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Full text of "Sacred Books East Various Oriental Scholars with Index. 50 vols Max Muller Oxford 1879.1910."

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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



VOLUME X 

Part I. The Dhammapada 
Part II. The Sutta^Nipata 



[io] 



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Honbon 
HENRY FROWDE 




OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE 
7 PATERNOSTER ROW 



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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



TRANSLATED 



BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 



AND EDITED BY 



F. MAX MULLER 



VOLUME X 
PART I 



AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1881 

[ All rights reserved] 

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THE DHAMMAPADA 

A COLLECTION OF VERSES 

BEING ONE OF THE CANONICAL BOOKS OF THE 
BUDDHISTS 

TRANSLATED FROM PALI 
BY 

F. MAX MCLLER 



■ '■■'■'■ r \\ 

"•■•"•"TjCTifYl 

w ., i v a ikiJ 1 A 1 ,/ 






AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1881 

[All rights reserved] 

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63 £> 

(A/D 



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CONTENTS. 



PAGK 



Introduction to the Dhammapada .... ix-lv 

DHAMMAPADA. 

Chapter 1. The Twin- verses 3 

„ 2. On Earnestness 9 

„ 3. Thought 12 

„ 4. Flowers 16 

„ 5. The Fool 20 

6. The Wise Man (Pa»<fita) . . .23 

„ 7. The Venerable (Arhat) .... 27 

„ 8. The Thousands 31 

„ 9. Evil 34 

„ 10. Punishment . , 36 

11. Old Age 41 

„ 12. „Self 45 

„ 13. The World ' . — 47 

. „ 14. The Buddha (the Awakened) ... 49 

„ JA. Happiness . 53. 

„ 16. Pleasure 56 

„ 17. Anger 58 

„ 18. Impurity 60 

„ 19. The Just 64 

„ 20. «*TheWay 67 

„ 21. Miscellaneous 70 

„ 22. The Downward Course . . . -74 

„ 23. The Elephant 77 

„ 24. Thirst 80 

„ 25. The Bhikshu (Mendicant) .... 85 

„ 26. The Brdhma»a (Arhat) 89 

Index 97 

Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the 
Translations of the Sacred Books of the East (see the 

end of this volume) 221 



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INTRODUCTION 

TO 

THE DHAMMA 




The Dhammapada, a Canonical £0ok,~ *r\^>- 

The Dhammapada forms part of the Pali BuddhisfrcatioTi, 
though its exact place varies according to different authori- 
ties, and we have not as yet a sufficient number of complete 
MSS. of the Tipi/aka to help us to decide the question \ 

Those who divide that canon into three Pi/akas or 
baskets, the Vinaya-pi/aka, Sutta-pi&ka, and Abhidham- 
ma-pi/aka, assign the Dhammapada to the Sutta-pi/aka. 
That Pi&ka consists of five Nikayas : the Digha-nikaya, 
the Ma^g^ima-nikaya, the Sawyutta-nikaya, the Anguttara- 
nikaya, and the Khuddaka-nikaya. The fifth, or Khuddaka- 
nikaya, comprehends the following works : i. Khuddaka- 
pa/^a; 2. DHAMMAPADA; 3. Udana ; 4. Itivuttaka; 5. Sutta- 
nipata ; 6. Vimanavatthu ; 7. Petavatthu ; 8. Theragatha ; 
9.Therigatha; 10. Cataka; n.Niddesa; ia. Pa/isambhida ; 
13. Apadana; 14. Buddhavawsa ; 15. ^Tariya-piftika. 

According to another division 2 , however, the whole Bud- 
dhist canon consists of five Nikayas : the Digha-nikaya, the 
Majg^ima-nikaya, the Sawyutta-nikaya, the Anguttara- 
nikaya, and the fifth, the Khuddaka-nikaya, which Khud- 
daka-nikaya is then made to comprehend the whole of 
the Vinaya (discipline) and Abhidhamma (metaphysics), 
together with the fifteen books beginning with the Khud- 
daka-pa£&a. 

The order of these fifteen books varies, and even, as 
it would seem, their number. The Dighabhawaka school 

1 See Feer, Journal Asiatique, 1871, p. 263. There is now at least one com- 
plete MS. of the Tipi/aka, the Phayre MS., at the India Office, and Professor 
Forchhammer has just published a most useful List of Pali MSS., collected in 
Burma, the largest collection hitherto known. 

' See Childers, s. v. Nikaya, and extracts from Buddhaghosa's commentary 
on the Brahinag-ala-sutta. 



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DHAMMAPADA. 



admits twelve books only, and assigns them all to the Abhi- 
dhamma, while the Ma^^imabha«akas admit fifteen books, 
and assign them to the Sutta-pi/aka. The order of the 
fifteen books is: i. Cataka [10]; 2. Mahaniddesa [11]; 
3. ^Tullaniddesa [11] ; 4. Parisambhid&magga [12] ; 5. Sutta- 
nipata [5] ; 6. Dhammapada [2] ; 7. Udana [3] ; 8. Iti- 
vuttaka [4] ; 9. Vimanavatthu [6] ; 10. Petavatthu [7] ; 
11. Theragatha [8]; 12. Therigatha [9]; 13. ATariya- 
pi/aka [15] ; 14. Apadana [13] ; 15. Buddhavawzsa [14] \ 

The Khuddaka-pa^a is left out in the second list, and 
the number is brought to fifteen by dividing Niddesa into 
Mahi-niddesa and JsTulla-niddesa. 

There is a commentary on the Dhammapada in Pali, 
and supposed to be written by Buddhaghosa 2 , in the first 
half of the fifth century A.D. In explaining the verses of the 
Dhammapada, the commentator gives for every or nearly 
every verse a parable to illustrate its meaning, which is 
likewise believed to have been uttered by Buddha in his 
intercourse with his disciples, or in preaching to the multi- 
tudes that came to hear him. 

Date of the Dhammapada. 
The only means of fixing the date of the Dhammapada 
is trying to ascertain the date of the Buddhist canon 
of which it forms a part, or the date of Buddhaghosa, 
who wrote a commentary on it. This, however, is by no 
means easy, and the evidence on which we have to rely is 
such that we must not be surprised if those who are 
accustomed to test historical and chronological evidence 

! The figures within brackets refer to the other list of books in the Khud- 
daka-nikaya. See also p. xxviii. 

5 M. L^on Feer in the Journal Asiatique, 1871, p. 266, mentions another com- 
mentary of a more philosophical character, equally ascribed to Buddhaghosa, 
and having the title Vivara Bra Dhammapada, i. e. L'auguste Dhammapada 
devoile\ Professor Forchhammer in his 'List of Manuscripts,' 1879-80, men- 
tions the following works in connection with the Dhammapada : Dhammapada- 
Nissayo ; Dh. P. ArtAakatha by Buddhaghosa ; Dh. P. A«Aakatha Nissayo, 
3 vols., containing a complete translation of the commentary ; Dh. P. VaHAu. 
Of printed books he quotes: Kayanupassanakyam, a work based on the 
Garivaggo, Mandalay, 1876 (390 pages), and Dhammapada-desanakyam, 
printed in ' British Burma News.' 



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INTRODUCTION. XI 



in Greece and Rome, decline to be convinced by it. As 
a general rule, I quite agree that we cannot be too sceptical 
in assigning a date to ancient books, particularly if we 
intend to use them as documents for tracing the history 
of human thought. To the initiated, I mean to those who 
have themselves worked in the mines of ancient Oriental 
literature, such extreme scepticism may often seem un- 
scientific and uncalled for. They are more or less aware 
of hundreds of arguments, each by itself, it may be, of 
small weight, but all combined proving irresistible. They 
are conscious, too, of having been constantly on the look 
out for danger, and, as all has gone on smoothly, they feel 
sure that, in the main, they are on the right road. Still it is 
always useful to be as incredulous as possible, particularly 
against oneself, and to have before our eyes critics who will 
not yield one inch beyond what they are forced to yield by 
the strongest pressure of facts. 

The age of our MSS. of the canonical books, either in 
Pali or Sanskrit, is of no help to us. All Indian MSS. are 
comparatively modern, and one who has probably handled 
more Indian MSS. than anybody else, Mr. A. Burnell, 
has lately expressed his conviction that 'no MS. written 
one thousand years ago is now existent in India, and that 
it is almost impossible to find one written five hundred 
years ago, for most MSS. which claim to be of that date 
are merely copies of old MSS. the dates of which are 
repeated by the copyists V 

Nor is the language, whether Sanskrit or Pali, a safe 
guide for fixing dates. Both languages continue to be 
written to our own time, and though there are some 
characteristic marks to distinguish more modern from more 
ancient Buddhist Sanskrit and Pali, this branch of critical 
scholarship requires to be cultivated far more extensively 
and accurately before true scholars would venture to fix the 
date of a Sanskrit or Pali text on the strength of linguistic 
evidence alone 2 . 

1 Indian Antiquary, 1880, p. 133. 

* See some important remarks on this subject in Fausboll's Introduction to 
Sutta-nipata, p. xi. 



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Xll DHAMMAPADA. 



The Buddhists themselves have no difficulty in assigning 
a date to their sacred canon. They are told in that canon 
itself that it was settled at the First Council, or immediately 
after the death of Buddha, and they believe that it was 
afterwards handed down by means of oral tradition, or 
actually written down in books by order of Klryapa, the 
president of the First Council \ Buddhaghosa, a learned 
and in some respects a critical scholar, living in the be- 
ginning of the fifth century A.D., asserts that the canon 
which he had before him, was the same as that fixed by 
the First Council 2 . 

Several European students have adopted the same 
opinion, and, so far as I know, no argument has yet been 
advanced showing the impossibility of the native view,! 
that some collection of Buddha's doctrines was made im- ! 
mediately after his death at Ra^-agaha, and that it was 
finally settled at what is called the Second Council, or the 
Council of Vesali. But what is not impossible is not there- 
fore true, nor can anything be gained by appealing to later 
witnesses, such as, for instance, Hiouen Thsang, who tra- 
velled through India in the seventh century, and wrote 
down anything that he could learn, little concerned whether 
one statement tallied with the other or not 3 . He says that 
the Tipi/aka was written down on palm leaves by Kajyapa 
at the end of the First Council. But what can be the weight 
of such a witness, living more than a thousand years after 
the event, compared with that, for instance, of the Maha- 
vawsa, which dates from the fifth century of our era, and 



1 Bigandet, Life of Gaudama (Rangoon, 1866), p. 350 ; but also p. 120 note. 

* See Childers, s. v. Tipi/aka. There is a curious passage in Buddhaghosa's 
account of the First Council. ' Now one may ask,' he says, ' Is there or is there 
not in this first Paragika anything to be taken away or added ? ' I reply, There 
is nothing in the words of the Blessed Buddha that can be taken away, for the 
Buddhas speak not even a single syllable in vain, yet in the words of disciples 
and devatAs there are things which may be omitted, and these the elders who 
made the recension, did omit. On the other hand, additions are everywhere 
necessary, and accordingly, whenever it was necessary to add anything, they 
added it. If it be asked, What are the additions referred to? I reply, Only 
sentences necessary to connect the text, as ' at that time,' ' again at that time,' 
'and so forth.' 

* Pelerins Bouddhistes, vol. i. p. 158. 



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INTRODUCTION. XU1 



tells us in the account of Mahinda's missionary journey 
to Ceylon (241/318), that the son of Asoka had to spend 
three years in learning the Tipi/aka by heart from the 
mouth of a teacher 1 ? No mention is then made of any 
books or MSS., when it would have been most natural to 
do so 2 . At a later time, during the reign of King Va//aga- 
mani 3 (88-76 B.C.), the same chronicle, the Mahavawsa, tells 
us that ' the profoundly wise priests had theretofore orally 
(mukhapa^ena) perpetuated the Pali of the Pi&kattaya 
and its Art^akatha (commentary), but that at this period the 
priests, foreseeing the perdition of the people assembled, 
and in order that the religion might endure for ages, re- 
corded the same in books (potthakesu likhapayuwz)*.' 

No one has yet questioned the dates of the Dtpavawsa, 
about 400 A.D., or of the first part of the Mahavawsa, 
between 459-477 A. D., and though no doubt there is an 
interval of nearly 600 years between the composition of 
the Mahavawsa and the recorded writing down of the 
Buddhist canon under Va/Zagamani, yet we must remember 
that the Ceylonese chronicles were confessedly founded on 
an older A^akatha preserved in the monasteries of the 
island, and representing an unbroken line of local tradition. 

My own argument therefore, so long as the question was 
only whether we could assign a pre-Christian date to the 
Pali Buddhist canon, has always been this. We have 
the commentaries on the Pali canon translated from Sin- 
halese into Pali, or actually composed, it may be, by 
Buddhaghosa. Buddhaghosa confessedly consulted various 

1 Mahavamsa, p. 37 ; DtpavamsaVII, 28-31 ; Buddhaghosha's Parables, p.xviii. 

' Bigandet, Life of Gandama, p. 351. 

* Dr. E. Miiller (Indian Antiquary, Nov. 1880, p. 270) has discovered inscrip- 
tions in Ceylon, belonging to Devanapiya Maharaja Gamini Tissa, whom he 
identifies with Va«agamam. 

1 The same account is given in the Dtpavamsa XX, ao, and in the Sara- 
sangraha, as quoted by Spence Hardy, Legends, p. 192. As throwing light 
on the completeness of the Buddhist canon at the time of King Vattagamani, 
it should be mentioned that, according to the commentary on the Mahavamsa 
(Tumour, p. liii), the sect of the Dhammaruiikas established itself at the 
Abhayavihara, which had been constructed by Vatfag&mani, and that one of 
the grounds of their secession was their refusing to acknowledge the ParivSra 
(thus I read instead of Pariwana) as part of the Vinaya-piteka. According to 
the Dipavantsa (VII, 42) Mahinda knew the Parivara. 



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XIV DHAMMAPADA. 



MSS., and gives various readings, just as any modern 
scholar might do. This was in the beginning of the fifth 
century A.D., and there is nothing improbable, though I 
would say no more, in supposing that some of the MSS., 
consulted by Buddhaghosa, dated from the first century 
B.C., when Va#agamani ordered the sacred canon to be 
reduced to writing. 

There is one other event with reference to the existence 
of the sacred canon in Ceylon, recorded in the Mahavawsa, 
between the time of Buddhaghosa and Va#agamani, viz. 
the translation of the Suttas from Pali into the language of 
Ceylon, during the reign of Buddhadasa, 339-368 A. D. 
If MSS. of that ancient translation still existed, they would, 
no doubt, be very useful for determining the exact state 
of the Pali originals at that time \ But even without them 
there seems no reason to doubt that Buddhaghosa had 
before him old MSS. of the Pali canon, and that these 
were in the main the same as those written down at the 
time of Va#agamani. 

Buddhaghosa's Age. 
The whole of this argument, however, rested on the 
supposition that Buddhaghosa's date in the beginning of 
the fifth century A. D. was beyond the reach of reasonable 
doubt. ' His age,' I had ventured to say in the Preface 
to Buddhaghosha's Parables (1870), 'can be fixed with 
greater accuracy than most dates in the literary history 
of India.' But soon after, one of our most celebrated Pali 
scholars, the great Russian traveller, Professor Joh. Minayeff, 
expressed in the Melanges Asiatiques (13/25 April, 1871) 
the gravest -doubts as to Buddhaghosa's age, and thus 
threw the whole Buddhist chronology, so far as it had 
then been accepted by all, or nearly all scholars, back into 
chaos. He gave as his chief reason that Buddhaghosa was 
not, as I supposed, the contemporary of Mahanama, the 

1 A note is added, stating that several portions of the other two divi- 
sions also of the Pi/akattaya were translated into the Sinhalese language, and 
that these alone are consulted by the priests, who are unacquainted with Pali. 
On the other hand, it is stated that the Sinhalese text of the A«Aakatha exists 
no longer. See Spence Hardy, Legends, p. xxv, and p. 69. 



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INTRODUCTION. XV 



author of the Mahavawsa, but of another Mahanama, the 
king of Ceylon. 

Professor Minayeff is undoubtedly right in this, but I am 
not aware that I, or anybody else, had ever questioned so 
palpable a fact. There are two Mahanamas ; one, the king 
who reigned from 410-432 A.D. ; the other, the supposed 
author of the Mahavawsa, the uncle and protector of King 
Dhatusena, 459-477. * Dhatusena,' I had written, ' was the 
nephew of the historian Mahanama, and owed the throne 
to the protection of his uncle. Dh&tusena was in fact the 
restorer of a national dynasty, and after having defeated 
the foreign usurpers (the Damilo dynasty) " he restored the 
religion which had been set aside by the foreigners'" (Mahav. 
p. 356). Among his many pious acts it is particularly 
mentioned that he gave a thousand, and ordered the Dipa- 
vamsa to be promulgated. As Mahdn4ma was the uncle 
of Dhatusena, who reigned from 459-477, he may be con- 
sidered as a trustworthy witness with regard to events that 
occurred between 410 and 43a. Now the literary activity of 
Buddhaghosa in Ceylon falls in that period V 

These facts being admitted, it is surely not too great 
a stretch of probability to suppose, as I did, that a man 
whose nephew was king in 459-477, might have been 
alive in 410-432, that is to say, might have been a con- 
temporary of Buddhaghosa. I did not commit myself to 
any further theories. The question whether Mah&nama, 
the uncle of Dh&tusena, was really the author of the Maha- 
vawzsa, the question whether he wrote the second half of 
the 37th chapter of that work, or broke off his chronicle in 
the middle of that chapter, I did not discuss, having no 
new materials to bring forward beyond those on which 
Tumour and those who followed him had founded their 
conclusions, and which I had discussed in my History of 
Sanskrit Literature (1859), p. 267. All I said was, ' It is 
difficult to determine whether the 38th as well as the (whole 
of the) 37th chapter came from the pen of Mahanama, for 

1 ' Ungefahr 50 Jahre alter als Mahanama ist Buddhaghosha,' see Wester- 
gaard, Uber Buddha's Todesjahr, p. 99. 



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XVI DHAMMAPADA. 



the Mahavawsa was afterwards continued by different 
writers, even to the middle of the last century. But, 
taking into account all the circumstances of the case, it is 
most probable that Mahanama carried on the history to 
his own time, to the death of Dhatusena, 477 A.D.' 

What I meant by 'all the circumstances of the case' 
might easily be understood by any one who had read Tur- 
nouts Preface to the Mahavawsa. Tumour himself thought 
at first that Mahanama's share in the Mahavawzsa ended 
with the year 301 A.D.,and that the rest of the work, called 
the Sulu Wanse, was composed by subsequent writers 1 . 
Dharmakirti is mentioned by name as having continued 
the work to the reign of Prakrama Bahu (a.d. 1266). But 
Tumour afterwards changed his mind 2 . Considering that 
the account of Mahasena's reign, the first of the Seven 
Kings, terminates in the middle of a chapter, at verse 48, 
while the whole chapter is called the Sattara^iko, 'the 
chapter of the Seven Kings,' he naturally supposed that 
the whole of that chapter, extending to the end of the reign 
of his nephew Dhatusena, might be the work of Mahanama, 
unless there were any strong proofs to the contrary. Such 
proofs, beyond the tradition of writers of the MSS., have 
not, as yet, been adduced s . 

But even if it could be proved that Mahanama's own pen 
did not go beyond the 48th verse of the 37th chapter, the 
historical trustworthiness of the concluding portion of that 
chapter, containing the account of Buddhaghosa's literary 
activity, nay, even of the 38th chapter, would be little 
affected thereby. We know that both the Mahavawsa 
and the somewhat earlier Dtpavawsa were founded on the 
Sinhalese AMfcakathas, the commentaries and chronicles 
preserved in the Mahavihara at Anuradhapura. We also 
know that that Vihara was demolished by Mahasena, and 
deserted by nearly all its inmates for the space of nine 
years (p. 235), and again for the space of nine months 

1 Introduction, p. ii. TheJCulavamsa is mentioned with the Mahavamsa, both 
as the works of Mahanama, by Professor Forchhammer in his List of Pali MSS. 
* Introduction, p. xci. 
s See Rhys Davids, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1875, p.196. 



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INTRODUCTION. XVU 



(P* 2 37)- We can well understand therefore why the older 
history, the Dipavawsa, should end with the death of Maha- 
sena (died 302 A.D.), and why in the Mahavawsa too there 
should have been a break at that date. But we must not 
forget that, during Mahanama's life, the Mahavihara at 
Anuradhapura was restored, that some kind of chronicle, 
called the Dipavawssa, whether it be a general name of any 
' chronicle of the island,' or of our Dipavawzsa, or, it may be, 
even of our Mahavawsa, was ordered to be published or pro- 
mulgated (dipetum) under Dhatusena, the nephew and protege 
of Mahanama. Therefore, even if we do not insist on the 
personal authorship of Mahanama, we may certainly main- 
tain that historical entries had been made in the chronicles 
of Anuradhapura during Dhatusena's reign, and probably 
under the personal auspices of Mahanama, so that if we 
find afterwards, in the second half of the 37th chapter of 
his Mahavawsa, an account of events which had happened 
between the destruction of the Mahavihara and the reign 
of Dhatusena, and among them an account of so important 
an event as the arrival of Buddhaghosa from Magadha and 
his translation of the Sinhalese AtiAakathk into the lan- 
guage of Magadha, we may well suppose that they rest 
on the authority of native chronicles, written not long after 
the events, and that therefore, ' under all the circumstances 
of the case,' the age of Buddhaghosa can be fixed with 
greater accuracy than most dates in the literary history 
of India. 

There is one difficulty still remaining with regard to the 
date of the historian Mahanama which might have per- 
plexed Tumour's mind, and has certainly proved a stumbling- 
block to myself. Tumour thought that the author of the 
commentary on the Mahavawsa, the Va«/satthappakasint, 
was the same as the author of the Mahavawsa, viz. Maha- 
nama. The date of that commentary, however, as we know 
now, must be fixed much later, for it speaks of a schism 
which took place in the year 601 A. D., during the reign 
of Agrabddhi (also called Dhatapatisso). Tumour 1 looked 



'■* ' Introduction, p. liii. 

**' [10] b 



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XVUl DHAMMAPADA. 



upon that passage as a later interpolation, because he 
thought the evidence for the identity of the author and 
the commentator of the Mahavawsa too strong to be set 
aside. He trusted chiefly to a passage in the commentary, 
and if that passage had been correctly rendered, the con- 
clusion which he drew from it could hardly be resisted. 
We read in the Mahavawssa (p. 254) : 

' Certain members of the Moriyan dynasty, dreading the 
power of the (usurper) Subho, the balattho, had settled in 
various parts of the country, concealing themselves. Among 
them there was a certain landed proprietor Dhatusena, who 
had established himself at Nandivapi. His son named 
Dhata, who lived at the village Ambiliyago, had two sons, 
Dhatusena and Silatissabodhi, of unexceptional descent. 
Their mother's brother (Mahanama), devoted to the 
cause of religion, continued to reside (at Anura- 
dhapura) in his sacerdotal character, at the edifice 
built by the minister Dighasandana. The youth 
Dhatusena became a priest in his fraternity, and on a certain 
day, while he was chaunting at the foot of a tree, a shower 
of rain fell, and a Naga, seeing him there, encircled him in 
his folds, and covered him and his book with his hood. . . . 
Causing an image of Maha Mahinda to be made, and con- 
veying it to the edifice (Ambamalaka) in which the thera's 
body had been burnt, in order that he might celebrate 
a great festival there, and that he might also promul- 
gate the contents of the Dipavawsa, distributing 
a thousand pieces, he caused it to be read aloud V 

If we compare with this extract from the Mahava/wsa 
a passage from the commentary as translated by Tumour, 
we can well understand how he arrived at the conclusion 
that it was written by the same person who wrote the 
Mahavawsa. 

Turnour translates (p. liv) : 

' Upon these data by me, the thera, who had, with due 

1 Mr. Turnour added a note in which he states that Dipavamsa is here meant 
for MaMvamsa, but whether brought down to this period, or only to the end of 
the reign of Mah&sena, to which alone the 71k4 extends, there is no means of 

ascertaining (p. 257). 



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INTRODUCTION. XIX 



solemnity, been invested with the dignified title of Maha- 
nama, resident at the parive«a founded by the 
minister Dtghasandana, endowed with the capacity 
requisite to record the narrative comprised in the Maha- 
va*wsa, in due order, rejecting only the dialect in which 
the Singhalese A^akatha are written, but retaining their 
import and following their arrangement, the history, entitled 
the Palapaddruvawsa (Padyapadanuvawsa), is compiled. 
As even in times when the despotism of the ruler of the 
land, and the horrors arising from the inclemencies of the 
seasons, and when panics of epidemics and other visitations 
prevailed, this work escaped all injury ; and moreover, as 
it serves to perpetuate the fame of the Buddhas, their 
disciples, and the Pach6 Buddhas of old, it is also worthy 
of bearing the title of Va/wsatthappakasini.' 

As the evidence of these two passages in support of the 
identity of the author and the commentator of the Maha- 
vawsa seemed to me very startling, I requested Mr. Rhys 
Davids to copy for me the passage of the commentary. 

The passage runs as follows : 

Ya ettavata mahavamsatthanusarakusalena Dighasanda- 
senapatina karipita-mahaparivewavasina Mahanamo ti ga- 
ruhi gahitanamadheyyena there«a pubba-Sihala-bhasitaya 
Sthala#/fcakathaya bhasantaraw eva vaggiya. atthasaram 
eva gahetva tantinayanurupena katassa imassa Padyapada- 
nuva#2sassa atthava««ana maya tarn eva sannissitena 
araddha, padesissariya-dubbu/Afcibhaya - rogabhayadi - vivi- 
dha-antaraya-yuttakale pi anantarayena nitf/fcanam upagata, 
sa buddha-buddhasavaka-pa££ekabuddhadina»z por&«lna>« 
hikkam pubbavawssatthappakasanato aya«* Vawsatthappa- 
kasini nama ti dharetabba. . . . Padyapadanuvawsa- 
va««ana. Vawsatthappakasinl ni^Aita. 

Mr. Rhys Davids translates this : 

' The commentary on this Padyapadanuvawwa, which (latter 
work) was made (in the same order and arrangement, and re- 
taining the sense, but rejecting the dialect, of the Sinhalese 
commentary formerly expressed in the Sinhalese tongue) 
by the elder who bore the name of Mahanama, which he had 

b 2 



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XX DHAMMAPADA. 



received from the venerable, who resided at the Mahapari- 
vewa built by the minister Dighasanda, and who was well 
able to conform to the sense of the Mahava#*sa — (this com- 
mentary) which was undertaken by me out of devotion to 
that (history), and which (though thus undertaken) at a time 
full of danger of various kinds — such as the danger from 
disease, and the danger from drought, and the danger 
from the government of the province — has been safely 
brought to a conclusion — this (commentary), since it makes 
known the meaning of the history of old, the mission of 
the ancients, of the Buddhas, of their disciples, and of the 
Pa££eka Buddhas, should bear the name Vawsatthappa- 
kasinl. ... 
'End of the Vawsatthappakasinl, the commentary on 
the Padyapadanuvaw/sa.' 

This shows clearly that Tumour made a mistake in trans- 
lating this exceedingly involved, yet perfectly intelligible, 
passage, and that so far from proving that the author of 
the commentary was the same person as the author of the 
text 1 , it proves the very contrary. Nay, I feel bound to 
add, that we might now argue that as the commentator 
must have lived later than 60 1 A. D., the fact that he too 
breaks off at verse 48 of chapter $7, seems to show that at 
his time also the Mahavawsa did not extend as yet beyond 
that verse. But even then, the fact that with the restoration 
of the Mahavihara of Anuradhapura an interest in historical 
studies revived in Ceylon, would clearly show that we may 
trust the date of Buddhaghosa, as fixed by the second part 
of the 37th chapter of the Mahavawsa, at all events till 
stronger evidence is brought forward against such a date. 

Now I am not aware of any such evidence 2 . On the 
contrary, making allowance for a difference of some ten or 
twenty years, all the evidence which we can gain from 
other quarters tends to confirm the date of Buddha- 

1 Dr. Oldenberg informs me that the commentator quotes various readings 
in the text of the Mahavamsa. 

" The passage, quoted by Professor Minayeff from the Sasanavamsa, would 
assign to Buddhaghosa the date of 930 — 543 = 387 a. d., which can easily be 
reconciled with his accepted date. If he is called the contemporary of Siripala, 
we ought to know who that Siripala is. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXI 



ghosa 1 . I therefore feel no hesitation in here reprinting 
that story, as we find it in the Mahavawsa, not free from 
legendary ingredients, it is true, yet resting, I believe, on 
a sound foundation of historical fact. 

' A Brahman youth, born in the neighbourhood of the 
terrace of the great Bo-tree (in Magadha), accomplished in 
the "vjgga" (knowledge) and "sippa" (art), who had achieved 
the knowledge of the three Vedas, and possessed great 
aptitude in attaining acquirements ; indefatigable as a 
schismatic disputant, and himself a schismatic wanderer 
over Gambudtpa, established himself, in the character of 
a disputant, in a certain vihara 2 , and was in the habit of 
rehearsing, by night and by day with clasped hands, a 
discourse which he had learned, perfect in all its com- 
ponent parts, and sustained throughout in the same lofty 
strain. A certain Mahathera, Revata, becoming acquainted 
with him there, and (saying to himself), " This individual is 
a person of profound knowledge, it will be worthy (of me) 
to convert him ; " enquired, " Who is this who is braying 
like an ass ? " The Brahman replied to him, " Thou canst 
define, then, the meaning conveyed in the bray of asses." 
On the Thera rejoining, " I can define it ; " he (the Brah- 
man) exhibited the extent of the knowledge he possessed. 
The Thera criticised each of his propositions, and pointed 
out in what respect they were fallacious. He who had 
been thus refuted, said, " Well, then, descend to thy own 
creed ; " and he propounded to him a passage from the 
Abhidhamma (of the Pi/akattaya). He (the Brahman) 
could not divine the signification of that passage, and 
enquired, "Whose manta is this?" — "It is Buddha's manta." 
On his exclaiming, "Impart it to me;" the Thera replied, 
"Enter the sacerdotal order." He who was desirous of 
acquiring the knowledge of the Pi/akattaya, subsequently 
coming to this conviction, " This is the sole road " (to sal- 
vation), became a convert to that faith. As he was as 
profound in his eloquence (ghosa) as Buddha himself, they 
conferred on him the appellation of Buddhaghosa (the 

1 See Bigandet, Life of Gaudama, pp. 351, 381. 

a On this vihara, its foundation and character, see Oldenberg, Viuaya, vol. i. 
p. liii ; Hiouen-thsang, HI, p. 487 seq. 



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XX11 DHAMMAPADA. 



voice of Buddha) ; and throughout the world he became as 
renowned as Buddha. Having there (in Gambudipa) com- 
posed an original work called TVanodaya (Rise of Know- 
ledge), he, at the same time, wrote the chapter called 
A/^asilinl, on the Dhammasangani (one of the commen- 
taries on the Abhidhamma). 

' Revata Thera then observing that he was desirous of 
undertaking the compilation of a general commentary 
on the Pi/akattaya, thus addressed him : " The text 
alone of the Pi/akattaya has been preserved in this land, 
the A/^akatha are not extant here, nor is there any 
version to be found of the schisms (v&da) complete. The 
Sinhalese Atf^akatha are genuine. They were com- 
posed in the Sinhalese language by the inspired and pro- 
foundly wise Mahinda, who had previously consulted the 
discourses (kath&magga) of Buddha, authenticated at the 
three convocations, and the dissertations and arguments of 
Sariputta and others, and they are extant among the Sin- 
halese. Preparing for this, and studying the same, translate 
them according to the rules of the grammar of the M&ga- 
dhas. It will be an act conducive to the welfare of the 
whole world." 

'Having been thus advised, this eminently wise personage 
rejoicing therein, departed from thence, and visited this 
island in the reign of this monarch (i. e. Mah&nama, 410- 
43a). On reaching the Mah&vihara (at Anuradhapura), he 
entered the Mahapadhana hall, the most splendid of the 
apartments in the vih&ra, and listened to the Sinhalese 
Atf/fcakatha, and the Theravada, from the beginning to the 
end, propounded by the Thera Sanghapala ; and became 
thoroughly convinced that they conveyed the true meaning 
of the doctrines of the Lord of Dhamma. Thereupon 
paying reverential respect to the priesthood, he thus peti- 
tioned : "I am desirous of translating the Attkakathk ; 
give me access to all your books." The priesthood, for the 
purpose of testing his qualifications, gave only two gathas, 
saying, " Hence prove thy qualification ; having satisfied 
ourselves on this point, we will then let thee have all our 
books." From these (taking these gatha for his text), and 



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INTRODUCTION. xxitf 



consulting the Pi/akattaya, together with the Attkakathk, 
and condensing them into an abridged form, he composed 
the work called the Visuddhimagga. Thereupon, having 
assembled the priesthood, who had acquired a thorough 
knowledge of the doctrines of Buddha, at the Bo-tree, he 
commenced to read out the work he had composed. The 
devat&s, in order that they might make his (Buddhaghosa's) 
gifts of wisdom celebrated among men, rendered that book 
invisible. He, however, for a second and third time re- 
composed it. When he was in the act of producing his 
book for the third time, for the purpose of propounding it, 
the devatas restored the other two copies also. The assem- 
bled priests then read out the three books simultaneously. 
In those three versions there was no variation whatever 
from the orthodox Theravadas in passages, in words, or in 
syllables. Thereupon, the priesthood rejoicing, again and 
again fervently shouted forth, saying, " Most assuredly 
this is Metteya (Buddha) himself," and made over to him 
the books in which the Pi/akattaya were recorded, together 
with the Atf/fcakatM. Taking up his residence in the 
secluded Ganthakara-vihara (at Anuradhapura), he trans- 
lated, according to the grammatical rules of the Miga- 
dhas, which is the root of all languages, the whole of the 
Sinhalese Atafcakatha (into Paii). This proved an achieve- 
ment of the utmost consequence to all beings, whatever 
their language. 

'All the Theras and A^ariyas held this compilation in 
the same estimation as the text (of the Pi/akattaya). There- 
after, the objects of his mission having been fulfilled, he 
returned to Gambudipa, to worship at the Bo-tree (at Uru- 
velaya, or Uruvilva, in Magadha).' 

Here x we have a simple account of Buddhaghosa 2 and 

1 Mah&vamsa, p. 250, translated by Tumour. 

* The Burmese entertain the highest respect for Buddhaghosa. Bishop 
Bigandet, in his Life or Legend of Gaudama (Rangoon, 1866), writes: 'It is 
perhaps as well to mention here an epoch which has been, at all times, famous 
in the history of Budhism in Burma. I allude to the voyage which a Religious 
of Thaton, named Budhagosa, made to Ceylon, in the year of religion 943 = 400 
a.d. The object of this voyage was to procure a copy of the scriptures. He 
succeeded in his undertaking. He made use of the Burmese, or rather Taking 



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XXIV DHAMMAPADA. 



his literary labours written by a man, himself a priest, 
and who may well have known Buddhaghosa during his 
stay in Ceylon. It is true that the statement of his writing 
the same book three times over without a single various 
reading, partakes a little of the miraculous ; but we find 
similar legends mixed up with accounts of translations 
of other sacred books, and we cannot contend that writers 
who believed in such legends are therefore altogether 
unworthy to be believed as historical witnesses. 

But although the date which we can assign to Buddha- 
ghosa's translation of the commentaries on the Pali Tipi- 
teka proves the existence of that canon, not only for the 
beginning of the fifth century of our era, but likewise, though 
it may be, with less stringency, for the first century before 
our era, the time of Va#ag&mani, the question whether Bud- 
dhaghosa was merely a compiler and translator of old com- 
mentaries, and more particularly of the commentaries brought 
to Ceylon by Mahinda (241 B.C.), or whether he added any- 
thing of his own 1 , requires to be more carefully examined. 
The Buddhists themselves have no difficulty on that point. 
They consider the A^fcakathas or commentaries as old as 
the canon itself. To us, such a supposition seems impro- 
bable, yet it has never been proved to be impossible. The 
Mahavawsa tells us that Mahinda, the son of Asoka, who 
had become a priest, learnt the whole of the Buddhist 
canon, as it then was, in three years (p. 37) 2 ; and that 
at the end of the Third Council he was despatched to 
Ceylon, in order to establish there the religion of Buddha 
(p. 71). The king of Ceylon, Devanampiya Tissa, was 
converted, and Buddhism soon became the dominant 

characters, in transcribing the manuscripts, which were written with the cha- 
racters of Magatha. The Burmans lay much stress upon that voyage, and 
always carefully note down the year it took place. In fact, it is to Budhagosa 
that the people living on the shores of the Gulf of Martaban owe the pos- 
session of the Budhist scriptures. From Thaton, the collection made by Budha- 
gosa was transferred to Pagan, six hundred and fifty years after it had been 
imported from Ceylon.' See ibid. p. 392. 

1 He had written the J^Snodaya, and the A«iasilint, a commentary on the 
Dhamma-sangani, before he went to Ceylon. Cf. Mahavamsa, p. 251. 

9 He learnt the five Nik&yas, and the seven sections (of the Abhidhamma) ; 
the two Vibhangas of the Vinaya, the Parivara and the Khandhaka. See 
Dtpavamsa VII, 4a. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXV 



religion of the island. The Tipi/aka and the AtfAakatha, 
such as they had been collected or settled at the Third 
Council in 243 B.C., were brought to Ceylon by Mahinda, 
who promulgated them orally, the Tipi/aka in Pali, the 
Atf^akatha in Sinhalese, together with an additional 
AttAakatha of his own. It does not follow that Mahinda 
knew the whole of that enormous literature by heart, for, as 
he was supported by a number of priests, they may well 
have divided the different sections among them, following 
the example of Ananda and Upali at the First Council. 
The same applies to their disciples also. But the fact of 
their transmitting the sacred literature by oral tradition 1 was 
evidently quite familiar to the author of the Mahavawsa. 
For when he comes to describe the reign of Va//agamani 
(88-76 B.C.) he simply says: 'The profoundly wise priests 
had heretofore orally perpetuated the Pali Pi/akattaya and 
its Atf/;akatha (commentaries). At this period these priests, 
foreseeing the perdition of the people (from the perversions 
of the true doctrines), assembled ; and in order that the reli- 
gion might endure for ages, wrote the same in books.' No 
valid objection has yet been advanced to our accepting 
Buddhaghosa's Att/fcakathas as a translation and new re- 
daction of the A/Z/fcakathas which were reduced to writing 
under Va#agamani 2 , and these again as a translation of the 
old Atafcakathas brought to Ceylon by Mahinda 3 . There 
is prima facie evidence in favour of the truth of historical 
events vouched for by such works as the Dipava/«sa and 
the Mahava*«sa so far back at least as Mahinda, because 
we know that historical events were recorded in the 
monasteries of Ceylon long before Mahanama's time. 
Beyond Mahinda we move in legendary history, and must 
be ready to surrender every name and every date as soon 
as rebutting evidence has been produced, but not till then. 
I cannot, therefore, see any reason why we should not 
treat the verses of the Dhammapada, if not as the utter- 
ances of Buddha, at least as what were believed by the 



1 On the importance of oral tradition in the history of Sanskrit literature see 
the writer's Ancient Sanskrit Literature, 1859, PP- 497 _ 5 a 4- 
* Mahavamsa, p. 207; Dtpavamsa XX, 20. * Mahavamsa, p. 251. 



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XXVI DHAMMAPADA. 



members of the Council under A.roka, in 242 B.C., to have 
been the utterances of the founder of their religion ; nor can 
I see that Professor Minayeff has shaken the date of Bud- 
dhaghosa and the general credibility of the Ceylonese tradi- 
tion, that he was the translator and editor of commentaries 
which had existed in the island for many centuries, 
whether from the time of Va#agamani or from the time 
of Mahinda. 

Date of the Buddhist Canon. 

We now return to the question of the date of the Bud- 
dhist canon, which, as yet, we have only traced back to the 
first century before Christ, when it was reduced to writing in 
Ceylon under King Va/Zagamani. The question is, how far 
beyond that date we may trace its existence in a collected 
form, or in the form of the three Pitekas or baskets. There 
may be, and we shall see that there is, some doubt as to the 
age of certain works, now incorporated in the Tipi/aka. We 
are told, for instance, that some doubt attached to the canon- 
icity of the ^Tariya-pi/aka, the Apadana, and the Buddha- 
vawsa 1 , and there is another book of the Abhidhamma- 
pi/aka, the Kathavatthu, which was reported to be the work 
of Tissa Moggaliputta, the president of the Third Council. 
Childers, s. v., stated that it was composed by the apostle 
Moggaliputtatissa, and delivered by him at the Third 
Mahasangiti. The same scholar, however, withdrew this 
opinion on p. 507 of his valuable Dictionary, where he says : 
'It is a source of great regret to me that in my article 
on Kathavatthuppakara«a*» I inadvertently followed James 
D'Alwis in the stupendous blunder of his assertion that the 
Kathavatthu was added by Moggaliputtatissa' at the Third 
Convocation. The Kathavatthu is one of the Abhidhamma 
books, mentioned by Buddhaghosa as having been rehearsed 
at the First Convocation, immediately after Gotama's death ; 
and the passage in Mahavawsa upon which D'Alwis rests 
his assertion is as follows, Kathavatthuppakarara#a7» para- 
vadappamaddanaw abhasi Tissatthero ka. tasmiw* sangiti- 
ma«*/ale, which simply means ' in that Convocation-assem- 

1 See Childers, s. v. Nik&ya. 

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INTRODUCTION. XXV11 



bly the Thera Tissa also recited (Buddha's) heresy-crushing 
Kathavatthuppakara«a.' 

This mistake, for I quite agree with Childers that it was 
a mistake, becomes however less stupendous than at first 
sight it would appear, when we read the account given in 
the Dipavawsa. Here the impression is easily conveyed 
that Moggaliputta was the author of the Kathavatthu, and 
that he recited it for the first time at the Third Council. 
'Wise Moggaliputta,' we read 1 , 'the destroyer of the 
schismatic doctrines, firmly established the Theravada, and 
held the Third Council. Having destroyed the different 
(heretical) doctrines, and subdued many shameless people, 
and restored splendour to the (true) faith, he proclaimed 
(pakasayi) (the treatise called) Kathavatthu.' And again : 
'They all were sectarians 2 , opposed to the Theravada; and 
in order to annihilate them and to make his own doctrine 
resplendent, the Thera set forth (desesi) the treatise belong- 
ing to the Abhidhamma, which is called Kathavatthu 3 .' 

At present, however, we are not concerned with these 
smaller questions. We treat the canon as a whole, divided 
into three parts, and containing the books which still exist 
in MSS., and we want to find out at what time such a 
collection was made. The following is a short abstract of 
the Tipi/aka, chiefly taken from Childers' Pali Dictionary : 

I. Vinaya-pi/aka. 
i. Vibhanga 4 . 

Vol. I, beginning with P4ra^ika, or sins involving 

expulsion. 
Vol. II, beginning with Pa&ttiya, or sins involving 
penance. 

2. Khandhaka. 

Vol. I, Mahavagga, the large section. 
Vol. II, ^Tullavagga, the small section. 

3. Parivarapa/£a, an appendix and later resume" (25 chap- 

ters). See p. xiii, n. 4 ; p. xxiv, n. 2. 

1 Dipavamsa VII, 40. ' Dipavamsa VII, 55. 

3 Dr. Oldenberg, in his Introduction to the Vinaya-piteka, p. xxxii. 
* Oldenberg, Vinaya-pttaka I, p. xvi, treats it as an extended reading of the 
Patimokkha. 



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XXVU1 DHAMMAPADA. 



II. Sutta-pi/aka. 

i. Digha-nikaya, collection of long suttas (34 suttas) 1 . 

2. Ma,gg^ima-nikaya, collection of middle suttas (15a 

suttas). 

3. Sawyutta-nikaya, collection of joined suttas. 

4. Anguttara-nikaya 2 , miscellaneous suttas, in divisions 

the length of which increases by one. 

5. Khuddaka-nikaya 3 , the collection of short suttas, con- 

sisting of — 
1. Khuddakapi^a, the small texts 4 , 
a. Dhammapada, law verses (423) s . 

3. Udana, praise (8a suttas). 

4. Itivuttaka, stories referring to sayings of Buddha. 

5. Suttanipata, 70 suttas 6 . 

6. Vimanavatthu, stories of Vimanas, celestial palaces. 

7. Petavatthu, stories of Pretas, departed spirits. 

8. Theragatha, stanzas of monks. 

9. Therigatha, stanzas of nuns. 

10. Cataka, former births (550 tales) 7 . 

11. Niddesa, explanations of certain suttas by Sariputta. 

1 The MahSparinibbana-sutta, ed. by Childers, Journal of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, translated with other Suttas by Rhys Davids (S. B. E. vol. xi). Sept 
Suttas Palis, parGrimblot, Paris, 1876. 

' The first four are sometimes called the Four Nikayas, the five together the 
Five NikSyas. They represent the Dharma, as settled at the First and Second 
Councils, described in the JMlavagga (Oldenberg, I, p. xi). 

3 Sometimes Khuddaka-nikaya stands for the whole Vinaya and Abhidhamma- 
pi.'aka, with the fifteen divisions here given of Khuddaka-nikaya. In the com- 
mentary on the Brahmag-ala-sutta it is said that the Dlghanikaya professors 
rehearsed the text of the Gataka, Maha and JTulla Niddesa, Pa/isambhidamagga, 
Suttanipata, Dhammapada, Udana, Itivuttaka, Vimana, and Petavatthu, Thera 
and Theri Gatha, and called it Khuddakagantha, and made it a canonical text, 
forming part of the Abhidhamma ; while the Mag^Aimanikaya professors assert 
that, with the addition of the .Kariyapiteka, Apad&na, and Buddhavamsa, the 
whole of this Khuddakagantha was included in the Suttapiteka. See Childers, 
s. v. NikSya. See also p. x. 

* Published by Childers, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1869. 

6 Published by Fausboll, 1855. 

* Thirty translated by Sir Coomara Swfimy ; the whole by Fausboll, in Sacred 
Books of the East, vol. x. 

7 Published by Fausboll, translated by Rhys Davids. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXIX 



13. Pa/isambhidamagga, the road of discrimination, and 
intuitive insight. 

13. Apadana \ legends. 

14. Buddhavawsa \ story of twenty-four preceding Bud- 

dhas and of Gotama. 

15. ATariyapi/aka 1 , basket of conduct, Buddha's meri- 

torious actions 2 . 

III. Abhidhamma-pi/aka. 

1. Dhammasanga«i, numeration of conditions of life s . 
a. Vibhanga, disquisitions (18). 

3. Kathavatthupakarawa, book of subjects for discussion 

(1000 suttas). 

4. Puggalapa«#atti or pa««atti, declaration on puggala, 

or personality. 

5. Dhatukatha, account of dhatus or elements. 

6. Yamaka, pairs (ten divisions). 

7. Pa«#anapakara«a, book of causes. 

Taking this collection as a whole we may lay it down as 
self-evident that the canon, in its collected form, cannot be 
older than any of the events related therein. 

There are two important facts for determining the age of 
the Pali canon, which, as Dr. Oldenberg 4 has been the first to 
show, should take precedence of all other arguments, viz. 

1. That in the Tipi/aka, as we now have it, no mention 
is made of the so-called Third Council, which took place 
at Pa/aliputta, under King Asoka, about 243 B. C. 

3. That in the Tipi/aka, as we now have it, the First 
Council of Ra^agaha (477 B.C.) and the Second Council 
of Vesali (377 B.C.) are both mentioned. 

From these two facts it may safely be concluded that the 
Buddhist canon, as handed down to us, was finally closed 

1 Buddhaghosa does not say whether these were recited at the First Council. 

* Partly translated by Gogerly, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Ceylon, 1852. 

* Cf. Gogerly, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Ceylon, 1848, p. 7. 

* See Oldenberg's Vinaya-pi/aka, Introduction, p. xxv. The kings Ag-atasatru 
(4 8 5-453 b- c -). Udayin (453-437 bo), and Munrfa (437-4*9 B - c are a11 
mentioned in the Tipifeka. See Oldenberg, Zeitschrift der D. M. G., XXXIV, 

PP- 75»» 753- 



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XXX DHAMMAPADA. 



after the Second and before, or possibly at, the Third 
Council. Nay, the fact that the description of the two 
Councils stands at the very end of the ^Tullavagga may be 
taken, as Dr. Oldenberg remarks, as an indication that it 
was one of the latest literary contributions which obtained 
canonical authority, while the great bulk of the canon may 
probably claim a date anterior to the Second Council. 

This fact, namely, that the collection of the canon, as 
a whole, must have preceded the Second Council rests on 
an argument which does great credit to the ingenuity of 
Dr. Oldenberg. The Second Council was convoked to 
consider the ten deviations 1 from the strict discipline of the 
earliest times. That discipline had been laid down first in 
the Patimokkha rules, then in the commentary now included 
in the Vibhanga, lastly in the Mahavagga and Aullavagga. 
The rules as to what was allowed or forbidden to a Bhikkhu 
were most minute 2 , and they were so firmly established 
that no one could have ventured either to take away or 
to add anything to them as they stood in the sacred 
code. In that code itself a distinction is made between 
the offences which were from the first visited with punish- 
ment (para^ika and pa£ittiya) and those misdemeanours 
and crimes which were put down as punishable at a later 
time (dukka/a and thulla^aya). With these classes the 
code was considered as closed, and if any doubt arose as to 
the criminality of certain acts, it could be settled at once 
by an appeal to the Vinaya-pi/aka. Now it so happens 
that, with one exception, the ten deviations that had to be 
considered at the Second Council, are not provided for in 
the Vinaya-pi/aka ; and I quite agree with Dr. Oldenberg's 
argument that, if they had been mentioned in the Vinaya- 
pilaka, the Second Council would have been objectless. 
A mere appeal to chapter and verse in the existing Pi/aka 
would then have silenced all dissent. On the other side, if it 
had been possible to add anything to the canon, as it then 
existed, the ten, or nine, deviations might have been con- 

1 Oldenberg, Introduction, p. xxix. * Oldenberg, loc. cit. p. xx. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXI 



demned by a few additional paragraphs of the canon, 
without convoking a new Council. 

I think we may be nearly certain, therefore, that we 
possess the principal portion of the Vinaya-pi/aka as it 
existed before the Council of Vesalt 

So far I quite agree with Dr. Oldenberg. But if he 
proceeds to argue 1 that certain portions of the canon must 
have been finally settled before even the First Council took 
place, or was believed to have taken place, I do not think 
his arguments conclusive. He contends that in the Parinib- 
bana-sutta, which tells of the last days of Buddha's life, 
of his death, the cremation of his body, and the distribution 
of his relics, and of Subhadda's revolt, it would have 
been impossible to leave out all mention of the First 
Council, if that Council had then been known. It is true, 
no doubt, that Subhadda's disloyalty was the chief cause 
of the First Council, but there was no necessity to mention 
that Council. On the contrary, it seems to me that the 
unity of the Parinibbana-sutta would have been broken if, 
besides telling of the last days of Buddha, it had also given 
a full description of the Council. The very title, the Sutta 
of the Great Decease, would have become inappropriate, if 
so important a subject as the first Sangiti had been mixed 
up with it. However, how little we may trust to such 
general arguments, is best shown by the fact that in some 
very early Chinese renderings of the Hinayana text of the 
Mahaparinibbana-sutta the story is actually carried on to 
the First Council, two (Nos. 553 and 119) mentioning the 
rehearsal under Karyapa, while the third (No. 118) simply 
states that the Tipi/aka was then collected 2 . 

1 Loc. cit. pp. xxvi-xxviii. 

* There are several Chinese translations of Sfitras on the subject of the MahS- 
parinirvana. Three belong to the MahaySna school : 1. MaMparinirvaaa-sutra, 
translated by Dharmaraksha, about 414-423 A. d.; afterwards revised, 424-453 
(Nos. 113, 114). 2. Translation by Fa-hian and Buddhabhadra, about 415 a.d.; 
less complete (No. 120). 3. Translation (vaipulya) by Dharmaraksha I, i.e. JCu 
Fa-hu, about 261-308 a.d. (No. 116). Three belong to the Hinayana school: 

1. MahSparinirv&»a-sfitra, translated by Po-fa-tsu, about 290-306 a.d. (No. 552). 

2. Translation under the Eastern Tsin dynasty, 317-420 a.d. (N0.119). 3. Trans- 
lation by Fa-hian, about 415 a.d. (No. 118). 



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XXX11 DHAMMAPADA. 



We must be satisfied therefore, so far as I can see 
at present, with fixing the date, and the latest date, of 
a Buddhist canon at the time of the Second Council, 
377 B.C. That some works were added later, we know; 
that many of the treatises included in the canon existed 
before that Council, can hardly be doubted. The second 
chapter of the Dhammapada, for instance, is called the 
Appamada-vagga, and if the Mahavawsa (p. 25) tells us 
that at the time when Asoka was converted by Nigrodha, 
that Buddhist priest explained to him the Appamada- 
vagga, we can hardly doubt that there existed then a 
collection {vagga) of verses on Appamada, such as we 
now possess in the Dhammapada and in the Sawyutta- 
nikaya 1 . 

With regard to the Vinaya, I should even feel inclined to 
admit, with Dr. Oldenberg, that it must have existed in 
a more or less settled form before that time. What I doubt 
is whether such terms as Pi/aka, basket, or Tipi/aka, the 
three baskets, i.e. the canon, existed at that early time. 
They have not been met with, as yet, in any of the canon- 
ical books ; and if the Dipavawsa (IV, 32) uses the word 
' Tipifoka,' when describing the First Council, this is due to 
its transferring new terms to older times. If Dr. Olden- 
berg speaks of a Dvi-pi^aka 2 as the name of the canon 
before the third basket, that of the Abhidhamma, was 
admitted, this seems to me an impossible name, because at 
the time when the Abhidhamma was not yet recognised as 
a third part of the canon, the word pifeka had probably 
no existence as a technical term 8 . 

We must always, I think, distinguish between the three 
portions of the canon, called the basket of the Suttas, the 

1 Feer, Revue Critique, 1870, No. 24, p. 377. * Introduction, pp. x, xii. 

3 Dr. Oldenberg informs me that pi/aka occurs in the JTanklsuttanta in the 
Mag-g-Aima NikSya (Tumour's MS., fol. the), but applied to the Veda. He 
also refers to the tipi/akaiaryas mentioned in the Western Cave inscriptions as 
compared with the PaiUanekayaka in the square Asoka character inscriptions 
(Cunningham, Bharhut, pi. lvi.No. 52). In the SutrakWd-anga of the Gainas, 
too, the term pirfagam occurs (MS. Berol. fol. 77 a). He admits, however, that 
piraka or tipi'aka, as the technical name of the Buddhist canon, has not yet been 
met with in that canon itself, and defends Dvipi/aka only as a convenient term. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXU1 



basket of Vinaya, and the basket of Abhidhamma, and 
the three subjects of Dhamma (sutta), Vinaya, and Abhi- 
dhamma, treated in these baskets. The subjects existed 
and were taught long before the three baskets were de- 
finitely arranged. Dhamma had originally a much wider 
meaning than Sutta-pi/aka. It often means the whole 
teaching of Buddha; and even when it refers more par- 
ticularly to the Sutta-pi/aka, we know that the Dhamma 
there taught deals largely with Vinaya and Abhidhamma 
doctrines. Even the fact that at the First Council, accord- 
ing to the description given in the ATullavagga, the Vinaya 
and Dhamma only were rehearsed, though proving the 
absence at that time of the Abhidhamma, as a separate 
Pifeka, by no means excludes the subject of the Abhi- 
dhamma having been taught under the head of Dhamma. 
In the Mahakaru«apu«</arlka-sutra the doctrine of Buddha 
is divided into Dharma and Vinaya; the Abhidharma is 
not mentioned. But the same text knows of all the twelve 
Dharmaprava/fcanani \ the i. Sutra; 2. Geya ; 3. Vyaka- 
ra«a ; 4. Gatha ; 5. Udana ; 6. Nidana ; 7. Avadana ; 8. 
Itiwz'ttaka ; 9. Gktaka. ; io.Vaipulya ; 1 1. Adbhutadharma ; 
1%. Upadexa ; some of these being decidedly metaphysical. 
To my mind nothing shows so well the historical character 
both of the isf ullavagga and of Buddhaghosa in the Introduc- 
tion to his commentary on the Digha-nikaya, as that the 
former, in its account of the First Council, should know 
only of the Vinaya, as rehearsed by Upali, and the Dhamma, 
as rehearsed by Ananda, while the much later Buddhaghosa, 
in his account of the First Council 2 , divides the Dhamma 
into two parts, and states that the second part, the Abhi- 
dhamma, was rehearsed after the first part, the Dhamma. 
Between the time of the ATullavagga and the time of 
Buddhaghosa the Abhidhamma must have assumed its 
recognised position by the side of Vinaya and Sutta. It 
must be left to further researches to determine, if possible, 

* See Academy, August 28, 1880, Division of Buddhist Scriptures. 
Oldenberg, Introduction, p. xii ; Tumour, Journal of the Asiatic Society of 



Bengal, vi, p. 510 seq. 
[10] 



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XXXIV DHAMMAPADA. 



the time when the name of pi/aka was first used, and when 
Tipi/aka was accepted as the title of the whole canon. 

Whenever we see such traces of growth, we feel that we 
are on historical ground, and in that sense Dr. Olden- 
berg's researches into the growth of the Vinaya, previous 
to the Second Council, deserve the highest credit. He 
shows, in opposition to other scholars, that the earliest 
elements of Vinaya must be looked for in the short Pati- 
mokkha rules, which were afterwards supplemented by 
explanations, by glosses and commentaries, and in that 
form answered for some time every practical purpose. 
Then followed a new generation who, not being satisfied, 
as it would seem, with these brief rules and comments, 
wished to know the occasion on which these rules had been 
originally promulgated. What we now call the Vibhanga, 
i. e. the first and second divisions of the Vinaya-piteka, is 
a collection of the stories, illustrating the origin of each 
rule, of the rules themselves (the Patimokkha), and of the 
glosses and comments on these rules. 

The third and fourth books, the Mahavagga and /sTulla- 
vagga, are looked upon as possibly of a slightly later date. 
They treat, in a similar manner as the Vibhanga, on the rules 
not included in that collection, and give a general picture 
of the outward life of the monks. While the Vibhanga deals 
chiefly with the original so-called para^ika, sanghadisesa, and 
pa£ittiya offences, the Khandhaka, i. e. the Mahavagga 
and Aullavagga, treats of the so-called dukka/a and thul- 
la££aya crimes. The arrangement is the same, story, rule, 
and comment succeeding each other in regular sequence. 

If we follow the guidance of the Vinaya-pi/aka, we should 
be able to distinguish the following steps in the growth of 
Buddhism before the Second Council of Vesalt : 

i. Teaching of Buddha and his disciples (543/477 A - D - 

Buddha's death). 
a. Collection of Patimokkha rules (first code). 

3. Comment and glosses on these rules. 

4. Stories in illustration of these rules (vibhanga). 

5. Mahavagga and Aullavagga (Khandhaka). 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXV 



6. Council of Vesali for the repression of ten abuses 

(443/377 A. D.) 

7. Description of First and Second Councils in ATullavagga. 
The .ATullavagga ascribes the settlement of the canon to 
the First Council, and does not even claim a revision of 
that canon for the Second Council. The Dtpavawsa claims 
a revision of the canon by the 700 Arhats for the Second 
Council. 

Chronology. 

In order to bring the Council of Vesali in connection 
with the chronology of the world, we must follow the 
Buddhist historians for another century. One hundred and 
eighteen years after the Council of Vesali they place the 
anointment of King Asoka, during whose reign a Third 
Council, under the presidency of Tissa Moggaliputta, took 
place at Pa/aliputta, the new capital adopted by that king, 
instead of Ra^agaha and Vesali. This Council is chiefly 
known to us through the writings of the southern Buddhists 
(Dipavawsa, Mahavawsa, and Buddhaghosa), who belong 
to the school of Moggaliputta (Theravada orVibha,ggavada), 
which ruled supreme at Paftiliputta, while Upagupta, the 
chief authority of the northern Buddhists, is altogether 
ignored in the Pali chronicles. 

Now it is well known that Asoka was the grandson 
of .fifandagutta, and ATandagutta the contemporary of 
Alexander the Great. Here we see land, and I may 
refer to my History of Sanskrit Literature, published in 
1859, for the process by which the storm-tossed ship of 
Indian chronology has been landed in the harbour of real 
historical chronology. We are told by the monks of the 
Mahavihira in Ceylon that Asoka was crowned, according 
to their computation, 146 + 18 years before the accession 
of DuW^agamani, 161 B.C., i.e. 325 B.C. ; that between his 
coronation and his father's death four years had elapsed 
(329 B. C.) ; that his father Bindusara had reigned twenty- 
eight years 1 (357-329 B.C.), and Bindusara's father, ATan- 



1 Mahavamsa, p. 21. 
C 2 



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XXXVI DHAMMAPADA. 



dagutta, twenty-four years (381-357). As we know that 
ATandagutta, whom the Ceylonese place 381-357 B.C., was 
king of India after Alexander's conquest, it follows that 
Ceylonese chronology is wrong by more than half a 
century. For reasons stated in my History of Sanskrit 
Literature, I fix the exact fault in Ceylonese chronology 
as sixty-six years, assigning to ATandagutta the dates 
315-291, instead of 381-357. This gives us 391-263 for 
Bindusara, 259 for Asoka's abhisheka; 259+118=377 
for the Council of Vesali, and 377 + 100=477 fc> r Buddha's 
death, instead of 543 B.C. 1 

These dates are, of course^ approximate only, and they 
depend on one or two points on which people may differ. 
But, with that reservation, I see no ground whatever for 
modifying the chronological system which I put forward 
more than twenty years ago. Professor Westergaard and 
Professor Kern, who have since suggested different dates 
for the death of Buddha, do not really differ from me in 
principle, but only in their choice of one or the other alter- 
native, which I readily admit as possible, but not as more 
certain than my own. Professor Westergaard 2 , for instance, 
fixes Buddha's death at 368 (370), instead of 477. This 
seems a wide difference, but it is so in appearance only. 

Following Justinus, who says that Sandrokyptos 3 had 
conquered the empire of India at the time when Seleucus 
laid the foundations of his own greatness, I had accepted 
315*, half-way between the murder of Porus and the 
taking of Babylon by Seleucus, as the probable beginning 

1 According to Bigandet, Life of Gaudama, p. 361, the era of Buddha's death 
was introduced by Ao-atasatru, at the conclusion of the First Council, and 
began in the year 146 of the older Eetzana era (p. 12). See, however, Rhys 
Davids, Num. Orient, vi, p. 38. In the Karaw/a-vyuha, p. 96, a date is given 
as 300 after the Nirvana, ' tri tiye varshasate gate mama parinirvn'tasya.' In the 
Asoka-avadana we read, mama nirvr/tim arabhya satavarshagata Upagupto 
naraa bhikshur utpatsyati. 

1 Uber Buddha's Todesjahr (i860), 1862. 

' The Greek name Sandrokyptus shows that the Pali corruption JTandagutta 
was not yet the recognised name of the king. 

* Mr. Rhys Davids accepts 315 B.C. as the date when, after the murder of 
king Nanda, ^andragupta stept into the vacant throne, though he had begun 
to count his reign seven or eight years before. Buddhism, p. 220. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXVII 



of JSTandragupta's reign. Westergaard prefers 320 as a 
more likely date for -/sTandragupta, and therefore places the 
death of the last Nanda and the beginning of Ajoka's 
royal pretensions 268. Here there is a difference between 
him and me of five years, which depends chiefly on the 
view we take as to the time when Seleucus really laid what 
Justinus calls the foundation of his future greatness. 
Secondly, Westergaard actually adopts the idea, at which I 
only hinted as possible, that the southern Buddhists made 
two Ajokas out of one, and two Councils out of one. 
Trusting in the tradition that 118 years elapsed between 
Buddha's death and the Council under Ajoka (at Pa/aliputra), 
and that the Council took place in the king's tenth year 
(as was the case with the imaginary Kallroka's Council), 
he gets 268—10=258 as the date of the Council, and 368 
or 370 as the date of Buddha's death 1 . 

The two points on which Westergaard differs from me, 
seem to me questions which should be kept before our 
mind in dealing with early Buddhist history, but which, 
for the present at least, admit of no definite solution. 

The same remark seems to me to apply to the calcula- 
tions of another eminent Sanskrit scholar, Professor Kern 2 . 
He lays great stress on the general untrustworthiness of 
Indian chronology, and I am the last to differ from him 
on that point. He then places the beginning of -ffandra- 
gupta's reign in 322 B.C. Allowing twenty-four years to him 
and twenty-eight to his son Bindusara, he places the begin- 
ning of Ajoka's reign in 270. Ajoka's inscriptions would 
fall about 258. As Ajoka reigned thirty-six or thirty-seven 
years, his death would fall in 234 or 233 B.C. Like Wester- 
gaard, Professor Kern too eliminates Kalajoka, as a kind of 
chronological A^oka, and the Council of Vaualt, and there- 
fore places Buddha's death, according to the northern tradi- 
tion, 100 or no years before Dharmajoka, i.e. 270 + 100 
or + 110=370 or 380 3 ; while, according to the southern 

1 Westergaard, loc. cit. p. 138. 

* Jaartelling der Zuidelijke Buddhisten, 1873. 

* See Professor Kern's remark in Indian Antiquary, 1874, p. 79. 



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XXXV111 DHAMMAPADA. 



tradition, that 118 years elapsed between Anoka's acces- 
sion and Buddha's death, the Ceylonese monks would seem 
originally to have retained 370+ n8 1 =388 B.C. as Buddha's 
Nirvawa, a date which, as Professor Kern holds, happens 
to coincide with the date assigned to the death of Mahi- 
vira, the founder of the Gaina. religion. 

Here we see again that the moot point is the beginning 
of .Afandragupta's reign in accordance with the information 
supplied by Greek historians. Professor Kern places it in 
322, Westergaard in 320, I myself in 315. That difference 
once granted, Dr. Kern's reasoning is the same as my own. 
According to the traditions which we follow, Buddha's 
death took place 100, no, 11 8, or 228 years before A^oka. 
Hence Professor Westergaard arrives at 368 or 370 B.C. 
Professor Kern at 370 (380) or 388 B. c, I myself at 477 B.C. 
Every one of these dates is liable to certain objections, and 
if I prefer my own date, 477 B.C., it is simply because it 
seems to me liable to neither more nor less reservations 
than those of Professor Westergaard and Professor Kern, 
and because, so long as we always remember the grounds 
of our differences, namely, the beginning of .Afandragupta's 
reign, and the additional century, every one of these dates 
furnishes a good hypothesis to work on, until we can arrive 
at greater certainty in the ancient chronology of India. 

To my mind all dates beyond .ATandragupta are as yet 
purely tentative, resting far more on a chronological theory 
than on actual tradition ; and though I do not doubt the 
historical character of the Council of VaijalJ, I look upon 
the date assigned to it, on the authority of the Dipavawsa 
and Mahavawsa, as, for the present, hypothetical only. 



1 When Professor Kern states that the Mahavamsa (p. 22) places the Third 
Council 218 years after Buddha's death, this is not so. Asoka's abhisheka takes 
place in that year. The prophecy that a calamity would befall their religion, 118 
years after the Second Council (Mahavamsa, p. 28), does not refer to the Council, 
but to iTandasoka's accession, 477 — 218= 259 B.C. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXIX 



B. C. 



557. Buddha born. 

552. Bimbisara born. 

537-485. Bimbisara, 5 years younger than Buddha, was 
15 when crowned, 30 or 31 when he met Buddha in 522. 

485-453- A^-atajatru (4x8 years). 

477. Buddha's death (485— 8=477). 

477. Council at RAgagk/ha under Klryapa, Ananda, 
and Upali. 

453-437. Udayibhadra (2x8 years). 



. m -„ i Anuruddhaka (8 years). 

437-429. •> . . _ .\ > , > 



Munda. (at Pa/aliputra). 

429-405. Nigadasaka (3x8 years). 

405-387. .Si-runaga (atVaLrali). 

3 8 7~359- Kala^oka. 

377. Council at VaisalI, under Yajas and Revata, 
a disciple of Ananda (259 + 118=377). 

359-337. Ten sons of Kalajoka (22 years). 

337-315. Nine Nandas (22 years); the last, Dhana- 
nanda, killed by AT4«akya. 

315-291. .fifandragupta (477 — 162=315; 3x8 years) 1 . 

291-263. Bindusara. 

263-259. Ajoka, sub-king at LTggayini, as pretender — 
his brothers killed. 

259. Ajoka anointed at Pa&liputra (477 — 218=259). 

256. A.soka converted by Nigrodha (D.V. VI, 18). 

256-253. Building of Viharas, Sthupas, &c. 

255. Conversion of Tishya (M.V. p. 34). 

253. Ordination of Mahendra (born 477—204=273). 

251. Tishya and Sumitra die (D.V. VII, 32). 

242. Council at PArALiPUTRA (259—17=242 ; 477— 
236=241), under Tishya Maudgaliputra (477—236=241; 
D.V. vii, 37). 

241. Mahendra to Ceylon. 

222. Ajoka died (259—37 = 222). 

193. Mahendra died (D.V. XVII, 93). 

161. Du^Magamani. 

88-76. Vattagamani, canon reduced to writing. 

A.D. 

400. Dipavawzsa. 

420. Buddhaghosha, Pali commentaries. 

459-477. Mahavawsa. 

1 Westergaard, 320 — 396; Kern, 322 — 298. 

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xl DHAMMAPADA. 



Though the preceding table, embodying in the main the 
results at which I arrived in my History of Ancient San- 
skrit Literature, still represents what I hold to be true or 
most probable with respect to Indian chronology, previous 
to the beginning of our era, yet I suppose I may be expected 
to say here a few words on the two latest attempts to fix 
the date of Buddha's death ; the one by Mr. Rhys Davids 
in the Numismata Orientalia, Part VI, 1877, the other by 
Dr. Buhler in the Indian Antiquary, 1877 and 1878 \ Mr. 
Rhys Davids, to whom we owe so much for the elucidation 
of the history of Buddha's religion, accepts Westergaard's 
date for the beginning of ^Tandragupta's reign, 320 B.C., 
instead of 322 (Kern), 315 (myself); and as he assigns 
(p. 41) to Bindusara 25 years instead of 28 (Mahavawsa, 
p. 21), he arrives at 268 as the year of Anoka's coronation 2 . 
He admits that the argument derived from the mention of 
the five foreign kings in one of Ajoka's inscriptions, dated 
the twelfth year of his reign, is too precarious to enable us 
to fix the date of Aioka's reign more definitely, and though, 
in a general way, that inscription confirms the date assigned 
by nearly all scholars to A.soka in the middle of the third 
century B.C., yet there is nothing in it that A-soka might 
not have written in 247 quite as well as in 258-261. What 
chiefly distinguishes Mr. Rhys Davids' chronology from that 
of his predecessors is the shortness of the period between 
Anoka's coronation and Buddha's death. On the strength 
of an examination of the list of kings and the list of the 
so-called patriarchs, he reduces the traditional 218 years 
to 140 or 150, and thus arrives at 412 B.C. as the probable 
beginning of the Buddhist era. 

In this, however, I cannot follow him, but have to 
follow Dr. Buhler. As soon as I saw Dr. Buhler's first 
essay on the Three New Edicts of Ajoka, I naturally felt 
delighted at the unexpected confirmation which he fur- 
nished of the date which I had assigned to Buddha's 
death, 477 B.C. And though I am quite aware of the 

* Three New Edicts of Asoka, Bombay, 1877 ; Second Notice, Bombay, 1878. 

* Mr. Rhys Davids on p. 50 assigns the 25 years of Bindusara rightly to the 
Puranas, the 28 years to the Ceylon Chronicles. 



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INTRODUCTION. xli 



danger of unexpected confirmations of one's own views, 
yet, after carefully weighing the objections raised by Mr. 
Rhys Davids and Professor Pischel against Dr. Buhler's 
arguments, I cannot think that they have shaken Dr. 
Buhler's position. I fully admit the difficulties in the 
phraseology of these inscriptions : but I ask, Who could 
have written these inscriptions, if not Ajoka ? And how, 
if written by A-roka, can the date which they contain mean 
anything but 256 years after Buddha's Nirva«a? These 
points, however, have been argued in so masterly a manner 
by Dr. Biihler in his 'Second Notice,' that I should be 
afraid of weakening his case by adding anything of my 
own, and must refer my readers to his ' Second Notice.' 
Allowing that latitude which, owing to the doubtful read- 
ings of MSS., and the constant neglect of odd months, we 
must allow in the interpretation of Buddhist chronology, 
Ai-oka is the only king we know of who could have 
spoken of a thirty-fourth year since the beginning of his 
reign and since his conversion to Buddhism. And if he 
calls that year, say the very last of his reign (22a B.C.), 256 
after the departure of the Master, we have a right to say 
that as early as A-roka's time, Buddha was believed to have 
died about 477 B.C. Whether the inscriptions have been 
accurately copied and rightly read is, however, a more 
serious question, and the doubts raised by Dr. Oldenberg 
(Mahavagga, p. xxxviii) make a new collation of the 
originals absolutely indispensable, before we can definitely 
accept Dr. Buhler's interpretation. 

I cannot share Dr. Buhler's opinion 1 as to the entire 
worthlessness of the Gaina chronology in confirming the 
date of Buddha's death. If the .Svetambara Gainas place 
the death of Mahavtra 470 before Vikramiditya, i. e. 56 B.C. 
+ 47o=526B.C.,and the Digambaras6o5,i.e.78A.D.deducted 
from 605=527 B.C., this so far confirms Dr. Buhler's and 
Dr. Jacobi's brilliant discovery that Mahavtra was the same 
as Niga»/i6a Nataputta, who died at Pava during Buddha's 
lifetime 2 . Most likely 527 is too early a date, while another 

1 Three Edicts, p. 21 ; Second Notice, pp. 9, 10. 

* See Jacobi, Kalpa-sdtra of Bhadrabahu, and Oldenberg, Zeitschrift der 
D.M.G., XXXIV, p. 749. 



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xlii DHAMMAPADA. 



tradition fixing Mahavira's death 155 years before K&ndra.- 
gupta 1 , 470 B.C., is too late. Yet they both show that 
the distance between Aroka (359-222 B.C.), the grandson 
of ATandragupta (315-291 B.C.), and the contemporaries of 
Buddha was by the Guinas also believed to be one of two 
rather than one century. 

When I saw that the date of Buddha's death, 477 B.C., 
which in my History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature (1859) 
I had myself tried to support by such arguments as were 
then accessible, had received so powerful a support by the 
discovery of the inscriptions of Sahasram, Rupnath, and 
Bairat, due to General Cunningham, who had himself 
always been an advocate of the date 477 B.C., and through 
their careful decipherment by Dr. Biihler, I lost no time 
investing that date once more by the Dipavawsa, that 
Ceylonese chronicle having lately become accessible through 
Dr. Oldenberg's edition and translation 2 . And here I am 
able to say that, before having read Dr. Buhler's Second 
Notice, I arrived, though by a somewhat different way, at 
nearly the same conclusions as those so well worked out by 
Dr. Biihler in his restoration of the Episcopal Succession 
(theravali) of the Buddhists, and therefore feel convinced 
that, making all such allowances as the case requires, we 
know now as much of early Buddhist chronology as could 
be known at the time of Ajoka's Council, 242 B. c. 

Taking the date of Buddha's death 477 B.C. for granted, 
I found that Upali, who rehearsed the Vinaya at the First 
Council, 477 B.C., had been in orders sixty years in the 
twenty-fourth year of A^-atajatru, i. e. 461 B.C., which was 
the sixteenth year A.B. He must therefore 3 have been born 
in 541 B.C., and he died 447 B.C., i.e. thirty years A.B., at 
the age of 94. This is said to have been the sixth year of 
Udayi, and so it is, 453-6=447 B.C. 

In the year 461 B.C. Daraka received orders from Upali, 
who was then 80 years of age ; and when Dajaka had been 



1 Oldenberg, loc. cit. p. 750. 

' The Dtpavamsa, an ancient Buddhist historical record. London, 1879. 

* Assuming twenty to be the minimum age at which a man could be ordained. 



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INTRODUCTION. xHU 



in orders forty-five years (Dipavawsa IV, 41), he ordained 
Saunaka. This would give us 461—45=416 B.C., while the 
tenth year of Nagadasa, 429 — 10, would give us 419 A.D. 
Later on the Dipavawsa (V, 78) allows an interval of forty 
years between the ordinations of Daraka and Saunaka, 
which would bring the date of Saunaka's ordination to 421 
B.C., instead of 419 or 416 B.C. Here there is a fault which 
must be noted. Dlraka died 461—64=397 A.D., which is 
called the eighth year of Sminaga, and so it is, 405—8 = 
397 A. D. 

When Saunaka had been in orders forty years, i. e. 
416—40=376, Kalajoka is said to have reigned a little 
over ten years, i.e. 387 — 11 = 376 A.D., and in that year 
Saunaka ordained Siggava. He died 416—66=350 A.D., 
which is called the sixth year of the Ten, while in reality 
it is the ninth, 359—6 = 353 A.D. If, however, we take 419 
as the year of Saunaka's ordination, his death would fall 
419—66=353 B.C. 

Siggava, when he had been in orders sixty-four years, 
ordained Tishya Maudgaliputra. This date 376—64=312 
B.C. is called more than two years after ATandragupta's 
accession, and so it very nearly is, 315— 2=313. 

Siggava died when he had been in orders seventy-six 
years, i. e. 376—76=300 A.D. This year is called the 
fourteenth year of ^Tandragupta, which it very nearly is, 
315-14=301. 

When Tishya had been in orders sixty 1 years, he or- 
dained Mahendra, 312—60=252 B.C. This is called six 
years after Anoka's coronation, 259—6=253, and so it very 
nearly is. He died 312—80=232 B.C., which is called the 
twenty-sixth year of A.soka, and so it very nearly is. 



1 I take 60 (80), as given in Dtpavamsa V, 95, 107, instead of 66 (86), as 
given in Dtpavamsa V, 94. 



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xllv DHAMMAPADA. 



Buddhist Patriarchs. 

Ordination of Patri- 

Birth. Ordination, successor. Death. Age. archate. 



Upali (Generally 527 461 


447 


94 


30 


20 years (60) 








before 








Da*aka ordination .) 461 416) 


397 


H4 


5° 



45 1 

42 V 

40) 



•Saunaka 


» 


416) 

419 > 
421 j 

(4o) 


376) 
379 } 
381 J 


35o 
353 


86 


44 (47) 


Siggava 


>) 


3764 

(64) 


3"4 


300I 


96 


50 (52) 


Tishya 


>> 


3"5 
(60) 


253 


233 


100 


68 


Mahendra 


273 


253 


» 


193 


80 


40 



282(284) 

If we test the dates of this table by the length of time 
assigned to each patriarchate, we find that Upali ruled 
thirty years, from Buddha's death, 477 to 447 ; Dlraka 
fifty years. To Saunaka forty-four years are assigned, 
instead of forty-seven, owing to a fault pointed out before ; 
and to Siggava fifty-two years, or fifty-five x instead of fifty. 
Tishya's patriarchate is said to have lasted sixty-eight 
years, which agrees with previous statements. 

Lastly, the years of the death of the six patriarchs, as 
fixed according to the reigns of the kings of Magadha, 
agree extremely well. 

Upali died in the sixth year of Udayi,i.e.453— 6=447B.C. 

Da.rakadied in the eighth year of .Slrunaga, i. 6.405—8= 
397 B.C 

Saunaka died in the sixth year of the Ten, i. e. 359—6= 
353 B.C., showing again the difference of three years. 

1 The combined patriarchates of Saunaka and Siggava are given as 99 by the 
Dipavamsa. 



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INTRODUCTION. xlv 



Siggava died in the fourteenth year of ATandragupta, i. e. 
315-14=301 B.C. 

Tishya died in the twenty-sixth or twenty-seventh year 
of A^oka, i.e. 259 — 27 = 233 B.C. 

This general and more than general agreement between 
dates taken from the history of the kings and the history 
of the patriarchs leaves on my mind a decided impression 
of a tradition which, though not strictly historical, in our 
sense of the word, represents at all events the result of such 
enquiries as could be made into the past ages of Buddhism 
at the time of A-roka. There are difficulties in that tradition 
which would certainly have been avoided, if the whole 
chronology had been simply made up : but there is no 
doubt a certain method too perceptible throughout, which 
warns us that we must not mistake a smooth chronology 
for solid history. 

The Title of Dhammapada. 

The title of Dhammapada has been interpreted in various 
ways. It is an ambiguous word, and has been accepted as 
such by the Buddhists themselves. Dhamma has many 
meanings. Under one aspect it means religion, particu- 
larly the religion taught by Buddha, the law which every 
Buddhist should accept and observe. Ufttler another aspect 
dhamma is virtue, or the realisation of the law. 

Pada also has many meanings. In the Abhidhana- 
padfpika it is explained by place, protection, Nirvawa, cause, 
word, thing, portion, foot, footstep. 

Hence dhammapada may mean 'footstep of religion,' 
and thus the title was first rendered by Gogerly, only that 
he used the plural instead of the singular, and called it ' The 
Footsteps of Religion,' while Spence Hardy still more freely 
called it ' The Paths of Religion.' It may be quite true, as 
pointed out by Childers, that pada by itself never means 
path. But it means footstep, and the footstep towards 
a thing is much the same as what we call the path to a 
thing. Thus we read, verse 21, 'appamado amatapadam,' 
earnestness is the step, i.e. the path that leads to immor- 



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xlvi DHAMMAPADA. 



tality. Again, ' pamado ma££uno padam ' can hardly mean 
anything but that thoughtlessness is the path of death, is 
the path that leads to death. The commentator, too, 
rightly explains it here by amatasya adhigamupaya, the 
means of obtaining immortality, i. e. Nirvawa, or simply by 
up ay o, and even by maggo, the way. If we compare verses 
92 and 93 of our text, and verses 254 and 255, we see that 
pada is used synonymously with gati, going. In the 
same manner dhammapada would mean the footstep or 
the footpath of virtue, i. e. the path that leads to virtue, and 
supply a very appropriate title for a collection of moral 
precepts. In verses 44 and 45 ' path of virtue ' seems to be 
the most appropriate meaning for dhammapada \ and it is 
hardly possible to assign any other meaning to it in the 
following verse (^Tundasutta, v. 6) : 

Yo dhammapade sudesite 

Magge ^ivati sa««ato satima, 

Anava^a-padani sevamano 

Tattyam bhikkhum ahu magga^ivim, 
' He who lives restrained and attentive in the way that has 
been well pointed out, in the path of the law, cultivating 
blameless words, such a Bhikkhu they call a Magga.givi 
(living in the way).' 

I therefore think that ' Path of Virtue/ or ' Footstep of 
the Law,' was the idea most prominent in the mind of those 
who originally framed the title of this collection of verses. 
It seems to me that Buddhaghosa also took the same view, 
for the verse which D'Alwis 2 quotes from the introduction 
of Buddhaghosa's commentary, — 
Sampatta-saddhammapado sattha dhammapada^ subhaw 
Desesi, 
and which he translates, ' The Teacher who had reached, 
the very depths (lit. bottom) of Saddhamma, preached this 
holy Dhammapada,' — lends itself far better to another 
translation, viz. 'The Teacher who had gained a firm 



Cf. Dhammapada, v. 285, nibbanam sugajem desitam. 
Buddhist Nirvana, p. 62. 



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INTRODUCTION. xlvii 



footing in the Good Law, showed (preached) the holy Path 
of the Law.' 

Gogerly, again, who may generally be taken as a faithful 
representative of the tradition of the Buddhists still pre- 
served in Ceylon, translates the title by the ' Footsteps of 
Religion,' so that there can be little doubt that the priests 
of that island accept Dhammapada in the sense of ' Vestiges 
of Religion,' or, from a different point of view, ' The Path 
of Virtue.' 

M. L. Feer 1 takes a slightly different view, and assigning 
to pad a the meaning of foot or base, he translates Dhamma- 
pada by Loi fondamentale, or Base de la Religion. 

But it cannot be denied that the title of Dhammapada 
was very soon understood in a different sense also, namely, 
as ' Sentences of Religion.' Pada means certainly a foot of 
a verse, a verse, or a line, and dhammapadam actually 
occurs in the sense of a ' religious sentence.' Thus we read 
in verse ioa, 'Though a man recite a hundred Gathas made 
up of senseless words, one dhammapadam, i.e. one single 
word or line of the law, is better, which if a man hears, he 
becomes quiet.' But here we see at once the difficulty of 
translating the title of ' dhammapadam ' by ' religious sen- 
tences.' Dhammapadam means one law verse, or wise 
saw, not many. Professor Fausboll, who in his excellent 
edition of the Dhammapada translated that title by ' a col- 
lection of verses on religion,' appeals to such passages as 
verses 44 and 102 in support of his interpretation. But in 
verse 43 dhammapadam sudesitaw*, even if it does not 
mean the path of the law, could never mean 'versus legis 
bene enarratos,' but only versum legis bene enarra- 
tum, as Dr. Fausboll himself renders eka.m dhammapadaw, 
in verse 102, byunus legis versus. Buddhaghosa, too, 
when he speaks of many law verses uses the plural, for 
instance 2 , ' Be it known that the Gatha consists of the 
Dhammapadam, Theragatha, Thertgatha, and those un- 
mixed (detached) Gatha not comprehended in any of the 
above-named Suttanta.' 

1 Revue Critique, 1870, p. 378. * D'Alwis, Pali Grammar, p. 61. 

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xlviii DHAMMAPADA. 



The only way in which Dhammapada could be defended 
in the sense of ' Collection of Verses of the Law,' would be 
if we took it for an aggregate compound. But such aggre- 
gate compounds, in Sanskrit at least, are possible with 
numerals only; for instance, tribhuvanam, the three 
worlds ; £aturyugam, the four ages 1 . It might therefore 
be possible in Pali, too, to form such compounds as da .fa- 
pad am, a collection of ten padas, a work consisting often 
padas, a decamerone, but it would in no wise follow that 
we could in that language attempt such a compound as 
Dhammapadam, in order to express a collection of law 
verses 2 . Mr. Beal 8 informs us that the Chinese seem to 
have taken Dhammapada in the sense of ' stanzas of law,' 
' law texts,' or ' scripture texts.' 

It should be remembered, also, that the idea of repre- 
senting life, and particularly the life of the faithful, as a 
path of duty or virtue leading to deliverance, (in Sanskrit 
dharmapatha,) is very familiar to Buddhists. The four 
great truths of their religion * consist in the recognition of 
the following principles : i. that there is suffering ; a. that 
there is a cause of that suffering ; 3. that such cause can be 
removed ; 4. that there is a way of deliverance, viz. the 
doctrine of Buddha. This way is the ash/anga-marga, 
the eightfold way 5 , taught by Buddha, and leading to Nir- 
va«a 6 . The faithful advances on that road, padat padam, 



1 See M. M.'s Sanskrit Grammar, § 519. 

* Mr. D'Alwis' arguments (Buddhist Nirvana, pp. 63-67) in support of this 
view, viz. the dhammapada may be a collective term, do not seem to me to 
strengthen my own conjecture. 

3 Dhammapada from Chinese, p. 4. 

4 Spence Hardy, Manual, p. 496. 

* Bumouf, Lotus, p. 520, 'Ajoutons, pour terminer ce que nous trouvons a dire 
sur le mot magga, quelque commentaire qu'on en donne d'ailleurs, que suivant 
une definition rapporte"e par Tumour, le magga renfermeune sous-division que 
Ton nomme paiipada, en Sanscrit pratipad. Le magga, dit Tumour, est la 
voie qui conduit auNibb&na.la pa/ipada, litteValement "la marche pas a pas, 
ou le degre - ," est la vie de rectitude qu'on doit suivre, quand on marche dans la 
voie du magga.' 

* See Spence Hardy, Manual, p. 496. Should not Aaturvidha-dharmapada, 
mentioned on p. 497, be translated by ' the fourfold path of the Law?' It can 
hardly be the fourfold word of the Law. 



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INTRODUCTION. xli 



IX 



step by step, and it is therefore called paripada, lit. the step 
by step. 

If we make allowance for these ambiguities, inherent in 
the name of Dhammapada, we may well understand how 
the Buddhists themselves play with the word pada (see 
v. 45). Thus we read in Mr. Beal's translation of a Chinese 
version of the Pratimoksha l : 

' Let all those who desire such birth, 
Who now are living in the world, 
Guard and preserve these Precepts, as feet.' 

Translation. 

In translating the verses of the Dhammapada, I have 
followed the edition of the Pali text, published in 1 855 by 
Dr. Fausboll, and I have derived great advantage from his 
Latin translation, his notes, and his copious extracts from 
Buddhaghosa's commentary. I have also consulted trans- 
lations, either of the whole of the Dhammapada, or of 
portions of it, by Burnouf, Gogerly 2 , Upham, Weber, 
and others. Though it will be seen that in many places 
my translation differs from those of my predecessors, 
I can only claim for myself the name of a very humble 
gleaner in this field of Pali literature. The greatest 
credit is due to Dr. Fausboll, whose editio prihceps of 
the Dhammapada will mark for ever an important epoch 
in the history of Pali scholarship ; and though later critics 
have been able to point out some mistakes, both in his 
text and in his translation, the value of their labours is not 
to be compared with that of the work accomplished single- 
handed by that eminent Danish scholar. 

In revising my translation, first published in 1870 3 , for 

1 Catena, p. 207. 

' ' Several of the chapters have been translated by Mr. Gogerly, and have 
appeared in The Friend, vol. iv, 1840.' (Spence Hardy, Eastern Monachism, 
p. 169.) 

3 Buddhaghosha's Parables, translated from Burmese by Captain T. Rogers, 
R. E. With an Introduction, containing Buddha's Dhammapada, translated 
from Pili by F. Max Miiller. London, 1870. 

[10] d 



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1 DHAMMAPADA. 



the Sacred Books of the East, I have been able to avail 
myself of ' Notes on Dhammapada,' published by Childers 
in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (May, 1871), 
and of valuable hints as to the meaning of certain words 
and verses scattered about in the Pali Dictionary of that 
much regretted scholar, 1875. I have carefully weighed the 
remarks of Mr. James D'Alwis in his ' Buddhist Nirviwa, 
a review of Max Muller's Dhammapada' (Colombo, 1871), 
and accepted some of his suggestions. Some very suc- 
cessful renderings of a number of verses by Mr. Rhys 
Davids in his ' Buddhism,' and a French translation, too, of 
the Dhammapada, published by Fernand Hu 1 , have been 
consulted with advantage. 

It was hoped for a time that much assistance for a more 
accurate understanding of this work might be derived from 
a Chinese translation of the Dhammapada 2 , of which 
Mr. S. Beal published an English translation in 1878. 
But this hope has not been entirely fulfilled. It was, 
no doubt, a discovery of great interest, when Mr. Beal 
announced that the text of the Dhammapada was not 
restricted to the southern Buddhists only, but that similar 
collections existed in the north, and had been translated 
into Chinese. It was equally important when Schiefner 
proved the existence of the same work in the sacred canon 
of the Tibetans. But as yet neither a Chinese nor a Tibetan 
translation of the Pali Dhammapada has been rendered 
accessible to us by translations of these translations into 
English or German, and what we have received instead, 
cannot make up for what we had hoped for. 

The state of the case is this. There are, as Mr. Beal 
informs us, four principal copies of what may be called 
Dhammapada in Chinese, the first dating from the Wu 
dynasty, about the beginning of the third century A.D. 
This translation, called Fa-kheu-king, is the work of a 



1 Le Dhammapada avec introduction et notes par Femand Hu, suivi du 
Sutra en 42 articles, traduit du Tibetain, par Leon Feer. Paris, 1878. 

* Texts from the Buddhist Canon, commonly known as Dhammapada, trans- 
lated from the Chinese by Samuel Beal. London, 1878. 



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INTRODUCTION. H 



Shaman Wei-£i-lan and others. Its title means ' the Sutra 
of Law verses,' kheu being explained by gatha, a verse, 
a word which we shall meet with again in the Tibetan 
title, G&thasangraha. In the preface the Chinese translator 
states that the Shamans in after ages copied from the 
canonical scriptures various gath&s, some of four lines and 
some of six, and attached to each set of verses a. title, 
according to the subject therein explained. This work of 
extracting and collecting is ascribed to Tsun-£e-Fa-kieou, 
i. e. Arya-Dharmatr&ta, the author of the Sawzyuktabhi- 
dharma-jistra and other works, and the uncle of Vasumitra. 
If this Vasumitra was the patriarch who took a prominent 
part in the Council under Kanishka, Dharmatrata's col- 
lection would belong to the first century B.C. ; but this is, as 
yet, very doubtful. 

In the preface to the Fa-kheu-king we are told that the 
original, which consisted of 500 verses, was brought from 
India by Wai-£i-lan in 223 A.D., and that it was translated 
into Chinese with the help of another Indian called Tsiang- 
sin. After the translation was finished, thirteen sections 
were added, making up the whole to 752 verses, 14,580 
words, and 39 chapters x . 

If the Chinese translation is compared with the Pali 
text, it appears that the two agree from the 9th to the 
35th chapter (with the exception of the 33rd), so far as 
their subjects are concerned, though the Chinese has in 
these chapters 79 verses more than the Pali. But 
the Chinese translation has eight additional chapters in 
the beginning (viz. On Intemperance, Inciting to Wisdom, 
The 5ravaka, Simple Faith, Observance of Duty, Re- 
flection, Loving-kindness, Conversation), and four at the 
end (viz. Nirva#a, Birth and Death, Profit of Religion, 
and Good Fortune), and one between the 24th and 25th 
chapter of the Pdli text (viz. Advantageous Service), all of 
which are absent in our Pali texts. This, the most ancient 

1 Beal, Dhammapada, p. 30. The real number of verses, however, is 760. In 
the Pali text, too, there are five verses more than stated in the Index ; see 
M. M., Buddhaghosha's Parables, p. ix, note ; Beal, loc. cit. p. 11, note. 

d 2 



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Hi DHAMMAPADA. 



Chinese translation of Dharmatrata's work, has not been 
rendered into English by Mr. Beal, but he assures us that 
it is a faithful reproduction of the original. The book which 
he has chosen for translation is the Fa-kheu-pi-ii, i.e. 
parables connected with the Dhammapada, and translated 
into Chinese by two Shamans of the western Tsin dynasty 
(a.d. 265-313). These parables are meant to illustrate the 
teaching of the verses, like the parables of Buddhaghosa, 
but they are not the same parables, nor do they illustrate 
all the verses. 

A third Chinese version is called /sfuh-yan-king, i. e. the 
Sutra of the Dawn (avadana?), consisting of seven volumes. 
Its author was Dharmatrata, its translator ATu-fo-nien (Bud- 
dhasmro'ti), about 410 A. D. The MS. of the work is said 
to have been brought from India by a Shaman Sangha- 
bhadahga of Kipin (Cabul), about 345 A. D. It is a much 
more extensive work in 33 chapters, the last being, as in 
the Pali text, on the Brahmawa. 

A fourth translation dates from the Sung dynasty (800 
or 900 A. D.), and in it, too, the authorship of the text is 
ascribed to Arya-Dharmatrata. 

A Tibetan translation of a Dhammapada was dis- 
covered by Schiefner in the 28th volume of the Sutras, 
in the collection called Udanavarga. It contains 33 
chapters, and more than 1000 verses, of which about one- 
fourth only can be traced in the Pali text. The same 
collection is found also in the Tan^ur, vol. 71 of the Sutras, 
foil. 1-53, followed by a commentary, the Udanavarga- 
vivara«a by the AMrya Pra^wavarman. Unfortunately 
Schiefner's intention of publishing a translation of it (Me- 
langes Asiatiques, torn. viii. p. 560) has been frustrated by 
his death. All that he gives us in his last paper is the 
Tibetan text with translation of another shorter collection, 
the Gathasangraha by Vasubandhu, equally published in 
the 72nd volume of the Sutras in the Tan,gnr, and accom- 
panied by a commentary. 



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INTRODUCTION. liii 



Spelling of Buddhist Terms. 

I had on a former occasion 1 pleaded so strongly in 
favour of retaining, as much as possible, the original San- 
skrit forms of Pali Buddhist terms, that I feel bound to 
confess openly that I hold this opinion no longer, or, at all 
events, that I see it is hopeless to expect that Pali scholars 
will accept my proposal. My arguments were these : ' Most 
of the technical terms employed by Buddhist writers come 
from Sanskrit ; and in the eyes of the philologist the various 
forms which they have assumed in Pali, in Burmese, in 
Tibetan, in Chinese, in Mongolian, are only so many corrup- 
tions of the same original form. Everything, therefore, 
would seem to be in favour of retaining the Sanskrit forms 
throughout, and of writing, for instance, Nirvawa instead of 
the Pali Nibbana, the Burmese Niban or Nepbhan, the 
Siamese Niruphan, the Chinese Nipan. The only hope, in 
fact, that writers on Buddhism will ever arrive at a uniform 
and generally intelligible phraseology seems to lie in their 
agreeing to use throughout the Sanskrit terms in their 
original form/instead of the various local disguises and 
disfigurements which they present in Ceylon, Burmah, Siam, 
Tibet, China, and Mongolia.' ) 

I fully admitted that many Buddhist words have assumed 
such a strongly marked local or national character in the 
different countries and in the different languages in which 
the religion of Buddha has found a new home, that to trans- 
late them back into Sanskrit might seem as affected, nay, 
prove in certain cases as misleading, as if, in speaking of 
priests and kings, we were to speak of presbyters and 
cynings. The rule by which I meant mainly to be guided 
was to use the Sanskrit forms as much as possible ; in fact, 
everywhere except where it seemed affected to do so. 
I therefore wrote Buddhaghosha instead of the Pali Bud- 
dhaghosa, because the name of that famous theologian, 'the 
Voice of Buddha,' seemed to lose its significance if turned 

1 Introduction to Buddhaghosha's Parables, 1870, p. 1. 

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liv DHAMMAPADA. 



into Buddhaghosa. But I was well aware what may be 
said on the other side. The name of Buddhaghosa, ' Voice 
of Buddha,' was given him after he had been converted 
from Brahmanism to Buddhism, and it was given to him 
by people to whom the Pali word ghosa conveyed the 
same meaning as ghosha does to us. On the other hand, 
I retained the Pali Dhammapada instead of Dharmapada, 
simply because, as the title of a Pali book, it has become so 
familiar that to speak of it as Dharmapada seemed like 
speaking of another work. We are accustomed to speak 
of Samanas instead of 5rama«as, for even in the days of 
Alexander's conquest, the Sanskrit word Sramawa had 
assumed the prakritized or vulgar form which we find in 
Pali, and which alone could have been rendered by the 
later Greek writers (first by Alexander Polyhistor, 80-60 
B.C.) by traixavaioL l . As a Buddhist term, the Pali form 
Samana has so entirely supplanted that of Sramawa that, 
even in the Dhammapada (v. 388), we find an etymology 
of Samana as derived from sam, 'to be quiet,' and not from 
•sram, * to toil.' But if we speak of Samanas, we ought also 
to speak of Bahmawas instead of Brahmawas, for this word 
had been replaced by bahma«a at so early a time, that in 
the Dhammapada it is derived from a root vah, ' to remove, 
to separate, to cleanse V 

I still believe that it would be best if writers on Buddhist 
literature and religion were to adopt Sanskrit throughout 
as the lingua franca. For an accurate understanding of 
the original meaning of most of the technical terms of 
Buddhism a knowledge of their Sanskrit form is indispen- 
sable ; and nothing is lost, while much would be gained, if, 
even in the treating of southern Buddhism, we were to 



1 See Lassen, Indische Alterthumskunde, vol. ii. p. 700, note. That Lassen 
is right in taking the iapfiavai, mentioned by Megasthenes, for Brahmanic, not 
for Buddhist ascetics, might be proved also by their dress. Dresses made of 
the bark of trees are not strictly Buddhistic. 

2 See Dhammapada, v. 388; Bastian, Volker des ostlichen Asien, vol. iii. 
p. 412: 'Ein buddhistischer Monch erklarte mir, dass die Brahmanen ihren 
Namen fiihrten, als Leute, die ihre Siinden abgespult hatten.' See also Lallta- 
vistara, p. 551, line 1 ; p. 553, line 7. 



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INTRODUCTION. lv 



speak of the town of Sravasti instead of Savatthi in Pali, 
Sevet in Sinhalese ; of Tripi/aka, 'the three baskets,' instead 
ofTipi/aka in Pali, Tunpitaka in Sinhalese; of Arthakatha, 
'commentary,' instead of Arthakatha in Pali, Atuwava in 
Sinhalese ; and therefore also of Dharmapada, ' the path of 
virtue/ instead of Dhammapada. 

But inclinations are stronger than arguments. Pali 
scholars prefer their Pali terms, and I cannot blame them 
for it. Mr. D'Alwis (Buddhist Nirviwa, p. 68) says : ' It 
will be seen how very difficult it is to follow the rule rigidly. 
We are, therefore, inclined to believe that in translating Pali 
works, at least, much inconvenience may not be felt by the 
retention of the forms of the language in which the Buddhist 
doctrines were originally delivered.' For the sake of uni- 
formity, therefore, I have given up my former plan. I use 
the Pali forms when I quote from Pali, but I still prefer the 
Sanskrit forms, not only when I quote from Sanskrit Bud- 
dhist books, but also when I have to speak of Buddhism in 
general. I speak of Nirva/za, dharma, and bhikshu, rather 
than of Nibbana, dhamma, and bhikkhu, when discussing the 
meaning of these words without special reference to southern 
Buddhism ; but when treating of the literature and religion 
of the Theravada school I must so far yield to the argu- 
ments of Pali scholars as to admit that it is but fair to 
use their language when speaking of their opinions. 



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DHAMMAPADA. 



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D HAM MA PA DA. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE TWIN-VERSES. 

i. All that we are is the result of what we have I 
thought : it is founded on our thoughts, it is made ' 
up of our thoughts. If a man speaks or acts with 
an evil thought, pain follows him, as the wheel fol- 
lows the foot of the ox that draws the carriage. 

i. Dharma, though clear in its meaning, is difficult to translate. 
It has different meanings in different systems of philosophy, and its 
peculiar application in the phraseology of Buddhism has been fully 
elucidated by Burnouf, Introduction a l'Histoire du Buddhisme, 
p. 41 seq. He writes: 'Je traduis ordinairement ce termexpar 
condition, d'autres fois par lois, mais aucune de ces traductions 
n'est parfaitement complete ; il faut entendre par dharma ce qui 
fait qu'une chose est ce qu'elle est, ce qui constitue sa nature 
propre, comme l'a bien montre - Lassen, a l'occasion de la c^lebre 
formule, " Ye dharmd hetuprabhavaV' ' Etymological ly the Latin 
for-ma expresses the same general idea which was expressed by 
dhar-ma. See also Burnouf, Lotus de la bonne Loi, p. 524. Faus- 
boll translates : ' Naturae a mente principium ducunt,' which 
shows that he rightly understood dharma in the Buddhist sense. 
Gogerly (see Spence Hardy, Eastern Monachism, p. 28) translates : 
' Mind precedes action,' which, if not wrong, is at all events wrongly 
expressed ; while Professor Weber's rendering, ' Die Pflichten aus 
dem Herz folgern,' is quite inadmissible. D'Alwis (Buddhist Nir- 
wana, p. 70 seq.), following the commentary, proposes to give a 
more technical interpretation of this verse, viz. ' Mind is the leader 
of all its faculties. Mind is the chief (of all its faculties). The very 
mind is made up of those (faculties). If one speaks or acts with a 
polluted mind, then affliction follows him as the wheel follows the 
feet of the bearer (the bullock).' To me this technical acceptation 



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DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. I. 



2. All that we are is the result of what we have 
thought : it is fonnded on our thoughts, it is made 
up of our thoughts. If a man speaks or acts with a 
pure thought, happiness follows him, like a shadow 
that never leaves him. 

3. ' He abused me, he beat me, he defeated me, 
he robbed me,' — in those who harbour such thoughts 
hatred will never cease. 

4. ' He abused me, he beat me, he defeated me, 
he robbed me,' — in those who do not harbour such 
thoughts hatred will cease. 

seems not applicable here, where we have to deal with the simplest 
moral precepts, and not with psychological niceties of Buddhist 
philosophy. It should be stated, however, that Childers, who first 
(s. v. dhamma) approved of my translation, seems afterwards to have 
changed his opinion. On p. 1 20 of his excellent Pali Dictionary 
he said : ' Three of the five khandhas, viz. vedanS, saniii, and san- 
khira, are collectively termed dhammi (plur.), " mental faculties," 
and in the first verse of Dhammapada the commentator tjrkes the 
word dhammd to mean those three faculties. But this interpretation 
appears forced and unnatural, and I look upon Dr. Max Muller's 
translation, " All that we are is the result of what we have thought," 
as the best possible rendering of the spirit of the phrase mano pub- 
bahgama dhamma.' But on p. 577 the same scholar writes : 'Of 
the four mental khandhas the superiority of vinM«a is strongly 
asserted in the first verse of Dhammapada, " The mental faculties 
(vedana, sznnsi, and sahkhira) are dominated by Mind, they are 
governed by Mind, they are made up of Mind." That this is the 
true meaning of the passage I am now convinced ; see D'Alwis, Nir- 
wana, pp. 70-75.' I do not deny that this may have been the tra- 
ditional interpretation, at all events since the days of Buddhaghosa, 
but the very legend quoted by Buddhaghosa in illustration of this 
verse shows that its simpler and purely moral interpretation was 
likewise supported by tradition, and I therefore adhere to my 
original translation. 

2. See Beal, Dhammapada, p. 169. 

3. On akkoikM, see Ka^Hyana VI, 4, 1 7. D'Alwis, Pili Grammar, 
p. 38 note. ' When akko^Mi means " he abused," it is derived 
from kror, not from krudh.' See Senart, Ka££ayana, 1. c. 



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TWIN-VERSES. 



5. For hatred does not cease by hatred at any 
time: hatred ceases by love, this is an old rule. I 

6. The world does not know that we must all 
come to an end here ; — but those who know it, their 
quarrels cease at once. 

7. He who lives looking for pleasures only, his 
senses uncontrolled, immoderate in his food, idle, 
and weak, Mara (the tempter) will certainly over- 
throw him, as the wind throws down a weak tree. 

8. He who lives without looking for pleasures, 
his senses well controlled, moderate in his food, 
faithful and strong, him Mara will certainly not 
overthrow, any more than the wind throws down 
a rocky mountain. 

9. He who wishes to put on the yellow dress 
without having cleansed himself from sin, who dis- 
regards also temperance and truth, is unworthy of 
the yellow dress. 

6. Pare is explained by ' fools,' but it has that meaning by 
implication only. It is 01 jrdAAoi, cf. Vinaya, ed. Oldenberg, vol. i. 
p. 5, 1. 4. Yamamase, a 1 pers. plur. imp. Attn., but really a Le/ 
in Pali. See Fausboll, Five Gatakas, p. 38. 

7. Mara must be taken in the Buddhist sense of ' tempter,' or 
' evil spirit.' See Burnouf, Introduction, p. 76 : ' Mara est le de'mon 
de l'amour, du p£che" et de la mort ; c'est le tentateur et l'ennemi 
de Buddha.' As to the definite meaning of vtrya, see Burnouf, 
Lotus, p. 548. 

In the Buddhistical Sanskrit, kusfda, ' idle,' is the exact counter- 
part of the Pali kuslta ; see Burnouf, Lotus, p. 548. On the change 
of Sanskrit d into Pali t, see Kuhn, Beitrage zur Pali Grammatik, 
p. 40; Weber, Ind. Studien, XIII, p. 135. 

9. The dark yellow dress, the KSs&va or Kishaya, is the dis- 
tinctive garment of the Buddhist priests. See Vishmi-sutra LXIII, 
36. The play on the words anikkasavo kasavam, or in Sanskrit 
anishkashdyaA Mshayam, cannot be rendered in English. Kashaya 
means ' impurity,' nish-kashiya, ' free from impurity,' anish-kash&ya, 
' not free from impurity,' while kishaya is the name of the yellowish 



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DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. I. 



10. But he who has cleansed himself from sin, is 
well grounded in all virtues, and regards also tem- 
perance and truth, he is indeed worthy of the yellow 
dress. 

ii. They who imagine truth in untruth, and see 
untruth in truth, never arrive at truth, but follow 
vain desires. 

12. They who know truth in truth, and untruth 
in untruth, arrive at truth, and follow true desires. 

13. As rain breaks through an ill-thatched house, 
passion will break through an unreflecting mind. 

14. As rain does not break through a well- thatched 
house, passion will not break through a well-reflecting 
mind. 

15. The evil-doer mdurris in this world, and he 

Buddhist garment. The pun is evidently a favourite one, for, as 
Fausboll shows, it occurs also in the Mahabharata, XII, 568 : 
Anishkashaye kashayam IhSrtham iti viddhi tam, 
Dharmadhva^anaOT rmwd&n&m vr*Uyartham iti me matiA. 
' Know that this yellow-coloured garment on a man who is not free 
from impurity, serves only for the purpose of cupidity ; my opinion 
is, that it is meant to supply the means of living to those shavelings, 
who carry their virtue or the dharma like a flag.' 

(I read vn'ttyartham, according to the Bombay edition, instead of 
kn'tartham, the reading of the Calcutta edition.) 

On the exact colour of the dress, see Bishop Bigandet, The Life 
or Legend of Gaudama, the Budha of the Burmese, Rangoon, 1866, 
p. 504. Cf. Gataka, vol. ii. p. 198. 

10. With regard to slla, ' virtue,' see Burnouf, Lotus, p. 547. 

11, 12. SSra, which I have translated by ' truth,' has many mean- 
ings in Sanskrit. It means the sap of a thing, then essence or 
reality ; in a metaphysical sense, the highest reality ; in a moral 
sense, truth. It is impossible in a translation to do more than indi- 
cate the meaning of such words, and in order to understand them 
fully, we must know not only their definition, but their history. See 
Beal, Dhammapada, p. 64. 

13. See Beal, Dhammapada, p. 65. 

15. Kili//fta is klish/a, a participle of kllr. It means literally, 



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TWIN-VERSES. 



mourns in the next ; he mourns in both. He mourns 
and suffers when he sees the evil of his own work. 

1 6. The virtuous man delights in this world, and 
he delights in the next ; he delights in both. He 
delights and rejoices, when he sees the purity of his 
own work. 

17. The evil-doer suffers in this world, and he 
suffers in the next; he suffers in both. He suffers 
when he thinks of the evil he has done ; he suffers 
more when going on the evil path. 

t8. The virtuous man is happy in this world, 
and he is happy in the next; he is happy in both.' 
He is happy when he thinks of the good he has 
done; he is still more happy when going on the 
good path. 

19. The thoughtless man, even if he can recite 
a large portion (of the law), but is not a doer of 
it, has no share in the priesthood, but is like a 
cowherd counting the cows of others. 

what is spoilt. The abstract noun klera, ' evil or sin,' is constantly 
employed in Buddhist works; see Burnouf, Lotus, p. 443. 

16. Like klish/a in the preceding verse, viniddhi in the present 
has a technical meaning. One of Buddhaghosa's most famous 
-works is called Visuddhi-magga. See Burnouf, Lotus, p. 844 ; 
Beal, Dhatnmapada, p. 67. 

17, 18. ' The evil path and the good path' are technical expres- 
sions for the descending and ascending scale of worlds through 
which all beings have to travel upward or downward, according to 
their deeds; see Bigandet, Life of Gaudama, p. 5, note 4, and 
p. 449; Burnouf, Introduction, p. 599 ; Lotus," p. 865, 1. 7 ; 1. 11. 
Fausboll translates ' heaven and hell,' which comes to the same ; 
cf. w. 126, 306. 

19. In taking sahitam in the sense of sawhitam or sawhita, I fol- 
low the commentator who says,Tepi/akassa Buddhava^anass' eta« 
namaw, but I cannot find another passage where the Tipi/aka, or 
any portion of it, is called Sahita. Sawhita in w. 100-102 has 
a different meaning. The fact that some followers of Buddha were 



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8 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. I. 

20. The follower of the law, even if he can recite 
only a small portion (of the law), but, having for- 
saken passion and hatred and foolishness, possesses 
true knowledge and serenity of mind, he, caring 
for nothing in this world or that to come, has in- 
deed a share in the priesthood. 

allowed to learn short portions only of the sacred writings by heart, 
and to repeat them, while others had to learn a larger collection, is 
shown by the story of .ATakkhupdla, p. 3, of Mahak&la, p. 26, &c. 
See Childers, s. v. sahita. 

20. S&mawna, which I have rendered by ' priesthood,' expresses 
all that belongs to, or constitutes a real Samawa oriVamawa, this being 
the Buddhist name corresponding to the Brahmawa, or priest, of 
the orthodox Hindus. Buddha himself is frequently called the 
Good Samawa. Fausboll takes the abstract word samawfta as 
corresponding to the Sanskrit sdminya, ' community,' but Weber 
has well shown that it ought to be taken as representing jrama«ya. 
He might have quoted the Samawwa-phala-sutta, of which Burnouf 
has given such interesting details in his Lotus, p. 449 seq. Faus- 
b611 also, in his notes on v. 332, rightly explains sSmaMwata" by 
jr£ma»yata\ See Childers, s. v. samanna. 

Anup&diyano, which I have translated by ' caring for nothing,' 
has a technical meaning. It is the negative of the fourth Nid&na, 
the so-called Upddana, which K6ppen has well explained by 
Anhanglichkeit, ' taking to the world, loving the world.' Koppen, 
Die Religion des Buddha, p. 610. Cf. Suttanipita, v. 470. 



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EARNESTNESS. 



CHAPTER II. 

ON EARNESTNESS 1 . 

21. Earnestness is the path of immortality (Nf 
vkna), thoughtlessness the path of death. Those 
who are in earnest do not die, those who are 
thoughtless are as if dead already. 

22. Those who are advanced in earnestness, 
having understood this clearly, delight in earnest- 
ness, and rejoice in the knowledge of the Axiyas 
(the elect). 

23. These wise people, meditative, steady, always \ 
possessed of strong powers, attain to Nirva«a, the 
highest happiness. 

1 There is nothing in the tenth section of the Dhammapada, as 
translated by Beal, corresponding to the verses of this chapter. 

21. Apramada, which Fausboll translates by 'vigilantia/ Gogerly 
by ' religion,' Childers by ' diligence,' expresses literally the absence 
of that giddiness or thoughtlessness which characterizes the state of 
mind of worldly people. It is the first entering into oneself, and 
hence all virtues are said to have their root in apramada. (Ye ke£i 
kusala dhammd sabbe te appamadamfilaka.) I have translated it 
by ' earnestness,' sometimes by ' reflection.' ' Immortality,' amn'ta, 
is explained by Buddhaghosa as Nirvawa. Amn'ta is used, no 
doubt, as a synonym of Nirv&«a, but this very fact shows how many 
different conceptions entered from the very first into the Nirva«a 
of the Buddhists. See Childers, s. v. nibbana, p. 269. 

This verse, as recited to Aroka, occurs in the DJpavawsa VI, 
53, and in the Mahavawsa, p. 25. See also Sanatsu^tiya, translated 
by Telang, Sacred Books of the East, vol. viii. p. 138. 

22. The Ariyas, the noble or elect, are those who have entered 
on the path that leads to Nirvana ; see KSppen, p. 396. Their 
knowledge and general status is minutely described ; see Koppen, 

P- 436. 

23. Childers, s.v. nibbana, thinks that nibbana here and in 
many other places means Arhatship. 

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IO DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. II. 

24. If an earnest person has roused himself, if 
he is not forgetful, if his deeds are pure, if he 
acts with consideration, if he restrains himself, and 
lives according to law, — then his glory will increase. 

25. By rousing himself, by earnestness, by restraint 
and control, the wise man may make for himself 
an island which no flood can overwhelm. 

26. Fools follow after vanity, men of evil wis- 
\ dom. The wise man keeps earnestness as his best 

1 jewel. 

27. Follow not after vanity, nor after the enjoy- 
ment of love and lust ! He who is earnest and 
meditative, obtains ample joy. 

28. When the learned man drives away vanity 
by earnestness, he, the wise, climbing the terraced 
heights of wisdom, looks down upon the fools, 
serene he looks upon the toiling crowd, as one 
that stands on a mountain looks down upon them 
that stand upon the plain. 

29. Earnest among the thoughtless, awake among 
the sleepers, the wise man advances, like a racer, 
leaving behind the hack. 

30. By earnestness did Maghavan (Indra) rise 
to the lordship of the gods. People praise earnest- 
ness; thoughtlessness is always blamed. 

31. A Bhikshu (mendicant) who delights in 
earnestness, who looks with fear on thoughtless- 

25. Childers explains this island again- as the state of an Arhat 
( arahatt a-phalam) . 

28. Cf. Childers, Dictionary, Preface, p. xiv. See Vinaya, ed. 
Oldenberg, vol. i. p. 5, s. f. 

31. Instead of saha*», which Dr. FausbSll translates by ' vin- 
cens,' Dr. Weber by ' conquering,' I think we ought to read <&han, 
'burning,' which was evidently the reading adopted by Buddha- 



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EARNESTNESS. 1 1 



ness, moves about like fire, burning all his fetters, 
small or large. 

32. A Bhikshu (mendicant) who delights in 
reflection, who looks with fear on thoughtlessness, 
cannot fall away (from his perfect state) — he is close 
upon Nirvawa. 

ghosa. Mr. R. C. Childers, whom I requested to see whether the 
MS. at the India Office gives sahaw or dah&m, writes that the 
reading daham is as clear as possible in that MS. The fetters are 
meant for the senses. See verse 370. 
32. See Childers, Notes, p. 5. 



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12 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. III. 



CHAPTER III. 

THOUGHT. 

33. As a fletcher makes straight his arrow, a 
wise man makes straight his trembling and un- 
steady thought, which is difficult to guard, difficult 
to hold back, 

34. As a fish taken from his watery home and 
thrown on the dry ground, our thought trembles 
all over in order to escape the dominion of Mara 
(the tempter). 

35. It is good to tame the mind, which is difficult 
to hold in and flighty, rushing wherever it listeth ; 

j a tamed mind brings happiness. 

36. Let the wise man guard his thoughts, for 
they are difficult to perceive, very artful, and they 
rush wherever they list : thoughts well guarded 

/ bring happiness. 

37. Those who bridle their mind which travels 
far, moves about alone, is without a body, and hides 
in the chamber (of the heart), will be free from 
the bonds of Mara (the tempter). 

38. If a man's thoughts are unsteady, if he does 
not know the true law, if his peace of mind is 
troubled, his knowledge will never be perfect 

39. If a man's thoughts are not dissipated, if 



33. Cf. (zitaka, vol. i. p. 400. 

34. On Mara, see verses 7 and 8. 
35-39. Cf. (rataka, vol. i. pp. 312, 400. 

39. FausbSll traces anavassuta, ' dissipated,' back to the Sanskrit 



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THOUGHT. 



his mind is not perplexed, if he has ceased to think 
of good or evil, then there is no fear for him while 
he is watchful. 



root syai, 'to become rigid;' but the participle of that root would 
be jlta, not fyuta. Professor Weber suggests that anavassuta stands 
for the Sanskrit anavasruta, which he translates unbefleckt, ' un- 
spotted.' If avasruta were the right word, it might be taken in the 
sense of ' not fallen off, not fallen away,' but it could not mean 
'unspotted;' cf. dhairyaw no 'susruvat, 'our firmness ran away.' 
I have little doubt, however, that avassuta represents the Sanskrit 
avarruta, and is derived from the root sru, here used in its tech- 
nical sense, peculiar to the Buddhist literature, and so well explained 
by Burnouf in his Appendix XIV (Lotus, p. 820). He shows that, 
according to Hema^andra and the Gina-alahkara, axravakshaya, 
Pali asavasa/wkhaya is counted as the sixth abhi^iia, wherever six . 
of these intellectual powers are mentioned, instead of five. The 
Chinese translate the term in their own Chinese fashion by ' stilla- 
tionis finis,' but Burnouf claims for it the definite sense of destruc- 
tion of faults or vices. He quotes from the Lalita-vistara (Adhyaya 
XXII, ed. Rajendra Lai Mittra, p. 448) the words uttered by 
Buddha when he arrived at his complete Buddhahood : — 
6\ishk& IrravS. na punaA jravanti, 
'The vices are dried up, they will not flow again;' 
and he shows that the Pali Dictionary, the Abhidhanappadlpika, 
explains asava simply by kama, ' love, pleasure of the senses.' In 
the Mah&parinibbana-sutta, three classes of asava are distinguished, 
the kamasava, the bhavasavS, and the aviggisavi. See also Bur- 
nouf, Lotus, p. 665 ; Childers, s. v. asavo. 

That sru means ' to run,' and is in fact a merely dialectic variety 
of sru, has been proved by Burnouf, while Boehtlingk thinks the 
substitution of s for s is a mistake. Afrava therefore, or Ssrava, 
meant originally ' the running out towards objects of the senses ' 
(cf. sahga, alaya, &c), and had nothing to do with israva, ' a run- 
ning, a sore,' Atharva-veda I, 2, 4. This conception of the ori- 
ginal purport of a-Mru^or ava-fru is confirmed by a statement of 
Colebrooke's, who, when treating of the Gainas, writes (Miscella- 
neous Essays, I, 382): ' Asrava is that which directs the embodied 
spirit (isravayati purusham) towards external objects. It is the 
occupation and employment (vrttti or pravn'tti) of the senses or 
organs on sensible objects. Through the means of the senses it 



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14 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. III. 

40. Knowing that this body is (fragile) like a 
jar, and making this thought firm like a fortress, 
one should attack Mara (the tempter) with the--^ 
weapon of knowledge, one should watch him whei\^ 
conquered, and should never rest. 

41. Before long, alas! this body will lie on the 
earth, despised, without understanding, like a use- 
less log. 

42. Whatever a hater may do to a hater, or 



affects the embodied spirit with the sentiment of taction, colour, 
smell, and taste. Or it is the association or connection of body 
with right and wrong deeds. It comprises all the karmas, for they 
(asravayanti) pervade, influence, and attend the doer, following him 
or attaching to him. It is a misdirection (mithya-pravntti) of the 
organs, for it is vain, a cause of disappointment, rendering the 
organs of sense and sensible objects subservient to fruition. Szm- 
vara is that which stops (sa»vn'»oti) the course of the foregoing, 
or closes up the door or passage to it, and consists in self-com- 
mand or restraint of organs internal and external, embracing all 
means of self-control and subjection of the senses, calming and 
subduing them.' 

For a full account of the ajravas, see Lalita-vistara, ed. Calc. 
pp. 445 and 552, where Kshf«ibrava is given as a name of Buddha. 
Arrava occurs in Apastamba's Dharma-sfitras II, 5, 9, where the 
commentator explains it by objects of the senses, by which the 
soul is made to run out. It is better, however, to take a\rrava 
here, too, as the act of running out, the affections, appetites, 
passions. 

