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The Sacred 
Books of the 
East: The 
institutes of 
Vishnu 



Friedrich Max 
Muller 



±. 




4 



I 









■ 







The New York Public Library 

Astor, Lenox & Tilden Foundations 

* * * 
■ 

The R. Heber Newton 
Collection 

Presented by His Children 
* 193 1 * 



m 







► # 




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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



Bay. to 

Be Kept 



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Honiron 
HENRY FKOWDE 




OXFORD TJNIVEBSITY PBESS WABEHOTTSE 
7 PATEBNOSTEB ROW 



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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



TRANSLATE1> 



BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 



AND EDITED BY 



F. MAX MttLLER 



VOL. VII 



AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1880 

[All rights reserved] - ";;__ 



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THE NEW YORK 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 

537790 A 

ASTOR, LENCX AND 

TLI.DEN FOUNDATIONS 

R 1931 L. 



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THE 



INSTITUTES OF VISHNU 



TRANSLATED BY 



JULIUS JOLLY 



©jrfoiH 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1880 

[All rights reserved] 



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CONTENTS. 



Introduction 






• 






ix 


Vishwu and the Goddess of the Earth . 






i 


The Four Castes .... 








12 


Duties of a King . 












'3 


Weights and Measures . 












23 


Criminal and Civil Law 












24 


Law of Debt 












42 


Writings 












46 


Witnesses 












48 


Ordeals 












52 


Inheritance . 












61 


Funeral Ceremonies 












75 


Funeral Oblations 












83 


Impurity 












87 


Women 












106 


Sacraments . 












112 


Studentship . 












116 


Crimes 












131 


Hells .... 












140 


Transmigration 












M4 


Penances 












149 


Duties of a Householder 












189 


Rules for a Snitaka 












224 


Self-restraint 












231 


.Sraddhas . 












232 


Pious Gifts . 












263 


The Hermit . 












276 


The Ascetic . . . 












279 



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VI11 CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Meditation on Vish/m 287 

Conclusion 291 

General Index 303 

Sanskrit Index 307 

Additions and Corrections 312 

Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the 

Translations of the Sacred Books of the East . 313 



List of the more important Abbreviations. 

Apast. — Apastamba's Dharma-sutra, ed. Bflhler. 

Arv. — Afval&yana's Gnhya-sutra, ed. Stenzler. 

Gaut. — Gautama's Dharmaxastra, ed. Stenzler. 

Gobh. — Gobhila's Grihya-sutra, in the Bibl. Ind. 

M. — Minava Dharmaxastra, Calcutta edition, with the Com- 
mentary of Kulluka. 

Nand. — Nandapa»<#ta, the commentator of the Vishmi-sutra. 

PaT. — Paraskara's Grzhya-sutra, ed. Stenzler. 

■Sarikh. — Saftkhayana's G/vhya-sutra, ed. Oldenberg, in the 
fifteenth volume of the Indische Studien. 

Y. — Ya^fiavalkya's Dharma«lstra, ed. Stenzler. 

Apast. and Gaut. refer also to Dr. Buhler's translation of these 
two works in the second volume of the Sacred Books of the East. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



The Vishmi-smnti orVaish«ava Dharmajastra or Vishwu- 
sutra is in the main a collection of ancient aphorisms on the 
sacred laws of India, and as such it ranks with the other 
ancient works of this class which have come down to our 
time 1 . It may be styled a Dharma-sutra, though this 
ancient title of the Sutra works on law has been preserved 
in the MSS. of those Smr/tisonly, which have been handed 
down, like the Dharma-sutras of Apastamba, Baudhlyana, 
and Hirawyakejin, as parts of the respective Kalpa- 
sutras, to which they belong. The size of the Vishwu- 
sutra, and the great variety of the subjects treated in it, 
would suffice to entitle it to a conspicuous place among 
the five or six existing Dharma-sutras; but it possesses 
a peculiar claim to interest, which is founded on its close 
connection with one of the oldest Vedic schools, the KaA&as, 
on the one hand, and with the famous code of Manu and 
some other ancient law-codes, on the other hand. To dis- 
cuss these two principal points, and some minor points 
connected with them, as fully as the limits of an introduc- 
tion admit of, will be the more necessary, because such a 
discussion can afford the only safe basis for a conjecture 
not altogether unsupported regarding the time and place 
of the original composition of this work, and may even 
tend to throw some new light on the vexed question as to 
the origin of the code of Manu. Further on I shall have 
to speak of the numerous interpolations traceable in the 
Vishwu-sutra, and a few remarks regarding the materials 

1 This was first pointed out by Professor Max Mailer, History of Ancient 
Sanskrit Literature, p. 134. His results were confirmed and expanded by the 
subsequent researches of Dr. Buhler, Introduction to Bombay Digest, I, p. xxii ; 
Indian Antiquary, V, p. 30; Kasmtr Report, p. 36. 



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VISHiVU. 



used for this translation, and the principles of interpreta- 
tion that have been followed in it, may be fitly reserved 
for the last. 

There is no surer way for ascertaining the particular 
Vedic school by which an ancient Sanskrit law-book of 
unknown or uncertain origin was composed^ than by exa- 
mining the quotations from, and analogies with, Vedic 
works which it contains. Thus the Gautama Dharma- 
jastra might have originated in any one among the divers 
Gautama Karanas with which Indian tradition acquaints 
us. But the comparatively numerous passages which its 
author has borrowed from the Sawzhita and from one Brah- 
ma«a of the Sama-veda prove that it must belong to one 
of those Gautama Afarawas who studied the Sama-veda 1 . 
Regarding the code of Ysigiiavalkya we learn from tradi- 
tion that a Vedic teacher of that name was the reputed 
author of the White Ya^ur-veda. But this coincidence 
might be looked upon as casual, if the Ya^iiavalkya-snm'ti 
did not contain a number of Mantras from that Vedic 
Sawzhita, and a number of very striking analogies, in the 
section on funeral ceremonies particularly, with the Grihya- 
sutra of the Va^asaneyins, the Katiya Grzhya-sutra of Para- 
skara 2 . In the case of the Vish/zu-sutra an enquiry of this 
kind is specially called for, because tradition leaves us 
entirely in the dark as to its real author. The fiction 
that the laws promulgated in Chapters II-XCVII were 
communicated by the god Vish«u to the goddess of the 
earth, is of course utterly worthless for historical purposes ; 
and all that it can be made to show is that those parts 
of this work in which it is started or kept up cannot rival 
the laws themselves in antiquity. 

Now as regards, first, the Vedic Mantras and Pratikas 
(beginnings of Mantras) quoted in this work, it is neces- 
sary to leave aside, as being of no moment for the present 
purpose, i. very well-known Mantras, or, speaking more 

1 See Biihler, Introduction to Gautama (Vol. II of the Sacred Books of the 
East), pp. xlv-xlviii. 

* Biihler, Introduction to Digest, p. xxxii ; Stenzler, on Paraskara's Gnhya- 
sutra, in the Journal of the German Oriental Society, VII, p. 527 seq. 



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INTRODUCTION. X! 



precisely, all such Mantras as are frequently quoted in 
Vedic works of divers £akhas ; a. the purificatory texts enu- 
merated under the title of Sarva-veda-pavitra»i in LVI. 
The latter can afford us no help in determining the particular 
■Sakha to which this work belongs, because they are actually 
taken, as they profess to be, from all the Vedas indiscrimi- 
nately, and because nearly the whole of Chapter LVI is 
found in the VasishAfca-smr/ti as well (see further on), which 
probably does not belong to the same Veda as this work. 
Among the former class of Mantras may be included, parti- 
cularly, the Gayatri, the Purushasukta, the Aghamarsha«a, 
the Kushma«*/is, the Vyahn'tis, the Gyeshtka. Samans, the 
Rudras, the Tri#a£iketa, the Trisuparaa, the Vaishwava, 
6akra, and Barhaspatya Mantras mentioned in XC, 3, and 
the Mantra quoted in XXVIII, 51 (= Gautama's 'Retasya'). 
Among the twenty-two Mantras quoted inChapters XLVIII, 
LXIV, LXV (including repetitions, but excluding the Puru- 
shasukta, Gayatri, Aghamarshawa) there are also some 
which may be referred to this class, and the great majority 
of them occur in more than one Veda at the same time. 
But it is worthy of note that no less than twelve, besides 
occurring in at least one other Sakha, are either actually 
found in the Sawhita of the ifaraya«iya-ka^as, the Ka- 
naka 1 (or ^Taraka-sakha ?), or stated to belong to it in the 
Commentary, while one is found in the Kanaka alone, 
a second in the Atharva-veda alone, a third in the Taitti- 
rtya Brahma/za alone, and a fourth does not occur in any 
Vedic work hitherto known 2 . A far greater number of 
Mantras occurs in Chapters XXI, LXVII, LXXIII, 
LXXIV, LXXXVI, which treat of daily oblations, 
Sraddhas, and the ceremony of setting a bull at liberty. 
Of all these Mantras, which, — including the Purushasukta 
and other such well-known Mantras as well as the short 
invocations addressed to Soma, Agni, and other deities, 
but excluding the invocations addressed to Vishwu in the 
spurious Sutra, LXVII, %, — are more than a hundred in 
number, no more than forty or so are found in Vedic 

1 In speaking of this work I always refer to the Berlin MS. 
' XLVIII, 10. Cf., however, Vag-as. Samh. IV, ia. 



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XII VISHJVU. 



works hitherto printed, and in the law-books of Manu, 
Ya^navalkya, and others ; but nearly all are quoted, 
exactly in the same order as in this work, in the JsTara- 
ya#iya-ka/£aka G/7hya-sutra, while some of them have 
been traced in the Kanaka as well. And what is even 
more important, the Kanaka Grthya does not contain 
those Mantras alone, but nearly all the Sutras in which 
they occur; and it may be stated therefore, secondly, that 
the Vishzm-sutra has four long sections, viz. Chapter 
LXXIII, and Chapters XXI, LXVII, LXXXVI, ex- 
cepting the final parts, in common with that work, while 
the substance of Chapter LXXIV may also be traced in 
it. The agreement between both works is very close, and 
where they differ it is generally due to false readings or to 
enlargements on the part of the Vish«u-sutra. However, 
there are a few cases, in which the version of the latter 
work is evidently more genuine than that of the former, 
and it follows, therefore, that the author of the Vishwu- 
svitra cannot have borrowed his rules for the performance 
of 5raddhas &c. from the Kanaka Gr/hya-sutra, but that 
both must have drawn from a common source, i. e. no doubt 
from the traditions current in the Ka^a school, to which 
this work is indebted for so many of its Mantras as well. 

For these reasons * I fully concur in the view advanced 
by Dr. Biihler, that the bulk of the so-called Vishwu-smrzti 
is really the ancient Dharma-sutra of the ^T&rayamya - 
kanaka 5akh4 of the Black Ya^ur-veda. It ranks, like 
other Dharma-sutras, with the Grthya. and .Srauta-sutras of 
its school ; the latter of which, though apparently lost now, 
is distinctly referred to in the Grzhya-sutra in several 
places, and must have been in existence at the time when 
the Commentaries on Katyayana's .Srauta-sutras were 
composed, in which it is frequently quoted by the name 

1 For details I may refer the reader to my German paper, Das Dharmasutra des 
Vishnu und das Ka^Aakagrihyasutra, in the Transactions of the Royal Bavarian 
Academy of Science for 1879, where the sections corresponding in both works 
have been printed in parallel columns, the texts from the KaMaka Grthya-sutra 
having been prepared from two of the MSS. of Devapala's Commentary dis- 
covered by Dr. Biihler (Kasmtr Report, Nos. ii, 12), one in Devanagarl, and 
the other in Sarada characters. 



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INTRODUCTION. Xlll 



of Ka/^a-sutra on divers questions concerning Srauta offer- 
ings, and at the time, when the Karmirian Devapala wrote 
his Commentary on the Kanaka Grzhya-sutra, which was, 
according to the Karmirian tradition, as explored by Dr. 
Buhler, before the conquest of Karniir by the Mahom- 
medans. Devapala, in the Introduction to his work, refers 
to 'thirty-nine Adhyayas treating of the Vaitanika (= 
.Srauta) ceremonies,' by which the Gnhya-sutra was pre- 
ceded, from which statement it may be inferred that the 
Kanaka Srauta-sutras must have been a very voluminous 
work indeed, as the Gnhya-sutra, which is at least equal if 
not superior in extent to other works of the same class, 
forms but one Adhyaya, the fortieth, of the whole Kalpa- 
sutra, which, according to Devapala, was composed by one 
author. It does not seem likely that the Vish«u-sutra was 
composed by the same man, or that it ever formed part of 
the Kanaka Kalpa-sutra, as the Dharma-sutras of Baudha- 
yana, Apastamba, and Hirawyakerin form part of the Kalpa- 
sutras of the respective schools to which they belong. If 
that were the case, it would agree with the GWhya-sutra on 
all those points which are treated in both works, such as 
e. g. the terms for the performance of the Sawzskaras or 
sacraments, the rules for a student and for a Snataka, 
the enumeration and definition of the YLrikkhxas or ' hard 
penances,' the forms of marriage, &c. Now though the 
two works have on those subjects a number of such rules 
in common as occur in other works also, they disagree for 
the most part in the choice of expressions, and on a few 
points lay down exactly opposite rules, such as the Vishwu- 
sutra (XXVIII, 28) giving permission to a student to ascend 
his spiritual teacher's carriage after him, whereas the other 
work prescribes, that he shall do so on no account. More- 
over, if both works had been destined from the first to 
supplement one another, they would, instead of having 
several entire sections in common, exhibit such cross- 
references as are found e. g. between the Apastamba 
G«hya and Dharma-sutras 1 ; though the absence of such 

1 Buhler, Introduction to Apastamba, Sacred Books, II, pp. xi-xiv. 



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XIV VISHJVU. 



references might be explained, in the case of the Vishwu- 
sutra, by the activity of those who brought it into its 
present shape, and who seem to have carefully removed 
all such references to other works as the original Dharma- 
sutra may have contained. Whatever the precise nature of 
the relations between this work and the other Sutra works 
of the ATarayawiya-kaA&aka school may have been, there is 
no reason for assigning to it a later date than to the 
Kanaka .Srauta and Grzhya-sutras, with the latter of which 
it has so much in common, and it may therefore claim a 
considerable antiquity, especially if it is assumed, with Dr. 
Biihler, that the beginning of the Sutra period differed for 
each Veda. The Veda of the Ka^as, the Kanaka, is not 
separated from the Sutra literature of this school by an 
intermediate Brahmawa stage ; yet its high antiquity is 
testified by several of the most eminent grammarians of 
India from Yaska down to Kaiyata 1 . Thus the Kanaka 
is the only existing work of its kind, which is quoted by 
the former grammarian (Nirukta X, 5 ; another clear 
quotation from the Kanaka, XXVII, 9, though not by 
name, may be found, Nirukta III, 4), and the latter places 
the Ka/$as at the head of all Vedic schools, while Patafi- 
^•ali, the author of the Mahabhashya, assigns to the ancient 
sage Ka/^a, the reputed founder of the Ka//*a or Kanaka 
school of the Black Ya,g-ur-veda, the dignified position of 
an immediate pupil of VaLyampayana, the fountain-head of 
all schools of the older or Black Ya^ur-veda, and mentions, 
in accordance with a similar statement preserved in the 
Ramaya«a (II, 32, 18, 19 ed. Schlegel), that in his own 
time the ' Kalapaka and the Kanaka ' were ' proclaimed in 
every village V The priority of the Ka/^as before all other 
existing schools of the Ya^ur-veda may be deduced from 
the statements of the ATarawavyuha 3 , which work assigns to 
them one of the first places among the divers branches of 

1 See Weber, Indische Studien XIII, p. 437 seq. 

* Mahabhashya, Benares edition, IV, fols. 82 b, 75 b. 

3 See Weber, Ind. Stud. Ill, p. 256 seq. ; Max Miiller, Hist. Anc. Sansk. 
Lit., p. 369. I have consulted, besides, two Munich MSS. of the ATaranavyuha 
(cod. Haug 45). 



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INTRODUCTION. XV 



the .Afarakas, whom it places at the head of all schools of 
the Ya^-ur-veda. Another argument in favour of the high 
antiquity of the Ka£#as may be derived from their geogra- 
phical position \ Though the statements of the Maha- 
bhashya and Ramaya«a regarding the wide-spread and 
influential position of the Ka/^as in ancient times are borne 
out by the fact that the A"ara«avyuha mentions three sub- 
divisions of the Ka/yfcas, viz. the Ka/Aas proper, the Pra£ya 
Ka/Aas, and the Kapish/^ala Ka//fcas, to which the JsTara- 
ya#iyas may be added as a fourth, and by the seeming 
identity of their name with the name of the Kaddioi in the 
Pang-ab on the one hand, and with the first part of the 
name of the peninsula of Kattivar on the other hand, it 
seems very likely nevertheless that the original home of the 
K&tkas was situated in the north-west, i. e. in those regions 
where the earliest parts of the Vedas were composed. Not 
only the Kaddioi, but the KanfiCo-OoAoi as well, who have 
been identified with the KapishAfcala Ka^as 2 , are men- 
tioned by Greek writers as a nation living in the Pan^-ab ; 
and while the Pra^ya Ka/^as are shown by their name 
('Eastern Ka/^as') to have lived to the east of the two 
other branches of the Ka/^as, it is a significant fact that 
adherents of the ATaraya«iya-ka^aka school survive no- 
where but in Kaymlr, where all Brahma#as perform their 
domestic rites according to the rules laid down in the 
GWhya-sutra of this school 3 . Karmir is moreover the 
country where nearly all the yet existing works of the 
Kanaka school have turned up, including the Berlin MS. 
of the Kanaka, which was probably written by a Kar- 
mirian 4 . It is true that some of the geographical and 
historical data contained in that work, especially the way 
in which it mentions the Pafi£alas, whose ancient name, as 
shown by the iatapatha Brahma«a (XIII, 5, 4, 7) and Rig- 



1 See Weber, Uber das Ramayana, p. 9 ; Ind. Stud. I, p. 189 seq. ; III, p 469 
seq. ; XIII, pp. 375, 439 ; Ind. Litteraturgeschichte, pp. 99, 332 ; Zimmer, 
Altindisches Leben, p. 102 seq. 

* See, however, Max Muller, Hist. Anc. Sansk. Lit., p. 333. 

* Biihler, Kasmlr Report, p. 20 seq. 

4 This was pointed out to me by Dr. Biihler. 



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XVI VISHJVU. 



veda (VIII, 20, 24; VIII, 22, 12), was Krivi, take us far off 
from the north-west, the earliest seat of Aryan civilization, 
into the country of the Kuru-Pafi^alas in Hindostan proper. 
But it must be borne in mind that the Kanaka, if it may 
be identified with the ' ■ff'araka-.sakhaY must have been 
the Veda of all the A!arakas except perhaps the Maitraya- 
«iyas and Kapish/zfcalas, and may have been altered and 
enlarged, after the Ka*/zas and Zifarakas had spread them- 
selves across Hindostan. The Sutras of a Sakha which 
appears to have sprung up near the primitive home of Aryan 
civilization in India, which was probably the original home 
of the Ka.t/ias at the same time, may be far older than 
those of mere Sfitra schools of the Black Ya^-ur-veda, which 
have sprung up, like the Apastamba school, in South India, 
i. e. far older than the fourth or fifth century B. C. 1 

But sufficient space has been assigned to these attempts 
at fixing the age of the KaAfcaka-sutras which, besides re- 
maining only too uncertain in themselves, can apply with 
their full force to those parts of the Vish«u-stitra only, 
which have been traced in the Kanaka Gr/hya-sutra. It 
will be seen afterwards that even these sections, however 
closely connected with the sacred literature of the Ka/Aas, 
have been tampered with in several places, and it might be 
argued, therefore, that the whole remainder of the Vish«u- 
sutra, to which the Kanaka literature offers no parallel, 
may be a subsequent addition. But the antiquity of the 
great majority of its laws can be proved by independent 
arguments, which are furnished by a comparison of the 
Vishwu-sutra with other works of the same class, whose 
antiquity is not doubted. 

In the foot-notes to my translation I have endeavoured 
to give as complete references as possible to the ana- 
logous passages in the Smn'tis of Manu, Ya^iiavalkya, 
Apastamba, and Gautama, and in the four Gnhya-sutras 
hitherto printed. A large number of analogous passages 
might have been traced in the Dharma-sutras of Visish^a 2 

1 See Btihler, Introd. to Apastamba, p. xliii. 

a See the Benares edition (1878), which is accompanied with a Commentary 
by Kn'shnapanrfita Dharmadhikarin. I should have given references to this 



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INTRODUCTION. XVII 



and Baudhayana as well, not to mention Hirawyakerin's 
Dharma-stitra, which, according to Dr. Biihler, is nearly iden- 
tical with the Dharma-sfora of Apastamba. Two facts may 
be established at once by glancing at these analogies, viz. 
the close agreement of this work with the other SGtra works 
in point of form, and with all the above-mentioned works in 
point of contents. As regards the first point, the Sfltras or 
prose rules of which the bulk of the Vishwu-sutra is com- 
posed, show throughout that characteristic laconism of the 
Stttra style, which renders it impossible in many cases to 
make out the real meaning of a Sfitra without the help of a 
Commentary ; and in the choice of terms they agree as 
closely as possible with the other ancient law-books, and in 
some cases with the G/Vhya-sutras as well. Numerous 
verses, generally in the Sloka metre, and occasionally de- 
signed as ' Githas,' are added at the end of most chapters, 
and interspersed between the Sfitras in some ; but in this 
particular also the Vish/m-sfitra agrees with at least 
one other Dharma-sutra, the Vasish/#a-smr*ti, and it con- 
tains in its law part, like the latter work, a number of 
verses in the ancient Trish/ubh metre 1 . Four of these 
TrishAibhs are found in the Vasish/'Aa-smriti, and three in 
Y&ska's Nirukta as well, and the majority of the Slokas has 
been traced in the former work and the other above-men- 
tioned law-books, and in other Smrs'tis. In point of contents 
the great majority both of the metrical and prose rules of 
the Vishwu-sutra agrees with one, or some, or all of the 
works named above. The Gnhya-sutras, excepting the Ka- 
naka Grs'hya-stitra, naturally offer a far smaller number of 
analogies with it than the SnWtis, still they exhibit several 
rules, in the Snataka-dharmas and otherwise, that have not 
been traced in any other Smrz'ti except the work here trans- 
lated. Among the Smrftis again, each single one may be seen 

work, the first complete and reliable edition of the VasishMa-smri'ti, in the foot- 
notes to my translation, but for the fact that it did not come into my hands 
till the former had gone to the press. For Baudhayana I have consulted a 
Munich MS. containing the text only of his Sutras (cod. Haug 163). 

1 XIX, 23, 34; XXIII, 61; XXIX, 9, 10; XXX, 47 (see Nirukta II, 4 ; 
VSsishtta II, 8-10) ; LVI, 27 (seeVSsUh/*a XXVI11, 15); LIX, 30; LXXII, 7; ' 
LXXXVI, 16. 

[7] b 



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XV111 VISHiVU. 



from the references to contain a number of such rules, as 
are only met with in this work, which is a very important 
fact because, if the laws of the Vishwu-sutra were found 
either in all other Smrc'tis, or in one of them only, its 
author might be suspected of having borrowed them from 
one of those works. As it is, meeting with analogous pas- 
sages now in one work, and then in another, one cannot 
but suppose that the author of this work has everywhere 
drawn from the same source as the other Sutrakaras, viz. 
from ancient traditions that were common to all Vedic 
schools. 

There are, moreover, a number of cases in which this 
work, instead of having borrowed from other works of the 
same class, can be shown to have been, directly or indirectly, 
the source from which they drew, and this fact constitutes 
a third reason in favour of the high antiquity of its laws. 
The clearest case of this kind is furnished by the VasishAfca- 
smriti, with which this work has two entire chapters in 
common, which are not found elsewhere. I subjoin in a note 
the text of Vasish/Aa XXVIII, 10-15, with an asterisk to 
those words which contain palpable mistakes (not including 
blunders in point of metre), for comparison with Chapter LVI 
of this work in the Calcutta edition, which is exceptionally 
correct in this chapter and in Chapter LXXXVII, which 
latter corresponds to Vasish/Aa XXVIII, 18-aa 1 . In both 

^^f »nhi ^uta yw ira* h^r: m»u 
wmfcj ^^tf qg«ti«r* m.rtm i: 1 
Tg^nffifir *mrnTaft jiliaifertft* (?) *i imu 
* vfaurm: ii^ffrn: qwi fa « q i girtw*n (?) 1 
*ntmBifir wnftr jtpiwt'^w ire? 11*111 
S^taK *j wis ^ tt?it ^■snrrfir * 1 
wMh* (?) *nfww «n«H|jii w&p^nrr 11*13 11 

*ftw3i ^rra^ii *r va^J T (?) 1 wrt n«tfn 

*P$t$t$ < HM% « i ^^» 



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INTRODUCTION. XIX 



chapters Vish«u has mainly prose Sutras and throughout 
a perfectly correct text, whereas Vasish/^a has bad Slokas 
which, supported as they are by the Commentary or by the 
metre or by both, can only be accounted for by carelessness 
or clerical mistakes in some cases, and by a clumsy versifica- 
tion of the original prose version preserved in this work in 
others. Another chapter of the Vishwu-stitra, the forty- 
eighth, nowhere meets with a parallel except in the third 
Prama of the Dharma-sutra of Baudhayana, where it recurs 
almost word for word. An examination of the various 
readings in both works shows that in some of the .Slokas 
Baudhayana has better readings, while in one or two others 
the readings of Vishwu seem preferable, though the un- 
satisfactory condition of the MS. consulted renders it unsafe 
to pronounce a definitive judgment on the character of 
Baudhayana's readings. At all events he has a few Vedic 
Mantras more than Vishmi, which however seem to be very 
well-known Mantras and are quoted by their Pratikas only. 
But he omits the two important Sutras 9 and 10 of Vish«u, 
the latter of which contains a Mantra quoted at full, which, 
although corrupted (see Va^-as. Samh. IV, 1a) and hardly 
intelligible, is truly Vedic in point of language; and he adds 
on his part a clause at the end of the whole chapter 1 , which 
inculcates the worship of Ga«e.ra or .Siva or both, and would 
be quite sufficient in itself to cast a doubt on the genuine- 
ness and originality of his version. It is far from improbable 
that both Vasish/Aa and Baudhayana may have borrowed 

CTTftf * «|H I fn ( = ifhrrfir Vishnu LVI, 27) g'Tf'tT T 5 !^ 

VfehnuLVI,i5,i6,thebestMSS.readi|^?nt W^nH 1WI *t*55tfH Mty 
but the Calc. ed. and one London MS. have ^Nd^ I HTCI^ I like Va- 
sishf^a* Of Vishnu LXXXVII the latter has an abridged version, which 
contains the faulty readings ^«!i«ii*l»i«\ (' the skin of a black antelope,' 
Comm.) and ^%H5T (as an epithet of the earth = ^iJ<H1l Vishnu 
LXXXVII, 9). 

1 nnn*nptft »wnfvqfir ^rfir font *r^fir f^nrfv^fK vyrfn \ 

b2 



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XX VISHJVU. 



the sections referred to directly from an old recension of this 
work, as Baudhayana has borrowed another chapter of his 
work from Gautama, while Vasisht/ia in his turn has bor- 
rowed the same chapter from Baudhayana 1 . It may be 
added in confirmation of this view, that as far as Vasish///a 
is concerned, his work is the only Smrz'ti, as far as I know, 
which contains a quotation from the ' Ka/7/aka ' (in XXIX, 
1 8). The Dharma-sutras of Apastamba and Gautama have 
nowhere a large number of consecutive Sutras in common 
with the Vishwu-sutra, but it is curious to note that the 
rule, which the latter (X, 45) quotes as the opinion of 
' some ' (eke), that a non-Brahmanical finder of a treasure, 
who announces his find to the king, shall obtain one-sixth 
of the value, is found in no other law-book except in this, 
which states (III, 61) that a Sudra shall divide a treasure- 
trove into twelve parts, two of which he may keep for him- 
self. Of the metrical law-books, one, the Ya^iiavalkya- 
smriti, has been shown by Professor Max Miiller 2 to have 
borrowed the whole anatomical section (III, 84-104), in- 
cluding the simile of the soul which dwells in the heart like 
a lamp (III, 109, 11 1, 201), from this work (XCVI, 43-96; 
XCVII, 9) ; and it has been pointed out by the same 
scholar, that the verse in which the author of the former 
work speaks of the Arawyaka and of the Yoga-jastra as of 
his own works (III, no) does not occur in the Vish«u-sutra, 
and must have been added by the versificator, who brought 
the Ya^-fiavalkya-snm'ti into its present metrical form. 
Several other Slokas in Ya^Savalkya's description of the 
human body (III, 99, 105-108), and nearly the whole sec- 
tion on Yoga (Y. Ill, 11 1-203, excepting those Slokas, 
the substance of which is found in this work and in the 
code of Manu, viz. 131-140, 177-182, 190, 198-201) may be 
traced to the same source, as may be also the omission of 
Vishwu's enumeration of the ' six limbs ' (XCVI, 90) in the 
Ya^fiavalkya-smn'ti, and probably all the minor points on 
which it differs from this work. Generally speaking, those 

1 See Biihler, Introduction to Gautama, pp. 1-liv. 
* Hist. Anc. Sansk. Lit., p. 331. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXI 



passages which have been justly noticed as marking the 
comparatively late period in which that law-book must 
have been composed 1 : such as the allusions to the astro- 
logy and astronomy of the Greeks (Y. I, 8o, 295), which 
render it necessary to refer the metrical redaction of the 
Ya^Havalkya-smri'ti to a later time than the second century 
A. D. ; the whole passage on the worship of Gawe^a and of 
the planets (I, 270-307), in which, moreover, a heterodox 
sect is mentioned, that has been identified with the Bud- 
dhists; the philosophical doctrines propounded in I, 349, 
350 ; the injunctions regarding the foundation and endow- 
ment of monasteries (II, 185 seq.) — all these passages have 
no parallel in this work, while it is not overstating the case 
to say that nearly all the other subjects mentioned in the 
Ya^avalkya-smr/ti are treated in a similar way, and very 
often in the same terms, in the Vish«u-sutra as well. Some 
of those rules, in which the posteriority of the Ya^fia- 
valkya-smr/ti to other law-books exhibits itself, do occur 
in the Vish«u-sutra, but without the same marks of modern 
age. Thus the former has two Slokas concerning the punish- 
ment of forgery (II, 240, 241), in which coined money is 
referred to by the term nawaka; the Vishwu-sutra has the 
identical rule (V, 122, 123 ; cf. V, 9), but the word nawaka 
does not occur in it. Ya^fiavalkya, in speaking of the 
number of wives which a member of the three higher castes 
may marry (I, 57) , advocates the Puritan view, that no 
.Sudra wife must be among these ; this work has analogous 
rules (XXIV, 1-4), in which, however, such marriages are 
expressly allowed. The comparative priority of all those 
Sutras of Vishwu, to which similar Slokas of Ya^fiavalkya 
correspond, appears probable on general grounds, which are 
furnished by the course of development in this as in other 
branches of Indian literature ; and to this it may be added, 



1 See Stenzler, in the Preface to his edition of YSgHavalkya ; Jacobi, on Indian 
Chronology, in the Journal of the German Oriental Society, XXX, 305 seq., 
&c. Vishnu's rules (III, 82) concerning the wording &c. of royal grants, which 
agree with the rules of Ya£navalkya and other authors, must be allowed a con- 
siderable antiquity, as the very oldest grants found in South India conform 10 
those rules. See Burnell, South Indian Palaeography, 2nd ed., p. 95. 



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XX11 VISHJVU. 



as far as the civil and criminal laws are concerned, that the 
former enumerates them quite promiscuously, just like the 
other Dharma-sutras, with which he agrees besides in 
separating the law of inheritance from the body of the 
laws, whereas Ya^fiavalkya enumerates all the laws in the 
order of the eighteen ' titles of law ' of Manu and the more 
recent law-books, though he does not mention the titles 
of law by name. 

However much the Vish«u-sutra may have in common 
with the Ya^navalkya-smr/ti, there is no other law-book 
with which it agrees so closely as with the code of Manu. 
This fact may be established by a mere glance at the 
references in the foot-notes to this translation, in which 
Manu makes his appearance far more frequently and con- 
stantly than any other author, and the case becomes the 
stronger, the more the nature of these analogies is inquired 
into. Of .Slokas alone Vish«u has upwards of 160 in 
common with Manu, and in a far greater number of cases 
still his Sutras agree nearly word for word with the 
corresponding rules of Manu. The latter also, though he 
concurs in a very great number of points with the other 
law authors as well, agrees with none of them so thoroughly 
as with Vishwu. All the SmWtis of Apastamba, Baudha- 
yana, Vasish/^a, Ya^navalkya, and Narada contain, accord- 
ing to an approximate calculation, no more than about 
130 Slokas, that are found in the code of Manu as well. 
The latter author and Vishwu differ of course on a great 
many minor points, and an exhaustive discussion of this 
subject would fill a treatise ; I must therefore confine 
myself to notice some of those differences, which are par- 
ticularly important for deciding the relative priority of the 
one work before the other. In a number of .Slokas Manu's 
readings are decidedly older and better than Vish«u's. 
Thus the latter (XXX, 7) compares the three ' Atigurus ' 
to the 'three gods,' i.e. to the post-Vedic Trimurti of 
' Brahman, Vishwu, and .Siva,' as the commentator expressly 
states, whereas Manu in an analogous Sloka (II, 230) refers 
to the ' three orders ' instead. At the end of the section 
on inheritance (XVIII, 44) Vish«u mentions among other 



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INTRODUCTION. XX1H 



indivisible objects 'a book/ pustakam ; Manu (IX, 219) 
has the same Sloka, but for pustakam he reads pra£a- 
kshate. Now pustaka is a modern word \ and Varaha- 
mihira, who lived in the sixth century A.D., appears to be 
the first author, with a known date, by whom it is used. It 
occurs again, Vishwu-sutra XXIII, 56 (prokshawena ka. pus- 
takam), and here also Manu (V,i22) has a different reading 
(puna^pakena mrmmayam). The only difference between 
Vish«u-sutra XXII, 93 and Manu V, no consists in the 
use of singular forms (te, srinu) in the former work, and of 
plural forms (vzA, srinuta.) in the latter. Now there are 
a great many other Smrstis besides the Manu-smr*ti, such 
as e. g. the Ya^fiavalkya and Parlrara Smr/tis, in which 
the fiction is kept up, that the laws contained in them are 
promulgated to an assembly of i?*shis ; but there are very 
few Smn'tis of the least notoriety or importance besides 
the Vish«u-sutra, in which they are proclaimed to a single 
person. Other instances in which Manu's readings appear 
preferable to Vish«u's may be found, LI, 60 (pretya £eha 
ka. nishkr/tim) = Manu V, 38 (pretya .ganmani .g-anmani) ; 
LI, 64 (iti kathan£ana) = M. V, 41 (ity abravinmanuA) ; 
LI, 76 (tasya) = M. V, 53 (tayoA) ; LIV, 27 (brahma«yat)= 
M. XI, 193 (brahmawa); LVII, 11 (purastad anu£oditam) 
= M. IV, 248 ; Vasish/^a XIV, 16; Apastamba I, 6, 19, 
14 (purastad apra£oditam) ; LXVII, 45 (sayampratas tva- 
tithaye)= M. Ill, 99 (sampraptaya tvatithaye), &c. But 
these instances do not prove much, as all the passages in 
question may have been tampered with by the Vish«uitic 
editor, and as in some other cases the version of Vishwu 
seems preferable. Thus ' practised by the virtuous ' (sadhu- 
bhij&i nishevitam, LXXI, 90) is a very common epithet of 
'a£ara,' and reads better than Manu's nibaddhaw sveshu 
karmasu(IV, 155); and krikkhr&tiVrikkhrzm (LIV, 30) seems 
preferable to Baudhayana's and Manu's ^rikkhrkt\\arikkht&\i 
(XI, 209). What is more important, the Vish«u-sutra does 
not only contain a number of verses in the ancient TrishAibh 
metre, whereas Manu has none, but it shows those identical 
three Trishftibhs of VasishAfca and Yaska, which Dr. Biihler 

1 See Max Miiller, Hist. Anc. Sansk. Lit., p. 513. 



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XXIV VISHJVU. 



has proved to have been converted into AnushAibh Slokas 
by Manu (II, 114, 115, 144) 1 ; and Manu seems to have 
taken the substance of his three Slokas from this work 
more immediately, because both he (II, 144) and Vishwu 
(XXX, 47) have the reading avraioti for atrmatti, which 
truly Vedic form is employed both by Vasish^a and Yaska. 
The relative antiquity of Vishwu's prose rules, as compared 
to the numerous corresponding Slokas of Manu, may be 
proved by arguments precisely similar to those which I 
have adduced above in speaking of the Ya^fiavalkya-smr/ti. 
As regards those points in the code of Manu, which are 
usually considered as marks of the comparatively late date 
of its composition, it will suffice to mention, that the Vishwu- 
sutra nowhere refers to South Indian nations such as the 
Draviaks and Andhras, or to the Yavanas ; that it shows no 
distinct traces of an acquaintance with the tenets of any other 
school of philosophy except the Yoga and Sankhya systems ; 
that it does not mention female ascetics disparagingly, and in 
particular does not contain Manu's rule (VIII, 363) regarding 
the comparatively light punishment to be inflicted for vio- 
lation of (Buddhist and other) female ascetics ; and that it 
does not inveigh (see XV, 3), like Manu (IX, 64-68), against 
the custom of Niyoga or appointment of a widow to raise 
offspring to her deceased husband. It is true, on the other 
hand, that in many cases Vishwu's rules have a less archaic 
character than the corresponding precepts of Manu, not 
only in the Slokas, but in the Stitra part as well. Thus 
written documents and ordeals are barely mentioned in the 
code of Manu (VIII, 114, 115, 168; IX, 232); Vishwu on 
the other hand, besides referring in divers places to royal 
grants and edicts, to written receipts and other private 
documents, and to books, devotes to writings (lekhya) an 
entire chapter, in which he makes mention of the caste of 
Kayasthas, 'scribes,' and he lays down elaborate rules for the 
performance of five species of ordeals, to which recourse 
should be had, according to him, in all suits of some import- 
ance. But in nearly all such cases the antiquity of Vish/m's 

J Introduction to Bombay Digest, I, p. xxviii seq. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXV 



rules is warranted to a certain extent by corresponding 
rules occurring in the Snm'tis of Ya^navalkya and Narada ; 
and the evidence for the modifications and entire trans- 
formations, which the code of Manu must have undergone 
in a number of successive periods, is so abundant, that the 
archaic character of many of its rules cannot be considered 
to constitute a sufficient proof of the priority of the whole 
code before other codes which contain some rules of a com- 
paratively modern character. To this it must be added 
that the Narada-sm/7'ti, though taken as a whole it is deci- 
dedly posterior to the code of Manu \ is designated by tra- 
dition as an epitome from another and more bulky recension 
of the code of Manu than the one which we now possess ; 
and if this statement may be credited, which is indeed 
rather doubtful, the very particular resemblance between 
both works in the law of evidence and in the rules re- 
garding property (see LVIII) can only tend to corroborate 
the assumption that the Vish«u-sutra and the Manu-smrzti 
must have been closely connected from the first. 

This view is capable of further confirmation still by a 
different set of arguments. The so-called code of Manu 
is universally assumed now to be an improved metrical 
edition of the ancient Dharma-sutra of the (Maitrayawiya-) 
Manavas, a school studying the Black Ya^tir-veda ; and it 
has been shown above that the ancient stock of the Vishwu- 
sutra, in which all the parts hitherto discussed may be 
included, represents in the main the Dharma-sutra of the 
/farayawiya-ka/Aas, another school studying the Black 
Ya^ur-veda. Now these two schools do not only belong 
both to that Veda, but to the same branch of it, as may be 
seen from the isfarawavyuha, which work classes both the 
Ka^as and A"araya#iyas on the one hand, and the Manavas 

1 See the evidence collected in the Preface to -my Institutes of Narada 
(London, 1876), to which the important fact may be added that Narada uses 
the word dtnara, the Roman denarius. It occurs in a large fragment discovered 
by Dr. BUhler of a more bulky and apparently older recension of that work 
than the one which I have translated; and I may be allowed to mention, 
incidentally, that this discovery has caused me to abandon my design of publish- 
ing the Sanskrit text of the shorter recension, as it may be hoped that the 
whole text of the original work will soon come to light. 



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XXVI VISHJVU. 



together with the six or five other sections of the Maitra- 
yawtyas on the other hand, as subdivisions of the Afaraka 
Sakha of the Black Ya^iir-veda. What is more, there 
exists a thorough-going parallelism between the literature 
of those two schools, as far as it is known. To begin with 
their respective Sawhitas, it has been shown by L. Schroder 1 
that the Maitrayawl Samhita has more in common with the 
Kanaka, the Sawhita of the Ka/>6as, than with any other 
Veda. As the KaMas are constantly named, in the Maha- 
bhashya and other old works, by the side of the Kalapas, 
whereas the name of the Maitrayawiyas does not occur 
in any Sanskrit work of uncontested antiquity, it has been 
suggested by the same scholar that the Maitrayawiyas 
may be the Kalapas of old, and may not have assumed 
the former name till Buddhism began to prevail in India. 
However this may be, the principal Sutra works of both 
schools stand in a similar relation to one another as their 
Sawzhitas. Some of those Mantras, which have been stated 
above to be common to the Vishwu-sutra and Kanaka 
Grihya. only, and to occur in no other Vedic work hitherto 
printed, have been traced in the Manava Srauta-sutra, in the 
chapter on F'mdz-pitriya.gha. (I, a of the section on Prak- 
soma) 2 , and the conclusion is, that if the Srauta-sutra of 
the Kanaka school were still in existence, it would be 
found to exhibit a far greater number of analogies with the 
Srauta-sutra of the Manavas. The Grzhya-sutra of this 
school 3 agrees with the Kanaka Grc'hya-sutra even more 
closely than the latter agrees with the Vishwu-sutra, as both 
works have not only several entire chapters in common 
(the chapter on the Vaiivadeva sacrifice among others, 
which is found in the Vish«u-sutra also), but concur every- 
where in the arrangement of the subject-matter and in the 
choice of expressions and Mantras. The Brahmawa stage 
of Vedic literature is not represented by a separate work 
in either of the two schools, but a further argument in 

1 On the MaitrSyan! Samhita, Journal of the German Oriental Society, 
XXXIII, 177 seq. 

4 Cod. Haug 53 of the Munich Library. 

s Codd. Haug 55 and 56 of the Munich Library. For details, see my German 
paper above referred to. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXVI 1 



favour of their alleged historical connection may be derived 
from their respective geographical position. If it has been 
rightly conjectured above, that the original seats of the 
KatAas were in the north-west, whence they spread them- 
selves over Hindostan, the Maitrayawlyas, though now 
surviving nowhere except in some villages ' near the Sat- 
puda mountain, which is included in the Vindhyas 1 ,' must 
have been anciently their neighbours, as the territory occu- 
pied by them extended ' from the Mayura mountain into 
Gujarat,' and reached ' as far as the north-western country ' 
(vayavyad&ra) 2 . Considering all this evidence regarding 
the original connection between the Ka^as and Manavas, 
it may be said without exaggeration, that it would be far 
more surprising to find no traces of resemblance between 
their respective Dharma-sutras, such as we possess them, 
than to find, as is actually the case, the contrary ; and it 
may be argued, vice versa, that the supposed connection 
of the two works with the Vedic schools of the Ka^as and 
Manavas 8 respectively, is confirmed by the kinship existing 
between these two schools. 

In turning now from the ancient parts of the Vishwu- 
sutra to its more recent ingredients, I may again begin by 
quoting Professor Max M tiller's remarks on this work, 
which contain the statement, that it is 'enlarged by modern 
additions written in .Slokas 4 .' After him, Dr. Biihler pointed 
out 6 that the whole work appears to have been recast by an 
adherent of Vish«u, and that the final and introductory 
chapters in particular are shown by their very style to have 
been composed by another author than the body of the 

1 BhSA Dajf, Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 
X, 40. 

* See a passage from the MahSmava, as quoted by Dr. Biihler, Introduction 
to Apastamba, p. xxx seq. The same readings are found in a Munich MS. of 
the JTaranavyuha-vyakhya (cod. Haug 45). With the above somewhat unclear 
statement Manu's definition of the limits of Brahmavarta (II, 17) may not un- 
reasonably be compared. 

* The code of Manu has very little in common with the Manava Gnhya- 
sfltra, both in the Mantras and otherwise. Both Vishnu and Manu agree with 
the KaYoaka in the use of the curious term abhinimrukta or abhinirmukta ; but 
the same term is used by Apastamba, Vasish/Aa, and others. 

* Hist. Anc. Sansk. Lit., p. 134. 

5 Introduction to Bombay Digest, p. xxii. 



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XXVU1 VISHiVU. 



work. If the latter remark were in need of further confirma- 
tion, it might be urged that the description of Vishwu as ' the 
boar of the sacrifice ' (ya^navaraha) in the first chapter is 
bodily taken from the Harivawssa (2226-2237), while mo9t 
of the epithets given to Vish«u in I, 49-61 and XCVIII, 
7-100 may be found in another section of the Mah&bharata, 
the so-called Vish«u-sahasranama. Along with the intro- 
ductory and final chapters, all those passages generally 
are distinctly traceable to the activity of the Vishwuitic 
editor, in which Vish«u (Purusha, Bhagavat, Visudeva, &c.) 
is mentioned, or his dialogue with the goddess of the earth 
carried on, viz. I; V, 193; XIX, 24; XX, 16-31; XXII, 93; 
XXIII, 46 ; XXIV, 35 ; XLVII, 10 ; XLIX ; LXIV, 28, 29; 
LXV; LXVI; LXVII, 2; XC, 3-5, 17-23; XCVI, 97, 98 ; 
XCVII, 7-21; XCVIII-C. The short invocation addressed 
toVishwu in LXVII, 12 is proved to be ancient by its recur- 
rence in the corresponding chapter of the Kanaka Grzhya- 
sutra, and Chapter LXV contains genuine Kanaka Mantras 
transferred to aVishwuitic ceremony. Chapter LXVI, on 
the other hand, though it does not refer to Vishwu by 
name, seems to be connected with the same Vish«uitic rite, 
and becomes further suspected by the recurrence of several 
of its rules in the genuine Chapter LXXIX. The contents of 
Chapter XCVII, in which it is attempted to reconcile some 
of the main tenets of the Sankhya system, as propounded in 
the Sankhya-karika, Sankhya-prava^anabhashya, and other 
works, with the Vaish«ava creed and with the Yoga ; the 
fact that the two Slokas in XCVI (97, 98) and part of the 
51okas in XCVII (15-21) have their parallel in similar 
Slokas of the Bhagavad-gtti and of the Bhagavata-pura«a ; 
the terms Mahatpati, Kapila, and Sankhya^arya, used as 
epithets of Vish«u (XCVIII, 26, 85, 86) ; and some other 
passages in the Vishwuitic chapters seem to favour the 
supposition that the editor may have been one of those 
members of the Vishwuitic sect of the Bhagavatas, who 
were conspicuous for their leaning towards the Sankhya 
and Yoga systems of philosophy. The arrangement of the 
Vishwu-sutra in a hundred chapters is no doubt due to the 
same person, as the Commentary points out that the num- 



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INTRODUCTION. XXIX 



ber of the epithets given to Vishwu in XCVIII is precisely 
equal to the number of chapters into which the laws pro- 
mulgated by him are divided (II-XCVII) ; though the 
number ninety-six is received only by including the intro- 
ductory and final invocations (XCVIII, 6, 101) among the 
epithets of Vish«u. It seems quite possible, that some 
chapters were inserted mainly in order to bring up the 
whole figure to the round number of a hundred chapters, 
and it is for this reason chiefly that the majority of the 
following additions, which show no Vishwuitic tendencies, 
may also be attributed to the Vishwuitic editor. 

i. Most or all of the Slokas added at the end of Chapters 
XX ,(22-53) anc » XLIII (32-45) cannot be genuine ; the 
former on account of their great extent and partial recur- 
rence in the Bhagavad-gita 1 , Mahabharata, and other works 
of general note, and because they refer to the self-immolation 
of widows and to Kala, whom the commentator is probably 
right in identifying with Vish«u ; the latter on account of 
their rather extravagant character and decidedly Pura«ic 
style, though the GaiWa-pura«a, in its very long description 
of the hells, offers no strict parallel to the details given here. 
The verses in which the Brahmawas and cows are celebrated 
(XIX, 22, 23 ; XXIII, 57-61) are also rather extravagant ; 
however, some of them are Trish/ubhs, and the verses in 
XIX are closely connected with the preceding Sutras. The 
two final Slokas in LXXXVI (19, 20) may also be sus- 
pected as to their genuineness, because they are wanting 
in the corresponding chapter of the Kanaka GWhya-sutra ; 
and a number of other verses in divers places, because 
they have no parallel in the Sxariti literature, or because 
they have been traced in comparatively modern works, such 
as the Bhagavad-gita, the PaiL&atantra, &c. 2. The week 
of the later Romans and Greeks, and of modern Europe 
(LXXVIII, 1-7), the self-immolation of widows (XXV, 14 ; 
cf. XX, 39), and the Buddhists and Plmpatas (LXIII, 36) 
are not mentioned in any ancient Sanskrit work. Besides, 
the passages in question may be easily removed, especially 
the Sutras referring to the seven days of the week, which 

1 Besides the passages quoted in the notes, 50-53 nearly = Bhag.-gltS II, 31-35. 



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XXX VISHJVU. 



form clearly a subsequent addition to the enumeration of 
theNakshatras andTithis immediately following(LXXVIII, 
8-50), and the rule concerning the burning of widows (XXV, 
14), which is in direct opposition to the law concerning the 
widow's right to inherit (XVII, 4) and to other precepts 
regarding widows. That the three terms kashayin, pravra- 
gita., malina in LXIII, 36 refer to members of religious orders 
seems clear, but it may be doubted whether malina denotes 
the Pajupatas, and even whether kishiyin (cf. pravragita 
XXXVI, 7) denotes the Buddhists, as dresses dyed with 
Kashaya are worn by Brahmanical sects also, and prescribed 
for students, and for ascetics likewise, by some of the 
GWhya- and Dharma-sutras. Still the antiquity of the Sutra 
in question can hardly be defended, because the acquaint- 
ance of the Vishwuitic editor with the Buddhistic system of 
faith is proved by two other Sutras (XCVIII, 40, 41), and 
because the whole subject of good and evil omens is not 
treated in any other ancient Snm'ti. On the other hand, 
such terms as vedaninda and nistikata (XXXVII, 4, 31, &c.) 
recur in most Smntis, and can hardly be referred to the 
Buddhists in particular. 3. The Tirthas enumerated in 
LXXXV, some of which are sacred to Vish«u and Siva, 
belong to all parts of India, and many of them are situated 
in the Dekhan, which was certainly not included within the 
limits of the 'Aryavarta' of the ancient Dharma-sutra 
(LXXXIV, 4). As no other Smriti contains a list of this 
kind, the whole chapter may be viewed as a later addition. 
4. The ceremonies described in XC are not mentioned in 
other Snw'tis, while some of them are decidedly Vish«uitic, 
or traceable in modern works ; and as all the Sutras in XC 
hang closely together, this entire chapter seems also to be 
spurious. 5. The repetitions in the list of articles forbidden 
to sell (LIV, 18-aa) ; the addition of the two categories of 
atipatakani, 'crimes in the highest degree,' and praktrwakam, 
'miscellaneous crimes' (XXXIII, 3,5; XXXIV; XLII), to 
Manu's list of crimes ; the frequent references to the Ganges 
river; and other such passages, which show a modern 
character, without being traceable in the Snm'tis of Ya^fia- 
valkya and Narada, may have been added by the Vish- 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXI 



«uitic editor from modern Smr*tis, either for the sake 
of completeness, or in order to make up the required 
number of chapters. 6. All the passages hitherto men- 
tioned are such as have no parallel in other ancient Smrz'tis. 
But the Vishwuitic editor did evidently not confine himself 
to the introduction of new matter into the ancient Dharma- 
sutra. That he did not refrain, occasionally, from altering 
the original text, has been conjectured above with regard to 
his readings of some of those Slokas, which are found in the 
code of Manu as well ; and it can be proved quite clearly 
by comparing his version of the Vr*shotsarga ceremony 
(LXXXVI) with the analogous chapter of the Kanaka 
G«hya-sutra. In one case (LI, 64; cf. XXIII, 50= M. V, 
131) he has replaced the words, which refer the authorship 
of the Sloka in question to Manu, by an unmeaning term. 
The superior antiquity of Manu's reading (V, 41) is 
vouched for by the recurrence of the same passage in the 
Gr*hya-sutra of 5ankhayana (II, 16, 1) and in the VksishtAa- 
smrz'ti (IV, 6), and the reference to Manu has no doubt 
been removed by the Vishwuitic editor, because it would 
have been out of place in a speech of Vish«u. References 
to sayings of Manu and other teachers and direct quotations 
from Vedic works are more or less common in all Dharma- 
sutras, and their entire absence in this work is apparently 
due to their systematical removal by the editor. On the 
other hand, the lists of Vedic and other works to be studied 
or recited may have been enlarged in one or two cases by 
him or by another interpolator, namely, XXX, 37(cf.V, 191), 
where the Atharva-veda is mentioned aftertheotherVedas by 
the name of ' Atharvawa' (not Atharvangirasas, as in the code 
of Manu and most other ancient works), and LXXXIII, 7, 
where Vyakarawa, ' Grammar,' i. e. according to the Com- 
mentary the grammars of Pa«ini and others, is mentioned 
as distinct from the Vedangas. The antiquity of the former 
passage might indeed be defended by the example of Apa- 
stamba, who, though referring like this work to the ' three 
Vedas' both separately and collectively, mentions in an- 
other place the 'Atharva«a-vedaV Besides the above works, 

1 See Biihler, Introduction to Apastamba, p. xxiv. 



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XXX11 VISHJVU. 



arid those referred to in LVI, the laws of Vishwu name no 
other work except the Pura«as, Itihasas, and Dharmarastras. 
7. As the Vishwuitic editor did not scruple to alter the im- 
port of a certain number of passages, the modernisation of 
the language of the whole work, which was probably as rich 
in archaic forms and curious old terms as the Ka/'/fcaka 
Grzhya-sutra and as the Dharma-sutra of Apastamba, may 
be likewise attributed to him. As it is, the Vishwu-sutra 
agrees in style and expressions more closely with the 
Smrftis of Manu and Ya^navalkya than with any other 
work, and it is at least not inferior to the former work in 
the preservation of archaic forms. Thus the code of Manu 
has seven aorist forms 1 , while the Vish«u-sutra contains six, 
not including those occurring in Vedic Mantras which are 
quoted by their Pratikas only. Of new words and meanings 
of words the Vish/m-sutra contains also a certain number ; 
they have lately been communicated by me to Dr. von Boht- 
lingk for insertion in his new Dictionary. 

All the points noticed render it necessary to assign a 
comparatively recent date to the Vishwuitic editor ; and if 
the introduction of the week of the Greeks into the ancient 
Dharma-sutra has been justly attributed to him, he cannot 
be placed earlier than the third or fourth century A. D. 2 
The lower limit must be put before the eleventh century, 
in which the Vishwu-sutra is quoted in the Mitakshara of 
V^nane^vara. From that time downwards it is quoted in 
nearly every law digest, and a particularly large number 
of quotations occurs in Apararka's Commentary on Ya^-na- 
valkya, which was composed in the twelfth century 3 . 
Nearly all those quotations, as far as they have been 
examined, are actually found in the Vishwu-sutra ; but the 
whole text is vouched for only. by Nandapawafita's Com- 
mentary, called Vajgayanti, which was composed in the 



1 Whitney, Indische Grammatik, § 826. 

* See Jacobi, Journal of the German Oriental Society. XXX, 306. The first 
author with a known date, who shows an acquaintance with the week of the 
Greeks, is Varahamihira (sixth century a. d.) 

* See Biihler, Kasmtr Report, p. 52. . The MSS. used are from the Dekhan 
College, Puna. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXX111 



first quarter of the seventeenth century. The subscriptions 
in the London MSS. of the Vai^-ayanti contain the state- 
ment, which is borne out by the Introduction, that it 
was composed by Nandapa«*/ita, the son of Ramapawrfita 
Dharm&dhikarin, an inhabitant of Benares, at the instiga- 
tion of the Maharaja K&ravanayaka, also called Tammasa- 
nayaka, the son of Korfapanayaka; and a passage added at 
the end of the work states, more accurately, that Nanda^ar- 
man (Nandapa«dfita) wrote it at Klri (Benares) in the year 
1679 of the era of Vikramabhasvara ( = A. D. 1622), by 
command of Kcravanayaka, his own king. These state- 
ments regarding the time and place of the composition of 
the Vai^ayantt are corroborated by the fact that it refers 
in several cases to the opinions of Haradatta, who appears 
to have lived in the sixteenth century 1 , while Nandapawrfita 
is not among the numerous authors quoted in the Virami- 
trodaya of Mitramura, who lived in the beginning of the 
seventeenth century 2 , and who was consequently a contem- 
porary of Nandapawafita, if the above statement is correct ; 
and that he attacks in a number of cases the views of the 
'Eastern Commentators' (Pra^yas), and quotes a term from 
the dialect of Madhyadera. 

The subjoined translation is based upon the text handed 
down by Nandapa«</ita nearly everywhere except in some 
of the Mantras, which have been rendered according to the 
better readings preserved in the Kanaka G^'hya-sutra. 
The two Calcutta editions of the Vishwu-sutra, the second of 
which is a mere reprint of the first, will be found to agree in 
the main with the text here translated. They are doubtless 
based upon the Vaigayantl, as they contain several passages 
in which portions of Nandapa/wifita's Commentary have 
crept into the text of the Sutras. But the MS. used for 
the first Calcutta edition must have been a very faulty one, 
as both Calcutta editions, besides differing from the best 
MSS. of the Vai^ayanti on a very great number of minor 
points, entirely omit the greater part of Chapter LXXXI 

1 Buhler, Introduction to Apastamba, p. xliii. 
' Buhler loc. cit. 



M 



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XXXIV VISHJVU. 



(3-22), the genuineness of which is proved by analogous 
passages in the other Smn'tis 1 . An excellent copy of the 
Vai^ayanti in possession of Dr. Biihler has, together with 
three London MSS. of that work and one London MS. 
containing the text only, enabled me to establish quite 
positively nearly in every case the readings sanctioned by 
Nandapa«d?ita. I had hoped to publish a new edition of 
the text prepared from those MSS., and long ready for the 
press, before publishing my English version. This expecta- 
tion has not been fulfilled, but it is hoped that in the 
mean time this attempt at a translation will be welcome 
to the students of Indian antiquity, and will facilitate the 
understanding of the text printed in Givananda Vidyasa- 
gara's cheap edition, which is probably in the hands of 
most Sanskrit scholars. The precise nature of the rela- 
tion in which the text of my forthcoming edition stands to 
the Calcutta editions may be gathered from the large speci- 
mens of the text as given in the best MSS., that have been 
edited by Dr. Biihler in the Bombay Digest, and by myself 
in two papers published in the Transactions of the Royal 
Bavarian Academy of Science. 

Nandapa«dfita has composed, besides the Vai^ayanti, 
a treatise on the law of adoption, called Dattaka-mi- 
ma;«sa 2 , a commentary on the code of Para-rara, a work 
called Vidvanmanohara-smrz'tisindhu, one called .Sraddha- 
kalpa-lata, and commentaries on the Mitakshara and on 
AdityaMrya's A.rau£anir#aya. All these works belong to 
the province of Hindu law, and both his fertility as a writer 
in that branch of Indian science, and the reputation enjoyed 
by some of his works even nowadays, must raise a strong 
presumption in favour of his knowledge of the subject. The 

1 The first edition of the ' Vaishnava Dharmasastra ' was published in Bengali 
type by Bhavaniiarana ; the second, in Devanigari type, is contained in 
Givananda Vidyasagara's Dharmash&strasangraha (1876). 

% This work has been published repeatedly at Calcutta and Madras, and 
translated into English by Sutherland (1821), which translation has been re- 
printed in Stokes' Hindu Law Books. The rest of the above list is made up 
from an enumeration of Nandapanrfita's Tikas at the end of Dr. Buhler's copy 
of the Vai^ayantf, from an occasional remark in the latter work itself (XV, 9), 
and from Professor Weber's Catalogue of the Berlin Sanskrit MSS. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXV 



general trustworthiness of his Commentary on theVishwu- 
sutra is further confirmed by the frequent references which 
it contains to the opinions of earlier commentators of that 
work ; and the wide extent of his reading, though he often 
makes an unnecessary display of it, has been eminently 
serviceable to him in tracing the connection of certain chap- 
ters and Mantras with the Kanaka literature 1 . On the 
other hand, his very learning, combined with a strict adhe- 
rence to the well-known theory of Hindu commentators 
regarding the absolute identity between the teaching of all 
Snw'tis, has frequently misled him into a too extensive 
method of interpretation. Even in commenting the Slokas 
he assigns in many cases an important hidden meaning to 
such particles as £a, va, tathi, and others, and to unpretend- 
ing epithets and the like, which have clearly been added for 
metrical reasons only 2 . This practice, besides being con- 
trary to common sense, is nowhere countenanced by the 
authority of Kulluka, in his remarks on the numerous iden- 
tical 51okas found in the code of Manu. With the Sutras 
generally speaking the case is different : many of them 
would be nearly or quite unintelligible without the expla- 
natory remarks added in brackets from NandapaWita's 
Commentary 3 , and in a number of those cases even, where 
his method jars upon a European mind, the clauses sup- 
plied by him are probably correct 4 . The same may be said 
of his interpretations of the epithets of Vishwu, excepting 
those which are based on utterly fanciful etymologies 8 , 

1 See the notes on LXV, 2 seq. ; LXXIII, 5-9 ; LXXXVI, 13. In his Com- 
mentary on LXV II also Nandapandita states expressly that the description of 
the Vaisvadeva is according to the rites of the Ka^a-sakha. 

* For instances, see the notes on XX, 45 ; LXIV, 40. 
s See e. g. Chapter V passim. 

* Thus nearly all the 'intentionally's' and 'unintentionallyV&c, as supplied in 
the section on penances might seem superfluous, or even wrong ; but as in several 
places involuntary crimes are expressly distinguished from those intentionally 
committed (see e. g. XXVIII, 48,51; XXX VIII, 7), and as in other cases a clause 
of this kind must needs be supplied (see XXXIX, 2 ; LII, 3 ; LIII, 5, &c), 
Nandapanrfita is probably right in supplying it from other Smn'tis in most 
remaining cases as well. This method has occasionally carried him too far, 
when his explanations have not been given in the text. 

5 See I, 51, 55 5 XCVIII, 40, 41, 46, &c. 

C 2 



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XXXVI VISHiVU. 



as the style of the introductory and final chapters is as arti- 
ficial, though in another way, as the Sutra style. Though, 
however, in works composed in the latter style, every ka, 
va, or iti, &c, which is not absolutely required by the sense, 
was probably intended by their authors to convey a special 
meaning \ it is a question of evidence in every single case, 
whether those meanings which Nandapa«</ita assigns to 
these and other such particles and expletive words are 
the correct ones. In several cases of this or of a similar 
kind he is palpably wrong 2 , and in many others the inter- 
pretations proposed by him are at least improbable, because 
the authoritative passages he quotes in support of them are 
taken from modern works, which cannot have been known 
to the author of the Vishwu-sutra. Interpretations of this 
class have, therefore, been given in the notes only ; and they 
have been omitted altogether in a number of cases where 
they appeared quite frivolous, or became too numerous, 
or could not be deciphered completely, owing to clerical 
mistakes in the MSS. But though it is impossible to agree 
with some of his general principles of interpretation, or with 
his application of them, Nandapa«</ita's interpretations of 
difficult terms and Sutras are invaluable, and I have never 
deviated from them in my translation without strong reasons 
to the contrary, which have in most cases been stated in the 
notes 3 . Besides the extracts given in the notes, a few other 
passages from the Commentary and several other additions 
will be given in p. 312; and I must apologize to my readers 
for having to note along with the Addenda a number of 
Corrigenda, which will be found in the same page. In com- 
piling the Index of Sanskrit words occurring in this work, 
which it has been thought necessary to add to the General 
Index, I have not aimed at completeness except as regards 

' For instances of this in the Dharma-sutras of Apastamba and Gautama, see 
Biihler, Apast. I, 2, 7, 24 ; 8, 5 ; Gaut. V, 5, 14, 17 ; IX, 44 ; XIV, 45 ; XIX, 
!.?-i5. 20 ; XXI, 9, &c. ; and see also Dr. Buhler's remarks on Gilapaka-sutras, 
Apast. I, 3, it, 7 j Gaut. I, 31, notes. 

2 See V, 117; VII, 7; XXVII, 10; LI, 26; LXXI, 88; LXXIII, 9; 
LXX1V, 1, 2, 7,&c. 

3 See e.g. XVII, 22 ; XVIII, 44 ; XXIV, 40 ; XXVIII, 5, 1 1 ; LV, 20 ; LIX, 
27, 29; LXIII, 36; LXIV, 18; LXVII, 6-8; XCII, 4; XCVII, 7. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXV11 



the names of deities and of penances. My forthcoming 
edition of the Sanskrit text will be accompanied by a full 
Index of words. 

In conclusion I have to express my thanks in the most 
cordial manner to Dr. Biihler, who has constantly assisted 
me with his advice in the preparing of this translation, and 
has kindly lent me his excellent copy of the Vai^ayantl ; and 
to Dr. von Bohtlingk and Professor Max Muller, who have 
favoured me with valuable hints on divers points connected 
with this work. My acknowledgments are due, in the 
second place, to K. M. Chatfield, Esq., Director of Public 
Instruction, Bombay, to Dr. von Halm, Chief Librarian of 
the Royal Library, Munich, to Professor R. Lepsius, Chief 
Librarian of the Royal Library of Berlin, and to Dr. R. 
Rost, Chief Librarian of the India Office Library, London, 
for the valuable aid received from these gentlemen and the 
great liberality with which they have placed Sanskrit MSS. 
under their care at my disposal. 



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VI S HiVU. 



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VI S HiVU. 



i. 

i. The night of Brahman being over, and the 
God sprung from the lotus (Brahman) having woke 
from his slumber, Vishwu purposing to create living 
beings, and perceiving the earth covered with 
water, 

2. Assumed the shape of a boar, delighting to 
sport in water, as at the beginning of each former 
Kalpa, and raised up the earth .(from the water). 

3. His feet were the Vedas ; his tusks the sacri- 
ficial stakes; in his teeth were the offerings; his 
mouth was the pyre ; his tongue was the fire ; his 
hair was the sacrificial grass ; the sacred texts were 
his head; and he was (endowed with the miraculous 
power of) a great ascetic. 

4. His eyes were day and night; he was of 
superhuman nature ; his ears were the two bundles 
of Kusa. grass (for the Ishrfs, or smaller sacrifices, 
and for the animal offerings) ; his ear-rings were the 
ends of those bundles of Kura. grass (used for wiping 

L 1. Regarding the duration of a night of Brahman, see XX, 
14. ' Bhutani' means living beings of all the four kinds, born from 
the womb and the rest (Nand.) The three other kinds consist of 
those produced from an egg, from sweat, and from a shoot or 
germ ; see Manu I, 43-46. 

2. A Kalpa = a day of Brahman ; see XX, 13. 

-".' ft] B 



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VISHJVU. 1, 5. 



the ladle and other sacrificial implements) ; his nose 
(the vessel containing) the clarified butter; his snout 
was the ladle of oblations ; his voice was similar in 
sound to the chanting of the Sama-veda ; and he 
was of huge size. 

5. He was full of piety and veracity ; beautiful; 
his strides and his strength were immense (like 
those of Vish«u) ; his large nostrils were penances ; 
his knees the victim ; and his figure colossal. 

6. His entrails were the (three) chanters of the 
Sama-veda l ; his member was the burnt-oblation ; his 
scrotum was the sacrificial seeds and grains ; his 
mind was the altar (in the hut for the wives and 
domestic uses of the sacrificer) ; the hindparts (of 
Vishwu) in his transformation were the Mantras ; 
his blood was the Soma juice. 

7. His shoulders were the (great) altar ; his smell 
was that of the (sacrificial cake and other) oblations ; 
his speed was the oblations to the gods and to the 
manes and other oblations ; his body was the hut for 
the wives and domestic uses of the sacrificer ; he was 
majestic ; and instructed with the initiatory cere- 
monies for manifold sacrifices (lasting one, or two, 
three, or twelve years, and others). 

8. His heart was the sacrificial fee ; he was 
possessed of the (sacrificial and other) great Man- 
tras employed in order to effect the union of the 
mind with the Supreme ; he was of enormous size 
(like the long sacrifices lasting more than one day) ; 
his lovely lips were the beginnings of the two 

6. * ' This is because the vital breaths, by which the sound of the 
voice is effected, pass through them, it having been said (in 4) that 
the sound of his voice was like the chanting of the Sama-veda.' 
(Nand.) 



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I, 15. V1SHJVU AND THE GODDESS OF THE EARTH. 3 

hymns recited at the beginning of the animal sacri- 
fice ; his ornaments were the whirlpool of the milk 
poured into the heated vessel (at the Pravargya 
ceremony introductory to the Soma-sacrifice). 

9. All sorts of sacred texts (the Gayatri and 
others) were his path in marching ; the mysterious 
Upanishads (the Vedanta) were his couch ; he was 
accompanied by his consort A^aya (Lakshmi); he 
was in size like the Mawimnga mountain. 

10. The lord, the creator, the great Yogin, 
plunging into the one ocean from love of the 
world, 

11. Raised up, with the edge of his tusks, the 
earth bounded by the sea together with its moun- 
tains, forests, and groves, which was immersed in 
the water of (the seven oceans now become) one 
ocean, and created the universe anew. 

12. Thus the whole earth, after having sunk into 
(the lower region called) Rasatala, was in the first 
place raised in the boar-incarnation by Vish«u, who 
took compassion upon the living beings. 

13. 14. Then, after having raised the earth, the 
destroyer of Madhu placed and fixed it upon its 
own (former) seat (upon the oceans) and distributed 
the waters upon it according to their own (former) 
station, conducting the floods of the oceans into the 
oceans, the water of the rivers into the rivers, the 
water of the tanks into the tanks, and the water of 
the lakes into the lakes. 

15. He created the seven (lower regions called) 
Patalas 1 and the seven worlds, the seven Dvlpas 

15. l The seven Patalas are, Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Mahatala, Rasa- 
tala, Talatala, and PMla ; the seven worlds are, Bhur-loka, Bhuvar- 
loka, Svar-loka, Mahar-loka, Gknar-loka, Tapar-loka, and Satya- 

6 2 



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VISHJVU. 1, 16. 



and the seven oceans, and fixed their several 
limits 2 . 

1 6. (He created) the rulers of the (seven) Dvlpas 
and the (eight) guardians of the world (Indra and 
the rest), the rivers, mountains, and trees, the seven 
.tfzshis, who know (and practise) the law, the Vedas 
together with their Ahgas, the Suras, and the 
Asuras. 

17. (He created) Puaias (ogres), Uragas (ser- 
pents), Gandharvas (celestial singers), Yakshas 
(keepers of Kubera's treasures), Rakshasas (goblins), 
and men, cattle, birds, deer and other animals, (in 
short) all the four kinds of living beings 1 , and clouds, 
rainbows, lightnings, and other celestial phenomena 
or bodies (such as the planets and the asterisms), 
and all kinds of sacrifices. 

18. Bhagavat, after having thus created, in the 

loka ; the seven Dvipas or divisions of the terrestrial world are, 
Gambu, Plaksha, .Salmalt, Kuxa, Kraufi^a, Saka., and Pushkara ; 
each Dvipa is encircled by one of the seven oceans, viz. the seas 
of Lava«a (salt-water), Ikshu (syrup), Sarpi^ (butter), Dadhi (sour 
milk), Dugdha (milk), Svadhu (treacle), and Udaka (water), (Nand.) 
The enumerations contained in the Vish»u-pura>ia and other works 
differ on two or three points only from that given by Nand. — 
2 Besides the interpretation followed in the text, Nand. proposes 
a second explanation of the term ' sth&n&ni,' as denoting Bharata- 
varsha (India) and the other eight plains situated between the 
principal mountains. 

16. The eight ' guardians of the world' (Lokapalas) are, Indra, 
Agni, Yama, Surya, Varuwa, Pavana, Kubera, and Soma (M. V, 96). 
The seven i?/'shis, according to the Satapatha-brShmawa, are, 
Gotama, Bharadv%a, Vuvimitra, Gamadagni, Vasish/4a, K&ryapa, 
and Atri. The sixVed&hgas are, .Sikshd (pronunciation), A'/iandas 
(metre), Vystkarawa (grammar), Nirukta (etymology), Kalpa (cere- 
monial), and Gyotisha (astronomy). See Max Muller, Ancient 
Sanskrit Literature, p. 108, &c. 

17. ] See 1. 



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I, 24. VISHJVU AND THE GODDESS OF THE EARTH. 5 

shape of a boar, this world together with all animate 
and inanimate things in it, went away into a place 
hidden from the world. 

19. ^anardana, the chief of the gods, having be- 
come invisible, the goddess of the earth began to 
consider, ' How shall I be able to sustain myself 
(henceforth) ? ' 

20. ' I will go to Kasyapa to ask : he will tell me 
the truth. The great Muni has my welfare under 
constant consideration.' 

21. Having thus decided upon her course, the 
goddess, assuming the shape of a woman, went to 
see Kayyapa, and Kasyapa saw her. 

22. Her eyes were similar to the leaves of the 
blue lotus (of which the bow of Kama, the god of 
love, is made) ; her face was radiant like the moon 
in the autumn season ; her locks were as dark as a 
swarm of black bees ; she was radiant ; her lip was 
(red) like the Bandhu^tva flower; and she was 
lovely to behold. 

23. Her eyebrows were fine ; her teeth exceed- 
ingly small ; her nose handsome ; her brows bent ; 
her neck shaped like a shell ; her thighs were con- 
stantly touching each other ; and they were fleshy 
thighs, which adorned her loins. 

24. Her breasts were shining white, firm \ plump, 
very close to each other, (decorated with continuous 
strings of pearls) like the projections on the fore- 
head of Indra's elephant, and radiant like the gold 
(of the two golden jars used at the consecration of a 
king). 

24. * Or ' equal in size,' according to the second of the two 
explanations which Nand. proposes of the term ' samau.' 



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VISHJVU. I, 25. 



25. Her arms were as delicate as lotus fibres; 
her hands were similar to young shoots ; her thighs 
were resplendent like golden pillars ; and her knees 
were hidden (under the flesh), and closely touching 
each other. 

26. Her legs were smooth and exquisitely 
proportioned ; her feet exceedingly graceful ; her 
loins fleshy; and her waist like that of a lion's 
cub. 

27. Her reddish nails shone (like rubies); her 
beauty was the delight of every looker-on ; and with 
her glances she filled at every step all the quarters 
of the sky as it were with lotus-flowers. 

28. Radiant with divine lustre, she illuminated all 
the quarters of the sky with it ; her clothing was 
most exquisite and perfectly white ; and she was 
decorated with the most precious gems. 

29. With her steps she covered the earth as it 
were with lotuses ; she was endowed with beauty 
and youthful charms ; and made her approach with 
modest bearing. 

30. Having seen her come near, Ka^yapa saluted 
her reverentially, and said, ' O handsome lady, O 
earth, radiant with divine lustre, I am acquainted 
with thy thoughts. 

31. 'Go to visit 6anardana, O large-eyed lady; 
he will tell thee accurately, how thou shalt hence- 
forth sustain thyself. 

32. ' For thy sake, O (goddess), whose face is 
lovely and whose limbs are beautiful, I have found 
out, by profound meditation, that his residence is in 
the Kshiroda (milk-ocean).' 

33. The goddess of the earth answered, ' Yes, 
(I shall do as you bid me),' saluted K&syapa rever- 



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I, 41. VISHMJ AND THE GODDESS OF THE EARTH. 



entially, and proceeded to the Kshlroda sea, in order 
to see Ke^ava (Vish«u). 

34. She beheld (then) the ocean, from which the 
Amrka arose. It was lovely, like the rays of the 
moon, and agitated by hundreds of waves produced 
by stormy blasts of wind. 

35. (With its waves) towering like a hundred 
Himalayas it seemed another terrestrial globe, call- 
ing near as it were the earth with its hands, the 
rolling waves. 

36. With those hands it was as it were constantly 
producing the radiancy of the moon ; and every 
stain of guilt was removed from it by Hari's 
(VishWs) residence within its limits. 

37. Because (it was entirely free from sin) there- 
fore it was possessed of a pure and shining frame ; 
its colour was white ; it was inaccessible to birds ; 
and its seat was in the lower regions. 

38. It was rich in blue and tawny gems (sap- 
phires, coral, and others), and looking therefore as 
if the atmosphere had descended upon the earth, 
and as if a number of forests adorned with a multi- 
tude of fruits had descended upon its surface. 

39. Its size was immense, like that of the skin of 
(Vishmi's) serpent .Sesha. After having seen the 
milk-ocean, the goddess of the earth beheld the 
dwelling of Kesava (Vishmi) which was in it: 

40. (His dwelling), the size of which cannot be 
expressed in words, and the sublimity of which is 
also beyond the power of utterance. In it she saw 
the destroyer of Madhu seated upon .Sesha. 

41. The lotus of his face was hardly visible on 



37. See 15, note. 



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-rim«fHiftr c ^ j ~-iiir~iT~ * ~ 



8 VISHJVU. I, 42. 

account of the lustre of the gems decorating the 
neck of the snake .Sesha ; he was shining like a 
hundred moons ; and his splendour was equal to 
the rays of a myriad of suns. 

42. He was clad in a yellow robe (radiant like 
gold) ; imperturbable ; decorated with all kinds of 
gems ; and shining with the lustre of a diadem 
resembling the sun in colour, and with (splendid) 
ear-rings. 

43. Lakshmi was stroking his feet with her soft 
palms ; and his attributes (the shell, the discus, the 
mace, and the lotus-flower) wearing bodies were 
attending upon him on all sides. 

44. Having espied the lotus-eyed slayer of 
Madhu, she knelt down upon the ground and ad- 
dressed him as follows : 

45. ' When formerly I was sunk into the region 
of Rasatala, I was raised by thee, O God, and 
restored to my ancient seat, O Vishmi, thanks to 
thy benevolence towards living beings. 

46. ' Being there, how am I to maintain myself 
upon it, O lord of the gods ? ' Having been thus 
addressed by the goddess, the god enunciated the 
following answer : 

47. 'Those who practise the duties ordained for 
each caste and for each order, and who act up 
strictly to the holy law, will sustain thee, O earth ; 
to them is thy care committed.' 

48. Having received this answer, the goddess of 
the earth said to the chief of the gods, ' Communi- 
cate to me the eternal laws of the castes and of the 
orders. 

47. Regarding the four castes and the four orders, see II, 1; 
IH.3- 



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I, 52. VISHJVU AND THE GODDESS OF THE EARTH. 9 

49. ' I desire to learn them from thee ; for thou 
art my chief stay. Adoration be to thee, O brilliant 1 
chief of the gods, who annihilatest the power of the 
(Daityas and other) enemies of the gods. 

50. ' O Naraya#a (son of Nara), O Gagannatha 
(sovereign of the world) ; thou holdest the shell, the 
discus, and the mace (in thy hands) ; thou hast 
a lotus (Brahman) springing from thy navel ; thou 
art the lord of the senses ; thou art most powerful 
and endowed with conquering strength. 

51. 'Thou art beyond the cognisance of the 
senses ; thy end is most difficult to know ; thou art 
brilliant ; thou holdest the bow .Sarftga ; thou art 
the boar 1 ; thou art terrible ; thou art Govinda 2 (the 
herdsman) ; thou art of old ; thou art Purushottama 
(the spirit supreme). 

52. 'Thy hair is golden; thy eyes are every- 
where ; thy body is the sacrifice ; thou art free from 
stain ; thou art the " field " (the corporeal frame) ; 
thou art the principle of life ; thou art the ruler 



49. 1 This is Nand.'s interpretation of the term ' deva,' but it 
may also be taken in its usual acceptation of ' god.' 

51. * This is the third of the three interpretations of the term 
var&ha, which Nand. proposes. According to the first, it would 
mean 'one who kills his worst or most prominent foes ; ' according 
to the second, ' one who gratifies his own desires.' But these two 
interpretations are based upon a fanciful derivation of var&ha from 
vara and S-han. Of many others among the epithets Nand. proposes 
equally fanciful etymologies, which I shall pass over unnoticed. — 
2 This epithet, which literally means ' he who finds or wins cows,' 
is usually referred to Vishmi's recovering the ' cow,' i.e. the earth, 
when it was lost in the waters: see MaMbh. XII, 13228, which 
verse is quoted both by Nand. and by Sahkara in his Commentary 
on the Vishmi-sahasranSma. It originally refers, no doubt, to 
Vishwu or Kmhwa as the pastoral god. 



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10 VISH2VU. I, 53. 

of the world; thou art lying on the bed of the 
ocean. 

53. 'Thou art Mantra (prayer); thou knowest 
the Mantras; thou surpassest all conception; thy 
frame is composed of the Vedas and Vedangas ; 
the creation and destruction of this whole world is 
effected through thee. 

54. ' Thou knowest right and wrong ; thy body is 
law ; law springs from thee; desires are gratified by 
thee ; thy powers are everywhere ; thou art (im- 
perishable like) Amrz'ta (ambrosia) ; thou art heaven ; 
thou art the destroyer of Madhu and Kai/asa. 

55. 'Thou causest the increase of the great; 
thou art inscrutable ; thou art all ; thou givest 
shelter to all ; thou art the chief one ; thou art free 
from sin ; thou art (^Imuta ; thou art inexhaustible ; 
thou art the creator. 

56. 'Thou increasest the welfare (of the world); 
the waters spring from thee; thou art the seat of 
intelligence ; action is not found in thee ; thou pre- 
sidest over seven chief things x ; thou art the teacher 
of religious rites ; thou art of old ; thou art Puru- 
shottama. 

57. 'Thou art not to be shaken; thou art unde- 

55. ' The great (bnhat) means time, space, and the like. . . . 
He is called " all " because he is capable of assuming any shape.' 
(Nand.) The sense of the term '^imuta,' as an epithet of divine 
beings, is uncertain. According to Nand., it would mean ' he who 
sprinkles living beings;' but this interpretation is based upon a 
fanciful derivation, from g\va, and mutrayati. 

56. * This refeTS either to the seven divisions of a S&man ; or to 
the seven species, of which each of the three kinds of sacrifices, 
domestic offerings, burnt-offerings, and Soma-sacrifices, consists (cf. 
Gaut. VIII, 18-20); or to the seven worlds (see 15, note), Bhur 
and the rest (Nand.) 



