 
Mazda, as to her seat, her food, and her clothing. 
Then, when the nine nights have gone, she shall 
wash her body, and cleanse her clothes with g6mez 
and water 3 .' 



1 ' The water would be defiled ; ' cf. Farg. VII, 70 seq. 

* She shall perform the nine nights' Barashnum, for the 
details of which see Farg. IX. That Barashnum is taken forty 
days after the delivery. 

* ' If a woman brings forth a still-born child, after a pregnancy 
of one month to ten months, the first food she shall take is ni rang 
(=g6mSz) . . . fire and ashes; and she is not allowed until the 
fourth day to take water or salt, or any food that is cooked with 
water or salt: on the fourth day they give her nirang, that she 
may cleanse herself and wash her clothes with it, and she is not 



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FARGARD V. 65 



57 (160) 1 . O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! Can those clothes, when once washed 
and cleansed, ever be used either by a Zaotar, or by 
a Havanan, or by an Atare-vakhsha, or by a Fra- 
baretar, or by an Abered, or by an Asnatar, or by 
a Rathwiricar, or by a Sraosha-varez 2 , or by any 
priest, warrior, or husbandman 8 ? 

58(162). Ahura Mazda answered: 'Never can 
those clothes, even when washed and cleansed, be 
used either by a Zaotar, or by a Havanan, or by an 
Atare-vakhsha, or by a Frabaretar, or by an Abered, 
or by an Asnatar, or by a Rathwukar, or by a 
Sraosha-varez, or by any priest, warrior, or husband- 
man. 

59 (164). ' But if there be in a Mazdean house a 
woman who is in her sickness, or a man who has 
become unfit for work 4 , and who must sit in the 
place of infirmity 8 , those clothes shall serve for their 



allowed to wash herself and her clothes with water until the forty- 
first day ' (Gr. Rav. 568). 

1 §§ 57- 62 =Farg- v n> 17-22. 

1 These are the names of the different priests who were engaged 
in the sacrifices. The Havanan strains the Haoma; the Atare- 
vakhsha kindles the fire ; the Frabaretar brings to the Zaotar all 
that he needs; the Abererf brings the water; the Asnatar washes 
and strains the Haoma; the Rathwukar mixes the Haoma and 
the milk; the Zaotar chants the hymns and says the prayers; the 
Sraoshd-varez superintends the sacrifice. Nowadays there are only 
two priests, the Zaotar (Zutf) and the RathwLrkar (Raspf ), the latter 
performing all the accessory services formerly performed by several 
priests. Cf. NJrangist&n, §§ 71 sq. 

* In short, by any of the faithful, when in state of purity. 

* An ArmSf t ; literally, ' an infirm person,' that is to say, one 
who is unclean, during the time of his uncleanness (Farg. IX, 
33 seq.), when all work is forbidden to him. 

* The Armfijt-gth, the place of seclusion of the ArmSxt. 

[4] * 



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66 VEND&DAD. 



coverings and for their sheets l , until they can with- 
draw their hands for prayer 8 . 

60 (168). ' Ahura Mazda, indeed, does not allow 
us to waste anything of value that we may have, not 
even so much as an Asperena's 3 weight of thread, 
not even so much as a maid lets fall in spinning. 

61 (171). 'Whosoever throws any clothing on a 
dead body 4 , even so much as a maid lets fall in 
spinning, is not a pious man whilst alive, nor shall 
he, when dead, have a place in Paradise. 

62 (174). ' He makes himself a viaticum unto the 
world of the wicked, into that world 6 , made of 

1 The clothing defiled by the dead can only serve for Dashtin 
women, even after it has been washed and exposed for six months 
to the light of the sun and of the moon (Saddar 91 ; cf. Farg. VII, 
10 seq.) 

* Until they are clean. The unclean must have their hands 
wrapped in an old piece of linen, lest they should touch and defile 
anything clean. 

' See Farg. IV, 48, note 4. 

4 Cf. Farg. VIII, 23 seq. It appears from those passages that 
the dead must lie on the mountain naked, or ' clothed only with 
the light of heaven' (Farg. VI, 51). The modern custom is to 
clothe them with old clothing (Dadabhai Naoroji, Manners and 
Customs of the Parsis, p. 15). ' When a man dies and receives 
the order (to depart), the older the shroud they make for him, the 
better. It must be old, worn out, but well washed : they must not 
lay anything new on the dead. For it is said in the Zend VendidSd, 
If they put on the dead even so much as a thread from the distaff 
more than is necessary, every thread shall become in the other 
world a black snake clinging to the heart of him who made that 
shroud, and even the dead shall rise against him and seize him by 
the skirt, and say, That shroud which thou madest for me has be- 
come food for worms and vermin' (Saddar 12). After the fourth 
day, when the soul is in heaven, then rich garments are offered up 
to it, which it will wear in its celestial life (Saddar 87). 

* ' Where darkness can be seized with the hand ' (Comm. ; cf. 
Aogemaidg 28); something more than the 'visible darkness.' 



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FARGARD VI. 6j 



darkness, the offspring of darkness 1 , which is 
Darkness' self. To that world, to the world of 
Hell, you are delivered by your own doings, by 
your own religion, O sinners 2 !' 



Fargard VI. 



I (1-9). How long the earth remains unclean, when defiled by 
the dead. 

II (10-25). Penalties for defiling the ground with dead matter. 

III (26-41). Purification of the different sorts of water, when 
defiled by the dead. 

IV (42-43). Purification of the Haoma. 

V (44-51). The, place for corpses ; the Dakhmas. 

I. 

i. How long shall the piece of ground lie fallow 
whereon dogs or men have died ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' A year long shall the 
piece of ground lie fallow whereon dogs or men have 
died, O holy Zarathiutra! 

2 (3). ' A year long shall no worshipper of Mazda 
sow or water that piece of ground whereon dogs or 
men have died ; he may sow as he likes the rest of 
the ground ; he may water it as he likes 3 . 

3 (5). ' If within the year they shall sow or water 
the piece of ground whereon dogs or men have died, 
they are guilty of the sin of " burying the dead " 

1 The Commentary has, 'the place of those who impregnate 
darkness, for the Dru^ who conceives seed from the sinner comes 
from that place ' (cf. Farg. XVIII, 30 seq.) 

* Quotation from the Gdthas (Yasna XXXI, 20). 

* Cf. Farg. VII, 45 seq. 

F 2 



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68 vendJdad. 



towards the water, towards the earth, and towards 
the plants V 

4 (7). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One ! If worshippers of Mazda shall sow or water, 
within the year, the piece of ground whereon dogs 
or men have died, what is the penalty that they 
shall pay ? 

5 (9). Ahura Mazda answered : ' They are Pesho- 
tanus : two hundred stripes with the Aspahd-a^tra, 
two hundred stripes with the Sraoshd-^arana V 

6(10). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One! If worshippers of Mazda want to till that 
piece of ground again 3 , to water it, to sow it, and to 
plough it, what shall they do ? 

7 (12). Ahura Mazda answered : ' They shall look 
on the ground for any bones, hair, dung, urine, or 
blood that may be there.' 

8(13). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One ! If they shall not look on the ground for any 
bones, hair, dung, urine, or blood that may be there, 
what is the penalty that they shall pay ? 

9 (15). Ahura Mazda answered : 'They are Pesh6- 
tanus: two hundred stripes with the Aspah£-artra, 
two hundred stripes with the Sraoshd-iarana.' 

II. 

10 (16). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! If a man shall throw on the ground 

1 • To the water which they pour out, to the earth which they 
plough, to the plants which they sow ' (Comm.) 

* 'If they plough and sow it, one tanafuhr (see Introd. V, 19); 
if they pour water on it, one tanafuhr ; if they plough, sow, and 
water it, two tanafflhrs ' (Comm.) 

* Even when a year's space is past, the ground is not free ipso 
facto. 



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FARGARD VI. 69 



a bone of a dead dog, or of a dead man, as large as 
the top joint of the little finger, and if grease or 
marrow flow from it on to the ground, what. penalty 
shall he pay ? 

11 (18). Ahura Mazda answered: ' Thirty stripes 
with the Aspah£-artra, thirty stripes with the 
Sraoshd-iarana.' 

12 (20). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man shall throw on the ground 
a bone of a dead dog, or of a dead man, as large as 
the top joint of the fore-finger, and if grease or 
marrow flow from it on to the ground, what penalty 
shall he pay ? 

13 (24). Ahura Mazda answered : ' Fifty stripes 
with the Aspahe^astra, fifty stripes with the Sraoshd- 
^arana.' 

14 (25). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man shall throw on the ground 
a bone of a dead dog, or of a dead man, as large as 
the top joint of the middle finger, and if grease or 
marrow flow from it on to the ground, what penalty 
shall he pay ? 

15 (29). Ahura Mazda answered: 'Seventy stripes 
with the Aspah£-astra, seventy stripes with the 
Sraosh6-£arana.' 

16 (30). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! If a man shall throw on the ground 
a bone of a dead dog, or of a dead man, as large 
as a finger or as a rib, and if grease or marrow flow 
from it on to the ground, what penalty shall he pay ? 

1 7 (34). Ahura Mazda answered : ' Ninety stripes 
with the Aspah£-artra, ninety stripes with the 
Sraosh6-£arana.' 

18 (35). O Maker of the material world, thou 



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70 vendIdad. 



Holy One ! If a man shall throw on the ground 
a bone of a dead dog, or of a dead man, as large 
as two fingers or as two ribs, and if grease or marrow 
flow from it on to the ground, what penalty shall 
he pay ? 

19 (39). Ahura Mazda answered : ' He is a Peshd- 
tanu : two hundred stripes with the Aspahe-aytra, 
two hundred stripes with the Sraosho-iarana.' 

20 (40). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man shall throw on the ground 
a bone of a dead dog, or of a dead man, as large as 
an arm-bone or as a thigh-bone, and if grease or 
marrow flow from it on to the ground, what penalty 
shall he pay ? 

2 1 (44). Ahura Mazda answered : ' Four hundred 
stripes with the Aspah£-artra, four hundred stripes 
with the Sraoshd-^arana.' 

22 (45). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man shall throw on the ground 
a bone of a dead dog, or of a dead man, as large as 
a man's skull, and if grease or marrow flow from it 
on to the ground, what penalty shall he pay ? 

23 (49). Ahura Mazda answered : ' Six hundred 
stripes with the Aspah£-&rtra, six hundred stripes 
with the Sraoshd-iarana.' 

24 (50). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man shall throw on the ground 
the whole body of a dead dog, or of a dead man, 
and if grease or marrow flow from it on to the 
ground, what penalty shall he pay ? 

25 (53). Ahura Mazda answered : ' A thousand 
stripes with the Aspah£-artra, a thousand stripes with 
the Sraoshd-iarana.' 



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FARGARD VI. 7 1 



III. 

26 (54). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a worshipper of Mazda, walking, or 
running, or riding, or driving, come upon a corpse in 
a stream of running water, what shall he do ? 

27(56). Ahura Mazda answered: 'Taking off 
his shoes, putting off his clothes, while the others 
wait 1 , O Zarathurtra ! he shall enter the river, and 
take the dead out of the water ; he shall go down 
into the water ankle-deep, knee-deep, waist-deep, or 
a man's full depth, till he can reach the dead body 2 .' 

28 (61). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If, however, the body be already falling 
to pieces and rotting, what shall the worshipper of 
Mazda do ? 

2 9 (63)- Ahura Mazda answered : ' He shall draw 
out of the water as much of the corpse as he can 
grasp with both hands, and he shall lay it down on 
the dry ground; no sin attaches to him for any 
bone, hair, grease, dung, urine, or blood that may 
drop back into the water.' 

30 (65). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! What part of the water in a pond does 
the Dru£* Nasu defile with corruption, infection, 
and pollution ? 

31 (66). Ahura Mazda answered: 'Six steps on 
each of the four sides. As long as the corpse has 

1 Ready to help him in case of need. 

1 ' If he is able to draw out the corpse and does so, it is a pious 
deed worth a tanafuhr (that is, one by which a tanafuhr sin can be 
cancelled) ; if he is able to draw it out and does not do so, it is a 
tanafuhr sin. Gug&rasp says, It is a margarzan sin (a capital crime) ' 
(Comm.) 



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72 * vendJdAd. 



not been taken out of the water, so long shall that 
water be unclean and unfit to drink. They shall, 
therefore, take the corpse out of the pond, and lay 
it down on the dry ground. 

32 (69). ' And of the water they shall draw off the 
half, or the third, or the fourth, or the fifth part, 
according as they are able or not; and after the 
corpse has been taken out and the water has been 
drawn off, the rest of the water is clean, and both 
cattle and men may drink of it at their pleasure, as 
before.' 

33 (72). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! What part of the water in a well does 
the Drug Nasu defile with corruption, infection, and 
pollution ? 

34 (73). Ahura Mazda answered : ' As long as 
the corpse has not been taken out of the water, so 
long shall that water be unclean and unfit to drink. 
They shall, therefore, take the corpse out of the 
well, and lay it down on the dry ground. 

35 (73)' ' And of the water in the well they shall 
draw off the half, or the third, or the fourth, or the 
fifth part, according as they are able or not ; and 
after the corpse has been taken out and the water 
has been drawn off, the rest of the water is clean, 
and both cattle and men may drink of it at their 
pleasure, as before.' 

36 (74). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! What part of a sheet of snow or hail 
does the Dru^ Nasu defile with corruption, infection, 
and pollution ? 

37(75). Ahura Mazda answered: 'Three steps 1 

1 Nine feet on the four sides. 



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FARGARD VI. 73 



on each of the four sides. As long as the corpse 
has not been taken out of the water, so long shall 
that water be unclean and unfit to drink. They 
shall, therefore, take the corpse out of the water, 
and lay it down on the dry ground. 

38 (78). ' After the corpse has been taken out, 
and the snow or the hail has melted, the water is 
clean, and both cattle and men may drink of it at 
their pleasure, as before.' 

39 (79)- O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! What part of the water of a running 
stream does the Dru^ - Nasu defile with corruption, 
infection, and pollution ? 

40 (80). Ahura Mazda answered : ' Three steps 
down the stream, nine steps up the stream, six steps 
across. As long as the corpse has not been taken 
out of the water, so long shall the water be unclean 
and unfit to drink. They shall, therefore, take the 
corpse out of the water, and lay it down on the dry 
ground. 

41 (83). ' After the corpse has been taken out and 
the stream has flowed three times 1 , the water is 
clean, and both cattle and men may drink of it at 
their pleasure, as before.' 

IV. 

42 (84). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! Can the Haoma that has been touched 
with Nasu from a dead dog, or from a dead man, be 
made clean again ? 

43 (85). Ahura Mazda answered : ' It can, O 
holy Zarathurtra ! If it has been prepared for the 

1 Three times the measure up the stream (that is nine feet). 

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74 vendJdAd. 



sacrifice \ there is to it no corruption, no death, no 
touch of any Nasu 2 . If it has not been prepared 
for the sacrifice, [the stem] is defiled the length of 
four fingers 8 : it * shall be laid down on 5 the ground, 
in the middle of the house, for a year long. When 
the year is passed, the faithful may drink of its juice 
at their pleasure, as before.' 

V. 

44 (92). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! Whither shall we bring, where shall 
we lay the bodies of the dead a , O Ahura Mazda ? 

45 (93)- Ahura Mazda answered : ' On the high- 
est summits 7 , where they know there are always 
corpse-eating dogs and corpse-eating birds, O holy 
Zarathurtra ! 

46 (95). ' There shall the worshippers of Mazda 
fasten the corpse, by the feet and by the hair, with 
brass, stones, or clay, lest the corpse-eating dogs 
and the corpse-eating birds shall go and carry the 
bones to the water and to the trees. 

47 (98). ' If they shall not fasten the corpse, so 
that the corpse-eating dogs and the corpse-eating 

1 Pounded and strained. 

a Because the Haoma is the plant of life ; when strained for the 
sacrifice, it is the king of healing plants (Bund. XXIV) ; the dead 
shall become immortal by tasting of the white Haoma (ib. XXXI). 

* Four fingers from the point touched by the Nasu. That 
part of the stem shall be cut off (Framji) : the rest can be made 
clean. 

4 What is left of the stem. 

6 Perhaps : in the ground (it shall be buried). 

* In places where there are no Dakhmas ; for instance, in the 
country. 

1 ' On the top of a mountain ' (Comm.) Cf. VIII, 10. 



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FARGARD VI. 75 



birds may go and carry the bones to the water and to 
the trees, what is the penalty that they shall pay ?' 

48(100). Ahura Mazda answered: 'They shall 
be Peshdtanus: two hundred stripes with the 
Aspah£-a.Jtra, two hundred stripes with the Sraosh6- 
^arana.' 

49 (101). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! Whither shall we bring, where shall 
we lay the bones J of the dead, O Ahura Mazda ? 

50 (102). Ahura Mazda answered : ' The wor- 
shippers of Mazda shall make a receptacle 2 out of 
the reach of the dog, of the fox, and of the wolf, 
and wherein rain-water cannot stay. 

51 (105). 'They shall make it, if they can afford 
it, with stones, plaster, or earth 8 ; if they cannot 
afford it, they shall lay down the dead man on the 
ground, on his carpet and his pillow, clothed with 
the light of heaven, and beholding the sun *.' 

1 When the flesh has been stripped off the bones, they may be 
collected in a stone ossuary. See following note. 

* 'When the corpse-eating birds have eaten the fat, that fat 
which, when it is not possible to eat it, becomes rotten, offensive, 
and fraught with noxious creatures, then men shall properly con- 
vey the bones away to the bone-receptacle (astdd&n), which one 
is to elevate so from the ground, and over which a roof so stands, 
that in no way does the rain fall upon the dead matter, nor the 
water reach up to it therein, nor are the dog and fox able to go to 
it, and for the sake of light coming to it a hole is made therein' 
(Dadistan XVIII, 3; tr. West). 

* Such stone ossuaries have been found at Bushir, by Mr. 
Malcolm; earth ossuaries, found at Susa, were brought to the 
Louvre by M. Dieulafoy. 

4 The dead must see the sun : that is why the astddan has holes 
for letting the light in (see note 3 above). 



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76 vendidAd. 



Fargard VII. 

I (1-5). How long after death the Bmg Nasu takes possession 
of the corpse. 

II (6-9 = V, 27-30). How far the defiling power of the Dru^ 
Nasu extends. 

III (10-22). Cleansing of clothes defiled by the dead. 

IV (23-24). Eating of Nasu an abomination. 

V (25-27). Bringing Nasu to fire or water an abomination. 

VI (28-35). Cleansing of wood and corn defiled by the dead. 

VII a (36-40). Physicians ; their probation. 

VII b (41-44). Their fees. 

VIII (45-59). Purification of the earth, of the Dakhmas. The 
Dakhmas and the DaSvas. 

IX (60-72 ; 66-69 = V, 45-54). Treatment of a woman who 
has brought forth a still-born child. 

X (73-75). Cleansing of vessels defiled by the dead. 

XI (76). Cleansing of the cow. 

XII (78). Unclean libations. 

This chapter would offer tolerable unity, but for a digression on 
medicine, which would be better placed as an introduction to the 
last three chapters. Sections II and IX, parts of which have already 
been found in Fargard V, are more suitably placed here. This 
chapter, as a whole, deals with the action of the Drug Nasu, from 
the moment she takes hold of the corpse, and shows how and 
when the several objects she has defiled become clean, namely, 
clothes, wood, corn, earth, women, vessels, and cows. 

I. 

i. Zarathurtra asked Ahura Mazda: 'O Ahura 
Mazda, most beneficent Spirit, Maker of the material 
world, thou Holy One ! When a man dies, at what 
moment does the Druf Nasu rush upon him ? ' 

2 (3). Ahura Mazda answered : ' Directly after 
death, as soon as the soul has left the body, O 
Spitama Zarathurtra! the Drug- Nasu comes and 
rushes upon him, from the regions of the north 1 , in 

J Hell lies in the north; cf. II, 10 n.; Ill, 7 n.; XIX, 1 
Yt. XXII, 25; Bundahi* XV, 19. 



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FARGARD VII. 77 



the shape of a raging fly, with knees and tail sticking 
out, droning without end, and like unto the foulest 
Khrafstras \ 

[3. ' On him she stays until the dog has seen the 
corpse 2 or eaten it up, or until the flesh-eating birds 
have taken flight towards it 3 . When the dog has 
seen it or eaten it up, or when the flesh-eating birds 
have taken flight towards it, then the Dru£* Nasu 
rushes away to the regions of the north in the shape 
of a raging fly, with knees and tail sticking out, 
droning without end, and like unto the foulest 
Khrafstras.'] 

4 (5). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One ! If the man has been killed by a dog, or by 
a wolf, or by witchcraft, or by the artifices of hatred *, 
or by falling down a precipice, or by the law 6 , or by 
calumny 6 , or by the noose 7 , how long after death 
does the Dru^ Nasu come and rush upon the dead ? 

5 (6). Ahura Mazda answered : ' At the next 
watch after death 8 , the Dru^ Nasu comes and 

1 Khrafstra is a general denomination for noxious animals. 

• Until the Sag-did has been performed (see VIII, 16 seq.) 

• The Sag-did may be performed by birds of prey as well as 
by dogs. The dog smites the Nasu when it brings its muzzle near 
to the dead, the bird (mountain hawk, sparrow (?), or eagle) when 
its shadow passes over the body (Comm. ad § 2 ; cf. § 29). § 3 is 
from the Vendidad Slda. 

4 ' By poison ' (Comm.) 

• Literally, ' by men;' that is to say, put to death by the com- 
munity according to law (Comm.) 

• If he has been condemned unjustly. 
7 If he has strangled himself. 

• The day is divided into five watches or ratu. If the man 
dies a natural death, the Drug- comes directly ; if the death be 
violent and unlooked for, the V>ivg comes later (as the corruption 
does not set in so quickly). 



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rushes upon the dead, from the regions of the 
north, in the shape of a raging fly, with knees and 
tail sticking out, droning without end, and like unto 
the foulest Khrafstras.' 

II 1 . 

6 (7). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One 1 
If there be a number of men resting in the same place, on 
the same carpet, on the same pillows, be there two men 
near one another, or five, or fifty, or a hundred, close by 
one another ; and of those people one happens to die ; 
how many of them does the Dru.f Nasu envelope with 
corruption, infection, and pollution ? 

7 (11). Ahura Mazda answered: 'If the dead one be 
a priest, the Drqg- Nasu rushes forth, O Spitama Zarathu- 
rtra 1 she goes as far as the eleventh and defiles the ten. 

' If the dead one be a warrior, the Dru£- Nasu rushes 
forth, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! she goes as far as the tenth 
and defiles the nine. 

* If the dead one be a husbandman, the Dru^- Nasu 
rushes forth, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! she goes as far as 
the ninth and defiles the eight. 

8 (17). ' If it be a shepherd's dog, the Dn\f Nasu rushes 
forth, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! she goes as far as the eighth 
and defiles the seven. 

' If it be a house dog, the Dru,^ Nasu rushes forth, O 
Spitama Zarathurtra t she goes as far as the seventh and 
defiles the six. 

9 (ai). ' If it be a Vohunazga dog, the Drqg- Nasu 
rushes forth, O Spitama Zarathurtra I she goes as far as 
the sixth and defiles the five. 

' If it be a Tauruna dog, the Dru£- Nasu rushes forth, 
O Spitama Zarathurtra ! she goes as far as the fifth and 
defiles the four V 

1 §§ 6-9 = Farg. V, 27-30. 

* This enumeration is less complete than that in the fifth Far- 
gard, as it comprises only the first four sorts of dogs ; the rest is to 
be supplied as in Farg. V, 31-38. 



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FARGARD VII. 79 



. . . ' Those clothes shall serve for their coverings and 
for their sheets V . . . 

III. 

10 (26). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! What part of his bedding 2 and pillow 
does the Druf Nasu defile with corruption, infection, 
and pollution ? 

11 (27). Ahura Mazda answered: 'The Dru^ - 
Nasu defiles with corruption, infection, and pollu- 
tion the upper sheet and the inner garment V 

12 (28). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! Can that garment be made clean, O 
holy Ahura Mazda ! that has been touched by the 
carcase of a dog or the corpse of a man ? 

13 (29). Ahura Mazda answered : ' It can, O holy 
Zarathurtra ! ' 

How so ? 

' If there be on the garment seed, or blood, or dirt, 
or vomit, the worshippers of Mazda shall rend it to 
pieces, and bury it under the ground *. 

14 (33). ' But if there be no seed [on the gar- 
ment], nor blood, nor dirt, nor vomit, then the 
worshippers of Mazda shall wash it with gdm£z. 

15 (35). ' If it be leather, they shall wash it with 
gdm£z three times, they shall rub it with earth three 



1 This phrase, which forms part of § 19, is wrongly inserted 
here. 
1 The bedding on which he has died. 

* The upper sheet of the bed and the inner garment of the body, 
that is to say, only those clothes which have been in direct contact 
with the dead. 

* According to the Commentary only that part which has been 
defiled is rent off; the rest may still be used. 



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times,, they shall wash it with water three times, and 
afterwards they shall expose it to the air for three 
months at the window of the house. 

' If it be woven cloth, they shall wash it with 
g6m£z six times *, they shall rub it with earth six 
times, they shall wash it with water six times, and 
afterwards they shall expose it to the air for six 
months at the window of the house. 

1 6 (37). 'The spring named Ardvt Sura, O Spi- 
tama Zarathurtra ! that spring of mine, purifies the 
seed of males, the womb of females, the milk of 
females V 

17 s (41). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One ! Can those clothes, when once washed and cleansed, 
ever be used either by a Zaotar, or by a Havanan, or by an 
Atare-vakhsha, or by a Frabaretar, or by an Abererf, or by 
an Asnatar, or by a Rathwirkar, or by a Sraosha-varez, or 
by any priest, warrior, or husbandman ? 

18 (43). Ahura Mazda answered : ' Never can those 
clothes, even when washed and cleansed, be used either by 
a Zaotar, or by a Havanan, or by an Atare-vakhsha, or 
by a Frabaretar, or by an Abere*/, or by an Asnatar, or by 
a Rathwijkar, or by a Sraosha-varez, or by any priest, 
warrior, or husbandman. 

19 (45). 'But if there be in a Mazdean house a woman 
who is in her sickness, or a man who has become unfit for 
work, and who must sit in the place of infirmity, those 
clothes shall serve for their coverings and for their sheets, 
until they can withdraw their hands for prayer. 

20 (49). 'Ahura Mazda, indeed, does not allow us to 
waste anything of value that we may have, not even so 

1 See Farg. XIX, ai. 

* This clause is a quotation from Yasna LXV, 5, intended to 
illustrate the cleansing power of water. Ardvt Sura is the goddess 
of the waters. Cf. Farg. XXI, 6 notes. 

* §§ 17-22 = Farg. V, 57-62. 



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FARGARD VII. 8 1 



much as an Asperena's weight of thread, not even so much 
as a maid lets fall in spinning. 

at (52). 'Whosoever throws any clothing on a dead 
body, even so much as a maid lets fall in spinning, is not 
a pious man whilst alive, nor shall he, when dead, have 
a place in Paradise. 

22 (55)' ' He makes himself a viaticum unto the world 
of the wicked, into that world, made of darkness, the 
offspring of darkness, which is Darkness' self. To that 
world, to the world of Hell, you are delivered by your 
own doings, by your own religion, O sinners ! ' 

IV. 

2 3 (59)- O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! Can he be clean again who has eaten 
of the carcase of a dog or of the corpse of a man ' ? 

24 (60). Ahura Mazda answered : ' He cannot, 
O holy Zarathurtra ! His burrow 2 shall be dug out, 
his heart shall be torn out, his bright eyes shall be 
put out ; the Druf Nasu falls upon him, takes hold 
of him even to the end of the nails, and he is 
unclean, thenceforth, for ever and ever 8 .' 



' The carcase-eater lodges the Nasu in himself; he becomes 
a Nasu, and therefore must be destroyed ; cf. below, § 76 seq. 

1 His house, as he is assimilated to a devouring Khrafstra; 
cf. Farg. Ill, 7. 

* Till the resurrection. ' It is prescribed in the Vendidad that 
if a man shall eat of a carcase, his house and family shall be 
destroyed, his heart shall be tom out of his body, his eyes shall 
be put out, and his soul shall abide in hell till the resurrection ' 
(Saddar 71). 'He who eats of a carcase with sinful intent is both 
unclean and margarzan ; Barashnum and Nfrang are of no avail 
for him, he must die. If there has been no sinful intent, he may 
wash himself; one may give him the ashes and the gdm€z 
(Comm.); he is unclean, he is not margarzan' (Old Rav. 115 b). 

[4] G 



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V. 

2 5 (65). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! Can he be clean again, O holy Ahura 
Mazda ! who has brought a corpse with filth into the 
waters, or unto the fire, and made either unclean ? 

26 (66). Ahura Mazda answered : 'He cannot, 
O holy Zarathu-rtra ! Those wicked ones it is, those 
Nasu-cutters, that most increase spiders and locusts 1 ; 
those wicked ones it is, those Nasu-cutters, that 
most increase the grass-destroying drought 8 . 

27(69). 'Those wicked ones it is, those Nasu- 
cutters, that increase most the power of the winter 2 , 
produced by the fiends, the cattle-killing, thick- 
snowing, overflowing, the piercing, fierce, mischievous 
winter 8 . Upon them comes and rushes the Dru£" 
Nasu, she takes hold of them even to the end of 
the nails, and they are unclean, thenceforth, for ever 
and ever*.' 

1 ' It is said in the A vesta that when there are many gnats and 
locusts it is owing to corpses having been brought to water and to 
fire ' (Saddar 72). 

* § 26 refers chiefly to the damage produced by the defilement 
of the waters, and § 27 to that produced by the defilement of the 
fire. 

* ' In the same way (by the bringing of corpses to water and to 
fire), winter grows colder, and summer grows warmer' (Saddar 72). 

4 ' Whoever shall do that deed, shall pay for it in this world and 
in the next ; they shall flay his body in the presence of the as- 
sembly, they shall tear him limb from limb, and his corpse shall be 
thrown away to dogs and ravens, . . . and when his soul comes 
to the other world, he shall suffer tortures from the Devs. If he has 
not made his Patet, his soul shall remain in hell till the day of 
resurrection' (Gr. Rav. p. 123). 



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FARGARD VII. 83 



VI. 

28 (72). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! Can the wood be made clean, O holy 
Ahura Mazda! whereunto Nasu has been brought 
from a dead dog, or from a dead man ? 

29 (73). Ahura Mazda answered : ' It can, O holy 
Zarathurtra ! ' 

How so ? 

' If the Nasu has not yet been expelled l by the 
corpse-eating dogs, or by the corpse-eating birds 2 , 
they shall lay down, apart on the ground, all the 
wood on a Vitasti 8 all around, if the wood be dry ; 
on a Frarathni 4 all around, if it be wet ; then they 
shall sprinkle it once over with water, and it shall 
be clean 8 . 

30 (78). ' But if the Nasu has already been 
expelled • by the corpse-eating dogs, or by the 
corpse-eating birds, they shall lay down, apart on 
the ground, all the wood on a Frarathni all around, 
if the wood be dry ; on a Frabazu 7 all around, if it 

1 That is to say, if the Sag-did has not yet been performed. 
Read : ' If the Nasu has been expelled . . .' (that is to say, if the 
Sag-dtd has been performed). See note 6. 

* See above, p. 77, n. 3. 

* Twelve fingers ; a span. 

4 The Frarathni is, as it seems, as much as a forearm. 

* ' After a year,' according to the Commentary. 

* Read: 'But if the Nasu has not yet been expelled.' It 
appears from the similar passages (VIII, 35, 36, and 98, 99) and 
from the general principles of uncleanness that the words ' If the 
Nasu has not yet been expelled/ in § 29, have been misplaced 
there from § 30, and that the corresponding words in § 30 belong 
to § 29 ; because uncleanness spreads less far, when the Sag-dtd 
has taken place. 

7 A measure of unknown extent ; ' an arm's length,' it would seem. 

G 2 



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be wet ; then they shall sprinkle it once over with 
water, and it shall be clean. 

31 (81). ' Thus much of the wood around the dead 
shall they lay down, apart on the ground, according 
as the wood is dry or wet ; as it is hard or soft ; they 
shall sprinkle it once over with water, and it shall be 
clean.' 

32 (83). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! Can the corn or the fodder be made 
clean, O holy Ahura Mazda! whereunto Nasu has 
been brought from a dead dog, or from a dead man ? 

33 (84). Ahura Mazda answered: ' It can, O holy 
Zarathurtra ! ' 

How so ? 

' If the Nasu has not yet been expelled 1 by the 
corpse-eating dogs, or by the corpse-eating birds, 
they shall lay down, apart on the ground, all the 
corn on a Frarathni all around, if the corn be dry ; 
on a Fr&bazu all around, if it be wet; then they 
shall sprinkle it once over with water, and it shall 
be clean. 

34 (89). ' But if the Nasu has already been 
expelled 2 by the corpse-eating dogs, or by the 
corpse-eating birds, they shall lay down, apart on 
the ground, all the corn on a Frabazu all around, if 
the corn be dry ; on a Vibazu a all around, if it be wet; 
then they shall sprinkle it once over with water, and 
it shall be clean. 

35 (9 2 )- ' Thus much of the corn around the dead 

1 Read: 'If the Nasu has already been expelled . . .' See 
§ 29 note. 

* Read : ' If the Nasu has not yet been expelled . . .' See 
§ 30 note. 

' A measure of unknown extent ; ' an ell,' it would seem. 



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FARGARD VII. 85 



shall they lay down, apart on the ground, according 
as the corn is dry or wet ; as it is sown or not sown ; 
as it is reaped or not reaped ; [as it is beaten or not 
beaten] 1 ; as it is winnowed or not winnowed 2 ; [as it 
is ground or not ground] * ; as it is kneaded [or not 
kneaded] 8 ; they shall sprinkle it once over with 
water, and it shall be clean.' 

Vila. 

36 (94). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a worshipper of Mazda want to 
practise the art of healing, on whom shall he first 
prove his skill ? on worshippers of Mazda or on 
worshippers of the Daevas 4 ? 

37 (96). Ahura Mazda answered : ' On worship- 
pers of the Daevas shall he first prove himself, 
rather than on worshippers of Mazda. If he treat 
with the knife a worshipper of the Da£vas and he 
die ; if he treat with the knife a second worshipper of 
the Daevas and he die ; if he treat with the knife for 
the third time a worshipper of the Dafrvas and he 
die, he is unfit for ever and ever. 

38 (99). ' Let him therefore never attend any 
worshipper of Mazda ; let him never treat with the 
knife any worshipper of Mazda, nor wound him with 
the knife. If he shall ever attend any worshipper 
of Mazda, if he shall ever treat with the knife any 
worshipper of Mazda, and wound him with the knife, 



1 From the Vendldid Sada. * Doubtful. 

• This is supplied, as it seems to be required by the context 
and by the Pahlavi translation. 

4 On Zoroastrians or on idolaters (or, what is tantamount, on 
Iranians or on non-Iranians). 



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86 vendIdad. 



he shall pay for his wound the penalty for wilful 
murder \ 

39 (102). ' If he treat with the knife a worshipper 
of the Daevas and he recover ; if he treat with the 
knife a second worshipper of the Da6vas and he 
recover ; if for the third time he treat with the knife 
a worshipper of the Daevas and he recover; then 
he is fit for ever and ever 2 . 

40 (104). ' He may henceforth at his will attend 
worshippers of Mazda ; he may at his will treat with 
the knife worshippers of Mazda, and heal them with 
the knife. 

VII b. 

41 (105). 'A healer shall heal a priest for a blessing 
of the just 8 ; he shall heal the master of a house for 
the value of an ox of low value ; he shall heal the 
lord of a borough * for the value of an ox of average 
value ; he shall heal the lord of a town for the value 
of an ox of high value ; he shall heal the lord of a 
province for the value of a chariot and four*. 

42 (no). 'He shall heal the wife of the master 
of a house for the value of a she-ass ; he shall heal 
the wife of the lord of a borough for the value of 

1 For baodhd-var jta, literally, ' done with full conscience.' 

* ' Some say, One who has been qualified may become dis- 
qualified; one who has been disqualified shall never become 
qualified ' (Comm. ad § 43). 

* The priest will say to him : Be holy ! (that is to say, be one of 
the blest !) ' Thus he will become holy (i.e. he will go to Paradise) ; 
there is no equivalent in money. Some say, It is given when the 
priest has not 3000 stirs ' (Comm.) 

4 A group of several houses ; Aspendiarji and Anquetil say, ' a 
street.' 
8 ' A value of seventy stirs ' (Comm.) 



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FARGARD VII. 87 



a cow ; he shall heal the wife of the lord of a town 
for the value of a mare ; he shall heal the wife of 
the lord of a province for the value of a she-camel. 

43 ( 1 14). ' He shall heal the heir of a great house 
for the value of an ox of high value ; he shall heal 
an ox of high value for the value of an ox of aver- 
age value ; he shall heal an ox of average value for 
the value of an ox of low value ; he shall heal an 
ox of low value for the value of a sheep ; he shall 
heal a sheep for the value of a piece of meat *. 

44 (1 18). ' If several healers offer themselves to- 
gether, O Spitama Zarathurtra! namely, one who 
heals with the knife, one who heals with herbs, and 
one who heals with the Holy Word 2 , let one apply 
to the healing by the Holy Word : for this one is 
the best-healing of all healers who heals with the 
Holy Word ; he will best drive away sickness from 
the body of the faithful V 

VIII. 

45 (122). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! How long after the corpse of a dead 
man has been laid down on the ground, clothed 
with the light of heaven and beholding the sun, is 
the ground clean again * ? 

1 Cf. the tariff of fees for the cleanser, Farg. IX, 37 seq. 

* « By speUs ' (Comm. ; cf. Odyssea XIX, 457). This classifi- 
cation was not unknown to Asclepios : he relieved the sick ' now 
with caressing spells, now with soothing drink or balsam, now with 
the knife' (Pindaros, Pyth. Ill, 51). 

* Cf. Yt III, 6. The treatment by the Holy Word seems not to 
consist only in the recitation of spells, but the spells must be 
accompanied by the ceremony of the Barashnum (see Farg. XXII). 

* Restored to the purity of its nature, and fit to till; as it remains 
Nasu till that time. 



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46 (123). Ahura Mazda answered : ' When the 
corpse of a dead man has lain on the ground 
for a year, clothed with the light of heaven, and 
beholding the sun, then the ground is clean again, 
O holy Zarathurtra 1 ! ' 

47 (1 24). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One ! How long after the corpse of a dead man has 
been buried in the earth, is the earth clean again ? 

48(125). Ahura Mazda answered: 'When the 
corpse of a dead man has lain buried in the earth 
for fifty years 2 , O Spitama Zarathurtra ! then the 
earth is clean again V 

49 (126). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! How long after the corpse of a dead 
man has been laid down on a Dakhma, is the 
ground, whereon the Dakhma stands, clean again ? 

50(127). Ahura Mazda answered: 'Not until 
the dust of the corpse, O Spitama Zarathurtra! 
has mingled with the dust of the earth 4 . Urge 
every one in the material world, O Spitama Zara- 
thurtra ! to pull down Dakhmas *. 

51 (129). 'He who should pull down Dakhmas, 
even so much thereof as the size of his own body, 
his sins in thought, word, and deed are remitted as 
they would be by a Patet; his sins in thought, 
word, and deed are undone 6 . 

52 (132). ' Not for his soul shall the two spirits 

' See Farg. VI, 1 seq. 

' The time necessary to consume the corpse to its last particle. 

' Cf. Farg. Ill, 36 seq. 

* A space of time estimated at fifty years (Comm.) Cf. Farg. 
Ill, 13. 

* Cf. Farg. Ill, 9, text and note, and § 13. 

* ' A tanaffkhr sin is remitted thereby ' (Comm.) 



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FARGARD VII. 89 



wage war with one another 1 ; and when he enters 
Paradise, the stars, the moon, and the sun shall 
rejoice in him ; and I, Ahura Mazda, shall rejoice 
in him, saying: " Hail, O man ! thou who hast just 
passed from the decaying world into the undecaying 
one 2 !"' 

55 3 (137). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! Where are there Daevas ? Where is 
it they offer worship to the Daevas ? What is the 
place whereon troops of Daevas rush together, 
whereon troops of Daevas come rushing along ? 
What is the place whereon they rush together to 
kill their fifties and their hundreds, their hundreds 
and their thousands, their thousands and their tens 
of thousands, their tens of thousands and their 
myriads of myriads ? 

56(138). Ahura Mazda answered : ' Those Dakh- 
mas that are built upon the face of the earth, O Spi- 
tama Zarathurtra ! and whereon are laid the corpses 
of dead men, that is the place where there are 
Daevas, that is the place whereon troops of Daevas 



1 When a man dies, hell and Paradise, fiends and gods struggle 
for the possession of his soul : Ast&vJdh6tur, Vfzaresha, and the bad 
Vayu drag the souls of the wicked to hell ; Mithra, Sraosha, Rashnu, 
and the good Vayu take the souls of the good to Paradise (see 
Farg. XIX, 29 seq. ; Yt. XXII ; Mainyd-i-khard II). The struggle 
lasts for three days and three nights (the sadis), during which time 
the relatives of the dead offer up prayers and sacrifices to Sraosha, 
Rashnu, and Vayu, to assure him their protection (cf. IX, 56). 

* Cf. Yt. XXII, 16 and Farg. XIX, 31. 

* §§ 53i 54 belong to the Commentary; they are composed of 
disconnected quotations, part of which refers to the different deeds 
by which a tanafuhr sin may be redeemed, while the other part 
refers to the rules of what may be called the book-keeping of good 
actions and sins. 



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90 vendIdad. 



rush together ; whereon troops of Dadvas come 
rushing along; whereon they rush together to kill 
their fifties and their hundreds, their hundreds and 
their thousands, their thousands and their tens of 
thousands, their tens of thousands and their myriads 
of myriads. 

57 (140). ' On those Dakhmas, O Spitama Zara- 
thiutra ! those Da6vas take food and void filth. 
As you, men, in the material world, you cook meal 
and eat cooked meat, so do they. It is, as it were, 
the smell of their feeding that you smell there, 
O men ! 

58 (143). ' For thus they go on revelling, until 
that stench is rooted in the Dakhmas. In those 
Dakhmas arise the infection of diseases, itch, hot 
fever, na£za \ cold fever, rickets, and hair untimely 
white 2 . On those Dakhmas meet the worst mur- 
derers, from the hour when the sun is down s . 

59(148). 'And people of small understanding 
who do not seek for better understanding*, the 
Gainis 6 make those diseases grow stronger by a 
third', on their thighs, on their hands, on their 
three-plaited hair '.' 

1 Doubtful. 

* Albinism was regarded as sent by the demons. When Zil was 
born with white hair, his father Sim exposed on the Alborz ' that 
child of D6v, with an old man's head ' (Firdausi). 

* Cemeteries are the meeting-place of robbers and murderers. 

* ' Who do not seek for instruction.' 

* ' The Gahi ' (Comm.) The Gaini seems to be the Gahi as 
' killing,' as bringing sickness. 

* The general meaning of the sentence seems to be that, for 
want of hygiene, diseases grow worse through the infection from 
the Dakhmas. 

T Doubtful. 



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FARGARD VII. 9 1 



IX. 

60 l (151). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One I If in the house of a worshipper of Mazda there be 
a woman with child, and if being a month gone, or two, or 
three, or four, or five, or six, or seven, or eight, or nine, or 
ten months gone, she bring forth a still-born child, what 
shall the worshippers of Mazda do ? 

61 (155). Ahura Mazda answered : ' The place in that 
Mazdean house whereof the ground is the cleanest and 
the driest, and the least passed through by flocks and 
herds, by the fire of Ahura Mazda, by the consecrated 
bundles of baresma, and by the faithful ; ' — 

62, (158). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy. 
One 1 How far from the fire ? How far from the water ? 
How far from the consecrated bundles of baresma ? How 
far from the faithful ? 

63 (159). Ahura Mazda answered: 'Thirty paces from 
the fire ; thirty paces from the water ; thirty paces from the 
consecrated bundles of Baresma; three paces from the 
faithful ;— 

64 (160). ' On that place shall the worshippers of Mazda 
erect an enclosure, and therein shall they establish her 
with food, therein shall they establish her with clothes.' 

65 (162). O Maker of the material word, thou Holy 
One ! What is the food that the woman shall first take ? 

66 (163). Ahura Mazda answered: 'Gdmez mixed with 
ashes, three draughts of it, or six, or nine, to send down 
the Dakhma within her womb. 

67 (166). • Afterwards she may drink boiling milk of 
mares, cows, sheep, or goats, with pap or without pap ; she 
may take cooked milk without water, meal without water, 
and wine without water.' 

68 (169). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One ! How long shall she remain so ? How long shall she 
live thus on milk, meal, and wine ? 

1 f§ 6o-69=Farg. V, 45-54. See the Commentary there. 

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69 (170). Ahura Mazda answered : 'Three nights long 
shall she remain so ; three nights long shall she live thus 
on milk, meal, and wine. Then, when three nights have 
passed, she shall wash her body, she shall wash her clothes, 
with gdm£z and water, by the nine holes, and thus shall 
she be clean.' 

70 (172). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! But if fever befall her unclean body, if 
these two worst pains, hunger and thirst, befall her, 
may she be allowed to drink water 1 ? 

71 (175). Ahura Mazda answered: 'She may; 
the first thing for her is to have her life saved. 
From the hands of one of the holy men, a holy 
faithful man, who knows the holy knowledge 2 , she 
shall drink of the strength-giving water. But you, 
worshippers of Mazda, fix ye the penalty for it 
The Ratu being applied to, the Sraosha-varez being 
applied to 8 , shall prescribe the penalty to be paid 4 .' 

72 (181). What is the penalty to be paid ? 
Ahura Mazda answered : ' The deed is that of 

a Peshdtanu : two hundred stripes with the Aspahe- 
ajtra, two hundred stripes with the Sraoshd-iarana 6 .' 

X. 

73 ( T 83). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! Can the eating-vessels be made clean 

1 Before those three days have passed. 

* If there is near her a pious and intelligent man, who recognises 
that her life would be endangered by too strict an adherence to the 
rule, he will let her depart from it. 

* See Farg. V, 25. 4 For the water having been defiled. 

* A penalty to be undergone by the husband, at least in modern 
practice: 'If through fear of death or of serious illness she has 
drunk water before the appointed time, her husband shall make 
Patet for her fault before the Dastur ' (Old Rav. 98 b). 



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FARGARD VII. 93 



that have been touched by Nasu from a dog, or Nasu 
from a man ? 

74 (184). Ahura Mazda answered: 'They can, 
O holy Zarathiutra ! ' 

How so ? 

' If they be of gold, you shall wash them once 
with gdmSz, you shall rub them once with earth, 
you shall wash them once with water, and they shall 
be clean. 

' If they be of silver, you shall wash them twice 
with g6m£z, you shall rub them twice with earth, 
you shall wash them twice with water, and they shall 
be clean. 

[75. ' If they be of brass, you shall wash them 
thrice with gdmSz, you shall rub them thrice with 
earth, you shall wash them thrice with water, and 
they shall be clean. 

' If they be of steel, you shall wash them four 
times with gom^z, you shall rub them four times 
with earth, you shall wash them four times with 
water, and they shall be clean. 

' If they be of stone, you shall wash them six times 
with g6m£z, you shall rub them six times with earth, 
you shall wash them six times with water, and they 
shall be clean *.] 

' If they be of earth, of wood, or of clay, they are 
unclean for ever and ever V 

XI. 

76 (189). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! Can the cow be made clean that has 

1 From the Vendldid Sdda. 

* The power of resistance to uncleanness follows the value of 
the materials ; gold, silver, iron, steel, stone, earth, wood, clay. 



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94 vendIdAd. 



eaten of the carcase of a dog, or of the corpse of 
a man? 

77 (190). Ahura Mazda answered: 'She can, O 
holy Zarathustra ! The priest shall not, within 
a year, take from her either milk or cheese for 
the libation, nor meat for the libation and the 
Baresma *. When a year has passed, then the 
faithful may eat of her as before V 

XII. 

78 (193). Who is he, O holy Ahura Mazda ! who, 
meaning well and desiring righteousness, prevents 
righteousness? Who is he who, meaning well, falls 
into the ways of the Dru^ s ? 

79 ( ! 94)' Ahura Mazda answered: 'This one, 
meaning well and desiring righteousness, prevents 
righteousness ; this one, meaning well, falls into the 
ways of the Druf, who offers up water denied by 
the dead and unfit for libation ; or who offers up in 
the dead of the night water unfit for libation V 

1 The libation waters (Zaothra) are mixed with milk feiv). The 
cheese (or butter) and the meat are elements of the da run as 
gdsh6dl 

* ' Whatever comes from her, if dropped, is clean ; if taken, 
unclean. If she be big with young, the young is born clean, if 
conceived before her eating of the corpse ; if conceived afterwards, 
it is born unclean ' (Comm.) 

* Possibly, ' works for the Drug .' 

* ' From what hour may sacrifice to the Good Waters be offered ? 
From sunrise to sunset. ... He who offers up libations to the 
Good Waters after sunset, before sunrise, does no better deed than 
if he should throw them downright into the jaws of a venomous 
snake ' (Ntrangist&n, § 48). 



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FARGARD VIII. 95 



Fargard VIII. 

1 (1-3). Purification of the house where a man has died. 

II (4-13). Funerals. 

III (14-22). Purification of the ways along which the corpse 
has been carried. 

IV (23-25). No clothes to be thrown on a corpse. 

V (26-32). Unlawful lusts. 

VI (33-34). A corpse when dried up does not contaminate. 

VII (35-72). Purification of the man defiled by the dead. 

VIII (73-80). Purification of the fire defiled by the dead. 

IX (81-96). The Bahram fire. 

X (97-107). Purification in the wilderness. 

This chapter, putting aside section V, may be entitled : Funerals 
and Purification. Logical order may easily be introduced into it, 
by arranging the sections as follows : I, IV, II, III, VI, VII, X, 
VIII, IX. 

I. 

i . If a dog or a man die under a hut of wood 
or a hut of felt l , what shall the worshippers of 
Mazda do * ? 

2 (4). Ahura Mazda answered : ' They shall search 
for a Dakhma, they shall look for a Dakhma all 
around s . If they find it easier to remove the dead, 
they shall take out the dead, they shall let the house 
stand, and shall perfume it with Urvasna or Vohfi- 



1 A movable shelter, by contradistinction to a fixed abode, some- 
thing like the oba of the Tartars, one of those huts made of 
boards or felt and called tharuma by the Arabs, which served as 
pavilions for princes as well as tents for nomads. 

' That sort of abode, having only one room, can have no 
chamber for the dead (Farg. V, 10). 

* If there is a Dakhma in the proximity, they remove the 
corpse at once. If there is no Dakhma or the season prevents 
its access, they purify the hut first 



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gaona, or Vohu-kereti, or Hadha-naepata, or any 
other sweet-smelling plant '. 

3 (8). 'If they find it easier to remove the house, 
they shall take away the house, they shall let the 
dead lie on the spot, and shall perfume the house 
with Urvasna, or Vohu-gaona, or Vohu-kereti, or 
Hadha-na£pata, or any other sweet-smelling plant' 

II. 

4 (n). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One! If in the house of a worshipper of Mazda a 
dog or a man happens to die, and it is raining 2 , or 
snowing, or blowing 3 , or it is dark, or the day is at 
its end, when flocks and men lose their way, what 
shall the worshippers of Mazda do 3 ? 

5 (14). Ahura Mazda answered : ' The place in 
that house whereof the ground is the cleanest and the 
driest, and the least passed through by flocks and 
herds, by the fire of Ahura Mazda, by the consecrated 
bundles of Baresma, and by the faithful;' — 

6 (16). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One ! How far from the fire ? How far from the 

1 ' So, when a dog or a man dies, the first thing to do is to take 
the corpse out (from the house), and to purify the house, inside and 
outside, with perfumes burnt on the fire' (Comm.) Cf. XI, 4. 
Urvasna is the rSsan plant, a sort of garlic ; Vohu-gaona, Vohu- 
kereti, and Hadh£-na6pata are respectively (according to Framji) 
benzoin, aloe, and pomegranate. 

* ' No corpse must be taken to the Dakhma when rain is falling, 
or threatening. If one is overtaken by rain on the way, if there be 
a place to lay it down, they shall lay it down ; if there be none, 
they must go on and take it to the Dakhma, they must not retrace 
their steps; . . . When arrived at the Dakhma, if they find it full of 
water, they may nevertheless lay down the corpse ' (Comm.) 

* If it is the season of rain or snow. Cf. V, 10 seq. 



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FARGARD VIII. 97 



water ? How far from the consecrated bundles of 
Baresma ? How far from the faithful? 

7 (17). Ahura Mazda answered: 'Thirty paces 
from the fire ; thirty paces from the water ; thirty 
paces from the consecrated bundles of Baresma; 
three paces from the faithful; — 

8 (18). ' On that place they shall dig a grave ', 
half a foot deep if the earth be hard, half the height 
of a man if it be soft 2 ; [they shall cover the surface 
of the grave with ashes or cowdung] 8 ; they shall 
cover the surface of it with dust of bricks, of stones, 
or of dry earth 4 . 

9 (21) 6 . 'And they shall let the lifeless body lie 
there, for two nights, or three nights, or a month 
long, until the birds begin to fly, the plants to grow, 
the hidden floods to flow, and the wind to dry up the 
earth. 

10 (23). ' And when the birds begin to fly, the 
plants to grow, the hidden floods to flow, and the wind 
to dry up the earth, then the worshippers of Mazda 
shall make a breach in the wall of the house 6 , 



1 This is the case when the house is too small for containing 
a special chamber for the dead (as prescribed Farg. V, 10). 
Nowadays they dispense even with that grave : the corpse is laid 
on the floor, on a slab of marble, by which it is sufficiently isolated 
from the ground to prevent its being denied. 

* Soft earth, being not impervious to liquids, lets contagion 
through more easily. 

* VendidSd Sada. * Substances more impervious. 

* §§ 9—10; cf. Farg.V, 12-13. 

* 'The master and mistress of the house are carried away 
through a breach (made in the wall of the house) ; others through 
the door' (Comm.) — 'The more scrupulous parties have it [the 
body] removed by a side, in preference to the usual general 
entrance ' (H. G. Briggs, The Parsis, 1852, p. 50). 

[4] H 



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and two men, strong and skilful 1 , having stripped 
their clothes off 2 , shall take up the body from the 
clay or the stones, or from the plastered house 8 , 
and they shall lay it down on a place where they 
know there are always corpse-eating dogs and 
corpse-eating birds. 

1 1 (29). ' Afterwards the corpse-bearers shall sit 
down, three paces from the dead, and the holy Ratu* 
shall proclaim to the worshippers of Mazda thus : 
" Worshippers of Mazda, let the urine be brought 
here wherewith the corpse-bearers there shall wash 
their hair and their bodies !"' 

12 (32). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One! Which is the urine wherewith the corpse- 
bearers shall wash their hair and their bodies ? 
Is it of sheep or of oxen ? Is it of man or of 
woman ? 

*3 (35)- Ahura Mazda answered : ' It is of sheep 
or of oxen ; not of man nor of woman, except a man 
or a woman who has married the next-of-kin 5 : these 



1 The corpse-bearers or nasu-kasha (KhSndyas). 'The 
corpse must be carried by two persons (see Farg. Ill, 13 seq.), no 
matter who they are ; they may be a man and a woman, or two 
women' (Comm.) 

2 ' As they are exchanged for the special clothes in which they 
carry corpses' (Comm.), the so-called ^Sma-i dakhma, 'the 
Dakhma clothes.' 

* The Dakhma (see Farg. VI, 50 seq.) 

4 The priest who directs the funerals, ' the chief of the Nasu- 
kashas ' (Comm.), the so-called Nas&-s415r. 

• The next-of-kin marriage or Hva&vadatha (KMludSd) is one 
of the good works that Ahriman dreads most (Sh&yast 14-shiyast 
XVIII ; West, Pahlavi Texts, 1, 389). ' Aharman and the demons are 
less predominant in the body of him who practises KhMd&d ' (West, 
II, 422). Therefore their magsma is as powerful as the gdmgz. 



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FARGARD VIII. 99 



shall therefore procure the urine wherewith the 
corpse-bearers shall wash their hair and their 
bodies V 

III. 

14 (38). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! Can the way, whereon the carcases of 
dogs or corpses of men have been carried, be passed 
through again by flocks and herds, by men and 
women, by the fire of Ahura Mazda, by the conse- 
crated bundles of Baresma, and by the faithful ? 

15 (40). Ahura Mazda answered: 'It cannot be 
passed through again by flocks and herds, nor by 
men and women, nor by the fire of Ahura Mazda, nor 
by the consecrated bundles of Baresma, nor by the 
faithful 8 . 

16 (41). * They shall therefore cause a yellow dog 
with four eyes 3 , or a white dog with yellow ears, to 
go three times through that way 4 . When either the 
yellow dog with four eyes, or the white dog with 
yellow ears, is brought there, then the Dru^ - Nasu 
flies away to the regions of the north, [in the shape 
of a raging fly, with knees and tail sticking out, 
droning without end, and like unto the foulest 
Khrafstras 5 .] 

1 'When back in the village they perform the regular Barash- 
num with consecrated g6m6z' (Comm.) 

1 The way by which the corpse has passed is haunted by the 
Drujr Nasu : the Dru^ is expelled from it by the same proceeding 
as it was expelled from the dead, by the Sag-dfd. The Sag-did 
for the purification of the way seems to have fallen into desuetude. 

' A dog with two spots above the eyes. 

* 'Afrag says, the dog goes straight along the length of the 
way; Maidyd-mah says, he goes across it from side to side' 
(Comm.) 

* Cf.Farg.VII, 3. 

H 2 



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i 7 (45). ' If the dog goes unwillingly, O Spitama 
Zarathiutra, they shall cause the yellow dog with 
four eyes, or the white dog with yellow ears, to go 
six times 1 through that way. When either the 
yellow dog with four eyes, or the white dog with 
yellow ears, is brought there, then the Dru^ - Nasu 
flies away to the regions of the north, [in the shape 
of -a raging fly, with knees and tail sticking out, 
droning without end, and like unto the foulest 
Khrafstras.] 

18 (47). 'If the dog goes unwillingly, they shall 
cause the yellow dog with four eyes, or the white 
dog with yellow ears, to go nine times through that 
way. When either the yellow dog with four eyes, 
or the white dog with yellow ears, has been brought 
there, then the Dru£* Nasu flies away to the regions 
of the north, [in the shape of a raging fly, with knees 
and tail sticking out, droning without end, and like 
unto the foulest Khrafstras.] 

19(49). 'An Athravan shall first go along the 
way and shall say aloud these victorious words: 
"Yatha ahu vairyd 2 :— The will of the Lord is 
the law of righteousness. 

' " The gifts of Vohu-mand 3 to the deeds done in 
this world for Mazda. 



1 ' Three times suffice if the dog goes of his own accord ; if he 
goes by force, it counts as nothing ; if he goes but with reluctance, 
that shall suffice' (Coram, ad § 18). 

* A prayer in frequent use, and considered of great efficacy, 
generally known as the Ahuna Vairya or Honover. It was by 
reciting it that Ormazd in his first conflict with Ahriman drove 
him back to hell (Bund. I). 

* Of Paradise, as Vohu-man6 (Good Thought) is the doorkeeper 
of heaven (cf. Farg. XIX, 31). 



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FARGARD VIII. IOI 



'"He who relieves the poor makes Ahura king. 

20 (52). * " K*m-na mazda 1 : — What protector 
hast thou given unto me, O Mazda ! while the hate 
of the wicked encompasses me ? Whom but thy 
Atar and Vohu-man6 *, through whose work I keep 
ott the world of righteousness ? Reveal therefore 
to me thy Religion as thy rule 8 ! 

"'Ke verethrem-^a 4 : — Who is the victorious 
who will protect thy teaching ? Make it clear that 
I am the guide for both worlds. May Sraosha 
come with Vohu-mand and help whomsoever thou 
pleasest, O Mazda ! 

21 (60). '"Keep us from our hater, O Mazda 
and Armaiti Spewta! Perish, O fiendish Dru^! 
Perish, O brood of the fiend ! Perish, O creation 
of the fiend ! Perish, O world of the fiend ! Perish 
away, O Dru^! Rush away, O Dru£"! Perish 
away, O Dru^ - ! Perish away to the regions of the 
north, never more to give unto death the living 
world of Righteousness!" 

22 (63). 'Then the worshippers of Mazda may 
at their will bring by those ways sheep and oxen, 
men and women, and Fire, the son of Ahura 
Mazda, the consecrated bundles of Baresma, and 
the faithful. 



1 Yasna XLVI, 7. 

* I have no protection to expect but from my virtue (Vohu-man6, 
'Good Thought') and from thy fire, which in the fire ordeal (Var 
Nfrang) will show my innocence. 

* That is to say, one must take Religion as one's rule. 

* Yasna XL1V, 16. This stanza, which in the original G&tha 
refers to the human incarnation of Sraosha, that is to say, to king 
Vtrtispa, the victorious protector of the Prophet and his Religion, 
is applied here to the god Sraosha, as a protector of the soul in its 
passage from this world to the other (Farg. VII, 5 a). 



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102 VENDiDAD. 



' The worshippers of Mazda may afterwards x pre- 
pare meals with meat and wine in that house; it 
shall be clean, and there will be no sin, as before.' 



IV. 

23 (65). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man shall throw clothes, either of 
skin or woven, upon a dead body *, enough to cover 
the feet, what is the penalty that he shall pay s ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Four hundred stripes 
with the Aspah6-artra, four hundred stripes with the 
Sraoshd-iarana.' 

24 (68). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man shall throw clothes, either 
of skin or woven, upon a dead body, enough to 
cover both legs, what is the penalty that he shall 
pay? 

Ahura Mazda answered: 'Six hundred stripes 
with the Aspah£-artra, six hundred stripes with the 
Sraosh6-£arana.' 

25 (71). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man shall throw clothes, either of 
skin or woven, upon a dead body, enough to cover 
the whole body, what is the penalty that he shall 
pay? 

Ahura Mazda answered: 'A thousand stripes 



1 On the fourth day. For three days and nights after the death 
it is forbidden to cook meat in the house (Comm.) 

1 The dead must be stripped of his clothes and is exposed on the 
heights 'clothed with the light of heaven' (Farg. VI, 51). — The 
modern use is to have him wrapped in a shroud as old and as much 
worn out as possible (Farg. V, 61). 

* See Farg. V, 60; VII, 20. 



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FARGARD VIII. 103 



with the Aspah6-artra, a thousand stripes with the 
Sraoshd-iarana.' 

V. 

26 (74). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man, by force, commits the un- 
natural sin, what is the penalty that he shall pay ? 

. Ahura Mazda answered : ' Eight hundred stripes 
with the Aspah£-artra, eight hundred stripes with 
the Sraosho-iarana.' 

27 (77). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! If a man voluntarily commits the 
unnatural sin, what is the penalty for it? What 
is the atonement for it? What is the cleansing 
from it? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' For that deed there is 
nothing that can pay, nothing that can atone, nothing 
that can cleanse from it ; it is a trespass for which 
there is no atonement, for ever and ever.' 

a8 (83) '. When is it so? 

' It is so, if the sinner be a professor of the Religion of 
Mazda, or one who has been taught in it. 

' But if he be not a professor of the Religion of Mazda, 
nor one who has been taught in it, then his sin is taken 
from him, if he makes confession of the Religion of Mazda 
and resolves never to commit again such forbidden deeds. 

29 (88). ' The Religion of Mazda indeed, O Spitama 
Zarathurtra ! takes away from him who makes confession 
of it the bonds of his sin ; it takes away (the sin of) 
breach of trust ; it takes away (the sin of) murdering one of 
the faithful ; it takes away (the sin of) burying a corpse ; 
it takes away (the sin of) deeds for which there is no 
atonement ; it takes away the worst sin of usury ; it takes 
away any sin that may be sinned. 

1 See Farg. Ill, 38-42, text and notes. 

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3° (95)- '1° the same way the Religion of Mazda, O 
Spitama Zarathurtra! cleanses the faithful from every 
evil thought, word, and deed, as a swift-rushing mighty 
wind cleanses the plain. 

'So let all the deeds he doeth be henceforth good, 
O Zarathurtra! a full atonement for his sin is effected 
by means of the Religion of Mazda.' 

31 (98). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! Who is the man that is a Daeva ? 
Who is he that is a worshipper of the Daevas ? that 
is a male paramour of the Da6vas ? that is a female 
paramour of the Daevas ? that is a wife to the 
Daeva 1 ? that is as bad as a Da6va ? that is in his 
whole being a Da6va ? Who is he that is a Da£va 
before he dies, and becomes one of the unseen 
Da£vas after death 2 ? 

32 (102). Ahura Mazda answered: 'The man 
that lies with mankind as man lies with womankind, 
or as woman lies with mankind, is the man that is 
a Da£va ; this one is the man that is a worshipper 
of the Dadvas, that is a male paramour of the 
Dafivas, that is a female paramour of the Daevas, 
that is a wife to the Da6va ; this is the man that is 
as bad as a Da£va, that is in his whole being a 
Daeva ; this is the man that is a Da6va before he 
dies, and becomes one of the unseen Daevas after 
death : so is he, whether he has lain with mankind 
as mankind, or as womankind V 

1 ' As a wife is obedient to her husband, so is he to the Dagvas ' 
(Comm.) 

* Demons are often the restless souls of the wicked, excluded 
from heaven. The Persian sect of the Mahabadians believed that 
the soul that had not spoken and done good became an Ahriman 
or^in (Dabistin). 

* The guilty may be killed by any one, without an order from 



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FARGARD VIII. 105 



VI. 

33 (107). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! Shall the man be clean who has 
touched a corpse that has been dried up and dead 
more than a year 1 ? 

34 (108). Ahura Mazda answered : 'He shall. 
The dry mingles not with the dry 2 . Should the dry 
mingle with the dry, how soon all this material 
world of mine would be only one Pesh6tanu, bent 
on the destruction of righteousness, and whose soul 
will cry and wail ! so numberless are the beings that 
die upon the face of the earth V 

VII. 

35 (in). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! Can the man be made clean that has 

the Dastur (see § 74 n.), and by this execution an ordinary capital 
crime may be redeemed (Comm. ad VII, 52). 

1 The corpse, dried up, contains no longer any of the solid and 
liquid elements that generate corruption and infection (see above, 
p. 75, n. 2). 

* This principle still prevails even with Musulman Persians: 
' Pour encourir leur immondicite* dans I'attouchement des Chretiens 
et autres idolatres, il est necessaire que s'ils les touchent, leurs 
vfitements soient mouille's. C'est a cause, disent-ils, qu'e"tans sees 
I'immondicite* ne s'attache pas; .... ce qui est cause que dans 
les villes ou leurs Mullas et Docteurs ont plus d'autoritd, ils font 
parfois de*fendre par leurs Kans que lorsqu'il pleut, les Chretiens 
ne sortent pas de leurs maisons, de crainte que par accident, venans 
a les heurter, ils ne soient rendus immondes ' (G. du Chinon, p. 88 
seq.; cf. Chardin). Still nowadays, in Persia, the Jews are not 
allowed to go out of their house on a rainy day, lest the religious 
impurity, conducted through the rain, should pass from the Jew to 
the Musulman. 

• See Farg. V, 4. 



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T06 VENDiDAD. 



touched the corpse of a dog or the corpse of a 
man? 

36 (113). Ahura Mazda answered: 'He can, O 
holy Zarathurtra ! ' 

How so ? 

' If the Nasu has already been expelled by the 
corpse-eating dogs, or by the corpse-eating birds, 
he shall cleanse his body with gdmez and water, and 
he shall be clean \ 

37 (117). ' If the Nasu has not yet been expelled 
by the corpse-eating dogs, or by the corpse-eating 
birds 2 , then the worshippers of Mazda shall dig 
three holes in the ground 8 , and he shall thereupon 
wash his body with gdmez, not with water. They 
shall then lift and bring my dog 4 , they shall bring 
him (thus shall it be done and not otherwise) in 
front [of the man] *. 

38 (121). 'The worshippers of Mazda shall dig 
three other holes • in the ground, and he shall there- 
upon wash his body with g6m£z, not with water. 
They shall then lift and bring my dog, they shall 
bring him (thus shall it be done and not otherwise) 
in front [of the man]. Then shall they wait until he 



1 If the Sag-did has been performed, a simple ghosel is enough. 
Cf. Farg. VII, 29, notes 1 and 5. 

* If the Sag-did has not been performed, the Barashnum is 
necessary. 

* The first three holes, which contain g6m€z. For the dis- 
position of the holes, see the following Fargard. 

Three times ; every time that the unclean one passes from one 
hole to another (Comm. ad IX, 32). 

6 To look at him, or, rather, at the Nasu in him, whilst the priest 
sings the spells that drive the Nasu. 

* Containing gdmgz too. 



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FARGARD VIII. IO7 



is dried 1 even to the last hair on the top of his 
head. 

39 (125). 'They shall dig three more holes 2 in 
the ground, three paces away from the preceding, 
and he shall thereupon wash his body with water s , 
not with g6m£z. 

40 (127). ' He shall first wash his hands; if his 
hands be not first washed, he makes the whole of 
his body unclean. When he has washed his hands 
three times, after his hands have been washed, thou 
shalt sprinkle with water 4 the forepart of his 
skull 5 .' 

41 (131). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! When the good waters reach the fore- 
part of the skull, whereon does the Drug" Nasu 
rush 6 ? 



1 He rubs himself dry with handfuls of dust (see IX, 29 seq.) 

* Containing water. 

* As a master does not take away the dunghill from his house 
with his own hands, but has it taken away by his servants, so the 
water, being of higher dignity than the g6m6z, has the worst of the 
impurity taken by the g6m€z, and intervenes only when there is 
nothing left that can attain it (Abalish, tr. Barthelemy, ch. V and 
note 29). 

* The water is shed from a spoon, tied to a long stick, ' the stick 
with nine knots' (Farg. IX, 14). 

* Bareshnum; from which word the whole of the operation has 
taken its name. 

* The Nasu is expelled symmetrically, from limb to limb, from 
the right side of the body to the left, from the forepart to the back 
parts, and she flies, thus pursued, downwards from the top of the 
head to the tips of the toes. The retreating order of the Nasu 
is just the reverse of the order in which she invaded the different 
members of the first man : she entered Gayomart by the little 
toe of the left foot, then went up to the heart, then to the 
shoulder, at last to the summit of the head (Gr. Bund.) Death still 
seizes the foot first 



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Ahura Mazda answered : ' In front, between the 
brows, the Druf Nasu rushes.' 

42 (134). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! When the good waters reach in front, 
between the brows, whereon does the Druf Nasu 
rush ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' On the back part of 
the skull the Dru^ - Nasu rushes.' 

43 ( l 37)- O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! When the good waters reach the back 
part of the skull, whereon does the Dru^ - Nasu rush ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' In front, on the jaws, 
the Dru£" Nasu rushes.' 

44 (140). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! When the good waters reach in front, 
on the jaws, whereon does the Dnif Nasu rush ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Upon the right ear the 
Dru^ - Nasu rushes.' 

45 (*43)- O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! When the good waters reach the right 
ear, whereon does the Dru^ - Nasu rush ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Upon the left ear the 
Dru^" Nasu rushes.' 

46 (146). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! When the good waters reach the left 
ear, whereon does the Dru£" Nasu rush ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Upon the right shoulder 
the Dru^f Nasu rushes.' 

47 (149). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! When the good waters reach the right 
shoulder, whereon does the Druf Nasu rush ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Upon the left shoulder 
the Dru^ - Nasu rushes.' 

48 (152). O Maker of the material world, thou 



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FARGARD VIII. 109 



Holy One ! When the good waters reach the left 
shoulder, whereon does the Drug" Nasu rush ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Upon the right arm-pit 
the Drug" Nasu rushes.' 

49 (155). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! When the good waters reach the right 
arm-pit, whereon does the Drug- Nasu rush ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Upon the left arm-pit 
the Drug- Nasu rushes.' 

50 (158). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! When the good waters reach the left 
arm-pit, whereon does the Drug- Nasu rush ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : 'In front, upon the 
chest, the Drug- Nasu rushes.' 

51 (161). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! When the good waters reach the chest 
in front, whereon does the Drug- Nasu rush ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Upon the back the 
Drug- Nasu rushes.' 

52 (164). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! When the good waters reach the back, 
whereon does the Druf Nasu rush ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Upon the right nipple 
the Dru£" Nasu rushes.' 

53 ( I ^7). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! When the good waters reach the right 
nipple, whereon does the Drug- Nasu rush ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Upon the left nipple 
the Druf Nasu rushes.' 

54 (170). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! When the good waters reach the left 
nipple, whereon does the Drug- Nasu rush ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Upon the right rib the 
Dru^- Nasu rushes.' 



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55 ( x 73)- O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! When the good waters reach the right 
rib, whereon does the Dru£- Nasu rush ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Upon the left rib the 
Dru^ Nasu rushes.' 

56 (176). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! When the good waters reach the left 
rib, whereon does the Drug Nasu rush ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Upon the right hip the 
Druf Nasu rushes.' 

57 (179). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! When the good waters reach the right 
hip, whereon does the Druf Nasu rush ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Upon the left hip the 
Druf Nasu rushes.' 

58 (182). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! When the good waters reach the left 
hip, whereon does the Dru^ - Nasu rush ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Upon the sexual parts 
the Drug" Nasu rushes. If the unclean one be a man, 
thou shalt sprinkle him first behind, then before; 
if the unclean one be a woman, thou shalt sprinkle 
her first before, then behind.' 

59 (187). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! When the good waters reach the 
sexual parts, whereon does the Dru^ - Nasu rush ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Upon the right thigh 
the Druf Nasu rushes.' 

60 (190). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! When the good waters reach the right 
thigh, whereon does the Drug 1 Nasu rush ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Upon the left thigh 
the Druf Nasu rushes.' 

61 (193). O Maker of the material world, thou 



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FARGARD VIII. Ill 



Holy One ! When the good waters reach the left 
thigh, whereon does the Dru^ - Nasu rush ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Upon the right knee 
the Dru^" Nasu rushes.' 

62 (196). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! When the good waters reach the right 
knee, whereon does the Druf Nasu rush ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Upon the left knee the 
Dru^f Nasu rushes.' 

63 (199). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! When the good waters reach the left 
knee, whereon does the Dru^ - Nasu rush ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Upon the right leg the 
Dru£- Nasu rushes.' 

64 (202). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! When the good waters reach the right 
leg, whereon does the Dru^f Nasu rush ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Upon the left leg the 
Druf Nasu rushes.' 

65 (205). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! When the good waters reach the left 
leg, whereon does the Dnif Nasu rush ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Upon the right ankle 
the Druf Nasu rushes.' 

66 (208). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! When the good waters reach the right 
ankle, whereon does the Dru^ - Nasu rush ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Upon the left ankle 
the Dru£* Nasu rushes.' 

67 (211). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! When the good waters reach the left 
ankle, whereon does the Druf Nasu rush ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Upon the right instep 
the Dru/ Nasu rushes.' 



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68 (214). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! When the good waters reach the right 
instep, whereon does the Dru^ - Nasu rush ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Upon the left instep 
the Drug Nasu rushes.' 

69 (217). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! When the good waters reach the left 
instep, whereon does the Dru^ - Nasu rush ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' She turns round under 
the sole of the foot; it looks like the wing of 
a fly. 

70(220). 'He shall press his toes upon the 
ground, and shall raise up his heels; thou shalt 
sprinkle his right sole with water; then the Druf 
Nasu rushes upon the left sole. Thou shalt sprinkle 
the left sole with water ; then the Dru^ - Nasu turns 
round under the toes; it looks like the wing of 
a fly. 

71 (225). 'He shall press his heels upon the 
ground, and shall raise up his toes ; thou shalt 
sprinkle his right toe with water; then the Dru^ 
Nasu rushes upon the left toe. Thou shalt sprinkle 
the left toe with water ; then the Dru^ - Nasu flies 
away to the regions of the north, in the shape 
of a raging fly, with knees and tail sticking out, 
droning without end, and like unto the foulest 
Khrafstras. 

[72. 'And thou shalt say aloud these victorious, 
most healing words : 

' " The will of the Lord is the law of holi- 
ness," &c. 

'"What protector hast thou given unto me, O 
Mazda! while the hate of the wicked encompasses 
me ? " &c. 



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FARGARD VIII. II3 



'"Who is the victorious who will protect thy 
teaching ? " &c. * 

' " Keep us from our hater, O Mazda and Armaiti 
Spettta ! Perish, O fiendish Dru^ ! Perish, O brood 
of the fiend ! Perish, O creation of the fiend ! Perish 
O world of the fiend ! Perish away, O Dru/ ! Rush 
away, O Dru£" ! Perish away, O Dru,f ! Perish away 
to the regions of the north, never more to give unto 
death the living world of Righteousness a ! " '] 

VIII. 

73 ( 22 9)« O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If worshippers of Mazda, walking, or 
running, or riding, or driving, come upon a Nasu- 
burning fire,- whereon Nasu is being burnt or 
cooked s , what shall they do ? 

74 ( 2 33)> Ahura Mazda answered : ' They shall 
kill the man that cooks the Nasu ; surely they shall 
kill him*. They shall take off the cauldron, they 
shall take off the tripod. 

75 (237). ' Then they shall kindle wood from that 
fire ; either wood of those trees that have the seed 
of fire in them, or bundles of the very wood that was 
prepared for that fire ; then they shall take it farther 
and disperse it, that it may die out the sooner 6 . 

1 As in §§ 19, 20. * From the Vendtdad Sada; cf. § 21. 

'For food. Cf. Farg. VII, 23-24. 

4 ' He who burns Nasd (dead matter) must be killed. Burning 
or cooking Nasi from the dead is a capital crime. . . . Four men 
can be put to death by any one without an order from the Dastur : 
the Nasa-burner, the highwayman, the Sodomite, and the criminal 
taken in the deed ' (Comm.) 

' A new fire is kindled from the Nasu-burning fire : this new fire 
is disposed in such a way that it should die out soon : before it has 
died out, they kindle a new fire from it and so on for nine times : 
the ninth fire, derived from the one impure, through seven inter- 

[4] I 



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76 (242). ' Thus they shall lay a first bundle on 
the ground l , a Vltasti * away from the Nasu-burning 
fire ; then they shall take it farther and disperse it, 
that it may die out the sooner. 

77 ( 2 45)- ' They shall lay down a second bundle 
on the ground, a Vltasti away from the Nasu- 
burning fire ; then they shall take it farther and 
disperse it, that it may die out the sooner. 

' They shall lay down a third bundle on the 
ground, a Vltasti away from the Nasu-burning fire ; 
then they shall take it farther and disperse it, that 
it may die out the sooner. 

' They shall lay down a fourth bundle on the 
ground, a Vltasti away from the Nasu-burning fire ; 
then they shall take it farther and disperse it, that 
it may die out the sooner. 

' They shall lay down a fifth bundle on the 
ground, a Vltasti away from the Nasu-burning fire ; 
then they shall take it farther and disperse it, that 
it may die out the sooner. 

' They shall lay down a sixth bundle on the 
ground, a Vltasti away from the Nasu-burning fire ; 
then they shall take it farther and disperse it, that 
it may die out the sooner. 

mediate fires, more and more distant from the original impurity, 
will represent the fire in its native purity and can enter into the 
composition of a Bahrain fire. — On the modern process, see 
Dosabhoy FrSmjt, History of the Parsis, II, 213. 

1 In a hole dug for that purpose; such is at least the custom 
nowadays. The ceremony is thus made an imitation of the Ba- 
rashnum. The unclean fire, represented by the nine bundles, 
passes through the nine holes, as the unclean man does (see above, 
§ 37 seq. and Farg. IX, 12 seq.), and leaves at each of them some 
of the uncleanness it has contracted. 

* A span of twelve fingers. 



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FARGARD VIII. II5 



' They shall lay down a seventh bundle on the 
ground, a Vltasti away from the Nasu-burning fire ; 
then they shall take it farther and disperse it, that 
it may die out the sooner. 

' They shall lay down an eighth bundle on the 
ground, a Vltasti away from the Nasu-burning fire ; 
then they shall take it farther and disperse it, that 
it may die out the sooner. 

78 (245). ' They shall lay down a ninth bundle on 
the ground, a Vltasti away from the Nasu-burning 
fire ; then they shall take it farther and disperse it, 
that it may die out the sooner. 

79 (246). ' If a man shall then piously bring unto 
the fire, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! wood of Urvasna, 
or Vohu-gaona, or Vohu-kereti, or Hadha-na6pata, 
or any other sweet-smelling wood ; 

80 (248). ' Wheresoever the wind shall bring the 
perfume of the fire, thereunto the fire of Ahura 
Mazda shall go and kill thousands of unseen Daevas, 
thousands of fiends, the brood of darkness, thousands 
of couples of Yatus and Pairikas V 

IX. 

81 (251). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man bring a Nasu-burning fire to 
the Daity6-gatu 2 , what shall be his reward when his 
soul has parted with his body ? 

1 It will have all the power of the Bahrain fire. 

* ' The proper abode,' the Bahrim fire. The Bahrim fire is 
composed of a thousand and one fires belonging to sixteen different 
classes (ninety-one corpse-burning fires, eighty dyers' fires, &c.) 
As the earthly representative of the heavenly fire, it is the sacred 
centre to which every earthly fire longs to return, in order to be 
united again, as much as possible, with its native abode. The 

I 2 



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Ahura Mazda answered : 'His reward shall be 
the same as if he had, here below, brought ten 
thousand fire-brands to the Daityd-gatu.' 

82 (254). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man bring to the Daityd-gatu the 
fire wherein impure liquid has been burnt 1 , what 
shall be his reward when his soul has parted with 
his body? 

Ahura Mazda answered : 'His reward shall be 
the same as if he had, here below, brought a thou- 
sand fire-brands to the Daityd-gatu. 

83 (257). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man bring to the Daityd-gatu the 
fire wherein dung has been burnt 2 , what shall be his 
reward when his soul has parted with his body ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' His reward shall be 
the same as if he had, here below, brought five 
hundred fire-brands to the Daityd-gatu.' 

84 (258). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man bring to the Daityd-gatu the 
fire from the kiln of a potter, what shall be his 
reward when his soul has parted with his body? 

Ahura Mazda answered : 'His reward shall be 
the same as if he had, here below, brought four 
hundred fire-brands to the Daityd-gatu.' 

more it has been defiled by worldly uses, the greater is the merit 
acquired by freeing it from defilement. 

1 The hfchr, that is to say all sort of impurity that comes from 
the body. 

8 ' The fire of a bath,' according to Frimjt; the use of the bath 
was prohibited ; according to Josuah the Stylite (ch. XX, tr. Martin), 
king Balash (484-488) was overthrown by the Magi for having 
built bath-houses. The reason of this prohibition was probably 
that it entailed the defilement of the fire, as they were warmed with 
cowdung. 



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FARGARD VIII. II7 



85 ( 2 59)- O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man bring to the Daityd-gatu the 
fire from a glazier's kiln, what shall be his reward 
when his soul has parted with his body? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' His reward shall be 
the same as if he had, here below, brought to the 
Daityd-gatu as many fire-brands as there were 
glasses [brought to that fire] 1 .' 

86 (260). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man bring to the Daityd-gatu the 
fire from the aonya pard-bere/ya 2 , what shall be 
his reward when his soul has parted with his body ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : 'His reward shall be the 
same as if he had, here below, brought to the Daityd- 
gatu as many fire-brands as there were plants '.' 

87 (261). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man bring to the Daityd-gatu the 
fire from under the puncheon of a goldsmith, what 
shall be his reward when his soul has parted with 
his body ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : 'His reward shall be 
the same as if he had, here below, brought a 
hundred fire-brands to the Daityd-gatu.' 

88 (262). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man bring to the Daityd-gatu the 
fire from under the puncheon of a silversmith, what 
shall be his reward when his soul has parted with 
his body? 

Ahura Mazda answered : 'His reward shall be 
the same as if he had, here below, brought ninety 
fire-brands to the Daityd-gatu.' 

1 Doubtful. 

* Meaning unknown. Perhaps a fire for burning weeds. 



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89 (263). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man bring to the Daityd-gatu the 
fire from under the puncheon of a blacksmith, what 
shall be his reward when his soul has parted with 
his body ? 

Ahura Mazda answered: 'His reward shall be 
the same as if he had, here below, brought eighty 
fire-brands to the Daityd-gatu.' 

90 (264). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man bring to the Daityd-gatu the 
fire from under the puncheon of a worker in steel, 
what shall be his reward when his soul has parted 
with his body? 

Ahura Mazda answered : 'His reward shall be 
the same as if he had, here below, brought seventy 
fire-brands to the Daityd-gatu.' 

91 (265). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man bring to the Daityd-gatu the 
fire of an oven l , what shall be his reward when his 
soul has parted from his body ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : 'His reward shall be 
the same as if he had, here below, brought sixty 
fire-brands to the Daityd-gatu.' 

92 (266). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man bring to the Daityd-gatu the 
fire from under a cauldron 2 , what shall be his reward 
when his soul has parted with his body ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : 'His reward shall be 
the same as if he had, here below, brought fifty 
fire-brands to the Daityd-gatu.' 

93 (267). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man bring to the Daityd-gatu the 

1 A baker's fire. * The kitchen-fire. 



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FARGARD VIII. II9 



fire from an aonya takhairya 1 , what shall be his 
reward when his soul has parted with his body ? 

Ahura Mazda answered: 'His reward shall be 
the same as if he had, here below, brought forty 
fire-brands to the Daityd-gatu.' 

94 (268). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man bring a herdsman's fire to the 
Daityd-gatu, what shall be his reward when his soul 
has parted with his body ? 

Ahura Mazda answered: 'His reward shall be 
the same as if he had, here below, brought thirty 
fire-brands to the Daityd-gatu.' 

[95 (269) 2 . O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man bring to the Daityd-gatu the 
fire of the field 8 , what shall be his reward when his 
soul has parted with his body ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : 'His reward shall be 
the same as if he had, here below, brought twenty 
fire-brands to the Daityd-gatu.'] 

96 (270). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man bring to the Daityd-gatu the 
fire of his own hearth 4 , what shall be his reward 
when his soul has parted with his body ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : 'His reward shall be 
the same as if he had, here below, brought ten 
fire-brands to the Daityd-gatu.' 

X. 

97 (271). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! Can a man be made clean, O holy 

1 Meaning unknown. * From the Vendidad Sada. 

* The hunter's fire, an encampment's fire. 
4 By which one warms one's self; the fire least exposed to un- 
cleanness. 



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1 20 VENDtDAD. 



Ahura Mazda! who has touched a corpse in a 
distant place in the wilderness 1 ? 

98(272). Ahura Mazda answered: 'He can, O 
holy Zarathurtra.' 

How so ? 

' If the Nasu has already been expelled by the 
corpse-eating dogs or the corpse-eating birds, he 
shall wash his body with g6mez; he shall wash it 
thirty times, he shall rub it dry with the hand thirty 
times, beginning every time with the head *. 

99 (278). ' If the Nasu has not yet been expelled 
by the corpse-eating dogs or the corpse-eating birds, 
he shall wash his body with g6m£z ; he shall wash 
it fifteen times, he shall rub it dry with the hand 
fifteen times 8 . 

100 (280). ' Then he shall run a distance of a 
Hathra*. He shall run until he meets some man 
on his way, and he shall cry out aloud : " Here am I, 
one who has touched the corpse of a man, and who 
is powerless in mind, powerless in tongue, power- 
less in hand 8 . Do make me clean." Thus shall 
he run until he overtakes the man. If the man 



1 Where the regular process of purification cannot be performed. 
— The Pahlavi Commentary to this chapter will be found in West, 
Pahlavi Texts, II, p. 455. 

* Perhaps better : ' this is as good as the chief purification ' (that 
is to say as a regular Barashnum). — If the Sag-did has been per- 
formed, the Si-shu (thirty fold washing) is enough. Cf. above, 

§§ 35. 3<>- 

s If the Sag-did has not been performed, he cleanses himself in 
a summary way till he comes to a place where the Barashnum can 
be performed. 

* See p. 15, n. 6. 

° On account of my uncleanness, I am armSxt, excluded from 
active life and unfit for any work. 



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FARGARD VIII. 121 



will not cleanse him, he remits him the third of 
his trespass 1 . 

loi (287). ' Then he shall run another Hathra, 
he shall run off again until he overtakes a man ; if 
the man will not cleanse him, he remits him the half 
of his trespass a . 

102 (291). ' Then he shall run a third Hathra, 
he shall run off a third time until he overtakes a* 
man ; if the man will not cleanse him, he remits him 
the whole of his trespass. 

103 (294). ' Thus shall he run forwards until he 
comes near a house, a borough, a town, an inhabited 
district, and he shall cry out with a loud voice: 
" Here am I, one who has touched the corpse of a 
man, and who is powerless in mind, powerless in 
tongue, powerless in hand. Do make me clean." If 
they will not cleanse him, he shall cleanse his body 
with g6m£z and water ; thus shall he be clean V 

104 (300). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If he find water on his way and the 
water make him subject to a penalty *, what is the 
penalty that he shall pay ? 