40. Anivesana has no doubt a technical meaning, and may 
signify, one who has left his house, his family and friends, to 
become a monk. A monk shall not return to his home, but travel 
about; he shall be anivesana, 'homeless,' anagara, 'houseless.' 
But I doubt whether this can be the meaning of anivesana here, 
as the sentence, let him be an anchorite, would come in too 
abruptly. I translate it therefore in a more general sense, let him 
not return or turn away from the battle, let him watch Mara, even 
after he is vanquished, let him keep up a constant fight against the 
adversary, without being attached to anything or anybody. 



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THOUGHT. 15 



an enemy to an enemy, a wrongly-directed mind y 
will do us greater mischief. 

43. Not a mother, not a father will do so much, 
nor any other relative ; a well-directed mind will 
do us greater service. 



43. See Beal, Dhammapada, p. 73. 



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1 6 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. IV. 



CHAPTER IV. 

FLOWERS 1 . 

44. Who shall overcome this earth, and the 
world of Yama (the lord of the departed), and 
the world of the gods ? Who shall find out the 
plainly shown path of virtue, as a clever man 
finds out the (right) flower ? 

45. The disciple will overcome the earth, and 
the world of Yama, and the world of the gods. 
[The disciple will find out the plainly shown path 
of virtue, as a clever man finds out the (right) 
flower. 

1 See Beal, Dhammapada, p. 75. 

44, 45. If I differ from the translation of FausbSll and Weber, 
it is because the commentary takes the two verbs, vig'essati and 
pafessati, to mean in the end the same thing, i.e. sa££Ai-karissati, 
' he will perceive.' I have not ventured to take vig'essate for vjg-a- 
nissati, though it should be remembered that the overcoming of the 
earth and of the worlds below and above, as here .alluded to, is 
meant to be achieved by means of knowledge. Pafessati, • he 
will gather ' (cf. vi-ii, Indische Spruche, 4560), means also, like ' to 
gather' in English, 'he will perceive or understand,' and the dham- 
mapada, or 'path of virtue,' is distinctly explained by Buddha- 
ghosa as consisting of the thirty-seven states or stations which lead 
to Bodhi. (See Burnouf, Lotus, p. 430 ; Hardy, Manual, p. 497.) 
Dhammapada might, no doubt, mean also 'a law-verse,' and 
sudesita, ' well taught,' and this double meaning may be intentional 
here as elsewhere. Buddha himself is called MSrga-danraka and 
Marga-de^ika (cf. Lai. Vist. p. 551). There is a curious similarity 
between these verses and verses 6540-41, and 9939 of the S&nti- 
parva: 

PushpSwrva vi&nvantam anyatragatamanasam, 
Anavapteshu kimeshu mr»'tyur abhyeti mdnavam. 
'Death approaches man" like one who is gathering flowers, and 



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FLOWERS. 1 7 



46. He who knows that this body is like froth, 
and has learnt that it is as unsubstantial as a mirage, 
will break the flower-pointed arrow of Mara, and 
never see the king of death. 

47. Death carries oft" a man who is gathering 
flowers and whose mind is distracted, as a flood 
carries off a sleeping village. 

48. Death subdues a man who is gathering flowers, 
and whose mind is distracted, before he is satiated 
in his pleasures. 

49. As the bee collects nectar and departs without 
injuring the flower, or its colour or scent, so let a 
sage dwell in his village. 

50. Not the perversities of others, not their sins 



whose mind is turned elsewhere, before his desires have been 

fulfilled.' 

Suptaw vy£ghra»a mahaugho v& mMyur &d£ya ga^Mati, 
Saw&nvanakam evainam kamanam avitr/ptikam. 

' As a stream (carries off) a sleeping tiger, death carries off this 

man who is gathering flowers, and who is not satiated in his 

pleasures.' 

This last verse, particularly, seems to me clearly a translation 

from Pali, and the kam of sanflnvanakam looks as if put in metri 

causa. 

46. The flower-arrows of M&ra, the tempter, are borrowed from 
Kama, the Hindu god of love. For a similar expression see 
Lalita-vistara, ed Calc. p. 40, 1. 20, mdy&mari&sad/'z'sa' vidyutphe- 
nopama\r £apalaA It is on account of this parallel passage that 
I prefer to translate mari^i by ' mirage,' and not by ' sunbeam,' as 
Fausboll, or by ' solar atom,' as Weber proposes. The expression, 
' he will never see the king of death/ is supposed to mean Arhatship 
by Childers, s.v. nibbana, p. 270. 

47. See Thiessen, Die Legende von Kis&gotaml, p. 9. 

48. Antaka, ' death,' is given as an explanation of Mdra in the 
Amarakosha and Abhidhanappadtpika (cf. Fausboll, p. 210). 

49. See Beal, Catena, p. 159, where vv. 49 and 50 are ascribed to 
Wessabhu, i. e. Virvabhu. See also Der Weise und der Thor, p. 1 34. 



/ 



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1 8 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. IV. 

of commission or omission, but his own misdeeds 
and negligences should a sage take notice of. 

51. Like a beautiful flower, full of colour, but 
without scent, are the fine but fruitless words of him 
who does not act accordingly. 

52. But, like a beautiful flower, full of colour and 
full of scent, are the fine and fruitful Words of him 
who acts accordingly. 

53. As many kinds of wreaths can be made from I 
a heap of flowers, so many good things may be / 
achieved by a mortal when once he is born. ' 

54. The scent of flowers does not travel against 
the wind, nor (that of) sandal-wood, or of Tagara 
and Mallika flowers ; but the odour of good people 

\ travels even against the wind ; a good man per- J 
Wades every place. ' 

55. Sandal- wood or Tagara, a lotus-flower, or a 
Vassiki, among these sorts of perfumes, the perfume 
of virtue is unsurpassed. 

56. Mean is the scent that comes from Tagara 
and sandal-wood ; — the perfume of those who pos- 

t sess virtue rises up to the gods as the highest. 

57. Of the people who possess these virtues, who 
live without thoughtlessness, and who are emanci- 



51. St. Matthew xxiii. 3, ' For they say, and do not.' 
54. Tagara, a plant from which a scented powder is made. 
Mallaka or mallika, according to Benfey, is an oil vessel. Hence 
tagaramallika was supposed to mean a botde holding aromatic 
powder, or oil made of the Tagara. Mallika, however, is given by 
Dr. Eitel (Handbook of Chinese Buddhism) as the name of a 
flower now called Casturi (musk) on account of its rich odour, and 
Dr. Morris informs me that he has found mallika in Pali as a name 
of jasmine. See also Childers, s. v.; Notes, p. 6 ; and Beal, Dhamma- 
pada, p. 76. 



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FLOWERS. 19 



pated through true knowledge, Mara, the tempter, 
never finds the way. 

58, 59. As on a heap of rubbish cast upon the 
highway the lily will grow full of sweet perfume and 
delight, thus the disciple of the truly enjightened 
Buddha shines forth by his knowledge among those 
who are like rubbish, among the people that walk 
in darkness. 

58, 59. Cf. Beal, Dhammapada, p. 76. 



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20 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. V. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE FOOL. 

60. Long is the night to him who is awake ; long 
is a mile to him who is tired ; long is life to the 
foolish who do not know the true law. 

61. If a traveller does not meet with one who is 
his better, or his equal, let him firmly keep to his 
solitary journey ; there is no companionship with 
a fool. 

62. ' These sons belong to me, and this wealth 
belongs to me,' with such thoughts a fool is tor- 
mented. He himself does not belong to himself; 
how much less sons and wealth ? 

' 63. The fool who knows his foolishness, is wise at 
least so far. But a fool who thinks himself wise, he 
is called a fool indeed. 

64. If a fool be associated with a wise man even 
all his life, he will perceive the truth as little as a 
spoon perceives the taste of soup. 

65. If an intelligent man be associated for one 
minute only with a wise man, he will soon perceive 
the truth, as the tongue perceives the taste of soup. 

66. Fools of little understanding have themselves 



60. ' Life,' saws&ra, is the constant revolution of birth and death 
which goes on for ever until the knowledge of the true law or the 
true doctrine of Buddha enables a man to free himself from sawsira, 
and to enter into Nirvana. See Buddhaghosha's Parables, Parable 
XIX, p. 134. 

61. Cf. Suttanipita, v. 46. 

63. Cf. Beal, Dhammapada, p. 77. 
65. Cf. Beal, Dhammapada, p. 78. 



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THE FOOL. 21 



for their greatest enemies, for they do evil deeds 
which must bear bitter fruits. 

67. That deed is not well done of which a man 
must repent, and the reward of which he receives 
crying and with a tearful face. 

68. No, that deed is well done of which a man 
does not repent, and the reward of which he receives 
gladly and cheerfully. 

69. As long as the evil deed done does not bear 
fruit, the fool thinks it is like honey ; but when it 
ripens, then the fool suffers grief. 

70. Let a fool month after month eat his food 
(like an ascetic) with the tip of a blade of Kusa. 
grass, yet is he not worth the sixteenth particle of 
those who have well weighed the law. 

71. An evil deed, like newly-drawn milk, does not 
turn (suddenly) ; smouldering, like fire covered by 
ashes, it follows the fool. 

67. See Beal, I.e. p. 78. 

69. Taken from the Sa/»yutta-nik£ya, where, however, we read 
thSnanhi instead of madhuvi; see Feer, Comptes Rendus, 187 1, 
p. 64. 

70. The commentator clearly takes sankh&ta in the sense of 
sankhy&ta, 'reckoned,' for he explains it by MtadhammS, tulita- 
dhammi. The eating with the tip of Kiwa grass has reference 
to the fastings performed by the Brahmans, but disapproved of, 
except as a moderate discipline, by the followers of Buddha. This 
verse seems to interrupt the continuity of the other verses which 
treat of the reward of evil deeds, or of the slow but sure ripening 
of every sinful act. See Childers, s. v. sankh£to. 

71. 1 am not at all certain of the simile, unless mu££ati, as applied 
to milk, can be used in the sense of changing or turning sour. In 
Manu IV, 172, where a similar sentence occurs, the commentators 
are equally doubtful : Nadharma-r £arito loke sadyaA phalati gaur 
iva, ' for an evil act committed in the world does not bear fruit at 
once, like a cow;' or Mike the earth (in due season);' or 'like 
milk.' See Childers, Notes, p. 6. 



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22 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. V. 

72. And when the evil deed, after it has become 
known, brings sorrow to the fool, then it destroys 
his bright lot, nay, it cleaves his head. 

73. Let the fool wish for a false reputation, for 
precedence among the Bhikshus, for lordship in the 
convents, for worship among other people ! 

74. ' May both the layman and he who has left the 
world think that this is done by me ; may they be 
subject to me in everything which is to be done or 
is not to be done,' thus is the mind of the fool, and 
his desire and pride increase. 

75. ' One is the road that leads to wealth, another 
the road that leads to Nirva»a;' if the Bhikshu, 
the disciple of Buddha, has learnt this, he will not 
yearn for honour, he will strive after separation 
from the world. 

72. I take wattam for ^wapitam, the causative of gn&taxn, for 
which in Sanskrit, too, we have the form without i, ^waptam. This 
^naptam, 'made known, revealed,' stands in opposition to the 
Manna, 'covered, hid,' of the preceding verse. Sukkawsa, which 
FausbSll explains by rakMwsa, has probably a more technical and 
special meaning. Childers traces wattam to the Vedic gnitram, 
' knowledge.' Fausboll refers to G&taka, vol. i. p. 445, v. 118. 

75. Viveka, which in Sanskrit means chiefly understanding, has 
with the Buddhists the more technical meaning of separation, 
whether separation from the world and retirement to the solitude 
of the forest (k&ya-viveka), or separation from idle thoughts (£itta- 
viveka), or the highest separation and freedom (Nirv<l«a), 



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THE WISE MAN. 2$ 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE WISE MAN (paJVZJITa). 

76. If you see an intelligent man who tells you 
where true treasures are to be found, who shows 
what is to be avoided, and administers reproofs, 
follow that wise man ; it will be better, not worse, 
for those who follow him; 

77. Let him admonish, let him teach, let him 
forbid what is, improper ! — he will be beloved of the 
good, by the bad he will be hated. 

78. Do not have evil-doers for friends, do not \ 
have low people for friends : have virtuous people 
for friends, have for friends the best of men. / 

79. He who drinks in the law lives happily with 
a serene mind : the sage rejoices always in the law, 
as preached by the elect (Ariyas). 

80. Well-makers lead the water (wherever they 
like) ; fletchers bend the arrow ; carpenters bend 
a log of wood ; wise people fashion themselves. u 

78. It is hardly possible to take mitte kalya»e in the technical 
sense of kaly£«a-mitra, 'ein geistlicher Rath,' a spiritual guide. 
Burnouf (Introd. p. 284) shows that in the technical sense kalya»a- 
mitra was widely spread in the Buddhist world. 

79. Ariya, ' elect, venerable,' is explained by the commentator 
as referring to Buddha and other teachers. 

80. See verses 33 and 145, the latter being a mere repetition of 
our verse. The nettikas, to judge from the commentary and from 
the general purport of the verse, are not simply water-carriers, but 
builders of canals and aqueducts, who force the water to go where 
it would not go by itself. The Chinese translator says, ' the pilot 
manages his ship.' See Beal, L c. p. 79. 



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24 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. VI. 

8 1. As a solid rock is not shaken by the wind, 
wise people falter not amidst blame and praise. 

82. Wise people, after they have listened to the 
laws, become serene, like a deep, smooth, and still 
lake. 

83. Good people walk on whatever^ b^efall, the 
good do not prattle, longing for pleasure \ whether 
touched by happiness or sorrow wise people never 
appear elated or depressed. 

84. If, whether for his own sake, or for the sake 
of others, a man wishes neither for a son, nor for 
wealth, nor for lordship, and if he does not wish for 
his own success by unfair means, then he is good, 
wise, and virtuous. 

85. Few are there among men who arrive at the 
other shore (become Arhats); the other people here 
run up and down the shore. 

83. The first line is very doubtful. I have adopted/in my trans- 
lation, a suggestion of Mr. Childers, who writes, ' I think it will be 
necessary to take sabbattha in the sense of" everywhere," or " under 
every condition;" paw^akhandddibhedesu, sabbadhammesu, says 
Buddhaghosha. I do not think we need assume that B. means 
the word vi^ahanti to be a synonym of va^anti. I would rather 
take the whole sentence together as a gloss upon the word va^anti : 
— va^antfti arahattawdnena apakad<//&ant& k/iandar&ga.m vigahanti; 
va^anti means that, ridding themselves of lust by the wisdom which 
Arhatship confers, they cast it away.' I am inclined to think the 
line means ' the righteous walk on (unmoved) in all the conditions 
of life.' Nindi, pasawsd, sukha, dukkha are four of the eight 
lokadhammas, or earthly conditions ; the remaining lokadhammas 
are labha, alabha, yasa, ayasa. 

In v. 245, passata^ ' by a man who sees/ means ' by a man who 
sees clearly or truly.' In the same manner vra^ may mean, not 
simply ' to walk,' but ' to walk properly,' or may be used synony- 
mously with pravra^. 

85. ' The other shore ' is meant for Nirvdwa, ' this shore ' for 
common life. On reaching Nirvana, the dominion of death is 



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THE WISE MAN. 25 



86. But those who, when the law has been well 
preached to them, follow the law, will pass across 
the dominion of death, however difficult to over-- 

come - Uj 

87, 88. A wise man should leave the dark state 

(of ordinary life), and follow the bright state (of the 
Bhikshu). After going from his home to a home- 
less state, he should in his retirement look for 
enjoyment where there seemed to be no enjoy- 
ment. Leaving all pleasures behind, and calling 
nothing his own, the wise man should purge himself 
from all the troubles of the mind. 

89. Those whose mind is well grounded in the 
(seven) elements of knowledge, who without cling- 



overcome. The commentator supplies t£ritv£, ' having crossed,' in 
order to explain the accusative maAiudheyyam. Possibly param 
essanti should here be taken as one word, in the sense of over- 
coming. 

87, 88. Dark and bright are meant for bad and good ; *cf. Sutta- 
nip&ta, v. 526, and Dhp.v. 167. Leaving one's home is the same 
as becoming a mendicant, without a home or family, an anagdra, 
or anchorite. A man in that state of viveka, or retirement (see 
v. 75, note), sees, that where before there seemed to be no pleasure 
there real pleasure is to be found, or vice versa\ A similar idea is 
expressed in verse 99. See Burnouf, Lotus, p. 4 7 4, where he speaks 
of 'Le plaisir de la satisfaction, ne* de la distinction.' 

The five troubles or evils of the mind are passion, anger, igno- 
rance, arrogance, pride ; see Burnouf, Lotus, pp. 360, 443. As to 
pariyodapeyya, see verse 183, and Lotus, pp. 523, 528; as to 
akiw^ano, see MahSbh. XII, 6568, 1240. 

89. The elements of knowledge are the seven Sambodhyangas, 
on which see Burnouf, Lotus, p. 796. D'Alwis explains them as 
the thirty-seven Bodhipakkhiya-dhammS. KhfwSsava, which I have 
translated by ' they whose frailties have been conquered,' may also 
be taken in a more metaphysical sense, as explained in the note to 
v. 39. The same applies to the other terms occurring in this verse, 
such as id&na, anupddaya, &c. Dr. Fausboll seems inclined to 
[ro] " ' f 



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26 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. VI. 

ing to anything, rejoice in freedom from attachment, 
whose appetites have been conquered, and who are 
full of light, are free (even) in this world. 



take Ssava in this passage, and in the other passages where it 
occurs, as the Pali representative of a\rraya. But a\rraya, in Buddhist 
phraseology, means rather the five organs of sense with manas, 
' the soul,' and these are kept distinct from the dsavas, ' the inclina- 
tions, the appetites, passions, or vices.' The commentary on the 
Abhidharma, when speaking of the Yoga^aras, says, ' En reunissant 
ensemble les receptacles (a\sxaya), les choses recces (i\srita) et les 
supports (alambana), qui sont chacun composes de six termes, on a 
dix-huit termes qu'on appelle " DMtus " ou contenants. La col- 
lection des six receptacles, ce sont les organes de la vue, de l'oui'e, 
de l'odorat, du gout, du toucher, et le " manas " (ou l'organe du 
cceur), qui est le dernier. La collection des six choses recues, c'est 
la connaissance produite par la vue et par les autres sens jusqu'au 
" manas" inclusivement. La collection des six supports, ce sont la 
forme et les autres attributs sensibles jusqu'au " Dharma" (la loi ou 
l'etre) inclusivement.' See Burnouf, Introduction, p. 449. 

Parinibbuta is again a technical term, the Sanskrit parinivnta 
meaning ' freed from all worldly fetters,' like vimukta. See Bur- 
nouf, Introduction, p. 590. See Childers, s. v. nibb&na, p. 370, 
and Notes on Dhammapada, p. 3 ; and D'Alwis, Buddhist Nirvana, 
P- 75- 



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THE VENERABLE. 2"] 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE VENERABLE (ARHAT). 

90. There is no suffering for him who has finished 
his journey, and abandoned grief, who has freed him- 
self on all sides, and thrown off all fetters. 

9 1 . They depart with their thoughts well-collected, 
they are not happy in their abode ; like swans who 
have left their lake, they leave their house and 
home. 

92. Men who have no riches, who live on recog- 
nised foodp who have perceived void and uncon- 
ditioned freedom (Nirvana), their path is difficult to 
understand, like that of birds in the air. 



91. Satimanto, Sanskrit smrriimantaA, ' possessed of memory,' 
but here used in the technical sense of sati, the first of the Bodhyah- 
gas. See Burnouf, Introduction, p. 797. Clough translates it by 
' intense thought,' and this is the original meaning of smar, even 
in Sanskrit. See Lectures on the Science of Language, vol. ii. 

P- 332- 

Uyyu^anti, which Buddhaghosa explains by ' they exert them- 
selves,' seems to me to signify in this place 'they depart,' i.e. 
they leave their family, and embrace an ascetic life. See note to 
verse 235. See also Rhys Davids, Mahaparinibbana-sutta, Sacred 
Books of the East, vol. xi. p. 22. 

92. Sunnato and animitto are adjectives belonging to vimokho, 
one of the many names of Nirvd«a, or, according to Childers, s. v. 
nibbana, p. 270, Arhatship; see Burnouf, Introduction, pp. 442, 
462, on junya. The Sanskrit expression junyat£nimitt&pra«ihitam 
occurs in L'enfant egare', 5 a, 1. 4. Nimitta is cause in the most 
general sense, i. e. what causes existence. The commentator ex- 
plains it chiefly in a moral sense : RdgddinimittSbhivena animitta/n, 
tehi k% vimuttan ti animitto vimokho, i. e. owing to the absence of 
passion and other causes, without causation ; because freed from 

f 2 



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28 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. VII. 

93. He whose appetites are stilled, who is not 
absorbed in enjoyment, who has perceived void and 
unconditioned freedom (Nirvarca), his path is diffi- 
cult to understand, like that of birds in the air. 

94. The gods even envy him whose senses, like 
horses well broken in by the driver, have been 
subdued, who is free from pride, and free from 
appetites. 

95. Such a one who does his duty is tolerant like 
the earth, like Indra's bolt ; he is like a lake without 
mud ; no new births are in store^for him. 

96. His thought is quiet, quiet are his word and 
deed, when he has obtained freedom by true know- 
ledge, when he has thus become a quiet man. 



these causes, therefore it is called freedom without causation. See 
Childers, Pali Dictionary, p. 270, col. 2, line 1. 

The simile is intended to compare the ways of those who have 
obtained spiritual freedom to the flight of birds, it being difficult 
to understand how the birds move on without putting their feet on 
anything. This, at least, is the explanation of the commentator. 
The same metaphor occurs Mahdbh. XII, 6763. Childers translates, 
' leaving no more trace of existence than a bird in the air.' 

95. Without the hints given by the commentator, we should 
probably take the three similes of this verse in their natural sense, 
as illustrating the imperturbable state of an Arahanta, or venerable 
person. The earth is always represented as an emblem of patience; 
the bolt of Indra, if taken in its technical sense, as the bolt of a 
gate, might likewise suggest the idea of firmness ; while the lake is 
a constant representative of serenity and purity. The commentator, 
however, suggests that what is meant is, that the earth, though 
flowers are cast on it, does not feel pleasure, nor the bolt of Indra 
displeasure, although less savoury things are thrown upon it ; and 
that in like manner a wise person is indifferent to honour and dis- 
honour. - 

96. That this very natural threefold division, thought, word, and 
deed, the trividha-dv&ra or the three doors of the Buddhists (Hardy, 
Manual, p. 494), was not peculiar to the Buddhists or unknown to 



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THE VENERABLE. 29 



97. The man who is free from credulity, but knows 
the uncreated, who has cut all ties, removed all 
temptations, renounced all desires, he is the greatest 
of men. 



the Brahmans, has been proved against Dr. Weber by Professor 
Koppen in his'Religion des Buddha,' I, p. 445. He particularly called 
attention to Manu XII, 4-8 ; and he might have added Mahabh. 
XII, 4059, 6512, 6549, 6554; XIII, 5677, &c. Dr. Weber has 
himself afterwards brought forward a passage from the Atharva- 
veda, VI, 96, 3 (ya£ iakshusha manasS ya£ ka, \SM, uparima), 
which, however, has a different meaning. A better one was quoted 
by him from the Taitt. Ar. X, 1, 12 (yan me manasa, viki, karmawa 
v& dushkr»'taz» kn'tam). Similar expressions have been shown to 
exist in the Zend-avesta, and among the Manichaeans (Lassen, 
Indische Alterthumskunde, III, p. 414; see also Boehtlingk's Dic- 
tionary, s. v. kaya, and Childers, s. v. kayo). There was no ground, 
therefore, for supposing that this formula had found its way into 
the Christian liturgy from Persia, for, as Professor Cowell remarks 
(Journal of Philology, vol. vii. p. 215), Greek writers, such as Plato, 
employ very similar expressions, e.g. Protag. p. 348, 30, irpi>s inav 
tpyov (cat \6yov Kal 8iav6r)pa. In fact, the opposition between words 
and deeds occurs in almost every writer, from Homer downwards ; 
and the further distinction between thoughts and words is clearly 
implied even in such expressions as, 'they say in their heart.' That 
the idea of sin committed by thought was not a new idea, even to the 
Jews, may be seen from Prov. xxiv. 9, ' the thought of foolishness 
is sin.' In the Apastamba-sutras, lately edited by Professor BUhler, 
we find the .expression, atho yatkiw^a manasd vaH iakshusha vS. 
sahkalpayan dhyayaty ah&bhivipajyati va tathaiva tad bhavatityu- 
padi^anti, 'they say that whatever a Brahman intending with his 
mind, voice, or eye, thinks, says, or looks, that will be.' This is 
clearly a very different division, and it is the same which is intended 
in the passage from the Atharva-veda, quoted above. In the mis- 
chief done by the eye, we have, perhaps, the first indication of the 
evil eye. (Mahabh. XII, 3417. See Dhammapada, vv. 231-234.) 
On the technical meaning of tadi, see Childers, s.v. D'Alwis 
(p. 78) has evidently received the right interpretation, but has not 
understood it. Midma also is used very much like t&droa, and 
from it mariso, a venerable person, in Sanskrit marsha. 



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30 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. VII. 

98. In a hamlet or in a forest, in the deep water 
or on the dry land, wherever venerable persons 
(Arahanta) dwell, that place is delightful. 

99. Forests are delightful ; where the world finds 
no delight, there the passionless will find delight, 
for they look not for pleasures. 



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THE THOUSANDS. 3 1 



CHAPTER VIII. 

THE THOUSANDS. 

100. Even though a speech be a thousand (of ' 
words), but made up of senseless words, one word 
of sense is better, which if a man hears, he becomes i 
quiet. 

1 01. Even though a Gatha (poem) be a thousand 
(of words), but made up of senseless words, one 
word of a Gatha is better, which if a man hears, he 
becomes quiet. 

102. Though a man recite a hundred Gathas made 
up of senseless words, one word of the law is better, 
which if a man hears, he becomes quiet. ' 

yf-OT,. If one man conquer in battle a thousand 
times thousand men, and if another conquer himself, 
he is the greatest of conquerors. 

104, 105. One's own self conquered is better than -1 
lall other people ; not even a god, a Gandharva, not \ 
Mara with Brahman could change into defeat the 

100. This Sahasravarga, or Chapter of the Thousands, is quoted 
by that name in the Mahavastu (MinayerT, Melanges Asiatiques, VI, 
p. 583): Teshim Bhagavara £a/ilana« Dharmapadeshu sahasra- 
vargam bhashati : ' Sahasram api va£anam anarthapadasamhitanam, 
ekirthavati sreyi yim mitva uparamyati. Sahasram api gathanam 
anarthapadasa«hitanam, ekarthavatf s reya yim jrutva uparamyati ' 
(MS. R. A. S. Lond.) Here the Pali text seems decidedly more 
original and perfect. 

104. Gitam, according to the commentator, stands for ^gito (lih- 
gavipallaso, i. e. viparyasa) ; see also Senart in Journal Asiatique, 
1 880, p. 500. 

The Devas (gods), Gandharvas (fairies), and other fanciful beings 
of the Brahmanic religion, such as the Nagas, Sarpas, Garu</as, &c, 



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32 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. VIII. 

victory of a man who has vanquished himself, and 
always lives under restraint. 

1 06. If a man for a hundred years sacrifice month 
after month with a thousand, and if he but for one 
moment pay homage to a man whose soul is grounded 
(in true knowledge), better is that homage than a 
sacrifice for a hundred years. 

107. If a man for a hundred years worship Agni 
(fire) in the forest, and if he but for one moment pay 
homage to a man whose soul is grounded (in true 
knowledge), better is that homage than sacrifice for 
a hundred years. 

108. Whatever a man sacrifice in this world as an 
offering or as an oblation for a whole year in order to 
gain merit, the whole of it is not worth a quarter (a 
farthing) ; reverence shown to the righteous is better. 

were allowed to continue in the traditional language of the people 
who had embraced Buddhism. See the pertinent remarks of Burnouf, 
Introduction, pp. 134 seq., 184. On Mira, the tempter, see v. 7. 
S&stram Aiyar, On the Gaina. Religion, p. xx, says : ' Moreover as 
it is declared in the Gaina Vedas that all the gods worshipped by 
the various Hindu sects, viz. Siva, Brahma, Vishmi, Gawapati, 
Subramaniyan, and others, were devoted adherents of the above- 
mentioned Tirthankaras, the Gainas therefore do not consider 
them as unworthy of their worship ; but as they are servants of 
Arugan, they consider them to be deities of their system, and 
accordingly perform certain ptig&s in honour of them, and worship 
them also.' The case is more doubtful with orthodox Buddhists. 
'Orthodox Buddhists,' as Mr. D'Alwis writes (Attanagalu-vansa, 
p. 55), * do not consider the worship of the Devas as being sanc- 
tioned by him who disclaimed for himself and all the Devas any 
power over man's soul. Yet the Buddhists are everywhere idol- 
worshippers. Buddhism, however, acknowledges the existence of 
some of the Hindu deities, and from the various friendly offices 
which those Devas are said to have rendered to Gotama, Buddhists 
evince a respect for their idols.' See also Buddhaghosha's Parables, 
p. 162. 



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THE THOUSANDS. 33 



109. He who always greets and constantly reveres 
the aged, four things will increase to him, viz. life, 
beauty, happiness, power. 

no. But he who lives a hundred years, vicious 
and unrestrained, a life of one day is better if a man 
is virtuous and reflecting. 

in. And he who lives a hundred years, ignorant 
and unrestrained, a life of one day is better if a man 
is wise and reflecting. 

112. And he who lives a hundred years, idle and 
weak, a life of one day is better if a man has attained 
firm strength. 

113. And he who lives a hundred years, not seeing 
beginning and end, a life of one day is better if a 
man sees beginning and end. 

114. And he who lives a hundred years, not 
seeing the immortal place, a life of one day is better 
if a man sees the immortal place. 

115. And he who lives a hundred years, not 
seeing the highest law, a life of one day is better 
if a man sees the highest law. 

109. Dr. FausbSll, in a most important note, called attention to 
the fact that the same verse, with slight variations, occurs in Manu. 
We there read, II, 1 2 1 : 
''■" Abhividanarilasya nityaw vrc'ddhopasevinaA, 

ifatvari sampravardhante ayur vidy£ yajo balam. 
Here the four things are, life, knowledge, glory, power. 

In the Apastamba-sutras, I, 2, 5, 15, the reward promised for 
the same virtue is svargam ayus ka., 'heaven and long life.' It 
seems, therefore, as if the original idea of this verse came from the 
Brahmans, and was afterwards adopted by the Buddhists. How 
largely it spread is shown by Dr. Fausboll from the Asiatic Re- 
searches, XX, p. 259, where the same verse of the Dhammapada 
is mentioned as being in use among the Buddhists of Siam. 

112. On kustto, see note to verse 7. 



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34 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. IX. 



CHAPTER IX. 

EVIL. 

116. If a man would hasten towards the good, 
he should keep his thought away from evil ; if a 
man does what is good slothfully, his mind delights 
in evil. * 

117. If a man commits a sin, let him not do it 
again ; let him not delight in sin : pain is the out- 
come of evil. 

118. If a man does what is good, let him do it 
again ; let him delight in it : happiness is the out- 
come of good. 

119. Even an evil-doer sees happiness as long as 
his evil deed has not ripened; but when his evil 
deed has ripened, then does the evil-doer see evil. 

1 20. Even a good man sees evil days, as long as 
his good deed has not ripened ; but when his good 
deed has ripened, then does the good man see happy 
days. 

121. Let no man think lightly of evil, saying in 
his heart, It will not come nigh unto me. Even by 
the falling of water-drops a water-pot is filled ; the 
fool becomes full of evil, even if he gather it little 
by little. 

122. Let no man think lightly of good, saying in 
his heart, It will not come nigh unto me. Even by 
the falling of water-drops a water-pot is filled ; the 
wise man becomes full of good, even if he gather it 
little by little. 

123. Let a man avoid evil deeds, as a merchant, 
if he has few companions and carries much Wealth, 



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evil. 35 

avoids a dangerous road ; as a man who loves life 
avoids poison. 

124. He who has no wound on his hand, may 
touch poison with his hand ; poison does not affect 
one who has no wound ; nor is there evil for one 
who does not commit evil. 

125. If a man offend a harmless, pure, and inno- 
cent person, the evil falls back upon that fool, like 
light dust thrown up against the wind. 

126. Some people are born again; evil-doers go 
to hell ; righteous people go to heaven ; those who 
are free from all worldly desires attain Nirva«a. 

127. Not in the sky, not in the midst of the sea, 
not if we enter into the clefts of the mountains, is 
there known a spot in the whole world where a 
man might be freed from an evil deed. 

128. Not in the sky, not in the midst of the sea, 
not if we enter into the clefts of the mountains, is 
there known a spot in the whole world where death 
could not overcome (the mortal). 

125. Cf. Suttanipata, v. 661 ; Indische Sprtiche, 1582; Katha- 
saritsagara, 49, 222. 

126. For a description of hell and its long, yet not endless 
sufferings, see Buddhaghosha's Parables, p. 132. The pleasures of 
heaven, too, are frequently described in these Parables and else- 
where. Buddha himself enjoyed these pleasures of heaven, before he 
was born for the last time. It is probably when good and evil deeds 
are equally balanced, that men are born again as human beings ; 
this, at least, is the opinion of the Gainas. Cf. Chintama»i, ed. 
H. Bower, Introd. p. xv. 

127. Cf. St. Luke xii. 2, ' For there is nothing covered that shall 
not be revealed;' and Psalm cxxxix. 8-12. 



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36 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. X. 



CHAPTER X. 

PUNISHMENT. 

129. All men tremble at punishment, all men fear 
death ; remember that you are like unto them, and 
do not kill, nor cause slaughter. 

1 30. All men tremble at punishment, all men love 
life ; remember that thou art like unto them, and do 
not kill, nor cause slaughter. 

131. He who seeking his own happiness punishes 
or kills beings who also long for happiness, will not 
find happiness after death. , 



129. One feels tempted, no doubt, to take upama in the sense 
of 'the nearest (der Nachste), the neighbour,' and to translate, 
' having made oneself one's neighbour,' i. e. loving one's neighbour 
as oneself. But as upamam, with a short a, is the correct accusative 
of upamS, we must translate, ' having made oneself the likeness, 
the image of others, having placed oneself in the place of others.' 
This is an expression which occurs frequently in Sanskrit; cf. 
Hitopadeja 1, 1 1 : 

Tr&ni yath&tmano 'bhtsh/i bhutinam api te tathi, 
Atmaupamyena bhuteshu dzyim kurvanti sidhavaA. 
'As life is dear to oneself, it is dear also to other living beings: 
by comparing oneself with others, good people bestow pity on all 
beings.' 

See also Hit I^ia; Rim. V, 23, 5, dtminam upamaw krtlvi 
sveshu dareshu ^j^yatam, ' making oneself a likeness, i. e, putting 
oneself in the posftiorr- of other people, it is right to love hone but 
one's own wife.' Dr. Fausboll has called attention to similar pas- 
sages in the MahSbhirata, XIII, 5569 seq. 

130. Cf. St. Luke vi. 31. 

131. Dr. Fausboll points out the striking similarity between this 
verse and two verses occurring in Manu and the Mahabhirata : — 



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PUNISHMENT. 37 



132. He who seeking his own happiness does not 
punish or kill beings who also long for happiness, 
will find happiness after death. 

133. Do not speak harshly to anybody; those 
who are spoken to will answer thee in the same 
way. Angry speech is painful, blows for blows will 
touch thee. 

134. If, like a shattered metal plate (gong), thou 
utter not, then thou hast reached Nirvawa ; conten- 
tion is not known to thee. 

135. As a cowherd with his staff drives his cows 
into the stable, so do Age and Death drive the life 
of men. 

136. A fool does not know when he commits his 
evil deeds : but the wicked man burns by his own 
deeds, as if burnt by fire. 

137. He who inflicts pain on innocent and harm- 
less persons, will soon come to one of these ten 
states : 



Manu V, 45 : 

Yo 'hiwsakani bhutani hinasty atmasukhe££Aaya, 
Sa giva.ms £a mrc'tar iaiva na kva&t sukham edhate. 
Mahabharata XIII, 5568 : 

Ahimsakani bhutani da»rfena vinihanti yaA, 
AtmanaA sukham \kiknn sa pretya naiva sukht bhavet. 
If it were not for ahiwsakani, in which Manu and the Mahabharata 
agree, I should say that the verses in both were Sanskrit modifica- 
tions of the Pali original The verse in the Mahabharata presup- 
poses the verse of the Dhammapada. 

133. See Mahabharata XII, 4056. 

134. See Childers, s. v. nibbana, p. 270, and s. v. kiwso ; D'Alwis, 
Buddhist Nirv£»a, p. 35. 

136. The metaphor of 'burning' for ' suffering ' is very 
common in Buddhist literature. Everything burns, i.e. every- 
thing suffers, was one of the first experiences of Buddha himself. 
See v. 146. 



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38 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. X. 

138. He will have cruel suffering, loss, injury of 
the body, heavy affliction, or loss of mind, 

139. Or a misfortune coming from the king, or 
a fearful accusation, or loss of relations, or destruc- 
tion of treasures, 

140. Or lightning-fire will burn his houses ; and 
when his body is destroyed, the fool will go to hell. 

141. Not nakedness, not platted hair, not dirt, not 
fasting, or lying on the earth, not rubbing with dust, 

138. 'Cruel suffering' is explained by sfsaroga, 'headache,' &c. 
' Loss' is taken for loss of money. ' Injury of the body ' is held to 
be the cutting off of the arm, and other limbs. ' Heavy afflictions ' 
are, again, various kinds of diseases. 

139. Upasarga means 'accident, misfortune.' Dr. Fausboll 
translates r&^ato va upassaggam by ' fulgentis (lunae) defectionem ;' 
Dr. Weber by 'Bestrafung vom Konig;' Beal by' some govern- 
mental difficulty.' Abbhakkhanam, Sanskrit abhyikhy&nam, is a 
heavy accusation for high treason, or similar offences. Beal trans- 
lates, ' some false accusation.' The ' destruction of pleasures or 
treasures' is explained by gold being changed to coals (seeBuddha- 
ghosha's Parables, p. 98 ; Thiessen, Kisagotamt, p. 6), pearls to 
cotton seed, corn to potsherds, and by men and cattle becoming 
blind, lame, &c. 

141. Cf. Hibbert Lectures, p. 355. Dr. Fausboll has pointed out 
that the same or a very similar verse occurs in a legend taken from 
the Divyavad&na, and translated by Burnouf (Introduction, p. 313 
seq.) Burnouf translates the verse : ' Ce n'est ni la coutume de 
marcher nu, ni les cheveux natt^s, ni l'usage d'argile, ni le choix 
des diverses especes d'aliments, ni 1'habitude de coucher sur la 
terre nue, ni la poussiere, ni la malproprete", ni l'attention a fuir 
l'abri d'un toit, qui sont capables de dissiper le trouble dans lequel 
nous jettent les de'sirs non-satisfaits ; mais qu'un homme, maitre 
de ses sens, calme, recueilli, chaste, e'vitant de faire du mal a aucune 
creature, accomplisse la Loi, et il sera, quoique pare - d'ornements, 
un Brahmane, un Cramana, un Religieux.' See also Suttanipata, 
v. 248. 

Walking naked and the other things mentioned in our verse 
are outward signs of a saintly life, and these Buddha rejects because 
they do not calm the passions. Nakedness he seems to have 



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PUNISHMENT. 39 



not sitting motionless, can purify a mortal who has 
not overcome desires. 

142. He who, though dressed in fine apparel, 
exercises tranquillity, is quiet, subdued, restrained, 
chaste, and has ceased to find fault with all other 
beings, he indeed is a Brahma#a, an ascetic (sra.- 
mana), a friar (bhikshu). 

143. Is there in this world any man so restrained 
by humility that he does not mind reproof, as a 
well-trained horse the whip ? 

144. Like a well-trained horse when touched by 

rejected on other grounds too, if we may judge from the Suma- 
gadha-avadina : ' A number of naked friars were assembled in the 
house of the daughter of An£tha-pi«dika. She called her daughter- 
in-law, Sumigadha, and said, " Go and see those highly respectable 
persons." Sum&gadM, expecting to see some of the saints, like 
.S&riputra, Maudgalyayana, and others, ran out full of joy. But 
when she saw these friars with their hair like pigeon wings, covered 
by nothing but dirt, offensive, and looking like demons, she became 
sad. "Why are you sad?" said her mother-in-law. SumSgadhS. 
replied, " O mother, if these are saints, what must sinners be like ? " ' 

Burnouf (Introduction, p. 312) supposed that the Gainas only, 
and not the Buddhists, allowed nakedness. But the Gainas, too, 
do not allow it universally. They are divided into two parties, the 
.Svetambaras and Digambaras. The .Svetambaras, clad in white, 
are the followers of Pawvanatha, and wear clothes. The Digam- 
baras, i. e. sky-clad, disrobed, are followers of Mahivfra, resident 
chiefly in Southern India. At present they, too, wear clothing, 
but not when eating. See Sastram Aiyar, p. xxi. 

The g2Jk, or the hair platted and gathered up in a knot, was a 
sign of a .Saiva ascetic. The sitting motionless is one of the pos- 
tures assumed by ascetics. Clough explains ukku/ika as ' the act 
of sitting on the heels ;' Wilson gives for utka/ukisana, ' sitting on 
the hams.' See Fausbfill, note on verse 140. 

142. As to dawf&nidhilna, see Mahabh. XII, 6559, and Sutta- 
nip£ta, v. 34. 

143, 144. I am very doubtful as to the real meaning of these 
verses. If their object is to show how reproof or punishment 



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40 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. X. 

the whip, be ye active and lively, and by faith, by 
virtue, by energy, by meditation, by discernment of 
the law you will overcome this great pain (of reproof), 
perfect in knowledge and in behaviour, and never 
forgetful. 

145. Well-makers lead the water (wherever they 
like) ; fletchers bend the arrow ; carpenters bend 
a log of wood ; good people fashion themselves. 

should be borne, my translation would be right, though alpabodhati 
in the sense of parvi facere is strange. 

145. The same as verse 80. According to FausbSll and Subhfiti 
we ought to render the verses by, ' What man is there found on 
earth so restrained by shame that he never provokes reproof, as a 
good horse the whip?' See Childers, s. v. appabodhati. 



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OLD AGE. 41 



CHAPTER XI. 

OLD AGE. 

146. How is there laughter, how is there joy, as 
this world is always burning ? Why do you not 
seek a light, ye who are surrounded by darkness ? 

147. Look at this dressed-up lump, covered with 
wounds, joined together, sickly, full of many thoughts, 
which has no strength, no hold ! 

148. This body is wasted, full of sickness, and 
frail ; this heap of corruption breaks to pieces, life 
indeed ends in death. 

148. Dr. Fausboll informs me that Childers proposed the emen- 
dation marawantaw hi ^tvitaw. The following extract from a letter, 
addressed by Childers to Dr. FausbSll, will be read with interest : — 
'As regards Dhp. v. 148, 1 have no doubt whatever. I quite agree 
with you that the idea (mors est vita ejus) is a profound and noble 
one, but the question is, Is the idea there? I think not. Mara»a»? 
tamhi ^Ivitaw is not Pali, I mean not a Pali construction, and 
years ago even it grated on my ear as a harsh phrase. The reading 
of your MSS. of the texts is nothing; your MSS. of Dhammapada 
are very bad ones, and it is merely the vicious Sinhalese spelling of 
bad MSS., like kammawtaw for kammanta/ra. But the comment sets 
the question at rest at once, for it explains marawantaw by mara«a- 
pariyosSnaOT, which is exactly the same. I see there is one serious 
difficulty left, that all your MSS. seem to have tamhi, and not 
taw hi ; but are you sure it is so ? There was a Dhammapada in 
the India Office Library, and I had a great hunt for it a few days 
ago, but to my deep disappointment it is missing. I do not agree 
with you that the sentence " All Life is bounded by Death," is 
trivial : it is a truism, but half the noblest passages in poetry are 
truisms, and unless I greatly mistake, this very passage will be found 
in many other literatures.' 

Dr. Fausboll adds : — 

'I have still the same doubt as before, because of all my 

[10] g 



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42 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. XI. 

149. Those white bones, like gourds thrown away 
in the autumn, what pleasure is there in looking at 
them ? 

150. After a stronghold has been made of the 
bones, it is covered with flesh and blood, and there 
dwell in it old age and death, pride and deceit. 

151. The brilliant chariots of kings are destroyed, 
the body also approaches destruction, but the virtue 
of good people never approaches destruction, — thus 
do the good say to the good. 

152. A man who has learnt little, grows old like 
an ox ; his flesh grows, but his knowledge does not 
grow. 

I 53> J 54" Looking for the maker of this taber- 
nacle, I shall have to run through a course of many 
births, so long as I do not find (him) ; and painful is 
birth again and again. But now, maker of the taber- 
nacle, thou hast been seen ; thou shalt not make up 

MSS. reading mara«a»* tamhi. I do not know the readings 
of the London MSS. The explanation of the commentary does 
not settle the question, as it may as well be considered an 
explanation of my reading as of the reading which Childers 
proposed. — V. Fausboll.' 

149. In the Rudraya«avadana of the Divyavadana this verse 
appears as, 

Yanimany apariddh&ni vikshiptani dwo duaA, 
Kapctavareany asthini t&ni dmh/vaiha k& ratiA. 
See Schiefner, Me*l. Asiat. VIII, p. 589 ; Gitaka., vol. i. p. 322. 

150. The expression mamsalohitalepanam is curiously like the 
expression used in Manu VI, 76, mawsa.vomtalepanam, and in 
several passages of the Mahabharata, XII, 12462, 12053, as pointed 
out by Dr. Fausboll. 

*53> I 54- These two verses are famous among Buddhists, for 
they are the words which the founder of Buddhism is supposed 
to have uttered at the moment he attained to Buddhahood. (See 
Spence Hardy, Manual, p. 180.) According to the Lalita-vistara, 
however, the words uttered on that solemn occasion were those 



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OLD AGE. 43 



this tabernacle again. All thy rafters are broken, 
thy ridge-pole is sundered ; the mind, approaching 
the Eternal (visankhara, nirva#a), has attained to 
the extinction of all desires. 

quoted in the note to verse 39. In the commentary on the 
Brahma^ala this verse is called the first speech of Buddha, his last 
speech being the words in the Mahaparinibbana-sutta, 'Life is 
subject to age ; strive in earnest.' The words used in the Maha- 
parinibbana-sutta, Chap. IV, 2, Aatunnaw dhammanam ananubodha 
appa/ivedh& evam idam digham addhSnaw* sandhdvitam sawsaritaw 
mama« k' eva tumhakaw ka, answer to the anticipation expressed 
in our verse. 

The exact rendering of this verse has been much discussed, chiefly 
by Mr. D'Alwis in the Attanugaluvansa, p. cxxviii, and again in his 
Buddhist Nirvana, p. 78 ; also by Childers, Notes on Dhammapada, 
p. 4, and in his Dictionary. Gogerly translated : ' Through various 
transmigrations I must travel, if I do not discover the builder whom 
I seek.' Spence Hardy : ' Through many different births I have run 
(to me not having found), seeking the architect of the desire-re- 
sembling house.' Fausboll : ' Multiplices generationis revolutiones 
percurreram,non inveniens.domus (corporis) fabricatorem quaerens.' 
And again (p. 322): 'Multarum generationum revolutio mihi sub- 
eunda esset, nisi invenissem domus fabricatorem.' Childers: ' I have 
run through the revolution of countless births, seeking the architect 
of this dwelling and finding him not.' D'Alwis : ' Through transmi- 
grations of numerous births have I run, not discovering, (though) 
seeking the house-builder.' All depends on how we take sandha- 
vissam, which Fausboll takes as a conditional, Childers, following 
Trenckner, as an aorist, because the sense imperatively requires 
an aorist. In either case, the dropping of the augment and the 
doubling of the s are, however, irregular. Sandhavissam is the 
regular form of the future, and as such I translate it, qualifying, 
however, the future, by the participle present anibbisan, i.e. not 
finding, and taking it in the sense of, if or so long as I do not find 
the true cause of existence. I had formerly translated anibbisan, 
as not resting (anirvuan), but the commentator seems to authorise 
the meaning of not finding (avindanto, alabhanto), and in that case 
all the material difficulties of the verse seem to me to disappear. 

' The maker of the tabernacle' is explained as a poetical expres- 
sion for the cause of new births, at least according to the views of 



44 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. XI. 

155. Men who have not observed proper disci- 
pline, and have not gained treasure in their youth, 
perish like old herons in a lake without fish. 

156. Men who have not observed proper disci- 
pline, and have not gained treasure in their youth, 
lie, like broken bows, sighing after the past. 

Buddha's followers, whatever his own views may have been. Bud- 
dha had conquered Mara, the representative of worldly temptations, 
the father of worldly desires, and as desires (ta/wha) are, by means 
of upadana and bhava, the cause of giti, or 'birth,' the destruction of 
desires and the conquest of Mara are nearly the same thing, though 
expressed differently in the philosophical and legendary language 
of the Buddhists. Ta»?ha, 'thirst' or 'desire,' is mentioned as 
serving in the army of Mara. (Lotus, p. 443.) 

155. On ^Myanti, i. e. kshayanti, see Dr. Bollensen's learned 
remarks, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenl. Gesellschaft, XVIII, 
834, and Boehtlingk-Roth, s.v. ksha. 



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SELF. 45 



CHAPTER XII. 

SELF. 

157. .If a man hold himself dear, let him watch 
himself carefully; during one at least out of the 
three watches a wise man should be watchful. 

158. Let each man direct himself first to what is 
proper, then let him teach others ; thus a wise man 
will not suffer. 

159. If a man make himself as he teaches others I 
to be, then, being himself well subdued, he may sub- ' 
due (others) ; one's own self is indeed difficult to 
subdue. 

160. Self is the lord of self, who else could be 
the lord? With self well subdued, a man finds a 
lord such as few can find. 

161. The evil done by oneself, self-begotten, self- 
bred, crushes the foolish, as a diamond breaks a 
precious stone. 

162. He whose wickedness is very great brings 
himself down to that state where his enemy wishes 
him to be, as a creeper does with the tree which it 
surrounds. 

163. Bad deeds, and deeds hurtful to ourselves, 
are easy to do ; what is beneficial and good, that is 
very difficult to do. 

157. The three watches of the night are meant for the three 
stages of life. Cf. St. Mark xiii. 37, 'And what I say unto you, 
I say unto all, Watch.' 

158. Cf. Gataka, vol. ii. p. 441. 

161. The Chinese translation renders va^iram by 'steel drill.' 



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46 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. XII. 

164. The foolish man who scorns the rule of the 
venerable (Arahat), of the elect (Ariya), of the vir- 
tuous, and follows false doctrine, he bears fruit to 
his own destruction, like the fruits of the Kanaka 
reed. 

165. By oneself the evil is done, by oneself one 
suffers; by oneself evil is left undone, by oneself 
one is purified. Purity and impurity belong to one- 
self, no one can purify another. 

166. Let no one forget his own duty for the sake 
of another's, however great ; let a man, after he has 
discerned his own duty, be always attentive to his 
duty. 

164. The reed either dies after it has borne fruit, or is cut down 
for the sake of its fruit. 

Ditthi, literally 'view,' is used even by itself, like the Greek 
' hairesis,' in the sense of heresy (see Burnouf, Lotus, p. 444). In 
other places a distinction is made between mikktedittfii (vv. 167, 
316) and sammadi///4i (v. 319). If arahataw ariyanaw are used in 
their technical sense, we should translate ' the reverend Arhats,' — 
Arhat being the highest degree of the four orders of Ariyas, viz. 
Srota&panna, Sakadagamin, Anagdmin, and Arhat. See note to 
verse 178. 

166. Attha, lit. ' object,' must here be taken in a moral sense, 
as ' duty ' rather than as ' advantage.' Childers rendered it by 
' spiritual good.' The story which Buddhaghosa tells of the Thera 
Attadattha gives a clue to the origin ofsome of his parables, which 
seem to have been invented to suit the text of the Dhammapada 
rather than vice versS. A similar case occurs in the commentary 
to verse 227. 



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THE WORLD. 47 



CHAPTER XIII. 

THE WORLD. 

167. Do not follow the evil law ! Do not live on 
in thoughtlessness ! Do not follow false doctrine ! 
Be not a friend of the world. 

168. Rouse thyself! do not be idle ! Follow the 
law of virtue! The virtuous rests in bliss in this 
world and in the next. 

169. Follow the law of virtue ; do not follow that 
of sin. The virtuous rests in bliss in this world and 
in the next. 

1 70. Look upon the world as a bubble, look upon 
it as a mirage : the king of death does not see him 
who thus looks down upon the world. 

171. Come, look at this glittering world, like unto 
a royal chariot ; the foolish are immersed in it, but 
the wise do not touch it. 

172. He who formerly was reckless and after- 
wards became sober, brightens up this world, like 
the moon when freed from clouds. 

173. He whose evil deeds are covered by good 
deeds, brightens up this world, like the moon when 
freed from clouds. 

1 74. .Thjsworldjs dark, few only can see here; a few 
onh^jgotoheaven, like birds escaped from the net. 

175. The swans go on the path of the sun, they 
go through the ether by means of their miraculous 

168, 169. See Rhys Davids, Buddhism, p. 65. 
170. See Suttanipata, v. 11 18. 

175. Hazssa may be meant for the bird, whether flamingo, or 
swan, or ibis (see Hardy, Manual, p. 17), but it may also, I believe, 



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48 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. XIII. 

power; the wise are led out of this world, when 
they have conquered Mara and his train. 

176. If a man has transgressed one law, and 
speaks lies, and scoffs at another world, there is no 
evil he will not do. 

177. The uncharitable do not go to the world of 
the gods ; fools only do not praise liberality ; a wise 
man rejoices in liberality, and through it becomes 
blessed in the other world. 

1 78. Better than sovereignty over the earth, better 
than going to heaven, better than lordship over all 
worlds, is the reward of the first step in holiness. 

be taken in the sense of saint. As to iddhi, 'magical power,' 
i.e. r/'ddhi, see Burnouf, Lotus, p. 310; Spence Hardy, Manual, 
pp. 498, 504; Legends, pp. 55, 177 ; and note to verse 254. 

178. Sotipatti, the technical term for the first step in the path 
that leads to Nirv£»a. There are four such steps, or stages, and on 
entering each, a man receives a new title : — 

(1) The .Srotaapanna, lit. he who has got into the stream. 
A man may have seven more births before he reaches the other 
shore, i. e. Nirvawa^ 

(2) Sakr/'ddgdmin, lit. he who comes back once, so called be- 
cause, after having entered this stage, a man is born only once 
more among men or gods. Childers shows that this involves really 
two more births, one in the deva world, the other in the world of 
men. Burnouf says the same, Introduction, p. 293. 

(3) Anag&min, lit. he who does not come back, so called be- 
cause, after this stage, a man cannot be born again in a lower 
world, but can only be born into a Brahman world, before he 
reaches Nirv£«a. 

(4) Arhat, the venerable, the perfect, who has reached the highest 
stage that can be reached, and from which Nirviwa is perceived 
(sukkhavipassant, Lotus, p. 849). See Hardy, Eastern Monachism, 
p. 280 ; Burnouf, Introduction, p. 209 ; Koppen, p. 398 ; D'Alwis, 
Attanugaluvansa, p. cxxiv; Feer, Sutra en 42 articles, p. 6. 



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THE BUDDHA. 49 




CHAPTER XIVV J J ; ''-iSlfy] 

THE BUDDHA (THE AWAKENEfi)> -TO ?. lll^X 

179. He whose conquest is not conquered again, 
into whose conquest no one in this world enters, by . 
what track can you lead him, the Awakened, the 
Omniscient, the trackless ? ' 

180. He whom no desire with its snares and 
poisons can lead astray, by what track can you 
lead him, die Awakened, the Omniscient, the 
trackless ? 

181. Even the gods envy those who are awakened 
and not forgetful, who are given to meditation, who 
are wise, and who xielight in the repose of retire- 
ment (from the world). 

182. Difficult (to obtain) is the conception of men, 
difficult is the life of mortals, difficult is the hearing 
of the True Law, difficult is the birth of the Awak- 
ened (the attainment of Biiddhahood). 

179, 180. Buddha, the Awakened, is to be taken as an appella- 
tive rather than as the proper name of the Buddha (see v. 183). 
It means, anybody who has arrived at complete knowledge. Anan- 
tago£aram I take in the sense of, possessed of unlimited knowledge. 
Apadam, which Dr. Fausboll takes as an epithet of Buddha and 
translates by ' non investigabilis,' is translated ' trackless,' in order 
to show the play on the word pada;' see Childers, s. v. The com- 
mentator says : ' The man who is possessed of even a single one of 
such conditions as rdga, &c, him ye may lead forward ; but the 
Buddha has not even one condition or basis of renewed existence, 
and therefore by what track will you lead this unconditioned 
Buddha?' Cf. Dhp. w. 92, 420; and G&taka, vol. i. pp. 79, 313. 

182. Mr. Beal (Dhammapada, p. 1 10) states that this verse occurs 
in the Sutra of the Forty-two Sections. 



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50 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. XIV. 

183. Not to commit any sin, to do good, and to - 
purify one's mind, that is the teaching of (all) the 
Awakened. 

184. The Awakened call patience the highest 
penance, long-suffering the highest Nirvi»a ; for he 
is not an anchorite (pravrafita) who strikes others, 
he is not an ascetic (srama^a) who insults others. 

185. Not to blame, not to strike, to live restrained 
under the law, to be moderate in eating, to sleep and 
sit alone, and to dwell on the highest thoughts, — 
this is the teaching of the Awakened. 

183. This verse is again one of the most solemn verses among 
the Buddhists. According to Csoma K8r6si, it ought to follow 
the famous Arya stanza, 'Ye dhammd' (Lotus, p. 522), and serve 
as its complement. But though this may be the case in Tibet, it 
was not so originally. The same verse (ascribed to Kanakamuni) 
occurs at the end of the Chinese translation of the Prdtimoksha 
(Beal, J. R. A. S. XIX, p. 473; Catena, p. 159); in the Tibetan 
translation of the Gath&sahgraha, v. 14 (Schiefner, Mel. Asiat. 
VIII, pp. 568, 586 ; and Csoma K6r5si, As. Res. XX, p. 79). 
Burnouf has fully discussed the metre and meaning of our verse on 
PP- 5 2 7> 5 2 8 of his ' Lotus.' He prefers sa&ttaparidamanam, which 
Csoma translated by ' the mind must be brought under entire sub- 
jection ' (sva&ttaparidamanam), and the late Dr. Mill by ' proprii 
intellectus subjugatio.' But his own MS. of the Mahlpadhana-sutta 
gave likewise sa£ittapariyodapanam, and this is no doubt the cor- 
rect reading. (See D'Alwis, Attanugaluvansa, p. cxxix.) We 
found pariyodappeya in verse 88, in the sense of purging oneself 
from the troubles of thought. From the same verb, (pari) ava + dai, 
we may derive the name Avadana, a legend, originally a pure and 
virtuous act, an apivrtta, afterwards a sacred story, and possibly a 
story the hearing of which purifies the mind. See Boehtlingk- 
Roth, s. v. avad&na. 

184. Childers, following the commentator, translates, 'Patience, 
which is long-suffering, is the best devotion, the Buddhas declare 
that Nirvdwa is the best (of things).' 

185. Cf. Suttanipata, v. 337. Patimokkhe, 'under the law,' i.e. 
according to the law, the law which leads to Moksha, or ' freedom.' 
Pratimoksha is the title of the oldest collection of the moral laws 



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THE BUDDHA. 51 



186. There is no satisfying lusts, even by a shower 
of gold pieces ; he who knows that lusts have a short 
taste and cause pain, he is wise ; 

187. Even in heavenly pleasures he finds no satis- 
faction, the disciple who is fully awakened delights 
only in the destruction of all desires. 

188. Men, driven by fear, go to many a refuge, to 
mountains and forests, to groves and sacred trees. 

189. But that is not a safe refuge, that is not the 
best refuge ; a man is not delivered from all pains 
after having gone to that refuge. 

190. He who takes refuge with Buddha, the Law, 



of the Buddhists (Burnouf, Introduction, p. 300 ; Bigandet, The 
Life of Gaudama, p. 439; Rhys Davids, Buddhism, p. 162), and as 
it was common both to the Southern and the Northern Buddhists, 
patimokkhe in our passage may possibly be meant, as Professor 
Weber suggests, as the title of that very collection. The commen- 
tator explains it by ^e/Makaslla and patimokkhastla. Sayanasam 
might stand for jayana«inam, see Mahabh. XII, 6684 ; but in Bud- 
dhist literature it is intended for .rayanasanam; see also Mahabh. XII, 
9978, jayyasane. FausbSll now reads pSnta instead of patthan. 

187. There is a curious similarity between this verse and verse 
6503 (9919) of the SSntiparva : 

Ya£ ka. Mmasukhaw loke, yai ka. divyam mahat sukham, 
Tr*'sh«&kshayasukhasyaite narhata^ sho</art»? kalam. 
' And whatever delight of love there is on earth, and whatever is 
the great delight in heaven, they are not worth the sixteenth part 
of the pleasure which springs from the destruction of all desires.' 
The two verses 186, 187 are ascribed to king Mandhatri, shortly 
before his death (Mel. Asiat.VIII, p. 471; see also Gataka, vol. ii. 

P"3)- 

188-192. These verses occur in Sanskrit in the Pratiharyasutra, 
translated by Burnouf, Introduction, pp. 162-189; see P- J 86. 
Burnouf translates rukkha£ety&ni by ' arbres consacre"s ; ' properly, 
sacred shrines under or near a tree. See also (rataka, vol. i. p. 97. 

190. Buddha, Dharma, and Sahgha are called the Truara«a 
(cf. Burnouf, Introd. p. 630). The four holy truths are the four 
statements that there is pain in this world, that the source of 



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52 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. XIV. 

and the Church ; he who, with clear understanding, 
sees the four holy truths : — 

191. Viz. pain, the origin of pain, the destruction 
of pain, and the eightfold holy way that leads to the 
quieting of pain ; — 

192. That is the safe refuge, that is the best 
refuge ; having gone to that refuge, a man is deli- 
vered from all pain. 

193. A supernatural person (a Buddha) is not 
easily found, he is not born everywhere. Wherever 
such a sage is born, that race prospers. 

194. Happy is the arising of the awakened, 
happy is the teaching of the True Law, happy is 
peace in the church, happy is the devotion of those 
who are at peace. 

I 95» IQ 6. He who pays homage to those who 
deserve homage, whether the awakened (Buddha) 
or their disciples, those who have overcome the 
host (of evils), and crossed the flood of sorrow, he 
who pays homage to such as have found deliverance 
and know no fear, his merit can never be measured 
by anybody. 

pain is desire, that desire can be annihilated, that there is a way 
(shown by Buddha) by which the annihilation of all desires can be 
achieved, and freedom be obtained. That way consists of eight 
parts. (See Burnouf, Introduction, p. 630.) The eightfold way 
forms the subject of Chapter XVIII. (See also Feer, Journal 
As. 1870, p. 418, and Chips from a German Workshop, 2nd ed. 
vol. i. p. 251 seq.) 



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HAPPINESS. 53 



CHAPTER XV. 

HAPPINESS. 

197. Let us live happily then, not hating those 
who hate us ! among men who hate us let us dwell 
free from hatred ! ■^-*~* : ~ & J * A *' ^>* fa^ t—im '/ *- 

198. Let us live happily then, free from ailments 
among the ailing ! among men who are ailing let us 
dwell free from ailments ! 

199. Let us live happily then, free from greed 
among the greedy ! among men who are greedy let 
us dwell free from greed ! 

200. Let us live happily then, though we call 
nothing our own ! We shall be like the bright gods, 
feeding on happiness ! 

201. Victory breeds hatred, for the conquered is 
unhappy. He who has given up both victory and 
defeat, he, the contented, is happy. 

198. The ailment here meant is moral rather than physical. 
Cf. Mahabh. XII, 9924, sawzpraranto niramayaA; 9925, yo 'sau 
prawantiko rogas tarn trishnim tya^-ataA sukham. 

200. The words placed in the mouth of the king of Videha, 
while his residence Mithila was in flames, are curiously like our 
verse; cf. Mahabh. XII, 9917, 

Susukham vata #f vami yasya me nasti kinlana, 
Mithilayam pradiptayaw na me dahyati kiw&ma. 
'I live happily, indeed, for I have nothing; while Mithila is in 
flames, nothing of mine is burning.' Cf. Muir, Religious Senti- 
ments, p. 106. 

The abhassara, i. e. abhasvara, ' the bright gods,' are frequently 
mentioned. Cf. Burnouf, Introd. p. 611. 

201. This verse is ascribed to Buddha, when he heard of the 
defeat of A^ataratru by Prasena^it. It exists in the Northern or 



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54 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. XV. 

202. There is no fire like passion ; there is no 
losing throw like hatred ; there is no pain like this 
body ; ^there is no happiness higher than rest.1 ^ 

203. Hunger is the worst of diseases, the body 
the greatest of pains ; if one knows this truly, that 
is Nirva»a, the highest happiness. 

Sanskrit and in the Southern or Pali texts, i. e. in the Avadana- 
jataka, in the Sa«yutta-nik£ya. See Feer, Comptes Rendus, 1871, 
p. 44, and Journal As. 1880, p. 509. In the Avadlna-jataka, the 
Sanskrit version is — 

(?ayo vairam prasavati, du^khaw fete parSgitaA 
UpatintaA sukhaw jete hitva' gayaparag-ayam. 

202. I take kali in the sense of an unlucky die which makes a 
player lose his game. A real simile seems wanted here, as in 
verse 251, where, for .the same reason, I translate graha by 'shark,' 
not by ' captivitas,' as Dr. Fausboll proposes. The same scholar 
translates kali in our verse by ' peccatum.' If there is any ob- 
jection to translating kali in Pali by ' unlucky die,' I should still 
prefer to take it in the sense of the age of depravity, or the demon 
of depravity. To judge from Abhidhanappadtpika, 1106, kali was 
used for para^aya, i. e. loss at game, a losing throw, and occurs in 
that sense again in verse 252. The Chinese translation has, ' there 
is no distress (poison) worse than hate.' A similar verse occurs 
Mahibh. .SSntip. 175, v. 35. 

' Body ' for khandha is a free translation, but it is difficult to find 
any other rendering. The Chinese translation also has 'body.' 
According to the Buddhists each sentient being consists of five 
khandhas (skandha), or aggregates, the organized body (rupa- 
khandha) with its four internal capacities of sensation (vedand), 
perception (sangni), conception (sawskara), knowledge (vigwdna). 
See Burnouf, Introd. pp. 589, 634 ; Lotus, p. 335. 

203. Sawskara is the fourth of the five khandhas, but the com- 
mentator takes it here, as well as in verse 255, for the five khandhas 
together, in which case we can only translate it by ' body.' See 
also verse 278. Childers proposes 'organic life' (Notes on Dham- 
mapada, p. 1). There is, however, another sawskdra, that which 
follows immediately upon avidyd, ' ignorance,' as the second of the 
nid&nas, or ' causes of existence,' and this too might be called the 
greatest pain, considering that it is the cause of birth, which is the 
cause of all pain. Samsk&ra seems sometimes to have a different 



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HAPPINESS. 55 



204. Health is the greatest of gifts, contented- 7 y". 
ness the best riches; trust is the best of relation- j 
ships, Nirvawa the highest happiness. 

205. He who has tasted the sweetness of solitude 
and tranquillity, is free from fear and free from sin, 
while he tastes the sweetness of drinking in the 
law. 

206. The sight of the elect (Arya) is good, to live 
with them is always happiness ; (if a man does not 
see fools, he will be truly happy. ) 

207. He who walks in the company of fools suf- 
fers a long way; company with fools, as with an 
enemy, is always painful ; company with the wise is 
pleasure, like meeting with kinsfolk. \ ££ 

208. Therefore, one ought to follow the wise, the 
intelligent, the learned, the much enduring, the du- 
tiful, the elect ; one ought to follow a good and wise 
man, as the moon follows the path of the stars. 

and less technical meaning, being used in the sense of conceptions, 
plans, desires, as, for instance, in verse 368, where sahkhdrinaw 
khayam is used much like taamakhaya. Again, in his comment on 
verse 75, Buddhaghosa says, upadhiviveko sankharasaftgamkaw 
vinodeti; and again, upadhiviveko ka. nirupadhlnaTw puggalinaa* 
visankhdragat&n&m. 

For a similar sentiment, see Stanislas Julien, Les Avad&nas, vol. i. 
p. 40, 'Le corps est la plus grande source de souffrance,' &c. 
I should say that the khandhas in verse 202 and the sankharas in 
verse 203 are nearly, if not quite, synonymous. I should prefer to 
read ^iga^M-parama" as a compound. Giga&khi, or as it is written 
in one MS., diga££Aa' (Sk. ^ighatsd), means not only ' hunger,' but 
' appetite, desire.' 

204. Childers translates, 'the best kinsman is a man you can trust;' 

205. Cf. Suttanipdta, v. 256. 

208. I should like to read sukho ka, dhirasawv&so. 



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56 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. XVI. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

PLEASURE. 

209. He who gives himself to vanity, and does 
not give himself to meditation, forgetting the real 
aim (of life) and grasping at pleasure, will in time 
envy him who has exerted" himself in meditation. 

210. Let no man ever look for what is pleasant, 
or what is unpleasant. Not to see what is pleasant 
is pain, and it is pain to see what is unpleasant. 

211. Let, therefore, no man love anything ; loss 
of the beloved is evil. Those who love nothing, 
and hate nothing, have no fetters. 

212. From pleasure comes grief, from pleasure 
comes fear ; he who is free from pleasure " knows 
neither grief nor fear. 

213. From affection comes grief, from affection 
comes fear; he who is free from affection knows 
neither grief nor fear. 

214. From lust comes grief, from lust comes 
fear ; he who is free from lust knows neither grief 
nor fear. 

215. From love comes grief, from love comes 
fear ; he who is free from love knows neither grief 
nor fear. 

216. From greed comes grief, from greed comes 
fear ; he who is free from greed knows neither grief 
nor fear. 

217. He who possesses virtue and intelligence, 

214. See Beal, Catena, p. 200. 

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PLEASURE. 57 



who is just, speaks the truth, and does what is his 
own business, him the world will hold dear. 

218. He in whom a desire for the Ineffable (Nir- 
vana) has sprung up, who is satisfied in his mind, 
and whose thoughts are not bewildered by love, he 
is called urdhvawsrotas (carried upwards by the 
stream). 

219. Kinsmen, friends, and lovers salute a man 
who has been long away, and returns safe from 
afar. 

220. In like manner his good works receive him 
who has done good," and has gone from this world 
to the other ; — as kinsmen receive a friend on his 
return. 

218. tTrdhvawsrotas or uddhawsoto is the technical name for 
one who has reached the world of the Avr/has (Aviha), and is pro- 
ceeding to that of the Akanish/Aas (Akani//Aa). This is the last 
stage before he reaches the formless world, the Arupadhitu. (See 
Buddhaghosha's Parables, p. 123 ; Burnouf, Introduction, p. 599.) 
Originally urdhvawsrotas may have been used in a less technical 
sense, meaning one who swims against the stream, and is not 
carried away by the vulgar passions of the world. 



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58 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. XVII. 

CHAPTER XVII. 

ANGER. 

221. Let a man leave anger, let him forsake pride, 
let him overcome all bondage ! No sufferings befall 
the man who is not attached to name and form, and 
who calls nothing his own. 

222. He who holds back rising anger like a rolling •, 
chariot, him I call a real driver ; other people are 
but holding the reins. 

223. Let a man overcome anger by love, let him 
overcome evil by good ; let him overcome the greedy 
by liberality, the liar by truth ! 

224. Speak the truth, do not yield to anger ; give, 
if thou art asked for little ; by these three steps 
thou wilt go near the gods. 

225. The sages who injure nobody, and who 
always control their body, they will go to the un- 
changeable place (Nirvana), where, if they have 
gone, they will suffer no more. 

226. Those who are ever watchful, who study day 
and night, and who strive after Nirva»a, their pas- 
sions will come to an end. 

227. This is an old saying, O Atula, this is not 
only of to-day : ' They blame him who sits silent, 

221. 'Name and form' or 'mind and body' is the translation 
of nama-rupa, the ninth of the Buddhist Niddnas. Cf. Burnouf, 
Introduction, p. 501; see also Gogerly, Lecture on Buddhism, and 
Bigandet, The Life of Gaudama, p. 454. 

223. Mahabh. XII, 3550, asadhu/ra sadhunS ^ayet. Cf. Ten 
Gatakas, ed. Fausb6ll, p. 5. 

227. It appears from the commentary that pord»am and a^ata- 
nam are neuters, referring to what happened formerly and what 



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ANGER. 59 



they blame him who speaks much, they also blame 
him who says little ; there is no one on earth who 
is not blamed. 

228. There never was, there never will be, nor is 
there now, a man who is always blamed, or a man 
who is always praised. 

229. 230. But he whom those who discriminate 
praise continually day after day, as without blemish, 
wise, rich in knowledge and virtue, who would dare 
to blame him, like a coin made of gold from the 
Gambu river? Even the gods praise him, he is 
praised even by Brahman. 

231. Beware of bodily anger, and control thy 
body ! Leave the sins of the body, and with thy 
body practise virtue ! 

232. Beware of the anger of the tongue, and con- 
trol thy tongue ! Leave the sins of the tongue, and 
practise virtue with thy tongue ! 

233. Beware of the anger of the mind, and con- 
trol thy mind ! Leave the sins of the mind, and 
practise virtue with thy mind ! 

234. The wise who control their body, who con- 
trol their tongue, the wise who control their mind, 
are indeed well controlled. 

happens to-day, and that they are not to be taken as adjectives 
referring to dsinam, &c. The commentator must have read atula 
instead of atulam, and he explains it as the name of a pupil whom 
Gautama addressed by that name. This may be so (see note to 
verse 166); but atula may also be taken in the sense of incom- 
parable (Mahabh. XIII, 1937), and in that case we ought to supply, 
with Professor Weber, some such word as ' saw ' or ' saying.' 

230. The Brahman worlds are higher that the Deva worlds as 
the Brahman is higher than a Deva; see Hardy, Manual, p. 25; 
Burnouf, Introduction, pp. 134, 184. 

h2 

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6o DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. XVIII. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

IMPURITY. 

235. Thou art now like a sear leaf, the messen- 
gers of death (Yama) have come near to thee ; thou 
standest at the door of thy departure, and thou hast 
no provision for thy journey. 

236. Make thyself an island, work hard, be wise! 
When thy impurities are blown away, and thou art 
free from guilt, thou wilt enter into the heavenly 
world of the elect (Ariya). 

237. Thy life has come to an end, thou art come 
near to death (Yama), there is no resting-place for 
thee on the road, and thou hast no provision for 
thy journey. 

238. Make thyself an island, work hard, be wise ! 
When thy impurities are blown away, and thou art 
free from guilt, thou wilt not enter again into birth 
and decay. 

239. Let a wise man blow off the impurities of 
his self, as a smith blows off the impurities of silver, 
one by one, little by little, and from time to time. 

240. As the impurity which springs from the iron, 

235. Uyyoga seems to mean departure. See Buddhaghosa's 
commentary on verse 152, p. 319, 1. 1; Fausb6ll, Five Gatakas, 

P-35- 

236. ' An island,' for a drowning man to save himself; (see verse 
25.) Dipaftkara is the name of one of the former Buddhas, and it 
is also used as an appellative of the Buddha, but is always derived 
from dfpo, ' a lamp.' 

239. This verse is the foundation of the thirty-fourth section of 
the Sutra of the forty-two sections; see Beal, Catena, p. 201; Sutta- 
nipata, v. 962. 



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IMPURITY. 6 1 



when it springs from it, destroys it ; thus do a trans- 
gressor's own works lead him to the evil path. 

241. The taint of prayers is non-repetition; the 
taint of houses, non-repair ; the taint of the body is 
sloth ; the taint of a watchman, thoughtlessness. 

242. Bad conduct is the taint of woman, greedi- 
ness the taint of a benefactor ; tainted are all evil 
ways, in this world and in the next. 

243. But there is a taint worse than all taints, — 
Jgnorance is the greatest taint. O mendicants ! 

throw off that taint, and become taintless ! 

244. Life is easy to live for a man who is without 
shame, a crow hero, a mischief-maker, an insulting, 
bold, and wretched fellow. 

245. But life is hard to live for a modest man, 
who always looks for what is pure, who is disinter- 
ested, quiet, spotless, and intelligent. 

246. He who destroys life, who speaks untruth, 
who in this world takes what is not given him, who 
goes to another man's wife ; 

247. And the man who gives himself to drinking 
intoxicating liquors, he. even in this world, digs up 
his own root. l4^ ^^^ *f ^ - 

248. O man, know this, that the unrestrained are 
in a bad state ; take care that greediness and vice 
do not bring thee to grief for a long time ! 

244. Pakkhandin is identified by Dr. Fausboll with praskandin, 
one who jumps forward, insults, or, as Buddhaghosa explains it, 
one who me*ddles with other people's business, an interloper. At 
all events, it is a term of reproach, and, as it would seem, of theo- 
logical reproach. 

246. On the five principal commandments which are recapitu- 
lated in verses 246 and 247, see Buddhaghosha's Parables, p. 153. 

248. Cf. Mahdbharata XII, 4055, yeabim vrittis k& sawyata. 
See also verse 307. 



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62 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. XVIII. 

249. The world gives according to their faith or 
•according to their pleasure : if a man frets about 
the food and the drink given to others, he will find 
no rest either by day or by night. 

250. He in whom that feeling is destroyed, and 
taken out with the very root, finds rest by day and 
by night. 

251. There is no fire like passion, there is no 
shark like hatred, there is no snare like folly, there 
is no torrent like greed. 

252. The fault of others is easily perceived, but 
that of oneself is difficult to perceive ; a man win- 
nows his neighbour's faults like chaff, but his own 
fault he hides, as a cheat hides the bad die from the 
gambler. 

253. If a man looks after the faults of others, and 
is always inclined to be offended, his own passions 
will grow, and he is far from the destruction of 
passions. 

254. There is no path through the air, a man 
is not a Samara by outward acts. The world 

349. This verse has evidently regard to the feelings of the Bhik- 
shus or mendicants who receive either much or little, and who are 
exhorted not to be envious if others receive more than they them- 
selves. Several of the Parables illustrate this feeling. 

251. Dr. FausbSlI translates gaho by ' captivitas,' Dr. Weber by 
' fetter.' I take it in the same sense as griha in Manu VI, 78 ; and 
Buddhaghosa does the same, though he assigns to graha a more 
general meaning, viz. anything that seizes, whether an evil spirit 
(yakkha), a serpent (a^agara), or a crocodile (kumbhila). 

Greed or thirst is represented as a river in Lalita-vistara, ed. 
Calc. p. 482, trishȣ-nadi tivegS prajoshitft me gninashryena., ' the 
wild river of thirst is dried up by the sun of my knowledge.' 

252. See Childers, Notes, p. 7; St. Matthew vii. 3. 

253. As to asava, ' appetite, passion,' see note to verse 39. 

254. I have translated this verse very freely, and not in accord- 



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IMPURITY. 63 



delights in vanity, the Tathagatas (the Buddhas) 
are free from vanity. 

255. There is no path through the air, a man 
is not a Sama«a by outward acts. -No creatures 
are eternal ; but the awakened (Buddha) are never 
shaken. 

ance with Buddhaghosa's commentary. Dr. FausbSll proposed to 
translate, 'No one who is outside the Buddhist community can 
walk through the air, but only a Samawa;' and the same view is 
taken by Professor Weber, though he arrives at it by a different 
construction. Now it is perfectly true that the idea of magical powers 
(r/'ddhi) which enable saints to walk through the air, &c, occurs in 
the Dhammapada, see v. 175, note. But the Dhammapada may 
contain earlier and later verses, and in that case our verse might be 
an early protest on the part of Buddha against the belief in such 
miraculous powers. We know how Buddha himself protested 
against his disciples being called upon to perform vulgar miracles. 
' I command my disciples not to work miracles,' he said, ' but to 
hide their good deeds, and to show their sins' (Burnouf, Introd. 
p. 170). It would be in harmony with this sentiment if we trans- 
lated our verse as I have done. As to bahira, I should take it in 
the sense of 'external,' as opposed to adhyitmika, or 'internal;' 
and the meaning would be, ' a Samawa is not a Samawa by out- 
ward acts, but by his heart.' D'Alwis translates (p. 85) : ' There is 
no footprint in the air ; there is not a Samawa out of the pale of 
the Buddhist community.' 

Prapa«£a, which I have here translated by ' vanity,' seems to 
include the whole host of human weaknesses ; cf. v. 196, where it is 
explained by tawhidi/Mimanapapan^a ; in our verse by tawhadisu 
papam£esu: cf. Lalita-vistara, p. 564, anilayaw nishprapaw^am 
anutpadam asambhavam (dharma£akram). As to Tathagata, a 
name of Buddha, cf. Burnouf, Introd. p. 75. 

255. Sankhara for samskdra; cf. note to verse 203. Creature 
does not, as Mr. D'Alwis (p. 69) supposes, involve the Christian 
conception of creation. 



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64 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. XIX. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

THE JUST. 

256, 257. A man is not just if he carries a matter 
by violence ; no, he who distinguishes both right 
and wrong, who is learned and leads others, not by 
violence, but by law and equity, and who is guarded 
by the law and intelligent, he is called just. 

258. A man is not learned because he talks much ; 
he who is patient, free from hatred and fear, he is 
called learned. 

259. A man is not a supporter of the law because 
he talks much ; even if a man has learnt little, but 
sees the law bodily, he is a supporter of the law, 
a man who never neglects the law. 

260. A man is not an elder because his head is 
grey ; his age may be ripe, but he is called ' Old- 
in-vain.' 

261. He in whom there is truth, virtue, love, 
restraint, moderation, he who is free from impurity 
and is wise, he is called an elder. 

262. An envious, greedy, dishonest man does not 
become respectable by means of much talking only, 
or by the beauty of his complexion. 

263. He in whom all this is destroyed, and taken 
out with the very root, he, when freed from hatred 
and wise, is called respectable. 

259. Buddhaghosa here takes law (dhamma) in the sense of 
the four great truths, see note to verse 190. Could dhammaw 
kayena passati mean, 'he observes the law in his acts?' Hardly, 
if we compare expressions like dhammazB vipassato, v. 373. 



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THE JUST. 65 

264. Not by tonsure does an undisciplined man 
who speaks falsehood become a Sama«a; can a 
man be a Samawa who is still held captive by desire 
and greediness ? 

265. He who always quiets the evil, whether 
small or large, he is called a Sama»a (a quiet man), 
because he has quieted all evil. 

266. A man is not a mendicant (Bhikshu) simply 
because he asks others for alms ; he who adopts 
the whole law is a Bhikshu, not he who only begs. 

267. He who is above good and evil, who is 
chaste, who with knowledge passes through the 
world, he indeed is called a Bhikshu. 

268. 269. A man is not a Muni because he ob- 
serves silence (mona, i. e. mauna), if he is foolish 



265. This is a curious etymology, because it shows that at the 
time when this verse was written, the original meaning of s ramawa 
had been forgotten. .Sramawa meant originally, in the language 
of the Brahmans, a man who performed hard penances, from xram, 
' to work hard,' &c. When it became the name of the Buddhist 
ascetics, the language had changed, and wamawa was pronounced 
samawa. Now there is another Sanskrit root, .ram, ' to quiet,' which 
in Pali becomes likewise sam, and from this root sam, ' to quiet,' 
and not from warn, ' to tire,' did the popular etymology of the day 
and the writer of our verse derive the title of the Buddhist priests. 
The original form $rama»a became known to the Greeks as 2ap- 
inavai, that of sama«a as "Zaimvawi ; the former through Megasthenes, 
the latter through Bardesanes, 80-60 b.c (See Lassen, Indische 
Alterthumskunde, II, 700.) The Chinese Shamen and the Tun- 
gusian Shamen come from the same source, though the latter has 
sometimes been doubted. See Schott, Uber die doppelte Bedeutung 
des Wortes Schamane, in the Philosophical Transactions of the 
Berlin Academy, 1842, p. 463 seq. 

266-270. The etymologies here given of the ordinary titles of 
the followers of Buddha are entirely fanciful, and are curious only 
as showing how the people who spoke Pali had lost the etymo- 
logical consciousness of their language. A Bhikshu is a beggar, 



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66 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. XIX. 

and ignorant ; but the wise who, taking the balance, 
chooses the good and avoids evil, he is a Muni, 
and is a Muni thereby ; he who in this world 
weighs both sides is called a Muni. -/ 

2 jo. A man is not an elect (Ariya) because he 
injures living creatures ; because he has pity on all 
living creatures, therefore is a man called Ariya. 

271, 272. Not only by discipline and vows, not 
only by much learning, not by entering into a trance, 
not by sleeping alone, do I earn the happiness of 
release which no worldling can know. Bhikshu, be 
not confident as long as thou hast not attained the 
extinction of desires. 

i. e. a Buddhist friar who has left his family and lives entirely on 
alms. Muni is a sage, hence .SSkya-muni, a name of Gautama. 
Muni comes from man, ' to think,' and from muni comes mauna, 
' silence.' Ariya, again, is the general name of those who embrace 
a religious life. It meant originally ' respectable, noble.' In verse 
270 it seems as if the writer wished to guard against deriving ariya 
from ari, ' enemy.' See note to verse 22. 

272. See Childers, Notes, p. 7. 



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THE WAY. 67 



CHAPTER XX. 

THE WAY. 

273. The best of ways is the eightfold ; the best 
of truths the four words; the best of virtues 
passionlessness ; the best of men he who has eyes 
to see. 

274. This is the way, there is no other that leads 
to the purifying of intelligence. Go on this way! 
Everything else is the deceit of Mara (the tempter). 

275. If you go on this way, you will make an end 
of pain ! The way was preached by me, when I had 
understood the removal of the thorns (in the flesh). 

276. You yourself mus_t make an effort. The 
Tathagatas (Buddhas) are only preachers. The 
thoughtful who enter the way are freed from the 
bondage of Mara. 

277. 'All created things perish,' he who knows 
and sees this becomes passive in pain ; this is the 
way to purity. 

273. The eightfold or eight-mem bered way is the technical term 
for the way by which Nirva»a is attained. (See Burnouf, Lotus, 
p. 519) This very way constitutes the fourth of the Four Truths, 
or the four words of truth, viz. DuAkha, ' pain ;' Samudaya, ' origin ;' 
Nirodha, ' destruction ;' Marga, ' road.' (Lotus, p. 517.) See note 
to verse 1 78. For another explanation of the Marga, or ' way,' see 
Hardy, Eastern Monachism, p. 280. 

274. The last line may mean, 'this way is the confusion of Mara,' 
i. e. the discomfiture of Mara. 

275. The jalyas,' arrows or thorns,' are the rokaralya, ' the arrows 
of grief.' Buddha himself is called mahajarya-harta, ' the great 
remover of thorns.' (Lalita-vistara, p. 550; Mahabh. XII, 5616.) 

277. Sj;e v. 255. 



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68 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. XX. 

278. 'All created things are grief and pain/ he 
who knows and sees this becomes passive in pain ; 
this is the way that leads to purity. 

279. 'All forms are unreal,' he who knows and 
sees this becomes passive in pain ; this is the way 
that leads to purity. 

280. He who does not rouse himself when it is 
time to rise, who, though young and strong, is full 
of sloth, whose will and thought are weak, that lazy 
and idle man will never find the way to knowledge. 

281. Watching his speech, well restrained in mind, 
let a man never commit any wrong with his body ! 
Let a man but keep these three roads of action clear, 
and he will achieve the way which is taught by the 
wise. 

282. Through zeal knowledge is gotten, through 
lack of zeal knowledge is lost ; let a man who knows 
this double path of gain and loss thus place himself 
that knowledge may grow. 

283. Cut down the whole forest (of lust), not a 
tree only ! Danger comes out of the forest (of lust). 
When you have cut down both the forest (of lust) 
and its undergrowth, then, Bhikshus, you will be 
rid of the forest and free ! 

278. See v. 203. 

279. Dhamma is here explained, like sankhata, as the five 
khandha, i. e. as what constitutes a living body. 

281. Cf. Beal, Catena, p. 159. 

282. Bhuri was rightly translated 'intelligentia' by Dr. FausbSll. 
Dr. Weber renders it by ' Gedeihen,' but the commentator distinctly 
explains it as 'vast knowledge,' and in the technical sense the 
word occurs after vidyd and before medhft, in the Lalita-vistara, 
p. 541. 

283. A pun, vana meaning both 'lust' and 'forest.' See some 
mistaken remarks on this verse in D'Alwis, Nirva»a, p. 86, and 
some good remarks in Childers, Notes, p. 7. 



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THE WAY. 69 



284. So long as the love of man towards women, 
even the smallest, is not destroyed, so long is his 
mind in bondage, as the calf that drinks milk is to 
its mother. 

285. Cut out the love of self, like an autumn lotus, 
with thy hand ! Cherish the road of peace. Nir- 
v£#a has been shown by Sugata (Buddha). 

286. ' Here I shall dwell in the rain, here in winter 
and summer,' thus the fool meditates, and does not 
think of his death. 

287. Death comes and carries off that man, praised 
for his children and flocks, his mind distracted, as a 
flood carries off a sleeping village. 

288. Sons are no help, nor a father, nor relations ; 
there is no help from kinsfolk for one whom death 
has seized. 

289. A wise and good man who knows the mean- 
ing of this, should quickly clear the way that leads 
to Nirva«a. 

285. Cf. GStaka, vol. i. p. 183. 

286. Antar&ya, according to the commentator, ^ivittntar&ya, 
i. e. interims, death. In Sanskrit, antarita is used in the sense of 
' vanished' or ' perished.' 

287. See notes to verse 47, Thiessen, Kisagotami, p. n, and 
Mahabh. XII, 9944, 6540. 



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70 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. XXI. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

290. If by leaving a small pleasure one sees a 
great pleasure, let a wise man leave the small plea- 
sure, and look to the great. 

291. He who, by causing pain to others, wishes 
to obtain pleasure for himself, he, entangled in the 
bonds of hatred, will never be free from hatred. 

292. What ought to be done is neglected, what 
ought not to be done is done ; the desires of unruly, 
thoughtless people are always increasing. 

293. But they whose whole watchfulness is always 
directed to their body, who do not follow what ought 
not to be done, and who steadfastly do what ought 
to be done, the desires of such watchful and wise 
people will come to an end. 

294. A true Brahma»a goes scatheless, though he 
have killed father and mother, and two valiant kings, 
though he has destroyed a kingdom with all its 
subjects. 

295. A true Brahma«a goes scatheless, though he 
have killed father and mother, and two holy kings, 
and an eminent man besides. 

292. Cf. Beal, Catena, p. 264. 

294, 295. These two verses are either meant to show that a 
truly holy man who, by accident, commits all these crimes is guilt- 
less, or they refer to some particular event in Buddha's history. 
The commentator is so startled that he explains them allegorically. 
Mr. D'Alwis is very indignant that I should have supposed Buddha 
capable of pardoning patricide. ' Can it be believed,' he writes, 
' that a Teacher, who held life, even the life of the minutest insect, 



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MISCELLANEOU S. 7 1 



296. The disciples of Gotama (Buddha) are always 
well awake, and their thoughts day and night are 
always set on Buddha. 

297. The disciples of Gotama are always well 
awake, and their thoughts day and night are always 
set on the law. ' 

298. The disciples of Gotama are always well 
awake, and their thoughts day and night are always 
set on the church. 

299. The disciples of Gotama are always well 
awake, and their thoughts day and night are always 
set on their body. 

nay, even a living tree, in such high estimation as to prevent its 
wanton destruction, has declared that the murder of a Brihma«a, to 
whom he accorded reverence, along with his own Sangha, was blame- 
less ?' D'Alwis, Nirviwa, p. 88. Though something might be said in 
reply, considering the antecedents of king A^tajatru, the patron of 
Buddha, and stories such as that quoted by the commentator on the 
Dhammapada (Beal, I.e. p. 150), or inDerWeise und derThor, p. 306, 
still these two verses are startling, and I am not aware that Buddha 
has himself drawn the conclusion, which has been drawn by others, 
viz. that those who have reached the highest Sambodhi, and are in 
fact no longer themselves, are outside the domain of good and bad, 
and beyond the reach of guilt. Verses like 39 and 412 admit of a 
different explanation. Still our verses being miscellaneous extracts, 
might possibly have been taken from a work in which such an 
opinion was advanced, and I find that Mr. Childers, no mean 
admirer of Buddha, was not shocked by my explanation. ' In my 
judgment,' he says, ' this verse is intended to express in a forcible 
manner the Buddhist doctrine that the Arhat cannot commit a 
serious sin.' However, we have met before with far-fetched puns 
in these verses, and it is not impossible that the native commen- 
tators were right after all in seeing some puns or riddles in this 
verse. D'Alwis, following the commentary, explains mother as 
lust, father as pride, the two valiant kings as heretical systems, 
and the realm as sensual pleasure, while veyyaggha is taken by 
him for a place infested with the tigers of obstruction against 
final beatitude. Some confirmation of this interpretation is sup- 



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72 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. XXI. 

300. The disciples of Gotama are always well 
awake, and their mind day and night always de- 
lights in compassion. 

301. The disciples of Gotama are always well 
awake, and their mind day and night always de- 
lights in meditation. 

302. It is hard to leave the world (to become 
a friar), it is hard to enjoy the world ; hard is the 
monastery, painful are the houses; painful it is to 
dwell with equals (to share everything in common), 
and the itinerant mendicant is beset with pain. 
Therefore let no man be an itinerant mendicant, 
and he will not be beset with pain. 

303. Whatever place a faithful, virtuous, cele- 
brated, and wealthy man chooses, there he is re- 
spected. 

304. Good people shine from afar, like the snowy 

plied by a passage in the third book of the Lankavatara-sutra, as 
quoted by Mr. Beal in his translation of the Dhammapada, Intro- 
duction, p. 5. Here a stanza is quoted as having been recited by 
Buddha, in explanation of a similar startling utterance which he 
had made to Mahamati : 

'Lust, or carnal desire, this is the Mother, 

Ignorance, this is the Father, 

The highest point of knowledge, this is Buddha, 

All the kl&ras, these are the Rahats, 

The five skandhas, these are the Priests; 

To commit the five unpardonable sins 

Is to destroy these five 

And yet not suffer the pains of hell.' 
The Lankavatara-sutra was translated into Chinese by Bodhiru£i 
(508-511); when it was written is doubtful. See also Gataka, 
vol. ii. p. 263. 

302. This verse is difficult, and I give my translation as tentative 
only. Childers (Notes, p. 1 1) does not remove the difficulties, and 
I have been chiefly guided by the interpretation put on the verse 
by the Chinese translator; Beal, Dhammapada, p. 137. 



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MISCELLANEOUS. 73 



mountains ; bad people are not seen, like arrows 
shot by night. 

305. He alone who, without ceasing, practises the 
duty of sitting alone and sleeping alone, he, sub- 
duing himself, will rejoice in the destruction of all 
desires alone, as if living in a forest 

305. I have translated this verse so as to bring it into something 
like harmony with the preceding verses. Vanante, according to 
a pun pointed out before (v. 283), means both ' in the end of a 
forest,' and ' in the end of desires.' 



[">] l 

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74 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. XXII. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

THE DOWNWARD COURSE. 

306. He who says what is not, goes to hell ; he 
also who, having done a thing, says v I have not done 
it. After death both are equal, they are men with 
evil deeds in the next world. 

307. Many men whose shoulders are covered with 
the yellow gown are ill-conditioned and unrestrained ; 
such evil-doers by their evil deeds go to hell. 

308. Better it would be to swallow a heated iron 
ball, like flaring fire, than that a bad unrestrained 
fellow should live on the charity of the land. 

309. Four things does a ^reckless man gain who 
'covets his neighbour's wife, — a bad reputation, an 

uncomfortable bed, thirdly, punishment, and lastly, 
hell. 



306. I translate niraya, ' the exit, the downward course, the evil 
path,' by 'hell,' because the meaning assigned to that ancient 
mythological name by Christian writers comes so near to the 
Buddhist idea of niraya, that it is difficult not to believe in some 
actual contact between these two streams of thought See also 
Mah&bh. XII, 7176. Cf. G&taka, vol. ii. p. 416; SuttanipSta, 
v. 660. 

307, 308. These two verses are said to be taken from the Vinaya- 
pi/aka I, 4, 1 ; D'Alwis, Nirvana, p. 29. 

308. The charity of the land, i. e. the alms given, from a sense 
of religious duty, to every mendicant that asks for it. 

309, 310. The four things mentioned in verse 309 seem to be 
repeated in verse 310. Therefore, apunnal&bha, ' bad fame,' is the 
same in both : gatt pSpika must be niraya ; da»</a must be nindi, 
and rati thokika explains the anikamaseyyaw. Buddhaghosa 



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THE DOWNWARD COURSE. 75 

310. There is bad reputation, and the evil way 
(to hell), there is the short pleasure of the frightened 
in the arms of the frightened, and the king imposes 
heavy punishment ; therefore let no man think of 
his neighbour's wife. 

311. As a grass-blade, if badly grasped, cuts the 
arm, badly-practised asceticism leads to hell. \ 

312. An act carelessly performed, a broken vow, 
and hesitating obedience to discipline, all this brings 
no great reward. 

313. If anything is to be done, let a man do it, 
let him attack it vigorously ! A careless pilgrim 
only scatters the dust of his passions more widely. 

314. An evil deed is better left undone, for a \ 
man repents of it afterwards ; a good deed is better 
done, for having done it, one does not repent. 

315. Like a well-guarded frontier fort, with de- 
fences within and without, so let a man guard him- 
self. Not a moment should escape, for they who 
allow the right moment to pass, suffer pain when 
they are in hell. 

316. They who are ashamed of what they ought 
not to be ashamed of, and are not ashamed of what 
they ought to be ashamed of, such men, embracing 
false doctrines, enter the evil path. 

317. They who fear when they ought not to fear, 
and fear not when they ought to fear, such men, 
embracing false doctrines, enter the evil path. 

takes the same view of the meaning of anikamaseyya, i. e. yatha 
W£Aati evam seyyam alabhitvi. a.nikkMta.m parittakam eva kala« 
seyyaw labhati, ' not obtaining the rest as he wishes it, he obtains 
it, as he does not wish it, for a short time only.' 

313. As to ra^a meaning 'dust' and 'passion,' see Buddha- 
ghosha's Parables, pp. 65, 66. 

i 2 



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76 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. XXII. 

3 1.8. They who forbid when there is nothing to 
be forbidden, and forbid not when there is some- 
thing to be forbidden, such men, embracing false 
doctrines, enter the evil path. 

319. They who know what is forbidden as for- 
bidden, and what is not forbidden as not forbidden, 
such men, embracing the true doctrine, enter the 
good path. 



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THE ELEPHANT. 77 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

THE ELEPHANT. 

320. Silently shall I endure abuse as the elephant 
in battle endures the arrow sent from the bow : for 
the world is ill-natured. 

321. They lead a tamed elephant to battle, the 
king mounts a tamed elephant; the tamed is the 
best among men, he who silently endures abuse. 

322. Mules are good, if tamed, and noble Sindhu 
horses, and elephants with large tusks ; but he who 
tames himself is better still. 

323. For with these animals does no man reach 
the untrodden country (Nirva#a), where a tamed 
man goes- on a tamed animal, viz. on his own well- 
tamed self. 

324. The elephant called Dhanapalaka, his tem- 
ples running with sap, and difficult to hold, does not 
eat a morsel when bound ; the elephant longs for 
the elephant grove. 

320. The elephant is with the Buddhists the emblem of endurance 
and self-restraint. Thus Buddha himself is called N&ga, ' the Ele- 
phant' (Lai. Vist. p. 553), or Mahanaga, ' the great Elephant' (Lai. 
Vist. p. 553), and in one passage (Lai. Vist p. 554) the reason of 
this name is given, by stating that Buddha was sudanta, ' well- 
tamed,' like an elephant. He descended from heaven in the form 
of an elephant to be born on earth. 

Cf. Manu VI, 47, ativSd£/tts titiksheta. 

323. I read, as suggested by Dr. Fausb5U, yath' attend sudan- 
tena danto dantena g&kkAali' (cf. verse 160). The India Office MS. 
reads na hi etehi /Mnehi gaAkfeya. agataw disam, yath' attanaw 
sudantena danto dantena gai>4Aati. As to Manehi instead of yanehi, 
see verse 224. 



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78 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. XXIII. 



325. If a man becomes fat and a great eater, if 
he is sleepy and rolls himself about, that fool, like 
a hog fed on wash, is born again and again. 

326. This mind of mine went formerly wandering 
about as it liked, as it listed, as it pleased ; but 
I shall now hold it in thoroughly, as the rider who 
holds the hook holds in the furious elephant. 

327. Be not thoughtless, watch your thoughts ! 
Draw yourself out of the evil way, like an elephant 
sunk in mud. 

328. If a man find a prudent companion who walks 
with him, is wise, and lives soberly, he may walk with 
him, overcoming all dangers, happy, but considerate. 

329. If a man find no prudent companion who 
walks with him, is wise, and lives soberly, let him 
walk alone, like a king who has left his conquered 
country behind, — like an elephant in the forest. 

330. It is better to live alone, there is no com- 
panionship with a fool ; let a man walk alone, let 
him commit no sin, with few wishes, like an ele- 
phant in the forest. 

326. Yoniso, i.e. yoniraA, is rendered by Dr. Fausboll ' sapientia,' 
and this is the meaning ascribed to yoni by many Buddhist authori- 
ties. But the reference to Hema£andra (ed. Boehtlingk and Rieu, 
p. 281) shows clearly that it meant 'origin,' or 'cause.' Yoniso occurs 
frequently as a mere adverb, meaning ' thoroughly, radically' (Dham- 
mapada, p. 359), and yoniso manasikara (Dhammapada, p. no) 
means 'taking to heart' or 'minding thoroughly,' or, what is nearly 
the same, 'wisely.' In the Lalita-vistara, p. 41, the commentator has 
clearly mistaken yonwa^, changing it to ye 'mso, and explaining it 
by yamanwam, whereas M. Foucaux has rightly translated it by 
' depuis l'origine.' Professor Weber suspected in yonua£ a double 
entendre, but even grammar would show that our author is 
innocent of it. In Lalita-vistara, p. 544, 1. 4, ayonlra occurs in 
the sense of error. 

328, 329. Cf. Suttanipata, vv. 44, 45. 



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THE ELEPHANT. 79 



331. If an occasion arises, friends are pleasant; 
enjoyment is pleasant, whatever be the cause ; a 
good work is pleasant in the hour of death ; the 
giving up of all grief is pleasant. 

332. Pleasant-in the world is the state of a mother, 
pleasant the state of a father, pleasant the state of 
a Sama»a, pleasant the state of a Brahma«a. 

333. Pleasant is virtue lasting to old age, pleasant 
is a faith firmly rooted ; pleasant is attainment of 
intelligence, pleasant is avoiding of sins. 



. 332. The commentator throughout takes these words, like mat- 
teyyatS, &c, to signify, not the status of a mother, or maternity, 
but reverence shown to a mother. 



\ 



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8o DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. XXIV. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

THIRST. 

334. The thirst of a thoughtless man grows like 
a creeper ; he runs from life to life, like a "monkey 
seeking fruit in the forest. 

335. Whomsoever this fierce thirst overcomes, 
full of poison, in this world, his sufferings increase 
like the abounding Blra»a grass. 

336. He who overcomes this fierce thirst, difficult 
to be conquered in this world, sufferings fall off from 
him, like water-drops from a lotus leaf. 

337. This salutary word I tell you, ' Do ye, as many 
as are here assembled, dig up the root of thirst, as 
he who wants the sweet-scented U^ira root must 
dig up the Birawa grass, that Mara (the tempter) 
may not crush you again and again, as the stream 
crushes the reeds.' 

338. As a tree, even though it has been cut down, 
is firm so long as its root is safe, and grows again, 
thus, unless the feeders of thirst are destroyed, this 
pain (of life) will return again and again. 

339. He whose thirst running towards pleasure 
is exceeding strong in the thirty-six channels, the 

334. This is explained by a story in the Chinese translation. 
Beal, Dhammapada, p. 148. 

335. Bfrawa grass is the Andropogon muricatum, and the 
scented root of it is called Ufira (cf. verse 337). 

338. On Anusaya, i. e. Antuaya (Anlage), see Wassiljew, Der 
Buddhismus, p. 240 seq. 

339. The thirty-six channels, or passions, which are divided by 
the commentator into eighteen external and eighteen internal, are 



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THIRST. 8 1 



waves will carry away that misguided man, viz. his 
desires which are set on passion. 

340. The channels run everywhere, the creeper 
(of passion) stands sprouting ; if you see the creeper 
springing up, cut its root by means of knowledge. 

341. A creature's pleasures are extravagant and 
luxurious ; sunk in lust and looking for pleasure, men 
undergo (again and again) birth and decay. 

342. Men, driven on by thirst, run about like 
a snared hare; held in fetters and bonds, they 
undergo pain for a long time, again and again. 

343. Men, driven on by thirst, run about like a 
snared hare ; let therefore the mendicant drive out 
thirst, by striving after passionlessness for himself. 

344. He who having got rid of the forest (of 
lust) (i.e. after having reached Nirvawa) gives him- 
self over to forest-life (i.e. to lust), and who, when 
removed from the forest (i. e. from lust), runs to the 
forest (i. e. to lust), look at that man ! though free, 
he runs into bondage. 



explained by Burnouf (Lotus, p. 649), from a gloss of the Gina- 
alahkara : ' L'indication precise des affections dont un Buddha 
acte ind^pendant, affections qui sont au nombre de dix-huit, nous 
est fourni par la glose d'un livre appartenant aux Buddhistes de 
Ceylan,' &c. Subhuti gives the right reading as manapassavana ; 
cf. Childers, Notes, p. 1 2. 

Vaha, which Dr. Fausboll translates by ' equi,' may be vaha, 
'undae.' Cf. Suttanipata, v. 1034. 

344. This verse seems again full of puns, all connected with the 
twofold meaning of vana, ' forest and lust.' By replacing ' forest ' 
by Must,' we may translate : 'He who, when free from lust, gives 
himself up to lust, who, when removed from lust runs into lust, 
look at that man,' &c Nibbana, though with a short a, may be 
intended to remind the hearer of Nibbana. The right reading is 
nibbanatho ; see Childers, Notes, p. 8. 



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82 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. XXIV. 

345. Wise people do not call that a strong fetter 
which is made of iron, wood, or hemp ; far stronger 
is the care for precious stones and rings, for sons 
and a wife. 

346. That fetter wise people call strong which 
drags down, yields, but is difficult to undo ; after 
having cut this at last, people leave the world, free 
from cares, and leaving desires and pleasures behind. 

347. Those who are slaves to passions, run down 
with the stream (of desires), as a spider runs down 
the web which he has made himself; when they 
have cut this, at last, wise people leave the world, 
free from cares, leaving all affection behind. 

348. Give up what is before, give up what is 
behind, give up what is in the middle, when thou 
goest to the other shore of existence ; if thy mind 
is altogether free, thou wilt not again enter into 
birth and decay. 

349. If a man is tossed about by doubts, full of 
strong passions, and yearning only for what is de- 
lightful, his thirst will grow more and more, and he 
will indeed make his fetters strong. 

350. If a man delights in quieting doubts, and, 
always reflecting, dwells on what is not delightful 

345. Apekhi, apekshd, 'care;' see ManuVI, 41, 49; Suttani- 
p&ta, v. 37; and G&taka, vol. ii. p. 140. 

346. Paribba^, i.e. parivra^; see ManuVI, 41. 

347. The commentator explains the simile of the spicier as 
follows: 'As a spider, after having made its thread-web, sits in 
the middle, and after killing with a violent rush a butterfly or a fly 
which has fallen in its circle, drinks its juice, returns, and sits 
again in the same place, in the same manner creatures who are 
given to passions, depraved by hatred, and maddened by wrath, 
run along the stream of thirst which they have made themselves, 
and cannot cross it,' &c. 



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THIRST. 83 



(the impurity of the body, &c), he certainly will 
remove, nay, he will cut the fetter of Mara. 

351. He who has reached the consummation, who 
does not tremble, who is without thirst and without 
sin, he has broken all the thorns of life : this will be 
his last body. 

352. He who is without thirst and without affec- 
tion, who understands the words and their interpre- 
tation, who knows the order of letters (those which 
are before and which are after), he has received his 
last body, he is called the great sage, the great 
man. 

353. 'I have conquered all, I know all, in all con- 
ditions of life I am free from taint ; I have left all, 
and through the destruction of thirst I am free ; 
having learnt myself, whom shall I teach ?' 

354. The gift of the law exceeds all gifts ; the 
sweetness of the law exceeds all sweetness ; the 
delight in the law exceeds all delights ; the extinc- 
tion of thirst overcomes all pain. 

355. Pleasures destroy the foolish, if they look 
not for the other shore ; the foolish by his thirst for 
pleasures destroys himself, as if he were his own 
enemy. 

352. As to nirutti, and its technical meaning among the Bud- 
dhists, see Burnouf, Lotus, p. 841. Fausboll translates 'niruttis 
vocabulorum peritus,' which may be right, if we take nirutti in the 
sense of the language of the Scriptures. See note to verse 363. 
Could not sannipata mean samhita 1 or sannikarsha ? Sannipita 
occurs in the SSkala-pratuikhya, but with a different meaning. 

353. Cf. Suttanipata, v. 210. 

354. The dhammad&na, or 'gift of the law,' is the technical 
term for instruction in the Buddhist religion. See Buddhaghosha's 
Parables, p. 160, where the story of the Sakkadevara^fa is told, 
and where a free rendering of our verse is given. 



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84 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. XXIV. 

356. The fields are damaged by weeds, mankind 
is damaged by passion : therefore a gift bestowed 
on the passionless brings great reward. 

357. The fields are damaged by weeds, mankind 
is damaged by hatred : therefore a gift bestowed on 
those who do not hate brings great reward. 

358. The fields are damaged by weeds, mankind 
is damaged by vanity : therefore a gift bestowed on 
those who are free from vanity brings great reward. 

359. The fields are damaged by weeds, mankind 
is damaged by lust : therefore a gift bestowed on 
those who are free from lust brings great reward. 



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THE BHIKSHU. 85 



CHAPTER XXV. 

THE BHIKSHU (MENDICANT). 

360. Restraint in the eye is good, good is restraint 
in the ear, in the nose restraint is good, good is re- 
straint in the tongue. 

361. In the body restraint is good, .good is re- 
straint in speech, in thought restraint is good, good 
is restraint inHall things. A Bhikshu, restrained in 
all things, is freed from all pain. 

362. He who controls his hand, he who controls 
his feet, he who controls his speech, he who is well 
controlled, he who delights inwardly, who is collected, 
who is solitary and content, him they call Bhikshu. 

363. The Bhikshu who controls his mouth, who 
speaks wisely and calmly, who teaches the meaning 
and the law, his word is sweet. 

364. He who dwells in the law, delights in the 
law, meditates on the law, follows the law, that 
Bhikshu will never fall away from the true law. 

365. Let him not despise what he has received, 



363. On artha and dharma, see Stanislas Julien, Les Avad&nas, 
I, 217, note; 'Les quatre connaissances sont; i° la connaissance 
du sens (artha) ; 2 la connaissance de la Loi (dharma) ; 3 la con- 
naissance des explications (niroukti) ; 4 la connaissance de l'intel- 
ligence (pr&tibblna).' 

364.. The expression dhammtrimo, ' having his garden or de- 
light (Lustgarten) in the law,' is well matched by the Brahmanic 
expression ek&rihna, i.e. nirdvandva (MahSbh. XIII, 1930). Cf. 
Suttanip&ta, v. 326 ; Dhammapada, v. 32. 



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86 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. XXV. 

nor ever envy others : a mendicant who envies 
others does not obtain peace of mind. 

366. A Bhikshu who, though he receives little, 
does not despise what he has received, even the 
gods will praise him, if his life is pure, and if he is 
not slothful. 

367. He who never identifies himself with name 
and form, and does not grieve over what is no more, 
he indeed is called a Bhikshu. 

368. The Bhikshu who acts with kindness, who is 
calm in the doctrine of Buddha, will reach the quiet 
place (Nirva#a), cessation of natural desires, and 
happiness. 

369. O Bhikshu, empty this boat! if emptied, it 
will go quickly ; having cut off passion and hatred, 
thou wilt go to Nirva#a. 

370. Cut off the five (senses), leave the five, rise 
above the five. A Bhikshu, who has escaped from 
the five fetters, he is called Oghati««a, ' saved from 
the flood.' 

371. Meditate, O Bhikshu, and be not heedless ! 
Do not direct thy thought to what gives pleasure, 
that thou mayest not for thy heedlessness have to 
swallow the iron ball (in hell), and that thou mayest 
not cry out when burning, ' This is pain.' 



367. Namarupa is here used again in its technical sense of 
mind and body, neither of which, however, is with the Buddhists 
atman, or ' self.' Asat, ' what is not,' may therefore mean the same 
as namarupa, or we may take it in the sense of what is no more, 
as, for instance, the beauty or youth of the body, the vigour of the 
mind, &c. 

368. See Childers, Notes, p. n. 

371. The swallowing of hot iron balls is considered as a punish- 
ment in hell ; see verse 308. Professor Weber has perceived the 



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THE BHIKSHU. 87 



372. Without knowledge there is no meditation, 
without meditation there is no knowledge : he who 
has knowledge and meditation is near unto Nirv4»a. 

373. A Bhikshu who has entered his empty house, 
and whose mind is tranquil, feels a more than human 
delight when he sees the law clearly. 

374. As soon as he has considered the origin and 
destruction of the elements (khandha) of the body, 
he finds happiness and joy which belong to those 
who know the immortal (Nirva«a). 

375. And this is the beginning here for a wise 
Bhikshu : watchfulness over the senses, contented- 
ness, restraint under the law ; keep noble friends 
whose life is pure, and who are not slothful. 

376. Let him live in charity, let him be perfect 
in his duties ; then in the fulness of delight he will 
make an end of suffering. 

377. As the Vassika plant sheds its withered 
flowers, men should shed passion and hatred, O ye 
Bhikshus ! 

378. The Bhikshu whose body and tongue and 
mind are quieted, who is collected, and has rejected 
the baits of the world, he is called quiet. 

379. Rouse thyself by thyself, examine thyself by 
thyself, thus self-protected and attentive wilt thou 
live happily, Bhikshu ! 

380. For self is the lord of self, self is the refuge 
of self ; therefore curb thyself as the merchant curbs 
a good horse. 

right meaning of bhavassu, which can only be bhavayasva, but 
I doubt whether the rest of his rendering is right, for who would 
swallow an iron ball by accident ? 

372. Cf. Beal, Catena, p. 247. 

375. Cf. Suttanip&ta, v. 337. 



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88 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. XXV. 

381. The Bhikshu, full of delight, who is calm in 
the doctrine of Buddha will reach the quiet place (Nir- 
vana), cessation of natural desires, and happiness. 

382. He who, even as a young Bhikshu, applies 
himself to the doctrine of Buddha, brightens up this 
world, like the moon when free from clouds. 



381. See verse 368. D'Alwis translates, 'dissolution of the 
sankharas (elements of existence).' 



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THE BRAHMAJVA. 89 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

THE BRAHMAJVA (ARHAT). 

383. Stop the stream valiantly, drive away the 
desires, O Brahma«a ! When you have understood 
the destruction of all that was made, you will under- 
stand that which was not made. 

384. If theJ3rahma«a has reached the other shore 
in both-4aws (in restraint and contemplation), all 
bonds vanish from him who has obtained knowledge. 

385. He for whom there is neither this nor that 
shore, nor both, him, the fearless and unshackled, 
I call indeed a Brahma«a. 

386. He who is thoughtful, blameless, settled, 
dutiful, without passions, and who has attained the 
highest end, him I call indeed a Brahma»a. 

387. The sun is bright by day, the moon shines 
by night, the warrior is bright in his armour, the 
Brahma#a is bright in his meditation ; but Buddha, 
the Awakened, is bright with splendour day and 
night. 

388. Because a man is rid of evil, therefore he is 
called Brahma#a ; because he walks quietly, there- 
fore he is called Sama»a ; because he has sent away 
his own impurities, therefore he is called Pravrafita 
(Pabba^ita, a pilgrim). 

385. The exact meaning of the two shores is not quite clear, 
aftd the commentator who takes them in the sense of internal and 
external organs of sense, can hardly be right. See verse 86. 

388. These would-be etymologies are again interesting as show- 
ing the decline of the etymological life of the spoken language of 

[io] k 

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90 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. XXVI. 

389. No one should attack a Brahmawa, but no 
Brahmawa (if attacked) should let himself fly at his 
aggressor! Woe to him who strikes a Brahma#a, 
more woe to him who flies at his aggressor ! 

390. It advantages a Brahmawa not a little if he 
holds his mind back from the pleasures of life ; when 
all wish to injure has vanished, pain will cease. 

391. Him I call indeed a Brahmawa who does 
not offend by body, word, or thought, and is con- 
trolled on these three points. 

392. After a man has once* understood the law 
as taught by the Well-awakened (Buddha), let him 
worship it carefully, as the Brahma#a worships the 
sacrificial fire. 

393. A man does not become a Brahma«a by his 
platted hair, by his family, or by birth ; in whom 
there is truth and righteousness, he is blessed, he is 
a Brahma»a. 

394. What is the use of platted hair, O fool ! what 
of the raiment of goat-skins ? Within thee there is 
ravening, but the outside thou makest clean. 

395. The man who wears dirty raiments, who is 

India at the time when such etymologies became possible. In 
order to derive Brihmana from v&h, it must have been pronounced 
Mhma«o ; vih, ' to remove,' occurs frequently in the Buddhistical 
Sanskrit. Cf. LaLVist. p. 551, 1. 1; 553, 1. 7. See note to verse 265. 
390. I am afraid I have taken too much liberty with this verse. 
Dr. FausbSll translates, ' Non Bralimawae hoc paulo melius, quando 
retentio fit mentis a jucundis.' 

393. Fausboll proposes to read^a^a" (^Styi). 'Both' in the first 
edition of my translation was a misprint for ' birth.' 

394. I have not copied the language of the Bible more than 
I was justified in. The words are abbhantaran te gahanaw, bShiraw 
parima^g-asi, ' interna est abyssus, externum mundas.' Cf. (r&taka, 
vol. i. p. 481. 

395. The expression Kisan dhamanisanthatam is the Sanskrit 



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THE BRAHMAiVA. 9 1 



emaciated and covered with veins, who lives alone 
in the forest, and meditates, him I call indeed a 
Brahma«a. 

396. I do not call a man a Brahmawa because of 
his origin or of his mother. He is indeed arrogant, 
and he is wealthy : but the poor, who is free from 
all attachments, him I call indeed a Brahmawa. 

397. Him I call indeed a Brahmawa who has cut 
all fetters, who never trembles, is independent and 
unshackled. 

398. Him I call indeed a Brahma#a who has cut 
the strap and the thong, the chain with all that per- 
tains to it, who has burst the bar, and is awakened. 

399. Him I call indeed a Brahma«a who, though 
he has committed no offence, endures reproach, bonds, 
and stripes, who has endurance for his force, and 
strength for his army. 

400. Him I call indeed a Brahmawa who is free 
from anger, dutiful, virtuous, without appetite, who 
is subdued, and has received his last body. 

\risam dhamantsantatam, the frequent occurrence of which in the 
MahabMrata has been pointed out by Boehtlingk, s. v. dhamani. 
It looks more like a Brahmanic than like a Buddhist phrase. 

396. From verse 396 to the first half of verse 423, the text of 
the Dhammapada agrees with the text of the Vasish/Aa-Bharadva^a- 
stitra. These verses are translated by D'Alwis in his Nirva»a, 
pp. 113-118, and again by Fausboll, Suttanipita, v. 620 seq. 

The text contains puns on kiw^ana, which means ' wealth,' but 
also 'attachment;' cf. Childers, s.v. 

398. D'Alwis points out a double entendre in these words. 
Nandhi may be either the strap that goes round a drum, or en- 
mity; varatta may be either a thong or attachment; sandina 
either chain or scepticism; sahanakkamam either due order or 
all its concomitants ; paligha either bar or ignorance. 

399. The exact meaning of bal&nika is difficult to find. Does 
it mean, possessed of a strong army, or facing a force, or leading 
a force ? 

k2 



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92 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP. XXVI. 

401. Him I call indeed a Brahma«a who does 
not cling to pleasures, like water on a lotus leaf, like 
a mustard seed on the point of a needle. 

402. Him I call indeed a Brahma#a who, even 
here, knows the end of his suffering, has put down 
his burden, and is unshackled. 

403. Him I call indeed a Brahma#a whose know- 
ledge is deep, who possesses wisdom, who knows 
the right way and the wrong, and has attained the 
highest end. 

404. Him I call indeed a Brahma»a who keeps 
aloof both from laymen and from mendicants, who 
frequents no houses, and has but few desires. 

405. Him I call indeed a Brahma»a who finds no 
fault with other beings, whether feeble or strong, 
and does not kill nor cause slaughter. 

406. Him I call indeed a Brahmawa who is tole- 
rant with the intolerant, mild with fault-finders, and 
free from passion among the passionate. 

407. Him I call indeed a Brahma»a from whom 
anger and hatred, pride and envy have dropt like 
a mustard seed from the point of a needle. 

408. Him I call indeed a Brahmawa who utters 
true speech, instructive and free from harshness, so 
that he offend no one. 

409. Him I call indeed a Brahma»a who takes 
nothing in the world that is not given him, be it 
long or short, small or large, good or bad. 

410. Him I call indeed a Brahmawa who fosters 
no desires for this world or for the next, has no incli- 
nations, and is unshackled. 

405. On tasa and th&vara, see Childers, s. v., and D'Alwis, Nir- 
vi«a, p. 115. On da«</a, 'the rod,' see Hibbert Lectures, p. 355, 
note. 



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THE BRAHMAJVA. 93 



411. Him I call indeed a Brahma»a who has no 
interests, and when he has understood (the truth), 
does not say How, how ? and who has reached the 
depth of the Immortal. 

412. Him I call indeed a Brahma«a who in this 
world is above good and evil, above the bondage of 
both, free from grief, from sin, and from impurity. 

413. Him I call indeed a Brahma«a who is bright 
like the moon, pure, serene, undisturbed, and in 
whom all gaiety is extinct. 

414. Him I call indeed a Brahma»a who has tra- 
versed this miry road, the impassable world and its 
vanity, who has gone through, and reached the other 
shore, is thoughtful, guileless, free from doubts, free 
from attachment, and content. 