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I, 63. VISHtfU AND THE GODDESS OF THE EARTH. I I 

caying ; thou art the producer of the atoms ; thou 
art kind to faithful attendants ; thou art the purifier 
(of sinners) ; thou art the protector of all the gods ; 
thou art the protector of the pious. 

58. ' Thou art also the protector of those who 
know the Veda, O Purushottama. I have come, 
O (7agannatha, to the immovable Vfiiaspati (the 
lord of holy speech), the lord ; 

59. ' To him, who is very pious ; invincible ; 
Vasushewa (who has treasures for his armies) ; who 
bestows largesses upon his followers ; who • is en- 
dowed with the power of intense devotion ; who is 
the germ of the ether ; from whom the rays (of the 
sun and moon) proceed ; 

60. 'To Vasudeva; the great soul of the universe ; 
whose eyes are like lotuses; who is eternal; the 
preceptor of the Suras and of the Asuras ; brilliant ; 
omnipresent ; the great lord of all creatures ; 

61. 'Who has one body and four faces; who is 
the producer of (the five grosser elements, ether, air, 
fire, water, and earth), the producers of the world. 
Teach me concisely, O Bhagavat, the eternal laws 
ordained for the aggregate of the four castes, 

62. ' Together with the customs to be observed 
by each order and with the secret ordinances.' The 
chief of the gods, thus addressed by the goddess of 
the earth, replied to her as follows : 



62. According to Nand., the term rahasya, 'secret ordinances 
or doctrines,' has to be referred either to the laws regarding the 
occupations lawful for each caste in times of distress (Spaddharma, 
see II, 15), or to the penances (XLVI seq.) The latter interpre- 
tation seems to be the more plausible one, with the limitation, 
however, that rahasya is only used to denote the penances for 
secret faults, which are termed rahasya in LV, 1. 



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1 2 VISH2VU. I 63. 

63. ' Learn from me, in a concise form, O radiant 
goddess of the earth, the eternal laws for the aggre- 
gate of the four castes, together with the customs 
to be observed by each order, and with the secret 
ordinances, 

64. ' Which will effect the final liberation of the 
virtuous persons, who will support thee. Be seated 
upon this splendid golden seat, O handsome-thighed 
goddess. 

65. ' Seated at ease, listen to me proclaiming the 
sacred, laws.' The goddess of the earth, thereupon, 
seated at ease, listened to the sacred precepts as 
they came from the mouth of Vishmi. 

II. 

1. Brahma#as, Kshatriyas, Vai^yas, and .Sttdras 
are the four castes. 

2. The first three of these are (called) twice- 
born. 

3. For them the whole number of ceremonies, 
which begin with the impregnation and end with 
the ceremony of burning the dead body, have to be 
performed with (the recitation of) Mantras. 

4. Their duties are : 

5. For a Brahmawa, to teach (the Veda) ; 

6. For a Kshatriya, constant practice in arms ; 

7. For a Vai^-ya, the tending of cattle ; 

8. For a 6Yldra, to serve the twice-born ; 

II. 1. Apast. 1, 1, 1, 3. — 1, 2. M. X, 4 ; Y. 1, 10. — 3. M. II, 26 ; 
Y. I, 10. — 4-9. M.I, 88-91; VIII, 410; IX, 326-335; X, 
75-79J Y.1,118-120; Apast. 1, 1, 1, 5, 6 ; 11,5,10,4-7; Gaut. 
X, 2, 7,49,56.— 15. M.X,8i; Y. Ill, 35; Gaut. VII, 6.— 16, 17. 
Gaut. VIII, 23; X, 51. 'This chapter treats of the four castes.' 
(Nand.) 



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IH,3. DUTIES OF A KING. 1 3 

9. For all the twice-born, to sacrifice and to 
study (the Veda). 

10. Again, their modes of livelihood are : 

11. For a Brahma#a, to sacrifice for others and 
to receive alms ; 

12. For a Kshatriya, to protect the world (and 
receive due reward, in form of taxes); 

13. For a Vai^ya, tillage, keeping cows (and 
other cattle), traffic, lending money upon interest, 
and growing seeds; 

14. For a .Sudra, all branches of art (such as 
painting and the other fine arts); 

15. In times of distress, each caste may follow 
the occupation of that next (below) to it in rank. 

16. Forbearance, veracity, restraint, purity, libe- 
rality, self-control, not to kill (any living being), 
obedience towards one's Gurus, visiting places of 
pilgrimage, sympathy (with the afflicted), 

17. Straightforwardness, freedom from covetous- 
ness, reverence towards gods and Brahma»as, and 
freedom from anger are duties common (to all 
castes). 

III. 

1. Now the duties of a king are : 

2. To protect his people, 

14. According to Nand., the use of the term sarva, ' all,' implies 
that .Sudras may also follow the occupations of a Vauya, tillage and 
the rest, as ordained by Devala. 

16. The term Guru, 'superior,' generally denotes the parents and 
the teacher, or Guru in the narrower sense of the term ; see XXXI, 
1,2. It may also include all those who are one's elders or betters ; 
see XXXII, 1-3. 

III. 2, 3. M.VII, 35, 144 ; Gaut. X, 7; XI, 9. — 4, 5. M. VII, 
69 ; Y. I, 320. — 6. M. VII, 70; Y. 1, 320; Apast. II, 10, 25, 2. — 



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14 VISHATU. Ill, 3. 

3. And to keep the four castes and the four 
orders x in the practice of their several duties. 

4. Let the king fix his abode in a district con- 
taining open plains, fit for cattle, and abounding in 
grain; 

5. And inhabited by many Vaisyas and 6"udras. 

6. There let him reside in a stronghold (the 
strength of which consists) either in (its being sur- 
rounded by) a desert, or in (a throng of) armed 

7-10. M. VII, 115; Apast. II, 10, 26, 4, 5. — n-15. M. VII, 116, 
117. — 16-21. M. VII, 61,625 Y.I, 321. — 22-25. M.VII, 130- 
132 ; Y. I, 327 ; Apast. II, 10, 26, 9; Gaut. X, 24, 25. — 26. M. 
VII, 133; Apast. II, 10, 26, 10. — 28. M.VIII, 304 ; Y. I, 334; 
Gaut XI, 11.— 29, 30. M.VII, 128 ; VIII, 398; Y. II, 161 ; Gaut. 
X, 2 6. — 31. M.VIII, 400; Y. II, 262.— 32. M.VII, 138; Gaut. 
X.3I-33.— 33. M. IX, 294; Y.I, 352.— 35. M.VII, 122, 184; 
Y. I, 331, 337- — 36, 37- Y. I, 337. — 38-41. M.VII, 158-161, 
182,183; Y.I, 344-347- — 42. M.VII, 203; Y. I, 342. — 43. M. 
VII, 215.— 44. M. VII, 88. — 45. M.VII, 89; Y.I, 324; Apast. 
II, 10, 26, 2, 3. — 47. M. VII, 202. — 50-52. M.VII, 50, 51. — 
55. M. VII, 62 ; VIII, 39. — 56-58. M. VIII, 37, 38 ; Y. II, 34 ; 
Gaut. X, 43, 44. — 61. Gaut. X, 45. — 62. Y. II, 35. — 63. M. 
VIII, 35.— 64. M.VIII, 36.— 65. M.VIII, 27, 28 ; Gaut. X, 48. — 
66, 67. M.VIII, 40; Y. II, 36; Apast. II, 10, 26, 8; Gaut. X, 46, 
47. — 68. Gaut. X, 17. — 70. M. VII, 78 ; Y. I, 312 ; Gaut. XI, 
12.— 71. M.VII, 54, 60; Y. I, 311. — 72. M.VIII, 1 ; Y.II, 1. — 
73. M.VIH, 9 ; Y. II, 3 ; Gaut. XIII, 96. — 74. M. VIII, 12-19 ; 
Y. II, 2 ; Apast II, 11, 29, 5. — 75. Gaut. XI, 15. — 76, 77. M. 
VII, 38.-79, 80. M.VII, 134; Y.I, 338; Apast. II, 10, 25, 11 ; 
Gaut. X, 9, 10. — 81. Apast. II, 10, 26, 1. — 81, 82. Y. I, 317- 
319. — 84. M.VII, 82; Y.I, 314. — 85. M.VII, 220.-87,88. 
M.VH,2i7, 218. — 89. M.VII, 146.-91,92. M.VII, 16} VIII, 
126; Y. I, 367; Gaut. X, 8.- 94. M.VIII, 335; Y. I, 357; 
Apast. II, 11, 28, 13. — 95. M.VII, 25. — 96. M. VII, 32; Y. I, 
333. — 97. M.VII, 33. Chapters III-XVIII contain the section 
on vyavahara, 'jurisprudence.' (Nand.) 

3. * Of student, householder, hermit, and ascetic. 

5. ' And there should be many virtuous men in it, as stated by 
Manu, VII, 69/ (Nand.) 



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Ill, i8. DUTIES OF A KING. 1 5 

men, or in fortifications (of stone, brick, or others), 
or in water (enclosing it on all sides), or in trees, or in 
mountains (sheltering it against a foreign invasion). 

7. (While he resides) there, let him appoint chiefs 
(or governors) in every village ; 

8. Also, lords of every ten villages; 

9. And lords of every hundred villages ; 

10. And lords of a whole district. 

11. If any offence has been committed in a vil- 
lage, let the lord of that village suppress the evil 
(and give redress to those that have been wronged). 

12. If he is unable to do so, let him announce it 
to the lord of ten villages ; 

13. If he too is unable, let him announce it to 
the lord of a hundred villages ; 

14. If he too is unable, let him announce it to 
the lord of the whole district. 

15. The lord of the whole district must eradicate 
the evil to the best of his power. 

16. Let the king appoint able officials for the 
working of his mines, for the levying of taxes and of 
the fares to be paid at ferries, and for his elephants 
and forests. 

17. (Let him appoint) pious persons for per- 
forming acts of piety (such as bestowing gifts on 
the indigent, and the like); 

18. Skilled men for financial business (such as 
examining gold and other precious metals) ; t 

11. See 67 and Dr. Buhler's note on Apast. II, 10, 26, 8. 

16. The term nagavana, which has been translated as a Dvandva 
compound, denoting elephants and forests, may also be taken to 
mean 'forests in which there are elephants;' or n&ga may mean 
' situated in the mountains ' or ' a mountain fort.' (Nand.) 

18. Or, ' he must appoint men skilled in logic as his advisers in 
knotty points of argument.' (Nand.) 



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1 6 VISHJVU. Ill, 19. 

19. Brave men for fighting; 

20. Stern men for acts of rigour (such as beating 
and killing) ; 

21. Eunuchs for his wives (as their guardians). 

22. He must take from his subjects as taxes 
a sixth part every year of the grain ; 

23. And (a sixth part) of all (other) seeds ; 

24. Two in the hundred, of cattle, gold, and 
clothes ; 

25. A sixth part of flesh, honey, clarified butter, 
herbs, perfumes, flowers, roots, fruits, liquids and 
condiments, wood, leaves (of the Palmyra tree and 
others), skins, earthen pots, stone vessels, and any- 
thing made of split bamboo. 

26. Let him not levy any tax upon Brahma#as. 

27. For they pay taxes to him in the shape of 
their pious acts. 

28. A sixth part both of the virtuous deeds and 
of the iniquitous acts committed by his subjects goes 
to the king. 

29. Let him take a tenth part of (the price 
of) marketable commodities (sold) in his own 
country ; 

30. And a twentieth part of (the price of) goods 
(sold) in another country. 

31. Any (seller or buyer) who (fraudulently) 
avoids a toll-house (situated on his road), shall 
lose all his goods. 



23. This rule relates to Syamaka grain and other sorts of grain 
produced in the rainy season. (Nand.) 

25. ' Haradatta says that " a sixth part " means " a sixtieth part:" 
But this is wrong, as shown by M.VII, 131.' (Nand.) Hara- 
datta's false interpretation was most likely called forth by Gaut. 
X, 27. 



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Ill, 39. DUTIES OF A KING. I 7 

32. Artizans (such as blacksmiths), manual la- 
bourers (such as carpenters), and .Sudras shall do 
work for the king for a day in each month. 

33. The monarch, his council, his fortress, his 
treasure, his army, his realm, and his ally are the 
seven constituent elements of a state. 

34. (The king) must punish those who try to 
subvert any one among them. 

35. He must explore, by means of spies, both the 
state of his own kingdom and of his foe's. 

36. Let him show honour to the righteous ; 

37. And let him punish the unrighteous. 

38. Towards his (neighbour and natural) enemy, 
his ally (or the power next beyond his enemy), a 
neutral power (situated beyond the latter), and a 
power situated between (his natural enemy and an 
aggressive power) 1 let him adopt (alternately), as the 
occasion and the time require, (the four modes of 
obtaining success, viz.) negotiation, division, presents, 
and force of arms. 

39. Let him have resort, as the time demands, to 
(the six measures of a military monarch, viz.) mak- 
ing alliance and waging war, marching to battle 
and sitting encamped, seeking the protection (of a 
more powerful king) and distributing his forces. 



32. According to Nand., the particle ka., ' and/ implies that 6ervile 
persons, who get their substance from their employers, are also 
implied. See Manu VII, 1 38. 

35. The particle k&, according to Nand., is used in order to 
include the kingdoms of an ally and of a neutral prince. 
. 38. ' The term madhyama has been rendered according to Nand.'s 
and Kulluka's (on M. VII, 155) interpretation of it. Kulluka, how- 
ever, adds, as a further characteristic, that it denotes a prince, who is 
equal in strength to one foe, but no match for two when allied. 

C7] C 



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1 8 VISHJVU. 111,40. 

40. Let him set out on an expedition in the 
months of A*aitra or Margaslrsha ; 

41. Or when some calamity has befallen his 
foe. 

42. Having conquered the country of his foe, 
let him not abolish (or disregard) the laws of that 
country. 

43. And when he has been attacked by his foe, 
let him protect his own realm to the best of his 
power. 

44. There is no higher duty for men of the 
military caste, than to risk their life in battle. 

45. Those who have been killed in protecting a 
cow, or a Brahma«a, or a king, or a friend, or their 
own property, or their own wedded wife, or their 
own life, go to heaven. 

46. Likewise, those (who have been killed) in 
trying to prevent mixture of castes (caused by 
adulterous connections). 

47. A king having conquered the capital of his 
foe, should invest there a prince of the royal race of 
that country with the royal dignity. 

48. Let him not extirpate the royal race ; 

49. Unless the royal race be of ignoble descent. 

50. He must not take delight in hunting, dice, 
women, and drinking ; 

51. Nor in defamation and battery. 

52. And let him not injure his own property (by 
bootless expenses). 

53. He must not demolish (whether in his own 
town, or in the town of his foe conquered by him, 

40. The particle v& indicates, according to Nand., that he may 
also set out in the month Phalguna. 



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111,64- DUTIES OF A KING. 1 9 

or in a fort) doors which had been built there before 
his time (by a former king). 

54. He must not bestow largesses upon unworthy 
persons (such as dancers, eulogists, bards, and the 
like). 

55. Of mines let him take the whole produce. 

56. Of a treasure-trove he must give one half to 
the Brahma«as; 

57. He may deposit the other half in his own 
treasury. 

58. A Brahma#a who has found a treasure may 
keep it entire. 

59. . A Kshatriya (who has found a treasure) must 
give one fourth of it to the king, another fourth to 
the Brahma#as, and keep half of it to himself. 

60. A VaLrya (who has found a treasure) must 
give a fourth part of it to the king, one half to the 
Brahma#as, and keep the (remaining fourth) part to 
himself. 

61. A .5udra who has found a treasure must 
divide it into twelve parts, and give five parts to 
the king, five parts to the Brahma«as, and keep two 
parts to himself. 

62. Let the king compel him who (having found 
a treasure) does not announce it (to the king) and is 
found out afterwards, to give up the whole. 

63. Of a treasure anciently hidden by themselves 
let (members of) all castes, excepting Brahmawas, 
give a twelfth part to the king. 

64. The man who falsely claims property hidden 
by another to have been hidden by himself, shall be 

63. This rule refers to a treasure, which has been found by 
some one and announced to the king. The original owner is 
bound to prove his ownership. (Nand.) See M.VIII, 35. 

C 2 



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20 VISHJVU. Ill, 65. 

condemned to pay a fine equal in amount to the 
property falsely claimed by him. 

65. The king must protect the property of 
minors, of (blind, lame or other) helpless persons 
(who have no guide), and of women (without a 
guardian). 

66. Having recovered goods stolen by thieves, 
let him restore them entire to their owners, to what- 
ever caste they may belong. 

67. If he has been unable to recover them, he 
must pay (their value) out of his own treasury. 

68. Let him appease the onsets of fate by 
ceremonies averting evil omens and propitiatory 
ceremonies ; 

69. And the onsets of his foe (let him repel) by 
force of arms. 

70. Let him appoint as Purohita (domestic priest) a 
man conversant with the Vedas, Epics, the Institutes 
of Sacred Law, and (the science of) what is useful in 
life, of a good family, not deficient in limb, and per- 
sistent in the practice of austerities. 

71. And (let him appoint) ministers (to help and 
advise him) in all his affairs, who are pure, free from 
covetousness, attentive, and able. 

72. Let him try causes himself, accompanied by 
well-instructed Brahma#as. 

73. Or let him entrust a Brahma«a with the 
judicial business. 

74. Let the king appoint as judges men of good 



70. 'The science of what is useful in life' comprises the fine 
arts, except music, and all technical knowledge. 

74. According to Nand., the particle ka. indicates that the judges 
should be well acquainted, likewise, with the sacred revelation, 



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111,82. DUTIES OF A KING. 21 

— ...--- 

families, for whom the ceremonies (of initiation and 
so forth) have been performed, and who are eager 
in keeping religious vows, impartial towards friend 
and foe, and not likely to be corrupted by litigants 
either by (ministering to their) lustful desires or by 
(stimulating them to) wrath or by (exciting their) 
avarice or by other (such practices). 

75. Let the king in all matters listen to (the 
advice of) his astrologers. 

76. Let him constantly show reverence to the 
gods and to the Brahma«as. 

77. Let him honour the aged ; 

78. Ad let him offer sacrifices ; 

79. And he must not suffer any Brahma«a in his 
realm to perish with want ; 

80. Nor any other man leading a pious life. 

81. Let him bestow landed property upon Brah- 
ma#as. 

82. To those upon whom he has bestowed (land) 
he must give a document, destined for the informa- 
tion of a future ruler, which must be written upon a 
piece of (cotton) cloth, or a copper-plate, and must 
contain the names of his (three) immediate ancestors, 
a declaration of the extent of the land, and an im- 
precation against him who should appropriate the 



and intent upon performing their daily study of the Veda, as 
ordained by Ya^fiavalkya, II, 2. 

75. According to Nand., the particle kz indicates that the king's 
ministers should also consult the astrologers. 

76. 'The particle ka, is used here in order to imply that the king 
should bestow presents upon the Brahmawas, as ordained by Manu, 
VII, 79.' (Nand.) See Introduction. 

82. The repeated use of the particle ka, in this Sutra signifies 
that the document in question should also contain the name of the 



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2 2 VISHJVU. IH,83. 



donation to himself, and should be signed with his 
own seal. 

83. Let him not appropriate to himself landed 
property bestowed (upon Brahma#as) by other 
(rulers). 

84. Let him present the Brahma^as with gifts of 
every kind. 

85. Let him be on his guard, whatever he may 
be about. 

86. Let him be splendid (in apparel and orna- 
ments). 

87. Let him be conversant with incantations dis- 
pelling the effects of poison and sickness. 

88. Let him not test any aliments, that have not 
been tried before (by his attendants, by certain 
experiments). 

89. Let him smile before he speaks to any one. 

90. Let him not frown even upon (criminals) 
doomed to capital punishment. 

91. Let him inflict punishments, corresponding to 
the nature of their offences, upon evil-doers. 

donor, the date of the donation, and the words, written in the 
donor's own hand, ' What has been written above, by that is my 
own will declared.' The term danaAWedopavarwanam, ' containing 
a declaration of the punishment awaiting the robber of a grant,' may 
also mean, ' indicating the boundaries (such as fields and the like) of 
the grant." The seal must contain the figure of a flamingo, boar, or 
other animal. (Nand.) Numerous grants on copper -plates, exactly 
corresponding to the above description, have been actually found 
in divers parts of India. See, particularly, Dr. Burnell's Elements 
of South Indian Palaeography. 

83. According to Nand., the particle ka. is used in order to 
include in this prohibition a grant made by himself. 

86. Nand. proposes a second interpretation of the term sudar- 
jana besides the one given above, ' he shall often show himself 
before those desirous of seeing him.' 



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IV, 6. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 2 3 

92. Let him inflict punishments according to jus- 
tice (either personally or through his attendants). 

93. Let him pardon no one for having offended 
twice. 

94. He who deviates from his duty must cer- 
tainly not be left unpunished by the king. 

95. Where punishment with a black hue and a 
red eye advances with irresistible might, the king 
deciding causes justly, there the people will prosper. 

96. Let a king in his own domain inflict punish- 
ments according to justice, chastise foreign foes with 
rigour, behave without duplicity to his affectionate 
friends, and with lenity to Brahma«as. 

97. Of a king thus disposed, even though he 
subsist by gleaning, the fame is far spread in the 
world, like a drop of oil in the water. 

98. That king who is pleased when his subjects 
are joyful, and grieved when they are in grief, will 
obtain fame in this world, and will be raised to a 
high station in heaven after his death. 

IV. 

1 . The (very small mote of) dust which may be 
discerned in a sun-beam passing through a lattice is 
called trasarewu (trembling dust). 

2. Eight of these (trasare/ms) are equal to a nit. 

3. Three of the latter are equal to a black 
mustard-seed. 

4. Three of these last are equal to a white 
mustard-seed. 

5. Six of these are equal to a barley-corn. 

6. Three of these equal a Krzshnala. 

IV. 1-14. M.VIII, 132-138; Y. I, 361-365. 

6. K/vshwala (literally, ' seed of the GuRg& creeper ') is another 



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24 VISHJVU. IV, 7. 

7. Five of these equal a Masha. 

8. Twelve of these are equal to half an Aksha. 

9. The weight of half an Aksha, with four 
Mashas added to it, is called a Suvar»a. 

10. Four Suvaraas make a Nishka. 

11. Two Krz'shwalas of equal weight are equal to 
one Mashaka of silver. 

12. Sixteen of these are equal to a Dharawa (of 
silver). 

13. A Karsha (or eighty Raktikas) of copper is 
called Karshapawa. 

14. Two hundred and fifty (copper) Pa»as are 
declared to be the first (or lowest) amercement, 
five hundred are considered as the middlemost, and 
a thousand as the highest. 

V. 
1. Great criminals should all be put to death. 

name for Raktika or Rati, the lowest denomination in general use. 
According to Prinsep (Useful Tables, p. 97) it equals 1.875 grains 
= 0.122 grammes of the metrical system. According to Thomas 
(see Colebrooke's Essays, ed: by Cowell, I, p. 529, note) it equals 
1.75 grains. 

7-10. These names refer to weights of gold. 

V. 2, 3. M.VIII, 124; IX, 239, 241; Gaut. XII, 46, 47.— 
3-7. M. IX, 237. — 8. M. IX, 241 ; VIII, 380.— 9, 11. M. IX, 
232. — 12, 13. M.VIII, 320, 321. — 18. M.VIII, 371. — 19. M. 
VIII, 279 ; Y. II, 215 ; Apast. II, 10, 27, 14; Gaut. XII, 1. — 
2C-22. M.VIII, 281, 282; Apast. II, 10, 27, 15; Gaut. XII, 7. 

— 23. M.VIII, 270; Apast. II, 10, 27, 14. — 24. M.VIII, 272. — 
25. M.VIII, 271. — 26-28. M.VIII, 273-275. — 27. Y. 11,204. 

— 29, 30. Y. II, 210. — 31-33. Y. II, 211. — 35. M.VIII, 269. — 
36. M.VIII, 268; Gaut. XII, 12. — 40, 41. M.VIII, 382-385.— 
40,44. Y. II, 286, 289—45. M.VIII, 224.— 47. M. VIII, 225.— 49. 
Y. II, 297. — 50, 52. M.VIII, 296-298 ; Y. II, 225, 226. — 55-58. 
M.VIII, 285; Y. II, 227-229.— 60, 61. M.VIII, 280. — 60-73. 
Y. II, 216-221. — 66-68. M.VIII, 283, 284. — 74. M. IX, 274. — 



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V, 3- CRIMINAL AND CIVIL LAW. 25 

2. In the case of a Brahma#a no corporal punish- 
ment must be inflicted. 

3. A Brahma«a must be banished from his own 
country, his body having been branded. 

75. M.VIII, 287 ; Y. II, 222. — 77. M.VIII, 325.-79. M.VIII, 
320.-81, 82. M.VIII, 322.-83, 84. M.VIII, 326-329.-85, 
86. M.VIII, 330 ; Gaut. XII, 18. — 89, 90. Y. II, 270. — 94. M. 

VIII, 392; Y. II, 263.-96, 97. M.VIII, 393. — 98-103. Y. II, 
296. — 104. Y. II, 234. — 106, 107. M. IX, 282. — 108. Y. II, 
223. — no. Y. II, 224. — in. Y. II, 236. — 113. M.VIII, 389; 
Y. II, 237.— 115-123. Y. II, 232, 235, 236, 239-241.— 124- 
126. Y. II, 246, 250. — 127.Y. II, 254. — 127, 128. Colebrooke, 
Dig. Ill, 3, XXII.— 129. Y. II, 255. — 130- M.VIII, 399; Y. 
II, 261. — 131. Y. II, 263. — 132. M.VIII, 407. — 134, 135. Y. 

II, 202. — 136. M. IX, 277; Y. II, 274. — 137, 138. M.VIII, 
235; Y. II, 164.— 137-139. Colebrooke, Dig. Ill, 4, XIV.— 
140. Y. II, 159. — 141. Gaut. XII, 19. — 142-145. Y. II, 159, 
160. — 142-144. Gaut. XII, 22-25. — 140-146. Colebrooke, Dig. 

III, 4, XLV, 4 . — 146. M.VIII, 241 ; Y.II, 161 ; Gaut. XII, 19.— 
147, 148. M.VIII, 238, 240; Y. II, 162; Gaut. XII, 21.— 147- 
149. Colebrooke, Dig. Ill, 4, XXI. — 150. M.VIII, 242 ; Y. II, 
163.— 151. M.VIII, 412; Y. II, 183; Colebrooke, Dig. Ill, 1, 
LVIII.- 152. Y. II, 183.— 153, i 54 . M.VIII, 215; Y. II, r 93 ; 
Apast. II, 1 r, 28, 2, 3. — 153-159. Colebrooke, Dig. Ill, 1, LXXX. 

— 155. 156. Y. II, 197. — 160. M. IX, 71 ; Y. I, 65. — 162. M. 

IX, 72; Y. I, 66.— 163. M.VIII, 389.— 162, 163. Colebrooke, 
Dig. IV, 1, LX.— 164, 165. M.VIII, 202; Y.II, 170.— 166. Y. 
II, 168. — 167, 168. Y. II, 187. — 169-171. M.VIII, 191.— 
172. M. IX, 291; Y. II, 155. — 174. M. IX, 285; Y.II, 297. — 
'75-177- M. IX, 284; Y.II, 242.— 178. Y.II, 232. — 179. M. 
VIII, 123; Y. II, 81; Apast II, n, 29, 8; Gaut. XIII, 23.— 
180. Y. I, 338. — 183. Colebrooke, Dig. I, 3, CXXX.— 189. M. 
VIII, 350.— 190. M.VIII, 351.— 194. M.VIII, 126; Y.I, 367. 

— 195. M.VIII, 128; Y. II, 243, 305. 

1. The crimes by the commission of which a man becomes a 
Mahslpatakin, ' mortal sinner,' will be enumerated below, XXXV. 

2. The use of the particle ka. implies, according to Nand. and 
a passage of Yama quoted by him, that, besides branding him, the 
criminal should be shorn, his deed publicly proclaimed, and him- 
self mounted upon an ass and led about the town. 



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26 VISHJVU. V, 4. 

4. For murdering another Brahmawa, let (the 
figure of) a headless corpse be impressed on his 
forehead ; 

5. For drinking spirits, the flag of a seller of 
spirituous liquor; 

6. For stealing (gold), a dog's foot ; 

7. For incest, (the mark of) a female part. 

8. If he has committed any other capital crime, 
he shall be banished, taking with him all his 
property, and unhurt. 

9. Let the king put to death those who forge 
royal edicts ; 

10. And those who forge (private) documents ; 

1 1 . Likewise poisoners, incendiaries, robbers, and 
killers of women, children, or men ; 

12. And such as steal more than ten Kumbhas 
of grain, 

13. Or more than a hundred Mishas of such 
things as are usually sold by weight (such as gold 
and silver); 

14. Such also as aspire to sovereignty, though 
being of low birth ; 

1 5. Breakers of dikes ; 

10. The use of the particle ka. indicates that this rule includes 
those who corrupt the king's ministers, as stated byManu, IX, 232. 
(Nand.) 

11. Nand. infers from the use of the particle kz, and from a 
passage of K&ty£yana, that false witnesses are also intended here. 

12. Nand. here refers ka. to women who have committed a 
capital offence, as mentioned by Ya^fiavalkya (II, 278). A Kumbha 
is a measure of grain equal to twenty Dro«as, or a little more than 
three bushels and three gallons. Nand. mentions, as the opinion 
of some, that 1 Kumbha = 2 Drowas. For other computations of 
the amount of a Kumbha, see Colebrooke's Essays, I, 533 seq. 

13. Regarding the value of a MSsha, see IV, 7, 11. 

15. Nand. infers from the use of the particle ka, and from a 



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V, 26. CRIMINAL AND CIVIL LAW. 27 

16. And such as give shelter and food to robbers, 

17. Unless the king be unable (to protect his 
subjects against robbers); 

18. And a woman who violates the duty which 
she owes to her lord, the latter being unable to 
restrain her. 

19. With whatever limb an inferior insults or 
hurts his superior in caste, of that limb the king 
shall cause him to be deprived. 

20. If he places himself on the same seat with his 
superior, he shall be banished with a mark on his 
buttocks. 

21. If he spits on him, he shall lose both lips ; 

22. If he breaks wind against him, his hindparts ; 

23. If he uses abusive language, his tongue. . 

24. If a (low-born) man through pride give in* 
struction (to a member of the highest caste) con- 
cerning his duty, let the king order hot oil to be 
dropped into his mouth. 

25. If a (low-born man) mentions the name or 
caste of a superior revilingly, an iron pin, ten inches 
long, shall be thrust into his mouth (red hot). 

26. He who falsely denies the sacred knowledge, 
the country, or the caste (of such), or who says 

passage of Manu (IX, 280), that robbers who forcibly enter the 
king's treasury, or the arsenal, or a temple, are likewise intended 
here. 

17. In the case to which this Sutra refers, the villagers may 
satisfy the demands of the robbers with impunity, as they are 
obliged to do so out of regard for their own safety. (Nand.) 

20. The particle ka, indicates here that if he urines against a 
superior his organ shall be cut off. (Nand.) See M.VIII, 282. 

26. This Sutra has been rendered in accordance with Kulluka's 
gloss on M.VIII, 273, Nand.'s interpretation of it being palpably 
wrong. 



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28 VISHJVU. V, 27. 

that his religious duties have not been fulfilled by 
(or that the initiatory and other sacramental rites 
have not been performed for) him, shall be fined 
two hundred Pa»as. 

27. If a man is blind with one eye, or lame, or 
defective in any similar way, and another calls him 
so, he shall be fined two Karshapa»as, though he 
speaks the truth. 

28. He shall be fined a hundred Karshapa^as for 
defaming a Guru. 

29. He shall pay the highest amercement for 
imputing to another (a great crime) entailing loss 
of caste ; 

30. The second amercement for (imputing to 
another) a minor offence (such as the slaughter of 
a cow); 

31. The same for reviling a Brahma#a versed in 
the three Vedas, or an old man, or a (whole) caste 
or corporation (of judges or others); 

32. For reviling a village or district, the lowest 
amercement ; 

33. For using insulting language (such as 'I shall 
visit your sister,' or ' I shall visit your daughter '), a 
hundred Karshapa«as ; 

34. For insulting a man by using bad language 
regarding his mother (such as ' I shall visit your 
mother' or the like speeches), the highest amerce- 
ment. 

35. For abusing a man of his own caste, he shall 
be fined twelve Pa«as. 

36. For abusing a man of a lower caste, he shall 
be fined six (Pa«as). 

32. Nand. infers from the use of the particle £a that ' a family ' 
is also intended here. 



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V, 48. CRIMINAL AND CIVIL LAW. 29 

37. For insulting a member of the highest caste 
or of his own caste (he having been insulted by him) 
at the same time, the same fine is ordained ; 

38. Or (if he only returns his insult, a fine 
amounting to) three Karshapa#as. 

39. The same (punishment is ordained) if he 
calls him bad names. 

40. An adulterer shall be made to pay the 
highest amercement if he has had connection with 
a woman of his own caste ; 

41. For adultery with women of a lower caste, 
the second amercement ; 

42. The same (fine is ordained) for a bestial 
crime committed with a cow. 

43. He who has had connection with a woman of 
one of the lowest castes, shall be put to death. 

44. For a bestial crime committed with cattle 
(other than cows) he shall be fined a hundred 
Karshapa«as. 

45. (The same fine is ordained) for giving a 
(blemished) damsel in marriage, without indicating 
her blemish (whether the bride be sick, or no longer 
a maid, or otherwise faulty) ; 

46. And he shall have to support her. 

47. He who says of an unblemished damsel, that 
she has a blemish (shall pay) the highest amerce- 
ment. 

48. For killing an elephant, or a horse, or a 
camel, or a cow, (the criminal) shall have one hand, 
or one foot, lopped off. 



43. The lowest castes (antya^), according to Angiras, are the 
following seven, ATattrfalas, .SVapa&is, Kshattr/'s, Sutas, Vaidehakas, 
Magadhas, and Ayogavas. 



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30 VISHJVU. V, 49. 

49. A seller of forbidden meat (such as pork, 
shall be punished in the same way). 

50. He who kills domestic animals, shall pay a 
hundred Karshapa«as. 

51. He shall make good their value to the owner 
of those animals. 

52. He who kills wild animals, shall pay five 
hundred Karshapa#as. 

53. A killer of birds, or of fish, (shall pay) ten 
Karshapa#as. 

54. A killer of insects shall pay one Karshapa«a. 

55. A feller of trees yielding fruit (shall pay) the 
highest amercement. 

56. A feller of trees yielding blossoms only (shall 
pay) the second amercement. 

57. He who cuts creepers, shrubs, or climbing 
plants (shall pay) a hundred Karshapa#as. 

58. He who cuts grass (shall pay) one Karsha- 
pawa. 

59. And all such offenders (shall make good) to 
the owners (of the trees or plants cut down by 
them) the revenue which they yield. 

60. If any man raises his hand (against his equal 
in caste, with intent to strike him, he shall pay) ten 
Karshapa#as ; 

61. If he raises his foot, twenty; 

62. If he raises a piece of wood, the first amerce- 
ment ; 

63. If he raises a stone, the second amercement ; 

64. If he raises a weapon, the highest amerce- 
ment. 

65. If he seizes him by his feet, by his hair, by 

53. Nand. infers from a passage of K&tyayana that the particle 
ka. is used here in order to include serpents. 



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V, 77- CRIMINAL AND CIVIL LAW. 3 1 

his garment, or by his hand, he shall pay ten Pawas 
as a fine. 

66. If he causes pain to him, without fetching 
blood from him, (he shall pay) thirty-two Pa«as ; 

67. For fetching blood from him, sixty-four. 

68. For mutilating or injuring a hand, or a foot, 
or a tooth, and for slitting an ear, or the nose, the 
second amercement (is ordained). 

69. For rendering a man unable to move about, 
or to eat, or to speak, or for striking him (violently, 
the same punishment is ordained). 

70. For wounding or breaking an eye, or the 
neck, or an arm, or a bone, or a shoulder, the 
highest amercement (is ordained). 

71. For striking out both eyes of a man, the king 
shall (confine him and) not dismiss him from jail as 
long as he lives ; 

72. Or he shall order him to be mutilated in 
the same way (i.e. deprived of his eyes). 

73. Where one is attacked by many, the punish- 
ment for each shall be the double of that which has 
been ordained for (attacks by) a single person. 

74. (The double punishment is) likewise (or- 
dained) for" those who do not give assistance to 
one calling for help, though they happen to be 
on the spot, or (who run away) after having 
approached it. 

75. All those who have hurt a man, shall pay 
the expense of his cure. 

76. Those who have hurt a domestic animal 
(shall also pay the expense of his cure). 

77. He who has stolen a cow, or a horse, or a 
camel, or an elephant, shall have one hand, or one 
foot, cut off; 



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32 VISH2VU. V, 78. 

78. He who has stolen a goat, or a sheep, (shall 
have) one hand (cut off). 

79. He who steals grain (of those sorts which 
grow in the rainy season), shall pay eleven times its 
value as a fine ; 

80. Likewise, he who steals grain (of those sorts, 
which grow in winter and spring, such as rice and 
barley). 

81. A stealer of gold, silver, or clothes, at a 
value of more than fifty Mashas, shall lose both 
hands. 

82. He who steals a less amount than that, shall 
pay eleven times its value as a fine. 

83. A stealer of thread, cotton, cow-dung, sugar, 
sour milk, milk, butter-milk, grass, salt, clay, ashes, 
birds, fish, clarified butter, oil, meat, honey, basket- 
work, canes of bamboo, earthenware, or iron pots, 
shall pay three times their value as a fine. 

84. (The same fine is ordained for stealing) 
dressed food. 

85. For stealing flowers, green (grain), shrubs, 
creepers, climbing plants or leaves, (he shall pay) 
five Krtshnalas. 

86. For stealing pot-herbs, roots, or fruits (the 
same punishment is ordained). 

87. He who steals gems, (shall pay) the highest 
amercement. 

88. He who steals anything not mentioned above, 
(shall make good) its value (to the owner). 

89. Thieves shall be compelled to restore all 
stolen goods to the owners. 

90. After that, they shall suffer the punishment 
that has been ordained for them. 

91. He who does not make way for one for 



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V, 104- CRIMINAL AND CIVIL LAW. 33 

whom way ought to be made, shall be fined twenty- 
five Karshapa»as. 

92. (The same fine is ordained) for omitting to 
offer a seat to (a guest or others) to whom it ought 
to be offered. 

93. For neglecting to worship such as have a 
claim to be worshipped, (the same fine is ordained); 

94. Likewise, for neglecting to invite (at a .Srad- 
dha) a Brahmawa, one's neighbour; 

95. And for offering him no food, after having 
invited him. 

96. He who does not eat, though he has received 
and accepted an invitation, shall give a gold Ma- 
shaka as a fine; 

97. And the double amount of food to his host. 

98. He who insults a Brahmawa by offering him 
uneatable food (such as excrements and the like, or 
forbidden food, such as garlic, must pay) sixteen 
Suvaraas (as a fine). 

99. (If he insults him by offering him) such food 
as would cause him to be degraded (were he to 
taste it, he must pay) a hundred Suvarwas. 

100. (If he offers him) spirituous liquor, he shall 
be put to death. 

101. If he insults a Kshatriya (in the same way), 
he shall have to pay half of the above amercement ; 

102. If he insults a Vaisya, half of that again ; 

103. If he insults a 5udra, the first amercement. 

104. If one who (being a member of the Aaoofala 
or some other low caste) must not be touched, inten- 

93. Those persons 'have a claim to be worshipped' who are 
worthy to receive the Madhuparka or honey-mixture. (Nand.) See 
M. Ill, 119, 120; Y. I, no; ipast. II, 4, 8, 5-9; Gaut.V, 27; 
Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 125. 

' [7] D 



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34 vishjvu. v, 105. 

tionally defiles by his touch one who (as a member 
of a twice-born caste) may be touched (by other 
twice-born persons only), he shall be put to death. 

105. If a woman in her courses (touches such a 
person), she shall be lashed with a whip. 

106. If one defiles the highway, or a garden, or 
the water (by voiding excrements) near them (or in 
any other way), he shall be fined a hundred Pa«as ; 

107. And he must remove the filth. 

108. If he demolishes a house, or a piece of 
ground (a court-yard or the like), or a wall or the 
like, he shall have to pay the second amercement ; 

109. And he shall have it repaired (at his own 
cost). 

no. If he throws into another man's house 
(thorns, spells, or other) such things as might hurt 
some one, he shall pay a hundred Pawas. 

in. (The same punishment is ordained) for 
falsely denying the possession of common property ; 

112. And for not delivering what has been sent 
(for a god or for a Brahmawa). 

113. (The same punishment is) also (ordained) for 
father and son, teacher (and pupil), sacrificer and 
officiating priest, if one should forsake the other, 
provided that he has not been expelled from caste. 

1 14. And he must return to them (to the parents 
and the rest). 

115. (The same punishment is) also (ordained) for 
hospitably entertaining a 6"udra or religious ascetic 
at an oblation to the gods or to the manes; 

116. And for following an unlawful occupation 

115. According to Nand., the particle £a indicates here, that the 
same punishment is ordained for him who visits a widow by his 
own accord, as mentioned by Ya^Savalkya (II, 234). 



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V, I»7« CRIMINAL AND CIVIL LAW. 35 



(such as studying the Vedas without having been 
initiated) ; 

117. And for breaking open a house on which 
(the king's) seal is laid; 

118. And for making an oath without having 
been asked to do so (by the king or a judge); 

119. And for depriving cattle of their virility. 

120. The fine for the witnesses in a dispute 
between father and son shall be ten Pa#as. 

I2i. For him who acts as surety for either of 
the two parties in such a contest, the highest 
amercement (is ordained). 

122. (The same punishment is ordained) for 
forging a balance, or a measure ; 

123. Also, for pronouncing them incorrect, al- 
though they are correct. 

124. (The same punishment is) also (ordained) 
for selling adulterated commodities; 

125. And for a company of merchants who pre- 
vent the sale of a commodity (which happens to be 
abroad) by selling it under its price. 

126. (The same punishment is ordained) for 
those (members of such a company) who sell (an 
article belonging to the whole company for more 
than it is worth) on their own account 

127. He who does not deliver to the purchaser a 
commodity (sold), after its price has been paid to 
him, shall be compelled to deliver it to him with 
interest ; 

117. Nand. considers the particle ka, to imply that the exchange 
of sealed goods for others shall be punished in the same way. But 
this assertion rests upon a false reading (samudraparivarta for 
samudgaparivarta) of Y. II, 247, which passage Nand. quotes in 
support of his view, 

D 2 



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36 visH/ru. v, 128. 

128. And he shall be fined a hundred Pawas by 
the king. 

129. If there should be a loss upon a commodity 
purchased, which the purchaser refuses to accept 
(though it has been tendered to him), the loss shall 
fall upon the purchaser. 

130. He who sells a commodity on which the 
king has laid an embargo, shall have it confiscated. 

131. A ferry-man who takes a toll payable (for 
commodities conveyed) by land shall be fined ten 
Pa«as. 

132. Likewise, a ferry-man, or an official at a 
toll-office, who takes a fare or toll from a student, 
or Vanaprastha (hermit), or a Bhikshu (ascetic or 
religious mendicant), or a pregnant woman, or one 
about to visit a place of pilgrimage ; 

133. And he shall restore it to them. 

134. Those who use false dice in gaming shall 
lose one hand. 

135. Those who resort to (other) fraudulent 
practices in gaming shall lose two fingers (the 
thumb and the index). 

136. Cutpurses shall lose one hand. 

137. Cattle being attacked, during day-time, by 
wolves or other ferocious animals, and the keeper 
not going (to repel the attack), the blame shall fall 
upon him ; 

138. And he shall make good to the owner the 
value of the cattle that has perished. 

139. If he milks a cow without permission, (he 
shall pay) twenty-five Karshapawas (as a fine). 



131. The toll mentioned here is the duty on marketable com- 
modities mentioned above, HI, 29, 30. (Nand.) 



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V, 154- CRIMINAL AND CIVIL LAW. 37 

140. If a female buffalo damages grain, her 
keeper shall be fined eight Mashas. 

141. If she has been without a keeper, her owner 
(shall pay that fine). 

142. (For mischief done by) a horse, or a camel, 
or an ass (the fine shall be the same). 

143. (For damage done by) a cow, it shall be 
half. 

144. (For damage done by) a goat, or a sheep, 
(it shall be) half of that again. 

145. For cattle abiding (in the field), after having 
eaten (grain), the fine shall be double. 

146. And in every case the owner (of the field) 
shall receive the value of the grain that has been 
destroyed. 

147. There is no offence if the damage has been 
done near a highway, near a village, or (in a field 
adjacent to) the common pasture-ground for cattle ; 

148. Or (if it has been done) in an uninclosed 
field; 

149. Or if the cattle did not abide long ; 

1 50. Or if the damage has been done by bulls 
that have been set at liberty, or by a cow shortly 
after her calving. 

151. He who commits members of the highest 
(or Brahma#a) caste to slavery, shall pay the 
highest amercement. 

152. An apostate from religious mendicity shall 
become the king's slave. 

153. A hired workman who abandons his work 
before the term has expired shall pay the whole 
amount (of the stipulated wages) to his employer ; 

134. And he shall pay a hundred Pawas to the 
king. 



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38 vish^u. v, 155. 

155. What has been destroyed through his want 
of care, (he must make good) to the owner ; 

156. Unless the damage have been caused by an 
accident. 

157. If an employer dismisses a workman (whom 
he has hired) before the expiration of the term, he 
shall pay him his entire wages ; 

158. And (he shall pay) a hundred Pawas to the 
king; 

159. Unless the workman have been at fault. 

160. He who, having promised his daughter to 
one suitor, gives her in marriage to another, shall 
be punished as a thief; 

161. Unless the (first) suitor have a blemish. 

162. The same (punishment is ordained for a 
suitor) who abandons a faultless girl ; 

163. (And for a husband who forsakes) a (blame- 
less) wife. 

164. He who buys unawares in open market the 
property of another man (from one not authorised 
to sell it) is not to blame ; 

165. (But) the owner shall recover his property. 

166. If he has bought it in secret and under 
its price, the purchaser and the vendor shall be 
punished as thieves. 

167. He who embezzles goods belonging to a 
corporation (of Brahma#as, and which have been 
sent to them by the king or by private persons), 
shall be banished. 

168. He who violates their established rule 
(shall) also (be banished). 

169. He who retains a deposit shall restore the 
commodity deposited to the owner, with interest. 

1 70. The king shall punish him as a thief. 



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V, i8l. CRIMINAL AND CIVIL LAW. 39 

171. (The same punishment is ordained for him) 
who claims as a deposit what he never deposited. 

172. A destroyer of landmarks shall be compelled 
to pay the highest amercement and to mark the 
boundary anew with landmarks. 

173. He who (knowingly) eats forbidden food 
effecting loss of caste shall be banished. 

174. He who sells forbidden food (such as spi- 
rituous liquor and the like), or food which must not 
be sold, and he who breaks an image of a deity, shall 
pay the highest amercement ; 

175. Also, a physician who adopts a wrong 
method of cure in the case of a patient of high rank 
(such as a relative of the king's) ; 

176. The second amercement in the case of 
another patient ; 

177. The lowest amercement in the case of an 
animal. 

178. He who does not give what he has pro- 
mised, shall be compelled to give it and to pay the 
first amercement. 

1 79. To a false witness his entire property shall 
be confiscated. 

180. (The same punishment is ordained) for a 
judge who lives by bribes. 

181. He who has mortgaged more than a bull's 
hide of land to one creditor, , and without having 
redeemed it mortgages it to another, shall be cor- 
porally punished (by whipping or imprisonment). 

171. According to Nand., the particle fa indicates that those 
who state the nature or amount of a deposit wrongly are also 
intended here. 

173. Thus according to Nand., who says expressly that the 
causative form cannot here mean causing to eat, because the 
punishment for the latter offence has been mentioned in Sutra 98.- 



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4-0 VISHJVU. V, 182. 

182. If the quantity be less, he shall pay a fine of 
sixteen Suvarwas. 

183. That land, whether little or much, on the 
produce of which one man can subsist for a year, is 
called the quantity of a bull's hide. 

184. If a dispute should arise between two (credi- 
tors) concerning (a field or other immovable pro- 
perty) which has been mortgaged to both at the 
same time, that mortgagee shall enjoy its produce 
who holds it in his possession, without having 
obtained it by force. 

185. What has been possessed in order and with 
a legitimate title (such as purchase, donation, and 
the like), the possessor may keep; it can never be 
taken from him. 

186. Where (land or other) property has been 
held in legitimate possession by the father (or 
grandfather), the son's right to it, after his death, 
cannot be contested ; for it has become his own by 
force of possession. 

187. If possession has been held of an estate by 
three (successive) generations in due course, the 
fourth in descent shall keep it as his property, even 
without a written title. 

188. He who kills (in his own defence a tiger or 
other) animal with sharp nails and claws, or a (goat 
or other) horned animal (excepting cows), or a (boar 
or other) animal with sharp teeth, or an assassin, or 
an elephant, or a horse, or any other (ferocious 
animal by whom he has been attacked), commits no 
crime. 

189. Any one may unhesitatingly slay a man 
who attacks him with intent to murder him, whether 
his spiritual teacher, young or old, or a Brahma»a, 



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V, 196. CRIMINAL AND CIVIL LAW. 4 1 

or even (a Brahmawa) versed in many branches of 
sacred knowledge. 

190. By killing an assassin who attempts to kill, 
whether in public or in private, no crime is com- 
mitted by the slayer : fury recoils upon fury. 

191. Assassins should be known to be of seven 
kinds : such as try to kill with the sword, or with 
poison, or with fire, such as raise their hand in 
order to pronounce a curse, such as recite a deadly 
incantation from the Atharva-veda, such as raise 
a false accusation which reaches the ears of the 
king, 

192. And such as have illicit intercourse with 
another man's wife. The same designation is given 
to other (evil-doers) who deprive others of their 
worldly fame or of their wealth, or who destroy 
religious merit (by ruining pools, or other such acts), 
or property (such as houses or fields). 

193. Thus I have declared to thee fully, O Earth, 
the criminal laws, enumerating at full length the 
punishments ordained for all sorts of offences. 

194. Let the king dictate due punishments for 
other offences also, after having ascertained the 
class and the age (of the criminal) and the amount 
(of the damage done or sum claimed), and after 
having consulted the Brahma«as (his advisers). 

195. That detestable judge who dismisses with- 
out punishment such as deserve it, and punishes 
such as deserve it not, shall incur twice as heavy 
a penalty as the criminal himself. 

196. A king in whose dominion there exists 
neither thief, nor adulterer, nor calumniator, nor 
robber, nor murderer, attains the world of Indra. 



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42 VISIIA'U. VI, I. 

VI. 

i. A creditor shall receive his principal back from 
his debtor exactly as he had lent it to him. 

2. (As regards the interest to be paid), he shall 
take in the direct order of the castes two, three, 
four, or five in the hundred by the month (if no 
pledge has been given). 

3. Or let debtors of any caste pay as much 
interest as has been promised by themselves. 

4. After the lapse of one year let them pay 
interest according to the above rule, even though 
it have not been agreed on. 

5. By the use of a pledge (to be kept only) 
interest is forfeited. 

VI. 2. M. VIII, 142; Y. II, 37. — 1, 2. Colebrooke, Dig. I, 2, 
XXXI. — 3. M.VIII, 157 ; Y. II, 38.-4. Colebrooke, Dig. I, 2, 
LII. — 5. M.VIII, 143; Y. II, 59; Gaut. XII, 32; Colebrooke, 
Dig. I, 2, LXXVIII. — 6. Y. II, 59 ; Colebrooke, Dig. I, 3, 
LXXXII. — 7. M.VIII, 151 ; Gaut. XII, 31 ; Colebrooke, Dig. I, 
3, CX. — 8. Colebrooke loc. cit. — 9. Colebrooke, Dig. I, 3, 
CVII. — 10. Y. II, 44; Colebrooke, Dig. I, 2, LXXVII. — n- 
15. M.VIII, 151; Y. II, 39; Gaut. XII, 36; Colebrooke, Dig. 
I, 2, LXIV. — 16, 17. Colebrooke, Dig. I, 2, LXX. — 18, 19. 
M.VIII, 50, 176; Y. II, 40; Colebrooke, Dig. I, 6, CCLII. — 
20, 21. M. VIII, 139; Y. II, 42; Colebrooke, Dig. I, 6, 
CCLXXVII.— 22. Y. II, 20. — 24, 25. Y. II, 94; Colebrooke, 
Dig. I, 6, CCLXXXIII. — 26. Y. II, 93 ; Colebrooke, Dig. I, 6, 
CCLXXXVL — 27. Y. II, 50; Colebrooke, Dig. I, 5, CLXVIII. 

— 28. Colebrooke, Dig. I, 5, CLXVIII. — 29. Gaut. XII, 40. — 29, 
30. Y. II, 51 ; Colebrooke, Dig. I, 5, CCXX. — 31-33. Y. II, 46 ; 
Colebrooke, Dig. I, 5, CCVIII. — 34-36. M.VIII, 166 ; Y. II, 45. 

— 38, 39. M.VIII, 166, 167; Y. II, 45; Colebrooke, Dig, I, 5, 
CXCII. — 41. M.VIII, 158,160; Y. II, 53; Colebrooke, Dig. 
I, 4, CXLIV. — 42, 43. Y. II, 55, 56 ; Colebrooke, Dig. I, 4, CLVI, 
CLXI. 

1, 2. Colebrooke loc. cit. seems to have translated a different 
reading. 



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VI, 16. LAW OF DEBT. 43 

6. The creditor must make good the loss of a 
pledge, unless it was caused by fate or by the 
king. 

7. (The pledge must) also (be restored to the 
debtor) when the interest has reached its maximum 
amount (on becoming equal to the principal, and has 
all been paid). 

8. But he must not restore an immovable pledge 
without special agreement (till the principal itself 
has been paid). 

9. That immovable property which has been 
delivered, restorable when the sum borrowed is 
made good, (the creditor) must restore when the 
sum borrowed has been made good. 

10. Property lent bears no further interest after 
it has been tendered, but refused by the creditor. 

1 1 . On gold the interest shall rise no higher than 
to make the debt double ; 

12. On grain, (no higher than to make it) three- 
fold ; 

13. On cloth, (no higher than to make it) four- 
fold; 

14. On liquids, (no higher than to make it) eight- 
fold; 

15. Of female slaves and cattle, the offspring 
(shall be taken as interest). 

16. On substances from which spirituous liquor 



7. Colebrooke loc. cit. connects this Sutra with the next. My 
rendering rests on Nand.'s interpretation. 

8. Nand. cites as an instance of an agreement of this kind one 
made in the following form, ' You shall have the enjoyment of this 
or that mango grove as long as interest on the principal lent to 
me has not ceased to accrue.' 



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44 vishjvu. vi, 17. 

is extracted, on cotton, thread, leather, weapons, 
bricks, and charcoal, the interest is unlimited. 

17. On such objects as have not been mentioned 
it may be double. 

18. A creditor recovering the sum lent by any 
(lawful) means shall not be reproved by the king. 

19. If the debtor, so forced to discharge the debt, 
complains to the king, he shall be fined in an 
equal sum. 

20. If a creditor sues before the king and fully 
proves his demand, the debtor shall pay as a fine to 
the king a tenth part of the sum proved ; 

21. And the creditor, having received the sum 
due, shall pay a twentieth part of it. 

22. If the whole demand has been contested by 
the debtor, and even a part of it only has been 
proved against him, he must pay the whole. 

23. There are three means of proof in case of a 
demand having been contested, viz. a writing, wit- 
nesses, and proof by ordeal. 

24. A debt contracted before witnesses should 
be discharged in the presence of witnesses. 

25. A written contract having been fulfilled, the 
writing should be torn. 

26. Part only being paid, and the writing not 
being at hand, let the creditor give an acquittance. 

27. If he who contracted the debt should die, or 

17. Nand. infers from a passage of KStyayana that this rule 
refers to gems, pearls, coral, gold, silver, cotton, silk, and wool. 

18. The 'lawful means' are mediation of friends and the four 
other modes of compelling payment of an unliquidated demand. 
(Nand.) See M.VIII, 49. 

22. 'The particle api indicates that he must pay a fine to the 
king besides, as ordained by Ya^fiavalkya II, 11/ (Nand.) 



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VI, 39- LAW OF DEBT. 45 

become a religious ascetic, or remain abroad for 
twenty years, that debt shall be discharged by his 
sons or grandsons ; 

28. But not by remoter descendants against their 
will. 

29. He who takes the assets of a man, leaving 
or not leaving male issue, must pay the sum due 
(by him) ; 

30. And (so must) he who has the care of the 
widow left by one who had no assets. 

31. A woman (shall) not (be compelled to pay) 
the debt of her husband or son ; 

32. Nor the husband or son (to pay) the debt of 
a woman (who is his wife or mother) ; 

33. Nor a father to pay the debt of his son. 

34. A debt contracted by parceners shall be paid 
by any one of them who is present. 

35. And so shall the debt of the father (be paid) 
by (any one of) the brothers (or of their sons) 
before partition. 

36. But after partition they shall severally pay 
according to their shares of the inheritance. 

37. A debt contracted by the wife of a herdsman, 
distiller of spirits, public dancer, washer, or hunter 
shall be discharged by the husband (because he is 
supported by his wife). 

38. (A debt of which payment has been pre- 
viously) promised must be paid by the house- 
holder ; 

39. And (so must he pay that debt) which was 



38, 39. Regarding these two Sutras see Jolly, Indisches Schuld- 
recht, in the Transactions of the Royal Bavarian Academy of 
Sciences, 1877, p. 309, note. 



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46 vishjvu. vi, 40. 

contracted by any person for the behoof of the 
family. 

40. He who on receiving the whole amount of a 
loan, promises to repay the principal on the fol- 
lowing day (or some other date near at hand), but 
from covetousness does not repay it, shall give 
interest for it. 

41. Suretiship is ordained for appearance, for 
honesty, and for payment ; the first two (sureties, 
and not their sons), must pay the debt on failure of 
their engagements, but even the sons of the last 
(may be t compelled to pay it). 

42. When there are several sureties (jointly 
bound), they shall pay their proportionate shares of 
the debt; but when they are bound severally, the 
payment shall be made (by any of them), as the 
creditor pleases. 

43. If the surety, being harassed by the creditor, 
discharges the debt, the debtor shall pay twice as 
much to the surety. 

VII. 

1. Documents are of three kinds : 

2. Attested by the king, or by (other) witnesses, 
or unattested. 

3. A document is (said to be) attested by the 
king when it has been executed (in a court of judi- 
cature), on the king ordering it, by a scribe, his 

42. In the first case the agreement is made in the following form, 
' I shall pay so and so much to you, in the way agreed on.' In the 
second case the sum is not divided between the sureties, and each 
of them liable for the whole debt therefore. (Nand.) 

VII. 4. Y. II, 84-88. — 5-7. Y. II, 89. — 6. M.VIII, 168. — 
12. Y. II, 92. 



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VII, 13. WRITINGS. 47 

servant, and has been signed by his chief judge, 
with his own hand. 

4. It is (said to be) attested by witnesses when, 
having been written anywhere, and by any one, it is 
signed by witnesses in their own hands. 

5. It is (said to be) unattested when it has been 
written (by the party himself) with his own hand. 

6. Such a document, if it has been caused to be 
written by force, makes no evidence. 

7. Neither does any fraudulent document (make 
evidence) ; 

8. Nor a document (which), though attested, (is 
vitiated) by the signature of a witness bribed (by 
one party) or of bad character ; 

9. Nor one written by a scribe of the same 
description ; 

10. Nor one executed by a woman, or a child, or 
a dependant person, or one intoxicated or insane, or 
one in danger or in bodily fear. 

11. (That instrument is termed) proof which is 
not adverse to peculiar local usages, which defines 
clearly the nature of the pledge given 1 , and v is free 
from confusion in the arrangement of the subject 
matter and (in the succession of) the syllables. 

1 2. If the authenticity of a document is contested, 
it should be ascertained by (comparing with it other) 

7. According to Nand., the particle ka. is used here in order to 
include documents that have been executed by a person intoxi- 
cated, by one under duress, by a female, by a child, by force, and 
by intimidation (see N&rada IV, 61). Most of these categories are, 
however, mentioned in Sutra 10. 

1 1. ' I have translated the reading vyaktadhividhilaksha«am, which, 
though not occurring in the text of any MS., is mentioned by 
Nand., and is found in an identical passage of the Institutes of 
N&rada (see N&ada IV, 60, and Appendix, p. 123). 



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48 vishjvu. VII, 13. 

letters or sighs (such as the flourish denoting the 
word Sri and the like) or documents executed by 
the same man, by (enquiring into) the probabilities 
of the case, and by (finding out such writings as 
show) a mode of writing similar (to that contained 
in the disputed document). 

1 3. Should the debtor, or creditor, or witness, or 
scribe be dead, the authenticity of the document 
has to be ascertained by (comparing with it other) 
specimens of their handwriting. 

VIII. 

1. Now follow (the laws regarding) witnesses. 

2. The king cannot be (made a witness) ; nor a 
learned Brahma«a ; nor an ascetic ; nor a gamester ; 
nor a thief; nor a person not his own master; nor a 
woman ; nor a child ; nor a perpetrator of the acts 
called sahasa 1 (violence); nor one over-aged (or more 
than eighty years old); nor one intoxicated or 
insane ; nor a man of bad fame ; nor an outcast ; 

VIII. 2, 3,5. M.VIII, 64-67; Y. II, 70, 71. — 4) 5- Gaut. 
XIII, 5. — 6. M.VIII, 72 ; Y. II, 72 ; Gaut. XIII, 9.-8. M. 
VIII, 62, 63 ; Y. II, 68, 69 ; Apast. II, 11, 29, 7 ; Gaut. XIII, 2. 
— 9. M.VIII, 77; Y. II, 72. — 10, 11. Y. II, 17. — 14. M.VIII, 
81; Apast. II, ii, 29, 10; Gaut. XIII, 7. — 15, 16. M.VIII, 
104-106; Y. II, 83. — 15. Gaut. XIII, 24. — 18.M. VIII, 25, 
26; Y. II, 13-15.— 19. M.VIII, 87; Y. II, 73; Apast. II, 11, 
29, 7 ; Gaut. XIII, 12. — 20-23. M.VIII, 88. — 24-26. M.VIII, 
89, 90; Y. II, 73-75- — 37- M.VIII, 107; Y. II, 77; Gaut. 

XIII, 6. — 38. Y. II, 79.- 39. M.VIII, 73 ; Y. II, 78. — 40. 
M.VIII, 117. 

2. 1 There are three kinds of sahasa. (Nand.) They are, in the 
enumeration of Narada, 1. spoiling fruits or the like; 2. injuring 
more valuable articles ; 3. offences directed against the life of a 
human being, and approaching another man's wife. See Narada 

XIV, 4-6. 



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VIII, ii. WITNESSES. 49 

nor one tormented by hunger or thirst ; nor one 
oppressed by a (sudden) calamity (such as the 
death of his father or the like), or wholly absorbed 
in evil passions ; 

3. Nor an enemy or a friend ; nor one interested 
in the subject matter ; nor one who does forbidden 
acts ; nor one formerly perjured ; nor an attendant ; 

4. Nor one who, without having been appointed, 
comes and offers his evidence; 

5. Nor can one man alone be made a witness. 

6. In cases of theft, of violence, of abuse and 
assault, and of adultery the competence of witnesses 
must not be examined too strictly. 

7. Now (those who are fit to be) witnesses (shall 
be enumerated) : 

8. Descendants of a noble race, who are virtuous 
and wealthy, sacrificers, zealous in the practice of 
religious austerities, having male issue, well versed 
in the holy law, studious, veracious, acquainted with 
the three Vedas, and aged (shall be witnesses). 

9. If he is endowed with the qualities just men- 
tioned, one man alone can also be made a witness. 

10. In a dispute between two litigants, the wit- 
nesses of that party have to be examined from which 
the plaint has proceeded. 

11. Where the claim has been refuted as not 
agreeing with the facts (as e. g. the sum claimed 

5. According to Nand., who argues from a passage of N&rada 
(5> 37)> me use of the particle ka. implies here, that two witnesses 
are also not sufficient. But the MSS. of Nirada exhibit a different 
reading of the passage in question, which reading is supported by 
the Viramitrodaya. 

8. The particle ka. is used here, according to Nand., who argues 
from a passage of Ya^flavalkya (II, 68), in order to include liberality 
among the qualities required in a witness. 

[7] E 



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50 VISHJVU. VIII, 12. 

having been repaid by the debtor), there the wit- 
nesses of the defendant have to be examined as 
well. 

12. An appointed witness having died or gone 
abroad, those who have heard his deposition may 
give evidence. 

13. (The evidence of) witnesses is (of two kinds): 
either of what was seen, or of what was heard. 

14. Witnesses are free from blame if they give 
true evidence. 

15. Whenever the death of a member of any of 
the four castes (would be occasioned by true evi- 
dence, they are free from blame) if they give false 
evidence. 

16. In order to expiate the sin thus committed, 
(such a witness), if he belongs to a twice-born caste, 
must pour an oblation in the fire, consecrating it 
with the texts called Kushmawdft. 

17. If he is a 6udra, he must feed ten cows for 
one day. 

18. A false witness may be known by his altered 
looks, by his countenance changing colour, and by 
his talk wandering from the subject. 

19. Let the judge summon the witnesses, at the 
time of sunrise, and examine them after having 
bound them by an oath. 

20. A Brahma#a he must address thus, ' Declare.' 

21. A Kshatriya he must address thus, ' Declare 
the truth.' 



16. Va^asan. Sawh. XX, 14-16, or Taitt. Ara»y. X, 3-5. Nand. 
considers the term Kushma»<fi to be used in a general sense here, 
so as to include all the other texts mentioned in an analogous 
passage of Manu (VIII, 106). 



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VIII, 36. WITNESSES. 5r 

22. A VaLyya he must address thus, ' Thy kine, 
grain, and gold (shall yield thee no fruit, if thou 
wert to give false evidence).' 

23. A .Sudra he must address thus, ' Thou shalt 
have to atone for all (possible) heavy crimes (if thou 
wert to give false evidence)/ 

24. Let him exhort the witnesses (with the fol- 
lowing speeches) : 

25. ' Whatever places (of torture) await (the 
killer of a Brahma«a and other) great criminals and 
(the killer of a cow and other) minor offenders, 
those places of abode are ordained for a witness 
who gives false evidence; 

26. ' And the fruit of every virtuous act he has 
done, from the day of his birth to his dying day, 
shall be lost to him. 

27. ' Truth makes the sun spread his rays. 

28. ' Truth makes the moon shine. 

29. ' Truth makes the wind blow. 

30. 'Truth makes the earth bear (all that is 
upon it). 

31. 'Truth makes waters flow. 

32. ' Truth makes the fire burn. 

33. ' The atmosphere exists through truth. 

34. ' So do the gods. 

35. ' And so do the offerings. 

36. 'If veracity and a thousand horse-sacrifices 

22, 23. Nand.'s interpretation of these two Sutras, which has 
been followed above, does not agree with KuMka's, of M. VIII, 88. 
But in another passage of Manu (VIII, 113), where the same terms 
recur, he interprets them like Nand. 

36. This 51oka is also found in the Mahabharata I, 3095 &c, 
in the Marka»(feya-pura»a VIII, 42, in the Hitopadeja IV, 129, 
and, in a somewhat modified form, in the Ram£ya«a II, 61, 10. 
See Bfihtlingk, Ind. Spriiche, 731 &c. 

E 2 



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52 VISHtfU. VIII, 37. 

are weighed against each other, (it is found that) 
truth ranks even higher than a thousand horse- 
sacrifices. 

37. 'Those who, though acquainted with the facts, 
and appointed to give evidence, stand mute, are 
equally criminal with, and deserve the same punish- 
ment as, false witnesses.' (After having addressed 
them) thus, let the king examine the witnesses in 
the order of their castes. 

38. That plaintiff whose statement the witnesses 
declare to be true, shall win his suit ; but he whose 
statement they declare to be wrong, shall certainly 
lose it. 

39. If there is contradictory evidence, let the 
king decide by the plurality of witnesses ; if equality 
in number, by superiority in virtue; if parity in 
virtue, by the evidence of the best among the 
twice-born. 

40. Whenever a perjured witness has given false 
evidence in a suit, (the king) must reverse the 
judgment ; and whatever has been done, must be 
considered as undone. 



IX. 

1. Now follows (the rule regarding) the per- 
formance of ordeals. 

39. Nand. takes the term dvig-ottama, 'the best among the 
twice-born,' as an equivalent for ' Brahma«as.' Kulluka (on M. 
VIII, 73) refers it to ' twice-born men, who are particularly active 
in the discharge of their religious duties.' 

IX. 2. Y.II, 96, 99. — u. M.VIII, 114, 115; Y.11,95. — 20-22. 
Y. II, 95, 96, 99. — 23. Y. II, 98. — 33. Y. II, 97. The whole 
section on ordeals (IX-XIV) agrees very closely with the corre- 
sponding section of the Institutes of N&rada (5, 107-9, 8 )- 



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IX, 13. ORDEALS. 53 

2. In cases of a criminal action directed against 
the king, or of violence 1 (they may be administered) 
indiscriminately. 

3. In cases of (denial of) a deposit or of (alleged) 
theft or robbery they must be administered each 
according to the value (of the property claimed). 

4. In all such cases the value (of the object 
claimed) must be estimated in gold. 

5. Now if its value amounts to less than one 
Krz'sh#ala, a .Sudra must be made to swear by a 
blade of D(irv4 grass, (which he must hold in his 
hand) ; 

6. If it amounts to less than two Krishna\a.s, by 
a blade of Tila ; 

7. If it amounts to less than three Krzsh«alas, 
by a blade of silver ; 

8. If it amounts to less than four Krishnalas, by 
a blade of gold ; 

9. If it amounts to less than five Krishnalas, by 
a lump of earth taken from a furrow ; 

10. If it amounts to less than half a Suvar«a, a 
.Sudra must be made to undergo the ordeal by 
sacred libation ; 

11. If it exceeds that amount, (the judge must 
administer to him) any one of the (other) ordeals, 
viz. the ordeal by the balance, by fire, by water, or 
by poison, considering duly (the season, &c.) 

12. If the amount (of the matter in contest) is 
twice as high (as in each of the last-mentioned 
cases), a Vauya must (in each case) undergo that 
ordeal which has (just) been ordained (for a .Sudra); 

13. A Kshatriya (must undergo the same or- 
deals), if the amount is thrice as high ; 

2. » See VIII, ?, note. 



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54 visnivu. IX, 14. 

14. A Brahma«a, if it is four times as high. He 
is, however, not subject to the ordeal by sacred 
libation. 

15. No judge must administer the (ordeal by) 
sacred libation to a Brahmawa ; 

16. Except if it be done as a preliminary proof 
of his dealing fairly in some future transaction. 

17. Instead of (administering the ordeal by) 
sacred libation to a Brahma«a (in suits regarding 
an object, the value of which amounts to less than 
two Suvaraas), let the judge cause him to swear 'by 
a lump of earth taken from a furrow. 

18. To one formerly convicted of a crime (or of 
perjury) he must administer one of the ordeals, even 
though the matter in contest be ever so trifling. 

19. But to one who is known (and esteemed) 
among honest men and virtuous, he must not (admi- 
nister any ordeal), even though the matter in contest 
be ever so important. 

20. The claimant must declare his willingness to 
pay the fine (which is due in case of his being 
defeated) ; 

21. And the defendant must go through the 
ordeal. 

22. In cases of a criminal action directed against 
the king, or of violence (an ordeal may be ad- 
ministered) even without (the claimant) promising 
to pay the fine (due in case of defeat in ordinary 
suits). 

23. To women, Brahma^as, persons deficient in 
an organ of sense, infirm (old) men, and sick persons, 
the (ordeal by the) balance must be administered. 

24. But it must not be administered to them 
while a wind is blowing. 



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X, I. ORDEALS. 55 

25. The (ordeal by) fire must not be adminis- 
tered to lepers, to infirm persons, or to black- 
smiths ; 

26. Nor must it ever be administered in autumn 
or summer. 

27. The (ordeal by) poison must not be adminis- 
tered to lepers, bilious persons, or Brahma»as ; 

28. Nor during the rainy season. 

29. The (ordeal by) water must not be adminis- 
tered to persons afflicted with phlegm or (another) 
illness, to the timid, to the asthmatic, nor to those 
who gain their subsistence from water (such as 
fishermen and the like) ; 

30. Nor during (the two cold seasons) Hemanta 
and -Slrira (or from middle of November to middle 
of March) ; 

31. The (ordeal by) sacred libation must not be 
administered to atheists ; 

32. Nor when the country is afflicted with disease 
or pestilence. 

33. Let the judge summon the defendant at the 
time of sunrise, after having fasted on the previous 
day and bathed in his clothes, and make him go 
through all the ordeals in the presence of (images of) 
the gods and of the (assessors and other) Brahma«as. 

X. 

1. Now follows the (rule regarding the ordeal by) 
balance. 

29. Nand. infers from a text of Narada (not found in his Insti- 
tutes), that the plural is made use of in this Sutra in order to 
include women, children, sickly, old, and feeble persons. 

32. According to Nand., the particle ka. is used here in order to 
include fire, wind, grasshoppers, and other plagues. 

X. 5,6. Y. II, 100. 



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56 visHivu. x, 2. 

2. The transverse beam, by which the balance 
is to be suspended, should be fastened upon two 
posts, four Hastas above the ground (each), and 
should be made two Hastas long. 

3. The beam of the balance should be made of 
strong wood (such as that of the Khadira or Tin- 
duka trees), five Hastas long, and the two scales 
must be suspended on both sides of it, (and the 
whole suspended upon the transverse beam by 
means of an iron hook). 

4. A man out of the guild of goldsmiths, or of 
braziers, should make it equal on both sides. 

5. Into the one scale the person (who is to be 
tried by this ordeal) should be placed, and a stone 
(or earth or bricks) or some other (equivalent) of 
the same weight into the other. 

6. The equivalent and the man having been 
made equal in weight and (the position of the 
scales) well marked, the man should be caused to 
descend from the balance. 



2. One Hasta, ' cubit,' the modern ' hath,' equals two Vitasti, 
' spans,' and 24 Ahgulas, ' digits,' the modern Aftgul. See Prinsep, 
Useful Tables, p. 122. 

3. See the plate of balance, according to the statements of Indian 
legislators, in Professor Stenzler's Essay, ' Uber die ind. Gottes- 
urtheile,' Journal of the German Oriental Society, IX. 

4. Nand. infers from the use of the plural number and from a 
passage of Pitamaha and Narada (see the Institutes of the latter, 5, 
122), that merchants may also be appointed for this purpose. 

6. Nand. refers the term su&hnitau kr*'tva to the man and to 
the equivalent, both having to be marked ' with the king's seal or 
in some other way, in order that no one may suspect the weight of 
the equivalent or of the man to have been increased or lessened 
by the addition or removal of other objects, or of clothes, orna- 
ments, and the like.' 'Others' explain the term in the way in 
which it has been rendered above. 



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XI, 3- ORDEALS. 57 

7. Next (the judge) should adjure by (the fol- 
lowing) imprecations the balance 

8. And the person appointed to look after the 
weighing : 

9. ' Those places of torture which have been 
prepared for the murderer of a Brahma«a, or for 
a false witness, the same places are ordained for a 
person appointed to look after the weighing, who 
acts fraudulently in his office. 

10. ' Thou, O balance (dha/a), art called by the 
same name as holy law (dharma) ; thou, O balance, 
knowest what mortals do not comprehend. 

11. 'This man, being arraigned in a cause, is 
weighed upon thee. Therefore mayest thou deliver 
him lawfully from this perplexity.' 

1 2. Thereupon the judge should have him placed 
into the one scale again. If he rises in it, he is 
freed from the charge according to law. 

13. In case of the strings bursting, or of the 
splitting of the transverse beam, the man should be 
placed in the scale once more. Thus the facts will 
be ascertained positively, and a just sentence be the 
result. 

XL 

1. Now follows the (rule regarding the ordeal by) 
fire. 

2. He must make seven circles, sixteen Angulas 1 
in breadth each, the intervals being of the same 
breadth. 

3. Thereupon he must place seven leaves of the 

XI. 2-9. Y. II, 103, 105-107. — 11. Y. II, 104. 

a. 'See X, 2, note. 

3. Nand. takes the term tata/i, 'thereupon/ to imply that he 



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58 vishjvu. xi, 4. 

holy fig-tree into the hands of the person (about to 
perform the ordeal), who must turn his face towards 
the east and stretch out both arms. 

4. Those (leaves) and his hands he must bind 
together with a thread. 

5. Then he must place into his hands a ball 
made of iron, red-hot, fifty Palas in weight, and 
smooth. 

6. Having received this, the person must proceed 
through the (seven) circles, without either walking 
at a very hurried pace, or lingering on his way. 

7. Finally, after having passed the seventh 
circle, he must put down the ball upon the 
ground. 

8. That man whose hands are bumf ever so 
little, shall be deemed guilty; but if he remains 
wholly unburnt, he is freed from the charge. 

9. If he lets the ball drop from fear, or if there 
exists a doubt as to whether he is burnt or not, let 
him take the ball once more, because the proof has 
not been decided. 

10. At the beginning (of the whole ceremony) 
the judge shall cause the person to rub some rice in 
his hands, and shall mark (with red sap, or the like, 
the already existing scars, eruptions of the skin, &c, 
which will thus have become visible). Then the 
judge, after having addressed the iron ball (with the 
following prayer), shall place it in his hands : 

must previously examine the hands of the person about to perform 
the ordeal and mark existing scars or eruptions of the skin, as 
prescribed in Sutra 10. 

4. The particle fa. implies, according to Nand., that he must 
further place seven Sa.mt leaves, unbroken grains, Dflrva leaves, 
and grain smeared with sour milk upon his hands, as ordained in 
a passage of Pit£maha, 



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XII, 7. ORDEALS. 59 

ii. 'Thou, O fire, dwellest in the interior of all 
creatures, like a witness. O fire, thou knowest 
what mortals do not comprehend. 

12. 'This man being arraigned in a cause, de- 
sires to be cleared from guilt. Therefore may est 
thou deliver him lawfully from this perplexity.' 

XII. 

i. Now follows the (rule regarding the ordeal by) 
water. 

2. (The defendant must enter) water which is 
free from mud, aquatic plants, (crabs and other) 
vicious animals, (porpoises or other) large rapacious 
animals living in water, fish, leeches, and other 
(animals or plants). 

3. The water having been addressed with the 
Mantras (mentioned hereafter), he must enter it, 
seizing the knees of another man, who must be 
free from friendship or hatred, and must dive into 
the water up to his navel. 

4. At the same time another man must discharge 
an arrow from a bow, which must neither be too 
strong nor too weak. 

5. That arrow must be fetched quickly by 
another man. 

6. He who is not seen above the water in the 
mean time is proclaimed innocent. But in the 
contrary case he is (declared) guilty, even though 
one limb of his only has become visible. 

7. ' Thou, O water, dwellest in the interior of all 
creatures, like a witness. O water, thou knowest 
what mortals do not comprehend. 

Jill. 3-6. Y. II, 1 q8, 109. 



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60 VISHJVU. XII, 8. 

* 

8. ' This man being arraigned in a cause, desires 
to be cleared from guilt. Therefore mayest thou 
deliver him lawfully from this perplexity.' 

XIII. 

i. Now follows the (rule regarding the ordeal by) 
poison. 

2. All (other) sorts of poison must be avoided 
(in administering this ordeal), 

3. Except poison from the *SWnga tree, which 
grows on the Himalayas. 

4. (Of that) the judge must give seven grains, 
mixed with clarified butter, to the defendant (while 
reciting the prayer hereafter mentioned). 

5. If the poison is digested easily, without violent 
symptoms, he shall recognise him as innocent, and 
dismiss him at the end of the day. 

6. ' On account of thy venomous and dangerous 
nature thou art destruction to all living creatures ; 
thou, O poison, knowest what mortals do not 
comprehend. 

7. ' This man being arraigned in a cause, desires 
to be cleared from guilt. Therefore mayest thou 
deliver him lawfully from this perplexity.' 

XIV. 

1. Now follows the (rule regarding the ordeal 
by) sacred libation. 

2. Having invoked terrible deities (such as 
Durga, the Adityas or others, the defendant) must 
drink three handfuls of water in which (images of) 
those deities have been bathed, 

XIII. 3,5-7- Y. II, iio,iu. 

xiv. 8, 4, 5. y. ii, U2, 113, 



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XV, 3. ORDEALS. 6 1 

3. Uttering at the same time the words, ' I have 
not done this,' with his face turned towards the 
deity (in question). 

4. He to whom (any calamity) happens within a 
fortnight or three weeks (such as an illness, or fire, 
or the death of a relative, or a heavy visitation by 
the king), 

5. Should be known to be guilty ; otherwise (if 
nothing adverse happens to him), he is freed from 
the charge. A just king should honour (with pre- 
sents of clothes, ornaments, &c.) one who has 
cleared himself from guilt by an ordeal. 



XV 1 . 

1. Now there are twelve kinds of sons. 

2. The first is the son of the body, viz. he who 
is begotten (by the husband) himself on his own 
lawfully wedded wife. 

3. The second is the son begotten on a wife, viz. 
one begotten by a kinsman allied by funeral obla- 
tions, or x by a member of the highest caste, on an 
appointed (wife or widow). 



XV. 1-29. M. IX, 127, 136, 158-181 ; y. II, 127-132 ; Gaut. 
XXVIII, 18, 19, 32, 33; Colebrooke, Dig. V, 4 ,CLXXXV; V, 4) 
CCXXV. — 28-30. Colebrooke, Dig. V, 4, CCXCIX. — 30. M. 
IX, 163. — 31. Colebrooke, Dig. V, 3, CXXI. — 32-34. M. IX, 
201-203; Y. II, 140, 141 ; Gaut. XXVIII, 43, 44. — 32. Apast. 
II, 6, 14, 1. — 34-38. Colebrooke, Dig.V, 5, CCCXXVII. — 40. 
M. IX, 180; Y. II, 132.-41,42. M. IX, 182, 183. — 44. M. 
IX, 138; Colebrooke, Dig.V, 4, CCCII. — 45~47- M. IX, 106, 
137, 139. Of Chapters XV and XVII an excellent translation has 
been published by Dr. Btihler in the Bombay Digest (I, * 338-343). 
I have followed him literally almost throughout. 

3. ' I have translated the reading votpaditaA, which was no doubt 



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62 VISHtfU. XV, 4. 

4. The third is the son of an appointed daughter. 

5. She is called an appointed daughter, who is 
given away by her father with the words, ' The son 
whom she bears be mine.' 