105 (303). Ahura Mazda answered: 'Four hun- 
dred stripes with the Aspah6-artra, four hundred 
stripes with the Sraosho-^arana.' 

106 (304). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If he find trees * on his way and the 

1 As he takes it upon his own head. 

* The half of the remnant, that is the second third. 

* ' He may then attend to his business ; he may work and till ; 
some say he must abstain from sacrifice (till he has undergone the 
Barashnum)' (Comm.) 

4 As he defiled it by crossing it. 

* * Trees fit for the fire ' (Comm.) If he touches those trees, the 
fire to which they are brought becomes unclean by his fault. 



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122 VENDtDAD. 



fire make him subject to a penalty, what is the 
penalty that he shall pay? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Four hundred stripes 
with the Aspah£-artra, four hundred stripes with the 
Sraosh6 Parana. 

107 (308). ' This is the penalty, this is the atone- 
ment which saves the faithful man who submits to 
it, not him who does not submit to it. Such a one 
shall surely be an inhabitant in the mansion of the 
DrufV 



Fargard IX. 
The Nine Nights' Barashnum. 

I a (1-11). Description of the place for cleansing the unclean 
(the Barashnum-gah). 

I b (12-36). Description of the cleansing. 

H (37-44)' Fees of the cleanser. 

111(47-57). The false cleanser ; his punishment. 

§§ 45, 46 belong better to the following Fargard. 

The ceremony described in this Fargard is known among the 
Parsis as Barashnum nu shaba, or 'nine nights' Barashnum,' 
because it lasts for nine nights (see § 35) *. It is the great purifi- 
cation, the most efficacious of all ; it not only makes the defiled 
man clean, but it opens to him the heavens (see Farg. XIX, 33). 
So, although it was formerly intended only for the man denied by 
the dead, it became, during the Parsi period, a pious work which 
might be performed without any corpse having been touched; 
nay, its performance was prescribed, once at least, at the time of the 
Nu zudt (at the age of fifteen, when the young Parsi becomes 
a member of the community), in order to wash away the natural 
uncleanness that has been contracted in the maternal womb 
(Saddar 36)*. It must also be undergone by a priest who wants 

> Hell. Imitated from Yasna XLIX, 11 d. Cf. Farg. XIV, 18. 

* On the name Barashnum, see p. 107, note 5. 

* For the plan of the Barashnum-gah, see West, Pahlavi Texts, II, 
P- 435- 



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FARGARD IX. 123 



to appear before the Bahram fire or perform the Yasna or the 
Vendldad office. 

la. 

i. Zarathurtra asked Ahura Mazda: 'O most 

beneficent Spirit, Maker of the material world, thou 

Holy One ! To whom shall they apply here below, 

who want to cleanse their body defiled by the 

dead?' 

2 (4). Ahura Mazda answered: 'To a pious man 1 , 
O Spitama Zarathustra ! who knows how to speak, 
who speaks truth, who has learned the Holy Word, 
who is pious, and knows best the rites of cleansing 
according to the law of Mazda. That man shall fell 
the trees off the surface of the ground on a space of 
nine Vibazus 2 square ; 

3 (9). ' in that part of the ground where there is 
least water and where there are fewest trees, the 
part which is the cleanest and driest, and the least 
passed through by sheep and oxen, and by the fire 
of Ahura Mazda, by the consecrated bundles of 
Baresma, and by the faithful.' 

4(11). How far from the fire? How far from 
the water ? How far from the consecrated bundles 
of Baresma ? How far from the faithful ? 

5 (12). Ahura Mazda answered: 'Thirty paces 
from the fire, thirty paces from the water, thirty 
paces from the consecrated bundles of Baresma, 
three paces from the faithful. 

6 (13). ' Then thou shalt dig a hole 3 , two fingers 

1 A priest. * Nine ells (?). See Farg. VII, 34. 

* Those holes are intended to receive the liquid trickling from 
the body. In summer, the air and the earth being dry the hole 
may be less deep, as it is certain that it will be empty and will have 
room enough for that liquid. 



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deep if the summer has come, four fingers deep if 
the winter and ice have come. 

7 (14). ' Thou shalt dig a second hole, two fingers deep 
if the summer has come, four fingers deep if the winter and 
ice have come. 

'Thou shalt dig a third hole, two fingers deep if the 
summer has come, four fingers deep if the winter and ice 
have come. 

'Thou shalt dig a fourth hole, two fingers deep if the 
summer has come, four fingers deep if the winter and ice 
have come. 

'Thou shalt dig a fifth hole, two fingers deep if the 
summer has come, four fingers deep if the winter and ice 
have come. 

' Thou shalt dig a sixth hole ', two fingers deep if the 
summer has come, four fingers deep if the winter and ice 
have come.' 

8 (14). How far from one another ? 
' One pace.' 

How much is the pace ? 
' As much as three feet. 

9 (16). 'Then thou shalt dig three holes more*, 
two fingers deep if the summer has come, four 
fingers deep if the winter and ice have come.' 

How far from the former six ? 
' Three paces.' 
What sort of paces ? 
' Such as are taken in walking.' 
How much are those (three) paces ? 
' As much as nine feet 

10(22). 'Then thou shalt draw a furrow all 
around with a metal knife.' 

1 These six holes contain gdmez. 'The holes must be dug 
from the north to the south ' (Comm.) 
* The three holes to contain water. 



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FARGARD IX. 1 25 



How far from the holes ? 

' Three paces.' 

What sort of paces ? 

' Such as are taken in walking.' 

How much are those (three) paces ? 

' As much as nine feet. 

1 1 (24). ' Then thou shalt draw twelve furrows J ; 
three of which thou shalt draw to surround and 
divide [from the rest} (the first) three holes ; three 
thou shalt draw to surround and divide (the first) 
six holes ; three thou shalt draw to surround and 
divide the nine holes ; three thou shalt draw around 
the [three] inferior holes, outside the [six other] 
holes s . At each of the three times nine feet 8 , thou 
shalt place stones as steps to the holes; or pot- 
sherds, or stumps *, or clods, or any hard matter '.' 

1 ' The furrows must be drawn during the day ; they must be 
drawn with a knife ; they must be drawn with recitation of spells. 
While drawing the furrows the cleanser recites three Ashem-vohus 
(" holiness is the best of all good," &c), the Fravar4n6 (" I declare 
myself a worshipper of Mazda, a follower of Zarathujtra, a foe of 
the fiend," &c), the Khshnuman of Serosh, and the Big of Serosh ; 
they must be drawn from the north ' (Cotnm. ad § 32). The furrow, 
or kesh, plays a greater part in the Mazdean liturgy than in any 
other. By means of the furrow, drawn with proper spells, and 
according to the laws of spiritual war, man either besieges the 
fiend or intrenches himself against him (cf. Farg. XVII, 5). In 
the present case the Drug, being shut up inside the kesh and thus 
excluded from the world outside, and being driven back, step by 
step, by the strength of the holy water and spells, finds at last no 
place of refuge but hell. 

* ' The three holes for water, the six holes for g6m£z ' (Comm.) 

* The nine feet between the holes containing gdmgz and those 
containing water, the nine feet between the first holes and the fur- 
rows, and the nine feet between the last hole and the furrows. 

4 Didara. 

* That the foot of the unclean one may not touch the earth. 



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126 vend!dAd. 



lb. 

12 (31). 'Then the man defiled shall walk to the 
holes ; thou, O Zarathiutra ! shalt stand outside by 
the furrow, and thou shalt recite, Nemasia ya 
armaitii - iza^a 1 ; and the man defiled shall repeat, 
Nemasia ya armaiti* teaia. 

13 (35). ' The Druf becomes weaker and weaker 
at every one of those words which are a weapon to 
smite the fiend Angra Mainyu, to smite A6shma of 
the murderous spear 2 , to smite the Mazainya fiends 8 , 
to smite all the fiends. 

14 (40). ' Then thou shalt take for the gdmez 
a spoon of brass or of lead. When thou takest 
a stick with nine knots 4 , O Spitama Zarathurtra! 
to sprinkle (the g6m6z) from that spoon, thou shalt 
fasten the spoon to the end of the stick. 

r 5 (43)- ' They shall wash his hands first. If his 
hands be not washed first, he makes his whole body 
unclean. When he has washed his hands three 
times, after his hands have been washed, thou shalt 
sprinkle the forepart of his skull 6 ; then the Druf 
Nasu rushes in front, between his brows 8 . 

16(50). 'Thou shalt sprinkle him in front be- 
tween the brows ; then the Dru^ - Nasu rushes upon 
the back part of the skull. 

' Thou shalt sprinkle the back part of the skull ; 
then the Druf Nasu rushes upon the jaws. 

1 Yasna XLIX. 10 c. « See Farg. X, 13. 

* See Farg. X, 16. 

4 So long that the cleanser may take g6mez or water from the 
holes and sprinkle the unclean one, without touching him and 
without going inside the furrows. 

* With g6m£z at the first six holes, with water at the next three. 

* Cf. Farg. Vin, 40-71. 



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FARGARD IX. 1 27 



'Thou shalt sprinkle the jaws; then the Druf 
Nasu rushes upon the. right ear. 

17 (56). ' Thou shalt sprinkle the right ear; then 
the Dru,f Nasu rushes upon the left ear. 

' Thou shalt sprinkle the left ear ; then the Druf 
Nasu rushes upon the right shoulder. 

' Thou shalt sprinkle the right shoulder ; then the 
Drujf Nasu rushes upon the left shoulder. 

' Thou shalt sprinkle the left shoulder ; then the 
Dru,f Nasu rushes upon the right arm-pit. 

18 (64). 'Thou shalt sprinkle the right arm-pit; 
then the Druf Nasu rushes upon the left arm-pit. 

' Thou shalt sprinkle the left arm-pit ; then the 
Dru^ Nasu rushes upon the chest. 

'Thou shalt sprinkle the chest; then the Dru^ 
Nasu rushes upon the back. 

J 9 (7°)- ' Thou shalt sprinkle the back; then the 
Dru£" Nasu rushes upon the right nipple. 

' Thou shalt sprinkle the right nipple ; then the 
Dru£- Nasu rushes upon the left nipple. 

' Thou shalt sprinkle the left nipple ; then the 
Drujf Nasu rushes upon the right rib. 

20 (76). ' Thou shalt sprinkle the right rib ; then 
the Dru^ - Nasu rushes upon the left rib. 

' Thou shalt sprinkle the left rib ; then the Drug" 
Nasu rushes upon the right hip. 

' Thou shalt sprinkle the right hip ; then the 
Dru,f Nasu rushes upon the left hip. 

21 (82). 'Thou shalt sprinkle the left hip; then 
the Dru£* Nasu rushes upon the sexual parts. 

'Thou shalt sprinkle the sexual parts. If the 
unclean one be a man, thou shalt sprinkle him first 
behind, then before ; if the unclean one be a woman, 
thou shalt sprinkle her first before, then behind; 



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then the Dru^ - Nasu rushes upon the right 
thigh. 

22 (88). 'Thou shalt sprinkle the right thigh; 
then the Druf Nasu rushes upon the left thigh. 

' Thou shalt sprinkle the left thigh ; then the 
Druf Nasu rushes upon the right knee. 

' Thou shalt sprinkle the right knee ; then the 
Dru£" Nasu rushes upon the left knee. 

2 3 (94)- ' Thou shalt sprinkle the left knee ; then 
the Druf Nasu rushes upon the right leg. 

'Thou shalt sprinkle the right leg; then the 
Dru^ - Nasu rushes upon the left leg. 

' Thou shalt sprinkle the left leg ; then the Druf 
Nasu rushes upon the right ankle. 

'Thou shalt sprinkle the right ankle; then the 
Druf Nasu rushes upon the left ankle. 

24 (102). ' Thou shalt sprinkle the left ankle ; 
then the Drag" Nasu rushes upon the right instep. 

' Thou shalt sprinkle the right instep ; then the 
Drug- Nasu rushes upon the left instep. 

' Thou shalt sprinkle the left instep ; then the 
Dnijf Nasu turns round under the sole of the foot ; 
it looks like the wing of a fly. 

25 (108). ' He shall press his toes upon the 
ground and shall raise up his heels; thou shalt 
sprinkle his right sole ; then the Druf Nasu rushes 
upon the left sole. 

' Thou shalt sprinkle the left sole ; then the Dru^ 
Nasu turns round under the toes ; it looks like the 
wing of a fly. 

26(113). 'He shall press his heels upon the 
ground and shall raise up his toes; thou shalt 
sprinkle his right toe ; then the Dru£* Nasu rushes 
upon the left toe. 



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FARGARD IX. 1 29 



' Thou shalt sprinkle the left toe ; then the Dru^f 
Nasu flies away to the regions of the north, in the 
shape of a raging fly, with knees and tail sticking 
out, droning without end, and like unto the foulest 
Khrafstras. 

27 (118). 'And thou shalt say these victorious, 
most healing words : — 

'"Yatha ahu vairyd :— The will of the Lord is the 
law of righteousness. 

1 " The gifts of Vohu-mano to deeds done in this world 
for Mazda. 

* " He who relieves the poor makes Ahura king. 

' " K^m-na mazda : — What protector hadst thou given 
unto me, O Mazda ! while the hate of the wicked encom- 
passes me ? Whom, but thy Atar and Vohu-mand, through 
whose work I keep on the world of Righteousness ? Reveal 
therefore to me thy Religion as thy rule ! 

*"K* verethrem-^-a : — Who is the victorious who will 
protect thy teaching ? Make it clear that I am the guide 
for both worlds. May Sraosha come with Vohu-mand 
and help whomsoever thou pleasest, O Mazda ! 

' " Keep us from our hater, O Mazda and Armaiti 
Spenta ! Perish, O fiendish Dntf ! Perish, O brood of the 
fiend I Perish, O world of the fiend ! Perish away, O 
Drqg-! Rush away, O Dru^f ! Perish away, O Drqg-1 
Perish away to the regions of the north, never more to give 
unto death the living world of Righteousness 1 1 " 

28(119). 'At the first hole the man becomes 
freer from the Nasu ; then thou shalt say those 
victorious, most healing words : — " Yatha ahu 
vairyd," &c.» 

'At the second hole he becomes freer from the Nasu ; 
then thou shalt say those victorious, most healing words : — 
« Yath a ah u vai ryd," &c. 

1 Cf. Farg.VIII, 19-21. * As in preceding clause. 

[4] K 



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'At the third hole he becomes freer from the Nasu; 
then thou shalt say those victorious, most healing words : — 
"Yatha ahu vairyd," &c. 

' At the fourth hole he becomes freer from the Nasu ; 
then thou shalt say those victorious, most healing words : — 
"Yatha ahu vairyd," &c. 

' At the fifth hole he becomes freer from the Nasu ; 
then thou shalt say those victorious, most healing words : — 
"Yatha ahu vairyd," &c. 

' At the sixth hole he becomes freer from the Nasu ; 
then thou shalt say those victorious, most healing words : — 
"Yatha aha vairyd," &c. 

29(120). 'Afterwards the man defiled shall sit 
down, inside the furrows 1 , outside the furrows of the 
six holes, four fingers from those furrows. There 
he shall cleanse his body with thick handfuls of 
dust. 

30 (123). ' Fifteen times shall they take up dust 
from the ground for him to rub his body, and they 
shall wait there until he is dry even to the last hair 
on his head. 

31 (125). 'When his body is dry with dust, then 
he shall step over the holes (containing water). At 
the first hole he shall wash his body once with water ; 
at the second hole he shall wash his body twice with 
water; at the third hole he shall wash his body thrice 
with water. 

32 (130). 'Then he shall perfume (his body) 
with Urvasna, or Vohu-gaona, or Vohu-kereti, or 
Hadha-na6pata, or any other sweet-smelling plant ; 
then he shall put on his clothes, and shall go back 
to his house. 



1 Between the furrows of the six holes containing g 6 m 6 z and 
the furrows of the holes containing water. 



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FARGARD IX. I31 



33 ( x 33)' ' He shall sit down there in the place of 
infirmity 1 , inside the house, apart from the other 
worshippers of Mazda. He shall not go near the 
fire, nor near the water, nor near the earth, nor near 
the cow, nor near the trees, nor near the faithful, 
either man or woman. Thus shall he continue until 
three nights have passed. When three nights have 
passed, he shall wash his body, he shall wash his 
clothes with g6m£z and water to make them clean. 

34 ( l 37)' 'Then he shall sit down again in the 
place of infirmity, inside the house, apart from the 
other worshippers of Mazda. He shall not go near 
the fire, nor near the water, nor near the earth, nor 
near the cow, nor near the trees, nor near the faithful, 
either man or woman. Thus shall he continue until 
six nights have passed. When six nights have 
passed, he shall wash his body, he shall wash his 
clothes with gdmez and water to make them clean. 

35(141). 'Then he shall sit down again in the 
place of infirmity, inside the house, apart from the 
other worshippers of Mazda. He shall not go near 
the fire, nor near the water, nor near the earth, nor 
near the cow, nor near the trees, nor near the 
faithful, either man or woman. Thus shall he con- 
tinue, until nine nights have passed. When nine 
nights have passed, he shall wash his body, he shall 
wash his clothes with gdmez and water to make 
them clean. 

36 (145). ' He may thenceforth go near the fire, 
near the water, near the earth, near the cow, near 
the trees, and near the faithful, either man or 
woman. 

1 The Arme\rt-gah (see Farg.V, 59, note 4). 
K 2 



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II. 1 

37 (146). 'Thou shalt cleanse a priest for a 
blessing of the just *. 

'Thou shalt cleanse the lord of a province for the 
value of a camel of high value. 

'Thou shalt cleanse the lord of a town for the value 
of a stallion of high value. 

'Thou shalt cleanse the lord of a borough for the 
value of a bull of high value. 

'Thou shalt cleanse the master of a house for the 
value of a cow three years old. 

38 (151). 'Thou shalt cleanse the wife of the 
master of a house for the value of a ploughing 8 
cow. 

'Thou shalt cleanse a menial for the value of a 
draught cow. 

'Thou shalt cleanse a young child for the value 
of a lamb. 

39 (154). ' These are the heads of cattle — flocks 
or herds — that the worshippers of Mazda shall give 
to the man who has cleansed them, if they can afford 
it ; if they cannot afford it, they shall give him any 
other value that may make him leave their houses 
well pleased with them, and free from anger. 

4° I 1 57)* ' For if the man who has cleansed them 
leave their houses displeased with them, and full of 
anger, then the Dru£* Nasu enters them from the 
nose [of the dead], from the eyes, from the tongue, 
from the jaws, from the sexual organs, from the 
hinder parts. 



1 Cf. the tariff for the fees of physicians, Farg.VII, 41-43. 
* See Farg.VII, 41, note 3. * Doubtful. 



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FARGARD IX. J 33 



41 (159). ' And the Dru^ - Nasu rushes upon them 
even to the end of the nails, and they are unclean 
thenceforth for ever and ever. 

' It grieves the sun indeed, O Spitama Zarathortra ! 
to shine upon a man denied by the dead ; it grieves 
the moon, it grieves the stars. 

42 (162). ' That man delights them, O Spitama 
Zarathurtra ! who cleanses from the Nasu the man 
defiled by the dead ; he delights the fire, he delights 
the water, he delights the earth, he delights the cow, 
he delights the trees, he delights the faithful, both 
men and women.' 

43(164). Zarathurtra asked Ahura Mazda: ' O 
Maker of the material world, thou Holy One ! What 
shall be his reward, after his soul has parted from 
his body, who has cleansed from the Nasu the man 
defiled by the dead ? ' 

44(166). Ahura Mazda answered : 'The welfare 1 
of Paradise thou canst promise to that man, for his 
reward in the other world.' 

45* (167). Zarathartra asked Ahura Mazda: 'O 
Maker of the material world, thou Holy One ! How 
shall I fight against that Dnif who from the dead 
rushes upon the living ? How shall I fight against 
that Nasu who from the dead defiles the living ? ' 

46 (169). Ahura Mazda answered : ' Say aloud 
those words in the Gathas that are to be said 
twice 3 . 



1 Literally, ' the grease.' 

* This clause and the following one as far as 'and the 
Drug shall fly away' are further developed in the following 
Fargard. 

* The Bij-amruta formulas, as enumerated in the following 
Fargard. 



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' Say aloud those words in the Gathas that are to 
be said thrice *. 

' Say aloud those words in the Gathas that are to 
be said four times '. 

' And the Dru^ - shall fly away like the well-darted 
arrow, like the felt of last year 2 , like the annual 
garment 3 of the earth.' 

III. 

47 (i 72). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man who does not know the rites 
of cleansing according to the law of Mazda, offers to 
cleanse the unclean, how shall I then fight against 
that Dru£" who from the dead rushes upon the 
living ? How shall I fight against that Druf who 
from the dead denies the living ? 

48(175). Ahura Mazda answered: 'Then, O 
Spitama Zarathurtra! the Drug- Nasu appears to 
wax stronger than she was before. Stronger then 
are sickness and death and the working of the fiend 
than they were before V 

49 (177). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! What is the penalty that he shall 
pay? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' The worshippers of 
Mazda shall bind him; they shall bind his hands 
first ; then they shall strip him of his clothes, they 
shall cut the head off his neck, and they shall give 
over his corpse unto the greediest of the corpse- 

1 The Thru-ilmruta and ATathruf-amruta formulas, as 
enumerated in the following Fargard. 
s The felt of an oba made for a season (?). Cf. Farg. VIII, 1. 
* The grass. 
4 The plague and contagion are stronger than ever. 



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FARGARD IX. I35 



eating creatures made by the beneficent Spirit, unto 
the vultures, with these words ' : — 

' " The man here has repented of all his evil 
thoughts, words, and deeds. 

50(183). '"If he has committed any other evil 
deed, it is remitted by his repentance ; if he has 
committed no other evil deed, he is absolved by his 
repentance for ever and ever *." ' 

51(187). Who is he, O Ahura Mazda! who 
threatens to take away fulness and increase from 
the world, and to bring in sickness and death ? 

52 (188). Ahura Mazda answered: ' It is the un- 
godly Ashemaogha 8 , O Spitama Zarathurtra ! who 
in this material world cleanses the unclean without 
knowing the rites of cleansing according to the law 
of Mazda. 

53 ( I 9°)- ' F° r unt 'l tnen i O Spitama Zarathartra! 
sweetness and fatness would flow out from that 
land and from those fields, with health and healing, 
with fulness and increase and growth, and a growing 
of corn and grass V 

54 (191). O Maker of the material world, thou 



1 ' The cleanser who has not performed the cleansing according 
to the rites, shall be taken to a desert place ; there they shall nail 
him with four nails, they shall take off the skin from his body, and 
cut off his head. If he has performed Patet for his sin, he shall be 
holy (that is, he shall go to Paradise) ; if he has not performed 
Patet, he shall stay in hell till the day of resurrection' (Fraser 
Ravaet, p. 398). Cf. Farg. Ill, 20-21 and note 5. 
* See Farg! Ill, 20 seq. * See Farg.V, 35 

4 Cf. XIII, 52 seq. The false cleanser is punished as would be 
a man who would introduce an epidemic. He undergoes the same 
penalty as the 6vak-bar, but with none of the mitigation allowed 
in the case of the latter, on account of the sacrilegious character of 
his usurpation. 



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Holy One! When are sweetness and fatness to 
come back again to that land and to those fields, 
with health and healing, with fulness and increase 
and growth, and a growing of corn and grass ? 

55, 56 (192, 193). Ahura Mazda answered : 'Sweet- 
ness and fatness will never come back again to that 
land and to those fields, with health and healing, 
with fulness and increase and growth, and a growing 
of corn and grass, until that ungodly Ashemaogha 
has been smitten to death on the spot, and the holy 
Sraosha of that place has been offered up a sacrifice 1 , 
for three days and three nights, with fire blazing, 
with Baresma tied up, and with Haoma prepared. 

57 (196). 'Then sweetness and fatness will come 
back again to that land and to those fields, with 
health and healing, with fulness and increase and 
growth, and a growing of corn and grass.' 



Fargard X. 

Nowadays, before laying the dead in the coffin, two priests recite 
the Ahunavaiti Gatha(Yasna XXVIII-XXXIV) : it is the so-called 
Gah sarna (chanting of the Gathas: gathao sravayfiiti). From 
the following Fargard it appears that formerly all the five Gathas 
and the Yasna Haptanghaiti were recited. Certain stanzas were 
recited several times and with a certain emphasis (framrava): and 
they were followed with certain spells. The object of this Fargard 
is to show which are those stanzas, how many times each was re- 
cited, and to give the corresponding spells. 

i. Zarathmtra asked Ahura Mazda: 'O Ahura 
Mazda! most beneficent Spirit, Maker of the ma- 

1 The sad is sacrifice, that is to say, the sacrifice that is offered 
up to Sraosha for three days and three nights after the death of 
a man for the salvation of his soul. 



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FARGARD X. 137 



terial world, thou Holy One! How shall I fight 
against that Druf who from the dead rushes upon 
the living? How shall I fight against that Drug 
who from the dead defiles the living ? ' 

2 (3). Ahura Mazda answered : ' Say aloud those 
words in the Gathas that are to be said twice '. 

' Say aloud those words in the Gathas that are to 
be said thrice 2 . 

• Say aloud those words in the Gathas that are to 
be said four times V 

3 (7). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One! Which are those words in the Gathas that 
are to be said twice ? 

4 (10). Ahura Mazda answered : ' These are the 
words in the Gathas that are to be said twice, and 
thou shalt twice say them aloud * : — 

ahyi yasa . . . urvanem (Yasna XXVIII, 2). 

humatenarn . . . mahl (Yas. XXXV, 2), 
ashahya W saire . . . ahubya (Yas. XXXV, 8), 
yatha tu i . . . ahura (Yas. XXXIX, 4), 
humaim thwi . . . hudaustema (Yas. XLI, 3), 
thw6i staotarasia . . . ahura (Yas. XLI, 5). 

urta ahmai . . . mananghd (Yas. XLIII, i), 
spe»ta mainyu . . . ahurd (Yas. XLVII, 1), 
vohu khshathrem . . . vareshane (Yas. LI, 1), 
vahirta tstis . . . dcyaothanaia (Yas. LI 1 1, 1). 
5(10). 'And after thou hast twice said those 

Bi^-amrutas, thou shalt say aloud these victorious, 

most healing words : — 

1 The so-called Bu-amrflta. 

* The Thm-amrflta. * The ATathrux-amrfita. 

* The Bif-amrftta are the opening stanzas of the five Gathas 
and five stanzas in the Yasna Haptanghaiti. 



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' " I drive away Angra Mainyu 1 from this house, 
from this borough, from this town, from this land ; 
from the very body of the man defiled by the dead, 
from the very body of the woman defiled by the 
dead ; from the master of the house, from the lord 
of the borough, from the lord of the town, from the 
lord of the land; from the whole of the world of 
Righteousness. 

6 (12). '"I drive away the Nasu 2 , I drive away 
direct defilement, I drive away indirect defilement, 
from this house, from this borough, from this town, 
from this land ; from the very body of the man 
defiled by the dead, from the very body of the 
woman defiled by the dead; from the master of 
the house, from the lord of the borough, from the 
lord of the town, from the lord of the land ; from 
the whole of the world of Righteousness." ' 



7 (13). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One! Which are those words in the Gathas that 
are to be said thrice? 

8 (16). Ahura Mazda answered: 'These are the 
words in the Gathas that are to be said thrice, and 
thou shalt thrice say them aloud : — 

ashem vohu . . . (Yas. XXVII, 14), 
ye sevistt . . . paitl (Yas. XXXIII, 11), 
hukhshathrdtemai . . . vahwtai (Yas. XXXV, 5), 
dusvarenai.? . . . vahy6 (Yas. LI 1 1, 9). 

9 (16). 'After thou hast thrice said those Thris- 
amrutas, thou shalt say aloud these victorious, 
most healing words : — 



1 The chief demon, the Da£va of the Dafivas. 

* The very demon with whom one has to do in the present case. 



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FARGARD X. I 39 



' " I drive away Indra \ I drive away Sauru ', 
I drive away the daeva Naunghaithya >, from this 
house, from this borough, from this town, from this 
land ; from the very body of the man defiled by the 
dead, from the very body of the woman defiled by 
the dead ; from the master of the house, from the 
lord of the borough, from the lord of the town, from 
the lord of the land ; from the whole of the world of 
Righteousness. 

10(18). '"I drive away Tauru 1 , I drive away 
Zairi 1 , from this house, from this borough, from 
this town, from this land; from the very body of 
the man defiled by the dead, from the very body 
of the woman defiled by the dead ; from the master 
of the house, from the lord of the borough, from 
the lord of the town, from the lord of the land ; 
from the whole of the holy world." ' 

11 (19). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! Which are those words in the Gathas 
that are to be said four times ? 

12 (22). Ahura Mazda answered : ' These are the 
words in the Gathas that are to be said four times, 
and thou shalt four times say them aloud : — 

yatha ahu vairyd ...» (Yas. XXVII, 13), 

1 Indra, Sauru, Nounghaithya, Tauru, and Zairi are (with Akem- 
mand, here replaced by the Nasu), the six chief demons, and 
stand to the Amesha Spewtas in the same relation as Angra Mainyu 
to Spe»ta Mainyu. Indra opposes Asha Vahuta and turns men's 
hearts from good works ; Sauru opposes Khshathra Vairya, he pre- 
sides over bad government ; Nounghaithya opposes Spewta Armaiti, 
he is the demon of discontent; Tauru and Zairi oppose Haurvatat 
and Ameretat and poison the waters and the plants. — Akem-mand, 
Bad Thought, opposes Vohu-mand, Good Thought. 

* Translated Farg.VIII, 19. 



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mazda ad mdi . . . cUm ahum 1 (Yas. XXXIV, 15), 

a airyama ishyd . . . masata mazdau * (Yas. LI V. 1). 

13(22). 'After thou hast said those ATathru^- 
amrutas four times, thou shalt say aloud these 
victorious, most healing words : — 

' " I drive away Aeshma, the fiend of the mur- 
derous spear 3 , I drive away the da6va Akatasha 4 , 
from this house, from this borough, from this town, 
from this land; from the very body of the man 
defiled by the dead, from the very body of the 
woman defiled by the dead; from the master of 
the house, from the lord of the borough, from the 
lord of the town, from the lord of the land; from 
the whole of the world of Righteousness. 

14(24). '"I drive away the Varenya dadvas 8 , 
I drive away the wind-da£va, from this house, from 
this borough, from this town, from this land ; from 
the very body of the man defiled by the dead, from 
the very body of the woman defiled by the dead ; 
from the master of the house, from the lord of the 
borough, from the lord of the town, from the lord 
of the land; from the whole of the world of 
Righteousness." 

J 5 ( 2 5)- 'These are the words in the Gathas that 

1 Translated Farg. XI, 14. 

1 Translated Farg. XX, 11; cf. XI, 7. 

* ASshma, Kbishm, the incarnation of anger: he sows quarrel 
and war. ' He is the chief source of evil for the creatures of 
Ormazd, and the Kayani heroes mostly perished through him' 
(Bund. XXVIII, 17). 

4 The fiend who corrupts and perverts men. 

• The fiendish inhabitants of Varena (GilSn). Varena, like the 
neighbouring Mizana (Mizandardn), was peopled with savage, 
non-Aryan natives, who were considered men-demons. Cf. Farg. I, 
18 and notes. 



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FARGARD X. 1 4 1 



are to be said twice; these are the words in the 
Gathas that are to be said thrice; these are the 
words in the Gathas that are to be said four times. 

1 6 (26). ' These are the words that smite down 
Angra Mainyu; these are the words that smite 
down Aeshma, the fiend of the murderous spear; 
these are the words that smite down the daevas of 
Mazana l ; these are the words that smite down all 
the daevas. 

1 7 (30). ' These are the words that stand against 
that Drug - , against that Nasu, who from the dead 
rushes upon the living, who from the dead defiles 
the living. 

18 (32). 'Therefore, O Zarathuytra ! thou shalt 
dig nine holes 8 in the part of the ground where 
there is least water and where there are fewest 
trees; where there is nothing that may be food 
either for man or beast; "for purity is for man, 
next to life, the greatest good, that purity, O Zara- 
thurtra, that is in the Religion of Mazda for him 
who cleanses his own self with good thoughts, 
words, and deeds 8 ." 

1 9 (38). ' Make thy own self pure, O righteous 
man! any one in the world here below can win 
purity for his own self, namely, when he cleanses 
his own self with good thoughts, words, and deeds. 

20. "' Yatha ahu vairyd: — The will of the Lord is the 
law of righteousness," &c* 
"'K*m-na mazda:— What protector hast thou given 

1 The demoniac races of Mazandaran ; Mazandaran was known 
in popular tradition as a land of fiends and sorcerers. 

* The nine holes for the Barashnum ; see above, p. 123, § 6 seq. 

• Cf.Farg.V, 21. 

4 The rest as in Farg. VIII, 19, »o. 



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unto me, O Mazda ! while the hate of the wicked encom- 
passes me ? " &c. 

'" K* verethrem-^a: — Who is the victorious who will 
protect thy teaching ? " &c. 

1 " Keep us from our hater, O Mazda and Armaiti Spewta ! 
Perish, O fiendish Dru^I . . . Perish away to the regions of 
the north, never more to give unto death the living world 
of Righteousness ! " ' 



Fargard XI. 



This chapter, like the preceding, is composed of spells intended 
to drive away the Nasu. But they are of a more special character, 
as they refer to the particular objects to be cleansed, such as the 
house, the fire, the water, the earth, the animals, the plants, the 
man defiled with the dead. Each incantation consists of two 
parts, a line from the GSthas which alludes, or rather is made to 
allude, to the particular object (§§ 4, 5, 6, 7), and a general 
exorcism, in the usual dialect (§§ 8-20), which is the same for all 
the objects. 

i. Zarathurtra asked Ahura Mazda: 'O Ahura 
Mazda! most beneficent spirit, Maker of the ma- 
terial world, thou Holy One ! How shall I cleanse 
the house ? how the fire ? how the water ? how the 
earth ? how the cow ? how the tree ? how the faith- 
ful man and the faithful woman ? how the stars ? 
how the moon ? how the sun ? how the boundless 
light? how all good things, made by Mazda, the 
offspring of the holy principle ? ' 

2 (4). Ahura Mazda answered : ' Thou shalt chant 
the cleansing words, and the house shall be clean ; 
clean shall be the fire, clean the water, clean the 
earth, clean the cow, clean the tree, clean the faith- 
ful man and the faithful woman, clean the stars, 
clean the moon, clean the sun, clean the boundless 



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FARGARD XI. 1 43 



light, clean all good things, made by Mazda, the 
offspring of the holy principle. 

3 (7). [• So thou shalt say these victorious, most 
healing words] ; thou shalt chant the Ahuna-Vairya 
five times : " The will of the Lord is the law of 
righteousness," &c. 

' The Ahuna-Vairya preserves the person of man : 

' " Yatha ahu vai ry 6 : — The will of the Lord is the law 
of righteousness," &c. 

'"K*m-na mazda: — What protector hast thou given 
unto me, O Mazda ! while the hate of the wicked encom- 
passes me ? " &c. 

' "K* verethrem-^-a: — Who is the victorious who will 
protect thy teaching ? " &c. 

'"Keep us from our hater, O Mazda and Armaiti 
Spewta ! " &C. 1 

4 (9). ' If thou wantest to cleanse the house, say 
these words aloud : " As long as the sickness lasts 
my great protector [is he who teaches virtue to the 
perverse] V 

' If thou wantest to cleanse the fire, say these 
words aloud : " Thy fire, first of all, do we approach 
with worship, O Ahura Mazda 3 ! " 

5 (13). ' If thou wantest to cleanse the water, say 
these words aloud : " Waters we worship, the Ma6- 
kaifiti waters, the Hebvainti waters, the Fravazah 
waters V 

' If thou wantest to cleanse the earth, say these 

1 As in Farg.VIII, 19, ao. 

* Yasna XLIX, 1. The allusion is not quite clear. This line 
was recited by the Genius of the sky at the moment when Ahriman 
was invading the sky (Gr. Bd.) Perhaps the small house of man 
is compared here with that large house, the world. 

» Yasna XXXVI, 1. * Yasna XXXVJII, 3. 



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words aloud : " This earth we worship, this earth 
with the women, this earth which bears us and 
those women who are thine, O Ahura l ! " 

6 (17). 'If thou wan test to cleanse the cow, say 
these words aloud : " The best of all works we 
will fulfil while we order both the learned and the 
unlearned, both masters and servants to secure for 
the cattle a good resting-place and fodder V 

' If thou wantest to cleanse the trees, say these 
words aloud : " For him s , as a reward, Mazda made 
the plants grow up *." 

7(21). 'If thou wantest to cleanse the faithful 
man or the faithful woman, say these words aloud : 
" May the vow-fulfilling Airyaman come hither, for 
the men and women of Zarathurtra to rejoice, for 
Vohu-mand to rejoice; with the desirable reward 
that Religion deserves. I solicit for holiness that 
boon that is vouchsafed by Ahura * ! " 

8 (25). ' Then thou shalt say these victorious, 
most healing words. Thou shalt chant the Ahuna- 
Vairya eight times : — 



1 Yasna XXXVIII, 1. « Who are thine,' that is, 'who are thy 
wives.' 

* Yasna XXXV, 4. ' Let those excellent deeds be done for the 
behoof of cattle, that is to say, let stables be made, and water and 
fodder be given ' (Comm.) 

9 ' For him,' that is to say, to feed him ; also ' out of him ; ' for 
it was from the body of the first-born bull that, after his death, grew 
up all kinds of plants (Bund. IV). 

4 Yasna XLVIII, 6. Cf. Farg. XVII, 5. 

• Yasna LIV, 1. Cf. Farg. XX, 11. There is no special spell 
for the cleansing of the sun, the moon, the stars, and the boundless 
light (see §§ 1, 2), because they are not defiled by the unclean one, 
they are only pained by seeing him (Farg. IX, 41); as soon as he 
is clean, they are freed from the pain. 



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FARGARD XI. 1 45 



* li Yatha ahu vairyd : — The will of the Lord is the law 
of righteousness," &c. 

'"Kim-namazda : — Whom hast thou placed to protect 
me, Mazda ? " &c. 

' " Ke verethr em-^1 : — What protector hast thou given 
unto me ? " &c. 

• " Who is the victorious ? " &c. 

' " Keep us from our hater, O Mazda ! " &C. 1 

9 (26). ' I drive away A£shma 2 , I drive away the 
Nasu, I drive away direct defilement, I drive away 
indirect defilement. 

[' I drive away Khru, I drive away Khruighni 8 . 

' I drive away Buidhi, I drive away the offspring 
of Buidhi*. 

' I drive away Ku»di, I drive away the offspring 
of Ku«di «.] 

' I drive away the gaunt BushySsta, I drive away 
the long-handed BflshySsta* ; [I drive away Muidhi 7 , 
I drive away Kapasti *.] 

' I drive away the Pairika 9 that comes upon the 
fire, upon the water, upon the earth, upon the cow, 
upon the tree. I drive away the uncleanness that 

1 As in Farg. VIII, 19, 20. * See Farg. X, 13. 

* Khrfl and Khruighni are not met with elsewhere ; their names 
mean, apparently, ' wound ' and * the wounding one.' They may 
have been mere names or epithets of A6shma khruidru, 
' Aeshma of the murderous spear.' 

4 Buidhi may be another pronunciation of Buiti (see Farg. 
XIX, 1). 

5 Kuwdi is very likely the same as Kiwda (Vd. XIX 4 1 . 138) 
who is the riding-stock of the sorcerers (Bd. XXVIII, 42). 

* See Farg. XVIII, 16. 

7 A demon unknown. Perhaps Intoxication. 

* Unknown. Perhaps Colocynth, the type of the bitter plants 

* A female demon, the modern Par!, often associated with YStu, 
' the wizard.' ' 

W L 

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I46 VENDiDAD. 



comes upon the fire, upon the water, upon the earth, 
upon the cow, upon the tree. 

10 (32). 'I drive thee away, O mischievous Angra 
Mainyu! from the fire, from the water, from the 
earth, from the cow, from the tree, from the faithful 
man and from the faithful woman, from the stars, 
from the moon, from the sun, from the boundless 
light, from all good things, made by Mazda, the 
offspring of the holy principle. 

11 (33). 'Then thou shalt say these victorious, 
most healing words ; thou shalt chant four Ahuna- 
Vairyas : — 

' "Yatha ahft vairyd :— The will of the Lord is the law 
of righteousness," &c. 

'"K*m-na mazda: — What protector hast thou given 
unto me ? " &c. 

' " K e verethrem-^-a : — Who is the victorious ? " &c. 

' " Keep us from our hater, O Mazda ! " &C. 1 

12 (34). ' Aeshma is driven away; away the 
Nasu ; away direct defilement, away indirect de- 
filement. 

[' Khru is driven away, away Khruighni ; away 
Buidhi, away the offspring of Buidhi ; away Kuwdi, 
away the offspring of Ku»di.] 

'The gaunt BushySsta is driven away; away 
BushySsta, the long-handed; [away Muidhi, away 
Kapasti.] 

' The Pairika is driven away that comes upon the 
fire, upon the water, upon the earth, upon the cow, 
upon the tree. The uncleanness is driven away that 
comes upon the fire, upon the water, upon the earth, 
upon the cow, upon the tree. 



1 As in Farg.VHI, 19, 20. 



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FARGARD XI. 1 47 



1 3 (40). ' Thou art driven away, O mischievous 
Angra Mainyu ! from the fire, from the water, from 
the earth, from the cow, from the tree, from the 
faithful man and from the faithful woman, from the 
stars, from the moon, from the sun, from the bound- 
less light, from all good things, made by Mazda, the 
offspring of the holy principle. 

14(41). 'Then thou shalt say these victorious, 
most healing words ; thou shalt chant " Mazda ad 
mdi " four times : " O Mazda ! say unto me the ex- 
cellent words and the excellent works, that through 
the good thought and the holiness of him who offers 
thee the due meed of praise, thou mayest, O Lord ! 
make the world of Resurrection appear, at thy will, 
under thy sovereign rule V 

15. 'I drive away Aeshma, I drive away the Nasu,' 
&c. 8 

16. ' I drive thee away, O mischievous Angra Mainyu! 
from the fire, from the water,' &c. 8 

17. 'Then thou shalt say these victorious, most healing 
words ; thou shalt chant the Airyama Ishyd four times : 
" May the vow-fulfilling Airyaman come hither ! " ' &c. 4 

18. 'Aeshma is driven away ; away the Nasu,' &c 5 

19. ' Thou art driven away,0 mischievous Angra Mainyu 1 
from the fire, from the water,' &c. • 

20. ' Then thou shalt say these victorious, most healing 
words ; thou shalt chant five Ahuna-Vairyas : — 

4 " Yatha ahu vairyd :— The will of the Lord is the law 
of righteousness," &c. 

'"K^m-namazda : — Whom hast thou placed to protect 
me?"&c. 



1 Yasna XXXI V, 15. » The rest as in § 9. 

* The rest as in § 10. 4 As in § 7. 

" As in § 12. * As in § 13. 
L 2 



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'"Ke verethrem-^-a: — Who is he who will smite the 
fiend?" &C 1 

'"Keep us from our hater, O Mazda and Armaiti 
Spewta ! Perish, O fiendish Drug - ! Perish, O brood of the 
fiend I Perish, O world of the fiend! Perish away, O 
Dru^f! Rush away, O Dru^-! Perish away, O Dnjfl 
Perish away to the regions of the north, never more to 
give unto death the living world of Righteousness I " ' 



Fargard XII. 



This chapter is found only in the Vend! did SSda ; it is missing 
in the Zend-Pahlavi Vendfdid. This is owing, as it seems, only to 
the accidental loss of some folios in the one manuscript from which 
all the copies as yet known have been derived ; and, in fact, even 
in the most ancient manuscripts the following Fargard is numbered 
the thirteenth (Westergaard, Zend-Avesta, preface, p. 5). 

The directions in the preceding chapter are general, and do not 
depend on the relationship of the faithful with the deceased person ; 
whereas those in this Fargard are of a special character, and apply 
only to the near relatives of the dead. Their object is to deter- 
mine how long the time of 'staying' (up a man) should last for 
different relatives. What is meant by this word is not explained ; 
but, as the word upaman is usually employed to indicate the 
staying of the unclean in the Arm&rt-g&h, apart from the faithful 
and from every clean object, that word upaman seems to show 
a certain period of mourning, marked by abstention from usual 
avocations. 

The length of the upaman varies with the degrees of relation- 
ship ; and at every degree it is double for relations who have died 
in a state of sin (that is, with a sin not redeemed by the Patet : 
cf. p. 135, note 1). The relative length of the upaman is as 
follows : — 

For the head of a family (§ 7) : 6 months (or a year). 

I For father or mother (§ 1) \ 
First degree. \ For son or daughter (§ 3) > 30 days (or 60). 

' For brother or sister (§ 5) ' 

1 See Farg. VIII, 19, 20. 

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FARGARD XII. 1 49 




I For grandfather 
mother (§9) r , , 

For grandson or ™1- ( 2 5 *J» (<* 5o). 
daughter (§11) 
Third degree. For uncle or aunt (§ 13) : 20 days (or 40). 

_ , , 1 For male cousin or female 1 

Fourthdegree. j cousin (§ lg) } 15 days (or 30). 

c-ri. j (For the son or daughter of a 1 , , . 

Fifth degree. { cousin(§I7) } 10 days (or 20). 

. . . I For the grandson or the grand- ) * 

Sixth degree. { daughter of a cousip (§ ig) } 5 days (or 10). 

i. If one's father or mother dies, how long shall 
they stay [in mourning], the son for his father, the 
daughter for her mother? How long for the 
righteous ? How long for the sinners * ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' They shall stay thirty 
days for the righteous, sixty days for the sinners.' 

2 (5). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One ! How shall I cleanse the house ? How shall 
it be clean again ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' You shall wash your 
bodies three times, you shall wash your clothes 
three times, you shall chant the Gathas three 
times; you shall offer up a sacrifice to my Fire, 
you shall bind the bundles of Baresma, you shall 
bring libations to the good waters 2 ; then the house 
' shall be clean, and then the waters may enter, then 
the fire may enter, and then the Amesha-Spe»tas 
may enter 8 , O Spitama Zarathurtra ! ' 

1 How long if the dead person died in a state of holiness 
(a dahma) ? How long if in the state of a Peshdtanu ? 

* This refers probably to the sacrifice that is offered on each of 
the three days that follow the death of a Zoroastrian for the salva- 
tion of his soul. 

* All the other objects over which the Amesha-Spewtas preside 
(such as the cow, the metals, &c.) 



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3 (9). If one's son or daughter dies, how long 
shall they stay, the father for his son, the mother 
for her daughter? How long for the righteous? 
How long for the sinners? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' They shall stay thirty 
days for the righteous, sixty days for the sinners.' 

4 (13). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One! 
How shall I cleanse the house ? How shall it be clean again ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' You shall wash your bodies 
three times, you shall wash your clothes three times, you 
shall chant the Gathas three times ; you shall offer up a 
sacrifice to my Fire, you shall bind up the bundles of 
Baresma, you shall bring libations to the good waters; 
then the house shall be clean, and then the waters may 
enter, then the fire may enter, and then the Amesha- 
Spewtas may enter, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! ' 

5 (17). If one's brother or sister dies, how long 
shall they stay, the brother for his brother, the 
sister for her sister ? How long for the righteous ? 
How long for the sinners ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' They shall stay thirty 
days for the righteous, sixty days for the sinners.' 

6 (21). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One 1 
How shall I cleanse the house ? How shall it be clean again ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' You shall wash your bodies 
three times, you shall wash your clothes three times, you 
shall chant the Gathas three times ; you shall offer up a 
sacrifice to my Fire, you shall bind up the bundles of 
Baresma, you shall bring libations to the good waters; 
then the house shall be clean, and then the waters may 
enter, then the fire may enter, and then the Amesha- 
Spewtas may enter, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! ' 

7 (25). If the master of the house 1 dies, or if the 

1 The chief of the family, the paterfamilias. The Zoroas- 
trian family is organised on the patriarchal system. 



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FARGARD XII. I5I 



mistress of the house dies, how long shall they stay ? 
How long for the righteous? How long for the 
sinners ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' They * shall stay six 
months for the righteous, a year for the sinners.' 

8 (a8). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One ! 
How shall I cleanse the house? How shall it be clean 
again ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : • You shall wash, your bodies 
three times, you shall wash your clothes three times, you 
shall chant the Gathas three times ; you shall offer up a 
sacrifice to my Fire, you shall bind up the bundles of 
Baresma, you shall bring libations to the good waters; 
then the house shall be clean, and then the waters may 
enter, then the fire may enter, and then the Amesha- 
Spewtas may enter, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! ' 

9 (31). If one's grandfather or grandmother dies, 
how long shall they stay, the grandson for his 
grandfather, the granddaughter for her grand- 
mother? How long for the righteous? How 
long for the sinners ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' They shall stay twenty- 
five days for the righteous, fifty days for the sinners/ 

10 (34). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One ! How shall I cleanse the house ? How shall it be 
clean again? 

Ahura Mazda answered: 'You shall wash your bodies 
three times, you shall wash your clothes three times, you 
shall chant the Gathas three times ; you shall offer up a 
sacrifice to my Fire, you shall bind up the bundles of 
Baresma, you shall bring libations to the good waters ; 
then the house shall be clean, and then the waters may 
enter, then the fire may enter, and then the Amesha- 
Spewtas may enter, O Spitama Zarathurtra 1 ' 

1 All the f am ilia, both relatives and servants. 



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1 1 (37). If one's grandson or granddaughter dies, 
how long shall they stay, the grandfather for his 
grandson, the grandmother for her granddaughter ? 
How long for the righteous? How long for the 
sinners ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' They shall stay twenty- 
five days for the righteous, fifty days for the sinners.' 

1 a (40). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One! How shall I cleanse the house? How shall it be 
clean again? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' You shall wash your bodies 
three times, you shall wash your clothes three times, you 
shall chant the Gathas three times ; you shall offer up a 
sacrifice to my Fire, you shall bind up the bundles of 
Baresma, you shall bring libations to the good waters; 
then the house shall be clean, and then the waters may 
enter, then the fire may enter, and then the Amesha- 
Spewtas may enter, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! ' 

f 3 (43)- If one's uncle or aunt dies, how long 
shall they stay, the nephew for his uncle, the niece 
for her aunt ? How long for the righteous ? How 
long for the sinners ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' They shall stay twenty 
days for the righteous, forty days for the sinners/ 

14 (45). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One ! How shall I cleanse the house ? How shall it be 
clean again? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' You shall wash your bodies 
three times, you shall wash your clothes three times, you 
shall chant the Gathas three times; you shall offer up a 
sacrifice to my Fire, you shall bind up the bundles of 
Baresma, you shall bring libations to the good waters; 
then the house shall be clean, and then the waters may 
enter, then the fire may enter, and then the Amesha- 
Spe»tas may enter, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! ' 

15 (48). If one's male cousin or female cousin 



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FARGAKD XII. 1 53 



dies, how long shall they stay ? How long for the 
righteous ? How long for the sinners ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' They shall stay fifteen 
days for the righteous, thirty days for the sinners.' 

16 (50). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One ! How shall I cleanse the house ? How shall it be 
clean again ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : c You shall wash your bodies 
three times, you shall wash your clothes three times, you 
shall chant the Gathas three times ; you shall offer up a 
sacrifice to my Fire, you shall bind up the bundles of 
Baresma, you shall bring libations to the good waters; 
then the house shall be clean, and then the waters may 
enter, then the fire may enter, and then the Amesha- 
Spe«tas may enter, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! ' 

1 7 (53)- If the so n or the daughter of a cousin 
dies, how long shall they stay ? How long for the 
righteous ? How long for the sinners ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' They shall stay ten 
days for the righteous, twenty days for the sinners.' 

J 8 (55)* O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One t How shall I cleanse the house ? How shall it be 
clean again? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' You shall wash your bodies 
three times, you shall wash your clothes three times, you 
shall chant the Gathas three times; you shall offer up 
a sacrifice to my Fire, you shall bind up the bundles of 
Baresma, you shall bring libations to the good waters; 
then the house shall be clean, and then the waters may 
enter, then the fire may enter, and then the Amesha- 
Spentas may enter, O Spitama Zarathurtra t * 

J 9 (58). If the grandson of a cousin or the 
granddaughter of a cousin dies, how long shall 
they stay ? How long for the righteous ? How 
long for the sinners? 



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Ahura Mazda answered : ' They shall stay five 
days for the righteous, ten days for the sinners.' 

20 (60). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One! How shall I cleanse the house? How shall it be 
clean again? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' You shall wash your bodies 
three times, you shall wash your clothes three times, you 
shall chant the Gathas three times ; you shall offer up 
a sacrifice to my Fire, you shall bind up the bundles of 
Baresma, you shall bring libations to the good waters; 
then the house shall be clean, and then the waters may 
enter, then the fire may enter, and then the Amesha- 
Spewtas may enter, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! ' 

21 (63). If a man dies, of whatever race he is, 
who does not belong to the true faith, or the true 
law 1 , what part of the creation of the good spirit 
does he directly defile ? What part does he in- 
directly defile ? 

22 2 (65). Ahura Mazda answered : ' No more than 
a frog does whose venom is dried up, and that has 
been dead more than a year. Whilst alive, indeed, 
O Spitama Zarathustra ! such wicked, two-legged 
ruffian as an ungodly Ashemaogha, directly defiles 
the creatures of the Good Spirit, and indirectly 
defiles them. 

2 3 (7°)- 'Whilst alive he smites the water; 
whilst alive he blows out the fire ; whilst alive he 
carries off the cow ; whilst alive he smites the faith- 
ful man with a deadly blow, that parts the soul from 
the body ; not so will he do when dead. 

24 (71). 'Whilst alive, indeed, O Spitama Zara- 
thurtra ! such wicked, two-legged ruffian as an 

1 An infidel, whether he is a relation or not. 
* §§ 22-24=Farg.V, 36-38, text and notes. 



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FARGARD XIII. 1 55 



ungodly Ashemaogha, robs the faithful man of the 
full possession of his food, of his clothing, of his 
wood, of his bed, of his vessels; not so will he 
do when dead.' 



Fargard XIII. 
The Dog. 



1 (1-7). The dog of Ormazd and the dog of Ahriman. 

(a. 1-4). Holiness of the dog Vanghapara ('the hedgehog'), 
(b. 5-7). Hatefulness of the dog Zairimyangura (' the tor- 
toise'). 

II (8-16). The several linds of dogs. Penalties for the murder 
of a dog. 

III (17-19). On the duties of the shepherd's dog and the house- 
dog. 

IV (20-28). On the food due to the dog. 

V (29-38). On the mad dog and the dog diseased ; how they 
are to be kept, and cured. 

VI (39-40). On the excellence of the dog. 

VII (41-43). On the wolf-dog. 

VIII (44-48). On the virtues and vices of the dog. 

IX (49-50). Praise of the dog. 

X (50-54). The water-dog. 

This Fargard is the only complete fragment, still in existence, of 
a large canine literature: a whole section of the Ganba-sar-ni^-at 
Nask was dedicated to the dog (the so-called Fargard Pasftjr- 
haurvastan ; West, Dtnkard (Pahlavi Texts, IV), VIII, 23 ; 24, 5 ; 
33. &c.) 

la. 
1. Which is the good creature among the creatures 
of the Good Spirit that from midnight till the sun is 
up goes and kills thousands of the creatures of the 
Evil Spirit ? 

2 (3). Ahura Mazda answered : ' The dog with 
the prickly back, with the long and thin muzzle, the 



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dog Vanghapara 1 , which evil-speaking people call 
the Duzaka * ; this is the good creature among the 
creatures of the Good Spirit that from midnight till 
the sun is up goes and kills thousands of the crea- 
tures of the Evil Spirit 

3 (6). • And whosoever, O Zarathustra ! shall kill 
the dog with the prickly back, with the long and 
thin muzzle, the dog Vanghapara, which evil-speaking 
people call the Duzaka, kills his own soul for nine 
generations, nor shall he find a way over the 
ICinvsid bridge s , unless he has, while alive, atoned 
for his sin *.' 

4 (10). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man kill the dog with the prickly 
back, with the long and thin muzzle, the dog Van- 
ghapara, which evil-speaking people call the Dosaka, 
what is the penalty that he shall pay ? 

1 The hedgehog. ' The hedgehog, according to the Bund. XIX, 
28, is created in opposition to the ant that carries off grain, as 
it says that the hedgehog, every time that it voids urine into an 
ant's nest, will destroy a thousand ants ' (Bund. XIX, 28 ; cf. Sad- 
dar 57). When the Arabs conquered Saistan, the inhabitants 
submitted on the condition that hedgehogs should not be killed 
nor hunted for, as they got rid of the vipers which swarm in 
that country. Every house had its hedgehog (Yaqout, Diction- 
naire de la Perse, p. 303). Plutarch counts the hedgehog amongst 
the animals sacred to the Magi (Quaestiones Conviviales, IV, 5, 2 : 
rait 8* diri Zapoaarpov payout npqv piv iv rols put\urra rbv x<sp<raio» 

1 Duzaka is the popular name of the hedgehog (Pers. susa). 
It is not without importance which name is given to a being : 
' When called by its high name, it is powerful ' (Comm.) ; cf. § 6, 
and Farg. XVIII, 15. 

* The bridge leading to Paradise ; see Farg. XIX, 30. 

* Cf. § 54. Framjf translates : ' He cannot atone for it in his 
life even by performing a sacrifice to Sraosha' (cf. Farg. IX, 56, 
text and note). 



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FARGARD XIII. 1 57 



Ahura Mazda answered: 'A thousand stripes 
with the Aspah€-artra, a thousand stripes with the 
Sraosho-^arana. ' 

lb. 

5 (13). Which is the evil creature among the 
creatures of the Evil Spirit that from midnight till 
the sun is up goes and kills thousands of the crea- 
tures of the Good Spirit ? 

6(15). Ahura Mazda answered: 'The daeva 
Zairimyangura 1 , which evil-speaking people call 
the Zairimyaka*, this is the evil creature among 
the creatures of the Evil Spirit that from midnight 
till the sun is up goes and kills thousands of the 
creatures of the Good Spirit. 

7(18). * And whosoever, O Zarathurtra ! shall kill 
the daeva Zairimyangura, which evil-speaking people 
call the Zairimyaka, his sins in thought, word, and 
deed are redeemed as they would be by a Patet ; his 
sins in thought, word, and deed are atoned for 8 . 

II. 
8(21). 'Whosoever shall smite either a shep- 
herd's dog, or a house-dog, or a Vohunazga dog *, 
or a trained dog 6 , his soul when passing to the 
other world, shall fly 8 howling louder and more 
sorely grieved than the sheep does in the lofty 
forest where the wolf ranges. 



1 The tortoise (Framji and Rivayats). 

• ' When not so called it is less strong ' (Comm.) Zairimyaka 
is a lucky name, and means, as it seems, who lives in verdure ; 
Zairimyangura seems to mean 'the verdure-devourer.' 

• Cf. Farg. XIV, 5. * See § 19, n. a. 

• A hunting-dog. • ' From Paradise ' (Comm.) 



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9 (24). ' No soul will come and meet his departing 
soul and help it, howling and grieved in the other 
world ; nor will the dogs that keep the [ATinvaaQ 
bridge ' help his departing soul howling and grieved 
in the other world. 

10 (26). ' If a man shall smite a shepherd's dog 
so that it becomes unfit for work, if he shall cut off 
its ear or its paw, and thereupon a thief or a wolf 
break in and carry away [sheep] from the fold, 
without the dog giving any warning, the man shall 
pay for the loss, and he shall pay for the wound of 
the dog as for wilful wounding 2 . 

1 1 (31). ' If a man shall smite a house-dog so that 
it becomes unfit for work, if he shall cut off its ear 
or its paw, and thereupon a thief or a wolf break in 
and carry away [anything] from the house, without 
the dog giving any warning, the man shall pay for 
the loss, and he shall pay for the wound of the dog 
as for wilful wounding V 

12 (36). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man shall smite a shepherd's dog, 
so that it gives up the ghost and the soul parts from 
the body, what is the penalty that he shall pay ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Eight hundred stripes 
with the AspahG-artra, eight hundred stripes with 
the Sraoshd-^arana.' 

*3 (39)- O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man shall smite a house-dog so 
that it gives up the ghost and the soul parts from 
the body, what is the penalty that he shall pay ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Seven hundred stripes 



1 See Farg. XIX, 30. 

* Baodhfi-varrta ; see Farg. VII, 38 n. 



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FARGARD XIII. 1 59 



with the Aspahd-artra, seven hundred stripes with 
the Sraoshfrvfcarana.' 

14 (42). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man shall smite a Vohunazga dog 
so that it gives up the ghost and the soul parts from 
the body, what is the penalty that he shall pay ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Six hundred stripes 
with the Aspah£-astra, six hundred stripes with 
the Sraoshd-iarana.' 

*5 (45)- O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! If a man shall smite a Tauruna dog 1 
so that it gives up the ghost and the soul parts 
from the body, what is the penalty that he shall 
pay? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Five hundred stripes 
with the Aspah£-a$tra, five hundred stripes with 
the Sraoshd-iarana.' 

16 (48). ' This is the penalty for the murder of a 
Gazu dog, of a VLsu dog 2 , of a porcupine dog 8 , of 
a sharp-toothed weasel *, of a swift-running fox ; this 
is the penalty for the murder of any of the creatures 
of the Good Spirit belonging to the dog kind, ex- 
cept the water-dog 8 .' 

III. 

17 (49). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! What is the place of the shepherd's 
dog? 

* Tauruna seems to be another name of the trained or hunt- 
ing-dog (cf. § 8 compared with §§ 12-15), though tradition 
translates it ' a dog not older than four months.' 

* Unknown. Cf. V, 31, 32. * A porcupine. Cf. V, 31. 

* A weasel. Cf. V, 33. 

' The otter. 'For the penalty in that case is most heavy' 
(Comm.) Cf. § 52 seq. and Farg. XIV. 



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Ahura Mazda answered : 'He comes and goes 
a Yu/y6sti 1 round about the fold, watching for the 
thief and the wolf.' 

1 8 (51). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! What is the place of the house-dog ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' He comes and goes 
a Hathra round about the house, watching for the 
thief and the wolf.' 

19 (53)' O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! What is the place of the Vohunazga 
dog? 

Ahura Mazda answered : 'He claims none of those 
talents, and only seeks for his subsistence V 

IV. 

20 (55)- O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man give bad food to a shepherd's 
dog, of what sin does he make himself guilty ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : 'He makes himself 
guilty of the same guilt as though he should 
serve bad food to a master of a house of the 
first rank 3 .' 

21 (57). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! If a man give bad food to a house- 
dog, of what sin does he make himself guilty ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' He makes himself 



1 A distance of sixteen H&thras (16,000 paces). 

* ' He cannot do the same as the shepherd's dog and the house- 
dog do, but he catches Khrafstras and smites the Nasu' (Comm.) 
It is ' the dog without a master ' (ghari b), the vagrant dog ; he is 
held in great esteem (§ 22), and is one of the dogs which can be used 
for the Sag-dtd. 

' Invited as a guest. 



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FARGARD XIII. l6l 



guilty of the same guilt as though he should serve 
bad food to a master of a house of middle rank.' 

22 (59)- O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man give bad food to a Vohunazga 
dog, of what sin does he make himself guilty ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : 'He makes himself 
guilty of the same guilt as though he should serve 
bad food to a holy man, who should come to his 
house in the character of a priest 1 .' 

23 (61). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man give bad food to a Tauruna 
dog, of what sin does he make himself guilty ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : 'He makes himself 
guilty of the same guilt as though he should serve 
bad food to a young man, born of pious parents, 
and who can already answer for his deeds 2 .' 

24 (63). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a man shall give bad food to 
a shepherd's dog, what is the penalty that he shall 
pay? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' He is a Pesh6tanu : 
two hundred stripes with the Aspahfi-a-rtra, two 
hundred stripes with the Sraoshd-^arana 3 .' 

1 The Vohunazga dog has no domicile, therefore he is not com- 
pared with the master of a house, but with a wandering friar, who 
lives on charity. 

* Probably, ' Who has performed the nu-zud, fifteen years old.' 
The young dog enters the community of the faithful at the age of 
four months, when he is fit for the Sag-did and can expel the Nasu. 

3 ' I also saw the soul of a man, whom demons, just like dogs, 
ever tear. That man gives bread to the dogs, and they eat it not ; 
but they ever devour the breast, legs, belly, and thighs of the man. 
And I asked thus : What sin was committed by this body, whose 
soul suffers so severe a punishment ? Srdsh the pious and Atar6 
the angel said thus : This is the soul of that wicked man who, in 

[4] M 



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25 (66). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! If a man shall give bad food to 
a house-dog, what is the penalty that he shall 
pay? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Ninety stripes with the 
Aspah£-artra, ninety stripes with the Sraosh6-/feirana.' 

26 (69). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! If a man shall give bad food to 
a Vohunazga dog, what is the penalty that he shall 
pay? 

Ahura Mazda answered: 'Seventy stripes with 
the Aspah6-artra, seventy stripes with the Sraoshd- 
£arana/ 

27 (72). O Maker, of the material world, thou 
Holy One! If a man shall give bad food to 
a Tauruna dog, what is the penalty that he shall 
pay? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Fifty stripes with the 
Aspah£-aytra, fifty stripes with the Sraosho-iarana. 

2 8 (75). ' For in this material world, O Spitama 
Zarathurtra ! it is the dog, of all the creatures of the 
Good Spirit, that most quickly decays into age, while 
not eating near eating people, and watching goods 
none of which it receives. Bring ye unto him milk 
and fat with meat 1 ; this is the right food for the 
dog 2 .' 

the world, kept back the food of the dogs of shepherds and house- 
holders; or beat and killed them' (Ar<& Vfr&f XL VIII, translated 
by Haug). 

1 The same food as recommended for the dog by Columella 
(Ordacea farina cum sero, VII, 12; cf. Virgil, Pasce sero pingui, 
Georg. Ill, 406). 

1 ' Whenever one eats bread one must put aside three mouthfuls 
and give them to the dog ... for among all the poor there is none 
poorer than the dog ' (Saddar 31). 



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FARGARD XIII. 1 63 



29 (80). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! If there be in the house of a wor- 
shipper of Mazda a mad dog that bites without 
barking,, what shall the worshippers of Mazda do ? 

30 (82). Ahura Mazda answered : ' They shall put 
a wooden collar around his neck, and they shall tie 
thereto a muzzle, an a.sti 1 thick if the wood be hard, 
two astis thick if it be soft. To that collar they 
shall tie it ; by the two sides 2 of the collar they 
shall tie it. 

31 (86). 'If they shall not do so, and the mad 
dog that bites without barking, smite a sheep or 
wound a man, the dog shall pay for the wound of 
the wounded as for wilful murder 3 . 

32 (88). ' If the dog shall smite a sheep or wound 
a man, they shall cut off his right ear. 

' If he shall smite another sheep or wound another 
man, they shall cut off his left ear. 

33 (90). ' If he shall smite a third sheep or wound 
a third man, they shall make a cut in his right foot 4 . 
If he shall smite a fourth sheep or wound a fourth 
man, they shall make a cut in his left foot. 

34 (92). ' If he shall for the fifth time smite 
a sheep or wound a man, they shall cut off his tail. 

1 A measure of unknown amount. Framji reads i-rti, ' a brick ' 
thick. 

1 By the left and the right side of it 

* According to Solon's law, the dog who had bitten a man 
was to be delivered to him tied up to a block four cubits long 
(Plutarchus, Solon 24). The Book of Deuteronomy orders the 
ox who has killed a man to be put to death. 

* 'They only cut off a piece of flesh from the foot' (Brouillons 
d'Anquetil). 

M 2 



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' Therefore they shall tie a muzzle to the collar ; 
by the two sides of the collar they shall tie it If 
they shall not do so, and the mad dog that bites 
without barking, smite a sheep or wound a man, he 
shall pay for the wound of the wounded as for wilful 
murder.' 

35 (97)' O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! If there be in the house of a wor- 
shipper of Mazda a mad dog, who has no scent, 
what shall the worshippers of Mazda do? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' They shall attend him 
to heal him, in the same manner as they would do 
for one of the faithful.' 

36 (100). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If they try to heal him and fail, what 
shall the worshippers of Mazda do ? 

37(102). Ahura Mazda answered: 'They shall 
put a wooden collar around his neck, and they shall 
tie thereto a muzzle, an a.sti thick if the wood be 
hard, two a^tis thick if it be soft. To that collar 
they shall tie it ; by the two sides of the collar they 
shall tie it. 

38 (102). ' If they shall not do so, the scentless 
dog may fall into a hole, or a well, or a precipice, or 
a river, or a canal, and come to grief: if he come to 
grief so, they shall be therefore Peshdtanus. 



VI. 

39 (106). 'The dog, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! I, 
Ahura Mazda, have made self-clothed and self-shod; 
watchful and wakeful; and sharp-toothed; born to 
take his food from man and to watch over man's 
goods. I, Ahura Mazda, have made the dog strong 



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FARGARD XIII. 165 



of body against the evil-doer, when sound of mind 
and watchful over your goods. 

40(112). 'And whosoever shall awake at his 
voice, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! neither shall the 
thief nor the wolf carry anything from his house, 
without his being warned ; the wolf shall be smitten 
and torn to pieces; he is driven away, he melts 
away like snow '.' 

VII. 

41 (115). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! Which of the two wolves deserves 
more to be killed, the one that a he-dog begets 
of a she-wolf, or the one that a he-wolf begets of 
a she-dog? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Of these two wolves, 
the one that a he-dog begets of a she-wolf deserves 
more to be killed than the one that a he-wolf begets 
of a she-dog. 

42 (1 1 7). * For the dogs born therefrom fall on 
the shepherd's dog, on the house-dog, on the Vohu- 
nazga dog, on the trained dog, and destroy the 
folds; such dogs are more murderous, more mis- 
chievous, more destructive to the folds than any 
other dogs 2 . 

43 (121). 'And the wolves born therefrom fall 
on the shepherd's dog, on the house-dog, on the 
Vohunazga dog, on the trained dog, and destroy 
the folds; such wolves are more murderous, more 

' Doubtful. 

* 'Ultroque gravis succedere tigrim 

Ausa canis, majore tulit de sanguine foetum. 
Sed praeceps virtus ipsa venabitur aula: 
Me tibi et pecudum multo cum sanguine crescet.' 

Gratius Faliscus, Cvneg. 165 seq. 



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mischievous, more destructive to the folds than any 
other wolves. 

CLffrt* / ^ 77 ' VIIL 

°/ 44 (i 24). ' A dog has the characters of eight sorts 

of people : — 

' He has the character of a priest, 

' He has the character of a warrior, 

' He has the character of a husbandman, 

' He has the character of a strolling singer, 

' He has the character of a thief, 

' He has the character of a disu, 

' He has the character of a courtezan, 

' He has the character of a child. 

45 (126). ' He eats the refuse, like a priest J ; he is 
easily satisfied 2 , like a priest; he is patient, like 
a priest ; he wants only a small piece of bread, like 
a priest ; in these things he is like unto a priest. 

' He marches in front, like a warrior ; he fights 
for the beneficent cow, like a warrior 8 ; he goes first 
out of the house, like a warrior * ; in these things he 
is like unto a warrior. 

46 (135). 'He is watchful and sleeps lightly, 
like a husbandman ; he goes first out of the house, 
like a husbandman 6 ; he returns last into the house, 
like a husbandman • ; in these things he is like unto 
a husbandman. 

' He is fond of singing, like a strolling singer 7 ; 

1 A wandering priest (see p. 161, n. 1). 

2 ' Good treatment makes him joyous ' (Comm.) 

8 ' He keeps away the wolf and the thief (Comm.) 

4 This clause is, as it seems, repeated here by mistake from § 46. 

* When taking the cattle out of the stables. 

* When bringing the cattle back to the stables. 
7 The so-called Looris \s } $ of nowadays. 



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FARGARD XIII. 1 67 



he wounds him who gets too near *, like a strolling 
singer; he is ill-trained, like a strolling singer; he 
is changeful, like a strolling singer ; in these things 
he is like unto a strolling singer. 

47 ( I 43)» ' He is fond of darkness, like a thief; 
he prowls about in darkness, like a thief; he is 
a shameless eater, like a thief; he is therefore an 
unfaithful keeper, like a thief 2 ; in these things he 
is like unto a thief. 

' He is fond of darkness like a disu 8 ; he prowls 
about in darkness, like a disu ; he is a shameless 
eater, like a disu; he is therefore an unfaithful 
keeper, like a disu ; in these things he is like unto 
a disu. 

48 (153). ' He is fond of singing, like a courtezan ; 
he wounds him who gets too near, like a courtezan ; 
he roams along the roads, like a courtezan; he is 
ill-trained, like a courtezan; he is changeful, like 
a courtezan 4 ; in these things he is like unto a 
courtezan. 

' He is fond of sleep, like a child ; he is tender like 
snow 6 , like a child ; he is full of tongue, like a child ; 
he digs the earth with his paws 6 , like a child; in 
these things he is like unto a child. 



1 He insults or robs the passer by, like a Loori. — ' The Looris 
wander in the world, seeking their life, bed-fellows and fellow- 
travellers of the dogs and the wolves, ever on the roads to rob day 
and night' (Firdausi). 

* ' When one trusts him with something, he eats it up ' (Comm.) 

* According to Frimjf, • a wild beast.' 

* The description of the courtezan follows closely that of the 
singer: in the East a public songstress is generally a prostitute. 
Loori means both a singer and a prostitute. 

' Doubtful. 



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IX. 

49 (163). ' If those two dogs of mine, the shep- 
herd's dog and the house-dog, pass by any of my 
houses, let them never be kept away from it. 

' For no house could subsist on the earth made 
by Ahura, but for those two dogs of mine, the 
shepherd's dog and the house-dog V 



X. 

50(166). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! When a dog dies, with marrow and 
seed 2 dried up, whereto does his ghost go? 

51 (167). Ahura Mazda answered: 'It passes to 
the spring of the waters s , O Spitama Zarathurtra ! 
and there out of them two water-dogs are formed : 
out of every thousand dogs and every thousand she- 
dogs, a couple is formed, a water-dog and a water 
she-dog 4 . 

52 (170). ' He who kills a water-dog brings about 
a drought that dries up pastures. 

' Until then, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! sweetness and 

1 ' But for the dog not a single head of cattle would remain in 
existence ' (Saddar 31). 

1 Marrow is the seat of life, the spine is ' the column and the 
spring of life' (Yt. X, 71); the sperm comes from it (BundahLr 
XVI). The same theory prevailed in India, where the sperm is 
called ma^a-samudbhava, 'what is born from marrow;' it 
was followed by Plato (Timaeus 74, 91 ; cf. Censorinus, De die 
natali, 5), and disproved by Aristotle (De Part. Anim. Ill, 7). 

* To the spring of Ardvf Sura, the goddess of waters, 

4 There is therefore in a single water-dog as much life and holi- 
ness as in a thousand dogs. This accounts for the following. — 
The water-dog (udra upapa; Persian sag-tabt) is the otter. 



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FARGARD XIV. 1 69 



fatness would flow out from that land and from those 
fields, with health and healing, with fulness and increase 
and growth, and a growing of corn and grass.' 

53 (171). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One ! When are sweetness and fatness to come back 
again to that land and to those fields, with health and 
healing, with fulness and increase and growth, and a grow- 
ing of corn and grass ? 

54. 55 ( I 7 2 )- Ahura Mazda answered: 'Sweetness and 
fatness will never come back again to that land and to 
those fields, with health and healing, with fulness and 
increase and growth, and a growing of corn and grass, 
until the murderer of the water-dog has been smitten to 
death on the spot, and the holy soul of the dog has been 
offered up a sacrifice, for three days and three nights, 
with fire blazing, with Baresma tied up, and with Haoma 
prepared x . 

56 (1 74). [' Then sweetness and fatness will come back 
again to that land and to those fields, with health and 
healing, with fulness and increase and growth, and a grow- 
ing of corn and grass *.'] 



Fargard XIV. 



This Fargard is nothing more than an appendix to the last 
clauses in the preceding Fargard (§ 50 seq.) How the murder of 
a water-dog (an otter) may be atoned for is described in it at full 
length. The extravagance of the penalties prescribed may well 
make it doubtful whether the legislation of the Vendidad had 
ever any substantial existence in practice. These exorbitant pre- 
scriptions see'm to be intended only to impress on the mind of the 
faithful the heinousness of the offence to be avoided. 



' See p. 136, n. 1. » Cf. Farg. IX, 53-57. 

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1. Zarathurtra asked Ahura Mazda : ' O Ahura 
Mazda, most beneficent Spirit, Maker of the mate- 
rial world, thou Holy One ! He who smites one of 
those water-dogs that are born one from a thousand 
dogs and a thousand she-dogs \ so that he gives up 
the ghost and the soul parts from the body, what is 
the penalty that he shall pay ? ' 

2 (4). Ahura Mazda answered : ' He shall pay 
ten thousand stripes with the Aspah£-artra, ten 
thousand stripes with the Sraoshd-^arana *. 

' He shall godly and piously bring unto the fire 
of Ahura Mazda s ten thousand loads of hard, well 
dried, well examined 4 wood, to redeem his own soul. 

3 (6). * He shall godly and piously bring unto the 
fire of Ahura Mazda ten thousand loads of soft 
wood, of Urvasna, Vohfl-gaona, Vohu-kereti, Hadha- 
naGpata 6 , or any sweet-scented plant, to redeem his 
own soul. 

4 (7). ' He shall godly and piously tie ten thousand 
bundles of Baresma, to redeem his own soul. 



1 See preceding Fargard, § 51. 

* He shall pay 50 tanaffihrs (=15,000 istirs= 60,000 dirhems). 
' If he can afford it, he will atone in the manner stated in the 
Avesta; if he cannot afford it, it will be sufficient to perform 
a complete Izaxnfi (sacrifice),' (Comm.) 

* To the altar of the BahrSm fire. 

* * It is forbidden to take any ill-smelling thing to the fire and to 
kindle it thereon ; it is forbidden to kindle green wood, and even 
though the wood were hard and dry, one must examine it three 
times, lest there may be any hair or any unclean matter upon it ' 
(Gr. Rav.) Although the pious Arrfi VMf had always taken the 
utmost care never to put on the fire any wood but such as was 
seven years old, yet, when he entered Paradise, Atar, the genius of 
fire, showed him reproachfully a large tank full of the water which 
that wood had exuded (see Ardi VMf X). 

8 See above, p. 96, n. 1. 



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FARGARD XIV. I7I 



' He shall offer up to the Good Waters ten thou- 
sand Zaothra libations with the Haoma and the milk, 
cleanly prepared and well strained, cleanly prepared 
and well strained by a pious man, and mixed with 
the roots of the tree known as Hadha-na6pata, to 
redeem his own soul. 

5 (9). ' He shall kill ten thousand snakes of those 
that go upon the belly. He shall kill ten thousand 
Kahrpus, who are snakes with the shape of a dog '. 
He shall kill ten thousand tortoises s . He shall kill ten 
thousand land-frogs 8 ; he shall kill ten thousand water- 
frogs. He shall kill ten thousand corn-carrying ants 4 ; 

1 'MAr banak snakes: they are dog-like, because they sit 
on their hindparts ' (Comm.) The cat (gurba=Kahrpu) seems to 
be the animal intended. In a paraphrase of this passage in a Parsi 
Ravaet, the cat is numbered amongst the Khrafstras which it is 
enjoined to kill to redeem a sin (India Office Library, VIII, 13); 
cf. G. du Chinon, p. 462 : ' Les animaux que les Games ont en 
horreur sont les serpents, les couleuvres, les lezars, et autres de 
cette espece, les crapaux, les grenouVlles, les ecrevisses, les rats 
et souris, et sur tout le chat.' 

* Cf. Farg. XIII, 6-7. 

* ' Those that can go out of water and live on the dry ground ' 
(Comm.) ' Pour les grenouVlles et crapaux, ils disent que ce sont 
ceux (eux ?) qui sont cause de ce que les hommes meurent, gatans 
les eaus ou ils habitent continuellement, et que d'autant plus qu'il y 
en a dans le pairs, d'autant plus les eaus causent-elles des maladies 
et enfin la mort,' G. du Chinon, p. 465. 

4 Herodotus already mentions the war waged by the Magi 
against snakes and ants (I, 140). — ' Un jour que j'e'tois surpris de 
la guerre qu'ils font aux fourmis, ils me dirent que ces animaux ne 
faisaient que voler par des amas des grains plus qu'il n'e'toit 
ne'cessaire pour leur nourriture,' G. du Chinon, p. 464. Firdausi 
protested against the proscription: 'Do no harm to the corn- 
carrying ant ; a living thing it is, and its life is dear to it.' The 
celebrated high-priest of the Parsis, the late Moola Firooz, entered 
those lines into his Pand Namah, which may betoken better days 
for the wise little creature. 



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he shall kill ten thousand ants of the small, venom- 
ous mischievous kind '. 

6(16). ' He shall kill ten thousand worms of those 
that live on dirt ; he shall kill ten thousand raging 
flies 2 . 

' He shall fill up ten thousand holes for the un- 
clean 8 . 

' He shall godly and piously give to godly men 4 
twice the set of seven implements for the fire 8 , to 
redeem his own soul, namely : — 

7 (20). ' The two answering implements for fire 6 ; 
a broom T ; a pair of tongs ; a pair of round bellows 
extended at the bottom, contracted at the top; a 
sharp-edged sharp-pointed 8 adze; a sharp-toothed 
sharp-pointed saw ; by means of which the worship- 
pers of Mazda procure wood for the fire of Ahura 
Mazda. 

8 (26). 'He shall godly and piously give to godly 
men a set of the priestly instruments of which the 
priests make use, to redeem his own soul, namely : 
The A^tra 9 ; the meat-vessel ; the Paitidana ,0 ; the 

1 Perhaps: 'of the small, venomous kind, with a mischievous 
track ' (Bund. XIX, 28 : ' when the grain-carrier travels over the 
earth, it produces a hollow track : when the hedgehog travels over 
it, the track goes away from it and it becomes level : ' cf. Farg. 
XIII, 2, note). 

' Corpse-flies ; cf. Farg. VII, 2. 

8 ' The holes at which the unclean are washed ' (Comm. ; cf. 
Farg. IX, 6 seq.) 

• To priests. * For the sacred fire. 

• Two receptacles, one for the wood, another for the incense. 
7 To cleanse the Atash-d&n or fire- vessel (Yasna IX, 1). 

• Literally, ' sharp-kneed." • The AspahS-aj tra. 

19 As everything that goes out of man is unclean, his breath 
defiles all that it touches ; priests, therefore, while on duty, and even 
laymen, while praying or eating, must wear a mouth-veil, the 



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FARGARD XIV. 1 73 



Khrafstraghna ' ; the Sraoshd-iarana 2 ; the cup for 
the Myazda 3 ; the cups for mixing and dividing*; 
the regular mortar*; the Haoma cups 6 ; and the 
Baresma. 

9 (32). ' He shall godly and piously give to godly 
men a set of all the war implements of which the 
warriors make use, to redeem his own soul ; 

* The first being a javelin, the second a sword, the 
third a club, the fourth a bow, the fifth a saddle with 
a quiver and thirty brass-headed arrows, the sixth a 
sling with arm-string and with thirty sling stones 7 ; 

1 The seventh a cuirass, the eighth a hauberk 8 , the 
ninth a tunic 9 , the tenth a helmet, the eleventh a 
girdle, the twelfth a pair of greaves. 

10 (41). ' He shall godly and piously give to 
godly men a set of all the implements of which the 



Paitidana (Parsi Pendm), consisting 'of two pieces of white 
cotton cloth, hanging loosely from the bridge of the nose to, at 
least, two inches below the mouth, and tied with two strings at the 
back of the head ' (Haug, Essays, 2nd ed. p. 243, n. 1 ; cf. Comm. 
ad Farg. XVIII, 1, and Anquetil II, 530). 

1 The ' Khrafstna-killer ; ' an instrument for killing snakes, &c. 
It is a stick with a leather thong at its end, something like the 
Indian fly-flap. 

1 See General Introduction. * Doubtful.. 

* The cup in which the juice of the h6m and of the urvaram 
(the twigs of hadha-na6pata which are pounded together with 
the hdm) is received from the mortar (Comm.) 

* The mortar with its pestle. 

* The cup on which twigs of Haoma are laid before being 
pounded, the so-called tashtah (Anquetil II, 533); 'some say, 
the h6m-strainer ' [a saucer with nine holes], Comm. 

7 These are six offensive arms : the next six are defensive arms. — 
Cf. W. Jackson: Herodotus VII, 61, or the Arms of the Ancient 
Persians illustrated from Iranian Sources; New York, 1894. 

* ' Going from the helm to the cuirass ' (Comm.) 

* ' Under the cuirass ' (Comm.) 



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husbandmen make use, to redeem his own soul, 
namely : A plough with yoke and . . . 1 ; a goad for 
ox ; a mortar of stone ; a round-headed hand-mill 
for grinding corn ; 

ii (48). 'A spade for digging and tilling; one 
measure of silver and one measure of gold.' 

O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One ! 
How much silver ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' The price of a stallion.' 

O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One ! 
How much gold ? 

Ahura Mazda answered: 'The price of a he-camel. 

12 (54). 'He shall godly and piously procure a 
rill of running water 2 for godly husbandmen, to 
redeem his own soul.' 

O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One ! 
How large is the rill ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' The depth of a dog, 
and the breadth of a dog s . 

1 3 (57)- 'He shall godly and piously give a piece 
of arable land to godly men, to redeem his own soul.' 

Maker of the material world, thou Holy One ! 
How large is the piece of land ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' As much as can be 
watered with such a rill divided into two canals *. 

14 (60). ' He shall godly and piously procure for 
godly men a stable for oxen, with nine hathras 
and nine nematas 6 , to redeem his own soul.' 

1 Yuy6-semi ayazhana pairi-darezana. 

* The roost precious of all gifts in such a dry place as Iran. 

Water is obtained either through canals of derivation or through 

undergound canals (karez, kanat). 

8 Which is estimated ' a foot deep, a foot broad ' (Comm.) 
4 Doubtful. * Meaning unknown. 



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FARGARD XIV. 1 75 



O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One ! 
How large is the stable ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : 'It shall have twelve 
alleys 1 in the largest part of the house, nine alleys 
in the middle part, six alleys in the smallest part. 

* He shall godly and piously give to godly men 
goodly beds with sheets and cushions, to redeem his 
own soul. 

15 (64). ' He shall godly and piously give in mar- 
riage to a godly man a virgin maid, whom no man 
has known 2 , to redeem his own soul.' 

O Maker of the material world, thou Holy One ! 
What sort of maid ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' A sister or a daughter 
of his, at the age of puberty, with ear-rings in her 
ears, and past her fifteenth year. 

16 (67). ' He shall godly and piously give to 
holy men twice seven head of small cattle, to redeem 
his own soul. 

' He shall bring up twice seven whelps. 

' He shall throw twice seven bridges over canals. 

17(70). 'He shall put into repair twice nine 
stables that are out of repair. 

' He shall cleanse twice nine dogs from stipti, 
anairiti, and vyangura 3 , and all the diseases that are 
produced on the body of a dog. 

• He shall treat twice nine godly men to their fill 
of meat, bread, strong drink, and wine. 

J8 (73). 'This is the penalty, this is the atone- 
ment which saves the faithful man who submits to 
it, not him who does not submit to it. Such a 



Twelve ranks of stalls (?). 

Match-making is a good work (Farg. IV, 44). 

Meaning unknown. 



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1 76 VENDtDAD. 



one shall surely be an inhabitant in the mansion of 
the Dru^V 



Fargard XV. 

I (1-8). On five sins the commission of which makes the sinner 
a Peshdtanu. 

II a (9-12). On unlawful unions and attempts to procure mis- 
carriage. 

II b (13-19). On the obligations of the illegitimate father towards 
the mother and the child. 

III (20-45). On the treatment of a bitch big with young. 

IV (46-51). On the breeding of dogs. 

I. 

i. How many are the sins that men commit and 
that, being committed and not confessed, nor atoned 
for, make their committer a Pesh6tanu 2 ? 

2 (4). Ahura Mazda answered : ' There are five 
such sins, O holy Zarathurtra ! It is the first of 
these sins that men commit when a man teaches one 
of the faithful another faith, another law 8 , a lower 
doctrine, and he leads him astray with a full know- 
ledge and conscience of the sin : the man who has 
done the deed becomes a Peshdtanu. 

3 (9). ' It is the second of these sins when a man 
gives bones too hard or food too hot to a shepherd's 
dog or to a house-dog ; 

4 (11). 'If the bones stick in the dog's teeth or 
stop in his throat ; or if the food too hot burn his 

1 Cf. Farg.VIII, 107. 

1 That is to say : he shall receive two hundred strokes with the 
Aspah£-artra or the Sraosh6-£arana ; or pay three hundred islirs. 
* The Commentary has, ' that is, a creed that is not ours.' 



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FARGARD XV. 1 77 



mouth or his tongue, he may come to grief thereby ; 
if he come to grief thereby, the man who has done 
the deed becomes a Peshdtanu '. 