415. Him I call indeed a Brahma«a who in this 
world, leaving all desires, travels about without a 
home, and in whom all concupiscence is extinct 

416. Him I call indeed a Brahma»a who, leaving 
all longings, travels about without a home, and in 
whom all covetousness is extinct. 

417. Him I call indeed a Brahma#a who, after 
leaving all bondage to men, has risen above all 

411. Akathankathi is explained by Buddhaghosa as meaning, 
' free from doubt or hesitation.' He also uses kathankatha in the 
sense of ' doubt' (verse 414). In the Kavyadawa, III, 17, the com- 
mentator explains akatham by katharahitam, nirvivadam, which 
would mean, ' without a katha, a speech, a story without contra- 
diction, unconditionally.' From our passage, however, it seems as 
if kathahkatha was a noun derived from kathankathayati, 'to say 
How, how ?' so that neither the first nor the second element had 
anything to do with kath, 'to relate;' and in that case akatham, 
too, ought to be taken in the sense of ' without a Why.' 

412. See verse 39. The distinction between good and evil 
vanishes when a man has retired from the world, and has ceased 
to act, longing only for deliverance. 



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94 DHAMMAPADA. CHAP." XXVI. 

bondage to the gods, and is free from all and every 
bondage. 

418. Him I call indeed a Brahmawa who has left 
what gives pleasure and what gives pain, who is 
cold, and free from all germs (of renewed life), the 
hero who has conquered all the worlds. 

419. Him I call indeed a Brahma»a who knows 
the destruction and the return of beings everywhere, 
who is free from bondage, welfaring (Sugata), and 
awakened (Buddha). 

418. Upadhi, if not used in a technical sense, is best trans- 
lated by ' passions or affections.' Technically there are four upadhis 
or substrata, viz. the kandhas, kama, ' desire,' kilesa, ' sin,' and 
kamma, ' work.' The Brahma«a may be called nirupadhi, as being 
free from desire, misery, and work and its consequences, but not 
yet of the kandhas, which end through death only. The com- 
mentator explains nirupadhi by nirupakkilesa,/ free from sin.' See 
Childers, s. v. nibbana, p. 268 a. 

419. Sugata is one of those many words in Buddhist literature 
which it is almost impossible to translate, because they have been 
taken in so many acceptations by the Buddhists themselves. 
Sugata etymologically means 'one who has fared well,' sugati 
means 'happiness and blessedness.' It is wrong to translate it 
literally by 'welcome,' for that in Sanskrit is svagata; and we 
cannot accept Dr. Eitel's statement (Handbook, p. 138) that 
sugata stands incorrectly for svSgata. Sugata is one of the 
not very numerous technical terms in Buddhism for which hitherto 
we know of no antecedents in earlier Brahmanism. It may have 
been used in the sense of ' happy and blessed,' but it never became 
a title, while in Buddhism it has become, not only a title, but 
almost a proper name of Buddha. The same applies to tatha- 
gata, lit. 'thus come,' but used in Sanskrit very much like 
tathavidha, in the sense of talis, while in Buddhism it means 
a Buddha. There are of course many interpretations of the word, 
and many reasons are given why Buddhas should be called 
Tathagata (Burnouf, Introduction, p. 75, &c.) Boehdingk s. v. 
supposed that, because Buddha had so many predicates, he was, 
for the sake of brevity, called ' such a one as he really is.' I think 
we may go a step further. Another word, t&drisz, meaning 



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THE BRAHMAJVA. 95 



420. Him I call indeed a Brahmawa whose path^ 
the gods do not know, nor spirits (Gandharvas), 
nor men, whose passions are extinct, and who is 
an Arhat (venerable). 

421. Him I call indeed a Brahma«a who calls 
nothing his own, whether it be before, behind, or 
between, who is poor, and free from the love of the 
world. 

422. Him I call indeed a Brahma#a, the manly, 
the noble, the hero, the great sage, the conqueror, 
the impassible, the accomplished, the awakened. 

423. Him I call indeed a Brahmawa who knows 
his former abodes, who sees heaven and hell, has 
reached the end of births, is perfect in knowledge, 
a sage, and whose perfections are all perfect. 

talis, becomes in Pali, under the form of tildi, a name of 
Buddha's disciples, and afterwards of Buddha himself. If applied 
to Buddha's disciples, it may have meant originally ' such as he,' i. e. 
his fellows ; but when applied to Buddha himself, it can only mean 
'such a one,' i.e. 'so great a man.' The Sanskrit marsha is 
probably the Pali m&riso, which stands for madiso, Sk. midr is a, 
' like me,' used in Pali when a superior addresses others as his 
equals, and afterwards changed into a mere title of respect. 



1 

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INDEX. 



The figures of this Index refer to the numbers of the verses. 



Abhasvara, gods, 200. 
Agni, worshipped, 107, 392. 
A,gatajatru, defeated by Prasena^ it, 
201. 

Akanishf&as, 218. 

Akiniana, 87. 

AkkoiiM, 1. 

Amata (amrita), the immortal (Nir- 
vana), 21. 

Animitta, 92, 93. 

Anivejana, 40. 

Anuraya, foundation, root, 338. 

Apastamba, Dharma-sfitra, 39, 96, 
109. 

Appamadavagga, 21. 

Arahantavagga, 90. 

Arahat, and Ariya, 164. 

Ariya, the elect, 22, 79. 

— etymology of, 270. 

Artha and dnarma, 363. 

Arupadhatu, 218. 

Asava, asrava, 253. 

Asava, khioasava, 89. 

Asrava, 39. See Asava. 

Aroka, 21. 

Arraya, 89. 

Atharva-veda, 96. 

Attavagga, 157. 

Atula, 227. 

Avadana, legend, etymology of, 183. 

Avasa, monastery, 72, 302. 

Avassuta, 39. 

Avriha, 218. 

Balavagga, 60. 

Bee, emblem of a sage, 49. 

Bhikkhuvagga, 360. 

Bhikshu, a mendicant, 31, 32, 72, 75, 
266, 267. 

Bhikshu, different from Sramana and 
Brahmana, 142. 

Bhovadi, arrogant, addressing vener- 
able people by bho ! 396. 

[10] 



Bhfiri, knowledge, 282. 
Bodhiruii (508-511 A.D.), 294. 
Bodhyanga. See Sambodhyanga, 89. 
Brahma^alasutta, 153. 
Brahman, above the gods, 230. 
Brahman, with Mara, 105. 
Brahmana, with Sramana and Bhik- , 

shu, 142. 
Brahmana, etymology of, 388. 
Brahmanavagga, 383. 
Buddha's last words, 153, 154. 

— commandments, 183, 185. 
Buddhavagga, 179. 

Convent (avasa), 73, 302. 

Dah, to burn, not sah, 31. 
Danj&nidhana, 142, 405. 
Daniavagga, 129. 
Death, its dominion, 86. 

— king of, 170. 

Dhamma, plur., forms, things, 279. 
Dhamma,plur., three of the five khan- 

dhas, vedana, sa««a, and sah- 

khara, 1. 
Dhammadana, 354. 
Dhammatthavagga, 256. 
Dhanapalaka, 324. 
Dharma, explained, 1 . 
Dhatu, eighteen, 89. 
Digambaras (Gainas, followers of 

Mahavira), 141. 
Dtpa, island (arhatship), 25, 26. 
Dtpa, dv!pa, island, 236, 238. 
Dipankara, 236, 238. 
Dipavamsa, 21. 
Disciple (sekha), 45. 
Dittbi, dr«sh/i, heresy, 164. 
Divyavadana, 141, 149. 
Drinking, 247. 

Eightfold, the way, 191, 273. 
Elephant, Buddha, 320. 

1 



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9 8 



DHAMMAPADA. 



Fetters of life, 345, 346, 350. 
Fire, worshipped by Brahmans, 107, 

39*. 
Flowers, with and without scent, 5 1 , 

52. 
Four truths, 190, 273. 

Gandharva, 104. 

GStha, 101. 

GathSsangraha, 183. 

Gods, 94, 200. 

Gold pieces, 186, 230 (nekkha). 

Good and evil bear fruit, 11 9-1 2 2. 

Gotama, 296. 

Graha, gaha, 251. 

Gainas, 104, 141. 

Gambfi river, gold of it, 230. 

Garavagga, 146. 

GStaka, 9, 33, 35-39, 72, '49, «58, 

179, 187, 285, 294, 306, 345. 
Gafa, sign of A'aiva ascetic, 141. 

Hair, platted, of Brahmans, 393, 394. 
Hatred, how it ceases, 3, 4. 
— ceases by love, 5. 
Hitopadeta, 129. 

Immortal place, 114. 
Immortality and death, 21. 
Indra's bolt, 95. 
Island (dipa), 25, 26. 

Kakajfira, 244. 

Kali, unlucky die, 202. 

Kalyanamitra, 78. 

Kanakamuni, 183. 

Kasava, kashaya, yellow dress, 9. 

Kathasaritsagara, 125. 

Kavyadarja, 411. 

Kili«i>a, klish/a, 15. 

Kisagotami, 45. 

Kodhavagga, 221. 

Kuja, grass, 311. 

Kiua grass, for eating with, 70. 

A~ittavagga, 33. 

Lalita-vistara, 39, 44, 46, 153, 251, 

254, 275, 282, 320, 326, 388. 
Lankavatara-sGtra, 294. 
Lily (lotus), its purity, 58, 59. 
Lokavagga, 167. 
Lotus leaf, water on it, 401. 

Made and not made, 383. 



Maggavagga, 273. 
Maghavan, Indra, 30. 
Mahabharata, 9, 44, 87, 92, 96, 129, 

131, 133. 142, «50, 185, 187, 198, 

200,202,223,227,248, 275,287, 

306,364,395. 
Mahaparinibbana-sutta, 39, 153. 
Mahavamsa, 21. 
Mahavastu, quotes Dharmapada, and 

Sahasravarga, 100. 
Mahavira, 141. 
Malavagga, 235. 
Mallika, 54. 
Mandhatr;, 185. 
Manu, laws, 71, 96, 109, 131, 150, 

25'. 320, 345, 346. 
Mara, the tempter, 7, 8, 34, 37, 40, 

46, 57, 105, 175, 274, »76, 337, 

350. 
Milk, turning suddenly, 71. 
Miracles, Buddha's view of, 254. 
Mithiia, 200. 

Muni, etymology of, 268, 269. 
Mustard seed, on a needle, 401, 407. 

Nagavagga, 320. 

Nakedness, 141. 

Namarupa, mind and body, 221, 367. 

Nibbuta, nirvWta, freed, 89. 

Niraya, hell, 306. 

Nirayavagga, 306. 

Nirukti, 363. 

Nirvana, 23, 32, 75, 126, 134, 184, 
203, 204, 218, 335, 226, 285, 
289,323,368,372,374. '• 

Nishkashaya, free from impurity, 
play on word, 9. 

Old-in-vain, 260. 
Overcome evil by good, 223. 

Pakinnakavagga, 290. 

Pakkhandin, praskandin, 244. 

Pa/ftfitavagga, 76. 

Papavagga, 116. 

Paraglmin, 85. 

Pare, ol n-rfXXot, 6. 

Parjvanatha, 141. 

Path, the evil and the good, 17, 18, 

316-319. 
Patricide, 294. 
Piyavagga, 209. 
Platted hair, 141. 
Prapaȣa, 254. 
Prasena^it, defeated by A^atajatru, 



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INDEX. 



99 



PratibhSna, 363. 

Pratimoksha, 183, 185. 

Pravra^, 83. 

Pravrarita, etymology of, 388. 

Proverbs, 96. 

Puns, 283, 294, 295, 3°5- 

Pupphavagga, 44. 

Raja, dust, passion, 313. 
Ramayana, 129. 

Sacrifice, worthless, 106. 
Sahassavagga, quoted in Mahavastu, 

100. 
Sahita=Tipi/aka, 19. 
St. Luke, 130. 
St. Matthew, 25a. 
St. Mark, 157. 
Sama»a, etymology of, 265. 
Sama««a, priesthood, ao. 
Sambodhyanga, 89. 
Sawsara, 60. 
Sawjskara, conception, 202. 

— the five skandhas, 202. 
Sawzyutta-nikilya, 69. 
Sanatsu.g-a'tTya, 21. 
SaiikhSra, creature, 255. 
Sankhita, ^o. 
Sa«^»a, perception, 202. 
Sara, truth, reality, 11. 

Sati, smWti, intense thought, 91. 
Sayanisanam, jayanasanam, 185. 
Self, lord of self, 160, 165. *--o 
Seven elements of knowledge, 89. 
Shore, the other, 85, 384. 

— the two shores, 385. 
Sindhu horses, 322. 
Skandha, body, 202. 
Snowy mountains, 304. 
Spider, 347. 

Spoon, perceives no taste, 64. 
Sugata, Buddha, 285,419 (welfaring). 
Sukhavagga, 197. 

Suttanipata, 20, 61, 87, 125, 141, 142, 
170, 185, 205, 239, 306, 328, 

339. 345, 353. 3*4, 375. 39«- 
423. 

Sakala-pratuakhya, 352. 
Sunya, 92. 

Svetambaras (Gainas, followers of 
Panvanatha), 141. 



Tabernacle, maker of, 153. 

Tagara, plant, 54. 

Taittiriya-aranyaka, 96. 

Tawhavagga, 334. 

Tathagata, 254. 

Tathagatas, are preachers, 276. 

Ten evil states, 137. 

Thirty-six passions, 339. 

Thought, word, and deed, 96. 

Thoughts, their influence, 1. 

Tirthankara, 104. 

Tonsure, 264. 

Tiirarana, 190. 

Trividhadvara, thought, word, and 

deed, 96. 
Twin- verses, 1. 

Ukku/ika, see Utka/ukasana, 141. 
Uncreated (akata), 97. 
Upadana, 20. 
Upadhi, 418. 
Upadhiviveka, 203. 
Upama, aupamya, 129. 
Upasarga, misfortune, 1 39. 
Urdhvamsrotas, 218. 
Utka/ukasana, sitting on the hams, 
141. 

V3ha, horse, or vaha, wave, 339. 
Vana, forest and lust, 283. 
Vasisttfia-Bharadva^a-sutra, 396. 
Vassika flower, 377. 
Vassikt, flower, 55. 
Vedana, sensation, 202. 
Videha, king of, 200. 
Wgf&na., knowledge, 202. 
Vimoksha, freedom, 92, 93. 
Vinaya-pi/aka, 28, 307. 
Vishnu-stitra, 9. 
Vuvabhfl Tathagata, 49. 
Viveka, separation, retirement,75,87. 

Works, good, 220. 
World, the next, 176. 
— of the gods, 177. 

Yama, 44, 45, 235. 

Yama's messengers, 235. 

Yamakavagga, 1. 

Ye dhamma, &c, 183. 

Yellow dress, 9, 10, 307. 

YonuaA, truly, thoroughly, 326. 



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THE 

SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 

sutta-nipAta 



[10] A 

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Hontoon 
HENRY FROWDE 




OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE 
7 PATERNOSTER ROW 



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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



TRANSLATED 



BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 



AND EDITED BY 



F. MAX MULLER 



VOLUME X 
PART 114 




[All rights reservtd] 



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THE SUTTA-NIPATA 

A COLLECTION OF DISCOURSES 

BEING ONE OF THE CANONICAL BOOKS OF THE 
BUDDHISTS 



TRANSLATED FROM PALI 



BY 



V. FAUSBOLL 




fr't US/.' 57, 
IVEESITY 

■'-%^ 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1881 

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k 



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CONTENTS. 



TAGK 



Introduction to Sutta-NipAta xi 

I. URAGAVAGGA ........ i 

i. Uragasutta i 

2. Dhaniyasutta 3 

3. Khaggavisanasutta 6 

4. Kasibh&radva^asutta 11 

5. ATundasutta 15 

6. Paribhavasutta 17 

7. Vasalasutta 20 

8. Mettasutta 24 

9. Hemavatasutta 25 

10. A/avakasutta 29 

11. Vi^ayasutta 32 

12. Munisutta 33 

II. A^LAVAGGA 37 

1. Ratanasutta 37 

2. Amagandhasutta 40 

3. Hirisutta 42 

4. Mahamangalasutta 43 

5. Sft&lomasutta 45 

6. Dhamma^ariyasutta or Kapilasutta . . . .46 

7. Brahmawadhammikasutta 47 

8. Navisutta 52 

9. Kiwstlasutta 54 

10. U//Mnasutta 55 

11. Rahulasutta 55 

12. Vangfsasutta 57 

13. Sammaparibbafaniyasutta 60 

14. Dhammikasutta 62 



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CONTENTS. 



III. MAHAVAGGA 
i. Pabba^Ssutta 

2. Padhinasutta 

3. Subhisitasutta 

4. Sundarikabh^radva^asutta 

5. M&ghasutta . 

6. Sabhiyasutta 

7. Selasutta 

8. Sallasutta 

9. Vase/Masutta 

10. Kok&liyasutta 

11. N&lakasutta . 

1 2. Dvayat&nupassanSsutta 

IV. A7T#AKAVAGGA 

1. Kamasutta . 

2. Guha//Aakasutta 

3. Du//Aa/Makasutta 

4. SuddhaAftakasutta 

5. Parama/Makasutta 

6. Garasutta 

7. Tissametteyyasutta 

8. Pasfirasutta . 

9. Magandiyasutta 

10. PurSbhedasutta 

11. Kalahavividasutta 

12. -ffftlaviyfihasutta 

13. Mahiviyfihasutta 

14. Tuva&kasutta 

15. Attada»(/asutta 

16. Sariputtasutta 

V. PARAYANAVAGGA 

1. Vatthugatha . 

2. A^itamSwavapu/WM 



67 
67 
69 

72 

74 
80 

85 
96 
106 
108 
118 
124 

146 
146 

*47 
148 
150 
152 
154 
156 

157 
159 
162 
164 
167 
171 
i74 
177 
180 

184 
184 
190 



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CONTENTS. 








IX 


PAGE 


3. Tissametteyyam&»avapu&Ma 191 


4. Pu««akama«avapui£M . 










. 192 


5. Mettagum£»avapu££/&a' . 










• 193 


6. Dhotakamdwavapu^AS . 










196 


7. Upastvama«avapu££M . 










• 197 


8. Nandamawavapu^M 










199 


9. Hemakama«avapu-W^£ . 










201 


10. Todeyyami»avaputt5a' . 










202 


11. Kappama«avapu£4M 










203 


1 2. <7atuka»mm&»avapu££M 










204 


13. Bhadravudham£»avapu£^& 










205 


14. Udayam&KivapuAMa" 










206 


15. Pos&lam&»avapuAWa' 










207 


16. Moghara^amawavapu/MM 










208 


17. Pihgiyamiwavapu^^t . 










209 


[ndex 










215 



Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the 
Translations of the Sacred Books of the East . 



221 



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EXPLANATION OF WORDS 
the meaning of which is not always given in the translation. 



A^lvika, one belonging to a sect 
of naked ascetics. 

Arahat, a holy man, a saint. 

Ariya, noble. 

Bhagavat, worshipful, blessed, a 
name of a Buddha. 

Bhikkhu, a mendicant. 

Brahman, the supreme god of the 
Hindus. 

Br&hma«a, a sage. 

Buddha, enlightened, a name of 
certain holy men who have freed 
themselves from existence, parti- 
cularly of Samarca Gotama. 

Dhamma, tenet, doctrine, custom, 
law, religion, virtue, thing. 

Gahal/^a, Gihin, a householder. 

Gotama, a name of the last Bud- 
dha. 

cTa/ila, an ascetic wearing clotted 
hair. 

G in a, a conqueror, a name of a 
Buddha. 

I si, a sage. 

Khattiya, a warrior, a prince. 

Ka.ndk\&, an outcast. 

M a ra, a name of the king of death, 
the devil. 

Muni, a thinker, a sage. 

Naga, an eminent man ; sinless? 

Namu£i = M4ra. 

Nibbana, extinction, the state of 
bliss of the Buddhist. 

NigawMa, a naked ascetic. 



Pabba^a, leaving the world, em- 
bracing ascetic life, taking the 
robe. 

Pabba^ita, an ascetic, having 
taken the robe. 

Paribb4g-a, Paribbi^aka, a 
wandering mendicant. 

Sakka = Sakya, belonging to the 
Sakya tribe. 

Sakyamuni, the Sakya sage, a 
name of Buddha. 

Samawa, an ascetic 

Sawkhara, all compound things, 
the material world. 

Sawsara, revolution, transmigra- 
tion. 

Savaka, a hearer, a follower, a 
disciple of Buddha, including 
both laity and clergy. 

Sekha, a novice, student. 

Sudda, a man of the servile caste. 

Sugata, happy, a name of a Bud- 
dha. 

Thera, an elder, a senior priest. 

Titthiya, an ascetic adhering to 
a certain system of philosophy. 

U p a d h i, the elements of the world. 

Upasaka, a follower, a lay de- 
votee. 

Upasampad&, priest's orders. 

Vessa, Vessika, a man of the 
third caste. 

Yakkha, a giant, a malignant 
spirit. 



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INTRODUCTION 

TO 

THE SUTTA-NlMTA.. 



The Collection of Discourses, Sutta-Nipata, which I have 
here translated 1 , is very remarkable, as there can be no 
doubt that it contains some remnants of Primitive Bud- 
dhism. I consider the greater part of the Mahavagga, and 
nearly the whole of the Aft/fcakavagga as very old. I have 
arrived at this conclusion from two reasons, first from the 
language, and secondly from the contents. 

i . We not only find here what we meet with in other 
Pali poetry, the fuller Vedic forms of nouns and verbs in 
the plural, as avttatawhase, paWitase, dhammase, sitase, 
upa/7/ntase, pavadiyase, &c, and £aramase, asmase, sik- 
khissamase ; the shorter Vedic plurals and the instrumental 
singular of nouns, as v'm\kkkay&, lakkha#a for vini£Mayani, 
lakkha«ani, manta, pariwwa, vinaya, labhakamya for man- 
taya, &c. ; Vedic infinitives, as vippahatave, sampayatave, 
u««ametave ; contracted (or sometimes old) forms, as santya, 
gzkkk, dugga&fca, sammuitt, titthya, thiyo, parihlrati for san- 
tiya, ^itiya, sammutiya, titthiya, itthiyo, parihariyati, by the 
side of protracted forms, such as atumanaw ; but also some 
unusual (sometimes old) forms and words, as apu££^asi, 
sagghasi a =sakkhissasi, sussa**=su»issami (Sansk. jrosh- 
yami), pava and pava = vadati, p&vekMe = paveseyya, 
parikissati = parikilissati, vineyya, vi^eyya, nikkbeyya., pap- 
puyya,= vinayitva, &c, dart^u = disva (S. drishtvk), atisi- 
tva = atikkamitva, anuvi££a = anuviditva, paribbasana = 
vasamana, amhana (S.armana)=pasa»ena,va£ibhi,£atubbhi, 
rattamahabhi, ise (vocative), suvami = sami, maga = miga, 

- ' Sir M. Coomara Swamy's translation of part of the book has been a great 
help to me. I hope shortly to publish the Pali text. 
* C reads pagghasi. 



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Xll SUTTA-NIPATA. 



tumo = so, parovara = paravara, bhunahu = bhutihanaka, 
upaya, amagandha, dhona, vyappatha, vyappathi, vevikMi, 
visenibhuta, visenikatva, pa^seniyanti. Sometimes we meet 
also with difficult and irregular constructions, and very con- 
densed expressions. All this proves, I think, that these 
parts of the book are much older than the Suttas in which 
the language is not only fluent, but of which some verses 
are even singularly melodious. 

2. In the contents of the Suttanipata we have, I think, 
an important contribution to the right understanding of 
Primitive Buddhism, for we see here a picture not of 
life in monasteries, but of the life of hermits in its first 
stage. We have before us not the systematizing of the 
later Buddhist church, but the first germs of a system, the 
fundamental ideas of which come out with sufficient clear- 
ness. From the A//^akavagga especially it is evident 
where Buddha takes his stand in opposition to Philo- 
sophy (dMthi = dar.fana). 

Indian society at the time of Buddha had two large and 
distinguished religious sects, Samaras and Brahmawas. 
This is apparent from several passages where they are 
mentioned together ; for instance, Vinaya, ed. Oldenberg, II, 
p. 295; Grimblot, Sept Suttas Palis, p. ix, 8 &c, 118 &c, 
158 &c, 306 &c, 309 ; Dhammapada, p. 39a ; Suttanipata, 
w. 99, 129, 189, 440, 529, 859, 1078 ; Sabhiyasutta, at the 
beginning; the Inscriptions of Asoka; Mahabhashya, II, 4, 
9 (fol. 398 a); Lalita Vistara, pp. 309, 1. 10, 318, 1. 18, 320, 
1. 20 ; and lastly, Megasthenes (Schwanbeck, p. 45), bio yivrj 
<\>iKoa6<f><nv, &v roiit pee Bpaxpavas KaXet, robs 8£ Sapjuavas. 

Famous teachers arose and gathered around theni flocks 
of disciples. As such are mentioned Pura«a-Kassapa, 
Makkhali-Gosala, A^ita-Kesakambali, Pakudha-Ka£/£a- 
yana, Saw.faya-Bela/Z^iputta, and Nigaw^a-Nataputta l ; 
see Suttanipata, p. 86 ; Mahaparinibbanasutta, ed. Childers, 
p. 58 ; Vinaya II, p. 1 1 1 ; Grimblot, Sept Suttas Palis, p. 114, 
&c. ; Milindapawha, ed.Trenckner, p. 4. Besides these there 
is Bavari (Suttanipata, p. 184), and his disciples A^ita, Tissa- 
metteyya, Puwwaka, Mettagu, Dhotaka, Upasiva, Nanda, 

4 Cf. Indian Antiquary, 1880, p. 158. 

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INTRODUCTION. Xlll 



Hemaka, Todeyya, Kappa, Gatukawwin, Bhadravudha, 
Udaya, Posala, Moghara^-an (Piiigiya, w. 1006-1008 ; Sela, 
p. 98), and Rankin, Tarukkha, Pokkharasati, £anusso«i, 
Vase/^a, and Bharadva^a, p. 109. 

We learn that there were four kinds of Samawas, viz. 
Magga.g-inas, Maggadesakas (or Maggadesins, Magga^g^a- 
yins), Magga^tvins, and Maggadusins, w. 83-88. Among 
these Samawas disputes arose, w. 828, 883-884 ; a number 
of philosophical systems were formed, and at the time of 
Buddha there were as many as sixty-three of them, v. 538. 
These systems are generally designated by di#Ai, w. 54, 
151, 786, 837, 851, &c. ; or by di//>4igata, w. 834, 836, 913 ; 
or by di//>fcasuta, v. 778; or by ditt/ia., suta, and muta, 
w. 793, 813, 914; or by diuka, suta, silavata 1 , and muta, 
w. 790, 797-798, 836, 887, 1080. The doctrines themselves 
are called di^inivesa, v. 785 ; or nivesana, vv. 209, 470, 
801, 846 ; or vini^Maya, w. 838, 866, 887, 894 ; and he who 
entertains any of them, is called nivissavadin, w. 910, 913. 

What is said of the Sama«as seems mostly to hold good 
about the Brahmawas also. They too are called dispu- 
tatious, vadastla, v. 381, &c, p. 109 ; and three kinds of 
them are mentioned, viz. Titthiyas, A,g1vikas, and Ni- 
ga«^as, w. 380, 891-892. In contradistinction to the 
Samawas the Brahmawas are designated as Tevj^gas, w. 
594, 1019 ; they are Padakas, Veyyakarawas, and perfect 
in Gappa, Nigha«*/u, Ketubha, Itihasa, &c, v. 595, p. 98. 
They are called friends of the hymns, v. 139 ; well versed 
in the hymns, v. 976; and their principal hymn is Savitti 2 , 
w. 568, 456. They worship and make offerings to the fire, 
pp. 74, 20. In Brahmawadhammikasutta the ancient and 
just Brahmawas are described in opposition to the later 

1 I am not sure whether sflavata is to be understood as one notion or two. 
It is generally written in one word, but at p. 109 Vase«Aa says, when one is 
virtuous and endowed with works, he is a Brahmana, yato kho bho stlavS £a 
hoti vat asampanno ita. ettivatS kho br&hmano hoti. Stlavata, I presume, refers 
chiefly to the Brahmanas. 

a From v. 456 we see that Buddha has rightly read vareniyam as the metre 
requires, but I must not omit to mention that the Commentator understands 
by Savitti the Buddhistic formula: Buddhant saranam gaiMami, Dhammam 
saranam g3.kih3.mi, Samgham saranam gaMAami, which, like Savitti, contains 
twenty-four syllables. 



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XIV SUTTA-NIPATA. 



Brahmawas, who slay innocent cows and have acquired wealth 
through the favour of the kings, w. 307, 308, 31 1, 302 1 . 

All these disputants hold fast to their own prejudiced 
views, v. 910. They say that purity comes from philo- 
sophical views, from tradition, and from virtuous works, 
and in many other ways, v. 1078, and that there is no bliss 
excepting by following their opinions, w. 889, 891, 893. 

Buddha himself has, it is true, sprung from the Samaras : 
he is called Sama«a Gotama, p. 96 ; he shines like a sun 
in the midst of the Samawas, v. 550 ; and intercourse with 
Samarcas is said to be the highest blessing, v. 265. But 
Buddha has overcome all their systems, v. 538 ; there is 
nothing which has not been seen, heard, or thought by him, 
and nothing which has not been understood by him, v. 11 21. 
All the disputatious Brahmawas do not overcome him in 
understanding, v. 380 ; and he asserts that no one is puri- 
fied and saved by philosophy or by virtuous works, w. 1079, 
839. Sanctification, in fact, does not come from another, 
w- 773> 79°> 813 ; it can be attained only by going into 
the yoke with Buddha, v. 834 ; by believing in him and in 
the Dhamma of the Saints, w. 183, 185, 370, 1142 ; on the 
whole, by being what Buddha is. 
What then is Buddha ? 

First he is a Visionary, in the good sense of the word ; 
his knowledge is intuitive, ' Seeing misery,' he says, ' in the 
philosophical views, without adopting any of them, searching 
for truth, I saw inward peace,' w. 837, 207. And again, ' He, 
a conqueror unconquered, saw the Dhamma visibly, with- 
out any traditional instruction,' w. 934, 1052, 1065. He 
teaches an instantaneous, an immediate religious life, w. 
567, 1 1 36. He is called £akkhumat, endowed with an eye, 
clearly-seeing, w. 160, 405, 540, 562, 596, 956, 992, 1028, 
1 1 15, 11 27 ; samanta^akkhu, the all-seeing, w. 1062, 1068 ; 
and as such he has become an eye to the world, v. 599. 
He sees the subtle meaning of things, w. 376, 175 ; he is, 
in one word, Sambuddha, the perfectly-enlightened, w. 177, 
555) 59$> 99 a > an d by knowledge he is delivered, w. 1 106, 

1 Besides the religions Brahmanas some secular Brahmanas are mentioned, 
p. 11. 



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INTRODUCTION. XV 



727, 733. Existence is arnggb, ignorance, v. 729; vi^^a, 
knowledge, is the extinction of the world, v. 730. 

Secondly, he is an Ascetic, a Muni 1 , one that forsakes 
the world and wanders from the house to the houseless 
state, w. 273, 375, 1003 ; because from house-life arises 
defilement, v. 206. An ascetic has no prejudiced ideas, 
v. 802 ; he has shaken off every philosophical view, v. 787 ; 
he does not enter into disputes, v. 887 ; he is not pleased 
nor displeased with anything, v. 813 ; he is indifferent to 
learning, v. 911 ; he does not cling to good and evil, 
w. 520, 547, 790 ; he has cut off all passion and all desire, 
w. 2, 795, 1 1 30, 916; he is free from marks, v. 847; and 
possessionless, aki«£ana, w. 175, 454, 490, 620, 1058, 1062, 
976, 1069, 1 1 14. He is equable, v. 855 ; under all circum- 
stances the same, v. 952 ; still as the deep water, v. 920 ; 
calm, w. 459, 861. He has reached peace, w. 837, 845, 
919; he knows that bliss consists in peace, v. 933 ; he has 
gone to immortal peace, the unchangeable state of Nib- 
bana, v. 203. And how is this state brought about ? By 
the destruction of consciousness, w. 734-735- And how 
does consciousness cease? By the cessation of sensa- 
tion, w. 1109-mo; by being without breathing, w. 
1 089-1 090 2 . 

1. What then is sin according to Buddha? 

Subjectively sin is desire, in all its various forms, 
w. 923, 1 103; viz. desire for existence generally, w. 776, 
1059, 1067, and especially for name and form, i. e. indi- 
vidual existence, vv. 354, 1099. As long as man is led by 
desire he will be whirled about in existence, v. 740 ; for as 
long as there is birth, there will be death, v. 742. Exist- 
ence is called the stream of death, v. 354 ; the realm of 
Mara, w. 164, 1145. Those who continually go to saw- 
sara with birth and death, are the ignorant, v. 729. 

1 Buddha is sometimes styled the great Isi, w. 1060, 1082 ; sometimes a Muni, 
w. 164, 700 ; sometimes a Brahmana, v. 1064 ; sometimes a Bhikkhu, w. 411, 
415 ; and all these appellations are used synonymously, w. 283, 284, 1064, 1066, 
843, 844, 911, 912, 946, 220. Ascetic life is praised throughout the book, 
especially in the Uraga-, Muni-, Rahula-, Sammaparibba^aniya-, Dhammika-, 
Nalaka-, PurSbheda-, Tuvafaka-, Attadanrfa-, and Sariputta-suttas. 

* This system ends, it will be seen from this, like other ascetic systems, in 
mysticism. 



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XVI SUTTA-NIPATA. 



But desire originates in the body, w. 270, 1099 ; sin lies 
objectively in embodiment or matter, and conse- 
quently the human body is looked upon as a contemptible 
thing. See Vi^ayasutta, p. 32. 
2. And what is bliss? 

Subjectively, it is emancipation from desire by 
means of the peace that Buddha preaches, w. 1065-1066, 
1069, 1084, 1 108, 838-839. 

Objectively, it is emancipation from body and 
matter. One must destroy the elements of existence, upa- 
dht, w. 373, 546, 1050, 1056 ; and leave the body behind, 
that one may not come to exist again, w. 1120, 1122, 761. 
The ignorant only create upadhf, v. 1050, and go again 
and again to sawsara, v. 729. The wise do not enter time, 
kappa, w. 52 1 > 535> 860 ; they look upon the world as 
void, v. 1 1 18; hold that there is nothing really existing, 
v. 1069 ; and those whose minds are disgusted with a fu- 
ture existence, the wise who have destroyed their seeds (of 
existence), go out like a lamp, w. 234, 353-354- As a flame, 
blown about by the violence of the wind, goes out, and 
cannot be reckoned (as existing), even so a Muni, delivered 
from name and body, disappears, and cannot be reckoned 
(as existing), v. 1073. For him who has disappeared, there 
is no form ; that by which they say he is, exists for him no 
longer, v. 1075. 

' Exert thyself, then, — O Dhotaka,' so said Bhagavat, — 
' being wise and thoughtful in this world, let one, having 
listened to my utterance, learn his own extinction,' v. 1061. 

Tena h' atappaw* karohi, — Dhotaka 'ti Bhagava, — 

idh' eva nipako sato 

ito sutvana nigghosaw 

sikkhe nibbanam attano. 
With this short sketch of the contents of the Suttani- 
pata for a guide, I trust it will be easy to understand even 
the more obscure parts of the book. 

V. FAUSBOLL. 

Copenhagen, 
Sept. 13, 1880. 



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I. URAGAVAGGA. 



1. URAGASUTTA. 

The Bhikkhu who discards all human passions is compared to a 
snake that casts his skin. — Text and translation in Fr. Spiegel's 
Anecdota PSlica. 

i. He who restrains his anger when it has 
arisen, as (they) by medicines (restrain) the poison 
of the snake spreading (in the body), that Bhikkhu 
leaves this and the further shore, as a snake (quits 
its) old worn out skin. (i) 

2. He who has cut off passion entirely, as (they cut 
off) the lotus-flower growing in a lake, after diving 
(into the water), that Bhikkhu leaves this and the 
further shore, as a snake (quits its) old worn out 
skin. (2) 

3. He who has cut off desire entirely, the flowing, 
the quickly running, after drying it up, that Bhik- 
khu leaves this and the further shore, as a snake 
(quits its) old worn out skin. (3) 

4. He who has destroyed arrogance entirely, as the 
flood (destroys) a very frail bridge of reeds, that 
Bhikkhu leaves this and the further shore, as a 
snake (quits its) old worn out skin. (4) 

5. He who has not found any essence in the exist- 
ences, like one that looks for flowers on fig-trees, 
that Bhikkhu leaves this and the further shore, as 
a snake (quits its) old worn out skin. (5) 

[10] B 



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URAGAVAGGA. 



6. He in whose breast there are no feelings of 
anger, who has thus overcome reiterated existence, 
that Bhikkhu leaves this and the further shore, as 
a snake (quits its) old worn out skin. (6) 

7. He whose doubts are scattered, cut off en- 
tirely inwardly, that Bhikkhu leaves this and the 
further shore, as a snake (quits its) old worn out 
skin. (7) 

8. He who did not go too fast forward, nor was 
left behind, who overcame all this (world of) de- 
lusion, that Bhikkhu leaves this and the further 
shore, as a snake (quits its) old worn out skin. (8) 

9. He who did not go too fast forward, nor was 
left behind, having seen that all this in the world 
is false, that Bhikkhu leaves this and the further 
shore, as a snake (quits its) old worn out skin. (9) 

10. He who did not go too fast forward, nor was 
left behind, being free from covetousness, (seeing) 
that all this is false, that Bhikkhu leaves this and 
the further shore, as a snake (quits its) old worn 
out skin. (10) 

11. He who did not go too fast forward, nor 
was left behind, being free from passion, (seeing) 
that all this is false, that Bhikkhu leaves this and 
the further shore, as a snake (quits its) old worn 
out skin. (11) 

12. He who did not go too fast forward, nor was 
left behind, being free from hatred, (seeing) that all 
this is false, that Bhikkhu leaves this and the further 
shore, as a snake (quits its) old worn out skin. (12) 

13. He who did not go too fast forward, nor was 
left behind, being free from folly, (seeing) that all this 
is false, that Bhikkhu leaves this and the further 
shore, as a snake (quits its) old worn out skin. (13) 



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DHANIYASUTTA. 



14. He to whom there are no affections whatso- >/ 
ever, whose sins are extirpated from the root, that 
Bhikkhu leaves this and the further shore, as a snake 
(quits its) old worn out skin. (14) 

15. He to whom there are no (sins) whatsoever 
originating in fear, which are the causes of coming 
back to this shore, that Bhikkhu leaves this and the 
further shore, as a snake (quits its) old worn out 
skin. (15) 

16. He to whom there are no (sins) whatsoever 
originating in desire, which are the causes of binding 
(men) to existence, that Bhikkhu leaves this and the 
further shore, as a snake (quits its) old worn out 
skin. . (16) 

1 7. He who, having left the five obstacles, is free 
from suffering, has overcome doubt, and is without 
pain, that Bhikkhu leaves this and the further shore, 
as a snake (quits its) old worn out skin. (17) 

Uragasutta is ended. 



2. DHANIYASUTTA. 

A dialogue between the rich herdsman Dhaniya and Buddha, the 
one rejoicing in his worldly security and the other in his religious 
belief. — This beautiful dialogue calls to mind the parable in the 
Gospel of S. Luke xii. 16. 

i. ' I have boiled (my) rice, I have milked (my 
cows),' — so said the herdsman Dhaniya, — ' I am 
living together with my fellows near the banks of 
the Mahl (river), (my) house is covered, the fire is 
kindled: therefore, if thou like, rain; O sky!' (18) 

2. ' I am free from anger, free from stubborn- 
ness/ — so said Bhagavat, — 'I am abiding for one 
night near the banks of the Mahi (river), my house 

b 2 



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URAGAVAGGA. 



is uncovered, the fire (of passions) is extinguished : 
therefore, if thou like, rain, O sky!' (19) 

3. ' Gad-flies are not to be found (with me),' — so 
said the herdsman Dhaniya, — ' in meadows abound- 
ing with grass the cows are roaming, and they can 
endure rain when it comes : therefore, if thou like, 
rain, O sky !' (20) 

4. ' (By me) is made a well-constructed raft,' — so 
said Bhagavat, — ' I have passed over (to Nibbana), 
I have reached the further bank, having overcome 
the torrent (of passions); there is no (further) use 
for a raft : therefore, if thou like, rain, O sky !' (21) 

5. ' My wife is obedient, not wanton,' — so said the 
herdsman Dhaniya, — ' for a long time she has been 
living together (with me), she is winning, and I hear 
nothing wicked of her : therefore, if thou like, rain, 
Osky!' (22) 

6. ' My mind is obedient, delivered (from all worlds 
liness),' — so said Bhagavat, — ' it has for a long time 
been highly cultivated and well-subdued, there is no 
longer anything wicked in me : therefore, if thou 
like, rain, O sky !' (23) 

7. ' I support myself by my own earnings,' — so 
said the herdsman Dhaniya, — ' and my children are 
(all) about me, healthy ; I hear nothing wicked of 
them : therefore, if thou like, rain, O sky!' (24) 

8. ' I am no one's servant,' — so said Bhagavat, — 
' with what I have gained I wander about in all the 
world, there is no need (for me) to serve : therefore, 
if thou like, rain, O sky ! ' (25) 

9. ' I have cows, I have calves,' — so said the 
herdsman Dhaniya, — ' I have cows in calf and heifers, 
and I have also a bull as lord over the cows : there- 
fore, if thou like, rain, O sky !' (26) 



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DHANIYASUTTA. 



10. ' I have no cows, I have no calves,' — so said 
Bhagavat, — ' I have no cows in calf and no heifers, 
and I have no bull as a lord over the cows : there- 
fore, if thou like, rain, O sky!' (27) 

11. ' The stakes are driven in, and cannot be 
shaken,' — so said the herdsman Dhaniya, — ' the 
ropes are made of mu^a grass, new and well-made, 
the cows will not be able to break them : therefore, 
if thou like, rain, O sky!' (28) 

12. ' Having, like a bull, rent the bonds; having, 
like an elephant, broken through the galui^i 
creeper, I shall not again enter into a womb : there- 
fore, if thou like, rain, O sky!' (29) 

Then at once a shower poured down, filling both 
sea and land. Hearing the sky raining, Dhaniya 
spoke thus : 

13. ' No small gain indeed (has accrued) to us 
since we have seen Bhagavat ; we take refuge in 
thee, O (thou who art) endowed with the eye (of 
wisdom); be thou our master, O great Muni!' (30) 

14. 'Both my wife and myself are obedient; (if) 
we lead a holy life before Sugata, we shall conquer 
birth and death, and put an end to pain.' (31) 

15. 'He who has sons has delight in sons,' — so 
said the wicked Mara, — ' he who has cows has de- 
light likewise in cows ; for upadhi (substance) is the 
delight of man, but he who has no upadhi has no 
delight.' (32) 

16. 'He who has sons has care with (his) sons,' — 
so said Bhagavat, — ' he who has cows has likewise 
care with (his) cows ; for upadhi (is the cause of) 
people's cares, but he who has no upadhi has no 
care.' - (33) 

Dhaniyasutta is ended. 



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URAGAVAGGA. 



3. khaggavisAjvasutta. 

ft 

Family life and intercourse with others should be avoided, for 
society has all vices in its train; therefore one should leave 
the corrupted state of society and lead a solitary life. 

i. Having laid aside the rod against all beings, 
and not hurting any of them, let no one wish for a 
son, much less for a companion, let him wander 
alone like a rhinoceros \ (34) 

2. In him who has intercourse (with others) af- 
fections arise, (and then) the pain which follows 
affection ; considering the misery that originates in 
affection let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (35) 

3. He who has compassion on his friends and 
confidential (companions) loses (his own) advan- 
tage, having a fettered mind ; seeing this danger 
in friendship let one wander alone like a rhino- 
ceros. (36) 

4. Just as a large bamboo tree (with its branches) 
entangled (in each other, such is) the care one has 
with children and wife; (but) like the shoot of a 
bamboo not clinging (to anything) let one wander 
alone like a rhinoceros 2 . (37) 

5. As a beast unbound in the forest goes feeding 
at pleasure, so let the wise man, considering (only 
his) own will, wander alone like a rhinoceros. (38) 

6. There is (a constant) calling in the midst of 
company, both when sitting, standing, walking, and 
going away; (but) let one, looking (only) for free- 
dom from desire and for following his own will, 
wander alone like a rhinoceros. (39) 

7. There is sport and amusement in the midst of 

1 Comp. Dhp. v. 142. *.Comp. Dhp. v. 345. 

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KHAGGAVISAJVASUTTA. 



company, and for children there is great affection ; 
(although) disliking separation from his dear friends, 
let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (40) 

8. He who is at home in (all) the four regions 
and is not hostile (to any one), being content with 
this or that, overcoming (all) dangers fearlessly, let 
him wander alone like a rhinoceros. (41) 

9. Discontented are some pabba^itas (ascetics), 
also some gaha//^as (householders) dwelling in 
houses; let one, caring little about other people's 
children, wander alone like a rhinoceros. (42) 

10. Removing the marks of a gihin (a house- 
holder) like a Kovilara tree whose leaves are fallen, 
let one, after cutting off heroically the ties of a 
gihin, wander alone like a rhinoceros. (43) 

11. If one acquires a clever companion, an asso- 
ciate righteous and wise, let him, overcoming all 
dangers, wander about with him glad and thought- 
ful 1 . " (44) 

12. If one does not acquire a clever companion, 
an associate righteous and wise, then as a king 
abandoning (his) conquered kingdom, let him wan- 
der alone like a rhinoceros 2 . (45) 

1 3. Surely we ought to praise the good luck of 
having companions, the best (and such as are our) 
equals ought to be sought for; not having ac- 
quired such friends let one, enjoying (only) allowable 
things, wander alone like a rhinoceros 3 . (46) 

14. Seeing bright golden (bracelets), well-wrought 
by the goldsmith, striking (against each other when 
there are) two on one arm, let one wander alone 
like a rhinoceros. (47) 

1 Comp. Dhp. v. 328. s Comp. Dhp. v. 329. 

3 Comp. Dhp. v. 61. 



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8 URAGAVAGGA. 



15. Thus (if I join myself) with another I shall 
swear or scold ; considering this danger in future, 
let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. - (48) 

16. The sensual pleasures indeed, which are 
various, sweet, and charming, under their different 
shapes agitate the mind; seeing the misery (ori- 
ginating) in sensual pleasures, let one wander alone 
like a rhinoceros. (49) 

1 7. These (pleasures are) to me calamities, boils, 
misfortunes, diseases, sharp pains, and dangers; 
seeing this danger (originating) in sensual pleasures, 
let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (50) 

18. Both cold and heat, hunger and thirst, wind 
and a burning sun, and gad-flies and snakes — having 
overcome all these things, let one wander alone like 
a rhinoceros 1 . (51) 

19. As the elephant, the strong, the spotted, the 
large, after leaving the herd walks at pleasure in 
the forest, even so let one wander alone like a 
rhinoceros. (52) 

20. For him who delights in intercourse (with 
others, even) that is inconvenient which tends to 
temporary deliverance ; reflecting on the words of 
(Buddha) the kinsman of the Adii^a family, let one 
wander alone like a rhinoceros. (53) 

2i. The harshness, of the (philosophical) views 
I have overcome, I have acquired self-command, I 
have attained to the way (leading to perfection), 
I am in possession of knowledge, and not to be 
led by others; so speaking, let one wander alone 
like a rhinoceros. (54) 

22. Without covetousness, without deceit, without 

1 Comp. Gataka I, p. 93. 

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KHAGGAVISAJVASUTTA. 



craving, without detraction, having got rid of pas- 
sions and folly, being free from desire in all the 
world, let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (55) 

23. Let one avoid a wicked companion who 
teaches what is useless and has gone into what is 
wrong, let him not cultivate (the society of) one 
who is devoted (to and) lost in sensual pleasures, 
let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (56) 

24. Let one cultivate (the society of) a friend 
who is learned and keeps the Dhamma, who is 
magnanimous and wise ; knowing the meaning (of 
things and) subduing his doubts, let one wander 
alone like a rhinoceros. (57) 

25. Not adorning himself, not looking out for 
sport, amusement, and the delight of pleasure in the 
world, (on the contrary) being loath of a life of 
dressing, speaking the truth, let one wander alone 
like a rhinoceros. (58) 

26. Having left son and wife, father and mother, 
wealth, and corn, and relatives, the different objects of 
desire, let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (5,9) 

2 7. ' This is a tie, in this there is little happi- 
ness, little enjoyment, but more of pain, this is a 
fishhook,' so having understood, let a thoughtful 
man wander alone like a rhinoceros. (60) 

28. Having torn the ties, having broken the net 
as a fish in the water, being like a fire not returning 
to, the burnt place, let one wander alone like a rhi- 
noceros. (61) 

29. With downcast eyes, and not prying \ with his 
senses guarded, with his mind protected free from 

1 Na k& padalolo ti ekassa dutiyo dvinnawi tatiyo ti evam 
gawamagg^a/w pavisitukamataya^awrf&yamanapado viya abhavanto 
digha£arika-anavattha£arikavirato va. Commentator. 



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10 URAGAVAGGA. 



passion, not burning (with lust), let one wander alone 
like a rhinoceros. (62) 

30. Removing the characteristics of a gihin 
(householder), like a Pari£^atta tree whose leaves 
are cut off, clothed in a yellow robe after wandering 
away (from his house), let one wander alone like a 
rhinoceros. (63) 

31. Not being greedy of sweet things, not being 
unsteady, not supporting others, going begging from 
house to house, having a mind which is not fettered 
to any household, let one wander alone like a rhi- 
noceros. (64) 

32. Having left the five obstacles of the mind, 
having dispelled all sin, being independent, having 
cut off the sin of desire, let one wander alone like a 
rhinoceros. (65) 

33. Having thrown behind (himself bodily) plea- 
sure and pain, and previously (mental) joy and 
distress, having acquired equanimity, tranquillity, 
purity, let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (66) 

34. Strenuous for obtaining the supreme good 
(i. e. Nibbana), with a mind free from attachment, not 
living in idleness, being firm, endowed with bodily 
and mental strength, let one wander alone like a 
rhinoceros. (67) 

35. Not abandoning seclusion and meditation, 
always wandering in(accordance with) the Dhammas 1 , 
seeing misery in the existences, let one wander alone 
like a rhinoceros 2 . (68) 

36. Wishing for the destruction of desire (i. e. Nib- 
bana), being careful, no fool, learned, strenuous, con- 
siderate, restrained, energetic, let one wander alone 
like a rhinoceros. (69) 

1 Dhammesu mkk&m anudhamma^art. 2 Comp. Dhp. v. 20. 

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KASIBHARADVAGASUTTA. 1 1 

37. Like a lion not trembling at noises, like the 
wind not caught in a net, like a lotus not stained by 
water, let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (70) 

38. As a lion strong by his teeth, after overcom- 
ing (all animals), wanders victorious as the king of the 
animals, and haunts distant dwelling-places 1 , (even 
so) let one wander alone like a rhinoceros. (71) 

39. Cultivating in (due) time kindness, equanimity, 
compassion, deliverance, and rejoicing (with others), 
unobstructed by the whole world, let one wander 
alone like a rhinoceros. (72) 

40. Having abandoned both passion and hatred and 
folly, having rent the ties, not trembling in the loss 
of life, let one wander alone like a rhinoceros 2 . (73) 

41. They cultivate (the society of others) and 
serve them for the sake of advantage ; friends with- 
out a motive are now difficult to get, men know 
their own profit and are impure ; (therefore) let one 
wander alone like a rhinoceros. (74) 

Khaggavisa«asutta is ended. 



4. KASIBHARADVAGASUTTA. 

The Brahma«a Kasibharadva^a reproaches Gotama with idleness, 
but the latter convinces him that he (Buddha) also works, and 
so the Brihmana is converted, and finally becomes a saint. 
Compare Sp. Hardy, A Manual of Buddhism, p. 214 ; Gospel 
of S. John v. 17. 

So it was heard by me : 

At one time Bhagavat dwelt in Magadha at Dak- 
khi#agiri in the Brahma#a village Ekana/a. And at 
that time the Brahma#a Kasibharadva/a's five hun- 

1 Pantantti durani senasananlti vasati/Manani. Commentator. 
' Comp. Dhp. v. 20. 



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1 2 URAGAVAGGA. 



dred ploughs were tied (to the yokes) in the sowing 
season. Then Bhagavat, in the morning, having put 
on his raiment and taken his bowl and robes, went 
to the place where the Brahmawa Kasibharadvi^a's 
work (was going on). At that time the Brihma»a 
Kasibharadva^a's distribution of food took place. 
Then Bhagavat went to the place where the distri- 
bution of food took place, and having gone there, he 
stood apart. The Brahmawa Kasibharadva^ia saw 
Bhagavat standing there to get alms, and having 
seen him, he said this to Bhagavat : 

' I, O Samawa, both plough and sow, and having 
ploughed and sown, I eat ; thou also, O Sama«a, 
shouldst plough and sow, and having ploughed and 
sown, thou shouldst eat' 

' I also, O Brahma»a, both plough and sow, and 
having ploughed and sown, I eat,' so said Bhagavat. 

' Yet we do not see the yoke, or the plough, or 
the ploughshare, or the goad, or the oxen of the 
venerable Gotama.' 

And then the venerable Gotama spoke in this way : 

' I also, O Brahma»a, both plough and sow, and 
having ploughed and sown, I eat,' so said Bhagavat. 

Then the Brahmarca Kasibharadva^a addressed 
Bhagavat in a stanza: 

i. 'Thou professest to be a ploughman, and yet 
we do not see thy ploughing; asked about (thy) 
ploughing, tell us (of it), that we may know thy 
ploughing.' (75) 

2. Bhagavat answered : ' Faith is the seed, penance 
the rain, understanding my yoke and plough, mo- 
desty the pole of the plough, mind the tie, thought- 
fulness my ploughshare and goad. (76) 

3. ' I am guarded in respect of the body, I am 



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KASIBHARADVAGASUTTA. 1 3 

guarded in respect of speech, temperate in food; 
I make truth to cut away (weeds), tenderness is my 
deliverance. (77) 

4. ' Exertion is my beast of burden; carrying (me) 
to Nibbana he goes without turning back to the 
place where having gone one does not grieve. (78) 

5. 'So this ploughing is ploughed, it bears the 
fruit of immortality; having ploughed this ploughing 
one is freed from all pain.' (79) 

Then the Brahma#a Kasibharadvi^a, having 
poured rice-milk into a golden bowl, offered it to 
Bhagavat, saying, ' Let the venerable Bhagavat eat 
of the rice-milk ; the venerable is a ploughman, for 
the venerable Gotama ploughs a ploughing that 
bears the fruit of immortality.' 

6. Bhagavat said : ' What is acquired by reciting 
stanzas is not to be eaten by me ; this is, O Brah- 
ma»a, not the Dhamma of those that see rightly ; 
Buddha rejects what is acquired by reciting stanzas, 
this is the conduct (of Buddhas) as long as the 
Dhamma exists. (80) 

7. ' One who is an accomplished great I si, whose 
passions are destroyed and whose misbehaviour has 
ceased, thou shouldst serve with other food and 
drink, for this is the field for one who looks for 
good works 1 .' (81) 

' To whom then, O Gotama, shall I give this rice- 
milk ?' so said Kasibharadvi^a. 

' I do not see, O Brahma«a, in the world (of men) 

1 Awwena ka. kevalinaw mahesiw 
Khlwisavaw kukku££avilpasanta»* 
Annena panena upa/Mahassu, 
Khettaw hi tarn puw?lapekhassa hoti. 
Cf. SundarikabhdradvSfa v. 28. 



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14 URAGAVAGGA. 



and gods and Maras and Brahmans, amongst beings 
comprising gods and men, and Sama#as and Brah- 
ma»as, any by whom this rice-milk when eaten can 
be properly digested with the exception of Tathagata, 
or a disciple of Tathagata. Therefore, O Brahma«a, 
thou shalt throw this rice-milk in (a place where 
there is) little grass, or cast it into water with no 
worms,' so said Bhagavat. 

Then the Brahma»a Kasibharadva^a threw the 
rice-milk into some water with no worms. Then 
the rice-milk thrown into the water splashed, hissed, 
smoked in volumes ; for as a ploughshare that has 
got hot during the day when thrown into the water 
splashes, hisses, and smokes in volumes, even so the 
rice-milk (when) thrown into the water splashed, 
hissed, and smoked in volumes. 

Then the Brahma#a Kasibharadva^a alarmed and 
terrified went up to Bhagavat, and after having 
approached and fallen with his head at Bhagavat's 
feet, he said this to Bhagavat: 

' It is excellent, O venerable Gotama ! It is ex- 
cellent, O venerable Gotama ! As one raises what 
has been overthrown, or reveals what has been 
hidden, or tells the way to him who has gone 
astray, or holds out an oil lamp in the dark that 
those who have eyes may see the objects, even so 
by the venerable Gotama in manifold ways the 
Dhamma (has been) illustrated. I take refuge in 
the venerable Gotama and in the Dhamma and in 
the Assembly of Bhikkhus; I wish to receive the 
pabba^a, I wish to receive the upasampada (the 
robe and the orders) from the venerable Gotama,' 
so said Kasibharadva^a. 

Then the Brahma»a Kasibharadva^a received the 



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JTUNDASUTTA. 1 5 



pabbag^a from Bhagavat, and he received also the 
upasampada; and the venerable Bharadva^a having 
lately received the upasampada, leading a solitary, 
retired, strenuous, ardent, energetic life, lived after 
having in a short time in this existence by his own 
understanding ascertained and possessed himself of 
that highest perfection of a religious life for the 
sake of which men of good family rightly wander 
away from their houses to a houseless state. ' Birth 
had been destroyed, a religious life had been led, 
what was to be done had been done, there was 
nothing else (to be done) for this existence,' so he 
perceived, and the venerable Bharadva^a became 
one of the arahats (saints). 

Kasibharadva^asutta is ended. 



5. JHJNDASUTTA. 

Buddha describes the four different kinds of Samaras to A"unda, 
the smith. 

i. ' I ask the Muni of great understanding,' — so 
said .ATunda, the smith, — ' Buddha, the lord of the 
Dhamma, who is free from desire, the best of bipeds, 
the most excellent of charioteers, how many (kinds 
of) Samaras are there in the world; pray tell me 
that ?' (82) 

2. ' There are four (kinds of) Samaras, (there is) 
not a fifth,' O Aunda, — so said Bhagavat, — ' these I 
will reveal to thee, being asked in person ; (they are) 
Magga^inas and Maggadesakas, Magga^ivins and 
Maggadusins.' (83) 

3. ' Whom do the Buddhas call a Magga^ina?' — so 
said .A'unda, the smith, — ' How is a Maggagg-Myin 



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1 6 URAGAVAGGA. 



unequalled? Being asked, describe to me a Mag- 
gafivin, and reveal to me a Maggadusin.' (84) 

4. Bhagavat said : ' He who has overcome doubt, 
is without pain, delights in Nibbana, is free from 
greed, a leader of the world of men and gods, such 
a one the Buddhas call a magga^ ina (that is, vic- 
torious by the way). (85) 

5. ' He who in this world having known the best 
(i.e. Nibbana) as the best, expounds and explains here 
the Dhamma, him, the doubt-cutting Muni, without 
desire, the second of the Bhikkhus they call a mag- 
gadesin (that is, teaching the way). (86) 

6. ' He who lives in the way that has so well been 
taught in the Dhammapada, and is restrained, atten- 
tive, cultivating blameless words, him the third of 
the Bhikkhus they call a magga.fi vin (that is, 
living in the way 1 ). (87) 

7. ' He who although counterfeiting the virtuous is 
forward, disgraces families, is impudent, deceitful, un- 
restrained, a babbler, walking in disguise, such a one 
is a maggadtisin (that is, defiling the way) 2 . (88) 

8. ' He who has penetrated these (four Samaras), 
who is a householder, possessed of knowledge, a pupil 
of the venerable ones, wise, having known that they 
all are such, — having seen so, his faith is not lost ; 
for how could he make the undepraved equal to the 
depraved and the pure equal to the impure? ' (89) 

Aundasutta is ended. 



Yo Dhammapade sudesite 
Magge ^-tvati sawwato satfma" 
Anava^apadini sevam&no 
Tatiya/B bhikkhunam &hu magga^fvuw. 
Comp. G&taka II, p. 281. 



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PARABHAVASUTTA. 1 7 



6. PARABHAVASUTTA. 

A dialogue between a deity and Buddha on the things by which 
a man loses and those by which he gains in this world. — Text 
by Grimblot, in Journal Asiatique, t. xviii(i87i), p. 237; transla- 
tion by L. Feer, in Journal Asiatique, t. xviii (187 1), p. 309, and 
by Gogerly, reprinted in Journal Asiatique, t.xx (1872), p. 226. 

So it was heard by me : 

At one time Bhagavat dwelt at Savatthi, in £eta- 
vana, in the park of Anathapi#«Tika. Then when 
the night had gone, a certain deity of a beautiful 
appearance, having illuminated the whole £etavana, 
went up to Bhagavat, and having approached and 
saluted him, he stood apart, and standing apart that 
deity addressed Bhagavat in stanzas : 

1. 'We ask (thee), Gotama, about a man that 
suffers loss ; having come to ask, Bhagavat, (tell us) 
what is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (90) 

2. Bhagavat : ' The winner is easily known, easily 
known (is also) the loser : he who loves Dhamma is 
the winner, he who hates Dhamma is the loser.' (91) 

3. Deity : ' We know this to be so, this is the 
first loser ; tell (us) the second, O Bhagavat, what 
is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (92) 

4. Bhagavat : ' Wicked men are dear to him, he 
does not do anything that is dear to the good, he 
approves of the Dhamma of the wicked, — that is 
the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (93) 

5. Deity: 'We know this to be so, this is the 
second loser ; tell us the third, O Bhagavat, what is 
the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (94) 

6. Bhagavat : ' The man who is drowsy, fond of 
society and without energy, lazy, given to anger, — 
that is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (95) 

[10] c 

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1 8 URAGAVAGGA. 



7. Deity : ' We know this to be so, this is the 
third loser ; tell us the fourth, O Bhagavat, what is 
the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (96) 

8. Bhagavat : ' He who being rich does not support 
mother or father who are old or past their youth, — 
that is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (97) 

9. Deity : ' We know this to be so, this is the 
fourth loser ; tell us the fifth, O Bhagavat, what is 
the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (98) 

10. Bhagavat : 'He who by falsehood deceives 
either a Brahma^a or a Samara or any other men- 
dicant, — that is the cause (of loss) to the losing 
(man).' (99) 

11. Deity: 'We know this to be so, this is the 
fifth loser ; tell us the sixth, O Bhagavat, what is 
the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' ( j oo) 

12. Bhagavat: 'The man who is possessed of 
much property, who has gold and food, (and still) 
enjoys alone his sweet things,-~that is the cause 
(of loss) to the losing (man).' ( IQI ) 

1 3. Deity : ' We know this to be so, this is the 
sixth loser ; tell us the seventh, O Bhagavat, what 
is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (102) 

14. Bhagavat : ' The man who proud of his birth, 
of his wealth, and of his family, despises his rela- 
tives, — that is the cause (of loss) to the losing 
(man).' (103) 

15. Deity: 'We know this to be so, this is the 
seventh loser ; tell us the eighth, O Bhagavat, what 
is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (104) 

16. Bhagavat: 'The man who given to women, 
to strong drink, and to dice, wastes whatever he has 
gained, — that is the cause (of loss) to the losing 
(man).' (105) 



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PARABHAVASUTTA. 1 9 



1 7. Deity : ' We know this to be so, this is the 
eighth loser ; tell us the ninth, O Bhagavat, what is 
the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' ( Ic> 6) 

18. Bhagavat: ' He who, not satisfied with his 
own wife, is seen with harlots and the wives of 
others, — that is the cause (of loss) to the losing 
(man).' (107) 

19. Deity: 'We know this to be so, this is the 
ninth loser; tell us the tenth, O Bhagavat, what 
(is) the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (108) 

20. Bhagavat : ' The man who, past his youth, 
brings home a woman with breasts like the timbaru 
fruit, and for jealousy of her cannot sleep, — that is 
the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' ( io 9) 

21. Deity: 'We know this to be so, this is the 
tenth loser ; tell us the eleventh, O Bhagavat, what 
is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (no) 

22. Bhagavat: 'He who places in supremacy a 
woman given to drink and squandering, or a man of 
the same kind, — that is the cause (of loss) to the 
losing (man).' (hi) 

23. Deity: 'We know this to be so, this is the 
eleventh loser; tell us the twelfth, O Bhagavat, what 
is the cause (of loss) to the losing (man).' (112) 

24. Bhagavat : ' He who has little property, (but) 
great desire, is born in a Khattiya family and wishes 

• for the kingdom in this world, — that is the cause (of 
loss) to the losing (man).' ( IX 3) 

25. Having taken into consideration these losses 
in the world, the wise, venerable man, who is en- 
dowed with insight, cultivates the happy world (of 
the gods).' ( XI 4) 

Parabhavasutta is ended. 



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20 URAGAVAGGA. 



7. VASALASUTTA. 

The Brahmawa AggikabMradvSgu is converted by Buddha, after 
hearing his definition of an outcast, illustrated by the story of 
M&tanga, told in the M&tanga^Staka. Comp. Sp. Hardy, The 
Legends and Theories of the Buddhists, p. 49. — Text and trans- 
lation in Alwis's Buddhist Nirvawa, p. 119. 

So it was heard by me : 

At one time Bhagavat dwelt at Savattht, in Geta- 
vana, in the park of AnathapiWika. Then Bhagavat 
having put on his raiment in the morning, and having 
taken his bowl and his robes, entered Savattht for alms. 

Now at that time in the house of the Brahmawa 
Aggikabharadva^a the fire was blazing, the offering 
brought forth. Then Bhagavat going for alms from 
house to house in Savattht went to the house of the 
Brahma»a Aggikabharadva^a. The Brahma»a Ag- 
gikabharadva^a saw Bhagavat coming at a distance, 
and seeing him he said this : ' Stay there, O Shave- 
ling; (stay) there, OSama#aka (i.e. wretched Samawa); 
(stay) there, O Vasalaka (i.e. outcast)!' 

This having been said, Bhagavat replied to the 
Brihmawa Aggikabharadvi^a : ' Dost thou know, 
O Brahma#a, an outcast, or the things that make 
an outcast?' 

' No, O venerable Gotama, I do not know an 
outcast, or the things that make an outcast ; let 
the venerable Gotama teach me this so well that I 
may know an outcast, or the things that make 
an outcast.' 

' Listen then, O Brahmarca, attend carefully, I will 
tell (thee).' 

' Even so, O venerable one,' so the Brahma#a 
Aggikabharadva^a replied to Bhagavat. 



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VASALASUTTA. 2 1 



Then Bhagavat said this : 

i. ' The man who is angry and bears hatred, who 
is wicked and hypocritical, who has embraced wrong 
views, who is deceitful, let one know him as an 
outcast. ( IX 5) 

2. ' Whosoever in this world harms living beings, 
whether once or twice born, and in whom there is 
no compassion for living beings, let one know him 
as an outcast. ( IT 6) 

3. ' Whosoever destroys or lays siege to villages 
and towns, and is known as an enemy, let one know 
him as an outcast (i 1 7) 

4. ' Be it in the village or in the wood, whosoever 
appropriates by theft what is the property of others 
and what has not been given, let one know him as 
an outcast. ( IX 8) 

5. 'Whosoever, having really contracted a debt, 
runs away when called upon (to pay), saying,. "There 
is no debt (that I owe) thee," let one know him as 
an outcast. ( i: 9) 

6. * Whosoever for love of a trifle having killed a 
man going along the road, takes the trifle, let one 
know him as an outcast. ( I2 °) 

7. 'The man who for his own sake or for that 
of others or for the sake of wealth speaks falsely 
when asked as a witness, let one know him as an 
outcast. ( I21 ) 

8. ' Whosoever is seen with the wives of relatives 
or of friends either by force or with their consent, let 
one know him as an outcast. -.. ( I22 ) 

9. ' Whosoever being rich does not support mother 
or father when old and past their youth, let one know 
him as an outcast. ( I2 3) 

10. 'Whosoever strikes or by words annoys mother 



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22 URAGAVAGGA. 



or father, brother, sister, or mother-in-law, let one 
know him as an outcast. ( I2 4) 

ii.' Whosoever, being asked about what is good, 
teaches what is bad and advises (another, while) con- 
cealing (something from him), let one know him as 
an outcast. ( I2 5) 

12. ' Whosoever, having committed a bad deed, 
hopes (saying), " Let no one know me " (as having 
done it, who is) a dissembler, let one know him as 
an outcast. ( I2 6) 

13. 'Whosoever, having gone to another's house 
and partaken of his good food, does not in return 
honour him when he comes, let one know him as an 
outcast. ( I2 7) 

14. 'Whosoever by falsehood deceives either a 
Brahmawa or a Sama«a or any other mendicant, let 
one know him as an outcast. (* 2 8) 

15. 'Whosoever bywords annoys either a Brah- 
ma»a or a Sama»a when meal-time has come and 
does not give (him anything), let one know him as 
an outcast. ( I2 9) 

16. 'Whosoever enveloped in ignorance in this 
world predicts what is not (to take place), coveting 
a trifle, let one know him as an outcast. ( x 3°) 

1 7. 'Whosoever exalts himself and despises others, 
being mean by his pride, let one know him as an 
outcast. ( I 3 I ) 

18. 'Whosoever is a provoker and is avaricious, has 
sinful desires, is envious, wicked, shameless, and fear- 
less of sinning, let'one know him as an outcast. (132) 

19. 'Whosoever reviles Buddha or his disciple, 
be he a wandering mendicant (paribba^a) or a 
householder (gaha^a), let one know him as an 
outcast. ( J 33) 



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VASALASUTTA. 23 



20. 'Whosoever without being a saint (arahat) 
pretends to be a saint, (and is) a thief in all the 
worlds including that of Brahman, he is indeed the 
lowest outcast ; (all) these who have been described 
by me to you are indeed called outcasts. ( x 34) 

21. 'Not by birth does one become an outcast, 
not by birth does one become a Brahma«a; by 
deeds one becomes an outcast, by deeds one be- 
comes a Brahmawa. ( x 35) 

22. ' Know ye this in the way that this example 
of mine (shows) : There was a Ka.nd&\a of the 
Sopaka caste, well known as Matanga. ( J 36) 

23. 'This Matanga reached the highest fame, such 
as was very difficult to obtain, and many Khattiyas 
and Brahma#as went to serve him. (*37) 

24. ' He having mounted the vehicle of the gods, 
(and entered) the high road (that is) free from 
dust, having abandoned sensual desires, went to 
the Brahma world. ( l 3&) 

25. ' His birth did not prevent him from being 
re-born in the Brahma world ; (on the other hand) 
there are Brahma»as, born in the family of pre- 
ceptors, friends of the hymns (of the Vedas), (139) 

26. 'But they are continually caught in sinful deeds, 
and are to be blamed in this world, while in the 
coming (world) hell (awaits them); birth does not 
save them from hell nor from blame. (140) 

27. '(Therefore) not by birth does one become an 
outcast, not by birth does one become a Brahmawa, 
by deeds one becomes an outcast, by deeds one 
becomes a Brahma/za.' ( I 4 I ) 

This having been said, the Brahmawa Aggikabha- 
radva^a answered Bhagavat as follows : 
* Excellent, O venerable Gotama ! Excellent, O 



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24 URAGAVAGGA. 



venerable Gotama ! As one, O venerable Gotama, 
raises what has been overthrown, or reveals what 
has been hidden, or tells the way to him who has 
gone astray, or holds out an oil lamp in the dark 
that those who have eyes may see the objects, even 
so by the venerable Gotama in manifold ways the 
Dhamma has been illustrated ; I take refuge in the 
venerable Gotama and in the Dhamma and in the 
Assembly of Bhikkhus. Let the venerable Gotama 
accept me as an upasaka (a follower, me) who 
henceforth for all my life have taken refuge (in 
him).' 

Vasalasutta is ended. 



S. METTASUTTA. 

A peaceful mind and goodwill towards all beings are praised. — Text 
by Grimblot in Journal Asiatique, t. xviii (187 1), p. 250, and by 
Childers in Khuddaka PaMa, p. 15; translation (?) by Gogerly 
in the Ceylon Friend, 1839, p. an, by Childers in Kh. PaTJia 
and by L. Feer in Journal Asiatique, t. xviii (i87i),|p. 328. 

1. Whatever is to be done by one who is skilful 
in seeking (what is) good, having attained that tran- 
quil state (of Nibbana): — Let him be able and upright 
and conscientious and of soft speech, gentle, not 
proud, (142) 

2. And contented and easily supported and having 
few cares, unburdened and with his senses calmed 
and wise, not arrogant, without (showing) greediness 
(when going his round) in families. (*43) 

3. And let him not do anything mean for which 
others who are wise might reprove (him) ; may all 
beings be happy and secure, may they be happy- 
minded.. • ( 1 44) 



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HEMAVATASUTTA. 25 



4. Whatever living beings there are, either feeble 
or strong, all either long or great, middle-sized, 
short, small or large, ( I 45) 

5. Either seen or which are not seen, and which 
live far (or) near, either born or seeking birth, may 
all creatures be happy-minded. ( J 46) 

6. Let no one deceive another, let him not despise 
(another) in any place, let him not out of anger or 
resentment wish harm to another. ( : 47) 

7. As a mother at the risk of her life watches 
over her own child, her only child, so also let every 
one cultivate a boundless (friendly) mind towards all 
beings. (*48) 

8. And let him cultivate goodwill towards all the 
world, a boundless (friendly) mind, above and below 
and across, unobstructed, without hatred, without 
enmity. (149) 

9. Standing, walking or sitting or lying, as long 
as he be awake, let him devote himself to this 
mind ; this (way of) living they say is the best in 
this world. (*5o) 

10. He who, not having embraced (philosophical) 
views, is virtuous, endowed with (perfect) vision, 
after subduing greediness for sensual pleasures, will 
never again go to a mother's womb. (^S 1 ) 

Mettasutta is ended. 



9. HEMAVATASUTTA. 

A dialogue between two Yakkhas on the qualities of Buddha. 
They go to Buddha, and after having their questions answered 
they, together with ten hundred Yakkhas, become the followers 
of Buddha. 

1. 'To-day is the fifteenth, a fast day; a lovely 

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26 URAGAVAGGA. 



night has come,' — so said the Yakkha Satagira, — 'let 
us (go and) see the renowned Master Gotama.' (152) 

2. 'Is the mind of such a one well disposed towards 
all beings?' — so said the Yakkha Hemavata, — 'are 
his thoughts restrained as to things wished for or 
not wished for ? ' (153) 

3. 'His mind is well disposed towards all beings, 
(the mind) of such a one,' — so said the Yakkha 
Satagira, — 'and his thoughts are restrained as to 
things wished for or not wished for.' ( I 54) 

4. ' Does he not take what has not been given (to 
him) ?' — so said the Yakkha Hemavata, — ' is he self- 
controlled (in his behaviour) to living beings ? is 
he far from (a state of) carelessness ? does he not 
abandon meditation?' (*55) 

5. 'He does not take what has not been given 
(to him),' — so said the Yakkha Satagira, — ' and he is 
self-controlled (in his behaviour) to living beings, 
and he is far from (a state of) carelessness ; Buddha 
does not abandon meditation.' ( J 56) 

6. 'Does he not speak falsely?' — so said the 
Yakkha Hemavata, — 'is he not harsh - spoken ? 
does he not utter slander ? does he not talk non- 
sense ?' (157) 

7. ' He does not speak falsely,' — so said the Yak- 
kha Satagira, — 'he is not harsh-spoken, he does 
not utter slander, with judgment he utters what 
is good sense.' ( J 58) 

8. 'Is he not given to sensual pleasures ?' — so 
said the Yakkha Hemavata, — 'is his mind undis- 
turbed ? has he overcome folly ? does he see 
clearly in (all) things (dhammas)?' ( x 59) 

9. 'He is not given to sensual pleasures,' — so 
said the Yakkha Satagira, — * and his mind is undis- 



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HEMAVATASUTTA. 2"] 



turbed; he has overcome all folly; Buddha sees 
clearly in (all) things.' ( x 6o) 

10. 'Is he endowed with knowledge?' — so said 
the Yakkha Hemavata, — ' is his conduct pure ? 
have his passions been destroyed ? is there no 
new birth (for him) ?' (*6t) 

ii. ' He is endowed with knowledge/ — so said 
the Yakkha Satagira, — ' and his conduct is pure ; all 
his passions have been destroyed ; there is no new 
birth for him. (162) 

12. 'The mind of the Muni is accomplished in 
deed and word; Gotama, who is accomplished 
by his knowledge and conduct, let us (go and) 
see. ( T ^3) 

13. 'Come, let us (go and) see Gotama, who has 
legs like an antelope, who is thin, who is wise, living 
on little food, not covetous, the Muni who is medi- 
tating in the forest. ( J 64) 

14. ' Having gone to him who is a lion amongst 
those that wander alone and does not look for sen- 
sual pleasures, let us ask about the (means of) deli- 
verance from the snares of death. ( T ^5) 

15. 'Let us ask Gotama, the preacher, the ex- 
pounder, who has penetrated all things, Buddha 
who has overcome hatred and fear.' (166) 

16. 'In what has the world originated?' — so said 
the Yakkha Hemavata, — 'with what is the world 
intimate? by what is the world afflicted, after 
having grasped at what ?' ( x ^7) 

17. 'In six the world has originated, O Hema- 
vata,' — so said Bhagavat, — 'with six it is intimate, 
by six the world is afflicted, after having grasped 
at six.' (168) 

18. Hemavata said: 'What is the grasping by 



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28 URAGAVAGGA, 



which the world is afflicted? Asked about salva- 
tion, tell (me) how one is released from pain ?' (169) 

19. Bhagavat said: ' Five pleasures of sense are 
said to be in the world, with (the pleasure of) the 
mind as the sixth ; having divested oneself of desire 
for these, one is thus released from pain. (*7°) 

20. ' This salvation of the world has been told to 
you truly, this I tell you : thus one is released from 
pain.' (171) 

21. Hemavata said: 'Who in this world crosses 
the stream (of existence) ? who in this world crosses 
the sea ? who does not sink into the deep, where 
there is no footing and no support ? ' ( l 7 2 ) 

22. Bhagavat said : ' He who is always endowed 
with virtue, possessed of understanding, well com- 
posed, reflecting within himself, and thoughtful, 
crosses the stream that is difficult to cross. (173) 

23. ' He who is disgusted with sensual pleasures, 
who has overcome all bonds and destroyed joy, such 
a one does not sink into the deep.' ( : 74) 

24. Hemavata said : ' He who is endowed with a 
profound understanding, seeing what is subtile, pos- 
sessing nothing, not clinging to sensual pleasures, 
behold him who is in every respect liberated, the 
great Isi, walking in the divine path. ^TS) 

25. 'He who has got a great name, sees what is 
subtile, imparts understanding, and does not cling to 
the abode of sensual pleasures, behold him, the all- 
knowing, the wise, the great Isi, walking in the noble 
path. (176) 

26. 'A good sight indeed (has met) us to-day, a 
good daybreak, a beautiful rising, (for) we have seen 
the perfectly enlightened (sambuddham), who has 
crossed the stream ; and is free from passion. (177) 



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ALAVAKASUTTA. 29 



27. 'These ten hundred Yakkhas, possessed of 
supernatural power and of fame, they all take refuge 
in thee, thou art our incomparable Master. (178) 

28. ' We will wander about from village to vil- 
lage, from mountain to mountain, worshipping the 
perfectly enlightened and the perfection of the 

Dhamma 1 .' (179) 

Hemavatasutta is ended. 



10. AZAVAKASUTTA. 

The Yakkha A/avaka first threatens Buddha, then puts some 
questions to him which Buddha answers, whereupon A/avaka 
is converted. 

So it was heard by me : 

At one time Bhagavat dwelt at A/avi, in the 
realm of the Yakkha A/avaka. Then the Yakkha 
A/avaka went to the place where Bhagavat dwelt, 
and having gone there he said this to Bhagavat : 

' Come out, O Sama«a ! ' 

' Yes, O friend ! ' so saying Bhagavat came out. 

' Enter, O Sama»a ! ' 

' Yes, O friend ! ' so saying Bhagavat entered. 

A second time the Yakkha A/avaka said this to 
Bhagavat : ' Come out, O Sama«a ! ' 

' Yes, O friend ! ' so saying Bhagavat came out. 

' Enter, O Sama»a ! ' 

' Yes, O friend ! ' so saying Bhagavat entered. 

A third time the Yakkha A/avaka said this to 
Bhagavat : ' Come out, O Sama»a ! ' 

' Yes, O friend ! ' so saying Bhagavat came out. 

' Enter, O Samara ! ' 

1 Dhammassa ka. sudhammatam. 



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30 URAGAVAGGA. 



' Yes, O friend ! ' so saying Bhagavat entered. 

A fourth time the Yakkha A/avaka said this to 
Bhagavat : ' Come out, O Sama#a ! ' 

' I shall not come out to thee, O friend, do what 
thou pleasest.' 

' I shall ask thee a question, O Sama«a, if thou 
canst not answer it, I will either scatter thy thoughts 
or cleave thy heart, or take thee by thy feet and 
throw thee over to the other shore of the Ganga.' 

' I do not see, O friend, any one in this world nor 
in the world of gods, Maras, Brahmans, amongst the 
beings comprising gods, men, Sama#as, and Brah- 
ma«as, who can either scatter my thoughts or 
cleave my heart, or take me by the feet and throw 
me over to the other shore of the Ganga ; however, 
O friend, ask what thou pleasest' 

Then the Yakkha A/avaka addressed Bhagavat 
in stanzas : 

i. ' What in this world is the best property for a 
man ? what, being well done, conveys happiness ? 
what is indeed the sweetest of sweet things ? how 
lived do they call life the best ?' ( J 8o) 

2. Bhagavat said : ' Faith is in this world the 
best property for a man ; Dhamma, well observed, 
conveys happiness ; truth indeed is the sweetest of 
things ; and that life they call the best which is lived 
with understanding.' ( : 8i) 

3. A/avaka said : ' How does one cross the 
stream (of existence) ? how does one cross the 
sea ? how does one conquer pain ? how is one 
purified?' i 1 ^ 2 ) 

4. Bhagavat said : ' By faith one crosses the 
stream, by zeal the sea, by exertion one conquers 
pain, by understanding one is purified.' ( l %3) 



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AXAVAKASUTTA. 3 I 



5. A/avaka said : ' How does one obtain under- 
standing ? how does one acquire wealth ? how does 
one obtain fame ? how does one bind friends (to 
himself) ? how does one not grieve passing away 
from this world to the other?' O84) 

6. Bhagavat said : 'He who believes in the 
Dhamma of the venerable ones as to the acquisi- 
tion of Nibbana, will obtain understanding from his 
desire to hear, being zealous and discerning. (185) 

7. ' He who does what is proper, who takes the 
yoke (upon him and) exerts himself, will acquire 
wealth, by truth he will obtain fame, and being 
charitable he will bind friends (to himself). (186) 

8. ' He who is faithful and leads the life of a 
householder, and possesses the following four 
Dhammas (virtues), truth, justice (dhamma), firm- 
ness, and liberality, — such a one indeed does not 
grieve when passing away. (^7) 

9. ' Pray, ask also other Sama»as and Brahma#as 
far and wide, whether there is found in this world 
anything greater than truth, self-restraint, liberality, 
and forbearance.' ( J 88) 

10. A/avaka said : ' Why should I now ask 
Samaras and Brahma»as far and wide ? I now 
know what is my future good. ( x 89) 

11. ' For my good Buddha came to live at A/avl ; 
now I know where (i. e. on whom bestowed) a gift 
will bear great fruit. ( I 9°) 

1 2. ' I will wander about from village to village, 
from town to town, worshipping the perfectly en- 
lightened (sambuddha) and the perfection of the 
Dhamma.' (191) 

A/avakasutta is ended. 



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32 URAGAVAGGA. 



11. VI6AYASUTTA. 

A reflection on the worthlessness of the human body; a fol- 
lower of Buddha only sees the body as it really is, and conse- 
quently goes to Nibb&na. — Comp. G&taka I, p. 146. 

i. If either walking or standing, sitting or lying, 
any one contracts (or) stretches (his body, then) this 
is the motion of the body. ( IQ2 ) 

2. The body which is put together with bones 
and sinews, plastered with membrane and flesh, and 
covered with skin, is not seen as it really is. (193) 

3. It is filled with the intestines, the stomach, the 
lump of the liver, the abdomen, the heart, the lungs, 
the kidneys, the spleen. ( J 94) 

4. With mucus, saliva, perspiration, lymph, blood, 
the fluid that lubricates the j oints, bile, and fat. (195) 

5. Then in nine streams impurity flows always 
from it ; from the eye the eye-excrement, from the 
ear the ear-excrement, ( x 96) 

6. Mucus from the nose, through the mouth it 
ejects at one time bile and (at other times) it ejects 
phlegm, and from (all) the body come sweat and 
dirt (197) 

7. Then its hollow head is filled with the 
brain. A fool led by ignorance thinks it a fine 
thing. ( J 98) 

8. And when it lies dead, swollen and livid, 
discarded in the cemetery, relatives do not care 
(for it). (199) 

9. Dogs eat it and jackals, wolves and worms; 
crows and vultures eat it, and what other living 
creatures there are. (200) 

10. The Bhikkhu possessed of understanding in 
this world, having listened to Buddha's words, he 



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MUNISUTTA. 33 



certainly knows it (i. e. the body) thoroughly, for he 
sees it as it really is. ( 2Q1 ) 

1 1. As this (living body is) so is that (dead one), 
as this is so that (will be 1 ) ; let one put away desire 
for the body, both as to its interior and as to its 
exterior. (202) 

1 2. Such a Bhikkhu who has turned away from de- 
sire and attachment, and is possessed of understand- 
ing in this world, has (already) gone to the immortal 
peace, the unchangeable state of Nibbana. (203) 

13. This (body) with two feet is cherished (al- 
though) impure, ill-smelling, filled with various kinds 
of stench, and trickling here and there. (204) 

14. He who with such a body thinks to exalt 
himself or despises others — what else (is this) but 
blindness ? (205) 

Vi^ayasutta is ended. 



12. MUNISUTTA. 

Definition of a Muni. 

i. From acquaintanceship arises fear, from house- 
life arises defilement ; the houseless state, freedom 
from acquaintanceship — this is indeed the view of 
a Muni. (206) 

2. Whosoever, after cutting down the (sin that has) 
arisen, does not let (it again) take root and does not 
give way to it while springing up towards him, him 

1 YatM idam tatha et&m 
Yathd etaw tatha idam. 

[10] D 



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34 URAGAVAGGA. 



the solitarily wandering they call a Muni ; such a 
great Isi has seen the state of peace 1 . (207) 

3. Having considered the causes (of sin, and) 
killed the seed, let him not give way to desire for 
it; such a Muni who sees the end of birth and 
destruction (i. e. Nibbana), after leaving reasoning 
behind, does not enter the number (of living 
beings) 2 . (208) 

4. He who has penetrated all the resting-places 3 
(of the mind, and) does not wish for any of them, — 
such a Muni indeed, free from covetousness and free 
from greediness, does not gather up (resting-places), 
for he has reached the other shore. (209) 

5. The man who has overcome everything, who 
knows everything, who is possessed of a good 
understanding, undented in all things (dhamma), 
abandoning everything, liberated in the destruc- 
tion of desire (i.e. Nibbana), him the wise style a 
Muni 4 . (210) 

6. The man who has the strength of understand- 
ing, is endowed with virtue and (holy) works, is 
composed, delights in meditation, is thoughtful, free 
from ties, free from harshness (akhila), and free from 
passion, him the wise style a Muni. (21 1) 

7. The Muni that wanders solitarily, the zealous, 

1 Yo gitaxa vJikhxgga. na ropayeyya 

(xiyantaw assa nSnuppave^e 

Tam aliu eka*» muninaw ^arantaw, 

Addakkhi so santipadawz mahesi. 
* SawkhSya vatthuni pamSya big&m 

Sineham assa n&nuppave£^e, 

Sa ve munt ^atikhayantadassi 

Takkazs pahSya na upeti sawthaw. 
8 Nivesan&ni. Comp. DiuMaka, v. 6. 
4 Comp. Dhp. v. 353. 



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MUNISUTTA. 35 



that is not shaken by blame and praise, like a lion 
not trembling at noises, like the wind not caught in a 
net, like a lotus not soiled by water, leading others, 
not led by others, him the wise style a Muni. (212) 

8. Whosoever becomes firm as the post in a 
bathing-place, in whom others acknowledge pro- 
priety of speech, who is free from passion, and 
(endowed) with well-composed senses, such a one 
the wise style a Muni. ( 2I 3) 

9. Whosoever is firm, like a straight shuttle, and 
is disgusted with evil actions, reflecting on what is 
just and unjust, him the wise style a Muni. (214) 

10. Whosoever is self-restrained and does not do 
evil, is a young or middle-aged Muni, self-subdued, 
one that should not be provoked (as) he does not 
provoke any, him the wise style a Muni. (2 1 5) 

11. Whosoever, living upon what is given by 
others, receives a lump of rice from the top, from 
the middle or from the rest (of the vessel, and) does 
not praise (the giver) nor speak harsh words, him 
the wise style a Muni. ( 2I °) 

12. The Muni that wanders about abstaining from 
sexual intercourse, who in his youth is not fettered 
in any case, is abstaining from the insanity of pride, 
liberated, him the wise style a Muni. (2 1 7) 

13. The man who, having penetrated the world, 
sees the highest truth, such a one, after crossing the 
stream and sea (of existence), who has cut off all 
ties, is independent, free from passion, him indeed 
the wise style a Muni. ( 2I 8) 

14. Two whose mode of life and occupation are 
quite different, are not equal : a householder main- 
taining a wife, and an unselfish virtuous man. A 
householder (is intent) upon the destruction of 

d 2 



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36 URAGAVAGGA. 



other living creatures, being unrestrained; but a 
Muni always protects living creatures, being re- 
strained. ( 2I 9) 
15. As the crested bird with the blue neck (the 
peacock) never attains the swiftness of the swan, 
even so a householder does not equal a Bhikkhu, 
a secluded Muni meditating in the wood. (220) 



Munisutta is ended. 
. Uragavagga is ended. 



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II. ^ULAVAGGA. 



1. RATANASUTTA. 

For all beings salvation is only to be found in Buddha, Dhamma, 
and Sangha. — Text and translation in Childers' Khuddaka 
Pa/fla, p. 6. 

i . Whatever spirits have come together here, either 
belonging to the earth or living in the air, let all 
spirits be happy, and then listen attentively to what 
is said. ( 221 ) 

2. Therefore, O spirits, do ye all pay attention, 
show kindness to the human race who both day and 
night bring their offerings ; therefore protect them 
strenuously. (222) 

3. Whatever wealth there be here or in the other 
world, or whatever excellent jewel in the heavens, it 
is certainly not equal to Tathagata. This excellent 
jewel (is found) in Buddha, by this truth may there 
be salvation. ( 22 3) 

4. The destruction (of passion), the freedom from 
passion, the excellent immortality which Sakyamuni 
attained (being) composed, — there is nothing equal 
to that Dhamma. This excellent jewel (is found) in 
the Dhamma, by this truth may there be salva- 
tion. (224) 

5. The purity which the best of Buddhas praised, 
die meditation which they call uninterrupted, there 
is no meditation like this. This excellent jewel (is 



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38 *Olavagga. 



found) in the Dhamma, by this truth may there be 
salvation. (225) 

6. The eight persons that are praised by the 
righteous 1 , and make these four pairs, they are 
worthy of offerings, (being) Sugata's disciples ; what 
is given to these will bear great fruit. This ex- 
cellent jewel (is found) in the Assembly (sangha), 
by this truth may there be salvation. (226) 

7. Those who have applied themselves studiously 
with a firm mind and free from desire to the com- 
mandments of Gotama, have obtained the highest 
gain, having merged into immortality, and enjoying 
happiness after getting it for nothing. This excel- 
lent jewel (is found) in the Assembly, by this truth 
may there be salvation. (227) 

8. As a post in the front of a city gate is firm in 
the earth and cannot be shaken by the four winds, like 
that I declare the righteous man to be who, having 
penetrated the noble truths, sees (them clearly). 
This excellent jewel (is found) in the Assembly, by 
this truth may there be salvation. (228) 

9. Those who understand the noble truths well 
taught by the profoundly wise (i.e. Buddha), though 
they be greatly distracted, will not (have to) take the 
eighth birth. This excellent jewel (is found) in the 
Assembly, by this truth may there be salvation. (229) 

10. On his (attaining the) bliss of (the right) view 
three things (dhammas) are left behind (by him): 
conceit and doubt and whatever he has got of virtue 
and (holy) works. He is released also from the four 
hells, and he is incapable of committing the six 

1 The Commentator : satam pasattha' ti sappurisehi buddha- 
pa££ekabuddhasavakehi annehi ka. dcvamanussehi pasatthd. 



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RATANASUTTA. 39 



deadly sins. This excellent jewel (is found) in the 
Assembly, by this truth may there be salvation. (230) 

1 1. Even if he commit a sinful deed by his body, 
or in word or in thought, he is incapable of conceal- 
ing it, (for) to conceal is said to be impossible for 
one that has seen the state (of Nibbana). This 
excellent jewel (is found) in the Assembly, by this 
truth may there be salvation. ( 2 3 J ) 

1 2. As in a clump of trees with their tops in 
bloom in the first heat of the hot month, so (Buddha) 
taught the excellent Dhamma leading to Nibbana to 
the greatest benefit (for all). This excellent jewel (is 
found) in Buddha, by this truth may there be salva- 
tion. (232) 

13. The excellent one who knows what is excel- 
lent, who gives what is excellent, and who brings 
what is excellent, the incomparable one taught the 
excellent Dhamma. This excellent jewel (is found) in 
Buddha, by this truth may there be salvation. (233) 

14. The old is destroyed, the new has not arisen, 
those whose minds are disgusted with a future exist- 
ence, the wise who have destroyed their seeds (of 
existence, and) whose desires do not increase, go out 
like this lamp. This excellent jewel (is found) in the 
Assembly, by this truth may there be salvation. (234) 

15. Whatever spirits have come together here, 
either belonging to the earth or living in the air, let 
us worship the perfect (tathagata) Buddha, revered by 
gods and men ; may there be salvation. ( 2 35) 

16. Whatever spirits have come together here, 
either belonging to the earth or living in the air, let 
us worship the perfect (tathagata) Dhamma, revered 
by gods and men ; may there be salvation.' (236) 

17. Whatever spirits have come together here, 



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40 irtiLAVAGGA. 



either belonging to the earth or living in the air, let 
us worship the perfect (tathagata) Sangha, revered 
by gods and men ; may there be salvation. (237) 

Ratanasutta is ended. 



2. AMAGANDHASUTTA. 

A bad mind and wicked deeds are what defiles a man ; no outward 
observances can purify him. Comp. Gospel of S. Matthew 
xv. 10. 

i . Amagandhabrahmawa : ' Those who eat sa- 
maka, £ingulaka, and ^Inaka, pattaphala, mulaphala, 
and gaviphala (different sorts of grass, leaves, roots, 
&c), justly obtained of the just, do not speak false- 
hood,(nor are they)desirous of sensual pleasures. (238) 

2. 'He who eats what has been well prepared, well 
dressed, what is pure and excellent, given by others, 
he who enjoys food made of rice, eats, O Kassapa, 
Amagandha (what defiles one). (239) 

3. ' (The charge of) Amagandha does not apply to 
me,' so thou sayest, ' O Brahman (brahmabandhu, 
although) enjoying food (made) of rice together 
with the well-prepared flesh of birds. I ask thee, 
O Kassapa, the meaning of this, of what description 
(is then) thy Amagandha ?' (240) 

4. Kassapabuddha : ' Destroying living beings, 
killing, cutting, binding, stealing, speaking falsehood, 
fraud and deception, worthless reading \ intercourse 
with another's wife ; — this is Amagandha, but not 
the eating of flesh. ( 2 4 J ) 

1 A^^enaku^an ti niratthak&natthag-anakaganthapariyapu- 
«ana«. Commentator. 



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Amagandhasutta. 41 

5. 'Those persons who In this world are unre- 
strained In (enjoying) sensual pleasures, greedy of 
sweet things, associated with what is impure, sceptics 
(natthikadi/^i), unjust, difficult to follow; — this is 
Amagandha, but not the eating of flesh. ( 2 4 2 ) 

6. ' Those who are rough, harsh, backbiting, trea- 
cherous, merciless, arrogant, and (who being) illiberal 
do not give anything to any one; — this is Ama- 
gandha, but not the eating of flesh. ( 2 43) 

7. ' Anger, intoxication, obstinacy, bigotry, deceit, 
envy, grandiloquence, pride and conceit, intimacy 
with the unjust; — this is Amagandha, but not the 
eating of flesh. ( 2 44) 

8. 'Those who in this world are wicked, and such as 
do not pay their debts, are slanderers, false in their 
dealings, counterfeiters, those who in this world 
being the lowest of men commit sin ; — this is Ama- 
gandha, but not the eating of flesh. ( 2 45) 

9. 'Those persons who in this world are unre- 
strained (in their behaviour) towards living creatures, 
who are bent upon injuring after taking others' 
(goods), wicked, cruel, harsh, disrespectful ; — this is 
Amagandha, but not the eating of flesh. ( 2 4^) 

10. ' Those creatures who are greedy of these 
(living beings, who are) hostile, offending; always 
bent upon (evil) and therefore, when dead, go to 
darkness and fall with their heads downwards into 
hell; — this is Amagandha, but not the eating of 
flesh. (247) 

11. 'Neither the flesh of fish, nor fasting, nor 
nakedness, nor tonsure, nor matted hair, nor dirt, 
nor rough skins, nor the worshipping of the fire, nor 
the many immortal penances in the world, nor hymns, 
nor oblations, nor sacrifice, nor observance of the 



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42 jtClavagga. 



seasons, purify a mortal who has not conquered his 
doubt 1 . (248) 

1 2. ' The wise man wanders about with his organs 
of sense guarded, and his senses conquered, standing 
firm in the Dhamma, delighting in what is right and 
mild; having overcome all ties and left behind all pain, 
he does not cling to what is seen and heard.' (249) 

13. Thus Bhagavat preached this subject again 
and again, (and the Brahma#a) who was accomplished 
in the hymns (of the Vedas) understood it ; the Muni' 
who is free from defilement, independent, and difficult 
to follow, made it clear in various stanzas. ( 2 5o) 

14. Having heard Buddha's well-spoken words, 
which are free from defilement and send away all 
pain, he worshipped Tathagata's (feet) in humility, 
and took orders at once. (25 1 ) 

A 

Amagandhasutta is ended. 



3. HIRISUTTA. 

On true friendship. 

i. He who transgresses and despises modesty, 

who says, 'lama friend,' but does not undertake 

any work that can be done, know (about) him : ' he 

is not my (friend).' ( 2 5 2 ) 

2. Whosoever uses pleasing words to friends with- 
out effect 2 , him the wise know as one that (only) talks, 
but does not do anything. ( 2 53) 

3. He is not a friend who always eagerly suspects 
a breach and looks out for faults ; but he with whom 
he dwells as a son at the breast (of his mother), 

1 Comp. Dhp. v. 141. 

1 Ananvayan ti yz.m atthaw dassami karissamiti bhasati tena 
ananugataw. Commentator. 



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mahamangalasutta. 43 

he is indeed a friend that cannot be severed (from 
him) by others. ( 2 54) 

4. He who hopes for fruit, cultivates the energy 
that produces joy and the pleasure that brings praise, 
(while) carrying the human yoke 1 . (255) 

5. Having tasted the sweetness of seclusion and 
tranquillity one becomes free from fear and free from 
sin, drinking in the sweetness of the Dhamma 2 . (256) 

Hirisutta is ended. 



4. MAHAMANGALASUTTA. 

Buddha defines the highest blessing to a deity. — Text byGrimblot 
in Journal Asiatique, t. xviii (187 1), p. 229, and by Childers in 
Kh. Pa//4a, p. 4 ; translation by Gogerly in the Ceylon Friend, 
1839, p. 208; by Childers in Kh. PaTfta, p. 4; and by L. Feer 
in Journal Asiatique, t. xviii (1871), p. 296. 

So it was heard by me : 

At one time Bhagavat dwelt at Savatthl, in Geta- 
vana, in the park of Anathapi#dfika. Then, when 
the night had gone, a deity of beautiful appearance, 
having illuminated the whole Cetavana, approached 
Bhagavat, and having approached and saluted him, 
he stood apart, and standing apart that deity ad- 
dressed Bhagavat in a stanza: 

1. 'Many gods and men have devised blessings, 
longing for happiness, tell thou (me) the highest 
blessing.' (257) 

2. Buddha said : ' Not cultivating (the society of) 

1 P&mugfakarawaw /Mna« 
Pasamsavahanaw sukhaw 
PhalSnisawso* bhaveti 
Vahanto porisaw dhuraw. 

2 Comp. Dhp. v. 205. 

* Phalam partkankhamtno phal&nisamso. Commentator. 



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44 jdjLAVAGGA. 



fools, but cultivating (the society of) wise men, wor- 
shipping those that are to be worshipped, this is the 
highest blessing. (258) 

3. 'To live in a suitable country, to have done 
good deeds in a former (existence), and a thorough 
study of one's self, this is the highest blessing. (259) 

4,'Great learning andskill.well-learnt discipline, and 
well-spoken words, this is the highest blessing. (260) 

5. 'Waiting on mother and father, protecting child 
and wife, and a quiet calling, this is the highest 
blessing. (261) 

6. 'Giving alms, living religiously, protecting 
relatives, blameless deeds, this is the highest bless- 
ing. (262) 

7. ' Ceasing and abstaining from sin, refraining 
from intoxicating drink, perseverance in the Dham- 
mas, this is the highest blessing. (263) 

8. ' Reverence and humility, contentment and gra- 
titude, the hearing of the Dhamma at due seasons, 
this is the highest blessing. (264) 

9. ' Patience and pleasant speech, intercourse with 
Sama«as, religious conversation at due seasons, this 
is the highest blessing. (265) 

10. ' Penance and chastity, discernment of the 
noble truths, and the realisation of Nibbana, this is 
the highest blessing. (266) 

11. 'He whose mind is not shaken (when he is) 
touched by the things of the world (lokadhamma), 
(but remains) free from sorrow, free from defilement, 
and secure, this is the highest blessing. (267) 

12. 'Those who, having done such (things), are 
undefeated in every respect, walk in safety every- 
where, theirs is the highest blessing.' (268) 

Mahamangala is ended. 



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sOjtilomasutta. 45 



5. StUHLOMASUTTA. 

The Yakkha SMloma threatens to harm Buddha, if he cannot 
answer his questions. Buddha answers that all passions pro- 
ceed from the body. 

So it was heard by me : 

At one time Bhagavat dwelt at Gaya (seated) on 
a stone seat in the realm of the Yakkha Su/£iloma. 
And at that time the Yakkha Khara and the Yakkha 
Suiiloma passed by, not far from Bhagavat. And 
then the Yakkha Khara said this to the Yakkha 
Suiiloma : ' Is this man a Samara ?' 

Su&loma answered : ' He is no Samara, he is a 
Sama»aka (a wretched Sama»a) ; however I will 
ascertain whether he is a Sama»a or a Sama#aka.' 

Then the Yakkha Su&loma went up to Bhagavat, 
and having gone up to him, he brushed against 
Bhagavat's body. Then Bhagavat took away his 
body. Then the Yakkha Suiiloma said this to 
Bhagavat : ' O Sama«a, art thou afraid of me ?' 

Bhagavat answered : 'No, friend, I am not afraid 
of thee, but thy touching me is sinful.' 

Suiiloma said : ' I will ask thee a question, O 
Sama#a ; if thou canst not answer it I will either 
scatter thy thoughts or cleave thy heart, or take thee 
by the feet and throw thee over to the other shore 
of the Ganga.' 

Bhagavat answered : ' I do not see, O friend, 
neither in this world together with the world of the 
Devas, Maras, Brahmans, nor amongst the genera- 
tion of Sama»a and Brahma#as, gods and men, the 
one who can either scatter my thoughts or cleave 
my heart, or take me by the feet and throw me over 



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46 jh)lavagga. 



to the other shore of the Ganga. However ask, O 
friend, what thou pleasest.' Then the Yakkha 
Suiiloma addressed Bhagavat in a stanza : 

i. ' What origin have passion and hatred, dis- 
gust, delight, and horror ? wherefrom do they arise ? 
whence arising do doubts vex the mind, as boys vex 
a crow?' (269) 

2. Buddha said : ' Passion and hatred have their 
origin from this (body), disgust, delight, and horror 
arise from this body ; arising from this (body) doubts 
vex the mind, as boys vex a crow. {270) 

3. ' They originate in desire, they arise in self, 
like the shoots of the banyan tree; far and wide 
they are connected with sensual pleasures, like the 
maluva creeper spread in the wood. ( 2 70 

4. ' Those who know whence it (sin) arises, drive 
it away. Listen, O Yakkha ! They cross over 
this stream that is difficult to cross, and has not 
been crossed before, with a view to not being born 
again.' ( 2 7 2 ) 



Sfi/£ilomasutta is ended. 



6. DHAMMA^ARIYASUTTA or KAPILA- 
SUTTA. 

The Bhikkhus are admonished to rid themselves of sinful persons, 
and advised to lead a pure life. 

i. A just life, a religious life, this they call the 
best gem, if any one has gone forth from house-life 
to a houseless life. ( 2 73) 

2. But if he be harsh-spoken, and like a beast 
delighting in injuring (others), then the life of such 
a one is very wicked, and he increases his own 
pollution. (2 74) 



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BRAHMAJVADHAMMIKASUTTA. 47 

3. A Bhikkhu who delights in quarrelling and is 
shrouded in folly, does not understand the Dhamma 
that is preached and taught by Buddha. ( 2 75) 

4. Injuring his own cultivated mind, and led by 
ignorance, he does not understand that sin is the 
way leading to hell. (276) 

5. Having gone to calamity, from womb to womb, 
from darkness to darkness, such a Bhikkhu verily, 
after passing away, goes to pain. (277) 

6. As when there is a pit of excrement (that has be- 
come) full during a number of years, — he who should 
be such a one full of sin is difficult to purify. (278) 

7. Whom you know to be such a one, O Bhikkhus, 
(a man) dependent on a house, having sinful desires, 
sinful thoughts, and being with sinful deeds and 
objects, ( 2 79) 

8. Him do avoid, being all in concord ; blow him 
away as sweepings, put him away as rubbish. (280) 

9. Then remove as chaff those that are no Sama- 
ras, (but only) think themselves, blowing away those 
that have sinful desires and those with sinful deeds 
and objects. (281) 

10. Be pure and live together with the pure, 
being thoughtful ; then agreeing (and) wise you will 
put an end to pain. (282) 

Dhamma^ariyasutta is ended. 



7. brAhmajwvdhammikasutta. 

Wealthy Brahmawas come to Buddha, asking about the customs of 
the ancient Brahma«as. Buddha describes their mode of life 
and the change wrought in them by seeing the king's riches, and 
furthermore, how they induced the king to commit the sin of 



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48 jcOlavagga. 



having living creatures slain at sacrifices. On hearing Buddha's 
enlightened discourse the wealthy Bralimawas are converted. 
Compare Sp. Hardy's Legends, p. 46. 

So it was heard by me : 

At one time Bhagavat dwelt at Savatth!, in Geta- 
vana, in the park of Anathapi#dfika. Then many 
wealthy Brahma»as of Kosala, decrepit, elderly, old, 
advanced in age, or arrived at extreme old age, went 
to Bhagavat, and having gone to him they talked 
pleasantly with him, and after having had some 
pleasant and remarkable talk with him, they sat 
down apart. Sitting down apart these wealthy 
Brahma«as said this to Bhagavat : ' O venerable 
Gotama, are the Brahma#as now-a-days seen (en- 
gaged) in the Brahmanical customs (dhamma) of 
the ancient Brahma»as ?' 

Bhagavat answered : ' The Brahmawas now-a-days, 
O Brahma#as, are not seen (engaged) in the Brah- 
manical customs of the ancient Brahma#as.' 

The Brahmawas said : ' Let the venerable Gotama 
tell us the Brahmanical customs of the ancient Brah- 
mawas, if it is not inconvenient to the venerable 
Gotama.' 

Bhagavat answered : ' Then listen, O Brahma«as, 
pay great attention, I will speak.' 

' Yes,' so saying the wealthy Brahmawas listened 
to Bhagavat. Bhagavat said this : 

1. The old sages (isayo) were self-restrained, peni- 
tent; having abandoned the objects of the five 
senses, they studied their own welfare. (283) 

2. There were no cattle for the Brahma»as, nor 
gold, nor corn, (but) the riches and corn of medita- 
tion were for them, and they kept watch over the 
best treasure. (284) 



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BRAHMAtfADHAMMIKASUTTA. 49 

3. What was prepared for them and placed as food 
at the door, they thought was to be given to those that 
seek for what has been prepared by faith. (285) 

4. With garments variously coloured, with beds 
and abodes, prosperous people from the provinces 
and the whole country worshipped those Brih- 
ma/zas. (286) 

5. Inviolable were the Brahma«as, invincible, pro- 
tected by the Dhamma, no one opposed them (while 
standing) at the doors of the houses anywhere. (287) 

6. For forty-eight years they practised juvenile 
chastity, the Brahma»as formerly went in search of 
science and exemplary conduct. (288) 

7. The Brahma«as did not marry (a woman be- 
longing to) another (caste), nor did they buy a wife ; 
they chose living together in mutual love after 
having come together. (289) 

8. Excepting from the time about the cessation of 
the menstruation else the Brahmawas did not indulge 
in sexual intercourse 1 . (290) 

9. They praised chastity and virtue, rectitude, 
mildness, penance, tenderness, compassion, and pa- 
tience. (291) 

10. He who was the best of them, a strong Brah- 
ma«a, did not (even) in sleep indulge in sexual 
intercourse. (292) 

1 1. Imitating his practices some wise men in this 
world praised chastity and patience. (293) 

1 2. Having asked for rice, beds, garments, butter, 
and oil, and gathered them justly, they made sacri- 

1 Awwatra tamh£ samaya' 
Utuveramamm pati 
Antari methunam dhammazn 
N&su gzikAanii brahmawa. 
[10] E 



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50 ^Olavagga, 



fices out of^them, and when the sacrifice came on, 
they did not kill cows. (294) 

13. Like unto a mother, a father, a brother, and 
other relatives the cows are our best friends, in 
which medicines are produced. ( 2 95) 

14. They give food, and they give strength, -they 
likewise give (a good) complexion and happiness ; 
knowing the real state of this, they did not kill 
cows. (296) 

15. They were graceful, large, handsome, re- 
nowned, Brahma«as by nature, zealous for their 
several works ; as long as they lived in the world, 
this race prospered. K ( 2 97) 

16. But there was a change in them: after gra- 
dually seeing the king's prosperity and adorned 
women, ( 2 9&) 

17. Well-made chariots drawn by noble horses, 
carpets in variegated colours, palaces* and houses, 
divided into compartments and measured out, (299) 

18. The great human wealth, attended with a 
number of cows, and combined with a flock of beau- 
tiful women, the Brahma#as became covetous. (300) 

19. They then, in this matter, having composed 
hymns, went to Okkaka, and said : ' Thou hast much 
wealth and convsacrifice thy great property, sacrifice 
thy great wealth.' ' (301) 

20. And then the king, the lord of chariots, in- 
structed by the Brahma«as, brought about assa- 
medha, purisamedha, sammapasa, and vaiapeyya 
without any hinderance, and having offered these 
sacrifices he gave the Brahmanas wealth : (302) 

21. Cows, beds, garments, and adorned women, 
and well-made chariots, drawn by noble horses, 
carpets in variegated colours, (3°3) 



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BRAHMAWADHAMMIKASUTTA. 5 1 

22. Beautiful palaces, well divided into compart- 
ments ; and having filled these with different (sorts of) 
corn, he gave this wealth to the Brahma*as. (304) 

23. And they having thus received wealth wished 
for a store, and the desire of those who had given- 
way to (their) wishes increased still more ; they then, 
in this matter, having composed hymns, went again 
to Okkaka, and said : (3^5) 

24. ' As water, earth, gold, wealth, and corn, even 
so are there cows for men, for this is a requisite for 
living beings ; sacrifice thy great property, sacrifice 
thy wealth.' (306) 

25. And then the king, the lord of chariots, in- 
structed by the Brahma#as, caused many hundred 
thousand cows to be slain in offerings. (307) 

26. The cows, that are like goats, do not hurt 
any one with their feet or with either of their horns, 
they are tenfier, and yield vessels (of milk), — seizing 
them by- the horn's the king caused them to be slain 
with a weapon. - (308) 

27. Then the gods, the forefathers, Inda, the 
Asuras, and the Rakkhasas cried out : ' This is 
injustice,' because of the weapon falling on the 
cows. . (309) 

28. There were formerly three •diseases: desire, 
hunger, and decay, but from the slaying of cattle 
there came ninety-eight. (3 I o) 

29. This injustice of (using) violence that has 
come down (to us), was old ; innocent (cows) are 
slain, the. sacrificing (priests) have fallen off from 
the Dhamma. (3 11 ) 

30. So this old and mean Dhamma is blamed by 
the wise ; where people see such a one, they blame 
the sacrificing priest. (3 12 ) 



E 2 

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52 jcAlavagga. 



31. So Dhamma being lost, the Suddas and the 
Vessikas disagreed, the Khattiyas disagreed in mani- 
fold ways, the wife despised her husband. (3 1 3) 

32. The Khattiyas and the Br£hma»as and those 
others who had been protected by their castes, after 
doing away with their disputes on descent, fell into 
the power of sensual pleasures. (314) 

This having been said, those wealthy Brahma»as 
said to Bhagavat as follows : 

' It is excellent, O venerable Gotama! It is excel- 
lent, O venerable Gotama ! As one raises what has 
been overthrown, or reveals what has been hidden, 
or tells the way to him who has gone astray, or 
holds out an oil lamp in the dark that those who 
have eyes may see the objects, even so by the 
venerable Gotama in manifold ways the Dhamma 
has been illustrated ; we take refuge in the vener- 
able Gotama, in the Dhamma, and in the Assembly 
of Bhikkhus ; may the venerable Gotama receive us 
as followers (up£saka), who from this day for life 
have taken refuge (in him).' 

Brahma#adhammikasutta is ended. 



8. nAvAsutta. 

On choosing a good and learned teacher. 

1. A man should worship him from whom he 
learns the Dhamma, as the gods (worship) Inda; 
the learned man being worshipped and pleased with 
him, makes the (highest) Dhamma manifest. (315) 

2. Having heard and considered that (Dhamma), 
the wise man practising the Dhamma that is in 



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NAVASUTTA. 53 



accordance with the (highest) Dhamma, becomes 
learned, expert, and skilful, strenuously associating 
with such a (learned teacher). (3 X 6) 

3. He who serves a low (teacher), a fool who has 
not understood the meaning, and who is envious, 
goes to death, not having overcome doubt, and not 
having understood the Dhamma. (3*7) 

4. As a man, after descending into a river, a 
turgid water with a rapid current, is borne along 
following the current, — how will he be able to put 
others across ? (3 J 8) 

5. Even so how will a man, not having under- 
stood the Dhamma, and not attending to the ex- 
planation of the learned and not knowing it himself, 
not having overcome doubt, be able to make others 
understands? (3 J 9) 

6. As one, having gone on board a strong ship, 
provided with oars and rudder, carries across in it 
many others, knowing the way to do it, and being 
expert and thoughtful, (320) 

7. So also he who is accomplished, of a cultivated 
mind, learned, intrepid, makes others endowed with 
attention and assiduity understand it, knowing (it 
himself). (3 21 ) 

8. Therefore indeed one should cultivate (the 
society of) a good man, who is intelligent and 
learned ; he who leads a regular life, having under- 
stood what is good and penetrated the Dhamma, 
will obtain happiness. (322) 



Navasutta is ended. 



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54 jcOlavagga. 



9. KIJ/SlLASUTTA. 

How to obtain the highest good. 

1. By what virtue, by what conduct, and perform- 
ing what works, will a man be perfectly established 
(in the commandments) and obtain the highest 
good ? (323) 

2. Let him honour old people, not be envious, 
let him know the (right) time for seeing his teachers, 
let him know the (right) moment for listening to their 
religious discourses, let him assiduously hearken to 
their well-spoken (words). (3 2 4) 

3. Let him in due time go to the presence of his 
teachers, let him be humble after casting away ob- 
stinacy, let him remember and practise what is good, 
the Dhamma, self-restraint, and chastity. (3 2 5) 

4. Let his pleasure be the Dhamma, let him de- 
light in the Dhamma, let him stand fast in the 
Dhamma, let him know how to enquire into the 
Dhamma, let him not raise any dispute that pol- 
lutes the Dhamma, and let him spend his time 
in (speaking) well-spoken truths \ (3 2 6) 

5. Having abandoned ridiculous talk, lamentation, 
corruption, deceit, hypocrisy, greediness and haughti- 
ness, clamour and harshness, depravity and foolish- 
ness, let him live free from infatuation, with a steady 
mind. (3 2 7) 

6. The words, the essence of which is under- 
stood, are well spoken, and what is heard, if under- 
stood, contains the essence of meditation; but the 
understanding and learning of the man who is hasty 
and careless, does not increase. (3 2 &) 



1 Comp. Dhp. v. 364. 



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RAHULASUTTA. 55 



7. Those who delight in the Dhamma, proclaimed 
by the venerable ones, are unsurpassed in speech, 
mind and work, they are established in peace, ten- 
derness and meditation, and have gone to the essence 
of learning and understanding. (329) 

Kiwsilasutta is ended. 



10. Ur777ANASUTTA. 

Advice not to be lukewarm and slothful. 

i. Rise, sit up, what is the use of your sleeping ; to 
those who are sick, pierced by the arrow (of pain), 
and suffering, what sleep is there ? (330) 

2. Rise, sit up, learn steadfastly for the sake of 
peace, let not the king of death, knowing you to 
be indolent (pamatta), befool you and lead you into 
his power. (33 1) 

3. Conquer this desire which gods and men stand 
wishing for and are dependent upon, let not the 
(right) moment pass by you ; for those who have 
let the (right) moment pass, will grieve when they 
have been consigned to hell. (332) 

4. Indolence (pamada) is defilement, continued 
indolence is defilement ; by earnestness (appamada) 
and knowledge let one pull out his arrow. (333) 

U#^anasutta is ended. 



11. RAHULASUTTA. 

Buddha recommends the life of a recluse to Rdhula, and admonishes 
him to turn his mind away from the world and to be moderate. 

i. Bhagavat said : ' Dost thou not despise the 
wise man, from living with him constantly ? Is he 



<^ 



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56 tftiLAVAGGA. 



who holds up a torch to mankind honoured by 
thee?' (334) 

2. Rahula : ' I do not despise the wise man, from 
living with him constantly ; he who holds up a torch 
to mankind is always honoured by me.' (335) 

Vatthugatha. 

3. Bhagavat : ' Having abandoned the objects of 
the five senses, the beautiful, the charming, and 
gone out from thy house with faith, do thou put 
an end to pain. (336) 

4. ' Cultivate (the society of) virtuous friends and 
a distant dwelling-place, secluded and quiet ; be 
moderate in food 1 . (337) 

5. ' Robes, alms (in bowl), requisites (for the 
sick), a dwelling-place, — do not thirst after these 
(things), that thou mayest not go back to the world 
again. (338) 

6. ' Be subdued according to the precepts, and as 
to the five senses, be attentive as regards thy body, 
and be full of disgust (with the world). (339) 

7. ' Avoid signs, what is pleasant and is accom- 
panied with passion, turn thy mind undisturbed and 
well composed to what is not pleasant. (340) 

8. ' Cherish what is signless, leave the inclina- 
tions for pride ; then by destroying pride thou 
shalt wander calm.' (34 1 ) 

So Bhagavat repeatedly admonished the venera- 
ble Rahula with these stanzas. 

Rahulasutta is ended. 

1 Mitte bha^assu ka\y&ne 
Pantan ka, sayanasanaw 
Vivittaw* appanigghosaw, 
Mattawwfi hohi bhq?ane. 
Comp. Dhp. v. 185 and v. 375. 



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VANGiSASUTTA. 57 



12. VANGiSASUTTA. 

Vahgtsa desires to know the fate of Nigrodhakappa, whether he 
has been completely extinguished, or whether he is still with 
some elements of existence left behind He is answered by 
Buddha. 

So it was heard by me : 

At one time Bhagavat dwelt at A/avl, in the 
temple of Agga/ava. At that time the teacher of 
the venerable Vangisa, the Thera, by name Nigro- 
dhakappa, had attained bliss not long before (aiira- 
parinibbuta). Then this reflection occurred to the 
venerable Vangisa, while retired and meditating : 

Whether my teacher be blessed (parinibbuta) or 
whether he be not blessed. Then the venerable 
Vangisa, at the evening time, coming forth from his 
retirement went to Bhagavat, and having gone to 
him he sat down apart after saluting him, and sit- 
ting down apart the venerable Vangisa said this 
to Bhagavat : 

' Lord, while retired and meditating, this reflec- 
tion occurred to me here : Whether my teacher be 
blessed or whether he be not blessed.' 

Then the venerable Vangisa, rising from his seat, 
throwing his robe over one shoulder and bending 
his joined hands towards Bhagavat, addressed him 
in stanzas : 

i. 'We ask the Master of excellent understand- 
ing : he who in this world had cut off doubt, died 
at Agga/ava, a Bhikkhu, well known, famous, and 
of a calm mind. (34 2 ) 

2. ' The name " Nigrodhakappa " was given to 
that Brahma#a by thee, O Bhagavat ; he wandered 



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58 *Olavagga. 



about worshipping thee, having liberation in view, 
strong, and seeing Nibbana. (343) 

3. ' O Sakka, thou all-seeing, we all wish to learn 
(something about) this disciple ; our ears are ready 
to hear, thou art our Master, thou art incom- 
parable. (344) 

4. ' Cut off our doubt, tell me of him, inform us 
of the blessed, O thou of great understanding ; speak 
in the midst of us, O thou all-seeing, as the thousand- 
eyed Sakka (speaks in the midst) of the gods. (345) 

5. 'Whatever ties there are in this world (con- 
stituting) the way to folly, combined with ignorance, 
forming the seat of doubt, they do not exist before 
Tathagata, for he is the best eye of men. (346) 

6. ' If a man does not for ever dispel the sin as 
the wind (dispels) a mass of clouds, all the world 
will be enveloped in darkness, not even illustrious 
men will shine. (347) 

7. ' Wise men are light-bringers, therefore, O wise 
man, I consider thee as such a one ; we have come 
to him who beholds meditation, reveal Kappa to us 
in the assembly. (348) 

8. ' Uplift quickly, O thou beautiful one, thy 
beautiful voice, like the swans drawing up (their 
necks), sing softly with a rich and well-modulated 
voice; we will all listen to thee attentively. (349) 

9. ' Having earnestly called upon him' who has 
completely left birth and death behind and shaken 
off (sin), I will make him proclaim the Dhamma, for 
ordinary people cannot do what they want, but the 
Tathagatas act with a purpose 1 . (35°) 

1 Pah?nag£timara»am asesam 
Niggayha dhonaw vadessami dhammaw, 
Na kamakaro hi puthu^ananaw 

Sawkheyyakaro kz. tathagatanam. 