6. A damsel who has no brother is also (in every 
case considered) an appointed daughter, though she 
has not been given away according to the rule of 
an appointed daughter. 

7. The son of a twice-married woman is the 
fourth. 

8. She who, being still a virgin, is married for 
the second time is called twice married (punarbhu). 

9. She also is called twice married (punarbhu) 
who, though not legally married more than once, 
has lived with another man before her lawful 
marriage. 

the reading of Nandapa»<fita, as he paraphrases the whole clause 
as follows, ' begotten by an elder or younger brother of the hus- 
band ; on failure of such, by a kinsman allied by funeral oblations ; 
on failure of him, by one belonging to the same gotra (race) as the 
husband ; on failure of him, by one descended from the same Jtishi 
ancestors as he; on failure of him, by a member of the 
highest caste, i. e. a Brahma«a.' The above reading is also found 
in the London MS. of the text and in the two Calcutta editions. 
Dr. Bflhler's MS., in which Nand.'s Commentary on this chapter is 
wanting, has iotpaditaA, and he translates accordingly, 'begotten by 
a kinsman . . ., who belongs to the highest caste.' The same 
reading is found in a quotation contained in Gagannatha and Cole- 
brooke's Dig. loc. cit. (I quote from a very good though frag- 
mentary Bengali MS. in my possession), where, however, this 
clause runs as follows, niyuktay&n savanzena./totpaditaA, 'begotten 
by a man of equal class on a widow duly appointed,' Colebrooke. 
The other Smntis do not speak of the appointment of others than 
kinsmen to beget a son on a widow, or wife of a eunuch, &c, 
unless Ya£fiavalkya's words (II, 128) sagotre«etare»a V&, 'by a 
Sagotra or by another,' may be rendered, contrary to V^Sine- 
fvara's interpretation, by ' a kinsman or one who is no kinsman.' 



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XV, 27. INHERITANCE. 63 

10. The son of an unmarried damsel is the 
fifth. 

11. (He is called so who is) born by an un- 
married daughter in the house of her father. 

12. And he belongs to the man who (afterwards) 
marries the mother. 

13. The son who is secretly born in the house 
is the sixth. 

14. He belongs to him in whose bed he is born. 

15. The son received with a bride is the seventh. 

16. He (is called so who) is the son of a woman 
married while she was pregnant. 

1 7. And he belongs to the husband (of the preg- 
nant bride). 

18. The adopted son (dattaka) is the eighth. 

19. And he belongs to him to whom he is given 
by his mother or father. 

20. The son bought is the ninth. 

21. And he belongs to him by whom he is 
bought. 

22. The son self-given is the tenth. 

23. And he belongs to him to whom he gave 
himself. 

24. The son cast away is the eleventh. 

25. (He is called so) who was forsaken by his 
father or mother (or by both). 

26. And he belongs to him by whom he is 
received. 

27. The son born by any woman whomsoever 1 
is the twelfth. 

27. ' Yatra kva£anotp£dita, 'born wherever,' means, according to 
Nand., ' begotten anyhow, but otherwise than the above-mentioned 
sons, upon a woman, whether one's own wife, or another man's 
wife, whether equal in caste or not, whether legally married to the 



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64 VISHJVU. XV, 28. 

28. Amongst these (sons) each preceding one 
is preferable (to the one next in order). 

29. And he takes the inheritance (before the 
next in order). 

30. And let him maintain the rest 

31. He should marry unmarried (sisters) in a 
manner correspondent with the amount of his 
property. 

32. Outcasts, eunuchs, persons incurably dis- 
eased, or deficient (in organs of sense or actions, 
such as blind, deaf, dumb, or insane persons, or 
lepers) do not receive a share. 

33. They should be maintained by those who 
take the inheritance. 

34. And their legitimate sons receive a share. 

35. But not the children of an outcast ; 

36. Provided they were born after (the commis- 
sion of) the act on account of which the parents 
were outcasted. 

37. Neither do children begotten (by husbands of 

begetter or not, whether still a virgin or not,' &c. But he adds 
a very lengthy discussion, the upshot of which is, that the term 
yatra kvaianotpadita is applicable to adopted sons only, who, al- 
though they are considered as the sons of the adopter, or of the 
legitimate husband of the woman, upon whom they were begotten 
by another, may also become heirs to the begetter, in case he has 
no other son. ' Or this term refers to the son of a 5udra concu- 
bine, whom Manu calls Para*ava' (M. IX, 178). The latter 
interpretation agrees with the one proposed by Dr. Buhler, who 
identifies the yatra kva^anotpadita with the ' Nishada and Pararava 
of other lawyers,' especially of Baudhayana (II, 2, 22), and with 
the view taken by <?agannatha, who thinks that the Saudra (son of 
a Sudra woman) is meant. 

32. 'The particle tu, " but," indicates that those who have entered 
the order of ascetics must also be understood here.' (Nand.) 

34. ' The particle An indicates that sons begotten on their wives 
(Kshetra^as) shall also receive a share.' (Nand.) 



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XV, 47> INHERITANCE. 65 

an inferior caste) on women of a higher caste 
receive a share. 

38. Their sons do not even receive a share of 
the wealth of their paternal grandfathers. 

39. They should be supported by the heirs. 

40. And he who inherits the wealth, presents the 
funeral oblation (to the deceased). 

41. Amongst wives of one husband also the son 
of one is the son of all (and must present funeral 
oblations to them after their death). 

42. Likewise, amongst brothers begotten by one 
(father, the son of one is the son of all, and must 
present funeral oblations to them all). 

43. Let a son present the funeral oblations to 
his father, even though he inherit no property. 

44. Because he saves (trayate) his father from 
the hell called Put, therefore (a male child) is called 
put-tra (protector from Put, son) by Svayambhu 
himself. 

45. He (the father) throws his debt on him (the 
son) ; and the father obtains immortality, if he sees 
the face of a living son. 

46. Through a son he conquers the worlds, 
through a grandson he obtains immortality, and 
through the son's grandson he gains the world of 
the sun. 

47. No difference is made in this world between 
the son of a son and the son of a daughter; for 
even a daughter's son works the salvation of a 
childless man, just like a son's son. 

44. ' Svayambhfi means the Veda.' (Nand.) 

[73 * 



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66 VISHANJ. XVI, i. 



XVI. 

i. On women equal in caste (to their husbands) 
sons are begotten, who are equal in caste (to their 
fathers). 

2. On women of lower caste than their husbands 
sons are begotten, who follow the caste of their 
mothers. 

3. On women of higher caste than their husbands 
sons are begotten, who are despised by the twice- 
born. 

4. Among these, the son of a .Sudra with a 
VaLyya woman is called Ayogava. 

5. The Pukkasa and Magadha are sons of a 
VaLyya and .Sudra respectively with a Kshatriya 
woman. 

6. The ICandala, Vaidehaka, and Suta are the 
sons of a .Sudra, Vaisya, and Kshatriya respectively 
with a Brahma«a woman. 

7. Besides these, there are innumerable other 
mixed castes produced by further intermixture be- 
tween those that have been mentioned. 

8. Ayogavas must live by artistic performances 
(such as public wrestling, dancing, and the like). 

9. Pukkasas must live by hunting. 

10. M&gadhas must live -by calling out in public 
the good qualities (of saleable commodities). 

11. ATa#d?alas must live by executing criminals 
sentenced to death. 

XVI. 1. M. X, 5 ; Y. I, 90 ; Apast. II, 6, 13, 1. — 4-6. M. X, 
11, 12 ; Y. I, 93, 94; Gaut. IV, 17. — 7. M. X, 31. — 8-15. M. 
X 47-53- — i7- M. X, 57. — 18. M. X, 62. 

10. According to Manu (X, 47) the Magadhas are to live by 
traffic. 



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XVII, I. INHERITANCE. 67 

12. Vaidehakas must live by keeping (dancing 
girls and other public) women and profiting by what 
they earn. 

13. Sutas must live by managing horses. 

14. A!a»</alas must live out of the town, and 
their clothes must be the mantles of the deceased. 
In this their condition is different (from, and lower 
than, that of the other mixed castes). 

15. All (members of mixed castes) should have 
intercourse (of marriage, and other community) 
only between themselves. 

16. (In the lower castes also) the son inherits the 
property of his father. 

17. All members of those mixed castes, whether 
their descent has been kept secret or is generally 
known, may be found out by their acts. 

18. Desertion of life, regardless of reward, in 
order to save a Brahma«a, or a cow, or for the sake 
of a woman or child, may confer heavenly bliss even 
upon (members of those) base castes. 

XVII. 

1. If a father makes a partition with his sons, 
he may dispose of his self-acquired property as he 
thinks best. 

XVII. 1. Y. II, 114. — 2. Y. II, 121. — 3. M. IX, 216; Y. II, 
122 ; Gaut. XXVIII, 29 ; Colebrooke, Dig. V, 2, CII. — 4-16. M. 
IX, 185-189; Y. II, 135-137; Apast. II, 6, 14, 2-5; Gaut. 
XXVIII, 21. —4-13, 15. Colebrooke, Dig. V, 8, CCCCXVII; 
V, 8, CCCCLIX.— 17. M. IX, 211, 212; Y. II, 138; Gaut. 
XXVIII, 28. — 18. M. IX, 194, 195 ; Y. II, 143, 144 ; Colebrooke, 
Dig. V, 9, CCCCLVII. — 19. M. IX, 196 ; Y. II, 145. — 20. M. 
IX, 197; Y. II, 145. — 21. M. IX, 192; Y. II, 145; Gaut. 
XXVIII, 24 ; Colebrooke, Dig. V, 9, CCCCXCIV. — 22. M. IX, 
200; Colebrooke, Dig. V, 9, CCCCLXXIII. — 23. Y. II, 120. 

F 2 



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68 visHiw. xvii, 2. 

2. But in regard to wealth inherited of the 
paternal grandfather, the ownership of father and 
son is equal. 

3. (Sons), who have separated from their father, 
should give a share to (a brother) who is born after 
partition. 

4. The wealth of a man who dies without male 
issue goes to his wife ; 

5. On failure of her, to his daughter ; 

6. On failure of her, to his father ; 

7. On failure of him, to his mother ; 

8. On failure of her, to his brother ; 

9. On failure of him, to his brother's son ; 

10. On failure of him, to the relations called 
Bandhu ; 

11. On failure of them, to the relations called 
Sakulya ; 

1 2. On failure of them, to a fellow-student ; 

13. On failure of him, it goes to the king, with 
the exception of a Brahmawa's property. 

14. The property of a Brahmawa goes to (other) 
Brahmawas. 



8. ' On failure of brothers the sister inherits.' (Nand.) 

9. ' On failure of a brother's son the sister's son inherits.' (Nand.) 

10. Bandhu means SapiWa (allied by funeral oblations). The 
inheritance goes first to the Sapi/za'as on the father's side in the 
following order: (the brother's son), the brother's grandson, the 
grandfather, his son, grandson, and great-grandson, the great-grand- 
father, his son, grandson, and great-grandson. Then follow the 
mother's Sapi«rfas in the same order. (Nand.) 

11. Sakulya means distant kinsmen, beginning with the fifth in 
descent and ascent. On failure of such, the inheritance goes to the 
spiritual teacher ; on failure of him, to a pupil of the deceased, as 
ordained by Apastamba (II, 6, 14, 3); and on failure of him, to a 
fellow-student, as stated in Sutra 12. (Nand.) 



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XVII, 20. INHERITANCE. 69 

15. The wealth of a (deceased) hermit shall be 
taken by his spiritual teacher ; 

16. Or his pupil (may take it). 

1 7. But let a reunited coparcener take the share 
of his reunited coparcener who has died (without 
issue), and a uterine brother that of his uterine 
brother, and let them give (the shares of their 
deceased coparceners and uterine brothers) to the 
sons of the latter. 

18. What has been given to a woman by her 
father, mother, sons, or brothers, what she has 
received before the sacrificial fire (at the marriage 
ceremony), what she receives on supersession, what 
has been given to her by her relatives, her fee 
(.Sulka), and a gift subsequent, are called 'woman's 
property' (Stridhana). 

19. If a woman married according to (one of the 
first) four rites r beginning with the Brahma rite, 
dies without issue, that (Stridhana) belongs to her 
husband. 

20. (If she has been married) according to (one 
of) the other (four reprehensible rites), her father 
shall take it. 

1 8. ' Sulka, " fee," denotes the price or value of a house or other 
valuable object presented to the bride by her father ; or it means 
the fee paid for her by the bridegroom.' (Nand.) The latter inter- 
pretation is evidently the correct one. The bride's ' fee ' (see Gaut. 
XXVIII, 25), from being originally the price due to the parents 
or guardian of the bride for surrendering her to the bridegroom, 
became in after times a wedding present, which the bride received 
from the bridegroom either directly or through her parents. This 
is the only way to account for the Sulka being enumerated among 
the constituent parts of Stridhana in this place. See also I. D. 
Mayne, Hindu Law and Usage, §§ 77, 566; Mayr, Indisches 
Erbrecht, 170 seq.; Jolly, Stellung der Frauen, 23, note. 

19, 20. See XXIV, 17-27. 



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70 VISHiVU. XVII, 21. 

21. If she dies leaving children, her wealth goes 
in every case to her daughter. 

22. Ornaments worn by women when their hus- 
bands were alive, the heirs shall not divide among 
themselves ; if they divide them, they become out- 
casts. 

23. (Coparceners) descended from different fathers 
must adjust their shares according to the fathers. 
Let each take the wealth due to his father, no other 
(has a right to it). 

XVIII. 

1. If there are four sons of a Brahmawa (springing 
from four different wives) of the four castes, they 
shall divide the whole estate of their father into ten 
parts. 

2. Of these, let the son of the Brahma»a wife 
take four parts ; 

3. The son of the Kshatriya wife, three parts ; 

4. The son of the Vaisya wife, two parts ; 

5. The son of the ^udra wife, a single part. 

22. My rendering of this .Sloka is based upon Kulluka's interpre- 
tation of the identical passage of Manu (IX, 200), which is supported 
by Vijgilanejvara (Mitakshari I, 4, 19 in Colebrooke's version), 
Madhava (Burnell, Daya-Vibhaga 51), Varadara^a (Burnell, Vara- 
dari^a's Vyavah&ranirwaya 49), and others. Nand. proposes a 
different interpretation, on which rests Dr. BUhler's rendering, 
' Those ornaments, which the wives usually wear, should not be 
divided by the heirs whilst the husbands are alive.' 

XVIII. 1-5. M. IX, 149, 151-153; Y - H, 125- — ", 25-27. 
Y. II, 125. — 1-31, 38-40. Colebrooke, Dig. V, 3, CLI1I. — 32- 
37. Colebrooke, Dig. V, 3, CLXXII; V, 2, LXXXVI; V, 1, LIV. 
— 36. Y. II, 114; Apast. II, 6, 14, r. — 41. M. IX, 210. — 42, 43. 
M. IX, 208, 209; Y. II, 118, 119. — 44. M. IX, 219; Gaut. 
XXVIII, 46, 47. — 43, 44. Colebrooke, Dig.V, 2, XCI; V, 5, 
CCCLXIII. 



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XVIII, 15- INHERITANCE. 7 1 

6. Again, if there are three sons of a Brahma»a 
(by wives of different castes), but no son by a vSudra 
(wife) among them, they shall divide the estate into 
nine parts. 

7. (Of these) let them take, each in the order of 
his caste, shares amounting to four, three, and two 
parts of the whole respectively. 

8. (If« there are three sons by wives of different 
castes, but) no Vawya among them, they shall 
divide the estate into eight parts, and take four 
parts, three parts, and one part respectively. 

9. (If there are three sons, but) no Kshatriya ' 
among them, they shall divide it into seven parts, ' 
and take four parts, two parts, and a single part 
respectively. 

10. If there is no Brahmawa among them, they 
shall divide it into six parts, and take three parts, 
two parts, and a single part respectively. 

11. If there are sons of a Kshatriya by a Ksha- 
triya, a Vai^ya, and a .SYkdra wife, the mode of 
division shall be the same (i.e. the estate shall be 
divided into six parts, &c.) 

12. Again, if there are two sons of a Brahmawa, 
the one belonging to the Brahma»a and the other 
to the Kshatriya caste, they shall divide the estate 
into seven parts ; and of these the Brahma«a son 
shall take four parts ; 

13. The Kshatriya son, three parts. 

14. Again, if there are two sons of a Brahma«a, 
and the one belongs to the Brahma«a and the other 
to the Vaisya caste, the estate shall be divided into 
six parts; and of these, the Brahmawa shall take 
four parts; 

15. TheVaLfya, two parts. 



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72 VISHiVU. XVIII, 16. 

16. Again, if there are two sons of a Brahmawa, 
and the one belongs to the Brahma«a and the other 
to the iSudra caste, they shall divide the estate into 
five parts ; 

17. And of these, the Brahma»a shall take four 
parts ; 

18. The Sftdra, a single part. 

19. Again, if there are two sons of a Brahmawa or 
a Kshatriya, and the one belongs to the Kshatriya 
and the other to the Sudra caste, they shall divide 
the estate into five parts ; 

20. And of these, the Kshatriya shall take three 
parts ; 

21. The .Sudra, one part. 

22. Again, if there are two sons of a Brahma«a 
or a Kshatriya, and the one belongs to the Ksha- 
triya, the other to the Sttdra caste, they shall divide 
the estate into four parts ; 

23. And of these, the Kshatriya shall take three 
parts ; 

24. The Stodra, a single part. 

25. Again, if there are two sons of a Brahmawa 
or a VaLyya or a .Sudra, and the one belongs to the 
Vaisya, the other to the .Sudra caste, they shall 
divide the estate into three parts; 

26. And of these, the Vaisya shall take two 
parts ; 

27. The SYldra, a single part. 

28. If a Brahma«a has an only son, he shall 
take the whole estate, provided he be a Brahmawa, 
Kshatriya, or Vaisya. 

29. If a Kshatriya has (an only son who is) either 
a Kshatriya or a Vaisya, (the rule shall be the 
same.) 



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XVIII, 40. INHERITANCE. 73 

30. If a VaLyya has (an only son who is) a Vaisya, 
(the rule shall also be the same) ; 

31. (And so shall the only) son of a vSttdra (be 
sole heir) to his Sudra (father). 

32. A 6udra, who is the only son of a father 
belonging to a twice-born caste, shall inherit one 
half of his property; 

33. The other half shall devolve in the same way 
as the property of one who died without leaving 
issue. 

34. Mothers shall receive shares proportionate to 
their sons' shares ; 

35. And so shall unmarried daughters. 

36. Sons, who are equal in caste (to their father), 
shall receive equal shares. 

37. A best part (the twentieth part of the inhe- 
ritance, &c.) shall be given to the eldest, as his 
additional share. 

38. If there are two sons by a Brahmarca wife, 
and one son by a .Sudra wife, the estate shall be 
divided into nine parts ; and of these, the two sons 

.of the Brahma«a wife shall take two parts, the one 
son of the .Sudra wife, a single part. 

39. If there are two sons by a .Sudra, and one 
son by a Brahmawa wife, the estate shall be divided 
into six parts ; and of these, the son of the Brahma«a 
wife shall take four parts, and the two sons of the 
.Sudra wife together shall take two parts. 

40. Upon the same principles the shares have to 
be adjusted in other cases also. 

33. See XVII, 4 seq. 

34. ' That is to say, a Brahmawa wife shall take four parts, a 
Kshatriya wife, three parts,' &c. (NanA) 

37. See Gaut. XXVIII, 5. 



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74 VISHiVU. XVIII, 41. 

41. If (brothers), who after a previous division 
of the estate live again together as parceners, 
should make a second partition, the shares must be 
equal in that case, and the eldest has no right to an 
additional share. 

42. What a brother has acquired by his own 
efforts, without using the patrimony, he must not 
give up (to his brothers or other co-heirs), unless by 
his own free will ; for it was gained by his own 
exertion. 

43. And if a man recovers (a debt or other pro- 
perty), which could not before be recovered by his 
father, he shall not, unless by his own free will, 
divide it with his sons ; for it is an acquisition made 
by himself. 

44. Apparel, vehicles 1 (carriages or riding-horses), 
and ornaments (such as are usually worn according 
to the custom of the caste), prepared food, water (in 
a well or pool), females (slaves or mistresses of the 
deceased), property destined for pious uses or sacri- 
fices, a common pasture-ground 2 , and a book, are 
indivisible. 

42. The term svayamthitalabdham has been translated according 
to Kullftka (on M. IX, 208). Nand. interprets this .Sloka thus, 
' What a brother has acquired by his own efforts, and what has 
been given to him, at his desire (by friends or others), he must 
not give up,' &c. 

43. Here again I have followed Kulluka (on M. IX, 209), and 
deviated from Nand.'s interpretation, who renders this .Sloka as 
follows, 'If a man recovers property, &c, or if he gains pro- 
perty by himself (by his learning or valour, &c.) . . .' 

44. 'The term pattra has been rendered above in accordance 
with the first interpretation proposed by Nand., and with Kulluka's 
interpretation (on M. IX, 219). Vi^flinefvara (in his comment 
upon the same passage of Manu) refers it to written documents, 
such especially as relate to a debt to be paid to the deceased ; and 



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XIX, 8. FUNERAL CEREMONIES. 75 



XIX. 

1. He must not cause a member of a twice-born 
caste to be carried out by a ^udra (even though he 
be a kinsman of the deceased) ; 

2. Nor a 6udra by a member of a twice-born 
caste. 

3. A father and a mother shall be carried out by 
their sons (who are equal in caste to their parents). 

4. But .Sudras must never carry out a member of 
a twice-born caste, even though he be their father. 

5. Those Brahmawas who carry out (or follow 
the corpse of) a (deceased) Brahma#a who has no 
relatives shall attain a mansion in heaven. 

6. Those who have carried out a dead relative 
and burnt his corpse, shall walk round the pile from 
left to right, and then plunge into water, dressed in 
their clothes. 

7. After having offered a libation of water to the 
deceased, they must place one ball of rice on blades 
of Kusa grass, (and this ceremony has to be re- 
peated on each subsequent day, while the period of 
impurity lasts.) 

8. Then, having changed their dress, they must 

this interpretation is mentioned by Nand. also. But there is no 
reason why an unliquidated demand should not be divided ; and 
written documents are only twice referred to in the code of Manu 
(VIII, 168, and IX, 232). — 2 In translating the term praiara I 
have again followed Kulluka loc. cit. ; see also Petersburg Dictionary 
s. v. Nand. interprets this term as denoting ' a path leading to or 
from the house.' 

XIX. 1. M.V, 104. — 2. Y. Ill, 26. — 6. M.V, 103; Y. Ill, 
26. — 7, 8. Y. Ill, 7, 12, 13. — 14-17. M. V, 73; Y. Ill, 16. 
'Chapters XIX-XXXII contain the section on i^ara, "Holy 
Usage."' (Nand.) 



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76 viSHivu. xix, 9. 

bite Nimba leaves between their teeth, and having 
stepped upon the stone threshold, they must enter 
the house. 

9. Then they must throw unbroken grains into 
the fire. 

10. On the fourth day they must collect the 
bones that have been left. 

11. And they must throw them into water from 
the Ganges. 

12. As many bones of a man are contained in 
the water of the Ganges, so many thousands of 
years will he reside in heaven. 

13. While the term of impurity lasts, they must 
continually offer a libation of water and a ball of 
rice to the deceased. 

14. And they must eat food which has been 
bought, or which they have received unsolicited. 

15. And they must eat no meat. 

16. And they must sleep on the ground. 

17. And they must sleep apart. 

18. When the impurity is over, they must walk 
forth from the village, have their beards shaved, 
and having cleansed themselves with a paste of 
sesamum, or with a paste of mustard-seed, they 
must change their dress and re-enter the house. 

19. There, after reciting a propitiatory prayer, 
they must honour the Brahma#as. 



13. The duration of the impurity varies according to the caste 
&c. of the deceased. See XXII. 

14. The particle £a, according to Nand., indicates that factitious 
salt must also not be used by them, as stated in a Smr/'ti. 

1 5. Nand. refers the particle ka. to an implied prohibition to eat 
fish, which he quotes from a text of Gautama (not found in his 
Institutes). 



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XX, 6. FUNERAL CEREMONIES. *]"] 

20. The gods are invisible deities, the Brahma»as 
are visible deities. 

21. The Brahma#as sustain the world. 

22. It is by the favour of the Brahma«as that 
the gods reside in heaven; a speech uttered by 
Brahma#as (whether a curse or a benediction) never 
fails to come true. 

23. What the Brahma»as pronounce, when highly 
pleased (as, if they promise sons, cattle, wealth, or 
some other boon to a man), the gods will ratify; 
when the visible gods are pleased, the invisible 
gods are surely pleased as well. 

24. The mourners, who lament the loss of a rela- 
tive, shall be addressed by men gifted with a 
tranquil frame of mind with such consolatory 
speeches as I shall now recite to thee, O Earth, 
who art cherished to my mind. 



XX. 

1. The northern progress of the sun is a day 
with the gods. 

2. The southern progress of the sun is (with 
them) a night. 

3. A year is (with them) a day and a night ; 

4. Thirty such are a month ; 

5. Twelve such months are a year. 

6. Twelve hundred years of the gods are a 
Kaliyuga. 

XX. 1-3. M.I, 67. — 6-9. M. I, 69, 70. — 10. M.I, 71. — 11. 
M. I, 79. — 12-14. M. I, 72. — 30. Y. Ill, 11. 

6. The Kaliyuga itself consists of a thousand years only ; but it 
is both preceded and followed by a twilight lasting a hundred 
years. It is similar with the three other Yugas. (Nand.) 



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78 VISHATU. XX, 7. 

7. Twice as many (or two thousand four hundred) 
are a Dvapara (Yuga). 

8. Thrice as many (or three thousand six hun- 
dred) are a Treta (Yuga). 

9. Four times as many (or four thousand eight 
hundred) are a Krtta. Yuga. 

10. (Thus) twelve thousand years make a Katur- 
yuga (or period of four Yugas). 

1 1 . Seventy-one ^faturyugas make a Manvantara 
(or period of a Manu). 

12. A thousand Aaturyugas make a Kalpa. 

13. And that is a day of the forefather (Brahman). 

14. His night also has an equal duration. 

15. If so many such nights and days are put 
together that, reckoned by the month and by the 
year, they make up a period of a hundred years (of 
Brahman) it is called the age of one Brahman. 

16. A day of Purusha (Vish#u) is equal in dura- 
tion to the age of one Brahman. 

1 7. When it ends, a Mahakalpa is over. 

18. The night following upon it is as long. 

19. The days and nights of Purusha that have 
gone by are innumerable ; 

20. And so are those that will follow. 

21. For Kala (time) is without either beginning 
or end. 

22. Thus it is, that in this Kala (time), in whom 
there is nothing to rest upon, and who is everlast- 
ing, I can espy nothing created in which there is the 
least stability. 

23. The sands in the Ganges and (the waters 
pouring down from the sky) when Indra sends rain 

a 1. ' Kala means Vish«u in this place.' (Nand.) 



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XX, 31. FUNERAL CEREMONIES. 79 

can be counted, but not the number of 'Forefathers' 
(Brahmans) who have passed away. 

24. In each Kalpa, fourteen chiefs of the gods 
(Indras) go to destruction, as many rulers of the 
world (kings), and fourteen Manus. 

25. And so have many thousands of Indras and 
hundred thousands of princes of the Daityas (such 
as Hira#yaka.ripu, Hira#yaksha, and others) been 
destroyed by Kala (time). What should one say 
of human beings then ? 

26. Many royal i&shis too (such as Sagara), all 
of them renowned for their virtues, gods and Brah- 
manical ^zshis (such as Ka.syapas) have perished 
by the action of Kala. 

27. Those even who have the power of creating 
and annihilating in this world (the sun, moon, and 
other heavenly bodies) continually perish by the 
act of Kala ; for Kala (time) is hard to overcome. 

28. Every creature is seized upon by Kala and 
carried into the other world. It is the slave of its 
actions (in a former existence). Wherefore then 
should you wail (on its death) ? 

29. Those who are born are sure to die, and 
those who have died are sure to be born again. 
This is inevitable, and no associate can follow a 
man (in his passage through mundane existence). 

30. As mourners will not help the dead in this 
world, therefore (the relatives) should not weep, but 
perform the obsequies to the best of their power. 

31. As both his good and bad actions will follow 

27. Here also Kala, the god of time, is another name for Vishwu. 
(Nand.) 

29. The same proverb occurs in the Rlm&yaHall, 84, 21, and in 
the BhagavadgM II, 27. See Bohtlingk, Ind. Sprilche, 2383. 



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80 VISHtfU. XX, 32. 

him (after death) like associates, what does it matter 
to a man whether his relatives mourn over him 
or no ? 

32. But as long as his relatives remain impure, 
the departed spirit finds no rest, and returns to visit 
(his relatives), whose duty it is to offer up to him 
the funeral ball of rice and the water libation. 

33. Till the Sapi»aftkara«a * has been performed, 
the dead man remains a disembodied spirit (and is 
afflicted with hunger and thirst). Give rice and a 
jar with water to the man who has passed into the 
abode of disembodied spirits. 

34. Having passed into the abode of the manes 
(after the performance of the Sapi»^lkara«a) he 
enjoys in the shape of celestial food his portion of 
the >SVaddha (funeral oblation) ; offer the .Sraddha, 
therefore, to him who has passed into the abode of 
the manes. 

35. Whether he has become a god, or stays in 
hell, or has entered the body of an animal, or of a 
human being, he will receive the .SVaddha offered to 
him by his relatives. 

36. The dead person and the performer of the 
.SVaddha are sure to be benefitted by its perform- 
ance. Perform the .Sraddha always, therefore, 
abandoning bootless grief. 

37. This is the duty which should be constantly 
discharged towards a dead person by his kinsmen ; 
by mourning a man will neither benefit the dead 
nor himself. 

38. Having seen that no help is to be had from 
this world, and that his relations are dying (one after 

33. 1 See XXI, 12. 



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XX, 45- FUNERAL CEREMONIES. 8 1 

the other), you must choose virtue for your only 
associate, O ye men. 

39. Even were he to die with him, a kinsman is 
unable to follow his dead relative : all excepting his 
wife are forbidden to follow him on the path of 
Yama. 

40. Virtue alone will follow him, wherever he 
may go; therefore do your duty unflinchingly in 
this wretched world. 

41. To-morrow's business should be done to-day, 
and the afternoon s business in the forenoon ; for 
death will not wait, whether a person has done it 
or not. 

42. While his mind is fixed upon his field, or traffic, 
or his house, or while his thoughts are engrossed 
by some other (beloved) object, death suddenly 
carries him away as his prey, as a she-wolf catches 
a lamb. 

43. Kala (time) is no one's friend and no one's 
enemy : when the effect of his acts in a former 
existence, by which his present existence is caused, 
has expired, he snatches a man away forcibly. 

44. He will not die before his time has come, 
even though he has been pierced by a thousand 
shafts ; he will not live after his time is out, even 
though he has only been touched by the point of 
a blade of Kusa grass. 

45. Neither drugs, nor magical formulas, nor 

39. This is an allusion to the custom of Sattee. (Nand.) See 
XXV, 14. 

41. This proverb is found in the Mahabharata also (XII, 6536, 
&c.) See Bohtlingk, Ind. Sprilche, 6595. 

43. This proverb is also found in the Mahabharata XI, 68, and 
Ramayawa IV, 18, 28, and other works. See Bohtlingk, 3194- 

45. ' Neither will presents of gold (to Brahma»as) or other such 

[7] G 



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82 VISHiVU. XX, 46. 

burnt-offerings, nor prayers will save a man who is 
in the bonds of death or old age. 

46. An impending evil cannot be averted even 
by a hundred precautions ; what reason then for you 
to complain ? 

47. Even as a calf finds his mother among a 
thousand cows, an act formerly done is sure to find 
the perpetrator. 

48. Of existing beings the beginning is unknown, 
the middle (of their career) is known, and the end 
again unknown ; what reason then for you to com- 
plain ? 

49. As the body of mortals undergoes (succes- 
sively the vicissitudes of) infancy, youth, and old 
age, even so will it be transformed into another 
body (hereafter) ; a sensible man is not mistaken 
about that. 

50. As a man puts on new clothes in this world, 
throwing aside those which he formerly wore, even 
so the self of man puts on new bodies, which are in 
accordance with his acts (in a former life). 

51. No weapons will hurt the self of man, no fire 
burn it, no waters moisten it, and no wind dry it up. 

52. It is not to be hurt, not to be burnt, not to 
be moistened, and not to be dried up ; it is im- 
perishable, perpetual, unchanging, immovable, with- 
out beginning. 

acts of liberality save him, as the use of the particle ka. implies.' 
(Nand.) 

47. This proverb is also found in the Mah&bh&rata XII, 6760, 
Pafi&itantra II, 134, and other works. See Bohtlingk, Ind. 
Sprtlche, 51 1 4. 

48. This proverb is also found in the BhagavadgM II, 28. 
See BShtlingk, Ind. Spriiche, 704. 

50. Regarding transmigration, see below, XLIV, XLV. 



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XXI, 2. FUNERAL OBLATIONS. 83 

53. It is (further) said to be immaterial, passing 
all thought, and immutable. Knowing the self of 
man to be such, you must not grieve (for the 
destruction of his body). 

XXI. 

1. Now then \ (on the day) after the impurity is 
over, let him bathe duly (during the recitation of 
Mantras), wash his hands and feet duly, and sip 
water duly, (and having invited some Brahma#as), 
as many as possible, who must cleanse themselves 
in the same way and turn their faces towards the 
north, let him bestow presents of perfumes, gar- 
lands, clothes and other things (a lamp, frankincense, 
and the like) upon them, and hospitably entertain 
them. 

2. At the Ekoddish/a (or .Sraddha for one 
recently deceased) let him alter the Mantras x so as 
to refer to (the) one person (deceased) 2 . 

XXI. i-ii. Asv. IV, 7; Par. Ill, 10, 48-53; Stilish. IV, 2; 
M. Ill, 247 ; Y. Ill, 250, 251, 255. — 12-23. S&akh. IV, 3 ; V, 9; 
Y. I, 252-254. Regarding the parallel passages of the Kanaka 
Griliya-sfitra, see the Introduction. 

1. * 'Having said, in the previous Chapter (XX, 30), that "the 
obsequies should be performed," he now goes on to describe that 
part of the obsequies which has not yet been expounded, viz. the 
"first .Sraddha." ' (Nand.) 

2. * The Mantras here referred to are those contained in the 
description of the Parvawa and other ordinary Sraddhas in Chapter 
LXXIII. Thus, the Mantra, 'This is your (share), ye manes' 
(LXXIII, 12, 13), has to be altered into, ' This is thy (share), father ;' 
and so on. Devap&la, in his Commentary on the KaMaka Gr/hya- 
sutra, gives an accurate statement of all the modifications which 
the ordinary Mantras have to undergo at the Ekoddish/a. — s Nand. 
states that not only the Mantras, but the whole ritual should be 
modified. The nature of the latter modifications is stated by Y&g- 
fiavalkya loc. cit. and by .SSnkhayana loc. cit. 

G 2 



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84 vishjvu. xxi, 3 . 

3. Close to the food left (by the Brahma#as) let 
him offer a ball of rice, at the same time calling out 
his name and (that of) his race. 

4. The Brahma#as having taken food and having 
been honoured with a gift, let him offer, as im- 
perishable food, water to the Brahmawas, after 
having called out the name and Gotra of the de- 
ceased; and let him dig three trenches, each four 
Angulas in breadth, their distance from one another 
and their depth also measuring (four Angulas), and 
their length amounting to one Vitasti (or twelve 
Angulas). 

5. Close by the trenches let him light three fires, 
and having added fuel to them, let him make three 
oblations (of boiled rice) in each (fire, saying), 

6. ' Svadha and reverence to Soma, accompanied 
by the manes. 

7. ' Svadha and reverence to Agni, who conveys 
the oblations addressed to the manes. 

8. ' Svadha and reverence to Yama Angiras.' 

9. Then let him offer balls of rice as (ordained) 
before (in Sutra 3) on the three mounds of earth 
(adjacent to the three trenches). 

10. After having filled the three trenches with 

3. This must be done with the Mantra, 'This is for you.' 
(Nand.) Regarding this Mantra, see note on Sutra 10. 

4. The ' imperishable water,' akshayyodakam, derives its name 
from the Mantra, with which it is delivered, expressing the wish 
that the meal 'may give imperishable satisfaction' (akshayyam 
astu). This is the explanation which Nand. gives of the term 
akshayyodakam in his gloss on LXXIII, 27. In his comment on 
the present Sutra he says that the 'imperishable water' must be 
presented with the (further ?) Mantras, ' Let arrive ' and ' Be 
satisfied.' See Y. I, 251 ; Sankh. IV, 2, 5, 6. 

10. The whole Mantra runs as follows, ' This is for you, father, 



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XXI, 14. FUNERAL OBLATIONS. 85 

rice, sour milk, clarified butter, honey, and meat, 
let him mutter (the Mantra), 'This is for you.' 

1 1 . This ceremony he must repeat monthly, on 
the day of his death. 

12. At the close of the year let him give food to 
the Brahma»as, after having fed the gods first, in 
honour of the deceased and of his father, grand- 
father, and great-grandfather. 

13. At (the Ekoddish/a belonging to) this cere- 
mony let him perform the burnt-offering, the invita- 
tion, and (the offering of) water for washing tfie 
feet. 

14. Then he must pour the water for washing 
the feet and the Arghya (water libation) destined for 
the deceased person into the three vessels con- 
taining the water for washing the feet, and the 
three other vessels containing the Arghya of his 
three ancestors. At the same time he must mutter 



and for those after you.' But in the present case (at a 'first 
.Sr&ddha') the name of the deceased has to be substituted for the 
word ' father.' (Nand.) Although Nand. quotes this Mantra from 
Axvateyana's .SYauta-sutra, it seems probable that the author of the 
Vishwu-sutra took it from the KaTiaka (IX, 6 of the Berlin MS.) 

11. The Sfttras following next refer to the Sapi«</ikara«a or 
' ceremony of investing a dead person with the rights of a Sapi«rfa.' 

12. 'He must invite six Bralimawas altogether, four as represen- 
tatives of the deceased person and of his three ancestors, two for 
the offering to be addressed to the Vlrvedevis. The Brahmana, 
who represents the deceased person, must be fed according to the 
rule of the Ekoddish/a, and the three Brahmawas, who represent 
the three ancestors, must be fed according to the rule of the 
Parvawa .Sraddha, as laid down in Chapter LXXIII.' (Nand.) 

13. The import of this Sutra is, that those three ceremonies must 
not be omitted in the present case, as is otherwise the case at an 
Ekoddish/a. (Nand.) 

14. 1 The following is a translation of the whole of this Mantra, 



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86 vish^u. xxi, 15. 

(the two Mantras), ' May earth unite thee V and 
'United your minds 2 .' 

15. Near the leavings he must make (and put) 
four balls of rice. 

16. Let him show out the Brahma#as, after they 
have sipped water duly and have been presented by 

. him with their sacrificial fee. 

1 7. Then let him knead together the ball of the 
deceased person with the three balls (of the three 
ancestors), as (he has mixed up) his water for 
washing the feet and his Arghya (with theirs). 

18. Let him do the same (with the balls placed) 
near the three trenches. 

19. Or (see Sutra 12) the Sapi«afikara«a must be 
performed on the thirteenth, after the monthly 
•Sraddha has been performed on the twelfth * day. 

20. For Sudras it should be performed on the 
twelfth day, without Mantras. 

21. If there be an intercalary month in that year, 
he must add one day to the (regular days of the) 
monthly .Sraddha. 

22. The ceremony of investing women with the 
relationship of Sapinda. has to be performed in the 
same manner. Later, he must perform a Sraddha 
every year, while he lives, (on the anniversary of the 
deceased relative's death) 1 . 

which is quoted at full in the Kanaka G/vhya-sutra, ' May Fri- 
thivt (the earth), Vayu (air), Agni (fire), and Pra^apati (the lord of 
creatures) unite thee with thy ancestors, and may you ancestors 
unite with him.' Regarding the particular ancestors implied here, 
see below, LXXV. — 2 Rig-veda X, 191, 4. 

19. * I.e. on that day on which the period of impurity expires. 
(Nand.) 

22. 1 The meaning is, that he must give him food and water, as 
prescribed in 23. (Nand.) 



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XXII.6. IMPURITY. 87 

23. He, for whom the ceremony of investing him 
with the relationship of Sapircaa is performed after 
the lapse of a year, shall be honoured by the gift, 
(on each day) of that year, of food and a jar with 
water to a Brahma«a. 



XXII. 

1. The impurity of a Brahma«a caused by the 
birth or death of Sapitfdas lasts ten days. 

2. In the case of a Kshatriya (it lasts) twelve 
days. 

3. In the case of a Vaisya (it lasts) fifteen days. 

4. In the case of a .Sudra (it lasts) a month. 

5. The relationship of Sapiwofe. ceases with the 
seventh man (in descent or ascent). 

6. During the period of impurity oblations (to 
the Vijvedevas), gifts and receiving of alms, and 
study have to be interrupted. 

XXII. 1-4. M.V,83j Y.III,i8,22; Apast.1,5,16,18; GautXIV, 
1-4. — 5. M.V, 60; Apast. II, 6, 15, 2; Gaut. XIV, 13. — 25. M. 
V, 66; Y. Ill, 20; Gaut. XIV, 17. — 27. Y.III, 23; Gaut XIV, 
44. - 28. M.V, 69 ; Y.III, 1. — 29, 30. M. V, 67 ; Y. Ill, 23. — 35. 
M.V, 79; Y. Ill, 20 ; Gaut. XIV, 6. — 36, 37. Gaut. XIV, 7, 8. 

— 38. M.V, 79; Y. Ill, 20. — 39-41. M.V, 75, 76; Y. Ill, 21 ; 
Gaut. XIV, 19. — 42. M.V, 80 ; Y. Ill, 24. — 43. Y. Ill, 25. — 
44. M.V, 80, 81; Y. Ill, 24; Gaut. XIV, 20. — 45. M.V, 82; 
Y. Ill, 25. — 46. M.V, 81 ; Gaut. XIV, 20. — 47. M. V, 89 ; Y. 
Ill, ai, 27 j Gaut. XIV, 10-12. — 48-55. M.V, 93-95; Y. Ill, 
27-29. — 48, 49. Gaut. XIV, 45, 46. — 56. M. V, 89 ; Y. Ill, 21 ; 
Gaut. XIV, 12.— 63-65. M.V, 103 ; Y. Ill, 26 ; Gaut. XIV, 31. 

— 67. M.V, 144. — 69. M.V, 85 ; Y. Ill, 30 ; Apast. II, 1, 2, 8, 9 ; 
Gaut. XIV, 30. — 70. M.V, 87. — 75. M. V, 145 ; Y. 1, 196 ; Apast. 
I, 5, 16, 14; Gaut. I, 37. — 81. M.V, 135. — 82. M. XI, 95. — 
84. M. XI, 96.-85. M.V, 65.-86. M.V, 91. — 87. M.V, 88. 

— 88-93. M.V, 105-110; Y. Ill, 31-34. 



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88 vishjvu. xxii, 7. 

7. No one must eat the food of one impure 
(unless he be a Sapi«^a of his). 

8. He who eats but once the food of Brahma»as 
or others, while they are impure, will remain impure 
as long as they. 

9. When the (period of) impurity is over, he 
must perform a penance (as follows) : 

10. If a twice-born man has eaten (the food) of a 
member of his own caste, while the latter was im- 
pure, he must approach a river and plunge into it, 
mutter the (hymn of) Aghamarsha«a x three times, 
and, after having emerged from the water, must 
mutter the Gayatri 2 one thousand and eight times. 

11. If a Brahmarca has eaten the food of a Ksha- 
triya, while the latter was impure, he is purified by 
performing the same penance and by fasting (on 
the previous day). 

12. (The same penance is ordained for) a Ksha- 
triya who has eaten the food of a Vaisya, while the 
latter was impure. 

13. (The same penance is ordained for) a Brah- 
mawa (who has eaten the food) of an impure 
Vaisya ; but he must fast besides during the three 
(previous) days. 

14. If a Kshatriya or a Vaisya (have eaten the 
food) of a Brihmawa or a Kshatriya respectively, 
who were impure, they must approach a river and 
mutter the Gayatri five hundred times. 

15. A Vaisya, who has eaten the food of a Brah- 
mawa, while the latter was impure, must (go to a 
river and) mutter the Gayatri one hundred and 
eight times. 

10. a Rig-vedaX, 190. — s Rig-veda III, 62, 10. 



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XXII, 24. IMPURITY. 89 

16. A twice-born man (who has eaten the food) 
of a Sudra, while the latter was impure, must (go 
to a river and) perform the Pra^ipatya (penance). 

17. A Sudra (who has eaten the food) of an 
impure man of a twice-born caste must bathe (in a 
river). 

18. A Sudra (who has eaten the food) of another 
Sudra, while the latter was impure, must bathe (in 
a river) and drink Pan^agavya. 

19. Wives and slaves in the direct order of the 
castes (i. e. who do not belong to a higher caste 
than their lord) remain impure as long as their 
lord. 

20. If their lord is dead (or if they live apart 
from him, they remain impure) as long as (members 
of) their own caste. 

21. If Sapi«afas of a higher caste (are born or 
have died) the period of impurity has for their 
lower caste relations the same duration as for 
members of the higher caste. 

22. A Brahma#a (to whom) Sapiwdas of the 
Kshatriya, Vaisya, or .Sudra castes (have been born 
or have died) becomes pure within six nights, or 
three nights, or one night, respectively. 

23. A Kshatriya (to whom Sapitfdas of the) 
Vaisya or Sudra castes (have been born or have 
died) is purified within six and three nights, re- 
spectively. 

24. A Vaisya (to whom Sapmdas of the) Sudra 
caste (have been born or have died) becomes pure 
within six nights. 

16. Regarding the Pra^apatya penance, see below, XL VI, 10. 
18. The Pafi^agavya, or five productions of a cow, consist of 
milk, sour milk, butter, urine, and cow-dung. 



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9© VISHNU. XXII, 25. 

25. In a number of nights equal to the number 
of months after conception, a woman is purified 
from an abortion. 

26. The relatives of children that have died 
immediately after birth (before the cutting of the 
navel-string), and of still-born children, are purified 
at once. 

27. (The relatives) of a child that has died before 
having teethed (are also purified) at once. 

28. For him no ceremony with fire is performed, 
nor offering of water. 

29. For a child that has teethed but has not yet 
been shorn, purity is obtained in one day and 
night ; 

30. For a child that has been shorn but not 
initiated, in three nights ; 

31. From that time forward (i.e. for initiated 
persons) in the time that has been mentioned above 
(in Sutra 1 seq.) 

32. In regard to women, the marriage ceremony 
is (considered as their) initiation. 

33. For married women there is no impurity for 
the relatives on the father's side. 

34. If they happen to stay at their father's house 
during childbirth or if they die there, (their distant 
relatives are purified) in one night, and their parents 
(in three nights). 

35. If, while the impurity caused by a birth lasts, 

26. 'The meaning is, that the relatives of such children do not 
become impure.' (Nand.) 

28. ' The meaning is, that he must not be burnt.' (Nand.) 
32. The import of this Sutra is this, that the full period of im- 
purity is ordained on the death of women also, in case they were 
married, as the marriage ceremony takes with them the place of 
the initiation of males. 



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XXII, 43> IMPURITY. 9 1 

another impurity caused by childbirth intervenes, it 
ends when the former impurity terminates. 

36. If it intervenes when one night (only of the 
period of impurity remains, the fresh impurity 
terminates) two days later. 

37. If it intervenes when one watch (only of 
the last night remains, the impurity ends) three 
days later. 

38. The same rule is observed if a relative dies 
during a period of impurity caused by the death 
(of another relative). 

39. If a man, while staying in another country, 
hears of the birth or death (of a relative), he be- 
comes purified after the lapse of the period still 
wanting (to the ten days). 

• 40. If the period of impurity, but not a whole 
year, has elapsed, (he is purified in one night.) 

41. After that time (he is purified) by a bath. 

42. If his teacher or maternal grandfather has 
died, (he is purified) in three nights. 

43. Likewise, if sons other than a son of the 
body have been born or have died, and if wives 
who had another husband before have been de- 
livered of a child or have died. 

40. ' Although the general term impurity is used in this Sutra, 
it refers to impurity caused by a death only.' (Nand.) 

42. 'The use of the particle ia. implies, that this rule extends 
to the death of a maternal grandmother, as ordained in the Sha^a- 
tftismrc'ti.' (Nand.) 

43. The twelve kinds of sons have been enumerated above, XV, 
2-27. Of these, the three species of adopted sons, the son bought, 
and the son cast off cannot cause impurity, because their sonship 
dates from a period subsequent to their birth; but their offspring 
may cause impurity. (Nand.) Parapurvds, or 'wives who had 
another husband before,' are either of the punarbhu or of the 
svairiwi kind. (Nand.) See XV, 8, 9, and Narada XII, 46-54. 



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92 VISHJVU. XXII, 44. 

44. (He becomes pure) in one day, if the wife or 
son of his teacher, or his Upadhyaya (sub-teacher '), or 
his maternal uncle, or his father-in-law, or a brother- 
in-law, or a fellow-student, or a pupil has died. 

45. The impurity has the same duration (as in 
the cases last mentioned), if the king of that country 
in which he lives has died. 

46. Likewise, if a man not his Sapinda. has died 
at his house. 

47. The relatives of those who have been killed 
by (falling from) a precipice, or by fire, or (have 
killed themselves by) fasting, or (have been killed 
by) water, in battle, by lightning, or by the king (on 
account of a crime committed by them), do not 
become impure ; 

48. Nor do kings (become impure) while engaged 
in the discharge of their duties (such as the protec- 
tion of their subjects, the trial of lawsuits, &c.) 

49. Devotees fulfilling a vow (also do not be- 
come impure) ; 

50. Nor do sacrificers engaged in a sacrificial 
ceremony ; 

51. Nor workmen (such as carpenters or others) 
while engaged in their work ; 

52. Nor those who perform the king's orders, if 
the king wishes them to be pure. 

53. Nor (can impurity arise) during the instal- 
lation of the monument of a deity, nor during 

44. » See XXIX, 2. 

49. The term vratin, 'a devotee fulfilling a vow,' may be 
referred to students as well, who, however, become impure by the 
death of their parents. (Nand.) 

53. A marriage ceremony is said to have actually begun when 
the Nandfrnukha, or .Sraddha preliminary to marriage, has taken 
place. (Nand.) 



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XXII, 64. IMPURITY. 93 

a marriage ceremony, if those ceremonies have 
actually begun; 

54. Nor when the whole country is afflicted with 
a calamity; 

55. Nor in times of great public distress (such as 
an epidemic or a famine). 

56. Suicides and outcasts do not cause impurity 
or receive offerings of water. 

57. On the death-day of an outcast a female 
slave of his must upset a pot with water with her 
feet, (saying, ' Drink thou this.') 

58. He who cuts the rope by which (a suicide) 
has hung himself, becomes pure by performing the 
Tacptakrikkhra. (' hot penance '). 

59. So does he who has been (in any way) 
concerned with the funeral of a suicide ; 

60. And he who sheds tears for such. 

61. He who sheds tears for any deceased person 
together with the relations of the latter (becomes 
pure) by a bath. 

62. If he has done so, before the bones (of the 
deceased) had been collected, (he becomes pure) by 
bathing with his apparel. 

63. If a member of a twice-born caste has fol- 
lowed the corpse of a dead .Sudra, he must go 
to a river, and having plunged into it, mutter the 
Aghamarshawa three times, and then, after having 
emerged from it, mutter the Gayatrt one thousand 
and eight times. 

64. (If he has followed) the corpse of a dead 
member of a twice-born caste, (the same expiation 

55. Giving or taking alms does not effect impurity in such 
cases. (Nand.) 



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94 viSHivu. XXII, 65. 

is ordained, but he must mutter the Gayatrl) one 
hundred and eight times only. 

65. If a vSudra has followed the corpse of a 
member of a twice-born caste, he must bathe. 

66. Members of any caste, who have come near 
to the smoke of a funeral pile, must bathe. 

67. (Bathing is also ordained) after sexual inter- 
course, bad dreams (of having been mounted upon 
an ass, or the like), when blood has issued from the 
throat, and after having vomited or been purged ; 

68. Also, after tonsure of the head ; 

69. And after having touched one who has 
touched a corpse (a carrier of a corpse), or a woman 
in her courses, or a J^and&la. (or other low-caste 
persons, such as .SVapa/fcas), or a sacrificial post ; 

70. And (after having touched) the corpse of a 
five-toed animal, except of those kinds that may be 
eaten 1 , or their bones still moist with fat. 

71. In all such ablutions he must not wear his 
(defiled) apparel without having washed it before. 

72. A woman in her courses becomes pure after 
four days by bathing. 

73. A woman in her courses having touched 
another woman in her courses, who belongs to a 
lower caste than she does, must not eat again till 
she is purified. 

74. If she has (unawares) touched a woman of 
her own caste, or of a higher caste than her own, she 
becomes pure at once, after having taken a bath. 

75. Having sneezed, having slept, having eaten, 

70. 1 See LI, 6. 

75. Nand. argues from a passage of Ya^navalkya (I, 196) and 
from texts of Apastamba (not found in his Dharma-sutra) and of 
Prafetas, that the particle ka, refers to repeated sipping of water. 



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XXII, 83. IMPURITY. 95 

going to eat or to study, having drunk (water), 
having bathed, having spat, having put on his gar- 
ment, having walked on the high road, having 
discharged urine or voided excrements, and having 
touched the bones no longer moist with fat of a 
five-toed animal, he must sip water; 

76. Likewise, if he has talked to a K&ndSXa. or to 
a MXzkkka. (barbarian). 

Tj. If the lower part of his body, below the 
navel, or one of his fore-arms, has been defiled by 
one of the impure excretions of the body, or by one 
of the spirituous liquors or of the intoxicating drinks 
(hereafter mentioned), he is purified by cleansing 
the limb in question with earth and water. 

78. If another part of his body (above the navel) 
has been defiled, (he becomes pure by cleansing it) 
with earth and water, and by bathing. 

79. If his mouth has been defiled (he becomes 
pure) by fasting, bathing, and drinking Paft^agavya; 

80. Likewise, if his lip has been defiled. 

81. Adeps, semen, blood, dandruff, urine, faeces, ear- 
wax, nail-parings, phlegm, tears, rheum, and sweat 
are the twelve impure excretions of the body. 

82. Distilled from sugar, or from the blossoms of 
the Madhuka (Madhvl wine *), or from flour : these 
three kinds of spirituous liquor have to be dis- 
cerned ; as one, so are all : none of them must be 
tasted by the twice-born. 

83. Again, distilled from the blossoms of the 

76. Regarding the meaning of Tftlzkkhz, see LXXXIV, 4. 

82, 83. ' How the M&dhvi, Madhuka, and MSdhvlka wines differ 
from one another, does not become clear. Nand. explains the 
term M&dhuka as denoting an extract from Madhuka blossoms 
(bassia latifolia), and M&dhvf and Mddhvika as two different pre- 
parations from Madhu. Now Madhu might be rendered by < honey;' 



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96 VISHJVU. XXII, 84. 

Madhuka tree (Madhuka wine), from molasses, from 
the fruits of the Tarika (or Kapittha tree), of the 
jujube tree, of the Khar^ura tree, or of the bread- 
fruit tree, from wine-grapes, from Madhuka blossoms 
(Madhvlka wine), Maireya, and the sap of the cocoa- 
nut tree : 

84. These ten intoxicating drinks are unclean for 
a Brahma#a ; but a Kshatriya and a Valyya commit 
no wrong in touching (or drinking) them. 

85. A pupil having performed (on failure of 
other mourners) the funeral of his dead Guru, be- 
comes pure after ten nights, like those (kinsmen) 
who carry out the dead. 

86. A student does not infringe the rules of his 
order by carrying out, when dead, his teacher, or his 
sub-teacher, or his father, or his mother, or his Guru. 

87. A student must not offer a libation of water 
to a deceased relative (excepting his parents) till 
the term of his studentship has expired; but if, 
after its expiration, he offers a libation of water, he 
becomes pure after three nights. 

88. Sacred knowledge (see 92), religious austeri- 
ties (see 90), fire (see XXIII, 33), holy food (Pan- 
£agavya), earth (see 91), the mind, water (see 
91), smearing (with cow-dung and the like, see 
XXIII, 56), air (see XXIII, 41), (the morning and 
evening prayers and other) religious acts, the sun 

but Kulluka, in his comment on the term M&dhvt (M. XI, 95), 
states expressly that it means ' Madhuka blossom,' and Harita (as 
quoted by Nand.) says that Madhuka, Madhvt and Madhvika are 
all preparations from Madhu, i.e. Madhuka blossoms. Maireya, 
according to the lexicographer Va^aspati, as quoted by Nand., is an 
intoxicating drink prepared from the flowers of the grislea tormen- 
tosa, mixed with sugar, grain, and water, or, according to the reading 
of the .Sabdakalpadruma (see the Petersburg Dictionary), with sorrel. 



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XXIII, I. IMPURITY. 97 

(see XXIII, 40), and time (by the lapse of the ten 
days of impurity and the like) are purifiers of 
animate objects. 

89. Of all pure things, pure food is pronounced 
the most excellent ; for he who eats pure food only, 
is truly pure, not he who is only purified with earth 
and water. 

90. By forgiveness of injuries the learned are 
purified ; by liberality, those who have done for- 
bidden acts; by muttering of prayers, those who 
have sinned in secret; by religious austerities, those 
who best know the Veda. 

91. By water and earth is purified what should 
be purified (because it has been defiled) ; a river is 
purified by its current (carrying away all slime and 
mud) ; a woman, whose thoughts have been impure, 
by her menses ; and the chief among the twice-born 
(the Brahmawas), by renouncing the world. 

92. Bodies (when defiled) are purified by water ; 
the mind is purified (from evil thoughts) by truth ; 
the soul (is purified or freed from worldly vanity) by 
sacred learning and austerities; the understanding 
(when unable to resolve some doubt), by knowledge. 

93. Thus the directions for purifying animate 
bodies have been declared to thee; hear now the 
rules for cleaning all sorts of inanimate objects. 

XXIII. 

1. What has been defiled by the impure excre- 
tions of the body, by spirits, or by intoxicating 
drinks, is impure in the highest degree. 

XXIII. 2. Apast. I, 5, 17, 10; Gaut. I, 29. — 4. Y. I, 185; 
Gaut. I, 29, 31. — 5. M.V, 123; Gaut. I, 34. — 7-1 1. M.V, in, 
112, 116, 117 ; Y. I, 182, 183. —7, 8. Gaut. I, 29, 30. — 13- 

[7] H 



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98 visHivu. XXIII, 2. 

2. All vessels made of iron (or of other metals or 
of composition metals such as bell-metal and the 
like), which are impure in the highest degree, 
become pure by exposure to the fire. 

3. Things made of gems or stones or water- 
shells, (such as conch-shells or mother-of-pearl, be- 
come pure) by digging them into the earth for 
seven days. 

4. Things made of horns (of rhinoceroses or 
other animals), or of teeth (of elephants or other 
animals), or of bone (of tortoises or other animals, 
become pure) by planing them. 

5. Vessels made of wood or earthenware must 
be thrown away. 

6. Of a garment, which has been defiled in the 
highest degree, let him cut off that part which, 
having been washed, is changed in colour. 

7. Objects made of gold, silver, water-shells, or 
gems, when (they are only defiled by leavings of 
food and the like, and) not smeared (with greasy 
substances), are cleansed with water. 

8. So are stone cups and vessels used at Soma- 
sacrifices (when not smeared). 

15. M.V, 118, 119; Y. I, 184, 182. — 16. M.V, 122. — 17. M. 
V, 126; Y.I, 191.-18. M.V, 118.— 19-22. M.V, 120; Y.I, 
186, 187. — 25, 26. M. V, 114; Y. I, 190. — 27. M.V, 115; Y. 
I, 185; Apast. I, 5, 17, 12 ; Gaut. I, 29. — 28. Y. I, 185. — 30. 
M.V, 115; Y. I, 190. — 33. M.V, 122; Y. I, 187. — 38, 39. 
M.V, 125, 126. — 38. Y. 1, 189. — 40. Y. 1, 194. — 41. Y. 1, 197. 
— 47-52. M.V, 127-133.— 53-55. M.V, 141-143. — 53. Y.I, 
195 ; ipast.I, 5,16,12; Gaut. 1,38, 41. — 55. Gaut. I, 28.-56, 
57. M.V, 122, 124; Y. I, 188. 

7. The defilement in the highest degree having been treated of 
in the six preceding Sutras, he now goes on to discuss the various 
cases of lesser defilement. (Nand.) 

8-1 1. Regarding the shape of the sacrificial implements men- 



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XXIII, i<5. IMPURITY. 99 

9. Sacrificial pots, ordinary wooden ladles, and 
wooden ladles with two collateral excavations (used 
for pouring clarified butter on a sacrificial fire) are 
cleansed with hot water (when not smeared). 

10. Vessels used for oblations (of butter, fruits, 
and the like are cleansed) by rubbing them with 
the hand (with blades of Kusa grass) at the time of 
the sacrifice. 

11. Sword-shaped pieces of wood for stirring the 
boiled rice, winnowing baskets, implements used for 
preparing grain, pestles and mortars (are cleansed) 
by sprinkling water over them. 

1 2. So are beds, vehicles, and seats (when defiled 
even by the touch of a .Sudra) 1 . 

1 3. Likewise, a large quantity (of anything). 

14. Grain, skins (of antelopes, &c), ropes, woven 
cloth, (fans and the like) made of bamboo, thread, 
cotton, and clothes (which have only just come from 
the manufactory, or which are dyed with saffron and 
will not admit of washing for that reason, are 
cleansed in the same way, when there is a large 
quantity of them); 

15. Also, pot-herbs, roots, fruits, and flowers; 

16. Likewise, grass, firewood, dry cow-dung (used 
as fuel), and leaves (of the Madhuka, Palisa, or 
other trees). 

tioned in these Sutras, see the plates in Professor Max Mailer's 
paper, ' Die Todtenbestattung bei den Brahmanen,' in the Journal 
of the German Oriental Society, IX, LXXVIII-LXXX. 

12. 'This Sutra and the following ones relate to defilement 
caused by touch. (Nand.) 

13. 'I.e. more than one man can carry, as Baudh&yana says.' 
(Nand.) 

14. The use of the particle ia. implies that resin and other objects 
mentioned by Devala must be included in this enumeration. (Nand.) 

H 2 



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IOO VlSIIiVU. XXIII, 17. 

17. The same (when smeared with excrements 
and the like, are cleansed) by washing. 

18. And so (have the objects mentioned in Sutra 
14, if denied without being smeared, to be cleansed 
by washing), when there is only a small quantity of 
them ; 

19. Silk and wool, with saline earths ; 

20. (Blankets or plaids) made of the hair of the 
mountain-goat, with the fruits of the soap plant ; 

21. Clothes made of the bark of trees 1 , with Bel 
fruit ; 

22. Linen cloth, with white sesamum ; 

23. Likewise, things made of horns, bone, or 
teeth ; 

24. (Rugs or covers) made of deer's hair, with 
lotus-seeds ; 

25. Vessels of copper, bell-metal, tin, and lead, 
with acidulated water; 

26. Vessels of white copper and iron, with ashes ; 
2 7. Wooden articles, by planing ; 

28. Vessels made of fruits (such as cocoa-nuts, 
bottle-gourds, and Bel fruits), by (rubbing them 
with) cows' hair. 

29. Many things in a heap, by sprinkling water 
over them ; 

30. Liquids (such as clarified butter, milk, &c), 
by straining them ; 

17. 'All the objects mentioned in Sutras 12-16 must be washed, 
but so as to avoid injuring them, in case they have been defiled by 
excrements or other such impure substances.' (Nand.) 

a 1. The term awmipa//a has been rendered in accordance 
with Nand.'s interpretation, which agrees with Vi^aSnejvara's (on 
Y. 1, 186). Kulluka (on M.V, 120; see the Petersburg Dictionary) 
appears to refer it to two different sorts of clothes. 

30-37. These Sutras relate to defilement caused by insects, &c. 
(Nand.) 



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XXIII, 37- IMPURITY. IOI 

31. Lumps of sugar and other preparations from 
the sugar-cane 1 , stored up in large quantities (ex- 
ceeding a Dro»a) and kept in one's own house 2 , by 
water and fire 3 ; 

32. All sorts of salt, in the same manner ; 

33. Earthern vessels (if smeared with excrements 
and the like), by a second burning ; 

34. Images of gods (if smeared), by cleansing 
them in the same way as the material (of which 
they are made is generally cleansed), and then 
installing them anew (in their former place). 

35. Of undressed grain let him remove so much 
only as has been defiled, and the remainder let him 
pound in a mortar and wash. 

36. A quantity of prepared grain not exceeding a 
Dro«a is not spoiled by being defiled (by dogs, 
crows, and other unclean animals). 

37. He must throw away thus much of it only as 
has been defiled, and must sprinkle over the re- 
mainder water, into which a piece of gold has been 
dropped, and over which the Gayatri has been pro- 
nounced, and must hold it up before a goat (or 
before a horse) and before the fire. 

31. 'Such as raw sugar, candied sugar, &c. — 2 If there is no 
large quantity of them, they require to be sprinkled with water 
only ; and if they are kept elsewhere than in the house, as if they 
are exposed for sale in a fair, they require no purification at all. — 
3 They must be encircled with fire, and sprinkled with water 
afterwards. (Nand.) 

32. Nand. mentions as the main species of salt, rock-salt, sea- 
salt, sochal-salt.'and Sambhala-salt. The last term refers perhaps 
to salt coming from the famous salt-lake of -Sakambhari or Shambar 
in Rag-putana. 

37. ' A quantity less than a Drowa having been defiled must be 
thrown away, as stated by Parirara.' (Nand.) One Dro«a = 4 
AdAakas = 1024 Mush/Is or handfuls. The meaning of A^aka, 



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102 VISHJVU. XXIII, 38. 

38. That (food) which has been nibbled by a bird 
(except a crow or other such birds that must not 
be eaten or touched), smelt at by a cow, sneezed on, 
or denied by (human) hair, or by insects or worms, 
is purified by earth scattered over it. 

39. As long as the scent or moisture, caused by 
any unclean substance, remains on the defiled object, 
so long must earth and water be constantly applied 
in all purifications of inanimate objects. 

40. A goat and a horse are pure, as regards their 
mouths, but not a cow, nor the impure excretions of 
a man's body ; roads are purified by the rays of the 
moon and of the sun, and by the winds. 

41. Mire and water upon the high road, that 
has been touched by low-caste people, by dogs, or 
by crows, as well as buildings constructed with 
burnt bricks, are purified by the wind. 

42. For everybody let him (the A^arya or spiritual 
guide) carefully direct the performance of purificatory 
ceremonies, with earth and water, when he has been 
defiled in the highest degree. 

43. Stagnant water, even if a single cow only has 
quenched her thirst with it, is pure, unless it is 
quite filled with (hair or other) unclean objects ; it 
is the same with water upon a rock (or upon the top 
of a mountain). 

44. From a well, in which a five-toed animal 
(whether man or beast, but not one of the five-toed 

however, according to Nand.'s observation, varies in different 
countries. See Colebrooke's Essays, I, 533 seq. 

38. In explanation of the term amedhya, ' unclean substance,' 
Nand. quotes the following passage of Devala, ' Human bones, a 
corpse, excrements, semen, urine, the menstrual discharge, adeps, 
sweat, the rheum of the eyes, phlegm, and spirituous liquors are 
called unclean substances.' 



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XXIII, 50. IMPURITY. I03 

animals whose flesh may be eaten) 1 has died, or 
which has been defiled in the highest degree, he 
must take out all the waters and dry up the 
remainder with a cloth. 

45. If it is a well constructed with burnt bricks 
(or stones,) he must light a fire and afterwards 
throw Pafiiagavya into it, when fresh water is 
coming forth. 

46. For small reservoirs of water and for ponds 
the same mode of purification has been prescribed 
as for wells, O Earth ; but large tanks (excepting 
Tlrthas) are not defiled (by dead animals, &c.) 

47. The gods have declared, as peculiar to Brih- 
ma«as, three causes effecting purity: if an (existing) 
impurity has not been perceived by them ; if they 
sprinkle the object (supposed to be impure) with 
water; and if they commend it, in doubtful cases, 
with their speech, (saying, ' This or that shall be 
pure.') 

48. The hand of a (cook or other) artizan, things 
exposed for sale in a shop (though they may have 
passed through the hands of many customers), food 
given to a Brahma»a (by other Brahmawas, or by 
Kshatriyas, &c, but not by ^Sudras), and all manu- 
factories or mines (of sugar, salt, and the like, but not 
distilleries of spirituous liquor), are always pure, 

49. The mouth of a woman is always pure (for the 
purpose of a kiss) ; a bird is pure on the fall of fruit 
(which he has pecked); a sucking calf (or child), on the 
flowing of the milk ; a dog, on his catching the deer. 

50. Flesh of an animal which has been killed 
by dogs is pronounced pure ; and so is that of an 

44. ' See LI, 6. 



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104 VISHNU. XXIII, 51. 

animal slain by other carnivorous creatures (such as 
tigers) or by huntsmen such as Aawa&las (6vapaias, 
Kshattrz's, or other low-caste men). 

51. The cavities above the navel must be con- 
sidered as pure ; those below it are impure ; and so 
are all excretions that fall from the body. 

52. Flies, saliva dropping from the mouth, a 
shadow, a cow, an elephant, a horse, sun-beams, 
dust, the earth, air, fire, and a cat are always pure. 

53. Such drops as fall from the mouth of a man 
upon any part of his body do not render it impure, 
nor do hairs of the beard that enter his mouth, 
nor remnants of his food adhering to his teeth. 

54. Drops which trickle on the feet of a man 
holding water for others to sip it, are considered as 
equal to waters springing from the earth : by them 
he is not soiled. 

55. He who is anyhow touched by anything im- 
pure, while holding things in his hands, is purified 
by sipping water, without laying the things on the 
ground. 

51. There are, according to- Indian views, nine cavities or aper- 
tures of the body : the mouth, the two ears, the two nostrils, the 
two eyes, and the organs of excretion and generation. The two 
last are impure, the rest are pure. 

55. Nand. and Kulluka (on M. V, 143) explain that hasta, 
' hand/ here means ' arm,' as it would be impossible to sip water 
without using the hand. The former adds that, if the things are 
being carried with the hand, they must be placed in the cavity 
formed by the fore-arm. He refutes the opinion of the ' Eastern 
Commentators,' who, arguing from another Smrz'ti, contend that 
the things have to be placed on the ground and to be sprinkled 
with water ; and he further tries to account for the seemingly con- 
tradictory rules propounded by Vlsish/tta (Benares ed., Ill, 43) and 
Gautama (I, 28) by explaining that a large quantity of things 
should be laid on the ground, and a small quantity placed upon 



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XXIII, 60. IMPURITY. IO5 

56. A house is purified by scouring it with a 
broom and plastering the ground with cow-dung, 
and a manuscript or book by sprinkling water over 
it. Land is cleansed by scouring, by plastering it 
with cow-dung, 

57. By sprinkling 1 , by scraping, by burning, or 
by letting cows (or goats) pass (a day and a night) 
on it. Cows are auspicious purifiers, upon cows 
depend the worlds, 

58. Cows alone make sacrificial oblations possible 
(by producing sacrificial butter), cows take away 
every sin. The urine of cows, their dung, clarified 
butter, milk, sour milk, and Goroiana : 

59. Those six excellent (productions) of a cow are 
always propitious. Drops of water falling from the 
horns of a cow are productive of religious merit, and 
have the power to expiate all sins (of those who 
bathe in, or rub themselves with, them). 

60. Scratching the back of a cow destroys all 
guilt, and giving her to eat procures exaltation in 
heaven. 

some other limb, and further, that food should always be placed on 
the ground, but that a garment, a stick, and the like should be kept 
in the hand. Compare Dr. Btihler's note on Gaut. loc. cit. It 
may be remarked, incidentally, that Nand. quotes the reading 
ui^ish/o 'nidh&ya in the passage of Gautama referred to. 

56. ' The term pustaka refers to MSS. or books, whether made 
of palm leaves, or of prepared hemp, or of prepared reeds (fara).' 
(Nand.) It may be that Nand. means by the last term a sort of 
paper, though paper is usually called by its Arabian name (kagad) in 
Indian works. See regarding the materials used for writing in 
ancient India, Burnell's Palaeography, p. 84 seq. (2nd ed.) 

57. ] The term seka, ' sprinkling,' either refers to the earth 
being sprinkled by rain, or to Pan&igavya being poured over it. 
(Nand.) 

58. Goroiana is a bright yellow pigment which is said to be 
prepared from the urine or bile of a cow. 



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106 VISRYU. XXIII, 61. 

6 1. In the urine of cows dwells the Ganges, pros- 
perity (dwells) in the dust (rising from their couch), 
good fortune in cow-dung, and virtue in saluting 
them. Therefore should they be constantly saluted. 

XXIV. 

i. Now a Brahma«a may take four wives in the 
direct order of the (four) castes; 

2. A Kshatriya, three ; 

3. A VaLrya, two; 

4. A .Sftdra, one only. 

5. Among these (wives), if a man marries one of 
his own caste, their hands shall be joined. 

6. In marriages with women of a different class, 
a Kshatriya bride must hold an arrow in her hand ; 

7. A Vaisya bride, a whip ; 

8. A .Sudra bride, the skirt of a mantle. 

9. No one should marry a woman belonging to 
the same Gotra, or descended from the same ./vlz'shi 
ancestors, or from the same Pravaras. 

XXIV. 1-4. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 21, 74; M. Ill, 12-14; Y.I, 
56, 57. — 5. M. Ill, 43 ; Y. I, 62. — 6-8. M. Ill, 44 J Y. I, 62. 
— 9, 10. Weber loc. cit. 75 ; M. Ill, 5; Y. I, 53 ; Apast. II, 5, 1 1, 
15, 16 ; Gaut. IV, 2-5. — 12-16. M. HI, 8. — 12. Y. I, 53. — 
17-26. M. Ill, 20, 21, 27-34; Y. I, 58-61; Apast. II, 5, 11, 17- 
II, 5, 12, 2; Gaut. IV, 6-13. — 27, 28. M. Ill, 23-26, 39; Apast. 
II, 5, 12, 3; Gaut. IV, 14, 15. — 29-32. M. Ill, 37, 38; Y. I, 
58-60; Gaut. IV, 30-33. — 38. M. V, 151 ; Y. I, 63. — 39. Y I, 
63. — 40. M. IX, 90; Y. I, 64. — 41. M. IX, 93. 

1. This chapter opens the section on Sa/nskilras or sacraments, 
i. e. the ceremonies on conception and so forth. (Nand.) This 
section forms the second part of the division treating of Ai&ra. 
See above, XIX. 

9. According to Nand., the term Gotra refers to descent from one 
of the seven i??'shis, or from Agastya as the eighth ; the term Arsha 
(J?/shi ancestors), to descent from the Arsh/ishe»as or Mudgalas, 



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XXIV, 22. WOMEN. I07 

10. Nor (should he marry) one descended from 
his maternal ancestors within the fifth, or from his 
paternal ancestors within the seventh degree ; 

11. Nor one of a low family (such as an agricul- 
turer's, or an attendant of the king's family) ; 

1 2. Nor one diseased ; 

13. Nor one with a limb too much (as e.g. having 
six fingers) ; 

14. Nor one with a limb too little ; 

15. Nor one whose hair is decidedly red ; 

16. Nor one talking idly. 

1 7. There are eight forms of marriage : 

18. The Brahma, Daiva, Arsha, Pra^apatya, Gan- 
dharva, Asura, Rakshasa, and Paisa^a forms. 

19. The gift of a damsel to a fit bridegroom, who 
has been invited, is called a Brahma marriage. 

20. If she is given to a Rhx'ig (priest), while he 
is officiating at a sacrifice, it is called a Daiva 
marriage. 

21. If (the giver of the bride) receives a pair of 
kine in return, it is called an Arsha marriage. 

22. (If she is given to a suitor) by his demand, it 
is called a Pra^apatya marriage. 

or from some other subdivision of the Bhri'gus or Angirasas, 
excepting the G&madagnas, Gautamas, and Bharadv%as ; and the 
term Pravara, to the Mantrakn'ts of one's own race, i. e. the ances- 
tors invoked by a Brahma«a at the commencement of a sacrifice. 
Nan&'s interpretation of the last term is no doubt correct; but it 
seems preferable to take Gotra in the sense of ' family name ' 
(laukika gotra), and to refer the term samanarsha to descent from 
the same i?tshi (vaidika gotra). See Dr. Border's notes on Apast. 
II, 5, 11, 15, and Gaut. XVIII, 6; Max Mtiller, History of Ancient 
Sanskrit Literature, pp. 379-388 ; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 69-81. If 
arsha were connected with pravara, the whole compound sama- 
nirshapravard would denote ' a woman descended from the same 
Hishi '=saman&rsh£, Y. I, 53, and sam&napravarS, Gaut. XVIII, 6. 



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108 visHivu. xxiv, 23. 

23. A union between two lovers, without the 
consent of mother and father, is called a Gandharva 
marriage. 

24. If the damsel is sold (to the bridegroom), it 
is called an Asura marriage. 

25. If he seizes her forcibly, it is called a Rak- 
shasa marriage. 

26. If he embraces her in her sleep, or while she 
is unconscious, it is called a Vaisa&a. marriage. 

27. Among those (eight forms of marriage), the 
four first forms are legitimate (for a Brahmawa) ; 

28. And so is the Gandharva form for a Ksha- 
triya. 

29. A son procreated in a Brahma marriage re- 
deems (or sends into the heavenly abodes hereafter 
mentioned) twenty-one men (viz. ten ancestors, ten 
descendants, and him who gave the damsel in 
marriage). 

30. A son procreated in a Daiva marriage, four- 
teen ; 

31. A son procreated in an Arsha marriage, 
seven ; 

32. A son procreated in a Pra^apatya marriage, 
four. 

33. He who gives a damsel in marriage according 
to the Brahma rite, brings her into the world of 
Brahman (after her death, and enters that world 
himself). 

34. (He who gives her in marriage) according to 
the Daiva rite, (brings her) into Svarga (or heaven, 
and enters Svarga himself). 

35. (He who gives her in marriage) according to 
the Arsha rite, (brings her) into the world of Vish»u 
(and enters that world himself). 



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XXIV, 4i. WOMEN. I09 

36. (He who gives her in marriage) according to 
the Prif apatya rite, (brings her) into the world of the 
gods (and enters that world himself). 

37. (He who gives her in marriage) according to 
the Gandharva rite, will go to the world of Gan- 
dharvas. 

38. A father, a paternal grandfather, a brother, a 
kinsman, a maternal grandfather, and the mother 
(are the persons) by whom a girl may be given in 
marriage. 

39. On failure of the preceding one (it devolves 
upon) the next in order (to give her in marriage), in 
case he is able. 

40. When she has allowed three monthly periods 
to pass (without being married), let her choose a 
husband for herself; three monthly periods having 
passed, she has in every case full power to dispose 
of herself (as she thinks best). 

41. A damsel whose menses begin to appear 
(while she is living) at her father's house, before she 
has been betrothed to a man, has to be considered 
as a degraded woman : by taking her (without the 
consent of her kinsmen) a man commits no wrong. 

39. Regarding the causes effecting legal disability, such as love, 
anger, &c, see Narada 3, 43. 

40. Nand., arguing from a passage of Baudhayana (see also M. 
IX, 90), takes rt'tu, ' monthly period,' as synonymous with varsha, 
'year.' But ri'tu, which occurs in two other analogous passages also 
(Gaut. XVIII, 20, and Narada XII, 24), never has that meaning. 

41. Nand. observes, that the rules laid down in this and the 
preceding .Sloka refer to young women of the lower castes only. 
Nowadays the custom of outcasting young women, who have not 
been married in the proper time, appears to be in vogue in Brah- 
manical families particularly. Smr/'ti passages regarding the ille- 
gality of marriages concluded with such women have been collected 
by me, Uber die rechd. Stellung der Frauen, p. 9, note 17. The 



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HO VISHJVU. XXV, i. 

XXV. 

i. Now the duties of a woman (are as follows) : 

2. To live in harmony with her husband ; 

3. To show reverence (by embracing their feet 
and such -like attentions) to her mother-in-law, 
father-in-law, to Gurus (such as elders), to divinities, 
and to guests ; 

4. To keep household articles (such as the win- 
nowing basket and the rest) in good array ; 

5. To maintain saving habits ; 

6. To be careful with her (pestle and mortar and 
other) domestic utensils ; 

7. Not to practise incantations with roots (or 
other kinds of witchcraft) ; 

8. To observe auspicious customs ; 

9. Not to decorate herself with ornaments (or 
to partake of amusements) while her husband is 
absent from home ; 

10. Not to resort to the houses of strangers 
(during the absence of her husband) ; 

custom of Svaya/Hvara or 'self-choice,' judging from the epics, 
was confined to females of the kingly caste, and in reality was no 
doubt of very rare occurrence. 

XXV. 1-13. Colebrooke, Dig. IV, 2, XCII. — 2. M.V, 154; 
Y. I, 77. — 3. Y. I, 83. — 4-6. M.V, 150 ; Y. I, 83. - 9, 10. 
M. IX, 75; Y.I, 84.— 12,13. M.V, 148; IX, 3; Y. 1,85; Gaut. 
XVIII, 1. — 14. -M.V, 158; Colebrooke, Dig. IV, 3, CXXXIII.— 
15. M.V, 155. — 17. M.V, 160. 15 is also found in the M£r- 
ka«<afeya-pura«a XVI, 61, and, in a modified form, in other works. 
See Bohtlingk, Ind. Sprtiche, 3686, 3679. 16 is also found, in a 
modified form, in Vr*ddha£a»akhya's Proverbs XVII, 9 ; and 17 
in .Ssirhgadhara's Paddhati, Sada&ira, 10. See Bohtlingk, Ind. 
Sprtiche, 3900, 4948. 

10. 'Strangers' means any other persons than her parents-in-law, 
her brother, maternal uncle, and other near relatives. (Nand.) 



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XXVI, r. WOMEN. 1 1 1 

ii. Not to stand near the doorway or by the 
windows (of her house); 

1 2. Not to act by herself in any matter ; 

13. To remain subject, in her infancy, to her 
father; in her youth, to her husband; and in her 
old age, to her sons. ( 

14. After the death of her husband, to preserve 
her chastity, or to ascend the pile after him. 

15. No sacrifice, no penance, and no fasting is 
allowed to women apart from their husbands ; to 
pay obedience to her lord is the only means for a 
woman to obtain bliss in heaven. 

16. A woman who keeps a fast or performs a 
penance in the lifetime of her lord, deprives her 
husband of his life, and will go to hell. 

1 7. A good wife, who perseveres in a chaste life 
after the death of her lord, will go to heaven like 
(perpetual) students, even though she has no son. 