5 (16). ' It is the third of these sins when a man 
smites a bitch big with young or affrights her by 
running after her, or shouting or clapping with the 
hands ; 

6 (18). 'If the bitch fall into a hole, or a well, or 
a precipice, or a river, or a canal, she may come to 
grief thereby ; if she come to grief thereby, the man 
who has done the deed becomes a Peshdtanu *. 

7 (22). 'It is the fourth of these sins when a man 
has intercourse with a woman who has the whites or 
sees the blood, the man that has done the deed 
becomes a Peshdtanu 8 . 

8 (25). ' It is the fifth of these sins when a man has 
intercourse with a woman quick with child *, whether 
the milk has already come to her breasts or has not 
yet come : she may come to grief thereby ; if she 
come to grief thereby 6 , the man who has done the 
deed becomes a Peshdtanu. 

1 He who gives too hot food to a dog so as to burn his throat is 
margarzin (guilty of death); he who gives bones to a dog so as 
to tear his throat is margarzin (Gr. Rav. 639). 

* If a bitch is big with young and a man shouts or throws 
stones at her, so that the whelps come to mischief and die, he is 
margarzin (Gr. Rav. 639). 

* See Farg. XVI, 14 seq. 

* When she has been pregnant for four months and ten days, as 
it is then that the child is formed and a soul is added to its body 
(Anquetil II, 563). 

* Or better, ' if the child die.' ' If a man come to his wife [during 
her pregnancy] so that she is injured and bring forth a still-born 
child, he is margarzin' (Old Rav. 115 b). 

[4] N 

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II a. 

9 (30). ' If a man come near unto a damsel, either 
dependent on the chief of the family or not de- 
pendent, either delivered [unto a husband] or not 
delivered 1 , and she conceives by him, let her not, 
being ashamed of the people, produce in herself the 
menses, against the course of nature, by means of 
water and plants *. 

10 (34). ' And if the damsel, being ashamed of the 
people, shall produce in herself the menses against 
the course of nature, by means of water and plants, 
it is a fresh sin as heavy [as the first] s . 

1 1 (36). ' If a man come near unto a damsel, 
either dependent on the chief of the family or not 
dependent, either delivered [unto a husband] or not 
delivered, and she conceives by him, let her not, 
being ashamed of the people, destroy the fruit in her 
womb. 

12 (38). 'And if the damsel, being ashamed of 
the people, shall destroy the fruit in her womb, 
the sin is on both the father and herself, the murder 

1 ' Whether she has a husband in the house of her own parents 
or has none ; whether she has entered from the house of her own 
parents into the house of a husband [depending on another chief 
of family] or has not ' (Comm.) 

* By means of drugs. 

* ' It is a tanafuhr sin for her : it is sin on sin' (the first sin being 
to have allowed herself to be seduced), Comm. ' If there has been 
no sin in her (if she has been forced), and if a man, knowing her 
shame, wants to take it off her, he shall call together her father, 
mother, sisters, brothers, husband, the servants, the menials, and 
the master and the mistress of the house, and he shall say, " This 
woman is with child by me, and I rejoice ia it ; " and they shall 
answer, " We know it, and we are glad that her shame is taken off 
her ; " and he shall support her as a husband does' (Comm.) 



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FARGARD XV. 1 79 



is on both the father and herself ; both the father and 
herself shall pay the penalty for wilful murder \ 

lib. 

13 (40). 'If a man come near unto a damsel, 
either dependent on the chief of the family or not 
dependent, either delivered [unto a husband] or not 
delivered, and she conceives by him, and she says, 
" I have conceived by thee ; " and he replies, " Go 
then to the old woman 2 and apply to her for one of 
her drugs, that she may procure thee miscarriage;" 

14 (43). ' And the damsel goes to the old woman 
and applies to her for one of her drugs, that she may 
procure her miscarriage ; and the old woman brings 
her some Banga, or Shaeta, a drug that kills in the 
womb or one that expels out of the womb 8 , or 
some other of the drugs that produce miscarriage 
and [the man says], " Cause thy fruit to perish ! " 
and she causes her fruit to perish ; the sin is on 
the head of all three, the man, the damsel, and the 
old woman. 

1 5 (49). ' If a man come near unto a damsel, 
either dependent on the chief of the family or not 
dependent, either delivered [unto a husband] or not 
delivered, and she conceives by him, so long shall he 
support her, until the child be born. 

16 (51). ' If he shall not support her, so that the 
child comes to grief 4 , for want of proper support, he 
shall pay for it the penalty for wilful murder.' 

1 Forbaodhd-varjta; cf.VII, 38. 
* The nurse (Fiimjf) or the midwife. 

' Banga is bang or mang, a narcotic made from hempseed, 
shafit a is another sort of narcotic. 
4 And dies. 

N 2 



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17 (54). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! If she be near her time, which is the 
worshipper of Mazda that shall support her ? 

18 (56). Ahura Mazda answered: ' If a man come 
near unto a damsel, either dependent on the chief 
of the family or not dependent, either delivered [unto 
a husband] or not delivered, and she conceives by 
him, so long shall he support her, until the child be 
born 1 . 

19 (58). ' If he shall not support her 2 .... 

' It lies with the faithful to look in the same way 
after every pregnant female, either two-footed or four- 
footed, two-footed woman or four-footed bitch.' 

III. 

20 (61). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If (a bitch s ) be near her time, which is 
the worshipper of Mazda that shall support her ? 

2 1 (63). Ahura Mazda answered : ' He whose 
house stands nearest, the care of supporting her is 
his * ; so long shall he support her, until the whelps 
be born. 

22 (65). ' If he shall not support her, so that the 

' § i8=§ 15. 

* The senience is left unfinished : FrSmjf fills it with the words 
in § 1 6, 'so that the child,' &c. It seems as if §§ 17, 18 were no 
part of the original text, and as if § 17 were a mere repetition of 
§ 20, which being wrongly interpreted as referring to a woman would 
have brought about the repetition of § 15 as an answer. See § 20. 

* The subject is wanting in the text: it is supplied from the 
Commentary and from the sense. 

4 ' The bitch is lying on the high road : the man whose house 
has its door nearest shall take care of her. If she dies, he shall 
carry her off [to dispose of the body according to the law]. One 
mast support her for at least three nights : if one cannot support her 
any longer, one intrusts her to a richer man ' (Comm. and Fr&mji). 



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FARGARD XV. l8l 



whelps come to grief, for want of proper support, he 
shall pay for it the penalty for wilful murder.' 

23 (68). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a bitch be near her time and be 
lying in a stable for camels, which is the worshipper 
of Mazda that shall support her ? 

24 (70). Ahura Mazda answered : ' He who built 
the stable for camels or whoso holds it ', the care of 
supporting her is his ; so long shall he support her, 
until the whelps be born. 

25 (76). ' If he shall not support her, so that the 
whelps come to grief, for want of proper support, he 
shall pay for it the penalty for wilful murder.' 

26 (77). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! If a bitch be near her time and be 
lying in a stable for horses, which is the worshipper 
of Mazda that shall support her ? 

27 (78), Ahura Mazda answered : ' He who built 
the stable for horses or whoso holds it, the care of 
supporting her is his ; so long shall he support her, 
until the whelps be born. 

28 (81). ' If he shall not support her, so that the 
whelps come to grief, for want of proper support, he 
shall pay for it the penalty for wilful murder.' 

29 (84). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! If a bitch be near her time and be 
lying in a stable for oxen, which is the worshipper 
of Mazda that shall support her ? 

30 (86). Ahura Mazda answered : ' He who built 
the stable for oxen or whoso holds it, the care of 
supporting her is his ; so long shall he support her, 
until the whelps be born. 

1 ' In pledge or for rent ' (Fr&mjf). 

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3 1 (89). ' If he shall not support her, so that the 
whelps come to grief, for want of proper support, he 
shall pay for it the penalty for wilful murder.' 

32 (92). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! If a bitch be near her time and be 
lying in a sheep-fold, which is the worshipper of 
Mazda that shall support her? 

33 (94)- Ahura Mazda answered : ' He who built 
the sheep-fold or whoso holds it, the care of support- 
ing her is his ; so long shall he support her, until 
the whelps be born. 

34 (97). ' If he shall not support her so that the 
whelps come to grief, for want of proper support, he 
shall pay for it the penalty for wilful murder.' 

35 (100). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a bitch be near her time and be 
lying on the earth-wall \ which is the worshipper of 
Mazda that shall support her ? 

36 (102). Ahura Mazda answered: 'He who 
erected the wall or whoso holds it, the care of sup- 
porting her is his; so long shall he support her, 
until the whelps be born. 

37 (105). ' If he shall not support her, so that the 
whelps come to grief, for want of proper support, he 
shall pay for it the penalty for wilful murder.' 

38 (108). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! If a bitch be near her time and be 
lying in the moat*, which is the worshipper of 
Mazda that shall support her? 

39 (no). Ahura Mazda answered : ' He who dug 
the moat or whoso holds it, the care of supporting 

1 The wall around the house. 
* The moat before the earth-wall. 



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FARGARD XV. 1 83 



her is his; so long shall he support her, until the 
whelps be born. 

40 (1 12). ' If he shall not support her, so that the 
whelps come to grief, for want of proper support, he 
shall pay for it the penalty for wilful murder.' 

41 (113). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If a bitch be near her time and be 
lying in the middle of a pasture-field, which is the 
worshipper of Mazda that shall support her ? 

42 (1 1 5). Ahura Mazda answered : ' He who 
sowed the pasture-field or whoso holds it, the care 
of supporting her is his ; [so long shall he support 
her, until the whelps be born. If he shall not 
support her, so that the whelps come to grief, for 
want of proper support, he shall pay for it the 
penalty for wilful murder.] 

43 ( x I 7)« 'He shall take her to rest upon a litter 
of nemdvawta or of any foliage fit for a litter ; so 
long shall he support her, until the young dogs are 
capable of self-defence and self-subsistence.' 

44 (122). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! When are the dogs capable of self- 
defence and self-subsistence ? 

45 ( I2 3)- Ahura Mazda answered: 'When they 
are able to run about in a circuit of twice seven 
houses around 1 . Then they may be let loose, 
whether it be winter or summer. 

'Young dogs ought to be supported for six 
months 8 , children for seven years 8 . 

1 Probably the distance of one yu^yfirti ; cf. Farg. XIII, 17. 

* Catulos sex mensibus primis dum corroborentur emitti non 
oportet . . . (Columella, De re agraria, VII, la). 

' The age when they are invested with the Kosti and Sadere, 
and become members of the Zoroastrian community. 



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• Atar 1 , the son of Ahura Mazda, watches as well 
(over a pregnant bitch) as he does over a woman.' 

IV. 

46 (127). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! If worshippers of Mazda want to have 
a bitch so covered that the offspring shall be one 
of a strong nature, what shall they do ? 

47 (1 29). Ahura Mazda answered : ' They shall 
dig a hole in the earth, in the middle of the fold, 
half a foot deep If the earth be hard, half the height 
of a man if the earth be soft 

48 (131). 'They shall first tie up [the bitch] there, 
far from children and from the Fire, the son of 
Ahura Mazda \ and they shall watch by her until 
a dqg comes there from anywhere ; then another 
•gain, and then a third again 3 , each being kept 
apart from the former, lest they should assail one 
another. 

49(134)*. 'The bitch being thus covered by 

1 ' When a woman becomes pregnant in a house, it is necessary 
to make an endeavour so that there may be a continual fire in 
that house, and to maintain a good watch over it. And, when the 
child becomes separate from the mother, it is necessary to burn 
a lamp for three nights and days — if they burn a fire it would be 
better — so that the demons and fiends may not be able to do any 
damage and harm ; because, when a child is born, it is exceedingly 
delicate for those three days ' (Saddar XVI ; West, Pahlavi Texts, 
111,277)- 

3 ' From children, lest she shall bite them ; from the fire, lest it 
shall hurt her ' (Comm.) 

' Cf. Justinus III, 4 : maturiorem futuram conceptionem rati, si 
earn singulae per plures viros experirentur. 

4 The text of this and the following clause is corrupt, and the 
meaning is doubtful. 



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FARGARD XVI. 185 



three dogs, grows big with young, and the milk 
comes to her teats and she brings forth a young 
one that is born from several dogs.' 

50 (135). If a man smite a bitch who has been 
covered by three dogs, and who has already milk, 
and who shall bring forth a young one born from 
several dogs, what is the penalty that he shall pay ? 

51 (137). Ahura Mazda answered: 'Seven hun- 
dred stripes with the Aspah6-a*tra, seven hundred 
stripes with the Sraoshd-^arana.' 



Fargard XVI. 



I (1-7). On the uncleanness of women during their sickness. 

II (8-1 2). What is to be done if that state lasts too long. 

III (13-18). Sundry laws relating to the same matter. See 
Introd. V, i2. 

I. 

i. O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One 1 If there be in the house of a worshipper of 
Mazda a woman who has the whites or sees blood, 
what shall the worshippers of Mazda do ? 

2 (3). Ahura Mazda answered : ' They shall clear 
the way * of the wood there, both plants and trees 2 ; 
they shall strew dry dust on the ground s ; and they 
shall isolate a half, or a third, or a fourth, or a fifth 

1 The way to the Dashtlnistan. 

' Lest the wood shall be touched and defiled by the woman on 
her way to the Dashtinistin. 

* Lest the earth shall be touched and defiled by her. Cf. Farg. 
IX, n. 



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part of the house 1 , lest her look should fall upon 
the fire/ 

3 (9). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One ! How far from the fire ? How far from the 
water ? How far from the consecrated bundles of 
Baresma ? How far from the faithful ? 

4(10). Ahura Mazda answered: 'Fifteen paces 
from the fire, fifteen paces from the water, fifteen 
paces from the consecrated bundles of Baresma, 
three paces from the faithful.' 

5 (11). O Maker of the material world, thou Holy 
One ! How far from her shall he stay, who brings 
food to a woman who has the whites or sees the 
blood ? 

6 (12). Ahura Mazda answered: 'Three paces 2 
from her shall he stay, who brings food to a woman 
who has the whites or sees the blood.' 

In what kind of vessels shall he bring her bread ? 
In what kind of vessels shall he bring her barley- 
drink ? 

' In vessels of brass, or of lead, or of any common 
metal V 

7 (15). How much bread shall he bring to her? 
How much barley-drink shall he bring ? 

'Two danares* of dry bread, and one danare 
of liquor, lest she should get too weak*. 

1 Nowadays a room on the ground-floor is reserved for that 
use. 

1 The food is held out to her from a distance in a metal spoon. 

* Earthen vessels, when defiled, cannot be made clean; but 
metal vessels can (see Farg. VII, 73 seq.) 

4 A danare is, according to Anquetil, as much as four tolas; 
a tola is from 105 to 175 grains. 

• * Sdshyds says : For three nights cooked meat is not allowed 
to her, lest the issue shall grow stronger.' 



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FARGARD XVI. 187 



* If a child has just touched her, they shall first 
wash his hands and then his body *. 

II. 

8 (21). ' If she still see blood after three nights 
have passed, she shall sit in the place of infirmity 
until four nights have passed. 

' If she still see blood after four nights have 
passed, she shall sit in the place of infirmity until 
five nights have passed. 

9. ' If she still see blood after five nights have 
passed, she shall sit in the place of infirmity until 
six nights have passed. 

' If she still see blood after six nights have 
passed, she shall sit in the place of infirmity until 
seven nights have passed. 

10. 'If she still see blood after seven nights have 
passed, she shall sit in the place of infirmity until 
eight nights have passed. 

' If she still see blood after eight nights have 
passed, she shall sit in the place of infirmity until 
nine nights have passed. 

11. ' If she still see blood after nine nights have 
passed, this is a work of the Da£vas which they 
have performed for the worship and glorification of 
the Da£vas *. 

1 A child whom she suckles. The meaning is, Even a child, if 
he has touched her, must undergo the rites of cleansing. The 
general rule is given in the Commentary : ' Whoever has touched 
a Dashtan woman must wash his body and his clothes with gdmez 
and water.' The ceremony in question is the simple Ghosel, not 
the Barashnum, since the woman herself performs the former only 
(see below, §11 seq.) 

* Abnormal issues are a creation of Ahriman's (Farg. I, 18). 



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1 88 VENdJdAd. 



• The worshippers of Mazda shall clear the way l 
of the wood there, both plants and trees 2 ; 

1 2 (26). * They shall dig three holes in the earth, 
and they shall wash the woman with gdmez by two 
of those holes and with water by the third. 

• They shall kill Khrafstras, to wit : two hundred 
corn-carrying ants 8 , if it be summer; two hundred 
of any other sort of the Khrafstras made by Angra 
Mainyu, if it be winter.' 

III. 

13 (30). If a worshipper of Mazda shall suppress 
the issue of a woman who has the whites or sees 
blood, what is the penalty that he shall pay ? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' He is a Peshdtanu : 
two hundred stripes with the Aspahe-artra, two 
hundred stripes with the Sraoshd-iarana.' 

14 (33). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One! If a man shall again and again lascivi- 
ously touch the body of a woman who has the 
whites or sees blood, so that the whites turn to 
the blood or the blood turns to the whites, what is 
the penalty that he shall pay ? 

1 5 (36). Ahura Mazda answered : ' For the first 
time he comes near unto her, for the first time he 
lies by her, thirty stripes with the Aspahe-artra, 
thirty stripes with the Sraoshd-^arana. 

* For the second time he comes near unto her, for 
the second time he lies by her, fifty stripes with the 
Aspahe-aJtra, fifty stripes with the Sraoshd-iarana. 

1 The way to the BarashnAm-g&h, where the cleansing takes 
place. 

* See Farg. IX, 3 seq. 8 Cf. Farg. XIV, 5 



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FARGARD XVI. 1 89 



' For the third time he comes near unto her, for 
the third time he lies by her, seventy stripes with 
the Aspah&artra, seventy stripes with the Sraoshd- 
£arana.' 

1 6. For the fourth time he comes near unto her, 
for the fourth time he lies by her, if he shall press 
the body under her clothes, if he shall go in between 
the unclean thighs, but without sexual intercourse, 
what is the penalty that he shall pay? 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Ninety stripes- with 
the Aspah6-artra, ninety stripes with the Sraoshd- 
£arana. 

*7 (39)- 'Whosover shall lie in sexual inter- 
course with a woman who has the whites or sees 
blood, does no better deed than if he should burn 
the corpse of his own_j§pn, born of his own body 
and dead of na6za\ and drop its fat into the 
fire 8 . 

18 (41). ' All wicked, embodiments of the Drug; 
are scorners of the judge : all scorners of the judge 
are rebels against the Sovereign : all rebels against 
the Sovereign are ungodly men ; and all ungodly 
men are worthy of death V 

' A disease (Farg.VII, 58). There is another word naeza, 'a 
spear,' so that one may translate also ' killed by the spear ' (Asp.) 

* 'Not that the two deeds are equal, but neither is good' 
(Comm.) The sin in question is a simple tanafuhr (Farg. XV, 7), 
and therefore can be atoned for by punishment and repentance, 
whereas the burning of a corpse is a crime for which there is no 
atonement (Farg. 1, 17; VIII, 73 seq.) 

* Literally, ' is a Peshdtanu ; ' * he is a tanafuhr sinner, that is to 
say, margarzan (worthy of death),' Comm. 



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Fargard XVII. 

Hair and Nails. 

Anything that has been separated from the body of man is con- 
sidered dead matter (nasu), and is accordingly unclean. As soon 
as hair and nails are cut off, the demon takes hold of them and 
has to be driven away from them by spells, in the same way as he 
is from the bodies of the dead \ 

I. 

i. Zarathurtra asked Ahura Mazda : ' O Ahura 
Mazda, most beneficent Spirit, Maker of the material 
world, thou Holy One ! Which is the most deadly- 
deed whereby a man offers up a sacrifice to the 
DaSvas 2 ? ' 

2 (3). Ahura Mazda answered : ' It is when a man 
here below, combing his hair or shaving it off, or 
paring off his nails, drops them 8 in a hole or in a 
crack 4 . 

3 (6). ' Then by this transgression of the rites, 
Daevas are produced in the earth; by this trans- 
gression of the rites, those Khrafstras are produced 
in the earth which men call lice, and which eat up 
the corn in the corn-field and the clothes in the 
wardrobe. 

4(10). 'Therefore, thou, O Zarathurtra! when- 
ever here below thou shalt comb thy hair or shave 

1 On similar views and customs in different countries, see Notes 
and Queries, 3rd series, X, 146; Aulus Gellius, X, 15, 15; 
Melusine, 1878, pp. 79, 549, 583 ; L. de Rosny, Histoire des 
dynasties divines, 308. 

* Any offence to religion is considered an offering to the Da&vas, 
whose strength is thereby increased. Cf. Yt V, 95. 

* Without performing the requisite ceremonies. 
4 Doubtful. 



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FARGARD XVII. I9I 



it off, or pare off thy nails, thou shalt take them 
away ten paces from the faithful, twenty paces from 
the fire, thirty paces from the water, fifty paces from 
the consecrated bundles of Baresma. 

5 (13). * Then thou shalt dig a hole, a di-rti 1 deep 
if the earth be hard, a vltasti deep if it be soft; 
thou shalt take the hair down there and thou shalt 
say aloud these victorious words : " For him, as 
a reward, Mazda made the plants grow up 2 ." 

6 (17). ' Thereupon thou shalt draw three furrows 
with a knife of metal around the hole, or six furrows 
or nine, and thou shall chant the Ahuna-Vairya 
three times, or six, or nine. 

II. 

7 (19). ' For the nails, thou shalt dig a hole, out 
of the house, as deep as the top joint of the little 
finger; thou shalt take the nails down there and 
thou shalt say aloud these victorious words : " The 
things that the pure proclaim through Asha and 
Vohu-man6 V 

8 (24). ' Then thou shalt draw three furrows with 

1 A dlfti=ten fingers. A vftasti= twelve fingers. 

* See above, XI, 6 ; the choice of this line was determined by 
the presence of the word plants in it: man was considered a 
microcosm, and every element in him had its counterpart in nature ; 
the skin is like the sky, the flesh is like the earth, the bones are like 
the mountains, the veins are like the rivers, the blood in the body 
is like the water in the sea, the hair is like the plants, the more 
hairy parts are like the forests (Gr. Bund.) Cf. Rig-veda X, 16, 3 ; 
Ilias VII, 99 ; Empedocles, fr. 378; Epicharmus ap. Plut. Consol. 
ad Apoll. 15 ; Edda, Grimnismal, 40. 

* Yasna XXXIII, 7 ; understood (with a play upon the word 
sruyS, 'is heard,' and 'nails of both hands') as : 'O Asha, with 
Vohu-man6, the nails of the pure [are for you].' 



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a knife of metal around the hole, or six furrows or 
nine, and thou shalt chant the Ahuna-Vairya three 
times, or six, or nine. 

9 (26). 'And then: "O Ashd-zurta bird 1 ! these 
nails I announce and consecrate unto thee. May 
they be for thee so many spears and knives, so 
many bows and falcon-winged arrows, and so many 
sling-stones against the Mazainya Daevas 2 ! " 

10 (29). 'If those nails have not been consecrated 
(to the bird), they shall be in the hands of the 
Mazainya Daevas so many spears and knives, so 
many bows and falcon-winged arrows, and so many 
sling-stones (against the Mazainya Daevas) s . 

1 1 (30). ' All wicked, embodiments of the Drug, 
are scorners of the judge : all scorners of the judge 
are rebels against the Sovereign : all rebels against 
the Sovereign are ungodly men ; and all ungodly 
men are worthy of death 4 .' 

1 ' The owl,' according to modern tradition. The word literally 
means ' friend of holiness.' ' For the bird Ashd-zarta they recite 
the Avesta formula ; if they recite it, the fiends tremble and do not 
take up the nails ; but if the nails have had no spell uttered over 
them, the fiends and wizards use them as arrows against the bird 
Ash6-zurta and kill him. Therefore, when the nails have had a spell 
uttered over them, the bird takes and eats them up, that the fiends 
may not do any harm by their means ' (Bundahu XIX). The bird 
Ashd-zurta is also called Bird of Bahman (Saddar 14), both names 
being taken from the first words of the line quoted above. 

* See above, p. 140, n. 5 ; p. 141, n. 1. The nails are cut in two 
and the fragments are put in the hole with the point directed 
towards the north, that is to say, against the breasts of the D6vs 
(see above, p. 76, n. 1). See Anquetil, Zend-Avesta II, 117; India 
Office Library, VIII, 80. 

8 Repeated by mistake from § 10. 

* See preceding Fargard, § 18. 



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FARGARD XVIII. 193 



Fargard XVIII. 

I (1-13). On the unworthy priest and enticers to heresy. 

II (14-29). The holiness of the cock, the bird of Sraosha, who 
awakes the world for prayer and for the protection of Atar. 

III (30-59). On the four sins that make the Dru^ pregnant with 
a brood of fiends. 

IV (60-65). On the evil caused by the (rahi (the prostitute). 

V (66-76). How intercourse with a Dashtan woman is to be 
atoned for. 

I. 

I. 'There is many a one, O holy Zarathurtra ! ' 
said Ahura Mazda, ' who wears a wrong Paitidana ', 
and who has not girded his loins with the Religion 2 ; 
when such a man says, " I am an Athravan," he lies ; 
do not call him an Athravan, O holy Zarathuytra ! ' 
thus said Ahura Mazda. 

2 (5). ' He holds a wrong Khrafstraghna 8 in his 
hand and he has not girded his loins with the Reli- 
gion ; when he says, " I am an Athravan," he lies ; 
do not call him an Athravan, O holy Zarathurtra ! 
thus said Ahura Mazda. 

3 (7). ' He holds a wrong twig 4 in his hand and 
he has not girded his loins with the Religion ; when 
he says, " I am an Athravan," he lies ; do not call 
him an Athravan, O holy Zarathuytra ! ' thus said 
Ahura Mazda. 

1 See above, p. 172, n. 10. 

1 The word translated girded is the word used of the Kdstf, the 
sacred girdle which the Parsi must never part with (see § 54) ; the 
full meaning, therefore, is, 'girded with the law as with a Kdstf 
(cf. Yasna IX, 26 [81]), that is to say, 'never forsaking the law,' or, 
as the Commentary expresses it, ' one whose thought is all on the 
law' (cf. § 5). 

* See above, p. 173, n. 1. 

* The bundles of Baresma or the urvaram (see p. 22, n. 3; 
p. 173, n. 4). - 

[4] O 



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4 (9). ' He wields a wrong A nra mairya ' and 
he has not girded his loins with the Religion ; when 
he says, " I am an Athravan," he lies ; do not call 
him an Athravan, O holy Zarathurtra ! ' thus said 
Ahura Mazda. 

5 (11). 'He who sleeps on throughout the night, 
neither performing the Yasna nor chanting the 
hymns, worshipping neither by word nor by deed, 
neither learning nor teaching, with a longing for 
(everlasting) life, he lies when he says, " I am an 
Athravan," do not call him an Athravan, O holy 
Zarathustra ! ' thus said Ahura Mazda. 

6 (14). * Him thou shalt call an Athravan, O holy 
Zarathustra ! who throughout the night sits up and 
demands of the holy Wisdom 2 , which makes man 
free from anxiety, and wide of heart, and easy of 
conscience at the head of the Alnva/ bridge s , and 
which makes him reach that world, that holy world, 
that excellent world of Paradise. 

7 (18). * (Therefore) demand of me, thou upright 
one ! of me, who am the Maker, the most beneficent 
of all beings, the best knowing, the most pleased 
in answering what is asked of me ; demand of me, 
that thou mayst be the better, that thou mayst be 
the happier.' 

8 (2 1). Zarathustra asked Ahura Mazda : ' O Maker 
of the material world, thou Holy One ! What is it 
that brings in the unseen power of Death ? ' 

1 The surtra (Aspahe-ajtra) with which the priest, as a Sraosha- 
varez, chastises the guilty. 

' That is to say, studies the law and learns from those who 
know it. 

' See Farg. XIX, 30. ' It gives him a stout heart, when standing 
before the JTinva/ bridge ' (Comm.) 



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FARGARD XVIII. 1 95 



9 (22). Ahura Mazda answered : ' It is the man 
that teaches a wrong Religion * ; it is the man who 
continues for three springs 2 without wearing the 
sacred girdle 8 , without chanting the Gathas, with- 
out worshipping the Good Waters. 

10 (25). ' And he who should set that man at 
liberty, when bound in prison 4 , does no better deed 
than if he should cut a man's head off his neok *. 

1 ' The deceiver Ashemaogha ' (Comm.) ; the heretic. Cf. Farg. 
XV, 2. 

* ' For three years ' (Comm.) 

* The Kdstt, which must be worn by every Parsi, man or woman, 
from their fifteenth year of age (see below, § 54 seq.) ; it is the badge 
of the faithful, the girdle by which he is united both with Ormazd 
and with his fellow-believers. He who does not wear it must be 
refused water and bread by the members of the community; he 
who wears it becomes a participator in the merit of all the good 
deeds performed all over the Zarathustrian world (Saddar 10 and 
46). The Kdstt consists 'of seventy-two interwoven filaments, 
and should three times circumvent the waist . . . Each of the 
threads is equal in value to one of the seventy-two Hahs of the 
Izashng; each of the twelve threads in the six lesser cords is 
equal in value to the daw&zdih hamaist . . .; each of the lesser 
cords is equal in value to one of the six Gahanbars ; each of the 
three circumventions of the loins is equal in value to hum at, good 
thought, hukhat, good speech, huaresta, good work; the binding 
of each of the four knots upon it confers pleasure on each of the 
four elements, fire, air, water, and the earth' (Edal Daru, apud 
Wilson, The Parsi Religion Unfolded, p. 163). 

Another piece of clothing which every Parsi is enjoined to wear 
is the Sadara, or sacred shirt, a muslin shirt with short sleeves, 
that does not reach lower than the hips, with a small pocket at the 
opening in front of the shirt, the so-called giriban or kissai 
karfa, ' the pocket for good deeds.' The faithful man must, while 
putting on his Sadara, look at the gi rib an and ask himself whether 
it is full of good deeds. 

* See Introd. Ill, 10. Cf. § ia. 

* Doubtful. The Commentary seems to understand the sentence 
as follows: 'He who should free him from hell would thus per- 

O 2 



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11 (27). 'For the blessing uttered by a wicked, 
ungodly Ashemaogha does not go past the mouth 
(of the blesser) ; the blessing of two Ashemaoghas x 
does not go past the tongue ; the blessing of three l 
is nothing; the blessing of four 1 turns to self- 
cursing. 

1 2 (29). ' Whosoever should give to a wicked, un- 
godly Ashemaogha either some Haoma prepared, or 
some Myazda consecrated with blessings, does no 
better deed than if he should lead a thousand horse 
against the boroughs of the worshippers of Mazda, 
and should slaughter the men thereof, and drive off 
the cattle as plunder. 

*3 (3 2 )- 'Demand of me, thou upright one! of 
me, who am the Maker, the most beneficent of all 
beings, the best knowing, the most pleased in 
answering what is asked of me ; demand of me, that 
thou mayst be the better, that thou mayst be the 
happier.' 

II. 

H (33)« Zarathurtra asked Ahura Mazda : 'Who 
is the Sraosha-varez 2 of Sraosha ? the holy, strong 
Sraosha, who is Obedience incarnate, a Sovereign 
with an astounding weapon V 

form no less a feat than if he should cut off the head of a man and 
then make him alive again.' 

1 Perhaps better : ' The second . . . , the third . . . , the fourth 
blessing of an Ashemaogha.' 

* 'Who is he who sets the world in motion?' (Comm.) Cf. 
P- 57. n. 3. 

* Sraosha, SrSsh, the Genius of Active Piety. He first tied 
the Baresma, sacrificed to Ahura, and sang the Gathas. Thrice 
in each day and each night he descends upon the earth to smite 
Angra Mainyu and his crew of demons. With his club uplifted he 



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FARGARD XVIII. 1 97 



15 (34). Ahura Mazda answered: ' It is the bird 
named Parddaw 1 , which ill-speaking people call 
Kahrkatas 2 , O holy Zarathurtra ! the bird that 
lifts up his voice against the mighty Ushah 3 : 

16 (37). '"Arise, O men! recite the Ashem yaa? 
vahistem that smites down the Daevas*. Lo! 
here is BushySsta, the long-handed 8 , coming upon 
you, who lulls to sleep again the whole living world, 
as soon as it has awoke : ' Sleep ! ' [she says,] 'O poor 
man ! the time • is not yet come' " 

17 (41). ' "On the three excellent things be never 
intent, namely, good thoughts, good words, and good 
deeds ; on the three abominable things be ever 

protects the world from the demons of the night, and the dead 
from the terrors of death and from the assaults of Angra Mainyu 
and Astd-viddtu. It is through a sacrifice performed by Ormazd, 
as a Z6tt, and Sr6sh, as a Raspi, that at the end of time Ahriman 
will be for ever vanquished and brought to nought (Yasna LVII ; 
Yt. XI, &c.) 
1 ' He who foreshows the coming dawn ; the cock.' 

* • When he is not called so, he is powerful ' (Comm.) Cf. Farg. 
XIII, 2, 6. 

* Ushah, the second half of the night, from midnight to the 
dawn. 

4 The cock is ' the drum of the world.' As crowing in the dawn 
that dazzles away the fiends, he crows away the demons : ' The cock 
was created to fight against the fiends and wizards ; ... he is with 
the dog an ally of Srdsh against demons ' (Bundahu XIX). ' No 
demon can enter a house in which there is a cock ; and, above all, 
should this bird come to the residence of a demon, and move his 
tongue to chaunt the praises of the glorious and exalted Creator, 
that instant the evil spirit takes to flight' (Mirkhond, History of the 
Early Kings of Persia, translated by Shea, p. 57 ; cf. Saddar 32, and 
J. Ovington, A Voyage to Suratt, 1696, p. 371). 

* The demon of sleep, laziness, procrastination. She lulls back 
to sleep the world as soon as awaked, and makes the faithful forget 
in slumber the hour of prayer. 

* * To perform thy religious duties ' (Comm.) 



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intent, namely, bad thoughts, bad words, and bad 
deeds." 

18 (43). * On the first part of the night, Atar, the 
son of Ahura Mazda, calls the master of the house 
for help, saying : 

1 9 (43)' ' " Up! arise, thou master of the house ! 
put on thy girdle on thy clothes, wash thy hands, 
take wood, bring it unto me, and let me burn bright 
with the clean wood, carried by thy well- washed 
hands \ Here comes Azi *, made by the Da£vas, 
who consumes me and wants to put me out of the 
world." 

20 (46). ' On the second part of the night, Atar, 
the son of Ahura Mazda, calls the husbandman for 
help, saying : 

21 (46). '"Up! arise, thou husbandman! Put 
on thy girdle on thy clothes, wash thy hands, take 
wood, bring it unto me, and let me burn bright with 
the clean wood, carried by thy well-washed hands. 
Here comes Azi, made by the Daevas, who consumes 
me and wants to put me out of the world." 

22 (48). ' On the third part of the night, Atar, 
the son of Ahura Mazda, calls the holy Sraosha 
for help, saying : " Come thou, holy, well-formed 
Sraosha, [then he brings unto me some clean wood 
with his well-washed hands 8 .] Here comes Azi, 
made by the Daevas, who consumes me and wants 
to put me out of the world." 

* The Parsi, as soon as he has risen, must put on the Kdstf, 
wash his hands, and put wood on the fire. 

* Azi, the demon of avidity ; he extinguishes the fire, while he 
devours the wood. 

' The text seems to be corrupt : it must probably be emended 
into ' bring into me . . .' 



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FARGARD XVIII. 1 99 



23 (51). 'And then the holy Sraosha wakes up 
the bird named Parddaw, which ill-speaking people 
call Kahrkatas, and the bird lifts up his voice 
against the mighty Ushah : 

24 (52). ' " Arise, O men ! recite the Ashem yarf 
vahinem and the Naismi dafivd 1 . Lo! here is 
Bushyasta, the long-handed, coming upon you, who 
lulls to sleep again the whole living world as soon 
as it has awoke : ' Sleep ! ' [she says,] 'O poor man! 
the time is not yet come.' " 

2 5 (5 2 )- ' " 0° the three excellent things be never 
intent, namely, good thoughts, good words, and good 
deeds; on the three abominable things be ever 
intent, namely, bad thoughts, bad words, and bad 
deeds." 

20 (53)' ' And then bed-fellows address one 
another : " Rise up, here is the cock calling me 
up." Whichever of the two first gets up shall 
first enter Paradise : whichever of the two shall 
first, with well-washed hands, bring clean wood unto 
Atar, the son of Ahura Mazda, Atar, well pleased 
with him and not angry, and fed as it required, will 
thus bless him : 

27 (58). '"May herds of oxen and sons accrue to 
thee : may thy mind be master of its vow, may thy 
soul be master of its vow, and mayst thou live on in 
the joy of thy soul all the nights of thy life." 

' This is the blessing which Atar speaks unto him 
who brings him dry wood, well examined by the light 
of the day, well cleansed with godly intent. 



1 The prayer : ' Righteousness is the best of all good . . .' (the 
Ashem voh u), and the profession of faith : ' I scorn the Daevas . . .' 
(Yasna XII, 1). 



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I 



28 (64). * And whosoever will kindly and piously 
present one of the faithful with a pair of these my 
Parodary birds, a male and a female, O Spitama 
Zarathurtra ! it is as though he had given 1 a house 
with a hundred columns, a thousand beams, ten thou- 
sand large windows, ten thousand small windows. 

29 (67). ' And whosoever shall give meat to one 
of the faithful, as much of it as the body of this Pard- 
dars bird of mine, I, Ahura Mazda, need not interro- 
gate him twice ; he shall directly go to Paradise.' 

III. 

30 (70). The holy Sraosha, letting his club down 
upon her, asked the Dru^ - : ' O thou wretched, worth- 
less Dru£" ! Thou then, alone in the material world, 
dost bear offspring without any male coming unto 
thee?' 

31 (74). The Dru^ - demon answered : ' O holy, 
well-formed Sraosha ! It is not so, nor do I, alone 
in the material world, bear offspring without any 
male coming unto me. 

3 2 (77)' ' F° r there are four males of mine ; and 
they make me conceive progeny as other males 
make their females conceive by their seed 2 .' 

33 (78)- The holy Sraosha, letting his club down 
upon her, asked the Dru£" : * O thou wretched, worth- 
less Dru^! Who is the fir§fc..of those males of 
thine?' ^ 

34 (79)- The Dru/ - demon answered : ' O holy, 

1 ' In the day of recompense ' (Comm.) ; he shall be rewarded as 
though he had given a house, &c. ... he shall receive such a house 
in Paradise. 

1 Sin makes the Dru^ mother of a spontaneous progeny, as the 
sinner is ' the brood of the Brvg ' (Yasna LXI, 10). 



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FARGARD XVIII. 201 



He is the first of my males f 
? one of the faithful, does not * 



well-formed Sraosha ! 

who, being entreated by < 

give him anything, be it ever so little, of the riches 

he has treasured up '. 

35 (82). ' That man makes me conceive progeny 
as other males make their females conceive by their 
seed.' 

36 (83). The holy Sraosha, letting his club down 
upon her, asked the Dru^f : ' O thou wretched, worth- 
less Druf ! What is the thing that can undo that ? ' 

37 (84). The Dru^ demon answered : ' O holy, 
well-formed Sraosha ! This is the thing that undoes 
it, namely, when a man unasked, kindly and piously, 
gives to one of the faithful something, be it ever 
so litde, of the riches he has treasured up. 

38 (87). ' He does thereby as thoroughly destroy 
the fruit of my womb as a four-footed wolf does, who 
tears the child out of a mother's womb.' 

39 (88). The holy Sraosha, letting down his club 
upon her, asked the Dru^ - : 'O thou wretched, worthless 
Dru,f ! Who is the second of those males of thine ? ' 

40 (89). The Dru£- demon answered : ' O holy, 
well-formed Sraosha ! He is the second of my males 
who, making water, lets it fall along the upper fore- 
part of his foot 

41 (92). ' That man makes me conceive progeny 
as other males make their females conceive by their 
seed.' 

42 (93). The holy Sraosha, letting his club down 
upon her, asked the Drug-: 'O thou wretched, 
worthless Druf ! What is the thing that can undo 
that?' 



Cf. Farg. Ill, 34. 

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( 



43 (94)- The Dnif demon answered : ' O holy, 
well-formed Sraosha ! This is the thing that undoes 
it, namely, when the man rising up * and stepping 
three steps further off, shall say three Ahuna- 
Vairya 2 , two humatanSm 3 , three hukhshathrd- 
temSm 4 , and then chant the Ah-una-Vairya* and 
offer up one Y6»h6 hatSm 6 . 

44 (98). ' He does thereby as thoroughly destroy 
the fruit of my womb as a four-footed wolf does, who 
tears the child out of a mothers womb.' 

45 (99)- The holy Sraosha, letting his club down 
upon her, asked the Dru^ : ' O thou wretched, 
worthless Dru^ - ! Who is the third of those males 
of thine?' 

46 (100). The Druf demon answered: 'O holy, 
well-formed Sraosha ! He is the third of my males 
who during his sleep emits seed. 

47 (102). 'That man makes me conceive progeny 
as other males make their females conceive progeny 
by their seed.' 

48 (103). The holy Sraosha, letting his club down 
upon her, asked the Dru^ - : ' O thou wretched, 
worthless Dru§\l What is the thing that can undo 
that ?' 

1 ' Nee stando mingens . . . facile visitur Persa ' (Amm. Marc. 
XXIII, 6); ArdaVfraTXXIV; Mainyd-i-khard II, 39 ; Saddar 56. 
Cf. Manu IV, 47 seq., and Polack, Persien 1,67: ' Von einem in 
Paris weilenden Perser hinterbrachte man dem Kdnig, urn seine 
Emancipation und AbtrUnnigkeit vom Gesetz zu beweisen, dass 
er Schweinefleisch esse und stebend die Function verrichte.' 

1 See Farg. VIII, 19. 

' Yasna XXXV, 2 : one of the Bix4mruta (Farg. X, 4). 

4 Yasna XXXV, 5 : one of the Thrw-imruta (Farg. X, 8). 

' Making four Ahuna-Vairya in all ; cf. Farg. X, 12. 

• See Yasna XXI. 



/ 



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FARGARD XVIII. 20J 



49 (104). The Druf demon answered : ' O holy, 
well-formed Sraosha ! this is the thing that undoes 
it, namely, if the man, when he has risen from sleep, 
shall say three Ahuna-Vairya, two humatanSm, 
three hukhshathrdtemSm, and then chant the 
Ahuna-Vairya and offer up one Y6»he h&tSm 1 . 

50 (107). ' He does thereby as thoroughly destroy 
the fruit of my womb as a four-footed wolf does 
who tears the child out of a mother s womb.' 

51 (108). Then he shall speak unto Spe»ta Ar- 
maiti 2 , saying : ' O Spe»ta Armaiti, this man do 
I deliver unto thee 3 ; this man deliver thou back 
unto me, against the happy day of resurrection ; 
deliver him back as one who knows the Gathas, who 
knows the Yasna 4 , and the revealed Law *, a wise 
and clever man, who is Obedience incarnate. 

52 (112). 'Then thou shalt call his name " Fire- 
creature, Fire-seed, Fire-offspring, Fire-land," or any 
name wherein is the word Fire*.' 

53 ( IT 3)- The holy Sraosha, letting his club down 
upon her, asked the Dru^ : ' O thou wretched, worth- 
less Dnif ! Who is the fourth of those males of 
thine?' " 

54 (114). The Druf demon answered: 'O holy, 

1 See § 43 and notes. 

* The Genius of the Earth (cf. Farg. II, 10). 

* In the same way as she received the seed of the dying Gayo- 
mart, from which she let grow, in the shape of a plant, the first 
human couple, Mashya and Mashyina (Bund. XV, 1-2). 

' The Yasna Haptawhditi. 

8 Literally, ' the answers made to the questions (of Zarathurtra).' 

* Atar, the Fire, is the ideal father of the son to be born, as 
Spenta Armaiti, the Earth, is his ideal mother. The fire is con- 
sidered male (Dinkard, apud West, Pahlavi Texts, II, 410) and (as 
Apam Napat) has made and shaped man (Yt. XIX, 52). 



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well-formed Sraosha ! This one is my fourth male 
who, either man or woman, being more than fifteen 
years of age, walks without wearing the sacred girdle 
and the sacred shirt \ 

55(115). 'At the fourth step 2 we Daevas, at once, 
wither him even to the tongue and the marrow, and 
he goes thenceforth with power to destroy the world 
of Righteousness, and he destroys it like the Yatus 
and the Za«das V 

56 (117). The holy Sraosha, letting his club down 
upon her, asked the Dru^ - : ' O thou wretched, 
worthless Druf, what is the thing that can undo 
that ?' 

57 (118). The Druf demon answered: 'Oholy, 
well-formed Sraosha! There is no means of 
undoing it; 

58 (120). ' When a man or a woman, being more 
than fifteen years of age, walks without wearing the 
sacred girdle or the sacred shirt 

59 (120). ' At the fourth step we Daevas, at once, 
wither him even to the tongue and the marrow, and 
he goes thenceforth with power to destroy the world 
of Righteousness, and he destroys it like the Yatus 
and the Zawdas.' 

IV. 

60 (122). Demand of me, thou upright one! of 
me who am the Maker, the most beneficent of all 

1 The Kdstt and the Sadara; see above, p. 195, n. 3. It is 
the sin known as kusha</duvaruni (Mainyd-i-khardll, 35; Ar<£ 
VirafXXV, 6). 

* 'Going three steps without Kdstt is only a three Sraoshd- 
£arana sin ; from the fourth step, it is a tanafuhr sin' (Coram.) 

* The Yatu is a sorcerer ; the Za» da is an apostle of Ahriman, 



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FARGARD XVIII. 205 



beings, the best knowing, the most pleased in 
answering what is asked of me; demand of me 
that thou mayst be the better, that thou mayst be 
the happier. 

61 (123). Zarathurtra asked Ahura Mazda : 'Who 
grieves thee with the sorest grief ? Who pains thee 
with the sorest pain ?' 

62 (124). Ahura Mazda answered : ' It is the Gahi 1 , 
O Spitama Zarathurtra ! who mixes in her the seed 
of the faithful and the unfaithful, of the worshippers 
of Mazda and the worshippers of the Da6vas, of the 
wicked and the righteous 2 . 

63 (125). 'Her look dries up one-third of the 
mighty floods that run from the mountains, O 
Zarathurtra; her look withers one-third of the 
beautiful, golden-hued, growing plants, O Zara- 
thurtra; 

64 (127). 'Her look withers one-third of the 
strength of Spe»ta Armaiti 3 ; and her touch withers 
in the faithful one -third of his good thoughts, of 
his good words, of his good deeds, one- third of 
his strength, of his victorious power, and of his 
holiness *. 

65 (129). 'Verily I say unto thee, O Spitama 
Zarathurtra ! such creatures ought to be killed even 



1 The courtezan, as an incarnation of the female demon Gahi. 

* ' [Whether she gives up her body to the faithful or to the un- 
faithful], there is no difference ; when she has been with three men, 
she is guilty of death ' (Comm.) 

* The earth. 

* ' If a Gahi (courtezan) look at running waters, they fall ; if at 
trees, they are stunted ; if she converse with a pious man, his intel- 
ligence and his holiness are withered by it ' (Saddar 67). Cf. Manu 
IV, 40 seq. 



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more than gliding snakes 1 , than howling wolves, 
than the wild she-wolf that falls upon the fold, or 
than the she-frog that falls upon the waters with her 
thousandfold brood.' 

V. 

66 (133). Demand of me, thou upright one! of 
me who am the Maker, the most beneficent of all 
beings, the best knowing, the most pleased in 
answering what is asked of me ; demand of me that 
thou mayst be the better, that thou mayst be the 
happier. 

67-68 (133). Zarathurtra asked Ahura Mazda: 
' If a man shall come unto a woman who has the 
whites or sees blood, and he does so wittingly and 
knowingly 2 , and she allows it wilfully, wittingly, 
and knowingly, what is the atonement for it, what is 
the penalty that he shall pay to atone for the deed 
they have done ?' 

69 (136). Ahura Mazda answered: 'If a man 
shall come unto a woman who has the whites or 
sees blood, and he does so wittingly and know- 
ingly, and she allows it wilfully, wittingly, and 
knowingly ; 

70 (137). ' He shall slay a thousand head of small 
cattle; he shall godly and piously offer up to the 

1 It is written in the law (the Avesta) : ' O Zarturt Isfitaman ! with 
regard to woman, I say to thee that any woman that has given np 
her body to two men in one day is sooner to be killed man a wolf, 
a lion, or a snake : any one who kills such a woman will gain as 
much merit by it as if he had provided with wood a thousand fire- 
temples, or destroyed the dens of adders, scorpions, lions, wolves, 
or snakes ' (Old Rav. 59 b). 

* ' Knowing her state and knowing that it is a sin ' (Comm.) 



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FARGARD XVIII. 207 



fire 1 the entrails 2 thereof together with Zaothra- 
libations * ; he shall bring the shoulder bones to the 
Good Waters 4 . 

71 (140). ' He shall godly and piously bring unto 
the fire a thousand loads of soft wood, of Urvisna, 
Vohu-gaona, Vohu-kereti, Hadha-naepata, or of any 
sweet-scented plant 6 . 

72 (142). ' He shall tie and consecrate a thousand 
bundles of Baresma ; he shall godly and piously offer 
up to the Good Waters a thousand Zaothra-libations, 
together with the Haoma and the milk, cleanly pre- 
pared and well strained, — cleanly prepared and well 
strained by a pious man, and mixed with the roots of 
the tree known as Hadha-naepata 6 . 

73 (144). ' He shall kill a thousand snakes of those 
that go upon the belly, two thousand of the other 
kind; he shall kill a thousand land-frogs and two 
thousand water-frogs ; he shall kill a thousand corn- 
carrying ants and two thousand of the other kind 7 . 

1 To the Bahrim fire. 

* The omentum (afsman) or epipleon. Catullus, describing 
the sacrifice of the Magi, has (LXXXIX) : 

' Accepto veneretur carmine divos 

Omentum in flamma pingue liquefaciens.' 
Strabo XV, 1 3 : rm> iitlitXov n fiutpiv TiBiaai, «W Xiyovoi nvtt, rwl rA 
nip. ' Ascending six steps they showed me in a Room adjoining 
to the temple, their Fire which they fed with Wood, and sometimes 
Burn on it the Fat of the Sheep's Tail.' A Voyage Round the 
World, Dr. J. F. Gemelli, 1698. 

* The ceremony here described is nearly fallen into desuetude : 
it is the so-called Zdhr-ttash (zaothra for the fire), which is for 
the fire what the Z6hr-ab is for the waters. 

* This is the Zdhr-ib. According to the Shayast (XI, 4), 
when an animal is immolated, the heart is offered to the fire and 
the shoulder is offered to the waters. 

8 Cf. Farg. XIV, 3 seq. 

* Cf. Farg. XIV, 4, and p. 173, n. 4. ' Cf. Farg. XIV, 5. 



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74(147). 'He shall throw thirty bridges over 
canals; he shall undergo a thousand stripes with 
the AspahG-artra, a thousand stripes with the 
Sraoshd->6arana \ 

75 ( J 49)' ' This is the atonement, this is the 
penalty that he shall pay to atone for the deed 
that he has done. 

76 (150). 'If he shall pay it, he makes himself 
a viaticum into the world of the holy ones ; if he 
shall not pay it, he makes himself a viaticum into 
the world of the wicked, into that world, made of 
darkness, the offspring of darkness, which is Dark- 
ness' self 2 .' 



Fargard XIX. 



I. Angra Mainyu sends the demon Buiti to kill Zarathiutra: 
Zarathurtra sings aloud the Ahuna-Vairya, and the demon flies 
away, confounded by the sacred words and by the Glory of Zara- 
thiutra (§§ 1-3). 

I a. Angra Mainyu himself attacks him and propounds riddles to be 
solved under pain of death. The Prophet rejects him with heavenly 
stones, given by Ahura, and announces to him that he will destroy his 
creation. The demon promises him the empire of the world if he 
adores him, as his ancestors have done, and abjures the religion of 
Mazda. Zarathurtra rejects his offers scornfully. He announces 
he will destroy him with the arms given by Ahura, namely, the 
sacrificial implements and the sacred words. Then he recites the 
Tarf thwi peresd, that is to say the G&tha in which he asks Ahura 
for instruction on all the mysteries of the material and spiritual 
world (§§ 4-10). 

The rest of the Fargard contains specimens of the several ques- 
tions asked by Zarathiutra and the answers given by Ahura. It is 
an abridgement of the Revelation (cf. Yt. XXIV). 

1 Five tanifuhrs, that is sue thousand dirhems. 
* Cf. Farg.V, 62. 



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FARGARD XIX. 209 



II ( 1 1-1 7). How to destroy the uncleanness born from a contact 
with the dead ? — By invoking the Mazdean Religion. A series of 
invocations taught by Ahura and developed by Zarathurtra 
(15-16). 

III (18-19). How to promote the prosperity of the creation? — 
By the rites of the Baresman. 

IV (20-25). How to purify man and clothes defiled by the 
dead ? — With gdraSz, water, and perfume. 

V (26-34). On the remuneration of deeds after death ; on the 
fate of the wicked and the righteous ; the ifinvarf bridge. 

II a (34-42). Another series of invocations. 

VI (43-47). The demons, dismayed by the birth of the Prophet, 
rush back into hell. 

As may be seen from the preceding analysis, the essential part 
of this Fargard are sections I and VI, the rest being an indefinite 
development. It appears also from section VI, that the attacks of 
Buiti and Angra Mainyu against Zarathurtra and the attempt to 
seduce him are supposed to take place at the moment when he was 
born, which is confirmed by the testimony of the Nask Varsht- 
minsar (West, Pahlavi Texts, IV, 226 seq.) 

I. 

i. From the region of the north, from the regions 
of the north 1 , forth rushed Angra Mainyu, the deadly, 
the Da6va of the Da£vas s . And thus spake the 
evil-doer Angra Mainyu, the deadly : ' Druf, rush 
down and kill him,' O holy Zarathurtra! The 
Dru^ - came rushing along, the demon Buiti 8 , who 
is deceiving, unseen death 4 . 

2 (5). Zarathurtra chanted aloud the Ahuna- 

1 From hell; cf. p. 76, n. 1. 

* ' The fiend of fiends,' the arch-fiend. 

* Buiti is identified by the Greater Bundahish with the B fit, the 
idol, worshipped by Bfidasp (a corruption of Bodhisattva). Buiti 
would be therefore a personification of Buddhism, which was 
flourishing in Eastern Iran in the two centuries before and after 
Christ. Buidhi (Farg. XI, 9) may be another and more correct 
pronunciation of Bodhi. 

4 Idolatry (cf. note 3) being the death of the soul. 

[4] P 



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Vairya ' : ' The will of the Lord is the law of 
righteousness. The gifts of Vohu-man6 to the 
deeds done in this world for Mazda. He who 
relieves the poor makes Ahura king.' 

He offered the sacrifice to the good waters of the 
good Daitya 2 ! He recited the profession of the 
worshippers of Mazda 3 ! 

The DrUjf dismayed, rushed away, the demon 
Buiti, who is deceiving, unseen death. 

3 (7). And the Dru^ said unto Angra Mainyu : 
' Thou, tormenter, Angra Mainyu ! I see no way to 
kill Spitama Zarathuytra, so great is the glory of 
the holy Zarathurtra.' 

Zarathurtra saw (all this) within his soul : ' The 
wicked, the evil-doing Da6vas (thought he) take 
counsel together for my death.' 

la. 
4(11). Up started Zarathurtra, forward went 
Zarathurtra, unabated by Akem-man6 4 , by the 
hardness of his malignant riddles * ; he went 
swinging stones in his hand, stones as big as a 
house 6 , which he obtained from the Maker, Ahura 
Mazda, he the holy Zarathurtra. 

1 See above, p. 100, n. 2. 

* The river in Airyana Vae^-6 ; see Farg. I, 3. 

* The FravaranS (Yasna XI, 16). * See Farg. X, 10, n. 1. 

• This is a fragment of an old legend in which Zarathurtra and 
Angra Mainyu played respectively the parts of Oedipus and the 
Sphinx. Cf. Yt. V, 81, where the same legend is told in nearly 
the same terms of the sorcerer Akhtya and Y6irta FryananSm. 

• The Commentary has, ' Some say, those stones are the Ahuna- 
Vairya.' If one keeps in mind how much the Musulman legend of 
Ibrahim owes to the legend of Zoroaster, one may easily admit 
that this passage in our text is the origin of the story of how Iblis 
tempted Ibrahim, and was pelted away, whence he was named 
' the stoned One ' (ar-ragimu). 



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FARGARD XIX. 211 



* Whereat on this wide, round earth, whose ends 
lie afar, whereat dost thou swing (those stones), 
thou who standest by the upper bank of the river 
Dare^u \ in the mansion of Pouruyaspa 2 ? ' 

5(16). Thus Zarathurtra answered Angra Mainyu : 
' O evil-doer, Angra Mainyu ! I will smite the crea- 
tion of the Daeva ; I will smite the Nasu, a creature 
of the Daeva; I will smite the Pairika KnSthaiti 8 , 
till the victorious Saoshya»t come up to life * out of 
the lake Kasava 8 , from the region of the dawn, from 
the regions of the dawn.' 

6 (20). Again to him said the Maker of the evil 
world, Angra Mainyu : * Do not destroy my creatures, 
O holy Zarathiutra ! Thou art the son of Pouru- 
raspa • ; by thy mother I was invoked 7 . Renounce 
the good Religion of the worshippers of Mazda, and 
thou shalt gain such a boon as Vadhaghna * gained, 
the ruler of the nations.' 



1 ' The Daraga is the chief of the rivers, because the house of 
Zartusht's father stood on its bank and Zartusht was born there ' 
(Bund. XXIV, 15). 

* The father of Zarathurtra. 

* The incarnation of idolatry ; cf. Farg. I, 10. 

4 The unborn son of Zoroaster, who, at the end of time, will 
destroy Ahriman and bring about the resurrection of the dead. 
See Yt. XIII, 62 ; XIX, 92, 94 seq. 

* The Zarah sea in Saistan. Cf. Yt. XV, 66. 

* 4 1 know thee ' (Comm.) 

7 The Commentary has, ' Some explain thus : Thy forefathers 
worshipped me: worship me also.' Zoroaster's forefathers must 
naturally have followed a false religion, since he announces the 
true one. 

* Asi Dahaka or Zohak, who, as a legendary king, is said to 
have ruled the world for a thousand years. Cf. Mindkhard LVII, 
34-25 : ' Ahriman shouted to Zaratusht thus : " If thou desist from 
this good religion of the Mazda-worshippers, then I will give thee 

P a 



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7 (24). Spitama Zarathurtra said in answer : ' No ! 
never will I renounce the good Religion of the wor- 
shippers of Mazda, either for body or life, though 
they should tear away the breath ! ' 

8 (27). Again to him said the Maker of the evil 
world, Angra Mainyu : ' By whose Word wilt thou 
strike, by whose Word wilt thou repel, by whose 
weapon will the good creatures (strike and repel) 
my creation, who am Angra Mainyu ? ' 

9 (29). Spitama Zarathurtra said in answer : ' The 
sacred mortar, the sacred cups, the Haoma, the 
Word taught by Mazda, these are my weapons, 
my best weapons! By this Word will I strike, 
by this Word will I repel, by this weapon will the 
good creatures (strike and repel thee), O evil-doer, 
Angra Mainyu! The Good Spirit made the crea- 
tion 1 ; he made it in the boundless Time. The 
Amesha-Spe«tas made the creation, the good, the 
wise Sovereigns.' 

10 (35). Zarathurtra chanted aloud the Ah una - 
Vairya. 

The holy Zarathurtra said aloud: 'This I ask 
thee : teach me the truth, O Lord 2 ! . . .' 

II. 

1 1 (37). Zarathustra asked Ahura Mazda : ' O 
Ahura Mazda, most beneficent spirit, Maker of the 

a thousand years' dominion of the worldly existence, as was given 
to the Vadakan monarch Dahak " ' (West, Pahlavi Texts, III, 103). 

1 The first duty of every good Mazda-worshipper is to think of 
Ormazd as the creator, and of Ahriman as the destroyer (Mind- 
khard II, 9). 

1 This verse is the beginning of the Tarf thwa peresa Gatha 
(Yasna XLIV) ; cf. the Introduction to the Fargard. 



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FARGARD XIX. 21 3 



material world, thou Holy One ! [he was sitting by 
the upper bank of the Dare^a \ before Ahura Mazda, 
before the good Vohu-mand, . before Asha Vahirta, 
Khshathra Vairya, and Spe»ta Armaiti ;] 

12 (39)' 'How shall I free the world from that 
Dru£-, from that evil-doer, Angra Mainyu ? How 
shall I drive away direct defilement ? How indirect 
defilement ? How shall I drive the Nasu from the 
house of the worshippers of Mazda? How shall 
I cleanse the faithful man ? How shall I cleanse 
the faithful woman ? ' 

13(42). Ahura Mazda answered: 'Invoke, O 
Zarathujtra! the good Religion of Mazda. 

'Invoke, O Zarathurtra ! though thou see them 
not, the Amesha-Spe»tas who rule over the seven 
Karshvares of the earth*. 

' Invoke, O Zarathurtra ! the sovereign Heaven, 
the boundless Time 3 , and Vayu 4 , whose action is 
most high. 

4 Invoke, O Zarathustra ! the powerful Wind, 
made by Mazda; and Spe«ta [Armaiti] 6 , the fair 
daughter of Ahura Mazda. 

14 (46). ' Invoke, O Zarathurtra ! my Fravashi 6 , 
who am Ahura Mazda, the greatest, the best, the 
fairest of all beings, the most solid, the most intel- 
ligent, the best shapen, the highest in holiness, and 
whose soul is the holy Word 7 ! 

1 See p. 2ii, note 1. * See § 39. 

* By contradistinction to the duration of the world, which is 
limited to 12,000 years (Bund. XXXIV, 1). 

* The Genius of Destiny ; cf. Farg. V, 9. 

* The fourth Amesha-Spewta, who in her spiritual character is 
an incarnation of pious humility and in her material character 
the Genius of the Earth ; cf. Farg. II, 10. 

' On the Fravashis, see Yt XIII. ' Cf. Yasna 1, 1. 



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' Invoke, O Zarathustra ! this creation of mine, 
who am Ahura Mazda.' 

15 (50). Zarathurtra imitated my words from me, 
(and said) : ' I invoke the holy creation of Ahura 
Mazda. 

' I invoke Mithra \ the lord of the rolling country- 
side, a god armed with beautiful weapons, with the 
most glorious of all weapons, with the most vic- 
torious of all weapons. 

' I invoke the holy, well-formed Sraosha *, who 
wields a club in his hand, to bear upon the heads 
of the fiends 8 . 

16 (54). ' I invoke the most glorious Holy Word. 

' I invoke the sovereign Heaven, the boundless 
Time, and Vayu, whose action is most high. 

' I invoke the mighty Wind, made by Mazda, and 
Spe/tta (Armaiti), the fair daughter of Ahura Mazda. 

' I invoke the good Religion of Mazda, the fiend- 
destroying Law of Zarathustra.' 

III. 

1 7 (58). Zarathustra asked Ahura Mazda : ' O 
Maker of the good world, Ahura Mazda! With 
what manner of sacrifice shall I worship, with what 
manner of sacrifice shall I make people worship this 
creation of Ahura Mazda 4 ? ' 

18 (60). Ahura Mazda answered: ' Go, O Spitama 



1 See p. 23, n. 1. 

1 See Farg. XVIII, 14, note. 

» Cf. Farg. XVIII, as 8eq. ; Yasna LVII, 19 seq.; Yasht XI. 

4 The sacrifice intended is a sacrifice to nature. The Bares- 
man, as representative of the vegetal nature, receives the zaothra- 
libations, which are representative of the fertilizing rains. 



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FARGARD XIX. 2I5 



Zarathurtra ! towards the high-growing trees 1 , and 
before one of them that is beautiful, high-growing, 
and mighty, say thou these words : " Hail to thee ! 
O good, holy tree, made by Mazda! Ash em 
vohu 2 !" 

J 9 (63)- '[The priest] shall cut off a twig of 
Baresma, long as an aesha, thick as a yava 3 . 
The faithful one, holding it in his left hand, 
shall keep his eyes upon it without ceasing 4 , whilst 
he is offering up to Ahura Mazda and to the 
Amesha-Spe»tas, the high and beautiful golden 
Haomas, and Good Thought and the good Rita 6 , 
made by Mazda, holy and excellent* 

IV. 
20 (67). Zarathustra asked Ahura Mazda : ' O thou, 
all-knowing Ahura Mazda ! thou art never asleep, 
never intoxicated, thou Ahura Mazda I Vohu-mand • 

1 The tree, whatever it is, from which the Baresma is taken. 
See p. 22, n. 3. 

* See § 22. 

* Perhaps : ' long as a ploughshare, thick as a barleycorn.' Cf. 
the English system of measures, in which three barleycorns = one 
inch. — Cf. NirangistSn 90. 

* The Parsis are recommended to keep their eyes on the Baresma 
during the sacrifice : ' A man is offering the Darun, he has said all 
the required Avesta, but he has not looked at the Baresma : what 
is the rule? It would have been better if he had looked at it: 
however he may proceed to the meal' (Old Rav. 97b). Cf. 
Tahmuras' Fragments, XXX-XXXI. 

* Rita impersonates the liberalities done by men to God (as 
offerings) and by God to men (as riches, &c.) 

* Vohu-mand is often used as a designation of the faithful one, 
literally, ' the good-minded ; ' this is the meaning which is given to 
it in this passage by the Commentary, and it certainly belongs 
to it in the second part of § 25 ; but in the first part of the same 
clause it is translated ' clothes,' a meaning which is not unlikely 



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gets directly defiled : Vohu-mand gets indirectly 
defiled ; the Da£vas defile him from the bodies 
smitten by the Da6vas 1 : let Vohu-mand be made 
clean.' 

2 1 (70). Ahura Mazda answered : ' Thou shalt 
take some gdmez from a bull ungelded and such as 
the law requires it *. Thou shalt take the man who 
is to be cleansed to the field made by Ahura 8 , and 
the man that is to cleanse him shall draw the 
furrows *. 

22 (73)- ' He shall recite a hundred Ashem 
vohu: "Holiness is the best of all good: it is 
also happiness. Happy the man who is holy with 
perfect holiness ! " 

'He shall chant two hundred Ahuna-Vairya : 
" The will of the Lord is the law of righteousness. 
The gifts of Vohu-man6 to the deeds done in this 
world for Mazda ! He who relieves the poor makes 
Ahura king." 

' He shall wash himself four times with the 

in itself, as Vobu-man6, being the Amshaspand of cattle, may 
designate, and in fact did designate, the skins of cattle and leather 
(Comm. ad Farg. XVIII, a). On the whole the description in 
the text applies to the cleansing both of the man and of the 
clothes, and Vohu-man6 sometimes means the one, and sometimes 
the other. — From the first meaning is derived the modern use of 
Vahman, ' Such a one,' ' N.' 
1 From dead bodies. 

* The so-called VarasiS; 'it must be of a white colour; if 
a single hair on its body be found other than white, the animal 
is rejected as unfit for the purpose' (Sorabji Kavasji Khambata, 
in the Indian Antiquary, VII, 180). On the preparation of the 
g6m£z, see Wilson, Parsi Religion Unfolded, pp. 434-435. 

* The place of the cleansing, the Barashnum-gah (see Farg. 
IX, 3). 

4 See Farg. IX, 10. 



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FARGARD XIX. 217 



gdmdz from the ox, and twice with the water made 
by Mazda *. 

23 (76). ' Thus Vohu-mand shall be made clean, 
and clean shall be the man. The man shall take up 
Vohu-mand 2 with the left arm and the right, with 
the right arm and the left : and thou shalt lay down 
Vohu-mand under the mighty light of the heavens, 
by the light of the stars made by the gods, until 
nine nights have passed away s . 

24 (80). ' When nine nights have passed away, 
thou shalt bring libations unto the fire, thou shalt 
bring hard wood unto the fire, thou shalt bring 
incense of Vohu-gaona unto the fire, and thou 
shalt perfume Vohu-mand therewith. 

25 (82). * Thus shall Vohu-mand be made clean, 
and clean shall be the man*. He shall take up 
Vohu-mand with the right arm and the left, with 
the left arm and the right, and Vohu-mand 6 shall 
say aloud : " Glory be to Ahura Mazda ! Glory be 
to the Amesha-Spe»tas ! Glory be to all the other 
holy beings." ' 

V. 

26 (85). Zarathustra asked Ahura Mazda : ' O 
thou all-knowing Ahura Mazda: Should I urge 

1 ' Or better six times with the g6rnfiz and thrice with the water ' 
(Comm.; cf. Farg. VIII, 37 seq. ; IX, 28 seq.) 

* ' The clothes' (Comm.) 

* The clothes of the unclean shall be exposed to the air for nine 
nights, all the time while he himself is confined in the Arm&rt-gah. 
The rules for the cleansing of clothes that have been worn by the 
dead himself are different (see Farg. VII, 12 seq.) 

4 ' Thus Vohu-mand shall be clean — the clothes; thus the man 
shall be clean — he who wears those clothes' (Comm.) 

* The faithful one. 



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upon the godly man, should I urge upon the godly 
woman, should I urge upon the wicked Da6va- 
worshipper who lives in sin, to give the earth 
made by Ahura, the water that runs, the com 
that grows, and all the rest of their wealth ' ? ' 

Ahura Mazda answered : ' Thou shouldst, O holy 
Zarathiutra.' 

27 (89). O Maker of the material world, thou 
Holy One ! Where are the rewards given ? Where 
does the rewarding take place ? Where is the 
rewarding fulfilled ? Whereto do men come to 
take the reward that, during their life in the 
material world, they have won for their souls ? 

28 (90). Ahura Mazda answered : ' When the 
man is dead, when his time is over, then the 
wicked, evil-doing Daevas cut off his eyesight. 
On the third night, when the dawn appears and 
brightens up, when Mithra, the god with beautiful 
weapons, reaches the all-happy mountains, and the 
sun is rising : 

2 9 (94)- ' Then the fiend, named Vlzaresha 2 , 
O Spitama Zarathurtra, carries off in bonds 8 the 
souls of the wicked Daeva-worshippers who live 
in sin. The soul enters the way made by Time, 
and open both to the wicked and to the righteous. 
At the head of the K'mvud bridge, the holy bridge 

1 Cf. § 29 end. 

* The demon Vizaresh is he who, during that struggle of three 
days and three nights with the souls of the departed, carries terror 
on them and beats them : he sits at the gate of hell (Bund. 
XXVIII, 18). 

* ' Every one has a noose cast around his neck : when a man 
dies, if he has been a righteous man, the noose falls from his neck ; 
if a wicked, they drag him with that noose down into hell ' (Comm. ; 
cf. Farg. V, 8). 



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FARGARD XIX. 21$ 



made by Mazda \ they ask for their spirits and souls 
the reward for the worldly goods which they gave 
away here below 2 . 

30 (98). ' Then comes the beautiful, well-shapen, 
strong and well-formed maid *, with the dogs at her 
sides 4 , one who can distinguish R , who has many 
children •, happy, and of high understanding. 

' She makes the soul of the righteous one go 
up above the Hara-berezaiti T ; above the ^finya^ 

1 The JEinvsuf bridge extends over hell and leads to Paradise ; 
for the souls of the righteous it widens to the length of nine javelins ; 
for the souls of the wicked it narrows to a thread, and they fall 
down into hell (cf. Anft VMf V, 1 ; Dinkard IX, 20, 3). The 
Alnva</ bridge has become the Sirath bridge of the Musulmans. 
Not long ago they sang in Yorkshire of ' the Brig o' Dread, na 
brader than a thread ' (Thoms, Anecdotes, 89), and even nowa- 
days the peasant in Nievre tells of a little board — 
' Pas pu longue, pas pu large 

Qu'un ch'veu de la Sainte Viarge,' 
which was put by Saint Jean d'Archange between the earth and 
Paradise : 

' Ceux qu'saront la raison (=l'oraison ?) d'Dieu 

Par dessus passeront. 

Ceux qu'la sauront pas 

Au bout mourront.' (Me*lusine, p. 70.) 

* Cf. § 26, and Farg. Ill, 34, 35 ; XVIII, 33 seq. 

* The soul of the dead, on the fourth day, finds itself in the 
presence of a maid, of divine beauty or fiendish ugliness, according 
as he himself was good or bad, and she leads him into heaven or 
hell : this maid is his own Dafina, his Religion, that is the sum of 
his religious deeds, good or evil (Yasht XXII). 

4 The dogs that keep the JTinvad bridge (see Farg. XIII, 9). 

* The good from the wicked. 

* Doubtful. Those children would be the righteous, as the sons 
of the Dru^ are the wicked (Farg. XVIII, 30 seq.) 

T The Kinvvui bridge rests by one end on the Alborz (Hara-bere- 
zaiti) and by the other on the -ATikad Daitik in Iran Vtg (Comm. 
ad § 101 ed. Sp.; Dinkard IX, 20, 3). 



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220 VENDfDAD. 



bridge she places it in the presence of the heavenly 
gods themselves. 

31 (102). ' Up rises Vohu-mand 1 from his golden 
seat ; Vohu-mand exclaims : " How hast thou come 
to us, thou Holy One, from that decaying world into 
this undecaying one 2 ? " 

32 (105). ' Gladly pass the souls of the righteous 
to the golden seat of Ahura Mazda, to the golden 
seat of the Amesha-Spe«tas, to the Gard-nmanem s , 
the abode of Ahura Mazda, the abode of the 
Amesha-Spe»tas, the abode of all the other holy 
beings. 

33 (108). ' As to the godly man that has been 
cleansed *, the wicked evil-doing Da6vas tremble at 
the perfume of his soul after death, as doth a sheep 
on which a wolf is pouncing 6 . 

34 (1 10). ' The souls of the righteous are gathered 
together there : Nairyd-sangha 6 is with them ; a mes- 
senger of Ahura Mazda is Nairyd-sangha. 

II a. 

' Invoke, O Zarathurtra ! this very creation of 
Ahura Mazda.' 

35 (114). Zarathurtra imitated those words of 

1 The doorkeeper of Paradise ; a Zoroastrian Saint-Pierre. 
s Cf. Farg. VII, 52 ; Yt. XXII, 16. 

* The Garothmin of the Parsis; literally, 'the house of songs;' 
it is the highest Paradise. 

4 That has performed the Barashnum. 

1 Ormazd is all perfume, Ahriman is infection and stench (Bun- 
dahu I ; Eznig, Refutatio Haeresiarum II) ; the souls of their fol- 
lowers partake of the same qualities, and by the performance of 
the Barashnum both the body and the soul are perfumed and 
sweetened. 

• Cf. Farg. XXII, 7. 



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FARGARD XIX. 221 



mine : ' I invoke the holy world, made by Ahura 
Mazda. 

' I invoke the earth made by Ahura, the water 
made by Mazda, the holy trees. 

' I invoke the sea Vouru-kasha \ 

' I invoke the beautiful Heaven 2 . 

' I invoke the endless and sovereign Light 3 .' 

36(120). 'I invoke the bright, blissful Paradise 
of the Holy Ones. 

' I invoke the Gar6-nmanem, the abode of Ahura 
Mazda, the abode of the Amesha-Spe#tas, the abode 
of all the other holy beings. 

' I invoke the sovereign Place of Eternal Weal 4 , 
and the Kinvad bridge made by Mazda. 

37(123). 'I invoke the good Saoka 5 , who has 
the good eye. 

' I invoke the whole creation of weal. 

' I invoke the mighty Fravashis • of the righteous. 

' I invoke Verethraghna 7 , made by Ahura, who 
wears the Glory made by Mazda 8 . 

' See Farg. V, 15 seq. 

* Asman, the highest heaven, as distinguished from the firmament 
(thwasha) that lies nearer the earth. 

* The endless Light is • the place of Ormazd ' (Bund. I) ; it 
is Infinite Space conceived as luminous. 

* Misvana gatva, another name of the heavenly spaces; it 
designates heaven as the abode and source of all blessings, of all 
savah, or saoka. 

* A Genius defined, ' Genius of the good eye,' by opposition to 
' the bad eye.' Saoka (Sdk) is an auxiliary to Mithra (Mihr); she 
receives first, from above, all the good destined to man, and transmits 
it to the lower sky or firmament (which is the seat of Destiny) 
through the moon and Ardvfsur (Gr. Bund.) 

* See Yt. XIII. 

T The Genius of Victory (Bahr&m). See Yt. XIV. 
' The Awarend (Khurra or Farr) or light of sovereignty. Cf. 
§ 39 and see Yt XIX. 



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222 VENDtDAD. 



* I invoke Ti^trya ', the bright and glorious star, 
in the shape of a golden-horned bull 2 . 

38 (127). 'I invoke the holy, beneficent Gathas 8 , 
who rule over the Ratus 4 : 

' I invoke the Ahunavaiti Gatha ; 

' I invoke the U Jtavaiti Gatha ; 

' I invoke the Spe#ta-mainyu Gatha ; 

' I invoke the Vohu-khshathra Gatha ; 

' I invoke the Vahirtdwti Gatha. 

39(129). 'I invoke the Karshvares of Arzahg 
and Savah£ ; 

' I invoke the Karshvares of Fradadhafshu and 
Vidadhafshu ; 

' I invoke the Karshvares of Vourubarerti and 
Vouruzarerti ; 

' I invoke the bright /f»aniratha • ; 

' I invoke the bright, glorious Ha6tuma»t • ; 

' I invoke the good Ashi 7 ; 

[' I invoke the good Kisti * ;] 

1 Tijtrya (Ttr), the star of rain. See Yt. VIII. 

* TLrtrya appears successively under three forms, during the month 
named from him (the first month of summer, a 1 June-a 1 July) : 
ten days as a man, ten days as a bull, ten days as a horse. ' As 
a bull he is most to be invoked' (Comm.), to prepare his final 
victory over the demon of Drought, Apaosha. 

* The five collections of hymns which form the oldest and 
holiest part of the Yasna and of the A vesta (Yasna XXVIII- 
XXXIV; XLIII-XLVI; XLVII-L; LI; LIII); they are named 
after their initial words. 

4 The chiefs of creation ; ' they rule over the Ratus inasmuch as 
it is by their means that these other Ratus are invoked ' (Comm.) 

* The earth is divided into seven Karshvares, of which the 
central one, Zfoaniratha, is the finest and contains Iran. 

* See Farg. I, 14. 

7 Ashi (Ashishvang), the Genius that imparts riches to the 
righteous : see Yt. XVII. 

* An angel of religious knowledge. 



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FARGARD XIX. 223 



' I invoke the most pure ITista. ' ; 

' I invoke the Glory of the Aryan regions a ; 

' I invoke the Glory of the bright Yima, the good 
shepherd 8 . 

4° (!33)- 'Let him be worshipped with sacrifice, 
let him be gladdened, gratified, and satisfied, the 
holy Sraosha, the well-formed, victorious, holy 
Sraosha 4 . 

' Bring libations unto the Fire, bring hard wood 
unto the Fire, bring incense of Vohu-gaona unto 
the Fire. 

' Offer up the sacrifice to the Vazirta fire 6 , which 
smites the fiend Spen^aghra 6 : bring unto it the 
cooked meat and full overflowing libations 7 . 

4 1 ( I 37)> 'Offer up the sacrifice to the holy 
Sraosha, that the holy Sraosha may smite down 
the fiend Kuwda 8 , who is drunken without drink- 
ing •, and throws down into the Hell of the Druf the 
wicked Da6va-worshippers, who live in sin. 

[42 10 . 'I invoke the Kara fish ", who lives beneath 
waters in the bottom of the deep lakes. 

I Religious knowledge : invoked with Dagna (Religion; Siroza, 24). 

* The light of sovereignty, Aparend, which if secured by the 
Aryans makes them rule over their enemies (cf. § 37 and Yt. XIX, 

56-93)- 

* See Farg. II, 2. 

* That he may smite ASshma and the other fiends. 

II The fire of lightning. 

* The demon that prevents the fall of rain ; a companion in arms 
of Apaosha. 

7 Doubtful. ' The same as Kuadi ; see Farg. XI, 9. 

* Whereas Afcshma, the other arch-enemy of Sraosha, borrows 
part of his strength from drunkenness (Yasna X, 8). 

10 From the VendidSd SSda. The clause may have belonged to 
the original text ; it is preceded by another clause which certainly 

u For this note see next page. 

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224 vend!dAd. 



' I invoke the ancient and sovereign Merezu ", the 
most warlike of the creatures of the two Spirits 1S . 
' I invoke the seven bright Sru M . . .' 

VI. 
43. 'They cried about, their minds wavered to 
and fro ", Angra Mainyu the deadly, the Daeva of 
the Daevas; I»dra the Daeva, Siuru the Da6va, 
Naunghaithya the Da6va, Taurvi and Zairi la ; 
A£shma of the murderous spear "; Akatasha the 
Daeva 18 ; Winter, made by the Da£vas ; the de- 
ceiving, unseen Death ; Zaurva ", baneful to the 
fathers; Buiti the Daeva 20 ; Driwi 21 the Daeva; 
Daiwi 22 the Daeva ; Kasvi 2S the Daeva ; Paitisha ** 
the most Da£va-like amongst the Daevas.] 

did not belong to it, and part of which is cited in the Commentary 
ad Farg.VIII, 103, where it would have been more suitably placed : 
' When he has been cleansed in the next inhabited place, he may 
then sow and till the pasture fields, as food for the sheep and as 
food for the ox.' 

" The Kar-maht, the Ratu or chief of the creatures that live in 
water. Cf. Farg. XX, 4, note ; Yt. XIV, 29. 

18 A &na£ \ty6fitvov. From its two epithets, ' ancient ' and ' sove- 
reign,' it appears that it must designate one of the first principles, 
that is to say, some form of Heaven, Light, Space, or Time. 

•» Doubtful. 

14 Hapta sravfl bamya hanaungho puthraunghd pusaungh6 
bavainti. 

16 Up and down, in hope and despair. 

16 See Farg. X, 9-10. M See Farg. X, 13. 

" See Farg. X, 13. » Old age. 

'• See above, p. 209, n. 3. 

11 Malice ; see above, Farg. II, 29. 

** Lying; see above, Farg. II, 29. 

w Spite ; see above, Farg. II, 29. 

*' Opposition, or counter-action, the same as Paityara; a per- 
sonification of the doings of Ahriman and of his marring power. 



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FARGARD XX. 225 



44 (140). 'And the evil-doing Daeva, Angra 
Mainyu, the deadly, said : " What ! let the wicked, 
evil-doing Da£vas gather together at the head of 
Arezura 1 !" 

45 (141). ' They rush away shouting, the wicked, 
evil-doing Da6vas; they run away shouting, the 
wicked, evil-doing Da6vas; they run away casting 
the Evil Eye, the wicked, evil-doing DaSvas : " Let 
us gather together at the head of Arezura ! 

46 (143). '"For he is just born the holy Zara- 
thurtra, in the house of Pouruyaspa. How can we 
procure his death ? He is the weapon that fells the 
fiends : he is a counter-fiend to the fiends ; he is 
a Druf to the Drug: Vanished are the Da£va- 
worshippers, the Nasu made by the Daeva, the 
false-speaking Lie!" 

47 (147). ' They rush away shouting, the wicked, 
evil-doing Daevas, into the depths of the dark, 
raging world of hell. 

'Ashem vohu: Holiness is the best of all 
good.' 



Fargard XX. 

Thrita, the First Healer. 

It has already been seen (Farg. VII, 44) that there are three 
kinds of medicine : one that heals with the knife, one that heals 
with herbs, and one that heals with sacred spells. The present 
Fargard deals with the origin of medicine, particularly the herbs- 
medicine. Its inventor was Thrita, of the SSma family, to whom 
Ahura Mazda brought down from heaven ten thousand healing 

1 At the gate of hell ; see above, p. 24, n. 1. 

M Q 



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plants that had been growing up around the tree of eternal life, the 
white Hdm or Gaokerena (§ 4). 

This Thrita is mentioned only once again in the Avesta, in 
Yasna IX, 7, where he appears to have been one of the first priests 
of Haoma. This accounts for his medical skill ; as Haoma is the 
plant of eternal life, it is but natural that one of his first priests 
should have been the first healer. 

This Fargard has only an allusion to the origin of the knife- 
medicine, which was, as it seems, revealed by Khsbathra Vairya (§ 3). 
The last paragraphs (§§ 5-12) deal with the spell-medicine. 

The functions ascribed here to Thrita were sometimes con- 
ferred on his semi-namesake Thra&aona '. Hamza makes Thra£- 
taona the inventor of medicine * ; the Tavfds " against sickness are 
inscribed with his name, and we find in the Avesta itself his Fravashi 
invoked ' against itch, hot fever, humours, cold fever *, incontinence, 
against the plagues created by the serpent 8 .' We see from the 
last words of this passage that disease was understood as coming 
from the serpent ; in other words, that it was considered a sort 
of poisoning *, and this is the reason why the killer of the serpent 
(An Dahaka) was invoked to act against it 

i. Zarathurtra asked Ahura Mazda: 'Ahura 
Mazda, most beneficent Spirit, Maker of the 
material world, thou Holy One ! Who was he 
who first of the healers 7 , of the wise, the happy, 
the wealthy, the glorious, the strong, the Para- 
dhitas 8 , drove back sickness to sickness, drove back 
death to death 9 ; and first turned away the point of 

1 See the Westergaard Fragments, II. 

* Ed. Gottwaldt, p. 33 ; cf. Mirkhond, Early Kings of Persia, 
tr. by Shea, p. 152. ' Formulas of exorcism. 

4 Cf. Farg. VII, 58. • Yasht XIII, 131. 

• This theory, which modern science would not utterly reject, 
accounts for the great part which the serpent plays in the worship 
of Asklepios ; as sickness comes from him, from him too must or 
may come the healing. 

1 ' Those who knew how to take care of their own bodies, like 
Isfandyir : some say that no sword could wound him ' (Comm.) 

* The ParadhSta or P6shd id, the kings of the first Iranian dynasty. 

• ' That is to say, who kept sickness in bonds, who kept death in 
bonds ' (Comm.) 



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FARGARD XX. 227 



the sword and the fire of fever from the bodies of 
mortals ?' 

2 (n). Ahura Mazda answered: 'Thrita it was 
who first of the healers, of the wise, the happy, 
the wealthy, the glorious, the strong, the Para- 
dhatas, drove back sickness to sickness, drove 
back death to death, and first turned away the point 
of the sword and the fire of fever from the bodies of 
mortals. 

3 (12). ' He asked for a source of remedies; he 
obtained it from Khshathra-Vairya 1 , to withstand 
sickness and to withstand death ; to withstand pain 
and to withstand fever; to withstand Sarana and 
to withstand Sarastya 2 ; to withstand Asana and to 
withstand Asahva ; to withstand Kurugha and 
to withstand Asivaka ; to withstand Duruka and to 
withstand Astairya; to withstand the evil eye, 
rottenness, and infection which Angra Mainyu had 
created against the bodies of mortals. 

4(15). 'And I Ahura Mazda brought down the 
healing plants that, by many hundreds, by many 
thousands, by many myriads, grow up all around 
the one Gaokerena 3 . 



1 As Khshathra-Vairya presides over metals, it was a knife he 
received, ' of which the point and the base were set in gold.' He 
was therefore the first who healed with the knife, as well as the first 
who healed with herbs. As for the healing with the holy word, see 
§§ 5 and seq. 

* Headache and cold fever. 

• There are two Haomas : one is the yellow or golden Haoma, 
which is the earthly Haoma, and which, when prepared for the 
sacrifice, is the king of healing plants; the other is the white 
Haoma or Gaokerena, which grows up in the middle of the sea 
Vouru- Kasha, where it is surrounded by the ten thousand healing 

Q 2 



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228 vend!dAd. 



5 (18). 'All this do we achieve; all this do we 
order ; all these prayers do we utter, for the benefit 
of the bodies of mortals ' ; 

6. ' To withstand sickness and to withstand death ; 
to withstand pain and to withstand fever ; to with- 
stand Sarana and to withstand Sarastya; to with- 
stand Azana. and to withstand Asahva; to withstand 
Kurugha and to withstand A^ivaka ; to withstand 
Duruka and to withstand Astairya; to withstand 
the evil eye, rottenness, and infection which Angra 
Mainyu has created against the bodies of mortals. 

7 (19). 'To thee, O Sickness, I say avaunt! to 
thee, O Death, I say avaunt ! to thee, O Pain, 
I say avaunt ! to thee, O Fever, I say avaunt ! 
to thee, O Evil Eye, I say avaunt! to thee, O 
Sarana, I say avaunt! and to thee, O Sarastya, 
I say avaunt! to thee, O Azana, I say avaunt! 
and to thee, O Asahva, I say avaunt ! to thee, 
O Kurugha, I say avaunt! and to thee, O 
Asivaka, I say avaunt! to thee, O Duruka, I say 
avaunt! and to thee, O Astairya, I say avaunt ! 