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VANGiSASUTTA. 59 



10. ' This full explanation by thee, the perfectly 
wise, is accepted, this last clasping of the hands is 
well bent, O thou of high wisdom, knowing (Kappa's 
transmigration), do not delude us 1 . (35 1) 

11. 'Having perfectly 2 comprehended the Dham- 
ma of the venerable ones, do not delude (us), O thou 
of unsurpassed strength, knowing (everything) ; as 
one in the hot season pained by the heat (longs for) 
water, so I long for thy words ; send a shower of 
learning. (352) 

12. ' The rich religious life which Kappayana led, 
has not that been in vain (to him), has he been 
(completely) extinguished, or is he still with some 
elements of existence (left behind) ? How he was 
liberated, that we want to hear.' (353) 

1 3. Bhagavat : ' He cut off the desire for name and 
form in this world,' — so said Bhagavat, — ' Ka»ha's 
(i. e. Mara's) stream, adhered to for a long time, 
he crossed completely birth and death,' so said 
Bhagavat, the best of the five (Brahmawas, pa«ia- 
vaggiya). (354) 

14. Vangisa : ' Having heard thy word, O thou 
the best of the Isis, I am pleased ; not in vain have 
I asked, the Brahma#a did not deceive me. (355) 

15. 'As he talked so he acted, he was a (true) 
disciple of Buddha, he cut asunder the outspread 
strong net of deceitful death. (356) 

1 6. ' Kappiya (Kappayana) saw, O Bhagavat, the be- 

1 Sampannaveyyakaranaw tava-y-idaw 
Samu^giipafmassa samuggahitaw, 
Ayam a.riga.\i pa££&mo suppandmito, 
Ma" mohayi £&nam anomapa«»1a. 
* Paro varan ti lokuttaralokiyavasena sundarSsundaraw dure 
santikaw veL Commentator. 



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6o ' jtOlavagga. 



ginning of attachment, Kappiyana verily crossed the 
realm of death, which is very difficult to cross.' (357) 

Vanglsasutta is ended. 



13. sammAparibbAganiyasutta. 

The right path for a Bhikkhu. 

i. ' We will ask the Muni of great understanding, 
who has crossed, gone to the other shore, is blessed 
(parinibbuta), and of a firm mind : How does a 
Bhikkhu wander rightly in the world, after having 
gone out from his house and driven away de- 
sire?* (358) 

2. 'He whose (ideas of) omens, meteors, dreams 
and signs are destroyed,' — so said Bhagavat, — ' such 
a Bhikkhu who has abandoned the sinful omens, 
wanders rightly in the world. (359) 

3. ' Let the Bhikkhu subdue his passion for human 
and divine pleasures, then after conquering exist- 
ence and understanding the Dhamma, such a one 
will wander rightly in the world. (360) 

4. ' Let the Bhikkhu, after casting behind him 
slander and anger, abandon avarice and be free 
from compliance and opposition, then such a one 
will wander rightly in the world. (361) 

5. 'He who having left behind both what is 
agreeable and what is disagreeable, not seizing 
upon anything, is independent in every respect and 
liberated from bonds, such a one will wander rightly 
in the world. (362) 

6. ' He does not see any essence in the Upadhis, 
having subdued his wish and passion for attachments, 



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sammAparibbaganiyasutta. 6 1 

he is independent and not to be led by others, such 
a one will wander rightly in the world '. (363) 

7. ' He who is not opposed (to any one) in word, 
thought or deed, who, after having understood the 
Dhamma perfectly, longs for the state of Nibbana, 
such a one will wander rightly in the world. (364) 

8. ' He who thinking " he salutes me " is not 
elated, the Bhikkhu who, although abused, does not 
reflect (upon it, and) having received food from 
others does not get intoxicated (with pride), such 
a one will wander rightly in the world. (365) 

9. ' The Bhikkhu who, after leaving behind covet- 
ousness and existence, is disgusted with cutting and 
binding (others), he who has overcome doubt, and 
is without pain, such a one will wander rightly in 
the world. (366) 

10. 'And knowing what becomes him, the Bhik- 
khu will not harm any one in the world, under- 
standing the Dhamma thoroughly, such a one will 
wander rightly in the world. (367) 

11. 'He to whom there are no affections what- 
soever, whose sins are extirpated from the root, he 
free from desire and not longing (for anything), such 
a one will wander rightly in the world. (368) 

12. 'He whose passions have been destroyed, who 
is free from pride, who has overcome all the path of 
passion, is subdued, perfectly happy (parinibbuta), 
and of a firm mind, such a one will wander rightly 
in the world. (369) 

1 3. ' The believer, possessed of knowledge, see- 

1 Na so upadhfsu saram eti 
Adanesu vineyya <Mandar&ga»& 
So anissito anawroaneyyo 
Samma so. 



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62 tffJLAVAGGA. 



ing the way (leading to Nibbana), who is no partisan 
amongst the partisans (of the sixty-two philosophical 
views), wise after subduing covetousness, anger, such 
a one will wander rightly in the world. (270) 

14. ' He who is pure and victorious, who has re- 
moved the veil (of the world), who is subdued in the 
Dhammas, has gone to the other shore, is without 
desire, and skilled in the knowledge of the cessation 
of the Samkharas, such a one will wander rightly in 
the world. (37 1) 

15. 'He who has overcome time (kappattta) in 
the past and in the future, is of an exceedingly pure 
understanding, liberated from all the dwelling-places 
(of the mind), such a one will wander rightly in the 
world. (372) 

16. ' Knowing the step (of the four truths), under- 
standing the Dhamma, seeing clearly the abandon- 
ment of the passions, destroying all the elements of 
existence (upadh!), such a one will wander rightly in 
the world.' (373) 

1 7. ' Certainly, O Bhagavat, it is so : whichever 
Bhikkhu lives in this way, subdued and having 
overcome all bonds, such a one will wander rightly 
in the world.' (374) 

Sammaparibbi^aniyasutta is ended. 



14. DHAMMIKASUTTA. 

Buddha shows Dhammika what the life of a Bhikkhu and what 
the life of a householder ought to be. 

So it was heard by me : 

At one time Bhagavat dwelt at Savatthi, in G"eta- 
vana, in the park of Anathapi«*/ika. Then the 
follower (upasaka) Dhammika, together with five 



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DHAMMIKASUTTA. 63 



hundred followers, went to Bhagavat, and having 
gone to Bhagavat and saluted him, he sat down 
apart; sitting down apart the follower Dhammika 
addressed Bhagavat in stanzas : 

i. ' I ask thee, O Gotama of great understanding, 
How is a Savaka (disciple) to act to be a good one ? 
is it the one who goes from his house to the wilder- 
ness, or the followers with a house ? (375) 

2. ' For thou knowest the doings of this world 
and that of the gods, and the final end; there is 
nobody like thee seeing the subtle meaning (of 
things) ; they call thee the excellent Buddha. (376) 

3. ' Knowing all knowledge thou hast revealed 
the Dhamma, having compassion on creatures; thou 
hast removed the veil (of the world), thou art all- 
seeing, thou shinest spotless in all the world. (377) 

4. 'The king of elephants, Erava«a by name, 
hearing that thou wert Gina. (the Conqueror), came 
to thy presence, and having conversed with thee 
he went away delighted, after listening (to thee, 
and saying), "Very good!" (378) 

5. ' Also king Vessavawa Kuvera came to ask 
thee about the Dhamma; him, too, thou, O wise 
man, answeredst when asked, and he also after 
listening was delighted. (379) 

6. 'All these disputatious Titthiyas and kgi- 
vikas and Niga#/$as do not any of them overcome 
thee in understanding, as a man standing (does not 
overcome) the one that is walking quickly. (380) 

7. ' All these disputatious Brahma#as, and there 
are even some old Brahma#as, all are bound by thy 
opinion, and others also that are considered dis- 
putants. (381) 

8. ' This subtle and pleasant Dhamma that has 



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64 *Olavagga. 



been well proclaimed by thee, O Bhagavat, and 
which we all long to hear, do thou, O thou best 
of Buddhas, speak to us when asked. (382) 

9. 'Let all these Bhikkhus and also Upasakas 
that have sat down to listen, hear the Dhamma 
learnt (anubuddha) by the stainless (Buddha), as the 
gods (hear) the well-spoken (words) of Vasava.' (383) 

10. Bhagavat : ' Listen to me, O Bhikkhus, I 
will teach you the Dhamma that destroys sin, do 
ye keep it, all of you ; let him who looks for what 
is salutary, the thoughtful, cultivate the mode of 
life suitable for Pabbafitas. (384) 

n. 'Let not the Bhikkhu walk about at a 
wrong time, let him go to the village for alms at 
the right time ; for ties ensnare .the one that goes 
at a wrong time, therefore Buddhas do not go at 
a wrong time. (385) 

12. ' Form, sound, taste, smell, and touch which 
intoxicate creatures, having subdued the desire for 
(all) these things (dhammas), let him in due time go 
in for his breakfast. (386) 

1 3. ' And let the Bhikkhu, after having obtained 
his food at the right time and returned, sit down 
alone and privately; reflecting within himself let 
him not turn his mind to outward things, (but be) 
self-collected. (387) 

14. 'If he speak with a Savaka or with anybody 
else, or with a Bhikkhu, let him talk about the ex- 
cellent Dhamma, (but let him) not (utter) slander, 
nor blaming words against others. (388) 

1 5. ' For some utter language contradicting others 1 ; 
those narrow-minded ones we do not praise. Ties 

1 Vadaw hi eke pa/iseniyanti=viru ! gg-Aanti yu^g^itukama hutva 
senaya pa/imukhaw gikkAaat& viya honti. Commentator. 



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DHAMMIKASUTTA. 65 



from here and there ensnare them, and they send 
their mind far away in that (dispute). (389) 

16. ' Let a Savaka of him with the excellent under- 
standing (Buddha), after hearing the Dhamma taught 
by Sugata, discriminately seek for food, a monastery, 
a bed and a chair, and water for taking away the 
dirt of his clothes. (390) 

1 7. ' But without clinging to these things, to food, 
to bed and chair, to water for taking away the dirt 
of his clothes, let a Bhikkhu be like a waterdrop on 
a lotus. (39 1) 

18. ' A householder's work I will also tell you, how 
a Savaka is to act to be a good one ; for that com- 
plete Bhikkhu-dhamma cannot be carried out by one 
who is taken up by (worldly) occupations. (392) 

19. 'Let him not kill, nor cause to be killed any 
living being, nor let him approve of others killing, 
after having refrained from hurting all creatures, 
both those that are strong and those that tremble 
in the world. (393) 

20. 'Then let the Savaka abstain from (taking) 
anything in any place that has not been given (to 
him), knowing (it to belong to another), let him not 
cause any one to take, nor approve of those that 
take, let him avoid all (sort of) theft. (394) 

21. ' Let the wise man avoid an unchaste life as a 
burning heap of coals ; not being able to live a life 
of chastity, let him not transgress with another 
man's wife. (395) 

22. 'Let no one speak falsely to another in the 
hall of justice or in the hall of the assembly, let him 
not cause (any one) to speak (falsely), nor approve 
of those that speak (falsely), let him avoid all (sort 
of) untruth. (396) 

[10] F 



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66 jrtiiAVAGGA. 



23. ' Let the householder who approves of this 
Dhamma, not give himself to intoxicating drinks; let 
him not cause others to drink, nor approve of those 
that drink, knowing it to end in madness. (397) 

24. ' For through intoxication the stupid commit 
sins and make other people intoxicated; let him 
avoid this seat of sin, this madness, this folly, de- 
lightful to the stupid. (398) 

25. ' Let him not kill any living being, let him not 
take what has not been given (to him), let him not 
speak falsely, and let him not drink intoxicating drinks, 
let him refrain from unchaste sexual intercourse, and 
let him not at night eat untimely food. (399) 

26. ' Let him not wear wreaths nor use perfumes, 
let him lie on a couch spread on the earth : — this they 
call the eightfold abstinence (uposatha), proclaimed 
by Buddha, who has overcome pain. (4°o) 

27. 'Then having with a believing mind kept 
abstinence (uposatha) on the fourteenth, fifteenth, 
and the eighth days of the half-month, and (having 
kept) the complete Partharakapakkha 1 consisting of 
eight parts, (40 1 ) 

28. ' And then in the morning, after having kept 
abstinence, let a wise man with a believing mind, glad- 
dening the assembly of Bhikkhus with food and drink, 
make distributions according to his ability. (402) 

29. ' Let him dutifully maintain his parents, and 
practise an honourable trade ; the householder who 
observes this strenuously goes to the gods by name 
Sayampabhas.' (403) 

Dhammikasutta rs ended. 
^Tu/avagga is ended. 

1 Compare T. W. Rhys Davids, Buddhism, p. 141. 



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III. MAHAVAGGA. 



1. PABBAG6ASUTTA. 

King Bimbisira feeling interested in Buddha tries to tempt him 
with wealth, but is mildly rebuked by Buddha. 

i . I will praise an ascetic life such as the clearly- 
seeing (Buddha) led, such as he thinking (over it) 
approved of as an ascetic life. (404) 

2. ' This house-life is pain, the seat of impurity,' 
and ' an ascetic life is an open-air life,' so considering 
he embraced an ascetic life. (405) 

3. Leading an ascetic life, he avoided with his 
body sinful deeds, and having (also) abandoned sin 
in words, he cleansed his life. (406) 

4. Buddha went to Rifagaha, he entered the 
Giribba^a in Magadha for alms with a profusion 
of excellent signs. (407) 

5. Bimbisara standing in his palace saw him, and 
seeing him endowed with these signs, he spoke these 
words : (408) 

6. ' Attend ye to this man, he is handsome, great, 
clean, he is both endowed with good conduct, and he 
does not look before him further than a yuga (the 
distance of a plough). (409) 

7. ' With downcast eyes, thoughtful, this one is not 
like those of low caste; let the king's messengers run 
off, (and ask) : " Where is the Bhikkhu going ? " ' (410) 

8. The king's messengers followed after (him, and 

f 2 



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68 mahAvagga. 



said) : ' Where is the Bhikkhu going, where will he 
reside? (411) 

9. ' Going begging from house to house, watching 
the door (of the senses), well restrained, he quickly 
filled his bowl, conscious, thoughtful. (4 12 ) 

10. 'Wandering about in search of alms, having 
gone out of town, the Muni repaired to (the moun- 
tain) Tandava ; it must be there he lives.' (413) 

ii. Seeing that he had entered his dwelling, the 
messengers then sat down, and one messenger having 
returned announced it to the king. (414) 

1 2. ' This Bhikkhu, O great king, is sitting on the 
east side of Fandava, like a tiger, like a bull, like a 
lion in a mountain cave.' (4*5) 

13. Having heard the messenger's words, the 
Khattiya in a fine chariot hastening went out to the 
Fandava mountain. «■ (416) 

14. Having gone as far as the ground was prac- 
ticable for a chariot, the Khattiya, after alighting 
from the chariot, and approaching on foot, having 
come up (to him), seated himself. (4*7) 

15. Having sat down the king then exchanged the 
usual ceremonious greetings with him, and after the 
complimentary talk he spoke these words : (418) 

1 6. ' Thou art both young and delicate, a lad in 
his first youth, possessed of a fine complexion, like a 
high-born Khattiya. (4 J 9) 

1 7. ' I will ornament the army-house, and at the 
head of the assembly of chiefs (naga) give (thee) 
wealth; enjoy it and tell me thy birth, when 
asked.' (420) 

18. Buddha: 'Just beside Himavanta, O king, 
there lives a people endowed with the power of 
wealth, the inhabitants of Kosala. (4 21 ) 



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padhAnasutta. 69 



19.' They are Adii/£as by family, Sakiyas by birth ; 
from that family I have wandered out, not longing 
for sensual pleasures. (4 22 ) 

20. ' Seeing misery in sensual pleasures, and con- 
sidering the forsaking of the world as happiness, 
I will go and exert myself; in this my mind de- 
lights.' (423) 
Pabba§g£sutta is ended 



2. PADHANASUTTA. 

Mara tries to tempt Buddha, but disappointed is obliged to withdraw. 
Comp. Gospel of S. Matthew iv. 

1. To me, whose mind was intent upon exertion 
near the river Nera«^ari, having exerted myself, and 
given myself to meditation for the sake of acquiring 
Nibbana (yogakkhema), (4 2 4) 

2. Came Namuii speaking words full of compas- 
sion : ' Thou art lean, ill-favoured, death is in thy 
neighbourhood. (42 5 ) 

3. ' A thousandth part of thee (is the property) of 
death, (only) one part (belongs to) life ; living life, O 
thou venerable one, is better ; living thou wilt be 
able to do good works 1 . (426) 

4. ' When thou livest a religious life, and feedest 
the sacrificial fire, manifold good works are woven to 
thee ; what dost thou want with exertion ? (42 7) 

5. ' Difficult is the way of exertion, difficult to 
pass, difficult to enter upon;' saying these verses 
M&ra stood near Buddha. (428) 

1 Sahassabhago marawassa, 
Ekamso tava g fvitaw, 
GXvam bho ^rvitaw seyyo, 

Givam puMani kahasi. 



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70 mahAvagga. 



6. To Mara thus speaking Bhagavat said this : 
' O thou friend of the indolent, thou wicked one, for 
what purpose hast thou come here ? (4 2 9) 

7. ' Even the least good work is of no use to me; 
and what good works are required, Mara ought to 

tell. (430) 

8. ' I have faith and power, and understanding is 
found in me ; while thus exerting myself, why do you 
ask me to live 1 ? (43 1 ) 

9. ' This (burning) wind will dry up even the cur- 
rents of the rivers ; should it not by degrees dry up 
my blood, while I am exerting myself? (432) 

10. 'While the blood is drying up, the bile and 
the phlegm are dried up ; while the flesh is wasting 
away, the mind gets more tranquil, and my atten- 
tion, understanding, and meditation get more stead- 
fast 2 . (433) 

11. 'While I am living thus, after having felt the 
extreme sensations, my mind does not look for 
sensual pleasures; behold a being's purity. (434) 

12. 'Lust thy first army is called, discontent thy 
second, thy third is called hunger and thirst, thy 
fourth desire. (435) 

13. 'Thy fifth is called sloth and drowsiness, thy 
sixth cowardice, thy seventh doubt, thy eighth 
hypocrisy and stupor, (436) 

14. 'Gain, fame, honour, and what celebrity has 

1 Evam mam pahitattam pi 
Kim £ivam anupu^asi. 

2 Lohite sussamanamhi 
Pittam semhaw ka sussati, 
Mawsesu khlyam&nesu 
Bhiyyo kittam pasidati 
Bhiyyo sati ka pawwd ka 
Samddhi mama ti//^ati. 



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PADHANASUTTA. 7 1 



been falsely obtained; and he who exalts himself and 
despises others l . (437) 

15. 'This, O Namuy&i, is thine, the black one's, 
fighting army; none but a hero conquers it, and after 
conquering it obtains joy. (438) 

16. ' Woe upon life in this world! death in battle is 
better for me than that I should live defeated. (439) 

1 7. ' Plunged into this world some Sama«as and 
Brihmawas are not seen, and they do not know the 
way in which the virtuous walk. (440) 

18. 'Seeing on all sides an army arrayed, and 
Mara on his elephant, I am going out to do battle, 
that he may not drive me away from my place. (441) 

19. ' This army of thine, which the world of men 
and gods cannot conquer, I will crush with under- 
standing as (one crushes) an unbaked earthen pot 
with a stone 2 . (44 2 ) 

20. ' Having made my thought subject to me and 
my attention firm, I shall wander about from kingdom 
to kingdom, training disciples extensively. (443) 

21. ' They (will be) zealous and energetic, execut- 
ing my orders, (the orders) of one free from lust, and 
they will go (to the place) where, having gone, they 
will not mourn.' (444) 

22. Mara : ' For seven years I followed Bhagavat 
step by step; I found no fault in the perfectly en- 
lightened, thoughtful (Buddha). (445) 

1 Yo £'attanaw samukkaanse 

Pare ka. ava^anati. 
a Yaw te ta*» na-ppasahati 

Senaw loko sadevako 

Turn te pa?lwaya ga^&mi* 

Amam patta*» va amhana. 

* Instead of gaMAami I read bha»g-ami. B» has veJMapi, B 1 \egghkmi. 



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72 MAHAVAGGA. 



23. ' The crow hovered round the rock that looked 
like (a lump of) fat : " Do we here find something 
soft, is it something sweet?" (446) 

24. ' Having obtained nothing sweet there, the 
crow went away from that spot Thus like the crow 
approaching the rock, being disgusted, we shall go 
away from Gotama 1 .' (447) 

25. While overcome with sorrow the string of his 
lute slipped down ; then that evil-minded Yakkha 
disappeared there. (448) 

Padhanasutta is ended. 



3. SUBHASITASUTTA. 

On well-spoken language. 

So it was heard by me : 

At one time Bhagavat dwelt at Sivatthl in <7eta- 
vana. Bhagavat said this : ' O Bhikkhus, the speech 
that is provided with four requisites is well-spoken, 
not ill-spoken, both faultless and blameless to the 
wise.' 

'Which four?' 

'O Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhu speaks well-spoken 
(language), not ill-spoken ; he speaks what is right 
(dhamma), not what is unrighteous (adhamma) ; he 
speaks what is pleasing, not what is unpleasing ; he 
speaks what is true, not what is false. O Bhikkhus, 
the speech that is provided with these four requi- 
sites, is well-spoken, not ill-spoken, both faultless 

1 KSko va selam ^sa^a* 
Nibbi^iperoa Gotama^t- 
* C* C* Hvagga, B» ass&gga, B 1 assa^^a. f Instead of Gotamam I read Gotama. 



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subhAsitasutta. 73 



and blameless to the wise.' This said Bhagavat. 
When Sugata had said this, then the Master spoke 
the following : 

t. 'Well-spoken language the just call the prin- 
cipal (thing) ; let one speak what is right (dhamma), 
not what is unrighteous (adhamma), that is the 
second ; let one speak what is pleasing, not what is 
unpleasing, that is the third ;. let one speak what is 
true, not what is false, that is the fourth.' (449) 

Then the venerable Vanglsa, rising from his seat, 
throwing his robe over one shoulder and bending 
his joined hands towards Bhagavat, said this : ' It 
occurs to me, O Sugata!' 

' Let it occur to thee, O Vanglsa ! ' said Bhagavat. 

Then the venerable Vanglsa, standing before Bha- 
gavat, praised him with appropriate stanzas : 

2. ' Let one say such words by which he does not 
pain himself, nor hurt others ; such words are truly 
well-spoken. (45°) 

3. 'Let one speak pleasing words which are re- 
ceived joyfully (by all), and which (saying) he, with- 
out committing sins, speaks what is pleasing to 
others. (45 1) 

4. ' Truth verily is immortal speech, this is a true 
saying ; in what is true, in what is good, and in what 
is right, the just stand firm, so they say. (45 2 ) 

5. ' The words which Buddha speaks, which are 
sure to bring about extinction and put an end to 
pain, such (words) are truly the best' (453) 

Subhasitasutta is ended. 



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74 MAHAVAGGA. 



4. SU.NDARIKABHARADVAGASUTTA. 

Buddha shows to Sundarikabharadva^a on whom to bestow obla- 
tions, and the Brahma»a is finally converted. 

So it was heard by me : 

At one time Bhagavat dwelt in Kosala on the bank 
of the river Sundarika. And during that time the 
Brahma«a Sundarikabharadva^a made offerings to 
the fire and worshipped the fire. Then the Brahma«a 
Sundarikabharadva^a, having made offerings to the 
fire and worshipped the fire, and having risen from 
his seat, looked about him on all sides towards the 
four quarters of the globe, saying : ' Who is to enjoy 
the rest of this oblation ?' The Brahma»a Sunda- 
rikabharadva^a saw Bhagavat sitting not far off at 
the root of a tree, wrapped up head and body ; and 
seeing him he, after taking the rest of the oblation 
with his left hand and the waterpot with his right 
hand, went up to Bhagavat. Then Bhagavat, on 
hearing the footsteps of Sundarikabharadva^a, the 
Brahma«a, uncovered his head. Then the Brah- 
ma«a Sundarikabharadva^a thought : ' This man is 
shaved, this man is a shaveling,' and he wished to 
return again from there. Then this came to the 
mind of Sundarikabharadva^a, the Brahma»a: 'Some 
Brahma#as also here are shaved, I think I shall go 
up and ask him about his descent.' Then the Brah- 
ma«a Sundarikabharadva^a went up to Bhagavat, 
and having gone up he said this : ' Of what family 
art thou ?' 

Then Bhagavat answered Sundarikabharadva^a, 
the Brahma#a, in stanzas : 

i. 'No Brahma#a am I, nor a king's son, nor any 



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SUNDARIKABHARADVAGASUTTA. 75 

Vessa; having thoroughly observed the class of 
common people, I wander about the world re- 
flectingly, possessing nothing. (454) 

2. 'Dressed in a sanghari 1 and houseless I wander 
about, with my hair cut off, calm, not intermixing 
with people in this world. Thou askest me an 
unseasonable question about (my) family, O Brah- 
ma»a !' (455) 

3. Sundarikabharadva^a : ' Sir, Brahma#as toge- 
ther with Brahma»as ask truly, Art thou a Brah- 
ma#a?' 

Bhagavat: 'If thou sayest, I am a Brahma#a, 
and callest me no Brahma»a, then I ask thee about 
the Sivitti that consists of three padas and twenty- 
four syllables V (456) 

4. Sundarikabharadva^a : ' For what (reason) did 
the I sis, men, Khattiyas, Brahmawas make offerings 
to the gods abundantly in this world ?' 

Bhagavat: ' He who, perfect and accomplished at 
the time of offering, obtains the ear of one or the 
other (god), he will succeed, so I say.' (457) 

5. ' Surely his offering will bear fruit,' — so said 
the Brahma«a, — 'because we saw such an accom- 
plished man ; for by not seeing such as you, some- 
body else will enjoy the oblation.' (458) 

6. Bhagavat: 'Therefore, O Brahma»a, as you 
have come here to ask for something, ask ; perhaps 
thou mightest here find one that is calm, without 
anger, free from pain, free from desire, one with 
a good understanding.' (459) 

1 See Rhys Davids, Buddhism, p. 166. 
3 Ta*» Savittiw TpukkMmi 
Tipadaw tatuvisatakkharaw. 

(Rig-veda III, 62, 10.) 



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76 mahAvagga. 



7. Sundarikabharadva^a : ' I delight in offering, 
O Gotama, I desire to make an offering, but I do 
not understand it ; do thou instruct me, tell me in 
what case the offering succeeds.' (4 6 °) 

8. Bhagavat: 'Therefore, O Brahmawa, lend me 
thy ear, I will teach thee the Dhamma. (461) 

9. ' Do not ask about descent, but ask about con- 
duct ; from wood, it is true, fire is born ; (likewise) a 
firm Muni, although belonging to a low family, may 
become noble, when restrained (from sinning) by 
humility. (462) 

10. 'He who is subdued by truth, endowed with 
temperance, accomplished, leading a religious life, 
on such a one in due time people should bestow 
oblations ; let the Brahma»a who has . good works 
in view, offer. (463) 

ii.' Those who, after leaving sensual pleasures, 
wander about houseless, well restrained, being like 
a straight shuttle, on such in due time people should 
bestow oblations ; let the Brahma«a who has good 
works in view, offer. (464) 

12. 'Those whose passions are gone, whose senses 
are well composed, who are liberated like the moon 
out of the grasp of Rahu, on such in due time 
people should bestow oblations ; let the Brahma#a 
who has good works in view, offer. (465) 

1 3. ' Those who wander about in the world without 
clinging (to anything), always thoughtful, having left 
selfishness, on such in due time people should be- 
stow oblations; let the Brahmarca who has good 
works in view, offer. (466) 

14. 'He who, after leaving sensual pleasures, wan- 
ders about victorious, he who knows the end of 
birth and death, who is perfectly happy (parinib- 



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SUNDARIKABHARADVAGASUTTA. J 7 

buta), calm like a deep water, Tathagata deserves 
the oblation. (467) 

15. 'Just with the just and far from the unjust 1 , 
Tathagata is possessed of infinite understanding ; 
undefiled both in this world and in the other, Tatha- 
gata deserves the oblation. (468) 

16. ' He in whom there lives no deceit, no arro- 
gance, he who is free from cupidity, free from selfish- 
ness, free from desire, who has banished anger, who 
is calm, the Brahmawa who has removed the taint 
of grief, Tathagata deserves the oblation. (469) 

17. 'He who has banished (every) resting-place 
of the mind, he for whom there is no grasping, he 
who covets nothing either in this world or in the 
other, Tathagata deserves the oblation 2 . (470) 

18. 'He who is composed, who has crossed over 
the stream (of existence) and knows the Dhamma 
by (taking) the highest view (of it), he whose pas- 
sions are destroyed, who is wearing the last body, 
Tathagata deserves the oblation. (47 1) 

19. ' He whose passion for existence and whose 
harsh talk are destroyed, are perished, (and therefore) 
exist not, he the accomplished and in every respect 
liberated Tathagata deserves the oblation. (472) 

20. 'He who has shaken off all ties, for whom 
there are no ties, who amongst arrogant beings is 
free from arrogance, having penetrated pain to- 
gether with its domain and subject, Tathagata 
deserves the oblation. (473) 

21. ' He who, without giving himself up to desire, 
sees seclusion (i. e. Nibbana), who has overcome the 
view that is to be taught by others, to whom there 

1 Samo samehi visamehi dfire. * Comp. Dhp. v. 20. 

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78 mahAvagga. 



are no objects of sense whatever, Tathagata de- 
serves the oblation 1 . (474) 

22. ' He to whom all Dhammas of every descrip- 
tion, after he has penetrated them, are destroyed, 
are perished, (and therefore) exist not, he who is 
calm, liberated in the destruction of attachment (i. e. 
Nibbana), Tathagata deserves the oblation. (475) 

23. * He who sees the destruction of bond and 
birth, who has totally evaded the path of passion, 
(who is) pure, faultless, spotless, undepraved, Tatha- 
gata deserves the oblation. (476) 

24. ' He who does not measure himself by him- 
self, who is composed, upright, firm, without desire, 
free from harshness (akhila), free from doubt, Tatha- 
gata deserves the oblation. (477) 

25. 'He to whom there is no cause of folly, who 
has a supernatural insight in all Dhammas, who 
wears the last body, and who has acquired perfect 
enlightenment, the highest, the blessed, (for him) 
thus a Yakkha's purification (takes place) 2 .' (478) 

26. Sundarikabharadva^a : ' May my offering be 
a true offering, because I met with such a one out 
of the accomplished ; Brahman is my witness, may 
Bhagavat accept me, may Bhagavat enjoy my obla- 
tion.' (479) 

27. Bhagavat: 'What is obtained by stanzas is 
not to be enjoyed by me, this is not the custom of 
the clearly-seeing, O Brahma»a ; Buddhas reject 
what is obtained by stanzas. While the Dhamma 

1 Asaw anissaya vivekadasst 
Paravediyaw* di//4im updtivatto 
Aratnma«a yassa na santi keft, &c. 

* Comp. KalahavMdasutta, v. 14. 

* Paravediyan ti parehi fjapetabbam. Commentator. 



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SUNDARIKABHARADVAGASUTTA. 79 

exists, O Brahma#a, this is the practice (of the 
Buddhas). (480) 

28. ' With other food and drink must thou serve 
one that is perfect, a great Isi, whose passions are de- 
stroyed, and whose misbehaviour has ceased, for this 
is a field for one who looks for good works 1 .' (481) 

29. Sundarikabharadva^a : ' Good, O Bhagavat, 
then I should like to know, who will enjoy a gift 
from one like me, and whom I shall seek at the time 
of sacrifice (as one worthy of offerings) after having 
accepted thy doctrine.' (482) 

30. Bhagavat : ' Whosoever has no quarrels, whose 
mind is untroubled, and who has freed himself from 
lusts, whose sloth is driven away, (483) 

31. 'Whosoever conquers his sins, knows birth 
and death, the Muni who is endowed with wisdom a , 
such a one who has resorted to offering, (484) 

32. 'Him you should worship and honour with 
food and drink; so the gifts will prosper/ (485) 

33. Sundarikabharadva^a : ' Thou Buddha de- 
servest the oblation, (thou art) the best field for 
good works, the object of offering to all the world ; 
what is given to thee will bear great fruit.' (486) 

Then the Brahma»a Sundarikabharadva^a said 
this to Bhagavat : 'It is excellent, O venerable 
Gotama ! It is excellent, O venerable Gotama ! 
As one raises what has been overthrown, or reveals 
what has been hidden, or tells the way to him who 
has gone astray, or holds out an oil lamp in the dark 
that those who have eyes may see the objects, even 
so by the venerable Gotama in manifold ways the 
Dhamma has been illustrated; I take refuge in 

1 Comp. KasitMradvi^asutta, v. 7. 

' Moneyyasampannaw=pa/masampanna»*. Commentator. 



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8o mahAvagga. 



the venerable Gotama, in the Dhamma, and in the 
Assembly of Bhikkhus ; I wish to receive the robe 
and the orders from the venerable Gotama.' 

The Brahmawa Sundarikabharadvctfa received the 
pabbagga from Bhagavat, and he received also the 
upasampada ; and the venerable Bharadva^a, having 
lately received the upasampada, leading a solitary, 
retired, strenuous, ardent, energetic life, lived after 
having in a short time in this existence by his own 
understanding ascertained and possessed himself of 
that highest perfection of a religious life for the 
sake of which men of good family rightly wander 
away from their houses to a houseless state. ' Birth 
had been destroyed, a religious life had been led, 
what was to be done had been done, there was 
nothing else (to be done) for this existence/ so he 
perceived, and the venerable Bharadva^a became 
one of the arahats. 

Sundarikabhiradva^asutta is ended. 



5. MAGHASUTTA. 

Buddha on being asked tells Magna of those worthy of offerings 
and the blessing of offering. 

So it was heard by me : 

At one time Bhagavat dwelt at Ra^agaha, in the 
mountain (called) the Vulture's Peak (Gigg^aku/a). 

Then the young man Magha went to Bhagavat, 
and having gone to him he talked pleasantly with 
him, and after having had some pleasant, remarkable 
conversation with him he sat down apart; sitting 
down apart the young man Magha spoke this to 
Bhagavat : 



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MAGHASUTTA. 8 1 



' O venerable Gotama, I am a liberal giver, boun- 
tiful, suitable to beg of; justly I seek for riches, and 
having sought for riches justly, I give out of the 
justly obtained and justly acquired riches to one, to 
two, to three, to four, to five, to six, to seven, to 
eight, to nine, to ten, to twenty, to thirty, to forty, 
to fifty, to a hundred, I give still more. (I should 
like to know), O venerable Gotama, whether I, while 
so giving, so offering, produce much good.' 

' Certainly, O young man, dost thou in so offering 
produce much good; he, O young man, who is a 
liberal giver, bountiful, suitable to beg of, and who 
justly seeks for riches, and having sought for riches 
justly, gives out of his justly obtained and justly 
acquired riches t;o one, to two, to three, to four, to 
five, to six, to seven, to eight, to nine, to ten, to 
twenty, to thirty, to forty, to fifty, to a hundred, and 
gives still more, produces much good.' 

Then the young man Mdgha addressed Bhagavat 
in stanzas : 

i. ' I ask the venerable Gotama, the bountiful,' — 
so said the young man Magha, — ' wearing the yel- 
low robe, wandering about houseless :' ' He who is 
a householder, suitable to beg of, a donor, who, de- 
sirous of good, offers having what is good in view, 
and giving to others in this world food and drink, — 
where (i. e. on whom bestowed) will the oblation of 
such an offerer prosper ?' (487) 

2. 'He who is a householder, suitable to beg of, 
a donor,' O Magha, — so said Bhagavat, — 'who, de- 
sirous of good, offers having what is good in view, 
and giving to others in this world food and drink, 
such a one will prosper with those worthy of 
offerings.' (488) 

[10] G 



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82- mahAvagga. 



3. ' He who is a householder, suitable to beg of, 
a donor,' — so said the young man, — ' who, desirous 
of good, offers having what is good in view, and 
giving to others in this world food and drink, — tell 
me (I being such a one), O Bhagavat, of those worthy 
of offerings.' (489) 

4. Bhagavat : 'Those indeed who wander about in 
the world without clinging to anything and without 
possessing anything, perfect, self-restrained, on such 
in due time people should bestow oblations ; let the 
Brahma#a who has good (works) in view, offer. (490) 

5. ' Those who have cut through all bonds and 
fetters, who are subdued, liberated, free from pain, 
and free from desire, on such in due time people 
should bestow oblations ; let the Brahmawa who has 
good (works) in view, offer. (49 1 ) 

6. ' Those who are released from alt bonds, who 
are subdued, liberated, free from pain, and free 
from desire, on such in due time people should 
bestow oblations ; let the Brahma#a who has good 
(works) in view, offer. (492) 

7. ' Those who, having forsaken both passion and 
hatred and folly, have destroyed their desires and 
lead a religious life, on such in due time people 
should bestow oblations ; let the Brahmarca who has 
good (works) in view, offer 1 . (493) 

8. ' Those in whom there lives no deceit, no arro- 
gance, who are free from cupidity, free from selfish- 
ness, free from desire, on such in due time people 
should bestow oblations ; let the Brahma»a who has 
good (works) in view, offer. (494) 

9. 'Those indeed who without being lost in desire, 

1 Comp. Dhp. v. 20. 

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mAghasutta. 83 



after crossing the stream (of existence), wander 
about free from selfishness, on such in due time 
people should bestow oblations ; let the Brahma»a 
who has good (works) in view, offer. (495) 

10. ' Those in whom there is no desire for any- 
thing in the world, nor for existence after existence 
here or in the other world, on such in due time 
people should bestow oblations ; let the Brahma#a 
who has good (works) in view, offer. (496) 

11. 'Those who, after leaving sensual pleasures, 
wander about houseless, well restrained, being like 
a straight shuttle, on such in due time people should 
bestow oblations; let the Brahma»a who has good 
(works) in view, offer. (497) 

1 2. ' Those whose passions are gone, whose senses 
are well composed, who are liberated like the moon 
out of the grasp of Rahu, on such in due time people 
should bestow oblations ; let the Brahma»a who has 
good (works) in view, offer. (498) 

13. 'Those who are calm, whose passions are gone, 
who are without anger, and for whom there is no 
transmigration after having left here, on such in due 
time people should bestow oblations ; let the Brah- 
raa»a who has good (works) in view, offer. (499) 

14. ' Those who, after leaving birth and death alto- 
gether, have conquered all doubt, on such in due time 
people should bestow oblations j let the Brahma»a 
who has good (works) in view, offer. (5°°) 

1 5. ' Those who wander about in the world with 
themselves for a light, not possessed of anything, in 
every respect liberated, on such in due time people 
should bestow oblations ; let the Brahma»a who has 
good (works) in view, offer. (50 1) 

16. ' Those who in this world rightly understand 

g 2 



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84 mahAvagga. 



this: " This is the last (birth), there is no re-birth," on 
such in due time people should bestow oblations; 
let the Brahma#a who has good (works) in view, 
offer. (502) 

17. 'He who is accomplished, and delights in me- 
ditation, thoughtful, possessed of thorough enlight- 
enment, a refuge for many, on such a one in due 
time people should bestow oblations ; let the Br&h- 
ma#a who has good (works) in view, offer.' (503) 

18. ' Certainly my question was not in vain, Bha- 
gavat has told me of those worthy of offerings ; for 
thou truly knowest this in this world, as surely to 
thee this Dhamma is known. (5°4) 

19. * He who is a householder, suitable to beg of, 
a donor/' — so said the young man Magha, — 'who, 
desirous of good, offers having what is good in 
view, and giving to others in this world food and 
drink, — tell me' (I being such a one), O Bhagavat, 
of the blessing of offering.' (505) 

20. ' Offer, O Magha,' — so said Bhagavat, — ' and 
while offering make calm thy mind in all things; 
the object of the one that offers is the oblation, 
standing fast in this he leaves hatred behind. (506) 

21. 'Such a one whose passion is gone will re- 
press hatred, cultivating an unbounded friendly 
mind ; continually strenuous night and day he will 
spread infinite goodness through all regions.' (507) 

22. Magha : ' Who prospers ? who is liberated and 
who is bound ? In which way can one by himself go 
to Brahmaloka ? Tell this to me who does not know, 
O Muni, when asked. Bhagavat is indeed my wit- 
ness that Brahman is seen by me to-day, for thou art 
to us equal to Brahman, this is the truth ; how can one 
attain Brahmaloka, O thou glorious one?' (508) 



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SABHIYASUTTA. 85 



23. 'He who offers the threefold blessing of obla- 
tion/ O Magha, — so said Bhagavat, — f such a one 
will prosper with those worthy of offerings; so, 
having offered properly, he who is suitable to beg 
of attains Brahmaloka, so I say.' (509) 

This having been said, Magha the young man 
spoke as follows to Bhagavat : ' Excellent, O vener- 
able Gotama ! Excellent, O venerable Gotama ! As 
one raises what has been overthrown^ or reveals what 
has been hidden, or tells the way to him who has 
gone astray, or holds out an oil lamp in the dark that 
those who have eyes may see the objects, even so by 
the venerable Gotama in manifold ways the Dhamma 
has been illustrated ; I take refuge in the venerable 
• Gotama and in the Dhamma and in the Assembly of 
Bhikkhus. Let the venerable Gotama accept me as 
an upasaka (a follower, me), who henceforth ;. for all 
my life have taken refuge (in him).' 

Maghasutta is ended. 



6. SABHIYASUTTA. 

Sabhiya, the Paribba^aka, goes to the six famous teachers of his 
time to have his questions answered, but not having his doubts 
solved, he repairs to Gotama and asks him how one is to behave, 
to become a Brahmaaa, a Samawa, a Nahataka, a Khettagina, a 
Kusala, a Pa»<fita, a Muni, a Vedagu, an Anuvidita, a Dhtra, an 
A^aniya, a Sottiya, an Ariya, a Aarawavat, a Paribbdgaka. 
Bhagavat answers his questions, and Sabhiya finally (receives the. 
robe and the orders from Buddha. 

So it was heard by me : 

At one time Bhagavat dwelt at Ra^agaha, in 
Ve/uvana, in Kalandakanivapa. And at that time 
questions were recited to Sabhiya, the Paribba^aka 



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86 MAHAVAGGA. 



(wandering mendicant), by an old benevolent deity: 
* He who, O Sabhiya, be it a Sama#a or a Brah- 
ma«a, explains these questions to thee when asked, 
near him thou shouldst live a religious life.' 

Then Sabhiya, the Paribbi^aka, having learnt the 
questions from that deity, went to whatever Sama»as 
and Brahma»as there were that had an assembly (of 
Bhikkhus), a crowd (of followers), and were well- 
known teachers, famous leaders, considered excel- 
lent by the multitude, as Fura«a-Kassapa, Makkhali- 
Gosala, A^ita : Kesakambali, Pakudha- Ka^iayana, 
Saȣaya-Bela#/&iputta, and Niga#/$a-Nataputta. 
Those he went to, and after going to them, he 
asked the questions. They, being asked the ques- 
tions by Sabhiya, the Paribba^aka, did not succeed 
(in answering them), and not succeeding they showed 
wrath and hatred and discontent, and they also in 
return put questions to Sabhiya, the Paribba^aka. 

Then this came to the mind of Sabhiya, the Parib- 
ba^aka: * Whatever Samawas and Brahmawas there 
are that have an assembly (of Bhikkhus), a crowd 
(of followers), and are well-known teachers, famous 
leaders, considered excellent by the multitude, as 
Pura«a-Kassapa, Makkhali-Gosala, A^ita- Kesakam- 
bali, Pakudha- Kai^ayana, Saw^aya- Bela//^iputta, 
and Niga#/^a-Nataputta, they, being asked ques- 
tions by me, did not succeed (in answering them), 
and not succeeding they showed wrath and hatred 
and discontent, and they also in return put ques- 
tions to me in this matter ; surely I think I shall go 
back to what I have left, and enjoy sensual plea- 
sures.' 

Then this came to the mind of Sabhiya, the 
Paribba^aka: 'This Sama»a Gotama has both an 



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SABHIYASUTTA. '8? 



assembly (of Bhikkhus) and a crowd (of followers), 
and is a well-known teacher, a famous leader, con- 
sidered excellent by the multitude, surely I think I 
shall go to Sama«a Gotama and ask these ques- 
tions.' Then this came to the mind of Sabhiya, 
the Paribba^aka : ' Whatever Samaras and Brah- 
ma»as there are that are decayed, old, aged, ad- 
vanced in years, having reached old age, expe- 
rienced elders, long ordained, having assemblies (of 
Bhikkhus), crowds (of followers), being teachers well 
known, famous leaders, considered excellent by the 
multitude, as Pura«a-Kassapa, Makkhali - Gosala, 
A^ita-Kesakambali, Pakudha-Kai/§ayana, Sa#faya- 
Bela^iputta, and Niga«//fca-Nataputta, they, being 
asked questions -by 'me, did not succeed (in answering 
them), and not succeeding they showed wrath and 
hatred and discontent, and they also in return put 
questions to -me in this matter ; (I should like to 
know) whether Sama#a 'Gotama being asked these 
questions will be able to explain them to me, for 
Sama#a Gotama is both young by birth and new in 
ascetic life.' 

Then this came to the mind of Sabhiya, the 
Paribba^aka: 'Sama»a Gotama is not to be slighted 
because -he is young ; even if the Sama«a is young, 
yet he is mighty and powerful; surely I think I 
shall go to Sama»a Gotama and ask these ques- 
tions.' Then Sabhiya, the Paribba^aka, went on a 
journey to 'Ra^agaha, and wandering on his journey 
in regular order he came to Ra^agaha, Ve/uvana, 
Kalandakanivapa, to Bhagavat, and having come to 
Bhagavat he talked pleasantly with him, and after 
having had some pleasant and remarkable conversa- 
tion with him he sat down apart; sitting down apart 



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88 MAHAVAGGA. 



Sabhiya, the Paribba/aka, spoke to Bhagavat in 
stanzas : 

i. 'Anxious and doubtful I have come,' — so said 
Sabhiya, — ' longing to ask questions. Do thou put 
an end to these (doubts when) asked these questions 
by me, in regular order, and rightly explain them 
to me.' (510) 

2. 'Thou hast come from afar, O Sabhiya/ — so 
said Bhagavat, — ' longing to ask questions ; I shall 
put an end to those (doubts when) asked those 
questions by thee, in regular order, and rightly I 
shall explain them to thee. (5 11 ) 

3. ' Ask me, O Sabhiya, a question ; whatsoever 
thou wishest in thy mind that question I (will 
explain, and) put an end to (thy doubt).' (512) 

Then this came to the mind of Sabhiya, the Parib- 
ba^aka : ' It is marvellous, it is wonderful indeed, the 
reception which I did not get from other Samaras 
and Brahmawas has been given me by Gotama,' 
so saying he glad, rejoicing, delighted, arid highly 
elated asked Bhagavat a question : 

4. ' What should a man (necessarily) have obtained 
that people may call him a Bhikkhu ?' — so said 
Sabhiya, — 'how may they call him compassionate, 
and how subdued? how can he be called enlightened 
(buddha) ? Asked (about this) do thou, Bhagavat, 
explain it to me.' (5 J 3) 

5. ' He who by the path he has himself made, 
O Sabhiya,' — so said Bhagavat, — 'has attained to 
perfect happiness, who has conquered doubt, who 
lives after having left behind both gain and goods, 
who has destroyed re-birth, he is a Bhikkhu. (514) 

6. ' Always, resigned and attentive, he will not 
hurt any one in all the world, the Samara who has 



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SABHIYASUTTA. 89 



crossed the stream (of existence, and is) untroubled ; 
for whom there are no desires (ussada), he is com- 
passionate. (515) 

7. ' He whose senses are trained internally and 
externally in all the world, he who after penetrating 
this and the other world longs for death, being 
trained, he is subdued. (S 1 ^) 

8. ' Whosoever, after having considered all times 
(kappa), the revolution (sawsara), both the vanishing 
and re-appearance (of beings), is free from defilement, 
free from sin, is pure, and has obtained destruction of 
birth, him they call enlightened (buddha).' (517) 

Then Sabhiya, the Paribba^aka, having approved 
of and rejoiced at the words of Bhagavat, glad, re- 
joicing, delighted, highly elated, asked Bhagavat 
another question : 

9. ' What should a man (necessarily) have obtained 
that people may call him a Brahma»a ? ' — so said 
Sabhiya, — 'and how (may they call him) arSama»a? 
and how a Nahataka ? how can he be called a 
Naga? Asked (about this) do thou Bhagavat explain 
it to me.' (518) 

10. 'He who, after removing all sins, O Sabhiya,' 
— so said Bhagavat, — ' is- immaculate, well composed, 
firm-minded, perfect after crossing the Sa/wsara, such 
an independent one is called a Brahma»a. (519) 

11. 'He who is calm, having left behind good and 
evil, free from defilement, having understood this 
and the other world, and conquered birth and death, 
such a one is called a Samara by being so 1 .' (520) 

12. 'Whosoever, after having washed away all 
sins internally and externally in all the world, does 

1 Samawo tadi pavuMate tathatta. 

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96 MAHAVAGGA. 



not enter time (kappa) amongst gods and men who 
are subject to time, him they call a Nahataka 
(cleansed) 1 . (521) 

13. 'He who does not commit any crime in the 
world, who, after abandoning all bonds and fetters, 
clings to nothing, being liberated, such a one is called 
a Naga (sinless) by being so '.' (5 22 ) 

Then Sabhiya, the Paribba^aka, having approved 
of and rejoiced at the words of Bhagavat, glad, 
rejoicing, delighted, highly elated, further asked 
Bhagavat a question : 

14. 'Whom do the Buddhas call a Khetta^ina?' — 
so said Sabhiya, — 'how (can they call any one) a 
Kusala? and how a Pa/wTita ? how can he be called 
a Muni ? Asked (about this) do thou Bhagavat ex- 
plain it to me.' (5 2 3) 

15. ' He who, after examining all regions, O Sa- 
bhiya,' — so said Bhagavat, — 'the divine and the 
human, and Brahman's region, is delivered from the 
radical bond of all regions, such a one is called a 
Khetta^ina (he who has conquered the regions) by 
being so. (524) 

16. ' He who, after examining all treasures, the 
divine and the human, and Brahman's treasure, is 
delivered from the radical bond of all treasures, such 
a one is called a Kusala (happy) by being so. (525) 

17. 'He who, after examining both kinds of 
senses, internally and externally, is endowed with a 

1 Devamanussesu kappiyesu 

Kappan n'eti tarn ahu nahatako. 
a Agiurc na karoti ki&W loke 

Sabbasamyoge visa^a bandhan&ni 

Sabbattha na sa^g-atf vimutto 

Nago tM pavu^ate tathattl 
But compare Pabbagg-Ssutta 17, Magandiyasutta ir, &c. 



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SABHIYASUTTA. gi ' 



clear understanding and has conquered evil and good 
(katthasukka), such a one is called a P audita, (wise) 
by being so. (526) 

1 8. ' He who, having understood the Dhamma of 
the just and the unjust, internally and externally, in 
all the world, is to be worshipped by gods and men, 
he, after breaking through the net of ties, is called 
a Muni (sage).' (5 2 7) 

Then Sabhiya, the Paribba^aka, having approved 
of and rejoiced at the words of Bhagavat, glad, 
rejoicing, delighted, highly elated, further asked 
Bhagavat a question : 

19. 'What should one (necessarily) have obtained 
that people may call him Vedagu ?' — so said Sabhiya, 
— ' and how (may they call him) Anuvidita ? and 
how Viriyavat ? How does one become A^aniya ? 
Asked (about this) do thou, O Bhagavat, explain it 
to me.' (528) 

20. ' He who, having conquered all sensations, O 
Sabhiya,' — so said Bhagavat, — 'which are (known) to 
Sama»as and to Brahmawas, is free from passion for 
all sensations, he is Vedagu (having passed sensa- 
tion) after conquering all sensation. (5 2 9) 

21. ' He who, having seen the delusion of name 
and form 1 , internally and externally, the root of 
sickness, and is delivered from the radical bond of 
all sickness, such a one is called Anuvidita (well- 
informed) by being so. (53°) 

22. ' He who is disgusted in this world with all 
sins, is strong after conquering the pain of hell, is 
strong and powerful, such a one is called Dhtra ( = 
viriyavat, firm) by being so. (53 1) 



1 Aitavikfa. papa«£andmarfipa*B. 



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92 MAHAVAGGA. 



23. 'He whose bonds are cut off internally and 
externally, the root of ties 1 , who is delivered from 
the radical bond of all ties, such a one is called 
Afaniya (high-bred) by being so.' (53 2 ) 

Then Sabhiya, the Paribba^aka, having approved 
of and rejoiced at the words of Bhagavat, glad, 
rejoicing, delighted, highly elated, further asked 
Bhagavat a question : " 

24. 'What should a man (necessarily) have ob- 
tained that people may call him a Sottiya?' — so 
said Sabhiya, — 'how (may they call him) an Ariya ? 
and how a A!ara«avat ? how may he become a 
Paribb&^aka ? Asked (about this) do thou, O Bha- 
gavat, explain it to me.' (533) 

25. ' Whosoever, after haying heard and under- 
stood every Dhamma in the world, O Sabhiya,' — so 
said Bhagavat, — ' whatsoever- is wrong and what- 
soever is blameless, is victorious, free from doubt, 
liberated, free from pain in every respect, him they 
call a Sottiya (learned in the revelation). (534) 

26. ' Whosoever, after having cut off passions and 
desires, is wise and does not (again) enter the womb, 
having driven away the threefold sign, the mud (of 
lust), and who does not (again) enter time (kappa), 
him they call an Ariya (noble). (535) 

27. 'He who in this world, after having at- 
tained the (highest) gain in the Afara#as, is skilful, 
has always understood the Dhamma, clings to nothing, 
is liberated, and for whom there are no passions, he is 
a A'arawavat (endowed with the observances). (536) 

28. ' Whosoever abstains from the action that has 
a painful result, above and below and across and in 

1 Yass' assu lutani bandhanani 
AggAattam bahiddha k& sahgamftlaw. 



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SABHIYASUTTA. 93 



the middle, who wanders with understanding, who 
has put an end to deceit, arrogance, cupidity and 
anger, name and form, him they call a Paribba- 
^•aka (a wandering mendicant) who has attained the 
(highest) gain.' (537) 

Then Sabhiya, the Paribba^aka, having approved 
of and rejoiced at the words of Bhagavat, glad, re- 
joicing, delighted, highly elated, having risen from 
his seat, and having put his upper robe upon one 
shoulder, bending his joined hands towards Bha- 
gavat, praised Bhagavat face to face in appropriate 
stanzas : 

29. ' Having conquered the three and' sixty (philo- 
sophical) views referring to the disputations of the 
Sama«as, thou hast crossed over the darkness of 
the stream 1 . (?) (538) 

30. ' Thou hast passed to the end of and beyond 
pain, thou art a saint, perfectly enlightened, I consider 
thee one that has destroyed his passions, thou art glo- 
rious, thoughtful, of great understanding, O thou who 
puts an end to pain, thou hast carried me across. (539) 

31. 'Because thou sawest my longing, and car- 
riedst me across my doubt, adoration be to thee, O 
Muni, who hast attained the (highest) gain in the 
ways of wisdom ; O thou who art a true kinsman of 
the Adi^^as, thou art compassionate. (54°) 

32. 'The doubt I had before thou hast cleared 
away for me, O thou clearly-seeing ; surely thou art 
a Muni, perfectly enlightened, there is no obstacle 
for thee. (54 1 ) 



1 Yani fa tf«i yini ka, sa/Z5i 
Sama«appavadasitani bhftripanna 
SaMakkhara sawnanissit&ni (?) 
Osarawani vineyya oghatam' agl 



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94 MAHAVAGGA. 



33. ' And all thy troubles are scattered and cut 
off, thou art calm, subdued, firm, truthful. (542) 

34. ' All gods and both Narada and Pabbata re- 
joice at thee, the chief of the sinless (naganaga), the 
great hero, when thou art speaking. (543) 

35. 'Adoration be to thee, O noble man, adora- 
tion be to thee, O thou best of men ; in the world of 
men and gods there is no man equal to thee. (544) 

36. ' Thou art Buddha, thou art the Master, thou 
art the Muni that conquers Mara ; after having cut 
off desire thou hast crossed over and hast carried 
across this generation. (545) 

37. 'The' elements of existence (upadhi) are over- 
come by thee, the passions are destroyed by thee, 
thou art a lion, free from desire, thou hast left behind 
fear and terror. (546) 

38. 'As a beautiful lotus does not adhere to the 
water, so thou dost not cling to good and evil, to 
either ; stretch forth thy feet, O hero, Sabhiya wor- 
ships the Master's (feet).' (547) 

Then Sabhiya, the Paribba^aka, stooping with his 
head to Bhagavat's feet, said this to Bhagavat : 

' It is excellent, O venerable ! It is excellent, 
O venerable ! As one raises what has been over- 
thrown, or reveals what has been hidden, or tells the 
way to him who has gone astray, or holds out an 
oil lamp in the dark that those who have eyes may 
see the objects, even so by the venerable Gotama 
in manifold ways the Dhamma has been illus- 
trated ; I take refuge in the venerable Gotama, in 
the Dhamma, and in the Assembly of Bhikkhus ; I 
wish to receive the robe and the orders from the 
venerable Bhagavat 

' He who, O Sabhiya, formerly belonging to 



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SABHIYASUTTA. 95 



another creed (a##atitthiyapubba), wishes to be 
adopted into this religion (dhammavinaya), and 
wishes to receive the robe and the orders, he serves 
for four months; after the lapse of four months 
Bhikkhus who have appeased their thoughts will 
give him the robe and the orders to become a 
Bhikkhu, (for) I also in this matter acknowledge a 
difference of persons.' 

'If, O venerable, those that formerly belonged 
to another creed and wish to be adopted into this 
religion and to receive the robe and the orders, 
serve for four months, and after the lapse of 
four months Bhikkhus who have appeased their 
thoughts give them the robe and the orders that 
they may become Bhikkhus, I will (also) serve for 
four months, and after the lapse of four months 
Bhikkhus who have appeased their thoughts shall 
give (me) the robe and the orders that I may 
become a Bhikkhu.' 

Sabhiya,the Paribba^aka, received the robe and the 
orders from Bhagavat, and the venerable Sabhiya, 
having lately received the upasampada, leading a 
solitary, retired, strenuous, ardent, energetic life, lived 
after having in a short time in this existence by his 
own understanding ascertained and possessed himself 
of that highest perfection of a religious life for the 
sake of which men of good family rightly wander 
away from their houses to a houseless state. ' Birth 
had been destroyed, a religious life had been led, 
what was to be done had been done, there was 
nothing else (to be done) for this existence,' so he 
perceived, and the venerable Sabhiya became one 
of the saints. 

Sabhiyasutta is ended. 



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96 MAHAVAGGA. 



7. SELASUTTA. 

Kewiya, the (Ja/ila, invites Buddha with his assembly to take his 
meals with him on the morrow. Sela, the Br£hma«a, arrived at 
that place with his three hundred young men ; seeing the pre- 
parations he asks what is going on, and is answered that Buddha 
is expected the next day. On hearing the word ' Buddha,' Sela 
asks where Buddha lives, goes to him, converses with him, and 
is converted ; so are his followers. 

So it was heard by me : 

At one time Bhagavat wandering about in Angut- 
tarapa, with a large assembly of Bhikkhus, with 1250 
Bhikkhus, went to Apa«a, a town in Anguttarapa. 

And Ke»iya, the ascetic, with matted hair (^a/ila) 
heard the following : ' The Sama#a, the venerable 
Gotama, the Sakya son, gone out from the family of 
the Sakyas, wandering about in Anguttarapa with a 
large assembly of Bhikkhus, with 1250 Bhikkhus, 
has reached Apawa, and the following good praising 
words met the venerable Gotama : " And so he is 
Bhagavat, the venerable, the perfectly enlightened, 
endowed with science and works (vigga/6ara#a), the 
happy, knowing the world, the incomparable, the 
charioteer of men that are to be subdued, the 
master, the enlightened of gods and men, the glo- 
rious ; he teaches this world and the world of gods, 
of Maras, of Brahmans, and beings comprising Sa- 
maras and Brahma«as, gods and men, having him- 
self known and seen them face to face ; he teaches 
the Dhamma (which is) good in the beginning, in 
the middle, and in the end, is full of meaning and 
rich in words, quite complete ; he teaches a religious 
life, and good is the sight of such saints." ' 

Then Ke»iya, the GWila, went (to the place) where 



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SELASUTTA. 97 



Bhagavat was, and having gone there he talked 
pleasantly with him, and after having had some 
pleasant and remarkable conversation (with him) he 
sat down -apart ; and while Ke«iya, the GWila, was 
sitting down apart, Bhagavat, by religious talk, 
taught, advised, roused, and delighted him. Then 
Ke»iya, the C7a/ila, having been taught, advised, 
roused, and delighted by Bhagavat through religious 
talk, said this to Bhagavat : 

' Let the venerable Gotama accept my food to- 
morrow, together with the assembly of Bhikkhus.' 

This having been said, Bhagavat answered 
Kewiya, the Ga.ti\a : ' Large, O Kemya, is the 
assembly of Bhikkhus, one thousand two hundred 
and fifty Bhikkhus, and thou art intimate with the 
Brahma«as.' 

A second time Ke«iya, the (7a/ila, said this to 
Bhagavat : ' Although, O venerable Gotama, the 
assembly of Bhikkhus is large, one thousand two 
hundred and fifty Bhikkhus, and I am intimate with 
the Brahmawas, let the venerable Gotama accept 
my food to-morrow, together with the assembly of 
Bhikkhus.' 

A second time Bhagavat said this to Kewiya, the 
(ra/ila : ' Large, O Kewiya, is the assembly of Bhik- 
khus, one thousand two hundred and fifty Bhikkhus, 
and thou art intimate with the Brahma#as.' 

A third time Kewiya, the Ga/ila, said this to Bha- 
gavat: 'Although, O venerable Gotama, the assembly 
of Bhikkhus is large, one thousand two hundred and 
fifty Bhikkhus, and I am intimate with the Brah- 
ma»as, yet let the venerable Gotama accept my food 
to-morrow, together with the assembly of Bhikkhus.' 
Bhagavat assented by being silent, 
[io] H 



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98 MAHAVAGGA. 



Then Kemya, the 6Wila, having learnt the assent 
of Bhagavat, after rising from his seat went to his 
hermitage, and having gone there he addressed his 
friends and servants, his relatives and kkismen (as 
follows) : ' Let my venerable friends and servants, 
relatives and kinsmen hear me ; — the Samawa Go- 
tama has been invited by me to (take his) food (with 
me) to-morrow, together with the assembly of Bhik- 
khus; wherefore you must render me bodily service.' 

' Surely, O venerable one,' so saying the friends 
and servants, relatives and kinsmen of Kewiya, the 
Gatila, complying with his request, some of them dug 
fireplaces, some chopped firewood, some washed the 
vessels, some placed waterpots, some prepared seats. 
Kewiya, the 6a/ila, on the other hand, himself pro- 
vided a circular pavilion. 

At that time the Brlhmawa Sela lived at Apawa, 
perfect in the three. Vedas, vocabulary, Ke/ubha, 
etymology, Itihasa as the fifth (Veda), versed in 
metre, a grammarian, one not deficient in popular 
controversy and the signs of a great man, he taught 
three hundred young men the hymns 1 . At that 
time Kemya, the £a/ila, was intimate with the 
Brahmawa Sela. Then the Brahma#a Sela sur- 
rounded by three hundred young men, walking on 
foot, arrived at the place where the hermitage of 
Ke«iya, the CWila, was. And the Brahma#a Sela 
saw the Capias in Kemya's hermitage, some of them 
digging fireplaces, some chopping firewood, some 
washing the vessels, some placing waterpots, some 

1 Tena kho pana samayena Selo brihmawo Apa«e parfvasati 
tmnam vedanaw? paragft sanigha«<fuke/ubhina»? sSkkharappabhe- 
d&na*B itih&sapaw£amanaz« padako veyyakarawo lokayatamahapuri- 
salakkhawesu anavayo tim ma»avakasat&ni mante viieti. 



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SELASUTTA. 99 



preparing seats, and Kewiya, the Ga/ila, on the other 
hand, himself providing a circular pavilion ; seeing 
Kewiya, the Ga/ila, he said this : ' Is the venerable 
Kemya to celebrate the marriage of a son or the 
marriage of a daughter, or is there a great sacrifice 
at hand, or has Bimbisara, the king of Magadha, 
who has a large body of troops, been invited for 
to-morrow, together with his army?' 

' I am not to celebrate the marriage of a son or 
the marriage of a daughter, nor has Bimbisara, the 
king of Magadha, who has a large body of troops, 
been invited for to-morrow, together with his army, 
yet a great sacrifice of mine is at hand. The Sa- 
mara Gotama, the Sakya son, gone out from the 
Sakya family, wandering about in Anguttaripa with 
a large assembly of Bhikkhus, one thousand two 
hundred and fifty Bhikkhus, has reached Apa»a, and 
the following good praising words met the venerable 
Gotama : " And so he is Bhagavat, the venerable, 
the perfectly enlightened, endowed with science and 
works (vi££a£ara#a), the happy, knowing the world, 
the incomparable, the charioteer of men that are to 
be subdued, the master, the enlightened of gods 
and men, the glorious, he has been invited by 
me for to-morrow, together with the assembly of 
Bhikkhus." ' 

' Didst thou say that he is a Buddha, O venerable 
Ke»iya ? ' 

' Yes, I say, O venerable Sela, that he is a Buddha.' 
' Didst thou say that he is a Buddha, O venerable 
Ke«iya ? ' 

' Yes, I say, O venerable Sela, that he is a Buddha.' 

Then this occurred to the Brahma#a Sela : ' This 

sound " Buddha" is (indeed) rare, but in our hymns 

H 2 



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IOO MAHAVAGGA. 



are to be found the thirty-two signs of a great man, 
and for a great man endowed with these there are 
two conditions and no more : if he lives in a house 
he is a king, a universal (king), a just religious king, 
a lord of the four-cornered (earth), a conqueror, one 
who has obtained the security of his people (and) is 
possessed of the seven gems. These are his seven 
gems, namely, the wheel gem, the elephant gem, 
the horse gem, the pearl gem, the woman gem, the 
householder gem, and the chief gem as the seventh. 
He has more than a thousand sons, heroes, possessing 
great bodily strength and crushing foreign armies ; 
he having conquered this ocean-girt earth without a 
rod and without a weapon, but by justice, lives (in a 
house). But if, on the other hand, he goes out from 
(his) house to the houseless state, he becomes a 
saint, a perfectly enlightened, one who has removed 
the veil in the world. And where, O venerable 
Ke«iya, dwells now that venerable Gotama, the 
saint and the perfectly enlightened ? ' 

This having been said, Ke»iya, the Gatila., 
stretching out his right arm, spoke as follows to the 
Brahma«a Sela : ' There, where yon blue forest line 
is, O venerable Sela.' 

Then the Brahma#a Sela together with (his) three 
hundred young men went to the place where Bhaga- 
vat was. Then the Brahma#a Sela addressed those 
young men : ' Come ye, venerable ones, with but 
little noise, walking step by step, for Bhagavats are 
difficult of access, walking alone like lions, and when 
I speak to the venerable Sama»a Gotama, do ye not 
utter interrupting words, but wait ye venerable ones, 
for the end of my speech.' 

Then the Brahmawa Sela went to the place where 



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SELASUTTA. IOI 



Bhagavat was, and having gone there he talked 
pleasantly with Bhagavat, and after having had some 
pleasant and remarkable conversation with him he 
sat down apart, and while sitting down apart Sela, 
the Brahmawa, looked for the thirty-two signs of 
a great man on the body of Bhagavat. And the 
Brdhma«a Sela saw the thirty-two signs of a great 
man on the body of Bhagavat with the exception of 
two ; in respect to two of the signs of a great man 
he had doubts, he hesitated, he was not satisfied, he 
was not assured as to the member being enclosed in 
a membrane and as to his having a large tongue. 

Then this occurred to Bhagavat: 'This Brahma#a 
Sela sees in me the thirty-two signs of a great man 
with the exception of two, in respect to two of the 
signs of a great man he has doubts, he hesitates, he 
is not satisfied, he is not assured as to the member 
being enclosed in a membrane, and as to my having 
a large tongue.' Then Bhagavat created such a 
miraculous creature that the Brahma#a Sela might 
see Bhagavat's member enclosed in a membrane. 
Then Bhagavat having put out his tongue touched 
and stroked both his ears, touched and stroked both 
nostrils, and the whole circumference of his forehead 
he covered with his tongue. 

Then this occurred to the Brahma»a Sela : ' The 
Sama«a Gotama is endowed with the thirty-two signs 
of a great man, with them all, not with (only) some 
of them, and yet I do not know whether he is a 
Buddha or not; I have heard old and aged Brah- 
ma«as, teachers and their previous teachers, say 
that those who are saints and perfectly enlightened 
manifest themselves when their praise is uttered. 
I think I shall praise the Sama»a Gotama face to 



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102 MAHAVAGGA. 



face in suitable stanzas.' Then the Brahma#a Sela 
praised Bhagavat face to face in suitable stanzas : 

i. ' Thou hast a perfect body, thou art resplen- 
dent, well-born, of beautiful aspect, thou hast a golden 
colour, O Bhagavat, thou hast very white teeth, 
thou art strong. (548) 

2. 'All the signs that are for a well-born man, they 
are on thy body, the signs of a great man. (549) 

3. ' Thou hast a bright eye, a handsome coun- 
tenance, thou art great, straight, majestic, thou 
shinest like a sun in the midst of the assembly of 
the Sama»as. (55°) 

4. ' Thou art a Bhikkhu of a lovely appearance, 
thou hast a skin like gold ; what is the use of being 
a Samawa to thee who art possessed of the highest 
beauty? (551) 

5. ' Thou deservest to be a king, a king of uni- 
versal kings, a ruler of the four-cornered (earth), 
a conqueror, a lord of the jambu grove (i. e. 
India). (552) 

6. ' Khattiyas and wealthy kings are devoted to 
thee ; rule, O Gotama, as a king of kings, a leader 
of men.' (553) 

7. 'lama king, O Sela,' — so said Bhagavat, — 
' an incomparable, religious king (dhammara^an), with 
justice (dhammena) I turn the wheel, a wheel that is 
irresistible 1 .' (554) 

8. ' Thou acknowledgest thyself (to be) perfectly 
enlightened (sambuddha),' — so said Sela, the Br&h- 
ma«a, — ' an incomparable, religious king ; " with 
justice I turn the wheel," so thou sayest, O 
Gotama. (555) 

1 Compare Gospel of S. John xviii. 37. 

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SELASUTTA. 103 



9. 'Who is thy general, (who is thy) disciple, 
(who is) the successor of the master, who is to 
turn after thee the wheel of religion turned (by 
thee)?' (556) 

10. 'The wheel turned by me, O Sela,' — so said 
Bhagavat, — ' the incomparable wheel of religion, 
Sariputta is to turn after (me), he taking after 
Tathagata. (557) 

11. 'What is to be known is known (by me), 
what is to be cultivated is cultivated (by me), what 
is to be left is left by me, therefore I am a Buddha, 
O Brahmawa. (558) 

1 2. ' Subdue thy doubt about me, have faith (in 
me), O Brahma«a, difficult (to obtain) is the sight of 
Buddhas repeatedly. (559) 

1 3. ' Of those whose manifestation is difficult for 
you (to obtain) in the world repeatedly, I am, O 
Brahmawa, a perfectly enlightened, an incomparable 
physician, (560) 

14. 'Most eminent, matchless, a crusher of Mira's 
army ; having subjected all enemies I rejoice secure 
on every side.' (561) 

15. Sela: 'O venerable ones, pay attention to 
this : as the clearly-seeing (Buddha) says, (so it is) : 
he is a physician, a great hero, and roars like a 
lion in the forest. (562) 

16. 'Who, having seen him, the most eminent, 
the matchless, the crusher of Mara's army, is not 
appeased, even if he be of black origin (ka#habhi- 

£4tika). (563) 

17. ' He who likes me, let him follow after (me), 
he who does not like me, let him go away ; I shall 
at once take the orders in the presence of him of 
excellent understanding (i. e. Buddha).' (564) 



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104 MAHAVAGGA. 



18. The followers of Sela: ' If this doctrine of the 
perfectly enlightened pleases thee, we also shall take 
the orders in the presence of him of excellent under- 
standing.' (565) 

19. These three hundred Brahma»as asked with 
clasped hands (to be admitted into the order) : ' We 
want to cultivate a religious life, O Bhagavat, in thy 
presence.' (566) 

20. 'A religious life is well taught (by me), — 
Sela,' so said Bhagavat, — ' an instantaneous, an im- 
mediate (life), in which it is not in vain to become 
an ascetic to one who learns in earnest 1 .' (567) 

Then the Brahma#a Sela together with his as- 
sembly took the robe and the orders in the presence 
of Bhagavat. 

Then Kemya, the 6Wila, by the expiration of that 
night, having provided in his hermitage nice hard 
food and soft food, let Bhagavat know the time (of 
the meal): ' It is time, O venerable Gotama, the 
meal is prepared.' Then Bhagavat in the morning, 
having put on his raiment and taken his bowl and 
robes, went to the GWila Kewiya's hermitage, and 
having gone there he sat down on the prepared 
seat, together with the assembly of Bhikkhus. Then 
Ke»iya, the GWila, satisfied and served with his own 
hands the assembly of Bhikkhus, with Buddha at 
their head, with nice hard food and soft food. Then 
Ke«iya, the GatWa., having gone up to Bhagavat who 
had finished eating and had taken his hand out of 
the bowl, took a low seat and sat down apart, and 



1 Svakkhataw brahma^ariyaw 
Sandi/ASikaw akalikam 
Yattha amogha" pabba^a" 
Appamattassa sikkhato. 



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SELASUTTA. IO5 



while Ke»iya, the 6Wila, was sitting down apart, 
Bhagavat delighted him with these stanzas : 

21. ' The principal thing in sacrifice is the sacred 
fire, the principal thing amongst the hymns is the Sa- 
vitti 1 , the king is the principal amongst men, and the 
sea the principal amongst waters (nadinaw *). (568) 

22. 'Amongst the stars the moon is the prin- 
cipal thing, the sun is the principal thing amongst 
the burning 3 (objects), amongst those that wish for 
good works and make offerings the assembly (sa#z- 
gha) indeed is the principal.' (569) 

Then Bhagavat, having delighted Kewiya, the" 
GWila, with these stanzas, rose from (his) seat and 
went away. 

Then the venerable Sela together with his as- 
sembly leading a solitary, retired, strenuous, ardent, 
energetic life, lived after having in a short time in 
this existence by his own understanding ascertained 
and possessed himself of that highest perfection of a 
religious life for the sake of which men of good 
family rightly wander away from their houses to a 
houseless state ; ' birth (had been) destroyed, a reli- 
gious life (had been) led, what was to be done (had 
been) done, there was nothing else (to be done) for 
this existence,' so he perceived, and the venerable 
Sela together with his assembly became one of the 
saints. 

Then the venerable Sela together with his as- 
sembly went to Bhagavat, and having gone (to him) 
he put his upper robe on one shoulder, and bending 
his joined hands towards Bhagavat he addressed 
him in stanzas: 

1 Savitti £Aandaso mukhaw. * Comp. Nalakasutta v. 42. 
3 Adi££o tapatam mukhaw. 



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io6 mahavagga. 



23. 'Because we took refuge in thee on the eighth 
day previous to this, O thou clearly-seeing, in seven 
nights, O Bhagavat, we have been trained in thy 
doctrine. (570) 

24. ' Thou art Buddha, thou art the Master, thou 
art the Muni that conquered Mara, thou hast, after 
cutting off the affections, crossed over (the stream 
of existence) and taken over these beings. (57 1 ) 

25. ' The elements of existence (upadhi) have been 
overcome by thee, the passions have been destroyed 
by thee, thou art a lion not seizing on anything, thou 
hast left behind fear and danger. (57 2 ) 

26. ' These three hundred Bhikkhus stand here 
with clasped hands ; stretch out thy feet, O hero, let 
the Nagas worship the Master's feet.' (573) 

Selasutta is ended. 



8. SALLASUTTA. 

Life is short, all mortals are subject to death, but knowing the 
terms of the world the wise do not grieve, and those who have 
left sorrow will be blessed. — Text in the Dasaratha-G&taka, 
P-34- 

i. Without a cause and unknown is the life of 
mortals in this world, troubled and brief, and com- 
bined with pain. (574) 

2. For there is not any means by which those 
that have been born can avoid dying ; after reaching 
old age there is death, of such a nature are living 
beings. (575) 

3. As ripe fruits are early in danger of falling, 
so mortals when born are always in danger of 
death. (576) 

4. As all earthen vessels made by the potter end 
in being broken, so is the life of mortals. (577) 



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SALLASUTTA. IO7 



5. Both young and grown-up men, both those who 
are fools and those who are wise men, all fall into 
the power of death, all are subject to death. (578) 

6. Of those who, overcome by death, go to the 
other world, a father does not save his son, nor rela- 
tives their relations. (579) 

7. Mark! while relatives are looking on and lament- 
ing greatly, one by one of the mortals is carried off, 
like an ox that is going to be killed. (580) 

8. So the world is afflicted with death and decay, 
therefore the wise do not grieve, knowing the terms 
of the world. (581) 

9. For him, whose way thou dost not know, either 
when he is coming or when he is going, not seeing 
both ends, thou grievest in vain. (582) 

10. If he who grieves gains anything, (although 
he is only) a fool hurting himself, let the wise man 
do the same. (583) 

11. Not from weeping nor from grieving will 
any one obtain peace of mind; (on the contrary), 
the greater his pain will be, and his body will 
suffer. (584) 

12. He will be lean and pale, hurting himself by 
himself, (and yet) the dead are not saved, lamenta- 
tion (therefore) is of no avail. (585) 

1 3. He who does not ' leave grief behind, goes 
(only) deeper into pain; bewailing the dead he 
falls into the power of grief. (586) 

14. Look at others passing away, men that go (to 
what they deserve) according to their deeds, beings 
trembling already here, after falling into the power 
of death. (587) 

15. In whatever manner people think (it will come 
to pass), different from that it becomes, so great is 



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io8 mahAvagga. 



the disappointment 1 (in this world) ; see, (such are) 
the terms of the world. (588) 

16. Even if a man lives a hundred years or even 
more, he is at last separated from the company of 
his relatives, and leaves life in this world. (589) 

1 7. Therefore let one, hearing (the words of) the 
saint, subdue his lamentation ; seeing the one that 
has passed away and is dead, (let him say) : ' He will 
not be found by me (any more).' (59°) 

18. As a house on fire is extinguished by water, 
so also the wise, sensible, learned, clever man rapidly 
drives away sorrow that has arisen, as the wind a 
tuft of cotton. (59 1 ) 

19. He who seeks his own happiness should draw 
out his arrow (which is) his lamentation, and com- 
plaint, and grief. (59 2 ) 

20. He who has drawn out the arrow and is not 
dependent (on anything) will obtain peace of mind ; 
he who has overcome all sorrow will become free 
from sorrow, and blessed (nibbuta). (593) 

Sallasutta is ended. 



9. VASErr#ASUTTA. 

A dispute arose between two young men, Bharadva^a and Vise/Ma, 
the former contending man to be a Brahma«a by birth, the latter 
by deeds. They agreed to go and ask Samawa Gotama, and he 
answered that man is a Brahmawa by his work only. The two 
young men are converted. — Text (from Magg^imanikSya) and 
translation in Alwis's Buddhist Nirvana, p. 103. 

So it was heard by me : 

At one time Bhagavat dwelt at I^^anawkala, in 
the I£^ana/»kala forest At that time many dis- 



Et&diso vinabhavo. 



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VASErrj? asu tta. i 09 



tinguished, wealthy Brahmawas lived at lkM&nam- 
kala, as the Brahmawa A'awkin, the Brahma#a 
T&rukkha, the Brahmawa Pokkharasati, the Brah- 
ma»a G&nussowi, the Brahmawa Todeyya, and other 
distinguished, wealthy Brahmawas. 

Then this dialogue arose between the young men 
Vase///&a and Bharadva^a while walking about : 

' How does one become a Brahma«a ?' 

The young man Bharadva_£a said : ' When one 
is noble by birth on both sides, on the mother's and 
on the father's side, of pure conception up to the 
seventh generation of ancestors, not discarded and 
not reproached in point of birth, in this way one is 
a Brahma#a.' 

The young man Vase/^a said : ' When one is 
virtuous and endowed with (holy) works, in this way 
he is a Brahma«a.' 

Neither could the young man Bharadva^a con- 
vince the young man Vase#>fca, nor could the young 
man Vase/Ma convince the young man Bharadva^a. 
Then the young man Vase/Ma addressed the young 
man Bharadva^a : ' O Bhiradva^a, this Sama«a 
Gotama, the Sakya son, gone out from the Sakya 
family, dwells at I££^ana#zkala, in the forest of 
I£&£ana»zkala, and the following good praising words 
met the venerable Gotama : " And so he is Bha- 
gavat, the venerable, the enlightened, the glorious, 
let us go, O venerable Bharadva^a, let us go (to 
the place) where the Sama»a Gotama is, and having 
gone there let us ask the Sama«a Gotama about 
this matter, and as the Samara Gotama replies so 
will we understand it." ' 

' Very well, O venerable one ;' so the young man 
Bhdradva^a answered the young man Vase#^a. 



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I IO MAHAVAGGA. 



Then the young men Vase/Ma and Bharadv&gu 
went (to the place) where Bhagavat was, and having 
gone, they talked pleasantly with Bhagavat, and 
after having had some pleasant and remarkable con- 
versation (with him) they sat down apart. Sitting 
down apart the young man Vase/^a addressed Bha- 
gavat in stanzas : 

i. 'We are accepted and acknowledged masters 
of the three Vedas *, I am (a pupil) of Pokkharasati, 
and this young man is (the pupil) of Tarukkha. (594) 

2. 'We are accomplished in all the knowledge 
propounded by those who are acquainted with the 
three Vedas, we are padakas (versed in the metre), 
veyyakara«as (grammarians ?), and equal to our 
teachers in recitation (^appa) 2 . (595) 

3. ' We have a controversy regarding (the distinc- 
tions of) birth, O Gotama! Bharadva^a says, one 
is a Brahma«a by birth, and I say, by deeds ; know 
this, O thou clearly-seeing! (596) 

4. ' We are both unable to convince each other, 
(therefore) we have come to ask thee (who art) cele- 
brated as perfectly enlightened. (597) 

5. ' As people adoring the full moon worship (her) 
with uplifted clasped hands, so (they worship) Gotama 
in the world. (598) 

6. ' We ask Gotama who has come as an eye to 
the world : Is a man a Brahma»a by birth, or is he so 

1 Anu»wiatapatmwata' 

Tevigtfi mayam asm' ubho. 
4 Tevigginam* yad akkhataw 

Tatra kevalino 'smase, 

Padak' asm& veyyakara«a" 

Gappet S^ariyasSdisi. 

* Tevig , g-4nam = tivedSnam. Commentator; but compare v. 63. 
f Gappe = vede. Commentator. 



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VASErrff ASUTTA. Ill 



by deeds ? Tell us who do not know, that we may 
know a Brahma#a.' (599) 

7. ' I will explain to you, — O Vase//>fca,' so said 
Bhagavat, — ' in due order the exact distinction of 
living beings according to species, for their species 
are manifold. (600) 

8. ' Know ye the grass and the trees, although they 
do not exhibit (it), the marks that constitute species 
are for them, and (their) species are manifold. (601) 

9. ' Then (know ye) the worms, and the moths, 
and the different sorts of ants, the marks, that con- 
stitute species are for them, and (their) species are 
manifold. (602) 

10. ' Know ye also the four-footed (animals), small 
and great, the marks that constitute species are for 
them, and (their) species are manifold. (603) 

11. 'Know ye also the serpents, the long-backed 
snakes, the marks that constitute species are for 
them, and (their) species are manifold. (604) 

12. ' Then know ye also the fish which range in 
the water, the marks that constitute species are for 
them, and (their) species are manifold. (605) 

1 3. ' Then know ye also the birds that are borne 
along on wings and move through the air, the marks 
that constitute species are for them, and (their) spe- 
cies are manifold. (606) 

14. ' As in these species the marks that constitute 
species are abundant, so in men the marks that con- 
stitute species are not abundant. (607) 

15. 'Not as regards their hair, head, ears, eyes, 
mouth, nose, lips, or brows, (608) 

16. ' Nor as regards their neck, shoulders, 
belly, back, hip, breast, female organ, sexual inter- 
course, (609) 



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1 1 2 MAHAVAGGA. 



1 7. ' Nor as regards their hands, feet, palms, 
nails, calves, thighs, colour, or voice are there marks 
that constitute species as in other species. (610) 

18. ' Difference there is in beings endowed with 
bodies, but amongst men this is not the case, the 
difference amongst men is nominal (only) 1 . (611) 

19. ' For whoever amongst men lives by cow- 
keeping, — know this, O Vase/Ma, — he is a husband- 
man, not a Brahmawa. (612) 

20. 'And whoever amongst men lives by dif- 
ferent mechanical arts, — know this, O Vase/^a, — 
he is an artisan, not a Brahma«a. . (613) 

21.' And whoever amongst men lives by trade, — 
know this, O Vase/Ma, — he is a merchant, not a 
Brahmawa. (614) 

22. And whoever amongst men lives by serving 
others, — know this, O VaseMfca, — he is a servant, 
not a Brahmawa. (615) 

2 3. ' And whoever amongst men lives by theft, — 
know this, O Vase//^a, — he is a thief, not a Brah- 
ma»a. (616) 

24. 'And whoever amongst men lives by archery, 
— know this, O Vase/Ma, — he is a soldier, not a 
Brahma«a. (617) 

25. 'And whoever amongst men lives by per- 
forming household ceremonials, — know this, O Va- 
se//^a, — he is a sacrificer, not a Brahma«a. (618) 

26. 'And whoever amongst men possesses villages 
and countries, — know this, O Vase/^a, — he is a king, 
not a Brahma»a. (619) 



1 Paiiattaw sasariresu, 
Manussesv-eta/H na viggati, 
Voldtran ka. manussesu 
Samafmaya pavu££ati. 



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vAsErrff asutta. i i 3 



27. 'And I do not call one a Brahma»a on account 
of his birth or of his origin from (a particular) 
mother ; he may be called bhovadi, and he may be 
wealthy, (but) the one who is possessed of nothing 
and seizes upon nothing, him I call a Brah- 
mawa 1 . (620) 

28. ' Whosoever, after cutting all bonds, does not 
tremble, has shaken off (all) ties and is liberated, him 
I call a Brahma«a. (621) 

29. ' The man who, after cutting the strap (i. e. 
enmity), the thong (i.e. attachment), and the rope 
(i.e. scepticism) with all that pertains to it, has 
destroyed (all) obstacles (i. e. ignorance), the enlight- 
ened (buddha), him I call a Brahmawa. (622) 

30. 'Whosoever, being innocent, endures reproach, 
blows, and bonds, the man who is strong in (his) 
endurance and has for his army this strength, him 
I call a Brahma«a. (623) 

31. 'The man who is free from anger, endowed 
with (holy) works, virtuous, without desire, sub- 
dued, and wearing the last body, him I call a Brah- 
ma»a. (624) 

32. 'The man who, like water on a lotus leaf, or a 
mustard seed on the point of a needle, does not cling 
to sensual pleasures, him I call a Brahma#a. (625) 

33. ' The man who knows in this world the de- 
struction of his pain, who has laid aside (his) burden, 
and is liberated, him I call a Brahmaaa. (626) 

34. ' The man who has a profound understanding, 
who is wise, who knows the true way and the wrong 
way, who has attained the highest good, him I call 
a Brahma«a. (627) 



1 Comp. Dhp. v. 396, &c. 



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114 MAHAVAGGA. 



35. ' The man who does not mix with householders 
nor with the houseless, who wanders about without 
a house, and who has few wants, him I call a Brah- 
ma«a. (628) 

$6. 'Whosoever, after refraining from hurting 
(living) creatures, (both) those that tremble and 
those that are strong, does not kill or cause to be 
killed, him I call a Brahmawa. (629). 

3 7. ' The man who is not hostile amongst the 
hostile, who is peaceful amongst the violent, not 
seizing (upon anything) amongst those that seize 
(upon everything), him I call a Brahma«a. (630) 

38. 'The man whose passion and hatred, arrogance 
and hypocrisy have dropt like a mustard seed from 
the point of a needle, him I call a Brahma«a. (631) 

39. ' The man that utters true speech, instructive 
and free from harshness, by which he does not 
offend any one, him I call a Brihmawa. (632) 

40. ' Whosoever in the world does not take what 
has not been given (to him), be it long or short, 
small or large, good or bad, him I call a Brah- 
ma»a. (63 3) 

41. 'The man who has no desire for this world 
or the next, who is desireless and liberated, him 
I call a Brahma«a. (634) 

42. 'The man who has no desire, who know- 
ingly is free from doubt, and has attained the depth 
of immortality, him I call a Brahma«a. (635) 

43. ' Whosoever in this world has overcome good 
and evil, both ties, who is free from grief and defile- 
ment, and is pure, him I call a Brahma«a. (636) 

44. 'The man that is stainless like the moon, 
pure, serene, and undisturbed, who has destroyed 
joy, him I call a Brahma«a. (637) 



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VASErrff asutta. 115 



45. 'Whosoever has passed over this quagmire 
difficult to pass, (who has passed over) revolution 
(sawsara) and folly, who has crossed over, who has 
reached the other shore, who is meditative, free 
from desire and doubt, calm without seizing (upon 
anything), him I call a Brahma»a. (638) 

46. ' Whosoever in this world, after abandoning 
sensual pleasures, wanders about houseless, and 
has destroyed the existence of sensual pleasures 
(kamabhava), him I call a Brahmazza. (639) 

47. ' Whosoever in this world, after abandoning 
desire, wanders about houseless, and has destroyed 
the existence of desire (tawhabhava), him I call a 
Brahma#a. . (640) 

48. ' Whosoever, after leaving human attachment x 
(yoga), has overcome divine attachment, and is 
liberated from all attachment, him I call a Brah- ■' 
ma#a. (641) 

49. ' The man that, after leaving pleasure and 
disgust, is calm and free from the elements of exist- 
ence (nirupadhi), who is a hero, and has conquered 
all the world, him I call a Brahmawa. (642) 

50. ' Whosoever knows wholly the vanishing and 
reappearance of beings, does not cling to (anything), 
is happy (sugata), and enlightened, him I call a 
Brahma#a. ( 6 43) 

51. ' The man whose way neither gods nor Gan- 
dhabbas nor men know, and whose passions are de- 
stroyed, who is a saint, him I call a Brahma#a. (644) 

52. * The man for whom there is nothing, neither 
before nor after nor in the middle, who possesses 
nothing, and does not seize (upon anything), him 
I call a Brahma#a. (645) 

53. ' The (man that is undaunted like a) bull, who 

1 2 



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Il6 MAHAVAGGA. 



is eminent, a hero, a great sage (mahesi), victorious, 
free from desire, purified, enlightened, him I call a 
Brahmawa. (646) 

54. ' The man who knows his former dwellings, 
who sees both heaven and hell, and has reached the 
destruction of births, him I call a Brahma«a. (647) 

55. 'For what has been designated as "name" 
and " family " in the world is only a term, what has 
been designated here and there is understood by 
common consent 1 . (648) 

56. ' Adhered to for a long time are the views of 
the ignorant, the ignorant tell us, one is a Brahmawa 
by birth. (649) 

57. ' Not by birth is one a Br4hma«a, nor is one 
by birth no Brahma#a ; by work (kammana) one is 
a Brahma«a, by work one is no Brahma#a. (650) 

58. ' By work one is a husbandman, by work one 
is art artisan, by work one is a merchant, by work 
one is a servant. (651) 

59. ' By work one is a thief, by work one is a 
soldier, by work one is a sacrificer, by work one is 
a king. (652) 

60. ' So the wise, who see the cause of things and 
understand the result of work, know this work as 
it really is 2 . (653) 

61. 'By work the world exists, by work mankind 



1 Sa.ma.nneL h' esi lokasmi#z 
Namagottaw pakappitaw 
Sammul&l samudagatam 
Tattha tattha pakappitam. 

2 Evam etaw yathabhfltaw* 
Kammaw passanti paWita 
Pa/i^asamuppaxladasd 
Kammavip£kakovidl 



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VASErra asutta. 117 



exists, beings are bound by work as the linch-pin 
of the rolling cart (keeps the wheel on) \ (654) 

62. 'By penance, by a religious life, by self-restraint, 
and by temperance, by this one is a Brahma«a, such 
a one (they call) the best Brahma#a. (655) 

63. 'He who is endowed with the threefold 
knowledge 2 , is calm, and has destroyed regenera- 
tion, — know this, O Vase/^a, — he is to the wise 
Brahman and Sakka.' (656) 

This having been said, the young men Vase/Ma 
and Bharadva^a spoke to Bhagavat as follows : 

' 1 1 is excellent, O venerable Gotama litis excellent, 
O venerable Gotama ! As one raises what has been 
overthrown, or reveals what has been hidden, or 
tells the way to him who has gone astray, or holds 
out an oil lamp in the dark that those who have eyes 
may see the objects, even so by the venerable Go- 
tama in manifold ways the Dhamma has been illus- 
trated ; we take refuge in the venerable Gotama, in 
the Dhamma, and in the Assembly of Bhikkhus ; 
may the venerable Gotama receive us as followers 
(upasaka), who from this day for life have taken 
refuge (in him).' 

Vase//^asutta is ended. 



1 Kammana vattati loko, 
Kammana vattati pa^a, 
Kammanibandhana satti 
Rathassawiva yayato. 

* TJhi vigg&iu sampanno. 



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n8 mahAvagga. 



10. KOKALIYASUTTA. 

Kokaliya abuses S&riputta and Moggallana to Buddha; therefore 
as soon as he has left Buddha, he is struck with boils, dies and 
goes to the Paduma hell, whereupon Buddha describes to the 
Bhikkhus the punishment of backbiters in hell. 

So it was heard by me : 

At one time Bhagavat dwelt at Savatthl, in 
<7etavana, in the park of Anathapi#dTika. Then 
the Bhikkhu Kokaliya approached Bhagavat, and 
after having approached and saluted Bhagavat he 
sat down apart; sitting down apart the Bhikkhu 
Kokaliya said this to Bhagavat : 'O thou venerable 
one, Sariputta and Moggallana have evil desires, 
they have fallen into the power of evil desires.' 

When this had been said, Bhagavat spoke to the 
Bhikkhu Kokaliya as follows : ' (Do) not (say) so, 
Kokaliya ; (do) not (say) so, Kokaliya ; appease, O 
Kokaliya, (thy) mind in regard to Sariputta and 
Moggallana: Sariputta and Moggallana are amiable 1 .' 

A second time the Bhikkhu Kokaliya said this to 
Bhagavat : ' Although thou, O venerable Bhagavat, 
(appearest) to me (to be) faithful and trustworthy, 
yet Sariputta and Moggallana have evil desires, they 
have fallen into the power of evil desires.' 

A second time Bhagavat said this to the Bhikkhu 
Kokaliya: '(Do) not (say) so, Kokaliya; (do) not 
(say) so, Kokaliya ; appease, O Kokaliya, (thy) mind 
in regard to Sariputta and Moggallana : Sariputta and 
Moggallana are amiable.' 

A third time the Bhikkhu Kokaliya said this to 
Bhagavat : ' Although thou, O venerable Bhagavat, 
(appearest) to me (to be) faithful and trustworthy, 

1 PesalS ti piyasill Commentator. 

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KOKALIVASUTTA. 1 1 9 



yet Sariputta and Moggallana have ,Vvi\ desites, , 
Sariputta and Moggallana have fallen/into the power 
of evil desires.' 

A third time Bhagavat said this to "the Bhikkhu. , ^ 
Kokaliya: '(Do) not (say) so, Kokaliya ; ^do^ncOtJ^ ■"' 
(say) so, Kokaliya; appease, O Kokaliya, (thy) mind 
in regard to Sariputta and Moggallana : Sariputta 
and Moggallana are amiable.' 

Then the Bhikkhu Kokaliya, after having risen 
from his seat and saluted Bhagavat and walked 
round him towards the right, went away ; and when 
he had been gone a short time, all his body was 
struck with boils as large as mustard seeds; after 
being only as large as mustard seeds, they became 
as large as kidney beans ; after being only as large 
as kidney beans, they became as large as chick peas; 
after being only as large as chick peas, they became 
as large as a Kola/Mi egg (?) ; after being only as 
large as a Kola/Mi egg, they became as large as the 
jujube fruit ; after being only as large as the jujube 
fruit, they became as large as the fruit of the emblic 
myrobalan; after being only as large as the fruit of 
the emblic myrobalan, they became as large as the 
unripe beluva fruit ; after being only as large as the 
unripe beluva fruit, they became as large as a billi 
fruit (?); after being as large as a billi fruit, they 
broke, and matter and blood flowed out Then 
the Bhikkhu Kokaliya died of that disease, and when 
he had died the Bhikkhu Kokaliya went to the 
Paduma hell, having shown a hostile mind against 
Sariputta and Moggallana. Then when the night 
had passed Brahman Sahampati of a beautiful ap- 
pearance, having lit up all (^etavana, approached 
Bhagavat, and having approached and saluted Bha- 



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1 20 MAHAVAGGA. 



gavat, he stood apart, and standing apart Brahman 
Sahampati said this to Bhagavat : ' O thou venera- 
ble one, Kokaliya, the Bhikkhu, is dead ; and after 
death, O thou venerable one, the Bhikkhu Kokaliya 
is gone to the Paduma hell, having shown a hostile 
mind against Sariputta and Moggallana.' 

This said Brahman Sahampati, and after saying 
this and saluting Bhagavat, and walking round him 
towards the right, he disappeared there. 

Then Bhagavat, after the expiration of that 
night, addressed the Bhikkhus thus : ' Last night, 
O Bhikkhus, when the night had (nearly) passed, 
Brahman Sahampati of a beautiful appearance, having 
lit up all £etavana, approached Bhagavat, and having 
approached and saluted Bhagavat, he stood apart, 
and standing apart Brahman Sahampati said this to 
Bhagavat : " O thou venerable one, Kokaliya, the 
Bhikkhu, is dead ; and after death, O thou venerable 
one, the Bhikkhu Kokaliya is gone to the Paduma 
hell, having shown a hostile mind against Sariputta 
and Moggallana." This said Brahman Sahampati, O 
Bhikkhus, and having said this and saluted me, and 
walked round me towards the right, he disappeared 
there.' 

When this had been said, a Bhikkhu asked Bha- 
gavat : ' How long is the rate of life, O venerable 
one, in the Paduma hell ?' 

' Long, O Bhikkhu, is the rate of life in the Pa- 
duma hell, it is not easy to calculate either (by 
saying) so many years or so many hundreds of years 
or so many thousands of years or so many hundred 
thousands of years.' 

' But it is possible, I suppose, to make a com- 
parison, O thou venerable one ?' 



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KOKALIYASUTTA. 121 



' It is possible, O Bhikkhu;' so saying, Bhagavat 
spoke (as follows) : ' Even as, O Bhikkhu, (if there 
were) a Kosala load of sesamum seed containing 
twenty kharis, and a man after the lapse of every hun- 
dred years were to take from it one sesamum seed at 
a time, then that Kosala load of sesamum seed, con- 
taining twenty kharis, would, O Bhikkhu, sooner by 
this means dwindle away and be used up than one 
Abbuda hell ; and even as are twenty Abbuda hells, 
O Bhikkhu, so is one Nirabbuda hell ; and even as 
are twenty Nirabbuda hells, O Bhikkhu, so is one 
Ababa hell ; and even as are twenty Ababa hells, 
O Bhikkhu, so is one Ahaha hell ; and even as are 
twenty Ahaha hells, O Bhikkhu, so is one A/a/a 
hell ; and even as are twenty A/a/a hells, O 
Bhikkhu, so is one Kumuda hell ; and even as 
are twenty Kumuda hells, O Bhikkhu, so is one 
Sogandhika hell ; and even as are twenty Sogan- 
dhika hells, O Bhikkhu, so is one Uppalaka hell; 
and even as are twenty Uppalaka hells, O Bhikkhu, 
so is one Pu#darlka hell; and even as are twenty 
Pu«</arika hells, O Bhikkhu, so is one Paduma hell ; 
and to the Paduma hell, O Bhikkhu, the Bhikkhu 
Kokaliya is gone, having shown a hostile mind 
against Sariputta and Moggallana.' This said Bha- 
gavat, and having said this Sugata, the Master, 
furthermore spoke as follows : 

i. 'To (every) man that is born, an axe is born in 
his mouth, by which the fool cuts himself, when 
speaking bad language. (657) 

2. ' He who praises him who is to be blamed, or 
blames him who is to be praised, gathers up sin 
in his mouth, and through that (sin) he will not find 
any joy. (658) 



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122 MAHAVAGGA. 



3. 'Trifling is the sin that (consists in) losing 
riches by dice ; this is a greater sin that corrupts 
the mind against Sugatas. (659) 

4. ' Out of the one hundred thousand Nirabbudas 
(he goes) to thirty-six, and to five Abbudas ; because 
he blames an Ariya he goes to hell, having employed 
his speech and mind badly. (660) 

5. ' He who speaks falsely goes to hell, or he 
who having done something says, " I have not 
done it;" both these after death become equal, in 
another world (they are both) men guilty of a 
mean deed 1 . (661) 

6. ' He who offends an offenceless man, a pure 
man, free from sin, such a fool the evil (deed) 
reverts against, like fine dust thrown against the 
wind 2 . (662) 

7. 'He who is given to the quality of covetous- 
ness, such a one censures others in his speech, 
(being himself) unbelieving, stingy, wanting in affa- 
bility, niggardly, given to backbiting. (663) 

8. ' O thou foul-mouthed, false, ignoble, blasting, 
wicked, evil-doing, low, sinful, base-born man, do 
not be garrulous in this world, (else) thou wilt be 
an inhabitant of hell 3 . (664) 

9. ' Thou spreadest pollution to the misfortune 
(of others), thou revilest the just, committing sin 
(yourself), and having done many evil deeds thou 
wilt go to the pool (of hell) for a long time. (665) 

1 Comp. Dhp. v. 306. 3 Comp. Dhp. v. 125. 

8 Mukhadugga vibhftta-m-anariya 
Bhftnahu* papaka dukkatakan 
Purisanta kali ava^ata 
M& bahubha*i dha nerayiko si. 

* Bhftnahu bhutihanaka vuddhinasaka. Commentator. 



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KOKALIYASUTTA. 123 



10. ' For one's deeds are not lost, they will 
surely come (back to you), (their) master will meet 
with them, the fool who commits sin will feel the 
pain in himself in the other world 1 . (666) 

ii. 'To the place where one is struck with iron 
rods, to the iron stake with sharp edges he goes; 
then there is (for him) food as appropriate, resem- 
bling a red-hot ball of iron. (667) 

12. ' For those who have anything to say (there) 
do not say fine things, they do not approach (with 
pleasing faces); they do not find refuge (from their 
sufferings), they lie on spread embers, they enter 
a blazing pyre. (668) 

1 3. ' Covering (them) with a net they kill (them) 
there with iron hammers; they go to dense dark- 
ness 2 , for that is spread out like the body of the 
earth. (669) 

14. ' Then (they enter) an iron pot, they enter 
a blazing pyre, for they are boiled in those (iron 
pots) for a long time, jumping up and down in 
the pyre. (670) 

15. 'Then he who commits sin is surely boiled 
in a mixture of matter and blood ; whatever quarter 
he inhabits, he becomes rotten there from coming 
in contact (with matter and blood). (671) 

16. 'He who commits sin will surely be boiled 
in the water, the dwelling-place of worms ; there 
it is not (possible) to get to the shore, for the jars 
(are) exactly alike 3 . (?) (672) 

1 Comp. Revelation xiv. 13. 

2 Andhaw va Timisaw* ayanti. 
8 Pu/avavasathe salilasmiw 



Tattha kiw pa££ati kibbisakari, 
Gantu/w na hi tiram p' atthi 
Sabbasama hi samantakapalla. 



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1 24 MAHAVAGGA. 



1 7. ' Again they enter the sharp Asipattavana 
with mangled limbs; having seized the tongue 
with a hook, the different watchmen (of hell) kill 
(them). (673) 

18. 'Then they enter Vetara«t, that is difficult 
to cross and has got streams of razors with sharp 
edges ; there the fools fall in, the evil-doers after 
having done evil. (674) 

19. 'There black, mottled flocks of ravens eat 
them who are weeping, and dogs, jackals, great 
vultures, falcons, crows tear (them). (675) 

20. ' Miserable indeed is the life here (in hell) 
which the man sees that commits sin. Therefore 
should a man in this world for the rest of his life 
be strenuous, and not indolent. (676) 

21. 'Those loads of sesamum seed which are 
carried in Paduma hell have been counted by the 
wise, they are (several) nahutas and five ko/is, 
and twelve hundred ko/is besides 1 . (677) 

22. 'As long as hells are called painful in this 
world, so long people will have to live there for 
a long time ; therefore amongst those who have 
pure, amiable, and good qualities one should always 
guard speech and mind.' (678) 

Kokaliyasutta is ended. 



11. NALAKASUTTA. 

The Isi Asita, also called Kawhasiri, on seeing the gods rejoicing, 
asks the cause of it, and having heard that Buddha has been 
born, he descends from Tusita heaven. When the Sakyas 
showed the child to him, he received it joyfully and prophesied 

1 Nahutani hi ko/iyo pa?l£a bhavanti 
Dvadasa ko/isatani pun' anna. 



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NALAKASUTTA. 1 25 



about it. Buddha explains to Nilaka, the sister's son of Asita, 
the highest state of wisdom. — Compare Lalita-vistara, Adhyaya 
VII ; Asita and Buddha, or the Indian Simeon, by J. Muir, in 
the Indian Antiquary, Sept. 1878. 

Vatthugatha. 

1. The Isi Asita saw in (their) resting-places 
during the day the joyful, delighted flocks of the 
Tidasa gods, and the gods in bright clothes, always 
highly praising Inda, after taking their clothes and 
waving them. (679) 

2. Seeing the gods with pleased minds, delighted, 
and showing his respect, he said this on that occa- 
sion : ' Why is the assembly of the gods so exceed- 
ingly pleased, why do they take their clothes and 
wave them? (680) 

3. 'When there was an encounter with the Asuras, 
a victory for the gods, and the Asuras were defeated, 
then there was not such a rejoicing. What wonder- 
ful (thing) have the gods seen that they are so de- 
lighted ? (681) 

4. 'They shout and sing and make music, they 
throw (about their) arms and dance ; I ask you, the 
inhabitants of the tops of (mount) Meru, remove 
my doubt quickly, O venerable ones!' (682) 

5. 'The Bodhisatta, the excellent pearl, the incom- 
parable, is born for the good and for a blessing in 
the world of men, in the town of the Sakyas, in 
the country of Lumbinl. Therefore we are glad 
and exceedingly pleased. (683) 

6. 'He, the most excellent of all beings, the pre- 
eminent man, the bull of men, the most excellent of 
all creatures will turn the wheel (of the Dhamma) in 
the forest called after the I sis, (he who is) like the 
roaring lion, the strong lord of beasts.' (684) 



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1 26 mahAvagga. 



7. Having heard that noise he descended from 
(the heaven of) Tusita. Then he went to Suddho- 
dana's palace, and having sat down there he said 
this to the Sakyas: 'Where is the prince? I wish to 
see (him).' (685) 

8. Then the Sakyas showed to (the Isi), called 
Asita, the child, the prince who was like shining 
gold, manufactured by a very skilful (smith) in the 
mouth of a forge, and beaming in glory and having 
a beautiful appearance. (686) 

9. Seeing the prince shining like fire, bright like 
the bull of stars wandering in the sky, like the 
burning sun in autumn, free from clouds, he joyfully 
obtained great delight. (687) 

10. The gods held in the sky a parasol with a 
thousand circles and numerous branches, yaks' tails 
with golden sticks were fanned, but those who held 
the yaks' tails and the parasol were not seen. (688) 

1 1. The Isi with the matted hair, by name Kawha- 
siri, on seeing the yellow blankets (shining) like 
a golden coin, and the white parasol held over his 
head, received him delighted and happy. (689) 

1 2. And having received the bull of the Sakyas, 
he who was wishing to receive him and knew the 
signs and the hymns, with pleased thoughts raised 
his voice, saying : ' Without superior is this, the 
most excellent of men.' (690) 

1 3. Then remembering his own migration he was 
displeased and shed tears ; seeing this the Sakyas 
asked the weeping Isi, whether there would be any 
obstacle in the prince's path. (691) 

14. Seeing the Sakyas displeased the Isi said : 
' I do not remember anything (that will be) un- 
lucky for the prince, there will be no obstacles at 



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NALAKASUTTA. 1 2 7 



all for him, for this is no inferior (person). Be 
without anxiety. (692) 

15. 'This prince will reach the summit of per- 
fect enlightenment, he will turn the wheel of the 
Dhamma, he who sees what is exceedingly pure 
(i. e. Nibbana), this (prince) feels for the welfare 
of the multitude, and his religion 1 will be widely 
spread. (693) 

16. 'My life here will shortly be at an end, in 
the middle (of his life) there will be death for me ; 
I shall not hear the Dhamma of the incomparable 
one ; therefore I am afflicted, unfortunate, and suf- 
fering.' (694) 

17. Having afforded the Sakyas great joy he 
went out from the interior of the town to lead a 
religious life; but taking pity on his sister's son, 
he induced him to embrace the Dhamma of the 
incomparable one. (695) 

18. 'When thou hearest from others the sound 
"Buddha," (or) "he who has acquired perfect en- 
lightenment walks the way of the Dhamma," then 
going there and enquiring about the particulars, 
lead a religious life with that Bhagavat.' (696) 

19. Instructed by him, the friendly-minded, by 
one who saw in the future what is exceedingly 
pure (i.e. Nibbana), he, Nalaka, with a heap of 
gathered-up good works, and with guarded senses 
dwelt (with him), looking forward to 6"ina (i.e. 
Buddha). (697) 

20. Hearing the noise, while the excellent Cina 
turned the wheel (of the- Dhamma), and going and 
seeing the bull of the Isis, he, after being converted, 

1 Brahma£ariyju»=s&sanaOT. Commentator. 

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128 MAHAVAGGA. 



asked the eminent Muni about the best wisdom, 
when the time of Asita's order had come. (698) 

The Vatthugathas are ended. 

21. 'These words of Asita are acknowledged 
true (by me), therefore we ask thee, O Gotama, 
who art perfect in all things (dhamma). (699) 

22. ' O Muni, to me who am houseless, and 
who wish to embrace a Bhikkhu's life, explain 
when asked the highest state, the state of wisdom 
(moneyya).' (700) 

23. ' I will declare to thee the state of wisdom,' 
— so said Bhagavat, — 'difficult to carry out, and 
difficult to obtain ; come, I will explain it to thee, 
stand fast, be firm. (701) 

24. ' Let a man cultivate equanimity : which is 
(both) reviled and praised in the village, let him take 
care not to corrupt his mind, let him live calm, 
and without pride. (702) 

25. 'Various (objects) disappear, like a flame 
of fire in the wood ' ; women tempt the Muni, let 
them not tempt him. (703) 

26. 'Let him be disgusted with sexual- inter- 
course, having left behind sensual pleasures of all 
kinds, being inoffensive and dispassionate towards 
living creatures, towards anything that is feeble 
or strong. (704) 

27. 'As I am so are these, as these are so am 
I, identifying himself with others, let him not kill 
nor cause (any one) to kill 2 . (705) 

1 Ukk&vaM ni^aranti 

Daye aggisikhftpama. 
8 Yatha ahum tatha ete 

Yatha ete tatha aha/» 



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nAlakasutta. 129 



28. ' Having abandoned desire and covetousness 
let him act as one that sees clearly where a common 
man sticks, let him cross over this hell. (7°6) 

29. ' Let him be with an empty stomach, taking 
little food, let him have few wants and not be 
covetous; not being consumed by desire he will 
without desire be happy. (7°7) 

30. ' Let the Muni, after going about for alms, 
repair to the outskirts of the wood, let him go 
and sit down near the root of a tree. (7°8) 

31. 'Applying himself to meditation, and being 
wise, let him find his pleasure in the outskirts of 
the wood, let him meditate at the root of a tree 
enjoying himself. (709) 

32. ' Then when night is passing away let him 
repair to the outskirts of the village, let him not 
delight in being invited nor in what is brought 
away from the village. (7 JO ) 

33. ' Let not the Muni, after going to the village, 
walk about to the houses in haste ; cutting off (all) 
talk while seeking food, let him not utter any 
coherent speech 1 . (71 1) 

34. ' " What I have obtained that is good," " I did 
not get (anything that is) good," so thinking in both 
cases he returns to the tree unchanged 2 . (7 12 ) 

35. ' Wandering about with his alms-bowl in his 

Attanaw upamara katvd 

Na haneyya na ghitaye. 

Comp. Dhp. v. 129. 
1 Na v&£am payutam bha»e. 
a Alatthara yad idaw sadhu 

Nalattham kusalam iti, 

Ubhayen' eva so tidi * 

Rukkhaw va upanivattati. 

* Tadi=nibbikaro. Commentator. 
[10] K 



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1 30 MAHAVAGGA. 



hand, considered dumb without being dumb, let 
him not blush at a little gift, let him not despise 
the giver. " (7*3) 

36. 'Various are the practices illustrated by the 
Sama#a, they do not go twice to the other shore, 
this (is) not once thought 1 . (?) (7 r 4) 

37. ' For whom there is no desire, for the Bhikkhu 
who has cut off the stream (of existence) and aban- 
doned all kinds of work, there is no pain. (7 1 5) 

38. ' I will declare to thee the state of wisdom,' — 
so said Bhagavat, — ' let one be like the edge of a 
razor, having struck his palate with his tongue, let 
him be restrained in (regard to his) stomach. (716) 

39. ' Let his mind be free from attachment, let 
him not think much a (about worldly affairs), let him 
be without defilement, independent, and devoted 
to a religious life. (7 X 7) 

40. ' For the sake of a solitary life and for the 
sake of the service that is to be carried out by 
Samawas, let him learn, solitariness is called wis- 
dom 8 ; alone indeed he will find pleasure. (718) 

41. 'Then he will shine through the ten regions, 
having heard the voice of the wise, of the medi- 
tating, of those that have abandoned sensual plea- 
sures, let my adherent then still more devote himself 
to modesty and belief. (7 r 9) 

42. ' Understand this from the waters in chasms 



1 U^4va$t hi pa/ipad& 
Sama»ena pakasitS, 
Na paraw digu»a»i yanti, 
Na idaw eka.guna.rn mutaw. 

* Na iapi bahu iintaye. 

3 Ekattaw monam akkhataw. 



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DVAYATANUPASSANASUTTA. 1 3 1 

and cracks : noisy go the small waters, silent goes 
the vast ocean \ (720) 

43. 'What is deficient that makes a noise, what is 
full that is calm; the fool is like a half-(filled) water- 
pot, the wise is like a full pool. (7 21 ) 

44. 'When the Samawa speaks much that is pos- 
sessed of good sense, he teaches the Dhamma while 
knowing it, while knowing it he speaks much 2 . (722) 

45. ' But he who while knowing it is self-restrained, 
and while knowing it does not speak much, such a 
Muni deserves wisdom (mona), such a Muni has 
attained to wisdom (mona) V (7 2 2) 

Nalakasutta is ended. 



12. DVAYATANUPASSANASUTTA. 

All pain in the world arises from upadhi, avigg-a, sarakhara, vmna»a, 
phassa, vedana, ta«ha, upadana, arambha, ahlra, iiigita., nissaya, 
rfipa, mosadhamma, sukha. 

So it was heard by me : 

At one time Bhagavat dwelt at Savatthl in Pub- 
barama, Migaramatar's mansion. At that time 
Bhagavat on the Uposatha day 4 , on the fifteenth, 

1 Tan nadfhi viginatha 

Sobbhesu padaresu £a: 

Sananta yanti kussobbha 

Tuwht ySti mahodadhi. 
* Yarn sama«o bahu bhasati 

Upetaw atthasawhitaza 

G&nam so dhammam deseti 

Gana*» so bahu bhasati. 

3 Yo ka. g&nam sa»»yatatto 
G&n&m na bahu bhisati 
Sa munf monam arahati 
Sa muni monam a^^aga. 

4 See Rhys Davids, Buddhism, p. 140. 

K 2 



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132 MAHAVAGGA. 



it being full moon, in the evening was sitting in the 
open air, surrounded by the assembly of Bhikkhus. 
Then Bhagavat surveying the silent assembly of 
Bhikkhus addressed them (as follows) : 

'Whichever Dhammas there are, O Bhikkhus, 
good, noble, liberating, leading to perfect enlighten- 
ment, — what is the use to you of listening to these 
good, noble, liberating Dhammas, leading to perfect 
enlightenment ? If, O Bhikkhus, there should be 
people that ask so, they shall be answered thus : 
Yes, for the right understanding of the two Dham- 
mas.' 'Which two do you mean ?' '(I mean), "this 
is pain, this is the origin of pain," this is one con- 
sideration, " this is the destruction of pain, this is 
the way leading to the destruction of pain," this is 
the second consideration ; thus, O Bhikkhus, by the 
Bhikkhu that considers the Dyad duly 1 , is stre- 
nuous, ardent, resolute, of two fruits one fruit is to 
be expected : in this world perfect knowledge, or, 
if any of the (five) attributes still remain, the state 
of an Anagamin (one that does not return).' This 
said Bhagavat, (and) when Sugata had said this, the 
Master further spoke : 

i. 'Those who do not understand pain and the 
origin of pain, and where pain wholly and totally is 
stopped, and do not know the way that leads to the 
cessation of pain, (7 2 4) 

2. 'They, deprived of the emancipation of thought 

1 . . . ka upanisa savanaya' 'ti iti £e bhikkhave pukiAiliro assu te 
evam assu va^aniyi: yavad eva dvayatanaw? dhammana»» yatha- 
bhfita»z wawayd 'ti, kinka. dvayataw vadetha ? ' idam dukkham, ayatn 
dukkhasamudayo ' ti ayam ekanupassand, 'ayam dukkhanirodho, 
aya*» dukkhanirodhagaminf pa/ipadi' ti ayaw dutiyanupassanS ; 
eva»» sammadvayatSnupassino . . . 



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DVAYATANUPASSANASUTTA. 1 33 

and the emancipation of knowledge, are unable to 
put an end (to sa*»sara), they will verily continue to 
undergo birth and decay. (7 2 5) 

3. ' And those who understand pain and the 
origin of pain, and where pain wholly and totally is 
stopped, and who know the way that leads to the 
cessation of pain, (7 2 6) 

4. 'They, endowed with the emancipation of 
thought and the emancipation of knowledge, are 
able to put an end (to sa/#sara), they will not 
undergo birth and decay. (7 2 7) 

' " Should there be a perfect consideration of the 
Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are 
people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, and 
how there is : " Whatever pain arises is all in con- 
sequence of the upadhis (elements of existence)," 
this is one consideration, "but from the complete 
destruction of the upadhis, through absence of pas- 
sion, there is no origin of pain," this is the second 
consideration ; thus, O Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu 
that considers the Dyad duly, that is strenuous, 
ardent, resolute, of two fruits one fruit is to be 
expected : in this world perfect knowledge, or, if any 
of the (five) attributes still remain, the state of an 
Anagamin (one that does not return).' This said 
Bhagavat, (and) when Sugata had said this, the 
Master further spoke : 

5. 'Whatever pains there are in the world, of 
many kinds, they arise having their cause in the 
upadhis ; he who being ignorant creates upadhi, that 
fool again undergoes pain ; therefore being wise do 
not create upadhi, considering what is the birth and 
origin of pain. (7 2 ^) 

' " Should there be a perfect consideration of the 



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134 MAHAVAGGA. 



Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are 
people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, and 
how there is : "Whatever pain arises is all in conse- 
quence of avi^fa (ignorance)," this is one consider- 
ation, " but from the complete destruction of avig^a, 
through absence of passion, there is no origin of pain," 
this is the second consideration ; thus, O Bhikkhus, 
by the Bhikkhu that considers the Dyad duly, that is 
strenuous, ardent, resolute, of two fruits one fruit is 
to be expected : in this world perfect knowledge, or, 
if any of the (five) attributes still remain, the state 
of an Anagamin (one that does not return).' This 
said Bhagavat, (and) when Sugata had said this, the 
Master further spoke : 

6. 'Those who again and again go to saws&ra 
with birth and death, to existence in this way or 
in that way, — that is the state of avigg-a. (729) 

7. ' For this aviggl is the great folly by which 
this (existence) has been traversed long, but those 
beings who resort to knowledge do not go to re- 
birth. (730) 

' " Should there be a perfect consideration of the 
Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are 
people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, 
and how there is : " Whatever pain arises is all in 
consequence of the sa*»kharas (matter)," this is 
one consideration, " but from the complete destruc- 
tion of the sawkharas, through absence of passion, 
there is no origin of pain," this is the second 
consideration; thus, O Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu 
that considers the Dyad duly, that is strenuous, 
ardent, resolute, of two fruits one fruit is to be 
expected : in this world perfect knowledge, or, if 
any of the (five) attributes still remain, the state 



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DVAYATANUPASSANASUTTA. 1 35 

of an Anagamin (one that does not return).' This 
said Bhagavat, (and) when Sugata had said this, the 
Master further spoke : 

8. 'Whatever pain arises is all in consequence 
of the sawkharas, by the destruction of the sa*«- 
kharas there will be no origin of pain. (73 1) 

9. ' Looking upon this pain that springs from the 
sawkharas as misery, from the cessation of all the 
sawkharas, and from the destruction of conscious- 
ness will arise the destruction of pain, having 
understood this exactly, (73 2 ) 

10. 'The wise who have true views and are 
accomplished, having understood (all things) com- 
pletely, and having conquered all association with 
Mara, do not go to re-birth. (733) 

' " Should there be a perfect consideration of the 
Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are 
people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, 
and how there is : " Whatever pain arises is all in 
consequence of vi»»a#a (consciousness)," this is 
one consideration, " but from the complete destruc- 
tion of vi»#a#a, through absence of passion, there 
is no origin of pain," this is the second consider- 
ation ; thus, O Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu that 
considers the Dyad duly, that is strenuous, ardent, 
resolute, of two fruits one fruit is to be expected : 
in this world perfect knowledge, or, if any of the 
(five) attributes still remain, the state of an Ana- 
gamin (one that does not return).' This said 
Bhagavat, (and) when Sugata had said this, the 
Master further spoke : 

11. 'Whatever pain arises is all in consequence 
of vi»»a»a, by the destruction of vi»#a#a there is 
no origin of pain. (734) 



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1 36 MAHAVAGGA. 