XXVI. 

1. If a man has several wives of his own caste, 

14. Nand. states that the self-immolation of widows (Sattee) is a 
specially meritorious act, and not obligatory. Besides, he quotes 
several passages from other Smn'tis and from the Br*hann£radfya- 
purS«a, to the effect that in case the husband should have died 
abroad, a widow of his, who belongs to the Brihmawa caste, may 
not commit herself to the flames, unless she can reach the place, 
where his corpse lies, in a day ; and that one who is in her courses, 
or pregnant, or whose pregnancy is suspected, or who has an infant 
child, is also forbidden to bum herself with her dead husband. 
English renderings of all the texts quoted by Nand. may be found 
in Colebrooke's Essay on the Duties of a Faithful Hindu Widow. 
See also above, XX, 39. Nand., arguing from a passage of Bau- 
dhayana, takes the particle vd, ' or,' to imply that the widow is at 
liberty to become a female ascetic instead of burning herself. 

XXVI. 2. M. IX, 86. — 4. M. IX, 87. — 1-4. Colebrooke, Dig. 



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I 1 2 VISHJVU. XXVI, 2. 

he shall perform his religious duties together with 
the eldest (or first-married) wife. 

2. (If he has several) wives of divers castes (he 
shall perform them) even with the youngest wife if 
she is of the same caste as himself. 

3. On failure of a wife of his own caste (he shall 
perform them) with one belonging to the caste next 
below his own ; so also in cases of distress (i. e. 
when the wife who is equal in caste to him hap- 
pens to be absent, or when she has met with a 
calamity) ; 

4. But no twice-born man ever with a .Sudra 
wife. 

5. A union of a twice-born man with a .Sudra 
wife can never produce religious merit ; it is from 
carnal desire only that he marries her, being blinded 
by lust. 

6. Men of the three first castes, who through 
folly marry a woman of the lowest caste, quickly 
degrade their families and progeny to the state of 
■SMras. 

7. If his oblations to the gods and manes and 
(his hospitable attentions) to guests are offered 
principally through her hands, the gods and manes 
(and the guests) will not eat such offerings, and he 
will not go to heaven. 

XXVII. 
1. The Nishekakarman (ceremony of impregna- 

IV, 1, XLIX. — 5-7. M. Ill, 12, 14, 15, 18; Y. I, 56; Weber, 
Ind. Stud. X, 74. — 7. Colebrooke, Dig. IV, 1, III. 

XXVII. 1-14. hv. I, 4-18; Gobh. II, 1-9; PSr. I, 4-II, 1; 
S&hkh. I, 12-28 ; M. II, 29-35, 66, 67 ; Y. I, ir-13 ; Gaut. VIII, 
14. — 15-24, 26, 27. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 21 ; M. II, 38-47 ; Y. I, 



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XXVII, 9. SACRAMENTS. H3 

tion) must be performed when the season fit for 
procreating children 1 distinctly appears (for the first 
time). 

2. The Puwsavana (ceremony to cause the birth 
of a male) must be performed before the embryo 
begins to move. 

3. The Simantonnayana (ceremony of parting 
the hair) should take place in the sixth or eighth 
month (of pregnancy). 

4. The £atakarman (birth-ceremony) should take 
place on the birth of the child. 

5. The Namadheya (naming-rite) must be per- 
formed as soon as the term of impurity (caused by 
the birth of the child) is over. 

6. (The name to be chosen should be) auspicious 
in the case of a Brahma«a ; 

7. Indicating power in the case of a Kshatriya ; 

8. Indicating wealth in the case of a Vaisya ; 

9. Indicating contempt in the case of a .Sudra. 

»4> 37> 38; Apast. 1, 1, 1, 18-21 ; I, 1, 2, 33-3, 6; Gaut. I, 5, 11- 
26. — 25. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 22 ; M. II, 49 ; Y. I, 30; Apast. I, 
*> 3» 28-30; Gaut. II, 36. — 28, 29. M. II, 174, 64. 

1. 1 ' Garbha' here means 'ritu,' i.e. the time favourable for pro- 
creation, following immediately upon the menstrual evacuation, and 
the above ceremony should be performed once only, in order to 
consecrate the mother once for all. (Nand.) 

2, 3. The embryo begins to move in the fourth month of 
pregnancy, and the Pumsavana must be performed in the second 
or third month of every pregnancy. Thus Nand., who combats 
expressly the opinion that this ceremony has the consecration of 
the mother, and not the consecration of the foetus, for its object. 
Regarding the Simantonnayana he seems to consk'er both views 
as admissible. According to the former view it would have to be 
performed only once, like the Nishekakarman. 

6-9. Nand. quotes as instances of such names : 1. Lakshmi- 
dhara; 2.Yudhish//iira; 3. Arthapati; 4. Lokadasa; or (observing, 

[7] I 



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1 14 VISIWU. XXVII, 10. 

10. The Adityadarcana (ceremony of taking the 
child out to see the sun) should take place in the 
fourth month (after birth). 

1 1. The Annaprarana (ceremony of first feeding) 
should take place in the sixth month. 

12. The .A'iWakarawa (tonsure rite) should take 
place in the third year 1 . 

13. For female children the same ceremonies, 
(beginning with the birth ceremony, should be per- 
formed, but) without Mantras. 

14. The marriage ceremony only has to be per- 
formed with Mantras for them. 

15. The initiation of Brahmawas (should take 
place) in the eighth year after conception 1 ; 

16. Of Kshatriyas, in the eleventh year after 
conception 1 ; 

1 7. Of Vai.syas, in the twelfth year after con- 
ception x ; 

18. Their girdles should be made of Mun^a 
grass, a bow-string, and Balba^a (coarse grass) 
respectively. 

19. Their sacrificial strings and their garments 
should be made of cotton, hemp, and wool re- 
spectively. 

at the same time, another rule regarding the second part of a com- 
pound name), 1. Vishmifarman ; 2. Bhfmavarman ; 3. Devagupta; 
4. Dharmadasa. 

10. According to Nand., who quotes a passage ofYama in 
support of his opinion, this Sutra has to be divided into two, which 
would, however, require several words to complete their sense, the 
import of the first being, that the child should be taken out to see 
the sun in the third month, and to see the moon in the fourth 
month. See the Introduction. 

12. 1 ' The third year,' i. e. either after conception, or after birth. 
(Nand.) 

15-17. 'Nand., 'or after birth.' See P£r. and Asv. loc. cit. 



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XXVII, 29. SACRAMENTS. II5 

20. The skins (which they wear) should be those 
of a black antelope, of a tiger, and of a he-goat 
respectively. 

21. Their staves should be made of Palasa, Kha- 
dira, and Udumbara wood respectively. 

22. Their staves should be of such a length 
as to reach the hair, the forehead, and the nose 
respectively. 

23. Or all (kinds of staves may be used for all 
castes indiscriminately). 

24. And they should not be crooked, nor should 
the bark be stripped off. 

25. In begging alms, they should put in the word 
' Lady' at the beginning, in the middle, and at the 
end of their request (according to their caste). 

26. The ceremony of initiation must not be de- 
layed beyond the sixteenth year in the case of a 
Brahmawa ; beyond the twenty-second, in the case 
of a Kshatriya; and beyond the twenty-fourth, in 
the case of a Vauya. 

27. After that, the youths belonging to any of 
those three castes, who have not been initiated 
at the proper time, are excluded from initiation, 
and contemned by the twice-born, and are called 
Vratyas. 

28. That skin, that cord, that girdle, that staff, 
and that garment which has been given to any one 
(on his initiation), that he must for ever wear when 
performing any religious observance. 

29. His girdle, his skin, his staff, his string, and 
his ewer he must throw into the water when broken 
(or spoiled by use), and receive others consecrated 
with Mantras. 



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Il6 VISHiVU. XXVIII, I. 

XXVIII. 
i. Now 1 students shall dwell at their Guru's 
{spiritual teacher's) house. 

2. They shall recite their morning and evening 
prayers. 

3. (A student) shall mutter the morning prayer 
standing, and the evening prayer sitting. 

4. He shall perform twice a day (in the morn- 
ings and evenings) the religious acts of sprinkling 
the ground (round the altar) and of putting fuel 
on the fire. 

5. He must plunge into the waters like a stick. 

XXVIII. passim, ksv. Grihyz-s. I, 22 ; III, 7-9 ; Gobh. G/vhya-s. 
II, 10, 42-III, 4; Par. Gr/hya-s. II, 4-6; <Sankh. Gr»Tiya-s. II, 6, 9- 
12 ; III, 1. — 1. Apast. I, 1, 2, 11. — 3. M. II, 101 ; Y. I, 24, 25 ; 
Gaut. II, 1 1. — 4. M. II, 108 ; Y. I, 25 ; Apast. I, 1, 4, 16. — 5. 
Apast. I, 1, 2, 30. — 6, 7. M. II, 73, 182 ; Y. I, 27 ; Apast. I, 2, 
5,27; 1,1,4,23; Gaut. I, 54; II, 29, 30. — 8. M. II, 41-47; Y.I, 
29; Apast. I, 1,2, 33-I, 1, 3, 10; Gaut. I, 15, 16, 22.-9, 10. M. 

II, 183, 184, 51; Y. I, 29, 31 ; Apast. I, 1, 3, 25, 32 ; Gaut. II, 
35, 37-39— "> 12- M. II, 177-179, &c; Y. I, 33, &c; Apast. 
I, 1, 2, 23-28, &c; Gaut. II, 13, &c. — 13-23. M. II, 194, 71, 72, 
122-124, 195-19 8 ; Apast. I, 2, 4, 28; I, 2, 5, 12, 23; I, 2, 6, 
5-9, 14 ; Gaut. II, 21, 25-28; I, 52 ; II, 14.— 17. Y. I, 26.— 
24-26. M. II, 199, 200. — 27, 28. M. II, 204; Apast. I, 2, 8, 11, 
13. —29, 30. M. II, 205; Apast. I, 2, 8, 19-21. — 31-33. M. II, 
208, 209; Apast. I, 2, 7, 28, 30 ; Gaut. II, 31, 32. — 34-36. M. 

III, 2 ; II, 168. — 37-40. M. II, 169-172 ; Y. II, 39; Apast. I, 
1, 1, 15-17 ; Gaut. I, 8. — 41. M. II, 219 ; Apast. 1, 1, 2, 31, 32 ; 
Gaut. I, 27. — 42. M. II, 245 ; Y. 1, 51 ; Apast. I, 1 1, 30, 1 ; Gaut. 
IX, 1. — 43-46. M. II, 243, 247, 248; Y. I, 49; Apast. I, 2, 4, 
29 ; Gaut. II, 5-8. — 47. M. II, 249; Gaut. HI, 9.-48-53. M. 
XI, 121, 123, 124; II, 181, 187, 220. — 51, 52. Y. Ill, 278, 281 ; 
Gaut. XXIII, 20. 

1. "I.e. after the performance of the initiation ceremony.' (Nand.) 

5. The sense of this injunction, according to Nand., is, that he 

must not pronounce any bathing Mantras. But more probably it 



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XXVIII, 15. STUDENTSHIP. 1 1 7 

6. Let him study when called (by his teacher). 

7. He shall act so as to please his Guru (spiritual 
teacher) and to be serviceable to him. 

8. He shall wear his girdle, his staff, his skin, and 
his sacrificial string. 

9. He shall go begging at the houses of virtuous 
persons, excepting those of his Guru's (and of his 
own) relatives. 

10. He may eat (every morning and evening) 
some of the food collected by begging, after having 
received permission to do so from his Guru. 

11. He must avoid *S"raddhas, factitious salt, food 
turned sour 1 , stale food, dancing, singing, women, 
honey, meat, ointments, remnants of the food (of 
other persons than his teacher), the killing of living 
beings, and rude speeches. 

12. He must occupy a low couch. 

13. He must rise before his Guru and go to rest 
after him. 

14. He must salute his Guru, after having per- 
formed his morning devotion. 

15. Let him embrace his feet with crossed hands, 



is meant, that he shall swim motionless like a stick (see Apast. I, 
1, 2, 30, with Dr. Btihler's note). According to a third explana- 
tion, which is mentioned both by Haradatta and by Devapala in 
his Commentary on the Ka/ftaka Gr/hya-sutra, the sense would be, 
that he is not allowed, while bathing, to rub his skin, in order to 
clean himself, with bathing powder and the like. 

11. * Nand. interprets jukta, 'food turned sour,' by 'rude 
speeches,' because if taken in its other meaning, it would be 
included in the next term, paryushita, ' stale food.' However, if 
Nand.'s interpretation were followed, it would coincide with the last 
term of this enumeration, ajlila, 'rude speeches;' and its position 
between two articles of food renders the above interpretation more 
plausible. 



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Il8 VISRVU. XXVII I, 16. 

1 6. The right foot with his right hand, and the 
left foot with his left. 

17. After the salutation (abhivadaye, 'I salute') 
he must mention his own name and add the word 
' bhos ' (Venerable Sir) at the end of his address. 

18. He must not speak to his Guru while he is 
himself standing, or sitting, or lying, or eating, or 
averting his face. 

19. And let him speak, if his teacher sits, stand- 
ing up; if he walks, advancing towards him ; if he is 
coming near, meeting him ; if he runs, running after 
him ; 

20. If his face is averted, turning round so as to 
face him ; 

21. If he is at some distance, approaching him ; 

22. If he is in a reclining position, bending to 
him; 

23. Let him not sit in a careless attitude (such 
as e. g. having a cloth tied round his legs and knees, 
while sitting on his hams) before the eyes of his 
teacher. 

24. Neither must he pronounce his mere name 
(without adding to it the word .Sri or a similar term 
at the beginning). 

25. He must not mimic his gait, his manner, his 
speech, and so on. 

26. Where his Guru is censured or foully belied, 
there let him not stay. 

27. Nor must he sit on the same seat with him, 

28. Unless it be on a rock 1 , on a wooden bench, 
in a boat, or in a carriage. 
1 

28. ' Thus according to Kulluka (on M. II, 204). Nand. takes 
the term s ilaphalaka as a compound denoting ' a stone seat.' 



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XXVI1I,40. STUDENTSHIP. 119 

~ 29. If his teacher's teacher is near, let him be- 
have towards him as if he were his own teacher. 

30. He must not salute his own Gurus without 
his teacher's leave. 

31. Let him behave towards the son of his 
teacher, who teaches him the Veda, as towards his 
teacher, even though he be younger or of an equal 
age with himself ; 

32. But he must not wash his feet, 

33. Nor eat the leavings of his food. 

34. Thus let him acquire by heart one Veda, or 
two Vedas, or (all) the Vedas. 

35. Thereupon, the Vedingas (that treating of 
phonetics and the rest) \ 

36. He who, not having studied the Veda, applies 
himself to another study, will degrade himself, and 
his progeny with him, to the state of a .Sudra. 

37. From the mother is the first birth ; the 
second, from the girding with the sacrificial string. 

38. In the latter, the Savitrl hymn 1 is his mother, 
and the teacher his father. 

39. It is this which entitles members of the three 
higher castes to the designation of ' the twice-born.' 

40. Previous to his being girded with the sacri- 
ficial string, a member of these castes is similar to a 
.Sudra (and not allowed to study the Veda). 

30. Nand. here interprets Guru by 'a paternal uncle and the 
rest.' 

3 1 . This rule refers to a son of his spiritual teacher, who teaches 
him one or two chapters of the Veda, while the teacher himself is 
gone out for bathing or some such reason. V£, ' or,' is added in 
order to include a son of the teacher, who is himself a pupil, as 
Manu (II, 208) says. (Nand.) 

35. ] .See Max Miiller, Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 108 seq. 
38. x Rig-veda III, 62, 10. 



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120 VISHATU. XXVIII, 41. 

41. A student shall shave all his hair, or wear it 
tied in one lock. 

42. After having mastered the Veda, let him take 
leave of his teacher and bathe, after having pre- 
sented him with a gift. 

43. Or let him spend the remainder of his life at 
his teacher's house. 

44. If, while he is living there, his teacher should 
die, let him behave to his teacher's son as towards 
his teacher himself; 

45. Or l towards one of his wives, who is equal 
to him in caste. 

46. On failure of such, let him pay homage to the 
fire, and live as a perpetual student. 

47. A Brahma#a who passes thus without tiring 
(of the discharge of his duties) the time of his stu- 
dentship will attain to the most exalted heavenly 
abode (that of Brahman) after his death, and will 
not be born again in this world. 

48. A voluntary effusion of the semen by a twice- 
born youth (in' sexual intercourse with a woman), 
during the period of his studentship, has been pro- 
nounced a transgression of the rule prescribed for 
students by expounders of the Vedas well acquainted 
with the system of duties. 

49. Having loaded himself with that crime, he 
must go begging to seven houses, clothed only with 
the skin of an ass, and proclaiming his deed. 

42. After the solemn bath (see Asv. Ill, 8, 9 ; Gobh. Ill, 4 ; 
Par. II, 6 ; .Sankh. Ill, 1), which terminates the period of student- 
ship, the student, who is henceforth called. Snataka, ' one who has 
bathed,' is allowed to return home. 

45. 'According to Nand., the particle va, 'or,' is used in order 
to include another alternative, that of living with an old fellow- 
student, as directed by Gautama, III, 8. 



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XXIX, r. STUDENTSHIP. 121 

50. Eating once a day only a meal consisting of 
the alms obtained at those (houses), and bathing at 
the three Savanas (dawn, noon, and evening), he will 
be absolved from guilt at the end of the year. 

51. After an involuntary effusion of the semen 
during sleep, a twice-born student must bathe (on 
the next morning), worship the sun (by offerings of 
perfumes and the like), and mutter three times the 
Mantra, 'Again shall my strength return to me 1 .' 

52. He who for seven days omits to collect alms 
and to kindle the sacred fire, must perform the 
penance of an Avakirmn (breaker of his vow), pro- 
vided that he has not been prevented from the dis- 
charge of his duties by an illness. 

53. If the sun should rise or set while a student 
is purposely indulging in sleep, ignoring (the pre- 
cepts of law), he must fast for a day, muttering (the 
Gayatr! one thousand and eight times). 

XXIX. 

1. He who having initiated a youth and in- 
structed him in the Vratas 1 , teaches him (one branch 
of) the Veda (together with its Aiigas, such as that 
relating to phonetics, and the rest) is called Aiarya 
(teacher). 

51. 'Taitt. Ara«y. I, 30. 

XXIX. 1. Apast. I, 1, 1, 13; Gaut. I, 9. — 1-3. M. II, 140- 
143; v - 1. 34, 35- — 7~ 10 - M.II, in, 112, 1x4, 115.— 9, 10. See 
Btihler, Introd. to Digest, p. xxix. 

1. The Vratas of a student are certain observances to be kept 
by him before he is admitted to the regular course of study of the 
Veda, and again before he is allowed to proceed to the study of 
the Mahanamni verses and to the other higher stages of Vedic 
learning. See, particularly, .Saftkh. Il, 1 1, 12, with Dr. Oldenberg's 
note (Ind. Stud. XV, 139). 



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122 VISHJVU. XXIX, 2. 

2. He who teaches him (after he has been initiated 
by another) either (an entire branch of the Veda) in 
consideration of a fee, or part of a Veda (without 
taking a fee), is called Upadhyaya (sub-teacher). 

3. He who performs sacrifices (whether based 
upon .SVuti or upon Smnti) is called Ritv'ig (officiat- 
ing priest). 

4. He must not engage a priest for the per- 
formance of sacrifices without having ascertained 
(his descent, character, and conduct). 

5. Neither must he admit to his teaching (one 
whom he does not know). 

6. And he must not initiate such a one. 

7. If one answers improperly, or the other asks 
improperly l , that one (or both) will perish or incur 
hatred. 

8. If by instructing a pupil neither religious merit 
nor wealth are acquired, and if no sufficient atten- 
tion is to be obtained from him (for his teacher's 
words), in such soil divine knowledge must not be 
sown : it would perish like fine seed in barren soil. 

9. The deity of sacred knowledge approached 
a Brahma«a (and said to him), ' Preserve me, I am 
thy treasure, reveal me not to a scorner, nor to a 
wicked man, nor to one of uncontrolled passions : 
thus I shall be strong. 

10. ' Reveal me to him, as to a keeper of thy 
gem, O Brahma«a, whom thou shalt know to be 
pure, attentive, possessed of a good memory, and 
chaste, who will not grieve thee, nor revile thee.' 

7. * A proper question is, e. g. if the pupil modestly says, ' I 
don't know about this, therefore I want to be instructed.' An im- 
proper question is, e.g. if he says, 'Why do you pronounce this thus 
wrongly?' An improper answer is an answer to an improper 
question. (Nand.) 



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XXX, 5. STUDENTSHIP. 123 

XXX. 

i. After having performed the Upakarman cere- 
mony on the full moon of the month »Srava»a, or of 
the month Bhadra, the student must (pass over the 
two next days without studying, and then) study for 
four months and a half. 

2. After that, the teacher must perform out of 
town the ceremony of Utsarga for those students 
(that have acted up to this injunction) ; but not for 
those who have failed to perform the ceremony of 
Upakarman. 

3. During the period (subsequent upon the cere- 
mony of Upakarman and) intermediate between it 
and the ceremony of Utsarga, the student must read 
the Vedangas. 

4. He must interrupt his study for a day and a 
night on the fourteenth and eighth days of a month \ 

5. (He must interrupt his study for the next day 

XXX. 1— 33. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 130-134; Nakshatras II, 322, 
338-339; M. IV, 95-123; II,7i, 74 ; Y.I, 142-151 ; Apast.1,3,9- 
ii ; Gaut.XVI; I, 51, 53. — 33-38. Axv. Ill, 3, 3; M. II, 107; Y.I, 
41-46. — 41,42. M. H, 116. — 43-46. M. II, 117, 146-148, 144. 

1-3. The annual course of Vedic studies opens with a ceremony 
called Upakarman, and closes with a ceremony called Utsarga. 
The latter, according to the rule laid down in Sutra 1, would fall 
upon the first day of the moon's increase, either in Pausha or in 
Magna. Nand. states that those students who have not per- 
formed the Upakarman ceremony in due time must perform a 
penance before they can be admitted to the Utsarga ; nor must 
those be admitted to it who have failed to go on to the study of 
another branch of the Veda at the ordinary time, after having 
absolved one. 

4. 1 Nand., with reference to a passage of Harlta, considers the 
use of the plural and of the particle ka. to imply that the study must 
also be interrupted on the first and fifteenth days. 

5. ' This refers to the second days of the months Phalguna, 
Asha«54a, and Karttika. (Nand.) 



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1 24 VISH.YU. XXX, 6. 

and night) after a season of the year has begun 1 , 
(and for three nights) after an eclipse of the moon. 

6. (He must not study for a day and a night) 
when Indra's flag is hoisted or taken down. 

7. (He must not study) when a strong wind is 
going. 

8. (He must not study for three days) when rain, 
lightning, and thunder happen out of season \ 

9. (He must not study till the same hour next 
day) in the case of an earthquake, of the fall of a 
meteor, and when the horizon is preternaturally red, 
as if on fire. 

10. (He must not study) in a village in which a 
corpse lies ; 

1 1. Nor during a battle ; 

1 2. . Nor while dogs are barking, jackals yelling, 
or asses braying ; 

13. Nor while the sound of a musical instrument 
is being heard ; 

14. Nor while ^"udras or outcasts are near ; 

1 5. Nor in the vicinity of a temple, of a burial- 
ground, of a place where four ways meet, or of a 
high road ; 

16. Nor while immersed in water ; 

1 7. Nor with his foot placed upon a bench ; 

18. Nor while riding upon an elephant, a horse, 
or a camel, (or in a carriage drawn by any of those 
animals), or being borne in a boat, or in a carriage 
drawn by oxen ; 

19. Nor after having vomited ; 

8. "I. e. not during the rains.' (Nand.) 

1 2. Nand. considers the term svz, ' dog,' to include all the other 
animals mentioned by Apastamba, I, 3, 10, 17. 

19-21. After having vomited or been purged, he shall interrupt 



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XXX, 28. STUDENTSHIP. 1 25 

20. Nor after having been purged ; 

21. Nor during an indigestion. 

22. When a five-toed animal has passed between 
the teacher and the pupil (the latter must interrupt 
his study for a day and a night). 

23. When a king or a learned Brahma»a (who 
has mastered one Veda), or a cow, or a Brahma#a 
(in general) has met with an accident (he must not 
study). 

24. After the Upakarman (he must not study for 
three days). 

25. And after the Utsarga (he must interrupt his 
study for as many days). 

26. And (he must avoid to study) the hymns of 
the .AYg-veda, or those of the Ya^xir-veda, while the 
Saman melodies are being chanted. 

27. Let him not lie down to sleep again when he 
has begun to study in the second half of the night. 

28. Let him avoid studying at times when there 
ought to be an intermission of study, even though a 
question has been put to him (by his teacher) ; 

his study for a day and a night ; when suffering from indigestion, 
till he has digested his food. (Nand.) 

22. According to Nand., the interruption of study is to last for 
two days, when a crow, or an owl, or a wild cock, or a mouse, or a 
frog, and the like animals have passed ; and for three days, when 
a dog, or an ichneumon, or a snake, or a frog (sic), or a cat has 
passed. He quotes Gaut. I, 59 in support of his interpretation. 
I have translated according to M. IV, 126 ; Y. I, 147. 

23. In these cases the study shall not be taken up again till the 
accident has been appeased by propitiatory rites. If any of the 
persons in question has died, the interruption is to last for a day 
and a night, in case they were persons of little merit ; but in case 
they should have been very virtuous, it is to last for three days. 
(Nand.) 

28. Every lesson consists of questions put by the teacher and 
the pupil's answers to them. 



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126 VISHJVU. XXX, 29. 

29. Since to study on forbidden days neither 
benefits him in this nor in the other world. 

30. To study on such days destroys the life of 
both teacher and pupil. 

31. Therefore should a teacher, who wishes to 
obtain the world of Brahman, avoid improper days, 
and sow (on proper days) the seed of sacred know- 
ledge on soil consisting of virtuous pupils. 

32. At the beginning and at the end of the 
lecture let the pupil embrace his teacher's feet ; 

33. And let him pronounce the sacred syllable Om. 

34. Now he who studies the hymns of the J&g- 
veda (regularly), feeds the manes with clarified 
butter. 

35. He who studies the Ya^us texts, (feeds them) 
with honey. 

36. He who studies the Siman melodies, (feeds 
them) with milk. 

37. He who studies the Atharva-veda, (feeds 
them) with meat. 

38. He who studies the Pura«as, Itihasas, Vedan- 
gas, and the Institutes of Sacred Law, feeds them 
with rice. 

39. He who having collected sacred knowledge, 
gains his substance by it in this world, will derive 
no benefit from it in the world to come. 

33. Nand., quoting a passage of Yama, states the particle /4a to 
imply that the pupil must touch the ground, after having pro- 
nounced the syllable Om. 

38. Nand. considers the use of a Dvandva compound to imply 
that logic (NySya) and the MimawsS system of philosophy are 
also intended in this Sutra. Regarding the meaning of the terms 
Pur&«a and Itih&sa, see Max Miiller, Ancient Sanskrit Literature, 
p. 40 seq. 

39. This rule cannot refer to teaching for a reward, because 



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XXX, 47- STUDENTSHIP. I 27 

40. Neither will he (derive such benefit from it), 
who uses his knowledge in order to destroy the 
reputation of others (by defeating them in argu- 
ment). 

41. Let no one acquire sacred knowledge, with- 
out his teacher's permission, from another who is 
studying divine science. 

42. Acquiring it in that way constitutes theft of 
the Veda, and will bring him into hell. 

43. Let (a student) never grieve that man from 
whom he has obtained worldly knowledge (relating 
to poetry, rhetoric, and the like subjects), sacred 
knowledge (relating to the Vedas and Vedangas), or 
knowledge of the Supreme Spirit. 

44. Of the natural progenitor and the teacher 
who imparts the Veda to him, the giver of the Veda 
is the more venerable father; for it is the new 
existence acquired by his initiation in the Veda, 
which will last him both in this life and the next. 

45. Let him consider as a merely human exist- 
ence that which he owes to his father and mother 
uniting from carnal desire and to his being born 
from his mother's womb. 

46. That existence which his teacher, who knows 
all the Vedas, effects for him through the prescribed 
rites of initiation with (his divine mother) the 
Gayatrl, is a true existence ; that existence is 
exempt from age and death. 

47. He who fills his ears with holy truths, who 

that is a minor offence (upapataka ; see below, XXXVII, 20); nor 
can it refer to teaching in general, because it is lawful to gain one's 
substance by it; but it refers to those who recite the Veda in 
behalf of another, and live by doing so. (Nand.) 
41. See XX VIII, 6, and the preceding note. 



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128 VISHJVU. XXXI, i. 

frees him from all pain (in this world and the next), 
and confers immortality (or final liberation) upon 
him, that man let the student consider as his (true) 
father and mother : gratefully acknowledging the 
debt he owes him, he must never grieve him. 

XXXI. 

i. A man has three Atigurus (or specially venera- 
ble superiors) : 

2. His father, his mother, and his spiritual 
teacher. 

3. To them he must always pay obedience. 

4. What they say, that he must do. 

5. And he must do what is agreeable and ser- 
viceable to them. 

6. Let him never do anything without their leave. 

7. Those three are equal to the three Vedas 
(^'g-veda, Sama-veda, and Ya^ur-veda), they are 
equal to the three gods (Brahman, Vish«u, and 
.Siva), they are equal to the three worlds (of men, 
of gods, and of Brahman), they are equal to the 
three fires. 

8. The father is the Garhapatya (or household) 
fire, the mother is the Dakshi«a (or ceremonial) 
fire, and the spiritual teacher is the Ahavaniya (or 
sacrificial) fire. 

9. He pays regard to all his duties, who pays 
regard to those three ; he who shows no regard to 

XXXI. 1-6. M. II, 225, 226, 228, 229; Apast. I, 4, 14, 6; 
Gaut. II, 50, 51. — 7. M. II, 230. — 8. M. II, 231 ; Apast I, 1, 3, 
44.-9. M. II, 234.— 10. M. II, 233. 

9. ' The father is said to be of the same nature as the Girha- 
patya fire, because the Ahavaniya is produced from it ; the mother 
is said to be of the same nature as the Dakshi«a fire, because it 



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XXXII, 4- STUDENTSHIP. 1 29 

them, derives no benefit from any religious ob- 
servance. 

10. By honouring his mother, he gains the pre- 
sent world ; by honouring his father, the world of 
gods ; and by paying strict obedience to his spiritual 
teacher, the world of Brahman, 

XXXII. 

1. A king, a priest, a learned Brahma#a, one 
who stops wicked proceedings, an Up&dhyaya, a 
paternal uncle, a maternal grandfather, a maternal 
uncle, a father-in-law, an eldest brother, and 1 the 
parents-in-law of a son or a daughter are equal to 
a teacher ; 

2. And so are their wives, who are equal in caste 
to them. 

3. And their mother's sister, their father's sister, 
and x their eldest sister. 

4. A father-in-law, a paternal uncle, a maternal 

has a separate origin, or because she has the sacrificial implements, 
such as the pestle and mortar and the like, in her charge ; and the 
spiritual teacher is said to be of the same nature as the Ahavanfya 
fire, because all oblations fall to his share, as the Sm/Yti says (Y. I, 
27), "Let him (the pupil) deliver to him (the teacher) the collected 
alms."' (Nand.) 

XXXII. i.M. II, 206. — 2. M. II, 210. —3. M. II, 13^— 4- 
M. II, 130; Apast. I, 4, 14, ir. — 5, 6. M. II, 210, 211 ; Apast. 
I, 2, 7, 27 ; Gaut. II, 31, 32. — 7. M. II, 129. — 8, 9. M. XI, 205 ; 
Y. Ill, 292. — 10. Apast. 1, 1,2, 20. — 11, 12. M. II, 201 ; Apast. 
I, 2, 8, 15. — 13. M. II, 212; Gaut II, 34. — 14. M. II, 216. — 
15. M. II, 217 ; Gaut. II, 33 ; VI, 2. — 16. M. II, 136 ; Gaut. VI, 
20. — 17. M. II, 135 ; Apast. I, 4, 14, 25. — 18. M. II, 155. 

1. l The particle ka. is used here, according to Nand., in order to 
include a paternal grandfather and other persons mentioned in a 
Smrrti. 

3. 1 The particle ia. here refers, according to Nand., to the 
paternal grandmother and others mentioned in a Smmi. 

[7] K 



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1 30 VISHiVU. XXXII, 5. 

uncle, and a priest he must honour by rising to 
meet and saluting them, even though they be 
younger than himself. 

5. The wives of Gurus (superiors), who are of a 
lower class than their husbands (such as Kshatriya 
or Vaisya or Murdhavasikta wives), shall be honoured 
by (rising to meet and) saluting them from far ; but 
he must not embrace their feet. 

6. He should avoid to rub and anoint the limbs 
of Guru's wives, or to anoint their eyes, or to 
arrange their hair, or to wash their feet, or to do 
other such services for them. 

7. To the wife of another, even though he does 
not know her, he must either say ' sister ' (if she is 
of equal age with himself), or ' daughter' (if she is 
younger than himself), or ' mother ' (if she is older 
than himself). 

8. Let him not say 'thou 1 ' to his Gurus (superiors). 

9. If he has offended one of them (by saying 
' thou ' to him, or in some other manner), he must 
keep a fast and not eat again till the end of the 
day, after having obtained his forgiveness. 

10. He must avoid to quarrel with his spiritual 
teacher and to argue with him (from emulation). 

11. And he must not censure him ; 

5. Sudra wives are exempt from this rule ; he should rise to 
meet, but not salute them. (Nand.) 

8. x Other insulting language, as e. g. if he says hush or pish to 
them, is also included in this term. The use of the particle fa, 
indicates that other persons entitled to respect are also intended in 
this Sutra. (Nand.) 

10. 'The particle fa is used in order to include Br£hma»as in 
general in this prohibition.' (Nand.) 

n. 'The use of the particle fa shows that defamatory speeches 
are also intended.' (Nand.) 



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XXXIII, i. CRIMES. 131 

12. Nor act so as to displease him. 

13. (A pupil) must not embrace the feet of a 
Guru's young wife, if he has completed his twentieth 
year, or can distinguish virtue from vice. 

14. But a young student may at pleasure prostrate 
himself before a young wife of his Guru, (stretching 
out both hands) as ordained (see XXVIII, 15), 
saying, 'I, N. N. (ho! salute thee).' 

15. On returning from a journey he shall (once) 
embrace the feet of the wives of his Gurus (su- 
periors), and daily salute them, remembering the 
practice of the virtuous. 

16. Wealth, kindred, age, the performance of 
religious observances, and, fifthly, sacred knowledge 
are titles to respect; each subsequent one is 
superior to the one preceding in order. 

1 7. A Brahma#a, though only ten years old 1 , and 
a member of the kingly caste, though a hundred years 
old, must be considered as father and son ; and of 
these two, the Brahma»a is the father. 

18. The seniority of Brahma«as is founded upon 
sacred knowledge; of Kshatriyas, upon valour in 
arms ; of VaLyyas, upon grain and (other) wealth ; of 
.Sudras, upon (priority of) birth. 

XXXIII. 

1. Now man has three most dangerous enemies, 
called carnal desire, wrath, and greed. 

17. * I. e. a Brahmawa for whom the ceremony of initiation has 
been performed. (Nand.) This proverb is also found in the Niti- 
jastra 1 55, in the Mahabh&rata II, 1385 seq., &c, and in other works. 
See Bdhtlingk, Ind. Sprflche, 6163, 2456, &c. 

XXXIII. 1. Apast I, 8, 23, 4, 5. 

1. The mention which has been made in the preceding section, 
that on AiSxA or rules of conduct, of the breach of the vow of 

K 2 



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132 VISHJVU. XXXIII, 2. 

2. They are specially dangerous to the order of 
householders, because they have (houses, wives, and 
other) property. 

3. Man, being overcome by those (three enemies), 
commits crimes in the highest degree, high crimes, 
minor crimes, and crimes in the fourth degree ; 

4. Also crimes effecting loss of caste, crimes de- 
grading to a mixed caste, and crimes rendering the 
perpetrator unworthy (to receive alms and the like) ; 

5. And crimes causing defilement, and miscel- 
laneous offences. 

6. This is the threefold path to hell, destructive 
of self : carnal desire, wrath, and greed : therefore 
must a man shun those three vices. 

XXXIV. 

1. Sexual connection with one's mother, or 
daughter, or daughter-in-law are crimes in the 
highest degree. 

2. Such criminals in the highest degree should 
proceed into the flames ; for there is not any other 
way to atone for their crime. 

XXXV. 

1. Killing a Brdhmawa, drinking spirituous liquor, 

chastity and the penance for it (see XXVIII, 48, 49), causes him 
(Vishwu) to discuss the law of penance (Pi£y£tf>4itta). This is done 
in the following section, to which Chapter XXXIV serves as 
Introduction. (Nand.) The section on Priya^itta extends as far 
as Chapter LVII. 

6. This proverb is also found in the Bhagavad-gfti, XVI, 21, and 
in the Mahabh&rata, V, 1036. See B6htlingk, Ind. Spriiche, 2645. 

XXXV. 1. M. IX, 235; XI, 55; Y. Ill, 227; ipast. I, 7, 21, 
8; Gaut. XXI, 1. — 2, 3. M. XI, 181 ; Y. Ill, 227, 261 ; Gaut. 
XXI, 3. — 4. M. XI, 181. 



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XXXVI, i. CRIMES. 133 

stealing the gold of a Brihmawa, and sexual connec- 
tion with a Guru's wife are high crimes. 

2. And social intercourse with such (criminals is 
also a high crime). 

3. He who associates with an outcast is out- 
casted himself after a year ; 

4. And so is he who rides in the same carriage 
with him, or who eats in his company, or who sits 
on the same bench, or who lies on the same couch 
with him. 

5. Sexual intercourse, intercourse in sacrificing, 
and intercourse by the mouth (with an outcast) 
entails immediate loss of caste. 

6. Such mortal sinners are purified by a horse- 
sacrifice and by visiting all Tirthas (places of pil- 
grimage) on earth. 

XXXVI. 

1. Killing a Kshatriya or VaLsya engaged in a 
sacrifice, or a woman in her courses, or a pregnant 
woman, or a woman (of the Brihma«a caste) who has 
bathed after temporary uncleanness 1 , or an embryo 

5. 'Intercourse of marriage' means sexual connection with an 
outcasted man or woman, or giving a damsel in marriage to an 
outcasted man. ' Intercourse in sacrificing' means sacrificing for, 
or with, an outcast. ' Mouthly intercourse ' means teaching, or 
being taught by, or studying together with, an outcast. The 
present rule holds good in cases of voluntary intercourse only ; if 
the intercourse was involuntary, the loss of caste does not follow 
till after a year. Others assert that the immediate loss of caste 
is entailed by particularly intimate intercourse only. (Nand.) 

XXXVI. 1. M. XI, 88 ; Y. Ill, 251 ; ipast. I, 9, 24, 6, 8,9. — 
2-7. M. XI, 57-59, 171, 172; Y. Ill, 228-233. — 2. Gaut.XXI, 
10. — 5. Gaut. XXI, 1. — 7. Apast. I, 7, 21, 9, 

1. ' The term atreyi (atrigotrS) has been translated here and in 



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1 34 vishjvu. xxxvi, 2. 

of unknown sex, or one come for protection, are 
crimes equal to the crime of killing a Brahmawa. 

2. Giving false evidence and killing a friend : 
these two crimes are equal to the drinking of 
spirituous liquor. 

3. Appropriating to one's self land belonging to 
a Brahma^a or a deposit (belonging to a Brahmawa 
and not consisting of gold) are crimes equal to a 
theft of gold (belonging to a Brahma#a). 

4. Sexual connection with the wife of a paternal 
uncle, of a maternal grandfather, of a maternal 
uncle, of a father-in-law, or of the king, are crimes 
equal to sexual connection with a Guru's wife ; 

5. And so is sexual intercourse with the father's 
or mother's sister and with one's own sister ; 

6. And sexual connection with the wife of a 
learned Brahma«a, or a priest, or an Upadhyaya, 
or a friend ; 

7. And with a sister's female friend (or with one's 
own female friend), with a woman of one's own race, 
with a woman belonging to the Brahma«a caste, 
with a (Brahma#a) maiden (who is not yet betrothed 
to a man), with a low-caste woman, with a woman 
in her courses, with a woman come for protection, 

other places in accordance with that interpretation which is 
sanctioned by the majority among the commentators of law 
works. Nand., on the other hand, gives the preference to the 
opinion of those who render it by ' a woman descended from or 
married to a man of the race of Atri.' 

2. 'The term etau, "these," is used in order to include the 
forgetting of Veda texts and other crimes, which are mentioned as 
equal to drinking spirituous liquor by Manu (XI, 57) and Ya^tta- 
valkya (III, 229).' (Nand.) 

5. ' The particle ka. in this Sutra refers to little girls, as ordained 
by Manu, XI, 59.' (Nand.) 



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XXXVII, 6. CRIMES. 1 35 

with a female ascetic, and with a woman entrusted 
to one's own care. 

8. Such minor offenders become pure, like mortal 
sinners, by a horse-sacrifice and by visiting Tlrthas. 

XXXVII. 
i. Setting one's self up by false statements (as 
by saying, ' I have done this,' or the like). 

2. Making statements, which will reach the ears 
of the king, regarding a (minor) offence committed 
by some one ; 

3. Unjustly upbraiding a Guru (as by saying, 
' You have neglected such a household duty ') ; 

4. Reviling the Veda ; 

5. Forgetting the Veda texts, which one his 
studied ; 

6. (Abandoning) one's holy fire, or one's father, 
mother, son, or wife ; 

XXXVII. 1-34. M. XI, 56, 57, 60-67 5 Y. Ill, 228-230, 234- 
242 ; Apast. I, 7, 21, 12-17; Gaut. XXI, 11. — 35. M. XI, 118; 
Y. Ill, 265. 

1. ' But if a man who does not know all the four Vedas says, in 
order to procure a valuable present or some other advantage, ' I 
know the four Vedas/ or if he says of another, his superior in caste 
or sacred knowledge, in order to prevent his receiving a valuable 
present, ' This man is no Brahmawa,' or ' He does not know any- 
thing,' in all such cases his crime is equal to the killing of a 
Brahma«a.' (Nand.) 

2. ' But giving information of a heavy crime constitutes a crime 
equal to the killing of aUrahmawa.' (Nand.) 

3. Guru means 'father' here. Heavy reproaches, as e. g. if a 
son says to his father, ' You have made unequal shares in dividing 
the patrimony,' are equal to killing a Br&hma«a. (Nand.) 

4. ' But atheistical detracting from the authority of the Veda 
constitutes a crime equal to the drinking of spirituous liquor.' 
(Nand.) 

6. ' The use of the particle ka. indicates that distant relatives 
are also intended here, as Ya^fiavalkya, III, 239, states.' (Nand.) 



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1 36 VISIIJVU. XXXVII, 7. 

7. Eating the food of those whose food may not 
be eaten, or forbidden food ; 

8. Appropriating to one's self (grain, copper, or 
other) goods of another man (but not his gold) ; 

9. Sexual intercourse with another man's wife ; 

10. Sacrificing for persons for whom it is for- 
bidden to sacrifice (such as 6udras, persons for 
whom the initiation has not been performed, and 
the like) ; 

11. To live by a forbidden occupation (as, if a 
Brahmawa lives by the occupation of a Kshatriya, or 
of a VaLsya). 

12. Receiving unlawful presents ; 

13. Killing a Kshatriya, or a Vai-jya, or a .Sudra, 
or a cow ; 

14. Selling articles that ought not to be sold 
(such as salt, lac, or others) ; 

15. For an elder brother to suffer his younger 
brother to marry before him ; 

16. For a younger brother to marry, though his 
elder brother is not yet married ; 

1 7. To give a girl in marriage to either of those 
two (categories of offenders) ; 

18. Or to perform the nuptial ceremony for 
them; 

19. To allow the proper time for the ceremony 
of initiation to pass without being initiated ; 

10. ' But sacrificing for an outcast is a high crime.' (Nand.) 
12. This rule refers to receiving presents from an outcast or 
other person, whose gifts must not be accepted, to receiving im- 
proper gifts, such as a ram, or a black antelope, and to receiving 
presents at an improper place, such as Kurukshetra, or at an 
improper time, such as during an eclipse of the sun. The particle 
ia. further refers to giving instruction to those who are not entitled 
to receive it, as Yama mentions. (Nand.) 



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XXXVII, 34- CRIMES. 1 37 

20. To teach the Veda for a reward (unless it be 
in an emergency) ; 

21. To be taught by one who teaches the Veda 
for a reward (unless it be in an emergency) ; 

22. To be employed (by the king's order) in the 
working of mines of any sort (whether gold mines, 
or silver mines, or others, or manufactories); 

23. To make large (sharp) instruments (such as 
instruments for piercing an elephant's ear) ; 

24. Cutting trees, shrubs, creepers, long climbing 
plants (such as vines), or herbs ; 

25. Living by (prostituting) one's own wife ; 

26. Trying to overcome another by incantations 
(tending to kill him), or by forcible means ; 

27. Performing the act (of cooking) for one's 
own sole benefit ; 

28. Not to have kindled one's own sacred fire ; 

29. Omitting to pay one's debts to the gods, 
^'shis, and manes (or sacrificing, study of the Veda, 
and propagation of one's race) ; 

30. Studying irreligious books ; 
3,1. Atheism; 

32. Subsisting by a reprehensible art (such as 
dancing) ; 

^^. Intercourse with women who drink spirits ; 

34. Thus have the crimes in the fourth degree 
been enumerated. 

20. It is true that the above definition of an Upidhyiiya (XXIX, 
2) implies that teaching the Veda for a fee is no reprehensible act ; 
but that permission has reference to cases of distress only. (Nand.) 

26. Nand. asserts that the particle £a is used here in order to 
include the performance of an Ahtna sacrifice and of the other 
sinful acts mentioned by Manu, XI, 198. 

31. Atheism (n&stikata) consists in denying the existence of 
another life. (Nand.) 



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1 38 VISH2VU. XXXVII, 35. 

35. Such criminals in the fourth degree shall 
perform the A*andraya«a or Paraka penances, or 
shall sacrifice a cow (as the case may require). 

XXXVIII. 

1. Causing (bodily) pain to a Brahmawa ; 

2. Smelling at things which ought not to be smelt 
(such as excrements), or at spirituous liquor ; 

3. Dishonest dealing; 

4. Sexual connection with cattle ; 

5. And (sexual connection) with a man (or un- 
natural intercourse with a woman) : 

6. Such are the crimes effecting loss of caste. 

7. He who has knowingly committed one of the 
acts effecting loss of caste shall perform the Sinta- 
pana l penance ; he who has done so unawares shall 
perform the Pra^ipatya 1 penance. 

XXXIX. 

1. Killing domestic or wild animals are crimes 
degrading to a mixed caste. 

2. He who has committed a crime degrading to 
a mixed caste shall eat barley-gruel for a month 
(if he has committed it knowingly), or perform the 
penance Krt&Mr&tikrt&Mra. (if he has committed it 
unawares). 

35. Regarding the penances called A"andr£ya«a and Paraka, see 
below, XLVIII and XLVII, 18. 

XXXVIII. 1-6. M. XI, 68. 
•j. l See XLVI, 19, 10. 

XXXIX. 1. M. XI, 69. 

2. Regarding the penance THrikkhxilWrikkhni, see XLVI, 13. 
'The use of the causative form karayet indicates that he may 



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■m 



XLI, 3. CRIMES. 139 

XL. 

1. Receiving anything from a (Mle&Ma. or other) 
despicable person (even though not as a present, 
but in the form of interest, &c), traffic (even with 
articles that are not forbidden to sell), subsisting by 
money-lending (even without exceeding the legiti- 
mate rate of interest), telling lies (even though not 
in giving evidence), and serving a .Sudra (even 
though without doing servile acts for him) are 
crimes rendering unworthy to receive alms. 

2. He who has committed a crime rendering 
unworthy to receive alms, is purified by the penance 
T&ptekrikkhxa. (in case he committed it knowingly), 
or by the penance Sltakrt&Mra. (in case he did it 
unawares), or by the penance Mahasantapana (in 
case it was committed) repeatedly. 

XLI. 

1. Killing birds, amphibious animals, and aquatic 
animals (such as fish) ; 

2. And worms or insects ; 

3. Eating (nutmegs or other) plants similar to 
intoxicating drinks (in their effect upon the system) : 

perform the penance mentioned here through a substitute, if unable 
to perform it himself.' (Nand.) 
XL. 1. M. XI, 70. 

2. Regarding the penances mentioned here, see XLVI, 11, 
12, 20. 

XLI. 1-4. M. XI, 71. 

3. ' Or the term madySnugata means hemp and the like.' (Nand.) 
Kulluka (on M. XI, 71) interprets it by ' what has been brought in 
the same basket or vessel with spirituous liquor;' Med&tilhi, quoted 
by the same, by ' what has been defiled by spirituous liquor.' The 
rendering given in the text agrees with the first interpretation pro- 
posed by Nand. 



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1 4O VISHJVU. XLI, 4. 

4. Such are the crimes causing defilement. 

5. The penance ordained for crimes causing de- 
filement is the Taptakrt^Mra penance (if they were 
committed unintentionally), or they shall be atoned 
for by the Kri£Mratikrz££/ira. penance (if they were 



committed intentionally). 



XLII. 

1. Miscellaneous crimes are those which have 
not been mentioned before. 

2. Having committed one out of the number of 
miscellaneous crimes, a prudent man should always 
perform a penance, by the advice of a Brahma«a, 
after the higher or less degree of his guilt has been 
ascertained. 

XLIII. 

1. Now follow the hells. (They are called :) 

2. Tamisra (darkness) ; 

3. Andhatamisra (complete darkness) ; 

4. Raurava (place of howling) ; 

5. Maharaurava (place of much howling) ; 

6. Kalasutra (thread of time or death) ; 

7. Mahanaraka (great hell) r 

8. San^ivana (restoring to life) ; 

9. Avl^i (waveless) ; 

XLIII. 1-22. M. IV, 88-90; Y. Ill, 222-224. — 34. M. XII, 76. 

4. Nand. derives the term Raurava from 'ruru, a kind of ser- 
pent.' But it seems preferable to connect it with the root ru, ' to 
howl.' 

6. This hell is defined by Nand. as a kind of threshing-place, 
made of copper, burning hot, and measuring ten thousand Yoganas. 

8. In this hell those who have perished in consequence of the 
tortures which they had to undergo are restored to life and tortured 
anew. (Nand.) 



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XLIII, 25. HELLS. 141 

10. Tapana (burning); 

11. Sampratapana (parching) ; 

12. Sawghitaka (pressing together) ; 

13. Kakola (ravens) ; 

14. Kudmala (bud) ; 

1 5. Putimrz'ttika (stinking clay) ; 

16. Lohasanku (iron-spiked) ; 

1 7. Rik\sh.a. (frying-pan) ; 

18. Vishamapanthana (rough or uneven roads); 

19. Ka«/aka^almali (thorny 6almali trees); 

20. Dipanadl (flame river) ; 

2 1 . Asipattravana (sword-leaved forest) ; 

22. Loha^araka (iron fetters) ; 

23. In each of those (hells) successively criminals 
in the highest degree, who have not performed the 
penance (prescribed for their crime), are tormented 
for the time of a Kalpa. 

24. Mortal sinners (who have not done penance) 
for a Manvantara ; 

25. Minor offenders, for the same period ; 

12. In this hell a large number of individuals is packed up 
closely in a very narrow space. (Nand.) 

13. In this hell the sinners are devoured by ravens. (Nand.) 

14. In this hell the sinners are put in sacks, which are tied up 
at the end. (Nand.) 

17. In this hell the sinners are roasted. (Nand.) 
20. This river, which contains hot water, is called Vaitarawf, as 
it is said, ' The river called Vaitarawi has a stinking odour, is full 
of blood, and is moving on swiftly a torrent of hot water, carrying 
bones and hair in its course.' (Nand.) A detailed description of the 
river Vaitarawi may be found in the Garu<fa-pura»a, p. 8 (Bombay 
ed., 1863). 

22. 'The particle iti is added here, in order to include in the 
above enumeration the hells called Savisha, Mahapatha, Kumbhi- 
paka, Taptabaluka, and the rest.' (Nand.) See Y. Ill, 223, 224; 
M. XII, 76. 



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142 VISHNU. XLIII, 26. 

26. Criminals in the fourth degree, for the period 
of a A!aturyuga ; 

2 7. Those who have committed a crime effecting 
loss of caste, for a thousand years ; 

28. Those who have committed a crime de- 
grading to a mixed caste, for the same period ; 

29. Those likewise who have committed a crime 
rendering unworthy to receive alms and the like. 

30. And those who have committed a crime 
causing defilement; 

31. Those who have committed one of the mis- 
cellaneous crimes, for a great number of years ; 

32. All sinners who have committed (one of 
those nine kinds of) crimes have to suffer terrible 
pangs, when they have departed life and entered 
upon the path of Yama. 

33. Being dragged hither and thither (upon even 
and uneven roads), by the dire ministers of Yama, 
they are conducted (to hell by them), with menacing 
gestures. 

34. (There) they are devoured by dogs and 
jackals, by hawks, crows, herons, cranes, and other 
(carnivorous animals), by (bears and other) animals 
having fire in their mouth, and by serpents and 
scorpions. 

35. They are scorched by blazing fire, pierced by 
thorns, divided into parts by saws, and tormented 
by thirst. 

36. They are agitated by hunger and by fearful 
troops of tigers, and faint away at every step on 
account of the foul stenches proceeding from pus 
and from blood. 

31. 'A great number of years' means three hundred years. 
(Nand.) 



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XLIII, 45. HELLS. 143 

37. Casting wistful glances upon the food and 
drink of others, they receive blows from ministers 
(of Yama), whose faces are similar to those of crows, 
herons, cranes, and other horrid animals. 

38. Here they are boiled in oil, and there 
pounded with pestles, or ground in jron or stone 
vessels. 

39. In one place they (are made to) eat what has 
been vomited, or pus, or blood, or excrements, and 
in another place, meat of a hideous kind, smelling 
like pus. 

40. Here, enveloped in terrible darkness, they 
are devoured by worms and (jackals and other) 
horrible animals having flames in their mouth. 

41. There again they are tormented by frost, or 
have to step through unclean things (such as excre- 
ments), or the departed spirits eat one another, 
driven to distraction (by hunger). 

42. In one place they are beaten with their 
deeds in a former existence, in another they are 
suspended (by trees and the like, with a rope), or 
shot with heaps of arrows, or cut in pieces. 

43. In another place again, walking upon thorns, 
and their bodies being encircled by snakes, they are 
tormented with (grinding) machines, and dragged on 
by their knees. 

44. Their backs, heads, and shoulders are frac- 
tured, the necks of these poor beings are not stouter 
than a needle, and their bodies, of a size fit for a hut 
only, are unable to bear torments. 

45. Having thus been tormented (in the hells) 
and suffered most acute pain, the sinners have to 

43. The Garu</a-pur£«a (p. 17) also mentions that in one hell 
the sinners are thrown into machines like the sugar-cane. 



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144 VISH7VU. XLIV, t. 

endure further pangs in their migration through 
animal bodies. 

XLIV. 

i. Now after having suffered the torments in- 
flicted in the hells, the evil-doers pass into animal 
bodies. 

2. Criminals in the highest degree enter the 
bodies of all plants successively. 

3. Mortal sinners enter the bodies of worms or 
insects. 

4. Minor offenders enter the bodies of birds. 

5. Criminals in the fourth degree enter the 
bodies of aquatic animals. 

6. Those who have committed a crime effecting 
loss of caste, enter the bodies of amphibious 
animals. 

7. Those who have committed a crime degrading 
to a mixed caste, enter the bodies of deer. 

8. Those who have committed a crime rendering 
them unworthy to receive alms, enter the bodies of 
cattle. 

9. Those who have committed a crime causing 
defilement, enter the bodies of (low-caste) men (such 
as AaWalas), who may not be touched. 

10. Those who have committed one of the mis- 
cellaneous crimes, enter the bodies of miscellaneous 
wild carnivorous animals (such as tigers). 

1 1 . One who has eaten the food of one whose 
food may not be eaten, or forbidden food, becomes 
a worm or insect. 

XLIV. 1-43. M. XII, 54-67 ; Y. Ill, 207-215. — 44, 45- M. 
XII, 68, 69. 

11. See LI, 3 seq. 



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XLIV, 30. TRANSMIGRATION. 1 45 

12. A thief (of other property than gold), becomes 
a falcon. 

13. One who has appropriated a broad passage, 
becomes a (serpent or other) animal living in holes. 

14. One who has stolen grain, becomes a rat. 

1 5. One who has stolen white copper, becomes a 
Ha#zsa. 

16. One who has stolen water, becomes a water- 
fowl. 

1 7. One who has stolen honey, becomes a gad-fly. 

18. One who has stolen milk, becomes a crow. 

19. One who has stolen juice (of the sugar-cane 
or other plants), becomes a dog. 

20. One who has stolen clarified butter, becomes 
an ichneumon. 

21. One who has stolen meat, becomes a vulture. 

22. One who has stolen fat, becomes a cormorant. 

23. One who has stolen oil, becomes a cock- 
roach. 

24. One who has stolen salt, becomes a cricket. 

25. One who has stolen sour milk, becomes a 
crane. 

26. One who has stolen silk, becomes a partridge. 

27. One who has stolen linen, becomes a frog. 

28. One who has stolen cotton cloth, becomes a 
curlew. 

29. One who has stolen a cow, becomes an 
iguana. 

30. One who has stolen sugar, becomes a Valguda. 

30. ' The Valguda is a kind of bat.' (Nand.) The name VII- 
guda is evidently related to valgulf, ' a kind of bat,' and identical 
with V&gguda (M. XII, 64) and Vagvada (Haradatta on Gaut. 
XVII, 34), which, according to Dr. Buhler's plausible suggestion, 

[7] L 



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146 VISHJVU. XLIV, 31. 

31. One who has stolen perfumes, becomes a 
musk-rat. 

32. One who has stolen vegetables, consisting of 
leaves, becomes a peacock. 

33. One who has stolen prepared grain, becomes 
a (boar called) ^SVavidh (or Sedha). 

34. One who has stolen undressed grain, be- 
comes a porcupine. 

35. One who has stolen fire, becomes a crane. 

36. One who has stolen household utensils, be- 
comes a wasp (usually called A"ara/a). 

1,7. One who has stolen dyed cloth, becomes a 
Kzkor partridge. 

38. One who has stolen an elephant, becomes a 
tortoise. 

39. One who has stolen a horse, becomes a tiger. 

40. One who has stolen fruits or blossoms, be- 
comes an ape. 

41. One who has stolen a woman, becomes a 
bear. 

42. One who has stolen a vehicle, becomes a 
camel. 

43. One who has stolen cattle, becomes a vulture. 

44. He who has taken by force any property 
belonging to another, or eaten food not first pre- 
sented to the gods (at the Vabvadeva offering), 
inevitably enters the body of some beast. 

45. Women, who have committed similar thefts, 
receive the same ignominious punishment: they 
tecome females to those male animals. 

are names of ' a large herbivorous bat, usually called the flying fox 
(in G%aratt v&gud or vSgul).' See Dr. Btthler's note on Gaut. 
loc. cit. 



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XLV, 12. TRANSMIGRATION. I47 

XLV. 

1. Now after having undergone the torments in- 
flicted in the hells, and having passed through the 
animal bodies, the sinners are born as human 
beings with (the following) marks (indicating their 
crime) : 

2. A criminal in the highest degree shall have 
leprosy ; 

3. A killer of a Brahma^a, pulmonary consump- 
tion; 

4. A drinker of spirits, black teeth ; 

5. A stealer of gold (belonging to a Brahma»a), 
deformed nails ; 

6. A violator of his spiritual teacher's bed, a 
disease of the skin ; 

7. A calumniator, a stinking nose; 

8. A malignant informer, stinking breath ; 

9. A stealer of grain, a limb too little ; 

10. One who steals by mixing (i. e. by taking 
good grain and replacing the same amount of bad 
grain in its stead), a limb too much ; 

11. A stealer of food, dyspepsia ; 

12. A stealer of words \ dumbness ; 

XLV. 2-31. M. XI, 49-52; Y. Ill, 209-211. — 32, 33. M. XI, 

53. 54- 

2. According to a text of .Satatapa, which Nand. quotes in 
explanation of this Sutra, connection with the mother is punished 
with ' falling or incurable epilepsy,' when the organ falls of; con- 
nection with a daughter is punished with red epilepsy ; connection 
with a daughter-in-law, with black leprosy ; and connection with 
a sister, with yellow leprosy. 

12. 1 I.e. according to Kulluka and Nand., 'one who studies 
the Veda without permission to <lo so;' or it may denote, 
according to Nand., 'a stealer of a book/ or 'one who fails to 
communicate information which he is able to give.' 

L 2 



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148 VISRZVU. XLV, 13. 

13. A stealer of clothes, white leprosy ; 

14. A stealer of horses, lameness ; 

1 5. One who pronounces an execration against a 
god or a Brahmawa, dumbness ; 

1 6. A poisoner, a stammering tongue ; 

1 7. An incendiary, madness ; 

18. One disobedient to a Guru (father), the 
falling sickness ; 

19. The killer of a cow, blindness ; 

20. The stealer of a lamp, the same ; 

21. One who has extinguished a lamp, blindness 
with one eye ; 

22. A seller of tin, chowries, or lead, is born a 
dyer of cloth ; 

23. A seller of (horses or other) animals whose 
foot is not cloven, is born a hunter ; 

24. One who eats the food of a person born 
from adulterous intercourse \ is born as a man who 
suffers his mouth to be abused ; 

25. A thief (of other property than gold), is born 
a bard ; 

26. A usurer becomes epileptic ; 

27. One who eats dainties alone, shall have 
rheumatics ; 

28. The breaker of a convention, a bald head ; 



19. Nand. quotes a text of .S&tatapa, from which he infers the 
use of the particle tu to indicate here, that a killer of his mother 
shall also be born blind. 

a 1. The particle ka,, according to Nand., indicates here, that 
such persons shall also be afflicted with the morbid affection of the 
eyes called Timira, as stated by .S&t&tapa. 

24. * Nand. says that kundism may also mean ' one who eats 
food to the amount of a kuWa.' See also Dr. Buhler's note on 
Gaut. XV, 18. 



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XLVI, 9. PENANCES. 149 



29. The breaker of a vow of chastity, swelled 
legs; 

30. One who deprives another of his subsist- 
ence, shall be poor; 

31. One who injures another (without provoca- 
tion), shall have an incurable illness. 

32. Thus, according to their particular acts, are 
men born, marked by evil signs, sick, blind, hump- 
backed, halting, one-eyed; 

33. Others as dwarfs, or deaf, or dumb, feeble- 
bodied (eunuchs, whitlows, and others). Therefore 
must penances be performed by all means. 

XLVI. 

1. Now follow the penances. 

2. Let a man fast for three days ; 

3. And let him perform each day the three ablu- 
tions (at dawn, noon, and sunset) ; 

4. And let him, at every ablution, plunge into the 
water three times ; 

5. And let him mutter the Aghamarshawa three 
times, after having plunged into the water ; 

6. During day-time let him be standing ; 

7. At night let him continue in a sitting posi- 
tion; 

8. At the close of the ceremony let him give a 
milch cow (to a Brahma»a). 

9. Thus 1 has the penance Aghamarsha#a been 
described. 

XLVI. 10, 11, 18, 19. M. XI, 212, 213, 215, 216. — 10, 11, 13, 
18-20, 22, 23. Y. Ill, 315-323- — 10. Apast. I, 9, 27, 7. — 10, 
11, 13. Gaut. XXIII, 2 ; XXVI, 1-5, 20. — 24, 25. M. XI, 224, 
225. 

9. ' Nand. thinks that the word iti, ' thus/ has a double meaning 



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I50 VISHJVU. XLVI, ro. 

10. Let a man for three days eat in the evening 
only ; for other three days, in the morning only ; for 
further three days, food (given to him) unsolicited ; 
(and let him fast entirely for three days) : that is 
the Pra^apatya (the penance invented by Pra^a- 
pati). 

1 1. Let him drink for three days hot water ; for 
other three days, hot clarified butter; and for further 
three days, hot milk ; and let him fast for three 
days : that is the Taptakri&Mra. (hot penance). 

12. Taking the same (liquids) cold is called the 
Sitakrikkhta. (cold penance). 

13. The Kri£Mr£.tikrt£Mra. (the most difficult 
penance) consists in subsisting on milk only for 
twenty-one days. 

14. Eating (nothing but) ground barley mixed 
with water for a whole month is called the Udaka- 
krt&Mra (water penance). 

15. Eating nothing but lotus-fibres (for a whole 
month) is called the M.&lakrt&£/ira (root penance). 

16. Eating nothing but Bel fruit (for a whole 
month) is called the Srlpha.\akri&Mra. (Bel fruit 
penance). 

17. Or 1 (this penance is performed) by (eating) 
lotus-seeds. 

1 8. A total fast for twelve days is called Paraka. 

19. Subsisting for one day on the urine and 
faeces of a cow, milk, sour milk, butter, and water 

here, and refers to another kind of Aghamarshawa penance at the 
same time, which is described by Saftkha, and consists simply in 
fasting for three days and muttering the Aghamarshawa hymn three 
times. 

17. According to Nand., the particle vt, 'or,' here indicates 
another alternative, that of performing this penance with Amalakas 
(Emblica Officinalis Gaertn.) 



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XLVII, 2. PENANCES. 1 5 1 

in which Kara, grass has been boiled, and fasting 
the next day, is called Santapana (the tormenting 
penance). 

20. Swallowing (the same six things, viz.) cow- 
urine and the rest, each for one day, is called Maha- 
santapana (the particularly tormenting penance). 

21. Swallowing each for three days is called 
Atisantapana (the extremely tormenting penance). 

22. Swallowing oil-cakes, foam of boiled rice, 
buttermilk, water, and ground barley (each for one 
day), with a fasting day between (every two days), is 
called Tulapurusha (a man's weight), 

23. Drinking water boiled with Kusa grass, 
leaves of the Palasa and Udumbara trees, of lotuses, 
of the .Sankhapushpt plant, of the banyan tree, and 
of the Brahmasuvar^ala plant, each (for one day), is 
called Pamakri&Mra (leaves penance). 

24. Let a man perform all those penances after 
having shorn his hair and his beard, and let him 
bathe at morning, noon, and evening every day, 
lying on a low couch, and restraining his passions, 

25. And let him (while engaged in performing 
them) avoid to converse with women, .Sudras, or 
outcasts, and let him constantly, to the best of his 
ability, mutter purifying Ma«tras and make oblations 
in the fire. 

XLVII. 

1. Now follows the A1andraya«a (lunar penance). 

2. Let a man eat single mouthfuls (of food) 
unchanged in size ; 

XLVII. 1-10. M. XI, 217-222. — 1-3, 9. Y. Ill, 324, 325. — 
1-4. Gaut. XXVII, 12-15. 

2. ' Unchanged in size ' means ' of that size precisely which the 
law prescribes.' Y%fiavalkya (III, 324) states that each daily 



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152 VISHiVU. XLVII, 3. 

3. And let him during the moon's increase add 
(successively) one mouthful (every day, so as to eat 
one mouthful on the first day of the moon's increase, 
two mouthfuls on the second day, and so on ; fifteen 
mouthfuls on the day of full moon), and during the 
wane of the moon let him take off one mouthful 
(every day, so as to eat fourteen mouthfuls on the 
first day of the moon's wane, thirteen mouthfuls on 
the second, and one mouthful on the fourteenth day 
of the moon's wane), and on the day of new moon 
let him fast entirely : thus has the barley-shaped 
AUndrayawa been described. 

4. Or the ant-shaped A'andrdyawa (may be per- 
formed). 

5. That A"andraya#a is called 'ant-shaped' in 
which the day of new moon is placed in the 
middle. 

6. That one is called ' barley-shaped ' in which 
the day of full moon is placed in the middle. 

7. If a man eats for a month eight mouthfuls a 
day, it is (the penance called) YatL6andr£ya«a (an 
hermit's A'andrdya«a). 

8. Eating (for a month) four mouthfuls each 
morning and evening is (the penance called) Sisu- 
ifindriyawa (a child's A'andriyarca). 

9. Eating anyhow 1 three hundred minus sixty 
mouthfuls a month is the penance called S&manya- 
Mndrayawa (general A"indraya»a). 

portion must have the size of a peacock's egg, and Gautama 
(XXVII, 10) prescribes that the size of a mouthful shall be such as 
not to cause a distortion of the mouth in swallowing it. (Nand.) 

9. ' ' Anyhow,' i. e. otherwise than ordained above, as e. g. eating 
four mouthfuls on one day, and twelve on the next day ; or fasting 
on one day, and eating sixteen mouthfuls on the following day; or 
fasting for two days, and eating twenty-four mouthfuls on the third 



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XLVIII, 6. PENANCES. 153 

10. After having performed this penance, in a 
former age, the seven holy J&'shis, Brahman, and 
Rudra acquired a splendid abode, O Earth. 

XLVIII. 

i. Now if a man feels his conscience charged 
with some guilty act (such as performing a sacrifice 
for, or accepting a gift from, unworthy persons, or 
eating excrements) committed by himself (or if his 
conscience tells him that he has done more evil 
than good, or if he thinks himself less pure than 
others), let him boil a handful of barley-gruel for the 
sake of his own spiritual welfare. 

2. Let him not make the (customary) VaLrvadeva 
offering after that. 

3. Neither must he make the Bali offerings. 

4. Let him consecrate with Mantras the barley, 
before it has been put to the fire, while it is being 
boiled, and after it has been boiled. 

* 5. Let him watch the barley, while it is being 
boiled (muttering at the same time the following 
Mantra) : 

6. ' Soma, who is the highest priest among priests 
(gods), leader among the wise, J&shi among bards, 
the falcon among rapacious birds, the Svadhiti tree 
among trees, trickles murmuring through the filter 1 .' 

day ; or fasting for three days, and eating thirty-two mouthfuls on 
the fourth day. (Nand.) 

XLVIII. 1. Gaut. XIX, 13. 

2, 3. Regarding the regular oblations which have to be offered 
at meal times &c. to the VLrvedevis and to all beings (bhiMni), 
see LIX, 22, 24; LXVIII, 1—22. 

4. The Mantras are given below, 17-22. 

6. ' Rig-veda IX, 96, 6. Regarding the translation of this verse, 
see Dr. Zimmer's remarks, Altindisches Leben, p. 207. 



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154 VISHATU. XLVIII, 7. 

With these words he must fasten blades of Kusa. 
grass (round the neck of the kettle). 

7. The pulse having been boiled, he must pour 
it into another vessel and eat it. 

8. Let him help himself to it, while muttering the 
Mantra, 'The gods, who have sprung up in the mind 
and satisfy the mind, who are gifted with great 
energy, and whose father is Daksha, shall protect 
and help us. To them be Nama^ (adoration), to 
them be Svaha (hail).' 

9. Then, after having sipped water, let him seize 
the centre (of the vessel) and mutter the Mantra : 

10. 'Be satisfied in our stomach, O ye waters, 
and ye barley-corns, after having been bathed ; they 
shall be salubrious to us, conferring bliss, causing 
health, divine, causing immortality, and increasers of 
Rite (truth and justice).' 

1 1 . One desirous of wisdom (must perform this 
rite) for three days ; 

12. A sinner, for six days. 

1 3. Any of the mortal sinners (killers of a Brah- 
ma«a, stealers of gold, and the rest) becomes purified 
by swallowing it for seven days. 

14. Swallowing it for twelve nights effaces even 
sins committed by an ancestor ; 

15. Swallowing it for a month, every sin (whether 
light or heavy, and whether committed by himself 
or by an ancestor). 

16. And so does swallowing barley-corns dis- 
solved in the excrements of a cow for twenty-one 
days (efface every sin). 

1 7. ' Thou art barley, thou the king of grains, 

8. Taittiriya Sa»zhit£ I, 2, 3, 1. See also Va^-asaneyi Sajnhita' 
IV, 11, &c. 



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XLIX, t. PENANCES. 155 

thou water mixed with honey ; the Zfrshis have pro- 
claimed thee an expeller of every kind of guilt and 
an instrument of purification. 

1 8. ' You are clarified butter and honey, O ye 
barley-corns ; you are water and ambrosia, O ye 
barley-corns. May you efface whatever sinful acts 
I have committed : 

19. ' Sins committed by words, by acts, and by 
evil thoughts. Avert distress and ill-fortune from 
me, O ye barley-corns. 

20. ' Purify food licked at by dogs or pigs, or 
defiled by leavings (of food), and (purify me from 
the stain) of disobedience towards mother and 
father, O ye barley-corns. 

21. ' Purify for me food given by a multitude of 
persons, the food of a harlot, or of a .Sudra, food 
offered at a 6raddha, food rendered impure by the 
birth of a child in the house, the food of a thief, and 
food offered at a Navasraddha (or new .Sraddha, 
which takes place on the first, third, fifth, seventh, 
ninth, and eleventh day after a person's demise). 

22. ' Purify me, O ye barley-corns, from the sin 
of injuring a child or of causing (a punishment) to 
be inflicted on some one by the king, from theft of 
gold (or other high crimes), from the violation of a 
religious duty, from performing a sacrifice for an 
unworthy person, and from abusing a Brahma«a.' 

XLIX. 

1. After having fasted during the eleventh day 

of the bright half of the month Margarfrsha, let a 

XLIX. r. ' He must worship V&sudeva either with sixteen acts, 
muttering one out of the sixteen verses of the Purushasukta with 
each single act, the first act being the invocation of the gods, and 



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I56 VISHJVU. XLIX, a! 

man worship, on the twelfth day, the venerable 
Vasudeva (Vish«u). 

2. (He shall worship him) with flowers, incense, 
unguents, lamps, eatables (such as milk), and repasts 
given to Brahma«as. 

3. By performing this rite (on the twelfth day of 
the bright half of every month, from the month 
Margaslrsha to the month Karttika) for one year, he 
is purified from every sin. 

4. By performing it till he dies, he attains 6Veta- 
dvlpa (' the white island,' the abode of Bhagavat). 

5. By performing it for a year on each twelfth 
day of both halves of a month, he attains heaven. 

6. By performing it (within the same intervals), 
till he dies, (he attains) the world of Vish«u. 

7. The same (heavenly rewards are gained by 
him who performs this rite) on each fifteenth day 
(after having fasted during the fourteenth). 

8. If he worships (according to the latter rite) 
Kesava (Vishwu) who has become one with Brah- 
man, on the day of full moon, and Kesava absorbed 
in meditation, on the day of new moon, he will 
obtain a great reward. 

the last the dismissal of the assembled Br£hma«as ; or he must 
worship him with the " five offerings," perfumes, and the rest, 
muttering at the same time the " twelve syllables " (Om namo bha- 
gavate vSsudevaya, " Om, adoration to the venerable Vasudeva ").' 
(Nand.) 

2. ' He must worship him with those offerings and with burnt- 
oblations. The burnt-oblation, which must consist either of 
sesamum, or of barley, or of clarified butter, has to be accompanied, 
by the recitation of the Purushasukta or of the " twelve syllables." ' 
(Nand.) 

8. According to Nand., the two forms of Vishnu mentioned 
here must be considered as two separate deities, the one having to 
be invoked with the words ' Adoration to Brahmakerava,' and the 



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L.7- PENANCES. 1 57 

9. If in a year on a day of full moon the moon 
and the planet Jupiter are seen together in the sky, 
it is called a great full moon. 

10. Gifts, fasts, and the like are declared to be 
imperishable on that day. The same is the case if 
a conjunction with the asterism .5rava#a falls on the 
twelfth day of the bright half (of any month). 

L. 

« 

1. Let a man make a hut of leaves in a forest and 
dwell in it ; 

2. And let him bathe (and perform his prayers) 
three times a day ; 

3. And 1 let him collect alms, going from one 
village to another, and proclaiming his own deed ; 

4. And 1 let him sleep upon grass : 

5. This is called a Mahavrata (great observance). 

6. He who has killed a Brihmawa (unintention- 
ally) must perform it for twelve years. 

7. (He who has unintentionally killed) a Ksha- 
triya or a Vai^ya engaged in a sacrifice, for the 
same period. 

other with the words ' Adoration to Yogakexava.' ' A great reward' 
he interprets by ' a shape identical with that of Brahman.' 

L. 1-6, 15. M. XI, 73; Y. Ill, 243; Apast I, 9, 24, 11-20; 
Gaut. XXII, 4-6. — 7-10, 12-14. M. XI, 88, 89, 129-131; Y. 
HI, 251, 266, 267; Gaut. XXII, 12-16. — 16-24. M. XI, 109- 
116; Y. Ill, 263. — 25-41. M.XI, 132-138; Y. Ill, 270-274. — 
30-33. Apast I, 9, 25, 13 ; Gaut. XXII, 19. — 34-36. Gaut. XXII, 
23" 2 5- — 46-50. M. XI, 141-145; Y.III, 275, 276. — 46. Apast 
I, 9, 26, 2 ; Gaut XXII, 20, 21. 

3. 1 Nand., quoting Gautama XXII, 5, takes the particle £a, 
' and,' to imply that he should also make way for any Arya whom 
he meets. 

4. * The particle fa here means, according to Nand., that he 
ought to remain chaste, as ordained by Gautama, XXII, 4. 



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158 VISHJVU. L, 8. 

8. Likewise, he who has killed (unintentionally) a 
pregnant woman, or 1 a woman in her courses. 

9. Or 1 a woman who has bathed after temporary 
uncleanness ; 

10. Or 1 a friend. 

11. He who has (unintentionally) killed a king, 
must perform the Mahavrata for twice the same 
number of years (or twenty-four years) ; 

12. He who has (unintentionally) killed a Ksha- 
triya (not engaged in a sacrifice, nor a king), for one 
quarter of that time less (or for nine years) ; 

13. He who has (unintentionally) killed a Vawya 
(not engaged in a sacrifice), for half of that time (or 
for six years). 

14. He who has (unintentionally) killed a (vir- 
tuous) 6udra, for half of that time again (or for 
three years). 

15. He who is performing any of those penances, 
must carry (on his stick) the skull of the person 
slain, like a flag. 

16. Let a man serve cows for a month, his hair 
and beard having been shorn. 

1 7. And let him sit down to rest when they rest ; 

18. And 1 let him stand still when they stand 
still ; 

8. x Nand. infers from texts of Pra£etas, Yama, and Parlrara, that 
the particle vi, ' or,' here refers to pregnant cows, and to women 
whose confinement is close at hand, or who are married to one who 
has kindled his sacred fire, or for whom all the sacred rites have 
been duly performed from their birth. 

9. 1 Nand. refers the particle va, 'or,' to women of high rank and 
to a rival wife, or a mother, or a daughter, or a sister, or a daughter- 
in-law, or a wife, who is of the same caste as her husband. 

10. 1 'The particle va includes children here.' (Nand.) 

18. 'According to Nand., the particle fa here refers to the 



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L, 39. PENANCES. 1 59 

19. And 1 let him give assistance to a cow that 
has met with an accident (such as getting into a 
slough, or falling into a pit). 

20. And let him preserve them from (the attacks 
of lions and tigers and other) dangers. 

2 1 . Let him not seek shelter himself against cold 
(and hot winds) and similar dangers, without having 
previously protected the cows against them. 

22. Let him wash himself with cow-urine (three 
times a day); 

23. And 1 let him subsist upon the (five) pro- 
ductions of a cow : 

24. This is the Govrata (cow rite), which must be 
performed by him who has (unintentionally) killed a 
cow (belonging to a Kshatriya). 

25. If a man has killed an elephant (intention- 
ally), he must give five black (nlla) bulls. 

26. If he has killed (unintentionally) a horse, he 
must give a garment. 

27. If he has (intentionally) killed an ass, he 
must give a bull one year old. 

28. The same if he has (intentionally) killed a 
ram or a goat. 

29. If he has (intentionally) killed a camel, he 
must give one KrishnaXa. of gold. 

precept of Para\?ara, that he should drink water when the cows 
drink, and lie down when they lie down. 

19. 'According to Nand., the particle 6a, here implies another 
precept of Parfoara, that he should not take notice of a cow grazing 
or drinking water upon his own ground or that of another. 

23. "The particle ka. implies that he should also mutter the 
Gomatf hymn, as .Satatapa says.' (Nand.) 

25. 'He is called a black bull whose colour is red, whose mouth 
and tail are of a yellowish-white colour, and whose hoofs and horns 
are white.' (Ya^flapa^nra, quoted by Nand.) 



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160 VISHJVU. L, 30. 

30. If he has (intentionally) killed a dog, he must 
fast for three days. 

31. If he has (unintentionally) killed a mouse, or 
a cat, or an ichneumon, or a frog, or a Dundubha. 
snake, or a large serpent (a boa constrictor), he must 
fast one day, and on the next day he must give a 
dish of milk, sesamum, and rice mixed together to a 
Brahmawa, and give him an iron hoe as his ' fee.' 

32. If he has killed (unintentionally) an iguana, 
or an owl, or a crow, or a fish, he must fast for 
three days. 

33. If he has killed (intentionally) a Hamsa., or 
a crane, or a heron, or a cormorant, or an ape, or a 
falcon, or the vulture called Bhasa, or a Br£hma#i 
duck, he must give a cow to a Brahma#a. 

34. If he has killed a snake, (he must give) an 
iron spade. 

35. If he has killed emasculated (cattle or birds) 1 , 
(he must give) a load of straw 2 . 

36. If he has killed (intentionally) a boar, (he 
must give) a Kumbha of clarified butter. 

37. If he has (intentionally) killed a partridge, 
(he must give) a Drowa of sesamum. 

38. If he has (intentionally) killed a parrot, (he 
must give) a calf two years old. 

39. If he has (intentionally) killed a curlew, (he 
must give) a calf three years old. 

40. If he has (unintentionally) killed a wild carni- 
vorous animal, he must give a milch cow. 

35. 'Thus according to Nand., who declares himself against 
the interpretation of sha»<fe by 'a eunuch;' see, however, Kulluka 
on M. XI, 134, and Dr. Burner's rendering of Gaut. XXII, 23. — 
2 Nand. adds, ' and a Masha of lead ; ' see the passages just re- 
ferred to. 



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L, 50. PENANCES. l6l 

41. If he has (unintentionally) killed a wild animal 
not carnivorous, (he must give) a heifer. 

42. If he has (intentionally) killed an animal not 
mentioned before, he must subsist upon milk for 
three days. 

43. If he has (unintentionally) killed a bird (not 
mentioned before), he must eat at night only ; 

44. Or (if unable to do so), he must give a silver 
Masha. 

45. If he has (unintentionally) killed an aquatic 
animal, he must fast (for a day and a night). 

46. If he has killed a thousand (small) animals 
having bones, or an ox-load of animals that have no 
bones, he must perform the same penance as for 
killing a 6udra. 