8 (21). 'Give us, O Ahura, that powerful sove- 
reignty, by the strength of which we may smite 
down the Dru^f ! By its might may we smite the 
Druf 2 ! 

plants, created by Ormazd in order to oppose so many diseases that 
had been created by Ahriman (Bundahir IX ; cf. Farg. XXII, a). A 
frog goes swimming around the Gaokerena to gnaw it down : but 
two Kar Mahf (Farg. XIX, 42) keep watch and circle around the 
tree, so that the head of one of them is continually towards the frog 
(Bund. XVIII). 

1 We do all that is necessary for healing ; we give, as Dastobar 
(Dastur), the necessary prescriptions ; we recite the needed prayers. 
— This section is a transition to the spell-medicine. 

* This clause is borrowed, with some alteration, from Yasna 



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FARGARD XX. 229 



9 (23). 'I drive away I shire and I drive away 
AghGire; I drive away Aghra and I drive away 
Ughra; I drive away sickness and I drive away 
death ; I drive away pain and I drive away fever ; 
I drive away Sarana and I drive away Sirastya; 
I drive away Asana and I drive away Asahva ; I 
drive away Kurugha and I drive away Asivaka; 
I drive away Duruka and I drive away Astairya ; 
I drive away the evil eye, rottenness, and infection 
which Angra Mainyu has created against the bodies 
of mortals. 

10 (25). ' I drive away all manner of sickness 
and death, all the Yatus and Pairikas \ and all the 
wicked 6ainis a . 

11 (26). 'A Airyama ishy6. May the vow-ful- 
filling Airyaman 8 come here, for the men and women 
of Zarathurtra to rejoice, for Vohu-mand to re- 
joice ; with the desirable reward that Religion 
deserves. I solicit for holiness that boon that is 
vouchsafed by Ahura! 

12 (29). 'May the vow-fulfilling Airyaman smite 
all manner of sickness and death, all the Yatus and 
Pairikas, and all the wicked Gainis.' 

[13. Yatha ahu vairyd :— The will of the Lord is the 
law of righteousness. 

The gifts of Vohu-man6 to the deeds done in this world 
for Mazda. He who relieves the poor makes Ahura king. 

XXXI, 4 ; the original text is, ' May that strong power come to me, 
by the might of which we may smite down the Dru^- 1 ' 

1 See Farg. XI, 9. 

* 'Chi' (Comm.), that is Gabi; cf. Farg. XVIII, 62, and Farg. 
XXII, 2, note. — Clause 10 is imitated from clause 12. 

' On Airyaman, see Farg. XXII. Clauses 11-12 are borrowed 
from Yasna LIV, 1, and form the prayer known as Airyama- 
ishyd. 



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K*m-na mazda : — What protector hast thou given unto 
me, O Mazda I while the hate of the wicked encompasses 
me ? Whom but thy Atar and Vohu-mand, through whose 
work I keep on the world of Righteousness ? Reveal there- 
fore to me thy Religion as thy rule ! 

Ke verethrem-^-a:— Who is the victorious who will 
protect thy teaching ? Make it clear that I am the guide 
for both worlds. May Sraosha come with Vohu-mand and 
help whomsoever thou pleasest, O Mazda ! 

Keep us from our hater, O Mazda and Armaiti Spewta ! 
Perish, O fiendish Dru^ ! Perish, O brood of the fiend ! 
Perish, O world of the fiend 1 Perish away, O Dntg ! 
Perish away to the regions of the north, never more to 
give unto death the living world of Righteousness l !] 



Fargard XXI. 



I (1). Praise of the holy bull. 

II (3-3). Invocation addressed to rain as a healing power. 

III a (4-7). Joint invocation addressed to the waters and to the 
light of the sun. 

III b (8-1 1). Joint invocation addressed to the waters and to the 
light of the moon. 

IIIc (12-17). Joint invocation addressed to the waters and to 
the light of the stars. 

IV (18-21). Spells against disease. 

The largest part of this Fargard is filled with a uniform spell, 
intended, as it seems, for the protection of lying-in women (§§ 6-7, 
io-ii, 14-15), who are under the special care of Ardvt Sura 
Anahita, the great goddess of the waters. That spell is repeated 
three times, in a joint invocation to the sun, to the moon, and to 
the stars respectively ; that strange association is perhaps owing to 
the fact that both the light and the waters spring up from the 
Hara Berezaiti and return there (see p. 232, note 1). 

1 See Farg. VIII, 19-20. 



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FARGARD XXI. 23 1 



I. 

i. Hail, bounteous bull x ! Hail to thee, bene- 
ficent bull ! Hail to thee, who makest increase ! 
Hail to thee, who makest growth ! Hail to thee, 
who dost bestow his part 2 upon the righteous faith- 
ful, and wilt bestow it on the faithful yet unborn ! 
Hail to thee, whom the 6ahi kills 3 , and the ungodly 
Ashemaogha, and the wicked tyrant *. 

II. 

2 (3). ' Come, come on, O clouds, from up above, 
down on the earth, by thousands of drops, by myriads 
of drops : ' thus say, O holy Zarathurtra ! ' to de- 
stroy sickness, to destroy death, to destroy the 
sickness that kills 6 , to destroy death that kills, to 
destroy Gadha and Apagadha •. 

3 (9). ' If death come after noon, may healing 
come at eve! 

' If death come at eve, may healing come at night ! 

' If death come at night, may healing come at 
dawn ! 

' And showers shower down new water, new earth, 
new plants, new healing powers, and new healing. 

Ilia. 

4 (15). 'As the sea Vouru-kasha is the gathering 

1 The primeval bull who was created by Ormazd and killed by 
Ahriman with the help of the (Tahi. — Clause 1 is to be recited when 
one meets an ox or any kind of cattle, Gr. Rav. 386. 

* Possibly, ' who dost kill the (?ahi ' (by means of gdmez). 

* His daily food. 

4 The wicked kills animals, out of mere cruelty, beyond his 
needs (Yasna XXIX, 1 ; XXXII, 12, 14 ; XLVIII, 7). 

* Cf. Bund. Ill, 3, 6, 4. * Names of diseases. 



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place of the waters 1 , rising up and going down, up 
the aerial way and down the earth, down the earth 
and up the aerial way 2 : thus rise up and roll along! 
thou in whose rising and growing Ahura Mazda 
made the aerial way. 

5 (20). ' Up ! rise up and roll along ! thou swift- 
horsed Sun, above Hara Berezaiti, and produce 
light for the world (and mayst thou [O man !] rise 
up there, if thou art to abide in Gard-nmanem 8 ) 4 , 
along the path made by Mazda, along the way made 
by the gods, the watery way they opened. 

6 (23). ' And the Holy Word shall keep away 
the evil 6 : Of thee [O child !] I will cleanse the 
birth and growth ; of thee [O woman !] I will make 
the body and the strength pure ; I make thee rich 
in children and rich in milk ; 

' Waters and light are believed to flow from the same spring and 
in the same bed : ' As the light comes in through Alborz (Hara 
Berezaiti) and goes out through Alborz, so water also comes out 
through Alborz and goes away through Alborz' (Bund. XX, 4). 
Every day the sun, moon, and stars rise up from Alborz, and every 
day all the waters on the earth come back together to the sea 
Vouru -kasha, and there collected come down again to the earth 
from the peaks of Alborz (Gr. Rav. 431). As light comes from 
three different sources (the sun, the moon, and the stars), the waters 
are invoked three times, first in company with the sun, then with 
the moon, lastly with the stars, as if there should be three dif- 
ferent movements of the rain connected with the three movements 
of light. 

* Waters come down from the sky to the earth and rise back 
from the earth to the sky (see Farg. V, 15 seq.) 

* ' If thou art a righteous man ' (Comm.) 

* The translation of this clause is doubtful 

* The spell refers to the cleansing and generative power of the 
waters; cf. the invocation to Ardvt Sura, Farg. VII, 16 : the waters 
are supposed to make females fertile as they make the earth. This 
spell was probably pronounced to facilitate childbirth. 



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FARGARD XXI. 233 



7 (27). ' Rich in seed, in milk 1 , in fat, in marrow, 
and in offspring. I shall bring to thee a thousand 
pure springs, running towards the pastures that give 
food to the child. 

Ill b. 

8 (30). ' As the sea Vouru-kasha is the gathering place 
of the waters, rising up and going down, up the aerial way 
and down the earth, down the earth and up the aerial 
way: 

' Thus rise up and roll along ! thou in whose rising 
and growing Ahura Mazda made the earth. 

9 (31). 'Up! rise up, thou Moon, that dost keep 
in thee the seed of the bull * ; 

1 Rise up above Hara Berezaiti, and produce light for the 
world (and mayst thou [O man !] rise up there, if thou art 
to abide in Gar6-nmanem), along the path made by 
Mazda, along the way made by the gods, the watery way 
they opened. 

10 (32). ' And the Holy Word shall keep away the evil : 
Of thee [O child !] I will cleanse the birth and growth ; of 
thee [O woman !] I will make the body and the strength 
pure ; I make thee rich in children and rich in milk ; 

11 (3a). 'Rich in seed, in milk, in fat, in marrow, and in 
offspring. I shall bring to thee a thousand pure springs, 
running towards the pastures that give food to the child. 

Ill c. 

1 a (3 a). ' As the sea Vouru-kasha is the gathering place 

1 There are, in the text, two words for ' milk,' the one referring 
to the milk of women, the other to the milk of c6ws. 

* When the primeval bull died, ' what was bright and strong in 
his seed was brought to the sphere of the moon, and when it was 
cleansed there in the light of the astre, two creatures were shaped 
with it, a male and a female, from which came two hundred and 
seventy-two kinds of animals ' (Bund. IV, X). 



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of the waters, rising up and going down, up the aerial way 
and down the earth, down the earth and up the aerial 
way : 

' Thus rise up and roll along ! thou in whose rising 
and growing Ahura Mazda made everything that 
grows \ 

*3 (33)' ' Up! rise up, ye deep Stars, that have 
in you the seed of waters 2 ; 

* Rise up above Hara Berezaiti, and produce light for the 
world (and mayst thou [O man 1] rise up there, if thou art 
to abide in Gard-nmanem), along the path made by Mazda, 
along the way made by the gods, the watery way they 
opened. 

14 (34). 'And the Holy Word shall keep away the evil : 
Of thee [O child !] I will cleanse the birth and growth ; of 
thee [O woman !] I will make the body and the strength 
pure ; I make thee rich in children and rich in milk ; 

15 (34). ' Rich in seed, in milk, in fat, in marrow, and in 
offspring. I shall bring to thee a thousand pure springs, 
running towards the pastures that will give food to the 
child. 

16 (34). 'As the sea Vouru-kasha is the gathering place 
of the waters, rising up and going down, up the aerial way 
and down the earth, down the earth and up the aerial 
way: 

' Thus rise up and roll along ! ye in whose rising 
and growing Ahura Mazda made everything that 
rises. 

17 (35). 'In your rising away will the Ka.Avuzi s 
fly and cry, away will the Ay€hi 4 fly and cry, away 
will the Gahi, who follows the Yatu, fly and cry. 

1 The plants that grow under the action of ' those stars that have 
in them the seed of waters ' (cf. § 13). 

* Cf. Yt. XII, 29. 

* ' He who diminishes glory, Ahriman ' (Comm.) 
4 ' Sterility, Ahriman ' (Comm.) 



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FARGARD XXI. 235 



IV. 

[18 *. 'I drive away Ishire and I drive away Aghtiire; 
I drive away Aghra and I drive away Ughra ; I drive 
away sickness and I drive away death ; I drive away pain 
and I drive away fever ; I drive away Sarana and I drive 
away Sarastya. I drive away Azana. and I drive away 
Aiahva ; I drive away Kurugha and I drive away Arivaka ; 
I drive away Duruka and I drive away Astairya ; I drive 
away the evil eye, rottenness, and infection which Angra 
Mainyu has created against the bodies of mortals. 

19. ' I drive away all manner of sickness and death, all 
the Yatus and Pairikas, and all the wicked Cainis. 

20. 'A Airyama ishyd: — May the vow-fulfilling Airya- 
man come here, for the men and women of Zarathurtra 
to rejoice, for Vohu-mand to rejoice ; with the desirable 
reward that Religion deserves. I solicit for holiness that 
boon that is vouchsafed by Ahura 1 

ai. ' May the vow-fulfilling Airyaman smite all manner 
of sickness and death, all the Yatus and Pairikas, and all 
the wicked Gainis. 

22. ' Yatha ahu vairyd : — The will of the Lord is the 
law of righteousness ! 

4 Kim-na mazda: — What protector hast thou given 
unto me . . .? 

'Ke verethrem-g-a: — Who is the victorious who will 
protect thy teaching . . . ? 

23. 'Keep us from our hater, O Mazda and Armaiti 
Spewta ! Perish, O fiendish Drqg- ! Perish, O brood of 
the fiend! Perish, O world of the fiend! Perish away, 
O Drqg - ! Perish away to the regions of the north, never 
more to give unto death the living world of Righteous- 
ness ! '] 



1 §§ i8-23=Farg. XX, 9-13. 



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Fargard XXII. 

It has already been seen that of all healers, the most powerful is 
the one who treats with the Holy Word (Mithra Spewta), that is 
with sacred spells (Farg. VII, 44). Of all sacred spells, the most 
efficacious is the Airyama' ishyd, which forms the fifty-fourth HS of 
the Yasna. This is expressed under a mythological form in the 
following Fargard (cf. Westergaard's Fragments, IV). 

Angra Mainyu having created 99,999 diseases, Ahura applies 
for remedy to the Holy Word (Mathra Speata ; §§ 1-5). — How 
shall I manage? asks MSthra Spewta (§ 16). Ahura sends his 
messenger to Airyaman with the same request 

This Fargard is unfinished or, more correctly, the end of it is 
understood. Airyaman comes at once to Ahura's call, and digs nine 
furrows. It is no doubt in order to perform the Barashnum \ by 
the virtue of which the strength of the demon and of the demon's 
work will be broken. The Fargard ends therefore with spells 
against sickness and against death, added to the usual spells of the 
ordinary Barashnum. 

I. 

i . Ahura Mazda spake unto Spitama Zarathurtra, 
saying : 'I, Ahura Mazda, the Maker of all good 
things, when I made this mansion 2 , the beautiful, 
the shining, seen afar (there may I go up, there 
may I arrive!) 

2 (5). ' Then the ruffian looked at me s ; the 
ruffian Angra Mainyu, the deadly, wrought against 
me nine diseases, and ninety, and nine hundred, and 
nine thousand, and nine times ten thousand diseases. 
So mayst thou heal me, thou most glorious MSthra 
Spe«ta ! 

3 (8). ' Unto thee will I give in return a thou- 

1 See Farg. IX. * ' The Gar6tmSn ' (Comm.), Paradise. 

' And cast on me the evil eye ; ' it was by casting the evil eye 
on the good creatures of Ormazd that Ahriman corrupted them ' 
(Eznig, Refutatio Haeresiarum II). Cf. Farg. XX, 3. 



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FARGARD XXII. 237 



sand fleet, swift-running steeds; I offer thee up a 
sacrifice, O good Saoka *, made by Mazda and holy. 
' Unto thee will I give in return a thousand fleet, 
high-humped camels ; I offer thee up a sacrifice, 
O good Saoka, made by Mazda and holy. 

4 (12). ' Unto thee will I give in return a. thou- 
sand brown oxen that do not push ; I offer thee 
up a sacrifice, O good Saoka, made by Mazda and 
holy. 

' Unto thee will I give in return a thousand 
females big with young, of all species of small 
cattle; I offer thee up a sacrifice, O good Saoka, 
made by Mazda and holy. 

5 (16). ' And I will bless thee with the fair 
blessing-spell of the righteous, the friendly blessing- 
spell of the righteous, that makes the empty swell 
to fulness and the full to overflowing, that comes 
to help him who was sickening, and makes the sick 
man sound again. 

6 (20). ' Mathra Spe»ta, the all-glorious, replied 
unto me : "How shall I heal thee ? How shall I 
drive away from thee those nine diseases, and those 
ninety, those nine hundred, those nine thousand, 
and those nine times ten thousand diseases ? " ' 

II. 

7 (22). The Maker Ahura Mazda called for 
Nairy6-sangha * : Go thou, Nairy6-sangha, the 
herald, and drive towards the mansion of Airya- 
man, and speak thus unto him : 

1 The Genius of the good eye ; see Farg. XIX, 37, and note. 
1 The messenger of Ahura Mazda. He is a form of Atar, the 
Fire (Yasna XVII, 11 [68]). 



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8 (23). Thus speaks Ahura Mazda, the Holy 
One, unto thee : 

' I, Ahura Mazda, the Maker of all good things, when 
I made this mansion, the beautiful, the shining, seen afar 
(there may I ascend, there may I arrive 1) 

9 (44). 'Then the ruffian looked at me; the ruffian 
Angra Mainyu, the deadly, wrought against me nine 
diseases, and ninety, and nine hundred, and nine thousand, 
and nine times ten thousand diseases. So mayst thou heal 
me, O Airyaman, the vow-fulfiller ! 

10 (a6). 'Unto thee will I give in return a thousand 
fleet, swift-running steeds; I offer thee up a sacrifice, 
O good Saoka, made by Mazda and holy. 

' Unto thee will I give in return a thousand fleet, high- 
humped camels ; I offer thee up a sacrifice, O good Saoka, 
made by Mazda and holy. 

u (30). 'Unto thee will I give in return a thousand 
brown oxen that do not push ; I offer thee up a sacrifice, 
O good Saoka, made by Mazda and holy. 

' Unto thee will I give in return a thousand females big 
with young, of all species of small cattle. I offer thee up 
a sacrifice, O good Saoka, made by Mazda and holy. 

12 (34). 'And I will bless thee with the fair blessing- 
spell of the righteous, the friendly blessing-spell of the 
righteous, that makes the empty swell to fulness and the 
full to overflowing, that comes to help him who was 
sickening, and makes the sick man sound again.' 

III. 

1 3 (38). In obedience to Ahura's words he went, 
Nairy6-sangha, the herald; he drove towards the 
mansion of Airyaman, he spake unto Airyaman, 
saying : 

14 (38). Thus speaks Ahura Mazda, the Holy 
One, unto thee : 'I, Ahura Mazda, the Maker of 
all good things, when I made this mansion, the 



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FARGARD XXII. 239 



beautiful, the shining, seen afar (there may I go up, 
there may I arrive !) 

J 5 (39)- ' Then the ruffian looked at me ; the 
ruffian Angra Mainyu, the deadly, wrought against 
me nine diseases, and ninety, and nine hundred, and 
nine thousand, and nine times ten thousand diseases. 
So mayst thou heal me, O Airyaman, the vow- 
fulfiller! 

16 (40). * Unto thee will I give in return a thou- 
sand fleet, swift-running steeds ; I offer thee up a 
sacrifice, O good Saoka, made by Mazda and 
holy. 

' Unto thee will I give in return a thousand fleet, 
high-humped camels ; I offer thee up a sacrifice, 
O good Saoka, made by Mazda and holy. 

17 (44). ' Unto thee will I give in return a thou- 
sand brown oxen that do not push; I offer thee 
up a sacrifice, O good Saoka, made by Mazda and 
holy. 

' Unto thee will I give in return a thousand 
females, big with young, of all species of small 
cattle ; I offer thee up a sacrifice, O good Saoka, 
made by Mazda and holy. 

18 (48). 'And I will bless thee with the fair 
blessing-spell of the righteous, the friendly blessing- 
spell of the righteous, that makes the empty swell 
to fulness and the full to overflowing, that comes to 
help him who was sickening, and makes the sick 
man sound again.' 

IV. 

*9 (5 2 )- Quickly was it done, nor was it long, 
eagerly set off the vow-fulfilling Airyaman, towards 



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the mountain of the holy Questions \ towards the 
forest of the holy Questions. 

20 (54). Nine kinds of stallions brought he with 
him, the vow-fulfilling Airyaman 2 . 

Nine kinds of camels brought he with him, the 
vow-fulfilling Airyaman. 

Nine kinds of bulls brought he with him, the 
vow-fulfilling Airyaman. 

Nine kinds of small cattle brought he with him, 
the vow-fulfilling Airyaman. 

He brought with him the nine twigs 8 ; he drew 
along nine furrows 4 . 

[21 8 . 'I drive away Ishire and I drive away Aghuire" ; 
I drive away Aghra and I drive away Ughra; I drive 
away sickness and I drive away death ; I drive away pain 
and I drive away fever ; I drive away Sarana and I drive 
away Sarastya; I drive away Azana and I drive away 
A-sahva ; I drive away Kurugha and I drive away Asivaka ; 
I drive away Duruka and I drive away Astairya. I drive 
away the evil eye, rottenness, and infection which Angra 
Mainyu has created against the bodies of mortals. 

22. ' I drive away all manner of sickness and death, all 
the Yatus and Pairikas, and all the wicked G'ainis. 

23. 'May the vow-fulfilling Airyaman come here, for 
the men and women of Zarathurtra to rejoice, for Vohu- 



1 The mountain where ' the holy conversations ' between Ormazd 
and Zoroaster took place (cf. Farg. XIX, 11). 

* According to FrSmjt ' He brought with him the strength of 
nine stallions,' to infuse it into the sick man (cf. Yasht VIII, 24). 

* That is to say, 'the nine-knotted stick' (Framjf; cf Farg. 
IX, 14). 

4 To perform the Barashnum, 'the great service of the Nirang- 
Din, through which all evil, moral and natural, including evil 
passions, disease, and death will be removed ' (Wilson, The Parsi 
Religion, p. 341). 

* From the VendidSd Sada; as Farg. XX, 9-13. 



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FARGARD XXII. 24 1 



mand to rejoice ; with the desirable reward that Religion 
deserves. I solicit for holiness that boon that is vouch- 
safed by Ahura. 

24. ' May the vow-fulfilling Airyaman smite all manner 
of sickness and death, all the Yatus and Pairikas, and all 
the wicked Cainis. 

25. ' Yatha ah u vairyd: — The will of the Lord is the 
law of righteousness. The gifts of Vohu-mand to the 
deeds done in this world for Mazda. He who relieves 
the poor makes Ahura king. 

'K;m-na mazda: — What protector hast thou given 
unto me, O Mazda! while the hate of the wicked en- 
compasses me? Whom but thy Atar and Vohu-mand, 
through whose work I keep on the world of righteousness ? 
Reveal therefore to me thy Religion as thy rule ! 

'K* verethrem-^a: — Who is the victorious who will 
protect thy teaching ? Make it clear that I am the guide 
for both worlds. May Sraosha come with Vohu-mand and 
help whomsoever thou pleasest, O Mazda ! 

1 Keep us from our hater, O Mazda and Armaiti Spewta ! 
Perish, O fiendish Drqg- ! Perish, O brood of the fiend ! 
Perish, O world of the fiend! Perish away, O Dn\£"! 
Perish away to the regions of the north, never more to 
give unto death the living world of Righteousness ! '] 



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FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 



R 2 



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I. 

WESTERGAARD'S FRAGMENTS. 



These are the fragments, nine in number, published by Wester- 
gaard in his edition of the Zend-Avesta (pp. 331-334). 

I. 

This formula, according to a modern Ravayat, is recited while 
putting on new clothes. 

i. Along with Vohu Man6, Asha Vahirta, and 
Khshathra Vairya, pronounce thou, for the men 
and women of the holy Zarathustra \ a word of 
celebration and sacrifice, with a modest (?) voice. 

2. Pronounce thou that word, O Zarathustra, for 
sacrifice and prayer unto us, the Amesha-Spewtas*, 
that thereby sacrifice may accrue unto the Waters 
and the Plants, and unto the Fravashis of the 
righteous, and unto the Yazatas of the spiritual 
world and of this world, divine creatures, beneficent 
and holy. 

II. 

FarIdOn YA.ST. 

The following formulas are exactly conceived in the style of the 

Ya*t formulas. The Iranian Hercules, ThraStaona-Faridun, as 

conqueror of Asi Dahaka, is invoked against brigands. — Asi being 

1 For the faithful. 

* The Amesha-Spentas, presiding over the different regions of 
nature, may be supposed to furnish the substance, of animal or 
vegetable origin, of which clothes are made. Cf. Fragments to Vd. 
XVIII, 2. 



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246 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

a Serpent, ThraStaona appeared as well in a medical as in an heroic 
character : his Fravashi is invoked against itch and other diseases 
(Yt. XIII, 131), and his name is invoked in Tavtds (talismans) 
against illness, fever, and poison. 

1. Fravarane. I confess myself a worshipper of Mazda, 
a follower of Zarathujtra, one who hates the Daevas and 
obeys the laws of Ahura ; 

For sacrifice, prayer, gratification, and glorification [unto 
Havani, &c] 

Khshnaothra. Gratification unto the Fravashi 
of the holy Thraetaona, son of Athwya. 

Yatha ahu vairyd.— The Raspi : The wish of the Lord . . . 
(let this Zaotar proclaim it !) 

The Zdt : Is the rule of Righteousness. Let the righteous 
man who knows it proclaim it ! 

2. We sacrifice unto Thraetaona, son of Athwya, 
holy, master of holiness, to save the pious wor- 
shippers from the brigand, from the robber, from 
the Karapans 1 . 

3. Yatha ahu vairyd. 

Yasnem^a. I bless the sacrifice and prayer and 
the strength and vigour of the Fravashi of Thrae- 
taona, son of Athwya. 

Ashem vohu. Ahmai ratska. 2 . 

III. 

VlSPA HUMATA. 

A prayer which it is recommended to recite every morning, after 
the prayer of the Havan-g£h, and every night before going to bed. 

i. All good thoughts, all good words, all good 
deeds I do willingly. 

All evil thoughts, all evil words, all evil deeds 
I do unwillingly. 

1 ' The blind/ those who are blind to the Law of Ahura. 
9 The same formula as Yart III, 19. 



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I. WESTERGAARDS FRAGMENTS. 247 

2. AH good thoughts, all good words, all good 
deeds will reach Paradise. 

All evil thoughts, all evil words, all evil deeds 
will reach Hell. 

And all good thoughts, all good words, all good 
deeds are the badge of the righteous for Paradise. 

IV. 
Glorification of the Airyama Ishy6 prayer. 

This fragment is the twenty-third and last Fargard of one of the 
Githic Nasks, the Varshtmansar, which was a commentary in 
vulgar Zend on the Gatha texts. Its Pahlavi translation is found 
in the Dinkart, IX, 46. See the Airyama Ishyd itself, Yasna LIV, 
VendtdidXX, 11. 

i. The Airyama Ishyd I declare, O pure Spitama, 
the greatest of all words ; I created it as the most 
triumphant of all words. That is the word that 
the Saoyya#ts ' will pronounce. 

2. Through it, I proclaim it, O Spitama, I become 
sovereign over my creation, I, Ahura Mazda; and 
through it Angra Mainyu, of the bad religion, 
shall lose the sovereignty over his own creation, 
O Spitama Zarathmtra. 

3. Angra Mainyu shall hide under the earth; 
under the earth shall the demons hide. The dead 
shall rise up, life shall come back to the bodies and 
they shall keep the breath. 

V. 

This fragment is composed of two series of invocations which 
differ only in the same manner as the Lesser Sirdza differs from 

1 The great saints of Mazdeism, whose virtue and merits are to 
bring about the decisive victory of Ahura over Angra Mainyu and 
the production of the resurrection. 



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248 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

the Greater one, that is to say, the first is introduced by the 
word Khshnaothra \ and the second by the word yazamaidS *. 
These are two forms of Khshnuman for a Darun celebrated on the 
Bahram day for the benefit of a member of the family who is 

travelling. 

i. [Khshnaothra. Gratification] to Ahura Mazda, 
bright and glorious ; 

To the Amesha-Spe#tas ; 

To the well-shapen and tall-formed Strength ; 

To Verethraghna, made by Ahura, and to the 
crushing Ascendant ; 

To the Safety of the roads ; 

To the golden instrument 3 and to the Saoke«ta 
mount, made by Mazda s ; 

To all the Gods. 

2. We sacrifice (yazamaide) to Ahura Mazda, 
bright and glorious. 

We sacrifice to the Amesha-Spe«tas ; 

We sacrifice to the well-shapen and tall-formed 
Strength ; 

We sacrifice to Verethraghna, made by Ahura, 
and to the crushing Ascendant ; 

We sacrifice to the Safety of the roads ; 

We sacrifice to the golden instrument and to the 
Saoke»ta mount, made by Mazda ; 

We sacrifice to all the holy [Gods]. 

VI. 

These are the formulas recited in the preparation of the^tpam 
(the milk that mixed with urvaram and hdm makes the para- 
h6m). Those formulas are found in the Pahlavi Commentary to 
the Nirangislan, § 68. The milch-goat which is going to yield the 

1 Not expressed ; the object is in the genitive case. 
s ' We worship, we sacrifice to ' (the object being in the accu- 
sative case). 
' See Khdrsh&f Nyayif, 8 (Zend-Avesta, part ii). 



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I. WESTERGAARDS FRAGMENTS. 249 

milk, is introduced into the Urvfs-gah, whereupon the Mobed, after 
reciting three Khshnaothra and one Ashem vohu, pronounces the 
Fravarine" in the honour of the present Gah and of the animal 
which is -milked. 

Fravaran6. I confess myself a worshipper of 
Mazda, a follower of Zarathurtra, one who hates 
the Da£vas, and obeys the laws of Ahura; [for 
sacrifice, prayer, gratification, and glorification unto 
Havani, &c] 

Khshnaothra. Gratification, for sacrifice, prayer, 
gratification, and glorification, 

[If there is only one animal :] 

To the Body of the Bull 1 , to the Soul of the 
Bull; to thy soul, to thee (tava), O Beneficent 
Bull. 

Yatha ahfl vairyd. The will of the Lord, &c. . . . 

[If there are two of them :] 

To the Body of the Bull, to the Soul of the Bull ; 
to the soul of you both (yuvakem), O Beneficent 
Bulls. 

Yatha ahfl vairyd . . . 

[If there are three of them :] 

To the Body of the Bull, to the Soul of the Bull ; 
to your soul (yushmakem), O Beneficent Bulls. 
Yatha ahG vairyd . . . 

VII. 

These are the formulas pronounced during the preparation of the 
holy water or Zaothra. They are found in the Pahlavi Commen- 
tary to Nirangisian, § 48. 

The Mobed, taking in hand the two Zaothra cups, recites a 
Khshnaothra to the waters. 

1 Gaus has become the general name of all animal species. 
Cf.Vd. XXI, 1, n. 1. 



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25O FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

i. Khshnaothra. Gratification, for sacrifice, prayer, 
gratification, and glorification, 

To the Good Waters 1 and to all the waters 
created by Mazda ', 

To the great Sovereign ApSm Napad?*, and to 
the water created by Mazda ; 

To thee, O Ahurani 3 , [O Water] of Ahura ! 

Yatha aha vairyd. 

[He puts the two cups on the surface of the water and 
says:] 

2. We praise thee, O Ahurani, [Water] of Ahura; 
we offer unto thee good sacrifices and good prayers, 
good offerings, offerings of assistance. 

[Then he dips them, takes them up and puts them 
upon the Urvts-stone while he pronounces the following 
words :] 

YazatanSm, thwa, ashaonSm, kukhshntsha, us- 
blbarami, rathwasia berezat6, gathaosia sravaydi^ : 
* I take thee up, may'st thou gratify the holy Gods 
and the great Ratu. — Let him sing the Gathas !' 

VIII. 

The following fragment, the text of which is most corrupt and 
defies translation, seems to be a curse to destroy an enemy. 

i. May he perish in the year, in the month! 

I, worshipper of Mazda, desire to make him perish 
by my spells. If a man utter them, the evildoer 
shall perish thereby quick and soon . . . May none 
be seized by that Dru^ ! 

1 The waters of the present sacrifice. 

* See Yzsts and Sirdzas, p. 6, n. 1. 

* The waters of the bowl from which the priest draws water. 
Cf. the Guimet Zend-Avesta, i, 409, n. 2 ; 416. 



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I. WESTERGAARDS FRAGMENTS. 25 1 

2 when Mahrkusha 1 shall perish 

and the army of the Dru^- shall be thrown down 
and broken. 

IX. 

This fragment is as corrupt as the preceding one. It seems to 
be meant as a glorification of the Ahuna Vairya. 

i. Yathi ahu vairyd. 

Give, O Mazda, the desired reward*, — a royalty 
befriending what is good 3 , — the desired reward that 
Religion deserves 4 . 

2. Yatha ahu vairy6. This is the Word pro- 
nounced by Mazda, the lordly Word, the MSthra 
Spe«ta, the undestructible and unfailing; the vic- 
torious, evil-destroying, healing Word ; the victorious 
Word pronounced by Mazda; which utters and 
uttered health ; victorious amongst all. 

3 In it were uttered strength, victory, 

health, healing, prosperity, waxing and increase, 
according to that word in the Gathas : ' all that can 
be wished for by your loyal servants 6 .' 

He who relieves the poor makes Ahura King 6 . 

4 7 . Let all the World of the Good Principle listen to this 
sacrifice, to this prayer, to this gratification, to this glori- 
fication ! 

We sacrifice to the pious Sraosha. 

We sacrifice to the Great Master, Ahura Mazda .... 

1 Mahrkusha, the demon who is going to send the deathly 
winters in prevision of which Yima is ordered to build the Var (see 
Vd. II, 32 and notes). 

« From Yasna XXXIV, 14 a. • Yasna LI, 1 a. 

4 Yasna LIV, 1 (Airyama ishyd). 

» Yasna LXV, 14 (=L, 11 d). 

' The last line of the Ahuna Vairya. 

7 Yasna LXX, 6-7. i 



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II. 

ZEND FRAGMENTS IN THE ZEND- 
PAHLAVI FARHANG. 



The oldest Zend dictionary in existence, the so-called Zend- 
Pahlavi Farhang or Oyum-yak Farhang 1 , contains a number of 
Zend- sentences or fragments of sentences, which are adduced as 
instances of the Zend words. They amount to the number of 
seventy, of which forty-eight are new. We thought it necessary 
to give the translation of these forty-eight fragments only. The 
indications of pages refer to the printed edition. 

i a (pp. 6-y). a£dha. The skin on the head. 

There are two, one greater and one lesser, as it is said in 
the Nlka turn 2 : 

Which is the greater aedha ? — That one which is 
on the posterior part of the skull. 

Which is the lesser one ? — That one which is on 
the anterior part of the skull. 

i b (p. 7). The head (vaghdhanem) of a man. 

One bone of the skull. 

1 Haug-Hoshangji, An Old Zend-Pahlavi Glossary, Bombay, 
1867. 

! The Ntkatum is the fifteenth Nask, the first of the seven 
Legal Nasks. It contained thirty Fargards, the third of which, 
named RSshistan (a treatise on the wounds), gave an enumeration 
of the divers members of the body, numbering seventy-six. The 
fragments 1 a-i b are very likely taken from that Fargard. — For 
an analysis of the Ntkatum, see Dtnkart VIII, ch. 16-20 (in 
West, Pahlavi Texts, IV). 



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II. ZEND FRAGMENTS. 253 

All the strokes that [have pierced] the skull are 
counted [tanifuhr] 1 . 

The others shall pay the Avara. * penalty. 



2 a (p. 9). With victorious eloquence. 

2 b. A fine, well considered, well balanced, obe- 
dient s speech. 

2 c. An honest man who knows how to speak, 
for instance, a wise man who makes intercession 4 . 

2 d. One whose words are accepted. 



3 (p. 11). Sovereign, unopposed. 

4 (p. 1 1). Good renown here below, and long bliss 
to the soul 6 . 

5 (p. 11). All the bodily world shall become free 
from old age and death, from corruption and rot, 
for ever and ever •. 

6 (p. 12). A horse of first value, amongst the 
finest of the country, is as much as four oxen and 
four cows three years old. 

7 (p. 1 2). As much as this earth. 

1 Which implies a punishment of two hundred Sraoshd-farana 
strokes. The words in brackets are wanting in the text : they are 
supplied from the Pahlavi translation. 

1 The At»ara or kh6r penalty: thirty strokes with the Sraoshd- 
£arana (Vd. IV, 30, 31). 

8 In accordance with the instructions of the Ratu or Dastur. 

4 Who makes G&dang&i: see Tahmuras' Fragments, XLVII, 
note. 

' Good renown in this world and bliss in the other. Cf. Yasna 
LXII, 6; Yart XVII, 22, and Tansar's letter to the King of 
Tabaristan : ' He may be called a great king who takes more to 
heart the weal of the future than the present time, in order to 
deserve a good name in this world and a good seat in the next.' 
(Journal Asiatique, 1894, 1, 512-513). 

• Cf. Yart XIX, 11, 23, 89 ; XXIV, 45. 



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254 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

8 (p. 1 2). The smallest of those stars is as large 
as the head of a man of middle size l . 

9 (p. 1 2). An ashti in front, as much in depth *. 

10 (p. 13). There where the sun rises. 

1 1 (p. 1 3). There where Ahura Mazda will give 
you prosperity. 

12 (p. 14) 3 . He who to a plaintiff does not proffer 
place, ordeal, and time of appointment 4 ; 

and all the operations of justice, conformable to 
the law and the rule, worked out by the Ahu and 
the Ratu, according to the laws of Asha Vahirta . . . 

13 (p. 14). He who says to a man : Make amends 
unto me. 

14 (p. 14). When two men appoint a time* . . . 

15 (pp. 14-15). As long as he has life. 

16. And the young Gayd-Maratan'. 

17. In the time when those men were, O Zara- 
thurtra ! 

1 ' Amongst the stars (says the Greater Bundahish), the larger 
ones are as large as a £a£&i-house (?) ; the middle stars are as 
large as a caharakan naptishu(P); the lesser ones are as large 
as the head of a domestic ox. The moon is as large as a riding- 
ground, two h&sars long ; the sun is as large as Ir&n-VSg ' (thus 
in Anaxagoras' astronomy the sun has the dimensions of Pelo- 
ponnesus). — From a comparison between the Greater Bundahish 
and the Zend passage quoted in the Farhang it appears that the 
measurement of the stars was discussed several times and not 
without slight variations in the Avesta (most likely in the cosmo- 
logical Damdat Nask). 

* Cf. Vd. XIII, 30. 

* This fragment and the two following seem to be taken from 
the Nikatum Nask. 

4 The defendant, if conscious of his innocence, will propose that 
he should go through the whole process of one of the judicial 
ordeals. 

8 For an ordeal. 

* Gayd-Maratan, Gaydmard, the first man. Cf. Yt. XIII, 87. 



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II. ZEND FRAGMENTS. 255 

1 8 (p. 1 5). To the lesser man labour, to the greater 
one, commandment (?). 

19. On went Pourusaspa, on go these sons of 
Thrafitaona's (?). 

20. He makes himself guilty of the yata sin *. 

21 a (p. 16). A year's delay for a vlrd-mazd con- 
tract 8 . 

2 1 b. They 8 boiled up, they fell back. 

22. yadtuy zaemand (?) 

23. yao^ina surahe" (?) 

24. Let one pluck stems, three stems 4 . 

25. The edge of a razor. 

26. If they have come [or have not come]. 

27. The progeny and son of Ahura Mazda. 
28 (p. 1 7). The several sorts of corn. 

29. I offer up the sacrifice to the Frazdanava 
waters 6 . 

30. Who is the judge who knows the law ? 
It is the one who sees the due decision •. 

3 1 (p. 1 8). And clothes magnificently wrought. 
32. Lands fit for tillage. 

33 (P- I 9)- All the agreements in the world. 

34 (p. 23). ... happiness with his eyes T . 

35 (p. 30). Goods carried by force. 

36 (p. 31). gathwd-.rta&u£ 

1 Yata, y&t: the sin of breaking a man's leg. 

* A contract to the amount of a man (valued 150 istirs=5oo 
dirhems). 

* The waters. * For the Baresman (Yasna LVII, 6). 

* A river or lake in Saistan, where Vishtaspa sacrificed to the 
Goddess of Waters (Yt. V, 108). 

* He sees the right and legal decision which results from the 
facts of the case.— Cf. West, Pahlavi Texts, IV, 64. note. 

7 This refers to the good eye, to some beneficent being who sends 
luck with his look : cf. Yt. XIX, 94, and reversely Yasna IX, 29. 



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256 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

37. thwSm khratiu (?) 

38. Which, recited to Mazda, protects the end \ 

39 (P- 38)- The fire of Ahura Mazda receives food 
three times in summer, twice in winter 2 ; thus does 
the fire of the faithful man 8 . 

40 (p. 39). Fifteen sheep, their hind-feet. 

41 (p. 40). Anywhere in this world. — Whosoever 
in the bodily world. — Whatsoever of the world of 
the good principle. 

42 (p. 41). ivaiti a£tshaya (K\ aetashaya). 

43. As much as twelve steps a«tare thwSm (?) 

44. Twice a Dakhsmaiti is a Yug yarti 4 . 
Twice as much as a Hathra is a Taiara 6 . 

45 (p. 42). From the coming of the light • . . . 

46 (p. 43). The longest day is the day of twelve 
Hathras 7 . 

47. The shortest Hathra is of three words '. 

1 This refers perhaps to the Ashem Vohu, which, being recited 
by a man with his dying breath, saves his soul (Yt. XXI, 15). 

* The fire is fed three times a day in summer, at the three Gihs 
of the day ; only twice in winter, as in winter there are only two 
G&hs, the Rapithvin being included in Havan. 

' There will be two meals in winter, one in the morning, 
another in the evening. In summer there is a third meal, at 
noon (cf. Yasna IX, n). — The passage thirty-nine is taken from 
the Sak&tum Nask (cf. West, Pahlavi Texts, IV, 480). 

4 A Yu^yarti being 16,000 paces, a Dakhsmaiti is 8,000 paces 
(cf. West, ibid. 56, note). 

* A Hathra being 1,000 paces, a Ta&ira is as much as 2,000 paces. 
' The coming of the light (raolangham fragati) is the name of 

the last watch of the night. 

7 Hathra is a measure for time as well as for space. ' A summer 
day (says the Bundahij, XXV, 5) is of twelve h&sars; a winter 
day is of six h&sars.' 

* The uses and values of the H&thra are most diverse: as a 
measure for short intervals of time, it is the time needed to pro- 
nounce three words. 



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II. ZEND FRAGMENTS. 257 

48. Three steps of that sort of steps '. 

Here is for the judge, here is for the witness*. 

Here is for the suit, here is for the suitors. 



1 The complete meaning of the sentence would seem to be : 
' The judge and the witness stand in a circle of three steps' (Far- 
hang). 

* The Farhang has : ' All the speeches of the suit ought to be 
held within three steps; and both pleaders — both defendant and 
plaintiff — should stand within a circle of three steps;' so that every- 
body may hear distinctly the whole of the debate. 



w s 

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III. 

ZEND FRAGMENTS QUOTED IN THE 
PAHLAVI COMMENTARY OF THE YASNA. 



Yasna IX, i, 3 1 . 

Mithrd zayaaf Zarathurtrem. 

* Mitra armis (?) Zoroastrem . . .' 

These words are found in the Commentary to the beginning of 
the H6m Yart: Haoma approached Zarathtwtra 'while he was 
washing the fire-altar and singing the G&thas,' and Zarathur tra asked 
him who he was. The Commentary here observes that Zarathurtra 
had recognised Haoma; 'as it appears from the passage, Mithrd 
zayaV Zarathurtrem, that he knew him, that he had already had 
appointments with most of the Izeds and was well acquainted with 
them.' — That passage, quoted as usual by its first words, is very 
likely taken from the Spand, the Nask occupied with the legend of 
Zoroaster. 

Yasna IX, i, 4. 

amereza gayehe stuna. 

This quotation refers to the time when everybody will be im- 
mortal without a body. It may be translated by conjecture. 

' The column of life 2 [made] marrowless.' 



Yasna IX, 8, 27. 
K6 thw5m yim Ahurem MazdSm. — 'Quis te, 
Ahura Mazda . . . ? ' 
This quotation comes after the description of the three-headed 

1 The first Arabic number refers to Geldner's, the second to 
Spiegel's edition. 
* The spine. 



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III. ZEND FRAGMENTS. 259 

serpent, Asi Dahaka. Its beginning reminds one of a similar and 
perhaps identical question in Vendidad XVIII, 61 : K6 thwam 
yim Ahurem Mazdam mazirtaya inti inaoti, 'Who grieves thee, 
Ahura Mazda, with the sorest grief? ' 



Yasna IX, 11, 35. 
K hshvafipaya va£naya bareshna (or barenay). 

The horned serpent, Azi Srvara, whom Keresaspa killed, 
had yellow poison, a thumb thick, streaming over its body, 
khshvaepaya vafinaya bareshna, ' by the anus, by the nose, 
by the head (?).' 

Yasna XVII, 55 (ed. Spiegel). 

apagayehe\ — Privation of life . . . 

First word of a quotation which appears in passages intended 
either to prolong life and deprecate the death of a friend (generally 
under the form : may there be no room for apagayehg, XLI, 7 ; 
XLII, 1), or to wish death to an enemy (XLV, 4 ; XLVIII, 10; 
LII, 8; LXI, 10; ed. Sp.) 



Yasna XXXI, ao b (ed. Spiegel). 

vlshaia ( = vishaa<$a, ' also of poison,' at the end 

of XLVIII, 11 d, in the best MSS.) 

Descriptive of the bad food supplied to the wicked in hell, the 
vishayaadfta vish-gaitayaa</£a of Yt. XXII, 36. 



Yasna LVI, i, i (ed. Spiegel), 
bardithrd-ta&em. — See Fragments at Vd. XVIII, 
14. 33 (Sp.) 

Yasna LXIV, 48 (ed. Spiegel). 
padhavS zivare gava asa sruma. 
A corrupt quotation in the MSS., from Yt. XVI, 7. 



S 2 



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IV. 

ZEND FRAGMENTS QUOTED IN THE 

PAHLAVI COMMENTARY OF 

THE VENDtDAD. 



VendIdAd I, a 1 . 

as6 ramd-daitlm ndid aqfd-rdmirtSm. 

'A place that gives pleasure, though not absolute 

pleasure.' 

This refers to the present condition of the countries, marred by 
Ahriman's operations ; every man finds his own country delightful, 
however much its charm may have been spoiled by Ahriman. 

paoirlm bitlm. — ' Firstly, secondly.' 

'Firstly, the good operation was done for that country ; 
secondly, after the Genius of the Earth had done all its 
operations in that country, the work of opposition came 
against it. In other terms, two things : one at the time of 
creation, the other afterwards.' 

iad ahe paityarem. — ' Then to this an opposition.' 
mash mi rava shatham haitim. — (?) 



VENDtDAD I, 4. 

It is known that [in the ordinary course of nature] 
there are seven months of summer and five of 
winter 8 . 

1 The last five lines in note 2, page 3 above are to be 
replaced by the following : Clause 2, in the Vendfdad S&da, is 
composed of Zend quotations in the Commentary : for which, see 
below, Fragments to the Vendid&d. 

2 Whereas in Airyana Vae£6 there are ten months of winter 
and two of summer. 



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IV. ZEND FRAGMENTS. 26 1 

VendIdAd I, 15. 
From there 1 they come to kill and strike at heart, 
and they bring locusts as many as they want 



VendIdAd I, 16. 

vaedhanghd ndid uz6i* 2 . — Of knowledge, not of 
love (?) 3 . 

Refers to ' Ragha of the three races,' the native 
place of Zoroaster's mother. 



VendIdAd I, 19. 
' From the Eastern river to the Western one ' 
( = Yt X, 104). 

VendIdAd I, 30. 
'And the taosya (?) 4 oppression of the country.' 



VendIdAd II, 6 (see above, p. 12, note 1). 
'Although Yima did not teach the law and train pupils, 
he was nevertheless one of the faithful and a holy man, 
and rendered men holy too (?).' 

'That he was one of the faithful 5 appears from this 
passage: 

1 From the Haetumant country (Saistan). See above, Vd. 1, 15, 
note 1. 

* The word d ah 4k Si, found only in K', is probably an unfor- 
tunate accretion to uz6Lr read as as6u. 

* Ragha knows the truth, but does not like it. Unbelief is 
dominant there (Vd. I, 16). 

* According to the greater BundahLr, taosya means tigik, 
' Arabic' Arab tribes were established in the basin of the Rangha 
(the Tigris) long before the Arab conquest 

* v6h-dfn, a member of the Zoroastrian community (though 
prematurely so). 



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262 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

mruidhi tad mSthwem yad a£m£i^ yd daeva. — 
" Say that formula which even the Daevas 
' That he was holy x appears from this passage : 

"We sacrifice to the Fravashi of the holy Yima, 
son of Vivanghar ' (Yt. XIII, 130). 

' That he rendered men holy too (?) * appears from this 
passage: 

abareshnva pasiaeta asara mashyakaeiby6 3 .' 

The Commentary then proceeds to state that Yima lost by bis 
sin the gift of immortality, and remarks that Gim and Kaus were both 
created immortal (a-dsh) and became mortal by their own fault. 

' For Gim this appears from the following passage : 

" Soon he changed this 4 to death by the fault of 

his tongue 8 ." ' 

' For Kaus it appears from this passage : 
"Thereupon he 6 let him flee away; whereupon 
mortal he became V ' 



1 ahlav, that is, 'one of the blessed.' 

* literally, 'he put the distinctive character of it in the body 
of man.' 

* Literally, 'without a head, afterwards, without a chief, for 
men.' 

* His immortality. 

6 ' When he took delight in words of falsehood and error ' (Yt. 
XIX, 34) ; when he claimed the name and the worship of a god. 

' Neryosengh, who was in the act of putting Kaus to death. 

7 A quotation from the Sutkar Nask, in which the legend of the 
greatness and fall of Kaf-Kius was told in full detail. Kai-Kaus 
had become king of the seven KaKvares of the Earth (cf. Yt. V, 
46), and all demons and men were obedient to his word ; he built 
seven palaces in the middle of Alborz, one of gold, two of silver, 
two of steel, two of crystal ; and if men, broken down by age and on 
the point of breathing their last, were taken round his palace, they 
recovered at once strength and youth. But the demons, whom he 
kept in bonds, took counsel how to get rid of him ; and to achieve 



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IV. ZEND FRAGMENTS. 263 

VendIdAd II, J 6. 

The Commentary infers from the threefold proceeding of Yima 
towards the South that, on entering upon any new enterprise, one 
must go three steps southwards and recite an ahuna vairya. 

' That his creation [of the earth] became more beautiful 
[towards the South] appears from the passage : 

usehLrfaidf g£u.r barad daNhuj. — " The ox rose up, 
the land bore [fruits]." ' 

* That one must recite an Avesta text appears from the 
passage in the Pafsujjhurun 1 : 

srlra ukhdha va&au sSsanghSm. — ? ' 

' That that text is the Ahunvar appears from the passage 
Ahund vairyd 2 .' 

his ruin inspired him with a disgust of his earthly sovereignty and 
a longing for the Kingdom of the Gods. Accordingly he went over 
Alborz with an army of demons and wicked men, and rushed down 
to the border of Darkness : there he erected a statue of clay to the 
Fortune of the Kaianides. Then he entered into a struggle with 
the Gods, and the Creator recalled to himself the royal Glory of 
the Kaianides, and Kaus' army fell from above down to the earth ; 
KSus himself being carried along the Frakh-kart Sea (the Caspian 
Sea). And a man, closely united to him, ran after him, and after 
that man ran the messenger of Auhrmazd, Neryosengh. And that 
man, who was the still unborn Kai-Khosrav, cried out : * Kill him 
not, O Neryosengh 1 For if thou killest him, there will be no 
destroyer of the chief of Turin : for to this man Syavakhsh shall 
be born, and to Syavakhsh, I, Kai-Khosrav, shall be born, who 
am going to destroy Turin and its king and its armies/ Ner- 
yosengh, rejoiced by these words, thereupon let Kaf-Kaus away ; 
thereupon he became mortal (Dmkart IX, 22, 4-12). 

1 Perhaps the Pasuf-haurvast&n Fargard in the Ganbi- 
sar-ni^at Nask (West, Dinkart VIII, 23, § 19 ?). 

8 Perhaps the passage meant is Vd. XI, 3 : ' The Ahuna Vairya 
preserves the person of man.' 



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264 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

VendIdAd II, 20 a (Westergaard). 
' Then Yima drew to a close the holy first millen- 
nium of years 1 .' 

VendIdAd II, 20 b. 
avaiti bSz6. — ' Of the same thickness . . .' 

* That Gim, three times, made the earth as large as it 
was before, appears from the passage : 

avaiti bSzd.' 

VendIdAd II, 20 c. 

' Auhrmazd kept this world for three thousand years in 
a spiritual shape ; for three thousand years he kept it in 
a material shape, but without any opposition ; three thousand 
years elapsed from the coming of the Opposition to the 
coming of the Religion ; three thousand years will elapse 
from the coming of the Religion to the resurrection. As 
follows from the passage : 

Avawtem zrvanem mainyava stis ashaoni data as. 
" How long did the holy creation remain in a 
spiritual form?" ' 



VendIdAd III, 14. 

nbid makhshi-beret6. — ' Nor brought by flies ' 
( = Vd. V, 3 ; see above, p. 50). 
yo vlsaaf adtaySm 2 zaothram atarem a frabar6i<£ 
' It appears from this passage that if a man throw his 

* For three times three hundred years Yima had governed and 
increased the earth : the last century of his millennial reign was 
passed in building and organising the Van (Cf. above, p. 14, 
note 1.) 

J aetayam in MP and B 1 (West); Spiegel has afiyam, Wester- 
gaard has aivam. 



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IV. ZEND FRAGMENTS. 265 

dast-shd 1 into the water, it is as if he had thrown hehr 
into the fire.' 

yatha narem duivfa zaretem. — 'A righteous man 
bowed down with age ' (see the passage given in full 
in the Tahmuras Fragments, § 38). 

'It appears from this passage that throwing hehr into 
water or fire is as bad as casting nasa (dead matter) on 
one of the faithful.' 

paoirya upaiti paoirya nishasta. — ' For the first 
time he comes near unto her, for the first time he 
lies by her ' ( = Vd. XVI, 15). 



VendIdAd III, 15. 

ya nary ^#a-aothremah6 yat6. — ? 

Words inserted in the London manuscript (L 4 ) after the word 
hujk6-zemdtemem>fca, as also in Vd. V, 46. 



VendIdAd III, 27. 
badha idha afrasani daNhubyd. — ? 



VendIdAd III, 40. 
ydi he«ti aiNhmi zem6 kane»ti. 
' Those who bury [corpses] in this earth.' 



y6 naxs ashaond iririthushd zem6 kehrpa nikai«ti. 

' He who buries the corpse of a righteous man who 

has departed . . .' 

This passage is quoted by Vindarf-gftshnasp, as establishing that 
for every one of the worms that eat up the buried corpse, the man 
who did the burying is liable to a tanafuhr penalty. 

1 The water in which he has washed his hands. 



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266 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

VendIdAd III, 4a. 

spayditi. — ' It takes away.' 

An abridged expression of the principle that the Zoroastrian 
religion has an atonement for every crime, and that it takes away 
his sin from the man who confesses and expiates it (see Vd. Ill, 
41 seq.) 

pari kavahmarf nered. — ' Away from any man.' 
ndid marSm pairirtem. — . . . ? 
vanghave" manangh£. — ' To Vohu Man6.' 
tuiryanSm dahyunSm. — ' Of the Turanian nations.' 

' Gd-gushnasp said : " In every religion there are righteous 
men, as appears from the passage — Of the Turanian 
nations ; " ' (that is to say, from the passage : * We worship 
the Fravashis of the holy men of the Turanian nations ; ' 
Yt XIII, 143). 

VENDtDAD IV, I. 

yad na kasvik3m£ina. — ' The man who [entreated 
by one of the faithful,] does not [give him] anything, 
be it ever so little,' [of the riches he has treasured 
up] (quoted from Vd. XVIII, 34). 

yavad va a£t£ vaia framrvana magthemnahg Av&i 
pairi gairvay&ti. 

' While he pronounces these words : " as long as 
he keep in his house (his neighbour's property), as 
though it were his own"' (Vd. IV, 1). 



VendJdAd IV, 10. 

nava dru^aiti khshathra£iby6. 

'The Mihir-druf (the man who does not keep 
his word) does harm ; nava dru^aiti khshathra&byd 
(khshdithra£iby6 ?).' 

That is to say, the evil consequences of his perjury extend to 
nine cities around; he ruins his own city and the neighbouring 
ones (cf. Mihir Yart, 18). 



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IV. ZEND FRAGMENTS. 267 

West proposes to translate khshathra6iby6 ' guardianships, hold- 
ings of property, sardtrih.' ' The breach of. promise subsists in 
one's offspring (zty&k, Ml*), nava dru^aiti khshathraeibyQ, "it 
deceives for nine holdings of property,"' that is to say, for nine 
generations. West observes this would agree with Neryosengh's 
definition of nabdnazdwta. It agrees also with the next quota- 
tion: 

nerebyd hd dSdrakhti. — [That sin] ' takes root in 
men.' 

' The sin of perjury subsists in the child born after the 
perjury : nerebyd h6 dadrakhti.' 

pairi aq^astard zl ahmad. — ' It becomes more 
violent than that (or thereby)/ 



Vend!dAd V, a, 4. 

dayata diitya pairirti (read pairixta). — ' Give law- 
ful, well-examined wood 1 .' 

vltasti-drAfd Mrithni-dra^o. — 'On a Vltasti all 
around [if the wood be dry], on a Fr&rathni all 
around [if it be wet].' — An abridged quotation from 
Vd. VII, 29. 

Vend!dAd V, 7. 
yezi vasen mazdayasna zam raodhayen. 
' If worshippers of Mazda want to till that piece 
of ground again ' (from Vd. VI, 6). 



On the text : ' When a man goes away, it is by the will of Fate 
he goes ' (Vd. V, 9), the Commentary observes : 

' The boon that has not been destined for a man never 
comes to him, as appears from the passage : 

1 Wood perfectly dry and ready for the fire ; cf. Vd. XIV, 2, 
note 4. 



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268 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

gairi masd anghd afitab.6. — . . . ? 

' The boon that has been destined for him conies to him 
through his own active merit : 

any6 eredv6-za«gd Avarend. — "Another man, of 
a steady leg 1 , [conquers] glory." 

* He loses it by his own fault * : 

aa*tf ^#arend frapiryeiti. — " He loses his Glory." 

' If evil has been destined for him, he can repel it through 
his own active merit : 

'[I see no way to kill Spitama Zarathurtra], "so 
great is the glory of the holy Zarathurtra" (Vd. 
XIX, 3). 

a£sham£a naram. — " Of these men . . ." ' 



VENdJdAd V, 19, 21. 

^aiti hewti urvaranam saredha. — ' How many sorts 

of plants are there ? ' 

anghvam da£nSm. — 'His soul and his religion 3 .' 



VENDED V, 34. 

' Let no man alone by himself carry a corpse ' 
(-Vd. Ill, 14). 

' [If the Nasu] has [already] been expelled' ( = Vd. 
VII, 30). 

VENDiDAD VI, 26. 

bard asp6 vaz6 ras6. — bard applies to horse-riding, 
vazd applies to chariot-driving. 

1 A sign of strength and agility (Yasna LXII, 5 ; Yt. X, 61). 

* Like Gim or Kaus; see above, p. 262. 

* His life, the whole of his actions, judged from the religious 
point of view. 



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IV. ZEND FRAGMENTS. 269 

VendIdAd VII, 43. 
bivakay£he\ 

This seems to be the name given in the Rat-dSt-tt Nask to two 
passages in the Vendfd&d on medical examinations and doctors' fees 
(Vd. VII, 36-40 ; 41-43), or to a passage in that Nask treating of 
the same subjects. 

stavand va puiti paidhi davaisnd va. — ? 



VendIdAd VII, 5a. 

§§ 53~54 m lne Vendidad SUda are composed of quotations 
in the Pahlavi Commentary in support of §§ 51, 52 : 'He who 
should pull down Dakhmas, even so much thereof as the size of 
his own body, his sins in thought, word, and deed are remitted as 
they would be by a Patet (paititem) ; his sins in thought, word, 
and deed are atoned for (uzvarrtem).' 

paititem u vaid-urvaitis u ya&£a (read yavad^a). — 
1 Patet and right of speech and for ever and ever 1 .' 

' Wherever the Avesta has paititem, or va£d-urvaitw, or 
ya££a(read yava&fca), it means that the margarzan sinner 
has a tanafuhr sin suppressed and a merit (karfak) of 
the same value substituted for it.' 

adhaia hewti paretd-tanunSm .yyaothnanam uzvar- 
stay6. — ' And these are the ways of undoing deeds 
that make one peshdtanu.' 

yatha^a dim^ana^SpitamaZarathuJtra yim viptem 
va. — ' And if he kill the sodomite, O Spitama Zara- 
thurtra ! ' (cf. p. 113, n. 4). 

' From this passage it appears that killing a sodomite is 
equal to paititem.' 

1 Paititem represents the formula, 'his sins in thought, word, 
and deed are remitted as they would be by a Patet.' — va*6-urvaiti* 
appears to stand for some formula meaning that the sinner is 
henceforth va£d-urvaitir, that is to say, his word recovers authority 
(cf. Afrtngan Gahanbar, VIII b).— ya&fca (read yavafi/ia) means that 
his sin is cancelled for ever. 



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27O FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

ya&£a dim gaxad Spitama Zarathurtra vehrkem 
yim biza»grem daGvayasnem peshd-tanve. — ' And he 
who should kill, O Spitama Zarathurtra! a two-footed 
wolf, a Daeva-worshipper, for a peshdtanu deed.' 

' From this passage it appears that killing an infidel 
(aner-6) is as much as yavae^a, that is to say, his sin is 
rooted out of him [for ever].' 

va^6-urvaitij. — ' The right of speech.' 

haithlm ashavana bavatem. — 'Both become mani- 
festly holy 1 .' 

vlspem tad paiti framarezaiti dumiatem£a. 

[The celebration of the Avesta office] 'cleanses 
the faithful from every evil thought,' [word, and 
deed] 2 . . . 

The following quotations refer to the balance of deeds, the rules 
of which are stated in the Anft VMf : 

' For every one whose good works are three Srdshd- 
£aranam more than his sin, goes to heaven ; they whose sin 
is more, go to hell ; they in whom both are equal, remain 
among these Hamestagan till the future existence V 

'G6-gushnasp says: during the sitdsh *, sin and merit 
are compared : 

yad h£ avaaf paourum ub/yaitG. — " If it outweighs 
so much . . ." 

' If sins outweigh the merits by three Sr6sh6-£aranam, [he 
shall stay] in hell till the day of resurrection : 

atare vanghaW vanaa?. — ? 

' If sins and merits are equal, [he shall stay] in the 
hamfistagan. 

1 Their salvation is assured. 

* Cf. Vd. Ill, 42. 

* ArrftVIrafVI, 9-11. 

* The sadis, or the three nights that follow death. 



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IV. ZEND FRAGMENTS. 27 1 

ham-yasaiti. — [The man in whom falsehood and 
purity] " meet equally" ( = Yasna XXXIII, i c). 

* If the merits outweigh the sins by three Srdsh6-£aranam, 
[he shall go] to the heavens : 

aiNhtfu atare vana*/. — ? 

' If he has offered up a sacrifice, his merits are above his 
sins by one tanafuhr, and he goes to the Gardthman : 

a£tah& thnasaaf afoishanguha. — ? 

' Afrag says : the words 

avavad&W yatha hv6 peresahe" 

show that more than one tanafuhr is needed. Some say 
four tanafuhrs are needed : 

y6 tuiryablf. — " Qui quartis." 
tishrSm khshapanSm. — [The tortures] "of the 
three nights '." ' 

VENdJdAd VII, 7a. 

y£zi aeshSm patard ishare-Jtaitya. — ' If their fathers 

at once . . .' 

The Pahlavi text is too corrupt for the connection between the 
quotation and the Zend text to be clear. 



VendIdAd VIII, 33, 74. 

yatha makhshyau perenem yatha va aperenahe\ — 

' As much as a fly's wing, or of a wingless . . .' (?) 

74. Burning a corpse is a capital crime. Is it allowable to burn 
the living ? 

' Gd-gushnasp said : If it is for punishment, it must be 
done 

yad ahmi (or hama) ava (avi) ndid aoshem nadhd 
saosuniayd. — " In such a way that death should not 
be produced by burning." ' 

1 Cf. Yt. XXII, 19-36; or Bundahir XXX, 16. 

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272 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

VendJdAd VIII, 80. 
The domestic fire smites the demons only at midnight; the 
Bahrain fire, if called by its name Bahrain (Varahran, victorious), 
smites them by thousands at every moment. That appears from the 
passage : 

aqfaiti. — ' He calls him . . .' 



VENDiDAD VIII, IO3. 

fravairi (r. frakairi) frakerenaoaf vastre" verezy6iW. 
— ' He may then sow and till the pasture fields' (cf. 
below, Vd. XIX, 41). 



VendJdAd IX, 32. 

nava vlbazva dra^6. — 'A space of nine Vlbazus 
square' (Vd. IX, 2). 

pa«£adasa zemd ha»kanayen. — ' Fifteen times 
shall they take up dust from the ground ' [for him 
to rub his body ; Vd. IX, 30J 

' If the man who is being cleansed does not perform the 
pa/z£adasa, the whole of the operation is null and void.' 



VendIdAd XII, 7. 

kainind hvaXb puthrem. — 'A young woman [who 
kills] her own child . . .' 

This is very likely a quotation, similar to Vd. XV, 10, which crept 
from the old Commentary to Vd. XII, now lost, into the Sada 
text. 

VENDiDAD XIII, 9. 

If a man kill a dog, the dogs that guard the Kinvad 
bridge will not help htm against the demons in his passage 
from this world to the next. 'Some mean thereby the 
divine keepers of the bridge, 

yayau asti anyd Rashnuf RazLstd. — " Of whom 
one is Rashnu Razista 1 ." ' 

1 See Yart XII. 



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IV. ZEND FRAGMENTS. 273 

VendJdAd XIII, 34. 
vaeibya naemaeibya. — ' By the two sides ' [of the 
collar they shall tie it; Vd. XIII, 30} 



VendJdAd XIII, 48. 
spanahe. — ' Of the dog-kind.' 



VendJdAd XV, jo. 

1 If an unmarried woman bear a child, without fault of 
her own, and a relation, to save her honour, acknowledges 
the child, and the members of the family acquiesce in it, 
from that time they shall protect her, 

avavata aq^angha yatha yzd pa«>£a nard. — " With 
as much energy as five men." ' 



VendIdAd XVIII, 1. 
' The paitidana or pad am 1 falls by two fingers below 
the mouth. That appears from the passage : 

bae-erezu-frathanghem. . . — " On a length of two 
fingers.'" 

VendIdAd XVIII, a. 
ba£-erezu ai ashaum Zarathurtra. — ' By two fingers, 
O holy Zarathurtra ! ' (see preceding fragment). 

'The serpent-killer (khrafstraghna, mar-kun) may be 
made of any substance ; leather is better, as appears from 
the passage : 

Vohu Manangha ^anaiti apem^iaf Angrd Mainyu.?. 
— " He repels Angra Mainyu with Vohu Man6 2 ." ' 

1 See above, p. 172, note 10. 

* Vohu Mand as the Amshaspand of cattle; see above, pp. 
215-216, note 6. 

[4] T 



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274 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

VENDED XVIII, 14. 

bardithrd-ta&sem. — ' His sharp-pointed weapon.' 

Said of Sraosha, 'who goes through the bright Zfoaniratha 
Karshvare, holding in his hands his sharp-pointed weapon ' (Yasna 
LVII, 31). 

hv\k 1 frashusaiti Sraoshd ashyd. — 'The pious, 
sovereign Sraosha advances' [over Arezahi and 
Savahi]. 

VendIdAd XVIII, 44- 
' As large as the top joint of the little finger ' (Vd. 
VI, 10). ' 

VendidAd XVIII, 70. 

The word afsmanivau * is interpreted : 

ynd a«tare veredhka mare^a (W. asma-re^a ; read 
sparest (?) = Persian siparz). — 'What is between 
the kidneys and the spleen.' 



VendIdAd XIX, 41. 
nazdbtadf daNhavd yaosdathryaof haia frakaire 
frakerenaorf vastre verezydW pasus-Av arethem gave 
^■arethem. — 'When he has been cleansed in the 
next inhabited place, he may then sow and till the 
pasture fields, as food for the sheep and food for 
the ox 3 .' 



1 Avt& is the Pazand transcription of khut&i, translating ihuirya. 

1 afsmanivau, entrails (?) ; see above, p. 207, note 2. 

* Quoted, in an abridged form, in Farg. VIII, 103, with reference 
to the unclean man who finds himself in the country, far from any 
inhabited place. 



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V. TAHMURAS" FRAGMENTS. 



These fifty-three Zend fragments, of which only ten were already 
known, are found in a sort of Pahlavi catechism of questions and 
answers, contained in a manuscript belonging to the well-known 
Pahlavi scholar, Tahmuras Dinshawji Anklesaria, at Bombay, who 
most kindly let me have a copy of the Zend texts. These texts are 
quotations introduced into the answers in support of the dogmatic 
statements contained in those replies ; and sometimes they are not 
given in full, but only announced by their first or some other 
typical words. We had not the whole of the treatise at hand, 
so that the circumstances of which the Zend quotations were 
explanatory are unknown. However, the Pahlavi translation which 
accompanies the Zend text, and which, in the cases when the 
quotation is abridged, is more complete than the fragment given, 
offers generally sufficient help for a correct understanding of the 
original. 

Tahmuras' manuscript is Irini (written in Persia) : it was finished 
on the 19th day (Farvardm) of the 8th month (Avan) of the year 
978 after the 20th year of Yazdgard, that is to say, in 1629, by 
Fr£dun Marzp&n. It was copied from his father's copy of a manu- 
script written by G6patsh4h Rustam, who himself transcribed from 
a manuscript by Kai Khosrav Syavakhsh, who lived in the last 
quarter of the fifteenth century. The text is sufficiently correct 
to allow of the task of translation, as most of the barbarous 
forms, in which it is not deficient, generally find their explanation 
in the Pahlavi translation. Though we have already published 
the text in our French translation of the Avesta, yet as it has not 
been hitherto incorporated in any general edition of the Avesta, 
we have thought it useful to have it reprinted here, for the use of 
those who have not access to the editio princeps. As to the 
Pahlavi translation, which was our principal and best guide in the 
interpretation of the text, we beg to refer to the Commentary in 
our French Avesta, where it is given in full. 



T 2 



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V. TAHMURAS' FRAGMENTS. 



V. 
i. Mazdau avaaf od ol vakhsha^ mananghau 
(Yasna XXXI, 6 c). 

VI. 

2. Fr6tai.r vtspab £anvatd frafra peretflm (Yasna 
XLVI, 10 e). 

VII. 

3. Vehrkai hizvSm adadhaiti y6 razrazdai (read 
azrazdai) mSthrem kistL 

VIII. 

4. Ma kis ad ve dregvatd mSthrS&fca g&rti sas- 
nausia (Yasna XXXI, 18 a). 

5. AzI demanem vlsem va shdithrem va dahyftm 
va idi^ (ibid., b). 

6. Duritali marekagia atha t* rtistak sazdQm 
snafithi^a (ibid., c). 



1 The missing paragraphs are those which contain no Zend 
quotations. 

* Mazda reigns in man when Good Thought (Vohu Mand) is 
predominant in him ; that is to say, he reigns in the righteous and 
through the righteous. 

8 ' All those whom I shall impel to address their prayers to you, 
O Ahura Mazda 1 ' that is to say, all those whom I shall win to 
Ahura's worship. 

4 'The AharmSk (the heretic): thereby the Aharmdk grows 
more violent in the world ' (Comm.) 



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V. TAHMURAS' FRAGMENTS. 



V. 

i. For Mazda reigns according as Vohu Man6 2 
waxeth (Yasna XXXI, 6 c). 

VI. 

2. For all of them 3 shall a path be opened across 
the K'vavad bridge (Yasna XLVI, 10 e). 

VII. 

3. He gives a tongue to the wolf 4 , who imparteth 
the Holy Word to the heretic 8 . 

VIII. 

4. Hearken not to the Law and the Doctrine in 
the mouth of the unrighteous * ; 

5. He would bring unto the house, the borough, 
the district, and the country 

6. Misfortune and death. Teach him with the 
thrust of the sword 7 ! (Yasna XXXI, 18). 

* A quotation from the Nt rangist&n, or rather Erpatistan ; see 
below, Nirang. § 17. 

* ' Hear not the A vesta and Zand (the Holy Scripture and its 
interpretation) from the mouth of the heretic ' (Comm.) 

7 The good old principle of king Saint-Louis : ' Nulz, se il 
n'est tres bon clers, ne doit disputer a aus (the Jews) ; mais li horn 
lays, quant il ot mesdire de la loy crestienne, ne doit pas deTendre 
la loy crestienne, ne mais de l'espe'e, de quoy i doit dormer parmi 
le ventre dedens, tant comme elle y peut entrer ' (Joinville). The 
word rust&k, in the text, must have been a Pahlavi gloss to the 
Avesta sh6ithrem in § 5. 



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278 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

IX. 

7. Pa6iry£h£ mith6hitah& thrl ma^sma" shaman 
ashama^; 

8. Bithy£h6 khshavash thrityehS nava t&iryShe 
thrl va azaiti sraosh6£aranaya artraya. 

X. 

9. Ndid marah& noid ^ahikayau ndid stin6 ndid 
hukhshathrah6 ndid daevayasn6 n6\d tanuperethah£. 

XI. 

10. Hishemnd vaaunghand va dathan6 vabarem- 
n6 va vazemnd va aiwyastd atha ratufm (Ntran- 
gistan, § 37). 

XII (Nirangistan, § 109). 

1 1. Vangharertasiid? maghnefitasiiaf sravay6i?, 

12. Ydzii isl& ndid isti ndid ashavanem ainishtis 
astarayeiti. 

XIII-XVI. 
XII I. — 13. Huma</ (read ahumaa?) ratuma^ valm- 
tem vao^ata Spetama Zarathurtra, 
14. Kemkid anghtfuy astvatd a6i. 



1 It is not likely that a ' false word ' means here a ' lie ; ' it means 
more probably a verbal mistake in the recitation or study of the 
A vesta text, which, when accidental, is atoned for by g6m£z ; but 
when repeated, through want of attention, is punished with the 
Sraoshd-Aarana. 

* The same as g6mez or nfrang-din. 

* As long as he wears the Kosti and Sadere (Vd. XVIII, 54). 
4 § 10 = Nlrangistdn 37. 

* 'Even if he wear not the Kosti and Sadere, even if stark 



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V. TAHMURAS FRAGMENTS. 279 

IX. 

7. At the first false word 1 he shall drink three 
sips of mafisma 2 ; 

8. At the second, six ; at the third, nine ; at the 
fourth he shall be smitten with three strokes of 
the Sraosh6-^arana or Artra. 

X. 

9. Neither of a snake, nor of a whore, nor of 
a hound, nor of a wild boar, nor of a Daeva-wor- 
shipper, nor of a Perdtanu. 

XI. 

10. Standing, or sitting, or lying down, riding or 
driving, so as he wears the girdle 3 , he has gratified 
the Lord 4 . 

XII. 

11. Even uncovered and naked he will chant, 

12. If he have the means 8 . If he have no means, 
his poverty shall not be counted for unrighteousness 
to the godly e . 

XIII-XVI. 

XIII. — 13. Declare that the most excellent of all 
things, O Spitama Zarathu^tra ! is to have an Ahu 
and a Ratu 7 , 

14. For every man of this world here below. 

naked, he will chant (that is, he will celebrate the festivity), if he can ' 
(Comm.) 

• §§ 11-12 = Nfrangistan 109. 

* There is no well-ordered society that does not rest upon the 
authority of the prince and the priest, the temporal Lord (ahu = 
khutai) and the spiritual Lord (ratu = magupat, dastdbar). — 
Sometimes the ratu is also called ahu. — Cf. §§ 72-74. 



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280 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

15. Mare#tem vereza»tem sikhshewtem sa£aya*- 
tem paiteshe»tem ga£thaby6 astvadtibyd ashah.6. 

XIV. — 16. Anaungh6 aratv6 aiutem ; 

17. Du^ranghavd. 

XV. — 18. N&id zt kis asra6shyanam tanunStn 
ashahe urva iithiai vidaiti. 

19. Ndidf kayadhem hawdaraite. 

XVI. — 20. Zad (read yaaf?) daSnayou mazda- 
yasn6iV sravo. 

21. Sravaydw stadta yGsnya. 

XVII. 

22. Ma zt ahmi nman£ mi aNh.6 vise ma ahmi 
za»tav6 ma aNhe daNhv6 frlm vaoiata m2m yim 
Ahurem MazdSm, 

23. Yatha m£ nb\d atarc AhurahG Mazdau fry6 
anghaaf na&t ashava frayd-humatd fray6-hukhtd 
frayd-hvamd. 

XVIII. 

24. Tanu-mazd ashayaiti y6 tanu-maz6 blraosha^ 
(read draosha^). 

25. Tanu-mazd zi a.&ty%mk\d ashaySm pfrd (read 
pafrd). 

26. You ntid yava mitho mamn& nt\d mithd 
vavaia nb\d vavareza. 

XIX. 

27. A£ibyd yd id atha verezyan yatha id astl 
(YasnaXXXV, 6; Sp. 18). 



1 'For the man who has no guide, being unable to do good 
works according to the advice of his Dastdbar, cannot redeem his 
soul with his holiness ; that is to say, cannot undo his evil deeds 
with good deeds ' (Comm.) Cf. $§ 24-26. 

* §§ 22-2 3 =:§§ 85-86. 



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V. TAHMURAS' FRAGMENTS. 28 1 

1 5. (An Ahu and a Ratu) studious and communi- 
cant, learning and teaching, loving with a love for 
ever renewed, in the bodily world of Righteousness. 

XIV. — 16. (Declare) that the worst of all evils is 
to have no Ahu and no Ratu ; 

1 7. Or to have an evil Ahu. 

XV. — 18. For the soul of them who have no 
guide ' can never offer up a merit to expiate a sin. 

19 XVI. 20, 21 ? 

XVII. 
22 2 . Say not they treat me friendly, me, Ahura 
Mazda, in the house, in the borough, in the district, 
in the country, 

23. Where they treat not friendly the Fire of me, 
Ahura Mazda, and the holy man, rich in good 
thoughts, rich in good words, rich in good deeds s . 

XVIII. 

24. He must accomplish an act of merit of the 
value of a tanu-mazd 4 , he who hath committed a 
falsehood of the value of a tanu-mazd. 

25. For he layeth up the merit of a tanu-maz6, 

26. While he never sinneth a sin of a tanu-mazd, 
in false thoughts, in false words, in false deeds. 

XIX. 
27 8 V [That which a man or a woman knoweth 
clearly to be right, let him or her declare as he 
knoweth it, let him enact it, let him teach it] 

' Cf. Sr6sh Yart 14. 

4 Tanu-mazd, lit. ' of the value of a tanu-peretha,' means a deed 
evil or good, which deserves or redeems a tanu-peretha (tanafuhr) 
penalty (200 strokes with the Sraoshd-£arana). 

• §§ i7-28=Yasna XXXV, 6-7. 



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282 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

28. Ahura zl ad vt Mazdau yasnemia vahmem&i 
vahi-rtem (ibid. 7 ; Sp. 19, 20). 

XX. 

29. I ma &/ukhdha va/fau Ahura Mazdau ashem 
manyau vahyau fravadiamau (Yasna XXXV, 9; 
Sp. 24). 

30. ThwSm ad aesham paityastarem&L fradaluta- 
rem£a dademaid£ (ibid. 9 ; Sp. 25). 

31. [Asha] asha adtea [read ashaaa'&l] haH vang- 
hfu&£a mananghd vanghai.sv£a khshathra^ (ibid. 10 ; 
Sp. 26). 

XXI. 

32. Niwyeiti zt SpetamaZarathurtra atarc Ahurahe 
Mazdau ha£a yashtibyd aiwy6. 

33. MSnayen ah£ yatha na snaithw asne nigh- 
matem paiti-vaendiaf, 

34. Ishum va arshtim va fradakhshtanSm va avad 
paiti papayamn6, 

35. Vidva avad hava khrathwa yezi ma hau na 
ava snaithw a6i ava asnavad vl mSm urvaesayarf 
asta£a urtanaia. 

XXII. 

36. Yas^a me taymisia hazaht^a vlvapaus^a vtva- 
rau&fet draq£ind-baretou&£a zadthrou frabara^, 



1 §§ 29-31= Yasna XXXV, 9-10. 

* The whole of the sacred words, ' the Religion of Auhrmazd ' 
(Comm.) 

* ' From thee of all the Amshaspands we receive most' (know- 
ledge and truth) (Comm.) 

4 Ahura is the best and most demonstrative teacher ; (cf. Yasna 
LI.3C). 
1 The first three Amesha Speirtas. 



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V. TAHMURAS* FRAGMENTS. 283 

To others who shall perform it in their turn, even 
as he or she hath declared it 

28. Now, that which we consider as the best of 
all things, O Ahura Mazda ! is prayer and sacrifice 
offered to Ahura Mazda. 

XX. 
29 l . And these words 8 , O Ahura Mazda ! we utter 
with the perfect intention of holiness. 

30. And amongst them (the Amesha Spe»tas), 
we look chiefly unto thee, to grant unto us 3 and to 
instruct us 4 ; 

31. For more than Asha, more than Vohu Mand, 
more than the righteous Khshathra * [thy glorifica- 
tion is above all glorification . .]. 

XXI. 

32. For, O Spitama Zarathurtra! the fire of Ahura 
Mazda trembles in front of boiling water • ; 

33. Like a man who seeth a weapon which comes 
nigh him, 

34. Or an arrow or lance, or a stone from a sling, 
and who avoideth the blow, 

35. Saying to himself: ' If that man strike me with 
his weapon, my body and soul will part asunder.' 

XXII. 

36. And he who offers me the libations of a thief 7 , 
or a robber, or a ravisher, ... or libations offered 
by a liar, 



' For fear of its boiling over. If it does so and extinguishes 
the fire, the person in charge is guilty of a tanu-peretha sin 
(Saddar XLVIII). 

7 The priest who oners me libations for a thief. 



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284 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

' 37. Dizad zt mSm avavata dakhsha y tha ana 
mashyaka angrahe" mainyaw astlsvfca. 

XXIII. 

38. Steren6iti ana avava starem aina yatha narem 
ashavanem dus&a zaretem uparaaf naemaaf nasus a6i 
ava thravid'. 

39. Na&6a pasiadta had na ahmad? haia gatao*/ 
isa£ta frashutdid? ndid apashutdiaf thraySm £ina ga- 
manam. 

XXIV. 

40. A£vaya£i</ a6smd-bereit£ a£vaya£u/ baresmd- 
stereiti, 

41. Barezyd ashava zarahe" his drug-em. 

42. Fradhaiti ashem 

43. Vispem ashavanem vahistem 4 ahum a 
baraiti 

44. (cf. § 74) Shitem dadaiti urvanem ashaond 
iriritanahS. 

XXV, XXVI. 

XXV. — 45. Hau6a ithra Spitama Zarathurtra 
takhmanSm taniistd paiti-^asaaf y6 a£ta hbkyata his- 
kyanadtemem paiti-^asiflf, 

46. Arem maiti mata mamnd arem mukhti (read 
ukhti) khukhti (read hukhti) arem vawti hvarcrta. 

1 ' A man burning with fever ' (which is a fire sent by Ahriman). 

* This fragment, which refers to the same subject as fragment 
XXI, is quoted in an abridged form in the Pahlavi Vendfd&d III, 
14 (see Fragments to the Vendtdad), to show that throwing hehr 
(water soiled) into water or fire is as bad as casting nasa (dead 
matter) on one of the faithful. 

8 The old man defiled with the Nasu. 

* As he cannot venture into contact with the faithful till he has 
been purified (cf. Vd. VIII, 35 sq.) 

* It looks as if the five quotations of which this fragment is 



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V. TAHMURAS* FRAGMENTS. 285 

37. He burnetii me with the same burning that 
burneth a man possessed by Angra Mainyu '. 

XXIII 2 . 

38. And he sins towards the Fire the same sin as 
if he cast the Nasu upon a righteous man bowed 
down with age ; 

39. And thenceforth from that place, such a one s 
shall not go three steps forwards nor three steps 
backwards *. 

XXIV a . 

40. For a single gift of wood, for a single offering 
of Baresman, 

41. The Righteous is exalted and the Druf is 
weakened. 

42. For by such things waxeth the Asha 6 , 

43. And every Righteous man is borne up to 
Paradise, 

44. And joy is given to the soul of the Righteous 
man who has departed 7 . 

XXV, XXVI 8 . 

XXV. — 45. Such a one, O Spitama Zarathustra ! 
shall arrive there as the strongest of the strong, 
who here below most powerfully impelleth the 
righteous unto good works, 

46. To think perfect thoughts, speak perfect 
words, and do perfect deeds. 

composed did not form a continuous sentence. Only the last three 
seem to form a coherent whole. 

* The Pahlavi translation adds here : ' waxeth the flock, waxeth 
the fire,' as if the Zend text were incomplete. Cf. Vd. HI, 3. 

7 Cf. § 74. 

* The general meaning of these two fragments is that the man 
who impels his brethren to do good will enter Paradise. 



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286 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

XXVI. — 47. Hau aithra (read ithra) Spetama 
Zarathurtra ukhdhd-vaiSm ukhdhd-va£astem6 paiti- 
g&s&d drughim^a drivlm&t arathwyd-berete" baremne' 

48. Hv5m k\d ahmi hvSm kid khshathre avadf 
kbistoi. 

49. Ye^he" vaiangh6 nemanghd spnathrem (read 
khshnaothrem). 

50. Ahishti (read akhshti) sahethrem (read sakh- 
ethrem). 

51. Armait£ daredirem. 

52. Fraraiti vlidlm. 

53. Ainitw a&6 vah* (read vakh$). 

XXVII. 

54. Kaaf t£ asti AhunahG vairy6h6 haithim ? 

55. Paiti-^6 ukhta Ahurd Mazdau man6 ba vohu 
Zarathartra adf adyemnem arfadyamnad? khrataoaf; 

56. Zazuxu vtspae\ru vanghiwd zazusu vispae\m 
ash6-&thrae\m. 



1 There above, in the heavens. 

* ' That is to say, he has made much ^atakgdbf h (^adangSi) 
for the sake of the poor, men and women' (Comm.) Making 
g adangfii is collecting money for the poor, or for any pious work. 
If a man come to me and say, ' I have no work to do, give me 
work,' and I apply to somebody else who gives him work, I have 
done^adangdi, and the merit is the same as if I had given it myself 
(Saddar XXII). 

* In his sphere of influence. 

4 The celebrated Dastur under Shahpuhr II, the last editor of the 
Avesta : cf. General Introduction. 

* A treatise lost, in Pahlavi. 

* The five following disconnected lines are abridged Zend quota- 
tions, answering to the five terms of Aturpat's phrase, and refer 
each to one of the five virtues that are recommended. 



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V. TAHMURAS* FRAGMENTS. 287 

XXVI. — 47. Such a one, O Spitama Zarathiutra I 
shall arrive there 1 as the best of intercessors, who 
here below intercedeth for the poor man and the 
poor woman in their distress 2 ; 

48. Who doeth it himself and teaches it to others 
in his kingdom 8 . 

The blessed Aturpat, son of Mahraspand 4 , in his In- 
struction to a disciple', says : ' Be a man of prayer ; a 
man of peace, a man of perfect piety, a man of liberality, 
and without rancour. These are the virtues one must 
acquire, as it is said in the Scriptures : 

49*. . . . whose words of prayer rejoice [the gods] 7 . 

50. Teaching in peace 8 . 

51. In perfect piety keeping (Religion) 9 . 

52. Science in giving 10 . 

53. His word is without rancour ".' 

XXVII. 

54. In what fashion is manifest thy Ahuna 
Vairya " ? 

55. Ahura Mazda made answer: By Good 
Thought in perfect unity with Reason, O Zara- 
thu^tra ! 

56. Taking all good things, taking all that is the 
offspring of the Good Principle ". 



7 Answering to the words, ' man of prayer,' in Atflrpat's sentence. 

* Answering to the words, ' man of peace.' 

* Answering to the words, ' man of perfect piety.' Cf. Vp. II, 5 
(Sp. 10). 

10 Answering to the words, ' man of liberality.' 

11 Answering to the words, ' and without rancour.' 

" The Zoroastrian prayer tear' i£oxn* (Vd. VIII, 19, note 2). The 
question amounts to : ' How does it become clear that a man is 
devoted to religion ? ' (Comm.) 

18 Doubtful. 



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288 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

XXVIII. 

57. Mananghas£a ahumaiti (readhumaiti)hizvas£a 
hfikhta zastayasia varrti arathwy6-vawti (read rath- 
wy6-varrti). 

58. Nazdy6 ahmi Zarathastra azem yd Ahurd 
Mazdau vlspahe" anghaw astvatd mamanaus^a 
vaias^a shdthna^a, 

59. Yatha aungha (read naungha) haia gaaya£iby6 
yatha va gacwa ha£a thranghiby6. 

XXIX. 

60. (JaradLr hadnem (read haoraem) Zarathastra 
bisaremia thresarem^a yatha thresarem nitemem. 

XXX, XXXI. 