12. 'Looking upon this pain that springs from 
vi«#a#a as misery, from the cessation of v'mn&na. 
a Bhikkhu free from desire (will be) perfectly happy 
(parinibbuta). (735) 

' " Should there be a perfect consideration of the 
Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are 
people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, 
and how there is : " Whatever pain arises is ail in 
consequence of phassa (touch)," this is one con- 
sideration, "but from the complete destruction of 
phassa, through absence of passion, there is no 
origin of pain," this is the second consideration ; 
thus, O Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu that considers 
the Dyad duly, that is strenuous, ardent, resolute, 
of two fruits one fruit is to be expected : in this 
world perfect knowledge, or, if any of the (five) 
attributes still remain, the state of an Anigamin 
(one that does not return).' This said Bhagavat, 
(and) when Sugata had said this, the Master further 
spoke : 

1 3. ' For those who are ruined by phassa, who 
follow the stream of existence, who have entered 
a bad way, the destruction of bonds is far off. (736) 

14. 'But those who, having fully understood 
phassa, knowingly have taken delight in cessation, 
they verily from the comprehension of phassa, and 
being free from desire, are perfectly happy. (737) 

' " Should there be a perfect consideration of the 
Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are 
people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, and 
how there is : " Whatever pain arises is all in con- 
sequence of the vedanas (sensations)," this is one 
consideration, "but from the complete destruction 
of the vedanas, through absence of passion, there is 



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DVAYATANUPASSANASUTTA. 1 37 

no origin of pain," this is the second consideration; 
thus, O Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu that considers 
the Dyad duly, that is strenuous, ardent, resolute, 
of two fruits one fruit is to be expected : in this 
world perfect knowledge, or, if any of the (five) 
attributes still remain, the state of an Anagamin 
(one that does not return).' This said Bhagavat, 
(and) when Sugata had said this, the Master further 
spoke : 

1 5. ' Pleasure or pain, together with want of 
pleasure and want of pain, whatever is perceived 
internally and externally, (73$) 

1 6. 'Looking upon this as pain, having touched 
what is perishable and fragile, seeing the decay 
(of everything), the Bhikkhu is disgusted, having 
from the perishing of the vedanas become free from 
desire, and perfectly happy. (739) 

' " Should there be a perfect consideration of the 
Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are 
people that. ask so, they shall be told, there is, 
and how there is : " Whatever pain arises is all in 
consequence of ta#ha (desire)," this is one con- 
sideration, "but from the complete destruction of 
ta»ha, through absence of passion, there is no origin 
of pain," this is the second consideration ; thus, 
O Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu that considers the 
Dyad duly, that is strenuous, ardent, resolute, of 
two fruits one fruit is to be expected : in this world 
perfect knowledge, or, if any of the (five) attributes 
still remain, the state of an Anagamin (one that 
does not return).' This said Bhagavat, (and) when 
Sugata had said this, the Master further spoke : 

17. 'A man accompanied by ta«ha, for a long 
time transmigrating into existence in this way or 



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I "?8 MAHAVAGGA. 



that way, does not overcome transmigration (sa/»- 
sara). (740) 

18. ' Looking upon this as misery, this origin of 
the pain of ta#ha, let the Bhikkhu free from tawha, 
not seizing (upon anything), thoughtful, wander 
about. - (74 1 ) 

• " Should there be a perfect consideration of the 
Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are 
people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, 
and how there is : " Whatever pain arises is all in 
consequence of the upadanas (the seizures)," this 
is one consideration, " but from the complete destruc- 
tion of the upadanas, through absence of passion, 
there is no origin of pain," this is the second con- 
sideration ; thus, O Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu that 
considers the Dyad duly, that is strenuous, ardent, 
resolute, of two fruits one fruit is to be expected : 
in this world perfect knowledge, or, if any of the 
(five) attributes still remain, the state of an Ana- 
gamin (one that does not return).' . This said 
Bhagavat, (and) when Sugata had said this, the 
Master further spoke : 

19. ' The existence is in consequence of the 
upadanas ; he who has come into existence goes to 
pain, he who has been born is to die, this is the 
origin of pain. (74 2 ) 

20. ' Therefore from the destruction of the 
upadanas the wise with perfect knowledge, having 
seen (what causes) the destruction of birth, do not 
go to re-birth. (743) 

' " Should there be a perfect consideration of the 
Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are 
people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, 
and how there is : " Whatever pain arises is all in 



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DVAYATANUPASSANASUTTA. 1 39 

consequence of the arambhas (exertions)," this is 
one consideration, "but from the complete destruc- 
tion of the arambhas, through absence of passion, 
there is no origin of pain," this is the second con- 
sideration ; thus, O Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu that 
considers the Dyad duly, that is strenuous, ardent, 
resolute, of two fruits one fruit is to be expected : 
in this world perfect knowledge, or, if any of the 
(five) attributes still remain, the state of an Ana- 
gamin (one that does not return).' This said 
Bhagavat, (and) when Sugata had said this, the 
Master further spoke : 

21. 'Whatever pain arises is all in consequence 
of the arambhas, by the destruction of the arambhas 
there is no origin of pain. (744) 

22,23. 'Looking upon this pain that springs 
from the arambhas as misery, having abandoned 
all the arambhas, birth and transmigration have 
been crossed over by the Bhikkhu who is liberated 
in non-exertion, who has cut off the desire for 
existence, and whose mind is calm; there is for 
him no re-birth. (745, 746) 

' " Should there be a perfect consideration of the 
Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are 
people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, and 
how there is : " Whatever pain arises is all in con- 
sequence of the ah 4 r as (food?)," this is one consi- 
deration, " but from the complete destruction of the 
ahiras, through absence of passion, there is no origin 
of pain," this is the second consideration ; thus, O 
Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu that considers the Dyad 
duly, that is strenuous, ardent, resolute, of two fruits 
one fruit is to be expected : in this world perfect 
knowledge, or, if any of the (five) attributes still 



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I4O MAHAVAGGA. 



remain, the state of an Anagamin (one that does 
not return).' This said Bhagavat, (and) when Sugata 
had said this, the Master further spoke: 

24. ' Whatever pain arises is all in consequence 
of the aharas, by the destruction of the aharas there 
is no origin of pain. (747) 

25. ' Looking upon this pain that springs from the 
aharas as misery, having seen the result of all aharas, 
not resorting to all aharas, (74-8) 

26. ' Having seen that health is from the destruc- 
tion of desire, he that serves discriminatingly and 
stands fast in the Dhamma cannot be reckoned as 
existing, being accomplished 1 . (749) 

' " Should there be a perfect consideration of the 
Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are 
people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, and 
how there is : " Whatever pain arises is all in con- 
sequence of the iw^itas (commotions)," this is one 
consideration, " but from the complete destruction of 
the i»fitas, through absence of passion, there is no 
origin of pain," this is the second consideration ; thus, 
O Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu that considers the Dyad 
duly, that is strenuous, ardent, resolute, of two fruits 
one fruit is to be expected : in this world perfect 
knowledge, or, if any of the (five) attributes still 
remain, the state of an Anagamin (one that does 
not return).' This said Bhagavat, (and) when Su- 
gata had said this, the Master further spoke : 

2 7. ' Whatever pain arises is all in consequence of 
the iw^itas, by the destruction of the iw^itas there is 
no origin of pain. (75°) 

28. ' Looking upon this pain that springs from 

1 Sawkhaw ndpeti vedagfi. 

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DVAYATANUPASSANASUTTA. I41 

the ingitas as misery, and therefore having aban- 
doned the iw^itas and having stopped the sawkharas, 
let the Bhikkhu free from desire and not seizing 
(upon anything), thoughtful, wander about. (751) 
' " Should there be a perfect consideration of the 
Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are 
people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, and 
how there is: " For the nissita (dependent) there 
is vacillation," this is one consideration, " the inde- 
pendent (man) does not vacillate," this is the second 
consideration ; thus, O Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu 
that considers the Dyad duly, that is strenuous, 
ardent, resolute, of two fruits one fruit is to be 
expected : in this world perfect knowledge, or, if any 
of the (five) attributes still remain, the state of an 
Anagamin (one that does not return).' This said 
Bhagavat, (and) when Sugata had said this, the 
Master further spoke : 

29. ' The independent (man) does not vacillate, 
and the dependent (man) seizing upon existence 
in one way or in another, does not overcome sam- 
sara. (752) 

30. ' Looking upon this as misery (and seeing) 
great danger in things you depend upon, let a 
Bhikkhu wander about independent, not seizing 
(upon anything), thoughtful. (753) 

' " Should there be a perfect consideration of the 
Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are 
people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, and 
how there is : " The formless (beings), O Bhikkhus, 
are calmer than the rupas (for ruppa, i.e. form-pos- 
sessing)," this is one consideration, " cessation is 
calmer than the formless," this is another considera- 
tion ; thus, O Bhikkhus,- by the Bhikkhu that con- 



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142 MAHAVAGGA. 



siders the Dyad duly, that is strenuous, ardent, 
resolute, of two fruits one fruit is to be expected : 
in this world perfect knowledge, or, if any of the 
(five) attributes still remain, the state of an Ana- 
gamin (one that does not return).' This said 
Bhagavat, (and) when Sugata had said this, the 
Master further spoke : 

31. 'Those beings who are possessed of form, 
and those who dwell in the formless (world), not 
knowing cessation, have to go to re-birth. (754) 

32. ' But those who, having fully comprehended 
the forms, stand fast in the formless (worlds), those 
who are liberated in the cessation, such beings leave 
death behind. (755) 

' " Should there be a perfect consideration of the 
Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are 
people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, 
and how there is : " What has been considered true 
by the world of men, together with the gods, Mara, 
Brahman, and amongst the Sama«as, Brahma»as, 
gods, and men, that has by the noble through their 
perfect knowledge been well seen to be really false," 
this is one consideration ; " what, O Bhikkhus, has 
been considered false by the world of men, together 
with the gods, Mara, Brahman, and amongst the 
Samawas, Brahma«as, gods, and men, that has by 
the noble through their perfect knowledge been well 
seen to be really true," this is another consideration. 
Thus, O Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu that considers 
the Dyad duly, that is strenuous, ardent, resolute, 
of two fruits one fruit is to be expected : in this 
world perfect knowledge, or, if any of the (five) 
attributes still remain, the state of an Anagamin 
(one that does not return).' This said Bhagavat, 



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dvayatAnupassanasutta. 143 

(and) when Sugata had said this, the Master further 
spoke : 

33. ' Seeing the real in the unreal, the world of 
men and gods dwelling in name and form \ he 
thinks : " This is true." (756) 

34. ' Whichever way they think (it), it becomes 
otherwise, for it is false to him, and what is false is 
perishable 2 . (?) (757) 

35. 'What is not false, the Nibbana, that the noble 
conceive as true, they verily from the 'comprehen- 
sion of truth are free from desire (and) perfectly 
happy ». (758) 

' " Should there be a perfect consideration of the 
Dyad in another way," if, O Bhikkhus, there are 
people that ask so, they shall be told, there is, and 
how there is : " What, O Bhikkhus, has been con- 
sidered pleasure by the world of men, gods, Mara, 
Brahman, and amongst the Sama«as, Brahma«as, 
gods, and men, that has by the noble by (their) 
perfect knowledge been well seen to be really pain," 
this is one consideration ; " what, O Bhikkhus, has 
been considered pain by the world of men, gods, 
Mara, Brahman, and amongst the Sama»as, Brah- 
mawas, gods, and men, that has by the noble by 
their perfect knowledge been well seen to be really 
pleasure," this is the second consideration. Thus, O 

1 Nimarupasmiw, ' individuality.' 

2 Yena yena hi manfianti 
Tato tarn hoti awfiatha, 
T&m hi tassa must hoti, 
Mosadhammaw hi ittaraw. 

3 Amosadhammaw nibbSnaw 
Tad ariyd sa^ato vidu, 
Te ve sa££&bhisamaya' 
Ni>WMta parinibbuta. 



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144 MAHAVAGGA. 



Bhikkhus, by the Bhikkhu who considers the Dyad 
duly, who is strenuous, ardent, resolute, of two 
fruits one fruit is to be expected : in this world 
perfect knowledge, or, if any of the (five) attributes 
still remain, the state of an Anagamin (one who 
does not return).' This said Bhagavat, (and) when 
Sugata had said so, the Master further spoke : 

36. ' Form, sound, taste, smell, and touch are all 
wished for, pleasing and charming (things) as long 
as they last, so it is said. (759) 

37. 'By you, by the world of men and gods these 
(things) are deemed a pleasure, but when they cease 
it is deemed pain by them. (760) 

38. ' By the noble the cessation of the existing 
body is regarded as pleasure ; this is the opposite 
of (what) the wise in all the world (hold) 1 . (761) 

39. ' What fools say is pleasure that the noble 
say is pain, what fools say is pain that the noble 
know as pleasure : — see here is a thing difficult to 
understand, here the ignorant are confounded. (762) 

40. ' For those that are enveloped there is gloom, 
for those that do not see there is darkness, and for 
the good it is manifest, for those that see there 
is light ; (even being) near, those that are ignorant 
of the way and the Dhamma, do not discern (any- 
thing) 2 . (763) 

1 Sukhan ti di//Aam ariyehi 

Sakkayass' uparodhanaw, 

Pa££anikam idam hoti 

Sabbalokena passataw. 
1 Nivut&naw tamo hoti 

Andhakaro apassataw, 

Satan ka. viva/am hoti 

Aloko passatSm iva, 

Santike na vi^ananti 

Maggadhammass* akovidi. 



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DVAYATANUPASSANASUTTA. 1 45 

41. 'By those that are overcome by the passions 
of existence, by those that follow the stream of 
existence, by those that have entered the realm of 
Mara, this Dhamma is not perfectly understood. (764) 

42. 'Who except the noble deserve the well 
understood state (of Nibbana) ? Having perfectly 
conceived this state, those free from passion are 
completely extinguished V (765) 

This spoke Bhagavat. Glad those Bhikkhus 
rejoiced at the words of Bhagavat. While this 
explanation was being given, the minds of sixty 
Bhikkhus, not seizing (upon anything), were libe- 
rated. 

Dvayatanupassanasutta is ended. 

Mahavagga, the third. 



1 Ko nu awwatra-m-ariyehi 
Padaw? sambuddham arahati 
Yaw padaw samma-d-a«»aya 
Parinibbanti anasava. 



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IV. A7Y7/AKAVAGGA. 



1. KAMASUTTA. 

Sensual pleasures are to be avoided. 

i. If he who desires sensual pleasures is success- 
ful, he certainly becomes glad-minded, having ob- 
tained what a mortal wishes for. (766) 

2. But if those sensual pleasures fail the person 
who desires and wishes (for them), he will suffer, 
pierced by the arrow (of pain). (767) 

3. He who avoids sensual pleasures as (he would 
avoid treading upon) the head of a snake with his 
foot, such a one, being thoughtful (sato), will conquer 
this desire. (768) 

4. He who covets extensively (such) pleasures (as 
these), fields, goods, or gold, cows and horses, ser- 
vants, women, relations, (769) 

5. Sins will overpower him, dangers will crush 
him, and pain will follow him as water (pours into) 
a broken ship. (77°) 

6. Therefore let one always be thoughtful, and 
avoid pleasures ; having abandoned them, let him 
cross the stream, after baling out the ship, and go to 
the other shore. (771) 

Kamasutta is ended. 



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GUHATTffAKASUTTA. 1 47 

2. GUHA7777AKASUTTA. 

Let no one cling to existence and sensual pleasures. 

i. A man that lives adhering to the cave (i.e. the 
body), who is covered with much (sin), and sunk 
into delusion, such a one is far from seclusion, for 
the sensual pleasures in the world are not easy to 
abandon. (77 2 ) 

2. Those whose wishes are their motives, those 
who are linked to the pleasures of the world, they 
are difficult to liberate, for they cannot be liberated 
by others, looking for what is after or what is 
before, coveting these and former sensual plea- 
sures. (773) 

3. Those who are greedy of, given to, and infa- 
tuated by sensual pleasures, those who are niggardly, 
they, having entered upon what is wicked, wail when 
they are subjected to pain, saying: 'What will become 
of us, when we die away from here ?' (774) 

4. Therefore let a man here * learn, whatever he 
knows as wicked in the world, let him not for the 
sake of that (?) practise (what is) wicked 2 ; for short 
is this life, say the wise. (775) 

5. I see in the world this trembling race given 
to desire for existences; they are wretched men who 
lament in the mouth of death, not being free from 
the desire for reiterated existences. (776) 

6. Look upon those men trembling in selfishness, 
like fish in a stream nearly dried up, with little 
water; seeing this, let one wander about unselfish, 
without forming any attachment to existences. (777) 

1 Idheva=imasmi»i yeva sSsane. Commentator. 

2 Na tassa hetu visamaw £areyya. 

L 2 



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I48 A7TJ/AKAVAGGA. 



j. Having subdued his wish for both ends 1 , having 
fully understood touch without being greedy, not 
doing what he has himself blamed, the wise (man) 
does not cling to what is seen and heard 2 . (778) 

8. Having understood name 3 , let the Muni cross 
over the stream, not defiled by any grasping; having 
pulled out the arrow (of passion), wandering about 
strenuous, he does not wish for this world or the 
other. (779) 

Guha//^akasutta is ended. 



3. DUTT/fATT/fAKASUTTA. 

The Muni undergoes no censure, for he has shaken off all systems 
of philosophy, and is therefore independent. 

i. Verily, some wicked-minded people censure, 
and also just-minded people censure, but the Muni 
does not undergo the censure that has arisen ; there- 
fore there is not a discontented (khila) Muni any- 
where. (780) 

2. How can he who is led by his wishes and 
possessed by his inclinations overcome his own 
(false) view ? Doing his own doings let him talk 
according to his understanding*. (781) 

3. The person who, without being asked, praises 

1 Comp. Sallasutta, v. 9. 

2 Ubhosu antesu vineyya Mandam 
Phassaw pariww&ya anstnugiddho 
Yad atta garahi tad akubbam&no 
Na lippati di/Masutesu dhtro. 

3 Sa»1wa/»=namarupa»i. Commentator. 

4 Sakaw* hi dWAim kathaw a££ayeyya 
.ffXandinunito ru£iy£ nivii/Ao, 
Sayaw samattini pakubbamSno 
YaM hi ^Sneyya taM vadeyya. 



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DurrffArrffAKAsuTTA. 149 

his own virtue and (holy) works to others, him the 
good call ignoble, one who praises himself 1 . (782) 

4. But the Bhikkhu who is calm and of a happy 
mind, thus not praising himself for his virtues, him 
the good call noble, one for whom there are no 
desires anywhere in the world 2 . (783) 

5. He whose Dhammas are (arbitrarily) formed 
and fabricated, placed in front, and confused, be- 
cause he sees in himself a good result, is therefore 
given to (the view which is called) kuppa-pa/i^ia- 
santi 3 . (?) (784) 

6. For the dogmas of philosophy are not easy 
to overcome, amongst the Dhammas (now this and 
now that) is adopted after consideration ; there- 
fore a man rejects and adopts (now this and now 
that) Dhamma amongst the dogmas 4 . (785) 

7. For him who has shaken off (sin) there is 
nowhere in the world any prejudiced view of the 
different existences; he who has shaken off (sin), 
after leaving deceit and arrogance behind, which 
(way) should he go, he (is) independent*. (786) 

1 Yo atumanaw sayam eva p£va=yo evaw attanaw sayam eva 
vadati. Commentator. 

* Yass' ussad& n' atthi kuhm& loke. 

' Pakappiti sarakhata yassa dhamma 

Purakkhata santi avivadM 

Yad attant passati anisawsaw 

Taw nissito kuppapa/i&fcasantiw. 
4 Di//Amivesa na hi svativattd, 

Dhammesu niAJAeyya samuggahftaw, 

Tasmi naro tesu nivesanesu 

Nirassati adiyati-££a dhammaw. 
Comp. ParamaZ/Aakasutta, v. 6. 

* Dhonassa hi n' atthi kuhinti loke 
PakappM dU/ki bhavabhavesu, 
Mayaw ka. manan £a pahaya dhono 
Sa kena ga^Meyya, anfipayo so. 



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1 50 A7THAKAVAGGA. 



8. But he who is dependent undergoes censure 

amongst the Dhammas ; with what (name) and how 

should one name him who is independent ? For by 

him there is nothing grasped or rejected, he has 

in this world shaken off every (philosophical) 

view 1 . (787) 

Du/Ma/Makasutta is ended. 



4. SUDDHArr^AKASUTTA. 

No one is purified by philosophy, those devoted to philosophy run 
from one teacher to another, but the wise are not led by passion, 
and do not embrace anything in the world as the highest. 

i. I see a pure, most excellent, sound man, by 
his views a man's purification takes place, holding 
this opinion, and having seen this view to be the 
highest, he goes back to knowledge, thinking to 
see what is pure 2 . (788) 

2. If a man's purification takes place by (his 
philosophical) views, or he by knowledge leaves 
pain behind, then he is purified by another (way 
than the ariyamagga, i. e. the noble way), together 
with his upadhis, on account of his views he tells 
him to say so*. (789) 

1 Upayo* hi dhammesu upeti vadam 
Anupayaw kena kathawi vadeyya 
Attafli nirattam na hi tassa atthi 
Adhosi so di//Aim idh' eva sabbaw. 

* PassSmi suddhaa* paramaw arogaw, 
Di/Mena sawsuddhi narassa hoti, 
Et' ihhig&nam paraman ti ftatva' 
Suddh&nupassiti paiieti wanaw. 

* DiftMhi naw piva tathi vaddnaw. 
Comp. Gar&sutta, v. 10; Pasurasutta, v. 7. 

* Upayo ti tanh&diftAinissito. Commentator. 



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SUDDHAJTHAKASUTTA. 1 5 1 

3. But the Brahmawa who does not cling to 
what has been seen, or heard, to virtue and (holy) 
works, or to what has been thought, to what is 
good jind to what is evil, and who leaves behind 
what has been grasped, without doing anything in 
this world, he does not acknowledge that purifica- 
tion comes from another 1 . (790) 

4. Having left (their) former (teacher) they go 
to another, following their desires they do not 
break asunder their ties; they grasp, they let go 
like a monkey letting go the branch (just) after 
having caught (hold of it). (79 1) 

5. Having himself undertaken some (holy) works 
he goes to various (things) led by his senses, but 
a man of great understanding, a wise man who by 
his wisdom has understood the Dhamma, does not 
go to various (occupations). (792) 

6. He being secluded amongst all the Dhammas, 
whatever has been seen, heard, or thought — how 
should any one in this world be able to alter him, 
the seeing one, who wanders openly 2 ? (793) 

7. They do not form (any view), they do not 
prefer (anything), they do not say, ' I am infinitely 
pure;' having cut the tied knot of attachment, 
they do not long for (anything) anywhere in the 
world. (794) 

1 Na brahma«o armato suddhim aha 

TUtihe sute sllavate mute v& 

Purine ka. pSpe ka, anupalitto 

AttaiSg-aho na idha pakubbamano. 
* Sa sabbadhammesu visenibhuto * 

Yaw kirifi diUhann va sutaw mutaw v& 

Tarn eva dassim viva/aw ^arantawi 

Ken' tdha lokasmiw vikappayeyya ? 
* M&rasenam vidtsetva tfitabhavena visenibhflto. Commentator. 



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I52 ArrffAKAVAGGA. 



8. He is a Brahmawa that has conquered (sin) 1 ; 
by him there is nothing embraced after knowing 
and seeing it; he is not affected by any kind of 
passion; there is nothing grasped by him as the 
highest in this world. (795) 

Suddha/Z^akasutta is ended. 



5. PARAMAr777AKASUTTA. 

One should not give oneself to philosophical disputations ; a Br&h- 
ma»a who does not adopt any system of philosophy, is unchange- 
able, has reached NibbSna. 

i. What one person, abiding by the (philoso- 
phical) views, saying, ' This is the most excellent,' 
considers the highest in the world, everything 
different from that he says is wretched, therefore 
he has not overcome dispute 2 . (796) 

2. Because he sees in himself a good result, with 
regard to what has been seen (or) heard, virtue 
and (holy) works, or what has been thought, there- 
fore, having embraced that, he looks upon every- 
thing else as bad 8 . (797) 

3. The expert call just that a tie dependent 

1 .£atunna>» kilesasimanaw atitatt£ 
Sfm&tigo b&hitapapatti ka. brahmano. 

* Paraman ti di//AJsu paribbasano 
Yad uttarira kurute gantu loke 
Hin& ti aw«e tato sabbam alia, 
Tasm& viv&dani avttivatto. 

Properly, ' others (are) wretched.' 

* Yad attani passati inisamaam 
Diiihe sute silavate mute v& 
Tad eva so tattha samuggah&ya 
Nihtnato passati sabbam aiimm. 



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PARAMArrff AKASUTTA. 1 5 3 

upon which one looks upon anything else as bad. 
Therefore let a Bhikkhu not depend upon what is 
seen, heard, or thought, or upon virtue and (holy) 
works 1 . (798) 

4. Let him not form any (philosophical) view in 
this world, either by knowledge or by virtue and 
(holy) works, let him not represent himself equal 
(to others), nor think himself either low or dis- 
tinguished. (799) 

5. Having left what has been grasped, not seizing 
upon anything he does not depend even on know- 
ledge. He does not associate with those that are 
taken up by different things, he does not return to 
any (philosophical) view 2 . (800) 

6. For whom there is here no desire for both 
ends, for reiterated existence either here or in an- 
other world, for him there are no resting-places (of 
the mind) embraced after investigation amongst the 
doctrines (dhammesu) 3 . (801) 

7. In him there is not the least prejudiced idea 
with regard to what has been seen, heard, or thought ; 
how could any one in this world alter such a Brah- 
ma»a who does not adopt any view ? (802) 



Tarn v&pi ganthaw kusala vadanti 
Yam nissito passati htnam aiifiam, 
Tasmd hi Aitlham va suta»? mutaw v& 
Sllabbataw bhikkhu na nissayeyya. 
Atta« pahaya anupadiy&no 
iVawe pi so nissayam no karoti, 
Sa ve viyattesu na vaggasari, 
T)illh\xn pi so na pa££eti \tinki. 
Yass' ubhayante pawidhtdha n' atthi 
BhavabhavSya idha va huraw va 
Nivesand tassa na santi keii 
Dhammesu rnkkhtyya. samuggahitd. 



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1 54 A7T#AKAVAGGA. 



8. They do not form (any view), they do not 
prefer (anything), the Dhammas are not chosen by 
them, a Brahma#a is not dependent upon virtue 
and (holy) works ; having gone to the other shore, 
such a one does not return. (803) 

Parama^akasutta is ended. 



6. GARASUTTA. 

From selfishness come grief and avarice. The Bhikkhu who has 
turned away from the world and wanders about houseless, is inde- 
pendent, and does not wish for purification through another. 

i. Short indeed is this life, within a hundred 
years one dies, and if any one lives longer, then he 
dies of old age. (804) 

2. People grieve from selfishness, perpetual cares 
kill them, this (world) is full of disappointment; 
seeing this, let one not live in a house. (805) 

3. That even of which a man thinks 'this is mine ' 
is left behind by death : knowing this, let not the 
wise (man) turn himself to worldliness (while being 
my) follower K (806) 

4. As a man awakened does not see what he 
has met with in his sleep, so also he does not see 
the beloved person that has passed away and is 
dead. (807) 

5. Both seen and heard are the persons whose 
particular name is mentioned, but only the name 

1 Mara«ena pi tarn pahfyati 
Yaw puriso mama-y-idan ti manwati, 
Evam pi viditva pantfito 
Na pamattaya nametha mamako. 



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garAsutta. 155 



remains undecayed of the person that has passed 
away \ (808) 

6. The greedy in their selfishness do not leave 
sorrow, lamentation, and avarice; therefore the 
Munis leaving greediness wandered about seeing 
security (i. e. Nibbana). (809) 

7. For a Bhikkhu, who wanders about unattached 
and cultivates the mind of a recluse, they say it 
is proper that he does not show himself (again) in 
existence 2 . (810) 

8. Under all circumstances the independent Muni 
does not please nor displease (any one); sorrow and 
avarice do not stick to him (as little) as water to 
a leaf. (811) 

9. As a drop of water does not stick to a lotus, 
as water does not stick to a lotus, so a Muni does 
not cling to anything, namely, to what is seen or 
heard or thought 3 . (81 2) 

10. He who has shaken off (sin) does not there- 
fore think (much of anything) because it has been 
seen or heard or thought; he does not wish for 



1 Bi/Mpi sutSpi te ga.n& 
Yesaw namaw idaw pavu/Wati 
Namam evavasissati 
Akkheyyaw petassa ^antuno. 

* Patilma&trassa bhikkhuno 
Bha^amanassa vittamanasa»« * 
Samaggiyam ahu tassa tarn 

Yo attanam bhavane na dassaye. 

* Udabindu yathapi pokkhare 
Padume vari yatha na lippati 
Evaw muni n6palippati 

Yad idam di/Masutaw mutesu v£. 

* B 1 has vivitta-. 



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1 56 A7TffAKAVAGGA. 



purification through another, for he is not pleased 
nor displeased (with anything) 1 . (813) 

(7arasutta is ended. 



7. TISSAMETTEYYASUTTA. 

Sexual intercourse should be avoided. 

i. 'Tell me, O venerable one,' — so said the 
venerable Tissa Metteyya, — ' the defeat of him who 
is given to sexual intercourse ; hearing thy precepts 
we will learn in seclusion.' (814) 

2. ' The precepts of him who is given to sexual 
intercourse, O Metteyya,' — so said Bhagavat, — 'are 
lost, and he employs himself wrongly, this is what is 
ignoble in him. (815) 

3. ' He who, having formerly wandered alone, 
gives himself up to sexual intercourse, him they 
call in the world a low, common fellow, like a roll- 
ing chariot. (816) 

4. ' What honour and renown he had before, that 
is lost for him; having seen this let him learn to 
give up sexual intercourse. (817) 

5. ' He who overcome by his thoughts meditates 
like a miser, such a one, having heard the (blaming) 
voice of others, becomes discontented. (818) 

6. 'Then he makes weapons (i.e. commits evil 



1 Dhono na hi tena mamlati 
Yad idaw di/Aiasutam mutesu va, 
Nawwena visuddhim i££^ati, 
Na hi so ra^ati no vira^yati. 
Comp. Suddha/Ziakasutta, v. 2. 



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pasOrasutta. 157 



deeds) urged by the doctrines of others, he is very 
greedy, and sinks into falsehood 1 . (819) 

7. ' Designated "wise " he has entered upon a soli- 
tary life, then having given himself up to sexual 
intercourse, he (being) a fool suffers pain. (820) 

8. ' Looking upon this as misery let the Muni from 
first to last in the world firmly keep to his solitary 
life, let him not give himself up to sexual inter- 
course. (821) 

9. ' Let him learn seclusion, this is the highest for 
noble men, but let him not therefore think himself 
the best, although he is verily near Nibbana. (822) 

10. ' The Muni who wanders void (of desire), not 
coveting sensual pleasures, and who has crossed the 
stream, him the creatures that are tied in sensual 
pleasures envy.' (823) 

Tissametteyyasutta is ended. 



8. PAStTRASUTTA. 

Disputants brand each other as fools, they wish for praise, but 
being repulsed they become discontented ; one is not purified by 
dispute, but by keeping to Buddha, who has shaken off all sin. 

i. Here they maintain ' purity,' in other doctrines 
(dhamma) they do not allow purity; what they have 
devoted themselves to, that they call good, and they 
enter extensively upon the single truths 2 . (824) 

1 Atha satthani kurute 

Paravidehi fodito, 

Esa khv-assa mahlgedho, 

MosavaJg'aOT pag&hati. 
* Idh' eva suddhiw iti v&diyanti 

Nanwesu dhammesu visuddhim Shu 

Yam nissita" tattha subhaw vadana 

Pa££ekasa£/$esu puthu nivi//M. 



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I 58 A7T#AKAVAGGA. 



2. Those wishing for dispute, having plunged into 
the assembly, brand each other as fools mutually, 
they go to others and pick a quarrel, wishing for 
praise and calling themselves (the only) expert. (825) 

3. Engaged in dispute in the middle of the 
assembly, wishing for praise he lays about on all 
sides; but when his dispute has been repulsed he 
becomes discontented, at the blame he gets angry 
he who sought for the faults (of others). (826) 

4. Because those who have tested his questions 
say that his dispute is lost and repulsed, he laments 
and grieves having lost his disputes ; ' he has con- 
quered me,' so saying he wails. (827) 

5. These disputes have arisen amongst the Sa- 
ma»as, in these (disputes) there is (dealt) blow (and) 
stroke ; having seen this, let him leave off disput- 
ing, for there is no other advantage in trying to get 
praise. (828) 

6. Or he is praised there, having cleared up the 
dispute in the middle of the assembly ; therefore he 
will laugh and be elated, having won that case as 
he had a mind to. (829) 

7. That which is his exaltation will also be the 
field of his defeat, still he talks proudly and arro- 
gantly ; seeing this, let no one dispute, for the ex- 
pert do not say that purification (takes place) by 
that 1 . , (830) 

8. As a hero nourished by kingly food goes about 
roaring, wishing for an adversary — where he (i.e. 
the philosopher, Di^igatika) is, go thou there, O 

1 Y& u»«att sissa vigh&tabhfimi, 
Man&timanaw vadate pan' eso, 
Etam pi disvi na vivSdayetha 
Na hi tena suddhun kusala" vadanti. 
Comp. Suddha/Makasutta, v. 2. 



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MAGANDIYASUTTA. 1 59 



hero ; formerly there was nothing like this to fight 
against 1 . (831) 

9. Those who, having embraced a (certain philo- 
sophical) view, dispute and maintain ' this only (is) 
true,' to them say thou when a dispute has arisen, 
' Here is no opponent 2 for thee.' (832) 

1 o. Those who wander about after having secluded 
themselves, without opposing view to view — what 
(opposition) wilt thou meet with amongst those, O 
Pasura, by whom nothing in this world is grasped 
as the best ? (833) 

11. Then thou wentest to reflection thinking in 
thy mind over the (different philosophical) views ; 
thou hast gone into the yoke with him who has 
shaken off (all sin), but thou wilt not be able to 
proceed together (with him) 3 . (834) 

Pasurasutta is ended. 



9. MAGANDIYASUTTA. 

A dialogue between Magandiya and Buddha. The former offers 
Buddha his daughter for a wife, but Buddha refuses her. Magan- 
diya says that purity comes from philosophy, Buddha from ' in- 
ward peace.' The Muni is a confessor of peace, he does not 
dispute, he is free from marks. 

i. Buddha : ' Even seeing Tawha, Arati, and Raga 
(the daughters of Mara), there was not the least wish 

1 Sfiro yatha ra^khSdaya pu//4o 

Abhiga^g-am eti pa/isuram \kkham — 

Yen' eva so tena palehi sftra, 

Pubbe va n' atthi yad ida»z yudhaya. 
8 Pa/isenikatta ti pa/ilomakarako. Commentator. 
3 Atha tva»? pavitakkam agama 

Manasa di/^igatani iintayanto, 

Dhonena yugaw samagama, 

Na hi tvaw pagghasi sampayatave. 



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1 60 ATTH AKAVAGGA . 



(in me) for sexual intercourse. What is this (thy 
daughter's body but a thing) full of water and 
excrement? I do not even want to touch it with 
my foot.' (835) 

2. Magandiya : ' If thou dost not want such a 
pearl, a woman desired by many kings, what view, 
virtue, and (holy) works, (mode of) life, re-birth dost 
thou profess ?' (836) 

3. ' " This I say," so (I do now declare), after in- 
vestigation there is nothing amongst the doctrines 
which such a one (as I would) embrace,' — O Magan- 
diya, so said Bhagavat, — ' and seeing (misery) in the 
(philosophical) views, without adopting (any of them), 
searching (for truth) I saw " inward peace 1 ." ' (837) 

4. ' All the (philosophical) resolutions 2 that have 
been formed,' — so said Magandiya, — 'those indeed 
thou explainest without adopting (any of them) ; the 
notion "inward peace" which (thou mentionest), how 
is this explained by the wise?' (838) 

5. ' Not by (any philosophical) opinion, not by 
tradition, not by knowledge,' — O Magandiya, so said 
Bhagavat, — ' not by virtue and (holy) works can any 
one say that purity exists ; nor by absence of (philo- 
sophical) opinion, by absence of tradition, by absence 
of knowledge, by absence of virtue and (holy) works 
either; having abandoned these without adopting 
(anything else), let him, calm and independent, not 
desire existence s . (839) 

1 Ida*» vad&miti na tassa hoti — Magandiya" ti Bhagava — 

Dhammesu nikMeyya, samuggahttaw 

Passaw ka. dWMsn anuggahaya 

A^g^attasantun pa£ina»t adassaw. 
1 Vinii/Waya, placita? 
8 Na di//Aiya na sutiyi na f&nena. — MSgandiyS ti Bhagava — 

Silabbaten&pi na suddhim aha 



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mAgandiyasutta. i 6 i 



6. ' If one cannot say by (any philosophical) opinion, 
or by tradition, or by knowledge,' — so said Magan- 
diya, — 'or by virtue and (holy) works that purity 
exists, nor by absence of (philosophical) opinion, by 
absence of tradition, by absence of knowledge, by 
absence of virtue and (holy) works, then I consider 
the doctrine foolish, for by (philosophical) opinions 
some return to purity.' (840) 

7. ' And asking on account of (thy philosophical) 
opinion,' O Magandiya, — so said Bhagavat, — 'thou 
hast gone to infatuation in what thou hast embraced, 
and of this (inward peace) thou hast not the least 
idea, therefore thou holdest it foolish 1 . (841) 

8. ' He who thinks himself equal (to others), 
or distinguished, or low, he for that very reason 
disputes ; but he who is unmoved under those three 
conditions, for him (the notions) " equal " and " dis- 
tinguished" do not exist. (842) 

9. 'The Brahma»a for whom (the notions) 
" equal " and " unequal " do not exist, would he 
say, "This is true?" Or with whom should he dis- 
pute, saying, " This is false ?" With whom should 
he enter into dispute 2 ? (843) 

10. ' Having left his house, wandering about 

Adi/Miya" assutiyt ziiink 

Asilata abbatS no pi tena, 

Ete 6a. nissa^ga anuggahlya 

Santo anissdya bhavaw na <?appe. 
1 TAlihm ka. nissaya anupu&Mamano 

Samuggahitesu pamoham Sga 

Ito £a nlddakkhi arnim pi sznnam 

Tasini tuvam momuhato dahisi. 
* Sa££an ti so br£hma«o ki/« vadeyya 

Must ti v4 so vivadctha kena 

Yasmiw samazw visamaw Hpi n' atthi 

Sa kena vada*» pa/isawyu^eyya. 
[10] M 



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1 62 AmTAKAVAGGA. 



houseless, not making acquaintances in the village, 
free from lust, not desiring (any future existence), 
let the Muni not get into quarrelsome talk with 
people. (844) 

11. 'Let not an eminent man (naga) dispute 
after having embraced those (views) separated from 
which he (formerly) wandered in the world; as 
the thorny lotus elambu^a is undefiled by water 
and mud, so the Muni, the confessor of peace, free 
from greed, does not cling to sensual pleasures and 
the world. (845) 

1 2. ' An accomplished man does not by (a phi- 
losophical) view, or by thinking become arrogant, 
for he is not of that sort ; not by (holy) works, nor 
by tradition is he to be led, he is not led into 
any of the resting-places (of the mind). (846) 

1 3. ' For him who is free from marks there are 
no ties, to him who is delivered by understanding 
there are no follies ; (but those) who grasped after 
marks and (philosophical) views, they wander about 
in the world annoying (people) 1 .' (847) 

Magandiyasutta is ended. 



10. purAbhedasutta. 

Definition of a calm Muni. 

i. 'With what view and with what virtue is 
one called calm, tell me that, O Gotama, (when) 
asked about the best man?' (848) 

2. 'He whose desire is departed before the 
dissolution (of his body),' — so said Bhagavat, — ' who 

1 Sawriavirattassa na santi gantha, 
Pawnavimuttassa na santi moM, 
Sawwaw ia diUAin iz ye aggahesuw 
Te gha/'/ayanta' vi^aranti loke. 



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purAbhedasutta. 163 



does not depend upon beginning and end, nor 
reckons upon the middle, by him there is nothing 
preferred 1 . (849) 

3. ' He who is free from anger, free from trem- 
bling, free from boasting, free from misbehaviour, 
he who speaks wisely, he who is not elated, he is 
indeed a Muni who has restrained his speech. (850) 

4. 'Without desire for the future he does not 
grieve for the past, he sees seclusion in the phas- 
sas (touch), and he is not led by (any philosophical) 
views. (851) 

5. ' He is unattached, not deceitful, not covetous, 
not envious, not impudent, not contemptuous, and 
not given to slander. (852) 

6. 'Without desire for pleasant things and not 
given to conceit, and being gentle, intelligent, 
not credulous, he is not displeased (with any- 
thing). (853) 

7. ' Not from love of gain does he learn, and 
he does not get angry on account of loss, and 
untroubled by desire he has no greed for sweet 
things 2 . (854) 

8. ' Equable (upekhaka), always thoughtful, he 
does not think himself equal (to others) 3 in the 
world, nor distinguished, nor low: for him there 
are no desires (ussada). (855) 



1 Vitata«ho pur& bheda" 
Pubbam antam anissito 
VemaggAt n' fipasawkheyyo 
Tassa n' atthi purekkhataw. 
* Rasesu nSnugigg'Aati 
8 Na loke manwate samaw 
Na visest na nikeyyo. 
Compare Tuva/akasutta, v. 4 ; Attadaw/asutta, v. 20. 

M 2 



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I 64 ArrHAKAVAGGA. 



9. ' The man for whom there is nothing upon which 
he depends, who is independent, having understood 
the Dhamma, for whom there is no desire for coming 
into existence or leaving existence, (856) 

10. ' Him I call calm, not looking for sensual 
pleasures ; for him there are no ties, he has over- 
come desire. (857) 

11. 'For him there are no sons, cattle, fields, 
wealth, nothing grasped or rejected is to be found 
in him. (858) 

1 2. ' That fault of which common people and 
Samawas and Brahma»as say that he is possessed, 
is not possessed by him, therefore he is not moved 
by their talk. (859) 

1 3. ' Free from covetousness, without avarice, the 
Muni does not reckon himself amongst the distin- 
guished, nor amongst the plain, nor amongst the 
low, he does not enter time, being delivered from 
time \ (860) 

14. ' He for whom there is nothing in the world 
(which he may call) his own, who does not grieve over 
what is no more, and does not walk amongst the 
Dhammas (after his wish), he is called calm V (86 1 ) 

Purabhedasutta is ended. 



11. KALAHAVIVADASUTTA. 

The origin of contentions, disputes, &c. &c. 
i. 'Whence (do spring up) contentions and dis- 
putes, lamentation and sorrow together with envy ; 

1 Vitagedho ama£Warf 
Na ussesu vadate muni 
Na samesu na omesu, 
Kappaw n' eti akappiyo. 
* Comp. infra, Attada«dasutta, v. 16, and Dhp. v. 367. 



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kalahavivAdasutta. 165 

and arrogance and conceit together with slander, 
whence do these spring up ? pray, tell me this.' (862) 

2. ' From dear (objects) spring up contentions 
and disputes, lamentation and sorrow together with 
envy ; arrogance and conceit together with slander ; 
contentions and disputes are joined with envy, and 
there is slander in the disputes arisen.' (863) 

3. 'The dear (objects) in the world whence do 
they originate, and (whence) the covetousness that 
prevails in the world, and desire and fulfilment 
whence do they originate, which are (of consequence) 
for the future state of a man 1 ? ' (864) 

4. ' From wish 2 originate the dear (objects) in the 
world, and the covetousness that prevails in the 
world, and desire and fulfilment originate from it, 
which are (of consequence) for the future state of 
a man.' (865) 

5. ' From what has wish in the world its origin, 
and resolutions 3 whence do they spring, anger and 
falsehood and doubt, and the Dhammas which are 
made known by the Sama»a (Gotama) ?' (866) 

6. 'What they call pleasure and displeasure in 
the world, by that wish springs up; having seen 
decay and origin in (all) bodies 4 , a person forms 
(his) resolutions in the world. (867) 

7. ' Anger and falsehood and doubt, these Dham- 
mas are a couple 8 ; let the doubtful learn in the way 
of knowledge, knowingly the Dhammas have been 
proclaimed by the Sama«a.' (868) 

8. ' Pleasure and displeasure, whence have they 



1 Ye sampariydya narassa hohti. 2 .Amanda. 

* ViniiWaya. * Rfipesu disvS vibhavaw bhavait fe. 

8 Te pi kodhidayo dhamma satis&tadvaye sante eva pahonti 
uppa^anti. Commentator. 



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1 66 ATrHAKAVAGGA. 



their origin, for want of what do these not arise? 
This notion which (thou mentionest), viz. "decay and 
origin," tell me from what does this arise.' (869) 

9. ' Pleasure and displeasure have their origin 
from phassa (touch), when there is no touch they do 
not arise. This notion which (thou mentionest), viz. 
"decay and origin," this I tell thee has its origin 
from this.' (870) 

10. ' From what has phassa its origin in the world, 
and from what does grasping spring up ? For want 
of what is there no egotism, by the cessation of what 
do the touches not touch ?' (871) 

ii. 'On account of name and form the touches 
(exist), grasping has its origin in wish ; by the cessa- 
tion of wishes there is no egotism, by the cessation 
of form the touches do not touch.' (872) 

1 2. ' How is one to be constituted that (his) form 
may cease to exist, and how do joy and pain cease 
to exist? Tell me this, how it ceases, that we should 
like to know, such was my mind 1 ?' (873) 

13. * Let one not be with a natural consciousness, 
nor with a mad consciousness, nor without con- 
sciousness, nor with (his) consciousness gone; for 
him who is thus constituted form ceases to exist, for 
what is called delusion has its origin in conscious- 
ness V (?) (874) 

14. 'What we have asked thee thou hast explained 

1 Kathaw sametassa vibhoti rfipaw, 

Sukhaw dukhaw vapi katham vibhoti, 

Etam me pabrfthi, yatha vibhoti 

Taw ^aniyama, iti me mano ahd. 
* Na sannasaftni na visannasawnf 

No pi asamwi na vibhfltasawnt 

Evan sametassa vibhoti rfipaw 

Sanmanidani hi papa«£asa/»kha. 



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rtjLAVIYOHASUTTA. 1 67 

unto us ; we will ask thee another question, answer 
us that : Do not some (who are considered) wise in 
this world tell us that the principal (thing) is the 
purification of the yakkha, or do they say something 
different from this l ? ' (875) 

15. 'Thus some (who are considered) wise in this 
world say that the principal (thing) is the purification 
of the yakkha ; but some of them say samaya (anni- 
hilation), the expert say (that the highest purity 
lies) in anupadisesa (none of the five attributes 
remaining) 2 . (876) 

16. ' And having known these to be dependent, 
the investigating Muni, having known the things we 
depend upon, and after knowing them being libe- 
rated, does not enter into dispute, the wise (man) 
does not go to reiterated existence V (&77) 

Kalahavivadasutta is ended. 



12. atClaviyChasutta. 

A description of disputing philosophers. The different schools of 
philosophy contradict each other, they proclaim different truths, 
but the truth is only one. As long as the disputations are going 
on, so long will there be strife in the world. 

1. Abiding by their own views, some (people), 
having got into contest, assert themselves to be 

1 Comp. SundarikabMradva^asutta, v. 25. 

2 Ettivat' aggam pi vadanti h' eke 
Yakkhassa suddhiw idha pa»<fit&se, 
Tesaw pun' eke samaya« * vadanti . 
Anupadisese kusala vadanS. 

5 Ete ia watva" upanissiti ti 
JVslVvS. munt nissaye so vimawst 
i^atvi vimutto na viv&dam eti 
Bhavabhavaya na sameti dhfro. 
* Vkkhednm. Commentator. 



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I 68 ArrffAKAVAGGA. 



the (only) expert (saying), '(He) who understands 
this, he knows the Dhamma ; he who reviles this, he 
is not perfect 1 .' (878) 

2. So having got into contest they dispute : ' The 
opponent (is) a fool, an ignorant (person),' so they 
say. Which one of these, pray, is the true doctrine 
(vada)? for all these assert themselves (to be the 
only) expert. (879) 

3. He who does not acknowledge an opponent's 
doctrine (dhamma), he is a fool, a beast, one of poor 
understanding, all are fools with a very poor under- 
standing ; all these abide by their (own) views. (880) 

4. They are surely purified by their own view, 
they are of a pure understanding, expert, thoughtful, 
amongst them there is no one of poor understanding, 
their view is quite perfect! (881) 

5. I do not say, ' This is the reality,' which fools 
say mutually to each other ; they made their own 
views the truth, therefore they hold others to be 
fools. (882) 

6. What some say is the truth, the reality, that 
others say is void, false, so having disagreed they 
dispute. Why do not the Sama»as say one (and 
the same thing) ? (883) 

7. For the truth is one, there is not a second, 
about which one intelligent man might dispute with 
another intelligent man ; (but) they themselves praise 
different truths, therefore the Sama«as do not say 
one (and the same thing) 2 . (884) 

1 Sakaw sakaw di/Mi paribbas&na* 

Viggayha nan£ kusali vadanti 

Yo evaw ^anati sa vedi dhammam 

Ida/w pa/ikkosam akevalt so. 
* Ekaw hi saMaw na dutfyam atthi 

Yasmisi pag-ano vivade pag&nam, 



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JrOLAVIY^H ASUTTA. 1 6 9 

8. Why do the disputants that assert themselves 
(to be the only) expert, proclaim different truths ? 
Have many different truths been heard of, or do they 
(only) follow (their own) reasoning ? (885) 

9. There are not many different truths in the world, 
no eternal ones except consciousness ; but having 
reasoned on the (philosophical) views they proclaim 
a double Dhamma, truth and falsehood *. (886) 

10. In regard to what has been seen, or heard, 
virtue and (holy) works, or what has been thought, 
and on account of these (views) looking (upon 
others) with contempt, standing in (their) resolutions 
joyful, they say that the opponent is a fool and an 
ignorant person 2 . (?) (887) 

11. Because he holds another (to be) a fool, there- 
fore he calls himself expert, in his own opinion he is 
one that tells what is propitious, others he blames, 
so he said 3 . (?) (888) 

12. He is full of his overbearing (philosophical) 
view, mad with pride, thinking himself perfect, he is 
in his own opinion anointed with the spirit (of genius), 
for his (philosophical) view is quite complete. (889) 

Nana te sa££ani sayaw thunanti, 

Tasma na eka« sama»& vadanti. 
1 Na h' eva saiHni bahuni n£n£ 

Awreatra sawnaya ni££ani loke, 

Takkaw ka. di///4isu pakappayitva 

Sa&kam must ti dvayadhammam ahu. 
* Di/7>5e sute sflavate mute vS 

Ete ka. nissaya vimanadassf 

VmikiAaye MatvS pahassamana' 

Balo paro akusalo ti £ahu. 
8 Yen' eva balo ti para»» dahati 

Ten&tumanam kusalo ti iaha, 

Sayam attana so kusald vadano 

Annzm vimSneti, tath' eva pdvS. ~ 



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1 70 A7TffAKAVAGGA. 



1 3. If he according to another's report is low, then 
(he says) the other is also of a low understanding, 
and if he himself is accomplished and wise, there 
is not any fool amongst the Samaras 1 . (890) 

14. 'Those who preach a doctrine (dhamma) 
different from this, fall short of purity and are 
imperfect,' so the Titthiyas say repeatedly, for they 
are inflamed by passion for their own (philosophical) 
views. (891) 

15. Here they maintain purity, in other doctrines 
.(dhamma) they do not allow purity ; so the Titthi- 
yas, entering extensively (upon details), say that in 
their own way there is something firm. (892) 

16. And saying that there is something firm in his 
own way he holds his opponent to be a fool ; thus 
he himself brings on strife, calling his opponent a 
fool and impure (asuddhadhamma). (893) 

17. Standing in (his) resolution, having himself 
measured (teachers, &c), he still more enters into 
dispute in the world ; but having left all resolutions 
nobody will excite strife in the world 2 . (894) 

■A'ulaviyuhasutta is ended. 

1 Parassa ke hi vafesd nihtno 
Tumo * sahi hoti nihfnapawwo, 
Atha ke sayam vedagu hoti dhiro 
Na ko£i balo samawesfi atthi. 

2 VimkM&ye /Aatva' saya« pam&ya 
Uddha*» so lokasmiw viv&dam eti, 
Hitvana sabbdni vini^ay&ni 

Na medhakaw kurute ^antu loke. 

* So pi ten* eva. Commentator. Ved. tva (?). 



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MAHAVIY^HASUTTA. 

13. mahAviyChaswta. Z " 2 1 r r 

Philosophers cannot lead to purity, they only praise"4hemSe4Ve» arfji 
stigmatise others. But a BrShmawa has overcome all dispute, 
he is indifferent to learning, he is appeased. 

i. Those who abiding in the (philosophical) views 
dispute, saying,' This is the truth,' they all incur blame, 
and they also obtain praise in this matter. (895) 

2. This is little, not enough to (bring about) 
tranquillity, I say there are two fruits of dispute ; 
having seen this let no one dispute, understanding 
Khema (i. e. Nibbana) to be the place where there 
is no dispute. (896) 

3. The opinions that have arisen amongst 
people, all these the wise man does not embrace ; 
he is independent Should he who is not pleased 
with what has been seen and heard resort to 
dependency 1 ? (?) (897) 

4. Those who consider virtue the highest of all, 
say that purity is associated with restraint ; having 
taken upon themselves a (holy) work they serve. 
Let us learn in this (view), then, his (the Master's) 
purity ; wishing for existence they assert themselves 
to be the only expert 2 . (898) 

5. If he falls off from virtue and (holy) works, he 
trembles, having missed (his) work ; he laments, he 

1 Yd k££' ima" sammutiyo puthugga' 

Sabbd va etS na upeti vidv£, 

Anupayo so, upayaw? kirn eyya 

Di/Me sute khantim* akubbamino? 
3 Sfluttama - sannamenihu suddhiw, 

Vata»* sam&daya upa/Midse, 

Idh' eva sikkhema ath' assa suddhim, 

Bhavupanita' kusalS. vacftnl 
* So all the MSS. 



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172 KTTH AK A VAGGA. 



prays for purity in this world, as one who has lost 
his caravan or wandered away from his house. (899) 

6. Having left virtue and (holy) works altogether, 
and both wrong and blameless work, not praying 
for purity or impurity, he wanders abstaining (from 
both purity and impurity), without having embraced 
peace. (900) 

7. By means of penance, or anything disliked, or 
what has been seen, or heard, or thought, going 
upwards they wail for what is pure, without being 
free from desire for reiterated existence. (9 01 ) 

8. For him who wishes (for something there 
always are) desires 1 , and trembling in (the midst 
of his) plans ; he for whom there is no death and 
no re-birth, how can he tremble or desire any- 
thing ? (902) 

9. What some call the highest Dhamma, that 
others again call wretched; which one of these, 
pray, is the true doctrine (vada)? for all these 
assert themselves (to be the only) expert. (903) 

10. Their own Dhamma they say is perfect, 
another's Dhamma again they say is wretched ; 
so having disagreed they dispute, they each say 
their own opinions (are) the truth. (904) 

11. If one (becomes) low by another's censure, 
then there will be no one distinguished amongst 
the Dhammas ; for they all say another's Dhamma 
(is) low, in their own they say there is something 
firm 2 . (905) 

1 GappitSni. 

2 Parassa ke vamhayitena hfno 
Na ko£i dhammesu visesi assa, 
Puthfi hi anmassa vadanti dhammant 

Nihinato samhi da/haw vadana. 



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mahAviy^hasutta. i 73 

12. The worshipping of their own Dhamma is 
as great as their praise of their own ways; all 
schools would be in the same case, for their purity 
is individual 1 . (906} 

13. There is nothing about a Brahma#a de- 
pendent upon others, nothing amongst the Dhammas 
which he would embrace after investigation ; there- 
fore he has overcome the disputes, for he does not 
regard any other Dhamma as the best. (907) 

14. ' I understand, I see likewise this,' so saying, 
some by (their philosophical) views return to purity. 
If he saw purity, what then (has been effected) by 
another's view ? Having conquered they say that 
purity exists by another 2 . (?) (908) 

15. A seeing man will see name and form, and 
having seen he will understand those (things) ; let 
him at pleasure see much or little, for the expert 
do not say that purity exists by that. (909) 

16. A dogmatist is no leader to purity, being 
guided by prejudiced views, saying that good con- 
sists in what he is given to, and saying that purity 
is there, he saw the thing so 3 . (9 10 ) 

17. A Brahma«a does not enter time, (or) the 

1 Sadhammap6g£ ka. pand tath' eva 
Yatha pasamsanti sakayanSni, 
Sabbe pavSda" tath' iva" bhaveyyuw 
Suddhl hi nesaw pa££attam eva. 

9 Canami pass&mi tath' eva eta*» 
di//4iyS eke pai^enti suddhiw 
Addakkhi £e kirn hi tumassa tena 
AtisitvS, anwena vadanti suddhi/w. 

8 Nivissavadi na hi suddhinayo 
Pakappitd di/Mi purekkharano 
Yaw nissito tattha subhaw? vadSno 
Suddhi/B vado tattha, tath' addasS so. 



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i 74 Arrn AKAVAGGA. 



number (of living beings), (he is) no follower of 
(philosophical) views, nor a friend of knowledge ; 
and having penetrated the opinions that have arisen 
amongst people, he is indifferent to learning, while 
others acquire it (9 11 ) 

1 8. The Muni, having done away with ties here 
in the world, is no partisan in the disputes that 
have arisen; appeased amongst the unappeased 
he is indifferent, not embracing learning, while 
others acquire it. (9 12 ) 

19. Having abandoned his former passions, not 
contracting new ones, not wandering according to 
his wishes, being no dogmatist, he is delivered 
from the (philosophical) views, being wise, and he 
does not cling to the world, neither does he blame 
himself. (9 J 3) 

20. Being secluded amongst all the doctrines 
(dhamma), whatever has been seen, heard, or 
thought, he is a Muni who has laid down his 
burden and is liberated, not belonging to time (na 
kappiyo), not dead, not wishing for anything. So 
said Bhagavat (9H) 

Mahaviyuhasutta is ended. 



14. TUVA7AKASUTTA. 

How a Bhikkhu attains bliss, what his duties are, and what he is 

to avoid. 

1. 'I ask thee, who art a kinsman of the Adidas 
and a great I si, about seclusion (viveka) and the 
state of peace. How is a Bhikkhu, after having 
seen it, extinguished, not grasping at anything in 
the world?' (915) 



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TUVArAKASUTTA. I 75 



2. ' Let him completely cut off the root of what is 
called papaya 1 (delusion), thinking "I am wisdom;'" 
— so said Bhagavat, — ' all the desires that arise in- 
wardly, let him learn to subdue them, always being 
thoughtful. 916) 

3. ' Let him learn every Dhamma inwardly or out- 
wardly ; let him not therefore be proud, for that is 
not called bliss by the good. (9 X 7) 

4. 'Let him not therefore think himself better 
(than others or) low or equal (to others) ; questioned 
by different people, let him not adorn himself 2 . (918) 

5. 'Let the Bhikkhu be appeased inwardly, let 
him not seek peace from any other (quarter) ; for 
him who is inwardly appeased there is nothing 
grasped or rejected. (9*9) 

6. ' As in the middle (i. e. depth) of the sea no 
wave is born, (but as it) remains still 3 , so let the 
Bhikkhu be still 3 , without desire, let him not desire 
anything whatever.' (920) 

7. He with open eyes expounded clearly the 
Dhamma that removes (all) dangers ; tell (now) 
the religious practices; the precepts or contem- 
plation*. (921) 

8. Bhagavat : ' Let him not be greedy with his 
eyes, let him keep his ears from the talk of the town, 
let him not be greedy after sweet things, and let 
him not desire anything in the world. (922) 

9. ' When he is touched by the touch (of illness), 

1 Avigg-Sdayo kilesa\ Commentator. 

2 NatumaMiafl* vikappayan tU/Ae. s 7%ito. 

* Akittayi viva/aiakkhu sakkhi 
Dhamma//? parissayavinayam, 
Pa/ipada« vadehi, bhaddan te, 
Patimokkhaw athavdpi samMuzn. 



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1 76 AITtf AKAVAGGA. 



let the Bhikkhu not lament, and let him not wish 
for existence anywhere, and let him not tremble at 
dangers. (923) 

10. ' Having obtained boiled rice and drink, solid 
food and clothes, let him not store up (these things), 
and let him not be anxious, if he does not get 
them. (9 2 4) 

11. 'Let him be meditative, not prying, let him 
abstain from misbehaviour x , let him not be indolent, 
let the Bhikkhu live in his quiet dwelling. (925) 

1 2. ' Let him not sleep too much, let him apply 
himself ardently to watching, let him abandon sloth, 
deceit, laughter, sport, sexual intercourse, and adorn- 
ment. (926) 

13. ' Let him not apply himself to practising (the 
hymns of) the Athabba»a(-veda), to (the interpreta- 
tion of) sleep and signs, nor to astrology ; let not 
(my) follower (mamaka) devote himself to (inter- 
preting) the cry of birds, to causing impregnation, 
nor to (the art of) medicine. (927) 

14. ' Let the Bhikkhu not tremble at blame, nor 
puff himself up when praised ; "let him drive off 
covetousness together with avarice, anger, and 
slander. (928) 

15. 'Let the Bhikkhu not be engaged in purchase 
and sale, let him not blame others in anything, let 
him not scold in the village, let him not from love of 
gain speak to people. (929) 

16. ' Let not the Bhikkhu be a boaster, and let 
him not speak coherent 2 language ; let him not learn 
pride, let him not speak quarrelsome language. (930) 

1 Virame kukku££aw. 

* Payuta ; comp. N&lakasutta, v. 33. 



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ATTADAiVDASUTTA. Iff 

1 7. ' Let him not be led into falsehood, let him 
not consciously do wicked things ; and with respect 
to livelihood, understanding, virtue, and (holy) works 
let him not despise others. (93 1) 

18. 'Having heard much talk from much-talking 
Sama«as let him not irritated answer them with harsh 
language; for the good do not thwart 1 others. (932) 

19. ' Having understood this Dhamma, let the 
investigating and always thoughtful Bhikkhu learn ; 
having conceived bliss to consist in peace, let him 
not be indolent in Gotama's commandments. (933) 

20. ' For he a conqueror unconquered saw the 
Dhamma visibly, without any traditional instruction 2 ; 
therefore let him learn, heedful in his, Bhagavat's, 
commandments, and always worshipping.' (934) 

Tuvafokasutta is ended. 



15. ATTADAiVZ>ASUTTA. 

Description of an accomplished Muni. 

i. From him who has seized a stick fear arises. 
Look at people killing (each other); I will tell of 
grief as it is known to me. (935) 

2. Seeing people struggling like fish in (a pond 
with) little water, seeing them obstructed by each 
other, a fear came over me. (93^) 

3. The world is completely unsubstantial, all 
quarters are shaken ; wishing for a house for myself 
I did not see (one) uninhabited. (937) 

4. But having seen (all beings) in the end ob- 
structed, discontent arose in me ; then I saw in 



1 Pa/isenikaronti. 

* Sakkhi dhammam anftiham adassi. 

[10] N 



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1 78 A7TZTAKAVAGGA. 



this world an arrow, difficult to see, stuck in the 
heart (93 8 ) 

5. He who has been pierced by this arrow runs 
through all quarters ; but having drawn out that ar- 
row, he will not run, he will sit down (quietly). (939) 

6. There (many) studies are gone through ; what 
is tied in the world let him not apply himself to 
(untie) it ; having wholly transfixed desire, let him 
learn his own extinction (nibbana). (940) 

7. Let the Muni be truthful, without arrogance, 
undeceitful, free from slander, not angry, let him 
overcome avarice. (941) 

8. Let the man who has turned his mind to Nib- 
bana conquer sleepiness, drowsiness, and sloth ; let 
him not live together with indolence, let him not in- 
dulge in conceit. (94 2) 

9. Let him not be led into falsehood, let him 
not turn his affection to form; let him penetrate 
arrogance, let him wander abstaining from vio- 
lence. (943) 

10. Let him not delight in what is old, let him 
not bear with what is new, let him not grieve for 
what is lost, let him not give himself up to 
desire \ (944) 

11. (This desire) I call greed, the great stream, 
I call (it) precipitation, craving, a trouble, a bog of 
lust difficult to cross 2 . (945) 

12. The Muni who without deviating from truth 

A 

1 AkSsaw na sito siyi ti ta«ha/rc nissito na bhaveyya. 
Commentator. 

* Gedhaat brftmi mahogho ti 
A^avaw? brfimi ^appanaw 
Arammanam pakappanaw 
Kamapawko durateyo. 



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ATTADAJVDASUTTA. 1 79 



stands fast on the firm ground (of Nibbana, being) a 
Brahma#a, he, having forsaken everything, is indeed 
called calm. (946) 

13. He indeed is wise, he is accomplished, having 
understood the Dhamma independent (of every- 
thing); wandering rightly in the world he does not 
envy any one here. (947) 

14. Whosoever has here overcome lust, a. tie 
difficult to do away with in the world, he does not 
grieve, he does not covet 1 , having cut off the 
stream, and being without bonds. (948) 

15. What is before (thee), lay that aside; let there 
be nothing behind thee ; if thou wilt not grasp after 
what is in the middle, thou wilt wander calm 2 . (949) 

16. The man who has no desire at all for name 
and form (individuality) and who does not grieve 
over what is no more, he indeed does not decay in 
the world 3 . (950) 

17. He who does not think, ' this is mine ' and ' for 
others there is also something,' he, not having ego- 
tism, does not grieve at having nothing*. (95 1) 

18. Not being harsh, not greedy, being without 
desire, and being the same under all circumstances 
(samo 6 ), — that I call a good result, when asked about 
an undaunted man. (95 2 ) 

19. For him who is free from desire, for the 

1 N&ggkti=n&bhiggAa.ti (read nabhi^Myati). Commentator. 
* Comp. infra, Gatuka»»in's question, v. 4, and Dhammapada, 
p. 308. 
8 Comp. infra, (ratukawnn's question, v. 5. 
* Yassa n' atthi ' idam me' ti 
'Paresaw? vapi kiw^anaw' 
Mamattam so asawvindaw 
' N' atthi me' ti na so^ati. 
6 — upekhako. Commentator. 
N 2 



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l8o A7T#AKAVAGGA. 



discerning (man) there is no Sawkhara ; abstaining 
from every sort of effort he sees happiness every- 
where 1 . (953) 
20. The Muni does not reckon himself amongst 
the plain, nor amongst the low, nor amongst the 
distinguished ; being calm and free from avarice, he 
does not grasp after nor reject anything 2 . (954) 
Attada«dasutta is ended. 



16. SARIPUTTASUTTA. 

On Sanputta asking what a Bhikkhu is to devote himself to, 
Buddha shows what life he is to lead. 

1. ' Neither has before been seen by me,' — so said 
the venerable Sariputta, — •' nor has any one heard of 
such a beautifully-speaking master, a teacher arrived 
from the Tusita heaven. (955) 

2. 'As he, the clearly-seeing, appears to the world 
of men and gods, after having dispelled all darkness, 
so he wanders alone in the midst (of people). (956) 

3. 'To this Buddha, who is independent, un- 
changed, a guileless teacher, who has arrived (in 
the world), I have come supplicatingly with a ques- 
tion 3 from many who are bound in this world. (957) 

4. ' To a Bhikkhu who is loath (of the world) 
and affects an isolated seat, the root of a tree or 
a cemetery, or (who lives) in the caves of the 
mountains, (95*0 

1 Ane^assa vi^inato 
N' atthi kali nisawkhiti, 
Virato so viy£rambh£ 
Khemam passati sabbadhi. 
2 Comp. supra, PurSbhedasutta, vv. 15, 20. 
s Atthi pawhena igzmim =atthiko pawhena Sgato 'mhiti atthi- 
k&naw va pawhena atthi &gamana»1 k& ti. Commentator. 



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SARIPUTTASUTTA. l8l 

5. ' How many dangers (are there not) in these 
various dwelling-places at which the Bhikkhu does 
not tremble in his quiet dwelling ! (959) 

6. 'How many dangers (are there not) in the 
world for him who goes to the immortal region \ 
(dangers) which the Bhikkhu overcomes in his 
distant dwelling! (960) 

7. 'Which are his words, which are his objects 
in this world, which are the virtue and (holy) works 
of the energetic Bhikkhu? (961) 

8. ' What study having devoted himself to, in- 
tent on one object 2 , wise and thoughtful, can he 
blow off his own filth as the smith (blows off) that 
of the silver 3 ?' (962) 

9. ' What is pleasant for him who is disgusted 
(with birth, &c), — O Sariputta,' so said Bhagavat, 
— ' if he cultivates a lonely dwelling-place, and 
loves perfect enlightenment in accordance with 
the Dhamma, that I will tell thee as I under- 
stand it. (963) 

10. ' Let not the wise and thoughtful Bhikkhu 
wandering on the borders 4 be afraid of the five 
dangers : gad-flies and (all other) flies 5 , snakes, 
contact with (evil) men 6 , and quadrupeds. (964) 

11. 'Let him not be afraid of adversaries 7 , even 
having seen many dangers from them ; further he 



1 GaJikhato amatazrc disaw. 

2 Ekodi=ekagga£itto. Commentator. 

s Comp. Dhp. v. 239. 4 Pariyanta^arf. 

6 -Dawsadhipatanan ti pingalamakkhikanaw ka. sesamakkhi- 
kanaw £a, sesamakkhika hi tato adhipatitva khadanti, tasma adhi- 
pata ti vu^anti. Commentator. 

* Manussaphassanan ti foradiphassanaw. Commentator. 

7 Paradhammikanaw. 



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1 8 2 A7T77AKAVAGG A. 



will overcome other dangers while seeking what is 
good. (965) 

12. 'Touched by sickness and hunger let him 
endure cold and excessive heat, let him, touched 
by them in many ways, and being houseless, make 
strong exertions. (966) 

13. ' Let him not commit theft, let him not speak 
falsely, let him touch friendly what is feeble or 
strong, what he acknowledges to be the agitation 
of the mind, let him drive that off as a partisan 
of Ka«ha (i. e. Mara). (967) 

14. ' Let him not fall into the power of anger 
and arrogance ; having dug up the root of these, 
let him live, and let him overcome both what is 
pleasant and what is unpleasant. (968) 

15. 'Guided by wisdom, taking delight in what 
is good, let him scatter those dangers, let him 
overcome discontent in his distant dwelling, let him 
overcome the four causes of lamentation. (969) 

16. ' What shall I eat, or where shall I eat ? — he 
lay indeed uncomfortably (last night) — where shall 
I lie this night ? let the Sekha who wanders about 
houseless subdue these lamentable doubts. (970) 

1 7. ' Having had in (due) time both food and 
clothes, let him know moderation in this world for 
the sake of happiness ; guarded in these (things) 
and wandering restrained in the village let him, even 
(if he be) irritated, not speak harsh words. (971) 

18. 'Let him be with down-cast eyes, and not 
prying, devoted to meditation, very watchful ; having 
acquired equanimity let him with a composed mind 
cut off the seat of doubt, and misbehaviour. (972) 

19. ' Urged on by words (of his teachers) let 
him be thoughtful and rejoice (at this urging), let 



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SARIPUTTASUTTA. 1 8 3 



him break stubbornness in his fellow-students, let 
him utter propitious words and not unseasonable, 
let him not think detractingly of others. (973) 

20. 'And then the five impurities in the world, 
the subjection of which he must learn thoughtfully, 
— let him overcome passion for form, sound and 
taste, smell and touch. (974) 

21. 'Let the Bhikkhu subdue his wish for these 
Dhammas and be thoughtful, and with his mind- 
well liberated, then in time he will, reflecting upon 
Dhamma, and having become intent upon one object, 
destroy darkness.' So said Bhagavat. (975) 

Sariputtasutta Is ended. 
A//^akavagga, the fourth. 



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V. PARAYANAVAGGA. 



To the Br&hmawa B&varf, living on the banks of the Godhavari, in 
Assaka's territory, comes another Brahma»a and asks for five 
hundred pieces of money, but not getting them he curses BSvarf , 
saying, 'May thy head on the seventh day hence cleave into 
seven.' A deity comforts B&vart by referring him to Buddha. 
Then Bavari sends his sixteen disciples to Buddha, and each of 
them asks Buddha a question. 

i. vatthugAthA. 

i. From the beautiful city of the Kosalas (Si- 
vatthi) a Brahmawa, well versed in the hymns, went 
to the South (Dakkhiwapatha) wishing for nothing- 
ness 1 . (976) 

2. In Assaka's territory, in the neighbourhood 
of A/aka, he dwelt on the banks of the Godhavari, 
(living) on gleanings and fruit. (977) 

3. And close by the bank there was a large 
village, with the income of which he prepared a 
great sacrifice. (978) 

4. Having offered the great sacrifice, he again 
entered the hermitage. Upon his re-entering, 
another Brahma#a arrived, (979) 

5. With swollen feet 2 , trembling, covered with 
mud, with dust on his head. And he going up 

1 Akinkanna. 

2 Uggha/Zapado ti maggakkamanena ghatfapddatalo pa»hi- 
kaya vi pawhikaw gopphakena v& gopphakaw ^aa»ukena ga»»u- 
ka»» igantvSpi gha//apido. Commentator. 



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vatthugathA. 185 



to him (i. e. the first Brahma#a) demanded five 
hundred (pieces of money). (980) 

6. Bavarl, seeing him, bade him be seated, asked 
him whether he was happy and well, and spoke as 
follows: (981) 

7. 'What gifts I had are all given away by 
me ; pardon me, O Brahmawa, I have no five 
hundred.' (982) 

8. ' If thou wilt not give to me who asks, may thy 
head on the seventh day cleave into seven.' (983) 

9. So after the usual ceremonies this impostor 
made known his fearful (curse). On hearing these 
his words Bavarl became sorrowful. (984) 

10. He wasted away taking no food, transfixed 
by the arrow of grief, but yet his mind delighted in 
meditation. (985) 

11. Seeing Bavarl struck with horror and sorrow- 
ful, the benevolent deity (of that place) approached 
him and said as follows : (986) 

12. 'He does not know (anything about) the head; 
he is a hypocrite coveting riches ; knowledge of the 
head and head-splitting is not found in him 1 .' (987) 

13. 'If the venerable (deity) knows it, then tell 
me, when asked, all about the head and head- 
splitting ; let us hear thy words.' (988) 

14. 'I do not know this; knowledge of it is not 
found in me ; as to the head and head-splitting, this 
is to be seen by Buddhas (only)/ (989) 

15. 'Who then, say, in the circumference of the 



1 Na so muddhasw pa^anati, 
Kuhako so dhanatthiko, 
Muddhani muddhapate £a 
jft&nam tassa na viggati. 



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i 86 pArAyanavagga 



earth knows the head and head-splitting, tell me 
that, O deity?' (990) 

16. ' Formerly went out from Kapilavatthu a ruler 
of the world, an offspring of the Okkaka king, the 
Sakya son, the light-giving ; (99 1) 

17. ' He is, O Brahma»a, the perfectly Enlightened 
(Sambuddha) ; perfect in all things, he has attained 
the power of all knowledge, sees clearly in everything; 
he has arrived at the destruction of all things, and is 
liberated in the destruction of the upadhis 1 . (992) 

1 8. ' He is Buddha, he is Bhagavat in the world, 
he, the clearly-seeing, teaches the Dhamma; go thou 
to him and ask, he will explain it to thee.' (993) 

19. Having heard the word ' Sambuddha,' Bavari 
rejoiced, his grief became little, and he was filled 
with great delight. (994) 

20. Bavari glad, rejoicing, and eager asked the 
deity : 'In what village or in what town or in what 
province dwells the chief of the world, that going 
there we may adore the perfectly Enlightened, the 
first of men ?' (995) 

21. 'In Savatthl, the town of the Kosalas, dwells 
Gina (the Victorious), of great understanding and 
excellent wide knowledge, he the Sakya son, un- 
yoked, free from passion, skilled in head-splitting, 
the bull of men.' (996) 

22. Then (Bavari) addressed his disciples, Brah- 
ma«as, perfect in the hymns : ' Come, youths, I will 
tell (you something), listen to my words : (997) 

23. ' He whose appearance in the world is diffi- 
cult to be met with often, he is at the present time 2 

1 Sabbadhammakkhayaw patto (i. e. nibbdna) 
Vimutto upadhisawkhaye. 

* Sv-S^fa. 



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vatthugathA. 187 



born in the world and widely renowned as Sam- 
buddha (the perfectly Enlightened) ; go quickly to 
Savatth! and behold the best of men.' (998) 

24. ' How then can we know, on seeing him, that 
he is Buddha, O Brahma»a ? Tell us who do not 
know him, by what may we recognise him ? (999) 

25. ' For in the hymns are to be found the marks 
of a great man, and thirty-two are disclosed alto- 
gether, one by one.' (1000) 

26. ' For him on whose limbs these marks of 
a great man are to be found, there are two ways 
left, a third does not exist. (1001) 

27. ' If he abides in a dwelling, he will subdue 
this earth without rod (or) sword, he will rule with 
justice. (1002) 

28. ' And if he departs from his dwelling for the 
wilderness, he becomes the saint, incomparable 
Sambuddha, who has removed the veil (from the 
world) \ (1003) 

29. ' Ask in your mind about my birth and family, 
my marks, hymns, and my other disciples, the head 
and head-splitting. (1004) 

30. ' If he is Buddha, the clear-sighted, then he 
will answer by word of mouth the questions you 
have asked in your mind.' (joos) 

31. 32, 33. Having heard Bavari's words his dis- 
ciples, sixteen Brahma»as, A/ita, Tissametteyya, 
Pu««aka, further Mettagu, Dhotaka and Upaslva, 
and Nanda, further Hemaka, the two Todeyya and 
Kappa, and the wise Ga.taka.nni, Bhadravudha and 
Udaya, and also the Brahma#a Posala, and the wise 
Moghara^an, and the great I si Pingiya, (1 006-1 008) 

34. All of them, having each their host (of pupils), 

1 Comp. Lalita-vistara (ed. Calc), pp. 116, 118. 

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l88 P A R A Y AN A VAGG A. 



and being themselves widely renowned throughout the 
world, thinkers delighting in meditation, wise, scented 
with the perfume of former (good deeds) 1 , (1009) 

35. Having saluted Bavarl and gone round him 
towards the right, all with matted hair and bear- 
ing hides, departed with their faces turned to the 
north. (1010) 

36. To Pati#/&ana of A/aka first, then to Mahis- 
satl, and also to Uggienf, Gonaddha, Vedisa, Vana- 
savhaya, (1011) 

37. And also to Kosambl, Saketa, and Savatthi, 
the most excellent of cities, to Setavya, Kapila- 
vatthu, and the city of Kusinara, (10 12) 

38. And to Pava, the city of wealth, to Vesili, the 
city of Magadha, to Pasa«aka Aetiya (the Rock 
Temple), the lovely, the charming. (10 13) 

39. As he who is athirst (longs for) the cold water, 
as the merchant (longs for) gain, as he who is plagued 
by heat (longs for) shade, so in haste they ascended 
the mountain. (1014) 

40. And Bhagavat at that time attended by the 
assembly of the Bhikkhus taught the Dhamma to the 
Bhikkhus, and roared like a lion in the forest. (10 15) 

41. Afita beheld Sambuddha as the shining (sun) 
without (burning) rays, as the moon on the fifteenth, 
having reached her plenitude. (10 16) 

42. Then observing his limbs and all the marks 
in their fulness, standing apart, rejoiced, he asked the 
questions of his mind : — ( IOI 7) 

43. 'Tell me about (my master's) birth, tell me 
about his family together with the marks, tell me 
about his perfection in the hymns, how many (hymns) 
does the Brahma#a recite ?' (1018) 

1 Pubbavasanavasita. 

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vatthugAthA. i 89 



44. Bhagavat said : ' One hundred and twenty 
years (is his) age, and by family he is a Bavart ; 
three are his marks on the limbs, and in the three 
Vedas he is perfect. - (10 19) 

45. 'In the marks and in the Itihasa together with 
Nigha«<Ai and Ke/ubha — he recites five hundred — 
and in his own Dhamma he has reached perfec- 
tion.' (1020) 

46. A^ita thought : ' Explain fully the marks of 
Bavart, O thou best of men, who cuts off desire ; 
let there be no doubt left for us.' (1021) 

47. Bhagavat said : ' He covers his face with his 
tongue, he has a circle of hair between the eye- 
brows, (his) privy member (is) hidden in a sheath, 
know this, O young man 1 .' (1022) 

48. Not hearing him ask anything, but hearing 
the questions answered, the multitude reflected over- 
joyed and with joined hands: (!023) 

49. ' Who, be he a god, or Brahman, or Inda, the 
husband of Sufi, asked in his mind those questions, 
and to whom did that (speech) reply ?' (1024) 

50. Afita said : ' The head and head-splitting 
Bavari asked about; explain that, O Bhagavat, 
remove our doubt, O I si.' ( I02 5) 

51. Bhagavat said: 'Ignorance is the head, know 
this; knowledge cleaves the head, together with 
belief, thoughtfulness, meditation, determination, and 
strength.' (1026) 

52. Then with great joy having composed him- 
self the young man put his hide on one shoulder, 



1 Mukha»2 ^ivhaya (Madeti, 
U»«' assa bhamukantare,' 
Kosohitara vatthaguyhaw, 
Eva/K ^anahi manava. 



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190 pArayanavagga. 



fell at (Bhagavat's) feet (and saluted him) with his 
head, (saying) : (1027) 

53. ' Bavarl, the Brahma#a, together with his 
disciples, O thou venerable man, delighted and 
glad, does homage to thy feet, O thou clearly- 
seeing.' (1028) 

54. Bhagavat said ; ' Let Bavarl, the Brahmawa, 
be glad together with his disciples ! Be thou also 
glad, live long, O young man! ( x 2 9) 

55. ' For Bavarl and for thee, for all there are all 
(kinds of) doubt ; having got an opportunity, ask ye 
whatever you wish.' ( J 03o) 

56. After getting permission from Sambuddha, 
Agita. sitting there with folded hands asked Tatha- 
gata the first question. (103 1 ) 

The Vatthug&thas are ended. 



2. AGTTAMAA/AVAPlLO:.tfA. 

1. ' By what is the world shrouded,' — so said 
the venerable A^ita, — ' by what does it not shine ? 
What callest thou its pollution, what is its great 
danger?' ( io 3 2 ) 

2. ' With ignorance is the world shrouded, O 
A^ita,'— so said Bhagavat, — ' by reason of avarice 
it does not shine ; desire I call its pollution, pain is 
its great danger.' (1033) 

3. ' The streams of desire flow in every direction,' 
— so said the venerable A^ita; — 'what dams the 
streams, say what restrains the streams, by what 
may the streams be shut off * ?' (1034) 

* Comp. Dhp. v. 340. 

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TISSAMETTEYYAMAJVAVAPUXJTtfA. 191 

4. ' Whatever streams there are in the world, — O 
A^ita,' so said Bhagavat, — 'thoughtfulness is their 
dam, thoughtfulness I call the restraint of the streams, 
by understanding they are shut off.' ( io 35) 

5. ' Both understanding and thoughtfulness,' — so 
said the venerable A^ita, — 'and name and shape 1 , 
O venerable man, — asked about this by me, declare 
by what is this stopped?' (1036) 

6. Buddha: 'This question which thou hast asked, 
O A^ita, that I will explain to thee ; (I will explain 
to thee) by what name and shape 2 are totally 
stopped; by the cessation of consciousness this is 
stopped here.' ( 1Q 37) 

7. A^ita : ' Those who have examined (all) 
Dhammas (i. e. the saints), and those who are 
disciples, (and those who are) common men here, 
— when thou art asked about their mode of life, 
declare it unto me, thou who art wise, O venerable 
man.' ( I <>38) 

8. Buddha : ' Let the Bhikkhu not crave for sensual 
pleasures, let him be calm in mind, let him wander 
about skilful in all Dhammas, and thoughtful.' (1039) 

A^itamawavapu^i^a is ended. 



3. TISSAMETTEYYAMAjVAVAPU.OT/A. 

i. 'Who is contented in the world,' — so said the 
venerable Tissametteyya, — 'who is without com- 
motions ? Who after knowing both ends does not 
stick in the middle, as far as his understanding is 

1 Ndmarflpaw k&. 2 N£man ka. rfipaw ia. 

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192 PARAYANAVAGGA. 

concerned? Whom dost thou call a great man? 
Who has overcome desire in this world ?' (1040) 
2. ' The Bhikkhu who abstains from sensual 
pleasures, — O Metteyya,' so said Bhagavat, — 'who 
is free from desire, always thoughtful, happy by 
reflection, he is without commotions, he after know- 
ing both ends does not stick in the middle, as far 
as his understanding is concerned ; him I call a great 
man; he has overcame desire in this world.' (1041) 

Tissametteyyama»avapuiiM is ended. 



4. PUiMrAKAMAATAVAPlLOr/fA. 

1. ' To him who is without desire, who has seen 
the root (of sin),' — so said the venerable Pu#»aka, 
■ — ' I have come supplicatingly with a question : on 
account of what did the I sis and men, Khattiyas 
and Brahma#as, offer sacrifices to the gods abun- 
dantly in this world ? (about this) I ask thee, O 
Bhagavat, tell me this.' (1042) 

2. 'All these Isis and men, Khattiyas and Brah- 
ma»as, — O Funnaka.,' so said Bhagavat, — 'who 
offered sacrifices to the gods abundantly in this 
world, offered sacrifices, O Pu»«aka, after reaching 
old age, wishing for their present condition.' (1043) 

3. ' All these Isis and men, Khattiyas and Brah- 
ma»as,' — so said the venerable Pu»»aka, — 'who 
offered sacrifices to the gods abundantly in this 
world, did they, O Bhagavat, indefatigable in the 
way of offering, cross over both birth and old age, 
O venerable man? I ask thee, O Bhagavat, tell 
me this.' (1044) 



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METTAGOm AiVAVAPUJOrffA. 1 9 3 

4. ' They wished for, praised, desired, abandoned 
(sensual pleasures), — O Pu##aka,' so said Bhagavat, 
— 'they desired sensual pleasures on account of what 
they reached by them; they, devoted to offering, dyed 
with the passions of existence, did not cross over 
birth and old age, so I say.' (*045) 

5. ' If they, devoted to offering,' — so said the 
venerable Pu»»aka, — 'did not by offering cross 
over birth and old age, O venerable man, who 
then in the world of gods and men crossed over 
birth and old age, O venerable man, I ask thee, 
O Bhagavat, tell me this ?' (1046) 

6. ' Having considered everything 1 in the world, — 
O Pu»#aka,' so said Bhagavat, — 'he who is not 
defeated anywhere in the world, who is calm with- 
out the smoke of passions, free from woe, free 
from desire, he crossed over birth and old age, 
so I say.' ( I Q47) 

Pu;makama#avapu>§Ma is ended. 



5. METTAG0mA^AVAPU j OT#A. 

1. ' I ask thee, O Bhagavat, tell me this,' — so 
said the venerable Mettagu, — ' I consider thee 
accomplished and of a cultivated mind, why are 
these (creatures), whatsoever they are of many kinds 
in the world, always subject to pain ? ' (1048) 

2. 'Thou mayest well ask me concerning the 
origin of pain, — O Mettagu,' so said Bhagavat, — 

1 Parovardnfti pardni to. orani to. parattabhavasakattabhav&- 
dtni parani ka. orani to. ti vuttam hoti. Commentator, 
[io] O 



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194 pArAyanavagga. 



' I will explain that to thee in the way I myself 
know it: originating in the upadhis pains arise, 
whatsoever they are, of many kinds in the 
world. (1049) 

3. ' He who being ignorant creates upadhi, that 
fool again undergoes pain ; therefore let not the 
wise man create upadhi, considering (that this is) 
the birth and origin of pain.' ( I o5°) 

4. Mettagu: 'What we have asked thee thou 
hast explained to us ; another (question) I ask thee, 
answer that, pray: How do the wise cross the 
stream, birth and old age, and sorrow and lamenta- 
tion ? Explain that thoroughly to me, O Muni, for 
this thing (dhamma) is well known to thee.' (105 1) 

5. ' I will explain the Dhamma to thee, — O Met- 
tagu,' so said Bhagavat ; — ' if a man in the visible 
world, without any traditional instruction, has under- 
stood it, and wanders about thoughtful, he may over- 
come desire in the world V ( io 5 2 ) 

6. Mettagu : ' And I take a delight in that, in the 
most excellent Dhamma, O great I si, which if a 
man has understood, and he wanders about thought- 
ful, he may overcome desire in the world.' (1053) 

7. 'Whatsoever thou knowest, — O Mettagu,' so 
said Bhagavat, — ' (of what is) above, below, across, 
and in the middle, taking no delight and no rest 
in these things, let thy mind not dwell on 
existence. ( I 054) 

8. ' Living so, thoughtful, strenuous, let the Bhikkhu. 
wandering about, after abandoning selfishness, birth, 

J Kittayissami te dhammaw — Mettagfi ti Bhagava 1 — 
D'Me dhamme anttihaw 
Yam viditva" sato kai&m 
Tare loke visattikaw. 



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mettag0mAjvavapu£2o?a. 195 

and old age, and sorrow, and lamentation, being a 
wise man, leave pain in this world.' ( io 55) 

9. Mettagu : ' I delight in these words of the 
great I si ; well expounded, O Gotama, is (by thee) 
freedom from upadhi (i. e. Nibbana). Bhagavat 
in truth has left pain, for this Dhamma is well 
known to thee 1 . (!056) 

10. 'And those also will certainly leave pain 
whom thou, O Muni, constantly mayest admonish ; 
therefore I bow down to thee, having come hither, 
O chief (naga), may Bhagavat also admonish me 
constantly.' ^osy) 

11. Buddha: 'The Brahmawa whom I may ac- 
knowledge as accomplished, possessing nothing, 
not cleaving to the world of lust, he surely has 
crossed this stream, and he has crossed over to 
the other shore, free from harshness (akhila), (and) 
free from doubt. ( i c>58) 

12. 'And he is a wise and accomplished man 
in this world; having abandoned this cleaving to 
reiterated existence he is without desire, free from 
woe, free from longing, he has crossed over birth 
and old age, so I say.' (!059) 

Mettaguma»avapu£/£^a is ended. 



1 Et' dbhinandSmi va&> mahesino 
Sukittitam Gotama nfipadhikaw, 
Addha hi BhagavS pahasi dukkhaw, 
TathS. hi te vidito esa dhammo. 
Sukittitaw Gotama nupadhlkan ti ettha anupadhikan ti 
nibbana«j, tarn sandhiya v& Bhagavantaw dlapanto aha sukitti- 
ta/n, &c. Commentator. 



O 2 

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196 parAyanavagga. 



6. DHOTAKAMAJVAVAPUAT^A. 

1. ' I ask thee, O Bhagavat, tell me this,' — so 
said the venerable Dhotaka, — ' I long for thy word, 
O great I si ; let one, having listened to thy utter- 
ance, learn his own extinction.' (1060) 

2. ' Exert thyself then, — O Dhotaka,' so said 
Bhagavat, — 'being wise and thoughtful in this world, 
let one, having listened to my utterance, learn his 
own extinction.' (1061) 

3. Dhotaka : ' I see in the world of gods and 
men a Brahma«a wandering about, possessing no- 
thing; therefore I bow down to thee, O thou all- 
seeing one, free me, O Sakka, from doubts.' (1062) 

4. Buddha : ' I shall not go to free any one in 
the world who is doubtful, O Dhotaka ; when thou 
hast learned the best Dhamma, then thou shalt cross 
this stream 1 .' (1063) 

5. Dhotaka : ' Teach (me), O Brahmawa, having 
compassion (on me), the Dhamma of seclusion (i.e. 
Nibbana), that I may understand (it and) that I, 
without falling into many shapes like the air, 
may wander calm and independent in this 
world 2 .' (?) (1064) 

1 Nahaz* gamissSmi pamo£an$ya 
Kathawkathw* Dhotaka kan£i loke, 
Dhammaw £a se/ffam Sg£nam$no 
Evawz tuvaw ogham imaw taresi. 

* Anusasa brahme karuwayamano 
Vivekadhamma/w yam ahaw vigzn%am 
YathShaw ak&so va avyapaggamano * 
Idh' eva santo asito foreyyaw. 

* Nanappakaratam anapaggamano. Commentator. 



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upasIvamAjvavapu kkhX. 197 

6. ' I will explain to thee peace 1 , — O Dhotaka,' 
so said Bhagavat ; — ' if a man in the visible world, 
without any traditional instruction, has understood 
it, and wanders about thoughtful, he may overcome 
desire in the world.' (1065) 

7. Dhotaka: 'And I take delight in that, the 
highest peace 2 , O great Isi, which if a man has 
understood, and he wanders about thoughtful, he 
may overcome desire in the world.' (1066) 

8. 'Whatsoever thou knowest, — O Dhotaka,' so 
said Bhagavat, — ' (of what is) above, below, across, 
and in the middle, knowing this to be a tie in the 
world, thou must not thirst for reiterated ex- 
istence.' (!067) 

Dhotakama»avapu/&6£a is ended. 



7. UPASiVAMAiWWAPlLOT^A. 

1. 'Alone, O Sakka, and without assistance I 
shall not be able to cross the great stream,' — so 
said the venerable Upasiva; — 'tell me an object, 
O thou all-seeing one, by means of which one may 
cross this stream.' (1068) 

2. ' Having in view nothingness, being thought- 
ful, — O Upasiva,' so said Bhagavat, — 'by the 
reflection of nothing existing shalt thou cross the 
stream ; having abandoned sensual pleasures, being 
loath of doubts, thou shalt regard the extinction of 
desire (i. e. Nibbana), both day and night 3 .' (1069) 

1 Santiw. * Santim uttamaw. 

* Akinkafinam pekkhamano satima — UpasM ti Bhagava — 

N' atthiti nissaya tarassu ogham, 

Kame pahaya virato kathahi 

Tashakkhayaw rattamahabhi passa. 



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198 pArayanavagga. 



3. Upastva: 'He whose passion for all sensual 
pleasures has departed, having resorted to nothing- 
ness, after leaving everything else, and being deli- 
vered in the highest deliverance by knowledge, will he 
remain there without proceeding further 1 ?' (1070) 

4. ' He whose passion for all sensual pleasures 
has departed, — O Upasiva,' so said Bhagavat, — 
' having resorted to nothingness after leaving every- 
thing else, and being delivered in the highest 
deliverance by knowledge, he will remain there 
without proceeding further.' i 10 ? 1 ) 

5. Upasiva: 'If he remains there without pro- 
ceeding further for a multitude of years, O thou 
all-seeing one, (and if) he becomes there tranquil 
and delivered, will there be consciousness for such 
a one 2 ?' ( ro 7 2 ) 

6. 'Asa flame blown about by the violence of 
the wind, — O Upasiva,' so said Bhagavat, — 'goes 
out, cannot be reckoned (as existing), even so a 
Muni, delivered from name and body, disappears, 
and cannot be reckoned (as existing) V (1073) 

7. Upasiva : ' Has he (only) disappeared, or does 
he not exist (any longer), or is he for ever free 

1 Sabbesu kamesu yo vftarago 

Akm£awwa« nissito hitva-m-awia»i 

Sanwivimokhe parame vimutto 

Ti///5e nu so tattha ananuyayi. 
8 Titthe /4e so tattha ananuyayf 

Pfigam pi vassanaw samanta£akkhu 

Tatth' eva so slti siyi vimutto 

Bhavetha virin&nam tath£vidhassa ? 
8 AM yatha vatavegena khitto 

Atthaw paleti na upeti sawkhaw 

Evara muni namakaya vimutto 

Atthaw paleti na upeti sawkhaCT. 



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nandauXnavatvkkhX. 199 

from sickness? Explain that thoroughly to me, 
O Muni, for this Dhamma is well known to 
thee 1 .' (1074) 

8. 'For him who has disappeared there is no 
form, O Upaslva,' — so said Bhagavat, — 'that by 
which they say he is, exists for him no longer, when 
all things (dhamma) have been cut off, all (kinds 
of) dispute are also cut off 2 .' ( io 75) 

Upastvama«avapu>&&£a is ended. 



8. NANDAMAiVAVAFUA'Ar/fA. 

1. 'There are Munis in the world/ — so said the 
venerable Nanda, — 'so people say. How is this 
(understood) by thee ? Do they call him a Muni 
who is possessed of knowledge or him who is pos- 
sessed of life 3 ?' ( 1076) 

2. Buddha : ' Not because of (any philosophical) 
view, nor of tradition, nor of knowledge, O Nanda, 
do the expert call (any one) a Muni ; (but) such as 
wander free from woe, free from desire, after having 
secluded themselves, those I call Munis 4 .' (1077) 

1 Atthangato so uda va so n' atthi 

Udahu ve sassatiya arogo, 

Tam me munt sadhu viyakarohi, 

Tatha" hi te vidito esa dhammo. 
1 Atthangatassa na pama«am atthi, 

Yena nam v&ggu turn tassa n' atthi, 

Sabbesu dhammesu samfihatesu 

Samuhat& vadapathapi sabbe. 
* .#a>*(lpapanna»» no vavmim vadanti 

Udabu ve ^tviten' fipapannaw ? 
4 Na ditthiya na sutiyd na wawena 

Munin fa Nanda kusala vadanti, 



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200 PARAYANAVAGGA. 



3. 'All these Sama«as and Brahma«as,' — so said 
the venerable Nanda, — ' say that purity conies from 
(philosophical) views, and from tradition, and from 
virtue and (holy) works, and in many (other) ways. 
Did they, in the way in which they lived in the 
world, cross over birth and old age, O venerable 
man ? I ask thee, O Bhagavat, tell me this.' (1078) 

4. ' All these Samawas and Brahma«as, O Nanda,' 
— so said Bhagavat, — ' say that purity comes from 
(philosophical) views, and from tradition, and from 
virtue and (holy) works, and in many (other) ways ; 
still they did not, in the way in which they lived 
in the world, cross over birth and old age, so 
I say.' (*079) 

5. ' All these Sama«as and Brahma#as,' — so said 
the venerable Nanda, — ' say that purity comes from 
(philosophical) views, and from tradition, and from 
virtue and (holy) works, and in many (other) ways ; 
if thou, O Muni, sayest that such have not crossed 
the stream, who then in the world of gods and men 
crossed over birth and old age, O venerable man ? 
I ask thee, O Bhagavat, tell me this.' (1080) 

6. 'I do not say that all Samarcas and Brahma- 
was, — O Nanda,' so said Bhagavat, — 'are shrouded 
by birth and old age ; those who, after leaving in 
this world what has been seen or heard or thought, 
and all virtue and (holy) works, after leaving every- 
thing of various kinds, after penetrating desire, are 
free from passion, such indeed I call men that have 
crossed the stream 1 .' (108 1) 



Visenikatva anight nirasa' 
.ffaranti ye te munayo ti brfimi. 
1 Naha»? 'sabbe sama«abrahma»Sse 
Gati^ardya nivut£ ' ti brfimi, 



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UEMAKAMANAWAPVKKHA. 201 

7. Nanda : ' I delight in these words of the great 
I si ; well expounded (by thee), O Gotama, is freedom 
from upadhi (i. e. Nibbana) ; those who, after leaving 
in this world what has been seen or heard or thought, 
and all virtue and (holy) works, after leaving every- 
thing of various kinds, after penetrating desire, are 
free from passion, such I call men that have crossed 
the stream.' (1082) 

Nandama#avapu&&£a is ended. 



9. HEMAKAMAiWVVAPlLO^A. 

1. 'Those who before in another world,' — so said 
the venerable Hemaka, — ' explained to me the doc- 
trine of Gotama, saying, " So it was, so it will be," 
all that (was only) oral tradition, all that (was only) 
something that increased (my) doubts 1 . (1083) 

2. 'I took no pleasure in that, but tell thou me the 
Dhamma that destroys desire, O Muni, which if a 
man has understood, and he wanders about thought- 
ful, he may cross desire in the world.' (1084) 

3. Buddha : ' In this world (much) has been seen, 



Ye s' idha fatthzm va sutaz» mutant va 
Stlabbataw vapi pahaya sabba/» 
Anekarfipam pi pahaya sabbaw 
Taflhaw parinwaya anasavase 
Te ve nara oghati»«a ti brftmi. 
Ye me pubbe viyaka/»su 
Hurazw Gotamasasanaw 
M-asi iti bhavissati 
Sabban turn itihttiha/w 
Sabban tazs takkava<&ftana«. 



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202 pArAyanavagga. 



heard, and thought ; the destruction of passion and 
of wish for the dear objects that have been per- 
ceived, O Hemaka, is the imperishable state of 
Nibbana. (1085) 

4. 'Those who, having understood this, are 
thoughtful, calm, because they have seen the 
Dhamma, tranquil and divine, such have crossed 
desire in this world 1 .' (1086) 

Hemakam4«avapui^a is ended. 



10. TODEYYAMAiVAVAPUA'A^A. 

1. ' He in whom there live no lusts,' — so said the 
venerable Todeyya, — ' to whom there is no desire, 
and who has overcome doubt, what sort of deliver- 
ance is there for him ?' (1087) 

2. ' He in whom there live no lusts, — O Todeyya,' 
so said Bhagavat, — ' to whom there is no desire, and 
who has overcome doubt, for him there is no other 
deliverance.' (1088) 

3. Todeyya : ' Is he without breathing or is he 
breathing, is he possessed of understanding or is he 
forming himself an understanding 2 ? Explain this to 
me, O thou all-seeing one, that I may know a Muni, 
O Sakka.' (1089) 

1 Etad arm&ya ye sat& 
Di//^adhammabhinibbuti 
Upasantl ks. tedasS(?)* 
T\nt& loke visattika/ra. 

2 Nir&saso so uda Ssasino 
PanMttava' so uda pawwakappf. 

* B reads ye satA instead of tedasS. 



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KAPPAMAtfAVAPUJTirffA. 203 

4. Buddha : 'He is without breathing, he is not 
breathing, he is possessed of understanding, and he 
is not forming himself an understanding ; know, O 
Todeyya, that such is the Muni, not possessing any- 
thing, not cleaving to lust and existence.' (1090) 

Todeyyama«avapu^&£& is ended. 



11. KAPPAMAiVAVAPU^O'.tfA. 

1. ' For those who stand in the middle of the 
water,' — so said the venerable Kappa, — ' in the for- 
midable stream that has set in, for those who are 
overcome by decay and death, tell me of an island, 
O venerable man, and tell thou me of an island that 
this (pain) may not again come on 1 .' (1091) 

2. ' For those who stand in the middle of the 
water, — O Kappa,' so said Bhagavat, — ' in the for- 
midable stream that has set in, for those overcome 
by decay and death, I will tell thee of an island, 
O Kappa. (1092) 

3. 'This matchless island, possessing nothing (and) 
grasping after nothing, I call Nibb&na, the destruc- 
tion of decay and death 2 . (1093) 

1 Tvan ia, me dfpam* akkhihi 

Yatha 1 yid&m n&paraw siyd. 
8 Akiw^anawz an&d&naa* 
Eta»? dfpa« anaparaw 
Nibb&naw iti naw brfimi 
(7ar£ma££uparikkhaya»?. 
Akiw^anan ti kin£anapa/ipakkha*», an&d&nan ti Sd&napa/i- 
pakkhaw, kin&m&d&navfipasaman ti vuttaw hoti. Commentator. 
* B reads disam. 



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204 PARAYANAVAGGA. 



4. ' Those who, having understood this, are 
thoughtful (and) calm, because they have seen the 
Dhamma, do not fall into the power of Mara, and 
are not the companions of Mara.' (1094) 

Kappama»avapu/£/£^a is ended. 



1 2. GAT U K AiWVI TAANAVAVUKKHA. 

1. ' Having heard of a hero free from lust,' — so 
said the venerable Gatukannin, — ' who has crossed 
the stream, I have come to ask him who is free 
from lust ; tell me the seat of peace, O thou with 
the born eye (of wisdom), tell me this truly, O 
Bhagavat. ( J 095) 

2. ' For Bhagavat wanders about after having 
conquered lust as the hot sun (conquers) the earth 
by its heat ; tell the Dhamma to me who has (only) 
little understanding, O thou of great understanding, 
that I may ascertain how to leave in this world 
birth and decay.' (1096) 

3. 'Subdue thy greediness for sensual pleasures, — 
O Gatukannin,' so said Bhagavat, — 'having consi- 
dered the forsaking of the world as happiness, let 
there not be anything either grasped after or re- 
jected by thee 1 . (1097) 

4. ' What is before thee, lay that aside ; let there be 
nothing behind thee; if thou wilt not grasp after what 
is in the middle, thou wilt wander calm 2 . (1098) 

1 K&mesu vinaya gedha/n, 

Nekkhammaw da/Mu khemato 

Uggahftaw nirattaw v£ 

M& te viggittha kinkan&m. 
1 Comp. supra, Attada«<fosutta, v. 15. 



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BHADRAVUDHAMAJVAVAPUJTCffA. 2O5 

5. ' For him whose greediness for name and form 

is wholly gone, O Brahma»a, for him there are no 

passions by which he might fall into the power of 

death.' (1099) 

Gatuka»mma#avapu£>fe6a is ended. 



13. BHADRAVUDHAMAWAVAPUA'AT/A. 

1. 'I entreat the wise (Buddha), the houseless, who 
cuts off desire,' — so (said) the venerable Bhadravu- 
dha, — 'who is free from commotion, forsakes joy, has 
crossed the stream, is liberated, and who leaves time 
behind ; having heard the chiefs (word), they will 
go away from here \ (1 100) 

2. ' Different people have come together from 
the provinces, longing (to hear) thy speech, O hero ; 
do thou expound it thoroughly to them, for this 
Dhamma is well known to thee.' ( II01 ) 

3. ' Let one wholly subdue the desire of grasping 
(after everything), — O Bhadravudha,' so said Bha- 
gavat, — 'above, below, across, and in the middle; 
for whatever they grasp after in the world, just by 
that Mara follows the man. (1 102) 

4. 'Therefore, knowing this, let not the thoughtful 
Bhikkhu grasp after anything in all the world, con- 
sidering as creatures of desire this generation, stick- 
ing fast in the realm of death.' (1 J03) 

Bhadravudhamawavapui^M is ended. 

1 Gbamgaham t&nha&Midajn anegam 
Nandi»JfahaOT oghati«»a»» vimuttaw* 
Kappaw^ahaw abhiya£e sumedham, 
Sutvana nagassa apanamissanti ito. 



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206 PARAYANAVAGGA. 



14. UDAYAMAATAVAPUATsTZfA. 

i. 'To Buddha who is sitting meditating, free 
from pollution,' — so said the venerable Udaya, — 
' having performed his duty, who is without passion, 
accomplished in all things (dhamma), I have come 
with a question ; tell me the deliverance by know- 
ledge, the splitting up of ignorance.' (i 104) 

2. '(It consists in) leaving lust and desire, — O 
Udaya,' so said Bhagavat, — 'and both (kinds of) 
grief, and driving away sloth, and warding off mis- 
behaviour. (1 105) 

3. ' The deliverance by knowledge which is puri- 
fied by equanimity and thoughtfulness and preceded 
by reasoning on Dhamma I will tell thee, the splitting 
up of ignorance V ( 1 106) 

4. Udaya : ' What is the bond of the world, what 
is its practice ? By the leaving of what is Nibbana 
said to be 2 ?' ( IIC 7) 

5. Buddha : ' The world is bound by pleasure, 
reasoning is its practice; by the leaving of desire 
Nibbana is said to be.' (1108) 

6. Udaya : ' How does consciousness cease in 
him that wanders thoughtful ? Having come to ask 
thee, let us hear thy words.' (1 109) 

1 UpekhisatisawsuddhaOT 

Dhammatakkapure^avawi 

A««ivimokha»« pabrumi 

Aviggiya. pabhedanaw*. 
1 K\m su samyoga.no loko, 

Kim su tassa vi/Jarawa' 

Kiss' assa vippahinena 

NibMnaw iti vuAiati? 



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VOSALAMANAVATVKKHA. 207 

7. Buddha: 'For him who both inwardly and out- 
wardly does not delight in sensation, for him who thus 
wanders thoughtful, consciousness ceases.' (mo) 

Udayama«avapu^M is ended. 



15. P0SALAMAA r AVAPU J Ori7A. 

1. 'He who shows the past (births, &c.),' — so said 
the venerable Posala, — 'who is without desire and 
has cut off doubt, to him who is accomplished in 
all things (dhamma), I have come supplicatingly 
with a question. (i 1 1 x) 

2. ' O Sakka, I ask about his knowledge who is 
aware of past shapes, who casts off every corporeal 
form, and who sees that there exists nothing either 
internally or externally ; how can such a one be led 
(by anybody) * ? ' ( 1 1 1 2) 

3. ' Tathagata, knowing all the faces of con- 
sciousness, — O Posala,' so said Bhagavat, — ' knows 
(also) him who stands delivered, devoted to that 
(object) 2 . ( IIX 3) 

4. 'Having understood that the bonds of pleasure 
do not originate in nothingness (?), he sees clearly in 

1 VibhfitartipasaiwMSsa 

Sabbak&yapahlyino 

AggAa.tta.ii ka bahiddha' ka. 

Natthi kwUiti passato 

ftfanam SakkanupuiMami, 

Kathara neyyo tath&vidho. 
* Viwwa»atthitiyo sabba — Posala ti BhagavS — 

Abhig&nam Tathagato 

Ti/Mantam cnaw ^-anati 

Vimuttaw tappar&yanaw. 



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2o8 parayanavagga. 



this (matter), this (is) the knowledge of a perfect, 

accomplished Brahma#a V ( UI 4) 

Posalama#avapuiiM is ended. 



16. MOGHARA6AMAA>AVAPUA'A'.#A. 

i. ' Twice have I asked Sakka,' — so said the 
venerable Moghara^an, — ' but the clearly-seeing has 
not explained it to me ; if the divine Isi is asked 
for the third time, he will explain it, so I have 
heard. ( IIl 5) 

2. 'There is this world, the other world, Brah- 
man's world together with the world of the gods ; 
I do not know thy view, the famous Gotama's 
(view). ( IIJ 6) 

3. ' To this man who sees what is good I have 
come supplicatingly with a question : How is any 
one to look upon the world that the king of death 
may not see him ? ' (1 1 1 7) 

4. ' Look upon the world as void, O Moghara^an, 
being always thoughtful ; having destroyed the view 
of oneself (as really existing), so one may overcome 
death ; the king of death will not see him who thus 
regards the world V ( 1 1 1 8) 

Moghara^ama/savapuii^a is ended. 

1 Akiw^aJmisambhavaw 

Nandisa«yo§ana»» iti 

Evam evawz abhmn&ya 

Tato tattha vipassati, 

Etarn n&nam tathawtassa 

Brahmawassa vuslmato. 
* Comp. Dhp. v. 170. 



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PINGIYAMAJVAVAPUJnrffA. 209 

17. PINGIYAMAiVAVAPUA'A'^A. 

1. 'I am old, feeble, colourless,' — so said the vene- 
rable Pingiya, — ' my eyes are not clear, my hearing 
is not good ; lest I should perish a fool on the way, 
tell me the Dhamma, that I may know how to leave 
birth and decay in this world.' (i 119) 

2. ' Seeing others afflicted by the body, — O Pin- 
giya,' so said Bhagavat, — ' (seeing) heedless people 
suffer in their bodies; — therefore, O Pingiya, shalt 
thou be heedful, and leave the body behind, that thou 
mayest never come to exist again.' (1 1 20) 

3. Pingiya : ' Four regions, four intermediate re- 
gions, above and below, these are the ten regions ; 
there is nothing which has not been seen, heard, or 
thought by thee, and (is there) anything in the world 
not understood (by thee) ? Tell (me) the Dhamma, 
that I may know how to leave birth and decay in 
this world.' ( II21 ) 

4. ' Seeing men seized with desire, — O Pingiya,' so 
said Bhagavat, — ' tormented and overcome by decay, 
— therefore thou, O Pingiya, shalt be heedful, and 
leave desire behind, that thou mayest never come 
to exist again.' (1122) 

Pingiyama#avapu^£^a is ended. 



This said Bhagavat, living in Magadha at Pasa- 
«aka Aetiya (the Rock Temple). Sought by sixteen 
Brahma«as, the followers (of Bavart, and) questioned 
by each of them in turn, he responded to the ques- 
tions. If a man, having understood the meaning 
and tenor of each question, lives according to the 
Dhamma, then he will go to the further shore of 
decay and death, for these Dhammas lead to the 
[10] p 

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2IO PARAYANAVAGGA. 

further shore, and therefore this order of Dhamma 
was called ' the way to the other shore.' 

i, 2. A^ita, Tissametteyya, Pu»»aka and Met- 
tagu, Dhotaka and Upaslva, Nanda and Hemaka, 
the two Todeyya and Kappa, and the wise Gatu- 
ka»»in, Bhadravudha and Udaya, and also the Brah- 
ma#a Posala, and the wise Moghara^an, and Pingiya 
the great Isi, (1123, 1124) 

3. These went up to Buddha, the Isi of exemplary 
conduct; asking subtle questions they went up to 
the supreme Buddha. ( II2 5) 

4. Buddha, being asked, responded to their ques- 
tions truly, and in responding to the questions the 
Muni delighted the Brahmawas. (1126) 

5. They, having been delighted by the clearly- 
seeing Buddha, the kinsman of the Adidas, devoted 
themselves to a religious life near the man of excel- 
lent understanding. "* (11 2 7) 

6. He who lived according to what had been 
taught by Buddha (in answer) to each single ques- 
tion, went from this shore to the other shore. (1 1 28) 

7. From this shore he went to the other shore 
entering upon the most excellent way; this way 
is to lead to the other shore, therefore it is called 
'the way to the other shore.' (1129) 



8. ' I will proclaim accordingly the way to the 
further shore,' — so said the venerable Pingiya ; — ' as 
he saw it, so he told it ; the spotless, the very wise, 
the passionless, the desireless lord, for what reason 
should he speak falsely ? (1 1 30) 

9. ' Well ! I will praise the beautiful voice of 
(Buddha), who is without stain and folly, and who 
has left behind arrogance and hypocrisy. (U31) 

10. 'The darkness-dispelling Buddha, the all- 



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PARAYANASUTTA. 211 



seeing, who thoroughly understands the world 1 , 
has overcome all existences, is free from passion, 
has left behind all pain, is rightly called (Buddha), 
he, O Brahma#a, has come to me. ( XI 3 2 ) 

ii. 'As the bird, having left the bush, takes 
up his abode in the fruitful forest, even so I, having 
left men of narrow views, have reached the great 
sea, like the hawsa 2 . (i 133) 

1 2. ' Those who before in another world explained 
the doctrine of Gotama, saying, " So it was, so it 
will be," all that was only oral tradition, all that was 
only something that increased my doubts 3 . (1 134) 

1 3. ' There is only one abiding dispelling darkness, 
that is the high-born, the luminous, Gotama of great 
understanding, Gotama of great wisdom, (1 135) 

14. ' Who taught me the Dhamma, the instanta- 
neous, the immediate, the destruction of desire, free- 
dom from distress, whose likeness is nowhere*.' (1 136) 

1 5. Bavarl : ' Canst thou stay away from him even 
for a moment, O Pingiya, from Gotama of great under- 
standing, from Gotama of great wisdom, i*i37) 



Lokantagft. 

Digo yathS kubbanakaw pahiya 
Bahupphalaa* kinanaw avaseyya 
Evam p' ahaw appadasse pahaya 
Mahodadhiw hawso-r-iv' agg^apatto. 
Ye 'me pubbe viyakawsu 
huraw Gotamasasanaw 
i££-asi iti bhavissati 
sabban taw itihitihaw 
sabban taw takkaVa^anaw. 
Yo me dhammam adesesi 
Sandi/Mikam akilikaw 
Tanhakkhayam anltikaw 
Yassa n' atthi upamS kvati. 
P 2 



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212 PARAYANAVAGGA. 



1 6. 'Who taught thee the Dhamma, the instan- 
taneous, the immediate, the destruction of desire, 
freedom from distress, whose likeness is no- 
where ?' (1138) 

1 7. Pingiya : ' I do not stay away from him even 
for a moment, O Brdhma«a, from Gotama of great 
understanding, from Gotama of great wisdom, (11 39) 

18. 'Who taught me the Dhamma, the instan- 
taneous, the immediate, the destruction of desire, 
freedom from distress, whose likeness is no- 
where. (1140) 

19. ' I see him in my mind and with my eye, 
vigilant, O Brahma»a, night and day; worshipping 
I spend the night, therefore I think I do not stay 
away from him. ( II 4 1 ) 

20. ' Belief and joy, mind and thought incline 
me towards the doctrine of Gotama; whichever 
way the very wise man goes, the very same I am 
inclined to 1 . (?) ( XI 4 2 ) 

21. 'Therefore, as I am worn out and feeble, 
my body does not go there, but in my thoughts 
I always go there, for my mind, O Brahma«a, is 
joined to him. ( TI 43) 

22. ' Lying in the mud (of lusts) wriggling, I 
jumped from island to island; then I saw the per- 
fectly Enlightened, who has crossed the stream, and 
is free from passion.' (1144) 

23. Bhagavat 2 : 'As Vakkali was delivered by 

1 Saddha" ka. ptti ka. mano sati ka. 
Namenti me Gotamasdsanamhl (?), 
Yam yam disaw va^-ati bhuripanno 
Sa tena ten' eva nato 'bam asmi. 
8 At the conclusion of this (i. e. the preceding) g&th&, Bhagavat, 
who stayed at Savatthi, when seeing the maturity of the minds of 



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PARAYANASUTTA. 213 



faith, (as well as) Bhadrivudha and A/avi-Gotama, 
so thou shalt let faith deliver thee, and thou shalt 
go, O Pingiya, to the further shore of the realm 
of death 1 .' (1145) 

24. Pingiya : ' I am highly pleased at hearing 
the Muni's words ; Sambuddha has removed the 
veil, he is free from harshness, and wise. (1146) 

25. ' Having penetrated (all things) concerning 
the gods, he knows everything of every descrip- 
tion ; the Master will put an end to all questions 
of the doubtful that (will) admit (him). (1 147) 

26. ' To the insuperable, the unchangeable (Nib- 
bana), whose likeness is nowhere, I shall certainly 
go ; in -this (Nibbana) there will be no doubt (left) 
for me, so know (me to be) of a dispossessed 
mind 1 .' (1148) 

Pirayanavagga is ended. 

Suttanipata is ended. 



Pingiya and Bavari, shed a golden light. Pingiya, who sat pic- 
turing Buddha's virtues to Bavari, having seen the light, looked 
round, saying, 'What is this?' And when he saw Bhagavat 
standing, as it were, before him, he said to the Brahmawa Bavari : 
'Buddha has come.' The Brahma«a rose from his seat and stood 
with folded hands. Bhagavat, shedding a light, showed himself to 
the Brahmawa, and knowing what was beneficial for both, he said 
this stanza while addressing Pingiya. Commentator. 
1 Yatha ahu Vakkali muttasaddho 
Bhadrivudho A/avi-Gotamo ka. 
Evam «va tvam pi pamun£ayassu saddham, 
Gamissasi tvam Pingiya ma££udheyyapara«s. 
5 Asamhiram asawkuppaw 
Yassa n* atthi upama kvaft 
Addha gamissdmi, na me 'ttha kawkha, 
Evam padharehi avitt&iittara. 



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INDEX. 



The figures of this Index refer to the pages of the Translation, and 
the numerals to the Introduction. 



Ababu hell, 121. 

Abbuda hell, 121, 122. 

Adiiii family, 8, 69, 93, 174, 210. 

AggaVava temple, 57. 

Aggika-Bharadvaja brahmana, 20. 

Ag-aniya, high-bred, 92. 

A^ita-Kesakambali titthakara, xii, 

86. 
Asjita manava, xii, 188, 190. 
Arivika brahmana, xiii, 63. 
Anaha hell, 121. 
Ahara, food? 139. 
Akhila, free from harshness, 78. 
Akiniana, possessionless, xii. 
Alwis, 20, 108. 
A/aka city, 184, 188. 
A/avaka yakkha, 29. 
A/avJcity, 29, 31, 57. 
A/avi-Gotama, 213. 
Amagandha brahmana, 40. 
Anagamin, who does not return, 1 32, 

133. 

AnathapiWika, 17, 20, 43, 48, 62, 

118. 
Anguttarapa country, 96, 99. 
Anupadisesa, not having the upadis 

remaining, 167. 
Anuvidita, well-informed, 91. 
Annatitthiyapubba, 95. 
Apana city, 96, 99. 
Appamada, 55. 
Arahat, saint, 15, 80. 
Arambha, exertion, 1 39. 
Arati, daughter of Mara, 159. 
Ariya, noble, 92, 122. 
Ariyamagga, the noble way, 150. 
Ascetic, xv. 
Ascetic life, xv, 67. 
Asipattavana hell, 124. 
Asita isi, 125. 
Asoka, inscriptions of, xii. 
Assaka kingdom, 184. 



Assamedha, horse-sacrifice, 50. 
Assembly of fihikkhus, 52, 66, 80, 

85,94.ii7,i3*- 
Asuddhadhamma, impure, 170. 
Asura demon, 51, 125. 
Athabbana-veda, 176. 
Attada/u/asutta, 177. 
Aiata hell, 121. 
Aviggti, ignorance, xv, 134. 

Bamboo tree, 6. 

Bavari brahmana, xii, 184. 

Belief, religious, 3. 

Bhadravudha manava, xiii, 205, 213. 

Bharadva^a ma«ava, xiii, 108. 

Bhovidi, 113. 

Bimbisara, king, 67, 99. 

Bodhisatta, 125. 

Body, xvi. 

Bracelets, 7. 

Brahmabandhu, 40. 

Brahman, 14, 23, 30, 45, 78, 117, 

142, 189. 
Brahmanadhammikasutta, 47. 
Brahman Sahampati, 119. 
Brahma world, 23, 84, 90, 96, 208. 
Buddha, his relation to philosophy, 

xii ; sprung from the Samanas, 

xiv ; his titles, xv. 
Buddhistic formula, xiii. 

Cows are slain, xiii. 

Dakkhinagiri, 11. 

Dakkhinapatha, 184. 