47. But, if he has killed animals having bones, he 
must (moreover) give some trifle to a Brahma#a (for 
each animal which he has killed) ; if he has killed 
boneless animals, he becomes purified by one stop- 
ping of the breath. 

48. For cutting (unawares ?) trees yielding fruit 
(such as the bread-fruit or mango trees), shrubs, 
creeping or climbing plants, or plants yielding blos- 
soms (such as the jasmine tree), he must mutter a 
Vedic text (the Gayatrl) a hundred times. 

49. For killing (unintentionally) insects bred in 
rice or other food, or in (sweets and) the like, or 
in liquids (such as molasses), or elsewhere (in water 
and so on), or in flowers or fruits, the penance con- 
sists in eating clarified butter. 

50. If a man has wantonly cut such plants as 



46, 47. Nand. thinks that the former Sloka refers to intentional, 
and the latter to unintentional murder of those animals. 
[7] M 



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1 62 VISHJVU. LI, i. 

grow by cultivation (such as rice and barley), or 
such as rise spontaneously in the wood (such as 
wild rice), he must wait on a cow and subsist upon 
milk for one day. 

LI. 
i. A drinker of spirituous liquor must abstain 
from all religious rites and subsist on grains 
separated from the husk for a year. 

2. If a man has (knowingly) tasted any of the 
(twelve) unclean excretions of the body, or of the 
(twelve) intoxicating drinks, he must perform the 
A'andrayawa penance. 

3. Likewise, if he has (knowingly) eaten garlic, 
or onions, or red garlic, or any plant which has a 
similar flavour (to that of garlic or onions), or the 
meat of village pigs, of tame cocks (and other tame 
birds), of apes, and of cows. 

4. In all those cases men belonging to a twice- 
born caste have to be initiated a second time, after 
the penance is over. 

5. On their second initiation, the tonsure, the 
girding with the sacred string, the wearing of the 
staff, and the begging of alms shall be omitted. 

LI. r. M. XI, 93; Y. Ill, 254. - 3- M. V, 19; Y. I, 176.— 
4, 5. M. XI, 151, 152 ; Y.III, 255; Gaut. XXIII, 2.-6. M.V, 18; 
Y. I, 177 ; Apast. I, 5, 17, 37; Gaut. XVII, 27. — 7-20. M. IV, 
205-217 ; Y. I, 161-168 ; Apast. I, 5, 16, 27, 29 ; 17, 4, 5 ; 18, 
21-23; x 9> i> I5'» II, 6, 15, 14; Gaut. XVII, 10-12, 17, 19, 21, 
31. — 21. M.V, 16; Y. 1,177, 178. — 23. M.XI, 148.— 25. M. 
XI, 150; Gaut. XXIII, 6.-26-42. M.V, 5-21, 24, 25; XI, 
i5 2 -i57; Y. I, 169-178; Apast. I, 5, 17, 17-20, 22-26, 28, 29, 
33~3 6 ; Gaut. XVII, 14, 16, 22-26, 28, 29, 32-34. — 43-46. M. 
XI, 158-160. — 59. M.V, 36; Y. I, 179; Apast. I, 5, 17, 31.— 
60. M.V, 38; Y. I, 180. — 61. M.V, 39.-62. M.V, 34.-63- 
78. M.V, 40-55. — 64. ^ankh. II, 16, 1. See also Biihler, Introd. 
to Digest, p. xxxi, note. — 76, 77. Y. I, 181. 



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LI, .14. PENANCES. 1 63 

6. If a man has (unawares) eaten meat of a five- 
toed animal, with the exception of the hare, the 
porcupine, the iguana, the rhinoceros, and the tor- 
toise, he must fast for seven days. 

7. If he has eaten the food of a multitude of 
persons, of a harlot, of a thief, or of a singer, he 
must subsist upon milk for seven days. 

8. And 1 (if he has eaten) the food of a carpenter 
or of a leather manufacturer ; 

9. Or of a usurer, of a miser, of one who has 
performed the initiatory ceremony of a Soma-sacri- 
fice, of a jailer, of an AbhLyasta, or of a eunuch ; 

10. Or of a dissolute woman, of a hypocrite, of a 
physician, of a hunter, of a hard-hearted or cruel 
person, and of one who eats the leavings of food ; 

11. Or of a woman who has neither husband nor 
son, of a goldsmith, of an enemy, or of an outcast ; 

12. Or of a malignant informer, of a liar, of one 
who has transgressed the law, and of one who sells 
himself, or who sells (molasses or other) liquids and 
condiments ; 

13. Or of a public dancer, of a weaver, of an 
ungrateful man, or of a dyer of clothes; 

14. Or (the food) of a blacksmith, of a man of 
the Nishada tribe (who subsist by fishing), of a 
stage-player 1 , of a worker in cane, or of a seller of 
weapons ; 

8. l 'As shown by &&, "and," other persons who have a dishonour- 
able profession, such as fishermen, have also to be understood.' 
(Nand.) 

9. Abhixasta means ' accused of a heinous crime,' i. e. 'a person 
of bad repute.' (Nand.) See also Dr. Biihler's notes on Apast. I, 
9, 24, 6, and on Gaut. XVII, 17. 

14. 'This is the usual meaning of the term rangavatarin. 
Nand. explains it by ' wrestlers and the like.' 

M 2 



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1 64 VISHJVU. LI, 15. 

15. Or of a trainer of dogs, of a distiller of 
spirituous liquor, of an oil manufacturer, or of a 
washerman ; 

16. Or (the food) of a woman in her courses 
(whether belonging to her, or dressed for her), or of 
one who lives under one roof with the paramour of 
his wife ; 

1 7. Or (food) which has been looked at by the 
killer of an embryo (of a Brahma«a), or which has 
been touched by a woman in her courses, or nibbled 
by a bird 1 , or touched by a dog, or smelt at by a 
cow; 

18. Or that which has been designedly touched 
with the foot, or that which has been sneezed at ; 

19. Or the food of insane, or wrathful, or sick 
persons ; 

20. Or (food that is given) in a disrespectful 
manner, or the meat (of animals killed) for no sacred 
purpose. 

21. After having (unawares) eaten the flesh of 
any sort of fish, excepting the Pa//*fna, Rohita, 
Ra^iva, Si#matu«da, and .Sakula fishes, he must 
fast for three days. 

22. Likewise, after having (unawares) eaten the 
flesh of (any other) aquatic animal (such as the 
alligator, or the Gangetic porpoise). 

23. After having (knowingly) drunk water from a 
vessel in which spirituous liquor had been kept, he 
must drink for seven days milk boiled together with 
the .Sankhapushpl plant. 

17. 'Nand. considers the term patatrin to refer to crows only in 
this place. Kulluka (on M. IV, 208) interprets it by ' crows and 
the like.' See also Gaut. XVII, 10. 

20. See Dr. Buhler's notes on Gaut. XVII, 19, 31. 



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LI, 30. PENANCES. 1 65 

24. After having (knowingly drunk water) from a 
vessel in which an intoxicating beverage had been 
kept, (he must drink the same) for five days. 

25. A Soma-sacrificer, who has (unawares) smelt 
the breath of a man who had been drinking spiri- 
tuous liquor, must plunge into water, (suppress his 
breath) and mutter the Aghamarsha»a three times, 
and eat clarified butter afterwards. 

26. For eating (designedly) the flesh of an ass, of 
a camel, or of a crow \ he must perform the A!an- 
draya«a penance. 

2 7. Likewise, for eating (knowingly) the flesh of 
an unknown (beast or bird), meat kept in a slaughter- 
house, and 1 dried meat 

28. For eating (unawares) the flesh of carnivorous 
beasts (tigers and others), or birds (hawks and others), 
he must perform the TaptakW£&4ra. 

29. For (knowingly) eating a sparrow, or (the 
heron called) Plava, or a Brahma»l duck, or a 
Ha#*sa, or the (wild cock called) Rajgudala, or a 
Sarasa crane, or a Datyuha, or a male or female 
parrot, or a crane, or a heron, or a cuckoo, or a 
wagtail, he must fast for three days. 

30. Likewise, for eating (unawares the flesh of) 
animals whose hoof is not cloven (such as horses), 

26. Nand. argues from a passage of Pratetas, that the flesh of 
the following other animals, dogs, jackals, cocks, boars, carnivorous 
animals in general, Gangetic porpoises, apes, elephants, horses, 
tame hogs, cows, and human beings, is also implied here. But if 
that were the case, Sutra 26 would be partly a mere repetition of, 
and partly opposed to, the rules laid down in Sutras 33 and 22. 

27. 1 Nand. infers from a passage of the Brahma-pura»a, that the 
use of the particle ka. further implies a prohibition to eat the flesh 
on the back, or flesh which had been interred in the ground, or 
covered with earth, fried meat, and the flesh of the uterus. 



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1 66 VISHATU. LI,3t. 

or of animals having a double row of teeth (such as 
the Rohita deer). 

3 r . For eating (unawares) the flesh of any bird, 
excepting the francoline partridge, the Kapin^ala, 
the (quail called) Lavaka, the peahen, and the 
peacock, (he must fast) for a day and a night. 

32. For eating (knowingly) insects (ants and 
others), he must drink for one day (water in which 
the plant) Brahmasuvariala (has been boiled). 

33. For eating (unawares) the flesh of dogs, he 
must perform the same penance \ 

34. For eating (unawares the mushroom called) 
A^attraka, or (the mushroom called) Kavaka, he 
must perform the Santapana penance. 

35. For eating (unawares) stale food, other than 
a mess prepared with barley (such as cakes), or with 
wheat (such as gruel), or with milk (boiled with rice, 
or mixed with coagulated milk, or otherwise dressed), 
and dishes sprinkled with fat (such as clarified 
butter), sour gruel, and sweetmeats, he must fast 
(for one day). 

36. Likewise, (for eating unawares) the juice 
flowing from an incision in a tree, (plants raised in) 
unclean substances (such as excrements and the 
like), and the red exudation of trees. 

3 J. Also, (for eating unawares) the root of the 
water-lily; (and for eating) rice boiled with sesamum, 
or with beans, Sawyava \ rice boiled in milk with 
sugar, pastry, 6ashkull (cakes), or food destined for 

33. ' 'And he must perform the Santapana penance mentioned 
in the next Sutra, as the use of the particle ka. implies.' (Nand.) 

37. 'Nand. interprets this term by utkarikS, which, according 
to Wilson, is a sort of sweetmeat made with milk, treacle, and 
clarified butter. Kulluka (on M.V, 7) has a somewhat different 
interpretation. 



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LI, 46. PENANCES. "167 

the gods, if those dishes have not been announced 
to the gods first ; and (for eating) food destined for 
burnt-oblations. 

38. Also, for tasting the milk of any animal, save 
the milk of cows, goats, and buftalos (and for tasting 
any eatables made of such milk) 1 . 

39. Also, (for tasting the milk) of those animals 
(cows and the rest) within ten days after their giving 
birth to a young one. 

40. And (for tasting) the milk of a cow whose 
milk flows of itself, of one that has just taken the 
bull 1 , or of one whose calf is dead 2 . 

41. And (for tasting the milk of a cow) that has 
been feeding upon ordures. 

42. And (for tasting) any such food as has turned 
sour (but not that which is sour by nature, like sorrel), 
except sour milk (and what is made with it). 

43. A student, who partakes (unawares) of a 
.Sraddha repast, must fast for three days. 

44. And he must remain in water for a whole 
day (afterwards). 

45. If he eats honey or meat (at any time), he 
must perform the Pra^apatya penance. 

46. If any one eats (unawares) the leavings of the 

38. ' Nand. infers from the use of the particle ka. that the same 
penance is ordained for tasting any other production of those 
animals, as e.g. their excrements. 

40. * Sandhint means ' a cow that has just taken the bull,' or 
' a female animal that gives milk once a day,' or ' a cow that is 
milked by the calf of another cow.' (Nand.) Haradatta (see Apast. 
I> 5> r 7> 2 3! Gaut. XVII, 25) interprets it by ' an animal giving 
milk while big with young.' For other interpretations, see the 
Petersburg Dictionary. — J ' The particle ka. indicates that animals 
bearing twins have also to be included in this prohibition.' (Nand.) 
See Gaut. loc. cit. 



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1 68 vishjvu. LI, 47. 

food of a cat, of a crow, of an ichneumon, or of a rat, 
he must drink water in which the Brahmasuvarvfcala 
plant has been boiled. 

47. For eating (unawares) what has been left by 
a dog, he must fast for one day, and drink Pan£a- 
gavya (afterwards). 

48. For tasting (knowingly) the excrements of 
five-toed animals (excepting human excrements), he 
must (fast) for seven days (and drink Paft^agavya on 
the eighth). 

49. If one (not a student) eats (unawares) of a 
.SVaddha repast consisting of raw food, he must 
subsist on milk for seven days. 

50. If a Br£hma#a eats what has been left by a 
.Sudra, (he must also subsist on milk) for seven 
days. 

51. If he eats what has been left by a Vaijya, (he 
must subsist upon milk) for five days. 

52. If he eats what has been left by a Kshatriya, 
(he must subsist upon milk) for three days. 

53. If he eats what has been left by another 
Brahma»a, (he must subsist upon milk) for one 
day. 

54. If a Kshatriya eats what has been left by a 
■Sudra, (he must undergo the same penance) for five 
days. 

55. If he eats what has been left by a Vawya, (he 
must undergo it) for three days ; 

56. And so must a Vawya, if he eats what has 
been left by a Sudra. 

50. Nand. explains that he should drink Pan&igavya alternately 
with milk. This explanation extends to the following Sutras also 
(up to Sutra 56). He further argues from another Smn'ti text that 
the term .Sudra means ' Sudras and women' here. 



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LI, 63. PENANCES. 1 69 

57. For (knowingly) eating (undressed) food, 
which has been left by a A!a#<&la (or .Svapa/£a or 
other member of the seven lowest castes), he must 
fast for three days. 

58. For (unawares) eating dressed food (left by 
such), the Paraka penance is ordained. 

59. Let no Brahma#a ever eat (the flesh of) 
beasts which has not been consecrated with Man- 
tras; but if it has been consecrated with Mantras, 
he may eat it, following the eternal rule (laid down 
in the Veda). 

60. As many hairs as the beast has, which he 
has slain in this world, for so many days will the 
killer of a beast for other purposes than a (.Srauta 
or Smarta) sacrifice, suffer terrible pangs in this 
world and in the next 1 . 

61. It is for sacrifices that beasts have been 
created by the Self-existent (Brahman) himself. 
Sacrificing causes the whole universe to prosper ; 
therefore is the slaughter (of beasts) for a sacrifice 
no slaughter. 

62. The sin of him who kills deer for the sake of 
gain, is not so great (and visited less heavily) in the 
world to come, than the sin of him who eats meat 
which has not been offered to the gods. 

63. Plants, cattle, trees, amphibious animals, and 
birds, which have been destroyed for the purposes 
of sacrifice, obtain exaltation in another existence 
(in which they are born as Gandharvas, or other 
beings of a high rank). 

60. 'My translation follows Nand. It is, however, doubtful, 
whether the reading is correct; see Manu V, 38. 

62. This is because the former kills animals in order to support 
his family, whereas the latter eats meat merely in order to tickle 
his palate. (Nand.) 



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1 70 VISHJVU. LI, 64. 

64. When honouring a guest, at a sacrifice, or 
when worshipping the manes, or the gods, a man 
may slay cattle, but not otherwise on any account. 

65. That twice-born man who, knowing the exact 
truth (promulgated) in the Veda, slays cattle for the 
sacrifices (ordained in the Veda), will convey himself 
and the cattle (slain by him) to a blissful abode. 

66. A self-controlled 1 man of a twice-born caste, 
whether he be a householder, or be dwelling with 
his spiritual teacher, or in the forest, must never 
slay an animal in opposition to the precepts of the 
Veda, even in cases of distress. 

67. That slaughter which is in accordance with 
the precepts of the Veda, and has been fixed for this 
world of movable and immovable creatures, should 
be considered as no slaughter at all ; because it is 
from .the Veda that law shines forth. 

68. He who hurts animals that do not hurt any 
one, merely in order to afford pleasure to himself, 
will never obtain happiness, whether living or dead 1 . 

69. He who gives no living creature intentionally 
the pain of confining or killing (or hurting) it, from 
benevolence towards all (creatures), will enjoy ever- 
lasting happiness. 

70. Whatever he thinks of, whatever he strives 
for, and whatever he desires in his heart, all that is 
easily obtained by him who does not injure any 
created being. 

71. Meat cannot be obtained without injuring an 

66. ' Nand. interprets the term atmavan by sawnyasf, ' an ascetic, 
or member of the fourth order,' apparently because the first three 
orders are mentioned in this .Sloka. I have followed Kulluka's in- 
terpretation (on M.V, 43). 

68. ' ' But it is no sin to kill tigers or other beasts of prey.' (Nand.) 



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LI, 78. PENANCES. I71 

animal, and the murder of animals excludes the 
murderer from heaven, therefore must meat be 
avoided. 

72. Reflecting upon the origin of flesh 1 and 
upon the (sin of) hurting or confining animated 
creatures, he must abstain from animal food of any 
kind. 

"j 2,- He who transgresses not the law and eats 
not flesh like a PLfa£a, is beloved by men and 
remains free from disease. 

74. He who gives his consent to the killing of an 
animal, he who cuts it up, he who kills it, the pur- 
chaser and the seller, he who prepares it, he who 
serves it up, and he who eats it, all these are 
denominated slaughterers of an animal. 

75. There is no greater sinner than he who, with- 
out giving their share to the manes and to the gods, 
wants to increase his own flesh with the flesh of 
another creature. 

76. Those two, he who performs a horse-sacrifice 
annually for a hundred years and he who does not 
eat meat, shall both obtain the same recompense for 
their virtue. 

77. By eating (wild rice or other) sacred fruits or 
roots, and by living upon such grains as are the food 
of hermits, a man does not reap so high a reward as 
by avoiding meat. 

78. (An eater of flesh must say within himself), 
' Me he (maw sa) will eat in the next world, whose 



72. 'The human soul is enveloped in six sheaths, three of 
which come from the father, and three from the mother. The 
three that come from the mother are skin, flesh, and blood. Now 
flesh is said in the .Sruti to be derived from the menstrual discharge, 
and the latter is one of the species of forbidden food. (Nand.) 



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172 VISHJVU. LII, 1. 

flesh I am tasting here.' This, say the learned, is 
the derivation of the word flesh (mawsa). 

LII. 

1. He who has stolen the gold (of a Brahma#a), 
must bring a club to the king, proclaiming his deed. 

2. Whether the king kills him with it, or dismisses 
him unhurt, he is purified. 

3. Or (in case he committed the theft unawares), 
he must perform the Mahavrata * for twelve years. 

4. He who appropriates (knowingly) a deposit, 
(must perform the same penance.) 

5. He who steals (knowingly) grain or valuable 
objects 1 , (or prepared food belonging to a Brah- 
ma»a,) (must perform) the 'Krikkkra. 2 for a year. 

6. For stealing male or female slaves (not be- 
longing to a Brahma#a, and for seizing) a well or 
pool (actually containing water), or a field, the 
.A'andrayawa (penance must be performed). 

7. (For stealing) articles of small value (such as 
tin or lead, not exceeding twenty-five Pawas in value), 
the Santapana (penance must be performed). 

8. (For stealing) sweetmeats, (rice or other) food, 

LII. 1, 2. M.VIII, 314-3165 XI, 100-101; Y. Ill, 257; Apast. 
I, 9» 25. 4-55 Gaut. XII, 43, 44. — 3. M. XI, 102. — 5-13. M. XI, 
163-169. 

3. 1 See L, 1-5. 

5. ' By dhana, ' valuable objects,' the objects mentioned below 
(in 10), copper and the rest, are meant. (Nand.) — 2 Nand. does 
not explain the meaning of Krikkhra, which is a general term for 
' a heavy penance.' It probably denotes the Pra^&patya penance 
here, as in a number of other law texts (e. g. below, LIV, 26), and 
in the corresponding text of Manu in particular. See Kulluka on 
M. XI, 163. 

8-13. Nand. explains that these Sutras refer to a small amount 
of those articles which are mentioned in them. 



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LII, 17. PENANCES. 1 73 

(milk or other) drinks, a bed, a seat, flowers, roots, 
or fruit, drinking Pafi^agavya (is ordained as 
penance). 

9. (For stealing) grass, firewood, trees, rice in the 
husk, sugar, clothes, skins, or flesh, the thief must 
fast for three days. 

10. (For stealing knowingly) precious stones, 
pearls or coral, copper, silver, iron, or white copper, 
he must eat grain separated from the husk for 
twelve days. 

n. For stealing (unawares) cotton, silk, wool or 
other (stuffs), he must subsist for three days upon 
milk. 

12. For stealing two-hoofed or one-hoofed ani- 
mals, he must fast for three days. 

13. For stealing birds, or perfumes, or medicinal 
herbs, or cords, or basket-work, he must fast for 
one day. 

14. Though a thief may have restored to the 
owner the stolen property (either openly or) in some 
indirect manner 1 , he must still perform a penance, 
in order to purify himself from guilt. 

15. Whatever a man takes from others, un- 
checked (by the dictates of religion), of that will 
he be bereft in every future birth. 

16. Because life, religious merit, and pleasure 
depend upon wealth, therefore let a man take care 
not to injure the wealth (of others by robbing 
them) by any means. 

17. Among those two, he who injures animal 
life, and he who injures wealth, the one who injures 
wealth shall incur the heavier penalty. 

14. "As under pretext of handing over to him the dowry of a 
wife.' (Nand.) 



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174 vishjvu. liii, i. 



LIII. 

i. One who has (unawares) had illicit sexual 
intercourse \ must perform the Pra^apatya penance 
for a year, according to the rule of the Mahavrata, 
clad in a garment of bark, and living in a forest. 

2. The same (penance is ordained) for sexual 
intercourse with the wife of another man (who 
belongs to his own caste, but is no Guru of his). 

3. For intercourse with a cow, the Govrata (must 
be performed). 

4. For intercourse with a man, for unnatural 
crimes with a woman, (for wasting his manhood) in 
the air, (for intercourse with a woman) in water, by 
day, or in a go-cart 1 , he must bathe dressed in his 
clothes. 

5. By intercourse (knowingly) with a -ATawdala 
woman 1 , he becomes her equal in caste. 

6. For intercourse unawares with such, he must 
perform the ATandrayawa twice. 

7. For intercourse (knowingly) with cattle (other) 
than cows) or with a public prostitute, (he must 
perform) the Pri^apatya penance. 

8. A woman who has committed adultery once, 

LIII. 1-8. M. XI, 106, 171-177. — 4. Y. Ill, 291.— 9. M. XI, 
179. 

1. 1 The crime intended here is explained by Nand. as being 
illicit intercourse with a step-mother, who belongs to the .Sudra 
caste. 

3. See L, 16-24. 

4. * ' Or in a cart drawn by asses or by other beasts of draught, 
as the particle && implies.' (Nand.) 

5. 1 ' Or with a woman of an equally degraded caste, such as the 
-SVapata caste and others.' (Nand.) 

8. See Sutra 2. 



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LIV, 7. PENANCES. 1 75 

must perform that penance which has been pre- 
scribed for an adulterer. 

9. That guilt which a Brahma#a incurs by in- 
tercourse with a Aa#dala woman one night, he can 
only remove by subsisting upon alms, and constantly 
repeating (the Gayatrl) for three years. 

LIV. 

1. If a man associates with one guilty of a crime, 
he must perform the same penance as he. 

2. A Brahma»a who has drunk water from a well 
in which a five-toed animal has perished, or which 
has been defiled in the highest degree, must fast 
for three days. 

3. A Kshatriya (must fast) for two days (in the 
same case). 

4. A Vaisya (must fast) for one day (and one 
night). 

5. A vSudra (must fast) for a night only. 

6. And all (the former, but not a .Sudra) must 
drink Paft/6agavya, when their penance has been 
completed. 

7. If a 6udra drinks Pan^agavya, or if a Brah- 
ma«a drinks spirituous liquor, they both go to the 
hell called Maharaurava 1 . 

a LIV. 1. M. XI, 182. — 10. M. XI, 203. — n. M. II, 220; 
Apast. II, 5, 12, 22 ; Gaut. XXIII, 21. — 12. M. XI, 200; Y.III, 
277; Gaut. XXIII, 7.-23. M. XI, 202; Y. Ill, 291. — 24. M. 
XI, 195; Y. Ill, 290. — 25. M. XI, 198; Y. Ill, 289.-26. M. 
XI, 192. — 27. M. XI, 193. — 28. M. XI, 294. — 29. M. XI, 204. 
— 30. M. XI, 209; Y. Ill, 293. — 31. M. XI, 190. — 32. M.XI, 
191 ; Y. Ill, 299. — 34. M. XI, 210; Y. Ill, 294. 

7. * See XLIII, 5. Nand. infers from an anonymous Smmi 
passage, that the first part of this Sutra refers not only to Sudras, 
but to women also, and not only to the drinking of Pafi^agavya, 



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1 76 VISHJVU. LIV, 8. 

8. If a man has not connection with his wife in 
the natural season, unless it be on the days of the 
full and new moon, or because she is ill, he must 
fast for three days. 

9. A false witness 1 must perform the penance 
ordained for killing a Brahmawa. 

10. He who has (unawares) voided excrements 
without water (being near), must bathe in his 
clothes, pronounce the ' great words V and offer a 
burnt-oblation 2 . 

1 1 . One who has been surprised asleep by the 
sun rising or setting, must bathe in his clothes and 
mutter the Gayatrl one hundred and eight times. 

12. He who has been bitten by a dog, a jackal, a 
tame pig, an ass, an ape, a crow, or a public prosti- 
tute, shall approach a river and (standing in it, shall) 
stop his breath sixteen times. 

13. One who forgets the Vedic texts which he 
has studied, or who forsakes the sacred fires, must 
subsist upon alms for a year, bathing at the tree 
Savanas (morning, noon, and evening), sleeping 
upon the ground, and eating one meal a day. 

14. For setting one's self up by false statements, 
and for falsely accusing or abusing a Guru, he must 
subsist upon milk for a month. 

15. An atheist, one who leads the life of a 
member of the Kznd^Xz. or of other low castes that 

but also to the offering of burnt-oblations and the muttering of 
prayers. 

9. 1 According to Nand., this particular species of criminals is 
only quoted as an instance of anupatakinaA (criminals in the third 
degree, see XXXVI), who are all intended in this Sutra. 

10. x See LV, 10. — 2< The particle ka. implies that he must 
touch a cow besides, as Manu directs (XI, 203).' (Nand.) 

14. See XXXVII, 1, 3. 



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LIV, 20. PENANCES. I 77 

dwell outside the village (Bahyas) 1 , an ungrateful 
man, one who buys or sells with false weights, and 
one who deprives Brahmawas of their livelihood (by 
robbing them of a grant made to them by the king 
or private persons, or by other bad practices), all 
those persons 2 must subsist upon alms for a year. 

16. An unmarried elder brother whose younger 
brother is married, a younger brother married before 
the elder, an unmarried elder sister whose younger 
sister is married, the relative who gives such a 
damsel in marriage, and the priest who officiates at 
such a marriage, must perform the ATandraya«a. 

17. He who sells living beings, land, religious 
merit (obtained by a sacrifice or otherwise), or 
Soma, must perform the Tapt&kriMAra.. 

18. He who sells fresh ginger 1 , (edible) plants 
(such as rice or barley), perfumes, flowers, fruits, 
roots, skins, canes, (winnowing baskets or fans and 
the like) made of split bamboo, chaff, potsherds, hair, 
ashes, bone, cow-milk or curds, oil-cakes, sesamum, 
or oil, must perform the Pra^apatya. 

19. He who sells the fruit of the -Sleshmataka 
tree, lac, bees-wax, shells, mother-of-pearl, tin, lead, 
iron, copper, or (sacrificial) vessels made of the horn 
of the rhinoceros, must perform the A'andrayarca. 

20. He who sells dyed cloth, tin \ precious 



15. ' 'Or nistikavritti means "one who receives his substance 
from an atheist." ' See also Gaut. XV, 16. — a 'The use of the par- 
ticle ka. implies that calumniators are also intended.' (Nand.) 

17. SeeXLVI, 11. 

18. 1 The term ardra, which Nand. interprets by ardrakam, might 
also be connected with the following word, and both together be 
translated by ' fresh plants.' See Y. Ill, 38. 

20. 1 Tin, perfumes, and, of the articles enumerated in Sutra 21, 

[7] N 



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178 VISHiVU. LIV, 21. 

stones, perfumes, sugar, honey, liquids or condi- 
ments (other than sugar, salt, and the like), or wool, 
must fast for three days. 

2i. He who sells meat, salt, lac, or milk, must 
perform the .ATandrayarca. 

22. And 1 all those persons (mentioned in Sutras 
17-21) must be initiated a second time. 

23. He who has been riding (voluntarily) upon a 
camel \ or upon an ass, and he who has (purposely) 
bathed, or slept, or eaten, quite naked, must stop 
his breath three times. 

24. By muttering attentively the Gayatr! three 
thousand times, (by dwelling) upon the pasture of 
cows, (and) by subsisting on milk for a month, he 
becomes free from the sin of accepting unlawful 
presents. 

25. He who has (knowingly) offered a sacrifice 
for an unworthy person (such as a low-caste person, 
or an outcast), he who has performed the funeral 
rites for a stranger, he who has practised magic 
rites (in order to destroy an enemy), and he who 
has performed a sacrifice of the kind called Ahina 1 , 
(all those persons) may rid themselves of their 

lac, and milk have already been mentioned in Sutras 18 and 19. 
Nand. tries to remove the difficulty in the second case, by stating 
the perfumes mentioned here to be perfumes of a different kind, and 
in the fourth case, by asserting that the milk of female buffalos, &c. 
is meant in Sutra 21. But he interprets the two other terms as 
given above. Probably the passage is interpolated. 

22. 'Nand. infers from the use of the particle ka. that this rule 
applies equally to the persons mentioned in the next Sutra. . 

23. 1 ' The use of the particle va, " or," implies that riding upon 
a cow, and other such animals, is also intended here.' (Nand.) 

25. 'This kind of sacrifice is defined by Nand. as one con- 
nected with repeated drinking of the Soma juice, and lasting from 
two to twelve days. Medhatithi (on Manu XI, 198) simply defines 



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LIV, 29. PENANCES. 1 79 

sins by performing three Krt&Mra. (Pra^apatya) 
penances. 

26. Those twice-born men, by whom the Gayatrl 
has not been repeated (and the other initiatory cere- 
monies performed), as the law directs, must be made 
to perform three (Pra^apatya) penances and must 
be initiated according to custom. 

27. Those twice-born men who are anxious to 
make an atonement for having committed an illegal 
act \ or for having neglected the study of the Veda, 
must be made to perform the same penance. 

28. Those Brahma«as who have acquired pro- 
perty by base acts (such as living by the occupations 
of a lower caste, or accepting unlawful presents) 
become free from sin by relinquishing it, and by 
muttering (Veda texts) and practising austerities. 

29. For omitting one of the regular acts enjoined 
in the revealed (and traditional) law, and for a breach 
of the rules laid down for a Snataka 1 , a fast is or- 
dained as atonement. 



it as a sacrifice extending over two days or more ; Kulluka (ibid.) 
states that it lasts three days or more, and that it is said in the 
Veda to cause impurity. See also Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 355. 

26. The recitation and repetition of the G&yatrf is one of the 
chief elements of the ceremony of initiation. The words with 
which the pupil must address his teacher on this occasion are 
given by Nand.; they are quoted from Ajv. I, 21, 4, and .SSftkh. 
II, 5, 10- 11. See also Gaut. I, 46, with Dr. Bflhler's note. 

27. "I.e. BrShmawas and others who have gained their livelihood 
(in times of distress) by such occupations as are lawful for other 
castes only, and who, when the times of distress are over, wish to 
atone for those actions.' (Nand.) 

29. x Regarding the meaning of this term, see above, XXVIII, 
42, note. The rules to be observed by a Sndtaka are given m 
Chapter LXXI. 

N 2 



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1 80 VISHJVU. LIV, 30. 

30. For attacking a Brahmawa (by raising a stick 
or a weapon against him), the Kri&Mra. (Pra^cl- 
patya) penance must be performed ; for striking 
him, the Atikri&Mra. ; and for fetching blood from 
him, the Krt&Mrktikrt&Mra. 

31. With sinners, who have not expiated their 
crime, let a man not transact business of any kind. 
But a man who knows the law must not blame (or 
shun) those who have expiated it. 

32. Let him not, however, live (or have any 
intercourse) with those who have killed children, or 
with ungrateful persons, or with those who have 
slain one come for protection, or a woman, even 
though such sinners may have obtained their abso- 
lution, as directed by the law. 

33. (An old man) who has passed his eightieth 
year, a youth under the age of sixteen, women, and 
sick persons have only to perform half of every 
penance 1 . 

34. In order to remove those sins for which no 
particular mode of expiation has been mentioned, 
penances must be prescribed, which shall be in 
accordance with the ability of the offender, and with 
the heaviness of his offence. 

LV. 

1. Now follow the penances for secret sins. 

30. For the AtikrikMra. penance, see M. XI, 214. 

33. * Nand. adds, that a youth under the age of sixteen, who has 
not been initiated, and old women, as well as girls who have not 
yet attained maturity, must only perform a quarter of it, as directed 
in a Smra'ti. 

LV. 1. M. XI, 248; Y. Ill, 301; Gaut. XXIV, 1.— 2, 3. M. 
XI, 249, 260; Y. Ill, 302; Gaut. XXIV, 10. — 4. Gaut. XXIV, 



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LV, 8. PENANCES. l8l 

2. The killer of a Brahmawa is purified, if, having 
approached a river (and bathed in it), he restrains 
his breath sixteen times, and takes only one meal, 
consisting of food fit for offerings, each day, for a 
month. 

3. At the end of this rite he must give a milch 
cow. 

4. By performing the same rite and by muttering 
(while standing in the water) the Aghamarshawa l 
(instead of stopping his breath), a drinker of 
spirituous liquor 2 becomes free from sin. 

5. (By performing the same rite and) muttering 
the Gayatri one thousand and ten times (each day), 
a stealer of gold becomes free from guilt. 

6. One who has connection with a Guru's wife l 
(becomes free from sin) by fasting for three days and 
muttering the Purushasukta 2 and (at the same time) 
offering a burnt-oblation. 

7. Even as the horse-sacrifice, the king of sacri- 
fices, removes all sin, the hymn of Aghamarshawa 
likewise removes all sin. 

8. Let a twice-born man stop his breath, in order 
to rid himself of all sin ; all sins committed by a 

10. — 6. M. XI, 252; Y. Ill, 305. — 7. M. XI, 260. — 10-21. 
M. II, 76-87. 

2. Nand. infers from a text of Manu (XI, 249), that this rule 
refers to one who has killed a Brahma«a intentionally. 

3. This rule, Nand. infers from a passage of Ya^iiavalkya (III, 
305), applies also to the penances mentioned in the following 
Sutra. 

4. 1 Rig-veda X, 1 90. — " I. e. one who has knowingly drunk 
it, the penance for drinking it unknowingly being stated by Yag'fia- 
valkya (III, 304).' (Nand.) 

5. 6. l Nand. infers from M. XI, 251, 252, that these two Sutias 
also refer to penances for crimes intentionally committed. — 2 Rig- 
veda X, 90. 



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1 82 VISHJVU. LV, 9. 

twice-born man may be removed by repeated 
Prawayamas. 

9. It is called a Prawayama, if a man, stopping 
the breath (which comes from the mouth and from 
the nostrils), recites the Gayatri three times, together 
with the Vyahrz'tis ('words') 1 , with the sacred 
syllable Om, and with the (text called) Sims 2 . 

10. The lord of creatures (Brahman) has milked 
out from the three Vedas the letter A, the letter U, 
and the letter M (of which the sacred syllable Om 
is composed), and (the three sacred words) BhM, 
Bhuva^, Sva^ (earth, the atmosphere, and heaven). 

1 1 . The lord of creatures, the supreme deity, 
has also milked out from the three Vedas succes- 
sively the three verses of the sacred stanza which 
begins with the word ' tad,' and is called Savitrl (or 
Gayatri). 

12. By muttering, every morning and evening, 
that syllable and that stanza, preceded by the three 
' words,' a Brahma«a will obtain that religious merit 
which the (study of the) Veda confers, just as if he 
had actually studied the Veda. 

1 3. By repeating those three (Om, the ' words,' 
and the Gayatri every day) for a month out of the 
village, a thousand times, a twice-born man is puri- 
fied even from a mortal sin, as a snake (is freed) 
from its withered skin. 

14. Any member of the Brahmawa, Kshatriya, or 
Vaisya castes, who does not know those three texts, 



9. ' The three Vyahr/tis, 'words,' or Mahavyahr/tis, 'great words,' 
are quoted in the next .Sloka. — 2 It begins with the words, ' O ye 
waters, who are splendour and ambrosia.' (Nand., and Mitakshara" 
on Y. I, 23.) 



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LV, 20. PENANCES. 1 83 

or fails to recite them in the proper season, meets 
with reproach among the virtuous. 

15. The three imperishable 'great words,' pre- 
ceded by the syllable Om, and the Gayatrl consist- 
ing of three divisions, have to be recognised as the 
mouth (or beginning) of the Veda \ 

16. He who repeats that stanza (preceded by the 
syllable Om and the three ' words ') carefully every 
day for three years, will be absorbed in the highest. 
Brahman after death, move as freely as air, and 
become as pure as air. 

17. The monosyllable (Om) is the highest Brah- 
man, the stoppings of the breath are the best of 
austerities, but nothing is more exalted than the 
Gayatrl ; (declaring the) truth is better than silence. 

18. All religious acts ordained in the Veda, 
(whether) consisting in burnt-oblations or sacrifices 
(or alms-giving or other pious observances), perish 
(after the merit obtained by them has been ex- 
hausted) ; but the syllable Om (akshara) must be 
known to be imperishable (akshara), as it is identical 
with Brahman, the lord of creatures. 

19. The act of reciting (the syllable Om, the 
'words,' and the Gayatrl) is ten times better than 
the (Gyotish/oma or other) sacrifices prescribed (by 
the Veda) ; it is a hundred times better when mut- 
tered in a low voice ; it is a thousand times better 
when repeated mentally only. 

20. The four Pikaya^fias 1 (small or domestic 

15. 'To explain this, Nand. quotes a passage of Ajval&yana 
(Gr/hya-sutra III, 2, 3, where, however, part only of this quotation 
is found) to the effect that the study of the Veda has to be begun 
by pronouncing Om, the ' words,' and the Glyatrf. 

20. 1 ' The four Pakaya^iSas are the offerings to gods, goblins 
(or " all beings "), manes, and men, together with the offering to 



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1 84 VISHMJ. LV, 31. 

offerings), together with the sacrifices prescribed 
(in the Veda), though all united, are not equal to a 
sixteenth part of the sacrifice performed by reciting 
(those sacred prayers). 

21. A Brahmawa may beyond doubt obtain final 
emancipation by solely repeating (those prayers), 
whether he perform any other religious observance 
or no ; one who is benevolent towards all creatures 
(and does not slay them for sacrifices) is justly 
called a Brahmawa (or one united to Brahman). 

LVI. 

1. Now then * follow the purifying Mantras from 
all theVedas. 



Brahman.' (Nand. ; see LIX, 20-25.) Kulluka, on the contrary 
(on M. II, 86), refers the term Pikaya^ffa to the four first only out 
of those five offerings, and this interpretation, besides being more 
simple than Nand.'s, is preferable for several other reasons. First, 
the ' offering to Brahman ' includes the daily recitation of the Giya- 
tri, which is mentioned here as opposed to the four Pakaya^fias. 
Secondly, the number of four Pakaya^fias is equally given in the 
Kanaka Gnhya-sutra ; and Devapala, in his Commentary on that 
work, gives a definition of them, which agrees in the main with 
Kulluka's. ' Four ' P&kaya^Bas are mentioned in the Grzhya-sutras 
of Kaurika, Paraskara, and .Sankhayana also. See Weber, Ind. 
Stud. X, 48. Thirdly, the Pakaya^nas are brought in here as 
opposed to the Vidhiya^fias or ' sacrifices prescribed by the Veda.' 
This is probably because the latter are offered in the triad of sacred 
fires, whereas the term Pakaya^fia, in its narrower use, denotes the 
oblations offered in the domestic fire. Hence, it might come to 
include the ' offering to men,' i. e. the feeding of a guest, but cer- 
tainly not the study of the Veda. 

LVI. M. XI, 250-260; Y. Ill, 302-305; Gaut. XIX, 12; 
XXIV. 

1. 1( Now then/ i.e. the previous chapter containing an enu- 
meration of secret sins, an enumeration of the purifying Mantras, 
by which they may be expiated, follows next. (Nand.) 



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LVI, 15. PENANCES. 1 85 

2. By muttering them, or reciting them at a 
burnt-oblation, the twice-born are purified from 
their sins. (They are as follows :) 

3. The Aghamarshawa ; 4. The Devakrzta ; 5. 
The vSuddhavatis ; 6. The Taratsamandlya ; 7. 
The KushmWis; 8. The Pavamanls ; 9. The 
Durgasavitrl ; 10. The Atlshangas; 11. The 
Padastobhas; 12. The Vyahmi Samans; 13. 
The Bharuwdas; 14. The A'andrasaman ; 15. The 

3. Rig-veda X, 190, 1. (This and the following references are 
based upon Nand.'s statements.) 

4. Va^-asaneyi Sawhita VIII, 13. 

5. Rig-veda VIII, 84, 7-9. 6. Rig-veda IX, 58. 

7. Vag-as. Sarah. XX, 14-16 (Taitt. Arawy. X, 3-5). 

8. The term P&vamattya^ in its most common use denotes the 
ninth book of the Rig-veda, but Nand. here refers it to Taitt. 
Brahm. I, 4, 8. 

9. Rig-veda I, 99, 1. 

10. Sama-veda II, 47-49. Regarding this and the following 
Samans see also Benfey, Ind. Stud. Ill, 199 seq., Bumell's Index to 
the Arsheya Brahmawa, and S. Goldschmidt's remarks in his edition 
of the Arawyaka Sawhiti, Transactions of the Berlin Academy, 1868, 
p. 246 seq. 

11. Sama-veda II, 578-580. 

12. ' The Vyahrrti Samans, i. e. bhfi^ and the four others.' (Nand.) 
The four others are, bhuvaA, svzA, satyam, purushaA. See Uhya- 
gana III, 2, 10, in Satyavrata Samsbramfs edition of the S&ma- 
veda Sarahitl 

13. 'Bharu«<fe is the name of certain Samans, twenty-one in 
number, which begin with the words, yat te knshwaA jakuna 
(Rig-veda X, 16, 6). They are contained in the Arawyagana.' 
(Nand.) The reading of the last word is doubtful. At all events, 
the verse quoted by Nand. does not occur in the ArawyagSna. It 
may be that the Samans called Ekavi»uatyanugana are meant, 
which are found in that work, though they do not contain the 
verse referred to. 

14. Sama-veda I, 147. 

15. Arawyaka Sawzhita IV, 33, 34, in Goldschmidt's edition, = 
Rig-veda X, 90, 1, 4. 



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1 86 visiiivu. LVI, 16. 

two Samans called Purushavrata ; 1 6. The Ablinga ; 
17. The Barhaspatya; 18. The Gosukta ; 19. The 
Asvasukta; 20. The two Samans called A'andra- 
sukta; 21. The .Satarudriya ; 22. The Athar- 
vaiiras ; 23. The Trisupar»a ; 24. The Mahi- 
vrata ; 25. The Narayawtya ; 26. And the Puru- 
shasukta ; 

27. The three A^yadohas 1 , the Rathantara 2 , the 
Agnivrata 3 , the Vamadevya *, and the Brzhatsa- 
man 5 , properly chanted, purify man from sin; and 
if he wishes he may obtain through them recol- 
lection of his existence in a former life. 

LVI I. 

1. Now 1 (the following persons) must be avoided: 

16. S&ma-veda II, 1187. 17. Sama-veda, I, 91. 

1 8. Sama-veda I, 122. 

19. The same text as in the preceding Sutra. 

20. Sama-veda I, 350. Nand. infers from a passage of VasishMa 
(XXVIII, 12) that ka. refers to Sama-veda II, 812, and 1, 153. 

21. Kanaka XVII, 11-16, &c. 

22. ' The text beginning with the words, brahma devana»» 
prathama^ sambabhuva, " Brahman rose first among the gods." ' 
(Nand.) The Atharvarira Upanishad has the words, very near 
the beginning, aham ekaA prathamam asit. See the Calcutta 
edition. 

23. Taitt. Ara«y. X, 48-50. 24. Sama-veda I, 91. 

25. Taitt. Ara«y. X passim. 

26. Rig-vedaX, 90, 1. Nand. infers from a passage of VasishMa 
(XXVIII, 13) that ia. refers to Rig-veda X, 71, and I, 90, 6-8. 

27. ] Sama-veda I, 67. — 'Sama-veda I, 233. — "Sa^na-veda I, 
27. — * Sama-veda I, 169. — s SSma-veda I, 234. 

LVII. 1, 2. M. II, 39; Y. I, 38.-3. M. XI, 182-185; Y.III, 
295 ; Apast. I, 10, 28, 6-8 ; Gaut. XX, 1. — 4. Apast. I, 1, 2, 5. — 
6, 7. M. IV, 186. — 8. M. IV, 190. — 9. M. IV, 186; Y. I, 213. 
— 10. M. IV, 247, 250; Y. I, 214; Apast. I, 6, 18, 1 ; I, 6, 19, 
11; Gaut. XVII, 3. — 11, 12. M. IV, 248, 249; Apast. I, 6, 19, 



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LV1I, io. PENANCES. 1 87 

2. Vratyas (i. e. those for whom the ceremony of 
initiation has not been performed) ; 

3. Outcasts ; 

4. Descendants within the third degree 1 of an 
outcast mother or father, if they (or their outcast 
ancestors) have not been purified (by a penance). 

5. (As a rule) the food of all such persons must 
not be eaten, nor gifts be accepted from them \ 

6. He must avoid accepting repeated gifts from 
those whose presents must not be accepted 1 . 

7. By accepting such gifts, Brahmawas lose their 
divine lustre. 

8. And he who, not knowing the law regarding 
acceptance of gifts, accepts (illicit) gifts, sinks to hell 
together with the giver. 

9. He who, being worthy to receive gifts, does 
not accept them, obtains that world which is 
destined for the liberal-minded (after death). 

10. Firewood, water, roots, fruits, protection, 
meat, honey, a bed, a seat, a house, flowers, sour 

14. — 13. M. IV, 251 ; Y. I, 216 ; Gaut. XVII, 4.— 14. M. IV, 
213; Y. I, 215. — 15, 16. M. IV, 252, 253.— 16. Y. I, 166; 
Gaut. XVII, 6. 

1. ''There are two classes of sinners, the repentant and the 
unrepenting. The penances to be performed by the former having 
been enumerated, he goes on in the present chapter to state that 
the latter must be avoided.' (Nand.) 

3. See XXXV, 1-5. 

4. ] Nand. refers the term ' in the third degree ' to the three 
ascendants of the parents. The same infers from a passage of 
Gautama (XX, 1) that the particle £a is used in order to include 
a murderer of a king also. 

5. * Nand. infers from another text of Gautama (XX, 8) that it 
is also forbidden to converse with them. 

6. ' ' It is no sin then, in one who is in distress, to accept a 
present once from them.' (Nand.) See 14. 



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1 88 VISHATU. LVII, II. 

milk, and vegetables he must not disdain to accept 
when they are offered to him. 

1 1. Even if an offender (but not a mortal sinner) 
has beckoned and offered alms to him, which had 
been brought previously for the purpose, the lord 
of creatures has declared that they may be accepted 
from him. 

12. Neither will the manes eat (his funeral obla- 
tions offered to them) for fifteen years, nor will the 
fire convey his burnt-offerings (to the gods) if he 
rejects such alms. 

13. If he wishes to provide for his (parents or 
other) Gurus or for (his wife or other) such persons 
as he is bound to maintain, or if he wants to worship 
the manes or the gods, he may accept gifts from 
any one ; but he must not satisfy himself with 
them. 

14. But even in those cases, and though he be 
worthy to receive presents, let him not accept them 
from a dissolute woman, from a eunuch, from an 
outcast, or from an enemy. 

1 5. And if his parents are dead, or if he is living 
apart from them in a house of his own, he must 
never, while seeking to obtain food for himself, 
accept alms from any other persons but those who 
are of respectable descent (and belong to a twice- 
born caste). 

16. One who ploughs the ground for half the 
crop (and gives the other half to the king or a 
private person, who is the owner), a friend of the 
family, a (house-)slave, a herdsman, a barber, and 

11. 'The use of the particle fa implies that Ku^a grass &c. is 
likewise intended, as Ya^-flavalkya (I, 214) says.' (Nand.) 

16. The reason of this rule, according to Nand., lies in this, that 



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LVIII, 9. DUTIES OF A HOUSEHOLDER. 1 89 

one who announces himself (with the words ' I am 
your slave ') : the food of all such may be eaten, 
although they are .Sudras. 

LVIII. 

1. The property of householders is of three 
kinds : 

2. White, mottled, and black. 

3. By those obsequies which a man performs 
with white property, he causes (his departed an- 
cestor) to be born again as a god. 

4. By performing them with mottled property, he 
causes him to be born as a man. 

5. By performing them with black property, he 
causes him to be born as an animal. 

6. What has been acquired by the mode of liveli- 
hood of their own caste, by members of any caste, is 
called 'white.' 

7. What has been acquired by the mode of liveli- 
hood of the caste next below in order to their own, 
is called ' mottled.' 

8. What has been acquired by the mode of liveli- 
hood of a caste by two or more degrees lower than 
their own, is called ' black.' 

9. What has been inherited, friendly gifts, and 

all the castes mentioned in this Sutra are not properly Sudras, but 
the offspring of unions between parents of a different caste, herds- 
men being, according to ParzLrara, the offspring of a Kshatriya with 
a .Sudra damsel, &c. The same considers the use of the particle 
£a to imply that potters are also intended. See Gaut. XVII, 6. 
LVIII. r, 2. Narada 3, 46. — 9-12. Ndrada 3, 53, 47-49, 5*- 
1. As the obligations of a householder, which will be discussed 
further on (in LIX), cannot be fulfilled without a certain amount 
of wealth, he discusses in the present chapter the origin of wealth. 
(Nand.) 



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190 vismvu. lviii, 10. 

the dowry of a wife, that is called white property, 
for members of any caste indiscriminately. 

10. What has been acquired as a bribe, as a fee 
(for crossing a river and the like, or for a bride, 
&c), or by the sale of forbidden articles (such as 
lac, or salt), or as a return for a benefit conferred, 
is denoted ' mottled wealth.' 

ii. What has been acquired by servile attend- 
ance 1 , by gambling, by thieving, by begging, by 
deceit (as if a man says that he wants a present for 
another and takes it himself, or by forging gold or 
other metals), by robbery, or by fraud (as if a man 
shows one thing to a purchaser and delivers another 
to him instead), is called ' black property.' 

12. Whatever a man may do (in this world) with 
anything (he has, whether white, mottled, or black 
property) he will get his reward accordingly ; both 
in the next world and in this. 

LIX. 

i. A householder must perform the Pakaya^fias 1 

'ii. 1 Nand. interprets the term pawika by ' moving a chowrie to 
and fro before one's master, while standing by his side.' 

LIX. i. M. IV, 67 ; Gaut. V, 7-9. — 1, 2. M. IV, 25 ; Y. I, 97. — 
3, 4. ksv. I, 9; I, 10 ; Gobh. I, 3, 5-9; Par. I, 9; I, 12 ; .Safikh. 
I, 3. — 2, 4-9. Gaut. VIII, 19, 20. — 4-9. M. IV, 23, 26 ; XI, 7, 8 ; 
Y. I, 124, 125. — 5-7. ksv. I, 11 ; Gobh. Ill, 8; Par. Ill, 1 ; 
HI, 8 ; Saftkh. Ill, 8. — 10. M. XI, 27 ; Y. I, 126. — 11. M. XI, 
24; Y. I, 127. — 12. M. XI, 25; Y. 1, 127. — 13. M. Ill, 84, 90, 
&c. (see below, LXVII). — 14, 15, 18. See the references given 
below (ad LXVII).— 19, 20. M. Ill, 68, 69. — 21-25. M.III, 
70; Y. I, 102; Apast. I, 4, 12, 16; I, 4, 13, 1; Gaut. V, 3, 9; 
ksv. Ill, 1, 1-3; Par. II, 9, 1. — 26. M.III, 72. — 27-30. M.III, 
77, 78, 80, 81. 

1 . ' The term Pakaya^Ba is used in a more restricted sense here 
than above (LV, 20). Nand. interprets it by ' Vairvadeva, Sthi- 



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LIX, 6. DUTIES OF A HOUSEHOLDER. igi 

(small or domestic offerings) in the fire kindled at 
the time of marriage 2 . 

2. He must offer the Agnihotra (or daily obla- 
tions of clarified butter) every morning and evening 
(in the Treta fires). 

3. He must offer burnt-oblations to the gods (in 
case the Agnihotra cannot be performed). 

4. Let him offer the two Danapuraamasas on 
the days of conjunction and opposition of the sun 
and moon. 

5. Once in each half of the year, (at the two 
solstices, let him offer) the Pambandha (animal 
sacrifice). 

6. In autumn and summer let him offer the 
Agrayawa (oblation of first-fruits) ; 

lipaka, Sravaw&karman, and similar sacrifices,' i. e. all the sacrifices 
which have to be performed in the one household fire, as opposed 
to those for which a TretS or triad of sacred fires is required (see 
Stenzler, note on Asv. I, 1, 2). Gautama (VIII, 18) enumerates 
seven P&kaya^fias, among which, however, the Vawvadeva is not 
included. The Vawvadeva is described in LXVII. Regarding 
the other Pakayag-flas, see the Gnhya-sutras. — 2 ' Or in the fire 
kindled at the division of the family estate, or in the fire kindled 
on his becoming master of the house.' (Nand.) See ^ihkh. I, 

i> 3-5- 

2. The three Treta fires have been enumerated above (XXXI, 8). 
Regarding the Agnihotra and the sacrifices mentioned in 4-8, see 
Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 328-337, 343"349. 352~39 6 - 

4. ' One who has performed the ceremony of Agny&dh&na 
(kindling the sacred fires) must perform these two offerings in 
the Tret£ fires, one who has not done so, in the household or 
nuptial fire.' (Nand.) This remark applies equally to the sacri- 
fices mentioned in 5-7. 

6. 'If the Agraya«a is offered in the household fire, it must 
consist of a Sthiltpaka (cooked offering of grain).' (Nand.) See 
the Gfrhya-sutras above cited. Nand. further explains that in 
autumn the first-fruits of rice, and in summer the firstlings of 



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I9 2 VISHiVU. LIX, 7. 

7. Or when rice and barley are ripening (in 
winter and spring). 

8. He who has a sufficient supply of food for 
more than three years (shall perform the Soma- 
sacrifice) \ 

9. (He shall perform) the Soma-sacrifice once a 
year (in spring). 

10. If he has not wealth (sufficient to defray the 
expenses of the Pasubandha, Soma, A'aturmasya, 
and other .Srauta sacrifices), he shall perform the 
Ish/i VaLrvanart. 

11. Let him not make an offering of food ob- 
tained as alms from a 6"udra. 

12. If he has begged articles for a sacrifice (and 
obtained them), let him employ them all for that 
purpose (and never for himself). 

1 3. Every evening and morning let him offer up 
the Vabvadeva ; 

14. And 1 let him give alms to an ascetic (after- 
wards). 

15. For giving alms and showing due honour to 
the recipient (by pouring water on his hands both 
before and afterwards) he obtains the same reward 
as for giving a cow. 

barley, or, according to Apastamba, of Vercuyava, have to be 
offered, and he infers from another text of the same author that 
the particle ka. here refers to an oblation of .SyamiUka grain, which 
has to be offered in the rainy season. The two passages in question 
are not found in Apastamba's Dharma-sutra, but Weber, loc. cit., 
quotes them from K&tyayana. 

8. x According to Nand., the Soma-sacrifices here referred to are 
of the kSmya species (offered in order to obtain the gratification 
of a special desire). 

14. * Nand. infers from the use of the particle ka., and from a 
text of Parlrara, that an injunction to give alms to a student is also 
intended here. 



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LIX, 26. DUTIES OF A HOUSEHOLDER. 1 93 

16. If there is no ascetic (or other person worthy 
to receive alms), he must give a mouthful to cows ; 

17. Or he must cast it into fire. 

18. If there is food in the house, he must not 
reject a mendicant, (who arrives) after he has taken 
his meal himself. 

19. A householder has five places where animals 
are liable to be destroyed : his wooden mortar, his 
slab to grind wheat or condiments upon, his fire- 
place, his water-pot, and his broom. 

20. For the sake of expiating offences committed 
(by ignorantly destroying life) in those places, he 
must perform the (five) sacrifices addressed to the 
Veda, to the gods, to all created beings (or ' to the 
goblins'), to the manes, and to men. 

21. Privately reciting (and teaching) the Veda is 
the sacrifice addressed to the Veda. 

22. The regular burnt-oblation (VaLrvadeva) is the 
sacrifice addressed to the gods. 

23. The PitWtarpana (refreshing the manes with 
food and water) is the sacrifice addressed to the 
manes. 

24. The Bali-offering is the sacrifice addressed to 
all creatures (or ' to the goblins '), 

25. The sacrifice addressed to men consists in 
honouring a guest. 

26. He who does not give their share to these 
five, the gods, his guests, (his wife and children and 
others,) whom he is bound to maintain, his manes, 
and himself, is not alive, though he breathes. 

18. 'The expression, "if there is food in the house," indi- 
cates that he is not bound to cook a fresh meal for his guest.' 
(Nand.) 

[7] O 



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194 viSHjvu. Lix, 27. 

27. These (three), the student, the hermit, and 
the ascetic, derive their existence from the order of 
householders ; therefore must a householder not 
treat them with disdain, when they have arrived (at 
his house at the proper time for begging alms). 

28. The householder offers sacrifices, the house- 
holder practises austerities, the householder distri- 
butes gifts ; therefore is the order of householders 
the first of all. 

29. The ^'shis \ the manes, the gods, all crea- 
tures (dogs, &c), and guests beg householders for 
support ; therefore is the order of householders the 
best of all. 

30. If a householder is intent upon pursuing the 
three objects of life (virtue, love, and wealth), upon 
constantly distributing presents of food, upon wor- 
shipping the gods, upon honouring the Brahma«as, 
upon discharging his duty of privately reciting 
(and teaching) the Veda, and upon refreshing the 
manes (with oblations of balls of rice, water, and 
the like), he will attain the world of Indra. 

LX. 

1. In (the last watch of the night, which is called) 

27. Nand. refers the term bhikshu, which has been rendered by 
' ascetic,' i. e. a member of the fourth order, to the six sorts of 
beggars enumerated by Paricara. But as the first three orders are 
mentioned in this .Sloka, it is certainly more natural to translate the 
term as has been done above. 

29. ' Nand. thinks that hermits or members of the third order 
are meant by this term. But it seems preferable to refer it to the 
JZishi authors of the Veda, to whom the first of the five sacrifices, 
the study of the Veda, is more immediately addressed. See Apast. 
I, 4, 13, 1 ; Gaut. V, 3. 

LX. 1. M.IV,92; Y.I, 115.-1, 2. M. IV, 50; Y. 1, 16;. 



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LX, 18. DUTIES OF A HOUSEHOLDER. 1 95 

the hour sacred to Brahman, let him rise and void 
his excrements. 

2. By night (let him void them) facing the south, 
by day and during either twilight (let him void 
them) facing the north. 

3. (He must) not (void them) on earth which has 
not been previously covered (with grass and the 
like); 

4. Nor on a ploughed field ; 

5. Nor in the shade of a tree (fit to be used for 
sacrifices) ; 

6. Nor on barren soil ; 7. Nor on a spot 
abounding in fresh grass ; 8. Nor where there are 
worms or insects; 9. Nor in a ditch (or hole, or 
upon the roots of a tree); 10. Nor on an ant-hill; 

11. Nor on a path; 12. Nor on a public road; 
13. Nor in a place previously defiled by another 
person; 14. Nor in a garden; 15. Nor in the 
vicinity of a garden or of (a reservoir of) water ; 
16. Nor on ashes; 17. Nor on coal; 18. Nor on 

I, 11, 31, 1 ; Gaut. IX, 4*-43- — 3- M - A IV ' 49; A P ast *» "> 3°. 
15; Gaut. IX, 38. — 4. M. IV, 46; Apast. I, 11, 30, 18. — 5. 
Apast. loc. cit. 16 ; Gaut. IX, 40. — 8-10. M. IV, 46, 47. — 11, 

12. M. IV, 45 ; Apast loc. cit. 18; Gaut. IX, 40. — 11, 19. Y. I, 
134- — 15» "• M. IV, 46, 56; Y. I, 134, 137; Apast. loc. cit. 
18.— i(>, 18. M. IV, 45; Gaut. IX, 40. — 22. M. IV, 48; Y. I, 
134; Apast. 20. — 23-26. M. IV, 49; V, 136, 137. — 23. Apast 
15; Gaut. IX, 37.-24. Y. I, 17. Chapters LX-LXIV treat of 
the daily duties of a householder. (Nand.) 

6. Nand. infers from the use of the particle fa, that the following 
places (mentioned by Manu IV, 46, according to Nand.'s reading, 
which differs from the traditional one) are also included in this 
prohibition : a river, a mountain, the ruins of a temple, and the 
top of a mountain. 

17. Nand. infers from the use of the particle fa, and from a text 
of Yama, that chaff and potsherds are also intended here. 

O 2 



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196 VISHArtJ. LX, 19. 

cow-dung; 19. Nor in a fold for cattle; 20. Nor 
in the air; 21. Nor in water; 

22. Nor facing the wind, or fire, or the moon, or 
the sun, or a woman, or a (father or other) Guru, or 
a Brahmawa; 

23. Nor without having enveloped his head ; 

24. Having cleaned his hindparts with a clod of 
earth, or with a brick, (or with wood or grass,) and 
seizing his organ (with his left, after having re- 
moved his garment), he must rise and clean himself 
with water and earth (previously) fetched for the 
purpose, so as to remove the smell and the filth. 

25. The organ must once be cleaned with earth, 
the hindparts three times, the one hand (the left) ten 
times, both hands together seven times, and both 
feet together three times. 

26. Such is the purification ordained for house- 
holders ; it is double for students ; treble for her- 
mits ; and quadruple for ascetics. 

LXI. 

1. A householder must not use 1 Palasa-wood for 
cleaning his teeth. 

2. Nor (must he use the twigs of) the -Sleshman- 

20. ' I. e. in an apartment on the roof or in any other such place.' 
(Nand.) 
LXI. 1. Apast. I, 11, 33, 9; Gaut. IX, 44. 

1. * Literally ' eat,' adyat. In 16 and 17 the synonymous verbs 
bhaksh and as are used. Nevertheless it can hardly be doubted 
that both of the two modes of cleaning the teeth, which appear 
to have been customary, are indicated in this chapter: the one 
consisting in brushing them with little sticks or twigs provided with 
a brush (see 16), the other in chewing twigs. Unfortunately the 
reading of Nand.'s gloss on the term sakur^a in 16 is uncertain. 

2. Regarding the VibhJtaka tree, see Dr. Btthler's Kashmir 
Report, p. 8. 



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LXI, 16. DUTIES OF A HOUSEHOLDER. 1 97 

taka (or Se\u) plant, nor of the soap plant, nor of the 
Vibhitaka (or Kalidruma) tree, nor of the Dhava 
plant, nor of the Dhamani tree (for that purpose). 

3. Nor (the twigs of) the Bandhuka (or Bandhu- 
^ivaka) plant, nor of the Nirgundi shrub, nor of the 
•Slgru, Tilva, and Tinduka trees. 

4. Nor (the twigs of) the Kovidira (Yugapat- 
traka), 6ami, Pilu (Gudaphala), Pippala (holy fig- 
tree), Inguda, or Guggula trees; 

5. Nor (the twigs of) the Paribhidraka (.Sakra- 
padapa), or tamarind, or Moiaka, or Semul trees, 
nor those of the hemp plant; 

6. Nor sweet plants (such as liquorice sticks) ; 

7. Nor sour plants (such as Amlikas) ; 

8. Nor twigs that have withered on the stem ; 

9. Nor perforated (or otherwise faulty) wood ; 

10. Nor stinking wood ; 

11. Nor smooth wood ; 

12. He must not (use the sticks) facing the south 
or west. 

13. He must use them facing the north or east ; 

14. He may use (the twigs of) the banyan or 
A^ana trees, or of the Arka plant, or of the Kha- 
dira, or Karan^a, or Badara (jujube), or .Sal, or Nimb 
trees, or of the Arimeda shrub, or of the Apa- 
marga or Malati plants, or of the Kakubha or 
Bel trees; 

15. Or of the Kashaya tree, or of the Tikta or 
Ka/uka plants. 

16. Before sunrise let him silently clean his teeth 
with a stick, which must be as thick as the top of 
the little finger, provided with one end that may 
be chewed (or ' with a brush '), and twelve Angulas 
long. 



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1 98 VISHJVU. LXI, 17. 

1 7. Having washed 1 and used the stick for 
cleaning the teeth, he must take care to leave it 
in a clean place ; he must never make use of it on 
the day of new moon (or on the day of full moon). 

LXII. 

1. The part at the root of the little finger of a twice- 
born man is called the Tlrtha sacred to Pra^apati. 

2. The part at the root of the thumb is called the 
Tirtha sacred to Brahman. 

3. The part at the tops of the fingers is called 
the Ttrtha sacred to the gods. 

4. The part at the root of the forefinger is called 
the Tlrtha sacred to the manes. 

5. Let him sip water, which has not been put to 
the fire and is free from foam (and bubbles), which 
has not been poured out by a .Sudra (or other unini- 
tiated person), or by a man who has one hand only, 
and which has no saline flavour * ; and (let him sip 
it) in a clean place, duly seated, placing (his right 
hand) between his knees, facing the east or the 
north (or the north-east), attentively regarding the 
water, and in a cheerful mood. 

6. Let him sip water thrice with the Ttrtha sacred 

17. 'It must be washed both before and after using it. (Nand.) 

LXII. 1-4. M. II, 59; Y. I, 19.-5-8. M. II, 60, 61 ; Y. I, 
20; Apast. I, 5, 16, 1-7 ; Gaut. I, 36. — 9. M. II, 62 ; Y. I, 21. 

1. Nand. observes that this chapter and the preceding one 
follow in order upon Chapter LX, because the purificatory rite 
described at the end of the latter is immediately followed by 
the A£amana (sipping of water), and then by the Dantadh&vana 
(cleaning the teeth), both of which acts, however, have to be 
performed on other occasions also, as after a meal, &c. 

5. x The term ksMra, 'saline flavour,' includes bad or spoiled 
water of any kind, according to Nand. 



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LXIII, 12. DUTIES OF A HOUSEHOLDER. 199 

to Brahman (or with the Tirthas sacred to the gods 
and to Pra^apati respectively). 

7. Let him wipe his lips twice (with the root of 
his thumb). 

8. Let him touch the cavities (above his navel) 1 , 
his head, and his breast with water. 

9. By water which reaches either their heart, or 
their throat, or their palate respectively, members of 
the three twice-born castes are purified each in his 
turn ; a woman and a 6"udra are purified by water 
which has once touched their palate. 

LXIII. 

1. In order to obtain wealth and for the sake of 
security he shall apply to a lord. 

2. He must not travel alone ; 3. Nor with 
wicked companions ; 4. Nor with .Sudras ; 5. Nor 
with enemies ; 6. Nor too early in the morning ; 
7. Nor too late in the evening ; 8. Nor in the 
twilight; [9. Nor at noon; 10. Nor near water ;] 

1 1. Nor in too great a hurry ; 1 2. Nor at night ; 

8. 'See XXIII, 51. 

LXIII. 1. M. IV, 33 ; Gaut. IX, 63. — 2-9. M. IV, 140, 55, 60. 
— 13-17, 19, 21. M. IV, 67, 131, 57. — 24, 25. M. IV, 78; Y. I, 
139; Apast. II, 8, 20, 11; Gaut. IX, 15. — 26-28. «S"ankh. IV, 12, 
15 ; M. IV, 39 ; Y. I, 133 ; Gaut. IX, 66. — 40. M. IV, 130. — 
41. M. IV, 132. — 42. M. IV, 38; Gaut. IX, 52.-43. M. IV, 
38; Gobh. Ill, 5, 11. — 46. Asv. Ill, 9, 6; M. IV, 77; Y. 1, 139; 
Apast. I, 11, 32, 26; Gaut. IX, 32. — 47. Apast. I, 11, 32, 27; 
Gaut. IX, 33.-49- Gobh. Ill, 5, 13; Par II, 7, 6; Sihkh. IV, 

12, 28.— 51. M. IV, 138, 139; Y. I, 117 ; Apast. II, 5, 11, 5-7 ; 
Gaut. VI, 24, 25. 

1. 'A lord' (fcrvara) means a king or another rich man, in his 
own country, or in another country. (Nand.) See also Dr. Bflhler's 
note on Gaut. IX, 63, where the same Sutra occurs. » 

9, 10. Sutras 9 and 10 are wanting in Dr. Buhler's MS. 



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200 VISHJVU. LXIII, 13. 

13. Nor (let him travel) without cessation with 
(horses or other) beasts of draught that are quite 
young, diseased, or (otherwise) afflicted ; 

14. Nor with such as are deficient in limb; 15. 
Nor with weak ones ; 16. Nor with young bulls ; 
1 7. Nor with untrained animals. 

18. He must not appease his hunger and allay 
his thirst without having first given grass and water 
to the animals. 

19. He must not stop at a place where four ways 
meet ; 20. Nor at night at the root of a tree ; 
21. Nor in an empty house; 22. Nor upon a 
meadow; 23. Nor in a stable; 

24. Nor (must he stand) on hair, on the husks of 
grain, on potsherds, on bones, on ashes, or coal ; 

25. Nor on seeds of the cotton plant. 

26. When he passes by a place where four ways 
meet, let him turn his right side towards it. 

27. And let him do the same in passing by the 
image of a deity ; 

28. And in passing by well-known large trees. 

29. After having seen a fire, or a Brahmawa (with 
his turban on), or a public prostitute, or a jar filled 
(with water), or a looking-glass, or an umbrella, or a 
flag, or a banner 1 , or a BM tree, or a lid (or platter), 
or a palace built in the shape of a certain diagram 
(or in the form of a quadrangle without a western 
gate) 2 ; 



29. * ' More precisely the term patakl signifies " a staff, by 
which a piece of cloth torn in the middle is fastened." ' (Nand.) — 
2 ' The particle fa is added at the end of this enumeration in order 
to include in it perfumes, lamps, and other objects mentioned in a 
SnWti.' (Nand.) 



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LXIII, 35- DUTIES OF A HOUSEHOLDER. 201 

30. Or a fan, or a chowrie, or a horse, or an 
elephant, or a goat, or a cow (having a calf), or sour 
milk, or milk, or honey, or white mustard ; 

31. Or a lute, or sandal-wood, or a weapon, or 
fresh cow-dung, or fruit, or a flower, or a fresh pot- 
herb, or Goro/£ana, or blades of Durva grass ; 

32. Or a turban, or ornaments, or jewels, or gold, 
or silver, or clothes, or a seat, or a vehicle, or (raw) 
meat ; 

33. Or a golden vase, or cultivated land which is 
being carried away (by a stream), or a single (bull 
or other) piece of cattle tied with a rope, or an 
unmarried damsel (clad in white), or a (boiled) fish, 
(let him turn his right side towards them and) 
go on. 

34. Having seen one intoxicated, or insane, or 
deformed, he must turn back ; 

35. (Also, if he has seen) one who has vomited, 
or one who has been purged, or one who has had 
his head shorn, or one who wears all his hair tied in 
one knot, or a dwarf; 



30. ' The particle in, which is added at the end of this Sutra, 
refers to a king, his ministers, his domestic priest, &c, as indi- 
cated in a Sm/v'ti passage.' (Nand.) 

31. Nand. infers from another Smnti passage that ka. here refers 
to a crow and to a .Sttdra or workman with his tools. 

32. Nand. here refers ka. to shells and other objects mentioned 
in a Smn'ti. 

33. Nand. here refers ia. to a dead body and other objects enu- 
merated in a Smnti. 

34. The enumeration of auspicious objects in Sutras 29-33 is 
followed by an enumeration of inauspicious objects in Sutras 34-38. 
(Nand.) 

35. The particle ia. refers to enemies, outcasts, and others men- 
tioned in a Smr/'ti. (Nand.) 



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202 VISHJVU. LXIII, 36. 

36. Or (if he has seen) one wearing a dress (of a 
reddish-yellow colour) dyed with Kashaya 1 , or an 
ascetic, or one smeared 2 (with ashes) 3 ; 

37. Or (if he has seen) oil, or sugar, or dry cow- 
dung, or fire-wood, or grass (other than Kusa or 
Durva grass), or PalcLra (and other leaves, other 
than betel leaves), ashes, or coal 1 ; 

38. Or (if he has seen) salt, or a eunuch, or (the 
spirituous liquor called) Asava, or an impotent man, 
or cotton cloth, or a rope, or an iron chain for the 
feet, or a person with dishevelled hair. 

39. (If he sees), while about to begin a journey, a 
lute, or sandal-wood, or fresh pot-herbs, or a turban, 
or an ornament, or an unmarried damsel, he must 
praise them ?. 

36. 1 Nand. refers kSsh&yin,' wearing a dress dyed with Kash&ya,' 
to ' persons who wear the marks of an order to which they do not 
belong.' But this interpretation is evidently wrong. Among the 
sects that wear a dress dyed with Kash&ya, Buddhists are the most 
prominent, but it must not be overlooked that there are other 
important sects also, as e.g. the SvaminirSyawfs of the present 
day, who wear such dresses. — 2 The term malina, ' smeared,' no 
doubt refers to a Saiva. sect. Nand. interprets it by ' Kapalikas 
and the like ;' but more probably the Plrupatas are meant. — s The 
particle ka. further refers to the humpbacked, deaf, and blind, to 
barren women, and to naked and hungry persons, as stated in a 
Smr/ti. (Nand.) 

37. ' Nand. refers the particle fa. in this Sutra to hares, naked 
mendicants, snakes, iguanas, lizards, skins, and other inauspicious 
objects and persons enumerated in a Smri'ti. 

38. Nand. argues from a passage of Nirada (not found in his 
Institutes), that the particle fa here refers to persons mounted upon 
an ass, camel, or buffalo, and others. 

39. 1 Nand. mentions two explanations of this Sutra : 1. he must 
eulogise the above objects or persons if he sees them ; 2. he must 
gladden persons, who have those objects or persons with them, 
with presents and the like. 



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LXIII,5I. DUTIES OF A HOUSEHOLDER. 203 

40. He must not (knowingly) step on (or step 
over, or stand on) the shade of the image of a deity, 
of a (learned) Brahmawa, of a spiritual teacher, of a 
brown (bull or other animal), or of one by whom 
the initiatory ceremony at a Soma-sacrifice has been 
performed. 

41. Nor (must he step) on anything spat out or 
vomited, nor on blood, nor on faeces or urine, nor 
on water used for ablutions. 

42. He must not step over a rope to which a calf 
(or a cow) is tied. 

43. He must not walk quickly in the rain. 

44. He must not cross a river without need ; 

45. Nor without having previously offered an 
oblation of water to the gods and to the manes ; 

46. Nor (swimming) with his arms ; 

47. Nor in a leaky vessel. 

48. He must not stand on the bank (of a river). 

49. He must not gaze into a pool. 

50. He must not cross it (by swimming through 
it, or in any other way). 

51. Way must be made for an aged man, for one 
carrying a burden, for a king, for a Snataka (of any 
of the three kinds '), for a woman, for a sick person, 
for a bridegroom, and for one riding in a carriage. 
Among those, should they all meet, a king must be 



41. According to Nand., the particle v£, ' or,' is added at the end 
of this Sutra, in order to include an officiating priest and others 
mentioned by YSg-fiavalkya I, 152. 

51. 'The SnStaka (see XXVIII, 42, note) is of three kinds: i.the 
Vidytsnitaka, who has studied theVedas; 2. the Vratasn&taka, 
who has performed the Vratas or vowed observances of a student ; 
3. the Ubhayasn&taka, who has completed both the Vedas and the 
Vratas. (Nand.) See the Gnhya-sutras. 



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204 VISHiVU. LXIV, i. 

honoured by the rest (excepting the Snataka) ; but 
the king himself must show honour to a Snataka. 

LXIV. 

i. He must not bathe in another man's pool ; 

2. In cases of distress (if there is no other water 
at hand) he may bathe (in another man's pool), after 
having offered up five (or seven, or four) lumps of 
clay and (three jars with) water. 

3. (He must not bathe) during an indigestion ; 

4. Nor while he is afflicted (with a fever or other 
illness) ; 

5. Nor without his clothes ; 6. Nor at night ; 
7. Unless it be during an eclipse ; 8. Nor in the 
twilight. 

9. He must bathe early in the morning, when he 
beholds the east reddening with the rays of the 
(rising) sun. 

10. After having bathed, he must not shake his 
head (in order to remove the water from his hair) ; 

1 1 . And he must not dry his limbs (with his 
hand or with a cloth) ; 

12. Nor must he touch any oily substance. 

LXIV. 1. M. IV, 201. — 1, 2. Y. 1, 159. — 3, 4. M. IV, 1 29. — 
5. M. IV, 45 ; Gaut. IX, 61 ; ksv. Ill, 9, 6 ; Par. II, 7, 6 ; 5ankh. 
IV, 12, 31. — 6. M. IV, 129. — 12. M. IV, 83.— 13. 5ankh.IV, 
12, 32. — 15. Gaut. IX, 16. — 16. M. IV, 263 ; Y. I, 159. — 24. 
M. IV, 152 ; Y. I, 100.— 27. Y. I, 196. 

5. The term nagna, literally ' naked,' has to be taken in its 
widest sense here. According to Bhn'ga and Gobhila it includes, 
besides one wholly undressed, ' one without his upper garment, 
one who has dirty clothes on, one clad in lower garments of silk 
only, one who wears double clothing or even a greater number of 
clothes, one who wears a small piece of cloth over the pudenda 
only,' &c. (Nand.) See also M. IV, 129. 



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LXIV, 18. DUTIES OF A HOUSEHOLDER. 205 

13. He must not put on again the garment which 
he wore before, without its having been washed. 

14. After having bathed, he must cover his head 
with a turban 1 and put' on two garments 2 washed 
(by himself). 

1 5. He must not converse, (after having bathed,) 
with barbarians, low-caste persons, or outcasts. 

16. He must bathe in cascades, ponds dug by 
the gods, and lakes. 

17. Stagnant water is more pure (and purifies 
more effectually) than water taken out (of a well or 
the like) ; the water of a spring is more pure than 
that of a tank ; the water of a river is more pure 
than the former ; water collected by (Vasish^a or 
some other) devout sage x is even more pure ; but 
the water of the Ganges is the purest of all. 

18. After having removed the dirt by means of 
earth and water 1 , and after having dived under 
water and returned (to the bank of the river), he 
must address the bathing-place with the three Man- 
tras (beginning with the words), ' Ye waters are V 
with the four Mantras (beginning with the words), 

14. 'Ushwtsha, 'a turban,' here denotes a bandage used for 
drying the head, which is wrapped round the head and closely 
tied together. — * I. e. an upper and an under garment. (Nand.) 

16. The term devakhata, 'ponds dug by the gods,' refers to 
Pushkara and other holy bathing-places. (Nand.) See below 
LXXXV. 

17. "Nand. cites Vasish/4apra# and Vuvamitrapratf as instances 
of holy bathing-places of this description. 

18. 'Nand. refers this and the following Sutras to a midday bath, 
because a verse, which he quotes, forbids the use of earth (in order 
to clean one's self with it) in the morning bath. But it seems to 
follow from 35 and 42, that all the rules given in this chapter refer 
to that bath, which must be taken at sunrise every day. — a Rig- 



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2o6 VISHiVU. LXIV, 19. 

' The golden-coloured (waters) V and with (the one 
Mantra beginning with the words), ' Carry away (all) 
that, O ye waters V 

19. Then he must dive underwater and mutter 
the Aghamarsha«a three times ; 

20. Or (he must mutter three times the Mantra 
which begins with the words), ' That most exalted 
step of Vishmi ;' 

21. Or the Drupada Savitri (which begins with 
the words, ' Like one released from a post ') ; 

22. Or the Anuvaka (which begins with the 
words), ' They get their minds ready ; ' 

23. Or the Purushasukta. 

24. After having bathed, he must feed the gods 
and the manes, while standing in the water with his 
wet clothes on. 

25. If (being unable to remain in water after 
having bathed) he has changed his dress, (he must 
feed the gods and the manes,) after having crossed 
the bathing-place (and reached the bank). 

26. (But) he must not wring his bathing-dress 
till he has satisfied the gods and the manes. 

27. After having bathed 1 and sipped water, he 
must sip water (once more) according to the rule. 

28. He must offer (sixteen) flowers to Purusha, 

veda X, 9, 1-3, &c. — 'Taitt. Sawh. V, 6, 1, 1-2, &c. — 4 Rig- 
veda I, 23, 22, &c. 

20. Rig-veda I, 22, 20, &c. 

21. Taitt. Brahm. II, 4, 4, 9 ; 6, 6, 3 ; cf. Va^asan. Samh. XX, 
20; Atharva-veda VI, 115, 3. 

22. Rig-veda V, 81, &c. 

24. ' The use of the particle kz. indicates that he must anoint 
himself after having bathed.' (Nand.) 

27. 'This expression refers back to the whole proceeding described 
above, up to the wringing of the bathing-dress. (Nand.) 



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LXIV, 40. DUTIES OF A HOUSEHOLDER. 207 

while muttering the Purushasukta, one with each 
verse. 

29. Afterwards (he must offer) a libation of 
water. 

30. He must first offer one to the gods with the 
Tirtha sacred to the gods. 

31. Then he must offer another to the manes 
with the Tirtha sacred to the manes. 

32. In offering the latter he must first of all feed 
(the manes of) his next of kin (such as his father, 
mother, maternal grandfather, uncles, brothers, &c.) 

33. After that {he must feed) his relatives (such 
as a sister's son, a father-in-law, a brother-in-law, 
&c.) and distant kinsmen (such as the sons of his 
father's sisters and of his mother's sisters). 

34. Then (he must feed) his (deceased) friends. 

35. According to the above rule he must bathe 
every day. 

36. After having bathed, he must mutter as 
many purifying Mantras as possible. 

37. And he must mutter the Gayatrl even more 
often (than other Mantras) ; 

38. And the Purushasukta. 

39. There is nothing more sublime than those 
two (prayers). 

40. One who has bathed is thereby entitled to 
perform the offerings to the Visvedevas and to the 
manes, to mutter sacred texts, and to exercise the 
duty of hospitality, as prescribed by law. 