XXX. — 61. Vlspaeia awtare ashem upa haush- 
tuayau, 

62. Fraore</ frakhni (read frakhshni) a6i man6 
zarazdatdi^ anghuya^ ha£a. 

XXXI. — 63. Vispau a«tare vyanfo. 

XXXII. 

64. Y£iti kdXika. Spetama Zarathurtra dahmd ash- 
ava haurvt rattle datha^, 

65. Ad kid dim aiwyaiti ya dahma vanghi afritLr 
urtrahe kehrpa aghry£h£ aghryd madhi-mastemah£. 

1 This fragment belonged to the Rat-dat-f t Nask, which treated 
of ' the proximity of Auhrmazd to the thoughts, words, and deeds 
of the material world ' (Dtnkart VIII, viii, 4). 

* The Qur'An (4, 15) has a formula which strangely reminds one 
of this sentence : ' But we created man, and we know what his 
soul whispers ; for we are nigher to him than his jugular vein.' 

' ' At the third time, take least. The Dastflrs have said : each 
time take three-fifths ' (of what there is). This refers very likely to 
the tasting of Haoma in the Haoma sacrifice (Yasna XI, 11). 



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V. TAHMURAS* FRAGMENTS. 289 

XXVIII. 

57. Of the mind, good thoughts ; of the tongue, 
good words ; of the hand, good works, make the 
virtuous life. 

58 *. I, Ahura Mazda, am closer, O Zarathustra ! to 
that which all the bodily world thinketh, speaketh, 
and worketh, 

59. Than the nose is to the ears, or than the ears 

are to the mouth 2 . 

XXIX. 

60. Take of the Haoma, O Zarathustra ! twice or 
thrice ; but the third time be sparing 3 . 

XXX, XXXI*. 

XXX. — 61. In the interval 8 , nothing but fair 
recitations of the Ashem Vohu 6 , 

62. Done with a fervent conviction and a devoted 
soul ; 

XXXI. — 63. And in the interval do nothing but 

look on 7 . 

XXXII, XXXIII. 

XXXII. — 64. Each time,OSpitama Zarathustra ! 
that the righteous, the godly man offers the sacrifice 
complete ; 

65. Then cometh unto him the good, godly 
Afriti 8 , in the shape of a camel of price, in full heat 9 . 

4 These two fragments seem to refer to the plucking of the 
Baresma twigs. 

* While the different twigs are plucked. Cf. Vd. XIX, 18. 

* A prayer, next in holiness to the Ahuna Vairya. See its trans- 
lation, Vd. XIX, 2t. 7 Cf. Vd. XIX, 19; Ntr. 97 seq. 

8 The Afrin Dahman, a prayer of blessing on the house of the 
faithful (cf. Yasna LX). 

* The camel in heat is strongest (Yt. XIV, 12 seq.) and therefore 
the best symbol of the strength that the Afrfn Dahman brings with 
it. Cf. Dinkart IX, 22, a. 

[4] V 



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290 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

XXXIII.— 66. N6id 1£ akm&d dr4f6y&tlm fram- 
radmi Spetama Zarathurtra yam dahmam vanghlm 
afrftim, 

67. Yunad 1 haia hahi humananghadf hva&tnghau/ 
hushyauthna^ hudadna//, 

68. Yatha pa6urv6 a£v6 savd a£vd armd rangham 
ava nay£i#tlm savavau ded (or bed) Ms ait6. 

XXXIV. 

69. Ka</t£ razar£ kaaf zt Mazda (Yasna XXXIV, 
12 a). 

70. Aaf mdi a^ ratam ukhdhahyaia sradshem 
khshathremia (Yasna XXXIII, 14). 

71. Para te gadsp«u»ta gadhudau ba6dhas£a urva- 
nemia fra£shyamah£ nazdixta upa thwarerta raoitfu 
nary iashmanau sukem. 

XXXV. 

72. Ashai vahLrtai yad huferethwem da*t6-ratd, 

73. Berezaaf-varezi hadmananghem, 

74. Yad irlrithan£ ashaond shatem dathaiti urva- 
nem. 

XXXVI. 

75. Avis&a. nan arctare hentb nema^z/adtty lithrau 
ratay6 (Yasna XXXIII, 7 c)! 

76. T011 avi* yau. ratayd a/ttare amesh^sa spe»te 
saoshya#tas/£a ; 



1 Yasna XXXIV, 1 2 a, ' A query of Zartusbt, asking for wisdom ' 
(Comm.) 

* Ahura is supposed to speak of Zarathrotra. The quotation is 
altered from Yasna XXXIII, 14. 

* The primeval Bull. Gaush aevddata (Vd. XXI, 1). 

* His soul, after his death, was sent to Heaven as Giush urvan 
(Goshurun), the deity that takes care of domestic animals. 



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V. TAHMURAS FRAGMENTS. 29 1 

XXXIII. — 66. I declare unto thee, O Spitama 
Zarathurtra ! the holy Benediction of the Righteous 
shall not fail (?) thee more, 

67. O youth of good thoughts, of good words, of 
good works, and the good Religion, 

68. Than ? 

XXXIV. 

69. How hast thou ordained things ? How, O 
Mazda J ! 

70. To me he gives obedience to and ruling 
through the holy Word s . 

71. Thy sense and thy soul, O Bull beneficent 8 ! 
giver of good things, we send towards the heavenly 
luminaries 4 and thy sight within the eyes of man 6 . 

XXXV. 

72. Asha Vahirta giveth a good passage to 
whoso hath a spiritual Master 6 , 

73. For his noble deeds and for his virtuous 
thoughts, 

74. And he giveth joy to the soul of the righteous 
man that has departed 7 . 

XXXVI. 

75. Grant that the gifts we pray for appear be- 
fore us • ! 

76. The gifts manifest between the Amesha 
Spe«tas and the Saoshya«ts • ; 

• Doubtful. « Cf. §§ 13-19. 

7 Cf. § 44. • Yasna XXXIII, 7 c. 

' This seems to mean : the gifts which the Amesha Spentas 
reserve for the Saoshyants (the great saints). 

U 2 



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292 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

77. Fraraittafa vldflshaus&i a»tare /iv&da&nau 
ashaonfr. 

XXXVII, XXXVIII. 

XXXVII. — 78. had yd aetahmi anghvd ya^as- 
tava»ti Spetama Zarathartra upairi hunarem mand 
bararf, 

79. Vlspem astern paiti zrvanem astarem urva 
ka^ayaa?. 

XXXVIII.— 80. Aad yad he manahe paiti baraflf, 

81. had yad he manahi paiti avabaraite, 

82. Pasiaeta azem yd Ahurd Mazdau adi urune 
urvasma daesayeni, 

83. Vahirtem&i ah&m anaghra^a rabkau afrasang- 
han^a ^z/athra, 

84. Vispa yhmka iwtatas ya nars sadra dregvatd. 
85,86 = 22, 23. 

XXXIX. 

87. Para me aetahmi anghvd yad astvaiwti Speta- 
ma Zarathartra t\ir\sk\d vahbta anghS astvaite visata : 

88. Manama yasnem yad Ahurahe Mazdau athra- 
ska Ahurahe Mazdau yasnem^a vahmem^a huberei- 
tim^a urta-bereitlrrwfca vawta-bereitlm^a ; 

89. Narcia ashaond khshnuitlmia a reitlm^a v> 4- 
dasia paiti paitizai»tya&6a fray6-humatah£ fray6- 
hflkhtahe frayd-hvareshtahe. 

1 Mutual Charity due from and to Mazdeans. 

4 Literally, ' his soul carries sin.' * I will give bliss to his soul. 

• No man absolutely deserves bliss. Cf. Yasna LXII, 6 : ' O 
Fire, son of Ahura Mazda ! give me, however unworthy I am, now 
and for ever, the bright, all-happy Paradise of the righteous.' 

• ' The righteous are rewarded, while the wicked are punished ' 
(Comm. ad Visparad XVIII, 2). The line is from Yasna XLV, 7. 

• The three best things in the world are respect shown to Ahura, 
respect shown to the fire, and respect shown to the righteous. 



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V. TAHMURAS FRAGMENTS. 293 

77. The holy liberality and bounteousness that 
reign between brethren in the Faith '. 

XXXVII, XXXVIII. 

XXXVII. — 78. He who in this bodily world, 
O Spitama Zarathiutra ! deemeth overweening well 
of his own merit, 

79. All the time that he doeth this, his soul be- 
comes burdened with sin 2 . 

XXXVIII.— 80. But if he deemeth justly of his 
own merit, 

81. Or if he rate it lower than the truth, 

82. Then I, the Maker Ahura Mazda, will make 
his soul see Joy 3 , 

83. And Paradise, boundless Light, undeserved 
felicity 4 , 

84. And Happiness eternal, while the wicked is 
in pain *. 

85. 86 = 22,23. 

XXXIX. 

87. As for me in this bodily world, O Spitama 
Zarathurtra ! the three best things of the world are * : 

88. The sacrifice offered to me, Ahura Mazda ; 
the sacrifice and prayer, the bounteous free offering, 
the free offering of pleasure 7 , the free offering of 
assistance 8 made unto the fire of Ahura Mazda ; 

89. And the pleasure, the graciousness, the gifts, 
the deference shown unto the righteous, rich in good 
thoughts, rich in good words, rich in good works. • 

7 The offering that rejoices the fire (that increases the brightness 
and gaiety of its light and its sound). 

* The offering that feeds him and makes him stronger. 

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294 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

XL, XLI. 

XL. — 90. Maia t6 ithra Spetama Zarathurtra ast- 
vatahd anghtfuydidrezvd ptsa manahtm paiti ra&duLra. 

XLI. — 91. Ydzl Spetama Zarathuytra astvahean- 
gheus didrezvo ptsa mananghtm ahfim paiti erenairti, 

92. Ndid he gaur bvad ndid ashem ndid 
raoio ndid vahlstd anghu^ y6 mana ya.d Ahurah.6 
Mazdau. 

93. BvaafvlspanSrn asha-iithranam padishertem^a 
yaa? eregha</ daozanghum. 

XLII. 

94. Yava</ nA asha vaiaiti (read vawdaiti ?) Spe- 
tama Zarathurtra vlspa tarswh. khshudraia vnaiti 
(read vawdaiti) anamasnaia vanghunaia thrayanaia. 

XLIII. 

95. Ndirfnmand-bakhtem ndid vlspe-bakhtera noid 
zaatu-bakhtem ndid daNhu-bakhtem ; 

96. Ndid framantm brathranam aztzurtg ; 

97. Ndid ast6 htartlm (read hutarttm) ndid tanvd 
huradtm (read huraoidhtm). 

98. Tad? zt ashava Zarathurtra £inma kahy&kid 
anghiuf astvat6 y6 ashahfi iinma vastem6 anghad. 

XLIV. 

99. Ndid nA aetahmi anghv6 yad astvawti Spe«- 

1 ' To get treasures of gold and silver ' (Comm.) 

* The other world, Paradise. 

* He will not see Goshurun, who sits in the sphere of the sun 
(Bundahu IV). 

4 He will not see Asha Vahishta (Ardibahisht), who is both the 
second Amshaspand and the impersonation of holiness and subse- 
quent bliss. 

* Asha, righteousness, obtains everything ; that is to say, that 
all the good things of the world are a reward that attends piety. 



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V. TAHMURAS FRAGMENTS. 295 

■ _ 

XL, XLI. 

XL. — 90. To obtain the treasures of the material 
world 1 , Spitama Zarathuftra ! forego not the world 
of the Spirit 2 . 

XLI. — 91. For he who, O Spitama Zarathuttra! 
to obtain the treasures of the material world de- 
stroyeth the world of the Spirit, 

92. Such a one shall possess neither the Bull 8 , 
nor Asha*, neither the Celestial Light, nor the 
Paradise of me, Ahura Mazda. 

93. But he shall possess the filthiest of all things, 
horrible Hell. 

XLII. 

94. All these things Asha obtaineth *, O Spitama 
Zarathurtra ! it obtaineth everything good, corn and 
drinks, ever so great, so good, so goodly. 

XLIII. 

95. One cannot have for the wishing the power of 
head of the house, head of the borough, head of the 
district, head of the province • ; 

96. Neither authority over brethren 7 ; 

97. Neither a well set up frame and a lofty stature •. 

98. But there is one thing that every man in this 

world below may love, O Spitama Zarathastra ! he 

may love Virtue. 

XLIV. 

99. [But] * at present in this world below, O Spi- 

* This is a privilege the possession of which does not depend on 
our free will, as it depends on heredity or the will of the prince. 

1 This depends on age. 

* This depends on nature's caprice. 

* We add ' but' on the assumption that this fragment is the con- 
tinuation of the preceding. 



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296 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

tama Zarathimra a6vd n6id dva n6\d thrayd n&id 
frayanghd ashahS. 

100. Ndid ashayau {r&senti yd ntid drighd* ashd- 
aflcae\rah6 avangha&£a thrathrah&£a (read thrathran- 
gha&fca) pestfu#td (read peresaimte). 

XLV. 

1 01. Padurw darena (read karena) apaa&ta afra- 
k\kis hdi urun6 afravad^ly hava hizva, 

102. Yd nt'xd mSthraaf spe«tau. 

XLVI-XLIX. 

XLVI. — 103. Ndiaf hau surd Zarathurtra ndi^ 
asha surd. 

XLVI I. — 104. N6t</ hau tahmd yd ndiaf ash- 
tahm6. 

XLVI 1 1. — 105. Ndutf hiu as vaozd Zarathustra 
nbid ahmikd vashata, 

106. Y6 ntxd ashahd valmtahS bere^i framare- 
tahd maymi vaoz£. 

XLIX. — 107. Yd nt\d narem ashavanem ^pahva 
athahva jase#tem kh.mad.yta va kh.mavay£itd va. 

108. Tae^a Spitama Zarathiutra angh*uy vahi.?- 
tahd £ithr£ paityau»t6, 

109. Y6i angh£ nerebyd ashavabyd ayaptd-date- 
mas^a asperezd-datemasia. 

L. 

1 10. Hd dadhd ashem upa raodhayditd yd drvaite 
dadhaitS. 

in. Gathwdw \a.$k\d vana : 

1 There are many truths which can be conceived or expressed 
only through Revelation. 

1 ' He has promoted nothing good ' (Comm.) 



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V. TAHMURAS FRAGMENTS. 297 

tama Zarathurtra ! there is not one just man, not 
two, nor three, nor several. 

100. They seek not after righteousness, they seek 
not to succour and maintain the poor follower of the 
Holy Law. ^ 

101. There be many works of wisdom which the 
soul may not conceive nor the tongue declare, 

102. Without the Holy Word 1 . 

XLVI-XLIX. 

XLVI. — 103. He is not mighty, O Zarathurtra ! 
who is not mighty in righteousness. 

XLVII. — 104. He is not strong, who is not 
strong in righteousness. 

XLVI 1 1. — 105. He has promoted nought 2 , O 
Zarathuitra ! and he shall promote nought, 

106. Who does not promote 'the laws of perfect 
holiness, pondered in his heart 8 ; 

XLIX. — 107. Who hath not rejoiced, who re- 
joiceth not the righteous man who cometh within 
his gates 4 . 

108. For they, O Spitama Zarathuytra ! shall be- 
hold the Paradise, 

109. Who are most bounteous to the righteous 
and least vex their souls. 

L. 
no. He who giveth to the Ungodly harmeth 
Asha 6 . 

111. Even as it is written in the Gatha : 

" ' Who does not undertake to promote religion and good deeds 
as he ought ' (Comm.) 
4 Lit. ' on his property.' 
° He does harm to virtue, or to the Genius of virtue. 



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298 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

112. Hvd zl drvau ye drvait6 vahirtd (Yasna 
XLVI, 6c). 

LI. 

113. Ashem vohO. vahlytem ast!. 

LI I. 

114. Ash&d kid haia vangheus dazda. 

LIII. 

115. Apasia dad urvar«us£a vanght* (Yasna 
XXXVII, 1). 

LIV. 

116. Yaof£idf dim dava datdis uzritLy, 

1 1 7. N6id a6tah£ uzaren6 na&fe var6 avavaitS. 

LVI. 

1 18. Ndid h6 tahmd anavahlm gayad 

1 19. N6id adhaitj fraraithyanSm urvufy&ti 

120. Taunghr6 daregha data ashaond Zarathvu- 
traht 

LVI I. 

121. Vlsaiti ainyd usy6 ndid ainy6 evlsemnd 
astrya6it6. 

122. Ava vaSsa&e na£ta kid astry&t6. 

LVIII. 

123. 124. Daresa na pairyaokhta^a uzurtanau 
adarey6it6 nyttt urtanavaitfa (124) vlspau fraru- 
maitfr. 

1 Yasna XLVI, 6 c (G£tha urtavahi). 

* First line of the Ashem vohu. 

* From the Ahuna vairya (see the whole of the prayer, Vd. 
VIII, 19). 

* Yasna XXXVII, 1. 

' The var, the ordeal, of which there were thirty-three. The 
most usual was the one which Adarbad Mahraspand underwent 



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V. TAHMURAS FRAGMENTS. 299 

112.' He is unrighteous who is good to the un- 
righteous V 
g LI. 

113. Holiness is the best of all good 2 . 

LII. 

1 14. [The wish of the Lord is the rule] of Holi- 
ness. 

The gifts of Vohu Mand . . . s . 

LIII. 

115. He has made the good waters and the good 
plants 4 . 

LIV. 

116. And though he may bribe the judge with 
presents, 

117. He cannot bribe the ordeal 8 and escape it. 

LVI. 
1 18-120 ? 

LVI I •. 

121. If the one accept and not the other, he who 
refuseth is in fault. 

1 22. If both accept, there is no fault. 

LVI 1 1. 

123. 124. With glance and with speech, a man 
superintendeth his worldly wealth, inanimate and 
animate, goods and chattels 7 . 

successfully, when he confounded the heretics and manifested the 
orthodox doctrine by having molten metal poured upon his breast. 
* This fragment seems to refer to the proposal made by one of 
the litigants to have recourse to an ordeal (cf. Fragments in the 
Farhang, 15). 

. 7 He superintends his inanimate property with his look, and his 
animate property with speech. 



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VI. 
THE ERPATISTAN AND NlRANGISTAN. 



Of all the lost Nasks, the one of which the largest fragments 
have been preserved is the seventeenth one called the Hfisparam. 
It was composed of sixty-four Fargards, of which two of the first 
thirty were called Erpatistan, 'the Sacerdotal Code,' and Nfran- 
gistan, ' the Ritual Code;' the former dealing chiefly with clerical 
organisation, and the latter with a portion of the ritual. Their 
general contents are known from the analysis of the Nasks given in 
the Dtnkart (VIII, ch. 28, 29; West,Pahlavi Texts, IV, 92-97). 

These two Zend treatises were treated like the Vendfdad, that is 
to say, were translated and commented on in Pahlavi, at least par- 
tially. They have not come to us in any Sada manuscript, but are 
to be recovered from their Pahlavi expansion, the so-called Pahlavi 
Nirangistan ', which presents nearly the same aspect as the Pahlavi 
Vendfdad, that is to say, it contains the Zend original text with 
a Pahlavi translation, and a lengthy commentary, in which latter 
many connected questions are treated and a considerable number of 
Zend quotations from other Nasks are adduced. The first thing to 
do is to distinguish what belongs to the principal text, which is the 
object of the commentary, and what are the Zend quotations adduced 
from elsewhere by the commentator. The distinction of the two com- 
ponents is easily seen, as the principal text is always accompanied 
by a translation, whereas the quotations are not. They are either 
formulas recited during the performance of the ceremonies, or texts 
adduced as demonstrative or explanatory of such or such state- 
ment'. These quotations once removed, there remains a con- 
tinuous text which answers closely to the analysis in the Dtnkart 
But a comparison with that analysis, as well as internal evidence, 
shows that only a part of the original text is preserved, and that 

1 It has been long known under that title, but ought to be called 
' Erpatistan and Nfrangistin.' 

' They are adduced with the uniform words . . . min . . . 
padtak yahvun£t, ' it appears from the passage : . . .' 



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vi. erpatistAn and n}rangistAn. 301 

the Pahlavi manuscript, as it has come to us, is the juxtaposition of 
portions of two independent books, the Erpatistan and the Ntran- 
gistan proper, the beginning and end of both being lost. In other 
terms, it contains a part in the middle of the Erpatistan ' and the 
greater part of the Ntrangistan, the end of the latter being lost as 
well as a short passage at its beginning a . All the manuscripts of 
the Nirangist&n, known to be in existence, present the same juxta- 
position, as they are descended from one and the same manuscript, 
of which the copyist, having in his hands a fragment of the Erpa- 
tistan and a more complete Ntrangistan, copied the two as one and 
the same book, which took the name of the larger fragment. This 
leaves room to hope for the further discovery of older independent 
manuscripts of either book. 

Here is a summary of the matter treated of, with references to 
the analysis in the Dtnkart : — 

Fargard I. 
First Part (Fragment of the ErpatistAn). 

I. §§ 1-9. The priest on duty out (DJnkart VIII, ch. 28, § 2 ?). 

II. §§ 10-18. The student priest (Dk. ibid. § 3?). 

Second Part (Nirangistan proper). 

I. §§ 19-27. The Z6t and the RSspt (Dk. VIII, ch. 29, § 1). 

II. § 28. The Darun (Dk. ibid. § 2). 

III. §§ 29, 30. Strong drink forbidden during the sacrifice 
(Dk. § 3). 

IV. §§ 31-37. The recitation of the Gathas (Dk. § 4). 

V. §§ 38-40. The sacrifice performed by a Z6t, or a Rispt, in 
a state of sin (Dk. §§5, 6). 

Fargard II. 

I. f § 41-45. The celebration of the GShinbdrs (Dk. §§7,8). 

II. §§ 46-51. The limits of the several Gahs (§ 46, Gah 

1 §§ 1- 1 8 belong to the Erpatistan. 

* Of the twenty-five paragraphs in the Dtnkart analysis, part 
of § 1, the whole of §§ 2-16, and part of § 17 are represented in the 
extant Nirangistin. But one must bear in mind that the analysis in 
the Dtnkart was not based on the Zend Nasks, but on their Pahlavi 
commentaries, so that it refers occasionally to matter not treated of 
in the S&da text. 



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302 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

Ushahin. — §§ 47, 48, Gih Havan.— § 49, Gah Rapithwin.— § 50, 
Gah U2frin.— § 51, Gah Aiwisrflthrem.— Dk. § 9). 

III. §§ 52-64. The offerings for the Gahanbars (Dk. § 10). 

IV. §§ 65-71. The libations (Dk. § 11). 

V. §§ 72-84. The functions and place of the Z6t and Raspfs at 
the sacrifice (Dk. §§ 13, 14). 

Fargard III. . 

I. §§ 85-87, 91-96. The Kdsif and Sadara (Dk. § 15). 

II. §§ 88-90, 97-104. The preparation of the Baresman (Dk. 

§ 16). 

HI. §§ 105-109. The firewood and the implements for the 
sacrifice (Dk. § 17). 

' The interpretation of these texts is beset with no ordinary diffi- 
culties, the first being the technical character of the matter treated of, 
which no amount of philological ingenuity, left to its own devices, 
can elucidate, then the corrupt state of the text. No standard 
translation of the Zend can be expected till the whole of the Pahlavi 
Nfrangistan has been deciphered and translated. However, with 
the help of the Dtnkart analysis and of the Pahlavi Nfrangistan, as 
far as I could make it out, I believe I have succeeded in presenting 
a rough partial translation, which may give a correct general idea of 
the whole, and may help to some extent to clear the ground and 
be useful even in a further exploration of the Pahlavi Nfrangistan. 

All known copies of the Nfrangistan — which are indeed few in 
number — are descended from two manuscripts. One, belonging 
to Dr. Hoshangji of Poona (MS. H), was copied in India, in the 
year 1727, from a manuscript which was brought from Iran in 
1720 by Dastur Jamasp Vilayati and seems to have been written in 
1 47 1. The other, belonging to Tahmuras D. Anklesaria (MS. T), 
was written in Iran. Its date is unknown, though it is certainly 
older than Dr. Hoshangji's manuscript Both manuscripts belong 
to the same family, as they both present the same juxtaposition of 
the Erpatisian and Nfrangistan. Tahmuras' copy has lost several 
pages at the end; from § 91 onwards, we are dependent only on 
Hoshangji's copy. But Tahmuras' manuscript, besides being more 
complete in the rest of the text, is by far more correct ; and how 
far this is the case the reader may judge for himself by a glance at 
the translation : from § 91 onwards we have been obliged to leave 
most of the text untranslated as hopelessly corrupt 

In February, 1887, having been asked by the Parsi community 



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vi. erpatistAn and n!rangistAn. 303 

at Bombay to deliver a lecture on the Parsi literature, I took ad- 
vantage of the approaching Jubilee of the Queen to recommend 
the creation of a Victoria Jubilee Fund for the publication of the 
unedited Pahlavi literature. The appeal was readily answered, a 
fund raised, and it was decided that the publication should begin 
with the Nirangist&n. Unfortunately, in the realisation of the plan, 
the scientific experience of the young Parsi school did not prove 
quite equal to its good will. Instead of printing from the better 
manuscript, with the various readings of the inferior one in foot-notes, 
the committee for publication had the less good manuscript photo- 
zincographed. We have not yet in hand the Jubilee edition, but 
may hope that at least the variants of Tahmuras' manuscript have 
been annexed to it. We have thought it advisable, meanwhile, to 
give here for the use of scholars the Zend text, of which only a few 
manuscript copies are extant in Europe l . 

1 We have already published it in our French Avesta, but that 
edition is too scarce and too expensive to be of general use. — The 
text given represents essentially Tahmuras' copy, corrected here 
and there from Hoshangji's manuscript. The barbarous forms are 
many, and a considerable number of them might be easily cor- 
rected : however, whenever they did not make the meaning more 
obscure, we thought it better to let them stand as they were, because 
in the degenerate stage in which the Zend language presents itself 
to us, there is no uniform standard from which one may view and 
to which one may reduce the erring forms. 



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VI. erpatistAn and nIrangistAn. 



Fargard I, First Part. 

ErpatistAn. 

I. The priest officiating out of his house. 

1. Knm6 (read kemd) nmanahg athaurunem 
parayarf ? 

Y6 ashai bere^fyastemd, 
Hvdutd va ydistd ; 

Yim va ainim hap6-ga£tha (read hadh6-ga6tha) ; 
Hazaoyya paaungha (read paungha) iaySn (read 
hi} Sm). 

2. Para paoiryd aiti, para bity6 aiti, para thrity6 
aiti. 

A6ta parayaiti yatha ga£thabyd h*n«ti(read he«ti), 
A&sd ga£than5m irisha»tin5m (H. — T. irishawta- 
nam) rae\y6 (read rae\r£ iikayaaf) a . 

3. Katarem athravana athaurunem va parayart' 
ga£than5m va asperend avad ? 



* Karf datahe Zarathu.rtrdi.s-. 
Maghnd tnathrd. 
Thrikhjaparem hathraknem. 
Gafithanam va asperend av&id (see § 3). 
Y6i avapa aiwyasti (see § 15). 
A paiti beretim ere&irtem. 
N6i</ fraurusti. 
Mastem athrnewtem astatha. 
Paiti beretta (H. — T. beretim) arrtirtim. 



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VI. erpatistAn and nIrangistAn. 



Fargard I, First Part. 
ErpatistAn. 

I. The priest officiating out of his house. 

i. Who is he in the house who shall officiate as 
priest 1 ? 

— He who longeth most after holiness *, 

Be he great, or small ; 

Or another, his partner 8 ; 

By his own will or directed by the brethren. 

2. The first goeth forth, the second goeth forth, 
the third goeth forth. 

[If] he goeth forth who is in charge of the 
estate 4 ,. 

He shall pay for the damage done to the estate. 

3. Shall the priest officiate as a priest or shall he 
see to the good management of the estate ? 



1 Out of the house. 

8 The most zealous. 

* The sacerdotal community forms a religious and commercial 
association. The profits accruing from the divers ceremonies are 
divided between the members. These in Naus&ri, which is the 
metropolis of Zoroastrianism, and whose Parsi population is all 
of sacerdotal origin, are called Bhagarias, ' the partners.' 

4 Somebody must stay at home to take care of the common 
estate ; he must not go and officiate abroad. 
M X 



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306 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

Ga6than5m asperend avduaf*. 

4. K\ad na athrava athaurunem haia gathabix 
(read ga6thabi s) parayaa? ? 

Yadf his thrlr ya hma (read hama) aiwi.y iti b . 
Kvzd aiwwtem parayadf ? 

Thrikh^aparem hathrakem kh^vaj kh^afnd a£a 
para^a c . 

Y6 bady6 a£tahma</ paraiti 

Nou/ pasiaita anaiwirtlm astrya»ti. 

5 . Katard athaurunem paray&tf nairika va nman6- 
paitis va ? 

Y&iiavaga&hauvlmakatar(readkatar6)paraya^ d ? 
Nman6-paiti.y ga&hmi nairika parayi^. 
Nairikii ga£thau vw nmand-paitw parayaaf 6 . 

6. Yd anyahe" nairika anahakhtd athaurunem 
paranghaiti (read parangha^aiti), 

Kzd h£ va ashem verezyaaf ya nairika nmand-paiti 
verezya»ti ? 

Verezyaa? usaiti ntid anusaiti. 

Ahakhtd paranghaiaiti, 

Verezyaa? usaitiia anusaitytiia (read anusaitiia). 

Frdid^ var* paranghaiait£ akau (H. — T. adou) 
hazanguha anakausd tayur f . 

* Y£za£a . . . a&raya dafinfi. 

Yeza£a vehrkd gatthanam (cf. Vd. XIII, 10). 

Y£zLfca a&ya dafinfi. Y6zi£a ae\raya da6n6. 

Yeztfa vehrkd ga&hmi (cf. Vd. XIII, 10). 

Paoiryam him varem aderezaydirf h6 yahya he" hvanem 
ahuk. 
b Athaurunam^a. 

•Thrishum asnSm khjafnam£a (Yasna LXII, 5, gloss). 
d Nairyd ratu^ kara. 

Ndu/ ava£in6 daitlm vinarf. 

A6va£ina daitim vinanthsu£ 

Hakhtd u anahakhtd. Pan[£a]dayasaya sareide. 



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vi. erpatistAn and nirangistan. 307 

Let him see to the good management of the 
estate x . 

4. How often shall the priest officiate beyond the 
limits of the estate ? 

— He may go three times in the year. 
How far may he go to teach (the Word) ? 
— So far as a three nights' journey 2 : six nights, 
there and back. 
Farther than that 
If he refuse to go and teach, he is not guilty. 

5. Which of the two shall officiate as priest, the 
mistress or the master of the house * ? 

And if either be fit to take charge of the estate, 
which shall go forth ? 

If the master of the house take charge of the 
estate, the woman shall go forth. 

If the woman take charge of the estate, the master 
of the house shall go forth. 

6. If a man should take with him as priest * the 
wife of another, without (her husband's) leave, 

May the woman fulfil the holy office ? 

— Yea, if she is willing ; nay, if she is not willing. 

If a man take her with him by (the husband's) leave, 



1 The managing priest renders more service to the community 
by preserving and increasing the common property than by per- 
forming his ritual functions. ' Supervising the property is better 
than officiating as a priest.' (Comm.) 

* The Avesta counts by nights instead of days : ' three nights ' 
means ' three times twenty-four hours.' Three nights' distance is 
valued at thirty farsakhs or parasangs (ninety miles or thirty leagues). 

* Women, in case of need, were allowed, like men, to perform cer- 
tain ritual ceremonies (cf. § 40) and to act as Raspf (assistant-priest), 
and even as Zdt (officiating priest) (Anquetil, Zend-Avesta II, 553). 

4 As assistant-priest. 

X 2 



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308 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

7. Y6 any£h£ aperenayftkahfi anakht6 (read anih- 
akht6) athaurunem parangha^ai (read parangha£4iti), 

Pasca hara (read yara ?) tantim paray&iti. 

Yad ae\ra y6i aperenayflkd sraori va anutaiaitg, 

Aokhtd va h6 aokht£ thwaaf pairi anguha (read 
pairi-angha), 

Pasia hathra a fra-sruiti (read afrasruiti) st paiti 
tanfim paray6it6*. 

8. Ahmi nmane anghe vts£ ahmi za«tv6 anghe 
danghv6 kvzd bis ayasu vltayau (read vi£ay<m) 
anghen ? 

Yu^ayasti-sr haia nm&d atha dznghdid vts&d hath- 
rem zawtaoaf a danghacw/, 

Yatha daitya spasanya, 

Yatha para vay66 nmanemia vtsem^a z&nteusfa. 
danghtfiuia. 

9. Aad yad h6 aokhtS ae\ra y&*h6 aperenaytikd : 
Haianguha ni£ hana (read ana ?) aperenaytika, 
Yatha vashi atha hakhsha6t€, 

Vana pasiaiti uzdanguhu^id? patha hakht6ia?, 
Kvzd anabddirtem ayanem parangha£ait6? 
Y4 frayarena va uzay6irin6 va avan aiwyasti* 
anghaaf. 



•YfiNhfi aokhtd atsb yfiNhfi aperenayukaf. 

1 To have illicit intercourse with her, by force or otherwise. 

* By force. 

1 Without leave from the parent on whom the child depends. 
4 As assistant-priest ; cf. § 40. 

* If the child goes willingly, not by force. 

* Or perhaps : * if [the child] say.' 
T A mile. 

* ' Without singing' the Gathas, that is to say, without perform- 
ing the ceremony for which he has taken the child with him. 
Taking the child farther would amount to kidnapping. 



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vi. erpatistAn and nJrangistAn. 309 

Willing or unwilling, she shall fulfil the holy office. 

If the man take her with him to enjoy her body 1 , 
if he do this openly 2 , he is a highwayman ; if in 
secret, he is a thief. 

7. He who, without leave 8 , taketh away the 
child of another to officiate as priest*, he shall 
become Peshdtanu for a whole year (?). 

If the child obey and go gladly 8 , 
Or if [the man] say • : ' I go with thee,' 
And he goeth a hathra 7 without singing 8 , he 
shall be Peshdtanu. 

8. In this house, in this borough, in this district, 
in this country, how far afield may they go • ? 

— The length of a yu^yesti from the house or the 
borough 10 ; the length of a hathra from the district 
or the country ", within a sphere of protection, 

So that they remain in sight of the house, of the 
borough, of the district, of the country. 

9. But if he who owneth the child shall say : 
' Go with him, my child, 

The child shall follow at thy will, 

He may follow along the roads out of the 
country,' 

— How far away, at most, may one lead him ? 

So far as one can go in a morning or an after- 
noon. 

* How far can a man take with bun a child without proper 
authorisation ? 

10 The length of sixteen hathras (sixteen thousand steps; see 
above, p. 160) from the house or the borough, within the limits of 
the same district. 

11 At the distance of one hathra only, if on the border of the 
district; otherwise they would enter a strange place where the 
child is not known, and the danger of his being lost or kidnapped 
would be greater. 



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3IO FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

Y6 a€tahmtd paranghaiaiti, 
Nabanazdirtem h6 para pas/feiiti rae\ra£a adhwa- 
dattyasia astrawti. 



II. The student priest. 

10 a. Aad hvatSm aba a6thrapaitfm 

Y6n1i6 nisritem frara 

Ahi anastritim 

Y6zi aaa? h6 ndid aighsrittm frara 

Ndidf ainisritlm astry&rti. 

Yathra apereyukd (read aperenayukd) 

N6i</ h£ anism 

Atha aiwyanghem [yathra ratm thwayanghem] 
yathra aperenayukd. 

Ahe 4 aithisritlm stary&ti. 

Adha yad va yathra thwayanghem va thwayan- 
ghem va. 

10 b. Da6vayasnah£ va tanu-perethahe' vaaperena- 
yuka parangha&aite 

NisritadJ a6tah6 astry&ti n6i^ asriti a . 

ii. Kvad na aithra-paititim (read a£thrapaitlm) 
upadisaaf yare dra^fd ? 

Thrizarema£m khratum ashavanem aiwyaungha^ b . 

Yezi a»tar4df na^ma^ a6tah6 dren£ay£iti (H. — 
derefay6iti T.) para paityaiti vlraodhaySiti (H. — 
vlraozayeiti T.), 

Hathrd nuu£ (read hathra nu ?) ainem aethrapaitim 
up6is6ia? athra (atha H.) thritim updisduaf aivatha 
tuirlm updisduaf; 

Yezi avarf va6thaaf vaenatha a«tara</ nsi&mkd 
hathrahd dren£ayaa*tf£a na6mia pas^aiti vtrdidhi c . 

* A mat harf amat nisritarf. 
Yatha dahmahd frangharez6i</. 



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VI. ERPATISTAN AND NtRANGISTAN. .3 1 1 

If the man lead him farther, 
He is guilty in sight of the nearest kinsman 1 of 
the sin of adhwadaitya 2 . 



II. The student priest. 

10 a 

10 b , 

11. How many years shall the student consult 
the a£thrapaiti 8 ? 

— Three springtides 4 shall he gird on Holy 
Wisdom *. 

If, while he learns by heart, he forget and miss 
a part, 

He shall try again a second time, a third time, 
a fourth time ; 

And when he knows his text, he shall be able to 
say it all and miss nothing. 

Yavatahe" nafd anvathwarirtd. 
b Spay&ti. 

Vtspa6ibyd aperenayubyd ndirf kahmki aperenayunam . . . 
bard. 

Y&Nh£ a&tadha mazdayasnanam nairika avaymi khxudrau 
ham raSthwayditi mazdayasnanam£a da£vayasnanam£a. 
c Thrikhrafarem dazhdhrem. 



1 The nearest kinsman of the child. 

* The adhwadaitya or atapdit, literally 'improper journey,' is 
properly the sin of giving insufficient food to an animal or to 
a traveller. In this passage it means enforcing upon a child 
a journey beyond his strength. 

' The aethrapaiti, the teaching priest ; cf. Vd. IV, 45. 
4 For three years ; cf. Vd. XVIII, 9. 

* As a Kdsti; cf. Vd. XVIII, 1, note 2. He shall study for 
three years. 



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312 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

12. Kem a.6mad adthrapaitim upaya^ apndtem 
(H.— apdtem T.) dahmem (H.— ditem T.) ? 

Yese 1 tad apay&tj parawtarem isdidf. 

Yavaa? adtahmya zru staotanSm y&snyanSm dad- 
ragtis, 

Yatha tad afrimari nem6 hyad atha tad afrimnd 
astaray&ti ; 

Attav&dfai a&sas&id astaray&te\ 

13. Y6 h6 aperemnii (read aperemnii) ndid visaiti 
framruiti, 

K6 h£ pa6urunam adthrapaitinam afradkhtg (H. — 
af. T.) astry&ti ? nabinazdirtd. 

Aad havatam nana yahmi pareiti ; 

[Vlspa&u parewti] vtspae\ru afrdti (read afraokhti) 
astry&ti. 

14. Y6 astW-gao*6 vi afrava6£6 vi ndid dim 
£inem va&m aiwyai^, 

Ndid pas&uti anaivlrti astry6iti. 

Yfiziiaaf 6yum pe" va^im aiwyiis anaiwlrti istryeiti*. 

15. Yd avadha ndid aiwyasti ashaong aradusa 
havayanghem akhtera, 

Daret6 va anangrd tiya vi, 
Yni (read sna ?) va aodra va tamii vi aurvaur 
angra vi aodra vi tarcna, 



* Itha M yaza. ashem v6hu. 



1 Who is the best teacher? 

1 Until you know by heart the Staota Y&snya, the Nask that 
formed the essential part of the Yasna, containing the Gathas, the 
Yasna Haptanghaiti, and a few other Has (see oar French Zend- 
Avesta, I, bcxxvii). 

* The meaning seems to be that he must teach at least the nemd 
hya^theNyfyish?). 

4 That is the minimum the master is bound in duty to teach 
him. 



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vi. erpatistAn and nJrangistAn. 313 

1 2. Who is the aethrapaiti. to whom he shall go 
as the highest 1 ? 

— Even he who . . . 

Until thou hast by heart the Staota Yesnya*, 



In this measure is the master guilty *. 
1 3. If one answer not the student's objections 8 , 
Which of the many aethrapaitis is guilty ? — He 
who is nearest of kin 8 . 



For all objections, for all the answers denied he 
is guilty. 

14. If he whose ear heareth not, or who has no 
voice, repeat not a word T , 

He is not guilty for not repeating. 
If he can repeat, were it only one word, for not 
repeating it he is guilty. 

15. If he repeat not because he suffers from 
a wound, 

Or for any physical pain, or ... . 

Or by reason of drought, or cold, or thirst, or . . . 

Or by reason of the hard fare of travel, 

If he repeat not, he is not guilty 8 . 

* The case is when a pupil finding the text obscure or con- 
tradictory asks for an explanation. 

* If this is the right translation, it would import that not every 
aethrapaiti is bound to answer his pupil's objections ; he has only 
to teach him the text, not to interpret it ; but from a next-of-kin 
aethrapaiti a pupil has a right to exact an answer to his doubts. 
One must bear in mind that the priesthood is hereditary, and that 
most priests of a place belong to one, or at least to a very few 
families. All the Mobeds in India are supposed to be descendants 
of one common ancestor (see the Guimet Zend-Avesta, I, lvii). 

T The pupils repeat the text, word by word, after the teacher. 

* Because he suffers from an overwhelming cause. 



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314 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 



Anguha va£a tangro-pithwau (read «ungha-va ka. 
tar6-pithw6) ahmarf paiti adhwa, 

N6id aeavlrti (a£navirti H. — read anaivisti) is 
tryditi. 

Vathmaini asaya kvaina. va anaivirti istrySitd. 

1 6. Karf va daevayasnaaf va tanu-perethadf a6th- 
rapatdirf pairi aiwyanghaa? ? 

Frasravayd ava dathra yem dim va£naa? evisa£u.rva 
va#danem. 

NdiW 4va ya vistae\rva. 

N6uaf h6 ashadnS jyaothananSm verezydu/. 

1 7. Na daevayasnai va tanuperethii va aGthrayai 
/fcashaiti ? 

Dahm6 niuruzdd adhaityd-draond, 
Daity£h£ draonanghd upa .fanaungha, 
Pairi-gereftaya^ paiti zman[a]y«u, ntid api-geref- 

tayarf paiti. 

A'vaiti s& atba zimana angharf ? yatha gaus fravaiti. 
Vehrkai hizvSm dadhaiti yd azrazdai mfithrem 

(read mSthrem) kastt. 

18. Ka<* na daevayasnai va tanuperethai va gens 
adhaitya astry£iti ? nt\d astryeiti, 

Any6 ahmaaf yd h& gava vares daidhirf a&ahmai. 



NIrangistan. 
Fargard I, Second Part. 
I. The Z6t and the Raspi. 
1 9. Dahmd dahmai aokhtfi : 
Frama nerega raydiy (read fra me nere garaydlr) 
yad ratuj fritdis 4sa<£ 

1 Because he might and ought to have controlled his weariness. 
* A Dagvayasna, a worshipper of the DaSvas, that is to say, 
a worshipper of false gods (a Brahman, a Buddhist, a Greek, &c.) 



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VI. ERPATISTAN AND NtRANGISTAN. 315 

If he repeat not by reason of weariness, sadness, 
or slumber, he is guilty l . 

16 

1 7. Shall he teach a disciple, if he be a heathen 2 
or a sinner 8 ? 

— The righteous man in his misery, if he have 
not wherewithal to be fed, 

And wants wherewithal to be fed, 

(May teach) for a salary, but not without a salary 4 . 

— What shall be the salary ?— The price of what 
an ox ploughs 6 . 

But he gives a tongue to the wolf, who imparteth 
the Holy Word to the heretic 4 . 

18. He that refuseth food to the heathen and the 
sinner, is he guilty ? — He is not guilty, 

Unless he refuse it to the labourer in his service T . 



Fargard I, Second Part. 
Here begins the Nlrangistan proper. 

I. The Zdt and the Raspl. 
19. The pious man warns the pious man * ; 
' Rouse me, O man ! when the festival of the 
masters arrives 9 .' 



• A Peshdtanu, a Zoroastrian in a state of mortal sin. 

4 He may teach a Da€vayasna or a Peshdtanu, but only to gain 
his bread, when reduced to starvation ; in no case, and on no 
account whatever, may he teach a heretic. 

• ' The price of a day's work ' (Comm.) ; just enough to live on 
the day he teaches. 

• An Ashemaogha : cf. Tahmuras' Fragments, § 3. 

7 His meed is due to the labourer, even if a heathen or a sinner. 

• Cf. Vd. XVIII, a6. 

• Ratufriti, literally, ' the blessing of the Ratus ' or the various 
masters of the year, is applied to the celebration of the Gahanbars. 



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316 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

Vlsaiti dem fraghrarayd n6utf fraghraghray&ti, 
Ae\rd ratufm ydjaghara. 

20. /fvaiti naram akht6 (read hakhto) zaota retu- 
rn.* 

Ahunem vairlm frasra6.yy6h£ ? 

Vispa£iby6 a&byd y6i h6 madhemya vaia [va£a] 
frasravayamnahe' va upa surunva»ti yaa? va yasnem 
yazemnahe" *. 

21. Surunaditi zaodha (read zaota) upa sraotara- 
nSm, 

N6u/ upa sraotard zaotard, 

Zaota ratufrer ; 

A£tav6 upa sraotard yavaaf framarewtem. 

N6id zaota upa sraotaranSm, 

Upa sraotard ratufry6 ; 

A6tavat6 zaota yava*/ framaraite' b . 

22. Sraothrana gathanam ratufrer, 
Paiti-astiia yasnas-he' adha fra5&yd-rnathrah£ ; 
Ahe" zl na sravanghem aframare«ti &stry6it6, 
Yatha gathanam>6ua? c . 

Gathau sravayd yasnem yaze«tem paitistaiti, 

• Frama nere (cf. § 19, line 2). 

Haourvd pas£i£. 

Frastuye. 

Ashem v6hft 3 fravarane mazdayasnd. 

Vlspai. 

Ashaya nd paiti gamy&d Amesha Spewta. 

Ashem v6hu 3 aiwi-garedhmahe apam vanghlnam. 

Ashem vdho 3 fravarane mazdayasnd Zarathurtrer. 
b Ashaya dadhlmi. 
Mand maretanam£i. 

Va£d maretanam^a. 

1 Ratufrish, literally, ' he has blessed the masters,' he has done his 
duty ; he is all right 



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vi. erpatistAn and nIrangistAn. 317 

If one rouse, and the other rise not, 
The one who roused is accepted l . 

20. How many assistants 2 can the Zaotar lawfully 
have in the recitation of the Ahuna Vairya ? 

As many as repeat after him in a hushed voice 
while he sings aloud or recites the Yasna. 

2 1 . If the Zaotar listen to the assistants, 
And his assistants listen not to the Zaotar, 
The Zaotar is accepted ; 

And so are his assistants for all that they recite 
themselves *. 

If the Zaotar listen not to his assistants, 

The assistants are accepted ; 

And so is the Zaotar for all that he recites him- 
self 4 . 

22. The assistant 9 is accepted who sings the 
Gathas, 

And follows inwardly the Yasna 8 and the Fshushd- 
mSthra 7 ; 

For the man is guilty who does not follow the 
(prose) texts 8 , 

Even as the Gathas. 

If he sing the Gathas and follow inwardly the Yasna, 

* * How many Raspts ? ' (Comm.) — One of the offices of the 
Raspt is to make the responses to the Zdt, and to answer atha ratiw 
in the Ahuna Vairya recited as a dialogue. 

" Not for what has been recited by the Zaotar. 

* Not for what has been recited by the R&spts. 

* The Rasp! assisting the Zdt in the recitation of the Gathas. 
For instance, at the end of each Gathic Ha, he repeats with the 
Zdt the initial stanza. 

* The Yasna Haptanghaiti. 

7 The Tarf sdidhi* H4 (Yasna LVIII). 

* Sravanghem ; the prose texts, what is not Gatha. He must 
repeat aloud the Gatha texts and follow the rest inwardly. 



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318 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

Vispanam githanSm ratufrer. 
Yasnem yaziiti githanSm srivamnSm paitirti (read 
paitirtaiti), 

Yasnahfi afivahe" ratufro aratufro githanSm a . 

23. Ya githau afsmainya rayatd va ratufro. 
Va&tstartiva</ sriyamn6 (read sravayamnd) a6ta- 

vatd ktari&rf ratufro yava^ framare»ti b . 

24. Ya yasnem yazebenti afsmainySn va va&tstarti- 
va</ va va fratufrya (read ratufrya). 

HSm-sru</ vaiayadhi yezietva (read viia y£zi 
y£zyarf va) aratufrya. 

Karf ham-stW vi£im£a ? 

Yadf hakad irmutd (read amrutd) afsmainiivSn^a 
vaiasta (read vaiasartivat). 

Ava£y6 surunvai«ti ndiaf ainy6, 

A6s6 ratufrij yd n6id? aiwisrunaiti c . 

25. Y6 githanSm anumaiti vi anu mainaiti, 
Ainy6h6 vi srivaya»td paitiLstawti, 

Any6 vi h6 dahmd srutd-githau dadhiiti aratufro, 
Asrutou dadhiiti. 

26. Y6 githau srivay£iti apd vi paid* ^ain£, 
Raodhangh6 vi keresam vi sadhotanam (read 

gadh6tun3m), 

GithanSm vi vayawtanam, 

Yezi hva6iby6 ujiby6 aiwisrunvaiti ratufro. 

Y6zi iarf n6id hva&bya iwibya aiwisurunvaiti 
rapayi</ (read apayid?) ; 



• Yi jyaothena ya vaiangha. 

Humatanam. 
b Ahya yasd nemangha ustanazast6. 

Ahyi nemangha. 
°Haka//. 



1 The Zdt and the Rlspf. * Detached verses (P). 

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vi. erpatistAn and nIrangistAn. 319 

He is accepted for all the Gathas. 

If he recite the Yasna and follow inwardly the 
Gathas, he is accepted only for the Yasna, he is not 
accepted for the Gathas. 

23. If the two priests * sing together Gatha verses 8 , 
both are accepted. 

If they sing stanzas, both are accepted in the 
proportion that they recite (?). 

24. If two priests 9 celebrate together the Yasna 
verse by verse, or stanza by stanza, both are 
accepted. 

If they hear the words of one another, they are 
not accepted 4 . 

What is hearing one another's words ? 

It is when they recite together verses or stanzas. 

If one listen and the other listen not, 

The one who does not listen is accepted. 

25. If he think the Gathas inwardly*, 
Or listen to another's singing, 

Or get another of the faithful to sing them, — he 
is not accepted, as he does not sing them himself. 

26. If he sing the Gathas near a water-spring 6 , 
Or near a river, or among a gang of rioters, 
Or during the passing of a caravan, 

If he can hear himself with his own ears, he is 
accepted. 

If he cannot hear his own voice, let him try to 
raise (it above the noise) ; 

9 Two different Zaotars perform at the same time two independent 
offices. The place for the office, the so-called Izishn-g&h, is 
arranged in such a way that the celebration of several offices can 
take place at the same time. 

4 As they disturb one another, and their attention is not undivided. 

* Without singing them himself. ' Which drowns his voice. 



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320 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

Y£zi apdid and ndid apdi (read apdid) ts, 

A£tadha mamdhya (read madhmya) vakb frama- 
remnd ratufrw*. 

2 7. Kvad na netema vaia gathau sravayd ratufm ? 

Y6zi he" nazdistt dahmd vl surunvaiti yavad vi 
a£m a6m hava&bya uribya. 

II. The Darun. 

28. Ga»tum6 yavanam ratufres b . 

III. Strong drink forbidden during the sacrifice. 

29. Y6i a£te£ (read a£t£) maidhyanSm pard 
Avaretdid pathau (read githau) ndid srivay&ti, 

Paoithya (read paoiry a) varifta ae\sam ^yaothanemia 
a^ithdirutem. 

30. Tad Avarend badha asti : 

Dahmd huram Afaraiti madhd aspya payanghd, 
Daitya draonau hv ard madhd hv araiti, 



■ Afitadha madhmya va£a. 

b Ashaya dadhami At arethem myazdem : haurvata ame- 
retata. 

Ahurah£ mazdou. 

Ashaya nd paiti gamy id. 

Ifvarata. naro. 

Ashaya nd paiti gumy&d. 

Aetam ayatamnahe. 

Nemd Ahurai ashem vohfl 3. 

Khmaothra khrnaothra Amesha Spenta. 

IthA ad yazamaide Ararethern myazdem. 

Haurvata ameretata gluj hudhou ipe. 

Urvara haurvata ameretata. 

Aesmi baoidhi Az/arethem myazdem. 

Ama humata£a hukhta£a itha. 

N6i</ hlr bardu/ upa kashem. 

9 Ashem vohu itha ashem vdhu ashem itha. 



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vi. erpatistAn and n!rangistAn. 321 

If he can raise (it so, all well) ; if he cannot, 
He shall recite with a medium voice and will be 
accepted. 

27. How loud at the least shall he sing the Gathas 
in order to be accepted ? 

Loud enough for the nearest of the faithful, for 
this one or that one, to hear him with his own ears. 

II. The Darun. 

28. Amongst grains, (the draond ') made with corn 
is accepted 2 . 

III. Strong drink forbidden during the sacrifice 3 . 

29. Those who, from drinking too much strong 
drink, have not sung the Gathas *, 

On the first time it happens 8 , have not to atone 
for it. 

30. This is thy way of feeding : 

When a pious man drinks strong drink, wine or 
mare's milk, and eating with moderation drinks with 



1 The draonfi, darun, is a consecrated round little cake which is 
tasted by the Z6t at the end of the Srdsh darun (Yasna VIII, 4) : 
it is a sort of Zoroastrian host. 

* This sentence does not really belong to the Zend Ntrangistdn ; 
it is a quotation from some other Fargard, inserted in the Pahlavi 
commentary, though the analysis in the Dinkart, being based upon 
the Pahlavi text, mentions it among the matters treated in the 
NtrangistSn (Dinkart VIII, 39, a : ' concerning the darun, &c.'). 

* * About abstaining from drinking strong wine during the sacri- 
fice ' (Dmkart VIII, 29, 3). 

4 * They drink wine, get drunk, and do not celebrate the Gi- 
b&xMr.' (Comm.) 

* The first time they did not know the consequences of their in- 
temperance, and are not considered responsible for them. 

[4] Y 



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322 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

N6i</ gathanSm asruiti astry£ti. 
Fradh«u-draon6 hvkrt madhaite\ 
Na gathanSm asruiti. 



IV. The recitation of the Gathas. 

31. Y6 his hastarem sravay&ti ratufryd. 

ThrLy hastrem sravayenti (read sravayewti ara- 
tufri^). 
Kvad nitemem hastrem anghad? ratufryd ? thriy a . 

32. Y6 gathau pairi ukhshayeiti sravaya»ti 

Y£zi arastrem pairi [akhta (read aokhta) pairi] 
adha 

Va v&kad apaya«ta aratufrya 

Pa&6a va pard va pairi adha [a]ratufry6. 

33. Katha zaotha gathau frasravayaiti ? na£m6 
va^astarti madhimya va^a Zarathustri mana ; 

Y6zi>£a a£te£ va>£6 apaya&ti y6i he«ti gathahva 
blsamruta thri^amruta^a ^athruyamrutaia, 
Da6van2m kereta, 
A£tae\fam va^Sm aratufryd. 

34. Kaya pa«ti (read ha»ti) va^a bteamruta? 
Ahya yasa— humatanSm — ashahya aaaf— yatha tu 

i — humaim thwa teem — thw6i staotaras^i — xistA 



■ Sad vastrahfi Zarathujtr6Lr nem6 : — ' Homage to Isa</- 
vastra, son of Zarathu^tra.' 

Vispau gafithau. 

Ahurah6 Mazdau raevat6 Az/arenanghat6 ashaunam. 

Ahurah£ Mazdau gathaubyo ashaunSm. gathabyd. 

Ahurahe Mazdmi ashaunam you visadha avayanti. 

Ahurahe Mazdmi Mithrahfi vispae\ram ashaonam. 

Ahurahfi Mazdau Mithrahe vispa^rSm gathabyd ashao- 
nam. 



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vi. erpatistAn and nIrangistAn. 323 

moderation too, if he sing not the Gathas 1 , he is not 
guilty. 

If he eat too much and get drunk, for not singing 
the Gathas [he is guilty]. 

IV. The recitation of the Gathas 2 . 

31. If the priest sing for two assemblies, he is 
accepted. 

If he sing for three assemblies, he is not 
accepted. 

Which is the smallest assembly for which singing 
is accepted ? Three (of the faithful). 

32 . 

33. How will the Zaotar sing the Gathas ? He 
will sing half a stanza 3 in a moderate voice with 
Zarathuytra's rhythm ; 

And if he omit 4 those words in the Gathas which 
are twice, thrice, or four times to be said 6 , 
Those words that cut the demons to pieces, 
For those words he is not accepted. 

34. Which are the words twice to be said ? 
Ahya yasa ; Yatha tu i ; 
HumatanSm ; Humaim thwa teem ; 
Ashahya aaaf ; Thwdi staotaras^a ; 

1 ' If in spite of his moderation, the little he drank makes him 
tipsy so that he does not celebrate the Gdhanbar, he is not in a state 
of sin ' (Comm.) 

* ' Concerning the quality (sdmSn) of the voice in reciting the 
Avesta in a ceremonial, and the Avesta which is- twice recited and 
thrice or four times recited ' (West, Dtnkart, 1. 1. § 4). 

' The first half of the stanza. 

* If he omit to recite them the due number of times. 

8 The so-called Bw-amrutas, Thrif-amrutas, A!athnw-amrutas ; 
cf. Vd. X. 

Y 2 



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324 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

ahmai — Spenta mainyti — Vohu khyathrem vairtm — 
Vahirta istis. 

35. Kaya thrwamruta ? 

Ashem vohu — ye sevistd — hukhsathrdtemai — duz- 
varenaw. 

36. Kaya ifcuhrusamruta ? 

Yatha ahu vairy6 — Mazda id mdi vahirta — 4 
airyOTia. 

37. KanghSm [H. — T. sangham] ni gathanSm 
srutanSm aratufrw ? 

Ya ya£z6 (read ma6z6) va fravashaimnd (read fra 
va shaimnd) sray&ti (read sravay&ti), 

A6tae\r3m vaiam aratufrw. 

Adhae^a uiti yatha katha^a dahm6 staota y[6]snya 
haurva dadhaiti, 

Paurvadf va na£m&/ aparaaf va, 

My6 (read ay6) va taia vi hirtanemnd (read 
hlrtemnd) vi osunghand va dathand va baremnd va 
vazemnd va aiwyastd atha ratufrw*. 

V. The sacrifice performed by a Zdt or a Raspi 
in a state of sin. 

38. Dahmd zaota tanuperetha upasraotar6, 
Y£zi dis tanuperethd va£dha, 

A6vat6 ratufiif yavaa? framaraiti. 
Y6zi aaaf dis ndid tanupereth6 va£dha, 
VispanSm gathanSm ratufrij. 



* Bard aspd vaz6 rathd (Fragment Vd VI, 26). 

FravaranS — athrd Ahurahe Mazdou puthra tava Starr 
puthra Ahurahe Mazdou khrnaothra — ashem vohu 3, fra- 
var&ne — yatha ahft vairy6 yd zaota, yatha ahu vairyd y6 
atravakhjd ath4 ratuj — yatha ahu vairyd yd atravakhrd yd 
zaota atha ratur — yd bityd zaota. 

Ashem vohu — yatha ahu vairyd — fravardne — frastuye. 



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vi. erpatistAn and nIrangistAn. 325 

VstA ahmai ; Vohu khrathrem vairim ; 

Spe»ta mainyu ; Vahirta tstis 1 . 

35. Which are the words thrice to be said ? 
Ashem vohu ; Hukhrathrdtemai ; 
Ye sevwtd ; Duarvarenaiy 2 . 

36. Which are the words four times to be said ? 
Yatha ahu vairyd ; A airy^ma 8 . 

Mazda ad mdi vahista ; 

37. When is it that the Gathas which a priest 
sings are not accepted ? 

The words he sings while doing the necessities of 
nature, 

These words are not accepted. 

Otherwise, in whatever fashion the pious man may 
offer the Staota y6snya 4 , 

In the earlier part of the office or in the latter part 
ofit(?), 

Whether walking or running ; standing, sitting, or 
lying; riding or driving; as long as he has his 
girdle on 6 , he is accepted. 

V. The sacrifice performed by a Z6t or a Rasp! 
in a state of sin 6 . 

38. If the Zaotar be righteous and his assistants 
be in a state of sin, 

If he know that they are in a state of sin, 
What he recites himself is accepted. 
If he know not that they are in a state of sin, the 
whole of the Gathas is accepted. 



1 Vd. X, 4. * Vd. X, 8. * Vd. X, 12. 

• See above, page 313, note 2. 

• His Kdstt; cf.Vd. XVIII, 1 (note 2), 54. 

• Dtnkart, 1. 1. § 5. 



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326 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

39. Tanuperetha zaota dahma upasraotard, 
Ydzi dim tanuperethem vlvare (read vldare), 
A£tavatd ratufrij yavad? framerenti. 

Y£zi Sad dim ndiaf tanuperethem vlvare, 
VlspanSm gathanSm ratufm. 
Dahm6 zaota dahm6 upasraotard vlspe 1 ratufryd. 
Tanuperethd zaota tanuperethd upasraotard vispd 
aratufryd. 

40. Kayi^i^ na dahmanSm zaothradha ratufro, 
Nairikausiiflf aperenayClkahe^a, 

Yezi vadtha hathanSm (read haitinSm ?) thware- 
seska. frataurunausia, 

A«tare haitisu yasnem fraizis*. 



NfRANGISTAN. 

Fakgard II. 
I. The celebration of the GAhanbars. 

41. Yd gathau asravayd Ssta va tar6maiti vi 
tanum pereyditi. 

K6 Ssta katard maiti (read ka tardmaiti) ? 
Ya ha/£a da£nayaa? mazdayasndu/ apastuitw b . 

42. Yd gathau asravayd yare drlfd apa tanum 
pairy£iti. 



• Ndu/ ta nairika kasu-khrathwa. 

Ashem vohti vahLrtem astt, iwta astt orta ahmai. 

Hyad ashai vahirtai ashem. 
b Y6 ha£a da£naycL/ mazdayasndu/ apastdirf, 

ThrLr vaghs'ibis hakara*/ vipaiti^irf. 

1 ' Concerning the functions of a Z6t performed by a woman or 
achild'(Dinkart,I.l. §6). 
* See above, §§ 5-9 and notes. 



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VI. ERPATISTAN AND nJrANGISTAN. 327 

39. If the Zaotar be in a state of sin and the 
assistants be righteous, 

If they know that he is in a state of sin, 

What they recite themselves is accepted. 

If they know not that he is in a state of sin, the 
whole of the Gathas is accepted. 

If the Zaotar be righteous and the assistants be 
righteous, the whole is accepted. 

If the Zaotar be in a state of sin and the assistants 
be also in a state of sin, neither the one nor the other 
is accepted. 

40'. Any one of the faithful is accepted as a 
Zaotar, 

Even a woman 2 or a child, 

If he know the ends and the heads of the chapters 3 , 

And know how to perform the acts of ritual 
between the chapters. 

NIrangistAn. 

Fargard II. 

I. The celebration of the Gahanbars. 

41. He who does not sing the Gathas, either out 
of unbelief, or out of impiety, becomes a Pesh6tanu. 

What is unbelief 4 ? What is impiety 8 ? 

It is renouncing the Religion of Mazda. 

42 •. He who stays the year through without 
singing the Gathas becomes a Pesh6tanu. 

* As there are certain repetitions of stanzas and certain ceremonial 
acts at the end of most of the Has. 

4 asta: 'negation; when he says, there is no such thing as 
Religion' (Comm.) 

* taromaiti : ' when he says, it exists, but it is no good.' 

6 ' On the sin of him who does not celebrate the Gahanbars, and 
how they are to be celebrated ' (Dtnkart, 1. 1. § 8). 



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328 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

Ydzi aunghSm 6ySm pdv4£im framaraiti, 

Pairi s& hd paretd-tanunSm staunghaiti (H. — T. 
stadnghaiti), 

Yahmaa' haia tern ava raodhewti a . 

Yd githanam 6yem v4£im apayaiti advam v4 
vaiastastlm, 

Thri v4 az4iti ayare dra^6 v4 v4stry4a'; 

Atha bityau atha thrityau, 

Atha vispem 4 ahmaa' yad hd ha#£asa»ta yatha 
iathrorem yau gathau asrivayd hyad aradusa hd 
.yyaothanem. 

Thrishum tard &>araya nadmem tard b4zu^ataya 
vispem tard yire dr^fd hd him y4tem 4stryditi. 

Yadkxd pasiaiti advam ratufritim ava raodhayditi 
tanum pairyditi. 

43. Y6 githanSm advSm ratufritim ava raodhayditi 
thri va azaiti ayare dr4^d v4 v4stry4a'; 

Atha vispem 4 ahm&d yad hd ha#£asaiti yatha 
thrishum yau gadthau asravayd od tanum pairyditi. 

44. Yd g4thau asr4vayd nadmem y4re dra^d, 
Taa" paiti adnem dahmem g4thanSm sraothrau 

pairlstayditi, 

Yadhdiafnadm yau gadthau (read g4thau)asr4vayd 
hyaa 7 atha u 4stryditi ; 

a Sarahfi. 
Paȣa tur6 dasa u rathwam. 
Hazangrem ma&yanam (Afringan Gahanbar, 7). 
Hazangrem gavaam (ibid. 8). 
Rathwam. 

1 According to the commentator Sdshyans : ' If he recite the 
whole in b$g and only one word aloud.' 

* If he has passed the fourth part of the year without celebrating 
the Gahanbar, any verbal fault he may afterwards commit shall be 
punished as an Aredur, that is to say, with fifteen strokes of the 
Sraoshd->tarana (Vd. IV, 26). 



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vi. erpatistAn and nJrangistAn. 329 

If he recite, were it only a word of them ', 
He escapes being in the number of the Peshd- 
tanus, — 

He who shall omit a word of the Gathas or a stanza, 

Shall pay with three strokes (of the Sraoshd- 
iarana) or a day's work ,* 

The same on the second omission, the same on 
the third, 

And so on until he let a fourth part of the year 
go without singing the Gathas, when it becomes an 
aredus sin 2 . 

If he let a third part of the year go, his guilt is 
a ^&ara 3 ; if he let a half go, his guilt is a bazu 4 ; 
if he let a whole year go, his guilt is a yata e . 

If afterwards he miss a ratufriti 6 , he becomes a 
Peshdtanu. 

43. If a man miss a ratufriti of the Gathas, he 
shall pay for it with three (strokes) or a day's work ; 

And so on until he let a third part of the year go 

without singing the Gathas 7 he 

becomes a Peshdtanu. 

44. If a man stay a half year without singing the 
Gathas 8 , 

And also prevents another of the faithful from 
singing the Gathas, 

For the half year when he did not sing the 
Gathas, he shall be in a state of sin ; 



3 



Punished with thirty strokes. 

The sin of breaking an arm : fifty strokes. 

The sin of breaking a leg : seventy strokes. 

One of the formulas of glorification to any of the ratus (?). 

To be filled up as in § 42. 

' Without celebrating the Gahanbars ' (Comm.) 



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33° FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

Paourum va na£mem ya aparem va pairyartay£iti 
pi^otanuj a . 

45. Y6 gathau asravayd na£mem yau 
Tad paiti a£nem dahmem ^ai«ti 

Ardor va aghryd [staorem] va bistaorem ya yad 
mazanghem va ^»arem 

&var6\dh£ anghad >6ithaya&£a upa-beretayae^a. 

II. The limits of the several Gahs. 
1 1 a. Gah Ushahin. 

46. Kahmi^ haia ushahinanSm gathanSm ratufm 
fra^asaiti ? 

Ha£a maidhyayii kluapa^ huvakh^ai pairi-saiaiti ; 

Atha aiwigami. 

Aad hama ydzi para huvakluaa? ahunava/^a 
gatham sravay&ti, 

Yasnem^a haptanghaitim urtavaitlm haitim^a, 

Anasteretd pasiaita avau yau anyau sriLvaydid 
ama^idhyarf fr. yaraa? (read frayaraaQ b . 

a Pairau arstau kherf. 

b Ashem vohu 3, fravaranfi Mazdayasn6— AhurahG Mazdou 
raevatd Afarenanghato khmaothra od frasastayae^a. — 
ashem vohu — khmaothra Ahurahe Mazdou — humatanam 
hukhtanam hvarertanam — na yarta. 
Naratd kerethen. 

Ashem vohu — yatha ahu vairyd — ashem vohu 3 fravarane 
mazdayasnd — haomahfi ashavazanghd khmaothra od fra- 
sastaya§£a — ashem vohu 3 fravaranfi — Zarathurtrahe Spew- 
tamah£ ashaond fravash(?6 khmaothra od frasastaya££a — 
ahurai mazdai — ttnem haomem youngham^a — Y. A.V. 

— A. V. — haoma pairi hareshyawti — jyaothananam — khra- 
threm^a— khrathrem£a— adai kahyakid paitl — Y. A.V. — 
A. V. — A. V. 3, Fr. — tava atary puthra AhurahS Mazdou 
khmaothra (athrd Ahurahe Mazdou puthra tava Atars 



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vi. erpatistAn and nIrangistAn. 331 

And for the half of the year, whether earlier or 
later, when he prevents (their being sung)', he be- 
comes a Peshdtanu. 

45 

II. The limits of the several Gahs 1 . 
II a. The Ushahin Gah. 

46. At what hour does the celebration of the 
Ushahina Gathas begin ? 

It continues from midnight to sunrise; thus in 
winter time. 

In summer time, if one sing the Ahunavaiti Gatha 
before sunrise, 

As well as the Yasna Haptanghaiti and the 
Urtavaiti Ha, 

He may, without guilt, sing the rest of the 
Gathas till the middle of the forenoon. 



puthra Ahurahfi Mazdou khjnaothra) — A. V. — frastuyfi — 
staoml ashem — staomt — A.V. — staomt ashem — vasas£a te 
Ahura Mazda. 

Amesha Spewta — imad Baresma hadhazaothrem min 

1 On the limits of the five Gahs of the day and night, and the 
ceremonies of the same (Dfnkart, 1. 1. § 9). The five Gahs (asnya), 
it will be remembered, are — 

1. Ushahina (Ushahin), from midnight to the extinction of the 
stars, or Dawn. 

2. Havani (Ha van), the morning Gin, beginning at dawn. 

3. Rapithwina (Rapithwin), the midday Gah. 

4. Uzay&irina (Uzfrin), the afternoon Gah, from Rapithwin to 
the appearance of the stars. 

5. Aiwisruthrima (Aipisrusrim), from the appearance of the 
stars to midnight. 

In winter there are only four Gahs, Havani and Rapithwina 
being united. 



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332 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

lib. Gah Havan. 
47. Kahmaa? havanem githanSm ratufro fra^a- 
saiti ? 

Ha£a hb-vakhsad maidhyii frayarai pairi-saiaiti ; 
Hamatha itha. 

A 

Aaa aiwi-gimi maidhyai uzayarai 

Yad va yatha uzarem yad yatha khsaparem a . 



Ahurai Mazdai od dathiud a&tad dim od vanghu^a 
vanghous£a. 

Agthraya varartam — imad baresma — frastuyfi — Y. A. V. 
— ashaya n6 paiti ga.my!Ld — ^varata nar6 — nadatum. 

Gam. 

Nem6 Haomai mazdadhatai vanghur Haom6 hudhat6. 

Havananem astaya — azem visai — yd n6 afivd ad tu. 

Pairi t£ Haoma ashcm vohu — A. V. — vanghu£a van- 
ghausira — ygNhfi mfi ashkd ha£a — jyaothananam. 

Sasti^a — Ahurai Mazdai — Amesha Spe«ta — imem hao- 
mem — y<zungh£m£a. 

— Khjathrem£a— athretim kluathrd kereta h6 ga<wd 
berezd us shavaydu/. 

Ashem vohu — ydNhfi m6 ash&/ha£a — haomanlm£a hare- 
•syamnanam — arjukhdhanam£a va^angham — atha z! nu 
humaydtara anghen — jyaothananam — adai kahya^W paitt 
— us m6i uzararva Ahura Armaiti tevishtm dasva — ashaya 
dadhami imam zaothram haomavaittm gaomavaitim ha- 
dhanadpatavaitim od tava Ahuranfi Ahurahg vahlrtabyd 
zaothrabyd — tava Ahuranfi adhi. 
* Vohu ukhshya manangha imau raokau barezutem bare- 
zimanam yahmt Spewta thwa mainyu urvads6 ^asd. 

Ravas^a Avathremka afrinami vispayou ashaond stdlr 
aza&fca du*athrem£a afrinami vtspayau drvatd stdlr. A. V. 
3 vay6Lr upardkairyfihfi taradhatd anyalr daman aStarf t£ 
vay6 yarf tfi asti spe«t6 khmaothra — yazai apem^a ba- 
gham£a. 

Haurvatatd rathwd yairyaymi huritdij saredha£ibyd 
ashah£ ratubyd ayaranam£a asnyanam£a mahyanam£a ya- 



» 



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VI. ERPATISTAN AND NiRANGISTAN. 333 

lib. The Havan Gah. 

47. At what hour does the celebration of the 
Havani Gathas begin ? 

It continues from sunrise to the middle of the 
forenoon ; 

Thus in summer time. 

In winter time till the middle of the afternoon. 



iryanam^a saredhan£m£a vfspa&am yazatanam pun yaza- 
maide ayara ashahe rathw6 ratufretfa yaz. asnya ashahe 
rathwd ratufretfa yaz. mihya ashahe rathwd ratufrettf yaz. 

Yairya ashahd rathwd ratufretij yaz. 

Saredha ashava ashahfi rathwd ratufretij yaz. 

Azat-mart guft hava-t : ayara ashavana ashahe rath- 
wd ratufrettr yaz. 

Athrd Ahurahe' Mazdau puthra. 

Kbrathrd nafedhrd Nairyd-sanghahd. 

Mid vtspadibyd aterebyd. 

Athrd Ahurahg MazcUra puthra amat du athrd Ahurahe 
Mazdau mat/ vtspaeibyd aterebyd. 

Athrd Ahurahe Mazdau puthra. 

Khrnumaine mounghahg [gao od] khmumaind dathurd. 

Apam vakhduni^n aspd karp km (read aspd-kehrpam) 
pun minun yakhsun£t. 

T!r ydm kh^numaine dana Tirtrydhd stard radvatd 
Ararenanghatd Satavlsahe frapahe surahe mazdadhatahe. 

Tirtryghe— Vanawtd. 

TLrtrydhd — TLrtrydhd vitahd ashaunam. 

Athrd Ahurahe Mazdau puthra mad vispaSibyd alerebyd 
Tirtryelid Vanawtd gens tami vlspaejam. 

Klunumaine amahe. 

Pathayau Az^styf/zu] zarenumawtd surahd- Saokawtahe- 
ka. gardlr mazdadhatahe patham ^vastaitim yaz. 

Zarenumawtem surem yaz. Saokawtem gairim mazda- 
dhatem yaz. 

Ramand Av&strah6 — thwlrahe. 



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334 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

48. Kahm&d ah£ia (read haia) apSm vanghtnSm 
frati* frafasaiti ? 

Haia hti-vakhsaa? a hu-frashmd-daitdu/ pairi- 

saiaiti ; 

Tad hama tad aiw^gama. 

Y6 ape 1 zaothrSm frabaraite\ 

Pasia hft-frashmd-daim para hd-vakhsad, 

N6id vanghd ahm&d .yyaothanSm verezy&ti, 

Yatha yad him aztis vishapahe* vastrem (read 

astrem ?) paityapta karsdid*. 

1 1 c. Gah Rapithwin. 

49. Kahma^ ha£arapithwan3m(H. — ratufrithwa- 
nam T.) gathanSm ratufm fra^asaiti ? 

Haia rapithwayarf maidhyai uzayarai pairi-sa£aiti b . 

lid. Gah Uzirin. 

50. Kahmad ha£a uzayairanSm gathanSm ratufm 
fra^asaiti ? 

Haia maidhyii uzaryaraaf hu-frashm6-daifc?e' pairi- 
saiaiti ; 

Hama itha. 

Aad aiwigami y£zi para hu-frashm6-dat6i<tf ahu- 
n2&£a vairyS frasravay£iti, 



TutryehS— Vanawtd. 

Khjntimain£ ashdLr vanghuyau ^istdij vanghuyau ereth* 
vanghuyau. 

Vispaejam — 2 berezatd, % dathujd. 
• Apam vlspa&sam. 

Vispaejam — haomyam. 

A.V. 3, fravaranS : ma gas yakhsunfit. aiwydvanghi- 
byd vispanam£a apam Mazdadhatanam berezatd Ahurahd 
nafedhrd apam apas£a mazdadhatayau tava Ahurane 



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vi. erpatistAn and n!rangistAn. 335 

48. From what hour may the sacrifice to the Good 
Waters 1 be offered ? 

It continues from sunrise to sunset ; 
Thus both in summer time and in winter time. 
He who offers libations to the Good Waters, 
After sunset and before sunrise, 
Does no better deed 

Than if he should throw them downright into 
the jaws of a venomous snake 2 . 

He. The Rapithwin Gah. 

49. At what hour does the celebration of the 
Rapithwina Gathas begin ? 

From Rapithwa to the middle of the afternoon. 

lid. The Uzirin Gah. 

50. At what hour does the celebration of the 
Uzay&rina Gathas begin ? 

From the middle of the afternoon to sunset ; 
Thus it is in summer. 

In winter, if, before sunset, one sing the Ahuna 
Vairya, 

Ahurahe khniaothra [yasnai^a] od frasastaya££a apash 
v&g vakhdftnijn. 

Fra te staomaide - Ahurane Ahurahe 1 vanghmr yasnas£a 
vahma&fca huberettf^a urta-beretir£a va«ta-beretL?£a yaza- 
tanam, thwa ashaonam kuktuntxa us bi barami, rathwas/fca 
berezat6, gathaus£a sravaydW fra te staomaidi. 

Mia t razSgada. 
b Ashahe vahi.rtah£ athras£a Ahurahe Mazdou ylspaejam. 

Ashahfi vahutahe athras£a Ahurahe Mazdau puthra. 

1 The so-called dp-zdhr (Yasna LX1II seq.; see the Guimet 
Zend-Avesta, I, 392-425). 

1 a. vd vii, 79. 



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336 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

Apasia fraitfi, 

Spe#ta Mainyumia vaiastartem khsvaj vahirtem 
sravayti ; 

Anasteret6 pasiaita avau (H. — ava</ T.) yau 
anyau sravay6i</ a maidhyaaf khsapaa?*. 

He. Gah Aiwisruthrem. 

51. Kahmadf aiwisruthremananSm gathanSm ratu- 
frw fra^asaiti ? 

Haia hu-vakhaa?-frashm6-dait*e* (read hu-frashm6- 
daite6) maidhyai khyap£ pairi-sa^aiti : 
Tad hama tad aiwi-gami b . 

III. The offerings for the Gahinbars. 

52. Y6i daitya yaona (H. — ydna T.) Avarenta 
(read £are#ta), 

Gavastraia varemau vereza»t6 khratumia asha~ 
vanem aiwisha«td, 

Adhaityd-draonanghas&i he»ta, 

Daittm geus draond upa isemnd ava apangha- 
bde«ti ; 

Framare#tem a&ram, 

Ndid a£ta£sSm ratufro ratufraitim thwereyaiti ; 

Yadhdirf a£t£ framare«ti yadhdiaf ratufryd c . 

53. Aad a&taya (read a£ta ya) fra^arewti keresSs^a 
gadhditl^ia, 

Da£vt&£a hawdaramana upa mraocfcsia vispd- 
khsapd, 



• Y. A.V.—ad ta vakhjya. 

b Afidha aiwyast^n/ paiti apathrestemem£a</ ptarewta. 

Hazangrem ma&ranam danunam paiti-puthranam narSm 
ashaonam ashaya vanghuya urung £ithim nisirinuyarf 
(Afrtng. Gahan. 7). 



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vi. erpatistAn and niRangistAn. 337 

And offer the libations to the Waters, 

And sing the six stanzas of the Githa Speata- 

mainyu ; 

He may, without guilt, sing the rest of the Gathas 

after sunset. 

II e. The Aiwisruthrim Gah. 

51. From what hour does the celebration of the 
Aiwisruthrima Gathas proceed ? 

It continues from sunset to midnight ; 

Thus both in summer time and in winter time. 

III. The offerings for the G&hanbars. 

52. If an honest man, 

Working hard and teaching the Holy Wisdom l , 

Have no sufficient living, 

And dream of getting sufficient meat * ; 

If such a one only 3 recite (the prayers), 

He who celebrates the festival 4 cannot charge 
him with non-celebration ; 

For as far as he recites (the prayers), he has 
celebrated the festival *. 

53. But men who live like robbers and highway- 
men, 

In knavery, brigandage, and debauchery every 
night, 

1 A profession which brings no great income to those who exer- 
cise it. 

* ' They have bread, they have no meat,' and cannot therefore 
offer any meat for the Gih&nbar. 

* Without making any offering. 

4 The rich man who provides the offerings. 

* ' He has as much merit as if he had presented pious people 
with a thousand goats big with kids ' (Comm.), which is die re- 
ward promised for the celebration of the first Gihanb&r (Afrmgan 
Gahin. § 7). 

[4] ' Z 



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33^ FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS, 

Daity6-draonanghasia ha»td, 
Fradhaittm daittm geus draond updisemnd adha 
avanghabdemn6 ; 

Aframare»tem a&yam, 

A6ta&am ratufm ratufritlm thwiresaitl. 

54. KShya 4g[a]va ratufm ? 

Yau avangha avau yau nairyau yau puthrahe" 
aperenaydw. 

Yau tanu-perethahg aparaothemnahe" aghaurvaya 
ratufrey. 

Yau haia da6vayasna&byd ava urvaitya apa bara 
aya ratufm ; 

Tadha yao* paiti barewti ya aredmaa 1 apaiti tad 
(read apaititao 1 ) a^aghaurva ; 

Yahu varanghana ; 

Y4 adhaiti fravaityanSm (read fraraityanSm) frapa 

Ya ndio* vistem drvat6 

Yao* paiti barauwti 

Ndid apaita ndid paiti kaya ratufrey. 

55. Ratufm apaityand kShya (H.— T. dShya) 
Ratufm hava ya nmanah.6 paiti ri£yeih6 
Y&zi vis hvavdw dazdg ratufrw * 
.^foaretha y6zi aratufm. 

56. Ndid pasusia bazda ndid imta anazdya ratufm. 
Aba«ta airirta anadya pairistanghara ratufm. 

57. Ratufm pasuy^bto ^astai-fia a^z/astaiafa 
z&yeska. azaye\a£a (H. zyalsvfa azyafcia). 

Ratufm patuj (read pitm) Av&st&is ndid [anastd- 
iska. azyalf nbitf] anazyaw. 

Ratufm snak<mij-ia vfzu^a hv&s\£\ska. ndid ana- 
hv astaly azyaLr ndid anazyaLr b . 



•Y6zi aao* his- n6W his- hvav6ya dazd£ [a]ratufrLs> ya 
adhang[ang]h6 — yfizi — Araretha yazata ratufrLr. 



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vi. erpatistAn and nIrangistAn. 339 

Who have plentiful living, 

And dream of a surplus of meat ; 

If such men recite not (the prayers) 1 , 

He who celebrates the festival can charge them 
with non-celebration. 

54. Whose meat-offering is accepted ? 

The offering of a man, of a woman, of a child. 

The property seized on a criminal is accepted. 

The property seized on heathens 8 who have 
broken a treaty is accepted ; 

Also the property that is brought having been 
seized on the committer of an unexpiated aredur ; 

The property seized in consequence of an ordeal ; 

55 

56. Sheep diseased, wounded, or lean, are not 

accepted. 

Sheep not diseased, not wounded, and not lean- 
fleshed, are accepted. 

57. Milk cooked or not cooked, from a fat cow or 
from a lean cow, is accepted. 

Meat is accepted; cooked, not uncooked; from 
fat cattle, not from lean cattle. 

. . . and . . . are accepted ; cooked, not uncooked ; 
fat, not lean . . . 



b Pafi afinyaLKrf (pa£mainyai/&u/?) zaothraya. 
58. hv6 Lrta&rva pasuj hvir. 

Yd pasftm avai vlnaoiti [pas£a] hft-frashmd-dattim asao- 
kantad paiti kthr&d. 

Yatha va az6 ska.&nis yatha huj peresd. 

1 However rich may be their offerings. 
' Foreigners, non-Zoroastrians. 
Z 2 



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34° FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

Ratufm £areman5mia pasu-vastranSnvfca, 
Upa rae\yatnaw fradiritaradf nagm&z'; 
MaratanSrn ntid amaratanam azayanam n6\d ana- 
zayanSm ft . 

59. Ratufm nairikayau kehrpa ndid payanghd, 
Nd'id sund kehrpa payanghd ; 

Ratufm vehrkayau kehrpayau payangha>6a hadho 
vlspanam/£a dadvayasnanSm [tanuj-perethanam dOm 
hathra baodhd angha fraurva6syd. 

60. Y6 aevd hadhd-ga6thanSm yd baresmaia 
frastare#ti geuska paiti-bairaiti, 

Adh&d ainyd anta.ra.el na&mfLd hathrahe vaiasia 
framavamti (read framravai#ti) gavastryaia varemau 
Verezewti, 

Vispa&Smia aiwi-surunvaiti vlspd ratufryd b . 

Y6zi tad ntid aiwi-srunva«ti ae\yd [ratufri sd] rat[u}- 
f [r]iw6 yd baresma frastere#ti geuska paiti-baraiti c . 

61. Kahmadfha&L mazdayasnanam (read myazda- 
vanSm) myazdd ra[6]thwaiti ? 

Y4 kluudru yad va yaz[a]«ti yad va Ii3m-ra6- 
thwe»ti, 

Yad vi fra uithdtatd perese»ti, 

Yad va ae\ySm anyd agtahmai daiti dadhaiti d . 



* Geus va aspahd va varesahd. 

A. V. 3, fravaranfi [mazdayasnd zarathu-rtm vidaeVo 
Ahurahd dkatsb]. 

— Ahurah£ Mazdau raevatd At/arenanghatd khrnaothra 
y. v. kh.fr.— A. V. 
b Atha ratujr asharf kid ha£a fra ashava vldhvau mraotfl. 
Hazangrem ma&ranam (Afrlng. Gahan. § 7). 

Ya&am anghen£a thwar6 mazdijta (read anghen £athwar6 
nazdlrta). 
d Ashem vdhti 3, fravaranfi. magasyakhsanQnet khjnfl- 
man. Sraojahe ashyehg takhmahe tanu-mathrahe dareshi- 



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vi. erpatistAn and n!rangistan. 34 1 

58 Leather is 

accepted from the skin of an animal, 

From under the ra&atna ; 

If supple, not if not supple ; if from a fat animal, 
not from a lean one. 

59. Woman's milk is not accepted, 
Nor bitch's milk ; 

A she-wolf's milk is accepted ; 

60. Of priests of one partnership ' if one bind the 
bundle of Baresman and bring the offering of milk, 

And the others, within a Hathra distance, recite the 
words and perform the ritual acts, 

And all make the responses 2 , all are accepted. 

If they make not the responses, the one who has 
bound the Baresman and brought the offering of 
milk is accepted. 

61 



draoj ahtiiryehfi khmaothra yasnai£a od frasastaya££a 
3 dukanak kartak yd paoiryd mazdau daman apa.s 
afrinagan pun r&is& ndk napar A. V. 3, fravaran£. 
ma gas: havaive' u savangh*6 rathwam. khshnuman 
Ahurahfi Mazdmi raevat.6 kartak 1 Ahurem Mazdam 
ashavanem ashahe ratum yaz. .*. hudhounghem mazLrtem 
yazatem yim sevlrtem frada</-ga£them od ad zayfinfi 
(Y. XVI, 10). Apaj afrtnagdn pun rdija: rathwd 
berezarf ashem vdhu 3, fravarang. Pun Hatokht hadhao- 
khdhai. pun Vtspdrat havan*6. kh^numan rathwd 
berezarf, kartak! data^a a£t£ Mazdayasna. Apaj afri na- 
gan ai pun rdija pun man-i japlran [u] mini- 
atajan: Ashem vdhu 3, fravarand, ma gas yakhsun£t 
khjnuman dahmayau vanghuyou afrit6ij ughrai dam6u 

1 Cf. page 305, note 3. 

4 Cf. § 20 ; in particular the atha ratux in the recitation of the 
Ahuna Vairya. 



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242 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

62. Kahmad ha£a myazdavanam myazde" rathwaiti? 
Ya papithwa vasd aiisteS, 

Yad pairi baresman ha«£asa*t6 aaaf ratufritig. 
Yad yazawti yad? va hSm ra6thway&«ti a . 
Ya^va a&Sm any6 a&ahmai daiti dadhaiti. 

63. Yas/£a mg a6ta&Sm mazdayasnanSm myazda- 
vanam a6tangham yad myazdanarn anahakhtd para- 
baraiti, 

Ndid t&yus ndid hazangha bavad; 
Aiwiii&shmnai akaiithamanSm stayaaf. 
Ainy6 k&s&id angheus astvatd para-baraiti akau 
hazangha anakausfi tayiw. 