Dasaratha-Gataka, 106. 

Davids, T.W. Rhys, 66, 75, 131. 

Deity, 17, 43, 86, 186. 

Desire, xv. 

Deva, god, 45, 51, 52, 75, 94, 125, 

126, 142, 189. 
Dhammaiariyasutta, 46. 



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2l6 



SUTTA-NIPATA. 



Dbammapada, xii, 6, 7, 10, 11, 16, 
34, 4»> 54. 56, 77, 82, 113, "a, 
139, l6 4> '79, l8l > '9°> io8 - 

Dhammaragan, a religious king, 102. 

Dhammika uplsaka, 6a. 

Dhammavinaya, 95. 

Dbaniya herdsman, 3. 

Dhira, firm, 91. 

Dhotaka manava, xii, 196. 

Disputants, xiii, 157, 167, 169- 

Ditttasutamuta, xiii. 

DittM, philosophy, xii, xiii. 

Di/Afrigata, philosopher, xiii. 

Diuirigatika, philosopher, 158. 

Diȣinivesa, xiii. 

Du«,6atf£akasutta, 148. 

DvayatSnupassanisutta, 131. 

Ekana/a, a brahmana village, 1 1. 
Ekodi, intent on one object, 181. 
Elambu.ga lotus, 163. 
Eravana, king of elephants, 63. 
Etymology, 98. 
Extinction, xvi. 

Feer, Lion, 17, 24, 43. 
Fire, offerings to, xiii, 74. 
Forefathers, 51. 

GahaM&a, householder, 7, 22. 

Ga\uMbi creeper, 5. 

Gang!, 30, 45. 

Gaviphala, 40. 

GayS, 45. 

G\ggba.idt& mountain, 80. 

Gihin, householder, 7, 10. 

Giribba^a city, 67. 

Godhavari river, 184. 

Gogerly, 17, 24, 43. 

Gonaddha city, 188. 

Gospel of S. John, 1 1, 102 ; S. Luke, 
3 ; S. Matthew, 40, 69. 

Gotama, 11, 12, 13, 14, 20, 23, 24, 
26, 27, 38, 48, 52, 63, 72, 76, 79, 
80, 81, 85, 88, 94, 97, 100, 102, 
109, no, 117,128, 162, 177,201, 
208, 211; cf. Samana Gotama. 

Grammarian, 98. 

Grimblot, xii, 17, 24, 43. 

Guhatt£akasutta, 147. 

Ganussoni brahmana, xiii, 109. 
Gappa, recitation, xiii, no. 
Garasutta, 154. 
Gataka, 8, 16, 32. 
Gatukannin manava, xiii, 204. 



Getavana, 17, ao, 43, 48, 62, 72, 118. 
Gina, conqueror, 63, 127, 186. 

Harasa, 211. 

Hardy, Spence, n, 20, 48. 
Hell, 23, 41, 55, lai, 122, 133, 124. 
Hemaka manava, xiii, 201. 
Hemavata yakkha, 26. 
Himavanta mountain, 68. 
Hirisutta, 42. 
Householder, 62, 81. 
Hymns, xiii, 23, 42, 50, 98, 126, 176, 
184, 186, 188. 

U£Mnaj»kala, 108. 
Inda god, 51, 52, 125, 189. 
Iajgita, commotion, 140. 
Isi, sage, 28, 34, 48, 59, 75, 116, 125, 
174,192,196,197, 201, 208,210. 
Itihasa, xiii, 98, 189. 

Kalahavivadasutta, 164. 
Kalandakanivapa, 85, 87. 
Kamabhava, 116. 
K&masutta, 146. 
Kanha = Mara, 59, 71, 182. 
Kanhabhi^atika, of black origin, 103. 
Kanhasiri isi, 124, 126. 
Kapilasutta, 46. 
Kapilavatthu city, 186, 188. 
Kappa, time, xvi, 89, 90, 92. 
Kappa manava, xiii, 203. 
Kappa -Nigrodhakappa, 58. 
Kappatita, who has overcome time, 

6a. 
Kappayana or Kappiya brahmana = 

Nigrodhakappa, 59. 
Kasibharadvaga brShmana, n. 
Kassapa buddha, 40. 
Keniya gsuila, 96. 
Ke/ubha, xiii, 98, 189. 
Khaggavisana, rhinoceros, 6. 
Khara yakkha, 45. 
Khari measure, 121. 
Khattiya, 19, 23, 52, 68, 75, 102, 192. 
Khema = Nibbana, 171. 
Khetta^ina, who has conquered the 

regions, 90. 
Kimsilasutta, 54. 
KokSliya bhikkhu, 118. 
Kola«i6i, 119. 
Kosala country, 48, 68, 74, 121, 184, 

186. 
Kosambf city, 188. 
Ko/i number, 124. 
Kovilara tree, 7. 



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INDEX. 



217 



Kumuda hell, 121. 
KuppapafiMasanti, 149. 
Kusala, happy, 90. 
Kusinara city, 18S. 
Kuvera king, 63. 

A'ankin brahmana, xiii, 109. 
A'aniala, 23. 

/faranavat, endowed with the observ- 
ances, 92. 
ATmaka, 40. 
ATmguiaka, 40. 
Mlaviyfihasutta, 167. 
ATunda smith, 15. 

Lalita Vistara, xii. 
Lamp, go out like a, xvi. 
Lokadhamma, the things of the 

world, 44. 
Lumbini country, 125. 

Magadha country, 1 1, 67, 209. 

Magandiyasutta, 159. 

Maggadesaka or Maggadesin, teach- 
ing the way, xiii, 15, 16. 

MaggadQsin, defiling the way, xiii, 
15, 16. 

Magga^g-Aayin = Maggadesaka, xiii, 

15- 

Maggagina, victorious by the way, 
xiii, 15, 16. 

Maggagivin, living in the way, xiii, 
15, 16. 

Magha manava, 80. 

Ma^g-ifrimanikaya, 108. 

Mahamafigalasutta, 43. 

Mahaparinibb&nasutta, xii. 

Mahaviyfihasutta, 171. 

MaM river, 3. 

Mahissati city, 188. 

Makkhali-Gosala titthakara, xii, 86. 

Mamaka, follower, 176. 

Mara yakkha, the king of death, the 
evil spirit, xv, 5, 14, 30, 45, 69, 
70,71, 94, 96, 103, 106, 135,14s, 
'43, 145, 159, »82, 204, 205. 

Matanga tant&la., 20, 23. 

Matter, xvi. 

Megasthenes, xii. 

Meru mountain, 125. 

Metre, versed in, xiii, 98, 1 10. 

Metta, friendliness, 24. 

Mettagu manava, xii, 193. 

Migaramatar, 131. 

Milindapa«ha, xii. 

MoggaMna thera, 118. 



Moghara^an manava, xiii, 208. 

Mona, wisdom, 131. 

Moneyya, state of wisdom, 128. 

Muir, 125. 

Mfllaphala, 40. 

Muni, ascetic, xv, xvi, 5, 15, 16, 27, 
33, 43, 60, 68, 76, 79, 84, 90, 
93, 94, i° 6 » "8, t29> 131, 148, 
155, 157, 162, 163, 164, 167, 
174, 177, 178, 180, 194, 198, 
199, 200, 201, 203, 210, 213. 

Mu%a grass, 5. 

Muta, xiii. 

Niga, chief; sinless (na+3gas?), 68, 
90, 94, 106, 162, 195. 

Nahataka, cleansed, 90. 

Nahuta number, 124. 

Nalaka, sister's son of Asita, 125,127. 

Namuii = Mara, 69, 71. 

Nanda manava, xii, 199. 

Narada isi, 94. 

NatthikadittAi, sceptic, 41. 

Navtsutta, 52. 

Neraw^ari river, 69. 

Nibbana, xv, xvi, 4, 10, 13, 16, 24, 
31, 32, 33, 34, 39, 44, 58, 61, 
6 h 69, 77, 78, 127, 143, 145, 
155, 157, 171, 178, 179, '95, 
196, 197, 202, 203, 206, 213. 

Nibbuta, happy, 108. 

Nigaw/Aa brahma»a, xiii, 63. 

Niga»f£a-N&taputta titthakara, xii, 
86. 

Nighan^u, vocabulary, xiii, 189. 

Nigrodhakappa brahmana, 57, 58. 

Nirabbuda hell, 121, 122. 

Nirupadhi, free from the elements of 
existence, 115. 

Nissita, dependent, 141. 

Nivesana, resting-place, dogma, xiii. 

Nivissavadin, dogmatist, xiii, 173, 174. 

Obstacles, five, 3. 
Okkaka king, 50, 51, 186. 
Oldenberg, xii. 

Pabba^g-i, leaving the world, 14, 67, 

80. 
Pabbaj-ita, ascetic, 64. 
Pabbata isi, 94. 

Fadaka, versed in metre, xiii, 98, 1 10. 
Padhanasutta, 69. 
Paduma hell, 120, 121, 124. 
Pakudha-Kail&yana titthakara, xii, 

86. 



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Kumnda belL 121. 
Kuppapariiiasanti, 149. 
Kosala, happy, 90. 
Km uo --•■..-:. 
Korera king, 63. 



gfrAHi brahmaxa, xiii, 109 
Zaa£h, 23. 

Xarasarat, 

ances, 92. 
ATmaka, 40. 
JTmgulaka. *c- 

iTulavi 
funda 



with the observ- 




.,*7«- 

Mahi rirer, 3, 
Miiisst- cr.r. .-«. 
lfakkhaiJ-CanblilrtiiiMj-ig u 

*rt*F- Jo,45,*9, 

*, 1*5,143. 



Mogbari^an mian, xiii, 208. 

Mona, wisdom, 131. 

Moneyya, state of wisdom, 118. 

Muir, 125. 

Mulaphala, 40. 

Muni, ascetic, sv, xvi, 5, 15, ,6, j 7 , 
33, 4*. 60, 68, 76, 79, 84, 90, 
93i 94, 106, 128, 129, 131, i 4 8, 
"55, 157, 162, 163, 164, 167, 
'74, 177, 178, 180, 194, 198, 
199,200,201,203,210,213. 

Mu«ja grass, 5. 

Muta, xiii. 

Saga. chief; sinless (na + Sgas?), 68, 
^90,94,106, 162, i 95 . 
aaaataxa, cleansed, 90. 
*" number, 124. 
sister's son of Asita, 125,127. 
- = Mara,69 )7 i. 
■urn, xii, 199. 
J 9*. 

sceptic, 41. 
5*- 

nrer, 69. 
. XT, xri, 4> I0> , J( , 6) , 

6i££ Vll "* 44,S8 » 6 '» 

"*»•». 77. 78, 117, 143. , 4 - 
»* 157, . 7 «, ,78, ,79 , 9 
«*>;*7»™*, 203, 206,2 ,1. 

■ i2*> ,o8 - 

•f" PUtU t,ttha ^ra, xii, 
ggWt, Toeabubry. x iii, ,89 

'Ti^ ^Cements of 
*f^,dq»de n t; i4I 

*£»*», dogma, xiii. 
"* xm ,'73,«74. 



world, 14, 67, 




■-•> •' 



218 



SUTTA-NIPATA. 



Pamada, indolence, 55. 

Pamatta, indolent, 55. 

Pam/ava mountain, 68. 

Pam/ita, wise, 91. 

Patfiavaggiya, 59. 

Papari£a, delusion, 175. 

Parabhavasutta, 17. 

Parama//£akasutta, 152. 

Pirayana, the way to the further 

shore, 184. 
Paribb%a, Paribba^aka, wandering 

mendicant, 22, 92. 
PlrU£atta tree, 10. 
Parinibbuta, happy, blessed, 60, 61, 

76, 136. 
Pariyantaj&rin, wandering on the 

borders, 181. 
Pasanaka ietiya, rock temple, 188, 

209. 
Pasfirasutta, 157. 
PatiM&ana city, 188. 
Pattaphala, 40. 
Pa/iharakapakkha, 66. 
Pava city, 188. 
Fhassa, touch, 136. 
Philosophers, two sorts of, xii, 159. 
Philosophy, no one saved by, xiv. 
Pihgiya manava, xiii, 209. 
Pleasures of sense, 28. 
Pokkharasati brahmana, xiii, 109. 
Posala manava, xiii, 207. 
Pubbarama, 131. 
Pun</arika hell, 121. 
Punnaka manava, xii, 192. 
Purabhedasutta, 162. 
Pfirana-Kassapa titthakara, xii, 86. 
Purisamedha, sacrifice of a man, 50. 

Raga, daughter of Mara, 159. 

R%agaha city, 67, 80, 85, 87. 

Rahu, demon, 76, 83. 

Rahula, Buddha's son, 55. 

Rakkhasa, demon, 51. 

Ratanasutta, 37. 

Revelation, 123. 

Rhinoceros, 6. 

Rflpa, Ruppa, form-possessing, 141. 

Sabhiya paribbag-aka, 85. 

Saketa city, 188. 

S&kiya= Sakya, Sakka, tribe, 69. 

Sakka=Inda, 58, 117. 

Sakka = Buddha, 58, 196, 197, 202, 

207, 208. 
Sakya muni = Buddha, 37. 
Sakya son = Buddha, 96, 109. 



Sakya tribe, 96, 109, 125, 126, 186. 

Sallasutta, 106. 

Sama, equable, same, 179. 

Samaka grass, 40. 

Samana, ascetic, xii, xiii, xiv, 12, 14, 

15, 16, 18, 22, 29, 30, 31, 44, 45, 

47, 71,88, 89, 93. 96, io», 130, 

131,142,164, 168, 170, 177, 200. 
Samana Gotama, xiv, 86, 98, 100, 

101, 109, 165. 
Samanaka, wretched Samana, 20, 45. 
Sambuddha, perfectly enlightened, 

28, 31, 102, 186, 187, 188, 190, 

213. 
Sammlparibb%aniyasutta, 60. 
Sammapasa sacrifice, 50. 
Samkhara, matter, 62, 134, 180. 
Samsira, revolution, transmigration, 

existence, xv, xvi, 89, 115, 133, 

141. 
Sanctification, xiv. 
Sangha, assembly, 37, 38, 105. 
Sanghiri, under-garment, 75. 
San^aya-Bela/^iputta titthakara, xii, 

86. 
Sariputta thera, 103, 118, 180. 
Satagira yakkha, 26. 
Savaka, disciple, 63, 65. 
Savatthi city, 17, 20, 43, 48, 62, 72, 

118, 131, 184, 186,188. 
Savitti hymn, xiii, 75. 
Sayampabha gods, 66. 
Schwanbeck, xii. 
Security, worldly, 3. 
Seeds of existence, xvi. 
Sekha, pupil, 182. 
Sela brahmana, xiii, 96. 
Setavya city, 188. 
Shaveling, 20, 74. 

Signs of a great man,98, 101,102, 1 26. 
Silavata, xiii. 

Sin according to Buddha, xv. 
Snake, 1. 

Sogandhika hell, 121. 
Sopaka caste, 23. 

Sottiya, learned in the revelation, 92. 
Spiegel, 1. 
Subhasitasutta, 72. 
Sudda, man of the servile caste, 52. 
Suddhatt£akasutta, 150. 
Suddhodana king, 126. 
Sugata- Buddha, 5, 38, 65, 73, 115, 

121, 122, 132. 
Suyfiloma yakkha, 45. 
Sundarika river, 74. 
Sundarikabharadva^-a brahmana, 74. 



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INDEX. 



219 



Suta, xiii. 

Systems, philosophical, sixty-three, 
xiii. 

Ta»h3, desire, 137, 159. 
TanhSbhava, 116. 
TSrukkha brahmana, xiii, 109. 
Tathagata, perfect, Buddha, 14, 37, 

39. 4», 58, 77, 78, 103, 190, 

207. 
Teachers, famous, xii, 86. 
Tevigga, perfect in the three Vedas, 

xiii, 98, no, 189. 
Tidasa gods, 125. 
Timbaru fruit, 19. 
Tissametteyya manava, xii, 156, 191. 
Titthiya brahmana, xiii, 63, 170. 
Todeyya brahmana, xiii, 109, 202. 
Trenckner, xii. 
Tusita heaven, 126, 180. 
Tuva/akasutta, 174. 

Udaya manava, xiii, 206. 

IWenf city, 188. 

Upldana, seizure, 138. 

Upadhi, substance, elements of exist- 
ence, xvi, 5, 60, 62, 106, 133, 
150,186,194, 195, 201. 

Upasaka, follower, adherent, 24, 52, 
62, 64, 85. 

Upasampada, priest's orders, 14, 80, 

95- 
Upasiva manava, xii, 197. 
Upekhaka, equable, 163. 
Uposatha, fasting, abstinence, 66, 

131. 
Uppalaka hell, 121. 
Uraga, snake, 1. 
Ussada, desire, 89, 163. * 
U//Mna, exertion, 55. 

V3da, doctrine, 168, 172. 



Vadasila, disputatious, xiii, 63, 109. 

Vakkali, 212. 

VSiipeyya sacrifice, 50. 

Vanasavhaya city, 188. 

Vaftgtsa thera, 57, 73. 

Vasala, Vasalaka, outcast, 20. 

Vasava=Inda, 64. 

VasettAa mlnava, xiii, 108. 

VatthugltM, 56, 128. 

Veda, 23, 98, no, 189. 

Vedagfi, having passed sensation, 91. 

Vedana, sensation, 136. 

VedisS city, 188. 

Ve/uvana, 85, 87. 

Vesali city, 188. 

Vessava»a Kuvera king, 63. 

Vessika, man of the third caste, 52. 

Vetarani river in hell, 124. 

VeyySkarana, grammarian, xiii, 1 10. 

Views, philosophical, 8, 25, 150, 152, 
153, 159, 160, 162, 163, 169, 170, 
171, I73,i74,i99,2oo- 

V^jayasutta, 32. 

Vi^ji, knowledge, xv. 

Vi^aiarawa, science and works, 96, 
99. 

VinijtMaya, resolutions, placita, xiii. 

ViMana, consciousness, 135. 

Viriyavat, firm, 91. 

Visionary, xiv. 

Viveka, seclusion, 174. 

Vocabulary, 98. 

Wheel of the Dhamma, 127. 
Work, 116. 
Works, virtuous, xiv. 
World is void, xvi. 

Yakkha, 25, 29, 45, 72, 78, 167. 
Yoga, attachment, 115. 
Yogakkhema = Nibbana, 69. 
Yuga, distance of a plough, 67. 



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. ..■ ■■•». *; 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 
BERKELEY 

Return to desk from which borrowed. 
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General Library 

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Berkeley 




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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



[ii] a 

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Honiron 
HENRY FROWDE 




OXFORD UNIVERSITY PBESS WAREHOUSE 
7 PATERNOSTER EOW 



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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



TRANSLATED 



BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 



AND EDITED BY 



F. MAX MULLER 



VOL. XI 



(Btfavli 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

1881 

[All rights reserved] 



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-t'/&? 6 



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BUDDHIST SUTTAS 



TRANSLATED FROM PALI 



BY 



T. W. RHYS DAVIDS 



1. THE MAHA-PARINIBBANA SUTTANTA 

2. THE DHAMMA-ATAKKA-PPAVATTANA SUTTA 

3. THE TEVIGGA SUTTANTA 

4. THE AKANKHEYYA SUTTA 

5. THE ATETOKHILA SUTTA 

6. THE MAHA-SUDASSANA SUTTANTA 

7. THE SABBASAVA SUTTA 

rJ-IVERSITY* 
0Jrto"rTT" 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1881 

[All rights reserved] 



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CONTENTS. 



FAGK 



General Introduction to the Buddhist Suttas . . ix 

1. The Book of the Great Decease (Maha-parinibbana 

Suttanta) xxix 

Introduction xxxi 

Translation i 

2. The Foundation of the Kingdom of Righteousness 

(Dhamma-a'akka-ppavattana Sutta) . . -137 

Introduction 139 

Translation 146 

3. On Knowledge of the Vedas (Tevicca Suttanta) . 157 

Introduction 159 

Translation 167 

(The Stlas, pp. 189-200.) 

4. If he should desire (Akankheyya Sutta) . . 205 

Introduction 207 

Translation 210 

5. Barrenness and Bondage (JSTetokhila Sutta) . .219 

Introduction 221 

Translation 223 

6. Legend of the Great King of Glory (Maha-Sudas- 

sana Suttanta) 235 

Introduction 237 

(Maha-Sudassana Gataka, pp. 238-241.) 

Translation 247 

7. All the Asa v as (Sabbasava Sutta) . . . .291 

Introduction 293 

Translation 296 

Index 309 



Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the 

Translations of the Sacred Books of the East . . 317 



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GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

BUDDHIST SUTTAS. 



On being asked to contribute a volume of translations 
from the Pali Suttas to the important series of which this 
work forms a part, the contributor has to face the difficulty 
of choosing from the stores of a nearly unknown literature — 
a difficulty arising from the embarrassment, not of poverty, 
but of wealth. I have endeavoured to make such a choice 
as would enable me to bring together into one volume a 
collection of texts which should be as complete a sample as 
one volume could afford of what the Buddhist scriptures, 
on the whole, contain. With this object in view I have re- 
frained from confining myself to the most interesting books 
— those, namely, which deal with the Noble Eightfold Path, 
the most essential, the most original, and the most attractive 
part of Gotama's teaching ; and I have chosen accordingly, 
besides the Sutta of the Foundation of the Kingdom of 
Righteousness (the Dhamma-£akka-ppavattana- 
Sutta), which treats of the Noble Path, six others which 
treat of other sides of -the Buddhist system ; less interesting 
perhaps in their subject matter, but of no less historical 
value. 

These are — 

i. The Book of the Great Decease (the Maha- 
parinibbana-Suttanta), which is the Buddhist repre- 
sentative of what, among the Christians, is called a Gospel. 

a. The Foundation of the Kingdom of Righte- 
ousness (the Dhamma-^akka-ppavattana-Sutta), 
containing the Four Noble Truths, and the Noble Eight- 
fold Path which ends in Arahatship. 



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THE BUDDHIST SUTTAS. 



3. The Discussion on Knowledge of the Three 
Vedas(theTevi^-a-Suttanta), which is a controversial 
dialogue on the right method of attaining to a state of 
union with Brahma. 

4. The Sutta entitled 'If he should desire — '(Akan- 
kheyya-Sutta), which shows in the course of a very 

y beautiful argument some curious sides of early Buddhist 

mysticism and of curiously unjustified belief. 

5. The Treatise on Barrenness and Bondage 
(the ATetokhila-Sutta), which treats of the Buddhist 
Order of Mendicants, from the moral, as distinguished from 
the disciplinary, point of view. 

6. The Legend of the Great King of Glory (the 
Maha-sudassana-Suttanta), which is an example of 
the way in which previously existing legends were dealt 
with by the early Buddhists. 

7. The Sutta entitled 'All the Asavas' (the Sabba- 
sava- Sutta), which explains the signification of a con- 
stantly recurring technical term, and lays down the essen- 

> tial principles of Buddhist Agnosticism. 

The Discipline of the Buddhist Mendicants, the Rules 
of their Order — probably the most influential, as it is the 
oldest, in the world — will be fully described, down to its 
minutest details, in the translation of the Vinaya Pi/aka, 
which will appropriately form a subsequent part of this 
Series of Translations of the Sacred Books of the East. 
There was therefore no need to include any Sutta on this 
subject in the present volume : but of the rest of the matters 
discussed in the Buddhist Sacred Books — of Buddhist le- 
gend, gospel, controversial theology, and ethics — the works 
selected will I trust give a correct and adequate, if necessa- 
rily a somewhat fragmentary, idea. 



The age of these writings can be fixed, without much 
uncertainty, at about the latter end of the fourth or the 
beginning of the third century before the commencement 
of the Christian era. This is the only hypothesis which 
seems, at present, to account for the facts known about 
them. It should not however be looked upon as anything 



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GENERAL INTRODUCTION. XI 

more than a good working hypothesis to be accepted until 
all the texts of the Buddhist Pali Suttas shall have been 
properly edited. For it depends only on the fact that one 
of the texts now translated contains several statements, 
and one very significant silence, which afford ground for 
chronological argument. That argument amounts only to 
probability, not to certainty; and it might scarcely be worth 
while to put it forward were it not that the course of the 
enquiry will be found to raise several questions of very 
considerable interest. 

The significant silence to which I refer occurs in the 
account of the death of Gotama at the end of the Maha- 
parinibbana-Sutta 1 ; and I cannot do better than quote 
Dr. Oldenberg's remarks upon it at p. xxvi of the able 
Introduction to his edition of the text of the Maha-vagga. 

'The Tradition regarding the Councils takes up the 
thread of the story where the accounts of the life and work 
of Buddha, given in the Sutta Pi/aka, end. After the death 
of the Master — so it is related in the Aulla-vagga — Su- 
bhadda, the last disciple converted by Buddha shortly 
before his death 2 , proclaimed views which threatened the 
dissolution of the community. 

' " Do not grieve, do not lament," he is said to have said 
to the believers. " It is well that we have been relieved of 
the Great Master's presence. We were oppressed by him 
when he said, 'This is permitted to you, this is not per- 
mitted.' In future we can do as we like, and not do as we 
do not like." 

'In opposition to Subhadda, — the tradition goes on to 
relate, — there came forward one of the most distinguished 
and oldest of Buddha's disciples, the great Kassapa, who 
proposed that five hundred of the most eminent members 
of the community should assemble at Rag-agaha, the royal 
residence of the ruler of Magadha, in order to collect the 
Master's precepts in an authentic form. It has already 
been said above, how, during the seven months' sitting of 

1 Translated below, pp. 1 12-135. 

3 This is a mistake. The Subhadda referred to is quite a different person 
from the last convert. See my note below, p. 117. 



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Xll THE BUDDHIST SUTTAS. 

the assembly, Kassapa as president fixed the Vinaya with 
the assistance of Upali, and the Dhamma with the assist- 
ance of Ananda. 

' This is the story as it has come down to us. What we 
have here before us is not history, but pure invention ; and, 
moreover, an invention of no very recent date. Apart from 
internal reasons that might be adduced to support this, we 
are able to prove it by comparing another text which 
is older than this story, and the author of which 
cannot yet have known it. I allude to the highly 
important Sutta, which gives an account of the death of 
Buddha, and the Pali text of which has recently been 
printed by Professor Childers. This Sutta gives 1 the 
story — in long passages word for word the same as in 
the Afulla-vagga — of the irreverent conduct of Subhadda, 
which Kassapa opposes by briefly pointing to the true con- 
solation that should support the disciples in their separation 
from the Master. Then follows the account of the burning 
of Buddha's corpse, of the distribution of his relics among 
the various princes and cities, and of the festivals which 
were instituted in honour of these relics. Everything that 
the legend of the First Council alleges as a motive for, and 
as the background to, the story about Kassapa's proposal 
for holding the Council, is found here altogether, except 
that there is no allusion to the proposal itself, or 
to the Council. We hear of those speeches of Subhadda, 
which, according to the later tradition, led Kassapa to make 
his proposal, but we do not hear anything of the proposal 
itself. We hear of the great assembly that meets for the 
distribution of Buddha's relics, in which — according to the 
later tradition — Kassapa's proposal was agreed to, but we 
do not hear anything of these transactions. It may be 
added that we hear in this same Sutta 2 of the precepts 
which Buddha delivered to his followers shortly before his 
death, concerning doubts and differences of opinion that 
might arise, among the members of the community, with 
regard to the Dhamma and the Vinaya, and with regard to 

1 Pages 67, 68 in the edition of Childers. 
* Pages 59, 6o, 61, ibid. 



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GENERAL INTRODUCTION. Xlll 

the treatment of such cases when he should no longer be 
with them. If anywhere, we should certainly have ex- 
pected to find here some allusion to the great authentic 
depositions of Dhamma and Vinaya after Buddha's death, 
which, according to the general belief of Buddhists, esta- 
blished a firm standard according to which differences could 
be judged and have been judged through many centuries. 
There is not the slightest trace of any such allusion to the 
Council. This silence is as valuable as the most direct 
testimony. It shows that the author of the Maha- 
parinibbana-Sutta did not know anything of the 
First Council.' 

The only objection which it seems to me possible to 
raise against this argument is that the conclusion is worded 
somewhat too absolutely; and that it is rather a begging of 
the question to state, in the very first words referring to the 
Maha-parinibbana-Sutta, that it is older than the story in 
the ATulla-vagga, and that its author could not have known 
that work. But no one will venture to dispute the accuracy 
of Dr. Oldenberg's representation of the facts on which he 
bases his conclusion ; and the conclusion that he draws is, 
at least, the easiest and readiest way of explaining the very 
real discrepancy that he has pointed out. We shall be 
quite safe if we only say that we have certain facts which 
lend strong probability to the hypothesis that the author 
of the Maha-parinibbana-Sutta did not know that account 
of the First Council which we find in the ATulla-vagga. 

We do not know for certain the time at which that part 
of the isTulla-vagga, in which that account occurs, was com- 
posed. I think it quite possible that it was as late as the 
Council of Patna (B.C. 250), though Dr. Oldenberg places 
it somewhat earlier 1 . But even if we put the conclusion of 
the isTulla-vagga as late as the year I have mentioned, it 
is still in the highest degree improbable that the Maha- 
parinibbana - Sutta, supposing it to be an older work, can 
have been composed very much later than the fourth century 
B.C. — a provisional date sufficient at present for practical 
purposes. 

1 Maha-vagga, p..KXXYiii. 

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XIV THE BUDDHIST SUTTAS. 

This conclusion, however, is only almost, and not quite 
certain. It is just possible that the author of the Book of 
the Great Decease omitted all mention of the First Council 
at Ra^agaha, not because he did not know of it, but because 
he considered it unnecessary to mention an event which 
had no bearing on the subject of his work. He was de- 
scribing the death of the Buddha, and not the history of 
the Canon or of the Order. 

I must confess however that I only mention this as a 
possibility from a desire rather to understate than to over- 
state my case. For, firstly, it should be remembered that 
the writer does not merely omit to mention an occurrence 
subsequent to and unconnected with the Great Decease. 
He does more : he gives an account of the Subhadda in- 
cident which is inconsistent and irreconcilable with the 
legend or narrative of the Ra^fagaha Council as related in 
the Aulla-vagga. Had that narrative, as we now have it, 
been received in his time among the Brethren, he would 
scarcely have done this. 

And, secondly, he does not, after all, close his book, as he 
might well have done, with the Great Decease itself. It 
will be seen from the translation below 1 that there was a 
point in his narrative, the exclamations of sorrow at the 
death of the Buddha, which would have formed, had he 
desired to omit all unnecessary details, a very fitting con- 
clusion to his narrative. The Book of the Great King of 
Glory, the Maha-sudassana-Sutta, closes with the very ex- 
clamation our author puts, at this point, into the mouth of 
Sakka. The Maha-parinibbana was then over, and the 
Maha-parinibbana-Sutta might have then been closed. 
But he goes on and describes in detail the cremation, the 
distribution of the relics, and the feasts celebrated in their 
honour. It is not necessary for my point to show that it 
was in the least degree unnatural to do so. It is sufficient 
to be able to point out that the author having clone so, — 
having gone on to the arrival of Kassapa, who was after- 
wards (in the /sTulla-vagga) said to have held the Council ; 
having mentioned the very incident which, according to the 

1 See below, Chap. VI, § ai. 

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GENERAL INTRODUCTION. XV 

other narrative, gave rise to the holding of the Council ; 
and having referred to events which took place after the 
Council, — it is scarcely a tenable argument to say that he, 
knowing of it, did not refer, even incidentally and in half a 
sentence, to so important an event, simply because it did not 
come, necessarily, within the subject of his work. And when 
we find that in other works on the death of the Buddha, 
referred to below 1 , the account of the Council of Ra^agaha 
has, in fact, been included in the story, it is difficult to 
withhold our assent to the very great probability of the 
hypothesis, that it would have been included also in the 
Pali Book of the Great Decease had the belief in the tradi- 
tion of the Council been commonly held at the time when 
that book was put into its present shape. At the same 
time we must hold ourselves quite prepared to learn that 
some other explanation may turn out to be possible. The 
argument, if it applied to writers of the nineteenth century, 
would be conclusive. But we know too little about the 
mode in which the Pali Pi/akas were composed to presume 
at present to be quite certain. 



The Maha-parinibbana-Sutta was then probably com- 
posed before the account of the First Council of Ra,§u- 
gaha in the concluding part of the Afulla-vagga. It was 
also almost certainly composed after Paftiliputta, the 
modern Patna, had become the capital city of the king- 
dom of Magadha ; after the worship of relics had become 
common in the Buddhist church ; and after the rise of a 
general belief in the ATakkavatti theory, in the ideal of a 
sacred king, a supreme overlord in India. 

The first of these last three arguments depends on the 
prophecy placed in Gotama's mouth as to the future great- 
ness of Pa/aliputta — a prophecy found in the Maha-vagga 
as well as in the Maha-parinibbana-Sutta. It is true that 
the guess may actually have been made, and that it re- 
quired no great boldness to hazard a conjecture so vaguely 
expressed. The words simply are — 

' And among famous places of residence and haunts of 



1 See p. xxxviii. 



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XVI THE BUDDHIST SUTTAS. 

busy men, this will become the chief, the city of Pa/aliputta, 
a centre for interchange of all kinds of wares. But there 
will happen three disasters to Pa/aliputta, one of fire, and 
one of water, and one of dissension 1 .' 

But it is, to say the least, improbable that the conjecture 
would have been recorded until after the event had proved 
it to be accurate : and it would scarcely be too hazardous 
to maintain that the tradition of the guess having been 
made would not have arisen at all until after the event had 
occurred. 

What was the event referred to may also be questioned, 
as the words quoted do not, in terms, declare that the city 
would become the actual capital. But we know, not only 
from Buddhist, but from Greek historians, that it did, and 
this is most probably the origin of the prophecy. 

Now the Malalankaravatthu, a Pali work of modern 
date, but following very closely the more ancient books, 
has been" translated, through the Burmese, by Bishop 
Bigandet ; and it says, 

' That monarch [Susunaga], not unmindful of his mother's 
origin, re-established the city of Vesali, and fixed in it the 
royal residence. From that time Ra^agaha lost her rank of 
royal city, which she never afterwards recovered. He died 
in 81' [that is, of the Buddhist era reckoned from the Great 
Decease] 2 . . . . 

Relying on similar authority Bishop Bigandet afterwards 
himself says: 

' King Ka/asoka left Ra^agaha, and removed the seat of 
his empire to Palibothra [the Greek name for Pa/aliputta], 
near the place where the modern city of Patna stands 2 / 

1 See below, Chap. I, § 28. I have translated Pulabhedanant, 'a centre 
for the interchange of all kinds of wares,' in accordance with the commentary, 
which is clearly based on a derivation from pu<a, ' a bag or bundle.' But I see 
that Trenckner in his PSli Miscellany renders nanapu/abhedanam by 'sur- 
rounded by a number of dependent towns.' 

At the end the text has ' from fire or from water or from dissension;' on which 
Buddhaghosa says that or stands here for and; and the comment is correct 
enough, not of course philologically, but exegetically. But in either case the 
last clause is of very little importance for the present argument. 

' Bigandet's ' Legend of the Burmese Budha,' third edition, vol. ii. pp. 115, 
183. I have altered the spelling only of the proper names. 



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X 






GENERAL INTRODUCTION. Xvii 

It would seem therefore that, according to the tradition 
followed by this writer, Susunaga first removed the capital 
to Vesali, and his successor Ka/asoka, who died, in the 
opinion of the writer in question, in 118 after the Great 
Decease, finally fixed it at Pafoliputta. 

If we therefore apply this date to the prophecy we must 
come to the conclusion that the Book of the Great Decease 
was put into its present form at least ioo years after the 
Buddha's death, and probably a little more. But the 
authority followed by Bishop Bigandet is very late ; and 
no mention of these occurrences is found either in the 
Dipavawsa or in the Mahavawsa. I think indeed that the 
whole account of these two kings, as at present accepted 
in Ceylon and Birma, is open to grave doubt 1 (in which 
connection it should be noticed that the oldest account 
of the Council of Vesali, in the iTulla-vagga^ook-fCII, 
makes no mention of Ka/asoka). 

I ' ' '■ J V .J C T rp T , 

We have next to consider the reference t«t t£e relics m" " ■* * i 
the concluding sections of Chapter VI as a possible basis for y\ ^. 
chronological argument. These sections are almost certainlyl! — - "' 
older than the time when especial sanctity was claimed for 
Buddhist dagabas on the ground that they contained par- 
ticular relics of the Blessed One (such as a tooth, or the 
bowl, or the neck bone) ; for if such special relics were 
accepted as objects of worship when the Book of the Great 
Decease was put together, they would naturally have been 
mentioned in the course of Chapter VI. 

It is even almost certain that when the sections were put 
into their present form no Buddhist dagaba was in exist- 
ence except at the eight places mentioned in them ; and 
the words are quite consistent with the belief that those 
eight had themselves then ceased to have any very wide- 
spread and acknowledged sanctity. So in Chapter V, § 13, 
where four places are spoken of ' which the believing man 
should visit with feelings of reverence and of awe,' there is 
no mention of dagabas at all ; and in Chapter V, § 16, it is 

1 See my 'Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon,' p. 50. 

[11] b 



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XVU1 THE BUDDHIST SUTTAS. 

clearly implied that only one dagaba, or memorial burial 
mound, should be erected in honour of a Tathagata, just as 
one memorial mound should be erected in honour of a king 
of kings. 

When we recollect that in the first and second, and 
perhaps in the third century before Christ, dagabas had 
already been erected in honour of the Buddha in distant 
, parts of the continent of India, and had rapidly become! 
famous as places of pilgrimage, the reasonable conclusion V 
to be drawn from these passages is that the Book of the ( 
I Great Decease is older than them all ; or, at the least, that/ 
ut was written before any of them had become famous. 

On the other hand, there is evidently an exaggerated 
belief as to the respect in which the Buddha was held by 
his contemporaries underlying the concluding and other 
sections of the book. It is probable enough that Gotama 
was held in deep respect by the simple people among 
/ whom he lived and moved about as a religious teacher andy 
Vjeformer. It may well be that the inhabitants of the village 
where he died gave him a sort of public funeral. But that 
the neighbouring clans should have vied one with the other 
for the possession of his remains is quite inconsistent with 
the position that he can reasonably be supposed to have 
held among them. It must have taken some time for this 
belief to spring up, and be received without question. 

In a similar way a considerable interval must have elapsed 
before the beautiful parable in the last section of Chapter I 
could have given rise to the belief in the miracle (the soli- 
tary miracle ascribed to the Buddha, so far as I know, in 
the Sutta Pi/aka) recorded in the previous section. 



So also the comparison drawn between the Buddha and 
a ^Takkavatti Ra^a or King of Kings in Chapter V, §37, 
and Chapter VI, § 33, can scarcely have arisen till the rise 
of a lord paramount in the valley of the Ganges had fami- 
liarised the people with the idea of a Universal Monarch. 
Now it was either just before or just after the well-known 
Councils at Vesali, of which mention has been made above, 
that that important revolution took place which raised a 



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GENERAL INTRODUCTION. XIX 

low-caste adventurer to be the first Aakkavatti Ra^a \ To 
the people of that time ATandragupta seemed to be lord 
of the world, for to them India was the world — just as 
European writers even now talk complacently of ' the world' 
while ignoring three-fourths of the human race. 

' Is it surprising,' as I have asked elsewhere, * that this 
unity of power in one man made a deep impression upon 
them? Is it surprising that, like Romans worshipping 
Augustus, or like Greeks adding the glow of the sun-myth 
to the glory of Alexander, the Indians should have formed 
an ideal of their A'akkavatti, and have transferred to this 
new ideal many of the dimly sacred and half-understood 
traits of the Vedic heroes ? Is it surprising that the Bud- 
dhists should have found it edifying to recognise in their 
hero " the A'akkavatti of Righteousness ; " and that the 
story of the Buddha should have become tinged with the 
colouring of these A'akkavatti myths?' 

In point of fact we know that in later works the attraction 
of this poetic ideal led to the almost complete disregard of 
the simpler narrative which seemed so poor and meagre in 
comparison ; and M. Senart has shown how large a pro- 
portion of the later poem called the Lalita Vistara is inspired 
by it. When, in isolated passages of the Book of the Great 
Decease, we find the earliest germs of this fruitful train of 
thought, we are I think safe in concluding that it assumed 
its present form after the notorious career of Aandragupta 
had made him supreme in the valley of the Ganges. 

All the above arguments tend in one direction ; namely, 
that the final redaction of the Book of the Great Decease 
must be assigned to the latter part of the fourth century 
before Christ, or to the earlier part of the following century. 
And so much alike are it and all the other Suttas translated 
in this volume in their form, in their views of life, and in 



1 I have ventured in my ' Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon,' p. 51, to 
point out that the Councils of Vesali were very possibly held just at the time 
when Nanda was defeated by K andragupta. Taranatha, the Tibetan histo- 
rian, while placing the Councils, like all the later authorities, under an Asoka 
(probably Kandragupta), says (p. 41 of Wassilief 's German translation) that the 
assembled brethren were fed by Nanda. 

D2 



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XX THE BUDDHIST SUTTAS. 

the religious doctrines they lay down, that, though it may 
be possible hereafter to show that some are a little older 
or a little younger than the others, every one will I think 
admit that they must all be assigned to about the same 
period of time. There is not the least reason to believe 
that either of them is older than the Book of the Great 
Decease; and the argument has only been confined to it 
because it alone deals with the kind of subject which can 
give foundation to chronological conclusions. When the 
whole of the literature of the Pali Pi/akas has been fully 
explored, we may perhaps be able to reach a more definite 
conclusion. 

We are in absolute ignorance as to the actual author 
of any of the texts I have translated. It is quite evident 
that they are not the work of Gotama himself; and it is 
difficult to believe that even his immediate disciples could 
have spoken of him in the exaggerated terms in which 
occasionally he is here described. On the other hand, the 
history of similar religious movements teaches us how 
quickly such notions spring up concerning the omniscience 
and sinlessness of the founder of the movement; and it 
would be better to reserve our judgment as to the impos- 
sibility, on this account alone, of those Suttas having been 
composed even by the very earliest disciples. 



It would be of less importance who composed the Suttas 
if we could be sure that they gave an accurate account of 
the teachings of the great thinker and reformer whose words 
they purport to preserve. But though, like all other writings 
of a similar character, they are doubtless based upon tra- 
ditions older than the time of their authors or final redactors, 
they cannot unfortunately be depended upon as entirely 
authentic. And it will be always difficult, even when the 
whole of the Suttas have been published, to attempt to 
discriminate between the original doctrine of Gotama, and 
the later accretions to, or modifications of it. 

But we can already make some steps towards such a 
discrimination, without much fear of being contradicted. 



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GENERAL INTRODUCTION. XXI 

There can be little doubt but that the doctrines of the 
Four Noble Truths and of the Noble Eightfold Path, the 
' Foundation of the Kingdom of Righteousness,' were not 
only the teaching of Gotama himself, but were the central 
and most essential part of it I am aware that no method 
can be more misleading, or more uncritical, than first to 
form a theory regarding the personal character of the author 
of a new religious movement — as some later critics of the 
Gospel History have done — and then to adopt those pas- 
sages in the sacred books which fit in with that character, 
and to reject those which oppose it. We cannot begin by 
postulating that Gotama was a man of high moral earnest- 
ness, and of great intellectual acuteness ; and then disregard 
all the passages in which erroneous, and even puerile, opinions 
or sayings are placed in his mouth- But it does not follow 
that we are obliged either altogether to reject the evidence 
of the Buddhist Scriptures as to what Gotama did actually 
teach, or altogether to accept it. 

It will be acknowledged that the Suttas have preserved 
for us at least the belief of the earliest Buddhists — the 
Buddhists in India — as to what the original doctrines, 
taught by the Buddha himself, had been. We have in the 
Vinaya Pi/aka an invaluable and indisputable record of 
the mental characteristics and capabilities of these earliest 
followers of the Buddhist faith. Sanskrit scholars are 
engaged in elucidating the history of the beliefs in which 
Gotama was brought up, and which though often modified 
and frequently denied, still underlie, throughout, all that he 
is represented to have taught. We have therefore reliable 
evidence of the system out of which, and we know the 
system into which, Gotama's teaching was developed. This 
being so, it will be impossible to refrain, in despair, from the 
attempt to solve one of the most interesting problems which 
the history of the Aryan race presents to us. Scholars 
will never be unanimously agreed on all points ; but they 
will agree in ascribing some parts of the early Buddhist 
Dharma or doctrine only to the early disciples; and after 
allowing for all reasonable doubts, they will agree in ascribing 
other parts to the great Teacher himself. I venture to think 



l' 



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XXII THE BUDDHIST SUTTAS. 

that not only the Four Noble Truths, but the whole of the 
Seven Jewels of the Law, may already be placed, with 
certainty, in the latter category 1 . 



The form, in which these Suttas have been preserved, 
deserves careful attention. Every reader will be struck at 
once with the constant repetitions. These repetitions are 
not essential, and are merely designed to facilitate the 
learning of the Suttas by heart. Writing was unknown in 
the age of the Buddha, and probably for long after his 
time. In all probability indeed, just as the Indians 
learnt from the Greeks, not the art of coinage, but the 
custom of issuing a legally authorised coinage 2 ; so it was 
from the Greeks that they acquired, if not their earliest 
alphabet, at least the knowledge of the utility of writing. 
But even for some time after writing was generally known, 
it was considered a desecration to make use of it for the 
preservation of the sacred books. This feeling naturally 
passed away much sooner among the adherents of the 
popular religious faith of Buddhism, than it did among their 
conservative opponents. With the latter it is by no means ex- 
tinct even now, and the first record we have of the Buddhist 
Scriptures being reduced into writing is the well-known 
passage in the Dlpavawsa, which speaks of their being 
recorded in books in Ceylon towards the beginning of the 
first century before the commencement of our era. And 
as all our copies of the Buddhist Pi/akas are, at present, 
derived from those then in use in Ceylon, we are practically 
concerned only with those thus referred to in the Dipa- 
vawsa s . 

The date of the Dipavawsa may be placed approxi- 
mately in the fourth century of our era ; but its author 
reproduces the continued tradition of the monasteries in 

1 They will be found enumerated, and shortly described, in a note below 
(pp. 62, 6$). I am glad to learn that my friend Dr. Morris is preparing a full 
account of them, drawn from various parts of the Sutta Pifaka, for his forth- 
coming work to be accordingly entitled ' The Seven Jewels of the Law.' 

a See my ' Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon' (Part VI of Numismata 
Orientalia), p. 13. 

* Dtpavantsa XX, w. 20, 21, quoted in the Mahavamsa, p. 107. 



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GENERAL INTRODUCTION. XX111 

which he dwelt, and he is more probably correct, than 
not, in the assertion I have quoted. It would follow that 
the Buddhist Scriptures were, till then, handed down by 
word of mouth only ; and no one who is acquainted with 
the wonderful powers of memory possessed 'by Indian 
priests, who can devote their whole lives to the task of 
acquiring and repeating their sacred books by heart, will 
doubt for a moment the possibility of this having been 
the case. 
f Two methods were adopted in India to aid this power \ 
\of memory. One, adopted chiefly by the grammarians, ) 
was to clothe the rules to be remembered in very short 
enigmatical phrases (called sutras or threads), which taxed 
the memory but little, while they required elaborate com- 
mentaries to render them intelligible. The other, the 
I method adopted in the Buddhist writings (both Sutta and \ 
^Vinaya), was, firstly, the use of stock phrases, of which / 
the commencement once given, the remainder followed as 
a matter of course ; and secondly, the habit of repeating 
whole sentences, or even paragraphs, which in our modern 
books would be understood or inferred, instead of being 
expressed. 

The stock phrases, which must be distinguished from 
the repetitions, belong certainly to a very early period of 
Buddhism, and many of them recur in Sanskrit as well as in 
Pali texts 1 . One result of these numerous repetitions of 
phrases and paragraphs is that the preservation of the text,\ 
when, once established, was rendered very easy ; and that/ 
mistakes in the MSS. can now be easily rectified when they 
occur in such repeated passages. To edit the text of such 
portions of a Pali Sutta is therefore a comparatively easy 
task ; and it may be said of all the Suttas here translated, 
that they have thus acquired a valuable protection against 
that danger of corruption from various readings which 
often renders uncertain the text of important passages of 
works written on the very different and simpler system 

1 Several examples of such passages occur in the present volume in the 
Akankheyya- and Maha-sudassana-Suttas, where they are pointed out in the 
notes. 



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XXIV THE BUDDHIST SUTTAS. 

to which we are accustomed. On the other hand, however, 
the catchwords may sometimes have given rise to serious 
interpolations. 

It is open to much doubt whether, in the numerous 
passages where such stock phrases and repetitions occur, 
the best mode of translation is to follow word for word 
the expressions found in the original (but only inserted 
there to perform a service no longer necessary), or to 
make use of contractions, the fact of their being so being 
duly pointed out, either in notes, or by some typographical 
expedient. Where, for instance, a long paragraph is devoted 
to what an elder of the Buddhist Order of Mendicants should 
do, or be, under certain given circumstances, and the whole 
paragraph is then repeated word for word, of an ordinary 
member, and of a nun, and of a lay-disciple (upasaka), 
or of a religious woman (upasika) 1 , it would be possible 
to convey the whole sense intended, by translating that 
an elder of the Order, and an ordinary member, and a 
nun, and a lay-disciple of either sex, should do, or be, 
such and such things. 

But every case of repetition is not" so simple as this ; 
such curtailing destroys at least the form and the em- 
phasis of the originals ; and it seemed more in accordance 
with the rules laid down in the prospectus to the Series 
of Translations from the Sacred Books of the East, of 
which this volume forms a part, to adhere in all cases 
strictly to the text. With the exception of the earlier 
chapters in the Book of the Great Decease, in which a 
few such contractions will be found mentioned in the 
notes, I have therefore reproduced almost all the repeti- 
tions. The result will not, I trust, be embarrassing to the 
reader who keeps constantly in mind the aim and origin of 
these stock phrases and repetitions, and does not allow 
the wearisome form in which they are presented to shut 
out from his view the logical sequence of the sometimes 
very striking ideas which these Suttas contain. I venture 
to go further and to maintain that it is not necessary or 

1 See below, Book of the Great Decease, Chap. Ill, §§ 7, 8. 

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GENERAL INTRODUCTION. XXV 

even correct to read through the whole of passages which 
were never intended to be read. We shall do wisely when 
coming to a phrase which we already know, to make use 
of a little judicious skipping, and, noting the course of 
the argument, to pass on, with even mind, to the next 
paragraph. 

I send forth the following translations with very great 
diffidence. It is not too much to say that the discovery 
of early Buddhism has placed all previous knowledge of 
the subject in an entirely new light ; and has turned the 
flank, so to speak, of most of the existing literature on 
Buddhism. I use the term 'discovery' advisedly, for 
though the Pali texts have existed for many years in our 
public libraries, they are only now beginning to be under- 
stood ; and the Buddhism of the Pali Pi/akas is not only 
a quite different thing from Buddhism as hitherto com- 
monly received, but is antagonistic to it. I cannot hope 
that the renderings of the many technical terms, now for 
the first time submitted to the judgment of students of 
early Buddhism, will all stand the test of time. So per- 
fectly dovetailed is the old Buddhist system, so utterly 
different from European Christianity are the ideas involved, 
so pregnant are the expressions used with deep and earnest 
religious feelings resting on a foundation completely apart 
from our own, that the translation of each term becomes 
a problem of great difficulty and delicacy. Where Gogerly 
or Burnouf has dealt with any word, the process has been 
easier : but there are many words they have not touched, 
and while Gogerly had no sympathy with these ancient 
beliefs, Burnouf has confined himself chiefly to later 
phases of Buddhism. There are several paragraphs — 
such as the one at Chapter I, § 12 of the Book of the 
Great Decease — which have cost me more time and 
trouble than the reader of the few words they contain 
will easily believe; and it would be impossible to add 
a note to every word justifying the rendering which was 
finally adopted to convey the Buddhist idea, without in- 
volving at the same time some misleading implication. 



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XXVI THE BUDDHIST SUTTAS. 

In order to call attention to the fact, when a word in 
the original Pali is one of these technical terms of the 
Buddhist system of self-training, and when therefore the 
English expression must be taken in that technical sense, 
I have throughout written the technical terms with capital 
letters ; and I would invite the special notice of the reader 
to the words thus distinguished \ 



Apart, too, from the necessity of great care in the 
rendering of single words, I have felt bound to make 
some attempt, however inadequate, to reproduce the style 
and tone of the Buddhist author, or authors. A mere 
word-for-word translation, though much easier to make, 
and perhaps more useful to those engaged in the study 
of the language would not only fail to do justice to the 
original, but would even convey a wrong impression to 
those who are interested in these works from the point 
of view of the comparative history of religious belief. 
There is a very real, though peculiar, eloquence in a 
considerable number of the prose passages, and more 
especially in the closing sections of each chapter; not 
the mere rhetorical eloquence of a clever word-painter, 
but the unconscious eloquence which springs from deep 
religious emotion. So also in the verses scattered through 
the Book of the Great Decease, while there is occasional 
doggrel, there are also one or two passages (such as I, 34 ; 
IV, 56; VI, 15-18, and 63) where the rhythm of the Pali 
verses is exceedingly beautiful, and the thoughts expressed 
not devoid of fancy. The translation of such passages 
has been beset with difficulty ; and I am only too con- 
. scious how small has been the success attained. But I 
must ask the reader constantly to bear in mind that words, 
dull and bare to us, are full of meaning to the Buddhist. 
f ' The Blessed Master came to the Mango-grove ' is a very 
( plain statement of supposed fact: but to the earnest 
'Buddhist the mention of 'the Master' calls up to his mind 

1 I regret to say that the printer has very frequently omitted to reproduce 
these capitals ; but they still remain in some places, and the paragraph which 
explains them is therefore retained. 



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GENERAL INTRODUCTION. XXV11 

his highest ideal of what is wise and great and kind J 
and the Mango-grove is surrounded to him with all the\ 
poetry, and is associated with all the tender memories! 
which to the devout and earnest Christian are wrapped I 
up in such names as Bethany or the Mount of Olives/ 
While impressed therefore with the knowledge of having 
come far short of my ideal, I feel there is for these 
reasons some justification in asking a kindly consideration 
for this first volume of English translations from the prose 
portions of the Pali Pi/akas. 



T. W. RHYS DAVIDS. 



Brick Court, Temple, 
August, 1880. 



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MAHA-PARINIBBANA- 
SUTTANTA. 



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INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 



In translating this Sutta I have followed the text pub- 
lished by my friend the late Mr. Childers, first in the 
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, and afterwards sepa- 
rately. In the former the text appeared in two instalments, 
the first two sheets, with many various readings in the foot- 
notes, in the volume for 1874; and the remainder, with 
much fewer various readings, in the volume for 1876. The 
reprinted text omits most of the various readings in the 
first two sheets, and differs therefore slightly in the paging. 
The letters D, S, Y, and Z, mentioned in the notes, refer to 
MSS. sent to Mr. Childers from Ceylon by myself, Subhuti 
Unninse, Yatramulle Unnanse, and Mudliar de Zoysa re- 
spectively. The MS. mentioned as P (in the first two sheets 
quoted only in the separate edition) is, no doubt, the Digha 
Nikaya MS. of the Phayre collection in the India Office 
Library. The other four are now I believe in the British 
Museum. 

The Hon. George Tumour of the Ceylon Civil Service 
published an analysis of this work in the Journal of the 
Bengal Asiatic Society for 1839; but as he unfortunately 
skips, or only summarises, most of the difficult passages, his 
work, though a most valuable contribution for the time, 
now more than half a century ago, has not been of much 
service for the present purpose. Of much greater value 
was Buddhaghosa's commentary contained in the Su- 
mangala Vilasini 1 ; but the great fifth-century commen- 

1 I have used the copy made for Tumour, and now in the India Office 
Collection. 



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XXX11 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 

tator wrote of course for Buddhists, and not for foreign 
scholars ; and his edifying notes and long exegetical ex- 
pansions of the text (quite in the style of Matthew Henry) 
often fail to throw light on the very points which are most 
interesting, and most doubtful, to European readers. 

The Malalankara-vatthu, a late Pali work by a Bur- 
mese author of the eighteenth century 1 , is based, in that 
part of it relating to the last days of the Buddha, almost 
exclusively on the Book of the Great Decease, and on 
Buddhaghosa's commentary upon it. Bishop Bigandet's 
translation into English of a Burmese translation of this 
work, well known under the title of ' The Life or Legend 
of Gaudama the Budha of the Burmese,' affords evidence 
therefore of the traditional explanations of the text. In 
the course either of the original author's recasting, or 
of the double translation, so many changes have taken 
place, that its evidence is frequently ambiguous and not 
always quite trustworthy : but with due caution, it may be 
used as a second commentary. 

The exact meaning which was originally intended by the 
title of the book is open to doubt. ' Great-Decease-Book ' 
may as well mean 'the Great Book of the Decease,' as 'the 
Book of the Great Decease.' This book is in fact longer 
than any other in the collection, and the epithet 'Great' 
is often opposed in titles to a ' Short ' Sutta of (otherwise) 
the same name a . But the epithet is also frequently intended, 
without doubt, to qualify the immediately succeeding word 
in the title 3 ; and, though the phrase ' Great Decease,' as 
applied to the death of the Buddha, has not been found 
elsewhere, it is, I think, meant to do so here 4 . 

1 See ' The Life or Legend,' &c, third edition, vol. ii. p. 149. The date there 
given (H34 of the Burmese era = 1773 a.d.) is evidently the date of the 
original work, and not of the translation. Nothing is said in the book itself 
or in Bishop Bigandet's notes of the name of the author, or of the name or 
date of the Burmese translator. 

s There are several such pairs in the l/lagghimi Nikaya; and the Maha- 
Satippa«Aana-Sutta in the Digha is the same as the Satipa//A&na- 
Sutta in the Maxima. 

* E. g. in the Maha-padhana-Sutta and Maha-sudassana-Sutta. 

* Childers seems to have been of the same opinion, vide Diet. I, 368. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXU1 



The division of the Book into chapters, or rather Portions 
for Recitation, is found in the MSS. ; the division of these 
chapters into sections has been made by myself. It will 
be noticed that a very large number of the sections have 
already been traced, chiefly by Dr. Morris and myself, in 
various other parts of the Pali Pitokas : whole paragraphs 
or episodes, quite independent of the repetitions and stock 
phrases above referred to, recurring in two or more places. 
The question then arises whether (i) the Book of the Great 
Decease is the borrower, whether (a) it is the original source, 
or whether (3) these passages were taken over, both into it, 
and into the other places where they recur, from earlier 
sources. It will readily be understood that, in the present 
state of our knowledge, or rather ignorance, of the Pali 
Pi&ikas, this question cannot as yet be answered with any 
certainty. But a few observations may even now be made. 

Generally speaking the third of the above possible ex- 
planations is not only more probable in itself, but is confirmed 
by parallel instances in literatures developed under similar 
conditions, both in the valley of the Ganges and in the basin 
of the Mediterranean. 

It is quite possible that while some books — such as 
the Maha-vagga, the ^Tulla-vagga, and the Digha 
Nikiya — usually owe their resemblances to older sources 
now lost or absorbed ; others — such as the Saz«yutta and 
the Anguttara — are always in such cases simply borrowers 
from sources still existing. 

At the time when our Book of the Great Decease was 
put into its present shape, and still more so when a Book 
of the Great Decease was first drawn up, there may well 
have been some reliable tradition as to the events that 
took place, and as to the subjects of his various discourses, 
on the Buddha's last journey. He had then been a public 
Teacher for forty-five years ; and his system of doctrine, 
which is really, on the whole, a very simple one, had already 
been long ago elaborated, and applied in numerous dis- 
courses to almost every conceivable variety of circumstances. 
What he then said would most naturally be, as it is repre- 
sented to have been, a final recapitulation of the most 
[n] c 



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XXXIV THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 

important and characteristic tenets of his religion. But 
these are, of course, precisely those subjects which are most 
fully and most frequently dealt with in other parts of the 
Pali Pitekas. No record of his actual words could have 
been preserved. It is quite evident that the speeches placed 
in the Teacher's mouth, though formulated in the first 
person, in direct narrative, are only intended to be sum- 
maries, and very short summaries, of what was said on 
these occasions. Now if corresponding summaries of his 
previous teaching had been handed down in the Order, and 
were in constant use among them, at the time when the 
Book of the Great Decease was put together, it would be 
a safe and easy method to insert such previously existing 
summaries in the historical account as having been spoken 
at the places where the Teacher was traditionally believed 
to have spoken on the corresponding doctrines. In the 
historical book the simple summaries would sufficiently 
answer every purpose; but when each particular matter 
became the subject of a separate book or division of a 
book, the same summaries would be included, but would 
be amplified and elucidated. And this is in fact the relation 
in which several of the recurring passages, as found in the 
Book of the Great Decease, stand to the same passages 
when found elsewhere. 

On the other hand, some of the recurring passages do not 
consist of such summaries, but are actual episodes in the 
history. As an instance of these we may take the long 
extract at the end of the first, and the beginning of the 
second chapter (I, ao-II, 3, and again II, 16-II, 24), which 
is found also in the Maha-vagga. The words are 
(nearly 1 ) identical in both places, but in the Book of the 
Great Decease the account occurs in its proper place in 
the middle of a connected narrative, whereas in the Maha- 
vagga, a treatise on the Rules and Regulations of the 
Order, it seems strangely out of place. So the passage, 
also a long one, with which the Book of the Great 



1 On the difference see the note at II, 16. It affects only a few localising 
phrases in a narrative occupying (in the translation) thirteen pages. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



XXXV 



Decease commences (on the Seven Conditions of Welfare), 
seems to have been actually borrowed by the Anguttara 
Nikaya from our work. 

The question of these summaries and parallel passages 
cannot be adequately treated by a discussion of the in- 
stances found in any one particular book. It must be 
considered as a whole, and quite apart from the allied 
question of the 'stock phrases' above alluded to, in a 
discussion of all the instances that can be found in the 
Pali Pifekas. For this purpose tabulated statements are 
essential, and as a mere beginning such a statement is here 
annexed (including the passages, marked with an asterisk, 
which have every appearance of belonging to the same 
category). 



BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 

Chap. I (34 sections) §§ 1-10 
§" 

,. » & 20-34 

» » §§1,2.3 • 

Chap. II (35 sections) §§ 13, 14, 15 . 



» » §§ 16-24 

» » §§ 27-35 

Chap. Ill (66 sections) §§ 1-10 

» §§"-20 

»» » §§21-23* 

» » §§ 24-32 

» §§ 33-42 

Chap. IV (58 sections) §§ 2, 3 

§§7-»* 



OTHER BOOKS. 



Anguttara (Sutta-nipata). 
„ (.Oa-nip£ta). 
Dtgha (Sampas$daniya) and 
Samyutta (Satippa//Mna- 

vagga). 
MahS-vagga VI, 28. 
Mah4-vagga VI, 29. 

SDigha (Satippa/Mna). 
Maxima. „ 

Sawyutta „ 

Vibhanga „ 

MahS-vaggaVI, 30. 
Sawyutta (Satippa/Wdna- 
vagga). 

f Sa»«yutta(IddhipScla-vagga). 
I Anguttara (A//Aa-nipata). 

Anguttara (A/Z&a-nipSta). 

? Eight Assemblies. 

Anguttara (A//Aa-nipSta). 

Anguttara (A//Aa-nipSta). 

Anguttara (JTatuka-nip&ta). 



Omitted in Po-fa-tsu. See below, p. xxxviii. 
C 2 



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XXXVI THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 



BOOK 


OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 




OTHER BOOKS. 


Chap. 


V(6 9 


sections) § 10 




Ahguttara (Duka-nipata). 


IJ 




» 


§§ 1 6-2 a 


■K: 


„ (.ffatuka-nipata). 


}i 




» 


§§ 27-31" 


» » 


tt 




ii 


§36 


• • 


Samyutta (Satippa/Wana- 
vagga). 


» 




» 


§§ 41-44 


■ • 


Dfgha (Maha-sudassana- 
Sutta). 


>t 




» 


§60 




JEulla-vagga V, 8, 1. 


» 




» 


§63 




Maha-vagga I, 38, 1. 


» 




» 


§68 


• • 


.Afulla-vagga XI, 1, 15. 


Chap. 


VI (6s 


i sections) § 16 




Dtgha (Maha-sudassana- 












Sutta). 


i) 




» 


§§ 36-41 


• • 


.Xulla-vagga XI, 1,1. 



No Sanskrit work has yet been discovered giving an 
account of the last days of Gotama ; but there are several 
Chinese works which seem to be related to ours. Of one 
especially, named the Fo Pan-ni-pan King (apparently 
Buddha-Parinibbana-Sutta, but such an expression is un- 
known in Pali), Mr. Beal says 2 : 

'This appears to be the same as the Sutra known in 
the South. ... It was translated into Chinese by a Shaman 
called Fa-tsu, of the Western Tsin dynasty, circa 200 A.D.' 

I do not understand this date. The Western Tsin 
dynasty is placed by Mr. Beal himself on the fly-leaf of 
the Catalogue at 265-313 A.D. And whether the book 
referred to is really the same work as the Book of the 
Great Decease seems to me to be very doubtful. At 
p. 160 of his 'Catena of Buddhist Scriptures from the 
Chinese ' Mr. Beal says, that another Chinese work ' known 
as the Mah& Parinirvawa Sutra' 'is evidently the same 
as the Maha Parinibbana Sutta of Ceylon,' but it is quite 
evident from the extracts which he gives that it is an 
entirely different and much later work. 

On this book there would seem further to be a trans- 
lated commentary, Ta Pan-ni-pan King Lo, mentioned 

1 Omitted by Po-fa-tsu. See below, p. xxxviii. 

* Catalogue of Buddhist Chinese Books in the India Office Library, p. 95. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXVli 



at p. ioo of the same Catalogue, and there assigned to 
Chang-an of the Tsin dynasty (589-619 A.D.). 

At pp. 13-13 of the same Catalogue we find no less than 
seven other works, and an eighth on p. 77, not indeed 
identified with the Book of the Great Decease, but bearing 
titles which Mr. Beal represents in Sanskrit as Mahapari- 
nirva#a Sutra. They purport to be translated respectively — 

A. D. 

1. By Dharmaraksha of the Northern Liang dynasty . 502-555 

2. By Dharmaraksha „ „ 

3. By Fa Hian and Buddhabhadra of the Eastern Tsin 

dynasty 317-419 

4. By Gnanabhadra and others of the Eastern Tang 

dynasty 620-904 

5. By Dharmagupta and others of the Western Tsin 

dynasty 265-313 

6. By Fa Hian of the Eastern Tsin dynasty . . 317-419 
•j. Unknown. 

8. By Dharmabodhi of the Former Wei dynasty . . circa 200 
Indian author, Vasubandhu. 

Whether Nos. 1 and 2, and again 3 and 6 are the same 
is not stated; and in the Indian Antiquary for 1875 
Mr. Beal gives an account of another undated work, as 
existing in the India Office Collection, bearing a different 
title from any of the above, but which he also translates as 
Mahaparinibbana Sutta. It purports to be the very oldest of 
the Vaipulya Sutras, whereas the book quoted in the Catena 
is there said to be 'one of the latest of the expanded Sutras.' 
' The general outline,' says Mr . Beal \ 'is this. Buddha, 
on a certain occasion, proceeded to Kinsinagara (sic), and 
entering a grove of Sala trees, there reposed. He received 
a gift of food from C hand a, an artisan of the neighbouring 
town. After partaking of the food he was seized with 
illness. He discoursed through the night with his disciples, 
and disputed with certain heretical teachers. At early 
dawn he turned on his right side with his head to the 
north, and died. The Sala trees bent down to form a 
canopy over his head. The account then proceeds to relate 

1 Indian Antiquary, vol. iv. p. 90. 



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XXXV1U THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 

the circumstances of his cremation, and the subsequent 
disputes, between the Mallas and others, for his ashes.' 

There is a curious echo here of some of the sections 
translated below ; though each particular item of the 
summary is really in contradiction with the corresponding 
part of the Pali book. There is perhaps another Chinese 
work on the death of Buddha, of the existence of which 
I have been informed, through the kind intervention of Pro- 
fessor Max Miiller, by Mr. Kasawara. It was translated by 
Po-fa-tsu between 290 and 306 A. D. It seems to be the 
same as the first mentioned above, but it contains a good 
deal of matter not found in the Maha-parinibbana-Sutta 
(notably an account of the Ra^agaha Council, the mention 
of which is so conspicuously absent from the Pali work) ; 
and it omits many of the sections found in the Pali. Mr. 
Kasawara has been kind enough to send me the following 
details regarding those omissions, and they are of peculiar 
interest as compared with the table given above x : 

Chapters in the Pali. Sections wanting in Chinese. 

1st Chapter . . 15-18. 

3rd Chapter . . 21-42. 

4th Chapter . . "53-56. 

5th Chapter . . 4-6; 16-23; 27-31; 48-51. 

6th Chapter . . 27 ; 48-50. 

There is no evidence to show that any of the above 
works are translations of our Sutta, or in any sense the 
same work. No reliance, in fact, can be placed upon the 
mere similarity of title in order to show that a Chinese 
work and an Indian one are really the same : and I regret 
that attempts should have been made to fix the date of 
Indian works by the fact that Chinese translations bearing 
similar titles are said to have been made in a certain 
period. But the above-mentioned works on the Great 
Decease will, when published, throw valuable light on the 
traditions of different, though no doubt later, schools of 
Buddhist thought ; and a detailed comparison would pro- 
bably throw a very interesting light on the way in which 

1 On p. xxxvi. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXIX 



religious legends of this kind vary and grow; and the 
existence of these Chinese translations affords ground for 
the hope that we may some day discover an earlier 
Sanskrit work on the same subject 1 . 



The cremation ceremonies described in the sixth chapter 
are not without interest. It would be natural enough that 
Gotama should have been buried without any of those ritual- 
istic forms the usefulness of which he denied, and without 
any appeal to gods whose power over men he ignored. 
But the tone of the narrative makes it at least possible 
that there was not really anything unusual in the method 
of his cremation ; and that the elaborate rites prescribed in 
the Brahmanical books for use at a funeral 2 were not, in 
practice, observed in the case of the death of any person 
other than a wealthy Brahman, or some layman of rank 
who was a devoted adherent of the Brahmans. 

In the same way we find that in those countries where 
the more ancient form of Buddhism still prevails, there are 
a few simple forms to be used in the case of the cremation 
of a distinguished Bhikkhu or Upasaka ; but in ordinary 
cases bodies are buried without any ceremony. 

So in Ceylon, Robert Knox — whose rare and curious 
work, one of the most trustworthy books of travels extant, 
deserves more notice than it has received, and who was a 
captive there for many years before the natives were influ- 
enced by any contact with Europeans — says 3 , 

'It may not be unacceptable to relate how they burn 
their dead. As for persons of inferior quality, they are 
interred in some convenient places in the woods (there 
being no set places for burial), carried thither by two or 
three of their friends, and buried without any more ado. 
They lay them on their backs, with their heads to the West, 
and their feet to the East, as we do. Then these people go 
and wash : for they are unclean by handling the dead. 

1 I have not been able to trace any reference to either of these Chinese 
works in Mr. Edkins's ' Chinese Buddhism.' 
1 See Max Miiller in Z. D. M. G., vol. ix. 
• Knox's * Historical Relation of Ceylon,' Part III, Chap. xi. 



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xl THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 

' But persons of greater quality are burned, and that with 
ceremony. When they are dead they lay them out, and 
put a cloth over their privy parts ; and then wash the body, 
by taking half a dozen pitchers of water and pouring upon 
it. Then they cover him with a linen cloth, and so carry 
him forth to burning. This is when they burn the body 
speedily. But otherwise they cut down a tree that may be 
proper for their purpose, and hollow it like a hog-trough, 
and put the body, being disembowelled and embalmed, into 
it, filling up all about with pepper, and so let it lie in the 
house until it be the king's command to carry it out to the 
burning. For that they dare not do without the king's 
order if the person deceased be a courtier. Sometimes 
the king gives no order in a great while ; it may be not at 
all : therefore, in such cases, that the body may not take 
up house-room or annoy them, they dig a hole in the floor 
of their house, and put hollowed tree and all in, and cover 
it. If afterwards the king commands to burn the body, 
they take it up again, in obedience to the king — otherwise 
there it lies. 

' Their order for burning is this : if the body be not thus 
put into a trough or hollow tree, it is laid upon one of his 
bedsteads, which is a great honour among them. This 
bedstead with the body on it, or hollowed tree with the 
body in it, is fastened with poles, and carried upon men's 
shoulders unto the place of burning, which is some eminent 
place in the fields, or highways, or where else they please. 
There they lay it upon a pile of wood some two or three 
feet high ; — then they pile up more wood upon the corpse, 
lying thus on the bedstead or in the trough. Over all they 
have a kind of canopy built (if he be a person of very high 
quality), covered at top, hung about with painted cloth, 
and bunches of cocoa-nuts, and green boughs ; and so fire 
is put to it. After all is burnt to ashes, they sweep to- 
gether the ashes into the manner of a sugar-loaf, and hedge 
the place round from wild beasts breaking in, and they will 
sow herbs there. Thus I saw the king's uncle, the chief 
tirinanx 1 (who was, as it were, the chief primate of all the 
1 Knox's way of spelling Terunnaase, that is t Thera. 

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INTRODUCTION. xll 



nation), burned upon a high place, that the blaze might be 
seen a great way 1 / 

I myself saw an Unnanse burned very much in this 
way near the Weyangoda Court-house ; and there is a long 
account in the native newspaper, the Lak-riwi-kirana 
(Ceylon Sunbeam), of the iath March, 1870, of the crema- 
tion of a Weda-rala, or native doctor. Bishop Bigandet 
relates in a note in his ' Life or Legend of Gautama ' the 
corresponding ceremonies still in use in Burma, of which he 
has been a witness 2 ; but cremation is apparently as seldom 
resorted to in Burma as it is in Ceylon. 

The unceremonious mode of burying the dead referred to 
by Knox is not adopted in the more settled districts on 
the sea coast When at Galle I enquired into the funeral 
customs there prevalent, with the following result 3 : 

A few hours after a man has died, the relations wash the 
corpse, shave it ; and, having clothed it with a strip of clean 
white cloth, place it on a bedstead covered with white cloth, 
and under a canopy (wiyana) also of white cloth. They 
then place two lamps, one to burn at the head, and the other 
at the foot of the corpse, and use perfumes. 

A coffin is then prepared, covered with black cloth ; and 
the body is placed on the coffin, and is then sprinkled over 
with lavender or rose-water. The women meanwhile bow 
backwards and forwards with their hands behind their 
heads, uttering loud wailings over the deceased. 

Then the male relatives carry the coffin to the grave, 
which is dug in one of their own cocoa-nut topes near by, 
and over which is raised a more or less elaborate canopy or 
arch of cloths and evergreens (gerfi-ge), adorned with the 
tender leaves and flowers of the cocoa-nut. Along the path 
also from the house to the grave young cocoa-nut leaves 
and flowers are sometimes hung, and the pathway itself is 
often spread with clean white cloths. 

The tom-tom beaters go first ; and the dull monotonous 

* In the older editions of Knox there is a curious engraving of a body being 
thus burnt. 

* Third edition, vol. ii. pp. 78, 79. 

* See the Ceylon Friend for 1870, pp. 109 and following. 



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xlii THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 

sound of their instruments of music is appropriate enough. 
Then follow some Buddhist mendicants, in number accord- 
ing to the wealth or influence of the deceased, and walking 
under a portable canopy of white cloth. Then the coffin is 
carried by the nearest male relatives, and followed by other 
male relatives and relations — no females, even the widowed 
mother of an only son, taking part in this last sad pro- 
cession. 

Three times the coffin is carried round the grave : then 
it is placed on two sticks placed across the mouth of the 
pit ; and one end of a roll of white cloth is placed on the 
coffin, the other end being held by all the Unnanses 
(Bhikkhus) whilst the people repeat three times in Pali 
the well-known formula of the Refuges (the simple Nicene 
Creed of the Buddhists) : 

'I take my refuge in the Buddha, 
I take my refuge in the Dhamma, 
I take my refuge in the Order 1 .' 

Then the priests respond, thrice repeating in Pali the 
Well-known verse discussed below 2 : 

'How transient are all component things! 
Their nature's to be born and die ; 
Coming, they go ; and then is best, 
When each has ceased, and all is rest!' 

Then the Unnanses let go the roll of white cloth, and 
whilst water is poured from a goblet into a cup placed 
on a plate until the cup is full to the brim s , they again 
chaunt three times in Pali the following verses : — 

'As rivers, when they fill, must flow, 
And reach, and fill the distant main ; 



1 Buddham saranam gaMAami 

Dhammam saranam gaMAaini 
Samgham saranam gaMAami. 
3 Aniiia vata samkh^ra* uppadavaya-dhammino 

Uppa^itva niru^Aanti tesam vupasamo sukho. 
See 'Book of the Great Decease,' VI, 16, and the 'Legend of the Great King 
of Glory,' II, 42. 
* This ceremony is called Paem wadanawS. 



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INTRODUCTION. xliil 



So surely what is given here 

Will reach and bless the spirits there! 

If you on earth will gladly give 
Departed ghosts will gladly live! 

As water poured on mountain tops 
Must soon descend, and reach the plain; 
So surely what is given here 
Will reach and bless the spirits there 1 !' 

The relations then place the coffin in the grave, and 
each throws in a handful of earth. The Unnans6s then 
go away, taking the roll or rolls of cloth, one end of which 
was placed upon the coffin. The grave is filled in. Two 
lights, one at the head of it, and one at the foot, are left 
burning. And then the friends and relations return to 
the house. 

The funeral now being over, is followed by a feast ; 
for though nothing may be cooked in a house or hut in 
which there is a corpse, yet plenty of food has been brought 
in from neighbouring tenements by the relations of the 
deceased. 

There is, however, yet another very curious ceremony 
to be gone through. Three or seven days — whichever, 
according to the rules of astrology, is a lucky day — after 
the deceased person died, an Unnlnse is duly invited to 
the house in which the deceased died. He arrives in the 
evening ; reads bana (that is, the Word, passages from the 
sacred books) throughout the night; and in the morning 
is presented with a roll of white cloth, and is asked to 
partake of food, chiefly of course curries, of those different 
kinds of which the deceased had been most particularly 
fond. 

1 Yatha varivaha pfirS. paripurenti sagaram 

Evam eva ito dinnani petanam upakappati. 

Ito dinnena yapenti peta kalakata tahifn. 

Unname udakam vattam yatha ninnam pavattati 
Evam eva ito dinnam petanam upakappati. 

These verses occur in the Tirokurfda-Sutta of the Khuddaka-P&Ma, but in a 
different order. 



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xllV THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 

This ceremony is called Mataka Dan ay a (Gift for 
the Dead), and the previous feast is called Mataka 
Bhatta (Feast in honour of the Dead) : the two combined 
taking the place of an ancient rite observed in pagan, 
pre-Buddhistic, times, and then also called Mataka Bhatta, 
in which offerings were made to the Petas; that is, to 
the manes, or departed ghosts, of ancestors and near 
relations. Such offerings are of course forbidden to Bud- 
dhists \ and it is a very instructive instance of a survival in 
belief, of the effect of the natural reluctance to make much 
change in the mode of paying the customary funeral re- 
spect to deceased friends, that the kind of food supposed 
to be most appreciated by the dead should still be used in 
the Buddhist funeral rites. 

Another part of the ceremony, that part where one end 
of a roll of cloth is placed on the coffin while the other end 
is held by all the assembled Unnanses 2 , is a fragment of 
ritualistic symbolism which deserves attention. The mem- 
bers of the Buddhist Order of Mendicants were enjoined to 
avoid all personal decoration of any kind ; and to attire 
themselves in cloths of no value, such as might be gathered 
from a dust heap (Pawsu-kula), or even from a cemetery. 
This was a principle to be followed, not a literal rule to be 
observed ; and therefore from the first presents of strips of 
plain white cotton cloth, first torn in pieces to deprive 
them of any commercial value, then pieced together again 
and dyed a dull orange colour to call to mind the colour of 
old worn out linen, were the material from which the 
mendicants' clothing was actually made. But the duty of 
contempt for dress (called Pawsu-kulikanga, from the 
dust heap) was never lost sight of, and advantage was taken 
of the gifts given by the faithful at funerals to impress this 
duty upon the minds of the assembled Bhikkhus. 

Nothing is known of any religious ceremony having been 
performed by the early Buddhists in India, whether the 
person deceased was a layman, or even a member of the 

1 Compare the Mataka-Bhatta-GAtaka (No. 1 8), translated in 'Buddhist 
Birth Stories,' vol. i. pp. 226 and following. 

2 See p. xlii. 



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INTRODUCTION. xlv 



Order. The Vinaya Pi/aka, which enters at so great length 
into all the details of the daily life of the recluses, has 
no rules regarding the mode of treating the body of a 
deceased Bhikkhu. It was probably burnt, and very much 
in the manner described in the- last chapter of our Sutta 
— that is to say, it was reverently carried out to some 
convenient spot, and there simply cremated on a funeral 
pyre without any religious ritual, a small tope being more 
often than not erected over the ashes. Though funerals 
are, naturally, not unfrequently mentioned in the historical 
books, and in the Birth Stories, there is nowhere any 
reference to a recognised mode of performing any religious 
ceremony \ 

The date of the Great Decease is not quite certain. 
The dwellers in the valley of the Ganges, for many genera- 
tions after Gotama's death, were a happy people, who had 
no need of dates ; and it was only long afterwards, and in 
Ceylon, that the great event became used as the starting- 
point for chronological calculations, as the Buddhist era. 

The earliest use of the Buddha's Parinibbana as such 
an era is in an Inscription of King Nissanka Malta's, of the 
twelfth century A.D., published by me in the Journal of 
the Royal Asiatic Society for 1875. Both in the historical 
records of Ceylon, and in those passages of the Purawas 
which are the nearest approach to historical records in 
India, the chronology is usually based on the lists of kings, 
just as it is in the Old Testament. Only by adding to- 
gether the lengths of the reigns of the intermediate kings 
is it possible to calculate the length of the time that is said 
to have elapsed between any two given events. 

If these lists of kings had been accurately kept from 

1 Compare Mahavamsa, pp. 4, 1 15, 1 29, 199, 223-225, and Chap. 39, verse 28 ; 
Gataka I, 166, 181, 402; II, 6; Dasaratna Gataka, pp. 1, 21, 22, 26, &c. ; 
Dhammapada Commentary, pp. 94, 205, 206, 222, 359; Hatthavana-galla- 
vihara-vamsa, Chap. IX ; Hardy, ' Eastern Monachism,' pp. 332-324. 

The words Saddham, Uddhadehikam, and Nivapo, given in Childers, 
refer to pagan rites. 

On funerals among Buddhists in Japan, see Miss Bird's ' Unbeaten Tracks,' 
vol. i. 



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xlviil THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. 

possibly derived from a northern Buddhist Sanskrit work 
— the date of the Buddha's death is fixed at five hundred 
years before the time of Milinda 1 , who certainly reigned 
about a century after Christ. I am, therefore, of opinion 
that the hitherto accepted date of the Buddha's death 
should be modified accordingly. 

This would make the date of the Great Decease about 
420-400 B.C. (very possibly a year or two later), and the date 
of Gotama's birth therefore eighty years earlier, or in round 
numbers about 500 B.C. 

I have discussed the whole question at full length in my 
'^Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon/ written in ampli- 
fication of a paper read in 1874 before the Royal Asiatic 
Society; and to that work I must refer any reader, who 
may take interest in these chronological discussions, for 
ampler details. I have been able here to present only a 
summary of an argument which is in so far of little im- 
portance, inasmuch as the rectification which I have ven- 
tured to propose only differs by a little more than half a 
century from the earliest date which can in any case be 
suggested as approximately correct (that is about 485 B. c). 
The date 543 B. c, still unfortunately accepted outside the 
circle of students of Buddhism 2 , is now acknowledged to 
be too early by all scholars who have seriously considered 
the subject. 



1 Trenckner, p. 3. Mr. Trenckner says in his preface that Buddhaghosa 
quotes this work, but unfortunately he does not give any reference. See the 
note below on our Sutta, Chap. VI, § 3. 

* See, for instance, Max Duncker, 'History of Antiquity,' vol. iv. p. 364. On 
the dated Edict, ascribed by some to Asoka, see my note loc. cit., and Olden- 
berg, ' Introd. to the Mahft-vagga,' p. xxxviii. 



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THE BOOK 

OF THE 

GREAT DECEASE. 



mahA-parinibbAha-s; 




Chapter I. 

i 1 . Thus have I heard. The Blessed One was 
once dwelling in Ri^agaha, on the hill called the 
Vulture's Peak. Now at that time A^atasattu, the 
son of the queen-consort ofVideha origin 2 , the king 
of Magadha, was desirous of attacking the Vaggians ; 
and he said to himself, ' I will root out these Va^- 

1 Sections i-io, inclusive, recur in the Va.ggi Vagga of the 
Sutta Nip£ta in the Anguttara Nikaya; and there is a curiously 
incorrect version of § 3 in the Fa Kheu Pi Hu, translated from 
the Chinese by Mr. Beal, under the title of 'The Dhammapada 
from the Buddhist Canon,' pp. 165, 166. 

2 A^itasattu Vedehiputto. The first word is not a per- 
sonal name, but an official epithet, 'he against whom there has 
arisen no (worthy or equal) foe ; ' the second gives us the maiden 
family, or tribal (not personal) name of his mother. Persons of 
distinction are scarcely ever mentioned by name in Indian Buddhist 
books, a rule applying more especially to kings, but extended 
not unfrequently to private persons. Thus Upatissa, the earnest 
and thoughtful disciple whom the Buddha himself declared to be 
' the second founder of the kingdom of righteousness,' is referred 
to either as Dhamma-senapati or as Siriputta ; epithets of cor- 
responding origin to those in the text. By the Gains A^ltasattu 
is called Kfl#ika or Ko»ika, which again is probably not the name 
given to him at the rice-eating (the ceremony corresponding to 
infant baptism), but a nickname acquired in after life. 

[11] B 



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2 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

^ians, mighty and powerful x though they be, I will 
destroy these Wa.ggra.ns, I will bring these Va < ^ians 
to utter ruin!' 

2. So he spake to the Brahman Vassakara, the 
prime-minister of Magadha, and said : 

' Come now, O Brahman, do you go to the Blessed 
One, and bow down in adoration at his feet on my 
behalf, and enquire in my name whether he is free 
from illness and suffering, and in the enjoyment of 
ease and comfort, and vigorous health. Then tell 
him that A^atasattu, son of the Vedehi, the king of 
Magadha, in his eagerness to attack the Vaggians, 
has resolved, " I will root out these Vaggians, mighty 
and powerful though they be, I will destroy these 
Vaggians, I will bring these Vaggians to utter ruin!" 
And bear carefully in mind whatever the Blessed 
One may predict, and repeat it to me. For the 
Buddhas speak nothing untrue!' 

3. Then the Brahman Vassakara hearkened to the 
words of the king, saying, ' Be it as you say.' And 
ordering a number of magnificent carriages to be 
made ready, he mounted one of them', left Ra^agaha 
with his train, and went to the Vulture's Peak, 
riding as far as the ground was passable for car- 

1 Evammahiddhike evammahanubh£ve. There is nothing 
supernatural about the iddhi here referred to. Etena tesan 
samagga-bhavan kathesi says the commentator simply: thus 
referring the former adjective to the power of union, as he does 
the second to the power derived from practice in military tactics 
(hatthisippidfhi). The epithets are, indeed, most commonly 
applied to the supernatural powers of DevatSs, Nagas, and other 
fairy-like beings ; but they are also used, sometimes in the simple 
sense of this passage, and sometimes in the other sense, of Buddhas 
and of other Arahats. See M. P. S. 12, 43 ; M. Sud. S. 49-53 ; 
G&- I. 34, 35. 39. 4'- 



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MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 



riages, and then alighting and proceeding on foot 
to the place where the Blessed One was. On 
arriving there he exchanged with the Blessed One 
the greetings and compliments of friendship and 
civility, sat down respectfully by his side [and then 
delivered to him the message even as the king had 
commanded 1 ]. 

4. Now at that time "the venerable Ananda was 
standing behind the Blessed One, and fanning him. 
•And the Blessed One said to him : ' Have you 
heard, Ananda, that the Vaggians hold full and 
frequent public assemblies ?' 

' Lord, so I have heard,' replied he. 

' So long, Ananda,' rejoined the Blessed One, ' as 
the Va^fians hold these full and frequent public 
assemblies; so long may they be expected not to 
decline, but to prosper.' 

[And in like manner questioning Ananda, and 
receiving a similar reply, the Blessed One declared 
as follows the other conditions which would ensure 
the welfare of the Va^fian confederacy 2 .] 

' So long, Ananda, as the Vaggians meet together 
in concord, and rise in concord, and carry out 
their undertakings in concord — so long as they 
enact nothing not already established, abrogate 
nothing that has been already enacted, and act in 
accordance with the ancient institutions of the 
Vaggians as established in former days — so long 
as they honour and esteem and revere and support 
the Va < ggian elders, and hold it a point of duty to 
hearken to their words — so long as no women or girls 

1 § 2 repeated. 

1 In the text there is a Question, answer, and reply with each 
clause. 

B 2 



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4 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

belonging to their clans are detained among them 
by force or abduction — so long as they honour and 
esteem and revere and support the Va.ggian shrines * 
in town or country, and allow not the proper offerings 
and rites, as formerly given and performed, to fall into 
desuetude — so long as the rightful protection, defence, 
and support shall be fully provided for the Arahats 
among them, so that Arahats from a distance may 
enter the realm, and the Arahats therein may live at 
• ease — so long may the Vajgians be expected not 
to decline, but to prosper.' 

5. Then the Blessed One addressed Vassakara 
the Brahman, and said : 

' When I was once staying, O Brahman, at Vesali 
at the Sarandada Temple 2 , I taught the Vaggians 
these conditions of welfare ; and so long as those 
conditions shall continue to exist among the Va^- 
^ians, so long as the Vaggians shall be well instructed 
in those conditions, so long may we expect them 
not to decline, but to prosper/ 

'We may expect then,' answered the Brahman, 'the 
welfare and not the decline of the Vaggians when 
they are possessed of any one of these conditions of 
Welfare, how much more so when they are possessed 
of all the seven. So, Gotama, the Vagfians cannot 
be overcome by the king of Magadha ; that is, not 
in battle, without diplomacy or breaking up their 
alliance 3 . And now, Gotama, we must go ; we are 
busy, and have much to do.' 

1 .Ketiyani, which Sum.Vil. explains as Yakkha-^etiySni. 

1 The commentator adds that this was a vihara erected on the 
site of a former temple of the Yakkha Sarandada. 

3 'Overcome' is literally 'done' (akarawfya), but the word 
evidently has a similar sense to that which ' done ' occasionally has 



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MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 



' Whatever you think most fitting, O Brahman/ 
was the reply. And the Brahman Vassakara, de- 
lighted and pleased with the words of the Blessed 
One, rose from his seat, and went his way. 



6. Now soon after he had gone the Blessed One 
addressed the venerable Ananda, and said : ' Go now, 
Ananda, and assemble in the Service Hall such of 
the Brethren * as live in the neighbourhood of 
Ra^agaha/ 



in colloquial English. The Sum. Vil. (fol. /}) says akara»iy&, 
akatabbi agahetabba : yadidan, nipita-mattan: yuddhas- 
siti, kara«atthe sami-va^anan, abhimukhena yuddhena 
gahetuft na sakka ti attho. Upalapana, which I have only 
met with here, must mean 'humbug, cajolery, diplomacy;' see the 
use of the verb upa-lapeti, at Maha Vagga V, 2, 21; Git II, 266, 
267; Pat. in the 70th Pa*. Sum. Vil. explains it, at some length, 
as making an alliance, by gifts, with hostile intent, which comes 
to much the same thing. The root I think is U. 

1 The word translated ' brethren ' throughout is in the original 
bhikkhu, a word most difficult to render adequately by any word 
which would not, to Christians and in Europe, connote something 
different from the Buddhist idea. A bhikkhu, literally ' beggar,' 
was a disciple who had joined Gotama's order ; but the word refers 
to their renunciation of worldly things, rather than to their conse- 
quent mendicancy; and they did not really beg in our modern 
sense of the word. Hardy has ' priests ; ' I have elsewhere used 
' monks ' and sometimes ' beggars ' and ' members of the order.' 
This last is, I think, the best rendering ; but it is too long for con- 
stant repetition, as in this passage, and too complex to be a really 
good version of bhikkhu. The members of the order were not 
priests, for they had no priestly powers. They were not monks, for 
they took no vow of obedience, and could leave the order (and 
constantly did so and do so still) whenever they chose. They 
were not beggars, for they had none of the mental and moral 
qualities associated with that word. ' Brethren ' connotes very much 
the position in which they stood to one another ; but I wish there 
were a better word to use in rendering bhikkhu. 



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6 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH, 

And he did so ; and returned to the Blessed One, 
and informed him, saying : 

' The company of the Brethren, Lord, is assem- 
bled, let the Blessed One do as seemeth to him fit.' 

And the Blessed One arose, and went to the 
Service Hall ; and when he was seated, he addressed 
the Brethren, and said : 

' I will teach you, O mendicants, seven conditions 
of the welfare of a community. Listen well and 
attend, and I will speak.' 

'Even so, Lord,' said the Brethren, in assent, to 
the Blessed One ; and he spake as follows : 

'So long, O mendicants, as the brethren meet 
together in full and frequent assemblies — so long 
as they meet together in concord, and rise in con- 
cord, and carry out in concord the duties of the 
order — so long as the brethren shall establish 
nothing that has not been already prescribed, and 
abrogate nothing that has been already established, 
and act in accordance with the rules of the order as 
now laid down — so long as the brethren honour and 
esteem and revere and support the elders of expe- 
rience and long standing, the fathers and leaders 
of the order, and hold it a point of duty to hearken 
to their words — so long as the brethren fall not 
under the influence of that craving which, springing 
up within them, would give rise to renewed exist- 
ence 1 — so long as the brethren delight in a life 
of solitude — so long as the brethren so train their 
minds 2 that good and holy men shall come to 
them, and those who have come shall dwell at ease 



1 '1 

2 <1 



'Ponobhavika' punabbhava-dayikl (S.V. fol. /fi.) 
'Pa££attaw yeva satiw upa/Mapessantf ' ti attano ab- 
bhantare sati/» upa//A£pessanti. (S. V. fol. it.) 



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MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 



' — so long may the brethren be expected, not to 
decline, but to prosper. So long as these seven con- 
ditions shall continue to exist among the brethren, so 
long as they are well-instructed in these conditions, 
sO long may the brethren be expected not to decline, 
but to prosper.' 

7. ' Other seven conditions of welfare will I teach 
you, O brethren. Listen well, and attend, and I 
will speak.' 

And on their expressing their assent, he spake 
as follows : 

' So long as the brethren shall not engage in, 
or be fond of, or be connected with business — so 
long as the brethren shall not be in the habit 
of, or be fond of, or be partakers in idle talk — so 
long as the brethren shall not be addicted to, or 
be fond of, or indulge in slothfulness — so long 
as the brethren shall not frequent, or be fond of, 
or indulge in society — so long as the brethren 
shall neither have, nor fall under the influence of, 
sinful desires — so long as the brethren shall not 
become the friends, companions, or intimates of 
sinners — so long as the brethren shall not come 
to a stop on their way [to Nirvana *] because they 

1 'Oramattakena' ti avaramattakena appamattakena. 'An- 
tara' ti arahattaraappatvS'vaetth'antare. 'Vosanan' ti.. .. 
osakkanam \da.m vuttara hoti. Yava sila-p&risuddhi-mat- 
tena vd vipassana-mattena vi sot&panna-bhava-mattena v£ 
sakad&gami-bhava-mattena v£ an&gami-bhava-mattena va 
'vosinaw' na 'Spa^issahti' nama 'vuddhi yeva bhikkhu- 
naffi pa/ikarakha" no parihani.' S. V. (fol. tri). This is an inter- 
esting analogue to Philippians iii. 13 : ' I count not myself to have 
apprehended : but this one thing I do, forgetting those things which 
are behind, and reaching forth unto those things which are before, 
I press toward the mark,' &c. See also below, Chap. V, § 68. 



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8 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

have attained to any lesser thing — so long may the 
brethren be expected not to decline, but to prosper. 
'So long as these conditions shall continue to 
exist among the brethren, so long as they are in- 
structed in these conditions, so long may the brethren 
be expected not to decline, but to prosper.' 

8. ' Other seven conditions of welfare will I teach 
you, O brethren. Listen well, and attend, and I 
will speak.' 

And on their expressing their assent, he spake 
as follows : 

' So long as the brethren shall be full of faith, 
modest in heart, afraid of sin \ full of learning, strong 
in energy, active in mind, and full of wisdom, so 
long may the brethren be expected not to decline, 
but to prosper. 

' So long as these conditions shall continue to 
exist among the brethren, so long as they are in- 
structed in these conditions, so long may the brethren 
be expected not to decline, but to prosper.' 

9. ' Other seven conditions of welfare will I teach 
you, O brethren. Listen well, and attend, and I 
will speak.' 

And on their expressing their assent, he spake 
as follows : 

1 The exact distinction between hiri and ottappa is here ex- 
plained by Buddhaghosa as follows : 

'HirimanS' ti pipa-^iguM^ana-lakkhawdya hiriyd yut- 
ta£itt&. 'Ottipi' ti papato bhaya-lakkha«ena ottappena sa- 
manndgatd: that is, loathing sin as contrasted with fear of sin. 
But this is rather a gloss than an exact and exclusive definition. 
Ahirika" is shamelessness, anotappaw frowardness. At Git. I, 
207 we find hiri described as subjective, and ottappa as objec- 
tive, modesty of heart as contrasted with decency in outward 
behaviour. 



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MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 



' So long as the brethren shall exercise themselves 
in the sevenfold higher wisdom, that is to say, in 
mental activity, search after truth, energy, joy, peace, 
earnest contemplation, and equanimity of mind, so 
long may the brethren be expected not to decline, 
but to prosper. 

' So long as these conditions shall continue to 
exist among the brethren, so long as they are in- 
structed in these conditions, so long may the brethren 
be expected not to decline, but to prosper.' 

10. ' Other seven conditions of welfare will I teach 
you, O brethren. Listen well, and attend, and I 
will speak.' 

And on their expressing their assent, he spake 
as follows : 

' So long as the brethren shall exercise themselves 
in the sevenfold perception due to earnest thought, 
that is to say, the perception of impermanency, of 
non-individuality 1 , of corruption, of the danger of sin, 
of sanctification, of purity of heart, of Nirva»a, so 
long may the brethren be expected not to decline, 
but to prosper. 

' So long as these conditions shall continue to exist 
among the brethren, so long as they are instructed 
in these conditions, so long may the brethren be 
expected not to decline, but to prosper.' 

ii. ' Six conditions of welfare will I teach you, O 
brethren. Listen well, and attend, and I will speak.' 

And on their expressing their assent, he spake 
as follows : 

1 For a further explanation of the meaning of anattaw see 
Gotama's second discourse in the Maha Vagga I, 6 : 38-47. 
Buddhaghosa makes no special comment here on either of the 
seven perceptions. 



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IO THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

' So long as the brethren shall persevere in kind- 
ness of action, speech, and thought amongst the 
saints, both in public and in private — so long as 
they shall divide without partiality, and share in 
common with the upright and the holy, all such 
things as they receive in accordance with the 
just provisions of the order, down even to the mere 
contents of a begging bowl — so long as the brethren 
shall live among the saints in the practice, both 
in public and in private, of those virtues which (un- 
broken, intact, unspotted, unblemished) are produc- 
tive of freedom 1 , and praised by the wise; which are 
untarnished by the desire of future life, or by the 
belief in the efficacy of outward acts 2 ; and which 
are conducive to high and holy thoughts — so long as 
the brethren shall live among the saints, cherishing, 
both in public and in private, that noble and saving 
faith which leads to the complete destruction of the 
sorrow of him who acts according to it — so long 
may the brethren be expected not to decline, but 
to prosper. 

'So long as these six conditions shall continue to 

1 Buddhaghosa takes this in a spiritual sense, 'tSni pan' etini 
(sildni) ta»h£-d£savyato moietva bhu^-issa-bh&va-kara- 
«ato bhu^-iss&ni:' that is, 'These virtues are bhu^issani be- 
cause they bring one to the state of a free man by delivering him 
from the slavery of craving.' 

a Ta«h&-di/Mihi aparama//^att&, ida.m nama tvaw apan- 
napubbo ti kena^i parama/Muw? asakkuweyyatti ka., 'apa- 
r&ma//Mni' (S.V. fol. //u), that is, 'These virtues are called 
apar&ma//Mni because they are. untarnished by craving or de- 
lusion, and because no one can say of him who practices them, 
" you have been already guilty of such and such a sin." ' Craving 
is here the hope of a future life in heaven, and delusion the 
belief in the efficacy of rites and ceremonies (the two nissayas) 
which are condemned as unworthy inducements to virtue. 



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I. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. I I 

exist among the brethren, so long as they are in- 
structed in these six conditions, so long may the 
brethren be expected not to decline, but to prosper.' 



12. And whilst the Blessed One stayed there at 
Ri^agaha on the Vulture's Peak he held that com- 
prehensive religious talk with the brethren on the 
nature of upright conduct, and of earnest contem- 
plation, and of intelligence. ' Great is the fruit, 
great the advantage of earnest contemplation when 
set round with upright conduct. Great is the fruit, 
great the advantage of intellect when set round with 
earnest contemplation. The mind set round with 
intelligence is freed from the great evils, that is 
to say, from sensuality, from individuality, from 
delusion, and from ignorance 1 .' 

1 This paragraph is spoken of as if it were a well-known sum- 
mary, and it is constantly repeated below. The word I have 
rendered ' earnest contemplation' is samadhi, which occupies in 
the Pali Pi/akas very much the same position as faith does in the 
New Testament ; and this section shows that the relative import- 
ance of samadhi, pawM, and sfla played a part in early Bud- 
dhism just as the distinction between faith, reason, and works 
did afterwards in Western theology. It would be difficult to find 
a passage in which the Buddhist view of the relation of these 
conflicting ideas is stated with greater beauty of thought, or equal 
succintness of form. 

The expression 'set round with' is in Pali paribh&vita, which 
Dr. Morris holds to be etymologically exactly parallel to our 
phrase 'perfected by,' on the ground that facio is a causal of the 
Latin representative of the Sanskrit root bhu. In the A'etokhila 
Sutta of the Ma^g^ima NikSya eggs are said to be paribhavitani 
by a brooding hen. Buddhaghosa says simply sila-paribhavito 
ti Sdesu yamhi stle /katvi magga-sam&dhiw nibbattenti 
so tena stlena paribhavito. 'The sam&dhi belonging to 
the (Noble Eightfold) Path is said to be paribhavito by that 
virtue, in which they (that is, the converted) are steadfast whilst 
they practice the samadhi.' 



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12 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

13. Now when the Blessed One had sojourned 
at Ra^agaha as long as he pleased, he addressed 
the venerable Ananda, and said : ' Come, Ananda, 
let us go to Ambala/Z^ika.' 

' So be it, Lord ! ' said Ananda in assent, and the 
Blessed One, with a large company of the brethren, 
proceeded to Ambala/A&ika. 

14. There the Blessed One stayed in the king's 
house and held that comprehensive religious talk 
with the brethren on the nature of upright conduct, 
and of earnest contemplation, and of intelligence. 
' Great is the fruit, great the advantage of earnest 
contemplation when set round with upright conduct. 
Great is the fruit, great the advantage of intellect 
when set round with earnest contemplation. The 
mind set round with intelligence is freed from the 
great evils, that is to say, from sensuality, from 
individuality, from delusion, and from ignorance.' 

15. Now when the Blessed One had stayed as 
long as was convenient at Ambala^ika, he ad- 
dressed the venerable Ananda, and said : ' Come, 
Ananda, let us go on to Nalanda.' 

'So be it, Lord!' said Ananda, in assent, to the 
Blessed One. 

Then the Blessed One proceeded, with a great 
company of the brethren, to Nalanda ; and there, at 
Nalanda, the Blessed One stayed in the Pavarika 
mango grove. 

16. *Now the venerable Sariputta came to the 

1 This conversation is given at length in the Sampasadaniya 
Sutta of the Dfgha Nikaya, and also in the Satipa//4ana Vagga 
of the Sawyutta Nik&ya. I have compressed mere repetitions at 
the places marked with [ ] where the preceding clauses are, in the 
text, repeated in full. 



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1. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 1 3 

place where the Blessed One was, and having 
saluted him, took his seat respectfully at his side, 
and said : ' Lord ! such faith have I in the Blessed 
One, that methinks there never has been, nor will 
there be, nor is there now any other, whether 
Sama»a or Brahman, who is greater and wiser than 
the Blessed One, that is to say, as regards the 
higher wisdom.' 

' Grand and bold are the words of thy mouth, 
Sariputta : verily, thou hast burst forth into a song 
of ecstasy ! of course then thou hast known all the 
Blessed Ones who in the long ages of the past have 
been Arahat Buddhas, comprehending their minds 
with yours, and aware what their conduct was, what 
their doctrine, what their wisdom, what their mode 
of life, and what salvation they attained to ?' 

'Not so, O Lord!' 

' Of course then thou hast perceived all the 
Blessed Ones who in the long ages of the future 
shall be Arahat Buddhas comprehending [in the 
same manner their whole minds with yours] ?' 

• Not so, O Lord !' 

' But at least then, O Sariputta, thou knowest me 
as the Arahat Buddha now alive, and hast pene- 
trated my mind [in the manner I have mentioned] ! ' 

'Not even that, O Lord!' 

' You see then, Sariputta, that you know not the 
hearts of the Arahat Buddhas of the past and of the 
future. Why therefore are your words so grand 
and bold ? Why do you burst forth into such a 
song of ecstasy ? ' 

1 7. ' O Lord ! I have not the knowledge of the 
hearts of the Arahat Buddhas that have been, and 
are to come, and now are. I only know the lineage 



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14 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

of the faith. Just, Lord, as a king might have a 
border city, strong in its foundations, strong in its 
ramparts and tora«as, and with one gate alone ; and 
the king might have a watchman there, clever, ex- 
pert, and wise, to stop all strangers and admit only 
friends. And he, on going over the approaches all 
round the city, might not so observe all the joints 
and crevices in the ramparts of that city as to know 
where even a cat could get out. That might well 
be. Yet all living things of larger size that entered 
or left the city, would have to do so by that gate. 
Thus only is it, Lord, that I know the lineage of 
the faith. I know that the Arahat Buddhas of the 
past, putting away all lust, ill-will, sloth, pride, and 
doubt ; knowing all those mental faults which make 
men weak ; training their minds in the four kinds of 
mental activity; thoroughly exercising themselves 
in the sevenfold higher wisdom, received the full 
fruition of Enlightenment. And I know that the 
Arahat Buddhas of the times to come will [do the 
same]. And I know that the Blessed One, the 
Arahat Buddha of to-day, has [done so] now V 



i8. There in the Pavarika mango grove the 
Blessed One held that comprehensive religious talk 

1 The tertium quid of the comparison is the completeness of 
the knowledge. Sariputta acknowledges that he was wrong in 
jumping to the wide conclusion that his own lord and master was 
the wisest of all the teachers of the different religious systems that 
were known to him. So far — after the cross-examination by the 
Buddha — he admits that his knowledge does not reach. But he 
maintains that he does know that which is, to him, after all the 
main thing, namely, that all the Buddhas must have passed through 
the process here laid down as leading up to Buddhahood. The 
Pali of 'the full fruition of Enlightenment' is anuttaraw sammJ- 
sambodhiw, which might be rendered 'Supreme Buddhahood.' 



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I. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 1 5 

with the brethren on the nature of upright conduct, 
and of earnest contemplation, and of intelligence. 
' Great is the fruit, great the advantage of earnest 
contemplation when set round with upright conduct. 
Great is the fruit, great the advantage of intellect 
when set round with earnest contemplation. The 
mind set round with intelligence is freed from the 
great evils, that is to say, from sensuality, from 
individuality, from delusion, and from ignorance.' 



19. Now when the Blessed One had stayed as 
long as was convenient at Nalanda, he addressed 
the venerable Ananda, and said : ' Come, Ananda, 
let us go on to Pa/aligama.' 

' So be it, Lord ! ' said Ananda, in assent, to the 
Blessed One. 

Then the Blessed One proceeded, with a great 
company of the brethren, to Pa/aligama. 

20. 'Now the disciples at Pa/aligama heard of his 
arrival there, and they went to the place where he 
was, took their seats respectfully beside him, and 
invited him to their village rest house. And the 
Blessed One signified, by silence, his consent. 

21. Then the Pa/aligama disciples seeing that he 
had accepted the invitation, rose from their seats, 
and went away to the rest house, bowing to the 
Blessed One and keeping him on their right as they 
past him 2 . On arriving there they made the rest 

1 From this sentence down to the end of the verses at Chap. II, 
§ 3, is, with a few unimportant variations, word for word the same 
as Mah& Vagga VI, 28, 1, to VI, 29, 2. 

2 It would be very rude to have left him otherwise. So in 
Europe a similar custom is carried still further, persons leaving the 
royal presence being expected to go out backwards. 



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1 6 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. , CH. 

house fit in every way for occupation *, placed seats 
in it, set up a water-pot, and fixed an oil lamp. 
Then they returned to the Blessed One, and bowing, 
stood beside him, and said : ' All things are ready, 
Lord! It is time for you to do what you deem 
most fit.' 

22. And the Blessed One robed himself, took his 
bowl and other things, went with the brethren to 
the rest house, washed his feet, entered the hall, 
and took his seat against the centre pillar, with his 
face towards the east. And the brethren also, after 
washing their feet, entered the hall, and took their 
seats round the Blessed One, against the western 
wall, and facing the east. And the Pa/aligama disci- 
ples too, after washing their feet, entered the hall, 
and took their seats opposite the Blessed One, against 
the eastern wall, and facing towards the west. 

23. 2 Then the Blessed One addressed the Pa/ali- 
gama disciples, and said : ' Fivefold, O householders, 
is the loss of the wrong-doer through his want of 
rectitude. In the first place the wrong-doer, devoid 
of rectitude, falls into great poverty through sloth ; 
in the next place his evil repute gets noised abroad ; 
thirdly, whatever society he enters — whether of 
Brahmans, nobles, heads of houses, or Sama«as — 

1 With reference to Oldenberg's note at Maha Vagga, p. 384, it 
may be mentioned that Buddhaghosa says here, 'sabba-santha- 
rin' ti yatha sabbaw santhataw yeva. (S.V. fol. it.) 

2 The following sentences contain a synopsis of what was merely 
the elementary righteousness, the Adi-brahma-£ariyaz«, quite 
distinct from, and not for a moment to be compared in glory with 
the Magga-brahma-£ariya*H, the system developed in the Noble 
Eightfold Path. It will have been seen above, §11, that the latter, 
to be perfect, must be untarnished by the attraction of the hope of 
heaven or the fear'of hell. 



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i. maha-parinibbAna-sutta. i 7 

he enters shyly and confused; fourthly, he is full 
of anxiety when he dies; and lastly, on the dis- 
solution of the body, after death, he is reborn into 
some unhappy state of suffering or woe *. This, O 
householders, is the fivefold loss of the evil-doer ! ' 

24. ' Fivefold, O householders, is the gain of the 
well-doer through his practice of rectitude. In the 
first place the Well-doer, strong in rectitude, acquires 
great wealth through his industry ; in the next place, 
good reports of him are spread abroad; thirdly, 
whatever society he enters — whether of nobles, Brah- 
mans, heads of houses, or members of the order — 
he enters confident and self-possessed ; fourthly, he 
dies without anxiety ; and lastly, on the dissolution 
of the body, after death, he is reborn into some 
happy state in heaven. This, O householders, is 
the fivefold gain of the well-doer.' 

25. When the Blessed One had thus taught the 
disciples, and incited them, and roused them, and 
gladdened them, far into the night with religious 
discourse, he dismissed them, saying, ' The night is 
far spent, O householders. It is time for you to do 
what you deem most fit.' ' Even so, Lord!' answered 
the disciples of Pafoligama, and they rose from their 
seats, and bowing to the Blessed One, and keeping 
him on their right hand as they passed him, they 
departed thence. 

And the Blessed One, not long after the disciples 

1 Four such states are mentioned, apaya, duggati, vinipato, 
and nirayo, all of which are temporary states. The first three 
seem to be synonyms. The last is one of the four divisions into 
which the first is usually divided, and is often translated hell; but 
riot being an eternal state, and not being dependent or conse- 
quent upon any judgment, it cannot accurately be so rendered. 

[11] c 

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1 8 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

of Pa/aligama had departed thence, entered into his 
private chamber. 



26. At that time Suntdha and Vassakara, the 
chief ministers of Magadha, were building a fortress 
at Pa/'aligama to repel the Varans, and there 
were a number of fairies who haunted in thousands 
the plots of ground there. Now, wherever ground 
is so occupied by powerful fairies, they bend the 
hearts of the most powerful kings and ministers to 
build dwelling-places there, and fairies of middling 
and inferior power bend in a similar way the hearts 
of middling or inferior kings and ministers. 

27. And the Blessed One, with his great and 
clear vision, surpassing that of ordinary men, saw 
thousands of those fairies haunting Pa/faligama. 
And he rose up very early in the morning, and said 
to Ananda : ' Who is it then, Ananda, who is build- 
ing a fortress at Pa/aligima ? ' 

'Suntdha and Vassakara, Lord, the chief minis- 
ters of Magadha, are building a fortress there to keep 
back the Vajgians.' 

28. They act, Ananda, as if they had consulted 
with the Tavatiwsa angels. [And telling him of 
what he had seen, and of the influence such fairies 
had, he added] : ' And among famous places of 
residence and haunts of busy men, this will become 
the chief, the city of Pa^ali-putta, a centre for the 
interchange of all kinds of wares. But three dangers 
will hang over Pa/ali-putta, that of fire, that of water, 
and that of dissension V 

1 This paragraph is of importance to the orthodox Buddhist as 
proving the Buddha's power of prophecy and the authority of the. 



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I. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 1 9 

29. Now Suntdha and Vassakara, the chief 
ministers of Magadha, proceeded to the place where 
the Blessed One was. And when they had come 
there they exchanged with the Blessed One the 
greetings and compliments of friendship and civility, 
and stood there respectfully on one side. And, so 
standing, Sunldha and Vassakara r the chief ministers 
of Magadha, spake thus to the Blessed One : 

' May the venerable Gotama do us the honour 
of taking his meal, together with the company of 
the brethren, at our house to-day.' And the Blessed 
One signified, by silence, his consent. 

30. Then when Sunidha and Vassakara, the chief 
ministers of Magadha, perceived that he had given 
his consent, they returned to the place where they 
dwelt. And on arriving there, they prepared sweet 
dishes of boiled rice, and cakes; and informed the 
Blessed One, saying: 

Buddhist scriptures. To those who conclude that such a passage 
must have been written after the event that is prophesied, it is 
valuable evidence of the age both of the Maha Vagga and of the 
Mah&parinibb&na Sutta; — evidence, however, that cannot as yet 
be applied to its full extent, as the time at which Pd/ali-glma 
had grown into the great and important city of PS/ali-putta is not 
as yet known with sufficient certainty. The late Burmese tradition 
on this point given in Bigandet's Legend of the Burmese Buddha, 
vol. ii, p. 183, can scarcely be depended upon, though it doubt- 
less rests on older documents, and is mentioned also by Hiouen 
Thsang. 

The curious popular belief as to good and bad fairies haunting 
the sites of houses gave rise to a quack science, akin to astrology, 
called vatthu-vi^S, which Buddhaghosa explains here at some 
length, and which is frequently condemned elsewhere in the P&li 
Pi/akas. See, for instance, § 1 of the Mah4-sfla«, translated below 
in the Tevigga. Sutta. The belief is turned to ridicule in the 
edifying legend, No. 40, in my 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' pp. 
326-334. 

C 2 



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2Q THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. ch„ 

' The hour of food has come,, O Gotama,. and 
all is ready.' 

And the Blessed One robed himself early, took 
his bowl with him, and repaired with the brethren 
to the dwelling-place of Suntdha and Vassak&ra, 
and sat down on the seat prepared for hinu 
And with their own hands they set the sweet rice 
and the cakes before the brethren with the Buddha 
at their head, and waited on them till they had had 
enough. And when the Blessed One had finished 
eating hist meal, the ministers brought a low seat, 
and sat down respectfully at his side. 

31. And when they were thus seated the Blessed 
One gave thanks in these verses :-—- 

' Wheresoe'er the prudent man shall take up his 

abode 
Let him support there good and upright men of 

self-control. 
Let him give gifts to all such deities as may 

be there. 
Revered, they will revere him : honoured, they 

honour him again ; 
Are gracious to him as a mother to her own, her 

only son. 
And the man who has the grace of the gods, good 

fortune he beholds V 

1 This passage gives Buddhaghosa a good deal of difficulty, as it 
apparently inculcates offerings to the gods, which is contrary not 
only to both the letter and spirit of Buddhism, but also to the 
practice of Buddhists. He explains away the gifts to the deities 
by saying they are gifts of merit only (patti) — the giver giving the. 
four necessaries to Bhikkhus, and then expressing a wish that 
the Devat^s should share in his pu««a. I am inclined to think, 
on the authority of the Deva-dhamma Gataka (No. 9 in ' Buddhist 



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I. MAHA-PARINIBfeANA-SUftA. 21 

32. And when he had thanked the ministers in 
these verses he rose from his Seat and departed 
thence. And they followed him as he went, saying, 
' The gate the Sartia#a Gotama goes out by to-day 
shall be called Gotama's gate, and the ferry at 
which he crosses the river shall be called Gotama's 
ferry.' And the gate he went out aj^wjrsvcalk 
Gotama's gate. f - ~" * l 

( >-> r> 1 t / r? •« „ ' \> 

33. But the Blessed One went on>tb ,the. river. * * .) 
And at that time the river Ganges wasNatJimful^afcii^, 
overflowing * ; and wishing to cross to the opposite 
bank, some began to seek for boats, some for rafts of 
wood, while some made rafts of basket-work 2 . Then 
the Blessed One as instantaneously as a strong man 
would stretch forth his arm, or draw it back again 
when he had stretched it forth, vanished from this 
side of the river, and stood on the further bank with 
the company of the brethren. 

34. And the Blessed One beheld the people 
looking for- boats and rafts, and as he beheld them 
he brake forth at that time into this song : — 

' They who cross the ocean drear 
Making a solid path across the pools — 

Birth Stories'), that by the deities are here meant the 'good and 
upright men of self-control,' mentioned in the previous clause. 
The verses were perhaps originally non-Buddhistic. 

1 Samatittika kakapeyya. See the note on Tevigga. Sutta 
I, 19, translated below, where the same expression occurs. 

2 Ulumpan ti parazw gamanatthlya a«iyo ko//etva ka- 
taw; kullan ti valli-adthi bandhitva katabba/w, says 
Buddhaghosa. The spelling u/umpatn would correspond better 
to the Sanskrit form urfupa, and has been chosen by Childers in 
his dictionary, and by Oldenberg in his transliteration of this 
passage (Maha Vagga VI, 28 : n, 12). 



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22 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

Whilst the vain world ties, its basket rafts — 
These are the wise, these are the saved indeed 1 !' 



End of the First Portion for Recitation. 



1 That is, those who cross the 'ocean drear' of taw hi, or 
craving ; avoiding, by means of -the ' dyke ' or causeway of the 
Noble Path, the 'pools' or shallows of lust, and ignorance, and 
delusion (comp. Dhp. v. 91), whilst the vain world looks for sal- 
vation from rites, and ceremonies, and gods, — ' these are the wise, 
these are the saved indeed 1' 

How the metre of the verses in the text fell into the confusion 
in which it at present stands is not easy to see. One would 
expect — 

Ye \isagga. pallal&ni taranti znnzyum saraw 
Kullaw hi £-ano bandhati ti««a medhavino ga.nL 
That a gloss can creep into the text, even in verses, is clear from 
the indisputable instance at Gataka II, 35; and the words setuw 
katvana would have been a very natural gloss had the passage 
once stood as above. Then supposing that a copyist or reciter 
had found the words ye visa^a pallalani setu*» katvSna 
taranti awwavaw sarazn, he might have corrected, as he thought, 
the order of the words so as to avoid any possibility of the words 
being taken to mean that the setu, the solid causeway, was made 
over the a«»ava/» sara/ra, the vastly deep, which would be pal- 
pably absurd. Buddhaghosa found setuw katvdna in the text, 
but it is not possible to tell in what order he found the words. The 
Turnour MS. of the Sumangala Vil&sinf has pabandhati, but a 
Ceylon copy of the Samanta PasSdika confirms the Burmese read- 
ing bandhati at Mahi Vagga VI, 28, 13. I need scarcely say 
that the translation follows the printed text. We know too little 
about the history of the Pali Suttas to be able to do more than 
make a passing note of such curiosities. 

On vanishing away from a place, comp. below, III, 22. 



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MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 23 



Chapter II. 

1. Now the Blessed One addressed the venera- 
ble Ananda, and said : ' Come, Ananda, let us go 
on to Ko/igama.' 

' So be it, Lord!' said Ananda, in assent, to the 
Blessed One. 

The Blessed One proceeded with a great company 
of the brethren to Ko/igama; and there he stayed 
in the village itself 1 . 

2. And at that place the Blessed One addressed 
the brethren, and said: 'It is through not under- 
standing and grasping four Noble Truths, O brethren, 
that we have had to run so long, to wander so 
long in this weary path of transmigration, both you 
and I!' 

' And what are these four ?' 

' The noble truth about sorrow ; the noble truth 
about the cause of sorrow; the noble truth about 
the cessation of sorrow ; and the noble truth about 
the path that leads to that cessation. But when 
these noble truths . are grasped and known the 
craving for existence is rooted out, that which 
leads to renewed existence is destroyed, and then 
there is no more birth ! ' 

3. Thus spake the Blessed One ; and when the 
Happy One had thus spoken, then again the 
Teacher said : 

1 As will be observed from the similar passages that follow, 
there is a regular sequence of clauses in the set descriptions of the 
Buddha's movements. The last clause should specify the particular 
grove or house where the Blessed One stayed ; but it is also (in 
this and one or two other cases) inserted with due regularity even 
when it adds nothing positive to the sense. 



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24 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

' By not seeing the four Noble Truths as they 

really are, 
Long is the path that is traversed through many 

a birth ; 
When these are grasped, the cause of birth is 

then removed, 
The root of sorrow rooted out, and there is no 

more birth.' 



4. There too, while staying at Ko/ig&ma, the 
Blessed One held that comprehensive religious dis- 
course with the brethren on the nature of upright 
conduct, and of earnest contemplation, and of in- 
telligence. 'Great is the fruit, great the advan- 
tage of earnest contemplation when set round with 
upright conduct. Great is the fruit, great the 
advantage of intellect when set round with earnest 
contemplation. The mind set round with intelligence 
is freed from the great evils, — that is to say, from 
sensuality, from individuality, from delusion, and 
from ignorance.' 