30, 31. SeeLXII, 3, 4. 

37. 38- ' Or the meaning of these two Sutras is, that the G&yatrf 
and the Purushasukta always have to be muttered besides the 
other Mantras.' (Nand.) 

40. Nand. refers the term vidhinodite to a separate duty, that 



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208 VISHJVU. LXIV, 41. 

41. Distress and misfortune, bad dreams and evil 
thoughts are taken from him even who only sprinkles 
himself with water (no matter from where it comes) : 
that is the law. 

42. He who regularly takes the prescribed bath 
(every morning), does not experience the tortures of 
Yama's hell. By the regular bath criminals even 
obtain their absolution. 

LXV. 

1. Now then, after having duly bathed, and duly 
washed his hands and feet, and duly sipped water, 
he must worship Bhagavat Vasudeva (Vishwu), who 
is without beginning and end, before an idol or on 
the sacrificial ground. 

2. Having called up in his mind (Vishmi to life, 
with the Mantra) 1 , 'The two Awns possess life, may 
they (give you life),' and having invited (Vishwu) with 
the Anuvaka (beginning with the words), ' They get 
their minds ready V he must worship him with his 
knees, his hands, and his head 3 . 

of worshipping the gods ; the particle ka. to the propitiation of the 
planets by sacrifices and other such duties ; and the particle tath5. 
to optional acts, such as the gift of a cow to a Brahmana, and the 
like. But this is certainly a too extensive interpretation of the 
text. 

LXV, LXVI. These two chapters treat of the worship of 
Vishwu. (Nand.) 

LXV. 1. The fittest place for worshipping Vishmi is upon a 
•SSlagrama (ammonite) stone. (Nand.) 

2. l Kanaka XI, 7. The rendering of this Mantra is conjectural, 
as the reading is uncertain. Nand. states expressly that it is quoted 
from the Kanaka. — s See LXIV, 22. — s< The particle ia indicates 
that he must also worship Vish«u in his mind, and with his speech, 
by saying, ' Om, adoration to Bhagavat Vasudeva.' (Nand.) 



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LXV, 10. DUTIES OF A HOUSEHOLDER. 209 

3. With the three Mantras (beginning with the 
words), ' Ye waters are,' he must (fetch and) an- 
nounce the Arghya (or water for washing the 
hands). 

4. With the four Mantras (beginning with the 
words), ' The golden-coloured,' (he must fetch and 
announce) the water for washing the feet ; 

5. With (the one Mantra, beginning with the 
words), ' May the waters of the plain propitiate us,' 
the water which is to be sipped ; 

6. With (the one Mantra, beginning with the 
words), 'Carry away (all) that, O ye waters,' the 
water destined for the bath ; 

7. With (the four Mantras, beginning with the 
words, ' Proud) of the chariot, of the poles, the hero,' 
unguents and ornaments ; 

8. With (the one Mantra, beginning with the 
words), ' A youth, splendidly arrayed,' a garment ; 

9. With (the one Mantra, beginning with the 
word), ' Blooming,' a flower ; 

10. With (the one Mantra, beginning with the 

3, 4. See LXIV, 18. 

5. This Mantra is found Atharva-veda I, 6, 4 ; XIX, 2, 2 ; Taitt. 
Ara»y. VI, 4, 1. Nand. states that it is kaJAas&khtya, from the 
Sakha of the Ka/Aas ; but I have not found it in the Berlin MS. of 
the Kanaka, the only complete MS. in existence of that work. 

6. See LXIV, 18. 

7. This Mantra also belongs to the Ka/Aa school, according to 
Nand. It is not found in the MS. of the Kanaka, but it occurs in 
the Taitt. Brahm. II, 7, 7, 2. The above translation is in part 
according to Saya«a's Commentary on the Taitt. Brahm. 

8. Rig-veda HI, 8, 4, &c. 

9. Taitt. Sawh. IV, 2, 6, 1; Ka/>4. XVI, 13; Atharva-veda 
VIII, 7, 27. Nand. says that it is a Taittirlya Mantra. 

10. Ki/A. II, 7; V%as. Samh. I, 8 (cf. Mahtdhara's Commentary). 
Nand. says that it is a Taittirtya Ya^us. 

£7] P 



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2IO VISHiVU. LXV, ii. 

words), ' Thou art murderous (dhur), slay (dhurva) 
(the slayer),' incense (dhupa) ; 

ii. With (the one Mantra, beginning with the 
words), ' Thou art splendour and light,' a lamp ; 

12. With (the one Mantra, beginning with the 
words, ' I have praised) Dadhikravan,' a Madhu- 
parka (honey-mixture) ; 

13. With the eight Mantras (beginning with 
the word), ' Hirawyagarbha,' an offering of (other) 
eatables. 

14. A chowrie, a fan, a looking-glass 1 , an um- 
brella, a (palanquin or other) vehicle, and a (throne 
or other) seat, all these objects he must announce 
(and place before) the god (Vish#u), muttering the 
Gayatri (at the same time). 

15. After having thus worshipped him, he must 
mutter the Purushasukta. After that, he who 
wishes to obtain eternal bliss must make oblations 
of clarified butter, while reciting the same hymn. 

LXVI. 

1. He must not make an oblation to the gods or 
to the manes with water collected at night. 

2. He must not give any other fragrant sub- 
stance than sandal, or musk, or (fragrant) wood (of 
the odoriferous Devadaru tree), or camphor, or saf- 
fron, or the wood of the <9attphala tree ; 

3. Nor a garment dyed with indigo ; 

11. Va^as. Sarah. XXII, 1. Nand. states that this Mantra 
belongs to the .Stkha of the Ka/Aas ; but I have not met with it in 
the Kanaka. 

12. Rig-veda IV, 39, 6, &c. 

13. Rig-veda X, 121, 1-8 ; Ka7A. XL, 1, &c. 

14. * Thus the term matrS is interpreted by Nand. 



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LXVII, i. DUTIES OF A HOUSEHOLDER. 211 

4. Nor an ornament made of factitious jewels or 
gold; 

5. Nor (a flower) having a nasty odour ; 

6. Nor one that has no odour at all ; 

7. Nor one grown upon a thorny plant. 

8. But he may give even a flower grown upon a 
thorny plant, if it is white and sweet-smelling. 

9. He may give even a red flower, if it is saffron, 
or a water-flower (such as the red lotus). 

10. (He must) not (give) any animal substance 
(such as claws or horns) for the incense. 

11. (He must) not (give) anything but clarified 
butter or oil for the lamp. 

12. (He must) not (give) forbidden food at the 
offering of eatables; 

13. Nor the milk of goats or female buffalos, 
though it is lawful food (otherwise) ; 

14. Nor the flesh of five-toed animals, of fishes, 
and of boars. 

15. Fully prepared for the sacrifice and pure, he 
must announce (and offer up to Vish«u) all the obla- 
tions, with his mind fixed upon the deity, with a 
cheerful heart, and free from precipitation or anger. 

LXVII. 

1. After having swept the place around the 
(kitchen) fire, sprinkled it with water all around, 

9. The particle ka. indicates that fragrant oleander and the like 
is also permitted. (Nand.) 

13. See LI, 38. 

14. This prohibition refers to those species of five-toed animals, 
fish, and boars, whose flesh is not in general forbidden. (Nand.) 
See LI, 3, 6, 21. 

LXVII. 1-32. Ajv. I, 2; Gobh.I, 4; Par. 1, 12; II, 9; 5Snkh.II, 

P 2 



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212 VISHJVU. LXVII, 2. 

strewed (Kwa grass) all around, and sprinkled (the 
latter) with water all around, he must take out of 
all dishes the uppermost part and offer it : 

2. To Vasudeva, to Sankarsha»a, to Pradyumna, 
to Aniruddha, to Purusha, to Satya, to A^yuta, to 
Vasudeva. 

3. Afterwards (he must offer twelve burnt-obla- 
tions) to Agni, to Soma, to Mitra, to Varu»a, to 
Indra, to Indra and Agni united, to the VLrvedevas, to 
Pra^apati, to Anumati, to Dhanvantari, to Vastosh- 
pati, and to Agni Svish/akm (the god of the fire who 
causes the proper performance of the sacrifice). 

4. Then let him make a Bali-offering with that 
which has been left of the dishes. 

5. To (the serpent demons) Taksha and Upa- 
taksha, 

6. (Strewing the two Balis) on both sides of the 
fire, to the east of it (on the north-eastern side first, 
and on the south-eastern side afterwards). 

14; M. Ill, 84-94; Y. II, 103-108; Apast. II, 2, 3; II, 2, 4, 1-13; 
Gaut. V, 10-18. — 33-46. ksv. I, 24 ; Gobh. IV, 10; Par. II, 9, 
12-16; I, 3; <Sahkh. II, 15-17; M. Ill, 99, 100, 102, 103, 111- 
118 ; Y. I, 107-113 ; Apast. II, 2, 4, 11-20 ; II, 3 ; II, 4 ; Gaut. 
V, 21-45. Regarding the parallel passages of the Kanaka and 
Manava Gr*hya-sutras, see the Introduction. This chapter treats 
of the Vaisvadeva sacrifice. (Nand.) 

1. Nand. infers from a text of Saunaka, that the particle atha 
points to the recitation of the Purushasukta as an initiatory 
ceremony. 

2. Regarding this Sutra, see the Introduction. The oblations to 
be offered are eight in number, one for each invocation. 

3. Devapala, in his Commentary on the corresponding section 
of the Kanaka Gnhya-sutra, states that the deities to whom burnt- 
oblations are offered (Sutra 3) shall be invoked with the word 
svaha, 'hail!' and those for whom Bali-offerings are strewed upon 
the ground, with the word namaA, ' adoration.' 

6-8. These three Sutras have been translated in accordance 



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LXVII, 15. DUTIES OF A HOUSEHOLDER. 213 

7. (Then let him offer other seven Balis) to all 
(the seven Ish/akas or goddesses of the bricks of 
the altar, also to the east of the fire, while pro- 
nouncing the Mantras), ' Thy name is Amba ; thy 
name is Dula ; thy name is Nitatnl (Nitatnir) ; thy 
name is A!upimtka (and so on).' 

8. (He must offer four Balis with the Mantras), 
' O Nandin! ; O Subhaga ; O Sumahgali ; O Bha- 
drahkar!,' (placing the Balis) in the corners (begin- 
ning with the south-eastern corner and proceeding) 
towards the south. 

9. (He must place two Balis), addressed to .Sri 
Hira#yakert and to the trees, near the firm pillar 1 . 

10. (He must place two Balis), addressed to 
Dharma and Adharma and to Mrz'tyu, near the door. 

11. (He must place one Bali), addressed to Vanma, 
in the water-jar. 

12. (With the words, 'Adoration be) to Vishwu,' 
(he must place one Bali) in the mortar. 

1 3. (With the words, ' Adoration be) to the Ma- 
ruts,' (he must place one Bali) on the mill-stone. 

14. (In the apartment) on the roof (let him place 
two Balis) addressed to Vaiiravawa (Kubera) the 
king, and to all created beings. 

15. (With the words, 'Adoration be) to Indra 
and to Indra's ministers,' (he must place two Balis) 
in the eastern part (of the house). 

with Devapila's readings and his remarks on them. Nand. wrongly 
refers the four names mentioned in 7 to the four quarters of the 
globe. The Mantra quoted in 7 is found complete in the Kanaka, 
XL, 4, and, in a modified form, in the Taitt. Sawh. IV, 4, 5, 1. 

9. ' ' I. e. the pillar which supports the house.' (Nand.) It appears 
from an analogous passage of the Manava Gri'hya-sutra, that a 
pillar in the middle of the house is meant. 



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214 VISHJVU. LXVII, 16. 

1 6. (With the words, 'Adoration be) to Yama 
and to Yama's ministers/ (he must place two Balis) 
in the southern part. 

1 7. (With the words, ' Adoration be) to Varu»a 
and to Varu#a's ministers,' (he must place two Balis) 
in the western part. 

18. (With the words, 'Adoration be) to Soma 
and to Soma's ministers,' (let him place two Balis) 
in the northern part. 

1 9. (With the words, ' Adoration be) to Brahman 
and to Brahman's ministers,' (let him place two 
Balis) in the centre (of the house). 

20. (Let him throw) in the air (a Bali) addressed 
to Aka^a (the air). 

2 1 . (With the words, ' Adoration be) to the gob- 
lins roaming by day,' (let him place a Bali) on the 
sacrificial ground. 

22. (With the words, 'Adoration be to the gob- 
lins) roaming by night,' (let him offer a Bali in the 
same place at the Vaisvadeva which takes place) at 
night. 

23. Afterwards he must offer upon blades of 
Kusa. grass, having the points turned towards the 
south, balls of rice to his father, to his grandfather, 
and to his great-grandfather, to his mother, to his 
grandmother, and to his great-grandmother, pro- 
claiming at the same time their name and race (and 
adding the word Svadha, ' reverence '). 

24. Along with the balls of rice let him give 
ointments, flowers, incense, eatables, and the like. 

25. After having fetched a jar with water, let him 

24. 'And the like' means betel and the sacrificial fee for the 
Brahmawas.' (Nand.) 

25. This has to be done with the words, svastitvaw bruhi, ' say 



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LXVII, 34. DUTIES OF A HOUSEHOLDER. 215 

cause a Brahma»a to say the benediction (and give 
him the jar). 

26. (The share) of dogs, crows, and 6vapaias let 
him strew upon the earth. 

27. And let him give (a mouthful of food as) 
alms. 

28. By honouring guests he obtains the highest 
reward. 

29. Let him assiduously honour a guest who 
arrives in the evening (after the Vaisvadeva is 
over). 

30. Let him not suffer a guest to stay at his house 
unfed. 

31. As the Brahma#as are lords over all other 
castes, and as a husband is lord over his wives, a 
guest is the lord of a householder. 

32. By honouring a guest he obtains heaven. 

33. (One who has arrived as) a guest and is 
obliged to turn home disappointed in his expecta- 
tions, takes away from the man, to whose house he 
has come, his religious merit, and throws his own 
guilt upon him. 

34. A Brahmawa who stays for one night only as 
a guest, is called atithi (a guest); because he does not 
stay for a long time, therefore is he termed atithi. 

the benediction.' (Nand.) The benediction, according to Deva- 
pala, consists of the Purushasukta, the Kanikrada (Va^as. Sawh. 
XIII, 48), and other Mantras. 

27. According to Nand., who argues from a passage of Baudhi- 
yana, the particle ka. implies that he should feed BrShma»as also. 

33. This proverb is also found in the MahabhSrata XII, 6995, 
in the Hitopade^a I, 56 (64 ed. Johnson), and in the Marka«</eya- 
purawa XXIX, 31. See BOhtlingk, Ind. Sprflche, 134. 

34. Atithi in this derivation is supposed to mean ' one who does 
not stay for a whole tithi or lunar day.' 



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2l6 VISHJVU. LXVII.35. 

35. Let him not consider a Brahma#a fellow-vil- 
lager or an acquaintance as his guest, though he has 
come to the house where his wife and his fires are. 

2,6. But if a Kshatriya has come to his house in 
the way of a guest, let him hospitably entertain him 
also, to his heart's desire 1 , after the Brahmawa guests 
have eaten. 

2,7- Should a Vaisya or a .Sttdra come to his 
house as guests, he must even give food to them 
(at the same time and) with his servants, and treat 
them with kindness (but not like guests in the 
proper sense of the term). 

38. To (members of) other castes (such as Mur- 
dhavasiktas) and to friends (or relatives or) other 
such persons, who have come to his house out of 
attachment, let him offer such food as happens to be 
there, to the best of his power, at the time when his 
wife takes her meal. 

39. One recently married (but not yet delivered 
to her husband), an unmarried damsel, a sick 
woman, and a pregnant woman : to these let him 
give food unhesitatingly, even before his guests. 

40. The foolish man who eats first himself, with- 
out having offered food to those (persons that have 
been mentioned), is not aware that he will himself be 
food (after death) for dogs and vultures. 

41. After the Brahma#as, (the Kshatriyas who 
have come as guests), the friends and relatives, (the 
parents and others) whom he is bound to maintain, 

36. ' This is Kulluka's rendering of the term Mmam (on M. 
Ill, in). According to Nand., it means that he is at liberty to 
feed such guests or no. 

38. The wife takes her meal when the husband has eaten. 
(Nand.) 



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LXVIII, I. DUTIES OF A HOUSEHOLDER. 217 

(and the servants) have made their repast, let man 
and wife eat the leavings themselves. 

42. Having shown honour to the gods, to the 
manes, to men, to those whom he is bound to main- 
tain, and to the household deities (as well as to 
dogs, crows, and the rest), let a householder enjoy 
that which has been left. 

43. He who cooks food for himself only, eats 
nothing but sin : for that alone is considered as fit 
food for the virtuous, which is left, after the (cus- 
tomary) oblations have been offered. 

44. By the daily recitation of the Veda, -by the 
Agnihotra, by sacrificing, and by austerity, a house- 
holder does not obtain such excellent places of 
abode (after death) as by honouring a guest. 

45. Whether he arrives in the evening or in the 
morning, he must offer a seat and water to his guest, 
and food, to the best of his ability, after having 
shown him marks of honour as the law directs '. 

46. By giving (to a guest) shelter, a bed, oint- 
ments for his feet, and a lamp : for each of these 
gifts singly he reaps the same reward as for the 
gift of a cow. 

LXVIII. 

1. He must not eat during an eclipse of the 
moon or of the sun. 

45. ' For the rules regarding the reception of a guest, see Asv. 

I, 24, and the other Gnhya-sutras ; M. Ill, 119 seq., and the other 
Dharmarastras. 

LXVIII. 12. M. IV, 55—14. M. IV, 45; Y. I, 131; Apast. 

II, 8, 19, 18. — 19. M. IV, 74.— 20. M. IV, 65. — 21. M. IV, 63; 
Gaut. IX, 56. — 23. M. IV, 74.— 26. M. Ill, 106; Apast. II, 
4, 8, 4. — 27. M. IV, 62 ; Apast. II, 8, 18, 1 ; II, 8, 20, 10 ; Gaut. 
IX, 58. - 29. M. IV, 75. — 34. M. IV, 76. — 37. M. IV, 37 ; Y. 



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2l8 VISHJVU. LXVIII, 2. 

2. He shall eat, after having previously bathed, 
when the eclipse is over. 

3. If (the sun or moon) have set before the 
eclipse was over, he must bathe, and on the next 
day he may eat again, after having seen (the sun or 
moon rise). 

4. A cow or a Brahma»a having met with a 
calamity, he must not eat on that day. 

5. If the king has met with an accident, (he must 
not eat on that day). 

6. An Agnihotrin, who is absent on a journey, 
must eat at that time of the day when the Agni- 
hotra is supposed to be over. 

7. He may also eat at that time of the day when 
the VaLrvadeva is supposed to be over. 

8. On the days of new and full moon (he may 
eat at that time) when he supposes the sacrifice 
customary on those days to have been performed. 

!» 135' — 38. M. IV, 82.— 40. Apast. I, 11, 31, 1. — 42, 43- M - 
II, 54 ; Y. I, 31 ; Gaut. IX, 59. — 46. Sihkh. IV, 11, 10; M.IV, 
43 ; Y. I, 131 ; Gaut. IX, 32. — 47. M. IV, 63 ; Y. 1, 138 ; Apast. 
II, 1, 1, 3; Gaut. IX, 9. — 48. M. IV, 62. — 49. M. IV, 65 ; 
Gaut. XVII, 13. 'The injunctions regarding meals having been 
given in the previous chapter, he now proceeds to propound some 
prohibitions concerning the same subject.' (Nand.) 

2, 3. Nand. states that in both of these Sutras it has to be under- 
stood, that the bath occasioned by the eclipse must be followed by 
the ordinary bath, which precedes every meal. 

6. An Agnihotrin is one who daily performs the Agnihotra. 
Regarding the Agnihotra and the times for its performance, see 
LIX, 2. 

7. The term Vauvadeva includes not only the oblation to the 
Vuvedevas (LXVII, 3), but also the Bali-ofFerings and the enter- 
tainment of a guest, &c, as prescribed in LXVII, 4 seq. (Nand.) 

8. According to Nand., the use of the particle kz. implies, that 
this rule applies equally to the first days of the moon's increase 
and wane. 



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LXVIII, 20. DUTIES OF A HOUSEHOLDER. 219 

9. He must not eat during an indigestion ; 

10. Nor at midnight ; n. Nor at noon ; 

12. Nor in the twilight ; 

13. Nor dressed in wet clothes ; 

14. Nor without his upper garment; 

15. Nor naked; 

16. Nor in water (nor in a boat) ; 

1 7. Nor lying stretched out on the back ; 

18. Nor sitting on a broken stool ; 

1 9. Nor reclining on a couch ; 

20. Nor from a broken dish ; 

21. Nor having placed the food on his lap ; 

22. Nor (having placed the food) upon the 
ground ; 

23. Nor from the palm of his hand. 

24. That food which has been seasoned with salt 
(after having been cooked) he must not eat. 

25. He must not abuse children (eating in the 
same row with him). 

26. (He must) not (eat) dainties alone. 

27. (He must) not (eat) substances from which 
the fat has been extracted. 

28. Nor (must he eat) roasted grain in the day- 
time. 

29. At night (he must not eat) anything mixed 
with sesamum-seeds. 



9. According to Nand., the use of the particle ka. implies a pro- 
hibition to eat again, after having partaken of a .Sraddha meal. 

15. See note on LXIV, 5. 

24. Nand., quoting a passage of Vasish/tfa (XIV, 28), states the 
use of the particle fa to imply, that food twice cooked and food 
cooked in a frying-pan should also be avoided. 

27. This rule refers to skimmed milk and to a dough made of 
ground sesamum, from which the oil has been extracted. (Nand.) 



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220 VISHtfU. LXVIII, 30. 

30. Nor (must he eat at night) sour milk or 
ground barley. 

31. Nor (must he eat) the leaves of the mountain 
ebony, or of the banyan, or of the holy fig-tree, or 
of the hemp plant. 

32. (He must) not (eat) without having first 
given to eat (to the gods and to the Brahmawas); 

33. Nor without having made a burnt-offering 
first; 

34. Nor without having sprinkled his feet ; 

35. Nor without having sprinkled his hands and 
his face ; 

36. While having the remains of food on his 
mouth or hands, he must not take clarified butter. 

37. Nor must he look at the moon, or at the sun, 
or at the stars (while unclean). 

38. Nor must he touch his head (while unclean). 

39. Nor must he recite the Veda (while unclean). 

40. He must eat facing the east; 

41. Or facing the south ; 

42. And after having honoured his food x ; 

43. And cheerfully, adorned with a garland of 
flowers, and anointed with unguents. 

42. 1 Nand. describes the ceremony of ' honouring one's food' as 
follows : ' He must first sprinkle the food, while reciting the Gaya- 
trt and the Vyahr/tis (see LV, 10). Then he must sprinkle water 
all around it, with the Mantra, " Forsooth, I sprinkle righteous- 
ness around thee." After that he must sip water with the Mantra, 
" Thou art an imperishable basis" (Taitt. Arawy. X, 32, rendered 
according to S&yawa's Commentary), and offer up five oblations to 
Prawa, &c. (see Dr. Biihler's note on Apast. II, 1, t, 2). Finally 
he must eat in silence, without blaming the food, and taking care 
to leave some remnant of it in the dish, and sip water again, with 
the Mantra, " Thou art an imperishable covering " ' (Taitt. Ara»y. 
X, 35, according to Saya«a). 



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LXVIII, 49. DUTIES OF A HOUSEHOLDER. 221 

44. He must not eat up his food completely; 

45. Unless it consist of sour milk, or honey, or 
(clarified) butter, or milk, or ground barley, or meat, 
or sweetmeats. 

46. He must not eat together with his wife, nor 
in the open air, nor standing, nor in the presence of 
many (hungry spectators), nor must many eat in the 
presence of one (hungry spectator). 

47. Let him never eat in an empty house, in a 
house where the sacred fires are preserved, or in 
a temple dedicated to the gods. Neither must he 
drink water out of his joined hands, or satiate 
himself to repletion. 

48. Let him not take a third meal (over and 
above the two regular meals in the mornings and 
evenings), nor let him ever take unwholesome food. 
He must eat neither too early, nor too late, and he 
must take no food in the evening, after having fully 
satiated himself in the morning. 

49. He must not eat bad food (whether injurious 
to health or otherwise reprehensible), nor from a 
bad dish (which is similar to the dishes used by 
barbarians, or which has been defiled by a wicked 
man eating from it), nor lying on the ground, 
nor with his feet raised upon a bench, nor sitting 
on his hams with a cloth tied round his legs and 
knees. 



46. Nand. thinks that this rule refers to those wives only who 
belong to a lower caste than their husbands. 

48. ' Too early ' means before sunrise ; ' too late' means imme- 
diately before sunset. (Nand.) 



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22 2 VISHiVU. LXIX, I. 

LXIX. 
i. He must not have connection with his wife on 
the eighth, or fourteenth, or fifteenth day of the 
half-month. 

2. And (he must avoid connubial intercourse) 
after having partaken of a Sraddha; 

3. And after having given (a .Sraddha) ; 

4. And after having been invited to a .Sraddha ; 

5. And while performing a vow of abstinence 
(such as that to be kept on the day before a 
Sraddha, or the fast to be observed on the eleventh 
day of the half-month) ; 

6. And one who has performed the initiatory 
ceremony of a Soma-sacrifice ; 

7. And in a temple, in a burial-ground, and in 
an empty house ; 

8. And at the root of a tree (or shrub) ; 

9. And in the day-time; 10. And in the twilight; 

11. And with one unclean (or in her courses) ; 

12. And while he is unclean himself; 13. And 
with one anointed with unguents ; 14. And being 
anointed himself; 15. And with one sick; 16. 
And while he is sick himself. 

17. He must not have connection, if he wishes to 
enjoy a long life, with a woman who has a limb too 
little, nor with one who has a limb too much, nor 
with one older than himself, nor with a pregnant 
woman. 

LXIX. 1. M. IV, 128 ; Y. I, 79. — 9. Apast. II, 1, 1, 16. — 15. 
Gaut. IX, 28. The subject of daily duties being absolved, he 
now goes on to state (in Chapters LXIX, LXX) the rules that 
must be observed during the night. (Nand.) 

4. The invitations to a .Sraddha are issued on the day before it is 
to take place. (Nand.) 



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LXX, 17. DUTIES OF A HOUSEHOLDER. 223 



LXX. 

1. He must not sleep with his feet wet ; 

2. Nor facing the north or the west ; 

3. Nor naked ; 4. Nor on wet (fresh) bamboo ; 

5. Nor in the open air ; 

6. Nor on a bedstead made of Palasa-wood ; 

7. Nor on one made of the wood of five trees ; 

8. Nor on one made of the wood of a tree which 
has been split by an elephant ; 

9. Nor on a bedstead made of the wood of a tree 
that has been kindled by lightning ; 

10. Nor on a broken bedstead ; 

1 1. Nor on one made of scorched wood ; 

12. Nor on one made of the wood of a tree that 
used to be watered with a jar ; . 

13. Nor in a burial-ground, nor in an empty 
house, nor in a temple ; 

14. Nor with people who are restless of limb ; 

1 5. Nor with women ; 

16. Nor on grain, nor (in a stable of) cows, nor 
(on the couch of any of his) Gurus, nor on the fire- 
place, nor (in a building dedicated to the) gods. 

17. He must not sleep while the remnants of 

LXX. 1. M. IV, 76. — 2. Y. I, 136. — 3. ksv. Ill, 9, 6 ; M. IV, 
75; Gaut. IX, 60. — 13. M. IV, 57. — 17. .Sdftkh. IV, 11, 17; 
Apast. I, 1, 2, 24 ; Gaut. II, 13. 

7. Nand. mentions three explanations of this term: 1. a bed- 
stead made of five pieces of wood (or of the wood of five trees) ; 
2. a bedstead made of any of the five kinds of wood enumerated 
in the Vish«u-purS«a ; 3. a bedstead made of any of the five kinds 
of wood enumerated in Sutras 8-12. The second explanation is 
inadmissible, because part of the species of wood mentioned in the 
passage of the Vish»u-pura^»a referred to is identical with those 
enumerated in Sutras 8-12. 



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224 VISHJVU. LXXI, i. 

food are on his hands or face, nor in the day-time, 
nor in the twilight, nor upon ashes, nor in a place 
soiled (by excrements and the like), nor in a wet 
place, nor on the top of a mountain. 

LXXI. 

i. Now 1 he must not contemn any one (whether 
of equal rank, or of higher or lower rank than 
himself). 

LXXI. i. M. IV, 135; Y. I, 153. — 2. M. IV, 141. — 3. Gaut. 
11,17. — 4. Gobh.III, 5, 29.-4-6. M. IV, 17, 18; Y.I, 129, 123. 
— 8. M. IV, 19. — 9. M. IV, 34; Apast. I, 11, 30, 13; Gaut. IX, 
3.— 11. Gobh. Ill, 5, 15.— 13-16. M. IV, 36; Y. I, 133 — 
14. <Sankh. IV, 11, 21. — 17-21. M. IV, 37. — 17, 18. P£r. II, 7, 
6 ; <Sankh. IV, 11, 2; Apast. 1, 11, 31, 20. — 23. Par. II, 7, 8; M. 
IV, 38. — 25. M. IV, 43. — 26. ksv. Ill, 9) 6 ; Sahkh. IV, 11, 1 ; 
M. IV, 53 ; Y 1, 135 ; Gaut. IX, 48. — 32-35. M. IV, 56, 53 ; Y. 
I, *3> — 36, 37- M. IV, 54, 53 ; Y. I, 137. — 39. M. IV, 65. — 
40. Apast. II, 8, 20, 11; Gaut. IX, 32. — 42, 43. M. IV, 70; 
Apast. I, 1 1, 32, 28 ; Gaut. IX, 51. — 44. M. IV, 69. — 45. M. IV, 
74 ; Y. I, 138 ; Gaut. II, 17. — 46. M. IV, 69. — 47. M. IV, 66 ; 
Gaut. IX, 4, 5. — 48-52. M. IV, 80. — 53. S&hkh. IV, 12, 18 ; M. 
IV, 82. — 54. M. IV, 250 ; Y. I, 214. — 55. M. IV, 55. — 56. M. 
IV, 57; Y. I, 138.- 58. M. IV, 57; Sar.kh. IV, 11, 6.-59. 
.Sahkh. IV, 11, 6; Gaut. IX, 16. — 60. M. IV, 58. — 61, 62. 
Apast. I, 11, 31, 9, 10. — 62. Par. II, 7, 14; M. IV, 59; Y. I, 
140 ; Gaut. IX, 23. — 63-68. M. IV, 60, 61. — 69-71. M. IV, 63, 
64. — 70. Par. II, 7, 3. — 72-74. M. IV, 138; Y. I, 132. — 75. 
Y.I, 153. — 76. M. IV, 137; YI, 153- — 77- M. IV, 94.-79- 
M. IV, 144. — 80, 81. M. IV, 164. — 82. M. VIII, 299.-83. M. 
IV, 135; Y. I, 153-84, 85. M. IV, 176; Y. I, 156. — 86. M. 
IV, 150. — 87. M. IV, 2, 246; Gaut. IX, 73. — 90. M. IV, 155; 
Y. 1, 154. — 91, 92. M. IV, 156, 158. 

1. * This chapter treats of the duties of a SnStaka (see XXVIII, 42, 
note). The particle atha, ' now,' however, signifies that some of 
these duties are common to the Snataka and to the householder, 
whose special duties have been treated in the previous chapters. 
(Nand.) 



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LXXI, 16. RULES FOR A SNATAKA. 225 

2. He must not mock those who have a limb too 
little or a limb too much, who are ignorant, or who 
are poor. 

3. He must not serve low people. 

4. Let him not engage in work that may keep 
him from repeating (or teaching) the Veda. 

5. Let him wear such a dress as becomes his age, 

6. And his sacred knowledge, his descent, his 
means, and his country. 

7. He must not be overbearing. 

8. He must constantly consult the holy laws and 
other (salutary precepts relating to the acquisition of 
wealth, wisdom, and freedom from disease). 

9. He must not wear a worn-out or filthy dress, 
if he has means (enough to procure a new one). 

10. (Even though he lacks firewood or the like 
necessaries) he must not say to another man, ' I 
have got none.' 

1 1. He must not wear a garland of flowers which 
has no smell at all, or an offensive smell, or which 
is red. 

1 2. Let him wear a garland of water-flowers even 
though they be red. 

13. And (he must wear) a staff made of bamboo ; 

14. And a jar with water ; 

15. And a sacrificial string made of cotton thread ; 

16. And two golden ear-rings. 

2. The particle ka refers to ugly persons and the rest, enume- 
rated by Manu IV, 141. (Nand.) 

8. The use of the particle ka implies, according to Nand., that 
his frame of mind and his speech should also be in conformity with 
his age, &c, as ordained by Manu IV, 18. 

13-16. Nand., arguing from texts of Baudhayana and of Manu 
(IV, 36), takes the use of the particle ka. in Sutras 13 and 14 to 

M Q 



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226 VISHJVU. LXXI, 17. 

1 7. He must not look at the rising sun ; 

18. Nor at the setting (sun) ; 

19. Nor (must he look at the sun) shining 
through an awning of cloth (under which he is 
lying). 

20. Nor at the sun reflected in a looking-glass or 
in water ; 

21. Nor at the midday sun ; 

22. Nor at the face of any of his Gurus while he 
is angry; 

23. Nor at his own image reflected in oil or in 
water ; 

24. Nor reflected in a dirty looking-glass ; 

25. Nor at his wife eating ; 

26. Nor at a naked woman ; 

27. Nor at a man in the act of discharging urine 
(or voiding excrements) ; 

28. Nor at an elephant (or other dangerous 
animal) broken loose from the rope that ties him ; 

29. Nor at a fight between bulls (or elephants or 
buffalos) or the like animals, while he is himself 
standing in a (crowd or any other) place, from which 
it would be difficult for him to effect his escape ; 

30. Nor at one insane ; 

imply that a Snataka must wear three garments, an under garment, 
an upper garment, and a mantle, and in Sutra 16, that he must 
carry about him a bushel of Kara grass. 

19. This rule appears to refer, likewise, to the custom of sus- 
pending, by a tree or a post, an upper garment or a piece of cloth, 
in order to ward off the rays of the sun. 

20. The particle ka. here is used, according to Nand., in order 
to include ' the sun, while it is eclipsed,' as mentioned by Manu 

IV, 37- 

29. 'As -shown by kz., a place where arrows, spears, or other 
missiles are falling down, is also intended here.' (Nand.) 



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LXXI, 49. RULES FOR A SNATAKA. 227 

31. Nor at one intoxicated ; 

32. He must not throw any impure substances 
into the fire ; 

23. Nor blood ; 34. Nor poison ; 

35. Neither (must he throw any of those sub- 
stances) into water. 

36. He must not step over a fire. 

37. He must not warm his feet (by the fire). 

38. He must not wipe (the dirt from his feet) 
with blades of Kusa. grass. 

39. He must not wash (his feet) in a vessel of 
white copper. 

40. He must not (wash) one foot with the other. 

41. He must not scratch the ground (with a 
piece of wood or the like). 

42. He must not crush clods of earth. 

43. He must not cut grass. 

44. He must not tear his nails or the hairs (of 
his beard or others) with his teeth. 

45. He must avoid gambling ; 

46. And the heat of the sun just risen. 

47. He must not wear a garment, or shoes, or a 
garland, or a sacrificial string which had before been 
worn by another. 

48. He must not give advice to a .Sudra ; 

49. Nor (must he give him) the leavings of his 
food, nor the residue of an oblation (unless he is 
his own servant) ; 

46. Besides the above interpretation of the term b&ldtapa, which 
is proposed by Kulluka also (on M. IV, 69), Nand. mentions two 
others : 1. the heat of that time of the day when the cows are 
collected for milking; 2. the heat of the autumn season. The 
particle ka,, according to Nand., is used in order to include the 
smoke of a burning corpse and the other forbidden objects men- 
tioned by Manu IV, 69. 

Q 2 



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228 VISHJVU. LXXI, 50. 

50. Nor (must he give him) sesamum ; 

5 1. Nor (must he point out) the sacred law to him ; 

52. Nor (must he prescribe) a penance (for him 
for atonement of a sin). 

53. He must not scratch his head or his belly 
with both hands joined. 

54. He must not reject sour milk or the Sumanas 
flower (when offered to him). 

55. He must not take off his garland (from his 
head) himself (but he may cause another to do so). 

56. Let him not rouse (a superior) from sleep. 

57. He must not (by harsh speeches and the 
like) render disaffected one who is well affected 
towards him. 

58. He must not speak to a woman in her 
courses ; 

59. Nor to barbarians or low-caste persons. 

60. When a sacred fire, or an idol, or a Brah- 
ma»a is near, he must stretch forth his right hand 
(from his upper garment). 

61. If he sees a cow trespassing upon another 
man's field, he must not announce it (to the owner 
of that field). 

62. And if he sees a calf sucking (at the udder of 
a cow, he must not announce it to the owner of the 
latter). 

63. He must not endeavour to please over- 
bearing men (by flattering their pretensions). 

64. He must not dwell in a kingdom governed 
by a .Sudra king ; 



54. Nand. states that this rule does not contain a vain repetition 
of the rule laid down above (LVII, 10), as the latter refers to 
householders and the former to Snatakas. 



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LXXI,82. RULES FOR A SNATAKA. 229 

65. Nor in one abounding with wicked people ; 

66. And he must not live (in a kingdom) in 
which there are no physicians ; 

67. Nor in one afflicted (with a disease or other 
calamity). 

68. And (he must not stay) long on a mountain. 

69. He must not (walk or otherwise) exert him- 
self without a purpose. 

70. He must not dance or sing. 

71. He must not make a noise by slapping (his 
left arm, after having placed it upon his right 
shoulder, with his right hand). 

72. He must not make vulgar speeches. 

73. He must not tell an untruth. 

74. He must not say disagreeable things. 

75. He must not strike any one upon a vital part. 

76. He must not despise himself if he wishes to 
enjoy long life. 

77. He must often repeat his prayers at each 
twilight (if he wishes to live long). 

78. He must not play with (venomous) serpents 
or with weapons. 

79. He must not touch the cavities of his body 
without a cause. 

80. He must not raise a stick against another 
man. 

8r. One who deserves punishment he must strike 
in order to punish him. 

82. (He must strike) him upon his back with a 
shoot of bamboo or with a rope. 

75. 'Others' take this Sutra to mean, that he must not make 
public another man's misconduct. (Nand.) This interpretation is 
proposed by VigH&he$vara, on Ya^fiavalkya 1, 153. 

79. See XXIII, 51. 



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230 VISHJVU. LXXI, 83. 



83. He must take care not to revile a god, a 
Brahmawa, the .Sastras, or the high-minded (^??shis). 

84. And (he must avoid) gain and pleasure re- 
pugnant to duty. 

85. (He must avoid) even lawful acts which may 
give offence to mankind. 

86. On the days of new and full moon let him 
make a propitiatory offering. 

87. He must not cut even grass (on those two 
days). 

88. He must adorn himself (with garlands, sandal, 
and the like). 

89. Thus he must observe established customs. 

90. Those customs, which have been explicitly 
ordained in revealed and in traditional texts, and 
which are practised by the virtuous, must always be 
observed by a righteous man with subdued passions. 

91. By adhering to established usage he attains 
to old age ; this is the way to obtain that state in 
the next life which he desires, and imperishable 
riches, this is the way to destroy the effect of 
(bodily) marks foreboding future misfortunes. 

92. He who observes the usages established 
among the virtuous, who is a believer in revelation, 
and free from ill-will, lives a hundred years, even 



84. '"Or repugnant to the final liberation," as the use of the 
particle ka. implies.' (Nand.) See Manu VI, 37. 

85. The use of the particle £a, Nand. argues from Manu IV, 176, 
implies that acts which may cause future pain should also be 
avoided. 

88. The use of the particle £a, according to Nand., implies that 
he must also observe auspicious rites and established customs, as 
ordained by Manu IV, 145. The latter injunction is, however, 
expressly given in the next Sutra. 



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LXXII, 7. SELF-RESTRAINT. 23 1 

though he does not possess any external marks of 
prosperity. 

LXXII. 

1. He must persist in keeping his mind and his 
organs of sense under restraint. 

2. Restraint of the mind implies restraint of the 
senses. 

3. One who has acquired complete command 
over himself, gains this world and the next. 

4. One who has no command over himself, reaps 
no fruit from any of his acts (whether worldly or 
tending to the acquisition of spiritual merit). 

5. Self-restraint is the best instrument of purifica- 
tion ; self-restraint is the best of auspicious objects ; 
by self-restraint he obtains anything he may desire 
in his heart. 

6. The man who rides (as it were) in a chariot 
drawn by his five senses and directed by his mind 
(as the charioteer), who keeps it on the path of the 
virtuous, can never be overcome by his enemies 
(lust, wrath, and greed), unless the horses (unre- 
strained by the charioteer) run away with the 
chariot. 

7. As the waters (of all streams) are stored up 
(and reabsorbed) in the ocean, which, though being 
filled with them, remains unmoved and tranquil, 
even so that man, in whose mind the passions are 
stored up (and dissolved), obtains perfect calmness : 
but not he who strives after the gratification of his 
desires. 

LXXII. 7=Bhagavad-gM II, 70. This chapter treats of duties 
which are common to all the four orders. (Nand.) 



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232 VISHJVU. LXXIII, r. 

LXXIII. 

i. One desirous of celebrating a Sraddha must 
invite the Brahma«as on the day before (it is to take 
place). 

2. On the next day, in the forenoon, if it falls in 
the bright half of the month, and in the afternoon, 
if it falls in the dark half of the month, the Brah- 
ma«as, who must have duly bathed and duly sipped 
water, must be placed by him, in the order of their 
seniority 1 (or) of their sacred knowledge, upon seats 
covered with Kusa grass. 

3. (He must entertain) two (Brahma«as) facing 
the east at the .Sraddha of the gods (VLrvedevas), 
and three facing the north at the .Sraddha of the 
manes ; 

4. Or one only at each Sraddha. 

5. After having (worshipped the Visvedevas and) 
offered a burnt-oblation : during the recitation of 
the first Pan^aka (pentad) at a Sraddha repast con- 

LXXIII. 1-32. Afv. II, 5, 1 1-14 ; IV, 7 ; Gobh. IV, 2-4 ; P£r. 
Ill, 10, 48-55 ; .Sankh. IV, 1 ; M. Ill, 125, 204-259 ; Y. I, 225- 
248; Apast. II, 7, 17, 11-19; Gaut. XV. Regarding the corre- 
sponding section of the Kanaka Gr/hya-sutra, see Introduction. 
This chapter opens the section on .SrSddhas (funeral oblations), 
which consists of thirteen chapters (LXXIII-LXXXV. Nand.) 

1. The Ekoddish/a and Sapi«ffikara«a .Sraddhas have been 
described above, XXI. The rules given in the present chapter 
refer to all the remaining kinds of .Sriddhas. See 5-9, LXXIV, 
LXXVI-LXXVIII. 

2. ' At the .Sr&ddha of the manes the oldest Br£hma«a repre- 
sents the great-grandfather ; the one next to him in age, the grand- 
father; the youngest of the three, the father of the sacrificer. 
(Nand.) 

5-9. The three PaB^akas referred to in Sutras 5-9 are respec- 
tively vv. 1-5, 6-10, and n-15 of Kanaka XXXIX, 10. (Nand.) 
The great majority of the Mantras quoted in Sutras 11-26 have 



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LXXIII, II. SRADDHAS. 233 

sisting of undressed grain or performed for the 
gratification of a special desire * ; 

6. At a .Sraddha repast consisting of meat, during 
the recitation of the second Pan^aka ; 

7. At a new moon (.Sraddha), during the recita- 
tion of the last PaMaka ; 

8. On the Ash&ikas (or eighth days) of the (three) 
dark halves subsequent to the full moon day of the 
month Agrahaya#a (or Margaslrsha) \ during the 
recitation of the first, second, and last Pafi/^akas 
respectively ; 

9. Likewise, on the Anvash^akas (or ninth days 
of the dark halves of those months) ; 

10. He must invite the manes, after having re- 
ceived permission to do so from the Brahmawas 1 . 

11. Having driven away the Yatudhanas by 
strewing grains of sesamum and by reciting the two 

not been traced in the Berlin MS. of the Ka/faka, nor indeed in 
any other Sawhiti of the Veda, but there can be no doubt that 
they belong to the school of the Ka/Aas, as nearly all are quoted by 
their Pratlkas in the Kanaka Gnhya- surra, and given at full in 
Devapila's Commentary on the latter. The above renderings of 
the Pratlkas rest upon Devap&la's interpretations. That the rules 
in 5 seq. teach the performance of a .Sraddha according to the 
rites of the Ka/Aa school, is confirmed by Nand. in his remarks 
on 5 seq. and 9 seq. 
5. ^eeLXXVIII. 

8. The days referred to are the eighth days of the dark halves of 
the months Margarfrsha, Pausha, and M&gha. 

9. ' And on the .Sr&ddhas taking place on the seventh day of the 
dark half, as ka. indicates.' (Nand.) This statement does not, how- 
ever, deserve much credit, as such Sraddhas are neither mentioned 
in our work nor in the Kanaka Gnbya-sutra. 

10. * ' The permission of the Brdhma»as has to be asked with 
the Mantra, " I shall invite (the manes);" and their answer must 
be, " Invite them." ' (Nand.) 

11. The Yatudh&nas are a class of demons supposed to disturb 



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234 VISHATU. LXXIII, 12. 



Mantras (the first of which begins with the words), 
' May the Asuras go away ;' 

12. He must invite the manes (with the four 
Mantras), ' Come near, O ye manes,' ' (Conduct) 
them all (here), O Agni,' ' May my (ancestors) come 
near,' ' This is your (share), O ye manes.' Then let 
him prepare the water for washing the feet with 
scented water, which has been mixed up with Kma 
grass and sesamum, while reciting (the three Man- 
tras), 'Those standing V ' Speech is imperishable,' 
and 'What my mother (has sinned) 1 ,' and offer it (to 
the Br£hma«as) ; let him prepare the Arghya (or 
water mixed with Durva grass, flowers, &c.) and 
offer it to them ; let him offer to the Brahma«as, to 
the best of his power, Kara grass, sesamum, clothes, 
flowers, ornaments, incense, and lamps ; let him 
take food sprinkled with clarified butter; let him 
look them in the face with the Mantra, ' O ye Adi- 
tyas, Rudras, and Vasus;' let him say, ' I will offer an 
oblation in the fire,' and if the Brahma»as say, ' Offer 
an oblation,' let him offer three burnt-oblations 2 .' 

13. After having consecrated the offerings with 
the Mantras, ' They, who are my ancestors,' 'This is 
your (share), O ye manes,' and ' This offering,' he 
must pour (what is left of) the food into such vessels 
as happen to be there, or (into golden ones at the 
offering addressed to the Visvedevas and) into silver 

the effect of a .Sraddha. The second Mantra, according to Deva- 
pSla, is from the Rig-veda, X, 15, 1. 

12. 'These two Mantras are also quoted, with slight variations, 
by .SankMyana III, 13, 5. — 2 The three burnt-oblations have to be 
accompanied by the recitation of the three Mantras, ' To Soma 
accompanied by the manes svadhi namaA ; to Yama Angiras 
svadha namnA ; to Agni who takes the offerings addressed to the 
manes svadhS. namaA.' (Nand.) 



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LXXIII, 20. SRADDHAS. 235 

ones (at the offering addressed to the manes), and 
offer it first to the two Brahma»as facing the east 
(who have been invited to the .Sraddha of the gods). 

14. Afterwards he must offer it to the (three) 
Brahma«as facing the north (who represent his three 
ancestors, addressing himself) to his father, grand- 
father, and great-grandfather, (and calling out) their 
name and race. 

1 5. While the Brahma#as are eating the food, let 
him mutter (the three Mantras), 'Whatever (trickles 
down) through my fault,' ' With days and nights V 
and ' Whatever (limb) of yours, Agni.' 

16. And (let him mutter) the Itihasa (Epics), 
Puri«a (Legends), and Dharmasastra (Institutes of 
the Sacred Law). 

17. Near the leavings let him deposit upon 
blades of Kusa grass with the ends turned towards 
the south one ball of rice for his father, while 
saying, ' Earth is (like) a spoon, imperishable (satis- 
faction).' 

1 8. With the Mantra, ' Air is (like) a spoon, im- 
perishable (satisfaction/ let him deposit) a second 
ball for his grandfather. 

19. With the Mantra, ' Heaven is (like) a spoon, 
imperishable (satisfaction,' let him deposit) a third 
ball for his great-grandfather. 

20. With the Mantra, ' Those ancestors who 

14. The formula of this invocation, according to Nand., is this, 
' To NN., my ancestor, of the Gotra NN., who is like a Vasu, 
(I offer) this food, svadha" namaA.' The use of the particle £a, 
according to the same, implies that the maternal grandfather and 
the other maternal ancestors must also be addressed, as ordained 
below (LXXV, 7). 

15. ' A similar Mantra is quoted, Sahkh. Ill, 13, 5. 



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236 VISHJ7U. LXXHI, 21. 

have died,' let him place a garment (upon the 
balls). 

21. With the Mantra, 'Give us sons, O ye manes,' 
(let him place) food upon them. 

22. With the Mantra, ' Enjoy it, O ye manes, 
partake of it, each according to his share V let him 
wipe off the grease from his hands with the ends of 
the blades. 

23. With the Mantra, '(Ye waters) imparting 
vigour V let him sprinkle the balls to the right with 
the wet (remainder of the food), and offer the 
Argha 2 , flowers, incense, unguents, and rice, and 
other victuals and dainties to the Brahmawas. 

24. And (he must offer them) a jar with water, 
which has been mixed up with honey, clarified 
butter, sesamum, and (ointments, oil, and the like). 

25. The Brahma»as having eaten and being 
satisfied, let him sprinkle the food (as much as 
has been left by them) and the grass with the 
Mantra, ' Mayest thou not fail me,' and strew the 
food near the leavings ; and having asked them, 
' Are you satisfied ? Is (the .Sraddha) finished,' he 
must first give water for sipping to the Brahma»as 
facing the north, and then to those facing the east ; 
and he must sprinkle the place where the ^Sraddha 
has been offered (with water, with the Mantra), 
' Well sprinkled.' All these rites he must perform 
while holding blades of sacred grass in his hand. 

26. Afterwards he must, while turning his face 
towards the Brahma»as facing the east, circumambu- 

22. * Va^asan. Sarah. II, 31 ; KaM. IX, 6. 

23. 'Va^asan. Sarah. II, 34. — *The Argha is a respectful 
offering, the ingredients of which vary. 



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lxxiii, 32. jrAddhas. 237 

late them from left to right, with the Mantra, 'What 
a crow (may have eaten of my offering),' and turn 
back again ; he must honour them with sacrificial 
fees, to the best of his power, saying, 'May you be 
satisfied,' and on their answering, ' We are satisfied,' 
he must address them with the Mantra, ' The gods 
and the manes.' 

27. After having given (to all) water (with the 
Mantra, ' May the food and water and whatever else 
I gave you be) imperishable,' (and) calling out their 
name and race, and having added the Mantra, ' May 
the Visvedevas be satisfied,' he must ask, with folded 
hands, and with an attentive and cheerful mind, the 
following (benediction) from the Brahma»as facing 
the east : 

28. ' May the liberal-minded in our race increase 
in number, and may the (study of the) Vedas and 
our progeny (also increase). May faith not depart 
from us, and may we have plenty to bestow on the 
poor.' 

29. They shall answer, ' Thus let it be.' 

30. (The second half of the benediction shall be 
as follows), 'May we have plenty of food, and may 
we receive guests. May others come to beg of us, 
and may not we be obliged to beg of any one.' 

31. After having received this double benediction 
(through the Brahma»as saying, ' Thus let it be '), 

32. He must dismiss the Brahma»as, with the 
Mantra, 'With all food 1 ,' after having honoured 
them according to custom, accompanied them (as 
far as the limits of his estate), and taken his leave 
of them. 

32. l Rig-veda VII, 38, 8. 



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238 VISRtfU. LXXIV, 1. 

LXXIV. 

1. After having worshipped, on each Ashfeka, the 
gods and performed, with vegetables, meat, and 
cakes respectively, a .Sraddha (according to the rules 
given in the last chapter), he must, on each Anvash- 
/aka 1 , worship the gods and offer a burnt-oblation in 
the same way as on the Ash/akas (i. e. reciting the 
same three Pan-£akas successively), and entertain 
Brahmawas in the same way as (directed) before (in 
the preceding chapter), in honour of his mother, his 
paternal grandmother, and his paternal great-grand- 
mother, honour them with presents, accompany them 
(as far as the limits of his estate), and dismiss them 2 . 

2. Then he must dig (six) trenches. 

3. On the border of these trenches, to the north- 
east of them, he must light fires and place balls of 
rice. 

4. On the border of three of the trenches (he must 
place balls) for the men, and on the border of the 
other three (he must place balls) for the women. 

LXXIV. 1-8. Asv. II, 5; Gobh. IV, 2; Par. Ill, 3, 10-12; 
<Sahkh. Ill, 13, 6; M. IV, 150. Regarding the corresponding 
section of the Ka/Aaka Gr«hya-sutra, see the Introduction. 

1. 'See LXXIII, 8, 9; LXXVI, 1. — 2 Nand. considers the 
use of the particle ka. to imply that the father together with the 
other paternal ancestors, and the maternal grandfather along with 
the other maternal ancestors, should also be invoked, which would 
make in all nine ancestors to be invoked. The first part of this 
observation appears to be correct, but the maternal grandfather and 
the rest are neither referred to in the following Sutras, nor in the 
Ka/Aaka Grchya-sutra. 

2. Nand. gives it as his opinion, that nine trenches should be 
made, three of which are to be for the maternal grandfather, Sec. 
But Sutra 4 refers to three trenches for the men only, and the 
Kanaka Grzhya-sutra expressly mentions the number of six 
trenches. 



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lxxv,5. srAddhas. 239 

5. He must fill the three trenches for the men 
with water mixed with food. 

6. (He must fill) the three trenches for the women 
with milk mixed with food. 

7. (And he must fill up) each triad of trenches 
singly with sour milk, meat, and milk. 

8. After having filled (the trenches), he must 
mutter the Mantra, ' May this (food) be imperishable 
for ye men and for ye women.' 

LXXV. 

1. He who makes a .Sraddha-offering while his 
father is alive, must offer it to those persons to 
whom his father offers (his •SVaddhas). 

2. (If he offers a .Sraddha) while both his father 
and grandfather are alive, (he must offer it to 
those persons) to whom his grandfather (offers his 
.SVaddhas). 

3. While his father, grandfather, and great- 
grandfather are alive, he must offer no •Sraddha 
at all. 

4. He whose father is dead (but whose grand- 
father is alive), must first of all offer a ball of rice to 
his father, after that, two balls to the two ancestors 
coming before his grandfather (or to his great-grand- 
father and to his fourth ascendant). 

5. He whose father and grandfather are dead 
(but whose great-grandfather is alive), must first 
offer two balls to those two, and then offer one ball 
to the grandfather of his grandfather. 

7. Nand. renders this Sutra differently, in accordance with his 
own theory regarding the number of the trenches. 

LXXV. 1. M. Ill, 220. — 4. M. Ill, 221. — 7. Y. I, 228. 



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240 VISHJVU. LXXV, 6. 

6. He whose grandfather is dead (but whose 
father and great-grandfather are alive), must give 
one ball to his grandfather and two balls to the 
father and grandfather of his great-grandfather. 

7. An intelligent man must offer £raddhas to 
his maternal grandfather, and to the father and 
grandfather of him, in the same way (as to his 
paternal ancestors), duly modifying the Mantras. 
But the .Sraddhas addressed to other relatives, 
(uncles, brothers, and the like, must be performed) 
without Mantras. 

LXXVI. 

1. The (twelve) days of new moon, the three 
Ash&ikas, the three Anvashfekas, a Magha day (i.e. 
' day on which the moon enters the lunar asterism 
Magha '), which falls on the thirteenth of the dark 
half of the month Praush^apada, and the two 
seasons when rice and barley grow ripe (or autumn 
and spring) : 

7. The Mantras are those quoted above, in Chapters LXXIII and 
LXXIV. They have to be modified, i. e. the names of the maternal 
ancestors must be put in, and the verb &c. of the sentence be 
altered accordingly. (Nand.) 

LXXVI. 1. M. Ill, 122, 273, 281 ; IV, 150; Y. I, 217, 260; 
Gaut. XV, 2; Apast. II, 7, 16, 4-6. 

1. Nand. infers from a passage of Asvalayana (Gnhya-sutra II, 
4, 3) that -Sriddhas to be offered on the day before each Ash/aka" 
are also intended here. See, however, note on LXXIII, 9. The 
same proposes two explanations of the term Might : 1. It has to 
be separated from the following words, and refers directly to the 
day of full moon in the month Migha, and indirectly to the days of 
full moon in Ash&dAa., Karttika, and Vauakha as well, as indicated 
in a passage of the Brabma-pur£«a. 2. It has to be connected with 
the clause following it. This latter interpretation, on which the 
rendering given above is based, is supported by Manu (III, 273, 274), 



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LXXVII, 9. SRADDHAS. 24 1 

2. Thus have the regular times for a SYaddha 
been declared by the lord of creatures. He who 
fails to perform a .Sraddha on those days, goes to 
hell. 

LXXVII. 

1. The sun's passage from one sign of the zodiac 
to another ; 

2. The two equinoctial points ; 

3. The two solstitial points particularly ; 

4. The (Yoga) Vyatip&ta ; 

5. The constellation under which (the sacrificer 
himself, or his wife, or his son) is born ; 

6. A time of rejoicing (as, when a son has been 
born, or another happy event happened) : 

7. These occasions for a SYaddha the lord of 
creatures has pronounced optional; a .SYaddha 
which is performed on these occasions gives infi- 
nite satisfaction (to the manes). 

8. No SYaddha must be performed in the twilight 
or at night by an intelligent man. A .Sraddha may 
be performed at those times also when an eclipse 
(of the sun or of the moon) takes place. 

9. For a Sraddha which is offered them at the 
time of an eclipse satisfies the manes, as long as 
the moon and the stars exist, and procures immense 
advantages and the satisfaction of all his desires to 
the sacrificer. 

Yog aavalkya (I, 260), according to the interpretations of Kulluka 
and Vi^inejvara, and by the Vishwu-sutra itself (LXXVIII, 52). 

vLXXVII. i-6, 9. Y. I, 217, 218. — 6. Xrv. IV, 7, r; Sankfe. 
IV, 4.-8. M.III, 280; Apast. II, 7, 17, 23, 25. 

4. This is the seventeenth among the twenty-seven Yogas or 
astrological divisions of the zodiac. (Nand.) 

7. The meaning is, that the .SrSddhas mentioned in this chapter 
are naimittika, ' occasional.' (Nand.) 

[7] R 



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242 VISHJVU. LXXVIII, r. 

LXXVIII. 

i. By performing a .Sraddha on Sunday he pro- 
cures everlasting freedom from disease. 

2. (By performing a .Sraddha) on Monday he 
becomes beloved 1 . 

3. (By performing it) on Tuesday (he procures) 
success in battle. 

4. (By performing it) on Wednesday (he enjoys) 
all his desires. 

5. (By performing it) on Thursday (he acquires) 
such religious knowledge as he desires. 

6. (By performing it) on Friday (he acquires) 
wealth. 

7. (By performing it) on Saturday (he procures) 
longevity. 

8. (By performing it under the Nakshatra or 
constellation) Krzttikis (he gains) heaven. 

LXXVIII. 8-35. M ; III, 277; Y. I, 264-267.— 36-50. M. Ill, 
276 ; Y. I, 261-263 ; Apast.II, 7, 16, 8-22; Gaut. XV, 4. — 52, 53. 
M. Ill, 273, 274. Regarding Sutras 1-7, see the Introduction. 

1. Nand. states that the -Sraddhas mentioned in this chapter are 
of the k&mya sort, i. e. ' offered for the gratification of a special 
desire.' 

2. 1 This is Nand.'s interpretation of the term saubh&gyam. It 
might also be taken in its usual acceptation, as meaning ' happiness.' 

8-35. Those names of the twenty-eight Nakshatras or lunar 
asterisms, which I have included in parentheses, are from Nand.'s 
Commentary. Most of the objects which are said to be gained by 
the Sr&ddhas mentioned in Sutras 8-35 are connected etymologi- 
cally, or through their import, with the names of the particular 
Nakshatras under which they are performed. Thus the term 
push/i, ' prosperity,' in Sutra 13, is etymologically connected with 
Pushya; the term mitra, 'friend,' in 22, is connected with Maitra; 
the term ra^yam, 'royalty,' in 23, is connected with Sakra, the 
name of that Nakshatra being derived from Sakra, a name of 
Indra, the king of the gods, &c. 



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LXXVIII, 24. - SRADDHAS. 243 

9. (By performing it under the constellation) 
Rohiw! (he obtains) progeny. 

10. (By performing it under the constellation) 
Saumya (or M>zga.riras he procures) the superhuman 
power of a pious Brahmawa. 

11. (By performing it under the constellation) 
Raudra (or Ardri he reaps) the fruit of his labours. 

12. (By performing it under the constellation) 
Punarvasu (he procures) land. 

13. (By performing it under the constellation) 
Pushya (or Tishya he procures) prosperity. 

14. (By performing it under the constellation) 
Sarpa (or Adeshas he obtains) beauty. 

15. (By performing it under the constellation) 
Paitrya (or Maghi he enjoys) all his desires. 

16. (By performing it under the constellation) 
Bhagya (or Purvaphalguni) he becomes beloved 1 . 

17. (By performing it under the constellation) 
Aryama«a (or Uttaraphalgun! he procures) wealth. 

18. (By performing it under the constellation) 
Hasta (he acquires) superiority among his kindred. 

19. (By performing it under the constellation) 
Tvash/ra (or -Afitra he procures) handsome sons. 

20. (By performing it under the constellation) 
Svati (he procures) success in trade. 

21. (By performing it under the constellation) 
Visakhas (he acquires) gold. 

22. (By performing it under the constellation) 
Maitra (or Anuradha he procures) friends. 

23. (By performing it under the constellation) 
6akra (or GyeshMl he procures) royalty. 

24. (By performing it under the constellation) 
Mula (he procures good results in) agriculture. 

16. 1 See 2, note. 
R 2 



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244 V1SHNV. LXXVIII, 85. 

25. (By performing it under the constellation) 
Apya (or Purvashaa^as he procures) success in 
sea-voyages. 

26. (By performing it under the constellation) 
Vaisvadeva (or Uttarashaa^as he enjoys) all his 
desires. 

27. (By performing it under the constellation) 
Abhifit (he procures) superiority. 

28. (By performing it under the constellation) 
•Sravawa (he enjoys) all his desires. 

29. (By performing it under the constellation) 
Vasava (or Dhanish^as he procures success in 
preparing) salt '. 

30. (By performing it under the constellation) 
Varu#a (or .Satabhisha he obtains) freedom from 
disease. 

31. (By performing it under the constellation) 
Kgz. ( or Purvabhadrapada he obtains ) copper 
vessels. 

32. (By performing it under the constellation) 
Ahirbudhnya (or Uttarabhadrapada he obtains) a 
house. 

33. (By performing it under the constellation) 
Paush#a (or Revati he acquires) cows. 

34. (By performing it under the constellation) 
Ajvina (or A^vinl he obtains) a horse. 

35. (By performing it under the constellation) 
Yamya (or Bhara»! he procures) longevity. 

36. (By offering it) on the first day of a lunar 
fortnight (he procures) a house and handsome 
wives. 



29. 'Lava«am means either 'salt' or 'beauty' or 'medicinal 
herbs and fruits.' (Nand.) 



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LXXVIII, 49. SRADDHAS. 245 

37. (By offering it) on the second day (he pro- 
cures) a beautiful daughter (and sons-in-law). 

38. (By offering it) on the third day (he enjoys) 
all his desires. 

39. (By offering it) on the fourth day (he pro- 
cures) cattle. 

40. (By offering it) on the fifth day (he procures) 
handsome sons. 

41. (By offering it) on the sixth day (he obtains) 
success in gaming. 

42. (By offering it) on the seventh day (he pro- 
cures good results in) agriculture. 

43. (By offering it) on the eighth day (he pro- 
cures success in) trade. 

44. (By offering it) on the ninth day (he procures) 
cattle \ 

45. (By offering it) on the tenth day (he procures) 
horses. 

46. (By offering it) on the eleventh day (he pro- 
cures) sons endowed with the superhuman power of 
a pious Brahmawa. 

47. (By offering it) on the twelfth day (he pro- 
cures) gold and silver. 

48. (By offering it) on the thirteenth day he be- 
comes beloved. 

49. (By offering it) on the fifteenth day (he 
enjoys) all his desires. 

44. 'Nand. infers from a passage of Ya^fiavalkya (I, 266) that 
the term ' cattle ' here refers to horses and other one-hoofed ani- 
mals. See, however, the next Sutra. 

48. The term saubhdgyam is stated by Nand. (with reference to 
Y. I, 264) to denote ' superiority among his kindred,' in this Sutra. 
But there is no cogent reason for deviating here from that interpre- 
tation of the term which he proposes in his Commentary on Sutras 
2 and 16. See above. 



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246 VISHNU. LXXVIII, 50. 



50. For Sraddhas for those who have been 
killed in battle the fourteenth day is ordained. 

51. There are two stanzas on this subject recited 
by the manes : 

52. ' May that excellent man be born to our race, 
whosoever he may be, who attentively offers a 
•SVaddha in the rainy season 1 on the thirteenth of 
the dark half, 

53. 'With milk profusely mixed with honey; and 
(he who offers such SVaddhas) during the whole 
month Karttika and (in the afternoon) when the 
shadow of an elephant falls towards the east.' 

LXXIX. 

1. He must not perform a .SVaddha with water 
collected at night. 

2. On failure of Kusa grass he must employ 
Kara, or Durva grass instead. 

3. Instead of a garment (he may give) cotton 
thread. 

4. He must avoid (giving) the fringe of cloth, 
though it be of cloth not yet used. 

5. And (he must not give) flowers having a nasty 
odour, or no odour at all, the blossoms of thorny 
plants, and red flowers. 

52. * The term pr&vn/k&le, ' in the rainy season,' probably refers 
to one month only of the rainy season, the month Bh&drapada or 
Praush/Aapada. See above, LXXVI, 1, and M. Ill, 273, 274, with 
Kulluka's Commentary ; Y. I, 260, with VigHSnefvara's Comment. 

LXXIX. 8, 16. M. Ill, 226, 227, 235, 257; Apast. II, 8, 19, 
19-22. — 19-21. M. Ill, 229. 

5. The use of the particle kz implies, according to Nand., who 
quotes a text in support of his assertion, that the leaves of the 
Kadamba, Bel, Ketaka, and Bakula trees, as well as those of the 
Barbara plant and of the thorn-apple tree, are also included in this 
prohibition. 



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lxxix, 16. srAddhas. 247 

6. He may give white and sweet-smelling flowers, 
even though grown on thorny plants, and aquatic 
flowers, even though they be red. 

7. He must not give marrow or fat instead of 
a lamp. 

8. He may give clarified butter or sesamum-oil. 

9. He must not give (the nails or horns) of 
animals instead of the incense of all kinds (pre- 
scribed for a .Sraddha). 

10. He may give bdellium mixed up with honey 
and clarified butter. 

11. He may give sandal, saffron, camphor, aloe 
wood, or Padmaka wood instead of 'an ointment. 

12. He must not salt (the dishes) publicly (after 
they have been cooked). 

13. He must not give clarified butter, condiments, 
or the like (i. e. sour milk, milk, &c.) with his hands. 

14. He must use metallic vessels ; 

15. Especially vessels made of silver. 

16. He must place (on the sacrificial ground) 
vessels made of the horn of the rhinoceros, blankets 
made of the hair of the mountain-goat, the skin of a 
black antelope, sesamum, white mustard, unbroken 
grains, (silver and copper vessels and other) purifi- 
catory objects, and (a goat and other animals or 
objects), by which the demons are kept aloof. 

7. 'Or mustard-oil or any other such substance, as ia. indi- 
cates.' (Nand.) 

8. ' Or the juice of plants, as mentioned by .Sankha, on account 
ofva.' (Nand.) 

13. He must give those liquids with a spoon or similar imple- 
ment. (Nand.) 

16. According to Nand., the particle ka, refers to other purifica- 
tory things, viz. the following seven, ' milk, water from the Ganges, 
honey, silken cloth, a grandson, blankets made of the hair of the 



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248 VISHJVU. LXX1X, 17. 

17. He must avoid to use pepper, (the onion 
called) Mukundaka, (the pot-herb called) Bhustrz'wa, 
(the leaves, blossoms, or roots of) the ^igru tree, 
mustard-seeds, (the plant) Nirgundl, (the fruit or 
leaves of) the .Sal tree, the plant Suvar^ali, the 
(pumpkin- gourd called) Kushma»afa, the bottle - 
gourd, the egg-plant, (the plants or pot-herbs called) 
Palakya, Upo/akt, and Tawafullyaka, the herbs of 
the safflower, the Piwaaluka (root), and the milk of 
female buffalos. 

18. And (he must not use the bean called) Ra^a- 
masha, (the lentil called) Masura, stale food, and 
factitious salt. 

19. Let him avoid wrath. 

20. He must not shed a tear. 

21. He must not be in a hurry. 

22. In offering the clarified butter and other 
(liquids, such as condiments, sour milk, milk, and 
the like) he must use metallic vessels, vessels made 
of the horn of the rhinoceros, and vessels made of 
the wood of the Phalgu tree. 

23. There is a vSloka on this subject : 

24. ' That which has been offered in vessels made 
of gold, or of silver, or of the horn of the rhinoceros, 
or of copper, or of Phalgu wood, becomes imperish- 
able (and brings infinite reward to the sacrificer).' 

mountain-goat, and sesamum.' The last two are, however, already 
contained in the above enumeration. 

17. The term 'buffalo's milk' includes here, according to a text 
quoted by Nand., the milk of sheep, of antelopes, of camels, and 
of all one-hoofed animals. 

18. 'As shown by kz,, chick-peas and other grains and herbs 
mentioned in a Smrrti must also be avoided.' (Nand.) 

19. 'This rule applies both to the sacrificer and to the guests at 
a Sraddha.' (Nand.) 



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LXXX, 14. SRADDHAS. 249 

LXXX. 

1. Sesamum, rice, barley, beans, water, roots, 
fruits, vegetables, vSyamaka grain, millet, wild rice, 
kidney-beans, and wheat satisfy (the manes) for a 
month ; 

2. The flesh of fishes (excepting those species 
that are forbidden), for two months; 

3. The flesh of the common deer, for three 
months ; 

4. The flesh of sheep, for four months ; 

5. The flesh of birds (of those kinds that may be 
eaten), for five months ; 

6. The flesh of goats, for six months ; 

7. The flesh of the spotted deer, for seven 
months ; 

8. The flesh of the spotted antelope, for eight 
months ; 

9. Beef, for nine months ; 

10. Buffalo's meat, for ten months ; 

11. The meat of a hornless goat, for eleven 
months ; 

12. The milk of a cow, or preparations from it, 
for a year. 

13. On this subject there exists a stanza, which 
the manes utter: 

14. '(The pot-herb) Kala^aka (sacred basil), (the 
prawn) Mahasalka, and the flesh of the (crane 
called) Vardhriwasa \ (and of) a rhinoceros having 
no horn, is food which we always accept.' 

LXXX. 1-14. M. Ill, 267-272 ; Y. I, 257-259 ; Apast. II, 7, 
16, 23-II, 7, 17, 3 ; II, 8, 18, 13 ; Gaut. XV, 15. 

14. ' This is the first of the two interpretations which Nand. pro- 
poses of the term Vdrdhrtwasa. It is supported by Apastamba's 



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250 VISHJVU. LXXXI, r. 

LXXXI. 

1. He must not place the food upon a chair. 

2. He must not touch it with his foot. 

3. He must not sneeze upon it. 

4. He must drive the Yatudhanas away by means 
of sesamum or mustard-seeds. 

5. Let him perform the .Sraddha in an enclosed 
place. 

6. He must not look at a woman in her courses ; 

7. Nor at a dog ; 8. Nor at a tame pig ; 

9. Nor at a tame cock. 

10. Let him strive to perform the 6raddha in 
sight of a goat. 

11. The Brahma«as must eat in silence. 

1 2. They must not eat with their heads covered ; 

13. Nor with shoes on their feet ; 

14. Nor with their feet placed upon a stool. 

15. Let not men with a limb too little, or with a 
limb too much, look at a .Sraddha ; 

16. Nor 6udras ; 1 7. Nor outcasts. 

commentator, Haradatta, and by Apastamba himself (I, 5, 17, 36). 
Nand's second interpretation, ' an old white goat,' is probably 
wrong, although it is supported by the authority of Kulluka and 
Vig'Mne.rvara. 

LXXXI. 2, 6-9, 11-13, 15, 16, 19. M. Ill, 229, 236-242. — 
4, 5. Gaut. XV, 25, 26. — 7, 16, 17. Apast. II, 7, 17, 20; Gaut. 
XV, 24. — 18. M. Ill, 243. — 20. M. Ill, 237. — 21-23. M. Ill, 
244-246. 

4. Nand. quotes the following Mantra, which has to be recited on 
this occasion, 'The Asuras, the Rikshasas, and the Plriias have been 
driven away.' A similar Mantra occurs in the Va^asan. Sawh. II, 29. 

5. ' Ka. indicates that it must be a place inclining to the south, 
as stated in a Smr/ti.' (Nand.) 

6. This and the following Sutras refer both to the host at a 
.Sraddha and to the guests invited by him. (Nand.) 



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LXXXII, i. SRADDHAS. 25 1 

18. If at the time of a .Sraddha a Brahmawa or 
an ascetic (has come to his house), he must feed 
him, if (the invited) Brahmawas permit it. 

19. The Brahma#as must not declare the quali- 
ties of the sacrificial dishes, even though asked to 
do so by their host. 

20. As long as the dishes remain warm, as long 
as (the Brahma«as) eat In silence, as long as the 
qualities of the sacrificial food are not declared by 
them, so long the manes enjoy it. 

21. Having brought together (the remainder of) 
all the sorts of substantial food and (of the vege- 
tables and) the like, he must sprinkle it with water, 
and place it before the Brahmawas, who have taken 
their meal, strewing it on the ground. ' 

22. The leavings (that have remained in the 
dishes) and what has been strewn (in the manner 
just mentioned) upon the blades of Kara grass 
(spread on the ground) is the share of such (Brah- 
ma«as) as have died before they were initiated, and 
of husbands who have deserted wives descended 
from good families. 

23. What has dropped on the ground from the 
dishes, at a sacrifice addressed to the manes, they 
declare to be the share of servants, provided they 
be not dishonest or depraved. 

LXXXII. 

1. At a (vSraddha) offering to the VLsvedevas let 
him not enquire (into the qualities or descent of) 
a Brahmawa (whom he means to invite). 

LXXXIL 1, 2. M. Ill, 149. — 3-29. M. Ill, 150-166; Y. I, 
222-224; Apast. II, 7, 17, 21; Gaut. XV, 16-18. 



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252 VISHAU. LXXXII, a. 

2. But at a (.SVaddha offering) to the manes he 
must enquire as closely as possible (into the 
qualities and descent of a Brahma«a, whom he 
means to invite). 

3. He must not invite (to a 6raddha) such as 
have a limb too little, or a limb too much ; 

4. Nor such as follow an occupation forbidden 
(by the Veda or by the traditional law) l . 

5. Nor those who act (deceitfully) like cats ; 

6. Nor those wearing the insignia of some parti- 
cular order, without having a claim to them ; 

7. Nor astrologers ; 

8. Nor Brahma#as who subsist upon the offerings 
made to an idol which they attend ; 

9. Nor physicians; 

10. Nor sons of an unmarried woman ; 

1 1. Nor sons of the son of an unmarried woman ; 

12. Nor those who sacrifice for a multitude of 
persons ; 

13. Nor those who offer sacrifices for a whole 
village ; 

14. Nor those who offer sacrifices for .Sudras ; 

15. Nor those who offer sacrifices for those for 
whom it is forbidden to sacrifice (such as outcasts 
and others); 

16. Nor those for whom the ceremony of initia- 
tion has not been performed ; 

1 7. Nor those who sacrifice for such ; 

4. ' The particle £a, according to Nand., in this Sutra, refers to 
other categories, mentioned by Atri, viz. persons belonging to the 
same Gotra, or descended from the same Rishi ancestors as the 
sacrificer, and unknown persons. 

8. ' JSTa indicates here that thieves and wicked persons are also 
intended, as stated in a Smr/'ti.' (Nand.) 



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LXXXIII, 2. SRADDHAS. 253 

18. Nor those who do work on holidays ; 

19. Nor malignant informers ; 

20. Nor those who teach (the Veda) for a fee ; 

21. Nor those who have been taught (the Veda) 
for a fee ; 

22. Nor those who subsist on food given to them 
by a .Sudra ; 

23. Nor those who have intercourse with an 
outcast ; 

24. Nor those who neglect their daily study of 
the Veda ; 

25. Nor those who neglect their morning and 
evening prayers ; 

26. Nor those who are in the king's service ; 

27. Nor ' naked ' persons ; 

28. Nor those who quarrel with their father ; 

29. Nor those who have forsaken their father, 
mother, Guru, holy fire, or sacred study. 

30. All those persons are said to defile a com- 
pany, because they have been expelled from the 
community of Brahma#as. Let a wise man avoid 
carefully, therefore, to entertain them at a vSraddha. 

LXXXIII. 

1 . The following persons sanctify a company : 

2. A Tri»a£iketa ; 

27. See LXIV, 5, note. 

29. The particle £a here refers to the following further persons 
mentioned in a Smn'ti : a shepherd, one who lives by the prostitution 
of his own wife, the husband of a woman who had another husband 
before, and one employed to carry out dead bodies. (Nand.) 
a LXXXIII. 1-19. M. Ill, 128-148, 183-186; Y. I, 219-221 ; 
Apast. II, 7, 17, 22; Gaut. XV, 28. 

2. Nand. has two explanations of the term Tri»&£iketa : 1. One 
who has thrice kindled the N&ftketa fire. 2. One who has studied, 



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254 VISHJVU. LXXXIII, 3. 

3. One who keeps five fires ; 

4. One who can sing the Samans called Gye- 
shMa ; 

5. One who has studied the whole Veda ; 

6. One who has studied one Vedinga ; 

7. One who has studied either the Pura«as 
(Legends), or the Itihasas (Epics), or grammar; 

8. One who has studied one of the Dharma^as- 
tras (Institutes of the Sacred Law); 

9. One purified by visiting sacred places of pil- 
grimage ; 

10. One purified by offering sacrifices ; 

11. One purified by austere devotion ; 

12. One purified by veracity ; 

13. One purified by (constantly muttering) Man- 
tras ; 

14. One intent upon muttering the Gayatrl ; 

1 5. One in whose family the study and teaching 
of the Veda are hereditary. 

16. One who knows the Trisupar«a (the text 
which thrice contains the word Suparwa). 

in consequence of a vow, the portion of the Ya^ur-veda called 
Triwaftketa. See Apast. II, 7, 17, 22, with Dr. Buhler's note, 
and the Petersburg Dictionary. 
4. Sama-veda II, 209-211, &c. 

7. Grammar is again mentioned here, although it forms part of 
the Veddhgas mentioned in Sutra 6. But there the Pr&twakhyas 
are meant. (Nand.) 

8. The number of the Smr/tis or Dharmaristras, according to 
Nand., amounts to fifty-seven. The now current tradition gives 
thirty-six as their number ; but upwards of a hundred works of 
this description must have been actually in existence. See Dr. 
Buhler's Introduction to the Bombay Digest, p. xii seq. 

16. See above, LVI, 23, and Dr. Buhler's note on Apast. loc.cit. 
Nand. proposes another interpretation also of the term Trisuparwa, 
' one who has thrice kindled a fire in honour of Supar»a.' 



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LXXXIV, 4. SRADDHAS. 255 

17. A son-in-law; 

18. And a grandson. All these persons are 
worthy (to be fed at a .Sraddha) ; 

19. And, particularly, devotees. 

20. There is a stanza recited by the manes, 
which refers to this subject : 

21. 'May that man be born to our race, who 
feeds a Brahmawa devotee assiduously at a .Sraddha, 
by which repast we are satisfied ourselves.' 

LXXXIV. 

1. He must not offer a .Sraddha in a country 
inhabited by barbarians. 

2. He must not visit a country inhabited by 
barbarians (excepting on a pilgrimage). 

3. By (constantly) drinking water frqm (or 
bathing in) a pool situated in a foreign (barbarous) 
country, he becomes equal to its inhabitants. 

4. Those countries are called barbarous (mlei- 
kka) where the system of the four castes does not 
exist ; the others are denoted Aryavarta (the abode 
of the Aryans). 

1 8. According to Nand., the particles ka. and iti refer to the sister's 
son and other relatives, as enumerated by Ya^fiavalkya 1, 220, 221. 

19. Nand. thinks that £a here refers to ascetics. 

LXXXIV. 2. Nand. quotes a stanza of Devala to the effect 
that one who has visited the countries of Sindh, of the Sauvfras, 
Surat, and the adjacent parts, Bengal proper, Kalinga, South Bihar, 
and Malwa requires to be initiated a second time. 

3. ' Kz. refers to pools belonging to .ffa»</alas or other degraded 
castes.' (Nand.) 

4. Aryavarta is the name of the whole tract of land which 
extends from the eastern to the western ocean, and is bounded by 
the Himalayas and by the Vindhya mountains in the north and 
south. See Manu II, 21, 22. 



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256 VISHJVU. LXXXV, I. 



LXXXV. 

1. A vSVaddha offered at the (Tlrtha or place of 
pilgrimage called) Pushkaras confers eternal bliss 
upon the giver; 

2. And so does the muttering of prayers, the 
offering of burnt-oblations, and the practice of 
austerities in that place. 

3. Even by merely bathing at Pushkara he is 
purified from all his sins. 

4. The same effect may be produced at (7aya- 
^irsha ; 

5. And near Va/a (Akshayava/a) ; 

6. And on the Amaraka#/aka mountain; 

7. And on the Varaha mountain ; 

LXXXV. 1. Pushkara, according to the common acceptation 
of the term, is the name of a celebrated place of pilgrimage near 
A^mtr, the modern Pokur. See Lassen, Indian Antiquities, I, 
113. Nand. quotes a Smr/'ti passage to the effect that there are 
three Pushkaras, and a passage of the Mahabharata, in which it is 
stated that one Pushkara is sacred to Brahman, another to Vishwu, 
and a third to Rudra. 