64. Ya nara hamd-^»aretha ham6-gaodana hamSm 
a6t6 khshaudrunem zaothrSm baratd hamSm piipith- 
wSm (H. — paiptwSm T. — read papithwSm). 

PaitinSm hamd-zfo/aretha paitiia gaodana, 

PaitinSm a&6 khfadrem (read khshaudrem) zao- 
thrSm baratd hamSm papithwSm. 

PaitinSm >&paretha hamd-gaodana, 

HamSm a£t£ khiaudrem zaothrSm baratd paitinSm 
(H.) papithwSm. 

PaitinSm ^oaretha paitinSm [^aretha hamd] 
gaodana, 

PaitinSm (H.) a£t£ Iduudrim zaothrSm baratd 
paitinSm papithwSm b . 



upamanai khjrnaothra y. v. kh. fr. dukanak kartan apaj 
taa ahmi nmanfi [apaj] afrtnagan pun rdija zag-f 
10 ydm pun Farvartigan zag-t pan£- ydm [fartum] 
A. V. 3, fravarang. ma gas yakhsundt kh^numan. 
Ahurah£ Mazdau ashaunam, kartak-i you vtsadha ava- 
ysurti; apaj afrinami pun rdija zag-t pan^ ydm dar 
gas afi A. V. 3, fravaranS [m4 gas] yakhsungt khjnu- 
maind Ahurahfi Mazdmi gathabyd u ashaunam apax kartaki 
you vtsadha apax afrinagan-1 pun rdi^a pun stdtth 



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vi. erpatistan and nJrangistAn. 343 

62 

63. If one of the Mazda-worshippers who share in 
the Myazda l carry off part of it without due leave, 

He is no thief, he is no highwayman 2 ; 

He shall pay the penalty they may exact 

Any other man in this world who shall do that 3 , 
if he does it openly is a highwayman ; if secretly, he 
is a thief 4 . 

64*. If two men have the same food and the 
same plates, they shall offer the same libation of 
wine and the same meat 

If they have the same food and separate plates, 
they shall offer separate libations of wine and the 
same meat 

If they have separate food and the same plates, 
they shall offer the same libation of. wine and sepa- 
rate meat. 

If they have separate food and separate plates, 
they shall offer separate libations of wine and sepa- 
rate meat. 



A.V. 3, fravaranfi. ma gas yakhsunfit apajr kh.mtiman 
Sraasab.6 asydhfi ; kartak yd vanand. 

•Yarf athavatha veres6 ntid vereze«ti ay dp aiwithweres 
— mrua£a — yaska. 

b Haurv6 pasd Fraraortrd na&no paithwa Zarathurtrd. 

1 The public religious banquet which is one of the characteristics 
of the G&hanb&r festival. It is given at the expense of the rich, 
and both rich and poor take part in it. 

* As he has a general right to it, though he ought not to have 
taken it without authority. 

* A man who does not belong to that Myazda. 

* See above, page 35, note 1. 

* The case foreseen in this obscure paragraph seems to be that 
of two men, members of the same Myazda, according as they each 
bring their separate fare or not. 



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344 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

IV". The Libations. 

65. Aaiti ni aevahe pasv6 zaothraof (read zao- 
thrau) baraaf ? iatangrd. 

Atha dvau atha thrySm ; 

A'aturam aevam kahyaiii^ tadha frayanghSni. 

Kvad gaonahd avabar&d ? 

Ya dvaeibya erezubya ha»gerefaaf (H. — ha»ge- 
reftlu/ T.), 

Dashenem a va gaonavat6, 

Barenud va paiti vaghdhanah£ a . 

Vispa&Sm awtare (read atarem ?) paiti-nardiaf (read 
paiti-bar6ia?) b . 

66. Kvad na apa (read ap6) fratad? >6arete khsau- 
drem payanghSm paiti-bara^? yatha tarta zaothrd- 
barana. 

Aad tuirinSm yatha thrw ^arethema raethwi.y 
ba/irt6 (H. — ba^anad T.) ; 

Aad paitau (read pitmy) yatha £athward a-rti masd 
ainaidkim nSzau. 

67. JCvad na ape arma&taya khsaudrinam pa- 
yanghSm paiti-baraa? ? yatha thrl$ &/arema radthwa 
bafind. 



•Pouni>Krfuthahe(H.— uthdhahS T.)amat k\ kabad Oth 
yad ahtad ha^fasount^ paouru-gaonahd uthah££a. 
b Tar6 yasnem haptanghaitlm y£ze»tem ndid athrd frava- 
tim£a yad ndid geas vimatim. 

Yad franata bun. 

Y<xungham£a a£t«us£t£ atere zaothrau. 

Pasva zanghem astaya. 

D&rina paiti aredhangha. 

Aathwaresatem gaoshem frayazamaidd. 

Tad £ithrem£a. 

Ithrishum aunghad uthem sadayarf. 



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vi. erpatistAn and nIrangistAn. 345 

IV. The Libations 1 . 

65. How many Zaothras shall a man bring for 
one head of cattle ? — Four. 

As many for two, as many for three ; 
For four, one more for each head. 
How much gaona 2 shall he pull out ? 
As much as he can seize on a space of two fingers, 
Either on the right hand of the gaona part 8 , 
Or on the summit of the head. 
Of all of them he shall throw the gaona into the 
fire. 

66. Of liquid milk how much shall the man bring 
to a running stream 4 ? — As much as a cup for 
libation * contains. 

Of milk in cheese three times as much as the cup 
for mixing and dividing • contains ; 

Of meat as much as four arti (?) . . . 

67. Of liquid milk how much shall he bring to 
the water in a pond ? Three times as much as the 
cup for mixing and dividing contains. 



Athrd ahurahfi mazdou puthra mad vispafiibyd aterebyd 
gardlr uri-darenahe' mazdadhatahe asha-Av&thrahL 

Youngham&l — yazamaide' — Ahurem Mazdam — Artiera 
Spewta — humatanam — srirem (H. — srim T.) aredumem. 

YfiNhi hatam— humatanam— 4 Y. A. V. 3 A. V. 



1 ' On the number of zdhrs [to be taken] from a head of cattle ' 
(Dtnkart, 1. 1. § 11). The goat famishes the milky element, the^iv, 
for the z6hr. 

* Hair? * The hairy part? 

* As an ap-z6hr to a running stream. 

* A zaothro-barana (z6hr-baran ; Visp. X, 2). 
« Cf.Vd.XIV, 8. 



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346 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

Avi (H. — ava T.) gereftem paitim (read pitum) 
gerebyiaf; 

FradarLrtaii^ tuirinSm fradaray6i</. 

Navayayai itha ap6 ; 

had navayai, 

Avadzd aetanghau frabareta distra masd paiti-bar6 
(H.— pai-bar6 T.) *, 

Aipi ^aghaurvatam aspayanSmia payangham ga- 
vayanSmia ma&rininamia buzlnanamia b . 

AvaSzd pasum ham pukhdhem mananghd (read 
zemananghd) r\6\d payanghd 

U&£a ap6 shaud gavayaw 

Khshva* vaghsibw a#tare bardie 

Yatha ndid a6ti nidaiti^a airuya 

Azl dim a6tae\rSm daon6- (H. — baond- T. ; read 
baodhd-) ^aitij astaraiti °. 

68. Avatha frabereta zaothrau frabar6i^, 

Atha havana haoman hunyaa?, 

Yatha havad? vaethadf atha m6 zaothr£ y£te" (read 
zaothrau ya»t£) raoifcahe" vitid a»tare temah&. 

Vldaya*/ zi yatha hd ashw anghaof; 

VlspanSm zil asras£i»tem paraia (H. — pra£a T.) 
aejfayamananam daeva ra6za6te" upa [njukhtururu 
tuthra&u asravayamnadf paiti Ahunaaf vairya*/; 

Atha yd dim fraha«£i»tare atarem^a baresmaia, 

Anairyanam tad dahyunam verethrai uz^asaiti d . 



• Fridhast azou. 

Ava6zd pasum ham pukhdhem (cf. infra). 

/fithrem kid (H. ; T. £ik>fcthrem kid). 
b Taurva payau bavarf aspay&adkn khrayaa^a. 

A.V. 3 ,Fr. 

Gnu tanifi gnu urunS. 

Tava g«u hudhaungh6 urunfi. 



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vi. erpatistAn and nIrangistAn. 347 

There he shall dip and take up the same quantity 
of meat * ; 

There he shall hold out cheese. 

The same shall it be for river water ; 

But for river water, 

The Frabaretar * may bring, without guilt, for a half, 

Boiling milk of mares, cows, sheep, or goats. 

68. The Frabaretar shall bring the libations, 

The Havanan shall prepare the Haoma, 

In such a way that the libations, prepared to the 
best. of their knowledge, come to me by daylight, 
not in the darkness 8 . 

For there is no piety without knowledge * ; 

For all libations poured out and presented, that 
are poured in the darkness of night, and without 
singing the Ahuna Vairya, flow to the benefit of the 
Dafivas 8 ; 

And if one pour them without looking at the fire 
and the Baresman, 

They accrue for the victory of the Anaryan 
countries 8 . 



Yavakem geus. 

Khrnaothra. 

Ashasara manangha. 

Ashasara vaiangha ashasara jyaothana. 
• YfiNhfi m6 asharf ha£a vahirtem— y&nfi — paitt. 
a Ashcm£a dapas£a hu-frlrmd-daittm. 

1 As prescribed for a running stream. * See § 68. 

• Cf. § 48, and Vd. VII, 79. 

* Offering up the sacrifice without a proper knowledge of its 
rules and practice is no piety. 

Cf. Vd. VII, 79. • The hostile countries. 



6 



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348 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

69. Yd paiti apd baraiti ndid baresmaind, 

Ydzi baresma a«tara*/ naemaaf adyd draqfydhd 
yavd frathydhd, 

Paiti baresmafcid? paiti-bar6i</ ; 

Ydzi ndiaf thriva paiti aziiti ayare drSfd vavastry&£ 

Yd paiti baresmaind ndid? apd, 

Ydzi af&y (read afr) a»taradf nagmaa? thrigamahe, 

Paiti apadiia? (H.— apaemao? T.) bardia? ; 

Ydzi ndia? paiti-baraiti thri va azaiti ayare dra/d va 
vastryaa?* 

70. Yaa? baresma adrd dr&£d yavd frathd kavaiu/ 
agtahe paiti-bardW. 

Yaa? masyd adtahmaa? baresma, 

Yatha aetahe frasterenaiti atha acta hfi paiti-bardu£ 

Yad zaota Ahurem Mazdam yazaiti madhimai 
baresmSn paiti-bardia? ; 

Amesh* Spe»t? yazaiti fratemai baresmSn paiti- 
barou/ ; 

Apd aafyazamaidd haotemai baresmSn paiti-bardia? ; 

AshaunSmia urunasia fravashis>£a yazamaidd ash- 
ndtemai baresmSn paiti-bardia?. 

Vtspadibyd yasnd-kereta&byd madhemai baresmd 
paiti-bardia? b . 

•Apd vyaudau matard^-itayd. Rat6Lr. 

Avavarf tadha yatha /feathward erezvd. 
Surunuymi. VJspaya afrinami. 

b Kud6-zatanam/H</, aarimka, nairinam/fca, ya&ram vah£hir, 
da&nmi, vanaiwti [thrakhti] vanghen, vaonare, kruathrem&L 
Yaij azatha mahmai hyata avangb.6 mad vaa padai-y yalf 
frasrfitau tzzyau pairi^asai. 

1 If the libations are intended for the water, not for the Baresman. 

* The words ' a yava's breadth' seem to be out of place here. 
They may have crept in from the usual formula 'an a&ra long, 
a yava thick ' (cf. Vd. XIX, 19 ; infra §§ 70, 90). 



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vi. erpatistAn and nIrangistan. 349 

69. If he bring the libations to the water and not 
to the Baresman \ 

If the Baresman be distant an a&ra's length, a 
yava's breadth 2 , 

He shall bring them over the Baresman ; 

If not, he shall pay three strokes (of the Sraoshd- 
£arana) or a day's work. 

If he bring the libations to the Baresman and not 
to the water, 

If the water be distant three steps, 

He shall bring them over the water; 

If not, he shall pay three strokes (of the Sraosh6- 
iarana) or a day's work. 

70. If the Baresman be an ae^a long, a yava 
thick 3 , one may bring them on any part of the 
Baresman. 

If the Baresman's size be larger, 

He shall bring them on the point where the bundle 
is tied. 

While the Zaotar sacrifices to Ahura Mazda 4 , he 
brings them on the middle of the Baresman ; 

While he sacrifices to the Amesha-Spe#tas 6 , he 
brings them before the Baresman ; 

While he says : ' We sacrifice to the Waters •,' he 
brings them on the left side of the Baresman ; 

While he says : ' We sacrifice to the souls and 
Fravashis of the Holy Ones 7 ,' he brings them on 
the right side of the Baresman. 

* If it has the normal dimensions. 

4 When he recites the formula : ' We sacrifice to Ahura Mazda ' 
(Ahurem Mazdam . . . yazamaide; Yasna LXIII). 

* While he pronounces the words : ' We sacrifice to the Amesha- 
Spentas ' (Ameshd Spenti yazamaide, ibid.) 

* Yasna LXIII. T Ibid. 



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35° FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

Dakhsamaestim aetaaf baresma yad paiti-apem 
franaya»tema *. 

71. Apa adhadf frabareta aetiibyd zaothraby6 
yaiti 

YaunghSm ntxd aiwy6 vanghiby6 frabaravaaf (read 
frabanu/?) 

Fra aetau zaothraru bardie 

Zaota geus paityai pdid (read paityapdiaf) paoiry6 
franghardu/ 

Mruiti a£ta zaota imSm va£6 b . 



Frasa adha^ . . . aria? natttiad yq^uyastdw pai 
. . . ase»ti aesmSs/fei baresia °. 

V. Functions and places of the Zdt and Raspts 
at the Sacrifice. 

72. Kis zaotarc kairim anghad mazdois (H. — 
mazdayasndid? T. — read myazddly) ai» ? 

Gaxiska (read gathaus^a) frasravayiiti vaiimia 
anghe astvaiti paiti adhayaaf : atha ratiu. 

had havanand (H.— havayaaf nand T.) [yadfj 
haomem^a ahunavaof anghavanemia vaemanaaf. 

73. had atravakhshah£ yad atremia aiwa-vakh- 
sayad athrasia ti^r6 thrakhti; yao-sdathaaf, 

Zaothras&t va^im paiti adhayaaf: atha ratu.?. 

74. Aad fraberetarr yad athra&fca aevSm thrakhtim 
yao^datha^, 

BaresmSnia frakem athra££a yasn6-kereta6ibyd 
paiti-bar&d 1 . 

75. Aad asnat&ra yad haomem^a asnaya^ hao- 
memia paiti-hareza^ d . 



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vi. erpatistAn and nJrangistAn. 351 

At all the sacrificial formulas 1 he brings them to 
the middle of the Baresman 8 . 



7i. 



V. Functions and places of the Z6t and Raspts 
at the Sacrifice *. 

72. What shall the Zaotar do on the day of a 
Myazda 4 ? 

He shall sing the Gathas and shall give response 
to the people : atha rata? 6 . 
The Havanan .... 

73. The Atravakhsha shall feed the fire and 
cleanse the three faces of the fire-altar, and shall 
give response to the Zaotar : atha rztus. 

74. The Frabaretar shall cleanse the fourth side 
of the fire-altar, 

And shall bring the transverse stem of Baresman * 
and shall bring the incense to the fire at all the 
sacrificial formulas (all the ycNh£ hatam). 

75. The Asnatar shall wash the Haoma and shall 
strain the Haoma. 



• Yazai apem. 

Tava athrd — tava athrd ahurahe' 

b Amesha Spewta dadna mazdayasna. 

c Yata ra&ram frayu .... tem vangharf afitadha upa 

gerembayan 

d V!spaus£a athrd. 

J At all the Y6n1i6 haiam. 

* See, on these ceremonies, the Guimet Zend-Avesta, 1, 395-397« 

* Dtokart, 1. L § 13. * In a Gihanbar oflfice. 

• See above, p. 341, note 2. 

• The baresman frakem or frSkh-gam, frag&m, a stem that 
rests on the feet of the Barsomdan or Mahrfl. 



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352 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

76. had ra6thwi*-karah£ yad haomem^a gava 
rathwaya^ bakhshayia^a. 

77. Apem a-beres a-baraa?. Srao^avarezd aiwyakh- 
s&y&d. 

78. Zaotara daityd-gitux 

Madhemya nmanahg madhema^ arathraoaf apa 
sritd. 

79. Stuiukhtb havanand daityd-gatuj 
Da^inem upa srakhtim frataram baresman aparSm 

athrd. 

Haoyarf ha6 na£ma</ asnatarc. 

AtravakluahS daityd-gatuy 

Daranem upa thrakhtem frataram athrd. 

Fraberetarc daityd-gatuj 

HaomySm upa srakhtim fratarSn baresmSn. 

Das'm&d ha£ na&nadf ra£thwidcarah£. 

Anaiwi-eretav6 (H. — erezvo T.) gatu^ a£ta abe- 
reta sraaravarezah.6 vl^arayatem. 

80. YGzi&i a£ti ratav6 anahakhti pairigayanti, 
Zaota vtspa ratu thwau rashayawti 
A£vadha asnathraa? havaynanfi ra£thway&ti. 
Zaota anahakhtd parayaaf dShfctai awvaiastemai 

zaothrem ra^kh^aiti. 

81. Yad a6v6 zaota frayazaiti mayazdahS ai« 
zaotara gitava, 

AGtaya myazdd aiwi-vaidhay&ti rathwa&£a myaz- 
da£/£a rathwa^a, 



1 In the modern sacrifice there are only two priests who divide 
between them the functions of the eight priests. The Rispf, who 
takes his name from the Rathwukare, represents rather the Atra- 
vakhsha whose place he occupies near the fire, and who, of all the 
assistants of the Zaotar, is the one whose services can least be 
dispensed with (see, however, § 81). 



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vi. erpatistAn and n{rangistAn. 353 

76. The Raethwbkara shall mix the Haoma and 
the milk, and shall divide the mixture. 

77. The Aberet shall bring the water. The 
Sraoshavarez shall superintend. 

78. The right place of the Zaotar 

Is in the middle of the house, . . . 

79. . . . the right place of the Havanan 

Is on the right side, opposite the Baresman, 
behind the fire. 

On his left-hand side shall the Asnatar stand. 

The right place of the Atravakhsha 

Is on the right side, opposite the fire. 

The right place of the Frabaretar 

Is on the left side, before the Baresman. 

On his right-hand side shall the RaethwLskara stand. 

The places of the Aberet and the Sraoshavarez 
are not fixed ; they come and go. 

80. If these assistants ' go without the leave of 
the Ratu, 

The Zaotar may make all the mixtures 
Without the Asnatar and the Havanan. 
If the Zaotar go without leave, the preparation of 

the Zaothra shall fall to the wisest and truest 2 of 

the assistant priests. 

81. If the Zaotar sacrifice alone s on a Myazda 
day, at the place of the Zaotar*, 

He shall announce that Myazda to the Lord (of 
the festival) and to the Lord of the Myazda 6 , 



* The most respectable of the priests present. 

* Without his seven assistants. * At his ordinary seat. 
' He announces the banquet to the Ratu of the Gahanbar, that is 

to say, to the Genius of the Gahanbar which is being celebrated, and 
to the Genius of the religious banquet itself. 

[4] A a 



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354 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

Vispayau sS^adh^a ashaond stdi* yasnai^a vah- 
maiia klunaothrai£a frasastaya6ia. 

Zaotars gatava Ahunem vairim frasravaydu/. 

.Syaothand-taitya havana&by6 paiti-^anghdutf, 

Havanand gatflm. 

Atravakh^ah^ gatava atrem aiwi-vakhyaydiaf. 

Fraberetaw gatflm [yasnem haptanghaitlm] frAya- 
zaiti. 

82. Yasia aeta&Sm rathwSm paoiryd paiti (4) 
^asaaf havananem astern astay&ti ; 

Bittm atravakluem ; thritlm fraberetarem ; tflirim 
danazvazem (H. — danazvanem T.) ; 

Pukhdhem asnatarem ; kh^tdrn rafithwiikarem ; 
haptathem Sraoshavarezem. 

83. Adhid anya&Sm rathwam paiti adhaydkf 
A6tae\ySm ratav6 azdai 

Thrigami awtare anawtare atha a«tare patatha 
Yad a»tare va aa*/ a»tare va paiti va thri vi azaiti 

ayare dr&f6 va vastryarf" 

Zaothranam paitwta sti myazddu (H. — paitista 

stimyazddl?) ai» b . 

84. Avay6 vana»ti Spitama Zarathmtra y6 fraurva- 
£rkht6 (read fraurvakhrt£ ?) hava \h£ vanaiwti] ! 

Avoya druya«ti (read dru^awti) Spitama Zara- 
thurtra y6 fraurvaikhti havahe urund drusaite 1 (H. — 
drusahe' T.) 

* Yadhdu/ gaem yavarf erezva. 

Thri-gami aiwyastarf ha£a baresma paraiti. 

Vnrstaskid. 

Vanghanrtas^ (cf. § 109). 

b Ratiu rauininam dathranam sravananam£a pasu vastra- 
nam£a ahaowa. 

1 One of the words in the second line of the Ahuna Vairya. 

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vi. erpatistAn and nIrangistAn. 355 

For sacrifice, prayer, gratification, and glorification 
to all the creation of the Good Spirit. 

He shall sing the Ahuna Vairya in the place of 
the Zaotar. 

At the word shyaothananam * he shall spring to 
seize the mortar, 

Into the place of the Havanan *. 

From the place of the Atravakhsha he shall feed 
the fire. 

From the place of the Frabaretar he shall cele- 
brate the Yasna Haptanghaiti. 

82. And of those masters he who comes first 
represents the Havanan s ; 

Secondly, the Atravakhsha ; thirdly, the Fra- 
baretar ; fourthly, the Danazvaza 4 ; 

Fifthly, the Asnatar ; sixthly, the Raethwidcara ; 
seventhly, the Sraoshivarez. 

83 • 

84 8 . Woe to the straggler who struggles for the 
joy of his own soul •, O Spitama Zarathustra ! 

Woe to the deceiver who deceives for the joy of 
his own soul 7 , O Spitama Zarathurtra ! 

* The Havanan being the priest who holds the mortar and 
pounds the Haoma and the Urvar&m. 

3 The case here is the most ordinary one, when besides the 
Zaotar there is one Rasp! who represents, one after the other, the 
seven assistant priests. 

' The Danazvaza, ' the water-bearer,' is the same as the Aberet. 

* ' That the best of sacrifices is to give presents to the righteous, 
to teach and study the Law' (lit the Intelligence of the Righteous), 
Dinkart, 1. 1. § 14. 

* ' Any evildoer who helps to do evil ; some say, the warrior 
that helps the evil deed and does not repress it ' (Comm.) 

7 ' Any man who does evil with his tongue ; some say, the 
priest that teaches error' (Comm.) 

A a 2 



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356 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

Avoya [darem (read dathrem)] dadhaiti Spitama 
Zarathartra yen[hd da]thrah6 daiti kt\d hava urva 
va raza (read urvaza ?) 

Dathri zl paiti nivaitw vtspahS anghaw astvatd 
humatae\m£a hukhtae\yu>£a hvareytae\ruia. 

Atsa. zaothranam mazLrtaia vahlrta^a srae\yta£a 
Ya nairi ashaon6 dasti aiwi^a haithi ifcishanai&a 
Paitiia paresmanai khratum ashavanem. 
Ashem vohu. 



NIrangistAn. 

Fargard III. 

I. The Kdsti and Sadara. 

85. Aiwyasta mazdayasna gathau sravayaaf n6i// 
anaiwyasta. 

Kva ithra aiwy#u[ngayau]#ti ? adhairi kasa&bya. 
Kvad aiwyaunghayau#ti ? 

Yad a&Sm aredvae" gavastrya varLrt&m vere- 
zawtSm nd'id avangrisaya^ adhairi harethra&byd a . 

86. Nanetema vastrahe' aiwyastd ratufm ? 
Yatha athravand bis paii (read paiti) bis maidhy6i- 

paitistand. 

87. Kva ta£W a£tah£ aiwyast6 ratufro. 
Yaid masyd a^tahma^ vastrem, 

A£tava[t6] aetah£ nistema (read nitema) aiwyastd 
ratufm. 

Y6 aiwy«unghay£aite' karetes&i aratufryd 
Pas^a aiwyastem nitaoray&ti ratufryd. 

88. Yezi thri-y hathrau tkb (read hathrau«i6) 
yataye»te" ratufryd. 

Y£zi aaaf nt\d hathrau«£6 yataya#ti aratufryd. 

* Threuitasti aspayau paourvd azyau arqfd. 

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vi. erpatistAn and nJrangistAn. 357 

Woe to the giver who gives for the joy of his own 
soul ', O Spitama Zarathurtra ! 

For the gift that delivers all the bodily world con- 
sists in good thoughts, good words, and good deeds. 

And the best and finest of all libations 

Is the gift to the righteous man who teaches clear 
truth and consults the Holy Wisdom s . 



NJrangistAn. 

Fargard III. 

I. The Kdsti and Sadara 8 . 

85. The Mazda-worshippers shall sing the Gathas 
with their girdle on, never without their girdle 4 . 

Where shall they gird it ? — Under the armpits. 
How much of it shall they gird around ? 
So much that, while they work standing, the ends 
should not embarrass them below the skirts. 

86. What is the least garment he shall wear [in 
order that his offering should be] accepted ? 

A pair of drawers reaching to mid-leg. 

87. However poor the garment be, he is accepted. 
If the garment be of higher value, 

He is, however, accepted only if it is that size at 

least 

88 s 

' The Pahlavi translator read ndid instead of kbid: 'he gives 
gifts of woe, for which he shall have no joy.' 

* Who studies the Law ; cf. Vd. XVIII, 6. 

' Dtnkart, 1.1. § 15. * Cf. Vd. XVIII, 1-4, 54-59. 

• This paragraph and the two following, referring to the pre- 
paration of the Baresman, appear to have been misplaced, as 
§§ 91-96 continue the remarks on the Zoroastrian's garment, and 
the Baresman is again the subject of §§ 97 seq. The right order 
therefore would be : 87, 91-96, 88-90, 97. 



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358 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

89. Y6 anu ae\sSm baresma frastarewti yatha ashava 
Gamaspd frastarenadta ratufm. 

90. Kwzd nanttima baresmana ratufm ? thrLr 
urvara. 

Kyau vaitua (read kyau vaiti? ?) adtayau urva- 
rayau anghen ? 

Tar6 denard vares6 stavanghd, 

had upema a&yo dra/angha yavd frathangha. 

91. Yd vanghenti kerettofca, 

Paiti vanghS&fct khre uru baouri^a, 
Ydzi awtarem asperen6 vastrahd aiwy«unghayau«ti 
ratufry6 ; 

Anasperend vastrahd aiwyaunghayauwti aratufryd. 

92. Yd vanghaiti varerura&fci pairi-urusvaijtb, 
Ad k^&fa. (read atk*s£a) frazujd sanghaafei upara- 

smanai, 

Ydzi azarem aiwyaunghyauwti ratufryd ; 

Aparem aiwyaunghyauwti aratufryd. 

Anyam^a sutem vanghinahd narem na aratufryd. 

93. Y6 vastra vastrem aiwy<»u«ti, 
Uzbarewti aratufryd ; 

Upara^ nadmaaf ava-bare»ti atha aiwyaungha- 
yauftti ratufryo. 

94. Ydzi uzgeresnavayd (read uzgeresna-vagh- 
dhand) niva»ti, 

Ydzi a»tara^ nadmaaf 

Yd hama aiwyaunghaia aiwy#unghayau«ti, 
Ydzi a»tare brew^ayaiti (read derezyaiti) va 
ratufryd ; 

Ydzi a ndid a«tare derezyaiti va aratufryd. 

95. Yd aiwyaunghay«u«ti rus£a nmanai nmana- 
yasia, 

Ydzi tarasla aiwyaunghana aipi-vere^ai«ti ratu- 
fryd; 



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vi. krpatistAn and nJrangistAn. 359 

89. He who binds the bundles of Baresman as 
the holy Camaspa * did, is accepted. 

90. How many stems of Baresman, at the least, 
are needed for the offering to be accepted ? — Three 2 . 

What shall they be like ? 

. . . . as thick as a hair, 

At the outside an a£$a long, a yava broad. 

91. Those who are clothed with rags, 



If the inner garment be complete,- they are ac- 
cepted ; 

If they wear not a complete (inner) garment, they 
are not accepted. 

92 

93. When they put on the garment over the 
garment 8 , 

If they put it on from below, they are not ac- 
cepted * ; 

If they put it on from above 8 , and then gird it on 
with the girdle, they are accepted. 

94 

95 • • • 



1 According to the proper orthodox rite : G&mSspa was one of 
the first converts to Zarathujtra's doctrine. 

* Cf. Yasna LVII, 6; Yt. XII, 3. 

* The Sadara on the Kdstl. 

4 As the garment has. passed by the regions of the body where 
Ahriman is supposed to reign. 

* It slips from the head on to the shoulders and breast. 



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36O FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

Fasia vi pairi bare«ti aratufry6. 

Y6 vanghaiti nadh«sia s4dhaya»ti.y/fei iareman^a 
huki, 

MaghanSm tinSm (read tanum) aiwyistSm irirty 
ndid anaiwyasti astare«ti ; 

Y£zi aad ndirf maghn&m tanu aiwyistSm ririshifi 
anaiwyista stre»ti. 

96. Y6 gAthi ratufro paiti paraya»ti, 

Yezi aspkere#td (read aspereno) vastrahd ai- 
wyistem d4daray6 a anaiwyisti stre#ti ; 

Ydzi aad ndid asperend vastrahe" aiwydstrem d4- 
darayd ndid anaiwydstd. 

II. The preparation of the Baresman. 

97. Yd baresmSn frastare»ti haoma&fet varedlw&fet 
thanvasia a»tare dita, 

Ydzi thris hithra ke bis (read hathrakadbis) ya- 
y£i#ti (read yitay£i#ti) ratufryd ; 

Yezi aad thru (?) r\6\d thrw h4thrak*bi.r yatayawti 
aratufryd a . 

98. Yd urvarSm baresma frastare#ti hamd-vare- 
she^im paouru-fravdkhrem, 

Vi-bar6 frav&kh*6 ratufm, ndid v!-bard. 

PaoirLr paoiri-fraviklud frastarewti, 

VI narasia (read vl-baras£a) avt-bare&fct ratii.?. 

99. Y6 baresma anahmad na^mad hSm srishaiti 
hSm v4 darezayeiti, 

Vl-bar6 ratufro, ndid vi-bard. 
Atha yatha y6 hSm va&rya" hSm vae\&£ayditi va- 
naema hSm sroaiti vares>£a iverbaresia ratufro. 

100. Yd baresma taoshyditi drao? vi paiti s6inma, 
UnSm va kad&idva paiti sidaranSm, 

Ydzi twrd dinand hAthr&ro nu-hfo £a*tifratufro 
(read ni.f-hi.sta»ti aratufro). 



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VI. ERPATISTAN AND NlRANGISTAN. 36 1 



96. 



II. The preparation of the Baresman 1 . 
97-IO' 



' Y6 rathis£a pasvarezd^s^a baresma£n6 ham vare#taye«ti. 
Naratd karaithin. 
Zata ratur fren£. 
KSLmkid va vakhshuam. 
Zatd frrti. 



2 ' On the way of gathering and tying the Baresman ' (Dinkart, 
1.1. §16). 



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362 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

Y6 urvarayau ava va&6e»ti, 

YSzi tlfrd tard denand (read den4r6) hathra Us 
(read hathra&.f) bare#ti fratufm (read ratufro) ; 

Y£zi aaaf ntid tisrb tar6 denan6 (read denard) 
hathra £\s (read hathraiu) bare»ti aratufro. 

101. Y6 zemo tisrd kareshau frakarayeiti, 
Ava itha bare#ti yavahG va gavanahe va, 

Y6zi tisrt dtard (read tard) denand (read denard) 
hathra>fc awtara spewti (read ha»dare^a»ti ?) ratufm ; 

Ydzi bad ntid usrb tar6 dedand (read den4rd) 
ha#daresa#ti aratufm. 

Y6 any6hd as-hya baresma frastare»ti, 

Y6zi paiti shau uravanzu upa dadhaiti ratufro ; 

Pard upa dateu frastare#ti aratufrb. ■ 

102. Hapta he»ti havana ratavd baresma stere- 
nafiiti : 

Paoirya ydNhd m£ asha^ ha£a ; 

Bitya ahunanSm vairyanam ; 

Thritya daidi m6i ; 

Tuirya urtavaityau va spe#ta mainym va hatdi.? 
hawdata ; 

Pukhdha yeNh6 md asharf haia ; 

Khrtvd daidt mol ; 

Haptatha urtavaityau vi spe»ta mainymr va 
hatdi? ha«data. 

Kad anyahu ratufrwu /fcatangrd danghau&feruu/ 
(read kanghaus&W) baresmSn frastaraityd : 

Paoirya ydNh£ md ; 

Bitya ahunSn vairan; 

. . . daidt mdi ye gSm ; 

Tuirya mtavadtay«u gathaymi va Spe»ti main- 
yaw va ft . 

Kvad a6t2m asmem (read adsmem) paiti-bara</ 
awtare ahuna airyanemna b ? 



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vi. brpatistAn and nJrangistAn. 363 

102. There are seven Lords of Havani for whom 
one lays down the Baresman *. 

The first is at y&ihd m6 ashaa? ha£a (Yasna 
XV, 2). 

The second is at the Ahuna Vairyas. 

The third is at daidt mdi (Yasna XVIII, 1). 

The fourth is at the end of the Ha Urtavaiti 
(Yasna XLIII), or of the Ha Spewta Mainyu 
(Yasna XLVII). 

The fifth is at ydNhd m6 asha^ha&t (Yasna LI, 22). 

The sixth is at daidt mdi (Yasna LX V, 1 5). 

The seventh is at the end of the Ha Urtavaiti, or 
of the Ha Spewta Mainyu. 

In the other rites 2 the Baresman is laid down four 
times. 

The first time at ydNhe 4 m6; the second time at 
the Ahuna Vairyas ; [the third time at] s daidt mdi 
ye gSm ; the fourth time at the Gatha Urtavaiti, or 
the Gatha Spe«ta Mainyu. 

103 



* 103. Daityai pairirtai pairLrti. 

Frarathng dra^anghd varo-starighas£a. 

b Khjnaothra yazamaidd yasnem£a. 

Barata beretem aky<?us£angha atari 1 a6smem daityd- 
a£sman. 

Niva6dhay6mi yatha yim Ahurem Mazdam fradathai 
nemd vtvahua u yasangha atarc baoidhtm a£tam baoidhtm 
daityd-baoidhyd. 

1 This seems to mean that there are seven passages of the Yasna 
in the celebration at the Hfivan Gah, at which the Zaotar lays 
down on the Mihru the Baresman which he holds in his hand. 
Cf. the Guimet Zend-Avesta. 

1 In the Visperad and the Dvfizdahdmast. 

* The words ahunan vatran are in Pahlavi, and thritya is 
omitted. 



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364 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

UmemMd (read dyum^u/) ava va^im gathanSm 
asrutem paiti-bar6 aratufm. 

Pasia va pari va pairi barewti aratufru*. 

Od, fraiaratd a£va Mazdayasna baresmSn stere#ti, 

Y6 anu ae\r5m tad ahma (read hama) tad a6ve" 
gama. 

Aad ae\ra. y6 arem6id6 (read aremdi-jidd) aiwie- 
ret6 gituj, 

Advayayaii*/ a.&sb baresmd steraiti ratufm. 

Frashavayd aiwigami ratufris paiti ndi</ afrasha- 
vay6. 

K4 frashGiti* yad kvaaf b ? 

Fra va apa va shavay&ti, 

Azd hama yau paiti fraya^ tan paiti &ad barestnan 
upa-baraiti. 

104. Yd anydhd dahmahe" baresma frastare#ti 
fra^asaiti, 

Ydzi h6i dahm6 antarad nadmaaf hathrahe" aratu- 
fri^. 

Yezi aaaf ndujf dahm6 a«taraa? nadmaa? hathrahe 
bard (read nard) hathraa? 

Frathrithvayd (read frasravayd) ratufris nt'id 
athravayd (read asravayd). 

III. The firewood and implements of Sacrifice. 

105. Yd kemiid? dahmanam aperenayunSm astern 
dasti, 

Hi : m£ bara aesma^a baresmaia ; 
Ydzi s& daiti dadhaiti aratufris (read ratufris) °. 
Y6zi aad h£ ndiaf daiti dadhaiti aratufri*. 
NairikSm va aperenayukm (read aperenayukem 
va) artem dasti, 

Havai rathwd pathayditi. 

Dadvayasnem va tanuperethem va astern dasti, 



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VI. ERPATISTAN AND NtRANGISTAN. 365 

104. If a man come and tie the Baresman of 
another of the faithful 1 , 

If the latter be within a hathra distance, the former 
is not accepted *. 

If the latter be not within a hathra distance 3 , the 
former man is accepted if he sing the hymns * ; if 
not, he is not accepted. 

III. The firewood and implements of Sacrifice. 

105. If a man give a charge to a child of a pious 
family 6 , 

And say : ' bring me wood and Baresman ; ' 

If the child bring wood already cut •, the worship 
is accepted. 

If the child do not bring wood already cut, the 
worship is not accepted. 

If he give the charge to a woman or to a child, 



If he give the charge to a Daeva-worshipper, or 
to a man in a state of sin, 



a Atha ratur mazdayasnd ahmi mazdayasnd Zarathartru, 
od, astuitu nem6 ve gathmi ashaontr urta ahmai. 

b Khrvaj vagheibtr (cf. § 67, end). 

N61V thrySm upamanam frakhxashyanSm (read fravakh- 
shayanam). 

1 A priest has prepared everything for the sacrifice, when another 
priest comes, possesses himself of the apparatus, and offers up the 
sacrifice. 

' He could easily have asked for the permission of his fellow- 
priest and had no right to act without it. 

* So that he could not be easily asked for permission. 
4 If he performs the whole of the ceremony. 

* Of a good sacerdotal family. The child serves him as 
a ratonaya (a sacerdotal servant). 

* It is not certain that the young ratunaya could do it properly. 



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366 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

Paoiryai dahmanam pairi-geremyai pathaygiti a . 

1 06. K\z.d na nitetna aesmahe 1 paitibard ratufro ? 
Yatha vareshnahe' kehrpah.6 d*u.y. 

107. Havana&bya ratufm ayanghana&bya ze- 
mae'naeibya, 

Y6zi anusvau a»ta. 

N6u/ asta£na£ibya n6u/ draonibya ratufm nbxd 
fravakh.ma£ibya ratufm. 

Daityd aeny6 havand adaityd (read daityd) a&byd 
(read a£ny6) b . 

108. ATvarfbya ka nitema&bya havana&bya aratu- 
fro (read ratufris) ? 

Yathra yastuma (read ya thraySstuma) huittm h\s 
hv'xstb. 

ATyava«t6 aSteS (read a£t£) Ssav6 anghen ? 

Bashidra^anghd aog6 (read a£vd- ?) vares6. 

Kzd ham thrisa vlbaraaf nbid? 

ThraySm kvaiu/ upabard ratufro. 

AGtavarf apd yavad a£ta£iby6 upanghare.rt2e\. 

Kva tkkid gens vl&thra paiti-bar6 (a)ratufro. 

Asana£na6ibya (read asana£ibya) na hava&bya&i 
(read havana&byaia) na vanghava&bya&fei (read na 
va anghavaeibyasia) ; 

Atha haomya atha apa (read apa atha varesa) 
atha aiwyaunghana ; 

(read hava gava) havah.6 a£sma hava baresmana. 

109. Kvad a£tae\yam ahurane - k&Md upa is&d- 
yavad hathrem 

Yd a6tae\yam xi6\d ka^iV upd \s&datta\ad apayae\ya 



* Ntid thrayam upamanam fravakhjyanam upa-thweres6W. 

Athweresaya aStahe thwam. 
b Yatha vadhaityd (read va daityd) hita. 



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VI. ERPATISTAN AND NiRANGISTAN. 367 



106. What is the least load of wood accepted ? 

107. One may use a mortar of [silver], metal, or 
earth, 

If it let nothing through (?) \ 

One of bone, wood, or lead is not accepted. 

Such is the rule for both parts of the mortar *. 

108. Of what size at the least must a mortar be 
to be accepted ? 

Large enough for three stems of Haoma to be 
prepared [therein]. 

What shall those stems be like ? 

As long as a joint of a finger, as thin as a hair. 

Shall he put them in at three times or not ? 

As long as he puts in three stems 8 , he is accepted. 

Also water enough to overflow them 4 . 

However little milk he puts in 6 , he is accepted. 

He may use either his own mortar, or one that is 
not his own ; 

And so it is as to the Haoma, the water, the 
Varesa 6 , and the tie T ; 

But the milk must be his 8 , the wood must be his, 
the Baresman must be his. 

1 09. . . 

1 ' If it let anything escape, it is good for nothing ' (Comm.) 
1 The mortar proper and the pestle. 

* Whether he puts them all in at once or otherwise. 

4 For the straining. • A few drops of £fv are enough. 

' Supplied from the Pahlavi translation (itun vars). 

* The vegetable tie that is bound around the Baresman, the 
so-called Aiwyounghana (Evanghin). 

' Supplied from the Pahlavi translation (bard zag-i nafsha 
basrya). 



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368 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

A«tare hathrem*£iaf adtee" anya upa is6i^ 

Y£zi nd'id updisaiti thri va azaiti ayare drifd va 
vastrya*/ 

Y6 up6is6iaf n6id vanasti 

Anasiaiti (read anastaraiti) 

Varerta&fct min algh ntas&id (read varertasia 
maghne#tas/6irf) sravaydutf. (Tahmuras' Fragments, 
XII, ii.) 

Y£zi iska. ntid is£a nb\d anashavanem (read asha- 
vanem) a£ni5tem astaraiti a . (Tahmuras' Fragments, 
XII, 12.) 



* Vangharertas£u£ 
RathLfc upasu varezi£. 

Ashem vohfl vahLrtem asti ujta astl urta ahmai hya// ashai 
vahLrtai ashem, 



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VII. SUNDRY FRAGMENTS. 



1. 
ATithrem buyid. 

Found in a Parsi prayer known as Afithrem buyarf from its first 
two words. It was published by Tir Andaz in his Khorda Avesta 
(Bombay, p. 374 seq.) and by Sachau in his Neue Beitrage 
(Vienna, 1871, p. 823). 

Afithrem buyaaf ahmya nmane 
Pitum buy&d ahmya nmane' 
Thwam pitum buyfLd ahmya nmanS. 

May welfare appear in this house ! 
May plenty of food be in this house ! 
May plenty of food be in thy house ! 



The first of the following three lines, and sometimes the first 
two, are found in many of the Pahlavi colophons at the end of 
Zend manuscripts. The complete formula is found only in the 
colophon of the old Yasna of Kopenhagen (K* ; see Geldner, Yasna 
LXXII, 11 ; West, Dtnkart, 484). 

Aevd pantau y6 ashahe 
VlspS anyaeshSm apa/*t3m 

Angrahfi mainyau nasbtam dafinSm dafivayasna- 
nam para^ltlm mashyanam frakereitlm. 
[4] Bb 



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370 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

There is only one way of Righteousness 1 ; 
All other ways are no ways : 
It is Religion, that destroyer of Angra Mainyu, 
which tears to pieces the Daeva-worshippers, the 
men who live in sin. 

3. 
A formula found in several colophons. 

Ndidf iahmi zazva yd n6\d urun6 zazva 
N6u/£ahmi zazusha [y6 n6ia? urvSni ^azush] 
Na&fw adha Zarathimra suj yatha [him] Adare 
mashyaka 2 . 

He has gained nothing who has not gained the 
soul, 

He shall gain nothing who shall not gain the 
soul s . 

There is no good for man to receive of him*, 
O Zarathustra ! 

4. 

This fragment from the H&dhdkht Nask is quoted in the Sad-dar 
(ch. xl) to impress on children the respect due to their parents and 
masters. 

Ma azaray6i.y Zarathurtra ma Pourushaspem ma 
DughdhdvSm ma a£thrapaiti.r. 

1 'The way of the Pdrydtk&sh' (Paoiryd-rfkaisha ; Ar<£ Vir&f, 
CI, 15), that is, the pure orthodox religion, as founded by Zara- 
thujtra and followed by his first disciples. 

* For various readings, see the Guimet Zend-Avesta, III, 1 50-151. 
' The salvation of his soul, a place in Paradise. The Mind- 

khard (I, 28-32) quotes the same passage with the following 
commentary: 'For the spiritual world and the material one are 
like two fortresses, of which one can clearly take the one, but 
not the other ' (at the same time). 

* Of Ahriman. ' There is no profit to expect from the demons 
nor from the wicked : for if there be profit in the beginning, at the 
end there will be ruin ' (Coram,) 



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VII. SUNDRY FRAGMENTS. 37 1 

Do not afflict, O Zarathiwtra! either Pourushaspa 1 , 
or Dughdhava 2 , or thy teachers. 

5. 
A'athrayaim ithraiam (Shayast la-Shayast XIII, 

The manifestation by the fire 8 . 

6. 
Anaomd mananghe kya visai kva par6 * ? 



This is an Avesti-t m&r zadan (or text to be recited while 
killing a serpent). ' If one recite it while killing a serpent, one 
gathers thereby the same merit as if one had killed a heretic' 
(Gr. Ravayat, p. 383). The text is too corrupt to allow of any 
translation, but it contains allusions to Varshna, son of Hanghaur- 
voungh, son of G&m&spa, whose Fravashi is invoked in the Frdhars 
Yart, § 104, to withstand the evil Pairikas, and who, from the 
present formula, appears to have been a dragon-destroyer. 

Varshnahe thwSm anghrd Urushndw (Jimaspa- 
nahe puthrahe puthrem apaitighni ama yim davata 
Ashu apathat6 paitim apem dSmnsavySm nticl hva- 
zatd n6\d zaniti n&id am«u arenau Av&is $Aet yaza 
afith6 anem sayaeti yvaeia yavaetataeia. Ashem 
vohu. 

1 His father. * His mother. 

• The manifestation of the truth by the fire-ordeal. 
4 A quotation in the Affm-t gSsin 6 (West, Pahlavi Texts, I, 
356, with the various readings in note 1). 



B b 2 

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VIII. AOGEMAIDfc. 



1 The AogemaideV says Dastur Jamispji, ' is a treatise that 
inculcates a sort of serene resignation to death.' It is a sermon 
on death, originally written in Pahlavi, but preserved to us in 
a Parsi transcription ; in which original Zend texts are developed 
or paraphrased. These Zend quotations amount to twenty-nine, 
of which twenty-four are new. A good edition of the Parsi text, 
with a Sanskrit translation, based upon a manuscript of a. d. 1497, 
has been published by Prof. Geiger (Erlangen, 1879). Dastur 
JamSspji possesses two Pahlavi retranscriptions of an independent 
Parsi manuscript, which contain useful corrections and additions. 
We have thought it necessary to give here a complete translation 
of the treatise as the Zend quotations by themselves do not present 
either a continuous or a complete text. Unlike the Zend in the 
Nfrangist&n, they are not the principal, but only the secondary 
text. 

i. Aogemaid^a usmahi^a vtsamada&fca 1 ('We 
come, rejoice, and submit * '). 
I come, I accept, I resign 8 ; 

2. I come into this world, I accept evil, I resign myself 
to death * ; 

1 Yasna XLI, 5. According to Dastur Peshotan, these words 
were uttered by the first man, Gay6-Maretan, before his coming 
into the world, as a promise that he would never resort to suicide 
in order to free himself from pain (Andarze Atrepat, p. 6, note 1). 
Cf. § 104. 

* Direct translation of the Zend text. 

* Parsi translation of the Zend text. 

* Parsi gloss to the translation. 



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VIII. AOGEMAIDfL 373 



3. Shat6-manmi vahirt6-urvan6 (' With the mind 
in joy and the soul in bliss l ') : 

In joy is he who realises the wish of his soul 2 . 

4. May the accursed Gana Mainyd 3 be smitten, 
destroyed, and broken, he who has no knowledge, 
who has evil knowledge, who is full of death, 

5. Who destroys the body of the immortal soul ! 

6. May the immortal soul have its share in 
Paradise ! 

7. And may the pleasure and comfort that will 
dissipate the pain of the immortal soul come to us ! 

8. At the fourth dawn 4 , may the holy, strong 
Sraosha 6 , and Rashn Rast 8 , and the good Va£ 7 , 
and Ashta*/ 8 the victorious, and Mihir 9 of the rolling 
country-side, and the Fravashis of the righteous °, 
and the other virtuous spirits come to meet the soul 
of the blessed one, 

9. And make the immortal soul pass over the 
ICmvad bridge " easily, happily, and fearlessly ! 

10. And may Vahman, the Amshaspand l2 , inter- 
cede for the soul of the blessed one, 



I Direct translation of the Zend text. 

• A gloss to the Zend text 

8 For Zani Mainy6, the same as Ahriman. 

4 Literally at the third day-break (the day-break, flshbam, 
belonging to the preceding day, the following dawn belongs to 
the fourth day). On the state of the soul during the first three 
days-and-nights, or sadis, see Yt. XXII, and above, pp. 218-220. 

8 See above, p. 89, note 1 ; p. 196, note 3. 

• See Yt. XII. 

7 See Yt XV, and above, p. 52, note 3. The Good Vae - or Vai 
is the Good destiny, that takes the soul to Paradise. 

• See Yt. XVIII. » See Yt. X. » See Yt. XIII. 

II See above, p. 219, note 1. " See above, p. 220, note 1. 



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574 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

1 1 . And introduce it to Auhrmazd and the Amsha- 
spands ! 

12. UsehLrtaa? Vohu-Mand haia gatv6 zarany6- 
keret6 ('Up rises Vohu-Man6 from his golden 
throne » '). 

13. He will take the blessed one by the hand, 

14. And make him rejoice as much as does the 
man who rejoices most when on the pinnacle of 
nobility and glory. 

15. And the Fravashis of the righteous will bring 
to the soul of the blessed those blessed aliments 
that are made at the time of Maidyd-zarm 2 : 

16. .//farethanSm he* beretSm zaremay^he" rao- 
ghnahe" (' Let them bring unto him the butter of 
Maidhydi-zaremaya * ! '). 

Aliments of waters, wine, sugar, and honey t 

17. Yatha va erezat6 paiti, yatha va zaranyd paiti, 
yatha va kMid gaonanSm (' Of silver, or gold, or any 
other kind * '). 

The Amshaspand Vahman will give to the soul 
of the blessed one clothes embroidered with gold 
and a golden throne ; 

18. And the demon Ahriman will be powerless 
to inflict any harm or damage on the soul of the 
blessed one. 

1 9. Pas^a parairistim dagva drva«t6 duzdaunghd 
baodhem avatha fraterese«ti, yatha ma£shi vehrka- 
vaiti vehrkaa? ha£a frateresaiti ('The wicked evil- 



1 Vd. XIX, 31. « See Yt. XXII, p. 318, note 1. 

• Yt. XXII, 18. 

4 This refers to the following details : silver, gold, &c. are the 
materials of which the throne is made. 



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VIII. AOGEMAIDfe. 375 



doing Da£vas tremble at his perfume after death, as 
doth a sheep on which a wolf is pouncing l '). 

As the sheep, on which the wolf is pouncing, 
tremble at the odour of the wolf, so these Drupes 
tremble at the perfume of the blessed one. 

20. For whosoever has been born and whosoever 
shall be born must act in such a way that, when the 
moment comes to leave this world, he may have 
Paradise as his portion and Gar6thman as his 
reward. 

21. There is a passage in which H6rmazd said to 
Zarathurtra : * I created, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! 
good renown and salvation of the soul ; ' 

22. (That is to say, good renown in this world 
and salvation of the soul in the next *). 

And in case of doubt we must consider as being 
saved 8 , 

23. Him who, for all we have seen and known, 
has been a believer in body and soul, and has 
rejoiced H6rmazd and afflicted Ahriman, 

24. And whoever has had this for his main 
object, or has been the source of this benefit, that 
from him should flow prosperity and joy, and from 
him should flow no harm and no pain. 

And there is a passage in which the soul says to 
the body 4 : 

25. A&d mSm tanvd ithye^anguhaiti manya ma- 
nangha humatem. 



1 Vd. XIX, 33, and notes 4, 5. 
' See above, p. 253, § 4, note 5. 

• Asho, 'holy, blessed, saved;' in opposition to drva«t, 
' wicked, damned.' 
4 Supplied from the Pahlavi transcription. 



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376 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

O thou, my perishable body, think good thoughts 
with thy mind ! 

26. had mSm tanvd ithye^anguhaiti hizva mruidhi 
hukhtem. 

O thou, my perishable body, speak good words 
with thy tongue ! 

27. had mam tanv6 ithye^anguhaiti zasta£ibya 
vareza hvarertem shyaothanem. 

O thou, my perishable body, do good deeds with 
thy hands ! 

28. Mi mam tanv6 ithye^anguhaiti angrai vaire 
fraspaydly yim khrva«tem aithiva»tem, yim daevim 
afraderesava«tem frakere«taaf angr6 mainyuy pduru- 
mahrkd bunem angh*u.s temanghahe yad ereghatd 
dao«anghahe\ 

O thou, my perishable body, do not throw me 
down into the Var of Angra Mainyu 1 , terrible, 
dreadful, (frightful), dark, undiscernible (for the 
darkness there is so dense that it can be grasped 
with the hand 2 ), which Gana Mainyu fabricated at 
the bottom of the dark world of endless hell. 

29. There is a passage in which H6rmazd says to 
Zarathurtra : 

30. I created, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! the stars, 
the moon, the sun, and the red burning fire, the 
dogs, the birds, and the five kinds of animals 3 ; but, 
better and greater than all, I created the righteous 
man who has truly received from me the Praise of 
Asha 4 in the good Religion. 

31. But without any reason men adhere to that 



' Hell. * See above, p. 66, note 5. Cf. An£ Vlraf XVIII. 

3 See Yt XIII, 10 and note. 

4 The recitation of the Ashera Vohu, the epitome of religion. 



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VIII. AOGEMAID& 377 



evil guide, Passion, created by the demons ; so that 
they do not think of Fate, 

32. And by the bent of their nature they forget 
death. 

33. They do not keep in mind the working of 
Time and the transientness of the body, 

34. They ever go wandering about on the way of 
desire, 

35. They are tossed in doubt by evil Passion, 

36. They clothe themselves with spite, in the 
course of strife, for the sake of vanishing goods ; 

37. They are intoxicated with pride in their 
youth, 

38. And shall be full of regrets at the end of 
their time. 

39. For if one say : ' On this earth of the seven 
Karrvares there is somebody going to die,' every- 
body ought to think : ' Perhaps it is I,' 

40. Had he sense enough to know that every 
creature that has been created and has had existence 
shall die, and that the unseen, deceiving Astivihad ' 
comes for every one. 

41. Hamas^i^ 2 pard avangh6 ise«te" mashya- 
kaunghd (' All men wish for supplies '). 

(Now) when a man sets out on a journey, he takes 
provisions with him ; 

42. If it be for one day's march, he takes provi- 
sions for two days ; 

43. If it be for two days' march, he takes provi- 
sions for three ; 



1 AstivihSd, Asti-vahSt, Ast6-vidh6tu ; see Vd. V, 8 and note 2. 
* From the Pahlavi transcription. The printed edition has 
amesha£i</. 



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378 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

44. If it be for ten days' march, he takes provisions 
for fifteen ; 

45. And he thinks that he will come back in 
health to his well-beloved friends, parents, and 
brethren. 

46. How then is it that men take no provisions 
for that unavoidable journey, 

47. On which one must go once for all, for all 
eternity ? 

48. .A'im aoshanghau aoshanguhaiti Sstem isaiti 
tanva, iim uruna, £im frazai»ti, £im va ga£thihvd 
mahrkathem ? 

How is it that a mortal can wish for another 
mortal the annihilation of his body (that his body 
should be no more '), or of his soul (that his soul 
should be damned '), or death for his children or for 
his cattle (that his cattle should perish '), if he has 
sense enough to know that he himself is mortal ? 

49. Anamaresdikd zl asti hav&i marezdikai. 

For he is pitiless to himself (he does not pity 
himself ') and none of the others shall pity him. 

50. Blind are all those who, on this earth, do not 
follow the religion, do not benefit the living, and do 
not commemorate the dead. 

51. Oiuim tad va . . . . ayare i^asaiti, Spitama 
Zarathimra ! a£va va khshapa (' For there comes 
a day, O Spitama Zarathustra ! or a night '). 

There comes a day, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! or 
a night, when the master leaves the cattle, or the 
cattle leave the master, or the soul leaves that body 
full of desires ; 

52. But his virtue, which is of all existences the 

1 A gloss. 



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VIII. AOGEMAIDfi. 379 



greatest, the best, the finest, never parts from 
a man. 

53. Avar* amithnaiti gxiy& tamw fraya£r£ ay3n 
bavaiti hubadhr6 hupaiti-sraatd l , adha aparS aySn 
duzathrem (' Every day the living man ought to 
think that in the forenoon he is happy and in credit ; 
in the afternoon disgrace may come '). 

Every day every living body ought to think (for 
that may happen any day) : in the forenoon I am 
happy, rich, in credit (that is to say, well treated by 
the king) ; 

54. And every day other people eagerly wish him 
evil ; that he should be torn away from his palace, 
that he should have his head cut off and his wealth 
seized upon. Every day the living body is thrown 
for food to the birds that fly in the empty sky. 

55. This is the way of things on this earth. 

56. D^udatayau fra&rta drva«td dusdaunghd 
('It is ignorance that ruins most people, those ill- 
informed '). 

It is ignorance 2 that ruins most people, those 
ill-informed; both amongst those who have died, 
and those who shall die. 

57. And mrzod Ahurd Mazdau frikeresto Astd- 
vidh6tu.y ziri^au (read zivi^mi ?) apairiay6 (' Ahura 
Mazda said : Astdvidhdtuy has been created a 
destroyer of the living and one whom none 
escape'). 

Hdrmazd said: Astivihad has been created for 
the destruction of mortals (when the mortals see 
him, they tremble so much that they are unable to 

1 Corrected from hupaitianat6 (translated padf raft). 
* Ignorance of their mortal destiny. 



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380 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

struggle with the Druf) and no one escapes him (as 
said before) '. 

58. Yahmaaf haia nae^w bu«^aya^aoshanguhat5m 
mashyanSm (' From whom not one of mortal men 
can escape '). 

From whom not one of mortal men can escape ; 
no one has escaped to this day, and no one will 
escape hereafter. 

59. Ndid ae'thrapatayd, ndid daNhupatayd, ndid? 
sas^vistou, ndid asevistau (' Neither aSthrapaitis, nor 
chiefs of countries, neither well-doers, nor evil- 
doers '). 

Neither the herbed (the Mobedan Mobed *), nor 
the chief of the country (the King of kings 3 ), neither 
well-doers, nor evil-doers. 

60. Ndid usySsta^d, ndid niy3 (' Neither those who 
run up, nor those who go down ^ 

Neither those who run up (those who fly in the 
empty sky), like Kahds 4 ; with all his strength and 
kingly glory, he could not escape from Astivihad. 

61. Nor those who go down deep (who hide 
themselves under the earth), like Afrasyab the Turk, 
who made himself an iron palace under the earth, 
a thousand times the height of a man, with a hundred 
columns * ; 

62. In that palace he made the stars, the moon, 
and the sun go round, making the light of day. 

63. In that palace he did everything at his 
pleasure, 

64. And he lived the happiest life. 



1 Cf. § 40. * The chief of the religion, the high-priest. 

* The ShahansMh. * Cf. above, p. 262, note 7. 

8 See Yt. V, 41 and notes 1, 2. 



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VIII. AOGEMAIDft. 38 1 

65. With all his strength and witchcraft, he could 
not escape from Astivihad. 

66. Nafidha frakanem aNhau zemd ya^ pathanayau 
skarenayau dura£parayau. 

Nor he who dug this wide, round earth, with 
extremities that lie afar, like Dahak, 

67. Who went from the East to the West, 
searching for immortality and did not find it. 

68. With all his strength and power, he could not 
escape from Astivihad. 

69. Any6 anghaw frashd-zfetrethrmi (' Except the 
producers of the world of resurrection l '). 

Thus until the author of the resurrection, Sao- 
shyds 2 : until Saoshyds comes, no one shall escape 
from Astivihad. 

70. To every one comes the unseen, deceiving 
Astivih4d, 

71. Who accepts neither compliments, nor bribe, 

72. Who is no respecter of persons, 

73. And ruthlessly makes men perish. 

74. And this glorious One 8 must go the way he 
never went, 

75. See what he never saw, 

76. And discuss with him whom no one can 
deceive or mislead. 

77. Pairithwd bavaiti pa#tau yim d&nus paiti fra 
bunaaf tetintis ; hau did a£v6 apairithwd, yd vayaos 
anamaresdikahe' : — 

The way may be traversed which is barred by 



1 No others will escape death; 

* Thus shall it be till the days of Saoshyds (Saoshyawt ; Vd. 
XIX, 5, note 4). 

* This King, this man of power. 



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382 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

a river springing from the deep; but one way 
cannot be traversed, namely, the way of the pitiless 
Vayu 1 . 

78. Pairithwd bavaiti pa»tau yim asix paiti g<zu- 
stavau, aspanghadho, viranghidhd, vira/a, anarna- 
readikd ; hau did? advd apairithwd, y6 vayao^ 
anamaresdikahd : — 

The way may be traversed which is barred by 
a serpent as big as an ox, horse-devouring, man- 
devouring, man-killing, and pitiless ; but one way 
cannot be traversed, namely, the way of the pitiless 
Vayu. 

79. Pairithw6 bavaiti pa»tou yim areshd p&iti 
akhshaend anamaresdikd ; hau did advd apairithwd, 
yd vayaor anamaresdikahd : — 

The way may be traversed which is barred by 
a brown bear, [with a white forehead, man-killing, 
and] pitiless; but one way cannot be traversed, 
namely, the way of the pitiless Vayu. 

80. Pairithwd bavaiti pawtau yim mashyd gadhd 
paiti advd,fand anamaresdikd ; hau did? advd apai- 
rithwd, yd vayaoy anamaresdikahd : — The way may 
be traversed which is defended by a highwayman 
who kills at one stroke, (who stops the way and lets 
no one pass alive) ; but one way cannot be traversed, 
namely, the way of the pitiless Vayu. 

81. Pairithwd bavaiti pa»tau yd hadnayau ^akhra- 
vaityau vyazdayau ; hau did advd apairithwd, yd 
vayaoy anamaresdikahd : — 

The way may be traversed which is held by 
a horde armed with discs, and uplifted spears (that 
is, carrying spears to pierce men); but one way 

1 The way of Destiny. 



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VIII. AOGEMAID& 3^3 



cannot be traversed, namely, the way of the pitiless 
Vayu. 

8 1 bis. Aad mraod Ahur6 Mazdau : duskhratum 
apairi gaSthSm athravayaaf githSm l . 

82. Yatha drvau gaom isti, uta drvau aspem isti, 
uta drvau ma£shinem yavanghem isti : — 

The wicked acquire cattle, the wicked acquire 
horses, the wicked acquire sheep and corn ; but the 
wicked tyrant does not acquire a store of good 
deeds. 

83. Seek ye for a store of good deeds, O Zara- 
thustra, men and women ! for a store of good deeds 
is full of salvation, O Zarathurtra ! 

84. PSsnu* gavd, pSsnur aspa, pSsnur erezatem 
zaranim, pSsnuy nard $ryd takhmd : — 

(For) the ox turns to dust, the horse turns to dust, 
silver and gold turn to dust, the valiant strong man 
turns to dust ; [the bodies of all men mingle with 
the dust. What do not mingle with the dust are 
the Ashem-vohu which a man recites in this world 
and his almsgiving to the holy and righteous] 2 . 

85. For if there were or could be any escape 
from death, the first of the world, Gaydmard, king 
of the Mountain 8 , [would have escaped], 

1 This incomplete quotation is found only in the Pahlavi trans- 
scription, with a corrupt paraphrase as follows : — ' Hormazd said, 
" The man without intelligence (that is, with a bad intelligence) 
. . . who has not sung the Gathas (that is, who has not performed 
the sacrifice ; cf. Nirang. § 41) has no good renown on this earth 
nor bliss in heaven (cf. §§ 21, 22) . . ." ' 

* Cf. AnfcVfrafCI, 20. 

* Gar-shah, king of Mount Damavand (Albfrunt, Chronology, 
p. 28), or Gibal, the mountainous part of Media. Later chronicles 
corrupted Gar-shah into Gil-shah, king of clay, which was inter- 
preted as king of the earth. 



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384 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 



86. Who for three thousand years kept the world 
free from death and old age, from hunger, thirst, 
and evil x ; 

87. Yet, when death came over him, he delivered 
up his body and could not struggle with death. 

88. Or there was H6shang, the P£shdadian, 

89. Who destroyed two-thirds of all the evil 
creatures of Ahriman 2 ; 

90. Yet, when death came over him, he delivered 
up his body and could not struggle with death. 

91. Or there was Tahmuraf, the well-armed, the 
son of Vivanghat, 

92. Who made the Demon of demons, Gani 
Mainyd, his steed 8 , and extorted from him the seven 
kinds of writing * ; 

93. Yet, when death came over him, he delivered 
up his body and could not struggle with death. 

94. Or there was Gim, the She'd, the good shep- 
herd, the son of Vivanghat ; (he was Sh€d, that is to 
say, shining ; he was a good shepherd, that is to say, 

' Bundahw XXXIV, i, 2. s See Yt. V, 22, 23. 

s See Yt. XV, 11-13. In the Sanskrit translation this is inter- 
preted as an allegory : ' Tahmuraf rode on Ahriman ; that means 
that he subdued the bad Ahriman in himself.' Cf. Mirkhond, in 
the History of the Early Kings of Persia, tr. by Shea, p. 98. 

4 According to Firdausi, Tahmuras obliged the Dfivs he had 
conquered to teach him some thirty kinds of writing, the Rumf, 
the Tazt, the Pars?, the Sogdht, the Chinese, the Pahlavi, &c. 
According to the MJn6khard (XX VII, 23) he brought to light the 
seven kinds of writing that the demon kept hidden. Hence is 
derived the legend in Albiruni, p. 28, that when Tahmuras was 
warned about the Deluge, 'he ordered all scientific books to be 
preserved for posterity, and to be buried in the least exposed 
place ; ' in favour of which report, Albfrunf mentions the discovery 
of many loads of unintelligible bark-manuscripts in buildings under 
ground, at Ispahan, in his own time. 



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VIII. AOGEMAIDfe. 385 



he kept in good condition troops of men and herds 
of animals) * ; 

95. Who, for 616 years, 6 months and 13 days 2 , 
kept this world free from death and old age, and 
kept away greed and need from the creation of 
H6rmazd ; 

96. Yet, when death came over him, he delivered 
up his body and could not struggle with death. 

97. Or there was Dahak 8 , he of the evil religion, 
who kept the world under his tyranny during a thou- 
sand years, less one day, 

98. And introduced into the world many ways of 
witchcraft and evil-doing ; 

99. Yet, when death came over him, he delivered 
up his body and could not struggle with death. 

100. Or there was Fr6dun, the Athwyan, 

10 1. Who smote and bound Asi Dahak, that great 
evil-doer * ; he put in chains the D6vs of Mazanda- 
ran 6 , and introduced into the world a number of 
talismans " ; 

102. Yet, when death came over him, he delivered 
up his body and could not struggle with death. 

103. I am grateful to the Lord H6rmazd. 

104. I think thus in a grateful spirit: the beast 
of burden does not throw off its burden : fate has 
come, it cannot be thrown away. 

1 See above, p. 11, note 2. On Gim or Yima, see Farg. II, 
and Yt. V, 25, 26 ; XV, 15-17. 

* The Pahlavi transcription and Mindkhard XXVII, 25, have 
sixteen days. 

* A*i Dah&ka, see Yt V, 29-31; XV, 19-21. 

* See YtV, 33-35. 

* See above, p. 9, note 4; p. 141, note 1. 

* See above, p. 246. 

[4] CC 



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386 FRAGMENTS OF THE NASKS. 

105. May the blessed one have Paradise as. his 
portion ! 

106. As to the righteous man who has come to 
this banquet *, who has shared this banquet, may he 
for each step 2 get nearer to the bright Paradise, the 
all-happy Gardthmdn, by twelve hundred steps 1 

107. When he is approaching it, may his merits 
increase ! 

108. When he is leaving it, may his sin be 
uprooted ! 

109. May righteousness and goodness prevail 3 ! 

1 10. May his soul enter the Gardthman ! 
in. I am one of the righteous*. 

Atha ^amyaof : — May it happen according to this 
wish of mine e I 

HumatanSm •. All the good thoughts, good words, 
and good deeds, done or to be done, here or else- 
where, we seize upon and we transmit them 7 , that 

we may be in the number of the righteous. 

i 

1 To this myazd, or religious banquet The following formulas 
are those found at the end of the Afrin G&hanb&r. 

* For each of his steps to this banquet. 

' May the good prevail over the evil in his account, so that he 
may be saved (see above, p. 270). 
4 Ash 6 ; I am one of the blessed, I am saved. 
8 Yasna LXVIII, 19. • Yasna LXVIII, 20 (XXXV, 2). 

* We teach them ; the good deeds of our disciples are accounted 
ours (Dfhkart IX, 57, 1). 



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FOR THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST. 



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PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

m HORACE HART, PRINTER TO TUB UNIVERSITY 



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Sacred Books of the East 

TRANSLATED BY 

VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 

AND EDITED BY 

F. MAX MULLER. 

*„* This Series is published with the sanction and co-operation of the Secretary of 
Stale for India in Council. • 

RBBOBT prosantod to th* ACADEMIC DBS IH8CB1FTIOBS, May 11, 
1883, by X. BBVBST BEVAV. 

' M. Renan presente trois nonveanx une seconde, dont l'intergt historique et 
volumes de la grande collection dcs ' reltgieux ne sera pas moindre. M. Max 
"Lmcs sacres de I'Orient" (Sacred Muller a su se procurer la collaboration 
Books of the East), qne dirige a Oxford, des savans les pins eminens d'Europe et 
avec one si vaste erudition et une critique d'Asie. L'Universite' d'Oxford, one cette 
si sure, le savant associe' de l'Academie grande publication bonore au plus hant 
des Inscriptions, M. Max Muller. ... La degrl, doit tenir a continuer dans les plus 
premiere serie de ce beau recueil, com- larges proportions une oeuvre aussi philo- 
postfe de 24 volumes, est presque achevee. sopbiquement concue que savamment 
M. Max Muller se propose d'en publier exe'cutee.' 

BXTSAOT from th* QUABXBBZ.Y BITIIW. 
' We rejoice to notice that a second great edition of the Rig- Veda, can corn- 
series of these translations has been an- pare in importance or in usefulness with 
nounced and has actually begun to appear, this English translation of the Sacred 
The stones, at least, out of which a stately Books of the East, which li as been devised 
edifice may hereafter arise, are here being by his foresight, successfully brought so 
brought together. Prof. Max Muller has far by his persuasive and organising 
deserved well of scientific history. Not power, and will, we trust, by the assist- 
a few minds owe to his enticing words ance of the distinguished scholars he has 
their first attraction to this branch of gathered round him, be carried in due 
study. But no work of his, not even the time to a happy completion.' 

Broftsaor B. HAKDY, Inaugural Lactux* In th* TJalvarsdtjr of Brallrarff, 1887. 
'Die allgemeine vergleichende Reli- internationalen Orientalistencongress in 
gionswissenschnft datirt von jenem gross- London der Grundstein gelegt worden 
artigen, in seiner Art einzig dastehenden war, die tjbersetzung derheiligen Biicher 
Unternehmen, su welchem auf Anregung des Ostens' {the Sacred Boots of the 
Max Mullers im Jahre 1874 auf dem East). 

Th* Hon. AXBBBX ». O. OABBTBO, ' Words on Bxinttotf Religions.' 
' The recent publication of the " Sacred a great event In the annals of theological 
Books of the East" in English is surely literature.' 

©xforfc 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
LONDON: HENRY FROWDE 

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, AMEN CORNER, E.C. 



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SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST: 



FIRST SERIES. 

Vol. I. The Upanishads. 

Translated by F. Max Muller. Part I. The ^Mndogya- 
upanishad, The Talavakara-upanishad, The Aitareya-drawyaka, 
The Kaushttaki-br£hma»a-upanishad, and The Vi^asaneyi- 
sawhill-upanishad. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

The Upanishads contain the philosophy of the Veda. They have 
become the foundation of the later Veddnta doctrines, and indirectly 
of Buddhism. Schopenhauer, speaking of the Upanishads, says : 
'In the whole world there is no study so beneficial and so elevating 
as that of the Upanishads. It has been the solace of my life, it will 
be the solace of my death! 

[See also Vol. XV.] 

Vol. II. The Sacred Laws of the Aryas, 

As taught in the Schools of Apastamba, Gautama, V&sish/ia, 
and Baudhayana. Translated by Gbokg BOhler. Part I. 
Apastamba and Gautama. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

The Sacred Laws of the Aryas contain the original treatises on 
which the Laws of Manu and other lawgivers were founded. 

[See also Vol. XIV.] 

Vol. III. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by Jams Leggk. 
Part I. The Shft King, The Religious Portions of the Shih 
King, and The HsiSo King. 8vo, cloth, iax. 6d. 

Confucius was a collector of ancient traditions, not the founder of 
a new religion. As he lived in the sixth and fifth centuries B. C. 
his works are of unique interest for the study of Ethology. 
[See also Vols. XVI, XXVII, XXVIII, XXXIX, and XL.] 

Vol. IV. The Zend-Avesta. 

Translated by James Darmesteter. Part I. The VendtdSd. 
8vo, cloth, ioj. 6d. 

The Zend-Avesta contains the relics of what was the religion 0/ 
Cyrus, Darius, and Xerxes, and, but for the battle of Marathon, 



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EDITED BY F. MAX AtOLLER. 



might have become the religion of Europe. It forms to the present 
day the sacred book of the P arsis, the so-called fire-worshippers. 
Two more volumes will complete the translation of all that is left us 
of Zoroaster's religion. 

[See also Vols. XXIII and XXXI.] 

Vol. V. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part I. The Bundahu, Bahman 
Yart, and Shkyast 14-shiyast. 8vo, cloth, izs. 6d. 

The Pahlavi Texts comprise the theological literature of the revival 
of Zoroaster' s religion, beginning with the Sassanian dynasty. They 
are important for a study of Gnosticism. 

Vols. VI and IX. The Quran. 

Parts I and II. Translated by E. H. Palmer. 8vo, cloth, 2 is. 

This translation, carried out according to his own peculiar views 
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TRANSLATED 



BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 



AND EDITED BY 



F. MAX MULLER 



vol. v 



AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1880 

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PAHLAVI TEXTS 



TRANSLATED BY 



E. W. WEST 



PART I 



the bundahis, bahman yast, and 
shAyast lA-shAyast 



AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1880 

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CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION. 



I'AGK 



i. The Parsi Scriptures ix 

2. The Pahlavi Language and Literature xi 

3. The Bundahlr xxii 

4. The Selections of ZSrf-sparam xlvU 

5. The Bahman Yart 1 

6. The Shayast la-shiyast Hx 

7. Concluding Remarks lxvii 

TRANSLATIONS. 

BlTNDAHtf I 

Selections of Za/>-sparam 153 

Bahman Yast 189 

Shay ast la shayast 237 

Index 407 

Errata 434 



Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Trans- 
lations of the Sacred Books of the East . . . 435 



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INTRODUCTION 

TO 

PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



i. The Parsi Scriptures. 

Though we must look to the Avesta for information 
regarding the main outlines of the Parsi religion, it is to 
Pahlavi writings we must refer for most of the details 
relating to the traditions, ceremonies, and customs of this 
ancient faith, which styles itself emphatically ' the good 
religion of the Mazdayasnians,' and calls its laity bahdlnan, 
or ' those of the good religion.' In the fragments of the 
Avesta which still exist, we may trace the solid foundations 
of the religion,' laid by philosophic bards and lawgivers of 
old, with many a mouldering column and massive fragment 
of the superstructure erected upon them by the ancient 
priesthood. These are the last remnants of the faith held 
by Cyrus, the anointed of the Lord (Isaiah xlv. i), the 
righteous one (Is. xli. 2), or_ eagle (Is. xlvi. n), whom He 
called from the east, and the shepherd who performed His 
pleasure (Is. xliv. 28) ; scattered fragments of the creed 
professed by Darius in his inscriptions, when he attributes 
his successes to 'the will of Auramazda;' and mouldering 
ruins of the comparatively pure religion of oriental 'bar- 
barism,' which Alexander and his civilising Greek successors 
were unable wholly to destroy, and replace by their own 
idolatrous superstitions. While, in the Pahlavi texts we find 
much of the mediaeval edifice built by later Persian priest- 
craft upon the old foundations, with a strange mixture of 
old and new materials, and exhibiting the usual symptom 
of declining powers, a strong insistence upon complex forms 
and minute details, with little of the freedom of treatment 
and simplicity of outline characteristic of the ancient bards. 



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PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



To understand the relationship between these two classes 
of Parsi sacred writings, it must be observed that the Avesta 
and Pahlavi of the same scripture, taken together, form its 
Avesta and Zand, terms which are nearly synonymous with 
' revelation and commentary.' Both words are derived from 
verbal roots implying ' knowledge ; ' Avesta being the Pahlavi 
avistak, which may most probably be traced to the past 
participle of a, 'to,' + vid, 'to know,' with the meaning of 
' what is announced ' or ' declaration ; ' and Zand, being the 
Pahlavi form of Av. zai«ti (traceable in the word azai«tij), 
must be referred to the root zan, ' to know,' with the meaning 
of ' knowledge, understanding V European scholars, misled 
probably by Muhammadan writers, have converted the 
phrase 'Avesta and Zand' into 'Zend-Avesta,' and have 
further identified Zand with the language of the Avesta. 
This use of the word Zand is, however, quite at variance 
with the practice of all Parsi writers who have been inde- 
pendent of European influence, as they apply the term 
Zand only to the Pahlavi translations and explanations of 
their sacred books, the original text of which they call 
Avesta. So that when they use the phrase 'Avesta and 
Zand' they mean the whole of any scripture, both the Avesta 
text and Pahlavi translation and commentary. And the 
latter, being often their only means of understanding the 
former, has now become of nearly equal authority with the 
Avesta itself. It is probable, indeed, that the first Zand 
was really written in the Avesta language, as we find many 
traces of such Avesta commentaries interpolated both in 
the Avesta and Pahlavi texts of the Parsi scriptures ; but 
this is rather a matter of European inference than of Parsi 
belief. The later (or Pahlavi) Zand appears also, in many 
places, to be merely a translation of this earlier (or Avesta) 
Zand, with additional explanations offered by the Pahlavi 
translators. 

Regarding the sacredness of these Pahlavi translations, 
in the eyes of the Parsis, there can be no manner of doubt, 
so far as they cannot be shown to be inconsistent with the 

1 See Haug's Essays on the Sacred Language, Writings, and Religion of the 
Parsis, second edition, London, 1878; pp. 121,122. 



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INTRODUCTION. XI 



original Avesta text. But besides these translations there 
is another class of Pahlavi religious writings whose authority 
is more open to dispute. These writings are either trans- 
lations and Zands of Avesta texts-no longer extant, or they 
contain the opinions and decisions of high-priests of later 
times, when the Pahlavi language was on the decline. Such 
writings would hardly be considered of indisputable authority 
by any Parsi of the present day, unless they coincided with 
his own preconceived opinions. But for outsiders they have 
the inestimable value either of supplying numerous details 
of religious traditions and customs which would be vainly 
sought for elsewhere, or of being contemporary records of 
the religious ideas of the Parsis in the declining days of 
their Mazdayasnian faith. It is with a few of such writings 
this volume has to deal ; but before describing them more 
minutely it will be desirable to give some account of the 
Pahlavi language in which they are written. 

2. The Pahlavi Language and Literature. 

The term ' Pahlavi,' in its widest extent, is applied to all 
the varying forms of the mediaeval Persian-ianguage, from 
the time when the grammatical inflexions of ancient Persian 
were dropped, till the period when the modern alphabet 
was invented, and the language became corrupted into 
modern Persian by the adoption of numerous Arabic words 
and phrases. Some traces of Pahlavi words and phrases, 
written in old Semitic characters, have been found in the 
legends of coins struck by certain kings of Persian provinces, 
subordinate to the Greek successors of Alexander, as early 
as the third century B. c. 1 Further traces have been dis^ 
covered in the legends on some provincial, coins of the time 
of the Arsacidan dynasty. But, practically, our acquaintance 
with Pahlavi commences with the inscriptions, on rocks and 
coins, of Arc/akhshir-i Papakan (a.D. 226-240), the founder 
of the Sasanian dynasty, and ends with certain religious 

1 See Levy's Beitrage zur aramaischen Miinzkunde Eran's, und zur Kunde 
dcr altem Pehlewi-Schrift ; Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenlandischen Gesell- 
schaft, Leipzig, 1867 ; XXI, 421-465. 



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Xll PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



writings of priests and other devout Parsis of post-Muham- 
madan times, among the latest of which is one dated A.Y. 
350 (a.d. 881). Any fragments of Pahlayi composition of 
later date than A.D. 1000, must be considered merely as 
modern imitations of a dead language, and cannot be quoted 
as authorities for the use of any particular Pahlavi words or 
construction. 

With regard to the origin of the word Pahlavi, or lan- 
guage of Pahlav, many suggestions have been offered ; but 
the most probable explanation 1 is that which connects it 
with the Parthva of the cuneiform inscriptions, the land of 
the Parthians known to the Greeks and Romans, and of the 
Pahlavas mentioned by Sanskrit writers; the change of 
Parthva into Pahlav being very similar to that of Av. 
Mithra into Pers. Mihr. No doubt the language of the 
Parthians themselves was not Pahlavi, but they were the 
actual rulers of Persia for some centuries at the time when 
the Pahlavi language was forming there ; and, being formid- 
able to their neighbours, it is not surprising that their name 
became identified with everything Persian, in the same way 
as the Roman name has been applied by the Persians, not 
only to the later Greek empire of Constantinople, but even 
to the earlier conqueror, Alexander the Great. 

Strictly speaking, the mediaeval Persian language is only 
called Pahlavi when it is written in one of the characters 
used before the invention of the modern Persian alphabet, 
and in the peculiarly enigmatical mode adopted in Pahlavi 
writings. Whenever it is 'transcribed, either in Avesta 
characters, or in those of the modern Persian alphabet, and 
freed from this peculiarity, it is called Pazand. 

The peculiar mode of writing Pahlavi, here alluded to, 
long made the character of the language a standing puzzle 
for European scholars, and was first satisfactorily explained 
by Professor Haug, of Munich, in his admirable Essay on 
the Pahlavi Language already cited. 

Like the Assyrians of old, the Persians of Parthian times 
appear to have borrowed their writing from a foreign race. 

1 See Haug's Essay on the Pahlavi Language, Stuttgart, 1870 ; pp. 33-37. 



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INTRODUCTION. Xlll 



But, whereas the Semitic Assyrians adopted a Turanian 
syllabary, these later Aryan Persians accepted a Semitic 
alphabet. Besides the alphabet, however, which they could 
use for spelling their own words, they also transferred a 
certain number of complete Semitic words to their writings, 
as representatives of the corresponding words in their own 
language. These Semitic representatives (the number of 
which might at any time be increased or diminished at the 
discretion of the writer) were probably never very numerous, 
and not more than four hundred of them are to be found in 
the Pahlavi writings now extant ; but, as they represent 
nearly all the commonest words in the language (excepting 
those specially relating to religious matters), they often 
constitute more than half the bulk of a Pahlavi text. 

The use of such Semitic words, scattered about in Persian 
sentences, gives Pahlavi the motley appearance of a com- 
pound language; more especially as Persian terminations 
are often added to the Semitic words. But there are good 
reasons for supposing that the language was never spoken 
as it was written. The spoken language appears to have 
been purely Persian ; the Semitic words being merely used 
as written representatives, or logograms, of the Persian 
words which were spoken. Thus the Persians would write 
malkan malka, 'king of kings,' but they would read 
shahin shah. This is still the mode in which most Parsis 
read their Pahlavi literature ; and it is only by assuming it 
to have been their universal practice, in former times, that 
we can account for the total and immediate disappearance 
of the Semitic portion of the Pahlavi, from their language, 
when the Persians adopted their modern alphabet. As the 
Semitic words were merely a Pahlavi mode of writing their 
Persian equivalents (just as 'viz.' is a mode of writing 
* namely ' in English), they disappeared with the Pahlavi 
writing, and the Persians began at once to write all their 
words, with their new alphabet, just as they pronounced 
them. 

In the meantime, the greater part of the nation had 
become Muhammadans, and a new influx of Semitic words 
commenced, but of a very different character. The Semitic 



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XIV PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



portion of the Pahlavi writing was nearly pure Chaldee, and 
was confined (as already stated) to the graphic representa- 
tion of most of the simplest and commonest words uncon- 
nected with religion ; but it seems to have formed no part 
of the spoken language, at all events in later times. Whereas 
the Semitic portion of modern Persian is borrowed from 
Arabic, and includes most words connected with religion, 
science, and literature ; in fact, every class of words except 
that which was usually Semitic in Pahlavi writings ; and 
these Arabic words form an essential part of the spoken 
language, being as indispensable to the modern Persian as 
words of Norman-French origin are to the English. 

In Pahlavi writings, moreover, besides the four hundred 
Semitic logograms already mentioned, we also find about 
one hundred obsolete forms of Iranian words used as logo- 
grams ; much in the same way as ' ye ' may be used for 
' the,' and ' Xmas ' for ' Christmas ' in English. The use of 
all these logograms was, however, quite optional, as their 
usual Persian equivalents might be substituted for any of 
them at any time, according to each particular writer's taste 
and discretion. But whenever they are employed they form 
what is called the Huzvarij portion of the Pahlavi ; while 
the other words, intended to be pronounced as they are 
spelt, form the Pazand portion. 

Many attempts have been made to explain the word 
Huzvarij, but it cannot be said that any satisfactory 
etymology has yet been proposed. Like the word Pahlavi 
it seems hardly to occur in any old Pahlavi text, but only 
in colophons, chapter-headings, and similar notes of modern 
writers ; it seems, therefore, more reasonable to trace it to 
modern Persian than direct to any more ancient source. Its 
Pahlavi form, huzvarij or auzvarijn, appears to represent 
the modern Persian uzvari s, which is rarely used ; the usual 
Persian form of the word being zuvarij. Now zuvari s is 
precisely the form of an abstract noun derived from the 
crude form of a verb zuvaridan, which has been admitted 
into some Persian dictionaries on the authority of Golius ', 

1 See Castelli Lexicon Heptaglotton, Pais altera, Loudon, 1669. 



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INTRODUCTION. XV 



with the meaning ' to grow old, to become thread-bare.' If 
such a verb really exists in Persian, although its meaning 
may imply ' decrepitude or decay' rather than 'antiquity or 
obsoleteness,' yet its abstract noun would not be altogether 
inapplicable to the logograms used in Pahlavi, which are, 
in fact, last remnants of older writings. 

The word Pazand is probably derived from Av. paiti- 
zawti, with the meaning 're-explanation,' that is, a further 
interpretation of the Pahlavi Zand in the Persian vernacular. 
This term is applied not only to the purely Persian words 
in Pahlavi texts, but also (as already noticed) to translitera- 
tions of the said texts, either in Avesta or modern Persian 
characters, in which all the Huzvarij words are replaced by 
their Pazand equivalents. These transliterations form what 
are called Pazand texts ; they retain the exact idiom and 
construction of the Pahlavi original, and represent the mode 
in which it was read. It may be remarked, however, that 
all such Pazand texts, as have been examined, seem to have 
been written in India, so that they may be suspected of 
representing some corrupt Gu^arati pronunciation of Persian, 
rather than the peculiar orthography of any period of the 
Persian language. 

This theory of the origin and development of Pahlavi 
writing could hardly be upheld, unless we could trace the 
same artificial mixture of Huzvarij and Pazand in all acces- 
sible Pahlavi records, from their earliest appearance to the 
present time. This we are able to do, even in the scanty 
materials afforded by the legends on the provincial Persian 
coins of the third century B.C. and second century A.D. 
already mentioned. But we can trace it with greater cer- 
tainty not only in the coin legends, but also in the rock 
inscriptions of the earlier Sasanian kings (a.d. 226-388), in 
the latest of which we find the written language differing 
very slightly from that contained in the manuscripts pre- 
served by the Parsis of the present day, although the 
characters differ very much in form. And, finally, in the 
legends on the coins of the later Sasanian kings (a.d. 388- 
651) and on seals of their times, we find even this difference 
in the shapes of the letters disappearing by degrees. In 



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XVI PAHLAVI TEXTS. 

fact, all the materials at our disposal tend to show that 
Huzvaro has been an essential constituent of all Pahlavi 
writings from the time of Alexander's successors to that of 
the disuse of Pahlavi characters ; but we have no reason to 
suppose that the spoken language of the great mass of the 
Persian people ever contained the Semitic words which 
they thus used as Huzvarij in their writings. 