5. Now when the Blessed One had remained as 
long as was convenient at Ko/igama, he addressed 
the venerable Ananda, and said : ' Come, Ananda, 
let us go on to the villages of Nadika.' 

'So be it, Lord!' said Ananda, in assent, to the 
Blessed One. 

And the Blessed proceeded to the villages of 
Ncldika with a great company of the brethren ; and 
there, at Nadika, the Blessed One stayed at the 
Brick Hall 1 . 

'• At first Nadika is (twice) spoken of in the plural number ; but 
then, thirdly, in the last clause, in the singular. Buddhaghosa 



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H. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 2$ 

6. And the venerable Ananda went to the 
Blessed One and paid him reverence and took 
his seat beside him. And when he was seated, he 
addressed the Blessed One, and said : ' The brother 
named Sa/^a has died at Nadika, Lord. Where has 
he been reborn, and what is his destiny ? The 
sister named Nanda has died, Lord, at Nadika. 
Where is she reborn, and what is her destiny?' 
And in the same terms he enquired concerning 
the devout Sudatta, and the devout lady Su^ata, 
the devout Kakudha, and Kalinga, and Nika/a, 
and Karissabha, and Tu^a, and Santu^a, and 
Bhadda, and Subhadda, 

7. 'The brother named Sa/%a, Ananda, by the 
destruction of the great evils has by himself, and in 
this world, known and realised and attained to Ara- 
hatship, and to emancipation of heart and to emanci- 
pation of mind. The sister named Nanda, Ananda, 
has, by the complete destruction of the five bonds 
that bind people to this world, become an inheritor 
of the highest heavens, there to pass entirely away, 
thence never to return. The devout Sudatta, 
Ananda, by the complete destruction of the three 
bonds, and by the reduction to a minimum of lust, 
hatred, and delusion has become a Sakadagamin, 
who on his first return to this world will make an 
end of sorrow. The devout woman Su/ata, Ananda, 
by the complete destruction of the three bonds, has 
become converted, is no longer liable to be reborn 
in a state of suffering, and is assured of final salva- 

explains this by saying that there were two villages of the same 
name on the shore of the same piece of water. On the public 
resting-place for travellers, which in this instance bore the proud 
title of Brick Hall, see ' Buddhist Birth Stories,' pp. 280-285. 



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26 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

tion \ The devout Kakudha, Ananda, by the com- 
plete destruction of the five bonds that bind people 
to these lower worlds of lust, has become an inheritor 
of the highest heavens, there to pass entirely away, 
thence never to return. So also is the case with 
Kalinga, Nika/a, Ka/issabha, Tu//^a, Santu//£a, 
Bhadda, and Subhadda, and with more than fifty 
devout men of Nadika. More than ninety devout 
men of Nadika, who have died, Ananda, have by 
the complete destruction of the three bonds, and 
by the reduction of lust, hatred, and delusion, be- 
come Sakadagamins, who on their first return to 
this world will make an end of sorrow. More than 
five hundred devout men of Nadika who have died, 
Ananda, have by the complete destruction of the 
three bonds become converted, are no longer liable 
to be reborn in a state of suffering, and are assured 
of final salvation. 

8. ' Now there is nothing strange in this, Ananda, 
that a human being should die, but that as each one 
does so you should come to the Buddha, and en- 
quire about them in this manner, that is wearisome 
to the Buddha. I will, therefore, teach you a way 
of truth, called the Mirror of Truth, which if an 
elect disciple possess he may himself predict of him- 
self, " Hell is destroyed for me, and rebirth as an 
animal, or a ghost, or in any place of woe. I am 
converted, I am no longer liable to be reborn in a 
state of suffering, and am assured of final salvation." 

9. ' What then, Ananda, is this mirror of truth ? 
It is the consciousness that the elect disciple is 
in this world possessed of faith in the Buddha — 

1 See 'Buddhism,' pp. 108-110, and below, VI, 9. 

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II. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 2"] 

believing the Blessed One to be the Holy One, 
the Fully-enlightened One, Wise, Upright, Happy, 
World-knowing, Supreme, the Bridler of men's way- 
ward hearts, the Teacher of gods and men, the 
Blessed Buddha. And that he (the disciple) is 
possessed of faith in the Truth — believing the truth 
to have been proclaimed by the Blessed One, of 
advantage in this world, passing not away, wel- 
coming all, leading to salvation, and to be attained 
to by the wise, each one for himself. And that he 
(the disciple) is possessed of faith in the Order — 
believing the multitude of the disciples of the Blessed 
One who are walking in the four stages of the noble 
eightfold path, the righteous, the upright, the just, 
the law-abiding — believing this church of the 
Buddha to be worthy of honour, of hospitality, of 
gifts, and of reverence ; to be the supreme sowing 
ground of merit for the world; to be possessed of 
the virtues beloved by the good, virtues unbroken, 
intact, unspotted, unblemished, virtues which make 
men truly free, virtues which are praised by the 
wise, are untarnished by the desire of future life 
or by the belief in the efficacy of outward acts, and 
are conducive to high and holy thought V 

10. 'This, Ananda, is the way, the mirror of truth, 
which if an elect disciple possess he may himself 
predict of himself: " Hell is destroyed for me ; and 
rebirth as an animal, or a ghost, or in any place of 
woe. I am converted ; I am no longer liable to be 
reborn in a state of suffering, and am assured of final 
salvation." ' 

ii. There, too, at the Brick Hall at Nadika the 
1 See above, § I, n. 



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28 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

Blessed One addressed to the brethren that com- 
prehensive religious discourse on the nature of up- 
right conduct, and of earnest contemplation, and of 
intelligence. 

'Great is the fruit, great the advantage of earnest 
contemplation when set round with upright conduct. 
Great is the fruit, great the advantage of intellect 
when set round with earnest contemplation. The 
mind set round with intelligence is freed from the 
great evils, that is to say, from sensuality, from 
individuality, from delusion, and from ignorance.' 



12. Now when the Blessed One had remained as 
long as he wished at Nadika, he addressed Ananda, 
and said : ' Come, Ananda, let us go on to Vesali.' 

' So be it, Lord ! ' said Ananda, in assent, to the 
Blessed One. 

Then the Blessed One proceeded, with a great 
company of the brethren, to Vesali ; and there at 
Vesali the Blessed One stayed at Ambapali's grove. 

13. Now there the Blessed One addressed the 
brethren, and said : ' Let a brother, O mendicants, 
be mindful and thoughtful; this is our instruction 
to you.' 

14. ' And how does a brother become mindful ?' 

' Herein, O mendicants, let a brother, as he dwells 
in the body, so regard the body that he, being 
strenuous, thoughtful, and mindful, may, whilst in 
the world, overcome the grief which arises from 
bodily craving — while subject to sensations, let 
him continue so to regard the sensations that 
he, being strenuous, thoughtful, and mindful, may, 
whilst in the world, overcome the grief arising from 
the craving which follows our sensation — and so also 



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II. MAHA-PARLNIBBANA-SUTTA, 2Q 

as he thinks or reasons or feels let him overcome 
the grief which arises from the craving due to ideas, 
or reasoning, or feeling.' 

15. ' And how does a brother become thoughtful ?' 
' He acts, O mendicants, in full presence of mind 
whatever he may do, in going out and coming im,- 
itt looking and watching, in bending in his arm or 
stretching it forth, in wearing his robes or carrying 
his bowl, in eating and drinking, in consuming or 
tasting, in walking or standing or sitting, in sleeping 
or waking, in talking and in being silent. 

' Thus let a brother, O mendicants, be mindful 
and thoughtful ; this is our instruction to you V 



1 This doctrine of being 'mindful and thoughtful' — sato sampa- 
gino — is one of the lessons most frequently inculcated in the 
Pali Pi/akas, and is one of the ' Seven Jewels of the Law.' It is 
fully treated of in each of the Nikiyas, forming the subject of the 
Maha Satippa/Mna Sutta in the Dlgha Nikaya, and the Satipa//Mna 
Sutta of the Ma^g^ima NikHya, and the SatippaAlMna Vaggo of 
the Sawyutta Nik&ya, as well as of various passages in the 
Ahguttara Nikaya and of the work called Vibhanga in the Abhi- 
dhamma Pi/aka. I am glad to learn that Dr. Morris intends to 
collect and compare all these passages in his forthcoming work 
on the ' Seven Jewels of the Law.' These sections of the MahS- 
parinibbina Sutta and the treatment in the Vibhanga have pre- 
served, in Dr. Morris's opinion, the oldest form of the doctrine. 
Compare Chap. II, § 34. 

Buddhaghosa has no comment here on the subject itself, re- 
serving what he has to say for the comment on the Suttas devoted 
entirely to it; but he observes in passing that the reason why the 
Blessed One laid stress, at this particular time and place, on the 
necessity of being ' mindful and thoughtful,' was because of the 
imminent approach of the beautiful courtezan in whose grove they 
were staying. The use of the phrase sati upa/Mapetabba" 
below, Chap. V, §13 (text, p. 51), in reference to the way in which 
women should be treated, is quite in. accordance with this explana- 
tion. But see the next note. 



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30 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

1 6. * Now the courtezan Ambapali heard that the 
Blessed One had arrived at Vesali, and was staying 
at her mango grove. And ordering a number of 
magnificent vehicles to be made ready, she mounted 
one of them, and proceeded with her train towards 
her garden. She went in the carriage as far as 
the ground was passable for carriages ; there she 
alighted ; and she proceeded on foot to the place 
where the Blessed One was, and took her seat 
respectfully on one side. And when she was thus 
seated the Blessed One instructed, aroused, incited, 
and gladdened her with religious discourse. 

17. Then she — instructed, aroused, incited, and 
gladdened with his words — addressed the Blessed 
One, and said : 

' May the Blessed One do me the honour of 
taking his meal, together with the brethren, at my 
house to-morrow.' 

And the Blessed One gave, by silence, his 
consent. Then when Ambapali the courtezan saw 
that the Blessed One had consented, she rose from 
her seat and bowed down before him, and keeping 
him on her right hand as she past him, she departed 
thence. 

1 From this point down to the words ' he rose from his seat,' in 
§ II, 24, is, with a few unimportant variations, word for word the 
same as Maha Vagga VI, 30/ 1, to VI, 30, 6. But the passage 
there follows immediately after the verses translated above, § I, 34, 
so that the events here (in §§ 16-22) localised at Vesali, are there 
localised at Ko/igama. Our section II, 5 is then inserted between 
our sections II, 22 and II, 23; and our section II, 12 does not 
occur at all, the Blessed One only reaching Ambapali's grove 
when he goes there (as in our section II, 23) to partake of the 
meal to which he had been invited. Buddhaghosa passes over this 
discrepancy in silence. 



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II. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 3 I 

1 8. Now the L\£Ma.vis of Vesali heard that the 
Blessed One had arrived at Vesali, and was staying 
at Ambapali's grove. And ordering a number of 
magnificent carriages to be made ready, they 
mounted one of them and proceeded with their 
train to Vesali. Some of them were dark, dark in 
colour, and wearing dark clothes and ornaments ; 
some of them were fair, fair in colour, and wearing 
light clothes and ornaments : some of them were 
red, ruddy in colour, and wearing red clothes and 
ornaments : some of them were white, pale in colour, 
and wearing white clothes and ornaments. 

19. And Ambapali drove up against the young 
YAkkhzv'is, axle to axle, wheel to wheel, and yoke 
to yoke, and the \Akkh2iv1s said to Ambapali the 
courtezan, ' How is it, Ambapali, that thou drivest 
up against us thus ?' 

' My Lords, I have just invited the Blessed One 
and his brethren for their morrow's meal,' said she. 

' Ambapali ! give up this meal to us for a hundred 
thousand,' said they. 

' My Lords, were you to offer all Vesali with its 
subject territory 1 , 1 would not give up so honourable 
a feast !' 

Then the Li^^avis cast up their hands 2 , exclaim- 
ing, ' We are outdone by this mango girl ! we are 
out-reached by this mango girl 3 !' and they went on 
to Ambapali's grove. 

20. When the Blessed One saw the lAkkkdivis 



1 S&h&ran ti sa-^anapadan. (S. V. /au.) 

* AngulJ po/Aesuw. Childers translates this phrase 'to snap 
the fingers as a token of pleasure;' but Buddhaghosa says, 
ahgult poMesun ti ahgulf k&lesum. (S. V. /an.) 

3 Ambapali means mango grower, one who looks after mangoes. 



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32 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH 

approaching in the distance, he addressed the 
brethren, and said : 

' O brethren, let those of the brethren who have 
never seen the Tavatiwzsa gods, gaze upon this 
company of the LilMavis, behold this company of 
the Li£££avis, compare this company of the Li<6Ma- 
vis — even as a company of Tavati/#sa gods V 

21. And when they had ridden as far as the 
ground was passable for carriages, the Lii^avis 
alighted there, and then went on on foot to the 
place where the Blessed One was, and took their 
seats respectfully by his side. And when they 
were thus seated the Blessed One instructed and 
roused and incited and gladdened them with -reli- 
gious discourse 2 . 

22. Then they instructed and roused and incited 
and gladdened with his words, addressed the Blessed 
One, and said, ' May the Blessed One do us the 
honour of taking his meal, together with the brethren, 
at our house to-morrow ? ' 

'O Li^i>4avis, I have promised to dine to-morrow 
with Ambapali the courtezan,' was the reply. 

1 The Tavati«sa-dev£ are the gods in the heaven of the 
Great Thirty-Three, the principal deities of the Vedic Pantheon. 
Buddhaghosa says, 'Imam LiAWavi-parisa»* tumhaka/B iittena 
Tstvatiwsa-parisaw? upasawzharatha upanetha alliyapetha : Yath' eva 
hi Tavati/Bsa' abhirupa pasadika niladi-n£na-va»»i evan k' ime 
Li££Aavi-ra^ano plti. Tavatiwsehi samake katva passathS ti attho.' 

2 The Malalaftkara-vatthu gives the substance of the discourse 
on this occasion. ' The princes had come in their finest and richest 
dress ; in their appearance they vied in beauty with the nats (or 
angels). But foreseeing the ruin and misery that was soon to come 
upon them all, the Buddha exhorted his disciples to entertain a 
thorough contempt for things that are dazzling to the eyes, but 
essentially perishable and unreal in their nature.' — Bigandet, 2nd 
ed. p. 260. 



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II. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 33 

Then the LiiMavis cast up their hands, exclaiming, 
' We are outdone by this mango girl ! we are out- 
reached by this mango girl ! ' And expressing their 
thanks and approval of the words of the Blessed 
One, they rose from their seats and bowed down 
before the Blessed One, and keeping him on their 
right hand as they past him, they departed thence. 

23. And at the end of the night Ambapali the 
courtezan made ready in her mansion sweet rice 
and cakes, and announced the time to the Blessed 
One, saying, ' The hour, Lord, has come, and the 
meal is ready!' 

And the Blessed One robed himself early in the 
morning, and took his bowl, and went with the 
brethren to the place where Ambapali's dwelling- 
house was : and when he had come there he seated 
himself on the seat prepared for him. And Ambapali 
the courtezan set the sweet rice and cakes before the 
order, with the Buddha at their head, and waited 
upon them till they refused any more. 

24. And when the Blessed One had quite finished 
his meal, the courtezan had a low stool brought, and 
sat down at his side, and addressed the Blessed One, 
and said : ' Lord, I present this mansion to the order 
of mendicants, of which the Buddha is the chief.' 
And the Blessed One accepted the gift ; and after 
instructing, and rousing, and inciting, and gladden- 
ing her with religious discourse, he rose from his 
seat and departed thence 1 . 

1 Bishop Bigandet says : ' In recording the conversion of a 
courtezan named Apapalika, her liberality and gifts to Budha and 
his disciples, and the preference designedly given to her over 
princes and nobles, who, humanely speaking, seemed in every 
respect better entitled to attentions — one is almost reminded of 

[11] D 



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34 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

25. While at Ambapali's mango grove the Blessed 
One held that comprehensive religious discourse 
with the disciples on the nature of upright conduct, 
and of earnest contemplation, and of intelligence. 

' Great is the fruit, great the advantage of earnest 
contemplation when set round with upright conduct. 
Great is the fruit, great the advantage of intellect 
when set round with earnest contemplation. The 
mind set round with intelligence is freed from the 
great evils, that is to say, from sensuality, from 
individuality, from delusion, and from ignorance.' 



26. Now when the Blessed One had remained 
as long as he wished at Ambapali's grove, he 
addressed Ananda, and said : ' Come, Ananda, let 
us go on to Beluva 1 .' 

' So be it, Lord,' said Ananda, in assent, to the 
Blessed One. 

Then the Blessed One proceeded, with a great 
company of the brethren, to Beluva, and there the 
Blessed One stayed in the village itself. 



27. Now the Blessed One there addressed the 
brethren, and said : * O mendicants, do you take up 
your abode round about Vesali, each according to 
the place where his friends, intimates, and close 
companions may live, for the rainy season of vassa. 
I shall enter upon the rainy season here at Beluva.' 

the conversion of " a woman that was a sinner," mentioned in the 
Gospels ' (Legend of the Burmese Budha, 2nd ed. p. 258). 

1 Beluva-gamakotiVesali-samtpe pada-gamako, 'a vil- 
lage on a slope at the foot of a hill near Vesali,' says Buddhaghosa. 
(S.V. feu.) 



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II. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 35 

' So be it, Lord ! ' said those brethren, in assent, 
to the Blessed One. And they entered upon the 
rainy season round about Vesali, each according 
to the place where his friends or intimates or close 
companions lived : whilst the Blessed One stayed 
even there at Beluva. 



28. Now when the Blessed One had thus entered 
upon the rainy season, there fell upon him a dire 
sickness, and sharp pains came upon him, even unto 
death. But the Blessed One, mindful and self- 
possessed, bore them without complaint. 

29. Then this thought occurred to the Blessed 
One, ' It would not be right for me to pass away 
from existence without addressing the disciples, 
without taking leave of the order. Let me now, 
by a strong effort of the will, bend this sickness 
down again, and keep my hold on life till the 
allotted time be come 1 .' 

30. And the Blessed One, by a strong effort of 
the will, bent that sickness down again, and kept 
his hold on life till the time he fixed upon should 
come. And the sickness abated upon him. 



31. Now very soon after the Blessed One began 
to recover ; when he had quite got rid of the sick- 
ness, he went out from the monastery, and sat down 
behind the monastery on a seat spread out there. 
And the venerable Ananda went to the place where 
the Blessed One was, and saluted him, and took 
a seat respectfully on one side, and addressed the 

1 The commentary on^fvita-sahkharawadhitthaya viha- 
reyyan is not quite clear, but the general meaning of the words 
cannot be very different from the version given in the text. 

D 2 



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36 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

Blessed One, and said : ' I have beheld, Lord, how 
the Blessed One was in health, and I have beheld 
how the Blessed One had to suffer. And though 
at the sight of the sickness of the Blessed One my 
body became weak as a creeper, and the horizon 
became dim to me, and my faculties were no longer 
clear 1 , yet notwithstanding I took some little comfort 
from the thought that the Blessed One would not 
pass away from existence until at least he had left 
instructions as touching the order.' 

2,2. 'What, then, Ananda? Does the. order ex- 
pect that of me ? I have preached the truth without 
making any distinction between exoteric and esote- 
ric doctrine : for in respect of the truths, Ananda, the 
Tathagata has no such thing as the closed fist of 
a teacher, who keeps some things back 2 . Surely, 
Ananda, should there be any one who harbours the 
thought, "It is I who will lead the brotherhood," 
or, "The order is dependent upon me," it is he who 

1 Madhuraka-^Sto viya ti saw^-Sta-garubhavo saw^a- 
ta/Mabhavo (sic) sule uttasita-sadiso: na pakkhiyantt 
ti na pakisenti nanakarawa na upa/Mahanti: Dhamma 
pi maw na ppa/ibhantf ti sati-ppa/Mana dhamma may- 
haw paka/a na honti. (S. V. fol. /am.) As the first clause is 
corrupt, I have translated madhuraka-^ato independently of it. 
Childers's reading nam na ppa/ibhanti is clearly incorrect My 
own MS. of the Dtgha Nikaya and the Tumour MS. of the Sam- 
)Utta Nikaya agree with Buddhaghosa. 

2 Na tatth' Ananda Tathagatassa dhammesu 4£ariya- 
mu/Mi; on which Buddhaghosa says, A£ariya-mu//M (MS. vu/Wi) 
ti yatha bahirakanaw a£ariya-mu//^i nSma hoti : dahara- 
kaie kassa^i akathe.tvS pa££Aima-kale mara«a-maw£e 
nipannft piya-manapassa antevasikassa kathenti: evam Ta- 
thagatassa idaw mahallaka-kale pa££^ima-//Mne kathes- 
sam! ti xaulth'im (MS. vutthim) katva pariharitva Mapitaw 
ki«£i n' atthf ti. (S. V. /am.) Comp. Gataka II, 221, 250. 



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II. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 37 

should lay down instructions in any matter concern- 
ing the order. Now the Tathagata, Ananda, thinks 
not that it is he who should lead the brotherhood, or 
that the order is dependent upon him. Why then 
should he leave instructions in any matter concern- 
ing the order ? I too, O Ananda, am now grown 
old, and full of years, my journey is drawing to 
its close, I have reached my sum of days, I am 
turning eighty years of age ; and just as a worn-out 
cart, Ananda, can only with much additional care 
be made to move along, so, methinks, the body 
of the Tathagata can only be kept going with 
much additional care \ It is only, Ananda, when 



1 Vegha-missakena, the meaning of which is not clear. The 
Malalankira-vatthu, as rendered by Bigandet, has ' repairs.' The 
SumangalaVilasinisays.Veghamissakena ti baha-bandhana- 
£akka-bandhanSdina' pa/isaftkhara»enaveghamissakena; 
thus giving the same meaning, but in such a way as to throw no light 
on the derivation of the word. The whole episode from § II, 2 7 to the 
end of the chapter occurs also word for word in the Satipa//Aana 
Vagga of the Sawyutta Nikdya, and the Burmese Phayre MS. 
there reads vekhamissakena, as the Burmese MS. does here. 
My Dtgha Nikaya confirms Childers's reading, which no doubt 
correctly represents the uniform tradition of the Ceylon MSS. 
The Sumangala VMsint goes on, mawwe ti ^ara-saka/aw? 
viya meghamissakena marine ylpeti arahatta-phala- 
veghanena ^atu-iriydpatha-kappanaw Tathdgatassa 
hoti nidasseti. Here the reading megha of the Tumour MS. 
must be a copyist's slip of the pen for vegha, and veghanena 
is no clearer than veghamissakena. On the use of the 
word missaka at the end of a compound see (rataka II, 8, 
420, 433. I have translated on what seems to me the only solu- 
tion at present possible, namely, that an initial a has been dropt, 
and that veghi or vekha = avekshi, ' attention, foresight, care.' 
In the same way though avalaw^eti does occur (G&taka I, in), 
the more usual form in Pali, and the only one given by Childers, 
is valaw^eti. 



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38 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

the Tathagata, ceasing to attend to any outward 
thing, or to experience any sensation, becomes 
plunged in that devout meditation of heart which is 
concerned with no material object — it is only then 
that the body of the Tathagata is at ease. 

33. 'Therefore, O Ananda, be ye lamps unto your- 
selves. Be ye a refuge to yourselves. Betake 
yourselves to no external refuge. Hold fast to the 
truth as a lamp. Hold fast as a refuge to the truth. 
Look not for refuge to any one besides yourselves. 
And how, Ananda, is a brother to be a lamp unto 
himself, a refuge to himself, betaking himself to no 
external refuge, holding fast to the truth as a lamp, 
holding fast as a refuge to the truth, looking not 
for refuge to any one besides himself? 

34. ' Herein, O Ananda, let a brother, as he dwells 
in the body, so regard the body that he, being 
strenuous, thoughtful, and mindful, may, whilst in 
the world, overcome the grief which arises from 
bodily craving — while subject to sensations let him 
continue so to regard the sensations that he, being 
strenuous, thoughtful, and mindful, may, whilst in 
the world, overcome the grief which arises from the 
sensations — and so, also, as he thinks, or reasons, 
or feels, let him overcome the grief which arises 
from the craving due to ideas, or to reasoning, or 
to feeling. 

35. 'And whosoever, Ananda, either now or after 
I am dead, shall be a lamp unto themselves, and a 
refuge unto themselves, shall betake themselves to 
no external refuge, but holding fast to the truth 
as their lamp, and holding fast as their refuge to 
the truth, shall look not for refuge to any one 
besides themselves — it is they, Ananda, among my 



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II. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 39 

bhikkhus, who shall reach the very topmost 
Height! — but they must be anxious to learn 1 .' 



End of the Second Portion for Recitation. 



1 Tamatagge me te Ananda bhikkhu bhavissanti ye ke£i 
sikkh£k£ma\ The Burmese MSS. for me te read p'ete, which 
is a little easier. Buddhaghosa says, Tamatagge ti tamagge. 
MaggAe takiro padasandhivasena vutto. Ida« vuttaw 
hoti ime aggatami ime aggam£ ti: evaw sabbaw tama- 
yogam ^Ainditva ativiya agge uttama-bhave te Ananda 
mamaw bhikkhu bhavissanti. Kesa*» ati-agge bhavis- 
santi? Ye ke£i sikkh&kama sabbesaw? te £atu-sati-ppa/- 
/Mna-go£ara ka, bhikkhu agge bhavissanti ti. Arahatta- 
tiku/ena desa«am ga«hati, 'Tamatagge is for tamagge. 
The t in the middle is used for euphony. This word means, 
"these are the most pre-eminent, the very chief." Having, as 
above stated, broken every bond of darkness (tama) those bhikkhus 
of mine, Ananda, will be at the very top, in the highest condition. 
They will be at the very top of whom ? Those bhikkhus who are 
willing to learn, and those who exercise themselves in the four 
ways of being mindful and thoughtful, they shall be at the top of 
all (the rest). Thus does he make Arahatship the three-peaked 
height of his discourse' (compare on this last phrase Nibbanena 
desanaku/aw gawhati, Gataka I, 275, 393, 401; and see also 
I, 114). Uttama, the highest (scil. bh&va, condition), is used abso- 
lutely of Arahatship or Nirva«a at G&taka I, 96; Aggaphala 
occurs in the same sense at G&taka I, 114; and even Phalagga 
at Mah. 102. The last words, 'but they must be anxious to learn,' 
seem to me to be an after thought It is only those who are 
thoroughly determined to work out their own salvation, without 
looking for safety to any one else, even to the Buddha himself, who 
will, whilst in the world, enter into and experience Nirvdwa. But, 
of course, let there be no mistake, merely to reject the vain baubles 
of the current superstitious beliefs is not enough. There is plenty 
to learn and to acquire, of which enough discourse is elsewhere. 
For aggamt in the comment we must read aggatamS. If one 
could read amatagge in the text, all difficulty would vanish ; but 
this would be too bold, and neither do I see how the use of 
anamatagge can help us. 



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40 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 



Chapter III. 

i 1 . Now the Blessed One robed himself early in 
the morning, and taking his bowl in the robe, 
went into Vesali for alms, and when he returned he 
sat down on the seat prepared for him, and after 
he had finished eating the rice he addressed the 
venerable Ananda, and said : ' Take up the mat, 
Ananda ; I will go to spend the day at the A'apala 
A'etiya.' 

'So be it, Lord!' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Blessed One. And taking up the mat 
he followed step for step behind the Blessed One. 

2. So the Blessed One proceeded to the .ATapala 
Aetiya, and when he had come there he sat down 
on the mat spread out for him, and the venerable 
Ananda took his seat respectfully beside him. Then 
the Blessed One addressed the venerable Ananda, 
and said : ' How delightful a spot, Ananda, is Vesali, 
and the Udena A'etiya, and the Gotamaka Aetiya, 
and the Sattambaka -ATetiya, and the Bahuputta 
Aetiya, and the Sarandada Aetiya, and the A^pala 
Aietiya. 

3. ' Ananda ! whosoever has thought out, deve- 
loped, practised, accumulated, and ascended to the 
very heights of the four paths to Iddhi 2 , and so 

1 The whole of this passage down to the end of § 10 recurs in 
the Iddhipada Vagga of the Sawyutta Nikaya. 

8 Iddhi. The four paths are, 1. will, 2. effort, 3. thought, 
and 4. investigation, each united to earnest thought and the 
struggle against sin. The Iddhi reached by them is supposed in 
works on Buddhism to be a bodily condition (power of flying, &c), 
by which the body rose superior to all the ordinary limitations of 



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III. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 4 1 

mastered them as to be able to use them as a 
means of (mental) advancement, and as a basis for 
edification, he, should he- desire it, could remain in 
the same birth for a kalpa, or for that portion of the 
kalpa which had yet to run. Now the Tathagata 
has thought them out, and thoroughly practised and 
developed them [in all respects as just more fully 
described], and he could, therefore, should he desire 
it, live on yet for a kalpa, or for that portion of the 
kalpa which has yet to run.' 

4. But even though a suggestion so evident and 
a hint so clear were thus given by the Blessed One, 
the venerable Ananda was incapable of comprehend- 
ing them ; and he besought not the Blessed One, 
saying, 'Vouchsafe, Lord, to remain during the 
kalpa ! Live on through the kalpa, O Blessed One ! 
for the good and the happiness of the great multi- 
tudes, out of pity for the world, for the good and 
the gain and the weal of gods and men ! ' So far 
was his heart possessed by the Evil One \ 

matter — a bodily condition corresponding to the mental condition 
of exaltation and power by which it was reached. On this curiously 
perverted exaggeration of the real influence of the mind over the 
body see, further, the translator's 'Buddhism,' pp. 174-177. Two 
of the string of participles — y&nikat£, which may possibly mean 
'made use of as a vehicle,' and susam&raddha, 'most thoroughly 
ascended up to' — might seem to allude to Iddhi as a power of 
flying bodily through the air. But the whole set of participles 
is used elsewhere of conditions of mind highly esteemed among 
the Buddhists, and incapable of giving support to any such 
allusion. So, for instance, of universal love (mettd) at Gataka 
II, 61. 

1 YathS tarn Marena pariyu/Mita^itto. Here turn is the 
indeclinable particle, yathi ta.m introducing an explanation. My 
MS. of the Digha Nikaya and the Tumour MS. of the Sumangala 
Vilasini read pariz>u/A4ita, and either spelling is correct. The 



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42 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

5. A second and a third time did the Blessed One 
[say the same thing, and a second and a third time 
was Ananda's heart thus hardened]. 

6. Now the Blessed One addressed the venera- 
ble Ananda, and said : ' You may leave me, Ananda, 
awhile, and do whatever seemeth to thee fit.' 

' So be it, Lord ! ' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Blessed, and rising from his seat he 
saluted the Blessed One, and passing him on the 
right, sat down at the foot of a certain tree not 
far off thence. 

7. Now not long after the venerable Ananda 
had been gone, Mara, the Evil One, approached the 
Blessed One, and stood beside him. And so stand- 
ing there, he addressed the Blessed One in these 
words : 

' Pass away now, Lord, from existence ; let the 
Blessed One now die. Now is the time for the 
Blessed One to pass away — even according to the 

fact is that the_y or v in such cases is even less than euphonic ; it 
is an assistance not to the speaker, but merely to the writer. Thus 
in the Sinhalese duwanawi, 'to run,' the spoken word is du- 
anawS, and the w is written only to avoid the awkward use in 
the middle of a word of the initial sign for the sound a. That the 
speakers of Pali found no difficulty in pronouncing two vowels 
together is abundantly proved by numerous instances. The 
writers of Pali, in those cases in which the second vowel begins a 
word, use without hesitation the initial sign ; but in the middle of 
the word this would be so ungainly that they naturally prefer to 
insert a consonantal sign to carry the vowel sign. The varying 
readings I have pointed out are a strong confirmation of the cor- 
rectness of the pronunciation of modern native scholars ; and we 
may the more readily adopt it as the question is not really one 
concerning the pronunciation of Pali, but concerning the use which 
modern native copyists make of their own alphabet. I would pro- 
nounce therefore pari-u//Aita-£itto. 



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III. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 43 

word which the Blessed One spoke when he said * : 
" I shall not die, O Evil One ! until the brethren 
and sisters of the order, and until the lay-disciples 
of either sex 2 shall have become true hearers, wise 
and well-trained, ready and learned, versed in the 
Scriptures, fulfilling all the greater and the lesser 
duties, correct in life, walking according to the pre- 
cepts — until they, having thus themselves learned 
the doctrine, shall be able to tell others of it, preach 
it, make it known, establish it, open it, minutely ex- 
plain it and make it clear — until they, when others 
start vain doctrine, shall be able by the truth to 
vanquish and refute it, and so to spread the wonder- 
working truth abroad ! " ' 

8. 'And now, Lord, the brethren and sisters of the 
order and the lay-disciples of either sex have be- 
come [all this], are able to do [all this]. Pass away 
now therefore, Lord, from existence ; let the Blessed 
One now die ! The time has come for the Blessed 
One to pass away — even according to the word 
which he spake when he said, " I shall not die, O 
Evil One! until this pure religion of mine shall 
have become successful, prosperous, widespread, and 
popular in all its full extent — until, in a word, 
it shall have been well proclaimed to men." And 
now, Lord, this pure religion of thine has become 
[all this]. Pass away now therefore, Lord, from 

1 The words here quoted were spoken by the Buddha, after he 
had been enjoying the first bliss of Nirvawa, under the shepherd's 
Nigrodha tree (see my 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' pp. 109-1 1 1). The 
Evil One then also tempted him to die (see below, paragraph III, 
43), and this was his reply. 

a The whole paragraph is repeated, here and below, for each of 
these classes of persons. 



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44 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CIT. 

existence ; let the Blessed One now die ! The time 
has come for the Blessed One to pass away !' 

9. And when he had thus spoken, the Blessed 
One addressed Mara, the Evil One, and said : ' O 
Evil One ! make thyself happy, the final extinction 
of the Tathagata shall take place before long. At 
the end of three months from this time the Tathd- 
gata will die ! ' 

10. Thus the Blessed One while at the Aapala 
Aetiya deliberately and consciously rejected the rest 
of his allotted sum of life. And on his so rejecting it 
there arose a mighty earthquake, awful and terrible, 
and the thunders of heaven burst forth. And when 
the Blessed One beheld this, he broke out at that 
time into this hymn of exultation : 

' His sum of life the sage renounced, 
The cause of life immeasurable or small ; 
With inward joy and calm, he broke, 
Like coat of mail, his life's own cause ! ' 



n. Now the following thought occurred to the 
venerable Ananda : ' Wonderful indeed and marvel- 
lous is it that this mighty earthquake should arise, 
awful and terrible, and that the thunders of heaven 
should burst forth ! What may be the proximate, 
what the remote cause of the appearance of this 
earthquake ? ' 

12. Then the venerable Ananda went up to the 
place where the Blessed One was, and did obeisance 
to the Blessed One, and seated himself respectfully 
at one side, and said : ' Wonderful indeed and mar- 
vellous is it that this mighty earthquake should 
arise, awful and terrible, and that the thunders of 



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in. mahA-parinibbAna-sutta. 45 

heaven should burst forth I What may be the 
proximate, what the remote cause of the appearance 
of this earthquake ?' 

13. 'Eight are the proximate, eight the remote 
causes, Ananda, for the appearance of a mighty 
earthquake. What are the eight? This great 
earth, Ananda, is established on water, the water on 
wind, and the wind rests upon space. And at such 
a time, Ananda, as the mighty winds blow, the 
waters are shaken by the mighty winds as they 
blow, and by the moving water the earth is shaken. 
These are the first causes, proximate and remote, 
of the appearance of a mighty earthquake. 

14. 'Again, Ananda, a Sama«a or a Brahman of 
great (intellectual) power, and who has the feelings 
of his heart well under his control ; or a god or fairy 
(devata 1 ) of great might and power, — when such a 

1 DevatS is a fairy, god, genius, or angel. I am at a loss how 
to render this word without conveying an erroneous impression 
to those not familiar with ancient ideas, and specially with ancient 
Buddhist ideas, of the spirit world. It includes gods of all sorts ; 
tree and river nymphs; the kindly fairies or ghosts who haunt 
houses (see my ' Buddhist Birth Stories,' Tale No. 40) ; spirits in 
the ground (see above, §1, a 6); the angels who minister at the great 
renunciation, the temptation, and the death of the Buddha ; the 
guardian angels who watch over men, and towns, and countries ; 
and many other similar beings. ' Celestial being ' would be wholly 
inapplicable, for instance, to the creatures referred to in the curious 
passage above (§1, 26). 'Superhuman being' would be an inaccu- 
rate rendering ; for all these light and airy shapes come below, and 
after, man in the Buddhist order of precedence. ' Spirit ' being 
used of the soul inside the human body, and of the human soul 
after it has left the body, and figuratively of mental faculties — none 
of which are included under devata* — would suggest ideas incon- 
sistent with that of the P&li word. As there is therefore no appro- 
priate general word I have chosen, for each passage where the 
expression occurs, the word used in English of the special class 



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46 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

one by intense meditation of the finite idea of earth 
or the infinite idea of water (has succeeded in 
realising the comparative value of things *) he can 
make this earth move and tremble and be shaken 
violently. These are the second causes, proximate 
or remote, of the appearance of a mighty earth- 
quake. 

1 5. 'Again, Ananda, when a Bodhisatta consciously 
and deliberately leaves his temporary form in the 
heaven of delight and descends into his mother's 
womb, then is this earth made to quake and tremble 
and is shaken violently. These are the third causes, 
proximate or remote, of the appearance of a mighty 
earthquake 2 . 

more particularly referred to in the passage of the text Here all 
kinds of devatds being referred to, and there being no word in 
English for them all, I have ventured to put the word devatS into 
my version, and to trouble the reader with this note. 

1 Yassa parittd paMavi-saima bhavitd hoti appam&aa 
iposanwS, on which Buddhaghosa says simply, Paritta - ti dub- 
bald: appamdwa' ti balav£, and then goes on, as a note to 
kampeti, to tell a long story how Sangharakkhita S&mawera, the 
nephew of N&ga Thera, attained Arahatship on the day of his 
admission to the order; and at once proceeded to heaven, and 
standing on the pinnacle of the palace of the king of the gods, 
shook the whole place with his big toe ; to the great consternation 
and annoyance of the exalted dwellers therein! There is no 
doubt a real truth in the idea that deep thought can shake the 
universe, and make the palaces of the gods to tremble, just as faith 
is said in Matthew xxi. 21 to be able to remove mountains, and 
cause them to be cast into the sea. But these figurative expressions 
have, in Buddhism, become a fruitful soil for the outgrowth of 
superstitions and misunderstandings ; and the train of early Bud- 
dhist speculation in this field has yet to be elucidated. There is 
much about it in the Mahi PadhSna Sutta of the Digha NikSya, 
where Chap. Ill, §§ 1 1-20 recur. 

2 The Bodhisatta's voluntary incarnation is looked upon by the 
Buddhists as a great act of renunciation, and curious legends have 



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III. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 47 

16. 'Again, Ananda, when a Bodhisatta deliberately 
and consciously quits his mother's womb, then the 
earth quakes and trembles and is shaken violently. 
This is the fourth cause, proximate and remote, of 
the appearance of a mighty earthquake. 

17. 'Again, Ananda, when a Tathagata arrives 
at the supreme and perfect enlightenment, then this 
earth quakes and trembles and is shaken violently. 

gathered about it. One is that on the night when she conceived 
his mother dreamt that a white elephant entered her side. The 
account will be found at length in my 'Buddhist Birth Stories' (pp. 
62-64), and the earthquake is there mentioned in terms identical 
with those in the text. The sacred event is also one of those 
represented on the ancient bas-reliefs round the Bharhut Thupa, a 
full description of which will be found in General Cunningham's 
most interesting work, ' The Stupa of Bharhut' General Cunning- 
ham says of the description placed above this sculpture : ' Above it 
in large characters is inscribed Bhagavato rukdanta, which may 
perhaps be translated, " Buddha as the sounding elephant," from ru, 
to sound, to make a particular sort of sound.' Now the first word 
of the inscription is in the genitive case, so that if the second word 
could mean an elephant, the whole would signify, ' The Buddha's 
elephant.' But the characters which General Cunningham reads 
rfikdanta are, I venture to suggest, okkanti (? tikkanti); and the 
inscription simply says, 'The descent of the blessed One.' As 
I have pointed out in 'Buddhism' (p. 184), the white elephant 
legend is one of those hallowed sun stories by which half-con- 
verted Hindus have striven to embellish the life story of the 
Teacher whose followers they had become. In the LalitaVistara 
(Calc. ed. p. 63) the entrance of the elephant into Mayd precedes 
the dream ; but though the ignorant may have therefore accepted 
it as a fact, it is of course only a figure of speech — and I venture 
to think from the Hindu standpoint, a beautiful figure of speech — 
to express the incarnation of divine mildness and majesty in a 
human form. The use of such a figure is not confined to India. 
In the earliest of the Apocryphal Gospels, the Gospel according to 
the Hebrews, the incarnation of the divine gentleness and love is 
expressed by saying that a dove from heaven ' entered into ' the 
human form. 



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48 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

This is the fifth cause, proximate and remote, of the 
appearance of a mighty earthquake. 

1 8. 'Again, Ananda, when a Tathagata founds the 
sublime kingdom of righteousness, then this earth 
quakes and trembles and is shaken violently. This 
is the sixth cause, proximate and remote, of the 
appearance of a mighty earthquake. 

19. 'Again, Ananda, when a Tathagata consciously 
and deliberately rejects the remainder of his life, 
then this earth quakes and trembles and is shaken 
violently. This is the seventh cause, proximate and 
remote, of the appearance of a mighty earthquake. 

20. ' Again, Ananda, when a Tathagata passes 
entirely away with that utter passing away in 
which nothing whatever is left behind, then this 
earth quakes and trembles and is shaken violently. 
This is the eighth cause, proximate and remote, of 
the appearance of a mighty earthquake. 



21. 'Now of eight kinds, Ananda, are these as- 
semblies. Which are the eight 1 ? Assemblies of 
nobles, Brahma»as, householders, and Sama»as, and 
the angel hosts of the Guardian Angels, the Great 
Thirty-Three, Mara, and Brahma. 

22. ' Now I call to mind, Ananda, how when I 
used to enter into an assembly of many hundred 
nobles, before I had seated myself there or talked to 
them or started a conversation with them, I used to 
become in colour like unto their colour, and in voice 
like unto their voice. Then with religious discourse 

1 The connection, or rather want of connection, between this 
and the last paragraph seems to me to be very suggestive as to the 
way in which the Sutta was composed. The narrative is resumed 
at paragraph III, 43. On vanishing away, comp. I, 33. 



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III. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 49 

I used to instruct, incite, and quicken them, and fill 
them with gladness. But they knew me not when 
I spoke, and would say, "Who may this be who thus 
speaks? a man or a god?" Then having instructed, 
incited, quickened, and gladdened them with reli- 
gious discourse, I would vanish away. But they 
knew me not , even when I vanished away ; and 
would say, "Who may this be who has thus vanished 
away ? a man or a god ?" ' 

23. [And in the same words the Blessed One 
spake of how he had been used to enter into assem- 
blies of each of the other of the eight kinds, and of 
how he had not been made known to them either in 
speaking or in vanishing away.] ' Now these, Ananda, 
are the eight assemblies.' 



24. ' Now these, Ananda, are the eight positions 
of jmastery [over the delusion arising from the 
apparent permanence of external things 1 ]. What 
are the eight ? 

1 Abhibhayatani ti abhibhavanakarawini. Kim abhi- 
bhavanti? Pa££anika-dhamme pi arammawani pi: tani 
hi pa/ipakkha-bhavena pa££anika-dhamme abhibhavanti 
puggalassa wanuttaritaya aramma»Sni, says Buddhaghosa. 
(Sum.Vil. thl) 

This and the next paragraph are based upon the Buddhist 
belief as to the long-vexed question between the Indian schools who 
represented more or less closely the European Idealists and Realists. 
When cleared of the many repetitions inserted for the benefit of 
the repeaters or reciters, the fundamental idea seems to be that the 
great necessity is to get rid of the delusion that what one sees 
and feels is real and permanent. Nothing is real and permanent 
but character. 

The so-called eight Positions of Mastery are merely an expan- 
sion of the first two of the following eight Stages of Deliverance, t- 
and the whole argument is also expressed in another form in the 

[11] E 



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50 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

25. ' When a man having subjectively the idea of 
form sees externally forms which are finite, and 
pleasant or unpleasant to the sight, and having mas- 
tered them, is conscious that he knows and sees — 
this is the first position of mastery. 

26. ' When a man having subjectively the idea of 
form sees externally forms which are boundless, and 
pleasant or unpleasant to the sight, and having mas- 
tered them, is conscious that he knows and sees — 
this is the second position of mastery. 

27. ' When a man without the subjective idea of 
form sees externally forms which are finite, and plea- 
sant or unpleasant to the sight, and having mastered 
them, is conscious that he knows and sees — this is 
the third position of mastery. 

28. ' When a man without the subjective idea of 
form sees externally forms which are bo undle ss, 
and pleasant or unpleasant to the sight, and having 
mastered them, is conscious that he knows and sees 
— this is the fourth position of mastery. 

29. ' When a man without the subjective idea of 
form sees externally forms that are blue in colour, 
blue in appearance, and reflecting blue, — just, for 

passage on the nine successive ' Cessations,' of which an abstract 
will be found in Childers, sub voce nirodha. 

The two lists have been translated and commented upon by 
Burnouf (Lotus de la Bonne Loi, pp. 543, 824-832), who took 
the texts from the Mahinidina Sutta and the Sangiti Sutta 
respectively. The former has been reprinted in Grimblot's Sept 
Suttas Palis, where the passage will be found at pp. 261, 262. I 
regret that in my interpretation I have been compelled to differ 
so greatly from Burnouf. Though I have devoted much care and 
time to the subject, I do not suppose that I have understood it 
better than he did. We cannot hope to get to the bottom of 
what these old Buddhists thought about matter and mind from 
such curt lists as these. 



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III. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 5 1 

instance, as the Umma flower is blue in colour, blue 
in appearance, and reflecting blue ; or, again, as that 
fine muslin of Benares which, on whichever side you 
look at it, is blue in colour, blue in appearance, and 
reflecting blue, — when a man without the subjective 
idea of form sees externally forms which, just in 
that way, are blue, blue in colour, blue in appearance, 
and reflecting blue, and having mastered them, is 
conscious that he knows and sees — that is the fifth 
position of mastery.' 

30-32. [The sixth, seventh, and eighth positions 
of mastery are explained in words identical with 
those used to explain the fifth ; save that yellow, red, 
and white are respectively substituted throughout for 
blue ; and the Kawikira flower, the Bandhu-^ivaka 
flower, and the morning star are respectively substi- 
tuted for the Umma flower, as the first of the two 
objects given as examples.] 



33. 'Now these stages of deliverance, Ananda 
[from the hindrance to thought arising from the 
sensations and ideas due to external forms 1 ], are 
eight in number. Which are the eight ? 

34. 'A man possessed with the idea of form sees 
forms — this is the first stage of deliverance. 

35. 'Without the subjective idea of form, he sees 
forms externally — this is the second stage of deli- 
verance. 

1 These are the A //A a Vimokkha. Buddhaghosa has no com- 
ment upon them ; merely saying, ' The passage on the Vimokkhas 
is easy to understand ' — which is tantalizing. The last five Vi- 
mokkhas occur again below, in Chap. VI, §§ 11-13, where it is clear 
that they are used to express the progress through deep meditation, 
into absent-mindedness, abstraction, and being sunk in thought, 
until finally the thinker falls into actual trance. 

E 2 



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52 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

36. ' With the thought " it is well," he becomes 
intent (upon what he sees) — this is the third stage 
of deliverance. 

37. 'By passing quite beyond all idea of form, by 
putting an end to all idea of resistance, by paying 
no attention to the idea of distinction, he, thinking 
" it is all infinite space," reaches (mentally) and re- 
mains in the state of mind in which the idea of the 
infinity of space is the only idea that is present — 
this is the fourth stage of deliverance. 

38. 'By passing quite beyond all idea of space 
being the infinite basis, he, thinking " it is all infinite 
reason," reaches (mentally) and remains in the state 
of mind to which the infinity of reason is alone 
present — this is the fifth stage of deliverance. 

39. ' By passing quite beyond the mere conscious- 
ness of the infinity of reason, he, thinking " nothing 
at all exists," reaches (mentally) and remains in the 
state of mind to which nothing at all is specially 
present — this is the sixth stage of deliverance. 

40. ' By passing quite beyond all idea of nothing- 
ness he reaches (mentally) and remains in the state 
of mind to which neither ideas nor the absence of 
ideas are specially present — this is the seventh stage 
of deliverance. 

41. ' By passing quite beyond the state of "neither 
ideas nor the absence of ideas " he reaches (men- 
tally) and remains in the state of mind in which 
both sensations and ideas have ceased to be — this 
is the eighth stage of deliverance. 

42. ' Now these, Ananda, are the eight stages of 
deliverance. 

43. ' On one occasion, Ananda, I was resting under 
the shepherd's Nigrodha tree on the bank of the 



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III. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 53 

river Neraw^ara immediately after having reached 
the great enlightenment. Then Mara, the Evil 
One, came, Ananda, to the place where I was, 
and standing beside me he addressed me in the 
words : "Pass away now, Lord, from existence! Let 
the Blessed One now die ! Now is the time for 
the Blessed One to pass away ! " 

44. 'And when he had thus spoken, Ananda, I 
addressed Mara, the Evil One, and said : " I shall 
not die, O Evil One ! until not only the brethren 
and sisters of the order, but also the lay-disciples 
of either sex shall have become true hearers, wise 
and well-trained, ready and learned, versed in the 
Scriptures, fulfilling all the greater and the lesser 
duties, correct in life, walking according to the pre- 
cepts — until they, having thus themselves learned 
the doctrine, shall be able to tell others of it, preach 
it, make it known, establish it, open it, minutely ex- 
plain it and make it clear — until they, when others 
start vain doctrine, shall be able by the truth to 
vanquish and refute it, and so to spread the wonder- 
working truth abroad ! 

45. ' " I shall not die until this pure religion of 
mine shall have become successful, prosperous, 
wide-spread, and popular in all its full extent — 
until, in a word, it shall have been well proclaimed 
among men ! " 

46. 'And now again to-day, Ananda, at theTiTapala 
A'etiya, Mara, the Evil One, came to the place where 
I was, and standing beside me addressed me [in the 
same words]. 

47. ' And when he had thus spoken, Ananda, 
I answered him and said: " Make thyself happy, the 
final extinction of the Tathagata shall take place 



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54 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

before long. At the end of three months from this 
time the Tathagata will die !" 

48. 'Thus, Ananda, the Tathagata has now 
to-day at the Afapala Ajetiya consciously and deli- 
berately rejected the rest of his allotted term of 
life.' 

49. And when he had thus spoken the venera- 
ble Ananda addressed the Blessed One, and said : 
' Vouchsafe, Lord, to remain during the kalpa ! 
live on through the kalpa, O Blessed One ! for the 
good and the happiness of the great multitudes, out 
of pity for the world, for the good and the gain and 
the weal of gods and men !' 

50. ' Enough now, Ananda, beseech not the Ta- 
thagata!' was the reply. 'The time for making 
such request is past.' 

51. And again, the second time, the venerable 
Ananda besought the Blessed One [in the same 
words. And he received from the Blessed One the 
same reply]. 

52. And again, the third time, the venerable 
Ananda besought the Blessed One [in the same 
words]. 

53. 'Hast thou faith, Ananda, in the wisdom of 
the Tathagata?' 

' Even so, Lord!' 

' Now why, then, Ananda, dost thou trouble the 
Tathagata even until the third time ?' 

54. ' From his own mouth have I heard from the 
Blessed One, from his own mouth have I received 
this saying, " Whosoever has thought out, Ananda, 
and developed, practised, accumulated, and ascended 
to the very heights of the four paths to saintship, 
and so mastered them as to be able to use them as 



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III. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 55 

a means of (mental) advancement, and as a basis for 
edification — he, should he desire it, could remain in 
the same birth for a kalpa, or for that portion of a 
kalpa which has yet to run." Now the Tathagata 
has thought out and thoroughly practised them [in 
all respects as just now fully described], and might, 
should he desire it, remain alive for a kalpa, or for 
that portion of a kalpa which has yet to run.' 

55. ' Hast thou faith, Ananda ?' 
' Even so, Lord ! ' 

' Then, O Ananda, thine is the fault, thine is the 
offence — in that when a suggestion so evident and a 
hint so clear were thus given thee by the Tathagata, 
thou wast yet incapable of comprehending them, and 
thou besoughtest not the Tathagata, saying, " Vouch- 
safe, Lord, to remain during the kalpa. Live on, O 
Blessed One ! through the kalpa for the good and 
the happiness of the great multitudes, out of pity 
for the world, for the good and the gain and the 
weal of gods and men." If thou shouldst then have so 
besought the Tathagata, the Tathagata might have 
rejected the appeal even to the second time, but the 
third time he would have granted it. Thine, there- 
fore, O Ananda, is the fault, thine is the offence!' 

56. ' On one occasion, Ananda, I was dwelling at 
Ra^agaha, on the hill called the Vulture's Peak. 
Now there, Ananda, I spoke to thee, and said : 
" How pleasant a spot, Ananda, is Ra^agaha ; how 
pleasant is this Vulture's Peak. Whosoever has 
thought out, Ananda, and developed, practised, accu- 
mulated, and ascended to the very heights of the 
four paths to saintship, and so mastered them as to 
be able to use them as a means of (mental) advance- 
ment, and as a basis for edification — he, should he 



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56 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

desire it, could remain in the same birth for a 
kalpa, or for that portion of a kalpa which has yet 
to run. But even when a suggestion so evident and 
a hint so clear were thus given thee by the Tatha- 
gata, thou wast yet incapable of comprehending 
them, and thou besoughtest not the Tathagata, 
saying, ' Vouchsafe, Lord, to remain during the 
kalpa. Live on, O Blessed One ! through the 
kalpa for the good and the happiness of the great 
multitudes, out of pity for the world, for the good 
and the gain and the weal of gods and men.' If 
thou shouldst then have so besought the Tathagata, 
the Tathagata might have rejected the appeal even 
to the second time, but the third time he would 
have granted it. Thine, therefore, O Ananda, is 
the fault, thine is the offence!" 

57. 'On one occasion, Ananda, Iwas dwelling at 
that same Ra^agaha in the Banyan Grove — on one 
occasion at that same Rifagaha at the Robbers' Cliff 
— on one occasion at that same Ra^agaha in the Satta- 
panni cave on the slope of Mount Vebhara — on one 
occasion at that same Ra^agaha at the Black Rock 
on the slope of Mount Isigili — on one occasion at 
that same Ra^agaha in the Sitavana Grove in the 
mountain cave Sappasow^ika — on one occasion at 
that same Ra^agaha in the Tapoda Grove — on one 
occasion at that same Ri^agaha in the Bambu Grove 
in the Squirrels' Feeding Ground — on one occasion 
at that same Ra^agaha in (7tvaka's Mango Grove 
— on one occasion at that same Ra^agaha in the 
Deer Forest at Maddaku^Ai.' 

58. ' Now there too, Ananda, I spoke to thee, 
and said : " How pleasant, Ananda, is Ra^gaha ; 
how pleasant the Vulture's Peak ; how pleasant the 



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lit. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 57 

Banyan tree of Gotama ; how pleasant the Robbers' 
Cliff; how pleasant the Sattapa«»i cave on the 
slope of Mount Vebhara ; how pleasant the Black 
Rock on the slope of Mount Isigili ; how pleasant 
the mountain cave Sappaso#dfika in the Sitavana 
Grove ; how pleasant the Tapoda Grove ; how plea- 
sant the Squirrels' Feeding Ground in the Bambu 
Grove ; how pleasant £lvaka's Mango Grove ; how 
pleasant the Deer Forest at Maddaku£64i ! 

59. ' " Whosoever, Ananda, has thought out and 
developed, practised, accumulated, and ascended 
to the Very heights of the four paths to saintship, 
and so mastered them as to be able to use them as 
a means of (mental) advancement and as a basis for 
edification — he, should he desire it, could remain in 
the same birth for a kalpa, or for that portion of a 
kalpa which has yet to run." Now the Tathagata 
has thought out and thoroughly practised them [in 
all respects as just now fully described], and might, 
should he desire it, remain alive for a kalpa, or for 
that portion of a kalpa which has yet to run.' 

60. ' On one occasion, Ananda, I was residing 
here at Vesali at the Udena A'etiya. And there 
too, Ananda, I spoke to thee, and said : " How 
pleasant, Ananda, is Vesali ; how pleasant the 
Udena Aetiya. Whosoever, Ananda, has thought 
out and developed, practised, accumulated, and 
ascended to the very heights of the four paths to 
saintship, and so mastered them as to be able to use 
them as a means of (mental) advancement and as a 
basis for edification — he, should he desire it, could 
remain in the same birth for a kalpa, or for that 
portion of a kalpa which has yet to run." Now the 
Tathagata has thought out and thoroughly practised 



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58 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

them [in all respects as just now fully described], 
and might, should he desire it, remain alive for a 
kalpa, or for that portion of a kalpa which has yet 
to run.' 

61. ' On one occasion, Ananda, I was dwelling 
here at Vesali at the Gotamaka Aetiya — on one occa- 
sion here at Vesali at the Sattamba A'etiya — on one 
occasion here at Vesali at the Bahuputta A'etiya — 
on one occasion here at Vesali at the Sarandada 
A'etiya [and on each occasion I spoke to thee, 
Ananda, in the same words]. 

62. 'And now to-day, Ananda, at the Aapala 
A'etiya, I spoke to thee, and said : " How pleasant, 
Ananda, is Vesali; how pleasant the Udena Aetiya; 
how pleasant the Gotamaka Aetiya ; how pleasant 
the Sattamba Aetiya ; how pleasant the Bahuputta 
Aetiya ; how pleasant the Sarandada Aetiya. Who- 
soever, Ananda, has thought out and developed, 
practised, accumulated, and ascended to the very 
heights of the four paths to saintship, and so mas- 
tered them as to be able to use them as a means of 
(mental) advancement, and as a basis for edification — 

-y/ he, should he desire it, could remain in the same 
birth for a kalpa, or for that portion of a kalpa 
which has yet to run. Now the Tathagata has 
thought and thoroughly practised them [in all 
respects as just now fully described], and might, 
should he desire it, remain alive for a kalpa, or for 
that portion of a kalpa which has yet to run." 



63. ' But now, Ananda, have I not formerly 1 de- 

1 That pa.figa.kk' eva means 'formerly, already' is clear from 
Maha Vagga I, 7, r ; X, 2, 3, though its derivation would seem to 
render the meaning ' frequently, recurringly ' more natural. The 



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III. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 59 

clared to you that it is in the very nature of all 
things, near and dear unto us, that we must divide 
ourselves from them, leave them, sever ourselves 
from them ? How then, Ananda, can this be pos- 
sible — whereas anything whatever born, brought 
into being, and organised, contains within itself the 
inherent necessity of dissolution — how then can this 
be possible that such a being should not be dis- 
solved ? No such condition can exist ! And this 
mortal being, Ananda, has been relinquished, cast 
away, renounced, rejected, and abandoned by the 
Tathagata. The remaining sum of life has been 
surrendered by him. Verily, the word has gone 
forth from the Tathagata, saying, " The final extinc- 
tion of the Tathagata shall take place before long. 
At the end of three months from this time the 
Tathagata will die!" That the Tathagata for the 
sake of living should repent him again of that 
saying — this can no wise be 1 !' 



64. ' Come, Ananda, let us go to the Ku/agara 
Hall, to the Mahavana.' 

' Even so, Lord ! ' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Blessed One. 

Then the Blessed One proceeded, with Ananda 

phrase occurs pretty often. Trenckner (milinda-pawhaw, p. 422) 
proposes a correction into pa/ika££' eva. Palu^iti just below 
is noteworthy as an unusual contraction of palu^e iti. 

1 I do not understand the connection of ideas between this 
paragraph and the idea repeated with such tedious iteration in the 
preceding paragraphs. The two seem to be in marked contrast, 
if not in absolute contradiction. Perhaps we have here the older' 
tradition ; and certainly the latter utterance of the two is more in 
accordance with the general impression of the character, and with 
the other sayings, of Gotama as handed down in the Pali Pi/akas. 



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60 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

with him, to the Mahavana to the Ku/agara Hall : 
and when he had arrived there he addressed the 
venerable Ananda, and said : 

' Go now, Ananda, and assemble in the Service 
Hall such of the brethren as reside in the neigh- 
bourhood of Vesali.' 

' Even so, Lord,' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Blessed One. And when he had as- 
sembled in the Service Hall such of the brethren as 
resided in the neighbourhood of Vesali, he went to 
the Blessed One and saluted him and stood beside 
him. And standing beside him, he addressed the 
Blessed One, and said : 

' Lord ! the assembly of the brethren has met 
together. Let the Blessed One do even as seemeth 
to him fit.' 

65. Then the Blessed One proceeded to the 
Service Hall, and sat down there on the mat spread 
out for him. And when he was seated the Blessed 
One addressed the brethren, and said : 

' Therefore, O brethren — ye to whom the truths 
I have perceived have been made known by me — 
having thoroughly made yourselves masters of 
them, practise them, meditate upon them, and spread 
them abroad ; in order that pure religion may last 
long and be perpetuated, in order that it may con- 
tinue to be for the good and happiness of the great 
multitudes, out of pity for the world, to the good 
and the gain and the weal of gods and men ! 

'Which then, O brethren, are the truths which, 
when I had perceived, I made known to you, which, 
when you have mastered it behoves you to practise, 
meditate upon, and spread abroad, in order that pure 
religion may last long and be perpetuated, in order 



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hi. maha-parinibbAna-sutta. 6 1 

that it may continue to be for the good and the 
happiness of the great multitudes, out of pity for 
the world, to the good and the gain and the weal of 
gods and men ?' 
They are these : 

The four earnest meditations. 

The fourfold great struggle against sin. 

The four roads to saintship. 

The five moral powers. 

The five organs of spiritual sense. 

The seven kinds of wisdom, and 

The noble eightfold path. 
These, O brethren, are the truths which, when 
I had perceived, I made known to you, which, when 
you have mastered it behoves you to practise, 
meditate upon, and spread abroad, in order that 
pure religion may last long and be perpetuated, in 
order that it may continue to be for the good and 
the happiness of the great multitudes, out of pity 
for the world, to the good and the gain and the 
weal of gods and men ! 

66. And the Blessed One exhorted the brethren, 
and said : 

' Behold now, O brethren, I exhort you, saying, 
"All component things must grow old. Work out 
your salvation with diligence. The final extinction 
of the Tathagata will take place before long. At 
the end of three months from this time the Tatha- 
gata will die !" 
' My age is now full ripe, my life draws to its close : 

I leave you, I depart, relying on myself alone ! 

Be earnest then, O brethren! holy, full of 
thought ! 



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62 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

Be steadfast in resolve ! Keep watch o'er your 

own hearts! 
Who wearies not, but holds fast to this truth 

and law 1 , 
Shall cross this sea of life, shall make an end of 

grief.' 

End of the Third Portion for Recitation 2 . 



1 Dhamma and vinaya. The Buddhist religion, as just 
\ summarised, and the regulations of the order. 

J It is of great interest to notice what are the points upon which 
Gotama, in this last address to his disciples, and at the solemn 
time when death was so near at hand, is reported to have lain such 
emphatic stress. Unfortunately we have only a fragment of the 
address, and, as it would seem from its commencement, only the 
v' closing fragment. This, however, is in the form of a summary, 
consisting of an enumeration of certain aggregates, the details 
of which must have been as familiar to the early Buddhists as the 
details of similar numerical terms — such as the ten command- 
ments, the twelve tribes, the seven deadly sins, the four gospels, 
and so on — afterwards were to the Christians. This summary of 
the Buddha's last address may fairly be taken as a summary of 
Buddhism, which thus appears to be simply a system of earnest 
self-culture and self-control. 

The following are the details of the aggregate technical terms 
used in the above summary, but it will be understood that the 
English equivalents used give rather a general than an exact 
representation of the ideas expressed by the Pali ones. To 
attempt more would demand a treatise rather than a note, and 
it has given me peculiar pleasure to learn, as these sheets are 
passing through the press, that my friend Dr. Morris intends to 
devote a book to the treatment of these seven ' Te wels of the Law.' 
as the Kulfa Vagga calls them (IX, i, 4), which form, when united, 
the bright diadem of Nirva«a. 

The four Earnest Meditations (£attaro Satipa//Mna) are — 

1. Meditation on the body. 

2. Meditation on the sensations. 

3. Meditation on the ideas. 

4. Meditation on reason and character. 



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III. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 63 

The fourfold Great Struggle against sin is divided into >fcattaro 
Samappadhand, which are — 

1. The struggle to prevent sinfulness arising. 

2. The struggle to put away sinful states which have arisen. 

3. The struggle to produce goodness not previously existing. 

4. The struggle to increase goodness when it does exist. 
The four Roads to Saintship are four means by whic£ 

above, § 3, note) is to be acquired. They aj«^th? iXitt&tQp' 
Iddhipada: / .' < ■ .■ 4f/> 

1. The will to acquire it united to earnest mHdiisuJp^ affdith^ _ \^ 
struggle against sin. \ , v ~? , ^ * T X \ 

2. The necessary exertion united to earnest meditation' and -therT \. 
struggle against sin. "~-^— L.**. ~1_ * -" 

3. The necessary preparation of the heart united to earnest 
meditation and the struggle against sin. 

- 4. Investigation united to earnest meditation and the struggle 
against sin. 

The five moral powers (paȣa Balini) are said to be the 
«"■ "-. same as the next class, called organs (Indriyani). It is no doubt , t ' 
" '"-^most remarkable that, in a summary like this, two classes out of p*"" J- 
seven should be absolutely identical except in name. The differ- - , ^ 1 
ence of name is altogether too unimportant to account, by itself, for^ s 
the distinction made. Either the currently accepted explanation of \*\ s 
one of the two aggregate terms must be incorrect, or we must look t i ; 
for some explanation of the repetition other than the mere desire • , - '- 
to record the double title. Is it impossible that the one class c* 
was split into two to bring the number of the classes up to the ■-'-'■ 
sacred number seven, corresponding to the seven Ratanas of a , ; 
A'akkavatti? ' ! "' '' . i 

The details of both classes are — if 

i. Faith. 2. Energy. 3. Thought. 4. Contemplation. 
5. Wisdom. 

The seven kinds of Wisdom (satta Bo£#Aang£) are — 

1. Energy. 2. Thought. 3. Contemplation. 4. Investiga- 
tion (of scripture). 5. Joy. 6. Repose. 7. Serenity. 

The Noble Eightfold Path (ariyo a/Mangiko Maggo) forms 
the subject of the Dhamma-iakka-ppavattana-sutta, translated in this 
volume, and consists of — 

i. Right views. 2. High aims. 3. Right speech. 4. Upright 
conduct. 5. A harmless livelihood. 6. Perseverance in well-doing. 
7. Intellectual activity. 8. Earnest thought. 



t.i—- 



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64 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 



Chapter IV. 

i. Now the Blessed One early in the morning 
robed himself, and taking his bowl, entered Vesali 
for alms: and when he had passed through Vesali, 
and had eaten his meal and was returning from his 
alms-seeking he gazed at Vesali with an elephant 
look 1 and addressed the venerable Ananda, and said: 
' This will be the last time, Ananda, that the 
Tathagata will behold Vesali. Come, Ananda, let 
us go on to Bha»da-gama.' 

' Even so, Lord !' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Blessed One. 

And the Blessed One proceeded with a great 
company of the brethren to Bha«da-gama ; and 
there the Blessed One stayed in the village itself. 

2. There the Blessed One addressed the bre- 
thren, and said : 'It is through not understanding 
and grasping four truths 2 , O brethren, that we have 
had to run so long, to wander so long in this weary 
path of transmigration — both you and I,' 

'And what are these four? The noble conduct of 
life, the noble earnestness in meditation, the noble 
kind of wisdom, and the noble salvation of freedom. 
But when noble conduct is realised and known, 
when noble meditation is realised and known, when 
noble wisdom is realised and known, when noble 

1 Nagapalokitaw Vesaliya»« apaloketvi. The Buddhas 
were accustomed, says Buddhaghosa, on looking backwards to turn 
the whole body round as an elephant does ; because the bones in 
their neck were firmly fixed, more so than those of ordinary men ! 

2 Or Conditions (Dhamma). They must, of course, be care- 
fully distinguished from the better known Four Noble Truths 
(Sa££ani) above, Chap. II, § 2. 



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t». mahA-parinibbana-sutta. 65 

freedom, is realised and known — then is the craving 
for existence rooted out, that which leads to re- 
newed existence is destroyed, and there is no more 
birth.' 

3. Thus spake the Blessed One; and when the 
Happy One had thus spoken, then again the 
teacher said 1 : 
' Righteousness, earnest thought, wisdom, and 
freedom sublime — 
These are the truths realised by Gotama, far- 
renowned. 
Knowing them, he, the knower, proclaimed the 

truth to the brethren. 
The master with eye divine, the quencher of 
griefs, must die!' 



4. There too, while staying at Bha#da-gama, the 
Blessed One held that comprehensive religious dis- 
course with the brethren on the nature of upright 
conduct, and of earnest contemplation, and of intel- 
ligence. ' Great is the fruit, great the advantage of 
earnest contemplation when set round with upright 
conduct. Great is the fruit, great the advantage of 
intellect when set round with earnest contemplation. 

1 This is merely a stock phrase for introducing verses which 
repeat the idea of the preceding phrase (see above, paragraph 32). 
It is an instructive sign of the state of mind in which such records 
are put together, that these verses could be ascribed to Gotama 
himself without any feeling of the incongruity involved. The last 
word means, completely gone out; and here refers to the ex- 
tinction of kilesa and tawhi, which will bring about, inevitably, 
the extinction of being. Compare the passage quoted by 
Burnouf in Lotus de la Bonne Loi, p. 376. Probably the whole 
stanza formerly stood in some other connection, where the word 
parinibbuto had its more usual sense. See Buddhaghosa's 
note on IV, 23. 

[II] F 



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66 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

The mind set round with intelligence is freed from 
the great evils — that is to say, from sensuality, from 
individuality, from delusion, and from ignorance.' 



5. Now when the Blessed One had remained at 
Bha«da-gama as long as he desired, he addressed 
the venerable Ananda, and said : ' Come, Ananda, 
let us go on to Hatthi-gama.' 

'Even so, Lord!' said Ananda, in assent, to the 
Blessed One. 

Then the Blessed One proceeded with a great 
company of the brethren to Hatthi-gama. 

6. [And in similar words it is then related how 
the Blessed One went on to Amba-gama, to 6ambu- 
gama, and to Bhoga-nagara.] 



7. Now there at Bhoga-nagara the Blessed One 
stayed at the Ananda .A'etiya. 

There the Blessed One addressed the brethren, 
and said : ' I will teach you, O brethren, these four 
Great References '. Listen thereto, and give good 
heed, and I will speak.' 

' Even so, Lord ! ' said the brethren, in assent 2 , to 

1 The meaning of mahSpadesa is not quite clear. Perhaps 
it should be rendered true authorities. I have followed Buddha- 
ghosa in taking apadesa as the last part of the compound. He 
says, mahtpadesi ti mahi-okdse mahi-apadese va\ Bud- 
dhadayo mahante mahante apadisitva vuttini maha- 
k£ra«£nt ti attho, 'the causes (authorities) alleged when 
referring to Buddha and other great men.' 

4 I ought perhaps to have explained why I have ventured to 
differ from Childers in the rendering of the common word pa/i- 
suwSti. The root siu seems to have meant 'to sound' before it 
meant 'to hear;' and, whether this be so or not, pa/i-suȣti 
means not simply ' to consent,' but ' to answer (assentingly).' It 



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IV. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 6j 

the Blessed One, and the Blessed One spoke as 
follows : 

8. ' In the first place, brethren, a brother may 
say thus : " From the mouth of the Blessed One 
himself have I heard, from his own mouth have I 
received it. This is the truth, this the law, this the 
teaching of the Master." The word spoken, bre- 
thren, by that brother should neither be received 
with praise nor treated with scorn. Without praise 
and without scorn every word and syllable should 
be carefully understood, and then put beside the 
scripture and compared with the rules of the 
order 1 . If when so compared they do not har- 
monise with the scripture, and do not fit in with the 
rules of the order, then you may come to the con- 
clusion, " Verily, this is not the word of the Blessed 
One, and has been wrongly grasped by that 
brother ?" Therefore, brethren, you should reject 
it. But if they harmonise with the scripture and 
fit in with the rules of the order, then you may 
come to the conclusion, " Verily, this is the word of 
the Blessed One, and has been well grasped by 
that brother." This, brethren, you should receive 
as the first Great Reference. 

9. ' Again, brethren, a brother may say thus : 
"In such and such a dwelling-place there is a com- 
pany of the brethren with their elders and leaders. 
From the mouth of that company have I heard, 

has been pointed out to me that answer was formerly 'and- 
swerian,' where swerian is probably not unrelated to the root 
svar, 'to sound.' 

1 Sutte otaretabbdni vinaye sandassetabbani, where one 
would expect to find the word Pifaka if it had been in use when 
this passage was first written or composed. 

F 2 



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68 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

face to face have I received it. This is the truth, 
this the law, this the teaching of the Master." The 
word spoken, brethren, by that brother should 
neither be received with praise nor treated with 
scorn. Without praise and without scorn every 
word and syllable should be carefully understood, 
and then put beside the scripture and compared 
with the rules of the order. If when so compared 
they do not harmonise with the scripture, and do 
not fit in with the rules of the order, then you may 
come to the conclusion, "Verily, this is not the 
word of the Blessed One, and has been wrongly 
grasped by that company of the brethren." There- 
fore, brethren, you should reject it.. But if they 
harmonise with the scripture and fit in with the 
rules of the order, then you may come to the con- 
clusion, "Verily, this is the word of the Blessed One, 
and has been well grasped by that company of the 
brethren." This, brethren, you should receive as 
the second Great Reference. 

10. ' Again, brethren, a brother may say thus : 
" In such and such a dwelling-place there are 
dwelling many elders of the order, deeply read, 
holding the faith as handed down by tradition, 
versed in the truths, versed in the regulations of 
the order, versed in the summaries of the doctrines 
and the law. From the mouth of those elders have 
I heard, from their mouth have I received it. 
This is the truth, this the law, this the teaching of 
the Master." The word spoken, brethren, by that 
brother should neither be received with praise nor 
treated with scorn. Without praise and without 
scorn every word and syllable should be carefully 
understood, and then put beside the scripture and 



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it. maha-parinibbana-sutta. 69 

compared with the rules of the order. If when so 
compared they do not harmonise with the scripture, 
and do not fit in with the rules of the order, then 
you may come to the conclusion, " Verily, this is 
not the word of the Blessed One, and has been 
wrongly grasped by those elders." Therefore, bre- 
thren, you should reject it. But if they harmonise 
with the scripture and fit in with the rules of the 
order, then you may come to the conclusion, 
"Verily, this is the word of the Blessed One, and 
has been well grasped by those elders." This, 
brethren, you should receive as the third Great 
Reference. 

11. 'Again, brethren, a brother may say, " In 
such and such a dwelling-place there is there living 
a brother, deeply read, holding the faith as handed \ 
down by tradition, versed in the truths, versed in 
the regulations of the order, versed in the sum- 
maries of the doctrines and the law. From the 
mouth of that elder have I heard, from his mouth 
have I received it. This is the truth, this the law, 
this the teaching of the Master." The word spoken, 
brethren, by that brother should neither be received 
with praise nor treated with scorn. Without praise 
and without scorn every word and syllable should 
be carefully understood, and then put beside the 
scripture and compared with the rules of the 
order. If when so compared they do not har- 
monise with the scripture, and do not fit in with the 
rules of the order, then you may come to the 
conclusion, " Verily, this is not the word of the 
Blessed One, and has been wrongly grasped 
by that brother." Therefore, brethren, you should 
reject it. But if they harmonise with the scripture 



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70 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

and fit in with the rules of the order, then you 
may come to the conclusion, "Verily, this is the word 
of the Blessed One, and has been well grasped by 
that brother." This, brethren, you* should receive 
as the fourth Great Reference.' 

' These, brethren, are the Four Great References.' 



12. There, too, the Blessed One held that com- 
prehensive religious talk with the brethren on the 
nature of upright conduct, and of earnest contem- 
plation, and of intelligence. ' Great is the fruit, 
great the advantage of earnest contemplation when 
set round with upright conduct. Great is the fruit, 
great the advantage of intellect when set round with 
earnest contemplation. The mind set round with 
intelligence is freed from the great evils — that is 
to say, from sensuality, from individuality, from 
delusion, and from ignorance.' 



13* Now when the Blessed One had remained 
as long as he desired at Bhoga-gama, he addressed 
the venerable Ananda, and said : ' Come, Ananda, 
let us go on to Pava.* 

' Even so, Lord ! ' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Blessed One. And the Blessed One 
proceeded with a great company of the brethren to 
Piva. 

And there at Pava the Blessed One stayed at 
the Mango Grove of .ATunda, who was by family a 
smith. 

14. Now Aunda, the worker in metals, heard 
that the Blessed One had come to P4v£, and was 
staying there in his Mango Grove. 



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IV. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. jl 

And .ATunda, the worker in metals, went to the 
place where the Blessed One was, and saluting him 
took his seat respectfully on one side. And when 
he was thus seated, the Blessed One instructed, 
aroused, incited, and gladdened him with religious 
discourse. 

15. Then he, instructed, aroused, incited, and 
gladdened by the religious discourse, addressed the 
Blessed One, and said : ' May the Blessed One do 
me the honour of taking his meal, together with the 
brethren, at my house to-morrow.' 

And the Blessed One signified, by silence, his 
consent. 

16. Then seeing that the Blessed One had con- 
sented, .Afunda, the worker in metals, rose from his 
seat and bowed down before the Blessed One, and 
keeping him on his right hand as he past him, 
departed thence. 

17. Now at the end of the night, Afunda, the 
worker in metals, made ready in his dwelling-place 
sweet rice and cakes, and a quantity of dried boar's 
flesh. And he announced the hour to the Blessed 
One, saying, ' The hour, Lord, has come, and the 
meal is ready.' 

18. And the Blessed One robed himself early in 
the morning, and taking his bowl, went with the bre- 
thren to the dwelling-place of Aunda, the worker in 
metals. When he had come thither he seated him- 
self on the seat prepared for him. And when he 
was seated he addressed A'unda, the worker in 
metals, and said : ' As to the dried boar's flesh you 
have made ready, serve me with it, Aunda ; and as 
to the other food, the sweet rice and cakes, serve 
the brethren with it.' 



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72 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

'Even so, Lord!' said A!unda, the worker in 
metals, in assent, to the Blessed One. And the 
dried boar's flesh he had made ready he served to 
the Blessed One ; whilst -the other food, the sweet 
rice and cakes, he served to the members of the 
order. 

19. Now the Blessed One addressed A"unda, the 
worker in metals, and said : ' Whatever dried boar's 
flesh, .ATunda, is left over to thee, that bury in a hole. 
I see no one, Aunda, on earth nor in Mara's heaven, 
nor in Brahma's heaven, no one among Samawas 
and Brahma«as, among gods and men, by whom, 
when he has eaten it, that food can be assimilated, 
save by the Tathagata.' 

'Even so, Lord!' said Aunda, the worker in 
metals, in assent, to the Blessed One. And what- 
ever dried boar's flesh remained over, that he buried 
in a hole. 

20. And he went to the place where the Blessed 
One was ; and when he had come there, took his 
seat respectfully on one side. And when he was 
seated, the Blessed One instructed and aroused 
and incited and gladdened ATunda, the worker in 
metals, with religious discourse. And the Blessed 
One then rose from his seat and departed thence. 

21. Now when the Blessed One had eaten the 
food prepared by Aunda, the worker in metal, there 
fell upon him a dire sickness, the disease of dysen- 
tery, and sharp pain came upon him, even unto 
death. But the Blessed One, mindful and self- 
possessed, bore it without complaint. 

22. And the Blessed One addressed the venerable 
Ananda, and said : ' Come, Ananda, let us go on to 
Kusinara.' 



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IV. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 73 

'Even so, Lord!' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Blessed One. 



23. When he had eaten A!unda's food, 

The copper-smith's — thus have I heard — 
He bore with fortitude the pain, 
The sharp pain even unto death ! 

And from the dried flesh of the boar, as soon as 
he had eaten it, 
There fell upon the teacher sickness dire, 
Then after nature was relieved the Blessed One 
announced and said : 
' I now am going on to Kusinara V 



24. Now the Blessed One went aside from the 
path to the foot of a certain tree; and when he 
had come there he addressed the venerable Ananda, 
and said : ' Fold, I pray you, Ananda, the robe ; and 
spread it out for me. I am weary, Ananda, and 
must rest awhile!' 

' Even so, Lord ! ' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Blessed One, and spread out the robe 
folded fourfold. 

25. And the Blessed One seated -himself on the 
seat prepared for him ; and when he was seated, he 
addressed the venerable Ananda, and said : ' Fetch 
me, I pray you, Ananda, some water. I am thirsty, 
Ananda, and would drink.' 

26. When he had thus spoken, the venerable 
Ananda said to the Blessed One : ' But just now, 

1 ' It should be understood,' says Buddhaghosa, ' that these are 
verses by the Theras who held the council.' And he repeats this 
at §§ 52, 56. 



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74 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

Lord, about five hundred carts have gone over. That 
water stirred up by the wheels has become shallow 
and flows fouled and turbid. This river Kakuttha, 
Lord, not far off, is clear and pleasant, cool and 
transparent, easy to get down into, and delightful. 
There the Blessed One may both drink the water, 
and cool his limbs V 

27. Again the second time the Blessed One 
addressed the venerable Ananda, and said : ' Fetch 
me, I pray you, Ananda, some water. I am thirsty, 
Ananda, and would drink.' 

28. And again the second time the venerable 
Ananda said to the Blessed One : ' But just now, 
Lord, about five hundred carts have gone over. That 
water stirred up by. the wheels has become shallow 
and flows fouled and turbid. This river Kakuttha, 
Lord, not far off, is clear and pleasant, cool and 
transparent, easy to get down into, and delightful. 
There the Blessed One may both drink the water, 
and cool his limbs.' 

29. Again the third time the Blessed One ad- 
dressed the venerable Ananda, and said: 'Fetch me, 

A 

I pray you, Ananda, some water. I am thirsty, 
Ananda, and would drink.' 

30. ' Even so, Lord!' said the venerable Ananda, 
in assent, to the Blessed One ; and taking a bowl he 
went down to the streamlet. And lo I the streamlet 
which, stirred up by the wheels, was but just now 
become shallow, and was flowing fouled and turbid, 
had begun, when the venerable Ananda came up to it, 
to flow clear and bright and free from all turbidity. 

1 AkkAodiki ti pasannodika: satodikt ti madhurodhikS: 
sitodika ti tanu-sitala-salila : setaka ti nikkaddama: 
supatitthS ti sundara-titthl (S.V. thri.) Comp. IV, 56. 



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IV. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 75 

31. Then Ananda thought: 'How wonderful, 
how marvellous is the great might and power of 
the Tathagata ! For this streamlet which, stirred up 
by the wheels, was but just now become shallow and 
flowing foul and turbid, now, as I come up to it, is 
flowing clear and bright and free from all turbidity.' 

32. And taking water in the bowl he returned 
towards the Blessed One ; and when he had come 
where the Blessed One was he said to him : ' How 
wonderful, how marvellous is the great might and 
power of the Tathagata ! For this streamlet which, 
stirred up by the wheels, was but just now become 
shallow and flowing foul and turbid, now, as I come 
up to it, is flowing clear and bright and free from 
all turbidity. Let the Blessed One drink the water ! 
Let the Happy One drink the water !' 

Then the Blessed One drank of the water. 



32- Now at that time a man named Pukkusa 1 , 
a young Mallian, a disciple of A/ara Kalama's, was 
passing along the high road from Kusinara to Piva. 

34. And Pukkusa, the young Mallian, saw the 
Blessed One seated at the foot of a tree. On 
seeing him, he went up to the place where the 
Blessed One was, and when he had come there he 
saluted the Blessed One, and took his rest respect- 
fully on one side. And when he was seated 

1 The Pukkusa caste was one of the lower castes of Sudras. 
Compare Assalayana Sutta (Pischel), pp. 13, 35; Burnoufs 'In- 
troduction,' &c, pp. 144, 208 ; Lalita Vistara XXI, 17. But Bud- 
dhaghosa says Pukkusa must here be simply a name, as the Mallas 
were of the Khattiya caste. He adds that this Pukkusa was the 
owner of the five hundred carts that had just passed by ; and that 
A/ara Kilima was called A/ara because he was Dtgha-pihgalo, 
Kalama being his family name. 



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76 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

Pukkusa, the young Mallian, said to the Blessed 
One: 'How wonderful a thing is it, Lord! and 
how marvellous, that those who have gone forth out 
of the world should pass their time in a state of 
mind so calm!' 

35. ' Formerly, Lord, A/ara Kalama was once 
walking along the high road ; and leaving the road 
he sat himself down under a certain tree to rest 
during the heat of the day. Now, Lord, five hun- 
dred carts passed by one after the other, each close 
to A/ara Kalama. And a certain man, who was fol- 
lowing close behind that caravan of carts, went up to 
the place where A/ara Kalama was, and when he was 
come there he spake as follows to A/ara Kalama : 

' " But, Lord, did you see those five hundred carts 
go by?" 

' " No, indeed, sir, I saw them not." 
' "But, Lord, did you hear the sound of them ?" 
' " No, indeed, sir, I heard not their sound." 
' "But, Lord, were you then asleep ?" 
' " No, sir, I was not asleep." 
' " But, Lord, were you then conscious." 
' " Yes, I was conscious, sir." 
"'So that you, Lord, though you were both con- 
scious and awake, neither saw, nor heard the sound 
of five hundred carts passing by, one after the other, 
and each close to you. Why, Lord, even your robe 
was sprinkled over with the dust of them!" 
' " It is even so, sir." 

36. 'Then thought that man: "How wonderful a 
thing is it, and how marvellous, that those who have 
gone forth out of the world should pass their time 
in a state of mind so calm! So much so that a 
man though being both conscious and awake, 



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iv. mahA-parinibbana-sutta. fj 

neither sees, nor hears the sound of five hundred 
carts passing hy, one after the other, and each close 
to him." 

' And after giving utterance to his deep faith in 
A/ara Kalama, he departed thence.' 

37. 'Now what think you, Pukkusa, which is the 
more difficult thing either to do or to meet with — 
that a man being conscious and awake should 
neither see, nor hear the sound of five hundred 
carts passing by, one after the other, close to him, 
— or that a man, being conscious and awake, should 
neither see, nor hear the sound thereof when the 
falling rain goes on beating and splashing, and the 
lightnings are flashing forth, and the thunderbolts 
are crashing ?•' 

38. ' What in comparison, Lord, can these five 
hundred carts do, or six or seven or eight or nine 
or ten hundred, yea, even hundreds and thousands 
of carts. That certainly is more difficult, both to 
do and to meet with, that a man being conscious 
and awake should neither see, nor hear the sound 
thereof when the falling rain goes on beating and 
splashing, and the lightnings are flashing forth, and 
the thunderbolts are crashing.' 

39. 'Now on one occasion, Pukkusa, I was dwelling 
at Atuma, and was at the Threshing-floor 1 . And at 
that time the falling rain begun to beat and to 
splash, and the lightnings to flash forth, and the 
thunderbolts to crash ; and two peasants, brothers, 
and four oxen were killed. Then, Pukkusa, a great 
multitude of people went forth from Atuma, and 
went up to the place where the two peasants, 
brothers, and the four oxen, lay killed. 

1 Bhusag£re ti kha/u-s&layaw. (S.V. tkri.) 

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78 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

40. ' Now at that time, Pukkusa, I had gone forth 
from the Threshing-floor, and was walking up and 
down thinking at the entrance to the Threshing- 
floor. And a certain man came, Pukkusa, out of 
that great multitude of people, up to the place 
where I was ; and when he came up he saluted me, 
and took his place respectfully on one side. 

41. 'And as he stood there, Pukkusa, I said to 
the man : 

' "Why then, sir, is this great multitude of people 
assembled together ?" 

' " But just now, the falling rain began to beat 
and to splash, and the lightnings to flash forth, and 
the thunderbolts to crash ; and two peasants, bro- 
thers, were killed, and four oxen. Therefore is this 
great multitude of people gathered together. But 
where, Lord, were you ? " 

'"I, sir, have been here all the while." 

' " But, Lord, did you see it >" 

'"I, sir, saw nothing." 

' " But, Lord, did you hear it ?" 

' " I, sir, heard nothing." 

' " Were you then, Lord, asleep ?" 

'" I, sir, was not asleep." 

' " Were you then conscious, Lord ?" 

'" Even so, sir." 

' " So that you, Lord, being conscious and awake, 
neither saw, nor heard the sound thereof when the 
falling rain went on beating and splashing, and the 
lightnings were flashing forth, and the thunderbolts 
were crashing." 

' " That is so, sir." 

42. ' Then, Pukkusa, the thought occurred to that 
man : 



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IV. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 79 

'" How wonderful a thing is it, and marvellous, 
that those who have gone forth out of the world 
should pass their time in a state of mind so calm! — 
so that a man being conscious and awake neither 
sees nor hears the sound thereof when the falling 
rain is beating and splashing, and the lightnings are 
flashing forth, and the thunderbolts are crashing." 
And after giving utterance to his deep faith in me, 
he departed from me with the customary demonstra- 
tions of respect.' 

43. And when he had thus spoken Pukkusa, 
the young Mallian, addressed the Blessed One in 
these words : ' Now I, Lord, as to the faith that 
I had in A/ara Kilama, that I winnow away as in 
a mighty wind, and wash it away as in a swiftly 
running stream. Most excellent, Lord, are the words 
of thy mouth, most excellent! Just as if a man 
were to set up that which is thrown down, or were 
to reveal that which is hidden away, or were to 
point out the right road to him who has gone astray, 
or were to bring a lamp into the darkness, so that 
those who have eyes can see external forms — just 
even so, Lord, has the truth been made known to 
me, in many a figure, by the Blessed One. And I, 
even I, betake myself, Lord, to the Blessed One as 
my refuge, to the Truth, and to the Brotherhood. 
May the Blessed One accept me as a disciple, as a 
true believer, from this day forth, as long as life 
endures 1 !' 

1 This is a stock phrase constituting the final answer of a 
hitherto unconverted man at the end of one of those argumentative 
dialogues by which Gotama overcame opposition or expounded 
the truth. After a discussion of exalted themes it fits in very 
appropriately; here and elsewhere it is incongruous and strained. 
See below, V, 50. 



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86 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

44. Now Pukkusa, the young Mallian, addressed 
a certain man, and said : ' Fetch me, I pray you, my 
good man, a pair of robes of cloth, of gold, burnished 
and ready for wear.' 

' So be it, sir ! ' said that man, in assent, to 
Pukkusa, the young Mallian ; and he brought a 
pair of robes of cloth of gold, burnished and ready 
for wear. 

45. And the Mallian Pukkusa presented the pair of 
robes of cloth of gold, burnished and ready for wear, 
to the Blessed One, saying, ' Lord, this pair of 
robes of burnished cloth of gold is ready for wear. 
May the Blessed One show me favour and accept it 
at my hands !' 

' In that case, Pukkusa, robe me in one, and 
Ananda in one.' 

' Even so, Lord ! ' said Pukkusa, in assent, to the 
Blessed One ; and in one he robed the Blessed One, 
and in one, Ananda. 

46. Then the Blessed One instructed and aroused 
and incited and gladdened Pukkusa, the young Mal- 
lian, with religious discourse. And Pukkusa, the 
young Mallian, when he had been instructed and 
aroused and incited and gladdened by the Blessed 
One with religious discourse, arose from his seat, 
and bowed down before the Blessed One ; and keep- 
ing him on his right hand as he past him, departed 
thence. 



47. Now not long after the Mallian Pukkusa had 
gone, the venerable Ananda placed that pair of 
robes of cloth of gold, burnished and ready for wear, 
on the body of the Blessed One, and when it was so 



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iv. mahA-parinibbAna-sutta. 8 i 

placed on the body of the Blessed One it appeared 
to have lost its splendour 1 ! 

48. And the venerable Ananda said to the Blessed 
One : ' How wonderful a thing is it, Lord, and how 
marvellous, that the colour of the skin of the Blessed 
One should be so clear, so exceeding bright! For 
when I placed even this pair of robes of burnished 
cloth of gold and ready for wear on the body of the 
Blessed One, lo! it seemed as if it had lost its 
splendour!' 

49. 'It is even so, Ananda. Ananda, there are two 
occasions on which the colour of the skin of a Tatha- 
gata becomes clear and exceeding bright. What 
are the two?' 

50. ' On the night, Ananda, on which a Tatha- 
gata attains to the supreme and perfect insight, and 
on the night in which he passes finally away in that 
utter passing away which leaves nothing whatever 
to remain — on these two occasions the colour of the 
skin of the Tathagata becomes clear and exceeding 
bright. 

51. 'And now this day, Ananda, at the third watch 
of the rfight, in the Upavattana of Kusinira, in the 
Sala Grove of the Mallians, between the twin Sala 

1 The commentator says, Bhagavato kayam upanimitan ti 
niv&sana-p&rfipana-vasena alliyapitaw: Bhagava' pi 
tato ekawi nivasesi ekaw p&rupi. Vita££ika« (MS. i&A) 
viy& ti yathi (MS. tatha) vita££iko angiro antanten' eva 
^otiti bahi pan' assa pabhi n' atthi, evam bahi pa£Minna- 
(MS. paikkAinna.-) pabhi hutv& khlyatf ti. My MS. of the 
text reads vitasikaw (as did Y£tr£mulle's MS. here, and one MS. 
of FausbolTs at G&taka. 1, 153, 154). There the word is used of 
embers in which food is cooked, 'without flame,' =' glowing, 
smoldering.' VitaMAikS, 'an eruption on the skin,' belongs 
to the root k&ik. 

[11] G 



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82 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

trees, the utter passing away of the Tathagata will 
take place. Come, Ananda! let us go on to the 
river Kakuttha.' 

'Even so, Lord!' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Blessed One. 

52. The pair of robes of cloth of gold, 
All burnished, Pukkusa had brought, 
Clad on with them the Master then 
Shone forth in colour like to gold 1 ! 



53. Now the Blessed One with a great company 
of the brethren went on to the river Kakuttha ; and 
when he had come there, he went down into the water, 
and bathed, and drank. And coming up out again 
on the other side he went on to the Mango Grove. 

54. And when he was come there he addressed 
the venerable ATundaka, and said : ' Fold, I pray you, 
Aundaka, a robe in four and spread it out. I am 
weary, .ATundaka, and would lie down.' 

' Even so, Lord !' said the venerable Aundaka, in 
assent, to the Blessed One. And he folded a robe 
in four, and spread it out. 

1 We have here the commencement of the legend which after- 
wards grew into an account of an actual ' transfiguration ' of the 
Buddha. It is very curious that it should have taken place soon 
after the Buddha had announced to Ananda his approaching death, 
and that in the Buddhist Sutta it should be connected so closely 
with that event ; for a similar remark applies also to the Trans- 
figuration mentioned in the Gospels. The Malalankara-vatthu, 
for instance, says, 'His body appeared shining like a flame. Ananda 
was exceedingly surprised. Nothing of this kind had, as yet, 
happened. " Your exterior appearance," said he to Budha, " is all 
at once white, shining, and beautiful above all expression." "What 
you say, O Ananda, is perfectly true. There are two occasions [&c, 
much as above]. The shining light emanating from my body is a 
certain forerunner of this great event [his Parinibbana]." ' 



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iv. mahA-parinibbAna-sutta. 83 

55. And the Blessed One laid himself down on 
his right side, with one foot resting on the other ; 
and calm and self-possessed, he meditated on the 
idea of rising up again in due time. And the 
venerable A'undaka seated himself there in front of 
the Blessed One. 

56. The Buddha to Kakuttha's river came, 
Whose clear and pleasant waters limpid flow, 
He plunged beneath the stream wearied and 

worn, 
The Buddha without equal in the world ! 
When he had bathed and drunk, the teacher 

then 
Crossed o'er, the brethren thronging round 

his steps ; 
The Blessed Master, preaching the while the 

truth, 
The Mighty Sage came to the Mango Grove. 
There spake he to the brother Aundaka : 
' Spread me the fourfold robe out as a couch.' 
Cheered by the Holy One, he quickly spread 
The fourfold robe in order on the ground. 
The Master laid him down, wearied and worn ; 
And there, before him, Aunda took his seat. 



57. And the Blessed One addressed the vener- 
able Ananda, and said : ' Now it may happen, 
Ananda, that some one should stir up remorse in 
ATunda the smith, by saying, " This is evil to thee, 
.ATunda, and loss to thee in that when the Tathagata 
had eaten his last meal from thy provision, then he 
died." Any such remorse, Ananda, in -/sTunda 
the smith should be checked by saying, " This is 
good to thee, ATiinda, and gain to thee, in that when 

G 2 



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84 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

the Tathagata had eaten his last meal from thy 
provision, then he died. From the very mouth of 
the Blessed One, A"unda, have I heard, from his 
own mouth have I received this saying, ' These two 
offerings of food are of equal fruit, and of equal 
profit, and of much greater fruit and much greater 
profit than any other — and which are the two ? 
The offering of food which, when a Tathagata has 
eaten, he attains to supreme and perfect insight ; 
and the offering of food which, when a Tathagata 
has eaten, he passes away by that utter passing 
away in which nothing whatever remains behind — 
these two offerings of food are of equal fruit and of 
equal profit, and of much greater fruit and much 
greater profit than any others. There has been laid 
up by A!unda the smith a karma redounding to 
length of life, redounding to good birth, redounding 
to good fortune, redounding to good fame, redound- 
ing to the inheritance of heaven, and of sovereign 
power.' " In this way, Ananda, should be checked 
any remorse in Aunda the smith.' 

58. Then the Blessed One perceiving how the 
matter stood, uttered, even at that time, this hymn 
of exultation : 

' To him who gives shall virtue be increased ; 
In him who curbs himself, no anger can arise ; 
The righteous man casts off all sinfulness, 
And by the rooting out of lust, and bitterness, 
And all delusion, doth to Nirvana reach !' 



End of the Fourth Portion for Recitation, containing 
the Episode of A/ara. 



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v. maha-parinibbAna-sutta. 85 



Chapter V. 

1. Now the Blessed One addressed the venera- 
ble Ananda, and said : ' Come, Ananda, let us go on 
to the Sila Grove of the Mallas, the Upavattana 
of Kusiniri, on the further side of the river Hira- 
nyavat!.' 

'Even so, Lord!' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Blessed One. 

2. And the Blessed One proceeded with a great 
company of the brethren to the Sila Grove of the 
Mallas, the Upavattana of Kusiniri, on the further 
side of the river Hiranyavati : and when he had 
come there he addressed the venerable Ananda, and 
said: 

3. ' Spread over for me, I pray you, Ananda, the 
couch with its head to the north, between the twin 
Sila trees 1 . I am weary, Ananda, and would lie 
down.' 

'Even so, Lord!' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Blessed One. And he spread a 

1 According to the commentator ' tradition says that there was 
a row of Sala trees at the head (sfsa) of that couch (maw£a), and 
another at its foot, one young Sila tree being close to its head, 
and another close to its foot. The twin Sala trees were so called 
because the two trees were equally grown in respect of the roots, 
trunks, branches, and leaves. There was a couch there in the 
park for the special use of the (periodically elected) ra^a of the 
Mallas, and it was this couch which the Blessed One asked Ananda 
to make ready.' There is no further explanation of the term 
uttara-sisakaw, which may have been the name for a slab of 
wood or stone reserved on great occasions for the use of^the 
leaders of the neighbouring republic, but available at other times 
for passers by. 



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86 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

covering over the couch with its head to the north, 
between the twin Sala trees. And the Blessed One 
laid himself down on his right side, with one leg 
resting on the other ; and he was mindful and self- 
possessed. 

4. Now at that time the twin Sala trees were 
all one mass of bloom with flowers out of season * ; 
and all over the body of the Tathagata these dropped 
and sprinkled and scattered themselves, out of 
reverence for the successor of the Buddhas of old. 
And heavenly Mandarava flowers, too, and hea- 
venly sandal -wood powder came falling from 
the sky, and all over the body of the Tathagata 
they descended and sprinkled and scattered them- 
selves, out of reverence for the successor of the 
Buddhas of old. And heavenly music was sounded 
in the sky, out of reverence for the successor of the 
Buddhas of old. And heavenly songs came wafted 
from the skies, out of reverence for the successor of 
the Buddhas of old ! 

5. Then the Blessed One addressed the vene- 
rable Ananda, and said : ' The twin Sala trees are 
all one mass of bloom with flowers out of season ; 
all over the body of the Tathagata these drop 
and sprinkle and scatter, themselves, out of rever- 
ence for the successor of the Buddhas of old. And 
heavenly Mandarava flowers, too, and heavenly 
sandal-wood powder come falling from the sky, 
and all over the body of the Tathagata they descend 
and sprinkle and scatter themselves, out of rever- 

1 Sabbaph&liphullS ti sabbe samantato pupphit£ mfllato 
pa/Mlyaydva agga" eka££Aanna" ahesuw. (S.V. thin.) Com- 
pare ekaphilliphulIaOT vana/w at GsUaka I, 52. 



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v. maha-parinibbAna-sutta. 87 

ence for the successor of the Buddhas of old. And 
heavenly music sounds in the sky, out of reverence 
for the successor of the Buddhas of old. And hea- 
venly songs come wafted from the skies, out of rever- 
ence for the successor of the Buddhas of old ! ' 

6. ' Now it is not thus, Ananda, that the Tatha- 
gata is rightly honoured, reverenced, venerated, held 
sacred or revered. But the brother or the sister, the 
devout man or the devout woman, who continually 
fulfils all the greater and the lesser duties, who is 
correct in life, walking according to the precepts — it 
is he who rightly honours, reverences, venerates, holds 
sacred, and reveres the Tathagata with the worthiest 
homage. Therefore, O Ananda, be ye constant in 
the fulfilment of the greater and of the lesser duties, 
and be ye correct in life, walking according to the 
precepts ; and thus, Ananda, should it be taught.' 



7. Now at that time the venerable Upava^a 
was standing in front of the Blessed One, fanning 
him. And the Blessed One was not pleased with 
Upava^a, and he said to him : ' Stand aside, O 
brother, stand not in front of irreJ ' 

8. Then this thought sprung up in the mind of 
the venerable Ananda : ' The venerable Upiva»a 
has long been in close personal attendance and ser- 
vice on the Blessed One. And now, at the last 
moment, the Blessed One is not pleased with Upa- 
vawa, and has said to him, " Stand aside, O brother, 
stand not in front of me ! " What may be the cause 
and what the reason that the Blessed One is not 
pleased with Upava«a, and speaks thus with him?' 

9. And the venerable Ananda said to the 
Blessed One : ' The venerable Upavawa has long 



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88 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

been in close personal attendance and service on the 
Blessed One. And now, at the last moment, the 
Blessed One is not pleased with Upava#a, and has 
said to him, " Stand aside, O brother, stand not in 
front of me!" What may be the cause and what 
the reason that the Blessed One is not pleased with 
Upava«a, and speaks thus with him?' 

10. ' In great numbers, Ananda, are the gods of 
the ten world-systems assembled together to be- 
hold the Tathagata. For twelve leagues, Ananda, 
around the Sala Grove of the Mallas, the Upavattana 
of Kusinara, there is no spot in size even as the 
pricking of the point of the tip of a hair which is 
not pervaded by powerful spirits \ And the spirits, 
Ananda, are murmuring, and say, " From afar have 
we come to behold the Tathagata. Few and far 
between are the Tathagatas, the Arahat Buddhas 
who appear in the world : and now to-day, in the 
last watch of the night, the death of a Tathagata 
will take place ; and this eminent brother stands in 

1 Buddhaghosa explains that even twenty to sixty angels or gods 
(devatayo) could stand aragga-ko/i-nittudana- (MS. nittad- 
dana-) matte pi, 'on a point pricked by the extreme point of 
a gimlet,' without inconveniencing one another (awwam annam 
avyabadhenti). It is most curious to find this exact analogy to the 
notorious discussion as to how many angels could stand on the 
point of a needle in a commentary written at just that period of 
Buddhist history which corresponds to the Middle Ages of Christen- 
dom. The passage in the text does not really imply or suggest 
any such doctrine, though the whole episode is so absurd that the 
author of the text could not have hesitated to say so, had such 
an idea been the common belief of the early Buddhists. With 
these sections should be compared the similar sections in Chapter 
VI, of which these are perhaps merely an echo. 

There is no comment on nittudana, but there can be little 
doubt that Childers's conjectural reading is correct. ' 



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v. mahA-parinibbAna-sutta. 89 

front of the Tathagata, concealing him, and in his 
last hour we are prevented from beholding the 
Tathagata ; " thus, Ananda, do the spirits murmur.' 

11. ' But of what kind of spirits is the Blessed 
One thinking ?' 

1 2. ' There are spirits, Ananda, in the sky, but of 
worldly mind, who dishevel their hair and weep, who 
stretch forth their arms and weep, who fall prostrate 
on the ground, and roll to and fro in anguish at the 
thought : "Too soon will the Blessed One die ! Too 
soon will the Happy One pass away! Full soon 
will the Light of the world vanish away 1 V" 

1 3. ' There are spirits, too, Ananda, on the earth, 
and of worldly mind, who tear their hair and weep, 
who stretch forth their arms and weep, who fall pros- 
trate on the ground, and roll to and fro in anguish 
at the thought: "Too soon will the Blessed One die! 
Too soon will the Happy One pass away! Full soon 
will the Eye of the world disappear from sight ! " 

14. ' But the spirits who are free from passion bear 
it, calm and self-possessed, mindful of the saying 
which begins, " Impermanent indeed are all compo- 
nent things. How then is it possible [whereas any- 
thing whatever, when born, brought into being, and 

1 JCakkum loke antaradhayissati, on which there is no com- 
ment. It is literally, ' the Eye in the world will vanish away,* where 
Eye is of course used figuratively of that by the aid of which 
spiritual truths can be perceived, corresponding exactly to the 
similar use in Europe of the word Light. The Master is often 
called ^Takkhuma, 'He with the Eye,' 'He of the spiritual Eye' 
(see, for instance, the last verses in this Sutta), and here by a bold 
figure of speech he is called the Eye itself, which was shortly about 
to vanish away from the world, the means of spiritual insight which 
was no longer to be available for the common use of all men. But 
this is, it will be noticed, only the lament of the foolish and 
ignorant. 



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90 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

organised, contains within itself the inherent neces- 
sity of dissolution — how then is it possible that such 
a being should not be dissolved ? No such condition 
can exist ! "] 1 

15. 'In times past, Lord, the brethren, when they 
had spent the rainy season in different districts, used 
to come to see the Tathagata, and we used to receive 
those very reverend brethren to audience, and to 
wait upon the Blessed One. But, Lord, after the 
end of the Blessed One, we shall not be able to 
receive those very reverend brethren to audience, 
and to wait upon the Blessed One.' 

16. 'There are these four places, Ananda, which 
the believing man should visit with feelings of rever- 
ence and awe. Which are the four ? 

1 7. ' The place, Ananda, at which the believing 
man can say, "Here the Tathagata was born!" is a 
spot to be visited with feelings of reverence and awe. 

18. ' The place, Ananda, at which the believing 
man can say, " Here the Tathagata attained to the 
supreme and perfect insight!" is a spot to be visited 
with feelings of reverence and awe. 

1 9. ' The place, Ananda, at which the believing 
man can say, " Here was the kingdom of righteous- 
ness set on foot by the Tathagata ! " is a spot to be 
visited with feelings of reverence and awe. 

20. ' The place, Ananda, at which the believing 
man can say, " Here the Tathagata passed finally 
away in that utter passing away which leaves nothing 
whatever to remain behind !" is a spot to be visited 
with feelings of reverence and awe. 

1 The words in brackets have been inserted from par. Ill, 63 
above. See par. VI, 39 below. 



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•M~. 



v. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 9 1 

21. ' And there will come, Ananda, to such spots, 
believers, brethren and sisters of the order, or devout 
men and devout women, and will say, " Here was 
the Tathagata born !" or, "Here did the Tathagata 
attain to the supreme and perfect insight! " or, " Here 
was the kingdom of righteousness set on foot by the 
Tathagata !" or, " Here the Tathagata passed away 
in that utter passing away which leaves nothing 
whatever to remain behind ! " 

22. 'And they, Ananda, who shall die while they, 
with believing heart, are journeying on such pilgrim- 
age, shall be reborn after death, when the body shall 
dissolve, in the happy realms of heaven.' 

23. ' How are we to conduct ourselves, Lord, 
with regard to womankind?' 

' Don't see them, Ananda.' 
' But if we should see them, what are we to do ?' 
' Abstain from speech, Ananda.' 
' But if they should speak to us, Lord, what are 
we to do ?' 

' Keep wide awake, Ananda.' 



24. ' What are we to do, Lord, with the remains 
of the Tathagata ?' 

' Hinder not yourselves, Ananda, by honouring 
the remains of the Tathagata. Be zealous, I beseech 
you, Ananda, in your own behalf! Devote your- 
selves to your own good ! Be earnest, be zealous, 
be intent on your own good ! There are wise men, 
Ananda, among the nobles, among the Brahmans, 
among the heads of houses, who are firm believers 
in the Tathagata ; and they will do due honour to 
the remains of the Tathagata.' 



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92 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

25. 1 ' What should be done, Lord, with the 
remains of the Tathagata ?' 

'As men treat the remains of a king of kings, 
so, Ananda, should they treat the remains of a 
Tathagata.' 

' And how, Lord, do they treat the remains of a 
king of kings 2 ?' 

26. 'They wrap the body of a king of kings, 
Ananda, in a new cloth. When that is done they 
wrap it in carded cotton wool 3 . When that is done 
they wrap it in a new cloth, — and so on till they have 
wrapped the body in five hundred successive layers 
of both kinds. Then they place the body in an oil 
vessel of iron *, and cover that close up with another 

1 This conversation occurs also below (VI, 33), and the older 
tradition probably had it only in that connection. 

2 King of kings is an inadequate rendering of ^akkavatti Ra^S. 
It is a king whose power no other king can dispute, who is the 
acknowledged overlord in India. The idea can scarcely have 
existed before Aandragupta, the first ^"akravarti, had raised himself 
to power. This passage, therefore, is a guide to the date at which 
the MahS-parinibbana Sutta assumed its present form. 

3 Vihatena kappisendtisupho/itena kapp&sena: KSsika- 
vatthaw? hi sukhumatta telaw na ganhati, tasma" vihatena 
kappisend ti aha. 'As Benares cloth, by reason of its fineness 
of texture, does not take the oil, he therefore says, "with vihata 
cotton wool," that is, with cotton wool that has been well forced 
asunder.' That p ho /it a is here the participle of the causal verb, 
and not of the simple verb, follows of necessity from its being 
used as an explanation of vihata, ' torn to pieces.' The technical 
use of the word, as applied to cotton wool, has only been found in 
this passage. It usually means ' torn with grief.' 

4 Ayas&ya tela-do«iy£, where one would expect &yas&ya, but 
my MS. of the Dtgha Nikiya confirms twice over here, and twice 
again below, | VI, 33, 35, the reading given by Childers. Buddha- 
ghosa says, Ayasan ti suvawwaw, suvawwamhi idha Syasan 
ti adhippeto, but here again we should expect the second time 
to find ayo or ay a saw. The meaning of the word is also not 



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V. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 93 

oil vessel of iron \ They then build a funeral pile 
of all kinds of perfumes, and burn the body of the 
king of kings. And then at the four cross roads 
they erect a dagaba 2 to the king of kings. This, 
Ananda, is the way in which they treat the remains 
of a king of kings. 

' And as they treat the remains of a king of kings, 
so, Ananda, should they treat the remains of the 
Tathagata. At the four cross roads a dagaba should 
be erected to the Tathagata. And whosoever shall 
there place garlands or perfumes or paint, or make 
salutation there, or become in its presence calm in 
heart — that shall long be to them for a profit and 
a joy.' 

27. 'These men, Ananda, worthy of a dagaba 2 , 
are four in number. Which are the four ? 

' A Tathagata, or Arahat-Buddha, is worthy of a 
dagaba. A Pa^eka-Buddha is worthy of a dagaba 3 . 

quite clear. It no doubt was originally used for bronze, and only later 
for iron also, and at last exclusively of iron. As kaw»sa is already a 
common word for bronze in very early Buddhist Pali texts, I think 
Syasa or ayasa must here mean 'of iron.' When Buddhaghosa 
says it is here a name for gold, we can only conclude that iron 
had become, in his time, a metal which he might fairly consider 
too base for the purpose proposed. 

1 Buddhaghosa has no note on pa/iku^etvd; but from its use 
at (xataka I, 50, 29 : 69, 23, it must, I think, have this meaning. 
I am not certain to what root it ought to be referred. I should 
mention that pakkhipati seems to me never to mean in Pali, 'to 
hurl forth into, to throw forth,' but always ' to place (slowly and 
carefully) into.' 

8 A solid mound or tumulus, in the midst of which the bones and 
ashes are to be placed. The dome of St. Paul's as seen from the 
Thames Embankment gives a very good idea of one of the later 
Buddhist digabas. The Pali word here and below is Thupa. 

' A Pa^eka-Buddha, who has attained to the supreme and per- 
fect insight; but dies without proclaiming the truth to the world. 



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94 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

A true hearer of the Tathagata is worthy of a dl- 
gaba. A king of kings is worthy of a digaba. 

28. ' And on account of what circumstance, 
Ananda, is a Tathagata, an Arahat-Buddha, worthy 
of a digaba ? 

' At the thought, Ananda, " This is the digaba 
of that Blessed One, of that Arahat-Buddha," the 
hearts of many shall be made calm and happy ; 
and since they there had calmed and satisfied their 
hearts they will be reborn after death, when the 
body has dissolved, in the happy realms of heaven. 
It is on account of this circumstance, Ananda, that 
a Tathagata, an Arahat-Buddha, is worthy of a 
dagaba.' 

29. ' And on account of what circumstance, 
Ananda, is a Pa^ieka-Buddha worthy of a digaba ? 

' At the thought, Ananda, " This is the digaba of 
that Blessed One, of that Pa^ieka-Buddha," the 
hearts of many shall be made calm and happy ; and 
since they there had calmed and satisfied their 
hearts they will be reborn after death, when the 
body has dissolved, in the happy realms of heaven. 
It is on account of this circumstance, Ananda, that 
a Pa>&£eka-Buddha is worthy of a digaba. 

30. ' And on account of what circumstance, 

A 

Ananda, is a true hearer of the Blessed One, the 
Arahat-Buddha, worthy of a digaba ? 

' At the thought, Ananda, " This is the digaba of 
that true hearer of the Blessed Arahat-Buddha," the 
hearts of many shall be made calm and happy ; and 
since they there had calmed and satisfied their hearts 
they will be reborn after death, when the body has 
dissolved, in the happy realms of heaven. It is on 
account of this circumstance, Ananda, that a true 



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V. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 95 

hearer of the Blessed One, the Arahat-Buddha, is 
worthy of a dagaba. 

31. 'And on account of what circumstance, 
Ananda, is a king of kings worthy of a dagaba ? 

' At the thought, Ananda, " This is the dagaba of 
that righteous king who ruled in righteousness," the 
hearts of many shall be made calm and happy ; and 
since they there had calmed and satisfied their 
hearts they will be reborn after death, when the 
body has dissolved, in the happy realms of heaven. 
It is on account of this circumstance, Ananda, that 
a king of kings is worthy of a dagaba. 

' These four, Ananda, are the persons worthy of 
a dagaba.' 

32. ' Now the venerable Ananda went into the 
Vihara, and stood leaning against the lintel of the 
door 1 , and weeping at the thought : "Alas! I remain 
still but a learner, one who has yet to work out his 
own perfection 2 . And the Master is about to pass 
away from me — he who is so kind ! " ' 

33. Now the Blessed One called the brethren, 
and said : ' Where, then, brethren, is Ananda ?' 

The venerable Ananda, Lord, has gone into the 

1 Kapisisaw. Buddhaghosa says, Kapistsakan ti dv£ra- 
b&ha-ko/iyaz» /Aitam aggala-rukkhaw, 'apiece of wood fixed 
as a bolt at the top of the door posts.' The Sanskrit lexicographers 
give kapi-jtrsha in the sense of 'coping of a wall.' Compare 
Patimokkha, Pi^ittiya, No. 19. 

The expression that Ananda went 'into the VihSra' at the end of 
a conversation represented as having taken place in the S&la Grove, 
would seem to point to the fact that this episode originally stood 
in some other connection. Buddhaghosa attempts to explain away 
the discrepancy by saying that Vihara here means Mawrfala. 

a Ananda had entered the Noble Path, but had not yet reached 
the end of it. He had not attained to Nirvana. 



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96 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

Vihara, and stands leaning against the lintel of the 
door, and weeping at the thought : ' Alas ! I remain 
still but a learner, one who has yet to work out his 
own perfection. And the Master is about to pass 
away from me — he who is so kind !' 

34. And the Blessed One called a certain brother, 
and said : ' Go now, brother, and call Ananda in my 
name, and say, " Brother Ananda, the Master calls 
for thee."' 

'Even so, Lord!' said that brother, in assent, to 
the Blessed One. And he went up to the place 
where the Blessed One was ; and when he had come 
there, he said to the venerable Ananda : ' Brother 
Ananda, the Master calls for thee.' 

''Very well, brother,' said the venerable Ananda, 
in assent, to that brother. And he went up to the 
place where the Blessed One was, and when he had 
come there, he bowed down before the Blessed One, 
and took his seat respectfully on one side. 

35. Then the Blessed One said to the venerable 
Ananda, as he sat there by his side : ' Enough, 
Ananda ! Do not let yourself be troubled ; do not 
weep ! Have I not already, on former occasions, told 
you that it is in the very nature of all things most 
near and dear unto us that we must divide ourselves 
from them, leave them, sever ourselves from them ? 
How, then, Ananda, can this be possible — whereas 
anything whatever born7 brought into being, and 
organised, contains within itself the inherent neces- 
sity of dissolution — how, then, can this be possible, 
that such a being should not be dissolved ? No 
such condition can exist ! For a long time, Ananda, 
have you been very near to me by acts of love, 
kind and good, that never varies, and is beyond all 



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v. mahA-parinibbAna-sutta. 97 

measure. For a long time, Ananda, have you been 
very near to me by words of love, kind and good, 
that never varies, and is beyond all measure. For 
a long time, Ananda, have you been very near 
to me by thoughts of love, kind and good, that 
never varies \ and is beyond all measure. You 
have done well, Ananda ! Be earnest in effort, and 
you too shall soon be free from the great evils — from V 
sensuality, from individuality, from delusion, and 
from ignorance 2 !' 



36. 3 Then the Blessed One addressed the bre- 
thren, and said : ' Whosoever, brethren, have been 
Arahat-Buddhas through the long ages of the past, 
there were servitors just as devoted to those Blessed 
Ones as Ananda has been to me. And whosoever, 
brethren, shall be Arahat-Buddhas in the long ages 
of the future, there shall be servitors just as devoted 
to those Blessed Ones as Ananda has been to me. 

37. 'He is a wise man, brethren, — is Ananda. 

1 Advayena, which Buddhaghosa explains as not being that 
kind of love which is now one thing and now another, or which 
varies in the presence or the absence of the object loved. When 
the Buddha is called in the Amara Kosha I, 1, 1, 9, advaya- 
vidin.that must mean in a similar way, 'One whose teaching does 
not vary.' 

a Literally, thou shalt become an An&sava, that is, one who is 
free from the four Asavas, all which are explained above in § 1, 1 2, 
from which I have taken the details suggested to a Buddhist by 
the word used. The state of mind to which an AnSsava has 
reached is precisely the same, though looked at from a different 
point of view, as the state of mind expressed by the better known 
word Nirvawa. 

* What follows is repeated in the SatipatthSwa Vagga of the 
Sawyutta Nikaya; but in regard to Sariputta (Upatissa) and 
Moggallana, and reading savaka-yugaw for upa//Mko. 
[11] H 



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98 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

He knows when it is the right time for him to come 
and visit the Tathagata, and when it is the right 
time for the brethren and sisters of the order, for 
devout men and devout women, for a king, or for a 
king's ministers, for other teachers or their disciples, 
to come and visit the Tathagata. 

38. ' Brethren, there are these four wonderful and 
marvellous qualities in Ananda. Which are the four ? 

' If, brethren, a number of the brethren of the 
order should come to visit Ananda, they are filled 
with joy on beholding him ; and if Ananda should 
then preach the truth to them, they are filled with 
joy at the discourse ; while the company of brethren 
is ill at ease, brethren, when Ananda is silent. 

' If, brethren, a number of the sisters of the 
order, or of devout men, or of devout women, 
should come to visit Ananda, they are filled with 
joy on beholding him ; and if Ananda should then 
preach the truth to them, they are filled with joy at 
the discourse ; while the company of sisters is ill at 
ease, brethren, when Ananda is silent. 

39. ' Brethren, there are these four wonderful 
and marvellous qualities in a king of kings. What 
are the four ? 

' If, brethren, a number of nobles, or Brahman, or 
heads of houses, or Sama«as should come to visit 
a king of kings, they are filled with joy on behold- 
ing him; and if the king of kings should then speak, 
they are filled with joy at what is said ; while they 
are ill at ease, brethren, when the king of kings is 
silent. 

40. ' Just so, brethren, are the four wonderful and 
marvellous qualities in Ananda. 

' If, brethren, a number of the brethren of the 



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V. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 99 

order, or of the sisters of the order, or of devout 
men, or of devout women, should come to visit 
Ananda, they are filled with joy on beholding him ; 
and if Ananda should then preach the truth to them, 
they are filled with joy at the discourse ; while the 
company of brethren is ill at ease, brethren, when 
Ananda is silent. 

' Now these, brethren, are the four wonderful and 

A 

marvellous qualities that are in Ananda.' 



41. When he had thus spoken 1 , the venerable 
Ananda said to the Blessed One : 

' Let not the Blessed One die in this little wattel 
and daub town, in this town in the midst of the 
jungle, in this branch township 2 . For, Lord, there 
are other' great cities, such as Aampa, RcL^agaha, 
Savatthi, Saketa, Kosambi, and Benares. Let the 
Blessed One die in one of them. There there are 
many wealthy nobles and Brihmans and heads of 
houses, believers in the Tathagata, who will pay due 
honour to the remains of the Tathagata V 

1 From here down to the end of section 44 is found also, nearly 
word for word, in the beginning of the Maha-Sudassana Sutta, 
translated below; compare also Maha-Sudassana Gataka, No. 95. 