3. Nand. asserts with regard to the use of the name Pushkara 
in the singular number in this Sutra, that it means even a single 
bath has the consequence here mentioned. 

4. Gayarirsha is the name of a mountain near Gaya in Bihar, 
a celebrated place of pilgrimage. Compare Va^aavalkya I, 260. 

5. There exists one Akshayava/a in Bihar (Nand.) and another 
in Prayaga (Allahabad). The ' undecaying banyan-tree ' (Akshay 
Ba/) is an object of worship at Allahabad even now, and was so 
already in the times of Hwen Thsang. See Cunningham, Ancient 
Geography of India, p. 389 ; St. Julien, Voyages des Pelerins 
Bouddhistes, II, 278. 

6. Nand. states that both the Tirtha called Amaraka«/aka on 
the Mekala mountain in the Vindhya range and the whole moun- 
tain of that name are meant 

7. 'This is a certain boar-shaped mountain.' (Nand.) It seems 
very probable that the Tirtha of Baramula, the ancient Varaha- 



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lxxxv, 23. srAddhas. 257 

8. And anywhere on the bank of the Narmada 
(Nerbudda) river; 

9. And on the bank of the Yamuna (Jumna) ; 

10. And, particularly, on the Ganga; 

11. And at Kuyavarta ; 

12. And at Binduka; 13. And upon the Nllgiri 
hills; 14. And at Kanakhala; 15. And at Kub- 
,£amra ; 16. And on the Bhrzgutunga (mountain) ; 
17. And at Kedara; 18. And on the Mahalaya 
(mountain) ; 19. ' And on the Naafantika (river) ; 20. 
And on the Sugandha (river) ; 21. And at 6akam- 
bharl; 22. And at Phalgutlrtha ; 23. And on the 



mula in Kafmtr, is meant See Biihler, Karmir Report, p. 12, 
where a ' Variha hill ' is mentioned as adjacent to that town. 

11. This Ttrtha 'is situated upon the mountain called Tryam- 
baka, where the Godivart river takes its rise.' (Nand.) Tryambaka 
is the modern Trimbak (the name of a place of pilgrimage situated 
near N&sik). 

12. ' Binduka is the name of a Tirtha in the Dekhan. Bilvaka, 
as other texts read (the MS. on which the two Calcutta editions 
are based among the number), is the name of another Tirtha in 
the Dekhan.' (Nand.) 

14. There is one Kanakhala in the Himalayas, and another 
near Trimbak. (Nand.) 

15. There is one plain of that name in Orissa, and another in 
HaridvSr. (Nand.) 

16. This is the name of a sacred mountain near the Amara- 
ka»/aka range, according to Nand. ; in the Himalayas, according to 
others. See the Petersburg Dictionary. 

17. Kedara (the Kedar mountains?) is in the Himalayas. (Nand.) 

18. 19. These two names are not defined by Nand. 

20. This is a river in the vicinity of the Saugandhika mountain. 
(Nand.) 

21. <S$kambhari is the modern Shambar, which lies 'in the 
desert of Marud&ra, on the salt lake.' (Nand.) 

22. 'Phalguttrtha is a Tfrtha in Gay!' (Nand.) 

23. MahigangS, 'the great Ganga,' is the Alakananda river 

[7] S 



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258 VISHJVU. LXXXV, 24. 

Mahaganga; 24. And at Trihalikagrama ; 25. 
And at Kumaradhara; 26. And at Prabhasa ; 27. 
And particularly anywhere on (the bank of) the 
Sarasvati ; 

28. At Garigadvara (Haridvar), at Prayaga (Alla- 
habad), where the Gariga falls into the ocean, 
constantly in the Naimisha forest, and especially 
at Benares,; 

29. And at Agastya^rama ; 

30. And at Ka«vayrama (on the Malini river) ; 

31. And on the Kamiki (Kosi river) ; 

32. And on the bank of the Sarayu (Surju river 
in Oudh) ; 

33. And on the confluence of the Sona. (Sone) 
and (Jyotisha rivers ; 

34. And on the 6riparvata (mountain) ; 

(Nand.), which takes its rise in the Himalayas and falls into the 
Ganges. 

24. ' Trihalikagrima means .Salagrlma. There is another 
reading, Taw<ftilika\rrama.' (Nand.) 

25. This is the name of a lake in Katmtr, which the god Ku- 
mara by a mighty stroke caused to stream forth from the Kraufl^a 
mountain (see Vayu-purdwa) ; or Kumaradh&ra is situated near the 
southern ocean in the plain of Ishupata. (Nand.) 

26. Prabhisa is the name of a Tirtha near Dviraka> on the 
western point of Kattivar. (Nand.) 

27. Regarding the river Sarasvati and its reputed holiness, see 
particularly Cunningham, Ancient Geography of India, I, 331 seq., 
and Manu II, 17. 

28. The Naimisha forest is in the northern country. (Nand.) 

29. ' Agasty&r rama is situated near Pushkara (Sutra 1), on the 
bank of the Sarasvatt. There is another Agastya\?rama in the 
south, near Svamisthana.' (Nand.) 

33. The confluence of those two rivers is in the centre of the 
Vindhya range. For the name of the second, another reading is 
Gyotfratha. (Nand.) 

34. The .SWparvata or -Srfeaila, where the MallikSrguna (symbol 
of Siva) is worshipped, is in the Dekhan. (Nand.) 



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xxxxv, 53. srAddhas. 259 

35. And at (the Tirtha situated on the Yamuna, 
which is called) Kalodaka. 

36. And at Uttaramanasa (in the Kedar moun- 
tains, in the Himalayas). 

37. And at Vadava (in the Dekhan). 

38. And at Matangavap! (in the southern part 
of Gaya); 

39. And at Saptarsha ; 40. And at Vishmipada; 

41. And at Svargamargapada (or JRathamarga) ; 

42. And on the Godavar! river (in the Dekhan); 

43. And on the Gomatl (river) - ; 

44. And on the Vetravati (river) ; 

45. And on the Vip&sa (river) ; 

46. And on the Vitasta (river) ; 

47. And on the banks of the .Satadru (river); 

48. And on the JTandrabhaga (river) ; 

49. And on the Iravatl (river) ; 

50. And on the banks of the Indus ;■ 

51. And on the southern Panianada; 

52. And at Ausa^a (?) ; 

53. And at other such Tlrthas; 

39. SaptSrsha, ' the Tirtha of the seven ifo'shis' (Nand.), is per- 
haps the present Satara, in the country of the Mahrattas. 

40. Nand. places this Tirtha in the centre of Gay£. There is 
another of the same name, which is placed on the Kail&sa mountain. 

43. The Gomatl (the Gunti, near Lucknow) rises in the Nai- 
misha forest. (Nand.) See 28. 

44. The Vetravati (the modern Betwah, near Bhilsah) is situ- 
ated in Ahi^Aattra. (Nand.) 

45-49. The Vipa\r& (Beas), Vitasta - (Thelum or Behut), Satadru 
(Sutlej), -ffandrabh£g& (Chenab), and Mvatl (Ravee) are the five 
rivers of the Pan^db (Paflianada in Sanskrit). 

51. This is the name of the confluence of five rivers in the 
Dekhan : the Krc'shad, Ve»S, Tunga, BhadrS, and Ko«a. (Nand.) 

52. 'Ausa^a (v. 1. Au^asa; read Auriga?) means Surptraka' 
(Nand.), which was situated probably on the mouth of the KrishnU 
(Kistna). 

S 2 



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260 VISHJVU. LXXXV, 54. 

54. And on the banks of (other) holy rivers ; 

55. And anywhere at the birth-place of a deity, 
(such as Rama, Krishna, and others) ; 

56. And on sand-banks ; 57. And near water- 
falls ; 58. And on mountains ; 59. And in arbours 
(the sporting-places of Krishna.) ; 60. And in 
woods; 61. And in groves; 62. And in houses 
smeared with cow-dung ; 63. And in 'pleasant spots.' 

64. There are some stanzas recited by the manes, 
which refer to this subject : 

65. ' May that person be born to our race, who 
will give us libations of water, taken from streams 
abounding with water, especially if their floods 
(coming from the Himalayas) are cool. 

66. ' May that excellent man be born to our race, 
who offers us a 6raddha attentively at Gayaslrsha 
or at Va/a.' 

6 j. A man must wish to have many sons, be- 
cause if only one of them goes to Gaya (and offers a 
6raddha to him after his death), or if he performs 
a horse-sacrifice, or if he sets a dark-coloured bull 
at liberty 1 , (he will acquire final emancipation 
through him.) 

LXXXVI. 

1. Now follows the ceremony of setting a bull at 
liberty, (which should take place) 

2. On the days of full moon in Karttika or Arvina. 

3. When performing this rite, he must first ex- 
amine the bull. 

6.5. The term manq^fla, 'a pleasant spot,' means 'a place close 
by the house, where sacred basil is planted,' or other such places. 
(Nand.) 

67. * See the next chapter. 

LXXXVI. 1-18. P£r. Ill, 9 ; ^ahkh. Ill, 11. Regarding the cor- 
responding section of the Kanaka Grrhya-sutra, see Introduction. 



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lxxxvi,i2. srAddhas. 261 

4. (The bull must be) the offspring of a milch 
cow having young ones living. 

5. He must have all marks. 

6. He must be dark-coloured; 

7. Or red, but having a white mouth, a white 
tail, and white feet and horns. 

8. He must be one who protects the herd. 

9. Then, after having (kindled) a blazing fire 
among the cows (in the cow-pen) and strewed Kara 
grass around it, let him boil with milk a dish sacred 
to Pushan, and offer (two oblations) in the fire with 
the Mantras, ' May Pushan follow our cows V and 
' Here is pleasure V And let a blacksmith mark the 
bull: 

10. On the one flank (the right), with a discus ; 
on the other flank (the left), with a trident. 

11. After he has been marked, let him wash the 
bull with the four Mantras, (beginning with the 
words), ' The golden-coloured V and with (the five 
Mantras, beginning with the words), ' May the 
divine (waters help and propitiate us') 2 . 

1 2. Having washed and adorned the bull, he must 
bring him near, together with four young cows, 

5. 'I.e. the bull must not be deficient in any limb.' (Nand.) 
This interpretation is supported by the Gnhya-sutras. 

6. Nand. mentions two interpretations of the term ntla, ' dark- 
coloured:' 1. a bull who is all white, and is therefore said to be of 
the ' Brahma»a kind ;' 2. one whose body is white, whereas his tail, 
his hoofs, and his face are black, and his horns blue. Cf. L, 25. 

8. Nand. interprets ytithasySM&dakam by nishektaram, ' one 
who covers the cows.' My rendering is based upon Devapala's 
comment on the corresponding passage of the Kanaka Gnhya- 
sutra. See also Par. and iahkh. loc. cit 

a 9. 'Rig-vedaVI, 54, 5, &c. — 'Vagas. Sarah. VIII, 51 j KaV/5. 
Ajv. IV, 6, &c. 

11. ' Taitt Sarah. V, 6, 1, 1, 2, &c. — 2 Rig-veda X, 9, 4-8, &c. 



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262 VISHJVU. LXXXVI, 13. 

which must also have been washed and decorated, 
and he must mutter the Rudras \ the Purushasukta, 
and the KushmaWls a . 

13. Then let him pronounce in the bull's right 
ear the Mantra, ' The father of calves;' 

14. And the following (Mantras) : 

15. ' Holy law is a bull and is declared to have 
four feet 1 : him I choose for the object of my wor- 
ship ; may he protect me wholly. 

16. 'This young (bull) I give you as husband 
(O ye calves), roam about sportingly with him for 
your lover. May we not be deficient in progeny, O 
king Soma, and may we live long, and may we not 
be oppressed by our enemies.' 

1 7. He must drive away the bull together with 
the calves in a north-eastern direction and give a 
pair of garments, gold, and a vessel made of white 
copper to the officiating priest. 

18. The blacksmith shall receive as wages as 
much as he claims, and food prepared with a great 
deal of butter, and (three) Brdhma^as shall be fed. 

19. Any pool from which the bull drinks after 



12. x Taitt. Sarah. IV, 5, i-n. — 2 See LVI, 7. 

13. Nand. states expressly that this Mantra is from the KaVAaka. 
It is found Ka/A. XIII, 9 ; Taitt. Sarah. HI, 3, 9, 2 ; K&tA. Gnhya- 
sutra XLVII. 

15. 'This term refers perhaps to the 'four feet of a judicial 
proceeding.' See Nirada i, n; 2, 9. 

16. Taitt. Sarah. Ill, 3, 9, 1, &c. The second half of this Mantra 
is found in the Kanaka Gnhya-sutra only. 

18. The clause regarding the ' food,' which has been rendered 
in accordance with Nand.'s Commentary, might also be construed 
with ' fed,' which would bring the whole into accordance with the 
precepts of the Kanaka Gnhya-sutra and of the two other Grrhya- 
sutras. 



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LXXXVII, 5. PIOUS GIFTS. 263 

having been set at liberty, that entire pool will 
refresh the manes of him who has set the bull at 
liberty. 

20. The earth which is anywhere dug up by the 
bull exulting in his strength, is converted into 
delicious food and drink to satisfy the manes. 

LXXXVII. 

1. Now on the day of full moon in the month 
Vaisakha he must spread out upon a' woollen blanket 
the skin of a black antelope (together with the horns 
and hoofs), after having adorned the former with 
gold and the latter with silver, and after having 
ornamented the tail with a string of pearls. 

2. After that, he must cover (that part of the 
blanket which is not covered by the skin) with 
sesamum. 

3. And he must adorn the navel with gold. 

4. He must cover (the skin) with a couple of new 
garments. 

5. He must place all sorts of perfumes and jewels 
upon it. 

LXXXVII. 1. The particle atha, 'now,' indicates the begin- 
ning of a new section, treating of gifts. It comprises Chapters 
LXXXVII-XCIII. (Nand.) The commentator infers from a corres- 
ponding passage of the Matsya-pura«a, that the following further 
rules are implied in this Sutra. The ceremony may also take place 
on the full moon days in the months Magha, Karttika, and AshadAa, 
on the twelfth day after the summer solstice, and during an eclipse of 
the sun or moon The silver on the hoofs must weigh five Palas, 
and the gold on the horns ten Suvarwas (or two Palas and a half). 
The place must be pure, smeared with cow-dung, and covered 
with Kara grass. 

3. ' The Skanda-puriba states that the eyes must be adorned 
with jewels.' (Nand.) 

5. ' And garlands of flowers and other objects must be placed 
upon it, as £a indicates.' (Nand.) 



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264 VISHJVU. LXXXVII, 6. 

6. After having placed on its four sides (begin- 
ning with the eastern side) four metallic dishes 
(of copper, silver, white copper, and gold respec- 
tively) filled with milk, sour milk, honey, and clari- 
fied butter respectively, (and having poured out 
water) he must give (the skin, seizing it by the tail), 
to a Brahma#a, who is an Agnihotrin \ decked with 
ornaments, and clad in two garments. 

7. There are (the following) stanzas in regard to 
this subject : 

8. ' He who bestows (upon a pious Brahma«a) 
the skin of a black antelope, together with the hoofs 
and horns, after having covered it with seeds of 
sesamum and garments, and adorned it with all 
sorts of jewels : 

9. ' That man doubtless obtains the same reward 
as if he were to bestow the whole earth on him, 
bordered as it is on every side (by the oceans), 
together with the oceans and caverns, and with 
rocks, groves, and forests. 

10. ' He who places sesamum, gold, honey, and 
butter on the skin of a black antelope and gives the 
whole to a Brahma«a, annihilates the consequences 
of all his own evil actions.' 

LXXXVIII. 

1. A cow in the act of bringing forth a young 
one is (comparable to) the earth. 

2. By bestowing such a cow upon a Brahma«a, 
after having decked her with ornaments, he obtains 
the same reward as if he were to bestow the earth 
(upon him). 

6. > See LXVIII, 6, note. 

LXXXVIII. 1. Y. I, 207. — 4. Y. I, 206. 



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XC, 2. PIOUS GIFTS. 265 

3. There is a stanza in regard to this subject : 

4. ' One who full of faith and with intense appli- 
cation of mind gives away a pregnant cow, enters 
heaven for as many Yugas (or ages of the world) as 
that cow and her calf together have hairs on their 
bodies.' 

LXXXIX. 

1. The month Karttika is sacred to the god 
Agni. 

2. Agni is the first of all gods. 

3. Therefore is that man purified from every sin 
committed during the past year, who persists during 
the month Karttika in bathing (daily) out of the 
village, in muttering the Gayatri, and in taking a 
single meal each day, consisting of food fit for 
oblations. 

4. He who bathes (at the prescribed time, early 
in the morning) constantly, during the whole month 
Karttika, who keeps his organs of sense under con- 
trol, who mutters (the Gayatri), who eats food fit for 
oblations only, and who governs his passions, is 
purified from every sin. 

XC. 

1. If on the fifteenth of the bright half of the 
month Margartrsha the moon enters the lunar as- 
terism Mr?ga^iras, he must give at the time when 
the moon rises (a vessel with) a golden centre, con- 
taining a Prastha of ground salt, to a Brahma#a. 

2. By (performing) this rite he obtains beauty 
and good fortune in a future birth. 

XC. 3, 5. Apast II, 8, 18, 19 ; II, 8, 19, 1. — 7. M. IV, 232. 
1. One Prastha = sixteen Palas. (Nand.) 



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266 vishjvu. xc, 3. 

3. If on the full moon day of the month Pausha 
the moon enters the lunar asterism Pushya, he must 
rub over his body with a dough prepared with white 
mustard-seeds, anoint himself with a kumbha 1 of 
clarified butter made of cow-milk, wash himself with 
(water and with) all sorts of medicinal herbs, all 
sorts of perfumes, and all sorts of seeds, wash (an 
image of) Bhagavat Vasudeva (Vish#u) with clari- 
fied butter, and worship him with perfumes, flowers, 
incense, with a lamp, with eatables, and the like 2 , 
offer an oblation in the fire with Mantras tending to 
the praise of Vish»u (such as Rig-veda I, 22, 17, and 
others), Mantras tending to the praise of Indra 
(such as Rig-veda VI, 47, 11, and others), Mantras 
tending to the praise of Brzhaspati (such as Rig- 
veda II, 23, 15, and others, and with one Mantra 
tending to the praise of Agni Svish/akrzt), and 
cause three Brahma«as to pronounce the benedic- 
tion, after having bestowed clarified butter and gold 
upon them 3 . 

4. To the priest (who has performed the burnt- 
oblation for him) he must give a pair of garments. 

5. By (performing) this rite he obtains prosperity 
(pushyate) *. 

6. If on the full moon day in the month Magha 
the moon enters the lunar asterism Magha and he 
performs a .Sraddha with sesamum on that day, he 
is purified. 

3. ' See V, 1 2, note. — * ' And the like ' means ' betel.' (Nand.) — 
3 The rite described in this Sutra appears to be identical with 
the ceremony called Yug&dya, ' the beginning of the present age 
of the world,' in later works. See Wilson, On the Religious Festi- 
vals of the Hindus, in the Royal Asiatic Society's Journal, IX, 89. 

5. ] This is a play upon words. See LXXVIII, 8, note, and 
below, Sutra 9; XCII, 14, &c. 



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XC, 14. PIOUS GIFTS. 267 

7. If on the full moon day in the month Phalguna 
the moon enters the lunar asterism Uttaraphalgunt, 
and he gives on that day a bedstead, quite com- 
plete and covered with good rugs, to a Brahmawa, he 
obtains an amiable, handsome, and wealthy wife. 

8. A woman who does the same, (obtains) a hus- 
band (possessing those qualities). 

9. If on the full moon day of the month Aaitra 
the moon enters the lunar asterism .Antra, and he 
gives a variegated (/fcitra) garment (to a Brahma#a) 
on that day, he obtains good fortune. 

10. If on the full moon day of the month Vaisakha 
the moon enters the lunar asterism Visakha, and he 
feeds on that day seven Brahma«as with sesamum 
mixed with honey, in order to please king Dharma, 
he is purified from his sins. 

11. If on the full moon day of the month 
Gyaish/^a the moon enters the lunar asterism 
Gyesh/^a and he gives on that day an umbrella 
and a pair of shoes (to a Brahmawa), he becomes 
possessed of many cows. 

12. If on the full moon day of the month 
Ashaa^a the moon is seen in conjunction with the 
lunar asterism Uttarashad^a and he gives food and 
drink (to a Brahma«a) on that day, he renders (the 
satisfaction effected by) them imperishable. 

13. If on the full moon day of the month 
•5rava#a the moon is seen in conjunction with the 
lunar asterism £rava#a and he gives a milch cow 
covered with two garments, together with food (to 
a Brahmawa), he attains heaven. 

14. If on the full moon day of the month Praush- 

7. Susawskn'ta, 'quite complete,' means 'provided with curtains 
and the like.' (Nand.) 



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268 VISHJVU. XC, 15. 

/^apada (or Bhadrapada) the moon is seen in con- 
junction with the lunar asterism Uttaraprosh/^apadi 
(or Uttarabhadrapada), and he gives a cow (to a Brah- 
mawa) on that day, he is cleansed from every sin. 

15. If on the full moon day of the month Asva- 
yufa (or Asvina) the moon is seen in conjunction 
with the lunar asterism Arvint, and he gives a vessel 
filled with clarified butter, and gold (to a Brahma#a) 
on that day, he obtains an excellent digestive faculty. 

16. If on the full moon day of the month 
Karttika the moon enters the lunar asterism Kn't- 
tika, and he bestows on that day, at the time of 
moonrise, upon a Brahma#a, a white bull, or one 
of a different colour, together with all sorts of 
grains, all sorts' of jewels, and all sorts of perfumes, 
after having lighted lamps on both sides (of the 
bull), he will meet with no danger on perilous roads. 

17. If on the third day of the bright half of the 
month Vaisakha he worships, after having fasted, 
Vasudeva (Vishmi) with (one thousand and eight, 
or one hundred) unbroken grains (of barley, while 
muttering the Mantra, Om namo bhagavate vasu- 
devaya '), and offers up the same in fire, and gives 
them (to a Brahma«a), he is purified from every 
sin. 

1 8. And whatever he gives on that day becomes 
imperishable. 

19. If on the twelfth day of the dark half fol- 
lowing on the full moon day of the month Pausha, 
he washes himself, after having kept a fast, with 
sesamum-seeds, gives water mixed with sesamum 



17. 1 See XLIX, 1, note. 

19. This is evidently the ceremony which is called Sha/tilad&na 



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XC, 26. PIOUS GIFTS. 269 

(to the manes), worships Vasudeva with sesamum, 
offers up (part of) the same in fire, gives to Brah- 
ma#as of it, and eats (the remainder himself) he is 
purified from his sins. 

20. (If) on the twelfth day of the dark half follow- 
ing on the full moon day of the month Magha, (the 
moon enters .Sravawa), he must keep a fast till the 
moon has entered that asterism, and place two lamps 
with two large wicks near (an image of) Vasudeva ; 

21. Placing on the right hand (of the image of 
Vasudeva, and kindling, a lamp) containing one 
hundred and eight Palas of clarified butter, with an 
entire piece of cloth (together with the fringes) dyed 
with saffron (as wick) in it ; 

22. (And placing) on its left, (and kindling, a lamp) 
containing one hundred and eight Palas of sesamum 
oil, with an entire piece of white cloth (as wick) 
in it. 

23. He who has performed this rite obtains ex- 
quisite happiness, in whatever kingdom, in whatever 
province, and in whatever race he may be born 
again. 

24. He who gives daily during the whole month 
A^vina clarified butter to Brahmarcas, in order to 
please the two Axvins, obtains beauty. 

25. He who feeds daily during that month 
(three) Brahma«as with (milk and other) bovine 
productions, obtains a kingdom. 

26. He who feeds on the Revati day of every 
month (three) Brahma»as with rice boiled in milk 

in later works ; see Wilson loc. cit. The name of the latter is 
derived from the fact that it consists, precisely like the ceremony 
described in the present Sfitra, of six acts, in all of which Tila, i. e. 
sesamum-seede, forms an essential ingredient. 



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27O VISHNU. XC27. 

with sugar and mixed with honey and clarified 
butter, in order to please (the goddess) Revati, 
obtains beauty. 

27. He who daily throughout the month Magha 
offers sesamum-seeds in fire and feeds (three) Brah- 
ma«as with sour rice-gruel mixed with clarified 
butter, obtains an excellent digestive power. 

28. He who bathes in a river and worships king 
Dharma on the fourteenth of both halves of every 
month, is purified from every sin. 

29. One desirous of obtaining the manifold ad- 
vantages attending an eclipse of the sun or moon 
must constantly bathe in the mornings during the 
two months Magha and Phalguna. 

XCI. 

1. The digger of a well has (the consequences 
of) the half of his evil acts taken from him as soon 
as the water comes forth from it. 

2. A digger of pools is for ever freed from thirst, 
and attains the world of Vanma. 

3. A giver of water shall never suffer from thirst 
(in heaven, for a hundred Yugas or ages of the 
world). 

4. He who plants trees will have those trees for 
his sons in a future existence. 

5. A giver of trees gladdens the gods by (offer- 
ing up) their blossoms to them. 

6. (He gladdens) his guests by (giving) their 
fruits to them ; 

7. (He gladdens) travellers with their shade ; 

XCI. 14. Y. I, an. — 15, 16. M. IV, 229.— 17, 18. Y. I, 209. 



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XCII, r. PIOUS GIFTS. 271 

8. (He gladdens) the manes with the water 
(trickling down from their leaves) when it rains. 

9. A maker of dikes attains heaven. 

10. A builder of temples enters the dwelling- 
place of that deity to whom he has erected a 
temple. 

11. He who causes (a temple erected by another) 
to be whitewashed acquires brilliant fame. 

12. He who causes (such a temple) to be painted 
with (a different) colour (such as blue, yellow, and 
others) attains the world of the Gandharvas. 

13. By giving flowers he becomes fortunate. 

1 4. By giving ointments he acquires renown. 

1 5. By giving a lamp he obtains an excellent eye- 
sight and exquisite happiness. 

16. By giving food he obtains strength, 

17. By removing the remains of an offering to 
a deity he obtains the same reward as for giving a 
cow. 

18. The same reward is also obtained by scour- 
ing a temple, by smearing it (with cow-dung and 
the like), by removing the leavings of the food of a 
Brahmawa, by washing his feet, and by nursing him 
when sick. 

19. He who consecrates anew a well, or a park, 
or a pool, or a temple (when they have been soiled) 
obtains the same reward as he who first made 
them. 

XCII. 

1. Protecting (one attacked by robbers, or by 
tigers, or otherwise in danger) is more meritorious 
than any (other) gift. 

XCII. 1, 2. M. IV, 232 ; Y. I, 211. — 3. M. IV, 230. — 5. M. 



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272 VISHATU. XCII, 2. 

2. By doing so he obtains that place of abode 
(after death) which he desires himself. 

3. By giving land he obtains the same (heavenly 
reward). 

4. By giving land to the extent of a bull's hide 
only he is purified from every sin. 

5. By giving a cow he attains heaven. 

6. A giver of ten milch cows (obtains) the man- 
sion of cows (after death). 

7. A giver of a hundred milch cows enters the 
mansions of Brahman (after death). 

8. He who gives (a milch cow) with gilt horns, 
with hoofs covered with silver, with a tail wound 
with a string of pearls, with a milk-pail of white 
copper, and with a cover of cloth, shall reside in 
heaven for as many years as the cow has hairs on 
her body ; 

9. Particularly, if it is a brown cow. 

10. He who has given a tamed bull is (equal in 
virtue to) a giver of ten milch cows. 

IV, 231; Y. I, 208. — 8, 9. Y. I, 204, 205. — 10. Y. I, 210. — 
10-12. M. IV, 231. — 12, 13. Y. I, 210. — 13, 14. M. IV, 230. 
— 19,20. M. IV, 232 ; Y. I, 211. — 21-23. M. IV, 229, 232. — 
21. Y. I, 210. — 27. M. IV, 232; Y. I, 211. — 28-32. Y. I, 
211. — 31. M. IV, 230. 

4. Nand. defines ' a bull's hide ' as a measure of surface 300 
Hastas (see X, 2, note) long by ten Hastas broad. See, however, 

V, 183. 

8. According to a Smn'ti quoted by Nand., the gold upon the 
horns of the cow shall weigh ten Suvar»as, the silver on her hoofs 
ten Palas, the white copper of which the milk -pail is made fifty 
Palas, and she shall have copper on her back, which must also 
weigh fifty Palas. 

9. ' The meaning is, that a brown cow sends even his ancestors 
as far as the seventh degree to heaven, as Ya^navalkya (I, 205) 
says.' (Nand.) 



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XCII, 37. PIOUS GIFTS. 273 

11. The giver of a horse attains the mansion of 
Surya (the sun-god). 

1 2. The giver of a garment (attains) the mansion 
of Aandra (the god of the moon). 

J 3- By gi ym g g°ld (he attains) the mansion of 
Agni (the god of fire). 

14. By giving silver (rupya, he obtains) beauty 

(rupa)- 

15. By giving dishes (patra) made of (gold or 

silver or other) metal he renders himself worthy 
(patra) to obtain everything he may desire. 

16. By giving clarified butter, honey, or oil (he 
acquires) freedom from disease ; 

17. The same by giving (boiled or otherwise 
dressed) drugs. 

18. By giving salt (lava#a, he obtains) personal 
charms (lava#ya). 

19. By giving grain (produced in the rainy sea- 
son, such as £y4maka grain, he acquires) satiation ; 

20. The same (effect is obtained) by giving grain 
(produced in winter or spring, such as wild turmeric 
or wheat). 

21. A giver of food (obtains) all the rewards 
(enumerated above). 

22. By giving grain (of any of the kinds not 
mentioned before, such as Kulattha or Kodrava 
grain, he obtains) good fortune. 

23. A giver of sesamum (obtains) such offspring 
as he desires. 

24. A giver of fuel (obtains) an excellent diges- 
tive power; 

25. And he obtains victory in every fight. 

26. By giving a seat (he obtains) high rank. 

27. By giving a bed (of the kind declared above, 
111 T 



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2 74 VISHJVU. XCII, 28. 

XC, 7, he procures) a wife (possessed of the qualities 
mentioned above). 

28. By giving a pair of shoes (he obtains) a 
carriage yoked with mules. 

29. By giving an umbrella (he attains) heaven. 

30. By giving a fan or a chowrie (he obtains) 
prosperity in travelling. 

31. By giving a house (he receives) the post of 
governor of a town. 

32. Whatever a man is most fond of in this 
world (himself) and what his family like best, all 
that he must bestow upon a virtuous (Brahma»a), 
if he wishes it to become imperishable. 

XCIII. 

1. What is given to another than a Brahmawa 
produces the same fruit in the world to come. 

2. (What is given) to one who calls himself a 
Brahma#a (because he was born and initiated as 
such, but who does not perform his daily duties) 
produces twice the same fruit. 

3. (What is given) to one who has studied the 
main portions of the Veda produces a thousand 
times the same fruit. 

XCIII. 1-4. M. VII, 85; Gaut.V,2o. — 7. M. IV, 192. — 8. M. 
IV, 195. — 9-13. M. IV, 196-200. 

1. 'The term abrahmawa (one not a Brahmawa) refers to Ksha- 
triyas and the like.' KuMka on M.VII, 85. Dr.BUhler's render- 
ing of Gautama V, 20 agrees with this interpretation. Nand., on 
the other hand, refers the term abrahma«a to six kinds of Brah- 
ma«as enumerated by .Sltatapa, who have infringed the rule of 
their caste by taking their substance from a king, or by selling or 
buying forbidden articles, or by sacrificing for a multitude of per- 
sons, &c. The term ' the same fruit ' means that a person shall 
receive in a future world what he has given in this. (Nand.) 



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xcm, i2. pious gifts. 275 

4. (What is given) to one who has mastered the 
whole Veda, produces infinite fruit. i 

5. A domestic priest may claim gifts from his 
own employer (but from no one else). 

6. And so may a sister, a daughter and sons-in-: 
law (or other connections claim gifts from their 
brother, father, &c, but not from a stranger). 

7. One who knows his duty must not give even 
water to a twice-born man who acts like a cat, or to 
a Brahma#a who acts like a crane, or to one who 
has not studied the Veda. 

8. One who constantly hoists the flag of religion, 
and who is avaricious, crafty, deceitful, pitiless, and 
a calumniator of everybody, such a man is said to 
act like a cat 

9. One who hangs his head, who is bent upon 
injuring others and upon his own gain, artful, and 
falsely demure, such a man is said to act like a 
crane. 

10. Those who act like cranes in this world, and 
those who act like cats, fall into (the hell called) 
Andhatamisra l on account of their wickedness. 

11. If a man has committed an offence and does 
penance for it, he must not do so under pretext of 
performing an act of piety, covering his crime under 
a (fictitious) vow, and imposing on women and 
.Sudras. 

12. A Brahma#a who acts thus, is despised in 
the next life and in this by those who know the 
Veda, and the penance performed by him under 
such false pretence goes to the (demons called) 
Rakshasas. 

10. l See XLIII, 3. 
T 2 



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2j6 VISHJVU. XCIII, 13. 

13. One who gains his subsistence by wearing (a 
lock on the crown of the head or other) distin- 
guishing marks of a caste or religious order, to 
which he does not belong, takes upon himself the 
(consequences of the) sins committed by those who 
have a right to those marks, and enters in a future 
birth the womb of an animal. 

14. He must not give (to a panegyrist) from 
vain-glory, or from fear, or to a friend (from whom 
he hopes to obtain benefit), nor (must he bestow 
gifts), with a view to acquire religious merit, upon 
dancers or singers : that is a fixed rule. 

XCIV. 

1. A householder, when he sees his skin has 
become wrinkled and his hair turned grey, must go 
to live in a forest. 

2. Or (he must do so) when he sees the son of 
his son. 

3. Let him (before going into the forest) entrust 
the care of his wife to his sons, or let her accom- 
pany him. 

4. Let him keep the sacred fires in his new abode 
as before. 

5. He must not omit to perform the five sacri- 

XCIV. 1, 2. M.VI, 2. — 3, 4. M. VI, 3, 4 ; Y. Ill, 45 ; Apast. 
II, 9, 22, 8, 9.-5. M.VI, 5, 16; Y. Ill, 46; Gaut. Ill, 29.— 
6. M.VI, 8; Y. Ill, 48.-7. M.VI, 26; Y. Ill, 45; Apast. II, 
9, 21, 19. — 8. M. VI, 6; Apast. II, 9, 22, 1; Gaut. VI, 34. — 
9, 10. M. VI, 6 ; Y. Ill, 46, 48. — 9, 1 1. Gaut. Ill, 34, 35. — 11. 
M.VI^iS; Y. 111,47.— 12. M.VI, 15; Y. Ill, 47; Apast. II, 9l 
22, 24. — 13. M.VI, 28; Y. Ill, 55. 'The duties of a house- 
holder having been declared, he now goes on to expound the 
duties of an hermit' (Nand.) 

5. See LIX, 20 seq. 



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XCV, 2. HERMIT. 477 

fices, but (he must perform them) with (fruits, herbs, 
or roots) growing wild. 

6. He must not relinquish the private recitation 
of the Veda. 

7. He must preserve his chastity. 

8. He must wear a dress made of skins or bark. -. 

9. He must suffer the hairs of his head, of his 
beard, and of his body, and his nails to grow, 

10. He must bathe at morning, noon, and 
evening. 

11. He must either collect provisions, after the 
manner of the pigeon, for a month, or he must 
collect them for a year. 

12. He who has collected provisions for a year, 
must throw away what he has collected on the day 
of full moon in the month A^vina. 

13. Or an hermit may bring food From a village, 
placing it in a dish made of leaves, or in a single 
leaf, or in his hand, or in a potsherd, and eat eight 
mouthfuls of it. 

XCV. 

1. An hermit must dry up his frame by the 
practice of austerities. 

2. In summer he must expose himself to five 
fires. 

6. The use of the particle ia. implies, according to Nand., that 
the practice of distributing gifts should likewise be continued. 

11. The particle vS here refers, according to Nand., to a third 
alternative mentioned by Manu (VI, 18), that he should gather 
provisions sufficient for six months. 

XCV. 1. M.VI, 24.-2-4. M.VI, 23; Y. Ill, 52.-5, 6. M. 
VI, 19; Y. Ill, 50.— 7-11. M. VI, 5, 21 ; Y. Ill, 46; ipast. II, 
9, 22, 2 ; Gaut.HI, 26. — 12, 13. M.VI, 20; Y.III, 50. — 14, 15. 
M. VI, 17 ; Y. Ill, 49. — 16, 17. M. XI, 235, 239. 



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278 VISHNU. XCV, 3. 

'3. During the season of the rains he must sleep 
in the open air. 

4. In winter he must wear wet clothes. 

5. He must eat at night. 

6. He may eat after having fasted entirely for 
one day, or for two days, or for three days. 

7. He may eat flowers. 8. He may eat fruits. 

9. He may eat vegetables. 

10. He may eat leaves. 11. He may eat 
roots. 

12. Or he may eat boiled barley once at the 
close of a half-month. 

1 3. Or he may eat according to the rules of the 
A"andraya»a. 

14. He shall break his food with stones. 

15. Or he shall use his teeth as a pestle. 

16. This whole world of deities and of men has 
devotion for its root, devotion for its middle, de- 
votion for its end, and is supported by devotion. 

17. What is hard to follow 1 , hard to reach, re- 
mote, or hard to do, all that may be accomplished 
by devotion ; since there is nothing that may not be 
effected by devotion. 



6. Nand. considers the particle va to refer to the precept of 
Ya^fiavalkya (III, 50), that the fast may also extend over a half- 
month or an entire month. 

13. The particle va, according to Nand., implies that he may 
also perform Krikkhras, as ordained by Ya^Havalkya (III, 50). 
Regarding the Alndrayawa, see XL VII. 

17. 'Duflara has been translated according to the usual 
acceptation of this term. Nand. interprets it by 'hard to 
understand/ This proverb is also found Subhashitar»ava 109, 
Vrzddhaianakya's Proverbs XVII, 3. See B6htlingk, Ind. Sprttche, 
5265. 



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XCVI, 9. ASCETIC. 279 

XCVI. 

1. After having passed through the first three 
orders and annihilated passion, he must offer an 
oblation to Pra^apati, in which he bestows all his 
wealth (upon priests) as fee for the performance of 
the sacrifice, and enter the order of ascetics. 

2. Having reposited the fires in his own mind, 
he must enter the village, in order to collect alms, 
(but never for any other purpose). 

3. He must beg food at seven houses. 

4. If he does not get food (at one house), he 
must not grieve. 

5. He must not beg of another ascetic. 

6. When the servants have had their meal, when 
the dishes have been removed, let him beg food 
(consisting of the leavings). 

7. (He must receive the food) in an earthen 
vessel, or in a wooden bowl, or in a vessel made 
of the bottle-gourd. 

8. He must cleanse those vessels with water. 

9. He must shun food obtained by humble salu- 
tation. 

XCVI. 1. M.VI, 38 ; Y. Ill, 56. — 2. M. VI, 38, 43 ; Y. Ill, 56, 
58. — 4. M.VI, 57. — 6. M. VI, 56 ; Y. Ill, 59 ; Gaut. Ill, 15. — 
7, 8. M.VI, 54, 53; Y. Ill, 60. — 9. M.VI, 58.— 11. M.VI, 44. 
— 12. Gaut. Ill, 21. — 13. Gaut. Ill, 18.— 14-17. M.VI, 46. — 
18. M. VI, 45. — 19, 20. M.VI, 47. — 23. Y. Ill, S3 ; Mah&bharata 
I, 4605. — 24. M.VI, 49; Y. Ill, 201. — 25-42. M.VI, 61-64; 
Y. Ill, 63, 64.-43- Y. HI, 72. — 45-50- M.VI, 76, 77.— 51, 
54-79. Y. Ill, 70, 84-90.— 80-88. Y. HI, 100-104. — 89, 91. Y. 
Ill, 93-95- — 92- Y. Ill, 96-99. — 93-95. Y. Ill, 91, 92.-96. 
Y. HI, 179. — 97. M. XII, 12 ; Y. Ill, 178. — 97, 98. Bhagavad- 
gltS XIII, 1, 2. This chapter treats of ascetics. (Nand.) 

4. ' This implies that he must not rejoice if he does get it, as 
Manu (VI, 57) says.' (Nand.) 



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280 VISRtfU. XCVI, to. 



10. He must live in an empty house. 

ii. Or (he must) live at the root of a tree. 

12. He must not stay for more than one night 
in one village (except during the rainy season). 

13. His only dress must be a small piece of cloth 
worn over the privities. 

14. He must set down his feet purified by looking 
down. 

15. He must drink water purified (by straining 
it) with a cloth. 

16. He must utter speeches purified by truth. 

17. He must perform acts purified by his mind. 

18. He must neither wish for death nor for (a 
long) life. 

19. He must bear abuse patiently. 

20. He must treat no one with contempt. 

21. He must not pronounce a benediction. 

22. He must not salute any one reverentially. 



10. ' Empty' means ' inhabited by no one else,' and implies that 
the house in question should be situated in a dark place, difficult of 
access. (Nand.) 

11. 'The article vi implies that he must live there alone.' 
(Nand.) 

14, 15. Nand. assigns as the reason of both these rules, ' lest he 
should not kill some insect.' Kulluka (on M. VI, 46) gives the 
same reason for the second rule, but the looking down, according 
to him, is ordained in order that he may not accidentally tread 
upon a hair or other impure substance. 

17. The sense of this Sutra is, that in doubtful cases he must 
act as his mind prompts him to do. (Nand.) 

21. ' The meaning is, that he must not utter a benediction when 
he has been reverentially saluted by any one. He must confine 
himself to saying, " O Naraya»a." Others explain, that he must 
not utter a benediction in begging food.' (Nand.) 

22. ' The sense is, that he must not salute any one reverentially 
who has reverentially saluted him, nor return his greeting other- 



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XCVI, 30. ASCETIC. 2$ I 

23. Should one man chop his one arm with an 
axe, and another sprinkle his other arm with sandal, 
he must neither curse the one in his mind, nor bless 
the other. 

24. He must constantly be intent upon stopping 
his breath, upon retention of the image formed in 
his mind, and upon meditation. 

25. He must reflect upon the transitoriness of 
the passage through mundane existence ; 

26. And upon the impure nature of the body ; 

27. And upon the destruction of beauty by old 
age; 

28. And upon the pain arising from diseases 
bodily, mental, or due to an excess (of the bile, &c.) 

29. And upon (the pain arising from) the (five) 
naturally inherent (affections). 

30. On his having to dwell in an embryo, covered 
with everlasting darkness ; 



wise than by saying, " O Nar£ya»a." Others explain, that he must 
not make an obeisance in begging food.' (Nand.) 

24. Nand. quotes a passage of the Yoga$£stra, which states that 
one Dhlra»£= three Pr&«&ySmas (stoppings or regulations of the 
breath). A passage of the G£ru<fe-pur£*a (quoted in the Peters- 
burg Dictionary) states that one Dh£ra»a= sixteen Pra«ayamas. 
I have taken the term dhSrawd in its ordinary acceptation of reten- 
tion of an idea ' (cf. Wilson, Vish«u-purS«a V, 237) with regard 
to an analogous passage of Ya^fiavalkya (III, 201), which is also 
quoted by Nand. 

28. According to Nand., the particle ka. is used to include 
other diseases, love, anxiety or wrath, caused by enemies, and 
other mental pangs. 

29. They are, ignorance, egotism, love, wrath, and dread of 
temporal suffering (Nand., according to PataS^ali). The particle 
k&, according to Nand., is used in order to imply meditation upon 
the thousand births which man has to pass through, as stated by 
Ya^fiavalkya (III, 64). 



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282 VISHJVU. XCVI,3t. 

31. And on (his having to dwell) between urine 
and faeces ; 

32. On his having to suffer, (as an embryo,) pain 
from the cold and hot (food and drink, which his 
mother happens to have taken) ; 

33. On the dreadful pain which he has to suffer, 
at the time of his birth, while the embryo is coming 
forth from the narrowness of the womb ; 

34. On his ignorance and his dependency upon 
his (parents and other) Gurus in childhood ; 

35. On the manifold anxieties arising from the 
study of the Veda (and from the other obligations 
of a student) ; 

36. And (on the anxieties arising) in youth from 
not obtaining the objects of pleasure, and upon 
the abode in hell (ordained as punishment) for 
enjoying them, after they have been obtained un- 
lawfully ; 

37. On the union with those whom we hate, and 
the separation from those whom we love ; 

38. On the fearful agonies of hell ; 

39. And (on the agonies) that have to be suffered 
in the passage of the soul through the bodies of 
animals (and of plants). 

40. (And let him reflect thus that) there is no 
pleasure to be met with in this never-ceasing pas- 
sage of the soul through mundane existence ; 

41. (And that) even what is called pleasure, on 
account of the absence of pain, is of a transient 
nature ; 

42. (And that) he who is unable to enjoy such 
pleasures (from sickness or some such cause), or 
who is unable to procure them (from poverty), 
suffers severe pangs. 



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XCVI, 57. ASCETIC. 283 

43. He must recognise this human frame to 
consist of seven elements. 

44. Those elements are, adeps, blood, flesh, 
serum of flesh, bone, marrow, and semen. 

45. It is covered with skin. 

46. And it has a nasty smell. 

47. It is the receptacle of (the above-named) 
impure substances (adeps and the rest). 

48. Though surrounded by a hundred pleasures, 
it is subject to change. 

49. Though carefully supported (by elixirs and 
the like), it is subject to destruction. 

50. It is the stay of carnal desire, wrath, greed, 
folly, pride, and selfishness. 

51. It consists of earth, water, fire, air, and ether. 

52. It is provided with bone, tubular vessels 
(carrying bile and phlegm through the body), tubes 
(conducting the vital airs), and sinews. 

53. It is endowed with the quality of rafas 
(passion). 

54. It is covered with six skins. 

55. It is kept together by three hundred and 
sixty bones. 

56. They are distributed (as follows) : 

57. The teeth together with their receptacles are 
sixty-four in number. 

46. The particle £a, according to Nand., refers to the fact that 
the human body is defiled by the touch of impure objects. 

48. 'The meaning is that, though food and drink and other 
sensual enjoyments abound, they may cause pain as well as pleasure 
by producing phlegm, &c.' (Nand.) 

51. ' Earth,' i. e. the flesh and bone, &c. ; ' water,' i. e. the blood ; 
' fire,' i. e. the digestive faculty, the eyesight, &c. ; ' air,' i.e. the five 
vital airs; ' ether,' i. e. the space enclosed by the airs, in the mouth, 
in the belly, &c. (Nand.) 



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284 VISHJVU. XCVI, 58. 

58. There are twenty nails. 

59. There are as many bones to the hands and 
feet (one at the root of each finger and toe). 

60. There are sixty joints to the fingers and toes. 

61. There are two (bones) to the two heels. 

62. There are four to the ancles. 

63. There are four to the elbows. 

64. There are two to the shanks. - 

65. There are two to the knees and two to the 
cheeks. 

66. (There are two) to the thighs and (two) to 
the shoulders. 

67. (There are two) to the lower part of the 
temples, (two) to the palate, and (two) to the hips. 

68. There is one bone to the organs of genera- 
tion. 

69. The backbone consists of forty-five (bones). 

70. The neck consists of fifteen (bones). 

71. The collar-bone consists of one (bone on each 
side). 

72. The jaw likewise. 

73. There are two (bones) at its root 

74. There are two (bones) to the forehead, (two) 
to the eyes, and (two) to the cheeks. 

75. The nose has one bone, the nose-bone. 

76. The ribs together with the joints called * ar- 
buda,' and with the joints called ' sthanaka,' consist 
of seventy-two (bones). 

77. The breast contains seventeen bones. 



76. * There are thirteen ribs to each flank, which makes in all 
twenty-six ribs. There are twenty joints to them in the breast, 
called " arbuda," and twenty-six joints in the back, called " sth&- 
naka," which makes a total of seventy-two bones.* (Nand.) 



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XCVI, 91. ASCETIC. 285 

78. There are two temporal bones. 

79. The head has four skull-bones. Thus (the 
bones have been enumerated). 

80. There are in this human frame seven hun- 
dred tubular vessels (carrying bile and phlegm 
through the body, or arteries). 

81. Of sinews, there are nine hundred. 

82. Of tubes (conducting the vital airs, or nerves), 
there are two hundred. 

83. Of muscles, there are five hundred. 

84. Of tubular vessels (or arteries), the branches 
of the smaller tubular vessels, there are twenty-nine 
Lakshas (two millions nine hundred thousand) and 
nine hundred and fifty-six." 

85. Of hair-holes, of the hair of the beard and of 
the head, there are three hundred thousand. 

86. Of sensitive parts of the body, there are one 
hundred and seven. 

87. Of joints, there are two hundred. 

88. Of (atoms of) hairs (of the body), there are 
fifty-four Ko/is (or five hundred and forty millions) 
and sixty-seven Lakshas (making in all five hun- 
dred and forty-six millions and seven hundred 
thousand). 

89. The navel, the principle of vital action (which 
dwells in the heart), the anus, semen, blood, the 
temples, the head, the throat, and the heart are the 
seats of the vital airs. 

90. The two arms, the two legs, the belly, and 
the head are the six limbs. 

91. Adeps, marrow, the left lung, the navel, the 
right lung, the liver, the spleen, the small cavity of 
the heart, the kidneys, the bladder, the rectum, the 
stomach, the heart, the large cavity (intestine), the 



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286 VISHJVU. XCVI, 92. 

anus, the belly, and the two bowels in it (are the 
inner parts of the body). 

92. The pupils of the eye, the eyelashes 1 , the 
outer parts of the ears, the ears themselves, the 
tragus of each ear, the cheeks, the eyebrows, the 
temples, the gums, the lips, the cavities of the loins, 
the two groins, the scrotum, the two kidneys and 
breasts of females, which are composed of phlegm, 
the uvula, the hindparts, the arms, the shanks, the 
thighs, the fleshy parts of the shanks and thighs, 
the palate, the two bones (or muscles) at the upper 
end of the bladder, the chin, the soft palate, and 2 
the nape of the neck : these are the ' places ' (of 
vital energy) in the body. 

93. Sound, tangibility, form or colour, savour, 
and odour are the (five) objects of sense. 

94. Nose, eye, skin, tongue, and ear are the 
(five) organs of perception. 

95. Hands, feet, anus, parts of generation, and 
tongue are the (five) organs of action. 

96. Mind, intellect, the individual Self, and the 
indiscrete * are ' that which exceeds the senses.' 

97. This human frame, O Earth, is called ' field.' 
He who knows (how to enter and how to leave) 
it is denominated, by those conversant with the 

92. 'Others interpret akshiku/e, 'the eyelashes,' by 'the joints 
between the eyes and the nose.' (Nand.) See also Bohtlingk's 
new Dictionary. — 2 The use of the particle ka. implies, according 
to Nand., that the feet, hands, and other limbs mentioned in an 
analogous passage of Ya^fiavalkya (III, 99) have also to be 
included in this enumeration. 

96. l Nand. interprets avyaktam, ' the indiscrete,' by pradh&nam, 
' the chief one.' Both terms are in the Sahkhya system of philo- 
sophy synonyms of prakn'ti, 'that which evolves or produces 
everything else.' 



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&CVII, I. MEDITATION ON VlSffiVU. 287 

subject, 'the knower of the field' (i.e. Self or 
Soul). 

98. Know me, O illustrious one, to be the Self of 
all fields (whether born from the womb, or arisen 
from an egg, or from sweat, or from a germ or 
shoot). Those striving after final emancipation 
must constantly seek to understand the ' field ' and 
to obtain a knowledge of the knower of the field. 



XCVII. 

1. Sitting with the feet stretched out and crossed 
so as to touch the thighs, with the right hand 
(stretched out and) resting upon the left, with the 
tongue fixed in the palate, and without bringing 
the one row of teeth in contact with the other, with 
the eyes directed to the tip of the nose, and without 
glancing at any of the (four) quarters of the sky, 
free from fear, and with composure, let him medi- 
tate upon (Purusha), who is separate from the 
twenty-four entities, 

XCVII. 1. Y. Ill, 198-200. — 9. Y. Ill, 1 1 1, 201. This chapter 
treats of the means for obtaining that knowledge of the Atman or 
Self, which has been declared at the end of the last chapter to be 
the road to final emancipation. (Nand.) 

1. ' The twenty-four (it should be twenty-five) entities are stated 
in the Sankhya to consist of the root-principle (mulaprakr/'ti), the 
seven productions evolved from it (yikriUyaA), the sixteen produc- 
tions evolved from these, and Purusha (the soul), who is neither 
producer nor produced. (1) The " root-principle " is composed of 
the three qualities in equipoise : sattva, ra^as, and tarnas (the most 
accurate rendering of these terms is perhaps that proposed by Elliot, 
" pure unimpassioned virtue," "passion," and " depravity inclining to 
evil." See Fitz-Edward Hall, Preface to SinkhyapravaianabhSshya, 
p. 44). (2) The " great entity " (Mahat) is the cause of apprehen- 
sion. (3) The " self-consciousness " (ahawkara) is the cause of refer- 



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288 VISRtfU. XCVII, 2. 

2. He who is eternal, beyond the cognisance of 
the senses, destitute of qualities, not concerned with 
sound, tangibility, form, savour, or odour, knowing 
everything, of immense size, 

3. He who pervades everything, and who is 
devoid of form, 

4. Whose hands and feet are everywhere, whose 
eyes, head, and face are everywhere, and who is 
able to apprehend everything with all the senses. 

5. Thus let him meditate. 

6. If he remains absorbed in such meditation 
for a year, he obtains the accomplishment of Yoga 
(concentration of the thought and union with the 
Supreme). 

7. If he is unable to fix his mind upon the being 

ring all objects to self. (4-8) The "subtile elementary particles "(tan- 
m&tras) are identical with sound, tangibility, form, taste, and odour. 
(9-19) The eleven senses (i.e. the organs of perception and action 
enumerated in CXVI, 94, 95, and manas, "the mind"), and 
(20-24) the five " grosser elements " (ether, air, fire, water, and 
earth) are productions (from the former entities). Purusha, who 
is neither producer nor produced, is the twenty-fifth entity.' 
(Nand.) 

2, 3. According to Nand., all the properties of Purusha men- 
tioned in this Sutra are such as distinguish him from the rest of 
the entities, the first two distinguishing him from ' self-conscious- 
ness ' (ahamkara), the voidness of quality distinguishing him from 
the ' root-principle ' (mulaprakn'ti), which is composed of three 
qualities, &c. 

4. The properties of Purusha here mentioned are faculties 
only, so that there is no contradiction to the ' voidness of form ' 
and the other properties enumerated in the preceding Sutras. 
(Nand.) 

6. The external signs of the accomplishment of Yoga, as stated 
by Ya^fiavalkya (III, 202 seq.), are, the faculty of entering another 
body and of creating anything at will, and other miraculous powers 
and qualities. (Nand.) 



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XCVII, 12. MEDITATION ON VISHJVU. 289 

destitute of form \ he must meditate successively on 
earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intellect, self 2 , 
the indiscrete s , and Purusha * : having fully appre- 
hended one, he must dismiss it from his thoughts 
and fix his mind upon the next one in order. 

8. In this way let him arrive at meditation upon 
Purusha. 

9. If unable to follow this method also, he must 
meditate on Purusha l shining like a lamp in his 
heart, as in a lotus turned upside down. 

10. If he cannot do that either, he must meditate 
upon Bhagavat Vasudeva (Vishwu), who is adorned 
with a diadem, with ear-rings, and with bracelets, 
who has the (mystic mark) .Srlvatsa and a garland 
of wood-flowers on his breast, whose aspect is 
pleasing, who has four arms, who holds the shell, 
the discus, the mace, and the lotus-flower, and 
whose feet are supported (and worshipped) by the 
earth. 

11. Whatever he meditates upon, that is obtained 
by a man (in a future existence) : such is the 
mysterious power of meditation. 

1 2. Therefore must he dismiss everything perish- 

7. 'The term nirakara, 'the being destitute of form,' evidently 
refers to Purusha here (cf. Sutra 3), though Nand. interprets it as 
an epithet of 'Brahman.' — 2 'Intellect' (buddhi) and 'self (atman), 
according to Nand., mean ' the great entity ' (mahat) and ' self- 
consciousness' (ahawkara), cf. note on Sutra 1. — 8 'The indiscrete' 
(avyaktam) means ' the chief one ' (pradhanam), i. e. the Sahkhya 
' root-principle ' (see XCVI, 96). — * Nand. takes Purusha in this 
Sutra and in 13, 15 to mean ' the twenty-sixth entity;' but it appears 
clearly from Sutra 1, as from 16 also, that the Vishwu-sutra, like 
the Sahkhya system, assumes twenty-five entities only, not twenty- 
six, like Yama, upon whose authority Nand.'s statement is based. 

9. l Nand. interprets the term Purusha here by itman, ' self.' 

[7] U 



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290 VISHJVU. XCVII, 13. 

able from his thoughts and meditate upon what is 
imperishable only. 

13. There is nothing imperishable except Pu- 
rusha. 

14. Having become united with him (through 
constant meditation), he obtains final liberation. 

15. Because the great lord pervades the whole 
universe (pura), as he is lying there (sete), therefore 
is he denominated Puru-sha by those who reflect 
upon the real nature (of the Supreme Spirit). 

16. In the first part and the latter part of the 
night must a man bent on contemplation constantly 
and with fixed attention meditate upon Purusha 
Vish«u, who is destitute of (the three) qualities 
(sattva, ra^as, and tamas ] ) and the twenty-fifth 
entity. 

17. He (or it) is composed of the entities, be- 
yond the cognisance of the senses, distinct from all 
the (other) entities, free from attachment (to the 
producer, &c), supporting everything, devoid of 
qualities and yet enjoying (or witnessing the effect 
of) qualities. 

18. It exists without and within created beings 
(as being enjoyed and as enjoyer), and in the shape 
both of immovable things (such as trees or stones) 
and of movable things (such as water or fire) ; it is 
undistinguishable on account of its subtlety; it is out 
of reach (imperceptible), and yet is found in the heart. 

16. 1 See Sutra 1, note. 

17. Thus according to the reading asaktam, which is mentioned 
and explained as a var. lect. by Nand. He himself reads araktam, 
' independent of .Sakti, power, i. e. the producer, the power of 
creation (prakmi), or illusion (mayi).' MS.ya' and prakrAi are 
occasionally used as synonymous terms in the Sahkhya. 



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XCVIII, 2. CONCLUSION. 29 1 

19. It is not distinct from creation, and yet 
distinct from it in outward appearance ; it anni- 
hilates and produces by turns (the world), which 
consists of everything that has been, that will be, 
and that is. 

20. It is termed the light of the sidereal bodies 
and the enemy of darkness (ignorance), it is know- 
ledge, it should be known, it may be understood (by 
meditation), it dwells in every man's heart. 

2 1 . Thus the ' field,' knowledge (or meditation), 
and what should be known 1 have been concisely de- 
clared ; that faithful adherent of mine who makes 
himself acquainted therewith, becomes united to me 
in spirit. 

XCVIII. 

1. When Vishmi had finished his speech 1 , the 
goddess of the earth inclined her knees and her 
head before him and said: 

2. ' O Bhagavat ! Four (out of the five) grosser 
elements 1 are receiving their support from thee, and 
are constantly about thee : the ether, in the form of 
the shell ; the air, in the form of the discus ; the 
fire, in the form of the mace ; and the water, in the 
form of the lotus. Now I also desire to attend 
upon thee, in my own shape, as the ground which 
Bhagavat's feet tread upon.' 

21. 'The 'field' has been discussed in XCVI, 43-97, 'know- 
ledge ' in XCVII, 1, and ' what should be known' in XCVII, 2-20. 
(Nand.) 

XCVIII. 1. * Vishwu's speech is contained in Chapters II- XCVII. 
(Nand.) 

2. * The fifth grosser element is the earth. See XCVII, 1, 
note. 

U 2 



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292 VISHJVU. XCV1II, 3. 

3. Having been addressed thus by the goddess 
of the earth, Bhagavat answered, ' So be it.' 

4. And the goddess of the earth, her desire 
having been gratified, did as she had said. 

5. And she praised the god of the gods (as 
follows) : 

6. ' Om. Adoration be to thee. 

7. ' Thou art the god of the gods. 

8. ' Thou art Vasudeva. 

9. ' Thou art the creator. 

10. ' Thou art the god (who creates, preserves, 
and destroys) at will. 

1 1. ' Thou art the gratifier of human desires. 

1 2. ' Thou art the guardian of the earth. 

13. 'There is neither beginning, nor middle, nor 
end in thee. 

14. ' Thou art the lord (protector) of creatures. 

15. ' Thou art the strong lord of creatures. 

16. ' Thou art the exalted lord of creatures. 

1 7. ' Thou art the lord of strength. 

18. ' Thou art the lord of holy speech. 

19. ' Thou art the lord (creator and preserver) of 
the world. 

20. ' Thou art the lord of heaven. 

21. ' Thou art the lord of woods (who makes the 
trees grow). 

10. 'Or KSmadeva means the god (or brilliant one) who is 
sought by those striving for religious merit, gain, love, or final 
liberation.' (Nand.) The same interpretation is given by .Sankara 
in his Commentary on the Vishwu-sahasranima. The ordinary 
meaning of Kamadeva is 'the god of love.' 

15, 16. Nand. renders the terms supra^ipati and mahipra^t- 
pati by ' the protector of those who have a splendid progeny (such 
as Kajyapa) ' and ' the lord of him who has a large progeny 
(Brahman).' 



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XCVIII, 40. CONCLUSION. 293 

22. 'Thou art the lord (producer) of (mother's) 
milk. 

23. 'Thou art the lord of the earth (and causest 
it to yield its produce) 

24. ' Thou art the lord of the waters. 

25. 'Thou art the lord of the (eight) quarters of 
the sky. 

26. ' Thou art the lord of (the principle) Mahat 
2 7. ' Thou art the lord of the wind. 

28. ' Thou art the lord of happiness. 

29. ' Thou art Brahman personified. 

30. ' Thou art dear to Brahmawas. 

31. 'Thou pervadest everything. 

32. ' Thou surpassest all conception. 

33. 'Thou art attainable by knowledge (medita- 
tion). 

34. ' Thou art invoked at many (offerings). 

35. 'Thou art praised with many (hymns of the 
Veda). 

36. ' Thou likest everything sacred. 

37. ' Thou art fond of Brahman (the Veda). 

38. ' Thou belongest to the (gods called) Brahma- 
kayas. 

39. ' Thy size is immense. 

40. ' Thou belongest to the Maharajas. 



26. See XCVII, 1, note. 

28. Lakshmfpati has been translated according to Nand.'s inter- 
pretation. It usually denotes the husband of Lakshmt. 

30. Or 'Brahma«as are dear to thee.' Both explanations of 
the term brahma«apriya are admissible, and mentioned by Nand. 
and by Sankara. 

40, 41. Nand. interprets the two terms mahirSgika and £atur- 
mahara^ika by ' he whose series of transmigrations is immense,' 
and ' he whose immense series of transmigrations is fourfold,' and 



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294 VISHiVU. XCVIII, 41. 

41. ' Thou belongest to the four Maharajas. 

42. ' Thou art brilliant. 

43. ' Thou art most brilliant. 

44. ' Thou art the seven (parts of a Saman, or 
the seven divisions of the universe). 

45. ' Thou art most blessed. 

46. ' Thou art tone. 

47. ' Thou art Tushita (or " satisfied with the 
honours shown to thee by faithful attendants"). 

48. ' Thou art Mah&tushita (or " highly satisfied 
even without being worshipped "). 

49. 'Thou art the tormentor (destroyer of the 
world). 

50. ' Thou art wholly created. 

51. ' Thou art uncreated. 

52. ' Thou art obsequious (to thy followers). 

53. ' Thou art sacrifice. 

54. ' Thou art the (recipient of the) great sacrifice. 

55. ' Thou art connected with sacrifices. 

56. ' Thou art the fit recipient of offerings. 

57. ' Thou art the consummation of offerings. 

58. ' Thou art invincible. 

he refers the latter epithet to the four parts, of which Purusha is 
said to consist. He quotes Rig-veda X, 90, 4, where it is said 
that Purusha ascended to the sky with three of his constituent 
parts, and that the fourth remained in this world. But both terms 
cannot be separated etymologically from MahSra^a, the name of 
a certain class of deities in the Buddhistic system of religion. 

44. Thus Nand. Compare I, 56, note. 

46. Nand.'s interpretation of the epithet svara, 'tone' (or ' air 
breathed through the nostrils '), as being a compound of the prefix 
su and the root rim the sense of ' acquisition, insight,', and meaning 
' most wise,' is inadmissible. 

54. This epithet, according to Nand., refers to the sacrifice 
mentioned in a text of the Va^asan. Sawmitd (XIX, 12), which 
begins with the words ' The gods prepared a sacrifice.' 



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XCVIII, 78. CONCLUSION. 295 

59. ' Thou art Vaiku#^a. 

60. ' Thou art unbounded (both in time and 
space). 

61. ' Thou surpassest (the organs of sense, mind, 
and intelligence). 

62. ' Thou art of old. 

63. ' Thou art friendly to the gods. 

64. ' Thou art the protector of living beings. 

65. ' Thou wearest radiant locks of hair. 

66. ' Thou takest thy share of acts of worship. 

67. ' Thou takest thy sacrificial cake. 

68. ' Thou art lord over everything. 

69. ' Thou art the support of all. 

70. ' Thy ears are pure. 

71. ' Never ceasing homage is paid to thee. 

72. ' Thou art blazing fire (or " Thou art shining 
with clarified butter offered up to thee "). 

73. ' Thou cuttest (foes) to pieces with thy axe. 

74. ' Thou hast a lotus springing from thy navel. 

75. ' Thou holdest a lotus (in thy hand). 

76. ' Thou wearest a garland of lotus-flowers. 

77. ' Thou art the lord of the senses. 

78. ' Thou hast one horn. 

59. Nand. proposes two interpretations of this epithet: 1. the 
producer of M&y£ (the power of illusion) ; 2. the son of Vikun/M, 
the mother of Vishmi in one of his Avat&ras. Vaiku«/>4a is also 
the name of Vishwi's paradise. 

70. 'I.e. "thou hearest the sacred revelation." Or su£wravaA= 
" he whose names are pure." ' (Nand.) The same interpretation 
is given by Sahkara. See also Mahabhirata XII, 13250. 

73. ' The epithet khant/apar&ru refers either to Vishwu's slaying 
the Daityas in the form of Siva, or to his wearing an axe as the 
slayer of the Kshatriyas in the form of Parasurama.' (Nand.) The 
latter interpretation is proposed by Sahkara also, and kha«</apararu 
is a very common epithet of Paras urama. 

78. The one horn is meant, by which Vishwu, in his descent as 



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29 6 VISHJVU. XCVIII, 79. 

79. ' Thou art the great boar. 

80. ' Thou art the tormentor (of the Asuras, or 
of the righteous and the unrighteous). 

81. ' Thou art eternal. 

82. ' Thou art infinite. 83. Thou art Purusha. 
84. Thou art the great (unbounded) Purusha. 85. 
Thou art (the sage) Kapila. 86. Thou art the 
teacher of the Sankhya. 87. Thy powers are 
everywhere. 88. Thou art virtue. 89. Thou art 
the giver of virtue. 90. Thy body is virtue (law). 

91. Thou art the giver of both virtue and wealth. 

92. Desires are gratified by thee. 93. Thou art 
Vish«u. 94. Thou art triumphant everywhere. 
95. Thou art capable of bearing (the extremities 
of heat and cold and any others). 96. Thou 
art Krz'sh#a. 97. Thou art the lotus-eyed god. 
98. Thou art Narayawa (the son of Nara). 99. Thou 
art the final aim. 100. Thou art the resort of all 
beings. 101. Adoration, adoration (be to thee)!' 

102. The goddess of the earth, after her desire 
had been gratified, and after she had thus praised 



a fish, is said to have dragged the ship of Manu behind him. 
(Nand.) 

79. This epithet refers to Vish«u's boar-incarnation. See I, 
1 seq. 

85, 86. See Introduction. 

10 1. Nand. observes that the divers epithets which are given to 
Vish/m in this chapter are precisely equal in number to the ninety- 
six chapters, of which the law part of the Vishwu-sutra is composed. 
This coincidence is curious enough, though it is not quite perfect. 
For it is by a highly artificial interpretation only that Nand. makes 
out Sutra ior to contain an epithet of Vishmi, viz. by interpreting 
the two separate words namo nama as a compound, meaning ' he 
who is worshipped by the worshipful, i. e. by Brahman and the 
other gods;' and Sutra 6 contains no epithet at all. 



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XCIX, 4. CONCLUSION. 297 

(Vishmi) with a cheerful mind, addressed herself to 
the goddess (Lakshmi). 

XCIX. 

1. After having seen Sri (Lakshmi), the goddess 
of the earth, highly pleased, questioned (in the fol- 
lowing manner) that goddess, who was stroking the 
feet of Vishnu, the god of the gods, who was shining 
with the splendour of her austerities, and whose face 
was radiant like melted gold. 

2. ' O charming lady ! Thy hands are as beauti- 
ful as the expanded red lotus. Thou art holding 
the feet of him whose navel resembles the expanded 
red lotus. Thou art constantly residing in an abode 
resembling the expanded red lotus. Thy waist has 
the colour of the expanded red lotus. 

3. ' Thy eyes resemble blue lotus-flowers ; thy 
hue is radiant like gold ; thy robe is white ; thy body 
is adorned with gems ; thy face is radiant like the 
moon; thou art resplendent like the sun ; thy power 
is immense ; thou art the sovereign (or producer) 
of the world. 

4. ' Thou art repose (final liberation), the highest 
among the (four) objects of human pursuit ; thou art 
Lakshmi ; thou art a support (in danger) ; thou art 
Sri; thou art indifference (the freedom from all 
worldly pursuits and appetites, which is the conse- 
quence of final emancipation) ; thou art victory ; 

4. The ' four objects of human pursuit ' are, kama, ' desire ' (and 
its gratification), artha, ' gain,' dharma, ' religious merit,' and moksha, 
'final emancipation.' The goddess is called Lakshmt, because 
she is the aim (lakshyate) of all beings. She is called Stf , because 
she serves Purushottama (Visrwra), or because she is the resort of 
all. (Nand.) 



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298 VISHJVU. XCIX, 5. 

thou art beauty ; thou art the splendour (of the sun 
and moon personified) ; thou art renown ; thou art 
prosperity ; thou art wisdom ; thou art the power of 
expression ; thou art the purifier. 

5. ' Thou art the food of the manes ; thou art 
forbearance ; thou art the earth (or the repository 
of wealth) ; thou art fixity ; thou art the basis (or 
stability) ; thou art the source of the benefit derived 
from sacrifices ; thou art highest prudence ; thou 
art wide-spread renown ; thou art freedom from 
envy; thou art the food given to the gods; thou 
art mental power ; thou art intelligence. 

6. ' As the first of the gods (Vishwu) pervades 
the whole aggregate of the three worlds (sky, atmo- 
sphere, and earth), even so doest thou, O black-eyed 
bestower of gifts. Yet I inquire for the dwelling, in 
which thy superhuman power is residing.' 

7. The goddess of the earth having thus spoken 
to her, Lakshmi, standing by the side of the chief of 
the gods, enunciated the following answer : ' I am 
constantly at the side of the brilliant destroyer of 
Madhu, O goddess, who shinest like gold. 

8. ' But learn from me, where I reside (besides), 
O support of the world, from the instruction of him, 
whom I am constantly reflecting upon in my mind, 
and whom the virtuous call the husband of Sri, and 
from my own recollection. 

9. ' I reside in the sun, in the moon, and in the 
cloudless atmosphere in which the flock of the stars 
is spread out. (I reside) in that cloud, from which 
the waters of the rain pour down, in that cloud 

6. Lakshmi is said to pervade everything, like Vish«u himself, 
because she is his .Sakti, i. e. his energy or active power personi- 
fied as his wife. (Nand.) 



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XCIX, 16. CONCLUSION. 299 

which is adorned with Indra's bow, and in that 
cloud from which the rays of lightning flash forth. 

10. ' (I reside) in bright gold and silver, and in 
spotless gems and clothes, O goddess of the earth. 
(I reside) in rows of whitewashed palaces and in 
temples decorated with the attributes of deities. 

11. ' (I reside) in fresh cow-dung, in a noble ele- 
phant in rut, in a horse exulting in his vigour, in 
a proud bull, and in a Brahma»a who studies the 
Veda. 

12. 'I reside in a throne, in an Amalaka 
(Dhitri) shrub, in a Bel tree, in an umbrella, in a 
shell (trumpet), in a lotus-flower, in blazing fire, and 
in a polished sword or mirror. 

13. 'I reside in jars filled with water and in 
painted (halls), in which there are chowries and 
fans; in splendid golden vessels, and in earth 
recently thrown up. 

14. ' (I reside) in milk, butter, fresh grass, honey, 
and sour milk ; in the body of a married woman, in 
the frame of an unmarried damsel, and in the frame 
of (images of) gods, of ascetics, and of officiating 
priests. 

15. '(I reside) in an arrow, in one who has 
returned (victorious) from battle, and in one who 
has fallen on the field of honour and proceeded to 
a seat in heaven ; in the sound of (repeating) the 
Veda, in the flourish of the shell (trumpet), in the 
sacrificial exclamations addressed to the gods and to 
the manes, and in the sound of musical instruments. 

16. '(I reside) in the consecration of a king, in 
the marriage ceremony, in a sacrifice, in a bride- 
groom, in one who has washed his head, in white 
flowers, in mountains, in fruits, in (islets in the 



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300 visihvu. xcix, 17. 

middle of a river and other) pleasant spots, and in 
large streams. 

17. ' (I reside) in lakes filled with water, in (pure) 
waters, and in ground covered with fresh grass, in a 
wood abounding in lotuses (and fruits), in a new- 
born infant, in a suckling, in one exulting in joy, in 
a virtuous man, and in one wholly bent upon prac- 
tising the law. 

18. '(I reside) in a man who observes approved 
usages, in one who constantly acts up to the sacred 
law, in one modestly, and in one splendidly attired, 
in one who keeps his organs of sense and his mind 
under control, in one free from sin, in one whose 
food is pure, and in one who honours his guests. 

19. ' (I reside) in one who is satisfied with his 
own wife (and does not covet other men's wives), 
in one bent upon doing his duty, in one eminently 
virtuous, in one who refrains from eating too often 
(i. e. three or four times a day), in one constantly 
adorned with flowers, in one who associates with 
such as anoint their limbs with fragrant unguents, 
in one who is scented with perfumes (himself), and 
in one adorned (with bracelets and ear-rings). 

20. ' (I reside) in one habitually veracious, in 
one friendly towards all creatures, in a married 
householder, in one forbearing, in one free from 
wrath, in one skilled in his own business, and in 
one skilled in other men's business, in one who 
never thinks of any but propitious things, and in 
one constantly humble. 

21. ' (I reside) in women who wear proper orna- 
ments always, who are devoted to their husbands, 
whose speeches are kind, who keep up saving habits, 
who have sons, who keep their household utensils in 



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C, 4. CONCLUSION. 30I 

good order, and who are fond of offering domestic 
oblations. 

22. '(I reside) in women who keep the house 
clean (by scouring it, plastering it with cow-dung, 
and the like), who keep their organs of sense under 
control, who are not quarrelsome, contented, strictly 
observing the law, and charitable ; and I always 
reside in the destroyer of Madhu. 

23. 'I do not remain separated from Purushot- 
tama 1 for a single moment.' 

C. 

1. Those among the twice-born who will act 
according to (the precepts promulgated in) this ex- 
cellent law-code, which has been proclaimed by the 
god himself, shall obtain a most excellent abode in 
heaven. 

2. It purifies from sin, it is auspicious, it leads to 
heaven, procures long life, knowledge (of the four 
objects of human pursuit) and renown, and increases 
wealth and prosperity. 

3. It must be studied, it must be borne in mind, 
it must be recited, it must be listened too, and it 
must be constantly repeated at .Sraddhas by persons 
desirous of prosperity. 

[4. This most sublime, mysterious collection of 
doctrines has been proclaimed to thee, O goddess 
of the earth. In a kindly spirit and for the best of 
the world (have I promulgated) this body of eternal 



23. •See I, 51. 
C. 2. See XCIX, 4, note. 

4. This last clause I consider, for divers reasons, to be an addi- 
tion made by a modern copyist. 1. It is not commented upon in 



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302 VISHJVU. C, 4. 

laws, which is conducive to happiness, the best 
means of purification, destructive of bad dreams, 
productive of a great deal of religious merit, and 
the source of prosperity.] 

Dr. Burner's copy of the Vai^ayanlf. 2. It takes up, without 
any purpose, the speech of Vish«u, which had been concluded 
in XCVII, a 1. 3. Recommendations to study and recite the 
laws just promulgated, like those contained in C, 1-3, form the 
conclusion of several other Dharmarastras. 4. The substantive 
saubhagyam is used like an adjective. 5. The first part of the 
whole passage is a detached hemistich. 



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GENERAL INDEX. 



p. refers to the pages in the Introduction and Notes. 



Adoption, xv, 3-27 ; xxn, 43. 

Adultery, v, 40, 41, 192; xxxvii, 
9; lui, 2, 8. 

Akshay But, p. 256. 

Alakananda river, p. 257 seq. 

Allahabad, p. 256 ; lxxxv, 28. 

Ascetic (religious mendicant), p. 14; 
v, 115, 13*. 152; vi, 27; vm, 
2 ; lix, 16, 27 ; lx, 26; lxiii, 
36; lxxxi, 18; xcix, 14; duties 
of, xcvi ; female ascetics, p. 
xxiv ; xxxvi, 7. 

Astrologers, in, 75; lxxxii, 7. 

Atheism, p. xxx; ix, 31; p. 135; 
xxxvii, 31 ; liv, 15. 

Auspicious objects, p. xxx; lxiii, 
29-33. 

Baramfila, p. 256 seq. 
Barbarians (MleAAbas), xxu, 76 ; 
LXVIII, 49; lxxi, 59; LXXXIV. 
Bathing, directions for, xxvm, 5 ; 

LXIV. 

Benares, p. xxxiii; lxxxv, 28. 

Betwah river, p. 259. 

Body, twelve excretions of the hu- 
man, xxn, 81; apertures, xxni, 
51 ; parts, p. xx; xcvi, 43-95. 

Brlhmanas, rank, duties, and liveli- 
hood of, 11 ; lxvii, 3 1 ; various 
privileges of, in, 26, 58, 63, 72, 
73, 76, 96; v, 1-8, 94; ix, 15, 
23; xxni, 47; lxvii, 34, &c; 
objects of royal benevolence, 
in, 79, 81-84; sanctity of, xix, 
20-23 ! various gifts to, xlvi, 
8; xlix, 2; l, 33; lxxxvii, 
6,&c. 

Buddhists, pp. xxi, xxx, 202, 312. 

Bulls, set at liberty, v, 150 ; lxxxvi; 
bull's hide of land, v, 181-183; 
xcu, 4; bull-fights, lxxi, 29. 



Caste, the four principal castes, 1, 47, 
48, 61, 63; 11; in, 4; xxxii, 18; 
lxxxiv, 4. Diversity of caste 
affects the legislation, ill, 56-63 ; 
v, 19-26, 35-41, 98-104, &c; 
the legal rate of interest, vi, 2 ; 
the law of evidence, vm, 15-23 ; 
ix, 10-15; the law of inherit- 
ance, xvin, 1-40 ; the per- 
formance of funerals, xix, 1-4; 
the laws regarding impurity, 
xxn, 1-4, 10-24, 63-65, 73, 84; 
xxm, 47, 48 ; the marriage 
laws, xxiv, 1-8, 28; xxvi; 
xxxn, 5; the sacraments, xxvii, 
6-9, 15-26; the classification of 
crimes, XXXV, 1 ; xxxvi, 1, 3, 
6; xxxvii, 13; xxxviii, 1; XL, 
1 ; the law of penance, L, 6-14; 
Li, 50-58 ; liv, 2-7, 30 ; lv, 2 ; 
lvii, 15, 16, &c. ; the acquisi- 
tion of wealth, n, 10-15 ; lviil, 
6-8 ; the sipping of water, lxii, 
9 ; the reception of guests, 
lxvii, 34-41. Mixed castes, 

XVI. 

Cows, sanctity of, xxni, 57-61. 
Crime, cause of, xxxm, 1, 2, 6 ; nine 

degrees of, 3-5 ; xxxiv-xlii ; 

consequences of, xliv, i-io ; 

unnatural crimes, v, 42, 44; 

xxxviii, 4, 5 ; liii, 3, 4, 7. 

Debts, recovery of, vi, 1, 18-26,40; 

liability for, 27-39; the 'three 

debts,' xxxvii, 29. 
Dekhan, pp. xxiv, xxx, 257, 258, 

259. 
Deposits, v, 169-171 ; xxxvi, 3; 

LH, 4. 
Documents, p. xxiv; in, 82; v, 9, 

10, 187; vi, 23, 25, 26; VII. 



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304 



VISHJVU. 



Dowry, of a wife, xvn, 18 ; p. 173 ; 

lviii, 9. 
Dvaraka, p. 258. 

Earth, goddess of the, pp. x, xxviii ; 
visits Kajyapa, I, 19-21, 30-32 ; 
described, 22-29 ; visits and 
questions Vishnu, 33-46, 48-62 ; 
is addressed by him, 47, 63-65 ; 
v, 193; xix, 24; xxii, 93; 
xxm, 46 ; xlvii, 10 ; xcvi, 97, 
98 ; converted into an attend- 
ant of Vishnu, xcvm, 1-5 ; 
praises him, 6-101 ; addresses 
Lakshmi, xcvm, 102-xcix, 6. 

Eating, rules relating to, lxvii, 37- 
43 ; lxviii. 

Evidence, threefold, vi, 23. 

Excrements, voiding of, lx. 

Father, v, 120; vi, 33, 35; xv, 43- 
47; xvi, 1, 16; xvii, 1-3, 6, 18, 
20, 23; xviii, 43; xix, 3, 4; 
XXI, 12 ; XXII, 33, 34, 86 ; XXIV, 
38; xxx, 44, 45; xxxi, 2-10; 
xxxvii, 6; xlviii, 20; p. 232; 
LXXIII, 14, 17 ; P- 23 8 5 LXXV ; 
LXXXII, 28, 29. 

Food, forbidden, LI. 

Gambling, v, 134, 135; vm, 2; 
lviii, 11; LXXI, 45; LXXVIII, 

41- 
Ganges, p. xxx; xix, 11, 12; XX, 
23; xxm, 61; lxiv, 17; p. 248; 

LXXXV, 10; pp. 257, 258. 

Gaya, pp. 256, 257, 259 ; lxxxv, 67. 