Although the use of Huzvarij, until explained recently, 
rendered the nature of the Pahlavi language very obscure, 
it added very little to the difficulty of understanding the 
Pahlavi texts, because the meaning of nearly every Huz- 
varLr logogram was well known ; being recorded in an 
old glossary preserved by the Parsis, in which every 
logogram is explained by its proper Pazand equivalent. 
The extant copies of this old glossary generally contain 
the HuzvarLr and Pazand words written in the Pahlavi 
character, together with their traditional pronunciation, 
either in Avesta or modern Persian letters ; there is, there- 
fore, no particular difficulty in reading or translating the 
HuzvarLr portion of a Pahlavi text, although doubts may 
often be entertained as to the accuracy of the traditional 
pronunciation. 

The real difficulty of reading Pahlavi texts lies in the 
Pazand portion (so far as it may be unexplained by 
existing vocabularies), and is chiefly occasioned by the 
ambiguity of some of the Pahlavi letters. The alphabet 
used in Pahlavi books contains only fourteen distinct 
letters, so that some letters represent several different 
sounds ; and this ambiguity is increased by the letters 
being joined together, when a compound of two letters 
is sometimes exactly like some other single letter. The 
complication arising from these ambiguities may be under- 
stood from the following list of the sounds, simple and 
compound, represented by each of the fourteen letters of 
the Pahlavi alphabet respectively : — 



JJa, 4, h, kh. J b. p, f. f t, d. Q^k,g,z,v. J r, 

i. s z - -» s > y J » y ad > y a e. y a ^» d! > dad » da & da ^"> & ! > e ad » 

g a g, &g,gi,gz&,g&Z,g*g- -K) sh, s, ya, yah, yakh, ih, ikh, 



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INTRODUCTION. XV11 



da, dah, dakh, ga, gah, gakh, gk, ^ah, ^akh. £ gh. ^ k. 
6 m. | n, v, w, ft, 6, r, 1. $ y, 1, 6, d, g, g. 

From this list it is easy to see the confusion produced 
by the letter J» s being exactly like the letter $ y doubled, 
and by the letter -"Q sh being identical with a com- 
pound of s y and A) a ; and there are, in fact, some 
compounds of two letters which have from ten to fifteen 
sounds in common use, besides others which might pos- 
sibly occur. If it be further considered that there are 
only three letters (which are also consonants, as in most 
Semitic languages) to represent five long vowels, and that 
there are probably five short vowels to be understood, 
the difficulty of reading Pahlavi correctly may be readily 
imagined. 

When Pahlavi writing was in common use this difficulty 
was probably no more felt by the Persians, than the com- 
plexity of Chinese characters is felt as an evil by a Chinese 
mandarin, or the corrupt system of English orthography 
by an educated Englishman. It is only the foreigner, or 
learner, who fully appreciates the difficulty of understand- 
ing such cumbrous systems of writing. 

With regard, however, to their HuzvarLr logograms the 
Persians seem to have experienced more difficulty. As 
the actual sounds of these Semitic words were rarely 
pronounced, in consequence of their Pazand equivalents 
being substituted in reading, there must have been some 
risk of their true pronunciation being forgotten. That 
this risk was understood by the Persians, or Parsis, is 
proved by the existence of the Huzvarij-Pazand glossary 
already described, which was evidently compiled as a 
record both of the pronunciation and meaning of the 
Huzvlrij logograms. But its compilation does not appear 
to have been undertaken until the true pronunciation of 
some of these logograms had been already lost. Thus, 
although the traditional readings of most of the Semitic 
portion of the HuzvarLr can be readily traced to well- 
known Chaldee words, there are yet many other such 
readings which are altogether inexplicable as Semitic 
[5] b 



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XV1U PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



words. In most such cases, however, European scholars 
have found that the Huzvarij word can be easily read in 
some other way which at once connects it with some 
ordinary Chaldee equivalent. It may, therefore, be reason- 
ably assumed that the compilers of the glossary had in 
some instances lost the correct pronunciation of these old 
Semitic words, and that, in such cases, they adopted (as 
a Parsi would probably do at the present day) the most 
obvious reading of the letters before them, which thence- 
forth became an artificial word to be handed down to 
posterity, by successive generations of writers, with all 
the authority of old tradition. 

In the same manner the artificial pronunciation of the 
Iranian portion of the Huzvarij may be explained. The 
compilers of the glossary found a number of words in 
the Pahlavi texts, which were written in some obsolete 
or contracted manner ; they knew the meanings of these 
words, but could not trace the true readings in the altered 
letters ; they, therefore, adopted the most obvious readings 
of the written characters, and thus produced another series 
of artificial words, such as anhoma for auharmazd, 
yahan for yazdan, maddnad for mainok, shatan for 
shatrd, &c. 

Naturally enough the Parsis are loth to admit the 
possibility of any error in their traditional readings of 
Huzvam, and very few of them have yet adopted the 
views of European scholars further than to admit that 
they are ingenious hypotheses, which still require satis- 
factory proof. They are quite right in demanding such 
proof, and they may reasonably argue that the conflicting 
opinions of various European scholars do not tend to in- 
crease the certainty of their explanations. But, on the 
other hand, they are bound to examine all proofs that 
may be offered, and to consider the arguments of scholars, 
before utterly rejecting them in favour of their own pre- 
conceived notions of traditional authority. 

Fortunately, we possess some means of ascertaining the 
ancient pronunciation of a few Huzvarij words, independent 
of the opinions of comparative philologists, in the inscrip- 



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INTRODUCTION. XIX 



tions already mentioned as having been engraved on 
rocks, and impressed on coins, by the earlier kings of the 
Sasanian dynasty in Persia. The earliest of these rock 
inscriptions records the name and titles of Artakhshatar 
son * of Pipak, the first Sasanian monarch (a. d. 226-240) ; 
it is engraved in Greek and two kinds of old Pahlavi 
characters, which have been called Chaldaeo-Pahlavi and 
Sasanian-Pahlavi, because the one bears more resemblance 
to Chaldee, both in its letters and the language they 
express, and the other is more frequently used by the 
subsequent Sasanian monarchs. A similar tri-lingual in- 
scription records the names and titles of his son and 
successor Shahpuhar I (a. D. 240-271), who has also left 
a long bi-Iingual inscription, in Chaldaeo and Sasanian- 
Pahlavi, in a cave near Persepolis. Another long bi-lingual 
inscription, fragments of which have been found on stones 
among the ruins of Pat Kuli, is attributed to his early 
successors, who have also left us several uni-lingual in- 
scriptions in Sasanian-Pahlavi, two of which are of great 
length, but none later than the end of the fourth century. 

The language of the earlier of these inscriptions differs 
from that of the manuscripts preserved by the Parsis, 
chiefly in the use of several Semitic words unknown to 
the manuscript Huzv&ro, the non-existence of Iranian 
Huzvarij (which is evidently a growth of later times), and 
the less frequent use of Persian terminations affixed to 
Semitic words. These differences, however, are hardly 
greater than those which distinguish the English of Chaucer 
from that of our own day. Moreover, they gradually dis- 
appear in process of time, as we find the later inscriptions 
of the fourth century approaching much closer, in language, 
to the manuscripts. 

As the alphabets of these inscriptions are less imperfect 
and ambiguous than that of the Pahlavi manuscripts, they 
render the pronunciation of many words much more cer- 
tain. They consist of eighteen letters, having the following 
sounds : — 

1 So stated in the inscription, but Pahlavi MSS. call him the son of Papak's 
daughter and of SSsan (see Bund. XXXI, 30). 

b 2 



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XX PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



i. a, 4. 2. b. 3. p, f. 4. t, d. 5. k, g, 2. 6. kh, h. 
7.d. 8. r,v, w,u,6. 9. z. 10. s. 11. sh, s. i2.k. i3>g. 
14. 1, r. 15. m. 16. n. 17. y, 1,6. 1 8. doubtful, being 
equivalent to Chaldee N— and to Pahl. MS. -man 1 . 

Comparing this list of sounds with that of the sounds of 
the manuscript alphabet (pp. xvi, xvii) it is evident that the 
inscriptions must afford a means of distinguishing a from 
kh, s from any binary compound of y, d, g, or g, sh from 
any compound of y, d, g, or g with a, h, or kh, n from v, r, 
or 1, and y, d, g from each other; all which letters and 
compounds are left in doubt by the manuscript alphabet. 
Unfortunately we do not possess trustworthy copies of 
some of the inscriptions which are evidently the most 
important from a linguistic point of view 2 ; but such 
copies as have been obtained supply corrections of tra- 
ditional misreadings of about twenty-five Huzvaiir logo- 
grams, and at the same time they confirm the correctness 
of three traditional readings which have been called in 
question by most European scholars. So far, therefore, 
the inscriptions would teach the Parsis that the decisions 
of comparative philologists are not likely to be right more 
than seven times out of eight, even when they are tolerably 
unanimous. 

The Chaldaeo-Pahlavi character appears to have soon 



' Whether the sound of this letter can ever be satisfactorily settled remains 
doubtful. Levy, in his Beitrage, cited on p. xi, considers it to be the Semitic 
n, on palseographical grounds ; but there are serious objections to all the identi- 
fications that have been proposed. 

* The Sasanian inscriptions, of which new and correct copies are most ur- 
gently wanted, are: — I. An inscription of thirty-one lines high up in the left 
side-compartment (behind the king) of the centre bas-relief of Naqs-i Raj-ab, 
near Persepolis. 3. Two inscriptions, of eleven and twelve lines respectively, 
on the stones of the edifice near the south-west comer of the great platform at 
Persepolis, south of the Hall of Columns (see Ouseley's Travels in Persia, vol. ii. 
p. 237 ""'-I pl»te 42). 3. All the fragments of the Pat Kul! inscription, of which 
probably not more than half have yet been copied. 

Of the very long inscription behind the king's horse in the bas-relief of 
Naqs-i Rustam, containing more than seventy lines very much damaged, a copy 
taken by Westergaard in 1843, with his usual accuracy, probably gives nearly all 
that is legible. And of the H%tabJld and shorter inscriptions, little or nothing 
remains doubtful. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXI 



gone out of use, after the establishment of the Sasanian 
dynasty, as the latest known inscription, in which it occurs, 
is that of Pat Kuli, which contains the name of Au- 
harmazd I (A. D. 271-272); while the long inscriptions 
of Naqj-i Rag-ab and Naqj-i Rustam, which contain the 
name of Varahran II (A. D. 275-283), are engraved only 
in Sasanian-Pahlavi. From these facts it seems probable 
that Chaldaeo-Pahlavl went out of use about A. D. 275. 
The Sasanian characters continue to appear, with very 
little alteration, upon the coins until the end of the fifth 
century, when most of them begin to assume the cursive 
form of the manuscript Pahlavi, which appears to have 
altered very slightly since the eighth century. 

The oldest Pahlavi manuscript known to be extant, 
consists of several fragments of papyrus recently found in 
a grave in the Fayfim district in Egypt, and now in the 
Royal Museum at Berlin ; it is supposed to have been 
written in the eighth centur y. Next to this, after a long 
interval, come four manuscripts written on Indian paper, 
all by the same hand, in A. D.JL323-1324; they are two 
copies of the Yasna and two of the Vendidad, containing 
the Avesta with its Zand, or Pahlavi translation and com- 
mentary; two of these old MSS. are now preserved in 
Kopenhagen, one in London, and one in Bombay. Next 
to these in age are two MSS. of miscellaneous Pahlavi 
texts, written probably about fifty years later; one of 
these is now in Kopenhagen and one in Bombay. Another 
MS. of nearly the same age is also a miscellaneous col- 
lection of Pahlavi texts, written in A. D. 1397, and now in 
Munich; where there is also one of the oldest Pizand- 
Sanskrit MSS., a copy of the An/a-Viraf-nimak, written 
in A. D. 1410. Another Pazand-Sanskrit MS., a copy of 
the Khurdah Avesta, of about the same age, exists in 
Bombay. Pahlavi and Pazand manuscripts of the sixteenth 
century are rather more numerous. 

Pahlavi literature reached the zenith of its prosperity 
about thirteen centuries ago, when it included the whole 
literature of Persia. Seventy years later its destruction 
commenced with the fall of the Sasanian dynasty (A.D. 



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XX11 PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



636-651) ; and the subsequent adoption of the modern Per- 
sian alphabet gave it its death-blow. The last remnants of 
Pahlavi writings are now contained in the few manuscripts 
still preserved by the Parsis in Western India, and their 
almost-extinct brethren in Persia. A careful estimate of 
the length of these remnants, so far as they are known to 
Europeans, has shown that the total extent of existing 
Pahlavi literature is about thirty-six times that of the 
Bundahij, as translated in this volume. One-fifth of this 
literature consists of translations accompanying Avesta 
texts, and the remaining four-fifths are purely Pahlavi 
works which are nearly all connected with religion. How 
much of this literature may have descended from Sasanian 
times can hardly be ascertained as yet ; in fact, it is only 
very recently that any trustworthy data, for determining 
the age of a few Pahlavi writings, have been discovered, 
as will be explained hereafter, when considering the age 
of the BundahLy. 

3. The Bundahis. 

'The term Bundahij, 'creation of the beginning,' or 
'original creation,' is applied by the Parsis to a Pahlavi 
work * which, in its present state, appears to be a collection 
of fragments relating to the cosmogony, mythology, and 
legendary history taught by Mazdayasnian tradition, but 
which cannot be considered, in any way, a complete 
treatise on these subjects. / This term is applicable enough 
to much of the earlier part of the work, which treats of 
the progressive development of creation under good and 
evil influences ; but it is probably not the original name 
of the book. Its adoption was no doubt partly owing to 
the occurrence of the word bun-dahijn, or bun-dahi^nih, 
twice in the first sentence, and partly to its appropriateness 
to the subject. But the same sentence seems to inform 

1 When this work forms part of a collection of Pahlavi texts, the whole 
manuscript is sometimes called ' the great Bundahis.' There also exists a Sad- 
dar Bundahis, or Bundahis of a hundred chapters, which is a comparatively 
modern compilation, detailing the chief customs and religious laws of the Parsis 
in a hundred sections. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXlll 



us that the actual name of the treatise was Zand-akas, 
' knowing the tradition.' 

^The work commences by describing the state of things 
in the beginning ; the good spirit being in endless light 
and omniscient, and the evil spirit in endless darkness and 
with limited knowledge. Both produced their own crea- 
tures, which remained apart, in a spiritual or ideal state, 
for three thousand years, after which the evil spirit began 
his opposition to the good creation under an agreement 
that his power was not to last more than nine thousand 
years, of which only the middle three thousand were to 
see him successful. By uttering a sacred formula the good 
spirit throws the evil one into a state of confusion for a 
second three thousand years, while he produces the arch- 
angels and the material creation, including the sun, moon, 
and stars. At the end of that period the evil spirit, 
encouraged by the demons he had produced, once more 
rushes upon the good creation, to destroy it. The demons 
carry on conflicts with each of the six classes of creation, 
namely, the sky, water, earth, plants, animals represented 
by the primeval ox, and mankind represented by Gay6- 
mard; producing little effect but movement in the sky, 
saltness in the water, mountains in the earth, withering 
in plants, and death jtq_ the primeval ox, and also to 
Gay6marc/ after an interval^ 

Then follows a series of chapters describing the seven 
regions of the earth, its mountains and seas, the five classes 
of animals, the origin of mankind, generation, the five kinds 
of fire and three sacred fires, the white H6m tree and the 
tree of many seeds, the three-legged ass, the ox Hadhaydj, 
the bird K&mrds, and other birds and animals opposed to 
the evil creation, the rivers of the world, the seventeen 
species of liquids, the lakes, the origin of the ape and bear, 
the chiefs of the several kinds of creatures and creations, 
the calendar, lineal measures, trees and plants, the cha- 
racteristics of various demons, the spiritual chiefs of the 
various regions of the earth, and the resurrection and 
future existence ; all which descriptions are given on the 
authority of the Din, which may have been some particular 



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XXIV PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



book, or revelation generally. The concluding chapters 
give the genealogies of the legendary Persian kings and 
heroes, and of Zaraturt and certain priests, together with 
an epitome of Persian chronology from the creation to the 
Muhammadan conquest. 

As the work now stands it is evidently of a fragmentary 
character, bearing unmistakable marks both of omissions 
and dislocations; and the extant manuscripts, as will be 
seen, differ among themselves both as to the extent and 
arrangement of the text. Many passages have the appear- 
ance of being translations from an Avesta original, and 
it is very probable that we have in the BundahLr either 
a translation, or an epitome, of the Damdarf Nask, one of 
the twenty-one books into which the whole of the Zoroas- 
trian scriptures are said to have been divided before the 
time of Darius. This may be guessed from a comparison 
of the contents of the BundahLr with those of the Damdarf 
Nask, which are detailed in the Dini-va^arkar</ as fol- 
lows 1 : — 'It contained an explanation of the spiritual 
existence and heaven, good and evil, the material existence 
of this world, the sky and the earth, and everything which 
Auharmazd produced in water, fire, and vegetation, men 
and quadrupeds, reptiles and birds, and everything which 
is produced from the waters, and the characteristics of all 
things. Secondly, the production of the resurrection and 
future existence ; the concourse and separation at the 
Kinvad bridge ; on the reward of the meritorious and 
the punishment of sinners in the future existence, and 
such-like explanations.' Moreover, the Damdarf Nask is 
twice quoted as an authority in the Selections of Z&d- 
sparam (IX, i, 16), when treating of animals, in nearly the 
same words as those used in the BundahLr. 

The first manuscript of the BundahiV seen in Europe 
was brought from Surat by Anquetil Duperron in 1761, 
and he published a French translation of it in his great 
work on the Zend-Avesta in, 1771 s . This manuscript, 

1 See Haug's Essays, &c, second edition, pp. 127, 138. 
' Zend-Avesta, ouvrage de Zoroastre, &c, par Anquetil Duperron ; Paris, 
1771. Tome seconde, pp. 343-423, Boun-dchesch. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXV 



which is now in the National Library at Paris, was a 
modern copy, written A. D. 1734, and contained a miscel- 
laneous collection of Pahlavi writings besides the Bundahij. 
And Anquetil's translation, though carefully prepared in 
accordance with the information he had obtained from his 
Parsi instructor, is very far from giving the correct meaning 
of the original text in many places. 

In 1830 the very old codex from which Anquetil's MS. 
had been copied was brought to Europe, from Bombay, 
by the Danish scholar Rask, and was subsequently de- 
posited in the University Library at Kopenhagen. This 
most important codex, which will be more particularly 
described under the appellation of K20, appears to have 
been written during the latter half of the fourteenth century ; 
and a facsimile of the Pahlavi text of the Bundahu, which 
it contains, was very carefully traced from it, lithographed, 
and published by Westergaard in 1851 \ 

In a review of this lithographed edition of the Pahlavi 
text, published in the Gottinger Gelehrte Anzeigen in 
1 854 2 , Haug gave a German translation of the first three 
chapters of the Bundahu. And Spiegel, in his Traditional 
Literature of the Parsis 3 , published in i860 a German 
translation of many passages in the BundahLy, together with 
a transcript of the Pahlavi text of Chaps. I, II, III, and 
XXX in Hebrew characters. But the complete German 
translation of the Bundahij by Windischmann, with his 
commentary on its contents, published in his Zoroastrian 
Studies* in 1863, was probably the most important step 
in advance since the time of Anquetil, and the utmost 



' Bnndehesh, Liber Pehlvicus. E vetustissimo codice Havniensi descripsit, 
dnas inscriptiones regis Saporis Primi adjecit, N. L. Westergaard ; Havniss, 
1851. 

' Ueber die Pehlewi-Sprache und den Bundehesh, von Martin Haug ; Got- 
tingen, 1854. 

* Die Traditionelle Literatur der Parsen in ihrem Zusammenhange mit den 
angranzenden Literaturen, dargestellt von Fr. Spiegel ; Wien, i860. 

* Zoroastriche Studien. Abhandlungen zur Mythologie und Sagengeschichte 
des alten Iran, von Fr. Windischmann (nach dem Tode des Verfassers heraus- 
gegeben von Fr. Spiegel); Berlin, 1863. 



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XXVI PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



that could be done on the authority of a single MS. which 
is far from perfect. 

In 1866 another very old codex, containing the Pahlavi 
texts of the BundahLr and other works, was brought to 
Europe by Haug, to whom it had been presented at Surat 
in 1864. It is now in the State Library at Munich, and 
will be more minutely described under the appellation of 
M6. In this codex the BundahLr is arranged in a different 
order from that in K20, and Chaps. XXVIII, XXIX, and 
XXXI-XXXIII are omitted. 

A second complete German translation of the BundahLr, 
with a lithographed copy of the Pahlavi text, a trans- 
literation of the text in modern Persian characters, and 
a glossary of all the words it contains, was published by 
Justi in 1868 l . Its author, having had access to other 
MSS. (descended from M6) at London and Oxford, was 
able to rectify many of the deficiencies in Windischmann's 
translation ; but, otherwise, he made but little progress in 
elucidating difficult passages. 

Other European writers have published the result of 
their studies of particular parts of the BundahLr, but it 
does not appear that any of them have attempted a con- 
tinuous translation of several chapters. 

Whether the existence of previous translations be more 
of an assistance than a hindrance in preparing a new one, 
may well be a matter of doubt. Previous translations may 
prevent oversights, and in difficult passages it is useful 
to see how others have floundered through the mire ; but, 
on the other hand, they occasion much loss of time, by 
the necessity of examining many of their dubious render- 
ings before finally fixing upon others that seem more 
satisfactory. The object of the present translation is to 
give the meaning of the original text as literally as pos- 
sible, and with a minimum of extra words ; the different 
renderings of other translators being very rarely noticed, 
unless there be some probability of their being of service 



1 Der Bundehesh, zum erstcn Male herausgegeben, transcribirt, Ubersetzt, 
and mit Glossar vcrsehen, von Ferdinand Justi; Leipzig, 1868. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXVU 



to the reader. Some doubtful words and passages still 
defy all attempts at satisfactory solution, but of these the 
reader is warned ; and, no doubt, a few oversights and 
mistakes will be discovered. 

With regard to the original text, we have to recover 
it from four manuscripts which are, more or less, inde- 
pendent authorities, and may be styled K20, K2ob, M6, 
and TD. The first three of these have evidently descended, 
either directly or through one or more intermediate copies, 
from the same original ; but the source of TD, so far as 
it can be ascertained, seems to have been far removed from 
that of the others. All the other MSS. of the Bundahij, 
which have been examined, whether Pahlavi or Pazand, 
are descended either from K20 or M6, and are, therefore, 
of no independent authority. 

K20 is the very old codex already mentioned as having 
been brought from Bombay by Rask in 1820, and is now 
No. 20 of the collection of Avesta and Pahlavi MSS. in 
the University Library at Kopenhagen. It consists now 
of 173 folios of very old and much-worn Indian paper of 
large octavo size, but five other folios are certainly missing, 
besides an uncertain number lost from the end of the 
volume. This MS. contains twenty Pahlavi texts, written 
twenty lines to the page, and some of them accompanied 
by Avesta ; the Bundahu is the ninth of these texts, and 
occupies fols. 88-129, of which fol. 121 is missing. Three 
of the texts, occurring before the Bundahij, have dated 
colophons, but the dates are A.Y. 690, 720, and 700, all 
within 36 folios ; it is, therefore, evident that these dates 
have been copied from older MSS. ; but at the same time 
the appearance of the paper indicates that the actual date ■* 
of the MS. cannot be much later than A.Y. 720 (a.d. 1351), 
and there are reasons for believing that it was written 
several years before A.Y. 766 (a.d. 1397), as will be ex- 
plained in the description of M6. Owing to its age and 
comparative completeness this MS. of the Bundahu is 
certainly the most important one extant, although com- 
parison with other MSS. proves that its writer was rather 
careless, and frequently omitted words and phrases. The 



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XXV111 PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



loss of fol. i a i, though it has hitherto left an inconve- 
nient gap in the text (not filled up by other MSS.), is 
more than compensated by the three extra chapters which 
this MS. and its copies have hitherto alone supplied. The 
text on the lost folio was supposed by Anquetil to have 
contained a whole chapter besides portions of the two 
adjacent ones ; this is now known to be a mistake, An- 
quetil's Chap. XXVIII being quite imaginary ; the end of 
Chap. XXVII has long been supplied from other MSS., 
but the beginning of the next chapter has hitherto been 
missing. 

Only two copies of K20 appear to be known to Eu- 
ropeans ; the best of these is the copy brought from Surat 
by Anquetil, No. 7 of his collection of manuscripts, now 
in the National Library at Paris ; this was written in A. D. 
I 734, when K20 appears to have been nearly in its present 
imperfect state, though it may have had some 15 folios 
more at the end. This copy seems to have been carefully 
written ; but the same cannot be said of the other copy, 
No. a 1 in the University Library at Kopenhagen, which 
is full of blunders, both of commission and omission, and 
can hardly have been written by so good a Pahlavi scholar 
as Dastur Darab, Anquetil's instructor, although attributed 
to him. 

Kaob consists of nineteen loose folios 1 , found by 
Westergaard among some miscellaneous fragments in the 
collection of Avesta and Pahlavi MSS. in the University 
Library at Kopenhagen, and now forming No. 20 b in that 
collection. The first two folios are lost, but the third folio 
commences with the Pahlavi equivalent of the words 
' knew that Aharman exists ' (Bund. Chap. I, 8), and the 
text continues to the end of Chap. XI, 1, where it leaps at 
once (in the middle of a line on the fifteenth folio) to 
Chap. XXX, 15, 'one brother who is righteous,' whence 
the text continues to the end of Chap. XXXI, 15, which 
is followed by Chaps. XXXII, XXXIV, as in K20. This 

1 I am indebted to the late Professor N. L. Westergaard for all information 
about this MS., and also for a tracing of the Pahlavi text of so much of Chap. 
XXXI as is contained in it. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXIX 



MS. is not very old, and contains merely a fragment of 
the text ; but its value consists in its not being a de- 
scendant of either Kao or M6, as it clearly represents a 
third line of descent from their common original. It agrees 
with K20 in the general arrangement of its chapters, so 
far as they go, and also in containing Chap. XXXI ; but 
it differs from it in some of the details of that chapter, 
and agrees with M6 in some verbal peculiarities elsewhere ; 
it has not, however, been collated in any other chapter. 
The omission of nearly twenty chapters, in the centre of 
the work, indicates that some one of the MSS. from which 
it is descended, had lost many of its central folios before 
it was copied, and that the copyist did not notice the 
deficiency; such unnoticed omissions frequently occur in 
Pahlavi manuscripts. 

M6 is the very old codex brought to Europe by Haug 
in 1866, and now No. 6 of the Haug collection in the 
State Library at Munich. It consists of 240 folios of very 
old, but well-preserved, Indian paper of large octavo size 
(to which thirteen others, of rather later date, have been 
prefixed) bound in two volumes. This MS. contains nine- 
teen Pahlavi texts, written from seventeen to twenty-two 
lines to the page, and some of them accompanied by 
Avesta ; eleven of these texts are also found in K20, and 
the BundahLf is the fourteenth of the nineteen, occupying 
fols. 53-99 of the second volume. Two of the other texts 
have dated colophons, the dates being fifty days apart in 
A. Y. 766 (a. D. 1397), and as there are 150 folios between 
the two dates there is every probability that they are the 
actual dates on which the two colophons were written. 
The arrangement of the Bundahu in this MS. is different 
from that in K20, giving the chapters in the following 
order :— Chaps. XV-XXIII, I-XIV, XXIV-XXVII, XXX, 
XXXII, XXXIV, and omitting Chaps. XXVIII.XXIX, and 
XXXI. These omissions and the misplacement of Chaps. 
I-XIV render it probable that the MS., from which the 
BundahLr in M6 was copied, was already in a state of 
decay; and this supposition is confirmed by upwards of 
fifty peculiar mistakes, scattered over most parts of the 



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XXX PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



text in M6, which are evidently due to the illegibility of 
the original from which it was copied, or to its illegible 
words having been touched up by an ignorant writer, 
instances of which are not uncommon in old Pahlavi MSS. 
Eliminating these errors, for which the writer of M6 cannot 
be held responsible, he seems to have been a more careful 
copyist than the writer of Kao, and supplies several words 
and phrases omitted by the latter. The close corres- 
pondence of Kao and M6 in most other places, renders it 
probable that they were copied from the same original, 
in which case Kao must have been written several years 
earlier than M6, before the original MS. became decayed 
and difficult to read. It is possible, however, that Kao 
was copied from an early copy of the original of M6 ; 
in which case the date of Kao is more uncertain, and may 
even be later than that of M6. 

Several MSS. of the Bundahu descended from M6 are 
in existence. One is in the MS. No. iai of the Ouseley 
collection in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, and contains 
the chapters in the following order : — Chaps. XV-XXIII, 
I-VIL17 (to ' Arag river '),XII-XIV,XXIV-XXVII,XXX, 
VII, ia-XI; followed by Sis. Chap. XX, 4-17, also derived 
from M6. Another is in the library of Dastur Jamaspji Mino- 
chiharji at Bombay, and contains the chapters also in a 
dislocated state (due to the misplacement of folios in some 
former MS.) as follows :— Chaps. XV-XXIII, I-XI, 5 (to 
'and the evil spirit'), XII, a (from ' Si£idav')-XII, ia (first 
word), XI, 5 (from ' produced most for Khvaniras')-XII, a 
(to ' and Kdndras, Mount'), XXX, 33 (from 'the renovation 
arises in')-XXX, 33, XXXII, XXXIV, Sis. Chap. XVIII, 
Bund. Chaps. XII, ia (from ' Aira/fc')-XIV, XXIV-XXVII, 
XXX. A third is in the library of Dastur Ndshirvanji 
Jamaspji at Poona, and contains the text in the same order 
as M6. A fragment of the Pahlavi text of the BundahLr, 
also descended from M6, occupies eight folios in the Addi- 
tional Oriental MS. No. 88,378 in the Library of the British 
Museum ; it contains Chaps. XVIII, XIX, 17, and XX, 1-2 
(to ' one from the other'). 

There are also several Pazand manuscripts of the Bun- 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXI 



dahij, written in Avesta characters, and likewise derived 
from M6. One of the best of these is No. 22 of the collec- 
tion of Avesta and Pahlavi MSS. in the India Office Library 
at London ; it is old, and has the date A.Y. 936 (a.d. 1567) 
in a Pahlavi colophon on fol. m, but this may have been 
copied from an older MS.; its contents are arranged as 
follows :— Chaps. XVIII-XXIII, I-XIV, XXIV-XXVII, 
XXX, XXXII, XXXIV, followed by several short Pazand 
texts, only part of which are derived from M6, and the last 
of them being left incomplete by the loss of the folios which 
originally formed the end of the volume ; instead of these 
lost folios others, containing Chaps. XV-XVII, have been 
added and bound up with the rest. Another MS., No. 7 
in the same collection, which is dated A.Y. 11 74 (a.d. 1805), 
is a modern copy derived from No. 22 through one or more 
intervening MSS. 1 ; it contains precisely the same text, but 
with many variations in orthography, indicative of the very 
uncertain character of Pazand spelling. Two fragments of 
the Pazand text are also contained in the MSS. No. 121 at 
Oxford, already mentioned ; they consist of Chaps. V, 3-7 
(to 'would have known the secret') and XXV, 18-22. 
Another fragment, evidently copied from an old MS., is 
found on fols. 34, 35 of the Rivayat MS. No. 8 of the col- 
lection in the India Office Library ; it consists of Chap. 
XVIII, 1-8. 

The Pazand text of the BundahLr, derived from M6, is 
also written in Persian characters in M7 (No. 7 of the Haug 
collection at Munich), dated A.Y. 11 78 (a.d. 1809). It is 
interlined by Persian glosses, word for word, and consists 
of Chaps. XVIII-XXIII, I-XIV, XXIV-XXVII, and 
XXX on fols. 81-119, with Chaps. XV-XVII on fols. 120- 
126, a repetition of Chap. XV and part of XVI on fols. 
223-227, and Chap. XXXII on fol. 232. 

Thus far, it will be noticed, we have two good indepen- 
dent authorities, K20 and M6, for ascertaining the text of 
the BundahLf in the fourteenth century, so far as Chaps. I- 



1 This is proved by an omission in fol. 40, which clearly indicates the loss of 
a folio in an intermediate MS. 



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XXXU PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



XXVII, XXX, XXXII, and XXXIV are concerned ; and 
we have also, in K20D, a second authority for so much of 
Chap. XXXI as occurs in K20 ; but for Chaps. XXVIII 
and XXIX we have nothing but Kao to rely on, and part of 
Chap. XXVIII is lost in that manuscript. Such was the 
unsatisfactory state of that part of the text until Dec. 1877, 
when information about the MS. TD was received, followed 
by further details and a copy of Chaps. XXVIII, XXIX, 
and XXXI-XXXIII in Oct. 1878 \ 

TD is a manuscript of the BundahLr which contains a 
much more extensive text than the MSS. already described, 
but whether it be an extension of the hitherto-received text, 
or the received text be an abridgement of this longer one, 
is likely to be a matter of dispute among Pahlavi scholars 
until the whole of the new text has been thoroughly 
examined. At any rate, the contents of this MS., combined 
with those of some MSS. of the Darfistan-i Dinik, afford a 
means of fixing the date of this recension of the BundahLr, 
as will be seen hereafter. 

This MS. belongs to a young Mobad named Tehmuras 
Dinshawji Anklesaria in Bombay, and was brought from 
Persia a few years ago by a Mobad named Khodabakhsh 
Farod Abadan. It occupies the first 103 folios of the 
volume containing it, and is followed by 112 more folios 
containing the Nirangistan. The first original folio, which 
contained the text as far as Chap. I, 5 (to ' endless light'), 
has been lost and replaced by another (which, however, is 
now old) containing some introductory sentences, besides 
the missing text. The last original folio of the BundahLr, 
containing the last five lines of the last chapter, has also been 
lost and replaced by another modern folio, which contains 
the missing text followed by two colophons, both expressing 
approval of the text, and asserting that the MS. was written 
by G6patshah Rust&m Bdndar. The first of these colophons 

1 I am indebted to Mr. Khurshedji Rustamji Cama, of Bombay (who is well 
known for the interest he takes in all matters relating to the ancient customs 
and history of his fellow-countrymen), for obtaining this information, and to the 
owner of the MS. for his liberality in supplying me with all the details and 
extracts mentioned in the text. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXI 11 



is undated, but gives the testimony of Dastur Rustam l 
Gu.rtasp An/ashir, who is known to have written another 
MS. dated A.Y. 1068 (a.d. 1699). The second colophon is 
by Dastur Jamsh&f Jamasp Hakim, and is dated A.Y. 11 13 
(a.d. 1743), which was probably the date when this last 
folio was supplied to complete the old defective MS. 

With regard to the age of the older part of this MS. we 
can arrive at an approximation in the following manner : — 
A valuable MS. of the Darfistan-i Dinik, which also belongs 
to Tehmuras Dinshawji, was written (according to a colophon 
which it contains) by Gdpatshah Rustom 2 Bandar Malka- 
man/an in the land of Kirman, who was evidently the same 
person as the writer of TD. Another MS. of the Da</istan-i 
Dinik was written by Marsapan Fr&/un Vahrdm Rustam 
Bondar Malka-man&n Din-ayar, also in the land of Kirman, 
in A.Y. 941 (a.d. 1572). Comparing these two genealogies 
together it seems evident that Gdpatshah was a brother of 
Vahrdm, the grandfather of Marsapan, and, therefore, a 
grand-uncle of Marsapan himself. Allowing for these two 
generations, it is probable that Gdpatshah wrote TD about 
a.y. 900 (say A. D. 1530) ; although instances have occurred 
in which a son has written a MS. at an earlier date than 
that of one written by his father. 

The introductory sentences on the first restored folio are 
evidently a modern addition to the text, after it had acquired 
the name of Bundahu ; but they seem to have been copied 
from some other MS., as the copyist appears to have 
hardly understood them, having written them continuously 
with the beginning of the text, without break or stop. 
The spelling is modern, but that may be due to the copyist ; 
and the language is difficult, but may be translated as 
follows 3 : — 

' The propitiation of the creator Auharmazd, the radiant, 



1 This Dastur is said to have sprung from the laity, and not from a priestly 
family. 

* The vowels & and 6 (or fl) often interchange in Pahlavi MSS. from Persia, 
probably owing to peculiarities of dialect, and the very broad sound of Persian 
a, like English a in call. 

1 English words in italics are additions to complete the sense. 

[5] C 



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XXXIV PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



glorious, omniscient, wise, powerful, and supreme, by what 
is well-thought, well-said, and well-done in thought, word, 
and deed, and the good augury of all the celestial angels 
and terrestrial angels upon the virtuous creation, I beseech. 

'Written at the second fortunate conjunction (akhtar) 
in the high-priestship (dastfirih) of the God-devoted, all- 
sagacious cultivator of righteousness, the lover of good works 
who is God-discerning, spirit-surveying, and approved by 
the good, the high-priest of the good religion of the Maz- 
dayasnians, the glorified 1 Spendya*/ son of Mah-vindcL/, son 
of Rtistdm, son of Shatrdyar. 

'The writing 2 of the JBundahij was set going by the 
coming of the Arabs to the country of Iran, whose hetero- 
doxy (dflj-dinih) and ignorance have arisen from not 
understanding the mysteries of Kayan 8 orthodoxy (hfl- 
dindih) and of those revered by the upholders of the 
religion. From their deep seats it draws the purport of 
benedictions, and from dubious thinking of actions it 
draws words of true meaning, the disclosure of which is 
entertaining knowledge. 

'On account of evil times, even he of the undecayed 
family of the Kayans and the Kayan upholders of the 
religion are mingled with the obedient and just of those 
heterodox ; and by the upper class the words of the 
orthodox, uttered in assembled worship, are considered as 
filthy vice. He also whose wish was to learn propriety 
(vara^ - ) through this treatise (farhang), might provide */ 
for himself, from various places, by trouble and day and 
night painstaking, but was not able.' 

The text of Chap. I then commences (without any inter- 
mediate stop) with the words zak zand-akasih, 'that 
knowledge of tradition.' As the whole text of the BundahLy 
occupies about 203 pages in TD, and each page contains 

1 Literally, ' immortal-soulled,' a term implying generally that the person is 
dead ; bnt it seems to have been applied to King Khusr6 I (Noshirvin) daring 
his lifetime. The time when this priest lived has yet to be discovered. 

* Reading zekttbun-i, equivalent to Paz. nivfs-i; the MS. has zak 
tfbna. 

* The hero tribe or princely race of the KaySnian dynasty, from which later 
Persian rulers have fancied themselves descended. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXV 



seventeen lines rather longer than those in Kao, it is evident 
that the text in TD must be more than twice the length of 
that in K20, which occupied originally about eighty-three 
pages of twenty lines each. This additional text consists 
not only of additional matter in many of the chapters, but 
also of extra chapters, which give the work a more complete 
appearance than it presents in the manuscripts hitherto 
known. The whole number of chapters in TD appear to 
be forty-two, the general character of the contents of which 
may be gathered from the following list of the headings of 
each chapter, with the space it occupies in TD, and a 
reference to the corresponding chapter of the translation 
in this volume (such chapters as seem to be entirely wanting 
in K20 being marked with an asterisk) : — 

1. The knowledge of tradition, first about Auharmazd's 
original creation and the antagonism of the evil spirit, after- 
wards about the nature of the creatures of the world, from 
the original creation till the end ; 19 pages ; see Chap. I. 

2. On the formation of light ; 11 pages ; see Chap. II. 

3. The rush of the destroyer at the creatures ; 6 pages ; 
see Chaps. Ill, IV. 

4. On the opposition of the two spirits, that is, in what 
manner the arch-fiends have come spiritually in opposition 
to the celestial angels ; 10 pages ; see Chap. V for two of 
the middle pages. 

5. On the waging of the conflict (arrfik) of the crea- 
tions of the world, encountering the evil spirit ; 1 page ; 
see Chap. VI. 

6. The second conflict the water waged ; 3 pages ; see 
Chap. VII. 

7. The third conflict the earth waged; 1 page; see 
Chap. VIII. 

8. The fourth conflict the plants waged ; i page ; see 
Chap. IX. 

9. The fifth conflict the primeval ox waged; J page; 
see Chap. X. 

* 10. The sixth conflict Gaydmarc/ waged ; i£ page. 
*n. The seventh conflict the fire waged ; $ page. 
*I2. The eighth conflict the constellations waged ; J page. 

c 2 



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XXXVI PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



*i$. The ninth conflict the celestial angels waged with 
the evil spirit ; three lines. 

♦14. Tenth, the stars practised iton-intermeddling (agu- 
m&gisn); J page. 

*i,5. On the species of those creations; 2 £ pages. 

16. On the nature of lands ; 1 J page ; see Chap. XI. 

1 7. On the nature of mountains ; 4J pages ; see Chap. XII. 

18. On the nature of seas ; 2 J pages ; see Chap. XIII. 

19. On the nature of rivers ; 5$ pages ; see Chaps. XX, 
XXI. 

20. On the nature of lakes; i\ page; see Chap. XXII. 

21. On the nature of the five classes of animals ; 5$ pages ; 
see Chap. XIV. 

22. On the nature of men ; 7$ pages; see Chap. XV 1 . 

23. On the nature of generation of every kind ; 5 pages ; 
see Chap. XVI. 

24. On the nature of plants ; 3$ pages ; see Chap. XXVII. 

25. On the chieftainship of men and animals and every 
single thing ; 2$ pages ; see Chap. XXIV. 

26. On the nature of fire ; 4<j pages ; see Chap. XVII. 
*27- On the nature of sleep ; 2$ pages. 

*28. On the nature of wind and cloud and rain ; o§ pages. 
*29. On the nature of noxious creatures; 4 J pages 2 . 
*30. On the nature of the wolf species ; 2 pages. 

31. On things of every kind that are created by the 
spirits 3 , and the opposition which came upon them; 7 J 
pages; see Chaps. XVIII, XIX. 

32. On the religious year; 4 pages; see Chaps. XXV, 
XXVI. 

*33. On the great exploits of the celestial angels; 17J 
pages. 

34. On the evil-doing of Aharman and the demons; 
7 pages, as in Chap. XXVIII. 



1 TD contains half a page more near the beginning, and a page and a half 
more at the end. 

* Probably Chap. XXIII of the translation forms a part either of this chapter 
or the next. 

* This word is doubtful. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXVII 



*35. On the body of man and the opinion of the world 1 ; 
7 pages. 

36. On the spiritual chieftainship of the regions of the 
earth; 3! pages, as in Chap. XXIX. 

♦37. On the K'mvzd bridge and the souls of the departed ; 
5$ pages. 

*38. On the celebrated provinces of the country of Iran, 
the residence of the Kayans; 5 pages 2 . 

*39. On the calamities of various millenniums happening 
to the country of Iran ; 8§ pages 8 . 

40. On the resurrection and future existence ; 6§ pages ; 
see Chap. XXX. 

41. On the race and offspring of the Kayans; 8| pages, 
as in Chaps. XXXI-XXXIII. 

42. On the computation of years of the Arabs ; 2 \ pages; 
see Chap. XXXIV. 

Comparing this list of contents with the text in K20, 
as published in Westergaard's lithographed facsimile edi- 
tion, it appears that TD contains, not only fifteen extra 
chapters, but also very much additional matter in the 
chapters corresponding to Chaps. I, II, V, XVI, XXVIII, 
and XXXI of the translation in this volume, and smaller 
additions to those corresponding to Chaps. Ill, IV, XV, 
XVII, and XXXIV. The arrangement of the chapters in 
TD is also much more methodical than in the Indian 
MSS., especially with regard to Chaps. XX, XXI, XXII, 
and XXVII, which evidently occupy their proper position 
in TD ; and so far as Chap. XX is concerned, this arrange- 
ment is confirmed by the insertion of its first sentence 
between Chaps. XIII and XIV in the Indian MSS., which 
indicates that the whole chapter must have been in that 
position in some older copy. In fact, the Indian MSS. 
must probably be now regarded merely as collections of 



1 The meaning is doubtful and must depend upon the context. 

* This chapter begins with a fouulation of the first fargard of the Vendidad, 
and concludes with an account of buildings erected by various kings. 

' Containing an account of the kings reigning in the various millenniums, and 
concluding with prophecies similar to those in the Bahman Yait. 



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XXXV1U PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



extracts from the original work ; this has been long 
suspected from the fragmentary character of the text 
they contain, but it could hardly be proved until a more 
complete text had been discovered. 

Whether TD may be considered as a copy of the text 
as it stood originally, or merely of an after recension of 
the work, can hardly be determined with certainty until 
the whole contents of the manuscript have been carefully 
examined ; it is, therefore, to be hoped that its owner will 
be induced to publish a lithographed facsimile of the whole, 
after the manner of Westergaard's edition. So far as 
appears in the lengthy and valuable extracts, with which 
he has kindly favoured me, no decided difference of style 
can be detected between the additional matter and the 
text hitherto known, nor any inconsistencies more striking 
than such as sometimes occur in the Indian MSS. On the 
other hand, it will be noticed that heading No. 25 in the 
list of contents seems to be misplaced, which is an argu- 
ment against the text being in its original state ; and the 
style of the BundahLr is so much less involved and obscure 
than that of the Selections of Za</-sparam (see Appendix 
to the Bundahu), which treat of some of the same subjects, 
that it may be fairly suspected of having been written 
originally in a different age. But the writer of the text, 
as it appears in TD, calls Za</-sparam ' one of his con- 
temporaries (see Chap. XXXIII, 10, 11 of the translation); 
it may, therefore, be suspected that he merely re-edited 
an old text with some additions of his own, which, how- 
ever, are rather difficult to distinguish from the rest. No 
stress can be laid upon peculiarities of orthography in TD, 
as they are, in all likelihood, attributable to copyists long 
subsequent to Zarf-sparam's contemporaries. 

Any future translator of the BundahLr will probably 
have to take the text in TD as the nearest 'accessible 
approach to the original work ; but the present translation 
is based, as heretofore, upon the text in Kao, corrected 
in many places from M6, but with due care not to adopt 



1 He writes the name Zarf-sparham. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXIX 



readings which seem due to the illegibility of the original 
from which M6 was copied, as already explained. In 
Chaps. XXVIII, XXIX, XXXI, XXXII, and XXXIII, 
however, TD has been taken as a principal authority, 
merely checked by K20, and having its additional passages 
carefully indicated; and in Chap. XXXI, K2ob has also 
been consulted. 

Since the present translation was printed, any lingering 
doubts, as to the genuineness of the text in TD, have been, 
in a great measure, dissipated by the discovery that a small 
fragment 1 of an old MS. of the Bundahu, which has long 
been in Europe, is evidently a portion of a text of similar 
character to TD, and of exactly the same extent. This 
small fragment consists of two folios belonging to an old 
MS. brought from Persia by the late Professor Westergaard 
in 1843-44, and which is evidently the codex mentioned by 
him in the preface to his Zend-Avesta, p. 8, note 3. These 
two folios, which are numbered 130 and 131 in Persian 
words, now form the commencement of this old mutilated 
MS., of which the first 129 folios have been lost. They 
contain very little more than one page of the Bundahij text, 
namely, the last sentences of the last chapter (corresponding 
to Bund. XXXIV, 7-9), followed by a colophon occupying 
less than two pages. This fragment of the text contains 
some additional details not found in the Indian MSS., as 
well as a few other variations of no great importance. It 
may be translated as follows : — 

'[.... Sahm 2 was in those reigns of Ahztbt, Kavarf, 
and Manu*£ihar.] Kai-Kayus, till his going to the sky, 
seventy-five years, and after that, seventy-five years, alto- 
gether a hundred and fifty years; Kai-Khusr6bd sixty 



1 I am indebted to Professor G. Hoffmann, of Kiel, for directing my atten- 
tion to this fragment, and also for kindly sending me a facsimile of it. It had 
been recognised as a portion of the Bundahis by Dr. Andreas some years ago, 
and probably by the owner of the MS., the late Professor Westergaard, long 
before that 

* See Bund. XXXI, 17. As the beginning of this sentence is lost, its trans- 
lation is uncertain. Details not found in Kao and M6 are here enclosed in 
brackets, and words added by the translator to complete the sense are printed 
in italics. 



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xl PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



years ; Kai-L6harasp a hundred and twenty years ; Kat- 
Vijtasp, till the coming of the religion, thirty years ; [total 
(mar) one thousand years 1 . Then the millennium reign 
came to Capricornus, and Zaratuhart 2 the Spttaman, with 
tidings (pStkhambarih) from the creator Auharmazd, came 
to King Vutasp ; and VLrtasp was king,] after receiving the 
religion, ninety years. 

' Vohuman, son of Spend-dcU/, a hundred and twelve years ; 
Humai, daughter of Vohuman, thirty years; Darai, son of 
Kih&r-kzkd, that is, of the daughter of Vohuman, twelve 
years ; Darai, son of Darai, fourteen years ; and Alexander 
the Ruman 3 fourteen years. 

' The Ajkanians should bear the title in an uninterrupted 
sovereignty two hundred and so many 4 years ; and Artakh- 
shatar, son of Papak, and the number of the Sasanians bear 
it four hundred and sixty years, until the withering Arabs 
obtained a place 8 [as far as the year 447 of the Persians ; 
now *'/ is the Persian year 527] 6 .' 

The colophon, which follows, states that the MS. was 
finished on the thirteenth day of the ninth month A.Y. 936 
(a. d. 1567), and was written by Mitr6-apan, son of Andshak- 
rtiban, son of Rustam. This MS. is, therefore, of nearly the 
same age as TD ; but there has been no opportunity of 
collating the fragment of it, which is still extant, with the 
corresponding portion of TD. That it was a MS. of the 
same character as TD (that is, one containing the same text 
as K20, but with much additional matter) appears clearly 

1 From the beginning of Frerfun's reign, when the millennium of Sagittarius 
commenced. 

* The usual way of spelling ZaratQst in old MSS., excepting K20 and a few 
others. 

3 Here written correctly Alaksandar-i ArumSt. 

4 Reading va and ; as the final letter is d and not d it cannot be read 
navarf as a variant of navarf, 'ninety.' 

4 The words are, vad g-!nak ayift khflskd-i Taztk&nS, but the exact 
meaning is rather doubtful. 

• The last date is doubtful, as the Pahlavi text gives the ciphers only for 
'five and twenty-seven,' omitting that for 'hundred.' These Persian dates 
must either have been added by some former copyist, or Chap. XXXIV must 
have been appended to the Bundahis at a later date than the ninth century, 
when the preceding genealogical chapters were probably added to the original 
work (tee p. xliii). The Persian year 527 was a. d. 1158. 



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INTRODUCTION. xli 



from the fragment translated above. Regarding its original 
extent, it is possible to make an approximate estimate, by 
calculating the quantity of text which the 139 lost folios 
must have contained, from the quantity actually existing on 
folio 130. According to this calculation, the original extent 
of the text of the BundahLr in this MS. must have been 
very nearly 30,000 words ; and it is remarkable that a 
similar calculation of the extent of the text in TD, based 
upon the actual contents of ten folios out of 103, gives pre- 
cisely the same result. This coincidence is a strong argu- 
ment in favour of the absolute identity of the text lost from 
Westergaard's MS. with that actually existing in TD ; it 
shows, further, that the original extent of the Bundahij may 
now be safely estimated at 30,000 words, instead of the 
13,000 contained in K20 when that MS. was complete. 

That this fragment belonged to a separate MS., and is 
not the folio missing from the end of TD, is shown not 
only by its containing more of the text than is said to be 
missing, but also by the first folio of the fragment being 
numbered 130, instead of 103, and by its containing fifteen 
lines to the page, instead of seventeen, as would be necessary 
in order to correspond with TD. / 

Regarding the age of the Bundahij many opinions have 
been hazarded, but as they have been chiefly based upon 
minute details of supposed internal evidence evolved from 
each writer's special misinterpretation of the text, it is 
unnecessary to detail them. The only indication of its 
age that can be fairly obtained from internal evidence, 
is that the text of the Bundahij could not have been 
completed, in its present form, until after the Muham- 
madan conquest of Persia (a. D. 651). This is shown not 
only by the statements that the sovereignty ' went to the 
Arabs ' (Chap. XXXIV, 9), that ' now, through the invasion 
of the Arabs, they (the negroes) are again diffused through 
the country of Iran ' (Chap. XXIII, 3), and that ' whoever 
keeps the year by the revolution of the moon mingles 
summer with winter and winter with summer ' (Chap. XXV, 
19, referring probably to the Muhammadan year not cor- 
responding with the seasons), but also, more positively 



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xlii PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



by the following translation of an extract from Chap. 
39 in TD : — 

'And when the sovereignty came to Yazdakan/ he 
exercised sovereignty twenty years, and then the Arabs 
rushed into the country of Iran in great multitude. Yaz- 
dakan/did not prosper (14 jakafto) in warfare with them, 
and went to Khurasan and Turkistan to seek horses, men, 
and assistance, and was slain by them there. The son of 
Yazdakarrf went to the Hindus and fetched an army of 
champions ; before it came, conducted unto Khurasan, that 
army of champions dispersed. The country of Iran re- 
mained with the Arabs, and their own irreligious law was 
propagated by them, and many ancestral customs were 
destroyed ; the religion of the Mazdayasnians was weakened, 
atul washing of corpses, burial of corpses, and eating of 
dead matter were put in practice. From the original 
creation until this day evil more grievous than this has 
not happened, for through their evil deeds — on account 
of want, foreign habits (Aniranih), hostile acts, bad de- 
crees, and bad religion — ruin, want, and other evils have 
taken lodgment.' 

None of these passages could have been written before 
the Muhammadan conquest ; but the writer, or editor, of 
the text as it appears in TD, supplies the means of ap- 
proximating much more closely to the date of his work, 
in a passage in Chap. 41 of TD, in which he mentions the 
names of several of his contemporaries (see Chap. XXXIII, 
10, 11). Among these, as already noticed, he mentions 
' Z&f-sparham son of Yudan-Yim,' who must have been 
the writer of the Selections of Zarf-sparam, a translation 
of which is added as an appendix to the Bundahu in this 
volume. This writer was the brother of Manuj^ihar son 
of Yudan-Yim, who wrote the DiU/istan-i Dinik ', and from 
colophons found in certain MSS. of the D&fistan (which 
will be more particularly described in the next section of 
this introduction) it appears that this Manu.y£ihar was 



1 It is quite possible that ManusMhar was also the reviser of the Bundahis ; 
see the note on Darfakih-i AshOvahi «l& in Chap. XXXIII, 10. 



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INTRODUCTION. xliii 



high-priest of Pars and Klrman in A. Y. 250 (a.d. 881). 
This date may, therefore, be taken as a very close ap- 
proximation to the time at which the Bundahij probably 
assumed the form we find in TD ; but that MS., having 
been written about 650 years later, can hardly have been 
copied direct from the original. Whether that original 
was merely a new edition of an older Pahlavi work, as 
may be suspected from the simplicity of its language, or 
whether it was first translated, for the most part, from the 
Avesta of the Damdarf Nask, in the ninth century, we 
have no means of determining with certainty. Judging, 
however, from Chap. I, 1, the original Bundahlr probably 
ended with the account of the resurrection (Chap. XXX), 
and the extra chapters, containing genealogical and chro- 
nological details (matters not mentioned in Chap. I, 1), 
together with all allusions to the Arabs, were probably 
added by the revising editor in the ninth century. The 
last, or chronological, chapter may even have been added 
at a later date. 

A Gq£arati translation, or rather paraphrase, of the 
Bundahlr was published in 18 19 by Edal Darab JamshSd 
Jamasp Asa, and a revised edition of it was published by 
Peshutan Rustam in 1877 \ In the preface to the latter 
edition it is stated that the translator made use of two 
MSS., one being a copy of a manuscript written in Iran 
in A. Y. 776 by Rustamji Meherwanji Maiguban She- 
heriar 2 , and the other a MS. written in India by Dasttir 
Jamsh£dji Jamaspji in a. Y. i 139 3 . It is also mentioned 
that he was four years at work upon his translation. The 
editor of the new edition states that he has laboured to 

1 Bundehes ketab, i&ne dunia-ni awal-thi te akher sudhi pedaes-ni sahruat-ni 
hakikat ; bigi-var sudharine Mapawanar, Peshutan bin Rustam ; Mumbai, 1877. 

* There is no doubt whatever that the writer of the preface is referring to 
M6, although his description is incorrect. M6 was written at Bhro* in India 
a. t. 766 by Pesh6tan Ram Kamdtn Shaharyar Nery6sang Shahmard ShaharySr 
Bahram Aurmazdyar Ramyar ; but some portion of it (probably not the Bun- 
dahis) was copied from a MS. written a. t. 618 (a.d. 1249) by Rustam Mihir- 
apan Marzapan Dahimayar, who must be the copyist mentioned in the preface 
to the Gu^arati translation. 

* This is probably the copy derived from M6, and mentioned in p. xxx as 
being now in the library of Dastur Jamaspji Minochiharji. 



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xllV PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



improve the work by collecting all the further information 
he could find, on the various subjects, in many other 
Pahlavi works. The result of all this labour is not so 
much a mere translation of the Bundahu, as a larger work 
upon the same subject, or a paraphrase more methodically 
arranged, as may be seen from the following summary of 
its contents : — 

The headings of the fifty-nine chapters, which form 
the first part of the work, are: — Ahuramazd's covenant, 
account of the sky, of the first twelve things created, of 
Mount Alborf, of the twelve signs of the zodiac, of the 
stars, of the soul, of the first practices adopted by the 
creatures of the evil spirit Ahereman, of Ahereman's first 
breaking into the sky, of Ahereman's coming upon the 
primeval ox, of Ahereman's arrival in the fire, of Ahere- 
man's coming upon Gaiomard, of the coming of Ahura- 
mazd and Ahereman upon Gaiomard at the time of his 
creation, of the lustre residing in both spirits ; further 
account of the arrangement of the sky, another account 
of all the mountains, of depressions for water, of great and 
small rivers, of the eighteen rivers of fresh water, of the 
seven external and seven internal liquids in the bodies of 
men, of the period in which water falling on the earth 
arrives at its destination, of the three spiritual rivers, of 
the star Tehestar's destroying the noxious creatures which 
Ahereman had distributed over the earth, of the prophet 
Zarathost's asking the creator Ahuramazd how long these 
noxious creatures will remain in the latter millenniums, 
of driving the poison of the noxious creatures out of the 
earth, of the divisions of the land, of the creator Ahura- 
mazd's placing valiant stars as club-bearers over the heads 
of the demons, of all the things produced by the passing 
away of the primeval ox, of the 282 species of beasts and 
birds, of the bird named A'amror, of the bird named 
Karxapad and the hollow of Vaigamkard, of the birds who 
are enemies opposed to the demons and fiends, of the 
bitter and sweet plants among the fifty-five kinds of grain 
and twelve kinds of herbs, of the flowers of the thirty days, 
of the revolution of the sun and moon and stars, and how 



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INTRODUCTION. xlv 



night falls, and how the day becomes light, of the seven 
regions of the earth, of depressions, of the creatures of the 
sea, of the flow and ebb of the tide, of the three-legged 
ass, of the Gahambars, of Rapithvan, of the revolution of 
the seasons, of the production of mankind from the passing 
away of Gaiornard, of the production of offspring from the 
seed of men, of all fires, of all the clever work produced 
in the reign of King Jamshed and the production of the 
ape and bear, of the production of the Abyssinian and 
negro from Zohak, of the splendour and glory of King 
Jamshed, of the soul of Kersasp, of Kersasp's soul being 
the first to rise, of the names of the prophet Zarathost's 
pedigree, of his going out into the world, of his children, 
of the orders given by Ahereman to the demons when the 
creator Ahuramazd created the creatures, of the weeping 
and raging of the evil spirit Ahereman, of the weeping of 
the demon of Wrath in the presence of Ahereman when 
the prophet Zarathost brought the religion, of the compu- 
tation of twelve thousand years. 

The headings of the thirteen chapters, which form the 
second part, are : — Account of the last millenniums, of 
the appearance of Horedar-bami, of his going out into the 
world, of the appearance of Hojedar-mah, of Sojios, of the 
fifty-seven years, of giving the light of the sun to men 
on the day of the resurrection, of the rising again of the 
whole of mankind on that day, of the resurrection, of the 
means of resurrection, of the annihilation of the evil spirit 
Ahereman and the demons and fiends on the day of 
resurrection, of the creator Ahuramazd's making the earth 
and sky one after the resurrection, of the proceedings of 
all creatures after the resurrection. 

The third part contains an abstract of the contents of 
the hundred chapters of the Sad-dar Bundahu, and con- 
cludes with an account of the ceremonial formula practised 
when tying the kusti or sacred thread-girdle. 



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xlvi PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



4. The Selections of Zad-sparam. 

In some manuscripts of the Da</istan-i Dinik the ninety- 
two questions and answers, which usually go by that name, 
are preceded and followed by Pahlavi texts which are each 
nearly equal in extent to the questions and answers, and 
treat of a variety of subjects, somewhat in the manner of 
a Rivayat. Of the texts which follow the questions and 
answers the following are the principal : — 

Incantations for fever, &c. ; indications afforded by 
natural marks on the body; about the hamistakan ('the 
ever-stationary,' or neutral state of future existence) and 
the different grades in heaven ; copy of an epistle x from 
Herbad Mank$£ihar son of Yudan-Yim 2 , which he ad- 
dressed to the good people of Sirkan 3 , about the decisions 
pronounced by Herbad Zarf-sparam son of Yudan-Yim ; 
copy of a letter from Herbad Manuj£ihar son of Yudan- 
Yim to his brother, Herbad Za*/-sparam, on the same 
subject, and replying to a letter of his written from 
Nivshapuhar ; copy of a notice by Herbad Manu^ihar, 
son of Yudan-Yim and high-priest (ra</) of Pars and 
Kirman, of the necessity of hfteenfold ablution on account 
of grievous sin, written and sealed in the third month A.Y. 
250 (a.d. 881) ; memoranda and writings called 'Selections 
of Za</-sparam son of Yudan-Yim,' the first part treating 
of many of the same subjects as the BundahLr, together 

1 This long epistle contains one statement which is important in its bearing 
upon the age of certain Pahlavi writings. It states that Ntshahpfihar was in 
the council of Anoshak-rubin Khusrft, king of kings and son of Kavarf, also 
that he was Mobad of Mobads and a commentator. Now this is the name of 
a commentator quoted in the Pahlavi Vend. Ill, 151, V, in, VIII, 64, and very 
frequently in the Ntrangistfin ; it is also a title applied to ArdS-Viraf (see AV. 
1. 35I. These facts seem to limit the age of the last revision of the Pahlavi 
Vcndidad, and of the composition of the Pahlavi Ntrangistin and Arrfa-Vtraf- 
namak to the time of King Khusr6 Ndshirvin (a.d. 531-579). The statement 
depends, of course, upon the accuracy of a tradition three centuries old, as 
this epistle must have been written about a. d. 880. 

» Some Parsis read this name G6shnajam, others YAdan-dam. 

» Mr. Tehmuras Dinshawji thinks this is the place now called Strgan, about 
thirty parasangs south of Kirman, on the road to Bandar Abbas, which is no 
doubt the case. 



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INTRODUCTION. xlvii 



with legends regarding Zaratfct and his family ; the second 
part about the formation of men out of body, life, and 
soul ; and the third part about the details of the renovation 
of the universe. The last part of these Selections is in- 
complete in all known MSS., and is followed by some 
fragments of a further series of questions and answers 
regarding the omniscient wisdom, the evil spirit, Kangdez, 
the enclosure formed by Yim, &c. 

A translation of so much of the Selections of Zirf-sparam 
as treats of the same subjects as the Bundahij, has been 
added as an appendix to the translation of that work in 
this volume, because the language used in these Selections 
seems to have an important bearing upon the question of 
the age of the BundahLr. The time when the Selections 
themselves were written is fixed with considerable precision 
by the date (a. D. 881), when their author's brother, Manu- 
.r£ihar, issued his public notice, as mentioned above. But 
Za^-sparam uses, in many places, precisely the same words 
as those employed in the BundahLr, interspersed with much 
matter written in a more declamatory style ; it is, there- 
fore, evident that he had the BundahLr before him to quote 
from, and that work must consequently have been written 
either by one of his contemporaries, or by an older writer. 
So far the Selections merely confirm the information already 
obtained more directly from TD (see p. xxxviii) ; but the 
involved style of their language seems to prove more than 
this. In fact, in none of the text of the Dadistln-i Dinik 
and its accompaniments is there much of the simplicity of 
style and directness of purpose which are the chief cha- 
racteristics of most of the language of the BundahLr. So 
far, therefore, as style can be considered a mark of age, 
rather than a mere personal peculiarity of a contemporary 
writer, the contrast between the straightforward language 
of the BundahLr and the laboured sentences of Manuj^ihar 
and Za</-sparam, sons of Yudan-Yim, tends to prove that 
the bulk of the BundahLr was already an old work in their 
days, and was probably saved from oblivion through their 
writings or influence. That this original BundahLr or Zand- 
akas was an abridged translation of the Avcsta of the 



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xlviii PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



Dirndl/ Nask appears pretty evident from Zarf-sparam's 
remarks in Chap. IX, i, 16 of his Selections. 

The first part of these Selections consists of 'sayings 
about the meeting of the beneficent and evil spirits,' and 
the first portion of these 'sayings' (divided into eleven 
chapters in the translation) is chiefly a paraphrase of 
Chaps. I-XVII of the BundahLr (omitting Chaps. II, V, and 
XVI). It describes the original state of the two spirits, 
their meeting and covenant, with a paraphrase of the 
Ahunavar formula; the production of the first creatures, 
including time ; the incursion of the evil spirit and his 
temporary success in deranging the creation, with the reason 
why he was unable to destroy the primitive man for thirty 
years ; followed by the seven contests he carried on with 
the sky, water, earth, plants, animals, man, and fire, respec- 
tively, detailing how each of these creations was modified 
in consequence of the incursion of the evil spirit. In the 
account of the first of these contests the Pahlavi translation 
of one stanza in the Gathas is quoted verbatim, showing that 
the same Pahlavi version of the Yasna was used in the ninth 
century as now exists. The remainder of these ' sayings,' 
having no particular connection with the BundahLr, has not 
been translated. 

With regard to the Pahlavi text of the Selections, the 
present translator has been compelled to rely upon a single 
manuscript of the D&/istan-i Dinik, brought by Wester- 
gaard from Kirman J in 1 843, and now No. 35 of the collec- 
tion of Ayesta and Pahlavi MSS. in the University Library 
at Kopenhagen ; it may, therefore, be called K35. This 
MS. is incomplete, having lost nearly one-third of its original 
bulk, but still contains 181 folios of large octavo size, written 
fifteen to seventeen lines to the page ; the first seventy-one 
folios of the work have been lost, and about thirty-five folios 
are also missing from the end ; but the whole of the ninety- 
two questions and answers, together with one-third of the 

1 That is, so far as the late Professor Westergaard could remember in 1878, 
when he kindly lent me the MS. for collation with my copy of the text, already 
obtained from more recent MSS. in Bombay, the best of which turned out to be 
a copy of K35. 



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INTRODUCTION. xllX 



texts which usually precede them, and three-fifths of those 
which usually follow them, are still remaining. This MS. 
has lost its date, but a copy * of it exists in Bombay (written 
when it was complete) which ends with a colophon dated 
A.Y. 941 (a. D. 1573), as detailed in p. xxxiii; this may either 
be the actual date of that copy, or it may have been merely 
copied from K35, which cannot be much older. The latter 
supposition appears the more probable, as this colophon 
seems to be left incomplete by the loss of the last folio in 
the Bombay copy, and may, therefore, have been followed 
by another colophon giving a later date. 

This copy of K35 was, no doubt, originally complete, but 
has lost many of its folios in the course of time ; most of 
the missing text has been restored from another MS., but 
there are still twelve or more folios missing from the latter 
part of the work ; it contains, however, all that portion of 
the Selections which is translated in this volume, but has, 
of course, no authority independent of K35. The other 
MS. in Bombay, from which some of the missing text was 
recovered, is in the library of Dastur Jamaspji Minochiharji ; 
it is a modern copy, written at different periods from forty 
to sixty years ago, and is incomplete, as it contains only 
one-fourth of the texts which usually follow the ninety-two 
questions and answers, and includes no portion of the Selec- 
tions of Za</-sparam. 

Another MS. of the Da<fistan-i Dinik and its accompani- 
ments, written also at Kirman, but two generations earlier 
than K35 (say, about A. D. 1530), has been already mentioned 
(see p. xxxiii). It is said still to contain 227 folios, though 
its first seventy folios are missing ; it must, therefore, begin 
very near the same place as K35, but extends much further, 
as it supplies about half the text still missing from the 



1 The fact of its being a copy of K35 is proved by strong circumstantial evi- 
dence. In the first place, it contains several false readings which are clearly 
due to mis-shapen letters and accidental marks in K35, so that it is evidently 
descended from that MS. But it is further proved to have been copied direct 
from that MS., by the last words in thirty-two of its pages having been marked 
with interlined circles in K35 ; the circle having been the copyist's mark for 
finding his place, when beginning a new page after turning over his folios. 

[5] d 



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I PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



Bombay copy of K35, though it has lost about fourteen 
folios at the end. This MS. must be either the original 
from which K35 was copied, or an independent authority of 
equal value, but it has not been available for settling the 
text of the Selections for the present translation. 



5. The Bahman Yast. 

The Bahman Yart, usually called the ' Zand of the 
Vohuman Yart,' professes to be a prophetical work, in 
which Auharmazd gives Zaraturt an account of what 
was to happen to the Iranian nation and religion in the 
future. 

It begins with an introduction (Chap. I) which states 
that, according to the Stfa/gar Nask, Zaraturt having asked 
Auharmazd for immortality, was supplied temporarily with 
omniscient wisdom, and had a vision of a tree with four 
branches of different metals which were explained to him 
as symbolical of four different periods, the times ofVLrtasp, 
of Arc/akhshir the Kayanian, of Khflsrd Ndshirvan, and of 
certain demons or idolaters who were to appear at the end 
of a thousand years. It states, further, that the commen- 
taries of the Vohuman, Horvadarf, and Artarf Yarts men- 
tioned the heretic Mazdak, and that Khtisrd Ndshirvan 
summoned a council of high-priests and commentators, and 
ordered them not to conceal these Yarts, but to teach the 
commentary only among their own relations. 

The text then proceeds (Chap. II) to give the details of 
the commentary on the Vohuman Yart as follows : — Zara- 
turt, having again asked Auharmazd for immortality, is 
refused, but is again supplied with omniscient wisdom for a 
week, during which time he sees, among other things, a tree 
with seven branches of different metals, which are again 
explained to him as denoting the seven ages of the religion, 
its six ages of triumph in the reigns of Virtasp, of An/akhshir 
the Kayanian, of one of the Ajkanian kings, of Arc/akhshtr 
Papakan and Shahpur I and II, of Vahram G6r, and of 
Khusrd Ndshirvan, and its seventh age of adversity when 



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INTRODUCTION. It 



Iran is to be invaded from the east by hordes of demons or 
idolators with dishevelled hair, who are to work much mis- 
chief, so as to destroy the greater part of the nation and 
mislead the rest, until the religion becomes nearly extinct. 
The details of this mischief, written in a tone of lamentation, 
constitute the greater part of the text, which also notices 
that the sovereignty will pass from the Arabs, Rumans, and 
these leathern-belted demons (Turks) to other Turks and 
non-Turanians who are worse than themselves. 

Distressed at this narrative Zaraturt asks Auharmazd 
(Chap. Ill, t) how the religion is to be restored, and these 
demons destroyed ? He is informed that, in the course of 
time, other fiends with red banners, red weapons, and red 
hats, who seem to be Christians, will appear in the north- 
west, and will advance either to the Arvand (Tigris) or the 
Euphrates, driving back the former demons who will assem- 
ble all their allies to a great conflict, one of the three 
great battles of the religions of the world, in which the 
wicked will be so utterly destroyed that none will be left 
to pass into the next millennium. 

Zaraturt enquires (III, is) how so many can perish, and 
is informed that, after the demons with dishevelled hair 
appear, Husherfar, the first of the last three apostles, is 
born near Lake Frazdan ; and when he begins to confer with 
Auharmazd a Kayan prince is born in the direction of 
A'tnistan (Samarkand), who is called Vahram the Vaiyavand, 
and when he is thirty years old he collects a large army of 
Hindu (Bactrian) and KM (Samarkandian) troops, and 
advances into Iran, where he is reinforced by a numerous 
army of Iranian warriors, and defeats the demon races with 
immense slaughter, in the great conflict already mentioned, 
so that there will be only one man left to a thousand 
women. 

The writer then proceeds to describe the supernatural 
agencies employed to produce this result : how the evil 
spirit (III, 24) comes to the assistance of the demon- 
worshippers ; how Auharmazd sends his angels to Kangdes, 
to summon PSshydtanu, the immortal son of VLrtasp, with 
his disciples, to re-establish the sacred fires and restore the 

d 2 



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Ill PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



religious ceremonies ; and how the angels assist them against 
the evil spirits, so that Vahram the Vaig-avand is enabled 
to destroy the fiendish races, as already detailed, and 
Peshydtanu becomes supreme high-priest of the Iranian 
world. 

Finally, the writer gives some details regarding the mis- 
sions of the last three apostles, returning for that purpose 
(III, 44) to the birth of Husherfar, the first of the three, whose 
millennium witnesses both the invasion and the destruction 
of the fiendish races. Hush£rfar proves his apostolic au- 
thority, to the satisfaction of Vaiyavand and the people, by 
making the sun stand still for ten days and nights. His 
mission is to ' bring the creatures back to their proper 
state ; ' and it is not till near the end of his millennium that 
Peshydtanu appears, as before described. As this millen- 
nium begins with the invasion of the fiendish races and the 
fall of the Sasanian dynasty, it must have terminated in the 
seventeenth century, unless it was to last more than a 
thousand years. A very brief account is then given of 
the millennium of Hush&fer-mah, the second of the three 
apostles, whose mission is to make 'the creatures more 
progressive' and to destroy 'the fiend of serpent origin' 
(A^-i Dahak). During his millennium (which appears to be 
now in progress) mankind become so skilled in medicine 
that they do not readily die ; but owing to their toleration 
of heretics the evil spirit once more attains power, and 
releases A?-i Dahak, from his confinement in Mount Dima- 
vand, to work evil in the world, till Auharmazd sends his 
angels to rouse Keresasp the Saman, who rises from his 
trance and kills As-i Dahak with his club at the end of the 
millennium. Afterwards, Sdshyans, the last apostle, appears 
to 'make the creatures again pure;' when the resurrection 
takes place and the future existence commences. 

Whether this text, as now extant, be the original com- 
mentary or zand of the Vohuman Yart admits of doubt, 
since it appears to quote that commentary (Chap. II, 1) as 
an authority for its statements; it is, therefore, most pro- 
bably, only an epitome of the original commentary. Such 
an epitome would naturally quote many passages verbatim 



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INTRODUCTION. Hii 



from the original work, which ought to bear traces of trans- 
lation from an Avesta text, as its title zand implies a 
Pahlavi translation from the Avesta (see p. x). There are, 
in fact, many such traces in this epitome, as indicated by 
the numerous sentences beginning with a verb, the mode of 
addressing Auharmazd, the quotation of different opinions 
from various commentators, and other minor peculiarities. 
Some of these might be the result of careful imitation of 
other commentaries, but it seems more likely that they are 
occasioned by literal translation from an original Avesta 
text. In speculating, therefore, upon the contents of the 
Bahman Yart it is necessary to remember that we are most 
probably dealing with a composite work, whose statements 
may be referred to the three different ages of the Avesta 
original, the Pahlavi translation and commentary, and the 
Pahlavi epitome of the latter ; and that this last form of the 
text is the only old version now extant. 

With regard to the age of the work we have the external 
evidence that a copy of it exists in a manuscript (Kao) 
written about five hundred years ago, and that this copy is 
evidently descended from older manuscripts as it contains 
several clerical blunders incompatible with any idea of its 
being the original manuscript, as witness the omissions noted 
in Chaps. II, 10, 13, 14, 22, 27, 45, III, 30, 32, the misplace- 
ment of II, 18, and many miswritings of single words. 
Owing to the threefold character of the work, already 
noticed, the internal evidence of its age can only apply to 
its last recension in the form of an epitome, as an oriental 
editor (to say nothing of others) generally considers himself 
at liberty to alter and add to his text, if he does not under- 
stand it, or thinks he can improve it. That this liberty 
has been freely exercised, with regard to these professed 
prophecies, is shown by the identification of the four pro- 
phetical ages of the Sturfgar Nask in the first chapter of 
the Bahman Yart being different from that given in the 
Dtnkarrf. The Dinkarrf quotes the Stfo/gar Nask (that is, 
its Pahlavi version) as identifying the iron age with some 
period of religious indifference subsequent to the time of 
Atar6-pa</ son of Maraspend, the supreme high-priest and 



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llV PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



prime ministcrof Shahpurll (a.D. 309-379); but the Bahman 
Yart (Chap. I, 5) quotes the Nask as identifying the same 
age with the reign of an idolatrous race subsequent to the 
time of Khusro Ndshirvan (a.-d. 531-579)- This example 
is sufficient to show that the compiler of the extant epitome 
of the Bahman Yart commentary largely availed himself of 
his editorial license, and it indicates the difficulty of dis- 
tinguishing his statements from those of the former editors. 
At the same time it proves that the epitome could not have 
been compiled till after Iran had been overrun by a foreign 
race subsequent to the reign of Khusro N6shirvan. It is 
remarkable that the compiler does not mention any later 
Sasanian king, that he does not allude to Muhammadanism, 
and speaks of the foreign invaders as Turanians and Chris- 
tians, only mentioning Arabs incidentally in later times ; 
at the same time the foreign invasion (which lasts a thou- 
sand years) is of too permanent a character to allow of 
its having reference merely to the troublous times of 
Ndshirvan's successor. 

Perhaps the most reasonable hypotheses that can be 
founded upon these facts are, first, that the original zand 
or commentary of the Bahman Yart was written and trans- 
lated from the Avesta in the latter part of the reign of 
Khusr6 Ndshirvln, or very shortly afterwards, which would 
account for no later king being mentioned by name ; and, 
secondly, that the epitome now extant was compiled by 
some writer who lived so long after the Arab invasion that 
the details of their inroad had become obscured by the more 
recent successes of Turanian rulers, such as the Ghaznavis 
and Sahjuqs of the eleventh and twelfth centuries. It is 
hardly possible that the epitomist could have lived as late 
as the time of £ingiz Khan, the great Mongol conqueror 
(a.D. 1206-1227), as that would bring him within 150 years 
of the date of the extant manuscript of his work, which has 
no appearance of being an immediate copy of the original ; 
but the rule of the Sahjuqs would certainly have afforded 
him sufficient materials for his long description of the iron 
age. The Avesta of the Bahman Yart was probably com- 
piled from older sources (like the rest of the Avesta) during 



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INTRODUCTION. lv 



the reigns of the earlier Sasanian monarchs ; but it was, no 
doubt, very different in its details from the epitome of its 
commentary which still exists. 

These hypotheses, regarding the threefold origin of the 
present form of this Yart, derive some confirmation from 
the inconsistencies in its chronological details ; especially 
those relating to the periods of the invaders' reign and of 
Hush&/ar's birth. The Zoroastrians have for ages been 
expecting the appearance of Hushe</ar, the first of their 
last three apostles, but have always had to postpone their 
expectations from time to time, like the Jews and other 
interpreters of prophecy; so that they are still looking 
forward into the future for his advent, although his millen- 
nium has long since expired according to the chronology 
adopted in the Bahman Yart. This chronology, of course, 
represents the expectations of Zoroastrians in past times, 
and seems to express three different opinions. First, we 
have the statement that the last great battle of the demon- 
races is to take place at the end of Zaratujt's millennium 
(see Chap. Ill, 9), when the wicked will be so destroyed 
(compare III, 22, 23) that none will pass into the next 
millennium (III, 11), which is that of Husherfar (111,43). 
And that the reign of evil is to precede the end of Zaratujt's 
millennium is evidently assumed also in Chap. II, 41, 63. 
Such opinions may reasonably be traced to the original 
Avesta writer, who must have expected only a short reign 
of evil to arise and fall near the latter end of Zarat&rt's 
millennium, which was still far in the future, and to be 
followed by the appearance of Hush&/ar to restore the 
'good' religion. Secondly, we are told (I, 5, II, 22, 24, 31) 
that the invasion of the demon-races, with its attendant 
evils, is to take place when Zaratujt's millennium is ended ; 
on their appearance Hush&/ar is born (III, 13), and when 
he is thirty years old (compare III, 14 with III, 44) Vahram 
the Vaiyavand is also born, who at the age of thirty (III, 17) 
advances into Iran with an innumerable army to destroy the 
invaders. Such statements may be attributed to the original 
Pahlavi translator and commentator who, writing about 
A. D. 570-590, would have before his eyes the disastrous 



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lvi PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



reign of Auharmazd IV, the son and successor of Khusrd 
Ndshirvan, together with the prowess of the famous Persian 
general Bah ram A"6pln, which drove out all invaders. This 
writer evidently expected the reign of the demon-races to 
last less than a century, but still at some period in the near 
future ; merely illustrating his theme by details of the 
disasters and wars of his own time. Thirdly, we find it 
stated (III, 44) that Hushe^ar will be born in 1600, which 
seems to mean the sixteen hundredth year of Zaratujt's 
millennium, or six hundredth of his own (sayA.D. 1193- 
1 235), also that the reign of the demon-races is to last a 
thousand years (III, 34), and that Peshy6tanu does not 
come to restore the religion till near the end of the millen- 
nium (III, 51); it also appears (III, 49) that Var^avand 
occupies a prominent position when Hush&/ar comes from 
his conference with Auharmazd at thirty years of age (III, 
44. 45)- Such details were probably inserted by the com- 
piler of the epitome, who had to admit the facts that the 
reign of the demon-races had already lasted for centuries, 
and that Htish&/ar had not yet appeared. To get over 
these difficulties he probably adopted the opinions current 
in his day, and postponed the advent of HusheV/ar till the 
beginning of the next century in his millennium, and put 
off the destruction of the wicked, as a more hopeless matter, 
till near the end of the millennium. Both these periods 
are now long since past, and the present Zoroastrians have 
still to postpone the fulfilment of the prophecies connected 
with their last three apostles, or else to understand them 
in a less literal fashion than heretofore. 

For the Pahlavi text of the Bahman Yart the translator 
has to rely upon the single old manuscript K20, already 
described (p. xxvii), in which it occupies the 13 J folios 
immediately following the Bundahu ; these folios are much 
worn, and a few words have been torn off some of them, 
but nearly all of these missing words can be restored by aid 
of the Pazand version. The Pahlavi text is also found in 
the modern copies of K20 at Paris and Kopenhagen, but 
these copies (P7 and K21) have no authority independent 
of K20. In India this text has long been exceedingly rare, 



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INTRODUCTION. Ivil 



and whether any copy of it exists, independent of Kao, is 
doubtful. 

The Pazand version is more common in Parsi libraries, 
but contains a very imperfect text. Of this version two 
modern copies have been consulted ; one of these occupies 
fols. 38-62 of a small manuscript, No. %% of the Haug col- 
lection in the State Library at Munich ; the other is a copy 
of a manuscript in the library of the high-priest of the Parsis 
in Bombay. Both these MSS. are evidently descended 
from the same original, which must have been a very imper- 
fect transliteration of a Pahlavi text closely resembling that 
of K20, but yet independent of that MS., as a few words 
omitted in K20 are supplied by these Pazand MSS. (see 
B.Yt. II, 13, 14, 22, &c.) To a certain extent, therefore, 
these Pazand MSS. are of some assistance in settling the 
text of a few sentences, but the greater part of their con- 
tents is so imperfect as to be utterly unintelligible ; they 
not only omit Chaps. I, 1-8, II, 17, 30-32, 40, III, 9, 12, 17- 
44, 58-63 entirely, but also words and phrases from nearly 
every other section of the text. Adhering scrupulously to 
the Pahlavi original for a few consecutive words, and then 
widely departing from it by misreading or omitting all 
difficult words and passages, this Pazand version is a com- 
plete contrast to the Pazand writings of N£rydsang, being 
of little use to the reader beyond showing the extremely 
low ebb to which Pahlavi learning must have fallen, among 
the Parsis, before such unintelligible writings could have 
been accepted as Pazand texts. 

There is also a Persian version of the Bahman Yart, a 
copy of which, written A. D. 1676, is contained in a large 
Rivayat MS. No. 29, belonging to the University Library 
at Bombay. According to the colophon of this Persian 
version it was composed in a.d. 1496 by Rustam Isfendiyar 
of Yazd, from an Avesta (Pazand) MS. belonging to his 
brother Jamsh£d. This Persian version contains less than 
three per cent of Arabic words, and is more of a paraphrase 
than a translation, but it adheres very closely to the meaning 
of the Pahlavi text from Chaps. I, 1 to III, 9, where a dis- 
location occurs, evidently owing either to the displacement 



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lvili PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



of two folios in an older MS., or to the second page of a 
folio being copied before the first, so that §§ 10-14 follow 
§§ 15-22. From the middle of § 22 the folios of the older 
MS. seem to have been lost as far as the end of Hush&Zar's 
millennium (§ 51), to which point the Persian version leaps, 
but the remainder of this paraphrase is much more diffuse 
than the Bahman Yart, and is evidently derived from some 
other Pahlavi work. 

This conclusion of the Persian version describes how 
adversity departs from the world, and ten people are 
satisfied with the milk of one cow, when Hush&/ar-mah 
appears and his millennium commences. On his coming 
from his conference with Auharmazd the sun stands still 
for twenty days and nights, in consequence of which two- 
thirds of the people in the world believe in the religion. 
Meat is no longer eaten, but only milk and butter, and a 
hundred people are satisfied with the milk of one cow. 
Hush&/ar-mah destroys the terrible serpent, which ac- 
companies apostasy, by means of the divine glory and 
Avesta formulas ; he clears all noxious creatures out of the 
world, and wild animals live harmlessly among mankind ; 
the fiends of apostasy and deceit depart from the World, 
which becomes populous and delightful, and mankind 
abstain from falsehood. After the five-hundredth year of 
Hushcv/ar-mah has passed away, Soshyans (Sasan) appears, 
and destroys the fiend who torments fire. The sun stands 
still for thirty days and nights, when all mankind believe 
in the religion, and the year becomes exactly 360 days. 
Dahak escapes from his confinement, and reigns for a day 
and a half in the world with much tyranny ; when S6shyans 
rouses Sam Nariman, who accepts the religion and becomes 
immortal. Sim calls upon Dahak to accept the religion, 
but the latter proposes that they should together seize 
upon heaven for themselves, whereupon Sim kills him. 
All evil having departed from the world mankind become 
like the archangels, and the resurrection takes place, which 
is described with many of the same details as are mentioned 
in Bund. XXX. 

Accompanying this Persian version in B29 is another 



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INTRODUCTION. lix 



fragment from the same source, which treats of the same 
subjects as the third chapter of the Bahman Yart, but is 
differently arranged. It confines itself to the millennium 
of Hushev/ar, and may possibly be some modification of the 
contents of the folios missing from the version described 
above. After some introductory matter this fragment con- 
tains a paraphrase (less accurate than the preceding) of 
Chap. Ill, 23-49 of the Bahman Yart ; it then proceeds to 
state that Hush&fer destroys the wolf race, so that wolves, 
thieves, highway robbers, and criminals cease to exist. 
When Hush&fer's three-hundredth year has passed away 
the winter of Malkds arrives and destroys all animals and 
vegetation, and only one man survives out of ten thousand ; 
after which the world is repeopled from the enclosure made 
by Yim. Then comes the gathering of the nations to the 
great battle on the Euphrates, where the slaughter is so 
great that the water of the river becomes red, and the sur- 
vivors wade in blood up to their horses' girths. Afterwards, 
the Kayan king, Var^ivand, advances from the frontiers of 
India and takes possession of Iran to the great delight of 
the inhabitants, but only after a great battle; and then 
Peshydtanu is summoned from Kangdez to restore the 
religious ceremonies. 

A German translation of some passages in the Bahman 
Yart, with a brief summary of the greater part of the re- 
mainder, was published in i860 in Spiegel's Traditionelle 
Literatur der Farsen, pp. 128-135. 

6. The ShAyast lA-shayast. 

Another treatise which must be referred to about the 
same age as the Bundahu, though of a very different cha- 
racter, is the Shayast la-shayast or ' the proper and impro- 
per.' It is a compilation of miscellaneous laws and customs 
regarding sin and impurity, with other memoranda about 
ceremonies and religious subjects in general. Its name has, 
no doubt, been given to it in modern times x , and has pro- 

1 But perhaps before the compilation of the prose Sad-dar Bundahis, or 
Bundahu of a hundred chapters, which seems to refer to the Shayast la-shayast 



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lx PAIILAVI TEXTS. 



bably arisen from the frequent use it makes of the words 
shayarf, 'it is fit or proper,' and 14 shayarf, 'it is not fit 
or proper.' And, owing to its resemblance to those Persian 
miscellanies of traditional memoranda called Rivayats, it 
has also been named the Pahlavi Rivayat, though chiefly 
by Europeans. 