1 Kutft/a-nagarake ti pa/irupake sambadhe khuddaka- 
nagare: llg^ahgala-nagarake ti visama-nagarake. (S.V.fol. 
than.) Kutfa, if this explanation be right, seems to be merely an 
old and unusual form for kshudra, and the Burmese correction 
into khudda to be unnecessary: but I venture to think it is more 
likely ,to be=ku</y a, and to mean a wall built of mud and sticks, or 
what is called in India, of wattel and daub. When Buddhaghosa 
explains u^ahgala as 'lawless,' he is expressing his view that 
a town in the jungle is likely to be a heathen, pagan sort of 
place. 

3 With reference to Childers's note in his Dictionary on maha- 
sal£, with which every one must entirely agree, Buddhaghosa's 

H 2 



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IOO THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH 

A A 

42. 'Say not so, Ananda! Say not so, Ananda, that 
this is but a small wattel and daub town, a town in 
the midst of the jungle, a branch township. Long 
ago, Ananda, there was a king, by name Mahi-Sudas- 
sana, a king of kings, a righteous man who ruled in 
righteousness, Lord of the four quarters of the earth, 
conqueror, the protector of his people, possessor of 
the seven royal treasures. This Kusin&ra, Ananda, 
was the royal city of king Maha-Sudassana, under the 
name of Kusavatl, and on the east and on the west it 
was twelve leagues in length, and on the north and on 
the south it was seven leagues in breadth. 

43. 'That royal city Kusavatl, Ananda, was mighty, 
and prosperous, and full of people, crowded with 
men, and provided with all things for food 1 . Just, 
Ananda, as the royal city of the gods, A/akamanda 
by name, is mighty, prosperous, and full of people, 
crowded with the gods, and provided with all kinds 
of food, so, Ananda, was the royal city Kusavatl 
mighty and prosperous, full of people, crowded 
with men, and provided with all kinds of food. 

44. ' Both by day and by night, Ananda, the royal 
city Kusavatl resounded with the ten cries ; that is 
to say, the noise of elephants, and the noise of 
horses, and the noise of chariots ; the sounds of the 

explanation of the word will be interesting as a proof (if proof 
be needed) that the Ceylon scholars are not always trustworthy. 
He says, Khattiya-mah&sai£ ti khattiya-mah&s&ri sara- 
pattS mah&-khattiy3. Eso nayo sabbattha. 

1 The first three of these adjectives are applied at G&taka. I, 29 
(v. 212) to the religion of the Buddhas; and I think the right 
reading there must be phtta/n, in accordance with the corrections 
in two MSS. as noted by Mr. Fausb6ll, and not ptta«i as he 
has preferred to read. The whole set of epithets is often used 
of cities. 



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V. MAHA-PARIXIBBANA-SITTTA. IOI 

drum, of the tabor, and of the lute ; the sound of 
singing, and the sounds of the cymbal and of the 
gong ; and lastly, with the cry, " Eat, drink, and be 
merry * ! " 



45. ' Go now, Ananda, and enter into Kusinara, 
and inform the Mallas of Kusinara, saying, "This 
day, O Vase/Z^as, in the last watch of the night, the 
final passing away of the Tathagata will take place. 
Be favourable herein, O Vase//>6as, be favourable. 
Give no occasion to reproach yourselves hereafter, 
saying, ' In our own village did the death of our 
Tathagata take place, and we took not the opportu- 
nity of visiting the Tathagata in his last hours.' " ' 

' Even so, Lord,' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Blessed One ; and he robed himself, 
and taking his bowl 2 , entered into Kusinara attended 
by another member of the order. 

1 This enumeration is found also at (Tataka, p. 3, only that the 
conch shell is added there — wrongly, for that makes the number of 
cries eleven. The Maha-Sudassana Sutta has in the corresponding 
passage, like the Burmese MS. noted here by Ghilders, conch 
instead of cymbal. My MS. reads cymbal here. 

* Nivasetva patta-iivaraw adaya atta-dutiyo. Buddha- 
ghosa has, naturally enough, no comment on this oft-recurring 
phrase. It cannot be meant that he put on only his under-gar- 
ments, and carried his upper robe with him ; for then his shoulders 
would have been bare ; and it is quite against the rules to go into 
a village without all the robes having been put carefully on (Pati- 
mokkha, Sekhiya 1-3). I do not even understand how Ananda, 
with due regard to the rules of the brotherhood (see Patimokkha, 
Nisaggiya 21-29), could have had a spare robe then with him. 
And patta-^tvaraw can scarcely mean simply 'bowl-robe,' refer- 
ring to the length of cotton cloth in which the bowl was carried 
over the shoulder ('Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 71). 'With both 
his under-garments on, he entered Kusinara duly bowled and robed' 
may be impossible English, but it probably correctly catches the 



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102 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

46. Now at that time the Mallas of Kusinara 
were assembled in the council hall on some public 
affair \ 

A 

And the venerable Ananda went to the council 
hall of the Mallas of Kusinara ; and when he had 
arrived there, he informed them, saying, ' This 
day, O Vase#/*as, in the last watch of the night, 
the final passing away of the Tathagata will take 
place. Be favourable herein, O Vase#/ias, be 
favourable. Give no occasion to reproach your- 
selves hereafter, saying, " In our own village did 
the death of our Tathagata take place, and we took 
not the opportunity of visiting the Tathagata in his 
last hours." ' 

47. And when they had heard this saying of the 
venerable Ananda, the Mallas with their young men 
and maidens and their wives were grieved, and sad, 
and afflicted at heart. And some of them wept, dis- 
hevelling their hair, and stretched forth their arms 
and wept, fell prostrate on the ground, and rolled 
to and fro in anguish at the thought : ' Too soon 
will the Blessed One die ! Too soon will the Happy 
One pass away! Full soon will the Light of the 
world vanish away!' 



48. Then the Mallas, with their young men and 

idea involved, though of course one (at least) of the under-cloths 
had been put on long before. See p. 122. AThera never goes 
about in public alone, he is always accompanied by a Samawera. 
1 Kena^id eva kara«iyena. Professor Pischel, in his edition 
of the Assalayana Sutta (p. 1), prints this expression kenaii deva- 
karawtyena, and translates, it (p. 28), 'for some religious pur- 
poses.' It seems to me that he has been misled by the commentary, 
which really presupposes the more correct division adopted by 
Childers. 



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v. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 103 

maidens and their wives, being grieved and sad 
and afflicted at heart, went to the Sala Grove of the 
Mallas, to the Upavattana, and to the place where 
the venerable Ananda was. 

A 

49. Then the venerable Ananda thought : 'If 
I allow the Mallas of Kusinara, one by one, to pay 
their respects to the Blessed One, the whole of the 
Mallas of Kusinara will not have been presented to 
the Blessed One until this night brightens up into the 
dawn. Let me, now, cause the Mallas of Kusinara 
to stand in groups, each family in a group, and so 
present them to the Blessed One, saying, " Lord ! a 
Malla of such and such a name, with his children, 
his wives, his retinue, and his friends, humbly bows 
down at the feet of the Blessed One." ' 

50. And the venerable Ananda caused the Mallas 
of Kusinara to stand in groups, each family in a 
group, and so presented them to the Blessed One, and 
said : ' Lord ! a Malla of such and such a name, with 
his children, his wives, his retinue, and his friends, 
humbly bows down at the feet of the Blessed One.' 

51. And after this manner the venerable Ananda 
presented all the Mallas of Kusinara to the Blessed 
One in the first watch of the night. 



52. Now at that time a mendicant named Su- 
bhadda, who was not a believer, was dwelling at 
Kusinara. And the mendicant Subhadda heard 
the news : ' This very day, they say, in the third 
watch of the night, will take place the final passing 
away of the Sama«a Gotama.' 

53. Then thought the mendicant Subhadda : 
' This have I heard from fellow mendicants of 
mine, old and well stricken in years, teachers and 



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104 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

disciples, when they said : " Sometimes and full 
seldom do Tathagatas appear in the world, the 
Arahat Buddhas." Yet this day, in the last watch 
of the night, the final passing away of the Sama#a 
Gotama will take place. Now a certain feeling of 
uncertainty has sprung up in my mind ; and this 
faith have I in the Samawa Gotama, that' he, me- 
thinks, is able so to present the truth that I may 
get rid of this feeling of uncertainty.' 

54. Then the mendicant Subhadda went to the 
Sala Grove of the Mallas, to the Upavattana of Kusi- 
nara, to the place where the venerable Ananda was. 

55. And when he had come there he said to the 
venerable Ananda : ' Thus have I heard from fellow 
mendicants of mine, old and well stricken in years, 
teachers and disciples, when they said : " Sometimes 
and full seldom do Tathagatas appear in the world, 
the Arahat Buddhas." Yet this day, in the last watch 
of the night, the final passing away of the Sama«a 
Gotama will take place. Now a certain feeling of 
uncertainty has sprung up in my mind ; and this faith 
have I in the Samawa Gotama, that he, methinks, is 
able so to present the truth that I may get rid of this 
feeling of uncertainty. O that I, even I, Ananda, 
might be allowed to see the Sama«a Gotama ! ' 

56. And when he had thus spoken the vener- 
able Ananda said to the mendicant Subhadda : 
' Enough ! friend Subhadda. Trouble not the Tatha- 
gata. The Blessed One is weary.' 

57. And again the mendicant Subhadda [made the 
same request in the same words, and received the 
same reply]; and the third time the mendicant 
Subhadda [made the same request in the same 
words, and received the same reply]* 



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v. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. IO5 

58. Now the Blessed One overheard this con- 
versation of the venerable Ananda with the men- 
dicant Subhadda. And the Blessed One called 
the venerable Ananda, and said : ' It is enough, 
Ananda ! Do not keep out Subhadda. Subhadda, 
Ananda, may be allowed to see the Tathagata. 
Whatever Subhadda may ask of me, he will ask 
from a desire for knowledge, and not to annoy me. 
And whatever I may say in answer to his questions, 
that he will quickly understand.' 

59. Then the venerable Ananda said to Subhadda, 
the mendicant : ' Enter in, friend Subhadda ; for 
the Blessed One gives you leave.' 

60. Then Subhadda, the mendicant, went in to 
the place where the Blessed One was, and saluted 
him courteously, and after( exchanging with him the 
compliments of esteem and of civility, he took his 
seat on one side. ) And when he was thus seated, 
Subhadda, the mendicant, said to the Blessed One : 
' The Brahmans by saintliness of life 1 , Gotama, who 

1 Samawa-brahma«a, which compound may possibly mean 
Sama«as and Brahmans as it has usually been rendered, but I think 
not necessarily. Not one of those here specified were Brahmans 
by caste, as is apparent from the Sumangala Vilasint on the Sa- 
mamma Phala Sutta, p. 114. Compare the use of Kshatriya- 
brahmawo-, 'a soldier priest,' a Kshatriya who offered sacrifice; 
and of Brahmawo, absolutely, as an epithet of an Arahat. In 
the use of the word sama«a there seems to me to be a hopeless 
confusion between, a complete mingling of the meanings of, the 
two roots .tram and jam (which, in Pali, would both become sam). 
It connotes both asceticism and inward peace, and might best be 
rendered ' devotee,' were it not for the intellectual inferiority im- 
plied by that won 4 in our language. A Sama»a Brahman should 
therefore mean a man of any caste, who by his saintliness of life, 
by his renunciation of the world, and by his reputation as a reli- 
gious thinker, had acquired the position of a quasi Brahman, and 



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106 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

are heads of companies of disciples and students, 
teachers of students, well known, renowned, founders 
of schools of doctrine, esteemed as good men by the 
multitude — to wit, Pura«a Kassapa, Makkhali of the 
cattle-pen, Afita of the garment of hair, Ka££ayana 
of the Pakudha tree, Sa«^aya the son of the Be- 
la/^i slave-girl, and Niga#A&a of. the Natha clan 
— have they all, according to their own assertion, 
thoroughly understood things ? or have they not ? 
or are there some of them who have understood, 
and some who have not * ? ' 

6 1. 'Enough, Subhadda! Let this matter rest 
whether they, according to their own assertion, 
have thoroughly understood things, or whether 
they have not, or whether some of them have 
understood and some have not ! The truth, Ananda, 
will I teach you. Listen well to that, and give 
ear attentively, and I will speak.' 

' Even so, Lord ! ' said the mendicant Subhadda, 
in assent, to the Blessed One. 

62. And the Blessed One spake : 'In whatso- 
ever doctrine and discipline, Subhadda, the noble 
eightfold path is not found, neither in it is there 
found a man of true saintliness of the first or of 
the second or of the third or of the fourth degree 2 . 

was looked up to by the people in the same way as that in which 
they looked up to a Brahman by caste. Compare further my 
'Buddhist Birth Stories,' vol. i. p. 260; and also Mr. Beal's remarks 
in the Indian Antiquary for May, 1880; and Professor Max 
Miiller's note on Dhammapada, verse 265. 

1 Buddhaghosa has an exegetical note on abbhawnamsu, but 
passes over those celebrated Six Teachers in silence. The little 
that is thus far known of them will be discussed in another place. 

2 This refers to the four divisions of the Noble Eightfold Path. 
See above, chap. II, § 8, where their characters are described. The 



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V. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. \OJ 

And in whatsoever doctrine and discipline, Su- 
bhadda, the noble eightfold path is found, is found 
the man of true saintliness of the first and the 
second and the third and the fourth degree. Now 
in this doctrine and discipline, Subhadda, is found 
the noble eightfold path, and in it alone, Subhadda, 
is the man of true saintliness. Void are the sys- 
tems of other teachers — void of true saints. And 
in this one, Subhadda, may the brethren live the 
Life that's Right, so that the world be not bereft of 
Arahats \ 



word translated ' man of true saintliness,' or ' true saint/ is in the 
text Sama«o, on which see the note on page 105. I am at a loss 
how to render the word adequately here. 

1 Arahats are those who have reached Nirva«a, the 'supreme 
goal,' the ' highest fruit ' of the Noble Eightfold Path. To live 
' the Life that's Right' (samma) is to live in the Noble Path, each 
of the eight divisions of which is to be sammi, round, right and 
perfect, normal and complete. To live right (samma) is therefore 
to have — 1. Right views, free from superstition. 2. Right aims, v 

high and worthy of the intelligent and earnest man. 3. Right j / < 
speech, kindly, open, truthful. 4. Right conduct, in all concerns 
of life. 5. Right livelihood, bringing hurt or danger to no living 
thing. 6. Right perseverance, in all the other seven. 7. Right 
mindfulness, the watchful, active mind. 8. Right contemplation, 
earnest thought on the deep mysteries of life. In each of these 
the word right is sammi, and the whole paragraph being on the 
Noble Path, the allusion is certainly to this central doctrine of the 
Buddhist Dhamma. 

Buddhaghosa says that that bhikkhu samma 1 viharati, who, 
having himself entered the Noble Path, leads his brother into it, 
and this is, no doubt, good Buddhism. But it is a practical appli- 
cation of the text, a theological exegesis, and not a philological 
explanation. Even so it seems to lay the stress too much on 
'bereft,' and too little on 'Arahats.' 

In the last words of the prose we seem to have a reminiscence 
of what were once verses, which may have run — 
SuMwa 1 pavada samawehi awwe; 



/' 



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I08 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

' But twenty-nine was I when I renounced 
The world, Subhadda, seeking after good. 
For fifty years and one year more, Subhadda, 
Since I went out, a pilgrim have I been 
Through the wide realms of virtue and of truth, 
And outside these no really "saint" can be 1 ! 
' Yea, not of the first, nor of the second, nor of the 
third, nor of the fourth degree. Void are the systems 
of other teachers — void of true saints. But in this 
one, Subhadda, may the brethren live the perfect 
life, that the world be not bereft of those who have 
reached the highest fruit.' 

63. And when he had thus spoken, Subhadda, 
the mendicant, said to the Blessed One : ' Most 
excellent, Lord, are the words of thy mouth, most 
excellent! Just as if a man were to set up that 
which is thrown down, or were to reveal that which 
is hidden away, or were to point out the right road 
to him who has gone astray, or were to bring a 
lamp into the darkness, so that those who have eyes 
can see external forms ; — just even so, Lord, has 
the truth been made known to me, in many a figure, 
by the Blessed One. And I, even I, betake myself. 
Lord, to the Blessed One as my refuge, to the 
truth, and to the order. May the Blessed One 
accept me as a disciple, as a true believer, from this 
day forth, as long as life endures !' 

Ime ka. sammi vihareyyu bhikkhu, 

Asunwo loko 'rahatehi assa. 
1 I have followed, though with some doubt, Childers's punctua- 
tion. Buddhaghosa refers padesa-vattl to samano; and it o, 
not to padesa, but to magga, understood ; and it is quite pos- 
sible that this is the correct explanation. On samadhikani see 
the comment at Gataka II, 383. 



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V. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 109 

64. 'Whosoever, Subhadda, that has formerly been 
a follower of another doctrine and then desires to be 
received into the higher or the lower grade in this 
doctrine and discipline, he remains on probation 
for the space of four months ; and at the end of the 
four months, the brethren, exalted in spirit, receive 
him into the lower or into the higher grade of the 
order. Nevertheless in this case I acknowledge the 
difference in persons.' 

65. 'If, Lord, whosoever that has formerly been 
a follower of another doctrine and then desires 
to be received into the higher or the lower grade 
in this doctrine and discipline, — if, in that case, 
such a person remains on probation for the space 
of four months; and at the end of the four 
months, the brethren, exalted in spirit, receive 
him into the lower or into the higher grade of the 
order — I too, then, will remain on probation for the 
space of four months ; and at the end of the four 
months let the brethren, exalted in spirit, receive 
me into the lower or into the higher grade of the 
order !' 

66. But the Blessed One called the venerable 
Ananda, and said : ' As it is, Ananda, receive Su- 
bhadda into the order!' 

'Even so, Lord!' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the Blessed One. 

67. And Subhadda, the mendicant, said to the vene- 

A A 

rable Ananda : ' Great is your gain, friend Ananda, 
great is your good fortune, friend Ananda, that you 
all have been sprinkled with the sprinkling of dis- 
cipleship in this brotherhood at the hands of the 
Master himself!' 

68. So Subhadda, the mendicant, was received 



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IIO THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

into the higher grade of the order under the Blessed 
One ; and from immediately after his ordination the 
venerable Subhadda remained alone and separate, 
earnest, zealous, and resolved. And e'er long he 
attained to that supreme goal of the higher life 1 for 
the sake of which men go out from all and every 
household gain and comfort to become houseless 
wanderers — yea, that supreme goal did he, by him- 
self, and while yet in this visible world, bring him- 
self to the knowledge of, and continue to realise, and 
to see face to face ! And he became conscious that 
birth was at an end, that the higher life had been 
fulfilled, that all that should be done had been 
accomplished, and that after this present life there 
would be no beyond! 

69. So the venerable Subhadda became yet another 
among the Arahats ; and he was the last disciple 
whom the Blessed One himself converted 2 . 



End of the Hira»»avatiya portion, being the 
Fifth Portion for Recitation. 



1 That is, Nirv4«a. Compare Mahgala Sutta V, n, and the 
Dhammapada, verses 180, 354, and above Chap. I, § 7. 

8 Buddhaghosa says that the last five words in the text (the last 
twelve words in my translation) were added by the Theras who 
held the Council. On Subhadda's ordination he has the following 
interesting note: 'The Thero (that is, Ananda), they say, took 
him on one side, poured water over his head from a water vessel, 
made him repeat the formula of meditation on the impermanency 
of the body (Ta£a-paw£aka-kamma//Mna«; see my "Buddhist 
Birth Stories," p. 161), shaved off his hair and beard, clad him in 
the yellow robes, made him repeat the " Three Refuges," and led 
him back to the Blessed One. The Blessed One himself admitted 
him then into the higher rank of the brotherhood, and pointed out 
to him a subject for meditation (kammaZ/Mnaw; see "Buddhist 



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V. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. Ill 

Birth Stories," p. 147). He accepted this, and walking up and 
down in a quiet part of the grove, he thought and meditated upon 
it, till overcoming the Evil Spirit, he had acquired Arahatship, and 
with it the discriminating knowledge of all the Scriptures (Pa/i- 
sambhida). Then, returning, he came and took his seat beside 
the Blessed One.' 

According to this, no set ceremony for ordination (Sangha- 
kammaffi), as laid down in the Vinaya, took place ; and it is other- 
wise probable that no such ceremony was usual in the earliest days 
of Buddhism. 



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112 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 



Chapter VI. 

i. Now the Blessed One addressed the venerable 
Ananda, and said : 'It may be, Ananda, that in some 
of you the thought may arise, " The word of the 
Master is ended, we have no teacher more ! " But 
it is not thus, Ananda, that you should regard it. 
The truths and the rules of the order which I 
have set forth and laid down for you all, let them, 
after I am gone, be the Teacher to you.' 



2. 'Ananda! when I am gone address not one 
another in the way in which the brethren have 
heretofore addressed each other — with the epithet, 
that is, of "Avuso" (Friend). A younger brother 
may be addressed by an elder with his name, or his 
family name, or the title " Friend." But an elder 
should be addressed by a younger brother as " Lord " 
or as " Venerable Sir." ' 



3. 'When I am gone, Ananda, let the order, if 
it should so wish, abolish all the lesser and minor 
precepts V 

4. 'When I am gone, Ananda, let the higher 
penalty be imposed on brother A^anna.' 

' But what, Lord, is the higher penalty ?' 

1 In .Sulla Vagga XI, 1, 9, 10, is related how the brotherhood 
formally considered the permission thus accorded to them, and 
resolved to adhere to all the precepts as laid down in the Buddha's 
lifetime. In his comment on this passage Buddhaghosa incident- 
ally refers to a conversation on the subject between Nagasena and 
Milinda Ra^a, but makes no mention of the work known as Milinda 
Pawha. Compare Trenckner's edition of that work, p. 142. 



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VI. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. II3 

' Let A^anna say whatever he may like, Ananda, 
the brethren should -.neither speak to him, nor 
exhort him, nor admonish him 1 .' 



5. Then the Blessed One addressed the brethren, 
and said : 'It may be, brethren, that there may be 
doubt or misgiving in the mind of some brother as 
to the Buddha, or the truth, or the path, or the 
way. Enquire, brethren, freely. Do not have to 
reproach yourselves afterwards with the thought, 
" Our teacher was face to face with us, and we 
could not bring ourselves to enquire of the Blessed 
One when we were face to face with him." ' 

And when he had thus spoken the brethren were 
silent. 

6. And again the second and the third time the 
Blessed One addressed the brethren, and said : ' It 
may be, brethren, that there may be doubt or mis- 
giving in the mind of some brother as to the Buddha, 
or the truth, or the path, or the way. Enquire, 
brethren, freely. Do not have to reproach your- 
selves afterwards with the thought, " Our teacher 
was face to face with us, and we could not bring 
ourselves to enquire of the Blessed One when we 
were face to face with him.'" 

And even the third time the brethren were silent. 

1 Compare A"ulla Vagga I, 25-31: IV,>i4, 1: XI, 1, 12-14. 
.ffXanna is represented as an obstinate, perverse man ; so destitute 
of the proper ' esprit de corps ' that he dared to take part with 
the sisterhood, and against the brotherhood, in a dispute which 
had arisen between them. But after the social penalty here re- 
ferred to had been duly imposed upon him, even his proud and 
independent spirit was tamed ; he became humble : his eyes were 
opened ; and he, also, attained to the ' supreme goal ' of the 
Buddhist faith. 

[11] I 



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114 THE BOOK OF THE CxREAT DECEASE. CH. 

7. Then the Blessed One addressed the brethren, 
and said : ' It may be, brethren, that you put no 
questions out of reverence for the teacher. Let 
one friend communicate to another.' 

And when he had thus spoken the brethren were 
silent. 

8. And the venerable Ananda said to the Blessed 
One : ' How wonderful a thing is it, Lord, and how 
marvellous ! Verily, I believe that in this whole 
assembly of the brethren there is not one brother 
who has any doubt or misgiving as to the Buddha, 
or the truth, or the path, or the way !' 

9. ' It is out of the fulness of faith that thou hast 

A A ^^ 

spoken, Ananda ! But, Ananda, the Tathagata 
knows for certain that in this whole assembly of the 
brethren there is not one brother who has any 
doubt or misgiving as to the Buddha, or the truth, 
or the path, or the way ! For even the most back- 
ward, Ananda, of all these five hundred brethren 
has become converted, and is no longer liable to be 
born in a state of suffering, and is assured of final 
salvation V 

10. Then the Blessed One addressed the brethren, 
and said : ' Behold now, brethren, I exhort you, 
saying, " Decay is inherent in all component things! 
Work out your salvation with diligence!'" 

This was the last word of the TathSgata ! 



11. Then the Blessed One entered into the first 



1 Compare above, Chap. II, § 7. By 'the most backward,' 
according to Buddhaghosa, the Blessed One referred to Ananda, 
and he said this to encourage him. 



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VI. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 1 1 5 

stage of deep meditation 1 . And rising out of the 
first stage he passed into the second. And rising 
out of the second he passed into the third. And 
rising out of the third stage he passed into the 
fourth. And rising out of the fourth stage of 
deep meditation he entered into the state of mind 
to which the infinity of space is alone present 2 . And 
passing out of the mere consciousness of the in- 
finity of space he entered into the state of mind to 
which the infinity of thought is alone present. And 
passing out of the mere consciousness of the infi- 
nity of thought he entered into a state of mind to 
which nothing at all was specially present. And 
passing out of the consciousness of no special object 
he fell into a state between consciousness and 
unconsciousness. And passing out of the state be- 
tween consciousness and unconsciousness he fell 
into a state in which the consciousness both of 
sensations and of ideas had wholly passed away. 

12. Then the venerable Ananda said to the 
venerable Anuruddha : ' O my Lord, O Anuruddha, 
the Blessed One is dead !' 

' Nay ! brother Ananda, the Blessed One is not 
dead. He has entered into that state in which both 
sensations and ideas have ceased to be !' 

13. Then the Blessed One passing out of the 
state in which both sensations and ideas have 
ceased to be, entered into the state between con- 
sciousness and unconsciousness. And passing out 
of the state between consciousness and uncon- 
sciousness he entered into the state of mind to 

1 GA&na, the full text and an explanation of which will be found 
in the translator's 'Buddhism,' pp. 174-176. 

2 Compare above, Chap. Ill, §§ 37-42. 

I 2 



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Il6 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

which nothing at all is specially present. And 
passing out of the consciousness of no special 
object he entered into the state of mind to which 
the infinity of thought is alone present. And 
passing out of the mere consciousness of the infi- 
nity of thought he entered into the state of mind 
to which the infinity of space is alone present. 
And passing out of the mere consciousness of the 
infinity of space he entered into the fourth stage of 
deep meditation. And passing out of the fourth stage 
he entered into the third. And passing out of the 
third stage he entered into the second. And passing 
out of the second he entered into the first. And 
passing out of the first stage of deep meditation he 
entered into the second. And passing out of the 
second stage he entered into the third. And passing 
out of the third stage he entered into the fourth 
stage of deep meditation. And passing out of the 
last stage of deep meditation he immediately ex- 
pired. 

14. When the Blessed One died there arose, at the 
moment of his passing out of existence, a mighty 
earthquake, terrible and awe-inspiring : and the 
thunders of heaven burst forth. 

15. When the Blessed One died, Brahma Saham- 
pati, at the moment of his passing away from exist- 
ence, uttered this stanza : 

' They all, all beings that have life, shall lay 
Aside their complex form — that aggregation 
Of mental and material qualities, 
That gives them, or in heaven or on earth, 
Their fleeting individuality ! 
E'en as the teacher — being such a one, 



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vi. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 1 1 7 

Unequalled among all the men that are, 
Successor of the prophets of old time, 
Mighty by wisdom, and in insight clear — 
Hath died 1 !' 

16. When the Blessed One died, Sakka, the king 
of the gods, at the moment of his passing away 
from existence, uttered this stanza : 
' They're transient all, each being's parts and 
powers, 
Growth is their nature, and decay. 
They are produced, they are dissolved again : 
And then is best, when they have sunk to rest 2 ! ' 

1 Brahm&, the first cause, the highest result of Indian theo- 
logical speculation, the one God of the Indian Pantheists, is repre- 
sented as using expressions full of deep allusions to the most 
characteristic Buddhist doctrines. The Samussaya is the result 
of the temporary collocation of the ' aggregations' (khandhS) of 
mental and material qualities which give to each being (bhuto, 
that is, man, animal, god, ghost, fairy, or what not) its outward and 
visible shape, its individuality. L oka is here not the world in our 
sense, but the 'locality' in the Buddhist universe which such an 
individual occupies until it is dissolved. (Comp. Chap. II, §§ 14, 34.) 
Brahma* appears therefore as a veritable Vibha^av&di. 

2 On this celebrated verse see below the Introduction to Maha- 
Sudassana Sutta. It must be the original of the first verse in the 
Chinese work, Fa Kheu Pi Hu (Beal, Dhammapada, p. 32), though 
it is there so changed that every clause has lost its point. 

'Whatever exists is without endurance. 
And hence the terms "flourishing" and "decaying." 
A man is born, and then he dies. 
Oh, the happiness of escaping from this condition !' 

The very meaning which is here the most essential connotation of 
sankh&ra is lost in the phrase 'whatever exists.' By a misap- 
prehension of the, no doubt, difficult word Dhamma, which, 
however, never means ' term,' the second clause has lost its point. 
And by a grammatical blunder the third clause in the Chinese con- 
fines the doctrine, erroneously, to man. In a Chinese tale, called 



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Il8 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

17. When the Blessed One died, the venerable 
Anuruddha, at the moment of his passing away from 
existence, uttered these stanzas : 

' When he who from all craving want was free, 
Who to Nirvana's tranquil state had reached, 
When the great sage finished his span of life, 
No gasping struggle vexed that steadfast heart ! 

All resolute, and with unshaken mind, 
He calmly triumphed o'er the pain of death. 
E'en as a bright flame dies away, so was 
His last deliverance from the bonds of life 1 !' 

18; When the Blessed One died, the venerable 
Ananda, at the moment of his passing away from 
existence, uttered this stanza : 

' Then was there terror ! 
Then stood the hair on end ! 
When he endowed with every grace — 
The supreme Buddha — died 2 ! ' 

Ngan shih niu, translated by Mr. Beal, in the Indian Antiquary 
for May, 1880, the following verses occur; and they are possibly 
another reflection of this stanza : 

'All things that exist are transitory. 

They must of necessity perish and disappear ; 

Though joined together, there must be separation; 

Where there is life there must be death.' 

1 ATetaso Vimokho. Kena^i dhammena an&vara«a-vimo- 
kho sabbaso apannatti-bhivupagamo, says Buddhaghosa; 
that is, ' the deliverance which is free from the restraint of each 
and every mental quality completely vanishing away' (dhammS 
being here = sawwa~ and vedan& and sahkh£r&; see 'Bud- 
dhism,' pp. 91, 92). See also below, p. 153. 

2 In these four stanzas we seem to have the way in which the 
death of the Buddha would be regarded, as the early Buddhist 
thought, by four representative persons — the exalted God of the 
theologians ; the Jupiter of the multitude (allowing in the case of 



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VI. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 1 1 9 

19 1 . When the Blessed One died, of those of the 
brethren who were not yet free from the passions, 
some stretched out their arms and wept, and 
some fell headlong on the ground, rolling to and 
fro in anguish at the thought : ' Too soon has the 
Blessed One died ! Too soon has the Happy One 
passed away from existence ! Too soon has the 
Light gone out in the world ! ' 

But those of the brethren who were free from 
the passions (the Arahats) bore their grief collected 
and composed at the thought: 'Impermanent are all 
component things! How is it possible that [they 
should not be dissolved] ? ' 

20. Then the venerable Anuruddha exhorted the 
brethren, and said : ' Enough, my brethren ! Weep 
not, neither lament! Has not the Blessed One 
formerly declared this to us, that it is in the very 
nature of all things near and dear unto us, that we 
must divide ourselves from them, leave them, sever 
ourselves from them ? How then, brethren, can this 
be possible — that whereas anything whatever born, 
brought into being, and organised, contains within 
itself the inherent necessity of dissolution — how 
then can this be possible that such a being should 
not be dissolved ? No such condition can exist ! 
Even the spirits, brethren, will reproach us 2 . 

each of these for the change in character resulting from their con- 
version to Buddhism); the holy, thoughtful Arahat ; and the loving, 
childlike disciple. 

1 Nearly=V, 11-14; and below, VI, 39. 

* U^Myanti. I have followed the reading of my own MS., 
which is confirmed by the Sumangala Vilisint and the MalS- 
lank£ra-vatthu. Vi^Myanti, which Childers reads, would be 
questionable Buddhism. The spirits do not become extinct ; that 
is, not as a general rule, as would be implied by the absolute state- 



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120 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

' But of what kind of spirits is the Lord, the 
venerable Anuruddha, thinking?' 

21. 'There are spirits, brother Ananda, in the 
sky, but of worldly mind, who dishevel their hair 
and weep, and stretch forth their arms and weep, 
fall prostrate on the ground, and roll to and fro 
in anguish at the thought: "Too soon has the 

ment, ' Even the spirits, brethren, become extinct.' It is no doubt 
true that all spirits, from the lowest to the highest, from the most 
insignificant fairy to the God of theological speculation, are re- 
garded as temporary. But when they cease to exist as gods or 
spirits (devatS), they do not go out, they are not extinguished 
(viggh&yanli) ; they continue to exist in some other form. And 
though that other form would, from the European point of view, 
be a different being, as there would be no continuity of conscious- 
ness, no passage of a ' soul' from the one to the other; it would, 
from the Buddhist point of view, be the same being, as it would be 
the resultant effect of the same Karma. There would follow on 
the death of a devat&, not extinction, but a transmutation of force, 
a transmigration of character, a passing on, an inheritance of 
Karma. Only in the exceedingly rare case of an anSg&min, of 
which an instance will be found above, Chap. II, § 7, could it be 
said that a spirit becomes extinct. 

The expression 'of worldly mind,' here and above in V, n, is 
in P&li paMavi-sanwiniyo, an ambiguous phrase which has only 
been found in this connection. Buddhaghosa says merely, ' because 
they made (m&petvS) an earth in heaven.' This gloss again may 
be taken either in a figurative or in a literal sense; but, if not 
impossible, it is at least unlikely that the good commentator means 
calmly to state that the angels created a floor in the skies — for the 
greater convenience of tumbling I The word seems to me also to 
be opposed to vitaragst, 'free from passion,' and I have therefore 
taken it in a spiritual sense. There is a third possibility, viz. that 
it is used in an intellectual sense, ' having the idea of the world 
present to their mind ; ' and this would be in accordance with the 
more usual use of sam»if. But how easily, especially in Buddhism, 
the intellectual merges into the religious may be seen from such 
a phrase as mara#a-sawwino, used at Mah&vawsa 33 of the 
bhikkhus. Compare also above, III, 14. 



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VI. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 121 

Blessed One died ! Too soon has the Happy One 
passed away ! Too soon has the Light gone out in 
the world!"' 

' There are spirits, too, Ananda, on the earth, and 
of worldly mind, who tear their hair and weep, and 
stretch forth their arms and weep, fall prostrate on 
the ground, and roll to and fro in anguish at the 
thought: " Too soon has the Blessed one died! Too 
soon has the Happy One passed away ! Too soon 
has the Light gone out in the world ! " 

' But the spirits who are free from passion bear it, 
calm and self-possessed, mindful of the saying which 
begins, " Impermanent indeed are all component 
things. How then is it possible [that such a being 
should not be dissolved]?'" 



22. Now the venerable Anuruddha and the vener- 
able Ananda spent the rest of that night in religious 
discourse. Then the venerable Anuruddha said to 
the venerable Ananda : ' Go now, brother Ananda, 
into Kusinara and inform the Mallas of Kusinara, 
saying, ' The Blessed One, O Vase/Mas, is dead : do, 
then, whatever seemeth to you fit!' 

' Even so, Lord ! ' said the venerable Ananda, in 
assent, to the venerable Anuruddha. And having 
robed himself early in the morning, he took his 
bowl, and went into Kusinara with one of the brethren 
as an attendant. 

23. Now at that time the Mallas of Kusinara 
were assembled in the council hall concerning that 
very matter. 

And the venerable Ananda went to the council 
hall of the Mallas of Kusinara ; and when he had 
arrived there, he informed them, saying, ' The 



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122 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

Blessed One, O Vase#<&as, is dead ; do, then, what- 
ever seemeth to you fit!' 

24. And when they had heard this saying of the 
venerable Ananda, the Mallas, with their young men 
and their maidens and their wives, were grieved, 
and sad, and afflicted at heart. And some of them 
wept, dishevelling their hair, and some stretched 
forth their arms and wept, and some fell prostrate 
on the ground, and some reeled to and fro in anguish 
at the thought : ' Too soon has the Blessed One 
died ! Too soon has the Happy One passed away ! 
Too soon has the Light gone out in the world!' 



25. Then the Mallas of Kusinara gave orders to 
their attendants, saying, ' Gather together perfumes 
and garlands, and all the music in Kusinara ! ' 

26. And the Mallas of Kusinara took the per- 
fumes and garlands, and all the musical instruments, 
and five hundred suits of apparel, and went to the 
Upavattana, to the Sala Grove of the Mallas, where 
the body of the Blessed One lay. There they past 
the day in paying honour, reverence, respect, and 
homage to the remains of the Blessed One with 
dancing, and hymns, and music, and with garlands 
and perfumes ; and in making canopies of their gar- 
ments, and preparing decoration wreaths to hang 
thereon 1 . 

1 The dress of the Mallas consisted probably of mere lengths of 
muslin or cotton cloth ; and a suit of apparel consisted of two or, 
at the outside, of three of these— one to wrap round the loins, one 
to throw over the shoulders, and one to use as a turban. To. make 
a canopy on occasions of state they would join such pieces to- 
gether; to make the canopy into a tent they would simply add 
walls of the same material ; and the only decoration, as simple as it 



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VI. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 1 23 

2 7. Then the Mallas of Kusinara thought : 
' It is much too late to burn the body of the 
Blessed One to-day. Let us now perform the 
cremation to-morrow.' And in paying honour, re- 
verence, respect, and homage to the remains of the 
Blessed One with dancing, and hymns, and music, 
and with garlands and perfumes; and in making 
canopies of their garments, and preparing decoration 
wreaths to hang thereon, they past the second 
day too, and then the third day, and the fourth, and 
the fifth, and the sixth day also. 



28. Then on the seventh day the Mallas of 
Kusinara thought : 

' Let us carry the body of the Blessed One, by 
the south and outside, to a spot on the south, and 
outside of the city, — paying it honour, and reverence, 
and respect, and homage, with dance and song and 
music, with garlands and perfumes, — and there, to 
the south of the city, let us perform the cremation 
ceremony ! ' 

29. And thereupon eight chieftains among the 
Mallas bathed their heads, and clad themselves in 
new garments with the intention of bearing the 
body of the Blessed One. But, behold, they could 
not lift it up! 

30. Then the Mallas of Kusinara said to the 
venerable Anuruddha: 'What, Lord, can be the 
reason, what can be the cause that eight chieftains 
of the Mallas who have bathed their heads, and 
clad themselves in new garments with the intention 

is beautiful, would be wreaths of flowers, or single lotuses, hanging 
from the roof, or stretched along the sides. 



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124 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

of bearing the body of the Blessed One, are unable 
to lift it up?' 

' It is because you, O Vise^as, have one pur- 
pose, and the spirits have another purpose.' 

31. 'But what, Lord, is the purpose of the spirits?' 
' Your purpose, O Vcise//^as, is this, Let us carry 

the body of the Blessed One, by the south and out- 
side, to a spot on the south, and outside of the city, — 
paying it honour, and reverence, and respect, and 
homage, with dance and song and music, with gar- 
lands and perfumes, — and there, to the south of the 
city, let us perform the cremation ceremony. But 
the purpose of the spirits, Vdse/Mas, is this, Let us 
carry the body of the Blessed One by the north to the 
north of the city, and entering the city by the north 
gate, let us bring it through the midst of the city 
into the midst thereof. And going out again by the 
eastern gate, — paying honour, and reverence, and 
respect, and homage to the body of the Blessed 
One, with heavenly dance, and song, and music, 
and garlands, and perfumes, — let us carry it to the 
shrine of the Mallas called Maku/a-bandhana, to the 
east of the city, and there let us perform the crema- 
tion ceremony.' 

' Even according to the purpose of the spirits, so, 
Lord, let it be!' 

32. Then immediately all Kusin&ra down even to 
the dust bins and rubbish heaps became strewn 
knee-deep with Mandarava flowers from heaven! 
and while both the spirits from the skies, and the 
Mallas of Kusin&ra upon earth, paid honour, and 
reverence, and respect, and homage to the body 
of the Blessed One, with dance and song and music, 
with garlands and with perfumes, they carried the 



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VI. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 1 25 

body by the north to the north of the city; and 
entering the city by the north gate they carried 
it through the midst of the city into the midst 
thereof; and going out again by the eastern gate 
they carried it to the shrine of the Mallas, called 
Maku/a-bandhana ; and there, to the east of the 
city, they laid down the body of the Blessed One 1 . 



33. 2 Then the Mallas of Kusinara said to the 
venerable Ananda : ' What should be done, Lord, 
with the remains of the Tathagata ? ' 

' As men treat the remains of a king of kings, 
so, Vase#<£as, should they treat the remains of a 
Tathagata.' 

' And how, Lord, do they treat the remains of a 
king of kings ? ' 

' They wrap the body of a king of kings, Vase#^as, 
in a new cloth. When that is done, they wrap it in 
cotton wool. When that is done they wrap it in a 
new cloth, — and so on till they have wrapped the 
body in five hundred successive layers of both kinds. 
Then they place the body in an oil vessel of iron, 
and cover that close up with another oil vessel of 
iron. They then build a funeral pile of all kinds 
of perfumes, and burn the body of the king of kings. 
And then at the four cross roads they erect a dagaba 
to the king of kings. This, Vase/Mas, is the way in 
which they treat the remains of a king of kings. 

' And as they treat the remains of a king of kings, 
so, Vase/Mas, should they treat the remains of the 

1 The point of this interesting legend is that the inhabitants of 
an Indian village of that time would have considered it a desecra- 
tion or pollution to bring a dead body into or through their village. 

* Compare Chap.V, §§ 25-30. 



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126 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

Tathagata. At the four cross roads a dagaba should 
be erected to the Tathagata. And whosoever shall 
there place garlands or perfumes or paint, or make 
salutation there, or become in its presence calm in 
heart — that shall long be to them for a profit and 
a joy.* 

34. Therefore the Mallas gave orders to their 
attendants, saying, ' Gather together all the carded 
cotton wool of the Mallas!' 

35. Then the Mallas of Kusinara wrapped the 
body of the Blessed One in a new cloth. And when 
that was done, they wrapped it in cotton wool. And 
when that was done, they wrapped it in a new cloth, 
— and so on till they had wrapped the body of the 
Blessed One in five hundred layers of both kinds. 
And then they placed the body in an oil vessel of 
iron, and covered that close up with another oil 
vessel of iron. And then they built a funeral pile 
of all kinds of perfumes, and upon it they placed 
the body of the Blessed One. 



36. Now at that time the venerable Maha Kas- 
sapa was journeying along the high road from Pava 
to Kusinara with a great company of the brethren, 
with about five hundred of the brethren. And the 
venerable Maha Kassapa left the high road, and sat 
himself down at the foot of a certain tree. 

tf. Just at that time a certain naked ascetic who 
had picked up a Mandarava flower in Kusinara was 
coming along the high road to Pava. 

38. And the venerable Maha Kassapa saw the 
naked ascetic coming in the distance ; and when he 
had seen him he said to the naked ascetic : 

' O friend ! surely thou knowest our Master ?' 



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VI. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 1 27 

' Yea, friend ! I know him. This day the Samara 
Gotama has been dead a week! That is how I 
obtained this Mandarava flower.' 

39. And immediately of those of the brethren 
who were not yet free from the passions, some 
stretched out their arms and wept, and some fell 
headlong on the ground, and some reeled to and 
fro in anguish at the thought : ' Too soon has the 
Blessed One died ! Too soon has the Happy One 
passed away from existence ! Too soon has the 
Light gone out in the world!' 

But those of the brethren who were free from 
the passions (the Arahats) bore their grief collected 
and composed at the thought : ' Impermanent are 
all component things ! How is it possible that they 
should not be dissolved ?' 



40. Now at that time a brother named Subhadda, 
who had been received into the order in his old 
age, was seated there in their company K 

And Subhadda the old addressed the brethren, and 
said: ' Enough, brethren! Weep not, neither lament ! 
We are well rid of the great Sama»a. We used to 
be annoyed by being told, " This beseems you, this 
beseems you not." But now we shall be able to do 
whatever we like ; and what we do not like, that we 
shall not have to do !' 

1 At p. xxvi of the Introduction to his edition of the Mah& 
Vagga, Dr. Oldenberg identifies this Subhadda with Subhadda the 
last convert, mentioned above in Chap. V, §§ 52-68. They are y 
different persons ; the last convert being represented as a young 
man of high character, incapable of the conduct here ascribed 
to this Subhadda. The last convert was a Brahman, traditionally 
supposed to be younger brother to Anfia, Kondawwa, the first 
convert ; this Subhadda had been a barber in the village Atuma. 



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128 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

41. But the venerable Maha Kassapa addressed 
the brethren, and said : ' Enough, my brethren ! 
Weep not, neither lament! Has not the Blessed 
One formerly declared this to us, that it is in 
the very nature of all things, near and dear unto 
us, that we must divide ourselves from them, 
leave them, sever ourselves from them? How then, 
brethren, can this be possible — that whereas any- 
thing whatever born, brought into being, and or- 
ganised contains within itself the inherent necessity 
of dissolution — how then can this be possible that 
such a being should not be dissolved ? No such 
condition can exist!' 



42. Now just at that time four chieftains of the 
Mallas had bathed their heads and clad themselves 
in new garments with the intention of setting on fire 
the funeral pile of the Blessed One. But, behold, 
they were unable to set it alight ! 

43. Then the Mallas of Kusinara said to the 
venerable Anuruddha : ' What, Lord, can be the 
reason, and what the cause, that four chieftains of 
the Mallas who have bathed their heads, and clad 
themselves in new garments, with the intention of 
setting on fire the funeral pile of the Blessed One, 
are unable to set it on fire ? ' 

' It is because you, O Vase/Mas, have one purpose, 
and the spirits have another purpose.' 

44. 'But what, Lord, is the purpose of the spirits?' 
' The purpose of the spirits, O Vase//>6as, is this : 

That venerable brother Maha Kassapa is now 
journeying along the high road from Pava to Kusi- 
nara with a great company of the brethren, with 
five hundred of the brethren. The funeral pile of 



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vi. mahA-parinibbAna-sutta. i 29 

the Blessed One shall not catch fire, until the venera- 
ble Maha Kassapa shall have been able reverently 
to salute the sacred feet of the Blessed One.' 

' Even according to the purpose of the spirits, so, 
•Lord, let it be !' 

45. Then the venerable Maha Kassapa went on 
to Makufo-bandhana of Kusinara, to the shrine of 
the Mallas, to the place where the funeral pile of 
the Blessed One was. And when he had come up 
to it, he arranged his robe on one shoulder; and 
bowing down with clasped hands he thrice walked 
reverently round the pile ; and then, uncovering the 
feet, he bowed down in reverence at the feet of 
the Blessed One. 

46. And those five hundred brethren arranged 
their robes on one shoulder; and bowing down 
with clasped hands, they thrice walked reverently 
round the pile, and then bowed down in reverence 
at the feet of the Blessed One. 

47. And when the homage of the venerable Maha 
Kassapa and of those five hundred brethren was 
ended, the funeral pile of the Blessed One caught 
fire of itself 1 . 

1 It is possible that we have here the survival of some ancient 
custom. Spence Hardy appropriately refers to a ceremony among 
Jews (of what place or time is not mentioned) in the following 
terms : ' Just before a Jew is taken out of the house to be buried, 
the relatives and acquaintances of the departed stand round the 
coffin; when the feet are uncovered; and each in rotation lays hold 
of the great toes, and begs pardon for any offence given to the 
deceased, and requests a favourable mention of them in the next 
world.' (Manual of Buddhism, p. 348.) 

The Buddhist bhikkhus in Siam and the great majority of 
those in Ceylon (the adherents of the Siyam-sam&gama) always 
keep one shoulder uncovered. It is evident that the bhikkhus 

[«] K 



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I30 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

48. Now as the body of the Blessed One burned 
itself away, from the skin and the integument, and 
the flesh, and the nerves, and the fluid of the joints, 
neither soot nor ash was seen : and only the bones 
remained behind. 

Just as one sees no soot or ash when glue or 
oil is burned ; so, as the body of the Blessed One 
burned itself away, from the skin and the integu- 
ment, and the flesh, and the nerves, and the fluid 
of the joints, neither soot nor ash was seen : and 
only the bones remained behind. And of those five 
hundred pieces of raiment the very innermost and 
outermost were both consumed. 

49. And when the body of the Blessed One had 
been burnt up, there came down streams of water 
from the sky and extinguished the funeral pile of 
the Blessed One ; and there burst forth streams of 
water from the storehouse of the waters (beneath 
the earth), and extinguished the funeral pile of the 
Blessed One. The Mallas of Kusinara also brought 
water scented with all kinds of perfumes, and ex- 
tinguished the funeral pile of the Blessed One \ 

in Burma, and those in Ceylon who belong to the Amara-pura- 
samagama, are more in accordance with ancient custom in 
wearing the robe ordinarily over both shoulders. 

1 There is something very quaint in the way in which the 
faithful Mallas are here represented as bringing coals to Newcastle. 
The 'storehouse of the waters' is in Pali udaka-sala, on which 
Buddhaghosa has two theories : first, that the Sala trees around 
shed down a miraculous rain from their trunks and branches and 
leaves; and next, that the waters burst up from the earth and 
became as it were a diadem of crystal round the pyre. On the 
belief that water thus burst up miraculously through the earth, see 
'Buddhist Birth Stories,' pp. 64, 67. If the reading be correct it 
is scarcely possible that s£la can here have anything to do with 
Sala trees ; but the other interpretation is open to the objections 



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vi. maha-parinibbAna-sutta. 131 

50. Then the Mallas of Kusinara surrounded the 
bones of the Blessed One in their council hall with 
a lattice work of spears, and with a rampart of bows ; 
and there for seven days they paid honour and 
reverence and respect and homage to them with 
dance and song and music, and with 
perfumes. /"-^'^ V^/'^fy 

( Z VI V ? U S T T V' 

51. Now the king of Magadha, \A^asatfo, the l j 

son of the queen of the Videha cla^ : hearTd'T:ft$'\ 
news that the Blessed One had died at Kusinara. 

Then the king of Magadha, A^atasattu, the 
son of the queen of the Videha clan, sent a mes- 
senger to the Mallas, saying, 'The Blessed One 
belonged to the soldier caste, and I too am of the 
soldier caste. I am worthy to receive a portion 
of the - relics of the Blessed One. Over the remains 
of the Blessed One will I put up a sacred cairn, 
and in their honour will I celebrate a feast 1 !' 

52. And the \J\kkha.\\s ofVesali heard the news 
that the Blessed One had died at Kusinara. And 
the \Akkha.v\s of Vesali sent a messenger to the 
Mallas, saying, ' The Blessed One belonged to the 
soldier caste, and we too are of the soldier caste. 
We are worthy to receive a portion of the relics of 
the Blessed One. Over the remains of the Blessed 
One will we put up a sacred cairn, and in their 
honour will we celebrate a feast!' 

53. And the Sakiyas of Kapila-vatthu heard the 

that sala means an open hall rather than a storehouse, and that 
the belief in a ' storehouse of water ' has not, as yet, been found 
elsewhere. 

1 The commentator gives a long account of A^&tasattu's pro- 
ceedings on this occasion. 

K 2 



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132 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. 

news that the Blessed One had died at Kusinara. 
And the Sakiyas of Kapila-vatthu sent a messenger 
to the Mallas, saying, ' The Blessed One was the 
pride of our race. We are worthy to receive a 
portion of the relics of the Blessed One. Over the 
remains of the Blessed One will we put up a sacred 
cairn, and in their honour will we celebrate a feast !' 

54. And the Bulis of Allakappa heard the news 
that the Blessed One had died at Kusinara. And 
the Bulis of Allakappa sent a messenger to the 
Mallas, saying, ' The Blessed One belonged to the 
soldier caste, and we too are of the soldier caste. 
We are worthy to receive a portion of the relics 
of the Blessed One. Over the remains of the 
Blessed One will we put up a sacred cairn, and in 
their honour will we celebrate a feast!' 

55. And the Koliyas of Ramagama heard the 
news that the Blessed One had died at Kusinara. 
And the Koliyas of Ramagama sent a messenger 
to the Mallas, saying, ' The Blessed One belonged 
to the soldier caste, and we too are of the soldier 
caste. We are worthy to receive a portion of the 
relics of the Blessed One. Over the remains of the 
Blessed One will we put up a sacred cairn, and in 
their honour will we celebrate a feast !' v 

56. And the Brahman of Ve/^adipa heard the 
news that the Blessed One had died at Kusinara. 
And the Brahman of Ve/^adfpa sent a messenger 
to the Mallas, saying, ' The Blessed One belonged 
to the soldier caste, and I am a Brahman. I am 
worthy to receive a portion of the relics of the 
Blessed One. Over the remains of the Blessed 
One will I put up a sacred cairn, and in their 
honour will I celebrate a feast!' 



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VI. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 1 33 

57. And the Mallas of Pava heard the news that 
the Blessed One had died at Kusinara. 

Then the Mallas of Pava sent a messenger to the 
Mallas, saying, ' The Blessed One belonged to the 
soldier caste, and we too are of the soldier caste. We 
are worthy to receive a portion of the relics of the 
Blessed One. Over the remains of the Blessed One 
will we put up a sacred cairn, and in their honour 
will we celebrate a feast !' 



58. When they heard these things the Mallas of 
Kusinara spoke to the assembled brethren, saying, 
'The Blessed One died in our village domain. 
We will not give away any part of the remains of 
the Blessed One!' 

59. When they had thus spoken, Do«a the Brah- 
man addressed the assembled brethren, and said : 

' Hear, reverend sirs, one single word from me. 
Forbearance was our Buddha wont to teach. 
Unseemly is it that over the division 
Of the remains of him who was the best of 

beings 
Strife should arise, and wounds, and war ! 
Let us all, sirs, with one accord unite 
In friendly harmony to make eight portions. 
Wide spread let Thupas rise in every land 
That in the Enlightened One mankind may trust!' 

60. ' Do thou then, O Brahman, thyself divide 
the remains of the Blessed One equally into eight 
parts, with fair division V 

' Be it so, sir!' said Do»a, in assent, to the assem- 

1 Here again the commentator expands and adds to the com- 
paratively simple version of the text 



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134 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH, 

bled brethren. And he divided the remains of the 
Blessed One equally into eight parts, with fair 
division. And he said to them : ' Give me, sirs, 
this vessel, and I will set up over it a sacred cairn, 
and in its honour will I establish a feast.' 

And they gave the vessel to Do«a the Brahman. 



6 1. And the Moriyas of Pipphalivana heard the 
news that the Blessed One had died at Kusinari. 

Then the Moriyas of Pipphalivana sent a mes- 
senger to the Mallas, saying, ' The Blessed One 
belonged to the soldier caste, and we too are of the 
soldier caste. We are worthy to receive a portion of 
the relics of the Blessed One. Over the remains of 
the Blessed One will we put up a sacred cairn, and 
in their honour will we celebrate a feast!' 

And when they heard the answer, saying, 'There 
is no portion of the remains of the Blessed One left 
over. The remains of the Blessed One are all dis- 
tributed,' then they took away the embers. 



62. Then the king of Magadha, A^atasattu, the 
son of the queen of the Videha clan, made a mound 
in Ra^agaha over the remains of the Blessed One, 
and held a feast. 

And the Li^i^avis of Vesili made a mound in 
Vesili over the remains of the Blessed One, and 
held a feast. 

And the Bulis of Allakappa made a mound in 
Allakappa over the remains of the Blessed One, and 
held a feast. 

And the Koliyas of Ramagama made a mound in 
Ramagama over the remains of the Blessed One, 
and held a feast. 



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VI. MAHA-PARINIBBANA-SUTTA. 1 35 

And Ve/^adlpaka the Brahman, made a mound in 
Ve//fcadlpa over the remains of the Blessed One, and 
held a feast 

And the Mallas of Pava made a mound in Pava 
over the remains of the Blessed One, and held a 
feast. 

And the Mallas of Kusinara made a mound in 
Kusinara over the remains of the Blessed One, and 
held a feast 

And Do«a the Brahman made a mound over the 
vessel in which the body had been burnt, and held a 
feast. 

And the Moriyas of Pipphalivana made a mound 
over the embers, and held a feast. 

Thus were there eight mounds [Thupas] for the 
remains, and one for the vessel, and one for the 
embers. This was how it used to be \ 



[63. Eight measures of relics there were of him 

of the far-seeing eye, 
Of the best of the best of men. In India seven 

are worshipped, 
And one measure in Ramagama, by the kings of 

the serpent race. 
One tooth, too, is honoured in heaven, and one "in 

Gandhara's city, 
One in the Kalinga realm, and one more by the 

Naga race. 



1 Here closes Buddhaghosa's long and edifying commentary. 
He has no note on the following verses, which he says were added 
by Theras in Ceylon. The additional verse found in the Phayre 
MS. was in the same way probably added in Burma. 



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I36 THE BOOK OF THE GREAT DECEASE. CH. VI. 

Through their glory the bountiful earth is made 

bright with offerings painless — 
For with such are the Great Teacher's relics best 

honoured by those who are honoured, 
By gods and by Nagas and kings, yea, thus by 

the noblest of monarchs — 
Bow down with clasped hands ! 
Hard, hard is a Buddha to meet with through 

hundreds of ages !] 



End of the Book of the Great Decease. 



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DHAMMAA-AKKAPPAVAT- 
TANA-SUTTA. 



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INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

FOUNDATION OF THE KINGDOM 
OF RIGHTEOUSNESS. 



THIS translation is made from a transcript of the text 
as found in the very beautiful Ceylon MS. on silver 
plates, now in the British Museum 1 . The letters, which 
are perfectly formed, are cut into the silver; and the 
MS. has this peculiarity, that every sentence is repeated 
with a slight change in the collocation of the words. 
Thus the first sentence is given as follows: — 

Eva*« me sutam. Eka*» samayaw Bhagava 
Bara#asiya*« viharati Isipatane Migadaye. Me 
tvam suta*». Eka#* samayaw Bhagava Barawasi- 
yara Isipatane Migadaye viharati. 

As this repetition is merely carried out for the further se- 
curity of the text it has not been followed in the translation. 

This text belongs to the Anguttara Nikaya. M. Leon 
Feer has lithographed the Sawyutta treatment in his 
'Textes tires du Kandjour 2 ,' together with the text 
of the corresponding passage in the Lalita Vistara, and 
the Tibetan translation from that poem. The Sanskrit 
text, so far as it runs parallel with our Sutta, will also 
be found in Rajendra Lai Mitra's edition of the Lalita 
Vistara (p. 540 and foil.) and the Tibetan text, with a 
French translation, in M. Foucaux's ' rGya Cher Rol Pa.' 
Dr. Oldenberg has just published the Vinaya treatment 
contained in the Maha Vagga I, 6. It is the same word 
for word as our Sutta (except § 1, which is of course not 
found there). The Sawyutta expands the idea of the 
portion numbered below §§ 9-20, having also similar 
paragraphs in reference to the bhikkhus themselves. The 



1 MS. Egerton, 794 ; bought from a bookseller named Rodel in 1839. 
a I jvraison, No. X. 



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I4O FOUNDATION OF KINGDOM OF RIGHTEOUSNESS. 

Lalita Vistara differs a good deal in minor details, but 
is substantially the same as regards the Noble Truths, 
and the eight divisions of the Noble Path. 

A translation of this Sutta, found among Mr. Gogerly's 
papers after his death, was published in the Journal of 
the Ceylon Asiatic Society for 1865: and the Journal 
Asiatique for 1870 contained a translation and full analysis 
by M. Leon Feer. 

It would be difficult to estimate too highly the historical 
value of this Sutta. There can be no reasonable doubt that 
the very ancient tradition accepted by all Buddhists as 
to the substance of the discourse is correct, and that we 
really have in it a summary of the words in which the 
great Indian thinker and reformer for the first time suc- 
cessfully promulgated his new ideas. And it presents 
to us in a few short and pithy sentences the very essence 
of that remarkable system which has had so profound 
an influence on the religious history of so large a portion 
of the human race. 

The name given to it by the early Buddhists — the 
setting in motion onwards of the royal chariot-wheel of 
the supreme dominion of the Dhamma — means, as I have 
shown elsewhere 1 , not 'the turning of the wheel of the 
law,' as it has been usually rendered ; but ' the inaugura- 
tion, or foundation, of the Kingdom of Righteousness.' 

Is it possible that the praying wheels of Thibet have led 
to the misapprehension and mistranslation now so common? 
But who would explain a passage in the New Testament by a 
superstition current, say, in Spain in the twelfth century? And 
so when Mr. Da Cuiiha thinks that the Dhamma is symbol- 
ised by the wheel, because ' Gotama ignored the beginning, 
and was uncertain as to the end 2 ,' he seems to me to 
be following a vicious method of interpreting such figures 
of speech. It cannot be disputed that the term 'wheel* 
might have implied such an idea as he puts into it. 
But if we want to know what it did imply, we must be 
guided wholly by the previous use of the word at the 

1 ' Buddhism,' p. 45. * ' Memoir on the Tooth Relic,' &c, p. 15. 

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INTRODUCTION. 1 4 1 



time when it was first used in a figurative sense: and 
that previous use allows only of the interpretation given 
above. Perhaps, however, Mr. Da Cufiha is only copying 
(not very exactly) Mr. Alabaster, who has said, ' Buddha, 
as I have tried to show in other parts of this book, did 
not attempt to teach the beginning of existence, but as- 
sumed it as a rolling circle of causes or effects. This was 
his circle or wheel of the law 1 .' 

Mr. Alabaster therefore calls his very useful book on 
Siamese Buddhism, ' The Wheel of the Law ; ' — an ex- 
pression which he on the first page of his preface takes to 
be about equivalent to Buddhism. But his theory of the 
meaning of the term seems to be based upon a misunder- 
standing of a passage in the Siamese ' Life of Buddha,' which 
he there translates. At page 78 he renders his text, ' The 
Holy Wheel which the Law taught is plenteous in twelve 
ways,' and he explains this on p. 169 as referring to the 
twelve Nidjnas, the chain of causes and effects. But the 
passage in the Siamese text is evidently a reminiscence of 
the ' twelvefold manner ' spoken of in the same connection 
in our Sutta (§ ai), and does not refer to the Nidanas at all. 

A better comment on the word is the legend of the 
Treasure of the Wheel, which will be found below in the 
'Book of the Great King of Glory 2 ,' a passage which 
shows that this figure belonged to that circle of poetical 
imagery which the early Buddhists so often borrowed 
from the previous poets of Vedic literature to aid them 
in their attempts to describe the most important events 
in the life of their revered Teacher. And, like the day 
of Pentecost by the early Christians, this Inauguration 
of the Kingdom of Righteousness was rightly regarded 
by them as a turning-point in the history of their faith. 
We find this even in the closing sections of our Sutta; 
and in later times the poets of every Buddhist clime 
have vied one with another in endeavouring to express 
their sense of the importance of the occasion. 

' The evening was like a lovely maiden ; the stars 

1 ' Wheel of the Law,' p. 288. » Chap. I, J J 10-20. 



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142 FOUNDATION OF KINGDOM OF RIGHTEOUSNESS. 

were the pearls upon her neck ; the dark clouds her 
braided hair ; the deepening space her flowing robe. As 
a crown she had the heavens where the angels dwell; 
these three worlds were as her body ; her eyes were the 
white lotus flowers which open to the rising moon; and 
her voice was as it were the humming of the bees. To 
do homage to the Buddha, and to hear the first preaching 
of his word, this lovely maiden came.' The angels (devas) 
throng to hear the discourse until the heavens are empty ; 
and the sound of their approach is like the rain of a 
storm ; all the worlds in which there are sentient beings 
are made void of life, so that the congregation assembled 
was in number infinite, but at the sound of the blast of 
the glorious trumpet of Sakka, the king of the gods, they 
became still as a waveless sea. And then each of the 
countless listeners thought that the sage was looking 
towards himself, and was speaking to him in his own 
tongue, though the language used was Magadhi! 

It is most curious that this last figure should be so 
closely analogous to the language used with respect to 
the corresponding event in the history of the Christian 
church : and I do not know the exact source from which 
Hardy (Manual of Buddhism, p. 186) derives it. But I think 
it is highly improbable that there is any borrowing on the 
one side or on the other. 

It cannot be denied that there is a real beauty of an 
Oriental kind in the various expressions which the Bud- 
dhists use; and that there was real ground for the 
enthusiasm which gave them birth. Never in the history 
of the world had a scheme of salvation been put forth 
so simple in its nature, so free from any superhuman 
agency, so independent of, so even antagonistic to the 
belief in a soul, the belief in God, and the hope for 
a future life. And we must not allow our estimate of 
the importance of the event to be influenced by our dis- 
agreement from the opinions put forth. Whether these 
be right or wrong, it was a turning-point in the religious 
history of man when a reformer, full of the most earnest 
moral purpose, and trained in all the intellectual culture 



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INTRODUCTION. 143 



of his time, put forth deliberately, and with a knowledge 
of the opposing views, the doctrine of a salvation to be 
found here, in this life, in an inward change of heart, to 
be brought about by perseverance in a mere system of 
self-culture and of self-control. 



That system, it will be seen, is called the Noble Path, 
and is divided into eight sections or divisions, each of 
which commences with the word samma — a word for 
which we have no real equivalent in English, though 
it has been rendered by such terms as 'right/ 'perfect,' 
and ' correct.' Our word ' right,' in some of its uses, would 
be a sufficiently adequate translation, but it is based on 
a different derivation, and connotes a set of ideas not 
alluded to by samma. If used as an adjective this 
word — signifying literally 'going with' — means either 
' general, common,' or ' corresponding, mutual,' and as an 
adverb, 'commonly, usually, normally,' or 'fittingly, pro- 
perly, correctly;' and hence, in a secondary sense, and 
with allusion to both these ideas, 'round, fit, and perfect, 
normal and complete.' When used to characterise such 
widely different things as language, livelihood, and belief, 
the meaning of the term is by no means difficult to grasp ; 
but it is difficult, if not impossible, to find any single 
English word which in each case would convey its full 
force without importing also some extraneous idea. From 
a desire to follow closely the Pali form of expression I 
had first in my manual of 'Buddhism' adopted the one 
word * right ' throughout the translation of the text ; and 
I have kept to this below, though I feel that that word 
quite fails to give the force of the preposition sam (avv- t 
con-), which is the essential part of the Pali samma. 
But I think the meaning of the Buddhist ideal, of the 
summary which is the most essential doctrine, the very 
pith of Buddhism, would be better brought out by a 
diversified rendering in the way I afterwards attempted 
in an article in the Fortnightly Review (No. CLVI) ; or, as 
above (p. 107), with the authorised interpretation appended. 
It would then run — 



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144 FOUNDATION OF KINGDOM OF RIGHTEOUSNESS. 

i. Right Views; free from superstition or delusion. 
a. Right Aims; high, and worthy of the intelligent, 
earnest man. 

3. Right Speech; kindly, open, truthful. 

4. Right Conduct; peaceful, honest, pure. 

5. Right Livelihood; bringing hurt or danger to no 

living thing. 

6. Right Effort; in self-training, and in self-control. 

7. Right Mindfulness; the active, watchful mind. 

8. Right Contemplation; earnest thought on the 

deep mysteries of life. 

It is interesting to notice that Gogerly, who first rendered 
samma throughout by correct 1 , afterwards adopted the 
other method 2 ; and as these eight divisions of the perfect 
life are of such vital importance for a correct understanding 
of what Buddhism really was, I here add in parallel columns 
his two versions of the terms used : — 

1. Correct views (of truth). Correct doctrines. 

2. Correct thoughts. A clear perception (of their 

nature). 

3. Correct words. Inflexible veracity. 

4. Correct conduct. Purity of conduct. 

5. Correct (mode of obtain- A sinless occupation. 

ing a) livelihood. 

6. Correct efforts. Perseverance in duty. 

7. Correct meditation. Holy meditation. 

8. Correct tranquillity. Mental tranquillity. 

The varying expressions in these two lists are intended in all 
cases, (except perhaps the second,) to convey the same idea. 
The second division (samma-sankappo) is not really 
open to any doubt. Sahkappo is will, volition, determina- 
tion, desire ; that exertion of the will in the various affairs 
of life which results from the feeling that a certain result 
will be desirable. The only variation in the meaning is 
that sometimes more stress is laid upon the implied exertion 
of the will, sometimes more stress upon the implied desire 

1 Journal of the Ceylon Asiatic Society, 1845. * Ibid. 1865. 



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INTRODUCTION. 1 45 



which calls it into action. 'Motive' would be somewhat 
too impersonal, 'volition' too metaphysical a rendering; 
'aims' or 'aspirations' seems to me to best express 
the sense intended in this passage. 

In No. 7 (samma-sati) sati is literally 'memory,' but 
is used with reference to the constantly repeated phrase 
'mindful and thoughtful' (sat o sampa^ano); and means 
that activity of mind and constant presence of mind 
which is one of the duties most frequently inculcated on 
the good Buddhist. Gogerly's rendering of the term should 
have been reserved for the last division (samma-samadhi), 
that prolonged meditation on the deep mysteries of life, 
which is stated in the Great Decease 1 to be the necessary 
complement and accessory to intelligence and goodness. 
Reason and works are good in themselves, but they require 
to be made perfect by that samadhi which in Buddhism 
corresponds to faith in Christianity. 



This Buddhist ideal of the perfect life has an analogy 
most instructive from a historical point of view with the 
ideals of the last pagan thinkers in Europe before the 
rise of Christianity, and of the modern exponents of what 
has been called fervent atheism. When after many cen- 
turies of thought a pantheistic or monotheistic unity has 
been evolved out of the chaos of polytheism, — which is 
itself a modified animism or animistic polydaemonism,— 
there has always arisen at last a school to whom theo- 
logical discussions have lost their interest, and who have 
sought for a new solution of the questions to which the 
theologies have given inconsistent answers, in a new system 
in which man was to work out here, on earth, his own 
salvation. It is their place in the progress of thought that j/ 
helps us to understand how it is that there is so much 
in common between the Agnostic philosopher of India, 
the Stoics of Greece and Rome, and some of the newest 
schools in France, in Germany, and among ourselves. 

1 Chap. I, § 12, and often afterwards. 
[11] L 



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THE FOUNDATION 

OF THE 

KINGDOM OF RIGHTEOUSNESS. 



DHAMMA-.£AKKA-PPAVATTAMA-SUTTA. 



Reverence to the Blessed One, the Holy One, 
the Fully-Enlightened One. 

i. Thus have I heard. The Blessed One was 
once staying at Benares, at the hermitage called 
Migadaya. And there the Blessed One addressed 
the company of the five Bhikkhus *, and said : 

2. 'There are two extremes, O Bhikkhus, which 
the man who has given up the world 2 ought hot 
to follow — the habitual practice, on the one hand, 
of those things whose attraction depends upon the 
passions, and especially of sensuality — a low and 
pagan s way (of seeking satisfaction) unworthy, un- 
profitable, and fit only for the worldly-minded — 



1 These are the five mendicants who had waited on the Bodisat 
during his austerities, as described in 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' 
pp. 88, 89. Their names are given on p. 113 of that book; see 
below, the note on § 32. 

4 Pabba^ito, one who has gone forth, who has renounced 
worldly things, a ' religious.' 

* Gamma, a word of the same derivation as, and corresponding 
meaning to, our word ' pagan.' 



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DH AMM A-.STAKK A-PPAVATTAN A-SUTTA. 147 

and the habitual practice, on the other hand, of 
asceticism (or self- mortification), which is painful, 
unworthy, and unprofitable. 

3. 'There is a middle path, O Bhikkhus, avoiding 
these two extremes, discovered by the Tathagata 1 
— a path which opens the eyes, and bestows under- 
standing, which leads to peace of mind, to the 
higher wisdom, to full enlightenment, to Nirva«a ! 

4. ' What is that middle path, O Bhikkhus, 
avoiding these two extremes, discovered by the 
Tathagata — that path which opens the eyes, and 
bestows understanding, which leads to peace of 
mind, to the higher wisdom, to full enlightenment, 
to Nirvawa? Verily!, it is this noble eightfold 
path ; that is to say : 

' Right views ; 
Right aspirations ; 
Right speech ; 
Right conduct ; 
Right livelihood ; 
Right effort; 
Right mindfulness; and 
Right contemplation. 

'This, O Bhikkhus, is that middle path, avoiding 
these two extremes, discovered by the Tathagata — 
that path which opens the eyes, and bestows under- 

1 The Tath£gata is an epithet of a Buddha. It is interpreted 
by Buddhaghosa, in the Samangala Vilasint, to mean that he came 
to earth for the same purposes, after having passed through the 
same training in former births, as all the supposed former Buddhas; 
and that, when he had so come, all his actions corresponded with 
theirs. 

'Avoiding these two extremes' should perhaps be referred to the 
Tathagata, but I prefer the above rendering. 

L 2 



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148 FOUNDATION OF KINGDOM OF RIGHTEOUSNESS. 

standing, which leads to peace of mind, to the 
higher wisdom, to full enlightenment, to Nirva»a ! 



5. ' Now * this, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth 
concerning suffering. 

' Birth is attended with pain 2 , decay is painful, 
disease is painful, death is painful. Union with the 
unpleasant is painful, painful is separation from 
the pleasant ; and any craving that is unsatisfied, 
that too is painful. In brief, the five aggregates 
which spring from attachment (the conditions of 
individuality and their cause) 3 are painful. 

' This then, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth con- 
cerning suffering. 

6. ' Now this, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth 
concerning the origin of suffering. 

' Verily, it is that thirst (or craving), causing the 
renewal of existence, accompanied by sensual de- 
light, seeking satisfaction now here, now there — 
that is to say, the craving for the gratification of the 
passions, or the craving for (a future) life, or the 
craving for success (in this present life) *. 

1 On the following ' four truths ' compare Dhammapada, verse 
191, and Mahd-parinibbana Sutta II, 2, 3, and IV, 7, 8. 

2 Or ' is painful.' 

8 PaJi# upadinakkhandha. On the Khandhi, or the mate- 
rial and mental aggregates which go to make up an individual, see 
my 'Buddhism,' Chap. III. Up ad ana, or 'grasping' is their 
source, and the uprooting of this up a dan a from the mind is 
Arahatship. 

One might express the central thought of this First Noble 
Truth in the language of the nineteenth century by saying that 
pain results from existence as an individual. It is the struggle to 
maintain one's individuality which produces pain — a most preg- 
nant and far-reaching suggestion. See for a fuller exposition the 
Fortnightly Review for December, 1879. 

4 'The lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, and the pride of life' 



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DHAMMA-£AKKA-PPAVATTANA-SUTTA. 1 49 

' This then, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth con- 
cerning the origin of suffering. 

7. ' Now this, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth 
concerning the destruction of suffering. 

' Verily, it is the destruction, in which no passion 
remains, of this very thirst ; the laying aside of, the 
getting rid of, the being free from, the harbouring 
no longer of this thirst. 

' This then, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth con- 
cerning the destruction of suffering. 

8. ' Now this, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth 
concerning the way * which leads to the destruction 
of sorrow. Verily! it is this noble eightfold path 2 ; 
that is to say : 

correspond very exactly to the first and third of these three tawhSs. 
' The lust of the flesh, the lust of life, and the pride of life,' or ' the 
lust of the flesh, the lust of life, and the love of this present world/ 
would be not inadequate renderings of all three. 

The last two are in Pali bhava-ta»ha and vibhava-ta«ha, 
on which Childers, on the authority of Vi^esiwha, says: 'The 
former applies to the sassata-di/Mi, and means a desire for an 
eternity of existence; the latter applies to the u£Meda-di/Mi, 
and means a desire for annihilation in the very first (the present) 
form of existence.' Sassata-di/Mi may be called the 'ever- 
lasting life heresy,' and ukkheda-dit/Ai the 'let-us-eat-and-drink- 
for-to-morrow-we-die heresy.' These two heresies, thus implicitly 
condemned, have very close analogies to. theism and materialism. 

Spence Hardy says ('Manual of Buddhism,' p. 496) : 'Bhawa- 
tawhS signifies the pertinacious love of existence induced by the 
supposition that transmigatory existence is not only eternal, but 
felicitous and desirable. Wibhawa-ta»ha is the love of the 
present life, under the notion that existence will cease therewith, 
and that there is to be no future state.' 

Vibhavain Sanskrit means, 1. development; 2. might, majesty, 
prosperity ; and 3. property : but the technical Buddhist sense, as 
will be seen from the above, is something more than this. 

1 Pa/ipadl 

' Ariyo atangiko Maggo. 



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1 50 FOUNDATION OF KINGDOM OF RIGHTEOUSNESS. 

'Right views; 
Right aspirations; 
Right speech; 
Right conduct; 
Right livelihood; 
Right effort; 
Right mindfulness; and 
Right contemplation. 

' This then, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth con- 
cerning the destruction of sorrow. 



9. ' That this was the noble truth concerning 
_sorrow, was not, O Bhikkhus, among the doctrines 

handed down, but there arose within me the eye 
(to perceive it), there arose the knowledge (of its 
nature), there arose the understanding (of its cause), 
there arose the wisdom (to guide in the path of 
tranquillity), there arose the light (to dispel darkness 
from it) 1 . 

10. 'And again, O Bhikkhus, that I should com- 
prehend that this was .the noble truth concerning 
.sorrow, though it was not among the doctrines 
handed down, there arose within me the eye, there 
arose the knowledge, there arose the understanding, 
there arose the wisdom, there arose the light. 

11. 'And again, O Bhikkhus, that I had compre- 
hended that this was the noble truth concerning 
sorrow, though it was not among the doctrines 
handed down, there arose within me the eye, there 

1 The words in parentheses have been added by Gogerly, doubt- 
less from some comment not accessible to me; and I have included 
them also, but in parentheses, as they seem to complete the ideas 
actually involved in the text. 



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DHAMMA-tf AKKA-PPAVATTANA-SUTTA. 1 5 1 

arose the knowledge, there arose the understanding, 
there arose the wisdom, there arose the light. 

12. 'That this was the noble truth concerning 
the origin of sorrow, though it was not among the 
doctrines handed down, there arose within me the 
eye ; but there arose within me the knowledge, there 
arose the understanding, there arose the wisdom, 
there arose the light. 

13. 'And again, O Bhikkhus, that I should put 
away the origin of sorrow, though the noble truth 
concerning it was not among the doctrines handed 
down, there arose within me the eye, there arose 
the knowledge, there arose the understanding, there 
arose the wisdom, there arose the light. 

14. ' And again, O Bhikkhus, that I hadjully put 
away the origin of sorrow, though the noble truth 
concerning it was not among the doctrines handed 
down, there arose within me the eye, there arose 
the knowledge, there arose the understanding, there 
arose the wisdom, there arose the light. 

1 5. ' That this, O Bhikkhus, was the noble truth 
concerning the destruction of sorrow, though it was 
not among the doctrines handed down ; but there 
arose within me the eye, there arose the knowledge, 
there arose the understanding, there arose the wis- 
dom, there arose the light. 

1 6. ' And again, O Bhikkhus, that I should _fully 
realise the destruction of sorrow though the noble 
truth concerning it was not among the doctrines 
handed down, there arose within me the eye, there 
arose the knowledge, there arose the understanding, 
there arose the wisdom, there arose the light. 

17. 'And again, O Bhikkhus, that I had fully 
realised the destruction of sorrow, though the noble 



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152 FOUNDATION OF KINGDOM OF RIGHTEOUSNESS. 

truth concerning it was not among the doctrines 
handed down, there arose within me the eye, there 
arose the knowledge, there arose the understanding, 
there arose the wisdom, there arose the light. 

18. 'That this was the noble truth concerning the 
jway which leads to the destruction of sorrow, was 

not, O Bhikkhus, among the doctrines handed down ; 
but there arose within me the eye, there arose the 
knowledge, there arose the understanding, there 
arose the wisdom, there arose the light. 

19. 'And again, O Bhikkhus, that I should, be- 
come versed in the way which leads to the destruc- 
tion of sorrow, though the noble truth concerning it 
was not among the doctrines handed down, there 
arose within me the eye, there arose the knowledge, 
there arose the understanding, there arose the 
wisdom, there arose the light. 

20. 'And again, O Bhikkhus, that I hacLbe- 
come versed in the way which leads to the destruc- 
tion of sorrow, though the noble truth concerning it 
was not among the doctrines handed down, there 
arose within me the eye, there arose the knowledge, 
there arose the understanding, there arose the 
wisdom, there arose the light. 



21. 'So long, O Bhikkhus, as my knowledge and 
insight were not quite clear, regarding each of these 
four noble truths in this triple order, in this twelve- 
fold manner — so long was I uncertain whether I 
had attained to the full insight of that wisdom 
which is unsurpassed in the heavens or on earth, 
among the whole race of Samawas and Brahmans, 
or of gods or men. 

22. 'But as soon, O Bhikkhus, as my knowledge 



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DHAMMA-XAKK A-PPAVATTANA-SUTTA. 1 5 3 

and insight were quite clear regarding each of 
these four noble truths, in this triple order, in this 
twelvefold manner — then did I become certain that 
I had attained to the full insight of that wisdom 
which is unsurpassed in the heavens or on earth, 
among the whole race of Samaras and Brahmans, 
or of gods or men. 

23. 'And now this knowledge and this insight has 
arisen within me. Immovable is the emancipation 
of my heart. This is my last existence. There 
will now be no rebirth for me!' 



24. Thus spake the Blessed One. The company 
of the five Bhikkhus, glad at heart, exalted the 
words of the Blessed One. And when the discourse 
had been uttered, there arose within the venerable 
Konda/ma the eye of truth, spotless, and without 
a stain, (and he saw that) whatsoever has an origin, 
in that is also inherent the necessity of coming to 
an end \ 

25. And when the royal chariot wheel of the 
truth had thus been set rolling onwards by the 
Blessed One, the gods of the earth gave forth a 
shout, saying: 

' In Benares, at the hermitage of the Migadaya, 
the supreme wheel of the empire of Truth has been 
set rolling by the Blessed One — that wheel which 
not by any Sama«a or Brahman, not by any god, 

1 It is the perception of this fact which is the Dhamma^akkhu, 
the Eye of Truth, or the Eye for Qualities as it might be rendered 
with reference to the meaning of Dhamma in the words that 
follow. 

They are in Pali yaw kinii samudaya-dhammaw, sabba»? 
taw nirodha-dhammaw, literally, 'whatever has the quality of 
beginning, that has the quality of ceasing.' 



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154 FOUNDATION OF KINGDOM OF RIGHTEOUSNESS. 

not by any Brahma or Mara, not by any one in the 
universe, can ever be turned back !' 

26. And when they heard the shout of the gods 
of the earth, the attendant gods of the four great 
kings * (the guardian angels of the four quarters of 
the globe) gave forth a shout, saying : 

'In Benares, at the hermitage of the Migadaya, 
the supreme wheel of the empire of Truth has been 
set rolling by the Blessed One — that wheel which 
not by any Samara or Brahman, not by any god, 
not by any Brahma or Mara, not by any one in the 
universe, can ever be turned back!' 

27. [And thus as the gods in each of the heavens 
heard the shout of the inhabitants of the heaven 
beneath, they took up the cry until the gods in the 
highest heaven of heavens] gave forth the shout, 
saying : 

' In Benares, at the hermitage of the Migadaya, 
the supreme wheel of the empire of Truth has been 
set rolling by the Blessed One — that wheel which 
not by any Samara or Brahman, not by any god, 
not by any Brahma or Mara, not by any one in the 
universe, can ever be turned back 2 !' 

1 Their names are given in the Mah& Samaya Sutta in Grim- 
blot's ' Sept Suttas Palis.' 

1 The text repeats § 26 for each of the heavens ; and the gods 
thus enumerated are as follows, beginning with BhummaDevi 
in § 25 : 

1. Bhummi DevsL 

2. ^Tatumahara^ika Devi. 

3. Y&m&DevL 

4. Tusita Devi 

5. Nimmanaratt Deva\ 

6. Paranimmitavasavattt Devd. 

7. Brahmakayika Devi. 

See the Mahi Samaya Sutta in Grimblot's ' Sept Suttas Palis/ and 



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DHAMMA-JTAKKA-PPAVATTANA-SUTTA. 1 5 5 

28. And thus, in an instant, a second, a moment, 
the sound went up even to the world of Brahma : 
and this great ten-thousand-world-system quaked 
and trembled and was shaken violently, and an 
immeasurable bright light appeared in the universe, 
beyond even the power of the gods ! 



29. Then did the Blessed One give utterance to 
this exclamation of joy : ' Konda»»a hath realised 
it. Konda«»a hath realised it ! ' And so the vener- 
able Konda«»a acquired the name of A»»ata- 
Konda«»a (' the Konda»»a who realised ') 1 . 



End of the Dhamma-^akka-ppavattana-sutta. 



compare Professor Max Mttller's note in 'Buddhaghosha's Parables,' 
p. xxxiii, and Hardy in the ' Manual of Buddhism,' p. 25. 

1 The Maha" Vagga completes the narrative as follows : ' And 
then the venerable AftMta-Kondoima having seen the truth, having 
arrived at the truth, having known the truth, having penetrated the 
truth, having past beyond doubt, having laid aside uncertainty, 
having attained to confidence, and being dependent on no one 
beside himself for knowledge of the religion of the teacher, spake 
thus to the Blessed One : 

'"May I become, O my Lord, a novice under the Blessed 
One, may I receive full ordination 1" 

' " Welcome, O brother !" said the Blessed One, " the truth has 
been well laid down. Practice holiness to the complete suppression 
of sorrow I" 

' And that was the ordination of the Venerable One.' 

The other four, Vappa, Bhaddiya, Mahinima, and Assa^i, were 
converted on the following days, according to the ' Buddhist Birth 
Stories,' p. 113. 

It is there also said that ' myriads of the angels (devas) had been 
converted simultaneously with Kondanya.' 



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TEVIGGA-SUTTANTA. 



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INTRODUCTION 

TO 

THE TEVIGGA SUTTA. 



This is the twelfth and last Sutta in the first division 
of the Digha Nikaya, which is called the Sllakkhandha 
Vaggo, because the whole of its twelve Dialogues deal, 
from one point of view or another, with Sila, or Right 
Conduct. 

There is another Sutta sometimes called by the same 
name, No. 21 in the Middle Fifty of the Ma^^ima Nikaya : 
but it has nothing, except the name, in common with the 
present. It is called Tevig^a Sutta merely because 
Gotama is there described by the complimentary title 
of Tevi^a, 'Wise in the Vedas;' and its full name is 
the Tevi^a-va^Magotta-sutta 1 . 

I have made the present translation from a text con- 
stituted from three MSS.,— my own MS. of the Digha 
Nikaya, referred to as D ; the Tumour MS. of the same 
in the Indian Office, referred to as T; both in Sinhalese 
characters: and the Phayre MS. in the same place, in 
Burmese characters, referred to as P. 



In this book we have Right Conduct used as a sort 
of argumentum ad hominem for the conversion of 
two earnest young Brahmans. 

They ask which is the true path to a state of union 
(in the next birth) with God. After arguing, in a kind 
of Socratic dialogue, that on their own showing, on the 

1 It may be noted, in passing, that the substance of it recurs as the VaMAa- 
gotta Samyutta in the Samyutta Nikaya. 



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l6o TEVIGGA SUTTA. 



basis of facts they themselves admitted, the Brahmans 
could have no real knowledge of their God, Gotama 
maintains that union with a God whom they admitted 
to be pure and holy must be unattainable by men impure 
and sinful and self-righteous, however great their know- 
ledge of the Vedas. And he then lays down, not without 
occasional beauty of language, that system of Right 
Conduct, which must be the only direct way to a real 
union with God. 

One would think perhaps that such a Sutta might be 
adapted, without very great difficulty, for use as a mis- 
sionary tract, so closely does it remind us of the argument 
of many a sermon on the text, ' Except your righteousness 
shall exceed the righteousness of the Scribes and Pharisees, 
ye shall in no wise enter the kingdom of heaven!' And 
it is true that the Tevi^fa — the men of special knowledge 
in the three Vedas— correspond exactly in most essential 
particulars with the Scribes and Pharisees of the New 
Testament. They were the official preservers by repeating, 
as the Scribes were by copying, the sacred books; and 
they were the recognised interpreters, and the sole cus- 
todians of the traditional interpretation — which too often 
explained away the real meaning — of those books. It 
follows that as the law in both cases was included in the 
sacred books, it was they who, in both cases, were the 
real lawgivers, and practically the only lawyers. And 
as almost all learning was confined to, or in close con- 
nection with the sacred books, the Tevjgg-a were the chief 
Pawrfits, as the Scribes were the 'Doctors of the Law/ 
Like the Pharisees, too,' the Brahmans laid claim to 
peculiar sanctity ; and many of them in the pride of their 
education, their birth, and their wealth, looked down with 
self-righteous scorn on the masses of the people. And 
while, on the other hand, the Brahmans further resem- 
bled the Scribes and Pharisees in that many of them 
were justly deserving of the respect in which they were 
held ; it is only the undeserving who, in both cases, are 
intended to be condemned. 

But whatever interpretation of the ' kingdom of heaven ' 



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INTRODUCTION. l6l 



the reader may adopt, it must be very different from any- 
thing the Sutta can mean by 'a state of union with 
Brahma.' It is not easy to say what opinion is really 
imputed to the young Brahmans before their conversion. 
It is probably meant that they were seeking a way by 
which their Self should become identified, after death, 
with Brahman ; a way by which they could escape from 
the immortality of transmigration, from existence alto- 
gether as separate individuals 1 . And in holding out a 
hope of union with Brahma as a result of the practice 
of universal love 2 , the Buddha is most probably intended 
to mean ' a union with Brahma ' in the Buddhist sense — 
that is to say, a temporary companionship as a separate 
being with the Buddhist Brahma, to be enjoyed by a 
new individual not consciously identical with its pre- 
decessor. It is just possible that the argumentum ad 
hominem should be extended to this part of the Sutta; 
and that the statement in III, i should be taken to mean, 
'This (universal love) is the only way to that kind of 
union with your own Brahma which you desire.' But 
such a yielding to heretical opinion at the close of his 
own exposition of the truth would scarcely be imputed 
to a Buddha. 

Just as during the time of the early Christians, in the 
way which Archbishop Trench has so instructively pointed 
out, it was not men only who received a new birth and 
a new baptism, but old words and terms of common use 
were also infused with a new spirit; so the Indian reformer, 
while clothing his new system in the current phraseology, 
infused a different and in many cases a higher meaning 
into the old expressions. 

Thus, for instance, Tevi^a (Sanskrit Traividya) meant 
either knowledge of the Three Vedas, or as an adjective, 
a Brahman possessed of that knowledge ; and then, as a 
noun of multitude, such an assembly of those Brahmans 

1 Compare Professor Max Miiller's Preface to the Sacred Books of the East, 
vol. i. p. xxx. 
» See Chapter in, §§ i, 2. 

[11] M 



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1 62 TEVIGGA SUTTA. 



as is described in the first sections of our Sutta. As there 
were many Brahmans who had not that knowledge, the 
word naturally came to imply a person worthy of the 
respect due to special learning, and was used as a compli- 
mentary title, not very different from our Doctor. It is 
preserved as an epithet of Arahats in the Buddhist writings, 
but as meaning one possessed of the knowledge of a funda- 
mental threefold doctrine of Buddhism, the doctrine of the 
impermanency, the inherent pain, and the absence of any 
abiding principle (any Self) in the confections or compo- 
nent things \ That is to say, the knowledge of the Vedas 
was replaced by a knowledge of the real character of the 
deceptive and evanescent phenomena by which we are 
encircled, and of which we form a part. 

So also with regard to Brahma. The name was retained, 
but the idea was entirely changed. The course of religious 
belief had passed among the Indian section of the Aryan 
tribes through the usual stages of animism and polytheism 
to a kind of pantheism peculiar to India, in which Brahman 
was held to be a first cause, the highest self, emotion- 
less, infinite, absolute. As the Buddhist system was 
constructed without any use of the previous idea of a 
separate soul, or self, or ghost, or spirit, supposed to exist 
inside the human body, this woven chain of previous 
speculation had as little importance for it as theological 
discussions have for positivism. But Buddhism fell into 
what to the positivist would be the unpardonable sin — 
perhaps inevitable at the time and place of its youth— of 
continuing to express a belief in the external spirits, big 
and little, of the then Hindu pantheon. 

They were preserved very much in the previous order 
of precedence, and were all — except Mara, the Evil One, 
and his personal following, and a few others — supposed to be 
passably good Buddhists. They were not feared any more ; 
they were patronized as a kind of fairies, usually beneficent, 



1 See .Bulla Vagga VI, 6, 2, = Gataka, vol. i. p. 2lJ ; Mah&vamsa, p. 79; 
Diparamsa XV, 80 (where the Arahats are women) ; and on ' confections ' below, 
in the Introduction to the ' Book of the Great King of Glory.' 



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INTRODUCTION. 1 63 



though always more or less foolish and ignorant. They 
were of course not worshipped any more, for they were 
much less worthy of reverence than any wise and good 
man. And they were not eternal, — all of them, even the 
very best or highest, being liable, like all things and all 
other creatures, to dissolution. If they had behaved well 
they were then reborn under happy outward conditions, 
and might even look forward to being some day born as 
men, so that they could attain to the supreme goal of 
the Buddhist faith, to that bliss which passeth not away, — 
the Nirvawa of a perfect life in Arahatship. 

The duty of a Buddhist who had entered the Noble Path 
towards these light and airy shapes — for to such vain things 
had the great gods fallen — was the same as his duty towards 
every fellow creature ; pity for his ignorance, sympathy with 
his weakness, equanimity (the absence of fear or malice, or 
the sense of any differing or opposing interest), and the 
constant feeling of a deep and lasting love, all pervading, 
grown great, and beyond measure. 

No exception was made in the case of Brahma. He, 
like every other creature that had life, was evanescent, 
was bound by the chain of existence, the result of ignor- 
ance, and could only find salvation by walking along the 
Noble Eightfold Path. It must be remembered that the 
Brahma of modern times, the God of the ardent theism 
of some of the best of the later Hindus, had not then come 
into existence : that conception was one effect of the in- 
fluence of Mohammadan and Christian thought upon 
Hindu minds. And it would be useless to conjecture 
how the Buddhist theory might have been modified by 
contact with that ideal. 

While regarded however as essentially of the same class 
as all other external spirits, Brahma was still regarded 
as a superior spirit, as a very devout Buddhist, and as 
a kind of king among the angels. The Brahma of this 
world system, who was living in Gotama's time, and who 
is living now, acquired his present exalted position from 
his virtue in a previous birth as a Bhikkhu named Sahaka 
in the time when Kassapa Buddha's religion flourished 

M 2 



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164 TEVIGCA SUTTA. 



upon earth 1 . According to the author of the £ataka com- 
mentary, he assisted at the future Buddha's birth 2 ; and 
twice afterwards he rendered service to the Bodisat just 
before the great conflict with Mara s . And when after the 
victory the Blessed One hesitated whether it would be 
of any use to tell to others the truth he had found, it 
was Brahma who appeared and besought him to proclaim 
the truth *. Brahma Sahampati was the first to give 
utterance to the universal sorrow which followed on the 
death of the Buddha 6 ; and at a critical period in the 
later history of the Buddhist church he is represented to 
have descended from heaven, and to have appeared to the 
Thera Sa//fot, to confirm his wavering faith 6 . 

These instances will show the high character ascribed 
to the Brahma of the world system in which we live; 
and in each of the infinite world systems which are scat- 
tered through space there is supposed to be a like finite, 
temporary, virtuous Brahma sitting as king over the most 
exalted of the angel hosts. 

It must be evident that it follows, without the possi- 
bility of question, that the early Buddhists cannot with 
any accuracy be described as ' monotheists,' and it is much 
to be regretted that even cultured and scholarly writers 
still speak of them as such, and can suggest that the in- 
dependent monotheism of the later Jews can be paralleled 
by a supposed monotheism among the Buddhists 7 . 

And even if the idea of Brahma were at all the same 
as the idea of God, a union with this Brahma would mean 
a merely temporary life as an angel in the Brahma heaven 
— such a life as is represented below to have been the result 
of the noble life and noble thoughts of the Great King 



1 Teste a comnjent quoted by Childers, Diet. p. 327. 

1 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 66. s Ibid. pp. 92, 97. 

4 Ibid. p. 1 1 1 . Related already in the Maha Vagga I, 2 ; 6, J. 

6 Book of the Great Decease, Chapter VI, § 14. 

* Mahavamsa, p. 1 7. 

' 'Their (the Jews') monotheism was perhaps independently evolved; but the 
Buddhists at least showed a contemporary monotheism.' Mr. Huth, in ' Life 
&c. of Buckle,' p. 238. 



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INTRODUCTION. 1 6 5 



of Glory. But this was not the supreme goal of the 
Buddhist faith; and the angel, though the same person 
as the king, from the Buddhist point of view (as resulting 
from, and carrying on, the same Karma), would be a dif- 
ferent person from the king, according to the Christian 
point of view ; for there is no mention of the passage of 
a soul from the earth to heaven, no conscious identity, no 
continuing memory. 



We may draw, from the above, two conclusions. Firstly, 
that the use of a word in Sanskrit authors is but very 
little guide to the meaning of the corresponding word in 
the Pali Buddhist scriptures whenever the word has 
reference to an idea of a religious character. 

And, secondly, that very little reliance can be placed, 
without careful investigation, on a resemblance — however 
close at first sight — between a passage in the Pali Pi/akas 
and a passage in the New Testament. 

It is true that many passages in these two litera- 
tures can be easily shown to have a similar tendency. 
But when some writers on the basis of such similarities 
proceed to argue that there must have been some historical 
connection between the two, and that the New Testament, 
as the later, must be the borrower, I venture to think 
that they are wrong. There does not seem to me to be 
the slightest evidence of any historical connection between 
them ; and whenever the resemblance is a real one — and 
it often turns out to be really least when it first seems 
to be greatest, and really greatest when it first seems 
least — it is due, not to any borrowing on the one side or 
on the other, but solely to the similarity of the conditions 
under which the two movements grew. 

This does not of course apply to the later literature 
of the two religions; and it ought not to detract from 
the very great value and interest of the parallels which 
may be adduced from the earlier books. If we wish to 
understand what it was that gave such life and force to 
the stupendous movement which is called Buddhism, we 
cannot refrain from comparing it — not only in the points 



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1 66 TEVIGGA SUTTA. 



in which it agrees with it, but also in the points in which 
it differs from it — with our own faith. I trust I have not 
been wrong in making use occasionally of this method, 
though the absence of any historical connection between 
the New Testament and the Pali Pifokas has always 
seemed to me so clear, that it would be unnecessary to 
mention it. But when a reviewer who has been kind 
enough to appreciate, I am afraid too highly, what he 
calls my ' service in giving, for the first time, a thoroughly 
human, acceptable, and coherent ' account of the ' life of 
Buddha,' and of the ' simple groundwork of his religion ' 
has gone on to conclude that the parallels I had thus 
adduced are 'an unanswerable indication of the obligations 
of the New Testament to Buddhism,' I must ask to be 
allowed to enter a protest against an inference which seems 
to me to be against the rules of sound historical criticism. 



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ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE 
VEDAS. 



TBVIGGA-SUTTA. 



Chapter I. 

i. This have I heard. At one time when the 
Blessed One was journeying through Kosala with a 
great company of the brethren, with about five 
hundred brethren, he came to the Brahman vil- 
lage in Kosala which is called Manasaka/a. And 
there at Manasaka/a the Blessed One stayed in the 
mango grove, on the bank of the river A&ravati, to 
the south of Manasaka/a \ 

2. Now at that time many very distinguished and 
wealthy Brahmans were staying at Manasaka/a — 
to wit, ATanki the Brahman, Tarukkha the Brahman, 
Pokkharasati the Brahman, G&nussoni the Brah- 
man, Todeyya the Brahman, and other very distin- 
guished and wealthy Brahmans 2 . 

1 Burnouf, in a long note at 'Lotus,' &c, p. 491, already 
attempted to show that the river A^iravatl is the same as the 
modern Rapti, which he supposed to be a corruption of the latter 
part of the longer name. Hiouen Thsang mentions a riveT A-chi- 
Io-fa-ti, which is doubtless the same. It is evidently the river on 
which stood the town of SSvatthi, and near to which lay the Geta- 
vana monastery (see ' Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 331); and it must 
therefore, in accordance with Burnoufs conjecture, be the Rapti, 
which is the Sanskrit Irivati. The Phayre Burmese MS. has 
almost always A^lravatt. 

a Buddhaghosa says that 

A'anki lived at Opasida, 
T&rukkha lived at IHAagala, 



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1 68 ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. CH. 

3. Now a conversation sprung up between Va- 
settha. and Bharadvi^a, when they were taking 
exercise (after their bath) and walking up and down 
in thoughtful mood, as to which was the true path, 
and which the false 1 . 

4. The young Brahman Vase/Ma spake thus : 
'This is the straight path, this the direct way 

which leads him, who acts according to it, into a 
state of union with Brahma 2 — I mean that which 
has been announced by the Brahman Pokkarasati.' 

5. The young Brahman Bharadva^a spake thus : 



Pokkharasadi (sic MS.) lived at Ukka//£a, 

Gawussom lived at Savatthi, and 

Todeyya lived at Tudigama. 
There is some difference in the MSS. as to the spelling of these 
names : T. reads Aankt ; P. T. and D. Ppkkharasati (Sanskrit 
Paushkarasadi); P. Ganuyoni, T. G&tmsoni, D. G&nusoni; P. To- 
reyya, and Burnouf Nodeyya (which is possibly merely a misread- 
ing). <?a«uso»i was converted by the Bhaya-bherava Sutta ; and 
I think it very probable that the other names are also those of 
subsequent converts. 

Buddhaghosa adds that because Manasaka/a was a pleasant 
place the Brahmans had built huts there on the bank of the river 
and fenced them in, and used to go and stay there from time to 
time to repeat their mantras. 

1 Ganghavihara/wanuAankamantanam anuviiarantanaw. 
On the first word see Gataka II, 272 (and comp. II, 240). A'an- 
kamati is to walk up and down thinking. I have added ' after their 
bath ' from Buddhaghosa, who says that this must be understood 
to have taken place when, after learning by heart and repeating all 
day, they went down in the evening to the river-side to bathe, and 
then walked up and down on the sand. 

3 Brahma-sahayyataya. The first part of the compound is 
masculine (see below, § 12), but the Buddhists probably included 
under the name, when put into the mouth of Brahmans, all that 
the Brahmans included under both Brahma and Brahman. The 
Buddhist archangel or god Brahma is different from both, being 
part of an entirely different system of thought. 



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TEVIGGA SUTTA. 1 69 



' This is the straight path, this the direct way 
which leads him, who acts according to it, into a 
state of union with Brahma — I mean that which has 
been announced by the Brahman Tarukkha.' 

6. But neither was the young Brahman Vase/%&a 
able to convince the young Brahman Bharadva^a, 
nor was the young Brahman Bharadva^a able to 
convince the young Brahman V&settAa.. 

7. Then the young Brahman Vase/A6a said to the 
young Brahman Bharadva/a : 

'That Sama»a Gotama, Bharadva^a, of the Sakya 
clan, who left the Sakya tribe to adopt the religious 
life, is now staying at Manasaka/a, in the mango 
grove, on the bank of the river A&ravati, to the 
south of Manasaka/a. Now regarding that vener- 
able Gotama, such is the high reputation that has 
been noised abroad, that he is said to be " a fully 
enlightened one, blessed and worthy, abounding in 
wisdom and goodness, happy, with knowledge of 
the world, unsurpassed as a guide to erring mortals, 
a teacher of gods and men, a blessed Buddha 1 ." 
Come, then, Bharadva^a, let us go to the place 
where the Sama»a Gotama is ; and when we have 
come there, let us ask the Sama«a Gotama touch- 
ing this matter. What the Sama«a Gotama shall 
declare unto us, that let us bear in mind.' 

'Very well, my friend!' said the young Brahman 
Bharadva^a, in assent, to the young Brahman 
Vase#/&a. 

8. Then the young Brahman Vase/Ma and the 
young Brahman Bhiradva^a went on to the place 
where the Blessed One was. 



1 See below, § 46. 

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170 ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. CH. 

And when they had come there, they exchanged 
with the Blessed One the greetings and compli- 
ments of friendship and civility, and sat down 
beside him. 

And while they were thus seated the young 
Brahman V4se//^a said to the Blessed One : 

' As we, Gotama, were taking exercise and 
walking up and down, there sprung up a con- 
versation between us on which was the true path 
and which the false. I said thus : 

' " This is the straight path, this the direct way 
which leads him, who acts according to it, into a 
state of union with Brahma — I mean that which has 
been announced by the Brahman Pokkarasati." 

' Bharadva^a said thus : 

' " This is the straight path, this the direct way 
which leads him, who acts according to it, into a 
state of union with Brahma — I mean that which has 
been announced by the Brahman Tarukkha." 

' Regarding this matter, Gotama, there is a strife, 
a dispute, a difference of opinion between us.' 



9. ' So you say, Vase/^a, that you said thus : 

' " This is the straight path, this the direct way 
which leads him, who acts according to it, into a 
state of union with Brahma — I mean that which has 
been announced by the Brahman Pokkarasati." 

' While Bharadva^a said thus : 

' " This is the straight path, this the direct way 
which leads him, who acts according to it, into a 
state of union with Brahma — I mean that which has 
been announced by the Brahman Tarukkha." 



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TEVIGOA SUTTA. 171 



'Wherein, then, O V4se//^a, is there a strife, a 
dispute, a difference of opinion between you * ?' 

10. ' Concerning the true path and the false, Go- 
tama. Various Brahmans, Gotama, teach various 
paths — the Addhariya Brahmans, the Tittiriya 
Brahmans, the .ATi&andoka Brahmans, the A^andava 
Brahmans, the Brahma^ariya Brahmans 2 . Are all 
those saving paths ? Are they all paths which will 
lead him, who acts according to them, into a state 
of union with Brahma ? 

' Just, Gotama, as near a village or a town there 
are many and various paths 3 , yet they all meet 
together in the village — just in that way are all 
the various paths taught by various Brahmans — the 
Addhariya Brahmans, the Tittiriya Brahmans, the 
jOandoka Brahmans, the A^andava Brahmans, the 
Brahmaiariya Brahmans. Are all these saving 
paths ? Are they all paths which will lead him, 
who acts according to them, into a state of union 
with Brahma ?' 

11.' Do you say that they all lead aright, Vase//$a ? ' 

' I say so, Gotama.' 

' Do you really say that they all lead aright, 
Vasetf&t ?' 

' So I say, Gotama.' 

1 This is either mildly sarcastic — as much as to say, ' that is six 
to one, and half a dozen to the other ' — or is intended to lead on 
V4se//4a to confess still more directly the fact that the different 
theologians held inconsistent opinions. 

2 P. here Atthariyd, but below Addhariy& (Sans. Adhvaryu); 
D. Titittiriya, T. Tattiriya, P. apparently Titthiriya (Sans. Taitti- 
rtya); D. A2andava, T. P. omit (? Sans. AMndasa); all three MSS. 
A^andoka (Sans. A^andoga); P. Bavhad^i here and below Aav- 
hadig£ for Brahma£ariya (? Sans. Brahma£ari). See ' Lotus,' p. 493. 

s Maggani, which is noteworthy as a curious change of gender. 



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172 ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. CH. 

12. 'But then, Vase#/fca, is there a single one of 
the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas who has 
ever seen Brahma face to face ? ' 

' No, indeed, Gotama.' 

' But is there then, Vase/Afca, a single one of the 
teachers of the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas 
who has seen Brahma face to face ?' 

' No, indeed, Gotama ! ' 

' But is there then, Vase//^a, a single one of the 
pupils of the teachers of the Brahmans versed in the 
Three Vedas who has seen Brahma face to face ?' 

'No, indeed, Gotama!' 

' But is there then, Vase//^a, a single one of the 
Brahmans up to the seventh generation who has 
seen Brahma face to face ?' 

'No, indeed, Gotama!' 

1 3. ' Well then, Vase/Ma, those ancient ./?zshis 
of the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas, the 
authors of the verses, the utterers of the verses, 
whose ancient form of words so chaunted, uttered, 
or composed, the Brahmans of to-day chaunt over 
again or repeat ; intoning or reciting exacdy as has 
been intoned or recited — to wit, Azalea, Vamaka, 
Vamadeva, Vessamitta, Yamataggi, Angirasa, Bha- 
radva^a, V4se//^a, Kassapa, and Bhagu 1 — did even 
they speak thus, saying : " We know it, we have 
seen it, where Brahma is, whence Brahma is, whither 
Brahma is?"' 

'Not so, Gotama!' 

14. 'Then you say, Vase#>&a [that not one of the 
Brahmans, or of their teachers, or of their pupils, 
even up to the seventh generation, has ever seen 
Brahma face to face. And that even the .fo'shis of 

1 See Maha Vagga VI, 35, 2. 

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TEVIGGA SUTTA. 1 73 



old, the authors and utterers of the verses, of the 
ancient form of words which the Brahmans of 
to-day so carefully intone and recite precisely as 
they have been handed down — even they did not 
pretend to know or to have seen where or whence 
or whither Brahma is] 1 . So that the Brahmans 
versed in the Three Vedas have forsooth said thus : 
" What we know not, what we have not seen, to a 
state of union with that we can show the way, 
and can say : ' This is the straight path, this is the 
direct way which leads him, who acts according to 
it, into a state of union with Brahma!'" 

' Now what think you, Vase/A&a ? Does it not follow, 
this being so, that the talk of the Brahmans, versed 
though they be in the Three Vedas, is foolish talk ? ' 

' In sooth, Gotama, that being so, it follows that 
the talk of the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas 
is foolish talk!' 

1 5. ' Verily, Vase#^a, that Brahmans versed in 
the Three Vedas should be able to show the way 
to a state of union with that which they do not 
know, neither have seen — such a condition of things 
has no existence ! 

' Just, V4se//^a, as when a string of blind men are 
clinging one to the other 2 , neither can the foremost 

1 In the text §§ 12, 13 are repeated word for word. 

s Andhavewf paramparaw samsattS. The Phayre MS. has 
replaced ve»l by pave»l, after the constant custom of the Bur- 
mese MSS. to improve away unusual or difficult expressions. 
Buddhaghosa explains andhavewi by andhapavewi, and tells 
a tale of a wicked wight, who meeting a company of blind men, 
told them of a certain village wherein plenty of good food was to 
be had. When they besought him for hire to lead them there, he 
took the money, made one blind man catch hold of his stick, the 
next of that one, and so on, and then led them on till they came 
to a wilderness. There he deserted them, and they all — still 



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174 0N KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. CH. 

see, nor can the middle one see, nor can the hindmost 
see — just even so, methinks, Vase#^a, is the talk of 
the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas but blind 
talk : the first sees not, the middle one sees not, 
nor can the latest see. The talk then of these 
Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas turns out to 
be ridiculous, mere words, a vain and empty thing ! ' 



1 6. ' Now what think you, Vase#-£a ? Can the Brahr 
mans versed in the Three Vedas — like other, ordinary, 
folk — see the sun and the moon as they pray to, 
and praise, and worship them, turning round with 
clasped hands towards the place whence they rise 
and where they set ?' 

' Certainly, Gotama, they [can] V 

1 7. ' Now what think you, Vase#/fca ? The Brah- 
mans versed in the Three Vedas, who can very 
well — like other, ordinary, folk — see the sun and 
the moon as they pray to, and praise, and worship 
them, turning round with clasped hands to the place 
whence they rise and where they set — are those 
Brahmans, versed in the Three Vedas, able to point 
out the way to a state of union with the sun or the 
moon, saying : " This is the straight path, this the 
direct way which leads him, who acts according to it, 
to a state of union with the sun or the moon ? " ' 

'Certainly not, Gotama !' 

18. 'So you say, Vase/Ma, that the Brahmans 
[are not able to point out the way to union with that 

holding each the other, and vainly, and with tears, seeking both 
their guide and the path— came to a miserable end I 

1 The words of the question are repeated in the text in this and 
the following answers. It must be remembered, for these sections, 
that the sua and moon were Gods just as much as BrahmS. 



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TEVIGGA SUTTA. I 75 



which they have seen], and you further say that 
[neither any one of them, nor of their pupils, nor 
of their predecessors even to the seventh generation 
has ever seen Brahma]. And you further say that 
even the ifo'shis of old, [whose words they hold in 
such deep respect, did not pretend to know, or to 
have seen where, or whence, or whither Brahma is. 
Yet these Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas say, 
forsooth, that they can point out the way to union 
with that which they know not, neither have seen I] 1 
Now what think you, V4se#/fca? Does it not follow 
that, this being so, the talk of the Brahmans, versed 
though they be in the Three Vedas, is foolish talk ?' 

' In sooth, Gotama, that being so, it follows that 
the talk of the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas 
is foolish talk ! ' 

19. 'Very good, Vase#/fca. Verily then, Vaseta&a, 
that Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas should 
be able to show the way to a state of union with 
that which they do not know, neither have seen — 
such a condition of things has no existence. 



' Just, Vase^a, as if a man should say, " How 
I long for, how I love the most beautiful woman 
in this land !" 

'And people should ask him, " Well ! good friend ! 
this most beautiful woman in the land whom you 
thus love and long for, do you know whether that 
beautiful woman is a noble lady or a Brahman 
woman, or of the trader class, or a ^udra ? " 

' But when so asked he should answer " No." 

' And when people should ask him, " Well ! good 

1 The text repeats at length the words of §§ 12, 13, 14. 

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176 ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. CH. 

friend ! this most beautiful woman in all the land, 
whom you so love and long for, do you know what 
the name of that most beautiful woman is, or what 
is her family name, whether she be tall or short, 
dark or of medium complexion, black or fair, or 
in what village or town or city she dwells ? " 

' But when so asked he should answer " No." 

' And then people should say to him, " So then, 
good friend, whom you know not, neither have seen, 
her do you love and long for ?" 

'And then when so asked he should answer 
"Yes."' 

' Now what think you, Vase/^a ? Would it not 
turn out, that being so, that the talk of that man 
was foolish talk ? ' 

' In sooth, Gotama, it would turn out, that being 
so, that the talk of that man was foolish talk ! ' 

20. ' And just even so, Vase^a, though you say 
that the Brahmans [are not able to point out the 
way to union with that which they have seen], and you 
further say that [neither any one of them, nor of their 
pupils, nor of their predecessors even to the seventh 
generation has ever seen Brahma]. And you further 
say that even the ifoshis of old, [whose words they 
hold in such deep respect, did not pretend to know, 
or to have seen where, or whence, or whither Brah- 
ma is. Yet these Brahmans versed in the Three 
Vedas say, forsooth, that they can point out the 
way to union with that which they know not, 
neither have seen!] Now what think you, Vise/^a? 
Does it not follow that, this being so, the talk of 
the Brahmans, versed though they be in the Three 
Vedas, is foolish talk ? ' 

' In sooth, Gotama, that being so, it follows that 



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I. TEVIGGA SUTTA. 177 

the talk of the Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas 
is foolish talk ! ' 

' Very good, Vase^a. Verily then, Vase#^a, 
that Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas should 
be able to show the way to a state of union with 
that which they do not know, neither have seen — 
such a condition of things has no existence.' 



21. 'Just, Vise/Ma, as if a man should make a stair- 
case in the place where four roads cross, to mount 
up into a mansion. And people should say to him, 
" Well, good friend, this mansion, to mount up into 
which you are making this staircase, do you know 
whether it is in the east, or in the south, or in the 
west, or in the north ? whether it is high or low or 
of medium size ? ' 

' And when so asked he should answer " No." ' 
' And people should say to him, " But then, good 
friend, you are making a staircase to mount up into 
something — taking it for a mansion — which, all the 
while, you know not, neither have seen!" 

' And when so asked he should answer " Yes." ' 
' Now what think you, Vase/^a ? Would it not 
turn out, that being so, that the talk of that man 
was foolish talk ? ' 

' In sooth, Gotama, it would turn out, that being 
so, that the talk of that man was foolish talk ! ' 

22. 'And just even so, Vase#/fo., though you say 
that the Brahmans [are not able to point out the 
way to union with that which they have seen], and 
you further say that [neither any one of them, nor 
of their pupils, nor of their predecessors even to the 
seventh generation has ever seen Brahma]. And 
you further say that even the -tfzshis of old, [whose 

[n] N 



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178 ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. CH. 

words they hold in such deep respect, did not 
pretend to know, or to have seen where, or whence, 
or whither Brahma is. Yet these Brahmans 
versed in the Three Vedas say, forsooth, that they 
can point out the way to union with that which 
they know not, neither have seen!] Now what 
think you, Vase#^a ? Does it not follow that, this 
being so, the talk of the Brahmans versed in the 
Three Vedas is foolish talk?' 

' In sooth, Gotama, that being so, it follows that 
the talk of the Brahmans versed in the Three 
Vedas is foolish talk !' 

23. 'Very good, Vasel/£a. Verily then, Vase#^a, 
that Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas should 
be able to show the way to a state of union with 
that which they do not know, neither have seen — 
such condition of things has no existence.' 



24. 'Again, Vase//£a, if this river A&ravati 
were full of water even to the brim, and over- 
flowing 1 . And a man with business on the other 

1 Samatittiki kakapeyya, a stock phrase used of a river in 
flood time. Buddhaghosa says, Samatittika ti samahariti 
(sic ? sam&hariti) : kakapeyya ti yatthakattha^i tire /Aitena 
kakena sakki patun ti kakapeyya, which does not seem to me 
to solve the question as to the origin and history of these difficult 
terms. With respect to the right form of samatittika' it should 
be noticed that the northern Buddhist spelling is samatirthaka 
(Sukhavativyuha, ed. Max Mttller in J. R. A. S. for 1880, p. 182), 
and that both Childers and Oldenberg have read samatitthikd in 
the Burmese MSS. of MahSparinibbdna Sutta I, 33 = Mah& Vagga 
VI, 28. Now the difference in Burmese letters between tt and tth 
(83 and 83) is so ver y small that the copyists frequently write 
one for the other ; and even in good MSS. where the two are not 
confounded, it is sometimes difficult to tell which is really meant. 
When talking of rivers the mention of titthas seems so appro- 



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TEVIGGA SUTTA. I 79 



side, bound for the other side, should come up, and 
want to cross over. And he, standing on this bank, 
should invoke the further bank, and say, " Come 
hither, O further bank ! come over to this side ! " 

priate that a copyist, and especially a Burmese copyist, would 
naturally read a doubtful combination as tth ; so that even if all 
Burmese MSS. spell this word with tth (which is by no means 
certain), very little reliance should be placed upon the fact. On 
the other hand, the distinction in Sinhalese between tt and tth is 
very marked (<JS> and 3t5), and the Sinhalese MSS. all read tt. 
I think therefore that Childers was right in finally adopting sama- 
tittika" as the correct Pali form. In the numerous words in 
which Buddhist Sanskrit has a form differing in a way which sets 
philological rules at defiance from the corresponding Pali form, 
Childers thought (see Diet. p. xi, where the list of words might be 
greatly extended) that the Sanskrit was always derived from the 
Pali, and the Sanskrit writers had merely blundered. I venture, 
with great diffidence, to doubt this. It seems more likely that, at 
least in many instances, both Pali and Sanskrit were alike derived 
from a previous Prdkrit form, and that in differently interpreting 
a difficult word, both Sanskrit and Pali authors made mistakes. 
That may be the case here ; and it is almost certain that the 
original word had nothing to do with ttrtha. How easily this 
idea could be adopted we see from the fact that Childers when 
first editing the MSS. (in the J. R. A. S. for 1874), and when he 
had only Sinhalese MSS. then before him, altered their reading 
into samatitthiki, and put this form into his Dictionary; though 
he afterwards (in the separate edition), and after noting that 
reading in the Phayre MS., chose the other. But what, after all, 
does ' having equal or level tirthas or landing-places ' mean, when 
spoken of a river? Comp. Samatittikaw? bhuw^imi (Mil. 213, 
214); Sabbato tittaw? pokkharawiw (Git.l, 339, text titthaw) ; 
and Samatittiko telapatto (ibid. 393, text °iyo, but see p. 400). 
The root perhaps is tje/p. 

Klkapeyya, according to Buddhaghosa, would mean 'crow- 
drinkable.' Crows do not drink on the wing ; and they could stand 
to drink either when a river actually overflowed its banks and 
formed shallows on the adjoining land; or when in the hot season 
it had formed shallows in its own bed. * Crow-drinkable ' might 
mean therefore just as well ' shallow ' as ' overflowing.' Had the 
word originally anything to do with k£ka after all? 

N 2 



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l8o ON KNOWLEDGE OF THE VEDAS. CH. 

' Now what think you, Vise/^a ? Would the 
further bank of the river Aiiravatl, by reason of 
that man's invoking and praying and hoping and 
praising, come over to this side ?' 

' Certainly not, Gotama !' 
— « 25. 'In just the same way, Vase/^a, do the 
Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas — omitting 
the practice of those qualities which really make a 
man a Brahman, and adopting the practice of those 
qualities which really make men not Brahmans — say 
thus : " Indra we call upon, Soma we call upon, 
Varu«a we call upon, Isana we call upon,] Pa^pati 
we call upon, Brahma we call upon, Mahiddhi we 
call upon, Yama we call upon 1 !" Verily, Vase^a, 
that those Brahmans versed in the Three Vedas, 
but omitting the practice of those qualities which 
really make a man a Brahman, and adopting the 
practice of those qualities which really make men 
not Brahmans— (that they, by reason of their in- 
voking and praying and hoping and praising, should, 
after death and when the body is dissolved, become 
united with Brahma VA- verily such a condition of 
things has no existence !' 



26. ' Just, Vase#^a, as if this river Aiiravatl 
were full, even to the brim, and overflowing. And 
a man with business on the other side, bound for 
the other side, should come up, and want to cross 
over. And he, on this bank, were to be bound 
tightly, with his arms behind his back, by a strong 

1 The Sinhalese MSS. omit Mahiddhi and Yama, but repeat the 
verb ' we call upon ' three times after Brahma\ It is possible that 
the Burmese copyist has wrongly inserted them to remove the 
strangeness of this repetition. The comment is silent. 



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TEVIGGA SUTTA. l8l 



chain. Now what think you, Vase//^a, would that 
man be able to get over from this bank of the river 
A&ravati to the further bank?' 
' Certainly not, Gotama ! ' 

27. 'In the same way, Vase/Ma, there are five 
things leading to