Gifts, from kings to Brahmanas, in, 
81-84; to a woman from her 
male relatives, xvn, 18 ; illicit, 
xxxvii, 12 ; lvii, 2-8, 14, 15; 
householder to bestow, lix, 
14-18, 26-28; lxvii, 26-46; 
various gifts and corresponding 
rewards, lxxxvii, lxxxviii, 
xc-xcii; persons unworthy to 
receive, xcm, 7-10. 

Godavari river, p. 257 ; lxxxv, 42. 

Grants, royal, p. xxi; III, 82, 83. 

Guests, reception of, lxvii, 27-46. 

Gu.garat, p. xxvii. 

Gunti river, lxxxv, 43. 

Haridvar, lxxxv, 28. 
Hells, twenty-one, xliii, 1-22 ; tor- 
ments inflicted in, 23-45. 



Hermit, p. 14; v, 132; xvn, 15, 16; 
li, 66; lix, 27; p. 194; lx, 
26 ; duties of, xciv, xcv. 

Himalayas, I, 35 ; xm, 3 ; pp. 255, 
257 (bis), 258; lxxxv, 65. 

Homicide and murder, v, 4, 11, 
189-191; xxxv, 1; xxxvi, 1, 
2; xxxvii, 13; l, 6-15; LIV, 
32; LV, 2. 

Householder, p. 14 ; vi, 38; li, 66 ; 
lix, 1, 19, 27-30; lx, 26; lxi, 1 ; 
pp. 224, 228 ; xciv, 1; xcix, 20. 

Idols, v, 174 ; ix, 33 ; xiv, 2 ; xxn, 
53; xxm, 34; lxiii, 27; lxv, 
1; lxxi, 60; lxxxii, 8; xc, 
20-22 ; xcix, 14. 

Inauspicious objects, p. xxx; lxiii, 

34-38. 

Incest, v, 7 ; xxxiv, 1 ; xxxv, 1 ; 
xxxvi, 4-7; liii, 1. 

Indus river, lxxxv, 50. 

Inheritance, sons legitimate and 
adopted, xv, 1-29 ; exclusion 
from participation, 30-39 ; du- 
ties incumbent upon the heirs, 
39-47 i partition of property, 
xvn, 1-3, 23; xviii, 1-41; col- 
lateral succession, xvn, 4-17; 
succession to females, 18-21 ; 
indivisible property, 22 ; xviii, 
42-44. 

Initiation, xxvii, 15-28; liv, 26. 

Interest, rate of, vi, 2-5, 7, 10-17 ; 
on amicable loans, 40 ; lending 
money at, n, 13 ; XL, 1. 

Judges, III, 73. 74 i v, 180, 195 ; VII, 

3; ix, 33; xi, 10. 
Jupiter, planet, xlix, 9. 

Kajmtr, pp. xv, 257, 258. 

Kattivar, pp. xv, 258. 

Kings, principal duties of, in, 1-3, 
44 ; their capital, officers, and 
income, 4-32, 70-75 ; conduct 
in peace and war, 33-69, 85-97 ; 
liberality enjoined in, 76-84 ; 
documents attested by, 82; vn, 
2, 3 ; may not give evidence, 
vni, 2 ; inherit unclaimed pro- 
perty, xvn, 13; are officially 
pure, xxn, 48, 52. 

K/vshna' (Kistna) river, p. 259 (bis). 

Kshatriyas, rank, duties, and liveli- 
hood of, n. 



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GENERAL INDEX. 



305 



Lakshmt, the consort of Vishnu, 1, 
43, P- 2 93i praise of, xcix, 
1-6; her omnipresence, 7-23. 

Law, titles of, p. xxii ; four feet of, 
lxxxvi, 15. 

Manes, oblations to the, see Srad- 
dhas. 

Marriage, necessity of, xv, 31; 
xxiv, 38-41; plurality of wives, 
xv, 41; xvm, 1-40; xxiv, 
1-4; xxvi, 1-3; intermarriage, 
p. xxi; xvi, 2-17; xvm, 1- 
40 ; xxiv, 1-8 ; intermarriage 
forbidden, xxvi, 4-7 ; ineligible 
wives, xxiv, 9-16; eight forms 
°f> 17-37; xvii, 19, 20; cere- 
mony of, xxii, 32, 53; xxiv, 
5-8; xxvn, 14; xxxvn, 18; 
Liv, 16; xcix, 16; connubial 
intercourse, lxix. 

Mind, xxii, 92; i.xxii, 1, 2, 6, 7 ; 
xcvi, 96. 

Mother, vi, 31, 32 ; xvi, 2 ; xvn, 7 ; 
xvm, 34; xxiv,38; xxxi, 2-10; 
xxxiv, 1 ; xxxvn, 6 ; xlviii, 
20 ; lxxiv, 1 ; lxxxii, 29. 

Nflgiri hills, lxxxv, 13. 

Oceans, 1, 15 ; lxxxvii, 9. 

Ordeals, p. xxiv; vi, 23; general 
rules, ix ; ordeal by balance, x ; 
ordeal by fire, xi ; ordeal by 
water, xn ; ordeal by poison, 
xiii ; ordeal by sacred libation, 

XIV. 

Orders, the four, I, 47, 63 ; m, 3 ; 
lix, 27-29; lx, 26 ; p. 232. 

Outcasts, viii, 2 ; xv, 32, 35 ; xvn, 
22; xxii, 56, 57; xxx, 14; 
xxxv, 3-5 ; p. 136 (bis) ; xlvi, 
25; li, 11; liv, 25; lvii, 3,4, 
14; lxxxi, 17; lxxxii, 15, 23. 

Paf\jab, pp. xv, 259. 

Penances, for perjury, vm, 16, 17 ; 
liv, 9; for impurity, xxn, 9-18, 
58-80 ; for students, xxvm, 48- 
53 ; xxxil, 9 ; li, 43-45 ; for 
the nine principal degrees of 
crime, xxxiv-xlii; various 
forms of, xlvi-xlviii ; l, 1-5, 
15-24, &c. ; for homicide and 
murder, l, 6-14 ; lv, 2, 3 ; for 
taking life and cutting plants, 

[7] 



L, 25-50 ; for tasting forbid* 
den food, li, 1-58 ; for theft, 
Hi, 1-14; for illicit intercourse, 
liii ; for various offences, liv ; 
for secret sins, lv. 

Phalgu river, lxxxv, 22. 

Physicians, v, 175-177; li, 10; 
lxxi, 66 ; lxxxii, 9. 

Pledges, v, 181-184; vi, 2, 5-8. 

Pokur (Pushkara), p. 205 ; lxxxv, 
1-3; p. 258. 

Possession, v, 184-187. 

Priests, m, 70; xxiv, 20; xxix, 3, 
4; lxxxvi, 17; xcvi, 1; xcix, 
14. 

Property, of minors, &c, m, 65 ; 
separate property of a woman, 
xvii, 18 ; three kinds of, Lvm. 

Punishment, theory of, III, 90-96 ; 
v > '93-I9 6 ; fines, iv, 14; for 
capital crimes, v, 1-18; for 
abuse and assault, 19-39, 60-76; 
for illicit intercourse, 40-47 ; 
for theft, &c, 48-59, 77-90; for 
various offences, 91-182 ; for 
unjustly accusing a creditor, vi, 
18. 

Purification, of men and animals, 
xxii ; of things, xxm. 

Qualities (in philosophy), xcvi, 53; 
p. 287; xcvii, 2, 16, 17. 

Sacraments, 11, 3; p. 106; xxvn, 

1-17, 26. 
Sacrifices, regular, lix, 1-1 3 ; five 

principal, 20-26 ; xciv, 5. 
Sacrificial fees, 1, 8 ; 11, 1 1 ; xxn, 4, 

16; L,3i; LXXIII.26; lxxiv, 1; 

lxxxvi, 17; xc, 4; xcvi, 1. 
Sales, laws of, v, 124-130, 164-166, 

174; xxxvn, 14 ; li, 1a; liv, 

17-22 ; lviii, 10. 
Satara, p. 259. 
Sattee, p. xxix seq.; xx, 39 ; xxv, 

14. 
Self-defence, v, 188-190. 
Shambar, p. 101 ; LXXXV, 21. 
Sipping water, lxii. 
Sleep, rules relating to, lxx. 
Sone river, lxxxv, 33. 
Sons, legal position of, v, 120; vt, 

32,35,36; xv, 28-43; xvi, 16; 

xvii, 1-3, 23; xvm, 1-40; 

twelve kinds of, xv, 1-27; 

merit of having, 44-47. 



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3o6 



VISI1JVU. 



Student, p. 14; v, 13a; xvn, 12, 
16; xxil, 44, 85-87; LI, 43- 
45; LIX, 27; LX, 26; XCVI, 35; 

duties of, xxviii, xxxi, xxxn; 

perpetual, xxv, 17 ; xxvm, 46; 

study of the Veda, xxx. 
Suicides, xxil, 47, 56, 58-60. 
Sureties, v, 121 ; vi, 41-43. 
Surju river, lxxxv, 32. 

Sraddhas, SapiWikarana, xx, 33; 
xxil, 12-23; Ekoddislwa, xxn, 
1-1 1 ; Nandimukha, p. 92 ; Na- 
vajraddha, xlviii, 2 1 ; regular 
Sraddhas (Parvawa,&c.),LXXlll, 
lxxvi ; AnvashrakS, lxxiv; 
special, lxxvii; heavenly re- 
wards for, lxxviii; general 
rules, lxxix-lxxxi; unfit and 
fit guests and places, lxxxii- 
lxxxv. 

Sfidras, rank, duties, and livelihood 
of, 11 ; their degraded position, 
xviii, 5 ; xix, 1-4; xxvi, 4-7; 
xxvii, 9 ; xxvm, 40, &c. 

Taxes, 11, 12 ; in, 16, 22-30. 
Teeth, cleaning the, lxi. 
Theft, in, 66, 67 ; v, 6, 77-90, 136 ; 
xxxv, 1 ; xxxvi, 3; xliv, 12- 

43; XLV, 5, 9-14, 25; XLVIII, 
22; Lit; lv, 5; L VIII, II. 



Tolls, in, 16, 31 ; v, 131-133. 
Travelling, rules relating to, lxiii, 

2-51; lxxi, 69. 
Treasure-trove, in, 56-64. 
Trimbak, p. 257 (bis). 
TungabhadrS, p. 259. 

Vauyas, rank, duties, and livelihood 

of, II. 
Vindhyas, pp. xxvii, 256, 258. 

Week, pp.xxix, xxxii; lxxviii, 1-7. 

Widow, ' appointment ' of, pp. xxiv, 
312; xv, 3 ; her right of inherit- 
ance, xvn, 4 ; self-immolation 
of, see Sattee. 

Witnesses, v, 120 ; vi, 24 ; vn, 2-4, 
1 3 ; incompetent, vm, 2 -6 ; com- 
petent, 7-9; p. 312; examination 
of, 10-39 ; perjury condition- 
ally sanctioned, 15; false, v, 
179; vn, 8; vm, 37, 40; x, 
9 ; xxxvi, 2 ; liv, 9. 

Women, legal position of, vi, 15, 
30-32, 37; vn, 10; vm, 2; IX, 
23 ; xv, 2-25 ; xvi, 1, 2 ; xvn, 
4, 5. 7, 18, 22; XVIII, 34, 35; 
xxil, 19, 32; xxiv, 38-41; 
xxvi ; duties of, xxv; xcix, 
21, 22. 

Yamuna (Jumna), lxxxv, 35. 



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SANSKRIT INDEX. 



p. refers to the pages in the Introduction and Notes. 



Abhinimrukta, p. xxvii. 
Abrahmana, p. 274. 
Adharma, lxvii, 10. 
Adityadarjana, xxvn, 10. 
Adityas, xiv, 2 ; lxiii, 12. 
Aghamarsha»a, 1. hymn of, xxil, 

10 ; lv, 7 ; lvi, 3, &c. ; 2. pe- 
nance, XLVI, 2-9. 
Agni, p. 4; xxi, 7; LXVII, 3; LXXIII, 

12, 15 ; p. 234 ; lxxxix, 1, 2 ; 

xc, 3; xcn, 13. 
Agnihotra, lix, 2 ; lxvii, 44 ; 

lxviii, 6. 
Agnihotrin, lxvih, 6 ; lxxxvii, 6. 
Agraya»a, lix, 6. 
AMna sacrifice, p. 137 ; liv, 25. 
Akija, lxvii, 20. 
Aksha, IV, 8, 9. 
Akshayyodaka, p. 84. 
Akshikufe, p. 286. 
A-farya, xxix, 1. 
AiihMaka., p. 261. 
A/fyuta (' eternal '), I, 60 ; lxvii, 

2; xcvm, 81. 
Amedhya, p. 102. 
Ararita, 1, 34, 54. 
A»wuparta, p. 100. 
Aftgula, p. 56. 
Aniruddha, lxvii, 2. 
Annapdbana, xxvii, ir. 
Antya, p. 29. 
Anumati, lxvii, 3. 
Anvash/akas, lxxiii, 9 ; lxxiv, 1 ; 

lxxvi, 1. 
Apararka, p. xxxii. 
Apastamba, pp. ix, xiii, xvi, xx, xxii, 

xxiii, xxxi, xxxii, xxxvi. 
Arbuda, p. 284. 
Ardra, p. 177. 

Arsha, 1. p. 106 seq.; 2. marriage, 
a xxiv, 18, 21, 31, 35. 
Aryavarta, p. xxx ; lxxxv, 4. 



Ash/akSs, lxxiii, 8 ; lxxiv, i ; 

lxxvi, 1. 
Asuras, 1, 16, 60; lxxiii, ii; p. 250; 

xcvm, 80; Asura marriage, 

xxiv, 18, 24. 
Ajvins, lxv, 2 ; xc, 24. 
Atharvajiras, lvi, 22. 
Atharva-veda, pp. xi, xxxi; v, 191; 

xxx, 37. 
Atiguru, xxxi, 1. 
Ati&riithra penance, liv, 30. 
Atipatakani, p. xxx. 
Atisantapana penance, xlvi, 21. 
Atithi, etymology of, lxvii, 34. 
Atreyt, Atrigotr^, p. 133 seq. 
Avakir/jin, xxvm, 52. 
Avyakta, pp. 286, 289. 
Ayogava caste, xvi, 4, 8. 

Balatapa, p. 227. 

Bali-offerings, xlix, 3 ; lix, 24 ; 

lxvii, 4-22. 
Bandhu, xvn, 10. 
Baudhayana, pp. ix, xiii, xvii, xix, 

xx, xxii, xxiii. 
Bhagavad-gttl, pp. xxviii, xxix, 79, 

82,132, 231, 279. 
Bhagavat ('venerable'), 1, 18, 61 ; 

xlix, 1 ; lxv, t ; p. 208 ; xc, 3 ; 

xcvn, 10; xcvm, 2, 3. 
Bhagavata-purana, p. xxviii. 
Bhagavatas, p. xxviii. 
BhlruWas, lvi, 13. 
Brahman, I, 1, 50; xx, 13-16, 23; 

xxiv, 33; xxvm, 47; xxx, 31; 

xxxi, 7, 10; xlvii, 10; xlix,8; 

Ll, 61 ; LV, io, 17, 18 ; lx, 1 ; 

lxii, 2, 6; lxvii, 19; p. 256; 

xcn, 7; p. 289; XCVIII, 29, 

37 ; pp. 292, 296 ; Brahma mar- 
riage, xvn, 19; xxiv, 18, 19, 

29. 33- 
X 2 



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3 o8 



VISfUVU. 



Brahmanapriya, p. 29}. 
Br/haspati, xc, 3. 

Dadhikravan, lxv, 12. 
Daityas, I, 49 ; xx, 25 ; p. 295. 
Daiva marriage, xxiv, 18, 20, 30, 

34- 
Daksha, xlviii, 8. 
Darjapurnamasa sacrifices, Lix, 4. 
Dattaka, xv, 18. 
Devakhata, p. 205. 
Devapala, pp. xii, xiii, 83, 117, 212, 

213, ai5, 233. 234,261. 
Dhanvantari, lxvii, 3. 
Dharana, IV, 12. 
Dharana, p. 281. 

Dharma, x,io; lxvii, 10; xc, 10, 28. 
Dharma-sutra, pp. ix, xii-xiv, xvi-xx, 

xxv, xxix, xxxii. 
Dhannajlstra (' Institutes of the 

Sacred Law'), p. xxxii; ill, 70; 

vui, 8; xxx, 38; lxxiii, 16; 

lxxxiii, 8. 
Dha/a, etymology of, x, 10. 
Dinara, p. xxv. 
Drona, p. 101. 
Drupada-savitn, lxiv, 21. 
Durga-savitri, lvi, 9. 
Dvipas, the seven, 1, 15, 16. 

Gandharvas, 1, 17; xxiv, 37; li, 
63; xci, 12; Gandharva mar- 
riage, xxiv, 18, 23, 28, 37. 

Ganeja, pp. xix, xxi. 

Garbha, p. 113. 

GariWa-purana, pp. xxix, 141, 143, 
281. 

Gathas, p. xvii. 

Gautama, pp. x, xvi, xx, xxxvi. 

Gayatri (Savitri), p. xi; xxn, 10, 
&c. ; sanctity of, xxvni, 38; 
liv, 26; lv, 1 1-2 1 ; lxiv, 39. 

<3oro£ana, p. 105. 

GosGkta, lvi, 18. 

Gotra, p. 106 seq. 

Govinda, p. 9. 

Govrata penance, l, 16-24. 

Guru, p. 13. 

Gagannatha, 1. epithet of Vishnu, 1, 

58 ; 2. jurist, pp. 62, 64. 
Ganardana, 1, 19, 31. 
Gatakarman, xxvn, 4. 

Haradatta, pp. xxxiii, 16, 117, 145, 
167, 250. 



Hari, 1, 36. 

Hasta, p. 56. 

Hiranyakejin, pp. ix, xiii, xvii. 

Indra (Sakra, Vasava), v, 196 ; xx, 
23-25; xxx, 6; lxvii, 3, 15; 
p. 242 ; xc, 3 ; xcix, 9. 

Ishfakas, lxvii, 7. 

Ish/i Vauvanari, lix, 10. 

Ijvara, p. 199. 

Itihasa (' Epics'), p. xxxii; in, 70; 

XXX, 38; LXXIII, 16; LXXXIII, 

7. 

Kai/asa, 1, 54. 

Kaiyata, p. xiv. 

Kala, xx, 21-28. 

Kalapaka, Kalapas, pp. xiv, xxvi. 

Kalpa, 1, 2; xx, 12, 17, 24; xliii, 23. 

Kamadeva, p. 292. 

Kapila, xcvm, 85. 

Karsha, Karshapana, iv, 13. 

Kashayin, pp. xxx, 202. 

Kajyapa, 1, 20, 21, 30-33; XX, 26; 
p. 292. 

Ka/£a, Ka/Aas, pp. ix, xiv-xvi, xxv- 
xxvii. 

KaSaiot, p. XV. 

Kanaka, pp. xi, xii, xiv-xvi, xxv- 
xxvii, xxxv, 85, 186, 208-210, 
2I 3> 233, 236, 261, 262. 

Kanaka Gr/'hya-sfitra, pp. xii-xvi, 
xxvi, xxxi-xxxiii, 83, 86, 117, 
212, 233, 238, 261, 262. 

Ka/i>aka Srauta-sutra, pp. xiii, xiv, 
xxvi. 

Kayasthas ('scribes'), pp. xxiv, xxx ; 
vii, 3. 

Kejava, 1, 39 ; xlix, 8. 

Kejavanayaka (king), p. xxxiii. 

KhaWaparaju, p. 295. 

Kriiiira. penance, lii, 5 ; liv, 25 seq. 

KW^ArStikr/'^iJrra penance, x l v 1 , 1 3 . 

Krishna, p. 9; lxxxv, 59; xcvm, 
96. 

Kr/shnala, IV, 6, 7. 

Kshtroda (milk-ocean), 1, 32-39. 

Kulluka, pp. xxxv, 17, 27, 51, 52, 
70, 74 (passim), 75, 96, 100, 
104, 118, 139, 147, 160, 166, 
170, 172, 179, 184, 216, 227, 
241, 246, 250, 274, 280. 

Kumbha, p. 26. 

Kundks'w, p. 148. 

KushmiWis, p. xi; vni, 16; lvi, 
7 ; lxxxvi, 12. 



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SANSKRIT INDEX. 



309 



ATaWala (ATaWala) caste, origin and 

position of, xvi, 6, 11,14. 
ATandra, xcn, 12. 
Aandrayana penance, various forms 

of, XLVII. 
ATarakas, pp. xv, xvi, xxvi. 
ATaraka-jakha. See Ka/Aaka. 
ATaraaavyfiha, pp. xiv, xxv. 
ATarayawiyas, p. xv. See also Ka/£as, 

Kanaka, Kanaka GWhya-sutra. 
ATaturyuga, xx, 10-13 ; xliii, 36. 

Lakshmipati, p. 293. 

Madhava, p. 70. 

Madhu, slayer of (Vishnu), I, 40, 

44, 54 ; xcix, 22. 
Madhvt, Madhuka, Madhvika wines, 

xxii, 82, 83. 
Madhyama, p. 17. 
Madyanugata, p. 139. 
Magadha caste, xvi, 5, 10. 
Mahabharata, pp. xxviii, xxix, 9, 51, 

81 (bis), 82, 131,132, 215, 279, 

295. 
Mahabhashya. See Patafigali. 
Mahapra^apati, p. 292. 
Maharajas, xcvin, 40, 41. 
Mahanzava, p. xxvii. 
Mahasantapana penance, xlvi, 20. 
Mahavrata, 1. penance, l, 1-5; 2. Sa- 

man, lvi, 24. 
Mahidhara, p. 209. 
Maireya, xxii, 83. 
Maitrayaniyas, pp. xvi, xxvi, xxvii. 
Malina, pp. xxx, 202. 
Mamsa, etymology of, Li, 78. 
Manava Gr/hya-sfitra, pp. xxvi, 213. 
Manavas, pp. xxv-xxvii. 
Manava Srauta-sutra, p. xxvi. 
Mano^fia, p. 260. 
Mantra, 1. epithet of Vishnu, 1, 53; 

2. Mantras in the Vishsu-sfitra, 

pp. x-xii ; 3. purificatory, lvi. 
Manu, 1. code of, pp. ix, xxii-xxvii, 

xxxi; 2. Manus, xx, 24. 
Manvantara, xx, 1 1 ; xliii, 24. 
Maruts, lxvii, 13. 
Masha, iv, 7, 8. 
Mashaka, iv, 9, it, 12. 
Medhatithi, pp. 139, 178. 
Mitakshara. See Vi^fiane^vara. 
Mitra, lxvii, 3. 
Mitramijra, p. xxxiii. 
Mrityu, lxvii, 10. 
Mdlakrii&bra. penance, xlvi, 15. 



NSgavana, p. 15. 

Nagna, p. 204. 

Nakshatras, twenty-eight, lxxviii, 

8-35. 
Namadheya, xxvii, 5. 
Na«aka, p. xxi. 

Nandapan</ita, pp. xxxii-xxxvi. 
Narada-smr/'ti, pp. xvi, xxii, xxv. 
Narayana, 1, 50; pp. 280, 281; 

xcvm, 98. 
Nistikavritti, p. 177. 
Nirukta. See Yaska. 
Nishada caste, li, 14. 
Nishekakarman, xxvii, 1. 
Nishka, iv, 10. 
Niyoga, p. xxiv; xv, 3. 

Om, xxx, 33; lv, 9-21; xcvm, 6. 

Pakaya^fias, lv, 20; nx, 1. 

Pana, IV, 14. 

Pafiiagavya, p. 89. 

Pa&taka, lxxiii, 5-9; lxxiv, 1. 

PafiHlas, p. xv seq. 

Paraka penance, xlvi, 18. 

ParapflrvS, p. 91. 

Par/»akr»M&ra penance, xlvi, 23. 

Panvika, p. 190. 

Pajubandha, lix, 5. 

Pajupatas, pp. xxx, 202. 

Pataki, p. 200. 

Patala, I, 15. 

Patafigali, 1. grammarian, p. xiv; 

2. philosopher, p. 281. 
Pattra, p. 74. 
Pavamanis, lvi, 8. 
Pi.rjUas, 1, 17 ; LI, 73 ; p. 250; Pai- 

saia marriage, xxiv, 18, 26. 
Pitr/'tarpana, lix, 23. 
Pradyumna, lxvii, 2. 
Pra^-apati ('the lord of creatures '), 

lv, 18; lvii, 11; lxii, 1, 6; 

lxvii, 3 ; xcvi, 1, &c. ; Pra£a- 

patya marriage, xxiv, 18, 22, 

32, 36; Pra^apatya penance, 

xlvi, 10. 
Prakiroaka, p. xxx. 
Praiara, p. 75. 
Primayama, LV, 9. 
Prastha, xc, 1. 
PrStuakhyas, p. 254. 
Pravra^ita, p. xxx. 
Pravra^itS, p. xxx. 
Pukkasa caste, xvi, 5, 9. 
Piwisavana, xxvii, 2. 
Punarbhfl, xv, 8, 9. 



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VISHiVU. 



Purana ('Legends'), p. xxxii; xxx, 
38; lxxiii, 16; lxxxiii, 7. 

Purusha, xx, 16, 19; lxiv, 28; 
lxvii, 2 ; pp. 287-289 ; xcvn, 
1, 7-9. '5. 16; P- 294; xcvm, 
83,84. 

Purushasukta, pp. xi, 156; lv, 6; 
lvi, 26 ; lxiv, 23, 28, &c. 

Purushavrata, lvi, 15. 

Purushottama, I, 51, 58; xcix, 23. 

Pushan, lxxxvi, 9. 

Pustaka, p. xxii seq. ; xvm, 44 ; 
xxiii, 56. 

Putra, etymology of, xv, 44. 

Rahasya, p. 11. 

Rakshasas, I, 17 ; p. 250 ; xcm, 12 ; 
Rakshasa marriage, xxiv, 18, 

25- 

Ramayana, pp. xiv, 51, 79. 

Rasatala, I, 12, 45 ; p. 3. 

Raurava, p. 140. 

Revati, xc, 26. 

Rig-veda, xxx, 26, 34. 

.R/'shis, the seven, 1, 16; xx, 26; 
xxiv, 9; xxxvii, 29; XLVII, 
10; xlviii, 6, 17; lix, 29; 
lxxi, 83 ; p. 259. Cf. Arsha. 

Ritvig, xxix, 3. 

Rudra, xlvii, 10; lxxiii, 12; p. 256. 

Sahasa, p. 48. 
Sakulya, xvii, 11. 
Samanarshapravara, p. 107. 
Sama-veda, p. x; 1, 4, 6; xxx, 26, 

36. 
Samyava, Li, 37. 
Sandhint, p. 167. 
Sankarshana, lxvii, 2. 
Sankhya, pp. xxiv, xxviii, 286 seq. ; 

xcvm, 86. 
Santapana penance, xlvi, 19. 
SapWa, p. 68; xxii, 5. 
SapWikarana, xx, 33, 34 ; xxi, 

12-23. 
Satya, lxvii, 2. 
Savitrt. See Gayatn. 
Sayawa, pp. 209, 220. 
Sha/tiladana, p. 268 seq. 
Simantonnayana, xxvii, 3. 
Snataka, pp. 120, 203; duties of a, 

LXXI. 

Soma, 1. god, xxi, 6; lxvii, 3, 18; 
p. 234; lxxxvi, 16 ; 2. Soma- 
sacrifice, I, 8; XXIII, 8; Ll, 9, 
25; liv, 25; lix, 8, 9, &c; 



3. Soma juice or plant, I, 6; 

liv, 17; p. 178 seq. 
Sthanaka, p. 284. 
Stridhana, xvn, 18. 
Supra^apati, p. 292. 
Suras, 1, 16, 60. 
Sfirya, xcn, 11. 
SGta caste, xvi, 6, 13. 
Suvar/ja, iv, 9, 10. 
Svaminarayants, p. 202. 
SvayambhQ (' the self-existent '), 

XV, 44; LI, 61. 
Svayamihitalabdha, p. 74. 
Svayawvara, p. no. 

Sakti, p. 298. 

Saiikara, pp. 9, 292, 293, 295 (bis). 

Sesha, I, 39-41. 

Stlaphalaka, p. 118. 

Siras, lv, 9. 

5ttakr/^Ara penance, xlvi, 12. 

Siva, p. xxx; xxxi, 7 ; pp. 258, 295. 

Sri, xcix, 1,4, 8 ; Sri Hiranyakejt, 

lxvii, 9. 
Sriphalakn'^Mra penance, xlvi, 16. 
Sulka, xvn, 18. 

Svapaia caste, p. 29 ; lxvii, 26. 
Svetadvipa, xlix, 4. 

Taksha, lxvii, 5. 

Taptakr/'M&ra penance, xlvi, ii. 

Tlrtha, 1. place of pilgrimage, 11, 
16; v, 132; xxiii, 46; xxxv, 
6 ; xxxvi, 8 ; lxxxiii, 9 ; 
lxxxv; 2. parts of the hand 
called Tlrtha, LXll, 1-4, 6 ; 
lxiv, 30, 31. 

Trasaremi, iv, 1. 

Treti fires, xxxi, 7, 8; p. 191; 
TretS Yuga, see Yuga. 

Trimflrti, p. xxii. 

Trinaiiketa, Lxxxiii, 2. 

Trisupar«a, lvi, 23 ; lxxxiii, 16. 

TulSpurusha penance, xlvi, 22. 

Tushita, xcvm, 47. 

UdakakW/fc/M>ra penance, xlvi, 14. 

Upldhyaya, xxix, 2. 

Upakarman, xxx, 1-3, 24; p. 312. 

Upanishads, I, 9. 

Upataksha, lxvii, 5. 

Uragas, I, 17. 

Ush»isha, p. 205. 

Utsarga, xxx, 1-3, 25 ; p. 312. 

Vaidehaka caste, xvi, 6, 12. 



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SANSKRIT INDEX. 



311 



Vai^Syantf, p. xxxii. 
Vaiku»/i>a, xcvm, 59. 
Vauravaaa, lxvii, 14. 
Vauvadeva sacrifice, rules relating 

to the, lix, 13, 22 ; lxvii. 
Vaitarani river, p. 141. 
Vaiaspati ('the lord of holy speech'), 

1, 58 ; xcvm, 18. 
Valguda, xliv, 30. 
Varadara^a, p. 70. 
Varahamihira, pp. xxiii, xxxii. 
Vardhrisasa, p. 249. 
Varuna, lxvii, 3, 11, 17; xci, 2. 
VSsish*2>a, pp. xvi-xx,xxii, xxiii, xxxi. 
Vastoshpati, lxvii, 3, 1 1. 
Vasu, 1. xxm, 12 ; p. 235. 
Vasudeva, I, 60 ; xlix, i ; lxv, i ; 

p. 208 ; lxvii, 2 ; xc, 3, 17, 19- 

21; xcvn, 10; xcvm, 8. 
Vasushena, I, 59. 
Veda, or Vedas collectively, I, 16 ; 

in, 70; xxii, 90, &c. ; three 

Vedas, p. xxxi ; vm, 8 ; xxxi, 

7 ; lv, 10, &c. ; four Vedas, 1, 

3; xxx, 34-37. 
Vedangas, p. xxxii; 1, 16, 53; xxviii, 

35 ; xxix, 1 ; xxx, 3 ; lxxxiii, 

6. 



Vi^fiSnejvara, pp. xxxii, 62, 70, 74, 

100, 182, 229, 241, 246, 250. 
Vuvedevas, lxvii, 3; lxxiii, 27; 

offerings to the, see Vauvadeva. 
Vratas of a student, p. 121. 
Vratin, p. 92. 
Vratya, xxvn, 27. 
VyHhr/'tis, LV, 9-21 ; Vyahr/ti Sa- 

mans, lvi, 12. 
VySkarana (' Grammar '), pp. xxxi, 

4 ; lxxxiii, 7. 
Vyatipata, lxxvii, 4. 

Ya^fiavalkya, pp. x, xvi, xx-xxii, 

xxv, xxx, xxxii (bis). 
Ya,fur-veda, pp. x, xii-xvi,xxv, xxvi; 

xxx, 26, 35. 
Yakshas, 1, 17. 
Yama, xx, 39; xliii, 32, 33, 37; 

LXIV, 42 ; lxvii, 16 ; Yama 

Angiras, xxi, 8 ; p. 234. 
Yaska, pp. xiv, xvii, xxiii seq. 
Yatra kva^anotpadita, p. 63 seq. 
Yatudhanas, lxxiii, ii ; lxxxi, 4. 
Yoga, pp. xx, xxiv, xxviii ; xcvn, 6. 
Yoga-jsistra, pp. xx, 281. 
Yuga,xx, 6-12; xci, 3. 
Yugadya, p. 266. 



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ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 



I, 17 (p. 4) read RSkshasas — I, 22 (p. 5) for bow read shaft — v, 48 
(p. 29) and v, 77 (p. 31) for or one read and one — vm, 9 (p. 49) before 
one add and approved by both (parties) — xiv, 4 (p. 61) close before an 

— xviii, 19, 22 (p. 72) for SGdra read Vauya — xvm, 38 (p. 73) for 
two parts read eight parts — xxi, 1 (p. 83) read clothes, ornaments, and 

— XXI, 5 (p. 84) for added fuel to read strewed grass round — xxil, 68 
(p. 94) for head read beard — xxm, 22 (p. 100) for sesamum read 
mustard — xxm, 36 (p. 101) read grain exceeding — xxm, 38 (p. 102) 
read cow, trodden or. sneezed — xxiv, 7 (p. 106) for whip read goad 

— xxx, 3 (p. 123) invert the position of Upakarman and Utsarga — 
xlix, 8 (p. 156) ditto (j/"full and new — Li, 57, 58 (p. 169) for left read 
given. 

Notes: page 12, after -4-9 add (14) and after -16, 17. add M. X, 63; 
Y. 1, 122 — p. 14, note 1, before -79, 80. add 77, 78. Y. I, 308, 313.-78. 
M. VII, 79. — p. 25, note 1, read 140-146 . . . XLV, L. Add at the end 
of this note -196. M. vm, 386 — p. 30 add 52. I have translated the 
reading pantajatam, which however is hardly so appropriate as the 
reading pafL$ajata»», 'fifty' karshapanas. See M. vm, 2, 97 — p. 32 
add 88. It is perhaps more advisable to translate ' (shall pay) ... (as a 
fine),' than to supply the above parentheses. The reading of Nand.'s 
gloss is doubtful — p. 42, 1. 7 from below, after 45 add ; Colebrooke, Dig. 
i,5,clxxxv.-37.Y.ii,48. — p. 54 add 20, 22. The translation of jJrsha 
by ' fine ' rests upon Nand.'s comment — p. 62 add Gautama (xvm, 6) 
speaks of the appointment of ' one who belongs to the same caste ' 
(Biihler) ; but the term yonimatra is ambiguous, and may be referred 
to ' relatives on the mother's side ' as well. — p. 123, note i, read 34-38 
and 43-47 — p. 131,17, read The next proverb (18) — p. 132,3, read xxxm 

— p. 138, 35, read xlvii and xlvi, 18. — p. 162 add 5. Thus Nand. 
Taken as part of a Dvandva compound, vratani would mean ' and the 
Vratas.' See M. XI, 152 — p. 185, 3 and p. 186, 26 read x, 190 and 
x, 90. — p. 190 read lix, 1. M. m, 67 —p. 198, 5 add ' ekakara, "one 
who has one hand only" (Nand.), may also mean " with one hand." ' See 
Apast. 1, 1, 4, 21 ; Gaut. ix, 11. — p. 202, 36. 1 Professor Max MUller 
points out to me, that the Buddhist Bhikshus do ' wear the marks of 
an order to which they do not belong '-na vidhivat pravra.g-anti. Viewed 
in this light, Nand.'s interpretation tends to confirm my own. Cf. 
Apast. 1, 6, 18, 31. 



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TRANSLITERATION OF ORIENTAL ALPHABETS. 313 




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Smith's "Wealth of Nations. A new Edition, with Notes, 
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A Critical Account of the Drawings by Michel Angelo 

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Bturlunga Saga, including the Islendinga Saga of Lawman 
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a vols. 1878. 8vo. cloth, a/, as. 

Casauboni Ephemerides, cum praefatione et notis J. Russell, 
S.T.P. Tomi II. 1850. 8vo, clotb, 15s. 

The Ormulum ; with the Notes and Glossary of Dr. R. M. 
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II. Reflections on the French Revolution. Second Edition. Extra 
fcap. 8vo. cloth, 5s. (See also p. 22.) 

ia. Cowper. Edited, with Life, Introductions, and Notes, by 
H. T. Griffith, B.A., formerly Scholar of Pembroke College, Oxford. 
I. The Didactic Poems of 1782, with Selections from the Minor 

Pieces, a.d. 1779-1783. Extra fcap. 8vo. cloth, 3s. 
II. The Task, with Tirocinium, and Selections from the Minor Poems, 
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n. LATIN. 

An Elementary Latin Grammar. By John B. Allen, M .A., 
Head Master of Perse Grammar School, Cambridge. Third Edition, 
Revised and Corrected. Extra fcap. 8vo. cloth, is. 6d. 

A First Latin Exercise Book. By the same Author. 
Second Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. cloth, 2s. orf. 

Anglice Reddenda, or Easy Extracts, Latin and Greek, for 
Unseen Translation. By C. S. Jerram, M.A. Second Edition, Revised 
and Enlarged. Extra fcap. 8vo. cloth, 2s. (id. 

Passages for Translation into Latin. For the use of Pass- 
men and others. Selected by J. Y. Sargent, M.A., Fellow and Tutor of 
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First Latin Header. By T. J. Nunns, M.A. Third Edition. 
Extra fcap. 8vo. cloth, 2s. 

Second Latin Header. In Preparation. 

Caesar. The Commentaries (for Schools). With Notes and 
Maps. By Charles E. Moberly, M.A. 
Parti. The Gallic War. Third Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo.ctoi.4s.6rf. 
Part II. The Civil War. Extra fcap. 8vo. cloth, 3s. 6rf. 
The Civil War. Book I. Extra fcap. 8vo. clotb, 2s. 

Cicero. Selection of interesting and descriptive passages. With 
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Extra fcap. 8vo. clotb, 4s. (td. Each Part separately, limp, is. 6rf. 
Part I. Anecdotes from Grecian and Roman History. 
Part II. Omens and Dreams : Beauties of Nature. 
Part III. Rome's Rule of her Provinces. 

Cicero. Selected Letters (for Schools). With Notes. By the 
late C. E. Prichard, M.A., and E. R. Bernard, M.A. Second Edition. 
Extra fcap. 8vo. clotb, $s. 

Cicero. Select Orations (for Schools). With Notes. By J. R. 
King, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. cloth, 2s. 6rf. 

Cornelius JNTepos. With Notes. By Oscar Browning, M.A, 
Second Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. clotb, 2s. 6rf. 

Livy. Selections (for Schools). With Notes and Maps. By 
H. Lee- Warner, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. In Parts, limp, each is. 6rf. 

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Ovid. Selections for the use of Schools. With Introductions 
and Notes, and an Appendix on the Roman Calendar. By W. Ramsay, 
M.A. Edited by G. G. Ramsay, M.A., Professor of Humanity, Glas- 
gow. Second Edition. Ext. fcap. 8yo. cloth, 5s. 6d. 

Pliny. Selected Letters (for Schools). With Notes. By 
the late C. E. Prichard, M.A., and E. R. Bernard, M.A. Second Edition. 
Extra fcap. 8vo. cloth, 3s. 

Virgil. Edited with Notes, etc., by T. L. Papillon, M.A., Fellow 
of New College, Oxford. In Preparation. 



Catulli Veronensis Liber. Iterum recognovit, apparatum 
criticum prolegomena appendices addidit, Robinson Ellis, A.M. 1878. 
Demy 8vo. cloth, 16s. 

A Commentary on Catullus. By Robinson Ellis, M.A. 1876; 

Demy 8vo. cloth, 16s. 

Catulli Veronensis Carmina Selects, secundum recogni- 
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Cicero de Oratore. With Introduction and Notes, by A. S. 
Wilkins, M.A., Professor of Latin, Owens College, Manchester. 
Book I. 1879. 8vo. cloth, 6s. Book II. 1881. 8vo. cloth, 5s. 

Cicero's Philippic Orations. WithNotes. ByJ.R. King, M.A. 
Second Edition. 1879. 8vo. cloth, 10s. 6d. 

Cicero. Select Letters. With English Introductions, Notes, 
and Appendices. By Albert Watson, M.A. Second Edition. 1874. 
Demy 8vo. cloth, lis. 

Cicero. Select Letters, text. By the same Editor. Extra 

fcap. 8vo. cloth, 4s. 

Cicero pro Cluentio. With Introduction and Notes. By W. 
Ramsay, M.A. Edited by G. G. Ramsay, M.A. Extra fcap. 8 vo. cloth, 
3s. 6d. 

Horace. With a Commentary. Volume I. The Odes, Carmen 
Seculare, and Epodes. By Edward C. Wickham, M.A., Head Master 
of Wellington College, Second Edition. 1877. 8vo.c/o/A, 12s 
Also a small edition for Schools. Nearly ready. 

Livy, Books I-X. By J. R. Seeley, M.A., Regius Professor of 
Modern History, Cambridge. Book I. Second Edition. 1874. 8vo. 
cloth, 6s. 
Also a small edition for Schools. 

Ferslus. The Satires. With a Translation and Commentary. 
By John Conington, M.A. Edited by Henry Nettleship, M.A. Second 
Edition. 1874. 8vo.clotb,Js. 6d. 



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Selections from the less known Latin Poets. By North 

Pinder, M.A. 1869. Demy 8vo. clotb, 15s. 

Fragments and Specimens of Early Latin. With Introduc- 
tions and Notes. 1874. By John Wordsworth, M.A. 8vo. cloth, lSs. 

Tacitus. The Annals. Books I-VI. With Essays and Notes. 
Preparing. 

Vergil : Suggestions Introductory to a Study of the Aeneid. 
By H. Nettleship, M.A. 8vo. sewed, Is. 6d. 

Ancient Lives of Vergil; with an Essay on the Poems of Vergil, 
in connection with his Life and Times. By H. Nettleship, M.A. 8vo. 
sewed, 25. 

The Roman Satura : its original form in connection with its 
literary development. By H. Nettleship, M.A. 8vo. sewed, is. 

A Manual of Comparative Philology. By T. L. Papillon, 

M.A. , Fellow and Lecturer of New College. Second Edition. Crown 
8vo. cloth, 6s. 

The Roman Poets of the Augustan Age. By William 
Young Sellar, M.A., Professor of Humanity in the University of 
Edinburgh. Virgil. 1877. 8vo. cloth, 14s. 

The Roman Poets of the Republic. By the same Author. 
New Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 1881. 8vo, cloth, 14s. 



III. GREEK. 

A Greek Primer, for the use of beginners in that Language. 
By the Right Rev. Charles Wordsworth, D.C.L., Bishop of St. Andrews. 
Sixth Edition, Revised and Enlarged. Extra fcap. 8vo. clotb, is. 6d. 

Graecae Grammatical Rudimenta in usum Scholarum. Auctore 
Carolo Wordsworth, D.C.L. Nineteenth Edition, 1877. i2mo. cloth, 4s. 

A Greek-English Lexicon, abridged from Liddell and Scott's 
4to. edition, chiefly for the use of Schools. Nineteenth Edition. Care- 
fully Revised throughout. 1880. Square I 21110. clotb, 7s. 6d. 

Greek Verbs, Irregular and Defective; their forms, mean- 
ing, and quantity ; embracing all the Tenses used by Greek writers, 
with references to the passages in which they are found. By W. Veitch. 
Fourth Edition. Crown 8vo. clotb, 10s. 6d. 

The Elements of Greek Accentuation (for Schools): abridged 
from his larger work by H. W. Chandler, M.A., Waynflete Professor of 
Moral and MetaphysicalPhilosophy, Oxford. Ext. fcap. 8vo. cloth, is. 6d. 



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A Series of Graduated Greek Readers; — 

First Greek Reader. By W. G. Rushbrooke, MX., for- 
merly Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, Second Classical 
Master at the City of London School. Extra fcap. 8vo. cloth, 2$.6d. 

Second Greek Header. By A.M.Bell, M.A. Extra fcap. 
8vo. cloth, 3s. 6d. 

Third Greek Reader. In Preparation. 

Fourth Greek Reader ; being Specimens of Greek. 
Dialects. With Introductions and Notes. By W.W. Merry, M.A., 
Fellowand Lecturer of Lincoln College. Extra fcap. 8 vo. cloth, 4s. 6d. 

Fifth Greek Reader. Part I. Selections from Greek Epic 
and Dramatic Poetry, with Introductions and Notes. By Evelyn 
Abbott.M.A., Fellow of Balliol College. Ext.fcap. 8vo. cloth, 4».6rf. 

Part II. By the same Editor. In Preparation, 

The Golden Treasury of Ancient Greek Poetry ; being a Col- 
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tory Notices and Notes. By R. S. Wright, M.A., Fellow of Oriel 
College, Oxford. Ext. fcap. 8vo. cloth, 8s. dd. 

A Golden Treasury of Greek Prose, being a collection of the 
finest passages in the principal Greek Prose Writers, with Introductory 
Notices and Notes. By R. S. Wright, M.A., and J. E. L. Shadwell, M.A. 
Ext. fcap. 8vo. cloth, 4s. 6d. 

Aeschylus. Prometheus Bound (for Schools). With Intro- 
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Aeschylus. Agamemnon. With Introduction and Notes by 
Arthur Sidgwick, M.A., Tutor of Corpus Christi College, Oxford; late 
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School. Extra fcap. 8vo. cloth, 3s. Just Published. 

Aristophanes. In Single Plays, edited, with English Notes, 
Introductions, etc., by W. W. Merry, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. 
The Clouds, 2s. The Acharnians, is. 

Other Plays will follow. 

Arrian. Selections (for Schools). With Notes. By J. S. Phill- 
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Cebes. Tabula. With Introduction and Notes by C. S. 
Jerram, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. cloth, 2S. 6d, 

Euripides. Alcestis (for Schools). By C. S. Jerram, M.A. 
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Euripides. Helena (for Schools). By the same Editor. In 
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Herodotus. Selections from. Edited, with Introduction, Notes, 
and a Map, by W. W. Merry, M.A., Fellow and Lecturer of Lincoln 
College. Extra fcap. 8vo. cloth, 2s. 6d. 

Homer. Odyssey, Books I— XII (for Schools). ByW.W. 
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Homer. Iliad, Book I (for Schools). By D. B. Monro, M.A. 

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Iiucian. Vera Historia (for Schools). By C. S. Jerram, M.A. 
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Plato. Selections (for Schools). With Notes. By B. Jowett, 
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Extra fcap. 8vo. clotb, 4s. 6d. 

Xenophon. Easy Selections (for Junior Classes). With a 
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Jerram, M.A. Third Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. cloth, 3s. 6d. 

Xenophon. Selections (for Schools). With Notes and Maps. 
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Xenophon. Anabasis, Book II. With Notes and Map. ByC.S. 
Jerram, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. cloth, 2s. 

Aristotle's Politics. By W. L. Newman, M.A., Fellow of 
Balliol College, Oxford. 

Aristotelian Studies. I. On the Structure of the Seventh 

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Oriel College, Oxford. 1879. Medium 8vo. stiff, 5s. 

Demosthenes and Aeschines. The Orations of Demosthenes 

and ^Eschines on the Crown. With Introductory Essays and Notes. 
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Homer. Odyssey, Books I-XII. Edited with English Notes, 
Appendices, etc. By W. W. Merry, M.A., and the late James Riddell, 
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Homer. Odyssey, Books XIII-XXIV. With Introduction 

and Notes. By S. H. Butcher, M.A., Fellow of University College. 

Homer. Iliad. With Introduction and Notes. By D. B. 
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A Homeric Grammar. By D. B. Monro, M.A. In the Press. 
Sophocles. The Plays and Fragments. With English Notes 
and Introductions, by Lewis Campbell, M.A., Professor of Greek, St. 
Andrews, formerly Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford. 2 vols. 

Vol. I. Oedipus Tyrannus. Oedipus Coloneus. Antigone. Second 

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Vol. II. Ajax. Electra. Trachiniae. Philoctetes. Fragments. 1881. 
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A Handbook of Greek Inscriptions, illustrative of Greek 
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TV. FRENCH. 
An Etymological Dictionary of the French Language, with 

a Preface on the Principles of French Etymology. By A. Brachet. 
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Brachet's Historical Grammar of the French Language. 

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Voyage autour de ma Chambre,by Xavier de Maistre ; Ourika, 
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German Composition; Extracts from English and American 
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A Course of Lectures on Pure Geometry. By Henry J. 
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A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. By J. Clerk 
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Niven, M.A., Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

An Elementary Treatise on the same subject. Edited, from 
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A Treatise on Statics. By G. M. Minchin, M.A., Professor of 
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A Treatise on the Kinetic Theory of Gases. By Henry 
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A Treatise on the Application of Generalised Coordinates 
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Geodesy. By Colonel Alexander Ross Clarke, C.B., R.E. 1880. 
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A Cycle of Celestial Objects. Observed, Reduced, and Dis- 
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The Constitutional History of England, in its Origin and 
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A History of British India. By S. J. Owen, M.A., Reader in 
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A Selection from the Despatches, Treaties, and other Papers 
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Italy and her Invaders, ad. 376-476. By T. Hodgkin, 

Fellow of University College, London. Illustrated with Plates and 
Maps. 2 vols. 8vo. cloth, 1 1. 12s. 

IX. LAW. 

The Elements of Jurisprudence. By Thomas Erskine 
Holland, D.C.L., Chichele Professor of International Law and Diplo- 
macy, and Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. 1880. Demy 8vo. 
cloth, I os\ 6d. 

The Institutes of Justinian, edited as a recension of the Insti- 
tutes of Gaius. By the same Editor. 1873. Extra fcap. 8vo. cloth, 5s. 

G-aii Institutionum Juris Civilis Commentarii Quatuor; 
or, Elements of Roman Law by Gaius. With a Translation and Com- 
mentary by Edward Poste, M.A., Barrister-at-Law, and Fellow of Oriel 
College, Oxford. Second Edition. 18,75. Svo. clotb, lSs. 

Select Titles from the Digest of Justinian. By T. E. 
Holland, D.C.L., Chichele Professor of International Law and Diplo- 
macy, and Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, and C. L. Shadwell, 
B.C.L., Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. 8vo. cloth, 14s. 

Also sold in Parts, in paper covers, as follows : — 
Parti. Introductory Titles. 2s. 6d. 
Part II. Family Law. u. 
Part III. Property Law. is. 6d. 
Part IV. Law of Obligations (No. 1). 3*. 6</. 
Part IV. Law of Obligations (No. 2). 4s. 6d. 

An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legisla- 
tion. By Jeremy Bentham. Crown 8vo. cloth, 6s. 6d. 

Elements of Law considered with reference to Principles of 

General Jurisprudence. By William Markby, M.A., Judge of the High 
Court of Judicature, Calcutta. Second Edition, with Supplement. 
1874. Crown 8vo. clotb, 7s. 6rf. Supplement separately, 2s. 

Alberici Oentilis, I. C D., I. C. Professoris Regii, De lure Belli 
Libri Tres. Edidit Thomas Erskine Holland I. C. D., Iuris Gentium 
Professor Chicheleianus, Coll. Omn. Anim. Socius, necnon in Univ. 
Perusin. Iuris Professor Honorarius. 1877. Small ^to.half morocco, 2 is. 

International Law. By William Edward Hall, M.A., 
Barrister-at-Law. Demy 8vo. cloth, 21s. 

An Introduction to the History of the Law of Real 
Property, with original Authorities. By Kenelm E. Digby, M.A., of 
Lincoln's Inn, Barrister-at-Law. Second Edition. 4876. Crown 8vo. 
cloth, Js. 6d. 

Principles of the English Law of Contract. By Sir William 
R. Anson, Bart., B C.L., Vinerian Reader of English Law, and Fellow 
of All Souls College, Oxford. 1879. Crown 8vo. cloth, 9s. 



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X. MENTAL AND MOEA1 PHILOSOPHY. 

Baconr. Novum Organum. Edited, with Introduction, Notes, 
&c, by T. Fowler, M.A., Professor of Logic in the University of 
Oxford. 1878. 8vo. cloth, 14s. 

Locke's Conduct of the Understanding. Edited, with In- 
troduction, Notes, etc., by T. Fowler, M.A., Professor of Logic in the 
University of Oxford. Extra fcap. 8vo. cloth, as. 

Selections from Berkeley, with an Introduction and Notes. 
For the use of Students in the Universities. By Alexander Campbell 
Fraser, LL.D. Second Edition. Crown 8vo. cloth, Js. 6d. (See also 
p. 18.) 

The Elements of Deductive Logic, designed mainly for the 
use of Junior Students in the Universities. By T. Fowler, M.A., 
Professor of Logic in the University of Oxford. Seventh Edition, with 
a Collection of Examples. Extra fcap. 8vo. cloth, 3s. 6d. 

The Elements of Inductive Logic, designed mainly for the 
use of Students in the Universities. By the same Author. Third 
Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. cloth, 6s. 

A Manual of Political Economy, for the use of Schools. By 
J. E. Thorold Rogers, M.A., formerly Professor of Political Economy, 
Oxford. Third Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. cloth, 4s. 6d. 



XI. ART, &c. 

A Handbook of Pictorial Art. By R. St. J. Tyrwhitt, M.A., 
formerly Student and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. With colour) d 
'Illustrations, Photographs, and a chapter on Perspective by A. Mac- 
donald. Second Edition. 1875. 8vo. half morocco, 18s. 

A Music Primer for Schools. By J. Troutbeck, M.A., Music 
Master in Westminster School, and R. F. Dale, M.A..B. Mus., Assistant 
Master in Westminster School. Crown 8vo. cloth, is. 6d. 

A Treatise on Harmony. By Sir F. A. Gore Ouseley, Bart., 
Professor of Music in the University of Oxford. Second Edition. 410. 
cloth, I OS. 

A Treatise on Counterpoint, Canon, and Fugue, based upon 
that of Cherubini. By the same Author. Second Edition. 4 to. clolb, 16s. 

A Treatise on Musical Form and General Composition. 

By the same Author. 410. cloth, 10s. 

The Cultivation of the Speaking Voice. By John Hullah. 
Second Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. cloth, as. 6d. 



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36 Clarendon Press, Oxford. 



XII. MISCELLANEOUS. 

The Construction of Healthy Dwellings; namely Houses, 
Hospitals, Barracks, Asylums, etc. By Douglas Galton, late Royal 
Engineers, C.B., F.R.S., etc. Demy 8vo. cloth, los. 6d. 

River and Canal Engineering. By Leveson Francis Vernon 
Harcourt, M.A., C.E. Preparing. 

A System of Physical Education : Theoretical and Practical. 

By Archibald Maclaren. Extra fcap. 8ro. cloth, Js. 6d. 

Specimens of Lowland Scotch and Northern English. By 
Dr. J. A. H. Murray. Preparing. 

English Plant Names from the Tenth to the Fifteenth Century. 
By J. Earle, M.A. Small fcap. 8vo. cloth, 5s. 

An Icelandic Prose Reader, with Notes, Grammar, and Glos- 
sary by Dr. Gudbrand Vigfusson and F. York Powell, M.A. 1879. 
Extra (cap. 8vo. cloth, 10s. 6d. 

Dante. Selections from the Inferno. With Introduction and 
Notes. By H. B. Cotterill, B.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. clotb, 4s. 6d. 

Tasso. La Gerusalemme Liberata. Cantos i, ii. With Intro- 
duction and Notes. By the same Editor. Extra fcap. 8vo. cloth, is. 6rf. 

The Modern Greek Language in its relation to Ancient Greek. 
By E. M. Geldart, B.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. clotb, 4s. 6d. 

The Book of Tobit. A Chaldee Text, from a unique MS. in 
the Bodleian Library; with other Rabbinical Texts, English Trans- 
lations, and the Itala. Edited by Ad. Neubauer, M.A. 1878. Crown 
8ro cloth, 6s. 

A Commentary on the Book of Proverbs. Attributed to 
Abraham Ibn Ezra. Edited from a Manuscript in the Bodleian Library 
by S. R. Driver, M.A. Crown 8vo. paper cover, 3s. 6d. 

Outlines of Textual Criticism applied to the New Testament. 
By C. E. Hammond, M.A., Fellow and Tutor of Exeter College, Oxford. 
Third Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. clotb, 3s. 6rf. 

A Handbook of Phonetics, including a Popular Exposition of 
the Principles of Spelling Reform. By Henry Sweet, M.A. Extra fcap. 
8vo. cloth, 4s. 6d. 

LONDON: HENRY FROWDE, 
Oxford University Press Warehouse, 7 Paternoster Row, 
OXFORD: CLARENDON PRESS DEPOSITORY, 
116 High Street. 

The Delegates op the Press invite suggestions and advice from 
all persons interested in education; and will be thankful for hints, &c. 
addressed to the Secretary to the Delegates, Clarendon Press, 
Oxford. 



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Bflbles ^rtntetr at tf)e <Elatent>on press. 



THE 



OXFORD BIBLE FOB TEACHEBS. 

THREE NEW EDITIONS, ON INDIA PAPER, 
EXTREMELY THIN AND LIGHT. 



IS. 



and professions of obedience. 



luicken thou me according to thy 
>rd. 

6 I have declared my ways, and thou 
ardest me : « teach me thy statutes. 

7 Make me to understand the way 
thy precepts: so V shall I talk of 

y wondrous works. 

8 * My soul 3 melteth for heaviness : 
rengthen thou me according unto thy 
>rd. 

9 Remove from me the way of lying : 
d grant me thy law graciously. 

I have chosen the way of truth: 



v ver. 40. 
Fs.143.lL 



e ver. 12. 
Ps.25. 4. 

* 27. 11. 

* 86. 11. 
> Ps. ltS. 

5.6. 

• Pa. 107. 
26. 

• Heb. 
iroppiih. 



PSALMS. 



and professions of obedience. 



iLoed; 
endw- 



flled In 

the law 



eep his 
mwith 



r: thev 



" quicken thou me according to thy 
word. 

28 I have declared my ways, and 
thou heardest me: "teach me thy 
statutes. 

27 Make me to understand the way 
of thy precepts: bo * shall I talk of 
thy wondrous works. 

28 «My soul 2 melteth for heavi- 
ness: strengthen thou me according 
unto thy word. 

29 Remove from me the way of 
lying: and grant me thy law gra- 
ciously. 

30 I bare chosen the way of 



Pi. 25. 4. 

4 27.1L 
* 86.11. 
» P.. 145. 5,6. 

•Pi. 107.36. 
SHeb. 
droppeth. 



PSALMS. 



and profession* of obedience. 



to the Lobd ; 
lercy endnrtth 

9. 

wdry praym. 



Dlqnlty: they 



"quicken thou me according to thy 
word. 
26 I hare declared my wars, and 
thou heardest me : 'teach me thy 

217 Hake me to understand the way 
of thy precepts: to 'shall I talk of 
thy wondrous works. 

28 "My soul a melteth for neayl- 
ness: strengthen thou me according 
unto thy word. 

28 Remove from me the way of 
lying: and grant me thy law gra- 
ciously. 

801 have chosen the way of truth: 



p. as. 4. 

.27.11. 
.SS.11. 
» Ft. MS. 8.4, 

■ P.107.K. 
3Hd>. 



No. 2A. Minion 8vo. THiir. 

(SUPEBINTENDENT'S EDITION.) 

Size, 7j inches long, 6J inches broad, and 1 inch 
thick. Weight 22 ounces. 



Paste grain morocco, limp 

Persian morocco, limp . . 

Turkey morocco, limp 

Turkey morocco, flap edges . 

Levant morocco, lined calf, flap edges . 

Ditto, very flexible, silk sewed, red) 
under gold in the round— the most V 
durable binding extant 1 

With Apocrypha, extra . 

With Prayer-Book, extra . . , 



1 11 6 



No. 6A. Ruby 16mo. thin. 

(POCKET EDITION.) 



Size, Bi inches long, 4 B inches broad, and 1 inch thick 

Weight IS ounces including binding. I486 pp. 
Paste grain morocco, limp . . , 9 
Persian morocco, limp . . . . 11 
Turkey morocco, limp . . . . 12 
Turkey morocco, flap edges . . . 15 
Levant morocco, lined calf, flap edges . 18 
Ditto very flexible, silk sewed, red) 

under gold in the round— the most >• 12 6 

durable binding extant ) 

With Apocrypha, extra .... 
With Prayer-Book, extra 



2 8 



2 8 



No. 6A. Pearl 16mo. thin. 

(SMALLEST EDITION.) 

Size, 6J indies long, 3J inches broad, and 1 inch 

thick. Weight 121 ounces. 



Paste grain morocco, limp 

Persian morocco, limp . 

Turkey morocco, limp 

Turkey morocco, flap edges . 

Levant morocco, lined calf, flap edges 

Ditto, very flexible, silk sewed, red] 
under gold in the round— the most 
durable binding extant J 

With Apocrypha, extra . 

With Prayer-Book, extra . . 



18 



Specimen leaves will be sent on application. 



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of obedience. 


3 thy 


. ▼•!•. 40. 
Pi. 143. 11. 


thou 




ites. 


* .w. 12. 
P«. 23. 4. 


way 


t 27. 11. 


Ik of 


»8C. 1L 




y Pi. 14(1. 




5,6. 


uess: 


• Fa. 107. 



Six Editions printed on lest lUtg-made printing paper. 

No. 1. Minion Small 4to. 



— Width of Margin. — 



(9J X 7 X 1J inches.) 

A Superb Edition, with Wide Margin) for Manu- 
script Notes. 

Cloth boards, red edges . . . . 12 

Persian morocco, limp, red under gold edges 18 

Best Turkey morocco, limp . . . 14 

Best Turkey morocco, circuit edges . 1 10 

Levant Morocco, lined calf, with flap edges 1 16 



IS. 



and professions of obedience. 



jnicken thou me according to thy 
jrd. 

6 I hare declared my ways, and thon 
ardest me: 'teach me thy statutes. 

7 Make me to understand the way 
thy precepts: so » shall I talk of 

y wondrous works. 

8 «My soul 9 melteth for heaviness: 



. T.r. 40. 
Pa. 143. 11. 



• T«r. 13. 
Pb. 25. 4. 
* 27. 11. 

*ss.n. 
r Pi. 146. 

.1,6. 

• Ps.107. 



IALMS. 



and professions of obedience. 



»; 


DALETH. 




«- 


2*5 ' My soul cleaveth unto the dust : 


'Fs.4X.23. 




"quicken thou me according to thy 


•w.40. 
Ft 143. 11. 


III 


26 I have declared my ways, and 




1 


thou heardest me; * teach me thy 


•wr.1i. 




statutes. 


P*.23. 4. 


In 


27 Make me to understand the way 




iw 


of thy precepts : so * shall I talk of 
thy wondrous works. 


>p*.i«5.s,e. 


Us 


28 "My soul "meltetb for heaviness: 


'P.. 107. 18. 



JALMS. 



and professions of obedience. 



r>; 



"quicken thou me according to thy 
word. 

26 I have declared my ways, and 
thou heardest me: "teach me thy 
statutes. 

27 Make me to understand the wav 
of thy precepts: so 'shall I talk o'f 
thy wondrous works. 

28 ' My soul s melteth for heaviness : 



« W. IX 
P«. 35. 4. 
A 27. 11. 
AS6.11. 

»Fi.l4&.V«, 



PSALM8. 



and profession* of obedience. 



Loed; 
endur- 



lled In 



" quicken thou me according to thy 
word. 

26 I have declared my ways, and 
thou heardest me : * teach me thy 
statutes. 

27 Make me to understand the way 
of thy precepts: so V shall I talk of 
thy wondrous works. 

28 *My soul 2melteth for heavi- 



"Tor. 14. 

Pb. 25.4. 

4 27.11. 

k 66. 11. 
>Ps.l45.S,«, 

•P.. 107.29. 






8 








10 








10 


6 





12 








15 








19 


6 


1 


1 






No. 2. Minion Crown 8vo. 

(7J x 5J x 1 i inches.) 

Cloth boards, red edges . * 

French morocco, gilt edges 

Paste Grain morocco, limp 

French morocco, circuit edges 

Best Turkey morocco, limp 

Best Turkey morocco, circuit edges 

Levant morocco, calf lined, with flap edges 



No. 3. Nonpareil 8vo. 

(7 x 4J X 1£ inches.) 

Cloth boards, red edges . 

French morocco, gilt edges 

Paste Grain morocco, limp 

French morocco, circuit edges 

Best Turkey morocco, limp 

Best Turkey morocco, circuit edges 

Levant morocco, calf lined, with flap edges 



PSALM& 



and proftBiiona of obedience. 



to the Lord ; 
lerur tndureth 



Wtdry praym, 
<y ot W i w aot. 

undented in 



" quicken thou me according to thy 
word. 

26 I have declared my ways, and 
thou heardest mo: 'teach me thy 
statutes. 

27 Make me to understand the way 
of thy precepts: so * shall I talk of 
thy wondrom works. 

38 «My soul ameltath for beari- 



P*. 141. 11. 

iw.lL 

Pa. ». 4. 
• 27.11. 

a tt.ii. 
r It. ue. 3, l 

• Pa. 107. 31, 



No. 4. Red Line Edition. 
Nonpareil 8vo. (.7 x 4j x H inches.) 



Persian morocco, red tinder gold edges 12 

Best Turkey morocco .... 16 

Best Turkey morocco, circuit edges . 19 

Levant morocco, calf lined, with nap edges 1 1 



No. 5. Ruby 16mo 

(6|x4£xlf inches.) 

Cloth boards, red edges . 

French morocco, gilt edges . 

Paste Grain morocco, limp . 

French morocco, circuit edges 

Best Turkey morocco, limp . 

Best Turkey morocco, circuit edges 

Levant morocco, lined calf, with flap edges 

No. 6. Pearl 16mo. 

(5{X3| Xlf inches.) 
Cloth boards, red edges . 
French morocco, gilt edges . 
Paste Grain morocco, limp 
French morocco, circuit edges 
Best Turkey morocco, limp . 
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Levant morocco, lined calf, with flap edges 



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THE 

OXFORD BIBLE FOR TEACHERS 

CONTAINS THE FOLLOWING 

HELPS TO THE STUDY OF THE BIBLE. 



I. NOTES ANALYTICAL, CHRONOLOGICAL, HISTORICAL, GEOGRAPHICAL, 
ZOOLOGICAL, BOTANICAL, AND GEOLOGICAL. 



L Notes on the Old Testament:— 
i. Title of the Bible. 
11. Hebrew Divisions of the Bible :— 

(a) The Law. 

(b) The Prophets. 

(c) The Scriptures. 

ill Divisions of the English Bible:— 

(a) The Pentateuch. 

((>) The Historical Books. 

(c) The Poetical Books. 

(<J) The Prophetical Books. 
Analysis and Summary of each. 
2. Summary of the Interval between the 

Old and New Testaments, 
a Family or the Herods. 
4. Jewish Sects, Parties, &o. 
6. Chronology or the Old Testament. 

6. Chronology of the Acts and Epistles. 

7. Historical Summary. 

& Miracles and Parables of the Old Tes- 
tament. 
9. Miracles and Parables of Our Lord. 
10: Names, Titles, and Offices of Christ. 
1L Prophecies relating to Christ. 
12. Special Prayers found in Scripture. 
IS. Notes on the New Testament :— 
L Early Copies. 

ii. Divisions of the New Testament :— 
(a) Constitutional and Historical. 
((.) Didactic. 
(c) Prophetic. 
Analysis and Summary of each. 
14. Harmony of the Gospels, 



IS. Paul's Missionary Journeys. 
18. „ Voyage to Some. 

17. Geography and Topography of Pales- 

tine. 

18. Mountains of Scripture, with their As- 

sociations. 

19. Biters and Lakes of Scripture, and 

Events connected with each. 

20. Ethnology of Bible Lands. 

21 Quadrupeds named in the Bible, with 
Description of each. 

22. Summary of Mammalia of the Bible. 

23. Fisheries of Palestine, with their Pro- 

ducts. 

24. Aquatic Animals mentioned in the Bible. 
26. Birds found in Palestine. 

26. Reptiles of Scripture. 

27. Insects of Palestine. 

28. Trees, Plants, Flowers, &o., of Palestine. 

29. Geology of Bible Lands:— 

L Mineral Substances, &c 
11. Metals, 
iii. Precious Stones. 
90. Music and Musical Instruments :— 

1 Stringed Instruments, 
ii. Wind Instruments. 
ill. Instruments of Percussion. 

31. Tables of Weights, Measures, Time, and 

Money. 

32. The Jewish Year. 

33. Words Obsolete or Ambiguous. 
84. Words used Symbolically. 

86. Blank Leaves for MS. Notes. 



II. AN INDEX TO THE HOLY BIBLE. 

III. THE NEW OXFORD CONCORDANCE. 

IV. DICTIONARY OF SCRIPTURE PROPER NAMES, WITH THEIR 
PRONUNCIATION, MEANINGS, AND REFERENCES. 

V. SCRIPTURE ATLAS (INDEXED). 



1.— The Nations of the Ancient World. 

2.— Armenia, Assyria, Babylonia, Syria, &o., 
in the Patriarchal Ages. 

8.— Canaan in the Patriarchal Ages. 

4,— Egypt and the Sinai Peninsula, illus- 
trating the Journeys of the Israelites to the 
Promised Land. 

5.— Canaan as divided among the Tribes. 

6.— Dominions of David and Solomon. 



7.— The Kingdoms op Judah and Israel. 
8.— Assyria and the Adjacent Lands, illus- 
trating the Captivities. 
9.— Jerusalem and its Environs. 
10.— Palestine in the Time of Our Saviour. 
1L— The Roman Empire in the Apostolic 

Age. 
12.— Map illustrating the Travels of St. 
Paul. 



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THE OXFORD BIBLE FOR TEACHERS. 



CrtratM front ©pinions. 

"The large collection of varied information which yon have appended to the Oxford 
BtBLB fob Teachers, in a form so readily available for reference, has evidently been com- 
piled with the greatest care ; and the testimony which you have received to its accuracy 
is a guarantee of its high value. I cannot doubt that the volume, in its various forms, will 
be of great service." — Thb Archbishop of Canterbury. 

" The notion of including in one volume all the helps that a clergyman or teacher would 
be likely to want for the study of the Bible has never been realised before with the same 
success that you have attained in the Oxford Biblb fob Tbachbrs. In the small 
edition (Ruby 16mo. thin), by the use of paper very skilfully adapted to the purpose, there 
is a Bible with an Atlas, a Concordance, an Index, and several Tractates on various points 
of Biblical antiquity, the whole, in a very solid binding, weighing a pound and an ounce : no 
great weight for what is really a miniature library. The clergy will probably give the 
preference to the larger book, marked No. 4. This includes the Apocrypha, with all the 
helps to the use of the Bible that distinguish the series. Its type is excellent. Many 
clergymen are obliged to write sermons when travelling from place to place. This volume 
would serve as a small library for that purpose, and not too large for the most moderate 
portmanteau. I think that this work in some of its forms should be in the hands of 
every teacher. The atlas is very clear and well printed. The explanatory work and the 
indices, so far as I have been able to examine them, are very carefully done. I am glad 
that my own University has, by the preparation of this series of books, taken a new step 
for the promotion of the careful study of the Word of God. That such will be the effect 
of the publication I cannot doubt." — Thb Archbishop of York. 

"It would be difficult, I think, to provide for Sunday-School Teachers, or indeed for other 
students of the Bible, so much valuable information in so convenient a form as is now 
comprised in the Oxford Biblb fob Tbachbrs." — Thb Bishop of London. 

"The idea of a series of Bibles in different types, corresponding page for page with one 
another, is one which the Dean has long wished to see realised for the sake of those who find 
the type of their familiar copies no longer available .... The amount of information com- 
pressed into the comparatively few pages of the Appendix is wonderful. And the Dean is 
glad to hear that the help of such eminent contributors has been available for its com- 
pilation. The Concordance seems to be sufficiently full for reference to any text that may 
be required." — Thb Dean of Rochester. 

"Having by frequent use made myself acquainted with this edition of the Holy Scrip- 
tures, I have no hesitation in saying that it is a most valuable book, and that the ex- 
planatory matter collected in the various appendices cannot but prove most helpful, both 
to teachers and learners, in acquiring a more accurate and extensive knowledge of the Word 
of God." — The Bishop of Lichfield. 

"I have examined the Oxford Biblb fob Teachers with very great care, and con- 
gratulate you upon the publication of so valuable a work. It contains within a reason- 
able compass a large mass of most useful information, arranged so conveniently as to be 
easily accessible, and its effect will be not merely to aid, but also, I think, to stimulate 
the studies of the reader. The book is also printed so beautifully, and is so handsome 
in every way, that I expect it will be greatly sought after, as a most acceptable present 
to any who are engaged in teaching in our Sunday Schools and elsewhere." — Thb Dean of 
Canterbury. 



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THE OXFORD BIBLE FOR TEACHERS. 



€rtraett from (©pinfonjt {continued). 

" I have examined with some care a considerable portion of the ' Helps to the Study 
of the Bible,' which are placed at the end of the Oxford Bible fob Teachers, and have 
been much struck with the vast amount of really useful information which has there been 
brought together in a small compass, as well as the accuracy with which it has been com- 
piled. The botanical and geological notices, the account of the animals of Scripture, &c, 
seem to be excellent, and the maps are admirable. Altogether, the book cannot fail to be 
of service, not only to teachers, but to all who cannot afford a large library, or who have 
not time for much independent study." — The Dean of Peterborough. 

" I have been for some time well aware of the" value of the Oxford Bible for Teach- 
ers, and have been in the habit of recommending it, not only to Sunday-School Teachers, 
but to more advanced students, on the ground of its containing a large mass of accurate 
and well-digested information, useful and in many cases indispensable to the thoughtful 
reader of Holy Scripture ; in fact, along with the Bible, a copious Index, and a Concor- 
dance complete enough for all ordinary purposes, this one volume includes a series of short 
but comprehensive chapters equivalent to a small library of Biblical works." — The Bishop 

OF XjIHBRICK. 

"Having examined the Oxford Bible fob Teachers carefully, I am greatly pleased 
with it The 'Helps to the Study of the Bible' at the end contain a great amount of 
most valuable information, well calculated not only to lead to a good understanding of the 
text, but to stimulate the student to further efforts. It differs from many publications in 
this, that the information is so admirably arranged, that it is well suited for reference, 
and is easily available for the student. The edition would be most useful to Sunday-School 
Teachers, a great help to those who desire that the young shall have a real knowledge of the 
Word of God."— The Bishop of Cork. 

" The Oxford Bible fob Teachers may, I think, without exaggeration, be described 
as a wonderful edition of the Holy Scriptures. The clearness and beauty of the type, and 
the convenient shape of the volume, leave nothing to be desired. I know nothing of the 
same compass which can be compared to the 'Helps to the Study of the Bible' for fulness 
of information and general accuracy of treatment. It is only real learning which can ac- 
complish such a feat of compression." — The Bishop of Derry and Baphob. 

"I consider the Oxford Bible fob Teachers to be simply the most valuable edition 
of the English Bible ever presented to the public"— The Vbn. Archdeacon Bbichbl, 

" The Oxford Bible for Teachers is in every respect, as regards type, paper, binding, 
and general information, the most perfect volume I have ever examined." — The. Bet. Pes- 
bbndabt Wilson, of the National Society's Depository. 

" The essence of fifty expensive volumes, by men of sacred learning, is condensed into the 
pages of the Oxford Bible for Teachers." — The Rev. Andrew Thomson, D.D., Edinburgh- 

"The latest researches are laid under contribution, and the Bible Student is furnished 
with the pith of them all." — Da, Stoughton. 

"The whole combine to form a Help of the greatest value." — Db. ANGtra. 

" I cannot imagine anything more complete or more helpful." — Dr. W. Morlby Punshon. 

" I congratulate the teacher who possesses it, and knows how to turn its ' Helps ' to good 
account." — Dr. Kennedy. 



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THE OXFORD BIBLE FOR TEACHERS. 



Crtracttf from ©pinions! (cvntinued). 

"The Oxford Biblb fob Teachers is the most Taluahle help to the study of the Holy 
Scriptures, within a moderate compass, which I hare ever met with. I shall make constant 
use of it ; and imagine that few who are occupied* with, or interested in the close study 
of the Scriptures, will allow such a companion to be far from their side." — The Rbv. Baldwin 
Brown. 

"I do not think I shall ever leave home without the Oxford Biblb fob Teachers, 
for one can scarcely miss his ordinary books of reference when this Bible is at hand. I 
know no other edition which contains so much valuable help to the reader."— Thb Bbv. A. H. 
Chabtbbis, D.D., Dean of the Chapel Royal. 

"The Oxford Bibles fob Teachbbs are as good as ever we can expect to see." — 
The Bbv. C. H. Sftjboboh. 

"The modest title of the work scarcely does justice to the range of subjects which it 
comprehends, and the quality of their treatment. As a manual of Biblical information and 
an auxiliary of Biblical study, it is unrivalled. It is as exhaustive as it is concise, — no 
irrelevant matter has been introduced, and nothing essential to Biblical study seems to have 
been omitted, — and in no instance, so far as I can judge, has thoroughness or accuracy been 
sacrificed to the necessities of condensation." — The Ret. Bobbbt N. Young, of Headingley 
College, Leeds. 

"The Oxford Biblb for Teachbbs is really one of the greatest boons which in our day 
has been offered to the reading public. The information given is so various, and so com- 
plete, as scarcely to leave a single desideratum. To Christians, in their quiet researches at 
home, or in the course of extensive journeys, or in preparation for the duties of tuition, it is 
simply invaluable, and constitutes in itself a Biblical Library. The range of topics which it 
seeks to illustrate is very great, while the care and accuracy manifest in the articles deserves 
the highest praise. It is no exaggeration to say, that to the mass of Christian people it 
saves the expense of purchasing and the toil of consulting a library of volumes. At the same 
time, I know no book more likely to stimulate enquiry, and to give the power of appreciat- 
ing further research into the history, structures, and meaning of the Sacred Oracles." — 
Da. Goold, of Edinburgh. 

"I have only recently possessed one of the Oxfobd Bibles foS Teachbbs; and after 
a most patient examination of it, am astonished at the immense amount of accurate and 
carefully digested matter it contains: and that, too, of a kind precisely adapted to the 
Teacher's needs. Would that such a Bible had been within my reach when I first began 
my teaching life ; and would that I had possessed one earlier, since I began to write for 
Teachers. As I look at its upwards of 300 pages of * Helps to the Study of the Bible,' 
I recall my toilsome pilgrimage through many volumes, at much expenditure of time, 
for what is here so distinctly stated and tabulated. With such a desk companion I 
might have done so much more, and done it so much better. All I can do now is to 
entreat all Teachers who need a perfectly reliable Bible for study or class purposes, to 
procure one of the Oxford Bibles fob Teachbbs. This I do most earnestly. And I 
would add that as a presentation volume by a class to its Teacher, or by a School to 
its Superintendent, no gift would be better appreciated or more appropriate than the 

small quarto size with its wide margin, and magnificent type, and superb flexible binding." 

The Rev. Jambs Compbb Gbat, Author of " Close and Desk," " Topics for Teachers," 
" Biblical Museum," fyc., $c. 

"These admirable Bibles must tend to extend the fame even of the Oxford Press." 

Thb Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M.P. 



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The ARCHBISHOP of CANTERBURY. 

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The Vek. ARCHDEACON REICHEL. 

The PRINCIPAL of the THEOLOGICAL COLLEGE. 

GLOUCESTER. 
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TRAINING COLLEGE, BATTERSEA. 
The CANON IN CHARGE of the DIVINITY SCHOOL, 

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The PRINCIPAL of ST. BEES COLLEGE. 
The PRINCIPAL of the THEOLOGICAL COLLEGE, 

WELLS. 
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COLLEGE. 
The PRINCIPAL, St. DAVID'S COLLEGE. 
The RIGHT HON. WILLIAM E WART GLADSTONE. 

M.P, LL.D. 
The Ret. A. H. CHARTERIS, D.D, Professor of Bibli- 
cal Criticism in the University of Edinburgh. 
Da. LEE, Professor of Ecclesiastical History in the 

University of Glasgow. 
The RIGHT HON. JOHN INGLIS, D.GL_ LLD., 

Chancellor of (he University of Edinburgh. 



The EARL of SHAFTESBURY. 
Ds. ANGUS. 

De. stoughton. 

The Rev. C. H. SPURGEON. 

Da. RIGG, of the Westminster Normal Institution. 

Db. KENNEDY. 

The REV. EDWIN PAXTON HOOD. 

The REV. W. MORLEY PUNSHON. LLD. 

The Ret. HORAT1US BONAR, D.D. 

Db. GOOLD, of Edinburgh. 

PROFESSOR BINNIE, D.D. 

PROFESSOR BLAIKIE, D.D. 

DE. ANDREW THOMSON, of Edinburgh. 

Db. DAVID BROWN, Principal of free Church Col- 
lege, Aberdeen. 

PROFESSOR 8ALMOND, 0/ Free Church. College, 
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DB. W. LINDSAY ALEXANDER. 

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DB. NEWTH, of New College. 

The Ret. E. E. JENKINS, MX. President of (he 
Wesley an Conference. 

The Ret. M. C. OSBORN, Secretary of the Wesleyan 
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The Ret. R. GREEN. 

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DE. CHARLES STANFORD. 

Db. LANDELS. 

The RET. JOHN H. GODWIN. 

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The Ret. COLIN CAMPBELL MoKECHNIE. 

The Ret. R. TUCK, B.A. 

The RET. PRINCIPAL McALL. of Hackney College. 

The RET. ROBERT N. YOUNG. ofHeadingley College, 
Leeds. 

The RET. R. VAUGHAN PRYCE, MX LL.D of 
Cheshunt College. 

The Ret. PROFESSOR REYNOLDS, JA, D D of 
Cheshunt College. v 

The Late Db. JOSEPH MULLENS, Foreign Secretary 
of the London Missionary Society. 

The Ret. T. G. ROOKE, BA, President of the Bap- 
tist College, Rawdon, Leeds. 

The Ret. CHARLES CHAPMAN, M-A, of Western 
College, Plymouth. 

The Ret. ALEXANDER HANNAY, Secretary of the 
Congregational Union of England and Wales 

The Ret. W. H. GRIFFITH, M.A, Principal of In- 
dependent College, Taunton. 

DB. ALEXANDER THOMSON, Professor of Hebrew 
in the Lancashire Independent College. 

The Ret. JAMES COMPER GRAY, Author of "doss 
and Desk," " Topics for Teacliers," "Biblical Mu- 
seum," &c, &c. 

The Ret. J. BALDWIN BROWN, B.A. 

Sir CHARLES REED, Chairman of the London School 
Board. 

W. H. GROSER, Chairman of the Publication Com- 
mittee of the Sunday School Union, 



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"The type of this dainty little volume, though necessarily very 
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LONDON: HENRY FROWDE, 
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAKEHOUSE, 

7, PATEENOSTEB BOW. 



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