It consists of two parts, which are often put together in 
modern MSS., and bear the same name, but are widely 
separated in the oldest MSS. These two parts, consisting 
respectively of Chaps. I-X and XI-XIV in the present 
translation, are evidently two distinct treatises on the same 
and similar subjects, but of nearly the same age. That 
they were compiled by two different persons, who had access 
to nearly the same authorities, appears evident from Chaps. 
XI, i, 2, XII, ii, 13-16, 18, 20 being repetitions of Chaps. 
I, 1, 2, X, 4, 20-23, 7, 31, with only slight alterations ; such 
repetitions as would hardly be made in a single treatise by 
the same writer. Minor repetitions in the first part, such 
as those of some phrases in Chaps. II, 65, IV, 14, repeated 
in Chap. X, 24, 33, might readily be made by the same 
writer in different parts of the same treatise. To these two 
parts of the Shayast la-shayast a third part has been added 
in the present translation, as an appendix, consisting of a 
number of miscellaneous passages of a somewhat similar 
character, which are found in the same old MSS. that con- 
tain the first two parts, but which cannot be attributed 
either to the same writers or the same age as those parts. 

The first part commences with the names and amounts 
of the various degrees of sin, and the names of the chief 
commentators on the Vendidad. It then gives long details 
regarding the precautions to be taken with reference to 
corpses and menstruous women, and the impurity they occa- 
sion ; besides mentioning (Chap. II, 33-35) the pollution 

in its opening words, as follows: — 'This book is on "the proper and im- 
proper" which is brought out from the good, pure religion of the Mazda- 
yasnians ;' though this term may possibly relate to its own contents. There is 
also a Persian treatise called Shayast na-shayast, which gives a good deal 
of information obtained from the Persian Rivayats, and copies of which are 
contained in the MSS. Nos. 56 and 1 16 of the Ouseley collection in the Bodleian 
Library at Oxford. 



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INTRODUCTION. lxi 



caused by a serpent. It next describes the proper size 
and materials of the sacred thread-girdle and shirt, giving 
some details about the sins of running about uncovered and 
walking with one boot, and thence proceeding to the sin of 
unseasonable chatter. Details are then given about good 
works, and those who can and cannot perform them ; in 
which reference is made to Christians, Jews, and those of 
other persuasions (Chap. VI, 7}. The next subjects treated 
of are reverencing the sun and fire, the sin of extinguishing 
fire, confession and renunciation of sin, atonement for sins, 
especially mortal sins, both those affecting others and those 
only affecting one's own soul ; with a digression (Chap. VIII, 
3) prohibiting the rich from hunting. The remainder of this 
first treatise is of a miscellaneous character, referring to the 
following subjects : — The Hasar of time, priests passing away 
in idolatry, the discussion of religion, ceremonies not done 
aright, throwing a corpse into the sea, evil of eating in the 
dark, the four kinds of worship, when the angels should 
be invoked in worship, the ephemeral nature of life, proper 
looseness for a girdle, when the sacred cake set aside for the 
guardian spirits can be used, maintaining a fire where a woman 
is pregnant, providing a tank for ablution, the Gathas not 
to be recited over the dead, food and drink not to be thrown 
away to the north at night, unlawful slaughter of animals, 
how the corpse of a pregnant woman should be carried, 
forgiveness of trespasses, evil of walking without boots, 
when the sacred girdle is to be assumed, breaking the spell 
of an inward prayer, ten women wanted at childbirth, and 
how the infant is to be treated, sin of beating an innocent 
person, evil of a false judge, men and women who do not 
marry, a toothpick must be free from bark, acknowledging 
the children of a handmaid, advantage of offspring and of 
excess in almsgiving, prayer on lying down and getting up, 
Avesta not to be mumbled, doubtful actions to be avoided 
or consulted about, evil of laughing during prayer, crowing 
of a hen, treatment of a hedgehog, after a violent death 
corruption does not set in immediately, necessity of a dog's 
gaze, putrid meat and hairy cakes or butter unfit for cere- 
monies, when a woman can do priestly duty, &c. 



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lxli PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



The second part also commences with the names and 
amounts of the various degrees of sin, followed by the pro- 
per meat-offerings for various angels and guardian spirits. 
Next come miscellaneous observations on the following 
subjects : — The simplest form of worship, necessity of sub- 
mitting to a high-priest, advantage of a fire in the house, 
sin of clothing the dead, presentation of holy-water to the 
nearest fire after a death, nail-parings to be prayed over, 
advantage of light at childbirth, offerings to the angels, 
maintaining a fire where a woman is pregnant and a child 
is born, a toothpick must be free from bark, acknowledging 
the children of a handmaid, advantage of offspring and of 
excess in almsgiving, evil of drawing well-water at night, 
food not to be thrown away to the north at night, advantage 
of prayer at feasts, treatment of a hedgehog, praying when 
washing the face, the proper choice of a purifying priest, no 
one should be hopeless of heaven, necessity of a wife being 
religious as well as her husband, the ceremonies which are 
good works, and the cause of sneezing, yawning, and sigh- 
ing. These are followed by a long account of the mystic 
signification of the Gathas, with some information as to the 
errors which may be committed in consecrating the sacred 
cakes, and how the beginning of the morning watch is to be 
determined. 

The third part, or appendix, commences with an account 
of how each of the archangels can be best propitiated, by a 
proper regard for the particular worldly existence which he 
specially protects. This is followed by a statement of the 
various degrees of sin, and of the amount of good works 
attributed to various ceremonies. Then come some account 
of the ceremonies after a death, particulars of those who 
have no part in the resurrection, the duty of submission to 
the priesthood, whether evil may be done for the sake of 
good, the place where people will rise from the dead, 
Aeshm's complaint to Aharman of the three things he could 
not injure in the world, the occasions on which the Ahuna- 
var formula should be recited, and the number of recitals 
that are requisite, &c. And, finally, statements of the 
lengths of midday and afternoon shadows, blessings invoked 



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INTRODUCTION. lxiii 



from the thirty angels and archangels who preside over the 
days of the month, and the special epithets of the same. 

With regard to the age of this treatise we have no precise 
information. All three parts are found in a MS. (M6) 
which was written in A. D. 1397 (see p. xxix), and nearly 
the whole is also found in the MS. K20, which may be a 
few years older (see p. xxvii), and in which the first part of 
the Shayast la-shlyast is followed by a Persian colophon 
dated A.Y. 700 (a.D. 1331), copied probably from an older 
MS. The text in both these old MSS. seems to have been 
derived almost direct from the same original, which must 
have been so old when M6 was written that the copyist 
found some words illegible (see notes on Chaps. VIII, 19, 
X, 34, XII, 14, 15, &c.) Now it is known from a colophon 
that a portion of M6, containing the book of Arrfa-Viraf 
and the tale of Gdrt-i Fryand, was copied from a MS. 
written in A.D. 1249 5 an( * we ma y safely conclude that the 
Shayast la-shayast was copied, either from the same MS., 
or from one fully as old. So far, therefore, as external evi- 
dence goes, there is every reason to suppose that the whole 
of the Shayast la-shayast, with its appendix ', was existing 
in a MS. written about 630 years ago. 

But internal evidence points to a far higher antiquity 
for the first two parts, as the compilers of those treatises 
evidently had access, not only to several old commentaries, 
but also to many of the Nasks, which have long been lost. 
Thus, the first treatise contains quotations from the com- 
mentaries of Afarg, Gogdjasp, Kushtano-bu^-e</, Mk/6k- 
mah, Rdshan, and S6shyans, which are all frequently 
quoted in the Pahlavi translation of the Vendidad (see Sis. 
I, 3, 4, notes) ; besides mentioning the opinions of Marc/- 
burf, Nerydsang, Ndsal Bura-Mitrd, and Vand-Auharmazd, 
who are rarely or never mentioned in the Pahlavi Vendidad. 
It also quotes no less than eleven of the twenty Nasks or 
books of the complete Mazdayasnian literature which are 
no longer extant, besides the Vendidad, the only Nask that 
still survives in the full extent it had in Sasanian times. 

1 Except Chaps. XXII, XXIII (see the note on the heading of Chap. XXII). 



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lxiv PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



The Nasks quoted are the Stfo/gar (Sis. X, 8), the Bagh 
(X, 26), the DamdaaT (X, 22), the Plsdn (IX, 9), the Ratflj- 
tattih (X, 29), the Ktirast (X, 28), the Spend (X, 4), the 
Niha</um (X, 3, 22, 23), the Dubasru^ (X, 13), the Hus- 
param (X, 21), and the Sakat/um (X, 25), very few of which 
are mentioned even in the Pahlavi Vendidad. The second 
treatise mentions only one commentator, Vand-Auharmazd, 
but it quotes eight of the Nasks no longer extant ; these 
are the Stfo/gar (Sis. XII, 32), the Damdarf(XII, 5, 15), 
the Spend (XII, 3, 11, 15, 29), the Bag-yasnd (XII, 17), 
the Niharfum (XII, 15, 16), the Husparam (XII, 1, 7, 14, 
31, XIII, 17), the Sakarfum (XII, 2, 10, 12, XIII, 30), and 
the Harfdkht (XII, 19, 30, XIII, 6, 10). 

Of two of these Nasks, the Bagh and Ha*/6kht, a few 
fragments may still survive (see notes on Sis. X, 26, Haug's 
Essays, p. 134, B. Yt. Ill, 25), but those of the latter Nask do 
not appear to contain the passages quoted in the Shayast 
la-shayast. With regard to the rest we only know that the 
Damdaaf, Husparam, and Sak<U/um must have been still in 
existence about A.D. 88i, as they are quoted in the writings 
of Za^-sparam and Manflj/fcihar, sons of Yudan-Yim, who 
lived at that time (see pp. xlii, xlvi) ; and the Niharfum 
and Husparam are also quoted in the Pahlavi Vendidad. 
It is true that the Dinkarc/ gives copious information about 
the contents of all the Nasks, with two or three exceptions ; 
and the Dinkan/ seems to have assumed its present form 
about A.D. 900 (see Bund. XXXIII, 11, notes); but its last 
editor was evidently merely a compiler of old fragments, 
so there is no certainty that many of the Nasks actually 
existed in his time. 

Thus far, therefore, the internal evidence seems to prove 
that the two treatises called Shayast la-shayast, which con- 
stitute the first two parts of the present translation, are 
more than a thousand years old. On the other hand, they 
cannot be more than three centuries older, because they 
frequently quote passages from the Pahlavi Vendidad 
which, as we have seen (p. xlvi, note 1), could not have as- 
sumed its present form before the time of Khusr6 N6shir- 
van (a.d. 53 i_ 579)- As they contain no reference to any 



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INTRODUCTION. lxv 



interference of the governing powers with the religion or 
priesthood, it is probable that they were written before the 
Muhammadan conquest (a. D. 636-651), although they do 
not mention the existence of any ' king of the kings,' the 
usual title of the Sasanian monarchs. And this probability 
is increased by there being no direct mention of Muham- 
madanism among the contemporary religions named in 
Chap. VI, 7, unless we assume that passage to be a quota- 
tion from an earlier book. We may, therefore, conclude, 
with tolerable certainty, that the Pahlavi text of the first 
two parts of the present translation of the Shayast la- 
shayast was compiled some time in the seventh century ; 
but, like the BundahLr and Bahman Yart, it was, for the 
most part, a compilation of extracts and translations from 
far older writings, and may also have been rearranged 
shortly after the Muhammadan conquest. 

The fragments which are collected in the appendix, or 
third part of the present translation, are probably of various 
ages, and several of them may not be more than seven cen- 
turies old. The commentator Bakht-afrW, whose work 
(now lost) is quoted in Chap. XX, 1 1, may have lived in 
the time of Khusrd Ndshirvan (see B. Yt. I, 7). And 
Chap. XXI must certainly have been written in Persia, as 
the lengths of noonday shadows which it mentions are only 
suitable for 32 north latitude. As regards the last two 
chapters we have no evidence that they are quite five cen- 
turies old. 

For the Pahlavi text of the Shayast la-shayast and its 
appendix we have not only the very old codex M6 (see 
p. xxix) for the whole of it, but also the equally old codex 
K20 (see p. xxvii) for all but Chaps. XV-XVII, XX, XXII, 
and XXIII in the appendix. In M6 the first two parts are 
separated by twenty folios, containing the Farhang-i Oim- 
khaduk, and the second part is separated from the first 
three chapters of the appendix by four folios, containing 
the Patit-i Khurf; the next three chapters of the appendix 
are from the latter end of the second volume of M6, Chap. 
XXI is from the middle of the same, and the last two chap- 
ters are from some additional folios at the beginning of the 
[6] e 



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lxvi PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



first volume. In K20 the first two parts are separated by 
ninety-two folios, containing the Farhang-i Oim-khaduk, 
Bundahfc, Bahman Yart, and several other Pahlavi and 
Avesta texts; Chap. XVIII precedes the first part, Chap. 
XIX precedes the second part, and Chap. XXI is in an 
earlier part of the MS. 

Derived from K20 are the two modern copies P7 and 
K21 (see p. xxviii). Derived from M6 are the modern 
copy of the first two parts in M9 (No. 9 of the Haug col- 
lection in the State Library at Munich), a copy of Chaps. 
XIV, XV in L15 (No. 15 of the collection of Avesta and 
Pahlavi MSS. in the India Office Library at London), a 
copy of Chap. XX, 4-17 in O121 (No. 121 of the Ouseley 
collection in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, see p. xxx), 
and a copy of Chap. XVIII in Dastur Jamispji's MS. of 
the Bundahij at Bombay. While an independent Pahlavi 
version of Chap. XXIII occurs in a very old codex in the 
library of the high-priest of the Parsis at Bombay, which 
version has been used for the text of the present transla- 
tion, because that chapter is incomplete in M6. 

Pazand versions of some of the chapters, chiefly in the 
appendix, are to be found in some MSS., but all derived 
apparently from M6. Thus, in the Pazand MSS. L7 and 
L22 (Nos. 7 and 22 in the India Office Library at London, 
see p. xxxi), written in Avesta characters, Chaps. XVIII, 
XX, XV follow the last chapter of the BundahLf, and Chap. 
XIV occurs a few folios further on. And in the Pazand 
MS. M7 (No. 7 of the Haug collection in the State Library 
at Munich), written in Persian characters, the following 
detached passages occur in a miscellaneous collection of 
extracts (fols. 126-133):— Chaps. XX, 14-16, X, 18, 19, 
IX, 9, 10, XX, 12, 13, 4, 5, VIII, 2, 4-14. XX, 11. A Per- 
sian version of Chap. XVIII also occurs in M5 (No. 5 of 
the same collection) on fol. 54. 

It does not appear that the Shayast ld-shayast has ever 
been hitherto translated into any European language l , nor 



1 Except Chap. XVIII, which was translated into German by Justi, as the 
last chapter of his translation of the BundahU (see p. xxvi). 



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INTRODUCTION. Ixvii 



is any Persian or Gu^arati translation of it known to the 
present translator, though a good deal of the matter it con- 
tains may be found in the Persian Rivayats, but generally 
given in a different form. Owing to the technical charac- 
ter of the treatise, it is hazardous for any one but a Parsi 
priest to attempt to translate it, so that errors will, no 
doubt, be apparent to the initiated in the present transla- 
tion. At the same time it must not be forgotten that the 
laws and customs mentioned in the text were those current 
in Persia twelve centuries ago, which may be expected to 
differ, in many details, from those of the Parsis in India at 
the present day. This is a consideration which a Parsi 
translator might be too apt to ignore ; so that his thorough 
knowledge of present customs, though invaluable for the 
decipherment of ambiguous phrases, might lead him astray 
when dealing with clear statements of customs and rules 
now obsolete and, therefore, at variance with his precon- 
ceived ideas of propriety. 

7. Concluding Remarks. 

The Pahlavi texts selected for translation in this volume 
are specimens of three distinct species of writings. Thus, 
the BundahLr and its appendix, which deal chiefly with 
cosmogony, myths, and traditions, may be roughly com- 
pared to the book of Genesis. The Bahman Yajt, which 
professes to be prophetical, may be likened unto the Apoca- 
lypse. And the Shayast la-shayast, which treats of reli- 
gious laws regarding impurity, sin, ritual, and miscellaneous 
matters, bears some resemblance to Leviticus. But, though 
thus dealing with very different subjects, these texts appear 
to have all originated in much the same manner, a manner 
which is characteristic of the oldest class of the Pahlavi 
writings still extant. All three are full of translations from 
old Avesta texts, collected together probably in the latter 
days of the Sasanian dynasty, and finally rearranged some 
time after the Muhammadan conquest of Persia ; so that, 
practically, they may be taken as representing the ideas 
entertained of their prehistoric religion by Persians in the 

e 2 



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Ixviii PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



sixth century, but modified so far as to suit the taste and 
exigencies of the tenth. 

But, notwithstanding the wide range of subjects embraced 
by these texts, it would be rash for the reader to assume 
that they afford him sufficient information for forming a 
decided opinion as to the character of the Parsi religion. 
The texts translated in this volume contain barely one- 
eleventh part of the religious literature extant in the Pah- 
lavi language, without taking the Pahlavi versions of existing 
Avesta texts into account, which latter are even more 
important than the former, from a religious point of view, 
as they are considered more authoritative by the Parsis 
themselves. What proportion the literature extant may 
bear to that which is lost it is impossible to guess j but, 
omitting all consideration of the possible contents of the 
lost literature, it is obvious that the remaining ten-elevenths 
of that which is extant may contain much which would 
modify any opinion based merely upon the one-eleventh 
here translated. What the untranslated portion actually 
contains no one really knows. The best Pahlavi scholar 
can never be sure that he understands the contents of 
a Pahlavi text until he has fully translated it ; no amount 
of careful reading can make him certain that he does not 
misunderstand some essential part of it, and were he to 
assert the contrary he would be merely misleading others 
and going astray himself. How far the translations in this 
volume will enable the reader to judge of the Parsi religion 
may perhaps be best understood by considering how far 
a careful perusal of the books of Genesis, Leviticus, and 
the Revelation, which constitute one-eleventh part of the 
Protestant Bible, would enable him to judge of Christianity, 
without any further information. 

Butjthough these translations must be considered merely 
as a contribution towards a correct account of mediaeval 
Zoroastrianism, the BundahLf does afford some very defi- 
nite information upon one of the fundamental doctrines of 
that faith. The Parsi religion has long been represented by 
its opponents as a dualism ;' and this accusation, made in 
good faith by Muhammadan writers, and echoed more 



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INTRODUCTION. lxix 



incautiously by Christians, has been advanced so strenu- 
ously that it has often been admitted even by Parsis them- 
selves, as regards the,, mediaeval form of their faith. But 
neither party Ve~em* to have fairly considered how any 
religion which admits the personality of an evil spirit, in 
order to account for the existence of evil, can fail to become 
a dualism to a certain extent. If, therefore, the term is to 
be used in controversy, it behoves those who use it to define 
the limits of objectionable dualism with great precisionJso 
as not to include most of the religions of the world, their 
own among the number. 

* If it be necessary for a dualism that the evil spirit be 
omnipresent, omniscient, almighty, or eternal, then is the 
Parsi religion no dualism. \u he Bundahij distinctly asserts 
that the evil spirit is not omniscient and almighty (Chap. 
I, 1 6) ; that his understanding is backward (I, 3, 9), so that 
he was not aware of the existence of Aftharmazd till he 
arose from the abyss and saw the light (I, 9) ; that he is 
unobservant and ignorant of the future (I, 19) till it is 
revealed to him by AGharmazd (I, 21); that his creatures 
perish at the resurrection (I, 7, 21), and he himself becomes 
impotent (I, 21, III, 1) and will not be (I, 3, XXX, 32). 
Nowhere is he supposed to be in two places at once, or to 
know what is occurring elsewhere than in his own presence. 
So far, his powers are considerably less than those gene- 
rally assigned by Christians to the devil, who is certainly 
represented as being a more intelligent and ubiquitous 
personage^ On the other hand, Aharman is able to pro- 
duce fiends and demons (Chap. I, 1 o, 24), and the noxious 
creatures are said to be his (III, 15, XIV, 30, XVIII, 2);; in 
which respects he has probably rather more power than 
the devil, although the limits of the tetter's means of pro- 
ducing evil are by no means well defined. 

The origin and end of Aharman appear to be left as 
uncertain as those of the devil^jand, altogether, the resem- 
blance between these two ideas of the evil spirit is remark- 
ably close ; in fact, almost too close to admit of the possibility 
of their being ideas of different origin. The only important 
differences are that Zoroastrianism does not believe in an 



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lxx 



PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



eternity of evil as Christianity does) and that Christianity 
has been content to leave all its other ideas about the devil 
in a very hazy and uncertain form, while Zoroastrianism 
has not shrunk from carrying similar ideas to their logical 
conclusion. If, therefore, a belief in Aharman, as the author 
of evil, makes the Parsi religion a dualism, it is difficult to 
understand why a belief in the devil, as the author of evil, 
does not make Christianity also a dualism. At any rate, 
it is evident from the BundahLr that a Christian is treading 
on hazardous ground when he objects to Zoroastrianism on 
the score of its dualism. 

Another misrepresentation of the Parsi religion is shown 
to have no foundation in fact, by a passage in the Selections 
of Za^-sparam. ^Several writers, both Greek and Armenian, 
contemporaries of the Sasanian dynasty, represent the Per- 
sians as believing that both Auharmazd and Aharman were 
produced by an eternal being, who is evidently a personifi- 
cation of the Avesta phrase for ' boundless time.' This 
view was apparently confirmed by a passage in Anquetil 
Duperron's French translation of the Vendidad (XIX, 
32-34), but this has long been known to be a mistrans- 
lation due to Anquetil's ignorance of Avesta grammar ;i so 
that the supposed doctrine of ' boundless time ' being the 
originator of everything is not to be found in the Avesta ; \ 
still it might have sprung up in Sasanian times.j But the 
Selections of Zaaf-sparam (I, 24) distinctly state that Auhar- 
mazd produced the creature Z6rvan (precisely the term used 
in the phrase ' boundless time' in the Avesta). Here 'time,' 
although personified, is represented as a creature of Auhar- 
mazd, produced after the first appearance of Aharman ; 
which contradicts the statement of the Greek and Armenian 
writers completely, and shows how little reliance can be 
placed upon the assertions of foreigners regarding matters 
which they view with antipathy or prejudice. 

With reference to the general plan of these translations 
of Pahlavi texts a few remarks seem necessary. In the first 
place, it will be obvious to any attentive reader of this 
introduction that a translator of Pahlavi has not merely to 
translate, but also to edit, the original text ; and, in some 



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INTRODUCTION. lxxi 



cases, he has even to discover it. Next, as regards the 
translation, it has been already mentioned (p. xxvi) that 
the translator's object is to make it as literal as possible ; 
in order, therefore, to check the inevitable tendency of free 
translation to wander from the meaning of the original 
text, all extra words added to complete the sense, unless 
most distinctly understood in the original, are italicised in 
the translation. And in all cases that seem doubtful the 
reader's attention is called to the fact by a note, though it 
is possible that some doubtful matters may be overlooked. 
The notes deal not only with explanations that may be 
necessary for the general reader, but also with various 
readings and other details that may be useful to scholars ; 
they are, therefore, very numerous, though some passages 
may still be left without sufficient explanation. References 
to the Vendidad,Yasna, and Visparad are made to Spiegel's 
edition of the original texts, not because that edition is supe- 
rior, or even equal, in accuracy to that of Westergaard, but 
because it is the only edition which gives the Pahlavi 
translations, because its sections are shorter and, therefore, 
reference to them is more definite, and because the only 
English translation of the Avesta hitherto existing 1 is 
based upon Spiegel's edition, and is divided into the same 
sections. 

No attempt has been made to trace any of the myths 
or traditions farther back than the Avesta, whence their 
descent is a fact that can hardly be disputed. To trace 
them back to earlier times, to a supposed Indo-Iranian 
personification or poetic distortion of meteorological phe- 
nomena, would be, in the present state of our knowledge, 
merely substituting plausible guesses for ascertained facts. 
In many cases, indeed, we have really no right to assume 
that an Avesta myth has descended from any such Indo- 
Iranian origin, as there have been ample opportunities for 
the infiltration of myths from other sources, yet unknown, 

1 Bleeck's Avesta; the Religious Books of the Parsees; from Professor 
Spiegel's German Translation; London, 1864. Not much reliance can be 
placed upon the correctness of this translation, owing to defects in the 
German one. 



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lxxii PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



among the many nations with which the religion of the 
Avesta has come in contact, both before and since the 
time of Zaratu.rt. For, notwithstanding the ingenious rhe- 
toric of the expounders of myths, it is still as unsafe, from 
a scientific point of view, to disbelieve the former existence 
of ZaratuJt as it is to doubt that of Moses, or any other 
practically prehistoric personage, merely because mythic 
tales have gathered about his name in later times, as they 
always do about the memory of any individual who has 
become famous or revered. 

In many cases the original Pahlavi word is appended, in 
parentheses, to its English equivalent in the translation. 
This has been done for the sake of explanation, when the 
word is technical or rare, or the translation is unusual. For, 
with regard to technical terms, it has been considered best, 
in nearly all cases, to translate them by some explanatory 
phrase, in preference to filling the translation with foreign 
words which would convey little or no distinct meaning to 
the general reader. Some of these technical terms have 
almost exact equivalents in English, such as those trans- 
lated ' resurrection ' and ' demon,' or can be well expressed 
by descriptive phrases, such as ' sacred twigs ' and ' sacred 
cakes.' Other terms are only approximately rendered by 
such words as 'archangel' and 'angel ;' others can hardly 
be expressed at all times by the same English words, but 
must change according to the context, such as the term 
variously rendered by 'worship, ceremonial, prayer, or 
rites.' While the meaning of some few terms is so tech- 
nical, complicated, or uncertain, that it is safer to use 
the Pahlavi word itself, such as Tanipuhar, Frasast, G6ti- 
kharirf, Dva\sdah-h6mast, &c. 

The following is a list of nearly all the technical terms that 
have been translated, with the English equivalents generally 
used to express them : — Afrin, 'blessing;' aharmdk, 
'apostate, heretic;' aharubS, 'righteous;' aharubo-d&</, 
'alms, almsgiving;' akdind, 'infidel;' ameshdspend, 
'archangel;' armejt, 'helpless ;' ast-h6mand, 'material;' 
ausdfrtrf, 'propitiation, offering;' bagh6-bakht6, 'divine 
providence;' baresdm, 'sacred twigs or twig bundle;' 



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INTRODUCTION. lxxiii 



baresdmdan, 'twig stand;' dakhmak (Huz. khazan), 
' depository for the dead ;' dashtanistan, ' place for men- 
struation;' din6, 'religion, revelation, religious rites;' 
drayan-^uyijnih, 'unseasonable chatter;' drevand, 
'wicked;' dr6nd, 'sacred cake;' dru^ - , 'fiend;' frasha- 
\ca,rd, 'renovation of the universe;' fravahar, 'guardian 
spirit;' fravarrfikan, 'days devoted to the guardian spirits;' 
ganrak maindk, 'evil spirit;' gar.sri.rn, 'confession of 
sin;' gas, 'period of the day, time;' gisinbar, 'season- 
festival;' ^a-rno, 'feast;' gau.r-dak (Av. gkus hudhau), 
'meat-offering, sacred butter;' ^-avirf-rastakan, 'the he- 
terodox ;' g\v (Av. gauj £"ivya), 'sacred milk ;' gdm£.sr, 
'bull's urine;' hamemal, 'accuser ;' ha mr&d, 'direct pol- 
lution, contagion;' ha^arak, 'millennium;' hlkhar, 'bo- 
dily refuse;' k a r, 'duty;' kdshvar, 'region;' khayebtt, 
' destroyer ;' khrafstar, ' noxious creature ;' khv£tuk-das, 
'next-of-kin marriage;' kirfak, 'good works;' kustik, 
'sacred thread-girdle;' magh, 'stone ablution-seat;' mai- 
ndk, 'spirit ;' marg-ar^-an, ' worthy of death, mortal sin ;' 
myazd, ' feast, sacred feast ;' nasai, ' corpse, dead matter ; ' 
nasai ka t a k, ' corpse chamber;' nirang, ' religious formula, 
ritual;' nlrangistan, 'code of religious formulas;' nlya- 
yi-rn, 'salutation;' padam, 'mouth-veil;' pkdtykvih, 
' ablution, ceremonial ablution;' pahlum ahvan, 'best ex- 
istence;' paitrerf, ' indirect pollution, infection ; ' parahdm, 
'hdm-juice;' parik, 'witch;' patitih, 'renunciation of 
sin;' patiyarak, 'adversary;' pdrydrfkeshih, 'primitive 
faith;' ra,d, 'chief, spiritual chief, primate, high-priest;' 
rtstakhg£, 'resurrection;' satuih, 'the three nights;' 
jeda, 'demon;' shapik, 'sacred shirt;' shnayijn, ' pro- 
pitiation, gratification;' shnuman, 'dedication formula, 
propitiation;' spgnak maindk, 'beneficent spirit;' tanu-i 
pasinS, 'future existence;' td^i^n, 'retribution;' tdra-i 
khadu-da^, ' primeval ox;' va^-, 'inward prayer;' vi^ari^n, 
•atonement for sin;' visharf-dubarijnlh, 'running about 
uncovered;' yasn6, 'ritual;' yaJt, 'prayers, ritual, form 
of prayer, worship, consecration ;' y ajtano, ' to consecrate, 
solemnize, propitiate, reverence;' yatuk, 'wizard;' yaz- 
dan, 'angels, sacred beings, celestial beings, God ;' yasisn, 

[5] f 



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1XX1V PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



'ceremonial, ceremony, sacred ceremony, ceremonial wor- 
ship, worship, reverence, rites, prayer;' y£dat6, 'angel;' 
zand, 'commentary;' zohar or z6r, 'holy-water;' z6t, 
' officiating priest.' 

With regard to the orthography of Pahlavi names and 
words, advantage has been taken of the system of trans- 
literation adopted for this series of Translations of the 
Sacred Books of the East, by making use of italics for the 
purpose of distinguishing between certain Pahlavi letters 
which were probably pronounced very nearly alike. Thus, 
besides the usual letters ) for v and S f° r z > the Pahlavi 
letter (» is often used to denote those same sounds which, 
in such cases, are represented by the italic letters v and 
z. An extension of the samo mode of distinction to the 
letters 1 and r would be desirable, but has not been 
attempted in this volume ; these two letters are usually 
written ^, but in a few words they are represented by \ or 
by £), in which cases they would be better expressed by 
the italics / and r. Some attempt has been made to adhere 
to one uniform orthography in such names as occur fre- 
quently, but as there is no such uniformity in the various 
languages and writings quoted, nor even in the same manu- 
script, some deviations can hardly be avoided. 

In conclusion it may be remarked that a translator of 
Pahlavi generally begins his career by undervaluing the 
correctness of Pahlavi texts and the literary ability of their 
authors, but he can hardly proceed far without finding 
abundant reason for altering his opinion of both. His 
depreciatory view of Pahlavi literature is generally due 
partly to want of knowledge, and partly to his trusting 
too much to the vile perversions of Pahlavi texts usually 
supplied by Pazand writers. But as his knowledge of 
Pahlavi increases he becomes better able to appreciate 
the literary merits of the texts. If the reader should have 
already formed some such low estimate of the ability of 
Pahlavi writers, it may be hoped that these translations 
will afford him sufficient reason for changing his opinion ; 
if not, they will have signally failed in doing those writers 
justice. 



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BUNDAHIS 

OR 

THE ORIGINAL CREATION. 



J [5] B 

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OBSERVATIONS. 

i. For all divisions into chapters and sections the translator is 
responsible, as the original text is written continuously, with very 
few stops marked. 

2. Italics are used for any English words which are not ex- 
pressed, or fully understood, in the original text, but are added to 
complete the sense of the translation. 

3. Oriental words are usually ' spaced.' Italics occurring in 
them, or in names, are intended to represent certain peculiar Ori- 
ental letters. The italic consonants d, n, v may be pronounced 
as in English ; but g should be sounded like j, hv like wh, k like 
ch in ' church,' n like ng, s like sh, « like French j. For further 
information, see ' Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for 
the Translations of the Sacred Books of the East ' at the end of 
the volume. 

4. In Pahlavi words all circumflexed vowels and any final 5 are 
expressed in the Pahlavi original, but all other vowels are merely 
understood. 

5. In the translation, words in parentheses are merely explana- 
tory of those which precede them. 

6. Abbreviations used are: — A v. for Avesta. Did. for D&di- 
stan-i Dinik. Huz. for HuzvSri?. Mkh. for Mainy6-i-khar</, ed. 
West. Pahl. for Pahlavi. P4z. for Pazand. Pers. for Persian. 
Sans, for Sanskrit. Vend, for VendidSd, ed. Spiegel. Visp. for 
Visparad, ed. Sp. Yas. for Yasna, ed. Sp. Ytt for Yart, ed. 
Westergaard. 

7. The manuscripts mentioned in the notes are : — 

K20 (about 500 years old), No. 20 in the University Library at 
Kopenhagen. 

Kaob (uncertain date), a fragment of the text, No. 20b in the 
same library. 

M6 (written a.d. 1397), No. 6 of the Haug Collection in the 
State Library at Munich. 

TD (written about a.d. 1530), belonging to Mobad Tehmuras 
Dinshawji Anklesaria at Bombay. 



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BUNDAHIS. 



Chapter I. 

o. In the name of the creator Auharmazd. 
i. The Zand-akis ('Zand-knowing or tradition- 
informed') 1 , which is first about Auharmazd's original 
creation and the antagonism of the evil spirit 2 , and 
afterwards about the nature of the creatures from 
the original creation till the end, which is the future 
existence (tanu-1 paslnS). 2. As revealed by the 
religion of the Mazdayasnians^so^it is declared that 
Auharmazd is supreme in omniscience and goodness, 

1 The Pazand and most of the modern Pahlavi manuscripts 
have, ' From the Zand-akis,' but the word min, 'from,' does not 
occur in the old manuscript K20, and is a modern addition to 
M6. From this opening sentence it would appear that the author 
of the work gave it the name Zand-ikSs. 

* The Avesta Angra-mainyu, the spirit who causes adversity or 
anxiety (see Darmesteter's Ormazd et Ahriman, pp. 92-95) ; the 
Pahlavi name is, most probably, merely a corrupt transliteration of 
the Avesta form, and may be read Ganrak-main6k, as the Avesta 
Speota-mainyu, the spirit who causes prosperity, has become 
SpfinSk-maf ndk in Pahlavi. This latter spirit is represented by 
Auharmazd himself in the Bundahu. The Pahlavi word for 'spirit,' 
which is read maddnad by the Parsis, and has been pronounced 
minavad by some scholars and mindi by others, is probably a 
corruption of mat ndk, as its Sasanian form was mind. If it were 
not for the extra medial letter in ganrik, and for the obvious 
partial transliteration of spdnik, it would be preferable to read 
ganSk, 'smiting,' and to derive it from a supposed verb gandan, 'to 
smite ' (Av. ghna), as proposed by most Zendists. A Parsi would 
probably suggest gandan, 'to stink.' 

B 2 



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BUNDAHIS. 



and unrivalled 1 in splendour; the region of light is 
the place of Auharmazd, which they call 'endless 
light,' and the omniscience and goodness of the 
unrivalled Auharmazd is what they call 'revelation 2 .^ 
3. Revelation is the explanation of both spirits 
together ; one is he who is independent of unlimited 
time s , because Auharmazd and the region, religion, 
and time of Auharmazd were and are and ever 
will be; while Aharman* in darkness, with backward 
understanding and desire for destruction, was in the 
abyss, and it is he who will not be ; and the place 
of that destruction, and also of that darkness, is 
what they call the 'endlessly dark.' 4. And between 
them was empty space, that is, what they call ' air,' 
in which is now their meeting.j 

5. Both are limited and unlimited spirits, for the 
supreme is that which they call endless light, and 
the abyss that which is endlessly dark, so that be- 
tween them is a void, and one is not connected with 



1 Reading aham-kaf, 'without a fellow-sovereign, peerless, un- 
rivalled, independent.' This rare word occurs three times in §§ 2, 
3, and some Pazand writers suggest the meaning ' everlasting ' (by 
means of the Persian gloss hamixah), which is plausible enough, 
but hamakt would be an extraordinary mode of writing the very 
common word hamai, ' ever.' 

2 The word din 6 (properly d6n6), Av. daSna, being traceable 
to a root df, 'to see,' must originally have meant 'a vision' (see 
Haug's Essays on the Religion of the Parsis, 2nd ed. p. 152, note 2), 
whence the term has been transferred to ' religion ' and all religious 
observances, rules, and writings j so it may be translated either by 
' religion ' or by ' revelation.' 

3 This appears to be the meaning, but the construction of § 3 is 
altogether rather obscure, and suggestive of omissions in the text. 

4 The usual name of the evil spirit ; it is probably an older cor- 
ruption of Angra-mainyu than Ganrak-main6k, and a less 
technical term. Its Sasanian form was Aharman}. 



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CHAPTER J, 3~IO. 



the other ; and, again, both spirits are limited as to 
their own selves. 6. And, secondly, on account of 
the omniscience of Auharmazd, both things are in 
the creation of Auharmazd, the finite and the infinite; 
for this they know is that which is in the covenant 
of both spiritsj 7. And, again, the complete sove- 
reignty of the creatures of Auharmazd is in the 
future existence, and that also is unlimited for ever 
and everlasting; and^the creatures of Aharman will 
perish at the time when 1 the future existence occurs, 
and that also is eternityj 

8. Auharmazd, through omniscience, knew that 
Aharman exists, and whatever he schemes he in- 
fuses with malice and greediness till the end; and 
because He accomplishes the end by many means, 
He also produced spiritually the creatures which 
were necessary for those means, and they remained 
three thousand years in a spiritual state, so that they 
were unthinking 2 and unmoving, with intangible 
bodies, 

9. \The evil spirit, on account of backward know- 
ledge, was not aware of the existence of Auharmazd^] 
and, afterwards, he arose from the abyss, and came 
in unto the light which he saw. 10. Desirous of 
destroying, and because of his malicious nature, he 

1 Substituting amat, 'when,' for mun, 'which,' two Huzvirif 
forms which are frequently confounded by Pahlavi copyists be- 
cause their Pazand equivalents, ka and ke, are nearly alike. 

* Reading amini</4r in accordance with M6, which has amtni- 
d&r in Chap. XXXIV, 1, where the same phrase occurs. Windisch- 
mann and Justi read amuft&r, 'uninjured, invulnerable,' in both 
places. This sentence appears to refer to a preparatory creation of 
embryonic and immaterial existences, the prototypes, fravashis, 
spiritual counterparts, or guardian angels of the spiritual and 
material creatures afterwards produced. 



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BUNDAHLS. 



rushed in to destroy that light of Auharmazd unas- 
sailed by fiends, and he saw its bravery and glory 
were greater than his own ; so he fled back to the 
gloomy darkness, and formed many demons and 
fiends ; and the creatures of the destroyer arose for 
violence. 

1 1. Auharmazd, by whom the creatures of the evil 
spirit were seen, creatures terrible, corrupt, and bad, 
also considered them not commendable (burzi^nlk). 
1 2. Afterwards, the evil spirit saw the creatures of 
Auharmazd ; they appeared many creatures of de- 
light (vayah), enquiring creatures, and they seemed 
to him commendable, and he commended the crea- 
tures and creation of Auharmazd. 

13. Then Auharmazd, with a knowledge 1 of which 
way the end of the matter would be, went to meet 
the evil spirit, and proposed peace to him, and spoke 
thus : ' Evil spirit ! bring assistance unto my crea- 
tures, and offer praise! so that, in reward for it, 
ye (you and your creatures) may become immortal 
and undecaying, hungerless and thirstless.' 

14. And the evil spirit shouted thus t : ' I will not 
depart, I will not provide assistance for thy crea- 
tures, I will not offer praise among thy creatures, 
and I am not of the same opinion with thee as to 
good things. I will destroy thy creatures for ever 
and everlasting; moreover, I will force all thy 
creatures into disaffection to thee and affection for 
myself.' 15. And the explanation thereof is this, 
that the evil spirit reflected in this manner, that 

1 The Huz. khavitunast stands for the Paz. danist with the 
meaning, here, of ' what is known, knowledge,' as in Persian. 

* Literally, 'And it was shouted by him, the evil spirit, thus:' 
the usuil idiom when the nominative follows the verb. 



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CHAPTER I, II-20. 



Auharmazd was helpless as regarded him 1 , therefore 
He proffers peace ; and he did not agree, but bore 
on even into conflict with Him. 

C16. And Auharmazd spoke thus: 'You are not 
omniscient and almighty, O evil spirit ! so that it is 
not possible for thee to destroy me, and it is not 
possible for thee to force my creatures so that they 
will not return to my possession/] 

<i 7. Then Auharmazd, through omniscience, knew 
that : If I do not grant a period of contest, then it 
will be possible for him to act so that he may be 
able to cause the seduction of my creatures to him- 
self] As even now there are many of the inter- 
mixture of mankind who practise wrong more than 
right. \ 18. And Auharmazd spoke to the evil spirit 
thus : ' Appoint a period ! so that the intermingling 
of the conflict may be for nine thousand years.' For 
he knew that by appointing this period the evil 
spirit would be undone.J 

io.^Then the evil spirit, unobservant and through 
ignorance, was content with that agreement ;\ just 
like two men quarrelling together, who propose a 
time thus: Let us appoint such-and-such a day for a 
fight. 

20. \A.uharmazd also knew this, through omni- 
science, that within these nine thousand years, for 
three thousand years everything proceeds by the will 
of Auharmazd, three thousand years there is an 
intermingling of the wills of Auharmazd and Ahar- 
man, and the last three thousand years the evil 
spirit is disabled^nd they keep the adversary away 2 
from the creatures. 

1 The words dSn val stand for d6n valman. 

* That is, 'the adversary is kept away.' In Pahlavi the third 



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8 BUNDAHI*. 



21. (Afterwards, Auharmazdjrecited the Ahunavar 
thus : Yatha ahft vairyd (' as a heavenly lord is to 
be chosen '), &c. * once, and uttered the twenty-one 
words*; He also Exhibited to the evil spirit His 
own triumph in the end, and the impotence of the 
evil spirit, the annihilation of the demons, and the 
resurrection and undisturbed future existence of the 
creatures for ever and everlasting. 22. And the evil 
spirit, who perceived his own impotence and the 
annihilation of the demons, became confounded, and 
fell back to the gloomy darkness^ even so as is 
declared in revelation, that, when one of its (the 
Ahunavar s) three parts was uttered, the evil spirit 
contracted his body through fear, and when two 
parts of it were uttered he fell upon his knees, and 
when all of it was uttered lie became confounded 

person plural is the indefinite person, as in English. These 9000 
years are in addition to the 3000 mentioned in § 8, as appears more 
clearly in Chap. XXXIV, 1. 

1 This is the most sacred formula of the Parsis, which they have 
to recite frequently, not only during the performance of their cere- 
monies, but also in connection with most of their ordinary duties 
and habits. It is neither a prayer, nor a creed, but a declaratory 
formula in metre, consisting of one stanza of three lines, containing 
twenty-one Avesta words, as follows : — 

Yatha ahu vairyd, athi ratm, ashaV k\d \oM, 
VanghiflM dazdd mananghfi, fkyaothnanSm anghnu maedii, 
Khshathrem^a ahur&i &, yim dregubyd dada</ v&st&rem. 
And it may be translated in the following manner : 'As a heavenly 
lord is to be chosen, so is an earthly master (spiritual guide), for 
the sake of righteousness, to be a giver of the good thoughts of 
the actions of life towards Mazda; and the dominion is for the 
lord (Ahura) whom he (Mazda) has given as a protector for the 
poor* (see Haug's Essays on the Religion of the Parsis, 2nd ed. 
pp. 125, 141). 

* The word mdrik must mean 'word ' here, but in some other 
places it seems to mean ' syllable ' or ' accented syllable.' 



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CHAPTER I, 21-26. 



and impotent as to the harm he caused the creatures 
of Auharmazd, and he remained three thousand 
years in confusion 1 .j 

23. (Auharmazd created his creatures in the con- 
fusion of Aharmanj^ first he produced Vohuman 
('good thought'), by whom the progress of the 
creatures of Afiharmazd was advanced. 

24. The evil spirit first created 2 Mttdkht (' false- 
hood '), and then Akdman (' evil thought '). 

25. The first of Auharmazd's creatures of the 
world was the sky, and his good thought (Vohu- 
man), by good procedure 3 , produced the light of 
the world, along with which was the good religion 
of the Mazdayasnians ; this was because the renova- 
tion (frashakan/) * which happens to the creatures 
was known to him. 26. Afterwards arose Anfeva- 



1 This is the first third of the 9000 years appointed in §§ 18, 20, 
and the second 3000 years mentioned in Chap. XXXIV, 1. 

2 It is usual to consider da</an (Huz. yehabuntan), when 
traceable to Av. d$=Sans. dh&, as meaning 'to create,' but it can 
hardly be proved that it means to create out of nothing, any more 
than any other of the Avesta verbs which it is sometimes con- 
venient to translate by ' create.' Before basing any argument upon 
the use of this word it will, therefore, be safer to substitute the 
word 'produce' in all cases. 

8 Or it may be translated, ' and from it Vohuman, by good pro- 
cedure,' &c. The position here ascribed to Vohuman, or the good 
thought of Auharmazd, bears some resemblance to that of the Word 
in John i. 1-5, but with this essential difference, that Vohuman is 
merely a creature of Auharmazd, not identified with him ; for the 
latter idea would be considered, by a Parsi, as rather inconsistent 
with strict monotheism. The ' light of the world' now created 
must be distinguished from the ' endless light' already existing with 
Auharmazd in § a. 

4 The word frashakarrf, 'what is made durable, perpetuation,' 
is applied to the renovation of the universe which is to take place 
about the time of the resurrection, as a preparation for eternity. 



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10 BUNDAHIS. 



hist, and then Shatvalr6, and then Spendarmaa?, and 
then Horvadaaf, and then Amerddarf 1 . 

27. From the dark world of Aharman were Ak6- 
man and Andar, and then Sdvar, and then Nikah&df, 
and then T£tre& and Zatrti 2 . 

28. Of Auharmazd's creatures of the world, the 
first was the sky ; the second, water ; the third, 
earth; the fourth, plants; the fifth, animals; the 
sixth, mankind. 



Chapter II. 

o. On the formation of the luminaries. 

1. Auharmazd produced illumination between the 
sky and the earth, the constellation stars and those 
also not of the constellations s , then the moon, and 
afterwards the sun, as I shall relate. 

1 These five, with Vohuman and Auharmazd in his angelic capa- 
city, constitute the seven Ameshaspends, ' undying causers of pros- 
perity, immortal benefactors,' or archangels, who have charge of 
the whole material creation. They are personifications of old A vesta 
phrases, such as Vohu-man6, 'good thought;' Asha-vahijta, 
'perfect rectitude;' Khshathra-vairya, 'desirable dominion;' 
Spe«ta-£rmaiti, 'bountiful devotion;' Haurvatarf, 'complete- 
ness or health;' and Ameretarf, ' immortality.' 

9 These six demons are the opponents of the six archangels 
respectively (see Chap. XXX, 29) ; their names in the Avesta are, 
Akem-man6, ' evil thought;' Indra, Sauru, Naunghaithya, Tauru, 
ZairWa (see Vendldid X, 17, 18 Sp., and XIX, 43 W.), which have 
been compared with the Vedic god Indra, 5arva (a name of .Siva), 
the NSsatyas, and Sans, tura, 'diseased,' and #aras, 'decay,' 
respectively. For further details regarding them, see Chap. XXVIII, 

7-i3- 

* The word akhtar is the usual term in Pahlavi for a constella- 
tion of the zodiac; but the term apakhtar, 'away from the akhtar,' 
means not only ' the north,' or away from the zodiac, but also ' a 



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CHAPTER I, 27-II, 4. II 

2. First he produced the celestial sphere, and the 
constellation stars are assigned to it by him ; espe- 
cially these twelve whose names are Varak (the 
Lamb), T6ra (the Bull), D6-patkar (the Two-figures 
or Gemini), Kala£ang (the Crab), S&c (the Lion), 
Khtoak (Virgo), Tarasuk (the Balance), Gazdum 
(the Scorpion), Nlmasp (the Centaur or Sagittarius), 
Vahlk 1 (Capricornus), Dul (the Waterpot), and 
Mahlk (the Fish) ; 3. which, from their original 
creation, were divided into the twenty-eight sub- 
divisions of the astronomers 8 , of which the names 
are Padevar, P£sh- Parviz, Parviz, Paha, Avesar, 
Bern, Rakhva*/, Taraha, Avra, Nahn, Miyan, Av- 
dem, Mashaha, Spur, Husru, Srob, Nur, G£l, Garafra, 
Vara#t, Gau, Goi, Muru, Bunda, Kahtsar, Vaht, 
Miyan, Kaht s . 4. And all his original creations, 

planet,' which is in the zodiac, but apart from the constellations. 
The meaning of akhtar, most suitable to the context here, appears 
to be the general term ' constellation.' 

1 Written Nahdzik here, both in K20 and M6, which may be 
compared with Pers. nahaz, ' the leading goat of a flock; ' but the 
usual word for ' Capricornus' is Vahtk, as in Chap. V, 6. None of the 
other names of the signs of the zodiac are written here in Pazand, 
but it may be noted that if the ah in Vahtk were written in Pazand 
(that is, in Avesta characters), the word would become the same as 
Nahasik in Pahlavi. 

1 Literally, 'fragments of the calculators,' khur</ak-i hamdr 1 kan. 
These subdivisions are the spaces traversed daily by the moon 
among the stars, generally called ' lunar mansions.' 

s All these names are written in Pazand, which accounts for 
their eccentric orthography, in which both Kso and M6 agree very 
closely. The subdivision Parviz is evidently the Pers. parvSn, 
which includes the Pleiades, and corresponds therefore to the 
Sanskrit Nakshatra Kr*'ttika\ This correspondence leads to the 
identification of the first subdivision, PadSvar, with the Nakshatra 
Ajrvini. The Pazand names are so corrupt that no reliance can 
be placed upon them, and the first step towards recovering the true 



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1 2 BUNDAHIS. 



residing in the world, are committed to them 1 ; so 
that when the destroyer arrives they overcome the 
adversary and their own persecution, and the crea- 
tures are saved from those adversities. 

5. As a. specimen of a warlike army, which is 
destined for battle, they have ordained every single 
constellation of those 6480 thousand small stars as 
assistance; and among those constellations four 
chieftains, appointed on the four sides, are leaders. 
6. On the recommendation of those chieftains the 
many unnumbered stars are specially assigned to the 
various quarters and various places, as the united 
strength and appointed power of those constella- 
tions. 7. As it is said that Ttetar is the chieftain of 
the east, Sataves the chieftain of the west, Vanand 
the chieftain of the south, and Hapt6k-rtng the 
chieftain of the north 2 . 8. The great one which they 

Pahlavi names would be to transliterate the Pazand back into Pah- 
lavi characters. The ninth subdivision is mentioned in Chap. VII, 1 
by the name Avrak. 

1 That is, to the zodiacal constellations, which are supposed to 
have special charge of the welfare of creation. 

2 Of these four constellations or stars, which are said to act as 
leaders, there is no doubt that Hapt6k-ring, the chieftain of the 
north, is Ursa Major ; and it is usually considered that Tfatar, the 
chieftain of the east, is Sirius ; but the other two chieftains are not 
so well identified, and there may be some doubt as to the proper 
stations of the eastern and western chieftains. It is evident, how- 
ever, that the most westerly stars, visible at any one time of the 
year, are those which set in the dusk of the evening ; and east of 
these, all the stars are visible during the night as far as those which 
rise at daybreak, which are the most easterly stars visible at that 
time of the year. Tfatar or Sirius can, therefore, be considered 
the chieftain of the eastern stars only when it rises before day- 
break, which it does at the latter end of summer ; and Haptdk- 
ring or Ursa Major is due north at midnight (on the meridian below 
the pole) at about the same time of the year. These stars, there- 



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CHAPTER II, 5-8. 13 



call a Gah (period of the day), which they say is the 
great one of the middle of the sky, till just before 
the destroyer came was the midday (or south) one of 
the five, that is, the Rapltvln '. 

fore, fulfil the conditions necessary for being chieftains of the east 
and north at the end of summer, and we must look for stars capable 
of being chieftains of the south and west at the same season. Now, 
when Ursa Major is near the meridian below the pole, Fomalhaut 
is the most conspicuous star near the meridian in the far south, 
and is probably to be identified with Vanand the chieftain of the 
south. And when Sirius rises some time before daybreak, Antares 
(in Scorpio) sets some time after dusk in the evening, and may 
well be identified with Sataves the chieftain of the west. Assuming 
that there has been a precession of the equinoxes equivalent to 
two hours of time, since the idea of these chieftains (which may 
perhaps be traced to Avesta times) was first formed, it may be 
calculated that the time of year when these leading stars then best 
fulfilled that idea was about a month before the autumnal equinox, 
when Ursa Major would be due north three-quarters of an hour 
after midnight, and Fomalhaut due south three-quarters of an hour 
before midnight, Sirius would rise three hours before the sun, and 
Antares would set three hours after the sun. In the Avesta these 
leading stars are named Tutrya, SatavaSsa, Vana«t, and Hapt6i- 
riaga (see Tirtar Yt. o, 8, 9, 12, 32, &c, Rashnu Yt. 26-28, 
Sir6z. 13). 

1 This translation, though very nearly literal, must be accepted 
with caution. If the word mas be not a name it can hardly mean 
anything but 'great;' and that it refers to a constellation appears 
from Chap. V, 1. The word khdmsak is an irregular form of the 
Huz. khdnuyi, ' five,' and may refer either to the five chieftains 
(including ' the great one ') or to the five Gahs or periods of the 
day, of which Rapitvin is the midday one (see Chap. XXV, 9). 
The object of the text seems to be to connect the Rapitvin Gah 
with some great mid-sky and midday constellation or star, possibly 
Regulus, which, about b. c. 960, must have been more in the day- 
light than any other important star during the seven months of 
summer, the only time that the Rapitvin Gah can be celebrated 
(see Chap. XXV, 7-14). Justi has, *They call that the great one of 
the place, which is great in the middle of the sky ; they say that 
before the enemy came it was always midday, that is, Rapitvin.' 



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14 BUNDAHIS. 



9. Auharmazd performed the spiritual Yari.yn cere- 
mony with the archangels (ameshdspendan) in the 
Rapltvln Gah, and in the Yari.m he supplied every 
means necessary for overcoming the adversary 1 . 
10. He deliberated with the consciousness (b6d) 
and guardian spirits (fravahar) of men 8 , and the 
omniscient wisdom, brought forward among men, 
spoke thus : ' Which seems to you the more advanta- 
geous, when 8 I shall present you to the world ? that 
you shall contend in a bodily form with the fiend 
(drti^), and the fiend shall perish, and in the end 
I shall have you prepared again perfect and im- 
mortal, and in the end give you back to the world, 
and you will be wholly immortal, undecaying, and 
undisturbed ; or that it be always necessary to pro- 
vide you protection from the destroyer ? ' 

11. Thereupon, the guardian spirits of men be- 
came of the same opinion with the omniscient wis- 
dom about going to the world, on account of the 
evil that comes upon them, in the world, from the 
fiend (dru^-) Aharman, and their becoming, at last, 
again unpersecuted by the adversary, perfect, and 
immortal, in the future existence, for ever and ever- 
lasting. 

Windiscbmann has nearly the same, as both follow the Pazand 
MSS. in reading hdmtjak (as a variant of hami-rak), 'always,' 
instead of khdms&k. 
1 Or ' adversity.' 

* These were among the fravashis already created (see Chap. 
1,8). 

* Reading amat, 'when,' instead of mun, 'which ' (see note to 
Chap. I, 7). 



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CHAPTER II, 9 -III, 5. 15 



Chapter III. 

1. On the rush of the destroyer at the creatures 
it is said, in revelation, that the evil spirit, when he 
saw the impotence of himself and the confederate * 
(ham-dast) demons, owing to the righteous man 2 , 
became confounded, and seemed in confusion three 
thousand years. 2. During that confusion the arch- 
fiends 3 of the demons severally shouted thus : ' Rise 
up, thou father of us ! for we will cause a conflict in 
the world, the distress and injury from which will 
become those of Auharmazd and the archangels.' 

3. Severally they twice recounted their own evil 
deeds, and it pleased him not ; and that wicked evil 
spirit, through fear of the righteous man, was not 
able to lift up his head until the wicked Geh * came, 
at the completion of the three thousand years. 
4. And she shouted to the evil spirit thus : ' Rise 
up, thou father of us ! for I will cause that conflict 
in the world wherefrom the distress and injury of 
Auharmazd and the archangels will arise.' 5. And 
she twice recounted severally her own evil deeds, 
and it pleased him not ; and that wicked evil spirit 

1 The P&zand MSS. have gar6ist, for the Huz. hfimnunast, 
' trusted.' Windischmann and Justi have ' all.' 

* Probably GSydmarrf. 

9 The word kamarak&n is literally 'those with an evil pate/ 
and is derived from Av. kameredha, 'the head of an evil being,' 
also applied to 'the evil summit' of Mount Arezura (Vend. XIX, 
140, 142), which is supposed to be at the gate of hell (see 
Chap. XII, 8). That the chief demons or arch-fiends are meant, 
appears more clearly in Chap. XXVIII, 12, 44, where the word 
is kamarikan. 

* The personification of the impurity of menstruation. 



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1 6 BUNDAHW. 



rose not from that confusion, through fear of the 
righteous man. 

6. And, again, the wicked Geh shouted thus : 
' Rise up, thou father of us! for in that conflict I 
will shed thus much vexation 1 on the righteous 
man and the labouring ox that, through my deeds, 
life will not be wanted, and I will destroy their living 
souls (nismo) 2 ; I will vex the water, I will vex the 
plants, I will vex the fire of Auharmazd, I will 
make the whole creation of Auharmazd vexed.' 
7. And she so recounted those evil deeds a second 
time, that the evil spirit was delighted and started 
up from that confusion ; and he kissed Geh upon 
the head, and the pollution which they call men- 
struation became apparent in G€h. 

8. He shouted to G€h thus : ' What is thy wish ? 
so that I may give it thee.' And G6h shouted to 
the evil spirit thus: 'A man is the wish, so give it 
to me.' 

9. The form of the evil spirit was a log-like 
lizard's (vazak) body, and he appeared a young 
man of fifteen years to G&h, and that brought the 
thoughts of Ge\ to him 3 . 

1 The word v£sh or vish may stand either for bSsh, 'distress, 
vexation,' as here assumed, or for vish, 'poison,' as translated by 
Windischmann and Justi in accordance with the Paz. MSS. 

• That this is the Huzvaru of rub an, ' soul,' appears from Chap. 
XV, 3-5, where both words are used indifferently ; but it is not 
given in the Huz.-Paz. Glossary. It is evidently equivalent to 
Chald. nixma, and ought probably to have the traditional pronun- 
ciation nisman, an abbreviation of nismman. 

9 This seems to be the literal meaning of the sentence, and is 
confirmed by Chap. XXVIII, 1, but Windischmann and Justi 
understand that the evil spirit formed a youth for G&h out of a 
toad's body. The incident in the text may be compared with 
Milton's idea of Satan and Sin in Paradise Lost, Book II, 745^765. 



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CHAPTER III, 6-l6. 17 

10. Afterwards, the evil spirit, with the confede- 
rate demons, went towards the luminaries, and he 
saw the sky; and he led them up, fraught with 
malicious intentions. 11. He stood upon one-third 1 
of the inside of the sky, and he sprang, like a snake,' 
out of the sky down to the earth. 

1 2. In the month Fravaraftn and the day Auhar- 
mazd 2 he rushed in at noon, and thereby the sky was 
as shattered and frightened by him, as a sheep by 
a wolf. 13. He came on to the water which was 
arranged 3 below the earth, and then the middle 
of this earth was pierced and entered by him. 
14. Afterwards, he came to the vegetation, then to 
the ox, then to Gaydman/, and then he came to 
fire 4 ; so, just like a fly, he rushed out upon the 
whole creation; and he made the world quite as 
injured and dark 6 at midday as though it were in 
dark night. 15. And noxious creatures were dif- 
fused by him over the earth, biting and venomous, 
such as the snake, scorpion, frog (kalvak), and 
lizard (vazak), so that not so much as the point 
of a needle remained free from noxious creatures. 
16. And blight* was diffused by him over the 

1 Perhaps referring to the proportion of the sky which is over- 
spread by the darkness of night. The whole sentence is rather 
obscure. 

* The vernal equinox (see Chap. XXV, 7). 

* Literally, ' and it was arranged.' 

4 For the details of these visitations, see Chaps. VI-X. 
' Reading khust tdm; but it may be hangtrftum, 'most turbid, 
opaque.' 

* The word makhS, 'blow, stroke,' is a Huzvdrif logogram not 
found in the glossaries; M6 has dar, 'wood,' but this may be a 
misreading, due to the original, from which M6 was copied, being 
difficult to read. 

/[5] C 



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1 8 BUNDAHW. 



vegetation, and it withered away immediately. 1 7. 
And avarice, want, pain, hunger, disease, lust, and 
lethargy were diffused by him abroad upon the ox 
and Gay6man£ 

18. Before his coming to the ox, Auharmazd 
ground up the healing fruit 1 , which some call 'binak,' 
small in water openly before its eyes, so that its 
damage and discomfort from the calamity (zani^n) 
might be less; and when it became at the same 
time lean and ill, as its breath went forth and it 
passed away, the ox also spoke thus : ' The cattle 
are to be created, and their work, labour, and care 
are to be appointed.' 

19. And before his coming to Gaydmar^, Auhar- 
mazd brought forth a sweat upon Gay6mardf, so 
long as he might recite a prayer (v(Lg) of one stanza 
(vi^ast); moreover, Auharmazd formed that sweat 
into the youthful body of a man of fifteen years, 
radiant and tall. 20. When Gaydmarrf issued from 
the sweat he saw the world dark as night, and the 
earth as though not a needle's point remained free 
from noxious creatures ; the celestial sphere was 

in revolution, and the sun and moon remained in 
motion : and the world's struggle, owing to the 
clamour of the Mazinikan demons 2 , was with the 
constellations. 

21. (And the evil spirit thought that the crea- 
tures of Auharmazd were all rendered useless except 



1 The word mfvang is an unusual form of mivak, 'fruit.' It 
is probably to be traced to an Av. mivangh, which might mean 
' fatness,' as Windischmann suggests. 

* The MSzainya dafiva of the Avesta, and MSzendaran demons, 
or idolators, of Persian legends. 



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CHAPTER III, 17-27. 19 

Gay6man/j]and Asto-vidadf 1 with a thousand demons, 
causers of death, were let forth by him on Gaydman£ 

22. But his appointed time had not come, and he 
(Ast6-vlda^) obtained no means of noosing (avizl- 
<</an6) him; as it is said that, when the opposition 
of the evil spirit came.fthe period of the life and 
rule of Gaydmanjf was appointed for thirty yearsj 

23. fAfter the coming of the adversary he lived 
thirty yearsj and Gaydman/ spoke thus : 'Although 
the destroyer has come, mankind will be all of my 
race ; and this one thing is good, when they perform 
duty and good works.' 

r*24. And, afterwards, he (the evil spirit) came to 
fire, and he mingled smoke and darkness with it^ 
25. The planets, with many demons, dashed against 
the celestial sphere, and they mixed the constella- 
tions ; and the whole creation was as disfigured as 
though fire disfigured every place and smoke arose 
over it. 26. And ninety days and nights the 
heavenly angels were contending in the world with 
the confederate demons of the evil spirit, and hurled 
them confounded to hell; and the rampart of the sky 
was formed so that the adversary should not be able 
to mingle with it. 

27. Hell is in the middle of the earth; there 
where the evil spirit pierced the earth 2 and rushed 
in upon it, las all the possessions of the world were 

1 The demon of death, Ast6-vfdh6tu in the Avesta (Vend. IV, 
137, V, 25, 31), who is supposed ' to cast a halter around the 
necks of the dead to drag them to hell, but if their good works 
have exceeded their sins they throw off the noose and go to heaven' 
(Haug's Essays, 2nd ed. p. 321). This name is misread Asti- 
\ih&d by PSzand writers. 

* See § 13. 

C 2 



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20 BUNDAHItf. 



changing into duality, and persecution, contention, 
and mingling ofTiigh and low became manifest] 



Chapter IV. 

i. This also is said, that when the primeval ox 1 
passed away it fell to the right hand, and Gay6man/ 
afterwards, when he passed away, to the left hand. 
2. G6*urvan*, as the soul of the primeval ox came 
out from the body of the ox, stood up before the ox 
and cried to Auharmazd, as much as a thousand 
men when they sustain a cry at one time, thus : 
' With whom is the guardianship of the creatures 
left by thee, when ruin has broken into the earth, 
and vegetation is withered, and water is troubled ? 
Where is the man 3 of whom it was said by thee 
thus : I will produce him, so that he may preach 
carefulness ?' 

3. And Auharmazd spoke thus : ' You are made 
ill *, O Gd^urvan ! you have the illness which the 
evil spirit brought on ; if it were proper to produce 
that man in this earth at this time, the evil spirit 
would not have been oppressive in it.' 

1 Literally, ' ihe sole-created ox ' from whom all the animals and 
some plants are supposed to have proceeded (see Chaps. X and 
XIV), as mankind proceeded from Gaydman/. It is the ox of 
the primitive creation, mentioned in Chap. Ill, 14, 18. 

* The spiritual representative of the primeval ox, called Geas- 
urva, ' soul of the bull,' in the Avesta, of which name G6jurvan is 
a corruption. The complaint of G&urvan is recorded in the 
Gathas, the oldest part of the Avesta (see Yas. XXIX). 

8 Referring to Zaratujt. 

« In K20, ' You are ill.' 



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CHAPTER IV, I-V, I. 21 

4. Forth G6$urvan walked to the star station 
(payak) and cried in the same manner, and forth to 
the moon station and cried in the same manner, and 
forth to the sun station, and then the guardian spirit 
of Zaraturt was exhibited to her, and Afiharmazd 
said thus * : ' I will produce for the world him who 
will preach carefulness.' 5. Contented became the 
spirit G6.jurvan, and assented thus : ' I will nourish 
the creatures ;' that is, she became again consenting 
to a worldly creation in the world. 



Chapter V. 

1. Seven chieftains of the planets have come unto 
the seven chieftains of the constellations 2 , as the 
planet Mercury (Ttr) unto Tfotar, the planet Mars 
(Vahram) unto Hapt6k-ring, the planet Jupiter 
(Auharmazd) unto Vanand, the planet Venus (Ana- 
hid?) unto Sataves, the planet Saturn (K6van) unto 
the great one of the middle of the sky, G6£ihar 3 

1 As the text stands in the MSS. it means, ' and then the guardian 
spirit of Zaraturt demonstrated to her thus;' but whether it be 
intended to represent the fravahar as producing the creature 
is doubtful. The angel Gar, who is identified with Gdjurvan, is 
usually considered a female, but this is hardly consistent with being 
the soul of a bull (see Chap. X, 1, 2), though applicable enough to 
a representative of the earth. In the Selections of Za</-sparam, II, 
6, however, this mythological animal is said to have been a female 
(see Appendix to Bundahw). 

* Five of these are mentioned in Chap. II, 7, 8, to which the 
sun and moon are here added. 

* As this name stands in the MSS. it may be read Gur^dar (as 
in the P£z. MSS.), GfovKhar, or Durifhar ; the reading is very un- 
certain, and Windischmann suggests Gurg-iihar, ' wolf progeny ' 
(compare vehrk6-£ithra in Ardabahirt Ya*t 8). A shooting star, 



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22 BUNDAHIS. 



and the thievish (du^gun) Muspar 1 , provided with 
tails, unto the sun and moon and stars. 2. The sun 
has attached Mu-fpar to its own radiance by mutual 
agreement, so that he may be less able to do harm 
(vinas). 

3. Of Mount Alburn 2 it is declared, that around 
the world and Mount T£rak 3 , which is the middle of 
the world, the revolution of the sun is like a moat * 
around the world ; it turns back in a circuit 6 owing 
to the enclosure (var) of Mount Alburn around 
T£rak. 4. As it is said that it is the Terak of 
Alburn from behind which my sun and moon and 
stars return again •. 5. For there are a hundred 



or meteor, is probably meant (see Chap. XXX, 18, 31), and as it is 
the special disturber of the moon, it may be G6-£ihar (Av. gao- 
iithra, 'of ox-lineage'), a common epithet of the moon; the 
Pahlavi letter k being often written something like the compound 
xk; and this supposition is confirmed by the G6k-£ibar of TD in 
Chap. XXVIII, 44. 

1 This is written Mfo-parik in TD in Chap. XXVIII, 44, and 
seems to be the mftj pairika of Yas. XVII, 46, LXVII, 23, as 
noticed by Windischmann ; it is probably meant here for a comet, 
as it is attached to the sun. The zodiacal light and milky way have 
too little of the wandering character of planets to be considered 
planetary opponents of the sun and moon. 

* The hara berezaiti, 'lofty mountain-range,' of the Avesta, 
which is an ideal representative of the loftiest mountains known to 
the ancient Iranians, the Alburz range in Mazendaran, south of the 
Caspian. See Chaps. VIII, 2, XII, 1, 3. 

5 The TaSra of Yas. XLI, 24, RSm Yt 7, Zamy&i Yt. 6. See 
Chap. XII, 2, 4. 

4 The word mayS-gtr is a Huz. hybrid for av-glr, ' a water- 
holder, or ditch.' 

8 The word may be either five^ak or khavi£ ak, with this 
meaning. 

6 This appears to be a quotation from the Rashnu Yart, 25. 
The Huz. word for ' month ' is here used for the ' moon.' 



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CHAPTER V, 2-6. 23 



and eighty apertures (rd^in) in the east, and a hun- 
dred and eighty in the west, through Alburn; and 
the sun, every day, comes in through an aperture, 
and goes out through an aperture * ; and the whole 
connection and motion of the moon and constel- 
lations and planets is with it : every day it always 
illumines (or warms) three regions (keshvar) 2 and 
a half, as is evident to the eyesight. 6. And twice 
in every year the day and night are equal, for on the 
original attack 3 , when 4 it (the sun) went forth from 
its first degree (khurafak), the day and night were 
equal, it was the season of spring ; when it arrives 
at the first degree of Kalaiang (Cancer) the time of 
day is greatest, it is the beginning of summer; when 
it arrives at the sign (khun/ak) Tara.fuk (Libra) the 
day and night are equal, it is the beginning of 
autumn ; when it arrives at the sign Vahtk (Capri- 
corn) the night is a maximum, it is the beginning of 
winter ; and when it arrives at Varak (Aries) the 
night and day have again become equal, as when it 

1 This mode of accounting for the varying position of sunrise 
and sunset resembles that in the Book of Enoch, LXXI, but only 
six eastern and six western gates of heaven are there mentioned, 
and the sun changes its gates of entrance and exit only once a 
month, instead of daily. 

s See § 9 and Chap. XI. 

" The reading of this word is doubtful, although its meaning is 
tolerably clear. The Paz. MSS. read har d6, ' both ;' Justi reads 
ardab, ' quarrel ;' and in the Selections of Zirf-sparam it is written 
ar</ik. It seems probable that the word is kharah, ' attack/ which 
being written exactly like ardS (A v. ashya, see Yas. LVI, i, i) has 
had a circumflex added to indicate the supposed d, and this false 
reading has led to the more modern form arrfik (Pers. ard, 'anger'). 
But probabilities in obscure matters are often treacherous guides. 

* Reading amat, ' when,' instead of mun, ' which,' throughout 
the sentence (see note to Chap. I, 7). 



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24 BUNDAHLS. 



went forth from Varak. 7. So that when it comes 
back to Varak, in three hundred and sixty days and 
the five Gatha days 1 , it goes in and comes out 
through one and the same aperture ; the aperture is 
not mentioned, for if it had been mentioned the 
demons would have known the secret, and been 
able to introduce disaster. 

8. From there where the sun comes on on the 
longest day to where it comes on on the shortest day 
is the east region Savah ; from there where it comes 
on on the shortest day to where it goes off on the 
shortest day is the direction of the south regions 
Fradadafsh and Vldadafsh ; from there where it goes 
in on the shortest day to where it goes in on the 
longest day is the west region Arzah ; from there 
where it comes in on the longest day to there where 
it goes in on the longest day are the north regions 
Vdrubarrt and V6ru^arrt 2 . 9. When the sun comes 
on, it illumines (or warms) the regions of Savah, 
Fradadafsh, Vldaafefsh, and half of Khvanlras 3 ; 
when it goes in on the dark side, it illumines the 
regions of Arzah, V6rubarrt, Vdru^arrt, and one 
half of Khvanlras ; when it is day here /'/ is night 
there. 

1 The five supplementary days added to the last of the twelve 
months, of thirty days each, to complete the year. For these days 
no additional apertures are provided in Albura, and the sun appears 
to have the choice of either of the two centre apertures out of the 
180 on each side of the world. This arrangement seems to indi- 
cate that the idea of the apertures is older than the rectification of 
the calendar which added the five Gatha days to an original year 
of 360 days. 

* This sentence occurs, without the names of the kSshvars or 
regions, in the Pahl. Vend. XIX, 19. For the kSshvars see 
Chap. XI. 

3 Often corrupted into Khanf ras in the MSS. 



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CHAPTER V, 7-VII, I. 25 

Chapter VI. 

1. On the conflict® of the creations of the world 
with the antagonism of the evil spirit it is said in 
revelation, that the evil spirit, even as he rushed in 
and looked upon the pure bravery of the angels and 
his own violence^, wished to rush backj 2. The 
spirit of the sky is himself like one of the warriors 
who has put on armour ; he arrayed the sky against 
the evil spirit, and led on in the contest, until 
Auharmazd had completed a rampart around, 
stronger than the sky and in front of the sky. 
3. And his guardian spirits (fravihar) of warriors 
and the righteous, on war horses and spear in hand, 
were around the sky; such-like as the hair on the 
head is the similitude (angunl-altak) of those who 
hold the watch of the rampart. 4. 'And no passage 
was found by the evil spirit, who rushed back ; and 
he beheld the annihilation of the demons and his 
own impotence, as Auharmazd did his own final 
triumph, producing the renovation of the universe 
for ever and everlastingj 



Chapter VII. 
1. The second conflict was waged with the water, 
because, as the star Tlrtar was in Cancer, the water 
which is in the subdivision they call Avrak 8 was 

1 This is the doubtful word translated ' attack ' in Chap. V, 6 
(see the note there) ; it also occurs at the beginning of each of the 
following four chapters. 

* Reading zdrfh; but it may be zurfh, ' falsity.'. 

' The ninth lunar mansion (see Chap. II, 3) corresponding with 
the middle of Cancer. Tfotar (Sinus) being in Cancer probably 



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26 BUNDAHIS. 



pouring, on the same day when the destroyer rushed 
in, and came again into notice for mischief (avarak) 
in the direction of the west. 2. For every single 
month is the owner of one constellation ; the month 
Ttr is the fourth month 1 of the year, and Cancer the 
fourth constellation from Aries, so it is the owner of 
Cancer, into which Tlrtar sprang, and displayed the 
characteristics of a producer of rain ; and he brought 
on the water aloft by the strength of the wind. 
3. Co-operators with Tlrtar were Vohuman and 
the angel H6m, with the assistance of the angel 
Bur§" and the righteous guardian spirits in orderly 
arrangement. 

4. Tlrtar was converted into three forms, the form 
of a man and the form of a horse and the form of a 
bull 2 ; thirty days and nights he was distinguished 
in brilliance 3 , and in each form he produced rain ten 
days and nights ; as the astrologers say that every 
constellation has three forms. 5. Every single drop 
of that rain became as big as a bowl, and the water 
stood the height of a man over the whole of this 
earth ; and the noxious creatures on the earth being 
all killed by the rain, went into the holes of the 
earth 4 . 

means that it rises about the same time as the stars of Cancer, as 
is actually the case. 

1 See Chap. XXV, 20. 

a See Ttrtar Yt. 13, 16, 18, where it is stated that Tfatar assumes 
the form of a man for the first ten nights, of a bull for the second 
ten nights, and of a horse for the third ten nights. Also in Vend. 
XIX, 126 Tfrtar is specially invoked in his form of a bull. 

s Or it may be translated, ' he hovered in the light,' as Windisch- 
mann and Justi have it. 

* In comparing the inundation produced by Tfotar with the 
Noachian deluge, it must be recollected that the former is repre- 
sented as occurring before mankind had propagated on the earth. 



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CHAPTER VII, 2-IO. 27 

6. And, afterwards, the wind spirit, so that it may 
not be contaminated (gumikht), stirs up the wind 
and atmosphere as the life stirs in the body; and 
the water was all swept away by it, and was brought 
out to the borders of the earth, and the wide-formed 1 
ocean arose therefrom. 7. The noxious creatures 
remained dead within the earth, and their venom 
and stench were mingled with the earth, and in 
order to carry that poison away from the earth 
Tlrtar went down into the ocean in the form of a 
white horse with long hoofs 2 . 

8. And Apidsh 8 , the demon, came meeting him 
in the likeness of a black horse with clumsy (kund) 
hoofs; a mile (para sang) 4 away from him fled 
Ttrtar, through the fright which drove him away. 

9. And Tfotar begged for success from Auharmazd, 
and Auharmazd gave him strength and power, as it 
is said, that unto Ttrtar was brought at once the 
strength of ten vigorous horses, ten vigorous camels, 
ten vigorous bulls, ten mountains, and ten rivers 8 . 

10. A mile away from him fled Apidsh, the demon, 
through fright at his strength ; on account of this 
they speak of an arrow-shot with Tlrtar's strength in 
the sense of a mile. 



1 The term far£khfl-kar</, 'wide-formed,' is a free Pahlavi 
translation of Av. vouru-kasha, 'wide-shored,' or 'having wide 
abysses,' applied to the boundless ocean (see Chap. XIII, 1). 

' For the Avesta account of this expedition of TJrtar, see Tlrtar 
Yt 20-29. 

* Miswritten Apavx or Apavai in Pazand, by all MSS. in this 
chapter, but see Chap. XXVIII, 39. 

* The word parasang is here used for Av. hathra, which was 
about an English mile (see Chap. XXVI, 1). 

* A quotation from Ttrtar Yt. 25. 



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28 BUNDAHW. 



ii. Afterwards, with a cloud for ajar (khumb) — 
thus they call the measure which was a means of the 
work — he seized upon the water and made it rain 
most prodigiously, in drops like bull's heads and 
men's heads, pouring in handfuls and pouring in 
armfuls, both great and small. 12. On the produc- 
tion of that rain the demons Aspen^argak l and 
Apadsh contended with it, and the fire VazLrt 2 
turned its club over ; and owing to the blow of the 
club Aspen^argak made a very grievous noise, as 
even now, in a conflict with the producer of rain, a 
groaning and raging 3 are manifest. 13. And ten 
nights and days rain was produced by him in that 
manner, and the poison and venom of the noxious 
creatures which were in the earth were all mixed up 
in the water, and the water became quite salt, be- 
cause there remained in the earth some of those 
germs which noxious creatures ever collect. 

14. Afterwards, the wind, in the same manner as 
before, restrained the water, at the end of three days, 
on various sides of the earth ; and the three great 
seas and twenty-three small seas* arose therefrom, 
and two fountains (Yashmak) of the sea thereby 
became manifest, one the A'e^ast lake, and one 
the Sdvbar 8 , whose sources are connected with the 



1 Mentioned in Vend. XIX, 135, thus: 'thou shouldst propi- 
tiate the fire Vazijta, the smiter of the demon Speng'aghra.' It is 
also written SpSn^argak in Chap. XVII, 1, and Aspen^ardga in 
Chap. XXVIII, 39. 

* That is, the lightning (see Chap. XVII, 1). 

8 Or, ' a tumult and flashing.' Justi has ' howling and shrieking;' 
the two words being very ambiguous in the original. 
4 See Chap. XIII, 6. 

• See Chap. XXII, 1-3. 



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CHAPTER VII, 1 1 -VIII, 2. 29 

fountain of the sea. 15. And at its north side 1 
two rivers flowed out, and went one to the east and 
one to the west ; they are the Arag river and the 
Veil river; as it is said thus: 'Through those finger- 
breadth tricklings do thou pour and draw forth two 
such waters, O Auharmazd !' 16. Both those rivers 
wind about through all the extremities of the earth, 
and intermingle again with the water of the wide- 
formed ocean. 1 7. As those two rivers flowed out, 
and from the same place of origin as theirs, eigh- 
teen* navigable rivers flowed out, and after the 
other waters have flowed out from those navigable 
streams they all flow back to the Arag 3 river and 
V£h river, whose fertilization (khvapardarih) of 
the world arises therefrom. 



Chapter VIII. 

o. On the conflict which the evil spirit waged with 
the earth. 

1. As the evil spirit rushed in, the earth shook 4 , 
and the substance of mountains was created in the 
earth. 2. First, Mount Alburn arose; afterwards, 

1 Probably meaning the north side of the ArSdvJvsur fountain 
of the sea, which is said to be on the lofty Hugar, a portion of 
Alburs, from the northern side of which these two semi-mythical 
rivers are said to flow (see Chaps. XII, 5, XX, 1). 

* See Chap. XX, 2. 

' Here written Ar&ig, but the usual Pahlavi reading is Arag ; 
the nasal of the Av. Rangha being generally omitted in Pahlavi, as 
other nasals are sometimes; thus we often find sag for sang, 
' stone.' 

* The word ^udnlrf is a transposition of gundid, a graphical 
variant ofgunbtd, ' shook.' 



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30 BUNDAHW. 



the other ranges of mountains (kdfantha) of the 
middle of the earth ; for as Alburn grew forth all 
the mountains remained in motion, for they have all 
grown forth from the root of Alburn. 3. At that 
time they came up from the earth, like a tree which 
has grown up to the clouds and its root 1 to the 
bottom; and their root passed on that way from one 
to the other, and they are arranged in mutual con- 
nection. 4. Afterwards, about that wonderful shak- 
ing out from the earth, they say that a great moun- 
tain is the knot of lands; and the passage for the 
waters within the mountains is the root which is 
below the mountains ; they forsake the upper parts 
so that they may flow into it, just as the roots of 
trees pass into the earth; a counterpart (an gun f- 
aitak) of the blood in the arteries of men, which 
gives strength to the whole body. 5. In numbers 2 , 
apart from Albursr, all the mountains grew up out of 
the earth in eighteen years 3 , from which arises the 
perfection 4 of men's advantage. 



Chapter IX. 

1. The conflict waged with plants was that when 5 
they became quite dry. 2. Amer6dad the arch- 

1 M6 has raA&k, but this and many other strange words are 
probably due to the copyist of that MS. having an original before 
him which was nearly illegible in many places. 

* Or, 'as it were innumerable;' the word amar meaning both 
' number ' and ' innumerable.' 

s See Chap. XII, 1. 

* The word must be farhakhtagSn, 'proprieties,' both here and 
in Chap. IX) 6, as farh&khtun is an ungrammatical form. 

5 Reading amat, ' when,' instead of mfin, ' which ' (see the note 
to Chap. I, 7). 



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CHAPTER VIII, 3-X, I. 



angel, as the vegetation was his own, pounded the 
plants small, and mixed them up with the water 
which Ttrtar seized, and Tlrtar made that water rain 
down upon the whole earth. 3. On the whole earth 
plants grew up like hair upon the heads of men. 
4. Ten thousand x of them grew forth of one special 
description, for keeping away the ten thousand 
species of disease which the evil spirit produced for 
the creatures; and from those ten thousand, the 
100,000 species 2 of plants have grown forth. 

5. From that same germ of plants the tree of all 
germs 3 was given forth, and grew up in the wide- 
formed ocean, from which the germs of all species of 
plants ever increased. 6. And near to that tree of 
all germs the Gdkan/tree 4 was produced, for keeping 
away deformed (ddspa.d) decrepitude; and the full 
perfection of the world arose therefrom. 



Chapter X. 

0. On the conflict waged with the primeval ox. 

1. As it passed away 8 , owing to the vegetable 
principle (£iharak) proceeding from every limb of 
the ox, fifty and. five species of grain* and twelve 
species of medicinal plants grew forth from the 
earth, and their splendour and strength were the 

1 See Chap. XXVII, 2. 

1 Here 120,000 are mentioned, but see Chap. XXVII, 2, and 
Selections of ZSrf-sparam, VIII, 2. 

• Or, 'of all seeds' (see Chap. XVIII, 9). 

* The white-H6m tree (see Chaps. XVIII, 1-6, XXVII, 4). 
« See Chap. IV, 1. • See Chaps. XIV, 1, XXVII, 2. 



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32 BUNDAHW. 



seminal energy (tdkh ml h) of the ox. 2. Delivered 
to the moon station 1 , that seed was thoroughly-puri- 
fied by the light of the moon, fully prepared in 
every way, and produced life in a body. 3. Thence 
arose two oxen, one male and one female ; and, 
afterwards, two hundred and eighty-two species of 
each kind % became manifest upon the earth. 4. The 
dwelling (m in 1st) of the birds is in the air, and the 
fish are in the midst of the water. 



Chapter XI. 

1. On the nature of the earth it says in revela- 
tion, that there are thirty and three kinds s of land. 
2. On the day when Tlstar produced the rain, when 
its seas arose therefrom, the whole place, half taken 
up by water, was converted into seven portions; 
this portion 4 , as much as one-half, is the middle, 
and six portions are around ; those six portions 
are together as much as Khvanlras. 3. The name 

1 See Chap. XIV, 3. In the M4h Yt o, 7, blessings are in- 
voked for 'the moon of ox lineage' (gao£ithra) in conjunction 
with the ' sole-created ox and the ox of many species.' In the 
Avesta the gender of these two primeval oxen appears doubtful, 
owing probably to the dual gea masc. of their epithets being of the 
same form as a sing. gen. fem. 

% That is, of each sex. See Chap. XIV, 13, 27. In all three 
occurrences of this number K20 has 272, but all other MSS. have 
282 (except M6 in this place only). 

* Kzob has 'thirty-two kinds.' 

4 That is, Khvanlras; or it may be 'one portion,' as hand, 
'this,' is often used for a 6, 'one,' because the Pazand form of 
both words is e. 



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CHAPTER X, 2-XI, 5. 33 

kdshvar ('zone or region ') is also applied to them, 
and they existed side by side (kash kash) 1 ; as on 
the east side of this portion (Khvanlras) is the 
Savah region, on the west is the Arzah region ; the 
two portions on the south side are the Fradai/afsh 
and Vldadafsh regions, the two portions on the north 
side are the Vdrubarrt and Vdru^arct regions, and 
that in the middle is Khvanlras. 4. And Khvanlras 
has the sea, for one part of the wide-formed ocean 
wound about around it; and from Vdrubarst and 
Vdru^arrt a lofty mountain grew up ; so that it is 
not possible for any one to go from region to 
region 2 . 

5. And of these seven regions every benefit was 
created most in Khvanlras, and the evil spirit also 
produced most for Khvanlras, on account of the 
superiority (sarlh) 3 which he saw in it. 6. For the 
Kayanians and heroes were created in Khvanlras ; 
and the good religion of the Mazdayasnians was 
created in Khvanlras, and afterwards conveyed to 
the other regions ; Sdshyans 4 is born in Khvanlras, 
who makes the evil spirit impotent, and causes the 
resurrection and future existence. 

1 Possibly an attempt to connect the term kSshvar with kash; 
but the sentence may also be translated thus : ' and they formed 
various districts like this portion; on the east side is the Savah 
region,' &c. 

1 In the Pahlavi Vend. I, 4a, and in the Mainy6-i-khar</, IX, 6, 
it is added, ' except with the permission of the angels ' or the 
demons. 

* So in M6 ; but K20 has za</arth, which would imply, ' for the 
destruction of what he saw of it.' 

* Always spelt so in the Bundahix MSS. K20 and M6, and 
corrupted into Sdshyds in Pazand ; but it is more usually written 
Sdshans in other Pahlavi works, and its Avesta form is Saoshyas 
(see Chap. XXXII, 8). 

C5] D 



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34 BUNDAHW. 



Chapter XII. 

i . On the nature of mountains it says in revela- 
tion, that, at first, the mountains have grown forth 
in eighteen years; and Alburn ever grew till the 
completion of eight hundred years ; two hundred 
years up to the star station (pa yak), two hundred 
years to the moon station, two hundred years to the 
sun station, and two hundred years to the endless 
light 1 . 2. While the other mountains have grown 
out of Alburn, in number 2244 mountains, and are 
Hugar the lofty 2 , Terak of Albunr, A'akaaT-i-Daltik, 
and the Aresur ridge, the Austndom mountain, 
Mount Apars£n which they say is the mountain of 
Pars, Mount Zaridf also which is Mount Manfo, 
Mount Aira£, Mount Kaf, Mount Vaages, M